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Full text of "Field Museum of Natural History bulletin"

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 

January 1988 







"Mothers and Daughters" 

Exhibition of 128 Photographs 
Opens January 27 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor /Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Wiliard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 

Bowen Blair 

Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 

Mrs. David W. Grainger 

Clifford C. Gregg 

Mrs. RobertS. Hartman 

Edward Byron Smith 

John W. Sullivan 

J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

January 1988 
Volume 59, Number 1 



JANUARY EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 

UNEARTHING ANCIENT AMPHIBIANS 

The oldest known tetrapods in North America 

find a home in the collections of Field Museum, 

by Robert McKay 6 



PARADISE BEING LOST 

A bittersweet expedition to the Brazilian Amazon, 

by John W. Fitzpatrick, Chairman of the Department of 

Zoology 



10 



A CELEBRATION OF PHILIP HERSHKOVITZ, 

Emeritus Curator of Mammals, 

by Bruce D. Patterson, Associate Curator of Mammals 

and Head, Division of Mammals 



24 



STUDIES IN NEOTROPICAL MAMMALOGY, 

Essays in Honor of Philip Hershkovitz, a list of contents , 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS. 



30 
31 



COVER PHOTO 

"Mothers and Daughters": exhibit of 128 photographs opening 
in Gallery 9 on January 2 7 and closing March 1 3 . Photo by 
Roland L. Freeman of Nellie G. Morgan and Tammie Pruitt 
Morgan at the Bicentennial, July 4, 1986, in Philadelphia, Miss. 
From a 20 x 16 silver gelatin print on view in the exhibition. 



Field Museum o/ Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/ August issue, hy Field Museum of Natural History. Rtxisevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-24%. 
Copyright © 1983 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $).00 tor schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subsctiption. Opinions expressed hy authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manusciipts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster: Please send form 1579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-070 L Second class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois 




Kodo: 

Drummers of Japan 

Friday, January 22, 8:00pm 
Saturday, January 23, 2:00pm 

Since Ancient Times the beaten drum has served as a 
means of communication among people. In times ot joy, 
grief, fun, and in boiling rage, people have sung and 
danced to the beat of the drum. 

Kodo — the word has two meanings — heartbeat and 
"children of the drum." In Japan, a group of young people 
call themselves Kodo and are dedicated to a spartan life- 
style and the art of Japanese drumming. Founded in 
1971 byTagayasu Den, a Japanese scholar, this twelve- 
person group has enthralled audiences the world over 
with this spectacular drumming tradition. 

Kodo live and work on the small island of Sado, 200 
miles northwest of Tokyo, in the Sea of Japan. They have 
gained worldwide recognition for their dedication to a 
rigorous and austere lifestyle and for their mastery of 
ancient Japanese instruments — most notably the 
o-daiko, a huge drum (taiko) that can weigh close to 



1 ,000 pounds and is played with sticks the size of small 
logs. According to Japanese legend, gods and god- 
desses reside within the o-daiko, and the drummers "fight 
the drum" until they come out. The 1 5-year-old Kodo en- 
semble is considered among the very best in a country 
famous for its drummers. 

Kodo's music has been described as having the 
"natural strength and violence of a hurricane." Kodo 
came to be in 1971 , when Tagayasu Den, a scholar of the 
traditional Japanese arts, gathered a handful of young 
men and women on Sado and taught them how to play 
the o-daiko. Within four years the group, then known as 
Ondekoza, or "demon drummers," was performing in 
public. Their American debut occurred in 1975, im- 
mediately after each member had completed the Boston 
marathon. Join us now for their first Chicago visit. 

Tickets: $14.00 ($1 2.00 members) 

P88101 Friday, January 22, 8:00pm 
P881 02 Saturday, January 23, 2:00pm 

Tickets are limited and advance ticket purchase is 
necessary. Seating is general admission. Theatre doors 
open one hour prior to performance. 



Continued (> 




Kodo: Drummers of Japan 

January 22 and 23 

Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this ticket 
application. If your request is received less than one week 
before the program, tickets will be held in your name at the 



West Entrance box office. Please make checks payble to 
Field Museum. Tickets will be mailed upon receipt of check. 
Refunds will be made only if the program is sold out. 



□ Member □ Nonmember 

American ExpressA/isa/MasterCard 



Card Number 



Signature 



Return complete ticket application with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Public Programs: Department of Education 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



Name 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



Expiration Date Telephone: Daytime 



Evening 



Program 


#Member 

Tickets 
($12.00 ea.) 


#Nonmember 

Tickets 
($14.00 ea.) 


Total 

Tickets 


Amount 
Enclosed 


"Drummers of Japan" 
P88101, Jan. 22 










"Drummers of Japan" 
P88102, Jan. 23 










3 Scholarship requested 






Total 






World music Program 

Weekends in January 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Join Us for live musical demonstrations and informal dis- 
cussion with the artists. 

January 2 1 :00pm and 3:00pm-fla/ces delAnde, 

playing lively folk music of the Andes. 

January 3 1 :00pm and 3.00pm-LJbradO Salazar, 

plays classical guitar. 

January 9,10 1 :00-Gideon Alorwoyie, presents the 

dance and drums of Ghana. 

3:00pm-Ch/casio Beaux, and his blues 

harmonica. 
January 16, 17 1:00pm-S/iante tells delightful African 

folktales and stories. 

3:00pm-L/oW Henry Huff plays the 

harp. 

January 23, 24 1 :00pm and 3:00pm-Don Pate plays 
jazz bass. 

January 30, 31 1 :00pm-the Alas Poets present new 
poems. 

3:0Opm-Keith Eric presents the sights 
and sounds of Jamaica with songs and 
folktales. 



Winter Fun 1988 



Drive Away Winter Doldrums! Treat a child to weekend 
workshops at Field Museum. Workshops begin February 
6-March 19. Children ages 4-13 can enjoy workshops that 
range in topics from Animal Humor to Fantastic Fish, Vol- 
canoes, Medicine Wheels, and Afterlife in Acient Egypt. 

A host of talented instructors bring their creative 
energies and expertise to this winter's workshops. 
Advance registration is required. See the Winter Fun 
brochure for a complete schedule or call (31 2)322-8854, 
Monday-Friday, 9:00am-4:00pm for further information. 



Adult Programs 



Register Now 

Many Adult Courses begin the week of February 1 7. 
Field Museum's curators are featured in a series of lec- 
tures on the South American tropics which begin on 
Wednesday, March 2. Another course, "Africa: A Mis- 
understood Continent," brings together Chicago's finest 
African scholars in a six-week lecture series starting 
Thursday, February 25. Register now for these and other 
adult courses. Phone registrations accepted Monday- 
Friday, 9:00am-4:00pm at (312)322-8855. 







Patricia J. Wynne 



Unearthing Ancient Amphibians 



By Robert McKay 



Occasionally during a geologist's routine activity, un- 
usual or rare discoveries are made. Such was the 
case in the spring of 1985 when another geologist, Pat 
McAdams, and I visited a small, inactive limestone 
quarry near the town of Delta in western Keokuk 
County, Iowa. We discovered a layer of rock con- 
taining abundant fossil amphibian bones. 

Fossils are the remains of ancient organisms, or 
traces of the activity of such organisms. The 
sedimentary rock sequence in Iowa is rich in fossils, 
containing literally trillions, and encountering them in 
the course of geologic work is quite common. The 
majority of these fossils are the shelly remains of in- 
vertebrates which inhabited ancient seas. Less fre- 
quently found, although not uncommon, are fossil 
teeth, scales, and bone from marine and terrestrial ver- 
tebrates such as fish, reptiles, and mammals. Geolo- 
gists study fossils and use their findings to interpret evo- 
lutionary relationships through time, aid in correlation 
of rock units from place to place, and to improve our 
understanding of the ancient environments in which 
the rocks were deposited. Occasionally, geologists or 
amateur rock hounds discover exceedingly rare fossils 
which are previously unknown or which are known 
from only a few locations worldwide. These discoveries 
can greatly increase the scientific knowledge con- 
cerning the origin and evolution of certain animal 
groups and the environments in which they lived. 

The discovery of fossil amphibian bone in Keokuk 
County ranks as one of the very rare fossil finds. 
Amphibians are the most primitive and earliest known 
tetrapods (four-footed animals). They represent the 
earliest successful attempt by vertebrate animals to mi- 
grate from the aquatic realm and colonize the land. 
They are also the basal stock from which all other land 
vertebrates, including reptiles, birds, and mammals 
have evolved. But the transition from fish to tetrapod, 



as well as the early history and subsequest diversifica- 
tion of early tetrapods, is poorly represented in the fos- 
sil record and thus poorly understood. 

The earliest tetrapods are known from a few speci- 
mens found in Upper Devonian-age rocks (about 370 
million years old) in eastern Greenland. Within the 
next youngest rock series, the Mississippian (360 to 
320 million years old), only about 20 fossil amphibian 
localities are known worldwide. Most of these are in 
Scotland, while only six are in North America. The 
fossil amphibian material from the Keokuk County site 
is of this age and is unique because the bones are abun- 
dant and well preserved, and also because they 
represent the oldest known tetrapods in North Amer- 
ica and some of the oldest known in the world. 

Soon after the discovery, plans were initiated to 
unearth the bone bed and collect fossil specimens. The 
state of Iowa leased a portion of the inactive quarry, and 
a team of scientists was assembled for the planned ex- 
cavation. John Bolt, curator of fossil amphibians and 
reptiles and chairman of the Department of Geology at 
the Field Museum, was enlisted to lead the project. 
With partial funding from the National Geographic 
Society, excavation of the bone bed began on June 10, 
1986, and continued throughout the summer, ending 
on September 5. 

The bone bed, 20 inches thick, was partially exposed 
in the quarry wall in the middle of a bowl-shaped lime- 
stone and shale-filled depression. A backhoe was em- 
ployed early in the excavation to strip off approximate- 
ly 10 feet of rock covering the bone-rich layer. Once 
down to the bone bed, a crew of six geologists using 
rock hammers, trowels, knives, brushes, and dental 
picks carefully uncovered and removed hundreds of 
specimens during the summer-long excavation. The 
bones were embedded in limestone conglomerate and 



Robert McKay is a geologist for the Geological Survey of the 
Iowa Department of Natural Resources. 



"Unearthing Ancient Amphibians" is reprinted from Iowa 
Conservationist courtesy of the Iowa Department of Natural 
Resources. 



shale; many were fractured and needed to be coated 
with glue before removal. 

The collection, which is undergoing further labora- 
tory preparation and study at the Field Museum, in- 
cludes head and body remains of extinct amphibians of 
the subclass Labyrinthodontia and various fossil fish 
remains. At least two groups of labyrinthodonts, col- 
osteids, and anthracosaurs are represented. These early 
amphibians superficially resembled salamanders in 
shape and body form, except that they were much larg- 
er, attaining lengths of three feet or more. They pos- 
sessed large, toothed jaws and were voracious predators 
whose diet probably consisted mainly offish. Geologic 
study of the enclosing and surrounding rock strata has 
demonstrated that the amphibians lived in shallow, 
fresh-to-brackish water ponds or lakes occupying low- 
lands in a subtropical climate. These nonmarine en- 



vironments of deposition were apparently widespread 
through western Keokuk County 335 million years ago. 

Lakes and waterways on the landscape at the time 
served as habitat for the giant amphibians and the fish 
upon which they fed. Scattered depressions within this 
landscape, such as that preserved at the Delta Site, 
served as sites where skeletons and bones were depos- 
ited, concentrated, buried, and preserved from the de- 
structive effects of weathering and decay. 

The 1986 excavation was a great success and re- 
moved approximately half of the main bone bed. 
Further excavation is anticipated during the summer of 
1988. The Delta Fossil Amphibian Site has become 
one of the premier fossil localities in Iowa and North 
America, and has the potential to fill significant gaps 
in our knowledge of early land- living vertebrates and 
their evolution. It truly promises to be an unusually 
revealing "window to the past." 




— I 1 
i 



.....'.Till 

f.i;!;\nf M hnw- : i::.T 






// 



MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS 

Photographic Exhibit Opens January 27 

Closes March 13 



// 




Photo by Laura McPhee 
Untitled, 1984 
Ringoes, New Jersey 
8x10 silver gelatin print 



This unprecedented exhibition of 128 photographs of 
American mothers and daughters chronicles the first, 
most lasting, and most crucial bond in every woman's 
life. Eighty-nine photographers — among them Eudora 
Welty — have contributed remarkable images that 
combine to form a varied and deeply insightful vision of 
the mother/daughter relationship. Large color prints, 



images combined with text, and mixed-media work are 
shown side-by-side with more straightforward docu- 
mentary investigations. 

This exhibit was organized by the Aperture 
Foundation in New York and is free with regular 
Museum admission. 




TIFFANY 

150 Years of Gems and Jewelry 

Continues through Februai-y 6 











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Paradise Being Lost 

A Bittersweet Expedition to the Brazilian Amazon 



by John W. Fitzpatrick 

Chairman of the Department of Zoology and 

Curator of Birds 



Photos courtesy the Division of Birds 



In 1985 Brazilian zoologists contacted scientists at 
Field Museum with a research opportunity that 
could not be passed up. As part of a far-reaching plan 
for development of its vast Amazonian interior, the 
Brazilian government had laid plans to construct up to 
70 hydroelectric power plants by damming the waters 
of its mightiest Amazon tributaries. Several dams 
already were- being surveyed by Brazilian technicians 
living in remote engineering camps. Two such camps 
had recently been carved out of the virgin Amazonian 
rain forest along the banks of the Xingu and the Jipar- 
ana rivers (see map). 

Difficult access has long prohibited scientists from 
thoroughly exploring many sections of the interior 



Amazon basin. Among the least explored of these areas 
have always been the upland forests between the two 
great southern tributaries, the Madeira and the Tapa- 
joz. Access to the dam site on the Jiparana, therefore, 
provided a historic opportunity. Moreover, the aggres- 
sive construction of highway systems crisscrossing the 
Brazilian Amazon has opened the entire region, creat- 
ing a classic race against time. Can scientists get into 
these pristine areas and survey their staggering biolo- 
gical diversity before the forests are destroyed by the 
relentless advance of loggers, farmers, and cattle- 
ranchers ? More important, can scientists, conserva- 
tionists, government agencies, and local communities 
join forces to preserve some of these important natural 



Jaru's "Broadway." This site was undisturbed forest about 10 years ago. 



10 





communities before they are lost forever? 

The well-known Brazilian herpetologist Dr. Paulo 
Vanzolini (director of the Museum of Zoology in Sao 
Paulo) obtained funds from the Brazilian government 
to survey certain of these remote dam sites in their na- 
tive condition before construction and inundation 
change them forever. In effect, environmental im- 
pact statements would be produced for these construc- 
tion projects. Besides numerous Brazilian scientists, 
Vanzolini contacted zoologists at two American insti- 
tutions, the U.S. National Museum of Natural His- 
tory (Smithsonian) and the Field Museum. The deal: 
Smithsonian personnel would study the Rio Xingu site, 
while Field Museum would explore the more diverse 
and less well-known site on the Rio Jiparana, in the 
state of Rondonia. Both teams would be responsible for 
making faunal inventories, collections, and environ- 



mental recommendations at the respective sites in ex- 
change for the rare opportunity to gather data and 
specimens relevant to their own on-going research 
projects and to the understanding of the Amazonian 
ecosystem. 

Field Museum ornithologist Scott Lanyon acted 
quickly, acquiring a grant from the Eppley Foundation 
in New York to pay for international travel by museum 
scientists to and from Brazil. Field expenses in Brazil 
were covered by the Brazilian government. Five bird 
experts and three mammalogists committed them- 
selves to two months in Rondonia. I was able to squeeze 
in only three weeks with them, in between other 
obligations, but was thrilled at the prospect of meeting 
them at the end of October 1986, in this mysterious, 
long-hidden region of the Amazon basin. 

I was stunned by what I found. The images I 



11 




"We progressed toward the wilderness via roads that had been plot- 
ted by draftsmen in air-conditioned labs in Brasilia — long, ruler- 
straight stretches of red clay laid out in huge grids of parallel lines, 

each about 20 kilometers apart." 



Logging activities along the road from Jaru to camp. Terra firme 

forests in the Amazon basin contain up to 400 species of trees. 

Trunks with commercial value as lumber are hauled to sawmills, the 

rest are felled and burned in place to fertilize the nearly sterile clay soil. 




brought home struck me as a complex, still unfolding 
story of two "countries": Brazil, the land of immeasur- 
able natural wealth and beauty, of biological diversity 
as rich as any place on earth, still filled with uncharted 
surprises and rewards to the naturalist explorer; and 
Brazil, the land of "explosive deforestation," where the 
world's most enormous reservoir of organic diversity is 
being methodically destroyed through an orchestrated 
onslaught into the forest frontiers. 

Initiation to the Amazon of the 80s 

Since 1974, my principal field research on the birds of 
South America has taken place in Peru, a third world 
country that is rich in natural and cultural beauty, but 
oppressively poor economically. The eastern half of 
Peru is carpeted by a spectacularly diverse Amazonian 
rainforest and the wet subtropical forests of the eastern 
slopes of the Andes. Our research has taken us to some 
of the most remote headwater areas in the Amazon 
basin, where human populations consist of uncon- 
tacted Indian tribes and a few hardy families of subsist- 
ence farmers. The Peruvian Amazon is being settled 
and developed in places, but economic poverty, low 
population densities and absence of roads (combined 
with the physical hardships imposed by excessive rain- 
fall) limit the rate at which the forest can be cut down. 
As a result, scientists like me have been flocking to 
Peru for a chance to study the Amazon basin of old, the 
rich and diverse equatorial rainforest in its native 
splendor, where monkeys literally scrambled down the 
trees to catch a closer look at the strange bipedal pri- 
mates gawking at them through binoculars. Through 
scientific and conservation efforts both national and 
international, Peru has become a leader within South 
America in the protection of its tropical resources. In 
Peru, for now, one can forget what is happening to the 
great rainforests of the world. 

I was unprepared, therefore, for the scenes I ex- 
perienced by flying "cold turkey" into the very heart of 
Brazil's onslaught upon the Amazon. My colleagues 
had been ensconced at the engineering camp for nearly 
a month, when on Halloween Day 1986, I flew from 
Sao Paulo to Porto Velho, the capital of Rondonia. 
From there, a five-hour bus ride along the paved high- 
way between Porto Velho and Cuiaba brought me to 
the bustling town of Jaru, where I arrived just after 
nightfall as the ghosts and goblins of the Amazon past 
began to haunt me deeply. Saturday morning I spent 
waiting for the engineers to rescue me, to whisk me 
away from the 1980s and carry me five hours and two 



decades back into the still pristine rainforest, where my 
toiling colleagues waited. That morning I scribbled the 
following comments and impressions into my field 
notebook: 

1 Nov. 1986: 

Driving out of P. Velho is my first major introduction to the, 
devastation of the Brazilian Amazon. The Amazonian 
highway system is in full regalia here, with 1-2 mile wide 
swaths cleared along each of myriad crisscrossing roads. 
Rugged, abysmal pioneer towns dot the landscape and 
everywhere there is clearing, sawing, burning, and elimina- 
tion of the forest. Logging trucks rumble by periodically, 
dragging 2, 3, or 4 enormous trunks to the sawmills of each 
town in turn. 

In Jaru, trucks outnumber cars 5 to 1 , while horse-drawn 
carts amble alongside both. The Hotel Parana is an "upper- 
class" place by local standards, with unit air conditioning in 
each room, primitive toilets and showers, and two beds that 
aren't bad for rural South America. The proprietor, a good- 
looking unshaven fellow in a tank-top and flip-flops, han- 
dles each minute, each meaningless crisis, each day as it 
comes. There is a bustle to this town unfamiliar to me from 
Peru. Every limping passer-by, every grizzled old bike rider 
and brawny, bearded young stud seems to have a destina- 
tion; some "negocio" to accomplish. These are transplanted 
Brazilians, shipped in from the hopeless, seething crowds of 
the overpopulated south and northeast, imported to the 
once-green Rondonia land to turn it a productive ubi- 
quitous red-brown, to tame the impenetrable, fearsome for- 
est into habitable streets of dust and debris, to fabricate yet 
another maze of whitewashed walls harboring the hardware 
stores, tire shops, supermarkets, gas stations, bars and 
whore-houses that bring human life together where only 
monkeys and macaws once lived. Little trucks cruise slowly 
by with treble loudspeakers blaring forth a continuous gib- 
berish of political Portuguese. It is ignored by everyone, as 
is the continuous, deep din of diesel engines hauling dead 
skeletons of mammoth trees out to be carved to pieces, and 
hauling progress in. 

Now available, where once only fruits and insects could 
be garnered, are glass and plastic bottles with which the 
landscape may be decorated; newspapers declaring the 
latest winners of local soccer and volleyball games; bicycles 
of every color, size, age and condition; blankets, doormats, 
motorcycle parts and always, lottery tickets hawked as "the 
only real way to succeed." But in the eyes of a people hun- 
gry for industrial development, all these peddlers, hotel 
owners, and truck drivers are succeeding. This explains the 
bustle, the cheerful activity, the smiles, the hard-drinking 
groups of laughing men with arms tightly around each 
other, the old barefoot women rushing up the street and 
down with laundry atop their heads, everywhere the infants 
and naked toddlers running alongside teenage mamas, won- 
dering where papa has gone. The sounds of horses' hooves 
and motorcycles, the smells of diesel exhaust and dry clay, 
the sights of bulldozers and radio towers, and the momen- 
tous herds of enormous flatbed trucks represent the promise 
of the Amazon to come, a promise that is arriving and ex- 




Base camp near the Rio Jiparana. Temperatures at the clearing 
reached 38 degrees Celsius nearly every day, but were much cooler 
inside the forest. Titi monkeys and mixed flocks of birds often moved 
through these treetops in the morning sun. 



13 



ploding faster and more finally than this bird-man ever 
could have imagined. 

In the heart of one of the least explored and richest areas 
of the Amazon basin, where biological diversity has pro- 
liferated through eons and become the earth's most pre- 
cious reservoir of life, none of these thousands of people 
will ever hear a Howler Monkey. And they won't care. 



Part II 
Excitement at a Jungle Camp 

Mercifully, the driver from the engineering camp ar- 
rived after lunch, finding me dozing in the sultry mid- 



We progressed toward the wilderness via roads 
that had been plotted by draftsmen in air-conditioned 
labs in Brasilia — long, ruler-straight stretches of red 
clay laid out in huge grids of parallel lines, each about 
20 kilometers apart. From the plane I had seen these 
cross-hatched scars horizon to horizon as we ap- 
proached Porto Velho, and now I was on one of them. 
Near Jaru the forest was cleared for miles on each side of 
the road, now mostly cattle pasture. As we moved 
deeper in, the road became newer and the clear-cut 
swath became narrower. The driver identified the spot 
beyond which the road was only one year old. For the 




Our team (I. tor., crouched): John Fitzpatrick, Mary Anne Rogers, Bruce Patterson, Town Peterson; (standing) Scott Lanyon, Al Gardner, Tom 
Schulenberg, Doug Stotz, Dave Willard. 



14 



day heat. Riding in the back of a dusty Toyota land- 
cruiser, I was whisked back into the South American 
time and environment I've grown to love, the giant 
green expanse of pristine lowland rainforest. The drive 
northeast from Jaru took the whole afternoon. 



second half of this four-hour drive, we travelled a road 
that had slammed through untouched forest only 12 
months earlier. Already it had become flanked by half a 
kilometer of blackened, fallen trunks strewn amidst 
newly planted seedlings of corn or manioc. Every kilo- 



meter or so, a pioneer family paused to rest their backs 
and watch us speed by. Except for such momentary di- 
versions, these hardy transplants spend all their days 
felling trees, burning the rubble to fertilize the other- 
wise sterile clay soil, and planting the crops they will 
live on. 

I arrived at the camp near last light — always 
around 6:00 p.m. in the equatorial tropics. I was 
greeted by bearded and happy faces of my friends and 
colleagues from Chicago, who had been there nearly a 
month already. They were full of queries about "folks 
back home," and tales of the forest they were studying. 
This was a truly remarkable land we had been invited to 
explore. The eight scientists had made an impressive 
beginning and eagerly showed me their tent full of 
voucher specimens to prove it. One specimen in partic- 
ular had focused the attention of the five ornithologists 
for the past week, ever since its capture. I would be 
number six, and it captured my attention instantly. 
More on it presently; however, the scene must first be 
set. 

The interior Amazon basin consists mainly of two 
broad habitat types having to do with the presence or 
absence of seasonal flooding by rivers. Varzea, or "iga- 
po" forest, sits in water several meters deep for over half 
the year, inundated by the annual flooding of the major 
rivers. This is a unique forest type, holding a peculiar 
flora and fauna. These habitats are relatively well ex- 
plored around the Amazon basin, because historically 
the scientists entering the region could do so only by 
the rivers. Surrounded by the richness of river-bottom,, 
flood-plain forest types, explorers for a hundred years 
found little reason or incentive to trek overland be- 
tween the rivers. Therefore, the second habitat type 
was less well inventoried even though it is much the 
dominant biome in total area represented. 

The land between the rivers rises into gentle hills, 
underlain by laterite, a characteristic red clay soil. Hills 
are interlaced by myriad small streams, eroding and 
draining the forest, flowing down toward the rivers and 
their floodplain shorelines. The forest that grows on 
these clay soils — rarely or never flooded — is generally 
called terra firme. In many areas the terra firme forest 
appears less majestic than the annually fertilized forests 
of the river bottoms. Yet, this land between the rivers 
can in places be just as diverse as the lower, wetter 
habitats. For many terrestrial animals, these upland 
forests are even more diverse. Certainly, from a North 
American's viewpoint, a terra firme forest looks every 
bit like a towering green cathedral as one walks be- 
neath it. 



Take an Inventory 

Storekeepers take inventory so that supplies, 
equipment, and merchandise that is actually on 
hand can be compared to what should be on 
hand. 

Homeowners take inventory when their insur- 
ance is to be increased. 

Yet, persons with wills often forget to keep 
inventories current. When that happens, their 
families may be left with the same unnecessary 
problems that the persons who originally made 
wills intended to avoid. 

Don't take chances with your will being out of 
balance with your family's needs and your 
assets. Schedule a meeting with your attorney to 
take an inventory of what you think your will 
contains and what it may now actually contain. 
An out-of-date will is often as ineffective as no 
will at all, so don't neglect one of the most 
important inventories you will ever make. 

For suggestions on preparing or revising your 
will, mail the coupon below for the booklet 
"How to Make a Will that Works." 

clip and mail today - 



To: Planned Giving Office 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496 



□ Please send me a complimentary copy of "How to Make a 
Will that Works," at no obligation. 

Name 

(please print) 

Address 



City. 



. State . 



.Zip. 



Phone: (home) . 



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15 




Red-necked woodpecker (Campephilus rubricollis). This is a com- 
mon, tropical relative of the nearly extinct ivory-billed woodpecker of 
North America. The forests at Cachoera Nazare support 13 species 
of woodpeckers. Only one is larger than this crow-sized species. 



The Field Museum base camp I drove into that 
evening had been carved out of a beautiful, tall terra 
firme forest, up along a gradual hill about a kilometer 
from the bank of the Rio Jiparana. The place was 
known as Cachoeira Nazare, named after the rapids in 
the river nearby. The camp was located at one corner of 
a small network of clearings forming the center of oper- 
ations for the engineering consortium surveying the 
dam site. We had been given full use of three huge can- 
vas field tents at the edge of the forest. These plus work 
tables and a makeshift "pantry" were covered with a 
jury-rigged roof of plastic tarps. Thirty-five-meter trees 
spread overhead a few steps away on three sides. A few 
electric light bulbs illuminated the camp each night 
until the distant generator was shut off. These lights 
had just come on as I arrived. I had a few minutes to 
look around as evening set in, but mostly, I drank in 
the stories of my friends. By now, they had learned 
more about the birds and mammals of the region than 
anyone had ever known. 

Almost instantly, Scott Lanyon and Tom Schu- 
lenberg (a free-lance ornithologist based in Lou- 
isiana) were giving me clues that a major discovery had 
been made. They enjoyed "holding out" briefly, while I 
passed a few quizzes, then they brought out their prize. 
It was a single female specimen of a species I had never 
seen before. One glimpse and I exclaimed, "That looks 
like. . .Clytoctantesl" (an extremely rare and bi- 
zarre species of antbird, known only from a few speci- 
mens from northern Colombia.) "It gets better," they 
said at once, and indeed it did. 

They led me through the same process they had fol- 
lowed a week earlier when the bird was first brought in, 
checking several reference books that represent our bi- 
bles for South American ornithology. The new speci- 
men did resemble the Colombian rarity in having a 
huge, upturned bill, but differed in numerous details. I 
learned that Dave Willard (collection manager in the 
Field Museum's Bird Division) had brought the speci- 
men in from the forest nets (where he was when I ar- 
rived), and had said flatly, "I think I just collected the 
best bird of my life!" Doug Stotz, an expert birder and 
doctoral student at the University of Chicago, sub- 
sequently saw a black male of the species on two differ- 
ent mornings, but a second specimen was never 
obtained despite considerable effort. The single female 
specimen is almost certainly an undescribed species, a 
bird entirely unknown to science until Dave found it in 
the mist nets on Wednesday afternoon the 22nd of 
October, 1986. 



16 



Part III 
Cachoeira Nazare, Dam Site #14 

It's hard to describe the deep, inner thrill many of us 
feel while living and working amidst a tropical forest as 
diverse and little-known as this one. My colleagues 
already had been in camp four weeks, yet each morning 
they climbed out of bed in pre-dawn light with the 



which had never before been recorded. In an activity 
only slightly more venerable, Dave Willard also left 
camp at first light to trek the mile walk through the 
forest to a long trail of 12-meter nylon mesh nets, set up 
end to end in the forest understory a few days before. 
The nets were in place at the site where Doug had spot- 
ted the male of the new species. Besides providing our 




Doug Stotz with great potoo (Nyc- 
tibeus grandis) found ill along a 
forest trail. This is a huge, noctur- 
nal relative of nighthawks and 
nightjars. Its loud, gutteral 
screams on moonlift nights can 
wake up the soundest sleeper. 



same excitement and anticipation as I had my first 
morning there. 

The tropical dawn starts early with a few scattered 
bird calls well before light. Often, the distant roars of 
howler monkeys accompany the first glimpses of giant 
trees silhouetted against the dawn sky. The bird songs 
become a chorus as the dim light abruptly gives way to 
morning. As the treetops gleam with the first sparkles 
of sunlight, duetting pairs of titi monkeys begin to 
cackle loudly. Chips and whistles signal the morning 
activity of bird flocks in the forest canopy. 

Schulenberg had slipped out of camp well before 
dawn to make tape recordings of bird species, many of 



best hope of capturing that bird, the nets serve as our 
principal means of measuring the bird densities and di- 
versities in tropical forests. By keeping track of every 
bird that hits the nets and the number of nets and days 
in the sample, we are comparing the understory bird 
fauna among all the tropical forest sites we have work- 
ed. The nets also serve as our principal means of inven- 
torying the bat fauna in a tropical forest. 

I walked with Dave that first morning, and he 
introduced me to the trail system and this unknown 
land between the rivers. Dave and I have worked 
together for 13 years, including many trips into remote 
sites in the American tropics. He excitedly pointed out 1 7 



things about this forest that we had never encountered 
before. A raucous, staccato call of a bird overhead stop- 
ped us in our tracks. "That's Phoenicercus nigricollis — 
darn hard to see but it's right here every day." The 
"black-necked red cotinga" is a jay-sized bird with bril- 
liant red-orange plumage. It is rare over much of its 



camp, where the mystery bird had been captured. At 
the river, as the day began to heat up, we watched hum- 
mingbirds and a large group of red-bellied conures (Pyr- 
rhura rhodogaster) foraging in a flowering tree. These 
parrots, again little known by scientists, were seen dia- 
ly in noisy flocks of thirty or more individuals through- 



White-breasted antbird 

(Rhegmatorhina hoffmansi). 

Although rare in the world's 

scientific collections, this 

was among the commonest 

species at our camp. 




18 



Amazonian range, and was new to Dave and me. It was 
common in this forest. So were dozens of other birds, 
little known by scientists and poorly represented in the 
world's scientific collections. In the process of helping 
Brazil assess the fauna of a doomed forest, we were fill- 
ing in a huge void in the world's knowledge of Amazo- 
nian diversity. 

To ornithologists familiar with the known dis- 
tributions and abundances of South American birds, 
we had stumbled upon a gold mine. This tall forest be- 
tween the Rio Madeira and the Rio Tapajoz harbored a 
community of birds numbering over 460 species! No- 
body in the history of Brazilian ornithology had ever 
encountered and surveyed a community this rich. The 
bat fauna was equally stunning: 47 species, nearly a rec- 
ord for a single lowland forest locality. 

Later that first morning I walked to the river with 
Town Peterson, another student at the University of 
Chicago, enjoying his first bewildering taste of the 
tropics. Town pointed out trails where previous netting 
samples had been taken before my arrival. He showed 
me the spot, amidst dense vine tangles not far from 



out the forest. 

The Rio Jiparana is about 200 meters wide where 
we studied it, a deep and fast-flowing channel flanked 
by rocky banks and the ever-present, evergreen tropi- 
cal forest. In 1909, Colonel Rondon of the Brazilian 
army had descended past this point while charting the 
river for the first time. In 1914 Rondon (after whom 
this Brazilian state of Rondonia was named), together 
with Theodore Roosevelt and his son Kermit would 
navigate the mysterious "River of Doubt" only fifty 
miles to the east, in a harrowing 60-day adventure 
filled with tragedy and narrow escapes. That river is 
now called Rio Roosevelt, and its 1914 exploration by 
the ex-president resulted in the only significant scien- 
tific collections from these Brazilian forests, until now. 

It was painful for us to know, while gazing at the 
river, that the entire scene before us would be under 
hundreds of feet of water within several years. The site 
at which the huge cement dam would be constructed 
was clearly visible, marked by white flags and marker- 
posts along the opposite bank. We would be among the 
last humans ever to sit on the banks of the Jiparana as 



Rondon knew it and as it had been for millennia before 
him. All these rare birds, little-known mammals, un- 
described insects and plants thriving and evolving 
around us would be destroyed without a trace by the 
rising waters behind Dam Site #14. 

When tropical forest is inundated to treetop 
heights, the plants, of course, can go nowhere. 
Adapted to dry footing, they quickly die and slowly rot 
away as the water table overtakes them. Animals meet 
a slower but no less certain fate as they struggle toward 
higher ground. Their deadly dilemma: drown in the 
artificial lake or migrate into new forest already teem- 
ing with vigorous, territorial representatives of their 
own species (or closely related ones where the forest 
type is different). In a typical tropical forest, thousands 
of separate species of animals and plants exist at or near 
their ecological "carrying capacity, " the whole commu- 
nity persisting in a delicate equilibrium of numbers. 
Massive perturbations in adjacent areas, whether 
caused by bulldozer or rising water, cannot change the 
numbers of animals a given piece of forest patch can 
hold. Animals try to invade new ground, but they fail, 
living for a time as hungry nomads before perishing 



White-fronted nunbird (Monosa morphoeus). This species lives in 
family groups, which sing together in noisy duets or trios in the 
treetops. 





Snow-capped manakin (Pipra nattereri), a fruit-eating bird of the 
forest undergrowth. 



without a home. As humans alter or destroy habitats 
the world over, many of us seem to have trouble 
acknowledging that this action annihilates all the in- 
habitats with the same thoroughness and finality as 
if we had killed each of them individually with fire 
or gun. 

This was the bittersweet conscience we bore 
throughout our study at Cachoeira Nazare. Hour by 
hour, day by day, we grew to know the forest intimately. 
Invariably, one grows to love a tropical forest as one 
begins to understand it. Each site has a slightly differ- 
ent character from every other. This one, diverse as it 
was, struck many of us as unusually dry. The red clay 
soil gave way to loose sand in places, supporting 
pineapple-like terrestrial bromeliads. Few arboreal air- 
plants or mosses clung to the trunks, indicating that 
daily moisture levels in the air were rarely saturated. 
Indeed, the midday heat was scorching and oppressive. 
At our clearing the temperature neared 38 C. ( 100 F. ) 
almost every day. Although the dark forest interior re- 
mains considerably cooler even in mid-afternoon, a 
period of inactivity routinely engulfs the forest during 
each day's hottest hours. 

Around noon, profusely perspiring biologists 
tended to return to camp as the forest grew quiet. 
Parched throats quenched, each person set about the 
tasks of specimen preparation. Bruce Patterson (head 
of the Division of Mammals at Field Museum) and Al 
Gardner (mammalogist at the U.S. National 



19 



Museum), skinned mammals from several lines of 
traps. Field Museum technical assistant Mary Anne 
Rogers would usually be preparing microscope slides of 
chromosomes from some of these mammals, laborious- 
ly extracted from their blood cells. Many species of ro- 



Specimens being sun- 
dried at base camp. We 
often collect a few rep- 
resentatives of each 
species in order to 
document for all time 
the fauna of such little- 
studied areas. These 
specimens will join 
others in Brazilian and 
U.S. museums, where 
they are preserved for 
comparison and study 
by the international sci- 
entific community. 



heard over the forest. Several times they migrated 
overhead, drenching us for an hour or two of blinding, 
tropical rain, in a welcome relief from the sun and heat 
of most afternoons. Once, a huge squall line hit the 
camp with such sudden force that it blew apart our 




20 



dents can be distinguished from one another only by 
this method. Scott Lanyon, after each bird skinned, 
would extract tissue from the carcass and freeze it in a 
portable freezer filled with liquid nitrogen. These tis- 
sues would be analyzed in the laboratories back in Chi- 
cago so that their molecular and genetic properties can 
be compared. Doug Stotz was in charge of preparing 
skeletal specimens while his fellow student Town 
Peterson skinned birds and extracted their chromo- 
somes. Dave Willard, master of the mist-netting pro- 
gram, skinned birds when not installing or checking 
nets. Tom Schulenberg, in between bird skins, would 
catalog his extensive tape recordings each day, occa- 
sionally pausing to play us a song or two of birds whose 
voices we were still learning. My own "niche" mostly 
involved censusing and collecting birds from high in 
the forest canopy, using a 20-gauge shotgun and very 
fine lead shot. 

Often, distant thunderheads could be seen and 



makeshift plastic roof. With passionate dedication to 
protecting the specimens, we frantically relashed the 
tarps, feeling a bit like crew members high in the masts 
of a clipper ship, pulling in the sails as the gale soaked 
us to the skin. 

Late afternoon net checks and forest walks pro- 
duce new flurries of information and specimens each 
day. And, suddenly, it is night. The headlamps come 
out, and the mammalogists take their turn stalking the 
trails. Their subjects, of course, are largely nocturnal — 
and so must be mammalogists. For ornithologists, skin- 
ning and note-writing would take us to the end of the 
lights (and sometimes well beyond). As each finishes 
his day, the respective headlamp and consciousness 
flick off. The dawn comes early. 

Part IV 
Results and Postscripts 

Time flew by at Cachoeira Nazare. We packed out of 



Dam Site #14 toward the end of November, having 
documented that an unexpectedly high diversity of 
birds and mammals would be affected by the flooding. 
As requested by Brazil, we prepared a thorough, 110- 
page report on our findings and submitted it by mid- 
January. Published articles will follow for several years 
hence. Our species lists, quantitative measurements, 
and collections already stand as major contributions to 
Brazilian biology and conservation. We hope they will 
have lasting influence on the planning and execution 
of future hydroelectric projects in the Amazon basin. 
In addition, we hope they can be used by Brazilian sci- 
entists and students in their increasing efforts to inven- 
tory and understand their country's resources. 

Our most important conclusions involve the ex- 
istence and need for protection of a previously unsus- 
pected pocket of biotic diversity in the forests between 
the Madeira and the Tapajos. Much of this land re- 
mains unexplored, and its flora and fauna still are large- 
ly unknown, save for the birds and mammals we stu- 
died. Dam construction and associated flooding can be 
accomplished without permanent damage to this di- 
versity, but only with proper attention to conservation 
around the lake's perimeter. Present rates of settlement 
in the state of Rondonia are so high that public access 
to the water's edge would result in denuding the forest 
around its banks. Consequences of this would be dis- 
astrous, both in terms of soil runoff (clogging the lake 
and dam) and in loss of species diversity. Preservation 
of native life and water quality within the lake also de- 
pends upon the persistence of intact forest around the 
shoreline. We recommend that a wide "buffer zone" of 
untouched forest be preserved around the entire per- 
imeter of the reservoir, providing a corridor for move- 
ment of forest-adapted animals and a genetic reservoir 
of plant species endemic to the region. This buffer zone 
should include a connection to a nearby biotic reserve 
of considerable size. Most important, the area should 
be intensively studied periodically, during and after the 
dam construction. Only with this kind of monitoring 
can we ever hope to know in detail the scope of the 
environmental changes we bring about by damming 
the waters of the Amazon basin. 

The great, uncharted tropical forests of Rondon 
and Roosevelt's day are disappearing. Those that re- 
main are being altered irrevocably by man. It is im- 
possible to travel and work in Rondonia without facing 
this merciless fact head-on. The global consequences 
of these changes are just now beginning to receive the 
attention they warrant. Fortunately, governments such 
as Brazil's are beginning to become aware of the 




Yellow-shouldered grosbeak (Caryothmustes humeralis), a rare in- 
habitant ot the highest treetops. 




Collared puffbird (Bucco capensis), a distant relative of wood- 
peckers and very difficult to see as it sits motionless for minutes on 
end in search of insects. 



monumental biotic resources they harbor in their na- 
tive forests. In our small way, museum scientists en- 
gaged in inventorying these resources contribute to this 
awareness. Only by studying, bit by bit, the individual 
pieces of the gigantic puzzle of tropical diversity can we 
hope to understand how it arose and how it is main- 
tained. Only with this understanding can we humans, 
in turn, hope to predict and measure how our activities 
and developments upon our planet will affect its future, 
and our own. FM 



21 




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The Stuff of dreams 

native American Dolls 

Continues through January 15 



23 



A Celebration of 

Philip hershkovitz 

Emeritus Curator of Mammals 

by Bruce d. Patterson 

Associate Curator of Mammals and Head, Division of Mammals 




24 



The distinguished career of Emeritus Curator Philip 
Hershkovitz is celebrated at this time with Field 
Museum's publication of a landmark volume on South 
American mammals, Studies in Neotropical Mammal- 
ogy: Essays in Honor of Philip Hershkovitz- Hershkovitz, 
now 78, has devoted most of his 40 years at Field 
Museum to the study of South America's diverse and 
poorly known mammal fauna. In the course of five dec- 
ades of expeditions and museum studies, Hershkovitz 
has published definitive treatments of most groups of 
mammals of that continent. 

Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy is a collection of 
25 original articles written expressly for this occasion 
and published in Fieldiana, the Museum's continuing 
scientific serial publication (for complete contents see 
page 30). Contributed by 42 authors, many of them 
South Americans, and edited by Bruce D. Patterson 
and Robert M. Timm of Field Museum's Division of 
Mammals, the papers focus on the origins, rela- 



tionships, natural history, and present status of many 
groups of Neotropical mammals. Because this fauna is 
increasingly imperiled by human encroachments on 
natural ecosystems, the volume is a timely contribution 
that may aid national and international efforts for con- 
servation. 

The following article is adapted from the volume's 
opening article, "A biographical sketch of Philip 
Hershkovitz, with a complete scientific bibliography," 
by Bruce D. Patterson. 



Philip Hershkovitz was born October 12, 1909, in 

Pittsburgh to Aba and Bertha Halpern Hershkovitz, 
the second of four children and their only son. He 
attended Pittsburgh public schools, graduating from 
Schenley High School in February, 1927. In 1929, he 
enrolled at the University of Pittsburgh, where he ma- 
jored in zoology, serving as an undergraduate assistant in 



that department during 1930-31. Having exhausted 
Pittsburgh's course offerings in zoology after two years 
and seeking to pursue a career in mammalogy, he was 
advised to transfer to Harvard, the University of 
Michigan, or the University of California, Berkeley. 
Proximity won out and in his junior year he transferred 
to the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. There he 
became an undergraduate assistant in the Museum of 
Zoology, working under Lee R. Dice, professor and 
curator, during 1931 and 1932. He supplemented the 
meager earnings of this position with taxidermy jobs, 
which supported him during the early years of the 
Great Depression. His first fieldwork, during the sum- 
mer of 1932, carried him to Texas' San Marcos region 
to collect blind cave salamanders (Typhlomolge rath- 
buni) for Professor Uhlenhuth of the University of 
Maryland Medical School. Mainly interested in mam- 
mals, Hershkovitz wanted also to collect these in areas 
near the caves, but Dice could spare no traps and 
advised him to purchase some in Texas. 

While hitchhiking from Ann Arbor to Texas, 
Hershkovitz stopped to visit friends in Chicago. There, 
a chance visit to the Field Museum secured him the 
traps and supplies he needed and seemingly set the 
course of his later career. Colin Sanborn, then curator 
of Mammals during Wilfred Osgood's tenure as chief 
curator of Zoology (1921-41), befriended Hershkovitz 
and loaned him the necessary supplies. As a con- 
sequence, the mammals he collected in Texas during 
that first of many field seasons were deposited in the 
Field Museum collections. He now maintains that his 
chance visit to the Field Museum in 1932 indelibly 
fixed that institution as the place at which to pursue his 
career goals. 

Hershkovitz's formal education was postponed in 
1933 by the worsening economic situation. No longer 
able to afford tuition, he sought advice on subsistence 
during the Depression, and was told that Ecuador and 
Paraguay were undoubtedly the least expensive coun- 
tries in this hemisphere in which to live. Transporta- 
tion costs decided the issue, and in 1933 he set sail via 
the Grace Line from New York to Guayaquil, Ecuador 
for the whopping sum of $600, one-way. 

He stayed in Ecuador until 1937. During this 
period, he mastered Spanish and learned how to live off 
the land in the Neotropics. His boots disintegrated 
after six months' time and thereafter he went barefoot. 
He assembled a fine collection of Ecuadorian mammals 
for the University of Michigan's Museum of Zoology, 
supporting his fieldwork in part by selling horses 
bought on the Peruvian frontier. 



He then returned to the University of Michigan, 
graduating in 1938 with a B.S. degree. By this time, 
Professor Dice had transferred from the Museum of 
Zoology to the Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics, and 
William H. Burt had assumed the museum curatorship. 
Hershkovitz spent the period 1938-41 enrolled in the 
university's graduate school, working on his Ecuador- 
ian collection under Burt's direction. From 1939 to 
1941, he was supported in this work by a graduate 
assistantship. In 1940 he received his M.S. degree and 
entered the doctoral program. 

Two years before the expected completion of this 
program, the curator of reptiles and amphibians at 
UMMZ, Helen Gage, told Hershkovitz about the Walter 
Rathbone Bacon Travelling Scholarship of the United 
States National Museum. This program was customari- 
ly reserved for postdoctoral support, but Mrs. Gage 
strongly urged him to apply immediately. Thus per- 
suaded, Hershkovitz submitted a brief proposal for 
work in the Santa Marta region of northern Colombia; 
his compliance with Mrs. Gage's wishes in this matter 
was so perfunctory that he failed to include a map of the 
proposed itinerary. But Remington Kellogg at the 
National Museum had long wished to obtain a Bacon 
Scholar for the Mammal Division and wrote Hershko- 
vitz for the omitted itinerary. Much to his surprise, 
Hershkovitz was awarded the scholarship. He went im- 
mediately to Washington, where he spent two months 
studying the then very poor collection of Neotropical 
mammals before going to Colombia. There, he spent 
two years (1941-43) collecting mammals, other ver- 
tebrates, and external parasites. The resulting collec- 
tion was the National Museum's first large and repre- 
sentative Neotropical mammal accession. 

In 1943, Hershkovitz's work was interrupted by 
World War II, and he returned to Ann Arbor to enlist 
in the Armed Services. He was assigned to the Office of 
Strategic Services (OSS) and served from 1943 to 1946 
in the European Theater. While serving in France he 
met Anne Marie Pierrette, whom he married in 1946. 
He returned with her to the United States, where in 
1946 and 1947 he continued his Bacon Scholarship 
studies of Colombian mammals in Washington. The 
first of three children (Francine, Michael, and Mark) 
was born in 1947. 

About this time, he was contacted regarding the 
opening of a curatorial position at the Field Museum, 
an opportunity he eagerly hailed for several reasons: 1) 
the comprehensive collections of Neotropical mam- 
mals at Field Museum would be a tremendous resource 
for what he had already decided would be his life's 25 




26 



Philip Hershkovitz and friend (Micoureus cinereus demerarae, a 
mouse opossum) in the Sierra Negra of northernmost Colombia. 



work; 2) he had the highest regard for W. H. Osgood, 
who as a principal authority on South American mam- 
mals would he a great personal resource on which to 
draw; 3) the press of family responsibilities was making 
continuation of his graduate studies increasingly diffi- 
cult; and 4) aspirations to a curatorial position had 
been the sole incentive for his graduate program; a 
curatorial position would make the graduate degree 
superfluous. Thus, when Field Museum offered him the 
job, he eagerly accepted, knowing full well that it 
marked the end of his graduate program at Michigan. 
Osgood's death in June, 1947, ended his hopes for 
what might have been a remarkable apprenticeship. 
Nevertheless, the sacrifice of the doctoral degree still 
seemed a miniscule loss, not without precedent at Field 
Museum and other institutions at that time. Osgood 
himself had received his doctorate from the University 



of Chicago some nine years after becoming curator, 
well after completing some of his most significant work 
(e.g., revisions of pocket mice and deer mice). 
Another stellar example was Karl P. Schmidt, chief 
curator of Zoology after Osgood, a most distinguished 
herpetologist-ecologist, and member of the National 
Academy of Sciences, who never entered a doctoral 
program. 

Upon his arrival at Field Museum, Hershkovitz 
found an uncurated backlog of some four or five years. 
Nevertheless, he wasted little time in returning to the 
field, prompted in part by postwar housing shortages in 
Chicago. (One can almost hear him now, telling for- 
mer Museum Director Clifford C. Gregg that the near- 
est affordable housing was in Bogota!) In 1948, the 
Hershkovitz family moved to Colombia, where he re- 
sumed his inventory of that country's mammals. He 
remained in Colombia until the press of curatorial du- 
ties and a gently delivered ultimatum from Sanborn 
finally recalled him to Chicago in 1952. 

The collections he made in Colombia, first for the 
National Museum, then for the Field Museum, were to 
be the heart of all his subsequent research. But unlike 
others studying the mammal faunas of specific geo- 
graphical regions, Hershkovitz found it unsatisfying to 
assess the systematics of Colombian mammals without 
crossing national boundaries. Studies of a species or 
species group in Colombia led him to evaluate its con- 
text within genera, families, and even orders; and the 
remarkable diversity of Colombia's mammal fauna led 
him into most major groups and most Neotropical re- 
gions. In the course of his career, he has published 
dozens of generic, tribal, and familial revisions, cover- 
ing all twelve orders of Neotropical mammals. Few 
boundaries of space and time have withstood the 
onslaught of his studies of Neotropical mammals. As 
examples one can point to the cosmopolitan Catalog of 
Living Whales (1966) — after all, most cetaceans do 
occur in South American waters — and studies of Oli- 
gocene and later fossils of South American monkeys, 
published during the 1970s and 80s. 

One senses that the Department of Zoology dur- 
ing Hershkovitz's early years was a stimulating, har- 
monious one. Chief Curator K. P. Schmidt took an 
almost paternal interest in junior staff and served as a 
confidant on the most personal of matters. In addition 
to Colin Sanborn, who was most considerate of his 
junior colleague's interests and talents, Hershkovitz 
shared mammalogical problems and topics with D. 
Dwight Davis, curator of Vertebrate Anatomy, and 
Bryan Patterson, curator of Vertebrate Paleontology. 




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Hershkovitz studying geographic and nongeographic variation in mouse skulls as a prelude to his 524-page tome Evolution of neotropical 
chcetine rodents (Muridae), with special reference to the phyllotine group, published in Fieldiana: Zoology in 1 962. 86651 



During the early and mid-1950s, Hershkovitz estab- 
lished a vigorous and productive research program and 
participated in all aspects of departmental affairs. 

However, upon Schmidt's retirement in 1957, 
Austin S. Rand, an ornithologist, became chief curator 
of Zoology, and neither Rand nor Hershkovitz did 
much to disguise his antipathy for the other. Over the 
ensuing years, Hershkovitz increasingly detached him- 
self from museum operations, culminating with Joseph 
Moore's appointment as curator of Mammals in 1961, 
and Hershkovitz's appointment that year to research 
curator. No one before or since has held this title at 
Field Museum. Hershkovitz formally retired in 1974, 
although his work continues unabated as emeritus 
curator. During his career, he has assisted countless 
students in mammal projects but served on only a single 
graduate committee, that of Jack Fooden, now a re- 
nowned biologist and primate specialist in his own 
right and a research associate of Mammals at Field 
Museum. 

Few scientists can claim the independence in 
research that is indicated in Hershkovitz's bibliog- 
raphy. Of his approximately 300 scientific, popular, 
and encyclopedia articles, only three are collabora- 
tions. The first (1938), with William P. Harris, an 



important benefactor of the Museum of Zoology, 
Michigan, was suggested by Burt in recognition of Har- 
ris's interests in squirrels and in token repayment for his 
patronage of the museum. The second (1945), with 
Paul Rode, came about one afternoon in the Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris when Hershko- 
vitz offhandedly offered a solution to a nomenclatural 
problem that Rode faced in his research. Rode insisted 
that Hershkovitz share authorship on the resulting 
paper. Later, after further study in the United States, 
Hershkovitz arrived at a contrary opinion and wrote a 
paper, with Rode as co-author (1947), correcting their 
earlier article. 

For almost 50 years, Hershkovitz has focused his 
research on Neotropical mammals — their origin, 
evolution, dispersal, classification, nomenclature, and 
systematics. Specialists in these fields are well aware of 
his tremendous impact. However, he is perhaps most 
widely known for his work on three general topics of 
Neotropical mammalogy: faunal origins, metachrom- 
ism (the evolution of hair color via pigment loss) and 
New World monkeys. It would be folly to attempt to 
review all of his research, and more definitive ap- 
praisals on selected topics can be found throughout the 
newly published volume in his honor. However, some 



27 



comments on these general issues seem in order. 

As late as his taxonomic revision of leaf-eared ro- 
dents (1962), Hershkovitz adhered to traditional no- 
tions of the derivation of certain South American 
groups, notably the sigmodontine rodents, from North 
and Middle American stocks. This hypothesis of ori- 
gins has been advocated by G. G. Simpson, B. Patter- 
son, R. Pascual, L. G. Marshall, and S. D. Webb. 
However, in the early 1960s, Hershkovitz was ap- 
proached by Rupert Wenzel, then curator of Insects at 
Field Museum, who questioned him on the evidence 
for Pliocene-Pleistocene origins of the sigmodontines. 
Wenzel's studies of external parasites of Panamanian 
mammals suggested much earlier, South American ori- 
gins. His interest piqued, Hershkovitz reviewed avail- 
able evidence, synthesizing continental drift (which 
was then becoming established in geological circles) 
and various studies of recent mammals. He concluded 
that continental drift permitted a much greater role for 
paleotropical stocks in the origin of the South Amer- 
ican fauna than was allowed by the Simpsonian school, 
which in turn suggested a much greater time-period for 
independent evolution. Interestingly, and perhaps 



even characteristically, Hershkovitz concluded that 
South American rodents were not only not derived 
from North American stocks but instead gave rise to 
them. These views were published in 1966, 1969, and 
1972. 

Hershkovitz developed singlehandedly the theory 
of metachromism, first published in 1968. Since then 
he has used it repeatedly in describing geographic var- 
iation in New World monkeys. However, the origins of 
this concept stem from his earlier work on certain 
squirrels (Sciurus granatensis group) in northern Col- 
ombia. Here, populations of squirrels thoroughly iso- 
lated from one another show similar progressions of 
pelage patterns. Few workers other than Neotropical 
primatologists (and not all of these) have accepted his 
interpretations, although the theory is potentially 
applicable to a variety of other groups (mostly diurnal 
ones) showing pelage pattern variations. 

Finally, some explanation seems warranted for 
Hershkovitz's current devotion to primates. Indeed, 
many recent workers unschooled in mammalian sys- 
tematics think of him as a primatologist. Nothing 
could be further from the truth, as he hastens to point 



Hershkovitz and staff artist E. John Pfiffner preparing scientific illustrations for Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini), vol. I, published by the 
University of Chicago Press in 1 977. This lavishly illustrated opus of 1 , 1 1 7 large-format pages was the first of a three- or four-part series covering 
all New World monkeys, awso 



28 




1948 



1960 



1965 




1968 1976 

Forty years of distinguished service to Field Museum and Zoology. 



1984 



84165. 87363. 89299. 90174, 92453, 83631 



out. He had published several articles on primates in 
the course of working up his Colombian collections, 
but gave these taxa no special attention until the 
1960s. Then government funding for primate studies 
soared, in large part because of interest in biomedical 
applications, especially for the complex and tax- 
onomically confused family Callitrichidae (tamarins 
and marmosets). For almost twenty years, Hershkovitz 
has focused first on the Callitrichidae, now the Cebi- 
dae (larger New World monkeys, including capuchin, 
spider, and woolly monkeys). His slower progress 
through these groups is attributable to the vast body of 
current knowledge about them. His 1977 opus on cal- 
litrichids, Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini), Vol. 
1 , serves as a model synthesis of data from skin and skull 
anatomy with data concerning biochemistry, chromo- 
somes, blood proteins, epidemiology, ecology, and be- 
havior. In a 1982 article, mammalogist Ronald Pine 
(also a research associate of Field Museum) referred to 
this work as "the most heroically monumental revision- 
ary monograph ever devoted to a Neotropical group." 
(Vol. 6, Spec. Publ. Ser. , Pymatuning Lab. Ecol.) By 
Hershkovitz's own estimation, monkeys do not 
culminate his studies on Neotropical mammals, but 
rather represent a large and complex group to be cov- 



ered in his attempt to treat all South American mam- 
mals. After a decade of work on volume two, he has 
recently completed generic revisions of cebids lacking 
prehensile tails, including night and squirrel monkeys, 
sakis, and titis, and is beginning comparative studies 
of organ systems. 

In October, 1987, Hershkovitz turned 78 years 
old. The 14 years he spent in the field in South Amer- 
ica have served him well, for he seems younger than 
many men 15 years his junior. Indeed, he has just re- 
turned from a lengthy trip to Brazil, where he has been 
studying monkeys in museums and mice in the field 
with Barbara E. Brown, his technical assistant for 13 
years and a longtime friend and supporter of the 
Museum. While in Chicago, his tireless energy is best 
indicated by his habitual use of stairs rather than eleva- 
tors (even his two offices in the Museum are three 
floors apart) and a museum workday that extends from 
9 am to 6 pm, uninterrupted by coffee breaks or even 
lunch. Visitors to his home, now within walking dis- 
tance of the Museum, know of his office there which 
relieves the chronic insomnia of advancing years. He 
is an outstanding cook, a genial host, a trusted and 
valued friend, as well as an awesomely productive 
scientist. FM 



29 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2499 



HISS MARITA MAXEY 

7411 MORTH greenview 
CHICASO IL 6fJ626 






4 

Fll ;ld museum of natural 




BULLETIN 






.JW*" - 



y* 



* 



February 1988 





m 




Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor /Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considtne 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
LeoF. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

February 1988 
Volume 59, Number 2 



FEBRUARY EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM . 



EXHIBITION CONSERVATION 

by Catherine Sease, Associate Conservator, Anthropology ... 5 

JOHN A. KAKARUK: PAINTER OF INLAND ESKIMO LIFE 

by Charles V. Lucier and James W. VanStone, 

Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology. ... 14 

WELWITSCHIA THE WONDERFUL: 

Life as a Survivor in the Desert of Southwestern Africa, 

by Peter R. Crane, Associate Curator of Paleobotany, 

and Catherine D. Hult, Laboratory Assistant, Geology 22 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 30 

COVER 

Welwitschia mirabilis, one of the most extraordinary members 
of the plant kingdom, shown here in a diorama in Hall 29: 
"Plants of the World." This bizarre inhabitant of African desert 
regions is the subject of an article by Associate Curator Peter R. 
Crane and Laboratory Assistant Catherine D. Hult , pages 

22-29. B80266 



Seen the Tiffany exhibit yet? 
Hurry! 

"Tiffany: 150 Years of Gems and Jewelry" 

remains on view only through 

Saturday, February 6 



"Mothers and Daughters" 

Unprecedented exhibition of 128 photos of 

American mothers and daughters remains on 

view through March 13 



Field Museum o/ Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright ©1988 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions exptessed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscriprs are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster Please send form 3579 ro Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. 




Black Traditions 



The beauty and excellence of traditional African crafts are be- 
ing perpetuated by some of Chicago's most skilled artisans 
and performers. Experience the rich atmosphere of an African 
bazaar. Tour a drum maker's yard and see the transformation of 
a simple log to a powerful musical instrument. Try your hand at 
playing the finished product. Enjoy the legends of Africa's past 
and performances by some of Chicago's most exciting theatre 
groups. Join with Field Museum in celebrating the richness 
and vitality of Black American Traditions. 

Saturday and Sunday, Feb. 6, 7 

1:00 to 3:00pm 

Folk Art — demonstration 

Derek Webster creates fantastic and colorful caricatures of the 
life around us using found objects and wood scraps. 

2:00pm 

African Bazaar 

Garments, dancers, musicians, and merchants illustrate the 
beauty of African American culture. 



Saturday and Sunday, Feb. 20, 21 

1:00 to 3:00pm 

Shakere — demonstration 

Shakere are African percussion instruments made from gourds 
and covered with a fine slightly loose netting of glass or wood- 
en beads. Watch as Amira demonstrates how these beautiful 
instruments are made and played. 

2:00pm 

Stories and Folktales with Shanta 

Shanta enchants you with traditional African, African American, 
and original tales enhanced with a variety of African musical 
instruments. 



Saturday and Sunday, Feb. 27, 28 

1:00 to 3:00pm 

The Drummer's Craft — demonstration 

Visit with Musa Mosely, local drum maker, as he creates a 
drum for you to play. 

2:00pm 

Stories and Folktales with Nora Blakely 

Nora Blakely captivates you with exciting legends of Africa's 
heroes and scary stories of the wonders of the world. 

All Black Traditions family activities are free with Museum 
admission. Tickets are not required. 



World Music Program 

Weekends in February 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Music communicates in many ways. It is something that can 
be shared by all of us, whether or not we have common life- 
styles, beliefs, or even languages. From the gentle harp of 
Light Henry Huff to the lively and spirited stories and songs 
of Shanta, February is a musical celebration at Field 
Museum. 

Feb. 6 1:00pm: □ Chinese Music Society of North 
America 

□ Amira — African Shakere 
3:00pm: □ Chicago Beau —Blues Harmonica 

Feb. 7 1 :00pm: □ Chinese Music Society of North 
America 

□ Amira — African Shakere 
3:00pm: □ Chicago Beau —Blues Harmonica 

Feb. 13 1:00pm: □ Chinese Music Society of North 
America 
3:00pm: □ Chinese Music Society of North 
America 



Feb. 14 



Feb. 20 



Feb. 21 



Feb. 27 



Feb. 28 



1:00pm: □ Raices del Ande- 
Folk Music 
□ Raices del Ande- 
Folk Music 



3:00pm 

1:00pm 
3:00pm 

1:00pm 
3;00pm 

1:00pm 
3:00pm 

1:00pm 
3:00pm 



-Latin American 
-Latin American 



□ Alas Poets 

□ Light Henry Huff— Harp 

□ Fan Wei-Tsu — Chinese Zither 

□ Sheri Scott— Vocals 

□ Alas Poets 

□ Light Henry Huff— Harp 

□ Fan Wei-Tsu — Chinese Zither 

□ Sheri Scott— Vocals 

□ Shanta— Storyteller 

□ Keith Eric — Music of the Caribbean 

□ Shanta— Storyteller 

□ Keith Eric — Music of the Caribbean 



The World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and 
Harle Montgomery Fund and a City Art IV grant from the Chi- 
cago Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 



Adult Programs 



Courses for adults begin the week of February 15. "Africa: A 
Continent Misunderstood" begins Thursday, February 25. 
This series features some of Chicago's finest scholars dis- 
cussing African culture and history. Other courses beginning 
in February include "Conquest of the Incas," "Conversational 
Chinese," and "Mandar Silkweavers." 



"MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS" 



Photographic Exhibit 

Closes March 13 




Photo by Laura McPhee 
Untitled, 1984 
Ringoes, New Jersey 
8 x 10 silver gelatin print 



This unprecedented exhibition of 128 photographs of 
American mothers and daughters chronicles the first, 
most lasting, and most crucial bond in every woman's 
life. Eighty-nine photographers — among them Eudora 
Welty — have contributed remarkable images that 
combine to form a varied and deeply insightful vision of 
the mother/daughter relationship. Large color prints, 



images combined with text, and mixed-media work are 
shown side-by-side with more straightforward docu- 
mentary investigations. 

This exhibit was organized by the Aperture 
Foundation in New York and is free with regular 
Museum admission. 



Exhibition Conservation 

by Catherine Sease, 

Associate Conservator, Department of Anthropology 



W 



hat is the job of an exhibition conservator? To 
this question, most visitors would reply, "restore ob- 
jects in a lab." They would be surprised to learn that 
much of a conservator's work occurs in the public areas 
of their museum. After objects have been placed in dis- 
play cases, conservators do not simply forget about 
them. These objects on exhibition must be looked after 
just as carefully and conscientiously as those specimens 
in storage, those that go out on loan, and those studied 
in work areas. 

Conservators can be thought of as doctors for arti- 
facts. Like physicians, we are concerned with main- 
taining the physical well-being of all the objects in the 
collections under our care. When necessary, of course, 
we do treat objects by cleaning them, repairing them, 
and the like. More often, however, we practice pre- 
ventive conservation. Again, the medical analogy is 
perfectly apt, as the theory behind preventive con- 
servation is similar to that of preventive medicine: if 
objects are handled and cared for properly, the possibil- 
ity of damage and deterioration is minimized. 

Indications that preventive conservation is taking 
place in an exhibition hall are generally there for one to 
see, but museum visitors are not always aware that this 
is what they are seeing. Have you ever wondered about 
those curious little dials to be seen in the corners of 
some museum cases? What about the shoe box-size 
machines with pens continuously drawing lines on a 
cylinder covered with graph paper? Have you always 
thought that low light levels in an exhibition area are 
just an economy measure or perhaps are intended to 
create a dramatic effect? Each of these, however, is evi- 
dence of preventive conservation. 

Before looking more carefully at some of these 
aspects of preventive conservation, it is important to 
briefly consider the nature of the materials in our 
anthropological collections. Most of the specimens in a 
museum such as Field Museum consist of organic mate- 
rials — that is, substances derived from plants or ani- 
mals. This includes a wide range of materials: wood, 
bark, leather, skin, fur, hide, hair, bone, ivory, grass, 



seeds, and fibers of all kinds, to mention only the most 
obvious. 

Most anthropological objects are impermanent. 
By their very nature, organic materials are not durable. 
The moment a tree or plant is cut down or an animal is 
killed, the natural processes of decomposition begin. 
While a plant or animal is living, dead tissue is con- 
stantly being replaced by new cells. This natural re- 
placement of cells and tissue, however, ceases with 
death, and the wood, fiber, or skin immediately begins 
to deteriorate. This is all part of nature's great recycling 
scheme. Even if the wood is carved into a sculpture or 
the fiber is spun and woven into a blanket, this de- 
terioration will take place. It may occur so slowly that it 
will not be readily visible, but it does occur. 

For anthropological objects, there is the added 
problem that the people who made many objects never 
intended them to be permanent. Created for a specific 
ritual or function, these objects were later set aside or 
discarded. Since the mask maker, for example, was not 
concerned about his mask lasting beyond a specific 
ceremony, he felt free to use all manner of perishable 
materials, such as grasses, seeds, and skins, to create his 
mask. It is most unlikely that he was concerned about 
the problems he might be creating for some conservator 
in a far-off time and place. Once the mask becomes part 
of a museum collection, however, it is the conservator's 
job to make sure that the highly perishable materials 
contained in the mask endure for future generations to 
study and appreciate. Unfortunately, the conservator 
cannot completely arrest natural deterioration pro- 
cesses, but certain measures can be taken to slow down 
the inevitable. 

With these considerations in mind, we can now 
look at some of the most important causes of deteriora- 
tion found within a museum's exhibition areas: relative 
humidity, light, mounting and handling. (Deteriora- 
tion of exhibited objects due to mold, insects, and 
other pests is also a concern for conservators. Since it is 
also a major concern in storage areas, this subject will 
be treated in a future article. ) 



Relative Humidity 

Probably the most pervasive cause of deterioration to 
objects on display is the relative humidity within the 
building. Relative humidity is the percentage of mois- 
ture present in a given volume of air at a given tempera- 
ture. Relative humidity, therefore, is closely inter- 
related with the temperature. For example, hot air can 
contain more water vapor than cold air. If the tempera- 



different direction, thus restricting the movement of 
adjacent pieces. Repairs sometimes contribute to this 
type of damage; areas of hard, dried glue can act as a 
restraint. 

Abrupt fluctuations in the relative humidity, 
especially over a long period, can be even more damag- 
ing. At such times damage is the result of this same 
mechanical action on the object, but on a larger, more 



1. Water-soluble salt crys- 
tals growing on surface of 
a Greek lamp. 




ture goes up, but the moisture in that air remains con- 
stant, the relative humidity will go down; conversely, if 
the temperature goes down, the relative humidity will 
go up. 

All organic materials contain a certain amount of 
water, some chemically bound, that is, chemically part 
of the material, and some loose within the cells. When 
an object made of organic materials is placed in a room, 
it immediately tries to reach equilibrium with the 
ambient environment by absorbing or releasing mois- 
ture. Once in equilibrium with its environment, the 
object will continue to absorb moisture and swell if the 
relative humidity increases and give back moisture to 
the air and contract if the relative humidity drops. This 
is a phenomenon familiar to anyone who has tried to 
raise or lower a stuck window in damp weather — it had 
been so easy during dry spells. In the museum, such 
seasonal changes in relative humidity can also cause 
damage to objects on display. In a basket, for example, 
many small breaks can occur as each element in the 
weave responds individually to changes in the relative 
humidity. In an object made of different materials or of 
joined pieces, free movement of individual pieces can 
be restrained, and cracking, warping, or breakage can 
result. Even objects made of pieces of the same material 
can be damaged in this way, as each piece can swell in a 



drastic scale. Once this damage occurs, it can never be 
undone. 

More serious damage occurs when the relative 
humidity levels are not appropriate for organic mate- 
rials. If the relative humidity is consistently very low, 
the object will first give off its loose, then its bound 
water, until equilibrium is reached. When this water 
loss takes place slowly and gradually, the object be- 
comes desiccated, and consequently brittle. It will con- 
tract slowly, possibly warp and almost certainly split. 
Leather and natural fibers will become more rigid and 
lose their cohesion, thereby increasing the risk of 
breakage. Ivory and bone will crack, and ivory, if sub- 
ject to enough stress, will eventually separate along its 
concentric laminations. Thin materials such as fibers 
and paper will become so brittle that the least amount 
of handling may cause them to break or disintegrate. 
Once an object's bound water is gone, it cannot be re- 
placed and the resulting damage cannot be reversed. 

Objects made of organic materials are not the only 
ones adversely affected by changes in relative humidity. 
Seemingly robust materials such as pottery and stone 
can be badly damaged indirectly by relative humidity 
changes. Archaeological objects frequently contain 
water-soluble salts from having been buried in the 
ground for long periods. These salts, mainly chlorides, 



nitrates, and sulphates, are readily dissolved in ground- 
water and are then absorbed by any porous material 
buried in the ground. Pottery, stone, bone, and ivory 
are the archaeological materials which are most often 
contaminated with soluble salts. As soon as an artifact 
is excavated, these salts can begin to work their 
damage. 

It is the job of the field conservator to deal with 
salt problems. If, for some reason, these objects do not 
get treated in the field, they will still contain soluble 
salts when they come into a museum. If they are kept in 
an environment where the relative humidity level is 
stable, they will remain in good condition. If the rela- 
tive humidity fluctuates, however, considerable dam- 
age can occur. If the relative humidity level gets high 
enough, moisture in the air can cause the salts within 
the pot, for example, to go into solution. Later, if the 
relative humidity level drops, the moisture in the pot 
will evaporate, and the salts dissolved in it will crystal- 
lize out at or just below the surface. In badly con- 
taminated material, a white bloom will first appear on 
the surface and slowly salt crystals will grow (fig. 1). In 
the solid, crystalline form, these salts have a larger 
volume than when in solution, so crystallization can 
exert great physical pressure against the object's under- 
surface. If the relative humidity fluctuates, the salts 
will go in and out of solution, changing in volume each 
time. In due course, this cyclic action will literally push 
off the surface of the object (fig. 2). 



The problem of soluble salts can often be treated 
by soaking the object in successive baths of distilled 
water until the salts are removed. Some objects, 
however, cannot be treated in this way. Wood objects, 
for example, will not tolerate immersion in water. 
When removing the salts is impossible, the only re- 
maining option is to control the environmental con- 
ditions. 

Solving environmental humidity problems starts 
with monitoring the conditions in exhibition halls and 
cases. This is conveniently done with a recording hy- 
grothermograph, a device for detecting and recording 
the relative humidity and temperature on a continuous 
graph (fig. 3). Such instruments are standard in 
museums throughout the world. In Field Museum, they 
can be seen in the exhibit cases in Webber Hall. Small 
dials are also used to indicate the relative humidity and 
temperature within a case, but these do not make a 
written record (fig. 5). You may also see in some cases 
small pink and blue paper cards; these contain 
moisture-sensitive dyes that indicate the relative 
humidity (fig. 4). 

Once the relative humidity is known, there are 
various ways to adjust it to the desired levels, depend- 
ing on the building structure, configuration of the 
exhibition halls, costs, and so forth. Air-conditioning 
systems can be installed to control the relative humid- 
ity and, on a smaller scale, humidifiers and/or de- 
humidifiers can be utilized to control individual halls or 



2. Detail of a 
Peruvian ceram- 
ic figure. The 
surface on the 
top of the head 
has been 
pushed off by 
the action of 
water-soluble 
salts. 




3. Recording hy- 
grothermograph for 
monitoring tempera- 
ture and relative 
humidity. This 
machine produces 
a written record; 
each chart records 
a week of readings. 

C Sease 




discrete areas. It is also possible to place the controlling 
mechanism within a case. Silica gel, a synthetic crys- 
talline material that readily absorbs or releases mois- 
ture, is often concealed in museum cases to maintain 
the relative humidity within that case at a specific 
level. (Silica gel is the same material that manu- 
facturers frequently pack in tiny containers along 
with moisture-sensitive consumer products, such as 
cameras. ) 

More often than not, a combination of the above 
methods is used to control the relative humidity within 
a museum. At Field Museum the entire building is air 
conditioned. Although air-conditioning helps to con- 
trol the relative humidity, it still fluctuates con- 
siderably in the exhibition areas over the course of the 
year. This is not remarkable considering the size and 
configuration of Stanley Field Hall — an enormous 
space (more than 1.5 million cubic feet) that is almost 
impossible to control within strict limits, certainly the 
limits we are talking about for the proper care of organ- 
ic materials. As well, many of our exhibition halls are 
themselves large spaces that open onto Stanley Field 
Hall. Since these are not self-contained spaces, they 
are difficult to control. The newly reconstructed 
exhibition hall where Gods, Spirits and People is on dis- 
play, however, is a self-contained area with its own air- 
conditioning system capable of maintaining a set level 
of relative humidity. Since most objects in the exhibit 
are made of organic materials, the relative humidity is 
kept at 50 percent for the current exhibition. Visitors 



HUMIDITY % 


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4. Paper card using pink and blue moisture-sensitive dyes to indi- 
cate relative humidity. 




5. Dial thermohygrometer for monitoring temperature and relative 
humidity. 

to this hall frequently comment on the area's high 
humidity level. In the past, room humidifiers have 
been used to control relative humidity in exhibition 
areas — in 1984, for example, for the Treasures of the 
Shanghai Museum show. We are now in the process of 
developing a new exhibit, Rearing Young (scheduled to 
open mid-1988), that will utilize silica gel within the 
cases to protect the objects on view. 

In addition to all of these relative humidity con- 
trols in use at Field Museum, an exciting new develop- 
ment is currently underway in Webber Hall. We are in 
the process of developing a relative humidity module 
that promises to be an important contribution to the 
technology available to the entire museum community. 
In essence, the module is a small-scale mechanical con- 
trol system that provides low cost relative humidity 
control for enclosed spaces (fig. 6). The Webber Hall 
module, which visitors can view through a window, is 
set to produce a level of relative humidity between 40 
and 60 percent. A single module can control several 
cases, the deciding factor being the total volume of air 
in the cases. A large plastic tube extends from the out- 
put of the module; smaller tubes branch off it to enter 
each individual case. We continue to refine the module 
and will use several in the new Egyptian and Pacific 
halls, now being reinstalled. 

Light 

Light is also a major cause of deterioration of organic 
materials. Light is actually a form of radiation, a form 
that we can see; other forms of radiation are not visible 
to the human eye. We are all familiar with the way a 
prism will break up daylight — or white light emitted by 
tungsten and fluorescent lamps — into all the colors of 
the rainbow. Each of these colors has a different fre- 
quency, or wavelength. The wavelength of light is 




6. Relative humidity module currently visible in Webber Resource 
Center. 



ultravioletf 



cosmic rays 

-* — 



X-rays 



- visible - 



01 



0) 



infrared 



radio waves 



300 400 500 600 700 760 

nanometers 



7. The Wavelengths of Visible and Invisible Radiation 



10 



shortest at the purple end and longest at the red (fig. 
7). Beyond visible light at the short-wavelength end 
lies ultraviolet radiation, while beyond the red at the 
long-wavelength end lies infrared radiation. All of 
these are emitted to various degrees by daylight and 
white-light sources. 

Damage caused by light to organic materials is re- 
lated to wavelength. Ultraviolet radiation, that is, 
short wavelength radiation, is very potent. It will cause 
more damage to museum objects than the same amount 
of blue radiation (light) which, in turn, will cause more 
damage than orange radiation (light). Even though 
ultraviolet radiation is more potent, there is more visi- 
ble radiation emitted by all white-light sources. There- 
fore, the greater quantity of visible radiation can be as 
destructive as ultraviolet. For this reason, it is difficult 
to say conclusively that one is more damaging than the 
other. We must take measures, then, to control both 
visible and invisible light in a museum exhibit. 

Since light can damage only what it reaches, its 
major effect is surface deterioration, most objects being 
opaque. The most obvious effect of light damage is fad- 
ing. We are all familiar with fading that occurs in cur- 
tains, upholstery fabrics, or brightly colored rugs placed 
by windows. The same effect is seen in textiles and cos- 
tumes in museum collections if they are exposed to 
strong light. The woven mat shown in figure 8 was on 
display in the African Hall for over 25 years. It was 
attached to the wall of a case with one side exposed to 
light from the case and hall. The other side, tight 
against the wall of the case, was shielded from all light. 
Recently removed from display, the side exposed to the 
light is now all one light color. Originally, it was deco- 
rated with an elaborate purple design still visible on the 
back of the mat overlying the faded side on the left of 
the photograph. Pigments on painted objects will also 
fade in strong light, as will feathers, with some colors 
more likely to fade than others. 



