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Full text of "Field Museum of Natural History bulletin"

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



January 1989 



World Music Programs 

Weekends in January 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. BlcKklll 
Willard L. Boyd. 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. JamesJ. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strot: 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. EdwmJ. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 



CONTENTS 

January 1989 
Volume 60, Number i 



JANUARY EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 

THE BATS OF ILLINOIS 

Byjames E. Gardner and David A. Saugey 6 

SPECIMEN #2,000,000 MOUNTED BY BOTANY DEPARTMENT 

By William C. Burger, Curator of Vascular Plants 16 

VOYAGE TO THE MOON (of Mors, that Is) 

By Edward Olsen, Curator of Mineralogy 18 

BABYSiniNG AND DAYCARE AMONG THE BARBARY MACAQUES 

By Meredith R Small 24 

FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 31 

COVER 

Chilean bat, Stenoderma chiknsis, from a drawing in Atlas de la 
Historia Fisicay Politica de Chile, by Claudio Gay, vol. II, Paris, 
1854. The two-volume set is in the Field Museum's Mary W. 
Runnells Rare Book Room. 

Stenoderma chilensis was described by Gay from the arid 
northern region of Chile in 1847. Because it has never been 
observed in nature and there are no specimens of this form, its 
existence has long been held in doubt. The distinctive nose leaf, 
"epaulettes" on the shoulders, and lack of a tail membrane iden- 
tify this animal as a member of the fruit bat genus Stumira, wide- 
ly distributed in wet tropical America but unknown along the dry 
Pacific slope of the Andes. Recently, populations of this genus 
were discovered in arid western Peru by Victor Pacheco of the 
Javier Prado Museum in Lima; these may be related to the enig- 
matic form described by Gay. In 1986, Pacheco came to Chicago 
and began study of the evolutionary relationships and distribu- 
tion oi Stumira with Field Museum curator Bruce D. Patterson, 
using the Museum's superb Neotropical collections. He has just 
completed a master's program at the University of Illinois, Chi- 
cago, in which he has learned a variety of new biochemical, ana- 
tomical, and statistical techniques. On his return to Peru, these 
new techniques and skills will be passed on to a new generation of 
Peruvian scientists. 



For information on Illinois bats, see pages 6-15. co. 

Claudio Gay's book) l>y June Bartlett GN-85241 



rpholo(fn, 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-9401 is published monlhl> . except tombmed July/AugusI issue, by Field Museum ot Natural HiMitry. Rix^scveli Road al Uke Shore Dnve. Chicago. IL 60bO.S-2496, Copyright © 1989 Field 
Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 lor .schools Museum member^hip includes Bullelirt subscription. Opinions expressed by authors arc their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited 
manuscripts arc welcome. Museum phone: (3121922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Member\hipDcpanmenl. Postmaster: Please send form. 1579to Field Museum of Natuial History. Roosevelt Road tl 
Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. IL 60605. 2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second cla.ss postage paid al Chicago. Illinois and additional mailing otTice. 




Winter Fun, 

Children's Workshops 1989 

Beat the Winter Blues! Treat your children (or grandchildren) to 
weekend workshops at Field Museum. Workshops begin Janu- 
ary 21 through February 18. Children ages 4-13 can participate 
in classes that range in topics from sharks, fossils, and dino- 
saurs to the fascinating culture of the Ancient Egyptians. 

Anthropologists, biologists, artists, and storytellers bring 
their creative energies and expertise to this winter's workshops. 
Advance registration is required. See the new Adult, Children, 
and Family Program Brochure for a complete schedule and 
registration form or call (312) 322-8854, Monday through Friday 
9:00am-4:00pm for further information. Workshops fill quickly 
so be sure to get your request in now. Advance registration 
is required. 




Adult Courses 

Adult Courses Begin again the second week of February. Selec- 
tions include The Incasand Their Ancestors, Conversational 
Spanish and Owis of North America. Weekend workshops fea- 
ture Caring for YourBool<.s. Chinese Brushstroke, An l-lerbai 
Sampler and Mexican Tapestry Weaving. Check the January/ 
February/March program brochure for details on these and 
many other adult courses. Call (31 2) 322-8854 if you have ques- 
tions or need another brochure. 



Weekend Programs 



World Music Programs 

Weekends in January 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Program highlights include: 
D January 7 and 8 

1 :00pm — Chinese Music Society of North America demon- 
strates instruments from the Chinese orchestra 
3:00pm — Douglas Ewart plays Japanese bamboo flute 

n January 14 and 15 

1 :00pm — Raices del Ande performs Bolivian and Latin Amer- 
ican folkloric music 
3:00pm — Shanta tells African stories 

D January 21 and 22 

1 :00pm— Eli Hoenai demonstrates African percussion 

3:00pm — Darlene Blackburn demonstrates African dance 

D January 28 and 29 

1 :00pm — Fan Wei-Tsu demonstrates the sheng, a Chinese 

zither 
3:00pm — Librado Salazar plays classical guitar 
The World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and 
Harle Montgomery Fund and a City Arts IV grant from the Chica- 
go Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 




Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are some of the numerous 
activities offered each weekend. Check the activity listing upon arrival for the complete schedule, and program locations. The 
programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Art Council. 



January 

7 



12:30pm "Museum Safari" 
Trek through the four corners of the Museum to see 
the seven continents. See antiquities from the Ama- 
zon, big game from Africa, and seals from the Arctic. 



21 12:30pm "Museum Safari" 

Trek through the four corners of the Museum to see 
the seven continents. See antiquities from the Ama- 
zon, big game from Africa, and seals from the Arctic. 



These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets are not required. 



The City Musick Performs January 20 

The City Musick, Chicago's highly acclaimed eighteenth century orchestra, pre- 
sents concerti for diverse instrumental combinations by Antonio Vivaldi, 8:00 Fri- 
day evening, January 20, in Field Museum's James Simpson Theatre. Ticket prices 
are $20 and $16 with a 10% discount for Field Museum members. Call City Musick 

at 642-1 766. 



ILLUMINATIONS 
A BESTIARY 

Enchanting Photo Exhibit Explores Back Rooms of Museums 

On View through February 26 



What natural and artistic phenonnena lurk in the back rooms 
of natural history museums? What unseen enigmas are 
locked away from the public eye? "Illuminations: A Bestiary," 
a compelling and highly unusual collection of color prints by 
photographer Rosamond Wolff Purcell, will be on display at 
Field Museum until February 26. The exhibit features 
fascinating photographs of preserved animal specimens 
taken for a book Purcell published In collaboration with 
noted Harvard paleontologist and evolutionary biologist 
Stephen Jay Gould. These captivating photos explore the 
living world in a novel way, far removed from the traditional 
photographic essays associated with natural history. 

Purcell combed the back rooms of numerous 
museums searching for skeletons, fossils, and preserved 
animal specimens to serve as her subjects. "It Is amazing 



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A Bestiary" 



how the light of day falling on these animals can banish feel- 
ings of squeamlshness and fear." says Purcell. "Whether 
photographing a fossil tooth, a desiccated monkey, or a bog 
woman, I feel a sense of privilege and responsibility. We 
have devised peculiar rites for animals In natural history 
museums . . . Inscriptions on bones, chemical baths to ren- 
der them translucent ... I think of these treatments as forms 
of burial, but I think of the animals as expressing in various 
ways, life after death." 

One aspect of the exhibit questions the life often 
drawn between art and science. Purcell's specimens were 
chosen for the artist's personal reasons of curiosity and 
appeal. They were chosen for their visual power, beauty, 
and potential for human reference rather than for scientific 
significance. Many of the photos In the exhibit are accom- 
panied by Stephen Jay Gould's eloquent prose. The scien- 
tist, taking his cue from the artist's interpretation, elaborates 
first on the specimen's scientific characteristics and then in- 
vites the viewer to speculate on other meanings such as 
evolutionary changes, social constructs, and even moral 
messages. The complex Interaction between the Image and 
the text (the subjective and the scientific) Is a prevailing 
motif throughout the exhibit. 

For the most part, Purcell's photos were taken with 
natural light In their various "museum" settings of chemicals, 
cotton, jars, and flasks. A richly colored photo of a gannet's 
skull Is typical of the surrealistic quality the Images In this 
exhibit possess. The skull Is seen In double as the camera 
captures the reflection created by a bell jar placed above 
the bird's skull. The photo suggests characteristics about 
the skull that science would not substantiate. A dramatic 
shot of an ancient mastodon's tooth, protected on cotton 
wool, resembles the startling panoramic view of a moun- 
tainous terrain. Other compelling compositions of fish skulls 
form pleasing and intricate patterns as they seem to engage 
In animated dialogue with one another. 

Rosamond Wolff Purcell's photographs have 
appeared worldwide in exhibitions, magazines, and books. 
Stephen Jay Gould is the author of numerous best selling 
books on evolution and natural history. The two are currently 
collaborating on a second publication and several photos 
taken for this project will be included In the Field Museum 
exhibit. 

The exhibit "Illuminations: A Bestiary" will be free with 
regular Museum admission. The book of the same title from 
which the exhibit derives is on sale In the Museum store for 
$1 9.95 (10 percent discount for members). 



Legends in Stone, 
Bone, and Wood 

On view through February 19 



Contemporary Native American art is featured in a new 
exhibit at Field Museum titled "Tsonakwa and Yolaikia: 
Legends in Stone, Bone, and Wood." Ttie husband and 
wife artist team of Gerard Rancourt Tsonakwa and Yolaikia 
Wapitaska display their work in a fascinating exhibition of 
colorful wooden masks, stone sculptures, and carved 
miniatures from antlers. The art is accompanied by wall 
panels bearing Indian legends and commentaries about 
animals, people, and spirits represented. Tsonakwa and 
Yolaikia are Abenaki Indians from the province of Quebec. 
Many of the social and spiritual traditions embedded in their 
heritage are reflected in their work. The exhibit will run 
through February 19. 




Mask made by Rancourt Tsonakwa and Yolaikia Wapitaska 



TRADITIONAL CRAFTS OF SAUDI ARABIA 

On view through March 1 2 



An authentic goat-haired tent that once sheltered a family 
of nomadic people in the desert of Saudi Arabia, stands as 
the centerpiece of a special new exhibit at Field Museum 
entitled "Traditional Crafts of Saudi Arabia." The exhibition 
highlights the personal collections of John Topham, an 
American engineer who worked and lived in Saudi Arabia 
during the 1970s. This unique collection of textiles, clothing. 



jewelry, weapons, and household utensils, represents the 
first comprehensive display of Saudi Arabian crafts to be 
seen in Chicago. The exhibit captures the beautiful 
achievements of a vanishing culture and reflects the artistic 
tradition of Saudi Arabia where artifact and artwork are one. 
"Traditional Crafts of Saudi Arabia" will be on display 
through March 12. 




Section of woman's silver belt with engraved glass insets, made before 1940, On view in exhibit Traditional Crafts of Saudi Arabia.' 




Burton Cave, Pike County, a protected habitat for the Indiana bat. i e Gardner 



The Bats of Illnois 



by James E. Gardner and David A. Saugey 



BATS Inhabit All of Earth's terrestrial regions, 
except the polar areas and extreme desert. More 
than 1,000 species are found worldwide, with 40 
species in the continental United States and 12 in 
Illinois. 

They are the most important predators of night- 
flying insects. More than 70 percent of the world's hat 
species are insectivorous, and most consume over half 
their body weight in insects nightly. A single little 
brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), a species common 
throughout Illinois, can consume up to 900 insects in 
an hour. 

A common misbelief is that bats attack humans. 
Another popular miconception is that all bats are rabid 
but don't suffer from the disease themselves, and there- 
fore are important reservoirs of the disease among wild 
animals. None of these beliefs, however, has any basis 
in fact. Bats do not attack people even when provoked 
(though some will bite in self-defense if picked up) and 



less than one half of one percent of all the bats in the 
world contract rabies. Those that do suffer the disease 
die from its effects. Fewer than ten cases of rabies in the 
United States and Canada in the past 40 years have 
been attributed to rabies. By way of contrast, more peo- 
ple die annually from bee stings or from attacks by their 
own pets. 

Bats are extremely valuable in medical research 
because of their unique morphological and physiolog- 
ical adaptations as flying mammals. Most have highly 



"The Bats ot Illinois" is adapted from "Aerial Acrobats ot the Eve- 
ning Sky," by David A. Saugey, which appeared in the November/ 
December 1988 issue of Arkansas Game and Fish, published by the 
Arkansas Game and Fish Commission. David Saugey is a wildlife 
biologist with the United States Forest Service. Mr. Gardner, who 
serves the Illinois State Natural History Division as assistant 
research biologist, Section of Faunistic Surveys and Insect 
Identification, emended and adapted Mr. Saugey's article with re- 
spect to the bat species found in Illinois. 



sophisticated sonar (echolocation) for navigating and 
catching prey; they are exceptionally long-lived and 
resistant to many diseases. Bat research has contributed 
to the designing of navigational devices for the blind 
and aided in the development of vaccines and tech- 
niques for birth control and artificial insemination. 
Bats have been used to test the effects of new drugs on 
bacteria and other microorganisms in blood and in 
investigating the effects of drugs and alcohol on blood 
vessels and nerves, on muscle regeneration, and on tis- 
sue repair. How ironic that the cliche "blind as a bat" 
refers to an animal that allows us to "see" so much. For 
the record, most bats have good eyesight! 

Unlike some mammals, bats are true hibernators. 
In Illinois, they find a suitable environment in caves 
and abandoned mines from mid-September through 
early November. Living on deposits of stored fat, they 
can reduce their basic metabolic rate ( BMR) to a level at 
which breathing and heartbeat are almost impercep- 
tible. When disturbed bats are awakened from hiberna- 
tion, they increase their BMR, exhausting precious fat 
reserves. The disturbance of hibernating bats can thus 
result in starvation and death before insects are again 
available as a food resource. 



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Hoary bat c1987AH Rider, The National Audubon society collection PR 




In Illinois, most bats mate in autumn before enter- 
ing hibernation or during migration. The females don't 
become pregnant, however, until hibernation ceaseS in 
the spring. In this reproductive pattern, known as de- 
layed fertilization, sperm remain viable and are 
nourished by specialized cells in the female's reproduc- 
tive tract until ovulation and fertilization occur. 



their own — about 21 to 30 days after birth. 

Like many other animals, bats worldwide are 
seriously threatened by human activities. The worst 
threats to bats are loss of habitat, disturbance by hu- 
mans, and poisoning from pesticides. Fortunately, all 
bats in Illinois are protected by law, but the Indiana 
bat, the gray bat, the southeastern hat, and Rafines- 



Hoary bat 

. ,_ c Merlin Tultle. The National Audubon 
.♦# Sociely Colleclion PR 




Young bats, called pups, are generally born be- 
tween late May and early June. Depending upon the 
species, bats may have a single pup or up to five in a 
litter. Females are very attentive mothers, grooming 
8 and nursing their pups until they can fly and forage on 



que's big-eared bat are classified as state endangered 
species by the Illinois Endangered Species Protection 
Board. The Indiana bat and the gray bat are also listed 
as federally endangered species by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. The Illinois Natural History Survey, 



the Illinois Department of Conservation, and the Illi- 
nois Department of Transportation are involved in 
cooperative research programs studying the distribu- 
tion and ecology of Illinois bats, with emphasis on 
learning more about such endangered species as the In- 
diana bat. Everyone can help protect and preserve bats 
simply by leaving them alone and avoiding the dis- 
turbance or destruction of their habitat. 

Habitats for Illinois bats include caves, aban- 
doned mines, bridges, trees, vacant and occupied 
buildings, and just about any other kind of shelter. Illi- 
nois bats are grouped into two categories, tree bats and 
cave bats, depending upon the type of shelter (known 
as roosts) they use as well as their respective require- 
ments and behavior, and their morphological adapta- 
tions. 

Tree Bats 

Tree bats are more solitary and nomadic than cave bats. 
They roost singly or in small family groups that consist 
of a female and her offspring. Tree bats migrate in re- 
sponse to cold temperatures and seldom enter caves or 
mines to hibernate. The uropatagium (the flight mem- 
brane between the legs, enclosing the tail) is more fully 
furred than it is in cave bats, providing added protec- 
tion from the elements. For reasons not fully under- 
stood, the fur of tree bats is much more colorful than 
the drab brown and gray pelage of cave bats. 

Evening Bat, Nycticeius humeralis. This '/3-ounce, 
brownish evening bat lacks distinctive features and col- 
oration. Because of its black membranes and ears, it is 
often mistaken for the big brown bat (see Cave Bats). 
During summer, it primarily inhabits older, abandoned 
buildings, although it can be found in hollow trees or 
beneath loose bark. Females (seldom more than 150 in 
a group) establish maternity colonies in these habitats 
and produce a single litter that characteristically has 
two pups. Although this species has been reported 
throughout Illinois, including Chicago, during the 
summer, it is encountered very infrequently. 

The evening bat is apparently absent from Illinois 
during the winter, but its winter range outside the state 
is virtually unknown. This bat accumulates large fat 
reserves in autumn, reserves that are sufficient for 
hibernation or a long migration. 

Hoary Bat, Lasiurus cinereus. The largest and most 
colorful bat in Illinois, the hoary bat, has a wingspan ot 
up to 16 inches and weighs more than IVi ounces. 
Many of its hair tips are white, giving a frosted or hoary 



appearance. Females are much larger than males and 
give birth to two pups among the foliage of trees. Sel- 
dom seen by most people, this heavily furred bat occurs 
statewide during spring and summer. 

A strong, fast flyer, the hoary bat is an accom- 
plished migrant. Often moving in large groups, these 
bats spend the winter in the southeastern United 
States, Mexico and Guatemala, although they have 
been reported from Indiana and other more northern 
states during winter months. Generally absent from 
Illinois during winter, this bat is sometimes found on 
lawns or sidewalks either dead or near death after 
autumn migrations that proved too strenuous or too 
hazardous. 

Red Bat, Lasiurus horealis. This beautiful, medium- 
sized bat can be bright red-orange to yellow-brown. It 
weighs up to Vi ounce and has an 11- to 13-inch wing- 
span. A very common species in Illinois, the red bat 
can be found in virtually every county during the sum- 
mer. Solitary bats roost in daytime retreats near the 
ground among the leaves of trees or shrubs. Several red 
bats were once found hanging together on the under- 
side of a sunflower leaf. Perhaps more than any other 
bat species, it feeds on insects attracted to lights. 

Females typically have a single litter of three pups, 
occasionally as few as one or as many as five. Blue jays 
prey on their flightless pups (and on those of all other 
bat species) as do crows and snakes. Red bats are unique 
among Illinois bats in that males can be easily dis- 
tinguished from females by their much more reddish 
pelage. 

Very little is known about wintering sites of red 
bats, but they probably hibernate in trees in southern 
states. Like their close relative the hoary bat, they are 
sometimes found during autumn migrations and can 
often be seen flying in late afternoon on warmer winter 
days. 

Silver-haired Bat, Lasionycteris noctivagans. Weigh- 
ing less than Vi ounce, this medium-sized bat has a 
bearlike face and beautiful dark, silver-tipped fur on its 
back. It can be found in forested habitats throughout 
Illinois; however, its occurrence in Illinois can be con- 
sidered sporadic and its exact status remains unknown. 
A typical day roost for this bat is under loose bark, but 
some have been found in hollow trees, woodpecker 
holes, birds' nests, and even mines. Females typically 
give birth to two young, but almost nothing is known 
about the summer maternity roost sites of females. 

Silver-haired bats apparently do not migrate great g 




Red bat ig;1979L west. The National Audubon society collection PR 



distances. During spring and autumn migrations, they 
are occasionally found clinging to the sides of houses or 
outbuildings. During a November migration in 1972, a 
large number of silver-haired bats, apparently con- 
fused, were killed along with a number of warblers 
when they flew into Chicago's McCormick Place, just 
south of Field Museum. 

Cave Bats 
10 Unlike tree bats, cave bats hibernate during winter in 



caves or other cave-like environments such as aban- 
doned mines. Cave bats have a hairless uropatagium 
and rely heavily upon caves for protection from winter 
temperatures. They are generally much more social 
than tree bats, often forming groups of thousands. Be- 
cause they group in such large numbers, in relatively 
small areas, cave bats are far more vulnerable to human 
vandalism or natural adverse conditions than are the 
more solitary tree bats. 

"Clustering" behavior is carried over into the sum- 
mer when cave bats form maternity colonies, although 



these are usually of considerably fewer individuals than 
hibernating clusters. In Illinois, the gray bat and the 
southeastern bat are the only species whose females re- 
main in caves to bear their young; all other cave bat 
species in Illinois establish maternity colonies in build- 
ings, trees, or other structures. 

Little Brown Bat, Myotis lucifugus. This small bat has 
an 8- to 10-inch wingspan and weighs about Vi ounce. 
Its sleek, glossy fur ranges from pale tan to reddish or 
dark brown. Easily confused with several other species 
of myotine, or "mouse-eared" bats, the little brown bat 
is very common throughout Illinois during the summer. 
Females establish large maternity colonies in buildings 
and give birth to one pup yearly. Males are solitary or 
live in small bachelor colonies. Following hibernation, 
this species is rarely found in caves; but without a 
doubt, little brown bats far outnumber any other spe- 
cies of hibernating bat in Illinois during winter, with 
clusters sometimes numbering in the tens of thousands. 
Accordingly, little brown bats have been one of 
the most frequently studied species, and they are still a 
favored subject. Long-term studies of the movements 
of little brown bats from an abandoned mine in north- 
central Illinois have given us much insight into the 
natural history of this species. 

Gray Bat, Myotis grisescens. Typically weighing less 
than '/3 ounce, this bat is usually uniformly gray in color 
(some are russet). It is dependent on caves for roosting 
habitat during both summer and winter. For this 
reason, it has never been common in Illinois and has 
been reported almost entirely from regions with natural 
caves in the southern and west-central portions of the 
state. A cave in southern Illinois that once housed 
more than 10,000 gray bats has now been abandoned; 
very few of the approximately 400 caves in Illinois pro- 
vide suitable habitat for this endangered species, and 
those that do have long since been abandoned because 
of habitat destruction and human disturbance, for the 
species is highly sensitive to disturbance. Their vul- 
nerability is indicated by the fact that 95 percent of the 
entire known gray bat population hibernates in just 
eight caves in five states. 

Maternity colonies may contain thousands of 
females, each bearing a single pup. These females form 
tightly packed clusters in dome-shaped pockets in the 
ceilings of caves. Female gray bats captured over the 
Cache River in Johnson and Pulaski counties had given 
birth that season and were nursing young, but their 
maternity site could not be found. Efforts to capture 




Silver-haired bat eMeninTullle, rue National Auouu 



gray bats at caves they once occupied have resulted in 
the taking of only a few males. Il 



Eastern Pipistrelle, Pipistrellus suhflavus. The east- 
em pipistrelle is a small bat with fur that is orangish-tan 
at the tips and black at the base. The yellow-orange 
forearm and contrasting blackish wing membranes 
make it easy to identify. Referred to as "pips," these 
common, '/5-ounce animals are the smallest Illinois 
bat. They range throughout Illinois during the summer, 
but only a single pip has been reported from the Chi- 
cago area and very few from other northern portions of 
the state. In winter, when their movement is restricted, 
at least one pip is commonly found in almost any cave 
or mine in Illinois. 



black (charcoal gray) basal portions with cinnamon or 
chestnut tips. Often confused with the little brown bat 
it may be distinguished by a keel-like projection from 
its kalcar (heel bone). The Indiana bat can be found in 
almost any county in Illinois during summer. It in- 
habits upland and floodplain forests interspersed with 
openings that are usually near waterways. These bats 
are known from very few caves and abandoned mines 
in Illinois but may form dense clusters of up to 300 bats 
per square foot when they hibernate on cave ceilings. 

Females establish nursery colonies of up to 100 
adults beneath the bark or in the hollow portions of 




Hibernating cluster of the little brown bat « 1952 j l upofe rue Nanonai Auouboo soc«iy conecnor pr 



Females occur singly or band together in small 
numbers during summer, when they produce their two 
pups. Summer roosts are virtually unknown but prob- 
ably occur among the foliage of trees, in tree hollows, 
or beneath the bark. Pips are rarely found in buildings, 
but their small size and inconspicuous habits make 
them difficult to spot. 

Indiana Bat, Myotis sodalis. Named for the state 

where it was first described, the medium-sized Indiana 

12 bat weighs only '/4 ounce and has bi-colored fur — dull 



dead trees. Aided by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice, the Indiana Bat Recovery Team, and several coop- 
erating state agencies, Illinois was the first state to 
gather comprehensive information on roost site selec- 
tion, movements, home range, and activity of Indiana 
bats. Tiny transmitters, weighing V32 ounce, were 
glued to the backs of the bats, and their movements 
monitored intensively. Summertime radiotracking 
studies identified 45 trees throughout Illinois that were 
used as roosting sites. 




Gray bats ■; 1934 Jett lepore. The Nalional Audubon Society Collection PR 



The Indiana hat is a federally endangered species, 
and its populations continue to decline. Disturbance to 
hihemation sites and destruction of summer hahitat are 
the primary causes of decline, hut pesticide poisoning 
prohably is a significant culprit. One cave and one 
abandoned mine in Illinois receive special protection 
to provide safe winter habitat for Indiana hats. Con- 
servation measures to ensure the availability of suitable 
summer habitat are not easily implemented and require 
concerted efforts and a great deal of support from Illi- 
nois citizens. 

Southeastern Bat, Myotis austroriparius. The south- 
eastern bat typically weighs '/3 ounce. It can be con- 
fused with several other species of Myotis, but the Illi- 
nois members of this species have woolly, dark basal fur 
with orangish tips. The fur on their underparts is more 
whitish than that on other Myotis and their noses are 
more pink. The southeastern bat is primarily a coastal 
species, but its range extends into extreme southern 
Illinois. It prefers caves and mines, from which it has 
been reported in southern Illinois, but it may be found 



in buildings or other types of shelter. 

Pregnant females and females that had recently 
given birth were captured in mist nets set over a stream 
in southern Illinois during the statewide bat research 
project. These captures represented the first docu- 
mentation that this species reproduces in the state. 
Previously, only males had been reported from a few 
caves and abandoned mines in southern counties. 

This species normally produces twins, a charac- 
teristic that is unique among the Myotis species. 
Females usually establish nursery colonies in caves in 
much the same way as gray bats. Like gray and Indiana 
bats, the "social" behavior of this species has led to 
drastic population declines. Due to habitat destruction 
and disturbance by man, this species is being consid- 
ered for endangered status by the U.S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service. It is already classified as a state endangered 
species by the Illinois Endangered Species Protection 
Board. 

Keen's Bat, Myotis keenii. The '/s-ounce, brownish 
Keen's bat is distinguished most easily from other 13 




Eastern pipistrelle bat 

Ejohn M Burnley. The National Audubon Sociely Collection'PR 



Banded Indiana bat study in Fogelpole Cave, Monroe County, Illi- 
nois. J E GarOner 



14 






<^^^ 


:^^^P§ 




il 


M 




^1|^ 


,;;^?^ 


Biy-' 


PP^w" 


> 
.12 




1 




P'.'jd^^l 







Indiana bat. j e Gardner 



myotine species hy its small overall size and longer ears. 
Apparently distributed throughout Illinois during sum- 
mer, Keen's bats have been found roosting in buildings 
and trees and occasionally beneath bridges. Males can 
be trapped almost anytime during summer at several 
cave and mine entrances in Illinois. Winter is spent 
hibernating in the colder areas of mines and caves. 
Individuals seem to favor crevices and other tight 
places as roosting spots and so are often overlooked. 

Females bear a single pup, but almost nothing is 
known concerning the location or size of nursery ct>l- 
onies. One colony of 1 5 pregnant Keen's bats was dis- 
covered beneath the bark of a dead elm tree in Pike 
County, Illinois, after a male Indiana bat was radio- 
tracked to the tree. 

Big Brown Bat, Eptesicusfuscus. The big brown bat is 
a large, brown, rather nondescript bat. Weighing from 
Vi to Vs ounces, it is second in size only to the hoary bat. 
One of the most common bats in Illinois year-round, it 
is frequently found in houses, occupied or unoccupied. 
Since this species has become tolerant of people and 
benefits from their dwellings, it is the most likely spe- 
cies to occur within urban areas. It has the distinctive 
habit of snarling when frightened or disturbed in its 
roost. An efficient feeder, a big brown bat is capable of 
filling its stomach with insects in one hour. 

This species often shares maternity quarters with 
other species of "house bats." Favored summer roosts 
are attics, between walls, and beneath loose siding or 




Keen's bat 

c 1980 John [Jova The National Audutjon Society Collection/PR 



Other exterior coverings. Hundreds of females form 
maternity colonies in which each female produces two 
young. 

Big brown bats may hibernate in the same build- 
ing they occupied during the summer, but more com- 
mon winter quarters are caves and mines. They nor- 
mally roost singly or in small clusters; however, un- 
usually large clusters of several hundred individuals 
were discovered in abandoned mines in Jo Daviess 
County. 

Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat, Plecotus rafinesquii. As 

its name suggests, this species is easily distinguished by 
its large, conspicuous ears. An attractive bat, it has 
bi-colored gray dorsal fur and nearly white underparts. 
Weighing 'A ounce, it is at home in dilapidated houses 
and barns but probably uses hollow trees when aban- 
doned structures are sparse. In Illinois, the distribution 
of this bat is limited to a few extreme southern coun- 
ties, where almost all records are from caves and mines 
during winter. One nursery colony was discovered in a 
dilapidated cabin in Johnson County, but the bats 
abandoned this structure after human disturbance. 
Very few big-eared bats were captured in mist nets set 
over the Cache River during a statewide research 
project. 




Big brown bat, 2-3 days old. oavraA saugey 



Females form nursery colonies with six to several 
dozen adults, each producing a single pup. Males are 
generally solitary during nursery season and can be 
found behind loose bark, in hollow trees, or and in 
buildings. Because of its vulnerability to disturbance, 
the destruction of its habitat, and its limited distribu- 
tion in the state, the big-eared bat has been designated 
a state endangered species by the Illinois Endangered 
Species Protection Board. FM 



Rafinesque's big-eared bat oavidA saugey 




15 



2,000,00th Specimen 
AAounted by Botany Department 



6/ William C. Burger 
Curator of Vascular Plants 



Plant mounters in the Department of Botany recently 
mounted our two millionth vascular plant specimen. 
As one of the world's largest museums, we have an 
obligation to gather materials for future study. Our 
strong holdings of material from Latin America makes 
collecting and preserving specimens from this region 
especially important. Tropical forests are being cut at 
an accelerating rate as the populations escalate. Trop- 
ical forests are poorly known and there is an urgency to 
sample native forest species before they are replaced by 
farms, pastures, and housing developments. Thanks to 
expeditions by Museum staff, active collecting by Latin 
American colleagues, and exchange of specimens from 
other institutions, we are adding valuable new mater- 
ials to our herbarium. 



16 




Vascular plants include the flowering plants, 
ferns, conifers, and their relatives. Our collections also 
include many nonvascular plants, such as mosses, 
algae, fungi, and lichens. All these, together with our 
collections of economic plants, total about 2,500,000 
specimens. 

Specimens of vascular plants are generally pressed 
flat and dried. The flattened specimen is then glued 
onto a sheet of stiff high-quality herbarium paper 
16'/2 X llVz inches in size. A label giving the scientific 
name, collector, date, geographical origin, ecology, 
and descriptive details is also glued onto the sheet. 
Once the specimen is securely glued to the herbarium 
sheet it can be handled and studied with relatively little 
damage, despite its being dry and often very brittle. 
The mounted specimen is filed together with other 
specimens of the same genus and species in metal cases 
that hold the herbarium collections. 

Dried plant specimens are used in a variety of 
ways. Artists may use the specimens to illustrate details 
of a particular species. Paleobotanists often compare 
specimens of living species with fossil remains to try 
and determine the correct placement of their fossils. 
Conservationists often use museum specimens to deter- 
mine the earlier range of a declining species. Ecologists 
can use the specimens to determine altitudinal range or 
flowering and fruiting times over the entire geographic 
range of a species. Chemists and anatomists can re- 



Plant Preparator Birthel Atkinson mounts 
two nnillionth plant specimen. 

June Bartletl 85193 



Plant specimens collected in the 

field, often thousands of miles 

from Chicago, are carefully 

prepared and packed to ensure 

they will be suitable for mounting 

when they finally arrive at the 

Museum. 







^■l 



move small portions for detailed analysis. However, 
the greatest use of these museum specimens is for 
classification. 

For tht»e who classify plants and animals, the pri- 
mary task is to develop sound concepts of the species, 
often thought to be the basic building blocks of nature. 
Species are generally defined as populations of plants or 
animals that do not interbreed with other similar plants 
or animals. While this is a fine conceptual basis for a 
species definition, it is difficult to apply in practice. For 
the vast majority of plant species, especially in the 
tropics, we look for morphological discontinuities in 
groups of related species. If two closely similar species 
consistently differ in minor characteristics (and there 
do not seem to be any intermediate specimens) we can 
be quite confident that they are not interbreeding. It is 
for this reason that the comparison of large suites of 
specimens are essential for determining and defining 
species correctly. Thus, the primary use of our speci- 
mens is by taxonomists in their work of defining species 
and understanding relationships. 

A question that often arises about our holdings is 
whether we have more than one specimen of the same 
species. The answer is that in the case of all but the 
rarest species we do indeed have many specimens of the 
same species. Collectors in the field have no way of 
knowing what the Museum already holds, and they 
may not kntiw the identity of many of the specimens 
they collect. It is thus inevitable that many species are 
represented by a suite of specimens, collected over 
many decades and over a large area. The value of these 
multiple collections is that they are central to dealing 
with a wide variety of problems, from those of taxo- 
nomic classification to those of biogeography and 
ecology. Once a species is properly defined, large 



numbers of specimens will tell us over what geograph- 
ical area the species occurs, in what kind of habitat it: 
grows, when it flowers and fruits, how it varies over its 
range, how people use it, and other bits of information. 

In effect, the herbarium is a "library" of dried 
plants; and, as in the case of libraries, the larger the 
number of specimens, the greater is the information 
content. But there is a serious problem in our herbar- 
ium: misidentified specimens can result in serious mis- 
information. It is not uncommon for a misidentified 
specimen to be found in a region or at an altitude where 
the species whose name it carries has never been found 
before. Misidentification is a common probem among 
the plant collections for several reasons. For one thing, 
higher plants number in the tens of thousands for most 
continental areas. The sheer number of species invites 
error and confusion. In addition, plants are highly vari- 
able. Leaves can differ greatly on different plants of the 
same species, or even in the same individual under 
differing environmental conditions. Specimens with 
flowers (and without fruit) can be difficult to correlate 
with specimens of the same species with fruit (but lack- 
ing flowers). Since a great many of our specimens come 
from tropical areas where many species are still poorly 
defined, our herbarium suffers from more than its share 
of misplaced specimens. It is for this reason that we 
welcome loan requests by researchers working on a par- 
ticular group. We send about 25,000 specimens out on 
loan each year and we trust that they will come back in 
better order than when we sent them. 

Recently, the National Science Foundation in- 
creased its support of our loan and curatorial activities, 
helping us to continue serving the scientific commu- 
nity. Our two millionth vascular plant is a small mile- 
stone in a continuing responsibility. FM 



17 



Voyage io the Moon 

(of Mars, that is) 

by Edward O I sen 
Curator of AA ineralogy 

"He spake, and summoned Fear and Flight to yoke his 
steed and put on his glorious armor." 

—Homer's The Iliad, Book XV 



Here, Homer tells the legend of Mars, the ancient 
Greek god of war. To avenge the death of his son he 
prepares to descend upon the Earth to strike its inhabi- 
tants with fear (Deimos) and drive them to flight 
(Phobos). 

The American astronomer Asaph Hall first dis- 
covered the two tiny moons that circle the planet Mars 
111 years ago (August 16 and 17, 1877). Mars had 
called upon Fear and Flight (Deimos and Phobos, in 



Greek) so it seemed appropriate for Hall to give the 
names Deimos and Phobos to the two small com- 
panions of the planet Mars. 

Off and on for over a hundred years, searches had 
been made for a moon (or moons) around Mars. No 
one had found them, so the expert opinion was that 
Mars had none. That didn't seem strange, for only 
Earth, among the three inner planets, had any moons. 
It actually seemed odd that the Earth does have one. 




18 The Phobos spacecraft. The two landers are not shown. 




Phobos photographed at a distance of 380 miles in 1978 by Viking Orbiter I during the spacecraft's 854th revolution around Mars, The 
photomosaic shows the side of Phobos which always faces Mars. The largest crater is 10 km across. counesyNASA 



19 




Full-scale mock-up of the Phobos 
spacecraft displayed at ttie 1987 
Paris Air Show, counesysovioio 



Beyond the orbit of Mars lie several belts of orbiting 
asteroids, and they separate what is called the Inner 
Solar System from the Outer Solar System. The Inner 
Solar System contains the solid rock planets, Mercury, 
Venus, Earth, and Mars. The asteroids themselves are 
solid rock planets, but are very small; the largest is only 
300 miles in diameter, and they range downward to 



gravel-size bits and pieces. There are thousands of 
them. But, beyond them, the Solar System takes on a 
very different aspect. The planets of the Outer Solar 
System are giants — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Nep- 
tune. Only little Pluto, with its weird orbit, may be a 
solid rock body like the inner planets. Jupiter, Saturn, 
Uranus, and Neptune, are enormous balls of gases, roil- 



Phobos Spacecraft 
Orbits Around Mars 




20 





Photos Deimos 


Mean orbtt radius 


9.377 km 23.463 km 


Orbital period 


7h 39m 30h 17m 


Size 


19x22x27 km 11x12x15 km 


Mass 


12.7 X 10" g I8x10"g 


Density 


2.2g/cm^ 1.7g/cm' 



Detail of Phobos photo- 
graphed at a distance of 75 
miles by Viking Orbiter I in 
1977. The largest crater 
shown here Is 1 .2 km across. 

Courtesy NASA 




ing in continuous storms. Down deep in their interiors 
there might be solid rock, but no one knows. They could 
just as easily be gaseous. 

These outer planets, however, are rich with moons. 
Jupiter has 16, Saturn more than 17, Uranus 15, and 
Neptune a minumum of 3. There is a hint that even 
little Pluto has at least one moon. Among the inner 
planets, as already mentioned, the Earth is unusual for 
having a moon at all, and especially for having a moon 
that is so large relative to the size of Earth itself. If you 
add up all the masses of the moons of Jupiter, for exam- 
ple, they total up to only a fraction of one percent of 
the mass of Jupiter itself. The same is true for each of 
the other giant outer planets. Earth's moon, however, 
is over one percent of the mass of the Earth. The origin 
of Earth's moon is a fascinating story that has emerged 
from over fifteen years of analysis of the samples that 
were returned to Earth during the U.S. program of 
landings on the lunar surface — the Apollo Program. 
That's another story. 

The two moons of Mars are very small compared to 
the mass of Mars. Deimos and Phobos are not spheri- 
cal. Each is lumpy and irregular. Phobos looks like a 

giant Idaho potato. Its dimensions are approximately 
17 by 13 by 12 miles (27 by 21 by 19 kilometers). Their 
orbits are also peculiar — peculiar, that is, in contrast to 



the orbit of our own moon. Our moon makes a full 
rotation around the Earth about every 28 days. So it 
takes almost a calendar month for the moon to go 
through all of its phases from full moon to new moon 
and back to full moon again. Our moon rises in the east 
and sets in the west. Each night it rises a little later than 
the night before because it has moved l/28th of its way 
along its eastward orbit around the Earth. So we are 
used to a moon that rises and sets in the general manner 
of the sun, once a day. 

For a person standing on the surface of Mars the two 
little moons offer a bizarre ballet of risings and settings. 
A day on Mars is just a bit longer than a day on Earth — 
24 hours and 39 minutes. Deimos takes 6 hours longer 
to go around Mars than Mars takes to go through a full 
Martian day. This means that Deimos moves sluggishly 
through the sky and, after rising, takes more than two 
days to set. Then it takes two more days before one 
would see it rise again. In the meantime, Phobos whips 
around Mars in a lively 7 hours and 39 minutes. On 
Mars, a person would see Phobos rise in the west and set 
in the east, twice a day. 

The U.S. Viking program, initiated in 1975, sent 
rockets to circle Mars, photograph its surface, measure 
its physical and chemical properties, and drop landers 
onto the surface. In the process, they obtained pictures 



21 



of both Phobos and Deimos. The peculiar shapes of 
these moons led to speculation they could be two aster- 
oids that passed close to Mars at some times in the dis- 
tant past and were captured by its gravity field to be- 
come permanent companions. Mars is, after all, the 
outermost planet of the Inner Solar System and close to 
the belts of asteroids. 

There has long been keen interest among space sci- 
entists to send a rocket to collect data on an asteroid. 
We know that most, but not all, of the meteorites that 
fall on the Earth are bits of asteroids. Altogether there 
are over two dozen kinds of them. It is not known 
whether this variety requires separate asteroids for each 
kind or whether some asteroids are compound types. 
Meteorites are very ancient matter — the oldest and 
most primitive objects we have from the Solar System 
— 4,560,000,000 years old. Everything we know about 
the history of the Solar System we have learned from 
them. 

Targeting an asteroid for a collecting mission is ex- 
tremely difficult. First off, even a large asteroid is a very 
small target. Second, asteroids in the asteroid belts 
move along in orbits that contain thousands of them. 



In attempting to rendezvous with one asteroid, a space 
vehicle could be battered and damaged by other tiny 
asteroids. So, if one wants to land on an asteroid the 
simplest way is to go after one of the moons of Mars. 
Mars is a big target and easy to locate. It is out of the 
main belts of asteroids, so damage by passing bits of 
space gravel is minimized. Besides, Mars has been suc- 
cessfully orbited many times before. We know how to 
get there. 

It has been known for a long time that 1988-89 is a 
prime time slot for missions to Mars. Because of the 
relative orbital motions of the Earth and Mars, the dis- 
tance of approaches between them varies from as much 
as 63 million to as little as 35 million miles over a per- 
iod of 1 5 to 1 7 years. 1988 was one of those years when 
Mars and Earth were only a little over 35 million miles 
apart, and now in early 1989 they are still fairly close 
together. All you have to do is look up into the south- 
ern sky on a clear night to appreciate this. Mars stands 
out as a bright disc with its characteristic reddish glow, 
almost as bright as the brilliant gleam of Jupiter. 

Because the administration of the United States has 
decided to limit its space efforts to Space Shuttle pro- 



External view ot the alpha-backscatter spectrometer, which will make chemical measurements on the surface of Phobos. The device was 
developed by Prof. Anthony Turkevich, of the University of Chicago's Department of Chemistry and built in West Germany. Earlier versions 
were carried on Surveyor missions that explored Earth's moon in the 1960s. PhoiocoonesvA Turke»icn 



22 




jects in near-Earth orbits, to a possible Earth-orbiting 
space station with military applications, and to mili- 
tary vehicles supporting the Star Wars program, no 
effort was made to exploit this infrequent close ap- 
proach to Mars. The European Space Agency, which 
expended major resources to rendezvous with Halley's 
Comet two years ago, also did not plan any project to 
take advantage of this, but the Russians did. 

In July of last year the Soviet Union launched two 
spacecraft from their Baikonur Cosmodrome in central 
Asia. The plan was for these craft to arrive in the vicin- 
ity of Mars in 200 (Earth) days and go into orbit around 
it. The orbits would be made circular and synchronous 
with that of Phobos. During April and May of this year 
landing vehicles will be deployed and these will make a 
series of low-velocit flybys of that little moon. The 
orbiters are expected to be active for at least 140 
(Earth) days after the landers are released. The Soviets 
are not running the whole operation by themselves. 
Participants include scientists from Finland, West 
Germany, France, East Germany, Bulgaria, Austria, and 
the United States, which is providing ten scientists. 

After the landers make their flybys they will land on 
Phobos's surface. The landers are of two types. One 
kind is to be stationary (called the DAS lander after its 
name in Russian). It will deploy a series of instruments 
to measure the chemical and physical features of Pho- 
bos. The other kind is a mobile vehicle that will move 
over the surface, making some of the same measure- 
ments to see if composition and physical features 
change from place to place. The mobile lander will 
move in a very odd way compared to the rover vehicles 
the U.S. sent to the moon years ago. Because Phobos is 
so small and lumpy, a rover would have serious prob- 
lems moving about. The lander is this case is called a 
hopper. It is going to literally hop from place to place. 
When the hopper completes its measurements in one 
place, pusher legs will propel it to a new place. Each 
hop will carry it about 65 feet (20 meters). After a hop 
is completed, the hopper will bring itself into an up- 
right position and make a new series of measurements. 
It is capable of making ten such hops. This kind of 
vehicle is practical on Phobos, which is so small its 
gravitational pull is very weak. It doesn't take a lot of 
energy to propel the hopper. 

The stationary (DAS) landers are instrumented to 
make a greater variety of physical and chemical 
measurements. It is expected they will continue to 
make measurements for about one (Earth) year. The 
main part of the mission is expected to take about three 
months. Besides the gathering of chemical and physi- 



cal data, television cameras will scan the surface, send- 
ing back high-resolution images to Earth. The project, 
however, isn't without its risks. What the plans are and 
how it all actually functions may be somewhat dif- 
ferent. One of the Soviet scientists said recently, "It is 
worth the gamble, and if things work we should have 
some fantastic data from what will be the first landings 
on a small body in the Solar System." 

Many glitches could arise. The DAS landers will be 
powered by solar panels. If one of these landers ends up 
landing in the bottom of one of the many craters that 
pock the Phobos surface it could find itself covered by 
permanent shadows from the crater rim. The initial 
power would fade quickly and the solar panels could 
not recharge the system. So, all data transmission 
would shut down. Even if a DAS lander happens to land 
on high ground in full sunlight, it could be oriented in 
such a way that the data transmission antenna, aimed 
towards Earth, would cast a shadow across the solar 
panel, again shutting off all power. Finally, if the land- 
er finds itself on the side of a hill, the angle of its solar 
panel to the sun could be so poor that although power 
might not be cut off, it would be reduced considerably. 

The experiments in this mission sound like some- 
thing from science fiction. They sport such acronyms 
as LIMA-D, GRUNT, DION, FREGAT and KRFM-ISM- 
THERMOSCAN. One of the experiments is of special 
interest to Chicagoans. It is a device called an alpha- 
backscatter spectrometer that makes chemical measure- 
ments on the surface. It was originally developed by 
Prof. Anthony Turkevich, of the University of Chi- 
cago's Department of Chemistry. It is designed to func- 
tion best in high vacuum, and this condition is met on 
the surfaces of both our moon and Phobos. It was car- 
ried on many of the early unmanned Surveyor missions 
that landed on our moon in the middle 1960s. It pro- 
vided such good analyses of our moon's surface that it 
was possible to predict some of the rock types that we 
could expect to find when the Apollo missions finally 
went to the moon to collect samples. 

It will be fascinating if even a part of all this comes 
off without too many hitches. Already there has been 
one major failure. Due to an error by a Soviet ground 
controller, one of the two spacecraft on the mission 
was accidentally destroyed last September on its way to 
Mars. There is, however, still the other spacecraft with 
its landers and instruments. 

All of us in space research hope that the god Mars 
will take kindly to this latest incursion into his piece of 
space and not turn Deimos and Phobos against us puny 
Earthlings as he did so long ago. Fll 23 




BABYSITTING 
and DAYCARE 
among the 
BARBARY 
MACAQUES 



by Meredith F. Small 
photos by the author 



Three juvenile males rejecting another 



24 



SCREECH! Screech! Screech! After many years of 
observing monkeys I knew this was the cry of a 
young macaque in trouble. Experience also told me 
that the infant would soon be rescued from peril by its 
ever-vigilant mother. Sure enough, as I stood staring 
up at the infant caught in the oak canopy, an animal 
galloped to the baby's aid. The adult shinnied up the 
tree, flipped the wailing infant onto its back, and scam- 
pered to the ground. Resting at the bottom of the tree, 
the older monkey cuddled the baby and chattered soft- 
ly to it. In a matter of minutes the infant went from 
nervous shriek to placid calm. 

It was my first day of watching this colony of Barbary 
macaques and 1 needed my binoculars for a closer look 
at the mother to note her identity. As the pair came 
into focus, I realized that the scenario was not what I 
expected. The teeth-chattering adult was a male, and 
it seemed that the mother was nowhere in sight. 1 was 
witnessing day-care in the forest, where males, females 
other than the mother, and even little juvenile mon- 
keys are responsible babysitters. 

Research has shown that primates, including hu- 
mans, have a fascination with infants. This infatuation 
is usually restrained by mothers, who keep infants close 
to the belly until the infants are more independent and 



can escape unwanted attention. Among some pri- 
mates, such as Indian langurs, this attraction to infants 
gets out of hand; infants are passed rapidly among adult 
females from the first day of birth. "Aunt"-infant inter- 
actions are usually explained as necessary to trigger and 
refine mothering techniques. Barbary macaques are of 
special interest because, as I discovered, infants are the 
focus for just about every member of the troop, not just 
females who might gain mothering skills. 

Barbary infants, unlike other species of macaque, 
grow up in a "community atmosphere," where they are 
quickly assimilated into the social network of monkey 
life. Tossed around like footballs and played with like 
new stuffed toys, these infants are the social glue that 
connects adult relationships. 

Macaques are evolutionarily successful; they have 
adapted to tropical forests in Southeast Asia, arid re- 
gions in India and Nepal, and snowy mountains of 
Japan. They are the most widespread primate genus 
other than humans, probably because they have an 
omnivorous diet; they eat just about anything. Barbary 
macaques, the subject of my investigation, are native 



Meredith F. Small teaches anthropology at Cornell University, where 
her research focuses on primate behavior. 



to the high mountains of Morocco and Algeria and are 
the famous "Barbary apes" of the rock of Gihralter. 

The group I studied in La Foret des Singes ("Monkey 
Forest"), in southwestern France, is a visitor park 
where humans see and learn about macaques under 
monkey rules. With 23 acres as a home range, and visi- 
tors restricted to a small path, these captive monkeys 
decide how much interaction they want with their hu- 
man cousins. The familiarity between humans and 
monkeys also means that animal behaviorists, like my- 
self, can make close observation of the animals without 
disturbing their normal behavior. 

I spent a year watching the adult females of this pro- 
visioned group through the breeding season in the fall 
of 1986 and the birth season in the spring of 1987. 
Eleven ot my fourteen focal females gave birth that 
year, and these females and their infants were my win- 
dows to understanding the pivotal role that infants play 
in Barbary macaque community life. 

The birth season began on March 31. I walked 
through the morning fog toward my focal female of the 
hour, who was busily eating grass on the open meadow. 
She was surrounded by about ten other individuals. 
There was agitation in the air. As I grew closer to the 
group, I heard a kitten-like squeak on my right and 
looked down at the first Barbary infant of 1987, with its 
wrinkled pink face, large floppy ears, and contrasting 
black fur. He was promptly christened "Philippe" after 
one ot my co-workers. His squeaks and wails were 




Male with 6-month old intant 



accompanied by a wobbly infant dance, an attempt to 
reach his mother's nipple. Thea, his mother, eventual- 
ly moved him into position and he began to suck vigor- 
ously on her nipple. Next to Thea was her two-year-old 
juvenile daughter, who stared at the infant as if it had 
just landed from outer space, and another older daugh- 
ter, Becky, who guardedly watched the other animals 
as they fixed on the new infant. 

Twenty-four other infants were born that spring, 
including a set of dizygotic (fraternal) twins, Harold 
and Maude, the offspring of the highest ranking 
female. In all, there were exactly twelve female and 
twelve male infants. During the next three months I 




Two males use Infant In triadic 
Interaction 25 




26 



Males use 6-month-old infant in trladic interaction. 



watched the infants develop from helpless babies to 
semi-independent toddlers. What was more fascina- 
ting was how troop-mates used these kids as commod- 
ities in complex monkey social games. 

Research in Morocco in the 1970s by John Deag and 
David Taub and more recently by Jutta Kuester and 
Andreas Paul on another captive group in Germany, 
tells us that Barbary macaque males are unusual in their 
treatment of infants. Primate males usually interact 
with infants only in monogamous systems. This makes 
evolutionary sense because monogamous males invest 
in infants who carry some of their genetic material. But 
Barbary macaque males cannot be assured of paternity. 
During breeding season, females in estrus mate two 
times an hour on the average. More importantly, 
however, Barbary females move from partner to part- 
ner, mating with almost every male in the troop. Be- 
cause of this "promiscuous" behavior, males can never 
be sure which infants are his — it could be all or none. 
Even though true paternity is confused, Barbary males 
spend much of their social time with particular infants. 

Male-infant interactions come in many forms. For 
example, males use infants in their own hierarchical 
tiffs. A lower-ranking male might grab an infant and 



carry it to a higher ranking male, engaging him in a 
ritual greeting. The forest is often filled with the grunts 
of males fawning over infants, or the sharp crack of 
their large canines as their teeth click together during a 
teeth-chatter greeting. Males use kids as "passports" to 
gain access to unapproachable partners, essentially to 
cement alliances with other males. The infant acts as a 
bumper against any possible protest by the other male. 
Although very young infants caught in these triadic 
interactions sometimes scream, and mothers some- 
times protest, the infants are helpless pawns in the 
male-male friendship game. 

Males apparently use infants for their own gain. But 
it's more difficult to explain why mothers let it happen. 

It seems that mothers have little to fear from these 
would-be uncles; males are usually caring and affec- 
tionate toward their pint-size friends. In fact, most 
males have special friendships with particular infants. 
For example, half of the infants of my females were seen 
in the care of males. And some males spent time with as 
many as three different infants. Early in the birth sea- 
son I saw three males sitting in a circle placidly munch- 
ing grass. Like human fathers with front-packs, each 
had a tiny black infant attached to his belly and a pro- 
tective arm curled around the baby. 

Males are also highly responsive to infants in trou- 
ble. One of the twins, Harold, was once kidnapped by a 
juvenile female. He struggled in her arms and finally 
wrestled free. His mother was near at hand, but in his 
distress he ran to an adult male friend, Dionysus, who 
enfolded him and made monkey-soothing noises. 

As infants get older they initiate these interactions, 
and males seem to be safe partners and friends. One day 
I was calmly recording the behavior of a mother- infant 
pair. A high-ranking male, Mercuir, swaggered passed 
me, an infant riding on his back. As Mercuir passed my 
subjects, he dipped his shoulder in invitation to the 
infant I was observing, who promptly hopped aboard 
for a ride. Mercuir then drifted by another mother- 
infant pair and collected a third infant. I watched in 
astonishment as the broad back swayed through the 
forest with three tiny pink rumps hunkered down on 
top. 

There are probably long-term consequences of male- 
infant behavior. Since there is little male emigration, 
even in the wild, alliances formed between youngsters 
and adults may last until adulthood. Males may recruit 
infants as future colleagues by interacting with them as 
babies; it's as if babies were asked to join a club with a 
lifetime membership. 

My research also revealed that males were not the 



only ones interested in the new troop-mates; adult 
females were also intrigued by these live-action pink 
and black squeaky toys. 

Philippe was only four days old when he was "kid- 
napped" by adult female "E73." At various times over 
the next three months, six different females grabbed 
him from his mother and carried him around for hours 
at a time. One female, La Petite Belle, just couldn't get 
enough of him. On fifty-six occasions she was spotted 
with Philippe in her arms or on her back. Thirty-five 
adult females out of the total forty-six were seen carry- 
ing infants that were not theirs. Even mothers, who 
presumably had their hands full, often went babysitting 
when their own kid was with someone else. 

Stealing infants from their mothers wasn't the only 
way females and infants interacted. Females also spent 
much of their day walking up to mothers, cocking their 
heads toward infants, and greeting the infant with a 
teeth-chatter. These baby-greets might last for a few 
seconds or evolve into five minutes of buzzing confu- 
sion between the mother, the greeter, and the infant. 
The mother and the visitor would grin and clack their 
teeth together and nuzzle the infant. Sometimes the 
nonmother threw her arm around the mother and pat- 
ted her. This may be the Barbary macaque version of a 
baby shower, only lacking the stuffed teddy-bear gift. 

Females often seemed mesmerized by the infants of 
their friends. A female often moved quietly toward an 
infant, peeked around its mother and took a sur- 
reptitious look. She might then attempt a touch or 



Juvenile female tries to take one of the twins from tfie alpfia female. 




grab, or try to coax the infant away. Mothers didn't 
usually protest much, and this makes sense. In the 
analysis of my data, I determined that female babysit- 
ters were usually well known to mothers and often 
shared the same rank. Mothers need not fear these 
females because they have a long-standing relation- 
ship. In fact, aggressive acts toward infants were rare. 
But why would females, especially those with their own 
infants, want to lavish all that time and attention on 
other babies? Just as in male-male-infant triads, infant- 
sharing among females probably helps maintain 
friendships. Infant greeting and babysitting not only 
allows mothers and "aunts" time together, it also estab- 
lishes new connections between infants and "aunts." 

Unlike adults, juvenile animals were often foiled in 
their attempts to shanghai infants. These adolescent 
monkeys usually staggered away, dragging an uncoop- 
erative infant almost as big as themselves. Sometimes 
young animals would rise up on their back legs and try 
to steal an infant, furtively looking behind as they 
clutched the baby to their chest, and stumbling bi- 
pedally through the grass. Although young Barbary 
females, and sometime males, were fascinated by in- 
fants, they didn't get much chance to hone their skills; 
babies were too often with adult males or females. Juve- 
niles were most successful when the infant was a new 
brother or sister. If they hung around their mother long 
enough, chances were they would get an entree to the 
infant. The two-year-old sister of Philippe spent most 
of the spring following him around. Whenever he 
spent time with a troop-mate, the older sister was right 
at his side. 

Most of us humans can empathize with the Barbary 
macaque fascination for infants. When a human baby 
accompanies its parents to a gathering, the whole room 
starts to revolve around that baby. We are attracted to 
this miniature version of our own species, and perhaps 
it's the same for Barbary macaques. But there must also 
be important evolutionary reasons why this species 
spends so much time riveted on infants. 

The key to understanding Barbary baby obsession is 
the complex nature of their social interactions. Pri- 
mates, especially monkeys, apes, and humans, are 
adept social tacticians. Some scientists even believe 
that our large human brains evolved to keep track of 
social relationships. To operate as a primate in a large 
group, one needs to remember who is related to whom, 
who is an enemy and who is a friend. More impor- 
tantly, those who form strong alliances often win in the 
game of reproductive success; they produce more off- 
spring and pass more genes onto the next generation. 



27 



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Nonmother grooms mother to gain access to infant 

In one sense, Barbary macaques are much like hu- 
mans. Each animal knows the identities of monkeys 
with power, and they also have some idea of kinship 
and friendship. They form social networks that rival 
the most complex political organizations, and they act 
on those alliances. Males join together to oust another 
male from the top position of power, or related females 
band together to keep other females from getting the 
best food. Thus, friendships, especially well established 
ones, have profound evolutionary consequences. 



Like campaigning politicians, adult male and female 
macaques enlist infants in their personal causes. In re- 
turn, these responsible adults form a day-care system 
for infants that allows mothers time to get on with 
other things. Infants benefit most of all — they quickly 
learn the maze of social relationships that will mold 
their lives. And as an added attraction, they get to fly 
through the forest astride big furrry males, watching 
the frantic hubbub of their monkey-world from a safe 
position. 



28 




Mother (left) joins nonmother 
in baby greet. 



. , FROM OUR GIFT CATALOG 




THE STORE 



CHICAGO 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 






Show your support of the Museum by 
giving gift certificates tfiat may be used 
toward purchases in the Museum's gift 
stores, for educational programs or 
museum memberships. Available in the 
following derxjminations: S5, SIO, SIS, 
S20, S25, S50. Each certificate is en- 
closed in a harxlsofne gift card. 




To order by telephone call: 
3 1 2/922-94 1 Oext 236 

Mon -Fn from 10-4 



Custom Cartouches 

Personalize a cartouche with your name in 
hieroglyphics. Allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. 

Sterling Silver Cartouche 
$45.00 (Member 540,50) 
14 i<t. Gold Cartouche 

SI 75.00 (Member SI 57,50) 

Cats, Cats, Cats I 

Cats were sacred to the people of the Delta 
from predynastic days. Our collection 
captures the grace and elegance of the 
Egyptian cat. 

Brass Egyptian Cat 

Height 15 '/2" 

S55.00 (Member S49,50) 

Our Own Cat With Kittens 

Height 3 '//-Base metal with antique 

gold finish 

$32.00 (Member S28,80) 

Cat Bast 

Height 5 '//-Solid cold cast bronze and 

richly patinated 

$30.00 (Member 527,00) 

Museum Shirts 

Commemorate the opening of the tomb 
of Unis-ankh and the re-opening of the 
permanent Egyptian collections with our 
colorful shirts , 

Unls-ankh T-ShIrt 

Adult sizes (S-M-L-XL) 

$10.00 (Member 59.00) 

Children sizes 

(6-8, 10-12, 14-16) 

$8.00 (Member 57,20) 

Gem Hall Sweat Shirt 

Adult sizes only 

(S-M-L-XL) 

$25.00 (Member 522.50) 

Souvenir Sweat Shirt 

Adult sizes (S-M-L-XL) 

$18.00 (Member 516.20) 

Unis-ankh Mirror 

Adapted from the stones of the false door 
located in our newly installed mastaba of 
Unis-ankh, this mirror frame has been cast 
in rose limestone finish. 

Unls-ankh Mirror 

b'A"x]3'A" 

$45.00 (Member 540,50) 

NefertitI 

Nefertiti means "the beautiful one is 
come," Wife of King Ankhenaton, King 
Tutankhamen's father, ours is reproduced 
in polymer and hand detailed like the 
original in Berlin, 

Nefertiti 

11" high 

$85.00 (Member 576,50) 







M/S Society Explorer 

•Wolfgang Koehler/Sociely Expeditions Cruises 




i 



FIELD 

MUSEUM 
TDUKS^ 

ISLAIXDS 

of the Flores Sea 

and Tbrsyaland 

An adventure cruise to 
Bali, Lombok, Toraja- 
land, Kabaena, Flores, 
Komodo, Satonda, and 
Labuan Haji Reef 

(with optional Yogyakarta 
and Borobudur extension) 

Free round-trip international air 

fare for reservations received by 

January 31. 

Departing August 30, 1989 

15 days 

Leader: Dr. Harold Voris 

Aug. 30: Depart Chicago O'Hare to Los 
Angeles. Evening departure to Denpasar 
Aug. 31: Cross International Date Line. 
Sept. 1: Bali. Morning arrival in Denpasar 
Transfer to hotel on the "island of a thousand 
temples." Day at leisure visiting this mystical 
island. 

Sept. 2: Bali. Day at leisure exploring Bali, per- 
haps journeying to mountain villages where 
age-old traditions still flourish. Handicrafts may 
be found in Mas, the woodcarving center, or 
Ubud, the village known for traditional Balinese 
paintings. Feast tonight on Balinese specialties 
and delight in a festive dance performance. 
Sept. 3: Bali/Soc/efy Explorer. Spend the morn- 
ing exploring on your own, perhaps surveying 
Balinese art from prehistoric times to the 20th 
century in the Bali Museum. This afternoon, 
board the Society Explorer and enjoy a fiery 
Indonesian sunset as we cruise past local 
villages. 

Sept. 4: Lombok Island. Traveling overland, 
experience the contrast of this island — where 
lush rice fields border arid plains and sparkling 
mosques dominate rural villages. With Bali to 
the east, Lombok's history and culture are in- 
timately tied to her neighbor The deep strait 
between Bali and Lombok marks "Wallace's 
Line," named after naturalist Sir Alfred Wallace. 
Witness, as Wallace did, the differences that 
exist between islands east and west of the line. 
This evening enjoy the captain's Welcome 
Dinner 
Sept. 5: Cruising the Flores Sea. 



Sept. 6, 7: Palopo/Torajaland. Disembark the 
ship in Palopo and travel through steep, rice- 
terraced slopes and rugged mountain peaks to 
isolated Torajaland. The Torajas, who believe 
they are descended from the stars, have a uni- 
que culture based on animistic beliefs and are 
perhaps best known for their colorful funeral 
ceremonies. One of the most striking features of 
the Toraja landscape is their unique architec- 
ture. The sweeping gables of their thatched- 
roofed homes rise at both ends like the bow 
and stern of a boat. Their ritual chants compare 
these homes to the ships that carried their 
ancestors here. On our excursion, we travel by 
land rover or small bus and overnight in best 
accommodations available. 
Sept. 8: Kabaena Island. Expedition stop to- 
day. Sally out in Zodiacs to fish in Kabaena's 
rich waters and explore its seldom-visited vil- 
lage. Beautiful beaches and coral reefs provide 
excellent snorkeling and diving opportunities. 
Sept. 9: Larantuka, Flores Island. With 
cameras ready be sure to scramble topside as 
we cruise through the picturesque Larantuka 
Narrows enroute to Flores. Flanked by rolling 
tropical forests, Flores's spine is a ridge of rug- 
ged mountains that is punctuated by steaming 
volcanoes. Upon arrival, we're greeted by the 
village chief and his tribe who request that we 
join in their sacred ceremony and traditional 
dancing. After a tour of the village, enjoy hear- 
ing the Florenese sing in complicated four-part 
harmonies found nowhere else in the world. 




Banda dancer InooncSia 

© Tobias Schneebaum/Society Expeditions Cruises 

Sept. 10: Komodo Island. Called the "Island of 
the Dragons," Komodo is the natural habitat of 
the sole survivor of the dinosaur Reaching ten 
feet in length and 300 pounds, the Komodo 
"dragon" has a life expectancy of 1 50 years. 
Its yellow-orange forked tongue, jagged teeth, 
and fearsome jaws give it an almost mythical 
appearance and many believe that a similar 
creature was the model for the Chinese dragon. 
Upon arrival, we are met by National Park rang- 
ers who guide us to prime observation point to 
see these unusual creatures feed. We also 
hope to spot masked cuckoo shrikes, spangled 
drongos, and cockatoos in the forest. Excellent 
snorkeling and diving may be available over a 
nearby coral reef as well as swimming from the 
beautiful beach. 

Sept. 1 1: Satonda Islands/Labuan Haji Reef. 
Visit Satonda, a tiny island located off Sumba- 
wa's northeast coast. Walk the beautiful shell- 
strewn beaches, visit with the local people, or 
dive in the rich waters. This afternoon we'll 



make an expedition stop at Labuan Haji Reef. 
Tonight, the captain hosts a Farewell Dinner 

Sept. 12: Disembark the ship and spend time 
in the colorful fruit and vegetable markets of 
Denpasar Spend the rest of the afternoon 
exploring the town at leisure. Overnight in our 
deluxe hotel. 

Sept 13: Bali/Los Angeles. Afternoon depar- 
ture from Denpasar, arriving in Los Angeles the 
same evening. (We have regained the lost day 
by crossing back over the International Date 
Line). Optional overnight in Los Angeles with 
morning return to Chicago September 14. 

You may also choose to continue to the 
Yogyakarta/Borobudur extension: 

Sept. 13: Yogyakarta. Transfer to hotel. Explore 
the art and batik galleries, or simply enjoy the 
sights and delicious smells of this ancient city, 
known as the cultural center of Java. 
Sept. 14: Borobudur Take an unforgettable 
visit to one of the greatest wonders of the 
world — the mighty Borobudur temple. Believed 
to have taken 10,000 workers 10 years to build, 
it rises 10 terraces, each smaller than the one 
below It. In the afternoon view the Sultan's 
Royal Palace. Completed in 1757, it is treasured 
as an archetype of classical Javanese 
architecture. Return to hotel for dinner and 
cultural show. 

Sept. 15: Bali/Los Angeles. Return to Ball for 
departure transfer Optional over-night in Los 
Angeles, returning to Chicago the morning of 
September 16. 

Prices for Basic Tour 
Explorer Deck: $3,141-33,465 
Yacht Deck: $4,005-$4,31 1 
Boat Deck: $4,995 
Suite: $5,895 

The above rates are valid through January 31, 
1989, as you receive free international air 
transportation. As of February 1 the cost is in- 
creased by $800.00 per person. 
Rates are per person, double occupancy Air 
transportation from Chicago to Los Angeles is 
not included. A tax-deductible contribution of 
$200. to Field Museum of Natural History is 
included. 

Price for Optional Tour: $290.00 per person; 
double: $350.00 per person, single. (Includes 
air transportation, hotel, meals, transfers and 
sightseeing tours.) 

English Homes 
and Garden Tour 

July4-15. 1989 

Leader: Dr Bertram Woodland 

Please call for information 

We still have a few spaces on: 
The Galapagos Islands Tour 

March 3-14, 1989 

$3,550-$3,840 

Optional extension to Peru 

March 14-20— $1,450 

Leaders: 

Dr David W. Willard/Dr Charles Stanish 

KenyaATanzania Safari 

f^arcti 3-24, 1989 

$6,350.00 

Leader: Audrey Faden 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



31 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso.lL 60605-2499 



MISS MARITA MAXEY 
7411 NORTH GREENVIEU 
CHICAGO IL 60626 



r 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLGTI 



February 1989 






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Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



CONTENTS 

February 1989 
Volume 60, Number 2 



FEBRUARY EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
WillardL. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H. Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strot: 
Mrs. Thetxlore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 



TRADITIONAL CRAFTS OF SAUDI ARABIA 

Continues through March 12 



USHABTIS: 

Tomb Figurines of Ancient Egypt 

By Frank J. Yurco, Consultant to "Inside Ancient Egypt" 



THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN MARKETPLACE 

By Frank J. Yurco 



10 



TRACKING THE EXTING PYGMY HIPPOPOTAMUS OF CYPRUS 

By David S. Reese, Research Associate, Department of 
Anthropology 22 

FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 30 



COVER 



View of temporary exhibit "Traditional Crafts of Saudi Arabia," 
in Gallery 9 through March 12. See pages 4-6. 

Photo by Ron Testa and June Bartlett. 



Field Museum of Naiural Hisiory Bulteim [USPS 898-940) is published monthly, cxcepl combined Jul) AugusI issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roiisevell Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. IL 60605-2496 Copyright ri989 Field 
Museum of Natural History Subscriptions: S6,(X) annually. $.1.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulleiin subscription Opinions expressed by authors air their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum Unsolicited 
manuscripts are welcome Museum phone: (312) 922-94 10. Notification of address change should include address label and be scnr to Membership Dcparimcnt. Postmaster: Please send form .1579 to Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago. Illinois and additional mailing office. 




Performance 

Exitacao A Bahia 
Brazilian Dance Troupe 

Saturday, Feb. 25 
1:00pm and 3:30pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

The beauty of African culture, its spirit and joy is the essence of 
the Brazilian musical and theatrical troupe "Exitacao A Bahia." 
Their unique Afro-Brazilian heritage is presented in a riot of col- 
or, rhythm, music, and dance. 

"Exitacao A Bahia" is dedicated to the authentic and artistic 
presentation of the culture of Bahia, the center of the Afro- 
Brazilian people of Brazil. The culture manifests itself in the 
religious ceremonies brought to Bahia by African slaves, its 
noted Afro-Brazilian cuisine, and the rhythms of samba, frevo, 
and other joyous dances; 

Formed in 1973, "Exitacao A Bahia" has performed extensively 
in Brazil and around the world. Their colorful repertoire includes 
"maculele" (a folkdance performed with batons), "galanteio" 
(the women's flirtation dance), and "puxada" (a representation 
of the rhythmic pulling of nets by coastal fishermen). 

Share the magic of brilliant costumes, powerful rhythms, lithe 
dancers, and the cultural tradition of a people faithfully kept 
alive by "Exitacao A Bahia." 

Tickets: $8 ($6 members) $4 Children 12 and under. 



Special note: Be sure to indicate time of performance requested 
on registration form. To register, use the coupon provided here. 

Field Museum presents this performance in cooperation 
with Urban Gateways, The project is partially supported by a 
CityArts grant from the Chicago Office of Fine Arts, Department 
of Cultural Affairs, Vang Airlines, Inter-Net, and Hyatt Hotels 
Corporation. 



Adult Courses 

Continue to learn more about the world around you by enrolling 
in Field Museum's adult programs. Evening courses and 
weekend workshops begin again in February Ancient cultures 
are considered in "The Incas and Their Ancestors," "Egypt: The 
Late New Kingdom," "Drawing Ancient Egypt," and "Four Corn- 
ers Archaeology" Explore the natural world in "Owls of North 
America," "Predator or Prey" and "Conservation, Zoos, and Peo- 
ple: The Latin American Effort." Sharpen language skills while 
learning about a new culture in "Conversational Spanish" and 
"Intermediate Conversational Japanese." Mexican embroidery 
Chinese brushstroke, and tie-dye are among weekend work- 
shop highlights. Consult the January/February/March Adult, 
Children, and Family Program Brochure for details. For further 
information please call (312) 322-8854. 



The City Musick Performs February 17 

The City Musick presents the second program in its acclaimed Mozart Series on 
Friday Feb. 17, at 8:00pm. Works include Mozart's overture to "La Clemenza di 
Tito," Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550, and the Concerto in E-tlat K. 495, featur- 
ing Gail Williams, natural horn. The program will be presented in Field Museum's 
James Simpson Theatre. Ticket prices are $20.00 and $16.00, with a 10% discount 
for Field Museum members. Call City Musick at 642-1 766. 



Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this registration 
application. Registrations are confirmed by mail. For registrations 
received less than two weeks before the performance date, con- 
firmations are held at the West Door one hour before the performance 
begins. Phone registrations are accepted using Visa/MasterCard/ 
Amx/Discover. Please call (312) 322-8854 to register. For further 
registration information, consult the January/February/March Adult, 
Children, and Family Program Brochure. 

Return complete registration with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Department of Education, Program Registration 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, I L 60605-2497 

Name 



Program 
Number 


Program 


#Member 


#Nonmember 


Total Amount 


PP89101 


Exitacao A Bahia 
1 :00pm 








PP89102 


Exitacao A Bahia 
Child's Ticket 1:00pm 








PP89103 


Exitacao A Bahia 
3:30pm 








PP89104 


Exitacao A Bahia 
Child's Ticket 3:30pm 








D Scholar 


ship requested 




total 





Address 


City 




State 




Zip 


Telephone: 


Daytime 




Evening 





DAMX nvisa D MasterCard D Discover (Check one) 
Card # expiration date 

Signature 



For office use only: date received 



date mailed 



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Traditional Crafts of Saudi Arabia 

Through March 12 



An authentic goat-haired tent that once sheltered a family of 
nomadic people in the desert of Saudi Arabia, stands as the 
centerpiece of this special new exhibit on view in Gallery 9. 
The exhibition highlights the personal collections of John 
Topham, an American engineer who worked and lived in 



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Saudi Arabia during the 1970s. This unique collection of tex- 
tiles, clothing, jewelry, weapons, and household utensils, 
represents the first comprehensive display of Saudi Arabian 
crafts to be seen in Chicago. The exhibit captures the beauti- 
ful achievements of a vanishing culture and reflects the artis- 
tic tradition of Saudi Arabia where artifact and artwork are 
one. 

Before oil drilling became predominant in the 1940s, 
Saudi Arabia had little organized industry. The country was 
populated by small village communities and the Bedouins, a 






nomadic desert people. These two groups depended 
upon one another through trade of their traditional 
crafts. With the introduction of the oil industry and mod- 
ern technology, handcrafted products are being re- 
placed by mass-produced items of plastic and alumi- 
num. The tradition of brightly colored, elaborately pat- 
terned objects that have offset the austerity of the 
desert for generations is vanishing. 

Topham's collection includes a rare and educa- 
tional look at many of the "lost" crafts of Saudi Arabia. A 
large desert tent woven from goat hair greets visitors as 
they enter the exhibit. The tent is partitioned into three 
sections by woven panels, replicating the manner in 
which it would have been set up in the Saudi Arabian 
desert. Sections include the men's area, a center 
sleeping area, and the utility area. While a typical Be- 
douin tent would be sparsely equipped because of the 
transient lifestyle of its inhabitants, this tent serves as a 
showcase for many of the collection pieces. 

The strength of Topham's collections lies in beau- 
tiful textiles; weaving remains the country's dominant 
craft. Arab weavers utilize a horizontal loom that holds 
the yarn parallel to the ground. Woven rugs, blankets, 
and tents incorporate geometric design patterns with 
tassel ornamentation. Human and animal figures are 
rarely depicted. Traditional colors in woven goods 
include red, black, white, camel, green, blue, and 
orange. The similarity between modern and traditional 



weaving is obscured by the brilliant, synthetic colors of 
factory-made yarns. 

Apparel has always varied from region to region 
in Saudi Arabia, yet certain features like the loose fit 
that allows air to circulate is common to all. Costumes 
on display include a variety of women's floor-length 
dresses with long, wing-shaped sleeves. Women often 
tie these sleeves behind their neck to keep them out of 
the way while working. Dresses are often decorated 
with applique and embroidered with metallic cotton, 
silk, or rayon thread. Women are expected to covertheir 
faces with black gauze veils and wear hoods over their 
head while in public domain. Men's dress is similar to 
women's, comprised chiefly of ankle-length shirts and 
a headcloth called a ghutrah. 

Arab women are likely to wear jewelry at all times. 
Jewelry plays an important role in courtship rituals and 
constitutes a large portion of a bride's dowry. Neck- 
laces, belts, bracelets, and earrings were traditionally 
made of gold and silver combined with turquoise, coral, 
agate, and glass. Today costume jewelry has almost 
completely replaced work in silver and gold. 

Other pieces in the exhibit include riding accou- 
trements displayed on a six-foot-tall wooden camel. 
Camel bags were among Arab men's most richly 
adorned possessions, woven from brightly dyed wool 
and often decorated with tiers of sashes, ribbons, and 
tassels. Traditional weapons, coffee utensils, incense 
burners, and household crafts are also displayed. 



Photos of Saudi Arabian art by Ron Testa and June Bartlett 



\ 



12th Annual 
Spring Systematics Symposium 



''History and Evolution 

Saturday, May 13 



99 




Speakers 



Garland E. Allen 
Robert Boyd 
Michael J. Donoghue 
Marc Ereshefsky 
Douglas J. Futuyma 
Stephen Jay Gould 
David L. Hull 

Moderator: John Flynn 



David B. Kitts 
Rachel Laudan 
William B. Provine 
Robert J. Richards 
Michael Ruse 
Lawrence B. Slobodkin 

Organizer: Matthew H. Nitecki 



Registration 



Kristine L. Bradof. Symposium Coordinator 

Department of Geology 

Field Museum of Natural History 

312/922-9410, x298 




8 Pholo by Diane Alexander White, 1 1 0685C 




USHABTIS: 

Tomb Figurines 
Of Ancient Egypt 

by Frank J. Yurco 



In ancient Egypt, the ushahti developed as part of 
the Osiride funerary practice. None are known 
from before the Middle Kingdom Period (2134-1786 
B.C.). But in that period, they began to be manufac- 
tured. They may have been derived from small repre- 
sentations of the deceased in mummiform wrappings, 
but not long afterward a different association was 
made for them. 

In the New Kingdom Period (1570-1 080 B.C. ) 
the ushabtis came to be inscribed with a text drawn 
from The Book of the Dead, called the ushabti 
spell, no. 151: "The deceased NN says: 'Hail ushabti 
figure, if 1 be called upon, or if any work is allotted to 
me in the Afterlife, such as is done by people — 
namely sowing fields, filling irrigation channels, or 
bringing the sand of the west to the east, may you be 
present when 1 call unto you.' " The Egyptians' after- 
life was patterned upon their actual life, and the 
ushabti was, in effect, a stand-in ready to do the 
unpleasant chores that the deceased might be 
called upon to perform. At the height of the New 
Kingdom Period, a typical tomb held some 400 
ushabtis, one for each day of the year, plus 35 or so 
overseer ushabtis, distinguishable by their customs. 

The ushabtis follow coffin fashions, but they are 
usually made of glazed frit, or faience, usually bluish- 
green, or greenish. Other colors are also found: whit- 
ish, reddish, depending,on what was mixed into the 
glaze. In the examples shown here, the three smaller, 
blue figures belong to a prophet of Amun, named 
Hori. They resemble coffins of the XVlllth-XXlst 
Dynasties. The taller, greenish ushabtis in the back 
row are of the XXVlth Dynasty and were made for an 
admiral named Heka-em-sa-ef. These four reflect cof- 
fin design of the period, with a distinct base under 
the feet and a back pillar to help them stand. Each 
of these seven figurines may be seen in "Inside 
Ancient Egypt." FM 

Franic J. Yurco, consultant for "Inside Ancient Egypt," is a doctor- 
al candidate in Egyptology in the Department of Near Eastern 
Languages and Civilizations of the University of Chicago. 



The Ancient Egyptian 
Marketplace 



by Frank J. Yurco 



I 



n the Field Museum's recently opened exhibit "In- 
side Ancient Egypt," one of the most innovative and 
important sections is the marketplace setting. The 
marketplace is unique and important because it pre- 
sents a cross section of daily life and society in ancient 
Egypt. It is the central element of the daily life area of 
the exhibit, together with the Nile marsh diorama. 
Because so much of many Egyptian exhibits focuses 



upon mummies and funerary customs, this presenta- 
tion of daily life assumes even greater importance, and 
the marketplace is the key to it. 

The marketplace is based upon a very interesting 
and rare relief, that of a complete marketplace, found 
in the tomb of two barbers and cosmeticians, Ny-ankh- 
Khnum and Khnum-hotep, at Saqqara in Egypt. The 
two tomb-owners, perhaps brothers, lived in the Vth 




Mastaba of Ny-ankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep at Saqqara, reconstructed. Dynasty V, ca. 2450 b c 

"I Q © Margaret Sears 



Pyramid of Pharaoh Unis, 
remains of temple and cause- 
way at Saqqara. Dynasty V, 
2400 B c 
i& Margaret Sears 




Dynasty (about 2450 B.C.), and became the owners of a 
fine tomb because ultimately they became pharaoh's 
barbers and cosmeticians. The fine state of preserva- 
tion of their tomb is one of those fortunate accidents of 
circumstance that periodically come along in archaeol- 
ogy. Later in Dynasty V, Pharaoh Unis (father of Unis- 
ankh whose tomb chapel and burial chamber are fea- 
tured in this exhibit) decided to build his pyramid and 
complex just south of the great and imposing funerary 
complex of Pharaoh Djoser of Dynasty III. By Dynasty 



V, this area of Saqqara had already become crowded 
with private and royal tombs, among which was the 
tomb of Ny-ankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep. Unis's 
pyramid complex entailed not only a pyramid, but also 
a pyramid temple, a long causeway leading past culti- 
vated fields to a valley temple, frequently found located 
on a canal that gave access to the river. Unis's causeway 
crossed over a number of earlier tombs, including that 
of Ny-ankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep, and these were 
appropriated by the pharaoh in what might be termed 




l"'%V 









Pyramid complex of Pharaoh 
Djoser (Dynasty III, ca. 2750 
B c ), southern end, with 
tombs of Unis complex 
(2400 B c ), including Unis 
Ankh, at Saqqara. 

© Margaret Sears 



11 



12 




Replica painting by Inigo Manglano-Ovalle of marketplace scene fronn tomb of ^^ly-a^^(h-Khnum and Khnum-hotep at Saqqara, on view in "Inside 



W^^F^. 




13 



Photo by Ron Testa 11 1030 



Ancient Egypt." 




«c\ 



\\ 



ancient eminent domain. The superstructures of these 
tombs were demolished and their blocks incorporated 
in the masonry of the causeway. In 1975, a joint Ger- 
man-Egyptian expedition was excavating and con- 
solidating Unis's causeway. There they found the 
reused blocks from Ny-ankh-Khnum and Khnum- 
hotep's tomb chapel. These have since been recon- 
structed into a complete chapel. In 1977, Ahmed 
Moussa and Hartwig Altenmiiller published a formal 
description of the tomb.' 

This complex array of accidents resulted in a 
remarkable state of preservation in Ny-ankh-Khnum's 
and Khnum-hotep's tomb chapel. The rooms are com- 
plete and retain much of the color applied originally to 



Above: Relief of Armanti 

hounds and trained monkey 

from maslaba of Mereruka, 

Dynasty VI (ca. 2350 b c ), at 

Saqqara. 

Kathenne Rosich 



its sculpted low relief; indeed, this well preserved color 
helped the Museum's effort to reproduce the color 
scheme in Unis-ankh's tomb. Among these won- 
derfully preserved reliefs is the marketplace scene. This 
represents a complete market, with a personal touch — 
the barbers and cosmeticians business set up nearby. 
From later literary texts and tomb paintings and reliefs, 
it is known that barbers and cosmeticians in business 
for themselves set up their practice beside markets. 
Markets were held on specific days of the ten-day- 
ancient Egyptian week in different towns and villages, 
and that's where the barbers and cosmeticians set 
themselves up, attending to all who came to them. Ny- 
ankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep had become phar- 
aoh's barbers and cosmeticians, but in their tomb they 
represented in the reliefs an earlier stage in their ca- 
reers, when they operated a private practice at the local 
marketplace. 

In the topmost register of the four registers form- 
ing the marketplace relief, the two tomb-owners 
showed their private practice. They perform their ser- 
vices for people from all levels of society, from the 
marsh workers and fishermen to the overseer of an 
estate seated imperiously on a mat and attended by his 
own retainer and scribe. The barbering and cosmetics 
procedures are described in short captions in hiero- 
glyphs above each scene. The marsh worker at the far 
left is having his legs massaged (p. 15, top). The next 
man to the right gets a hair cut. The next is having his 
pubic hair shaven off; he is a marsh worker so this pro- 
cedure may have helped him keep clean. The next man 
gets a shave; behind the operating barber an apprentice 
barber prepares to hand over a fresh razor, while a 
standing man described as "teacher" instructs him. The 
teacher clearly is the master, perhaps either Ny-ankh- 



14 



Right: Relief showing hunting 

on the desert with Armanti 

hounds from mastaba of 

t\/lereruka, Dynasty VI 



Katherine Rosich 




Khnum or Khnum-hotep in person. The next group to 
the right shows the overseer of the estate receiving a 
manicure, while his retainer and scribe wait on either 
side attentively (below). The final scene at the ex- 
treme right shows a scribe seated and receiving a pedi- 
cure. The whole register, from right to left (con- 
ventional reading direction for the Egyptians) presents 
a cross section of society, such as would be found at a 
functioning local marketplace. In the spirit of this cross 
section, in the replica painting of this relief scene, in 
the exhibit, the Museum has shown another dimension 
of Egyptian society — the many shades of skin color. In 
Old Kingdom scenes such variation was not customari- 
ly shown; it was a concept introduced in the New King- 



The policemen are at either end of the register, in what 
is clearly a humorous arrangement, such as the Egyp- 
tians loved so dearly. At the right, the senior police- 
man holds a female baboon which has just caught a 
thief by an unmanned market stall. The thief is naked, 
and the baboon has bitten his leg (p. 16, lower left). 
The verbal exchange is indicated by the captions in 
hieroglyphs. "Catch, catch!" says the policeman. The 
thief exclaims: "You're the authority, get him (off me) 
onto the ground! I'll desist from doing wrong." At the 
left end, a junior policeman pulls on the leash holding a 
male baboon that is pilfering fruit from a market basket 
(p. 16, top left). The shop owner volubly protests: 
"Youngster, you may do as you like — but only until your 



STp^^ 



mr—^ 




dom Period when Egypt's empire brought Egyptians 
into contact with diverse peoples, Asiatic and African. 
Yet, even as it is today, the Egyptian population itself 
ranged from light-toned in the northern regions to 
dark-toned in the far southern region around Aswan. 
In between, there is a gradual darkening tone as you 
progress from the Mediterranean coast to Aswan. It is 
this variation that our marketplace replica is intended 
to convey. 

The regular marketplace is displayed in the next 
three registers, which may be read from the top down- 
ward. Again, various segments of society are shown in- 
teracting. In the second register two policemen are rep- 
resented, not with dogs, but with baboons, on leashes! 



boss is brought to you!" The humor of this scene tran- 
scends the centuries — the police protect, but they also 
transgress sometimes. .The use of baboons here is not 
unique. Elsewhere in Old Kingdom Egyptian reliefs ba- 
boons may be seen performing chores or being led on 
leashes. The Egyptians no doubt appreciated the ba- 
boon's intelligence and aggressiveness, but more than 
one relief also conveys humor using baboons. The 
Egyptians used dogs as well, but mainly for hunting; in 
such scenes the hounds are the Armanti breed, still 
used in Egypt to this day as guard dogs they are fast, 
with a greyhound-like body, and very ferocious. 

The remaining scenes are devoted to transactions 
between customers and merchants. In the second regis- 



15 




around her neck. Interpretation varies on who she 
might be — a sub-adult female, perhaps a servant girl. 
The little girl she holds looks up at her, saying: "Would 
you like that ( I ) now go home ?" Even this text has some 
uncertainty because in Old Egyptian grammar first per- 
son pronouns were not written. 

Moving down to the third register, the first scene 
from the left shows a man selling bread and green on- 
ions (p. 17, top). He says; "See these bread loaves? Six 
thereof in the basket for two /ie/<at-measures of swt- 
grain." The grain may be durum wheat. The customer 
says: "Give something from which I can drink this 



ter, second scene from the left, a fisherman sells whole 
fish from a basket (opposite). A standing customer of- 
fers him a jar capped with a seal, contents unknown. 
He may have just removed it from the empty shopping 
sack tucked under his arm. The fisherman says: "Give 
your price for fish." That the merchant is a fisherman 
seems quite clear, as he wears around his neck a large 
"U" shaped object. The same object is worn by the 



^l_^Ji-^ -^i*W* 




16 



fishermen and marsh workers in the barbering scenes. 
In other more elaborately depicted examples, this ob- 
ject has a tie and is also seen on boats; it resembles 
closely the hieroglyph J s3, "protection." Yet, it 
seems not to be an amulet, for it is too big. Rather, it 
may be a life preserver made of papyrus reed that would 
help the wearer float should he fall into the river or a 
canal. In the following scene to the right, a young 
woman holding a smaller girl by the hand presents a 
bowl to a merchant (p. 16, lower right). He says: "Give 
your price for very sweet sycamore figs." The young 
woman, though wearing no clothing, has an amulet 




(and) I'll be grateful." These snatches ot conversation 
present some difficulty, for the bread and onion seller 
has no drinks. Perhaps the customer wants him to get a 
drink from the tavern shown in another scene. Clearly, 
after a snack of bread and onions a drink would be desir- 
able. It should be noted that the round, flat, pita-style 
bread shown is, with green onions, still a popular snack 
for rural Egyptians. Beer likewise remains a nationally 





favorite drink. The reference to two hekat of grain is of 
great interest. The hekat was the basic grain measure in 
ancient Egypt, equal to 4.57 U.S. dry quarts, or about a 
quarter of a bushel. As grain averaged 2-4 deben of cop- 
per for a two-bushel sack, the six loaves were costing 
about V4 to Vz deben of copper. This is relatively more 
expensive than the grain price alone, the difference 
perhaps representing the miller's and baker's profits. In 
Egyptian grain measure, the sack (khar) contained six- 
teen hekat, and it was subdivided into double and quad- 




ruple hekat measures. Two quadruple hekat, or half a 
sack, was about a peck in modem terms, and the double 
hekat was V'^ bushel in modem terms. 

The next scene also is interesting from the eco- 
nomic standpoint. A customer with a shopping sack 
slung over his shoulder and clutching a roUed-up papy- 
rus in his hand offers a metal vase, probably copper, to 
the merchant (above). The customer says: "A crafted 
item of a cieben-worth." The deben was a unit of weight. 



but also used for metals. Such vessels in the context of 
ordinary society were usually copper, so a copper vessel 
is most likely at issue here. The merchant replies: "See, 
this is the equal of your deben," as he extends a similar 
vessel to that of the customer. Perhaps we are dealing 
with a metal vessel maker and a merchant buying from 
him. The deben was divided in 12 shat (10 kite later in 
the New Kingdom Period). A deben in modem measure 
is 90-91 grams. In usage for metals it was especially 
found with copper, silver, and gold, the metals that 
underpinned the Egyptian economy. The ratio of value 
between copper, silver, and gold fluctuated in different 
periods, based upon the general economic situation 
and their availability to the Egyptians. In the Old 
Kingdom, the Egyptians had the resources of their own 
eastern desert, with gold, silver, and various stones use- 
ful for building or decoration, and after the IVth Dy- 
nasty, limited access to the resources of Nubia, to the 
south of Egypt. Copper was in good supply, but gold 
and especially silver were relatively rare. Unfortunate- 
ly, no ratio figures for the relative value of the metals 
survive, From the New Kingdom Period there is docu- 
mentation that silver was in a 5:3 ratio with gold. This 
relatively high value of silver was caused by the vast 
quantities of gold that Egypt was exploiting in the Nu- 
bian and Sudanese desert mines. Silver, by contrast, 
was found in limited quantity with the gold, but mostly 
had to be imported. Metallurgical analysis of some sil- 
ver vessels found in the ruins of the temple of Tod 
(south of Luxor-Thebes) has shown that the silver ori- 
ginated from the well known Laurium mines, near 
Athens, in Greece. In antiquity, Mycenae controlled 
this area, and there is a variety of evidence for trade 
between Mycenae and Egypt, if not directly, through 
northern Syrian intermediaries. Copper was mined 
locally in the eastern desert, in Sinai, or else was im- 
ported in quantity from Cyprus, the ancient world's 
principal copper source. In the New Kingdom period 
copper was in the ratio of 100:1 to silver, and 167:1 to 
gold. One common method of trade in Egypt was to 
evaluate the goods to be traded in terms of one of the 
three metals; inexpensive goods in copper, medium 
priced in silver, and only the most costly in gold. In the 
Ny-ankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep market most of 
the trade was done by evaluating in copper. 

The next scene shows a seal carver before a mer- 
chant offering fish cut open and cleaned (p. 18, top). 
The merchant remarks that he would be satisfied to 
hand over the rest of his basket offish for the seal being 
carved. The seal cutter remarks: "I'm cutting the seal." 
The seal might well be worth the whole basket of fish 



17 




because seals were often cut out of semi-precious stones 
and were inscribed. Behind the fish vendor stands a 
balding man called a "copper craftsman"; he holds 
three fishing hooks and what may be a stamp seal. Per- 
haps he too meant to make an offer for the fish; his 
fishing hooks would certainly be useful for the fish- 
erman. Beside both the seal cutter and the copper 
craftsman two bags stand upright on the ground. These 
may belong to each of the craftsmen respectively, 
although both also carry shopping sacks slung over 
their shoulders. 

The rightmost scene shows a man seated before a 
female tavern keeper who dispenses a drink (below). 
She pours it through a strainer into a bowl; Egyptian 
barley beer was heavy in sediment and lees, and so re- 
quired straining, so no doubt that is the drink being 
served. The customer says: "Fill it up; though I'm filled, 
the barley beer is of excellent quality." The customer 
also has a shopping sack slung over his shoulder, so the 
tavern is part of the marketplace, much as snackbars 




are found in modern shopping malls. 

In the fourth register, at the left, a woman selling 
pottery cups says: "See, something you can drink 
from,"asshehandsoverapottery cup (p. 19, left). The 
customer offers her in return a fan, perhaps woven from 
reeds. This exchange could be a simpler sort of barter, 
where the goods are inexpensive and their relative val- 
ues are well known. The woman might be a potter's 
wife. This calls to mind Herodotus's remark in describ- 
ing 5th century B.C. Egypt, that the women ran the 
markets while the men stayed at home. In this market- 
place, however, we see a mix of men and women as 
both merchants and customers. Still, this all reflects 
another aspect of ancient Egyptian society: women 
were equal legally and economically with men. They 
could run businesses, manage farms or estates, engage 
in commerce, and argue their own cases in law courts. 
Moreover, by force of pharaoh's law, they kept title to 
their property, even after marriage, and they were 
guaranteed a 'A share of all jointly acquired property in 
a marriage situation. The equality is attested in Old, 
Middle, and New Kingdom Period Egypt, and onward 
into the Late Period when the Greek authors com- 
mented upon it as a social policy that differed from 
most other cultures. Even in the Ptolemaic Period, 
Egyptian women argued their own cases in court, while 
the Greek settler women had to be represented by a 
kurios, a legal representative. Little wonder that some 
Greek women preferred to have their cases heard in 
Egyptian courts! 

In the next scene, a heavily laden customer deals 
with a merchant selling bunches of grapes (p. 19, top). 
The merchant says: "Hand over this haU-hekat con- 
tainer, (and) I will fill these into it." The customer 
remarks: "Stranger, should 1 give the half hekat con- 



tainer of my ruler?" The question seems to he over the 
issue of a standard-sized container. The Egyptians were 
much concerned with this issue, for non-standard con- 
tainers could be used to cheat. A "half-/ielcat measure of 
my ruler" might imply a container of a standard mea- 
sure guaranteed by the government. In another set of 
documents from the Xlth Dynasty farmer Heka-nakht, 
we learn that when Heka-nakht wished to have some 
debts collected from people in his local town, he 
cautioned his own people to be sure to take along his 
own hide-covered measuring container. Clearly, he 
didn't trust the containers of those who were in debt to 
him! 

The next scene shows a customer without a shop- 
ping sack offering a vase, presumably with its contents, 
to a merchant selling vegetables (below, right). The 
merchant remarks: "Give your price, and I will give 
fine vegetables." In the basket, green onions, romaine 




lettuce, and garlic are displayed. Again, this transac- 
tion may be a simple barter style with commodities 
whose values were well known. 

The final marketing scene (p. 20) is perhaps the 
most interesting. It shows a cloth merchant's shop. A 
roll of linen cloth is unfurled; one of the shopkeepers 
stands holding the cloth up with his left hand while he 
extends his right arm, fingertip to elbow, along the 
cloth. The arm — fingertips to elbow — literally is the 
cubit, so the cloth is being measured. The text above 
him reads: "A cubit of cloth for six shat." His assistant 
stands holding up the cloth with both hands; he re- 
marks: "I say, this is truly of divine (quality) !" The cus- 
tomer, a portly, balding man, seated on a cushioned 
seat concurs: "great quality," as he feels the cloth. The 
scene is of very great interest as it shows measurement 




in length, by the cubit. The standard cubit in Egypt was 
20.6 inches (523 millimeters), and was subdivided into 
seven palms and 28 digits. The cloth measurement 
hardly varies from the modern practice of measuring 
cloth by the yard. The reference to six shat likewise is of 
great interest. The shat unit, 12 shat to the deben, has 
already been mentioned, but it should be noted that 
this unit was used only in silver and gold weighing, not 
with copper. So, the cloth is selling most probably for 
six shat of silver per cubit. In a New Kingdom Period 
text, a skirt of fine linen and three loincloths of fine 
linen were valued at five kite of silver respectively. As 
10 kite equalled one deben, the five kite are equal to six 
shat in earlier terms. As a skirt would require about two 
cubits of cloth, the Old Kingdom cloth is more expen- 
sive (assuming about the same value for silver). Still, in 
light of the remarks made by the shopkeeper and cus- 




19 




20 



tomer about the cloth's quahty, the high price is 
understandable. Certainly, in terms of the average 
worker's pay in grain at the village of Deir el-Medinah 
in the New Kingdom Period, this cloth was costly. ' So 
it is not surprising to see that the buyer is a portly, bald- 
ing man. In the Old Kingdom Period, a paunch indi- 
cated wealth and high status. 