The tensile strength of organic materials can also 
be damaged by light, and such damage is not always 
immediately visible. Light can cause the molecular 
chains of the components of organic materials to break 
into shorter units. When this happens in wood, for ex- 
ample, the structural damage will be limited to exposed 
surfaces, resulting in discoloration and bleaching. In 
thinner, more delicate materials, such as fibers, fur, or 
hair, more radical change, discoloration, embrittle- 
ment, and disintegration, can result. 

The important thing to remember about damage 
from light is that it is cumulative. Exposure to small 
amounts of light over a long period can be just as 
damaging in the long run as short periods of intense 
exposure; damage caused by light, then, is directly pro- 
portional to intensity and duration of exposure. As 
well, damage due to light is not reversible. Once a tex- 
tile has faded, a piece of wood has become bleached, or 
a fiber embrittled, it cannot be restored to its original 
color, luster, or strength. 

To protect objects from such effects, the light 
levels within an exhibition hall must be carefully con- 
trolled. Obviously, controlling light levels is far simpler 
than controlling relative humidity levels. It remains a 
complex task, however, since exhibition lighting in- 
volves visual and aesthetic considerations, as well as 
technical expertise. 

The first step in controlling light levels in a 
museum is to eliminate all daylight. This is done both 
for design and conservation reasons. The amount and 
quality of available daylight changes greatly during the 
course of a day and over the year, making it unreliable 
for exhibition purposes. More important, however, is 
the fact that daylight can be very harmful to a wide 
range of museum objects. There is a higher proportion 
of ultraviolet light in daylight, something on the order 
of six times more than that emitted by incandescent 
light, so daylight must go. 



Once the daylight is removed, it is then necessary 
to control the artificial light used in lighting an exhibi- 
tion. Ideally, objects made of organic materials should 
be kept in the dark, so we must try to achieve a com- 
promise between the level of light necessary to display 
an object adequately and the level needed for its pres- 
ervation. 



quires both space and time. 

Most often, light levels are worked out by the 
exhibit designer to achieve an overall effect, with con- 
sideration being given to specific light levels for organ- 
ic materials. Field Museum's Hall 10 (Maritime Peoples 
of the Arctic and Northwest Coast) provides a good ex- 
ample of this approach. Virtually every object in every 




. 



8. Woven mat from Madagascar showing fading (right side of photograph) from light. Cat. No. 185113. 



Artificial light can be controlled in various ways. 
When an exhibit contains only a few light-sensitive 
objects, a common practice — especially for books and 
manuscripts — is to cover the vitrines, or panes, of their 
cases with cloth, much as bird cages are covered at 
night. When one wishes to see into the case, the cov- 
er's front panel is rolled up. For a group of light- 
sensitive objects, a more expedient protection method 
might be to isolate them in an exhibition area where 
the light levels are kept low. This is more difficult than 
it may at first seem. If the difference in light levels is too 
great between adjacent areas, allowance must be made 
for the visitors' eyes to adjust to the change. This re- 



case in Hall 10 is sensitive to light; therefore, the light 
levels are kept quite low. In addition, a mechanical 
device is used that is, to my knowledge, unique to Field 
Museum. The case lights are activated by pressure 
sensitive pads concealed underneath the carpet. As a 
visitor approaches a case, its lights grow brighter; they 
become dim again as soon as he steps away. In this way, 
the overall light levels are kept very low at all times 
except when viewers are actually present. 

The kind of artificial light used is also a concern of 
the conservator. The most common artificial light used 
in museums is incandescent, also called tungsten, and 
fluorescent. Modifications of these and new types are 



11 




9. Hopewell stone pipe shown with its brass mount. Note that all but the end of the brass (on the right) has been covered with plastic tubing. 

Cat. No. 56750. Sophia Anastasiou-Wasik A1 10535 



12 



being developed, but at the moment these two are the 
most cost efficient. Tungsten bulbs — the type of light 
in most common general use — come in a myriad of sizes 
and shapes, from the conventional domestic light bulb 
to floodlights. Such lamps emit a small amount of ultra- 
violet light; but, since this invisible light is of very 
short wavelength, it is extremely harmful. Tungsten 
lamps, however, are covered in a glass bulb which suc- 
cessfully blocks out this ultraviolet light. Tungsten 
lights, therefore, are safe to use in exhibition areas with 
only a glass filter in front of them to filter out all ultra- 
violet light. 

Fluorescent tubes, on the other hand, emit large 
amounts of ultraviolet light. In order to use such a light 
source safely with light-sensitive organic materials, it is 
necessary to use it in conjunction with ultraviolet- 
absorbing filters. These filters have no effect on the 
amount or quality of visible light passing through 
them, but do prevent the transmission of all ultraviolet 
light. Made of various kinds of plastic, these filters 
come in many different forms, the most common being 
1) acrylic sheets that can be used in place of glass for 
windows or the vitrines of cases; 2) acrylic sleeves that 
fit over fluorescent tubes; 3) thin foil that can be cut to 
shape and adhered to glass; and 4) varnish. At Field 
Museum, we use the acrylic sleeves extensively as most 
of our cases are illuminated with fluorescent tubes. The 
thin foil is also used to block out the ultraviolet light 
from the windows in the Grainger Gallery (South 
Lounge). Future installations will incorporate these 
and newer methods of lighting. 



Handling 

Most museum visitors are well aware that objects in an 
exhibit should not be touched, but they seldom realize 
why. There are two main reasons why handling is bad 
for objects. 

The skin on our hands naturally secretes salts, 
oils, and acids that are harmful to objects. The surfaces 
of objects that are continually touched will rapidly be- 
come dirty and greasy from the oils and dirt on one's 
hands. Sometimes, these surfaces are difficult or impos- 
sible to clean, and such soiling will necessitate risky 
cleaning procedures. As well as soiling objects, these 
salts, oils, and acids can promote the deterioration of 
objects. Acids, for example, on fingers will leave fin- 
gerprints on objects that can etch the surfaces of 
polished metals or remove the patina from oxidized sur- 
faces. Extensive handling over time can result in the 
active corrosion of metal objects. When it is necessary 
to handle specimens, museum staff take precautions 
such as wearing cotton or plastic gloves. 

In addition to damage caused by the secretions of 
our skin, handling can also damage objects by simple 
wear and tear. Just as the upholstery on the arms of 
chairs in one's home can be worn thin over a period of 
many years, so can museum specimens be damaged by 
casual touching. The cumulative effect of touching 
over long periods can be devastating. The crispness of 
sculptural detail may be gradually lost as it becomes 
rounded; textiles may be rubbed thin; gilded, painted, 
or patinated surfaces may be lost forever. Generally, ob- 
jects are placed inside cases to safeguard them from 



touching, as well as to keep them clean. Enclosing ob- 
jects also enables us to use the enclosed space to control 
the environment around the object, if necessary, to 
protect it from relative humidity and light. 

Mounting 

Within exhibit cases, further protection for museum 
objects is provided by the mounts — custom-made sup- 
ports that position objects for viewing. The mount also 
serves an important protective function: it supports the 
object securely so that it cannot fall or break if the case 
is jostled (fig. 9). It also prevents stresses from being 
focused on thin, weak areas and inhibits any possible 
distortion of the object that could lead to deteriora- 
tion. In order to accomplish these objectives, a mount 
must be carefully designed. The weak areas of the ob- 
ject must be identified and its general condition 
assessed before a mount can be made. A fragile textile, 
for example, may be unable to support its own weight 
when hung vertically, so a special mount will be needed 
to display it horizontally or slightly inclined in order to 
evenly distribute the textile's weight. Making mounts 
is a time-consuming job that requires great patience 
and skill; the resulting mounts can frequently be works 
of art in themselves. 

Mounts are made out of a wide variety of mate- 
rials, depending on the object to be mounted. Most 
anthropological objects at Field Museum are mounted 
with rods, clips, and brackets made of plastic or brass. 
Other useful materials for mounts are cloth, acid-free 
tissue, and certain kinds of plastic foams. Mounts that 
are in direct contact with an object must be made of 
inert materials that will not interact with the materials 
of the object to cause deterioration. Wherever brass 
mounts come in contact with an object, the brass is 



covered with felt or tubing made of inert plastic (fig. 
9). This tubing insulates the brass from any other metal 
on the object, preventing corrosion that would occur if 
the two metals were in contact. This tubing also serves 
to cushion the brass against the surface of the object. 
Special acid-free tissue is used to stuff hollow three- 
dimensional objects while mannikins and dress forms 
are fashioned out of plastic foams. Only a few kinds of 
plastic and plastic foams are suitable for mount making: 
those that do not give off harmful vapors. 

Mounts must be carefully constructed so that they 
will hold the object firmly; but they must not scratch, 
abrade, dent, or otherwise deface an object. Neither 
must they exert any undue stress or tension on the ob- 
ject. For example, small, but wide plastic clips are used 
to attach large, flat objects vertically to a wall. Gentle 
tension at numerous points around the perimeter of the 
object holds it firmly in place. Such a mounting tech- 
nique prevents any stretching and ripping of the object 
that might be caused by its own weight. 

Mounts for organic materials are especially tricky. 
In discussing the ways in which organic materials re- 
spond to fluctuations in relative humidity, it was noted 
how such materials change in size and shape over the 
course of time while absorbing or giving off moisture. 
Such movement must not be inhibited by any mount or 
warping, cracking, and breaking can easily result. For 
this reason, some objects are cradled on a plastic mount 
with small brass pins loosely holding them in position. 
These and other mounting devices are particularly evi- 
dent in Hall 10. 

These are the major issues that concern an exhibi- 
tion conservator. Other aspects of conservation are 
concerned with these and additional issues and will 
be explored in future articles. FH 



Anthropology Symposium for Collectors 



Very often private collectors approach Field Museum for 
information and help with objects in their possession. Our 
staff can help with some problems and not with others, and 
we thought that collectors might find it useful and informative 
to participate in a symposium with Museum Staff about 
collector's problems. 

On Saturday, March 26, from 9 to 12 am, in Lecture Hall I 
at Field Museum, the Collector's Committee of the Capital 
Campaign and the Department of Anthropology will present a 
panel discussion of assistance for collectors. Members of the 
Anthropology staff will talk about conservation, cataloguing, 
documentation, collection storage, and display, ethical and 
legal problems. 



Field Museum staff is qualified to speak only about its 
kind of collections, ethnographic, archaeological, and 
Oriental art objects, but obviously not about European fine 
art, historical antiques, European musical instruments, and 
similar material. These are all matters which are dealt with 
every day at Field Museum, and perhaps experience gained 
by the Museum staff in dealing with its collections may 
be helpful to collectors in dealing with their collections. 
The duration and format of the meeting will not lend itself 
to bringing specific objects in for discussion. Phone inquir- 
ies and reservations should be made to 322-8862. 



13 



John A. Kakaruk 

Painter of Inland Eskimo Life 

by Charles V. Lucier and James W. VanStone 



Although there are no words for "art" or "artist" 
in the Eskimo language, art has always been an 
important part of Alaskan Eskimo life. The graphic 
tradition, as opposed to carving in the round, has been 
almost exclusively a characteristic of the Inupiat'Eski- 
mos who live north of Norton Sound, some of whom 
moved south to the Yupik-speaking region of St. 
Michael in the mid- 19th century (fig. 2). 

The earliest Eskimo graphic art consisted of incis- 
ing or engraving on small objects of walrus ivory or cari- 
bou antler. Prehistorically this engraving was usually 
done by men on harpoon heads, tools, and personal 

1. John Azialuk Kakaruk in 1970 (photo by Charles V. Lucier, muse). 



14 




ornaments. Engraving in ancient times were of a dec- 
orative or perhaps magical kind, or were marks of own- 
ership. In the early 19th century, fine realistic engrav- 
ings were done typically on tobacco pipe stems, drill 
bows, and bag handles. These engravings sometimes 
commemorated special events, such as the killing of 
walrus or whales, but many were the creation of artists 
for esthetic effect. Also among Inupiat, who lived in a 
kind of meritocracy, demonstration of superior skill 
was an important ingredient of leadership and evidence 
of higher social status: the more an individual could do 
well, including "art," the better for himself and his 
family. In the middle to late 19th century, engravings 
were made less for use at home and more for eth- 
nographic collectors or as souvenirs to be sold or traded 
to commercial whalers, government officials, gold 
miners, and missionaries, who came to Alaska in 
large numbers after 1850. 

European explorers in northwest Alaska were 
impressed with the ability of Eskimos to recognize ob- 
jects in two-dimensional illustrations, but exposure to 
western illustrations became common only after the 
first commercial whaling ship sailed through Bering 
Strait in 1848. Eskimos were frequently given pencil 
and paper to draw pictures and maps. With the estab- 
lishment of schools in northwest Alaska, non-ivory 
graphic art by Eskimos increased. Drawing classes were 
frequently part of the curriculum in the early schools, 
since pupils and teachers could not speak each other's 
languages. The Rev. Sheldon Jackson, a Presbyterian 



'Inupiat is the name of this Eskimo group. Inupiaq, used later in 
this text, is the adjectival form. 



Charles V. Lucier is a retired biologist, formerly with the 
Alaska Department of Fish and Game; James W. VanStone 
is curator of North American archaeology and ethnology at 
the Field Museum. 



missionary and the first agent of education in Alaska, 
published a number of pencil and ink drawings by un- 
identified Eskimo artists in official government reports. 
Two of these drawings are reproduced here. In the first 
(fig. 3) hunters are shown hunting ducks or geese with 
a bolas (rope with weights attached for throwing). The 
hunter at the left has just released the weapon toward a 
flock of low-flying birds. On the right a hunter runs 
toward a bird entangled in the cluster of bolas weights. 
The second drawing (fig. 4) depicts the use of reindeer 
as draft animals (for additional 19th-century Eskimo 
drawings, see Field Museum Bulletin, vol. 53, no. 6, 
June, 1982). 

One of the earliest identified Eskimo graphic 
artists was Guy Kakarook from St. Michael, who drew 
and painted 64 pictures of scenes and activities around 
his home village and on the Yukon River. Very little is 
known about Kakarook. He was born east of Nome in 
the mid-1800s and later moved to St. Michael, where 
he worked as a deckhand on river boats ascending the 
Yukon River with gold miners headed for the Klondike. 
He is believed to have died in Nome sometime after 
1905. Kakarook used watercolor for buildings, boats, 
and people, and crayon for sea and sky, often com- 
bining the two media for hills, grass, trees, and other 
natural features. He signed his name to his paintings, 




2. Seward Peninsula and Adjacent Areas 

but did not date or identify them. These paintings, 
which provide a valuable pictorial history of St. 
Michael and the Yukon River in the 1890s, were col- 
lected by Sheldon Jackson and are now in the National 
Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. 




 















15 



3. Hunters hunting ducks or geese with a bolas (Jackson, S. Report on Introduction of Domestic Reindeer into 
Alaska, . . , 1884, Washington, 1895), 




4. Reindeer hauling freight (Jackson, S. Report on Introduction of Domestic Reindeer into Alaska, . . . 1884, 
Washington, 1895). 










16 




SJOfc m*&l^. _^t 




*7*S&* 






c& 



I /*'* A *. > *v/r 






^ 



5. Eskimo duck hunter (Smithsonian Institution, photo™ mnh 1713c). 



Typical of Guy Kakarook's style and subject mat- 
ter is a painting that depicts an Eskimo duck hunter 
seated by a tundra pond, pulling on a pair of sealskin 
waterproof boots. He has already killed two ducks with 
his spear and two more are struggling in baleen snares 
set between two points at a narrow area of the pond. A 
pair of swans are flying overhead. The pale colors are 
brown for the hunter, brown and green for the tundra, 
and blue for the sky and water (fig. 5). 

A modern Eskimo graphic artist whose name and 
style of painting is similar to that of Guy Kakarook and 
who was born on Seward Peninsula at the time Kaka- 
rook was producing his art, is John Azialuk Kakaruk, 
born near Deering in 1892 (fig. 1). Despite the sim- 
ilarity in their names, there is no definite evidence that 
the two artists were related. 

John A. Kakaruk spent his early years at Mary's 
Igloo and Council in interior Seward Peninsula, where 
his father hunted, fished and trapped, and worked for 
gold miners. As a youth and young adult, John worked 
as a reindeer herder, these animals having been intro- 
duced from Siberia in 1892, the year of his birth. Later, 
in the 1930s, Kakaruk worked summers as a member of 
gold dredge crews on Seward Peninsula. In the early 
postwar years he was employed as a handyman and 



watchman at the Lost River tin mine on the coast west 
of Teller, where he associated with other older Eskimos 
from Kotzebue and elsewhere who shared his interest in 
traditional Eskimo culture, especially music, dancing, 
and storytelling. 

One of the most memorable events of John Kaka- 
ruk's middle years, which he recalled with enthusiasm, 
was his employment by an MGM movie crew which 
over-wintered aboard a schooner in Grantley Harbor 
on Seward Peninsula while filming sequences of the 
movie "The Eskimo" in the early 1930s. John provided 
and controlled a herd of reindeer that formed a back- 
drop for a scene showing two supposed shamans in a 
drumming duel. John often mentioned the Danish 
explorer Peter Freuchen, who served as a technical 
advisor for the filming. 

Sometime in the 1950s John moved with his ex- 
tended family to the Red Devil mercury mine on the 
Kuskokwim River and later, in 1959, to Anchorage 
where Lucier first met him in the fall of that year. In the 
early to mid-1960s he and his wife Alice danced reg- 
ularly for visiting tourists at "The Gilded Cage," an 
Alaska Crippled Children's Association gift shop and 
tourist center in downtown Anchorage. He also 
attended meetings of the Cook Inlet Native Associa- 



6. Inupiaq youth hunting snowshoe hares 110362 




17 




J-A-.K«J<«jwK 



7. Two boys hunting snowshoe hares 110361 



18 



tion, a multi-cultural native organization headquar- 
tered in Anchorage, and later participated in dancing 
and other social activities of Urban Natives United, 
another native organization in the city. He died in 
Anchorage in 1981. 

Although resident in a large city during his later 
years, John Kakaruk's inner life was linked to his grand- 
father's and father's caribou hunting and fishing exis- 
tence. In 1960, at the age of 68 and at the request of 
Lucier, he produced a series of ink and watercolor 
sketches on drawing paper that illustrate the subsis- 
tence life-ways of traditional Inupiat on inland Seward 
Peninsula, specifically the Kuzitrin River drainage, in 
the late 19th century. Seven of his sketches are repro- 
duced here to illustrate his realistic style and the range 
of his subject matter. 

Figure 6. A winter or fall scene showing an Inup- 
iaq youth pushing a light inland sled on which are 
dead, snared snowshoe hares he has collected from 
snare sets. At the left, two dead hares are hanging by 
their hind legs from willow branches. In the center is a 
dead, snared hare in a tripped counterbalanced set. Be- 
hind the sled a ptarmigan or hare snare is shown in a 
constructed cut willow "fence." The hunter's parka is 
brown, his pants reddish brown, the hares off-white, 
and the sky blue-green. 

Figure 7. Two boys are driving snowshoe hares 
into a set net in willows or cottonwoods. One boy has a 



bow and arrows, while the other holds a stick for club- 
bing the hares caught in the net. Both parkas are fawn- 
colored. The older boy at left wears light tan pants and 
grey boots; boots of the boy at right are yellowish. The 
hares are white and the sky blue-green and yellow. 

Figure 8. A summer or fall scene showing a kayak 
hunter on an inland lake using a throwing board with a 
multi-pronged spear to hunt ducks. One speared duck 
is in the water. Note that the hunter has both single- 
and double-bladed paddles. The lake is pale green, the 
hunter's parka light tan, and the kayak a darker tan. 
The mountain sides are various shades of brown, with 
white snow banks, and the sky tan-streaked. 

Figure 9. In this mid-winter scene a hunter on 
snowshoes is shown visiting his hare and ptarmigan 
snare sets. At the left, a snared snowshoe hare hangs 
from a counterbalanced snare set in a hare trail. To the 
right is an untripped hare or fox snare. In the fore- 
ground are snared ptarmigans caught in small snares 
baited with willow branches. In the background are the 
Sawtooth Mountains in the Kuzitrin River drainage. 
The hunter's clothes are tan and boots yellow-ocher; 
ptarmigans and hare off-white, and sky streaked green- 
yellow. 

Figure 10. An inland village scene showing a 
fisherman beside cut fishing holes on the frozen Kuzi- 
trin River. The Sawtooth Mountains are in the back- 
ground. In his right hand the fisherman holds an ice 




8. Kayak hunter on an inland lake 110354 



9. Inupiaq hunter visiting his hare and ptarmigan snare sets 110356 




19 




j a \< o-M. <" "A 



10. Inland village scene 110353 



1 1 . Inupiaq bear hunter 110352 



20 




J/IjK *****£ 






<£b t£-^' 




*ut^j tXw*~*»» 



-±A I 



1 2. Inupiaq reindeer herder with sled and deer hmm-w 

scoop for removing slush ice from the holes. A fish line 
and lure are at his left. The two fish on the ice are 
probably trout or grayling. Behind the fisherman on 
the bank is a sod-covered winter dwelling with a small 
storm shed and central roof skylight and smoke hole. 
To the left of the house is a raised storage cache and a 
sled. Small cottonwoods or willows, typical river bank 
vegetation, are also shown. The fisherman's parka is 
amber, pants yellow-brown, and boots whitish. The 
two fishing holes are blue-green, the sky streaked 
green; cache contents cover and door and rooftop of 
house are tan. 

Figure 11. An Inupiaq hunter with a spear, bow, 
and arrows is about to attack a female brown bear with 
her half-grown cub. The Sawtooth or Bendeleben 
Mountains are in the background and small cotton- 
wood trees are shown in the foreground. The sky is 
streaked blue-green, the mountains outlined in black. 
The hunter's parka is streaked yellow-pink, probably to 
represent ground squirrel pelts. The mother bear is dark 
brown, the cub black-brown. 

Figure 12. An inland Inupiaq reindeer herder with 
a sled pulled by a single deer. The sled is the typical 
Inupiaq variety rather than the Siberian type, with 
curved antler stanchions and narrow runners curved in 
front, usually used with reindeer; unfortunately the 
colors used in this sketch are unavailable. Two Sibe- 
rian style sleds are shown in figure 4. (For more detailed 
information concerning the harnessing and driving of 



reindeer, see the Bulletin, vol. 53, no. 6, June, 1982.) 
Like his late 19th-century predecessors, John 
Kakaruk was an untrained artist. Although not as good 
a draughtsman as Guy Kakarook and the unknown 
artists whose work is shown in figures 3 and 4 , his land- 
scapes show the same accurate perspective that con- 
veys the vast depth of space characteristic of the west- 
ern Alaska tundra. Unlike Kakarook, however, his 
human and animal figures are not often drawn to scale 
nor is he as sophisticated in his use of colors. 

John Kakaruk's early life as a reindeer herder was, 
in many ways, a continuation of the life- ways of previ- 
ous generations of caribou-hunting inland Inupiat. 
Although he later worked for wages and World War II 
broke his attachment to inland life, he retained his 
sense of traditional values. John Kakaruk's art reflects a 
concentration on his homeland and on the subsistence 
life-ways of Inupiat culture even though, at the time 
these drawings were made, he had lived for a long time 
in a modern urban setting. FN 



Ray, D.J. 
1969 



1971 



Suggested Readings 

Graphic Arts of the Alaskan Eskimo. U.S. De- 
partment of the Interior, Indian Arts and Crafts 
Board, Native American Arts 2. Washington. 
Kakarook, Eskimo Artist. The Alaska Journal, 
vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 8-15. 



21 




*t 




--».-. 



A . 




1. The diorama in "Plants of the World" (Hall 29) at Field Museum showing Welwitschia mirabilis in its natural habitat. The plant in the 
left foreground shows the female reproductive structures while that on the right shows the small clusters of male "flowers" (compare figs. 
8 and 10). 80265 

Welwitschia the Wonderful 

Life as a Survivor 
In the Desert of Southwestern Africa 

by Peter R. Crane and Catherine D. Hult 



22 



In the Age of Genetic Engineering and satellite 

surveys of the earth's vegetation, it is easy to forget the 
appalling incompleteness of basic knowledge about 
plants and their ecology in so many parts of the world. 
Even today, the discovery of new plant species either of 
exceptional scientific interest or potential utilitarian 



value is not a rare event as collectors and specialists 
from major museums and universities pursue their field- 
work in the tropical regions of the world. 

In the late nineteenth century, however, botani- 
cal discovery was proceeding even more rapidly — in 
fact at an extraordinary rate, as an upsurge in man's 



scientific inquisitiveness coincided with the geograph- 
ical exploration of the remote areas of old colonial 
empires. As the vast extent of the world's hotanical 
richness gradually became known, it did much to 
stimulate Darwin and others who were striving to 
account for the origin of biological diversity, hut it also 
fascinated a broader botanical and general audience by 
bringing forth some of the most bizarre and unusual 
plants known to science. 

Such discoveries included Victmia amazonica, a 
tropical water-lily from South America with giant 
floating traylike leaves more than six feet across, and 
Rafflesiaarnoldii, astemless, rootless parasite with mon- 
strous red-purple, fly-pollinated flowers over three feet 
in diameter and with the visual and olfactory impact of 
a rotting carcass. Equally bizarre, and botanically still 
more remarkable is Welwitschia mirabilis, a keystone in 
our understanding of plant evolution which first be- 
came known to science in the same year that Darwin's 
Origin of Species changed forever our perception of the 
natural world. 

In 1859 the Austrian botanist and physician, Dr. 
Friedrich Martin Joseph Welwitsch (1806-72), was ex- 
ploring the vegetation and plants of Angola, in south- 
western Africa. Welwitsch (fig. 2) had already estab- 
lished a reputation as one of the foremost collectors of 
African plants and was in contact with some of the 
most eminent European botanists of his time. As a re- 
sult of his travels, large numbers of new species were 
discovered and specimens were sent back to Europe for 
study at major botanical institutions. Like many col- 
lectors before and since, he taxed his health to the 
limits, and "still suffering from the effects of fever,"' he 
left his base in Louanda (Luanda) at the end of June 
1859 to explore the vegetation along the coast of 
southwestern Africa in the vicinity of Mossamedes 
(now Namibe). As he later recorded, "The magnifi- 
cent climate of Mossamedes was so delightful, and so 
speedily restored my shattered health, that after a stay 
of five weeks I had quite recovered and felt myself a new 
man. I therefore extended my excursions further and 
further — first northward, and southward along the 
coast to beyond Cape Negro and Port Alexander. . . . "' 

It was south of Mossamedes that Welwitsch first 
encountered the remarkable plant which now bears his 
name. On returning to Louanda, he described his dis- 



Peter R. Crane is associate curator of Paleobotany and Catherine 
D. Hult is a laboratory assistant in the Department of Geology. 




2. Dr. Friedrich Martin Joseph Welwitsch, from a photograph taken 
in August 1865. 8 Welwitsch was born on February 5, 1806 in Maria- 
Saal near Klagenfurt, Austria but for most of his professional life 
worked for the Portuguese government. Such was the importance of 
his collections from southwestern Africa that after Welwitsch's death 
(Oct. 20, 1872) the government of Portugal filed suit (Dom Luis the 
First, King of Portugal, versus Carruthers and Justen) in a con- 
troversial and unsuccessful attempt to recover the Welwitsch speci- 
mens from the British Museum (Natural History), gnssou 



covery in a letter to Sir William J. Hooker, then 
director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in Eng- 
land. "Several miles before reaching Cape Negro the 
coast rises to a height of about 300-400 feet, forming a 
continuous plateau, extending over six miles inland, as 
Hat as a table. This tabular elevation. . . is. . .clothed 
with a vegetation which, though scanty, consists of 
plants of the highest interest; among them a dwarf tree 
was particularly remarkable which, with a diameter of 
stem often of 4 feet, never rose higher above the surface 
than 1 foot, and which, throughout its entire duration, 
that not unfrequently might exceed a century, always 
retained the two woody leaves which it threw up at the 
time of germination, and besides these it never puts 
forward another. The entire plant looks like a round 
table, a foot high, projecting over the tolerably hard 



23 




24 



3. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker F.R.S. (1817-1911). J.D. Hooker was 
one of the foremost scientists of the Victorian era and served as 
director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England from 1 866 to 
1 885. He prepared the first detailed scientific description of Welwits- 
chia and named the plant after its discoverer. nieBettmann Archive 



sandy soil; the two opposite leaves (often a fathom [6 
feet] long by 2 to 2Vz feet broad) extend on the soil to 
its margin, each of them split up into numerous ribbon- 
like segments." 1 

At the Field Museum we are uniquely fortunate to 
be able to personally experience something of Wel- 
witsch's surprise and fascination at his discovery with- 
out having to endure the hardships of the southwest 
African desert. The accurate and dramatic reconstruc- 
tion of Welwitschia in "Plants of the World" (Hall 29) 
shows several plants in their native habitat looking as 
one author expressed it "like stranded octopuses" 2 on 
the bare desert surface (fig- 1 ). 

Welwitsch continued his letter to Hooker with a 
few more details and half a page of description in Latin. 
His reputation as an accomplished botanist combined 
with his seemingly fantastic description was sufficient 
to set the European botanical world buzzing when Wel- 



witsch's letter was read before the Linnean Society in 
London on January 17th 1861, and subsequently pub- 
lished. As Hooker's son later described, "... since the 
discovery otRafflesia Amoldi, no vegetable production 
has excited so great an interest. . . . '" 

In the autumn of 1861, even before specimens 
from Welwitsch arrived in London, further informa- 
tion was forthcoming about this extraordinary plant. 
By a remarkable coincidence, a box arrived at Kew 
from Damaraland (now part of Namibia) containing 
several plants collected by an English botanical artist, 
Thomas Baines. Quite independently the material had 
been collected in an area about 500 miles south of that 
visited by Welwitsch, and among the specimens were a 
few Welwitschia cones along with the first drawings of 
complete plants. Transport of the specimens from the 
Namibian Desert to London had taken almost six 
months and although they were largely rotten on arri- 
val, they were studied by Dr. Joseph Dalton Hooker 
shortly before he succeeded his father, William, as 
director of the botanical gardens at Kew (fig. 3). In 
spite of their poor condition, Hooker quickly estab- 
lished that the seeds of Welwitschia were more like those 
of cycads than flowering plants and thus that the plant 
was of exceptional botanical interest. This was suf- 
ficient to start J. D. Hooker upon a year of intensive 
work, which still stands as one of the classic studies of 
this bizarre plant. Rapidly he procured more speci- 
mens, not only from Welwitsch, but also from other 
correspondents in southwestern Africa, and began his 
investigations in earnest. 

Judging from his prodigious work in many areas of 
botany as well as from insights into his personality pro- 
vided by his correspondence, 4 Hooker must have been 
a man of extraordinary energy. In letters to his friend 
Charles Darwin, Hooker mentions several long five- 
hour sessions at the microscope studying the finer de- 
tails of Welwitschia. With an eye to his own meticulous 
labors on an equally peculiar group of organisms, Dar- 
win commented, "I see plainly that Welwitschia will be 
a case of barnacles."' Hooker was evidently fascinated 
and excited by the intricacy and botanical implications 
of Welwitschia's structure. Describing his work to Tho- 
mas Henry Huxley, another of his illustrious con- 
temporaries in Victorian biology, he bubbled with 
enthusiasm asking Huxley to imagine an embryo, "ex- 
panding like a dream into a huge broad woody brown 
disc. . .of texture and surface like an overdone 
loaf. ... It is without question the most wonderful 
plant ever brought to this country — and the very 
ugliest." 4 




4. The natural distribution of Welwitschia mirabilis in southwestern 
Africa (redrawn by Clara Richardson from a map compiled by Kers 9 ). 



Yet, as his work neared completion, Hooker ex- 
perienced the inevitable frustration and stateness that 
comes in the final stages of any long project. Writing to 
Darwin in October, 1862, "My wife went to Cambridge 
and enjoyed it; I stayed at home! (and enjoyed it), 
working away at Welwitschia every day and almost every 
night. I entirely agree with you by the way, that after 
long working at a subject, and after making something 
of it, one invariably finds that it all seems dull, flat, 
stale and unprofitable — this feeling, however, you will 
observe only comes (most mercifully) after you really 
have made out something worth knowing. " 4 Hooker's 
account of Welwitschia was eventually published in the 
Transactions of the Linnean Society for 1863 and it was in 
this paper that the plant was formally named after its 



Austrian discoverer. The specific epithet mirabilis liter- 
ally translated from Latin appropriately means "won- 
derful" or "extraordinary." 

Botanically what Hooker had managed to estab- 
lish was the strong similarities of Welwitschia to the 
equally strange genera Ephedra and Gnetum (see next 
month's Bulletin) as well as all of the basic facts of its 
structure. Hooker demonstrated that Welwitschia was 
in many ways much less specialized than flowering 
plants (angiosperms) and he thus placed it in a loose 
assemblage of more or less unspecialized seed plants 
called the gymnosperms. Since Hooker's work a great 
deal more has also been learned, but even after 120 
years there is much about Welwitschia that botanists 
still find strange, and even more, particularly about its 
biology, that we do not understand. 

Populations of Welwitschia plants are scattered 
through a restricted zone extending for about 1 ,200 km 
(745 miles) down the coast of southwestern Africa 
from about 10 to 150 km inland (fig. 4). Geographical- 
ly this area is comparable to the Atacame Desert of 
Chile and Peru or the Baja Desert of California and 
Mexico, all three of these great barren areas being on 
the western edge of a large continental mass with their 
shores bathed by cold water currents. Throughout most 
of its geographical range, Welwitschia experiences no 
more than 100 mm of rain per year and sometimes none 
at all, 6 and this raises the obvious question of how does 
a structurally unique plant such as this survive in these 
arid and seemingly inhospitable conditions? 

Most plants living in such habitats (collectively 
termed xerophytes — literally "dry plants") appear to be 
adapted in some way to the adverse conditions of their 
environment. Typically they have small leaves in 
which the reduced surface area minimizes the dangers 
of overheating and excessive water loss. Other 
xerophytes shed their leaves in the dry season or store 
water in fleshy stems (as in cacti) for use during the 
most arid parts of the year. Other desert plants literally 
seem to avoid drought, growing rapidly when water is 
available but surviving as dry fruits or seeds in the soil 
when conditions become arid again. 

Some xerophytes have specialized physiological 
mechanisms to allow them to carry out photosynthesis 
(make their own carbohydrates from carbon dioxide 
and water) in these harsh environments. In most plants 
the breathing pores in the leaves (stomata) open during 
the day to permit the entry of carbon dioxide, which 
supplies their raw source of carbon. In the desert, when 
the stomata open to let carbon dioxide in, they are 



25 




5. Professor H. Humbert (Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Pans) with a living Welwitschia plant in Angola. Note the contrast between the large 
leaves of Welwitschia and the small leaves and spines of the vegetation in the background. Humbert collected the Welwitschia specimens now 
housed at Field Museum in 1937. b?9564 



26 



equally efficient at letting ptecious water out. Some 
xerophytes cleverly sidestep this difficulty by opening 
the stomata only at night when temperatures, and 
therefore the problems of dehydration, are minimized. 
They have evolved a means of fixing and "storing" the 
carbon dioxide taken up during the night as a weak 
acid, making the carbon available again internally dur- 
ing the day for the production of sugars and other car- 
bohydrates, thus saving valuable water. 

Welwitschia resolutely provides exceptions to all of 
these generalizations about xerophytes. It directly con- 
fronts its harsh environment by having persistent 
leaves with a large surface area and it stores very little 
water in the leaves, stem, or root (figs. 5 and 6). Still 
worse, it appears to commit physiological suicide by 
opening its stomata during the day, albeit in the early 
morning and evening when temperatures are relatively 
low. Even at these times, however, temperatures may 
be as high as 30°C (about 86° F) and clearly result in 
huge losses of water." As one plant physiologist recently 
put it, "If botanists should construct a plant best 
adapted to desert environment, they would never 
come up with a monster like Welwitschia mirabilis.'*' 

What then are the secrets to Welwitschia's survival 
success? Its large leaves and inhospitable habitat place 
it immediately in a double bind. The large leaves need 



to lose water to prevent overheating (just as sweating is 
a necessary human response to heat stress) but the 
plant grows in a desert, where water is an extremely 
scarce commodity. Part of the answer to this seeming 
paradox is provided by the remarkable Welwitschia leaf: 
not only does its tough fibrous construction resist inces- 
sant sand blasting in the desert winds but it is also high- 
ly reflective, working in a way analogous to that of the 
tinted reflective glass of some modern buildings and 
reflecting almost half the solar radiation with which it 
is bombarded. 6 This in itself is a significant improve- 
ment over the leaves of many of our common trees, in 
which only about 25 percent of the radiation is re- 
flected — the remaining 75 percent being absorbed and 
contributing to the problem of overheating. A second 
and still more surprising element of the "solution" is 
that water loss, through evaporation from the leaves, 
cancels out about an additional 14 percent of the total 
energy input. 6 This is a common phenomenon among 
plants that grow in habitats where water is plentiful, 
but in a desert plant it makes little sense to consistently 
waste such a valuable resource and raises the obvious 
question of where does Welwitschia get its water? 

J.D. Hooker himself obliquely addressed this 
question, implying that plants may have obtained 
water from the fogs and heavy dews that commonly 



occur over much of the Weluiitschia area. As in the Ata- 
came and Baja deserts this condensation of water vapor 
sometimes occurs on a massive scale when hot con- 
tinental air mixes with cool air associated with the cold 
coastal water currents. Unfortunately the idea that 
Weluiitschia plants may use this condensed water raises 
as many problems as it solves. Weluiitschia leaves have 
no obvious structures to absorb such free water. 
Although it is possible that the breathing pores (stoma- 
ta) could play some role in absorbing water from the air, 
there is only a very short period when this might be 
possible: in the early morning before temperatures rise 
too high or before the stomata close. Rough calcula- 
tions show that water absorption by the leaves is un- 
likely to account for more than about 2 percent of a 
plant's annual water needs. 6 

If Weluiitschia doesn't get its water through the 
leaves, the only other possibility is that it is somehow 
obtained by the roots. Even for botanists, roots are one 
of the most neglected parts of all plants. Usually they 
are "out of sight and out of mind" and it is difficult to 
study how they work except in cultivation, where it is 
almost impossible to duplicate precisely the conditions 
they encounter in their natural habitat. This is particu- 
larly true of Weluiitschia, and although we know it has a 
huge taproot resembling a giant woody carrot (figs. 6 




7. The massive apex of a Welwitschia taproot (approximately 4 feet 
in diameter) showing the gnarled, tangled mass of roots and the fib- 
rous leaves shredded into numerous strands (compare fig. 6). 360395 



6. Model of a young Welwitschia plant showing the stout woody tap 
root and the two leathery leaves that are retained by the plant 
throughout its entire life (compare fig. 7). aisoi 




and 7), we have no idea how far down or how exten- 
sively the much finer roots penetrate. Clearly however, 
an extensive root system is critical to the survival of the 
plant. Cultivated Weluiitschia plants are usually grown 
in long pipes to accommodate the taproot, and even a 
10-week-old seedling of Weluiitschia only an inch or two 
high has already developed a main root well over a foot 
long (fig. 9). It seems that this extensive root system, 
perhaps in conjunction with a highly specialized and 
efficient system of water-conducting cells which occur 
in Welwitschia and related plants, is the key to survival. 
The roots of Welwitschia apparently provide access to 
water sources unavailable to other plants and are ca- 
pable of maintaining the essential water supply to the 
leaves to compensate for water lost into the air. It is a 
wasteful system which verges on the ridiculous for a 
desert plant, but its effectiveness here cannot be dis- 
puted. In a recent drought lasting over two years, the 
timeless Welwitschia plants survived while the few 
plants growing with them died off completely. 6 



27 




28 



8. Sections through the hermaphrodite (bisexual) "flowers" produced by three different groups of plants. Each "flower" shows the seed- 
producing (female) organs in the center, surrounded both by the pollen-producing organs (male), and structures resembling petals. This 
arrangement is frequently thought to be linked to the operation of insect pollination systems. Williamsoniella coronata (left) (approximately 1 80 
million years before present), is one of the bisexual "flowers" produced by an extinct group of fossil plants known as the Bennettitales. The 
female organs in this group consist of a central mass of small seeds and scales and the flower may have been pollinated by beetles. 
Welwitschia mirabilis (center) has functionally unisexual "flowers" in which the single central female organ (ovule) never develops into a seed. 
However, the funnellike apex of the ovule secretes a large nectarlike pollination drop which may be important in attracting insect pollinators. 
Berberis vulgaris (right) has bisexual insect-pollinated flowers typical of living flowering plants (angiosperms). In angiosperm flowers the 
ovule, or ovules, are contained within a central carpel or ovary. Drawings by Clara Richardson. 

A further aspect of the biology of Welwitschia 
almost as intriguing as its physiology concerns its repro- 
duction. One of the facts that Hooker was able to infer 
even from the limited material available to him was 
that there were distinct male and female Welwitschia 
plants. This is not a particularly unusual situation in 
the botanical world, but what he also noted was that 
male plants also produce a female sex organ (tech- 
nically an ovule) which seems to be nonfunctional and 
never develops into a mature seed. Curiously the repro- 
ductive parts of a male Welwitschia plant resemble a tiny 
flower with a single ovule (female) surrounded by a 
fused ring of six structures (male) which produce the 
pollen (fig. 8). This hermaphrodite (bisexual) 
flowerlike arrangement is particularly intriguing 
because the same basic kind of floral organization has 
also evolved independently in at least two other plant 
groups: the Bennettitales, which mainly became ex- 
tinct about 100 million years ago; and the flowering 
plants, which include most of the plants with which we 
are familiar today (including all our major crop plants) 
(fig. 8). In most flowering plants and the Bennettitales 
both the male and female organs in each flower are 
functional, but just as with its physiology, Welwitschia 
defies generalizations based on more familiar plants. 

What then is the function (if any) of the ovule in 
the center of the male "flower" if it is unable to develop 
into a mature seed? Although we still cannot answer 

9. Silhouette drawing of a Welwitschia seedling showing the exten- 
sive root system formed very early in the development of the plant 
(redrawn from Von Willert 6 ). 




this question with any certainty, we do have a few scat- 
tered observations which hint at a possible solution. 
First, the apex of the ovule is unusually expanded into a 
prominent funnel, which secretes a large drop of fluid 
precisely at the time the pollen is being shed (fig. 8). 
Second, many male flowers are tightly clustered 
together in an erect and visually prominent group (fig. 
10), and third, the flowers have a yellow-brown color 
and distinctive odor that is often associated with pol- 
lination by flies in living flowering plants. 7 All the signs 
are that pollination in Welwitschia is achieved with the 
aid of insects, the secretion from the tip of the ovule 
acting as an attractant encouraging visits by flies and 
thus promoting the transfer of pollen to female plants. 
Although the fieldwork necessary to test these ideas 
has still not been carried out, the possibility of insect 
pollination seems strong and an almost identical pol- 
lination system occurs in one of Welwitschia's closest 
relatives, the genus Ephedra (next month's Bulletin). 

Darwin once referred to Welwitschia as the "platy- 
pus" of the plant kingdom.' The metaphor was well 
chosen. Like the platypus, Welwitschia is a fortunate 
and biologically remarkable survivor of an ancient and 
unusual group of organisms. However, the evolution- 
ary interest in this bizarre plant does not reside solely in 
its unique and critical position in the plant kingdom; it 
is also a classic example of the important evolutionary 
process known as "neoteny" (or more strictly "paedo- 
morphosis"): the expression of juvenile characteristics 
in the adult as a result of either acceleration of re- 
productive maturity or truncation of vegetative de- 
velopment. Neoteny has attracted great interest in 
evolutionary biology because it provides a potential 
mechanism whereby only a minor developmental mod- 
ification (relating to the timing of developmental pro- 
cesses) could result in a major effect on the form of the 
mature organism. This class of phenomena (col- 
lectively subsumed under the term heterochrony) is 
thought to have played an important role in the evolu- 
tion of numerous organisms ranging from man to 
flowering plants, but there is no better example of these 
phenomena in the botanical world than Welwitschia. 

Even in the first technical descriptions Hooker 
described the plant as "a seedling arrested in develop- 
ment." Hooker was referring mainly to the production 
of only two leaves throughout the life of the plant, but 
other features of Welwitschia show similar "juvenile" 
characteristics. It must surely be one of the most bizarre 
paradoxes of botany that these gnarled, slow-growing, 
and frequently ancient plants seem in a sense to have 
discovered the secret of eternal youth. FM 




10. A model of a Welwitschia pollen-producing (male) inflores- 
cence showing numerous small "flowers" borne in conelike struc- 
tures. The model is currently on display in "Plants of the World" (Hall 

29). 81795 



References 

1. Welwitsch, F. 1861. Extract from a Letter, addressed to Sir Wil- 
liam J. Hooker, on the Botany of Benguela, Mossamedes Etc., in 
Western Africa, journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, 
Botany, 5:182-187. 

2. Bornmann, C. H. 1978. Welwitschia Paradox of a Parched Para- 
dise. C. Struik Publishers, Capetown 6k Johannesburg. 71 pp. 

3. Hooker, J. D. 1864. On Welwitschia, a new genus of Gnetaceae. 
Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 24: 1 -48. 

4. Huxley, L. 1918. Life and Letters of Sir J. D. Hooker, vols. 1 6k 
2. John Murray, London. 546 pp. 6k 569 pp. 

5. Darwin, F. 1903. More letters of Charles Darwin. John Murray, 
London. 508 pp. 

6. Von Willert, D.J. 1985. Welwitschia mirabilis — new aspects in 
the biology of an old plant. Advances in Botanical Research, 
1985:157-191. 

7. P. K. Endress, personal communication. 

8. Hiern, W. P. 1896. Catalogue of the African plants collected by 
Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch in 1853-61: Dicotyledons Part 1. British 
Museum (Natural History). 336 pp. 

9. Kers, L. E. 1967. The distribution of Welwitschia mirabilis Hook, 
f. SvenskBot. Tidskrift, 61:97-125. 



29 




r 



* , 



FIELD 
MUSEUM % 




» 



m 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TOURS 1 



Dear Field Museum Member, 

We are working toward organizing domestic Field Tours next year and would 
like to share with you some of the destinations being considered. 

Crow Canyon Archaeological Center in Denver, offers an oppotunity for a 
hands-on introduction to the actual business of being an archaeologist with 
digging and lab work at the side of the archaeologists themselves. 

We are excited about exploring the Southwest, especially Anasazi sites. 
Other plans are to visit Museums featuring a special exhibit and organizing a 
program to enjoy the points of interest in the area. 

In 1988 we will repeat our China Tour, with Katharine Lee as leader, and 
the Kenya/Tanzania Safari (early 1989) led by Audrey Faden. 

If any of these destinations particularly appeals to you, just send an advance 
deposit of $50 per person to Field Museum's Tours office, to ensure your 
place. You will be notified about all upcoming activities related to the tour, 
and the deposit is completely refundable should you change your mind prior 
to the first installment payment. 

When you travel with Field Museum you travel with a purpose. Your Tour 
Leader is a constant source of information about the flora, fauna, and cultural 
heritage. Please watch for future announcements. We hope to hear from you. 

Sincerely, 



(2<$^^2^r <zf* A?^ 



Dorothy S. Roder 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



31 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2499 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



March 1988 





Birds in Art 



Opens Saturday, March 26 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Arm- r 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Biock III 
WillardL Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
RonaldJ. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Suliivan 
J . Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

March 1988 

Volume 59, Number 3 



MARCH EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM . 



BIRDS IN ART AT FIELD MUSEUM 

bvjohn W. Fitzpatrick, Chairman, Department of Zoology . . 7 

CHINESE PEWTER TEAPOTS AND TEA WARES 
by Ho Chuimei, Research Associate in Anthropology, and 
Bennet Bronson, Associate Curator of Asian Archaeology and 
Ethnology 9 

THE GNETALES 

Botanical Remnants from the Age of Dinosaurs. 

by Catherine D. Hult, Laboratory Assistant, Geology 

and Peter R. Crane, Associate Curator ot Paleobotany 21 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

Featuringjuly Voyage to the Gulf of St. Lawrence 

and Canada's Maritime Provinces 30 

COVER 

Teapot in bucket shape. Pewter with applied brass and bronze. 
The depressed panels bear various auspicious motifs in appli- 
que. Wooden buckets ot this form are still used in China for 
cooked rice, bean curd, and similar foodstuffs. Although real 
buckets have removable tops, this one is integral with the body; 
a small sliding lid allows the pot to be filled and gives access to 
a removable tea basket. Overall height 2 1 cm. Chinese, 19th 
century. Gift of E. E. Ayer, 1927. FM 1 10477. For more on 
Chinese pewter teapots and tea wares, see pages 9-19. Photo by 
Ron Testa. \uo«» 



"Mothers and Daughters" 

Unprecedented exhibition of 128 photos of 

American mothers and daughters remains on 

view through March 1 3 



Volunteer Opportunities 

Share your interest- in American Indian cultures with 
school groups and the general public: volunteer 
training for American Indian hall progams will begin 
Saturday, March 26. Challenging and rewarding 
opportunities are available for weekday and weekend 
volunteers. For more information, please contact the 
Volunteer Coordinator at (312) 922-9410, ext. 360. 



Field Museum of Natural History BwJlertn (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum ot Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-24%- 
Copyright ©1988 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: ( 312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid ar Chicago, Illinois and 
additional mailing office. 




Field Museum's Tropical Connection 



Many of Field Museum's biological research programs are 
focused on the tropics. The richness of species and com- 
plexity of biological interactions in the tropics are the primary 
reasons for this research emphasis. Four of the Museum's 
outstanding scientists discuss their tropical research efforts 
and Field Museum's critical link in the study of the quickly 
vanishing New World tropics. 

March 2 

"Birds of Tropical South America" 
John Fitzpatrick, Chairman, 
Department of Zoology, Field Museum 

The Birds of the Amazon Basin are heavily impacted by the 
rapid destruction of the tropical rain forests. Focusing on the 
mountains that form the west edge of the Amazon basin, Dr. 
Fitzpatrick has identified ecological "island" refuges. Here, 
the birds are able to breed, diverge, create new species, 
and reestablish outside the "island" refuges. 

March 9 

"Fishes of the Orinoco" 

Barry Chernoff , Associate Curator and Head, 

Division of Fishes, Field Museum 

The Orinoco River Basin is the second largest in South Amer- 
ica, draining almost all of Venezuela and much of Colombia, 
east of the Andes. The fishes of the Orinoco — more than 600 
identified species — live in a variety of habitats. Dr. Chernoff's 
research includes the piranha, electric fishes, head stand- 
ers, hatchet fishes, and others. 

March 16 

"The International Link" 

Bruce Patterson, Associate Curator and Head, 

Division of Mammals, Field Museum 

Fieldwork in the Tropics can require great expense and tre- 
mendous logistical coordination. On location, the resources 
from developed nations are blended with local expertise, 
producing mutually beneficial results. Learn how Field 
Museum scientists work closely with researchers from Latin 
America on such projects as compiling a biological inventory 
at a future dam site, studying geographic variation in Andean 
bats, and other scientific research programs. 

March 23 

"Flora of Peru — A New Tropical Treasure Trove" 
Michael Dillon, Associate Curator, 
Department of Botany, Field Museum 

More than 65 Years Ago, Field Museum scientists began col- 
lecting and studying the flora of Peru. Dr. Michael Dillon con- 
tinues this research commitment to the rich and exciting Pe- 
ruvian landscape. From relict forests to desert coastline, the 
magnificence of Peruvian plant life and the Museum's active 
programs of plant exploration and research in Peru are dis- 
cussed. 

AC88101 Wednesdays, 7:00-9:00pm 

March 2-23 

(4 sessions) 

$50 ($40 members) Continued r> 





Wildlife Images in Art 

Saturday, March 26, 2:00pm 

Kent Ullberg, Master Wildlife Artist 

Padre Island, Texas 

The 1 987 Master Wildlife Artist is Swedish-born sculptor 
Kent Ullberg. His "Whooping Cranes" is included in Field 
Museum's exhibit, "Birds in Art," opening March 26. 
Ullberg's highly realistic animal imagery, his commitment to 
nature, and his involvement with conservation have made 
him one of the best loved contemporary wildlife artists. His 
work has been shown worldwide, including exhibits in the 
United States, China, Great Britain, France, and Botswana. 

From his studio on Padre Island, off the coast of Corpus 
Christi, Texas, Ullberg creates the forms that serve both art 
and natural science. "I feel an enormous hunger for knowl- 
edge about my subject matter," he says. "To feel it, feel the 
firmness of the flesh, those muscles, the beautiful forms. I 
sketch them. I take measurements, everything to drain as 
much knowledge as possible, and only then do I feel I have 
the background and the freedom to create the shapes I 
need, that I want." 

Growing up in a coastal Swedish town of artist parents, 
Ullberg's interest in art and natural science began early. He 
studied art in Stockholm and at museums in Germany, the 
Netherlands, and France. He lived for seven years in Bots- 
wana, Africa, studying its wildlife and people. 

Ullberg believes his wildlife sculpture is very much a 
contemporary expression and art form. As art often reflects 
cultural and political concern of the time, Ullberg's work re- 
flects his deep concern with the state of the global environ- 
ment. It is, he says, "a logical form of a personal expression.' 
Join Kent Ullberg as he discusses wildlife as an inspiration 
for artists. He looks at how the wilderness has specifically 
influenced his work and how his art, in turn, is a part of con- 
temporary aesthetics and a socio-political statement. 

LL88101 Wildlife Images in Art 
Tickets: $6.00 ($4.00 members) 




Kent Ullberg 



Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this ticket 
application. If your request is received less than one week 
before the program, tickets will be held in your name at the 



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Field Museum. Tickets will be mailed upon receipt of check. 
Refunds will be made only if the program is sold out. 

Return complete ticket application with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

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Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



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Edward E. Ayer 
Lecture Series 

Thursdays in March and April 

(no lecture March 3 1 ) 

1 :30pm, James Simpson Theater. 

Lectures are free and refreshments are served. 

March 3 

"Madagascar: The Forgotten Island" 
John Fitzpatrick, Chairman, 
Department of Zoology, Field Museum 

Home to Some of the world's most unusual species of plant 
and animal life, Madagascar is rapidly becoming a biological 
wasteland due to deforestation. 

March 10 

"Machu Picchu and the Inca Empire" 
Charles Stanish, Assistant Curator, 
Department of Anthropology, Field Museum 

Learn How this Ancient City was located by archaeologists in 
1911 , and how it has affected our understanding of the Inca 
Empire. 

March 17 

"Images of the Buddha" 

Charles Hallisey, Instructor, 

Department of Theology, Loyola University 

This Lecture Focuses on many different representations of 
the Buddha found in the art of various cultures. Learn to read 
this sacred art for its symbolism and teaching. 

March 24 

"Searching for the Earliest Life" 
Matthew Nitecki, Curator, 
Department of Geology, Field Museum 

Learn How Paleontologists are examining the fossil record to 
understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 



family Activities 

Black Traditions Theatre 

Young people take African folktales and blend them with 
contemporary urban experiences. 

"Tandika Tales" 

Chocolate Chips Children's Theatre 

Saturday and Sunday, March 5 and 6, 2:00pm 

Based on stories written by children, these myths and scary 
stories about thunder, lightning, and stars are blended with 
dance, humorous "commercials," and toe-tapping tunes. 

"Kids From Cabrini" 

Free Street Theatre 

Saturday and Sunday, March 19 and 20, 2:00pm 

"Kids From Cabrini," a theatre workshop for children 7 to 14 
years old, presents African folktales linking their African heri- 
tage with their everyday life in the city. The group developed 
from a Free Street Theatre program involving children from 
Cabrini-Green. 



World Music Program 

Weekends in March 

1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Music Communicates in Many Ways. It is something that can 
be shared by all of us, whether or not we have common life- 
styles, beliefs, or even languages. From the gentle harp of 
Light Henry Huff and the lively and spirited stories and songs 
of Shanta, March is a musical celebration at the Field 
Museum. The World Music Program is supported by the Ken- 
neth and Harle Montgomery Fund and a City Arts IV grant 
from the Chicago Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural 
Affairs. 



March Weekend Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and 
films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are only a few of the numerous 
activities each weekend. Check the activity listing upon arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are 
partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

March 

5 2:00pm Traditional China (tour). Delight in the timeless 

imagery and superb craftsmanship of Chinese master- 
works in our collection. 



13 



12 



2:00pm A Walk with China's Animals (tour). Meet some 
of China's real and imaginary beasts through Field 
Museum's exhibits. 

1 :30pm Tibet Today and Tour of Tibet (slide lecture). 
Tour through the Tibet exhibit after looking at Lhasa 
and other towns now open to the public. 



2:00pm Malvina Hoffman: Portraits in Bronze (slide 
lecture). A look at the life and works of Malvina Hoff- 
man, concentrates on the Portraits of Mankind col- 
lection. 

26 1 :30pm Tibet Today and A Faith in Exile (slide lecture). 

Investigate Lhasa and refugees in Dharmsala (home 
of the Dalai Lama), Darjeeling, and Sikkim. 

These programs are free with museum admission and tickets 
are not required. 



„•■•»-•*-». 




"Birds in Art" Exhibit Opens March 26 



BIRDS IN ART AT THE FIELD MUSEUM 
The Union of Art and Science 



by John W. Fitzpatrick 

Chairman, Department of Zoology 

and Curator of Birds 



I he Field Museum is privileged to host for the first 
time a traveling exhibit of immense popular appeal and 
growing international importance. The Twelfth 
Annual "Birds in Art" exhibition makes its final stop 
here, from March 26 through May 22. The collection 
of 50 original paintings and 10 sculptures was organized 
by the Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum in Wausau, 
Wisconsin, and has become widely recognized as the 
best annual show of bird art in the western world. 
Artists from all over the United States and numerous 
foreign countries compete each year to have their work 
included in this prestigious exhibit. Original sub- 
missions for this year's exhibit numbered over 750. A 
panel of judges selected 126 pieces for the original 
opening at Wausau, which showed during September 
and October of last year. Sixty of these were selected to 
comprise the touring exhibit that will hang at the 
Rochester Museum and Science Center and the Natu- 
ral History Museum of Los Angeles County before 
coming to the Field Museum of Natural History. 

"Birds in Art" is a unique assemblage indeed, 
featuring works by some of the finest wildlife artists in 
America and abroad. Because so many fine artists are 
represented together, sharing birds as their common 
element, the show becomes a very personal one to the 
viewer. It offers us a rare chance to compare first hand 
the artistic effects of style and medium, as well as to 
enjoy the birds and the individual captured moments 
in their own right. Included are oils, watercolors, 
gouaches, acrylics, and printed graphics as well as 
sculptures in wood, stone, brass, and steel. Some pieces 
are large, some are small. Represented in this year's 
show are everyday songbirds such as cardinals and 



"Whooping Cranes, " polished stainless steel sculpture by Kent 
Ullberg; 69 x 53 x 46 cm. One of ten sculptures to be seen in 
the exhibit "Birds in Art, " opening March 26. Mr. Ullberg was 
chosen as the Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum Master 
Wildlife Artist for 1 987, only the second sculptor to be selected 
during the twelve-year history of the prestigious award. 



chickadees, as well as dramatic depictions of eagles, 
hawks, and owls. A huge and breathtaking canvas enti- 
tled The End depicts a stately male California condor, 
the most critically endangered bird species in the 
world. The show is a potpourri of natural and beautiful 
moments. 

Why is an art show such as this exhibited in a great 
natural history museum? Ours is a temple of science, 
after all, and many visitors imagine a "great divide" 
that separates science from art. I, for one, imagine no 
such divide, and "Birds in Art" presents a wonderful 
example of the union between these two great features 
of the human endeavor. As pointed out by the noted 
philosopher of science, the late Jacob Bronowski in The 
Ascent of Man, art and science share at their deepest 
level an inspirational genius that is the same, and un- 
iquely human. Both are creative manifestations of the 
mind. In their great moments, science and art bring 
together the observations, personal histories, and skills 
of the creator into an expression never before 
achieved, providing new meaning to past experiences. 
Inspiration in its truest sense, scientific or artistic, is 
neither wholly rational nor irrational. Neither do these 
endeavors have meaning in a vacuum. Art without 
viewers is selfish indulgence, science without readers is 
self-education. These observations emphasize the so- 
cial nature of both endeavors, even as we recognize 
that the inspirations themselves are among the most 
intensely personal of human experiences. Science and 
art belong together, as the two great pillars of human 
accomplishment. 

Field Museum of Natural History is among the 
foremost institutions in the world for the scientific 
study of birds, their origins, evolution, ecology, and 
behavior. Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum has 
emerged among the foremost institutions where the 
artistic study of birds is emphasized. By bringing to- 
gether these two institutions, "Birds in Art" allows us 
to glimpse the scientist in each artist, and to ponder the 
artist within each of us scientists. It is a natural union. 




"Morning — Oatka Creek," welded corten steel sculpture of green-backed heron by Craig Wilson. On view in "Birds in Art" exhibit opening 
March 26. 



Chinese 

Pewter Teapots 
and Tea Wares 



by HO CHUIMEI and BENNET BRONSON 
Photos by RON TESTA 



I 



m **. 



Introduction 

Nowadays, Serious Chinese Tea Drinkers are 

unanimous in thinking that the best possible material 
for teapots and many of the other containers used in 
making tea is the red or brown earthenware of Yixing in 
eastern China. But this was not always so. Tea lovers of 
earlier periods often preferred porcelain, precious met- 
als, or even pewter. 

The idea that pewter could be used in this way 
may come as a surprise. After all, it is an alloy of tin and 
lead, and thus is poisonous. Yet it was extensively em- 
ployed in China for many centuries not only for tea 
storage containers — a role in which its toxic qualities 
might be less important — but also for teapots, kettles, 
and cups, where heat and tannic acid would be bound 
to extract a certain amount of lead into the prepared 
tea. We will not discuss the issue of lead toxicity fur- 
ther here except to say that Chinese tea experts of the 
past never discussed it either. Few of them seem to have 

Ho Chuimei is a Research Associate in Anthropology; Ben- 
net Bronson is Associate Curator of Asian Archaeology and 
Ethnology. 




1 . Tea caddy with octagonal body and single-walled lid. Pewter; ap- 
plied brass. The large size and elaborate decoration are unusual. The 
characters on the neck form a proverb: "The family that accumulates 
virtue will have ample fortune." The panels on the upper body depict 
amusements of the literati. Those near the base depict foreigners — 
Central Asians, one probable European — in comic poses. Two in- 
cised characters on the bottom read "Liang Ji," probably the name of 
a shop. Overall height 45 cm. Chinese, perhaps 17th-18th century. 
Gift of E.E. Ayer, 1924. FM 1 10008 A-110595 



been aware that the lead in pewter might pose health 
problems. Lest we conclude that those experts were 
strangely ignorant, we should recall that wine fanciers 
in the United States still often prefer "crystal" glasses 
and — worse — decanters, apparently unaware that 
these contain as much lead as any pewter. Con- 
noisseurship and technical sophistication do not go 
hand-in-hand, either in China or the West. 



Pewter and the History of Tea 

Pewter first appears in connection with tea in about 
A.D. 1240 — during the late Song period — when Zhao 
Xigu, a member of the imperial family and noted 
antique collector, comments: "The nature of tea leaves 
is not in harmony with that of ceramic or bronze jars. 
They only go well with pewter. But be careful not to use 




10 



2. Earthenware teapot. Pumpkin-shaped body and lion as lid finial. 
The bottom bears an impressed seal, "Yixing purple sand (ware)." 

The objects described here all come from the col- 
lection of Field Museum, which probably has more 
Chinese pewter (about 200 pieces) than any other 
museum in the country. The bulk of the collection was 
donated by E. E. Ayer, one of the founders of the 
Museum and the first chairman of its Board of Trustees. 
Ayer acquired his pewter in the 1920s from Yamanaka, 
a well-known art dealer, with the advice of the then- 
curator of Asian Anthropology, Berthold Laufer. Lauf- 
er himself purchased about 70 pieces while in China (in 
Xian, Chengdu, and Shanghai) in 1908-10 and 1922. 
The remaining pieces were given by other individuals, 
among them the late Commander and Mrs. G. H. 
Boone. 



Body diameter 1 2 cm. Made at Yixing, early 20th century. Purchased 
by B. Laufer in Shanghai, 1921 . FM 264842 a-hoski 

jars with holes that can leak air. The containers should 
be repeatedly tested before use." All of Zhao's con- 
temporaries might not have agreed. But it is clear that 
pewter containers were already widely used for storing 
dry tea leaves. 

By the middle Ming period (the 16th century), 
pewter was also used for teapots. Experts such as Qian 
Chunnian (1540s) and Xu Ciyu (1597) preferred it in 
that role to porcelain. Other experts disagreed, how- 
ever. Tu Long (also 1590s), for instance, claimed that 
teapots made of any metal — including pewter, as well as 
bronze, iron, and tin — imparted a bitter, fishy smell to 
the brewed tea. It is interesting to note that Xu Ciyu 
preferred pewter teapots precisely because, unlike 



those of earthenware, they did not add an objection- 
able smell. 

In the late 16th and early 17th centuries pewter 
became quite popular as a material for tea wares. If used 
together, the kinds of pewter utensils recommended by 
various contemporary experts would make up a com- 
prehensive set: large storage caddies, dippers for draw- 
ing water from jars, kettles for boiling water, small serv- 
ing or presentation caddies, and water pots for holding 
boiling water, as well as the pots in which the tea was 
actually brewed. 

We do not know what any of these looked like. 
Western museums contain very few pewter objects of 
any kind that can be firmly dated to the Ming period 
(1368-1644). Several caddies in Field Museum were 
attributed by Laufer to the 1 7th century on the basis of 
style (fig. 1). While this date seems plausible, solid 
proof will have to wait until the contents of the many 
recent excavations of Ming tombs become available for 
study. 



3. Teapot with side handle. Pewter exterior, earthenware lining, and 
jade fittings. Engraved with plum blossom motifs on one side and an 
inscription about tea on the other, with the signature of Shimei. A clay 
seal on the lining reads "Made by Yang Pengnian." The fact that both 
the calligrapher and the potter are well known figures in the history of 
Yixing ware makes this an important piece. Body height 6 cm. Made 
at Yixing, ca. 1820-30. Gift of E. E. Ayer, 1927. FM 125834 a-hosbs 



Yixing and Pewter Wares 

The red earthenware vessels of Yixing in Jiangsu Prov- 
ince, not far from the city of Suzhou, first began to be 
noticed by tea fanciers in about A.D. 1250. By about 
1500, the Yixing potters had developed types of teapots 
that came to be widely admired for artistry as well as 
their almost unique suitability for brewing tea (fig. 2). 
And yet pewter became a serious competitor later in 
the same century. Xu Ciyu, writing in 1597, definitely 
preferred pewter to Yixing earthenware. He com- 
plained that good Yixing pots were expensive, hard to 
get and easily broken, while inferior Yixing pots had an 
undesirable clayey smell that made them useless for 
brewing or serving tea. Pewter, Xu felt, has none of 
these disagreeable traits. 

The debate over the relative merits of pewter and 
Yixing tea wares continued for the next hundred years. 
As far as brewing tea went, the issue was eventually 
settled in favor of the latter. A glance through the con- 
tents of a modern tea shop will show that, while con- 
noisseurs still often prefer pewter containers as tea 
caddies, they acknowledge Yixing ware as the queen of 
teapots. 

At one point, however, a compromise was 
attempted. In the early 19th century, teapots began to 
be made with pewter exteriors and linings of Yixing 




11 




4. Teapot with overhead handle. Pewter exterior, earthenware lin- 
ing, and jade fittings. Engraved with orchid leaves on one side and on 
the other a poem in praise of tea signed by the calligrapher, Boya[ju]. 
The lining bears the seal of Shimei. Body diameter 1 1 .5 cm. Made at 
Yixing, ca. 1820-30. Gift of E. E. Ayer, 1926. FM 110764 a-hom? 



12 



earthenware. Field Museum has 36 hybrid pots of this 
kind, two bearing reign marks of the Daoguang Emper- 
or (1821-50) and several others with cyclical dates of 
the same period (fig. 3). The majority have knobs, side 
handles, and spouts made of jade. Although teapots 
made entirely of Yixing ware often have overhead 
handles, these seem to be rare among hybrid examples; 
Field Museum has only one (fig. 4). 

Many clay-lined pewter teapots were actually 
made at Yixing. Their shapes are close to those of all-' 
earthenware Yixing types, especially those assigned by 
Terese Tse Bartholomew, a leading modern authority, 
to the third (19th century) phase of Yixing teapot 
development. Moreover, the hybrid pots usually bear 
seals of known Yixing potters — like Yang Pengnian, 
Huchi, and Shimei — in their interiors. Yang Pengnian 
was among the most celebrated of all Yixing craftsmen, 



having been involved with important reforms in the 
style and decoration of all-earthenware teapots. His 
hybrid teapots are sealed with his full name, "Yang 
Pengnian." The custom of adding one's name to one's 
work, incidentally, was unusual among Chinese crafts- 
men of the period. Whereas Japanese craftsman had 
long been accustomed to personalizing their products, 
in China the potters of Yixing were almost alone in 
doing so. Calligraphers and painters signed their names 
proudly; artists in virtually all other media worked in 
anonymity. 

The potter Shimei, alsoknownasZhuJian, is said 
to have invented the hybrid teapot in about 1810. One 
example in Field Museum is signed by him and two 
others bear his seal (fig. 4). It is not certain, however, 
that Shimei himself actually did the pewter work as 
well as the potting — after all, shaping the two materials 



would require very different skills. His motives for en- 
casing an earthenware pot in pewter are also uncertain. 
The charm of pewter was evidently still appreciated, 
but it is possible that tea drinkers of the period either 
were worried about the poisonous effect of lead or were 
not entirely convinced that the special pewter smell 
actually enhanced the fragrance of tea. 

The outer surfaces of hybrid pewter teapots, like 
those of many all-earthenware teapots from Yixing, al- 
ways carry engraved pictures and inscriptions in 
Chinese characters. While the potters who made the 
clay linings put their seals inside, the engraver/ 
calligraphers usually added their signatures to the in- 
scriptions. These calligraphers were often artists of the 
first rank. Some signatures are those of talented 



5. Teapot with fitted detachable heater. Pewter with bronze handles. 
The heater forms the lower part of the vessel, with coin-shaped open- 
ings at the sides and a removable container for the fuel and wick. A 
slanting internal chimney allows smoke and heat to escape from a 
hole in the top. An impressed seal on the bottom reads "Heng Tai 
Pewter Shop, guaranteed." Overall height 25.5 cm. Made in Cheng- 
du, Sichuan province, late 19th century. Purchased by B. Laufer in 
Chengdu, 1910. FM 117754 a-ho578 




amateurs: scholars or officials who were skilled with the 
brush and graving tool, and presumably fanciers of tea. 
Occasionally the signatures are those of potters. One of 
the pieces in Field Museum's collection has an inscrip- 
tion signed by Shimei himself, who was known for his 
fine calligraphy as well his potting ability (fig. 3). 

Readers familiar with conventional Yixing tea- 
pots may be interested to know that the hybrid teapots 
do not conform to the widely accepted rule that all Yix- 
ing pots made before the late 19th century have spouts 
connected to the body by single holes. None of the 
hybrid examples in Field Museum's collection is later 
than about 1850. Yet all except two have "late" 
strainer-like spout connections with multiple holes. 



Other Pewter Teapots 

A number of kinds of pewter teapots exist that do not 
have earthenware linings. These are usually larger in 
capacity than the hybrid pewter-earthenware type and 
rarely have parts made of jade. The examples in the 
Museum's collection come from Hunan, Guangdong, 
and Shanghai. One large type (shown on front cover) 
is bucket-shaped with a small spout and lid, plus a 
removable pewter tea basket inside the mouth to sim- 
plify the removal of used tea leaves. Ceramic teapots of 
similar form are still used in China, in restaurants and 
in the homes and offices of people who often have 
many guests. Such people are not likely to be con- 
noisseurs of tea. Those serious about the brew almost 
always insist on teapots of a size that can be emptied in 
a single round. 

Other teapots combine pewter with materials like 
basketry, coconut shell, and porcelain. Many such pots 
were made during the late 19th and early 20th centu- 
ries. Still other teapots have bodies of red or black clay 
that is partly covered with pewter cut into openwork 
designs. The bodies of the red variety seem to be actual 
Yixing work, decorated by pewterers in Shanghai and 
Shandong. In design and workmanship these tend to 
be inferior to the clay-lined pewter pieces made at 
Yixing. 

An interesting group of pewter teapots have heat- 
ers built into the base; the idea is like that of an electric 
kettle except that here the same device is used for 
warming the water and brewing the tea. Field Museum 
possesses several examples. All were heated with 
kerosene, alcohol, or vegetable oil and have concealed 
chimneys as well as openings for draught (fig. 5). The 
fact that two of these have fitted tea baskets show that 



13 



they are indeed teapots rather than kettles or wine 
warmers. They would have to be watched carefully; 
otherwise the tea might boil and thus be ruined. But 
they were undoubtedly convenient for country outings 
of the sort that are so often depicted in Chinese paint- 
ings and described in literature. 

Tea Caddies and Storage Jars 

Pewter tea caddies — covered jars for storing tea leaves 
— go back to at least the 13th century in China. As 
Feng Kebin noted in 1642, they were as odor-free as 
caddies made of porcelain and were much more airtight 



6. Japanese tea caddy. Pewter with raised red and gold lacquer. 
The decoration of the lid and shoulder imitates a wrapping of gold 
brocade tied with a red cord. The body bears the two imperial crests: 
the sixteen-petaled chrysanthemum and the kiri, or paulownia flower. 
An impressed seal on the bottom reads "Imperial Pewter House, first 
quality, made by Izumo." Overall height 26.5 cm. 19th century. Gift of 
E. E. Ayer, 1925. FM 1 10088. a-ho57 6 




14 



if fitted with double-walled lids. In 1842 an amateur 
scientist named Zheng Fuguang published a description 
and drawings of pewter caddy manufacture. To make 
sure that caddies are air- and waterproof, he suggests 
that their lids be double-walled, that soldered joints be 
meticulously tested, and that the interior be lined with 
paper. Zheng also describes a "base tray" filled with in- 
cense ash and paper onto which an inverted caddy can 
be placed to ensure that the interior stays completely 
dry. Other writers say that a caddy filled with tea should 
have layers of ash or lime on the bottom and of dry 
straw on top. This constant emphasis on the dangers 
posed by moisture and thus by mold — understandable 
enough in view of the very high prices paid for the 
finest teas — suggests another reason why pewter cad- 
dies worked especially well. They were not only mois- 
ture proof but, through the antibiotic properties of 
lead, would have discouraged the growth of micro- 
organisms. 

Large pewter containers were also used for storing 
tea in bulk. Shen Changqing recommended in 1632 
that new tea should be kept in jars made from fine vir- 
gin pewter, large enough to hold about thirteen 
pounds. The mouths of these jars should be filled with a 
layer of dry grass and several layers of paper before the 
pewter lid is pressed on. A hundred and fifty years later, 
however, the poet and artist Wu Qian ( 1 787) expresses 
a clear preference for porcelain tea storage jars. He 
states that pewter jars should not be used to hold more 
than a few days' supply. Whether this opinion was 
generally shared among serious tea fanciers is uncer- 
tain, but large caddy-like storage jars made of pewter 
certainly continued to be used down through the 20th 
century. In 1833, Sun Tongyuan had a distressing en- 
counter with such jars while traveling in Sichuan: 

"The people at Yongjia prefer year-old tea, think- 
ing that new tea has too much 'fire.' They re-roast the 
newly bought tea and then store it in pewter jars, tight- 
ly sealed but without adding lime cubes (as a desiccant) 
at the bottom. Thus the tea readily becomes damp and 
when brewed has a burned smell that irritates the nose. 
The color is almost red and it has no taste. To force 
myself to pretend to appreciate it was really as difficult 
as taking medicine." 

Several of Field Museum's pewter tea jars seem too 
large for use during the actual making and serving of tea 
(fig. 1 ) . They may have served as bulk storage contain- 
ers, perhaps for the shelves of tea shops. Most have lids 
with double walls of the kind that Feng Kebin and 
Zheng Fuguang recommended. 

The Museum has a number of Japanese pewter 




caddies in its collection. These differ from Chinese 
caddies in having two separate lids: an inner one that 
fits tightly inside the mouth and an outer one that cov- 
ers the top and sides of the neck. Some are handsomely 
decorated with red and gold lacquer, which forms an 
effective contrast with the grayish color of the unlac- 
quered areas (fig. 6). They also differ from Chinese 
caddies in the way they were made. Whereas Chinese 
pewterers preferred to form caddies by shaping and 
soldering sheet metal, their Japanese counterparts 
either made an initial casting which was then finished 
on a lathe or formed their caddies by "metal-spinning" 
— forcing a pewter plate against a form while turning 
both at high speeds on a lathe-like apparatus. The 
interiors of Japanese caddies show many concentric 
ridges and grooves; the interiors of Chinese caddies 
tend to be quite smooth. 



Kettles and Water Pots 

The Chinese also once used pewter tea kettles. In 
1597, Xu Ciyu states that pewter is best for making 
kettles because water boiled in it does not become salty 
or bitten In 1632, Shen Changqing grants that silver is 
at least as good for kettles but recommends pewter for 
use by tea lovers of modest means. He says that ceramic 



7. Kettle in pumpkin shape. Age-darkened pewter. The 
overhead handle has tiger-like animals in relief and dra- 
gon's heads at either end. Two other pairs of dragons, also 
in relief, have been applied to the upper body. The twelve 
segments of the lower body bear shou ("long life") charac- 
ters. The impressed seal on the bottom is now illegible. 
Body diameter 24 cm. Chinese, 18th-19th century. Gift of 
E. E. Ayer, 1924. FM 1 10007 A-noan 




8. Teapot with gate-shaped handle. Pewter; applied bronze and 
brass; partial cane wrapping on handle. Each facet of the body is 
decorated with a different Taoist folk deity Indentations in the deities' 
costumes show they were once inset with glass or stone. Body diam- 
eter 1 1 cm. Chinese, 1 9th century. Gift of E. E. Ayer, 1 925. FM 1 1 0055 

A-110584 



15 




9. Tray, perhaps for tea utensils. Pewter with brass inlay depicting 
plum blossoms and bamboo. True inlay, with designs in a contrasting 
material set into the surface, is rare on Chinese pewterwork. An 
impressed seal on the base reads "Made by Liu Hongda." Length 34 
cm. Chinese, 19th century Gift of E. E. Ayer, 1926. FM 1 10100 A-110575 



16 



kettles are too easily broken. He also is emphatically 
opposed to bronze and — interestingly — iron, which 
Japanese tea lovers have long regarded as an ideal kettle 
material. Shen's opposition to iron kettles was shared 
by many other early Chinese authorities, who often 
commented on the bad taste that iron imparts to water. ' 
Quite apart from their potential toxicity, pewter 
kettles would seem to have another grave dis- 
advantage. Pewter melts at a temperature of only sever- 
al hundred degrees centigrade. This means that a kettle 
made out of pewter would probably be ruined if allowed 
to boil dry over a moderately hot stove. Yet pewter 
teapots did exist and were indeed used. Field Museum 
possesses several examples. One of these has an inter- 



nal chimney and a miniature firebox in which charcoal 
was burned. Another, an exceptionally handsome 
piece, would have been heated conventionally on top 
of a separate stove. That this is indeed a kettle is virtu- 
ally proved by its shape and size (fig. 7); one finds it 
hard to imagine any other function. How old it is and 
where it was made is currently unclear. Its pumpkin- 
shaped body suggests a connection with the Yixing 
tradition of tea ware design, and its dark, eroded sur- 
face suggests considerable age. However, that is as far as 
we dare to go for now. Neither we nor anyone else we 
have shown it to have seen another kettle like it. 

The Museum possesses a number of tall, long- 
spouted ewers that resemble surviving illustrations of 
the water pots that were used in the Tang through early 
Ming periods {ca. 700-1500) as an intermediate con- 
tainer for hot water: boiling water was poured into 
them from the kettle and then poured from them into 
teacups or teapots. Several sources recommend the use 
of pewter vessels in this role, which makes it tempting 
to identify some of the pewter ewers in the Museum's 
collection as water pots. We believe that the tempta- 
tion should be resisted, however. Water pots ceased to 
be used in Chinese tea making by the mid- 16th cen- 



tury, and few if any pewter examples have survived. It 
seems safest to conclude that all of the ewers in ques- 
tion are wine pots, used for serving rice or sorghum 
liquor in homes and restaurants. 

Decorations 

Plain pewter is an attractive material, with a dark sil- 
very color when new and a unique, softly mottled 
gunmetal color after long use. Many pewter caddies 
and certain other tea wares have unmodified surfaces, 
depending solely on the play of light over curves and 
sharp edges for decorative effect. Although high-tin 
pewter can be buffed to a hard shine, Chinese pewter- 
ers seem to have preferred a moderately glossy, light- 
diffusing surface. The only example of a mirror-like fin- 
ish seeVi by the present writers is on an Yixing pewter 
teapot acquired in Japan; in this instance the shine 
seems to be due to a thin coat of lacquer. 

The alloy lends itself well to surface decoration. It 
is soft, easily worked, and readily bonded by heating to 
various other materials — after all, pewter is quite sim- 
ilar in composition to solder. Chinese pewter altar 
pieces and household items in pewter were sometimes 
decorated with colored lacquer or inset enamel and 
porcelain. Pewter tea wares, however, show a more 
restricted range of decorative techniques. The most 
important are engraving and soldered applique. 

Engraving was the main technique used on Yixing 
hybrid pewter teapots. These invariably have floral 
motifs on one side, and inscriptions written in cursive 
or official characters on the other. Many such inscrip- 
tions represent calligraphy of a high order, seemingly as 
fluid as actual brushwork: the softness and lack of grain 
of the pewter surface made it an almost ideal medium 
for the graving tool. This no doubt helps to explain the 
willingness of well-known calligraphers to engage in 
such work, not to mention the appeal of the teapots 
themselves to those who were at once lovers of tea and 
of the literary arts. 

Pewter tea vessels of other kinds are also often en- 
graved, but generally in a less elegant fashion. Motifs 
include simple floral designs and figures of religious or 
legendary origin. Often the engraved designs were sup- 
plemented by applying paper-thin sheets of brass or 
copper, cut in more or less the same shape as a figure 
outlined by engraving and then soldered onto the pew- 
ter surface within the outlined area. The effect can be 
highly decorative, offering an attractive contrast be- 
tween the red or yellow metal designs and the grey met- 
al background (fig. 8). However, the effect tends to be 




10. Teapot with overhead handle. The pewter body is covered with 
fine, tight-fitting basketry and rests on four small feet; the lid has an 
ivory knob. This is one of the few pieces in the collection that has been 
previously published, once as a wine pot instead of a teapot. 
Impressed seal: "Workshop of Zhang Lihui." Body height 10 cm. Pur- 
chased by B. Laufer in Anhui Province and probably made there. 
19th century. Gift of E. E. Ayer, 1923. FM 131983 a-hosc 



marred by the poor fit between the applique and the 
engraved outlines. One is often reminded of a badly 
registered color print. 

Incidentally, one sometimes sees this 
sheet-applique method referred to as "inlaying" in 
books on Chinese decorative arts. In most cases the 
term is incorrect, although true inlay is known on 



17 



Chinese pewter. Field Museum has several trays with 
inlaid brass designs (fig. 9), and the British Museum 
has an extraordinary pewter teapot covered with deli- 
cate mother-of-pearl inlay. 

We have already seen that jade handles, lid knobs 
and spouts were usually mounted on the hybrid clay- 
pewter teapots of Yixing. The pale green or white stone 
not only formed a pretty contrast with the silvery-grey 
body, but had a practical function as well. Jade is an 



already been made of teapots with coconut shell and 
porcelain bodies. Other teapots have lid knobs made of 
glass, wood, or carnelian. One exceptional teapot — or 
possibly wine pot — in the Field Museum collection is 
beautifully wrapped in finely woven basketry, shrink- 
fitted over the pewter body (fig. 10). While the insulat- 
ing qualities of the pot may have been somewhat 
improved by this basketry, one cannot help worrying 
that repeated wetting would soon have ruined it. 




11. Teapot with bucket handles and removable tea basket inside 
mouth. Pewter. Decorated with engraved floral motifs on a ground of 
punched circles. An impressed seal on the base reads, "Shantou 



[Swatow] Branch, Long|i, Yanyihe Workshop, Chaoyang 
[Chaozhou]." Body height 10.5 cm. Early 20th century. Gift of E. E. 
Ayer. 1924. FM 110000 a-homo 



18 



excellent insulator. A handle and lid knob of jade 
therefore kept one's fingers cool when the pot was filled 
with boiling water. A carefully drilled and sharply cut 
jade spout must also have made it easier to pour without 
dripping and may — although no direct evidence on the 
matter exists — have reassured tea drinkers worried 
about the toxic effects of contact between hot tea and 
lead. 

A variety of other materials were sometimes used 
in conjunction with pewter in tea wares. Mention has 



Chinese Pewter Making Centers 

Many references to pewter in pre- 18th century records 
direct us to the craftsmen of Mudu in the suburbs of 
Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province, just across the lake from 
Yixing. Mudu was also renowned for its artistry in sil- 
ver, bronze, and wood. No doubt there would have 
been many exchanges of decorative ideas and tech- 
niques. The pewter-working methods used at Yixing 
may well have come from Mudu. And the Yixing pott- 



ers may sometimes have sent clay vessels over to Mudu 
to be cased in pewter, bringing them back afterward to 
Yixing for engraving. 

The only other Chinese pewter objects in the 
Museum's collection that have an identifiable place of 
origin come from somewhere in Anhui, Hunan, and 
Sichuan Provinces, and from Chaozhou and Canton 
(Guangzhou) in Guangdong Province. Although little 
is known about pewter workers in the first three pro- 
vinces, those of Guangdong, in the Deep South of Chi- 
na, are less obscure. First mentioned in records of the 
18th century, they remained leading producers down 
through World War II because of their access to export 
markets and to the tin mined in Yunnan and Southeast 
Asia. They manufactured a wide range of objects, 
including food warmers, tea caddies, wine ewers, tiered 
boxes, altar sets, and religious statues. 

Pewterers in Chaozhou, some of whom had 
branch workshops in Shantou (Swatow), often placed 
their studio marks on their products; recent examples 
of Chaozhou work (fig. 11) tend also to be identifiable 
through their very shiny surfaces and rather casual 
workmanship, which seems much inferior to that of 
older pieces made in other centers. Some pewter ob- 
jects made in or near Canton bear the names either of 
manufacturers or shops, most of them clustered along 
Denglong Street in Canton city. 

The rest of the Museum's pewter is still unprov- 
enanced. Historical records indicate that the alloy was 
worked at a number of other centers within China: at 
Ningbo and Shaoxing in Zhejiang Province, at Xiamen 
(Amoy) in Fujian Province, at Jiaozhou in Shandong 
Province, and in the city of Shanghai. Craftsmen of 
Chinese origin also made pewter wares in Southeast 
Asia, especially in Malaysia and Singapore. And there 



were undoubtedly still more centers we do not know 
about. Some of these must be responsible for many of 
the pewter objects, including those with brass appli- 
que and basketry decoration, that we have described 
here.FH 



Bibliographic Notes 

On Chinese Tea Literature 

Blofeld, John. 1985, The Chinese Art of Tea. Boston. 

Chen Zujian & Zhu Zizhen. 1981 , Zhongguo chaye lishizhiliao 

xuanji [Collections of Chinese writings on tea history]. Beijing. 

On Chinese Pewter Wares 

Chung, Margaret. 1981, Chinese Pewter: A Research on its His- 
tory and Development (unpublished manuscript). Department of 
Art History, University of Chicago. 

Hommel, Rudolf P. 1937, China at Work. New York. 

Jenyns, Soames & Watson, W 1980, Chinese Art II: Gold, Later 
Bronzes, Cloisonne, Cantonese Enamel, Lacquer, Furniture, 
Wood. New York. 

Strachan, Diane S. 1975, "Pewter," Arts of Asia, May-June: 42- 
46. Hong Kong. 

On Yixing Wares 

Bartholomew, Terese Tse. 1978, I-Hsing Ware. China Institute of 
America, New York. 

Bartholomew, Terese Tse. 1981 , "A Study on the Shapes and Dec- 
orations of Yixing Teapots," in Yixing Pottery, pp 13-33. Hong 
Kong Museum of Art. 

Flagstaff Museum. 1984, K.S. Lo Collection in the Flagstaff 
House Museum of Tea Ware, Part 2. Hong Kong Museum of Art. 

Hedley, G. 1937, "Yi-hsing ware," Transactions of the Oriental 
Ceramic Society: 70-86. London. 

Li, Jingkang & Zhang, Hong. 1937, Yangxian shahu tukao 
[Pictorial study of the teapots of Yangxian], vol. 1. Hong Kong. 
Lo, K.S. 1986, The Stoneware of Yixing from the Ming Period to 
the Present Day. Hong Kong. 



Anthropology Symposium for Collectors 



Very often private collectors approach Field Museum for 
information and help with objects in their possession. Our 
staff can help with some problems and not with others, and 
we thought that collectors might find it useful and informative 
to participate in a symposium with Museum Staff about 
collector's problems. 

On Saturday, March 26, from 9 to 1 2 am, in Lecture Hall I 
at Field Museum, the Collector's Committee of the Capital 
Campaign and the Department of Anthropology will present a 
panel discussion of assistance for collectors. Members of the 
Anthropology staff will talk about conservation, cataloguing, 
documentation, collection storage, and display, ethical and 
legal problems. 



Field Museum staff is qualified to speak only about its 
kind of collections, ethnographic, archaeological, and 
Oriental art objects, but obviously not about European fine 
art, historical antiques, European musical instruments, and 
similar material. These are all matters which are dealt with 
every day at Field Museum, and perhaps experience gained 
by the Museum staff in dealing with its collections may 
be helpful to collectors in dealing with their collections. 
The duration and format of the meeting will not lend itself 
to bringing specific objects in for discussion. Phone inquir- 
ies and reservations should be made to 322-8862. 



19 



"MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS 



// 



Photographic Exhibit 

Closes March 13 




Photo by Laura McF 
Untitled, 1984 
Ringoes, New Jerse 
8 x 10 silver gelatin 



20 



This unprecedented exhibition of 128 photographs of 
American mothers and daughters chronicles- the first, 
most lasting, and most crucial bond in every woman's 
life. Eighty-nine photographers — among them Eudora 
Welty — have contributed remarkable images that 
combine to form a varied and deeply insightful vision of 
the mother/daughter relationship. Large color prints, 



images combined with text, and mixed-media work are 
shown side-by-side with more straightforward docu- 
mentary investigations. 

This exhibit was organized by the Aperture 
Foundation in New York and is free with regular 
Museum admission. 



THE GNETALES 

Botanical Remnants From the Age 

of Dinosaurs 



By Catherine D. Hult and Peter R. Crane 



For anyone trying to come to grips with the 
daunting diversity of plant and animal life there 
is little more disheartening than to discover that 
organisms as superficially similar as palms and cycads 
are actually very distantly related, while others as su- 
perficially different from one another as cabbages, 
broccoli, and brussels sprouts are merely variants of a 
single species. In elementary botany classes a particu- 
larly alarming case is presented by a small, peculiar, and 
somewhat obscure group of plants known as the Gne- 
tales. Although they are currently of little significance 
in the earth's vegetation, the Gnetales constitute one 
of only five major groups of living seed plants (the 
others being cycads, Ginkgo, conifers, and flowering 
plants). As such, they have attracted considerable 
interest and it is now clear that these unusual outliers in 
the botanical world are of critical importance for inter- 
preting the evolution of plant life over the last 200 mil- 
lion years. 

Today the Gnetales are represented by three living 
genera which are superficially so different from one 
another that their close relationship seems almost in- 
comprehensible. The genus Gnetum (fig. 1), after 
which the group is named, mainly includes tropical 
vinelike climbers that are characterized by large ex- 
panded leaves closely resembling those of flowering 
plants. The similarity of these leaves is so striking (fig. 
2) that specimens of Gnetum without reproductive 
parts are regularly misidentified as flowering plants, 



Catherine D. Hult is a laboratory assistant in the Depart- 
ment of Geology and Peter R. Crane is associate curator of 
Paleobotany. 



even by specialists in tropical vegetation. The second 
genus, Ephedra (fig. 3), could hardly be more different, 
and includes shrubs which typically occur in dry, often 
more or less arid, situations such as the Mediterranean, 
Middle East, and southwestern North America. 
Ephedra plants are rarely more than about 15 feet tall, 
and consist of a mass of spindly stems with minute 
leaves that are arranged either in pairs or in groups of 
three. Welwitschia (fig. 4), the third member of this 
peculiar triumvirate, includes a single species which is 
restricted to a narrow strip of desert in southwestern 
Africa (see February 1988 Bulletin). It is one of the most 
bizarre plants known and resembles a giant woody car- 
rot with just two thick, leathery leaves which persist 
throughout the life of the plant. 

Neither Gnetum nor Welwitschia have any very 
significant utilitarian value, although the flexible fib- 
rous stems of Gnetum are used locally in tropical regions 
for making rope, and young leaves and seeds are occa- 
sionally eaten as a vegetable. In contrast, Ephedra is 
widely used in a variety of folk-medicinal applications 
in many different parts of the world. In western North 
America during the nineteenth century the stems of 
Ephedra were steeped in water by Indians and frontiers- 
men to make a stimulant — the so-called "Desert," or 
"Mormon," tea. In North Africa and Asia preparations 
of Ephedra are used as antiperspirants, antiasthmatics, 
and also in several gynecological applications. The 
active principle common to most of these folk- 
medicinal uses is the alkaloid ephedrine or related com- 
pounds, which have the ability to constrict swollen or 
inflamed blood vessels. Not surprisingly, there is con- 
siderable pharmacological interest in these com- 



21 



pounds, and the Natural Products Data Base (NAP- 
RALERT) of the College of Pharmacy, University of 
Illinois at Chicago, lists over 150 tests in which the 
pharmacological effects of Ephedra extracts have been 
scientifically assessed. Based on the information gained 
from folk-medicinal applications and its natural 
occurrences, ephedrine has now been synthesized arti- 




all share important common similarities such as the 
presence of hair and mammary glands producing milk. 
Based on the presence of these distinctive features we 
conclude that these animals are closely related. 

Exactly the same principles apply in the botanical 
world. In fact, with Gnetales — if one ignores the ob- 
vious features unique to each of three genera — there 



1 . Model of part of a Gnetum 
plant showing a shoot with leaves, 
aborted female "flowers." and 
about 20 large seeds. The model 
is currently on display in "Plants of 
the World" (Hall 29). 



22 



ficially and it is one of the common ingredients in var- 
ious allergy, cold, and asthma medications. 

The evolutionary and botanical interest in the 
Gnetales mainly centers on their relationships to each 
other and to other plant groups. To begin with, one 
might reasonably ask why these three strange plants are 
regarded as closely related, given the enormous and ob- 
vious differences in form and ecology. The answer is 
not mysterious, and nicely illustrates both the impor- 
tance of looking beyond "first impressions" and the 
normal practice of biological classification (systema- 
tics), which classifies plants and animals into groups 
based on similarities rather than on differences. Quite 
simply, it would be nonsense, and completely imprac- 
ticable, to construct groups which were not circum- 
scribed in some way by similar characteristics. Thus, 
we classify seals, cows, and humans together as mam- 
mals in spite of their obvious differences because they 



are many distinctive characteristics which all members 
of the group have in common. These include their leaf 
arrangement, certain chemical features, the con- 
struction of their reproductive parts, and details of 
their life cycle. When the complete list is assembled it 
becomes obvious that the Gnetales share so many un- 
usual — and fundamental — similarities that their close 
relationship to each other could hardly be in doubt. 

One characteristic feature of all Gnetales that has 
attracted considerable attention is the remarkable spe- 
cialization of those cells which conduct water from the 
roots to the aerial parts of the plant. In conifers and 
Ginkgo the long thin cells that perform this function 
(technically termed tracheids, fig. 5) are also responsi- 
ble for structural support: literally for holding the tree 
up. Almost all of the tree trunk in conifers and Ginkgo 
is comprised of tracheids. However, as is often the case 
in biology, different functional requirements directly 



conflict and some kind of compromise appears to have 
been "worked out" in the course of evolution. In the 
cellular construction of tree trunks there is a direct con- 
flict between the two equally important requirements 
of structural support and water conduction. If one were 
to design the ideal kind of wood for conducting water it 
would be composed of thin-walled cells, with large 
internal diameters linked together to form long tubes. 
In contrast, the ideal wood for structural support would 
be composed of cells with narrow internal diameters 
and very thick walls that would fit together as a strong 
interlocking mass. Thus, an ideal conducting cell 
would be physically weak and almost useless for structu- 
ral support, while the ideal, strong, structural cell 
would have almost no ability to conduct water. 

The tracheids of conifers and Ginkgo, which are 
used both for support and water conduction, therefore 
represent a compromise which balances these con- 
flicting requirements (fig. 5). However, in the Ghe- 
tales (and also in flowering plants) the conflict has 
been neatly avoided, and the two roles of conduction 
and support are mainly carried out by two different 
kinds of cells, each specialized for their own function 



(fig. 5). Tracheids or even thicker-walled cells (fibers) 
remain the principal source of stem support, but the 
role of conduction is taken on by specialized cells with 
perforated end walls (termed vessel elements, fig. 5), 
which often have a large diameter and are linked 
together to form long continuous tubes. This remark- 
able specialization is part of the evidence which indi- 
cates that the three living genera of Gnetales are close- 
ly related to each other, and that clearly separates the 
Gnetales (and flowering plants) from all conifers, 
cycads, and Ginkgo. 

In terms of evolution, the occurrence of the same 
specialized features in Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwits- 
chia has led most botanists to conclude that they 
probably all evolved from a single common ancestor. 
Subsequently, each genus seems to have followed a dif- 
ferent evolutionary pathway, each becoming uniquely 
specialized in its own way. The structure and operation 
of the reproductive system provides a good illustration 
of how different specializations have apparently been 
superimposed on a basically uniform "ground plan." In 
all three genera the structure of the immature develop- 
ing seed (ovule) is quite similar, and it is surrounded 



2. Leaves of Gnetum gnemon (left) compared with those of coffee (Coffea arabica, 
right), a representative flowering plant. Note the similar pattern of veins and expanded 
leaf blade. It has been suggested that the physiological capability to support such 
leaves may have been enhanced in the course of evolution by the development of effi- 
cient water-conducting cells (vessels) in both flowering plants and Gnetales. 




23 



and protected by pairs of small leaflike structures (tech- 
nically termed bracts and bracteoles). However, as the 
seed matures this basic pattern of organization is mod- 
ified in various ways as part of different methods of seed 
dispersal. 

In Welwitschia the leaflike structures become dry 
and remain attached to the seed to form a papery wing 
(fig. 6), and this probably enhances the possibilities for 
wind dispersal in the barren, open habitats that these 
plants occupy (fig. 4). In Ephedra some of the bracts 



mals. However, a few species of Gnetum stand out as 
having dull grey seeds and perhaps a quite different dis- 
persal system. Recent studies have shown that species 
with seeds of this type are often confined to areas which 
are flooded annually (for example parts of the Amazon 
Basin). ' At these times of the year the flood water may 
rise well over 30 feet, and fish — in a bizarre quirk of 
nature — become the most widespread animals of the 
forest. In the process of feeding on floating and sub- 
merged fruits and seeds, the fish play an important role 




3. Shoots of Ephedra showing the spindly, jointed stems, small leaves, and the 
swollen bracts associated with mature seeds. 



24 



become swollen (fig. 3), fleshy, and colored (usually 
bright red). This seems to be important in attracting 
birds, which inadvertently swallow and distribute the 
relatively small seeds. Gnetum also appears to be ani- 
mal dispersed, although the seeds are much larger (fig. 
1). As in Ephedra, the surrounding bracts are usually 
orange or red and this coloration is apparently associ- 
ated with dispersal by birds and perhaps some mam- 



in the dispersal of many plants. Based on the most re- 
cent observations, at least some ot the Gnetum species 
that grow in regularly flooded areas may be among the 
large group of lowland tropical plants in which dis- 
persal is aided by fish. ' 

Although many aspects of the biology of the Gne- 
tales are rather poorly understood, another area in 
which there is some information concerns the way in 




4. Part of the diorama in "Plants of the World" (Hall 29) at Field Museum showing Welwitschia mirabilis in its natural habitat (see February 1 988 
Bulletin). 



which these plants are pollinated. It is generally 
assumed that the Gnetales — along with cycads, con- 
ifers, and Ginkgo — are all wind pollinated and that 
unlike the typical situation in flowering plants, transfer 
of pollen takes place without the assistance of insects or 
other animals. However, it has recently been shown 
that certain cycads are insect pollinated and this also 
appears to be true of the Gnetales. Some particularly 
fascinating studies on Ephedra have demonstrated at 
least two kinds of insect pollination systems. 2 ' In some 
species male and female reproductive organs are pro- 
duced on separate individuals, and the bracteoles (and 
even leaves) associated with both the male and female 
parts (pollen organs and ovules, respectively) produce 
a sweet nectarlike secretion which is collected by in- 
sects (fig. 7). 

Other species have female plants, which produce 
only ovules, and male plants which produce pollen 
organs as well as "nonfunctional" ovules. In both male 
and female plants of these species the "nectar" is pro- 



duced at the tip of a tube which is at the apex of each 
ovule. Interestingly however the ovules on the male 
plants never develop into mature seeds and the mainte- 
nance of both sex organs in these individuals seems to 
be tied to the operation of the pollination system. The 
nonfunctional ovules apparently play a role in attract- 
ing insects to the male plants (fig. 7). In both cases the 
droplet of "nectar" produced resembles honey in hav- 
ing a high sugar and nitrogen content and is collected 
mainly by hoverflies (syrphids) and other Diptera (true 
flies). 

A basically similar kind of insect pollination 
mechanism appears to operate in Welwitschia (see Feb- 
ruary 1988 Bulletin) and at least some species of Gne- 
tum. In Gnetum gnemon there are also separate male 
and female plants, but once again associated with the 
male reproductive structures are female sex organs 
(ovules) which never mature into seeds. These ovules 
also produce a large droplet of liquid at their apex, and 
again this secretion may be associated with the attrac- 



25 



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5. Diagrams illustrating the different kinds of structural and water- 
conducting cells in the stems of conifers, Gnetales, and flowering 
plants. The long tracheids (folded — left, bottom, right) which make up 
most of the wood in the trunk of a pine tree (Pinus) are important in 
both physical support and water conduction and thus represent a 
compromise between these two functions. In the stem of Ephedra 
support is provided principally by long thick-walled, fiberlike 
tracheids (left of scale, top), while water is mainly conducted through 
shorter cells with a larger internal diameter and perforated end walls 
(vessels — left of scale, bottom). Similar differentiation into structural 
fibers (above scale, right) and water-conducting vessels (above 
scale, left) occurs in the wood of flowering plants (e.g., Liriodendron 
— tulip tree). Redrawn from diagrams in Esau. 8 Drawings by Clara 
Richardson. 



tion of pollinators to male plants (fig. 8). Although 
there are no detailed studies of pollination in Gnetum 
there are scattered observations that large bees and 
other insects visit the flowers of some Gnetum species. 4 

The small amount of evidence available therefore 
seems to indicate that at least some Gnetales are insect 
pollinated. In all three of the living representatives 
there seems to be evidence that insects are enticed to 
visit male plants by "nonfunctional" female parts 
(ovules), which produce a nectarlike substance at their 
tip. This is especially interesting because in conifers, 
Ginkgo, and probably some cycads a similar secretion 
produced by the ovule is important in trapping pollen 
floating in the air currents. This so-called "pollination 
droplet" is then reabsorbed, "sucking" the pollen back 
into the ovule. In the Gnetales the function of this 
secretion seems to have been subtly altered, perhaps as 
part of an evolutionary shift from wind to insect pol- 
lination. In effect, the "pollination droplet" seems to 
have been coopted, and slightly modified to play a role 
in attracting insects to the plant. According to recent 
studies 2,3 this functional shift may also have been 
accompanied by a change in the chemical composition 
of the droplet. In Ephedra the nectar drop has a higher 
sugar content than is typical of the pollination droplet 
in at least some wind-pollinated conifers. 

The interest attaching to the existence of insect 
pollination in the Gnetales is twofold. First, it demon- 



6. A mature seed of Welwitschia mirabilis with a pair of attached dry 
leaflike structures (bracteoles), which form the two papery wings. 
Drawing by Clara Richardson. 



26 





7. A fly (Lucilia sp.) feeding on the nectarlike pollination droplet produced at the apex of Ephedra ovules. The fly is attracted to pollen 
producing "flowers" (left) by "nonfunctional" ovules that produce a pollination droplet but never mature into seeds. Fully functional ovules on 
different plants (right) do not have associated pollen-producing organs. Redrawn from sketches by Seger in Bino et al. ■' Drawings by Clara 
Richardson. 



strates that although there are no large or visually spec- 
tacular flowers in the living gymnosperms, at least 
some of these plants do have relatively sophisticated 
insect pollination systems. Along with the recently dis- 
covered role of insects in the pollination of certain 
cycads, 5 this realization begins to redress the common 
(but wrong) view that among living plants only angio- 
sperms (flowering plants) are insect pollinated. 
Second, it demonstrates an intriguing point of sim- 
ilarity between the Gnetales and angiosperms to be 
added to the already impressive list of features shared 
between the two groups. To return to our earlier point, 
the existence of such similarities raises the obvious 
question of how the Gnetales and angiosperms might 
be related in terms of evolution. 

The Gnetales have sometimes been called "the 
lure and the despair" of the plant morphologist, a view 
alluding both to their unusual structure and the pola- 
rized opinions of many botanists who interpret them 
either as some kind of "missing link" between flowering 
plants and gymnosperms or as completely irrelevant to 
the question of angiosperm origins. Early in this cen- 
tury E. A. N. Arber and J. Parkin, working at Cam- 




8. Several whorls of reproductive structures in a male plant of Gne- 
tum gnemon showing several male (pollen producing) "flowers" be- 
low and three nonfunctional female "flowers" (ovule and associated 
bracteoles) above. Note the large drop of liquid at the apex of one of 
the ovules. This pollination droplet may function as nectar and play an 
important role in the attraction of insect pollinators. Photograph by 
Prof. P. K. Endress. 



27 



bridge University, presented several important and 
highly influential ideas on flowering plant evolution 
and strongly advocated the view that the Gnetales and 
angiosperms are closely related. While many of Arber 
and Parkin's ideas have been widely accepted, their 
hypothesis of the position of the Gnetales steadily be- 
came less popular until the work of I. W. Bailey and his 
colleagues at Harvard University appeared to deliver 
the "coup de grace" to this long-standing idea. 

Bailey and others presented evidence that the spe- 
cialized water-conducting elements (vessels) of Gne- 
tales and angiosperms were much less similar than once 
thought. Because this removed an important point of 
similarity between the two groups many botanists 
quickly dismissed the idea of a close relationship be- 
tween Gnetales and flowering plants. However, other 
significant similarities still remained and in the last few 
years the Arber and Parkin idea has been revived. Not 
only is their view supported by the bulk of accumulated 
evidence from plant structure and anatomy, but it is 
also supported by very recent chemical analyses of sim- 
ilarities in their genetic material. Taken together, all of 
the recent work suggests that the Gnetales are more 
closely related to angiosperms than to any other living, 
group of seed plants, but it also shows that the Gne- 
tales, at least as they are currently defined, were not the 
direct ancestors of flowering plants. 




10. A fossil shoot of Drewria potomacensis, an extinct member of the 
Gnetales from the Early Cretaceous of Virginia. 7 The specimen is 
about 7 mm long and poorly preserved, but shows a stem with a pair 
of attached leaves and the remains of three terminal inflorescences. 
The oval structures at the top left of the specimen are probably the 
fossilized remains of seeds (compare fig. 1 1 ). 



9. Three fossil gnetalean pollen grains from the Early Cretaceous of 
Virginia.' The pollen grains have numerous longitudinal ridges on 
their surface and closely resemble the pollen of extant Welwitschia 
mirabilis. Each of the two smaller grains is about 20um (20 
thousandths of a millimeter) long. These specimens are from the 
same thin bed of clay as the fossil gnetalean shoot illustrated in fig. 

10. Photograph by Dr. G. R. Upchurch. 



28 




One puzzling and slightly worrying aspect of this 
conclusion is that if Gnetales and flowering plants are 
indeed sister branches on the phylogenetic tree then 
they might be expected to have similarly long fossil his- 
tories. Flowering plants have an excellent fossil record 
which extends back at least 120 million years, but frus- 
tratingly the fossil history of the Gnetales has always 
been something of an enigma. In the early part of this 
century, nothing was known of the fossil record of the 
Gnetales, but Arber and Parkin were quick to recog- 
nize the possibility of confusing fossil Gnetales (partic- 
ularly leaves like those of Gnetum) with angiosperms. 
Other workers 6 have suggested that the Gnetales may 
have been confined to dry perhaps desert environ- 
ments, such as those inhabited by Ephedra and Welwits- 
chia, where the chances of preservation as fossils would 
have been small. Since Arber and Parkin's work there 
have been extensive studies of fossil pollen and spores, 
principally in association with geological exploration 
for coal, oil, and gas reserves. Such studies have greatly 
enhanced our understanding of the history of many 
plant groups, and based on fossil pollen grains (fig. 9) it 
is now thought probable that the Gnetales may indeed 



have a fossil record extending as far back as the Per- 
mian" (about 250 million years before present). 

All other evidence of the Gnetales had eluded 
paleobotanists until a complete fossil gnetalean plant 
was recently described from rocks about 120 million 
years old close to Richmond, Virginia.' One of the 
most striking features of these fossils is their minute 
size, and that they were ever collected at all is a tribute 
to the perspicacity of Dr. G. R. Upchurch of the Uni- 
versity of Colorado who discovered them (fig. 10). 
These Cretaceous Gnetales are thought to have been 
small herbaceous plants (fig. 11) which along with 
ferns and perhaps a few small flowering plants probably 
colonized the kinds of open, often disturbed areas that 
many grasses and other common weeds occupy today. ' 
As any gardener knows, it is the trees not the grass 
which provide most of the work in the fall when huge 
quantities of fallen leaves need to be gathered up. In 
contrast, herbaceous plants usually die back and wither 
where they grow: because they do not shed large quan- 
tities of leaves their vegetative parts stand little chance 
of being washed into lakes, ponds, or the sea and thus 



being preserved in the fossil record. If most of the ex- 
tinct Gnetales were herbaceous like the fossil material 
from Virginia, it may provide part of the explanation 
for why the fossil record of the Gnetales has remained 
so sketchy for so long. 

Although the fossil record of the Gnetales is still 
poor it seems certain to be expanded as paleobotanical 
work continues. Already the evidence from fossil pol- 
len clearly shows that the Gnetales were once much 
more diverse than their three remaining living repre- 
sentatives would lead us to suspect, particularly in the 
vegetation of eastern South America and western Afri- 
ca about 120- 100 million years ago. As is often the case 
with ancient groups, the living representatives are just 
the tip of the evolutionary iceberg. In this case the 
three living genera are merely the surviving remnants 
of a group that reached its zenith well before the demise 
of the dinosaurs. It is now clear that the Gnetales were 
once much richer in species and it is in these situations 
that paleontology makes its special contribution of 
placing our living, but perhaps biased, sample of plants 
in an appropriate historical perspective. FH 



11. Reconstruction of a fossil gnetalean (Drewria potomacensis) 
from the Early Cretaceous of Virginia 7 based on about 1 00 specimens 
similar to that in fig. 1 0. The reconstruction shows pairs of leaves and 
the terminal aggregations of reproductive structures (compare fig. 
1 0). Drawing by Clara Richardson. 




References 

1. Kubitzki, K. 1985. Ichthyochory inGnetum venosum. 
An. Acad. Brasil. Gene, 57(4):513-516. 

2. Bino, R. J., A. Dafni and A. D. J. Meeuse. 1984. En- 
tomophily in the dioecious gymnosperm Ephedra aphylla 
Forsk. ( E. alteC.A. Mey.), with some notes on E. campy- 
lopodaC.A. Mey. I. Aspects of the entomophi bus syn- 
drome. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akad. van 
Wetenschappen, (C)87(1):M3. 

3. Bino, R. J.,N. DeventeandA. D.J. Meeuse. 1984. En- 
tomophily in the dioecious gymnosperm Ephedra aphylla 
Forsk. ( E. alte C. A. Mey. ), with some notes on E. campy- 
lopodaC.A. Mey. II. Pollination droplets, nectaries, and 
nectarial secretion in Ephedra. Proceedings of the Koninklijke 
Nederlandse Akad. van Wetenschappen, (C)87(l): 15-24. 

4- Van der Pijl, L. 1953. On the flower biology of some 
plants from Java, with general remarks on fly-traps (species 
ofAnnona, Artocarpus, Typhonium, Gnetum, Arisaema and 
Abroma). Ann. Bogor, 1:77-99. 

5. Norstog, K. 1987. Cycads and the origin of insect pol- 
lination. American Scientist, 75:270-279. 

6. Wilson, L. R. 1959. Geological history of the Gnetales. 
Oklahoma Geology Notes, 19(2):35-40. 

7. Crane, P. R. andG. R. Upchurch Jr. 1987. Drewria poto- 
macensis gen. et sp. nov. , an early Cretaceous member of 
Gnetales from the Potomac Group of Virginia. American 
Journal of Botany, 74(1 1): 1722- 1736. 

8. Esau, K. 1965. Plant Anatomy. 2nd ed. John Wiley &. 
Sons, Inc., U.S.A. 767 pp. 



29 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TOURS 1 

Dear Field Museum Member: 

Whale-watching and observing the varied bird life along the St. Lawrence are just 
some of the pleasures that await members of our July tour to Canada's Maritime Prov- 
inces. These rare experiences will be particularly worthwhile since your group will 
be accompanied by Dr. David Willard, manager of Field Museum's bird collection 
and a seasoned tour leader. He most recently led a tour to Alaska. 

Our special voyage aboard the magnificent M.V. Illiria highlights the incredible 
natural history and untouched beauty of the Maritime Provinces. In addition to Dr. 
Willard, a marine biologist on board will discuss the region's remarkable wildlife, 
while an expert on the history and diversity of our ports-of-call will prepare us for 
on-shore excursions. 

This tour promises to be one of our finest ever, and the fact that we will be cruis- 
ing on the elegant Illiria ensures that this will be a memorable voyage. With its ratio of 
90 crew members serving only 135 passengers, the Illiria guarantees a high level of 
personalized service at all times. The superbly furnished ship has gleaming bright- 
work, broad teakwood decks, a large dining room that accommodates all passengers at 
a single sitting, and museum-quality artwork. The unique nature of this program, 
which combines the pleasures of the great outdoors with the luxury and convenience 
of cruise travel, makes for an ideal summer family vacation. With all sightseeing tours 
included in the rates and all meals included during the cruise, this program presents 
an excellent travel value. And, our special "third person sharing rates" enable three or 
four persons to occupy a single cabin at significant savings — a wonderful opportunity 
for inviting your children or grandchildren. 

Most of all, this tour will afford you the opportunity to view the area's great 
variety of bird life with the guidance and expertise of a Field Museum specialist. 

We have indications that this program will sell out quickly. To avoid dis- 
appointment, we encourage you to book your reservation soon. 

Sincerely, 



M^Sty 



Willard L. Boyd 
President 



30 




M.V. Illiria 



Voyage to 

The Gulf of 

St. Lawrence and 

Canada's 

Maritime Provinces 

Aboard the Illiria 

July 1-9, 1988 

Accompanied by Dr. David Willard, 

Field Museum Zoologist 



ITINERARY 

July 1 

Fly to Montreal. Transfer to Delta Montreal 

Hotel. 

July 2 

Morning drive to Quebec City; sightsee in the 
afternoon. Illiria sails at 4:00 pm. Evening 
cruise along the St. Lawrence River shore. 
Captain's welcome dinner. 

July 3 

Cruise St. Lawrence River this morning. 
Whale-watching by Mingan Islands this after- 
noon. Evening cruise to Newfoundland. Gros 
Morne National Park. 

July 4 

Morning arrival at Gros Morne National Park 
for day of shore excursions. Evening cruise 
past Bay of Islands and along Newfound- 
land's south shore. 

July 5 

Morning arrival at St. Pierre Miquelon for 
shore excursions. Evening cruise past Grand 
Miquelon to Magdalen Islands. 

July 6 

Morning arrival at Magdalen Islands. After- 
noon shore excursions. Evening cruise to 
Gaspe Peninsula. 



July 7 

Morning visit to Bonaventure Island Bird 
Sanctuary. Afternoon visit to Perce at tip of the 
peninsula. Evening cruise up St. Lawrence 
River shore. 

July 8 

Whale-watching this morning. Cruise 
Saguenay River Fjord in the afternoon. Eve- 
ning cruise to Montreal. Captain's farewell 
dinner. 

July 9 

Disembark Montreal after breakfast. Transfer 

to airport for flight home. 

Rates: $2,090-$2,450 per person (double 
occupancy); third person $430-5550. These 
rates do not include air fare, but do include a 
$200 tax-deductible contribution to the Field 
Museum. Estimated round trip air fare be- 
tween Chicago and Montreal: $195. To 
reserve tour space, send $200.00 per person 
deposit to Field Museum Tours. A brochure 
will be mailed upon request. Please phone 
322-8862 for further information. 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



31 



17 - 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 

April 1988 




"Birds in Art" 



March 26 - May 22 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor /Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
WillardL. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J . Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

April 1988 

Volume 59, Number 4 



APRIL EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 



BIRDS IN ART 

March 26-May 11 



TRADITIONAL SILK SARONGS 

Of Mandar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, 
by Robert L. Welsch 



13 



HYDE PARK'S PARAKEETS 

by David M. Walsten . 



23 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

Featuring July Voyage to the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and Canada's Maritime Provinces 



30 



COVER 

"Winter Song" — acrylic painting of black-capped chickadees 
by Jerry Gadamus, of Green Bay, Wisconsin: 97 x 36cm. Gada- 
mus's painting is one of 60 artworks on view from March 26 
through May 22. The exhibit, "Birds in Art," was organized 
and is being circulated by the Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art 
Museum, Wausau, Wisconsin. For more on the exhibit, see 
pages 8-12. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605- 
Copyright ©1988 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and c 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts ate welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Memb 
Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, lllino 
additional mailing office. 



'#»•*»•> vjj w*v. • •:'* • «\ma.v. vv.*/,i..A\v»7/A»A\v»« r AWV.-"*wi:i •'**•: 



.%%.«.# 



.»» . . 




Edward E. Ayer Series 

Thursdays in April, Beginning April 7 
1:30 p.m., James Simpson Theatre 
Lectures are free and refreshments are served. 

April 7 

'The Gardens of Japan" 

Taimi Anderson, Landscape Architect 

The Japanese garden is a garden for all seasons in which 
serenity, harmony, and beauty combine to express an elo- 
quent abstraction ot nature. See how weathered rocks, 
gnarled pines, waterfalls, and Japanese flora are delicately 
balanced to symbolize the mountain and island landscape 
of Japan. 



April Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the 
world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demon- 
strations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the 
Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below 
is one of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the 
activity listing upon arrival for the complete schedule and 
program locations. The programs are partially supported by 
a grant from the Illinois Art Council. 

April 10 

2:00pm Malvina Hoffman: Portraits in Bronze (slide lecture). 
A look at the life and works of Malvina Hoffman, concentrates 
on the "Portraits of Mankind" collection. 

These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets 
are not required. 



April 14 

"Animal Courtship" 

Paul Verrell, Research Fellow, 

Department of Biology, University of Chicago 

Animals court and mate in hundreds of thousands of ways, 
from the violent praying mantis, who devours her mate after 
mating, to the romantic lifetime bonding of the Canada 
geese. Sexual reproduction appears to be an obvious fact of 
nature, but why and how have animals evolved such diverse 
means to ensure their survival? 

April 21 

"A Botanical Sojourn in Switzerland" 
Peter Crane, Associate Curator, 
Department of Geology, Field Museum 

From the gardens of Zurich to the alpine meadows, the visual 
beauty of Switzerland astounds the visitor. Botanists delight 
in its diverse and colorful native flora. 

April 28 

"The Queen Charlotte Islands" 

Roy Taylor, Director, Chicago Botanic Garden 

Off the coast of British Columbia in the north Pacific lies the 
homelands of the Haida people, one of the many artistically 
rich Indian cultures of the Northwest. The Queen Charlottes 
also support unusual plant life. Explore the vast human and 
natural beauty of these remote islands. 



Adult Programs 

Classes 

Learn about Chinese Cultures, capture nature in watercolors 
or become an expert birder. Adult courses continue through 
April and May with exciting new six-week, three-week, and 
one-day classes. Check the April/May Adult and Family Pro- 
grams brochure or call (312) 322-8855 for program details. 



Eilm Series 

Art and Artisans: 
A Celebration of the 
Margaret Mead Film Festival 

Saturdays, April 9 through 30 

To Celebrate the tenth anniversary of the Margaret Mead 
Ethnographic Film Festival, a collection of some of the finest 
films shown in the festival is on tour. The collection focuses 
on films depicting the lives and works of traditional artists. 

The eleven films in the series are arranged into four thematic 
programs. Each program features a guest speaker address- 
ing the program's theme. 

■Saturday, April 9 

Women and Cultural Continuity 

"Sabina Sanchez — The Art of Embroidery" 

Judith Bronowski and Robert Grant 

1976, Color, 22 minutes 

This film records the peaceful world of a Zapotec woman in 
San Antonio Castillo, Velasco, Mexico. Sabina embroiders 
the colorful blouses of her traditional village costume. 



Continued f> 




Saturday, April 23 
Reviving Ancient Traditions 

"Stilt Dancers of Long Bow Village" (above) 
Carma Hinton and Richard Gordon 
1980, Color, 28 minutes 



Saturday, April 9 

"Munni: Childhood and Art in Mithila" 
Ray Owens, Ron Hess, and Cheryl Graff 
1983, Color, 28 minutes 

Follow the life of Munni, an 1 1-year-old girl growing up in the 
Indian village of Jitwarpur, as she apprentices to become a 
Mithila artist. 

"Quilts in Women's Lives: Six Portraits" 

Pat Ferrero 

1980, Color, 28 minutes 

In "Quilts In Women's Lives," seven women — among them a 
California Mennonite, a black Mississippian, and a Bulgarian 
immigrant— demonstrate their art and describe the inspira- 
tions for their work: family, tradition, the joy of the creative 
process, the challenge of design. 

Guest Speaker: Elizabeth Fernea, senior lecturer, 
Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Department of English 
and University of Texas — Austin. 



BSaturday, April 16 
Music and Dance in Society 

"Learning to Dance in Bali" 

Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead 

Filmed 1936-39, edited and completed 1978, 

black and white, 7 minutes 

This brief film, edited and completed in 1978, uses fieldwork 
footage taken in Bali 50 years ago by pioneer anthropologist- 
filmmakers Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead. 

"Songs of the Badius" 

Gei Zantzinger 

1986, Color, 33 minutes 

This film documents the post-independence resurgence of 
the explosive music and dance practiced on the Cape Verde 
island of Santiago by the "Badius," descendants of runaway 
African slaves. 

"Mountain Music of Peru" 

John Cohen 

1984, Color, 60 minutes 

Sensual, sometimes hallucinatory cinematography charac- 
terizes this breathtaking documentary portrait of the centu- 
ries-old musical culture of the Andes. 

Guest Speaker: Emilie DeBrigard, director, FilmResearch, 
Higganum, CT. 




■Saturday, April 23 
Reviving Ancient Traditions 

"Stilt Dancers of Long Bow Village" 
Carma Hinton and Richard Gordon 
1980, Color, 28 minutes 

"Stilt Dancers of Long Bow Village" focuses on a vibrant 
dance performance at a country fair in provincial China. 

"Our God the Condor" 

Andy Harries and Paul Yule 

1987, Color, 30 minutes 

This extraordinary film, shot in and around the remote village 
of Cotabamas in the southern Andes of Peru, documents the 
annual reenactment of the "Yawar Fiesta," an elemental rep- 
resentation of the Indians' triumph over the Spaniards de- 
picted in dance and song. 

"Joe David: Spirit of the Mask" 
Jennifer Hodge and Robert Lund 
1982, Color, 24 minutes 

Told in his own words, "Joe David: Spirit of the Mask" offers 
articulate commentary on the life and work of this Native 
American sculptor. 

Guest Speaker: Dwight Conquergood, assistant professor, 
Department of Performance Studies and Communication 
Studies, Northwestern University. 



■Saturday, April 30 

Portraits of the Individual Artist 

"Steady as She Goes" 

Robert Fresco 

1981, Color, 26 minutes 

George Fulfit has built 136 miniature ships in bottles since 

1970. "Steady as She Goes" documents the building of the 
137th, his largest ship to date. 

"Imaginero" 
Jorge Preloran 

1971, Color, 52 minutes 

A religious-image maker living on the high Argentine plateau, 
Preloran works in self-imposed isolation, driven to keep alive 
forms of traditional religious art he feels the world has for- 
gotten. 

Guest Speaker: Tom Palazzolo, documentary filmmaker and 
professor, Film Department, Art Institute of Chicago. 

This film series is organized and circulated by the American 
Federation of Arts and is supported by funds from the 
National Endowment for the Humanities and the New York 
State Council on the Arts. 

Saturdays, l:00pm-4:00pm 

April 9-30, (4 sessions) 

AC88215 Entire Series - $25 ($15 members) 

AC88216 Single Session - $7 ($5 members) 

For further ticket and schedule information, call (312) 322- 
8855 or check the April/May Adult and Family Program 
brochure. 



Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this ticket 
application. If your request is received less than one week 
before the program, tickets will be held in your name at the 



West Entrance box office. Please make checks payable to 
Field Museum. Tickets will be mailed upon receipt of check. 
Refunds will be made only if the program is sold out. 



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Films 



Saturday, April 16 

Music and Dance in Society 

"Mountain Music of Peru" 

John Cohen 

1984, Color, 60 minutes 

Sensual, sometimes hallucinatory cinematography charac- 
terizes this breathtaking documentary portrait of the centu- 
ries-old musical culture of the Andes. 

Please use coupon 



Now available from the Division of Publications- 



Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy 

Essays in Honor of Philip Hershkovitz 

Edited by 
Bruce D. Patterson and Robert M. Timm 



CONTENTS 



A Biographical Sketch of Philip Hershkovitz, with a Com- 
plete Scientific Bibliography, by Bruce D. Patterson 

History of the Recent Mammalogy of the Neotropical 
Region from 1492 to 1850, by Philip Hershkovitz 

A New Superfamily in the Extensive Radiation of South 
American Paleogene Marsupials, by Rosendo Pascual 
and Alfredo A. Carlini 

An Additional 14-Chromosome Karyotype and Sex- 
Chromosome Mosaicism in South American Marsu- 
pials, by Milton H. Gallardo and Bruce D. Patterson 

Notes on the Black-Shouldered Opossum, Caluromysiops 
irrupta, by Robert J. lzor and Ronald H . Pine 

Feeding Habits of the Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) in 
Northern Venezuela, by GerardoA. CorderoR. and 
Ruben A. Nicolas B. 

Notes on Distribution of Some Bats from Southwestern 
Colombia, by Michael S. Alberico 

Distributional Records of Bats from the Caribbean Low- 
lands of Belize and Adjacent Guatemala and Mexico, by 
Timothy J. McCarthy 

New Species of Mammals from Northern South America: 
Fruit-Eating Bats, Genus Artibeus Leach, by Charles O. 
Handley, Jr. 

Seasonality of Reproduction in Peruvian Bats, by GaryL. 
Graham 

Tent Construction by Bats of the Genera Artibeus and 
Uroderma, by Robert M. Timm 

Comparative Infrastructure and Evolutionary Patterns of 
Acinar Secretory Product of Parotid Salivary Glands in 
Neotropical Bats, by Carleton J. Phillips, Toshikazu 
Nagato, and Bernard Tandler 

Distribution of the Species and Subspecies of Cebids in 
Venezuela, by Roberta Bodini and Roger Perez- 
Hernandez 

Host Associations and Coevolutionary Relationships of 
Astigmatid Mite Parasites of New World Primates. I. 
Families Psoroptidae and Audycoptidae, by Barry M. 
OConnor 

Notes on Bolivian Mammals. 2. Taxonomy and Distribution 
of Rice Rats of the Subgenus Oligoryzomys, by Nancy 
Olds and Sydney Anderson 



New Records and Current Status of Euneomys (Cricetidae) 
in Southern South America, by Jose L. Ydnez, Juan C. 
Torres-Mura, Jaime R. Rau, and Luis C. Contreras 

Morphological Variation, Karyology, and Systematic Rela- 
tionships of Heteromys gaumeri (Rodentia: Hetero- 
myidae), by Mark D. Engstrom, Hugh H. Genoways, 
and Priscilla K. Tucker 

Species Groups of Spiny Rats, Genus Proechimys (Roden- 
tia: Echimyidae), by James L. Patton 

An Assessment of the Systematics and Evolution of the 
Akodontini, with the Description of New Fossil Species 
of Akodon (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae), by Osvaldo A. 
Reig 

Biogeography of Octodontid Rodents: An Eco-Evolutionary 
Hypothesis, by Luis C. Contreras, Juan C. Torres- 
Mura, and Jose L. Ydnez 

Population Dynamics and Ecology of Small Mammals in 
the Northern Chilean Semiarid Region, by Peter L. 
Meserve and Eric Le Boulenge 

Demography and Reproduction of the Silky Desert Mouse 
(Eligmodontia) in Argentina, by Oliver Pearson, Susana 
Martin, and Javier Bellati 

Baculum of the Lesser Andean Coati, Nasuella olivacea 
(Gray), and of the Larger Grison, Galictis vittata (Schre- 
ber), by Edgardo Mondolfi 

Origin, Diversification, and Zoogeography of the South 
American Canidae, by Annalisa Berta 

Comparative Cytogenetics of South American Deer, by 
Angel E. Spotorno, Nadir Brum, and Mariela Di 
Tomaso 

Faunal Representation in Museum Collections of Mammals: 
Osgood's Mammals of Chile, by Bruce D. Patterson 
and Clare E. Feigl 



Fieldiana: Zoology 

New Series, No. 39 

Publication No. 1382 

496 pages + Taxonomic and Subject Indices 

$35.00 + appropriate tax and/or shipping charges 



BIRDS IN ART 



March 26 to May 22 



"The Best Annual Bird Art Exhibit in the West- 
ern Hemisphere" consisting of 60 pieces, includes 
works by Roger Tory Peterson, Owen Gromme, and 
the 1987 Master Wildlife Artist, sculptor Kent 
Ullberg. 

"Birds in Art" is a juried show, organized and 
circulated by the Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum 
of Wausau, Wisconsin. The exhibit at Field Museum 
is made possible through the generosity of The Rice 
Foundation. Each year hundreds of artists from the 
United States and other countries compete to have 
their work accepted for the prestigious exhibit. This 
year's traveling show includes oils, watercolors, 
gouaches, acrylics, printed graphics, and sculptures in 



wood, stone, brass, and steel, all depicting birds and 
their habitats. 

The show not only presents a range of techniques 
and media, but touches on concerns of naturalists, 
scientists, and conservationists. A number of the 
artists have worked for natural history museums or 
other nature organizations. Their artwork reflects a 
deep-rooted interest and commitment to nature. 

"Birds in Art" is accompanied by a 125-page 
catalog that includes color photos of most pieces in 
the show. The catalog and a handsome exhibit poster 
are available at the Museum Store, as well as a selec- 
tion of bird-motif merchandise. "Birds in Art" is free 
with regular Museum admission. 





"In the Rainy Season — Toco Toucan" 

Acrylic, 1987, 43 x 56cm 

by Richard Sloan 



"Malachite Kingfisher — Kenya" 
Serigraph, 1986, 36 x 51cm 
by Anne Senechal Faust 



BIRDS IN ART 



Vr ■' 




Si 
MR 



 i'^HS 



fir, " , "/S l /Vo 



"Tundra Watch" — Snowy Owl 
Oil, 1986, 51 x9lcm 
by Rod Frederick 



10 




■wm-mm 



"Great Egret and Purple Gallinule" 

Tempera, 1984, 75 x 32cm 

by Arthur B. Singer 




11 



BIRDS IN ART 




"Scarlet-and white Tanager" 
Watercolor, 1986, 43 x 28cm 
by Dana Gardner 



12 



Traditional Silk Sarongs 

Of Mandar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia 



by Robert L. Welsch 




Married noble women attending a royal wedding wearing blue baju bocfo' and red sarongs that mark their noble birth. Ma|ene, 1 



A, 



Llthough nearly everyone has heard about Indone- 
sian batik, few have ever heard about an even older 
textile tradition found among the Mandar people of 
Sulawesi, the large spider-armed island in eastern In- 
donesia formerly called the Celebes. Nearly one-half 
million Mandar live on the west coast of South 
Sulawesi. Together with their more numerous neigh- 
bors, the Bugis, Mandar people are known throughout 
Indonesia and Malaysia for their hand-woven textiles, 
especially their cotton and silk sarongs. 

The English word "sarong" is derived from the In- 
donesian or Malay word sarung, which refers to a single 
piece of cloth sewn into a tube and worn as a kind of 



skirt. Wrapped around the waist, it is fastened without 
pins or belt by rolling a few inches of fabric under at the 
top or with a neat tuck at the side. This simple, loose- 
fitting garment has been the traditional clothing of 
both men and women throughout Indonesia and much 
of Southeast Asia for centuries, and probably came to 



Robert L. Welsch is a research associate in the Department of 
Anthropology and conducted 16 months of field research in Man- 
dar (1985-87) on a Fulbright Southeast Asian Research Fellowship. 
While in South Sulawesi, Dr. Welsch made a collection of Mandar 
material culture numbering over 450 specimens, including the 
largest collection of Mandar textiles in the United States. 



13 



Indonesia from Hindu India early in the Christian era. 
In the public side of daily life, sarongs have now 
largely given way to trousers for men and dresses for 
women. But comfortable cotton sarongs are still the 
most popular kind of casual clothing around the house 
and as sleep wear. For Muslims (90 per cent of all In- 
donesians are Muslim) cotton sarongs are the garment 
of choice for daily prayers. They are the preferred 
clothing at a kenduri, or selamatan, a ritual meal with 
friends and neighbors to thank God for good fortune or 



black cloth with a high collar, long sleeves, and but- 
tons down the front. Jacket, sarong, songko] and san- 
dals continue to be mandatory formal wear in Mandar 
as it has for centuries. 

To complement their silk sarongs, most Mandar 
women prefer to wear a traditional style of blouse, 
either the loose-fitting baju bodo' of gauze or the tight- 
fitting baju poko' of velvet with a high collar. To finish 
the formal costume, they put their hair up in a tight 
bun and wear gold jewelry, particularly a distinctive 




Muslim men praying during services for Lebaran, the major religious holiday, wearing formal attire that includes 
a variety of different sarong motifs. Majene, 1986. 



to pray for the dead. And on Fridays, Muslim men 
nearly always wear a white or light-colored cotton 
sarong and a black cap, a songko', to attend sabbath 
exercises at the mosque. 

On festive occasions, such as weddings and Islam- 
ic holidays, Mandar people like Muslims everywhere in 
south Sulawesi put on their finest attire, which inevit- 
ably means their best silk sarong. These hand-woven 
silks may be bold plaids; small, discrete checks; vibrant 
stripes; or solids with geometric or floral designs. 
Whether the colors are brilliant or subdued, silk 
sarongs add luster and a daring array of hues to an 
already spectacular display of color. 

In spite of the tropical climate, the well-dressed 
Mandar man wears a jacket or blazer over his silk sarong 
at any of these formal occasions. Nowadays such jack- 
ets usually follow Western styles, but this is simply a 
14 modern adaptation on the traditional Mandar jacket of 



kind of earring or heavy gold post, called dali in Man- 
darese, which is usually set off with honeysuckle 
flowers. 

Traditional Mandar silks are finely woven taffetas. 
The most typical motifs are simple plaids on a black, 
dark reddish-brown, or red background. Mandar plaid 
motifs (called sure') are symmetrical and spaced at reg- 
ular intervals on the solid background. Some designs 
incorporate an additional design element (the tole') 
that is usually simpler than the sure' and serves as a 
counterpoint to the main motif. The spacing and 
arrangement of the motif in the body of the sarong is 
the same along both the warp and the weft, which pro- 
duces the plaid. 

One distinctive feature of every sarong is its back 
panel ("head," or pucca'), which contrasts with the 
body of the sarong. This panel preserves the sure' along 
the warp, but substitutes alternating thick and thin 



white lines along the weft. Sometimes, depending 
upon the motif, the background color of this panel dif- 
fers from the main background as well. The presence of 
the pucca' panel is the distinctive feature that dis- 
tinguishes fabric woven for a sarong from ordinary 
cloth. 

The subdued traditional colors of the background 
were formerly obtained from vegetable dyes, especially 
indigo (from which black, dark blue, light blue, and 
grey were obtained) and several tree resins which pro- 
vided reddish hues. Although imported aniline, or 
chemical, dyes have been available since at least the 
early 19th century, Mandar weavers preferred natural 
dyes, which unlike many of the aniline dyes were col- 
orfast and tended not to fade even after many years. 

To the casual Western observer, Mandar plaids 
may resemble Scottish tartans, but Mandar motifs have 
no historical connection with their European woolen 
counterparts and represent an independent local de- 
velopment. 

The numerous motifs available are not associated 
with particular families as Scottish tartans are, but 
mark rank, privilege, and social position. Each of the 
nine or ten oldest motifs have dark or subdued color 
schemes that Mandar associate with respect and au- 
thority. More recently introduced pastels, tiny checks, 
and brilliant solids suggest less authority and a youthful 
lack of responsibility. Thus, they are preferred by young 
people, especially unmarried men and women who are 
trying to attract the attentions of the opposite sex. 
Older people tend to wear somber colors, befitting the 
authority and social position that comes with age. 

Several motifs are reserved exclusively for men 
and women of the nobility. This noble privilege was 
jealously guarded in the highly stratified and status- 
conscious Mandar society. In the past if a noble saw a 
commoner wearing one of these designs he could, with 
impunity, rip the sarong off the offender in the middle 
of the road or wherever he happened to be. 

Nobles were not limited to these aristocratic 
motifs, but could wear any design they desired, depend- 
ing upon their mood and the self-image they wanted to 
project. A middle-ranking noble might choose to wear 
bright and flamboyant colors at a commoner's wedding, 
but prefer a more respectful sarong at a wedding in his 
own family where he was one of the hosts. Similarly, he 
might wear festive colors to attend a malolang (a kind of 
bachelor party at the bride's home the night before a 
noble's wedding), while the groom, as guest of honor, 
would be expected to wear a more somber motif. 

In a similar way, the blouses women wear with 




Two young men in ordinary formal attire: silk sarong, jacket, songko', 
and sandals. Majene, 1986. 



15 



their sarongs indicate their marital status and position 
within the community. Only unmarried women should 
wear the velvet or velveteen baju poko' , though if they 
prefer they may wear a bright red baju bodo'. Red is 
considered the most alluring color for women, and any 
young woman wanting to attract the attention of 
young suitors will always choose to wear red. By the 
same token, married women should wear a blue gauze 
baju bodo', while widows should wear white, and di- 
vorced women deep green. Each of these blouses 
should be worn with a sarong appropriate to the 
woman's rank and social position. 

For men, the way the sarong is tied indicates 
marital status and social rank. Ordinarily, the sarong 
extends from the waist to the ankles. Single men 
should wear the pucca' panel on their right side. Older 
and married men should wear it centered at the back. 
Office holders in the government of the traditional 
Mandar kingdoms (or their representatives) wore long 
black trousers and tied their sarongs so they covered 
only their midsection. Different ranks within the gov- 
ernment were entitled to tie their sarongs in slightly 
different ways as a prerogative of their status. To further 
indicate their official role they carried a large kris 
(sword or knife) tucked in their sarong, and wore a 
special gold-rimmed cap (songko' hiring). These styles 
of dress were forbidden to commoners with one excep- 



Sarong vendors in the open-air market (pasar) at Tinambung, the 
major silk-weaving center in Mandar. Tinambung, 1986. 



16 





Mara'dia (prince) arriving at a royal wedding wearing traditional high- 
collared jacket and songko' of high office, with sarong around his 
midsection. He is holding his kris (wrapped in his sarong). Majene, 
1986. 



tion: when a man marries. As the groom, even a com- 
moner is entitled to wear the gold-rimmed songko' and 
tie his sarong around his midsection. This is because on 
his wedding day the groom is said to be "raja, or prince, 
for the day. " 

Since the formal abolition of traditional kingdoms 
by the Indonesian government in the 1960s, these 
codes of dress are less strictly observed than before. 
Nowadays commoners even wear the motifs of nobility, 
usually in an attempt to give the impression of a some- 
what higher status than they might be entitled to, 




Women in a royal 
wedding procession. 
Majene, 1986. 



though it would still be considered presumptuous and 
in poor taste for any commoner to do so at a noble's 
wedding. Nevertheless, while there is somewhat more 
flexibility in formal attire than previously, the careful 
observer can still see what impressions people are 
trying to make with the sarongs they wear and how they 
wear them. 

Mandar silk sarongs achieved their excellent 
reputation throughout Indonesia because of several ex- 
traordinary qualities. Their dark colors do not run and 
can be washed. In addition, well-made Mandar silks 
were so fine that a finished sarong could be pulled 
through a diameter as small as a wedding ring and after- 
wards folded up into a small bundle that could fit into a 
pocket. The best of these, nearly always made for the 



local nobility rather than for export, were so tightly 
woven that they could even hold water. 

Mandar sarongs are hand-woven at home on 
back-tension looms, whose basic design has changed 
very little in over two centuries. The design includes a 
wooden back brace that rests on the weaver's hips and 
allows her to apply tension to the warp threads that are 
strung between a breast beam (in her lap) and a warp 
beam (near her feet). By leaning backward or forward 
she can apply just the right amount of pressure to the 
fabric and thus control loom tension. 

The loom relies upon a "comb" to keep the warp 
threads at regular intervals and in the proper order. For 
cotton sarongs these combs usually have 30 to 40 open- 
ings per inch, but for fine silk they may have more than 




Young noble women 
dancing at a royal 
wedding, wearing 
traditional sarongs, 
bajubodo', and 
gold jewelry. 
Majene, 1986. 



17 




Kindo Buki prepares a skein of silk yarn for dying. Manjopai village, 
1986. 



Young woman twists three filaments of silk (right) to make a single 
strand of 3-ply yarn (on the bobbin in front of her). Other bobbins of 
silk yarn are soaking in the bowl. Camba-camba village, 1986. 




70. Using a bamboo bobbin case as a shuttle, the weav- 
er passes the weft thread through the warp and taps it 
tightly into place by striking the sword or beater against 
the comb. After shifting the warp, the process is re- 
peated, with the weft shot through from the other side 
to produce an extremely tight weave. 

These combs are hand-crafted exclusively in 
Napo, a Mandar village that has long specialized in 
producing combs for weavers throughout Mandar. The 
teeth in the comb are made from a wild-growing cane 
that is very finely split. The split cane is cut into two- 
inch lengths and tied into place with fine cotton thread 
to give the desired spacing between the teeth. 
Although similar combs are made elsewhere in South 
Sulawesi, Mandar weavers insist that only combs made 
in Napo have the high quality they require for their 
weaving. 

Mandar import raw silk from overseas, but process 
the silk yarns themselves, using several simple hand- 
crank machines that resemble spinning wheels. This 
five-step process does not actually spin the silk but 
twists the silk filaments together to make a serviceable 
yarn. From two to five filaments are wound and lightly 
twisted together onto small bamboo bobbins and 
soaked in water overnight. Then the silk is transferred 
onto a large bamboo spool and wound into neat skeins, 
which are then boiled to produce a soft, lustrous, white 
yarn. After drying, the yarn is ready to be dyed. 

The thickness of silk fabric is determined by the 
number of silk filaments that are twisted together to 
make the yarn. A two-ply yarn produces a very fine, 
wispy fabric, while a three-ply yarn yields a heavier but 
more durable silk. Because the three-ply yarn requires 
more raw silk, it has a soft but crisp feel and makes a 
gentle rustle as one walks. These heavier silks, the most 
popular in Mandar today, are the more expensive. 

The warp, which is about five yards long and two 
feet wide, is strung by hand. Each strand of yarn must 
be threaded through the comb and around the various 
separator rods. Taking 8 to 12 hours to complete, this 
task is usually done by teenage girls or young women, 
because it demands a good eye to insert the thread 
through the fine openings of the comb. If the motif is a 
complex one, the weaver changes colors frequently, 
paying extremely close attention to the exact number 
of threads of each color so as not to introduce an error 
in the design. The warp is a fixed arrangement of 
threads that are attached to both the comb and the 
separator rods; thus, mistakes in the design cannot be 
corrected once the warp is complete. 

Four yards of the warp are wound carefully around 




Above: Kanne Nauri, one of the last surviving Mandar dyers, using 
indigo to dye silk. To obtain a true black color, the silk must be dipped 
in the ceramic vat ot indigo and dried each day for at least ten days. 
Camba-camba village, 1986. 



Above, right: Young girl making the warp. Here she threads the silk 
yarn through the comb. Pambusuang, 1986. 



Right, center: Kindo Buki weaving a silk sarong with a traditional Man- 
dar motif. Manjopai village, 1986. 



Below: Amma'na Ika weaving a silk sarong with a brightly colored 
modern motif. Luaor village, 1986. 




the warp beam and placed in a frame on the floor at the 
weaver's feet, while the other end of the warp is 
attached to the breast beam that sits on her lap. Seated 
on the floor with her feet stretched out in front of her, 
the weaver shoots the weft thread first from right to 
left, taps it into place with her comb and sword, adjusts 
the heddle (which guides the warp threads) and repeats 
the process from left to right. Here she sits for hours at a 
time to weave just a few inches of the fine shiny fabric 
that has delighted princes and been the hallmark of 
Mandar weavers for centuries. 



ten days are required for even the most skilled weaver 
to complete a single silk sarong. 

As tedious and difficult as weaving may seem, skill 
with the loom still represents for Mandar people the 
most delicate of all feminine arts. Moreover, since 
weaving is done in the home, using looms that can be 
rolled up and set aside when other matters beckon, it 
continues to be an extremely suitable economic activ- 
ity for women with children and husbands to cook and 
care for. Indeed, women who can cook and weave with 
skill are still thought to make the most desirable wives. 




Mandar back-tension loom (cat. no. 265700). Sketch by Elizabeth Enck. 



Weaving is monotonous work but demands con- 
siderable precision, both to maintain the proper ten- 
sion necessary for a consistent fabric and to ensure that 
the motif is reproduced again and again with the cor- 
rect colors and spacing. As she works, the weaver stops 
periodically to moisten the warp, using a mixture of 
citrus oil and water, and to roll up the finished fabric 
onto her breast beam and unwind more warp from the 
warp beam. Although Mandar women weave with 
20 lightning speed and extraordinary dexterity, seven to 



It is said that in the old days, the "tick-tick-tick" of a 
girlfriend tapping the thread into place on her loom, 
even if only heard from across the village, was enough 
to gladden any young man's heart. 

In the past, virtually all Mandar women were 
weavers. They made cotton sarongs for their families' 
daily wear as well as silk sarongs for festive occasions. 
But by far the majority of their weaving was sold to 
merchants who exported them throughout the 
archipelago. Indeed, Mandar sarongs, together with 



copra, rattan mats, and fish nets (also woven by Man- 
dar women) provided the capital needed for inter- 
island trade. 

For centuries, Mandar silk and cotton sarongs 
have played a vital role in the local economy, being 
sold by Mandar merchants and sailors by the hundreds 
of thousands to other Indonesian traders, who sold 
them in the pasars, or open air markets, in nearly every 
part of the country. More than a dozen Mandar sarong 
merchants even had agents stationed permanently in 
West Sumatra — where Mandar textiles were especially 
popular — to handle the lively and lucrative sarong 
trade. 



to dozens of different ethnic groups in the archipelago. 
This active trade provided a market that could absorb 
every sarong that Mandar weavers might produce. 
Each ethnic group, however, had its own preferred de- 
signs, colors, and styles, which meant that Mandar 
weavers always had to weave the motifs and patterns 
that could satisfy their overseas consumers. Over the 
years, this has meant the introduction of many new 
motifs and a rich repertoire of designs, only a small por- 
tion of which can be thought of as traditionally Man- 
dar. 

Ironically, although Mandar people are best 
known in Indonesia for their high quality silk sarongs, 




Author (right) at the wedding of Muh. Yamin Albar and Rahmania M. (center). Karama village, 1986. 



Mandar merchants and sailors also took sarongs 
with them on their annual trading voyages that 
covered thousands of sea miles, from Singapore in the 
west to the Moluccas (or Spice Islands) in the east. 
This inter-island peddling trade brought sarongs and 
other Mandar products to local consumers, where they 
were exchanged for spices, beche-de-mer (sea cucum- 
ber), pearls, and other local products in great demand 
in Singapore and overseas markets. These products, 
together with sarongs, were sold in Singapore to buy 
Chinese, Indian, and European goods. 

Mandar textiles have always been closely linked 
to the inter-island trade of the Indies, being exported 



these were formerly made in relatively small numbers. 
The raw silk Mandar use has always been imported 
from China via Singapore, Jakarta, and Ujung Pan- 
dang. During the colonial era, production of silk 
sarongs was small because the raw silk was difficult to 
obtain in large quantities and too expensive for most 
consumers. Within the last twenty years, silkworms 
have been introduced to Sulawesi, but Mandar weavers 
insist that the quality of local silk is inferior. Thus, the 
entire Mandar silk-weaving industry continues to rely 
entirely on an imported raw material. 

The Indonesian economy has changed con- 
siderably in the 20th century, but weaving with tradi- 



21 




Women attending a noble wedding. The umbrellas in the background are emblems of royal blood. They are carried in the wedding procession to 
shade the wives of ruling princes (not shown). Karama village, 1986. 



tional looms is still an important cottage industry that 
provides a small but much-needed income for about 
25,000 Mandar women. Until the mid-1960s, cotton 
sarongs were the major product of this home-based in- 
dustry. But under competition from cheaper factory- 
made sarongs, hand-woven cottons have all but dis- 
appeared. Local weavers, however, have rapidly 
adapted to this new commercial environment by in- 
creasing their production of silk sarongs to meet an 
ever-growing demand from all over the country. Silk 
weaving used to make up only a small part of the Man- 
dar sarong industry (probably fewer than 10,000 
sarongs per year); now it comprises virtually the entire 



production, totaling more than a quarter million 
sarongs each year. 

Despite many changes in the lives of Mandar peo- 
ple, weaving continues to play an important part in 
Mandar society. There are, perhaps, fewer weavers 
than a century ago, but if you walk down the back 
streets and alleyways of Karama, Pambusuang, or 
dozens of other Mandar villages, from nearly every 
house you will hear the distinctive "tick-tick-tick" of 
women busy at their looms and you can still see young 
girls threading warp, much as they have done for gen- 
erations. FM 



22 




The largest nest in Hyde Park's green ash tree is about six feet long and contains several individual nesting compartments, each occupied by a 
pair of monk parakeets. The nest was first built about eight years ago, but is being constantly reshaped and modified. 

Hyde Park's Parakeets 

These Green-Winged Arrivals from the Argentine 
Appear to Be Settling in 

by David M. Walsten 

photos by the author 



F 



ive miles south of Field Museum, in the Chicago 
neighborhood known as Hyde Park, stands a green ash 
tree which, in every respect, seems to be an average 
specimen of full-grown Fraxinus pennsylvanica — except 
for four conspicuous features: gigantic masses of twigs 
clutched in the tree's upper branches. These masses, of 
various shapes, are the colonial nests of the monk para- 
keet (Myiopsitta monachus), an exotic species from 



"In the early 1970s monk parakeets were reliably reported in the 
city's southeast suburbs. 



Argentina and other South American countries which 
took up residence in Hyde Park in 1980*. 

Because these brightly colored birds had already 
attracted considerable local attention and managed to 
survive the harsh Chicago winters, a feature piece on 
the birds was published in the May 1985 Bulletin. Here 1 
will again review the status of the parakeet colony and 
provide an up-date: 

Known in the pet trade variously as the quaker, 
gray-headed, or gray-breasted parakeet, the species is 
native to the subtropical and temperate zones of Boli- 
via, Uruguay, Paraguay, southern Brazil, and Argenti- 



23 



na as far south as 40° S latitude (the Southern Hemi- 
sphere equivalent of Philadelphia, Denver, and 
Champagne-Urbana). In the United States it is fa- 
vored as a cage bird, despite its noisy chatter, and about 
10,000 are imported every year from South America to 
serve that market. Its occurrence in Chicago and other 
North American locations may be explained by the 
occasional release of these birds, accidental and other- 
wise, from homes where they have been kept as pets or 
while in transport. 

Since first being reported in the wild in the 
United States more than 20 years ago, the monk para- 



keet has given the impression in some locales that it 
would settle into a permanent, breeding status, only to 
disappear after a season or two. In a very few other 
areas, it seems to be establishing itself, barring human 
intervention. Some observers believe it is filling that 
ecological void left by the closely related Carolina pa- 
rakeet, which became extinct in the early years of this 
century and occurred solely in the United States. 
Another competitor for the Carolina's niche may be 
the evening grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus) , 
according to Norman L. Brunswig, Stephen G. Win- 
ton, and Paul B. Hamel in the Wilson Bulletin. 



The green ash tree 

on 53rd Street, 

showing its four 

monk parakeet 

nests. The original, 

larger nest is at the 

right. The smaller 

nests are rather well 

concealed by 

foliage during 

the summer. 



24 




The monk parakeet is about 1 1 Vi inches long, 
nearly half of this being tail. The back is bright green or 
gray-green, the tail green and blue. The upper belly is a 
soft yellow, the head and breast grayish. (It is for this 
grayish pattern, presumably, that the sobriquet "monk" 
was applied. ) The wings are mostly blue. The mature 
bird weighs about five ounces; coloration and size 
appear identical for both sexes. 

Among all the known species in the parrot family, 
numbering well over 300, the monk parakeet is the 
only builder of such a nest: an irregular-shaped stack of 
twigs which may be as large as 15 to 20 cubic feet in 
mass and weigh several hundred pounds. In South 
America the birds seem to favor thorny trees (particu- 
larly the tala, Cekis spinosa) for the nest, but they are 
commonly constructed on manmade structures such as 
telephone or utility poles, under eaves, or on window 
ledges. Eight of the nests have been found in a single 
tree. Some huge parakeet nests in Argentina have been 
used by continuing communities for decades. A dozen 
pairs may breed in a single nest, each with its own com- 
partment. The nest is used all year round and damaged 
sections are repaired at the approach of the breeding 
season. Other species that make this unusual type of 
nest are the palm chat of Haiti and Santo Domingo, 
the buffalo weaver of subsaharan Africa, and the soci- 
able weaver of southwestern Africa. 

The individual nesting compartment is about 18 
cm (about 7 inches) in diameter and the entire tunnel 
34 to 40 cm (about 14 to 16 inches) long. From five to 
nine glossy white eggs (relatively small for the bird's 
size) are customarily laid once or twice a year and hatch 
in 31 days. 

In its native countries, the monk parakeet favors 
areas of low rainfall in savannah, thorn scrub, palm 
groves, open forest, fruit orchards, and crop lands, 
most commonly in lowlands, but ranging to altitudes of 
3,000 feet in the foothills of the Andes. Here the tem- 
perature may drop to as low as 20°F. This is a far warmer 
clime than Chicago's, where the bird has survived bit- 
terly cold spells — as low as - 27° F. in January of 1985. 

The species feeds on a variety of seeds and fruits, 
including apples, cherries, grapes, and citrus. In South 
America, where it has been described by a U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service publication as "one of the worst 
pests of agricultural crops," the monk parakeet re- 
portedly destroys from 2 to 45 percent of those crops 
within its range, notably millet, sorghum, corn, sun- 
flower, and a variety of fruit crops. The incentive of a 
bounty for the birds has not succeeded in alleviating 
the problem. 




Two of the smaller nests in the green ash tree. 



The bird is gregarious as a rule, and in South 
America flocks of up to 50 birds have been observed. In 
Hyde Park a top count of 42 birds was seen at one time 
around a group of backyard feeders. The bird flies swift- 
ly, with rapid wing beats, usually not far above treetop 
height, screeching loudly as it goes. 

Having first appeared in the New York area in 
1967, the monk parakeet became a not uncommon 
sight there within several years, and its greater New 
York population was then estimated at around 2,500. 
In the Wilson Bulletin*, Dr. John Bull of the Depart- 



•85:3 1973, p. 504 



25 



merit of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural 
History, wrote that "Multiple releases by design and by 
accident have resulted in a sizeable resident population 
in southeastern New York, and the adjacent portions of 
Connecticut and New Jersey. These releases, that is 
escaped birds, came from broken crates at Kennedy 
Airport, accidental escapes from pet shops, aviaries, 
and private owners, as well as intentional releases by 
persons tired of caring for these parrots." Bull also 
noted that the bird has bred in the outdoors in the Lon- 
don and Paris zoos and in the parks of Amsterdam 
(52.4° N latitude — further north than Saskatoon, Sas- 
katchewan!) 

At about the same time that the monk was trying 
to accommodate itself to the greater New York area, 
others of this species were reported to be taking up resi- 
dence at various sites along the Atlantic Seaboard and 
as far west as Pittsburgh. In the late seventies, Federal 
and state officials, disturbed by the parakeet's apparent 
success in the Northeast and New York City, in partic- 
ular, effectively eliminated them. This was accom- 
plished in a relatively short time. If the nest of the spe- 
cies were not so elaborately constructed and large, it is 
questionable whether their elimination could have 
been achieved. They never have made a comeback, 
and at this time only a single breeding pair is known to 
be nesting in Brooklyn. In Florida, notably the Greater 
Miami area, the monk parakeet has established breed- 
ing populations which, according to Dr. Oscar Owre, 
professor emeritus of Ornithology at the University of 
Miami, have increased in the past few years. Eleven 

A small nest, with a single compartment, in a poplar some 80 yards 
north of the green ash tree. 





The real nests in the Jackson Park floodlight standard (south of the 
Museum of Science and Industry) are in the hollow crossbars, whose 
diameter size is much like that of a typical compartment in an all-stick 
nest. Only the birds can tell you what purpose the twig masses serve, 
but they may be the beginnings of an attempt to create a "con- 
ventional" nest. Another light standard, next to this one, also contains 
at least one nest. 



other parrot or parakeet species are also reported to be 
nesting in that area and six additional species have 
been sighted. 

The Hyde Park colony apparently got its start with 
a nest on the fire escape of an apartment building two 
or three blocks south of the green ash tree (which is on 
53rd Street near Lake Shore Drive), but the birds' 
noise, so close to human habitation, quickly earned 
them an eviction. Their next step, it appears, was to 
construct the nest in the green ash. On Memorial Day 
of 1984 the nest, already huge (e.g. , several cubic feet 
in mass), was partly destroyed by gale-force winds. 
Among the nest debris, shattered eggs with embryos 
were found by ornithologist Doug Anderson, estab- 
lishing for the first time that this was a breeding pop- 
ulation. 