From the discussion it is clear that the market- 
place of Ny-ankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep is a 
unique relief and document. Other fragments of Old 
Kingdom market scenes are known, or else small selec- 
tions of several scenes at most, but nowhere else do we 
find a full set of market scenes, complete with adjunct 
scenes such as this one. New Kingdom scenes are 
known, but they do not have the all-important bits of 
conversation that this market has. Further, while the 
practice of evaluating commodities in terms of copper, 
silver, and gold are well attested from the New King- 
dom Period and even from the Middle Kingdom, this is 
the first evidence of such a system from the Old King- 
dom Period. It shows that the Egyptians early in their 
history went beyond simple barter and adopted a sys- 
tem of evaluating commodities in terms of copper, sil- 
ver, and gold to carry out transactions. These same 
metals have formed the basis for most economies, 
including our own until 1933. Only coinage and bank- 
ing were lacking in the ancient Egyptian model. These 
appeared in Egypt after 405 B.C. , when large companies 
of Greek mercenaries serving in Egypt demanded their 
pay in gold coins. Banking was developed in the 
Ptolemaic Period. Yet, the earlier Egyptians came as 
close to coinage as possible without calling it coinage. 
In the Heka-nakht archive of Dynasty XI (referred to 
above), Heka-nakht in one document mentions hav- 
ing sent 24 copper debens to his associates at Thebes for 
the renting of some land. From the writing, he can only 
mean 24 pieces of copper, each weighing a deben. This 



reference may be added to other evidence already cited 
by Jaroslav Cerny, who likewise suggested that the 
Egyptians had come very close to actual coinage. '' 

Just how valuable the marketplace scene is for ex- 
plaining the workings of the ancient Egyptian economy 
is evident not only from this discussion, but from the 
exhibit scenes it has led to. Grain measuring standards, 
weights, measures, evidence of copper, silver, and gold 
as metals underlying the economy, already in the Old 
Kingdom Period, are all very important evidence. 
Moreover, the different levels of society shown indi- 
cate that this is a village market, not the market of a 
large town or city. So, it shows that this economic sys- 
tem was known to, and used by a fairly wide societal 
base in ancient Egypt. For the exhibit "Inside Ancient 
Egypt," the marketplace is a crucial component in the 
layout of the daily life of the ancient Egyptians. Its 
discovery in 1975, publication in 1977, and utilization 
in this exhibit in 1988 form a fortunate set of circum- 
stances. FM 

1. Moussa, Ahmed, and Hartwig Altenmuller. Das Grab des 
Nianchchnum und Chnumhotep. Archaologische Ver- 
offentlichungen 21. Deutsches Archaologisches Institut 
Abteilung Kairo. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 
1977, pp. 79-85; Tatel 24 and 27. 

2. The ancient Egyptians had a 12-month calendar, with months 
of 30 days each; each month was divided into three weeks of 1 
days each. 

3. The average worker received at most about four sacks of grain, 
emmer wheat, per month, worth from one to four deben in copper 
per sack. But they also received supplements in payment, such 

as fish, firewood, and fresh vegetables, or oils. In the reign of 
Ramesses 11 (1279-1213 B.C.) 10 deben of copper equalled one kit^ 
of silver. Thus, the grain wages worth a total of 4 to 16 deben of 
copper equalled from -A to 1 and V^ kite of silver, at best a third of 
the value of a shirt of fine linen, worth 5 kite. See further, Jaroslav 
Cerny, "Prices and Wages in Egypt in the Ramesside Period," 
Cahiers d'Histoire Mondia/e. Paris: Libraire de Meridiens, 1954, 
pp. 903-921. 

4. See note 3, Cerny, "Prices and Wages," 91 1-912. 




Egyptian Bronzes on View in "Inside Ancient Egypt" 

/.efr Sistrum (percussion instrument), with image ot Hatlnor, goddess of tieaven and beauty, on handle, Late Period. Cenfer Jug on stand, 
inscribed "made by oarsman of His Majesty Pa-am; property of Amun," New Kingdom Period. Right: Mirror with papyrus-form handle and 21 
tHathor-head. New Kingdom Period. 

Gals 30318.30177.30324 
Photo by Diane Alexander White 




Pygmy hippopotamus skull from Akrotiri (FN 1 20), 



Tracking the Extinct 

Pygmy Hippopotamus of Cyprus 



By David S. Reese 

Research Associate, Department of Anthropology 

photos by the author 
except where noted 



22 



For the Past 300 Years, and even today, the extinct 
fossil mammals of the eastern Mediterranean island of 
Cyprus have been interpreted as being the bones of 
saints, early Christian martyrs, antediluvian beasts and 
dragons. Not until the early 1900s were these bones 
correctly identified as pygmy mammals — a pig-sized 
hippopotamus and a pony-sized elephant. 

Cyprus is not unique in the Mediterranean in hav- 
ing such Disneyland-like animals, mainly of the later 



Pleistocene period (1,000, 000- 10,000 years ago). Sici- 
ly and Malta also had pygmy elephants and hippos and 
various giant species: dormice (squirrel-like rodents), 
swans, vultures, and tortoises; Malta also had pygmy 
deer. Crete had pygmy hippos and elephants, both pyg- 
my and large deer, a giant "walking" owl, and large ro- 
dents and shrews. Other Greek islands had pygmy hip- 
pos, elephants, and deer as well as giant tortoises. 

Corsica and Sardinia had pygmy deer, a "rat-like" 



hare, giant otter, and large rodents and shrews; Sardi- 
nia also had pygmy elephants, dwarf pig, small ante- 
lope, and macaque monkeys. The Balearic Islands had 
a small, unique antelope-goat (sometimes called a 
"mouse-goat"), giant dormice, large shrews, and giant 
tortoises. 

These animals were able to reach islands from the 
mainland either by swimming or on natural rafts. The 
reason for such migration is not clear, hut it may have 
been due to overpopulation on the mainland and/or to 
decreased food sources. Such colonization would have 
been very rare, and, as a result, the new population 
would have been numerically small. Over time, the 
dwarf and giant forms evolved on these islands, derived 
from their normal-sized mainland ancestor. Even dur- 
ing the Pleistocene glaciations, when sea levels were 
lowest, Cyprus remained separated from the now sub- 
merged Gulf of Alexandretta, on the coast of Turkey, 
by about 20 miles. 

In general, larger mammals become smaller, while 
rodents, tortoises, and some birds become larger. 
Dwarfism/gigantism is a common phenomenon on is- 
lands which lack large ground-living carnivores and 
which are far enough from the mainland not to receive 
continuing colonizers. The small size of these once- 
large mammals gave them greater mobility in moun- 
tainous island environments. It also enabled them to 
more efficiently utilize their food sources, thus permit- 
ting a larger population. Their smallness also made it 
easier tor them to regulate their body temperatures (a 



proportionally larger body surface facilitates heat ex- 
change). 

The once-large mammals exhibit definite bone fu- 
sion (syndactyly) and bone shortening in their lower 
limbs; they also have relatively heavier built legs with 
stouter bones. The Cypriot hippo moved its limbs pri- 
marily in the fore-aft direction, sometimes called "low- 
gear" locomotion, but could not move them sideways. 
This suggests that, unlike its mainland ancestor, it was 
better adapted to walking than to swimming. The Cyp- 
riot and Cretan hippos have also lost their foot pads; 
they apparently walked on the tips of their toes. This 
would have allowed them greater mobility and agility 
in the mountainous environment. All dwarfed hippo- 
potami have their eyes and nose on a lower plane than 
the modern African hippopotamus. These positions 
suggest that the dwarfed hippopotami are spending 
more time on dry land than in the water. The Cypriot 
hippopotamus also exhibits changes in the pattern of 
the skull bones, the number and shape of the teeth 
(lophodont, i. e. , with molars adapted for grinding) and 
wear pattern of the jaws. All this evidence suggests that 
the hippopotamus had a mode of life somewhat like a 
leaf-eating pig. 

Both the dwarfed deer and antelope-goat have 
fused and shortened foot bones (metapodials and pha- 
langes), which are also characteristic of "low-gear" 
locomotion. This suggests that movement was res- 
tricted to a mere amble instead of the quick speed found 
in their larger ancestors. With no predators to evade, 




23 



the loss of speed was not a significant handicap. 

The small size of most rodents and insectivores 
allows them to hide from predators in small burrows. It 
is possible for these once-small animals to become lar- 
ger when there are no ground-living carnivores to prey 



The Pleistocene-Early Holocene Fauna of Cyprus 

An average adult African hippopotamus is 12-15 feet 
long, 3 '74 feet tall and weighs about 4'/: tons. The Cyp- 
riot pygmy hippopotamus, Phanouriosminutus, current- 




Fossil denizens of prehistoric Malta: dwarfed eleptnants and hippopotamus, giant 
swans, dormouse, and tortoise. From Andrew Leith Adams, Notes of a Naturalist 
in ttie Nile Valley and Ivtalta. 1870, Edinburgh. 



on them. Larger size would provide an additional pro- ly known from 32 sites, would have been less than 5 
24 tection from the (sometimes giant) birds of prey. feet long and 2Vi feet tall. The modern African ele- 




Cave chapel dedicated to St. Ellas, north Cyprus. About 1 2 feet high at entrance Bones 
found inside the cave are all pygmy hippopotamus. 



phant is known to be the largest living land animal, 
with a shoulder height of 10-13 feet. The Cypriot pyg- 
my elephant, Elephas Cypriotes, known from 13 sites, 
would probably have stood only 3 or 4 feet tall. 

Several sites have produced the remains of rodents 
and there is also a turn-of-the-century record of a few 
bones of a genet (a carnivore related to the civet and 
mongoose) from one of the sites that also produced hip- 
popotamus and elephant remains. The genet is prob- 
ably not contemporary with the pygmy forms, and its 
presence on the island cannot be easily explained. 

Earlier, larger forms of hippopotamus have not yet 
been found on the island, but there are three additional 
sites on Cyprus which have produced a total of seven 
elephant teeth larger and probably older than those of 
E. Cypriotes. These chance finds come from deep wells 
and gravel pits and belong to an animal intermediate in 
size between the mainland ancestor and the later Cyp- 
riot dwarfed form. 

Only one of the Cypriot sites has an absolute date 
(see below), but scholars have assumed that many of 
the sites producing the pygmy mammals may be 
100,000 or even 500,000 years old, based on their 
geologic situation. With the cooperation of Prof. Jef- 
frey L. Bada of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
in La Jolla, California, I have initiated a project to date 
some of these bones with a process known as amino 
acid racemization. Dr. Bada has already done similar 
dating work on the pygmy elephants of Sicily. 

I first became interested in Mediterranean island 
dwarfed animals while doing paleontological and 



archaeological work as an undergraduate at Harvard 
University. In 1973 and 1974, under the sponsorship of 
Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ), I 
examined previously known mammal sites, discovered 
new sites, and collected bones for the MCZ. 

In the course of conducting this research in the 
early 1970s, 1 talked with many local people about 
these sites and bones and heard numerous interpre- 
tations of these remains. One story, known since 1860- 
70, told of bones found in caves at Cape Pyla in south- 
ern Cyprus as being the remains of saints or Early Chris- 
tian martyrs. Pilgrimages were made to these caves and 
candles were burned there in honor of the sacred re- 
mains. Such pilgrimages continued into the early 
1970s; all the bones are actually pygmy hippopotamus. 

At a site in the southern foothills of the Kyrenia 
mountains in northern Cyprus, an eroded cave has 
been made into a small chapel by adding walls and a 
roof, and dedicated to St. Elias. When this hippopota- 
mus site was first discovered in 1902 a native woman 
came to the chapel to light an altar lamp, believing 
that these were the saint's bones. 

On the north coast, near the village of Ayios 
Yeoryios, a narrow rock ledge preserves large numbers 
of pygmy hippopotamus bones as well as two pygmy 
elephant teeth. These bones are believed to be the re- 
mains of St. Phanourios, a youth who heard the call of 
Christ and sailed to Cyprus from Turkey. According to 
tradition, he died while ascending the cliff at this spot; 
the rock-cut chape! and a more recent white-washed 
chapel are both dedicated to him. Until at least 1970 



25 




Cliffs at Cape Pyla. southern Cyprus, wfiicti yielded pygmy 
hippopotamus bones from five caves. 



The pygmy hippopotamus bones at Ayios Yeorylos. Cyprus. 



26 




local villagers collected these bones, powdered them, 
and mixed them with water, believing the concoction 
to be a cure for nearly every disease known to man. In 
1972 scholars decided to separate the dwarfed Cypriot 
hippopotamus from the genus Hippopotamus:, appropri- 
ately, Phanourios was chosen as the new generic name. 

Not all Cypriot fossil mammal remains are 
thought to be saints or martyrs. Near the village of Ayia 
Irini, in Cape Kormikiti in northwestern Cyprus, there 
is an extensive site called Dragontouvounari (Greek for 
"Hill of the Dragons"). This fossil mammal deposit was 
interpreted by the residents as being the burial place of 
dragons killed in a catastrophic flood. 

Elsewhere on the island similar deposits of bones 
are virtually ignored. At a mandra, or sheep's fold, 
north of Ayia Irini, hippopotamus bones are found 
under a thin layer of dried goat dung, ignored by all 
except enterprising explorers. 

Since the late 1970s my research has taken me 
away from pygmy mammals. I have mainly analyzed 
marine shells and animal bones from archaeological 
sites in the Mediterranean Basin and Near East. During 
the summer of 1988, however, I returned to Cyprus to 
continue research on the dwarfed mammals of the is- 
land, this time from a new site which also produced 
evidence tor human interaction. 

Excavations on Eagle's Cliff 

In 1961, a 14-year-old English boy named David J. 
Nixon, spending six months with family or friends who 
were stationed at the Royal Air Force base at Akrotiri 
in southern Cyprus, came across an eroded rock-shelter 
on a precipitous cliff about 200 feet above the Med- 
iterranean Sea. Here he found fossilized bones, some of 
them burnt, as well as marine shells and fragments of 
chipped stone tools. 

Nixon took some of this material back to England, 
and in 1966 he showed them to an authority on fossils 
and prehistoric archaeology, the late Dr. Kenneth P. 
Oakley, of the British Museum (Natural History). 
Oakley identified the bones as belonging to the pygmy 
hippopotamus, the shells as the edible snail Morwdon- 
ta, and the chipped stones as being possibly Neolithic. 

In 1971, after reading a book on the archaeology 
of Cyprus by Dr. Vassos Karageorghis, director of the 
Department of Antiquities of Cyprus, Nixon wrote to 
Karageorghis about this site. The Nixon letter, maps, 
and photographs were received by the Cyprus Museum, 
but were never followed up by archaeologists on the 
island. 



V 


11 


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The sheep's fold made from an eroded cave uj.Icu LiMeras- Mandres Vihias produced pygmy hippopotamus 
bones below a thin layer of goat dung. Here the author examines the bones with a Maronite priest (in white) and 
young volunteer. Summer 1973. 



In 1980, a British officer named Lt. Brian Pile re- 
discovered the site when conducting an archaeological 
survey on the Akrotiri peninsula, and mentioned it to 
Dr. Stuart Swiny, director of the Cyprus American 
Archaeological Research Institute (CAARl), in Nico- 
sia. Later that year they visited the site and collected 
additional htines, shells, and flints. The site is often re- 
ferred to simply as Site E, Pile's name for it in his sur- 
vey; more technically it is called Akrotiri-Aeto/cremnos 
(Greek for "Eagle's Cliff). 

Since 1980 various scholars have visited the site 
and examined the small collection of bones, shells, and 
chipped stones housed in CAARl. Carbon- 14 analyses 
performed on the 1980 bones were inconclusive — 
some dates were much earlier than man was previously 
thought to exist on the island while others indicated 
that the bones were less than 2,000 years old. This ex- 
treme range of dates seems attributable to the fact that 
the tests were made on contaminated surface material. 

The site quickly became very controversial: was 
man indeed associated with animals previously thought 
to have become extinct 500,000 or 100,000 years ago, 
long before he arrived on the island? Did man play a 



role in the extinction of these animals and if so, when 
did man first arrive on the island? Conventional wis- 
dom put earliest man on the island around 7000-6500 
B.C. (calibrated carbon-14 dates). This period, the 
Aceramic Neolithic, is typified by circular or sub- 
circular buildings, stone bowls and figurines, domesti- 
cated plants and animals, and burials below the house 
floors. 

In 1987, ten days of surface collection and test 
trenching were performed at the Akrotiri site, produc- 
ing more than 250 lbs. of bone, uncontaminated 
carbon-14 samples, and about 70 stone artifacts. This 
project was directed by Dr. Alan H. Simmons of the 
Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada Sys- 
tem. I was asked to study the bones, but could not join 
the team on Cyprus in 1987 because of other com- 
mitments in Italy and Greece. 

In the summer of 1988 I was able to analyze the 
1987 bone collection through a Pacific Scientific Com- 
pany Fellowship (administered by t .e American 
Schools of Oriental Research). For three weeks in Sep- 
tember 1988 we also conducted more intensive excava- 
tions at the site, these funded by the National Geogra- 



27 




Site of Ayios Yeoryios, north Cyprus, Bones are found on rock ledge 
to left at bottom of stairs. To right of stairs is old rock-cut chapel and 
modern white-washed chapel at top. 



phic Society. We had a larger staff this time, including 
experts in Cypriot prehistory, stone tools, geomorphol- 
ogy, and cave geology. Preliminary reports on the 1987 
season have already been published and a report on the 
1988 season is in press.' 

So far we have excavated more than 1,200 lbs. ot 
bone and shell from a limited excavation area. The 
bone is preponderantly of the pygmy hippopotamus, 
and I estimate that we have over 100-120 individual 
hippopotami present, of all ages from fetal to very aged. 
Also present are about 40 bones of the pygmy elephant, 
from at least three subadult individuals. There are also 
a large number of bird bones, some quite large in size 
and identified preliminarily as bustards. These are now 
under study by Dr. Cecile Mourer-Chauvire, a French 
expert in Pleistocene Mediterranean avian osteology. 
It will be interesting to see if they belong to a new 
"giant" species. 

There is only one fish bone in the entire collec- 
tion, identified by a fish-bone expert, Mark J. Rose, as 
probably coming from a grey mullet. Large numbers of 
edible marine shells, mainly Monodonta, but also the 
limpet Patella, were excavated. These shells are fre- 
quently burnt and crushed. Crabs and sea urchins were 
more rarely eaten by the prehistoric residents ot Akro- 
tiri. All these marine invertebrates could have been 
collected in shallow water on the rocky shore. 

About 325 flints, mainly scrapers of various types, 
have been found. Finds also include a stone pendant 
and a stone bead, as well as ornamental shells, particu- 
larly the naturally-holed Dentalium and various holed 
small gastropods (Columhella, Conus). 

So far we have obtained 15 carbon- 14 dates, 
making Akrotiri the best dated prehistoric site on Cyp- 
rus. Discounting the early contaminated surface dates, 
the samples yield a weighted average of 8230 B.C. (un- 
calibrated). The earliest dates for the Aceramic 
Neolithic on the island are 5892 B.C. (uncalibrated), 
making Akrotiri more than 2,300 years older. 

New intriguing finds from elsewhere on the island 
suggest that Akrotiri may not be the only site with evi- 
dence for pt)ssible pygmy mammal/man interaction. 
Several years ago a pygmy hippopotamus metacarpus 
(forelimb foot bone) fragment was found at the Acer- 
amic Neolithic site of Cape Andreas-Kastros at the 
northeasternmost point of the island. Last summer, a 
fossil mammal shaft fragment with man-made mod- 
ification was identified from a surface collection made 



28 



"Simmons 1988a, h; Si 
Bibliography). 



Held and Reese 1989 (see 




Helicopter view of the site of Aktrotiti-/\eto/</-emnos in southern Cyprus. September 1988. pnoio by sieve o hsu 



over 15 years ago at the contemporary north coast 
archaeological site of Akanthou-Arkos^ilco, not too far 
from two known fossil mammal sites. The question is 
whether the animals producing these two hones were 
contemporary with the archaeological site or were later 
picked up already fossilized hy a Neolithic collector. 

Recent reexamination of one of the caves at Cape 
Pyla may he more similar to the Akrotiri finds. Here in 
the summer of 1988 my colleagues and I found Pha- 
nourios hones, hurnt bone fragments, Monodonta 



shells, charcoal, and some chipped stone pieces. 

The discoveries at Akrotiri make it an exciting 
time for Cypriot archaeology. The ramifications of our 
wt)rk have major implications for early prehistoric 
archaeology well beyond Cyprus. Once we understand 
what is happening at Akrotiri we can use it as a model 
for trying to explain the extinction of the endemic 
faunas of t)ther Mediterranean islands as well as the 
reasons and evidence for early human seafaring in the 
Mediterranean Basin. FH 



Bibliography 



Beiluommi, G. and J. L. Bada. 1985. "IsDJeucine epimerization 
agesof the dwarf elephants of Sicily. "Geolog\ 13, 451-452. 

Boekschoten, G. J. and P. Y. Sondaar. 1972. "On the Fossil Mam- 
malia of Cyprus." Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse 
Akademie van Wetemchappen ' Amsterdam. Series B, 75/4, 306-338. 

Davis, S. 1985. "Tiny elephants and giant mice." New Scientist 3, 

25-27. 

1987. The Archaeology of Animals. New Haven. 

Held, S. O. 1989. Contributums to the Early Prehistoric Archaeology 
of Cyprus: Chronological and Envinmmental Background Studies. Brit- 
ish Archaeological Reports, International Series. Oxford (in 
press). 

Houtekamer, J. L. and P. Y. Sondaar. 1979. "Osteology of the fore 
limb of the Pleistocene dwart hippopotamus from Cyprus with 
special reference to phylogeny and function." Proceedings of the 
Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Series B, 82/ 
4,411-448. 

Karageorghis, V. 1982. C^yprus, From the Stone Age to the Romans. 
London. 

Reese, D. S. 1975a. "Men, Saints or Dragons?" Expedition 17/4, 
26-30. 



1975 h. "Dwarfed Hippos: Past and Present." Earth Science 

28/2, 63-69. 

Simmons, A. H. 1988a. "Extinct pygmy hippopotamus and early 
man in Cyprus." Nature 333/6173, 554-557. 

1988b. "Test Excavations at Akrotiri-Aetokremnos (Site 

E), An early Prehistoric Occupation in southern Cyprus: Pre- 
liminary Report." Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus, 
1988, 15-23. 

Simmons, A. H., S. O. Held and D. S. Reese. 1989. "Extinct 
Pygmy Hippopotamus, Early Man, and the Initial Human Occupa- 
tion of Cyprus." Proceedings of the International Conference on Early 
Man in Island Environments. Sassari (in press). 

Sondaar, P. Y. 1977. "Insularity and its effect on mammal evolu- 
tion." In M. N. Hecht, P C. Goody and B. M. Hecht, eds. Major 
Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution. New York, 671-707. 

1986. "The Island Sweepstakes." Natura! History 95/9, 50- 

57. 

Swiny, S. 1988. "The Pleistocene Fauna of Cyprus and Recent Dis- 
coveries on the Akrotiri Peninsula." Report of the Department of 
Antiquities, Cyprus, 1988. 



29 




M/S Society Explorer 

*WDlfgang Koehler/Society Expeditions Cruises 



ISLANDS 

of the Flores Sea 

and Tbr^aland 

An adventure cruise to 
Bali, Lombok, Toraja- 
land, Kabaena, Flores, 
Komodo, Satonda, and 
Labuan Haji Reef 

(with optional Yogyakarta 
and Borobudur extension) 

Departing August 30, 1989 

15 days 

Leader: Dr. Harold Voris 



Aug. 30: Depart Chicago O'Hare to Los 
Angeles. Evening departure to Denpasar 
Aug. 31: Cross International Date Line. 
Sept. 1: Bali. Morning arrival in Denpasar 
Transfer to hotel on the "island of a thousand 
temples." Day at leisure visiting this mystical 
island. 

Sept. 2: Bali. Day at leisure exploring Bali, per- 
haps journeying to mountain villages where 
age-old traditions still flourish. Handicrafts may 
be found in Mas. the woodcarving center, or 
Ubud, the village known for traditional Balinese 
paintings. Feast tonight on Balinese specialties 
and delight in a festive dance performance. 
Sept. 3: Ball/ Society Explorer. Spend the morn- 
30 ing exploring on your own, perhaps surveying 



Balinese art from prehistoric times to the 20th 
century in the Bali Museum. This afternoon, 
board the Society Explorer and en|oy a fiery 
Indonesian sunset as we cruise past local 
villages. 

Sept. 4: Lombok Island. Traveling overland, 
experience the contrast of this island — where 
lush rice fields border and plains and sparkling 
mosques dominate rural villages. With Bali to 
the east, Lomboks history and culture are in- 
timately tied to her neighbor The deep strait 
between Bali and Lombok marks "Wallace's 
Line," named after naturalist Sir Alfred Wallace. 
Witness, as Wallace did, the differences that 
exist between islands east and west of the line. 
This evening enjoy the captain's Welcome 
Dinner 

Sept. 5: Cruising the Flores Sea. 
Sept. 6. 7: Palopo/Torajaland. Disembark the 
ship in Palopo and travel through steep, rice- 
terraced slopes and rugged mountain peaks to 
isolated Torajaland. The Torajas. who believe 
they are descended from the stars, have a 
unique culture based on animistic beliefs and 
are perhaps best known for their colorful funeral 
ceremonies. One of the most striking features of 
the Toraja landscape is their unique architec- 
ture. The sweeping gables of their thatched- 
roofed homes rise at both ends like the bow 
and stern of a boat. Their ritual chants compare 
these homes to the ships that carried their 
ancestors here. On our excursion, we travel by 
land rover or small bus and overnight in best 
accommodations available. 
Sept. 8: Kabaena Island. Expedition stop to- 
day Sally out in Zodiacs to fish in Kabaena's 
rich waters and explore its seldom-visited vil- 
lage. Beautiful beaches and coral reefs provide 
excellent snorkeling and diving opportunities. 
Sept. 9: Larantuka. Flores Island. With 
cameras ready be sure to scramble topside as 
we cruise through the picturesque Larantuka 
Narrows enroute to Flores. Flanked by rolling 



tropical forests. Flores s spine is a ridge of rug- 
ged mountains that is punctuated by steaming 
volcanoes. Upon arrival, we're greeted by the 
village chief and his tribe who request that we 
join in their sacred ceremony and traditional 
dancing. After a tour of the village, enjoy hear- 
ing the Florenese sing in complicated four-part 
harmonies found nowhere else in the world. 

Sept. 10: Komodo Island. Called the "Island of 
the Dragons. " Komodo is the natural habitat of 
the sole survivor of the dinosaur Reaching ten 
feet in length and 300 pounds, the Komodo 
"dragon" has a life expectancy of 150 years. 
Its yellow-orange forked tongue, lagged teeth, 
and fearsome jaws give it an almost mythical 
appearance and many believe that a similar 
creature was the model for the Chinese dragon. 
Upon arrival, we are met by National Park rang- 
ers who guide us to prime observation point to 
see these unusual creatures feed. We also 
hope to spot masked cuckoo shrikes, spangled 
drongos. and cockatoos in the forest. Excellent 
snorkeling and diving may be available over a 
nearby coral reef as well as swimming from the 
beautiful beach. 

Sept. 1 1: Satonda Islands/Labuan Haji Reef. 
Visit Satonda. a tiny island located off Sumba- 
wa's northeast coast. Walk the beautiful shell- 
strewn beaches, visit with the local people, or 
dive in the rich waters. This afternoon we'll 
make an expedition stop at Labuan Haji Reef. 
Tonight, the captain hosts a Farewell Dinner 
Sept. 12: Disembark the ship and spend time 
in the colorful fruit and vegetable markets of 
Denpasar Spend the rest of the afternoon 
exploring the town at leisure. Overnight in our 
deluxe hotel. 

Sept. 13: Bali/Los Angeles. Afternoon depar- 
ture from Denpasar arriving in Los Angeles the 
same evening. (We have regained the lost day 
by crossing back over the International Date 
Line). Optional overnight in Los Angeles with 
morning return to Chicago September 14. 



FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TOURS^ 



You may also choose to continue to the 
Yogyakarta/Borobudur extension: 

Sept. 13: Yogyakarta. Transfer to hotel. Explore 
the art and batik galleries, or simply enjoy the 
sights and delicious smells of this ancient city, 
known as the cultural center of Java. 
Sept. 14: Borobudur Take an unforgettable 
visit to one of the greatest wonders of the 
world — the mighty Borobudur temple. Believed 
to have taken 10,000 workers 10 years to build, 
it rises 10 terraces, each smaller than the one 
below it. In the afternoon view the Sultan's 
Royal Palace. Completed in 1757, it is treasured 
as an archetype of classical Javanese architec- 
ture. Return to hotel for dinner and cultural 
show. 

Sept. 15: Bali/Los Angeles. Return to Bali for 
departure transfer. Optional over-night in Los 
Angeles, returning to Chicago the morning of 
September 16. 

Prices for Basic Tour 

Explorer Deck: $3,940-$4,265 

Yacht Deck: $4,805-$5,1 10 

Boat Deck: $5,795 

Suite: $6,695 

Rates are per person, double occupancy Air 

transportation from Chicago to Los Angeles is 

not included. A tax-deductible contribution of 

$200 to Field Museum of Natural History is 

included. 

Price for Optional Tour: $290.00 per person: 

double: $350.00 per person, single. (Includes 

air transportation, hotel, meals, transfers and 

sightseeing tours.) 



ENGLISH HONES 

and 

GARDENS 

July4-Julyl5 

Tuesday, July 4: Tour members will be met by 
the local tour director at London Heathrow, 
Terminal 4 (British Airways). Board a luxury 
coach for the short journey to Canterbury, 
where we will be met by our hostesses and 
driven to their homes. Lunch with the host- 
esses, followed by a restful afternoon and 
dinner with hostesses this evening. 

Wednesday July 5: Sandwich Nature Reserve 
& Canterbury. First to Sandwich Bay Nature 
Reserve for a conducted coastline walk to see 
the wildflowers there. Stop at a pub for lunch, 
before continuing on to Canterbury for a private 



tour of this great cathedral, for those who wish. 
Followed by free time to wander or explore be- 
fore returning to hostesses in the late afternoon. 
Dinner this evening in a private home. 

Thursday, July 6: Ladham and Great Dixter. 
First a short drive to the West, towards the 
county of Sussex to visit Ladham, the home of 
Betty, Lady Jessel, who will personally conduct 
a tour of her gardens. A pub lunch in Goud- 
hurst, followed by another short journey to 
Great Dixter, a small gem of a house, built in 
about 1450, which now has a most interesting 
garden, created and maintained by the author 
and broadcaster, Christopher Lloyd. The 
grounds include areas of native wildflowers and 
grasses. Return to hostesses and later on 
dine in a private home. 

Friday July 7: Leeds Castle and Sissinghurst. 
First a private visit to Leeds Castle, including 
its gardens and aviary, which was described 
by Lord Conway as "the loveliest Castle in the 
world." Drive on through the Kent countryside to 
Sissinghurst Castle, for lunch in its restaurant. 
In the afternoon, visit its well-known, and very 
beautiful gardens, created by VitaSackville- 
West and her husband, Harold Nicholson. Dine 
this night with hostesses. 

Saturday July 8: Heaselands. Goodbye to 
Canterbury hostesses and first drive to Hease- 
lands, the home of Mrs. J. N. Kleinwort, for a pri- 
vate tour of her seventeen-acre garden, con- 
ducted by her head gardener This outstanding 
garden was created by Mrs. Kleinwort and her 
late husband over a period of thirty years. 
A pub lunch close to Sheffield Park, before 
travelling on North and West to the Cotswolds 
to meet, and later dine, with hostesses there. 

Sunday. July 9: The Cotswolds. In the morning, 
an opportunity for those who wish, to worship 
before luncheoning with hostesses. In the after- 
noon, visit Hidcote, a lovely garden created by 
the American horticulturalist. Major Lawrence 
Johnston. Hidcote is a series of small gardens, 
surrounded by walls and hedges, contained 
within the whole. Dine this evening in a private 
home. 

Monday, July 10: Oxford and Blenheim. In the 
morning we visit Oxford for a tour, first of its 
Botanic Gardens, followed by a general tour of 
Oxford colleges, for those who wish. Lunch in 
a private home. In the afternoon visit Blenheim 
Palace, home of the 11th Dukeof Malborough, 
and birthplace of Sir Winston Churchill. Dinner 
this evening will be with hostesses. 

Tuesday, July 1 1: Travel to Bath. Farewell to 
Cotswold hostesses, and board the coach for 
a short drive South to Barnesley Here, the well- 
known gardening author Rosemary Verey will 
personally conduct a tour of her outstanding 
gardens, which surround her delightful South 
Cotswold house. Lunch in the local pub, and in 
the afternoon, continue to Bowood, the family 
home of the Earl of Shelburne, to see both the 
house and its gardens. The Robert Adam Diole- 
tian houses magnificent rooms and a 5,000- 
volume library. In the gardens the collections of 
trees and shrubs include 153 species and over 
900 varieties, all of which are labelled. Later in 
the afternoon, continue to the Bath area to 
meet, and later dine, with Bath hostesses. 



Wednesday July 12: Bath. In Bath we tour 
this elegant Georgian city with its outstanding 
crescents, not the least of which is the Royal 
Crescent, claimed to be the finest in Europe. 
Lunch in a restaurant in town. In the afternoon, 
a choice either to stay in Bath to shop and 
explore, or to visit Wells for a private tour of its 
eight-hundred-year-old cathedral. Return to 
hostesses in the late afternoon, and later this 
evening, dine in a private home. 

Thursday. July 13: Wilton and Heale. We drive 
south down the lovely Wylie Valley to Wilton 
House, |ust North of Salisbury. Visit the home of 
the 17th Earl of Pembroke to see its magnificent 
State Apartments, including the famous Double 
Cube Rooms, and one of the finest art collec- 
tions in Europe. The gardens contain an inter- 
esting variety of trees, including the Golden 
Oak tree and giant Cedars of Lebanon. Roses 
are a feature and Lord Pembroke recently 
opened an Old Rose Garden. After a pub 
lunch, visit Heale House, the home of Mrs, 
David Rash, with its superb five-acre garden. 
Shrub roses and perennials are a prominent 
feature, together with Japanese tea house and 
magnolias. Return to hostesses in the late after- 
noon to dine with them. 

Friday. July 14: Travel to London. Goodbye to 
Bath hostesses and drive east to the Royal Hor- 
ticultural Society Gardens at Wisley These gar- 
dens, which extend over 470 acres, are "work- 
ing gardens," with every plant and flower or 
shrub labelled. They are a joy for both the 
serious and amateur gardener, or horticultural- 
ist. Lunch in the garden's restaurant. In mid- 
afternoon, continue into central London and 
check into the Naval and Military Club, located 
in the heart of London's West End, where we will 
be the guests of Lt. Colonel Ronnie Adam. He 
will host a Welcome to London Reception in the 
Club for Tour Members this evening. Dinner by 
own arrangements. 

Saturday, July 15. A free day for Tour Members 
to pursue their own interests, either shopping or 
sight-seeing. The booklet in the personal fold- 
ers given to each guest on arrival in England list 
places of interest in London, how to get there, 
and times of opening. The tour director will 
assist in putting together the day's program, for 
those who wish. Lunch and dinner by own 
arrangements. 

Sunday July 16. Those returning home this day 
will be escorted to the departure airport by the 
tour director for the return flight home. Addition- 
al night's accommodation may be arranged at 
the Naval and Military Club for those wishing to 
stay on longer in London, subject to availability 

As you see, we will visit a number of outstand- 
ing gardens, and your enjoyment will be en- 
hanced by the leadership of Bertram G. Wood- 
land, a former curator at Field Museum, who 
will accompany the group throughout the tour. 
Additionally, the opportunity to stay in private 
homes and share tfie hospitality of the English 
hostesses, and the overnight stay ai li le Naval 
and Military Club should offer some delightful 
and interesting experiences. We hope you will 
join us for this very special tour 

Price $3,500. (includes $100 tax-deductible 
contribution to Field Museum) 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



31 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
ChicascIL 60605-2499 



i~*» 



HISS MARITA "AXEY 
7411 NORTH GPFEIMVIETW 
CHICAGO IL 60626 



■(^ ^ 



^ 



K^^'  



FIEL 



USEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



March 1989 





HummingBirds: Their Life and Behavior 

Slide-Lecture 
Sunday, March 12 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Su# Photographer; Ron Testa 



Board OF Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T Stanton Armour 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Blocklll 
WillardL. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Woriey H. Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
Thomas E. Donnelley il 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Wayne E. Hedien 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
William Kunkler 111 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. JamesJ. O'Connor 
James H. Ranstim 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searie 
Mrs. Thetxlore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Ctx^k 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strot: 
John W. Sullivan 



CONTENTS 

March 1989 

Volume 60, Number 3 



MARCH EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 

FIftD BRIEFS 5 

INDIANS OF THE WESTERN GREAT UKES— THEY ARE STILL HERE 

By Helen Hombeck Tanner 6 



CONSERVATION OF TROPICAL DIVERSITY 

The Field Museum Connection 
By Bruce D. Patterson 



18 



HELD MUSEUM TOURS 30 



COVER 

The ruby-throated hummingbird {Archilochm coluhris) getting 
his nourishment from the flower of a trumpet vine, or trumpet 
creeper (Campsis radicans). Hummingbirds are the feature of 
a slide lecture on Sunday, March 12. See 'Events.' 

Photo " copyright Robert A Tyrrell t989. 



The City Musick Performs March 10 

On Friday, March 10, City IVIusick performs "La Resur- 
rezione," Handel's first oratorio in its Chicago premiere 
for orchestra and soloists. James Simpson Theatre at 
8 pm. Ten percent discount on tickets for Field Museum 
members. Call City Musick at 642-1 766. 



Field Museum of Natural Hisiory- Bulletin (USPS S9S-940) is published monlhly. except combined July/ August issue, by Field Museuin of Natural Historv. Rwscvelt Road at Lake Shore tJnvc. Chicago. IL 60605-24% Copynghl T 1989 Field 
Museum of Natural History Subscriptions: S6 00 annually S3.00 for schools Museum membership includes fiM//f/in subscription. Opinionscxprcssedby authors are their own and do not rKcessarilyreficct the policy of Field Museum Unsolicited 
manuschpis arc welcome Museum phone: (312)922-9410. Notification of address change should irtcludc address label and be sent to Membership Dcparlmcni. Postmaster Please send form 3379 to Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Dnvc, Chicago, EL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703, 





Ruby-throated hummingbird « 1 989 Robert a Tyrreii 

Hummingbirds: 

Their Life and Beliavior 



Robert A. Tyrrell and Esther Quesada Tyrrell 
Photographer and Author 

Sunday, March 12, 1:30pm 

Most of them are less than three inches long and weigh less 
than a penny. Among the most acrobatic of birds, they can fly 
forward, backward, upside down, and hover. Their tiny wings 
can beat as fast as 80 times a second. They have such romantic 
names as Sappho comet, adorable coquette, and collared 
Inca. They are the flying jewels of the Trochilidae family: the 
hummingbirds. 

Hummingbirds are among the most difficult birds to capture 
on film. Their tiny stature and rapid movement have eluded 
photographers for years. With the help of engineering experts 
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, photographer 
Robert Tyrrell has mastered the high-speed photography re- 
quired to stop these tiny creatures in action. He is considered 
the world's foremost photographer of hummingbirds. 

In a slide-lecture presentation, based on their highly 
acclaimed book. Hummingbirds: Ttieir Life and Behavior, the 



Tyrrells present the brilliant world of hummingbirds. Using 
Robert's slides, Esther Tyrrell discusses aerial dynamics, plu- 
mage, food, courtship, aggression, and nesting, while focusing 
on the 1 6 North American species. She also looks at the difficul- 
ties encountered in photographing hummingbirds. As Robert 
says, "The largest problem I encountered was 'stopping' their 
wings. Not only because of their whirring, but also because the 
shimmering, iridescent feathers can change color and lose their 
luster if not photographed from the precise angle." The lecture 
continues with discussions of the role of the hummingbird in Na- 
tive American ritual, art and legend. 

Share the Tyrrells' experiences of tracking and "shooting" 
the birds, the trials of tidal waves, flowers blooming out of sea- 
son, shifts in migration patterns, and the triumph of a completed 
project. 

LL89101 Hummingbirds; Their Life and Behavior 
Tickets: $6 ($4 members) 



Please use the coupon p 4 




Weekend Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museunn. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the tvluseum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are some of the numerous 
activities offered each weekend. Check the activity listing upon arrival for the complete schedule, and program locations. The 
programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 



March 
4,11 



12:30pm "Museum Safari" 

Trek through the four corners of the Museum to 

see the seven continents. See antiquities from the 

Amazon, big game from Africa and seals from the 

Arctic. 



These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets 
are not required. 



1 8 1 :30pm Tibet Today and Bfiutan. Land of tfie 

Tfiunder Dragon. See Lhasa and other towns now 
open to tourists, and examine important Buddhist 
sites during this slide lecture and tour. 




World Music Programs 

Wee><ends in l\/larcti 
1 :00pm and 3:00pm 

Program highlights include: 

D Marcfi4and5 

1 :00pm — Light Henry Huff plays contemporary jazz harp. 

3:00pm — Librado Salazar plays classical guitar. 

n March 1 1 and 12 

1 :00pm — Thunder Sky drummers play African percussion. 

3:00pm — Amira demonstrates shakere. 

n March 18 and 19 

1 :00pm — Fan Wei-Tsu demonstrates the sheng, a Chinese 

zither. 
3:00pm — Keith Eric plays Jamaican rhythms. 

D Marcti 25 and 26 

1 :00pm — Chinese Music Society of North America demon- 
strates instruments from the Chinese orchestra. 
3:00pm— Chicago Beau plays blues harmonica. 

Tfie World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and 
Harle Montgomery Fund and a CityArts grant from the Chicago 
Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 



Registration for Hummingbird Slide-Lecture 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this registration 
application. Registrations are confirmed by mail. For registrations re- 
ceived less than one week before the program date, confirmations 
are held at the West Door for pick-up one hour before the perform- 
ance begins. Phone registrations are accepted using Visa/tVlaster- 
Card/AMX/Discover. Please call (312) 322-8854 to register. The 
minimum amount for credit cards is $15.00. For further registration 
information, consult the January/February/March Adult, Children, 
and Family Program Brochure. 

Return complete registration with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Department of Education, Program Registration 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



Name 










Address 


City 




State 




Zip 


4 Telephone: 


Daytime 




Evening 





Program 
Number 


Program 


#Member 


#Nonmember 


Total Amount 


LL89101 


Hummingbirds: 

Their Life and Behavior 








n Scholars 


hip requested 




total 





DAMX DVisa D MasterCard D Discover (Check one) 
Card # expiration date 

Signature 



For office use only: date received 



date mailed 



FIELD BRIEFS 



Distinguished Scientist Award 
to Robert F. Inger 

The Department of Zoology proudly announces the 
honorary appointment of Dr. Robert F. Inger, curator of 
Amphibians and Reptiles, as Distinguished Scientist of 
Field Museum. Dr. Inger is a skilled naturalist and 
world authority on the systematics and natural history 
of amphibians and reptiles, especially of the Far East. 
Dr. Inger is well recognized in the scientific community 
for his biogeographic, systematic, and faunal studies, 
and for his important papers on the ecology of rain for- 
est communities in Southeast Asia. Most recently, he 
has been working annually in Sahah (Island of Bor- 
neo), where he is an honorary curator and professor at 
the Sarawak Museum in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. 
Throughout his career. Dr. Inger provided generous 
service to the scientific community as editor or mem- 
ber of the editorial boards of four international scien- 
tific societies, and as program director for Environmen- 
tal Biology during a two-year appointment at the 
National Science Foundation. On the basis of his rec- 
ord of innovative research and service to the scientific 
community. Dr. Inger's colleagues elected him to the 
presidencies of three international societies: the Amer- 
ican Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, the 
Herpetologists League, and the Society of Systematic 
Zoology. In addition, he was elected to the vice- 
presidency of the Society for the Study of Evolution. 
Dr. Inger's outstanding achievements in many areas of 
science, both in the national and international arenas, 
make him a most deserving recipient of Field Museum's 
first Distinguished Scientist appointment. 



Larry Heaney Joins Mammals Staff 

The Department of Zoology's most recent member is 
Larry Heaney, who has been appointed assistant cura- 
tor of Mammals. A native of Washington, D.C., where 
he attended high school, Heaney earned his bachelor's 
degree at the University of Minnesota and his M.A. 
and Ph.D. at the University of Kansas. His special 
interests include evolutionary biogeography, particu- 
larly concerning the mammals of Southeast Asia. 



Timothy C. Plowman 
1944-1989 

Timothy C. Plowman, a member of the Botany De- 
partment staff since 1976, died on January 7 after a 
long illness. He served as chairman of the department 
from 1986 to 1988 and at the time of his death was 
curator. 

Dr. Plowman grew up in Harrisburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, and attended college at Cornell University. His 
graduate studies at Harvard resulted in a Master's 
Degree in 1970 and a doctorate in 1974. His research 
interests at Harvard, under the guidance of Richard 
Evans Schultes, focused on ethnobotany and plant sys- 
tematics. Though his systematic studies began with 
Brunfelsia (tomato family), he soon focused on the tax- 
onomy and ethnobotany of Erythroxylum (coca) as his 
primary interest. He did intensive fieldwork and col- 
lecting in tropical South America, Central America, 
and the Caribbean. Because he interacted so well with 
many diverse scholars, he was able to promote a wide 
range of interdisciplinary studies regarding the 
archaeology, ethnobotany, chemistry, and pharmacol- 
ogy of coca and other economic plants. 

He became tenured at the Museum in 1983 and 
was appointed curator in 1988. He published over 60 
scientific papers, many of them dealing with ethnobo- 
tany and ethnopharmacology. He served as the editor 
of the Museum's journal, Fieldiana, for four years, and 
served in an editorial capacity for several other jour- 
nals. During his two years as chairman of the Botany 
Department, he obtained a substantial increase in NSF 
funding for the herbarium, and he developed a new 
facility for the curation of the economic collections. 
His strong motivation and high professional standards 
were evident in all his work, and these attributes made 
him an effective chairman and editor. His collecting of 
research materials for others and his commitment to 
providing identifications made him many friends. 

The Department of Botany has established the 
Timothy C. Plowman Fund for South American 
Research. Contributions may be made to this fund 
through the Department of Botany. 



Indians of the Western Great Lakes 

They Are Still Here 



by Helen Hornbeck Tanner 



The original inhabitants of the western Great Lakes, 
now commonly called "Indians" or "Native Amer- 
icans," have left traces of their presence as long as 
ten or twelve thousand years ago in this region, though 
the record of continuous existence is clearly evident for 
the last four thousand years. For Indian people who still 
live near Chicago and Lakes Michigan, Superior, and 
Huron, their traditional history consequently covers 
many centuries of time in North America. By contrast, 
all other present-day inhabitants are hut recent 
immigrants whose homelands are across the oceans on 
other continents. 

To appreciate the native American perspective 
regarding regional history of the western Great Lakes, 
it may be helpful to use the device of an imaginary long- 
run film that would cover 250 years an hour, and so take 
sixteen hours to record the 4,000-year span of time. All 
the actors would be Indian people for more than four- 
teen of those sixteen hours. If the film began at 8 a.m. 
and ended at midnight, the first French explorers 
would not appear in the present Chicago area until 
about 10:40 p.m., and American settlers would not ar- 
rive on the scene until about 1 1:25 p.m. In this long- 
range view of the regional past, Americans who have 
all come from other parts of the world represent a thin 
surface-layer of very recent but nevertheless traumatic 
developments that rapidly transformed the western 
Great Lakes country. 

The many centuries of time before the arrival of 
Europeans were not static for the original inhabitants. 
The lakes and river systems, along with the overland 
trails, provided a communication system that kept na- 
tive communities of the western Great Lakes in touch 
with the Atlantic Seaboard, Gulf Coast, Rocky Moun- 
tains beyond the Great Plains, and the north country 
towards Hudson Bay. The frequency of such contacts 
varied over the centuries, as population centers formed 
and later broke up when groups dispersed and moved 
about. Alliances fostered intercommunity contacts, 
while enmities created barriers. 
6 The greatest era in the past history of eastern 



North America occurred during the period around A. D. 
II 50, when a flourishing metropolis with a population 
estimated at 10,000 existed at Cahokia, Illinois, across 
the Mississippi River from present St. Louis, Missouri. 
Including satellite towns and ceremonial mounds on 
both sides of the Mississippi, the regional population 
may have been as high as 40,000. Cahokia was well 
placed in the middle course of the Mississippi River, a 
main artery of north-south travel, and close to en- 
trances of both the Missouri and Ohio rivers. By land 
trails to the Southwest, Cahokians traded with other 
prosperous and highly developed towns in present 
Louisiana and east Texas. 

Native people throughout the western Great 
Lakes had contacts with Cahokia and built their own 
local mounds, but did not live in villages large enough 
to maintain the complex society of the great cere- 
monial and trade center on the Mississippi River. The 
people on the upper Illinois River, around the base of 
Lake Michigan, and in southwestern Michigan lived in 
the hinterlands. The impressive city of Cahokia was 
not an enduring metropolis, but dwindled and broke 
into smaller hamlets by A.D. 1300, during a period 
when similar population decline and dispersal was 
occurring in other sectors of the present United States. 
One distant offshoot of Cahokia was established in 
southeastern Wisconsin at present Azatlan, where 
signs of the mounds and palisaded fortifications are still 
visible. 



Helen Hornbeck Tanner is a research assixiate at tiie Newberry 
Library's D'arcy McNickle Center tor the Study ot the American 
Indian. She has written extensively in the Held of Indian studies 
and has ser\ed as an expert witness in cases presented before the 
Indian Claims Commission and as historical consultant in other 
cases ot tribal litigation. Dr. Tanner has also been guest lecturer on 
Indian history tor the Field Museum's Adult Education Program. 
Alias of Great Lakes Indian History, edited by Dr. Tanner and pub- 
lished in 1987 by the University of Oklahoma Press, was awarded 
the Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin Prize by the American SiKiety for 
Ethnohistory as the best book in the field ot ethnt>history published 
in 1987. 



The arrival of Europeans on the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts, beginning with the Spaniards in the early 
1500s, led to far-reaching changes along the Seaboard 
and even in the vast interior drained by the Mississippi 
River system. Drastic decline in population, the con- 
sequence of the introduction of such diseases as mea- 
sles, whooping cough, and smallpox to which the Indi- 
ans had no resistance, destroyed an estimated 75 to 90 
percent of the native people living in the Southeast by 
about 1 580. For the area north of the Ohio River, 
including the upper Mississippi valley and the western 
Great Lakes, there is no generally accepted estimate of 
the possible loss of life as a result of the further spread of 
sixteenth-century epidemics. 

The full impact of changes brought about by Euro- 
peans on the seacoasts did not reach the western Great 
Lakes until the middle of the seventeenth century. The 
era of profound changes was preceded by the advance of 
French explorers up the St. Lawrence River to create a 
new base at Quebec City in 1608. At virtually the same 
time, English settlement began at Jamestown, Va. , and 
Dutch representatives sailed up the Hudson River to 
establish a fortified trading post at present Albany, 
New York. The introduction of European trade goods, 
and the demands for increasing numbers of beaver pelts 
in exchange, set up intercolonial and intertribal 
animosities that first disrupted the lower Great Lakes 
region of present New York and Ontario. Merchants in 
all the colonies promoted the lucrative trade in furs 
with native people, who were eager to acquire iron 
hatchets, knives, and copper kettles. These European 
wares were obviously superior to their own stone tools 
and pottery and bark containers. Native people also 
were in the market for luxury goods, fancy coats, and 
shirts, ribbons, and articles for personal adornment. 
Essentially, leaders among the various Indian coalitions 
were competing to control the distribution of European 
imports to their native trading partners, and at the 
same time trying to monopolize the supply of beaver 
pelts from an expanding hunting territory for trade 
with their European allies. The pattern of minor raids 
and skirmishes characteristic of traditional Indian 
fighting developed into wholesale economic warfare 
supported by rival European powers also at war with 
each other. The period of intensified warfare was 
accompanied by waves of epidemic disease that des- 
troyed a third to a half of the regional population. Prior 
to the arrival of Europeans in the western Great Lakes, 
one epidemic spread to east-central Wisconsin, vir- 
tually annihilating the Winnebagos. 

The introduction of firearms changed the nature 




Ribbon applique skirt, Sauk and Fox. Cat, 1 7589 

neg. 110964c 




Pair of beaded garters, Potawatomi. Cat. 1 55680 

Photo by Ron Testa, neg 1 1 1489 



of forest fighting previously limited to how-and-arrow 
encounters. When the Dutch provided their Iroquois 
allies with muskets in 1641, they gave these Indians in 
northern New York a military and psychological super- 
iority that prevailed for half a century. The French be- 
came obligated to provide firearms for their supporters, 
but French guns were not as good and were distributed 
only to Indians trusted to remain loyal. After the Iro- 
quois acquired firearms in the 1640s, their next target 
became the Hurons, another group of Iroquois speak- 
ing people with an extensive trading empire based at 
their towns near Lake Simcoe, north of present Tor- 
onto, Ontario. The Huron country enjoyed a unique 
climatic advantage as the most northern locale where 
com could be raised. The Huron and their Ottawa all- 
ies traded corn through a network that extended north 
of Lake Superior to Hudson Bay and westward to Green 
Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox-Wisconsin river route 
provided the principal gateway to the upper Mississippi 
River and western prairies. 



Iroquois attacks drove the Hurons from their 
homeland, many succumbing to hunger and disease at 
a temporary encampment on Christian Island in Geor- 
gian Bay, Lake Huron. The long odyssey of the refugee 
Hurons and their Ottawa companions continued to an 
island at the head of Green Bay, then to the upper Mis- 
sissippi River below present Minneapolis-St. Paul, 
where Dakota (or Sioux) opposition forced their re- 
treat back to the south shore of Lake Superior. Mean- 
while, Indians of the western Great Lakes district were 
congregating near Green Bay, home ground for the 
Menominee and Winnebago, forming an intertribal re- 
fugee community estimated at 10,000 people. Among 
the refugees were Illinois Indians, Miamis from the 
Wabash River country of northern Indiana, and Pota- 
watomis from southwestern Michigan. The population 
density strained the agricultural and other food re- 
sources of the Green Bay region. Iroquois attacks on 
the northern sector of the Great Lakes subsided after 
Ojibwa warriors defeated an Iroquois raiding party near 



the Lake Superior outlet into the St. Marys River in 
1662. 

Iroquois military activity entered a new phase 
after the English replaced the Dutch in the Hudson 
River valley in 1669. Since they had dispersed or in- 
corporated their immediate neighbors, Iroquois attacks 
from northern New York in the 1670s next swept down 
the Ohio River through Shawnee country to southern 
Illinois, and followed the route south of Lake Erie, con- 
tinuing overland to northern Illinois. Iroquois inflicted 
a heavy blow on the Illinois village near the mouth of 
the Illinois River in 1680, and struck Miami Indians 
encamped near present Chicago in 1687. The series of 
offensive actions ended in 1691 , when the Illinois and 
their allies repulsed the Iroquois siege at Starved Rock, 
on the upper Illinois River near present Utica, 111. The 
intertribal community at Starved Rock, including resi- 
dent Illinois, as well as Miami and Shawnee refugees, 
had collected around the fort established by LaSalle 
during his first trip downriver in 1682. 

Thereafter, western Indians allied to carry a 
counter-offensive aided by French troops into Iroquois 
territory. Under French auspices, a general peace treaty 
took place in Montreal in 1701. An important provi- 
sion of the treaty was the agreement that the Iroquois 
could hunt peacefully in Canada, and the Ottawa 
could pass undisturbed through Iroquois territory to 
trade at Albany. Among the participants in the con- 
ference were leaders from all the western Great Lakes 
Indians: Huron, Ottawa, Ojibwa (Chippewa), Meno- 
minee, Potawatomi (who also represented the Sauk), 
Winnebago, Mesquakie (Fox), Illinois, Kickapoo, 
Mascoutin, and Miami. The Kaskaskia village leader 
from southern Illinois made the longest journey to 
attend, though there were also representatives from 
Temiscaming, on the headwaters of the Ottawa River 
in northern Ontario. Closer to Montreal were the Indi- 
an mission communities of Mohawk, Algonquin, Abe- 
naki, and Huron located in the lower St. Lawrence 
River valley. Only four of the Five Nations of Iroquois 
participated in the Montreal peace conference: Sene- 
ca, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Oneida. Later, the Mo- 
hawk added their approval. In peace-making, as in 
warfare, trade, and diplomacy, western Great Lakes In- 
dians carried on constant intertribal activity, but the 
Montreal council was a special event. 

Before the final peace treaty was signed in 1701, 
adjustments began to take place in the western coun- 
try. Miamis and Potawatomis began to leave Green 
Bay, moving toward their home territory in southwest- 
ern Michigan and Indiana. Largely because prices for 



furs declined drastically in European markets, the 
French king ordered the cessation of licensed trading 
and the abandonment of posts throughout the Great 
Lakes in 1696. This decision forced Indian hunters to 
deal with the illegal traders, the coureurs de hois, or to 
seek distant English markets at Hudson Bay or Albany. 
On the mission frontier, French missionaries shifted 
southward to found a new center in Illinois at Cahokia, 
on the east hank of the Mississippi 20 miles south of the 
mouth of the Illinois River. This mission served nearby 
Illinois Indian villages, Cahokia, Tamaroa, and Kas- 
kaskia, and French habitants who began farming the fer- 
tile Mississippi bottomlands in 1700. 

The significant new development following the 
peace treaty was the establishment of a new French 
base at present Detroit, Michigan in the fall of 1701, 
when safe travel was assured from Montreal through 
Lake Ontario and Lake Erie and the surrounding coun- 
try. From this solitary outpost in the western Indian 
country, the French commandant promoted the fur 
trade in a new direction, the Ohio country. Leading 
the Indians who came to settle at the new location were 
the Hurons, who ended their half-century of wander- 
ing at new headquarters on the Detroit River. Their 
Ottawa friends and two groups of Potawatomi were 
other long-term residents of the Detroit region. North 
of Detroit, the St. Clair River district became the 
home of Ojibwas from Sault Ste. Marie and the north 
shore of Lake Huron. 

The period of shortages in European merchandise 
was alleviated after a rise in the price of furs made 
reopening the western Great Lakes trading posts eco- 
nomically feasible. In 1715, new Fort Michillimack- 
inac — Ojibwa name for the straits region — was 
constructed on the south shore at present Mackinaw 
City, Michigan. This site was the crossroads of com- 
merce for the entire western Great Lakes region, the 
summer gathering place for vo-yageurs, traders, and 
thousands of Indians who joined in intertribal cere- 
monies and celebrations. Subsidiary posts with mili- 
tary detachments were later established as far south as 
Fort Chartres, near the French and Indian villages of 
southwestern Illinois, and westward along the Rainy 
River route from Lake Superior to Lake of the Woods 
on the present Minnesota-Canadian border. 

For Indian people, French military posts offered 
not only hunting supplies and foreign merchandise, but 
also the services of blacksmiths and other artisans who 
could produce metal tools, sharpen axes and knives, 
and repair guns. Some traders spent the winters with 
Indians when they dispersed to hunting camps, married 9 



Indian women, and became part of the kinship net- 
work. 

Yet, Indians never received Europeans in their 
midst with total enthusiasm, and periodically tried to 
halt the increase in foreign influence within Indian 
country. Resistance was most forcefully demonstrated 
in a series of armed conflicts protesting trade control 
and pricing, military actions, and takeover of Indian 
hunting grounds for agricultural settlement. In defense 
of their own families, homes, and country, Indian war- 
riors fought French, British, and American armies as 
well as local militia units. 

Ironically, the armies all had Indian contingents, 
so the fighting also involved intertribal and native civil 
war. After Indian people were forced to surrender their 
lands to the American government in the curious 
procedure of land-cession treaties, the confrontation 
continued as cultural conflict with the policies of the 
federal Bureau of Indian Affairs. Indian people were 
reluctant, even under government pressure, to 
change their language, religion, values, family life, and 
the way they raised their children. 

The first major opponents of foreign intrusion 
into the western Great Lakes were the Mesquakies liv- 
ing along the Fox River above the entrance to Green 
Bay. By blocking the Fox River, the Mesquakies pre- 
vented the French from using the important water 
route from Green Bay to the Mississippi River by way of 
the Fox and Wisconsin rivers with a portage at present 
Portage, Wisconsin. In a series of campaigns from 1712 
to 1737 known as the "Fox Wars," the French fought 
the Mesquakies, who received aid from sympathetic 
neighboring tribes, the Sauks, Kickapoos, Mascoutens, 
and Dakotas. This combination carried aggressive war- 
fare against the Illinois, strong supporters of the 
French, as a consequence of Christianization and inter- 
marriage. In their ultimate determination to annihilate 
the Mesquakies, the French with Indian assistance 
including Christian Iroquois, drove the Mesquakies 
from their villages on the Fox River and marshalled 
1 ,400 fighting men to carry out a devastating attack on 
their refugee stronghold in present McLean County, 
Illinois. French officials transported some of the Mes- 
quakie prisoners to Martinique to he sold as slaves, but 
Caribbean plantation owners heard of the warriors' 
ferocity and refused to accept them as gifts. The last of 
these Mesquakies were taken to the coast of South 
America. 

When warfare ended, the Kickapoos and Mas- 

coutins left southern Wisconsin, accepting the invita- 

10 tion of the Miami to settle on the Wabash River in 



Indiana. The remaining Mesquakies moved west to the 
Mississippi Valley and became closely associated with 
the Sauks. By 1737, the new center for the Sauk was 
Saukenuk, at present Rock Island, Illinois. Twelve 
years later, one other group of Mesquakie left the west- 
em Great Lakes to relocate at a Delaware village in 
northwestern Pennsylvania. 

In 1747, other tribes in the Great Lakes region 
demonstrated their dissatisfaction with French intru- 
sion. One faction of Hurons who had moved perman- 
ently to northern Ohio plotted unsuccessfully to seize 
the fort at Detroit. In other incidents the same year, 
French traders were killed near Lake Erie, in the Sagi- 
naw Valley of eastern Michigan, and in the Illinois 
country. 

But the Miamis, Hurons, and Shawnees who had 
recently regathered in southern Ohio presented a more 
serious challenge to French authorities by accepting 
British traders from Pennsylvania in their towns. 
French soldiers and Ottawa allies from Michillimack- 
inac swept down to the Ohio country and restored 
French control over the Indian trade before the begin- 
ning of the next hostilities in the zone contested by 
rival colonial empires — ^hostilities known as the French 
and Indian War ( 1 753-60). Indian leaders protested in 
vain against European use of Indian lands for fighting 
their imperial battles. Nevertheless, many Iroquois 
from New York joined the British, and most western 
Great Lakes Indians sided with the French, taking 
prisoners and booty in hostilities along the Pennsyl- 
vania frontier. Hurons and Potawatomis, according to 
their own tradition, brought back to their villages the 
first horses owned by these tribes. In 1757, 850 Great 
Lakes Indians joined French forces in the expedition 
across northern New York to seize Fort William Henry 
at Lake George. Menominees from Green Bay and 
Potawatomis from the St. Joseph River of southwestern 
Michigan unfortunately entered the smallpox ward of 
the military hospital and carried the infection back to 
their home communities. The war ended in this 
theatre after the British victories at Pittsburgh in 1758 
and Montreal in 1 760. 

The arrogance of the British officers sent to take 
over the French military posts, and the curtailing of 
expected gifts — a vital part of amicable Indian transac- 
tions — aroused general dissatisfaction among Indian 
communities throughout the Great Lakes and upper 
Ohio Valley. Under the leadership of Pontiac, an Otta- 
wa leader living near Detroit, warbelts were secretly 
circulated to coordinate attacks on the new British 
military units. In May and June 1763, Great Lakes In- 



dians forced the British to surrender nine posts: Fort 
Michillimackinac on the straits between Lakes Huron 
and Michigan; Fort Edward Augustus at Green Bay, 
Wisconsin; Fort St. Joseph at Niles, Michigan; Fort 
Ouiatenon at present Lafayette, Indiana; Fort Miami 
at present Fort Wayne, Fort Sandusky in northern 
Ohio, and three posts on the northwestern Pennsyl- 
vania frontier. The first six were in localities with small 
French and metis (Indian and White) civilian pop- 
ulations engaged in trading and farming. The British 
held out in only two western forts, Pittsburgh and 
Detroit. 

Pontiac ended the six-month siege of Detroit in 
late October, 1 763 after an early snowfall forecast the 
need to begin winter hunting, and after a French 
messenger arrived from Fort Chartres, Illinois, bring- 
ing first news of the terms of the Treaty of Paris signed 
in June, 1763. This treaty ended the global warfare in 
which the North American Indians had become in- 
volved. In European, but certainly not in native Amer- 
ican perception, the treaty transferred to Great Britain 
all the French territory east of the Mississippi River, but 
the New Orleans district and Province of Louisiana 
west of the Mississippi went to Spain. Pontiac did not 
really believe the report of the peace terms, and he 
went to Fort Chartres, still hoping for French assist- 



ance. The French communities in southwestern Illi- 
nois, as well as Vincennes in southern Indiana, were 
not part of Canada, which admittedly had been con- 
quered, but were on the northern edge of French 
Louisiana. Illinois Indians made a futile appeal to the 
French governor in New Orleans, and sympathetic In- 
dians prevented British occupation of Fort Chartres 
until Pontiac agreed to make peace in 1765. No longer 
a war leader, Pontiac's influence faded before his mur- 
der in 1769. 

Though the French left the Great Lakes Indian 
country, native leaders still had diplomatic alternatives 
when the Spanish established headquarters for Upper 
Louisiana in 1770 at St. Louis, Missouri, founded by 
French from Illinois in 1764- The Spanish presence in 
the Mississippi Valley until recession to France in 1802 
and subsequent purchase by the United States in 1803, 
brought a new element into the western Great Lakes 
frontier. During the next quarter-century, the Illinois, 
beleaguered Shawnees, and their Cherokee allies, 
the Delaware, Kickapoo, and Miami, sought Spanish 
protection on the west bank of the Mississippi River. 

In the years following the general uprising associ- 
ated with Pontiac, the principal concern of all Indian 
people west of the Appalachian mountains was the pre- 
vention of further loss of land to the advancing white 




11 



Floor mat, Potawatomi. Cat 1 5571 1 
Photo by Ron Testa, neg 1 1 0293c 




Quilled cover of birchbark box, Ottawa (?), Cat. 258673 

neg 101964c 



12 



frontier. At an intertribal congress held at Fort Stan- 
wix, New York in 1768 under auspices of the British 
superintendent of Indian Affairs, 3,000 Indians 
present believed they settled the vexing problem of 
white encroachment. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix 
stated that the permanent boundary between white 
settlements and Indian country was the Ohio River 
On the other hand, the British army could not control 
the lawless inhabitants of the frontier. 

The intense struggle of Indian people to maintain 
the Ohio River boundary line, protecting their vil- 
lages, cornfields, and hunting grounds, began im- 
mediately. The first military engagements occurred in 
southeastern Ohio in 1774, and fighting continued in 
Ohio and Indiana for twenty years as an extended ven- 
detta between Kentuckians and Great Lakes Indians. 
In 1 774, when the first Indian towns in Ohio were des- 
troyed, only 400 Americans occupied fortified camps 
in Kentucky. The numbers grew rapidly as ponies and 
wagons crossed mountain trails and flatboats de- 
scended the Ohio River — often braving Indian fire — 
to increase Kentucky's population to 73,000 in 1790. 

The American Revolution complicated the Indi- 
an strategy after 1 775. Delawares living closest to Pitts- 
burgh, the most western military base of the Revolu- 
tionary army, felt constrained to cooperate with the 
Americans, who had never undertaken to march on 



British-held Detroit. In turn, American authorities 
agreed to recognize the Ohio River boundary estab- 
lished under the British regime, and in a later 1778 
treaty held forth the promise of establishing a separate 
Delaware state within the American confederation. 
But that same year, members of the Indian staff at Pitts- 
burgh fled to join the British Indian service in Detroit. 
British relations with Indians improved markedly with 
the addition of the new recruits, former Indian captives 
with many contacts through trading enterprises and 
knowledge of several Indian languages. 

After the American colonies gained their 
independence in 1783, government officials first in- 
sisted that Indian people had to surrender the long de- 
sired land in southern Ohio because they were allies ot 
the defeated British. Indian spokesmen asserted that 
the British king had no right to give away Indian land 
and George Washington had no right to accept it. The 
secretary of war later modified his view, admitting that 
the Indians had "rights to the soil," but asked that if 
they sold any land they should deal with the American 
government. Long before Americans actually secured 
Indian land in the Great Lakes, the Northwest Ordi- 
nance of 1787 outlined plans for future government, 
including the unrealistic statement "The utmost good 
faith shall always be observed toward the Indians, their 
lands and property shall never be taken from them 



without their consent." Legislation and frontier war- 
fare were separate matters. 

As the fighting strength of the western Pennsyl- 
vania and Kentucky militia grew, the three thousand or 
so Shawnees, Senecas, Delawares, and Wyandots 
(British term for Hurons) nearest the frontier were 
driven northwest across Ohio by stages. From 1790 to 
1794 they made their final stand along the Maumee 
and upper Wabash rivers, there joined by Indian allies 
and supported by the British Indian Department in De- 
troit. Although the Great Lakes confederacies defeated 
the first expeditions sent from Cincinnati, the well- 
trained army under General Anthony Wayne along 
with the Kentucky militia gained a victory at the Battle 
of Fallen Timbers, near Toledo Ohio, in 1794. The 
same year, the British agreed to vacate Detroit and the 
Straits of Mackinac. In 1795, several thousand Indians 
assembled at Greenville, to sign the treaty ceding the 
southern two-thirds of Ohio and in effect giving up the 
Ohio River boundary line. The end of the warfare 
opened the Ohio country to a flood of white settlers. By 

1810, the state of Ohio had a population of 230,000. 
Indiana and Illinois soon became the next focus of 

conflict between Great Lakes Indians and Americans. 
Indian antipathy toward white settlers intensified after 
Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee prophet, began preaching 
in 1805 in the Delaware towns on the White River of 
Indiana, where they relocated after their homes in 
Ohio were destroyed. The prophet's message urging 
rejection of white society, spread through the Great 
Lakes and beyond. In 1807, when war between Great 
Britain and the new American republic was already 
predicted, the prophet's followers held an intertribal 
council at the Grand Kickapoo village near the head of 
the Sangamon River in central Illinois. Headquarters 
for the new militant coalition was established among 
the Potawatomis, at the juncture of the Tippicanoe 
and Wabash Rivers in Indiana. Prophetstown was soon 
surrounded by encampments of Kickapoos, Winneba- 
gos, Miamis, and a faction of Wyandots. The Shawnee 
prophet's charisma diminished after the governor of In- 
diana Territory, William Henry Harrison, made a suc- 
cessful surprise attack on Prophetstown in November 

1811. Already the prophet's brother, Tecumseh, was 
rising to prominence as a military leader and orator, 
denouncing further land cession treaties. Settlers from 
Ohio to Missouri hastily began erecting forts in anti- 
cipation of Indian warfare. 

At the beginning of War in 1812, both Tecumseh 
and Tenskwatawa crossed to the Canadian side of the 
Detroit River to join the British army. The British re- 



gained a dominant role among the Indians in the 
northern sector of the western Great Lakes during the 
War of 1812. Key figure in organizing Indian military 
support was Robert Dickson, British trader whose base 
was among the Dakotas on the headwaters of the Min- 
nesota River, where he had a Dakota wife and family. 
Upper Great Lakes Indians contributed the principal 
troop strength when the British regained the strategic 
Mackinac Island location in July 1812. (Site for the 
fort had been moved from the mainland to the island in 
1781.) From Mackinac Island, Dickson transported In- 
dian contingents to military camps on both sides of the 
Detroit River and the Niagara River war zone. Many 
Indian veterans returned to the upper Great Lakes with 
tales of the "burning of Buffalo. " 

Chicago became an important, but tragic, site at 
the outset of active warfare. Fort Dearborn on the Chi- 
cago River had been established in 1803 on one of the 
strategic sites reserved for military fortification by the 
Treaty of Greenville in 1795. It was situated in the 
midst of country occupied by intermixed Potawatomi, 
Ojibwa, and Ottawa who had moved into northern 
Illinois lands formerly inhabited by Illinois and Sauk. 
Soldiers at isolated Fort Dearborn carried out orders for 
evacuation in August 1812, but almost all lost their 
lives when they were ambushed by hostile Potawatomis 
during their attempt to gain safety at Fort Wayne. This 
tragedy occurred within a day of the American sur- 
render of Detroit, leaving Fort Wayne as the American 
outpost nearest the Great Lakes Indian country. 

Following the American evacuation of Fort Dear- 
born, Chicago and the entrance to the St. Joseph River 
across Lake Michigan became British bases for oper- 
ations during the balance of the war era. Dickson set up 
a blacksmith shop at a hidden village south of Kalama- 
zoo to serve the Indian troops. His lieutenant in north- 
ern Illinois was the Sauk leader. Black Hawk, who col- 
lected Dakota and upper Great Lakes warriors to 
oppose American forces in northwestern Ohio. 

In southern Illinois, hostile incidents occurred as 
early as 1811. Territorial government had been in exist- 
ence only since 1809 at Edwardsville, established in 
1805 at the northern margin of white settlement. In 
1812, Governor Ninian Edwards launched attacks on 
the Kickapoo and Potawatomi towns along the middle 
course of the Illinois River, and succeeded in establish- 
ing Fort Clark at Peoria in 1813. In Indiana, Amer- 
icans carried out systematic campaigns to destroy Dela- 
ware towns on the White River, where the Delaware 
moved after losing their homes in Ohio, but had less 
success in attacks on Miami towns on branches of the 13 



Wabash River. Main Poc, early admirer of Tenskwata- 
wa and Tecumseh and war leader of the IlUnois River 
Potawatomi, played a major role in Indian military ex- 
ploits during the war era. In 1 8 1 2 , he moved to the Fox 
River west of Chicago, then spent the next three years 
distributing war parties among the Potawatomis west of 
Detroit. In this hinterland within fifty miles of Detroit, 
but never penetrated by Americans, Indians grew corn 
to augment food supplies provided by the British. 

Although the American army returned to Detroit 
in 1813, following victory over the British at the Battle 
of the Thames and the death of Tecumseh, war on the 
western margin of the Great Lakes country continued 
for two more years. In July 1814, British and Indian 
forces from Mackinac Island captured the American 
fort at Prairie du Chien at the mouth of the Wisconsin 
River only a month after it was erected. In response, 
the military command in St. Louis sent an expedition 
against the multi-tribal forces collected by Black Hawk 
around Saukenuk at the mouth of the Rock River. As 
this war period ended, American commissioners held a 
series of regional councils in an effort to reach satisfac- 
tory peace terms with the large number of recent Indi- 
an opponents. Only part of the Winnebagos agreed to 
accept American protection, and the Menominees 
held out until 1817. Yet, Great Lakes Indians still re- 
tained contacts with the British Indian department. 
Until 1842, they canoed to posts in Lake Huron or fol- 
lowed the Sauk trail to Fort Maiden, opposite Detroit, 
to receive presents from the British acknowledging 
their services during the War of 1 8 1 2 . 

The final protests from Great Lakes Indians 
against white intrusion occurred in 1827 and 1832 in 
response to sudden white invasion of the lead mines 
district, a triangular area extending north from Gale- 
na, Illinois to the Wisconsin River. Until the arrival of 
a horde of white miners, Mesquakie were digging and 
selling the ore. The Winnebago attack on a Mississippi 
River steamboat in 1827 brought immediate military 
reprisal followed by government demands for land ces- 
sions in northwestern Illinois. A new military post to 
oversee the Winnebago was built immediately at the 
Fox-Wisconsin portage. 

When the new land cessions opened up the coun- 
try around Saukenuk in 1829, the elderly Sauk leader 
insisted that the early treaties had excluded his village. 
Nevertheless, in the fall of 1831, militia forced Black 
Hawk's band of Sauk and Mesquakie to leave the place 
that had been their home for almost a century and 
move across the Mississippi River. When the men, 
14 women, and children came back in May 1832, ostensi- 



bly to plant com in their accustomed fields, the action 
aroused broad-scale military opposition. As the band 
fled northward, the army command summoned several 
thousand troops from as far distant as Baton Rouge, 
Louisiana and Atlantic coast ports. Troops coming 
from the east brought the first cases of Asiatic cholera 
to the western Great Lakes, an epidemic largely con- 
fined to the military. Unsuccessful in trying to sur- 
render. Black Hawk was captured and his band deci- 
mated within two months. 

The end of overt Indian resistance came at a time 
when the opening of the Erie Canal, providing a water 
route from the Hudson River across New York to Lake 
Erie, let loose a new population stream that burst west- 
ward over the road being built from Detroit to Chicago. 
In 1830 white settlements in southeastern Michigan 
existed only as far west as present Jackson, but by 1832 
families from New York and New England were settling 
all along the old Indian trail to Lake Michigan. Pota- 
watomi in southern Michigan gave these newcomers a 
friendly reception, identifying them as Saganas/i, 
meaning "Englishman," distinguishing this group from 
the Chemokoman, or "Big Knives," term for Virginians 
and Kentuckians who arrived on the Great Lakes fron- 
tier from south of the Ohio river. 

The new tide of population was encouraged by In- 
dian treaties in 1832 and 1833, planning removal of 
Potawatomi in Michigan and Indiana to reservations 
west of the Mississippi, and opening up land along Lake 
Michigan north of Chicago to Green Bay and the Door 
Peninsula. Yet, the little city of Chicago, established in 
1837, still had only 4,853 people by 1840 in a state 
with a total population of 476,000. From Chicago, the 
line of settlement moved northward slowly on both 
sides of Lake Michigan. The Americanization of the 
northland began as a lumbering and mining frontier. 
These new enterprises also provided jobs for Indians in 
logging camps, railroad construction, survey teams, 
and Great Lakes shipping. The American Fur company 
and Ottawa and Ojibwas were already engaged in com- 
mercial fishing in Lake Superior and the Straits of 
Mackinac. 

At the same time, the federal Office of Indian 
Affairs introduced new constraints on the remaining 
Great Lakes Indians, with plans to make Indian people 
live and even think like members of western European 
society. Treaties negotiated in 1854 and 1855 covering 
land in the northern part of the Lower Peninsula of 
Michigan, the Upper Peninsula, and northern Wis- 
consin, assigned special sections on reserved land for 
each local band, to be divided into individual family 



farms. On the reservations, missionaries, teachers, and 
government farmers expected to transform Indian 
families into Christian, Enghsh-speaking, private 
property-owning, commercial agriculturalists, com- 
parable to the ideal American citizen of the period, 
even where the land was unsuitable for farming. The 
net result of the government program for land distribu- 
tion, a procedure dominated by fraud, was to divert 
most of the land to non-Indian ownership. 

Indian people, in the western Great Lakes as else- 
where, have been reluctant to give up their own way of 
life, and frankly considered white society morally in- 
ferior. The emphasis on saving was viewed as avaricious 
hoarding in a community where sharing and exchange 
of gifts were important in life. For Indians, religion was 
not a separate category, since every act was imbued 
with religious meaning. Land, like air and water, was a 
communal resource belonging to, and at the same time 
the responsibility of, everyone. Personal property was 
limited to objects personally crafted or acquired by 
individual effort. High status in the community was 
accorded the leader on the basis of how much he gave 
away, not on what he accumulated. A leader had no 
power of coercion, but was limited to the use of oratory 
and diplomacy in urging a course of action. 

Missionaries and teachers taught Indian children 
that their ancestors were savages, their language was 
barbaric, their mode of life was heathen, and their 
religious beliefs were superstition and witchcraft. In 
the boarding schools that many Great Lakes Indian 
children were compelled to attend, corporal punish- 
ment was used freely, particularly for speaking a native 
language. Missionaries gained some converts, particu- 



larly among metis families more inclined to accept the 
advantages of cooperation with the government. Indi- 
an people were most responsive to the preaching of In- 
dian converts. On the other hand, native religion 
sometimes persisted virtually as a secret society, and 
several Indian religions, old and new, have their 
followers on present-day reservations. 

Far south of the forested north country, Chicago 
developed rapidly as a transportation hub. The city's 
prominence as an Indian center is a recent twentieth- 
century phenomenon, and is at least partially the result 
of excellent travel facilities. Several hundred Indian 
people were living in the city in the 1940s when the 
federal Office of Indian Affairs transferred to Chicago 
during World War II. The city's Indian population grew 
rapidly after becoming the first relocation center under 
a new government program instituted in 1951. The 
Relocation Program brought Indian people from dis- 
tant reservations, providing job-training and other ser- 
vices so they could gain permanent employment in the 
metropolitan area. Results of the program were mixed; 
some people returned to reservations, but those who 
remained in the city were joined by friends and rela- 
tives, and many moved back and forth between city 
and reservation communities. 

Among the local events of iniportance to Indian 
people was the conference held in 1961, through the 
initiative of Professor Sol Tax of the University of Chi- 
cago and the National Congress of American Indians. 
Five hundred Indian people from across the nation 
joined in drafting a statement indicating the common 
goals of present-day American Indians. The statement 
was presented to President John Kennedy as soon as he 




Cloth shoulder bag, beaded with red yarn tassels and red. green, and black silk binding, Chippewa. Cat. 1 5303 

Photo by Ron Testa, neg 1 1 1 491 



15 




gia«Maig^--^?3re^5<reaMa 



«»«"*™'«^-«^^^^«^««i^**''™^s»^»*^^^^ 



Cloth shoulder bag with beaded yarn tassels (detail), Potawatomi. Cat. 206355 

neg 111486 



assumed office in 1962. NAES College, established in 
1974 with a curriculum designed particularly for Indian 
students, is now an accredited degree-granting institu- 
tion. Chicago attracted a large number of Indians again 
in 1982 for the ceremonies raising a new totem pole at 
the Field Museum. In 1987, the Webber Resource 
16 Center was opened at the Museum to handle the grow- 



ing number of requests for information about Indian 
people, particularly in the district around Chicago. 

Chicago presently has more than 10,000 Indians 
living in the metropolitan area, and a long roster of 
American Indian organizations. Thousands more come 
every November to attend the annual pow-wow that 
attracts artists, booksellers, craftsmen, and talented 



performers to Navy Pier. The large Indian population 
in Chicago is not an unusual phenomenon, but is a 
characteristic of all major cities in the Great Lakes reg- 
ion. The Chicago Indian community includes most of 
the Indians in Illinois, a state that has no Indian re- 
servations. Yet Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota 
together have an Indian population above 120,000, 
with some identifiable Indian representation in every 
county. Furthermore, an estimated forty to sixty per- 
cent of the population living north of Grand Rapids, 
Michigan; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Minneapolis- 
St. Paul, Minnesota has some degree of Indian ances- 
try. The first American and immigrant workers enter- 
ing the north country were generally single men, and 
many married women of Indian heritage, like the 
French and British traders, and even missionaries and 
government agents preceding them. 

Representatives of almost all the tribal people liv- 
ing earlier in the western Great Lakes are present today, 
defying the stereotype of the "vanishing Indian." 
Wyandot descendants of the seventeenth century Hu- 
ron refugees live on both sides of the Detroit River, 
although a large body left Michigan and Ohio for a new 
reservation in Kansas in 1843. For the past sixty years, 
the community south of Detroit has sponsored the 
annual Green Com Ceremony, with an attendance of 
about three hundred. Miamis can be found around 
Peru, Indiana near the large Miami reserve on the 
Wabash River, subdivided in 1870. Mesquakie sur- 
vivors of the "Fox Wars" have a reservation at Tama, 
Iowa on land they originally purchased by selling their 
own ponies. The Winnebagos in Wisconsin, who have 
frustrated repeated government attempts at removal, 
now occupy land in ten counties and a center near 
Black River Falls. But they remain in close contact 
with friends and relatives on the tribal reserve in Neb- 
raska. 

Potawatomis still live in southwestern Michigan 
and northern Indiana, the heartland of their original 
tribal estate. Other Potawatomis live on reservations 
in Kansas and Oklahoma; Forest County, Wisconsin; 
and near Escanaba, Michigan. As refugees from the re- 
moval program, several thousand also joined Ojibwas 
on Canadian reserves. The western side of Michigan's 
Lower Peninsula has a large population of Ottawas, 
considerably intermixed with Potawatomis and Ojib- 
was. Many Ottawas had prosperous farms and orchards 
in the Grand River valley until 1859, when the govern- 
ment conveyed them to poorer lands near Manistee. 
Ottawas in northwestern Michigan were relatively un- 
disturbed until the railroad reached Petoskey in 1874 



and the first real estate office opened. 

In central Lower Michigan, Ojibwas from the 
Saginaw Valley have a reservation at Mount Pleasant. 
Twenty other Ojibwa reservations are spread across the 
Upper Peninsula of Michigan and northern Wisconsin 
and Minnesota, with many more in adjoining Cana- 
dian territory. The Ojibwas have carried on lengthy 
court proceedings to maintain their treaty-guaranteed 
hunting and fishing rights. In the more northern areas 
of the Great Lakes, Indian people place greater empha- 
sis on the seasonal pattern of spring sugar-making and 
fishing, summer gardening and berry-gathering, fall 
fishing and rice harvesting, and winter hunting. 

Contemporary Great Lakes Indians actually fol- 
low a variety of economic pursuits. On their reserva- 
tion at Lac Court Oreille, Wisconsin, Ojibwas operate 
a national public radio station, as well as commercial 
cranberry beds. The Menominees, whose reservation 
near Green Bay is in ancestral territory, manage a large 
modern lumber mill. Oneidas at Green Bay have 
recently developed an impressive hotel and conference 
center near the airport. This group of Oneidas, one of 
the New York Iroquois tribes, came to Green Bay in 
1830 by prior arrangement with the Menominees. The 
economic status of many reservations is improving 
since the introduction of still controversial bingo and 
other games of chance. But the Bureau of Indian 
Affairs is pleased that funds are being collected to fi- 
nance housing, scholarships, and health care. 

Non-Indians living in the western Great Lakes, 
still often referred to as "Chemokoman" by Indian peo- 
ple, are beginning to search out their own elusive Indi- 
an ancestry and the Indian background of their local 
communities. Sympathy is increasing for native con- 
cepts that stress harmony and balance in the environ- 
ment and in personal lifestyle. Ideas and beliefs, 
cumulative through thousand of years of past time, are 
percolating through to the surface and beginning to 
permeate contemporary attitudes. FM 



Sources of Further Information 

David Beck, The Chicago American Indian Community, Chi- 
cago, NAES College Press, 1988 

W. Vernon Kinietz, Indians of the Western Great Lakes, 1617-1760. 
Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology 
Occasional Papers, No. 10, 1940. 

George 1. Quimby, Indian Life in the Upper Great Lakes, 1 1,000 
B.C. toA.D. 1800, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1960 

Helen Hombeck Tanner, Atios of Great Lakes Iruiian History, Nor- 
man, University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. 17 






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Field Museum and Bolivian biologists explore the interior of the Beni Biosphere Reserve, conducting biological inventories on various 
groups of plants and animals. This large forested area will be managed for long-term conservation goals as part of the "debt for nature" 
swap arranged by Conservation International. Photo by r. b Foster 

Conservation of Tropical Diversity 

The Field Museum Connection 

By Bruce D. Patterson, Associate Curator and Head, Mammals 



18 



There is great current interest in what has been 
termed the "biodiversity crisis." The threatened 
collapse of biological diversity has attracted wide 
media coverage the world over, all of it sympathetic to 
the preservation of diversity. Yet, 20th-century 
life-styles have intricate interdependencies: one can 
contribute unwittingly to the destruction of natural 
diversity simply by purchasing a hamburger or bedroom 
furniture in Chicago! Obviously, many of society's 



relationships to tropical diversity are indirect and 
generally unappreciated, including some critically 
important ones. 

Thus far, media coverage of the diversity crisis has 
paid only lip service to the crucial roles that natural 
history museums play in tropical conservation efforts. 
Far more attention is deserved. Natural history mu- 
seums are society's only institutions devoted entirely to 
the study of biological and cultural diversity. Field 



Museum is especially important to the science of 
diversity because it is one of the world's four largest 
natural history museums and has a principal focus in 
the tropics. Three of the Museum's four scientific 
departments (Botany, Geology, and Zoology) focus on 
biological diversity, its origins, interrelationships, and 
conservation. Each day, museum scientists discover 
diversity in nature, document it through collections 
and study, and disseminate this information to others 
through scholarly publications and public programs. 
Many of these contributions are significant to 
conservation. 

I will try here to identify some key relationships 
between Field Museum's scientific programs and trop- 
ical conservation. Although my review is far from 
comprehensive, it may serve to indicate the range and 
value of efforts now underway. Readers interested in 
further information on these programs are encouraged 
to contact the Museum's Development Office or 
scientific departments. 

The Diversity Crisis: 
Causes and Consequences 

According to current estimates, at least half of all life 
on earth is threatened with extinction over the next 
150 years. The reasons for this calamity do not involve 
the "death star," Nemesis, or climatic catastrophes, 
which may have caused massive extinctions in the 
past. Today's extinction wave is the direct result of nat- 
ural habitats being converted for human use. 

Wholesale habitat conversion is proceeding at dif- 
ferent rates in different regions. The most alarming and 
biologically significant form of habitat conversion is 
taking place in wet tropical forests. Tropical moist for- 
ests now cover a scant 6 percent of earth's land area but 
support at least half of all living species. Most of these 
forests are in developing countries that have expanding 
human populations and economies overburdened by 
debt to creditor nations. The forests represent uninha- 
bited frontiers for new human settlements and ex- 
panded agricultural production. Additionally, trade 
based on forest commodities provides a major source of 
foreign currencies, which are needed for economic and 
social development. 

Given this political, economic and social con- 
text, tropical forests are under relentless exploitation. 
An estimated 71,000-92,000 sq. km (about 27,000- 
35,500 sq. mi.) of tropical moist forest lands are de- 
nuded each year, and 119,000-200,000 sq. km are 
seriously degraded. This scale of destruction is hard to 



imagine and impossible to accept. If you are not already 
committed to conservation, use your next cross-town 
trip to imagine the sight of fallen forest giants and 
wandering, homeless animals stretching from Evan- 
ston to Hammond and west to Oak Park — this much 
devastation happens each day in the world's tropical for- 
ests. Tropical forests today cover only two-thirds of 
their extent two or three centuries ago. If deforestation 
continues at current rates, a fifth of the remaining for- 
ests will be cut over by the year 2000 and the last rem- 
nant patches would disappear entirely in 150 years. 
However, growing human populations, especially in 
the Third World, will probably destroy these habitats 
much more quickly. 

Extinction of species is an inevitable outcome of 
habitat destruction. Is this all bad? Geological studies 
tell us that all species eventually go extinct, making 
room for new forms that constitute evolutionary ex- 
periments; further, extinctions have claimed an esti- 
mated 99 percent of all species that have appeared 
through geological time. Even so, today's high standing 
diversity indicates that, over time, many more new 
species have been produced than those that dis- 
appeared. Much of systematics, the science of biologi- 
cal diversity, focuses on factors affecting the production 
of new species, the loss of existing ones, and the bal- 
ance between these opposing rates. 

Since its emergence, our species has played an in- 
creasingly dominant role as an agent of extinction. At 
the end of the last Ice Age, when climates were in great 
flux but human economies were mostly of the hunter- 
gatherer kind, about two species of birds and two spe- 
cies of mammals went extinct each century. Human 
hunters may have contributed to the sudden extinc- 
tions of large vertebrates (the "overkill hypothesis" of 
Paul Martin at the University of Arizona), but rapid 
climatic changes may also have been involved in the 
disappearance of these forms. Between 1600 and 1900 
AD, when climates were stable but human technologies 
were considerably more developed, extinction rates in- 
creased ten-fold: roughly 10 mammal species and 27 
bird species went extinct each century. Most extinc- 
tions during this period resulted from direct human 
persecution — Steller's sea cows, Tasmanian marsupial 
wolves, passenger pigeons, and dodo birds would still 
exist today but for humans. A host of other species only 
narrowly escaped extinction (perhaps not for long), 
including whales, bison, and cranes. 

Today, human-caused extinctions are rapidly 
accelerating and now vastly exceed the origination of 
new species by evolution. Direct persecution of some 



19 



species ctintinues, despite protective legislation, hut 
these effects are dwarfed hy hahitat destruction. Hahi- 
tat destruction causes an indiscriminate loss of species 
throughout an ecosystem, not only the meaty, attrac- 
tive, or threatening targets of human exploitation. All 
species need a place to live, and many exhibit adapta- 
tions that intricately hind them to specific hahitats or 
to particular biological associations within habitats 
(e.g., many forest trees and the hats or rodents that 



The disappearance of this diversity has unfathom- 
able consequences for human beings. Tropical diversity 
represents a storehouse of potential human applica- 
tions, hut one being looted and vandalized by uncon- 
trolled development. Few people realize that almost all 
of the world's agriculture involves only 25 species of 
plants (one ten-thousandth of the species we've identi- 
fied). Nor do many appreciate the constant threat to 
agricultural production or human health posed by new- 




Deforestation In ttie upper Amazon Basin of Rondonia, Brazil, termed "an environmental holocaust" by a recent National Geographic 
article. Field [Museum mammalogists and ornithologists conducted biological Inventories at a nearby dam site on the Rio Jl-Parana In late 
1986. Their work provides a baseline against which future degradation can be assessed, as well as information to mitigate the effects of 

construction. PnotobyB D Pattefson 



20 



pollinate their flowers or disperse their seeds) . When 
the habitat disappears, so do all the species that inhabit 
it. Scientists estimate that rates of extinction caused hy 
habitat destruction are at least a thousand times greater 
than normal "background" extinctions. Daniel Sim- 
berloff of Florida State University predicts that as many 
as two-thirds of all tropical species will go extinct 
through deforestation over the next 150 years. 



ly appearing pathogens and parasites. Fewer still are 
aware that many "wonder drugs" of modem medicine 
(including penicillin, atropine, and digitalis, among 
many others) are compounds "invented" and produced 
by species in nature. Our daily reliance on biological 
materials and understanding will increase dramatically 
over the next century. As human populations treble (to 
an estimated 1 1 billion) by the year 2100, food produc- 



tion and disease prevention must grow in parallel. We 
cannot guess the possible agricultural, medical, or eco- 
logical benefits that disappearing tropical species could 
offer a needy mankind. 

Reld Museum and Tropical Diversity 

The majority of forms at immediate risk in the diversity 
crisis inhabit moist tropical forests. Although many of 
these forests have never been studied, existing infor- 
mation suggests that most tropical species have yet to 
be discovered: tropical samples of many groups of 
organisms contain more new species than previously 
described forms. Such ratios indicate that from 3 to 28 
million species in tropical forests await scientific dis- 
covery and description. The magnitude of this scien- 
tific challenge may be dimly appreciated when one 
considers that, throughout the Age of Exploration and 
Discovery (1760-present), scientists described about 
1.7 million species. 

The scientific community is ill-equipped to 
address this profound deficiency in our biological 
understanding. Edward O. Wilson of Harvard Univer- 
sity estimates that fewer than 1,500 scientists world- 
wide are trained in the systematics of tropical organ- 
isms (or about one scientist per 2,000-18,700 species). 
At present, less than 1 percent of known species is 
under scientific investigation. Exacerbating this prob- 
lem, available funds for systematic research are minim- 
al: annua/ allocations in the United States could not 
support a single working day in the "exploratory phase" 
of Star Wars development. Consequently, the numbers 
of scientists attracted to careers in systematics and 
training programs for them have declined at the very 
time that need is greatest. 

Field Museum is one of the world's four largest 
centers of systematic biology. Each scientist in its de- 
partments of Botany and Zoology studies tropical 
plants and animals, contributing in different ways to 
knowledge of tropical diversity. It goes without saying 
that the patterns and processes affecting natural diver- 
sity must be studied if we are to devise effective strat- 
egies for conserving it. Areas in which museum staff 
contribute directly to tropical conservation efforts are 
sketched below, but space limitations make this very 
incomplete. 

Inventories of Unknown Biotas 

Priorities are essential for effective conservation be- 
cause the entire globe is under seige and there are in- 



adequate funds to protect all or even much of it. Most 
conservationists focus on saving habitats rather than 
individual species — because organisms are intricately 
interrelated, functioning ecosystems must be preserved 
in order to retain all the resources, checks, and ba- 
lances required for the stable persistence of individual 
species. Various criteria are used to decide which habi- 
tats are most important to conserve, but the number of 
species inhabiting an area and their uniqueness (or 
endemism) rank high. This information can only come 
from biological inventories of the species occurring 
there: the richer the biota and the greater its dis- 
tinctiveness, the higher the value of preserving its 
habitat. 

Applying this simple rule-of-thumb in the world's 
tropics is a surprisingly difficult task. For one thing, 
identifying species in nature isn't easy. We can all rec- 
ognize hummingbirds at our bird-feeders, but few can 
recognize the 300+ species that occur in the New 
World tropics. Remember, there are no field guides to 
most tropical organisms because they have never been 
studied, and this information doesn't exist even in the 
largest technical libraries. In addition, many species of 
organisms are distinguished by such subtle differences 
that chromosomal, genetic, acoustic, microscopic, and 
other kinds of characters must be examined by special- 
ists before the species can be identified. 

As a group, museum curators surpass all other sci- 
entists in their ability to identify organisms. This key 
ability rests on extensive training and resources. After 
nearly a century of active work in tropical systematics. 
Field Museum maintains enormous reference collec- 
tions that are broadly representative and compre- 
hensive. As examples, all continents and most coun- 
tries are represented in most collections; in addition, 
98 percent of all living families of mammals and 99 
percent of all bird families are represented at Field 
Museum. The collections are also rich in "type" speci- 
mens, which have special value in making identifica- 
tions. Comprehensive libraries of scientific literature 
are also crucial — Field Museum's is one of the best, 
with over 235,000 volumes in natural history dating 
back to the bestiaries and herbals of the Middle Ages. 

Because most tropical regions are poorly known, 
inventories there typically uncover species new to sci- 
ence. These must first be distinguished from known 
forms and then scientifically described. Only systema- 
tists are qualified to describe new forms, according each 
a unique name. This process provides an essential 
foundation for every other branch of biological sci- 
ence: ecologists and physiologists cannot accurately 21 



record and report their work without a name to associ- 
ate their observations or the means to distinguish that 
form from others. Virtually all museum scientists de- 
scribe new organisms, expediting the work of other 
biologists through the publication of floras, faunas, and 
identification keys. For example, malacologist Alan 
Solem has described more than 250 species of land 
snails from Australia, representing at least a quarter of 
all the species known from that continent. 

For nearly all groups, inventories are impossible 
without making new collections. Collections of speci- 
mens represent the primary, enduring documentation 
of an inventory — study and analysis of collections 
leads to identification and description, in addition to 
enabling a host of other biological studies. Gathering 
comprehensive collections in the field is another forte 
of museum scientists — many groups are so incon- 
spicuous that only an expert is able to detect their pres- 
ence at a site. Detailed knowledge of the distribution 
and natural history of species enable museum scientists 
to record plants and animals that are overlooked by 
other kinds of field biologists. 

The scientific community constantly reviews its 
own priorities for conservation, and these guide pat- 
terns of funding and publication. There is now a con- 
sensus that detailed ecological studies contribute most 
to protecting temperate-zone species. This is only pos- 
sible because temperate-zone organisms can be easily 
identified and their basic biology is relatively well 
known. However, focused collecting surveys at a vari- 
ety of sites provide the most "bang-for-the-buck" in the 
unstudied tropics. They yield materials that permit 
diversity to be discovered and described; they identify 
habitats with exceptionally high diversity; and they 
indicate (by numbers of species shared) the distinctive- 
ness of habitats from one another. Each of these is fun- 
damental to conservation planning. 

Definition of Biogeographic Regions 

Protecting areas that are rich in species does not ensure 
that the goals of conservation will be met. Many areas, 
such as the Galapagos Islands or Hawaii, support rel- 
atively few species, yet these may be so distinctive that 
their preservation is a high priority. Through coordin- 
ated inventories of sites throughout a given geographic 
region, museum scientists help to identify and delimit 
areas that are internally similar in terms of their biotas 
while differing from all other areas. Conservationists 
need this information to ensure that each biogeo- 
22 graphic region, with its unique species and resources, 




Rabor's tube-nosed bat {Nyctimene rabon) was collected by mam- 
malogist Larry Heaney In 1981 during an inventory of Negros Island, 
Philippines, This animal was recognized and described as a new 
fruit-bat species in 1 984 — by 1 987, It had become severely en- 
dangered by deforestation. Photo by P D Heideman 



contains a sufficient number of protected sites. 

Museum scientists work at different scales in such 
regional studies. Some study the biotas of far-flung con- 
tinents, while others concentrate on those of adjacent 
communities. All begin their work from a specific site 
inventory that identified large fractions of unique spe- 
cies. Working outwards from this point of knowledge, 
researchers sample adjacent areas to determine the geo- 
graphic limits of these regions. General collections, a 
hallmark of museum research, are essential to such 
studies because they document a large segment of a re- 
gion's biota and hence characterize its general features. 
In addition, systematic collections are needed to deter- 
mine a biota's affinities or evolutionary histories and 



this is also important to conservation. The conserva- 
tion value of Darwin's finches derives in no small part 
from the substantial evolutionary differences that sepa- 
rate these Galapagos Island birds from continental 
forms. 

Species of Special Concern 

Biologists maintain "Red Books" in which the world's 
endangered and threatened species in all taxonomic 
groups are listed. Rates of current habitat destruction 
are such that these compilations can never be up-to- 
date — by the time they are compiled and published, 
many more species are known to be endangered. In 
addition, such books cannot be more than indicative, 
given the large proportion of biological species still un- 
known to science. Many unknown species are un- 
doubtedly imperiled, but detailed knowledge is re- 
quired to demonstrate that a species is imperiled. Jared 
Diamond of the University of California, Los Angeles 
has suggested that a more scientifically defensible en- 
deavor would be to publish "Green Books," enumerat- 
ing those (relatively few) species that are known to be 
secure. 

Museum scientists generally focus on ecosystem- 
level conservation but also make important contribu- 
tions to efforts to conserve particular species. These 
contributions rest on broad training. Through study of 
all aspects of natural history, museum scientists com- 
monly assemble the foundations of ecological and be- 
havioral information on species of special concern. 
This information is essential to management of natural 
populations. Recent Field Museum studies on diets of 
harpy eagles, abundance and habitats of Chilean 
shrew-opossums, geographic ranges of New World 
monkeys, and ecology of Asian flying lizards serve as 
examples. These contributions can have value to con- 
servation which transcends management programs fo- 
cused on single species — individual species such as har- 
py eagles, spectacled bears, and lion tamarins can serve 
as "flagships" for conservation efforts, igniting public 
interest and support. 

Conceptual Studies in Conservation 

Conceptual studies are key to making conservation 
biology a predictive and powerful science. It is impos- 
sible to study individually all the areas that need pre- 
servation, given shortages of money, manpower, and 
time. By assembling information on general patterns 
and processes, scientists can make inferences that per- 




Discovered and described by Field Museum zoologist W, H, 
Osgood during the Marshall Field Chilean Expedition of 1922-23, 
the Chilean shrew-opossum {Rhyncholestes raphanurus) remained 
virtually unknown for 60 years. In 1 977, Chilean researchers de- 
clared it "the rarest mammal in Chile." During an inventory of Parque 
Nacional Vicente Perez Resales, mammalogist Bruce Patterson 
found that this form was abundant and occupied a variety of habi- 
tats, indicating its current status as secure. Photo by b d Patterson 



mit informed conservation decisions in a timely and 
cost-effective fashion. 

Most predictions of species loss in the wake of tro- 
pical deforestation are based on an analogy between 
nature reserves and islands. Like islands, nature pre- 
serves are often surrounded by inhospitable areas and 
isolated from sources of colonization. By studying is- 
land biology, museum researchers have identified some 
general patterns of natural distribution and abundance 
that have direct conservation implications. Working 
in the Philippines, mammalogist Larry Heaney has stu- 
died how extinction rates change over time. Extinc- 
tion rates are apparently very high soon after islands 
become isolated and subsequently decrease to minor or 
insignificant levels. Thus, fragmentation of forests 
through cutting should produce rapid extinctions of 
many species, after which the communities will stabil- 
ize. 

Small islands have long been known to support 
impoverished faunas, but scientists have generally re- 
garded the species comprising them as being random 
samples of a given biota. In 1985, I noted that the spe- 
cies found on small islands were also present on larger 
islands, but other species are never present on small 
islands. This pattern characterizes mammal and bird 
fauna in several archipelagos. The significance of such 
patterns of species richness and composition is clear: 23 



high species 
richness 




low species 
richness 



© 



A schematic view of "nested subsets," a pattern of distribution sliown 
by mammals and birds on islands. When islands are arranged in 
order of species richness, it is obvious that smaller islands support 
fewer species than large islands and that these are the same spe- 
cies, not different ones. Only the largest islands (or island-like 
preserves) support rare or narrowly distributed species such as "C" 

or "D." Figure by B D Patterson 



only the largest isolated preserves will sustain pop- 
ulations of most species. In addition, the rare, narrowly 
distributed species that need special protection occur 
only on the largest islands. 

Other conceptual studies underway at the Mu- 
seum do not employ island analogies; instead, they 
address basic mechanisms of community ecology that 
are useful in management. Herpetologist Robert Inger 
is studying the dynamics of amphibian and reptile com- 
munities in Bornean rainforests, and his 30 years of 
fieldwork give him unique perspectives on their stabil- 
ity over time. By comparing community patterns in in- 
tact forests and forests subjected to cutting at various 
times in the past, Inger is determining the susceptibil- 
ity of these communities to deforestation. In the pro- 
cess, he is acquiring important information on the vul- 
nerability of particular species to disturbance. 

Coordination with Resource Managers 

Direct coordination of scientific studies with resource 
managers ensures that information on tropical species 
and habitats is quickly passed from the volumes of 
research libraries to conservation action. The nature of 
24 these interactions depends on the specific needs and 



objectives of a management authority and the Field 
Museum resource that is called upon to address it. 

Field Museum's collections of specimens resemble 
immense libraries that chronicle the occurrence of 
myriad species at particular places and times. The col- 
lections are maintained in excellent condition, being 
continually curated (re identified, relabelled, reorga- 
nized) according to the current state of knowledge. 
Data from several Field Museum collections are now 
fully computerized, and fiinding for data base projects 
in other collections is being sought. Collection in- 
formation can now be easily shared with managers and 
planners who seek to inventory imperiled biotas or to 
determine the range and status of individual species. 
Because the collections have been amassed over the 
last 100 years, they are especially useful in assessing the 
effects of environmental degradation during the 20th 
century. As computer networking develops, Museum 
data bases will contribute significantly to a global heri- 
tage program. 

Field Museum researchers are also called upon to 
share their personal knowledge and expertise on the 
floras and faunas of specific regions, entire countries, 
and even continents, as well as the specific biologies of 
endangered species. These collaborations are essential 
for the development of national inventories and for 
meaningful "survival plans" for endangered forms. 
Recent consultations with the Nature Conservancy on 
distributions of South American mammals and with 
lUCN  editors of Red Data Book: Aves serve as exam- 
ples. 

Frequently, coordination with resource managers 
involves fieldwork. During the last decade. Field Mu- 
seum personnel have conducted benchmark surveys in 
many national parks and reserves throughout the 
world's tropics. In most cases, these studies generated 
the first inventories of species that are protected by the 
parks. Once the richness of these areas is documented, 
it is easier for managers to justify additional funds to 
maintain the parks and to devise specific measures for 
their protection. To date, park surveys have been con- 
ducted in Costa Rica, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, 
Chile, Philippines, Borneo, and China. Plans call for 
additional surveys of parks in Mexico, Guatemala, Bra- 
zil, Peru, Bolivia, Uganda, Madagascar, and Borneo in 
the near future. 

Studies of distribution and abundance at particu- 



 International Union for Conservation ot Nature and Natural 
Resources 




Biologists sorting leaf- 
litter in the course 
of inventorying amphi- 
bians and reptiles in 
Borneo. Specialized 
techniques are needed 
to adequately sannple 
tropical diversity and 
to provide data for 
rigorous analyses 
of distribution and 
abundance. 

Photo by R F Inger 



As part of the ongoing systematic and conservation research on 
the fishes of the Orinoco Basin in Venezuela, ichthyologist Barry 
Chernoff, along with colleagues and students from the Universidad 
Central de Venezuela, inventories rivers and flooded savannahs on 
the Guyana Shield. They are searching for areas used by fishes for 
reproduction and as nurseries. To conserve these fishes, areas 
must be set aside v*/here both younger and older fishes flourish. 

Photo By R.M Peck 



lar sites or involving particular species may also be 
undertaken as part of more extensive research pro- 
grams. Museum personnel have participated in eco- 
logical impact studies at future dam sites in Borneo 
and Brazil. These studies yield unique information on 
natural biotas before construction begins, providing 
benchmark data needed to monitor subsequent en- 
vironmental changes. Further, they often identify 
measures that can minimize the negative impact of 
construction (see "Paradise Being Lost" by John W. 
Fitzpatrick, Jan., 1988 Bulletin). Studies on the dis- 
tribution and population ecology of species harvested 
for food, such as fishes of the Orinoco River system 
studied by Barry Chernoff or Brazilian rainforest tor- 
toises studied by Debby Moskovits, can be used to 
gauge whether natural resources are being used at sus- 
tainable levels. 

The broad spectrum of mutual interests and pro- 
ductive interactions between museum scientists and 
conservationists recently led to a landmark event. In 
September 1988, Field Museum formed a cooperative 
partnership with Washington-based Conservation 
International (CI). CI is one of the most widely 
acclaimed and accomplished organizations involved in 




conservation of Neotropical diversity. Coordination of 
missions at this level has facilitated the effective shar- 
ing of resources and talents and heightened the con- 
servation impact of museum-based programs. Through 
this agreement, Field Museum's unique expertise and 
resources are being skillfully coordinated with a variety 
of Latin American institutions, organizations and 
needs. CI personnel arranged the highly publicized 
debt-for-conservation swap that enabled Bolivia to 
protect large tracts of its tropical rainforests; a large- 
scale biological inventory of this reserve currently in- 
volves Field Museum researcher Robin Foster. Another 
early product of this partnership is a book jointly spon- 
sored by CI and Field Museum (now in preparation) on 
the distribution and ecology of South American birds, 
the world's richest avifauna. 

Training and Education of Conservation Biologists 

Spectacular recent advances in molecular biology have 
led many universities and other research institutions to 
focus increasingly on cells and molecules. Few institu- 
tions remain dedicated to "whole organism" biology, 
which heralded the fields of evolution, ecology, and 
genetics as we know them today. Natural history mu- 
seums remain bastions of integrated biology — al- 
though molecular techniques are increasingly used in 
systematic research, an essential focus on organisms 
and populations remains. Museums are associated with 
most vigorous programs in evolutionary biology. 

Peruvian Victor Pacheco came to Field Museum for education and 
training in 1986. Here doing fieldwork in Monteseco. northern Peru, 
he is surrounded by local schoolchildren captivated by the thought 
that their local bat fauna warrants study by Chicago-based 
researchers, Pacheco received an M.S, degree from the University 
of Illinois, Chicago in December: on returning to Peru, he began 
training and advising his own students at San Marcos 
University in Lima. 

Ptioto by S D. Patterson 




Moreover, they are indispensable for training the future 
systematists we must rely on to identify and document 
the world's diversity. 

No free-standing museum maintains better, more 
productive associations with neighboring universities 
than Field Museum. Individual Field Museum biolo- 
gists have faculty appointments at the University of 
Chicago, University of Illinois, Chicago, Northwest- 
em University, and Northern Illinois University, ser- 
ving on graduate student committees at these institu- 
tions and others. Field Museum researchers comprise 
about a third of the acclaimed Committee on Evolu- 
tionary Biology, an interdepartmental degree-granting 
body of the University of Chicago. Perhaps a quarter of 
the graduate students enrolled in this illustrious pro- 
gram are now studying at Field Museum, many in areas 
related to conservation. 

In the course of conducting their own fieldwork in 
the tropics. Museum researchers routinely teach col- 
lecting and data-gathering activities to local students 
and technicians. This training continues after field- 
work is completed, as specimens are prepared, sorted, 
identified, and described, often in collaboration. A 
variety of accomplished scientists in tropical countries 
received their first exposure to the skills and techniques 
of biological inventories in association with Field 
Museum collecting parties. This expanding pool of 
persons able to conduct tropical inventories and train 
other biologists has immeasurable effects on conserva- 
tion. 

Field Museum's role in training biologists in con- 
servation is not limited to area universities or field- 
work. Museum funds in support of international 
scholarship enable a host of Third World researchers 
engaged in independent projects to study Field Mu- 
seum collections, use its libraries, and interact with 
its staff. Grant recipients gain valuable observations and 
experience that would otherwise be out of reach econom- 
ically. Critically, this program has a snowballing effect 
as foreign scholars return home to share new experi- 
ences, techniques, and perspectives with their own 
colleagues and students. Field Museum is actively 
working to expand this training-education program. 

Development of Public Awareness 

Ultimately, the problems of tropical deforestation are 
driven by social, political, and economic factors. It 
would he shortsighted to address conservation prob- 
lems without attending to these ultimate causes. A var- 
iety of avenues are open to museum scientists, hut the 




The Pantiacolla of southeastern Peru, a ridge separated from Andean foothills by the Rio Alto Madre de Dios, Ornithologists John Fitzpatrick 
and David Willard have assembled a complete inventory of birds at this site, one of the world's richest. In the process, they have described 
new species that are restricted to this isolated range and detailed the elevational ranges of the entire avifauna. This information is critical to 
understanding dynamics that shape these avian communities. Photo by j w Fuzpatnok 



most important of these is public education. 

Once systematic studies of a group or a region 
have been completed, this information can be pre- 
sented readily to the public. Popular accounts often 
have tremendous impact on the general public by mak- 
ing complex biotas generally accessible to nonspecial- 
ists. Clifford Pope's Reptiles of China and Robert Inger's 
The Fresh-water Fishes of North Borneo and The Amphi- 
bia of Borneo are enduring examples of such work. 
Through fostering an appreciation of a region's natural 
resources and providing keys for the identification of its 
species, these works enable the public to observe and 
study nature. 

Through its public programs (exhibits and public 
education), the Museum also communicates the find- 
ings of its scientists on the nature of diversity and its 
interdependencies. Public lectures, tours, and popular 
articles by the scientists themselves are valuable ad- 
juncts to these efforts, as is technical consultation on 



public programs of other communications media and 
organizations. Together, these efforts shape the value 
systems of people, both in this country and abroad. In 
the final analysis, all development decisions involve 
weighing the value of conserved diversity versus 
development of natural resources for some other end. 

Conclusions 

Scientific progress takes a very predictable historical 
course. One first identifies the variables that are in- 
volved in a phenomenon, and then evaluates them 
singly or in concert with others; ultimately, one derives 
predictions of their specific effects. Tropical biology is 
still in its infancy. Only recently have we discovered 
that some high-calorie seeds not eaten by modern con- 
sumers are actually vestiges of prehistoric ecologies, 
that hunting behavior of bats can affect the mating 
calls of frogs, and that mice play a key role in growth 27 




Field Museum researcher Mike Dillon collecting a new and very un- 
usual bromelid {Tillandsia sp.) with a botanical "lasso " This plant is 
known from a single canyon in the Atacama Desert of northern 
Chile, where its rocky purchases protect it from hungry goats. 

Courtesy M. O. Dillon 



28 



and regeneration of some rainforests. We need to iden- 
tify the players and we must do it quickly, before they 
are forever lost. 

Because systematics is the mother of all other 
biological sciences, furnishing the basic framework for 
their observations, systematists will be at the vanguard 
of this expanding tropical data base. We sorely need 
inventories of many more tropical sites, to document 
patterns of species richness, to identify "hot spots" of 
diversity, and to delineate regions of endemism. We 
must also characterize previously unknown species, de- 
termine their derivations, and uncover their ecologies. 
While lacking the romance of rainforest exploration, 
there is no other way to document natural diversity in a 
manner useful to science. We need to revisit areas that 
have been sampled previously to determine the stabil- 
ity of ecological relationships and the effects of en- 
vironmental perturbations between sampling periods. 
We need to train new researchers, especially biologists 
in the Third World who are in the frontlines of the 
battle to save the globe's diversity. 

In this piece, 1 have tried to explore the integral 
relationship between the study of life's diversity and its 
conservation. The two fields are associated both scien- 
tifically and philosophically. The idea that evolution- 
ary biology has left an indelible mark on conservation 
isn't new. Darwin's conclusion to The Origin of Species, 
published 130 years ago, bears this out: 

It is interesting to contemplate a tangled bank, 
clothed ivith many plants of many kinds, with birds singing 
on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with 
worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that 
these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each 
other, and dependent on each other in so complex a man- 
ner, have all been produced by laws acting around 
us. . . . There is grandeur in this view of life, with its sever- 
al powers, having been origirmlly breathed by the Creator 
into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet 
has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, 
from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful 
and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved. 

Darwin considered this to be the scientific chal- 
lenge of his evolutionary theory, for humans to recog- 
nize the fundamental unity of life and to take our own 
place in nature, with wonder not ignominy. Tropical 
deforestation is now transforming the grandeur of this 
view into horror — myriad lineages around us are end- 
ing forever at the hands of human wantonness and 
greed. Darwin's placid reflection on life's continuity, 
with its reference to future evolution, is haunting in 
today's context. It is a vision that can no longer he 
ignored. FM 




of big airlines on the way 

to Europe? 



shrin 


w 

k. 



■Hr- 



\--?l^355B5Sr^SSSKi-'A^?,TF«AJ':W?--«r«B^!8»i 



You board a large, well-connected airline and fly 
across the Atlantic. You land. 

Suddenly you discover that, in Europe, this 
"large'airline is just a small shadow of its transatlantic 
self, lacking many of the resources to take you to 
points beyond. 

But you can avoid that problem by the simple 
act of flying KLM. In which case Europe isn't the end 
of the line but just the beginning. 

We fly to more places in Europe, Africa and the 
Mideast than all U.S. airlines combined. 

With departures so frequent that every five min- 



utes, somewhere in the world, a KLM plane is either 
landing or taking off. 

Which is worth remembering the next time busi- 
ness takes you overseas. 

After all, why fly an airline that covers the con- 
tinent you just left, when you can fly one that covers 
the continents you're going to? 

For more information, just call your travel agent 
or KLM Royal Dutch Airlines. The airline + 
of the seasoned traveler. wSSm 

The Reliable Airline KLM 

Royal Dutch Airlines 




FIELD 

MUSEUM 
TDURS^ 



ENGLISH HOMES 

and 

GARDENS 

July 4- 15 



Tuesday, July 4: Tour members will be met by 
the local tour director at London Heattirow, 
Terminal 4 {British Airways). Board a luxury 
coach for the short journey to Canterbury 
where we will be met by our hostesses and 
driven to their homes. Lunch with the host- 
esses, followed by a restful afternoon and 
dinner with hostesses this evening. 

Wednesday, July 5: Sandwich Nature Reserve 
& Canterbury. First to Sandwich Bay Nature 
Reserve for a conducted coastline walk to see 



tFie wildflowers there. Stop at a pub for lunch, 
before continuing on to Canterbury for a private 
tour of this great cathedral, for those who wish. 
Followed by free time to wander or explore be- 
fore returning to hostesses in the late afternoon. 
Dinner this evening in a private home. 

Thursday, July 6: Ladham and Great Dixter 
First a short drive to the West, towards the 
county of Sussex to visit Ladham, the home of 
Betty Lady Jessel, who will personally conduct 
a tour of her gardens. A pub lunch in Goud- 
hurst, followed by another short journey to 
Great Dixter, a small gem of a house, built in ab- 
out 1450, which now has a most interesting gar- 
den, created and maintained by the author and 
broadcaster, Christopher Lloyd. The grounds 
include areas of native wildflowers and gras- 
ses. Return to hostesses and later on 
dine in a private home. 

Friday July 7: Leeds Castle and Sissinghurst. 
First a private visit to Leeds Castle, including 
its gardens and aviary which was described 
by Lord Conway as "the loveliest Castle in the 
world." Drive on through the Kent countryside to 
Sissinghurst Castle, for lunch in its restaurant. 
In the afternoon, visit its well-known, and very 
beautiful gardens, created by Vila Sackville- 
West and her husband, Harold Nicholson. Dine 
this night with hostesses. 

Saturday. July 8: Heaselands. Goodbye to 
Canterbury hostesses and first drive to Hease- 
lands, the home of Mrs. J. N. Kleinwort, for a pri- 
vate tour of her seventeen-acre garden, con- 
ducted by her head gardener. This outstanding 
garden was created by Mrs. Kleinwort and her 
late husband over a period of thirty years. 
A pub lunch close to Sheffield Park, before 
travelling on North and West to the Cotswolds 
to meet, and later dine, with hostesses there. 



Sunday, July 9: The Cotswolds. In the morning, 
an opportunity for those who wish, to worship 
before luncheoning with hostesses. In the after- 
noon, visit Hidcote, a lovely garden created by 
the American horticulturalist. Major Lawrence 
Johnston. Hidcote is a series of small gardens, 
surrounded by walls and hedges, contained 
within the whole. Dine this evening in a private 
home. 

Monday, July 10: Oxford and Blenheim. In the 
morning we visit Oxford for a tour, first of its 
Botanic Gardens, followed by a general tour of 
Oxford colleges, for those who wish. Lunch in 
a private home. In the afternoon visit Blenheim 
Palace, home of the 11th Duke of Malborough, 
and birthplace of Sir Winston Churchill. Dinner 
this evening will be with hostesses. 

Tuesday, July 1 1: Travel to Bath. Farewell to 
Cotswold hostesses, and board the coach for 
a short drive South to Barnesley. Here, the well- 
known gardening author Rosemary Verey will 
personally conduct a tour of her outstanding 
gardens, which surround her delightful South 
Cotswold house. Lunch in the local pub, and in 
the afternoon, continue to Bowood, the family 
home of the Earl of Shelburne, to see both the 
house and its gardens. The Robert Adam Diole- 
tian houses magnificent rooms and a 5,000- 
volume library. In the gardens the collections of 
trees and shrubs include 153 species and over 
900 varieties, all of which are labelled. Later in 
the afternoon, continue to the Bath area to 
meet, and later dine, with Bath hostesses. 

Wednesday, July t2: Bath. In Bath we tour 
this elegant Georgian city with its outstanding 
crescents, not the least of which is the Royal 
Crescent, claimed to be the finest in Europe. 
Lunch in a restaurant in town. In the afternoon, 
a choice either to stay in Bath to shop and ex- 
plore, or to visit Wells for a private tour of its 




30 



Sissinghurst Castle Garden & copyright British Tourist Authority 




eight-hundred-year-old cathedral. Return to 
hostesses in the late afternoon, and later this 
evening, dine in a private home, 

Thursday. July 13: Wilton and Heale. We drive 
south down the lovely Wylie Valley to Wilton 
House, |ust North of Salisbury Visit the home of 
the 17th Earl of Pembroke to see its magnificent 
State Apartments, including the famous Double 
Cube Rooms, and one of the finest art collec- 
tions in Europe, The gardens contain an inter- 
esting variety of trees, including the Golden 
Oak tree and giant Cedars of Lebanon. Roses 
are a feature and Lord Pembroke recently 
opened an Old Rose Garden. After a pub 
lunch, visit Heale House, the home of Mrs. 
David Rash, with its superb five-acre garden. 
Shrub roses and perennials are a prominent 
feature, together with Japanese tea house and 
magnolias. Return to hostesses in the late after- 
noon to dine with them, 

Friday. July 14: Travel to London. Goodbye to 
Bath hostesses and drive east to the Royal Hor- 
ticultural Society Gardens at Wisley These gar- 
dens, which extend over 470 acres, are "work- 
ing gardens," with every plant and flower or 
shrub labelled. They are a joy for both the 
serious and amateur gardener, or horticultural- 
ist. Lunch in the garden's restaurant. In mid- 
afternoon, continue into central London and 
check into the Naval and Military Club, located 
in the heart of London's West End, where we will 
be the guests of Lt. Colonel Ronnie Adam, He 
will host a Welcome to London Reception in the 



Leeds Castle, Kent 

© copyright British Tourist Authority 



Club for Tour Members this evening. Dinner by 
own arrangements, 

Saturday July 15. A free day for Tour Members 
to pursue their own interests, either shopping or 
sight-seeing. The booklet in the personal fold- 
ers given to each guest on arrival in England list 
places of interest in London, how to get there, 
and times of opening. The tour director will 
assist in putting together the day's program, for 
those who wish. Lunch and dinner by own 
arrangements. 

Sunday July 16. Those returning home this day 
will be escorted to the departure airport by the 
tour director for the return flight home. Addition- 
al night's accommodation may be arranged at 
the Naval and Military Club for those wishing to 
stay on longer in London, subject to availability 

As you see, we will visit a numtper of outstand- 
ing gardens, and your enjoyment will be en- 
hanced by the leadership of Bertram G. Wood- 
land, a former curator at Field Museum, who 
will accompany the group throughout the tour. 
Additionally the opportunity to stay in private 
homes and share tfie hospitality of the English 
hostesses, and the overnight stay at the Naval 
and Military Club should offer some delightful 
and interesting experiences. We hope you will 
join us for this very special tour, 

PRICE: $3,575. (includes $100 tax-deductible 
contribution to Field Museum). 




Ctiristchurch Gate leading to Canterbury Cathedral « copyright British lounsi Authority 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. , Chicago, 1160605 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, IL 60605-2499 



MISS MARITA MAXEY 
7411 NORTH OREENVIEW 
CHICAGO IL 60626 




April: Family Month at Field Museum! 

^'Families at Work*' Exhibit Formally Opens. 

Dr. Benjamin Spock on Parenting, Saturday, April 8. 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/T)esigner: David M. Walsren 
Production Liaison: Pamela Sterns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board OF Trustees 

Robert A. Prit:ker 

ChaiTman 
Mrs. T. Sranttm Armour 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Benr 
Mrs. Philip D. BkKklll 
WiilardL. Bind. 

Presideni 
Robert D. Cadieux 
WorlevH. Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
Thomas E. rXinneiley II 
Thomas J. Everman 
Marshall Field 
RonaldJ. Gidwitz 
Wayne E. Hedien 
Clarence E. Johnston 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
William Kunkler Hi 
Hu^oJ. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Cimnor 



Mrs. James J. O'Ctmnor 
James H. Ransom 
Jt>hn S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Rvan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Thev>dore l~*. Tieken 
E.Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrintiton 

LifeTrlstees 

Harrv O. Bercher 
B^>wen Blair 
Stanton R. Cix>k 
Mrs. Edwin J. OeCosta 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Mrs. I\ivid W. Grainijer 
Clittord C. Greui: 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Bvron Smith 
Robert H. Strot: 
John W. Sulli\an 



CONTENTS 

April 1989 

Volume 60, Number 4 



APRIL EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 

COYOTE: A MHH IN THE MAKING 

Featuring the work of Native American Artist Hany Foiiseca .... 7 

CHANGING CHICAGO: CULTURAL DIVERSITY 

Photo Doamientary of Chicago and Its People 10 

DARKLY BRIGHT 

The Labrador Jotmieys of William Brooks Cabot n 

"HUMAN, APPROACHABLE, AND FUN"— The Families at Worii Exhibit 

By Fredelle Maynard 12 

MUSICAL AMPHIBIANS OF CHICAGOLAND 

By John C. Murphy. Associate, Division of Amphibians 

and Reptiles 18 

FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 30 

COVER 

Portion of the new "Families at Work" exhibit, formally opened 

this month. See pp. 12-17. Pholo by Ron Testa and Diane Alexander White n85228 



Volunteer at Field Museum 

Learn somethins new or share your expertise — a wide 
variety of challensins and rewardins volunteer oppor- 
tunities for either weekdays or weekends are currently 
available. Please call the Volunteer Coordinator at 
(31 2) 922-9410, extension 360, for more information. 



MEMBERS' NIGHT 

Friday, May 5 
5:00-10:00pm 



Field \luseum of Siiiural Hnior\ ButUttn (USPS 8'»8'W()| is published iimnrhK. eVLCpl comhincd Jul> AuiiuM issue, h\ Field Musi-uni .>! Naturji Hisi.>r>. R.'dm.'.cIi Ko, 
Museum of Natural History Suhscnpihwis S6 OOannu^IK S.l 00 for schoiils Museum mcmbciNhip includes BwWcnH suhsi.n[>tion Opmumscvprvsscd h\ authors jrv their 
manuMrnpCs arc welcome Museum phone 1 312l 'JZ^-'M 10 NoCificalionol address change should inilude address lahel and be sent to Membership IX-pannK-ni Posmustet: Pli 
Lake Shore Dnve. Chicago. IL 6060^-24% ISSN: (Xll.S-0705 Second class pivstagc paid at Chicagn. Illinois jnd addiinHial mailmi: office 



id Ji lake Shore DriM-.thicji:.'. ILW>M>.^-:4'>6 t.op\nghl ' I4SV hicid 
,i» n and do (Krt necessanl> rcl icci ihc pi>lic> ol F-icId Mu^-um L nsohciied 
;ase send lonn .l.'>7y to hield Museum ot Natural Histor> . Rtxjsc^elt Ri^ad at 




Dr. Spock on Parenting 

Dr. Benjamin Spock 

Saturday, April 8, 2:00pm 



Afternoon Films 

Thursdays in April 
1 :30pm, Lecture Hall I 




April 6 



April 13 



April 20 



April 27 



Dr. Benjamin Spock's name has become synonymous with 
parenting. Perhaps the most eminent pediatrician and child 
psychiatrist in the world, Dr. Spock has been studying and 
writing about children for over 40 years. 

Join Dr. Spock as he expresses his views on the "strange 
mixture of stress and joys" of parenting. He recognizes that 
today's parents need guidance beyond their concerns for the 
physical well-being of their children. He feels the new American 
family needs new guideposts. From the universal concerns of all 
parents to the contemporary problems of the '80s, Dr. Spock 
shares his wisdom and experience. In an era when simply defin- 
ing a parent can be a complex matter, gain some sensible in- 
sights from America's most trusted child care expert. 

LL89201 Dr. Spock on Parenting 
Tickets: $10 ($8 members) 



Audubon 

1977. 50 min. Color 

A fascinating film that traces the travels of John J. 
Audubon (1785-1 851) throughout Europe and North 
America. Although Audubon named, classified, and 
wrote about birds, he is probably best known as an 
artist. The minute detail he portrayed as he painted 
birds in their natural settings can be seen in film 
scenes taken from his most famous book, The Birds 
of America. 

Xian: Cities in China 

1980. 60 min. Color 

This captivating film unlocks many of the secrets of 
Xian, the ancient imperial city of China. This city has 
many archaeological treasures including the life-size 
pottery army of the emperor Qin. 

Mzima: Portrait of A Spring 

1978. 53 min. Color 

The hippopotamus is the central character in this 
examination of African wildlife at Kenya's Mzima, 
where 50 million gallons of water flow daily. Nature 
maintains a delicate balance between animals and 
the food supply at the spring. The survival of the hip- 
popotamus ensures the existence of other species at 
the spring such as elephants, baboons, kingfishers, 
butterflies, spiders, fish, and frogs. 

The Tribal Eye: Sweat of the Sun 

1980. 50 min. Color 

Little of the golden hoard of the Aztecs and the 
Incas escaped the brutal pillaging of the Spanish 
conquistadores. In Sweat of The Sun, David 
Attenborough examines some of the most important 
pre-Columbian objects that eluded European smelt- 
ing furnaces and describes how these objects werf 
used by priests of the Aztec and Inca cultures in 
practical and ritual fashion. 

Films are free and tickets are not required. 



Please use the coupon p 4 




PROJEQ! 

A Musical Documentary 
Free Street Theater 

Friday, April 21 , 7:00pm 
Saturday, April 22, 2:00pm, 7:00pm 
Sunday, April 23, 2:00pm 




Free Street Theater performs April 21 , 22, 23 



PROJECTI, a musical documentary, explores the humanity be- 
hind the negative headlines of the troubled Cabrini-Green 
neighborhood. With a background of lively dance and song, 
children and adults from Cabrini-Green tell their story. Through 
the use of 70 television sets, stacked to suggest the high-rises, 
residents talk about daily life in videotaped interviews, inter- 
woven between live dance and vocal numbers. 

What makes PROJECTi special? For one, these are not 
actors playing parts. These are Cabrini-Green residents playing 
themselves, telling of daily life in this all-black ghetto, from their 
own personal experience. Their ages range from 8 to 48 and 
their story is real. 

Tickets: $1 2 ($1 members): $7 children (12 and under). 

Special note: Be sure to indicate time of performance requested 
on registration form, p. 4. 



Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this registration 
application. Registrations are confirmed by mail. For registrations 
received less than one week before the program date, confirmations 
are held at the West Door for pick-up one hour before the program 
begins. Phone registrations are accepted using Visa/MasterCard/ 
AMX/Discover, Please call (312) 322-8854 to register. The minimum 
amount for credit cards is $15,00, For further registration information, 
consult the April/May Adult, Children, and Family Program Brochure, 

Return complete registration with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Department of Education, Program Registration 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



Program 
Number 


Program 


#Child 


#Member 


#Nonmember 


Total Amount 


LL89201 


Dr, Spockon 
Parenting 










LL89202 


Bug Basics 










LL89203 


Bug Basics-Ctiild 












PROJECTI 
Friday. April 21. 
7:00 pm 












PROJECTI 
Saturday, April 22, 
2:00 pm 












PROJECTI 
Saturday, Apnl 22, 
7:00 pm 












PROJECTI 
Sunday, Apnl 23, 
2:00 pm 










D Sctiolars 


hip requested 






total 





Name 








Address 


City 




State 


Zip 


4 Telephone: 


Daytime 




Evening 



DAMX nVisa a MasterCard D Discover (Ctieckone) 

Card # expiration date 

Signature 



For office use only: date received 



date mailed 





Bug Basics 

Hugh Danks, Heod, Biological Survey of Canada; 
National Museum of Natural Sciences 

Saturday, April 1,2:00pm 

Have you ever wondered why a firefly glows or how ants can 
carry enormous crumbs on their baci<;s? How does a hairy green 
caterpillar change into a brilliant butterfly? Join Dr. Hugh Danks 
as he introduces the wonderful world of insects. In a program 
designed for families with children ages 5 to 1 2, learn to 
observe, identify, and enjoy the tiny creatures that populate 
even the smallest patch of grass or flower bed. All children 
receive a "bug certificate" and activities to try at home. 

LL89202 Bug Basics 

LL89203 Bug Basics-Child 

Tickets: $4 adults: $2 children 1 2 and under. 






Adult-Child WoHcshops 



Adult-Child workshops provide an exciting, participatory learn- 
ing experience. Children and adults work together to build a 
kite, experience a traditional Eastern Woodlands Indian pow- 
wow, learn colorful Mexican cross-stitch patterns, or explore the 
natural world using scientific skills and techniques. 

Workshops are designed for specific age groups covering 
an age range from two to thirteen years. For a full listing of adult- 
child workshops and registration information, call the Depart- 
ment of Education at (312) 322-8854, Monday through Friday, 
9:00am-4:00pm. 5 



FIELD BRIEFS 



Thomas R. Sanders, Vice President 
Of Development, Retires 

Thomas R. Sanders, vice president for Development of 
Field Museum, retired on January 31, after having 
served as chief development officer for the Museum fi>r 
almost twenty years. In a profession known, among 
other things, for a tradition of transiency in tenure, 
that tenure, alone, is cause for notice. But Tom Sand- 
ers did far more than just put in two decades of service. 
More than any other person, he is the leader and the 
craftsman of, and the glue that held together. Field 
Museum's fund-raising effort over that period. 

Tom Sanders joined the Museum staff in the fall of 
1969. He inherited little more than an emhryonic 
fund-raising program and financial needs of awesome 
proportions. In typical Sanders fashion, he went to 
wt:)rk — planning, organizing, and producing. During 
Tom's tenure, more than $65 million in private contri- 
butions have come to Field Museum. No one who 
knows anything about development work would sug- 
gest that it is a one-person operation. Tom had a dis- 
tinguished institution and staff, an outstanding board 
of trustees, and dedicated friends of the Museum to 
work with. But Tom Sanders was the dynamo and the 
continuum, without which no development effort can 
succeed. His contributions were much more than pure 
fund raising. He understood the values of Field Mu- 
seum, he is unfailingly loyal, and he possesses an energy 
level seldom seen in today's world. Perhaps more valu- 
able than any other single characteristic, one working 
with him could always be assured that, regardless of any 
possible disagreements, Tom's opinion always ex- 
pressed what he believed what was in the best interests 
of Field Museum. One never had to search for a hidden 
agenda. In short, Tom Sanders was a valued member ot 
senior management. 

Prior to joining the Field Museum staff, Mr. Sand- 
ers had served the Chicago Heart Association, the 



Community Fund-Red Cross Joint Appeal (now the 
Crusade of Mercy), the American Cancer Society, and 
for nine years was director of Development of Loyola 
University. Thus, his entire career has been in the field 
of development. The 35 years in development repre- 
sent a great contribution to the organizations and in- 
stitutions of Chicago. 

All those who know Tom Sanders, and particular- 
ly those who have worked with him for the good of 
Field Museum, wish him and his wife, Mary, all the 
best in retirement. With those wishes come apprecia- 
tion for a major contribution toward the advancement 
of the Museum. 

— E. Lehmd Webber 

Willard E. White Named Vice President 
For Development and External Affairs 

Succeeding Thomas G. Sanders as Field Museum's 
chief development officer is Willard E. White, who 
joined the Field Museum November 28. Mr. White 
comes to the Museum from the Newberry Library, 
where he was vice president for Development and Pub- 
lic Affairs. 

He has previously been a development officer at 
the Illinois Institute of Technology, Northwestern 
University, and the University of Chicago. Prior to 
entering the development field in 1977, Mr. White 
served with the journals division of the University ot 
Chicago Press; as chief, Personnel Branch, Third U.S. 
Army, Atlanta; and as instructor in English at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Chicago. He received his Ph.D. and 
M. A. in English literature from the University of Chi- 
cago and his B. A. from Denison University. 

As vice president for Development and External 
Affairs, he is responsible for development, member- 
ship, tours, sponsored programs, government rela- 
tions, external communications, marketing, public re- 
lations, and the Bulletin. 



Clarification: Symposium on History and Evolution 



We regret the understandable confusion generated by the announcement of the symposium "His- 
tory and Evolution," which appeared in the February Bulletin. The reproduction of the annoimce- 
ment sent to universities and other scientific institutions across the country was intended not as an 
invitation for registration from the general public but rather as a notice to the membership of an 
activity of the scientific staff. This distinction was not made clear. 




Coyote 

Serigraph, 22" X 30" 



COYOTE: A MYTH 
IN THE MAKING 

Contemporary Native 
American art 

April 8 to July 9 

"Coyote: A Myth in the Making" presents the paintings and 
sketches of contemporary Native American artist Harry 
Fonseca. The exhibit focuses on Fonseca's vision of 
Coyote, a magical being prominent in the traditional liter- 
ature and religious beliefs of many Native American cul- 
tures. The exhibit traces Coyote's history as he emerges 
from Fonseca's Maidu heritage and leaves the reservation 
to participate in many facets of American life. Through 
Coyote, Fonseca provides a lively commentary on con- 



A Gift from California 
Serigraph, 22" X 30" 

A Gift from California presents Fonseca's assertion that the Indi- 
an culture of California was alive and very different from that of 
the Southwest. The serigraph illustrates a women's dance, which 
honors both the acorn and women as givers of life,- the four 
dancers carry burden baskets filled with acorns, a traditional 
staple of life for the Maidu and a symbolic representation of 
Maidu culture. The traditional Maidu basket designs are, left to 
right, winged lightning, angleworm, quail plume, and ants on 
a log. C> 




temporary urban life and timeless human nature. As an 
artist, Fonseca has developed his own style that has been 
referred to as "primitive," "naive," and "California funk." 
While his bold and colorful v\/ork reflects qualities of each 
of these styles, it goes beyond to create his own personal 
statement as a visual artist. 

Among many Native American peoples, the coyote is a 
trickster figure. Among the Maidu of northern California, 
however. Coyote is more than just a spoiler — he also 
provides a guide through life, demonstrating what be- 
havior is unacceptable and dangerous, providing oppor- 
tunities for others to learn from his mistakes. According to 
Maidu oral tradition. Coyote is also responsible for the 
existence of work, suffering, and death. He is, on the 
other hand, a buffoon, the trickster who is only tricking 
himself, who comes out of his adventures in a sorry plight. 

Harry Fonseca was born in Sacramento, California, in 
1 946; he is of Maidu, Portuguese, and Hawaiian descent, 

C" Coyote in front of Studio 
Acrylic, 30" X 24" 

Fonseca uses Coyote to poke fun at the familiar stereotype of 
the American Indian. The urbanized Coyote, in block leather 
jacket, Levi's, and high-top tennis shoes, wears the Hollywood- 
approved version of the most recognizable item of Indian dress, 
a full Plains-style feather headdress. Coyote also carries a large 
beaded leather bag and holds three cigars as he stands on a 
vv/ooden box. Through Coyote's regalia, which is not worn in 
the artist's own Maidu culture, Fonseca satirizes the stereotype 
of the "real" Indian. 



and he grew up in Sacramento acutely aware of his mixed 
heritage. However, he was greatly influenced by his uncle 
Henry Azbill, a Konkow Maidu elder, who encouraged 
him to attend the Maidu dances at Grindstone, near Chi- 
co. Azbill was a great promoter and preserver of the 
Maidu culture, which hod undergone tremendous turmoil 
after the tribe was decimated following the influx of gold 
seekers and settlers to their land in California's northern 
Sierra. 

Fonseca is largely self-taught: "I've been drawing this 
way since I was twelve years old," he said in a recent 
interview. His earliest works relate directly to his Maidu 
heritage. As part of on assignment for a class in American 
Indian art at California State University, Sacramento, Fon- 
seca tape-recorded his uncle telling the Maidu creation 
myth. After recording the story, Fonseca realized that it 
was more than a creation myth; it was the tribal history. In 
1 976, Fonseca applied for and received a Special Pro- 
jects Grant from the California Arts Council to aid in the 
making of the Creation Story. This marked the beginning 
of the three-year project that became the visual record of 
an oral history. 

Fonseca's early works, created in the late 1 960s 
through the 1 970s, have been referred to as his "tradi- 
tional" paintings — traditional because Fonseca was 
illustrating the Maidu culture, the dances, the regalia, and 
the basket designs, "the beginnings," as he said, "of the 
California people." 






^ 



f^Kf^fU^ 



Sketch Book, Vol. 1 
Ink and wotercolor, 9" X 12" 
Fonseca spent a year researching and 
sketching dance classes at the Alvin Alley 
American Dance Center In New York. Ttie 
Sketcti Book, Vol I contains Fonseca's 
notations about the dances, dancers, 
costumes, and sets — later used In his 
Interpretation of European animal myths 
In his Swan Lake series. 




 



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Changing Chicago: Cultural Diversity 

Photo Exhibition 



April 22-September 4 



The Essence of Chicago's diverse communities emanates 
from the still photography of six area photographers on 
display from April 22 to September 4, 1989. "Changing 
Chicago: Cultural Diversity" is one of five simultaneous 
exhibitions in Chicago organized by the Focus Infinity 
Fund. Field Museum's exhibit includes more than 100 
black-and-white and color photographs by Dick Blau, 



Kerry Coppin, Tom Hocker, Jim Newberry, Marc 
PoKempner, and Richard Younker. The communities rep- 
resented through their work include African-American, 
Polish, and Asian. The photographers participating in 
Field Museum's exhibition spent a full year documenting 
the customs, traditions, and values of their assigned 
communities. 



10 



O DARKLY BRIGHT 

THE LABRADOR JOURNEYS OF WILLIAM BROOKS CABOT 

1899-1910 

Historic Photo Exhibit 
On View until April 23 



For More Than Two Decades, beginning in 1898, William 
Brooks Cabot, a prominent American engineer turned 
explorer, made annual treks into the remote regions of the 
Quebec-Labrador peninsula to travel and live with small 
bands of Eskimo and Naskapi Indian hunters. The exhibit 
"O Darkly Bright" contains approximately fifty photo- 
graphs that Cabot took of the people and lifestyles he en- 
countered. Cabot was one of the first explorers to travel 
with a camera in Labrador and his photographs provide 
unique historical documentation of now vanished cultures. 



The exhibition was developed by Stephen Loring, an 
anthropologist and archaeologist who has done extensive 
research on Labrador. In 1980 Loring tracked down 
Cabot's descendants and was given Cabot's original jour- 
nals and more than 3,000 negatives, glass lantern slides, 
and photographs. The photographs in the exhibition are 
drawn from this collection which is now part of the Smithso- 
nian's National Anthropological archives. "O Darkly 
Bright " can be seen in the gallery of the Webber Resource 
Center for Native Cultures of the Americas. 



The Christian A Johnson Memonal Gallery 

Young women at Kanekautsh Lakes, interior Quebec-Labrador. 8 August. 1910. Photo by William Brooks Cabot MiddieburvCoiiege,M.dtjiebury,vermoni 05753 




// 



Human, Approachable, and Fun 

— The Families at Work Exhibit 



// 



By Fredelle AAaynard 




Ron Testa and Diane Alexander White 



Just beyond the ancient China collection — past 
the marble sarcophagus and those austere deities 
(God of Creation, Judge of Purgatory), the Bud- 
dhas and bottles and polychrome bowls — visitors to 
the Field Museum this spring now find themselves in 
a surprising world. Here, stuffed and mounted, are a 
white-tailed doe with two fawns, a baby bat clinging 
to its mother in a windowless cave, a newly hatched 
monarch caterpillar. 

Here, too, are cases of brilliant child garments 
from Pakistan, Botswana, Greenland, the American 
12 Southwest. Here are hand-fashioned toys from round 



the world — carts and dolls and balls and miniature 
farm implements. Life-size photographs of the world's 
families illustrate and elaborate displays. At the heart 
of the exhibit, under banners which identify its 
themes (Bearing, Tending, Feeding, Carr;ving, 
Covering, Protecting, Teaching), children — real live 
Chicago children — are playing. In the baby area, one 
toddler pushes a cart while another chatters into a dis- 
connected phone; a third delightedly contemplates 
her own mirror image. Some mothers sit on bright 
floor pillows, directing and commenting. ("Look, 
Jason, A white bear, a blue fish, an orai-ige carrot.") 




Others read aloud from the picture book collection or 
join in animated parent talk. ("What do you do when 
your kid throws a tantrum?") Beyond the baby-fence, 
a laughing, shouting, jostling group of preschoolers 
explores the possibilities of an imaginative play struc- 
ture composed of differing heights, open-ended hard- 
board tubes. Created by Don Skinner, designer of the 
exhibit, the tubes have clear plastic tops which en- 
close bright, intriguing objects: silk leaves, fishes, a 
moon and stars. At the base of each tube, an open 



Dr. Fredelle Maynard, a specialist in family life, is a writer, lecturer, 
columnist, and radio/TV broadcaster based in Toronto. She has 
taught at Harvard, Radcliffe, Wellesley, and the University of New 
Hampshire and has served as educational consultant for the U.S. 
National Assessment of Educational Progress. She is the author of 
several books, the most recent of which is Tree Houses and Tarn- 
bourines: Raising Creative Children, to be published this year by Pen- 
guin Viking. Other books include Guiding Your Child to a More 
Creative Life, The Child Care Crisis, and two volumes of memoirs: 
Raisins and Almonds and The Tree of Life. Her articles have appeared 
in Maclean's, Woman's, Day, Parents, Reader's Digest, the Atlantic, 
and numerous other periodicals. 



doorway invites movement and invention. "This 
could be a space ship!" "It's a forest!" "No, it's our 
house. " 

What's happening here is lively evidence of the 
Field Museum's enlarged sense of purpose. For almost 




Diane Alexander While 



a century now, this has been a world-class museum, 
eminent both as a research institute and as an agency 
of public education. Meanwhile, community com- 
position and community needs have changed. The 
suburban population, split otf from the central city, is 
less likely to use the Museum's resources. Blacks and 
Hispanics, now a majority of Chicago's population, 
have been underserved by the Museum's programs and 



parents can release babies from backpacks and stroll- 
ers, at the same time providing older children with a 
child-centered exhibit and the opportunity for imag- 
inative play. Oversize photographs surrounding the 
area suggest the universality of parent tasks; here's a 
father giving a bottle, a robin with worm and eager 
babies, a mother breastfeeding twins. Both parent and 
child visitors are led — casually, without didacticism 




underrepresented among its visitors. The very splen- 
dor of the building, its classic dignity and formality, 
may well make it less attractive to the present genera- 
tion of visitors. Always solid, comprehensive, rich 
and varied in its holdings, the Field Museum has ac- 
quired an image awesome rather than exciting. Today 
the stated aim — while preserving its established tradi- 
tion of scholarship — is to reach a new generation of 
museum-goers. Centennial Directions, a looking- 
forward document published in October, 1986, sets 
forth an agenda for the future: "to offer informal ex- 
hibits and programs, providing direct, hands-on ex- 
periences with natural history materials and themes"; 
to attract a broad range of museum-goers, from casual 
lookers to serious scientists; to make the Museum's 
vast resources more usable; above all, "to lighten the 
public face of the Museum, making it more human 
and approachable." 

Families at Work is a brilliant first step in this 
direction. On the most obvious level, it's a refresh- 
ment for the gallery-goer: an attractive space where 
14 



— towards an understanding of family structures and 
practices. The free arrangement of exhibits — fox and 
cubs next to a photo of father with backpack — invites 
reflection. What have animal and human families in 
common? How do they differ? What do the toys of 
China, Indonesia, South Africa tell us about the cul- 
ture of those countries? How do parents in all parts of 
the world prepare the young for adult roles and 
responsibilities? Unlike conventional museum labels, 
with their facts and figures and Latin names, the 
labelling here is offhand, provocative. The exhibit of 
Khoi-Khoi dolls, for example, provides no pedestrian 
data. (Assumption: you can see what there is to see.) 
Rather, it asks: "What does this doll family teach chil- 
dren about adult life?" A child who tires of racing 
through the tubes or manipulating beads on the mar- 
blechase, can choose any exhibit (all cases are at 
child's eye-level) for a moment's quiet observation. 
Oh boy, oh boy, look at that sivord. Do Japanese kids 
really get to play with stuff like that? Or The baby 
rabbits look like mice. When do they get their fur? 



Families at Work poses a question: What are 
families for? What common impulses unite the 
mother raccoon with her tumbling babes, the talismans 
attached to children's garments in many cultures, the 
ingenious toys constructed of locally available 
materials — rushes, gourds, animal bones? A useful 
formulation comes from Dr. Dorothy Gross, of New 
York's Bank Street College of Education: "What the 
young need, what parents provide, is affection, pro- 
tection, role modelling and elbow room." Protection is 
the bottom line. Families at Work shows how animals 
born naked and blind are sheltered in nests where pa- 
rents keep them safe and warm. Human babies are 
swaddled, strapped onto carrying boards, bundled into 
baskets and backpacks. (Some carriers come equipped 
with drainage facilities; others divert young riders 
with bouncing devices and jingling bells. ) In the in- 
sect world, protection may be a simple matter of 



shielding eggs and larvae from predators; more soph- 
isticated, but still instinctive, is the canny ruse of the 
killdeer faking a broken wing to distract attention 
from the vulnerable eggs. Human parents move 
beyond physical protection to spiritual; the exhibit 
showcases a wonderful variety of supernatural defenses 
against harm: the Chinese silk lion, stuffed with frag- 
rant leaves to protect a playing child, Indonesian 
charm necklaces, a Sioux Indian turtle amulet 
containing — magic specially potent — a piece of the 
wearer's umbilical cord. Even color may be chosen for 
its magical properties, like the yellow dye of Kiowa 
Indian leggings. Most often charms are worn, but 
some may be placed by cradle or basket, like the silky 
Ojibwa nets designed to catch bad dreams, or the 
evil-looking fungus used in Madagascar to scare 
off malign spirits. 

Affection, surely revealed in the multiple 




Ron Testa and Diane Alexander While 



ingenious devices hy which human parents hope to 
safeguard their young, appears vividly too in chil- 
dren's garments. In a very real sense, here, clothes 
make the man (or woman), foreshadowing adult roles 
and responsibilities and expressing the values of the 
culture. From the Eskimo parka to the brief pubic 
shield of a Javanese girl, clothing typically moves 
beyond merely practical considerations to celebrate 
the child and his hoped-for future. The silk coat of a 
Chinese infant is richly embroidered with symbols of 
health, wealth, and power: a cat to protect against 
evil spirits, butterflies for happiness, and the swastika- 
shaped wamzi for luck. A woolen jacket for a Guate- 
malan boy displays the quetzal bird motif, symbolizing 
greatness. Clothing the world over is in fact a rich 
language communicating, besides feeling, the wearer's 
status, the community's resources and, frequently, the 
pure art impulse of elaboration. One of the exhibit's 
most enchanting items is an infant hat from Pakistan, 
a kind of helmet with elongated ear flaps, extrava- 
gantly decorated with a mix of traditional embroidery 
and commercial artifacts. The cap is edged with white 
beading (no surprise), hung with silver coins and 
small bells (no great surprise) and then improbably 
finished off with key chains, pearl buttons, and split 
zippers. 

Role modelling begins in children's garments — 
often, as the exhibit reveals, miniature versions of 
adult apparel. The suit for a four-year-old Bagobo boy 
of the Philippines is a perfect replica of his father's, 
down to the attached sling bag . A young girl 




Diane Alexander White 



of the Karok — a California Indian tribe — destined to 
be a healer and dance leader early assumes ceremonial 
garments. Above all, though, it's in play that role- 
modelling and Elbow Room, hanging loose, come 
together. Is the Cameroon child's tiny Land-Rover 
life-learning, or pure highjinks? In Families at Work — 
the exhibit and the real-life activity — play emerges as 
both diversion and serious business. When an adult 
plays — at golf, dancing, chess — he turns aside from 
his "real" work to relax; this is recreation. But the 
child's play is a continuous act of creation. Running 
or digging, building or pretending, the child creates 
himself; he discovers who he is, what he can do, how 
things work, where he fits into the total scheme. The 
cradle board encourages nurturing, the how competi- 
tion. A Cheyenne boy's slingshot is not just amuse- 
ment (though it's surely that); it's practice in develop- 
ing eye and hand for targeting small game. With his 
toy rake, the Indonesian child prepares for life in the 
rice fields, just as the young Malay moves towards his 
destiny with a miniature cart made of coconut husks. 
The child-size Japanese sword, the scaled-down Hopi 
bow and arrow — these toys express the culture's val- 
ues and standards. Children envy — how can they 
not? — what seems the absolute freedom and power of 
adults. And when they rush out to play — with ball, 
top, wagon, skates — they're impelled not only by a 
desire for fiin, but by a drive for mastery, over them- 
selves and the physical world. 

Many young creatures play. Look at the fox cubs 
in a Families at Work display — pouncing on wind- 
blown leaves, chasing each other's tails. Just as this 
kind of play looks ahead to the adult hunt, so chil- 
dren's games (and the toys parents provide) constitute 
a special kind of life preparation. Consider the doll. 
The most minimal one, in this exhibit, made by the 
Naskapi-Montagnais Indians, is a paper cutout, a 
crude representation of the human form cut into 
birchbark. Without features, without sex, this de- 
humanized figure suggests a culture in which natural 
and supernatural forces dominate man. The Ndebele 
bead dolls, and the straw dolls of Ecuador (with bells 
concealed in bright skirts) express a delicate, decora- 
tive image of woman, contrasting strongly with a lusty 
leather doll from southern Africa, her sexual role ac- 
centuated by breasts, thrust buttocks, and back-borne 
infant. A Japanese daruma doll, designed to teach forti- 
tude, armless and legless, is all head; the Cheyenne 
doll, on the other hand, has a head the size of a bead. 
Some cultures produce baby dolls; in others, dolls 
represent adult ideals. And then there is Barbie, the 




All-American dream. Seeing her in this context, 
viewers may be moved to reflect on the elements of 
that dream. With her improbably small feet, long 
legs, perky breasts, elaborate hair, and bland expres- 
sion, she seems neither mother, sexual partner, nor 
worker but a fantasy of purely decorative femininity. 
(Barbies come, these days, with briefcases and hard 
hats for construction work, but one can't take such 
accessories seriously. Would Barbie do anything likely 
to disarrange costume or hair?) 

In the low-walled enclosure of Families at Work's 
play space, two preschoolers squabble over a puzzle. "I 
had it first!" "M31 turn!" When push and pull fails, the 
smaller child offers a canny solution. "Let's both do 
it!" Together, they make short work of the puzzle; 
having discovered the pleasures of bot/iness, they 
move towards the baby doll and the wagon. "I'll be 
the mother and you can be the bus driver." The bus 
driver's mother, meanwhile, has made herself com- 
fortable in a nest of bright pillows. Asked what she 
thinks of the exhibit, she offers a brass-tacks response. 
"It's great to sit down and let the kids work off some 



energy. They hate being dragged around museums, 
and half the time they can't see." A father — he's a re- 
cent immigrant from Guatemala — says, "I like that 
here we all learn. I talk to American parents. I 
watch." Other visitors join in. "My boys mostly play 
in the tubes. But then they'll race over to look at the 
stuffed deer, or the toy sword." "I think a dress-up box 
would be great. Stuff like what they see in the cases, 
the wild hats and shoes." Some parents would like 
more things for children to make and do; some wish 
the Museum would provide staff to answer questions 
about child care and development. A father asks if 
there couldn't be at least one live animal for children 
to observe. There's a silence while parents mull over 
these possibilities. Then a young woman who identi- 
fies herself as a university student of Early Childhood 
says, "The Field's full of good stuff. What's special 
here is the feeling — about families and the young. Like 
that little jacket from Panama, the one with reverse 
applique and a hood. That's not about keeping a kid 
warm and dry. It's about love, and celebration, and 
hope."FM 17 




A Chicagoland pond in April. DaveVisisten 



18 




Musical 




Of Chicagoland 



By John C. Murphy 
frog photos by the author 



Frog choruses have always held a special fascination 
for me. With the exception of a few spectacular 
bird and primate calls and those of emerging cica- 
das, no animals' auditory display can, in my estima- 
tion, rival a chorus of frogs. 

I have waded in sloughs with alligators and 
venomous snakes, warded off hordes of mosquitoes, 
climbed trees while wearing chest waders, laid on 
snow-covered ground, and been preyed upon by black 
flies, leeches, and other creatures — all for the singular 
delight of listening to frogs and studying their be- 
havior. But anyone who wants to observe calling frogs 
in the Chicago area can do so without many of these 
inconveniences; and now, as we advance into spring, 
the opportunities to do so are abundant. 

The presence of frogs in a forest pond can usually 
be determined by a nighttime visit in spring or early 
summer. While just sitting in the car with the window 
rolled down and engine turned off one can hear the frog 
chorus, but approaching the sound to actually watch 
the calling frogs is something else. Listening to them, 
then locating the source of their call is challenging and 



John C. Murphy is an associate in the Division of Amphibians and 
Reptiles. He teaches biology at Plainfield High School, Plainfield, 
Illinois, and has served as herpetology consultant for agencies such 
as the Illinois Department of Transportation and for the govern- 
ment of Trinidad and Tobago. Mr. Murphy is a past president of the 
Chicago Herpetological Association and has been a generous donor 
of specimens to Field Museum, notably of amphibians and reptiles. 
"Water Snakes That You Might See around Chicago," by Mr. Mur- 
phy, appeared in the March 1987 Bulletin. _ 



requires some patience, but it is an excellent way to 
learn how to identify them by their vocal characteris- 
tics. In some cases, as described below, identification is 
easier on the basis of sound rather than appearance. 

Frogs are necessarily sensitive to the approach of 
any large animal, particularly one that may be inter- 
ested in them as food. Even the most casual observers 
have probably noticed that while approaching a pond 
where frogs are calling, the closer ones go silent while 
those farther off continue. Most of the Chicago-area 



jaws, tongue, and occasionally, their front legs, and 
swallow it whole. 

Two of the Chicago-area frogs are commonly 
called toads. There is no scientific distinction between 
frogs and toads, but most tailless amphibians known as 
toads are in the family Bufonidae, which contains 
almost 300 species worldwide; many have thick, 
glandular, warty skin, and land-dwelling adults. Toad 
eggs can be identified by the fact that they are laid in a 
long chain, usually on vegetation, in shallow water. 




Eastern American toad, Bufo americanus americanus 



species — there are 13 around Chicago, about 20 in 
Illinois — call from the water or from vegetation emerg- 
ing from the water, and such frogs detect movement 
from waves created by the intruder. 

Frogs are tailless amphibians: animals that usually 
pass through an aquatic fish-like larval stage before 
becoming adults. Like salamanders, which have tailed 
adults, frogs are dependent on water for reproduction 
and for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide through 
their skin. Adult frogs are carnivorous, eating mostly 
insects, but a few large species eat birds or mammals. 
Lacking true teeth, frogs must capture their prey with 



The eastern American Toad, Bufo americanus 
americanus, is probably the most frequently encoun- 
tered amphibian in northeastern Illinois, inhabiting 
many bodies of water in the urban and suburban areas 
during the breeding season and spreading out from the 
ponds in late spring to feed, often in gardens and lawns. 
Depending upon temperature, sometime during April, 
and usually at night, males migrate to the breeding 
ponds and females soon follow. At the peak of the 
explosive breeding season, the male toads call during 
daylight hours; this diurnal calling may last only one or 
two days, but a week or so before this peak and for a 




20 



Fowler's toad, Bufo woodhousii fowleri 




Left: Egg chains of American toad 24 hours after being laid. Right: 
The same chains three days later, showing newly hatched tadpoles 
After Dickerson. 



month or more afterward, the males can still be heard 
calling, usually after dark. The purpose of all this noise 
is to advertise the male's presence to females and to 
warn other males to keep their distance. Calling males 
stay about 36 to 60 inches apart; if one male ventures 
too close to another, he may be driven off by an agres- 
sive charge. 

The call of this toad is a sustained, musical trill 
lasting 6 to 30 seconds, one that is not easily forgotten 
and which may be heard as far away as a quarter mile. 
The time needed for egg and tadpole development var- 
ies with temperature and other factors, but small toad- 
lets become obvious during mid- to late summer. 
Females reproduce for the first time at three years of 




Leon L Pray 



Note the differences here in warts and blotches between Fowler's 
toad (top) and the American toad (bottom). 21 




Blanchard's cricket frog, Acris crepitans blanchardi 

age, males reproduce at age two. Females grow to a 
body length of 4-5 inches, males are smaller, hut aver- 
age size for both sexes is 2.0 to 3. 5 inches. 

Fowler's toad, Bu/o woodhousii fowleri, is similar to 
the American toad, and for the casual observer dis- 
tinguishing between them can be difficult. The Amer- 
ican toad has a darkly mottled breast, as do some Illi- 
nois Fowler's toads; however, most Fowler's toads have 
a solid white or cream underside. Fowler's toad has lar- 
ger dark dorsal (back) blotches with three or more 
warts per blotch, while the American toad has only 
one or two warts per blotch. There are other subtle 
differences, but the situation is further complicated by 
the occasional interbreeding of the two species, with 
resultant hybrids that show characters of both. 

Fowler's toad seems to have a preference for sandy 
soil, while the American toad prefers darker, organic 
rich soils, and Fowler's toad usually breeds later in the 
spring. However, I have seen both species calling 
together at a dark-soil locality. The voice of Fowler's 
toad — quite different from that of the American 
toad — is a nasal "waah," lasting one to four seconds. 

Fowler's toad feigning death. After Dlckerson. 




Fowler's toads average 2 to 3 inches in length, but large 
females reach 3. 75 inches. 

In the New World, the treefrogs, family Hylidae, 
range from cold temperate latitudes in North America, 
through the tropics, to cold temperate latitudes in 
South America. The family contains about 630 spe- 
cies, with diverse adaptations to the many environ- 
ments they inhabit. Despite the common name "tree- 
frogs," some do not climb at all, while others spend 
their entire life in the forest canopy. 

Blanchard's cricket frog, Acris crepitans blanchardi, 
was considered the "most common amphibian in Illi- 
nois" by Philip W. Smith in his 1961 book The Amphi- 




22 



Western chorus frog, Pseudachs triseriata 



bians and Reptiles of Illinois, published by the Illinois 
Natural History Survey. However, this tiny, 0.75-1.5- 
inch frog underwent drastic population reductions in 
the next two decades. 

It is a ground-dwelling treefrog with numerous 
small warts and may have a green or rust-colored mid- 
dorsal mark. Its cryptic coloration makes it all but 
invisible when sitting on a muddy shoreline with small 
pebbles. As one approaches a cricket frog along the 
shoreline, it waits until one is three to four feet away, 
then leaps into the water and swims out; within 
seconds, however, it turns back, returning to within a 
short distance of its original position. 

Males call in late April with a series of short, 
metallic clicks. Newly metamorphosed individuals 
(i.e., transformed from tadpole to frog) are present in 
late summer or early fall. An Iowa study found that 
they feed continuously day and night during the seven 
months of the year they are active. They eat any small 
arthropod, mostly insects, consuming about 20 prey 




C J AlbrecW 



Female western chorus frog (left) approacfiing a male. 



items per day, or 4,800 prey per year per frog. Thus, a 
small population of 1 ,000 frogs would consume 4.8 mil- 
lion arthropods per year. 

The western chorus frog, Pseudacris triseriata 
triscriata, is a 0.75-1.5-inch frog with three broad 
stripes on its back and a light line along the upper jaw. 
This abundant frog is heard calling in large choruses in 
March and April; the call of a single frog is best de- 
scribed as the sound made by a running a finger slowly 
over a comb's teeth. As settlers moved into the mid- 
western grasslands during the 1800s, chorusing chorus 
frogs provided the musical background for man's altera- 
tion of the prairie. Today, chorus frogs will use almost 
any shallow body of water for reproduction — cattail 
marshes, flooded farm fields, suburban drainage ditch- 
es, even water-filled tire tracks. Small clusters of eggs 
m gelatinous masses float in the water or are attached 
to submerged vegetation. Chorus frogs rarely climb and 
are relatively poor swimmers. After reproducing, the 
adults spread out into surrounding upland habitats, 
sometimes where it is quite dry, to feed. 

The western chorus has an interesting relative in 
central Illinois, the Illinois chorus frog, Pseudacris 
streckeri illinoiensis, a frog unknown to science until 
1950. This is a subterranean treefrog, a true paradox, 
that burrows into the sandy soil of Illinois sand prairies 
and feeds while underground. Males may chorus while 



the ground is snow covered, in March and April. 

The spring peeper, Pseudacris crucifer crucifer, has 
been long considered a true treefrog and placed in the 
genus Hyla. However, it has recently been reassigned 
to the chorus frog genus, Pseudacris. The spring peeper 
can be readily identified by the large X on its back. Like 




Spring peeper, Pseudacris crucifer crucifer. Note characteristic 
Xon back. 



the toads and chorus frogs, it is an explosive breeder; 
large choruses sing day and night for a day or two in late 
March or early April, until most of the eggs in the pop- 
ulation have been laid and fertilized. The male's call is 
a single, clear, high, piping note. This call is used to 



Eggs of spring peeper attached to submerged plant stem. After Wright. 




23 




Gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor 

advertise the male's presence; hciwever, when another 
male gets too close, the single notes become a trill, a 
signal that the caller's territory is being invaded. After 
the breeding period, males still call, but in small chor- 
uses, or singly. Unlike the western chorus frog, the 
female spring peeper deposits one egg at a time on sub- 
merged vegetation after it has been fertilized; thus, the 
eggs are not found in gelatinous masses, but are scat- 
tered along stems and leaves. 

The gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor, and Cope's 
treefrog, Hyla chrysocelis, are considered together 
because, even to the trained naturalist, they look alike 
and both are about 1 . 5 to 2.0 inches in length. Because 
of this similarity, they are still sometimes collectively 
called gray treefrogs. The gray treefrog has a slower, 
guttural trill, but to distinguish it from Cope's in the 
field, the two must be calling near each other so their 
calls may be compared under the same conditions — 
temperature affects the speed of frog calls; the warmer 
the frog the more rapid the call. 

These normally gray frogs can change to green or 
to a pasty-white, have bumpy skin, webbed toes, fin- 
gers ending in expanded disks, a distinctive white spot 
under the eye, and yellow and brown mottling on the 
groin and hidden surfaces of the thigh. Males have a 
single vocal sac and a rough pad of tissue on the inner 
thumb. The thumb pad is used for gripping the female 
during amplexus, or mating. During dry weather these 
frogs live in tree hollows, under tree bark, in rotten 
stumps and even abandoned bird houses. The two gray 
treefrog species spread their reproductive activity from 
April to August, latitude having some influence on the 
timing. 

Two other species of true treefrogs are found in the 
southern part of Illinois. The bird-voice treefrog, Hyla 
24 



avivoca, is a miniature version of the gray treefrogs, be- 
ing 1 . 2 to 1.75 inches in length, and it inhabits wooded 
swamps. This treefrog's call has been described as the 
most beautiful of all in North America. Males produce 
a clear, bird-like whistle at a pulse rate of about two 
to five per second. The green treefrog, Hyla cinerea, 
is leaf-green with a creamy side stripe, is 1.25 to 2.0 





Male frogs with vocal sacs inflated. Top: leopard frog: bottom: green 
frog. 



inches long and inhabits swamps and marshes. Green 
treefrogs have a "quank"- or "quonk"-like voice, but 
when a large chorus is close to synchrony the sound 
produced is similar to cow bells. Both the bird-voice 




Wood frog, Rana sylvatica 



Bullfrog, Rana catesbiana 



and green treefrog are gulf plain species, extending 
their range into extreme southern Illinois. 

The true frogs, family Ranidae, is a collection of 
about 650 species that is almost worldwide in distribu- 
tion. It contains many species that are less than one 
inch long, but it also contains the world's largest frog, 
the African goliath frog, Conraua goliath, that has a 
body length of 12 inches. The habits of ranid frogs are 
as variable as their body sizes, but all of the Illinois 
species have webbed feet, free fingers (fingers that lack 
webbing), smooth skin, long legs, and narrow waists. 
Males may have single or paired vocal sacs, one on each 
side of the throat. 

The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, is the only frog in 
the Chicago area that has a dark brown mask through 
each eye. Adults are 1.5 to 3 inches long, males being 
smaller than females. Wood frogs are active in late Feb- 
ruary or early March, appearing in woodland ponds and 
breeding as soon as the air temperature reaches 50°F. 
During the breeding season males are darker than 
females and have swollen thumbs. Males also have 
paired vocal sacs and a duck-like hoarse cackling voice 
which says "waaaduck," lasting about one second. 




Wood frogs are an explosive breeder, laying all their 
eggs in a few days. Clutches of 500 to 1,000 or more 
eggs are laid in forest ponds and hatch in 10 to 14 days. 
Tadpoles transform in May or June. In Illinois this frog 
is restricted to small, localized populations where suit- 
able forest habitat exists; thus, they are uncommon in 
the Chicago area. The species is frequently associated 
with beech-maple forests, in the eastern part of the 
country, and lives farther north than any other am- 
phibian — above the Arctic Circle. 

The bullfrog, Rana catesbiana, is the largest native 
North American ranid frog, averaging 3. 5 to 6.0 inch- 
es in body length and sometimes attaining 8 inches. It 
differs from the green frog by lacking skin folds along 
the sides. Bullfrogs are usually green, but they change 
colors and may be green-brown. Males have a yellow 
throat during the breeding season. Their single, inter- 
nal vocal sac generates a vibrating snore that somewhat 
imitates the phrase "jug-o-rum." When a group of 
males are in a synchronous or near-synchronous chorus 
the sound produced is similar to that of a freight train. 
Bullfrogs actively call and reproduce from late April 
throughout most of the summer until August. A clutch 
of eggs may contain 20,000 or more and form a floating 
raft one egg thick that may be 3 feet or more in dia- 
meter. Females sometimes lay two clutches per season. 
The eggs hatch in 4 to 5 days; tadpoles overwinter, and 
may exceed 6 inches in length, transforming in their 
second summer. Bullfrogs will eat anything that moves 
and are considered pests in many locations, threaten- 
ing the survival of smaller frog species, which are com- 





Green frog, Rana clamltans melanola 



monly eaten. Bullfrogs are, in fact, attracted to the dis- 
tress calls of other frogs. 

The green frog, Rana clamitans mekmota, is similar 
in appearance to the bullfrog but has a fold of skin on 
each side of its back. Green frogs average 2.25 to 3.5 
inches in length, but may reach 4 inches. They are 
green to green-brown above, with a white underside. 
Like the bullfrog, they are habitat generalists, using 
almost any body of freshwater. Reproductive activity 
extends from April to September, with most of the ac- 
tivity probably occurring in June. The male's advertise- 
ment call is a loud squawking "bong," repeated several 
times; it is similar to the sound made by plucking a 
banjo. 

A clutch may contain more than 4,000 eggs, 
which hatch in 3 to 6 days, depending upon tempera- 
ture. The tadpoles overwinter and transform the 
following season. Green frogs reach very high popula- 
tion densities. At one northern Illinois beaver pond I 
estimated that there was more than one green frog for 
every square meter of pond surface. While walking 
along the edge of a stream or pond, an observer may 
often frighten a green frog, which then jumps into the 
water, uttering a distress call that sounds like a banjo 
string breaking under stress — a sound unlike any other 
Illinois frog distress call. 

In northern Illinois, the pickerel frog, Ranapalus- 
tris, prefers ponds, creeks, and marshes. Elsewhere it 
uses caves, bogs, fast-moving streams, and springs. It is 
rarely found in the Chicago area. This 1 .75-3-inch spe- 
cies has a double row of squarish spots on the back, as 
well as a yellow or yellow-orange area on the underside 
of its hind legs, which distinguish it from the two 
leopard frog species (described below). Reproduction 



outside the Chicago area has been reported froin 
March to May. Males have double vocal sacs that pro- 
duce a low-pitched, musical snore lasting one or two 
seconds, and males may call while they are submerged. 
A globular clutch of 2,000-3,000 eggs is usually laid in 
clear, shallow water with a temperature between 50° 
and 65°F. These hatch in 10 to 14 days. 

Northern leopard frogs, Ranapipiens, are common 
and frequently encountered around streams and ponds. 
They may be brown or green, with two or three rows of 



:4i 


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^ 




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^ 


^ 







Pickerel frog. Rana palustris 



round spots on the back; the spots may be scattered, 
run together, or missing entirely. These frogs average 2 
to 3.5 inches long, but sometimes exceed 4 inches. 
Males call with paired vocal sacs from shallow, stag- 
nant water with vegetation, and may call while sub- 
merged. This habit makes them difficult to be heard 
and more difficult to locate. The sound has been 
likened to that made by rubbing a finger over an in- 



Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens 




flated balloon, but it often consists of a one deep snore 
that is interrupted with a clucking grunt that lasts 
about a second. Three to five thousand eggs are laid 
between March and May in spherical masses and the 
eggs hatch in about seven days. The tadpoles transform 
from June to August. Adults spend the summer months 
replenishing their energy supply by capturing insects 
and spiders in grassy habitats near their egg-laying sites. 
Leopard frogs have long been used as laboratory ani- 
mals and, as such, one would think that everything 
would be known about these frogs; that is not so. 

The plains leopard frog, Rana blairi, was described 
in 1973. Until then it had masqueraded as the north- 
ern leopard frog. It is widely distributed in the central 
plains, but its separate identity was not noted because 
of the similarity in appearance to its sister species. Ex- 
ternally, the plains leopard can be distinguished from 
the northern leopard by a broken fold of skin on each 
side of the back, and occasionally by yellow coloration 
on the abdomen and thighs. Another major difference 
is in the pulse rate of the mating calls; the plains 
leopard frog calls at about five or six pulses per second, 
while the northern leopard frog calls at a pulse rate of 
about twenty per second at temperatures below 75°F. 
Further complicating the leopard frog situation is a 
third species found in the southern part of the state — 
the southern leopard frog, Rana sphenocephala. 

Three other frogs that inhabit Illinois are found at 
the southern end of the state and tend to be restricted 
in distribution or very secretive. The northern crayfish 
frog, Rana areolata circulosa, gets its name from spend- 
ing much of its time in crayfish burrows, as well as from 
eating small crayfish. The great plains narrowmouth 
toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis, is small and squat, has a 
collar-like fold of skin behind its head, runs on all four 
feet in a very unfrog-like way, and spends much of its 
time eating ants. The eastern spadefoot toad, Scaphious 
holbrookii, is subterranean, coming to the surface to re- 
produce after heavy rains. Fll 



Suggested Readings 

R. Conant: A Field Guide lo Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastevi and 
Central North America, 429 pp., 1975, Houghton Mifflin. 

C. Pope: Amphibians ami Reptiles of the Chicago Area, 275 pp. , 
1944, Chicago Museum of Natural History (Field Museum). 

P. Smith: The Amphibians and Reptiles of Illinois. 298 pp., 1961, 
State of Illinois, Dept. of Registration and Education, Natural 
History Survey Division. 27 



Pipe with catlinite bowl and stem wrapped in fur, Potawafomi, Cat. 1 55801 

Photo by Diane Alexander White, neg 1 10294c 



CONSERVATION SYMPOSIUM 
FOR COLLECTORS 



Saturday, April 22 
9:30am to 12:30pm 



Do you hove a collection of quilts, books, or photographs? Are you uncertain about how 
they should be displayed or handled? If so, come to Field Museum on Saturday, April 22. 
In the Founders' Room, from 9:30am to 12:30pm, a panel of conservation experts will 
discuss basic care and handling of a variety of materials. Learn about the major causes of 
damage and deterioration to collections and what precautions you can take to avoid 
them. Find out when to call a professional conservator. 

SPEAKERS 

Carol Turchan on photographs 

Bill Minter on books 

Nancy Rubin on textiles 

Christine Del Re on objects 

Mary Lee on paper 

Faye Wrubel on paintings 

Catherine Sease on general problems 

Come with as many questions as you like, but please do not bring in objects for discus- 
sion. Space for this free discussion is limited, so please call Mono Barz at 322-8885 by 
April 1 4 to reserve a place. 



28 



of big airlines on the way 

toEuroper 



^^They shrinkr 



Mf- 



You board a large, well-connected airline and fly 
across the Atlantic. You land. 

Suddenly you discover that, in Europe, this 
"large'airline is just a small shadow of its transatlantic 
self, lacking many of the resources to take you to 
points beyond. 

But you can avoid that problem by the simple 
act of flying KLM. In which case Europe isn't the end 
of the line but just the beginning. 

We fly to more places in Europe, Africa and the 
Mideast than all U.S. airlines combined. 

With departures so frequent that every five min- 



utes, somewhere in the world, a KLM plane is either 
landing or taking off. 

Which is worth remembering the next time busi- 
ness takes you overseas. 

After all, why fly an airline that covers the con- 
tinent you just left, when you can fly one that covers 
the continents you're going to? 

For more information, just call your travel agent 
or KLM Royal Dutch Airlines. The airline + 
of the seasoned traveler. ■££■ 

The Reliable Airline KLM 

Royal Dutch Airlines 




HELD 

MUSEUM 
TDUR3^ 



Southwestern 

China 

Cultural Relics 

Study Tour 

September 15 - October 6 
Leader: Katherine Lee Yang 




Street peddler with wares, Yunnan. Kathenne Yang 



Sept. 15. Chicago/Tokyo. Your adventure 
begins as you board Japan Airlines flight #9. 
Departure 12:00 noon. 

Sept. 16. Tokyo/Hong Kong. Arrive Tokyo 2:45 
p.m. Connect with Japan Airlines Flight #65 at 
5:30 p.m. to Hong Kong. Arrive at 8:50 p.m 
Overnight at Shangri La Hotel. 
Sept. 17. This morning we fly to Kunming. After 
transfer to the hotel, the remainder of the day is 
at leisure. This evening you are invited to a ban- 
quet hosted by the provincial government. 
Sept. 18. Visit the Unnan Provincial Museum. 
Several professionals who are specialists in 
their field will give us an introduction to the 
study program we'll cover in the next two 
weeks 

Sept. 19. This morning we leave by deluxe 
motorcoach for a countryside tour of Dali and 
Lijiang. Few foreign visitors have seen this area. 
We will have an opportunity to observe the life 
style of Han. Bai. and Naxi people. We will stay 
in the unique architectural style of Bai houses at 
Erhai Guest House. It is a walled compound: 
three sides are built with rooms while the fourtt- 
side IS used as a backdrop displaying 
ornamental bonsai trees or flowers. 
Sept. 20. This morning a well-known 
archaeologist in Dail will introduce us to Dali 
Nanzhou culture of the eighth century. We'll visit 
several sites as well as take a cruise on Lake 
Erhai. On our return we see homes where hand- 
icrafts are made, and how marble products are 
cut and polished. 

Sept. 21. Today enroute from Dali to Lijiang we 
will see the beautiful mountains of southwestern 
China and we'll visit the Jianchuan cave stone 
carvings of the Tang Dynasty. Tonight we'll stay 
in Lijiang No. 1 Guest House. 
Sept. 22 A scholar of Naxi minority culture. 
Mr. Zhao Gin Xiu. will help us understand the 
history, the people, and their way of life. Mr. Xiu 
was featured in the National Geographic article 
"Mountain World " As we walk through old Fang 
Clien. meaning "Square City. " our experience 
will be enhanced by the expertise of Mr. Zhao 
and Mr. Lee Zi. the director of Lijiang Museum. 

Sept. 23. We leave today for Dali, and enroute 
we will walk through Xhou Chen, where we will 
visit homes to see how traditional tie-dying is 
done. We will examine the process of marble 
finishing. As we are approaching Dali. we will 
stop to see three Pagodas at Chongsheng Tem- 
ple, which were built in the late Tang dynasty. 
Sept. 24. Today we return to Kunming, with 
some leisure time to reflect on the memories of 
Yunnan's hidden treasures. Then we prepare 
for our departure to Chengdu. Sichuan to 
experience another culture of China. 
Sept. 25. This morning we fly to Chengdu and 
transfer to Jin Jiang Hotel (West Wing). After 
lunch we will walk through the marketplace 
near the hotel to see how shopping for food is 
done in the most populated province in China. 
This evening the Sichuan Cultural Department 
will host us to a banquet at Lais Restaurant, 
where we will enjoy the world-famous Sichuan 
cuisine. 




Grandmother and granddaughter, Yunnan. 



Sept. 26. Today we will visit the Chengdu City 
Museum and Sichuan Provincial Museum, and 
Wang Jians Tomb. We will see the bronze arti- 
facts recently discovered in San Xin Due. 
Sept. 27. We will begin our four-day country- 
side motorcoach tour to Meishan. Leshan. and 
Zigong. Our first stop is at San Su Shi (The 
Three Su's home estate) at Meishan After lunch 
at San Su Shi, we will walk around the estate to 
see the home/garden architecture of south- 
western China. We will arrive in Leshan in the 
evening for dinner and overnight at Jia Zhou 
Guest House on the shore of the Mian river. 
Sept. 28. After breakfast we take a boat ride 
across the Mian river to see the Big Buddha. 
We then walk on a paved path along the river to 
Mao Hao Cave tombs, to observe a unique way 
of burial during the Han Dynasty. This afternoon 
we depart for Zigong by motor coach. Over- 
night at Tan Mu Lin Guest House 
Sept. 29. This morning we will visit the Salt 
Museum at Shaanxi Salt Merchants Guild. 
The exhibits are interesting: however, the archi- 
tecture of the Shaanxi Salt Merchants Guild is 
outstanding. 



30 



Sept. 30. We travel from ZiGong to Chengdu. 
Oct 1 Aday at leisure. We can help the 
Chinese celebrate their Independence Day. 
It IS the 40th anniversary of the founding of 
the new government. 

Oct. 2 We take a scenic motorcoach trip from 
Chengdu to the Wolong Panda Reserve District. 
We will stop enroute to visit farm families and 
a small botanical museum hidden in the 
mountains. 

Oct. 3. Our itinerary will be adapted to the flight 
schedule for the return to Hong Kong We will 
schedule time for rest and prepare for our re- 
turn home. There will be a farewell banquet this 
evening hosted by the Sichuan Province. 
Oct. 4. Departure from Chengdu in the early 
afternoon. We will arrive in the evening and 
transfer to the now familiar Shangri La Hotel 
(Kowloon) for the night. 
Oct. 5. This morning we fly to Tokyo, arriving in 
time to enjoy a leisurely evening. Overnight at 
Narlta Hotel. 

Oct. 6. Today we continue our journey home, 
leaving Tokyo on Japan Airlines flight #10 at 
1 2:00 noon and arriving at Chicago O'Hare at 
9:25 p.m. 




This Is an outstanding cultural study tour which 
we believe is an excellent itinerary, especially for 
those who have previously visited China. It Is the 
first time this area has been opened to visitors. 
Katharine Lee Yang was accompanied by gov- 
ernment officials as they established the Itiner- 
ary, and she has given Field Museum Tours the 
opportunity to offer the first tour. As many of you 
know, Katharine is an exceptional tour leader, 
and we are pleased to offer this program. We do 
not have the price finalized as of this writing, but 
we invite you to call for more information. An eve- 
ning program will be scheduled at the fyiuseum 
to show slides and give a more complete 
orientation about this area of China. We invite 
you to |Oin us. Please make reservations by writ- 
ing or call 322-8862. 



TURKEY 
PAST fit PRESEnT 

October 21 - November 4, 1989 
Leader: Dr. David S. Reese 



Panda in Wo Long Panda Reserve Center. 




Dall city gate, Yunnan, Kamc 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



31 



J MISS f'ARITA MAXTY 

Field Museum of Natural History ' 7A11 NORTM GREENJVIiTW 

Membership Department CHICAGO IL 6C62e 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, IL 60605-2499 f ; ' :[._;. j j; j j 



/ 



FlELDMUSELM 

The Smart WvyTo Have Fun. 



May 1989 



U% 



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^•^^f 







'r 



sT^- ^ 



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c^Z-^? 



d/^f 






Members' Night 



;^*:>^ 



Friday, May 5 



.v"^rJ* 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board OF Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L.Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
TTiomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas j. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Wayne E. Hedien 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
WaiiamKunkierlll 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mull in 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeOista 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 



CONTENTS 

May 1989 

Volume 60, Number 5 



MAY EVENTS AT HEID MUSEUM 3 

TROPKAL FORESTS AND THE NUMBER OF PUNTS 
AND ANIMALS ON PUNET EARTH 

By William Burger, Curator of Vascular Plants S 



COlUaiNG SMALL MAMMALS IN THE ATUNTK 
RAIN FORESTS OF BRAZIL 

By Barbara E. Brown, Technical Assistant, Mammals 16 

A DAY IN THE LIFE OF THE A.B. LEWIS PROJEG 22 

PUNT COLLECTING IN PAUWAN 

By Djaja Djendoel Soejarto, Research Associate, Botany 24 

FIOO MUSEUM TOURS 30 



COVER 



Costa Rican cloud forest. Photo by Bin Burger See pp 8-14 



Volunteer at Field Museum 

Learn something new or share your expertise — a wide 
variety of challenging and rewarding volunteer oppor- 
tunities for either weekdays or weekends are currently 
available. Please call the Volunteer Coordinator at 
(312) 922-9410, extension 360, for more information. 



MEMBERS' NIGHT 

Friday, May 5 
5:00-10:00pm 



Field Museum of Naiurai History Bu/(c"n i USPS 898-940) is published monthly, ciccpt combined July August issue, by Field Museum of Natural Hisior>, Roosevelt Road ai Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. IL 60605-2496, Copynghl 1989 FieW 
Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: S6. 00 annually S3 00 for schools Museum membership includes SuZ/rrin subscription. OpiniiMi!) expressed by authon<are then own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited 
manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-94 10 Notification ofaddress change should irw'lude address label and be sent to Membership Dcpanmeni. Postmaster: Please send fwm 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road M 
Lake Shore Dnve. Chicago. IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-070?. Secortd class postage paid at Chicago. Illinois and additional mailing office. 




Worid Music Programs 

Weekends in May 
1 :00pm and 3:00pm 



Program Highlights include: 

a May 6 and 7 

1 :00pm — Chinese Music Society of North America demonstrates 

instruments from the Chinese orchestra 
3:00pm — Shanta tells African stories and plays African instruments 

nMay13and14 

1 :00pm — Douglas Ewart plays Japanese bamboo flute 

3:00pm — Darlene Blackburn demonstrates African dance 

a May 20 and 21 

1 :00pm — Chicago Beau plays blues harmonica 

3:00pm — Fan Wei-Tsi demonstrates the sheng, a Chinese zither 

n May 27 and 28 

1 :00pm — Musa Mosley demonstrates African drumming 

3:00pm — Librado Salazar plays classical guitar 

The World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and Harle 

Montgomery Fund and a CityArts grant from the Chicago Office of 

Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 



Weekend Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world 
of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are 
designed for families and adults. Listed below are some of the 
numerous activities offered each weel<end. Check the activity 
listing upon arrival for the complete schedule and program 
locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from 
the Illinois Art Council. 



May 



May 
6,20 



May 
20 



1 :30pm "Tibet Today" ar\6 Tour of Collection. 
See Lhasa and other towns now open to tourists, and 
examine important Buddhist sites during this slide 
lecture and tour 



12:30pm "Museum Safari." 
A trek through the four corners of the Museum to 
see the seven continents. See antiquities from the 
Amazon and an Egyptian tomb, big game from 
Africa, and seals from the Arctic. 



1 :30pm "Tibet Today and A Faitli in Exile. " 
This slide lecture focuses upon Tibetan refugees 
in India: Dharmsala, Darjeeling, and Sikkim, and 
includes slides of the dedication ceremony of a 
Himalayan Buddhist chorten by His Holiness the 
Dalai Lama. 



These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets 
are not required. 




Darlene Blackburn 




Raices del Ande will perform Latin American music for Members' Night visitors 



38th Annual Members' Night 



Friday, May 5 
5:00- 10:00 RM. 



Join us for Members' Nisht at Field Museum and visit witli 
our curators, preparators, researciiers, and educators and 
find out wtiat tliey l<now and are in tine process of learnins. 
Ask questions, participate in Inands-on activities, and ex- 
plore all the Museum's usual off-limit areas. This is your 
chance to visit with the staff who created "Inside Ancient 
Egypt" and learn about "Traveling the Pacific," our new hall 
opening in November Find out what goes on behind the 
scenes at Field Museum to generate new exhibits and pro- 
grams as well as about scientific research. 

Musical entertainment will includethe"Gillan School of 
Highland Dance," "Raices del Ande" performing Latin Amer- 
ican music, and "Ars Subtilior" performing music from the 
Middle Ages and Renaissance. 

Come by car and park free of charge in the Museum's 
parking lots or Soldier Field lot. Simply show your member 
4 card or Members' Night invitation. 



Free bus service will operate between the Loop and 
our south door These Willett buses, marked "Field Museum," 
will originate at the Canal Street entrance of Union Station 
(Canal at Jackson) and stop at the Canal Street entrance of 
Northwestern Station (Canal at Washington); Washington and 
State; Washington and Michigan; Adams and Michigan; Bal- 
boa and Michigan. Buses will begin running at 4:45 RM. and 
continue at approximately 20-minute intervals until the 
Museum closes at 10:00 RM. You may board the free "Field 
Museum" bus by showing your member card or invitation. 

Members are invited to bring family and up to four 
guests. Special arrangements for handicapped persons can 
be made by calling 922-9410, ext. 453 beginning April 24. 
"Behind-the-Scenes" activities will end at 9:00 RM. Don't 
miss Members' Night at Field Museum — the smart way to 
have fun! 



Henry Hering's sculpture "Research," in the 

southwest corner of Stanley Field Hall, gets 

a blast of fresh paint by Steve Skupien, 

while his partner, Andy Hart (left) works on 

the wall. Foreman Jim Sokolowski (lower 

right) steadies their stage with a guy rope. 

Their firm. National Decorating Service, Inc., 

repainted the entire interior of Stanley Field Hall, 

Dave Walsten 



We Did It 
For You- 




 . . Our wonderful members and the 
hundreds of thousands of visitors who 
pass through our portals each year. Now 
you can see the beautifully restored and 
refurbished Stanley Field Hall. 

With the completion of a new 
exterior skylight, which has stopped the 
years of water intrusion and subsequent 
damage, follow-up projects were initi- 
ated. We proceeded by structurally 
replacing the bad ceiling, plaster, 
sconces, Greek motif and floral panels. 
The final painting of the entire hall has 
also been completed. 

Our heartfelt thanks to all the 
donors who made this possible. 
Our gratitude, as well, to the contractors 
who completed the projects within the 
constraints of time and budget. 
— Norman P. Radtke, Facility Planning 
and Operations 




Coyote 

Serigraph, 22" X 30" 



COYOTE: A MYTH 
IN THE MAKING 

Contemporary Native 
American art 

April 8 to July 9 



"Coyote: A Myth in the Making" presents the paintings and 
sketches of contemporary Native American artist Harry 
Fonseca. The exhibit focuses on Fonseca's vision of 
Coyote, a magical being prominent in the traditional liter- 
ature and religious beliefs of many Native American cul- 
tures. The exhibit traces Coyote's history as he emerges 
from Fonseca's Maidu heritage and leaves the reservation 
to participate in many facets of American life. 



A Gift from California 
Serigraph, 22" X 30" 

A Gift from California presents Fonseca's assertion that the Indi- 
an culture of California was alive and very different from that of 
the Southwest. The serigraph illustrates a women's dance, which 
honors both the acorn and women as givers of life,- the four 
dancers carry burden baskets filled with acorns, a traditional 
staple of life for the Maidu and a symbolic representation of 
Maidu culture. The traditional Maidu basket designs are, left to 
right, winged lightning, angleworm, quail plume, and ants on 
a log. Q 





RAIN FOREST PRESERVATION CONFERENCE 



Sunday, May 7, 2:00 PM. 
James Simpson Theater 



The biological diversity and importance of tropical rain for- 
ests and how Chicagoans can protect and preserve them will 
be the topic of a major conference to be held Sunday, May 7, 
beginning at 2:00 P.M. in James Simpson Theater. Mod- 
erated by WBBM-TV Channel 2 s anchor Bill Kurtis and spon- 
sored by the Chicago Rain Forest Action Group, the con- 
ference will bring together biologists, botanists, ornithol- 
ogists, and ecologists to speak on the need to conserve the 
world's rain forests. 

The program is free and geared to the general public. 
Presentations will be made by renowned rain forest biologist 
Dr. Allison Jolly of Princeton University ("Hanging on By 
the Tip Of Your Tail: Rain Forest Mammals"); Dr. Bill Burger 
of the Field Museum ("Tropical Forests: Engines of Biological 
Diversity"), Dr. Patty McGill-Harelstad, curator of birds at 
the Brookfield Zoo ("Rain Forest Birds"); and Dr. Monte 
Lloyd, ecologist from the University of Chicago ("En- 
dangered Species, Endangered Peoples, Endangered Cli- 
mate, and Endangered Agriculture: What Can We Do?"). A 
special presentation will be made by Mario Boza, executive 



director of Costa Rica's Fundacion Neotropica and one of the 
guiding forces behind Costa Rica's national park system 
("The Costa Rican Conservation Program"). 

The conference is the kick-off event of the Chicago 
Rain Forest Action Group (CRAG), which is working to edu- 
cate the public on rain forest issues. CRAG is currently raising 
funds to assist the Costa Rican National Park Service in pro- 
tecting and expanding the Corcovado National Park, a 
tropical rain forest preserve. Jay Horberg, CRAG President, 
explains that "the issue of rain forest destruction is one we 
cannot ignore. Every acre of lost rain forest leads to the 
extinction of undiscovered and unstudied plant and animal 
species, and contributes to the greenhouse effect. We must 
take action because the atmosphere belongs to all of us. Tear- 
ing down and burning precious forestland for cattle grazing 
and agriculture is a shortsighted policy that Chicagoans can 
and must fight." The conference will begin at 2:00 P.M. and 
run until 4:00 P. M. , with a period thereafter for the public to 
meet the speakers. Entry is through the West Door. Refresh- 
ments will be served. 7 



Tropical Forests and the 
Number of Plants and Animals 
On Planet Earth 



by William Burger 
Curator of Vascular Plants 

photos by the author 



'ur world is the home of a plentitude of different 
animal and plant species. They vary in size and struc- 
ture from microscopic bacteria to whales and giant red- 
woods, from fleas to fish and flowers. Despite the rav- 
ages of disease, predation, drought, flood, famine, and 
fluctuating climates, planet earth supports millions of 
different kinds of organisms. 

A little-appreciated aspect of this abundance is 
how much of it is found on land. 