26 




Skins of the monk parakeet in the Field Museum collection. These specimens were obtained in Argentina in the 1920s— long before the bird 
was seen in the wild in the United States. The specimen at top is about 1 1 inches in length. The sexes are outwardly alike. 

Skins of the thick-billed parrot, Rhyncopsitta pachyrhyncha, in the Field Museum collection (top specimen about 15 inches long). These were 
collected in Mexico in 1918. Now rare, and apparently confined to the forests of the Sierra Madre, the bird formerly ranged across the Rio 
Grande into Arizona and New Mexico, where the last confirmed sighting occurred in 1936. Other than the Carolina parakeet (now extinct), it is 
the only member of the parrot family known to have occurred in the United States naturally. 




27 




This nest, about the size of a beach ball, is high up in a Carolina 
poplar on Jackson Park's Wooded Island. It probably contains only 
one nesting compartment, though flocks of a dozen birds often con- 
gregate about it. 

During that same period, another nest was being 
constructed behind the smokestack of another apart- 
ment building several blocks to the south — a nest 
which remains in use in 1988. By the summer of 1987, 
the single large nest in the green ash tree (about six feet 
long, constructed largely along a single bough) had 
been joined by six or seven others in the same tree. 
After the autumn leaves were shed, however, only four 
nests remained. Other nests have appeared from time 
to time in the neighborhood: in a Carolina poplar on 
Jackson Park's Wooded Island, on floodlight standards 
by the Jackson Park golf driving range, in a poplar some 
80 yards north of the green ash, under the air- 
conditioner of an apartment on 55th Street. Some of 
these, however, do not seem to have been used on a 
regular basis during the winter of 1987-88, and others 
are only partially complete — seemingly abandoned in 
mid-construction — and now await destruction by the 
wind. Other small nests have come and gone over the 
past several years — apparent victims of the same nat- 
ural destructive forces. 

While the Hyde Park parakeet population has 
steadily increased in size, the birds do not seem to be 
any more widespread in the greater Chicago area as a 
whole than three years ago. One nest is reported in the 
city's far northwest side, another near Montrose 
28 Beach, in the north. An active nest with breeding birds 



in DuPage County has been under scrutiny by a pro- 
fessional biologist. Almost certainly there are other 
nests, but it is equally certain that these are few and far 
between. 

The survival of the monk parakeet through winters 
of a severity unknown in its native South American 
homeland has been attributed by specialists to a ready 
food supply at private feeders. Without these, it has 
been conjectured, the birds couldn't make it. In this 
regard, it may be significant that most, if not all, monk 
parakeet populations reported in the northern states 
have been in urban or suburban areas, where such feed- 
ing stations are never far distant. 

The success of the Hyde Park parakeet colony may 
prove to be its own undoing. The Animal Damage 
Control office (USDA), in Springfield Illinois, has been 
tracking the colony's progress and, according to the 
control program director for the Illinois area, Ronald 
D. Ogden, a cooperative move with Illinois state agen- 
cies to eliminate the birds may be in the offing. The 
monk parakeet, he suggests, may pose an even more 
serious threat to the environment than has been real- 
ized by the European starling (introduced to the United 
States in 1890 and now found throughout the country) . 

Field Museum ornithologists are also concerned 
about the monk's potential threat, having seen first- 
hand the bird's depredations in South America. Others 
take a more moderate view. Chicago Academy of Sci- 
ences ornithologist Mark Spreyer, an occasional lectur- 
er on midwestern birds at Field Museum, thinks it most 
unlikely that the monk parakeet could become a pest 
here, basing his view on the monk's breeding biology, 
on fundamental differences between its native en- 
vironment and that of the Midwest, and other con- 
siderations. He also points out that caution should be 
used in comparing the parakeet with the starling, 
which is singularly well adapted to succeed in a wide 
variety of habitats. 

There is uniform agreement among biologists and 
environmentalists, however, that any recently intro- 
duced exotic species must be carefully monitored. "No 
one," says Dr. Herbert W. Levi of Harvard's Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, "can introduce exotic animals 
and forecast their biological effect. These intro- 
ductions can never be made on a scientific plane." We 
have seen too many accidental or innocent intro- 
ductions of exotic species explode into costly environ- 
mental problems. If the monk parakeet were to gain a 
foothold in New York's vineyard areas, suggests the 
American Museum's Dr. Bull, the consequences might 
be catastrophic to that state's grape-growing industry. 







The Carolina 
Some believe 
cal niche. 



parakeet, which became extinct in the early 1900s. 
that the monk parakeet is filling the Carolina's ecologi- 



But we have also seen instances of deliberate intro- 
ductions that failed. Several attempts to introduce 
Europe's giant grouse, the capercaillie, met with fail- 
ure, including the release of 471 birds in Michigan, the 
Adirondacks, and British Columbia. The introduction 
of 1 ,400 Indian sand grouse also was a complete failure. 
Why these introductions failed is not completely 
understood, demonstrating once again the complexity 
of environmental controls. 

Finally, we are left with many unanswered questions. 
How much do we know about the diseases and parasites 
that monk parakeets are particularly vulnerable to? 
Which avian competitors are most threatening to 
them? How effective are predators in reducing their 
numbers? What other environmental influences may 
affect their success? How much have we taken the trou- 
ble to learn, in scientifically controlled circumstances, 
about the dietary proclivities of this bird? What inves- 
tigative programs have been put forth by Federal or 
state agencies to determine the monk's potential as a 
threat in this northern environment? FH 



Field Museum 
Members 
are cordially 
invited 

Feb. 6 - April 24 




FREE Tour Book with admission, 

plus 10% off all Milwaukee 

Museum Gift Shop 

purchases over $5, 

when you present 

Field Museum 

Membership 

Card. 



Local exhibition sponsored 
by Friends of the Museum, Inc. 



MAGfoMCEkT WtfCERS 



U.S. Exploring Expedition 
1838-1842 

In 1838 six ships set out to explore the high seas. 
The treasures brought back by sailors and 
scientists from their voyage amazed the world. 
Don't miss this spectacular Smithsonian exhibit. 




X 



¥ 



Milwaukee Public Museum 

Downtown, 8th &. Wells 



Open daily 9-5 



(414) 278-2702 



29 




FIELD 

MUSEUM 
TOURS 1 

Dear Field Museum Member: 

Whale-watching and observing the varied bird life along the St. Lawrence are just 
some of the pleasures that await members of our July tour to Canada's Maritime Prov- 
inces. These rare experiences will be particularly worthwhile since your group will 
be accompanied by Dr. David Willard, manager of Field Museum's bird collection 
and a seasoned tour leader. He most recently led a tour to Alaska. 

Our special voyage aboard the magnificent M.V. Illiria highlights the incredible 
natural history and untouched beauty of the Maritime Provinces. In addition to Dr. 
Willard, a marine biologist on board will discuss the region's remarkable wildlife, 
while an expert on the history and diversity of our ports-of-call will prepare us for 
on-shore excursions. 

This tour promises to be one of our finest ever, and the fact that we will be cruis- 
ing on the elegant Illiria ensures that this will be a memorable voyage. With its ratio of 
90 crew members serving onlv 1 35 passengers, the Illiria guarantees a high level of 
personalized service at all times. The superbly furnished ship has gleaming bright- 
work, broad teakwood decks, a large dining room that accommodates all passengers at 
a single sitting, and museum-quality artwork. The unique nature of this program, 
which combines the pleasures of the great outdoors with the luxury and convenience 
of cruise travel, makes for an ideal summer family vacation. With all sightseeing tours 
included in the rates and all meals included during the cruise, this program presents 
an excellent travel value. And, our special "third person sharing rates" enable three or 
four persons to occupv a single cabin at significant savings — a wonderful opportunity 
for inviting your children or grandchildren. 

Most of all, this tour will afford you the opportunity to view the area's great 
variety of bird life with the guidance and expertise of a Field Museum specialist. 

We have indications that this program will sell out quickly. To avoid dis- 
appointment, we encourage you to book your reservation soon. 

Sincerely, 



/&^/^ 



Willard L. Boyd 
President 



30 




M.V. Illiria 



Voyage to 

The Gulf of 

St. Lawrence and 

Canada's 

Maritime Provinces 

Aboard the Illiria 

July 1-9, 1988 

Accompanied by Dr. David Willard, 

Field Museum Zoologist 



ITINERARY 

Julyl 

Fly to Montreal. Transfer to Delta Montreal 
Hotel. 

July 2 

Morning drive to Quebec City; sightsee in the 
afternoon. Illiria sails at 4:00 pm. Evening 
cruise along the St. Lawrence River shore. 
Captain's welcome dinner. 

July 3 

Cruise St. Lawrence River this morning. 
Whale-watching by Mingan Islands this after- 
noon. Evening cruise to Newfoundland. Gros 
Morne National Park. 

July 4 

Morning arrival at Gros Morne National Park 
for day of shore excursions. Evening cruise 
past Bay of Islands and along Newfound- 
land's south shore. 

July 5 

Morning arrival at St. Pierre Miquelon for 
shore excursions. Evening cruise past Grand 
Miquelon to Magdalen Islands. 

July 6 

Morning arrival at Magdalen Islands. After- 
noon shore excursions. Evening cruise to 
Gaspe Peninsula. 



July 7 

Morning visit to Bonaventure Island Bird 
Sanctuary. Afternoon visit to Perce at tip of the 
peninsula. Evening cruise up St. Lawrence 
River shore. 

July 8 

Whale-watching this morning. Cruise 
Saguenay River Fjord in the afternoon. Eve- 
ning cruise to Montreal. Captain's farewell 
dinner. 

July 9 

Disembark Montreal after breakfast. Transfer 

to airport for flight home. 

Rates: $2,090-32,450 per person (double 
occupancy); third person $430-$550. These 
rates do not include air fare, but do include a 
$200 tax-deductible contribution to the Field 
Museum. Estimated round trip air fare be- 
tween Chicago and Montreal: $195. To 
reserve tour space, send $200.00 per person 
deposit to Field Museum Tours. A brochure 
will be mailed upon request. Please phone 
322-8862 for further information. 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. , Chicago, II 60605 

31 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso.lL 60605-2499 



MISS HARITA MAXEY 
7411 NORTH GREENVIEU 
CHICAGO IL 60626 



MUS 






~' s ^*. 



> # r- 






^'- 






"->- ' 



l^k 




/ 



O 



BS 



- 



Members' Night Friday, May 6 

.Celebration! see P . 3 





Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
WillardL. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
RonaldJ. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

May 1988 

Volume 59, Number 5 



MAY EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 



TEACH THE MIND, TOUCH THE SPIRIT 

by Carolyn Blackmon, 

Chairman, Department of Education. 



HOATZINS AT HOME 

by William Beebe 



IS 



COSTA RICA, TROPICAL BIOLOGY, 
AND A VISIT WITH OTON JIMENEZ 

by William C. Burger, Curator of Vascular Plants 20 



FROM BUSHMAN TO TUT 

—EXHIBIT BLOCKBUSTERS OF THE PAST 

by Alan Solem, Curator of Invertebrates, 
and W. Peyton Fawcett, Librarian 



25 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

Featuring a trip to Boston and a special viewing of "Ramesses 
the Great" exhibit at the Boston Museum of Science 30 



COVER 

A walk through wonderful Warren Woods in May. Warren 
Woods, Michigan, is about an hour's drive east of Chicago. 
Photo by Chicago nature photographer Laszlo Nagy. 



Volunteer at Field Museum 

Field Museum currently has a wide variety of projects 
and programs for weekday and weekend volunteers. 
During the week, volunteers can work either with the 
public or behind-the-scenes in the scientific and ad- 
ministrative areas. On weekends, volunteers staff our 
participatory exhibits or Webber Resource Center, or 
lead hall programs for the visitors. For more informa- 
tion, please contact the Volunteer Coordinator at (312) 
922-9410, extension 360. 



FieldMuseum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright ©1988 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. 




Raicesdel Ande 



I 



Celeb racion! 



Weekends in May 

Join us for weekends in May in a celebration of Latin Amer- 
ican cultures — with music, dance, art demonstrations, 
stories, and poetry. 

Saturday and Sunday, May 7 and 8 
1.00-3 :00pm Mexican Murals 

Join artist and muralist Jose Guerrero as he 
demonstrates this vital and vibrant art form. 

/ :00-3:00pm How the Birds Changed Their Feathers 

Listen to this delightful South American tale that 
explains why birds are different colors, then 
look at some adaptations and habits of South 
American birds. 

2.00pm Raices del Ande 

The magical sounds of Andean music derive 
from the mingling of the ancient Incan and 
Spanish cultures. Raices del Ande express, 
through music, the spirit of people united by 



common roots, geography, and a shared his- 
tory. Enjoy this lively performance of original 
and traditional South American folk music. 

Saturday and Sunday, May H and 15 

J:00-3.00pm Woodcuts 

Carving into wood produces pattern as well as 
shape. Rene Arceo's woodcut prints range from 
abstract lines to expressive portraits. 

l:00-3:00pm Sculpture in Clay 

Push the clay here, carve it there. Help sculptor 
Roman Villareal create a new work in clay. 

2:00pm David Hernandez and Street Sounds 

The cunning urban poetry of David Hernandez 
is colored by the Latin American jazz of Street 
Sounds. David, Chicago's unofficial poet lau- 
reate, has an expressive voice, a quiet sense 

Continued i> 




of showmanship, a sharp ear, and rare bits of 
bluster that are attuned to the urban rhythms of 
daily life. His poetry is about always hearing the 
cadence and cacophony of the street life 
symphony. 

Saturday and Sunday, May 21 and 22 
1 :00-3:00pm Tiny Dancers 

Help Michael Montenegro of Zapato Puppet 
Theatre carve and sculpt marionettes, rod, and 
hand puppets. 

l:00'3:00pm ;01e!-;01e! 

Join in the fun of bolero (a cup and ball game), 
or spin a Mexican trompo (top), canquas (mar- 
bles), or lotteria (bingo). 

2:00pm Los Pleneros de Yucayeque 

Enjoy a lively and exciting program of Puerto 
Rican folk music. 

Saturday and Sunday, May 28 and 29 
2:00pm Brechita 

Carmen Aguilar guides Brechita, a young peo- 
ple's theatre group, in a series of Latin American 
myths and legends. 



World Music Program 

Weekends in May 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

April 30 and May 1 

1 :00pm Eli Hoenai — African percussion. 

3:00pm Librado Salazar — Classical guitar. 

May 7 and May 8 

1 :00pm Chinese Music Society of North America 

— Classical instruments of the Chinese 
orchestra. 



3:00pm 



Ari Brown — Saxophone. 



May 14 and 15 

1 :00pm Chinese Music Society of North America 

— Classical instruments of the Chinese 

orchestra. 



3:00pm 



Alas Poets — Urban poetry. 




"Tundra Watch, " oil painting of snowy owl by Rod Frederick. On view in "Birds in Art " In Gallery 9. 





World Music Program 

May 21 and 22 

1:00pm Jamila-Ra — Poetry. 

3:00pm Margarita Lopez-Castro — Poetry. 

May 28 and 29 

1 :00pm Librado Salazar — Classical guitar. 

3:00pm Alas Poets — Urban poetry. 

The World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and 

Harle Montgomery Fund and a City Arts lll/IV grant from 

the Chicago Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 



Spring at the Field 

Hall Interpretive Program 
Thursdays through Sundays in May 

Hall Interpreters, located throughout the exhibit halls, help 
young and old experience the wonders of Field Museum. Dis- 
cover the formation and uses of gemstones, play a Native Amer- 
ican ring and pin game, explore the many dinosaur extinction 
theories, learn the ancient Egyptian way of making paper, and 
more. 

Take a sensory journey to discover a variety of fragrant 
plants, explore the many sizes, shapes, and uses of teeth; learn 
the diet of owls through the dissection of their pellets; and learn 
Maori myths, crafts, and games. These exciting activities are 
available to all Museum visitors Thursday through Sunday. 
Please consult the television monitors throughout the Museum 
for activity locations. 

The Hall Interpretive Program is supported by grants from 
the Joyce Foundation and the Lloyd A. Fry Foundation. 



Weekend Programs in May 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore 
the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, 
demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the 
Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below 
are some of the numerous activities each weekend. Check 
the activity listing upon arrival for the complete schedule and 
program locations. The programs are partially supported by 
a grant from the Illinois Art Council. 



May 14, 1 1 :00 am 



11:30 am 



May 21, 11:00 am 



May 28, 11:00 am 



11:30 am 



American Indian Stories 

Myths, legends, and daily life of Amer- 
ican Indian cultures. 

China's Dragon Tales 

The evolution of theatre from early Han to 
the cultural revolution. 

Ancient Egypt 

The traditions of ancient Egypt, from 
everyday life to myths and mummies. 

American Indian Stories 

Myths, legends, and daily life of Amer- 
ican Indian cultures. 

Tibet Today and Tour of Collection 

See Lhasa and other towns now open to 
tourists, then take a tour of our Tibetan 
exhibit (slide lecture and tour). 

These programs are free with Museum admission and 
tickets are not required. 



Teach the Mind 
Touch the Spirit 

The Museum's Mission of Exploration and Discovery 

A presentation to the Women's Board of Field Museum March 9, 1988 

b/Carolyn Blackmon 

Chairman of the Department of Education 



I am pleased to have this opportunity to share some 
ideas with you about museum education. As I prepared 
this paper to present to our Women's Board, it gave me 
a chance to reflect on and think about several issues — 
to look at the present from the past and the past from 
the present. Join me in this reflection. 

You are a fourth grade teacher with 41 kids and the 
4 required parent or neighborhood chaperones coming 
to Field Museum from Chicago's near west side. You 
have been on a bus for one hour. It is the first time that 
your children have ever left their neighborhood sur- 
roundings, so this adventure is exciting and maybe a bit 
scary. They are so excited to be going someplace that 
they may not "see" anything in the visual sense. But, 
what they will see in their hearts is an "experience" and 
that something, that object or person will give them a 
new vision beyond the small world that they live in, a 
horizon for exploration and discovery. 

A teacher expresses it best: "It's very hard to teach 
language arts when the kids' lives are so limited and 
their experiences so dreary; most of them have never 
been in a big yellow bus or even seen Lake Michigan. 
When we come to the Museum a whole new window to 
the world opens up for them. " Or the Chicago Board of 
Education Social Studies Bureau Director who re- 
marked, "museums bring our books to life, they don't 
supplement school curricula, they augment it. 
Museums can offer the concrete rather than the ab- 
stract level of learning. " This understanding of the edu- 
cational strengths of the Museum on the part of 
teachers and administrators has taken years of con- 
centrated effort to develop. 

Taking a step back in time, Field Museum rose 
from the international collections and the peoples who 
came together to share in a cultural, artistic, and tech- 
nological extravaganza. Chicago in 1893 was the Cal- 



gary of America. After a successful competition with 
New York to be the site for the World's Columbian 
Exposition, we accomplished the unexpected. Chicago 
created a venue for the vast range of every art form, 
from sculpture to music and dance; replications of vil- 
lage life and dramatic performances with all the 
accoutrements from the far corners of the world; the 
Congress of Ideas as the forum for special interest group 
conferences and conventions. It was all here, even Mr. 
Ferris's famous wheel. 

Something else, however, was significant to the 
organization of this event: the efforts of leading women 
in the Chicago community. For example, Mrs. Potter 
Palmer convinced the fair commission to institute the 
Board of Lady Managers which, in turn, developed the 
Women's Building. Thirteen women architects com- 
peted and 23-year-old Ms. Hayden at MIT won the 
competition. Bertha Palmer was convinced that the 
fair was so large that a special building for children 
needed to be built. When the fair commission declined 
support for it, she raised funds from every state to build 
the Children's Building so that visitors to the fair would 
have a special educational place for their children to go 
and enjoy the day. Twenty-seven million people came 
to Chicago's fair of fairs that summer; this world of 
wonders gave birth to exceptional support from Chica- 
go's leaders during a very arduous time in the cities' and 
nations' economic crisis. 

The Columbian Museum was installed in the 
Palace of Fine Arts, the white knight of the Midway. It 
was not too weather-resistant, I am told. In fact, the 
curators worked with their feet in baskets of straw to 
keep warm in the winter! And most important for us, 
a new museum was born — the Field Columbian 
Museum, now our own Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory. 







The Children's Building, World's Columbian Exposition 



The result of this original effort and nearly a cen- 
tury of continuing community support is a major 
museum that shares its prestige with only three others, 
the British Museum of Natural History, the Smithso- 
nian, and the American Museum of Natural History in 
New York. Field Museum has become an international 
center for learning and an institution of service to the 
scholarly and public communities. 

The true grit, in a sense, and determination of 
Chicago's community leaders to ensure equal educa- 
tion in the natural and human sciences for Chicago's 
schoolchildren is exemplified by their generous support 
in planning time and dollars. For example, significant 
endowments from the Norman Wait Harris and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundations were some of the seeds 
that helped to establish the Department of Education 
that we know today. The Harris Extension Loan pro- 
gram, initiated in 1911, produced miniature dioramas 



for teachers and their students that are on a par with 
the Thome rooms at the Art Institute of Chicago. 
These slices of natural habitats were first exhibited at 
the Sesqui-Centennial International Exposition, Phil- 
adelphia, 1926. Today more than 1,000 miniature 
dioramas and 750 additional free-standing materials 
are available for free loan to teachers and community 
leaders in Chicago's metropolitan area. New topics and 
related materials, based on the Museum's strengths, are 
in various stages of development. Harris Extension be- 
came the first museum outreach program in Chicago 
and continues to be an important resource for commu- 
nity group leaders to use in their on-site programs. 
Anna Raymond's endowment in 1925 was to establish 
a school group lecture program in the Museum to be 
presented by museum teachers in order to free the 
curator-scientists to attend to their taxonomic duties 
among the collections. Up to this time the curators had 



been responsible for school tours. In 1921, Edward E. 
Ayer endowed free public programming by establishing 
the public lecture fund. This series continues today. 

These Chicago pioneers, the creators of the indus- 
trial revolution, the risk-takers who were doing busi- 
ness west of the Hudson River in the earliest part of the 
20th century, directed the Field Museum and provided 
million-dollar endowments to enrich the world of the 
child and the public at large with an understanding of 
and appreciation for the collections of objects and their 
role in both natural and human contexts. This human- 
ness continues to drive the Museum's educational en- 
deavors. 

In 1943, at Field Museum's fiftieth anniversary, 
Robert Maynard Hutchins, then president of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, stated in his address: "As an educa- 
tional institution, Field Museum possesses certain 
special advantages. It has no football team. It gives no 
course credits or course examinations and awards no 
degrees. The students of the Museum come here to 
learn. They do not ask it to help them make friends, get 
a better job or give them a leg up the social ladder. 
Formal education, moreover in schools, colleges and 
universities is something you finish. It is like the 
mumps, measles, or chickenpox. Having had educa- 



tion once, you need not, indeed you cannot have it 
again. You put it behind you with your other juvenile 
troubles, praise the Lord that it is over at last, and pro- 
ceed to the really important tasks of life. The Museum 
is free from this regrettable tradition. It operates on a 
cradle-to-the-grave principle." 

He quoted Director Clifford C. Gregg, who had 
stated in 1939 "Whether its collections are used for the 
study of industrial scientists who seek to make a profit, 
by scholars who seek to solve some problem of research, 
or by casual visitors who seek recreation and enjoyment 
is not of primary concern to a museum. The only real 
concern is that the collections be available and that 
they be used." It has become a professional practice 
that collections be continually reinterpreted as new in- 
formation emerges. 

Hutchins continued, "The pedagogical signifi- 
cance of the collections is as obvious as it is great. The 
chief difficulty of any classroom teaching is the absence 
of three-dimensional reality. It may shortly be as hard 
to make an American city-dweller understand agricul- 
ture and its significance as it would be to discuss the Fiji 
Islanders with the Eskimos." 

Hutchins's speech was powerful and insightful. 
He called for museum-school collaboration from 



The Women's Building, World's Columbian Exposition 




elementary to higher education, museum understand- 
ing of the impacts of increased leisure time, the 
museum's responsibilities, and the opportunities for 
adult education. He concluded that the museum must 
change from a curio cabinet into an integrated part of 
an educational system dedicated to teaching people 
how to live human lives, and how to live them together 
on a worldwide basis. Hutchins understood well the 
power of the "reality" and "meaning" of real objects; he 
also understood the portents of a technological future 
and sociological change. 

We have taken a quick look at the beginning of 
Chicago's philanthropy, the high regard for museum 
learning, high hopes, and diligent efforts in col- 
laboration. Running parallel to this strong community 
support were developments in American society at 
large. Let's take a quick look down the road that we've 
travelled and see some of the impacts on museums: 
D 1930-40: Economic depression; WPA support for 
museum artists and preparators provides necessary 
manpower; television was in its infancy ... a mini- 
vision at the Century of Progress, Chicago; radio came 
into its own; world news was introduced at the movies; 
Movietone News "The Eyes and Ears of the World" was 
followed by the roar of MGM's lion, and Gone With the 
Wind. 

} 1940s: The War Years. . . at home, museums were in 
flux — curators were conscripted and served in remote 
areas of the world; volunteers with special talents kept 
many kinds of programs functioning; Ellen Thome 
Smith became the surrogate curator of Field Museum's 
Bird Division in Zoology. 

□ 1950-60: Post War — Pre- War: museums institute 
admission charges; schools are high users; black and 
white television is widely available; the Mickey Mouse 
Club stars Annette Funicello and Disneyland is born; 
there is world foment and an era of frantic comic relief 
. . . and new game shows; Neil Armstrong walks on the 
moon. 

□ The 1970s: Desegregation-integration; Head start 
pre-school programs enter the picture; color television 
is a hit, screens get bigger and media marketing ex- 
plodes; game shows grow in popularity; museums falter 
and struggle with flat interest rates on endowment; 
museums begin to look at programming and other 
opportunities for support; the National Endowments 
for the Arts and the Humanities are born; museums 
begin to pay attention to who comes and why; . . . and 
then came the so-called blockbusters with the boy King 
Tut leading the way. Have we been fearful of the com- 



petition and seduced by the objects of our affection, 
and if so, wherefore have they taken us? 

They have taken us to understand the true im- 
plications of interpretation and the ethics involved in 
the unique charge of the Museum's mission. We under- 
stand better that a single vase on a shelf in an exhibit 
without a label speaks volumes to our visitors about the 
attitude of the Museum towards its visitors, and its role 
in interpretation. Bertha Palmer knew what it was 
about when she included storytellers and lectures and 
entertainment and play space in her Children's Build- 
ing in 1893. The audience has become a major focus of 
thinking about museum education. As museums 
attempt to serve a growing, more diverse public, they 
are considering more carefully what their visitors want 
from them. 

At the same time, museums have become more 
sensitive to what shapes the way people experience the 
world from their personal histories to the nature of the 
society they inhabit. The emergence of new kinds of 
family units, and the ever-accelerating pace of modern 
life are among the societal conditions that influence 
people's perceptions and thinking. We understand that 
perception involves personal decision from a point of 
view or base of knowledge. The visitor asks: Why 
didn't the Indians have any dishes that weren't glued 
together? Why did people trade shells and beads when 
they could have gone to the currency exchange? Why 
do those big bears lay such tiny eggs? Field Museum is 
among many museums that have responded by de- 
veloping exhibits and programs that better accommo- 
date "where people are." 

We feel that education might better be described as 
"visitor experience." The 1984 report Museums for a 
New Century introduced a change in the museum ver- 
nacular by referring to learning rather than education 
and instruction. Studies have shown repeatedly that 
people do not learn in museums in the same pseudo- 
quantifiable way that they learn in other more struc- 
tured education environments. While lectures or 
school tours do aim to pass on specific information, the 
typical unstructured museum visit achieves something 
quite different. It has been variously described as a 
sense of wonder, the flow experience, theOoh! Ah! expe- 
rience, and landmark learning. Reaching this personal 
level of experience is Field Museum's ultimate goal. 

With this in mind, let's look at who we are in 
education and what we do, who we serve and what 
constitutes our short- and long-term goals: Field 
Museum has taken a leadership role in informal educa- 9 



tion through collaboration with institutions of ele- 
mentary, secondary, and higher education and through 
our energetic efforts to provide innovative and per- 
sonalized interpretation of concepts, at varying levels 
of audience understanding through various media. To 
meet the Museum's mission "to enhance in individuals 
the knowledge of and delight in natural history," our 
charge is to provide experiences for our visitors which 
include information to enhance personal attitudes and 
abilities. To influence attitudes we must generate inter- 
ests which may lead to involvement with exhibits and 
other museum resources and create situations that 
spark curiosity and motivate the visitor to continue 
exploration and discovery. To enhance the visitors' 



abilities we must develop their competence to use the 
Museum and its resources independently; to develop 
their ability to differentiate between objects; describe 
objects accurately; recognize concepts inherent in an 
object's characteristics; to arrive at conclusions in- 
directly through study and thought about objects and 
information; and to use visual thinking or simply to 
develop and fine-tune their observational skills. 

Comfort and familiarity with a place and its con- 
tents encourages enjoyment and delight which, in 
turn, may encourage learning and that return visit. We 
must make the visitors first encounter with us a suc- 
cessful venture. What are these encounters or programs 
that lead to involvement. 7 Let's look at a few: 




A new way to play pin the tail on! 



Will they ever forget this moment? 




*♦ «».«.». ~ . . . »*.«#. 



Do it yourself dinos . . . what did they look like? . . . putting on the 
flesh... 




Finding out what makes up our land . . 2.000 kids in 107 workshops 

Phil Mathews standing below his picture . . . A member of the 
Museum's Pawnee Advisory Committee 



u 



r 

i 



Well, it's sort of like this. 




Pawnee 10th anniversary— 106,000 in 1987 
How many ways can you use a buffalo? 







Over 1 ,200 adults explore the world in adult courses 



Mary Louise and her great aunt, Mrs. May Wabaunsee, Pawnee 




0*(* 


, 


 ', v * 




- ; ^ 








J^ 


# 




4 






 i - i 


"#* ' ^ 










^&k 






^ j 


r 




4| 




. . ^3jL, * | 




***V 









On ecological field trips 



African Heritage Week for schools in February 




2,300 went to local ecological niches during the spring, fa 




Dance Shakere. a beaded gourd that swishes 




Dance 




Create 



Enjoy. . . and over 630,000 visitors participated in a program during 1987. 



I conclude with a favorite quote: "The Museum is 
seductive, it woos me the learner with artful wiles, it 
continues to deceive me into educating myself as long 
as I live." Dear Mr. Hutchins: I couldn't agree with you 
more and thanks for your help. 

And to our most important Board of Lady Man- 
agers, the Women's Board, thanks so much for your 
involvement and support. FH 



HOATZINS AT HOME 



by William Beebe 



THE FLIGHT OF THE HOATZIN resembles that of an 
over-fed hen. The hoatzin's voice is no more melodious 
than the cry of a peacock, and less sonorous than an 
alligator's roar. The bird's grace is batrachian rather 
than avian, while the odor of its body resembles that of 
no bird untouched by dissolution. Still, zoologically 
considered, the hoatzin is probably the most remark- 
able and interesting bird living on the earth today. 

It has successfully defied time and space. For it, 
the dial of the ages has moved more slowly than for the 
rest of organic life, and although living and breathing 
with us today, yet its world is an affair of two dimen- 
sions — a line of thorny saplings threaded along the 
muddy banks of a few tropical waters. 

A bird in a cage cannot escape, and may be found 
month after month wherever the cage is placed. A 
stuffed bird in a case may resist disintegration for a cen- 
tury. But when we go to look for the bluebirds which 
nest in the orchard, they may have flown a half mile 
away in their search for food. The plover which scurries 
before us today on the beach may tonight be far away 
on the first lap of his seven thousand mile flight to the 
southward. 

The hoatzin's status lies rather with the caged 
bird. In November in New York City an Englishman 
from British Guiana said to me, "Go to the Berbice 
River, and at the north end of the town of New Amster- 
dam, in front of Mr. Beckett's house, you will find hoat- 
zins." Six months later as I drove along a tropical river 
road I saw three hoatzins perched on a low thorn bush 
at the river's edge in front of a house. And the river was 
the Berbice, and the house that of Mr. Beckett. 

Thus are the hoatzins independent of space, as all 
other flying birds know it, and in their classic reptilian 
affinities, — voice, actions, arms, fingers, habits, — 
they bring close the dim epochs of past time, and renew 



"Hoatzins at Home" is horn Jungle Peace, by William Beebe, former 
curator of birds, New York Zoological Park, and former director of 
Tropical Research Station, in British Guiana, where Beebe 
observed the hoatzin. Jungle Peace was first published in 1918 by 
Henry Holt and Co. 



for our inspection the youth of bird-life on the earth. It 
is discouraging ever to attempt to translate habits 
fraught with so profound a significance into words, or 
to make them realistic even with the aid of photo- 
graphs. 

We took a boat opposite Mr. Beckett's house, and 
paddled slowly with nearly-flood tide up the Berbice 
River. It was two o'clock, the hottest time of the day. 
For three miles we drifted past the chosen haunts of the 
hoatzins. All were perched in the shade, quiet in the 
intense heat, squatting prostrate or sleepily preening 
their plumage. Now and then we saw a bird on her nest, 
always over the water. If she was sitting on eggs she sat 
close. If young birds were in the nest she half-crouched, 
or perched on the rim, so that her body cast a shadow 
over the young. 

The vegetation was not varied. Muckamucka was 
here and thete in the foreground, with an almost solid 
line of bunduri pimpler or thorn tree. This was the real 
home of the birds, and this plant forms the background 
whenever the hoatzin comes to mind. It is a growth 
which loves the water, and crowds down so that the 
rising of the tide, whether fresh or brackish, covers the 
mud in which it stands, so that it appears to be quite as 
aquatic as the mangrove which, hece and there, creeps 
out alongside it. 

The pimpler bears thorns of the first magnitude, 
often double, recurved and at such diabolically unex- 
pected places, that like barbed wire, it is impossible to 
grasp anywhere without drawing blood. Such a 
chevaux-de-frise would defend a trench against the 
most courageous regiment. The stems were light gray, 
greening toward the younger shoots, and the foliage 
was pleasantly divided into double lines of locust-like 
leaflets. 

The plants were in full flower, — dainty, upright 
panicles of wisteria-like pea-blooms, pale violet and 
white with tiny buds of magenta. A faint, subdued per- 
fume drifted from them through the tangle of branches. 
The fruit was ripening on many plants, in clusters of 
green, semi-circular, flat, kidney pods. The low bran- 
ches stretched gracefully waterwards in long sweeping 15 



curves. On these at a fork or at the crossing of two 
distinct branches, the hoatzins placed their nests, and 
with the soft-tissued leaflets they packed their capa- 
cious crops and fed their young. 

Besides these two plants, which alone may be con- 
sidered as forming the principal environment, two 
blooms were conspicuous at this season; a deep- 
calyxed, round blossom of rich yellow, — an hibiscus, 
which the Indians called makoe, and from the bark of 
which they made most excellent rope. The other flow- 
er was a vine which crept commonly up over the pim- 
pler trees, regardless of water and thorns, and hung out 
twin blossoms in profusion, pink and pinkish-white, 
trumpet-shaped, with flaring lips. 

The mid-day life about this haunt of hoatzins was 
full of interest. Tody-flycatchers of two species, yellow- 
breasted and streaked, were the commonest birds, and 
their little homes, like bits of tide-hung drift, swayed 
from the tips of the pimpler branches. They dashed 
to and fro regardless of the heat, and whenever we 
stopped they came within a foot or two, curiously 
watching our every motion. Kiskadees hopped along 
the water's edge in the shade, snatching insects and 
occasionally splashing into the water after small fish. 
Awkward Guinea green herons, not long out of the 
nest, crept like shadow silhouettes of birds close to the 
dark water. High overhead, like flecks of jet against the 
blue sky, the vultures soared. Green dragonflies whirled 
here and there, and great blue-black bees fumbled in 
and out of the hibiscus, yellowed with pollen and too 
busy to stop a second in their day-long labor. 

This little area held very strange creatures as well, 
some of which we saw even in our few hours' search. 
Four-eyed fish skittered over the water, pale as the 
ghosts offish, and when quiet, showing only as a pair of 
bubbly eyes. Still more weird hairy caterpillars wriggled 
their way through the muddy, brackish current — aqua- 
tic larvae of a small moth which I had not seen since I 
found them in the trenches of Para. 

The only sound at this time of day was a drowsy 
but penetrating fr-r-r-f-r-p/ made by a green-bodied, 
green-legged grasshopper of good size, whose joy in life 
seemed to be to lie lengthwise upon a pimpler branch, 
and skreek violently at frequent intervals, giving 
his wings a frantic flutter at each utterance, and slowly 
encircling the stem. 

In such environment the hoatzin lives and 

thrives, and, thanks to its strong body odor, has existed 

from time immemorial in the face of terrific handicaps. 

The odor is a strong musky one, not particularly dis- 

16 agreeable. I searched my memory at every whiff for 




mM 




The hoatzin, Opisthocomis hoazin 



something of which it vividly reminded me, and at last 
the recollection came to me — the smell, delectable and 
fearfully exciting in former years — of elephants at a 
circus, and not altogether elephants either, but a com- 
pound of one-sixth sawdust, another part peanuts, 
another of strange animals and three-sixths swaying 
elephant. That, to my mind, exactly describes the 
odor of hoatzins as I sensed it among these alien 
surroundings. 

As I have mentioned, the nest of the hoatzin was 
invariably built over the water, and we shall later dis- 
cover the reason for this. The nests were sometimes 
only four feet above high water, or equally rarely, at a 
height of forty to fifty feet. From six to fifteen feet in- 
cluded the zone of four-fifths of the nests of these birds. 
They varied much in solidity, some being frail and 
loosely together, the dry, dead sticks which composed 
them dropping apart almost at a touch. Usually they 
were as well knitted as a heron's, and in about half the 
cases consisted of a recent nest built upon the founda- 
tions of an old one. There was hardly any cavity at 
the top, and the coarse network of sticks looked like a 
precarious resting place for eggs and an exceedingly 
uncomfortable one for young birds. 

When we approached a nest, the occupant paid 



no attention until we actually came close to a branch, 
or shook it. She then rose, protesting hoarsely, and lift- 
ing wings and tail as she croaked. At the last moment, 
often when only a yard away, she flew off and away to a 
distance of fifty feet or more. Watching closely, when 
she realized that we really had intentions on her nest, 
she returned and perched fifteen or twenty feet away, 
croaking continually, her mate a little farther off, and 
all the hoatzins within sight or hearing joining in sym- 
pathetic disharmony, all with synchronous lifting of 
tail and wings at each utterance. 

The voice of the female is appreciably deeper than 
that of the male, having more of a gurgling character, 
like one of the notes of a curassow. The usual note of 
both sexes is an unwritable, hoarse, creaking sound, 
quite cicada or frog-like. 

Their tameness was astounding, and they would 
often sit unmoved, while we were walking noisily 
about, or focusing the camera within two yards. If 
several were sitting on a branch and one was shot, the 
others would often show no symptoms of concern or 
alarm, either at the noise of the gun or the fall of their 
companion. A hoatzin which may have been crouched 
close to the slain bird would continue to preen its plum- 
age without a glance downward. When the young had 
attained their full plumage it was almost impossible to 
distinguish them from the older members of the flock 
except by their generally smaller size. 

But the heart of our interest in the hoatzins cen- 
tered in the nestlings. Some kind Providence directed 
the time of our visit, which I chose against the advice of 
some of the very inhabitants of New Amsterdam. It 
turned out that we were on the scene exactly at the 
right time. A week either way would have yielded 
much poorer results. The nestlings, in seven occupied 
nests, observed as we drifted along shore, or landed and 
climbed among the thorns, were in an almost identical 
stage of development. In fact, the greatest difference in 
size occurred between two nestlings of the same brood. 
Their down was a thin, scanty, fuzzy covering, and the 
flight feathers were less than a half-inch in length. No 
age would have showed to better advantage every 
movement of wings or head. 

When a mother hoatzin took reluctant flight from 
her nest, the young bird at once stood up-right and 
looked curiously in every direction. No slacker he, 
crouching flat or awaiting his mother's directing cries. 
From the moment he was left alone he began to depend 
upon the warnings and signs which his great beady eyes 
and skinny ears conveyed to him. Hawks and vultures 
had swept low over his nest and mother unheeded. 



Coolies in their boats had paddled underneath with no 
more than a glance upward. Throughout his week of 
life, as through his parents' and their parents' parents' 
lives, no danger had disturbed their peaceful existence. 
Only for a sudden windstorm such as that which the 
week before had upset nests and blown out eggs, it 
might be said that for the little hoatzin chicks life held 
nothing but siestas and munchings of pimpler leaves. 

But one little hoatzin, if he had any thoughts such 
as these, failed to count on the invariable exceptions to 
every rule, for this day the totally unexpected hap- 
pened. Fate, in the shape of enthusiastic scientists, de- 
scended upon him. He was not for a second non- 
If we had concentrated upon him a thousand strong, by 
boats and by land, he would have fought the good fight 
for freedom and life as calmly as he waged it against 
us. And we found him no mean antagonist, and far 
from reptilian in his ability to meet new and unforeseen 
conditions. 

His mother, who a moment before had been pack- 
ing his capacious little crop with predigested pimpler 
leaves, had now flown off to an adjoining group of man- 
groves, where she and his father croaked to him hoarse 
encouragement. His flight feathers hardly reached 
beyond his finger-tips, and his body was covered with a 
sparse coating of sooty black down. So there could be 
no resort to flight. He must defend himself, bound to 
earth like his assailants. 

Hardly had his mother left when his comical 
head, with thick, blunt beak and large intelligent eyes, 
appeared over the rim of the nest. His alert expression 
was increased by the suspicion of a crest on his crown 
where the down was slightly longer. Higher and higher 
rose his head, supported on a neck of extraordinary 
length and thinness. No more than this was needed to 
mark his absurd resemblance to some strange, extinct 
reptile. A young dinosaur must have looked much like 
this, while for all that my glance revealed, I might have 
been looking at a diminutive Galapagos tortoise. In- 
deed this simile came to mind often when I became 
more intimate with nestling hoatzins. 

Sam, my black tree-climber, kicked off his shoes 
and began creeping along the horizontal limbs of the 
pimplers. At every step he felt carefully with a cal- 
loused sole in order to avoid the longer of the cruel 
thorns, and punctuated every yard with some gasp of 
pain or muttered personal prayer, "Pleas' doan' stick 
me, Thorns!" 

At last his hand touched the branch, and it shook 
slightly. The young bird stretched his mittened hands 
high above his head and waved them a moment. With 17 



18 



similar intent a boxer or wrestler flexes his muscles and 
bends his body. One or two uncertain, forward steps 
brought the bird to the edge of the nest at the base of a 
small branch. There he stood, and raising one wing 
leaned heavily against the stem, bracing himself. My 
man climbed higher and the nest swayed violently. 

Now the brave little hoatzin reached up to some 
tiny side twigs and aided by the projecting ends of dead 
sticks from the nest, he climbed with facility, his 
thumbs and forefingers apparently being of more aid 
than his feet. It was fascinating to see him ascend, stop- 
ping now and then to crane his head and neck far out, 
turtlewise. He met every difficulty with some new con- 
tortion of body or limbs, often with so quick or so subtle 
a shifting as to escape my scrutiny. The branch ended in 
a tiny crotch and here perforce, ended his attempt at 
escape by climbing. He stood on the swaying twig, one 
wing clutched tight, and braced himself with both feet. 

Nearer and nearer crept Sam. Not a quiver on the 
part of the little hoatzin. We did not know it, but inside 
that ridiculous head there was definite decision as to a 
deadline. He watched the approach to this great, 
strange creature — this Danger, this thing so wholly new 
and foreign to the experience, and doubtless to all the 
generations of his forbears. A black hand grasped the 
thorny branch six feet from his perch, and like a flash 
he played his next trick — the only remaining one he 
knew, one that set him apart from all modern land 
birds, as the frog is set apart from the swallow. 

The young hoatzin stood erect for an instant, and 
then both wings of the little bird were stretched 
straight back, not folded, bird-wise, but dangling 
loosely and reaching well beyond the body. For a con- 
siderable fraction of time he leaned forward. Then 
without effort, without apparent leap or jump he dived 
straight downward, as beautifully as a seal, direct as a 
plummet and very swiftly. There was a scarcely-no- 
ticeable splash, and as I gazed with real awe, I watched 
the widening ripples which undulated over the mud- 
dy water — the only trace of the whereabouts of the 
young bird. 

It seemed as if no one, whether ornithologist, evo- 
lutionist, poet or philosopher could fail to be pro- 
foundly impressed at the sight we had seen. Here I was 
in a very real, a very modern boat, with the honk of 
motor horns sounding from the river road a few yards 
away through the bushes, in the shade of this tropical 
vegetation in the year nineteen hundred and sixteen; 
and yet the curtain of the past had been lifted and I had 
been permitted a glimpse of what must have been com- 
mon in the millions of years ago. It was a tremendous 



thing, a wonderful thing to have seen, and it seemed to 
dwarf all the strange sights which had come to me in all 
other parts of the earth's wilderness. I had read of these 
habits and had expected them, but like one's first sight 
of a volcano in eruption, no reading or description pre- 
pares one for the actual phenomenon. 

I sat silently watching for the re-appearance of the 
young bird. We tallied five pairs of eyes and yet many 
minutes passed before I saw the same little head and 
emaciated neck sticking out of the water alongside a bit 
of drift rubbish. The only visible thing was the pro- 
truding spikes of the bedraggled tail feathers. I worked 
the boat in toward the bird, half-heartedly, for I had 
made up my mind that this particular brave little bit of 
atavism deserved his freedom, so splendidly had he 
fought for it among the pimplers. Soon he ducked for- 
ward, dived out of sight and came up twenty feet away 
among an inextricable tangle of vines. I sent a little 
cheer of well wishing after him and we salvaged Sam. 

Then we shoved out the boat and watched from a 
distance. Five or six minutes passed and a skinny, 
crooked, two-fingered mitten of an arm reared upward 
out of the muddy flood and the nestling, black and 
glistening, hauled itself out of water. 

Thus must the first amphibian have climbed into 
the thin air. But the young hoatzin neither gasped nor 
shivered, and seemed as self-possessed as if this was a 
common occurrence in its life. There was not the 
slightest doubt however, that this was its first intro- 
duction to water. Yet it had dived from a height of fif- 
teen feet, about fifty times its own length, as cleanly as 
a seal leaps from a berg. It was as if a human child 
should dive two hundred feet! 

In fifteen minutes more it had climbed high above 
the water, and with unerring accuracy directly toward 
its natal bundle of sticks overhead. The mother now 
came close, and with hoarse rasping notes and frantic 
heaves of tail and wings lent encouragement. Just be- 
fore we paddled from sight, when the little fellow had 
reached his last rung, he partly opened his beak and 
gave a little falsetto cry, — a clear, high tone, tailing off 
into a guttural rasp. His splendid courage had broken at 
last; he had nearly reached the nest and he was aching 
to put aside all this terrible responsibility, this pitting of 
his tiny might against such tearful odds. He wanted to 
be a helpless nestling again, to crouch on the springy 
bed of twigs with a feather comforter over him and be 
stuffed at will with delectable pimpler pap. Such is the 
normal right destiny of a hoatzin chick, and the whee- 
ogl wrung from him by the reaction of safety seemed to 
voice all this. FH 




"Morning- 
May 22. 



-Oatka Creek, " welded corten steel sculpture of green-backed heron by Craig Wilson. On view in "Birds in Art" exhibit closing 



19 



Costa Rica, 

Tropical Biology, 

And a Visit with Oton Jimenez 



by William C. Burger 
Curator of Vascular Plants 



COSTA RICA, one of half a dozen small republics in 
Central America, has played a special role in the sci- 
ence of tropical biology. With mountains over 3,000 
meters (10,000 feet) high, areas with more than 3 
meters ( 10 feet) of rainfall a year, other areas with little 
or no rain for five months, and rich volcanic soils, little 
Costa Rica supports an extraordinary variety of plants 
and animals. Though less than half the size of Ohio, 
Costa Rica has over 1,200 species of orchids, and twice 
as many ferns as all of North America north of Mexico. 
This rich fauna and flora has provided many opportuni- 
ties for biological research. In addition, the country has 
played an important role in the education of a new gen- 
eration of tropical biologists. 

About twenty years ago, the Organization for 
. Tropical Studies (OTS), a consortium of colleges and 
universities, decided to base its educational program in 
Costa Rica. The OTS field stations, and especially its 
program of intensive field courses for graduate stu- 
dents, have been a great success. Many of North Amer- 
ica's academic biologists, now concentrating their 
research efforts on problems in tropical biology and 
ecology, had their introduction to the tropics through 
the OTS program. 

Costa Rica was a logical choice for such an educa- 
tional effort. Within a two- or three-hour drive from 
San Jose, the capital, one can experience the seasonal- 
ly dry deciduous forests of the lowland Pacific, the rain 
forests of the Caribbean coastal plain, the cooler cloud 
forests of the central highlands, or the treeless alpine 
formations on the highest mountaintops. This great 
variety of life-zones, and the wealth of plants and ani- 
mals they support, have made the OTS courses an espe- 
cially rich experience for hundreds of young biologists. 
20 But there are other reasons why Costa Rica has played a 



special role in the growth of our knowledge of tropical 
nature. 

A long tradition of scholarly activity, an excellent 
university system, a highly literate and talented pop- 
ulace, and the very friendly nature of the people have 
made Costa Rica especially hospitable to visiting scien- 
tists. A stable political climate and accessibility to 
many kinds of natural habitats have been important 
factors. In addition, there has been a long tradition of 
collecting and research by the Costa Ricans them- 
selves. For example, the herbarium of the Museo 
Nacional de Costa Rica holds more than 150,000 plant 
specimens, comprising a major resource for studying 
and understanding the country's flora. These col- 
lections have been gathered for nearly a century, and 
largely account for the fact that we know much more 
about the flora of Costa Rica than we do of most other 
tropical regions. Likewise, important collections of in- 
sects, birds, and mammals are housed in the National 
Museum and at the National University. Much of this 
heritage has come from the work of resident biologists, 
who know the local flora and fauna intimately. Some, 
like the ornithologist Alexander Skutch, have become 
world famous for their research. Originally from the 
United States, Dr. Skutch has lived in Costa Rica for 
more than fifty years. This tradition of scholarship is 
continuing with young Costa Rican biologists who are 
becoming expert in the fauna and flora of their 
country. 

The Botany Department of Field Museum has 
been active in research on Costa Rica's flora tor more 
than half a century. The Museum published former 
Botany curator Paul Standley's Flora of Costa Rica in 
1937-38. This 4-volume, 1,570-page compendium is 
still a major source of information about Costa Rica's 



plant life. A program to develop a modern detailed 
flora was begun here at the Museum in 1965 and con- 
tinues to the present. Active fieldwork, in col- 
laboration with our Costa Rican colleagues, com- 
plements research on collections and literature. The 
plant specimens housed at Field Museum and in Costa 
Rica are a primary data base for our study of that coun- 
try's flora. The diversity of habitats in Costa Rica re- 
quire that we continue to collect actively; many areas 
are still poorly known and new species continue to be 
discovered. However, on our last trip in February, we 
took time out from ventures into rain forests and cloud 
forests for a very different kind of visit. 

Our destination was a stately old home near the 
center of the capital city. Five of us (the director of the 
National Museum, her assistant, and three botanists) 
paid a visit to Don Oton Jimenez. While Don Oton had 
been a pharmacist for most of his life, he had also done 
botanical collecting over many years and knew most of 
the biologists who were active in Costa Rica in the ear- 
lier decades of this century. Though now confined to a 
wheelchair, Don Oton greeted us cheerfully. He 
answered many questions about the early collectors he 
had known and reminisced about his youth and family. 
He spoke slowly, but forcefully and often with humor, 
recalling people and episodes from many years ago. He 
clarified details regarding the early history of the Na- 
tional Museum, and commented on the personal- 
ities of the biologists he had known. 

For our visit, we had brought along a very special 
plant specimen from the National Museum: the type 
specimen of Ficus jimenezii- This is the specimen which 
was used to establish the new name for a species of tree 
in the fig genus. It had been named in honor of Oton 
Jimenez, who was still a teenager at the time he col- 
lected it. The reason for bringing the specimen, and for 
photographing Don Oton with his early collection, was 
as a remembrance of his contributions to our knowl- 
edge of Costa Rica's flora. What made the occasion 
remarkable is that he had collected the type of Ficus 
jimenezii in 1910! Now, 78 years later, he was still able 
to share with us his memories of more than 90 years. 
The clarity of his mind, his vigorous speech and good 
humor made our visit especially memorable. 

After more than two hours of animated con- 
versation, we said farewell to Don Oton and the mem- 
bers of his family who care for him. Our visit had given 
us new insights into the earlier days of biological activi- 
ties in Costa Rica, and we couldn't help but admire 
Don Oton's warm personality and sprightly recollec- 
tions. His recorded reminiscences will become part of 




Don Oton Jimenez 



Bill Burger 



the archives of the National Museum, and his type 
specimen will continue to serve as the basis for the 
name of one of Central America's distinctive highland 
trees. This specimen and the other 150,000 specimens 
at the National Museum are the physical basis on 
which our inventory of Costa Rica's plant life is based. 
Through the acquisition and exchange of duplicated 
specimens, Field Museum and other major institutions 
share the responsibility of caring for these important 
research resources. Like libraries, museums cherish 
their older collections as well as the latest additions. 
How fortunate it is, then, to have someone still with us 
who has witnessed the growth and development of 
these collections through most of this century. 

With active ongoing programs of research by Cos- 
ta Rican and visiting scientists, this democratic repub- 
lic continues to play a major role in tropical biology. A 
large system of national parks and active programs of 
nature preservation by government, as well as by pri- 
vate groups, should ensure the future of biological re- 
search in Costa Rica for many years to come. Tourists, 
also, are increasing in numbers as they hear of Costa 
Rica's natural beauty and efforts to preserve it. FH 



21 



37th Annual Members' Night 



Friday, May 6 
5:00-10:00 pm 



We're so excited about May 6 that we're cleaning 
the elephants, polishing the marble, and opening 
all the usual off-limit areas in preparation for your 
arrival. Join us on Members' Night to visit with our 
curators, researchers, and entire Museum staff and 
find out what they know about working with 
18,000,000 specimens. 

There will be special exhibits, activities, and 
entertainment all evening, including children from 
the Indian Classical Dance School, musicians from 
the Chinese Music Society, and members of Ars 
Subtilior Ensemble performing music from the 
Middle Ages and Renaissance. 

If you are coming by car, you may park free of 
charge in the Museum's parking lots or Soldier Field 
lot. Simply show your Member card or invitation. 

Free bus service will be operating between 
the Loop and our south door. These Willett buses, 



marked "Field Museum," will originate at the Canal 
Street entrance of Union Station (Canal at Jack- 
son) and stop at the Canal Street entrance of 
Northwestern Station (Canal at Washington); 
Washington and State; Washington and Michigan; 
Adams and Michigan; Balbo and Michigan. Buses 
will begin running at 4:45 p.m. and continue at 
approximately 20-minute intervals until the 
Museum closes at 10:00 p.m. You may board the 
free "Field Museum" Willett bus by showing your 
Member card or invitation. 

Members are invited to bring family and up to 
four guests. Special arrangements for handicapped 
persons can be made by calling 922-9410, ext. 453, 
beginning April 25. "Behind-the-Scenes" activities 
will end at 9:00 p.m. 

Don't miss Members' Night — we'll be expect- 



ing you 



Cleaning the Elephants, August 1952 



23 



3HMAN 



BUSHMAN 



7. 







24 



by Alan Solem, Curator of Invertebrates 
and W. Peyton Fawcett, Librarian 



IT WAS MIDAFTERNOON on a museum free day. The 
school huses had departed, leaving mainly family 
groups in circulation. As one of us (A.S.) waited for 
the elevator, a family wandered up. The two children 
were starting to whine, and all clearly were suffering 
from "museum feet." But the father's sharp sentences 
— "No!!! We're not leaving until we see Bushman. 
My parents took me to Lincoln Park Zoo many times 
to see him when I was your age, and I'm going to visit 
him again today! ! !" — loosed a flood of memories con- 
cerning my own childhood visits: of seeing Harwa, 
the Egyptian mummy, x-rayed; of peering around 
adults to catch a glimpse of the giant panda, Su-lin, 
first seen alive at Brookfield Zoo and now stuffed and 
mounted in a glass case; of hearing my grandmother 
////// talk of her visit years before to see the man-eating 
lions of Tsavo. 

In addition to "museum feet," one often comes 






away from a museum visit with a kaleidoscopic mix- 
ture of images and impressions, sensory overload, 
even a headache. What we remember of these visits 
depends on our interests, backgrounds, and a degree 
of happenstance. But there are exhibits or objects that 
have nearly universal appeal. They are remembered 
long after the visit, and may survive as the only last- 
ing memory. Bushman, the gentle giant, is perhaps 
our current star; but there have been others over the 
years, and what follows is a brief, selective, very per- 
sonal, and roughly chronological guide to them. 

Still poised in combat, the "trademark" fighting 
elephants, centerpiece of Stanley Field Hall, are one 
of the great triumphs of taxidermy. As with many of 
our mounted animals, they are the legacy of Carl 
Akeley, who revolutionized the art of taxidermy, first 
at Field Museum and later at the American Museum 
of Natural History. Collected by Akeley during July 
and August 1906 in Kenya as part of a Field Museum 
expedition, they were the first large mammals 
mounted using his new techniques. The weeks of 
observing elephants in Africa and the use of photo- 
graphs taken in the field aided him in recreating the 
feeling of "life in motion," and in successfully posing 
them in a dramatic and lifelike manner. Placed on dis- 



play in 1909, they introduced a new era in museum 
exhibition. The elephants successfully survived "mov- 
ing day" in 1921 , when shifted by rail from the orig- 
inal building — now the site of the Museum of Science 
and Industry — to the present one, and a mid-1970s 
shift up onto their current pedestal. How many visi- 
tors, or even staff members, are aware that they are 
seeing perhaps the first example of modern taxidermy, 
a true wonder of its time? 

Our next superstars also were from Kenya — 
actually they lived there in 1898, eight years before 
Akeley's elephant hunt. As related by Col. J. H. Pat- 
terson in his 1914 book The Man-Eaters ofTsavo, and 
again in the Museum's Zoology Leaflet No. 7, The 
Man-eating Lions ofTsavo, two lions "killed and de- 
voured, under the most appalling circumstances, one 
hundred and thirty-five Indian and African artisans 
and laborers employed in the construction of the 
Uganda Railway." For over nine months, their reign 
of terror continued, ended by their death from the 
rifle of Col. Patterson. A quarter-century later, 
in 1924, Col. Patterson gave a public lecture at 
Field Museum. Upon learning that the lion skins 
— reportedly used essentially as decorator rugs 
— were still in Col. Patterson's possession, Field 




Close-up of Carl Akeley's fighting elephants in Stanley Field Hall me* 




The Tsavo lions 49983 



26 



Museum President Stanley Field purchased the skins. 
"With considerable difficulty, owing to the age of the 
skins (and poor preservation techniques of the time!), 
they were mounted and are now permanently pre- 
served in the spirited group" located near the African 
water hole group in the African Mammals hall (Hall 
22). For perhaps 15 years they retained their primary 
appeal. 

The giant panda, emblem of the World Wildlife 
Fund, today is a symbol of endangered species every- 
where. In the 1920s, this rare animal of western Chi- 
na was eagerly sought for museum collections. Only a 
few specimens had been collected, and they were 
somewhat imperfect and badly preserved. Field 
Museum's two giant pandas on display in the Asian 
Mammal Hall were collected by the William V. 
Kelley-Roosevelt's Expedition in 1929. After the skins 
arrived in Chicago, they were mounted, placed on ex- 
hibit, but achieved little notice initially. On February 
8, 1937 "panda-mania" began with the arrival at 
Brookfield Zoo of the first living giant panda seen 
in the United States, Su-lin. Only then did our 
mounted examples become popular. Su-lin, believed 



to be a female, was a most popular attraction at 
Brookfield Zoo. When "she" died in April 1938, "her" 
body was brought to Field Museum, where it was dis- 
covered that "she" was a "he." The skin was mounted, 
and can be seen today in the Mammals of the World 
exhibit (Hall 15). The body became the object of two 
decades of study (interrupted, from time to time, by 
military service and other projects) by D. Dwight 
Davis, curator of Comparative Anatomy. While visi- 
tors came to see Su-lin and, more often than not, 
thought one of the pandas in the habitat group was 
their "friend," meticulous dissection, study, illustra- 
tion, and writing took place on upper floors. Davis's 
resulting 327-page monograph, "The Giant Panda," 
published by Field Museum Press as volume 3 of 
Fieldiana: Zoology Memoirs in 1964, was the culmina- 
tion of his research career. Judged by famed Harvard 
paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould as "probably the 
greatest work of modern evolutionary comparative 
anatomy, " this set a standard that has not been met, 
much less exceeded, subsequently. Few readers of this 
article will have heard of Davis and his monograph, 
but its fame among scientists will last generations after 



the last viewer of Su-lin has ceased telling great- 
grandchildren of the excitement he caused. 

During the 1940s, shortly after Su-lin appeared 
on display, the pandas had major competition at Field 
Museum. Egyptian mummies, their tombs and con- 
tents, have long inspired both fear and fascination. 
Field Museum's Egyptian Hall (Hall J) continues to be 
one of the most popular exhibits. Visitors stand silent- 
ly in front of the mummies or joke edgily, in the man- 
ner of one whistling past the graveyard late at night, 
or with mental visions of Boris Karlov as "The Mum- 
my" seen on late night TV. In 1941 the mummy of 
Harwa, an Egyptian agricultural official who lived 
2,800 years ago, was placed on display. Visitors to the 
"Chamber of Harwa" observed "Harwa in his ancient 
wrappings. His head, still covered with its dried orig- 
inal skin, is exposed. . . The chamber gradually dark- 
ens, the screen shifts silently in front of the mummy, 
then lights up, and there, in life-size, appears the im- 
age of Harwa 's skeleton." We can both attest that this 
was a spectacle not to be forgotten. Field Museum was 
a pioneer in developing and successfully applying x- 
ray photography to the study of mummies and other 
museum specimens. 




D. Dwight Davis, late curator of Comparative Anatomy and author of 
the historic monograph "The Giant Panda. "s7iw 




 St' 27 



Giant panda habitat groups 




The redouDtable Harwa. Egyptian agricultural official who lived 2,800 years ago.  



And who can forget the gold mask of Tutankha- 
mun and the other treasures exhibited in 1977 or the 
smaller exhibition of 1959? Since its rediscovery many 
years ago, "King Tut's Tomb" has captured the im- 
agination of several generations. These two opportu- 
nities for Chicagoland residents to see some of the 
legend-laden treasures produced near-stampedes. Be- 
tween April 15 and August 15, 1977, approximately 
1,500,000 visitors swarmed through the Museum. 
Lines of visitors snaked around the Museum and there 
was usually some confusion as to where the lines en- 
ded. Staff members were well advised to let everybody 
know as they were entering the building that "We 
work here!" and were not trying to crash the line! 

For one of us (A.S.), the exhibit produced a ma- 
jor culture shock. From August 1976 to June 1977 I 
had been in Australia, much of the time living out of 
the back of a Landrover, in the middle of nowhere, at 
most with two other people. Return to Chicago via 
Sydney, Honolulu, and San Francisco involved only 
28 change of planes, some unease at crowds, and arrival 



in Chicago late on a Sunday. A Monday morning bus 
ride to Field Museum — and the 5,000 to 7,000 people 
lined up to get "Tut Tickets" for that day, resulted in 
immediate wish for miraculous instant return to the 
Australian Outback! 

Harwa is no longer on display, and the trea- 
sures of Tutankhamun have returned to Cairo. The 
elephants, the man-eating lions, and Su-lin are still 
on display. But our most popular feature at present re- 
mains Bushman. For over 20 years he delighted visi- 
tors to Lincoln Park Zoo (an estimated 3,000,000 per 
year). Upon his death at an estimated age of 23, on 
January 1, 1951, his body came to Field Museum, and 
was mounted by the last of our great taxidermists, 
Leon L. Walters, with the assistance of Frank C. 
Wonder and Joseph B. Krstolich. Today, 36 years after 
being put on display, he still has his fans and frequent 
visitors. One of us (W.P.F. ) recently met by chance a 
friend from Army days. We had not seen each other 
for 28 years. When I told him that I worked at Field 
Museum, he exclaimed: "Is Bushman still there?" In- 




Waiting for King Tut 

deed he still is, in a new location on the ground floor 
near the children's shop. 

But what will take his place in AD 2000? Will 
Bushman be as nearly forgotten as are the man-eating 
lions today? — since time will continue to thin the 
ranks of those who saw Bushman alive. Bits of moon 
rock, invaluable gems, fascinating special exhibits 
have come and gone, but nothing seems to have 
reached our public to compare with the fame chroni- 
cled above. Have times changed? Is the kind of inter- 
est and fascination that made these stars in our first 
century still possible? Have television wildlife docu- 
mentaries and the ease of travel to far corners of the 
world jaded our interest in the static displays of nature 
— however cunningly contrived? 

We have discussed and argued this between us — 
which led us to write this article. 

What do you think could (or should) be the ex- 
hibit stars in the year 2000? Probably we do not yet 
have them on display. But we would like your ideas for 
future hits. Please write to us. If the response war- 
rants, we'll report back to you on the suggestions — 
and perhaps include one or two ideas of our own. 

You represent the core of our supportive audi- 
ence, and we need your ideas. FM 




The awesome gold mummy mask of Egyptian king Tutankhamun 
being installed at Field Museum in 1977 by representative of the 
Cairo Museum 82537 



29 



"Ramesses The Great" Tour 

Saturday, July 2 to Tuesday, July 5 
Boston Museum of Science 



The Exhibition of Ramesses The Great, on loan from Cairo's world-famous Egyptian 
Museum, is the largest assemblage of Egypt's national treasures to ever visit the 
United States (artifacts outnumber the Tutankhamun exhibition). The exhibit will be 
shown at the Boston Museum of Science April 30 through August 30, 1988. We invite 
you to take advantage of the opportunity to see this spectacular exhibit while it is in 
our country, and to celebrate the Fourth of July in Boston at Harborfest '87. The 
schedule of special events for this five-day festival is extensive, with many of the 
activities being free. A highlight will be the Boston Pops concert on the Esplanade, 
and the Fourth of July fireworks display. 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TOURS 1 



Our Itinerary: 

Saturday Depart Chicago O'Hare airport on United Airlines breakfast flight #684 at 
July 2 8:30 a.m. Flight is nonstop to Boston Logan Airport. Upon arrival at 11:45 
we'll be met by our guide, and we'll enjoy a tour of some of Boston's high- 
lights by deluxe motorcoach. (Your luggage will be taken directly to the 
Park Plaza Hotel.) Mid-afternoon we'll check into the Park Plaza Hotel for a 
period of relaxation before dinner. This evening we board "The Spirit of 
Boston" for a harbor dinner cruise, which will include festive entertainment 
and dancing. 

Sunday Day at leisure to give you the opportunity to enjoy some of the special 
July 3 events of Harborfest. This evening we'll go to the Museum of Science to 
tour the Ramesses exhibit with Del Nord, Egyptologist, as our guide. 
Many of you will remember Ms. Nord from the Tutankhamun era at Field 
Museum. She led many Egypt tours from 1976 to 1984 for Field Museum/ 
Oriental Institute. According to a number of tour members, Del is a pro- 
fessional of the highest calibre, and an asset to Egyptology. She truly loves 
Egypt and the history and culture of this fabulous land. Dinner on your 
own. There is a choice of three restaurants in the Museum. 

Monday This morning we'll take a motorcoach tour to Cambridge, Lexington, and 
July 4 Concord, including stops at several historic sites, one being the "Old 

Manse" home of author Nathaniel Hawthorne. We'll enjoy lunch at the his- 
toric Colonial Inn, built in 1772. The afternoon will be at leisure. The high- 
light of the evening will be the famous Boston Pops esplanade concert, 
with a box dinner provided. 

Tuesday We'll depart Logan Airport on United Airlines flight #393 at 9:30 a.m., 
July 5 flying nonstop to Chicago O'Hare and arriving at 11:15 a.m. 

We hope you will join Field Museum's tour group for this trip to Boston. The cost is 
$895.00 per person (double occupancy), single supplement $330.00. Early reserva- 
tions will ensure your enrollment at this price, which is based on 30-day advance 
purchase of air tickets. A deposit of $200.00 per person, payable to Field Museum 
Tours, will hold space in the order reservations are received. Our group will be limited 
to 30 participants. For further information please call 322-8862. 



Spaces still available for . . . 

Voyage to 

The Gulf of 

St. Lawrence and 

Canada's 

Maritime Provinces 

Aboard the Miria 

July 1-9, 1988 

Accompanied by Dr. David Willard, 

Field Museum Zoologist 



<- Colossus of Ramesses the Great. Lost for centuries, this magnificent colossus was uncovered in 1 962 and restored for the 
"Ramesses The Great" exhibit. The massive, 57-ton, 25-foot statue is the largest ever restored and shipped out of Egypt. On 
view at the Boston Museum of Science April 30-August 30. 



31 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2499 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chamnan 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Ko\>en D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S- Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J . Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

June 1988 

Volume 59, Number 6 



JUNE EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 



TRADITIONS IN JAPANESE ART: THE BOONE COLLECTION 

Exhibit opens June 22, closes October 2 
by Suzanne Arata and Caroline Moore, consultants in Japanese 
art, Department of Anthropology; photography by Ron Testa 
and Diane Alexander White, Division of Photography 6 



TWENTY YEARS OF VOLUNTEERS 

by Ellen Zebrun, Volunteer Coordinator . 



27 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

Featuring a trip to Boston and a special viewing of "Ramesses 
the Great" exhibit at the Boston Museum of Science 31 

COVER (front and back) 

"Happiness Unlimited," painting by Japanese artist Doho Koji 
(Taisho period, dated 1917), ink and color on silk, 77V£ x 27 in. 
The entire painting is reproduced on the back cover; detail is on 
the front cover. This painting and about 130 other works of 
Japanese art will be on view in Gallery 9A beginningjune 22, 
comprising the exhibit "Traditions in Japanese Art: The Boone 
Collection." They have been selected from about 3,500 paintings 
and other works of art donated to Field Museum by Katherine 
Phelps Boone and the late Commander Gilbert E. Boone. See 
pages 6-26. 

"Happiness Unlimited" exudes just that. It depicts Ebisu, a 
laughing, happy god, in great multitude and engaged in a myriad 
of activities for amusement and leisure: writing poems or prac- 
ticing calligraphy, singing, dancing, and making merry with his 
fellows, playing musical instruments, playing a game of go or en- 
gaged in a tug-of-war, participating in tea ceremony, tallying re- 
ceipts on the abacus, and so forth. All of these activities are 
associated with the New Year and with Ebisu Matsuri, a festival 
honoring Ebisu held in western Japan either on the fifth or tenth 
of January. The little-known artist Doho Koji ("the Laymonk 
Doho") displays a certain deliberate awkwardness and yet uninhi- 
bited style of brushwork, which contributes to the fresh, light- 
hearted tone of the painting. 

Ebisu wears a soft cloth cap and is usually shown seated with 
a fat tai (sea bream), seen in the lower right, and sometimes with 
a fishing pole. As one of the Seven Gods of Fortune, he is often 
depicted with the god Daikoku; both have been adopted as famil- 
iar household gods of good luck and plenty. Ebisu's origins are 
unknown, but legends describe him as making an arrival by sea as 
a stranger. He is worshipped all over Japan but particularly in 
fishing villages where he is believed to bring bountiful catches 
from the sea. Ebisu has also been adopted by farming com- 
munities, where he is revered as an agricultural god and by mer- 
chants for whom he represents honest dealing. Cat. 265982, negs. i 10820 

(from), 110817 (back). 



Field Museum ofNcuural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural Histoty, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright ©1988 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of addtess change should include address label and be sent to Membetship 
Department. Postmastet: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, !L 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois and 
additional mailing office. 




Kanda Myojin Masakado Taiko — Japanese Drumming 



Saturday and Sunday 
June 25 and 26, 2:00pm 

In Celebration of Japan Festival Field Museum presents Kanda 
Myojin Masakado Taiko, an all-female group performing on the 
taiko, or Japanese drum, from the Kanda Myojin Shinto shrine in 
Tokyo. This six-member group was established 15 years ago. 
They are dedicated to preserving the traditional performance of 
taiko and to making the centuries-old taiko music more appeal- 
ing to contemporary society. Their performance features five 



pieces: "The Lion Dance," performed by all six members, 
"Torches," based on the tragic life of Taira no Masakado, to , 
whom the Kanda Myojin shrine is dedicated, "Bando Arashi" 
("Windstorm of Bando"), "Celebration," and "Kanda Taiko," 
a more contemporary piece reminiscent of Jazz. Each per- 
formance is free with Museum admission. Tickets are not 
required. 



World Music 

Weekends in June 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Music Communicates in many ways. It is something that can be 
shared by all of us, whether or not we have common lifestyles, 
beliefs, or even languages. June is a musical celebration 
month at Field Museum. 

June 4, 5 

1 :00pm Chinese Music Society of North America, demon- 
strates instruments from the Chinese orchestra 
3:00pm Ari Brown, composer and performer, plays the 
saxophone 

June 11, 12 

1 :00pm and 3:00pm Don Moye demonstrates African per- 
cussion instruments 



June 18, 19 

1 :00pm Jamila-Ra presents poetry 

3:00pm Eli Hoenai, African percussion 

3:00pm Fan Wei-Tsu demonstrates the zheng, the Chinese 

zither 

June 25, 26 

1 :00pm and 3:00pm Don Pate plays some exciting bass 
rhythms 

The World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and 
Harle Montgomery Fund and a City Arts 1 1 l/l V grant from the Chi- 
cago Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 



Continued i> 




Hall Interpreters Program 

Thursdays through Sundays in June 

The "Dog Days" of Summer are a great time to learn a few new 
tricks at Field Museum. In exciting hands-on programs, you 
make Egyptian papyrus paper, heft the ingenious drills and 
adzes of Native America, and play with the Chinese seven- 
piece puzzles that Lewis Carroll loved. 

Hall Interpreters, dressed in blue aprons and located 
throughout the exhibits, help you and your friends experience 
the wonders of the world. Cool off with the hottest new theories 
about dinosaur extinction. Learn to weave without a loom. And 
see just what earthworms are up to under your lawn this 
summer. 

These exciting programs, partially sponsored by the Joyce 
Foundation and the Lloyd A. Fry Foundation, are available to all 
Museum visitors Thursday through Sunday. Please consult the 
television monitors throughout the Museum for activity locations. 



June Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world 
of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are 
designed for families and adults. Listed below is one of the 
numerous activities each weekend. Check the activity listing 
upon arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. 
The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois 
Art Council. 

June 11,1 :30pm: Tibet Today and A Faith in Exile (slide 
lecture) 

Investigate Lhasa and refugees in Dharmsala 
(home of the Dalai Lama), Darjeeling, and 
Sikkim. 

These programs are free with Museum admis- 
sion and tickets are not required. 



Summer Fun 1988 

Summer workshops for 4-13 year-olds begin June 18. Workshop 
topics are as diverse as Field Museum's collections and offered 
Wednesday through Sunday until July 31 . Advance registration 
is required. For a brochure and registration form call (312) 322-8854. 



After Hours 



Films at the Held 
FREE! 

Fridays in June 

After Hours Cafe opens at 4:30pm 
Films begin at 6:00pm 



Field Museum continues its program of free contemporary fea- 
ture films from around the world. Friday evenings in June offer 
films from Canada. After Hours Cafe opens at 4:30pm, serving 
light fare and beverages. Films begin at 6:00pm. Be sure to use 
the West Entrance. For more information call (312) 322-8855. 

June 4 

□ "The Decline of the American Empire" 
1987. 101 minutes. Color. Canada. 

Director: Denys Arcand. French with English subtitles. 

The Decline of the American Empire, a comedy about love and 
sex, focuses on eight French Canadian intellectuals gathered at 
a lakefront cottage for the weekend. As they discuss their lives 
with amusing candor, the characters begin to reveal their hid- 
den, darker sides. With compassion and affection, the film 
exposes the psyches of its middle-aged subjects and their 
search for personal happiness. 

□ "Crac" 

National Film Board of Canada 
1982. 15 minutes. Color. Animated. 
Director: Frederic Back. 

A 1982 Oscar winner, this animated film portrays the experience 
of an old-fashioned rocking chair and its years with a French 
Canadian family. It is an affectionate visit to a happy past and 
a gentle commentary on the rapid pace of modern life. 

June 10 

□ "Les Bons Debarras" ("Good Riddance") 
1980. 112 minutes. Color. Canada. 

Director: Francis Mankiewicz. French with English subtitles. 

Manon is a thirteen-year-old with a terrific intelligence and a will 
to dominate everyone around her. Living with her single mother 
and slow-witted brother in rural Quebec, Manon willfully and ex- 
actingly turns the weaknesses of a child's position to her own 
advantage. As her mother struggles to maintain her happiness 
and dignity, a situation which seemed merely threatening be- 
comes explosive and destructive. 

□ "The National Scream" 
1980. 28 minutes. Color. Canada. 
Director: Robert Awad and David Verrall. 

A tongue-in-cheek look at Canada and the Canadians, this film 
explains how and why the beaver became the country's symbol. 
This lively satire uses animation and a pseudo-documentary 
style to depict Canada's search for a national identity. 




Scene from "The Decline of the American Empire, " a comedy to be shown on June 4 



©1986 Cineplex Odeon Films, Inc 



June 17 

□ "Joshua Then and Now" 
1985. 118 minutes. Color. Canada. 
Director: Ted Kotcheff. 

As his world collapses around him — his best friend dies, his 
brother-in-law commits suicide, and his wife leaves him — 
Joshua, a free-spirited, Jewish Canadian journalist, spends one 
day looking back on the events of his tumultuous life. In a series 
of colorful flashbacks, he reviews his childhood in Montreal, 
his years as a radical young political writer, and his courtship 
and marriage to a socially prominent daughter of a Protestant 
senator. 

□ "Propaganda Message" 
1974. 13 minutes. Color. Canada. 
Director: Barrie Nelson. French and English. 

An animated look at the heterogeneous mixture of Canada 
and the invisible adhesive that holds them together. Dissenting 
voices are many, in English and French, but the message is also 
that Canadians can laugh at themselves and work out their 
problems. 



June 24 

□ "Mon Oncle Antoine" ("My Uncle Antoine") 
1971. 110 minutes. Color. Canada. 

Director: Claude Jutra. French with English subtitles. 

The story of a 14-year-old boy and his Christmas visit to a small 
Quebec mining town. He stays with his Uncle Antoine, who is 
the village store proprietor and community undertaker. It is a 
quiet film about coming of age, a memorable study in the simple 
universal experiences of love and fear, doubt, and death. 

□ "The Sweater" 

1980. 10 minutes. Color. Animated. Canada. 
Director: Sheldon Cohen. 

Canadian author Roch Carrier narrates this funny, poignant 
story of his boyhood. In a style that evokes the period of the late 
1940s, he recalls his passion for playing hockey and the great 
hockey star Rocket Richard. 