Despite their vastness (more than 70 percent of 
the earth's surface) and depth, the world's oceans do 
not support nearly as many species as does the land 
surface. It seems likely that the number of named 
plants and animals living in all the world's oceans 
roughly equals the number of named beetles, most all of 
which live on land. And if you argue that there are 
many undiscovered little critters living deep in the 
ocean bottoms, one can counter that there are enough 
undescribed beetles in the high canopy of the world's 
rain forests to match that number. Of all the different 
habitats on land, tropical forest communities harbor 
the vast majority of species. 

Why is it that tropical forests are the home of so 
many different species? Part of the explanation is the 
wide separation of different tropical forest regions from 
one another on the surface of our planet. Latin Amer- 
ica, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the oceanic 
islands are isolated from each other, and all have their 
own distinctive faunas and floras. Though they do 
share a relatively small number of widespread cosmo- 

•C3 Broad openings in the forest canopy bring light to the lower parts of 
this cloud forest. Tapanti, Costa Rica. 



politan or pantropical species, the large majority of 
species in each area is found nowhere else. However, 
even within a single tropical region the richness of 
species is far greater than what we find in our north- 
temperate areas. What is it about these tropical regions 
that allows them to support so many species? 

Some people have the misconception that the 
tropics are without seasons, and that their natural 
vegetation is something called "jungles." The reality of 
tropical nature is far more complex. In lands where 
there are no cold seasons there can be severe dry sea- 
sons; it is the length of the dry season that determines 
whether the local vegetation is desert scrub, thorn- 
bush, rain forest, or something in between. There are 
some tropical regions without a stressful dry season, 
and these support what we call rain forests or cloud 
forests. The length of the dry season and overall rain- 
fall are the primary factors determining local vegeta- 
tion and forest distribution. 

Just as in our winter season, plants must become 
dormant to survive a long dry season. Consistent pat- 
terns of hot temperatures and low rainfall support de- 
sert, grassland, and thorn-scrub communities. If the 
wet season is short, there is not enough time to produce 
new foliage, to flower, to fruit, and to build a large plant 
body. Subdesert grasslands and thorn-scrub are char- 
acterized by small tough plants. Like the tundra, 
thornbush and grasslands are a reflection of a severe 
environment. 

The maintenance of tropical forest vegetation re- 
quires a reliable rainfall during the wet season. The 
transition from a low thorn-scrub to a deciduous wood- 



land of small trees begins as the wet season reaches 
about 500 mm (20 inches) of rain per year. As the rain- 
fall increases and the dry season shortens, the height of 
the forest increases. A wet season with a full meter (39 
inches) of rain a year can support a forest with trees 
over 60 feet high, but most of the trees will lose their 
leaves during the dry season. These deciduous forests 
may resemble our own temperate forests in the height 
and form of the trees. 

As the rainfall further increases the forests change 
from deciduous to evergreen and the treetops reach 150 
feet in height. These evergreen "rain forests" support 
the richest assemblage of species found in any biome on 
earth. With moisture and warmth throughout the year, 
and with habitats ranging from the dark forest floor to 
the sunny high canopy, the lowland rain forest is the 
most luxuriant example of life on earth. Such forests 
can support between 300 and 400 different species of 



large trees in the same small tract, and the numbers of 
insect species these trees harbor must number in the 
thousands. No other habitat, not even the coral reef, 
can support as many coexisting species as the lowland 
rain forest. 

The small deciduous woodland, the deciduous 
broad' leaf forest, and the tall evergreen rain forest dif- 
fer in stature and percentage of deciduous plant species. 
They also differ in the species themselves. Few rain for- 
est plant species are also found growing within the 
deciduous forest. Likewise, most plant species of the 
deciduous forest are confined to seasonally dry areas. 
Here we find another important reason for tropical 
species richness: different types of forests support a host 
of different plant and animal species. 

But rainfall is not the only important factor affect- 
ing tropical forest vegetation: temperature is another. 
This may surprise those who think that the tropics are 



Large displays of flowers are rarely encountered in tropical rain forests wtiere species can flower any month of ttie year. Reserva Forestal de 
San Rannon, Costa Rica, 





A short deciduous woodland and thorn bush cover the drier rocky slopes, while acacia trees flower in the taller floodplain forest. Ogaden 
region, Ethiopia. 



always hot. True enough, if you remain in the low- 
lands, but conditions change as one ascends the moun- 
tains. Average temperatures decrease regularly as alti- 
tude increases. For example, at 2,000 meters elevation 
(6,500 feet, slightly higher than Denver) afternoon 
highs average between 70 and 80 degrees F, with night- 
time lows dropping into the 50's. 

Many higher elevation forests are cloud forests. 
Warm winds, forced up the mountainsides, cool, lose 
their ability to hold moisture, and form misting clouds 
over the forest. The cooler overcast conditions allow 
air-plants, or epiphytes (plants that use other plants as 
a support), to grow high among the branches of the 
trees. The strong winds and weight of the epiphytes 
cause many branches to break, with the result that the 
cloud forest is not as tall as a lowland rain forest, and 
there is more light on the forest floor below. While 
there may be as much rainfall in montane cloud forests 



as in the lowland rain forests, the two forest types are 
very different in structure, climate, and species com- 
position. Cloud forests are where epiphytes achieve 
their greatest numbers. Orchids, bromeliads, ferns, 
and mosses festoon the branches of trees in this cool 
and misty world. 

Higher up the mountains (between 2,000 and 
3,000 meters), the forest changes yet again. The cooler 
nights reduce the number of species that can compete 
in these forests and it is not uncommon to find domi- 
nant species of trees, something rarely encountered in 
the lowlands. The cooler temperatures of higher eleva- 
tions are reflected in the smaller size of leaves and 
decreasing stature of the forest. In addition, the thin- 
ner air is a bit drier and mosses and lichens become the 
major epiphytes. At elevations above 3,000 meters 
(10,000 feet), night-time temperatures can regularly 
fall below freezing. These high mountain habitats 



11 



have been described as "summer every day and winter 
every night." At these higher elevations, tall montane 
forests give way to elfin forests. And finally, above 
about 4,000 meters (13,000 feet), trees can no longer 
survive and alpine/paramo vegetation predominates. 

Just as in the contrast between thorn scrub and 
deciduous broad-leaf forest or evergreen rain forest, the 
types of forest found at the different altitudinal levels 



forest at 3,000 feet elevation and in a forest at 8,000 
feet. There are other factors as well; steepness of slope, 
the exposure to wind, and the length of the dry season 
can produce very different kinds of forests on these 
higher mountains. 

What all these diverse ecological factors add up to 
is the simple observation that there is no such thing as a 
"generic tropical forest. " Soil conditions, flooding, and 




Tree terns often grow on steep open slopes in lowland rain forest formations. Golfito. Costa Rica, 



are composed of different species. It is unusual for a 

plant species to have an elevational range of more than 

5,000 feet (1,500 meters). The trees as well as under- 

12 story shrubs and high epiphytes are very different in a 



many other factors also affect forest structure and com- 
position. Every local region differs in subtle ways from 
other nearby regions, and the stature and composition 
of the local forest biota will reflect these differences. 



Simply stated, the primary reason for tropical species 
richness is that there is such a variety of different 
tropical vegetation types. 

A great many species of the tropics are what we 
call specialists: plants and animals found in only a spe- 
cific habitat, or associated with specific hosts. For 
plants that cannot move (once they germinate and be- 
gin to grow) specialization is more the rule than the 
exception. Many plant species are found only in par- 
ticular kinds of forests, or at particular altitudinal 
levels. Many insects and smaller animals are similar in 
being limited to specific forest types. The larger mam- 
mals are quite different. You can expect to find Baird's 
tapir on Costa Rica's highest mountain as well as in 
lowland rain forest or deciduous forest. Likewise, in 
East Africa the elephant, the cape buffalo, the leopard, 
and many other larger animals can be found in the 



highest montane forests as well as in savannas of the 
hot lowlands. Very few species of plants and small 
animals are so versatile. 

In addition to habitat specialists, tropical biotas 
have many species of limited geographical distribution. 
A cloud forest on the top of one volcano in Central 
America will often have a number of species not found 
on any other volcano, even when the forests and cli- 
mate appear to be identical. These local species not 
found anywhere else are call endemics. Because tropical 
forests have so many species of limited distribution, 
destruction of any larger forest area is likely to cause the 
complete extinction of some species. If we lost all our 
forest species in Illinois, not a single species would go 
extinct; because all of these species grow in other areas 
of the Midwest. If little Costa Rica lost all its forests 
there would be a very different result: between 1,000 



Frequent clouds and misting l<eep the montane cloud forest cool and damp. Reserva Forestal de San Ramon, Costa Rica. 




13 




An afternoon thunder shower brings moisture and cooler temperatures to a lowland rain forest^ Bri Bri, Costa Rica, 



and 2,000 species would never be seen again. We do 
not know why so many species have differentiated 
within tropical forests or why so many have such lim- 
ited ranges, but the consequences of tropical forest 
destruction are clear: many species will be lost forever. 
Throughout the tropics, forests are being des- 
troyed at an accelerating rate. Timber production is 
one aspect of forest degradation, but the major factor is 
clearing of forest and woodland to expand agricultural 
production. Whether this is done by local subsistence 
farmers to expand their meager crops, or by large com- 
panies expanding pastures for beef production, the 
effect is the same and cumulative. With the world's 
human population still growing by almost 100 million a 



year, and with most of this increase taking place in the 
warmer regions of the world, tropical deforestation will 
continue. 

The challenge for preservationists is daunting. 
Hopefully, smaller areas with unique biotas can be pre- 
served in special parks and preserves. But to maintain 
larger tracts the forest will have to become an integral 
part of the local or regional economy. Developing eco- 
nomically viable sustained-use forestry programs, be- 
fore these tropical forests are destroyed, is one of the 
major challenges of our day. It will take everyone, from 
land-use planners and ecologists to local politicians 
and investment bankers, to devise intelligent long- 
term solutions for the problem of tropical forest 
destruction. FM 



14 



Changing Chicago: Cultural Diversity 

Photo Exhibition 

April 22 -September 4 




Marc PoKempner 

The Essence of Chicago's diverse communities emanates 
from tfie still photography of six area photographers on 
display from April 22 to September 4, 1989. "Changing 
Chicago; Cultural Diversity" is one of five simultaneous 
exhibitions in Chicago organized by the Focus Infinity 
Fund. Field Museum's exhibit includes more than 100 
black-ond-Vi^hite and color photographs by Dick Blau, 



Kerry Coppin, Tom Hocker, Jim Newberry, Marc 
PoKempner, and Richard Younker. The communities rep- 
resented through their work include African-American, 
Polish, and Asian. The photographers participating in 
Field Museum's exhibition spent a full year documenting 
the customs, traditions, and values of their assigned 
communities. 15 



Collecting 
Small Mammals 
In the Atlantic Rain 
Forest of Brazil 



By Barbara E. Brown 

Technical Assistant, Division of Mammals 

photos by author 
except where noted 



16 



Our Base OF Field Operations, October 1987, the 

Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, hardly fifty 
miles northeast of the coastal metropolis of Rio de 
Janeiro, nestles serenely in the aptly named valley of 
the Paradise River at the base of the spectacular Organ 
Mountains. The 260 hectares (620 acres) of the Centro 
supports a remnant of the formerly vast and now fast- 
disappearing Atlantic rain forest. The reserve is still 
completely surrounded by forest, much of it, however, 
secondary. Cultivated fields, pastures, and farm houses 
are in the deforested valley lower down. Dr. Adelmar F. 
Coimbra-Filho had invited Curator Emeritus of Mam- 
mals Philip Hershkovitz and me to the Centro to carry 
on the survey of small mammals of eastern Brazil Phil 
had been making in collaboration with the National 
Museum of Brazil and the University of Brasilia. Mar- 
celo Lima Ries, a graduate student majoring in 
mammalian ecology at the university, participated in 
the survey. Louren^o, foreman of the Centro and an 
able woodsman, was placed at our service by Dr. 
Coimbra-Filho. Dr. Pissinati, assistant director and 
veterinarian of the Centro, was always on call for help 
in resolving any logistical problem that might arise. 

The Monkeys 

The forested surroundings of the guest house where we 
were quartered and the Organ Mountains that rise to 
over 2000 meters above the Centro were known to be 
the home of several species of monkeys peculiar to the 
Atlantic forest. We soon learned, however, that the 
once-plentiful muriqui, or wooly spider monkey 




Two kinds of lion tamarins in \Ue breeding colony of the Centro de 
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro; in front, the golden (Leontopithecus 
rosalia rosalia): behind, the golden rump {Leontopithecus rosalia 
clirysopygus}. 

{Brachy teles arachnoides) , largest of New World mon- 
keys, had been exterminated years ago throughout the 
state of Rio de Janeiro. The golden lion tamarin (Leon- 
topithecus rosalia rosalia) had been hunted and trapped 
for the pet market until no more remained free in the 
state. We neither saw nor heard in the wild any of the 
other kinds of monkeys. A few residents mentioned 
having heard the brown howler monkey (Alouatta jus- 
cus) call in distant hills. The large squirrel-like titi 
monkey {Callicehus persormtus) may have disappeared 
entirely from the vicinity of the Centro, and the usual- 
ly ubiquitous marmoset (Callithrix aurita) was nowhere 
visible. 

In the Primate Center breeding experiments are 
conducted with captive representatives of these and 
other species of endangered and disappearing monkeys. 
The time is at hand when some of the animals will be 
reproducing in sufficient numbers to permit their gra- 
dual introduction into government-controlled parks 
and reserves where the species existed before. 



Small Mammals 

Our mission in the Atlantic forest was not with mon- 
keys or other comparatively large, conspicuous mam- 
mals. We came to observe in the field, and to collect for 
laboratory study the small, nocturnal, cryptic marsu- 
pials, bats, and rodents. These are at once the best and 
most readily available indicators of mammalian history 
and biogeography; some are closely associated with 
man and important m his welfare. Our primary pur- 



pose, Phil explained, was to make an inventory of the 
species, discover their habitats, and then try to unfold 
the mysteries of their being before they, too, like the 
monkeys, disappeared with the vanishing forest. At 
the same time, Phil was committed to training and 
teaching mammalogy to young qualified Brazilians so 
that they might carry on the work of conservation and 
management guided by an intimate knowledge of the 
animals themselves. 

Trapping 

Learning about small nocturnal mammals in the wild 
begins with live-trapping them in their home range. 
The productive part of the workday, therefore, starts 
with setting traps, an occupation that engages the en- 
tire afternoon. Our 200 live and 100 snap traps were set 
in lots of 10, usually 20 to 40 in any one trapline. At 
first, the four of us worked together until we learned 
Phil's trapping and baiting methods. The first lines 




Trapped four-eye brown opossum (Metachirus nudicaudatus). 

were set nearest headquarters in wooded hillsides, for- 
est edges, and in and along swiftly flowing rock-strewn 
streams. From there we worked out individually or in 
pairs to more distant sites as far as we could until night- 
fall. As a rule, traps were picked up after three days and 
reset elsewhere both within and beyond the confines of 
the Centre. 




Setting out to trap small forest mammals. 



17 




Pasture, once lush tropical forest, at the base of the Organ Mountains where the road nears the Centro de Primatologia. 



Inescapably, we worked during the highest heat of 
the southern latitude midsummer day; but trapping in 
the shade of the forest was a gratifying escape. At 
times, however, we had to reach distant forested hills 
by fording streams and crossing mile-wide pastures. 
The cattle we passed taking their siesta in the shade of 
scattered trees would idly turn heads toward us and 
stare as we marched past under the full glare of the sun, 
each of us loaded with traps, bags of bait, and drenched 
by sweat pouring from our brows. 

Bait was ripe bananas, peanut butter, oatmeal, com, 
rice, and manioc, used alone or in various com- 
binations. Rodents took everything. Marsupials pre- 
ferred banana and peanut butter, but so did ants and 
other foraging insects. We baited the traps late in the 
day to give crepuscular and nocturnal mammals a 
chance at the food before the insects consumed it or 
rains washed it away. In any case, bait doesn't last long 
in tropical heat and must be replaced every one or two 
days. 

For diversity of catch, traps were set in every habitat 
type, whether on and above the ground, in forests, 
thickets, forest edges, open fields, streams, cultivated 
fields, abandoned banana and manioc patches. We 
soon learned that the little forest animals we sought 
were not active during the day and that they shunned 
18 clearings converted to pasture or left fallow. Secondary 



Four-eye gray opossum {Philander opossum) on its way to escape. 




grass and scrublands that overran deforested areas are 
often, or in time, invaded by native nonforest mice 
from bordering savannas. 

Most of the arboreal mice and opossums we trapped 
favored old abandoned banana orchards choked by 
second growth. As expected, water rats and water 
opossums were captured in and along streams. Long- 
nose mice of the genus Oxymycterus were taken only in 
tall forest. Curiously, these mice were hardly distin- 
guishable from another species of the same genus col- 
lected the year before by Hershkovitz in the natural tall 



Bats 

Certain kinds of bats can be easily collected in their 
roosts during the day. Caves, tree hollows, culverts, 
tunnels, and buildings are common daytime habitats. 
The vast majority of bats, however, hide during the day 
in protected places not easily recognized or accessible 
to humans or other predators. To catch flying bats at 
night, we stretched fine-mesh nylon nets made in 
Japan across flyways, streams, and other places where 
bats were seen foraging. Fruit-eating bats were most fre- 




Rocky stream habitat of water rats and water opossums. 



grass savanna, or cerrado, of central Brazil. These and 
the other species of Oxymycterus are currently being 
studied by Associate Curator Bruce Patterson, head of 
the Division of Mammals. 



quent victims of the nets. Insectivorous bats, with a 
much more acute sense of echolocation for prey detec- 
tion and obstacle avoidance in flight, rarely crashed 
the nets. 19 




20 



Wild-living adult wooly spider monkey (Brachyteles arachnoiaes) 
photographed by a Sao Paulo Zoo staff member in one of the few 
natural habitats remaining in Sao Paulo State^ Courtesy Sao Paulo 
Zoo. 

Evenings were cool. After I and the others plucked 
the mites and ticks picked up by our bodies during the 
day, and after a refreshing cold shower, we relaxed with 
a delicious meal prepared by chef Philip. Evenings were 
devoted to writing up observations of the day and dis- 
cussing plans for the next. We retired for the night with 
lingering thoughts of what the traps would hold next 
day. 

Preparation and Preservation 

Up before dawn for an early breakfast and visit to the 
traps, I to my traplines, each of the three other mem- 
bers of the team to theirs. Bat nets hung the evening 
before were inspected, usually by Marcelo, and relieved 
of their catch, if any. The nets were then lowered for 
the day, or removed for hanging elsewhere. Unproduc- 
tive traplines were also picked up for placement in pre- 
selected habitats. Captured animals were brought to 
headquarters, the bats in a bag, the others in their 
traps. These operations consumed the entire morning. 
After lunch, the animals were checked, the live ones 
sacrificed. Each was numbered, measured, weighed, 
examined for embryos or reproductive state, parasites 
removed for preservation in alcohol. The data were re- 
corded in field catalogs and notebooks. Preparation 
and preservation of each specimen included skinning 
in a special way, stuffing the hide with cotton, tagging 
with number and date, and pinning down on fiber- 
board to dry. Skeletal material was cleaned and hung 
out to dry; entire animals and selected carcasses and 
organs were preserved in a mixture of alcohol and for- 
malin. During the hours of preparation Phil addressed 
questions generated by our work, discoursed on mam- 



mals in general, and on our scientific objectives in par- 
ticular. 

When and Where 

Marsupials, we were told, were in South America since 
or perhaps before the continent split off from Africa 80 
or 90 million years ago. After a long period of domi- 
nance, only the smallest, more primitive or more 
generalized species among the marsupials survived to 
this day and now abound in the Atlantic forest. Very 
little is known of the history of bats but they could have 
been in South America as long as any other placental 
mammal. There seemed to be fewer bat species here 
than in the equatorial forests. Two of the three major 
groups of South American rodents are well represented 
in fossil records. Squirrels, abundant now in South 
America, left no fossil record on the continent. The 
group known as spiny rats and relatives appeared in 
South America at least 30 million years ago, or about 
the same time as the South American monkeys. Some 
scientists argue that they were already on the continent 
when it began to drift away from Africa. Field mice and 
forest mice, collectively sigmodontines because of the 

A breeding colony of marmosets (Callithhx jacchus) of the Centro de 
Primatologia. 





Peaks of the Organ Mountains above the Centra de Primatologia; coastal plain in background. 



shape of the crowns of their molar teeth, are known 
from fossils no more than about three million years old 
but the actual time of their arrival in South America is 
controversial. Some biogeographers say the mice came 
from Central America when the connection with 
South America was formed less than 3,000,000 years 
ago. Others claim that the sigmodontine mice came 
from Africa with the monkeys on the drifting con- 
tinent. In any case, they are now the dominant mam- 
mals of tropical America in numbers and kinds. Few of 
them are well known, many others are believed to be 



Water rat (Nectomys squamipes) captured near the Centre. 




unknown to science. The Atlantic forest has a large 
number of species peculiar to the region. More are be- 
ing discovered as fruits of our work. 

Importance 

These small living descendants of the mammals of the 
geologically oldest parts of South America must be stu- 
died to learn where the Atlantic forest mammalian 
fauna originated. Scientists also want to know how and 
where they diversified and dispersed and their relation- 
ship to living and extinct animals of other parts of the 
world. They are also concerned with their present sta- 
tus for survival; their interaction with man in some 
ways known to be benign, in others harmful, but in 
most ways still conjectured. 

The Experience 

About 150 small mammals represented by rodents, 
marsupials, bats, and rabbits were collected in the 
three-week period. Our field work terminated 15 
November 1987. After 18 years of assisting Phil with 
his research in the Museum, and typing his scientific 
papers, field notes and diaries, 1 learned first hand what 
field work was all about. None of this would have been 
realized without the hospitality and cooperation of Dr 
Coimbra-Filho, director of the Centro de Primatologia 
do Rio de Janeiro, and his supporting staff. FM 21 




A Day in the Life 

Of the A. B. Lewis Project: 

The Legend Lives 



New Guinea photos by A. B. Lewis 
Present-day lab photos by June Bartlett 



In the spring of 1909, Albert B. Lewis, then assistant 
curator of Melanesian ethnology at Field Museum, set 
off on a research odyssey to Melanesia that would keep 
him overseas for nearly four years. 

By the time he returned to Chicago in 1913, Lewis 
had collected more than 12,000 artifacts for Field 
Museum, including masks, carvings, and other ritual 
objects, as well as bowls, knives, headrests, pots, and 
clothing used in daily life. Lewis acquired many exam- 
ples of the same kinds of artifacts to illustrate the rich 
variety he observed in the designs and forms of Mela- 
nesian objects. 

Today, using modern research methods and tech- 
nology, we are reexamining this world-renowned col- 
lection brought back to Chicago more than 75 years 
ago. The research directors of the A. B. Lewis project. 
Research Associate Robert L. Welsch and Curator 
John E. Terrell, are attempting to unravel how trade 
and communication using outrigger canoes influenced 
people's lives on New Guinea's north coast. Since 
January, the A. B. Lewis Memorial Laboratory at Field 
Museum has witnessed constant activity: studying the 
collection, photographing artifacts, and preparing for 
field work in Papua New Guinea by Welsch and Terrell 
later this year. 

Other members of the project's research team are 
Deborah Beckles, James Coplan, Ralph Cowan, 
Josephine Faulk, Ann Gerber, Barbara Hsiao, Phillip 
Lewis, Abigail Mack, Sam Mayo, John Nadolski, and 
Caroline Price. Funding for the project has come from 
Field Museum, the Thomas J. Dee Fund, Walgreen 
Company, School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 
Northwestern University, the National Science 
Foundation, and private donors. 



Photos (clockwise from right): James Coplan compares regional de- 
signs on bone daggers and rests: Josephine Faulk and Robert 
Welsch map trade networks: washing sago, Sissano, 1909: 
Josephine Faulk, Caroline Price, and Abigail Mack compare motifs 
on carved bone daggers: John Nadolski, Robert Welsch, and 
Barbara Hsiao analyze computer data: man adorned for dance, 
Sisimongum, 1910. 

New Guinea photos 31862, 31880, 33508 Bartlett photos GN85336 




i ^ 



v> 



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'A/wx^tr^i^ 






PLANT COLLECTING IN PALAWAN 



6/Djaja Djendoel Soejarto 

Photos courtesy of the author 




Western coastal slopes of Irawan mountain complex. 



Palawan Is a Southwestern Island Province of 

the Philippines, the fifth largest in this country of more 
than 7,000 islands. It is located about 100 miles north 
of the tip of Borneo, has an area of some 4,500 miles 
(slightly smaller than Connecticut), and is about as far 
north of the equator as Costa Rica (8°-12°). It consists 
mostly of mountain ranges, notably the Mt. Man- 
talingajan Range at the southern end (highest peak 
2,085 m), the Victoria Range (1,798 m) to the north of 
it, and the Cleopatra Range (1,593 m) next. The 
24 Cleopatra Range gradually descends northward into 



the Pagdanan Range. Another, lower range is at the 
island's far northern end. 

Because of Palawan's mountainous character, the 
flat lowlands are limited to alluvial strips (silt, sand, 
and gravel left by streams), mostly on the eastern side. 
Good forest cover is still to be found over most of the 



Dr. Djadja Djendoel Soejarto is a research associate in the Depart- 
ment of Botany and associate professor of Pharmacognosy, College 
of Pharmacy, at the University of Illinois at Chicago. 



island, though this is being depleted at an alarming 
rate. Palawan's floristic richness — that is to say, the 
wealth and diversity of its plant species — qualifies the 
island as the Philippines' last frontier of wilderness as 
well as a tropical rain forest reserve. The island's flora 
bears close relationships with that of Borneo as well as 
with the more northerly Philippine floras, and it holds 
an important key to understanding the history of plant 
distribution in Malesia, that region between and in- 
cluding Malaysia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, 
the Bismarks, and Indonesia. The economic potential 
of Palawan's rain forests as a source of timber, food- 
stuffs, and other forest products (cane, gums, resins, 
etc. ) was brought to light by a Swedish expedition in 
1984. Its medical importance, however, has until now 
been ignored. 

Tropical Rain Forests and Medicine 

Tropical rain forests may contribute to medicine in 
three ways: They may directly provide pharmaceutical 
products, such as plant extracts and pure chemical 
compounds; they may serve as models for chemical syn- 
thesis of related medicinal compounds; and they may 
provide investigative, evaluative, and other research 
tools in drug development and testing. 

Many of our most important plant-derived medi- 
cinal compounds come from tropical species. Notable 



among such compounds are vincristine and vinblastine 
(from Catharanthus roseus), used in the treatment of 
cancer; quinine, used to treat malaria, and quinidine, 
to control heart arrythmias (both from Cinchona ledge- 
nana); the contraceptive diosgenin (Dioscorea species); 
the local anaesthetic cocaine {Erythroxylum coca); re- 
serpine and deserpidine {Rauvolfia species), used as 
tranquilizers and to control high blood pressure; castor 
oil {Riciniis communis); and the heart stimulant oua- 
bain (Strophanthus gratus). Thus, the possibility exists 
that additional medicinal compounds remain to be dis- 
covered among the still unknown plants in Palawan's 
rain forests. 

Since the importance of Palawan's forests as a 
medicinal resource has not been explored, I traveled to 
Manila in July of last year to collect plants in Palawan 
for anti-cancer and anti-AIDS screening, under the au- 
spices of the United States National Cancer Institute. 
This field work was carried out between July 12 and 
August 23 jointly with Dr. Domingo A. Madulid, 
botanist at the Philippine National Herbarium, 
National Museum, Manila, with the assistance of 
Ernesto Reynoso and Epifanio Sacgal, herbarium tech- 
nicians at that museum. 

Our collecting was slightly different from the kind 
one usually hears about — collecting herbarium speci- 
mens for botanical study. Actually, we did collect her- 
barium specimens for this purpose, but only secondari- 




The expedition crew having a lunch break. Trident Mining site at the base of Victoria Range. 
The author is sixth from left. 



25 



ly. Much of our work involved locating species already 
identified. Samples of these (0.3-1 kg dry weight) were 
collected for the biological tests. To make sure we had 
identified the plants correctly, as well as provide for 
future reference needs, additional specimens of the 
same plants were collected for the herbarium. The 
identity of these co-called "voucher specimens" was la- 
ter confirmed or newly determined, and duplicates dis- 
tributed to other botanical institutions. Collecting 
such plant samples in the tropical rain forest presents 
several challenges, such as on-the-spot identification 
of specimens and logistics. Transportation of bulky par- 
cels, the drying and processing of samples, and air car- 
go dispatching were major logistical problems. 

Modern botanical exploration of Palawan had its 
origins at the beginning of this century through the 
work of a number of botanists and collectors, notably 
the American botanists E. D. Merrill and A. D. E. 
Elmer. By mid- 1980, about 1,500 flowering plant spe- 



cies (649 genera in 138 families) were known from 
Palawan, of which 5 to 15 percent were believed to be 
unique to this island. In 1984 a floristically oriented 
three-month expedition was carried out by Sweden's 
Hilleshog Forestry, and as a result of this expedition, 
153 species new to Palawan — about 10 percent — were 
added, so that at least 1,672 species are now known to 
occur there. 



Getting to Our Collecting Sites 
And Expedition Logistics 

Puerto Princesa, Palawan's capital, may be reached 
from Manila by ship (one day) or by plane (2 hours). It 
is a large city of more than 100,000 people, where 
many items for our expedition could be purchased and 
vehicles rented. There is a partially paved road con- 
necting important towns along the east coast, from 
Brooke's Point, near the southern tip, to Puerto Prin- 




Our Jeepney negotiating the Irawan River. 



cesa, and from Puerto Princesa to Roxas, in the north. 
This road continues north along the east coast to 
Taytay and beyond, towards the northern tip; but 
beyond Roxas it is safely passable only during the dry 
season (February to May). The west coast may be 
reached from the east coast at three points. 

Along the east coast, limited roads, built by min- 
ing and timber concession companies, connect a num- 
ber of towns with points located at the base of the east- 
em mountain slopes, such as from Puerto Princesa, 
from Aborlan, and from Nara. Where these roads start 
winding up the mountain slopes, they may be negoti- 
ated only by 4-wheel-drive vehicles. Few bridges have 
been constructed, so that motor vehicles usually have 
to ford rivers and stream beds. Other than by roads, 
access to forested areas is along forest paths and trails by 
foot. 

Our expedition headquarters was established at 
Puerto Princesa, from which short trips (3-7 days) were 
made to various forested regions. Temporary bases, set 
up in different collecting areas, consisted of tents in 
the forest, of lodging houses in nearby towns, or of 
thatched houses near the collecting sites. 

Field work mobility was provided by a rented Jeef)- 
ney, a jeep/ truck/minibus hybrid specially built for per- 
sonnel transport. The spacious rear benches could 
accommodate large amounts of equipment and 
passengers at the same time, while the high chassis 
clearance and the powerful engine made it possible to 
cover terrains otherwise appropriate only for 4-wheel- 
drive vehicles. Though the Jeepney didn't have this last 
feature, it was able to negotiate the forested and top- 
ographically difficult terrains. It was our experience, 
however, that the ]eepney is not the ideal vehicle for 
such travel during the rainy season. 

Health conditions in Puerto Princesa and other 
large towns of Palawan are generally good, and Puerto 
Princesa has an adequately staffed hospital. In most 
towns, running water is available either from private 
wells or from a municipal system. In smaller villages 
and in forested areas, water is obtained from rivers and 
streams. The major infectious disease still prevalent on 
the island is malaria. With this in mind, we took every 
precaution to avoid contracting it during our stay. 

Given the short time that was available to accom- 
plish all our objectives, and the heavy, almost daily 
monsoon rains (mostly in the afternoons) during the 
expedition period, a large field staff, including four 
worker-tree climbers and a driver-cook, was recruited. 

Collecting was done in four main areas: the Ira- 



wan River Valley, the Takdua Zig-zag, the Trident 
Mine area at Victoria Range, and on Tabon Island. 
Minor collections as part of area surveys for future col- 
lecting were also made in the Langugan Zig-zag, Pagda- 
nan Range, and Mt. Bloomfield at St. Paul's Bay. More 
than 200 species and slightly more than 400 samples of 
flowering plants were collected altogether. Identifica- 
tion of most of the specimens has now been completed 
at herbaria of Harvard's Arnold Arboretum, the Philip- 
pine National Museum, and the Field Museum. 

The Irawan Valley collection site is at the foot of Mt. 
Beaufort, between 100 and 200 meters above sea level, 
north-northwest of Puerto Princesa. Although this site 
is only about 16 miles from the capital city, it took 
more than an hour to reach because of bad road con- 




A special hand-operated chopper 
was developed for the expedition. 



ditions. The forest road, built by a chromite mining 
company, is part gravel, part rock, and part muddy 
tracks. It crosses and recrosses the meandering Irawan 
River eleven times, and after heavy rains the river is 
impassable. The vegetation cover of this collecting site 
is good primary lowland mixed forest, with several sub- 
types, such as riverine forest, valley floor forest, and 
rocky slope forest. This part of Palawan appears to re- 
ceive the most rainfall, with the consequent luxuriant 
forest cover and species richness. 

Takdua Zig-zag site is named for the switching back 
and forth of the paved road as it crosses the eastern 
slopes of the northern reaches of the Victoria Range. 
Despite the construction work in putting this road 27 




Colorful nylon net bags of various sizes were used to dry samples. 



through, the forests along this "zig-zag" remain well 
preserved, going right down to the sea in some places. 
The valleys and slopes are covered by tall mixed forest, 
the ridges by a lower forest. 

The Trident Mine site at Victoria Range (50-200 m 
altitude) is located near the Trident or Bloomfield min- 
ing area, along the Victoria Range's eastern slopes. 
Collecting was done in a flat alluvial plain, forested 
river banks, and in the more luxuriant forests along the 
slopes. 

The Tabon Island site is on Tabon, a small island off 
the coast of Quezon town. It consists of a limestone 
formation at an elevation of about 200 m, with almost 
vertical cliffs. The forest cover on the sea side goes 
straight down to the sea, the one facing Palawan Island 
gradually sloping at its base into a coastal forest and 
mangrove formation. The island is officially preserved 
under the management of the Philippine National 
Museum. It is on this island that the famous Tabon 
Caves, site of the oldest human remains in the Philip- 
pines, are located. 



An Invaluable Resource, 
Its Potential and Its Fragility 

In order to get an idea of the potential medical value of 
Palawan's forests, a preliminary assessment was made 
by comparing the list of plants we collected in Palawan 
during the present field work against those which have 
been computerized in the NAPRALERT ("Natural 
products alert") data base at the University of Illinois at 
28 Chicago. NAPRALERT is a unique data base of the world 



literature on natural products, including chemical con- 
stituents, pharmacological activities, and ethnomedi- 
cal (i.e., folk medicine) information. The data base 
now contains information on more than 30,000 flower- 
ing plant species, but includes chemical or 
pharmacological data on only about 20 percent of the 
plants collected in Palawan. Another comparison was 
made between the Palawan list and the plants listed in 
Quisumbing's Medicinal Plants of the Philippines (1978). 
Again, only 20 to 30 percent of the Palawan plants 
collected are to be found in this book. 

It is our hope and expectation that the remaining 
70 to 80 percent of the plants may yield species of medi- 
cinal importance, but serious problems confront us. At 
the present rate of Palawan's rain forest depletion, time 
may be running out. While Palawan's tropical rain 
forests covered 1, 109,918 hectares (95 percent of the 
island) in 1972, today there are but 741,000 forested 
hectares — a loss of one third in the space of only 15 
years. The situation in other Philippine islands is even 
more serious. At least four island provinces (Cebu, 
Masbate, Negros, and Panay) have lost almost all their 
forest cover. 

One way of slowing down this process in Palawan 
is to impose strict conservation measures. This kind of 
control could greatly improve our chances of discover- 
ing more medically useful plants; it would also enhance 
the island's potential for economic development. 

I look forward to returning soon to do further field 
work in Palawan's magnificent rain forests. A distant 
voice rings in my ears: "Balik balik Palawan — 'come 
back, come back to Palawan,'" — traditional words of 
farewell to the departing visitor. FM 



of big airlines on the way 
h to Europer 



''They shrinkr 



You board a larj^e, well-connected airline and fly 
across the Atlantic. You land. 

Suddenly you discover that, in Europe, this 
"large'airline is just a small shadow of its transatlantic 
self, lacking many of the resources to take you to 
points beyond. 

But you can avoid that problem by the simple 
act of flying KLM. In which case Europe isn't the end 
of the line but just the beginning. 

We fly to more places in Europe, Africa and the 
Mideast than all U.S. airlines combined. 

With departures so frequent that every five min- 



utes, somewhere in the world, a KLM plane is either 
landing or taking off. 

Which is worth remembering the next time busi- 
ness takes you overseas. 

After all, why fly an airline that covers the con- 
tinent you just left, when you can fly one that covers 
the continents you're going to? 

For more information, just call your travel agent 
or KLM Royal Dutch Airlines.The airline + 
of the seasoned traveler. wSSm 

The Reliable Airline KLM 

Royal Dutch Airlines 




FIELD 
MUSEUVI 



Southwestern 

China 

Cultural Relics 

Study Tour 

September 15 - October 6 
Leader: Katherine Lee Yang 




Street peddler with wares, Yunnan. Katherine Yang 



Sept. 15. Chicago/Tokyo. Your adventure 
begins as you board Japan Airlines flight #9. 
Departure 1 2:00 noon. 

Sept. 16. Tokyo/Hong Kong. Arrive Tokyo 2:45 
p.m. Connect with Japan Airlines Flight #65 at 
5:30 p.m. to Hong Kong. Arrive at 8:50 p.m 
Overnight at Shangri La Hotel. 
Sept. 17. This morning we fly to Kunming. After 
transfer to the hotel, the remainder of the day is 
at leisure. This evening you are invited to a ban- 
quet hosted by the provincial government. 
Sept. 18. Visit the Unnan Provincial Museum. 
Several professionals who are specialists in 
their field will give us an introduction to the 
study program we'll cover in the next two 
weet<s. 

Sept. 19. This morning we leave by deluxe 
motorcoach for a countryside tour of Dali and 
Lijiang. Few foreign visitors have seen this area. 
We will have an opportunity to observe the life 
style of Han, Bai, and Naxi people. We will stay 
in the unique architectural style of Bai houses a' 
Erhai Guest House. It is a walled compound: 
three sides are built with rooms while the fourth 
side is used as a backdrop displaying 
ornamental bonsai trees or flowers. 
Sept. 20 This morning a well-known 
archaeologist in Dail will introduce us to Dali 
Nanzhou culture of the eighth century. We'll visit 
several sites as well as take a cruise on Lake 
Erhai. On our return we see homes where hand- 
icrafts are made, and how marble products are 
cut and polished. 

Sept. 21. Today enroute from Dali to Lijiang we 
will see the beautiful mountains of southwestern 
China and we'll visit the Jianchuan cave stone 
carvings of the Tang Dynasty. Tonight we'll stay 
in Li|iang No. 1 Guest House. 
Sept. 22. A scholar of Naxi minority culture, 
tvir. Zhao Gin Xiu, will help us understand the 
history, the people, and their way of life. tVlr. Xiu 
was featured in the National Geographic article 
"tvlountain World." As we walk through old Fang 
Clien, meaning "Square City." our experience 
will be enhanced by the expertise of IVIr. Zhao 
and tVlr. Lee Zi, the director of Lijiang Museum. 
Sept. 23. We leave today for Dali, and enroute 
we will walk through Xhou Chen, where we will 
visit homes to see how traditional tie-dying is 
done. We will examine the process of marble 
finishing. As we are approaching Dali, we will 
stop to see three Pagodas at Chongsheng Tem- 
ple, which were built in the late Tang dynasty. 
Sept. 24. Today we return to Kunming, with 
some leisure time to reflect on the memories of 
Yunnan's hidden treasures. Then we prepare 
for our departure to Chengdu, Sichuan to 
experience another culture of China 
Sept. 25 This morning we fly to Chengdu and 
transfer to Jin Jiang Hotel (West Wing). After 
lunch we will walk through the marketplace 
near the hotel to see how shopping for food is 
done in the most populated province in China. 
This evening the Sichuan Cultural Department 
will host us to a banquet at Lai's Restaurant, 
where we will enjoy the world-famous Sichuan 
cuisine. 




Grandmother and granddaughter, Yunnan. 



Sept. 26. Today we will visit the Chengdu City 
Museum and Sichuan Provincial Museum, and 
Wang Jian's Tomb. We will see the bronze arti- 
facts recently discovered in San Xin Due. 
Sept. 27. We will begin our four-day country- 
side motorcoach tour to Meishan. Leshan, and 
Zigong. Our first stop is at San Su Shi (The 
Three Su's home estate) at Meishan. After lunch 
at San Su Shi, we will walk around the estate to 
see the home/garden architecture of south- 
western China. We will arrive in Leshan in the 
evening for dinner and overnight at Jia Zhou 
Guest House on the shore of the Mian river. 
Sept. 28. After breakfast we take a boat ride 
across the Mian river to see the Big Buddha. 
We then walk on a paved path along the river to 
Mao Hao Cave tombs, to observe a unique way 
of burial during the Han Dynasty. This afternoon 
we depart for Zigong by motor coach. Over- 
night at Tan Mu Lin Guest House 
Sept. 29. This morning we will visit the Salt 
Museum at Shaanxi Salt Merchants Guild. 
The exhibits are interesting: however, the archi- 
tecture of the Shaanxi Salt Merchants Guild is 
outstanding. 



30 



Sept 30 We travel from ZiGong to Chengdu, 
Oct. 1. A day at leisure. We can help the 
Chinese celebrate their Independence Day. 
It is the 40th anniversary of the founding of 
the new government. 

Oct. 2. We take a scenic motorcoach trip from 
Chengdu to the Wolong Panda Reserve District. 
We will stop enroute to visit farm families and 
a small botanical museum hidden in the 
mountains. 

Oct 3. Our itinerary will be adapted to the flight 
schedule for the return to Hong Kong. We will 
schedule time for rest and prepare for our re- 
turn home. There will be a farewell banquet this 
evening hosted by the Sichuan Province. 
Oct. 4. Departure from Chengdu in the early 
afternoon. We will arrive in the evening and 
transfer to the now familiar Shangri La Hotel 
(Kowloon) for the night. 
Oct. 5. This morning we fly to Tokyo, arriving in 
time to enjoy a leisurely evening. Overnight at 
Narita Hotel. 

Oct. 6. Today we continue our journey home, 
leaving Tokyo on Japan Airlines flight #10 at 
1 2:00 noon and arriving at Chicago O'Hare at 
9:25 p,m. 




This is an outstanding cultural study tour which 
we believe is an excellent itinerary, especially for 
those who have previously visited China, It is the 
first time this area has been opened to visitors, 
Katharine Lee Yang was accompanied by gov- 
ernment officials as they established the itiner- 
ary, and she has given Field Museum Tours the 
opportunity to offer the first tour. As many of you 
know, Katharine is an exceptional tour leader, 
and we are pleased to offer this program. We do 
not have the price finalized as of this writing, but 
we invite you to call for more information. An eve- 
ning program will be scheduled at the tVluseum 
to show slides and give a more complete 
orientation about this area of China, We invite 
you to join us. Please make reservations by writ- 
ing or call 322-8862, 



TURKEY 
PAST fie PRESENT 

October 21 - November 4, 1989 
Leader: Dr. David S. Reese 



Panda in Wo Long Panda Reserve Center. 




^— •-v _^ 
Dali city gate, Yunnan, KaiherineYang 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, II 60605 



31 




Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board OF Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. PhilirD. BkKklll 
WillardL. Boyd. 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwit: 
Wayne E. Hedien 
Clarence E. Johnst>n 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
William Kunkler III 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
JohnS. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. The».xIore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Ccxik 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
William R. Dickinstm, Jr. 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 



CONTENTS 

June 1989 

Volume 60, Number 6 



JUNE EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM. 



A NIGHT OF APPRECIATION 

Volunteers Honored 

by Carol Cafhon, Volunteer Coordinator . 



HAll INTERPRETIVE PROGRAM 

by Philip K. Courington, Coordinator Hall Interpretive Program . 13 

HENRY HERING AND THE CASE OF THE MISSING MAIDENS 

by David M. Walsten 16 

FIEID MUSEUM TOURS 30 

COVER 

Traditional outrigger sailing canoe from Jaluit Atoll, Marshall Is- 
lands, being carried up the south steps of the Museum. Following 
its six-week journey from the Marshall Islands, the canoe will be 
dried out, assembled, and installed in the major new exhibit 
"Traveling the Pacific," opening in November. Shown escorting 
the canoe are (1. to r.) Patricia Guizzetti, Randale Esslinger, and 
Jameil AJ-Oboudi, all of Design and Production. Photo by Diane 
Alexander White iiii89.n 



WHERE CREDIT IS DUE. . . 

The April Bulletin, which featured an article on the new 
"Families at Work" exhibit, neglected to identify and 
to credit staff members whose dedication and skill were 
critical in developing that exhibit. Susan Curran was the 
exhibit developer, Sydney Hart was assistant developer, 
Donald Skinner was the designer, and Cameron Zebrun 
was the lead preparator. A large support staff also con- 
tributed, in varying degrees, to its creation. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulteliit (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum ol Natural Histofy. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shote Drive. Chicago. IL 60605-24%. Copyiight C 1989 Field 
Museum of Natural Histoty Subsctiptions: S6.00 annually. $.1.00 for schools Museum membei^hip includes Bulletin subscription Opinions expressed by authisn are their own and do not necessarily reflect the pohcy of Field Museum. Unsolicited 
manuscnpts are welcome Museum phone: (.1121 922.94 10 NotiTtcation of address change should include addtess label and he sent to Mcmbct^htpDepa^nKnl Postmaster: Please send form .1579 to Field Museum of Natural History . Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Dnve. Chicago. IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-070.1. 




World Music Programs 

Weekends in June 
1 :00pm and 3:00pm 

Program Highlights include: 
OJune3&4 

1 :00pm — Chinese Music Society of North America demonstrates 

Chinese percussion 
3:00pm — Douglas Ewart plays Japanese bamboo flute 
DJune10& 11 

1 :00pm — Chicago Beau plays blues harmonica 
3:00pm — Darlene Blackburn demonstrates Afhcan dance 
n June 17 & 18 

1 :00pm — Librado Salazar plays classical guitar 
3:00pm — Ari Brown plays blues saxophone 
\JJune24&25 

1 :00pm — Eli Hoenai plays African percussion 
3:00pm — Keith Eric plays Jamaican music and tells stories 

The World [ylusic Program is supported by the Kenneth and Harle 
IVIontgomery Fund and a CityArts grant from the Chicago Office of 
Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 



Weekend Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world 
of natural history at Field IVIuseum. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the (\/luseum are 
designed for families and adults. Listed below are some of the 
numerous activities offered each weekend. Check the activity 
listing upon arrival for the complete schedule and program 
locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from 
the Illinois Art Council. 




June 
10,17 



June 
10 



1 2:30pm "Museum Safari. " 

Trek ttirough the four corners of the tVluseum to 

see the seven continents. See antiquities from the 

Amazon, big game from Africa and seals from the 

Arctic. 



1:30pm "Tibet Today" and "Bhutan. Land of the 
Thunder Dragon. " 

See Lhasa and other towns now open to tourists and 
examine important Buddhist sites during this slide 
lecture and tour. 



These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets 
are not required. 



Darlene Blackburn 



Summer Children's Woriuhops 

Explore THE Exciting World of natural history in Children's 
summer workshops at Field Museum. Children ages 4 to 13 
enjoy workshops ranging from "Dragon Tales" for 4-year-olds to 
"Egyptian Magic" for 10 to 13-year-olds. 

Enrollment is limited and advance registration required. 
See the June/July/August Adult, Children, Family Program 
brochure for details or call (312) 322-8854 Monday-Friday 
9:00am-4:00pm tor further information. 



A NIGHT OF APPRECIATION 

Honoring Our 1988 Volunteers 




Field Museum president Sandy Boyd congratulates Marie Louise Rosenttial on tier 20 years ot volunteer service, Ron Testa 



by Carol Carlson, 
Coordinator of Museum Volunteers 



1989 marks the twenty-first anniversary for the volun- 
teer program at the Field Museum. Beginning in 1968 
with approximately thirty volunteers, there are now 
more than 300 who serve in a great variety of ways 
throughout the Museum. Many departments have 
volunteers, including the scientific and administra- 
tive areas as well as the public areas, such as the 
Education Department and Membership. Volunteers 
catalog, label, prepare specimens, do research, edit, 
type, file, prepare charts, maps, and scientific illustra- 
tions, care for plants, and translate books and articles. 
They also lead school groups, give programs to the 
public, and assist with special events. 



On Wednesday April 12, Field Museum cele- 
brated the volunteer program's twenty-first year. At 
the same time, the 1988 volunteers were honored 
with a buffet supper held in Stanley Field Hall. 
Brightly colored decorations and vibrant spring flow- 
ers created a festive, relaxed atmosphere where 
volunteers and their guests were able to socialize with 
staff members away from the labs, offices, and exhibit 
halls. 

As coordinator of Museum volunteers, it was my 
pleasure to welcome the volunteers and to speak of 
my own pride in being associated with the volunteer 
program. Being new to the program and to the 



Museum it has been my great delight to learn how the 
teamwork of volunteers and supervisors has contrib- 
uted so much to Field Museum's being recognized as 
one of the great natural history museums in the world. 

Robert A. Pritzker, chairman of the Board of 
Trustees, thanked the volunteers for their dedication 
and service, pointing out that the volunteers are 
essential to the Museum's successful operation. 

During the presentation of awards, Willard L. 
Boyd, president of Field Museum, expressed apprecia- 
tion for the volunteer's contributions last year. Mr. 
Boyd noted that in 1988, 348 volunteers gave a total 
of 44,298 hours of service to the Museum, the equiva- 
lent of 24-3 full-time paid staff members. Comment- 
ing that the volunteers' commitment is enduring, Mr. 



Boyd presented the twenty-year service award of 
appreciation to Marie Louise Rosenthal. The award 
was an engraved crystal box from Tiffany's, endowed 
by William L. Searle, a trustee of the Museum. Mrs. 
Rosenthal joined four other volunteers who had re- 
ceived the Searle award at last year's twentieth 
anniversary volunteer recognition party. Mr. Boyd 
urged the other volunteers to stay for twenty years so 
that they, too, could receive this special honor. In the 
next portion of the program Mr. Boyd gave special 
recognition to ten volunteers. These were the five 
weekday volunteers with the greatest number of hours 
of service in 1988, and the five weekend volunteers 
with the greatest number of hours of service in 1988. 



Volunteers with 20 or More 
Years of Service 

Recipient of Searle Award in 1989: 
Marie Louise Rosenthal 

Since August 1969 Marie Louise has contributed her time 
and talents to Field Museum. Over the past twenty years she 
has been involved with the Library, under the supervision of 
William Fawcett and Ken Grabowski. Marie Louise's 
volunteer service has related primarily to the conservation of 
valuable library materials. Her duties have included repair 
worl< and oiling of bindings, and she is currently making 
boxes for works that are too fragile to be rebound. She is the 
fifth volunteer to achieve the 20-year distinction, joining Stan 
Dvorak. Ellen Hyndman, Dorothy Karall, and Anne Ross, 
honored last year as the charter members of the volunteers' 
"Twenty-Year Club." In addition to her excellent work in the 
Library, Marie Louise is a member of Field Museum's 
Women's Board. 

Weekday Volunteers with 

the Greatest Number of Hours in 1988 

Edward Yastrow for Anthropology Department: 

Glen Cole, supervisor: 664 hours in 1988. 
William Roder for Tours: 

Dorothy Roder, supervisor: 660 hours in 1988 
Llois Stein for Anthropology Department: 

Phillip Lewis, supervisor; 621 hours in 1988 
Sophie Ann Brunner for Amphibians and Reptiles Division: 

Hymen Marx and Molly Ozaki, supervisors: 609 hours in 

1988 

Ingrid Fauci for Amphibians and Reptiles Division: 
Molly Ozaki, supervisor: 598 hours in 1988. 



Weekend Volunteers with 

the Greatest Number of Hours in 1988 

Gary Ossewaarde for Education Department: 
Philip Courington, supervisor: 565 hours in 1988. 

Mary Nelson for Education Department: 
Ingrid Melief, Mary Ann Bloom, supervisors: 
Anthropology Department: Glen Cole, supervisor: 
537 hours in 1988. 

Jacqueline Arnold for Education Department: 

Mary Ann Bloom, supervisor: 283 hours in 1988. 
Debra Jean Frels for Education Department: 

Nancy Evans, Ingrid Melief, supervisors: 249 hours in 

1988. 
Dennis Kinzig for Education Department: 

Peter Laraba, supervisor: 225 hours in 1^ 



Volunteers with 500 
or More Hours in 1988 

Margaret Martling for Botany: 

William Burger, supervisor. 
Worthington Smith for Library: 

Benjamin Williams, supervisor. 

400 or More Hours 

Colleen Casey for Botany: 

Robin Foster, supervisor. 
Lillian Kreitman for Membership: 

Marilyn Cahill, supervisor. 
Sarah Rosenbloom for Education: 

Mary Ann Bloom, supervisor. 
Bruce Saipe for Public Relations: 

Sherry DeVries & Lisa Elkuss, supervisors. 
Randy Upton for Botany: 

Steve Dercole, supervisor. 



300 or More Hours 

Paul Baker for Birds: 

DaveWillard. supervisor. 
Dennis Bara for IVIembership: 

fVlarilyn Cafiiil. supervisor. 
Sol Century for Anthropology: 

Bennet Bronson, supervisor. 
Peter Gayford for Antfiropology: 

Cathierine Gross, supervisor. 
Tfiomas Gnoske for IVIammals: 

Julian Kerbis, supervisor. 
IVlary Lou Grein for Botany: 

John Engel. supervisor. 
Rosemary Kalin for Education: 

(Vlary Ann Bloom and Ingrid 

Melief, supervisors 
Robert Masek for Geology: 

William Simpson, supervisor. 

John Phelps, Jr. for IVIammals: 
Greg Guliuzza, supervisor. 

James Reed for Library: 
Ken Grabowski, supervisor. 

Frances Stromquist for 
Archives: Mary Ann 
Johnson, supervisor. 

50 or More Hours 

Julia Abarbanell 
Neal Abarbanell 
LisaAdler 
Paul Adier 

E. Erelah Ajao-Spears 
Patinya Ambuel 
Dolores Arbanas 
Tony Armour 
Jacqueline Arnold 
Ian Ausubel 
Paul Baker 
Barbara Ballard 
Dennis Bara 
Lucia Barba 
Dr. George Barnett 
Gwen Barnett 
Dodie Baumgarten 
Barbara Beardsley 
Virginia Beatty 
Jeanne Bedrosian 
Susan Bee 
Timothy Benally 
Susan Bennett 
Robert Berns 
Ruth Berns 
Elaine Bernstein 
Freida Bernstein 
Fran Braverman 
Carol Briscoe 



Carolyn Brna 
Irene Broede 
Garland Brown 
Robert Brunner 
Sophie Ann Brunner 
Jim Burd 
Joseph Cablk 
Kitty Carson 
Robert Gary 
Colleen Casey 
Sol Century 
Cathy Cline 
Peter Coey 
Byron Collins 
James Coplan 
John Cox 
Leslie Cox 
Virginia Cox 
Connie Crane 
Eleanor DeKoven 
Jeannette DeLaney 
Violet Diacou 
Phyllis Dix 
Patricia Dodson 
John Dunn 
Stanley Dvorak 
M. Alison Ebert 
Linda Egebrecht 
Bonnie Engel 
Eric Espe 
Elizabeth Farwell 
Ingrid Fauci 
Josephine Faulk 
Mitzi Fine 
Barbara Fisher 
Joseph Fisher 
Amy Franke 
Toby Frankel 
Arden Frederick 
Debra Jean Frels 
Carlene Friedman 
Kirk Frye 
Barbara Gardner 
Ronald Garner 
Peter Gayford 
Patricia Georgouses 
Ann Gerber 
Phyllis Ginardi 
Dolores Glasbrenner 
Vonda Gluck 
Thomas Gnoske 
Halina Goldsmith 
Karin Goldstein 
Evelyn Gottlieb 
Robert Gowland 
Deborah Green 
Loretta Green 



Frank Greene, Jr.* 
Henry Greenwald 
Mary Lou Grein 
Ann Grimes 
Dennis Hall 
Michael Hall 
Afshan Hamid 
Kristine Hammerstrand 
Judith Hannah 
Laura Haracz 
Nancy Harlan 
Mattie Harris 
Shirley Hattis 
Helen Helfgott 
Audrey Hiller 
Tanya Hines 
Tina Fung Holder 
Dr. Harold Honor 
Zelda Honor 
Ruth Hostler 
Scott Houtteman 
Ruth Howard 
Sandra Hubbell 
Eilen Hyndman 
Connie Jacobs 
Sheila James 
Elizabeth Jarz 
Dale Johnson 
Mabel Johnson 
Nancy Johnson 
Malcolm Jones 
Carol Kacin 
David Kalensky 
Rosemary Kalin 
Elizabeth Kaplan 
Dorothy Karall 
Susan Kennedy 
Craig Kiefer 
Dennis Kinzig 
AlidaKlaud 
Susan Knoll 
Lillian Kreitman 
Carol Landow 
Michelle Lazar 
Sandra Lee 
Frank Leslie 
Jane Levin 
Joseph Levin 
Ruth Lew 
Valerie Lewis 
Catherine Lindroth 
Mary Jo Lucas-Healy 
Janet Madenberg 
Gabby Margo 
Maryann Marsicek 
Phyllis Marta 
Margaret Martling 



Robert Masek 

Clifford Massoth 

Marie Dulce Matanguihan 

Britta Mather 

Selwyn Mather 

Melba Mayo 

Samuel Mayo 

Tom McNichols 

Withrow Meeker 

Beverly Meyer 

Barbara Milott 

Lawrence Misiaiek 

Carolyn Moore 

Susan Moy 

Stella Muir 

Gail Munden 

George Murray 

Carolyn Mylander 

Patricia Naughton 

John Nelson 

Mary Nelson 

Louise Neuert 

Donald Newton 

Virginia Newton 

Doris Nitecki 

John Notz 

Dennis O'Donnell 

Dorothy Oliver 

Joan Opila 

Gary Ossewaarde 

China Oughton 

Marcella Owens 

Anita Padnos 

Martha Pedroza 

John Phelps, Jr. 

Dorothea Phipps-Cruz 

Julie Pitzen 

Jacqueline Prine* 

Naomi Pruchnik 

David Ratowitz 

Julie Realmuto 

Ernest Reed* 

James Reed 

Daniel Reilly 

Caria Reiter 

Sheila Reynolds 

Shirley Rice 

Elly Ripp 

Earl Robinson 

Nancy Robinson 

William Roder 

Barbara Roob 

Susan Roop 

Sarah Rosenbloom 

Marie Louise Rosenthal 

Anne Ross 

Dr. Raja Roy-Singh 



Janet Russell 

Gladys Ruzich 

Bruce Saipe 

Joseph Salzer 

LucileSalzer 

Terry Sanders 

Marea Sands 

Marianne Schenker 

Florence Seiko 

Adam Seward 

Sharon Rae Shananaquet 

Danny Shelton 

Jessie Sherrod 

Judith Sherry 

LisaShogren 

Karen Sholeen 

Martha Singer 

Vivian Singer 

James Skorcz 

Worthington Smith 

Daniel Snydacker 

Beth Spencer 

Carrie Stahl 

Llois Stein 

Frances Stromquist 

Ruby Suzuki 

Beatrice Swartchild 

Ann Ternenyi 

JaneThain 

Karen Thomas 

Kathleen North Tomczyk 

Gregory Trush 

Ginny Turner-Erfort 

Randy Upton 

Lillian Vanek 

Jeffrey Vaughn 

Teri Vlasak 

David Walker 

Maxine Walker 

Dorothea Wechselberger 

Corinne Weigand 

Reeva Wolfson 

Zinette Yacker 

Edward Yastrow 

Laura Zaidenberg 



'Deceased 



Among the Maya 

Photographs by Justin Kerr 



on view through July 30 



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Mayan flint carving, Late Classical Period, A.D. 600-800 Photo by Justin Kerr 



"Among the Maya: Photographs by Justin Kerr" documents 
the rich cultural legacy of the Maya people and includes 
more than 60 color photographs depicting 3,000 years of 
Maya culture. Justin Kerr is widely acclaimed as the greatest 
living photographer of Maya art. 

"Among the Maya" covers several themes, including 
the faces of ancient and contemporary Maya portraiture; 
surviving architectural monuments; magnificent artifacts 
created from a variety of materials; and the life of present- 
day Maya Indians. The world of the Maya, both past and 
present, is eloquently represented through this unusual 
collection of photographs. 

The works on view in "Among the Maya" represent the 



fruit of 20 years of study and travel in the villages of Mexico, 
Guatemala, and Honduras, v\4nere Kerr has photographed 
ancient Maya temples and palaces, together with the vil- 
lages of contemporary Maya Indians. He has produced 
outstanding photographs of important Maya artifact col- 
lections held by museums world-wide. Kerr's photos are 
featured in the book The Blood ofKinss: Dynasty and Ritual 
in Maya Art, by Linda Scheie and Mary Miller. 

"Among the Maya" can be seen in the exhibition 
galler/ of the Webber Resource Center For Native Cultures 
of the Americas from noon to 5pm on weekdays and 1 0am 
to 5pm on weekends. The exhibit is free with regular 
Museum admission. 7 



O 

X 






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And Chicagos most in-demand restaurant, 

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For those wishing to enjoy a Chicago weekend, 

our unique location places us in enviable 

proximity to our citys most prestigious 

cultural attractions: The Field Museum, 

The Art Institute, The Chicago Symphony 

Orchestra, The Lyric Opera, Shedd Aquarium, 

and The Adler Planetarium. For those 

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Fax 312-939-2468 

Operated by The Management Group, Inc. 




Coyote 

Serigraph, 22" X 30" 



COYOTE: A MYTH 
IN THE MAKING 

Contemporary Native 
American art 

April 8 to July 9 



"Coyote: A Myth in the Making" presents the paintings and 
sketches of contemporary Native American artist Harry 
Fonseca. The exhibit focuses on Fonseca's vision of 
Coyote, a magical being prominent in the troditional liter- 
ature and religious beliefs of many Native American cul- 
tures. The exhibit traces Coyote's history as he emerges 
from Fonseca's Maidu heritage and leaves the reservation 
to participate in many facets of American life. Through 
Coyote, Fonseca provides a lively commentary on con- 



A Gift from California 
Serigraph, 22" X 30" 

A Gift from California presents Fonseca's assertion that the Indi- 
an culture of California was alive and very different from that of 
the Southwest. The serigraph illustrates a women's dance, which 
honors both the acorn and women os givers of life,- the four 
dancers carry burden baskets filled with acorns, a traditional 
staple of life for the Moidu and a symbolic representation of 
Maidu culture. The traditional Maidu basket designs are, left to 
right, winged lightning, angleworm, quail plume, and ants on 
a log. Q 




temporary urban life and timeless human nature. As an 
artist, Fonseca has developed his own style that has been 
referred to as "primitive," "naive," and "California funk." 
While his bold and colorful work reflects qualities of each 
of these styles, it goes beyond to create his own personal 
statement as a visual artist. 

Among many Native American peoples, the coyote is a 
trickster figure. Among the Maidu of northern California, 
however. Coyote is more than just a spoiler — he also 
provides a guide through life, demonstrating what be- 
havior is unacceptable and dangerous, providing oppor- 
tunities for others to learn from his mistakes. According to 
Maidu oral tradition, Coyote is also responsible for the 
existence of work, suffering, and death, hie is, on the 
other hand, a buffoon, the trickster who is only tricking 
himself, who comes out of his adventures in a sorry plight. 

Harry Fonseca was born in Sacramento, California, in 
1 946; he is of Maidu, Portuguese, and Hawaiian descent, 

C" Coyote in front of Studio 
Acrylic, 30" X 24" 

Fonseca uses Coyote to poke fun at the familiar stereotype of 
the American Indian. The urbanized Coyote, in black leather 
jacket, Levi's, and high-top tennis shoes, wears the Hollywood- 
approved version of the most recognizable item of Indian dress, 
a full Plains-style feather headdress. Coyote also carries a large 
beaded leather bog and holds three cigars as he stands on a 
wooden box. Through Coyote's regalia, which is not worn in 
the artist's own Maidu culture, Fonseca satirizes the stereotype 
of the "real" Indian. 



and he grew up in Sacramento acutely aware of his mixed 
heritage. However, he was greatly influenced by his uncle 
Henry Azbill, a Konkow Maidu elder, who encouraged 
him to attend the Maidu dances at Grindstone, near Chi- 
co. Azbill was a great promoter and preserver of the 
Maidu culture, which had undergone tremendous turmoil 
after the tribe was decimated following the influx of gold 
seekers and settlers to their land in California's northern 
Sierra. 

Fonseca is largely self-taught: "I've been drawing this 
way since I was twelve years old," he said in a recent 
interview. His earliest works relate directly to his Maidu 
heritage. As part of an assignment for a class in American 
Indian art at California State University, Sacramento, Fon- 
seca tape-recorded his uncle telling the Maidu creation 
myth. After recording the story, Fonseca realized that it 
was more than a creation myth; it was the tribal history. In 
1 976, Fonseca applied for and received a Special Pro- 
jects Grant from the California Arts Council to aid in the 
making of the Creation Story. This marked the beginning 
of the three-year project that became the visual record of 
an oral history. 

Fonseca's early works, created in the late 1 960s 
through the 1 970s, have been referred to as his "tradi- 
tional" paintings — traditional because Fonseca was 
illustrating the Maidu culture, the dances, the regalia, and 
the basket designs, "the beginnings," as he said, "of the 
California people." 






Sl(etch Book, Vol. I 
Inkand watercolor, 9" X 12" 
Fonseca spent a year researching and 
sketching dance classes at the Alvin Ailey 
American Dance Center in New York. Ttie 
Sl^etch Booii, Vol I contains Fonseca's 
notations about the dances, dancers, 
costumes, and sets — later used in his 
interpretation of European animal myths 
in his Swan Lake series. 




Indian Trade Silver 






">v 




Ornaments of sheet silver, like this cross and gorget, were made specifically for 
use in the North American fur trade by silversmiths in Canada, England, and 
the United States. Silver ornaments were first introduced to North American 
Indians in the form of diplomatic gifts and later became a significant item in 
commercial trade. The earliest ornaments were medals which were given to 
Indian leaders as a badge of honor and to secure friendly relations with the 
various tribes. Indian allies became extremely important, particularly to the 
French and British in the Great Lakes area, and the amount and variety of 
 silver ornaments presented during alliance ceremonies proliferated. In 
addition to diplomatic alliances, Europeans also desired the impressive 
profits that could be derived from trade for furs and, as Indians wanted 
silver for their furs and services, traders became increasingly aware of 
' the necessity of including such items as brooches, earrings, arm- 

i^ bands, crosses, and gorgets in their trading inventories. With this 

accelerated demand, by the mid-1 8th century silver ornaments were 
being produced specifically for the Indian trade. Many ornaments 
were marked with the name of the silversmith who made them and 
thus are considered to be an excellent criterion for dating archae- 
ological sites in the western Great Lakes, as well as elsewhere in 
eastern North America, between ca. 1 760 and 1 820. 



 ii 



'^ 



% 




Silver cross and gorget from Indian grave in Will County, Illinois. The cross bears the mark of Robert Cruikshank, a Montreal silversmith. 

Cat. 20771 (cross) and 207713. 
Phoio by Ron Testa, neg. 1 1 1490 




"I did it! I did it! All by myself; 



The Hall Interpretive Program 



b/ Philip Courington 
Coordinator, Hall Interpretive Program 

photos by Robert A. Feldmon 



Bright yellow banners with a dark blue question 
mark tell you that a Field Museum hall inter- 
preter is busy at work. These cheerful, friendly, 
well-informed staff members have carts loaded with 
intriguing things. He or she may be giving a four-year- 
old a loop of string, then showing the child how to 
make an Eskimo string figure. 

Another interpreter may be introducing a family 
to a fascinating activity called "Horns and Antlers." 
The younger child tries on a pair of antlers for that 
souvenir snapshot while the older child voices amaze- 
ment that horns are made of "fingernail stuff." The 
delighted parents confess that in twenty years of 
school they never learned that deer grow new antlers 



each year. Every Thursday through Sunday and on 
most holidays, interpreters hear countless adults and 
kids saying things like "Wow! No kidding!" and 
"Thanks, I never knew that." 

In Centennial Directions (Field Museum Bulletin, 
October 1986), as the Museum looked toward the 
needs of its second century, it committed itself to 
providing even more varied experiences for visitors 
— a commitment to create a museum that would be 
human, approachable, and fun. In 1986 the Joyce 
Foundation and the Lloyd A. Fry Foundation pro- 
vided funds to support this innovative program for 
three years. 

Museum staff then developed 45 activities to 



13 




tion is developed, a process in which the Museum's 
curator scientists provide valuable assistance. Various 
techniques are used for interpreting information in 
ways that will captivate the visitor. Objects used in 
these activities — as diverse as owl pellets, papyrus 
pith, and thumb pianos — are obtained in various 
ways, and from various sources, but all are meant to 
be handled, manipulated, investigated; the musical 
instruments are meant to be played. 



"This IS 6 bushels of grass," 

communicate in diverse ways concepts related to 
human and natural history. Each activity would be 
a portable program that could be taken to any of 
the Museum's public areas. The object-based format 
meant lots of trial and error for the staff, with coop- 
erative visitors testing many kinds of activities. Would 
families be agreeable to getting down on the floor to 
grind corn in the style of a Hopi Indian? Would this 
experience enhance their understanding and 
appreciation of Hopi life? Would they enjoy them- 
selves while getting corn dust on their clothes? 

For each activity, a core of background informa- 




"Making paper from papyrus is fun. 



14 




"No we didn't put the fossils in the marble floor.' 




"Do you think it's real?" 



What exactly is a "hall activity"? There are many 
formats: "Fossils in the Floor" helps visitors recognize 
animal fossils preserved in the Museum's limestone 
floors. Using huge magnifying glasses in mounts that 
look like small footstools, the fossils come alive before 
your eyes. An interpreter displays other fossil speci- 
mens on his cart and explains how the ancient ani- 
mals and plants turned to stone. Activities in the 
Museum's new Egypt exhibit, next to a recreated Nile 
River marsh, involve visitors in making paper from 
papyrus. A board holding magnetized metal hiero- 
glyphs gives kids as well as grownups the fun experi- 
ence of writing their own names in the same symbols 
used by ancient Egyptians. The interpreter tells what 
each hieroglyph symbolizes. "Adzes and Awls" is an 
activity emphasizing how and why Native American 
tools were used. After a demonstration by the inter- 
preter, visitors are encouraged to try the tools and 
offer their own ideas of what they were for. There are 
many more, varied activities taking place throughout 
the Museum, each offering the visitor his own 
approach to explore and discover at Field Museum. 

Who are the Hall interpreters? These special 
people must be enthusiastic improvisors, people who 
enjoy people, and who are able to skillfully handle ev- 



ery kind of situation and visitor need that might arise. 
They must become conversant with four complex dis- 
ciplines. They have to be comfortable with a position 
which is only part time, but demanding, and have a 
genuine interest in what Field Museum is all about. 
Many have college degrees in anthropology, biology, 
or geology and some have experience in teaching, 
theater, or occupational therapy. Some are in their 
early twenties, others are seniors. They include an art 
teacher, an aspiring actress, a writer, a bank em- 
ployee, and a kindergarten teacher from Guatemala 
working toward her Illinois certificate. Former hall 
interpreters have gone on to graduate studies, full- 
time employment at the Museum, the Peace Corps, 
even a TV comedy show. 

Their diversity mirrors that of the Museum's visi- 
tors. Because of these special people who "speak their 
own language," visitors are finding that Field Museum 
is indeed a warmer, friendlier place. Next time you 
are in the Museum, be sure to look for the cheerful 
yellow banners with the big question mark, join the 
fun^explore, discover with us. We'll be looking for 
you! 




"This Isn't as easy to ao as it iooKs.' 



HENRY HERING and the 
Case of the Missing Maidens 



by David M. Walsten 



Tiventy-eight beautiful young women were scheduled 
to travel from New York to Chicago, sometime dur- 
ing World War I, their destination being the Field 
Museum's new building in Grant Park. Some of the 
ladies were lucky enough to make the trip, some never 
did, and some didn't arrive until several years later. 

It's worth noting that despite their beguiling fea- 
tures, these women, without exception, had hearts of 
stone — as well as arms and legs and everything else of 
stone.* They were the creations, or intended creations 
of New York sculptor Henry Hering (1874-1949), who 
was commissioned in 1916 to do all the statuary, as well 



'A little artistic license here 
stone. 



-four of the figures were of plaster, not 



as has relief figures, commemorative plaques, and other 
decorative items for the building. 

The statues which made the trip to Chicago more 
or less according to plan included the alabaster-white 
figures ("Science," "Research," "Record," and "The 
Dissemination of Knowledge") now to be seen prevail- 
ing on high in Stanley Field Hall and eight caryatids 
(female statue-pillars) on the small porches flanking 
the north and south entrances. Those statues which 
never materialized pose a number of intriguing ques- 
tions, which might never be answered. Why, for exam- 
ple, do we see four of those "missing" figures today in 
duplicate sets, above the north and south entrances to 
the Museum of Science and Industry? That institution 
took up residence in the Field Museum's original quart- 




Clay model of "Zoology," one of four panels representing thie Museum's curatorial departments. These panels are to be seen today as 
1 3-foot marble figures on the building's exterior. This model was photographed in the Manhattan studio of the sculptor, Henry Hering, 
16 in 1916. 




"Dissemination of Knowledge, " by Hering, to be seen in the northeast corner of Stanley Field Hall. This photo was made in March of this 

year, just after the entire hall was repainted. 17 

Diane Alexander White 85335 




40257 



Clay models of eight figures commissioned for ttie Field Museum but never realized in marble. Thie first four (from left) represent nortfi, 
south, east, and west These eventually appeared, in limestone, above the north and south entrances of Chicago's Ivluseum of Science and 



18 



ers, opening to the public there in 1933 some 13 years 
after Field Museum's departure and following radical 
reconstruction, t These four statues were added to the 
building some time after 1926, the year the newer 
museum received its charter, though we know from 
dated photos that clay models of the figures were done 
as early as 1916. These four, representing the four car- 



tThe original building, the so-called Palace of Fine Arts, had been 
constructed in 1893 for the Columbian Exposition, and was not 
designed to survive for more than the fair's duration. By the time 
the Field Museum completely vacated the structure a quarter- 
century later, the "palace" was a shambles. 



dinal directions, together with models of figures 
representing the four elements — earth, air, fire, and 
water — were photographed in Hering's Manhattan stu- 
dio in November 1916, positioned on a model of the 
Museum's portico (north or south). This total of eight 
figures standing in a row on separate pedestals was to 
appear over both the north and south entrances. 

More than seventy years removed, we cannot be 
certain why these eight were abandoned, though the 
costly marble pieces may have been stricken for budget 
reasons (those were difficult years for the Museum). 
The eight caryatids, also of marble, were far less 
expendable since, as porch columns, they were integral 











Industry. The remaining four— air, earth, tire, and water— apparently never got beyond the model stage, though the models were approved 
by Field Museum architect Peirce Anderson early in 191 7. His "0,K," is to be seen at the top of each of these four photos. 



to the building's staicture, not just embellishments. 
The four statues in Stanley Field Hall were unlikely 
candidates for elimination since, as relatively inexpen- 
sive plaster figures, not a great deal would have been 
gained by scrapping them. 

A Prolific Sculptor 

The story of Henry Hering's life is one of awesome pro- 
ductivity. His Chicago commissions alone, done from 
about 1917 to 1930, involved more statuary than many 
sculptors achieve in a lifetime. Today all of this may be 
seen in the city's busiest areas: in Union Station (two 



statues), on the Civic Opera House (four has relief fi- 
gures), on the south pylons of the Michigan Avenue 
Bridge (two bas relief groups), plus the many figures for 
the two museums. He also did a stylized eagle medal- 
lion on the facade of the Federal Reserve Bank Build- 
ing. 

The most imposing piece by Hering in the Chi- 
cago area is a 25 -foot bronze representation of Pere 
Marquette in Gary's Marquette Park. The seated 
bronze figure of Lincoln in Grant Park was largely the 
work of Hering, though officially credited to Augustus 
Saint-Gaudens (1848-1907), Hering's mentor and the 
most distinguished American sculptor of his time. 19 




20 




Above: Model of main entrance (north or soutti) of Field Museum 
in Hering's studio, witfi models of eigfit projected figures in place. 
Note Peirce Anderson's Nov. 6, 1916 "O.K," The circular shield witfi 
lion's head, at center, was completed in marble as planned. Twelve 
plaster duplicates of this shield are also to be seen today on the east 
and west walls of Stanley Field Hall. 



Left: Clay model of lion's head shield. 




South portico of the Museum of Science and Industry, showing the figures symbolic of the four cardinal directions, flanked by identical 
winged figures. The winged figures were probably done by Hering as well (see also top photo, p 25) All are in limestone, 



Hering also did a memorial plaque for Chicago's 
John Crerar Library and a number of privately com- 
missioned busts or portrait reliefs of well known Chica- 
goans, notably of architects Ernest B. Graham and 
Peirce Anderson (both were partners in the firm which 
designed Field Museum), and of former Field Museum 
director Frederick J. Skiff. When the nation was still 
on the gold standard, Hering's work could be seen on 
the $10 and $20 gold pieces minted between 1907 and 
1933. As in the case of the Lincoln statue, Saint- 
Gaudens is credited with designing these coins, though 
it was Hering who did much of the fine modelling. The 
$20 gold piece, or "double eagle," is commonly re- 
garded as the most beautiful U.S. coin ever minted. 

Outside of Chicago, Hering's most notable work 
includes statues of Abraham Lincoln and Woodrow 
Wilson in Indianapolis; a Civil War memorial at Yale 



University; heroic bridge pylon figures, statuary for the 
Federal Reserve Bank, and pediment figures for Sever- 
ance Hall, all in Cleveland. A complete catalog of 
Hering's statues, busts, portrait reliefs, medals, and 
other types could be one of the most extensive in the 
history of sculpture. But Henry Hering's name is not to 
be found in standard texts on American art; even 
sculpture buffs in Chicago, where he is best repre- 
sented, are likely to draw a blank if his name is men- 
tioned. Perhaps that is the fate common to those whose 
work is in a traditional vein. 

Among Hering's champions, however, was Met- 
ropolitan Museum of Art curator Charles Over Corne- 
lius, who wrote at length about Hering's Field Museum 
work in the November 1918 Architectural Record: 

The whole group [of figures] is characterized by the 
eminent dignity and restraint which run throughout all of 21 




-^'^ 

















22 



40265 



40270 





Left: Early clay maquettes of panels 
representing the Museum's four 
departments. 



Below: Progressive stages In the 
creation of (from left) "Science," "Re- 
search," and "Record." All are clay 
maquettes. 



Mr. Hering's work — a dignity unfettered by academic for- 
mulae nor yet disturbed by a factitious realism. In the sane 
mind of the trained sculptor these two extremes of classic- 
ism and realism have been fused into an expressive whole 
under the spell of his own individual approach. In this 
particular problem there was opportunity for a variety of 
treatment into which has been breathed much of the spir- 
it of ancient Greece. 

There are many who will concur in the opinion that 
the art of sculpture has reached and always will reach the 
broadest expression of its purpose when conceived and 
carried out with relation to architecture which it may be 
designed to enhance. Of the greatest sculpture which has 
come down to us from the past, by far the larger part is 
permeated by qualities suggested, if not imposed, by the 
architectural design of which it formed an essential part. 

Hering's career began as a silversmith's apprentice 
in New York. At the age of 14 he was enrolled in the 
Cooper Union School of Art, at 17 studied under 
Philip Martiny (who did the exterior figures for the 
Columbian Exposition's Palace of Fine Arts), and from 
1894 to 1898 he worked at New York's Art Students' 




23 




Opening day of Field Museum, June 2. 1 894. at the north entrance. Note sinnilarity between caryatid figures on small porch and the caryatid 
figure of Henry Hering on p. 26 (right figure of pair). Note as well similarity of winged figure on pediment (partly visible above large statue) to 
winged figures on p, 25, Statuary on the Palace of Fine Arts (shortly to become the Field Museum) was done by Philip Martlny, Hering's 
teacher, Hering's caryatids, of which there are 8 on Field Museum's exterior and 24 on the Museum of Science and Industry, appear to be 
very similar to, if not copies of Martiny's, The winged figures, of which there are 1 2 on the Museum of Science and Industry, seem equally 
faithful to Martiny's, 



League. In 1900 and 1901 Hering was a student at 
L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. While there he came 
under the tutelage of Saint-Gaudens, remaining his 
assistant until Saint-Gaudens' death in 1907. Hering 
opened his own studio in New York in 1910. 

Selecting the Museum's Sculptor 

Sculptors were enquiring about doing the statuary for 
the new building as early as 1911, long before construc- 
tion began. Among the first to offer his talents was 
24 Charles J. Mulligan, an instructor at the Art Institute 



of Chicago who had already done statues of Presidents 
McKinley (1905) and Lincoln (1911) for Chicago park 
memorials. Another applicant was the accomplished 
Philip Martiny, Hering's former teacher. 

In August 1914 it was decided that the caryatids 
were to be done by A. A. Weinman, designer of a U.S. 
dime and half-dollar, and the interior work by Mary 
Evelyn Longman, who had been an assistant of the re- 
nowned Daniel Chester French. French, who had done 
the Marshall Field memorial in Chicago's Graceland 
Cemetery, was chosen to do a seated figure of Field to 
be placed just in front of the Museum's north entrance. 



Right: Winged figures on the Museum of Science and Industry, 
probably thie work of Henry Hering, 



The following year, however, plans for the Field statue 
were scuttled, apparently because of contract difficul- 
ties concerning the metalwork; but ultimately, per- 
haps, because costs of the project exceeded expecta- 
tions — French's fee alone was $27,000. 

In the fall of 1915 there was yet another change of 
plans; Hering — perhaps the least distinguished of the 
candidates — was named to do all of the work for the 
building, inside and out. A contract for $22,000 was 
signed the following April. By January 1917 Hering 
was far enough along to send photos of his work to 
Peirce Anderson. Anderson replied: "Your caryatids 
are perfectly bully, and I congratulate you very heartily 
on the outcome of these, the first work finished by you 
in final form. The handling of the drapery and other 
details is certainly a joy to the eye. ..." 

Six weeks later Anderson took the train to New 
York to see how the work was progressing. He wrote 
Field Museum president Stanley Field: 




Below: North entrance of the Field fvluseum near the end of its days 
in Jackson Park, probably around the time of World War I. Gone is all 
the statuary shown on page 24, initially planned to last only for the 
duration of the Columbian Exposition in 1 893, It is obvious that the 
entire building surface is in a serious state of disrepair. The building 
underwent radical reconstruction before reopening as the Museum 
of Science and Industry in 1933, 




25 



Left: Caryatids, old and new. Left is an original Greek caryatid, 
now in the British Museum, and taken from the Erectheum, an Ionic 
temple on the Athenian Acropolis, completed in 410 B.C. Right is 
Henry Hering's version, to be seen in marble on the outside of Field 
t\/luseum and in limestone on the outside of the Museum of Science 
and Industry. Both museums have two versions — one with the left 
knee forward and with brooch, the other with right knee forward and 
without brooch. 







Right: Final and earlier clay models of tHering's "Dissemination of 
26 Knowledge." 






Henry Hering's work may be seen today in many parts of the United 
States. The two figures at upper left ("Security" and "Integrity") are 
on the Federal Reserve Bank Building of Cleveland. Lower left: 
Hering's monumental "Regeneration." on the southwest pylon of 
the (Vlichigan Avenue bridge, completed in 1923. This epic piece 
memorialized the Chicago fire of 1 871 and honored those who 
"caused a new and greater city to rise, imbued with that indomitable 
spirit and energy by which they have ever been guided." Above: 
12-foot gilded plaster figures, "Night" and "Day," in Chicago's 
Union Station. 



27 




Clay model of panel "Anthropology," on building's exterior. 

"I [looked at] the first four figures* of the main 
pediment in Bering's studio in order that they might be 
gotten in work without delay. ... It seems to me that 
these models are one [sic] of the finest pieces of decora- 
tive sculpture that have been produced in modern 
times." 

Field pencilled on the hack of Anderson's letter: 
"The 1st 4 figures of the main pediment. . . meet with 
my entire approval. I am. . . delighted with them." 

Things moved along smoothly until April 24, 
when Stanley Field in a state of agitation wired Ernest 
R. Graham, the architectural firm's senior partner then 
visiting New York: "Henry Herring [sic] is talking of 
joining the Officers Reserve Corps. . . and wants your 
consent general contractors consent and our consent. 
Please see him to-day sure and discuss this matter." He 
also wrote Graham that Hering was "evidently going 
... to take three months of intensive training, and 1 do 
not see how he can possibly do it without neglecting 
the museum work." 

Graham apparently talked Hering out of his plan 
— for the time being at least. But the following year 
Hering yielded to his patriotic conscience and joined 
the 40th Engineers Corps. 

In the final letter of Hering's to be found in the 
Field Museum archives, dated August 6, 1917, he 
wrote Field: "I am sending you. . .fourteen photo- 
graphs. . . .Twelve of these represent the sculpture of 



28 " These were among the eight that were never delivered. 



E 



Field Museum completed up to date. There still remain 
two more panels Anthropology and Geology and four 
interior figures. . .and will send you photographs of 
them when completed." 

Stanley Field replied, "Those [photographs] of the 
museum models are superb. I cannot begin to tell you 
how fine I think the work is .... I have taken up with 
the architects the matter of the stone cutting. There 
will be a meeting here next week. . .and it is hoped 
that the work can proceed immediately afterward." 
With Field's letter, the Museum's file on Henry Hering 
comes to a close. 

Hering went into semiretirement in 1940, ex- 
changing the sculptor's chisels for a set of golf clubs. 
Golf, in fact, became the ruling passion of his later 
years. He designed the Scarsdale (N.Y.) Golf Club 
championship medal and even tinkered with a new 
type of club which, he argued, conformed better to 
aerodynamic principles. 

It was Henry Hering's love of the sport that prob- 
ably saved his life one July day in 1945 and, perhaps for 
the first time, put his name on the front page of the 
New York Times, rescuing him briefly from the pall of 
obscurity. Following an afternoon on the golf course, 
Hering returned to Manhattan to find the smoldering 
wreckage of a U.S. Army bomber in his penthouse stu- 
dio on west 33rd Street. Lost in fog, the plane had 
crashed into the Empire State Building, parts of the 
bomber plummeting through Hering's skylight. Ac- 
cording to a contemporary account, Hering's first con- 
cern was not for the works of art that cluttered his stu- 
dio but for the safety of his experimental golf clubs. FM 






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29 




HELD 
MUSEUM 



TURKEY 
Past and Present 

OCTOBER, 1989 

Sat 21 Chicago/Zurich. Our adventure begins 
as we board our overnight Swissair flight to 
Zurich. 

Sun 22 Zurich/Ankara. We arrive in Turkey's 
capital city of Ankara in the early afternoon and 
transfer to our hotel, the deluxe Etap Altlnel, to 
rest and refresh ourselves before our evening 
Welcome Dinner. Ankara, set in Turkey's 
strategic heartland, is a modern city with a long 
and fascinating heritage that stretches back 
nearly 1 0,000 years. Once a Hittite settlement 
in the second millennium B.C., five centuries 
later it became the capital of the Galatian 
nation. D 

Men 23 Ankara/Cappadocia. We set out this 
morning on an exploratory tour of the city of 
Ankara: the Citadel, or Kale, the original 
fortress of the old city, the Hittite Museum with 
exhibits dating back to cave paintings and 
stone-age relics, as well as an extensive 
collection of rare Hittite artifacts, Haci Bayram 
Mosque, one of Ankara's oldest, and Anit Kabir, 
Ataturk's Mausoleum, a giant stone rectangle 
set on a hill in the midst of the city. Following 
lunch at the Milka Restaurant, we continue to 
Cappadocia and visit the Byzantine refuge city 
of Derinkuyu, a vast and amazing underground 
complex of entire communities inter-connected 
by tunnels. Dinner is taken enroute in Alsaray. 
and we arrive late this evening at our hotel in 
Cappadocia, the elegant Boydas. B/L/D 

Tue 24 Cappadocia, Thanks to a series of 
violent volcanic eruptions three million years 
ago, Cappadocia — in the very center of 
Anatolia — is one of those rare regions in the 
world where the works of man hollowing out 
rocks to build dwellings, chapels and 
monasteries blend in perfect harmony with 
Nature's own surrealistic landscapes. Here, 
against the majestic backdrop of 13,000-foot 
Mount Erciyes, the earth's terrain takes on an 

30 



almost moonlike appearance, with gouged 
valleys, rock cones, capped pinnacles and 
fretted ravines in colors ranging from warm 
reds and golds to cool greens and grays. Here, 
the troglodyte (rock) dwellings date as far back 
as 400 B.C., and the multi-level underground 
cities reach well below the surface of the earth. 
In the nearby Goreme valley — known as 
Petrified Valley — there are 365 churches with 
whimsical names such as Slipper Church and 
Buckle Church, scooped out of solid rock and 
decorated with remarkable frescoes. Even the 
columns have been shaped and hewn from the 
soft volcanic rock. We visit the picturesque 
villages of Cavusin, Heden and Avanos, 
famous for their onyx and beautiful old houses. 
From the ancient citadel of Uchisar, we have a 
spectacular view of Petrified '\/alley. B/L7D 

Wed 25 Cappadocia/Konya/Alanya. We depart 
early this morning for the drive to the Plain of 
Kenya, a cradle of civilization and one of the 
oldest continuously inhabited sites in Turkey. 
Known as Iconium in Roman times, Kenya was 
the capital of the Seljuk Turks in the 1 2th and 
1 3th centuries . . . and one of the greatest 
culture centers of its time. It was during this 
period that the Moslem mystic Mevlana 
Celaleddin Rumi founded the set of the Whirling 
Dervishes, an order based not on fanaticism, 
but on universal faith and love. The former 
dervish seminary attached to the Mausoleum is 
now a museum, devoted to manuscripts of 
Mevlana's works, and to other articles 
belonging to the order. Since this is a full day's 
overland journey, we take lunch and dinner on 
the road, arriving at our hotel — the Serapsu — in 
Alanya this evening. B/UD 

Thu 26 Alanya/Side/Alanya. This morning is 
free to allow you to enjoy the swimming and 
shopping facilities at the Serapsu Hotel. We 
leave this afternoon to explore the ancient city 
of Side and its remarkable monuments. Side 
(the Turkish word for pomegranate) was an 
ancient Turkish harbor that has made a graceful 
transition into a lovely resort village today. Its 
popularity is due not only to its hotels, 
restaurants, beaches, shops and sea views, 
but also to the many archaeological ruins that 
permeate this ancient settlement. This 
still-active theater of the ancient city, built on 
colonnaded arches next to an agora (ancient 
marketplace), is the largest in the area, seating 
25,000. The creamy white columns of the 
Temple of Apollo are a striking contrast to the 
blue sea below; and the extensive Roman Bath, 
now a museum, houses one of Turkey's finest 
archaeological collections. At the museum, we 
see many of the priceless statues uncovered 
during the city's excavation B/D 



Fri 27 Alanya/Perge/Aspendos/Antalya/ 
Alanya. Our first stop this morning is at the 
Pamphylian city of Perge, where St. Paul 
preached his first sermon. Next will be 
Aspendos, where we see the best-preserved 
theater of antiquity, dating from the second 
century A.D. Its acoustics are still magnificent. 
Our route takes us to Antalya, the heart of the 
"Turkish Riviera," set on the perfect crescent of 
the Mediterranean's Konyaiti Beach. Antalya's 
incomparable beauty makes it a paradise on 
earth; year-round, the slopes of the Toros 
Mountains are blanketed in green forests that 
dip to the sea, forming an irregular coastline of 
rocky headlands and secluded caves of clear 
turquoise water. This area is rich in history, 
interwoven with legends that go back as far as 
the Paleolithic Age. It was here that Bellerophon 
slew the fire-breathing Chimera; where the 
nymph Daphne was turned into a bay tree by 
Zeus to save her from Apollo's amorous 
advances; and this was the home of St. 
Nicholas, our own Santa Claus. Before 
returning to Alanya and the Serapsu Hotel, we 
have the opportunity to enjoy lunch on our own 
at one of the many restaurants in Antalya's 
lovely harbor area. B/D 

Sat 28 Alanya/Pamukkale. Pamukkale (Cotton 
Castle) is a beautiful and spectacular natural 
site unique in the world. It is a fairylike, dazzling 
white petrified cascade falling from a height of 
100 meters. Thermal spring waters, laden with 
calcareous salts running off the plateau's edge, 
have created this fantastic formation of 
stalactites, cataracts and basins. The thermal 
waters have been used since Roman times for 
their therapeutic powers. Situated on the 
plateau are both the modern thermal center 
and the ruins of the ancient cemetary of 
Hierapolis. Lunch is served by Lake Egridir. 
Dinner is at our hotel in Pamukkale, the Tusan 
Hotel. B/L/D 

Sun 29 Pamukkale/ Aphrodlsias/Ephesus/ 
Izmir. The fabled city of Aphrodisias — the home 
of the greatest sculpting schools of antiquity — 
has not yet been fully explored; every year new 
and important areas and finds are being 
uncovered. After lunch, we drive on the 
Ephesus, one of the most important sites in 
Christendom, of which St. Paul asked "Is there a 
greater City?" Here, side by side with Moslem 
treasures such as Isa Bey Mosque, we find the 
basilica of St. John and the house of the Virgin 
Mary. We visit Odeon, the Arcadian Way, where 
Mark Antony and Cleopatra once rode in 
procession, the Gate of Magnestia, the 
Temples of Hadrian and Serapis. the Marble 
Street, the Great Theater where St. Paul argued 
against the Ephesian goddess Arteis, and the 
agora. Here, loo, are the ruins of the fabled 
Temple of Diana, one of the Seven Wonders of 
the Ancient World. We overnight this evening at 
Izmir, in the deluxe Buyuk Efes Hotel. B/L 



Mon 30 Izmir. Izmir, once known as Snnyrna, 
is a pearl of myth, the birthplace of Homer, 
a beautiful modern city in the ancient region 
encompassing such historic sites as Ephesus, 
Pergamum, Troy and Sardis ... the region that 
played the greatest role in developing all the 
major religions, from Islam to Christianity. 
Overlooking the city of Mount Pagus, is 
Kadifekale, the "velvet castle," built by a 
general in the army of Alexander the Great. 
We visit Kadifekale this afternoon, for a 
phenomenal view of the city, then head on to 
the agora, the International Fairgrounds, the 
Archaeological Museum and the Bazaar. B 

Tue31 Izmir/Pergamum/Canakkale. Leave 
Izmir for Pergamum, a center of learning 
and the arts, with a library of antiquities that 
contains over 200,000 volumes. Here we 
visit Asclepion, the Red Basilica Pergamum 
Acropolis, the Athena and Trojan Temples, 
the Library, the Great Theater, the Temples of 
Dionysos, Hera and Demeter, and the agora. 
Other highlights in this masterful storehouse of 
Greek and Roman history are the Gymnasium 
of Youth, the Odeon, the Roman Baths, the 
Hellenistic Gate and the Temple of Zeus. We 
continue to Canakkale and the Tusan Hotel, 
Troy's finest. B/L 

NOVEMBER, 1989 

Wed 01 Canakkale/Troy/lstanbul. The legends 
of Helen of Troy and the epic heros of the Trojan 
Wars will come to life as we visit the ancient city 
that was the home of Paris, who incurred the 
wrath of the Greeks by seducing the sister- 
in-law of King Agamemnon. Later, after a 
seafood lunch, we leave for our final 
destination — Istanbul — arriving at the posh 
western-style Sheraton Hotel in the afternoon. 
B/L 



TOUR COSTS FROM CHICAGO: 

• Land per person sharing room: $2,509 

• Single room supplement: $400 

• Round-trip economy airfare, $1 ,31 1 
(departure tax not included) 

Above cost includes $200 tax 

deductible donation to 

Field Museum of Natural History. 

Total: $3,820 



Thu 02 Istanbul. Istanbul is a city that spans 
two continents . . . 2600 years . . . and many 
cultures. Divided by the magnificent 
Bosphorus, the waterway between Asia and 
Europe, Istanbul's classic beauty was best 
described by Lamartine: "There God, man, 
nature and art have together created and 
placed the most marvelous view that the human 
eye can contemplate on earth." Once known as 
Constantinople, Istanbul was the roman capital 
of the Emperor Constantine, and held sway 
over an empire that stretched from the Gates of 
Vienna to the Persian Gulf. When the Holy 
Roman Empire was divided, the city became 
the Byzantine capital until, in 1 453, it fell to the 
Ottoman Turk armies of the young Sultan 
Mehmet II. Our tour today includes a 
kaleidoscope of wonders: the famous Blue 
Mosque with its six minarets and haunting blue 
Iznik tiles, the imposing Mosque of Suleyman 
the Magnificent built by Sinan, the greatest 
Turkish architect who ever lived, the 
Archaeological Museum which houses the 
sarcophagus of Alexander the Great, and 
6th-century St. Sophia built by the emperor 
Justinian to be the grandest Qhurch of 
Christendom. After lunch at the Konyali 
Restaurant on the grounds of the Topkapi 
Palace, we explore the fabulous exhibits of the 
mysterious labyrinthine palace itself: 
jewel-encrusted thrones, common kitchen 
implements fashioned from pure jade, the 
jewelled dagger that ws featured in the film. 
Topkapi," the immense Harem quarters, the 
brilliant 84-carat Spoonmaker's Diamond, the 
alleged hand of John the Baptist, and many 
relics of the prophet Mohammed. Finally, 
before returning to the hotel, we visit the 
 incredible Grand Covered Bazaar, a treasure 
trove of jewelry, beaten copper vessels, exotic 
spices, suede coats, fine embroidery and a 
virtual rainbow of Turkish carpets. Whatever 
you seek is on sale here, in staggering quantity 
and profusion; and every merchant is willing to 
negotiate over a glass of tea or lemonade. All 
about us are shoe-shine boys, snake charmers, 
flavored-ice vendors and a cacophony of 
sounds and smells that will make our senses 
reel. In the evening we enjoy a dinner-cruise on 
the Bosphorus. 



Fri 03 Istanbul. Much of Istanbul's importance 
comes from her strategic location on the 
Bosphorus, the gateway from the Mediter- 
ranean to the Black Sea; and many of her finest 
palaces and homes are spread along this 
waterway that divides the city. Today's 
mini-cruise takes us along both the European 
and Asiatic shores of the cypress-lined 
Bosphorus to see her many wonders, including 
the wooden Ottoman villas known as "Yalis" in 
the village of Yenikoy. We disembark on the 
Asian side for lunch and a visit to Beylerbeyi 
Palace — the personal retreat of Sultan Abdu 
Aziz — before continuing into the Camlica Hills 
for a stunning view of all Istanbul: the city, the 
islands, the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus 
and the hinterlands of Asia. In the evening we 
enjoy a festive dinner show at the Kervansaray 
Nightclub, B/L/D 

Sat 04 Istanbul/Zurich/Chicago. In the early 
morning our homebound flights leave Istanbul 
via Pan American and Swissair. We arrive 
Chicago in mid-afternoon. 



To lead our journey, we have selected Dr. David 
S. Reese, a graduate in anthropology from 
Harvard who received his Ph.D. in archaeology 
from the University of Cambridge, Dr. Reese 
has extensive excavation experience in the 
Mediterranean. 



Southwestern China Cultural Relics 
Study Tour 

September 1 5 - October 6 

Leader: Katharine Lee Yang 

Pnce: $4,500 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, II 60605 



31 



Field Museum of Natural History 
AAembership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, IL 60605-2499 



Field Museum 

The Smart W^yTo Have Fun. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 

July/August 1989 



BIENNIAL REPORT 

1987-1988 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 hy 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

July/August 1989 
Volume 60, Number 7 



EVENTS 3 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
BIENNIAL REPORT FOR 1987-1988 . . . 



Board OF Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Sranron Armour 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. BkKklll 
Willard L.Boyd. 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Woriey H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Everman 
Marshall Field 
RonaldJ. Gidwit: 
Wayne E. Hedien 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
William Kunkler III 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J . O'Connor 



Mrs. James j. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Thetxlore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

LIFE Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
William R. Dickinst>n. Jr. 
Mrs. David W. Grainyer 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strot: 
John W. Sullivan 



Field Musfum of .K'atural History- BulUtin (USPS S9i-'»0) is published monihly. exccfK combined July August issue, by Field Museum or Natural History. Rooscvcli Road at Lake Shtwe Drive. Chicago. JL 60605-24%. Copynght ©1989 Field 
Museum of Natural History Subscnplioiis: S6 00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect (he policy of Field Museum. Unsohcitcd 
manuscnnis are welcome Museum phone: {312)922-94 10. Notification ofaddrc&schange should include address label and be sent to Membcrsiiip Department. Postmaster Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shn- Drive. Chicago. IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703- Second class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois and additional mailing office. 




World Music Programs 

Weekends in July and August 
1 :00pm and 3:00pm 

Program Highlights include: 

n July 1 & 2 

1 ;00pm — Ari Brown plays blues saxophone 
3:00pm — Librado Salazar plays classical guitar 

UJu\y8&9 

1 :00pm — Ctiinese Music Society of North America demonstrates 

instruments from the Chinese orchestra 
3:00pm — Raices del Ande performs Bolivian and Latin American 

folkloric music 

UJuiy^5& 16 

1 :00pm — Eli Hoenai demonstrates African percussion 

3:00pm — Keith Eric performs Jamaican music and tells stories 

a July 22 & 23 

1 :00pm — Rita Warford presents jazz vocals 

3:00pm — Keith Eric performs Jamaican music and tells stories 

a July 29 & 30 

1 :00pm — Thunder Sky Drummers play African percussion 

3:00pm — Amira demonstrates the shakere 

D Augusts & 6 

1 :00pm — Eli Hoenai demonstrates African percussion 

3:00pm — Raices del Ande performs Latin American folkloric music 

a August 12 & 13 

1 :00pm — Rita Warford presents jazz vocals 

3:00pm — Douglas Ewart plays Japanese and-Australian flutes 

n August 19 & 20 

1 :00pm — Thunder Sky Drummers perform African percussion 

instruments 
3:00pm — Librado Salazar plays classical guitar 
a August 26 & 27 
1 :00pm — Chinese Music Society of North America demonstrates 

selected instruments from the Chinese orchestra 
3:00pm — Chicago Beau plays blues harmonica 

The World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and Harle 
Montgomery Fund and a CityArts grant from the Chicago Office of 
Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs, and the Illinois Arts 
Council, a state agency. These programs are free with Museum 
admission and tickets are not required. 



Weekend Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of 
natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and 
films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for 
families and adults. Listed below are some of the numerous 
activities offered each weekend. Check the activity listing upon 
arrival for the complete schedule, and program locations. The 
programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois 
Arts Council. 



July 
15,29 



July 
22 



August 
5,19 



August 
12 



1 2:30pm "Museum Safari " 

Trek through the four corners of the Museum to see 

the seven continents. See antiquities from the 

Amazon, big game from Africa and seals from the 

Arctic. 



1 :30pm "Tibet Today, "and Tour of Collection 
Experience Tibet in this slide lecture about this 
mountain nation, followed by a tour of our Tibet 
exhibit. 



12:30pm "Museum Safari" 

Trek through the four corners of the Museum to see 

the seven continents. See antiquities from the 

Amazon, big game from Africa and seals from the 

Arctic. 



1:30pm "Tibet Today and Bfiutan: Landoftfie 
Thunder Dragon. " 

See Lhasa and other towns now open to tourists, 
and examine important Buddhist sites during this 
slide lecture and tour. 



These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets are 
not required. 



Children's Workshops 



A Few Spaces Are Still Available in this summer's children's 
workshops. Children ages 4-1 3 can explore the exciting world of 
natural history in these workshops. Enrollment is limited and 
advance registration required. See the June/July/August Program 
brochure for workshop details. Call (31 2) 322-8854, Monday-Friday, 
9:00am-4:00pm for space availability. 



FROM THE CHAIRMAN 




As the Museum nears its 100th birthday, its work be- 
comes ever more important and urgent. We are aided in 
this task by generous friends from both the private and 
public sectors. "Time Future from Time Past" was the 
theme of the $40 million capital campaign which you over- 
subscribed. Your contributions of time, money, and pri- 
vate collections have exceeded our expectations. We are 
grateful for that, and we believe you can be proud of the 
work your efforts have supported. 

Our 1986 strategic plan. Centennial Directions, man- 
dates that the Museum perform two basic functions. As a 
research institute it collects, catalogs, and analyzes flora 
and fauna and artifacts from human cultures worldwide — 
19 million specimens so far — and makes this knowledge 
available to the scientific community. Then, in the public 
museum, it groups and displays these objects in inter- 
pretive exhibits. The common denominator of the 



Museum's collection and research activities and its work 
in public education is perhaps best expressed by John 
Muir's observation: "When we try to pick out anything by 
itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe." 

Because Field Museum recognizes just how 
"hitched" we are to all other species inhabiting this planet, 
our scientists are leaders in conservation biology. Civiliza- 
tion long ago stripped the world's temperate regions of 
natural habitats that were home to millions of species, and 
now this process of destruction is under way at the poles 
and in the tropics. Field Museum researchers are in the 
forefront of efforts to find, identify, and preserve as many 
of these species as possible before their habitats are des- 
troyed. 

Other research groups in the Museum have been 
working on problems in geology and anthropology that 
also involve the diversity and interrelationships of species 
and cultures. In the new paleomagnetism laboratory, our 
scientists are exploring how evolution is affected by the 
changing face of the Earth itself, as continental drift has 
separated creatures from their cousins and native en- 
vironments. Likewise, our anthropologists study evolution 
as they examine the nature of sociocultural change and 
stability, and the origins of ethnic diversity. 

Like the research departments, the public museum 
focuses on diversity — not only in presenting displays of 
the diversity of the natural world and human cultures, but 
also in creating programs to meet the needs and interests 
of a diverse public. Centennial Directions gave us a plan 
for doing that, and visitors can see the results in the 
dramatic changes that have taken place in the Museum's 
physical appearance and exhibits. 

By the time of the Museum's centennial in 1993 we 
expect that the Museum will have much to celebrate. We 
will celebrate not only what the Museum has done, but its 
vital future role — to advance both our knowledge of the 
natural world and a public spirit of protectiveness toward 
the living planet to which all our futures are hitched. The 
Museum's vast systematic collections will serve as an 
invaluable resource in assessing and addressing the 
growing challenges of biodiversity. 

You have bought the biosphere a little more time by 
investing in your Museum. What we have done with those 
resources in the past two years is set forth in the report that 
follows. I can only add that the enthusiastic and imagina- 
tive ways in which the staff and volunteers have re- 
sponded to the challenges of Centennial Directions give 
me great confidence that we can maintain the momentum 
into the Museum's second century. 




Robert A. Pritzker 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES, December 31, 1988 



Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H. Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank William Considine 
William R. Dickinson Jr. 



Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
LeoF. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



LIFE TRUSTEES 

Harry 0. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
William V. Kahler' 
William H. Mitchell* 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood* 



'deceased 



OFFICERS 



Robert A. Pritzker, 

Board Chairman 

Marshall Field, 

Vice Chairman 

Blaine J. Yarrington, 

Vice Chairman & Treasurer 

Richard M. Jones, 

Vice Chairman 

Frank William Considine, 

Vice Chairman 

Leo F. Mullin, 

Vice Chairman 

John James Kinsella, 
Vice Chairman 
John S. Runnells, 
Secretary 
Willard L. Boyd, 
President 



Executive Committee 

Robert A. Pritzker, 

Board Chairman 

Marshall Field, 

Vice Chairman 

Blaine J. Yarrington, 

Vice Chairman & Treasurer 

Richard M. Jones, 

Vice Chairman 

Frank William Considine, 

Vice Chairman 

Leo F. Mullin, 

Vice Chairman 

John James Kinsella, 

Vice Chairman 

James J. O'Connor, 

Ex-Officio 

John S. Runnells, 

Secretary 

Willard L. Boyd, 

President. Staff 

Liaison 



Collections & Research 
Committee 

Richard M. Jones, 
Vice Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Henry T Chandler 
Worley H.Clark 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Robert D. Kolar 
Mrs. Robert D. Kolar 
William Kunkler III 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
John S. Runnells 
Theodore Van Zelst 
Harold K. Voris, 
Staff Liaison 

Development Committee 

LeoF. Mullin, 
Vice Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Worley H.Clark 
Frank William Considine 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 
Thomas R. Sanders, 
Staff Liaison 



Public Programs 
Committee 

Marshall Field, 
Vice Chairman 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Mrs. Edwin DeCosta 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Phillip Harris 
Ms. Maria Bechly-Hodes 
John James Kinsella 
James H. Ransom 
Andrew Rosenfield 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
Michael Spock, 
Staff Liaison 



Finance Committee 

Blaine J. Yarrington, 
Vice Chairman 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Frank William Considine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strotz 
E. Leiand Webber 
Jimmie W. Croft, 
Staff Liaison 

Audit And Pension 
Subcommittee 

Hugo J. Melvoin, 
Vice Chairman 
George R. Baker 
E. Leiand Webber 
Jimmie W. Croft, 
Staff Liaison 

Museum Services 
Committee 

Frank William Considine, 
Vice Chairman 
George R. Baker 
Harry O. Bercher 
William R. Dickinson Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert L. Wesley 
Jimmie W. Croft, 
Staff Liaison 



Nominating Committee 

Marshall Field, 
Chairman 

Mrs. T Stanton Armour 
Gordon Bent 
James J. O'Connor 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington  
Willard L. Boyd, 
Staff Liaison 

Marketing Committee 

John James Kinsella, 
Vice Chairman 
Mrs. Michael A. Bilandic 
Mrs. Phillip D. Block III 
James W. Compton 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Philip Harris 
Mrs. Newton M. Minow 
James H. Ransom 
Willard L. Boyd, 
John Economos, 
Staff Liaison 




The new informal exhibit Sizes invites visitor participation. The special construction of this room, viewed through a window, creates tne 
illusion that these men, of nearly the same size, are of midget and giant proportions. Ron Testa 84952-17 



THE PUBLIC MUSEUM 

While every department of the Museunn, from housekeep- 
ing to scientific support services, has had to change to 
meet the challenges of Centennial Directions, most of that 
change has been invisible to the public. Not so the drama- 
tic reorganization undenway in the public museum. Any- 
one returning for a visit after an absence of several years 
will immediately notice the difference. 

The plan called for development of a multi-tiered sys- 
tem of exhibits designed to serve the distinctly different 
needs of the Museum's many constituencies — family 
groups and tourists, schoolchildren and teachers, schol- 
ars and serious amateurs, and, not least, those nonvisitors 
for whom the Museum's hushed formality has been a 
barrier. 



once-imposing physical grandeur softened by the ex- 
panded Museum shop and lively exhibits filling the arcade 
spaces on either side. These informal exhibits cover 
single-concept, nonsequential themes, designed to lure 
the casual visitor into direct, challenging experiences. The 
exhibits rely heavily on interactive models, functional repli- 
cas, and expendable materials. They are engaging, play- 
ful, sometimes messy, noisy, and bright. 

The tone was set on October 1 0, 1 987, with the open- 
ing of the first of the informal exhibits. Sizes, which ex- 
plores concepts of biomechanics and scale. Step right up, 
folks. Test your jumping skill against a flea! Try on Levi's 
largest off-the-rack jeans! In short, put yourself in the other 
creature's shoes. 

Major Thematic Exhibits 



Informal Exhibits 

Representative elements of the new system are now in 
place. A visitor walking into Stanley Field Hall will find the 



As visitors move deeper into the Museum, they will 
encounter major thematic exhibits. These are not traveling 
spectaculars like 1977's Treasures of Tutankhamen but 
more permanent installations drawing on materials and 



ideas from several Museum departments and collections, 
and are intended to present sequential topics in dramatic 
and memorable form. 

Tfie emphasis is on displaying collections, conveying 
information, and stimulating thought. The settings are 
carefully designed environments that include controlled 
lighting, sound, and climate. While they reflect the 
strengths of Field Museum collections, they also make use 
of models, dioramas, media, simple interactive devices, 
and provocative labels. 

The first major thematic exhibit. Inside Ancient Egypt, 
opened to the public November 1 1 , 1988. The Museum's 
extraordinary collection of Egyptian artifacts, assembled 
by Edward Ayer over a number of years beginning in 1 894, 
has been arranged to tell the story of everyday, court, and 
after life during more than 3,000 years of dynastic rule. 
Beginning with a walk through two of the actual rooms from 
the mastaba of Unis-Ankh set in a replica of the original 
tomb complex, the visitor climbs to the roof, then de- 
scends the thirty-five-foot burial shaft to the looted burial 
chamber below. Other highlights of the exhibit include a 
Nile marsh diorama with living papyrus and a working sha- 
duf, or water-lift; a rare funerary boat; a village shrine to the 



One of several hands-on activities in the new permanent exhibit, 
Inside Ancient Egypt. Here, visitors try the stiaduf. or water-lift. 



Field Museum Attendance 
1983-1988 

1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 




1 ,400,000 

1 300 ono 




















> 


1,200,000 

1,100,000 

1 ,000,000 

900,000 










k 






A 




1 


A 


y 


^ 




i 


1 


1 




1 



cat goddess Bastet; a lively marketplace; and twenty- 
three actual mummies, whose wrappings were specially 
conserved for this appearance. 

The second major exhibit, on the Pacific Islands, is 
scheduled to open in two parts in 1989 and 1990; a third, 
on Africa, is in the planning stages; Museum staffers have 
been consulting African and African-American communi- 
ties in the Chicago area for their ideas on what might make 
this exhibit more meaningful and powerful. 

Resource Centers 

Occupying the outermost ring of public spaces, but im- 
mediately adjacent to the thematic exhibits, resource 
centers afford the intrigued casual visitor or advanced 
user an opportunity for concentrated, in-depth, and de- 
tailed exploration of the Museum's collections. In comfort- 
able, informal, library-like spaces with lots of seating and 
natural lighting from windows that open onto the park, visi- 
tors have access to study collections, educational kits, 
books and periodicals, photo archives, videotapes, re- 
cordings, and computer databases. Helpful staff and 
volunteers facilitate access to resources both at the Field 
Museum and at other Chicago-area institutions. 

The first resource center opened June 27, 1987. 
Focusing on native peoples of the Americas, it was named 



in honor of E. Leiand Webber, director and president of the 
Museum for many years. Reference materials expand on 
the "Indians of the Americas" exhibits in the surrounding 
halls. Visitors have made especially heavy use of a collec- 
tion of videotapes, albums of prints from the Museum's 
extensive archive of ethnographic photos, experience 
boxes from the Harris Educational Loan Center, and tribal 
newspapers through which Native Americans speak from 
their own perspective of current issues. 

Special Exhibits 

In 1987 and 1988 the Museum opened two additional 
spaces for special exhibits, the Webber Gallery located in 
the Webber Resource Center and a small gallery on the 
ground floor next to the larger Special Exhibition Hall that 
has housed Gods. Spirits, and People since 1986. The 
new spaces permitted a significant increase in temporary 
exhibits; during the past two years the Museum fiosted 
seventeen traveling exhibits and also mounted three 
shows generated in-house. 

Recent acquisitions to the Field Museum's anthropol- 
ogy collection provided artifacts for two of the special in- 
house exhibits. Traditions in Japanese Art: Ttie Boone Col- 
lection included a broad spectrum of items spanning the 
Edo through Meiji periods. Paintings, maps, books, cera- 
mics, personal accessories, household furnishings, and 
textiles donated by Katharine and the late Commander 
Gilbert E. Boone comprised the exhibit which was on dis- 
play June to October 1988. In addition, Japanese inro, net- 
suke, and ojime donated by Jeanette and Carl Kroch have 
been exhibited in a special display adjacent to the ground 
floor Special Exhibition Hall since November 1987. 

The Museum's most spectacular special exhibition of 
the past two years was certainly Tiffany: 150 Years of 
Gems and Jewelry, mounted in the Hall of Gems and 
Grainger Gallery for three months starting November 7, 
1987. The exhibit traced the evolution of jewelry design in 
America through the history of the famous jeweler. 

The exhibit Celebrating Our Diversity, a collection of 
artifacts from the Department of Anthropology, was dis- 
played at Oak Woods Cemetery Association in 1988 as a 
memorial to the late Mayor Harold Washington. 



EDUCATION PROGRAMMING 
and COMMUNITY OUTREACH 

Field Museum's educational programs are designed to 
augment, refresh, and bring new ideas into the life of our 
diverse audiences. Under the impetus of Centennial Di- 
rections, the Education Department has been experiment- 
ing with a variety of programs to bring objects, ideas, and 
learners together in stimulating and useful exchanges. 

For the casual visitor as well as the more focused 
user, we offered a rich variety of courses, workshops, per- 
formances, and participatory activities. More than 10,352 
people enrolled in multi-session evening or weekend adult 
courses, participated in Chicago-area environmental field 
trips, or took part in Summer and Winter Fun children's 
workshops. Public presentations included performances, 
lectures, and adult feature courses that highlighted Field 
Museum's research in the tropics, Indians of the Great 
Lakes, and Egypt. 

For the casual visitor, the relocated Place for Wonder 
made it possible for parents and younger children to share 
the delights of touching and exploring natural history 
materials. Others experienced the replica 1850 Pawnee 
Earth Lodge, listened to local professional musicians in 
the World Music Program, or participated with Hall Inter- 
preters in more than 45 hands-on activities. 

School and community groups account for one-fifth of 
the Museum's total annual attendance. Centennial Direc- 
tions outlines our responsibility to extend the benefits of 
these excursions by increasing training programs for 
teachers and community group leaders, working with 
these teachers to improve understanding of the signifi- 
cance of object-based learning on the total educational 
experience, and developing more resource materials for 
use away from the Museum. 

Thus, training for teachers and community leaders 
has become a major component of the Museum's work. In 
1987-88, some 2,150 teachers and student-teachers par- 
ticipated in 96 training sessions, some for two-week per- 
iods and others for one-day workshops. These sessions 
are followed by participant evaluation and program mod- 
elling for future field trips. The entire 8,000-copy first print- 
ing of the Museum's new publication Teach ttie Mind, 




Tenth anniversary of the Pawnee Earth 
Lodge In 1988 included visits by 
Oklahoma Pawnee Indians, who shared 
their rich cultural heritage with visitors. 



Touch the Spirit: A Guide to Focused Field Trips was ex- 
hausted by year's end and the book was reprinted. In 
addition, 2,966 teachers borrowed 8,893 mini-exhibits 
and experience boxes free of charge fronn the Harris Edu- 
cational Loan Center. 

Centennial Directions took note of the fact that for a 
variety of reasons many suburban and inner-city residents 
never use the Museum. The Community Outreach pro- 
gram, begun in September 1 988, organizes workshops on 
natural history and cultural themes and provides educa- 
tional materials and staff training in Chicago Park District 
field houses, churches, youth clubs, and other facilities in 
six south-central urban neighborhoods. Advisory com- 
mittees from these communities will organize annual 
Neighborhood Nights at the Museum. 

In total, 7,272 programs were presented to 795,012 
individuals during this biennium. Much of this would not 
have been possible without the 1 63 volunteers, who assist 
in the Education department. Another 1 40 volunteers work 
in other areas of the Museum. Altogether, this volunteer 
support totaled 85,855 hours, which, in financial terms, 
could be considered a contribution of over $500,000. 
More importantly, each volunteer contributes a fresh per- 
spective and provides us with the public's viewpoint of our 
work. 




In recognition of Black History Month, Cameroon performers join us 
for the African Heritage celebration in Stanley Field Hall. 



Educational Groups and Individuals in 
School Groups Visiting Field Museum 
1981-1988 



1981-82 1983-84 1985-86 1987-88 



1981-82 1983-84 1985-86 1987-i 



10,000 



9,000 



8,000 



7,000 



6,000 



5,000 



7 



500,000 



400,000 



300,000 



200,000 



100,000 



W 



Groups 



Individuals 



COLLECTIONS and 




The late Timothy C, Plowman (left) with Jack C. Staehle, loyal supporter of botanical research projects, Dr, Plowman, former chairman of the 
Department of Botany, was the world's leading authority on the plant family Erythroxylaceae, 



10 



Centennial Directions assigns five tasks to the research 
and collections divisions of the Museum: to work with other 
private and governmental organizations in planning a 
national strategy that would guide us in adding to the Field 
Museum's collections; to add selectively to the collections 
in the areas of the Museum's established strengths 
through fieldwork, purchases, and gifts in kind; to provide 
adequate staffing for conservation and management of 
the collections; to upgrade research equipment, storage 
facilities, and computer capabilities; and to maintain and 
build the library. 

During the past biennium, progress has been made in 
each of these areas. A visiting committee of university, 
museum, and science laboratory leaders reviewed the 
Museum's collections and research programs in 1 987 and 
concluded that while the collections "represent a major 
world resource," they "need to be nurtured both by addi- 
tions and by continuous reinterpretation as our un- 
derstanding of the evolutionary process grows as the re- 
sult of advances in earth, planetary, and anthropological 
sciences." 

Certainly our Museum scientists have become more 



acutely aware these past few years of their role in the 
rapidly escalating conservation crisis, particularly in the 
tropical rain forests. Each year an area the size of West 
Virginia is being denuded of lush jungle, and species not 
yet named or recognized are disappearing faster than 
they can be inventoried and protected. The first step in 
preserving biological diversity must be an inventory of 
species and an understanding of how they interact with 
each other and their environment. The Museum is one of 
only a few institutions with the personnel and resources to 
make major conthbutions at every level of the conserva- 
tion process. While our researchers, of course, work in 
many other disciplines and areas of the world, it's appro- 
priate to highlight here their timely and urgent assign- 
ments in the tropics. 

Tropical Botany and Zoology 

In 1 988, the Field Museum entered into an agreement with 
Conservation International, formalizing a partnership to 
promote the understanding and conservation of tropical 
ecosystems. In Costa Rica, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, Boll- 



via, Madagascar, Chile, the Philippines, and Borneo, 
Museum scientists have been working with host gov- 
ernments, conservation agencies, and other museums 
and universities. The Museum seeks to document biolo- 
gical diversity and its significance for conservation on a 
global scale, promote the use of its unique tropical col- 
lections, and collaborate on the training students and pro- 
fessionals in host countries. 

Among the Field Museum researchers who contri- 
buted important work on the flora and fauna of tropical for- 
ests is the late chairman of the Department of Botany, 
Timothy C. Plowman. His death in January 1989 is much 
mourned by his colleagues, who have established the 
Timothy Plowman Fund for South American Research and 
Travel to assist future generations of tropical botanists. Dr. 
Plowman was the world's leading authority on taxonomy of 
the family Erythroxylaceae, which includes coca, and he 
collaborated closely with ethnobotanists working to iden- 
tify plants known to heal, feed, and house indigenous peo- 
ples. The Museum's large and historically significant col- 
lection of plant-derived waxes, oils, herbs, medicines, 
woods, fibers, seeds, and bark, including many items no 
longer produced in the modern world, has been renamed 
the Timothy Plowman Economic Botany Collection. 

In Venezuela's Orinoco Basin, extensive deforesta- 
tion and river diversion threaten the habitats of numerous 
fish communities, and the Museum's associate curator of 
fishes, Barry Chernoff, has contributed detailed data from 
his studies of South American freshwater fishes in hopes 
that a management plan can be devised to save them. 
Similarly, Lawrence Heaney, recently appointed assistant 
curator of mammals, has been working in the Philippines, 



where his data on rare and increasingly endangered 
species is being used to redesign the national park 
system. 

Scott Lanyon, associate curator of birds, led expedi- 
tions to Bolivia, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela to 
track the biochemical, morphological, and behavioral 
evolution of the New World blackbirds. Lanyon was 
recently appointed representative of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union to the International Council for Bird Pre- 
servation. John Fitzpatrick, chairman of the Department of 
Zoology, who has been inventorying bird communities in 
Peru, visited Madagascar to investigate the possibility of 
conducting similar studies in that extremely threatened 
area. 

Other Field Museum scientists working in the tropics 
include William Burger (botanical studies in Costa Rica), 
Michael Dillon (vascular plants, Peru), Bruce Patterson 
(mammalian studies, Chile), and Robert Inger and Harold 
Voris (amphibians and reptiles, Borneo). 

Geology and Paleontology 

Understanding evolutionary diversity is also the province 
of those who study the world of the geological past. That 
work will be significantly advanced by the new 
paleomagnetic laboratory developed by John Flynn, 
associate curator of fossil mammals. During the 4.6 billion 
years of the Earth's existence, its magnetic poles have 
changed orientation many times, and fossil-bearing rocks 
often reveal evidence of their magnetic orientation at the 
time they were formed. Paleomagnetic comparison of 
geographically remote specimens can show how the 




Ron Testa, head photogra- 
pher, and Diane Alexander 
White, photographer, record 
on film one of the Museum's 
great treasures, a bronze 
Egyptian cat collected by 
Edward E. Ayer in 1 895, In 
addition to photographing 
artifacts and specimens of ev- 
ery description, for record as 
well as publication, they 
'shoot' activities as well: public 
performances, workshops, 
formal celebrations, building 
renovation, and curatorial 
work in the laboratory and in 
the field. 



11 



Nina Cummings 84489 



Earth's land masses have drifted together and apart over 
the eons. From such evidence, researchers like Flynn and 
Lance Grande, associate curator of fossil fishes, are able 
to track relationships among species that the current con- 
figuration of the continents and oceans could not possibly 
support. 

Biochemistry 

First-rate research in evolutionary biology is often depen- 
dent on biochemical analysis. Currently, most biochemi- 
cal work by Museum staff and gradute students uses the 
technique of starch-gel electrophoresis. The state of the 
art, however, is more advanced, and ornithologist Scott 
Lanyon, who coordinates the Museum's biochemical sys- 
tematics laboratories, hopes soon to acquire the full array 
of futuristic technology: mitochondrial and nuclear DNA 
sequencing, polymerase chain reaction amplification of 
DNA sequences, DNA fingerprinting, and DNAxDNA 
hybridization. 



Ethnology and Archaeology 

Civilizations come and civilizations go, beneficiaries or 
victims of climatic change, technological development, 
pestilence, and war. Aboriginal cultures in the modern 
world coexist uneasily with Western civilization, and are 
defeated entirely with the loss of wilderness. Preserving 
the arts and artifacts of cultures living and dead is vital to 
understanding what links us to our fellows and our ances- 
tors, and all of us to the living Earth. 

The Museum's vast and growing collections in 
anthropology — more than 600,000 items — thus are the 
centerpieces of its major exhibits, and conserving them is 
among the Museum's most important functions. Head of 
Conservation Catherine Sease took a major step forward 
in this field in June 1987, when she was preparing for the 
opening of the new Webber Hall. Sease helped develop 
relative-humidity modules for exhibit cases, technology 
that eliminates the need to climate-control entire halls. The 
Field Museum is the first institution in the U.S. to make 



Catherine Sease, head of Anthropology's Conservation Division, and Christine Del Re, associate conservator, together with Egyptology 
consultant Frank Yurco, exannine one of 23 mummies subsequently placed on view in the new Inside Ancient Egypt exhibit. "The visible 
side of conservation," observes Sease," is the work we do for exhibits, but that concerns roughly 1 percent of the Anthropology col- 
lections. The remainder of our holdings require both preventive care and treatment too. Conservation at Field tvluseum is expanding to 
be able to meet these various needs." 



12 




extensive use of these modules. In 1 988 Sease received a 
grant from the National Endowment for the Arts to continue 
research on the modules and assess their performance. 

Center for Academic Programs 

As a result of the Museum's Capital Campaign, three major 
new scholarship programs were added to the Museum's 
array of supports for nonstaff use of the collections: the 
Borg-Warner Robert 0. Bass Visiting Scientist Program, 
the Prince Visiting Scholars Program, and the Lester 
Armour Family Graduate Fellowship. 

In 1987-88, the Scholarship Committee made a total 
of 87 awards, of which 22 went to exceptional graduate or 
undergraduate students and the remainder to visiting sci- 
entists from around the world, including scholars from 
Asia, South America, Europe, Australia, and Africa as well 
as the United States and Canada. 

Additions to the Collections 

The Department of Botany acquired several important col- 
lections from endangered tropical areas in 1987-88. As a 
result of a program sponsored by the National Institutes of 
Health, the herbarium received a major collection of plants 
from Southeast Asian tropical rain forests. The objective of 
this program, headed by Research Associate Doel Soejar- 
to, is to collect plants that will be tested for substances that 
might help in treating cancer and AIDS. The herbarium 
also received major collections of South American gras- 
ses and palms that are already revealing several new 
species. 

A longtime and active volunteer in the Department of 
Anthropology, Carolyn S. Moore, contributed 25 Japanese 
textile stencils to the Collections. Further anthropological 
additions included over 700 Japanese paintings, sketch- 
es, and art objects from Katharine and the late Com- 



mander Gilbert E. Boone, as well as a collection of 
Japanese inro, netsuke, and ojime from Jeanette and Carl 
Kroch. 

The Department of Zoology's collections were also 
enriched. The Division of Invertebrates augmented its 
important collection of land snails. In 1987, Curator Alan 
Solem traveled by helicopter to survey patches of rain for- 
est in Western Australia. Over 29,000 specimens of land 
snails were collected, and among these Solem dis- 
covered two new genera and about 50 new species. 
These specimens will greatly assist Solem as he continues 
to study how these organisms originated and evolved. 

The Library 

Interns, volunteers, and staff members have devoted con- 
siderable effort in the past two years to organizing and 
processing archival and manuscript collections for use by 
staff and outside researchers. 

The correspondence of Herman Strecker (1836- 
1901), lepidopterist and dealer in butterfly and moth 
specimens, comprises nearly 10,000 letters from natural- 
ists around the world concerning entomology and collect- 
ing. These papers are rich as well in biographical and 
general historical information. 

The papers of Charles Wake (1835-1910), an anthro- 
pologist who made important contributions to early kin- 
ship studies, include a document of particular interest to 
the Library. As librarian of the ethnographic department of 
the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, Wake compiled a 
list of the books in the department's library, noting the 
donor or lender and including Wake's subject classifica- 
tion of the book. The list is thus of great interest for the 
history of late nineteenth-century anthropology; and 
because a considerable portion of the books from the col- 
lection were among the earliest accessions to the Field 
Museum Library, its contents are being checked against 
the Library's current holdings. 



Field Museum of Natural History Library 
Year-End Holdings 



Library 



Total 



1984 



1985 



1986 



1987 



1988 



223,722 



226,682 



229,566 



232,269 



236,006 



Percent 
Growth 
1984-88 



General 


97,191 


98,120 


99,065 


99,957 


100,254 


3.2% 


Anthropology 


32,447 


33,273 


34,028 


34,624 


35,953 


10.8% 


Botany 


28,428 


28,783 


29,140 


29,562 


30,028 


5.6% 


Geology 


32,940 


33,302 


33,625 


33,903 


34,973 


6.2% 


Zoology 


32,716 


33,204 


33,708 


34,223 


34,798 


6.4% 



5.5% 



1988 Use of Collections (in volumes) 





Museum 


Public 


Interlibrary 


Library 


Staff 


Visitors 


Loans 


General 


1,558 


872 


224 


Anthropology 


1,048 


649 


115 


Botany 


311 


109 


74 


Geology 


482 


147 


61 


Zoology 


420 


448 


167 



Total 



3,819 



2,225 



641 



13 



DEVELOPMENT 



To maintain its position as a major international research 
center and as one of the world's great public museums, 
the Field Museum must constantly earn the interest and 
loyalty of its many support constituencies. However excel- 
lent it may be, the Field tViuseum is but one of several 
national institutions in its class, and one of many worthy 
organizations to which talented citizens might be asked to 
devote their time and money. Centennial Directions sets 
the task of the Development Department to move "beyond 
fund raising" into "institutional advancement," a long- 
range effort to identify the varied interests of current and 
potential leaders, volunteers, members, and donors and 
to target programs and activities that will attract and hold 
them as Museum advocates. 

Meanwhile, of course, plain old fund raising has its 
uses, especially in the midst of a campaign to raise $40 
million in new capital. "Time Future From Time Past," the 
.three-year Capital Campaign, concluded on December 
31, 1987 with a record $43.3 million in the till. Among the 
significant contributions to the Campaign was the largest 
single family gift to the Museum in recent history — $2.5 
million from Mr. and Mrs. William L. Searle for unrestricted 
use. The oversubscription of the Capital Campaign has 
enabled the Museum to undertake the renewal of pro- 
grams and physical plant necessary to open the doors on 
its second century. A listing of 1987-88 donors is on page 
30. 

With the end of the Capital Campaign, Vice President 
for Development Thomas R. Sanders announced his 
retirement, effective January 31 , 1989, after twenty years 
with the Museum. Leo F. Mullin became chairman of the 
Development Committee of the Board of Trustees, suc- 
ceeding Richard M. Jones. 

The Founders' Council 

The Founders' Council, consisting of the Museum's prin- 
cipal individual, corporate, and foundation donors, was 
organized in 1983 and celebrated its fifth anniversary in 
1988 with a dinner at which the Council's Award of Merit 



was presented to Sir David Attenborough, the naturalist 
and documentary filmmaker. Henry T. Chandler com- 
pleted two years as chairman in 1 987 and was succeeded 
by co-chairs Robert and Brooke Kolar. 

The Women's Board 

Women's Board activities during the biennium raised sub- 
stantial funds for the Museum while calling attention to sig- 
nificant exhibitions. The Tiffany Ball on November 6, 1 987, 
chaired by Mrs. P. Kelley Armour, marked the opening of 
the Tiffany exhibit in the Grainger Hall of Gems, which itself 
marked the jeweler's 150th anniversary. More than 1 ,000 
guests attended. A year later, on November 4, 1988, the 
Egyptian Ball, chaired by Mrs. John W. Madigan and 
underwritten by Mr. and Mrs. David W. Grainger, also 
attracted some 1 ,000 guests for a preview of the new per- 
manent exhibit Inside Ancient Egypt. 

The annual Family Christmas Tea was chaired in 1 987 
by Mrs. Harrington Bischof and in 1988 by Mrs. Robert 
Fesmire. The traditional holiday event for Museum mem- 
bers, friends, and their families brings 1,500 guests to 
Stanley Field Hall for refreshments, music and entertain- 
ment. 

Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith completed her two-year term 
as president of the Women's Board in May 1988 and was 
succeeded by Mrs. James T. O'Connor. 

The Public Programs Support Group 

The Public Programs Support Group (ppsg) was orga- 
nized in 1 987 for talented and diverse young professionals 
interested in the Museum's new directions in public pro- 
grams. The group spent its first two years building a mem- 
bership base, establishing objectives, and determining its 
role in the Museum's future, ppsg provided valuable 
advice and contacts for the Museum during the develop- 
ment of its most ambitious neighborhood program, Com- 
munity Outreach. The group's primary function in the com- 
ing years will be raising funds and serving as volunteers 



Corporations 16% 



Capital Campaign,"Tinfie Future From Time Past- 1984-1987 

Annual Support 23% 



Building Improvements 29% 




14 



Sources $43,000,000 



Destination $43,000,000 



Philip Harris, chairman of the Public Programs Support Group. 

"The PPSG," says Harris, "is committed to providing Field Museum 

with financial and human resources which will contribute to the 

Museum's efforts to reach out to a more diverse public." 




Annual Unrestricted Giving 
1984-1988 



Total Giving 
1984-1988 



1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 



1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 



$2,000,000 



$1 ,750,000 



$1 ,500,000 




$1 ,250,000 



$1 ,000,000 



Total 



Individuals 
and Fannily 
Foundations 



Corporations 
Foundations 



4,500,000 
4,000,000 
3,500,000 
3,000,000 

? 5nn nnn 
















J 








/ 


s. 


y 






^ 


/^ 






2,000,000 
1 ,500,000 

1 ,000,000 
500,000 
















^ 




y 




/ 








— 








n 







Total 



Annual 
Giving Total 

Government Grants 



Restricted Giving 



15 




Shown at the Women's Board Egyptian Ball In November 1 988 are 
(I. to r.) Mrs. Lester Armour, Field Museum president Willard L. Boyd, 
and Museum trustee Mrs. T. Stanton Armour. 

Dave Rundell photo 



for the Community Outreach Program, which is designed 
to reach a broad spectrum of local residents — particularly 
the city's ethnic and economically disadvantaged com- 
munities. 

Tours 

During the biennium the Tours Department conducted a 
wide range of exciting tours, including a voyage to Pata- 
gonia and Cape Horn, an extraordinary exploration of Chi- 
na, and a Kenya/Tanzania safari. Many enthusiastic travel- 
ers participated in the twelve different excursions led by 
Field Museum curators. Several special tours were offered 
to Founders' Council members — a birding trip to the east 
coast of Maine, a tour of Boston that included a visit to the 
Ramesses Exhibit, and a tour to the Galapagos Islands 
with an optional extension to Peru. The travel groups en- 
joyed expanding their cultural expenences, increasing 
their awareness about natural history topics, and benefit- 
ing from the expertise of Field Museum specialists. 



Founders' Council co-chairs Brooke and Bob Kolar. wiiiiam Burimgham photo 



16 




PUBLIC RELATIONS 



The challenge of Centennial Directions to the Museum's 
public relations and marketing staff — "to attract more visi- 
tors. . .and to broaden their use of the Museum's re- 
sources" — was met with coordinated publicity, promo- 
tion, and advertising campaigns that increased Museum 
attendance from 1 , 1 65,027 in 1 986 to 1 ,332,707 in 1 988, a 
year that included the highest single day's attendance 
(15,845 on December 29) since the 1933 World's Fair 
(65,966 on August 24). 

A major effort to promote Inside Ancient Egypt re- 
sulted in extensive media coverage throughout the United 
States and in at least 79 foreign countries. KLM Airlines, 
Pizza Hut, the Illinois Office of Tourism, major Chicago 
retailers, banks, and hotels joined with the Museum to pro- 
mote major exhibits and programs. The department par- 
ticipated in 18 major city and community festivals, dis- 
tributing 570,000 Field Museum brochures. The annual 
"Spend a Day with Us" campaign successfully promoted 
the Field Museum, Shedd Aquarium, and Adier Planetar- 
ium as a travel destination for suburban and midwest 
visitors. 

A spring 1 988 radio advertising campaign promoting 
the new Sizes exhibit was capped with an on-site appear- 
ance by Dave Corzine, the tallest member of the Chicago 
Bulls basketball team. Attendance increased dramatically 
during and immediately after this campaign. 

The Five- Year Plan 

Working with a team of senior advisors from the Leo Bur- 
nett U.S.A. advertising agency, the department has de- 
veloped a comprehensive five-year marketing plan de- 
signed to build annual attendance to 2.1 million by 1993 
and to generate substantial new revenues for the Mu- 
seum. Year One of the plan is 1989; the theme is "Field 
Museum — the Smart Way to Have Fun." 



^^^^^^^^^^^B '^1 


M 






^^^^K rjH^B 


^K _^^0^ '^ ^^^^^^^H 


S§ 


RJ 


ri 


WM 



"Mothers and Daughiters," a collection of photographs on view 
January through March 1988, was among 1 7 traveling exhibits 
during the biennium. 



Field Museum 

The Smart W\yTo Have Fun. 



17 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Statements off Assets, Liabilities and Fund Baiances 
Decemlser 31, 1388 and 1987 





Unrestricted fund 


Board designated fund 


Assets 


1988 


1987 


1988 1987 


Cash 


$ 625,724 


$ 1,079,401 




Accounts receivable 


438,949 


571,458 




Pledges receivable 


165,750 






Museum stores' inventory 


1,115,051 


970,716 




Prepaid expenses: 








Pension cost 


371,923 


10,878 




Other 


85,771 


104,479 




Deferred charges: 








Note issuance costs 








Other 


195,581 


78,435 




Investments 


2,339,338 


1,275,475 




Collections 


1 


1 




Museum property 


7,136,866 
$12,474,954 


7,136,866 
$11,227,709 








Liabilities and Fund Balances 




Accounts payable 


$ 1,593,259 


$ 1,056,948 




Accrued liabilities 


351,301 


404,972 




Accrued pension contribution 


330,553 






Deferred revenue: 








Contributions 








Other 


381,227 


218,220 




Note payable 








Due to (from) other funds 


775,893 


546,376 


($3,284,675) ($2,475,824) 


Total liabilities 


3,432,233 


2,226,516 


( 3,284,675) ( 2,475,824) 


Museum property fund balance 


7,136,867 


7,136,867 




Fund balance 


1 ,905,854 


1 ,864,326 


3,284,675 2,475,824 


Total fund balance 


9,042,721 


9,001,193 


3,284,675 2,475,824 




$12,474,954 


$11,227,709 


$ - $ - 



18 



Restricted fund 
1988 1987 



Fund 

functioning 

as endowment 

1988 1987 



Endowment fund 
1988 1987 



Combined total 
1988 1987 



$ 573,175 
4,195,037 


$ 404,968 


$ 200,000 








$ 625,724 
1,012,124 
4,560,787 
1,115,051 

371 ,923 
85,771 


$ 1,079,401 
976,426 

970,716 

10,878 
104,479 


369,580 
18,312,566 


384,910 
24,423,657 


51,235,841 


$44,031 ,440 


$15,490,012 


$14,488,013 


369,580 

195,581 

87,377,757 


384,910 

78,435 

84,218,585 

1 

7,136,866 














7,136,866 
$102,851,165 


$23,450,358 


$25,213,535 


$51,435,841 


$44,031,440 


$15,490,012 


$14,488,013 


$94,960,697 


$ 235,487 


$ 180,952 










$ 1,593,259 
586,788 
330,553 


$ 1,056,948 
585,924 


6,568,163 

37,926 

14,100,000 

2,508,782 


6,173,916 

29,219 

$16,900,000 

$ 1,929,448 

25,213,535 










6,568,163 

419,153 

14,100,000 


6,173,916 

247,439 

16,900,000 


23,450,358 










23,597,916 

7,136,867 
72,116,382 

79,253,249 

$102,851,165 


24,964,227 




$51,435,841 

51,435,841 

$51,435,841 


$44,031 ,440 

44,031,440 

$44,031 ,440 


$15,490,012 

15,490,012 

$15,490,012 


314,488,013 

14,488,013 

$14,488,013 


7,136,867 
62,859,603 






69,996,470 


$23,450,358 


$25,213,535 


$94,960,697 



19 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Statements of Revenues, Expenses and Changes in Fund Balances 
Years Ended December 31, 1388 and 1987 



Revenues 
Chicago Park District property tax collections 
Government grants 
Interest and dividend income 
Net realized gain (loss) on investments sold 
Net unrealized gain on investments held 
Contributions 
Memberships 
Admissions 

Auxiliary enterprises (museum stores, vending, tours, food services) 
Other 

Total revenues 

Expenses: 
Research and collections 
Public programs 
Finance and museum services 
Development and external affairs 
Administration 
Auxiliary enterprises (museum stores, 

vending, tours, food services) 
Capital improvement expenditures 
Note interest and amortization 
Net unrealized loss on investments held 
Overhead costs charged to grants 

Total expenses 

Increase (decrease) in fund balance before cumulative 
effect of a charge in accounting principles, transfers 
and net unrealized gain (loss) on investments held 

Cumulative effect of the change in the method of 
recognizing pledged contributions 

Increase (decrease) in fund balance before transfers 

and net unrealized gain (loss) on investments held 
Add (deduct) transfers 

Nonmandatory transfer — Board designated fund 

Transfer — Restricted Fund 

Transfer — Fund functioning as endowment 

Transfer — Endowment Fund 

Increase (decrease) in fund balance before net unrealized gain 

(loss) on investments held 
Fund balance at beginning of year 

Net unrealized gain (loss) on investments held 
Fund balance at end of year 



Unrestricted Fund 


Board designated fund 


1988 


1987 


1988 


1987 


$ 5,541,586 


$ 5,349,164 






443,421 


567,497 






3,153,146 


3,163,721 






3,193 


16,900 






1,650,379 


1 ,483,840 






611,775 


539,280 






1,168,267 


887,188 






2,995,978 


2,286,663 






26,943 


29,395 
14,323,648 

2,772,006 






15,594,688 


— 


— 


3,280,114 


$ 126,385 


$ 5,270 


1,041,736 


1 ,550,546 


27,245 


22,352 


5,377,310 


5,819,682 


44,047 


102 


1,320,370 


734,933 


13,391 


36.423 


1,333,511 


1,202,709 


130.081 


6,901 


2,554,529 


1,825,599 






114,660 


165,453 






(220,820) 


(163,530) 
13,907,398 






14,801,410 


341,149 


71,048 


793,278 


416,250 


(341,149) 


(71,048) 


398,250 








1,191,528 


416,250 


(341,149) 


(71,048) 


(1,150,000) 


(375,000) 


1,150,000 


375,000 


41,528 


41,250 


808,851 


303,952 


1,864,326 


1 ,823,076 


2,475,824 


2,171,872 


1 ,905,854 


1,864,326 


3,284,675 


2,475,824 


$ 1,905,854 


$ 1,864,326 


$3,284,675 


$2,475,824 



20 



Fund 
functioning 



Restricted fund 


an Endowment 


Endowment fund 


Combined total 


1988 


1987 


1988 


1987 


1988 


1987 


1988 

$5,541 ,586 


1987 

$ 5,349,164 


$1,387,092 


$ 789,273 










1,830,513 


1,356,770 


2,364,573 


2,386,681 


$ 12,015 


$ 26,466 


$ 2,126 


$ 4,913 


5,531,860 


5,581,781 


(56,206) 


(64,730) 


(807,296) 


5,036,871 


(254,050) 


1 ,629,682 


(1,114,359) 


6,618,723 


280,166 












280,166 




908,320 


7,269,572 


2,645,491 


871 ,058 


203,621 


606,159 


5,407,81 1 

61 1 ,775 

1,168,267 

2,995,978 


10,230,629 

539,280 

887,188 

2,286,663 


3,978 


2,830,700 
13,211,496 










30,921 
22,284,518 


2,860,095 


4,887,923 


1,850,210 


5,934,395 


(48,303) 


2,240,754 


35,710,293 


1,314,250 


939,095 










4,720,749 


3,716,371 


1,262,428 


1,269,177 

69,820 

456,726 










2,331 ,409 
5,421,357 
1 ,333,761 


2,842,075 
5,889,604 
1,228,082 


12,720 


95,132 










1,476,312 


1,304,742 


6,281 


4,832 










2,560,810 


1,830,431 


7,066,471 


8,436,308 










7,181,131 


8,601,761 


849,770 


856,461 
754,273 










849,770 


856,461 
754,273 


220,820 


163,530 
13,045,354 

166,142 










— 




10,732,740 










25,875,299 
(3,590,781) 


27,023,800 


(5,844,817) 


1,850,210 


5,934,395 


(48,303) 


2,240,754 


8,686,493 


7,581,993 




375,000 
2,225,210 








8,355,243 
4,764,462 




1,737,176 


166,142 


5,934,395 


(48,303) 


2,240,754 


8,686,493 


25,000 








(25,000) 




_ 


—~ 


(1,762,176) 


(166,142) 


1,762,176 








166,142 
4,764,462 


_ 


$ - 


3,987,386 


5,934,395 


(73,303) 


2,406,896 


8,686,493 






44,031,440 
48,018,826 


41,759,474 
47,693,869 


14,488,013 
14,414,710 


13,266,108 
15,673,004 


62,859,603 
67,624,065 


59,020,530 






67,707,023 






3,417,015 
$51,435,641 


(3,662,429) 
$44,031 ,440 


1,075,302 
$15,490,012 


(1,184,991) 
$14,488,013 


4,492,317 
$72,116,382 


(4,847,420) 




$ 


$62,859,603 



21 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 

BUKOWSKI. LUCY 
1988. (with H, K. Voris) Review of Collections Management for Museums, ed. by D. 
Andrew Roberts, ASC Newslener Vol 16(6);14. 

ANTHROPOLOOV 

Bronson, Bennet 

1987, CA' Comment Current Anthropology, 28 (2): 190. 

Models for Souttiern Tliai Pre- and Proto History, Final Report, Seminar in Pre- 
history of Soutl^easl Asia. SEAMED Protect in Archaeology and Fine Arts — 
pp, 259-275, 

Review of Prehistoric Investigations in Northeastern Thailand, by C, Higham 
and A, Kiingam, Journal of Archaeological Science. 14 (2): 228-9, 
Review of Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago, by P Bellwood. 
American Scientist. 75: 317. 

(With Ho Chui-Mei) The Ceramics of Changsha. China: Historical and Tech- 
nological Background. Archaeomaterials. 2(1): 73-81 . 
Review of Dubieshen, by D. Wanger. Archaeomaterials. 2 (1): 95-99. 
(With L. Adier, I. Chong, andS. Kurth) Japanese Lacquer Wares. Field 
Museum of Natural History Bulletin. 58 (9):22-30. 

Review of Mahtime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia, by 
K.R. Hall. Ethnohistory. 34(4): 419-21 . 

Terrestrial and Meteorite Iron in the Idonesian Kris. Journal of Historical Ivletal- 
/urgy, 22(1): 8-15. 

1988. (with CM. Ho) Chinese Pewter Teapots and Tea Wares. Field tJluseum of 
Natural History Bulletin. 59(1 ): 9-20. 

The Role of Barbanans in the Fall of States. Pp. 196-218in TheDeclineof 
Civilizations. (N. Yoffee and G. Cowgill, eds.) University of Arizona Press, 
Tucson. 

(with P Charoenwongsa) Chronology in Thai Prehistory Pp. 9-16 in The Stone 
and f\Aetal Ages of Thailand. (B. Bronson and P Charoenwongsa, eds.) 
Monographs in Thai Antiquity, vol. 1 . Thai Archaeology Working Group, Bang- 
kok, 135 pp. 

(with S. Natapintu) Don Noi: A New Flaked Stone Industry in Western Thai- 
land. Pp. 91-106 in The Stone and t\/letal Ages of Thailand. (B. Bronson and P 
Charoenwongsa, eds.) Monographs in Thai Antiquity vol. 1 . Thai Archaeol- 
ogy Working Group, Bangkok, 135 pp. 

(with C. M. Ho) Chinese Pewter Tea Wares. Arts of Asia. 1 8(6): 1 06-1 1 6. 
(with W Rostoker and J. Dvorak) Smelting to Steel by the Japanese Tatara 
Process. Archaeometals. 3(1). 

Cole, Glen 

1987. (with PG. Bahn and C. Couraud) Les galets peints du Mas-d'Azil deposes 
dans les musees des Etats-Unis, Bulletin de la Societe Prehistorique Ariege- 
Pyrenees. 42: 119-153. 

DEL RE. Christine 

1988. Technology and Conservation of Five Northwest Coast Headdresses. Pp. 53- 
61 in Symposium86: The Care and Preservation of Ethnological liAaterials. 
(Barclay Gilberg, McCawley and Stone, eds.) Canadian Conservation Insti- 
tute, Ottawa. 

LEWIS, PHILLIP 

1988. Review of Exhibition and Catalogue, An Assemblage of Spirits: Idea and Im- 
age in New Ireland Pacific Arts Newsletter. 26:40-47. 

A Malanggan Figure in the Permanent Collection. Tryptych. Nov-Dec. 1988.: 
11-13. 

Sease. Catherine 

1987. A Roman Horse Trapperfrom Dura-Europos. Pp. 179-184 in Recent Ad- 
vances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts. Summer Schools Press, 
London. 

A Conservation fvlanual for the Field Archaeologist. Archaeological Research 
Tools, Volume 4. Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los 
Angeles, 169 pp. 

1988. Exhibition Conservation. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 
59(2): 5-13. 

The Proposed Conservation of the Maori House in the Field Museum. Pp. 
233-239 in Symposium 86: The Care and Preservation of Ethnological Mate- 
rials. (Barclay Gilberg. McCawley and Stone, eds ) Canadian Conservation 
Institute, Ottawa. 

STANiSH, Charles 
1 987. Agroengineering Dynamics of Post-Tiwanaku Settlements in the Otora Valley. 
Southern Peru. Pp. 337-364 in Prehispanic Agricultural Fields in the Andean 
Region. (W. Denevan, K. Mathweson, and G. Knapp, eds.) BAR. Inter- 
national Series 359. 

The Ancient Villages of Southern Peru. Field Museum of Natural History Bulle- 
22 tin. 58(4): 6-10,23-25. 



1988. The Size and Complexity of Core Tiwanaku Settlements Pp. 35-57 in The 
Technology and Organization of Agricultural Production in the Tiwanaku 
State (A. Kolata, C. Stanish and 0. Rivera, eds.) First Preliminary Report of 
the Proyecto Wila Jawira, Institute Nacional de Arqueologia, La Paz. 

Terrell, John 

1987. CA" Comment. Current Anthropology 28 (4): 447-448. 

1 988. History as a family tree, history as an entangled bank: constructing images 
and interpretations of prehistory in the South Pacific. Antiquity. 62(237): 642-57 
Review of The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms, by P.V. Kirch. Reviews 

in Anthropology. 1988. 

Vanstone. Jaivies 

1987. Woven Porcupine Quill Decoration Among Indians of the Canadian North- 
west. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. 58(9): 16-21 

The Athapaskan Hunting Canoe. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 

58(3): 6-10. 

(withC. Lucier) An Inupiaq Autobiography Etudes/lnuit/Studies, 11(1): 149-172. 

1988. (withC. Lucier) John A. Kakaruk: Painter of Inland Eskimo Life. Field Museum 
of Natural History Bulletin. 59(2): 14-21 . 

The Simms Collection of Southwestern Chippewa Material Culture. Fieldiana: 
Anthropology, n.s., no. 11: 1-61. 

(with D. Kraus) Russian Exploration in Southwest Alaska: The Travel Journals 
of Petr Korsakovskiy (1818) and Ivan Ya. Vasilev (1829). Rasmuson Library 
Historical Translation Series 4. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, 1 30 pp. 
Northern Athapaskans: People of the Deer. Pp. 64-68 in Crossroads of Con- 
tinents: Cultures of Siberia and Alaska (W. W Fitzhugh and A. Crowell, eds.) 
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 

Hunters, Herders, Trappers, and Fishermen. Pp. 173-181 in Crossroads of 
Continents: Cultures of Siberia and Alaska. (W. W. Fitzhugh and A. Crowell, 
eds.) Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 

BOTANY 

Burger, William c 
1 988. A new genus of Lauraceae from Costa Rica, with comments on problems of 
generic and specific delimitation within the family Brittonia 40:275-282. 

Dillon, Michael o. 
1988. (with C Zderro, F Bohlmann). Helogynic acid, a homoditerpene, and other 
constituents from Helogyne apaloidea. Phytochemistry 27(2):61 6-621 . 
(with A. Sagastegui A) Additions to the South American Senecioneae (Aster- 
aceae). Brittonia 40(2):221 -228. 

(with J. Jakupovic, A. Schuster, F Bohlmann). Lumiyomogin, Ferreyantholide. 
Fruticolide and other sesquiterpene lactones from Ferreyranthus fruticosus. 
Phytochemistry2^{4):^■\^^-^^20. 

(With A. Sagastegui A.) Two new species of Uerasia (Asteraeae)Asteraceae) 
from Peru. Brittonia 40(4):363-367. 

(with J. Jakupovic, M. Jaensch, F Bohlmann). Eudesmanolides, 
5.10)bis)eudesmanes and opiopanone derivatives from Ambrosia artemi- 
sioides. Phytochemistry 27(1 1):3551 -3556. 

Engel, JOHN J. 

1987. (with R. M. Schuster). Austral Hepaticae XX. New species of Hygrolembidium 
(Lepidoziaceae). Phyfo/og/a 62:9-1 2. 

(with R. M. Schuster). A Monograph of Lepidoziaceae subfam. Lembi- 
dioideae (Hepaticae). Journal of the Haltori Botanical Laboratory 63:247-350. 
Miscellanea Hepaticologica Paleotropica. I. Pp. 533-534. In: Buck, W (ed), 
Bryostephane Steereana: A Collection of Bryological Papers Presented to 
William Campbell Steere on the Occasion of his 80th Birthday. New York Bot. 
Garden. 

1988. (withR. M. Schuster). Studies of New Zealand Hepaticae. 1-6. Brittonia 
40:200-207, L 1-18. 

(ed: with S. Hattori as consulting ed). Bryological Contributions. Presented in 
Celebration of the Distinguished Scholarship of Rudolf M. Schuster. Beih. 
Nova Hedwigia 90: 1 -402. TP&T 

Thetaxonomic position of /4potoman(/7us (Hepaticae). Pp. 203-221, f. 1-4. In: 
Engel, J. and S. Hattori (eds.), Bryological Contributions Presented in 
Celebration of the Distinguished Scholarship of Rudolf M. Schuster. Beih. 
Nova Hedwigia 90. 

Mueller, Gregory M. 
1 987. Designation of type collections for Laccaria proxima. L. tortilis and 

L. trullissata Mycotaxon 28: 303-31 1 . 

(with EC Vellinga).Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Laccaria B. & Br. 

1 1 . Laccaria bicolor, L. fratema, and L. laccata vat. pallidifolia. Persoonia 

13:383-385. 
1988 Old techniques with new possibilities: Importance of herbarium-based taxon- 
omy today and tomorrow. Mcllvainea 8:5-6 

(with R. Singer). Laccaria gomezii. a new agaric species from the querceta of 

Colombia and Costa Rica. Mycotaxon 33:223-227. 



Plowman, Timothy C. 

1987, Ten new species of £ryfA;roxy/um(Erythroxylaceae) from Bahia, Brazil. 
Fieldiana, Botany, ns, 19:1-41, 

(with W. E, Grime), Type photographs at Field Museum of Natural History 
(reprinted), Taxon 36:425-428. 

1988. (with B. A. Bohm, T Loo and K. W, Nichols). Flavonoid variation in Erythroxy- 
lum. Phytochemistry. 18 pp. 47(3):833-837. 

Erythroxylaceae. In R. A. l-loward, ed. Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Harvard 
University Press, 4:543-551 . Harvard University Cambridge. 
New species and a new combination of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) from 
Amazonian Peru. Contribution to the study of the flora and vegetation of Per- 
uvian Amazonia. XIV Candollea. 43(1 ):421 -431 . 

New taxa of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) from the Venezuelan Guayana. 
Brittonia 40(3):256-268. 

Erythroxylaceae. In G. Harling & L. Andersson, eds. Flora of Ecuador. 44 pp. 
STOLZE, ROBERT 
1987, A new species of Danaea from Peru. Amer Fern J. 77:33-35. Schizaea 
pusilla discovered in Peru. Amer Fern J. 77:64-65. 
The identity of Hymenophyllum chstatum. Amer Fern J. 77:137-140. 



GEOLOGY 

BEALL, BRETS 

1988, Pattern and process in arachnid evolution, GSA Abstracts with Programs. 
19:A47, [abstract] 

Phylogenetic systematics of the Arachnida, American Arachnology, 38:4, 
[abstract] 

(with C, Labandeira and F, Hueber), Early insect diversification: evidence 
from a bristletail from Devonian of Quebec. Science, 242:91 3-916. 
(with C. Labandeira and F Hueber). Description and systematic assignment 
of a Lower Devonian (Lower Emsian) insect from Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec. 
Canada. Int. Entomological Congr, Vancouver Proc. 18:45 [abstract], 
(with C. Labandeira and F Hueber). Systematic position of a bristletail from 
the Lower Devonian of Canada: what does the oldest insect tell us about the 
origin of insects? GS/A /Absf. with Prog. 19:A47. [abstract] 

Bolt John R. 
1988. (with R. E. Lombard). Evolution of the stapes in Paleozoic tetrapods: con- 
servative and radical hypotheses. Pp. 37-67 in B. Fritzsch, M. J. Ryan, W. 
Wilcznski, T E. Hetherington and W. Walkoviak (eds.) The Evolution of the 
Amphibian Auditory System. John Wiley and Sons, 
(with R. M. IVIcKay B. J. Witzke and M. P McAdams). A new Lower 
Carboniferous tetrapod locality in Iowa. Nature. 333:768-770. 

Carman, Mary R, 
1987, Conodonts of the Lake Valley Formation (Kinderhookian-Osagean), Sac- 
ramento Mountains, New Mexico, USA, Pp, 47-73, 5 pis, in Selected Studies 
in Carboniferous Paleontology and Biostratigraphy \lo\. 98, (R L, Brenckle, H, 
R. Lane and W, L, Manger, eds) Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 
Frankfurt am Main, 

Review of The significance of type specimens and old collections to research 
in the biological sciences, by W. B, N, Berry Collection Forum, 3(1 ,2): 35, 36, 

Crane, peter R, 

1987, Origin and diversification of flowering plants: vegetational consequences. 
Pp. 1 07-1 44 in The Origins of Angiosperms and their Biological Con- 
sequences. (E. M. Friis, W. G. Chalonerand P R. Crane, eds.) Cambridge 
University Press, Cambridge. 

(withE. M. Friis and W. G. Chaloner) Introduction to angiosperms. Pp. 1-15 
in The Origins of Angiosperms and their Biological Consequences. (E. M. 
Friis, W. G. Chalonerand P R. Crane, eds.) Cambridge University Press, 
Cambridge. 

(with S. R. Manchester) A new genus of Betulaceae from the Oligocene of 
western North America. Botanical Gazette, 148: 263-273. 
(with C. R. Hill) Ciadistic and paleobotanical approaches to plant phylogeny 
Pp. 139-154 in Biological t^etaphor and Ciadistic Classification. (H. Hoenigs- 
wald and L. F Wiener, eds.) University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 
(with R. A. Stockey) Betula leaves and reproductive structures from the Mid- 
dle Eocene of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany, 65: 2490-2500. 
(with G. R. Upchurch) Drewria potomacensis gen. etsp. nov, an Early 
Cretaceous member of the Gnetales from the Potomac Group of Virginia. 
American Journal of Botany 74: 1722-1736. 

1988. (with S. H. Lidgard). Quantitative analyses of the early angiosperm radiation. 
Nature 331 :344-346. 

(with S. R. Manchester and D. L. Ditcher). Morphology and phylogenetic 
significance of the angiosperm Platanites hebridicus Forbes from the 
Palaeocene of Scotland. Palaeontology, 31 :503-51 7. 



(with E. M. Friis and K. R. Pedersen). The reproductive structures of 
Cretaceous Platanaceae. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskaberne Selskab 
Biologiske Skrifter, 31 : 1 -55. 

(with C. M. Hult). Welwitschia the wonderful: life as a survivor in the Namibian 
desert. Field t^useum of Natural History Bulletin, 59(2):22-29. 
(with C. M. Hult). The Gnetales: botanical remnants from the age of dino- 
saurs. Field tvtuseum of Natural History Bulletin. 59(3):21 -29. 
ABSTRACTS: 

The fossil history and evolution of the Betulaceae. International Symposium, 
Evolution, Systematics and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae, Reading, U.K. 
Seeds and pollen organs from the Mazon Creek flora of northeastern Illinois. 
AIBS, Davis. 

(with L. D. Hufford). A preliminary ciadistic analysis of lower Hamamelidae 
phylogeny AIBS, Davis. 

(with L. D. Hufford). Ciadistic relationships among "lower" Hamamelidae. 
International Symposium, Evolution, Systematics and Fossil History of the 
Hamamelidae, Reading, U.K. 

(with K. Pedersen and E. M. Friis). Vardekloeftia, an early member of the 
Bennettitales. 3rd International Organization of Paleobotany Conference, 
Melbourne, Australia, 

(with K, Pedersen and EM, Friis), Eucommiidites pollen in situ in Cretaceous 
reproductive structures. 7th International Palynological Conference, Bris- 
bane, Australia, 

(with E, M, Friis and K, R, Pedersen), Cretaceous angiosperm flowers with in 
s//(j pollen, 7th International Palynological Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 
(with E. M. Friis and K. R. Pedersen). Structurally preserved plant fossils from 
the Lower Cretaceous of Bornholm, Denmark, 3rd International Organization 
of Paleobotany Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 
(with S. Lidgard). What was the pattern of the angiosperm diversification? A 
comparative test using palynofloras and leaf macrofloras. Geological Society 
of America. Abstracts with Programs. 

(with S. Lidgard). Latitudinal gradients and temporal trends in Cretaceous 
floristic diversity Geological Society of America. Abstracts with Programs. 

Flynn.JghnJ. 

1988. Ancestry of sea mammals. "News and Views," Nature, 334:383-384. 

(with L. K. Krishtalka, R. K. Sfucky, R. M. West, M. C. McKenna, C. C. Black, 
T M. Bown, M. R. Dawson, D. J. Golz, J. A. Lillegraven and W. D. Turnbull). 
Eocene (Clarkforkian through Duchesnean) chronology of North America. 
Pp. 77-1 1 7 in M. D. Woodburne (ed.) Cenozoic l^ammals of North America: 
Geochronology and Biostratigraphy. Univ of California Press, Berkeley 
(with F M. Gradstein, F P Agterberg, M.-P Aubry W. A. Berggren, R. Hewitt, 
D. V Kent, K. D. Klitgord, K. G. Miller, J. Obradovich, J. G. Ogg, D. R. 
Prothero and G. E. G. Westerman). Sea level history: technical comment. 
Sc/ef7ce, 241:599-601. 

(with N. A. Neff and R. H. Tedford). Phylogeny of the Carnivora. Pp. 73-1 16 /n 
M.J. Benton (ed . ) Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods. Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. 

(with D. Frasinetti, M. J. Novacek, M. A. Norell and A. R. Wyss). New marine 
and terrestrial faunas from the southern Andes: implications for regional 
tectonics. 

Abstracts with Programs, Geol. Soc. of America, Ann. Mtg,, 20(7):A380, 
[abstract] 

FORSTER, Catherine A, 
1 988. (with Earle E. Spamer). A catalogue of type fossils in the Wagner Free Insti- 
tute of Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Publications of the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science, Vol. 5, 115 pp. 

Grande, Lance 

1987, Redescription of the Eocene catfish Hypsidoris with a reassessment of its 
phylogenetic relationships. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 7(1): 24-54, 
(with S, Chatterjee) New Cretaceous fish fossils from Seymour Island, Antarc- 
tic Peninsula, Palaeontology 30(4): 829-837, 

1988. A well preserved paracanthopterygian fish (Teleostei) from freshwater Middle 
Paleocene deposits of Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 

8(2):1 17-130. 

Vicariance biogeography In D. Briggs(ed.). The Encyclopedia of 
Palaeobiology. 

Fossil and Recent paddlefishes (Polyodontidae: Teleostei). Journal of 
Vertebrate Paleontology. 8, supplement to no. 3, p. 1 6A. [abstract] 
(with J. G. L. Lundberg). A revision of the Eocene genus Astephus (Teleostei: 
Siluriformes) and its relationship to other catfish species. Journal of Ver- 
tebrate Paleontology. %(2).^'i'i-M\ . 

(with J. T Eastman). Evolution of the Antarctic fish fauna with emphasis on the 
Recent notothenioids. Symposium, Origins and Evolution of the Antarctic 
Biota. 24-26 May London, [abstract] 



23 



STAFF PUBLICAnONS 



LIDGARD. Scon 
1988. (with P R Crane as second author). Quantitative analyses of the early 
angiosperm radiation. Nature. 331:344-346. 

(with P R. Crane as first author). Latitudinal gradients and temporal trends in 
Cretaceous floristic diversity GS.A. Abstracts witli Programs. 20:257. 
(with P R. Crane as second author) What was the pattern of the angiosperm 
diversification? A comparative test using palynofloras and leaf macrofloras. 
GSA Abstracts with Programs. 20:257. 

NITECKI. MATTHEW tH. 

1987. (with D. V. Nitecki and N. Spjeldnaes) Annotated bibliography of cyclocrini- 
tids Institutt for Geologi Universitetet i Oslo. Intern skriftsene nr 48. 100 pp. 
(with A. Hoffman) eds. Neutral Models in Biology Oxford University Press, 
New York 166 pp. 

(with A. Hoffman) Neutral models as a biological research strategy Pp. 3-8 in 
Neutral Models in Biology. {M. H. Nitecki and A. Hoffman, eds ) Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. New York. 

(with K. L. Bradof and D. V. Nitecki) Literature of the receptaculitid algae: 
1805)1980. F/e/d/ana: Geology (new series), 16: 1-215 
(with M B. Gnilovskaya) Petropolissia a new Devonian receptaculitid genus. 
PaleontologicalJournal. 1987(1): 115-116. (in Russian) 
(with M. B. Gnilovskaya). fv^orphological analysis of receptaculitids as exem- 
plified by the genus Petropolissia. PaleontologicalJournal. 1987(3): 16-24. 
(in Russian) 

Unsolved problems of receptaculitid affinities. Pp 27-28 in 4th Intern. Symp. 
Fossil Algae, Cardiff. 

1988. (with D. V Nitecki, eds). The Evolution ot Human Hunting. Plenum Press. 464 pp 
The idea of human hunting. Pp. 1-9/n M. H. Nitecki and D. V. Nitecki (eds.) 

The Evolution oi Human Hunting. Plenum Press, 
(ed). Evolutionary Progress. University of Chicago Press 338 pp. 
Discerning the criteria for concept of progress. Pp. 3-24 in M.H. Nitecki (ed.) 
Evolutionary Progress. University of Chicago Press. 

OLSEN. EDWARD J 

1987. (with B. Dod. R Schmitt and P Sipiera) IVIonticello: a glass-rich howardite. 
Me/eonfcs, 22:81-96 

(with R. Hinton, R. Clayton and A Davis) Isotopic mass of potassium in the 
Earth compared to the bulk Solar System. Proceedings of the 18th Lunar and 
Planetary Science Conference. 430-436. 

1988. Ivloon. Pp. 503-512 in Britannica International Encyclopaedia (Encyclo- 
paedia Bnlannica Inc., Chicago, IL). 

(with A. fvl Davis, I. D. Hutcheon, R. N. Clayton, T K. fvlayedaand L Gross- 
man), tvlurchison xenoliths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 52:1615- 
1626 

(with G. I. Huss and E. Jarosewich). The Eagle, Nebraska enstatite chondhte 
(EL6) Meteoritics. 23:93-95. 

TURNBULL. WlLLIAI^ D. 

1987. (with R fvl. West, M. C. McKenna, C. C. Black, T f^. Sown. M. R Dawson, D 
J. Golz, J. A. Lillegraven and D. E. Savage) Eocene biochronology of North 
America. Eocene chapter in Vertebrate Paleontology as a Discipline in 
Geochronology. [M.O Woodburne, ed.) University of California Press, 
Berkeley [bears '87 date but available widely Feb. '88] 

(with T H. Rich and E. L. Lundelius, Jr.) Hamilton Fauna Burranyidae Pos- 
sums and Opossums Symposium volume, (fvl. Archer, ed.) Royal Soc. NSW. 
14 MS pp submitted 12/85. 

(with T H. Rich and E. L. Lundelius, Jr) Hamilton Fauna Petauridae. Possums 
and Opossums Symposium volume (M. Archer, ed ) Royal Soc NSW. 11 MS 
pp. submitted 3/86. 

(with T H. Rich and E. L. Lundelius, Jr.) Hamilton Fauna Pseudocheiridae. 
Possums and Opossums Symposium volume. (M. Archer, ed ) Royal Soc. 
NSW. 33 MS pp submitted 5'86. 

(with T Flannery T H. Rich and E L. Lundelius, Jr) Hamilton Fauna Pha- 
langenda. Possums and Opossums Symposium volume. (M. Archer, ed ) 
Royal Soc. NSW. 19 MS pp. submitted 6/86. 

(with B. M. Rothschild) Treponemal infection in a Pleistocene bear Nature. 
329:61-62 

1988. (with D. M. Martill) Taphonomy and preservation of a monospecific tita- 
nothere assemblage from the Washakie Formation (Late Eocene), southern 
Wyoming: an ecological accident in the fossil record. Symposium, NAPC IV, 
K. Behrensmeyer and S. M. Kidwell (eds.). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatol- 
ogy. Palaeoecology. 63:91-108 



24 



ZOOLOCY 

ASHE. JAMES S. 

1987 Egg chamber production, egg protection, and clutch size among fungivorus 
beetles of the genus Eumicrota (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and their evolu- 
tionary implications. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society ot London 
90(3):255-273. 

(with R. Timm) Host and elevational specificity of parasitic beetles (Amblyopi- 
nus Solsky) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Panama. The Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington 1 00 ( 1 ) : 1 3-20. 

(with R. Timm) Predation by and activity patterns of parasitic' beetles of the 
genus /Amb/yop/nus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Journal of Zoology 
212(3)429-437. 

(with R.Timm) Probable mutualistic interaction between staphylinid beetles 
(Amblyopinus) and their rodent hosts. Journal of Tropical Ecology 3(2): 1 77-1 82. 

1988. (with H. Marx) Phylogeny of the viperine snakes (Vipenane): Part 2: Cladistic 
analysis and major lineages. Fieldiana. Zoology new series, no. 52. 
(with R. Timm) Chilamblyopinus piceus. a new genus and species of 
amblyopinine (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) from Chile, with a discussion of 
ambylopinine generic relationships. Journal of the Kansas Entomological 
Soc/ery 6(1 ):46-57. 

(with Q. Wheeler) Revision of Tachiona Sharp (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: 
Aieocharinae) with a description of the Larva of T Latipennis n. sp. and a 
preliminary assessment of generic relationships Journal of the New York En- 
tomological Society 96(2 ): 1 76- 1 99 

ChernOFF BARRY 

1987. Systematics of American atherinid fishes of the genus Atherlnella. I The sub- 
genus Atherinella. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Phi- 
ladelphia, 138:86-188 

Phylogenetic relationships with reclassification of menidiine silverside fishes, 
with emphasis on the tribe Membradini. Proceedings of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences. Philadelphia, 138:189-249. 

1988. Frances Voorhies Hubbs Miller. 1919-1987. Cope/a (2):520-523. 
FITZPATRICK. JOHN W. 

1987. (with Committee) Thirty-sixth supplement to the Amencan Ornithologists' 
Union Checklist of North American Birds. Auk 104: 591-596 

1 988. Why so many passerine birds? A response to Raikow. Systematic Zoology. 
37:71-76. 

(with G.E. Woolfenden) Components of lifetime reproductive success in the 
Florida Scrub Jay In Clutton-Brock, T (ed.). Reproductive Success, pp. 305- 
320. University of Chicago Press. 

FOODEN. JACK 
1 987 Type locality of Hylobates concolorleucogenys. American Journal of 
Primatology. 12:107-110. 

(with Quan G , et al) Gibbon distribution in China. Acta Theriologica Sinica 
7(3):161-167. 

1988. Taxonomy and evolution of the sinica group of macaques: 6 Interspecific 
comparisons and synthesis. Fieldiana: Zoology new series, no 45:1-44 

HEANEY LAWRENCE R. 
1987. (with PD. Heideman) Philippine fruit bats, endangered and extinct Bats. 5:3-5 
(with P. D. Heideman, et al) Patterns of diversity and species abundance of 
non-volant small mammals on Negros Island, Phillippmes. Journal of 
Mammalogy 68:884-888 

(with B. D. Patterson) Preliminary analysis of geographic variation in red- 
tailed chipmunks (subgenus Neotamias). Journal of Mammalogy 68:782- 
791 
1988. (with PD. Gonzales, et al) An annotated checklist of the taxonomic and con- 
servation status of land mammals in the Philippines. Silliman Journal (Philip- 
pines). 34:32-66. 

Hershkovitz. Philip 
1987. First South American record of Coues' marsh rice rat. Journal of Mammalogy, 
68:152-154. 

The titi. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. 58:(G): 1 1 -1 5. 
Uacaries, New World monkeys of the genus Cacajao (Cebidae. Platyrrhini): 
A preliminary taxonomic review with the description of a new subspecies. 
American Journal ot Primatology. 1 2: 1 -53. 

The taxonomy of South American sakis, genus Pithecia (Cebidae, Platyrrhi- 
ni): A preliminary report and critical review with the description of a new 
species and a new subspecies. American Journal of Primatology. 1 2:387-468. 
A history of the recent mammalogy of the neotropical region Pp 11-98/n 
Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy: essays in honor of Philip Hershkovitz 
(B D. Patterson and R.M. Timm, eds ) Fieldiana. Zoology new series 39. 

1988. Origin, speciation, and distribution of South American titi monkeys genus Cal- 
licebus (Family Cebidae, Playtrrhini) Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences. Philadelphia, 140(1 ):240-272. 



INGER. ROBERT F, 

1987. Diets of tadpoles living ina Bornean rainforest. Alytes. 5:153-164. 
(withS. Dutta) An overview of ttie amphibian fauna of India.Joumal of Bom- 
bay Natural History Society, 83: 1 35-1 46. 

(witti H.B. Stiaffer) Ecological structure of a tierpetological assemblage in 
Soutti India. Amphibia Reptitia, vol. 8. 

1988. (witti J. Dring) Taxonomic and ecological relations of Bornean stream toads 
allied to /Inson/a /eptopus (Guntfier) (Anura: Bufonidae). Malayan Nature 
Journal. 4^4e^-A7^. 

(with H.K. Voris) Taxonomic status and reproductive biology of Bornean 
tadpole-carrying frogs. Copeia (4), 1060-62. 

IZOR. ROBERTJ. 
1987. (with R.H. Pine) Notes on the Black-shouldered opossum, Caiuromysiops 
irrupta. Pp. 1 1 7-124 in Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy: essays in honor 
of Philip Hershkovitz (B.D. Patterson and R.M. Timm. eds.). Fieldiana: Zool- 
ogy new series 39. 

KETHLEY. JOHN 

1987. (with D. E. Walter, et al) A heptane flotation method for recovering micro- 
arthropods from semiarid soils, with comparison to the Merchant-Crossley 
high-gradient extraction method and estimates of microarthropod biomass. 
Pedobioiogia 30:221-232. 

1988. (with R. A. North) A collapsible, full-sized beriese-funnel system. 
Entomological News 99:41-47. 

LANYON. SCOTT M. 

1987. (with R.M. Zink) Genetic variation in piciform birds: Monophyly and generic 
and familial relationships. Aul< 104:724-732. 

Jackknifing and Bootstrapping: Important "new" statistical techniques for 
ornithologists. Auk 104:144-146. 

Review of Cladistic Theory and Methodology by Thomas Duncan and Tod F. 
Stuessy (eds.). Condor 88:544-546. 

1988. The stochastic mode of molecular evolution: What consequences for 
systematic investigations? /\uA" 105:565-573. 

Review of Holocene vertebrate fossils from Isia Floreana, Galapagos, by 
David W. Steadman. Auk 105:215-216. 

MARX, HYMEN 
1 988. The colubrid snake Psammophis schokari from the Arabian Peninsula. Fiel- 
diana'. Zoology new series 40: 1 -1 6. 

(with J.S. Ashe and L.E. Watrous) Phytogeny of the viperine snake (Viper- 
inae): Part I. Character analysis. Fieldiana: Zoology, new series, 51:1-16. 
(with J.S. Ashe) Phylogeny of the viperine snakes (Viperinae): Part II. Cladis- 
tic analysis and major lineages. Fieldiana: Zoology new series 52:1-23. 

MOSKOVITS, DEBRA K. 

1 988. Sexual dimorphism and population estimates of the two Amazonian tortoises 
(Geochelone carbonaria and G. denliculata) in Northwestern Brazil. Herpe- 
to/og/ca 44(2):209-227. 

NEWTON. ALFRED J. JR. 

1987. Four Staptiyiinus (sensu lato) species new to North America, with notes on 
other introduced species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Coleoptensts Bulletin 
41:381-384. 

1988. Review of The carrion beetles of Canada and Alaska, by R. Anderson and S. 
Peck, 1985, Biosystematics Research Institute Publication 1778, 121 pp.. 
Bulletin of ttie Entomological Society of Canada 20:25. 

Fooled by flatness: subfamily shifts in subcortical Staphylinidae (Col- 
eoptera). Coleopterists Bulletin 42:255-262. 

(with M. Thayer) Pselaphidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera): the 'missing 
link' discovered? Proceedings XVIIi International Congress of Entomology 
(Vancouver BC, July 1988): 50. 

(with M. Thayer) A critique on Naomi's phylogeny and higher classification of 
Staphylinidae and allies (Coleoptera). Entomologia Generalis 14:63-72. 

Patterson, Bruce D. 
1987. A biographical Sketch of Philip Hershkovitz, with a complete scientific 

bibliography Pp. 1-10 in Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy: essays in honor 
of Philip Hershkovitz (B.D. Patterson and R. Timm, eds). Fieldiana: Zoology 
new series, 39. 

(with C. Feigl) Faunal representation in museum collections of mammals: 
Osgood's mammals of Chile. Pp. 485-496 In Studies in Neotropical Mammal- 
ogy: essays in honor of Philip Hershkovitz (B.D. Patterson and R.M. Timm, 
eds). Fieldiana: Zoology new series 39. 

(with M. Gallardo) Rhyncholestes raphanurus. /Wamma//anSpec/es 286: 1-5, 
(with L. Heaney) Preliminary analysis of geographic variation in red-tailed 
chipmunks {Eulamias ruficaudus). Journal of Ivlammalogy 68:782-791 . 
(with R. Timm) Preface. Pp. vii)viii in Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy: 
essays in honor of Philip Hershkovitz. Fieldiana: Zoology new series 39 
(with R. Timm, eds.) Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy: essays in honor of 
Philip Hershkovitz. Fieldiana: Zoology new series 39. viii -i- 506 pp 



1 988. The principle of nested subsets and its implications for biological conserva- 
tion. Conservation Biology. 1(4):323-334. 

A celebration of Philip Hershkovitz. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 
59(1):24-30. 

Evolutionary innovations: patterns and processes. Evolutionary Trends in 
Plants. 2(2):86-87 

SOLEM. G. ALAN 

1 988. New Camaneid Land Snails from the Northeast Kimberiey Western Australia. 
Journal of ttie Malacological Society of Australia. 9:27-58, 3 tables, 34 text 
figures, 3 plates. 

Maximum in the minimum: Biogeography of land snails from the Ningbing 
Ranges and Jeremiah Hills, northeast Kimberiey, Western Australia. Journal 
of ttie Malacological Society of Australia. 9:59-^^3. 10 tables, 25 text figures, 
(with W.RFawcett) "We gottah, wannah, goingtuh, should, must, will, , ,see," 
Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. 59(5):24-29, 

Thayer, Margaret 

1987. Biology and phylogenetic relationships of Neophonus bructii. an anomalous 
south Andean staphylinid (Coleoptera). Systematic Entomology 1 2:389-404. 

1988. The promise of larval chaetotaxy for phylogenetic studies of Omaliinae (Col- 
eoptera: Staphylinidae). Proceedings XVIII International Congress of 
Entomo/ogy (Vancouver BC. July 1988): 50. 

(with A. Newton) Pselaphidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera): the 'missing 
link' discovered? Proceedings XVIII International Congress of Entomology 
(Vancouver BC, July 1988):50. 

(with A. Newton) Acritique on Naomi's phylogeny and higher classification of 
Staphylinidae and allies (Coleopatera). Entomologia Generalis ^ 4:63-72. 

traylor, Melvin a. jr. 

1987. (with J. Remsen, et al) Range extensions for some Bolivian birds, 3 (Tyranni- 
dae to Passeridae), Bulletin of ttie British Ornithology Club. 1 07:6-1 6, 

1988. Geographic Variation and Evolution in South American Cisthorus plalensis 
(Aves: Troglodytidae) Fieldiana: Zoology no. 48:iv 1-35. 

VORIS, Harold K. 
1 988, (with B. Jayne, et al) The diet, feeding behavior, growth and numbers of a 
population of Cereberus rynchops (Serpentes: Homalopsinae) in Malaysia. 
Fieldiana: Zoology new series no. 50: 1-15. 
Review of Sea Snakes, by Harold Heatwole. Copeia (1 ):270-271 . 
Taxonomic status and reproductive biology of Bornean tadpole-carrying 
frogs. Copeia (4): 1060-1 061. (with R. F Inger) 

Collections Management for Museums. Ed. by D. Andrew Roberts. (Book 
Review) ASC Newsletter Vol. 16(6):14. (with L. Bukowski) 

WENZEL, Rupert 

1987. (wlthB. Peterson) Nycteribiidae. Chap. 112, pp, 1283-1291, 7 figs, in Manua/ 
ofNearctic Diptera, Vol. 2 (J.F Mc.Alpine ed.) Monograph no. 28, Research 
Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture. 

(with B. Peterson) Streblidae. Chapter 113, pp. 1293-1301, 9 figs., in Manual 

ofNearctic Diptera. Vol. 2 (J.F McAlpine ed.) Monography no 28, Research 

Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, 

Henry Dybas: A Eulogy Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. Vol. 58 

(3):22-25 

WILLARD, DAVID 

1988. Bird Collection Newsletter 1(1):1-9, 

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT SERVICES 

CUMMINGS, NINAM, 

1988. (with Robin Faulkner). Moving the Tomb. Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulletin. 5900):28-29. 

Hw WANG, Jin Jou 
1 987. A Lexical Analyzer for ADA Syntax Directed Editor. MS Thesis. Sangamon 
State University 

LOWTHER. P E. 

1987. (with W.J. Olson, R. T Young, and M.J. Luttenton) Observations the mobbing 
response. Iowa Bird Life 57:72-75. 

Season long pair bond of Brown-headed Cowbirds. fowa Bird Life 57:38-39. 
(with C. L Cink) Diferenciacion sexual anomala en gorriones Sudamerica- 
nos. Revista de Ecologia Latinoamericana 1 :21 -24. 

1988. Kansas cowbird hosts — catalog update. Kansas Ornithological Society 
Bulletin 39:36-37. 

Spotting pattern of the last-laid egg of the House Sparrow. Journal of Field 
Ornithology 59:5^ -54. 

WERNER, MARLENE H, 

1988. Fish illustration: Carbon Dust on Cronaflex. Journal of Natural Science Illus- 
tration. 1(1): 19. 

25 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 

PUBLIC PROGRAMS 

EDUCATION 

Blackmon, Carolyn 

1987. The Evolution of the Place for Wonder: What's the next Step? The Journal of 
Museum Education: Roundlable Reports. 1 2(2): 6-8. 

1988. (with Teresa LaMaster, Lisa Roberts. Beverly Serrell) Open Conversations: 
Strategies for Professional Development in Museums. Field Iv^useum of Nat- 
ural History, Chicago. 1 22 pp. 

Teach the Ivlind. Touch the Spirit— The l^/luseum's Ivlission of Exploration and 
Discovery. Field Museum of Natural IHIstory Bulletin. 59 (5):6- 1 4. 

Evans NANCY L. 

1987. The Webber Resource Center. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 
58 (8): 8-14 

LAIVIASTER. TERESA 

1988. (with Carolyn Blackmon. Lisa Roberts, and Beverly Serrell) Open Con- 
versations: Strategies for Professional Development in Museums. Field 
Museum of Natural History. Chicago, 1 22 pp. 



Storyteller Alice Rubio relates Indian tales to Members' Nigtit visitors in the Webber Resource Center, opened in June 1988. 



26 




Diane Alexander White 85096 



THE WOMEN'S BOARD 



Mrs. Keene H. Addington 
Mrs, Edward King Aldworth 
Mrs. Richard I. Allen 
Mrs. James W. Alsdorf 
Mrs, J, Robert Anderson 
Mrs, AngeloR. Arena 
Mrs, P. Kelley Armour 
Mrs, T, Stanton Armour 
Mrs, A. Watson Armour III 
Mrs, Edwin N. Asmann 
Mrs, Thomas G, Ayers 
Mrs, Warner G, Baird Jr, 
Mrs, George R. Baker 
Mrs, Claude A, Barnett 
Mrs, Stephen M, Bartram 
Mrs, Roberto, Bass 
Mrs, George R, Beach 
Mrs, Robert A, Beatty 
Mrs, James H, Becker 
Mrs, Theodore A, Bell 
Mrs, Edward H. Bennett Jr. 
Mrs, B, Edward Bensinger 
Mrs, Gordon Bent 
Mrs, Harry O. Bercher 
Mrs. Michael A. Bilandic 
Mrs. Harrington Bischof 
Mrs. Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Frank W.BIatchford III 
Mrs. Joseph L. Block 
Mrs. Philip D. Block Jr. 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Mrs. Edwin R. Blomquist 
Mrs. John J. Borland Jr. 
Mrs. Arthurs. Bowes 
Mrs. Willard L. Boyd 
Mrs. Lester Harris Brill 
Mrs. Robert E. Brooker 
Mrs. Cameron Brown 
Mrs. Jennifer Martin Brown 
Mrs. Roger O. Brown 
Mrs. T. von Donop Buddington 
Mrs. Robert D. Cadieux 
Mrs. Douglas Cameron 
Mrs. Robert A. Carr 
Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Mrs. Hammond E. Chaffetz 
Mrs. Henry T. Chandler 
Miss Nora F. Chandler 
Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 
Mrs. W.H.Clark Jr. 
Mrs. J. Nothhelfer Connor 
Mrs. Frank W. Considine 
Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edward A. Cooper 
Mrs. James R. Coulter 
Mrs. William S. Covington 
Mrs. Mark Crane 
Mrs. John V. Crowe 
Mrs. Lester Crown 
Mrs. Sandra K. Crown 
Mrs. Robert Lane Cruikshank 
Mrs. Herschel H. Cudd 
Mrs. Dino J. D'Angelo 
Mrs. Leonard S. Davidow 
Mrs. Howard M. Dean Jr. 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. Emmett Dedmon 
Mrs. Robert O. Delaney 
Mrs. Charles S. DeLong 
Mrs. Charles Dennehy 
Mrs. Edison Dick 
Mrs. William R. Dickinson Jr. 
Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon 
Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley 
Mrs. Maurice F, Dunne Jr. 



Mrs. Robert C. Edwards M 

Mrs. R. Winfield Ellis M 

Mrs. Marjorie H. Elting M 

Mrs. Winston Elting Mi 

Mrs. Josephine F, Elting Mi 

Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing Mi 

Mrs. Thomas J. Eyerman Mi 

Mrs. Meyer Feldberg M 

Mrs. Calvin Fentress Mi 

Mrs. Robert C. Ferris Mi 

Mrs. Robert Fesmire Mi 

Mrs. Joseph N. Field M 

Mrs. Marshall Field M 

Mrs. Charles Robert Foltz M 

Mrs. Peter B. Foreman M 

Mrs. Francis G. Foster Jr. M 

Mrs. Hubert D. Fox M 

Mrs. Earl J. Frederick M 

Mrs. Gaylord A. Freeman M 

Mrs. Marshall Front M 

Mrs. William D. Frost M 

Mrs. Maurice F. Fulton M 

Mrs. John S. Garvin Mi 

Mrs. John S. Gates Mi 

Mrs. John A. Gavin Mi 

Mrs. Robert H. Gayner Mi 

Mrs. IsakV. Gerson Mi 

Mrs. Gerald S. Gidwitz Mi 

Mrs. James J. Glasser Mi 

Mrs. Thomas Phillip W.Goetz M 

Mrs. Julian R. Goldsmith M 

Mrs. Paul W. Goodrich M 

Mrs. William B. Graham M 

Mrs. David W. Grainger M 

Mrs. Donald C. Greaves M 

Mrs. Roger Gritfin M 

Mrs. Robert C. Gunness M 

Mrs. Robert P. Gwinn M 

Mrs. Burton W. Hales M 

Mrs. CoHA^ith Hamill M 

Helen Hanes M 

Mrs. Charles L. Hardy M 

Mrs. King Harris M 

Mrs. Roberts. Hartman M 

Mrs. David C. Hawley M 

Mrs. Frederick Charles Hecht M 

Mrs. Ben W. Heineman M 

Mrs. Duncan Henderson M 

Mrs. Stacy H.Hill M 

Mrs. Rembrandt C. Hiller Jr. M 

Mrs. Edward Hines M 

Mrs. John L. Hines M 

Mrs. John H. Hobart M 

Mrs. Richard H. Hobbs M 

Mrs. Thomas D. Hodgkins M 

Mrs. Thomas J. Hoffmann M 

Mrs. David Horn M 

Janice S.Hunt M 

Mrs. Chauncey Keep Hulchings M 

Mrs. Robert C. Hyndman M 

Mrs. Stanley O. Ikenberry M 

Mrs. Robert S. Ingersoll M 

Mrs. Sue Ish M 

Mrs. Frederick G. Jaicks M 

Mrs. Clarence E. Johnson M 

Mrs. S. Curtis Johnson III M 

Mrs. Richard M. Jones M 

Mrs. John B. Judkins Jr. M 

Mrs. Byron C. Karzas M 

Mrs. John J. Kinsella M 

Mrs. Robert D. Kolar M 

Mrs. Walter A. Krafft M 

Mrs. Bertram D. Kribben M 

Mrs. Gordon Leadbetter* M 

Mrs, John H. Leslie M 

Mrs. John Woodworth Leslie M 



s. Edward H. Levi 

s. Michael S. Lewis 

s. Chapin Litten 

s. Glen A. Lloyd 
Franklin J. Lunding 

s. Walter M. Mack 

s. John W. Madigan 

s. James F. Magin 

s. Robert H. Malott 

s. Philip C. Manker 
Carter H. Manny Jr. 

s. Richard E. Marcus 

s. Edward Matz Jr. 

s. David Mayer 

s. Frank D. Mayer 
Frank D. Mayer Jr. 
Brooks McCormick 
George Barr McCutcheon II 
William J. McDonough 
Andrew McKenna 
Eugene J. McVoy 
John C. Meeker 
Henry W. Meers 

s. Hugo J. Melvoin 

s. Allen C. Menke 

s. Robert E. Merriam 

s. J. Roscoe Miller 

s. Philip B. Miller 

s. Newton N. Mi now 

S.William H.Mitchell 

s. Charles H. Montgomery 

s. John R. Montgomery III 

s. Kenneth F, Montgomery 

s. Carolyn S. Moore 

s. Vernile Morgan 
Arthur T. Moulding 
Aidanl. Mullett 
Leo F. Mullin 
Eiita Mailers Murphy 
Charles Fenger Nadler 
Charles Fenger Nadler Jr. 
Joseph E. Nathan 
Earl L. Neal 
Edward F.Neild III 
John Doane Nichols 
Arthur C. Nielsen Sr. 

ss Lucille Ann Nunes 

s. John Nuveen 
James J. O'Connor 
Ralph Thomas O'Neil 
Paul W.Oliver Jr. 
Harry D. Oppenheimer II 
Richard C. Oughton 
Donald W. Patterson 
0. Macrae Patterson 
Hope Haywood Paul 
R. Marlin Perkins 
Patricia Murphy Perry 
Richard J. Phelan 
Seth Low Pierrepont 
Richard J. Pigott 

s. Charles S. Potter 

s. Virginia F. Pullman 

s. William Putze 

s. Neil K. Quinn 

s. James H. Ransom 

s. Howard C. Reeder 

s. Robert W. Reneker 

s. Don H. Reuben 

s. Joseph E. Rich 

s. John M. Richman 

s. T. Clifford Rodman* 

s. Frederick Roe 

s. Edward M. Roob 

s. Samuel R. Rosenthal 

s. John S. Runnells 



Mrs. Patrick G. Ryan 

Mrs. George W. Ryerson 

Dr. Muriel S. Savage 

Mrs. Charles E. Schroeder 

Mrs. Elizabeth M. Schuitz 

Mrs. William L. Searle 

Mrs. Richard J. L. Senior 

Mrs. Thomas C. Sheffield Jr. 

Ms. Melissa Shennan 

Mrs. C. William Sidwell 

Mrs. John R. Siragusa 

Mrs. Gerald A. Sivage 

Mrs. Edward Byron Smith" 

Mrs. Edward Byron Smith Jr. 

Mrs, Gordon H, Smith 

Mrs, Malcolm N, Smith 

Mrs, Stephen Byron Smith 

Mrs, Charles H, Solberg 

Mrs, Gatzert Spiegel 

Mrs, Lyie M. Spencer 

Mrs. Jack C. Staehle 

Mrs. Harlan F. Stanley 

Mrs. E. Norman Staub 

Mrs. Gardner H. Stern 

Mrs. Adiai E. Stevenson III 

Mrs. Roger W. Stone 

Mrs, Robert E. Straus* 

Mrs. William S. Street 

Mrs. Robert H.Strotz 

Mrs, Barry F, Sullivan 

Mrs. John W. Sullivan 

Mrs. James Swartchild 

Mrs. William G. Swartchild Jr, 

Mrs, Edward F, Swift 

Mrs, Hampden M, Swift 

Mrs, Phelps H.Swift 

Mrs. John W. Taylor Jr. 

Mrs, John W, Taylor III 

Mrs, Edward R, Telling 

Mrs, Richard L, Thomas 

Mrs, Bruce Thome 

Mrs, Theodore D, Tieken 

Mrs, Theodore D. Tieken Jr. 

Mrs, Melvin A. Traylor Jr. 

Mrs, Howard J. Trienens 

Mrs, Chester D. Tripp' 

Mrs. C. Perin Tyler 

Mrs. Theodore W. Van Zelst 

Mrs. V. L. D. vonSchlegell 

Mrs. C. A. Ward 

Mrs. Thomas M. Ware 

Mrs. Hempstead Washburne Jr. 