Traditions in 
Japanese Art 

The Boone Collection 

by Suzanne Arata and Carolyn Moore 

Consultants in Japanese Art, Department of Anthropology 



photos by Ron Testa and Diane Alexander White 



Katharine Phelps Boone and the late Commander 
Gilbert E. Boone formed the corpus of their rich 
and extensive collection of East Asian art during the 
late 1950s. Commander Boone was on a tour of duty 
in Japan in Naval Intelligence at that time. Katherine 
Boone, a civilian employee of Army Intelligence 
(1943-55), had become chairman of the Red Cross 
Gray Ladies at the Naval hospital in Yokosuka, Japan. 
The collecting of East Asian art had begun earlier for 
Commander Boone when he was stationed in Wash- 
ington, D.C., from 1940 to 1951. It was the crafts- 
manship that had attracted him. Commander Boone's 
background in architecture heavily influenced his 
approach as a collector; it was his belief that true 
appreciation of a collected piece was largely deter- 
mined by analysis of how it had been made. 

While in Japan, the Boones began to organize 



their materials with the idea of creating a teaching 
collection. They decided to study with E. Y. Muraka- 
mi, one of Japan's leading dealer-consultants in East 
Asian art, with whom they met for six hours each 
weekend for three years. After returning to the 
United States, Commander Boone retired from the 
service. Shortly afterward they began teaching at 
Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois and uti- 
lized their collection in courses dealing with various 
aspects of East Asian art. 

The Boones' collection of more than 3,500 artifacts 
encompassing fine art, minor arts, and folk arts and 
crafts, has been donated to the Field Museum, adding 
significant dimension to the Museum's holdings in 
this area. It will provide an invaluable resource in en- 
hancing our appreciation and understanding of Asian 
arts and cultures. 



On view in Gallery 9A June 22 through October 2 

Some 130 pieces will be shown, including those reproduced here 



Returning from 

a Spring Outing 

by OdaKaisen (1785-1862) 

Edo period, 19th century 

Ink and color on silk 

44 x 19 in. 
Cat. 266019, Neg. 110807 



Oda Kaisen was born into a family 
of dyers in Nagato (present-day 
Yamaguchi prefecture) and at the 
age of 22 moved to Kyoto. There he 
studied painting of the Shijo school, 
where realism was combined with 
the idealism of Nanga '"southern 
painting"). Nanga was practiced by 
the Japanese literati, who followed 
the lead of the Chinese scholar- 
painters without being totally bound 
by Chinese traditional rules or 
methods. Later, Kaisen went to 
Kyushu, where he studied Con- 
fucianism and Chinese painting, 
specializing in landscape, figure, 
and bird and flower subjects and 
was recognized as an expert 
colorist. 

Landscapes depicting a scholar's 
house in a valley by a stream, with 
the owner and his two servants re- 
turning home after a day's journey, 
are typical of those found in 
Chinese Ming dynasty paintings 
(1368-1644). Old trees with 
exposed claw-like roots and the 
waterfall and rock formation in the 
center of the painting are reminis- 
cent of earlier Chinese landscape 
traditions. However, rather than a 
harsh, foreboding mood, due at 
times to the political conditions that 
often affected the Chinese scholar- 
painter, this painting has a light, 
airy quality. The soft, warm, col- 
oring of the peach trees and light 
tints and washes give the painting a 
clarity, appeal, and accessibility not 
seen in Chinese paintings. Perhaps 
this is attributable to Kaisen's sen- 
sitivity to color developed through 
his early training as a dyer. 



















Shoki, 

the Demon Oueller 

by Kano Sukenobu (1730-90) 

Edo period, 18th century 

Color on silk 

44 x 24 in. 

Cat. 266106. Neg. 110809 



Shoki, the queller of demons, is 
a mythological figure who origi- 
nated in Chinese legend but 
was adopted into Japanese rep- 
ertoire as a popular subject, 
particularly during the Edo 
period (1615-1867). He is por- 
trayed as an imposing, robust 
figure in military attire, wearing 
heavy boots and a cap with flop- 
py "ears" and often chasing or 
subduing demons. During the 
Edo period it was not unusual to 
find satirizations of traditionally 
respected subjects, whether in 
the theater, in poetry and litera- 
ture, or in the visual arts. While 
Shoki is often depicted in a 
somewhat unconventional and 
humorous light, here is a rare 
and most unusual view. He is 
portrayed standing behind his 
spirited horse with his back 
to us! 

Kano Sukenobu, better known 
as Eisenin II, was born and lived 
in Edo (Tokyo), becoming the 
fifth head of the Kano school of 
artists at the Kobikicho atelier, 
the most predominant of three 
Kano studios in Edo. The Kano 
school, active since the 15th 
century, had come under the 
patronage of the military gov- 
ernment and virtually dominated 
the art world, monopolizing the 
teaching of painting throughout 
the Edo period. Sukenobu was 
especially favored by the sho- 
gunate and was made a vassal 
directly under the shogun and 
official artist to the government 
in 1763. This painting is repre- 
sentative of the highly colorful 
academic style of the Kano 
school, which had remained 
consistent throughout the years: 
a combination of intense color 
and decorative sense derived 
from Yamato-e traditions, with a 
reliance on linear elements, 
such as strong, vigorous ink out- 
lines, brought together in a 
grand and large-scale vision. 



Frolicking Animals 

by Tosa Aimi (act. 1830-40) 

Inscribed: "Following the style of Toba Sojo" 

Edo period, early 19th century 

Ink and color on silk 

37 x 12 in. 
Cat. 266044, Neg. 110805 



Aimi, a little known painter of the Tosa school, the latter-day inheritors of 
the courtly traditions of Japanese painting, has done what every painter for 
generations practiced. As the inscription reads, he has "copied" the 
famous 12th-century picture scroll Choju jimbutsu giga ("Scroll of Frolick- 
ing Animals and People"), attributed to the monk Toba Sojo, a painting to- 
day classified as a National Treasure. Aimi's reinterpretation of the earlier 
scroll, however, differs from the original in two major respects. First, Aimi 
has very skillfully adapted the horizontal handscroll format into a vertical 
hanging one. Second and more importantly, he has transformed the earlier 
scroll into an elegant and precious evocation of classical traditions by 
downplaying brushwork — the predominant stylistic feature of the earlier 
work — and by emphasizing shapes and subtlety of color. 

Aimi has very broadly divided his vertical composition into three areas: an 
archery exhibit at the top; a frog and hare with a pet boar, stopping to 
observe the archery contest in the middle; and a hare and a frog mis- 
chievously chasing a monkey at the bottom. All of this seems to be casual- 
ly portrayed, but is carefully integrated, using the interaction of the ani- 
mals, the placement of flowers and grasses, and the color with touches of 
gold to highlight the surface. In short, Aimi's painting, while it captures the 
wit and humor of the earlier masterpiece, reveals, rather, attitudes and 
sensibilities of the Tosa school painters in the Edo period (1615-1867) in 
their attempts to recapture earlier art traditions. 



fs 











Flowers and Grasses of Autumn 
by Matsumura Keibun (1779-1843) 
Edo period, early 19th century 
Ink and color on silk 

82.5 x 26 in. 

Cat. 265993, Neg. 110806 



/ 




Seasonal themes are common in Japanese art. This 
painting seems to take as its subject autumn flowers and 
grasses (akigusa), one that dates to the courtly traditions 
of the Heian period (794-1 1 85) and continued as a dec- 
orative motif throughout the centuries. Against a full 
autumn moon is depicted Japanese pampas grass, a 
delicate long-stemmed grass arching over and providing 
the backdrop for white chrysanthemums, the smaller 
blue Chinese balloon flowers and, oddly enough, in the 
middle of these, several beautiful pink peonies, a flower 
usually associated with spring. Insects crawl on the 
lower branches. All the elements are beautifully coordi- 
nated and composed into a conventional depiction of 
seasonal flowers, suggesting the special ambience of 
autumn in the moonlight. 

Keibun, whose signature and seal can be seen in the 
lower left corner, was a member of the Shijo school of 
painting and was known for his paintings of birds and 
flowers. He studied with his elder brother, Matsumura 
Goshun, who was founder of the school, and with 
Maruyama Okyo, known for his more realistic style. Dur- 
ing the last two decades of his life, Keibun became one 
of Kyoto's leading artists; he secured the position of 
the Shijo school as one of the most influential in the 
19th century. 



Ghost 

by Kawanabe Gyosai (1831-89) 

Edo period, 19th century 

Ink on paper 

35 x 12 in. 
Cat. 266070, Neg. 110811 



Gyosai was one of the most vigorous, creative, and well-known artists of his time. His 
life spanned from the late Edo period through the great changes brought on by the Meiji 
restoration. Born of samurai background, he was from an early age artistically pre- 
cocious. He began studying with the popular ukiyo-e artist Utagawa Kuniyoshi and later 
with the Kano school, until he decided to become independent. Gyosai's character was, 
like Hokusai's, notorious; he was emotional, self-willed, extremely eccentric, and given 
to drink. And for the same artistic qualities that Hokusai became popular — strong com- 
position, skilled draughtsmanship, and a penchant for the grotesque and humorous — 
Gyosai, too, was admired. His work included paintings, prints, sketches, and illustrated 
books. This painting, exhibiting the best of those qualities, is an example of his most 

accomplished work. 

In Japan's richly developed tradition of the supernatural, it is when the spirit of a de- 
ceased person traveling from this world to the nether world resides in the world between 
these two, that he can become angry or spiteful and therefore reappear as a ghost to 
haunt others. A great many of these ghosts were female, depicted during the Edo 
period with long straight hair and waving or beckoning hands. Most wore clothing with 
long flowing sleeves loosely draped around a fragile figure; the head and upper part of 
the body were strongly delineated and from the waist down the form disappeared into a 
mist. This ghost, rendered in a monochrome ink technique, has dessicated almost com- 
pletely into a skeletal specter, clearly defined from head to toe. Its arms are bent at the 
elbows, with the hands brought together in front of the chest. Its hair and teeth are still 
intact and the visage presents a suffering, mournful expression. Even more unusual, 
however, is the unique mounting, also painted in ink, suggesting a specific place by a 
stream with willows, eerily lit by the light of an obscured moon. The ghost may well be 
associated with a specific story, but which one is not identifiable at this time. 





i 





«r 



m 




^r 



Scroll of Demons and Courtier 
Signed: "Takemura" 
Taisho period, dated 1918 
Color on silk 

Five illustrations, H. 16 in., L. 60 in. (each) 
Cat. 266010, Negs. 110799-110803 



As this scroll is unrolled from right to left, five scenes of rich color 
and remarkable detail reveal a night of terror. (Follow numbers to 
the lower left of each panel.) Goblins and demons haunt an 
entrance gate in ruins. Still other horrifying beings race across a 
landscape of sparse grasses, passing a dilapidated roadside 
shrine. The tension mounts as we see these creatures in pursuit 
of a courtier's carriage, attacking it with violence and fury. Finally, 
as night passes into dawn we find the courtier, a serene figure 
with his eyes closed in dream or contemplation, holding his ros- 
ary and seated in a grassy plain as the rising sun burns the early 
morning dew. 

It seems possible that the subject of this untitled handscroll 
alludes to a well-known story from the 10th-century classic of 
poem-tales, Tales of Ise. The setting is Musashi Plain, where an 
12 amorous young man runs off with a young girl but is about to be 



apprehended by a group of provincial officials. He hides the girl 
in a clump of bushes and flees; but the officials, thinking he must 
be nearby, decide to set fire to the surrounding plain in order to 
flush him out. The young girl cries out for her lover, thus alerting 
the officials who capture the two. 

While the artist has drawn inspiration from ghost and goblin de- 
pictions that became popularized in the 18th and 19th centuries, 
particularly by artists like Gyosai (see p. 11), the overall style of 
the painting in its use of intense colors and continuous action lies 
in the Yamato-e picture scroll traditions of the medieval period. 





i 






13 




Monkey in the Rain 
Signed: "Mori Sosen" (1747-1821) 
Edo period, 19th century 
Ink and color on silk 

8.5x10.5 in. 

Cat. 226015, Neg. 110812 



This painting was probably executed by a follower of Mori Sosen, 
an artist who began his studies with the academic Kano school 
but later favored the more realistic approach of the Maruyama 
and Shijo schools. He was a painter of animals but was famed for 
his extraordinary talent in depicting monkeys. 



The example here, although lacking the strength of a true Sosen 
painting, is typical of the manner for which Sosen was famous. 
His monkeys are characterized by finely, softly delineated furry 
bodies with more strongly highlighted features in the face, hands, 
and feet, while suggesting the animal's underlying structure and 
form. This monkey relaxes on the edge of a grassy knoll in the 
midst of a light spring rain. More typical of Sosen's work would 
be capturing the monkey in the midst of activity or mischief. 
Nonetheless, this monkey expresses a certain curiosity, reg- 
istered in his eager, open-mouthed expression. The size of this 
painting suggests that it may have been part of what was orig- 
inally a much larger painting and that the Sosen signature and 
seal were added later. 



14 



The Archer, Nasu no Yoichi 

by Yokoi Hosai 

Early 20th century 

Color on silk 

50.5x16.5 in. 
Cat. 266077, Neg. 110807 



An arrow, shot by a mounted archer, has just struck a 
fan which is seen flying through the air. The fan has broken 
loose from the ship. This is an allusion to a famous inci- 
dent from the medieval tragedy 7a/e ofHeike, which de- 
scribes the battle between the Minamoto and Taira clans 
during the late 12th century. 

The fan, which bears the design of hi no maru, the 
sun disc, was presented to the child emperor of the Taira, 
the ruling family, after they were driven from the capital, 
Kyoto, by the Minamoto in 1 182. The fan was said to be 
symbolic of the spirit of the dead emperor and magically 
empowered to deflect arrows back upon the enemy. Thus, 
with the fan attached to the mast of the Taira ship, a chal- 
lenge was sent to the Minamoto clan. Nasu no Yoichi, a 
skilled archer, responded to the challenge, rode on horse- 
back into the waves and struck the fan with his arrow, 
achieving a signal victory for the Minamoto. 

This painting is carefully controlled in both composi- 
tion and style. The logically receding size of objects, lead- 
ing the viewer's eye back into the far distance, and the fine 
rendering of each element with historical accuracy sug- 
gests Western influence. 

Little is known of Hosai except that he was a Tokyo 
painter specializing in historical subjects, who studied with 
the popular Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839-92), one of the last 
of the great printmakers. Yoshitoshi himself worked in a 
mixture of ukiyo-e and Yamato-e, and his work reflects an 
increasing Western influence with historical and heroic 
subjects. In these respects it would appear that Hosai fol- 
lowed the master. 






Deer 

Inscribed: "Hong Shou, called 'Old Lotus,' 
writes this at the Shen Liu Studio on a wintry 
day in the year 1645." 
Edo period, 18th century 
Ink and color on silk 

61 x22in. 

Cat. 266040, Neg. 110804 



Although the inscription indicates that this paint- 
ing was executed in China during the mid-17th 
century and its style and composition appears to 
have a Chinese origin, it is more likely that this is 
a Japanese painting of the 18th century. Deer as 
a painting subject was simply not popular in Chi- 
na during that time and few paintings of deer by 
well-known Chinese painters of the period are 
documented. Furthermore, several features of 
the deer in this painting indicate that they are na- 
tive to Japan. 

The shika, or the deer of Japan and Manchuria, 
are medium-sized animals related to the "true 
deer" (the red deer or fallow deer), of Britain. 
However, Japanese deer have antlers that are 
smaller, with fewer points, as well as a coat that 
is spotted yellowish-white in summer with a 
black-bordered white area near the tail. It is clear 
that the deer portrayed are native to Japan and 
that they are shown here with their summer coat 
of yellowish-white spots. 

Deer paintings were executed in the 18th and 
19th centuries by Mori Sosen, Kishi Ganku, and 
others. This was in part due to the influence of 
the Chinese artist Shen Nanpin, who worked 
in Nagasaki from 1731 to 1733 and introduced 
Western methods of painting to Japan. He had 
developed a following among Japanese 
painters; moreover, many of his works, mostly of 
deer, have survived. Thus, it seems most likely 
that the artist of this painting was inspired either 
directly or indirectly by the Chinese artist's work. 



1h» 



Warn  ' 





Gold Mining on Sado Island 
Artist Unknown 
Edo period, 19th century 
Ink and color on paper 

Two handscrolls, H. 10.5 in., L. 30ft. (each) 
Cat. 266123, Negs. 110815, 110816 



Matsuo Basho (1644-94), one of Japan's leading poets of the 
Edo period, wrote of Sado Island: "From the place called Izumo- 
zaki in the province of Echigo, Sado Island, it's said, is eighteen //' 
away on the sea. With the cragginess of its valleys and peaks 
distinctly in sight, it lies on its side in the sea, thirty-odd //from 
east to west. Light mists of early fall not rising yet, and the waves 
not high, I feel as if I could touch it with my hands as I look at it. 
On the island great quantities of gold well up and in that regard 
it's a most auspicious island. But from past to present as a place 
of exile for felons and traitors, it has become a distressing name." 

The island of Sado, lying off the eastern coast of central Honshu 
in the Sea of Japan, was used until the 17th century as a place of 



exile for political dissidents. At the beginning of the 17th century, 
gold was discovered in the Aikawa area. The scenes of town 
streets pictured in the scrolls are those of Aikawa, which had 
become a boom town, its population at one time approaching 
200,000. Although the mines are now virtually exhausted, some 
gold is still being extracted. 

This detailed set of two scrolls of mining and processing is 
almost identical to sets owned by the Local History Archives of 
the Ministry of Education in Japan and the Spencer Collection at 
the New York City Public Library. 








i. 



^^WHww 



18 



Fukusa (Gift Cover) 
Edo period, 18th century 
Silk 

H.35xW. 37.5 in. 

Cat. 255749, Neg. 110828 



Fukusa are lined pieces of fabric that can range in size from 
about one foot to a yard or more square. They are simply laid 
over a gift, not wrapped around it like a furoshiki. This custom 
developed in the early 18th century and was practiced by an 
exclusive minority. 

The designs were subtle and often had religious or literary refer- 
ences. Consequently, they were only understood by members of 
the educated classes. The custom of using ornamental fukusaXo 
cover a gift was established in and around large urban centers 
such as Edo (present-day Tokyo) and Kyoto where the wealthy 
ruling class was concentrated. The richness of the decoration 
attested to the wealth of the giver, while the design, selected to 
suit the occasion, reflected one's cultural sensibility. 

This elegant fukusa has been dyed, handpainted, and embroi- 
dered with bamboo, pine, plum blossoms, tortoise, and crane 
and enriched with gold thread. It may have been used at New 
Year's or to help celebrate some other event of special signifi- 
cance to the recipient. 



19 








Three Sake Containers 

Left: Bottle in shape of "Hotei," Kyoto ware 255483 

Edo period, 18th century, H.8in. 

Center: Bottle in "Hasami" style 255539 

Edo period, 18-19th century, h. 10 in. 

Right: Hexagonal pot, Imari ware 255473 

Edo period, 18th century, h. 6.5 in. 

Neg. 110826 



Sake, rice wine, has been produced in Japan since ancient 
times. However, viewed as more than just an alcoholic beverage, 
producing a pleasant state of intoxication, it has many social, 
ceremonial, and ritual functions. These functions have resulted 
not only in an intricate etiquette governing its use, but in the pro- 
duction of vessels of great beauty in a variety of materials. Since 
sake is properly served hot or heated to just below the boiling 
point, sake containers are most commonly made of porcelain or 
pottery, a material able to withstand heat. Here are three differ- 
ent porcelain containers: one in a more traditional bottle shape 
with an underglaze floral design in the "Hasami" style; a second, 
somewhat whimsical container with overglaze enamels and gold 
in the shape of the mythological figure Hotei, probably from the 
Kyoto area; and a third, shaped more like a teapot but hexagonal 
20 in shape, with overglaze enamels, from the Imari kilns. 




Tea Ceremony Kettle 
Edo period, early 17th century 
Gold on copper 

H. 10 in., Diam. 9.5 in. 
Cat. 255514, Neg. 110822 



Cha noyu (tea ceremony using powdered tea) became 
popularized in the Edo period (1615-1867), due to the patron- 
age of political and military leaders of the late 15th and early 
16th centuries. Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa and the warlord 
Toyotomi Hideyoshi used tea masters, who dictated much of the 
art of tea ceremony. The display of tea implements became part 
of the ritualization of cha no yu and promoted a desire to acquire 
beautiful interesting objects. Hideyoshi was known for his col- 
lection and would often present an article from it as a token of 
gratitude to a favored general or loyal samurai retainer. 

This handsome teakettle bears the kin no mon (paulownia crest), 
which suggests that it was in the possession of the Toyotomi 
family. The mon is positioned on an overall ground of a scrolling 
vine motif. In design as well as workmanship this piece exem- 
plifies the highest quality of the metal craft. 




21 




Bowl with Cover 
Design of Dutch Figures 
Edo period, ca. 1800 
Imari ware 

H. 3.5 in., Diam.5in. 
Cat. 255190, Neg. 110823 



Porcelain was first produced in the early 17th century in the 
Arita district of Hizen province (present-day Saga prefecture) in 
Kyushu. In time a great number of kilns flourished there, and the 
Arita district became the center for Imari ware ("Arita") as well as 
Kakeimon and Nabeshima wares. The Dutch were the only for- 
eigners besides the Chinese who were allowed to stay in Japan 
after 1637, and although confined to the island of Dejima in 
Nagasaki harbor, they managed for over a century to carry on 
trade with the Japanese. They ordered large quantities of porce- 
lain, which was shipped by Japanese traders through the port of 
Imari, 25 miles north of Arita, and brought down by water to De- 
jima for export to the West. The Japanese, fascinated by the 
foreigners, depicted the Dutch merchantmen and their black 
ships on their wares, as is seen on this covered porcelain rice 
bowl. It was produced at an Imari kiln and is executed in under- 
glaze blue with overglaze enamels and gold. 



22 



Hina Dolls 

Edo period, early 19th century 

Cardboard and padded silk 

8.5x5.5 in. 

Cat 255441, Neg. 110827 



As early as the 10th century, dolls called hina ningyo were used 
by members of the aristocracy, who regarded them not as play- 
things but rather as substitutes for human beings to which defile- 
ments and evil spirits could be transferred. Offerings were made 
to these dolls, which were set adrift in a river or the ocean. How 
or when a transformation occurred is not clear, but customs of 
this nature gradually evolved into the Girls' Festival, held on 
the third day of the third lunar month to pray for the happiness 
and growth to maturation of female children. By the Edo period 
(1615-1867) the celebration was also held at the time of a young 
woman's marriage and, as a part of the accouterments of Girls' 
Day, a set of 15 dolls in full court dress with miniature household 
furnishings was displayed. The emperor and empress from the 
Boone set of 15 dolls are elegant and unusual two-dimensional 
figures — more like paper dolls. The body is cardboard covered 
with a luxurious padded silk costume. It must have been very dif- 
ficult for little girls not to play with these lovely miniature dolls. 



f r r r 



i 



ft& 









Sumitsubo (Carpenter's Snapline) 

Edo period (1615-1867) 

Wood 

L. 4-10 in. 

Cat. 255446-255450, 255460, 255461 , Neg. 1 10831 



Sumitsubo ("ink well") is a wooden tool consisting of a wheel 
with a long line of string or cord and a bowl for ink. It is used 
by Japanese carpenters in much the same way as western 
carpenters use a chalkline (snapline). The string comes off the 
wheel, passes through the ink-soaked flax through a small hole 
at the end of the frame, then is pulled taut and snapped to mark a 
straight line for sawing or alignment of materials. 

The Boone collection has a small group of sumitsubo in various 
sizes. Each one has a rustic but distinctive design which might 
qualify the tool as a work of folk art. 




24 




Printed Books 

Left: Yamato jimbutsu gafu ("Album of Japanese Figures") 

By Yamaguchi Soken (1759-1818) 

2 Vols., 1804 

H. 10 in., W. 7 in. 

Cat. 223094, Neg. 110829 

Right: Kachogafu ("Album of Birds and Flowers") 

By Watanabe Seitei (1851-1918) 

1903 

H. 10 in., W. 6.75 in. 
Cat. 223057 



Early Japanese books were printed entirely from woodblocks. 
Printing was done on a highly absorbent paper on one side only, 
then folded to form pages and were bound. Although Korean and 
European movable type was known and used at the beginning of 



the 17th century, woodblock printing continued to be the pre- 
ferred method throughout the Edo period (1615-1867), during 
which books were first printed for mass distribution, and re- 
mained in general use until the Meiji period (1868-1912). 

The two books shown here are both artists' albums, published 
about a century apart. One is done strictly in ink and the other 
with color printing. Yamaguchi Soken's album of figures have 
the immediate appeal and feeling of intimacy that lively and 
seemingly artless brush sketches give. With humor and wit he 
allows us a peek into various scenes of everyday life. Different in 
tone is the album by Watanabe Seitei, one of the most refined of 
the Meiji bird and flower painters. His study of European art led 
him toward a tendency to express natural forms in fragile, reti- 
cent lines and colors in delicate nuances. These characteristics, 
while seeming to deny the woodcut medium, are exquisitely 
captured. 



25 




Tansu (Small Chest) 
Meiji period, (1868-1912) 
Wood with iron fittings 
H. 13 in., W. 14 in., D. 10.5 in. 
Cat. 255367, Neg. 110825 



The most readily recognizable form of traditional Japanese furni- 
ture for Westerners is the tansu, a chest of drawers with metal 
fittings. Long admired by collectors for their simplicity, beauty of 
design, craftsmanship, and functional value, they are made in 
varying sizes and shapes, and fashioned of costly woods. Tansu 
have been used since the 17th century in homes, shops, and 
ships to hold personal belongings, merchandise, and valuables. 
This small chest appears to be one used in the home for per- 
sonal belongings, with the larger bottom drawer and side door 
provided with locks; it is elaborately decorated with metalwork of 
a peony motif. 



26 



Twenty Years of Volunteers 



by Ellen Zebrun 
Volunteer Coordinator 



1988 marks the twentieth anniversary for the volun- 
teer program at Field Museum. Beginning in 1968 with 
approximately 30 volunteers, there are now close to 
300 who serve in a great variety of ways throughout the 
Museum. Many departments have volunteers, includ- 
ing the scientific and administrative areas as well as the 
public areas such as the Education Department and 
Membership. Volunteers catalog, label, prepare speci- 
mens, do research, edit, type, file, prepare charts, 
maps, and scientific illustrations, care for plants, and 
translate. They also lead school tours, give programs to 
the public, and assist with special events. 

On Thursday, April 2 1 , Field Museum celebrated 
the twentieth year of the volunteer program; at the 
same time it honored its 1987 volunteers with a buffet 
supper held in Stanley Field Hall. Pastel decorations 
and spring flowers created a festive, relaxed atmos- 
phere where volunteers and their guests were able to 
visit with staff members away from the labs, offices, and 
exhibit halls. 

As volunteer coordinator, it was my pleasure to 
welcome the volunteers and to speak of my own pride 
in being associated with the volunteer program. It has 
been a matter of great personal satisfaction to see how 
the teamwork of volunteers and supervisors has con- 
tributed so much to Field Museum's being recognized as 



one of the great natural history museums in the world. 

Robert A. Pritzker, chairman of the Board, 
thanked the volunteers for their dedication and 
observed that the volunteers are essential to the 
Museum's operation. Mr. Pritzker also congratulated 
the volunteers on the program's twentieth year, which 
"makes quite a landmark. " 

During the presentation of awards, Willard L. 
Boyd, president of Field Museum, expressed apprecia- 
tion for the volunteers' contributions last year, saying 
"You make this Museum possible; on behalf of the many 
publics served, I want to thank you all especially." In 
1987, 281 volunteers gave a total of 41,391 hours of 
service, which is the equivalent of 23.7 additional full- 
time paid staff members. Commenting that the 
volunteers' commitment is enduring, Mr. Boyd pre- 
sented twenty-year service awards of appreciation to 
Ellen Hyndman, Dorothy Karall, and Anne Ross. 
Twenty-year volunteer Stan Dvorak, who was unable 
to attend the ceremony, also received the award. The 
awards were engraved crystal boxes from Tiffany's and 
endowed by William L. Searle, a trustee of the 
Museum. Mr. Boyd urged the other volunteers to stay 
for twenty years so that they, too, could receive this 
special honor. He then gave special recognition to the 
eight volunteers with 500 or more hours of service in 
1987. 



Volunteers with 20 or More Years of Service 



Stan Dvorak 

Although the volunteer program at Field Museum be- 
gan officially in 1968, Stan Dvorak has been involved 
with the Invertebrate Division of the Zoology Depart- 
ment since 1953, when he began to help process two 
million marine shells that had been acquired for the 
collection during the previous ten years. Stan helped to 
identify material, offered specimens to add to the 
collection, and advised staff on purchasing new speci- 
mens. Stan has also worked in a similar manner on our 
collections of freshwater clams from local lakes and 
Streams, and also on the Florida tree snails collection. 
In the past year, Stan also began volunteering in the 
Geology Department, assisting with the Schrammen 



fossil sponge collection acquired from Princeton 
University and with the Mazon Creek invertebrate 
fossil collection. 



Ellen Hyndman 

During her first three years of volunteer service, Ellen 
was in the Anthropology Department. Under the 
supervision of Conservator Christine Danziger, Ellen 
worked in the textile conservation lab preparing and 
restoring rare Tibetan textiles. Ellen then moved to the 
Education Department, providing educational hall 
programs to visiting school groups. As the department's 



27 




28 



school programming expanded, so did Ellen's reper- 
toire of hall programs, covering the four areas of natu- 
ral history. In 1983, Ellen transferred for two years to 
the Geology Department, where she worked with 
Collection Manager Clay Bruner on cataloging fossil 
teeth and researching references for scientific papers. 
In 1985, Ellen returned to the Education Department, 
where she is again sharing information with school 
groups. 



Dorothy Karall 

Dorothy began her association with Field Museum in 
1965; just like Stan Dvorak, Dorothy was here before 
records were kept on the volunteer program. For the 
past 22 years, Dorothy has been a volunteer in the 
Invertebrate Division of the Zoology Department. As a 
volunteer, Dorothy has readied a wide variety of mate- 
rials for publication — drawings, maps, charts, photo- 
graphs, and scientific illustrations. Her duties include 
mounting and labelling these materials to be pub- 
lished. There have been approximately 100 research 
papers, some of which are book-length, which Dorothy 
has helped prepare for the publishers since 1965 and 
has thus extended the reputation of this institution 
internationally. 



Anne Ross 

Although for a time Anne led a double life at Field 
Museum — volunteering in both the Zoology and 
Education Departments— most of her twenty years of 
service has been in the Education Department. Anne 
was one of the first volunteers to give educational 
programs to school groups. She, like Ellen Hyndman, 
trained for a wide variety of hall tours, adding new 



programs as the number of tours offered to visiting 
school groups grew. Since she is trained in eighteen 
separate programs, on a typical day Anne can switch 
from "Dinosaurs" to "Ancient Egypt" to "Animal Habi- 
tats," depending on what the particular school group 
has requested. A few years back, Anne reorganized the 
reprint library for the Amphibians and Reptiles Divi- 
sion of Zoology. 



Volunteers with 500 or More Hours in 1987 

Sophie Anne Brunner 



Ingrid Fauci 
Lillian Kreitman 
John Phelps, Jr. 
William Roder 
Bruce Saipe 

Llois Stein 
Edward Yastrow 



for Amphibians and Reptiles: 
Hymen Marx, supervisor 

for Amphibians and Reptiles: 
Hymen Marx, supervisor 

for Membership: Gregory K. 
Porter, supervisor 

for Mammals: Greg Guliuzza, 
supervisor 

for Tours: Dorothy Roder, 
supervisor 

for Public Relations: Sherry 
DeVries and Lisa Elkuss, 
supervisors 

for Anthropology: Phillip Lewis, 
supervisor 

for Anthropology: Glen Cole, 
supervisor 



Sol Century 
Rosemary Kalin 

Margaret Martling 
Sam Mayo 



400 or More Hours 

for Anthropology: Bennet 
Bronson, supervisor 

for Education: Mary Ann Bloom 
and Ingrid Melief, 
supervisors 

for Botarvy: William Burger, 
supervisor 

for Public Programs: Phyllis 
Rabineau, supervisor 



Mary Nelson 

Gary Ossewaarde 
Stephen Robinet 



for Anthropology: Glen Cole, 
supervisor; Education: Mary 
Ann Bloom and Ingrid 
Melief, supervisors 

for Education: Marcia MacRae, 
supervisor 

for Insects: Steve Ashe and Daniel 
Summers, supervisors; 
Mammals: Greg Guliuzza, 
supervisor 



Dennis Bara 
Robert Gowland 
Deborah Green 
MelbaMayo 
John Nelson 



Worthington Smith 
Maxine Walter 
Sims Wayt 



300 Hours or More 



for Membership: Gregory K. 
Porter, supervisor 

for Anthropology: Christine Gross, 
supervisor 

for Anthropology: Glen Cole, 
supervisor 

for Education: Philip Hanson, 
supervisor 

for Education: Mary Ann Bloom 
and Ingrid Melief, 
supervisors 

for Library: Benjamin Williams, 
supervisor 

for Zoology: Anita Del Genio, 
supervisor 

for Anthropology: Robert Welsch, 
supervisor 



29 



Volunteers with 50 or More Hours 



Neal Abarbanell 
Lisa Adler 
Paul Adler 
Dee Arbanas 
Joyce Altman 
Jackie Arnold 
Terry Asher 
Margaret Axelrod 
Beverly Baxter 
Paul Baker 

Jean Baldwin-Herbert 
Dennis Bara 
Lucia Barba 
Nancy Barco 
Gwen Barnett 
Dodie Baumgarten 
Barbara Beardsley 
Carol Benzing 
Larry Berman 
Elaine Bernstein 
Frieda Bernstein 
Jennifer Blitz 
Fran Braverman 
Carol Briscoe 
Carolyn Brna 
Irene Broede 
Garland Brown 
Sophie Ann Brunner 
Brenda Buckley-Kuhn 
James Burd 
Joseph Cab Ik 
Rick Capitulo 
Robert Gary 
Colleen Casey 
Linda Celesia 
Sol Century 
Irene Chong 
Byron Collins 
James Coplan 
Artemis Cosentino 
John Cox 
Connie Crane 
Ellie De Koven 
Jeannette DeLaney 
Violet Diacou 
Patricia Dodson 
'Clarice Dorner 

'Deceased 



Millie Drawer 
Stan Dvorak 
Reginald Echols 
Linda Egebrecht 
Anne Ekman 
Elizabeth Enck 
Bonnie Engel 
Lena Fagnani 
Elisabeth Farwell 
Ingrid Fauci 
Joseph Fisher 
Amy Franke 
Arden Frederick 
Carlene Friedman 
Debra Jean Frels 
Alta Mae Frobish 
Kirk Frye 
Mimi Futransky 
Barbara Gardner 
Bernice Gardner 
Peter Gayford 
Pat Georgouses 
Phyllis Ginardi 
Delores Glasbrenner 
Tom Gnoske 
Halina Goldsmith 
Evelyn Gottlieb 
Robert Gowland 
Vladimir Grabas 
Deborah Green 
Loretta Green 
Frank Greene, Jr. 
Henry Greenwald 
Ann Grimes 
Yvonne Haen 
Dennis Hall 
Meg Halsey- Perez 
Kristine Hammerstrand 
Anna Hammond 
Judith Hannah 
Nancy Harlan 
Curtis Harrell 
Mattie Harris 
Shirley Hattis 
Audrey Hiller 
Clarissa Hinton 
Tina Fung Holder 
Harold Honor 
Zelda Honor 



Scott Houtteman 
Ruth Howard 
Ellen Hyndman 
Connie Jacobs 
Sheila James 
Bettejarz 
Cynthia Johnson 
Mabel Johnson 
Malcom Jones 
Carol Kacin 
Rosemary Kalin 
Dorothy Karall 
Susan Kennedy 
Dennis Kinzig 
Alida Klaud 
Susan Knoll 
Lillian Kreitman 
Gretchen Kubasiak 
Sally Kurth 
Carol Landow 
Michelle Lazar 
Sandra Lee 
Frank Leslie 
Jane Levin 
Joseph Levin 
Ruth Lew 
Betty Lewis 
Valerie Lewis 
Victor Lieberman 
Tory Light 
Catherine Lindroth 
Mary Jo Lucas-Healy 
Stella Maquiraya 
Gabby Margo 
Phyllis Marta 
Jeanne Martineau 
Margaret Martling 
Cliff Massoth 
M. Dulce Matanguihan 
Britta Mather 
Sel Mather 
David Matusik 
Marita Maxey 
Melba Mayo 
Sam Mayo 
Louise McEachran 
Withrow Meeker 
Beverly Meyer 
Sandra Milne 



Barbara Milott 
Larry Misialek 
Sharon Mitchiner 
Carolyn Moore 
Gail Munden 
George Murray 
Carolyn Mylander 
John Nelson 
Mary Nelson 
Louise Neuert 
Natalie Newberger 
Donald Newton 
Ernest Newton 
Herta Newton 
Virginia Newton 
Doris Nitecki 
Connie Noel 
Josie Nyirenda 
Dennis O'Donnell 
Dorothy Oliver 
Joan Opila 
Gary Ossewaarde 
China Oughton 
Marcella Owens 
Anita Padnos 
Susan Parker 
Phil Parrillo 
Martha Pedroza 
John Phelps 
Dorothea Phipps-Cruz 
Jackie Prine 
Naomi Pruchnik 
Elizabeth Rada 
Julie Realmuto 
Ernest Reed 
Daniel Reilly 
Sheila Reynolds 
Elly Ripp 
Steve Robinet 
Earl Robinson 
Nancy Robinson 
Pam Robinson 
William Roder 
Barbara Roob 
Susan Roop 
Sharon Rose 
Sarah Rosenbloom 
Anne Ross 



Ann Rubeck 
Lenore Ruehr 
Gladys Ruzich 
Bruce Saipe 
Joseph Salzer 
Lucile Salzer 
Terry Sanders 
Marian Saska 
Everett Schellpfeffer 
Marianne Schenker 
Carol Schneider 
Florence Seiko 
Patricia Sershon 
Adam Seward 
Danny Shelton 
Judith Sherry 
Lisa Shogren 
Sharon Simmons 
James Skorcz 
Worthington Smith 
Daniel Snydacker 
Beth Spencer 
Carrie Stahl 
Llois Stein 
Frances Stromquist 
Ruby Suzuki 
Beatrice Swartchild 
Dana Temple 
Jane Thain 
Patricia Thomas 
Kathleen North Tomczyk 
Karen Urnezis 
Lillian Vanek 
Jeffrey Vaughn 
Barbara Vear 
David Walker 
Cassandra Walsh 
Maxine Walter 
Sims Wayt 

Dorothea Wechselberger 
Mary Wenzel 
Fred Werner 
Claudia Whitaker 
Reeva Wolfson 
Zinette Yacker 
Edward Yastrow 
Laura Zaidenberg 
Ben Zajac 



30 



"Ramesses The Great" Tour 

Saturday, July 2 to Tuesday, July 5 
Boston Museum of Science 



The Exhibition of Ramesses The Great, on loan from Cairo's world-famous Egyptian 
Museum, is the largest assemblage of Egypt's national treasures to ever visit the 
United States (artifacts outnumber the Tutankhamun exhibition). The exhibit will be 
shown at the Boston Museum of Science April 30 through August 30, 1988. We invite 
you to take advantage of the opportunity to see this spectacular exhibit while it is in 
our country, and to celebrate the Fourth of July in Boston at Harborfest '87. The 
schedule of special events for this five-day festival is extensive, with many of the 
activities being free. A highlight will be the Boston Pops concert on the Esplanade, 
and the Fourth of July fireworks display. 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TOURS 1 



Our Itinerary: 

Saturday Depart Chicago O'Hare airport on United Airlines breakfast flight #684 at 
July 2 8:30 a.m. Flight is nonstop to Boston Logan Airport. Upon arrival at 11:45 
we'll be met by our guide, and we'll enjoy a tour of some of Boston's high- 
lights by deluxe motorcoach. (Your luggage will be taken directly to the 
Park Plaza Hotel.) Mid-afternoon we'll check into the Park Plaza Hotel for a 
period of relaxation before dinner. This evening we board "The Spirit of 
Boston" for a harbor dinner cruise, which will include festive entertainment 
and dancing. 

Sunday Day at leisure to give you the opportunity to enjoy some of the special 
July 3 events of Harborfest. This evening we'll go to the Museum of Science to 
tour the Ramesses exhibit with Del Nord, Egyptologist, as our guide. 
Many of you will remember Ms. Nord from the Tutankhamun era at Field 
Museum. She led many Egypt tours from 1976 to 1984 for Field Museum/ 
Oriental Institute. According to a number of tour members, Del is a pro- 
fessional of the highest calibre, and an asset to Egyptology. She truly loves 
Egypt and the history and culture of this fabulous land. Dinner on your 
own. There is a choice of three restaurants in the Museum. 

Monday This morning we'll take a motorcoach tour to Cambridge, Lexington, and 
July 4 Concord, including stops at several historic sites, one being the "Old 

Manse" home of author Nathaniel Hawthorne. We'll enjoy lunch at the his- 
toric Colonial Inn, built in 1772. The afternoon will be at leisure. The high- 
light of the evening will be the famous Boston Pops esplanade concert, 
with a box dinner provided. 

Tuesday We'll depart Logan Airport on United Airlines flight #393 at 9:30 a.m., 
July 5 flying nonstop to Chicago O'Hare and arriving at 11:15 a.m. 

We hope you will join Field Museum's tour group for this trip to Boston. The cost is 
$895.00 per person (double occupancy), single supplement $330.00. Early reserva- 
tions will ensure your enrollment at this price, which is based on 30-day advance 
purchase of air tickets. A deposit of $200.00 per person, payable to Field Museum 
Tours, will hold space in the order reservations are received. Our group will be limited 
to 30 participants. For further information please call 322-8862. 



Spaces still available for . . . 

Voyage to 

The Gulf of 

St. Lawrence and 

Canada's 

Maritime Provinces 

Aboard the IIHria 

July 1-9, 1988 

Accompanied by Dr. David Willard, 

Field Museum Zoologist 



31 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2499 



MISS MARITA MAXEY 
7411 NORTH GREENVIEW 
CHICAGO IL 60626 




/' 




ELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULL! 



July/August 1 



4 




r» 



* 



:■■& 



t** 




<~V- 



3 



fc 



J 



World Music Programs 
Weekends in July and August 

See "EveYits" section^ - ' 



Field Museum 

of Natural Histo* y 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mul h 1 1 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

July/ August 1988 
Volume 59, Number 7 



JULY and AUGUST EVENTS AT HELD MUSEUM 3 



MEXICAN TEXTILES COME TO FIELD MUSEUM JULY 8 



MOUNTAINS in the SEA, MOUNTAINS in the SKY 

The Field Museum Founders' Council visits the Galapagos 
Islands, the Ecuador mainland and Peru, gaining insights into 
the work of the museum curator. 
By Valerie Searle Lewis and Louise K. Smith 8 



BEGINNING AS A COLLECTOR 
ByA.S.Meek 



19 



GENSBURG-MARKHAM, a gem of a prairie, saved for future 

generations. 

By Jerry Sullivan 



22 



HELD MUSEUM TOURS 31 

COVER 

The Galapagos giant tortoise can weigh up to 550 pounds and 
may live more than 100 years. They are vegetarian but can sur- 
vive for up to a year without food or water. The name Galapagos 
originates from the Spanish word galapago which means "tor- 
toise." This fellow was photographed by Dr. Michael Lewis in 
the Galapagos during the Founders' Council recent trip to 
Ecuador. See page 8. 



Volunteer at Field Museum 

Learn something new or share your expertise — 
a wide variety of challenging and rewarding 
volunteer opportunities for either weekdays or 
weekends are currently available. Please call the 
Volunteer Coordinator at (312) 922-9410, exten- 
sion 360, for more information. 



Field MwrfNawl Htatory Maw (I ISPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright ©1968 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are theii own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts arc welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-24%. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois and 
additional mailing office. 




After Hours 
Films at the Field 
FREE! 

Fridays in July 

No film Friday, July 1 

After Hours Cafe opens at 4:30pm 
Films begin at 6:00pm 

Field Museum continues its program of free contemporary 
feature films from around the world. Friday evenings in July 
highlight films from Africa. 

After Hours Cafe opens at 4:30pm serving light fare and 
beverages. Films begin at 6:00pm. Be sure to use the West 
Entrance. For more information call (312) 322-8855. 



AFRICAN FILMS 
□ July 8 

"Kukurantumi: The Road to Accra " 

1983. 86 minutes. Color. Ghana. Director: King Ampaw. English 

subtitles. 

When an African lorry driver loses his job, he decides to get his 

own bus: a decision that begins the gradual chipping away of a 

traditional lifestyle he once knew. 

"Camara dAfrique: 20 Years of African Cinema" 

1983. 85 minutes. Color. Tunisia. Director: Ferid Boughedir. 

Documentary. French with English subtitles. 

This anthology surveys filmmaking in Africa and includes 

interviews with African filmmakers on the various dimensions of 

their craft. 



□ July 22 

Ceddo 

1977. 120 minutes. Color. Senegal. Director: Ousmane 

Sembene. Wolof with English subtitles. 

Sembene's classic epic chronicles the events of the struggle for 

power between colonialists and Senegalese nobility as Islam 

spreads through Senegal in the 19th century. 

Wend Kuuni 

1982. 75 minutes. Color. Burkina Faso. Gaston Kobore. English 

subtitles. 

Told in the style similar to the African griot, this is the tale of a 
mute boy who is found and renamed "Wend Kuuni" ("God's 
Gift") by his new family. 



□ July 15 

"Harvest 3000" 

1976. 138 minutes. Black and White. Ethiopia. Director: Haile 

Gerima. Amharic with English subtitles. 

The tragic story of an Ethiopian peasant family in the 1970s who 

must live under the feudal domain of a wealthy landowner. 

"Lorang's Way" 

1978. 66 minutes. Color. Kenya. Director: David and Judith 
MacDougall. Ethnographic. Turkana with English subtitles. 
This classic ethnographic film profiles a wise elder of the 
Turkana people, who has come to see his society as vulnerable 
in the changing world around it. 



□ July 29 

Xala 

1977. 123 minutes. Color. Senegal. Director: Ousmane 

Sembene. Wolof with English subtitles. 

In this satire of modern Africa, a politician, determined to 

possess a third wife, is struck down by "xala," a curse rendering 

him impotent. 

Borom Sarret 

1963. 20 minutes. Black and White. Director: Ousmane 

Sembene. French with English subtitles. 

A pointed, poignant view of the struggle for existence in the 

streets of Dakar, Senegal's capital. 



Continued i> 




World Music Programs 



Weekend Programs 



Weekends in July 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Program highlights include: 

□ July 2— 1:00pm and 3:00pm: Fan Wei-tsu— zheng, the 
Chinese zither 

□ July 9, 10— 1:00pm: Eli Hoenai — African percussion; 3:00pm: 
Rita Warford — vocals 

□ July 16, 17— 1:00pm: Shanta— African folktales; 3:00pm: 
Brenda Jones — vocals 

□ July 23, 24— 1:00pm: Douglas Ewart— Shakuhachi flute; 
3:00pm: Kwasi Adounum — Ghanan percussion 



Weekends in August 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Program highlights include: 

□ August 6, 7— 1:00pm: Shanta— African folktales 

□ August 13, 14 — 1:00pm: Douglas Ewart — Shakuhachi flute 

□ August 20, 21— 1:00pm and 3:00pm: Don Pate— bass 

□ August 27, 28 — 1:00pm: Brenda Jones — vocals and reed 
instruments; 3:00pm: Kwasi Adounum — Ghanan percussion 

The World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and 
Harle Montgomery Fund and a City Arts IV grant from the Chi- 
cago Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 



Summer Fun 1988 

Summer workshops for 4-13-year-olds continue in July. Work- 
shop topics as diverse as Field Museum's collections are 
offered Wednesday through Sunday until July 31. Advance 
registration is required. For a descriptive brochure and class 
availability call (312) 332-8854. 



Each Saturday and Sunday You Are Invited to explore the world of 
natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and 
films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for 
families and adults. Listed below are a few of the numerous 
activities each weekend. Check the activity listing upon arrival 
for the complete schedule and program locations. The pro- 
grams are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts 
Council. 



July 

3 

30 



2:00pm. Malvina Hoffman (slide lecture) 

1 :30pm. Tibet Today and Bhutan (slide lecture) 



August 

6 1:30pm. Tibet Today (slide lecture and tour of collection) 

27 1 :30pm. Tibet Today and a Faith in Exile (slide lecture) 



Hall Interpreters Program 

Thursday through Sunday 
July and August 

The "Dog Days" of Summer are a great time to learn a few new 
tricks at Field Museum. In exciting hands-on programs, you 
make Egyptian papyrus paper, heft the ingenious drills and 
adzes of Native America, and play with the Chinese seven- 
piece puzzles that Lewis Carroll loved. 

Hall interpreters, dressed in blue aprons and located 
throughout the exhibits, help you and your friends experience 
the wonders of the world. Cool off with the hottest new theories 
about dinosaur extinction. Learn to weave without a loom, and 
see just what earthworms are up to under your lawn this 
summer. 

These exciting programs, partially sponsored by the Joyce 
Foundation and the Lloyd A. Fry Foundation, are available to all 
Museum visitors Thursday through Sunday. Please consult the 
TV monitors throughout the Museum for activity locations. 




Traditions in 
Japanese Art : 

The Boone Collection 



Hina Dolls 

Edo period, early 19th century 

Cardboard and padded silk 

8.5x5.5 in. 

Cat. 255441 , Neg. 110827 



closes October 2 



Mexican Textiles: Color, Texture, Tradition 



July 8 through September 5 



FIELD MUSEUM WILL OFFER an unusual, brilliantly 
hued exhibit titled "Mexican Textiles: Color, Texture, 
Tradition, " on July 8, continuing through September 5. 
This stunning assemblage of 125 textile pieces reveals 
how Mexican weavers, mostly Indian women, have 
turned traditional work into artistic expression. Items 
on display include huipiles (blouse-like garments), 
sarapes and rebozos (shawls), quexquemitls (shoulder 
coverings), wraparound skirts, sashes, shoulder bags, 
and tortilla cloths. 

The exhibit is organized and guest-curated by 
cultural anthropologist Jill Vexler, Ph.D., whose stu- 
dies and extensive museum work have focused strongly 
on Latin American countries. "Traditionally, museums 
have exhibited Mexican textiles as cultural expres- 
sions, stressing anthropology rather than art," says 
Vexler. "Mexico has some 86 indigenous cultures with 
individual customs, lifestyles, and languages. The tex- 
tiles and garments produced by each group are distinct, 
bearing social, economic, and idealogical implica- 
tions. While the exhibit at Field Museum is naturally 
concerned with cultural significance, it also empha- 
sizes aesthetics. Through this exhibit I've discovered 
that the aesthetic approach, coupled with cultural in- 
formation, opens visitors' eyes to the diverse peoples 
who create these beautiful textiles." 

Elements such as color, design, technique, and cut 
of traditional Mexican garments, identify the villages 
where they were created. An individual's language and 
lifestyle can often be determined by the clothing he or 



she wears. By highlighting the beauty of Mexican tex- 
tiles, this exhibit demonstrates how artistic expression 
can transcend the hardships common to life in remote 
villages. 

Featured items in the exhibit include a colorful 
quexquemitl made by the Totanic Indians in the village 
of Pantepc, Puebla. A quexquemitl is a pre-Hispanic, 
triangular garment for women, worn cape-like around 
the shoulders. It incorporates brocade, intricate 
embroidery, needlework, and curved weaving — a com- 
plicated form of loom weaving. The exhibit includes a 
wedding huipil, a blouse-like garment based on very 
ancient brocade design. Light feathers woven into the 
velvet-like brocade distinguish this garment, made in 
the village of Zinacantan, Chiapas. 

Festival wraparound skirts, also featured, are still 
worn in the village of Citlala, Guerrero. Each skirt 
consists of a three-foot- wide, twelve-foot-long piece of 
fabric that drapes many times around the body. These 
unusual skirts are embroidered with synthetic silk and 
sparkling sequins in bird and floral motifs. In addition 
to garments, the exhibit also displays shoulder bags and 
tortilla cloths. Tortilla cloths are found in every Mex- 
ican home and can range from simple coverings to 
those of elaborately decorated silk. 

Field Museum is hosting "Mexican Textiles: Color, 
Texture, Tradition" in conjunction with "Convergence 
'88," the national convention of the Weavers' Guild of 
America. The convention will be held in Chicago July 
8 through 10. "Mexican Textiles: Line, Color, Tradition" 
is free with regular Museum admission. 




Mazatec woman's huipil, a type of blouse (detail). Cotton embroidery on cotton ground. From Ayataula, Oaxaca, Mexico. Collection of Luz 
Elena Cervantes, collected in the 1960s. Photo by E. Ladron de Guevara. 



MOUNTAINS 
in the SEA, 

MOUNTAINS 
inlheSKY 



Field Museum's Founders' Council 

members see natural science firsthand and 

gain insights into the field research of 

Museum curators 

by Valerie Searle Lewis 
and Louise K. Smith 

photography by Jean K. Carton 
and Dr. Michael S. Lewis 

Field Museum Founders' Council exists to support the 
many facets of the Museum, particularly collections 
and scientific research. Thus, in March this year, when 
Ecuador and Peru became peerless outdoor classrooms, 
members of the Council were able to see firsthand how 
vital is that research. Lectures, seminars, and instruc- 
tion in the field, as well as accounts of current research 
projects, deepened the group's natural science and 
archaeological knowledge. In Ecuador our tutor was 
Or. John Fitzpatrick, chairman of the Department of 
Zoology and curator of Birds. In Peru we benefited from 
the scholarship of Dr. Charles Stanish, assistant cura- 
tor of Middle and South American Archaeology and 
Ethnology. 

Charles Darwin on HMS Beagle came upon the 
magical world of the Galapagos Islands slowly and 
peacefully, under sail. Today's travelers fly in by jet. But 
once on board the cruise ship, which was to be home 
and classroom for the next eight days, our group was 
soon overtaken by the utter tranquillity of what Darwin 
called these "enchanted islands." 

In the Pacific Ocean 600 miles off the coast of 
Ecuador and right on the equator, the archipelago con- 



Valerie Searle Lewis, Louise K. Smith, Jean K. Carton, and Dr. 
Michael S. Lewis are members of the Field Museum Founders' 
8 Council. 



sists of about 13 major islands and many smaller ones. 
In 1959 the Ecuadorian government established the 
area as a national park. Today, the park administration 
and its wardens, aided by stringent rules governing 
tourism, are attempting to rectify the disastrous depre- 
dations wrought by man and to conserve this fragile 
ecosystem. 

Geologically the Galapagos are young. A mere 
four to five million years old, they are the peaks of vol- 
canoes which have built up vast accumulations of lava 







from the floor of the ocean. The westernmost islands 
are the most recently formed and still have a number of 
active volcanoes. To the visitor the lava on several of 
the islands seems like black mud which has just set hard 
after flowing in sticky swirls and folds. Plant life is often 
only just beginning to take hold. Huge calderas, or col- 
lapsed craters, are to be seen. Some islands have 
beaches of red or black lava. Bartolome Island offered a 
lunar-like landscape in every direction: cones of all 
sizes, frozen lava rivers, lava tunnels, jagged rocks, and 



Our cruise ship is anchored near Bartolome Island. To the left is 
an eroded tuff cone, known as a pinnacle rock, and in the back- 
ground, several cones of cinder and lava. Michael Lewis 



almost no vegetation. In this silent, rugged landscape a 
solitary Galapagos hawk and a small lava lizard were 
the only signs of life. 

Darwin's theory of evolution and subsequent, sup- 
plementary theories were elucidated for us by Dr. Fitz- 
patrick, our superb guide and teacher. Darwin pos- 




Land iguanas, yellowish orange and reddish brown, feed mainly 
on prickly pear cactus. They grow to more than three feet in 
length and may live more than sixty years. MKhaeiLewis 

Marine iguanas, the world's only seagoing lizard, sun them- 
selves by the shore. From salt glands connected to their nostrils, 
they excrete salt which becomes encrusted on their heads. 
Their claws are sharp for clinging to rocks. MichaeiLewis 







tulated that organisms change over many generations 
in adaptation to new or changing environments. This 
conclusion was based in part on his famous observation 
that Galapagos finches became different species as a 
result of adapting to the distinct conditions of separate 
islands. Thus, from a single common ancestor evolved 
a seed-crushing large ground finch, an insectivorous 
warbler finch, a tool-using finch, and a leaf-eating 
vegetarian finch, each with its beak adapted to its spe- 
cialized feeding habits. 

The famed Galapagos giant tortoises also played 
an important part in the development of Darwin's 
theory of evolution. On islands where the vegetation is 
sparse and high off the ground, tortoises of the saddle- 
backed type, with a carapace that is raised in front, are 
able to stretch their necks to reach food. On islands 
with lusher vegetation, those of the dome-shaped type, 
with a carapace that is thick in front, are able to push 
through the dense undergrowth. Visitors now can see 
these slow-moving, drowsy looking creatures at the 
Charles Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz Is- 
land. During the past two centuries they were prey to 




pirates, whalers, and sealers who took them aboard as a 
meat supply. As many as 200,000 tortoises are esti- 
mated to have perished in this way. Today tortoise eggs 
and hatchlings are food for the wild dogs, pigs, and cats 
which are the descendants of domesticated animals 
introduced by sailors and settlers to some islands. Thus, 
tortoise eggs are brought to the research station by staff 
who watch over the early growth of the young reptiles. 
At about five years of age they are released back into 
the wild. The eggs of other endangered species, such as 
the land iguanas, are similarly hatched at the research 
station. 

Remarkable creatures such as the marine iguanas 
have managed to survive by evolving new ways of life in 
the frequently inhospitable conditions of the islands. 
These reptiles arrived on rafts of floating vegetation 
washed out to sea after violent storms on the mainland. 
Over hundreds of thousands of years they have adapted 
to the very different life of the archipelago. They are 
the only sea-going lizards in the world, diving beneath 
the surface to feed on algae. When they settle back on 
the rocks they frequently appear to be sneezing, though 
they are, in fact, excreting excess salt that has been 
ingested in their high-salt diet. They huddle in groups 
— small black monsters on black lava rocks, immobile 
and menacing. When Museum President Sandy Boyd 
lay down on the rocks to confront them, his eyes only 
two feet from theirs, they were unmoved, like a brigade 
of indignant Victorian matrons. 

Since it was spring, the air on islands with large 
bird populations was heavy with passion and ardor. 
Male great frigatebirds, with their extraordinary scarlet 
gular sacs puffed up like a soccer ball between bill and 
breast, sat in the bushes with their enormous wings 
widespread, fluttering and undulating to attract the 
females who cruised overhead. From her decidedly su- 



The male great frigatebird is seen showing off his gular pouch. 
This is inflated during the mating season to attract females. 



Michael Lewis 



Male and female blue footed boobies with chick. One to three 
eggs are laid on the bare ground and incubated by both parents 

Under their feet. Michael Lewis 








Sea lion pups are inquisitive and playful. Ms. Louise Smith 
seems pleased with the attention. Michael Lews 



sand diminutive Galapagos penguins are evidence of 
successful adaptation to living on hot land and feeding 
in the cold waters of the Humboldt Current. The 
flightless cormorant seems to have developed a more 
streamlined body for swimming, at the expense of 
flight. This example of natural selection probably came 
about because of the close proximity of its feeding 
grounds and because of the lack of indigenous terres- 
trial predators. This latter fact is the reason the Galapa- 
gos fauna — sea lions in particular — have little fear and 




perior vantage point, the female might eventually 
select an alluring fellow, fly down beside him and be 
entranced by his physical and vocal prowess. The ele- 
gant swallowtailed gulls were also engaged in much 
courting and mating. But it was the bluefooted boobies' 
wooing which was most engaging. We found it hard to 
take these creatures seriously, with their large, bright 
blue feet, dancing in ponderous slow-motion as if 
caught in a puddle of glue. But they, like all other 
courting birds, were simply showing off their own 
important assets to one another. 

The birds and reptiles of the Galapagos enchant 
the visitor with their strangeness, their striking appear- 
ance, and their closeness to the viewer. Penguins seem 
12 very out of place on a tropical island, yet several thou- 



An endearing sea lion pup preparing to nurse from his mother. 
Female sea lions have a nine-month gestation period and give, 
birth to a single pup, which is suckled from one to three years. 

Michael Lewis 

do not shy away from humans. These mammals, the 
largest animals on the islands, would lie like cumber- 
some mounds on the beaches of many of the islands 
which we visited, regarding us with large, baleful eyes 
as we photographed and stared at them from a few feet 
away. But once in the water they were lithe, graceful, 
and playful. We watched them body-surfing in the big 
Pacific waves and could not doubt that they were hav- 
ing fun. One of the most memorable and exciting times 
of the whole trip was the afternoon we snorkled on 
James Island. The sea lions wanted to play and made 






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Above: Masked boobies are the largest and heaviest boobies in 
the Galapagos Islands. Therefore, they often nest in colonies 
near cliffs, so that upward air currents make it easier for them to 
launch themselves in flight. Below: Male and female red footed 
boobies are seen resting in a tree, a most unusual habit for a 
seabird. They are able to do this because they have prehensile 

'eet. Michael Lewis 

this clear by cavorting around us. They would swim so 
close that we could touch them; before swooping past 
us they would look right into our eyes with curiosity 
and, it seemed, a desire to communicate. 

Since visitors come to the islands by way of main- 
land Ecuador, our journey in fact began in Quito, a city 
which is noteworthy for a number of reasons. At 9,000 
feet above sea level it is the third highest capital city in 
the world and is only fifteen miles from the equator. Set 
within a bowl in the Andes Mountains, the city boasts 
views of snowy peaks, including the majestic volcano 



Cotopaxi. In the old part of the city more colonial 
buildings remain than in most other South American 
cities, thus offering picturesque sights of narrow streets 
and whitewashed buildings with balconies. 

From Quito we visited the spectacular Indian mar- 
ket at Otavalo. The women are eye-catching in their 
white embroidered blouses, navy skirts, and many rows 
of gilded beads around their necks. The men have strik- 
ing profiles under homburg hats and a single, long braid 
down their backs over their ponchos. The market was 
alive with the colors of their weavings. The vegetables, 
fruits, and meats added other hues to the spectrum. On 
the wall of the surrounding buildings were splashed 
posters and slogans for the forthcoming presidential 
election in Ecuador. 

An exhilarating day of bird watching followed in 
the Pasachoa Nature Preserve under the skillful guid- 
ance of Dr. Fitzpatrick. In this green valley near Quito 
we were able to see some of Ecuador's immensely rich 
birdlife while delighting in their equally ornate names: 
streak- throated bush-tyrant, scarlet-bellied mountain 
tanager, red-crested cotinga and hummingbirds called 
sapphire-vented puff-leg, amethyst-throated woodstar, 
and collared Inca. 

When our Field Museum group left Ecuador our 
comprehension of the major conservation measures 
undertaken by the Ecuadorian government in the 
Galapagos National Park was greatly enhanced, as was 
our sensitivity to the fragility of the environment and 
the need for its protection in the future. Each one of us 
certainly will always have an intense appreciation of 
nature's most spectacular laboratory of evolution — the 
incalculably valuable treasure that is Galapagos. 

— Valerie Searle Lewis 

The Tour Regrouped in Lima, Peru, the colonial 
Spanish city built on the Pacific coast of South Amer- 
ica in the midst of one of the great temperate deserts of 
the world. Despite its lack of rain, however, the boule- 
vards bloom from irrigation waters flowing down from 
the Andes, just to the east. The group was accom- 
panied during this phase of the trip by Field Museum's 
assistant curator of Middle/South American archaeolo- 
gy and ethnology, Charles "Chip" Stanish, who is in 
the process of starting a new project, a dig in Peru near 
the Bolivian border on Lake Titicaca, where he will be 
continuing his research on the Aymara Indians, closely 
related to the Incas. 

Lima's central square, Plaza de Armas, strongly 
reflects the city's Spanish heritage. Enormous public 
buildings, all terra cotta pink with white trim, shelter 13 



active entrepreneurial markets in the promenades 
under graceful arches. Other old buildings are fes- 
tooned with magnificent carved mahogany balconies, 
one of the architectural hallmarks of Lima. These 
structures, dating from the sixteenth-century Spanish 
tradition, serve as elaborate window screens which 
allow the (ventilated) tenant to look out while not 
being seen. Our visit to Lima was necessarily short, as it 
was merely a stopover on the way to Cuzco. 



and developed a network of roads and bridges which 
ran the length of the empire, up and down the Andes. 
Communication was effected by a system of runners 
who jogged at a steady pace, despite the altitude, suf- 
ficient in numbers and strength to keep the various 
ends of the empire in touch with each other. Legend 
has it that the roads and the runners were efficient 
enough to bring fresh fish from the seashore to the Inca 
kings in Cuzco. 



An Otavalo Indian 
woman with gilded 
necklace and embroi- 
dered blouse. Every- 
one wears some pro- 
tection on their head, 
however makeshift, 
against the strong 
equatorial sun. 




14 



Cuzco was for centuries the capital of the Incas, 
until Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas and cap- 
tured the city in 1553. Itsits 11,000 feet above sea level 
in a valley between two spurs of the Andes. (When we 
arrived at Cuzco we all drank the special tea made from 
coca leaves to alleviate dizziness from the altitude, and 
were cautioned to rest for an hour or so.) The Incas 
were master builders, superb civil engineers and 
architects, and must have had a bureaucracy which 
rivalled those at Memphis and Rome. They planned 



The city of Cuzco is a curious mixture of Spanish 
on top of Incan — literally. The ancient narrow cob- 
blestone streets of Cuzco are lined on both sides by 
walls of the houses of these two cultures. Magnificent 
huge dark grey boulders, each weighing as much as ten 
tons, were quarried and then moved to the building 
site. There, each facing surface was painstakingly 
ground to abut its four neighbors so exactly that not 
only was no mortar required but one even now cannot 
insert a slender blade between them. The walls rise 




Founders' Council members who are also members of the Field 
Museum Women's Board shown in the volcanic landscape near 
the summit of Bartolome Island. Standing (I. to r.): Mrs. Robert 



W. Carton, Mrs. Willard L. Boyd, Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith, Mrs. 
Henry T. Chandler, Mrs. John C. Meeker. Seated: Mrs. Robert D. 
Kolarand Mrs. Michael S. Lewis. Michael Lewis 



seven feet, and current thinking is that the houses were 
then thatched. The Spanish built their houses on top 
of the Incan walls, But these were clearly cruder, cling- 
ing together by mortar rather than by skill. 

Politics are uncertain these days. One afternoon 
we stepped out into one of the narrow streets to dis- 
cover a rather long, peaceful Communist protest march 
snaking along. The marchers were representatives from 
local farming communes who were protesting for more 
electricity and better roads. Women in modern skirts 
and sweaters but with a variety of traditional head- 
dresses — often a piece of magenta cloth folded several 
times and draped on the head, and men with tall felt 
hats, marched by, chanting slogans, under the watch- 
ful yet perhaps sympathetic eye of the local army/police 
representatives in their buses. 

The remarkable building skills of the Incas found 
expression in several other marvelous sites around Cuz- 
co, in particular at the fortress of Sacsayhuaman, built 
probably between the fourteenth and fifteenth centu- 
ries. Although the boulder building technique is the 



same as in the city of Cuzco, the scale is expanded fifty- 
fold: here some boulders weigh as much as 500 tons. 
The fortress offers a magnificent view of the clay tile 
roofs and white stucco walls of the houses of Cuzco, 
now a town of over a quarter million. Yet, standing on 
the ancient stone wall and listening to a small boy, 
wrapped in colorful and intricately woven alpaca pon- 
cho and playing a piercing, haunting tune to his pet 
llama on pan-pipes, certainly evoked the mood of by- 
gone centuries. 

We visited the royal baths at Tambo Machay and 
the tombs at Q'enko, also on the outskirts of Cuzco, 
both locations used for cermonies by the ancient Inca 
kings. The sacred baths feature icy, sparkling waterfalls 
cascading through a system of stone terraces. At 
Q'enko there are a series of some 19 niches which were 
used to "sun" mummified royal ancestors and certain 
loyal retainers who were sacrificed, we think, when 
their masters died. Dr. Stanish explained that as with 
so much of what we visited, however, archaeologists 
can only hypothesize the details of usage, since the In- 



15 




The fagade of La Compania is part of a 17th-century Jesuit 
cathedral, the most ornate of Quitos' churches. The six Solo- 
monic columns on either side of the main entrance are modeled 
on those of Bernini in the Vatican. Mchasiimta 



cas had no written language and thus left no record. 
Rather, a complicated but obviously effective scheme 
of knotted cords (kipu), carried by the aforementioned 
runners, sufficed to transmit information over long dis- 
tances. Fortunately, Dr. Stanish gave several impromp- 
tu lectures on Incan history and culture by drawing on 
current archaeological research, which in and of itself 
was fascinating. 

We drove along the white-water Urubamba river 
to reach Piscar. Dr. Stanish took advantage of an 
important regional market to acquire several antique 
weavings for Field Museum from an ad-hoc fund gotten 
up by the Founders' Council group. These textiles are 
highly symbolic and convey considerable information 
regarding community, occupation, status, etc. of the 
16 wearer. Not only beautiful, they are of anthropological 



interest and also are relatively easy to store and gain 
access to in the Museum, so we hope these five pieces 
will be just the beginning of a good new collection to be 
augumented by subsequent expeditions and other con- 
tributors. As we strolled through the colorful market, 
munching on roasted giant corn kernels, we admired 
the many handicrafts, especially the hand-knitted 
alpaca sweaters and sweaters which often bore a picture 
of the llama itself. 

The Andes range is, simply put, spectacular. The 
mountains rise ten, twelve, twenty thousand feet 
above sea level, some almost vertically. And yet on 
virtually every mountainside are brilliant green farm- 
ing terraces which may be ancient Incan, contempo- 
rary, or both, used to farm potatoes, corn, or beans or to 
accommodate an occasional grazing goat or cow. These 
terraces often appeared to be completely inaccessible 
and remote, yet were clearly a part of the community 
agricultural activities. 

At Ollantaytambo we climbed several hundred 
feet up some of these terraces, which were apparently 
used for ceremonial purposes, not farming. This for- 
tress guards the Urubamba Sacred Valley, was an 
important settlement during the expansion of the In- 
can Empire, and probably was home to several hundred 
people. Today's visitor can stroll around an inhabited 
village that has remained mostly unchanged from In- 
can days and imagine what life was like then, up in 
these high, rugged, magnificent mountains. 

Incas came to Machu Picchu to escape and hide 
from Pizarro and his Conquistadors; they were com- 
pletely successful. However, they mysteriously aban- 
doned the settlement in the 1570s, and Machu Picchu 
remained unknown to the outside world until 1911 
when Hiram Bingham, having heard stories of its exist- 
ence, explored the region determined to find it. Even 
now, Machu Picchu is remote, accessible only by train 
or, for the ambitious, by foot along the Inca Trail. High 
on the mountainside, the ruins are completely hidden 
from the valley. When finally at the site, the view is 
breathtakingly gorgeous: the extensive ruins of this 
final outpost of Inca civilization, encircled by even 
higher mountains on the other side of the crashing 
Urubamba River, which can be heard these hundreds of 
feet above it. 

The settlement appears to be a complete micro- 
cosm of the civilization, accommodating royalty, en- 
gineers, farmers, workers who were all necessary for liv- 
ing in this place. First were the royal areas for altars, 
chambers, thrones, and public squares where food and 
drink were ceremonially divided. These buildings were 
all crafted from particularly fine and enormous boulders 




View of the long-lost city of the Incans: Machu Picchu. The spirit is still there. Jwncanon 





In the sleepy valley of Ollantaytambo, an inn— Alahambra I 




painstakingly brought up here and fitted together. The 
buildings for mere mortals (runners, farmers, etc. ) were 
clustered on terraces close together. 

As we walked in the brilliant sunshine, suddenly 
we were enshrouded by mist and clouds as the rains 
came for an afternoon's downpour complete with a 
dramatic show of lightning. Were the gods angry at the 
intrusion of modern touristadors into the confines of 
the Incan? 

Muddy, exhilarated, tired, and happy, the Found- 
ers' Council members reacclimated from Machu Picchu 
through Cuzco and Lima and back to Chicago. 

The voyage would have been special under any 
circumstances, but the contributions made by Drs. 
Fitzpatrick and Stanish enabled us to start to under- 
stand ornithology, natural history, archaeology and 
anthropology and to acquire a respectful realization of 
the research methodology used by experts to explore 
the mysteries of their fields. — Louise K. Smith 



"Flowers, flowers — who wants to buy my flowers?"- 

MaChu PiCChu. Jean Carton 



-on the road to 



Beginning as a Collector 




by A. S. Meek 



I HAVE never regretted that first year I spent in Austra- 
lia on cattle and sheep stations, tramping the bush, 
kangaroo-shooting. It was a jolly, irresponsible time, 
full of adventure and excitement; and it hardened me 
off finely for the sterner work that was ahead. 

Mr. W. B. Barnard, a son of my friend, joined 
forces with me for the first expedition which I made 
purely for purposes of collecting. We went to Rock- 
hampton, bought an outfit and then took a camp up in 
the ranges near Coomooboolaroo, staying there for 
three months. For the first time I had a regular collect- 
ing outfit, insect boxes, and arsenic for skins. Nowa- 
days I do not trouble to use arsenic for preserving skins, 
but rely on alum, and on the use of plenty of naphtha- 
line in packing up the skins. On this expedition we 
were out after all kinds of specimens — mammals, birds, 
and insects. I had secured through my father an order 
from the Hon. Walter Rothschild for three pairs of 
every kind of animal, whether mammal, bird, or insect 
that we collected. I had been collecting in a desultory 
kind of way all the time I had been in Australia, but on 
this trip I made for the first time collecting the only 
object of life. Unfortunately my mate suffered a good 
deal from rheumatism, and had to abandon the camp 
once for quite a long spell, leaving me alone there. 
That was an experience which at first I found a little 
unpleasant. But it fell to me so often afterwards that I 
think nothing now of being the only white man in a 
camp among savages six weeks' march away from the 
next white neighbour. 

On this, my first collecting trip, I made not many 
new discoveries. I do not think it was possible to have 
done so, as from a Natural History point of view that 
part of Australia had been very well explored, at least as 
regards birds and butterflies. We collected, however, 
some interesting specimens, especially of the flying 
squirrels. Then, in search of something new, we went 
up the Johnson River, Queensland, making a camp 
about ten miles from the mouth of the river. Again we 
collected everything in the way of Natural History 
specimens — mammals, birds, and insects. I think I 
must except crocodiles, which were very plentiful 
there, but which we did not trouble to collect. I recol- 
lect once, when out shooting ducks in a swamp which 



kept us up to our waists in water, I came upon a croco- 
dile's nest with fifty-seven eggs in it. This nest was 
made of swamp grass and the eggs in it were all together 
higgledy-piggledy. The eggs of the crocodile are 
hatched out by the heat from the fermentation of the 
vegetable heap in which they are laid. The Australian 
scrub hen also lays her eggs in a vegetable heap, relying 
on fermentation to bring the young out, but in the case 
of the scrub hen all the eggs are separated from one 
another by layers of vegetation. There are several var- 
iations in the method of depositing eggs among those 
creatures which trust to natural agencies and not to 
brooding for the hatching out. The crocodile, as I have 
said, makes a vegetable mound and lays the eggs in a 
heap, and covers them over with more vegetable mat- 
ter. The female turtle lays her eggs in a heap in the 
sand. The black iguana (the carrion iguana) deposits 
her eggs in a white-ants' mound, and leaves them there 
to be hatched out. The sand iguana, which does not 
live on carrion, lays its eggs in the sand. The crocodile, 
by the way, is very fond of the eggs of the scrub hen, and 
will often travel far inland searching for the nests. 

I never thought of danger in connection with the 
crocodile in Northern Australia, but there is no doubt 
that they occasionally get a human victim. In the warm 
weather the crocodiles sleep in the scrub a little away 
from the water during the day. In the winter they sleep 
on the mud flats of the swamps. They usually feed in 
the evening, and that is the dangerous time for those 
who go near their haunts. 

Perhaps some notes on the habits of the mound- 
building birds encountered in Australia and the South 
Sea Islands will be of popular interest, though of course 
scientifically they are not new. The two families of 
mound-building birds in Australia are the scrub turkey 
and the scrub hen. Several varieties of each are found 
in Australia and in some of the South Sea Islands. The 
scrub hen makes a very large nest, returning year after 
year to the same mound and building it to a great size. 
In the Solomon Islands these birds have been almost 



"Beginning as a Collector" is from A Naturalist in Cannibal Land, 

by A. S. Meek, published in London in 1913 by T. Fisher Unwin. 19 



domesticated, and their mounds are counted in the 
property of a tribe. The fermentation of the mound 
hatches out the eggs, and when the chicken breaks the 
shell it lies on its back and scratches its way out of the 
mound. It may be of interest to observe that there is no 
difference in the plumage of the male and female in the 
scrub hen. 

Regarding the crocodiles (sometimes wrongly 
called alligators) of North Queensland, there are some 
curious popular misconceptions. One is that the 
armour plating on the skin will protect the animal 
almost completely from rifle-bullets. As a matter of fact 
a crocodile skin is vulnerable at any point if the bullet 
strikes it directly, but the skin on the back of the crea- 
ture is certainly strong enough to turn aside a glancing 
blow. Crocodiles are very common in the nothern riv- 
ers of Australia and in most of the South Sea Islands. 

I recollect at Rossel Island in the Louisiade group 
off the coast of New Guinea, hearing of and seeing a 
huge crocodile which the natives seemed to hold in a 
kind of veneration. They told the story that this croco- 
dile used to bring supplies of turtle and fish for the villa- 
gers, and put these stores as food for them on a large 
ledge of rock. Certainly the crocodile did deposit these 
things as stated, but I suspect that it was not out of any 
love for the villagers. Possibly it might have had some 
connection with a habit which crocodiles are said to 
have, of keeping any prey they capture until it is in an 
advanced state of decomposition. I have heard that 
when the crocodile captures a calf or a human being, or 
any other prey of the kind, it is usual for it to hide the 
body away for some days before devouring it. Certainly 
the crocodile is a carrion feeder, and the effect of its 
bite, even when no actual serious wound has been in- 
flicted, seems to be dangerous. Once at Fergusson Is- 
land, New Guinea, I was called to see a native who had 
been seized by a crocodile whilst fishing with nets from 
the shore. The man when he was seized by the croco- 
dile cried out, and the other natives went to his assist- 
ance and managed to rescue him from the creature. 
When I was asked to see him two or three days had 
passed since he was wounded. The natives had the sick 
man on a platform with a fire smouldering underneath 
him so that the smoke should circle round him. All the 
wounds which he had received from the crocodile were 
suppurating badly and running with pus; this could be 
attributed to the infection of the crocodile's bite. I gave 
the natives some permanganate of potash to cleanse 
the sick man's wounds. He was all right afterwards. 

After we had exhausted the resources of the John- 
20 son River, we decided to make a move on the Bloom- 



field River. We chartered a small cutter to take us along 
the coast. The party at the time consisted of Barnard, 
myself, and an aboriginal boy named Tommy, who was 
very faithful to me and who turned out to be a very 
skilful collector. 