Mrs. E. Leiand Webber 

Mrs. Arnold R. Weber 

Mrs. William L. Weiss 

Mrs. John Paul Welling 

Mrs. John L.Welsh III 

Mrs. B. Kenneth West 

Mrs. Henry P. Wheeler 

Mrs. Richard R. Whitaker Jr. 

Mrs. Julian B. Wilkins 

Mrs. Albert W.Williams 

Mrs. Philip C.Williams 

Mrs. Norman B. Williamson 

Mrs. Paul C. Wilson 

Mrs. Robert H. Wilson 

Mrs. Wallace C. Winter 

Mrs, Arthur W,Woelfle 

Mrs. Peter Wolkonsky 

Mrs. J, Howard Wood 

Mrs, William Wood-Prince 

Mrs, Frank H, Woods 

Mrs, Blaine J, Yarrington 

Mrs. George B. Young 



'deceased 



27 



THE FOUNDERS' COUNCII- 



Individual Members 

Anonymous 

Mr. and Mrs. Lowell E. Ackmann 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley N. Allan 

Mrs. Margaret B. Allyn 

Mr. and Mrs. James W. Alsdorf 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Watson Armour III 

Mrs. Lester Armour 

Mrs. P. Kelley Armour 

Mr. and Mrs T. Stanton Armour 

Mr. Vernon Armour 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin N. Asmann 

Mr. and Mrs. George R. Baker 

Mr. and Mrs. James L. Ballard 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Bankard 

Mr. George Barr 

Ms. Virginia T. Bartholomay 

Mr and Mrs Robert O Bass 

Mr. and Mrs. Lee A. Baumgarten 

Mr. and Mrs. George R. Beach 

Dr. and Mrs. Robert A. Beatty 

Mr Gordon Bent 

Mr. and Mrs. James F. Bere 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen C. Berg 

Mr. and Mrs. Bowen Blair 

Mrs. Edward F. Blettner 

Mrs. Philip D. Block Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip D. Block III 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Boone 

Mrs. G. E. Boone 

Mr. and Mrs. William A. Boone 

Mr.' and Mrs. Robert C. Borwell Sr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Willard L. Boyd 

Mrs. Harold S. Brady 

Mr. and Mrs. James E. Bramsen 

Mrs. Dorothy T. Braun 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth A. Bro 

Mr. and Mrs. Bertram Z. Brodie 

Mrs. Helen Bronson 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Brooker 

Mr. and Mrs. Cameron Brown 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Brown 

Ms. Jennifer Martin Brown 

Mr. and Mrs. Roger O. Brown 

Mr.'andMrs. DeWittW. 

Buchanan Jr. 
Mrs. Donald P. Buchanan 
Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Buehler Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Dean L. Buntrock 
Mr. and Mrs. James E. Burd 
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Roy Carney 
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Mr. and Mrs. Hammond E. Chaffetz 
Mrs. Jerry G. Chambers 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry T. Chandler 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 
Mr. and Mrs. W. H.Clark Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank W. Considine 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 
Mr. and Mrs Richard H. Cooper 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald C. Cottrell Jr. 
Mrs. William S. Covington 
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Crane 
Mr. and Mrs. William F. Crawford 
Mr. and Mrs. Lester Crown 
Mrs. Sandra K. Crown 
Ms. Susan Crown and Mr. William 

Kunkler 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Cruikshank 
Mr. and Mrs. O. C. Davis 
Dr. and Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mr. and Mrs Robert O Delaney 
Mr. and Mrs. David Deuble 
Mr. and Mrs. Albert B. Dick III 
Mr. and Mrs. Edison Dick 
28 Mrs. Clinton O. Dicken 



Mr. and Mrs. William R. Dickinson Jr 

Mr. and Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley 

Mr. and Mrs. James R. Donnelley 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Donnelley 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II 

Mrs. George Dovenmuehle 

Mrs. Robert!. Drake* 

Mr. Huntington Eldridge Jr. 

Mrs. R.Winfield Ellis 

Mrs. Marjorie H. Elting 

Mr. and Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Eyerman 

Mary and Bruce Feay 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Ferris 

Mrs. Joseph N. Field 

Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Field 

Mr. and Mrs. Steven D. Fifield 

Mr. and Mrs. Morgan L. Fitch Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Laurence D. Flora 

Mrs. Leonard S. Florsheim Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Peter B. Foreman 

Mr. and Mrs. Gaylord Freeman 

Mr. and Mrs, William M. Freeman 

Mrs. Edmund W. Froehlich 

Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Front 

Mr. and Mrs. Maurice F. Fulton 

Mr and Mrs. Gerald S. Gidwitz 

Mr. Joseph L. Gidwitz 

Dr. Elizabeth-Louise Girardi 

Dr. and Mrs. John G. Graham 

Mr. and Mrs. William B. Graham 

Mr. and Mrs. David W. Grainger 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul W. Guenzel 

George T Guernsey IV, Carol A. 

Miller 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Gwinn 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Haffner III 
Mrs. Burton W. Hales 
Mr. and Mrs Corwith Hamill 
Mrs. Charles L. Hardy 
Mrs. William A. Hark 
Mr. and Mrs. D. Foster Harland 
Mr. and Mrs. King Harns 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph B. Hawkes 
Mr. and Mrs. Laurin H. Healy 
Mr. and Mrs. Ben W. Heineman 
Mrs. Harold H. Hines Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Hines 
Mr. and Mrs. Michael F. Hodous 
Mr. and Mrs. John J. Hoellen 
Mr. Wayne J. Holman III 
Mr. Carl Holzheimer 
Mrs. H. Earl Hoover 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Hyndman 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Ingersoll 
Mr. and Mrs. Reinhardt H. Jahn 
Mrs. Harold James 
Mr. and Mrs. Edgar D. Jannotta 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph E. Jannotta Jr. 
Mrs. Barbara Small Johnson 
Mr. and Mrs. Clarence E. Johnson 
Mr. and Mrs. S. Curtis Johnson III 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Jones 
Mr. and Mrs. John B. Judkins Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. James R. Kackley 
Mr. and Mrs. Byron C. Karzas 
Mr. and Mrs. John J. Kinsella 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Kolar 
Mrs Ray A Kroc 
Mr. Carl A Kroch 
Mrs Richard W Leach 
Mr. Paul H. Leffmann 
Mr. and Mrs. Elliot Lehman 
Mr. and Mrs. John H. Leslie 



Mrs. John Wsodworth Leslie 
Mr. and Mrs. Michael D. Levin 
Dr. and Mrs. Michael S. Lewis 
Mr. Robert A. Lewis 
Mr. and Mrs. George Lill II 
Lucia \Afc)ods Lindley, 
Daniel A. Lindley Jr. 
Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd 
Mrs. Renee Logan 
Mrs. John A. MacLean Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Madigan 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Malott 
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Manilow 
Dr. and Mrs. Richard E. Marcus 
Mrs. Geraldine F. Martin 
Mrs. Harold T. Martin 
Mr. and Mrs. R. Eden Martin 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward D. Matz Jr. 
Mrs. Beatrice Cummings Mayer 
Mr. and Mrs. Oscar G. Mayer 
Mr. and Mrs. Brooks McCormick 
Mrs. Remick McDowell 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald J. McLachlan 
Mr. and Mrs. Cirilo A. McSween 
Dr. and Mrs. Steven Medgyesy 
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Meeker 
Mr. and Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Meyer 
Mr. and Mrs. Newton N. Minow 
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Mitchell 
Mr." and Mrs. William H. Mitchell 
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth F. Montgomery 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Morrow 
Mrs. Arthur!. Moulding 
Mr. and Mrs. Leo F. Mullin 
Mr. and Mrs. Timothy J. Murphy 
Dr. and Mrs. Charles F. Nadler 
Colonel and Mrs. John B. Naser 
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Neal 
Mr. and Mrs. John D. Nichols 
Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen Sr. 
Mr. and Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
Mr. and Mrs. Wrigley Offield 
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Thomas O'Neil 
Mrs. Gilbert H. Osgood 
Mr. and Mrs. James Otis Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald W. Patterson 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard J. Peterson 
Mr. and Mrs. John Phillips 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. Potter 
Mrs. A. N. Pritzker 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A Pritzker 
Mr. and Mrs. James H. Ransom 
Mr. Gerald Razowsky 
Mr. and Mrs. John Shedd Reed 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Reed 
Miss Ruth Regenstein 
Mr. and Mrs. Don H. Reuben 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Reynolds Jr. 
Mrs. Harold H. Richardson 
Mrs. T. Clifford Rodman* 
Mr. Ottomar D. Roeder 
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew M. Rosenfield 
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 
Dr. and Mrs. Paul M. Ross 
Ted and Janet Ross 
Mrs. Henry N. Rowley 
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Runnells 
Mr. David R. Sawyier 
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard B. Sax 
Mr. and Mrs. Norman J. Schlossman 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Schroeder 
Dr. and Mrs. John S.Schweppe 
Mrs W. W. Scott 
Mr.* and Mrs. John W. Seabury 
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Searle 



Mr. and Mrs. Henry Shapiro 
Mr. and Mrs. John I. Shaw 
Mr. Jeffrey Shedd 
Mr. and Mrs. Saul S. Sherman 
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas W. Shields 
Mrs. John M. Simpson 
Mrs. Thomas B. Singleton 
Mr. and Mrs. John R. Siragusa 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Byron Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Byron Smith Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Sommer 
Mrs. George T. Spensley 
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Spook 
Mr. and Mrs. Jack C. Staehle 
Mrs. Donna Wolf Steigenwaldt 
Mr. and Mrs. Wallace W. Steiner 
Mr. and Mrs. Manfred Steinfeld 
Mrs. David B. Stern Jr. 
Dr. and Mrs. David W. Stewart 
Mr. and Mrs. Roger W. Stone 
Mr. and Mrs. William S. Street 
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert F. Stride 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Stuart Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bolton Sullivan 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. James Swartchild 
Mrs. William G. Swartchild Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Mr. and Mrs. Phelps Hoyt Swift 
Mr. and Mrs. F. Morgan Taylor Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Taylor Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Taylor III 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward R. Telling 
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Thorne 
Mrs. Reuben Thorson 
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
Mr. and Mrs. Melvin A. Traylor Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. George S. Trees 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard J. Trienens 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas S. Tyler 
Mr. and Mrs. Edgar J. Uihiein 
Katherine L. Updike, Robert Wagner 
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert A. Vance 
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore W. Van Zelst 
Mr. Glen R. Verber 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Vernon 
Dr. and Mrs. Harold K. Voris 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis A. Wagner 
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel J. Walsh 
Mr. and Mrs. Hempstead 

Washbume Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Dey W. Watts 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Leiand Webber 
Mr. and Mrs. Roderick S. Webster 
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Weiss 
Mr. andMrs. JohnL. Vtelshlll 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry P. Wheeler 
Mr. and Mrs. George F. Wilhelm 
Mrs. Howard L.Willett Jr. 
Ms. Nicole Williams 
Dr. and Mrs. Philip C. Williams 
Mrs. Benton J. Willner 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul C. Wilson 
Mr. John W. Winn 
Mr * and Mrs. J. Howard Wood 
Mr. and Mrs. William V\tood-Prince 
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert N. Woodward 
Mr. and Mrs. Blaine J. Yarrington 
Mrs. George B. Young 
Mr. and Mrs. George D. Young 
Mrs. Claire Zeisler 



'deceased 



Corporation and 
Foundation iWiemtiers 

Abbott Laboratories 
Allen-Heath Memorial Foundation 
The Allstate Insurance Company 
American National Can Company 
Ameritech 

Amsted Industries, Inc. 
Arthur Andersen & Company 
Aon Corporation 
Bankers Trust Company 
The Barker Welfare Foundation 
Baxter Healthcare Corporation 
Beatrice Company 
Borg-Warner Foundation 
Boulevard Bank 
Burke, Wilson & Mcllvaine 
Leo Burnett, U.S.A. 
The Chase Manhattan Corporation 
The Chicago Community Trust 
Chicago Tribune Company 
Commonwealth Edison Company 
Continental Coffee Products 
Company 



Continental Illinois National Bank 

and Trust Company 
DeSoto, Inc. 

R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 
Ernst &Whinney 
FMC Corporation 

Fel-Pro/Mecklenburger Foundation 
Elizabeth Ferguson Trust 
First National Bank of Chicago 
Ford Motor Company 
Lloyd A. Fry Foundation 
Geraldi Norton Memorial 

Corporation 
Harris Bank Foundation 
Helene Curtis, Inc. 
Household International, Inc. 
IBM 

Illinois Bell 

Illinois Tool Works, Inc. 
The Interlake Corporation 
Kemper Educational and 

Charitable Fund 
Kemper Financial Services, Inc. 
The James S. Kemper Foundation 



Kraft, Inc. 

Louis R. Lurie Foundation 

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur 

Foundation 
Marshall Field's 
Robert R, McCormick 

Charitable Trust 
McMaster-Carr Supply Company 
MidCon Corp. 
Molex International, Inc. 
Morton Thiokol, Inc. 
Naico Chemical Company 
Northern Illinois Gas Company 
The Northern Trust Company 
John Nuveen & Company 
Peat Marwick Main & Co. 
J. C. Penney Company, Inc. 
Price Waterhouse 
Prince Charitable Trusts 
Quaker Oats Company 
The Regenstein Foundation 
The Rice Foundation 
S&C Electric Company 
Safety-Kleen Corp. 
Sahara Coal Company, Inc. 



Santa Fe Southern Pacific 

Corporation 
Sara Lee Corporation 
Sears, Roebuck and Co. 
Skil Corporation 
Tiffany & Company 
Touche Ross & Co. 
United Airlines 
USG Foundation, Inc. 
Harry Weese & Associates 
Whirlpool Corporation 
Wm, Wrigley Jr. Company 

Honorary IMembars 

Sir David Attenborough 
Dr. Stephen Jay Gould 
Dr. Donald C. Johanson 
Their Royal Highnesses, 

The Grand Duke and Duchess 

of Luxembourg 
Dr. Roger Tory Peterson 



PUBLIC PROGRAMS SUPPORT GROUP 



Thomas Bearrows 
Nancy Bush 
J. Mark Fisher 
Gerald Giese 
Claire Hartfield Harris 
Philip Harris 
Carrie Healy 
J. Duncan Healy 



Laura Jones 
Richard Jones 
Constance Kaplan 
Mary Kay Karzas 
Mercedes Laing 
David Lefkow 
Adriana Ballen Litvak 
Susan Lopez 



Lisa Runnells Markham 
Patricia McMillen 
Paul Nebenzahl 
ThereseObringer 
Jesse Reyes 
Kathy Robinson 
E. Wayne Robinson 



Laurie Rosten Rosen 
Robert Rosen 
Susan Satter 
Christina Senese 
Julie Shelton 
Louise Smith 
NikkiZollar 



Opening day at the Museum's new Grant Park location, May 2, 1 921 . The film archive of the Photogra- 
phy Department is a treasury of vintage photos, dating from the Columbian Exposition of 1 893 and 
before. 




29 



DONORS to the CAPITAL. CAMPAIGN, "TIME FUTURE from TIME PAST" 



INDIVIDUALS and 
FAMILY FOUNDATIONS 



$100,000 or more 

Mr. Gordon Bent 
Field Museum Women's Board 
Mr. & Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Estate of Arthur Rubloff 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 



$10,000-$99,999 

Mrs. P. Kelley Armour 
Mr. Vernon Armour 
Mr. & Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Mr. & Mrs. Willard L.Boyd 
Mr. &Mrs. A. C.BuehierJr. 

(AGP, Foundation) 
Richard H. Cooper Foundation 
Arie & Ida Crown Memorial 
Dr. & Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 

(The Walter Heller 

Foundation) 
Gaylord Donnelley 1983 Trust 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Eyerman 
Mr. & Mrs. Marshall Field 

(Jamee & Marshall Field 

Foundation) 
Mrs. Leonard S. Florsheim Jr. 

(The Enivar Charitable Fund) 
Mr. &Mrs. PaulW. Guenzel 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles C. Haffner III 
Mr. & Mrs. Corwith Hamill 
Mr. & Mrs. Ben W. Heineman 
Mr. & Mrs. Reinhardt H. Jahn 
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph E. 

Jannotta Jr. 
Mr. Ernest Jarett 
Mr. & Mrs. Clarence E. Johnson 
Mr. & Mrs. Roberto. Kolar 
Mr. & Mrs. John H. Leslie (Leslie 

Fund, Inc.) 
Mrs. John Woodworth Leslie 
Dr. & Mrs. Michael S. Lewis 
Mrs. Renee Logan 
Mr. & Mrs. Oscar G. Mayer 

(Oscar G& Else S. Mayer 

Charitable Trust) 
Mrs. Robert B. Mayer 
Mr. & Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin 
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 

(D&RFund) 
The Seabury Foundation 
Saul and Devorah Sherman 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Byron Smith 
Mrs. Robert E. Straus" 
Mr. Herbert Stride 
Mr. & Mrs. F. Morgan Taylor Jr. 
Mr. Edgar J. Uihiein Jr. 

'Deceased 



30 



$1,000- $9,999 

Mr. & Mrs. Lowell E. Ackmann 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas D. Allen 

Mr. Thomas W. Andrews 

Mr. Lester Armour Jr. 

Mr. Walter Baranowski 

Dr. J. W, Barnes 

Mr. George Barr 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Baumgarten 

Mr. Edwin A. Beane Jr. 

Mrs. Philip D. Block Jr. 

Mr. Frederic F. Brace Jr. 

Mrs. Dorothy T Braun 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles A. Brizzolara 

Mrs. Helen Bronson 

Dr. & Mrs. Andrew D. Bunta 

Mr. Roberts. Burrows 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert D. Cadieux 

Mr. &Mrs. Tyler Cain 

Mr. John F. Calmeyn 

Mr. & Mrs. Hammond E. 

Chaffetz 
Mr. & Mrs. Worley H.Clark Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Harry B. Clow Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Collopy 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank W. Considine 
Mr. & Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. William S. Covington 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Cruikshank 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert O. Delaney 
Mr. & Mrs. William R. 

Dickinson Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert G. Donnelley 
Mr. & Mrs. Peter L. Dyson 
Mr. & Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing 
Mrs. Robert E. Fanning 
Merrill & Diane Ferguson 
Field Museum Staff 
Laurence Flora 
Ms. Marion Frederick 
Mr. & Mrs. Marshall B. Front 
Mr. PaulJ. Gerstley 
Mrs. James J. Glasser (D & R 

Fund) 
Mr. & Mrs. William B. Graham 
Col. Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Rose B. Grosse 
Hales Charitable Fund 
Mr. & Mrs. King Harris (Harris 

Family Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. R. K. Dieter 

Haussmann 
Mrs. William H.Hazlett 
Mr. & Mrs. Laurin H. Healy 
Miss Dawne R. Hill 
Isham Family Foundation 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. Jones 
Mrs. Spencer R. Keare 
Mrs. Richard L. Keller 
Mr. & Mrs. George P. Kendall Jr. 
Donna F. Kennedy 
Mrs. E. Ogden Ketting 
Mr. Joseph F. Kindlon 
F. M. Kirby Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. & Mrs. John E. Kirkpatrick 
Mr. & Mrs. Paul R. Knapp 
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Kostal 
Mr. Howard G. Krane 
Mrs. Arthur H. Krausman 
The George Lill Foundation 
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Madigan 
Dr. and Mrs. Richard E. Marcus 



Dr. D. L. Martalock 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward Matz Jr. 

McCrea Foundation 

Mr. & Mrs, John B. McKinnon 

Mr. Andrew J. McMillan 

Mr. Cirilo McSween 

Mr. & Mrs. John C. Meeker 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles A. Meyer 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank C. Meyer 

Mr. Frank R. Milnor 

Mr. & Mrs. Nevrton N. Minow 

Darlene K. Miskovic 

Mr. & Mrs. Leo F. Mullin 

Col. & Mrs. John B. Naser 

Mr. & Mrs. Stephen C. Neal 

Judith & Edward Neisser 

Mr. & Mrs. John D. Nichols 

Mr. & Mrs. James J. O'Connor 

Katherine F. Olson 

Mr. & Mrs. William A. 

Onderdonk Jr. 
Mr. James Otis Jr. 
Cathy Patnck 
Mr. & Mrs. Julian S. Perry 
John & Elizabeth Phillips 
Mr. & Mrs. Allan M. Pickus 
Mr. Bernard G. Pollack 
Mr. Marvin A. Pomerantz 
Mr. & Mrs. John Pusinelli 
Mr. & Mrs. James A. Radtke 
Mrs. M. G. Rahal 
Mrs. Harold Richardson 
Mr. Ottomar D. Roeder 
Mr. & Mrs. George Schaaf 
Mr. Edwin A. Seipp Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Henry Shapiro 
Mr. Jeffrey Shedd 
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Shenwin 
Mr. & Mrs. John R. Siragusa 
Mr. & Mrs. Jackson W. Smart Jr. 
H. E. Sommer Family 

Foundation 
Mr. Joseph Sondheimer 
Mrs. Frederick W. Spiegel 
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Spock 
Mr. Manfred Steinfeld 
Dr. Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Frank L. Sulzberger 
Mr. Philip W.K. Sweet 
Mr. & Mrs. John W.Taylor III 
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Thome 
Mr. & Mrs. Howard J. Trienens 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Tubergen 
Mr. & Mrs. Paul G. Vogel 
Mr. &Mrs. R. B.Walsh Jr. 
Mrs. C. A. Ward 
Mrs. Imy Wax 
Mr. & Mrs. William L. Weiss 

(William L. & Josephine B. 

Weiss Family Foundation) 
Dr. & Mrs. Philip C. Williams 
Mr. & Mrs. Paul C.Wilson 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert H.Wilson 



DONORS to the CAPITAI. CAMPAIGN, 'TIME FUTURE from TIME PAST" 



CORPORATIONS and 
FOUNDATIONS 

$100,000 or more 

Amoco Foundation, Inc. 
Aon Corporation 
Chicago Community Tnjst 
Commonwealth Edison 
Elizabeth Ferguson Trust 
Uoyd A. Fry Foundation 
Frederick Henry Prince Trust 
Illinois Bell Telephone Co. 
John D. & Catherine T 

MacArthur Foundation 
Joseph Regenstein Foundation 
Kresge Foundation 
Robert R. McConmick 

Charitable Trust 
Sears Roebuck & Co. 



$10,000-$99,999 

Abbott Laboratories 
Allstate Foundation 
American National Can Corp. 
Ameritech, Inc. 
Amsted Industries 
Arthur Andersen & Company 
Bari<er V\felfare Foundation 
The Baxter Foundation 
Beatrice Foundation, Inc. 
Borg-Wamer Corporation 
Boulevard Foundation 
Helen V. Brach Foundation 
Leo Bumett USA 
Elizabeth F Cheney Foundation 
Comdisco, Inc. 
Continental Coffee Products 

Company 
The DeSoto Foundation 
R.R. Donnelley & Sons 
Fel-Pro/Mecklenburger 

Foundation 
Field Foundation of Illinois 
First National Bank of Chicago 
FMC Foundation 
Geraldi-Norton Memorial 

Corporation 
Harris Bank Foundation 
Hartmarx 

Helene Curtis Industries, Inc. 
Illinois Tool Wori<s Foundation 
Interiake, Inc. Foundation 
International Business Machines 

Corporation 
James S. Kemper Foundation 
Kemper Education & Charitable 

Foundation 
Kemper Financial Services, Inc. 
Kraft, Inc. 

Louis H. Lurie Foundation 
Midcon Corp. 
Naico Chemical Company 
The Northern Trust Company 
John Nuveen and Company 
Peat, Marwick, Main 
Price Watertiouse & Company 
Safety- Kleen Corporation 
Santa Fe Southem Pacific 

Foundation 
Sara Lee Foundation 



S & C Electric Company 
The Siragusa Foundation 
Simpson Trust Foundation 
Touche Ross and Co. 
USG Foundation, Inc. 
Walgreen Co. 
Harry Weese & Associates 
Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company 



$1,000-S9,999 

American National Bank 

Foundation 
Amsted Industries Foundation 
Bankers Trust Company 
Berg, DeMarco, Lewis & 

Sawatski 
Blum-Kovler Foundation 
Centel Corporation 
Chase Manhattan Bank 
Chicago Pacific Corporation 
Chicago Title & Tnjst Company 
Cooper Lighting 
CR Industries 

DDB Needham, \/\fortdwide 
Harris Bank Foundation 
Ben Kozloff, Inc. 
LaSalle National Bank 
McMaster-Carr Supply Company 
MacLean-Fogg Company 
Marshall Field's 
Midwest Bank & Trust Co. 
Molex Incorporated 
Moore Business Forms & 

Systems Division 
Morton Thiokol Foundation 
Motorola Foundation 
Northem Illinois Gas 
Ogiivy & Mather Inc. 
Peoples Gas Light & Coke Co. 
Pittway Corporation Charitable 

Foundation 
Quaker Oats Foundation 
Rockwell Intemational 
Rubloff Inc. 

The Salomon Foundation Inc. 
Sargent & Lundy Engineers 
Schal Associates 
Schwarz Paper Company 
Scott Foresman & Co. 
Shell Companies Foundation, 

Inc. 
Skil Corporation 
Square D Foundation 
J. Walter Thompson Co. Fund 
United Conveyor Corporation 
Xerox Foundation 



CORPORATIONS and 
FOUNDATIONS GIVING 
MATCHING GIFTS 

ACCO Intemational, inc. 
The Akzo America Foundation 
Allied-Signal Foundation, Inc. 
Ameritech Foundation, Inc. 
Amsted Industries Foundation 
Aon Corporation 
AT & T Foundation 
ARCO Foundation 
Baird& Warner, Inc. 
Helen V. Brach Foundation 
The Brunswick Foundation, Inc. 
Leo Bumett Company USA 
Carson Pirie Scott Foundation 
Chemical Bank 
Chevron USA, Inc. 
The Chicago Tribune Company 

Foundation 
Cigna Foundation 
Citicorp USA Inc. 
The Continental Can Company 
Continental Bank Foundation 
Coming Glass Works Foundation 
CPC Intemational, Inc. 
Digital Equipment Corporation 
R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co. 
Emerson Electric Company 
The Equitable Life Assurance 

Society of America 
Exxon Corporation 
The Field Corporation Fund 
Firemans Fund Insurance Co. 
Follett Corporation 
Fomebords Company 
GATX Corp. 

General Dynamics Corp. 
WW. Grainger, Inc. 
Great Northem Nekoosa 

Corporation 
Gulf & Western Foundation 
John Hancock Charitable Trust 
Harris Bank Foundation 
Helene Curtis Industries, Inc. 
Houghton Mifflin Company 
Household Intemational 
Illinois Bell Telephone Company 
Illinois Tool Wori<s Inc. 
Intemational Business Machines 

Corporation 
Intemational Minerals & 

Chemicals Corporation 
lU Intemational Corporation 
Fred S. James & Co. of Illinois 
Johnson Controls Foundation 
Johnson & Higgins of Illinois, Inc. 
James S. Kemper Foundation 
Kansas City Southem Industries, 

Inc. 
K mart Corporation 
Keebler Co. Foundation 
Kiri<land & Ellis 
Kraft, Inc. 

The Marmon Group Incorporated 
The May Stores Foundation, Inc. 
Mayer Brown & Piatt 
McDonald's Corporation 
McGraw Foundation 
The McGraw-Hill Foundation 
Midcon Corporation 
MMI Companies, Inc. 



Mobil Foundation, Inc. 
Montgomery Ward Foundation 
Morton-Thiokol Inc. 
RJR Nabisco, Inc. 
NaIco Foundation 
National Reinsurance Corp. 
Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of 

America 
The Northem Tnjst Company 
John Nuveen & Co., Incorporated 
Pennzoil Co. 
Peoples Gas Light & Coke 

Company 
Pfizer, Inc. 
Pittway Corporation Charitable 

Fund 
Premari< Intemational 
Quaker Oats Foundation 
Retirement Research Foundation 
Santa Fe Southem Pacific 

Foundation 
Sara Lee Foundation 
Spiegel, Inc. 
Square D Foundation 
Sundstrand Corporation 

Foundation 
Textron Inc. 
Time, Incorporated 
United States Fidelity and 

Guaranty Co. 
United Technologies 
USG Foundation, Inc. 



Space does not permit includ- 
ing the thousands of Members 
and Museum friends who con- 
tributed gifts below $1 ,000 to 
the Capital Campaign. The 
Board of Trustees, officers, and 
staff are nonetheless grateful 
for their generosity and many 
expressions of faith in the future 
of Field Museum. 



31 



DONORS to the OPERATING, RESTRICTED, and ENDOWED FUNDS 



The following roster lists those 
donors who generously contrib- 
uted gifts of $100 or more dur- 
ing 1987-88, In addition, we are 
grateful for the gifts of less than 
$100, which numbered more 
than 4,900 this biennium. 

Individuals and 
Family Foundations 

•10,000 and over 

Estate of Mrs. Carolyn S. 

Akenson 
Anonymous 
Mr. Gordon Bent 
Buchanan Family Foundation 
Estate of Dr. Margery Carlson 
Mrs. Jerry G. Chambers 
Mrs. Clinton O. Dickon 
Gaylord Donnelley 1983 Trust 
Mrs. George H. Dovenmuehle 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Eyerman 
Field Museum Women's Board 
Estate of Dr. Evelyn Frank 
Mr. & Mrs. William M. Freeman 
Mrs. Edmund W. Froehlich 
Dr. Elizabeth-Louise Girardi 
Dr. & Mrs. John G. Graham 
Mr. & Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Mr. & Mrs. Corwith Hamill 

(Happy Hollow Fund) 
Mrs. Charles L, Hardy (Elliott & 

Ann Donnelley Foundation) 
Mrs. William A. Hark 
Mr. & Mrs. Laurin H. Healy 
Miss Elizabeth Hoffman 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. Jones 
Mr. & Mrs. John H. Leslie (Leslie 

Fund, Inc.) 
Martin Foundation, Inc. 
Mr. & Mrs. Oscar G. Mayer 

(Oscar G.&ElsaS. Mayer 

Charitable Trust) 
Mr. John McCortney (W. P. & H. 

B. White Foundation) 
Ruth Evelyn Millar Trust 
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth F. 

Montgomery 
Estate of Mrs. John D. Morrow 
Mrs. Arthur T. Moulding 
Miss Ruth Regenstein 
Estate of Katherine Field 

Rodman 
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 

(D&RFund) 
Mr. & Mrs. John S. Runnells 
Estate of Beatrice Schwartz 
Mr. &Mrs. William L.Searle 

(Searle Family Trust) 
Mr. &Mrs. JackC.Staehle 
Estate of Kate Staley 
Dr. & Mrs. David W.Stewart 
Mrs. Phelps Hoyt Swift (Ruth & 

Vernon Taylor Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Taylor Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
Mr. & Mrs. Howard J. Trienens 
Estate of Chester D. Tripp 
Jane B. Tripp Unitrust of 1977 
Estate of Mrs. Lorraine E. White 
Estate of Mathilde H. Wiley 
Mrs. Howard L.Willett Jr. 

(Howard L. Willett 
32 Foundation) 



•S,000-«9.999 

Anonymous 

Mr. & Mrs. A. Watson Armour III 
Mr. & Mrs. Roberto. Bass 
Mrs. Philip D. Block Jr. 
Mr.' and Mrs. Robert C. 

Borwell Sr. 
Mrs. Bertram Z. Brodie (Edwin 

J. Brach Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Henry A. Brown 
Mr. & Mrs. AC. BuehlerJr. 

(AC. P. Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Crane 
Mr. and Mrs. Edison Dick 
Mrs. R. Winfield Ellis 
Mr. &Mrs. Paul W. Guenzel 
Frances Hamill 1985 Trust 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Mrs. William H. Hazlett 
Mr. & Mrs. Ben W. Heineman 
John J. Hoellen (Sulzer Family 

Foundation) 
WayneJ.Holman, Jr. 1963 

Charitable Trust 
Mr. & Mrs. Reinhardt H. Jahn 
Mrs. Harold James (Butz 

Foundation) 
Mr, & Mrs. Clarence E. Johnson 
F. M. Kirby Foundation, Inc. 
Otto W. Lehmann Foundation 
Howard O. Leslie 
Mr. & Mrs. Michael D. Levin 
Mrs. Renee Logan 
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Madigan 
Mrs. Harold T. Martin 
Melvoin Foundation 
Miner-Weisz Charitable 

Foundation 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. Morrow 
Estate of Mabel Green Myers 
Mrs, Gilbert H, Osgood 
Mr, & Mrs, Charles S, Potter 

(McClurg Foundation) 
Mrs, T, Clifford Rodman' 
Mr, John I, Shaw (Arch W, Shaw 

Foundation) 
Mr, & Mrs, Edward F. Swift III 
Mr, & Mrs, Herbert A, Vance 



•l.OOO-S4,998 

Mr, & Mrs, Lowell E, Ackmann 

(Lowell Ackmann Fund) 
Mr, & Mrs, Stanley N, Allan 
Mrs, Margaret B, Allyn (The 

Allyn Foundation, Inc.) 
Mr. & Mrs. James W. Alsdorf 

(Alsdorf Foundation) 
Anonymous 
Mr. & Mrs. Laurance H. Armoui 

(Armour Family Foundation) 
Mrs. Lester Armour 
Mrs. P. Kelley Armour 
Mr. & Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Mr. & Mrs. Edwin N. Asmann (O. 

Paul Decker Memorial 

Foundation) 
Estate of Abby K. Babcock 
Mr. & Mrs. George R. Baker 
Mr. & Mrs. James L. Ballard 
Mr. & Mrs. James H. Bankard 
Mr. George Barr (Kristina Barr 

and George Barr Foundation) 
Ms. Virginia T. Bartholomay 

(The Ruth & Vernon Taylor 

Foundation) 



Mr. & Mrs. Lee A. Baumgarten 
Dr. & Mrs. Robert A. Beatty 
Mr. & Mrs. James F. Bere 
Mrs. Edwin A. Bergman 

(Bergman Family 

Charitable Trust) 
Mr. & Mrs. Harrington Bischof 
Mrs. Carolyn P. Blackmon 
Mr. & Mrs. Bowen Blair 
Mr. & Mrs. Philip D. Block III (J 

B. Charitable Trust) 
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Boone 
Mrs. Harold S. Brady 
Mr. James E. Bramsen (Svend 

& Elizabeth Bramsen 

Foundation) 
Mrs. Dorothy T. Braun 
Mr. &Mrs. Kenneth A. Bro 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Brooker 
Mr. & Mrs. Cameron Brown 

(Cameron Brown Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Roger O. Brown 
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert A. Bruckner 
Mr.'&Mrs. DeWittW. 

Buchanan Jr. 
Mrs. Donald P. Buchanan 
Mr. & Mrs. Dean L, Buntrock 

(Dean & Rosemarie Buntrock 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. James E. Burd (Burd 

Family Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Donald A. 

Campbell Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs, Peter R, Carney 

(Peter R, & Marina G, Carney 

Foundation) 
Dr, & Mrs, Robert Wells Carton 
Mr, & Mrs, Hammond E. 

Chaffetz (Chaffetz Family 

Foundation) 
Mr, & Mrs, Henry T, Chandler 
Mr &Mrs, Walter L, Cherry 
Mr, Eugene J, Chesrow 
Mr, & Mrs, W,H, Clark Jr. 
Mr. &Mrs. Harry B. Clow Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank W. Considine 
Mr. & Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 
Mr. & Mrs. Donald C. Cottrell Jr. 
A. G. Cox Chanty Trust 
Mrs. William S. Covington 
Mr. & Mrs. William F. Crawford 

(The Crawford Foundation) 
Arie & Ida Crown Memorial 
Mr. John F. Cuneo 
Mr. & Mrs. W. Allen Davies 
Mr. &Mrs. O.C.Davis (O.C. 

Davis Foundation) 
Dr. & Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 

(The Walter E. Heller 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert O. Delaney 
Mr. & Mrs. James R. De Stefano 
Mr. & Mrs. David Double 
Mr. & Mrs. Albert B. Dick III 
Dick Family Foundation 
Dr. & Mrs. Matthew W. Dickie 

(Luther I. Replogle 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. William R. 

Dickinson Jr. 
Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon 
Mr. & Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon Jr. 
Ms. Patricia Dodson 
Mr. & Mrs, Thomas E, Donnelley 

II (Thomas E, Donnelley II 

Foundation) 
Mrs, Robert T, Drake' 



Mrs, Mary Mills Dunea 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Edwards 

(Woodruff & Edwards 

Foundation) 
Mr. William Elfenbaum 
Mr-. & Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing 
Mr. Charles E. Fausel 
Mary & Bruce Feay 
Mr. & Mrs. Marshall Field 

(Jamee & Marshall Field 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Steven D. Fifield 
Mr. & Mrs. Morgan L. Fitch Jr. 
Mr. &Mrs. C. Robert Foltz 
Mr. & Mrs. Peter B. Foreman 

(Peroke Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Gaylord Freeman 
Mr. & Mrs. Maurice F. Fulton 
Mr. & Mrs. R.E.Gallagher 
Mr. Bruce M. Ganek 
Mr. Paul J. Gerstley 
Mrs. James R. Getz 
Mr, & Mrs, Geralds, Gidwitz 
Mr. Joseph L Gidwitz (The 

Division Fund) 
Mrs. Marion H. Giles 
Mrs. Paul W, Goodrich 
Mrs. Alexander Gorbunoff 
Dr. & Mrs. John S. Graettinger 
Mr. & Mrs. William B. Graham 
Mrs. Rose B. Grosse 
George T. Guernsey IV, Carol A. 

Miller 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert P. Gwinn 
Mr. & Mrs. D. Foster Harland 
Mr. & Mrs. Rembrandt C. 

HillerJr. 
Mrs. Harold H. Hines Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. John L. Hines 
Mr. & Mrs. Michael F. Hodous 
Mr. & Mrs. John J. Hoellen 
Mr. Carl Holzheimer 

(Holzheimer Fund) 
Mrs. H. Earl Hoover (H. Earl 

Hoover Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Hyndman 
Mr. Charles Iker 
Mr. & Mrs. George M. Illich Jr. 
Robert F. Inger. Ph.D. 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert S. Ingersoll 
Mr. & Mrs. Edgar D. Jannotta 
Mrs. Barbara Small Johnson 

(Small Family Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. James E. Johnson 
Mr. & Mrs. S. Curtis Johnson III 
Mr. & Mrs. John B. Judkins Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. James R. Kackley 
Mr. & Mrs. Burton B. & Anne L. 

Kaplan (Mayer & Morris 

Kaplan Family Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Morns A. & Alice B. 

Kaplan (Mayer & Morris 

Kaplan Family Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Byron C. Karzas 
Dr. Margaret Katzin 
Mrs. Spencer R. Keare 
Mr. & Mrs. John J. Kinsella 
Mr. & Mrs. John E. Kirkpatrick 
Herman & Gertrude Klatter 

Foundation 
Mrs. Roberto. Knight 

(R. G.&E. M. Knight Fund) 
Estate of Arthur F. Krueger 
Mrs. Allen B, Kuhlman 
Mr. Charles W. Lake Jr. (Lake 

Family Foundation) 
Mrs. Richard W. Leach 



'Deceased 



DONORS to the OPERATING, RESTRICTED, and ENDOV^ED FUNDS 



Mr. Paul H. Leffmann (The Paul 

H.&TheoH. Leffmann 

Philanthropic Fund) 
Mr. & Mrs. Elliot Lehman (New 

Prospect Foundation) 
Mrs. Frederick K. Leisch 
Dr. & Mrs. Edward H. Levi 
Mr. Robert A. Lewis 
Mrs. Joseph F. Lizzadro 
Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd 
Mrs. John A. MacLean Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Malott 
Dr. & Mrs. Richard E. Marcus 

(Richard E. & Francelle W. 

Marcus Family Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. R. Eden Martin 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward D. Matz Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Brooks McCormick 

(Brooks & Hope B. 

McCormick Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. William J. 

McDonough 
Mrs. Andrew McKenna 
Mr. & Mrs. William W. McKittrick 
Mr. & Mrs. Donald J. McLachlan 
Dr. & Mrs. L. Steven Medgyesy 
Mr. & Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles A. Meyer 
Mrs. J. Roscoe Miller 
Estate of Mildred Miller 
Mr. & Mrs. Philips. Miller 
Mr. & Mrs. Newton N. Minow 

(Minow Charitable Fund) 
Mrs. William H. Mitchell 

(Anne Wood Mitchell Trust) 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank J. Mooney 
Mr. & Mrs. Timothy J. Murphy 
Mr. David R. Myers (Marquette 

Charitable Organization) 
Colonel & Mrs. John B. Naser 
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen C.Neal 
Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen Sr. 
Mrs. John Nuveen 
Mrs. Ralph Thomas O'Neil 
Dr. & Mrs. Eric Oldberg 
Mrs. Richard C. Oughton 
Mr. & Mrs. George A. Pagels Jr. 
Mr. William Pavey 
Mrs. Beth Low Pierrepont 

(Henry E. & Consuelo Wenger 

Foundation, Inc.) 
Dr. & Mrs. George B. Rabb 
Mr. Richard J. Radebaugh 
Mr. & Mrs. James H. Ransom 
Mr. & Mrs. Franks. Read 
Mr. & Mrs. John Shedd Reed 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Reed 
Mr. & Mrs. Don H.Reuben 
Mr. & Mrs. Clark S. Robinson 
Mr. Robert D. Rodgers 
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew M. 

Rosenfield 
Dr. & Mrs. Paul M.Ross 
Ted & Janet Ross 
Hon. & Mrs. Daniel 

Rostenkowski 
Mr. & Mrs. A. Frank Rothschild 

(A. Frank & Dorothy B. 

Rothschild Fund) 
Mrs. Dorothy C. Rowley 
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick G. Ryan 

(Patrick G. & Shirley W. Ryan 

Foundation) 
Mr. David R. Sawyier 
Mr. & Mrs. Leonard B. Sax (Sax 

Family Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Norman J. 

Schlossman (Jocarno Fund) 



Mr. Walter E. Schuessler 
Mrs. Elizabeth M. Schultz 
Dr. & Mrs. John S. Schweppe 
Mrs. W. W. Scott 
Mr.* & Mrs. John W. Seabury 
The Seabury Foundation 
Mrs. Richard J. L. Senior (The 

Morgan-Senior Foundation) 
Mr. David Sensibar 
Mr. & Mrs. Henry Shapiro 

(Henry & Soretta Shapiro 

Family Foundation) 
Mr. Jeffrey Shedd 
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas W. Shields 

(Bessie Shields Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs.* Edward Byron Smith 

(Edward B. Smith Charitable 

Fund) 
Mr. & Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Dr. & Mrs. Daniel Snydacker 
Mr. H.E. Sommer(H.E. 

Sommer Family Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Sondheimer 
Mrs. George T. Spensley 
Mrs. Donna Wolf Steigerwaldt 

(Donna Wolf Steigerwaldt 

Foundation) 
Ms. Elizabeth Stein 

(Stein-Freiler Foundation) 
Mr. Sydney Stein (LaSalle 

Adams Fund) 
Mrs. David B. Stern Jr. 
Mr. Marvin Stone (Marvin & 

Anita Stone Family 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Roger W.Stone 

(Roger & Susan Stone Family 

Foundation) 
Mrs. Robert E. Straus* 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert D. Stuart Jr. 
Mr. Bolton Sullivan (Bolton 

Sullivan Foundation) 
Mr. John W. Sullivan (Bolton 

Sullivan Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. John W.Sullivan 

(Susan R. & John W. Sullivan 

Foundation) 
Mrs. James Swartchild 

(Collier-Swartchild 

Foundation) 
Mrs. William G. Swartchild Jr. 
Mrs. Samuel G. Taylor III 
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Thorne 
Mrs. Reuben Thorson 
Mr. & Mrs. Melvin A. Traylor Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. George S. Trees 
Mr. George S. Trees Jr. 
Katherine L. Updike, Robert 

Wagner 
Mr. Glen R. Verber 
Dr. & Mrs. Harold K. Voris 
Mr. & Mrs. Hempstead 

Washburne Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. DeyW. Watts 
Mr. & Mrs. E. Leiand Webber 
Mr. & Mrs. John L.Welsh III 

(McCrea Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Henry P. Wheeler 
Mr. & Mrs. George F. Wilhelm 
Abra Prentice Wilkin Charitable 

Trust 
Mr. & Mrs. Philip C.Williams 
Mrs. Benton J. Willner (Madeline 

& Henry Strauss Endowment 

Fund) 



Mr. John W. Winn 
Winnetka Garden Club 
Mr.* & Mrs. J. Howard Wood 
Mr. & Mrs. William Wood-Prince 
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert N. 

Woodward 
Mrs. George B. Young 
Mr. & Mrs. George D. Young 
Mrs. Claire Zeisler 



S100-S999 

Anonymous 

Mrs. Charles Aaron 

Mrs. Lester S. Abelson 

(Lester S. Abelson 

Foundation) 
Mr. Alan L. Acker 
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Acker 
Mr. & Mrs. L. Meredith Ackley 
Mark & Beverly Adamczyk 
Mr. & Mrs. Leiand C. Adams 
Ms. Margaret M. Adams 
Mrs. Keene H. Addington 
Mrs. R. J. Adelman 
Dr. Robert Adier 
Mrs. Robert S. AdIer 
Mr. & Mrs. W. Raymond 

Ahrberg 
Mr. H. Bert Ahrensfeld 
Mr. Thomas W. Alder 
Mr. John Alexander Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. John A. Alexander 
Mr. & Mrs. Walter Alexander 
Mr. Louis A. Allen 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard H. Alschuler 
Mrs. Julian A. Altman 
Mrs. Geraldine S. Alvarez 
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur H. 

Anderson Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Carlyle E. Anderson 
Mr. & Mrs. J. Robert Anderson 
Mr. & Mrs. John E. Anderson 
Mr. Thomas W. Andrews 
Miss Wanda S. Andruk 
Mr. Richard Ansel 
Mr. Richard S. Antes 
Mr. Lawrence W. Appelbaum 
Mrs. E. A. Archer 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Archer 
Mr. Vernon Armour 
Mr. Robert L. Ashenhurst 
Mr. & Mrs. Wallis Austin (Oak 

Park-River Forest Community 

Fund) 
Mr. & Mrs. William H. Avery (The 

Avery Fund) 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas G. Ayers 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Bacon Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene C. Bailey 
Mrs. Warner G. Baird Jr. 
Mr. E. M. Bakwin 
Mr. Elmer Balaban 
Dr. & Mrs. George E. Ball 
Dr. Sam W.Banks 
Dr. & Mrs. Seymour Banks 
Mr. Ralph Austin Bard Jr. 
Miss Pfiyllis Barnett 
Mr. & Mrs. Gene J. Baroni 
Mrs. F. Rose Barr* 
Mr. J. Robert Barr 
Mr. & Mrs. Peter Barrett 

(Stone Barrett Foundation) 
Dr. James T Barter 
Mrs. Stephen M. Bartram 
Mrs. Helen Bashore 



Mr. & Mrs. Roger S. Baskes 

Mr. James Bateman 

Allen F. Bates & Clara G. Bates 

Foundation 
Mr. Harry T. Baumann 
Mr. Michael Bayard 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward A. Beamish 
Mr. & Mrs. John M Bean 
Mr. Robert C. Becherer 
Mrs. James H. Becker 
Mr. Max Becker 
Mary & Alfred Bederman 
Mr. &Mrs. C. K. Beebelll 
Mr. & Mrs. John L. Behr 
Mr. Walter Belinky 
Mrs. Theodore A. Bell 
Mr. John F. Benjamin 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward H. 

Bennett Jr. 
Dr. & Mrs. Gerald D. Bennett 
Mr. Keith Bennett 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles A. Benson 
Mr. & Mrs. Floyd L. Benson 
Mrs. Louise H. Benton 
Mrs. Charles W. Benz 
Mr. & Mrs. Harry O. Bercher 
Dr. &Mrs. PhilipJ.Berent 
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene P. Berg 
Mr. Richard C. Berliner 
Mrs. Edward J. Bermingham 
Mr. Edward C. Berry 
Mrs. David H. Betts 
Jacqueline Beu 
Miss Hermine Beukema 
Mr. Robert W.Bibler 
Mr. Andrew P. Bieber 
Miss Ruth A. Bieritz 
Hon. & Mrs. Michael A. Bilandic 
Mr. Nicholas A. Bilandic 
Mr. & Mrs. Martin Binder 
Mr. Einar L. Bjorklund 
Mr. John M. Blair 
Mr. Donald Blanke (H. B. Blanke 

Charitable Trust) 
Mrs. Frank W. Blatchtord III 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Blau 
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew K. Block 

(Philip D. Block Jr. Family 

Foundation) 
Mr. Leigh B. Block* 
Mr. & Mrs. Edwin R. Blomquist 
Mr. & Mrs. NeilG.BIuhm 
Dr. Glenn F. Boas 
Mr. & Mrs. George H. Bodeen 
Mr. Roberto. Boehnke 
Mrs. Gilbert P. Bogert 
Mr. &Mrs. R. G.Bohnen 
Mr. & Mrs. A. F. Bohnert 
Ms. Ellen Boles 
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel J. Boone 
Miss Dorothy Booth 
Mr. Sidney M. Boss 
Mr. Robert E. Bouma 
Miss Ann E. Bouvier 
Mrs. Clymer S. Bowen 
Mrs. Arthurs. Bowes 
Mr. & Mrs. Willard L. Boyd 
Mr. & Mrs. William Beaty Boyd 
Dr. N. T. Braatelien 
Mr. Frederic F. Brace Jr. 
Mrs. Clarence G. Brack 
Mr. John R. Bradley 
Mr. & Mrs. Roscoe R. 

Braham Jr. 
Dr. & Mrs. Wayne G. Brandstadt 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard J. Brandt 
Mr. David P. Brannin 33 

'Deceased 



DONORS to the OPERATING, RESTRICTED, and ENDOV\fED FUNDS 



S100-S999 

Shirley F. Brashler 
Mrs, Helen M. Braun 
Mr. Morris Braun 
Mrs. Louise Brayton 
Mr. & Mrs. James L. Breeling 
Mr. & Mrs. William E. Breitzke 
Mr. & Mrs. David M. Brenner 
Mrs. Elmo F. Brennom 
Dr. Herbert C. Breuhaus 
Mr. & Mrs. Gerhard Brezina 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles A. Brickman 
Mr. & Mrs. James E. Briggs 
Mr. Norman M. Briggs 
Roberts Sharon Bright 
Mrs. Lester Harris Brill 
Mr. & Mrs. Warren G. 

Brockmeier 
Mr. Alan R. Brodie 
Mr. & Mrs. Donald A. Brooks 
Dr. & Mrs. Charles S.Brown 
Mrs. Gardner Brown 
Mrs. Murray C. Brown 
Mrs. Robert A. Brown 
Dr. Rowine H. Brown 
Dr. & Mrs. Terrance Brown 
Mr. & Mrs. William M. Brown 
Mrs. Margaret G. Browne 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles T. Brumback 
Sophie & Robert Brunner 
Mrs. Hedwig Bruske 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward A. Bruzewicz 
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen J. Buck 
Ms. Mary Bucz 

Mrs. T. Von Donop Buddington 
Mr. Robert Buehler 
Mr. & Mrs. Theodore H. 

Buenger 
Mr. Donald W. Bulk 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Buker 
Mr. Lewis E. Bulkeley Jr. 
Dr. & Mrs. Alfred A. Bull 
Dr. & Mrs. Andrew D. Bunta 
Mrs. Alfred L. Burke 
Ms. Romana Burke 
Mr. Robert G. Burkhardt 
Mr. & Mrs. Homer A. Burnell 
Mr. Edward J. Burns 
Mrs. Richard C. Burnstine 
Mr. Arthur Burrows Jr. 
Mr. Robert S. Burrows 
Mr. George W. Butler (George & 

Gladys Butler Family 

Foundation) 
Mr. John Meigs Butler Jr. 
Mr. Herbert K. Butz 
Mr. Robert B. Butz 
Miss NaraCadorin 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert D. Cadieux 

(Cadieux Charitable Trust) 
Mr. Quentin D. Calkins 
Mrs. Dorothy M. Cameron 
Mr. & Mrs. Douglas H. Cameron 
Mr. & Mrs. William T. Cameron 
Mr. Hugh Campbell 
Mr. J. Melfort Campbell 
Jane P. Campbell 
Mr. & Mrs. Roger L. Carlson 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Adams Carr 
Dr. & Mrs. Michael E. Carroll 
Mrs. Milliard S. Cartwright 
Mr. John G. Cashman 
Jeannette J. Cassin 
Mr. & Mrs. Silas S.Cathcart 

(Seven "C" Foundation) 
34 Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence Cena 



Mr. Wence F. Cerne 
Mr. & Mrs. Raymond M. 

Champion Jr. 
Mr. Edward K. Chandler 
Mr. Michael Chaneske 
Ms. Vera C. Chapman 
Mr. William C. Chapman 
Dr. & Mrs. Allan G.Charles 
Dr. J. A. Chenicek 
Mr. Sidney Cheresh 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Chomsky 
Dr. & Mrs. Cynl M. Chrabot 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank J. Christian 
Mrs. Joseph Christian 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard J. Christie 
Mr. & Mrs. Allen N.CIapp 
Dr. & Mrs. John W.Clark 
Ms. Zeta E.Clark* 
Mr. Max Clausen 
Miss Dolores Clavier 
Mr. S.P.Clay Jr. 
Mr. Norman J. Clemetsen 
Mr. & Mrs. John Clemmer 
Mr. & Mrs. Donald E. Cloud 
Mrs. Eric W. Cochrane 
Mrs. Margot Coerver 
Mr. Richard W.Colburn 
Mr. & Mrs. Franklin A. Cole 
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Colman 
Mr. & Mrs. EarleM. Combs III 
Mr. Edwin H. Conger 
Dr. & Mrs. Raymond H. Conley 
EInora E. Conover 
Mr. Louis J. Conti 
Mr. & Mrs. Granger Cook Jr. 
Mr. John Cook 
Ms. Virginia Cook 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles T. Cooney 
Miss Jane L. Coons 
Mrs. Edward A. Cooper 
Mrs. David P. Cordray 
Mr. Warren H. Cordt 
Mr. & Mrs. James G. Costakis 
Mr. John S. Coulson 
Miss Marion E. Cowan 
Mr. & Mrs. T. A. Cowen 
Mrs. Edwina H. Cox 
Mr & Mrs James W. Cozad 
Mr. & Mrs. Warren B. Cozzens 
Miss Charlotte I. Craig 
Miss Frances M. Craig 
Mr. Arthur A. Cramer Jr. 
Mr. Russell E. Crider 
Dr. Richard A. Crinzi 
Mrs. Kathryn Crittenden 
Mrs Elisabeth M. Crow 
Mrs. John V Crowe 
Mrs. Sandra K. Crown 
Mr Michael Cudahy 
Mr. &Mrs, Herschel Cudd 
Mr. Frank Cullotta 
Mr. &Mrs. Robert E. Curley 
Mrs. F.C Curry 
Mrs. Frederick K. W. Curry 
Mr. Edward A. Cushman 
Mr. Paul W. Cutler 
Mr. Robert T. Czerny 
Mr. & Mrs Dino J. D'Angelo 
Mr. Thomas C. Dabovich 
Mr. Bruce E. Dalton 
Mrs. Philip Danley 
Mr. & Mrs. Phillips M. Darby 
Mr. & Mrs. Leonard S. Davidow 
Louis E. & Cleone C. Davidson 
Mr. Cyrus C. De Coster 
Mr Donald DeFord 
Mr & Mrs. Lyie De Garmo 



Mr. & Mrs. Seymour S. De 

Koven 
Mr. Patrick A. De Moon 
Mr. &Mrs. R.J. De Motte 
Mr. Philip W. DeWitt 
Mr. Russell G.DeYong 
Mr. Bruce Dean 
Dr. Sam Decker 
Mrs. R. Emmett Dedmon 
Mr. & Mrs. W. S. Deeming 
Dr. Alex Delgadillo 
Mr. William G. Demas 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Dennehy Jr. 
Ms. La Verne Dennhardt 
Mr. Carl Devoe 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Dietmeier 
Mrs. Frances A. Dillingham 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas H. Dittmer 
Mr. W. Fred Doike 
Dr. & Mrs. Norman S. Don 
Ms. Ann G. Doran 
Mr. H. James Douglass 
Mr. & Mrs. Kingman 

Douglass Jr. 
Mrs. Dimmick D. Drake 
Mr. George E. Dryden Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence A. 

Du Bose 
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Dugan 
Mr. Harvey Dulin 
Mr. & Mrs. Paul R. Duncan 
Mr. Todd Duncan 
Mr. George W. Dunne 
Mr. L. B. Dwinell 
Ms. Ann Dwyer 
Mr. & Mrs. Peter L. Dyson 
Mr. Thomas E. Earle 
Mr. & Mrs. David L. Eberhart 
Mrs. Percy B. Eckhart 
Mr. Howard 0. Edmonds 
Mark & Kitty Egan (F.J. 

Zimmermann Family 

Foundation) 
Mr. Marvin W. Ehlers 
Mr. Joseph S. Ehrman Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Eisen 
Mrs R. M. Eisendrath 
Mrs. Janet Ela 

Mr. & Mrs. William J. Elbersen 
Mr. Richard R. Elledge 
Mr. David P. Filer 
Mr. & Mrs. F. Osborne Elliott 
Mrs. Russell C. Ellis 
Miss Caryl L. Elsey 
Mr. Alex Elson 
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Elston 
Ms. M. Caroline Emich 
Mr. George W. Engelmann 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard E. Engler 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Erb 
Mr. &Mrs. E. J.Enck 
Mr. Charles J. Erickson 
Mr. Thomas R. Erickson 
Mr. F. Mc Donald Ervin 
Mr. Richard H. Eshbaugh 
Gerald & Sandra Eskin 
Mr. Kenneth A. Evans 
Mr. & Mrs. Raymond L. Evans 
Mr. Boyd N. Everett 
Mr. William S. Everett 
Mrs. Olive Mazurek Faa DiBruno 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard J. Farrell 
Mr. John V. Farwell III 
Mrs. Irene H. Faust 
Mr. Frederick Fechtner 
Mrs. Sig Feiger 
Mrs. Meyer Feldberg 



Mrs. Arthur C. Fennekohl 

Mrs. Calvin Fentress Jr. 

Mrs. R. W. Ferguson 

Ms. Angela M. Ferraina 

Mr. & Mrs. Roberto. Ferns 

Mrs. Robert Fesmire 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward Fiedler Jr. 

Ms. Ann C. Field 

Mr. Patricks. Filter 

Mrs. Katherine L. Fink 

Mr. & Mrs. Raymond E. Fink 

Mrs. Roberto. Fink 

Mr. 0. W. Finkl(C. W. FinkI 

Foundation. Inc.) 
Mr. & Mrs. F. Conrad Fischer 
Mr. & Mrs. M. P. Fischer 
Mr. Peter Fischer 
Mr. & Mrs. Walter T. Fisher 
Mr. Edward 0. Floden Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. James G. Flood 
Mr. Lee J. Flory 
Mr. Emil L. Fogelin 
Mrs. Robert L. Foote 
Miss Ruth E. Forbes 
Mr. Harold E. Foreman, Jr. 

(Peroke Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank B. Foster 
Mrs. Hubert D. Fox 
Mr. & Mrs. James L. Fox 
Charles & Mary Foxwell 
Dr. & Mrs. Alvin L. Francik 
Mr. & Mrs. A. A. Frank Jr. 
Jim & Karen Frank (J. S. Frank 

Foundation) 
Dr. Christabel Frederick 
Mr. & Mrs. Earl J.Frederick 
Mrs. Edward H. Freedman 
Mr. & Mrs. Norman Freehling 
Mr. & Mrs. Donald B. French 
Mr. Lee R. Friedberg 
Dr. Stanton A. Friedberg 
Mr. & Mrs. Joel S. Friedland 
Mr. & Mrs. William J. Friedman 

(William J. & Irene J. 

Friedman Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Fntz 
Mr & Mrs. William D. Frost 
Ms. Zona A. Frost 
Mr. E. Montford Fucik 
Mrs. Gregory L. Fugiel 
Mr. & Mrs. James 0. E. Fuller 
Mr. Jack B. Gable 
Mr. Rudolph R.Gabriel 
Mr. Gregory J. Gajda 
Mrs. Charles B. Gale 
Mr. & Mrs. Henry A. Gardner Jr 
Mr. Henry K. Gardner 
Mrs. Grace H. Garitee 
Dr. & Mrs. John S. Garvin 
Mr. &Mrs. W. W. GasserJr. 
Mr. & Mrs. John S. Gates 
Mrs. Walter A. Gatzert 
Mr. & Mrs. James J. Gavin Jr. 
Mr. John J. Gearen 
Dr. John E. Gedo 
James I. & Lora Gelbort 
Mr. Raymond I. Geraldson 
Mr. Paul Gerden 
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen A. Gerlicher 
Mr. Louis Gershon 
Mr. & Mrs. Isak V. Gerson 
Mr. William J. Gibbons 
Mrs. Mary Jane Gibbs 
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald Gidwitz 
Mrs. WillardGidwitz 
Dr. R. Kennedy Gilchrist 
Mr. J. William Gimbel Jr. 



DONORS to the OPERATING, RESTRICTED, and ENDOWED FUNDS 



Mr. & Mrs. Paul Ginsburg 
Mr. Bertram Given 
Mr. & Mrs. James J. Glasser 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Glore (Ttie 

Glore Fund) 
Mr. & Mrs. Albert H. Glos (Albert 

H. & lona D. Glos Foundation) 
Mr. Richard Glovka 
Mr. & Mrs. David F. Goldberg 
Dr. & Mrs. Edward Goldfarb 
Mr. & Mrs. Jerald Goldfarb 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Goldman 
Dr. & Mrs. Julian R. Goldsmitti 
Mr. Paul Goldstein 
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce K. Goodman 

(Benedict K. Goodman Fund) 
Mr. Mitch Gordon 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard H. Gottlieb 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert R. Govi^land 
Dr. John Bernard Graham 
Miss Mary M. Graham 
Mr. & Mrs. Gerard E. Grashorn 
Mrs. Donald C. Greaves 
Mr. Samuel S. Greeley 
Ms. Carol Green 
Janet & David Greon 
Col. Clifford C. Gregg 
Mr. & Mrs. Mollis J. Gnffin 
Dr. & Mrs. DaleS. Gnmes 
Drs. Carl M. & Janet Wolter Gnp 
Mr. Edmund Gronkiewicz 
Mrs. William O. Grossklas 
Mr. & Mrs. Carl A. Grunschel 
Mr. Charles V. Grunwell 
Brenda G. Gujral 
Dr. &Mrs. RolfM.Gunnar 
Mrs. Robert C. Gunness 
Mr. Edward F. Gurka Jr. 
Mr. Elmer T. Gustafson 
Mrs. Edwin Gustus 
Mr. & Mrs. Martin M. Gutenkauf 
Mr. H.C. Gwinn 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard J. Haayen 
Mr. JohnW. B. Hadley 
Mr. Daniel P. Haerther 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles C. Haffner III 
Mr. & Mrs. William J. 

Hagenah III 
Ms. Mary W. Haggerty 
Mr. Arthur G. Hailand 
Mr. Robert Hajeck 
Mrs. Burton W. Hales (Hales 

Charitable Fund. Inc.) 
Mr. J. Parker Hall 
Mr. & Mrs. John Alden Hall 
Mrs. Patricia R. Hall 
Dr. CarolA. Haller 
Mr. &Mrs. ChalkleyJ. 

Hambleton 
Dr. K. W. Hammerberg 
Mr. & Mrs. J. M. Hands 
Miss Helen Hanes 
Mr. & Mrs. Martin Hanley 
Mrs. Herbert L. Hanna 
Mrs. Louise Hansman 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert F. Hanson 

(Dave Hokin Foundation) 
Mr. Joseph F. Harant 
Miss Virginia Hardin 
Mr. & Mrs. David J. Harris 
Mr. J. Ira Harris 
Mr. Kenneth A. Harris 
Mrs. Marian S. Harris 
Mrs. Mortimer B. Harris 
Mr. & Mrs. King Harris (Harris 

Family Foundation) 
Mr. William H. Harnson 



Mr. E. Houston Harsha 

Mrs. Augustin S. Hart 

Mrs. Chester C. Hart 

Mr. Neil F. Hartigan 

Mr. & Mrs. Irvin H. Hartman Jr. 

Kay E. Hartman 

Dr. & Mrs. Malcolm H. Hast 

Mr. Lawrence Hattenbach 

Mr. & Mrs. David C. Hawley 

Mr. & Mrs. Alfred H. Hayes 

Mr. & Mrs. Warren Hayford 

Mr. & Mrs. John F. Hayward 

Catherine Heck 

Mr. Ronald D. Hear 

Mr. & Mrs. William J. Heideman 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard Heise 

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Hektor 

Dr. & Mrs. Marvin Henry 

Mr. & Mrs. Michael J. Hermann 

Mr. Walter D. Herrick 

Mr. J. H. Herz (J. H. Herz Family 

Foundation) 
Dr. & Mrs. Charles F. Hesse 
Mrs. John Heymann 
Mr. & Mrs. James O. Heyworth 
Ms. Jo Ann G. Hickey 
Mr. &Mrs. DanielP. Hidding 
Mr. Howard E. Hight 
Ms. Roberta A. Hill 
Miss Margaret Hillis 
Mr. Kenneth R. Hilton 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles A. HInman 
Mr. Edwin W. Hirsch 
Mr. &Mrs. JoelS. Hirsch 
Mrs. James R. Hoatson 
Mr. & Mrs. John H. Hobart (J & 

M H Trust) 
Mrs. Richard H. Hobbs 
Mr. Edward W. Hobler 
Hochberg Family Foundation 
Mrs. Shirley L. Hodge 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas D. Hodgkins 
Mr. David B. Hoffman 
Mr. Harry Hoffman 
Mrs. Marie Hoffman 
Dr. & Mrs. Paul F. Hoffman 
Dr. Eugene Hoffmann 
Mr. & Mrs. Paul W. Hoffmann 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Hoffmann 
Mr. & Mrs. James M. Hohner 
Mr. Myron Hokin (Dave Hokin 

Foundation) 
Mrs. Judith Hollander 
Mrs. Elizabeth A. Hollins 
Mrs. William Hollweg 
Dr. & Mrs. John A. Holmes 
Mr. Stanley H. Holmes 
Mr. Thomas K. Holmquest 
Mr. & Mrs. John Honquest Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. George F. Hook 
Mr. Gerald Hopkins 
Mr. & Mrs. David B. Horn 
Mrs. William D. Home Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Franklin Horwich 

(Franklin & Frances Horwich 

Family Foundation) 
Darlene Hosbach 
Mr. Allen F. Hosticka 
Mrs. Alice Houlsby 
Paul E. & Mary F. Howard 
Mr. & Mrs. Warren F. Hrstka 
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph A. Huff 
Mary Ellen Huggard 
Mr. & Mrs. Peter H. Huizenga 
Mr. James P. Hume 
Mrs. Margaret Humleker 
Janice S. Hunt 



Mrs. William O. Hunt 
Ginerva M. Hunter 
Mrs. Ondre N. Huston 
Mr. & Mrs. Chauncey K. 

Hutchins 
Mr. & Mrs. John B. Hutchins 
Mrs. John S. Hutchins 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Hutchins 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Hutchinson 
William F. Hutson (William F. 

Hutson Trust) 
Mr. Michael L. Igoe Jr. 
Mrs. Stephen L. Ingersoll 
Miss Marion F. Inkster 
Mrs. Elaine R. Irvin 
Mr. Alfred Isenberg 
Mr. Hans D. Isenberg 
Mr. Georges. Isham 
Mrs. Henry P. Isham Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Graham Jackson 
Mrs. Alfred Jacobshagen 
Mr. Martin E. Jacobson 
Mrs. Baker Jacoby 
Jacks Roberta Jaffe 
Mr. & Mrs. Frederick G. Jaicks 
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph E. 

Jannotta Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Willard K. Jaques 
Mr. Albert E. Jenner Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Harold S. Jensen 
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel Jessup 
Dr. & Mrs. Joel D. John 
Mr. Carl A. Johnson 
Ms. Edith M. Johnson 
Dr. Frank R. Johnson 
Mr. Henry A. Johnson 
Mrs. Janet Bard Johnson (Janet 

B. Johnson Family Trust) 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Johnson 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Owen 

Johnson 
Miss Mary F. Jones 
Mrs. Pierce Jones 
Mr. C. R. Jonswold 
Mrs. Elizabeth Jung 
Mr. Edward C. Junkunc 
Ms. Doris F. Kahn 
Mr. John P. Kaiser 
Miss Patricia M. Kammerer 
Dr. & Mrs. Alan Kanter 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Kapoun 
Mr. & Mrs. William G. Karnes 

(William G. Karnes 

Charitable Trust) 
Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert Kart 
Mrs. V. Kasmerchak 
Mr. Richard Kasper 
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph J. Katz 
Mr. Fred R. Kaufmann Jr. 
Mr. John Kayser 
Mr. Peter D. Keefe 
Mr. & Mrs. Michael L. Kelser 
Mr. & Mrs. Harley Kellbach 
Mr. & Mrs. Paul D. Keller Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank J. Kelleylll 
Mrs. Philip E. Kelley 
Mr. Robert F. Kelley 
Mr. & Mrs. W. Keith Kellogg III 
Miss M. Rosalie Kempe 
Miss Frances Kendall 
Mr. & Mrs. George P. Kendall Jr. 
Mr. Taylor L. Kennedy 
Dr. & Mrs. William E. Kennel 
Mr. William Kerr 
Mrs. Deirdre D. Kleckhefer Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Spencer L. Kimball 
Mr. Joseph F. Kindlon 



Mr. Clayton Kirkpatrick 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles T. Kirschner 

Mr. & Mrs. James M. Kittleman 

Mr. & Mrs. Jules Klapman 

Mr. Steven D. Klefstad 

Dr. & Mrs. Thornton C. Kline Jr. 

Dr. & Mrs. William B. Knapp 

Mr. & Mrs. Kenton H. Knorr 

Mr. M. H. Knotts 

Mr. Lance L. Knox 

Mr. Maurice G. Knoy 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Koch 

Mrs. Shirley Koenigs 

Mrs. Norman Koglin 

Dr. Robert Kohrman 

Mr. Jerry A. Kolar 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert D. Kolar 

Gerald A. and Karen A. 

Kolschowsky (Gerald A. & 

Karen A. Kolschowsky 

Foundation. Inc.) 
Mr. & Mrs. Sanfred Koltun 
Mr. Peter John J. Kosiba 
Mark& Sara Koss 
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Kostal 
Mr. Howard R. Koven 
Mrs. David H. Kraft 
Mrs. Evelyn F. Krause 
Mr. Lee V. Kremer 
Mrs. Bertram Kribben 
Miss Elizabeth J. Kuck 
Mr. Joseph Kukenis 
Mr. DuaneR. Kullberg 
Miss Ruth Kumata 
Mr. Gregory M. Kurr 
Mrs. William 0. Kurtz Jr. 
Mr. Lawrence Kutchins 
Mr. & Mrs. LeRoyS. Kwiatt 
Mr. & Mrs. Fountain Lackey 
Mr. Herman Lackner 
Mrs. William Ladany 
Patricia C. Lancaster 
Mrs. JohnW. Lane 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward F. Langer 
Mr. Joseph B. Lanterman 
Dr. Suzanne Larsh 
Mrs. Kenneth R. Larson 
Mr. & Mrs. Warren Larson 
Mr. Harry Lasch 
Mrs. Harry Lasky 
Mr. John E. Lateer 
Mrs. Ardith M. Lauerman 
Mr. & Mrs. David W. Leake 
Mr. Robert S. Leathers 
Mrs. Arthur Ledyard 
Drs. B. S. & P. P. Lee 
Drs. Robert & Elaine Lee 
Ellen C. Leeds-Zebrun 
Mr. Philip A. Leekley 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Leet (Leet 

Charitable Trust) 
Paul Lehman & Ronna Stamm 
Mr. George N. Leiqhton 
Mr. John G. Leininger 
Ms. Sara Lane Leonard 
Mr. Robert L. Leopold (Robert 

L. Leopold Family 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Lerner 
Mr. & Mrs. John G. Levi 
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence R. Levin 
Dr. & Mrs. Murray L. Levin 
Jess Levine 
Mr. William D. Levine 
Mr. Elvin A. Levy (The Enelow 

Fund) 
Mrs. Irving J. Lewis 



35 



DONORS to the OPERATING, RESTRICTED, and ENDOV\fED FUNDS 



SlOO-$9S9 

Mr. & Mrs. David L. Liebman Jr. 

Mrs, Stanley L. Lind 

Mr. Le Roy A. Lindberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Linde 

Mr. Harrison C. LIngle 

Mr. & Mrs. Maurie LIpsey 

Mrs. F. Chapin LItten 

Colonel James P. Littlejohn 

Dr.W. C.Liu 

Mrs. Joseph L. Lizzadro 

Mrs. L. Marlene Lloyd 

W. P. Lockwood 

Mr. & Mrs. John W, Loeding 

Cecile K, Loewenstein 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert I. Logan 

Miss Mary Longbrake 

Mr. Philip W.Lotz 

Mrs. B. L. M. Louthan 

Mr. Arthur J. Lowell (Lowell 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. James E. Luebchow 
Mr. Ralph J. Lueders 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank W. Luerssen 
Mrs. Margaret Lundahl (Lundahl 

Enterprises) 
Dr. & Mrs. Warren H. Lutton 
Mr. & Mrs. RoyJ. Lyie 
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert M. Lyman 
Mr, & Mrs. Francis J. Lynch 
Mr. & Mrs. R. Milton Lynnes 
Mrs. Robert L. Lyon 
Mr. & Mrs. John M. MacDonald 
Mr. & Mrs. David O. MacKenzie 

(Macfund) 
Sabrina MacLean 
Ms. Katie MacWilliams 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward P. Madigan 
Ms. Nancy K. Magnuson 
Mr. George W. Mahn Jr. 
Ms. Laura Majcher 
Mr. Emil L. Makar 
Mr. Phillips. Makin 
Mr. James E. Mandler 
Mrs. Philip C. Manker 
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert S. Manning 
Mr. & Mrs. Carter H. Manny Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Steven C. March 
Mr. Gilbert Marcus 
Ester A. Marion 
Mr. R. Bailey Markham 
Mr. & Mrs. James G. Marks 

(James & Roslyn Marks 

Charitable Trust) 
Miss Rachel Marks 
Mr. Stanford D. Marks 
Dr. John F. Marquardt 
Mr. McKim Marriott 
Mrs. Robert F. Marschner 
Mrs, F, Earl Martin 
Dr, Stanley Martin 
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Martin 
Mr. Melvin Mather 
Mr. Paul Mavros (Pauls Family 

Foundation) 
Mrs. Frank D. Mayer 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank D. Mayer Jr. 
Friedericka Mayers 
Mr, & Mrs, George H, Maze 
Mr, Theodore Mazzone 
Mr. Robert CMcBnde 
Mr. & Mrs, Thomas G, 

McBride Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. R. A. McClevey Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs, David C, McClintock 
Mr. Archibald McClure 
36 Mrs. Laura June McCotter 



Dr. Walter C.McCrone 
Dr. T. M. McCullough 
Mr. & Mrs. George Barr 

McCutcheon II 
Mr. & Mrs. Gordon E. McDanold 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. McDermott 
Mr. & Mrs. Clement J. 

McDonald 
Mr. & Mrs. C, Bouton McDougal 
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew W. McGhee 
Mr. Charles S.McGill 
Dr. Elizabeth A. McGrew 
Ellen & John McHugh 
Mr. William B. Mcllvaine 
Mr. & Mrs. John C. McKenzie 
Dr. & Mrs. Peter McKinney 
Mr, & Mrs, Robert D, McLean 
Ms, Patricia R, McMillen 
Mr. James E, McNulty 
Mr, & Mrs, Roland V. 

McPherson 
Mrs, Eugene J, McVoy 
Elisabeth C, Meeker 
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Meeker 
Mr. & Mrs. Harmon Meigs 
Ms. Janice Meister 
Mrs. Betty Mekemson 
Mrs. Bernard D. Meltzer 
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald McKnight 

Melvin 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Melvoin 
Mrs. Esther A. Mendius 
Mrs. Allen C. Menke (Menke 

Family Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. B. L. Mercer 
Steve & Judy Meredith 
Mrs. Elizabeth S. Merlin 
Mrs. Robert E. Merriam 
Dr. & Mrs. James W. Merricks 
Mr. & Mrs. Glenn E. Merritt 
Mr. Adolph Meyer Jr. 
Dr. &Mrs. John E. Meyer 
Mr. & Mrs. Walter J. Meyer 
Mr. & Mrs, D, Daniel Michel 

(Greene-Michel Foundation) 
Silvia A, MichI 
Mr, Andrew Michyeta 
Mr, Paul E, Miessler 
Mr, Paul J, Miller 
Mr, & Mrs, Robert E, Miller 
Dr, &Mrs, Robert P Miller 
Dr, Shelby A. Miller 
Mr. Myron Minuskin 
Mr. DominickW. Mirowski 
Mr. & Mrs. Steven C. Mitchell 
Ms. Cynthia Mitchell* 
Mr. & Mrs. Ned E. Mitchell 
Mr. B. John Mix Jr. 
Mr, Gilbert C. MochelJr, 
Mr, H, G, Mojonnier 
Mr, J,D. Mollendorf 
Mr. Robert J. Molnar 
Mr. Frank A. Monhart 
Mr. Henry I. Monheimer 
Willys & Virginia Monroe 
Mrs. Charles Montgomery 
Mr. Tom Moog 
Mr. & Mrs. John Mooi 
Mrs. Carolyn Moore 
Mrs. James H. Moore 
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Moravy 
Mrs. Barbara L. Morey 
William & Kate Morrison 
Mr. Horace C, Moses Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. John D, Mueller 

(John Mueller Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Manley W. Mumford 
Mrs. Patricias. Murphy 



Miss Jeanne E. Murray 

Dr. Murray H. Leiffer (Murray H. 

Leiffer Trust) 
Mrs. Stella Myers 
Mr. Bernard Nath 
Mrs. Thomas Nathan 
Mr. & Mrs. Earl L. Neal 
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Nebenzahl 

(Joel & Maxine Spitz 

Foundation) 
Ms. Irina Nelidow 
Ms. Constance A. Nelson 
Mr. Walter A. Netsch 
Mr. & Mrs. Harry W. Neuert 
Mrs. Frances Newman 
Mr. Ralph G. Newman 
Mr, Robert W, Newman 
Mr, Ray E, Newton Jr, 
Mr, Frank B. Nichols 
Mr. & Mrs. John D. Nichols 
Mr. & Mrs. Olivers. Nickels 
Mr. & Mrs. Philip H. Niederman 
Mr. & Mrs. Jon E. Niehus 
Mrs. Charles F. Nims 
Mr. & Mrs, Herbert Nipson 
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald D Niven 
Mrs, Kenneth Nordine 
Mr, & Mrs, Donald Nordlund 
Mrs, Lawrence E Norem 
Mrs, William North 
Mr, E, G, Novotny 
Helena Nowicka 
Ms. Lucille Ann Nunes 
Mr. Michael O'Brien 
Miss Alice O'Connor 
Mrs, Betty Kwast O'Connor 
Mr. & Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
Mr. Francis X. O'Donnell 
Ms. Joan E. O'Malley 
Mr. James W. O'Neill 
Mrs. John J. O'Shaughnessy 
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph R. Obenchain 
Mr. Carl B. Olson 
Mrs. Edward H. Oppenheimer 
Mr. Wendel Fentress Ott 
Mr, & Mrs, Ray E. Over 
Mr, & Mrs, John E, Owens 
Dr, Lois R, Owens 
Mr, & Mrs, F, W, Oyen 
Mr, & Mrs, Lloyd J, Palmer 
Mrs, Marjories, Parcell 
Mr, & Mrs. Raymond E. Parks 
Mrs. J. W. Parson 
Mr. & Mrs, Russell J, Parsons 
Dr, & Mrs, Luke R, Pascale 
Dr, & Mrs, Philip Y, Peterson 
Irene & Marshall Patner 
John & Audrey Paton 
Cathy Patrick 
Dr, Joan E, Patterson 
Mr, John M, Patton 
Mr. David B. Peck III 
Mr. & Mrs. Harvey Perlman 
Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence Perlman 
Mr. & Mrs. Walter Perls 
Mr. & Mrs. Norman Perman 
Mr. & Mrs. Julian S. Perry 
Mrs, Donald Peters 
Mr, & Mrs, William 0, Petersen 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard J. Peterson 
Mrs, Bernard Peyton 
Mrs, William Pichler 
Mrs, Frederic Pick 
Mr, & Mrs. Robert F. Picken 
Mr. & Mrs. Allen M. Pickus 
Mr. & Mrs. Irving M. Pielet 
Mr. Robert R, Pierson 



Mr. RoyJ. Pierson 

Mr. & Mrs. George E. Pieterek 

Mr. & Mrs. John T. Pigott 

Mr. William H. Pokorny 

Mr. & Mrs. James D. Polls 

Mrs. Elizabeth Pollock 

Mr. George A. Poole 

Mr. Sidney L. Port (Sidney L. 

Port Trust) 
Dr. Eduard Poser 
Mr. Albert W, Potts 
Mr. William F. Potts 
Mr. C. Spencer Powell 
Mr. & Mrs. E. G. Powell 
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene L. Powell 
Mr. & Mrs. H. Robert Powell 
Mrs. George Preucil 
Mr. Ralph E. Pro|ahn 
Mr. & Mrs. John A. Pressor 
Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Prussian 
Mr. Robert H. Pulver 
Mr. Alfred L, Putnam 
Miss Evelyn N, Pyle 
Mr. Jack A. Quigley (Jack A. 

Quigley Family Trust) 
Mr. & Mrs. Neil K. Quinn 
Dr. G.J. Rabin 
Mrs. Reginald Rader 
Mr. Frank X. RaidI 
Helene & Norman X. RaidI 
Mrs, Phyllis Paulson Rainwater 
Mr, & Mrs, L, S, Raisch 
Mr, Paul J. Randolph 
Mr. George A. Ranney Sr. 
Mr. & Mrs. F. R. Rapids 
Mr. & Mrs. James M. Ratcliffe 
Mrs. Margaret A. Ratcliffe 

(Myron F. Ratcliffe Family 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. W. E, Rattner 
Mr, Robert Lee Peckers 
Miss Gertrude E, Reeb 
Dr,& Mrs, Charles A, Reed 
Ms. Helen Reed 
Mr. & Mrs. Walter W. Reed 
Dr. Clifton L. Reeder 
Mr. & Mrs, Howard C, Reeder 
Mr, & Mrs, Gunther Reese 
Mr, & Mrs, Henry Regnery 
Mr. & Mrs. F. A. Reichelderfer 
Miss Marie K. Remien 
Mrs. Robert W. Reneker 
Dr. Earl Renfroe 
Mr. John A. Renn 
Mr. Edward L. Renno 
Mr. Paul G. Reynolds 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
Dr. E. P. Richardson Jr. 
Dr. &Mrs. A, M. Rieser 
Mr. Walter HRietz 
Mr. Charles Ritten 
Dr. William R. Roach 
Mrs. JackL. Robbins 
Mr. Robert P. Reuss (Robert P. 

Reuss Trust) 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles C. Roberts 
Mr. Harry V. Roberts 
Ms. Helen S. Roberts 
Mr. John R. Robertson 
Mr. Scott Robertson 
Mrs. Martha F. Robinson 
Mrs. Edwin A. Robson 
Mrs. Elizabeth S. Robson 
Mrs. Frederick Roe 
Mr. Davis H. Roenisch 
Mrs. Ward C. Rogers (Ward C. 

Rogers Family 

Foundation, Inc.) 



DONORS to the OPERATING, RESTRICTED, and ENDOWED FUNDS 



Mr. Robert Rolih 

Mr. William R. Rom 

Mr. & Mrs. John P. Ronvik 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward M. Roob 

Mr. Thomas E. Rooney 

Mrs. Philip Roolberg 

Mrs. Annie May Rosenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Harold R. Rosenson 

Mr. Gerson M. Rosenthal Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence C. Roskin 

Mrs. John T. Ross 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald I. Roth 

Mrs. Stephen W. Rothermel 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward I. Rothschild 

Mr. & Mrs. Melville Rothschild 

(Melville N. and Mary F. 

Rothschild Fund) 
A. A. Rovick 
Mr. H. Nelson Rowley III 
Mr. Robert M. Ruckstuhl 
Roberts. Judith Rudolph 
Francis H. Russell 
Mr. & Mrs. J. Coert Rylaarsdam 
Mr. &Mrs. Robert S. Sachs 
Mr. Robert W.Saigh 
Ms. Christina M. Sakowski 
Mr. Anthony J. Saliba 
Ms. Alice Sander 
Mr. Richard H. Sanders 
Mr. & Mrs. William D. Sanders 
Ms. Margaret H. Sanderson 
Beverly & Filemon Santiago 
Mrs. Gene Saper 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Sargent 
Mr. Charles D. Satinover 

(Charles Satinover Fund) 
Mr. Calvin P. Sawyier 
Mr. Richard J. Schade 
Mr. Leonard Schanfield 
Miss Marion H. Schenk 
Mrs. GerhartSchild 
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence Schnadig 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank L. Schneider 
Mr. & Mrs. Melvin S. Schneider 

(Robert E. Schneider 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Elden J. Schnur 
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald A. Schnura 
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Schoenberg 
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene P. Schonfeld 
Fern & Barry Schrager 
Ms. Hilda Schreiber 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Schreiber 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Schroeder 

(The Schroeder Foundation) 
Mrs. E. Charles Schuetz 
Mr. Benjamin Schulman 
Charles & Carol Schultz 
Mr. Chester H. Schultz (Allen 

Grawoig Family Foundation) 
Mr. Edward J. Schurz Jr. 
Dr. Steven Schwartz 
Mr. John A. Scoville Jr. 
Mr. Irving Seaman Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. D. Gideon Searle 
Mrs. IrmaSeeger 
Mr. Robert M. Seeley 
Mr. Edwin A. Seipp Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles W.Sena 
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Sentoff 
Mrs. Eileen G. Sexton 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Shannon 
Mr. Nicholas J. Shapiro 
Mr. Robert B. Shapiro 
Mr. & Mrs. David C. Sharpe 
Mr. Charles H.Shaw 



Mr. & Mrs. John I. Shaw 

Mr. James G. Shennan 

Mr. &Mrs. DeVerSholes 

Dr. William Shorey 

Mr. & Mrs. D. F. Shriver 

Mr. & Mrs. Mack H. Shumate 

Mr. Sidney N. Shure (Sidney N. 

Shure Fund) 
Mr. John G. Sickle 
Miss Adeline E. Sigwalt 
Dr. & Mrs. George B.Siler 
Ms. Joan Simmons 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard W. Simmons 
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene R. Sims 
Mr. & Mrs. R. S. Singers 
Mr. & Mrs. John R. Siragusa 
Mrs. Gerald A. Sivage 
Mr. &Mrs. Leon N. Skan 
Mr. Norman H. Sleep 
Dr. & Mrs. Albert H.SIepyan 
Prof. & Mrs. Stuart G. P. Small 
Mr. & Mrs. Jackson W. Smart Jr. 
Mrs. C. Philip Smiley 
Dr. Edward C. Smith 
Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Smith 
Mr. Harold Byron Smith 
Mr. Matthew D. Smith 
Ms. Mildred Reed Smith 
Mrs. Muriel R. Smith 
Mr. Worthington L. Smith 
Mrs. S. R. Snider 
Mr. & Mrs. Stanley C. Snowdon 
Ms. Elizabeth L. Snyder 
Mr. & Mrs. John B.Snyder 
Miss Melania K. Sokolowski 
Mrs. Charles H. Solberg 

(Solberg, Inc.) 
Mrs. Hugo Sonnenschein Jr. 
Mrs. James Souby 
Mr. Tom Sourlis 
Mr. Donald Southworth 
Mrs. Sydelle Sowa 
Mr. & Mrs. Harold E. Spencer 
Mrs. Lyie M. Spencer 
Mrs. Clara Spiegel 
Mrs. Gabriel B. Spiegel 
Mrs. Charles A. Sprague 
Mr. & Mrs. Joachim W. 

Staackmann 
Mrs. Richard W. Stafford 
Mr. Frederick K. Stamm 
Mr. & Mrs. Raymond David 

Stamm 
James & Naomi Stanhaus 
Mr. Robert E. Stanley 
Mr. John H. Stassen 
Mrs. Pericles P. Stathas 
Mr. & Mrs. E. Norman Staub 
Mr. William H.Steele 
Mr. George R. Steiner 
Mr. Grundy Steiner 
Mr. & Mrs. Gardner H. Stern 
Mr. Gerald J. Stern 
Rolf & Clarice Stetter 
Mrs. Joan C. Stevenson 
Mrs. Adiai E. Stevenson III 
Mr. Hal S. R. Stewart 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Stewart 
Miss Ruth S. Stickle 
Mr. Marion A. Stoerker 
Mr. Byron T. Stone 
Mr. Edwin H. Stone 
Mrs. Edward J. Stransky 
Mrs. Robert E. Straus" 
Mrs. Harold E. Strauss 
Mr. & Mrs. Ivan G. Strauss 

(R.I.S. Foundation) 



Dr. & Mrs. John S. Strauss 

Mr. Kenneth E. Streckert 

Mr. Charles L. Strobeck 

Dr. Robert H. Strotz 

Mr. &Mrs. CarlG. Strub 

Mr. Erwin A. Stuebner 

Mr. Ivan Subin 

Mrs. Frank L. Sulzberger 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald E. Sveen 

Mr. Paul W. Swanson 

Mrs. Gustavus F. Swift Jr. 

Mr. J. R. Swihart 

Mr. & Mrs. George S. Swope 

Mr. & Mrs. Stow E. Symon 

Ms. NinaTai 

Mr. & Mrs. James M. Tait 

Brenda J. Taylor 

Mr. &Mrs. John W. Taylor III 

Mr. & Mrs. Roy L. Taylor 

Mr. & Mrs. Gregory N. Thomas 

Judge Lucia T. Thomas 

Dr. Paul A. Thomas Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard L. Thomas 

Mrs. Thomas M. Thomas 

Mr. William E. Thoresen 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph E. Thornton 

Mrs. Florence Tiberius 

Mr. Robert D. Tice 

Mrs. Theodore Tieken Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Stanley E. Tierney 

Mr. Richard H. Timler 

Mrs. Sylvia Tkalitch 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard P. Toft 

Mr. Alvin V. Tollestrup 

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene A. Tracy 

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene A. Trask 

Mr. Cecil E. Treadway 

Mr. Richard W. Treleaven 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard S. Tremaine 

Mrs. Chester D. Tripp" 

Mr. T. J. Trogdon Jr. 

Mr. James Edward Trott 

Mr. Edgar W. Trout 

Dr. & Mrs. William D. Turnbull 

Mr. & Mrs. Fred L. Turner 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles H. Tweed 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert D. Tyler 

Mr. & Mrs. George F. Uebele 

Mrs. Dena Uhlenhop 

Mr. Frederick G. Uhlmann 

Mr. Edgar J. Uihiein 

Mr. &Mrs. Bohus Ulicny 

Mrs. Thomas I. Underwood 

Mr. PaulH.Upchurch 

Mr. John B. Van Duzer 

Mrs. Derrick Vail (Elizabeth Vail 

Family Trust) 
Mr. & Mrs. Murray J. Vale 
(Murray and Virginia Vale 
Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Erie L. Van Geem 
Mrs. R. D. Van Kirk 
Mrs. Errett Van Nice 
Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Van Zelst 
Mr. & Mrs. Norman Vance Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. William C.Vance 
Mr. M. P. Venema 
Mr. George Vernon 
Mr. & Mrs. Harry L. Vincent 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard H.VIerick 
(Charlotte W.VIerick 
Charitable Trust) 
Mr. & Mrs. E. W. Volkman 
Miss Sue Waber 
Dr. Harry K. Waddington 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Wahlburg 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard A. Waichler 



Mr. Edwin A. Walcher Jr. 
Mr. Charles R. Walgreen, Jr. 

(Mary Ann & Charles R. 

Walgreen Jr. Fund) 
Mrs. Maurice Walk 
Mr. & Mrs. Walter Wallin 
Mr. & Mrs. John P. Walsh 
Mr. Charles W.Ward 
Marilynn Warren 
Mr. Roy Warshawsky 
Mr. Richard F. Watt 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Watt 
Ms. June Mane Watters 
Mr. & Mrs. William D. Weaver 
Mrs. Arnold R. Weber 
Mr. & Mrs. Norman R. Wechter 
Mr. Morris S. Weeden 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Wegener 
Mrs. Jack Weinstein 
Bernice Weissbourd 
Mrs. Irene L. Weldon 
Mr. Richard H. Weldon 
Mrs. Donald P. Welles 
Mrs. John Paul Welling 
Mr. Robert H. Wellington 
Mr. William D. Wells 
Mr. &Mrs. F. Lee Wendell 
Ms. Kathryn L. Wendt 
Ms. Patricia H. Werhane 
Mr. & Mrs. B. Kenneth West 
Ms. KatherineM. S. West 
Mr. & Mrs. Roger L. Weston 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard R. Whitaker 
Mrs. Lloyd A. White 
Sally M. Whiting 

Mr. & Mrs. James W. Wicklander 
Dr. & Mrs. George W. Wilbanks 
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence G. Wilcox 
Mr. Clifton J. Wilkow 
Mr. Alberto. Williams Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Albert W. Williams 
Mr. Orrin R. Williams 
Mrs. Norman B. Williamson 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Wilson 
Mr. James R. Wimmer 
Mrs. Elwyn C. Winland 
Mrs. Nancy H. Winter 
Mr. Michael Wirtz 
Mrs. Mildred C. Wisner 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. Withrow 
Mr. & Mrs. William W.Wittie 
Mr. Arthur Wloechall 
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur W.Woelfle 
Mr. John C. Wolfe 
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold R. Wolff 
Mrs. Peter Wolkonsky 
Mr. Clifford Wolper 
Mr. Arthur M. Wood 
Mr. & Mrs. Henry C.Wood 

(Henry C. Wood Foundation) 
Mr. James B. Wood 
Estate of Max Woolpy 
Mr. & Mrs. Donald P. Woulfe 
Ms. Patricia J. Wynne 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Yastrow 
Mr. Theodore N. Yelich 
Mr. & Mrs. Hobart P. Young 
Ms. Marjorie Eileen Young 
Col. & Mrs. Jack T. Young 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert P. Zabel 
Zadek Family Foundation 
Mr. & Mrs. CarlA. Zehner 
Mrs. A. N. ZIngrone 
Dr. Mark H. Zornow 
Mr. & Mrs. Simon Zunamon 

(Zunamon Family Foundation) 37 



'Deceased 



EX>NORS to the OPERATING, RESTRICTED, and ENDOV\fED FUNDS 



COflPORATIONS 
and PHILANTHROPIC 
FOUNDATIONS 

S10.000 and over 

Allstate Foundation 
Amoco Foundation 
Aon Corporation 
Borg-Wamer Foundation, Inc. 
Burke, Wilson & Mcllvaine 
Elizabeth F. Cheney Foundation 
Chicago Community Trust 
Continental Bank Foundation 
Chicago Tribune Foundation 
Continental Coffee Products 

Company 
The DeSoto Foundation 
Encyclopaedia Britannica 
First National Bank of Chicago 
FMC Foundation 
Ford Motor Company Fund 
HBB Foundation 
Household International 
Illinois Bell Telephone Company 
Intertake Foundation 
The Joyce Foundation 
W. K. Kellogg Foundation 
Kemper Educational & Charitable 

Fund 
James S. Kemper Foundation 
Kraft, Inc. 
John D. and Catherine T 

MacArthur Foundation 
Naico Foundation 
National Geographic Society 
Northern Illinois Gas 
Northern Tnjst Company 
J.C. Penney Co. Inc. 
The Petroleum Research Fund 
The Albert Pick, Jr. Fund 
Rice Foundation 
Rockefeller Foundation 
S & C Electric Company 
Sahara Coal Co. Inc. 
Santa Fe Southern Pacific 

Foundation 
Sara Lee Foundation 
Dr. Scholl Foundation 
Sears Roebuck & Co. 
Simpson Tnjst Foundation 
Sterling Morton Charitable Trust 
Tiffany & Company 
United Air Lines Foundation 
Whirlpool Foundation 
W.P. & H.B. White Foundation 
Howard L. Willett Foundation 



38 



S5.000-S9,99S 

American National Can Corp. 
Amsted Industries Foundation 
Bankers Trust Company 
Bari<er V\telfare Foundation 
Chase Manhattan Bank 
Chicago Corporation 
R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co. 
General Electric Company 
Illinois Tool V\fori<s, Inc. 
International Business Machines 

Corporation 
IMC Foundation 

Johnson & Higgins of Illinois, Inc. 
K mart Corporation 
Kemper Financial Services 
Molex Incorporated 
Peoples Gas Light & Coke Co. 
Arthur J. Schmitt Foundation 
Stein Roe & Famham 

Incorporated 
Touche Ross & Company 
Walgreen Co. 
Wenner-Gren Foundation 
E.W. Zimmerman, Inc. 



S1,000-S4,999 

Anonymous (2) 

The Aetna Life & Casualty 

Insurance Companies of Illinois 
Aileen S. Andrew Foundation 
Akzo Chemicals Inc. 
Alcoa Foundation 
Ashland Products Company 
AXIA, Inc. 
Brand Companies Charitable 

Foundation 
Bnjnswick Foundation 
Leo Bumett USA 
Carson Pine Scott Foundation 
Centel Corporation 
Central Steel & Wire Co. 
Cherry Corporation 
Chicago & Northwestem 

Transportation Company 
Chicago Board Options 

Exchange 
Chicago Board of Trade 
Chicago Bridge & Iron 

Foundation 
Chicago Pacific Corporation 
Clark Foundation 
The Coca-Cola Company 
Consolidated Papers Foundation 
Cooper Lighting 
Patrick and Anna M. Cudahy 

Fund 
Draper and Kramer Incorporated 
DST Systems Inc. 
Dun & Bradstreet Corporation 
Federal Signal Corporation 
The Field Corporation Fund 
Fifield Companies, Ltd. 
First Boston Corporation 
Florsheim Shoe Co. 
Fluor Foundation 
Forties, Incorporated 
FRC Investment Corporation 
GATX Corporation 
General Motors Co. 
Geraldi-Norton Memorial 

Corporation 



Guarantee Trust Life Insurance 
Helene Curtis Industries, Inc. 
Intermatic, Inc. 
Isham Lincoln & Beale 
Keck Mahin & Cafe 
Kroeschell Engineering Company 
Latham & Watkins 
MacLean-Fogg Company 
Marshall Field's 
Masonite Corporation 
McDonald's Corporation 
McKinsey & Company, Inc. 
William M. Mercer-Meidinger- 

Hansen, Incorporated 
Mid-American Foundation 
Midcon Corporation 
Near North Insurance 
Pittway Corporation 
Pnjdential Foundation 
Quaker Oats Foundation 
Rust-Oleum Foundation 
Scott Foresman & Co. 
Security Pacific Foundation 
Shell Companies Foundation, 

Inc. 
John S. Swift Company 
The Oakleigh L. Thome 

Foundation 
Travelers Corporation 
UnibancTmst Foundation 
Union League Civic & Arts 

Foundation 
Unocal Corporation 
United Conveyor Corporation 
USG Foundation, Inc. 
Worid Wildlife Foundation 



S100-S999 

Anonymous (1) 

Anderson Secretarial Service 

Baird Foundation 

Banque Paribas 

Barton Printing Company 

Beslow Associates Inc. 

Chicago Public Schools 

Compaq Computer Corporation 

Corey Charitable Foundation 

Dean Foods Company 

E. Besler & Co. 

E-J Industries, Inc. 

Electro-Kinetics Inc. 

Elkay Manufacturing Co. 

Ferrara Pan Candy Co. 

First National Bank of Evergreen 

Park 
Fomebords Company 
Forms Unlimited 
Fred S. James & Co. of Illinois 
General Binding Corporation 
Globe-Amerada Glass Company 
Gunthorp-Warren Printing Co. 
Heidrick & Struggles 
Humboldt Manufacturing 

Company 
Lawson Products Inc. 
Levy Organization 
Lyphomed, Inc. 
Mail-Wfell Envelope 
Marsh & McLennan, Inc. 
Matkov, Griffin, Parsons, 

Salzman & Co. 
George S. May International Co. 



Mid-City National Bank of 

Chicago 
Midas Intemational 
Midwest Stock Exchange 
Monsanto Fund 
Near North Insurance Agency 
Oak Woods Cemetery 

Association 
Old Republic Intemational Corp. 
P-KTool & Manufacturing Co. 
Packaging Corporation of 

America 
Pepper Construction Co. 
Replogle Globes, Inc. 
Schuessler Knitting Mills 

Foundation 
Seyfarth, Shaw, Fairweather, and 

Geraldson 
Sleepeck Printing Company 
Stepan Company 
Stocker Hinge Manufacturing Co. 
Turner Construction Co. 
Turtle Wax, Inc. 
Vance Publishing Corporation 
Vienna Sausage Manufacturing 

Co. 
Westwood Management Corp. 



PUBLIC ENTITIES 

The Chicago Park District 
Chicago Board of Education 
City of Chicago, Office of Fine 

Arts 
Illinois Arts Council 
Institute of Museum Services 
National Endowment for the 

Arts 
National Endowment for the 

Humanities 
National Institutes of Health 
National Science Foundation 
State of Illinois, Department of 

Energy and Natural 
Resources, 

Illinois State Museum Division 



DONORS to the COLLECTIONS 



Anthropology 

Art Institute of Chicago 

Dr. Roger Berg 

Mrs^ Simone Blake 

Mrs. Alvera Bocchieri 

Mrs. G. E. Boone 

Dr. Bennet Bronson 

Jeffrey Brown 

Joan Brown 

Douglas Chapnnan Family 

Jonathan Darby 

Robert L. Darcy 

Estate of Williann A. Earle 

Field Museum Founders' 

Council 
First National Bank of Chicago 
Dr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Hammer 
Karen Hartman 
Mrs. Ira J. Ingraham 
Lawrence Korwin 
Dorothy Krall 
Donald T. Meier 
Mitchell Indian Museum 
Museum of Northern Arizona 
Northwestern University 
Dr. Wendell Oswalt 
Matt Pucin 
Gordon K. Ray 
Norman L. Sanfield 
Frank Schiele 
Mrs. Ruth B. Spiegel 
Estate of B. Stodsky 
Guy and Claude Stresser-Pean 
Dr. James VanStone 



Botany 

University of Aarhus 

Risskov, Denmark 
University of Alabama 
University of Alaska Museum 
University of Alberta 

Alberta, Canada 
Thomas C. Andres 
Andrews University 
Universidad de Antioquia 

Medellin, Antioquia. 

Colombia 
Universidad Nacional 

Bogota, Colombia 
University of Arizona 
Universitetet i Bergen 

Bergen-Universitetet, Norway 
Systematisch-Geobotanishes 

Institut der Universitat Bern, 

Switzerland 
Biosystematics Research 

Centre Ontario, Canada 
Bernice P. Bishop Museum 
Herbario Nacional de Bolivia 

La Paz, Bolivia 
Botanical Museum 

Gdteborg, Sweden 
Botanische Staatssammlung 

Munchen, Federal Republic 

of Germany 
Botanischer Garten und 

Botanisches Museum 

Berlin-Dahlem 

Berlin, Federal Republic of 

Germany 
University of British Columbia 

Vancouver, British Columbia, 

Canada 



British Museum (Natural 

History) 

London, England, Great 

Britain 
Brooklyn Botanic Garden 
Universidad de Buenos Aires 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 
Buffalo Museum of Science 
Universidade de Caxias do Sul 

Caxias do Sul, Brazil 
California Academy of Sciences 
California Polytechnic State 

University 
University of California, 

Berkeley 
University of California, Davis 
University of California, Santa 

Barbara 
Herbier National du Cameroun 

Yaounde, Cameroun 
Canberra Botanic Gardens 

Herbarium 

Canberra City, Australia 
Jardin Botanico de Caracas 

Caracas, Venezuela 
Carnegie Museum of Natural 

History 
Center for Energy & 

Environmental Research 

San Juan, Puerto Rico 
Centre de Pesquisas do Cacau 

Itabuna, Brazil 
University of Connecticut 
University of Copenhagen 

Copenhagen, Denmark 
Cornell University 
Steve Dercole 
Desert Botanical Garden 
Camilo Diaz 
Gesamthochschule Duisburg 

Duisburg, Federal Republic 

of Germany 
Duke University 
Pontificia Universidad Catolica 

del Ecuador 

Quito, Ecuador 
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas 

Fisicas y Naturales 

Cordoba, Argentina 
Fairchild Tropical Garden 
Mrs. Elizabeth Farwell 
Florida Atlantic University 
University of Florida 
University of South Florida 
Forest Products Laboratory 
Fundacion Jardin Botanico 

"Joaquin Antonio Uribe" 

Medellin, Colombia 
Conservatoire et Jardin 

botaniques de la Ville 

Geneve 

Geneve, Switzerland 
Geobotanisches Institute 

Zurich, Switzerland 
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi 

Belem, Brazil 
Goshen College 
College of Great Falls 
University of Guelph 

Guelph, Ontario, Canada 
Universitat Hamburg 

Hamburg, Federal Republic 

of Germany 
The Hattori Botanical 

Laboratory 

Miyazaki-ken, Japan 



Harvard University 
University of Helsinki 

Helsinki, Finland 
Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin 

Berlin-Baumschulenweg, 

German Democratic 

Republic 
Soutfiern Illinois University 
University of Illinois at Circle 

Campus 
PC.R.PS, College of 

Pharmacy, 

University of Illinois at 

Chicago 
University of Illinois at 

Urbana-Champaign 
Indiana University 
Indiana University Southeast 
Institute of Systematic Botany 

Utrecht, Netherlands 
Institute of Terrestrial Ecology 
Midlothian, Scotland, Great 

Britain 
Universidade Estadual de 

Campinas 

Campinas, Brazil 
Institute de Botanica Darwinion 

San Isidro, Argentina 
Institute de Botanica del 

Nordeste 

Corrientes, Argentina 
Institutio Nacional de 

Investigacion de las Ciencias 

Naturales 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 
Institute Nacional de 

Investigaciones sobre 

Recursos Bioticos 

Xalapa, Mexico 
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas 

de Amazonia 

Manaus, Brazil 
International Centre for 

Research in the Semi-Arid 

Tropics 

Patancheru, India 
Iowa State University 
Jardin Botanico 

Madrid, Spain 
Kent State University 
University of Kentucky 
Kobe-Gakuin University 

Kobe, Japan 
Laboratory for Plant Taxonomy 

and Plant Geography 

Wageningen, Netherlands 
Museo de La Plata 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 
University ef Leicester 

Leicester, England, Great 

Britain 
University ef Lethbridge 

Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada 
Universidad Nacional Mayer de 

San Marcos de Lima 

Lima, Peru 
Lomonosov State University of 

Moscow 

Moscow, U.S.S.R. 
Universidad de Los Andes 

Merida, Venezuela 
University of Southwestern 

Louisiana 
University of Maryland 
Universidad Nacional 

Autenoma de Mexico 

Mexico, Mexico 



Miami University 
University of Michigan 
Michigan State University 
E. Migliezzi 

University of Minnesota 
Missouri Botanical Garden 
University of Missouri 
Dr Greg Mueller 
Museo Nacional 

San Jose, Costa Rica 
Museum National d'Histeire 

Naturelle 

Paris, France 
Nara University of Education 

Nara, Japan 
National Science Museum 

Tokyo, Japan 
Naturhistorisches Museum 

Wien, Austria 
University ef New Orleans 
New York Botanical Garden 
State University of New York 
New York State Museum 
The University of North Carolina 
Northwestern State University 
Phoebe Novak 
The Ohio State University 
University of Oklahoma 
Centre O.RS.TO.M. 

Cayenne, French Guiana 
Universite d'Ottawa 

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 
Pacific Tropical Garden 
The Pennsylvania State 

University 
Olivia Petrides 
Academy of Natural Sciences 

of Philadelphia 
Nancy Pliml 
Botanical Institute of the Polish 

Academy of Sciences 

Krakow, Poland 
A. Ramirez Roa 
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic 

Garden 
University of Rhode Island 
University of Richmond 
Rijksuniversiteit 

Gent, Belgium 
Rijksherbarium 

Leiden, Netherlands 
Universidade Federal do Rio 

Grande do Sul 

Porto Alegre, Brazil 
Jardim Botanico do Rio de 

Janeiro 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 
Universidade Federal do Rio de 

Janeiro 

Riode Janeiro, Brazil 
Royal Botanic Garden 

Kew, England, Great Britain 
Royal Botanical Gardens 

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 
Rutgers University 
Dr Abundio Sagastegui A. 
The University of Saint Andrews 

Fife, Scotland, Great Britain 
Dr Jose Schunke V 
San Francisco State University 
Universidade de Sao Paulo 

Sao Paulo, Brazil 
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens 
Forschungsinstitut 

Senckenberg 

Federal Republic of 

Germany BRD 39 



EX>NORS to the COLLECTIONS 



Smithsonian Institution 
Stetson University 
Stephen F. Austin State 

University 
Sul Ross State University 
University of Tennessee 
Texas A&M University 
University of Texas 
University of Toronto 

Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
Towson State University 
Tulane University 
Union College 
University of Uppsala 

Uppsala, Sv\/eclen 
Utah State University 
University of Utah 
Vanderbilt University 
Universidad Central de 

Venezuela 

Caracas, Venezuela 
Universidad Central de 

Venezuela 

Maracay Venezuela 
University of Washington 
Washington State University 
Whittier College 
University of Wisconsin 
University of Wisconsin, 

Oshkosh 
University of Wyoming 
Universitat Zurich 

Zurich, Switzerland 



Geology 

Dr. Peter Allison 

American tVluseum of Natural 

History 
Joan Biba 
Black Hills Institute of 

Paleontological Research 
Dr John R. Bolt 
D. P Bradburg 
Dr. Fred Broadhurst 
Robert Brooks 
Mary Carman 
William R. Chaney Tiffany & 

Company 
Patricia Coker 
Colorado College 
Dr Robert DeMar 
Dr. Andrew Drinnan 
H. Dunay 
Dr Jim DuPont 
IVIelhem Freiji 
Dr Daniel Goujet 
Dr. Lance Grande 
William Grimme 
Dr. Tom Guensburg 
P Harris 
Bill Hawes 
RickHebdon 
Carole Hickman 
Dr. James A. Hopson 
Glenn Huss 
Pam Keillor 
Russell Kemp 
D. Kingery 
J. Kitching 
W. Von Koenigswald 
Scott Kwiatkowski 
Elizabeth Leslie 
Charles Lewis 
W. K. Lloyd 
40 Dr Steven (Manchester 



Dr. David Martill 

T Moloney 

M. Moore 

Giancarlo Negro 

David New 

Fred R. Niedrich 

Nieman Marcus 

Brad Orvieto 

Lanny Passaro 

Terry Schmidt 

Dr Jim Schwade 

Nelson Shaffer 

Mary Lou Shook 

Robert E. Sloan 

Smithsonian Institution 

Dr. William Turnbull 

W. B. Vaughn 

David Walker 

Perry Wingerter 

Dr. Bertram G. Woodland 

Dr RainerZangerl 



Zoology 

Dr. M. R. Alonso 

American Museum of Natural 

History 
Peter Ames 
Dr S. Anderson 
R. Anderson 
Sophie Andris 
Anti-Cruelty Society 
Dr. P Audisio 
Margaret Baker 
Dr R. Baranowski 
Dr D. Barr 
Karl Bartel 
KentM. Bartgas 
Keith Bates 
Bret Beall 

Mr & Mrs. Walter Bledsoe 
Thomas Brandt 
Brookfield Zoo 
Barbara Brown 
Paul Brunswold 

C. Carlton 

Carpenter Nature Center 
Dr D. S. Chandler 

Dr. Barry Chernoff 

Chicago Zoology Society 

Dr. Joe Christman 

Tom Clark 

Dale Clayton 

Hector Colon 

Dr J. Conroy 

Dr D. Cook 

Dr Michael Crowley 

Dallas Zoological Society 

Elizabeth Best Deis 

Dr. M. Deyrup 

Mrs. Ernest Driver 

Jay Feldman 

Dr Tian Fenghan/Shandong 

D. M. Field 

George Finkensteadt 
Ann Fisher 

Dr. John W. Fitzpatrick 
Catherine Forster 
Miss Garcia 
Leonard Geyer 
Dr. Lance Gilbertson 
Mrs. David Goldberg 
Dr. Glenn Goodfriend 
J. & K. Goodpasture 
Green Bay Park & Recreation 
Department 



Dr Thomas Guensburg 

Mary J. Hayrs 

Dr P Hershkovitz 

Peter Hocking 

James E. Hoffman 

Dr A. Howden 

Dr P Hunter 

Dr M. Ibanez 

Dr.Tlliffe 

Illinois Department of 

Conservation 
Dr. Robert F Inger 
Dr. M. Ivie 
Robert Izor 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard I. Johnson 
Billy Jonas 
Julian Kerbis 
Vince Kessner 
M. S. Khan 
Dr David Kistner 
P Kovarik 
N. Krauss 

C. Langtimm 
R. Leschen 
Lincoln Park Zoo 
Dr. J. Longino 

Los Angeles County Museum 
Louisiana State University 
Volker Mahnert 

D. Matusik 

M. Dianne Maurer 

Roberta A. McCosh 

Margot Merrick 

Ken Mierzwa 

Minnesota Zoological Society 

Dr. D. K. Moskovits 

W Munger 

Dr. Charles Nadler 

Dr Edna Naranjo-Garcia 

H. Nelson 

Dr. Alfred Newton 

Normal University 

Dr. R. Norton 

Dr B. O'Connor 

Mrs. Lorain Olsen 

Hidetoshi Ota 

Milch Pakosz 

Lynn Parenti 

Dr Bruce Patterson 

O. &A. Pearson 

Dr S. Peck 

A. T Peterson 

John Phelps 

Dr J. Podani 

Michael Redmer 

Michael Reed 

Mary Anne Rogers 

RudolfoRuibal 

Dr. J. Rusch 

Dr. M. Sanderson 

C. Savin 

Beverly Scott 

Dr Paul Scott 

Marc Scouteris 

Paul Sereno 

Dr W Shear 

Tony Silva 

Connie Staemus 

K. Stephan 

Dr. S. Stephenson 

M. Stevens 

Dr. Robert Stuebing 

Dr. W. Suter 

Fui Lian Tan 

Donald Taphorn 

Dr. Margaret Thayer 

J. E. Thomerson 



Dr. R. Timm 

Dr. William Turnbull 

Dr Bernard Verdcourt 

John Visser 

Dr J. Wagner 

Dr David H.Walker 

Water Filtration Plant (Chicago) 

Dr. J. Webb 

Dave Willard 

Willowbrook Wildlife Haven 

Dr J. Wilson 

Dr A.J. de Winter 

Jennifer Wheeler 

Dr. R. Woodruff 

Dr. Fred R. Woodward 

Dr. Glen E. Woolfenden 

Dr F Young 



The Library 

Nayla A. Al Khalifa 

Gen. Hubert Andrianasolo 

Archives of American Art, 

Ryerson & Burnham 

Libraries, 
Art Institute of Chicago 
Associazione "Poro" 
Jacques Paul Athias 
Barringer Crater Company 
Biological Laboratory Imperial 

Household, Tokyo, Japan 
Carolyn P Blackmon 
Sister Cecelia Bodman 
Dr. Willard L. Boyd 
Edgar H. Brenner 
Dr. Bennet Bronson 
Dr. William C. Burger 
Club of American Collectors of 

Fine Arts, Inc. 
Gustavo Adolfo Cruz 
Robert E. Dahm 
Christine Danziger 
Janeen Devine 
Peter Kenneth Duym 
W. Peyton Fawcett 
Ramon Ferreyra 
Fisheries Agency Japanese 

Ministry of Agriculture, 

Forest and Fisheries 
Friends of Muriel and Malcolm 

Smith 
Paul A. Fryxell 

Galerie Walu (Zurich) 

Kenneth Grabowski 

Raymond Graumlich 

Phil Hanson 

Philip Hershkovitz 

Chuimei Ho 

Dr Robert F Inger 

Dr. Ira J. Ingraham 

International Cultural Society of 

Korea 
Arthur D. Inwood 
John Crerar Library 
T. Kawamichi 
Maria Kecskesi 
M. Rosalie Kempe 
Dr John B. Kethley 
Gunther Kunkel 
Dr Scott Lanyon 
Mrs. John W. Leslie 
Dr. Phillip Lewis 
Monica Liu 

Dr Kubet Luchterhand 
Hymen Marx 



Eugene Maurey 
William Mchennan 
Merriam Center Library 
Dr Matthew H. Nitecki 
Edwardina Nodzenski 
Loraine Stephens Olsen 
Robert A. Pickering 
Mr. & Mrs. Philip Pinshof 
Dr Timothy Plowman 
Fr Peter J. Powell 
John Howard Pryor 
Alfreida Rehling 
Maria Luisa Reyna Vasquez 
Dr Jaroslav Riha 
Rodent Control Program, 

Kuwait 
Frederic Rosengarten Jr. 
Samuel & Marie-Louise 

Rosenthal 
C. Severin 
Malcolm Smith 
Solomon Smith Jr. 
Dr Djaja D. Soejarto 
Michael Spock 
Harold St. John 
Llois Stein 
Beth M. Steinhorn 
Mrs. William G.Swartchild 
Sycamore Public Library 
Janos Szunyoghy 
Tyozaburo Tanaka 
Dr. John Terrell 
Dr. Robert Timm 
A. A. Tokar 
University Gallery University of 

Florida 
Edward Valauskas 
Dr Leigh M. Van Valen 
Dr. James W. VanStone 
Dr Paul D. Voth 
David M. Walsten 
Dr Daniel B. Ward 
Dr Rupert L. Wenzel 
Benjamin W. Williams 
John & Susan Wolfe 
Tadanao Yamamoto 



Scientific Support 
Services 

Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill 




Male and female titi monkeys (genus Callicebus), pencil drawing by Field Museum scientific illustrator 
Zorica Dabich for Living New World Monkeys, by Philip Hershkovitz, curator emeritus of Mammals. The 
Museum's highly trained scientific artists illustrate technical papers by the curatorial staff. 



41 



RELD MUSEUM STAFF 



42 



ADMINISTRATION 

Willard L. Boyd. 

president 
Jimmie W. Croft, M.S.; 

vice president. Finance & 

Museum Services 
Thomas R. Sanders, B.S.; 

vice president. Development 
Michael Spock. B.A.; 

wee president 

Public Programs 
Harold K. Voris. PhD.: 

vice president 

Collections & Researcti 
John D. Engman, M.A.; 

planning officer 
Delores A. Irvin. 

secretary 
Carolyn A. Klyce.M.S.PH., 

secretary 

COLLECTIONS 
and RESEARCH 

Administration 

Harold K. Voris, Ph.D.; 

vice president 
Lucy Bukowski, B.S.; 

program coordinator 
Darlene Pederson, 

secretary to ttie vice president 



Department of Anthropology 

Bennet Bronson, Ph.,D; ctiairman: curator 
of Asian arcfiaeology and ethnology 

Sheryl L. Heidenreich, B.S.; 
administrative assistant 

Margaret Piscitelli. B.A.; 
department secretary 

Research Division 

Glen H.Cole. Ph.D.: 

curator of pretiistory 
Donald Collier, Ph.D.: curator emeritus of 

fvliddle and South: American 

arctiaeology and ettinology 
Phillip H. Lewis. PhD : curator of primitive 

art and Melanesian ettinology 
Charles S. Stanish, Ph.D.: assistant curator of 

Middle and Soutti American 

archaeology and ethnology 
John E. Terrell, Ph.D.: curator of Oceanic 

archaeology and ethnology 
James W. VanStone. Ph.D.: curator of North 

American archaeology and ethnology 

Collections Management Division 

Christine T Gross, B A : 

collections manager 
William G Grewe-Mullins, B.A.: collections 

management assistant 
Janet Jarrett, M.S.: collections 

management assistant 
JanetMiller, M A..M.S.: 

registrar/archivist 
Lyie Konigsberg. Ph.D.: physical 

anthropology consultant 
Karen Poulson, B.A . collections 

management assistant 
Loran H. Recchia, 

technical assistant 
Beth Scheckman, B.A.: collections 

management assistant 



Conservation Division 

Catherine Sease. B.Sc: head 

Division of Conservation 
Ruth I. Andris, 

restorer 
Christine Danziger, M.S.;' 

conservator 
Christine Del Re, B.Sc; 

associate conservator 



Department of Botany 

John Engel, Ph.D.; chairman 

and curator bryology 
Birthel Atkinson, preparator 
William C. Burger, Ph D.; 

curator 
Stephen Dercole, B.S.: 

herbarium assistant cryptogams 
Michael Dillon, Ph.D.: associate 

curator vascular plants 
Elizabeth Moore. 

administrative assistant 
Gregory Mueller, Ph.D.: 

assistant curator mycology 
Honora Murphy M.S.: 

manager Botanical Collection 
Christine Niezgoda. M.S.; research 

assistant, vascular plants 
Jean Oglesbee. B.S.; herbarium 

assistant, vascular plants 
Nancy Pliml. B.S.: herbarium 

assistant, vascular plants 
Timothy Plowman. Ph.D.: 

curator vascular plants 
Jon Polishook. M.S.: 

research assistant, mycology 
Freddie Robinson, 

preparator 
Robert Stolze.B.S.; 

manager Fern Herbarium 
Kevin Swagel, B.S: herbarium 

assistant, vascular plants 
Fred Werner, A. A.; 

preparator 



Department of Geology 

John R. Bolt. Ph.D.; chairman: associate curator. 

fossil amphibians and reptiles 
BretS. Beall. M.S.: curatorial coordinator. 

Mazon Creek paleontology 
Demetrios Betinis. B.FA.: 

scientific assistant fossil fishes 
Kristine Bradof. MS: scientific assistant. 

fossil invertebrates.'symposium 
PeterR. Crane, Ph.D.; 

associate curator paleobotany 
Andrew Dhnnan. Ph D.: 

post-doctoral associate, paleobotany 
Dorothy Eatough. MA.: collections 

manager mineralogy'paleomagnetics 
John J. Flynn, Ph.D.: associate 

curator fossil mammals 
Catherine A. Forster MS.; 

collections manager paleontology 
Lance Grande. Ph D ; 

associate curator fossil fishes 
John P. Harris, 

preparator fossils 
Scott Lidgard, Ph.D.: assistant 

curator fossil invertebrates 
Robert A. Masek. fossil 

preparator 
Monica A. Mikulski, A.A.; 

administrative assistant 
Matthew H Nitecki, PhD ; 

curator fossil invertebrates 



Clarita Nunez, M.S.; scientific assistant, 

fossil invertebrates/Mazon Creek 
Edward J. Olsen, Ph.D.; 

curator mineralogy 
William F Simpson, B.S.; 

chief preparator, fossils 
William D. Turnbull, Ph.D.; 

curator emeritus, fossil mammals 
Bertram G. Woodland, Ph.D.; 

curator emeritus, petrology 
RainerZangerl, Ph.D ; 

curator emeritus, fossil fishes 
Elaine Zeiger, B. Music: 

secretary 



Department of Zoology 

JohnW. Fitzpatnck, Ph.D.; 

chairman, curator of Birds 
Anita Del Genio, 

administrative assistant 

Division of Amphibians and Reptiles 

Hymen Marx, B.S.; head, curator 

of Amphibians and Reptiles 
Ingnd Fauci, 

data entry operator 
Robert F Inger, Ph.D.: curator 

of Amphibians and Reptiles 
Jeanne Jendra, B.A.; 

secretary 
Gary Mazurek, B A.; 

collection manager 
Molly Ozaki, 

division secretary 
Harold K. Voris, Ph.D.;* curator 

of Amphibians and Reptiles 

Division of Birds 

Scott M. Lanyon. Ph.D.; head. 

associate curator of Birds 
Pamela Austin. B.S.; 

lab technician 
EmmetR. Blake, D.Sc; 

curator emeritus of Birds 
Robert L Curry PhD.; 

research assistant 
M. Dianne Maurer, B.A.; 

assistant 
Debra Moskovits, Ph.D.; 

research assistant 
Jackie A. Peterson. 

data entry operator 
Melvin A. Traylor, Jr, A.B.; 

curator emeritus of Birds 
Tatzyana S. Wachter, 

data entry operator 
David E. Willard. Ph.D.; 

collection manager 

Division of Fishes 

Barry Chernoff, Ph.D.: head. 

associate curator of Fishes 
Kann Dahl, B.A.; 

division secretary 
Maryanne Rogers, M.S.; 

collection manager 

Division of Insects 

James S. Ashe. PhD; head, associate 

curator of insects 
John Kethley Ph.D.; 

associate curator of Insects 
HarryG. Nelson, Ph.D: 

summer curator 
Alfred F Newton, Jr, Ph.D.; 

assistant curator of Insects 



FIELD MUSEUM STAFF 



Philip Parillo.B.S.: 

technical assistant 
Daniel Summers, M.S.; 

collection manager 
Margaret Thayer, Ph.D.; 

visiting assistant curator 
RupertL. Wenzel, Ph.D.; 

curator emeritus 

Division of Invertebrates 

G. Alan Solem, Ph.D.; head, 

curator of invertebrates 
Margaret L. Baker, B.S.; 

collection manager 
VictoriaB. Huff, B.S.; 

collection manager 
Linnea M. Lahlum, 8. A.; 

scientific illustrator 
BethS. Morris, B.S.; 

research assistant 

Division of Mammals 

Bruce D. Patterson, Ph.D.; head, 

associate curator of Mammals 
Sophie Andris, 

technical assistant 
Barbara Brown, B.S.; 

technical asistant 
Ronald Edwards, B.S.; 

technical assistant 
Lawrence R. Heaney, Ph.D.; 

assistant curator of Mammals 
Philip Hershkovitz. M.S.; 

curator emeritus of Mammals 
Julian Kerbis, M.S.; 

collection manager 
John Phelps, M.S.; 

technical assistant 



The Library 

W. Peyton Fawcett, B.A.; 

librarian 
Roger Buelow, manager, publications 

sales (from Oct. 1987) 
Michele Calhoun, M.S.L.S.; librarian 

reference and public service 
Chih-wei Pan, M.S.; 

librarian, cataloging 
Benjamin Williams. M.A.; associate 

librarian and librarian, 

special collections 

Support Staff 

Sarah Bridger, library assistant, 

circulation and collection 

inventory (from May 1988) 
Cheryl Callen, B.A.; library assistant, 

serials and publications exchange 

(from March 1987) 
Janeen Devine, B.A.; library 

assistant, interlibrary loans 
Kenneth Grabowski, M.S.; library 

assistant, technical processing 
Raymond Graumlich, M.A.; library assistant, 

office and data management 
Judith Peraino, B.A.; library assistant. 

circulation and collection inventory 

(June 1987 to April 1988) 
Denise Rogers, B.A.; library 

assistant, acquisitions 
Fleur Testa, B.A.; library assistant, 

acquisitions (to April 1987) 



Scientific Support Services 

Computing Services 

James W. KoeppI, Ph.D.; 

computer system manager 
Jin Jou Hwang, M.A.; 

computer assistant 
Peter E. Lowther, Ph.D.; 

computer system specialist 
Julia Mirman, B.S.; 

computer assistant 

Scientific Illustration 

John J. Engel, Ph.D.*; supervisor, 

scientific illustrators 
Zorica Dabich, BRA.; 

scientific illustrator 
Zbigniew Jastrzebski, M.F.A.; 

senior scientific illustrator 
Clara Richardson Simpson, M.S.; 

scientific illustrator 
Marlene Werner, A. A.; 

scientific illustrator 

Scanning Electron Microscope 

Christine J. Niezgoda, M.A.'; 

SEM coordinator 
Ron J. Wibei, 

SEM technician 

Biochemical Laboratories 

Scott Lanyon, Ph.D.*; coordinator, 
biochemical laboratories and 
histology laboratory 

Field Museum Press 

James S. Ashe, Ph.D.*; scientific 
editor Field Museum Press 

James VanStone, Ph.D.*; scientific 
editor Field Museum Press 

Tanisse Bezin, managing 
editor Field Museum Press: 

Center for Academic Studies 

John Fitzpatrick, Ph.D.*; chairman. 

Scholarship Committee 
Charles Stanish, Ph.D.*; chairman. 

Scholarship Committee 



Photography 

Ronald Testa, M.F.A., head of 

photography 
June E. Bartlett, lab technician 
Nina M. Cummings, B.A.; photo 

researcher 
James D. Foerster, B.A.; clerk 
Diane Alexander White, B.A.; 

photographer 

*Second listing. Name appears 
elsewhere in staff list. 



DEVELOPMENT 

Thomas R. Sanders, B.S. vice 

president 
Elsie F. Bates, M.S.; secretary 
Suzanne S. Borland, Ph.B.; 

research coordinator 
irma L. Castaneda, secretary to 

the vice president 
Margaret Curran, secretary 
Madeline Greenlee, B.A.; 

secretary 
Elizabeth Hurley, M.A.; 

Women's Board, coordinator 
Constance Koch, B.S.; 

Sponsored Programs officer 
Andrea Linsky, B.A.; writer 
Paul Nebenzahl, B. Ph.; director 

of Corporation & Foundation 

Giving 
LisaH. Plotkin, B.A.; writer 
Dorothea V. Pyzansky, B.S.; 

director of Sponsored 

Programs 
Veitrice L. Thompson, records 

coordinator 
Susan E. VandenBosch, B.A.; 

director of Individual Giving 

lUlembership 

Marilyn E. Cahill, M.A.; manager 
Carolyn Brinkman, B.A.; 

administrative assistant 
Joyce L. Czerwin, phone 

solicitor 
Melvin B. Davis, B.A.; 

information booth 

representative 
Pearl M. Delacoma, phone 

solicitor 
Mary H. Millsap, records 

coordinator 
Gregory K. Porter, B.A.; 

information booth coordinator 
Toby D. Rajput, B.A.; phone 

solicitor coordinator 
Loretta Reyes, clerk 
Wade L. Wittscheck, information 

booth representative 
Janice Wright, B.A.; clerk 



FINANCE and 
MUSEUM SERVICES 

Jimmie W. Croft, M.S.; vice 

president 
Patricia N. Phillips, secretary to 

the vice president 

Controller's 
Office 

Karl Dytrych, MB. A.; controller 
Accounting 

Renay A. Barnes, B.S.; manager 
Alix M. Alexandre, accounting 

clerk 
Darlene Brox, head 

cashier — accounting 
Alexander R. Friesei, B.G.S.; 

chief accountant 
Christopher L. Gardner, 

accounting clerk 



43 



FIELD MUSEUM STAFF 



Gregory J. Kotulski, process 

specialist — accounting 
Wayne Lacey, B.S.; accountant 
Vincent 0. Osaghae, MB. A., 

C.P.A.; accountant 
Doris S. Thompson, payroll 

coordinator 
Dora G. Vallejo, 

castiier — accounting 
Deborah A. Williams, B.S.; 

accounting clerk 

Purchasing 

ThomasW. Geary, B.S.; 

purchasing agent 
Lorraine Petkus, purchasing 

assistant 



Marketing 
and Sales 

John G. Economos, director of 
marketing & sales 



Public 
Merchandising 

Barbaral.Stuark, B.P.H., 

C.B.A.; manager 
Betty E. Applewhite, A. A.; sales 

clerk 
Robert T. Chelmowski, sales 

support assistant 
Gloria Clayton, sales clerk 
Mary C. Coffey, sales clerk 
Helen Cooper, sales clerk 
Kathleen A. Christon, B.S.; sates 

clerk 
Luanne I. Dorsey-Olson, B.A.; 

sales clerk 
Meseret Gelaw, sales clerk 
Ernesto Gomez, sales clerk 
Betty J. Green, sales support 

assistant 
Lee T. Hall, sales clerk 
Kim Michelle Holmes, sales 

clerk 
Marie A. Lumpkin, sales clerk 
Dolores E. Marler, supervisor 
Diane Kerry Martin, B.A.; clerk 
Renee L. Medel-Banda, A. A., 

L.P.N; sales clerk 
Desariee T. Moore, sates clerk 
Ciro Olivarez, sales clerk 
Julia C. Parke, B.A.; secretary 
Adorna M. Perrin, B.A.; sales 

clerk 
Barbara B. Robinson, B.A.; 

assistant manager 
Levertia Short, sales clerk 
Andre Charles Smith, sales 

clerk 
Robert J. Stack, sales clerk 
Louise Waters, sales clerk 
Michael B. Wilder, sales clerk 
Elsie Willoughby, sales clerk 
Alexandra D. Wilson, sales clerk 



Special Events and 
Food Services 

GaleAsikin, vending room 

operator 
Michael A. Croon, B.A.; special 

events 
EliseGuy, food services 
44 assistant 



James Kern, M.A.; auxiliary food 

services operator 
Susan M. Olson, special events 
Linda R. Peterson, special 

events 
Susan L. Potter, secretary 
Andre Williams, food services 

aid 

Public Relations 

Sherry L. DeVries, B.A.; 

manager 
LisaG. Elkuss, B.S.; associate 
Suzanne M. Santos, MB. A.; 

information coordinator 
Barbara J. Scott, B.A.: assistant 
David M. Walsten, B.S.; Bulletin 

editor 



General Services 

GustavA. Noren, director 
Robyn R. Riley, secretary 



Security and 
Visitor Services 

Hugh P. Hamill, manager 
Nancy Adams, admissions 

cashier 
Clifford Augustus, security 

officer 
Larry J. Banaszak, senior 

security officer 
Helena Brown Banks, 

temporary security supervisor 
Arnold C. Barnes Jr. security 

officer 
Andrew J. Bluntson, security 

officer 
Craig Bolton, security officer 
Willie J. Brumage, console 

operator 
Gabriel M. Brisard, assistant 

supervisor 
Glanver A. Brooks, security 

officer 
Pamela T. Buczkowske, 

equipment assistant 
Marcia Carr, B.S.; equipment 

manager 
Robert J. Cazy, security officer 
Chantal L. Charles, admissions 

cashier 
Chirkina I. Chirkina, senior 

security officer 
Melvin C. Cosey, senior security 

officer 
Katie Davis, admissions cashier 
Josef M. Duanah, security 

officer 
Lionel O. Dunn, senior security 

officer 
Herman Ellis, security officer 
LeatriceC. Evans, lunchroom 

attendant 
Rodolfo Flores, security of fleer 
Donald E. French, security 

officer 
Robert G. French, security 

officer 
Wayne R. Gerdes, B.S.; security 

officer 
Teresa A. Glover, admissions 

cashier 
Jesse Gomez, senior security 

officer 



Rudolph Gomez, security 

supervisor 
Steven A. Grissom, senior 

security officer 
Richard D. Groh, A. A.; security 

officer 
Tina I. Gulley, secretary 
James N. Hammond, 

admissions cashier 
Norman Hammond, security 

officer 
Denise Hatter, admissions 

cashier 
Geraldine Havranek, telephone 

console 
Charles H. James, security 

officer 
Charles M. Johnson, senior 

security officer 
Dale R. Johnson, B.A.; security 

supervisor 
Mirielle M. Laforest, security 

officer 
Howard Langtord Jr., senior 

security officer 
Richard H. Leigh, senior 

security supervisor 
LaShugn J. Lloyd, security 

officer 
Charles Lozano, senior security 

officer 
Floyd L. Lucas, security officer 
Kathleen O. McCollum, B.A.; 

senior security supervisor 
Derek McGlorthan, senior 

security officer 
Carolyn tvl. Moon, security 

officer 
Cozzetta Morris, senior security 

officer 
Karlyn Morris, senior security 

officer 
Michael R. Nash, security 

officer 
Donna F. Nixon, lunchroom 

attendant 
Robert F. Page, B.S.; security 

officer 
Josie Poole, security officer 
Jose Preciado, security officer 
Rosemarie Rhyne, senior 

security officer 
Freddie James Rice, secunYy 

officer 
Derek A. Richmond, security 

officer 
Normal Robinson, security 

officer 
Paris S. Ross, security officer 
Emanuel Russell Jr., assistant 

supervisor 
BartH.Ryckbosch, B.A.; 

security officer 
Irma Sanchez, admissions 

cashier 
David F. Smith, security officer 
Norris J. Smith, security officer 
Edmund L. Steward, security 

officer 
DebraA.Turnbull, security 

officer 
Joe W. Vallejo, security officer 
Julio Villasenor, security officer 
Will Washington, security officer 

Archives 

Mary Ann Johnson, archivist 
Pamela Sims, assistant 



Mailroom 

Lorraine H. Hobe, supervisor 
Frantz Eliacin, assistant 
Kevin D. Jones, messenger 

Printshop 

George C. Sebela, supervisor 
Edward D. Czenwin, printer 
Pamela Stearns, B.A.; printing 
production coordinator 

Facility Planning 
and Operations 

Norman P. Radtke, manager 
Sharon Cook, B.A.; secretary 
Andris Pavasars, M.S.; assistant 
David Shultz, B.S.: project 

engineer 
Gerald J. Struck, B.S.; project 

engineer 

Engineering 

Rudolph Dentine, chief 
Robert J. Battaglia, assistant 

chief 
Floyd D. Bluntson, assistant 

engineer 
Earl W. Duncan, stationary 

engineer 
Manual Gomez, assistant 

engineer 
Michael J. Kowalczyk, engineer 

assistant 
Terrence A. Marshall, assistant 

engineer 
Thomas M. Moon, maintenance 

electrician 
Joseph A. Nejasnic, stationary 

engineer 
Edward John Penciak, 

stationary engineer 
Harry Rayborn Jr. stationary 

engineer 
Edward D. Rick, electrician 
Larry Thompson, assistant 

engineer 
Timothy Tryba, stationary 

engineer 



Audiovisual 

Ronald R. Hall, manager 
Rayfield H. Drake, tech. 
Julio Martinez, ass't. tech. 



Maintenance 

Jacques L. Pulizzi. supervisor 
Dales S. Akin, carpenter 
Luis G. Fernandez, painter 
Daniel J. Geary, craftsman 
Stanley B. Konopka, carpenter 
George C. Patrick, carpenter 
Librado Salazar, painter 
George Schneider Jr., painter 
Ernst P. Toussaint, craftsman 
Henry Tucker Jr., painter 
Robert D. Vinson, craftsman 



FIELD MUSEUM STAFF 



Housekeeping 

Groundskeeper: 
Guadalupe A. Medina 

Housekeepers: 
Ramon Alba 
Rodolfo Amarillas 
Harold A. Anderson 
James A. Atkinson 
George L. Berry 
John D. Dameron 
Cleola Davis 
Marcolina Diaz 
LiberioGallegos 
Jose S. Galvan 
Claudia Gracia 
Theodore J. Green 
Kwan-SooHan, B.S. 
Robert L. Harris 
Linn H. Jackson 
Dewayne Jamison 
LaVida R. Johnson 
Gerard Kernizan 
Kettly Lanarre 
Lionell Martin 
Jose Mendez 
Seedel Montgomery 
Ermite Nazaire 
Lucinda Pierre-Louis 
George W. Robinson 
Ralph Rogers 
Morgan Rucker 
Rosa M. Salazar-Boone 
Georgia Stanley 
Leroy P. Thomas 
Anthony D. Valentino 
Dieudaide M. Victor 

Personnel 

Charsetta M. Henderson, 

M.S. A.; manager 
Sandra D. Agharese, 

secretary 
Paul E. Josenhans, 

safety coordinator 
Helen A. Malina, B.A.; 

benefits coordinator 
Marilyn C. Nelson, B.A.; 

employment coordinator 
CarolD. Peters, B,A.; 

employment coordinator 
Nadine M. Phillips, clerk 



PUBLIC 
PROGRAMS 

Michael Speck. B.A.: vice 

president 
Deborah Cooke, assistant 

to the vice president 
Janet C. McKinney, A. A.; 

secretary 



Design and Production 

Janet A. Kamien, M.Ed,; 

chairman 
JameilJ. Al-Oboudi, 

exhibit preparator 
Howard J. Bezin, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Tamara K. Biggs, B.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Daniel A. Brinkmeier, 

exhibit preparator 
Mary A. Brogger, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 



John K. Cannon, M.F.A.; 

production manager 
Brian L. Cavanaugh, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
George S. Chavez, exhibit 

preparator 
Edward Correll. M.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
PeterJ.Crabbe, M.F.A.: 

exhibit preparator 
Lawrence L. Degand, 

exhibit preparator 
Michael M.Delfini, B.A.; 

graphic designer 
RandaleC. Esslinger, 

exhibit preparator 
Robin L. Faulkner, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Eric J. Frazer, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
PamelaJ. Gaible, M.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Terry M. Gibson, M.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Patricia A. Guizzetti, M.F.A.: 

exhibit preparator 
Dianne Hanau-Strain. B.A.: 

exhibit designer 
Nancy A. Henriksson, B.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
LynnB. Hobbs, B.F.A.; 

graphic design supervisor 
JeffE. Hoke, B.F.A.: 

exhibit designer 
Walter A. Horak, 

electrician 
MaryJoHuck, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Douglas Jewell, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Rebecca S. Joworski, B.F.A.: 

ass 't graphic designer 
Neil J. Keliher, B.S.; 

exhibit preparator 
James T. Komar, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
KathrynS. Lehar. M.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Raymond J. Leo, exhibit 

preparator 
Lisa A. McKernin, B.A.; 

exhibit designer 
Paul J. Martin, senior 

exhibit designer 
ScottG. Mattera, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Harvey M. Matthew, B.S.E.E. 

M.B.A.: budget controller 
Mary Maxon, B.S.; exhibit 

preparator 
Dion E. Miller, exhibit 

preparator 
George P. Monley, B.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Jessica A. Newman, 

secretary 
Randolph Olive, A. A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Gregory A. Olson, M.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Michael E. Paha, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Eric R. Pfeiffer, exhibit 

preparator 
Susan I. Phillips, M.F.A.: 

exhibit preparator 
David T. Potter, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
MyklF. Ruffino.B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 



John Russick, B.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Brian Sauve, B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Bruce A. Scherting, M.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
BeverlyC, Scott, B.S. C; 

secretary 
Joseph D. Searcy, exhibit 

preparator 
James Vincent Shine, M.F.A. 

exhibit preparator 
Michael J. Shouba, B.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Manuel N. Silva, exhibit 

preparator 
DonaldR. Skinner, M.F.A.: 

master designer 
WilliamE. Skodje, M.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Rodney R. Stockment, 

exhibit preparator 
John F. Voris, 

exhibit preparator 
Daniel L. Weinstock, B.F.A.; 

projects manager 
Robin L. Whatley. B.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
Gregory Williams 

exhibit preparator 
Jeffrey T. Wrona, M.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 
MaryE. Zebell, B.A.: 

exhibit preparator 
Cameron A. Zebrun, M.F.A.; 

exhibit preparator 



Program Development 

Michael Spock, B.A.; 

chairman 
Susan M. Curran. B.S.; 

exhibit developer 
Richards. Faron.B. FA.; 

assistant developer 
Robert A. Feldman, Ph.D.: 

researcher 
Calvin Gray, B.A.; 

assistant developer 
Douglas Grew, B.A.; 

research assistant 
Carol E. Hageman, B.S.; 

administration ass't 
KathrynHill, B.A.; 

program coordinator 
Karen L. Hutt, project 

coordinator 
Robert J. Izor, B.S.; 

researcher 
Janet Kamien, M. Ed.; 

master developer 
Hillary A. Lewis. B.S.; 

administrative ass't 
Wendy H. Lindauer, B.A.; 

researcher 
John G. Paterson, M.F.A.; 

assistant developer 
Phyllis G. Rabineau, M.A.; 

senior developer 

Education 

Carolyn P. Blackmon, B.S.; 

chairman 
Susan D. Bennett, B.A.; hall 

interpreter 
Mary Ann Bloom, M.S.; 

coordinator exhibit 

progs. 



Alice Burkhardt, M.A.; hall 

interpreter 
JoeP. Byrnes, B.A.; hall 

interpreter 
Robert Cantu, A. A.; resource 

coordinator 
Mara L. Cosillo-Johnson, hall 

interpreter 
Philip K. Courington, B.A.; 

coordinator hall interpreters 
Maria Teresa Duncan, hall 

interpreter 
Geraldine P. Enck, B.S.; hall 

interpreter 
Nancy L. Evans, M.A.; subj- 

matter specialist 
Cynthia J. Gulley, resource 

coordinator 
Philip C. Hanson, M.S.; head, 

school/community services 
Suzanne E. Hoffman, hall 

interpreter 
AnnHorvath, M.F.A.; 

preparator 
Sheila L. Kincade, 

secretary 
Cynthia Knudson, B.A.; hall 

interpreter 
Susan A. Koziol. 

secretary 
Teresa K. LaMaster, M.A.; 

coordinator Kellogg 

programs 
PeterH. Laraba, B.S; suby. 

matter specialist 
Ellen Leeds-Zebrun, M.F.A.; 

volunteers coordinator 
Lucille Lillard, 

secretary 
EarlW. Lock, M.F.A.; 

preparator 
Jo Ellen McKillop, B.A.; loan 

processor 
MarciaZ. MacRae, B.A.; hall 

interpreter 
Joyce E. Matuszewich, B.A.; 

loans coordinator 
IngndP. Melief, M.A.; 

resource center facilitator 

Patricia L. Messersmith, B.A.; 

program developer 
Norann C. Miller, 

secretary 
Julie A. Pitzen, B.A.; hall 

interpreter 
Thomas J. Rath, hall 

interpreter 
Katherine L. San Fratello, B.A.; 

hall interpreter 
Maija L. Sedzielarz, B.A.; 

coordinator teacher 

programs 
Sandra P. Snyder, B.A.; hall 

interpreter 
Susan E. Stob, B.A.; head, 

public progs, and services 
Susan M. Summerfield, B.A.; 

hall interpreter 
Jessie Thymes, coordinator 

community outreach 
Alexia J. Trzyna, B.F.A.; 

coordinator staff & 

volunt. training 
Judith D. Vismara, B.A.; 

coordinator adult & family 

programs 
John A. Wagner, Ph.D.; subj. 

matter specialist 
James M. Watson, B.S.; hall 45 

interpreter 



DEPARTMENT of ANTHROPOLOGY 



Research Associates 

Dean E.Arnold, Ph.D.; 

Yucatan ethnoarchaeology 
Eloise Richards Barter, M.A.; 

American Indian ethnography 
Robert J. Braidwood, Ph.D.; 

Old V\torld prehistory 

William J. Conklin.M.A.; 

Peruvian architecture 

and textiles 

PhilipJ.C. Dark, Ph.D.; 

African ethnology 
Richard D. DePuma, Ph.D.; 

Etruscan archaeology 
Fred R. Eggan, Ph.D.; 

ethnology 
Patricia S. Essenpreis. Ph.D.; 

North American archaeology 
Robert Feldman, Ph.D.; 

South American archaeology 
GrayGraffam. M.A.; 

Andean archaeology 
HoChuimei, Ph.D.; 

Asian archaeology 
Bill Holm, M. FA.; 

North American native art 
F.Clark Howell, Ph.D.; 
Old World prehistory 
Maxine R. Kleindienst, Ph.D.; 

Old World prehistory 
AlanL. Kolata, Ph.D.; 
South American archaeology 
and ethnography 
Lyie Konigsberg, Ph.D.; 
physical anthropology 
W. Frederick Lange, Ph.D.; 

Meso American archaeology 
DonaldW. Lathrap. Ph.D.; 

South American archaeology 
Charles E. Lincoln, K/I.A.; 

Mayan studies 
MichaelA. Malpass, Ph.D.; 

Andean archaeology 
Michael E. Moseley. Ph.D.; 

South American archaeology 
Charles R. Ortloff, M.Ae.E.; 

Peruvian archaeology 
Robert B. Pickering. Ph.D.; human 

osteology and archaeology 
Jeffrey Quilter, Ph.D.; 

South American archaeology 
George I. Quimby. A.M.; 
North American archaeology 
and ethnography 
David Reese, Ph.D.; 
archaezoology and 
paleomalacology 
JohanG. Reinhard, Ph.D.; 
Nepal. Bolivia, and Peru 
Donalds. Rice, Ph. D; 
Latin American prehistory 
and ethnohistory 
Prudence E. MacDermod Rice, Ph.D 

Meso American archaeology 
Amy Oakland Rodman, Ph.D.; 

textiles 
William Rostoker. Ph.D.; 

metallurgy 
Robin Torrence, Ph.D.; 

Melanesia 
Ronald L. Weber. Ph.D.; 
Amazon Basin. Northwest Coast 
archaeology and ethnology 
Robert L. Welsch, Ph.D.; 
New Guinean, Indonesian 
46 ethnology 



Associates 

Louva Calhoun; 

anthropology 
Connie Crane. A.B.; 

North American ethnology 
Col. Millard E.Rada.E.E.; 

museology 
Llois Stein; 

Oceanic material cultures 

DEPARTMENT of 
BOTANY 

Research Associates 

JanisB. Alcorn. Ph D.; 

ethnobotany 
Kerry A. Barringer. Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
RobertF. Betz. Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
WilliamT. Crowe, J.D., A.M.; 

archeobotany 
Sylvia Feuer. Ph.D.; 

palynology 
Robin B. Foster. Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
Nancy Garwood, Ph.D.; 

biology 
Sidney F. Glassman. Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
Luis D.Gomez. Ph.D.; 

vascular plants and mycology 
Jorge Gomez-Laurito, B.S,; 

Flora Costaricensis 

Arturo Gomez-Pompa, Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
Rogers McVaugh, Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
Lorinl. Nevling Jr., Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
Richard W.Pohl, Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
Patricio P. Ponce de Leon. Ph.D.; 

mycology 
Ursula Rowlatt, DM.; 

vascular plants 
AbundioSagastegui, Ph.D.; 

vascular plants. Flora of Peru 
RudolfM. Schuster, Ph.D.; 

bryology 
Rolf Singer, Ph.D.; 

mycology 
D. Doel Soejarto, Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
TodF. Stuessy, Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
Pablo E. Sanchez Vindas, M.Sc; 

Flora Costaricensis 

Field Associates 

Sandra Knapp, Ph.D.; 

vascular plants 
Marko Lewis, 

bryology 
Antonio Molina R.; 

vascular plants 

Ass€>clates 

Betty Strack, M.S.; 
mycology 



DEPARTMENT of 
GEOLOGY 

Research Associates 

Edgar F.AIIin.M.D.; 
fossil vertebrates 
David Bardack, Ph.D.; 

fossil vertebrates 
Herbert R. Barghusen, Ph.D.; 

fossil vertebrates 
Frank M. Carpenter. Sc.D.; 

fossil invertebrates 
Robert Clayton, Ph.D.; 

geochemistry 
Albert Dahlberg.D.D.S.; 

fossil vertebrates 
Andrew Davis, Ph.D.; 

geochemistry 
Robert DeMar, Ph.D.; 

fossil vertebrates 
Daniel Fisher, Ph.D.; 
fossil invertebrates 
GaryJ.Galbreath, Ph.D.; 

fossil vertebrates 
Lawrence Grossman, Ph.D.; 

meteoritics 
Antoni Hoffman, Ph.D.; 

fossil invertebrates 
James A. Hopson, Ph.D.; 

fossil vertebrates 
David Jablonski, Ph.D.; 

toss/7 invertebrates 
Michael Labarbera, Ph.D.; 

toss/7 invertebrates 
Riccardo Levi-Setti, Ph.D.; 

toss/7 invertebrates 
Kubet Luchterhand, Ph.D.; 

toss/7 vertebrates 
Ernest L. Lundelius, Jr., Ph.D.; 

toss/7 vertebrates 
Frank K. Mckinney, Ph.D.; 

foss/7 invertebrates 
Everett C.Olson. Ph.D.; 

foss/7 vertebrates 
DavidM. Raup, Ph.D.; 
fossil invertebrates 
J. JohnSepkoski, Ph.D.; 

foss/7 invertebrates 
Paul Sipiera, Ph.D.; 

meteorites 
JosephV. Smith, Ph.D.; 

mineralogy 
Leigh Van Valen, Ph.D.; 
fossil vertebrates 

Field Associate 

Thomas E. Guensburg, Ph.D.; 
foss/7 vertebrates 

DEPARTMENT Of 
ZOOLOGY 

Research Associates 

Peter L.Ames, Ph.D.; 

birds 
Warren Atyeo. Ph.D.; 

insects 
William J. Beecher. Ph.D.; 

birds 
David R. Cook, Ph.D.; 

insects 
Joel Cracraft, Ph.D.; 

birds 
Gustavo A. Cruz. M.Sc; 

fishes 



Sharon Emerson, Ph.D.; 

amphibians and reptiles 
JackFooden, Ph.D.; 

mammals 
Elizabeth-Louise Girardi, Ph.D.; 

invertebrates 
David Greenfield, Ph.D.; 

fishes 
Guan-fu Wu, 

amphibians and reptiles 
Lawrence R. Heaney, Ph.D.; 

mammals 
Myriam Ibarra-Stewart, Ph.D.; 

fishes 
BruceC. Jayne, Ph.D.; 

amphibians and reptiles 
WilliamB. Jeffries, Ph.D.; 

amphibians and reptiles 
Linda Kinkel, Ph.D.; 

birds 
R. Eric Lombard, Ph.D.; 

amphibians and reptiles 
Patricia McGill-Harelstad, Ph.D.; 

birds 
Peter L. Meserve, Ph.D.; 

mammals 
Debra Moskovits, Ph.D.; 

birds 
W.Wayne Moss, Ph.D.; 

insects 
CharlesF. Nadler, M.D.; 

mammals 
Roy Norton, Ph.D.; 

insects 
CharlesE. Oxnard, Ph.D.; 

mammals 
Ronald Pine, Ph.D.; 

mammals 
George Rabb, Ph.D.; 

amphibians and reptiles 
Charles Reed, Ph.D.; 

mammals 
H.Bradley Shaffer, Ph.D.; 
amphibians and reptiles 
Ronald Singer, Ph.D.; 

mammals 
Donald Stewart, Ph.D.; 

fishes 
Margaret Thayer, Ph.D.; 

insects 
Jim Thomerson, Ph.D.; 

fishes 
RobertM. Timm, Ph.D.; 

mammals 
John Wagner. Ph.D.; 

insects 
Richard Wassersug, Ph.D.; 
amphibians and reptiles 
Glen Woolfenden, Ph.D.; 

birds 
Mrs. Yang Chang Man, B. Sci.; 

amphibians and reptiles 
Ermi Zhao, PhD.; 
amphibians and reptiles 

Field Associates 

Mr. & Mrs. Fred Aslin; 

invertebrates 
James P. Bacon, Ph.D.; 

amphibians and reptiles 
Barbara Clausen, M.S.; 

birds and mammals 
JohnF. Douglass, M.S.; 

zoology 
Teresa Arambula Greenfield, M.A.; 

fishes 



Kiew Bond Heang, Ph.D.; 

amphibians and reptiles 
Douglas A. Kelt, 

mammals 
Vince Kessner, 

invertebrates 
Thomas 0. Lemke, Ph.D.; 

mammals 
David Matusik, 

insects 
Edward O.Moll, Ph.D.; 

amphibians and reptiles 



JohnC. Murphy, 

amphibians and reptiles 
Manuel A. Plenge, 

birds 
Laurie Price, 

invertebrates 
Janice K. Street, 

mammals 
Williann S. Street, 

mammals 
Robert Stuebing, 

amphibians and reptiles 



WalterR. Suter, Ph.D.; 

insects 
Donald Taphorn, Ph.D.; 

fishes 

Associates 

John Clay Bruner, M.S.; 

fishes 
Sophie Ann Brunner; 

amphibians and reptiles 
Edward C. Dickinson 

birds 



Ingrid Fauci, 

amphibians and reptiles 
Dorothy T. Karall, 

invertebrates 
Harry Nelson, Ph.D.; 

insects 
Lorain Stephens Olsen, 

birds 
Ray Pawley, 

amphibians and reptiles 



VOLUNTEERS 



Julia Abarbanell 
Neal Abarbanell 
Lisa Adier 
Paul AdIer 

E. Erelah Ajao-Spears 
Joyce Altman 
Patinya Ambuel 
Dolores Arbanas 
Tony Armour 
Jacqueline Arnold 
Terry Asher 
Ian Ausubel 
Margaret Axelrod 
Beverly Baker 
Paul Baker 

Jean Baldwin-Herbert 
Barbara Ballard 
Dennis Bara 
Lucia Barba 
Nancy Barco 
Dr. George Barnett 
Gwen Barnett 
Dodie Baumgarten 
Barbara Beardsley 
Virginia Beatty 
Jeanne Bedrosian 
Susan Bee 
Timothy Benally 
Susan Bennett 
Carol Benzing 
Larry Berman 
Robert Berns 
Ruth Berns 
Elaine Bernstein 
Frieda Bernstein 
Jennifer Blitz 
Fran Braverman 
Carol Briscoe 
Carolyn Brna 
Irene Broede 
Garland Brown 
Robert Brunner 
Sophie Ann Brunner 
Brenda Buckley-Kuhn 
James Burd 
Joseph Cablk 
RickCapilulo 
Kitty Carson 
Robert Gary 
Colleen Casey 
Linda Celesia 
Sol Century 
Irene Chong 
Cathy Cline 
Peter Coey 
Byron Collins 
James Coplan 
Artemis Cosentino 
John Cox 
Leslie Cox 
Virginia Cox 
Connie Crane 
Eleanor DeKoven 



Jeannette DeLaney 
Violet Diacou 
Phyllis Dix 
Patricia Dodson 
Clarice Dorner* 
Millie Drower 
John Dunn 
Stanley Dvorak 
M. Alison Ebert 
Reginald Echols 
Linda Egebrecht 
Anne Ekman 
Elizabeth Enck 
Bonnie Engel 
Eric Espe 
LenaFagnani 
Elizabeth Farwell 
Ingrid Fauci 
Josephine Faulk 
Mitzi Fine 
Barbara Fisher 
Joseph Fisher 
Amy Franke 
Toby Frankel 
Arden Frederick 
Debra Jean Frels 
Carlene Friedman 
Alta Mae Frobish 
Kirk Frye 
Mimi Futransky 
Barbara Gardner 
Bernice Gardner 
Ronald Garner 
Peter Gayford 
Patricia Georgouses 
Ann Gerber 
Phyllis Ginardi 
Delores Glasbrenner 
VondaGluck 
Thomas Gnoske 
Halina Goldsmith 
Karin Goldstein 
Evelyn Gottlieb 
Robert Gowland 
Vladimir Grabas 
Deborah Green 
Loretta Green 
Frank Greene Jr.* 
Henry Greenwald 
Mary Lou Grein 
Ann Grimes 
Yvonne Haen 
Dennis Hall 
Michael Hall 
Meg Halsey-Perez 
Afshan Hamid 
Kristine Hammerstrand 
Anna Hammond 
Judith Hannah 
Laura Haracz 
Nancy Harlan 
Curtis Harrell 
Mattie Harris 



Shirley Hattis 

Helen Helfgott 

Audrey Hiller 

Tanya Hines 

Clarissa Hinton 

Tina Fung Holder 

Dr. Harold Honor 

Zelda Honor 

Ruth Hostler 

Scott Houtteman 

Ruth Howard 

Sandra Hubbell 

Ellen Hyndman 

Connie Jacobs 

Sheila James 

Elizabeth Jarz 

Cynthia Johnson 

Dale Johnson 

Mabel Johnson 

Nancy Johnson 

Malcolm Jones 

Carol Kacin 

David Kalensky 

Rosemary Kalin 

Elizabeth Kaplan 

Dorothy Karall 

Susan Kennedy 

Craig Kiefer 

Dennis Kinzig 

Alida Klaud 

Susan Knoll 

Lillian Kreitman 

Gretchen Kubasiak 

Sally Kurth 

Carol Landow 

Michelle Lazar 

Sandra Lee 

Frank Leslie 

Jane Levin 

Joseph Levin 

Ruth Lew 

Betty Lewis 

Valerie Lewis 

Victor Lieberman 

Tory Light 

Catherine Lindroth 

Mary Jo Lucas-Healy 

Janet Madenberg 

Stella Maquiraya 

Gabby Margo 

Phyllis Marta 

Maryanne Marsicek 

Jeanne Martineau 

Margaret Martling 

Robert Masek 

Clifford Massoth 

Maria Dulce Matanguihan 

Britta Mather 

Selwyn Mather 

David Matusik 

Marita Maxey 

Melba Mayo 

Samuel Mayo 



Louise McEachran 
Tom McNichols 
Withrow Meeker 
Beverly Meyer 
Sandra Milne 
Barbara Milott 
Lawrence Misiaiek 
Sharon Mitchiner 
Carolyn Moore 
Susan Moy 
Stella Muir 
Gail Munden 
George Murray 
Carolyn Mylander 
Patricia Naughton 
John Nelson 
Mary Nelson 
Louise Neuert 
Natalie Newberger 
Donald Newton 
Ernest Newton 
Herta Newton 
Virginia Newton 
Doris Nitecki 
Connie Noel 
John Notz 
Josie Nyirenda 
Dennis O'Donnell 
Dorothy Oliver 
Joan Opila 
Gary Ossewaarde 
China Oughton 
Marcella Owens 
Anita Padnos 
Susan Parker 
Phil Parrillo 
Martha Pedroza 
John Phelps Jr. 
Dorothea Phipps-Cruz 
Julie Pitzen 
Jacqueline Prine* 
Naomi Pruchnik 
Elizabeth Rada 
David Ratowitz 
Julie Realmuto 
Ernest Reed* 
James Reed 
Daniel Reilly 
Caria Reiter 
Sheila Reynolds 
Shirley Rice 
EllyRipp 
Steve Robinet 
Earl Robinson 
Nancy Robinson 
Pam Robinson 
William Roder 
Barbara Roob 
Susan Roop 
Sharon Rose 
Sarah Rosenbloom 
Marie Louise Rosenthal 
Anne Ross 



Dr. Raja Roy-Singh 

Ann Rubeck 

Lenore Ruehr 

Janet Russell 

Gladys Ruzich 

Bruce Saipe 

Joseph Salzer 

LucileSalzer 

Terry Sanders 

Marea Sands 

Marian Saska 

Everett Schellpfeffer 

Marianne Schenker 

Carol Schneider 

Florence Seiko 

Patricia Sershon 

Adam Seward 

Sharon Rae Shananaquet 

Danny Shelton 

Jessie Sherrod 

Judith Sherry 

Lisa Shogren 

Karen Sholeen 

Sharon Simmons 

Martha Singer 

Vivian Singer 

James Skorcz 

Worthington Smith 

Daniel Snydacker 

Beth Spencer 

Carrie Stahl 

Llois Stein 

Frances Stromquist 

Ruby Suzuki 

Beatrice Swartchild 

Dana Temple 

Ann Ternenyi 

Jane Thain 

Karen Thomas 

Patricia Thomas 

Kathleen North Tomczyk 

Gregory Trush 

Ginny Turner-Erfort 

Randy Upton 

Karen Urnezis 

Lillian Vanek 

Jeffrey Vaughn 

Teri Vlasak 

David Walker 

Cassandra Walsh 

Maxine Walter 

Sims Wayt 

Dorothea Wechselberger 

Corinne Weigand 

Mary Wenzel 

Fred Werner 

Claudia Whitaker 

Reeva Wolfson 

Zinette Yacker 

Edward Yastrow 

Laura Zaidenberg 

Ben Zajac 47 

'deceased 



Field Museum of Natural History , 

Membership Department CAROLYN P BLACKMON 

Roosevelt Road at Lake Shors Drive 1715 n PARK AVE ff^ ' 

Chicago, IL 60605-2499 XHTCAGO IL 6C614 | 



ReldMleeum 

The Smart WvyTo Have Fun. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



i^T 



September /October 1989 




Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 



Board OF Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. BIcKklll 
Willard L.Boyd. 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considme 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwit: 
Wayne E. Hedien 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Robert D. Kolar 
William Kunkler III 
HugoJ. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Btiwen Blair 

Stanton R. Qnik 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 



CONTENTS 

September/October 1989 
Volume 60, Number 8 



SEPTEMBER AND OaOBER EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 

FIELD BRIEFS 5 

QRAMIC CRICKET JARS IN THE FIELD MUSEUM 

by Ho Chiii?nei, Lisa Adkr, and Beiinct Bronson 6 

EGYPTIAN MUMMIES: MHHS, MAGIC, AND REALITY 

by Frank J. Yurco 16 

HELD MUSEUM TOURS 31 

COVER 

Charles Carpenter: 
Native American Portraits 

Through March 17, 1990 

C^ronimo, famed Apache Indian chief, as recorded through 
the camera lens of Charles Henry Carpenter in 1904. The photo 
session took place at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. 
Lx)uis, at which time Carpenter ( 1 859- 1949) was Field Museum's 
chief photographer, a post he held from 1899 until 1947. This 
photo is among 35 f)ortraits by Carpenter that will be on view 
through March 17 in the Webber Resource Center for Native 
Cultures of the Americas. The center's hours (slightly shorter 
than regular Museum hours) are noon to 5:00pm on weekdays 
and I0:00am to 5pm on weekends. The exhibit was funded by 
the Union League Club of Chicago's Civic and Arts Foundation. 

Ncg. 1 5793 



Sports Feelings 

Sept. 14 -Nov. 26 

Tliis major exhibition of American and Soviet spiorts pho- 
tography speaks to the universality and humanity of sport. 
The first joint exhibition of its kind, "Sports Feelings," fea- 
tures more than 100 action photographs taken by photo- 
graphs from Sporrts Illustrated magazine and by photographers 
of the Soviet Union. The exhibition toured five cities in the 
Soviet Union before beginning its United States tour in 
1988. 



SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 

Attention Members and Subscribers 

This issue of the Bulletin is for the period of September and 
October. All subscriptions will be extended by one month 
beyond the anticipated termination date. 



Field Mustum of Natural History Bulletin iVSPS 898-9401 is published moMhly. CKCcfH August and October, by Field Museum of Natural Histon . Roosevelt Road at Lake Shote Dnve. Chicago. IL 60605-2496. Copyright C 1989 Field Museum of 
Natural History Subscripliotis: $6.(X) aniuully S3 DO for schools Museum tnctntiership includes flu/fehn subscnptwn Optmons expressed by authors arc their own and do not necessarily teflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscnpts 
art welcome Museum f4ione: 1312)922-94 10. Nodficaticn of address change should inchidc adtiiess label and be sent to Membership Depatlmcnl . i\>stmaster: Please send ftinn 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Onve Chicago.1! 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage pud at Cbtcago. Uluiois. 




Featured Lectures 

Vanishing Rain Forests: The Earth in Crisis 

Tropical biodiversity is staggering — about 60% of all plant and animal species live in tropical rain forests. Even more staggering: much of 
this diversity will never be known for its medicinal, agricultural, or industrial uses or its role in natural ecosystems. In October and November 
Field Museum hosts several renowned scientists who provide insights into this worldwide dilemma through a series of 5 public lectures, 
each with a question-and-answer session. 



[7] Saturday. Oct. 21, 2:00pm 

"The Growing Threats to Tropical Biodiversity" 

Norman Myers, Consultant In Environment and Development 

\y\ Saturday. Oct. 28. 2:00pm 

"An Impending Extinction Crisis: Risl<, Fantasy, or Accomplished 

Fact?" 

Jared M. Diamond, Professor, Dept. of Physiology, School of 
Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 

13 Saturday. Nov. 4, 2:00pm 
"The Threat to the Living World" 

Peter H. Raven, Director, Missouri Botanical Garden 

Saturday. Nov. 11. 7:00pm 

"Population Growth and the Destruction of Tropical Forests" 

Paul R. Ehrlich, Bing Professor of Population Studies, 
Dept. of Biological Sciences, Stanford University 



[7] Saturday, Nov 18. 2:00pm 
"Biodiversity and the Tropical Forest" 

Russell A. MIttermeier, President, 
Conservation International 

Tickets Please use coupon on P.4. 

Series $20 ($1 2 members): single $5 ($3 members). Group rates 

available for groups of 1 2 or more. 

Call (31 2) 322-8854 to register or for Information, 



Workshops for Educators 

Classroom teachers, scout leaders, naturalists, and other educators 
of all age levels are invited to participate in a series of 3 workshop,s 
offered in conjunction with this lecture series. A limited number of 
series tickets is available at no charge to educators on a first-come, 
first-serve basis. Call (31 2) 322-8854 for further information. 



Family Lecture 

Flap, Flutter, and Fly 

An Introduction to Family Bird Watching 

Sunday. Oct. 22. 2:00pm 

Neil Dawe, Habitat Manager, Canadian Wildlife Service and Karen 

Dawe, Naturalist and Author 




How does a nuthatch crack nuts? Who does the mockingbird mock? 
Why do birds take "ant baths"? Answer these questions and more 
as you learn about bird identification and bird behavior. In a pro- 
gram especially for families with kids ages 5-12, learn to observe. 
Identify, and care for those creatures who flap, flutter, and fly. Play 
bird games and (weather permitting) take a bird walk along the 
lakefront. 

Tickets 

$4 adults; $2 children 1 2 and under. LL89307 "Flap, Flutter and Fly" 
—Child: LL89308 "Flap, Flutter and Fly"— Adult. 

Please use coupon on P.4. 



Adult Programs 



— Field Trips — 



One-day weekend field trips for adults continue through October. 
Explore the dramatic geology of the Starved Rock Area, see the 
fascinating contrasts of Lake County, Illinois, experience the noctur- 
nal woods in a night hike, or enjoy a fall color walk In the Palos Park 
region. Check the September/October Adult, Children, and Family 
Program Brochure for further information or call (31 2) 322-8854. 

— Weekend Workshops — 

Trace the development of Paleolithic cultures, learn the traditions 
and functions of miniature Japanese netsuke sculptures, or ex- 
amine mask-making techniques while making an Egyptian mummy 
mask of your own face. An exciting range of adult weekend pro- 
grams begin in October. See the September/October Adult, Chil- 
dren, and Family Program brochure for details or call (312)322- 
8854. 





World Music Programs 

Weekends in September and October 
1 :00pm and 3:00pm 

Program Highlights include: 

n Sept. 2. 3 

1 :00pm — Douglas Ewart plays Japanese and Australian flutes 

3:00pm— Librado Salazar plays classical guitar 

D Sept 9, 10 

1 :00pm — Thunder Sky Drummers play African percussion 

3:00pm— Raices del Ande performs Latin American folkloric music 

a Sept. 16.17 

1 :00pm— Amira demonstrates the African shakers 

3:00pm — Chicago Beau plays blues harmonica 

D Sept. 23. 24 

1 :00pm — Shanta tells African stories and sings African songs 

3:00pm — Darlene Blackburn demonstrates African dance, 

n Sept 30. Oct. 1 

1 :00pm — Chinese Music Society of North America demonstrates 

instruments from the Chinese orchestra 
3:00pm — Eli Hoenai presents African instruments 

n Oct. 7. 8 

1 :00pm — Light Henry Huff plays contemporary jazz harp 

3:00pm — Fan Wei-Tsi demonstrates the Chinese zither 

n Oct. 14. 15 

1 :00pm — Shanta tells African stories and plays African instruments 

3:00pm— Librado Salazar plays classical guitar 

D Oct 21. 22 

1 :00pm — Chinese lyiusic Society of North America demonstrates 

instruments from the Chinese orchestra 
3:00pm— Darlene Blackburn demonstrates African dance 



D Oct. 28. 29 

1 :00pm — Douglas Ewart plays Japanese and Australian flutes 

3:00pm — Chicago Beau plays blues harmonica. 

The World tVlusic Program is supported by the Kenneth and Harle 
tVlontgomery Fund and a CityArts grant from the Chicago Office of 
Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs, and the Illinois Arts 
Council, a state agency. These programs are free with Ivluseum 
admission and tickets are not required. 



Weekend Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world 
of natural history at Field IVIuseum, Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to Museum exhibits are designed for families 
and adults. The activities below are some of many offered each 
weekend. Check the activity listing upon arrival for a complete 
schedule, and locations. The programs are partially supported 
by an Illinois Art Council grant. 

September 
9,23 1 2:30pm "IVtuseum Safari " takes you through the 
four corners of the Museum to see the seven 
continents. See antiquities from the Amazon, big 
game from Africa and seals from the Arctic. 



October 
7,21 
14 



1 2:30 pm Museum Safari 
1 :30 pm Tibet Today and A Faith in Exiie focuses 
upon Tibetan refugees in India, Dharmsala, 
Darjeeling, and Sikkim, and includes slides of a 
Himalayan Buddhist temple ceremony. 



Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this registration 
application. Registrations are confirmed by mail. For registrations 
received less than two weeks before the program date, confirmations 
are held at the West Door for pick-up one hour before the program 
begins. Phone registrations are accepted using Visa/MasterCard/ 
AMX/Discover, Please call (312) 322-8854 to register. The minimum 
amount for credit cards is $1 5.00. For further registration information, 
consult the September/October Adult, Children, and Family Program 
Brochure. 

Return complete registration with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Department of Education. Program Registration 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 

Name 



Address 


City 




State 




Zip 


Telephone: 


Daytime 




Evening 





Lecture Number 


Date 


#Children 


#l\/lembers 


#Non-lylembers 


An 


"Vanishing Rain Forests" 
Entire Series 


Oct, 21-Nov. 18-2:00 pm. 
Nov. 11 -7:00 p.m. 










"Vanishing Rain Forests" 
Single Lecture 


Indicate Date(s) 










"Vanishing Rain Forests" 
Single Lecture 


Indicate Date(s) 










LL89306 "Flap, Flutter & Fly" 
(Child) 


October 22-2:00 p.m. 










LL89307 "Flap, Flutter & Fly" 
(Adult) 


October 22-2:00 p.m. 


















Total 





D Scholarship requested 

IHAMX DVisa D MasterCard D Discover (Check one) 
Card# expiration 

Signature 

For office use only: date received date mailed 



FIELD BRIEFS 



Jonathan Haas Named 

Vice President 

For Collections and Research 




Jonathan Haas 



Dr. Jonathan Haas, director of Programs 
and Research at the School of American 
Research, Santa Fe, New Mexico, has 
been chosen vice president for Collections 
and Research. He succeeds Dr. Harold 
Voris, who has served in that position for 
five years. 

A native of New Mexico, Dr Haas 
received his B.A. from the University of 
Arizona and his M.A., M. Phil., and 
Ph.D. with distinction in anthropology 
from Columbia University. Before going 
to the School of American Research, he 
served as a member of the faculty at the 
University of Denver 

He has been an active archaeologist, 
working extensively in the Southwest, 
and is the author or editor of several books 
and monographs, including: The Origin 
and Development of the Andean State, co- 
editor, 1987; The Evolution of the Pre- 
Historic State, 1982; The Curation and 
Management of Archaeological CoJiections: 
A Pilot Study, with Alexander J. Lindsay 
and Glenna Williams-Dean, 1980. Forth- 
coming are two publications: The 
Anthropology of War and The Kayenta War- 
fare Project. 

Dr. Haas will join the Field Museum 



also as curator of Anthropology. His 
spouse, Winifred, is an active anthropol- 
ogist and will be a research associate in the 
Department of Anthropology. 

Dr Voris, whom he succeeds, will be 
resuming full-time research and curatorial 
activities in herpetology. 

Lee Webber Recognized 




£ Leiand Webber 



The Honors Committee of the American 
Association of Museums has recently 
selected trustee E. Leiand Webber as the 
1989 recipient of the Award for Dis- 
tinguished Service to Museums. Webber 
retired from the post of Field Museum 
president in 1981; he had been the 
Museum's chief executive officer since 
1962 and had served on the staff for more 
than 3 1 years. 

The award was established to recog- 
nize unusual excellence and distinguished 
contributions to the museum profession. 
It is the association's highest honor given 
to a person who has made a cumulative 
contribution to the field of museums. Lee 
Webber joins a list of the country's most 
outstanding museum leaders. The award 
recognizes Webber's leadership of the 
Field Museum and the Chicago museum 
community. It also honors his significant 
involvement in the legislative arena both 
at the state and federal levels. 



WiUard Boyd Honored by NEH 

The National Endowment for the Hu- 
manities has selected Field Museum presi- 
dent Willard L. Boyd to receive one of its 
first Charles Frankel Prizes, citing his 
efforts to "expand the educational poten- 
tial and cultural diversity of the nation's 
museum programs." 

Sandy Boyd has played a major role 
in making cultural institutions more 
accessible to the public, observes Lynne 
Cheney, National Endowment for the 
Humanities chairman. "(Museums) see 
themselves as schools, and Sandy Boyd 
has been a real leader in bringing this 
transformation about." 

"Anymore it's not just 'Let's hang the 
pictures on the walls and put the artifacts 
in the cases,'" Cheney said. 

Boyd was one of five winners of the 
prize, a $5,000 award named for the late 
Charles Frankel, first president arid direc- 
tor of the National Humanities Center 
Formal presentation will be made in 
November. 

"1 view this as really an award to the 
Field Museum," said Sandy upon learning 
of the honor "People here are making the 
Museum a place that is more accessible to 
the discussion of humanistic issues." He is 
presenting his $5,000 award to the Mu- 
seum to be used for a new exhibit on 
Africa. 

Willard L. Boyd 




Ceramic Cricket Jars in the Field Museum 

by Ho Chuimei, Lisa Adier and Bennet Bronson 
photographs by Wong Wang-fai 




Painted hand scroll on silk, titled "Pictures of 100 Children. " with detail showing boys playing with crickets. The scroll probably dates to 
the IBthor 1 9th centuries but bears the signature of Su Hanchen. a painter of the 12th century who was noted for his paintings of children 
g at play. The style is not that of a genuine 12th-century work. 33724. 




), Cricket-Keeping Utensils, early 20th century (I. to r.). Tin cricket box witti double base for cold 
weather The 2 glass panels on the side serve as windows tor a pair of compartments separated by a 
vertical plate. The hinged lid has openwork top: cat. 126384. Bamboo bar cage with vertical sliding 
grill on one side and glass top. Such cages can be used for almost any type of insect. This cage was 
sold as a grasshopper cage. Acquired in Hangzhou: cat. 126408. Brass cricket jar, cylindrical with 
sloping clay floor. The lid top has openwork repousse decorated with magpies and plum blossoms, 
signifying happiness in spring. Made in Beijing. Diam. 5 cm: cat. 133189. Ivory bar trap. The sliding 
door can be shut with a finger after a wild cricket is lured inside. The door is topped by carving of a 
mouse eating fruit. Acquired in Beijing: cat. 235014. 



I 



Cricket Keeping 



he custom in China and Japan of keeping crickets for 
the music they produce is easy for us to understand; for 
we, too, enjoy the sound those insects make on summer 
evenings; but some readers may be surprised to learn 
that the Chinese also keep crickets for fighting. 
Although farm boys in many places know that male 
crickets will fight when placed together in small con- 
tainers, only in China is cricket fighting a common 
sport. Even today, in various parts of that country, 
cricket fights are held and money bet on the outcome. 
Local officials may frown on this activity and relatives 
may object, but crickets that are good singers or fighters 
continue to be sold for high prices. Cricket fanciers 
take time off from work to attend fights or swap ses- 
sions, and come together to compare techniques of 
catching, raising, feeding, and caring for their pets. 



Authors: Ho Chuimei is a research associate in Anthropology, Lisa 
Adler is a volunteer, and Bennet Bronson is curator of Asian 
archaeology and ethnology and chairman of the Department of 
Anthropology. Photographer Wong Wang-fai is also a volunteer. 



The husbandry of singing crickets goes back to at 
least the seventh century in China, but cricket fighting 
is more recent. The earliest known handbook on rais- 
ing and training fighting crickets was written in the 
thirteenth century by Jia Sidao, a general of the South- 
em Song Dynasty (A.D. 1127-1278) who is otherwise 
famous for having neglected his military duties to the 
extent that the Mongols were able to conquer China. 
Even in Jia's day, cricket fanciers were using special 
equipment to capture and maintain their pets. They 
also had an elaborate technical nomenclature. Modern 
cricket manuals list dozens of names for variations in 
color and form within single cricket species: "star- 
headed," "jade hoe," "glossy lantern," "iron bullet," and 
the like. The manuals also contain detailed instruc- 
tions about diets and medications for fighting crickets 
at various stages of their brief lives. 

The leading Western authority on Chinese 
cricket-keeping was Berthold Laufer, a Field Museum 
curator from 1908 to 1934. His "Insect Musicians and 
Cricket champions" (1927), though little known to 
the general public, remains the standard non-Chinese 
work on the subject. It has been often quoted by 



Chinese authors and — perhaps an even higher compli- 
ment — was plagiarized extensively a few years ago by a 
writer for a leading art magazine. The only other west- 
ern work of equal stature on Asian cricket-keeping is 
the marvelous essay "Insect Musicians," on singing 
crickets in Japan, by Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904). 
Laufer's somewhat Germanic prose is not the equal of 
Hearn 's for stylistic beauty, but the breadth and scope 
of his information is unsurpassed. It is our aim in this 
essay merely to supplement Laufer's work, providing 
data that was not available to him and correcting him 
on some minor details. Interested readers will want to 
consult the Laufer article for a broader view of the sub- 
ject (see Suggested Reading, p. 15). A variety of items 
used in the raising and maintaining of crickets, largely 
collected by Laufer, are to be seen in Case 4, in the 
China Hall, on the Museum's second floor. 

Fighting Crickets 

The Chinese keep and sometimes breed many kinds of 
crickets for purely musical purposes. Hsu Yin-ch'i, one 
of the few entomologists with an interest in the cultural 
as well as the zoological aspects of the cricket, identifies 
three species kept for singing in northern China and at 
least eight in eastern China. The Japanese, too, keep a 
number of species of musical crickets, the most noted of 
which, Homeogryllus japonicus, the sweet-singing 
"Golden Bell," is also favored by the Chinese. 

Those species kept for fighting are fewer than the 



singers, but authorities disagree on the exact number. 
Hsu names four: Grylloides berthellus and (sometimes) 
Gryllus mitratm from northern and eastern China, plus 
Gryllus chinensis and Liogryllus bimaculatus from south- 
em China. The latter two, Hsu notes, are much larger 
than the former. Guo and his associates, on the other 
hand, regard berthellus and chinensis as varieties of the 
same species, Scapsipedus aspersus, which ranges from 
China's subtropical south to the frigid north. Laufer 
and most subsequent authors appear uncertain about 
the exact identification of the main kinds of fighting 
crickets. Recent cricket books usually include long lists 
of traditional names in one chapter and much shorter 
lists of scientific names in another, with no attempt to 
reconcile the two. 

With the help of Field Museum entomologists, we 
hope eventually to resolve this confusion. For the mo- 
ment, however, we must be content with the following 
observations: (1) at least several species are used for 
fighting; (2) the majority of fighters belong to either 
one highly variable species or to two closely related spe- 
cies; and (3) fighting crickets from different environ- 
ments within China are likely to have quite different 
habits and life histories. The greatest environmental 
difference is that between the cold, dry North and East 
on the one hand and the warm, humid South on the 
other. As we shall see, that difference is reflected in 
traditions of cricket keeping. 

In all parts of China, cricket fanciers seem to pre- 
fer wild to captive-bred insects for fighting purposes. In 



2. Cricket Ticklers, Feeding Dishes, and Plaques, early 20th century. Top: straw ticklers with 
bamboo tube container and cap, Shanghai: cat 126402. Center: Tickler with ivory handle and rat 
whiskers, Beijing: cat. 127849B. Bottom: 3 feeding dishes of blue and white porcelain, made in 
Jingdezhen?: cat. 126385A. 8, C. Right: ivory plaques in shape of double gourd. Name of 
champion fighting cricket is inscribed on plaque, which is given to cricket owner: 6 cm long: cat. 
127831. 




the North these are captured in the early autumn and 
in the South just before the rainy season. With allow- 
ance for a few weeks of special feeding and condition- 
ing, this means that the northern fighting season is in 
October and November, and the southern season in 
June and July. In the colder climates, wild crickets have 
laid their eggs and died by late fall, but fanciers manage 
to keep some of their pets alive — mostly for singing 
rather than fighting — until well into the winter. 

Where to find the best fighters is a well-guarded 
commercial secret, but legend often puts the best 
cricket-catching areas in graveyards or in remote 
mountains or other locations that are hard to get to. 
Rock-dwelling crickets are said to be fiercer than those 
that live in the grass, and diet — in the wild as well as in 
captivity — is thought to play an important role in 
determining a cricket's aggressiveness. Very high prices 
were and still are paid for the best fighters. John Henry 
Gray, a Canton resident during the 1870's noted that 
owners of successful crickets won not only large sums of 
money as bets but also trophies in the form of gilded, 
flower-like ornaments. Deceased champion crickets 
were buried in tiny silver coffins. 

Male crickets are the fighters and the singers; 
females are kept only for breeding and, in the South at 
least, for raising the morale of the opposite sex. The 
males of many cricket species are naturally aggressive, 
chirping a special song, which establishes territory, and 
attacking other males when encounters occur. Those 
kept for fighting in northern and eastern China gener- 



ally battle to the death, while those of the southern 
fighting species, although larger and more ferocious- 
looking, seem to calm down as soon as they have estab- 
lished clear dominance over their opponents. A cricket 
that has once been defeated is considered useless for 
further fighting, becoming submissive and reluctant to 
chirp. However, recent laboratory experiments in this 
country have shown that deafened crickets retain their 
aggressiveness even after losing several battles. We are 
not sure whether cricket fanciers in China are aware of 
this potentially valuable piece of information. 

Cricket Utensils 

In the opinion of the Chinese, one needs much more 
than a perforated tin can to properly care for crickets. 
The classic cricket literature recommends a wide range 
of special apparatus for catching, keeping, breeding, 
and transporting them. A representative list of basic 
equipment is given by Li Shisun, a leading recent 
authority on fighting crickets: jars used as cages, metal 
containers used in cold weather, traps, and so forth. 

Thanks to Laufer, Field Museum has a large, well- 
documented collection of cricket equipment which 
includes most of the items in Li's inventory (fig. 1). 
The Museum also has several items not specified by Li, 
including ivory trophies, small porcelain water con- 
tainers, and "ticklers" for encouraging reluctant crick- 
ets to fight (fig. 2). These utensils can be made of a 
wide variety of materials, ranging from wood and grass 



3. Cricket Gourds with ivory rims, -late 19th-early 20th cent.. Beijing (I. to r.). Heat-engraved 
decorations: A continuous landscape is burned into the surface with heated l<nile or needle. The 
scene has the 3-section format of many Chinese paintings — foreground with house and bridge, 
middle ground with boats, background with mountains. Lid is single piece of carved ivory: 1 1 cm. 
high: cat. 125968. Molded decoration: Raised design was formed by growing the gourd into 
four-piece mold. It depicts two boys playing with toy elephant on wheels, surrounded with sym- 
bols of wealth, good luck, and fertility. Details are highlighted by heat engraving. Lid has flat bone 
top with 7 circular holes for ventilation. 9.5 cm high: cat. 127712. Carved decoration: Four peonies 
around waist were carved in low relief, after which surface was stained and waxed to simulate 
original gourd skin. Lid top is of carved jade and horn. 20.5 cm high: cat 127736. 





4. Cricket Club in Shanghai, shown in lithograph from early Chinese magazine. Man behind writing table is probably the 
club's organizer From DIanshlzhal Huabao, Mou Section, ca. 1885. Shanghai. 



to ivory and jade. All writers agree that while crickets 
seem to perform just as well if their accoutrements are 
cheap, their owners, like certain dog and cat lovers in 
our own society, are inclined toward ostentation. 

The best known and most sought-after item of 
cricket equipment among Western collectors is the 
cricket gourd, which many moviegoers learned about 
in the recent film The Last Emperor. Such gourds, small 
and hourglass-shaped, were formerly carried on the 
persons of wealthy cricket fanciers. In the Manchu per- 
iod these gourds were shaped by insertion into molds 
during growth to produce embossed designs on their 
surfaces; more recent gourds are decorated by carving 
or by burning with a hot iron. Several examples from 
Field Museum's collection are shown in figure 3. The 
designs on the gourds themselves and their richly deco- 
rated tops, often made of ivory or jade, help to account 
for the high prices paid for fine antique examples. 

Cricket gourds may have been less popular among 
cricket fanciers than art collectors, however. Their use 
was more or less confined to the Beijing area and is 
rather recent, the earliest surviving example dating 
only to the time of the Kangxi Emperor (A.D. 1671- 
1722). Moreover, such gourds were considered suitable 
10 only tor singing species; fighting crickets were kept in 



other types of containers. 

We will focus here on a more widely used group of 
cricket containers: beds, jars, and fighting arenas made 
ofunglazed, low-fired ceramic. Although of central im- 
portance to the practicing cricket keeper and of sub- 
stantial interest to Chinese collectors, this type of con- 
tainer is virtually unknown to Westerners. As far as we 
know, the following text is the first extended treatment 
of that subject in any language other than Chinese. 

Cricket Jars 

Cricket fighting was (and apparently still is) organized 
by more or less informal clubs whose members gathered 
regularly at a special place during the fighting season. 
Figure 4, reproducing a lithograph from a magazine 
published in 1885, depicts a meeting of one such club 
in the Shanghai area. A number of well-dressed men 
are in an apparent clubhouse. Some have just arrived 
with their carefully bundled-up crickets in ceramic jars. 
Others are already deeply into the game, gathered 
around a square fighting court in the middle of the 
table. On the shelves are more cricket jars. Various 
other items of cricket equipment are also to be seen 
around the room. 




5. Cylindrical Earthenware Cricket Jars with solid lids. Beijing and Suzhou. early 20th cent. Left: The lar's black 
walls are plain, but lid has impressed designs on both sides — uniformed soldier on outside, dancing figure on 
inside. Inscription says the style is after that of Xinluo Shanren (\.e.. the painter Hua Yan.AO 1682-1765). On the 
base is another impressed seal with two names: Li Xiufang. perhaps early maker of cricket jars mentioned by Zhu 
Yan. and Sun Ruishen. maker of this piece. Acquired in Suzhou: diam. 1 1.2: cat. 126389. Middle: Interior has black 
sand floor Lid is molded with designs on both sides: on the top. a pagoda not unlike the White Pagoda in Beijing: 
on the bottom, five bats (happiness) surrounding the charactershou (longevity). Acquired in Beijing: diam. 8 cm; 
cat. 127797. Right: Red jar in barrel shape. Lid and sides are decorated with impressed butterflies and flowers. 
Seal on base reads Su Pan, "Suzhou basin." Acquired in Beijing: diam. 7.5 cm: cat. 127809. 



It is the jars that interest us here. Similar jars are used 
for keeping crickets in the Beijing-Tianjin area during 
the late summer and early fall, after which the crickets 
are transferred to gourds. In the Shanghai-Suzhou area, 
in eastern China, crickets live in such jars throughout 
the fighting-singing season. Several sizes and shapes 
were formerly used: small cylindrical containers about 
the size of the gourds; medium-sized containers about 8 
cm in diameter and 6 cm high; and large containers 
11-12 cm in diameter and 9-10 cm high. The small 
ones generally have pierced lids for ventilation, the lar- 
ger ones have loose-fitting solid lids. All are made of 
unglazed clay fired at low temperatures, for it is essen- 
tial that the clay be porous in order to retain the moist 
atmosphere that crickets need (fig. 5). 

All authorities agree that fighting crickets also 
need a somewhat irregular but soft surface underfoot; a 
hard smooth surface, like that of glazed pottery, will, 
they believe, damage the cricket's claws and make it 
less courageous. For this reason, modern cricket fanci- 
ers in Guangdong lay a sheet of coarse paper on the 
bottom of the cricket container, and both southerners 



and northerners often use layers of fine clay mixed with 
lime for the same purpose. Authorities also agree that 
one must be careful about using new jars. As Xiao 
Guang, an 18th-century writer on crickets, remarks: 
"In early autumn one should use old and large jars for keep- 
ing crickets .... The new jars have too much 'fire,' being 
freshly baked. The weather being dry and hot, it is essential 
to keep the jar in a damp place. 1 would recommend using 
cold tea to soak the jar twice a day, and to change the [crick- 
et's drinking] water thrice. 

"In mid-autumn it is better to use old jars and to 
change the water twice a day. In late autumn one should use 
new jars and place them in a draft-proof place. It does not 
matter then if you have to use smaller or polished jars. " 

Formerly well known for their cricket jars were 
Lumu, a village just outside Suzhou in Jiangsu Prov- 
ince, eastern China; and a Beijing suburb in northern 
China. Lumu made medium-sized and large jars of the 
kind preferred there, sometimes exporting these out- 
side the province. The center near Beijing seems to 
have specialized in small jars about the same size as the 
local cricket gourds. 



11 




12 



6. Communal Kiln at Lumu for firing cricket jars^ Tfie pipe at righit is for 
blowing air into kiln. Photo: Ho CM. 



Lumu is locally famous for its dark gray bricks and 
tiles, but the village is by no means a great ceramic 
center. Its fame for clay cricket jars, however, was well 
established at least two centuries ago, probably because 
Lumu was so close to the cultured and influential city of 
Suzhou. Zhu Yan, a well-known 18th-century ceramic 
critic, recorded that cricket jars from Suzhou — most 
likely of Lumu origin — were highly esteemed. During a 
recent visit to the Suzhou area, we found that Lumu 
still produces traditional bricks and tiles as well as 
cricket jars. The former are made in a large state factory 
and the latter in the homes of the villagers who man- 
ufacture the jars in their spare time. Almost every fami- 
ly of Lumu is involved in this cottage industry, firing 
their products in small communal kilns (fig. 6). The 
shapes and even the seals of the early 20th century are 
still in use (fig. 7). The potters seem to do this without 
fraudulent intent, for they use early seals on all the jars 
they make and sell these to wholesalers for only 2 RMB 
(about 15i) each. On the other hand, the ultimate 
retail price is quite high, ranging from 20 to 40 RMB per 



jar. It is not unlikely that purchasers sometimes believe 
they are buying valuable antiques. 

While Lumu is popular for larger jars, Beijing is 
the preferred source of small cage-like jars. A well- 
known antique collector wrote in the 1930s that the 
jars made by Zhao Ziyu, an 18th-century Beijing arti- 
san, were "worth more than 100 pieces of gold." How- 
ever, the collector also points out that copies of Zhao's 
work were so common that the markets carried "no jars 
without the mark of Zhao." The nine jars in Field 
Museum's collection that bear Zhao Ziyu's seal are all 
quite ordinary in appearance and seemingly not older 
than the late 19th century. Three other jar-makers' 
names appear on other Beijing jars in the collection: 
Chen Guqing, Chen Shi, and Mingwei (fig. 8), none 
of which seem to be recorded in the cricket literature. 

The lids of the Beijing jars, unlike most of those 
from Suzhou, have pierced circular plaques in their 
centers. The plaques are made separately, then inset 
into the clay of the lid. Most are molded of dark-fired 
clay and have the appearance of carved wood. Others 
are made of such materials as ivory, jade, or tortoise 
shell. The molded clay decorations, despite the modest 
cost of the raw material used, may be as finely made as 
those of more valuable substances. 

Arenas and Beds 

The lithograph in figure 4 contains two other kinds of 
cricket equipment which are usually of clay: fighting 
arenas and the small, curved boxes that serve as cricket 
beds. Field Museum has in its collection an excep- 
tionally well-made arena, made of fine gray and black 
clays (fig. 10). The arena is unusual in having a cen- 
tral partition for separating the two combatants before 
fighting as well as a sliding door in the side through 
which the crickets can be driven in and out. This vessel 
was purchased by Laufer in 1923, in Suzhou City, and 
was made in Lumu. The Museum has another more 
coarsely made arena, also from Lumu, that resembles a 
somewhat enlarged cricket-keeping jar (fig. 10). 

Fighting vessels of this size are for private matches 
watched by a few friends. For more public cricket 
matches, a larger arena is needed. The one in the litho- 
graph may be of wood, but in general such contests are 
held in basin-like bowls that may or may not be special- 
ly made for the purpose. In Guangzhou (Canton) and 
Hong Kong, cricket specialists prefer wooden bowls 
as arenas or a type of ceramic bowl made in Shi- 
wan ("Shekwan" in Cantonese), about 25 cm in dia- 
meter with sides 25 to 30 cm high, unglazed on the 
inside, and with green glaze on the outside. It is said 




7. Cottage Workshop at Lumu where modem cricket jars are made. Top left: Garden corner for preparing clay. Top right: Sliaped jars 
stacked indoors for drying. Lower left: Jar-stiaping equipment: slow turntable for final sfiaping, semicircular stand for steadying jars wfien 
applying decorations, and bow-string cutter Lower right: Wooden seal blocks currently in use at Lumu. Lower rigtit seal reads "Daqing 
Qianlong nianzfii" (Made in Qianlong, years 1 736-95). Pttoto: f-lo C.f^. 



13 




8. Earthenware Cricket Jars with Lids. Seal 
ot Zhao Ziyu on exterior base Beifing. 18th or 
19th cent. Left: Jar with slender waist, flat base, 
and reddish, polished surface. At center of lid 
is black clay plaque with molded openwork 
decoration showing horse under tree: diam. 
5.8 cm: cat. 127800 Middle: Barrel-shaped 
jar. grayish black with polished surface. The 
molded black clay plaque in center of lid 
is ornamented with characters for "fortune. " 
"promotion. " "longevity, "and "happiness": cat. 
127782. Right: Jar with 4 horizontal raised ribs, 
grayish black and polished, l-lere Zhao 's seal is 
framed not by the usual rectangle but by leaf- 
shaped outline. Central plaque is raised into 
shallow dome: cat. 127789. 