On arrival at the Bloomfield River we found our- 
selves in country where the white man was almost un- 
known. The aboriginals were very numerous. We made 
a camp in a pocket of grass close to a jungle scrub seven 
miles to the north of the Bloomfield River. By this time 
I abandoned the collection of mammals and confined 
my attention to lepidoptera and birds. One of the finest 
birds found there was the Pitta, of which I secured 
many specimens. The aboriginals of the district were 
very clever with their spears, and could usually bring 
down a bird that was put up out of the scrub by a dog. I 
have seen one of the blacks get five or six scrub turkeys 
in succession whilst going through the scrub. 

After staying on the Bloomfield River about three 
months we moved our camp to Cedar Bay, where we 
were the only white people and where I had the oppor- 
tunity of observing the Australian aboriginal practic- 
ally free from white interference. He is in my opinion a 
very good type of native, manly, plucky, honest, and 
truthful, though very lazy, except for work in which he 
happens to be interested. I have found Grey's observa- 
tions on the Australian aborigines generally correct in 
my experience. The natives at Cedar Bay had exactly 
the equipment he decribes as characteristic: "Round 
the man's middle is wound, in many folds, a cord spun 
from the fur of the opossum, forming a warm, soft and 
elastic belt of an inch in thickness, in which are stuck 
his stone hatchet, his boomerang, and a short heavy 
stick to throw at small animals. His hatchet is so 
placed, that the head of it rests exactly on the centre of 
his back, whilst its thin, short handle descends along 
the backbone. In his hand he carries his throwing stick, 
and several spears, headed in two or three different 
manners so that they are equally adapted to war or the 
chase. . . .The contents of the native woman's bag: A 
flat stone to pound roots with; earth to mix with the 
pounded roots; quartz for the purpose of making spears 
and knives; stones for hatchets; prepared cakes of gum, 
to make and mend weapons and implements; kangaroo 
sinews to make spears and to sew with; needles made of 
the shin bones of kangaroos, with which they sew 
cloaks, bags, etc.; opossum hair to be spun into waist- 
belts; shaving of kangaroo skins to polish spears, etc.; 
the shell of a species of mussel to cut hair, etc. with; 
native knives; a native hatchet; pipe clay; red ochre, or 
burnt clay; yellow ochre; a piece of paper bark to carry 



water in; waist-bands and spare ornaments; banksia 
cones (small ones), or pieces of a dry white species of 
fungus, to kindle fire with rapidly, and to convey it 
from place to place; grease; the spare weapons of their 
husbands, or the pieces of wood from which these are to 
be manufactured; the roots, etc. which they have col- 
lected during the day. Skins not yet prepared for cloaks 
are generally carried between the bags and the back, so 
as to form a sort of cushion for the bag to rest on. In 
general each woman carries a lighted fire-stick, or 
brand, under her cloak and in her hand." 

At this camp I managed to secure two clutches of 
the eggs of the rifle bird. A curious thing about the nest 
of the rifle bird is that the hen always seems to get a 
snake skin — the sloughed skin of a snake — to entwine 
in the fabric of the nest. I have encountered many nests 
of the rifle bird, and have always found a snake skin to 
be part of its fabric. The nests were usually built in the 
heads of the umbrella palms and were woven out of old 
vines. The eggs are of a pale pink with dark red and 
brown marks, striped longitudinally, as is the case with 
most eggs of Birds of Paradise. 

At Cedar Bay I discovered a male specimen of 
Charagia mirabilis, a new species of moth described by 
Mr. Rothschild. The male of this species has a strong, 
musk -like perfume. Another discovery made by me 
here was of a very beautiful moth, the hind-wings rose- 
pink in colour, the fore-wings fawn-coloured with 
crimson spots bordered with white. 

We had some very good pig-shooting at this camp, 
and also some good sport hunting for sharks and for the 
dugong, that curious sea mammal which is said to have 
given rise to the story of the mermaid, because the 
female has breasts of a human type and has the habit of 
raising the fore-part of her body out of the water. But I 
have always failed to mistake a dugong for a mermaid. 

In 1894 I returned to Australia, having with me a 
man named Mr. Gulliver, whom I had known as a 
collector in the New Forest. At Rockhampton I picked 
up my old mate Mr. W. B. Barnard and also Mr. Harry 
Barnard, and we all went up to Cooktown. After full 
inquiry I had decided that New Guinea and the South 
Sea Islands offered better chances to the collector than 
West Australia. Cooktown was the best Australian sea- 
port from which to set out for the islands. Thenceforth 
Cooktown was the only point of the civilised world 
with which I kept in close touch. 

This collecting expedition was my venture solely, 
and the others were engaged by me as assistants. We 
outfitted at Cooktown and went on from there to 
Samarai, New Guinea, in the barquentine Myrtle. On 



the voyage across we met an Italian collector named 
Amido, who had been for a spell of six years in New 
Guinea, and I recollect many of the people on board 
thinking it a singular thing that he should still be alive. 
The reputation of the climate was very bad. The 
reputation of the natives was worse. I have new been in 
all some eighteen years in New Guinea and the Solo- 
mons, and do not consider it impossible to live there 
fifty years if one is reasonably careful. The average idea 
about New Guinea and other tropical places is that the 
climate is worse and the natives more savage than they 
really are. But one must have some rules of life. 

Apart from caution in regard to alcohol I think that 
the most necessary thing in the tropics is to take a great 
deal of exercise. The chance of a lazy life of course 
never came my way, so that I was never tempted to loaf. 
But I have seen enough to conclude that it is the man 
who is afraid to sweat whose liver hardens or who falls 
ill in a tropical climate. An exaggerated fear of the sun 
causes more illness than it wards off. 

On my first voyage to New Guinea I had still prac- 
tically everything to learn in regard to the customs of 
the country and the precautions which it was necessary 
to take against disease. But now after many years' 
experience I find that no very elaborate preparations 
are necessary for a six months' dive into the New 
Guinea forest. I take ordinary stores of food, quinine as 
a remedy against fever, a little brandy for medical use if 
that is feasible, and my drug-case contains Epsom Salts, 
permanganate of potash, and chlorodyne. The most 
serious part of my outfitting equipment is that which is 
needed for the collections which I make. The butterfly 
hunter who contemplates a six months' plunge into 
virgin forest must carry a collecting outfit not differing 
much in character from that of a naturalist putting in a 
week-end in the New Forest. But he must enormously 
increase the quantity of his gear, and if his work is to be, 
as mine was, in a damp, tropical climate some special 
precautions are needed against mildew. On the expedi- 
tion in which I am to be engaged this year ( 1913) I shall 
take a good supply of butterfly nets — sufficient for the 
use of the collecting boys I directly employ, and of 
friendly natives who can be enlisted temporarily as col- 
lectors; a supply of non-rusting pins for setting; killing- 
bottles with cyanide of potassium for killing small 
insects and syringes with acetic acid for killing large 
insects; pill-boxes for small insects; japanned tin air- 
tight and cork-lined collecting cases. It is simple 
enough on paper; not so simple when it has to be car- 
ried strung on poles by bearers through the mountain 
jungles. FM 21 



Gensburg- Markham 

This 100-acre gem of original prairie offers a rare 
view of Chicagoland as it must have been centuries 
ago. Thanks to concerned citizens, it has been saved 
from commercial development. 



by Jerry Sullivan 



22 



The Indian Boundary Prairies are scattered over 
parts of four sections of land in Markham, a sub- 
urb about 25 miles southwest of the Chicago Loop. 
The fragments form an archipelago, a chain of island 
refuges poking up through the expressways and sub- 
divisions like the last remnants of a lost continent. 
1-294 marks their eastern border, and 1-57 cuts right 
through them, separating the western prairies from 
the rest. 

The main island in this chain is the 100-acre 
Gensburg- Markham Preserve, a patch of Illinois 
tall-grass prairie that somehow came through the past 
150 years almost unscathed. It may have been lightly 
grazed. A few acres were plowed, but the prairie has 
reclaimed the old fields so thoroughly that this plow- 
ing might have remained undiscovered if aerial photo- 
graphs had not revealed the furrows. 

The flowery meadows surrounding the raw 
frontier town of Chicago in 1837 must have looked 
a lot like Gensburg-Markham. The imported Irish- 
men who dug the Illinois-Michigan canal cut their 
ditch through fields like these, fields thick with fiery 
lilies, white wild quinine, purple leadplant, and blaz- 
ing star, cream false indigo, golden prairie dock, and 
royal-blue fringed gentians — hundreds, thousands of 
plants extending to tiny dots of color in the distance. 

In June and July, the bobolinks at Gensburg- 
Markham sing their tinkling flight song above the lit- 
tle bluestem and flowering spurge. This is the only 
prairie in Cook County large enough to support bobo- 
links, meadowlarks, and Henslow's sparrows, the only 



Chicago writer Jerry Sullivan writes frequently on natural history for the Bulle- 
tin. He does a column, "Field and Street, " for the Chicago Reader and has 
done features on birds for Audubon magazine and other national publications. 
He was also editor 0/ Chicago Area Birds, published in 1985 by Chicago 
Review Press. 




East6m meadOWlark Copyright © Ron Austing, The National Audobon Society Collection/PR 




Henslow's sparrow 

place where these animals and these plants, the 
halves of the old ecosystem, still survive together. 

The Gensburg-Markham Preserve passed into 
the public trust in 1973, when the Gensburg brothers 
donated about half of the land to the Nature Con- 
servancy, the Conservancy acquired the rest, one lot 
at a time, and passed the whole package along to 
Northeastern Illinois University, which manages it. 
Three more islands in this archipelago are now being 
added to the protected list, more than doubling the 
size of the preserve. One of the new parcels borders 
Gensburg on the north. The other two, called Paint- 
brush Prairie and Sundrop Prairie, lie to the west 
across 1-57. 

The protection of these prairie lands will con- 
clude a process that began nearly 30 years ago, a pro- 
cess whose history reveals some of the changes the 
past three decades have made in the things we see 
when we look at the world. 



The Indian Boundary Prairies have managed to 
survive this long through a series of historical acci- 
dents. They could have been plowed from edge to 
edge, but they weren't. They could have been grazed 
so heavily that the cows' favorite food plants were ex- 
tirpated and replaced with Eurasian weeds, but they 
weren't. They could have become rows of houses or 
shopping malls, but they didn't. 

A very large historical accident called the Great 
Depression kept the houses off the land. The prairies 
had been platted in the late 1920s and sold off as indi- 
vidual building lots, but the crash came before con- 
struction began. It wasn't until the end of World War 
II that building again became possible; but somehow, 
this didn't happen. Owners died and willed their lots 
to their children, who found no market for them. 
Many lots became tax delinquent. 

Bobolink nest with young 




23 



Copyright © 1 983 Virginia Wemland. The National Audobon Society Colleciion/PR 




Gensburg-Markham Prairie in late summer, blazing star in bloom RooPanz« 



24 




Meanwhile, a few knowledgeable people were 
aware that there was something special growing on 
these obscure acres in a modest southern suburb. 
Floyd Swink, now chief taxonomist of the Morton 
Arboretum, visited a few times. Karl Bartel, a birder 
and botanizer from nearby Blue Island, knew of the 
place. But the process that has culminated in the pres- 
ervation of the land began about 1960 when Robert 
Betz, on a visit to his wife's cousin in Markham, de- 
cided to take a walk through some nearby fields. 

Dr. Robert Betz is a biologist, a professor at 
Northeastern Illinois University and a Field Museum 
research associate. His schooling at IIT was in bio- 
chemistry. In 1957, he was on the faculty at Chicago 
Teachers College, the predecessor of Northeastern 
Illinois. He was one of several teachers cooperatively 
conducting an intensive summer course in field biolo- 
gy. Just by accident, Betz replaced another teacher on 
a field trip led by Floyd Swink. Swink took Betz and 
his students to the Sante Fe Prairie, a remnant along 
the Des Plaines River owned by the railroad. With 
Swink leading him, reeling off the scientific names of 
plants, Robert Betz was introduced to the dominant 
landscape of his native state. The experience changed 
his life. Ever since, he has devoted himself almost ex- 
clusively to the study of prairies and to the effort to 
preserve and restore our native grasslands. 

His was a lonely cause in the early days. The 
public awareness of prairie had sunk to zero. Nobody 
but a few botanists knew what a prairie was. No con- 
servation agency thought it worth spending money to 
protect prairie lands. The biggest and best of the re- 
maining Chicago-area prairies were being over- 
whelmed by the post-war boom in suburbia with 
almost no one to protest their passing or mourn their 
loss. 

On that fateful walk, Betz, his eye trained by 
experience, knew immediately that he was on to 
something special. Soon after, Swink confirmed his 
judgement by conducting a plant survey of the land. 
This was very high quality prairie, with many species 
present in considerable numbers. But could anything 
be done to protect it? 

In the summer of 1967, Betz invited scientists 
from local universities and leading conservationists to 
meet on the prairie to see what was there and to talk 
of how to save it. Some of those who took part in that 
meeting thought that saving the prairie would be 
impossible. The land was too valuable; some kind of 
development was inevitable. 

But at least one person visiting the prairie that 25 



day, Gunnar Peterson of the Open Lands Project, dis- 
agreed with that pessimistic judgement. He decided 
that if the land was worth saving then it was worth 
trying to save, and he and Betz began to work 
together to arrange a deal. 

They got a break from an unlikely quarter. Those 
same fortuitous relatives of Mrs. Betz were members of 
the Markham Garden Club, and they asked Betz to 



state unit. The acquisitions in question were the hun- 
dreds of lots on the Gensburg-Markham Prairie. 

By 1975, the whole 100-acre block was safely in 
the hands of Northeastern Illinois, and as sole prop- 
erty owner, the university could ask the city of Mark- 
ham to vacate the rights-of-way it held for streets, 
sidewalks, and alleys. 

Ecological management had already begun with 



Four-week-old gray fox near den 
in Gensburg-Markham Prairie. 




talk to the group about the local prairie. The presi- 
dent of that Garden Club was a chemical engineer 
named Thorpe Dresser, who also happened to be a 
member of the Markham Planning Commission. He 
was so impressed by Betz that he invited him, Peter- 
son, and Ray Shulenberg of the Morton Arboretum to 
testify before the commission. Their testimony so 
impressed the commissioners that they voted in favor 
of establishing a preserve and put Dresser in charge of 
a committee to see to the matter. 

This was a big step and the cause of much jubila- 
tion, but at that point none of the prairie supporters 
even knew who owned the land on their would-be 
preserve, so a few details still had to be ironed out. 

Miraculously, everything worked. Northeastern 
Illinois University agreed to accept the land. The 
Gensburg brothers, who owned about half the prop- 
erty, agreed, after discussions with Gunnar Peterson, 
to donate their holdings. The federal Land and Water 
Conservation Fund provided the money to buy the 
rest. The Nature Conservancy did the dog work, 
arranging closings on 300 separate building lots whose 
owners were scattered all over the country. The paper- 
work got so deep that the Illinois Chapter of the Na- 
ture Conservancy was cited by the national organiza- 
26 tion for initiating more acquisitions than any other 



the first controlled burns in 1972. The tall-grass 
prairie of Illinois is a fire-dependent ecosystem. In the 
pre-settlement landscape, Nature set many of these 
blazes, but the Indians also burned the prairies to keep 
the hunting good. The odds against natural fires — 
caused by lightning, for example — are very long on 
small parcels of land. Small boys sometimes take on 
the ecological role of Indians, and prairies are so 
flammable that a couple of kids with a book of match- 
es can have one blazing merrily in a few minutes. At 
Markham, the occasional fire caused by nature or set 
by boys had not completely stopped the invasion of 
the prairie shrubs and trees; but the controlled burn- 
ing program combined with a bit of sawing has turned 
the preserve into a pure grassland, where the only 
woody plants are the prairie willows and leadplants — 
native species adapted to fire. 

Under Betz's direction, a chain-link fence was 
built around the preserve and a public education pro- 
cess begun to let the neighbors know the significance 
of this patch of native grassland. Karl Bartel became 
the first custodian of the prairie. After four years on 
the job, he retired. Ron Panzer, the current site man- 
ager, replaced him. 

Panzer had been an insurance company engineer 
rating the fire safety of factories when a life-long 



interest in wildlife took him back to school. Enrolled 
as a graduate student in biology at Northeastern, he 
became one of Betz's students and caught the prairie 
fever from him. Panzer's major interest is the animals 
of the prairie, especially the insects, and with a job 
that brings him to Gensburg-Markham seven days a 
week, he was in a perfect position to begin catalog- 
ing the diversity of animal life on this rich prairie 
remnant. 

Ask him what he found, and you'll get a litany, a 
list that goes on and on of rare butterflies and moths, 
obscure leafhoppers, grasshoppers, and katydids found 
nowhere else in Illinois, endangered snakes, and foxes 
seldom seen. 

In midsummer, clouds of aphrodite fritillaries — 
rich orange butterflies spotted with black and silver — 
dance attendance on the prairie lilies, and the prairie 
shimmers with Acadian hairstreaks — soft gray butter- 
flies marked with red and gold. "It's a window into the 
past," Panzer says, a look at a time when these beauti- 
ful insects were "as common as mosquitoes." 

A quick, experienced eye like Panzer's will also 
notice the tiny gold and brown byssus skippers — but- 
terflies whose caterpillars feed on big bluestem, a 
dominant prairie grass. They are known from only 
about 15 sites in Illinois. Markham also supports a sub- 
stantial population of even rarer two-spotted skipper 
— a sedge-feeder known from less than 10 sites in 
Illinois. 

Sliding through the grass is a rare smooth green 
snake, another indicator of high quality prairie, and 



Smooth green snake 





Soapwort gentian, a rare prairie species in the Chicago area. 



for the past three years Panzer has been hearing the 
clicking call of the yellow rail, a bird so elusive we can 
only guess at its numbers. 

At the right season, you might also hear the 
chirping call of the Franklin's ground squirrel, a tall- 
grass prairie native that had vanished from Markham 
until Betz and Panzer reintroduced it. Most of the 
ground squirrels in Illinois these days are the thirteen- 
lined species, a short-grass animal that has adapted 
quite well to golf course and lawns. Franklin's is a big- 
ger animal — about 15 inches long, compared to the 7- 
to 11-inch thirteen-lined — and its back is unstriped. 

Introductions are always a tricky business. Fail- 
ure is much more common than success. But Betz 
and Panzer collected some animals from unprotected 
prairie sites and turned them loose at Gensburg. They 
waited three years and then set out some traps. The 
first six animals they caught were lactating females — 
mothers in the process of rearing young. They quickly 
released the animals and went off to celebrate. 27 




Sand cherry, a very uncommon species in Illinois RonPanzer 



The gray foxes were on the prairie all the time, 
although the first time Betz and Panzer saw them they 
did not know what they were. They caught a glimpse 
of a canid they suspected might be a coydog, a cross 
between a dog and coyote. It took a second sighting 
for them to realize they had a gray fox, a scarce animal 
in these parts, much rarer than the red fox. Contin- 
ued investigation revealed that the prairie shelters 
two or three active dens. 

The rarest creatures Panzer has discovered so far 
are certain moths of the genus Papaipema. These are 
borers, insects that lay their eggs in the stems and 
roots of plants, and each species is dependent on a 
particular host plant. The fortunes of the moths rise 
and fall with the plants. 

On the 100 acres of Gensburg-Markham, Panzer 
has found nine species of Papaipema, each dependent 
on a prairie plant, each rare because prairies are rare. 
"This is almost unrivaled as far as our knowledge ex- 
28 tends," he says, although he emphasizes that not 



much work has been done with the genus. 

Capturing moths means staying up most of the 
night, so moth hunters need an occasional nap during 
the day, which is why Panzer was asleep in the cab of 
his pick-up on the September morning in 1984 when 
Cal Barber drove up with news of what he thought 
might be a previously undiscovered prairie west 
of 1-57. 

Barber had grown up in Markham. He attended 
high school there and since graduation had been 
working as a carpenter. He had no formal training in 
botany beyond high school biology class, but he had a 
good mind and a sharp eye. One day he noticed a 
beautiful blue flower blooming in the field next to his 
mother's house. He had never seen anything like it 
before, so he called the Morton Aboretum, where he 
was referred to Floyd Swink. 

From Barber's description, Swink realized that 
the plant was a fringed gentian, a flower that you are 
unlikely to find in your average weedy vacant lot. He 




Papaipema beeriana. This rare midwestern prairie moth feeds on 

blazing Star. Ron Panzer 



came out and looked over the land and realized that 
Barber had discovered a prairie that had completely 
escaped the notice of all the authorities up until then. 

Panzer knew nothing of this when Barber woke 
him from his nap. Panzer had encountered such peo- 
ple before, people who wanted him to come see their 
prairies. He preferred to turn them down because 
their prairies usually turned out to be fields full of 
introduced plants such as Queen Anne's lace and he 
didn't relish the job of telling them that their prairies 
were actually just weedy meadows. 

"I'm busy," he told Barber. 

"No you're not," Barber responded. "You're just 
sleeping in your truck." 

So Panzer followed Cal Barber to his find and, 
like Swink, immediately realized that the field was in- 
deed a previously unknown bit of prairie. 

The discovery came at a critical time in the life 
of Cal Barber. He had been drifting. Married and the 
father of two children, he was recently divorced. He 
had come home to his mother's house because his doc- 
tor had told him he had cancer and could no longer 
work. At a moment when he could have given up and 
just waited for death, he had found something to give 
his life a focus. He had a cause that could harness 
energies he may not have known he had. He resolved 
to save all the remaining prairie lands in Markham. 



The obstacles were formidable. The board of 
directors of the Illinois chapter of the Nature Con- 
servancy had formally declared that its Markham 
prairie project was over. The long, complex, frustrat- 
ing, expensive process of acquiring 300 lots on the 
Gensburg preserve had been so difficult that the orga- 
nization didn't want more of the same. The Con- 
servancy was also unwilling to buy land if there was 
nobody available to manage it properly. 

And then there was the city of Markham itself. 
Markham is not one of the richer suburbs, and the 
idea of removing a couple of hundred more acres from 
the tax rolls might meet with some opposition. 

Barber went to work on both fronts. Tooling 
around town in a pick-up truck bearing a bumper 
sticker that read "Ask me about my prairie," he be- 
came the functional equivalent of a precinct captain, 
ringing doorbells on behalf of an ecosystem instead of 
a candidate. He sat in living rooms all over town, 
talking to people one or two at a time, telling anyone 
who would listen about the treasure hidden in these 
vacant lots. 

He began to get support. Many people who had 
grown up in Markham had played in those prairies. As 
adults, they still enjoyed the flowers. They may not 
have known of the significance of this land, but they 
were prepared to hear about it and respond positively. 



Byssus skipper on purple prairie clover. This butterfly is rare in 

Illinois prairies. Ron Panzer 




29 



The Friends of the Indian Boundary Prairies — 
they adopted the name because the boundary line set 
down in an old treaty between the U.S. and the Pota- 
watomi Indians runs right through the archipelago — 
became fixtures at public meetings, lobbying the 
politicians, convincing the community that the high- 
est and best use of this land was as a nature preserve, a 
preserve that would enhance the quality of life for the 
residents and, incidentally, attract outsiders who 
might spend a few bucks during their visit. 

The Friends also began the job of stewardship on 
the prairies. Vacant land in urban areas attracts junk 
as surely as flowers attract bees, so the first job was to 
gather the old roofing shingles, broken-up pieces of 
concrete, and just plain garbage that littered the 
prairies. City trucks from Markham and the neigh- 
boring city of Midlothian carried off the collected 
garbage. 

The Friends were effective enough to gain the 
support of city government. Evans Miller, the mayor 
of Markham, became one of their most enthusiastic 
backers. The city council voted in favor of setting the 
prairies aside as nature preserves. 

They also swayed the Nature Conservancy, 
which decided to reopen its Markham file after the 
Friends demonstrated their ability to care for the land. 

The Conservancy, the City of Markham, and the 
county worked out a three-way arrangement for the 
acquisition of the new lands. Almost all the property 



was tax delinquent, so the county agreed to buy it for 
the cost of the unpaid taxes. The land would then be 
deeded to the city of Markham, which would sell it to 
the highest bidder, provided that the bidder agreed to 
dedicate it as an Illinois Nature Preserve, a stipulation 
that pretty well eliminated any bidders but the Nature 
Conservancy. 

So once again, the Conservancy found itself 
neck-deep in paper, but this time there was a major 
difference. The Friends of the Indian Boundary 
Prairies rounded up volunteers to spend days in the 
offices of the Conservancy's law firm tracking down 
the last known owners of the more than 750 lots in- 
volved in the transaction. The volunteers compiled 
tax histories and also recorded the legal description of 
each property. Paralegal work of this kind is usually 
billed at $50 an hour. At that rate, the volunteers do- 
nated the equivalent of $20,000 to the task. Things 
have indeed changed since Robert Betz caught the 
prairie fever 30 years ago. 

And now on May 23, the National Park Service 
recognized the extraordinary quality of these lands 
and dedicated the Markham Prairies as a National 
Natural Landmark. 

The one sad note in this is that Cal Barber did 
not live to see his hard work come to success. He died 
of cancer in 1986 at the age of 35. He spent the last 
painful months of his life surveying populations of rare 
plants on his prairies. Fli 



Aphrodite fritillary on butterfly weed. RonPanze- 



30 





FIELD 

MUSEUM 
TOURS 1 




An Extraordinary 
Exploration of China 

September 14-October 5, 1988 




Antarctica — Discovering the Antarctic 

Peninsula, Strait of 

Magellan, Tierra del Fuego, and Cape Horn 

aboard the "llliria " 

February 17-23, 1989 



Kenya/Tanzania Safari 

February 11 -Marcn 3, 1989 



Egypt 

Includes 5-day Nile Cruise 
January 25-February 1 1 , 1989 



Galapagos Islands 

March 3-14, 1989 



31 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2499 



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FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BUL 



September 1988 








*./ 







ER HOURS: FILMS AT THE FIELD 
Featuring Japanese and Chinese Films 

In September and October 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Boardof Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
WillardL. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Gadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas]. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kotar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
LeoF. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Gxik 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J . Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

September 1988 
Volume 59, Number 8 



SEPTEMBER EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 

ON THE TRAIL OF ERIK THE RED IN ICELAND 

By Wendell H. Oswalt 6 

THE A. B. LEWIS COLLECTION FROM MELANESIA: 
75 YEARS LATER 

By Robert L. Welsch, Research Associate in Anthropology . . 10 

NEW BRITAIN NOTEBOOK 

By A. B. Lewis 16 

DISTILLING THE TRUTH ABOUT ETHANOL 

By Larry Dombrowski 29 

FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 31 

COVER 

The camera lens of Chicago nature photographer Laszlo Nagy 
observed this familiar summer scene: a bumblebee visiting one of 
his favorite wildflowers, the thistle. 



VOLUNTEER AT FIELD MUSEUM 

Learn something new or share your expertise — 
a wide variety of challenging and rewarding 
volunteer opportunities for either weekdays or 
weekends are currently available. Please call 
the Volunteer Coordinator at (312) 922-9410, 
extension 360, for more information. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-24%. 
Copyright ©1988 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily retlect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: ( 3 1 2 > 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois and 
additional mailing office. 




ADULT COURSES 

Adult courses begin again in late September, offering an exciting selection of programs featuring Chinese popular art, scientific 
illustration. Indian beadwork, and much more! To register, use coupon below. For further information, please call (312)322-8854. 



Indian History of the Western Great Lakes 

Compared to other aspects of American history, little is known of 
the history of the Great Lakes Indians. Historians and scholars 
are now paying closer attention to the Indian perspectives of 
their own history. Explore these perspectives in a special six- 
week series on the Indian history of the western Great Lakes. 

September 27 

□ An Overview of Indian History in the Western Great Lakes 

Helen Hornbeck Tanner, Historian, D'Arcy McNickle Center for 
the Study of the American Indian. Newberry Library 

October 4 

EH Frontier In Transition 

Helen Hornbeck Tanner. Historian, D'Arcy McNickle Center for 
the Study of the American Indian, Newberry Library 

October 1 1 

□ The Black Hawk War and the Removal Period 

Nancy O. Lurie, Curator of Anthropology. Milwaukee Public 
Museum 



October 18 

□ Distilled Knowledge in Indian Legends 

Keewaydinoquay. Elder of the Anishnabeg. Ph.D. Candidate, 
Department of Botany, University of Michigan 

October 25 

□ Chicago's Indian Community 

Dorene Wiese, Dean of Administration, Truman College 

November 1 

□ Politics and the Future of Western Great Lakes Indians 

George Cornell, Associate Professor, Native American Institute. 

Michigan State University 

Tuesdays, 7:00-9:00 p.m.: September 27-November 1 

(6 sessions): $45 ($35 members) entire series. Single session 

registration: $10 ($8 members). 



Traditions in Japanese Art: 
The Boone Collection 

Focusing on selected objects on display in the Boone Exhibit, 
explore issues, problems, ideas, and traditions in Japanese art. 

Wednesday. 7:00-9:00 p.m.: September 28 (1 session): 
$15 ($10 members). 



Folktales from around the World 

The drama and history of human life is preserved and retold 
in language and culture. Each week, a different speaker looks 
at varying themes of world folklore and oral tradition. Topics 
include "The Female Hero in Folktales," "African and African- 
American Folktales," and "Chicago Legends and the Modern 
Urban Folktale." 

Wednesdays. 7:00-9:00 p.m.: September 28-November 2 
(6 sessions): $60 ($50 members). 

Continued 



ADULT COURSES 

Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this 
registration application. Adult course advance registrations 
are confirmed by mail. For registrations received less than 
two weeks before the class begins, confirmations are held at 
the West Door on the first night of class. Phone registrations 
are accepted for adult courses using Visa/MasterCard/Amx/ 
Discover. Please call (312) 322-8854 to register. For further 



registration information, consult the September/October 
Adult and Family Program Brochure. 

Return complete registration with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Department of Education, Adult Programs 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



Name 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



Telephone: Daytime Evening 

□ Member □ Nonmember 

American ExpressA/isa/MasterCard/Discover 



Card Number 



Signature 



Expiration Date 



Program 


#Member 
Tickets 


#Nonmember 
Tickets 


Total 
Tickets 


Amount 
Enclosed 


Indian History Series 
AC88301 










Indian History (please 
Single Session specify 
AC88302 date) 










Folktales 
AC88309 










Japanese Art 
AC88306 










□ Scholarship requested 






Total 






EDWARD E. AYER SERIES 



Thursdays in September; beginning September 8; 1:30 p.m. 
are served. 



James Simpson Theatre. Lectures are free and refreshments 



September 8 

□ The Galapagos Islands 

John Fitzpatrick, Chairman and Curator, 
Department of Zoology, Field Museum 

The Galapagos Islands hold a unique place in the history of biol- 
ogy They are as important to scientific study today as they were 
to Darwin in the 1850s. Examine what makes the Galapagos 
such an important site to observe and study evolution in action. 

September 15 

L~3 The World of Gems 

Tedd Payne, Graduate Gemologist 

Gems have captured our hearts and minds for centuries. Look 
at a wide variety of gem stones from around the world. Learn 
where they come from, why stones vary in quality and how to 
spot a good buy! 

September 22 

□ Wall Painting of Ancient Mexico 

Donald McVicker, Associate Professor, 
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 
North Central College 

Teotihuacan was Mexico's greatest pre-Hispanic city. Its painted 



walls remain one of the highest expressions of pre-Columbian 
art. Teotihuacan's murals communicated royal and priestly mes- 
sages to its vast population. Today these messages reveal the 
social structure and values of a vanished civilization. 

September 29 

LJ Science in Soviet Museums 

Matthew Nitecki, Curator, Department of 
Geology, Field Museum 

The nature of scientific research in Soviet museums is similar to 
that in the great museums of the West. The structure of the sci- 
entific community and the intellectual atmosphere are quite dif- 
ferent. Dr. Nitecki looks at Soviet curators and their work at some 
of the Soviet Union's major museums. 



AFTER HOURS: FILMS AT THE FIELD 



Fridays, September 9-October 14 
West Entrance 

Free! 

Field Museum continues its series of films from around the world. Films from Japan are featured September 9-23, Chinese films 
are highlighted September 30-October 1 4. Light fare and beverages are available before the films at the After Hours Cafe. Films 
begin at 6:00 p.m. For more information call (312)322-8855. 

JAPAN 



□ September 9 
Tampopo" 

1987. 1 14 minutes. Color Director: Juzo Itami. 
Japanese with English subtitles. 

Tampopo is a zesty concoction of three themes: movies, sex, 
and food — especially food. A tall, dark, cowboy-hatted stranger, 
Goro, transforms an ordinary noodle shop owner, Tampopo, into 
the queen of her noble profession. The film's "pot-luck" structure 
continually spins off into parodies, vignettes, digressions, and 
assorted tasty situations, all related to food and always returning 
to the amusing tale of Goro and Tampopo. 

□ September 16 

"The Ballad of Narayama " 
1983. 128 minutes. Color. Japan. 
Director: Shohei Imanura. 
Japanese with English subtitles. 

Set in northern Japan a century ago, The Ballad of Narayama 
depicts one of the most astonishing of Japanese legends. The 
laws of an isolated and impoverished village require that upon 
reaching the age of 70, its residents must climb to the top of 
Narayama Mountain and wait to die. The film depicts Orin, an 
aging matriarch, whose time to meet the gods is approaching. 
With courage, intelligence, and a youthful vitality, she prepares 
for her death by assuring her family will survive. 



D September 23 
"Demon Pond" 

1980. 123 minutes. Color. Japan. 
Director: Masahiro Shinoda 
Japanese with English subtitles. 

In a remote region of Japan in 1933, three people's lives inter- 
sect around an ancient legend: that Demon Pond is inhabited by 
a trapped spirit, and that if certain rituals are not carried out, the 
spirit will break loose. Shinoda's fable is based on the Kwaidan 
tradition of exquisite Japanese ghost stories, with its own auda- 
cious mix of offbeat elements. Hyper-intense colors, fairy tale 
sets, and a ghostly atmosphere all lead to a sensational climax. 

CHINA 

□ September 30 

"In The Wild Mountains" 

1986. 105 minutes. Color. China. 

Director: Yan Xueshu. 

Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles. 

This comedy set in the remote Qinling mountains is about two 

couples trying to cope with China's economic reform. Huihui is 

content with his simple life as a farmer; but his brother, Hehe, 

who has served in the army, wants to change his fate and strike 

it rich. Their wives, equally disgruntled with their chosen mates, 

find solace in their brothers-in-law. In the end there are two new 

couples. 





□ October 14 

"Black Cannon Incident" 

1985. 107 minutes. Color. China. 

Director: Huang Jianxin 

Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles. 

Typical of the new direction in Chinese filmmaking, Black 

Cannon deals with subjects and issues heretofore not present in 

Chinese films. This farce is about a misplaced chess piece. And 

when its owner, a well-educated engineer, attempts to find it by 

sending a telegram, the operator suspects it is a secret code, 

and here the farce begins. 



Scene from "Tampopo," showing Friday, Sept. 9. 



Scene from "Demon Pond," showing Friday, Sept. 23. 



□ October 7 
"Yellow Earth" 

1984. 94 minutes. Color. China. 
Director: Chen Kaige. 
Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles. 
Set in the steppes of China's northern provinces in the late thir- 
ties, a young soldier in Mao's army visits a remote village as he 
collects folksongs. In the village he is put in with one of the poor- 
est families, a taciturn widower and his teenage daughter and 
son. The daughter is sold into marriage with a much older man 
and the soldier's talk of breaking with feudal tradition fills her 
with unrealistic hopes of escape. Yellow Earth is the first film 
of a new Chinese cinema with its roots in Chinese painting 
and music, and not the formula propaganda of the last 
three decades. 




On the Trail 

Of Erik the Red 
In Iceland 



by Wendell H.Oswalt 

photos by the author 



As a modern nation, Iceland is distinguished in 
many ways apart from its less-than-inviting 
name. Geologically, the only place the Mid- 
Atlantic Ridge rises to the earth's surface is in Iceland, 
and here too is the geyser that was so named before any 
others. Politically, the country had the world's first 
commonwealth government and, economically, it was 
the only European nation to become modern without 
the pangs of industrialization. In literature, Icelandic 
poetry and sagas are the most substantial extant writ- 
ings in an old Germanic language. Yet, Iceland is little 
known among most Americans except in one respect: 
Americans generally are familiar with the adventures 
of Erik the Red and his son, Leif Eriksson, through 
reading either history books or sagas. Both are known 
because of their participation in the earliest European 
explorations in North America. 

In outline, the discoveries of Erik and his son have 
been well recorded. They sailed from Iceland, possibly 
in the year A.D. 982, and explored southwestern 
Greenland, where they remained for three years. After 
returning to Iceland for one winter, they sailed back, 
this time with other ships, to settle the newfound land. 
From Greenland, Leif sailed to the eastern shores of 
Canada, where he founded at least one settlement, and 
in subsequent years other parties ventured from Green- 
land to the same region. These bold voyages and their 
aftermath are well known compared with earlier 
aspects of the life of Erik the Red, those that led to his 
departure from Iceland. Here I will focus on Erik's 



background, the sites in Iceland associated with him, 
and the reasons for his voyages. 

Reports about events and the locale in which they 
are thought to have occurred are based primarily on 
two books written originally in Old Icelandic. The 
accuracy of both is marred by the mingling of historical 
particulars with fabrications and errors in frustrating 
combination. Yet, some specifics in these books have 
been verified, and modern scholars continue to strive 
to distinguish fact from error and fancy. The first per- 
tinent work is the Book of Icelanders, by Ari Thorgils- 
son the Learned (1068-1148). This short study, written 
between 1122 and 1133, is primarily a synopsis of early 
Icelandic history and institutions. The Book of Iceland- 
ers generally is considered a trustworthy source because 
the author states that he obtained the information from 
those persons described or from their immediate and 
reliable descendants. The same Ari is thought to be the 
author, or one of several authors, of the second source, 
the Book of Settlements, which in its original form also 
dates from the early twelfth century. This volume is the 
only detailed account about the founding of any Euro- 
pean nation. The biographical sketches, genealogies, 
and geographical place names provide a wealth of de- 
tails for the period of settlement. Some information 



Wendell H. Oswalt is a professor of anthropology at the Univer- 
sity of California, Los Angeles. 



BSHHPHHMBHHnHranBBHnSHHMn 



-.._-. .■^•.,j-« . 



Erik the Red may have been born at Drangar on Snaefellsness Penin- his later life. A modern farm and the Drangar rocks in the background 
sula in western Iceland; he clearly was identified with the locality in mark the locale today. 




— "St* 



An imaginative illustration of Erik the Red appears in a book about 
Greenland published in 1688. 



Field Museum Library possesses a facsimile edition of 
the largest and best preserved of the Icelandic man- 
uscripts, the Flatey (Flat Island) Book (London, 
1908). This codex, dating from the last two decades of 
the fourteenth century, is a compilaton from various 
sagas and includes, in the saga of Olaf Tryggvason, the 
tale of Erik the Red (in three chapters) and the tale of 
the Greenlanders (in seven chapters). This copy, the 
gift of Archives of American Art (1987), includes the 
manuscript facsimile, the text in Icelandic, and Dan- 
ish and English translations. It may be consulted in the 
Library's Reading Room. 




In the foreground to the right of a modern "summer house" are the 
reported ruins of Eriksstead in Haukadale. Across the river is the farm 
of Saurstadir, and in the draw to the left Eyjolf Saur is said to have 
been killed by Erik, which led to his banishment from Haukadale. <*< 



In the foreground, where the people are standing, are the reported 
ruins of the original farmhouse at Valthjolfsstead. It was from the 
mountains behind this flat land that Erik's slaves caused a landslide, 
which was the first episode in the events leading to Erik's banishment 
from Haukadale. ■»• 






ICELAND 



K) 20 30 <0 50 SO 70 60 90 



clearly is valid, some is imaginative, and other portions 
are erroneous. The original text probably was more 
accurate, but it has not survived. Although a few pages 
of early copies have been identified, most versions were 
written many hundreds of years after the original book 
had been completed. We must depend on copies made 
from one of the later versions, and because they were 
copied and recopied, sometimes with the text 
intentionally modified or expanded, there was ample 
opportunity for mistakes to become part of the final 
text. The sagas do not figure prominently in this analy- 
sis because information in them about Erik the Red's 
life in Iceland seems to have been based largely on the 
Book of Settlements, and thus they perpetuate the truths 
or errors found in this source book. 



According to the sources used, the first Norse set- 
tlers, who landed in Iceland in the 870s, met men 
identified as "Papar," who clearly were Irish 
monks; the Irish long had known about the island and 
had sailed there repeatedly over many years. With the 



Norse arrival the Papar left, reportedly "because they 
did not wish to live together with heathen men." Most 
of the early Norse settlers came from Norway and were 
drawn by the availability of free land, but a large num- 
ber came to escape the tyranny of Harald Finehair. He 
ruled for a time as a lesser king in southern Norway, but 
by the 870s he was succeeding in subjugating the rest of 
the country. Those who refused to accept his domi- 
nance and felt that resistance was futile left to begin life 
anew on the British Isles, with which they already were 
familiar, or on the recently discovered island called Ice- 
land. The ambition and expanding power of Harald 
Finehair thus provided the motivation for many Norse 
to leave their homeland within a comparatively short 
period and to relocate in Iceland with others of similar 
persuasion. This period, called the Age of Settlement, 
lasted from ca. 870 to 930, and it was during the latter 
years that the father of Erik the Red arrived and sought 
land. 

As the life of Erik the Red is reconstructed, pub- 
lished interpretations by the Icelandic historian Olafur 
Halldorsson, are especially valuable. The birthplace of 
Erik the Red is the first critical issue. The Book of Settle- 
Continued on p. 24 



The A.B. Lewis Collection from Melanesia 
- 75 Years Later 



by Robert L. Welsch 




Dr. A. B. Lewis in German New Guinea, 1910. 33645 



10 



The notion that Museum Collections are little more 
than odd assortments of exotic curios remains, un- 
fortunately, a common one. For those who continue to 
see museums in this way, artifacts may be pretty to look 
at, possibly even interesting, but these objects are 
nonetheless just the odds-and-ends relics of nearly for- 
gotten cultures. 

Such a view, however, is out of sync with the new 
look in museums, and it is certainly not the case with 
Field Museum's outstanding anthropology holdings. 

During a year and a half of research on Field 
Museum's South Pacific collections, the value of this 
material for understanding traditional Melanesian 
societies has been repeatedly brought home to me 
while poring over more than a thousand pages of field 
diaries, expedition photographs, field sketches, and 
the expedition correspondence of Albert Buell Lewis 
(1867-1940), who served Field Museum as an anthro- 
pology curator from 1908 until his death. 

Now yellowed from the 75 years they have sat in 
the Anthropology Department Archives, these docu- 
ments were made during a Field Museum expedition to 
Melanesia (which includes New Guinea, New Britain, 
the Admiralty Islands, the Solomon Islands, New 
Caledonia, Vanuatu, and Fiji). Lewis's notes chronicle 
the day-by-day experiences of an anthropologist con- 
ducting field research in a region that was little known 
and poorly explored. They tell how and why he made 
his remarkable collection and provide a wealth of back- 
ground information about the 12,000 artifacts he col- 
lected and the nearly 2,000 photographs he took (and 



Robert L. Welsch is a research associate in the Department 
of Anthropology and has studied the A. B. Lewis Collection 
for the past 18 months in an effort to update documentation 
of the collection and to assess the collection's potential for 
further systematic study. Research support from the Thomas 
J. Dee Fund and the Walgreen Company is gratefully 
acknowledged. Together with anthropology curators John E. 
Terrell and Phillip H. Lewis, Dr. Welsch's work with the 
collection is intended to lay the groundwork for new field 
studies in Papua New Guinea — "In the Footsteps of A. B. 
Lewis." 



developed) during the Joseph N. Field South Pacific 
Expedition of 190943. 

A casual look at this inconspicuous stack of 
pocket-sized notebooks, with their faint, scribbled 
notes, gives no hint of the treasure of detailed informa- 
tion these pages contain. 

But sorting through these notes, expedition diar- 
ies, and letters is like discovering a Rosetta Stone for 
interpreting and studying the thousands of objects A. 
B. Lewis collected. They are truly unique — the only 
documents by an American describing many parts of 
Melanesia as they were before World War I. 

The A. B. Lewis Collection contains thousands of 
masks, carvings, and ornamented objects that have 
extraordinary aesthetic value as fine examples of primi- 
tive art. But the value of this collection for understand- 
ing Melanesian peoples and the societies in which they 
lived is immeasurably increased by Lewis's observations 
preserved in his notebooks and letters. 

Without these notes, the research value of his 
collection would be minimal — they would be little 
more than curiosities made of bark, grass, wood, bone, 
and shell. It is this combination of artifacts, photo- 
graphs, and documentation that makes Field Museum's 
collection one of the world's two great Melanesian col- 
lections (the other being at the Museum fur Volker- 
kunde in Berlin). 

The Joseph N. Field South Pacific Expedition 

In the spring of 1909, Albert B. Lewis, then assistant 
curator of African and Melanesian ethnology at Field 
Museum, set off from Chicago on the Joseph N. Field 
South Pacific Expedition. This enterprise would keep 
him overseas for nearly four years on a research odyssey 
to virtually every accessible corner of Melanesia and 
several parts of Polynesia. It was an epic journey 
through a region which was one of the least known and 
most poorly explored parts of the world. It was also a 
journey that would make Lewis the first American 
anthropologist ever to conduct extensive, long-term 
field research in New Guinea — nearly twenty years be- 
fore Margaret Mead's more famous sojourn to the 
Admiralty Islands. 

When he returned to Chicago in the spring of 
1913, Lewis had acquired what is still the largest collec- 
tion of Melanesian art and material culture ever made 
by a single collector. It is also one of the most systema- 
tic Melanesian collections in existence. 

Like many other Field Museum expeditions before 
World War I, the Joseph N. Field Expedition was 



mounted to collect material for the Museum's rapidly 
growing ethnological collections. When founded in 
1893, Field Museum fell heir to many of the objects 
exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition. But 
then, to establish a "great museum" on par with older 
museums in New York and Washington required much 
more extensive collections, with better documenta- 
tion. 




Man of Ross Island. 



11 




Men of Ruoto Island. 31906 



12 



Toward this end, Chief Curator of Anthropology 
George A. Dorsey organized a vigorous program of 
Museum expeditions, sending his assistant curators to 
the far corners of the globe to build collections that 
would rival those of better known museums. Other 
Chicagoans shared Dorsey 's vision and when he sought 
financial support for these expeditions Chicago's lead- 
ing citizens were ready to assist. Within less than twen- 
ty years, Field Museum's anthropology holdings had 
achieved world-class status, the Pacific collections be- 
ing one of the most outstanding. 

When Dorsey nominated A. B. Lewis, his newest 
assistant curator, to lead an expedition to New Guinea 
and the Melanesian islands, Lewis had never before 
conducted any extended field research. Nevertheless, 
Lewis proved to be a remarkably able and successful 
field researcher. He sent back more than 300 crates of 
specimens that took nearly five years to catalog, more 
than doubling the Museum's already sizable holdings 
from Melanesia. 



Besides the carvings, masks, and other highly de- 
corated objects once used in the elaborate rituals of 
Melanesian peoples, the A. B. Lewis Collection also 
contains many thousands of more mundane objects in 
daily use: wooden bowls, knives, bags, arrows, spears, 
clubs, headrests, pots, clothing, ornaments, and the 
like — objects representing a way of life that has now 
largely vanished after two world wars and three quar- 
ters of a century of economic, political, and social 
development. 

Lewis's primary objective during the expedition 
was to collect ethnological material that could be used 
in the Museum's exhibit halls. But as an anthropologist 
trained by Franz Boas at Columbia University, he had 
much broader goals for his field research. He became 
fascinated with indigenous Melanesian technology, the 
ways material culture was made and used, the unex- 
pected volume of trade between villages, and the many 
variations in styles and designs from one area to 
another. 




Men from Kamangaro. 31969 



Lewis knew these societies would face many 
changes in the future and he made a concerted effort to 
document their art and material culture as completely 
as possible in his collection, his photographs, and his 
field notes. He attempted to obtain a representative 
sample of the local material culture in each of the hun- 
dreds of villages he visited. He acquired many examples 
of the same kinds of objects in order to show the many 
variations in design and form, especially regional 
variations. 

His research strategy was surprisingly modern, and 
his letters and diaries make it clear that he intended his 
collection (together with his notes and photographs) 
to be a long-lasting resource for future researchers. 

Using the A. B. Lewis Collection for Modern Research 

But despite the unique importance of the A. B. Lewis 
materials, they are known in depth by only a handful of 
scholars. In part, this reflects a number of changes in 
anthropological research that began in the 1920s and 
1930s. In the years between the wars, anthropologists 



shifted their interests from comparative studies of 
material culture to intensive field work in particular 
communities. These field studies examined the social, 
economic, and religious lives of tribal peoples through 
what has been called participant observation, a 
research method that blends direct observation, inter- 
views, and participation in the daily lives of the people 
whose society and culture are being investigated. 

These ethnographic studies are the hallmark of 
modern anthropology and have undeniably enriched 
our understanding of how these societies function and 
the ways individuals maneuver within the social con- 
ventions prescribed by their culture. 

But such studies have tended to concentrate on 
individual communities, ignoring the regional systems 
of which these communities are a part. At the same 
time, the emphasis on ethnographic field studies has 
led anthropologists to disregard museum research as 
only narrowly concerned with primitive technology, 
art styles, and decorative motifs. 

Our current research with the A. B. Lewis Collec- 



13 




14 




Kaman, Lewis's field assistant, wearing cloth lap-lap and belt. 31978 



Mother with child. Kamangaro. 31968 



tion is an attempt to bridge the gap between these two 
kinds of research by combining museum-based research 
with intensive field studies. We are planning a new 
expedition to New Guinea — "In the Footsteps of A. B. 
Lewis" — to gather new information from many of the 
same communities he visited more than 75 years ago. 
This research literally picks up where Lewis left off by 
refocusing our attention on regional trade networks 
and the cultural variation they generated. 

This innovative program will use the artifacts 
Lewis collected (along with the information he 
gathered) to guide our investigation of modern 
research problems about the regional trade networks 
that linked small, autonomous communities speaking 
dozens of different languages. The challenge of this 
research is to show how Field Museum's collections can 
provide new insights into old problems using modern 
research strategies. 




House where A. B. Lewis slept, Ross Island. 31909 



An Example from A. B. Lewis's Field Notes 

During the course of deciphering and identifying the 
contents of Lewis's diaries, notes, and letters, I came 
across a handwritten manuscript in a tiny blue note- 
book, published here for the first time as "New Britain 
Notebook." Several times earlier I had opened it and 
read scattered passages to confirm how its contents re- 
lated to Lewis's travels in New Britain. But I had 
wrongly assumed that these were drafts of rough notes 
later copied into his expedition diaries. 

Only after I had transcribed and typed several 
pages of the text did I recognize that far from being 
rough notes, the text was a short essay describing an 
encounter of first contact with several of the scattered 
groups living in the interior along New Britain's south 
coast. 

The manuscript was written in the spring or sum- 
mer of 1910, while Lewis was in German New Guinea 
(now part of Papua New Guinea). Although its origi- 



nal purpose is not certain, it was probably the first draft 
of a report sent to Museum Director F. J. V. Skiff. The 
editorial changes, scratched out lines, and words in- 
serted into the text on the original make it clear that A. 
B. Lewis had intended this essay — unlike his field diar- 
ies — to be a finished piece of prose in its own right. 

It 'describes the first of several experiences with 
Melanesians who had never before seen a white man, 
and it offers a feel for the difficulties Lewis encountered 
throughout his long years of field research. Lewis had 
not come to Melanesia as an explorer, but he was de- 
lighted to make contact with previously unknown 
groups. And as he shows us, he was pleased to be the 
first to discover a native blow-gun east of Indonesia. 

With remarkable foresight, Lewis captured and 
preserved a large piece of the history of Melanesian 
societies, much of it preserved nowhere else. His work 
passes on a responsibility to those of us who follow to 
continue the research he began nearly 80 year? jgo. 



New Britain Notebook 



by A.B. Lewis 

photos by the author 



The Beginning of the Year found me at Arawe, a 

remote station and plantation belonging to E. E. For- 
sayth situated at Cape Merkus, on the south coast of 
New Britain, about 100 miles from its western extrem- 
ity. Here lived the only white man on the entire south 
coast of New Britain. On the Liebliche Inseln (Lovely 
Islands) lying just off Cape Merkus were the most 
important and largest native villages for many miles 
along the coast, and the chief of one of these, Pelilo, 
claimed jurisdiction over about 100 miles of coast line. 
With Arawe as a center many trips were made to the 
native villages, and the following gives some incidents 



of an 8 day boat trip along the coast to the east for about 
30 miles. 

The nephew of the chief had been secured as 
interpreter, and with a crew of 5 native "boys" and my 
two personal attendants we left Arawe on the morning 
of January 3, 1910. We had a 4 oared boat, also supplied 
with mast and sail, which the crew, of course, much 
preferred as a means of progress, only taking to the oars 
when absolutely necessary. After a sail of about 3 hours 
we arrived at the first settlement we wished 
to visit. 

The coast here consisted of an almost per- 




16 mmmt^mm 

Boys at Pelilo. 31962 





Canoe with outrigger. Ruoto Island. 31904 



pendicular cliff of coarse rock, from 200 to 300 feet 
high, with at places a narrow strip of sandy beach. On 
one of these, somewhat wider than usual, were a few 
houses or huts, and here we landed. We received a cor- 
dial welcome, as our interpreter was well known, and 
the natives were quite anxious to exchange their 
possessions for the European articles which we had 
with us. As it was near noon, a plentiful supply of taro 
was purchased for the boys, and dinner was soon ready. 

This settlement was very small, consisting of three 
family houses, and one men's house, where the boys 
and unmarried men sleep. There were other settle- 
ments on top of the cliffs, however, where the country 
was fairly level, and the natives had extensive taro 
fields, so we decided to stop a while, and go on top and 
have a look around. We had to follow the beach for 
some way before we came to a place where we could 
ascend. On the way we passed a place where the cliff 
overhung somewhat, and in this rock shelter, with only 
the additional protection of a slight palm-leaf wind 
break, a couple of families had taken up their adobe, 
the women being engaged in cooking as we passed by. 

The path to the top of the cliff was in places 
almost perpendicular and required the use of hands as 



well as feet. The country on top was covered with the 
dense tropical forest, through which our path wound 
for a mile or more before reaching a clearing with two 
or three houses. 

There was little of interest here, so we passed on, 
and in the next 3 or 4 miles found 3 more small settle- 
ments, the last of which we reached just in time to 
avoid a thorough soaking from a heavy tropical shower. 
The shower was over in about an hour, but it was now 
time to go back, as I had no desire to descend that cliff 
after dark. We reached the beach safely about sun- 
down, and made arrangements to stay here for the 
night. As it is liable to rain here most anytime, a roof is 
a good thing to have over one and so the natives were 
induced to vacate the best of their houses where my cot 
was set up, while the "boys" slept on the floor. In this 
house the floor was raised about 3 foot from the ground, 
while in all the others the ground was the sole floor. 
The roofs, of palm leaf thatch, are perfectly water tight 
when in good repair. It is perhaps needless to say that 
they are not always in good repair, as I found out to my 
sorrow on more than one occasion. Our sleep this 
night, however, was undisturbed — luckily there were 
no mosquitos — and shortly after sun-rise our things 



17 




Dancers, New Year's Day 1910. Arawe. 31920 



18 



were all in the boat and we were again on our way. 

Here occurred an incident which may be regarded 
as illustrating either native honesty, or fear of the white 
man's power, for the government makes itself felt even 
in this out of the way place. The day before, while wait- 
ing at the furtherest settlement, I had had occasion to 
use my pocket knife, and had very carelessly stuck it in 
the center post of the building, thinking I would use it 
again and had finally gone away and forgotten all about 
it. The evening before I had discovered my loss, and 
sent word with one of the natives who had come to the 
beach to carry some of my purchases, that they should 



bring the knife to me at the beach, early next morning, 
as it was then nearly dark. The next morning shortly 
before we were ready to leave a native from the further 
settlement came with the knife, reporting that it had 
been found on the ground at the foot of the post, and 
had not been noticed till I sent word to return it. As I 
had no other pocket knife with me, I was glad to get it, 
tho I had hardly expected to see it again, and the native 
was duly rewarded. 

For 3 hours we sailed along the high rocky shore, 
occasionally we could see the tops of a few cocoanut 
trees on the heights above, indicating human habita- 




Warrior with shield and spear. Cape Merkus. 3190 



tion. Once the settlement was so close to the edge of 
the cliff that no trees intervened, and we could see the 
natives, who were busy building a new house. In a few 
places the beach below was wide enough for a few trees 
and some vegetation, and in such places one or two 
native huts were frequently seen. 

About 10 A.M. we reached a larger settlement 
than usual, and here landed and stayed till after noon, 
when we continued on our journey. It was not long till a 
heavy shower came up, and the rain poured. The wind 
was luckily from behind, and so hurried us on our 
course, so that by the time the storm was over we had 
reached another settlement of considerable size. Here 
the language was quite different from that at Cape Mer- 
kus, and I found many things of interest. We decided to 
stop for the night at a village we could see a short dis- 
tance further on, but it proved to be further than it 
looked, as to avoid the reefs we had to make a wide 



circuit. There are dangerous reefs all along this coast, 
but my interpreter was familiar with them, so we got 
along very well. 

Here we stayed that night, as well as the following 
day and night. During the day we visited some other 
settlement near by, and inspected their taro fields on 
the heights above, when we also shot some pigeons to 
replenish our larder. We found the people here living in 
constant dread of an attack by the interior or "bush" 
people, with whom they were at war, if the state of 
perpetual hostility in which many of these people live 
can be called war. Our "boys" were so frightened that 
several sat up most of the night, one at least keeping 
watch the whole time with loaded rifle. 

From this place to Moewe Hafen, about 15 miles, 
there were no settlements on the coast, the bush people 
making that part of the coast untenable. We arrived at 
the chief village in Moewe Hafen on the afternoon of 



19 




20 



January 6th, just in time to escape another downpour. 
In this vicinity we remained for three days, visiting the 
different coast villages, and also making two trips to 
two settlements of an interior tribe, which here main- 
tained friendly relations with the coast villages. This 
"hush" people was different, both in language and cus- 
toms, from the hostile tribe to the west. This was 
apparently the first time these people had seen a white 
man. 

I always made it a point to inquire at every place 
what villages existed in the neighborhood, and what 
places I might be able to visit. After several inquiries 
I at last found out from one of the chief men of one of 
the villages near Moewe Hafen, where we had first 
stopped that there did exist a small settlement of bush 
people with whom they had intercourse, and which it 
was possible to visit, as it could be reached in two or 
three hours from his place; so I prevailed upon him to 
go with us, both as guide and interpreter, and especially 
to assure the people of our friendliness, for otherwise 



even if we could find the place, they would all run 
away. 

The following day we set out early, and after row- 
ing across to the mainland, for the village was on an 
island, we left some of the men with the boat; and set 
out with our guide and a few followers, along a rather 
poor trail, for the place we were seeking. After over an 
hour's steady marching, during which we ascended to 
the high plateau along the coast, our guide cautioned 
us to be very quiet, as we were nearing the place. Short- 
ly after, we stopped on the trail and waited in silence 
while he went forward to warn the people of our pres- 
ence and prevent them from running away. After 
about 10 minutes he returned, and told us we could 
proceed. We soon reached a clearing, and after crossing 
a field of taro, were led to a house where we found four 
men waiting for us. They received us in a very friendly 
manner, and I was soon looking round the house, 
which was similar to those on the coast. I soon found an 
object which attracted my attention. It was a slender 
stick of hard wood nearly 3 feet long, pointed at one 
end, and with a bunch of feathers at the other. It 
looked very much like the arrow of a blow-gun, but I 
had never heard of a blow-gun in this region. The blow- 
gun, however, was soon discovered, and one of the na- 
tives kindly illustrated its use, so there could he no 
doubt about it. The tube was about 15 feet long, made 
of 6 pieces of a light bamboo about an inch in diameter. 
I succeeded in obtaining one, and as it was so long as to 
be unwieldy, took it apart in the middle. The joint was 
very carefully made. The end of one piece was inserted 
in the other, which had first been carefully split into a 
number of narrow strips, a tightly wrapped rattan band 



Wrapping mashed taro in leaves for cooking. 

PelilO. 31958 




Making a coconut water bottle. Pelilo. 31963 



preventing the splits from extending more than about 2 
inches. The joint was then wrapped with leaves which 
were covered and held in place with a sticky gum. This 
made the joint perfectly air tight, and over the whole 
was a close wrapping of fine rattan completely covering 
and hiding the leaves, and giving the whole quite a 
neat appearance. All the pieces were evidently joined 
together in the same manner. 

Most of the other things seen about the house 
were much the same as those I had seen before. This 
was the men's house, and as I had seen no other, I asked 
if I could see the family or woman's house. They replied 
that these were a "long way," too far for me to go. I had 
a strong suspicion that this was not the case, but after 
going out and looking around I could see nothing of 
them. One of my boys, however, who had also been 
keeping a look out, told me there was a house just be- 
hind some bushes near by. The chief man of the place 
was close to me, and I asked that he go with me to look 
at the house, as I did not wish to offend them by going 



by myself, when they might imagine I was into mis- 
chief. So we went toward the house, which had a 
covered space in front, where there were several piles of 
taro and a good fire on which a number of taro were 
cooking. 

After looking around here a little, I turned to look 
for my companion, but found that he had suddenly dis- 
appeared. I went around to the other side of the house, 
where there was a door and met one of my boys who 
told me that he had just seen him disappearing into the 
bush, with a number of things which he had taken from 
the house. The boy also showed me a nice ornament 
which the man had just given him, apparently as a 
bribe to let him get away. By this time all the other local 
natives had disappeared too, so the place was deserted 
except for ourselves. Our guide called out to them and 
tried to induce some to return, but in vain. As nothing 
more could be done, we started to return, when two of 
the natives joined us, and said they would accompany 
us to the boats. 



21 




Family house at Amklok. 31933 



22 



On the way one of the natives disappeared for a 
short time, but soon returned with a cockatoo, which 
he said he had shot with his blow-gun. We reached the 
boats in safety, and the 2 natives saw us off. The chief, 
however, was not again seen, tho he had promised to 
come to the boat to get payment for an ornament, 
which I wished to buy, as I did not have with me the 
articles which he wished in exchange. 

I continued to inquire of the coast native if there 
was not another settlement of bush people which I 
could visit, but could hear of none till the next day, in 
another village. I was told of one which I might be able 
to reach, tho it lay at a greater distance, and in an en- 
tirely different direction. I finally found a couple of 
men who said they knew the trail. 

One of them could speak the languages and they 
were willing to accompany me, so the following day we 
set out. We had a long row to reach the place where we 
left the boat, and then a 3 hour march through the 



forest, where in most places my eye could not discover a 
sign of a trail, and even my guides lost it two or three 
times. 

At last we came near to the place, and then came 
the same suspense as before, while our guide went for- 
ward to announce our coming. The wait was longer 
than before, for we were on the edge of extensive taro 
fields, and it took some time to find any one, but at last 
we were told to come on. We crossed one large taro 
field, climbing a very substantial fence on each side, 
erected to keep out the wild pigs. We then crossed a 
small stream, and climbed over a fence into another 
taro field, on the far side of which soon saw a peculiar 
structure. The fence was everywhere else about 5 feet 
high, strongly made of poles laid horizontally on top of 
each other, held in place by upright posts on each side, 
bound to each other with rattan. In front of us, how- 
ever, appeared a peculiar barricade like structure, con- 
tinuous with the fence on each side, at least 10 feet 



Men of Kumbum. 31946 





Men's house at Kauutumate. 31953 



high and 20 feet long, with a small opening or door in 
the center. On passing through this door, the front of 
the house appeared about 20 foot away. The house was 
the same as we had seen before. 

Here also blow-gun and arrows were seen. The 
men were friendly, but I did not inquire for the family 
houses, and they were not to be seen. We were in no 
way prepared to stay over night, even if we had been 
allowed to do so. We had a long journey before us and 
dangerous reefs to pass before we could reach the vil- 
lage where we were stopping, so our visit could not be 
of long duration. We soon were hastening back 
through a pouring rain, and finally reached our stop- 
ping place, just as night closed down. We found that 
the villagers had done their best to prepare us a bounti- 
ful repast, even if in native style, and we were quite 
ready to appreciate it. 

Unfortunately my time was limited as I had to be 
back before the time arrived, so I was unable to see 
more of these interesting and practically unknown 
people. 



23 



Ornamental tree and young coconuts in an enclosure to keep pigs 

OUt. PelilO. 31957 



ERIK con 't from p. 9 



ments states that a man named Thorvald Asvaldsson 
left Norway "along with Erik the Red, his son, because 
of killings they were involved in, and they took posses- 
sion of land in the Hornstrands. They made their home 
at Drangar, where Thorvald died." According to this 
text Erik would have been youthful when he and his 
father migrated to the northwestern sector of Iceland. 
The same source reports that after his father's death, 
Erik married Thjodhild, whose family lived at Hauka- 
dale, a valley at the eastern end of Breidafjord. Erik 
settled near the home of his father-in-law at a locale 
called Eriksstead. These particulars are straightforward 
in this report and are repeated in all of the standard 
accounts about the life of Erik. Notwithstanding, Hall- 
dorsson suggests an alternative as more reasonable. 
Perhaps the father of Erik the Red arrived from Norway 
alone and settled at Breidafjord, where he married and 
where Erik may have been born and reared. Halldors- 
son's reasons for proposing this position are summarized 
in the following paragraph. 

"Erik the Red was the name of a man from Breida- 
fjord," wrote Ari the Learned in his only reference to 
Erik in the Book of Icelanders. For Ari to describe Erik as 
"a man from Breidafjord" is critical evidence about his 
birthplace, according to Halldorsson. The preposition 
"from" suggests that Erik was born at Breidafjord, not in 
Norway. In other instances Ari refers to some persons 
as being from particular regions, and they are known to 
have been born in the localities mentioned. Further- 
more, Ari lived in western Iceland and was well ac- 
quainted with the history of Breidafjord. Another 
point made by Halldorsson is that if Erik had been from 
Norway, as reported in the Book of Settlements, he 
would have been identified by Icelanders as a "Norse 
man" throughout his life. 

A second reason to associate Erik with Breidafjord 
throughout his life is his placement in the 
sequence of information presented in the Book of 
Settlements. The accounts about settlers follow a clock- 
wise pattern around the island beginning in the 
southwest. The entry about Erik the Red is placed with 
those from the Breidafjord area, not with entries for the 
Hornstrands, considerably farther north. 

The third reason is the most compelling one. 
When Erik fought against a descendant of a settler at 
Breidafjord, he had as staunch allies men from other 
families in the area. Since family ties were of over- 
whelming importance among Icelanders at the time, 
this suggests that Erik was born locally and had close 
24 relatives in the region. 



A fourth reason is the possible misidentification of 
Erik with the northwest because of confusion 
concerning the name of his father and his father's 
farm. The man named Thorvald who is associated with 
Drangar in the north may not have been the father of 
Erik. In the Book of Settlements there is mention of 
another Thorvald, one connected with Ingolf the 
Strong, who settled at Breidafjord, and it may have 
been this Thorvald who was Erik's father. Furthermore, 
like numerous place names in Iceland, Drangar is ap- 
plied to more than one locality. There is a Drangar on 
the Hornstrands and also one at Breidafjord. As Erik 
became increasingly famous because of the success of 
the Greenland colony, the text about him in the Book 
of Settlements may have been expanded, and possibly it 
was then that Erik's name was added to the reference 
concerning Thorvald and Drangar in the north. De- 
spite the confusion of the record, Ari's statement in the 
Book of Icelanders that Erik was "a man from Breida- 
fjord" and Halldorsson's arguments supporting this 
interpretation are accepted in the following recon- 
struction of the early years of Erik's life. 

The identification of sites associated with Erik is 
based on verbal tradition as well as on written sources. 
The veracity of this information is impossible to prove 
without extensive archaeological excavations, but it 
can be defended in two ways. First, the record of events 
occurring during Erik's life in Iceland after his marriage 
is considered accurate by historians. Second, con- 
temporary Icelanders have a profound appreciation of 
their past and a keen interest in recounting local tradi- 
tions. This seems especially true of people living on 
isolated farmsteads associated with memorable histor- 
ical events. Farmers at localities identified with Erik 
the Red speak in detail about the significance of partic- 
ular spots associated with him. These people also are 
intimately familiar with published descriptions apply- 
ing to their locality, indicating an interest in history 
that probably has existed since the Middle Ages. The 
following account about Erik's life in Iceland and the 
sites associated with him includes written information 
combined with verbal folk history in what seems to be a 
resonable synthesis. 

During the Age of Settlement a Norse man named 
Thorvald settled in western Iceland on the northern 
coast of Snaefellsness Peninsula, claiming Drangar and 
the adjacent islands, which were especially valued as 
pasture for stock in the summer. His brother Ingolf the 
Strong had claimed and settled the land directly to the 
east. Erik, born about 950, was reared at Drangar and 
about 970 married Thjodhild, the daughter of Thor- 
bjorg Ship-Breast, whose husband at the time was 




In retaliation for the landslide on Valthjof's farm, a relative of Valthjof's 
Eyjolf Saur, killed Erik's slaves, who were responsible for the slide 



These killings occurred at Skeidsbrekkur, near the abandoned sheep 
shed in the foreground. 



Thorbjorn of Haukadale, a valley about twenty miles 
east of Drangar. Erik received land in Haukadale from 
his father-in-law and lived there, at Eriksstead, for 
about five years; Leif presumably was born during this 
time. The ruin identified as Eriksstead, a com- 
paratively small, rectangular remains of a dwelling, was 
excavated repeatedly, but no artifacts were recovered 
in association with the structure. 

While living at Haukadale, Erik became em- 
broiled in a series of conflicts that led ulti- 
mately to the Greenland voyages. The partic- 
ulars are so detailed in the Book of Settlements that it 
seems the writer was intimately familiar with the 
events described. According to his account, the con- 
flict began when Erik's slaves launched a landslide onto 
the farm of a man named Valthjof. Located across the 
valley from Eriksstead, the site of the original farm- 
house at Valthjofsstead still could be identified in 1987 
by the residents of an adjacent farm. The landslide is 
described in the Book 0/ Settlements as being launched 
"onto the farm," which has been interpreted to mean 



onto the farmhouse. However, this source does not 
state that the dwelling itself was struck by the land- 
slide. If the identification of the house site is correct, 
the landslide could not have reached it, since it is far 
from the hills behind. If there was a little actual dam- 
age, Erik may have been angered justifiably by what 
happened next. 

In retaliation for the damage to the farm, Eyjolf 
Saur, a kinsman of Valthjof's, killed Erik's slaves at 
Skeidsbrekkur, near Eriksstead. Erik retaliated by kill- 
ing Saur at his farm, Saurstadir. According to the 
present-day residents of this farm, Erik and Saur fought 
at a grassy spot east of the modern farmhouse. In 
another fight Erik killed Dueller-Hrafn, who lived at 
Leikskalar, another farm in the valley. As a result of 
these killings Erik was banished, apparently at a meet- 
ing of the local assembly. 

Leaving Haukadale, Erik returned to the Drangar 
area in which he had grown up, but with his enemies so 
near at hand he prudently settled on an island, South 
Island, about two miles northwest of Drangar. For a 
year he lived on this island at Tradir, which means a 



25 




After Eyjolf Saur killed Erik's slaves, Erik fought and killed Eyjolf at 
Saurstadir. The killings reportedly took place on the area in the fore- 
ground. This was one of two murders that led to the banishment of It was at Leikskalar, the site of this modern farm, that Erik kill- 
Erik from Haukadale and the first major step in the sequence of ed Dueller-Hrafn. This second killing led to Erik's expulsion from 
events leading to his discovery of Greenland. Haukadale. ■» 



26 





After Erik took his bench-boards back from Thorgest, Thorgest pur- 
sued him, and they fought near Drangar, which takes its name from 
the monolithic rocks in the background. Here two of the sons of 

"path" or "trail, " and in this sector commonly refers to a 
passage through a hayfield. While living there, Erik 
lent his bench-boards to Thorgest, who lived at Breida- 
bolstead, the farm directly east of Drangar. Bench- 
boards seem to have been parts of benches or sleeping 
compartment dividers; in either case they were elabo- 
rately carved and valuable family possessions. This 
loan soon would lead to further conflict. 

It may have been about this time, when Erik was 
friendly with Thorgest, that he built a smithy near the 
eastern boundary of the Drangar farm and within sight 
of Thorgest's home at Breidabolstead. In Iceland, as in 
southern Norway and later in Greenland, iron was 
smelted from the bog iron found on many farms. Bog 
iron is a form of iron ore found in swampy areas where 
rocks containing iron minerals have been exposed to 
long-term weathering. Once smelted the iron could be 
used for tools, weapons, nails, and rivets. The ruin of 
what is reported to have been Erik's smithy is still dis- 
tinctly visible, presumably because the solid ground be- 
neath the foundation has prevented the walls from 
sinking. 

The following year Erik moved to a larger island to 



Thorgest and some other men were killed, which led to Erik's sen- 
tence as an outlaw and his departure from Iceland. 



the north, Oxney, and founded a secord farm called 
Eriksstead. The ruin that long has been identified as 
the remains of Erik's home on this island is on a prom- 
inent rise that overlooks an inlet to the north, the sur- 
rounding islands, the passages between the islands, and 
an expanse of low land on Oxney itself. It is thought by 
local people, as recounted by Johann Jonasson, who 
was born on Oxney, that Erik selected this site because 
of the commanding view of incoming vessels as well as 
overland intruders. The ruins of three boathouses or 
fishermen's shacks belonging to Erik were reported vis- 
ible on the shores of the adjacent inlet, Eriksvogur, 
in 1817, but they could not be found in 1987. 

When living on Oxney, Erik asked Thorgest to 
return the borrowed bench-boards, but to no avail. 
Erik, accompanied by his supporters, went to Breida- 
bolstead and retrieved the boards. Thorgest, his sons, 
and others formed a party that pursued Erik's group, 
and they fought near the farm at Drangar, where two of 
Thorgest's sons and other men were killed. After this 
skirmish Erik and Thorgest kept their allies near at 
hand, but no further fighting is reported. The next epi- 
sode occurred when Thorgest took his grievance to the 



27 




28 



Modern Breidafjord, at the end of a long day in spring, probably 
appeared much the same when Erik the Red left Iceland after being 
banished from there for three years. 

local Thorsness Assembly; here Erik and his men were 
judged outlaws, probably at the level called "lesser out- 
law." In the Icelandic legal system at this time, declar- 
ing a person a lesser outlaw meant he must forfeit his 
property and be banished from Iceland for three years. 
Aided by friends, Erik hid on the island of Dimunar- 
klakkar in northwest Breidafjord until he was ade- 
quately prepared to leave. Of all the islands of Breida- 
fjord this one is the most prominent. Its two striking 
cliffs, or klakkar, are the highest points on any islands in 
the fjord and could have screened Erik's ship as well. As 
Thorgest and his allies searched for him, Erik made 
hasty preparations to sail in the direction of small is- 
lands called the Gunnbjorn Skerries. On a voyage from 
Scandinavia to Iceland about 900, Gunnbjorn re- 
portedly had been driven off course and had sighted 
skerries, or rocky islands, west of Iceland. Whether 
these were islands off the eastern coast of Greenland, a 
mirage, or floating ice is not known. Irrespective of 
what the sightings may have been, lore about them per- 
sisted, and Erik hoped to find them when he sailed out 
of Breidafjord and to the west. 

Erik coursed westward until he sighted the east 
coast of Greenland. He considered the region uninvit- 
ing and sailed on, rounding Cape Farewell and explor- 
ing the fjords in the southwestern sector. Continuing to 
explore during the summers, he wintered at three dif- 
ferent localities before returning to Breidafjord, where 
he stayed with a friend the following winter. Again Erik 



had problems with his old adversary Thorgest, but after 
battling once more, they reconciled their differences. 
Nonetheless, Erik resolved to return to the land he had 
explored and now named "Greenland," hoping to 
induce others to settle there with him. During the sum- 
mer of 985 or 986, according to the traditional 
chronology, numerous settlers sailed off with Erik and 
Leif to colonize Greenland. So ends Erik the Red's life 
in Iceland. For the next thirty years he lived in Green- 
land, where he died about 1015. 

Erik's bloody conflicts in Iceland were compared to 
those of many of his contentious contemporaries, 
but his first sailing was a daring, even a desperate, 
response to the sentence of outlawry. More impor- 
tantly, he explored and settled what was a new world, 
not only to this bold Icelander but to all Europeans at 
that time. It is little wonder that he became the subject 
of a memorable literary work, the Saga of Erik the Red, 
written by Icelanders in medieval times and still pop- 
ular today. FM 



Suggested Readings 

Erik the Red and other Icelandic Sagas, by Gwyn Jones. Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 1980. 

Northern Sphinx, Iceland and the Icelanders from the Settlement to the 
Present, by Sigurdur Magnusson. McGill-Queen's University 
Press, 1977. 



Distilling the Truth 
About Ethanol 



by Larry Dombrowski 



Ethanol has been used as a fuel since the invention of the 
internal combustion engine. Ethanol-blended fuel, which 
consists of 10 percent ethanol and 90 percent gasoline, has 
been used by Americans to travel many billions of miles 
since the fuel was introduced about a decade ago. Despite its 
long history, ethanol remains one of the most controversial 
of all transportation fuels in terms of consumer acceptance, 
economics, and energy security. 

Even though the market share for ethanol blends in 
Iowa is more than 30 percent, there is a substantial number 
of motorists in that state who believe that ethanol blends are 
inferior to straight gasoline. The most common complaints 
include starting problems and engine pinging and knocking. 
In most cases, these problems can be attributed to the clog- 
ging of the fuel filter, which may occur in older vehicles. 
Ethanol is a solvent, cleaning dirt and grime that normally 
accumulates in vehicles using straight gasoline. When these 
residues break loose, they are captured in the vehicle's fuel 
filter. Clogging of the filter prevents the normal flow of fuel 
from being supplied to the engine; thus, problems with start- 
ing or engine pinging may occur. Once the dirty filter has 
been changed, the vehicle may actually experience improve- 
ment in performance, due to a cleaner engine and fuel 
system. 

The Colorado Department of Health recently com- 
pleted a "blind" study on the performance characteristics of 
ethanol blends and gasoline. The study used data collected 
from approximately 2,500 vehicles covering 3.6 million 
miles. The vehicle model years ranged from 1960 to 1987. 
The drivers participating in the study did not know if an 
ethanol blend or straight gasoline was being used in their 
vehicles. The fuels were rotated so that each driver drove 
with both ethanol blends and gasoline in their tanks. Drivers 
were asked to rate driveability, cold starting, engine pinging, 
and general driver satisfaction. Results of the study showed 
that no drivers reported any type of engine damage and 90 
percent of the drivers rated ethanol blends and gasoline as 
equally "satisfactory." 

Consumers are slowly beginning to view ethanol blends 
as a superior fuel. Ethanol has traditionally competed in the 
transportation fuels market as a gasoline extender. Ethanol is 
now being marketed for its value as an octane enhancer. By 



blending 10 percent ethanol with 90 percent gasoline, the 
octane rating of the fuel will be approximately three octane 
points higher than straight gasoline. With many automobile 
manufacturers producing high performance vehicles that 
recommend using higher octane mid-grade or premium 
gasoline, ethanol's demand as an octane booster is 
expanding. 

Ethanol is also gaining support as a fuel which reduces 
air pollution. Ethanol use can help meet certain require- 
ments of the Clean Air Act. The use of ethanol blends sig- 
nificantly reduces carbon monoxide emissions. Carbon 
monoxide is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and poisonous 
gas. More carbon monoxide is emitted into the atmosphere 
each year than any other pollutant. Currently, more than 70 
urban areas in the U.S. fail to meet the Clean Air Act stan- 
dards for carbon monoxide levels established by the Environ- 
mental Protection Agency (EPA). 

A growing number of state and local government agen- 
cies are considering the mandated use of fuels such as ethanol 
to meet EPA's standard for carbon monoxide levels. Tests con- 
ducted by the EPA have shown that ethanol blends reduce 
carbon monoxide emissions in a vehicle by 10 to 30 percent, 
depending on the fuel combustion technology of the vehi- 
cle. The Front Range Area in Colorado, which includes 
Denver, has successfully mandated a program to limit emis- 
sions of carbon monoxide. Ethanol blends play a prominent 
role in Colorado's strategy to improve the environment. 

The benefits achieved by reducing carbon monoxide 
levels with ethanol blends may be somewhat offset by in- 
creases in nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbon emissions. The 
reaction of nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons in the presence 
of sunlight yields ozone. Use of ethanol blends tends to in- 
crease ozone concentrations, which are also limited by the 
Clean Air Act. Ethanol increases the volatility, or the ease 
of which a liquid is converted into a gaseous state, of the base 
gasoline, potentially releasing gases into the atmosphere 



"Distilling the Truth about Ethanol" is reproduced from Iowa Con- 
servationist, with minor emendations. Courtesy Iowa Department 
of Natural Resources. Larry Dombrowski is a research analyst for 
the department's energy bureau. 29 



that increase ozone concentrations. Ozone, however, is a 
summer problem, whereas carbon monoxide is a winter 
problem, allowing seasonal blending of ethanol to reduce 
carbon monoxide emissions without increasing ozone 
problems. 

The ethanol fuel industry was created by a mix of feder- 
al and state subsidies, loan programs, and incentives in re- 
sponse to our desire to become more energy-secure after the 
"energy crisis" of the 1970s. Ethanol production accounts 
only for less than one-tenth of one percent of U.S. energy, 
but ethanol production still has value as one component of a 
total alternative energy package to reduce our dependency 
on imported energy. 

The ethanol industry has been able to grow and com- 
pete with gasoline because ethanol blends are exempt from 
six cents of the federal gasoline excise tax, and in Iowa, for 
example, from one cent of the state gasoline excise tax. 
Since 10 gallons of an ethanol blend has one gallon of etha- 
nol and nine gallons of gasoline, this translates into a direct 
subsidy of 70 cents for every gallon of ethanol sold in Iowa. 
The economic interplay of gasoline and ethanol prices is of 
paramount importance. For example, with today's wholesale 
price of gasoline at 35 cents per gallon ethanol will be a com- 
petitive product up to a price of $1.25 per gallon. Without 
tax exemptions for ethanol, crude oil prices would have to 
increase to at least $40 per barrel, with corn prices below $2 
per bushel, for ethanol producers to survive. Currently, a 
barrel of crude oil is selling for around $16. 

Federal and state gasoline tax exemptions for ethanol- 
blended fuel directly reduce highway trust fund revenues. 
For every gallon of ethanol sold in the U.S., federal highway- 
funds decline by six cents. In 1987, 8.5 billion gallons of 
ethanol blends were sold in the U.S., reducing federal 
revenues by $510 million. 

Since ethanol production reduces both federal and state 
highway funds and has a limited role in energy security, why 
do many national and state policy makers continue to sup- 
port the ethanol industry? As previously discussed, ethanol 
has positive social benefits by helping to reduce certain pol- 
lutants in urban areas. But ethanol production also has posi- 
tive economic benefits. Ethanol production affects both the 
supply and demand for corn. The demand for corn increases 
because ethanol production creates additional markets for 
corn. Increases in demand lead to higher corn prices. 
According to a Purdue University study, the 1985 price of 
corn was 10 cents per bushel higher than it would have been 
without domestic ethanol production. The production of 
ethanol increased the value of Iowa's 1 986 corn crop by $ 1 60 
million. 

Increases in ethanol production decrease federal farm 
program costs by raising corn prices. Expanded corn markets 
created by the ethanol industry can partially substitute for 
more traditional agricultural programs which have relied on 



price supports, supply controls, and grain reserve programs 
to reduce excess domestic supplies. 

Technical and public policy developments will con- 
tinue to strenghten ethanol's role as a fuel in the future. The 
U.S. House of Representatives recently passed a bill which 
contains incentives designed to promote the production and 
use of vehicles that run on alternative fuels. 

The main provision of the bill relaxes the federal gov- 
ernment's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) stan- 
dards. The standards require that the average fuel efficiency 
of all the automobiles produced by a single automaker meet a 
certain level. The current standard is 26 miles per gallon. 
Cars designed to run primarily on methanol, ethanol, or 
compressed natural gas would have CAFE ratings based on the 
amount of gasoline they use. This would mean that a vehicle 
getting 40 miles per gallon on an ethanol blend with a 15 
percent gasoline content would get a CAFE rating of 133 
miles per gallon. 

Another provision of the bill requires that the federal 
government buy as many alternative fuel vehicles as possi- 
ble. Federal agencies would be offered incentives to purchase 
these vehicles. 

The bill would also require that the public be able to 
purchase alternative fuels at selected government facilities. 
This helps to eliminate the "chicken and egg" problem that 
has slowed the introduction of alternative fuel vehicles. 
Consumers are reluctant to buy alternative fuel vehicles 
because it's hard to find fuel for them. Service stations are 
reluctant to stock alternative fuels because there is little de- 
mand for those fuels. 

New applications for ethanol fuels are promising. U.S. 
automakers are now beginning to produce flexible-fuel vehi- 
cles. Flexible-fuel vehicles are capable of running under any 
combination of ethanol or gasoline. These vehicles have an 
optical fuel sensor which determines the percentage of 
ethanol in the fuel and signals a control computer which 
automatically adjusts the fuel injection system and ignition 
timing to compensate for different blends of ethanol and 
gasoline without driver interaction. The flexible-fuel con- 
cept is valuable because it allows for the growth of ethanol- 
capable fleets without imposing unacceptable limits in usa- 
bility or range of the vehicles when ethanol refueling facili- 
ties are not widely available. Thus, if a flexible-fuel vehicle 
were traveling across the state of Iowa, the driver could fill 
up the tank with ethanol in Waterloo and then refill the tank 
with gasoline in Ames without ever having to adjust or mod- 
ify any part of the vehicle. 

The production of ethanol may never reach the ex- 
pectations bestowed upon the industry at its inception in the 
1970s. However, ethanol will continue to be a part of the 
nation's energy picture as we strive to implement renewable 
domestic energy alternatives to replace unstable foreign 
supplies. 



30 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TOURS 1 

Kenya/Tanzania 
Safari 

March 3-23, 1989 
Leader: Audrey Joy Faden 
Price: $6,350 



ITINERARY 

March 3 

Fly from Chicago to London via British Airways. 

March 4 

Fly from London to Nairobi, Kenya. Day rooms 

in London. Evening flight to Nairobi. 

March 5 

Nairobi. City tour. Welcome cocktail party and 

dinner. 

March 6 

Nairobi/Amboseli National Park, justly famous 
for its big game and superb views of Mt. Kil- 
imanjaro. Afternoon lecture by local researcher. 
Late afternoon game drive. 
March 7 

Amboseli National Park. Morning and afternoon 
game drives. Mid-day at leisure to relax at the 
lodge or swim in the pool. 
March 8 

Amboseli National Park/Namanga/Gibb's Farm, 
Tanzania. Cross the border, where we clear 
customs before proceeding into Tanzania to 
Gibb's Farm, where the remainder of day is at 
leisure. 



March 9 

Gibb's Farm/Serengeti National Park. Game 
drives in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area 
and theSerengeti. 
March 10 

Serengeti National Park. Full day exploring this 
vast area. 
March 1 1 

Serengeti National Park/Olduvai/Ngorongoro 
Crater. Visit Olduvai Gorge and the site of Louis 
and Mary Leakey's discovery of Zinjanthropus 
bosei. Continue on to the spectacular Ngoron- 
goro Crater. 
March 12 

Ngorongoro Crater. Full day down in the crater, 
tracking and photographing the animals. 
March 13 

Ngorongoro Crater/Lake Manyara National 
Park. Depart to Lake Manyara Hotel, set in love- 
ly gardens with a swimming pool overlooking 
the park. Optional activities. 
March 14 

Lake Manyara National Park. Morning and 
afternoon game drives, exploring the diversity 
of this park. 
March 15 

Lake Manyara National Park/Namanga, Kenya/ 
Nairobi. Drive back to Arusha for lunch and 
continue on to the Namanga border, clear 
customs and return to Nairobi. 
March 16 

Nairobi/Aberdare National Park/The Ark. This 
morning you proceed into deep forested area 
alive with some of the finest game viewing in 
Kenya. After lunch at Aberdare Country Club 
transfer to The Ark, "berthed" over a waterhole 
where the animals come to drink. From a 
ground-level lounge with large picture win- 
dows, you have an eye-to-eye view of this 
constantly changing scenario. 

March 17 

Aberdare National Park/Samburu Game 
Reserve. This reserve is home to several 
species found only in these northern areas. 



March 18 

Samburu Game Reserve. Your game viewing 

takes you through a variety of landscapes. Bird 

enthusiasts will be well rewarded with over 300 

species, including the martial eagle, in this 

reserve. 

March 19 

Samburu Game Reserve/Mount Kenya 

Nanyuki. Drive to the famous Mt. Kenya Safari 

Club. The grounds cover 1 00 acres of blooming 

flower beds, ponds with water lilies and stands 

of shade trees — a litoral oasis in the middle of 

the African bush. 

March 20 

Mount Kenya Nanyuki/Nairobi/Masai Mara 

Game Reserve. Drive back to Nairobi and after 

lunch depart on the afternoon flight to the 

Masai Mara Game Reserve, where we'll stay 

in a luxury safari camp. 

March 21 

Masai Mara Game Reserve. Enjoy a day 

of game viewing in the Mara, one of the last 

strongholds of the great herds. 

March 22 

Masai Mara Game Reserve/Nairobi. After one 

last game run in the Mara, return to Nairobi by 

air. Remainder of day at leisure. 

March 23 

Nairobi/London/Chicago. Midnight flight to 

London on British Airways. Connect to British 

Airways to Chicago, arriving later the same 

day. 

Antarctica 

Discovering Antarctica, the Strait of Magellan. 
Tierra del Fuego, and Cape Horn aboard the 
llliria under the leadership of Dr. Bruce D. 
Patterson, associate curator and head of the 
Division of Mammals at the Field Museum of 
Natural History. 

February 20-March 7, 1989 

Pre-Cruise Extension 

to Patagonia 
and the Lake District 

February 15-23. 1989 



The Galapagos 

Aboard the m. v. Santa Cruz 

March 3- 14, 1989 

Optional Extension to Peru March 14-20 

Price: $3,550-$3,840 



March 3: Chicago/Miami/Quito. Welcome party and orientation. 
March 4: A full day excursion to the colorful Indian fair of Otavalo. 
March 5: All-day birding excursion up into the mountains outside 

Quito. 
March 6: Fly to Guayaquil and on to Baltra where we board the 

Santa Cruz. 
March 7: Cruising — Bartolome and Tower Islands. 
March 8: Cruising — Isabela and Fernandina Islands. 
March 9: Cruising — North Seymour Island. 
March 10. Cruising — Hood and Floreana Islands. 
March 11: Cruising— Santa Cruz and Plaza Islands. 
March 12: Cruising — James Island. 



March 73: This morning we cruise to Baltra, disembarking to board 

our flight to Guayaquil. Farewell dinner. 
March 14: Return flight to Chicago. 

Join us as we explore one of the world's greatest living laboratories 
of natural history under the leadership of Dr. David E. Willard, col- 
lection manager of the Bird Division of the Field Museum of Natural 
History. The Galapagos Islands — birthplace of Darwin's "Origin 
of Species" — situated 600 miles off the coast of Ecuador, remain 
remote and out of the elements of nature where an abundance of 
strange creatures known nowhere else on earth reside. An optional 
trip to Peru at a cost of $1 ,450 includes visits to the world-famous 
site of Machu Picchu, Lima, and Cuzco. 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



31 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2499 



MISS MARITA MAXEY 
7411 NORTH GREENVIEV 
CHICAGO IL 60&26 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



October 1988 




' 



!** 



I 




**v 



F 




 




'mtmm 



** 



Plan Now for Grand Opening < 
"INSIDE ANCIENT EGYPT" 

Coming November 11 



Mi 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

October 1988 
Volume 59, Number 9 



OCTOBER EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 

UFE AND TIMES OF THE DINOSAURS 

By Dale A. Russell 8 

f 

FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 30 



COVER 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armout 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H. Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarringron 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hattman 
Edward Byron Smirh 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Amateur paleontologist Watie White seems daunted by the two 
bones looming over him. Perhaps he has been told that they 
come from an animal's backbone and he hasn't yet come to terms 
with that idea. The bones are in fact vertebrae from the dinosaur 
Brachiosaunts altithorax, found by Field Museum curator Elmer S. 
Riggs near Grand Junction, Colorado, in 1900. At that time, 
Brachiosaurus, at an estimated 85 tons, was king of the dinosaurs — 
far larger than its better known, 3 5-ton cousin, Apatosaurus 
(a.k.a. Brontosaurus), whose skeleton is the centerpiece of Field 
Museum's Dinosaur Hall. Young Watie had access to the bones 
in a special storage area as son of staff member John White (then 
coordinator of Field Museum's Native American Program). 
Though Watie has grown some since the photo was taken in 
1974, it is unlikely that he is big enough to heft these gigantic 
bones, now turned to stone. For more on dinosaurs see Dr. Rus- 
sell's discussion of them, "Life and Times of the Dinosaurs," be- 
ginning on page 8. Photo by D. Walsten. 



VOLUNTEER AT FIELD MUSEUM 

Learn something new or share your expertise — 
a wide variety of challenging and rewarding 
volunteer opportunities for either weekdays or 
weekends are currently available. Please call 
the Volunteer Coordinator at (312) 922-9410, 
extension 360, for more information. 



Fieid Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright ©1988 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone; (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent ro Membership 
Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. 




ADULT COURSES 

Indian History of the Western Great Lakes 

Tuesdays, 7:00pm-9:00pm 
October 4, 11, 18,25 

The Indian History of the Western Great Lakes series continues through October. Each weekly session may be registered for 
individually. $10/session ($8 members). To register, use the coupon 



□ October 4 

Frontier In Transition (AC88302-B) 
Helen Hombeck Tanner, Historian, 
D'Arcy McNickle Center for the Study 
of the American Indian, Newberry Library 

European Settlement had a powerful influence on the social, 
economic, and political structures of Indian societies. As Euro- 
peans moved down the Ohio River and then northward through 
Ohio and Indiana, they pushed the frontier northward disrupting 
the inner-tribal balance among the Indian communities. The im- 
pact on Indians of the French and Indian War, the American 
Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812 is also discussed. 

□ October 11 

The Black Hawk War and the Removal Period (AC88302-C) 

Nancy O Lurie, Curator of Anthropology, 
Milwaukee Public Museum 

Black Hawks Surrender to American soldiers marked the end 
of Indian-held land in Illinois. It also increased the forced remov- 
al of Indians from the Western Great Lakes territories. Discuss 
the events surrounding the Black Hawk War and its impact as a 
turning point in the political struggles of Indian people. 



□ October 18 

Distilled Knowledge in Indian Legends (AC88302-D) 

Keewaydinoquay, Elder of the Anishnabeg, 
Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Botany, 
University of Michigan 

For Years, scholars have dismissed oral history as an unimpor- 
tant and unreliable source for use in the study of history. But to- 
day, historians, ethnohistorians, and anthropologists are be- 
coming more aware of how oral traditions function as a valuable 
depository of information for the history, culture, and ethics of a 
given society. Once seen as juvenile folktales, the oral history of 
Western Great Lakes Indians is now being recorded and evalu- 
ated for its historical accuracy, literary merit, and most impor- 
tantly, for its spiritual and philosophical meaning for both Indian 
and non-Indian people. 

□ October 25 

Chicago's Indian Community — 1950 to the Present (AC88302-E) 

Dorene Wiese, Dean of Administration, Truman College 

Chicago's Indian Community is one of the largest and most influ- 
ential Indian communities in the United States. Its history and 
growth is typical of what occurred in other large urban centers in 
the midwest. Due to economic factors and to the dubious Re- 
location Program instituted by the Federal Government in the 
1950s, many Indians came to the cities for employment and 
educational opportunities. Discussion focuses on the recent his- 
tory and issues that face Chicago's diverse Indian community. 

Continued £> 



ADULT COURSES 

Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this 
registration application. Adult course advance registrations 
are confirmed by mail. For registrations received less than 
two weeks before the class begins, confirmations are held at 
the West Door on the first night of class. Phone registrations 
are accepted for adult courses using Visa/MasterCard/Amx/ 
Discover. Please call (312) 322-8854 to register. For further 



registration information, consult the September/October 
Adult and Family Program Brochure. 

Return complete registration with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Department of Education, Adult Programs 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



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AFTER HOURS: FILMS AT THE FIELD 

Fridays, October 7- 14 
West Entrance 

Free! 

Two Chinese films are featured in October as Field Museum continues its series of films from around the world. Light fare 
and beverages are available beginning at 4:30pm at the After Hours Cafe. Films begin at 6:00pm. For more information call 
(312)322-8854. 



□ October 7 
"Yellow Earth" 

1984. 94 minutes. Color. China. 
Director: Chen Kaige 
Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles. 
Set in the Steppes of China's northern provinces in the late 
thirties, a young soldier in Mao's army visits a remote village 
as he collects folksongs. In the village he is put in with one of 
the poorest families, a taciturn widower and his teenage 
daughter and son. The daughter is to be sold into marriage 
with a much older man and the soldier's talk of breaking with 
feudal tradition fills her with unrealistic hopes of escape. Yel- 
low Earth is the first film of a new Chinese cinema with its 
roots in Chinese painting and music, and not the formula pro- 
paganda of the last three decades. 

□ October 14 
"Black Cannon Incident" 

1985. 107 minutes. Color. China. 
Director: Huang Jianxin 
Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles. 
Typical of the new direction in Chinese filmmaking, Black 
Cannon deals with subjects and issues not seen before in 
Chinese films. This farce is about a misplaced chess piece. 
And when its owner, a well-educated engineer, attempts to 
find it by sending a telegram, the operator suspects it is a 
secret code, and here the farce begins. 



Yellow Earth 
coming October 7 





EDWARD E. AYER SERIES 



The Edward E. Ayer Lecture Series continues Thursdays through October beginning October 6. 1 :30pm, James Simpson Theatre. 
Lectures are free and refreshments are served. 



□ October 6 
"Chinese Gardens" 

Taimi Anderson, Landscape Architect 

From the Earliest Hunting Parks of the Han Dynasty emperors to 
the elegant Ming Dynasty city gardens, rocks and water are 
essential ingredients in Chinese gardens. Red lacquered col- 
umns, towering rockeries, still pools, and flowers combine to make 
gardens of tranquil beauty. 

□ October 13 

"Inca Myth and History" 

Brian Bauer, Ph.D. Candidate, Anthropology 
Department, University of Chicago 

Inca Myth holds that the first mythical ruler of the Incas, Manco 
Capac, came from a region south of Cuzco, Peru. Recent 
archaeological investigations in the area have uncovered a temple 
and cave complex dedicated to this sacred figure. Look at the 
Inca origin myth and the area's archaeological ruins where myth 
meets history. 



□ October 20 
"Ancient Egypt" 

Frank Yurco, Ph.D. Candidate in Egyptology, 
Department of Near Eastern Languages and 
Civilizations, University of Chicago 

Travel Back to the land of pharaohs and pyramids. Delve into 
Egypt's mysterious and glorious past with a look at ancient reli- 
gion, economy, and politics. Prepare yourself for a visit to Field 
Museum's new exhibit on Ancient Egypt, opening November 1 1 . 

□ October 27 
'Traditional Art of Africa" 

Ramona Austin, Assistant Curator for African Art, 
Department of Africa, Oceania and the Americas, 
The Art Institute of Chicago 

Traditional African Art speaks a rich and varied language. In- 
crease your appreciation by examining representative works. 
Learn to identify recurring symbols and understand the place of 
art in traditional African society. 



WEEKEND PROGRAMS 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and 
films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are some of the numerous activi- 
ties offered each weekend. Check the activity listing upon arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs 
are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Art Council. 

October 

15 12:30pm Surprise Safari 

Trek through the four corners of the Museum to see the seven con- 
tinents. See antiquities from the Amazon, big game from Africa 
and seals from the Arctic. 

22 1 :30pm Tibet Today and Tour of Collection 
See Lhasa and other towns now open to tourist, then take a tour of 
our Tibetan exhibit (slide lecture and tour). 



29 12:30pm Surprise Safari 

Trek through the four corners of the Museum to see the seven con- 
tinents. See antiquities from the Amazon, big game from Africa 
and seals from the Arctic. 

These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets are 
not required. 




No Easy Roses 

A Look at the Lives of 
City Teenagers 



Opens Saturday, Oct. 22 
Closes Sunday, Nov. 27 



"NO EASY ROSES: A Look at the Lives of City Teenagers" features photography and 
video by Olive Pierce, a high school teacher in Cambridge, Massachusetts during the 
late 1970s. Pierce set out with a camera and tape recorder, roaming the hallways, locker 
rooms, and social events that constitute the "world of school." Her photography captures 
the "hidden places" that exist in all schools and reflects many of the emotional dramas 
that characterize adolescence. The exhibit was developed in conjunction with Pierce's 
book, also titled "No Easy Roses." She hopes her work will carry adult viewers back to 
their own adolescence and provide additional understanding of this age group. 



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"Glynis and Natasha" 

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Dark Lady Dreaming 



"The Power of Women" 

Quilt by Amy Cordova 




QUILTS and DRAWINGS by AMY CORDOVA 



Closes Sunday, Nov. 13 



MODERN "quilt paintings" and oil pastel drawings are featured in this unusual, vibrant 
collection of work by Amy Cordova. While some of Ms. Cordova's quilts represent tradi- 
tional Amish patterns and designs, others incorporate original images that confront 
important human issues. The drawings depict some of life's ironies with explosive energy 
and a witty, abstract quality. Both the quilts and drawings flaunt a spectrum of brilliant 
colors such as magenta, peacock blue, and deep, rich green. Ms. Cordova views herself as 
a visionary and dreamer, committed to telling the truth and celebrating life all along the way. 



Life and Times of the 



Dinosaurs 

How did they live? 
Why did they disappear? 



by Dale A. Russell 




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Painting of the dinosaur Stegosaurus as it may have ap- 
peared in its natural habitat, by Charles R. Knight. This 
painting and 27 others by Knight are on view as murals in 
Hall 38 (Hall of Dinosaurs). They were executed between 
1 927 and 1 931 . See pages 1 2 and 20 for other Knight 
murals. CK&3225 






4f 



1 









The Age of Reptiles Began with the Triassic 
period, about 250 million years ago, when a great 
variety of reptiles that resembled bizarre croco- 
diles or reptiles possessing a peculiar mixture of rep- 
tilian and mammalian characteristics were abundant 
on all of the continents. We call the former "false croco- 
diles" and the latter "mammal-like reptiles." Even 
where dinosaurs are known to occur in Triassic strata 
their remains are usually very rare. Dinosaurs became 
extinct at the end of the Cretaceous Period 65 million 
years ago. But their extinction didn't quite bring the 
age of reptiles to a close. Crocodiles, turtles, and the 
extinct gavial-like champsosaurs were the largest ani- 
mals on land for several millions of years more, before 
some of the surviving mammals became large. 

What did an ancestral dinosaur look like? They 
were small crocodile- like animals which differed from 
other so-called "false crocodiles" in having a bird-like 
ankle joint, in having more than two elements, or ver- 
tebrae, in their backbone supporting their hips, and in 
their manner of walking upright on their two hind 
limbs. The two basic types of dinosaurs, those with 
bird-like hips and those with lizard-like hips, appeared 
at about the same time. Although the earliest known 
dinosaurs weighed no more than a kilogram, within a 
few million years relatively large dinosaurs had 
evolved. 

The dinosaurs, became dominant animals on land 
more or less accidentally about 210 million years ago, 
after a major extinction even wiped out the false croco- 
diles and mammal-like reptiles. Lizard-hipped dino- 
saurs rapidly gave rise to two major evolutionary 
streams, one becoming the brontosaurs and the other 
the carnivorous dinosaurs and perhaps later the birds. 
Bird-hipped dinosaurs also diversified, then underwent 
a second major diversification when flowering plants 
spread over the planet in early Cretaceous time. During 
the dinosaurian era a gigantic super continent ruptured 
and the separate continental blocks slowly drifted 
apart. A globally uniform dinosaurian fauna was also 
separated into more or less distinct continental units 



"Life and Times of the Dinosaurs" is adapted from "The Dinosaur 
and the Pollen Grain: A Case for Parallel Evolution," a paper deliv- 
ered by Dale A. Russell at the Sixth International Palynological 
Conference in Calgary, Alberta, August 1984. Dr. Russell is curator 
of fossil vertebrates at the Museum of Natural Sciences, National 
Museums of Canada, Ottawa. At the time of this publication he 
was on an expedition to Mongolia. He has a book on the dinosaurs 
10 of North America in preparation. 



which were inhabited by special dinosaurian faunas, 
just as when the dinosaurs were gone mammals sepa- 
rated into the distinctive faunas of Africa, South 
America, and Australia. 

There is quite a bit of mystery in this history. For 
example, the false crocodiles seem to have disappeared 
in a brief, worldwide mass extinction similar to the one 
that later eliminated the dinosaurs. How was it that 
mass extinctions could first bring dinosaurs to world- 
wide dominance, then to worldwide destruction? 

The Triassic fauna of the "false crocodiles" was 
dominated by four-legged animals. So is the modern 
mammalian fauna. It would have been easier to predict 
the body shapes of modern land animals from the 
shapes of Triassic land animals than from those of dino- 
saurs. And most of the work on ancestor-descendant 
relationships in vertebrates is based on Triassic and 
Cenozoic animals, with the funny-looking dinosaurs 
more or less locked in the closet. Or their skeletons are 
placed on display as something like freaks of nature. 
Was the dinosaurian era really an odd period in the 
history of land animals? 



Why were dinosaurs so large? Being large cer- 
tainly provides protection from hostile 
neighbors. It also provides protection from 
rapid changes in temperature. So far as we know all 
dinosaurs had naked skins. But in spite of this, the 
buildup of heat in the bodies of a big animal, even a 
giant turtle, effectively makes it warm-blooded. A big 
animal can retain its body heat during cool nights or 
rainy days. The colossal size of brontosaurs may have 
allowed them to feed on low-quality plant food. Rel- 
atively little heat would be given off in the process of 
digestion. It might have been dangerous for them to 
feed on rich or finely chopped-up food. Bacteria in 
their intestines would have shed heat and gas more 
rapidly in the process of digestion. Just imagine a bron- 
tosaur with gas problems. It would bloat the way that 
cows do when they feed on rich, young alfalfa shoots in 
the spring. Plant-eating dinosaurs with well-developed 
grinding teeth, such as duckbilled dinosaurs and 
horned dinosaurs, were smaller than the brontosaurs. 
Perhaps they had to be smaller so that they could get rid 
of the heat generated by the finely chopped-up food. 
The chewing dinosaurs were seldom larger than mod- 
ern elephants and were never as large as some giant 
extinct rhinos. The rich food of the flesh-eating dino- 
saurs may have also prevented them from ever being 
much larger than elephants. You can see that size and 




William F. Simpson, chief preparator of fossil vertebrates, shown in 1980 with Antarctosaurus femur. Simpson was reassembling the 
740-lb. bone, discovered in Argentina in 1924 in four pieces. On wall behind Simpson may be seen similar photo of earlier preparator, 
John B. Abbott, as he worked on same bone in 1926. Antarctosaurus lived some 70 million years ago. 



11 




Charles R. Knight mural (in Hall 38) showing (I. to r.) corythosaurs. ankylosaur (with spikes), and anatosaurs. ck?4806 



12 



heat-retention problems are related. Big people suffer 
more when it's hot. Most dinosaurs were larger than 
most mammals because their metabolic rates were 
lower, and they didn't have to shed so much body heat. 

The time of origin of flowering plants coincides 
with a major dinosaurian faunal change in the North- 
ern Hemisphere. The most ancient flowering plants 
were evidently branching bushes that could easily re- 
pair damage caused by browsing animals. Did browsing 
dinosaurs destroy the saplings of trees so that the 
flowering bushes could spread into the old conifer 
forests? Or did the flowering bushes provide food for 
the browsing dinosaurs, thereby allowing the dinosaurs 
to flourish and diversify? Which came first, the bush- 
browsing dinosaurs or the plants on which they fed? 

Dinosaurs have not been carefully studied for evi- 
dence of evolution. This may be partly because the 
dinosaurian era was a rather unusual period in the his- 
tory of life on earth, and partly because it's hard work to 
collect, store, and study the skeletons. Usually dino- 



saurs are considered to have been a somewhat con- 
servative group of organisms, and dinosaurs from a 
variety of different times have a tendency to be seen 
together in painted reconstructions of landscapes and 
in science fiction novels. If dinosaurs did inhabit the 
earth for 150 million years and really showed no evi- 
dence of evolution, they would have been very peculiar 
animals. 

Dinosaurs were able to attain a respectable degree 
of what we might call skeletal finesse during the time 
they were on earth. Skeletal finesse means perfection 
of skeletal design from an engineering point of view. 
The combinations of skeletal parts often seem a bit 
odd. This is partly because primitive dinosaurs ran on 
their hind legs and only some of the later dinosaurs 
habitually walked on all fours. If you can imagine birds 
becoming flightless and re-adapting their wings for use 
on the ground, it might give you some idea of the evo- 
lutionary problems early dinosaurs had to solve. In 
spite of their bipedal ancestors, however, many dino- 






**f 








saurs put their parts together in ways that rather closely 
resembled some living or recently extinct mammals. 
Resemblances also occur between unrelated dinosaurs 
living on different continents. The differences and 
similarities were probably comparable to differences 
and similarities between mammals living on different 
continents today. These phenomena are called mosaic 
and convergent evolution by paleontologists. They 
suggest that adaptive finesse does not happen by acci- 
dent. It is selected for because finesse is more than ordi- 
narily useful in the struggle for existence. In this sense 
evolution is a deterministic, not a random process. 

About 140 million years ago, during late Jurassic 
time, relatively well-studied dinosaur faunas from Chi- 
na, Tanzania, and the United States resembled each 
other rather closely, both in the basic kinds of dinosaurs 
present and in the relative abundance of each kind. 
During the following Cretaceous Period the effects of 
continental drift and a cooling of the poles become ob- 
vious. This is very well documented in the pollen and 



spore record. What is known of the dinosaurian record 
seems to show the same kind of continental and latitu- 
dinal effects. It might be interesting to explore how 
dinosaurs and plants were affected by geography during 
late Cretaceous time, about 75 million years ago. 

In Dinosaur Park, some 200 kilometers east of 
Calgary, Alberta, more skeletons of more different 
kinds of dinosaurs have been excavated than in any 
other place on earth. It is a very productive site and 
very scenic. Those of us who have worked in the park 
are spoiled by the wealth of fossil material that weath- 
ers out in the badlands. From a study of the distribution 
of the dinosaur skeletons, we have detected a large, 
east-west change in the abundance of different kinds of 
dinosaurs. Small dinosaurs that probably preferred 
dense plant growth for cover are more abundant in the 
west, and large dinosaurs that probably preferred more 
open, park-like environments are more abundant in 
the east. The change takes place within a distance of 
about 20 kilometers. We sampled the sediments in 



13 




Apatosaurus excelsus skeleton as it appeared in Field Museum in 1908 (Jackson Park building). The skeleton has long since been 
completed, using bones from several individuals, and is now the centerpiece of Hall 38. Formerly known as Brontosaurus. 26576 



14 



which the dinosaur skeletons were buried to see if the 
fossil pollen and spores showed a similar change in the 
kinds of plants that were living with the dinosaurs. We 
found instead that there was no east-west change in the 
wind-blown pollen and spores. We suspected that this 
was because it was easier to mix the microfossils by 
wind and water than it was to mix dinosaur skeletons. 
The skeletons were much, much heavier and resisted 
transport. All things being equal, then, small-scale 
ecological changes might be easier to detect by study- 
ing dinosaur skeletons than by studying pollen grains. 
Over greater distances the general scarceness of 



dinosaur skeletons and economics of collecting them 
give vastly greater significance to data based on the 
study of fossil pollen grains. We suspect, for example, 
that horned dinosaurs were either absent or rare in east- 
ern North America. We know that they were abundant 
and represented by many different varieties in the west. 
The fossil pollens clearly show that eastern and western 
North America at that time belonged to two distinct 
floral provinces — known to specialists as the Aquila- 
pollenites and the Normapolles provinces. Climates 
along the east coast might have been drier than in the 
west. 



Elmer S. Riggs, distinguished paleontologist who served Field Museum from 1898 until 1942. Riggs and his assistants were respons- 
ible for collecting a major portion of the Museums paleontological material, a collection which ranks with the largest and most 
important in the world. Among his finds was Brachiosaurus, discovered in Colorado in 1900. 0132 




15 




16 



Everyone knows what the giant horned dinosaur 
triceratops looked like — it's one of the most popular of 
dinosaurs, and a life-sized model has been placed in 
front of the U.S. Natural History Museum in Washing- 
ton, D.C. for kids to climb on. Not everyone knows 
that the biggest, meanest specimens of triceratops lived 
in Alberta. The farther south you go the smaller the 
triceratops specimens become, and none occur south of 
Denver. A brontosaur called Alamosaurus begins to 
occur at about this latitude and it remains the domi- 
nant large dinosaur south to at least the Rio Grande. 
Pollen data show a similar change in the north-to- 
south distribution of ancient plants. 

It is interesting that we seem to be finding some 
evidence of a late Cretaceous Rocky Mountain Prov- 
ince. In the past there were some indications that 
armored dinosaurs, of the kind with tail clubs, and 
small parrot-pig- like dinosaurs related to the horned 
dinosaurs might be more abundant west of the high 
plains — or west of what was then a coastal plain be- 
tween the interior sea and the mountains. An inland 
ecology is also suggested by a peculiar duckbilled dino- 
saur and spectacular dinosaur nesting sites which were 



Shown here are two of the most formidable sea-going reptiles 
that were contemporary with their terrestrial cousins, the dino- 
saurs. Both specimens are to be seen in Hall 38. The mosasaur 
(above) was abundant in inland seas of North America during the 
latter part of the Cretaceous Period (about 80 to 65 million years 
ago). A particularly interesting feature of the mosasaur was the 
mid-length joint in the lower jaw. enabling it to eat very large prey. 
Some specimens of the species shown here, Tylosaurus dyspe- 
lor, exceeded 30 feet in length. Collected in Kansas in 1928. 79e?8 





recently discovered in western Montana. At other 
localities isolated bones can tentatively be identified as 
belonging to iguanodonts- — the upright, slothlike 
dinosaurs that are so well represented in the Wealden 
of England and Belgium. 

The dinosaurs of eastern Asia were special too. 
Some were virtually identical to dinosaurs from Alber- 
ta. These include small raptorial carnivores with eagle- 
like claws: ostrich dinosaurs, tyrannosaurs, duckbilled 
dinosaurs, and armored dinosaurs with tail clubs. Then 
there are others — giant ostrich dinosaurs with huge 
claws, archaic lizard-hipped bipeds that look like they 
belonged to a dim, dinosaurian past of 100 million years 
earlier, and highly evolved, fancy high-tailed bronto- 
saurs. They look like a Cretaceous Star Wars delega- 
tion to us. Because of the mixture of familiar and 
strange faces, it's likely that the dinosaurs from eastern 
Asia belonged to the same general faunal province, but 
were typical of a drier, more continental environment. 
There is abundant evidence of seasonal aridity and 
wind-blown sand in eastern Asia at that time. Further 
to the west, in the lands bordering the Caspian and 
Aral seas, the few remains of dinosaurs that have been 
collected usually belong to duckbilled dinosaurs, which 
look pretty much like skeletons from Alberta. How- 
ever, a warning flag is up; the fossil pollen grains indi- 



The ichthyosaur (below) lived about 225 million to 65 million 
years ago and, like the mosasaur, sometimes grew to more than 
30 feet. Both reptiles appear to have become extinct at about the 
same time as the dinosaurs. This specimen, Ichthyosaurus com- 
munis, was collected near Lyme regis, England. iei?i 




18 



cate that the dinosaurs occur in a plant province differ- 
ent from the one in eastern Asia and western North 
America. Unusual dinosaurs may yet turn up. Finally, 
there are the dwarf dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous 
islands of Europe. We need to know more about them. 
The islands were then a part of the Normapolles pollen 
province, which extended beyond a narrower Atlantic 
Ocean all the way to the arid east coast of North 
America. 



We have already commented on the fact that 
during Cretaceous time the dinosaurs of the 
Southern Hemisphere may not have been 
closely related to those in the Northern Hemisphere. 
Some of the skeletal similarities we saw are probably 
the result of convergent evolution, and not a close rela- 
tionship or mixing of northern and southern faunas. 
Dinosaurs may have decreased in body size as the Cre- 
taceous equator was approached. Not very many speci- 
mens of tropical dinosaurs have been collected, not all 
of them belong to small animals, and statistical analy- 
ses have not yet been carried out. However, I am 
impressed with the relatively small size of most of the 
bones I have seen, and how often the bigger dinosaurs 
that did live in the tropics had long, sail-like fins on 
their backs. It looks like they had surface-volume 
problems in hot climates and had to evolve some way of 
getting rid of excess heat. Interestingly, some of the 
equatorial crocodiles were giants. They may have been 
protected by the thermal inertia of lakes and streams 
they inhabited. Students of fossil pollen tell us that 
equatorial floras were distinct, and dominated by palms 
and by plants that were able to withstand dry con- 
ditions. 

On the other side of the equator the palms merge 
into southern floras dominated by flat-needled, non- 
flowering trees and primitive southern beech trees. 
The northern world of bird-hipped dinosaurs also gave 
way to a southern world dominated by lizard-hipped 
dinosaurs. Southern Cretaceous dinosaurs have an 
archaic, Jurassic flavor. Giant brontosaurs dominated 
southern temperate zone faunas from Argentina, South 
Africa, and India. Stegosaurs, or the plated dinosaurs, 
so typical of late Jurassic fuanas of the Northern Hem- 
isphere, survived until the middle Cretaceous of South 
Africa and the late Cretaceous of India. 

If dinosaurs were not terribly unlike mammals in 
their body shapes and in their biogeography, what hap- 
pened to the "lost world" of the Mesozoic? In the first 
place, I think everyone would agree that dinosaurs 



were not identical to mammals, and we'll look at the 
implications of this later. In the second place, there 
may have been some funny things about the earth 
as it used to be when the dinosaurs were alive. We 
should look at how dinosaurs interfaced with their 
environments. 

In many dinosaurs the pupil of the eye was sur- 
•rounded by a bony ring. Tiny muscles were attached to 
this ring. They changed the shape of the lens so that 
the dinosaur could focus on objects which were either 
close or far away. This bony ring has often been pre- 
served in the fossil record. The diameter of outer edge 
of the bony ring gives a minimum diameter of the eye- 
ball of the dinosaur. 

Dinosaur eyes come in a variety of sizes, which in 
itself is food for thought. For example, one dinosaur 
with relatively small eyes has been found in fossil desert 
sand dunes. Maybe it preferred to be active in the 
desert during the daytime. Duckbilled dinosaurs had 
relatively enormous eyes — did they like to feed in the 
moonlight? Be that as it may, the diameter of the aver- 
age dinosaur eye was one and one-half times the aver- 
age diameter of the eye in living mammals. The size of 
the eye was also relatively enormous in marine reptiles 
living during the dinosaurian era. Animals generally 
increase the size of their eyes in order to increase the 
sharpness of their vision during the daytime or to in- 
crease the amount of light that can pass through their 
pupils at nighttime. Was the dinosaur eye somehow in- 
ferior to that of mammals, or were they normally active 
under what for us would be less than fully illuminated 
conditions? 



People who study fossil pollen and spores also 
look at diameters. Just for fun, I plotted the 
diameter for 1,116 species of wind-dispersed 
pollen and spores belonging to three different basic 
shapes against geologic time. In all three cases there 
was a statistically significant decrease in the diameter 
of the pollen and spores toward the present. In other 
words, the mean diameter of the pollen and spore 
grains has decreased to about 40 percent of the mean 
diameter as it was some 400 million years ago. Of 
course, smaller grains are carried further by the wind 
than larger grains. This data can be interpreted in at 
least two ways. One: selection for smaller grain size has 



Protoceratops andrewsi, the earliest and most primitive of the 
ceratopsians. or horned dinosaurs. On view in Hall 38. ei449-> 




Charles R. Knight mural depicting how Protoceratops andrewsi may have appeared in life (skeleton shown on previous page).cK5905o 



20 



produced relatively tiny grains that compete better 
with large, clumsy grains in the struggle for existence. 
We can call this theory the genetic theory. Or two: the 
density of the atmosphere has slowly declined over the 
last 400 million years and in order for a grain to main- 
tain its aerodynamic fitness its diameter had to de- 
crease. We can call this theory the environmental 
theory. Which was more important, genetics or 
environment? If it was genetics, we have evidence of a 
long-term trend that is eminently predictable. This is 
deterministic evolution. If environment was more 
important, here is evidence of a gradual but major 
change in the nature of the planetary atmosphere. 

Dinosaurs can get you into trouble too. Over the 
last few years several of us have assembled data which 
relates the circumference of limb bones, or more speci- 
fically the circumference of the upper arm and upper 
leg bones, to body weight in living mammals. We did 
this in order to estimate quantitatively the weights of 



extinct creatures such as dinosaurs. We calculated a 
precise mathematical relationship which worked very 
well with North American bison and African giraffes 
and even with Australian lizards, and lots of other 
animals as well. We used our formula to calculate a live 
weight — about 40 metric tons — of a brontosaur whose 
skeleton is on view at Pittsburgh's Carnegie Museum. 
To confirm the calculated weight we carefully sculpted 
a scale model of the brontosaur based on the Carnegie 
skeleton. We took it to a hydraulics laboratory, and 
after a series of repeated immersions to measure the 
model's volume, we found that the weight of the living 
animal was about 20 metric tons — half as heavy as the 
bones indicated it should be. Again, the data can be 
interpreted in at least two ways. One: there are many 
uncertainties in the equation and in the model. We can 
call this theory the theory of minimum astonishment. 
Or two: maybe the force of gravity at the surface of the 
earth was a bit stronger 140 million years ago. 



The nearest to a compromise between a pollen 
grain and a dinosaur skeleton might be the 
skeleton of a flying reptile. Like all compromises, 
it could jar the sensibilities of some. However, flying 
reptiles did float in the air and they did look something 
like a dinosaur. An engineer at the National Research 
Council in Ottawa, Canada and I spent more than a 
year trying to calculate the density of the atmosphere 
during the dinosaurian era, based on the estimated 
flight characteristics of birds, bats, and flying reptiles. 
The effects of various uncertainties prevented us from 
coming to any conclusions — animals can change their 
shapes at will and pollen grains cannot. Out of our in- 
vestigation we were able to salvage only one fact. Rela- 
tive to body weight, which was very carefully estimated 
by two independent researchers, the hind leg in one 
flying reptile with a wingspan of 7 meters (23 feet) was 
built as strongly as it is in small living hawks that dive 
on their prey. Technically speaking, the cantilever 
strength of the femur in the flying reptile was about one 
and one-half times the strength it would be in a modern 
flying bird with the same body weight. It's hard to 
understand why such a lightly constructed animal 
would have landing gear that were so strong. 

If the density of the atmosphere at ground level 
during the latter part of the dinosaurian era (some 70 to 
100 million years ago) is not known with precision, 
neither is the composition of the atmosphere. Studies 
of fossil carbon residues may indicate a larger amount of 
oxygen in the atmosphere, and from four to ten times as 
much carbon dioxide. We have all read about the 
warming effect of carbon dioxide, and this may be a 
very important factor in warming the polar regions dur- 
ing the dinosaurian era. We know that carbon dioxide 
was depleted in the atmosphere during the recent ice 
ages. These lower concentrations of carbon dioxide 
may have caused some plants, such as various photo- 
synthetically efficient grasses, to spread at the expense 
of less photosynthetically efficient forests. Would in- 
creased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide 
during the dinosaurian era have stimulated more rapid 
plant growth? Or were the dinosaurian age plants, on 
the whole, less efficient than modern plants? The 
amount of food that plants could produce would have 
directly controlled the density of dinosaur populations. 

How much richer the world would be if our wild- 
life reserves and zoos still had dinosaurs in them! But 
consider the glory that once was this ancient saurian 
empire. Surely its gradual disintegration through a 
million years or more must have been a saddening, 
mellowing, but somehow gloriously gratifying saga. 



Consider what rewards would await the explorer 
paleontologist in late Cretaceous time. A few great 
clumsy stragglers plow on toward a new world that has 
no place for them. Around the old and outmoded 
giants swarm lean and aggressive mammals and birds, 
stealing the food from their very mouths. Dinosaurian 
age pollen grains slowly settle to the ground, their ela- 
ters broken, their bladders punctured. High overhead 
soar the small, new, and smooth grains, on toward the 
new frontier. 



U 



nfortunately, I have besmirched my credentials 
by supporting theories that the dinosaurs were 
suddenly exterminated in an extraterrestrially 
provoked, planetary-wide disaster of stupendous pro- 
portions. I have thereby dabbled in the witches' brew 
of unrestrained catastrophism. Fortunately, with these 
views, I am nearly alone among my colleagues who 
study dinosaurs. Of the thirty-odd researchers so 
engaged in North America, fully half of them have 
battled in print on the side of a gradual decline of the 
dinosaurs before their extinction. Most of the rest are 
non-combatants. About three have recently shown an 
unhealthy interest in theories about catastrophism, 
and one I suspect has egged me on in a supportive way 
for several years. Let me first explain why I am a here- 
tic. Then, because of the offense I have thereby com- 
mitted against symmetry and integrity, let me try to 
replace the noble edifice with a new one. And in expia- 
tion for some of my sins, I admit that perhaps a quasi- 
dinosaurian era has indeed been gradually replaced by a 
more modern quasi-mammalian era on some other 
planet in the galaxy. 

How does one dare to think that dinosaurs might 
not have gradually become extinct? From an evolu- 
tionary point of view we have seen that dinosaurs were 
dynamic, not static creatures. They did evolve. Their 
skeletons became more complicated through time. 
Because of general trends in size from giant brontosaurs 
to smaller-sized chewing dinosaurs to the small carni- 
vores that gave rise to the birds, it seems likely that on 
the average, metabolic rates increased in dinosaurs 
through time. They were becoming warm-blooded. By 
late in the dinosaurian era, in several lines of small car- 
nivorous dinosaurs the brain was approaching the size 
of the brain in some living mammals. Anatomically, 
dinosaurs were not archaic, overspecialized anomalies 
clumping about during the closing years of the dino- 
saurian era. They were plastic, progressive animals 
near the cutting edge of evolution. 



21 




Skull of the dinosaur Albertosaurus (formerly named Gorgosaurus), on view in Stanley Field Hall since 1956.81592 



22 



It isn't easy to find dinosaur remains more or less 
on demand, and it is difficult to precisely date strata 
which were deposited about 65 million years ago, when 
dinosaurs vanished from the earth. For example, the 
final subdivision of Cretaceous time, known to special- 
ists as the Maastrichtian Age, lasted from 73 to 65 mil- 
lion years ago, or for about 8 million years. Dinosaurs 
are known to have inhabited North and South Amer- 



ica, Europe, Asia, and the African and Australasian 
regions during this time. We cannot demonstrate, for 
example, that they became extinct first in Asia, then 
in Europe, and so on. It is not possible to see a geo- 
graphic pattern in the extinction of the dinosaurs. 
However, no dinosaur was known to have been alive 
during the next interval of 5 million years, known to 
specialists as the Danian age. 




The best record of the number of different kinds of 
dinosaurs that were alive throughout the dinosaurian 
era is from North America. This record suggests that 
the number increased up to the very end. A fossil field 
near Montana's Fort Peck Reservoir is becoming a bat- 
tlefield in the debate on the extinction of the dino- 
saurs. The debate concerns whether or not dinosaur 
bones are gradually decreasing in abundance in sedi- 



ments that were accumulating during the final few tens 
of thousands of years of the dinosaurian era. Evidently 
Mother Nature played a trick on us so that the last sedi- 
ments to be deposited at the very end of the age of 
dinosaurs are often covered with grass and sagebrush. 
We can't find the dinosaur bones in them because we 
can't see them. And in the places where these sedi- 
ments are exposed they have often been mixed by 
ancient rivers with sediments deposited immediately 
after the dinosaurs died. No convincing case for a grad- 
ual extinction of the dinosaurs has been made here 
either. 

Other paleontologists who study different kinds of 
fossils have also come to a variety of conclusions about 
what happened to various groups of organisms when 
the dinosaurs died. A few years ago I estimated, per- 
haps incorrectly, that as many as three-quarters of all of 
the species living on our planet disappeared with the 
dinosaurs. The plants growing on the land also 
changed in interesting ways. Fossil pollen and spores 
have been extremely useful guides to finding the level 
in the strata where the great extinction occurred. Ex- 
actly at this level in many localities in the high plains of 
the United States and Canada a very peculiar clay has 
been found. The same clay has also been found in sedi- 
ments which were laid down beneath the seas around 
the world. For me, the clay is a vital clue to the mystery 
of the extinction of the dinosaurs. This clay is made of 
extraterrestrial material, and provides strong evidence 
that the dinosaurs died in a disaster that came to us 
from space. 

The asteroid theory, widely reported in the press 
and widely debated in scientific circles, proposes that 
an asteroid struck the earth, creating a blast equal to 
the force of half a million gigantic nuclear explosions. 
Vaporized rock would be blown around the world, and 
condense as fine particles of dust high in the atmos- 
phere. Computer models suggest that light from the 
sun would not reach the surface of the earth for several 
months. Ground temperatures would fall all over the 
world to near the freezing point or below, and the rain 
would be polluted with acid. The dust would finally fall 
out of the atmosphere and form the clay layer that is 
found around the world. 

There are some odd things about the extinction. 
It's hard to understand why the small dinosaurs with 
large brains became extinct, while many different 
kinds of mammals survived. There were very few ex- 
tinctions among the animals and plants that lived in 
freshwater streams and lakes. As already noted, water- 
dwelling reptiles continued to be the largest animals in 



23 



continental environments for many years. Some birds 
evolved into large, vicious-looking ground predators. 
However, small mouselike mammals rapidly became 
more numerous and within a few million years some of 
them grew to fairly respectable sizes. 

Several other great or "mass" extinctions have 
occurred during the history of life on earth. Some re- 
searchers think that the mass extinctions may have 
greatly accelerated evolution by breaking up stable eco- 



Right, and on facing 
page, stages in 
assembling the 
skeleton ot Alberto- 
saurus, a task which 
required two years 
(1954-56) and the in- 
volvement of several 
staff members. Orville 
"Gilly" Gilpin, then 
chief preparator of 
fossils, is shown posi- 
tioning the pelvic 
bones. William D. 
Turnbull, who recently 
retired as curator of 
fossil mammals 
(standing), is shown 
with assistant as they 
position the 200-lb. 

Skull. 81565(lelt) 81569(nghl) 



the world at the same time. 

There is a tendency for evolution to speed up 
through time. The rate of the speed-up seems to be 
about proportional to the evolutionary level already 
achieved. It works like compound interest rates. 
Things are slow in the beginning but they really perk up 
later on. Think of how in the dim past carbon and 
hydrogen atoms- combined to form the genetic code, 
and how this made inheritance possible in the first 




24 



logical formations and allowing new animals and plants 
to become dominant. In other words, the more numer- 
ous the extinctions, the more rapid the evolution. I 
doubt that this is so. Evolution is classically thought to 
be the result of a struggle for existence between organ- 
isms living in a relatively stable physical environment. 
A mass extinction, like the one that took place when 
the dinosaurs died, occurs when the set of physical con- 
ditions is rapidly and very dramatically altered all over 



place. Students of biology can appreciate the enormous 
possibilities that opened up when primitive cells fused 
together to form advanced, neucleated cells, or when 
long ago fungi combined with marine algae to form 
plants that could live on land. 

Most of us would agree that life has made some 
progress on our planet since the age of the jellyfish 
more than half a billion years ago. It might be difficult 
to describe what progress is, either with words or with 



numbers, but intuitively it is not difficult to suspect 
that progress has been made. In this sense, then, evolu- 
tion can be thought of as a fairly positive process. It 
seems to me there has also been a pattern of change 
from relative simplicity to greater complexity. Many 
examples can be cited. That patterns might exist in 
evolution shouldn't seem astonishing. It might have 
been suspected from the presence of patterns that have 
been discovered in other branches of science. Why 



ary philosophy that deplores directionism, determin- 
ism, gradualism, and adaptationism as valid biological 
concepts. You are right. I do think these concepts have 
some validity. And I want to encourage you to consider 
them in your thinking as well. 

If we were to abandon these concepts altogether, 
then all of the history of life appears as if it were a desert 
of evolutionary noise — a kind of random walk devoid 
of any real meaning for human existence. This view of 




should evolution be different? Must it be random or 
arbitrary? The story of the upward struggle of dinosaurs 
and other living things to higher levels of complexity 
might be the story of life anywhere in the cosmos. This 
I offer to you to replace the integrity and symmetry that 
was lost when we barbarously kill dinosaurs with an 
asteroid. 

Other paleontologists may by now strongly sus- 
pect that I have strayed a bit from a popular evolution- 



life would make paleontology sterile. How can we 
imagine organisms that adapt only to their physical 
environment and show no effects of the complexity in 
the biological world in which they must successfully 
compete to survive? Must we presume that any have 
not come to an end of their development in the 
human-dominated world of the recent. Maybe we can 
think about the future evolution of plants. Will pollen 
grains become more complicated and beautiful? Can 



25 




26 



Gilly Gilpin sponges the Albertosaurus skull as the project nears completion. It became the world's first self-supporting dinosaur 
skeleton. (As seen today in Stanley Field Hall, Albertosaurus rises above the skeleton of Lambeosaurus, an herbivorous dinosaur. )ei669 



we dare to think a bit positively about ourselves? We 
are after all at the end of a very long evolutionary his- 
tory. There were failures — the big australopithicenes 
didn't make it. Neither did the neandertals. But mon- 
keys, parrots, elephants, and dolphins have relatively 
large brains. Might there not be grounds for optimism 
about the future of life? And would there not be the 
freedom to think again, without worrying about being 
branded as pariahs of directionism, determinism, gra- 
dualism, and adaptationism? Now, let's return to the 
messy business of the extinction of the dinosaurs. 

If the extinction was the result of an asteroid's im- 
pact, the fatal stresses had absolutely nothing to do 
with the adaptive finesse which had accumulated 
through evolutionary processes prior to the end of the 
dinosaurian era. Because of the great number of spe- 
cies, not to speak of individuals that were lost, a great 
deal of organic complexity that had slowly evolved up 
to that time was also lost. This would not be an evolu- 
tionarily neutral event. It would be a very bad show for 
the advancement of life on earth. Imagine if one mass 
extinction would occur through a collision with an 
asteroid, followed five million years later by another 
mass extinction resulting from the explosion of a near- 
by supernova, then five million years later yet another 
mass extinction occurring as the solar system passes 
through a giant molecular cloud, and so on. The net 
result of a closely spaced series of nonbiological extinc- 
tions might well be something like a random evolution- 
ary wandering unmarked by any trends. Like a dazed 
boxer staggering from blow to blow. 

Fortunately the dinosaurs were eliminated in one 
clean, quick blow and there have been no equally dis- 
asterous mass extinctions since. The net result of their 
extinction was the replacement of one set of evolution- 
ary actors by the second string. We are the descendants 
of the second string. But the great drama of life has 
remained the same. 



Sometimes our colleagues who study physics 
engage in cerebral exercises they call thought 
experiments. As far as I'm concerned, exercise is 
not something one should be too compulsive about. 
And I suspect this natural and civilized reluctance is 
not uniquely limited to me. But it has been said that 
the benefits of thought experiments far outweigh the 
costs — no equipment or facilities are needed except for 
those which occur between the ears. Let us then 
embark on a mild sort of paleontological thought ex- 
periment. Consider what might have happened, evolu- 



tionarily speaking, had the mass extinction that 
marked the end of the dinosaurian era not occurred. 
There are many things that we could think about. 
Apparently the plant world was not greatly affected, 
over the long term, by the extinctions. The world of 
marine fishes is so strongly marked by parallel evolu- 
tion that the end products of a no-extinction scenario 
might not have been very different from those of an 
extinction scenario. But what about the dinosaurs 
themselves? 

The most interesting trend for me is the trend de- 
scribing the maximum size of brain on earth through 
geologic time. On the average, organisms need more 
complicated brains to react to increasingly complicated 
environments. For example, we know that the number 
of different species of multicellular organisms has great- 
ly increased through geologic time. There are two im- 
portant things to note. One is the stability of the trend. 
Data from the last 65 million years predict that crea- 
tures with human-sized brains or larger would have 
appeared on earth by another 25 million years at the 
latest, with a probability greater than 99 percent. The 
other important thing to note is that by the end of the 
dinosaurian era some dinosaurs had brains as large as 
those of the mammals that were alive at that time, after 
correcting for body size effects. Dinosaurs were on the 
curve of maximum brain size through geologic time. 
For our thought experiment, then, let us project the 
evolutionary increase in the dinosaurian brain forward 
into the future they never had. We know that human- 
sized brain proportions are possible; after all, they do 
exist. What would the anatomical consequences be of a 
human-sized brain in a dinosaur? Remember, we have 
to make something that might work, and random 
evolution probably wouldn't make anything that would 
be very useful in the struggle for existence. 

I think it might be a good idea to divide the ana- 
tomical consequences of our hypothetical highly 
evolved dinosaur, or what we can call a "dinosauroid," 
into three kinds. Natural selection isn't perfect, even 
when it has been acting over many tens of millions of 
years. There are always many little details, like my 
appendix, that are due to accidents of ancestry, and not 
perfection of adaptation. We use these leftovers from 
ancestry to classify our fossils, and indeed all living 
organisms, into natural systems of ancestor-descendant 
family trees. Our dinosauroid would show the effects of 
his ancestry. So what we might call its primary charac- 
teristics are those which would seem to be firmly linked 
to having a large brain irrespective of ancestry. Secon- 
dary characteristics might be those that would be left 



over from the fact that its ancestor was a small theropod 
dinosaur. This is because the large-brained dinosaurs of 
late Cretaceous time were all small theropods, to the 
best of our knowledge. Tertiary characteristics would 
be those stemming from a general dinosaurian or rep- 
tilian ancestry. 

Among the primary characteristics would be 
warm-bloodedness. Our dinosauroid would be nice and 
warm to touch. This is because 20 percent of our resting 
metabolism, or basal metabolism, goes to fuel the 
brain. The brain is a very expensive organ to maintain, 
and a crocodile with a human brain-transplant would 
be utterly exhausted without moving. There would be 
no energy left over for activity. 

Our dinosauroid would have to eat a lot to main- 
tain his energy balance. Here a separation between the 
mouth and nasal passages would be useful in order to 
eat and breathe at the same time. This is called a secon- 



dary palate: we have one and so did ostrich dinosaurs 
many millions of years ago. 

One consequence of a relatively large brain is that 
the rest of the skull would seem relatively small. This is 
obvious in embryonic lizards, so we can use the 
braincase-facial proportions in embryonic lizards as a 
guide. 

Another consequence of a big brain is a relatively 
large head on a relatively small body. This is particular- 
ly true of animals in the 30-70 kg (66-154 lb.) range. A 
large head is most easily supported by a vertical neck 
centered beneath it. This adaptation is apparent in 
apes, and also in bone-headed dinosaurs, which had 
small brains but large heads and lived many millions of 
years ago. 

Then there is the problem of the backbone. A 
horizontal backbone provides a good framework for the 
attachment of strong running muscles. A vertical 



Triceratops calicomis, on view in Hall 38. This was the largest of all horned dinosaurs. The head, shown here, was about 7 feet in length. 
This specimen was discovered near Chalk Buttes. Montana, in 1904. 17454 



28 




backbone provides an energy-efficient posture for car- 
rying the upper part of the body and a heavy head. 
Ostriches are bipedal, like the small theropod dino- 
saurs of long ago, and carry their backbones in a hori- 
zontal position. My guess is that a big head on an 
ostrich would be tiresome to carry around, and get 
bashed on branches and trees in making sharp turns.' 
The dinosauroids' immediate ancestor might be termed 
Dinosauroides horizontals, but the large-brained descen- 
dant might better be called Dinosauroides erectus. 

The human leg has been the target of very strong 
selective forces and is an extremely efficient locomo- 
tive organ. The proportions of the human leg have to 
go into an upright dinosauroid. 

We can next consider what structures might have 
been the result of a small theropod ancestry. These will 
be the secondary characteristics. 

The teeth were reduced in some small theropods 
and in at least two families they were lost entirely. 
Teeth have been lost in birds, which were also de- 
scended from small theropod dinosaurs. The jaws of the 
dinosauroid are thus toothless and provided with kera- 
tinous surfaces — the same substance that nails, horns, 
and hooves are made of. 

The proportions of the arms are taken from 
ostrich dinosaurs. The hands had three fingers in most 
small theropods. 

The pelvic canal is very large in some small ther- 
opods, and we suspect that they may have given birth 
to living young. The need to pass large eggs, with 
embryonic tissues encased in a more or less rigid shell, 
through the pelvic canal would be avoided. This would 
allow the hips to be narrower and enhance the effi- 
ciency of walking. The dinosauroid thus has a tenta- 
tive, none-too-courageous navel. 

There is no kneecap in small theropods. The mus- 
cles of the upper leg are attached to a blade on the 
upper part of the shaft of the tibia. 

The foot is a compromise between the foot in a 
small theropod and the foot in a tree kangaroo. In both 
animals the small toes are on the inside, not the outside 
of the foot. 

The tertiary characteristics are further removed 
from the dinosauroids' immediate ancestry, and can be 
found in dinosaurs and other reptiles in general. These 
include the large eyes, absence of ears, presence of a 
dewlap as a secondary sexual characteristic, the con- 
tainment of the external genitalia in a pelvic pouch, 
and the absence of breasts. There are other details we 
could consider, but these are the major ones. 

There are several hypotheses that I would like to 



leave with you. I suspect that there is some truth in 
them. The first would be that just as in the rest of na- 
ture there is structure in the history of life. It is not a 
random process; there are preferred evolutionary path- 
ways and the evidence of these is parallel and/or con- 
vergent evolution. We should study preferred evolu- 
tionary pathways more carefully because they will help 
us to understand the evolution of complex life no mat- 
ter where it occurs in the galaxy or even the cosmos. 



A second hypothesis is that the dinosaurian 
world was special. It was an experiment in the 
evolution of sophisticated organisms that was 
brought to an end by an abiotic, external force. The 
dinosaurian world then can give us some feeling for 
how much variation there can be around preferred evo- 
lutionary pathways. Thus, a study of the dinosaurian 
world helps us to anticipate the kind of differences 
mankind one day can expect to find in the biospheres 
of planets that circle faraway stars. Those biospheres 
probably exist. Our colleagues in astronomy assure us 
that sunlike stars are common. There is good evidence 
that planets are abundant also, and the organic com- 
pounds that are the building blocks of life are broadly 
spread through nearby space. 

A third hypothesis is that the human form is not 
an evolutionarily surprising form. It may represent a 
target that is easy for natural selection to hit. If evolu- 
tion is a generally positive process, and I think it prob- 
ably is, it could be expected that some biospheres could 
produce something like what we have called a dino- 
sauroid. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, or 
SETI, is a project supported largely by astronomers to 
use radio telescopes to search for intelligence-carrying 
electromagnetic signals. Many articles have been writ- 
ten about SETI in scientific journals, in popular scien- 
tific journals, and in the newspapers as well. An evolu- 
tionary biologist might suggest to his astronomer 
friends not to be too astonished if, when exotic radio 
signals are detected, the extraterrestrial intelligence 
that transmits them has a familiar look. 

It would be grossly unfair of me to suggest that this 
discussion represents a summary of what is solidly 
known about dinosaurs or the evolution of life on 
earth. It is simply how I, as one human being, see the 
natural world that I live in. Probably it's a real period 
piece, and full of mistakes. But whether it's completely 
wrong or not, it does somehow say what I feel at night 
when I look up into the boundless vault of a soft, star- 
filled prairie sky. 



29 




KenyaTanzania Safari 

March 3-23. 1989 





HELD 
MUSEUM 

TOURS 1 

Kenya/Tanzania 
Safari 

March 3-23, 1989 
Leader: Audrey Joy Faden 
Price: $6,350 



ITINERARY 

March 3 

Fly from Chicago to London via British Airways. 
March 4 

Fly from London to Nairobi, Kenya. Day rooms 
in London. Evening flight to Nairobi. 
March 5 

Nairobi. City tour. Welcome cocktail party and 
dinner. 
March 6 

Nairobi/Amboseli National Park, justly famous 
for its big game and superb views of Mt. Kil- 
imanjaro. Afternoon lecture by local researcher. 
Late afternoon game drive. 
March 7 

Amboseli National Park. Morning and afternoon 
game drives. Mid-day at leisure to relax at the 
lodge or swim in the pool. 
March 8 

Amboseli National Park/Namanga/Gibb's Farm, 
Tanzania. Cross the border, where we clear 
customs before proceeding into Tanzania to 
Gibb's Farm, where the remainder of day is at 
leisure. 



March 9 

Gibb's Farm/Serengeti National Park. Game 
drives in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area 
and the Serengeti. 
March 10 

Serengeti National Park. Full day exploring this 
vast area. 
March 1 1 

Serengeti National Park/Olduvai/Ngorongoro 
Crater. Visit Olduvai Gorge and the site of Louis 
and Mary Leakey's discovery of Zinjanthropus 
bosei. Continue on to the spectacular Ngoron- 
goro Crater. 
March 12 

Ngorongoro Crater. Full day down in the crater, 
tracking and photographing the animals. 
March 13 

Ngorongoro Crater/Lake Manyara National 
Park. Depart to Lake Manyara Hotel, set in love- 
ly gardens with a swimming pool overlooking 
the park. Optional activities. 
March 14 

Lake Manyara National Park. Morning and 
afternoon game drives, exploring the diversify 
of this park. 
March 15 

Lake Manyara National Park/Namanga, Kenya/ 
Nairobi. Drive back to Arusha for lunch and 
continue on to the Namanga border, clear 
customs and return to Nairobi. 
March 16 

Nairobi/Aberdare National Park/The Ark. This 
morning you proceed into deep forested area 
alive with some of the finest game viewing in 
Kenya. After lunch at Aberdare Country Club 
transfer to The Ark, "berthed" over a waterhole 
where the animals come to drink. From a 
ground-level lounge with large picture win- 
dows, you have an eye-to-eye view of this 
constantly changing scenario. 

March 1 7 

Aberdare National Park/Samburu Game 
Reserve. This reserve is home to several 
species found only in these northern areas. 



March 18 

Samburu Game Reserve. Your game viewing 

takes you through a variety of landscapes. Bird 

enthusiasts will be well rewarded with over 300 

species, including the martial eagle, in this 

reserve. 

March 19 

Samburu Game Reserve/Mount Kenya 

Nanyuki. Drive to the famous Mt. Kenya Safari 

Club. The grounds cover 1 00 acres of blooming 

flower beds, ponds with water lilies and stands 

of shade trees — a litoral oasis in the middle of 

the African bush. 

March 20 

Mount Kenya Nanyuki/Nairobi/Masai Mara 

Game Reserve. Drive back to Nairobi and after 

lunch depart on the afternoon flight to the 

Masai Mara Game Reserve, where we'll stay 

in a luxury safari camp. 

March 21 

Masai Mara Game Reserve. Enioy a day 

of game viewing in the Mara, one of the last 

strongholds of the great herds. 

March 22 

Masai Mara Game Reserve/Nairobi. After one 

last game run in the Mara, return to Nairobi by 

air. Remainder of day at leisure. 

March 23 

Nairobi/London/Chicago. Midnight flight to 

London on British Airways. Connect to British 

Airways to Chicago, arriving later the same 

day. 

Antarctica 

Discovering Antarctica, the Strait of Magellan, 
Tierra del Fuego, and Cape Horn aboard the 
llliria under the leadership of Dr. Bruce D. 
Patterson, associate curator and head of the 
Division of Mammals at the Field Museum of 
Natural History. 

February 20-March 7, 1989 

Pre-Cruise Extension 

to Patagonia 
and the Lake District 

February 15-23, 1989 



The Galapagos 

Aboard the m. v. Santa Cruz 

March 3-14, 1989 

Optional Extension to Peru March 14-20 

Price: $3,550-$3,840 



March 3: Chicago/Miami/Quito. Welcome party and orientation. 
March 4: A full day excursion to the colorful Indian fair of Otavalo. 
March 5: All-day birding excursion up into the mountains outside 

Quito. 
March 6: Fly to Guayaquil and on to Baltra where we board the 

Santa Cruz. 
March 7: Cruising — Bartolome and Tower Islands. 
March 8: Cruising — Isabela and Fernandina Islands. 
March 9: Cruising — North Seymour Island. 
March 10: Cruising — Hood and Floreana Islands. 
March 1 1: Cruising — Santa Cruz and Plaza Islands. 
March 12: Cruising — James Island. 



March 73: This morning we cruise to Baltra, disembarking to board 

our flight to Guayaquil. Farewell dinner. 
March 14: Return flight to Chicago. 

Join us as we explore one of the world's greatest living laboratories 
of natural history under the leadership of Dr. David E. Willard, col- 
lection manager of the Bird Division of the Field Museum of Natural 
History. The Galapagos Islands — birthplace of Darwin's "Origin 
of Species" — situated 600 miles off the coast of Ecuador, remain 
remote and out of the elements of nature where an abundance of 
strange creatures known nowhere else on earth reside. An optional 
trip to Peru at a cost of $1 ,450 includes visits to the world-famous 
site of Machu Picchu, Lima, and Cuzco. 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



31 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, I L 60605-2499 




INSIDE ANCIENT 

EGYPT 



The most dramatic exhibit ever created to tell the story 

of the mysterious world of the ancient Egyptians opens 

Friday, November 1 1 . 

The new exhibit, on two floors of the Field Museum, 
includes a fully reconstructed royal tomb with 35-foot burial 

shaft (for you to walk through), 23 authentic mummies, a 
working canal and living marsh (with growing papyrus), the 
rare, 3,847-year-old royal boat of a pharaoh, an Egyptian marketplace, 
and more than 1,400 rare artifacts and priceless treasures. 

Ancient Egypt awaits you! 



Field Museum of natural History bulletin 



November 1988 





INSIDE ANCIENT EGYPT 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H. Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. JamesJ. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bo wen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J . Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

November 1988 
Volume 59, Number 10 



NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 



WELCOME TO ANCIENT EGYPT 

By Susan Nelson 



THE EGYPTIAN COLLECTION AND THE LEGACY OF EDWARD E. AYER 

By FrankJ. Yurco, Consultant to "Inside Ancient Egypt" ... 20 

BEHIND THE SCENES: THE UNSEEN SIDE OF "INSIDE ANCIENT EGYPT" 

By Susan Nelson 23 

MOVING THE TOMB 

By Robin Faulkner, Design and Production; and Nina Cum- 
mings, Photography 28 

DIORAMAS: A JOURNEY THROUGH THE MIND'S EYE 

By Susan Nelson 29 

FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 30 



COVER 

Papyrus Book of the Dead of Isty, on view in the burial groups 
section of "Inside Ancient Egypt." This scene shows Isty, a chan- 
tress of Amun, venerating Osiris and Isis. From the XXIst Dynas- 
ty. Excavated at Deir el-Bahri, Egypt in 1891. Ron Testa 110708 



Members' Preview Evenings 
for "Inside Ancient Egypt" 

You are invited to attend the Members' Preview of "Inside 
Ancient Egypt" at Field Museum of Natural History, Monday, 
November 7 through Thursday, November 10, 5:00 P.M. until 
10:00 P.M. 

Because the capacity of the new exhibit area is limited, 
our members are asked to attend the preview evenings 
alphabetically by last name. Last name: A-F November 7, 
G-L November 8, M-R November 9, S-Z November 10. 

The Museum's store will be open until 9:45 P.M. 
Beverages will be available for purchase from the cash 
bar. A ticketing system to regulate admission to the exhibit 
will be implemented that evening. Tickets will be distributed 
at the central booth in Stanley Field Hall. Questions, please 
call the Membership Department at 922-941 0, ext. 453. 



Sherry L. DeVries, manager of Public Relations, coordinated the 
editorial, design, and production activities in the preparation of this 
special issue on "Inside Ancient Egypt." 



City Musick 

Chicago's highly acclaimed 1 8th-century orchestra, is hold- 
ing monthly performances in Field Museum's Stanley Field 
Hall through April. Ten percent discount on tickets for Field 
Museum members. Performances include Beethoven on 
November 18 and Handel's "Messiah" on December 21 . Call 
City Musick at 642-1766 for more information. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright ©1988 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schtx>ls. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago. Illinois and 
additional mailing office. 



A Special Invitation to Museum Members to 

A FAMILY CHRISTMAS TEA AT FIELD MUSEUM 

Thursday, December 8, 1988 




OUl ll IS nu|_"\n 10 ui nvci ouy 

LL88201 "Inside Ancient Egypt" 
Tickets: $20 ($15 Members) 



Heart scarab (lower side) with inscription from Book of the Dead. For more on heart 
scarabs see glossary, p. 8 -» 







Continued r> 



ADULT PROGRAMS 

Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this 
registration application. Adult program advance registra- 
tions are confirmed by mail. For registrations received less 
than two weeks before the program begins, confirmations 
are held at the West Door one hour before the program be- 
gins. Phone registrations are accepted for adult programs 
using Visa/MasterCard/Amx/Discover. There is a $15 mini- 
Name 
Address 



mum charge for credit card registrations. Please call (312) 
322-8854 to register. For further registration information, 
consult the November/December Adult and Family Program 
Brochure. 

Return complete registration with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Department of Education, Adult Programs 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



City 



State 



Zip 



Telephone: Daytime Evening 

□ Member □ Nonmember 

American ExpressA/isa/MasterCard/Discover 



Card Number 



Signature 



Expiration Date 



Program 
Number 


Program 


#Member 
Tickets 


#Nonmember 
Tickets 


Total 
Tickets 


Amount 
Enclosed 


















































□ Scholars 


hip requested 






Total 






ADULT COURSES 

Egypt: The New Kingdom 

Frank J. Yurco, Ph.D. Candidate, 

Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, 

University of Chicago 

The New Kingdom marked a period of Egyptian imperial expan- 
sion. There was an influx of much foreign influence creating a 
fresh, cosmopolitan atmosphere expressed in new art forms 
and cultural expressions. Pharaohs built enduring stone monu- 
ments that still evoke awe in the modern visitor. The New King- 
dom included a female pharaoh who ruled successfully for over 
20 years, an attempt at massive religious reform, and the short, 
tragic reign of Tut-ankh-Amun. 

AC88401 Tuesdays, 7:00 p.m. -9:00 p.m. 
November 8-December 13 (6 sessions) 
$60 ($50 members) 

Art and Architecture in Ancient Egypt 
Lorelei H. Corcoran, Egyptologist 

The art and architecture of pharaonic Egypt is rich in iconogra- 
phy. Learn to decipher the symbolism and representation of this 
era using examples of royal and non-royal portraiture, pyramids, 

Also in November/December 

Studying the Mountain Gorilla: Into the Third Decade 

David Watts, Assistant Research Scientist, Department of 
Anthropology, University of Michigan 
Saturday November 19, 1 :30 p.m. 

The Mountain Gorillas of Africa are an endangered species: 
only some 500 remain in the world today Their plight and the 
destruction of their tropical forest habitat has caused great con- 
cern throughout the world. Dr. Watts discusses the importance 
of studying the behavior of mountain gorillas, especially their 
social relationships. The behavior of these intelligent animals 
seems to have much in common with that of humans. 

Join Dr. Watts as he brings us up to date on the lives of Effie, 
Pablo. Titus, Simba. and others. These gorillas were introduced 
to the world through the work of Dian Fossey and her associ- 
ates. Hear what is being done in the areas of public education, 
habitat protection, and economic development, to help or harm 
the mountain gorillas. Dr. Watts conducted field research at Kari- 
soke Research Centre in Rwanda, Africa, serving as director of 
the Centre in 1 986 and 1 987. He has returned to the University 
of Michigan for a year to share his research findings with the 
scientific community and the public who are fascinated by 
these gorillas. 

LL88202 Studying the Mountain Gorilla 
Tickets $6 ($4 members) 



temples, and mummification and the funerary arts. Discuss the 
social and religious requirements of temples and tombs. 
AC88402 Wednesdays, 7:00 p.m. -9:00 p.m. 
November 9-November 30 (4 sessions) 
$50 ($40 members) 

"Inside Ancient Egypt": A Walk-Through 

Frank J. Yurco, Ph.D. Candidate 

Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, 

University of Chicago 

The program begins with an introduction to ancient Egyptian 
civilization and suggestions for viewing the different sections 
of the new exhibit. Then participants are free to explore "Inside 
Ancient Egypt" on their own. Egyptologist and exhibit consultant 
Frank Yurco is available throughout this time in the exhibit for the 
opportunity to answer subject matter and exhibit related ques- 
tions. Please indicate if you have a second choice of date for 
this class. 

AC88403 Monday, Nov. 21 (1 session) 7:00-9:00 p.m. 
AC88404 Wednesday, Dec. 14(1 session) 7:00-9:00 p.m. 
$10 ($8 members) 



The Making of a Bestiary 

Rosamond Wolff Purcell, Photographer 
Saturday, December 10, 1:30 p.m. 

Rosamond Wolff Purcell is an artist/photographer who en- 
tered the scientific world of museum collections to photograph 
objects. She did this not for the scientific record, but rather as an 
artist and interpreter. Her goal was to make visual sense of the 
collections and to capture the strange and haunting beauty of 
the specimens. 

Using her photographs featured in the Museum's special 
exhibit "Illuminations: A Bestiary," Ms. Purcell discusses her pur- 
suit of these hidden objects contained within the world's great 
museums. She traveled from back rooms of the University of 
Copenhagen to the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Har- 
vard University. She was, in her own words, "a bull in a china 
shop," examining scientific specimens from an artist's point of 
view. 

Share the extraordinary world of the artist working with 
the scientist to explore the hidden masterpieces of museum 
collections. Join Rosamond Wolff Purcell as she describes 
her unique photographic collection and the process of 
"making a bestiary." 
LL88203 The Making of a Bestiary 
Tickets $6 ($4 members) 



WEEKEND PROGRAMS 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are some of the numerous 
activities offered each weekend. Check the activity listing upon arrival for the complete schedule, and program locations. The 
programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Art Council. 

November 



22 1 :30pm Surprise Safari 

Trek through the four corners of the Museum to see the seven 
continents. See antiquities from the Amazon, big game from 
Africa, and seals from the Arctic. 



December 

10 12:30pm Surprise Safari 

Trek through the four corners of the Museum to see the seven 

continents. See antiquities from the Amazon, big game from 

Africa, and seals from the Arctic. 

1 1 :30pm "Tibet Today" and "Bhutan, Land of the 

Thunder Dragon" 

See Lhasa and other towns now open to tourists, and examine 

important Buddhist sites during this slide lecture and tour. 



4 These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets are not required. 



Klaus Baer 



1930-1987 



This special issue on the new Egypt exhibit is dedicated to Klaus Baer 
(June 22, 1930-May 14, 1987), a great Egyptologist and a truly wonder- 
ful person who, in one of his final activities before a most untimely death , 
served as adviser for the project "Inside Ancient Egypt." His assistance 
and counsel were seminal for the development of the mastaha of Unis- 
ankh, especially in the early stages of the project, when it passed from the 
drawing hoards to actuality. It was with his approval and encouragement 
that we decided to install windows and a serdab, or statue chamber. 

Klaus Baer was born in Halle, Germany. Fleeing the emerging Nazi 
movement, his parents emigrated to the U.S. in 1933. After receiving his 
BA in Greek from the University of Illinois (1948), Klaus Baer entered 
the graduate Egyptology program at the University of Chicago, receivin 
his Ph.D. in 1958. For six years, he taught at the University of California 
at Berkeley, before returning to the University of Chicago in 1965 as 
associate professor. Named full professor in 1970, he served as chairman 
of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations 1972-76 
and later as president of the American Research Center in Egypt in 
1981-84. He earlier conducted research in Egypt as a Fulbright Scholar 
( 1952-54) and again at Hierakonpolis ( 1969-70). 

All stages of ancient Egypt fascinated him, from Early Dynastic to 
Coptic, and he had mastery over all. He performed valuable chronologi- 
cal research and wrote a basic study of the Old Kingdom, Rank and Title 
in the Old Kingdom. In addition, he wrote a work on Coptic, a study of 
the final phase of pharaonic culture and language. He also taught during 
this time, and it is in his students that a true appreciation of his greatness 
rests. Another measure of Klaus Baer's scope was his community involve- 
ment. When he spent summers in Colorado he served as a board member 
of the Rocky Ridge Music Camp in Estes Park. In 1985 he married 
Miriam Reitz, who survives him. 

The exhibit developer, Janet Kamien, and 1 will long have a clear 
image of our last meeting with Dr. Baer, in April 1987, as we joined him 
at Edwardo's restaurant in Hyde Park to discuss the mastaha design. A 
little more than a month later, Klaus Baer had joined Unis-ankh and a 
host of others as a venerable spirit. 












— Frank /. Yurco 



AT 



•' 



 ^;???? •'■"■-■ " 



•rmi 



Left: Coffin and mummy of Chenet-aa. Dynasty XXII Right: Coffin ol 
Nes-Pa-Sobek. Dynasty XXI-XXII. Ron Tesla and Diane Alexander Whi«C 



Welcome 
to Ancient Egypt 



by Susan Nelson 



And welcome to the Field Museum's new exhibit, 
"Inside Ancient Egypt." By 1993, when the 
Museum celebrates the beginning of its second 100 
years, there will be a series of these major, theme 
exhibits that present the Museum's collections in 
new, challenging contexts. Each, like this one, will 
use a variety of innovative approaches to show 
the diversity of the collection as well as to appeal 
to the diversity of Museum visitors. 

"Inside Ancient Egypt" is a dramatic display of 
the Field Museum's priceless collection of Egyptian 
artifacts. Some, like the mummies, you may already 
know. Others have not been seen for years. Even the 
best-known of the items will take on new significance 



Susan Nelson is a freelance writer and editor with a special interest 
in ancient cultures. For this issue on ancient Egypt she prepared the 
tables and sidebars on pages 8 (dynasty dates, glossary), 9 (words 
with Egyptian roots, personal names), 10 (quiz, gods and goddes- 
ses), 27 (Egyptian firsts), and 29 (dioramas). She also wrote the 
basic text for the time line, pp. 16-17. 



in their new settings, which were researched and 
created by Janet Kamien, chair of Design and 
Production, and her staff. 

"Inside Ancient Egypt" presents Egypt in two 
specific, newly defined ways: as a country that showed 
remarkable continuity as it evolved over more than 
3,000 years of pharaohs, and as a place whose day-to- 
day activities had more than a passing resemblance to 
our own. Familiar treasures are again on display — but 
they are shown to tell parts of a story, rather than as 
unrelated specimens. 

As you walk through Stanley Field Hall from 
the north entrance of the Field Museum toward the 
beginning of the new Egyptian exhibit, you may 
notice a slight change in the way the hall itself feels. 
The change is intentional: It is hoped that the vast, 
skylighted, two-story courtyard will begin to assume 
the role of a town square, an open area for gathering 
and meeting before moving on to the activities that 
take place off the square, in the arcade-like areas 
beneath the arches. 



Field Museum Members and Friends — 

"Inside Ancient Egypt" takes us back to the beginnings of the 
Field Museum, when Edward Ayer, the Museum's first trus- 
tee president, had the vision to acquire our Egyptian collec- 
tion. He began collecting Egyptian materials in 1894, relying 
on his generous friends in Chicago for the funds to buy the 
extraordinary things, in the field and in marketplaces. You 
will learn more about the important collection Ayer ac- 
quired as you read the following pages. 

But you will learn the most about ancient Egypt when 
you come to visit "Inside Ancient Egypt," which tells the 
story of the complex world of the Egyptians from 5,000 B.C. 
to A. D. 300. "Inside Ancient Egypt" is a thematic exhibition, 
which presents an exceptional collection in the context of a 
cultural and physical environment. 

"Inside Ancient Egypt" results from the extraordinary 

contemporary vision of Michael Spock, vice president for 

Public Programs. It has been brought to life by the imagina- 

6 tive and tireless efforts of an exceptional exhibit team 



headed by Janet Kamien, chairman of the Design and Pro- 
duction Department. It is made possible by the generosity of 
the many donors of unrestricted gifts to the Field Museum's 
capital campaign for Centennial Directions, directed by 
Thomas R. Sanders, vice president, Development, and by 
the Field Foundation of Illinois, Inc. , which helped fund the 
Egyptian marketplace; the Sara Lee Foundation, which 
funded the Bastet shrine; and the Helen Brach Foundation, 
which contributed to the animal niche cemetery. These 
generous gifts were magnanimously matched by the people of 
Chicago through their Chicago Park District. 



/M^/^y 



Willard L.Boyd 
President 



egyptian dynasty dates 


period 


dynasties 


dates 


Early dynastic 


1 st and 2nd 


31 00-2755 8 c 


Old Kingdom 


3rd-8th 


2755-2230 bc 


First Intermediate 


9th-10th 


2230-2040 BC 


Middle Kingdom 


11th-12th 


2040-1 786 BC 


Second Intermediate 


13th-17th 


1786-1567 BC 


New Kingdom 


18th-20th 


1567-1085 BC 


Third Intermediate 


21st-24th 


1085- 712BC 


Late Period 


25th-30th 


712- 332 ac 



Those arcade areas are the sites for such 
informal exhibits as "Sizes" on the first floor and 
"Rearing Young" on the second floor. These exhibits 
are planned to be changed and updated relatively 
often; their purpose is to engage visitors quickly in 
hands-on, topical exhibits and programs in brightly 
lighted, playful, even noisy settings. 

Deeper within the Museum will continue to be 
the more comprehensive exhibits. These, following 
the lead of "Inside Ancient Egypt," will draw heavily 



on Field Museum's outstanding collections and will be 
arranged as carefully designed environments that in- 
clude controlled lighting, sound, and climate. Like 
the Egyptian exhibit, they, too, will make use of mod- 
els, dioramas, interactive experiences and activities, 
specially written label copy (or captions), and habitat 
groups. 

Each will be planned to appeal to a number of 
different levels of interest of visitors. And again, as 
with the Egyptian exhibit, each will offer visitors a 
chance to explore the topic in more detail. In this 
way, it is possible to edit collections to keep an exhibit 
lively and yet make more detailed information avail- 
able in nearby resource centers that contain in-depth 
information and up-to-date announcements about 
a specific area. 

In the past four years, the Field Museum has re- 
defined its mission. It has divided its emphasis into a 
research institute, with continuing work by curators 
in such areas as Central and South America, and 



a glossary to ancient egypt 



amulets. Good-luck charms or talismans, worn singly or in 
groups, believed to have magical qualities that could protect 
against physical and mystical events. 
ba. The wandering part of the spirit, which at death could 
leave the body and move from the tomb to the living world as 
it wished. 

ka. The part of the spirit of the deceased that remained with 
the owner's body, or in the serdab statue, in case the owner's 
mummy should be destroyed. 

Book of the Dead. The name for the collection of hieroglyphic 
texts that were written on a papyrus roll and buried with the 
deceased in order to function as a guide for the journey in the 
afterlife. 

canopicjar. A pottery or stone urn, one of a set of 4, with lids 
shaped either in human form, or like a jackal, baboon, or falcon, 
that held the liver, lungs, stomach, and intestines of a deceased 
person and was buried in a chest beside his or her mummy. 
cartouche. An oblong enclosure with rounded ends and a tie 
that surrounds and protects the name in hieroglyphs of a ruler. 
Used today in gold or silver jewelry, with the wearer's name 
cubit. Commonly used measure of length; about 20 inches 
(from the tip of a pharaoh's longest finger to his/her elbow). 
deben. Commonly used measure of weight used in trade; about 
three ounces (90 grams). Divides into 10 kite. 
faience. A paste made of ground quartz or sand, with mineral 
additive; baked like clay, to produce multi-colored glazes. 
false door. The painted or carved representation of an elaborate 
door in a tomb chapel through which the deceased's ba could 
enter and leave; in Unis-ankh's tomb, the false door weighs 
12,000 lbs. The ka could receive offerings placed before 
the false door. 

heart scarab. The Egyptians left the heart in the body because 
they believed it was the seat of intelligence. In the pharaonic 
period it was accompanied by a heart scarab, a large repre- 
sentation of a scarab beetle, usually of stone, that frequently 
was inscribed with chapter 30A of the Book of the Dead. This 
chapter is the text prayer, asking that the heart not testify 
against its owner in the great judgment of the deceased before 
the 42 assessors, and later, before Osiris himself. 



hieroglyphs. The pictographic and phonogrammic script that 
was used to write ancient Egyptian; 24 hieroglyphs comprise 
the basic alphabet. 

kite. Unit of weight. One-tenth of a deben. used in silver and 
gold units for evaluation, but not in copper 
mastaba. Rectangular tombs clustered around royal pyramids, 
where family members, nobility, and court attendants of the Old 
and Middle Kingdoms were buried. Mastaba means "bench" 
in Arabic because these ancient structures resemble modern 
Egyptian benches 

oracles. Statues of deities generally carried in boat-shaped 
shrines, which the bearers moved to indicate "yes" or "no" 
in response to questions. Some were stationary and were 
fashioned with a movable tongue, manipulated by a concealed 
priest. 

papyrus. Nile River swamp reed whose pith, when sliced into 
strips and laid into sheets in overlapped, crossed layers, and, 
pressed and dried, formed a strong writing material for hiero- 
glyphs. Sheets were often pasted together to form a roll, or 
scroll. 

sarcophagus. Outer container usually of stone within which 
a coffin or coffins and mummy were placed for burial. Often 
decorated with images of the sky goddess or of Osiris (or his 
totem), it functioned as a regenerator for the resurrection of the 
deceased person within. 

serdab. A small room with a small, slit-like "window" in a tomb 
to safely hold a statue of the deceased, which would ensure 
that the ka and ba would not have to die a second, permanent 
death, should the mummy perish. 

stela. Inscribed stone slab that served to memorialize the dead 
or commemorate an event or a decree. 
"cippus" stelae. Sculpted and inscribed stones, with prayers 
and an image of Horus as a child standing on crocodiles; they 
were carried for protection by travelers and children. Larger 
ones were placed so they could have water poured over them. 
ushabti. A statuette often inscribed with chapter 6 from the 
Book of the Dead (spell 472 of Coffin Texts) and placed in the 
tomb to perform work on behalf of the deceased in the afterlife. 
The name means literally "I am one who answers." 



common english words whose roots 


go back to ancient egyptian 


Egyptian 


English 


hbny 


ebony 


djba 


adobe 


komyet 


gum 


sak 


sack 


hrere 


lily 


hlbey 


ibis 


boinu 


phoenix 


Hi-ku-Ptah 


Egypt 


kemet 


alchemy 


amon 


ammonia 



a public museum. (The Natural History Museum 
in London follows the same division of focus. ) This 
approach, as guided by Museum president Willard L. 
Boyd, who is president emeritus of the University of 
Iowa, makes the Field Museum itself a place to enjoy 
and also to learn. 

Michael Spock, vice president for Public Pro- 
grams, has divided the public museum into three 
tiers — informal exhibits, thematic exhibits, and re- 
source centers — in order to make the Museum more 
approachable. Following such a plan also allows the 
Museum to present its collections, which are its most 
valuable aspect, so that they do the one thing public 
television cannot do: give those who see them the 
authenticity that only face-to-face viewing of an 
object can give. Text continued on P . 14 



personal names from egypt 

Some of the names given to people living in ancient 
Egypt, particularly during the New Kingdom's 18th and 
19th Dynasties (1500-1200 B.C.), found their way into 
neighboring territories controlled by Egypt. Some also 
found their way into the Bible. Those that follow are still 
recognized today 



Egyptian 


Pronunciation English 


Other cultures 


Meaning 


name 




name 


variations 




Msw 


"Moje" 


Moses 


Moishe 
(Hebrew) 


"to be born" 


Pz-Nhsy 


"Panehsy" 


Phineas 


Phineas 
(Hebrew) 


"the Nubian" 


Ssnw 


"Seshenu" 


Susan 


Shoshana 
(Hebrew) 


"lotus flower" 


Sth 


"Sutekh" 


Seth 




(a divine name) 


Wnn-Nfr 


"Wennefar" 


Humphrey Onnophrios 


"The good 








(Greek) 


being" (the 








Onnofre 


epithet of 








(Italian, 


Osiris) 








Spanish) 





Mediterranean Sea 




Ancient Egypt 

'Saqqara — Site of Unis-ankh's mastaba tomb. This tomb is 
the centerpiece of Field Museum's "Inside Ancient Egypt" 
exhibit. 

2 Dahshur— Excavation site of King Sen-Wosret Ill's pharaonic 
boat featured in "Inside Ancient Egypt." 

3 Cairo — Modem capital of Egypt. 
"Memphis — Ancient capital of Egypt. 



test yourself about ancient egypt 



Are the following statements true or false? Circle your 
choices and then look at the answers, which follow. The 
answers may surprise you. 

1 . Ancient Egyptian police trained cats or dogs to help 
them apprehend criminals. TorF? 

2. The ancient Egyptians traded wood, oils, spices, 
and incense for the products they didn't have in Egypt. 
TorF? 

3. Gold, silver, and copper were widely used, but the 
Egyptians did not use them for coins. T or F? 

4. Burial rituals and mummification prove that the 
ancient Egyptians considered death the highest honor 
possible. TorF? 

5. Tomb reliefs in ancient Egypt were generally painted 
in bright colors. TorF? 

6. Only royalty were mummified in ancient Egypt. 
TorF? 

7. Cleopatra was a sex goddess who ruled ancient 
Egypt by distracting people with her looks. T or F? 

8. The pyramids of ancient Egypt were built by slaves. 
.TorF? 

9. Beer was the beverage of the ordinary people in 
ancient Egypt. T or F? 

10. The Rosetta Stone is famous as a giant, rose-carved 
pendant of jade that was worn by Nefertiti. T or F? 

ANSWERS 

1 . False. Ancient Egyptian police used baboons to help 
them catch criminals. Baboons are easy to train because 
they are so intelligent. They have a good sense of smell and 
see very well, they can run fast, and they are strong, whether 
they hang on with their human-like hands or with their very 
sharp teeth. 

2. False. The usually dependable floods of the Nile made 
it possible for the ancient Egyptians to plant and cultivate 
wheat and barley, flax for fabrics, and vegetables and fruits; 
often there was a crop surplus. These agricultural products, 
along with gold and gems in later periods, were traded for 
such foreign products as woods, oils, and incense. 

3. True. While metals were indeed mined in ancient Egypt, 
copper, gold, and silver were carefully monitored by both 
government and temple supervisors. Coins were not minted. 
Produce, and manufactured products, as well as raw metals 



and metal objects were commonly bartered, but were evalu- 
ated in terms of bronze, silver, or gold. 

4. False. The ancient Egyptians, believing they had to take 
their wealth with them, created increasingly elaborate burial 
rituals in order to prepare themselves for life after death — in 
the style to which they had become accustomed during their 
lives on earth. They enjoyed life so much that they wanted it 
to continue forever. 

5. True. The passage of time and the erosion of the bright 
colors suggest — incorrectly — that tombs were only sculpted, 
and not painted as well. The same is true of temples. 

6. False. While kings, queens, and their immediate families 
and trusted servants were mummified at first, the practice of 
mummification passed onto noblemen and their families and 
gradually to the general population — including the Greeks 
and Romans who came to conquer ancient Egypt. 

7. False. In fact, there was not one Cleopatra but seven, 
each married to the Pharaoh Ptolemy of her generation. The 
seventh and last Cleopatra was an extremely ambitious 
politician — she even dressed as Isis to woo the populace. 
She was engaged to marry Julius Caesar and bore him a son; 
in 34 b c she married Mark Antony; then, rather than face 
humiliation, took her life when they were defeated by Octa- 
vian in 31 b.c 

8. False. The pyramids of ancient Egypt were built by 
skilled construction workers who followed instructions of 
master architects. The men who hauled the blocks were 
farmers, out of work during the inundation season, organized 
into work gangs and paid by the government. 

9. True. Beer was the most common beverage for everyone 
in Egypt. Barley, from which it was made, was plentiful for 
breads and cakes, as well. Wine was used mainly by the 
upper classes. 

10. False. The Rosetta Stone, a large tablet of black volcanic 
basalt, made it feasible for the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt 
to be translated. The stone, found in 1799 in the western delta 
city of Rosetta by an officer in Napoleon's army, contained 
priestly tribute to one of the pharaohs of the Ptolemaic- 
Roman Period. The inscription was in two languages and 
three scripts; Egyptian, in hieroglyphs and the cursive Demo- 
tic, and in Greek. By cross-translating from Greek and the 
Demotic characters, the French scholar Jean Francois 
Champollion, who was fluent in Coptic, broke the secret of 
the hieroglyphs. 



egyptian gods and goddesses 



The deities of ancient Egypt were many. They could man- 
ifest themselves in any form they chose and were fre- 
quently interchangeable: seventy-six different forms of 
the sun god are known. The following list is a guide to 
some of the major deities represented in "Inside Ancient 
Egypt." They are grouped, where possible, into family 
triads. 

Amun (also Amen). God of the air, great god of Thebes, de- 
fender of the oppressed; husband of Mut, father of Khonsu. 
In New Kingdom Period, all deities were believed to be 
aspects of him, expressed also in the trinity: Amun, Re, and 
Ptah; he was believed also to be universal god. 
Mut. Goddess of heaven, sorceress, mother of all living 
things; mother of Khonsu. 



10 



Khonsu. God of the moon, a great healer. 

Atum. Creator god, who created earth from the inundation 

and all other deities as well as mankind, in male and co-equal 

female form. 

Nut. Sky goddess whose curved body formed the arch of 

heaven. It was believed that daily she gave birth to the sun 

and nightly to the moon. 

Geb. God of earth, brother and husband of Nut. 

Osiris. God and ruler of the dead, god of the resurrection, of 

harvests, and bringer of civilization; husband of Isis, father of 

Horus. 

Isis. Mother goddess; mother of Horus and great worker 

of magic who resurrected Osiris after he was murdered. 

Patroness and protectress of women. . . 

list continued on p. 13 



FROM OUR GIFT CATALOG 




THE STORE 



CHICAGO 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 






Show your support of the Museum by 
giving gift certificates that may be used 
toward purchases in the Museum's gift 
stores, for educational programs or 
museum memberships. Available in the 
following denominations: S5, SIO. SI 5. 
S20. S25. S50. Each certificate is en- 
closed in a handsome gift card. 




To order by telephone call 
3 1 2/922-94 1 Oext. 236 
Mon.-Fri. from 10-4 



Custom Cartouches 

Personalize a cartouche with your name in 
hieroglyphics. Allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. 
Christmas order deadline: November 1 0th. 

Sterling Silver Cartouche 

S4S.00 (Member $40.50) 

14 kt. Gold Cartouche 

$175.00 (Member SI 57.50) 

Cats, Cats, Cats I 

Cats were sacred to the people of the Delta 
from predynastic days. Our collection 
captures the grace and elegance of the 
Egyptian cat. 

Brass Egyptian Cat 

Height 1516" 

$55.00 (Member $49.50) 

Our Own Cat With Kittens 

Height 3 '//-Base metal with antique 

gold finish 

$32.00 (Member $28.80) 

Cat Bast 

Height 5 '//-Solid cold cast bronze and 

richly patinated 

$30.00 (Member S27.00) 

Museum Shirts 

Commemorate the opening of the tomb 
of Unis-ankh and the re-opening of the 
permanent Egyptian collections with our 
colorful shirts . 

Unis-ankh T-Shirt 

Adult sizes (S-M-L-XL) 

$10.00 (Member $9.00) 

Children sizes 

|6-B. 10-12. 14-16) 

$8.00 (Member S7.20) 

Gem Hall Sweat Shirt 

Adult sizes only 

(S-M-L-XL) 

$25.00 IMember $22.50) 

Souvenir Sweat Shirt 

Adult sizes (S-M-L-XL) 

$18.00 (Member $16.20) 

Unis-ankh Mirror 

Adapted from the stones of the false door 
located in our newly installed mastaba of 
Unis-ankh, this mirror frame has been cast 
in rose limestone finish. < 

Unis-ankh Mirror 

6<A"xl3'A" 

$45.00 (Member $40.50) 

Nefertitl 

Nefertiti means "the beautiful one is 
come. " Wife of King Ankhenaton. King 
Tutankhamen's father, ours is reproduced 
in polymer and hand detailed like the 
original in Berlin. 

Nefertitl 

I Thigh 

$85.00 (Member $76.50) 



12 




Coffin and mummy Of Child, from COffin 30019. Ron Testa and Diane Alexander While 110661 



(continued) 



egyptian gods and goddesses 



Horus. (Hor-pa-khered as a child), protector of pharaoh, god 
of light and the sky; protector against poisons, dangerous 
creatures, and the evil eye; avenger of his father; was blinded 
temporarily by his uncle, Seth. 

Seth. Elder brother of Osiris, husband of Nephthys; jealous 
of Osiris, Seth murdered him and fought with Horus for the 
kingship; god of the desert, wasteland, and the trickster 
figure. 

Nephthys. Sister of Osiris, Isis, and Seth; married to Seth. In 
revulsion, she left Seth and joined Isis to help raise the young 
Horus and to help bury Osiris. 

Ptah. Principal god of Memphis, patron of craftsmen; hus- 
band of Sekhmet. 

Sekhmet. Savage lioness and the hostile aspect of Bastet; 
could protect doctors and healing but enjoyed her bloody 
mission, defined by Re: punish humanity by causing fevers, 
plagues, sandstorms. 

Anubis. Jackal-headed god of the dead and of embalmers, 
who oversaw mummification and performed the "weighing of 
the heart" that judged a person's soul; husband of Ma'at. 



Ma'at. Goddess of truth, justice, and order, who wore an 
ostrich feather on her head. In judgment of the dead, the 
deceased's heart was weighed against her feather. 

Aten. Manifestation of the sun god in the aspect of the 
sun disk. 

Bastet. Cat goddess of the city of Bubastis in the Nile Delta; 
strong, fertile, agile as a cat, she also represented the warm, 
life-giving sun and was the alter-aspect of Sekhmet. 

Bes. Protected women, children, and the household. He is a 
grotesque, dwarf-shaped figure with lion's ears and wearing 
the lion's pelt. 

Heqat. Goddess of fertility and birth. Shaped like a frog. 

Min. God of fertility. Depicted as a male in mummy wrap- 
pings, with phallus erect and one arm raised, holding a flail. 

Re (Ra). Sun god of Heliopolis; most commonly invoked of 
the many forms of the sun god. In his daily voyage across 
heaven, he was Khepri in the morning, Re at mid-day, and 
Hor-akhty at sunset. 

Thoth. Ibis-headed god of writing and writers; scribe of the 
gods. Could also be manifested as a baboon or as the moon. 



To Those Who Made "Inside Ancient Egypt" Possible 

The Field Museum is deeply indebted to the following persons and organizations responsible for the funding, the plan- 
ning, the construction, and the myriad of creative activities that collectively produced this extraordinary exhibit. 

Funding. This project was funded in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts, a Federal agency. Funding was also 
provided by Sara Lee Foundation, Helen B. Brach Foundation, and the Field Foundation of Illinois, Inc. 

Exhibit Production. Mark Staff Brandl, Peter Crabbe, Neil Keliher, Randolph Olive, Gerald Struck, Daniel Weinstock. 
Daniel Brinkmeier, Mary Brogger, Paul Brunsvold, George Chavez, Edward Correll. Robin Faulkner, James Komar, Ray Leo, Harvey 
Matthe, Scott Mattera, Brian Sauve, Gary Schirmer, Vincent Shine, William Skodje, Jeffry Wrona, Jameil Al-Oboudi, Howard Bezin, 
Brian Cavanaugh, Lawrence Degand, Joseph Doherty, Pamela Gaible, Daniel Geary Terry Gibson, Matthew Groshek, Patricia 
Guizzetti, Jessica Haynes. Mary Jo Huck, Wendy Jacob, Douglas Jewell, Dennis Kowalski, Mary Maxon, Dion Miller, George Monley, 
Michael Paha, David Potter, Michael Rudlich, Mykl Ruffino, John Russick, Librado Salazar, Beverly Scott, Joseph Searcy, Bruce 
Scherting, M. Nicolas Silva, Michael Slaski, Rodney Stockment, Henry Tucker, Jack Voris, Robin Whatley, Gregory Williams, Cameron 
Zebrun. 

Exhibit Design. Lisa McKernin, Uriel Schlair. 

Michael Brehm, Jane Cuthbertson, Donald Emery, Dianne Hanau-Strain, Lynn Hobbs, Raj Louisnathan, Paul Martin, Sandra Quinn, 

William Skodje, Robert Zimmerman. 

Exhibit Development. Calvin Gray, Janet Kamien, Frank Yurco. 

Eileen Campbell, Carrie Hageman, John Paterson, Judith Rand, Michael Rigsby, Marvin Ronning, Judith Spock, Michael Spock. 

Exhibit Advisers. Klaus Baer, Bennet Bronson, William Burger, John Foster, Mark Lehner, Thomas Logan, Robert Rittner, Robert 
Steinbach, Edward Wente. 

Conservation and Collections Management. Christine Gross, Catherine Sease. 

Christine Del Re, William Grewe-Mullins, Sheryl Heidenreich, Lanet Jarrett, Jeanne Mandel, Karen Poulson, Janet Miller, Beth 

Scheckman. 

Photography. June Bartlett, Nina Cummings, Margaret Sears, Ron Testa, Thomas Van Ende, Sophia Anastasiou Wasik, Diane 
Alexander White. 

Contractors. Belding Corp., Builders Architectural Products, Inc., Aquilla Cohran, Cost of Wisconsin, Inc., Harry Weese& Assoc., 
Hayes-Gallardo, Jamerson Electrical Contractors, Inc., Laura Lundeen, Inigo Manglano-Ovalle, Mohawk Electric Construction Co., 
Stevens Exhibits, Wahlburg Construction Co., Ron Wing. 

Special Thanks to Glen Cole, Zorica Dabich, The Epigraphic Survey, Chicago House, Egypt, The Egyptian Antiquities Organization, 
Dr. Ahmed A. Fareed, Hugh Hamill and the Security Staff of Field Museum, Ron Hall, Janet Johnson, Ursula Kaplony-Heckel, Walley 
Keifer, Phillip Lewis, Charles Ortloff, Bruce Patterson, Phyto Farms of DeKalb, Inc., Lisa Plotkin, Norman Radtke, David Reese, Fattah 
Mohammed Sabbahy, Cindy Salvino, David Schultz, Daniel Summers, David Willard, Edward Yastrow, Mohammed Zayed, and 
Thomas R. Sanders who directed fund-raising activities. 
Contributors. Fritz Bishop, Greg Brinkmeier, Harold Brinkmeier, Cargill Corporation. 



13 




Continued from p. 9 



Unis-ankh's Tomb 



"Inside Ancient Egypt" begins with exactly this 
sense of immediacy. Just past the introduction to the 
exhibition, off Stanley Field Hall, is the entrance to 
the tomb of Unis-ankh, the first of eight major sec- 
tions of the exhibit. Unis-ankh was a nobleman who 
was buried in Saqqara, in the area of Egypt where 
sands and dry climate helped to preserve tombs and 
pyramids. Although his age and cause of death are not 
given, Unis-ankh is assumed to be the son of King 
Unis, last pharaoh of the 5th Dynasty, or ruling fami- 
ly, of Egypt (2428-2407 B.C.). In hieroglyphs, Unis- 
ankh is described as "King's son, unique courtier, 
overseer of Upper Egypt, first one under the King, 
priest of Truth, Unis-ankh." The glyph-carved lime- 
stone chapel rooms and the false door were purchased 
by the Field Museum in 1908. As they are now 
installed, they exactly replicate the tomb as it was 
discovered in the desert. 

The series of rooms illustrates the lengths to 
which the Egyptians went to prepare for life after 
death, a practice that began with the pharaohs and, 
over the next three thousand years, spread to anyone 
who could pay the price for mummification and a 
special burial spot. Unis-ankh's mastaba — the word 
is Arabic for "bench," which such tombs were said 
to resemble when they began to be excavated in the 
1800s — contains the sorts of objects a king's son 
might have wanted in the afterlife, rooms where 
priests could make offerings, and a serdab statue to 
give a home to his ka spirit, in the event that his 
mummy was destroyed. 

A stairway leads to the roof of the tomb, from 
which the sunlit courtyard may be seen. A circular 



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jnerary boat of King Sen-Wosret III, Xllth Dynasty, excavated at 

14 iDahShur Egypt in 1894. Ron TesiaandDianeA-  '0745 



staircase (or an elevator) leads down 35 feet to a 
reconstruction of the burial chamber, the second ma- 
jor area of the exhibit. The carved-stone sarcophagus 
is of the type that could have held Unis-ankh's 
mummy — if his mummy had been found. 

Past the burial chamber are placed the sorts of 
objects that would have lured tomb robbers 4,500 
years ago — and the confession extracted by torture of 
one of eight tomb robbers from ancient Egypt. It was 
riches the robbers had not been able to find that made 
the 1922 discovery of the tomb of King Tut-ankh- 
Amen (King Tut) in 1922 so incredibly valuable. 

Burial Scenes 

A group of burial scenes shows the careful plan- 
ning that Egyptians followed during 3,000 years and 
31 different ruling family lines, or dynasties, in order 
to prepare for an afterlife that would continue the 
pleasures of mortal life. Objects are arranged in 
chronological order. 

These scenes reveal how great a role magic 
played in the religion of the ancient Egyptians. Many 
of the personal beliefs of the Egyptians were founded 
in spells and good-luck charms and supernatural pow- 
ers. Ushabtis were miniature figures buried with a per- 
son that were believed to work for the deceased in the 
afterlife. Amulets were not only worn by the living, 
but they also were placed over the heart and over the 
entire body of a mummy. Mummies are shown in the 
exhibit's burial scenes, and so is a diorama illustrating 
the 70-day mummification process. Engraved stelae 
and even coffins were chosen to ensure a happy next 
life for the deceased. 

Much Egyptian art was created to honor the 
dead or to paint the way from real life into the after- 




Statue of the scribe Amenhotep, painted limestone, 

Dynasty XVIII. Cat. 88906. Pholo by Ron Tesla 110626 




15 






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Replica painting by Inigo Manglano-Ovalle of marketplace scene from tomb of Ny-ankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep at Saqqara. pnoto by Ron Testa mrao 



life. One of the Museum's rarest art objects is a statue 
of Sen-Mut, an architect and perhaps the lover of 
Queen Hat-shep-sut, who became pharaoh in place of 
her 10-year-old stepson, Thutmose III. In the statue, 
Sen-Mut cradles Hatshepsut's infant daughter, 
Neferu-Re. 

Nile River Marsh 

A brightly lighted recreation of a Nile River 
marsh appears at the end of the funereal exhibits 
and art. To the right is a stream with running water; 
positioned in and near it are fish, birds, plants, and 
animals that tomb reliefs tell us would have lived in 
ancient Egypt. A mural backdrop shows "the green 
and the brown" of Egypt — the lush floodplain where 
crops were abundant and the bone-dry desert. A sha- 
duf, a simple lever device to lift water that is still in 
18 use in some parts of Egypt, is meant to be tried out. 



The massive funerary boat on display opposite 
the Nile marsh was buried beneath a mud-brick arch 
and many feet of sand in the desert at Dahshur. It is 
one of four such boats that were excavated from the 
pyramid complex of King Sen-Wosret III in 1894. Two 
of the boats are in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and 
the other is in the Carnegie Museum of Natural His- 
tory in Pittsburgh. Behind the royal boat, opposite its 
burial arch, is a mud brick taken from the remains of 
Sen-Wosret Ill's pyramid. 

Visitor Activity Area 

An activity area invites visitors to learn a num- 
ber of things firsthand about ancient Egypt. Members 
of the Museum's Hall Interpreters program, directed 
by Philip Courington, were trained about Egypt. They 
will help visitors try to move an enormous slab of rock 
on a sledge, as was done in constructing the pyramids; 



polish a large limestone slab; calculate heights and 
weights in cubits and debens, respectively; figure out 
names in hieroglyphs; and make papyrus paper. 

Animal Niche 

One of the most eerie sections of the exhibit 
is the animal niche cemetery. Here, in individual 
crevices, are mummies of cats, falcons, and even 
a crocodile. Animal mummies, which were most 
common during the Late Period (712 to 322 B.C. ), 
were used by worshippers as offerings to the specific, 
corresponding god or goddess. 

Shrine to Bastet 

Cats played a significant role in the lives of the 
ancient Egyptians. The cat goddess, Bastet, repre- 
sented the kindly, life-giving side of cat nature. 
"Inside Ancient Egypt" includes a shrine to Bastet as 
such a shrine might exist in an ancient town. Fresh 
flowers, incense, statues of Bastet and her savage 
counterpart, Sekhmet the lioness, and stelae dedi- 
cated to the gods are displayed; small benches of rock 
allow weary worshippers (or visitors) to rest. 

Marketplace 

Opposite the Bastet shrine is a large, lively 
marketplace. The market scenes are reconstructed 
from scenes on the walls of a tomb of two barbers, 
buried together about 4,500 years ago in Saqqara, 
near the tomb of Unis-ankh. In the marketplace are 
many examples of everyday life in ancient Egypt: the 
important role of scribes; the makeup and wigs and 
oils; razors; jewelry; and clothing (the lower classes 
and the very young wore little, if any). Vignettes 
further illustrate more about how these people of 
northern Africa lived, between 5,000 and 2,000 years 
ago. Included in the vignettes are children (they were 
obedient), crime and punishment (a hand for a thief; 
a tongue for "treachery"), the making of everyday 
foods (bread and beer), trading, and weaving. 

Life for the peasants of Egypt was not easy. For 
the wealthy, life was quite easy and good. Yet, all 
Egyptians, rich and poor alike, loved life and wished 
to continue living forever. Hence the practice of 
preparing for the afterlife, which meant taking along 
objects prized in everyday life. A large collection of 
such objects concludes "Inside Ancient Egypt." 

Just past this last section of the marketplace is 
the Museum's new Egyptian store, in which you may 
wish to purchase Egypt-related objects for your own 
everyday life. 




Bronze statue of Bastet in the aspect ot Sekhmet the Lioness. 
Dynasty XXVI (653-525 B.C.). Ron Testa 110530 



19 



The Egyptian Collection and 



By Frank J. Yurco 

From the day I first set foot in Egypt in 1974, the wonders of that 
ancient culture left a lasting impression on me, influencing the 
course of my life and leading in time to my own participation in 
Field Museum's historic new exhibit, "Inside Ancient Egypt." 

This exhibit had been envisioned in 1981 during the partial 
renovation of the Egyptian Hall by then Assistant Curator of 
Anthropology Donald Whitcomb, who wrote in the November 
1981 Bulletin that the goal of the project was "a reorganization of 
the artifacts of the Predynastic period and the Old Kingdom' 
centered around the tombs." He added, "It is our hope that this 
will eventually be followed by the reorganization of the entire 
Egyptian Hall with a progression of chronological sections and 
predominant cultural themes such as religion and politics." Six 
years later, this hope of Whitcomb and then Director (now 
Trustee) E. Leland Webber materialized, as Michael Spock, 
vice president of Public Programs; Janet Kamien, chair of De- 
sign and Production; and I began to develop "Inside Ancient 
Egypt." 

To an Egyptologist, the quality of the Museum's Egyptian 
collection is readily apparent. Yet, the material is only now, 
with this stunning innovative exhibit, receiving the showcase it 
so richly deserves. The cornerstone of the collection was laid by 
Chicago industrialist Edward E. Ayer, whose initiative had also 
been crucial to the very founding of the Museum.* In 1894, 
Ayer, an avid, conscientious collector who had earlier brought 
together one of the finest assemblages of American Indian arti- 
facts, saw Egypt for the first time, and there began his historic 
acquisitions from the land of the pharaohs. He developed an 
abiding interest in the culture, making several more visits dur- 
ing his lifetime. 

From Cairo, on March 26, 1894, Ayer wrote Field Museum 
Director Frederick J. Skiff: "I have purchased about 20 mum- 
mies, all the mummy shoes, 25 canopic jars', a lot of wooden 
and stone images. . .and the best lot of Greek and Roman 
Bronzes that I believe ever left Egypt." 

Ayer's assessment of the bronzes was not far off the mark; 
they are exceptional pieces indeed, including three that rank as 
undisputed masterworks: the seated leonine goddess Bastet- 
Sekhmet, a seated cat, and a large standing figure of the god 
Osiris. The last object is certainly a work of the XXVIth Dynas- 
ty, as the divinity's features resemble those of Pharaoh Apries. 
The seated Bastet-Sekhmet has its closest parallel in another 
bronze lioness, Wadjet, in the Cairo Museum, dated Dynasty 
XXVI. The seated cat is truly a majestic bronze sculpture, with 
richly detailed inlays of copper, gold, and silver. 

Ayer's prominence in Chicago's business and social circles 
brought him in close touch with others of like persuasions, 
which further redounded to the advantage of the Egyptian col- 
lection. Among these friends was Martin A. Ryerson (1856- 
1932), a trustee from 1893 to 1932. Ryerson was a generous 
donor to the Field Museum collections as well as to those of the 
Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Ayer's associa- 



tion with the Cyrus McCormicks eventuated in the Museum's 
acquiring in 1900 one of its principal treasures, the funerary 
boat of King Sen-Wosret III, a Xllth Dynasty pharaoh. The 
boat had been excavated at Dahshur, Egypt, six years earlier, 
and is one of only six presently known full-size royal boats from 
ancient Egypt. 

Ayer demonstrated remarkable foresight in his collecting 
style — eclectic yet purposeful; his acquisitions make it possible 
now to construct exhibits in a contextual arrangement, 
although in his day typological exhibits (i.e., arranged accord- 
ing to type) were the vogue. In the case of the Dahshur boat, for 
example, Ayer also collected a mud brick and a set of pottery 
cups from the same pyramid complex. These seemingly mun- 
dane objects contribute invaluably toward establishing authen- 
tic context for the boat, and the brick has been useful in the 
creation of replica bricks of the vault representing where the 
boat was discovered. The boat has already served science no- 
tably: in the testing of radiocarbon dating. In 1950, Dr. Willard 
F. Libby of the University of Chicago's Institute for Nuclear Studies 
used a sample of planking from the boat to test his new carbon-14 
dating method. The plank's age, according to Libby 's test, closely 
agreed with the astronomically ascertained date of Sen-Wosret Ill's 
death in 1843 B.C. The boat's construction is of particular interest 
to Egyptologists as a prime example of fitting and joining technique 
developed in the Middle Kingdom period, as timber shortages re- 
flected earlier overcutting and changes in climate. 

In collecting mummies, Ayer also demonstrated a sense for 
exhibition value. The mummies, coffins, canopic jars, Books of 
the Dead, and ushabtis he collected are of different ages and per- 
iods, from Middle Kingdom through the Roman period. These 
materials have enabled us to create a chronological sequence of 
burial situations and to see how customs evolved. Thus, the ex- 
hibit's burial scenes are a continuation of the mastaba concepts, 
and also have a chronological framework, as envisioned by Whit- 
comb in 1981. Thanks to the acquisitions of Ayer and other 
donors, the Museum has some 30 complete coffins and/or mumm- 
ies, and sufficient Ptolemaic-Roman mummies to permit replicat- 
ing a segment of the catacomb-like cemeteries in Alexandria. 

On a trip to Luxor, Ayer met the Oriental Institute's 
founder, James Henry Breasted (1865-1935), and on Breasted's 
advice acquired the Museum's statue of Sen-Mut holding 
Queen Hat-shep-sut's young daughter, Princess Neferu-Re. 
This statue, one of 28 known statues of this official, is the most 
perfect of all, with no damage beyond the ancient erasure of 
Sen-Mut's name by his political foes — a defect, which adds 
historic interest! 

Among Ayer's earlier acquisitions are fragments of reliefs. 
Such fragments were commonly cut by dealers from monuments 
and sold piece-meal. One such fragment in the collection (cat. 
31309), from the tomb of the IVth Dynasty overseer of the trea- 
sury, Mery, is a typical example. Contiguous segments of this 
same relief are scattered among four other museums in the 



' For fuller treatment of Ayer's life see "Books, Business, and Buckskin, 
20 by E. Leland Webber, July/August 1984 Bulletin, p. 5. 



1 . For dates of historic periods see p. 8 

2. For definition of special terms see glossary, p. 8 



the Legacy of Edward E. Ayer 



United States and Europe. In the process of this dispersal, seg- 
ments were damaged, context was lost, and future Egyptologists 
had extra work cut out for them (as it were) in reestablishing 
continuities. 

So in 1907-08, when Egypt's Antiquities Service decided 
to sell complete rooms of ancient chapels, Ayer seized the 
chance to acquire complete chapel rooms from two tombs — 
Unis-ankh's chapel from the pyramid complex of Pharaoh Un- 
is, Vth Dynasty, and an earlier Vth Dynasty tomb chapel, that 
ofNetcher-user. The Field Museum's space (then in the Jackson 
Park building) couldn't accommodate full display of these 
rooms, and later, in the present building, city fire department 
codes prohibited public access when they were installed (1928- 
32). In 1981, when the Egypt Hall (J) was partially renovated, a 
secondary access to Unis-ankh was created, within the city 
codes, but at the cost of access to the most intimate part of the 
chapel — the space in front of the false door. The basement 
location of Hall J also necessitated that the chapel be installed 
one foot too low. With the innovative design of "Inside Ancient 
Egypt," however, not only have these problems been sur- 
mounted, but the entire mastaba complex has been gloriously 
recreated. 

Ayer's interest and dedication helped the Museum in yet 
another way. The assembling of a comprehensive Egyptian col- 
lection at the Field Museum attracted the interest of Sir Wil- 
liam M. Flinders Petrie (1853-1942), founder of modern 
scientific Egyptian archaeology. At the turn of the century, Pet- 
rie was not only shedding new light on Predynastic Egypt 
through his excavations; he was also laying groundwork for 
scientific archaeology, which stresses the importance of com- 
plete documentation in preserving the context of a scientifical- 
ly controlled archaeological find. 

Petrie gave the Field Museum a basic set of Predynastic 
objects from both Naqada I (Amratian) and Naqada II (Ger- 
zean). This included a Predynastic burial of a Naqada I period 
woman's body naturally mummified. Other objects included 
pottery, stone vases, and flint tools. This further demonstrated 
the scope of Petrie's vision — he wanted the results of his ex- 
cavations to be exhibited so as to instruct the general public 
about the context in which the objects were found. In this re- 
spect, Petrie's philosophy also provided guidelines in planning 
"Inside Ancient Egypt." Our intention was to show objects in 
contextual displays rather than as assemblages of objects grouped 
by category. 

Petrie's successors also donated valuable collections to the 
Field Museum. Dr. Elizabeth Seton-Karr gave a fine series of 
paleolithic to Predynastic flints; Dr. Gertrude Caton Thomp- 
son gave flints from her excavations in the Fayum A and B sites. 
Thus, the Museum's holdings on Predynastic Egypt now range 
from earliest times through the late Predynastic. Particular im- 
portance is now attached to these early materials as we recog- 
nize that a proper view of Predynastic Egypt is essential to un- 
derstanding all subsequent Egyptian history. 

Interestingly, Ayer's approach to collecting reflected in 
important ways Petrie's philosophy: in assembling a collection 
for the Museum, he did not go just for show pieces; he also 




Edward E. Ayer 



sought unprepossessing pottery fragments that were of interest 
because they bore inscriptions. These inscribed sherds, or 
ostraca, now shared between the Oriental Institute and Field 
Museum, provide records of everyday life around the city of 
Thebes in the Ptolemaic and Roman eras. 

Just as we were installing the new exhibit, we were visited 
by a scholar of Demotic, Dr. Ursula Kaplony-Heckel, of Mar- 
burg, West Germany, who has found several of the Ayer ostraca 
to be documents reflecting a variety of commercial and legal 
transactions by Thebes citizens, including tax receipts, con- 
tracts for land and livestock, authorizations to cultivate land, 
even personal letters. 

Ayer collected a fine Coptic collection as well — textiles, 
stone, bronzes, and pottery. This wide range of Coptic objects is 
one of the strengths of the Egyptian collection, with representa- 
tion in virtually all periods and all types of objects — choice 
artworks down to simple holy water flasks in which Christian 
pilgrims carried water blessed by the Coptic monastery fathers. 

A major, more recent addition to the collection was made 
in 1944 in memory of Helen Gurley. The Gurley family's exten- 
sive Egyptian collection, included scarabs, rings, and statu- 
ettes, as well as canopic jars and ushabtis. Most collectors deal- 
ing directly with antiquities dealers risked a hazard especially 
prevalent in Egypt — the danger of being sold fake or altered 
specimens. Ayer was able to avoid this problem in large part 
because he readily consulted with recognized scholars before 
buying; but he was also gifted with a keen eye, despite no formal 
training in Egyptology. 

The Field Museum's Egyptian collection owes Edward E. 
Ayer a debt that is beyond measure. Without his foresight, his 
dedication, his generosity, "Inside Ancient Egypt" would never 
have come to pass. 

Frank J. Yurco, consultant for "Inside Ancient Egypt," is a doctoral 
candidate in Egyptology in the Department of Near Eastern Languages 
and Civilizations of the University of Chicago. 21 




Basalt head of unknown man. Early Roman Period (50-100 A. D.) Ron 

22 Testa 110712 



Behind the Scenes: 




The Unseen Side of 
"Inside Ancient Egypt" 



by Susan Nelson 



Planning and assembling an exhibition as large as 
"Inside Ancient Egypt" takes money and time — in 
this case, some $2.2 million and nearly two years of 
planning. But two years is formal time, on paper. The 
detailed work that created "Inside Ancient Egypt" 
also began to take over the workdays and after-hours 
thoughts of involved Field Museum staff members 



many months before the exhibition opened. By early 
fall of this year the anticipation and the extra hours 
had begun to create a crackle of excitement that 



Conservators Cap Sease and Christine Del Re with Egyptology 
consultant Frank Yurco examining coffin and mummy in 

Conservation lab. Ron Testa and Diane Alexander White 111068 23 




24 



Janet Kamien, chair of Design and Production, with Egyptology 
consulting adviser Mark Lehner, near site at Saqqara, Egypt in 1988, 
where Unis-ankh tomb chapel was excavated in 1908. 

Copyright • Margaret Sears. 

everyone who worked in the Museum, as well as 
curious visitors, could notice. 

On page 28, Robin Faulkner and Nina Cum- 
mings describe the tedious planning — and latter-day 
considerations for an irreplaceable marble floor — that 
resulted in the decision to move the six-ton false door 
to Unis-ankh's tomb the same way it had been moved 
4,000 years ago: with logs that would be rolled slowly 
forward. 

But, while a pre-wheel technique was the best 
way to move the door, state-of-the-art advances were 
needed to protect mummies and other antiquities 
while they are displayed in settings that will let people 
see them more clearly than ever before. 

Specifically, the new burial niches and many of 
the exhibit artifacts are illuminated by a remarkable 
rigging of "pipe lights," a unique lighting system that 
directs and bends light through PVC pipe from the 
light source to the exact location where light is 
wanted. The pipe is lined with a newly developed film 
from 3M Corporation which bounces the light down 




Cap Sease and Robin Faulkner examine block from Unis-ankh 

Chapel. Nina Cummings 110601 




Robin Faulkner paints replica 
relief in Unis-ankh tomb 

Chamber. Ron Testa and Diane Alexander 
While 11 1062 




Preparators Mary Maxon and John Russik preparing mount for a 

Stela. Diane Alexander While 111061 



the pipe, without diffusion, to the point where the 
light is finally focused and aimed with a mirror onto 
the artifact. Designer Paul Martin devised the system 
which piqued the interest of representatives from 3M 
who came to the Museum to see it. "What we have, 
in a sense, is a plumbing system for light. This system 
will allow us to do maintenance on the light from 
accessible centralized locations," said Martin. 

Other pipes are used to channel humidified air to 
fragile artifacts. This innovation was originally de- 
veloped by Ralph Trimnel of Oak Park, Illinois, then 
further refined and adapted for artifact installations by 
26 Catherine "Cap" Sease, head of the Anthropology 



Department's Division of Conservation. 

The design and accuracy of the Nile River marsh 
was helped along by the Museum's Botany Depart- 
ment. Birds in the marsh area were approved for 
accuracy by curators in the Bird Division; the real- 
looking scorpions there were cast from specimens the 
Museum's entomologists provided. 

Unseen workers burn the incense and place the 
fresh-flower offerings at the Bastet shrine from time to 
time in order to enhance the reality of that exhibit. A 
sculptor has created the miniature dioramas that allow 
viewers to project themselves into seeing mummies 
made — or the gods deciding a human's fate in the 
afterlife (see p. 29). Artisans created "limestone" 
that blends so well with original pieces visitors may 
find it difficult to tell the new construction from the 
ancient. Painters have interpreted the marketplace 
and a life-sized diorama of the Nile River, with its 
brown desert/green marsh demarcation. Graphic 
designers have worked with a typeface that creates an 
identity for the exhibit, from the billboard-size "Inside 
Ancient Egypt" sign on Lake Shore Drive, north of 
the Museum, to the smallest sign beside an exhibit. 
Even those text blocks— "label copy," museum people 
call them — that describe each step of the exhibit were 
specially written in order that they might anticipate 
your questions and answer them, just as a knowledge- 
able friend would do. 

For all its many facets, though, "Inside Ancient 
Egypt" is not yet complete. A part of its budget has yet 
to be spent. How that money will be used is not yet 
known. The reason is simple: The planners of this 
ambitious new exhibit will themselves be visiting 
"Inside Ancient Egypt." They will be looking and 
listening for comments of members and visitors that 
will let them know which parts of this exhibit hit the 
mark — and which ones may miss. 

It is part of the Field Museum's commitment 
to make its treasures even more approachable and 
meaningful to Chicagoans and its many, varied visi- 
tors. "Inside Ancient Egypt" is the Museum's first 
large-scale exhibit that sets out to provide a broad 
overview of the history, the joys and concerns, the 
mystical practices and the mundane daily details of 
people in a specific place, using one of the Field 
Museum's magnificent collections as the starting 
point. 

The way you see "Inside Ancient Egypt" the 
first time will very likely be different from the way 
you see it the second or the third time. And that, the 
Museum believes, is exactly as it ought to be. 




Assistant developer Calvin Gray and exhibit designer Lisa McKernm inspect Bastet shrine. Ron Testa and Dane Alexander white 1 



ARTS 

Canon of Proportion. How human and animal figures are 

drawn. 

Architecture. Design; quarrying of stone. 

Carpentry & Woodworking. Veneering, fitting/joining of wood. 

Writing. Papyrus and paper; hieroglyphs. 

Crafts. Glaze work, glazing of stone, and glazed faience. 

SCIENCES 

Astronomy. Developed for timing religious festivals in temple 
and sighting the reappearance of the star Sirius, which sig- 
nalled the start of inundation by the Nile. 
Chemistry. Development of glazes, glassware. 
Metalworking. Jewelry, casting of tools. 
Navigation. Voyages on Red Sea to Punt (Somalia or 
Ethiopia). 

Geometry. Calculating areas of fields, volume of pyramids. 
Time Measurement. Solar calendar, later adopted by Julius 
Caesar; division of year into 12 months, with three seasons 
related to agricultural activity. Year, 365 days divided into 12 
months, 30 days each, with 5 intercalary days. 
Medicine. Diagnosis based on examination of the patient; 
surgery; natural drugs to treat specific maladies. 

DAILY LIFE 

Agriculture. Irrigation techniques. 

Personal Products. Kohl eye makeup, oils, perfumes, wigs, 

mirrors. 

Fabrics. Weaving flax into linen; special board for laundering 

clothes. 



ancient egypt 'firsts' 



Sports. Wrestling, archery, boating. 
Games. Dice, ring-around-the-rosy, Maypole dance, leap- 
frog, serpent game, senet game, possibly backgammon. 

GOVERNMENT, SOCIAL and ECONOMIC SYSTEMS 

Laws and Courts. Justice grounded in pharaoh's law and in 
pharaoh as custodian of Ma'at. Courts and trial procedures 
using evidence and testimony, witnesses, commissions of 
inquiry. Village and central (vizier's) courts. 

Women's Role. Equality with men, grounded in pharaoh's 
law. Women could (and did) become pharaoh, function as 
scribes and administrators. Before and after marriage, 
women retained legal title to possess property and receive 
1/3 share of property acquired jointly in marriage. Passed on 
property to chosen heirs. In daily life, women often functioned 
as shopkeepers, estate managers, and managed the house- 
hold. In temples they served as priestesses, chantresses, 
and dancers. Isis was the goddess who protected and 
championed women and their rights. 

Census-Taking. Cattle census attested in 1st Dynasty; 
taxation based on increase in the herd or on agricultural 
harvest, not on basic herd or on crop area planted. 

Bureaucracy. Land and tax registration by central govern- 
ment. Archival records kept. Prison registers. Vizier's office 
supervised the bureaucracy. 

Balance Scale and Measures. Included units for linear and 
weight measure, solid and liquid. Possibly originated metric 
and decimal systems (1 deben equals 10 kite). 



27 



Moving the Tomb 



FOR SEVERAL MONTHS, beginning November 23, 1987, 
Museum staff members Robin Faulkner and Catherine 
"Cap" Sease, together with a three-man crew from Belding 
Corporation, machinery-movers, worked daily to take 
apart, move, and reassemble the two chambers from Unis- 
ankh's tomb. During the 75-day project, the 122 huge lime- 
stone blocks comprising the tomb were moved from the 
ground floor to the first floor, into the new exhibit area. 
The task was completed on March 9, 1988. 

Robin kept a daily record of the project (excerpts be- 
low). Nina shot more than 1,000 black-and-white nega- 
tives and several hundred color slides during the move; this 
documentation served as a reference in the reinstallation. 

Nov. 23, 1987: Each block has been numbered, using the 
same numbers on the same blocks as in the move from the 
original site in Egypt nearly 80 years ago. Work begins with 
the top row of blocks. Each block is slid onto a padded fork- 
lift, then lowered to a wooden pallet. At day's end the 
accumulated blocks are transferred to a storage and con- 
servation area. 

Dec. 18, 1987: The move has gone smoothly; more than 
half the blocks are now in the conservation area, where 
they are being cleaned of several decades' dust and dirt. 

Jan. 15, 1988: All the blocks except the false door have 
been removed from Hall J. The 1908 photographs taken at 
the excavation site in Egypt and the photo taken at Field 
Museum in the mid-'20s when the tomb was first installed 
show that the false door was the last block to be taken down 
and the Hrst to be reinstalled. The photos confirm that our 
dismantling is on the right track. A gantry, installed by the 
false door, looks like two large tripods connected by a cross 



beam. Pulleys and chains attached to the cross beam are 
used to lay the block on its side so it can be more easily 
moved. We wonder if the false door will fit through a set of 
double doors as it proceeds to the freight elevator; to make 
the move more suspenseful, the elevator's capacity is 
12,000 pounds — the estimated weight of the door. 

Jan. 19, 1988: The width of the doorway is measured at 
5 '9", that of the false door 5 '8". The pallet bearing the door 
is hooked to a forklift and pulled through the passageway 
with Vi" clearance on each side. The freight elevator, with 
plenty of room to spare, easily lifts its load to the first floor. 

The next step is formidable: Moving the false door 
across the marble floor of Stanley Field Hall into the new 
exhibit area without damage to the floor or to the 4,000- 
year-old door. To better distribute the door's six tons, mod- 
ern moving techniques are abandoned in favor of that em- 
ployed by the ancient Egyptians — using log rollers. Logs are 
laid in front of the false door, a chain is hooked to the fork- 
lift (in lieu of 70 ancient Egyptian workers), and the false 
door is pulled cautiously forward. Logs already passed over 
are picked up and placed continuously in front as the door 
rolls ahead. Gracefully, the precious cargo pulls into its new 
exhibit area — without a scratch. 

March 9, 1988: The last block is in place. The crew makes 
a final inspection to make sure everything is in alignment. 
This afternoon we toast our success at an informal "capping 
off" ceremony. The Belding crew will go onto another job; 
we will start arriving at work at 8:30 in the morning, 
instead of at 7. 

— Robin Faulkner, Design and Production Department; and 
Nina Cummings, Photography Department. 




28 



Offering chapel, view into antechamber, mastaba of Unis-ankh, limestone, Dynasty V, Cat, 24448, PhaobyRonTeaai 







Mummification diorama (detail), created by exhibit preparator Jeff Wrona. Ron Testa and Diane Alexander white 111056 



dioramas: a journey through the mind's eye 



One of the most fascinating elements of "Inside Ancient 
Egypt" is the pair of miniaturized, remarkably detailed 
dioramas that are in the burial groups area. The smaller of 
the two illustrates four scenes in the afterlife rituals, con- 
ducted by the gods, as they were shown in a Book of the 
Dead from the Field Museum's collection of ancient 
Egyptian artifacts. 

The larger of the two dioramas shows how the 
mummification process worked during the late New King- 
dom period, when people other than just royalty and nobil- 
ity were choosing to be mummified. It does this by present- 
ing a workshop with indoor rooms and outdoor areas where 
embalmers could prepare each body for its reappearance in 
the afterworld; the final section is a solemn procession of 
the family of the deceased as they take his mummy, inside a 
coffin in his funeral boat. 

The dioramas were created by Field Museum exhibit 
preparator Jeff Wrona. His work as a sculptor, with degrees 
from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, had taught 
him about translating ideas and concepts into three- 
dimensional objects. Nothing, however, had prepared him 
for the incredibly tedious task — the mummification diora- 
ma alone took more than six months to construct — of 
adjusting every detail to a scale that works out to be 10 mm 
(approximately V« of an inch) to 1 foot, or 33:1. 

The 24 human figures measure close to 2Vi inches tall, 
rather than the approximate 5Vi feet that mummies indi- 
cate the average adult male stood in ancient Egypt. Facial 



expressions as well as positions and coverings allow each 
figure to emerge as an individual human, whether male, 
female, or child. 

The hundreds of pieces in these settings that appear 
more than one time — canopic jars, bottles for oils, and 
mud bricks, for instance — were made following the casting 
processes Wrona learned in school. The difference, of 
course, was adjusting to size. For example, to make the cof- 
fins, which stand three inches tall, meant first carving the 
coffin from clay and then making tiny rubber molds. Into 
the molds Wrona poured polyester resin. After removing 
the hardened material, he painted each to achieve its un- 
canny detail. 

On shelves and in niches in the walls are stacks of the 
white linen shrouds and bandages that were painstakingly 
wrapped around each body. Tiny baskets and other con- 
tainers are arranged in ancient Egyptian style, as Egyptol- 
ogy consultant Frank Yurco suggested they could have 
been. The progression from the first scene to the funeral 
procession invites us to imagine ourselves watching these 
events in real life. 

It is this ability of miniaturized dioramas — to create 
ideas in context — that makes them so valuable, suggests 
Michael Spock, the Field Museum's vice president for Pub- 
lic Programs. While there are also full-sized dioramas, 
Spock explains that "the miniature ones have a certain 
magical quality of taking you into the scene, an ability 
to allow the setting to speak directly to you." — S.N. 29 







Kenya/Tanzania Safari 

March 3-23, 1989 



^ 







V 






MSB 



*** 










A FAMILY CHRISTMAS TEA AT FIELD MUSEUM 



Please send me 

for nonmembers) and 
under, $5). 



. adult tickets ($10 for members, $15 
children's tickets (age 13 and 



Total amount enclosed: $ . 



Please make checks payable to Field Museum and enclose 
a self-addressed, stamped envelope for your tickets, which 
will be mailed upon receipt of check. For further information 
call the Women's Board Office, 322-8870. 

Send this form with your check to: 

A FAMILY CHRISTMAS TEA 
AT FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Women's Board Office 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496 



Name 




Street 


City 


State 


Zip 


Telephone 



iui lib uiy yen i ie di iu t>u(jtri u views ui ivn. r\n- 

imanjaro. Afternoon lecture by local researcher. 

Late afternoon game drive. 

March 7 

Amboseli National Park. Morning and afternoon 

game drives. Mid-day at leisure to relax at the 

lodge or swim in the pool. 

March 8 

Amboseli National Park/Namanga/Gibb's Farm, 

Tanzania. Cross the border, where we clear 

customs before proceeding into Tanzania to 

Gibb's Farm, where the remainder of day is at 

leisure. 



rengeti National Park. Game 
lorongoro Conservation Area 
eti. 

nal Park. Full day exploring this 



nal Park/Olduvai/Ngorongoro 
uvai Gorge and the site of Louis 
3y's discovery of Zinjanthropus 
i on to the spectacular Ngoron- 



ater. Full day down in the crater, 
idtographing the animals. 

ater/Lake Manyara National 
Lake Manyara Hotel, set in love- 
a swimming pool overlooking 
lal activities. 

National Park. Morning and 
i drives, exploring the diversify 



Jational Park/Namanga, Kenya/ 
ack to Arusha for lunch and 
ie Namanga border, clear 
turn to Nairobi. 



re National Park/The Ark. This 
nceed into deep forested area 
of the finest game viewing in 
rsenya. Muer lunch at Aberdare Country Club 
transfer to The Ark, "berthed" over a waterhole 
where the animals come to drink. From a 
ground-level lounge with large picture win- 
dows, you have an eye-to-eye view of this 
constantly changing scenario. 

March 1 7 

Aberdare National Park/Samburu Game 
Reserve. This reserve is home to several 
species found only in these northern areas. 



March 18 

Samburu Game Reserve. Your game viewing 

takes you through a variety of landscapes. Bird 

enthusiasts will be well rewarded with over 300 

species, including the martial eagle, in this 

reserve. 

March 19 

Samburu Game Reserve/Mount Kenya 

Nanyuki. Drive to the famous Mt. Kenya Safari 

Club. The grounds cover 1 00 acres of blooming 

flower beds, ponds with water lilies and stands 

of shade trees — a litoral oasis in the middle of 

the African bush. 

March 20 

Mount Kenya Nanyuki/Nairobi/Masai Mara 

Game Reserve. Drive back to Nairobi and after 

lunch depart on the afternoon flight to the 

Masai Mara Game Reserve, where we'll stay 

in a luxury safari camp. 

March 21 

Masai Mara Game Reserve. Enjoy a day 

of game viewing in the Mara, one of the last 

strongholds of the great herds. 

March 22 

Masai Mara Game Reserve/Nairobi. After one 

last game run in the Mara, return to Nairobi by 

air. Remainder of day at leisure. 

March 23 

Nairobi/London/Chicago. Midnight flight to 

London on British Airways. Connect to British 

Airways to Chicago, arriving later the same 

day. 

Antarctica 

Discovering Antarctica, the Strait of Magellan, 
Tierra del Fuego, and Cape Horn aboard the 
llliria under the leadership of Dr. Bruce D. 
Patterson, associate curator and head of the 
Division of Mammals at the Field Museum of 
Natural History. 

February 20-March 7, 1989 

Pre-Cruise Extension 

to Patagonia 
and the Lake District 

February 15-23, 1989 



The Galapagos 

Aboard the m. v. Santa Cruz 

March 3-14, 1989 

Optional Extension to Peru March 14-20 

Price: $3,550-$3,840 



March 3: Chicago/Miami/Quito. Welcome party and orientation. 
March 4: A full day excursion to the colorful Indian fair of Otavalo. 
March 5: All-day birding excursion up into the mountains outside 

Quito. 
March 6: Fly to Guayaquil and on to Baltra where we board the 

Santa Cruz. 
March 7: Cruising — Bartolome and Tower Islands. 
March 8: Cruising — Isabela and Fernandina Islands. 
March 9: Cruising — North Seymour Island. 
March 10: Cruising — Hood and Floreana Islands. 
March 11: Cruising — Santa Cruz and Plaza Islands. 
March 12: Cruising — James Island. 



March 13: This morning we cruise to Baltra, disembarking to board 

our flight to Guayaquil. Farewell dinner. 
March 14: Return flight to Chicago. 

Join us as we explore one of the world's greatest living laboratories 
of natural history under the leadership of Dr. David E. Willard, col- 
lection manager of the Bird Division of the Field Museum of Natural 
History. The Galapagos Islands — birthplace of Darwin's "Origin 
of Species" — situated 600 miles off the coast of Ecuador, remain 
remote and out of the elements of nature where an abundance of 
strange creatures known nowhere else on earth reside. An optio. lal 
trip to Peru at a cost of $1 ,450 includes visits to the world-famous 
site of Machu Picchu, Lima, and Cuzco. 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



31 




FIELD 

MUSEUM 
TOURS 1 

Kenya/Tanzania 
Safari 

March 3-23, 1989 
Leader: Audrey Joy Faden 
Price: $6,350 



ITINERARY 

March 3 

Fly from Chicago to London via British Airways. 
March 4 

Fly from London to Nairobi, Kenya. Day rooms 
in London. Evening flight to Nairobi. 
March 5 

Nairobi. City tour. Welcome cocktail party and 
dinner. 
March 6 

Nairobi/Amboseli National Park, justly famous 
for its big game and superb views of Mt. Kil- 
imanjaro. Afternoon lecture by local researcher. 
Late afternoon game drive. 
March 7 

Amboseli National Park. Morning and afternoon 
game drives. Mid-day at leisure to relax at the 
lodge or swim in the pool. 
March 8 

Amboseli National Park/Namanga/Gibb's Farm, 
Tanzania. Cross the border, where we clear 
customs before proceeding into Tanzania to 
Gibb's Farm, where the remainder of day is at 
leisure. 



March 9 

Gibb's Farm/Serengeti National Park. Game 
drives in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area 
andtheSerengeti. 
March 10 

Serengeti National Park. Full day exploring this 
vast area. 
March 1 1 

Serengeti National Park/Olduvai/Ngorongoro 
Crater. Visit Olduvai Gorge and the site of Louis 
and Mary Leakey's discovery of Zinjanthropus 
bosei. Continue on to the spectacular Ngoron- 
goro Crater. 
March 12 

Ngorongoro Crater. Full day down in the crater, 
tracking and photographing the animals. 
March 13 

Ngorongoro Crater/Lake Manyara National 
Park. Depart to Lake Manyara Hotel, set in love- 
ly gardens with a swimming pool overlooking 
the park. Optional activities. 
March 14 

Lake Manyara National Park. Morning and 
afternoon game drives, exploring the diversify 
of this park. 
March 15 

Lake Manyara National Park/Namanga, Kenya/ 
Nairobi. Drive back to Arusha for lunch and 
continue on to the Namanga border, clear 
customs and return to Nairobi. 
March 16 

Nairobi/Aberdare National Park/The Ark. This 
morning you proceed into deep forested area 
alive with some of the finest game viewing in 
Kenya. After lunch at Aberdare Country Club 
transfer to The Ark, "berthed" over a waterhole 
where the animals come to drink. From a 
ground-level lounge with large picture win- 
dows, you have an eye-to-eye view of this 
constantly changing scenario. 

March 17 

Aberdare National Park/Samburu Game 
Reserve. This reserve is home to several 
species found only in these northern areas. 



March 18 

Samburu Game Reserve. Your game viewing 

takes you through a variety of landscapes. Bird 

enthusiasts will be well rewarded with over 300 

species, including the martial eagle, in this 

reserve. 

March 19 

Samburu Game Reserve/Mount Kenya 

Nanyuki. Drive to the famous Mt. Kenya Safari 

Club. The grounds cover 100 acres of blooming 

flower beds, ponds with water lilies and stands 

of shade trees — a litoral oasis in the middle of 

the African bush. 

March 20 

Mount Kenya Nanyuki/Nairobi/Masai Mara 

Game Reserve. Drive back to Nairobi and after 

lunch depart on the afternoon flight to the 

Masai Mara Game Reserve, where we'll stay 

in a luxury safari camp. 

March 21 

Masai Mara Game Reserve. Enjoy a day 

of game viewing in the Mara, one of the last 

strongholds of the great herds. 

March 22 

Masai Mara Game Reserve/Nairobi. After one 

last game run in the Mara, return to Nairobi by 

air. Remainder of day at leisure. 

March 23 

Nairobi/London/Chicago. Midnight flight to 

London on British Airways. Connect to British 

Airways to Chicago, arriving later the same 

day. 

Antarctica 

Discovering Antarctica, the Strait of Magellan, 
Tierra del Fuego, and Cape Horn aboard the 
llliria under the leadership of Dr. Bruce D. 
Patterson, associate curator and head of the 
Division of Mammals at the Field Museum of 
Natural History. 

February 20-March 7, 1989 

Pre-Cruise Extension 

to Patagonia 
and the Lake District 

February 15-23, 1989 



The Galapagos 

Aboard the m. v. Santa Cruz 

March 3-14, 1989 

Optional Extension to Peru March 14-20 

Price: $3,550-$3,840 



March 3: Chicago/Miami/Quito. Welcome party and orientation. 
March 4: A full day excursion to the colorful Indian fair of Otavalo. 
March 5: All-day birding excursion up into the mountains outside 

Quito. 
March 6: Fly to Guayaquil and on to Baltra where we board the 

Santa Cruz. 
March 7: Cruising — Bartolome and Tower Islands. 
March 8: Cruising — Isabela and Fernandina Islands. 
March 9: Cruising— North Seymour Island. 
March 10: Cruising— Hood and Floreana Islands. 
March 1 1: Cruising — Santa Cruz and Plaza Islands. 
March 12: Cruising— James Island. 



March 13: This morning we cruise to Baltra, disembarking to board 

our flight to Guayaquil. Farewell dinner. 
March 14: Return flight to Chicago. 

Join us as we explore one of the world's greatest living laboratories 
of natural history under the leadership of Dr. David E. Willard, col- 
lection manager of the Bird Division of the Field Museum of Natural 
History. The Galapagos Islands — birthplace of Darwin's "Origin 
of Species" — situated 600 miles off the coast of Ecuador, remain 
remote and out of the elements of nature where an abundance of 
strange creatures known nowhere else on earth resiae. An opiio. ial 
trip to Peru at a cost of $1 ,450 includes visits to the world-famous 
site of Machu Picchu, Lima, and Cuzco. 



31 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, IL 60605-2499 




CR RONALD H P,,^^ 
1221 62ND ST 
DOWNERS GROVE IL feV 




FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



December 1988 



* 



1989 Calendar 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo. F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 



CONTENTS 

December 1988 
Volume 59, Number 1 1 



Calendar for 1989, featuring artifacts from the newly opened 
exhibit "Inside Ancient Egypt." Photos by Ron Testa and Diane 
Alexander White. 



COVER 

Bronze cat from Egypt, probably Saqqara; Late Period, ca. 600 B.C. 
One of the finest Egyptian cats in existence. Acquired by Edward E. 
Ayer in 1895 and given to Field Museum by Watson F. Blair. Cat. 
30286. Behind the cat is the false door from the tomb of Unis-ankh, 
also in the Field Museum's collection. Photo by Ron Testa and 
Diane Alexander White. 109936. 



Typography by Tele/Typography 



Ownership Management and Circulation 

Filing date: Sept. 26. 1988. Title: Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. Publication no. 
898940. Frequency of publication: Monthly except for combined July/August issue. Number 
of issues published annually: 11. Annual subscription price: $6.00. Office: Roosevelt Rd. at 
Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605. 

Publisher: Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd., at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 
60605. Editor: David M. Walsten, Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605. Owner; Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders: 
none. The purpose, function, and nonprofit status of this organization and the exempt status 
for Federal income tax purposes has not changed during the preceding 12 months. 

A verage number Actual number 

of copies each of copies single 

issue preceding issue nearest 

12 months to filing date 

Total copies printed 27,200 27,500 

Paid circulation (sales through dealers, vendors, carriers) none none 

Paid circulation (mail subscriptions) 24,088 25,366 

Total paid circulation 24,088 25.366 

Free distribution 614 616 

Total distribution 24,702 25,982 

Office use, left over 2,498 1 ,518 

Return from news agent none none 

Total 27,200 27,500 

I certify that the statements made by me above are correct and complete. Jimmie W. Croft, 
vice president for Finance and Museum Services. 



VOLUNTEER AT FIELD MUSEUM 

Learn something new or share your expertise — 
a wide variety of challenging and rewarding 
volunteer opportunities for either weekdays or 
weekends are currently available. Please call 
the Volunteer Coordinator at (312) 922-9410, 
extension 360, for more information. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright ©1988 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. 



Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Volume 59 (1988) 



Articles 

A.B. Lewis Collection from Melanesia. 

The: 75 Years Later, by Robert L. 

Welsch: Sept. 10 
Beginning as a Collector, by A. S. Meek: 

J/A19 
Behind the Scenes: The Unseen Side of 

"Inside Ancient Egypt." by Susan 

Nelson: Nov. 23 
Birds in Art at Field Museum, by John W. 

Fitzpatrick: March 7 
Celebration of Philip Hershkovitz, A by 

Bruce D. Patterson: Jan. 24 
Chinese Pewter Teapots and Tea Wares. 

by Ho Chuimei and Bennet Bronson: 

March 9 
Costa Rica. Tropical Biology, and a Visit 

with Oton Jimenez, by William C. 

Burger: May 20 
Dioramas: A Journey through the Mind's 

Eye. by Susan Nelson: Nov. 29 
Distilling the Truth about Ethanol, by 

Larry Dombrowski: Sept. 29 
Egyptian Collection, The. and the Legacy 

of Edward E. Aver, by Frank J. Yurco: 

Nov 20 
Exhibition Conservation, by Catherine 

Sease: Feb. 5 
From Bushman to Tut — Exhibit Blockbust- 
ers of the Past, by Alan Solem and 

W. Peyton Fawcett; May 25 
Gensburg-Markham. by Jerry Sullivan: 

J/A22 
Gnetales. The, by Peter R. Crane: 

March 21 
Hoatzins at Home, by William Beebe: 

May 15 
Hyde Park's Parakeets, by David M. 

Walsten: April 23 
John A. Kakaruk: Painter of Inland Eskimo 

Life, by James W. VanStone: Feb. 14 
Life and Times of the Dinosaurs, by Dale 

A. Russell: Oct. 8 
Mountains in the Sea, Mountains in the 

Sk\, by Valerie Searle Lewis and Louise 

K.' Smith: J/A 8 
Moving the Tomb, by Robin Faulkner and 

Nina Cummings: Nov. 28 
New Britain Notebook, by A.B. Lewis: 

Sept. 16 
On the Trail of Erik the Red in Iceland, by 

Wendell H.Oswalt: Sept. 6 



Paradise Being Lost, by John W. Fitz- 
patrick: Jan. 10 
Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy: 

Jan. 30 
Teach the Mind. Touch the Spirit, by 

Carolyn Blackmon: May 6 
Traditional Silk Sarongs, by Robert L. 

Welsch: April 13 
Traditions in Japanese Art: The Boone 

Collection, by Suzanne Arata and 

Caroline Moore: June 6 
Twenty Years of Volunteers, by Ellen 

Zebrun: June 27 
Unearthing Ancient Amphibians, by 

Robert McKay: Jan. 6 
Welcome to Ancient Egypt, by Susan 

Nelson: Nov. 6 
Welwitschia the Wonderful, by Peter R. 

Crane: Feb. 22 



Authors 

Arata. Suzanne (co-author): Traditions in 

Japanese Art: The Boone Collection: 

June 6 
Beebe. William: Hoatzins at Home: 

May 15 
Blackmon. Carolyn: Teach the Mind, 

Touch the Spirit: May 6 
Bronson. Bennet (co-author): Chinese 

Pewter Teapots and Tea Wares: March 9 
Burger. William C: Costa Rica. Tropical 

Biology, and a Visit with Oton Jimenez: 

May 20 
Chuimei. Ho (co-author): Chinese Pewter 

Teapots and Tea Wares: March 9 
Crane. Peter R.: The Gnetales: March 21 
: Welwitschia'the Wonderful: 

Feb. 22 
Cummings. Nina (co-author): Moving the 

Tomb: Nov. 28 
Dombrowski. Larry: Distilling the Truth 

about Ethanol: Sept. 29 
Fawcett. W. Peyton (co-author): From 

Bushman to Tut — Exhibit Blockbusters 

of the Past: May 25 
Faulkner. Robin (co-author): Moving the 

Tomb: Nov. 28 
Fitzpatrick. John W.: Birds in Art at Field 

Museum: March 7 



: Paradise Being Lost: 

Jan. 10 
Lewis, A.B.: New Britain Notebook: 

Sept. 16 
Lewis. Valerie Searle (co-author): Moun- 
tains in the Sea. Mountains in the Sky: 

J/A8 
McKay, Robert: Unearthing Ancient 

Amphibians: Jan. 6 
Meek, AS.: Beginning as a Collector: 

J/A19 
Moore, Caroline (co-author): Traditions in 

Japanese Art: The Boone Collection: 

June 6 
Nelson, Susan: Behind the Scenes: The 

Unseen Side of "Inside Ancient Egypt" : 

Nov. 23 
: Dioramas: A Journey 

through the Mind's Eye: Nov. 29 

Welcome to Ancient Egypt: 



Nov. 6 
Oswalt, Wendell H.: On the Trail of Erik 

the Red in Iceland: Sept. 6 
Patterson. Bruce D.: A Celebration of 

Philip Hershkovitz: Jan. 24 
Russell. Dale A.: Life and Times of the 

Dinosaurs: Oct. 8 
Sease. Catherine: Exhibition Conservation: 

Feb. 5 
Solem. Alan (co-author): From Bushman 

to Tut— Exhibit Blockbusters of the Past: 

May 25 
Smith, Louise K. (co-author): Mountains 

in the Sea. Mountains in the Sky: J/A 8 
Sullivan. Jerry: Gensburg-Markham: 

J/A 22 
VanStone. James W.: John A. Kakaruk: 

Painter of Inland Eskimo Life: Feb. 14 
Walsten. David M . : Hyde Park's Para- 
keets: April 23 
Welsch. Robert L.: The A.B. Lewis Collec- 
tion from Melanesia: 75 Years Later: 

Sept. 10 
: Traditional Silk Sarongs: 

April 13 
Yurco. Frank J.: The Egyptian Collection 

and the Legacy of Edward E. Aver: 

Nov. 20 
Zebrun. Ellen: Twenty Years of Volunteers: 

June 27 




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Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2499 



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