9. Earthenware Cricket Jars with Lids. Beijing, 

early 20th century. Left: Jar in elongated gourd 

shape, light brown. Three seals inside read "Linji" 

(the workshop). "Chengu, "and "Qingzao" (the 

maker, Chen Guqing). The lid is black with central 

clay plaque molded with lily pond motif: cat. 

127818. Center: Jar in gourd shape with flattened, 

light brown base. Four seals inside include the 

names of two makers. Mingwei and Chen Guqing, 

and a place or workshop name, Linpu, Black lid 

has openwork clay plaque with lotus pond and 

dragonfly design: diam. 5.7 cm: cat. 127771. 

Right: Jar in gourd shape with pointed, tight brown 

base. Three seals on inside give the workshop 

name, Linji, and the maker's name, Chen Shi, Lid is 

missing: cat, 127795. 




14 



that such bowls are no longer made, so they are greatly 
prized. When sold (which rarely happens) old Shiwan 
arenas fetch very high prices. We have never seen a 
specially made arena for public cricket matches from 
eastern or northern China. We believe they exist but 
have no idea what they are like, nor have we seen the 
famous basin-like arenas that are said to have been 
made in the Xuande period (A.D. 1426-1435) of the 
Ming Dynasty. 

Also shown in the figure 4 lithograph is a small, 
fan-shaped object lying close to the fighting court. 



This is probably a cricket bed, used as a shelter for the 
cricket inside its jar and for transferring the insect from 
one container to another. Beds of this kind are among 
the oldest documented cricket utensils; three that were 
recovered from a tomb near Suzhou may he as early as 
the thirteenth century. Field Museum has a number of 
beds of this kind in its collection (fig. 11). Though 
none bear seals or other written evidence ot their ori- 
gin, they are believed to have been made in the Beijing 
as well as the Shanghai areas. One can still buy such 
cricket beds in bird-and-insect markets of those cities. 



10. Cricket Fighting Arenas from Lumu. 
near Luzhou in eastern China (I to r. |- Cylin- 
drical earthenware cricket ]ar. probably 
used as an arena. The surface is light 
brown A seal on lid underside reads "Lumu 
Town, outside the Gate of Qi. Gusu 
(Suzhou). " A seal on the outside of the base 
gives the potter's name. Xu Yuanshun: 
diam. 11.5 cm: late 19th-early 20th cent.: 
cat. 126393. Hexagonal earthenware arena 
with trimmed edges. Body is gray, lid and 
internal dividing wall are black. Vertically 
sliding door at the side is also black, but of 
wood. Seal on lid top reads \u (to bow 
down): another, inside the lid. gives the 
workshop location: "The lower bank north of 
Nanguangwei Bridge. Lumu Town, outside 
the Gate of Qi. Gusu (Suzhou). " On the out- 
side of base is a third seal: "tvlade by Wang 
Yungiao ": diam. 1 0. 6 cm: early 20th cent. : 
cat. 126388. 





1 1 . Earthenware Cricket 
Beds with both ends open. 
Early 20th century. Lett: Fan- 
shaped cricket bed. with lid 
removed (foreground), of gray 
clay. A seal reading yang 
("male ") is impressed inside 
the base and on the lid. which 
is decorated with two mirror- 
image butterflies: Lumu'i': cat. 
1 12640-4 Top right: Gray, fan- 
shaped cricket bed. Finial of 
lid IS inscribed with phrase 
"Hall of Peace and Perma- 
nence. " Beijing? 4 cm high: 
cat. 127833. Center: Coffee- 
colored cricket bed. with floral 
design on top. Lid is not 
removable. Lumu'': cat. 
233190-10. Lower rigtit: Red- 
dish cricket bed. Same as 
above except that lid is not 
removable. Lumu'': cat. 
233190-8. 



The Future of Cricket Keeping 

Cricket fighting and singing are still popular forms of 
amusement in China. Many men appear to have kept 
crickets as boys, and a surprising number continue to 
have an active interest as adults, despite official dis- 
approval of anything that smacks of gambling and de- 
spite the bad public image of the sport. Over the 
centuries, Chinese attitudes toward cricket keeping 
have been rather like those of small-town Americans 
toward pool halls or racetracks: the sport is for idlers 
and ne'er-do-wells, undermining family finances and 
corrupting the youth. But cricket lovers continue to 
resist these pressures, and the sport remains popular, 
even fashionable. The markets are still crowded during 
the fighting season, and men of all ages continue to 
meet and chat endlessly about arcane details of cricket 
lore. True, the equipment involved is less costly and 
elaborate now than in former times, and it may be that 
the finest singers and fighters command lower prices. 



But for all that, cricket keeping seems very likely to 
survive, in China and perhaps in other countries where 
Chinese live. Fli 



Suggested Readings 

All are available in the Field Museum Library 

Cammann, Schuyler. 1967. "Chinese Impressed Gourds Reconsi- 
dered." Orienta/ Art, 4:217-224, London. 

Hsu, Yin-chi. 1929. "Crickets in China." PelcmgSociet)io/ Natural 
Hisurry Bul/etm, Vol.111, Part 3:5-41, Beijing;. 

Laufer, Bertold. 1927. "Insect Musicians and Cricket Champions 
of China." Field Museum of Natural History Leaflet 22 (Anthro- 
pology), Chicago. 

Li, Shisun. 1930. Xis/iiwipu [Cricket Treatise], 1931, Beijing. 

Shen, S.J., Zhou, Y.Y., Guo, YC. and Ding, YD. 1984. 'Xishuai 
shangwan [Cricket Games and Appreciation], Hefei. 

Soloman, Barry J. 1984. "The Cricket Story." Arts o/A.sia, Nov.- 
Dec: 76-87, Hong Kong. 

Tsang, G. and Moss, H. 1983. "Chinese Decorated Gourds" in 

International Asian Antiques Fair, p. 49-80, Hong Kong. 15 



EGYPTIAN MUMMIES: 

MYTHS, Magic and Reality 



b/ Frank J. Yurco 
Egyptological Consultant 




1 . Mummy of Harwa, 8th cent, b c , probably from Thebes. 87633 



A Mummy Mystery 

Among the more enduring favorites of the Field 
Museum's Egyptian collection are the mummies. 
Such popularity is part of a fascination that is long 
extant, and which has been reinforced by various 
media, especially in our century. Nearly every museum 
with Egyptian mummies has a story to tell, usually from 
the edge of reality, the twilight zone of human experi- 
ence. 

The Field Museum has its legend too — char- 
acteristically murky in detail and vague in description. 
Long-time readers of the Field Museum Bulletin may re- 
call in the October 1974 issue, in the "Field Briefs" sec- 
16 tion, a short article, "The Case of the Screaming Mum- 



my." A photo of the mummy of an official named Har- 
wa (fig. 1) is next to the story as if to implicate him. 

Having my own doubts about the story, 1 checked 
the source of the item. The Track of Man, a 1953 auto- 
biography of Henry Field, a member of the Museum's 
curatorial staff from 1926 to 1941. There, the alleged 
incident is more fully recounted, and we learn that it 
took place in 1933. Field's text also establishes where it 
was supposed to have happened: in "a case about 125 
feet long, " with "a line of mummies . . . chronologically 
arranged" — an obvious reference to the long mummy 
case in Hall J, the old Egyptian exhibit. 

The story further states that the case had but one 
door, and that the case was airtight and treated with 



poison to keep out pests. In 1986, however, when the 
most recent renovation of the Egyptian exhibit began, 
the case was no longer airtight; access was still limited 
to one door, hut the Hall J cases were not climate- 
controlled as in today's exhibit. As for the poison sup- 
posed to be in the case — was it lethal to humans? Prob- 
ably not. The major target of the poison was moths, 
dermestid beetles, and such, suggesting that mothballs 
or similar chemicals had been used. And there had al- 
ways been a certain amount of human traffic into the 
case, as curators, scholars, and maintenance staff did 
whatever they had to do. To be sure, between 1933 and 
1986 — more than half a century — there were some 
changes in the mummy case. For instance, a layer of 
sand was poured over the linoleum floor, presumably to 
lend a more authentic "Egyptian" look. The basic 
arrangement o( exhibited materials, however, was lit- 
tle changed. 

The mummy most readily suggested by Field's 
description is not Harwa, but that of a boy (cat. 
30017), which was removed from the exhibit some 
years ago. This unwrapped boy's mummy (fig. 2) had 
been on exhibit in 1933, at the time of the alleged inci- 
dent. His location was on a trestle, near the case door. 
He was long thought to have been the occupant of a 
small coffin (cat. 30016), identified as belonging to a 
boy named Hori — a convenient assumption because of 
the sequence of the catalog numbers. In 1986 Hori's 
coffin was near the door, suggesting that the un- 
wrapped boy's mummy was also near the door, a 
juxtaposition I have been able to confirm. 

2. Mummy of boy, 12-13 years old. This mummy was removed from exhibit several years ago. 49564 



MEDfmJIANEAN SEA 




ANCIENT EGYPT 




18 



From this intormation we may construct a scenar- 
io for the story. Henry Field describes the mummy in 
the incident as "one of the naked, withered bodies," 
adding that "it had fallen off its base and was lying face 
down on the linoleum." How did the mummy fall off 
the trestle? A number of possibilities present them- 
selves. Did some minor earth tremor strike the Chicago 
area in 1933, just strong enough to dislodge the mum- 
my? Could strong vibrations from nearby street or rail- 
road traffic have been responsible? Perhaps an em- 
ployee with a key to the case was up to some mischief, 
trying to have a little fun by frightening other staff 
members on duty that night. Inspiration for such a 
prank could well have been horror movies with mum- 
mies, popular at the time, among them The Mummy 
(1932), starring Boris Karloff. 

The Magic of Mummies 

Mummies have this very special fascination for us, 
morbid and otherwise, because we know they were 
once live human beings, much like ourselves. Though 
as much as 4,000 years old, they commonly retain the 
hair, skin, and personal facial features that they pos- 
sessed in life. Those that are still wrapped provide us 
with another kind of fascination: We know a mummy is 
inside — at least we suspect that is so. But what does 
that concealed mummy look like? Just exactly who is 
that person within? And certain mummies have a very 
personal mystique: Who would fail to be moved by gaz- 
ing on the mummy of Pharaoh Ramesses II (reigned 
1279-1212), now in the Cairo Museum (fig. 3), when 
it is more than likely that the face of this mummy is the 
very same that Moses looked into when he bargained 
for the Exodus of the Israelites, some 3,200 years ago? 
Then there is the mummy of that pharaoh's 
father, Sety I (reigned 1291-1279). Gaston Maspero, a 
former director of Egypt's Antiquities Department, re- 
marked that Sety's mummy (fig. 4), looked better than 
many living persons he was acquainted with. 

While museum visitors may see in these preserved 
bodies something that is unnervingly close to life, the 
ancient Egyptians believed that mummies were able to 
sppak, could move about and act — that they were truly 
ali%'e. The Opening of the Mouth, the ritual intended 
to restore life, was performed on each mummy at its 
burial (fig. 5). 

In an ancient Egyptian story, from a cycle set 
around the person of Setne-Khaemwas, we see a con- 
frontation between a mummy of a deceased Old King- 
dom noble and Setne (high priest of the temple of Ptah 




3. Mummy of Pharaoh Ramesses II, in the Cairo Museum. 2064 



at Memphis, based on a real prince, son of Ramesses 
II). The deceased noble had illegally obtained an en- 
chanted scroll belonging to the god Thoth. The posses- 
sor of this scroll had the power to converse with birds 
and fish and could actually see the solar god. Re, as the 
god sailed across the sky in his divine barque. 

Possession of the scroll had cost the noble his life, 
as well as that of his wife and child. In exchange for a 
bribe, Setne learned of the scroll's whereabouts — in 
the noble's tomb — from a corrupt priest. 

When Setne entered the tomb to seize the scroll. 




4. Head of mummy of Sety I, Cairo Museum. 2055 



the noble's mummy sat up and warned him of the con- 
sequences of being its possessor, but Setne persisted. 
The mummy, in response, challenged him to a game of 
senet for its ownership. Setne lost round one of the 
game, and the mummy whacked him over the head 
with the game board, driving him into the ground up to 
his knees. Setne lost round two as well, and again the 
mummy whacked him over the head, driving him into 
the ground up to his chest. Round three was also a vic- 



tory for the mummy, who whacked Setne a third time, 
burying him to his chin. At this point, Setne called to 
his brother to bring him his magic amulets. With these, 
the loser was able to pull himself out of the ground and 
escape with the magic scroll. 

After a series of adventures in which he suffered 
the calamities foretold by the mummy, the penitent 
Setne returned to the tomb and relinquished the 
troublesome scroll. He also found himself obliged to 
travel to Coptos for the bodies of the noble's wife and 
child and arrange for their reburial at the noble's side. 

This story shows that the ancient Egyptians 
viewed the Afterlife as but an extension of the world of 
the living. The Afterlife was very real and concrete, 
and contact between the deceased and the living was 
very possible. The mummies of the deceased were not 
to be feared. Rather, they were deceased ancestors, 
relatives, and neighbors, living on in another post- 
mortem existence. This belief system about ancestors is 
distinctly African. Other evidence of contact between 
mummies and the living is found in a class of docu- 
ments called "letters to the dead" — texts written in ink 
on bowls left at the offering niches or tables with food 
or drink for the deceased. 

In such letters, relatives of the deceased com- 
municated with their ancestors, possibly expressing a 
need for help in a difficult situation, requesting aid 
against a personal foe, or responding to a visitation 
from the deceased relative or ancestor. In one such let- 
ter a widower remonstrates with his deceased wife who, 
he states, has been visiting him since he began think- 
ing about remarriage. He assures her that he has per- 
formed all the requisite burial ceremonies and had 
faithfully kept up the offerings on schedule. In another 
visitation tale, "An Egyptian Ghost Story," a high 



5. Drawing based on painting of Opening of the Mouth ritual, from the tomb of Roy, Dynasty XIX {ca. 1200 bc ). 91016 




19 




6. Predynastic burial exhibit in the Field Museum, with woman's body, naturally preserved, ca. 3700 b c , Naqada I. 71913 



priest living in Thebes visited the West Bank and a 
ruined tomb. While there, he had a visitation from the 
spirit of the tomb owner. The spirit had a complaint: 
his tomb had collapsed, so that the wind blew through 
it freely. The spirit asked the high priest to restore his 
tomb, but he was not very optimistic, since he had got- 
ten nowhere with requests to four previous tomb visi- 
tors to restore it. The high priest, however, reassured 
the spirit and agreed to relocate and rebuild the tomb as 
well as reinstitute offerings for the spirit. 

It is interesting to see how such concepts contin- 



ued to survive, even into the period when Egypt be- 
came Christian. Coptic monks often set up their 
monastic cells in old, abandoned tombs that sometimes 
contained mummies. In one story from a cycle dealing 
with the Coptic fathers, a monk in such a setting strikes 
up a conversaton with a mummy. In good Christian 
vein, the mummy complains how its soul is suffering 
the pains of Purgatory because the deceased had died a 
pagan, and goes on to ask for the prayers of the good 
monk. Once more, we see the typical Egyptian interac- 
tion between the worlds of the living and the dead. 

7. Coptic monastery 
showing, in background, 
Wady el-Natrun, where 
ancient Egyptians 
obtained natron, a 
principal ingredient In 
mummification process. 

Frank Yurco photo 



20 




The Art and Science of Mummification 

Why were mummies made? The arid climate of Egypt 
has always been able to preserve bodies buried in the 
low desert environment beyond the Nile inundation 
levels. Such are the Predynastic bodies of Egyptians 
found grouped in prehistoric cemeteries; for example, 
the woman in the Museum's Predynastic burial group 
(fig. 6). Such bodies are naturally preserved, often in 
remarkable condition, because they were entombed in 
simple graves excavated on the desert outside the culti- 
vated areas of the valley. There, moisture and humid- 
ity were low, and the dry sand and gravel plus the heat 
of the climate enhanced the preservation by drying of 
the body and any other perishable substances. Because 
of such natural preservation, no doubt, it was not diffi- 
cult for the Predynastic Egyptians to think of the body 
surviving death, and so became convinced that this 
was part and parcel of survival in the Afterlife. This is 
demonstrated by the Predynastic practice of placing 
jars, palettes for cosmetics, tools and weapons, bodily 
ornaments, and even clothing and mats with the de- 
ceased in the tomb, and further, by the flexed position 
of the bodies themselves, suggesting the fetus in the 
womb and rebirth for the deceased. 

As social stratification began in the late Predynas- 



tic period, leading eventually to political unification of 
Egypt and the development of an elite class (ca. 3150 
B.C.), the tombs of the elite became larger and more 
opulent. As the burial chambers were moved deeper 
underground for added security, the hot, drying action 
of the low desert burials was lost, and the bodies of the 
deceased decayed. This development clearly disturbed 
the religious sensibility of the Egyptians, and so, the 
first attempts at preserving the body artificially were 
made. By the time of the 1st Dynasty pharaohs, ca. 
3100 B.C., an artificial mummification technique had 
been evolved. Egyptologist William Flinders Petrie, 
when excavating the Archaic cemetery at Abydos, 
found in the tomb of King Djer an artificially mummi- 
fied arm that had probably been ripped from a woman's 
body, then stashed in the mudbrick wall of the tomb 
substructure. On the arm was a handsome bracelet of 
gold and turquoise, of Dynasty I workmanship. Al- 
ready, linen wrappings were in use. The location where 
the arm was found indicates that another venerable 
tradition of Egypt was well under way — tomb robbing; 
and the jewelry on the arm provided a motive for the 
robbers. A few bodies of Ist-llnd Dynasty date from 
Saqqara indicate that the preservation process in- 
volved wrapping vast quantities of linen around the 
limbs of the deceased and molding these to restore the 
figure's form as it had been in life. This technique re- 



8. Canopic jars in the Field Museum collection, made of limestone. Dynasty XXII. 9i042 




^fe. J!^ 






22 



mained in use throughout the Old Kingdom, as 
attested by several mummies that remain from that 
date, including those in the recently discovered tomb 
of Nefer, from the Vth Dynasty. 

Another technique attested from the Old King- 
dom was the preservation of the body in a solution of 
natron. Natron is a naturally occurring compound of 
sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate that occurs 
in Egypt, especially in seasonally dried out lake beds, 
such as those found at Wady el-Natrun (named for the 
substance), located northwest of Cairo (fig. 7, and 
map). It was from here and several other sites that the 
ancient Egyptians obtained their natron. The chemical 
properties of natron made it a powerful dessicating and 
purifying agent. The word natron, indeed, is ancient 
Egyptian, with the same root as the word netcher, 
meaning "divine." Thus were natron's properties 
associated with religion and divinity. In the Old King- 
dom reburial of Queen Hetepheres, mother of Khufu 
(builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza), her Canopic 
organs were found in their jars still steeped in a solution 
of liquid natron, after 4,500 years. An Old Kingdom 
sarcophagus recovered at Saqqara was still filled with a 
liquid solution of natron in which the tomb owner was 
steeped. We also know, from an inscription of Queen 
Meresankh III, that she spent 272 days undergoing 
mummification in the House of Purification. Thus, the 
Old Kingdom practice of mummification involved 
several methods, including one in which the soft inter- 
nal organs (lungs, liver, stomach, and intestines) were 
removed and embalmed separately. 

In the First Intermediate Period (2230-2040 
B.C.), or in the early Middle Kingdom (2040-1786 
B.C.), the 70-day process of mummification that we 
know of from later periods became standardized. The 
major differences from Old Kingdom practices were the 
shortening of the mummification process and introduc- 
tion of dry natron. A description of the later process is 
to be found in Herodotus's History of Egypt, with sup- 
plemental details from other Greek authors. While no 
sequential account is found in Egyptian sources, 
archaeological and other evidence from the mummies 
themselves supports the basic accuracy of Herodotus's 
account. According to him, mummification was of 
three grades, depending on the ability of the deceased's 
relatives to pay. In ancient Egypt, responsibility for 
burying the deceased fell to the children or other 
relatives; the inheritance law was weighted in favor of 
the one who performed and paid for the burial. Accord- 
ing to Herodotus, mummification was performed by 
specialists with workshops near the cemeteries. The 




Imm^ ' < 




9. Coffin (mummy enclosed) of Cfienet-aa, Dynasty XXII-XXIII. p-541 








iM 



10. Heart scarab of Isis-em-kheb. wife of the high priest of Amun, 
Men-kheperre. Dynasty XXI, green nephrite, bottonn, side, and top 

views. 2126 



relatives brought the body to the shop, then selected 
the process to be employed and the quality of coffin and 
other furnishings. 

In the costliest process, shown in the Egyptian ex- 
hibit's mummification diorama, the body was first 
washed. Next, an incision was made in the left flank, 
and the lungs, liver, stomach, and intestines taken out 
for separate mummification. Because these organs de- 
cay rapidly, they were removed and handled sepa- 
rately. The resulting cavities were rinsed out with palm 
oil and spices; sometimes they were filled with sawdust, 
sand, lichens, aromatic herbs and spices, or com- 
binations of these. After mummification, the removed 
organs were placed into four containers, called Cano- 
pic jars (fig. 8). In some periods the embalmed organs 
were replaced into the body, with appropriate amulets 
attached, a less expensive process. The jars, first used 
in the Old Kingdom, had domed tops; in the Middle 
Kingdom they were given stoppers that resembled the 
tomb-owner's head, then in Dynasty XIX (1291-1185 
B.C.) they were given stoppers with human, jackal, ba- 
boon, and falcon heads. These figures were known as 
the four sons of Horus (Horus himself being the son of 
Osiris) . The four are often represented in the Books of 
the Dead — funerary texts written on papyrus rolls and 
placed with the deceased as guides to the Hereafter. 
These four figures were named Imsety (human- 
headed), in charge of the liver; Hapi (baboon-headed), 
in charge of the lungs; Dua-mut-ef (jackal-headed), in 
charge of the stomach; and Qebeh-senu-ef (falcon- 
headed), in charge of the intestines. The brain was 
sometimes removed through a breach made through 
the nose, but since the Egyptians did not consider the 
brain important, it was not preserved. The heart was 
almost always left in place, for it had to stand up for the 
tomb owner in the judgement before Osiris and the 



forty-two assessors, and had to be weighed against the 
goddess of justice or her feather. 

After evisceration, the body was placed on a slant- 
ing table, covered with dry natron, and kept there for 
40 days. This process effectively dessicated the body 
into a mummy, and it remained well preserved. Next, 
the body was returned to the shop, washed to remove 
all natron, then bandaged in strips of linen, up to 400 
yards in length, to restore the semblance of life. In this 
30-day process, amulets and jewelry and other items 
were placed into the wrappings with appropriate 
rituals. In the Museum exhibit, a mummy-shaped 
plexiglass construction standing before Harwa has 
affixed to it the amulets and other items in the posi- 
tions in which they would be attached. It is the pres- 
ence of gold and precious stones among such items that 
drew the attention of tomb robbers. Eventually, after 
1085 B.C., most of these items were made of bluish- 
green faience, a glazed and fired material that did not 



1 1 . Scenes from the Book of Am-Duat, corridor of Merenptah, to the 
Osireion, Abydos. Ancient versions of hell are depicted. 

Frank Yurco photo 





^ 'J: 



23 



appeal to robbers; hence, most surviving mummies are 
from this and later periods. 

Finally, a coat of molten resin (later bitumen) was 
poured over the bandaged mummy to seal it. A woven 
net of beads of faience was sometimes placed over the 
outer bandages. Such a net may be seen on Harwa's 
mummy, near his feet. Finally, the completed mummy 
was placed into a shaped, wooden coffin. If the family 
could afford it, several coffins might be nested inside 
each other, along with the Canopic jars in their own 
chest. In the XXllnd Dynasty and later, the inner cof- 
fin was at times made of sheets of papyrus, glued 
together and molded in mummy form, plastered and 
painted elaborately, and lacquered, like the mummy of 
Chenet-aa (fig. 9). Such coffins might be nested in an 
outer wooden coffin, as in the case of Chenet-aa. Final- 
ly, in the Ptolemaic-Roman periods (332-30 B.C., and 
30 B.C.-A.D.300), the bandaged mummy was placed 
within five pieces of cartonnage (molded from glued 
and painted papyrus sheets) , with the face often gilded. 

Gaining the Afterlife 

After the relatives received the completed mummy and 
the Canopic organs, these were taken to the tomb, 
where the principal ritual was the Opening of the 
Mouth, intended to restore life and movement to the 
mummy and to give it a send-off to the realm of Osiris. 



This was the burial. A Book of the Dead papyrus roll 
might accompany the deceased as a guide through the 
Afterlife. In the late Old Kingdom, Osiris, originally a 
vegetation deity, was introduced as Lord of the After- 
life. What brought about this association was the story 
of Osiris — he had been murdered by his wicked brother 
Seth, then Isis had found his body and magically resur- 
rected him. So Osiris, as a resurrected deity, came to 
offer resurrection to all Egyptians. This meant a major 
change, for in the Old Kingdom only royalty were 
assured resurrection, and all others placed their hopes 
in the king. This is why most tombs of Old Kingdom 
nobles are found clustered around the royal pyramid. 
The ordinary people in the Old Kingdom often re- 
tained the Predynastic burial traditions, or slight mod- 
ifications of them. 

With the introduction of Osiris, everyone could 
be resurrected; but whether or not this occurred de- 
pended on the sort of life that the deceased had led. A 
two-step judgement had to be passed to gain access to 
the realm of Osiris. The deceased was first questioned 
by 42 assessors about his conduct during life. This took 
place in the Hall of the Two Truths, so called because 
two figures of the goddess Ma'at, Goddess of Justice, 
oversaw the proceedings. Before each of the 42 asses- 
sors, the deceased made a statement of innocence 
regarding a category of wrongdoing. (See the Papyrus 



12. Scene of Sen-ned|em and his wife ly-nofret, in their tomb, at Deir el-Medinah. showing fields of the 
Blessed West. 

Frank Yurco photo 



24 




ot Isty in the Egypt exhibit and the diorama patterned 
on it. ) 

The statements of innocence involved denials of 
the following wrongdoings: committing falsehood 
against people, robbing, being rapacious, stealing, kill- 
ing, destroying food supplies, doing any "crookedness," 
stealing the god's offerings, depriving an orphan of his 
property, lying, stealing food, being sullen, transgress- 
ing, killing a sacred bull, committing perjury, stealing 
bread, eavesdropping, babbling, disputing in court ex- 
cept about one's own property, committing homosex- 
ual acts, misbehaving, causing terror, being hot- 
tempered, being deaf to words of truth, making dis- 
turbance, hoodwinking, misconducting one's self or 
copulating with a boy, being neglectful, being quarrel- 
some, being unduly active, being impatient, washing 
out the image of a god, being voluble in speech, doing 
wrong or seeing evil, making conjuration against the 
king, wading in water, being loud-voiced, reviling god, 
opposing a god in his procession, becoming wealthy 
except by one's own property, blaspheming god in 
one's city. 

This list forms Spell 125 of the Book of the Dead, 
and further details serve as its introduction, while a 
prayer and the questioning of the deceased follow the 
list. This forms an extraordinarily tough moral stan- 
dard. Remarkably, from the Middle Kingdom, when 
the judgements were introduced, onwards in Egyptian 
history, surviving texts mark a stronger sense of moral- 
ity and accountability. Even kings became subject to 
this set of judgements. The stage next to the judgement 
involved the weighing of the heart on a balance scale 
against the feather of the goddess Ma'at, mistress of 
Justice. 

At this stage, the veracity of the statements made 
before the 42 assessors was tested. Woe to the deceased 
whose heart did not balance the feather of the goddess 
of Justice! At the side of the scale a monster, Ammit, 
stood ready to devour the errant soul. To help the de- 
ceased through these judgements, the heart scarab was 
included with the mummy (fig. 10). The scarab was 
inscribed with Spell 30B of the Book of the Dead, 
which called upon the heart not to testify against its 
owner in the judgement before Osiris. The heart scarab 
was almost always included in the wrappings of the 
mummy to accompany and protect its owner in the 
Afterlife. For this reason also, the heart was not re- 
moved from the body during mummification. To the 
Egyptians, the heart was responsible for actions, emo- 
tions, and thought. Should the heart fail to balance 
with the feather of truth, torments even worse than 




13. Pharaoh Akhenaton, Dynasty XVIII, reigned 1350-1334BC Detail 
of statue in the Cairo Museum. 

Frank Yurco photo 



those presented by Ammit might be in store. The 
ancient version of hell is presented in the story of 
Setne-Khaemwas and Sa-Osiris, and in scenes from the 
Bookof Am-Duat (fig. 11). 

If the heart passed the judgement by balancing 
with the feather or figure of Ma'at, then the deceased 
was united with Osiris (becoming as Osiris) and en- 
tered eternal life. Through Osiris he was resurrected as 
a potent spirit and went on to live in the Fields of the 
Blessed. Resurrection was thus based upon the resur- 
rection of Osiris himself through the magic and agency 
of Isis, after he had been murdered by his brother Seth. 
In the realm of the Blessed Dead, Hathor of the West 
offered a cool drink to the soul (the ba, depicted as a 
bird whose head was that of the deceased), and the 
deceased lived among all the others who had gone be- 
fore. This Afterlife world was patterned upon Egypt it- 
self, but in the Afterlife the Nile always rose to exactly 



25 



the right level, and the grain grew to a height unknown 
in the land of the living (fig. 12). As in Egypt, the 
deceased might still be called upon to perform com- 
pulsory communal tasks, such as canal clearance, dike 
maintenance, or hauling sand. 

To escape these tasks (which the living Egyptians 
also were eager to avoid) the deceased was buried with 
small, inscribed mummiform figurines, called ushabtis, 
literally "one who answers." Usually made of glazed 
faience, but sometimes of metal, wood, or stone, 
ushabtis were inscribed with Spell no. 151 of the Book 
of the Dead. While the Afterlife was ruled by Osiris, as 
Judge and Ruler, it represented, nonetheless, a 
"democratization." Everyone, pharaoh to felahin 
(peasant), was expected to undergo the judgement; no 
one was exempt, nor could one bribe one's way out of 
it. This contrasted sharply with Old Kingdom belief 
that pharaoh alone, being a god, was self-resurrected 
after death, and either stormed heaven, dominating 
the gods there, or joined the imperishable, eternally 
visible, northern circumpolar stars, as described in the 
Pyramid Texts. The royal family and nobles who 
grouped their tombs around the pharaoh's pyramid ex- 



pected to be resurrected to serve pharaoh in his After- 
life. Meanwhile, the common folk continued burial in 
the Predynastic style, or in smaller tombs, and main- 
tained their own belief in survival after death. The 
introduction of Osiris as ruler of the Afterlife in the late 
Old Kingdom completely changed this older belief 
system. 

To the Egyptians, the soul of the deceased could 
communicate with the living. The soul took two prin- 
cipal forms: the ka, a double of the body that stayed in 
the tomb, and the previously mentioned ba, depicted 
as a bird with a human head, that could venture from 
the tomb and visit relatives. These visitations of the ba 
were neither malevolent nor mischievious. Rather, 
they might occur because the spirit had some need, or 
because it disagreed with the actions of living relatives, 
or because the spirit had been called upon by relatives 
to help them in some cause (see p. 19 above). 

This strong belief in life after death exercised a 
powerful hold on the ancient Egyptians. When Phar- 
aoh Akhenaton (1350-1334 B.C., fig. 13) tried to abol- 
ish all deities but the solar deity Aton, it was the denial 
of assurance in the resurrection through Osiris and Isis 



14. View of Osireion, built by Sety I (1292-1279 bc , Abydos. In Osireion was recreated the tomb of Osiris. Frank 



26 





1 5. Reconstructed pyramid-topped tomb chapel at Deir el-Medinah. 

^ Margaret Sears 



that was the most grievious loss for average Egyptians. 
After Akhenaton died, there was a rapid return to 
orthodox worship, and special emphasis was laid on the 
power of Osiris. Both Sety I (reigned 1291-1279 B.C.) 
and Ramesses II (reigned 1279-1212 B.C.) built im- 
pressive temples to Osiris at Abydos. Merenptah 
(reigned 1212-1202 B.C.) added to Sety I's Osireion, 
the access corridor with scenes from the Book of Am- 
Duat (see fig. 11). The Osireion itself (fig. 14) recre- 
ated the tomb of Osiris. In private tombs, scenes and 
texts from the Afterlife cycle largely replaced the daily 
life scenes that had been popular in pre-Akhenaton 
Dynasty XVIII private tombs. 

The Osiride Religious System 

Osiris now began to acquire aspects of the solar deity 
Re. In Egyptian belief, Re sailed over the sky in a boat, 
as already noted. He rose daily as Khepri (the scarab 
beetle) in the morning; at midday, he appeared as the 
solar disk, the Aton; in the evening he appeared as the 
ram-headed Atum. As Re-Atum, the sun-god passed in 
his divine barque into the Afterlife realms after setting 



in the western horizon. There, Re-Atum illuminated 
the faces of the deceased with the light of life. Thus, 
the reason for giving mummies gold or gilded face 
masks — to reflect this light of life and associate them- 
selves with Re-Atum. In the doorways of many Rames- 
side period tombs the owner is shown adoring Re and 
praying to him. On the pyramid that capped many New 
Kingdom chapels, one niche was cut on the eastern 
face and another on the western face (fig. 15). Small 
statues of the tomb owner, often holding a stela with a 
prayer to Khepri or Re-Atum, were placed in these 
niches (fig. 16). 

By Dynasty XIX, such belief in the aspects of 
divinity led to a remarkable trinitarian statement of 
theology: all gods and goddesses were but aspects of 
Amun, Re, or Ptah, and these three were themselves 
aspects of Amun, or of each other; Amun could be one 
of them or all three. In solar belief, a similar trinity was 
depicted in royal tombs at Thebes in the relief work 
(fig. 17), in which Khepri and Re-Atum stand inside 
the solar disk, Aton. The solar deity likewise became a 
powerful resurrection symbol, for as he journeyed 
through the fourth and fifth hours (the darkest) of the 
night, he was transformed from Re-Horakhty, the dy- 
ing sun, to Khepri, the resurrected sun that rose trium- 
phantly each morning. This explains the popularity of 
scarab beetles or winged scarab beetles as amulets in 
mummy wrappings. The assimilation of Osiris to Re 
and other deities is illustrated by the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris 
figures popular in the Late Period (664-30 B.C.). These 
often have gilded faces and wear the horns, sundisk, 
and plumes of the solar deity, figure 18. 

Similarly, in this Late Period, especially 332 B.C.- 
A.D. 300, the belief in Osiris and Isis spread beyond the 
borders of Egypt, at first through the political empire of 
the Ptolemaic rulers (323-30 B.C.). Later, the belief 
moved on to Rome. Here, despite legal restrictions and 
bans under Augustus and the early Julio-Claudian 
emperors, by the reign of Claudius (A.D. 41-54) the 
Osiris-lsis cult was granted legal status. Belief in Osiris 
and Isis offered three major tenets that had great appeal 
in the Graeco-Roman cultural milieu. Isis offered 
women equality with men, just as she had done in 
Egyptian society. Through Isis, the believer could 
undergo the Osiride mysteries, involving resurrection 
and eternal life. Further, Isis had power over destiny 
and fate, and could undo the curses of witches. In 
Apuleius's The Golden Ass (2nd cent. A.D.), the pro- 
tagonist angers a witch, who then turns him into an 
ass. In this form he wanders the Roman Mediterranean 
world until he is sold to an arena. This means almost 27 




zmm 



_r r w a V-' .Toll* 

=:.^^j. t 111 







i _ 



1 6. Niche statue of the scribe Amenhotep, holding stela with hymn to 
sun deity, probably from Thebes, Dynasty XVIII. 95021 



Enter Christianity 

This was the threefold appeal of the cult of Isis and 
Osiris, and it filled several voids that were not served, 
or were poorly served by the indigenous classical deit- 
ies. The cult's widespread popularity is demonstrated 
by the many sites where images of Isis or Osiris, or 
archaeological remnants of their shrines, have been 
found, scattered throughout the Roman Empire and 
even beyond its borders in Central Europe. The two- 
fold appeal of the cult, resurrection and eternal life, 
and power over fate made the Isis-Osiris cult a stiff 
competitor for early Christianity, and its appeal to 
women exceeded even what Christianity could offer. 
Along with Christianity, the Romans classed the cult 
as one of the Oriental mystery cults. 

As in Christianity, the followers of Isis and Osiris 
were expected to improve their moral attitudes, for 
after death they had to face the old Egyptian judgement 
of the deceased, first before the 42 assessors, then in the 



* t 1 




*o. 


i i . 


4 ^ r 


F 


oj I 


/:;^ 




i/ 




S' 


A 




A. f 


a 


^m\ 



T^niii 




9A 

1 7. Solar trinity, Khepri and Re-Atum, standing inside the solar disc, 
Re-Aton (center): from tomb of Merenptah, Valley of the Kings, 
Dynasty XIX. 

Frank Yurco photo 



certain death. Fearfully, the night before he is to be 
exhibited, he lays down on the seashore and prays. Isis 
appears and instructs him on how to achieve redemp- 
tion. The next morning he is to join a procession of 
devotees of Isis. He is to find the high priest and nibble 
the roses he carries. The next day, following instruc- 
tions, he locates the priest, eats the roses, and regains 
human form. He then joins the cult of Isis, ultimately 
undergoing the Osiride mysteries that probably con- 
28 cemed the resurrection and life after death. 



weighing of the heart. Vignettes of both stages re- 
mained popular in Books of the Dead, even of the 
Ptolemaic-Roman Period. (See the papyrus of Pa-di- 
Hor-pa-khered, cat. 31325, in burial group 7 of the 
Egyptian exhibit, and in the papyrus cat. , 3 1324, even 
later in date. ) Finally, the appeal of Isis to women, with 
tenets of equality with men and an equivalent dignity, 
was something that Christianity could not then offer. 
Two factors that helped Christianity emerge 
victorious were (1) it appealed to the poor — by con- 



trast, the cult of Isis and Osiris required a substantial 
financial outlay in addition to the moral commitment, 
and (2) the Isis-Osiris cult had been granted legitimacy 
early in the Imperial period, something Christianity 
didn't achieve until the reign of Constantine (A.D. 
312-337). So, Isis and Osiris were part of the Roman 
establishment, while Christianity was outside of it. As 
the early church fathers recognized, the blood of the 
martyrs was the seed of the church. 

By the early third century A. D. , the cult of Isis and 
Osiris also faced the competition of newly arriving 
mystery cults, such as that of Mithra, a Persian cult 
with strong appeal to men. In Egypt itself, there were 
also new restrictions against Egyptian pharaonic relig- 
ion. The Romans ridiculed Egyptian religion with its 
myriad forms of deity, including animals, reptiles, even 
insects, and the power and influence of the temples was 
curtailed sharply. In the Ptolemaic Period, it had been 
the temples and priesthoods that preserved and nur- 
tured Egyptian nationalism. Now, under Roman rule, 
Egyptians were fourth-class people, ranked after Ro- 
man citizens, Greeks with Alexandrian citizenship, 
and Jews in a system created by Augustus that comes 
strikingly close to South African-style apartheid. In 
Egypt, the indigenous religion was seen to have failed 
to rid the nation of foreign domination. The large 
number of Greek settlers dating back to the Ptolemaic 
era led to growing Hellenistic influence. While many 
Greeks adopted Egyptian funerary traditions, even 
there, Greek artistic influence appears. 

Into this milieu the early Christian missionaries 
entered, probably in the first century A.D. Initially, 
Christianity's strongest gains were in Alexandria, espe- 
cially in the extensive Jewish community. Later, the 
many parallels with Egyptian religion, especially Isis 
and Osiris, made the Christian message sound familiar 
to indigenous Egyptians, and Christianity penetrated 
into the Nile Valley proper. By the 2nd-3rd century 
A.D. , Christianity had a strong hold throughout Egypt, 
especially among the poorer, common folk. 

Meanwhile, by the 2nd century, a prominent and 
influential theological Christian school developed in 
Alexandria under teachers and leaders such as Pan- 
taeus, Clement, and Origen. This school, steeped in 
Greek Platonic philosophy but also knowledgable 
about Egyptian culture, was instrumental in develop- 
ing early Christian theology. Not surprisingly, some 
Egyptian religious ideas made their way into Christian- 
ity. Egyptian trinitarian ideas helped to explain the 
Christian Trinity; Origen speaks of Christ and the Holy 
Spirit as aspects of God, the Father in a fashion that 




18. Ptah-Sokar-Osiris statuettes In wood, painted and gilt. 105202 



barkens back to Ramesside speculations and depictions 
(fig. 18). And it is not surprising to see the Alexan- 
drian school championing the idea of the Virgin Mary 
as God-bearer. Isis, mother of Horus, offered the par- 
allel here as well as the imagery. This helped fill the 
void of feminine influence in Christianity to an extent 
(but still not to the extent of Isis in Egyptian religion). 
The Osiride resurrection, and the concept of judge- 
ment of the dead offered other parallels that Christian- 
ity used. The Egyptian Coptic Christians saw many of 
these parallels as prefigurations of Christianity. 

Most prominently, the pharaonic hieroglyph T 
ankh, meaning "life," that in Egyptian religion was be- 
stowed by deities upon pharaohs and humans, to the 



29 




19. Fragments of Coptic wall hanging; arched structure with Coptic 
text, ankh signs and crosses in field; wool on linen, 5th-6th cents, ad 

71863 



Copts prefigured the cross, and not just the cross, but 
the cross triumphant, the cross that gives life. Thus, 
this hieroglyph survives in Christian iconography as 
the crux ansata. The Copts used it interchangeably 
with the more familiar cross (see fig. 19). The utiliza- 
30 tion of Isis, mother of Horus, to develop the iconogra- 



phy of Mary, mother of Christ, helps to explain the 
several cults of the Black Madonna found in European 
locales. It was the Romans who first enunciated a racial 
distinction for the Egyptians. On the average, because 
the Egyptians were darker than Romans, they were 
classed as "blacks." Thus, Isis, an Egyptian goddess par 
excellence, could be viewed as "Black" Isis. As Europe 
was Christianized, the utilization of the iconography of 
Isis, mother of Horus, for the iconography of Mary, 
mother of Christ, included Isis' skin complexion and 
all. So ended the long pharaonic tradition of Isis and 
Osiris and the belief in resurrection and life after death. 
Not surprisingly, then, viewing some of these Egyptian 
traditions nudges deeply held concepts of Museum visi- 
tors coming from a Christian tradition. FM 



Sources and Suggested Readings 

Materials listed here are available 
in the Field Museum Library or at the Oriental Institute 

Apuleius, The Golden Ass. Translated by Robert Graves. New 
York: Noonday Press, 1951. 

Bowman, Alan K. Egypt after the Pharaohs. Los Angeles: Univer- 
sity of California Press, 1965. 

Du Bourget, Pierre M. The Art of the Copts. Translated by Cyril 
Hay-Shaw. New York: Crown Books, 1971. 

Emery, Walter B. Archaic Egypt. Baltimore; Penguin Books, 1961. 

Faulkner, Raymond O. The Egyptian Book of the Dead. Edited by 
Carol Andrews. London; British Museum Publications, 1985. 

Freemantle, Anne, ed. A Treasury of Early Christianity. New York: 
Mentor Books, 1960. 

Gardiner, Alan H. and Kurt Sethe. Egyptian Letters to the Dead. 
London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1928. 

Griffiths, John Gwyn. "Triune Conceptions of Deity in Ancient 
Egypt" Zeitschrift fiir Agyptische Sprache 100, 1973. 

Harris, James E. and Kent R. Weeks. X-Raying the Pharaohs. New 
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973. 

Kitchen, Kenneth A. Pharaoh Triumphant. Mississauga: Benben 
Publications, 1982. 

Lauer, Jean Philippe. Saqqara. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 
1976. 

Lewis, Naphtali. Life in Egypt under Rovnan Ruk. Oxford: 
Clarendon Press, 1983. 

Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature (3 vols.). 

Eierkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California 
Press, 1973, 1976, 1980. 

Morenz, Siegfried. Egyptian Religion. Translated by Ann E. Keep. 
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976. 

Moussa, Ahmed and Hartwig Altenmiiller The Tomb ofNefer ami 
Kahay. Archaologische Veroffentlichungen des Deutschen 
Archaologisches Instituts, Abteilung Kairo, no. 5. Mainz am 
Rhein: Verlag Phillip von Zabem, 1971. 

Petrie, William M. F. The Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties, 
Part II. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner, and Co. 1901. 

Rittner, Robert. "Egyptians in Ireland: A Question of Coptic Per- 
egrinations," Rice University Studies 62, no. 2 (Spring, 1976). 

Wente, Edward F. "A Ghost Story," in The Literature o/ Ancient 
Egypt. Edited by William Kelly Simpson. New Haven and Lon- 
don: Yale University Press, 1973. 




HELD 

MUSEUM 
TDURS^ 

ANCIENT EGYPT 

With Nile Cruise 

Aboard 

Tlie M.S. Mile Sovereign 

February 9-27, 1990 



Exploring the grandeur of the antiquities of 
Egypt can be overwhelming. Standing 
monuments of 5,000 years of recorded 
history inspire our awe and wonder. 

On our tour we'll marvel at the most 
ancient Step Pyramid of King Zoser the 
Great Pyramids including the breathtaking 
Cheops, the Sphinx, the rock tombs of the 
middle kingdom, the magnificent temple 
at Abydos, the splendor of Karnak. We'll 
roam the Valley of the Kings, see the great 
works of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel and 
visit the Alabaster IVlosque and exhaustive 
collections of the Cairo Ivluseum. 

Our journey includes a spectacular 
cruise down the Nile on board the new lux- 
ury yacht tVI.S. Nile Sovereign (20 cabins), 
from Luxor to Aswan. Our accommoda- 
tions are beautifully appointed and the 
sights beyond belief. 



How wonderful to sort through it 
all with the special guidance of Field 
Museum tour's lecturer/leader, a prestig- 
ious Egyptologist, on hand throughout our 
journey to add insight, anecdote, and per- 
spective. Add to this the unsurpassed 
knowledge of history and local culture of 
our native Egyptology expert and you will 
understand wfiy traveling with Field 
Museum tours is such an enriching 
experience. 



KENYVmriZANIA 
SAFARI 

February 18 - March 11, 1990 

Truly the adventure of a lifetime awaits 
you in the vast and unspoiled landscape 
of East Africa under the extraordinary 
leadership of Audrey Faden. In her warm 
and personal style, Audrey orchestrates 
every detail, and offers her extensive 
knowledge and love of the natural environ- 
ment that is the hallmark of a Field 
Museum tour. 

View the amazing variety of African 
wildlife from our vehicles providing incred- 
ible proximity to animals in their native 
habitat. Lion, giraffe, rhino, cheetah, 
elephant, wildebeest, and zebra roam the 
Amboseli National Park, where our safari 
begins. Here also we have an exceptional 
view of famed Mt. Kilimanjaro. 

Enjoy the unique opportunity to wit- 
ness the great herds of Africa, from Thom- 
son's and Grant's gazelles to leopard, in 
the Northern Serengeti at Masai Mara 
Game Reserve. Other features include the 
endangered black rhino and scores of 
crocodile and hippo basking in the river 
areas. 



Birding enthusiasts will not be dis- 
appointed. Lake Manyara National Park is 
home to more than 380 species of birds as 
well as buffalo, waterbuck, the elusive 
bushbuck, and the rest of Africa's big 
game animals. 

Accommodations are first-rate 
throughout. One of our stops will be the 
exciting Ark, perched directly above a 
waterhole where animals can be viewed at 
leisure as they come to drink. 

CROW CANYON 

September 16-22, 1990 

Field Museum tours will be conducting an 
exciting tour to Denver's Crow Canyon 
Archaeological Center. The tour will offer a 
splendid opportunity not only to view, but 
to participate in an archaeological dig. At 
Crow Canyon you encounter the excite- 
ment of archaeology first hand. Here 
adults and students of all ages — most 
with no previous archaeological experi- 
ence — excavate, analyze, and learn side 
by side with archaeologists. 

Together you and the Crow Canyon 
scientists work toward an understanding 
of the Anasazi, the "Ancient Ones," who 
built countless stone pueblos centuries 
ago, and then departed. In this beautiful 
southwestern landscape they left villages, 
ceramics, tools, and silence. At Crow 
Canyon you help widen our knowledge of 
these early Americans. 



Please request information about our 
biking tour through Vermont, September 
23-30, 1 990, and about a voyage from 
Istanbul through the Greek Islands aboard 
the llliria April 26-May 7, 1990, 




31 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, IL 60605-2499 



Field Museum 

The Smart W\yTo Have Fun. 



FIELD MUSEUM OFlP^rURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



^- November 1989 




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Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1950 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 



CONTENTS 

November 1989 
Volume 60, Number 9 



Mrs. JamesJ. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Thetxiore D. Ticken 
E.Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DcCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strot: 
John W. Sullivan 



Board OF Trustees 

Robert A. Prit:ker 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Btnd. 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H. Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
RonaldJ. Gidwitz 
Wayne E. Hedien 
Clarence E. Johnstin 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinseila 
Robert D. Kolar 
William Kunkier 111 
Hugo J. Meivoin 
Leo F. Mulhn 
JamesJ. O'Connor 



Ownership, Management and Circulation 

Filing date: Oct. 4. 1989. Title: Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. Publication no. 898940. 
Frequency of publication. Monthly except for combined July/August and Sept./Oct. issues. Num- 
ber of issues published annually: 10. Annual subcriptlon price: $6.00. Office: Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago. IL 60605. 

Publisher: Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd.. at Lake Shore Dr. Chicago, IL 
60605. Editor: David M. Walsten, Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore 
Dr.. Chicago, IL 60605. Owner: Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd, at Lake Shore Dr., 
Chicago, IL 60605. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders: none. The pur- 
pose, function, and nonprofit status of this organization and the exempt status tor Federal income 
tax purposes has not changed during the preceding 1 2 months. 

Average number Actual number 

of copies each of copies single 

issue preceding issue nearest 

12 montfis to filing date 

Total copies printed 26.480 28,402 

Paid circulatton (sales through dealers, vendors, CEirriers) none none 

Paid circulation (mail subscriptbns) 24,772 26,237 

Total paid circulation 24,772 26.237 

Free distribution 523 608 

Total distribution 25.295 26.845 

Office use, left over 1 ,185 1 .557 

Return from news agent none none 

Total 26.480 28,402 

1 certify that the statements made by me above are correct and complete. Jimmie W Croft, vice 
preskJent for Finance and Museum Services. 



NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 

TRAVELING THE PACIFIC 

by Phyllis Rabineau, Senior Exhibit Developer. 8 

A VISITOR'S GUIDE TO "TRAVELING THE PACIFIC" 

MichaelM. Delfini designer, Design and Production 15-18 

A RECIPE FOR MUSEUM UVA 

by Tamara Biggs, Prcjea Supervisor 22 

ODYSSEY OF A MARSHALL ISLANDS CANOE 

by Richard S. Faron, Assistant Developer. 24 

RECREATING A TAHITIAN MARKETPUCE 

by Jeff Hoke, Exhibit Designer. 26 

FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 30 



COVER 

"A View at Anamooka," engraving by J. Webber, from the atlas to Capt. 
James Cook's A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean (3 vols.), London, 1784. 
The island of Anamooka, today called Nomuka, is in Tonga, in the South 
Pacific. The first edition set of this work is in the Field Museum's Mary 
W. Runnells Rare Book Room and came from the library of Stanley 
Field, president of Field Museum from 1908 to 1964. Color was added to 
Webber's engraving by Sophia Anastasiou-Wasik, Department of Pho- 
tography. 



1990 Calendar 

As usual. Field Museum members will be receiving an appoint- 
ment calendar for the next year. For 1990, however, members 
will receive — in lieu of a Bulletin calendar — the beautiful 15- 
month calendar published by the Field Museum Women's 
Board. In addition to the tweli e months of 1990, the Women's 
Board calendar includes the last two months of 1989 and the first 
month of 1991. The calendar's superb photos, IS in all, feature 
artifacts from the Museum's spectacular new exhibit, "Traveling 
the Pacific." The Bulletin editor wishes to thank the Women's 
Board for making this superb publication available to the general 
membership. 



Field Muuum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except bimonthly July & August and September & October, by Field Museum of Natural History, Rooseveh Road at Lake Shott Drive. Chicago. IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright© 1989 Field Museum of Natuial History Subscriptions S6.00 annually S3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscnption. Opinions expres-^ed by authors are their own and do not necessanly leflcct the policy of Field 
Museum Unsolicited manuscnpts arc welcome. Museum phone: 1312) 922-9410. Notification of addiess change should include address label and be sent to Membetship Department. Postmaster Send address changes 10 Field Museum of Natural Histcry, 
Rooseveh Road at Lake Short Drive. (^licago.lL 60605-2496. ISSN;074l-2%7. 




Adult Programs 



In celebration of the opening of Field Museum's newest pernnanent 
exhibit, "Traveling the Pacific," adult programs feature the people and 
natural history of this region. Choose from a variety of weekend and 
evening courses. Please use coupon on p. 4. 

'Traveling the Pacific": A V\felk-Through 

Phyllis Rabineau, Senior Exhibit Developer, Field Museum 

Explore Field Museum's newest exhibit, "Traveling the Pacific, " The 
program begins with an introduction to the Pacific region and sugges- 
tions for viewing the different sections of the exhibit. Participants are 
then free to explore the exhibit on their own. Senior exhibit developer 
Phyllis Rabineau is available throughout this time to answer questions. 
Please indicate a second choice of date for this class. 

AC89301 Thursday Nov 16 
AC89302 W/ednesday Nov 29 
(1 session each date) 
7:00pm-9:00pm $10 ($8 members) 

"Mythologies of Oceania" 
Steven Poser, Lecturer, Department of 
Philosophy, Empire State College, and State 
University of New York, Hudson Valley Center 

Myths from the Pacific peoples are as rich and as varied as the cul- 
tures they represent. Listen to and discuss some of the beautiful and 
exciting mythic narratives from Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. 
Examine the relationship of myth to the natural environment of the Paci- 
fic and recurrent motifs within Oceanic cosmology 

AC89303 Saturday and Sunday, 1 0:30am-3:00pm 
Dec. 2 and 3 (2 sessions) 
$50 ($40 members) 

"Ring of Fire: The Pacific Ocean Basin" 

Paul Sipiera, Professor, Department of Physical 

Sciences, Harper College 

Examine the geology of the early Earth from solar system formation to 
the beginning of plate tectonics. Focusing on the Pacific Ocean Basin, 
discuss the geological processes involved with earthquakes and vol- 
canoes in the area known as the "ring of fire," 

AC89304 Tuesdays, 7:00-9:00pm 
Oct, 31 - Nov 21 (4 sessions) 
$50 ($40 members) 

"Kali-Eskrima: A Filipino Martial Art" 

Nathan Defensor 

Founder of The Filipino Kali-Eskrima Academy of Chicago 

The Philippine Islands have a long history of warrior traditions used to 
defend the homeland, Kali-Eskrima is a traditional martial art using 
sticks, knives, or bare hands for self defense. Learn the basics of Kali- 
Eskrima while studying the history and culture of the Philippine people 
Participants should expect to spend an additional $1 2 on supplies. 

AC89305 Wednesdays, 7:00-9:00pm 
Nov 1 - Dec. 6 (6 sessions) 
$60 ($50 members) 



Weekend lour Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of 
natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and films 
related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families 
and adults. Listed below are some of the numerous activities offered 
each weekend. Check the activity listing upon arrival for the complete 
schedule and program locations. The programs are partially sup- 
ported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council, 

November 

4. 18 12:30pm, "Museum Safar;," A trek through the four corners 
of the Museum to see the seven continents. See antiquities 
from the Amazon and an Egyptian tomb, big game from 
Africa and seals from the Arctic, 

5.19 1 2:30pm, " \Ne\come to Field Museum." Enjoy a sampling of 
our most significant exhibits, 

Decemt)er 

2 1:30pm, "7/t>ef 7bdayancfaFa/f/i/n£x//e,"Thisslidelecture 

focuses upon Tibetan refugees in India: Dharamsala, 
Darjeeling, and Sikkim, and includes slides of the dedication 
ceremony of a Himalayan temple in Indiana by His Holiness 
the Dalai Lama, 

3, 1 7 1 2:30pm. " Welcome to Field Museum." Enjoy a sampling of 
our most significant exhibits. 

9 12:30pm. "Museum Safer/." A trek through the four corners 

of the Museum to see the seven continents. See antiquities 
from the Amazon and an Egyptian tomb, big game from 
Africa and seals from the Arctic, 

1 :30 pm, " Tibet Today and Bhutan: Land of the Thunder Dra- 
gon." See Lhasa and other towns now open to tourists, and 
examine important Buddhist sites during this slide lecture 
and tour 





WdHcI Music Programs 

Weekends in November and December 
1 :00pm and 3:00pm 



Program Highlights include: 

D Nov. 4. 5 

1 :00pm — Eli Hoenai demonstrates African percussion 

3:00pm — Fan Wei-Tsi demonstrates the sheng, a Chinese zither 

a Nov. 10, 11 

1 :00pm — Eli Hoenai demonstrates African percussion 

3:00pm — Darlene Blackburn demonstrates African dance 

DNov 18 (Saturday) 

1 :00pm — Light Henry Hutf plays jazz harp 

3:00pm — Musa Mosley demonstrates African drumming 

a Nov 24 (Friday) 

1 :00pm— Light Henry Huff plays jazz harp 

3:00pm — Musa Mosley demonstrates African drumming 

D Nov 25, 26 

1 :00pm — Shanta delights with African stories and song 

3:00pm — Thunder SWy Drummers perform using African percussion 

instruments 
D Dec. 2. 3 

1 :00pm — Eli Hoenai demonstrates African instruments 
3:00pm — Fan Wei-Tsi demonstrates the sheng. a Chinese zither 
D Dec. 9. 10 

1 :00pm — Musa Mosley teaches African drumming 
3:00pm — Librado Salazar plays classical guitar 



a Dec. 16, 17 

1 :00pm — Chinese Music Society of North America demonstrates in- 
struments from the Chinese orchestra 
3:00pm — Keith Eric performs Jamaican music and tells stories 

nDec.26 27(Tues., Wed.) 

1 :00pm — Thunder Sky Drummers play African percussion 

3:00pm— Chicago Beau plays blues harmonica 

nDec28,29{Thurs.,Fn.) 

1 :00pm— Light Henry Huff plays contemporary jazz harp 

3:00pm — Eli Hoenai demonstrates African instruments 

D Dec. 30. 31 

1 :00pm— Musa Mosley teaches African drumming 

3:00pm — Keith Enc performs Jamaican music and tells stories 

The V\forld Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and Harle 
Montgomery Fund and a CityArts grant from the Chicago Office of 
Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs, and the Illinois Arts Council. 
a state agency These programs are free with Museum admission and 
tickets are not required. 



Adult-Child Workshops 

Adult-child workshops offer an exciting, participatory learning experi- 
ence. Children and adults work together to discover fossils, join in a 
Hawaiian luau. or make shadow puppets. Workshops are designed for 
specific age groups from 2-year-olds to 13-year-olds. For a full listing 
of workshops and registration information, call the Department of 
Education at (312) 322-8854 or consult the November-December 
Adult, Children, and Family Programs brochure. 



Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this registration 
application. Advance registrations are confirmed by mail. For registra- 
tions received less than two weeks before the program date, con- 
firmations are held at the West Door for pick-up one hour before the 
program begins. Phone registrations are accepted using Visa/Master 
Card/AMX/Discover Please call (312) 322-8854 to register The mini- 
mum amount for credit cards is $15.00. For further registration 
information, consult the November/December Adult, Children, and 
Family Program Brochure. 

Return complete registration with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Department of Education, Program Registration 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, I L 60605-2497 



Program 
Number 


Program 


#Member 


#Nonmember 


Total Tickets 


Amount 
Enclosec 


















































□ Scholar 


ship requested 






Total 





Address 


4 
City 


State 


Zip 


Telephone: 


Daytime 


Evening 



DAMX 
Card# 



Signature 



DVisa 



D MasterCard 



D Discover (Check one) 
expiration date 



For office use only: date received 



date mailed 




Vanishing Rain Forests: 
The Earth in Crisis 



Field Museum's landmark lecture series continues Saturdays, 
November 4-18. Please use coupon on p. 4. 



Saturday, Nov. 4, 2:00pm 
"The Threat to the Living World" 
Peter H. Raven, Director, 
Missouri Botanical Garden 

The combination of rapid tiuman population growth, widespread 
poverty andan inability to put sustainable systems of agriculture 
into place are bringing about the most extensive episode of extinc- 
tion since the dinosaurs disappeared. The consequences of this 
extinction must be considered and intelligent choices made now for 
the benefit of our children and grandchildren, 
LL89303 
$5,00 ($3,00 members) 



Saturday, Nov. 1 1 , 7:00pm 

"Population Growth and the Destruction of Tropical Forests" 
Paul R. Ehrlich, Bing Professor of Population Studies, 
Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University 

Human population growth has major global impacts. In tropical for- 
est regions, this growth contributes to the demand for land. It in- 
creases the demand for forest products worldwide. Indirectly it con- 



tributes to deforestation, which may lead to global warming, ozone 
depletion, and acid rain. What steps can be taken to protect the for- 
ests and the earth. 
LL89304 
$5,00 ($3,00 members) 



Saturday, Nov. 18, 2:00 pm 
"Biodiversity and the Tropical Forest" 
Russell A. Mittermeier, President 
Conservation International 

Plant and animal species of the tropical rain forests are being des- 
troyed so rapidly that we will never know their scientific value or 
even know of their existence. Focusing on primates and their tropic- 
al forest habitats, examine recent extinctions and the critical need 
for conservation efforts. 
LL89305 
$5,00 ($3,00 members) 

For additional information on "Vanishing Rain Forests: The Earth in 
Crisis," contact the Department of Education at (312) 322-8854 or 
consult the November/December Adult, Children, and Family Pro- 
grams Brochure. 

Also in November-December. . . 

Begin to unlock the secrets of Egyptian hieroglyphs, study the 
archaeology of the eastern United States, embroider traditional Mex- 
ican designs, or learn to force spring flowering bulbs to bloom indoors 
this winter. For a full listing of adult courses and workshops, consult the 
November-December Adult, Children, and Family Programs brochure 
or call the Department of Education at (312) 322- 8854. 




Lime mortar made of carved wood (detail) from Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea, 

Ron Testa and Diane Alexander White 





a<;^^j 



Quiet. 

Elegant. 

Close. 

Theres never been anything quite like 

the Omni Morton Hotel in Chicagos Financial 

District. Understated elegance. A resourceful 

concierge. Weekday morning limousine service. 

And Chicagos most in-demand restaurant, 

The Prairie. 



For those wishing to enjoy a Chicago weekend, 

our unique location places us in enviable 

proximity to our citys most prestigious 

cukural attractions: The Field Museum, 

The Art Institute, The Chicago Symphony 

Orchestra, The Lyric Opera, Shedd Aquarium, 

and The Adler Planetarium. For those 

travelers our weekend packages start 

at only $89 per night* 



Or give us a call at 663-3200 to learn how 

we can structure a corporate rate 

for your specific needs. 



CULTURAL 
CHICAGO'S HOTEL 



WEEKEND PACKAGES begin at $89 

*Based on availability. 

Not valid in conjunction with other offers. 



Omni® Morton Hotel 

500 South Dearborn, Chicago, Illinois 60605 

(312) 663-3200 or I-800-THE-OMNI 

Fax 312-939-2468 

Operated by The Management Group, Inc. 



1% of the eartHs surfece! 



Its airline covers the rest!' 






Holland's presence may be easy to overlook in 
a world atlas. But not among the world's airlines. 

Everyday, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines blankets 
the globe with flights connecting over 135 business 
capitals on six continents. 

In fact, we reach more cities in Europe, Africa 
and the Mideast than all U.S. airlines combined. 

The result is a truly global network watched 
over by more than 20,000 KLM employees. Includ- 



ing a helpful, English-speaking ground staff that 
makes some 75 foreign countries a little less foreign. 

All of which is reassuring when business calls 
for a long-range journey into the unknown: KLM's 
global passenger network doesn't end at the airport. 

Call your travel agent or KLM.The + 
airline of the seasoned traveler. 



The Reliable Airline KLM 



Royal Dutch Airlines 




Lagoon beach side of recreated coral island In the new exhibit, "Traveling the Pacific." oane Alexander wmne 



7r" 
The Pacific 



Field Museum's Newest 
Permanent Exhibit 



by Phyllis Rabineau 
Senior Exhibit Developer 




W'hat are the first thoughts that come to mind 
when you hear the words "Pacific islands"? If 
you're like most of the hundreds of Field 
Museum visitors we asked, you probably think of palm 
trees, blue water, and white sandy beaches. Perhaps 
you think of exploding volcanoes, or of coral reefs 
teeming with exotic fish. Maybe you've vacationed in 
Hawaii, or fought at Guadalcanal. You probably know 
the story of the mutiny on HMS Bounfy, or about the 
voyage of the raft Korx Tiki. You've seen Gauguin's 
Tahitian paintings, or read island tales by Maugham, 
Stevenson, Melville, or Michener. 

For more than two centuries. Pacific islands have 
captured the imagination of westerners. We tend to 
think of them as lush, exotic environments — as para- 
dise where native peoples live easy lives. But how 
much of that is true? 

In the United States, little public education has 
been devoted to Pacific islands, and few museums 
have comprehensive exhibitions about them. The 
Field Museum, housing one of the world's greatest col- 
lections of artifacts from Pacific cultures, is uniquely 
qualified to help our visitors learn more about the is- 
lands and their peoples. The Museum's new exhibi- 
tion program, emphasizing innovative techniques and 
interdisciplinary topics, provides an opportunity to 
enhance public understanding of this enormous (and 
little-understood) part of the world. 

Supported by generous funding from the 
Regenstein Foundation, the National Endowment 
for the Humanities, the National Science Founda- 
tion, and the Chicago Park District, a staff of fifty 
exhibit developers, designers, and preparators aided 
by nearly two dozen scientific consultants has been at 
work behind the scenes for three years, planning the 
Regenstein Halls of the Pacific, new exhibit spaces 
devoted to Pacific islands. The first results, a 10,000- 
square-foot installation entitled Traveling the Pacific, 
opens this November. When the second phase is com- 
pleted a year from now, the Field Museum will have 
more than 17,000 square feet of exhibit space devoted 
to Pacific islands, the largest exhibit the Museum has 
yet produced. 

Traveling the Pacific incorporates a geographic 
orientation to the islands and introduces many aspects 
of their natural and cultural history. The final phase of 
the Pacific installation, opening in November 1990, 
will constitute a closer look at the rituals and cere- 
monies of Pacific peoples, emphasizing their spectacu- 



lar art objects. It's the broadest goal of this exhibit to 
increase public understanding of, and respect for, 
these faroff islands and their peoples. Using the 
metaphor of an imaginary journey, we'll visit many 
unfamiliar islands, as well as highlight unexpected 
facts about well-known places. 

Where Will Our Travels Take Us? 

Traveling the Pacific uses many imaginative techniques 
to provide visitors of all ages with information about 
the ocean, the land, and the plants, animals, and 
peoples that inhabit about a third of Earth's surface. 
(The area included in the exhibit is shown on the 
map on page 16. ) The story concerns a few big is- 
lands, notably New Guinea and New Zealand, and 
many thousands of small islands, some no more than 
tiny specks of land. Most are so small that their scale 
must be greatly exaggerated just to be shown on a 
map. 

This range of island sizes, compounded by their 
distribution over a huge geographic area, makes for a 
great variety of environments: rugged mountains, 
low-lying swamps, tropical forests, and nearly barren 
sandspits. On some islands plants and animals have 
lived in isolation for millions of years and have 
evolved in unique ways. Adapting to these environ- 
ments, and experiencing change over thousands of 
years, the human cultures have also become extreme- 
ly diverse. 

In short, diversity is an important characteris- 
tic of Pacific islands. No single picture, object, or 
phrase can sum them up, and no exhibit can tell 
you everything about them; it can only provide an 
introduction. 

Geography and Geology 

No one has really counted, but geographers estimate 
that there are between 20,000 and 30,000 islands in 
the Pacific. The biggest one. New Guinea, is the 
second largest island in the world. (Only Greenland is 
larger. ) It covers about 306,000 square miles, the size 
of Texas and Kentucky put together. The smallest is- 
lands are just piles of coral rock that barely rise above 
ocean's surface. 

Traveling the Pacific will help our visitors learn 
about the geography of these remote islands using a 
unique orientation method. At the entrance to the 
exhibit, you'll find a large map made from ceramic 
tiles, spread across the floor. A sign invites you to take 
1 an "Island Hop Across the Pacific," to walk on the 



map and discover the names and locations of hun- 
dreds of islands. You can measure your foot against a 
scale of miles, and pace off distances. You'll find it's 
more than 8,000 miles from Chicago to New Guinea! 

How did all those islands get there? That's the 
topic covered in the first major section of Traveling 
the Pacific, and as you might expect, there's no single 
answer to that question; it depends on which islands 
you consider. We'll take a closer look at one process 
of island formation. 

In some places deep below the Pacific seafloor 
are stationary "hot spots," where molten rock from 
within the earth pushes up to form a volcano. Over 
time, the volcano may grow large enough to rise 
above sea level and build an island. We're not sure 
exactly how many hot spots are under the Pacific sea- 
floor, but geologists think there might be about ten. 
Coupled with tectonic movement, those few hot 
spots have built thousands of mid-ocean islands. 

The Pacific Plate, that part of Earth's crust 
which lies beneath most of the Pacific Ocean, is mov- 
ing northwest at the rate of about four inches a year. 
As it travels, the plate carries newly created volcanic 
islands away from their hot spot sources. Over mil- 
lions of years, these volcanic islands erode and subside 
into the sea; coral torn from underwater reefs piles up 
around them to form rings of low islands called atoUs. 

The hot spots stay fixed in place, and their con- 
tinued eruptions form new islands. Each island is car- 
ried away by the moving plate, and each goes through 
the process of erosion and subsidence. Like products 
on an assembly-line conveyor belt, chains of islands 
are carried on the moving Pacific Plate. 

The best known island chain is the Hawaiian 
group, with hot spot volcanoes Mauna Loa and Kilauea 
still active on the "Big Island." Islands northwest in 
the Hawaiian chain show the process of aging — those 
farthest from the hot spot are oldest. Other island 
groups formed long ago by hot spots include the Soci- 
ety Islands, the Marshall Islands, the Gilberts, and 
the Carolines. 

Traveling the Pacific highlights the story of island 
chains with a variety of media. We've recreated an 
actual lava flow from Hawaii, cast life-size in fiber- 
glass. (See page 22 for an account of that process. ) 
This flow is the basis for a "lava theatre," animated 
with special effects, including lights, television, and 
a soundtrack of native Hawaiian chants and stories 
about the fire goddess, Pele. Take a few moments to 
listen to these ancient tales; they have remarkable 
parallels with modem theories of plate tectonics. 



As you leave the "lava theatre," you'll see a large 
mural of the Hawaiian Islands, a photo taken during 
a space shuttle flight. A map shows the Hawaiian 
chain, stretching from the Big Island to Kauai, to 
Midway, and finally to the submerged Emperor Sea- 
mounts. Over 90 million years, the Pacific Plate has 
carried these ancient islands far from the Hawaiian 
hot spot, all the way to the deep sea trench near the 
Aleutian Islands. 

Nearby, you'll find more information on lava, 
and samples of its different forms: smooth, ropy 
pahoehoe (pah-HOE-ay-HOE-ay); chunks of rougher 
'a'a (AH-ah); black sand; green sand; and gleaming 
threads oiPele's hair. Labels tell you that, in deference 
to Hawaiian custom, the Museum no longer collects 
lava from Hawaii; these samples were collected nearly 
100 years ago. 

Highlighting the stages of island formation are 
touchable models, diagrams, and interactive elements. 
You can peek into a mutoscope (a nickelodeon-style 
viewer) where animated flip cards show volcanoes 
give way to coral islands, or turn a wheel to see a mod- 
el of how the sea floor spreads. You can test your 
knowledge of Pacific geology with questions and 
answers on sliding panels: How hot is lava? How deep 
is the Pacific Ocean? What's Earth's tallest mountain? 
Maps and labels describe the formation of other kinds 
of islands: large continental islands, like New Guinea 
and New Zealand, and the island arcs — like Fiji, Ton- 
ga, and the Solomons — built by more explosive vol- 
canoes in the Ring of Fire. 

To learn more about the later stages of an island's 
life, visit the exhibit unit on coral. You'll find samples 
of coral to touch, and magnifiers to compare views of 
Pacific coral sand with Chicago beach sand. Speci- 
mens and diagrams show the structure of corals. The 
centerpiece of this area is a large marine aquarium 
with living corals and live Pacific reef fish. 

Life Comes to Islands 

After introducing the basic processes that form is- 
lands, the exhibit turns to the plants and animals that 
live on them. Here's where our title, Traveling the Paci- 
fic, really takes on meaning. 

While most Pacific islands are very small, the 
ocean itself is vast — about 64 million square miles. It's 
widest near the equator, where it measures nearly half 
the distance around the world. The miles of open 
ocean that separate islands from continents, and is- 



lands from each other, have had an enormous impact 
on biological evolution and cultural history in the 
Pacific. 

Remote islands start out as barren piles of volca- 
nic rock. How do they become populated? The plants 
and animals that are settled there first must come 
from across the ocean — blowing in the winds, floating 
on the currents, or hitching a ride on some traveling 
seabird. Once they arrive, these visitors may not find 
accommodations suitable for survival. Here's a good 
example: Illinois has 44 kinds of native orchids. How 
many do you think are native to Hawaii? The answer: 
three! 

Why so few? Orchid seeds are like fine powder, 
so they easily drift long distances on the wind. But to 
grow, orchids need nourishment from particular spe- 
cies of fungi that grow in the soil. Since the right fun- 
gi didn't get to Hawaii, very few orchids were able to 
set root there. These native Hawaiian species are very 
small. All the large, fancy orchids you see in Hawaii 
today were introduced by commercial growers. 

While some organisms can't adapt to an island 
environment, others may find it a land of opportu- 
nity. Without competing species, their descendants 
can exploit a variety of ecological niches. Over many 
generations, these descendants might evolve into 
many new species, each adapted to a different life- 
style. Examples of this phenomenon, called adaptive 
radiation, abound on the Hawaiian islands. Traveling 
the Pacific includes specimens and photos such as 
snails, flies, birds, and plants. We'll show you how 
some island creatures lost ancient defenses: raspberries 
without thorns, plants without odor. You'll learn how 
imperiled some of these unique Hawaiian species are 
as you listen to the call of an extinct Hawaiian bird. 

It takes many generations for creatures to evolve 
and diversify on an island during its early geological 
stages. But by the time the island has shrunk, sunk, 
and turned into a coral atoll it's populated by an en- 
tirely different set of organisms. These plants and 
animals must be adapted to survive a very rugged 
environment. On low coral islands the sun blazes and 
winds are forceful. The soil — what there is of it — is 
poor; levels of salt in groundwater and sea spray are 
high. The island may perhaps rise no more than ten or 
fifteen feet above sea level. The dry season can truly 
be a drought, and the wet season sometimes brings 
storms so violent they can sweep an island clean of 
life. In short, although it looks like paradise to us, real 
life on a picture-postcard beach is no vacation. 1 1 




^2 rU 

Artists Carol Christiansen and Jeff Wrona painting ocean front side of recreated coral island. Ron Testa and Diane Alexander wrrne 



A Stroll in "Paradise" 



Canoes in Pacific Cultures 



There's no better way to learn about an environment 
than by going there. We can't take our visitors to a 
remote island, so we decided to bring an island to our 
visitors. After many months of research, fieldwork, 
design, and production, we've built an island within 
the Museum's walls. We're sure you'll find it a land- 
mark experience to walk across the coral reef flat and 
leafy forest, out onto the sandy lagoon beach of an is- 
land in Jaluit Atoll. You're in the Marshall Islands, 
about 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii. 

This island is a tiny one, too small for human 
habitation. Its main residents are coconut, pandanus, 
and other tropical trees; bird's nest ferns and creeping 
vines; skinks, geckos and giant coconut crabs; nod- 
dies, terns, and tropicbirds. 

You'll begin your hike on the exposed ocean side 
of the island. It's nearly sunset. A fresh wind blows 
in from the sea. The reef flat, exposed at low tide, 
stretches before you, littered with crabs, starfish, and 
chunks of dead coral. In the distant sea a line of 
breakers marks the edge of the underwater reef. You'll 
hear the constant, roaring surf and leaves rustling in 
the wind. Seabirds call from treetop perches; a reef 
heron feeds on the reef flat. 

Follow a path to the interior of the island. 
There, you'll discover a group of exhibits — cases, 
labels, and hands-on models — inviting you to learn 
how creatures disperse to remote islands. A "wind 
machine" simulates dispersal on air currents; push 
down on its pumps and watch seeds swirl through the 
air. Slide open panels near a beached log to discover 
how it brings new life to islands. Dunk a coconut in 
water to see how it travels across the ocean to sprout 
on distant islands. Look closely at a seabird to find the 
seeds and snails that "hitched" a ride with him. 

Continue your hike and emerge from the island 
center onto a lagoon beach gleaming with white sand 
and turquoise water. On this side of the island there's 
no surf, only the quiet lapping of waves along the 
beach's edge. Keep an eye out for reptiles and crusta- 
ceans, particularly giant coconut crabs, feeding on 
their favorite food. 

People don't live on this tiny island, but they 
come here from other islands in Jaluit Atoll to gather 
resources like land crabs and fruits, and to fish from 
the offshore reefs. If you look around, you may find 
the remains of their picnic feast — charred shells, tur- 
tle bones, and coconut leaf plates. Pulled up on the 
sandy beach is their 18-foot-long outrigger sailing 
canoe. 



Over many generations, canoe builders in the Mar- 
shall Islands developed designs and building methods 
well-suited to their austere environment. Traveling the 
Pacific highlights these achievements with exhibit 
labels that help you identify distinctive features of the 
canoe's hull, sail, and outrigger. We'll show you where 
to look at the hull to see how it's stitched together 
from many small planks; this technique enabled the 
canoe builder to make the most of scarce wood re- 
sources. Labels also point to the hull's unique asym- 
metric shape, explain how the outrigger works, and 
recount a Marshall Islands legend explaining how 
canoes got their sails. 

Acquired with assistance from the Alele Museum 
of the Marshall Islands, this canoe is the only full-size 
vessel in the Field Museum's Pacific collection. It was 
built in 1977 and used until last year for fishing in 
Jaluit lagoon. (See page 24 for more information 
on the canoe.) 

Many people in Chicago are boating enthusiasts, 
and might like to learn more about how Marshall 
Islanders build and sail canoes. That information is 
found in the exhibit in a thatched shed, similar to the 
one a Marshall Islands canoe builder might use to 
keep tools and materials sheltered from the hot sun or 
pouring rain. In the shed you'll find samples of those 
tools, and an unfinished canoe hull, showing how it's 
constructed. There's a working model of an outrigger 
canoe, demonstrating how it rides over ocean waves. 
Finally, you'll find information on centuries-old 
navigation techniques, using waves, clouds, birds, 
and stars as natural guideposts. 

Leaving the canoe shed, visitors will find a dis- 
play of arts and artifacts, all related to canoes, from 
throughout the Pacific. Unlike plants and animals, 
whose travel to far-flung islands was impeded by the 
Pacific's vast expanse, people transformed the seas 
from a barrier to a highway. In beautifully designed 
and engineered canoes, they colonized nearly every 
habitable island in this part of the world. Once people 
settled on islands, canoes enabled them to fish, trade, 
wage war, and simply keep in touch with their nearest 
neighbors. 

We've assembled about 200 objects related to 
canoes from throughout the Pacific. Canoe models 
illustrate adaptations to different local environments: 
open ocean, coastal waters, inland rivers. Other 
models show canoes for war and trade. The display 
includes many functional items such as paddles and 1 3 



bailers, but the true significance of canoes in Pacific 
cultures can best be measured by their use as ritual 
symbols. Traveling the Pacific includes many examples 
of ceremonial objects derived from canoes. Some are 
paddles, carried in dance. Others are headdresses, or 
dishes for food or oils. 

The notion of voyage, represented by a canoe, 
could be a metaphor for major transitions that take 
place in human life. In some cultures, ritual canoes 
were made never to be sailed, but to be used only in 
initiation ceremonies marking the passage from youth 
to adulthood. One particularly beautiful example 
from the Museum's collections is a "spirit canoe" from 
New Britain. Canoes could also be used as coffins or 
grave markers, vessels for the voyage from this life to 
the next. 

The First Settlers 

Most of the Pacific islanders' voyages of discovery 
occurred before European ships ventured beyond the 
sight of land. New Guinea's first settlers arrived about 



Breadfruit. Artocarpus communis, is a ma|or staple food of tfie 
South Pacific. Introduced in prefiistoric times from Malaysia, ttie 
breadfruit tree provides fiber for clotti. wood for furniture and 
canoes, and juices for caulking and glue, as well as foodstuff. A 
single tree, wfiicfi may grow to 60 feet, can bear as many as 800 
grapefruit-size fruits in one season. John Awerson 




40,000 years ago, crossing at least 40 miles of ocean 
on some kind of watercraft. By AD 800, all the major 
Pacific islands were inhabited. 

Since little physical evidence has survived, the 
details of Pacific prehistory aren't well known. Schol- 
ars agree that the islands were settled from southeast 
Asia — not from South America, a theory popularized 
by Thor Heyerdahl who sailed that way on his raft 
Kon Tiki. However, the exact number of migrations, 
and the paths of each, are still open to debate. 

For two hundred years, western observers have 
divided islanders into groups called Melanesians, Mi- 
cronesians, and Polynesians, basing the distinctions 
largely on physical appearance. But there's disagree- 
ment over how closely the darker-skinned Melane- 
sians and the lighter-skinned Polynesians are related. 
Traveling the Pacific provides visitors with maps and 
labels describing the main theories of island settle- 
ment currently being debated. 

What was it like to be an early Pacific voyager, 
to travel without maps or compass? To help give you 
some idea of the accomplishments of these great 
sailors, our staff has developed a computer game. 
You'll pretend to be the navigator of a canoe setting 
out from Samoa. You'll choose provisions, crew, direc- 
tion to sail, and time of year. With skill and luck 
you'll reach another island. Without them, you might 
drift off course, perish in a storm, or simply run out of 
drinking water. 

A New Guinea Village 

After so much time at sea, visitors will perhaps be glad 
to set foot ashore. The next stop in Traveling the Pacific 
is a village on the Huon Gulf, on the northeast coast 
of the large island of New Guinea. Here, the sea 
supplies a bountiful harvest offish, but resources of 
the land — garden crops and domesticated animals — 
play a larger role in sustaining human life. The 
environment here, and the traditional cultures that 
inhabited it, were entirely different from those on • 
small islands like the ones we've seen so far. 

Now, through exhibitry's magic, you'll travel 
back in time to 1910, when A.B. Lewis, a Field 
Museum curator, visited New Guinea and gathered 
thousands of objects to form the core of our unparal- 
leled Pacific collection. We've selected several hun- 
dred of them to illustrate the roles that men and 
women played in Huon Gulf culture. Objects and 
photographs illustrate the cultural setting of 1910; 
labels point out continuities and contrasts with life 

today. ^ 

Continued on p. 19 







TRAVELING THE PACIFIC 

Would you like to — 

see glowing lava ? 

walk on a windswept beach ? 

learn why some canoes have sails ? 

stroll through a traditional village 

and a modem market? 

Journey up to the second floor 

and explore life on the Pacific islands 

in the Field Museum's newest exhibit, 

Traveling the Pacific. 

On busy days, Museum members 
go to the head of the line. 



' t \ 




'•1?^- 



^"W*- 



r-^f^.J 




Coming next year: 

Continue your travels through the cultural world of the P: 
Part 2 of our Pacific exhibit opens November 1990. 



Northern Mariana Islands 



Republic of Belau 



Guam 



Republic of the 

Marshall Islands 



Federated Stales of Micronesia Kiribati 

Nauru 



Papua New Guinea 



Tuvalu Tokelau 

Wallis and Futuna 

^uuu ._ Western Samoa ^i^, 

Solomon Vanuatu 



Muon i>\ 




Islands 



Tonga 



i 



New Zealand 








Paddlrs 




CANOE 


1 


1 


/x 


Prows 







Ch 



icai^o 



Hawaii 




?-^ 



-TA 



Cook 
Islands 



Tahiti 

French Polynesia 






•V,; 



TRAVELING THE PACIFIC 
Scale: Chicago to Hawaii - 4,233 miles 



"Traveling the Pacific" was launched by... 



Creating an exhibit is like undertaking an ocean 
voyage: it succeeds only thnsugh the combined 
talent and work of many jjeople. We would like 
to thank those who have joined together during 
the past four years to complete the journey of 
Traxjelmg the Ridfic. 

Funding 

Traveling the fhcifk was funded by the follovnng 
donors whose generosity we recognize with 
deepest gratitude: The Regenstein Foundation, 
National Endowment for the Humanities, 
National Science Foundation. 

Senior Exhibit Developer 

Phyllis Rabineau 
Lead Designer 
Jeff Hoke 
Prqect Supervisor 

Tamara Biggs 

Exhibit Devek^ment 

Richard Faron, Robert Feldman, Robert Izor, 

Samuel Mayo, Jeff Hayward, Laura Jones 

Administradcm 

Hillary Lewis 

Label Editing 

Susan Curran, Eileen Campbell, 

Nora Deans, Judy Rand, Michael Rigsby 

Photo /Film Research and Producti<Hi 

John Paterson, Douglas Grew, 

Therese Quinn, Lucinda Perez 

Design Supervision 

Paul Martin 

Exhibit Design 

Dianne Hanau-Strain, Burt Andrews, 

Lisa McKemin, Kevin Uliassi, 

Louise Belmont-Skinner 

Graphic Design 

Lynn Hobbs, Mary Chiz, Michael Delfini, 

Michael Brehm, Robin Faulkner, David Fortney 

Matthew Konicek, Katie Mullins, Janet Schmid 

Exhibit Production 

Anthropology Reconstructions 

Dan Brinkmeier, Mary Brogger, George Chavez, 

Terry Gibson, Dougjewell, George Monley, 

Randolph Olive, Bruce Scherting, 

Robin Whadey, Greg Williams, James Komar, 

Joshua McKible, Andrea Stanislav, Ted Gamer, 

Elizabeth Riggle 

Artifact Mounts and Installation 

Nancy Henriksson, Paul Brunsvold, Mike Bulka, 

Ben Clemence, Ed Correll, Peter Crabbe, 

Larry Degand, Randy Esslinger, Eric Frazer, 

Pam Gaible, Dougjewell, Kathryn Lehar, 

Randolph Olive, David Potter, Robin Whatley 

Greg Williams, Mary Zebell, Greg Olson, 

Mykl Ruffino 

Assistant Prefect Supervisor 

Neil Keliher 

Case construction 

Ray Leo, Kara Hetz, Chris Mailander, Randolph 

Olive, David Potter, Mike Shouba, Nick Silva, 

Jack Voris, Greg Olson, Rodney Stockment, 

Daniel Weinstock 

Habitat 

Pat Guizzetti, Paul Brunsvold, Brian Cavanaugh, 

Mary Jo Huck, Kathryn Lehar, Eric Pfeiffer, 

Susan Phillips, Joe Searcy, Vincent Shine, 

Jeff Wrona, Matthew Groshck, Dion Miller, 

Patricia Abraham, Lori Bode, Sandra Erjavac, 



Christian Gerstheimer, Stacy Robinson, 

Jeff Rubin, Elaine Tsakalakis, Carol 

Chrisdanson, Greg Septon 

Lig^iting 

WWter Horak, Chris Mailander, Scott Mattera, 

Joe Searcy 

Painting 

Dan Geary, Librado Salazar, Henry Tucker 

Bob Vinson 

Science 

Mary Maxon, Dougjewell, George Monley, 

John Russick, Brian Sauve', Bruce Scherting, 

Joe Searcy, Rick Cortez, Bill Skodje, 

Barbara Beardsley William Close, Bill Beardsley, 

David Beardsley, John Reverend 

Silk screen 

Jameil Al-Oboudi 

Exhibit Administration 

Michael Sjxx:k, Janet Kamien, Deborah Cooke, 
Geoffrey Grove, Carrie Hageman, Jessica 
Haynes, Kathryn Hill, Harvey Matthew, 
Janet McKinney, Norman Radtke, Beverly Scott, 
Gerald Struck, Daniel Weinstock, 
Anne Tribble Butterfield 

Artifact Conservation 

Christine DelRe, April Berry, Patricia Grewe- 
Mullins, Jeanne Mandel, Nancy Rubin, 
Catherine Sease, Jeanette Delaney, Louise 
Neuert, Betty Lewis 

Field Museum Scientific Advisors 

James S. Ashe, Bennet Bronson, William Burger, 
Barry Chemoff, John Engel, John Fitzpatrick, 
John Flynn, Larry Heaney, Robert Inger, Scott 
Lanyon, Phillip Lewis, Scott Lidgard, Alfred 
Newton, Edward Olsen, Bruce Patterson, 
Timothy Plowman, G. Alan Solem, Robert Stolze, 
Mdvin Traylor, Harold Voris, Bert Woodland 
Other Scientific Advisors 
Alfred Anderson, William Davenport, Philip 
Dark, Wayne Gagne', Richard Gordon, 
Laura Jones, Kenneth Kaneshiro, Gerald Knight, 
Manouche LeHartel, Lament Lindstrom, 
Douglas Newton, Roger Rose, Markus 
Schindlbeck, David Stoddart, Arthur Whisder, 
Geoffrey White 

Collections Management 

Margaret Baker, Dorothy Eatough, 

William Grewe-Mullins, Christine Gross, 

Sheryl Heidenreich, Lanet Jarrett, Gary Mazurek, 

Karen Poulson, Mary Anne Rogers, 

Dan Summers, Fred Werner, David Willard, 

Beth Scheckman, Honora Murphy 

Education 

Carolyn Blackxnon, Phil Courington, 

Nancy Evans, Phil Hanson, Anna Horvath, 

Kathleen Kinney, Peter Laraba, Earl Lock, 

Joyce Matuszewich, Norann Miller, 

Maija Sedzielarz, Alexia Trzyna, Judith Vismara, 

John Wagner, Susan Yax, Susan Stob 

Photography/^ 

Nina Cummings, Ron Testa, Diane Alexander 
White, Sophia Anastasiou Wasik,June Bartlett, 
Nance Klehm, James Foerster, Ron Wibel, 
Amy Budge, Ralph Freese, James Griggs, 
Pualani Kanaka'ole Kanahele,John I. I^argaard, 
Rosemary Marquez, Julio Martinez, 
Dan Richardson, Mark Strange, Jane Takahashi, 
Mark Wagner, Richard Woodbury 



Special Thanks To 

Friends in the Marshall Islanfls 

The Government of the Republic of the Marshall 
Islands, Mayor Diem Robert and the people of 
Jaluit Atoll, Reverend Kanki Amlej, 
Alfred Cajjelle, Carol Curtis, Jimajimna, 
Nathan Karben, Gerald Knight, Jenadde Leon, 
Arento Lobo, Queenie Ria, Mary Lanwi, 
Safety Andrew, Harold Annam, Linda Jaime, 
Brandon Johnson, Kabua Kabua, Henmi Korok, 
Jim Lajian, Jerry Lakabon, Lein Lakabon, 
Barry Riklong, Neal Skinner, Talji Zakrais 
And to 

Lucy Bukowski, Chicagoland Canoe Base, 
Roger Green, Ron Hall, Norman Hurst, 
Kamaki Kanahele, Pualani Kanaka'ole 
Kanahele, Susan Kodani, James Koeppl, 
Ewald Lemke, San Antonio Zoo, Staatiiche 
Museum (Berlin), Llois Stein, USGS Hawaii 
\folcano Observatory, Honorable Sidney R. ^iites 

Contractors 

1351 Productions, 3M Corporation, A-1 Quality 
Welding, Inc., A & B Machine Works, 
Agostino Ceramica, Alele Museum of the 
Marshall Islands, American Color Labs, 
Anderson Pest Control, Astra Photo, University 
of Auckland, Avenue Edit, Bel-Mar Wire 
Products, Inc., C & K Designs, Ltd., CADTCO, 
The Center for New Television, Chicago 
Association for Retarded Citizens, Chicago 
Flame Proof and Wood Preserving, Chicago 
Scenic Studios, Inc., Cornell University 
(Laboratory of Ornithology, Library of Natural 
Sounds), David Architectural Metals, Inc., 
Demco, Inc., CJ. Erickson Plumbing Co., 
Forbes, Inc., Gage-Babcock and Associates, Inc., 
Getty, White and Mason, Grinnell Fire Protection 
Systems Co., Hascek-Melville Corp., Helix, 
Hohco, Inc., International Film Foundation, 
Janis Plastics, Ka'io Productions, Kennedy- 
Trimnell Co., Inc., KGMB-TV and KHON-TV 
(Hawaii), Kirkland Sawmill, Kroeschell 
Engineering Co., Morton Floors Inc., MTH 
Industries, National Museum of New Zealand, 
University of New Mexico (Technical Application 
Center), Old Town Aquarium, Owens Welding, 
Pacific I.S.C, Pest Control Services, Inc., 
Gene Piontek and Associates, Pittman Plumbing 
and Heating Co., PMA Architectural Products, 
PML Exhibit Services Ltd., Richard Rush Studio, 
Inc., Service Glass Co., Shaf)e Plastics, 
Taylor Electric Co., Thome Associates, Inc., 
Triangle Decorating Co., Triple "B" Packers and 
Forwarders, Turner Construction Co., Wahlburg 
Construction Co., Harry Weese and Associates, 
West Hawaii Recording Studios 

Contributors 

Brian Brinkmeier, Greg Brinkmeier, 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold Brinkmeier, John Carroll, 

Dr. James Creath, Dudek and Bock Spring 

Manufacturing Co., Hascek-Melville Corp., 

Hoa My Market, Tiffany Huszagh, Imports 

International Inc.,Jaco Mannequins, Joslyn 

Manufacturing and Supply Co., Kabua Kabua, 

Jerry Lakabon, Majuro Stevedores, 

Matson Navigation Co., Old Town Aquarium, 

Underwater Safaris 

November 1989 




Urbanization comes to the Pacific. Today ttie Pacific s cuiturai and economic diversity includes scenes such as this in central Honolulu. 



Continued from p 14 

Instead of building a life-size New Guinea 
environment, we've brought you this world in micro- 
cosm. Peek into a miniature diorama representing 
part of a Huon Gulf village as it might have appeared 
eighty years ago. Dwellings and a ceremonial house 
are clustered beneath a grove of coconut palms. 
Canoes for fishing and trading nestle on the beach. 
People work at their everyday tasks: men are planning 
a feast, chopping wood, spearfishing, and loading a 
canoe; women are making pottery and fiber bags, 
cooking, and caring for small children. 

Artifacts in exhibit cases surrounding the diora- 
ma illustrate the complementary roles of Huon Gulf 
men and women. Facades for the cases look like full- 
size houses: a dwelling house on the women's side, and 
on the men's side a ceremonial house with some of its 
furnishings. Because rainfall is high in this part of 
New Guinea, these buildings stood atop house post 
"stilts." You'll have to look up to see the carved door- 
ways, and imagine climbing notched log ladders to go 
inside. 

Women's chief responsibilities centered on their 
homes and gardens: raising children and garden crops, 
making domestic goods like clothing and ceramics, 
and preparing daily meals. Men's encompassed a larger 
world. Trade, fishing, and warfare might have taken 



them miles from home. Only men could enter the 
ceremonial houses, where sacred carvings were kept, 
rituals planned, and local politics discussed. 

Objects on display from the Huon Gulf include 
women's skirts and string bags, and a variety of men's 
ornaments. Stages in making a cooking pot are 
shown. Drums, buUroarers (wooden slats that "roar" 
when whirled) , headrests, and figurative sculptures 
are shown near the ceremonial house. Highlighted are 
two of the most important foods: a replica garden of 
taro plants, and a real New Guinea pig, mounted by 
museum taxidermy. A hint of the preparations needed 
for a feast can be found in a recipe for taro and coco- 
nut cream pudding — to serve 100! 

A Modem Market in Tahiti 

The Museum's collection is rich in objects from the 
19th and early 20th centuries, but life on Pacific is- 
lands has changed since then. Missionaries, colonial 
governments, the devastating battles of World War II, 
emergent nationalism, and the global economy have 
all played a role in creating today's Pacific. While 
many islanders continue to support themselves 
through fishing or agriculture, others live in urban 
settings. No longer using a subsistence economy, 
these islanders meet the needs of daily life through 1 9 




20 



Pair of giant clams ( Tridacna gigas) in waters of tfie Caroline Is- 
lands. These huge molluscs, which can exceed 400 lbs., occur 
widely in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The large adductor muscle 
is considered a delicacy, ecan Roessier 



a modem economic institution, the commercial 
market. 

To illustrate some of the continuities and 
changes in a contemporary culture, we've built a life- 
size recreation of one of the Pacific's most colorful 
markets, from Papeete on the island of Tahiti. (See 
page 26 to learn more about the design of the mar- 
ket.) This isn't a tourist market; it's where the Tahi- 
tians meet their material needs, and many social 
needs as well. Here they obtain their food and cloth- 
ing, and gather to exchange news and views. Walk 
down a twisting street, glimpse into shop windows 
and open-air stalls. You'll find a record of the chang- 
ing Pacific. 

Some things in the market have been used for 
centuries: native crops like taro, breadfruit, and coco- 
nuts; ocean fish like bonito, and colorful lagoon reef 
fish. Other items are modifications of traditional 
Polynesian handwork: pandanus leaf baskets and hats 
and colorful shell necklaces. Pareu — sheets of fabric 
wrapped and folded to make a dress — are a centuries- 
old form of clothing. In their original form, they were 
made of finely beaten bark cloth; today, they're made 
from commercial cotton cloth colored in stenciled 
patterns. 

While some continuities are evident, many 
changes in Tahitian society are also reflected in the 
market. Some signs are in Tahitian, but others are in 



French, as you might expect in this urban center of 
French Polynesia. Several of the shops have Chinese 
names. Woks and rice bowls are prominently dis- 
played, and there's a Chinese-style pharmacy selling 
herbal medicines. The produce stall stocks Chinese 
foods like bean sprouts, ginger, and pea pods. You may 
he surprised to learn that the first Chinese people 
came to Tahiti in the mid- 1800s, brought by European 
plantation owners to work the fields of cotton. They've 
remained to take an important place in today's 
Tahitian society and economy. 

Changes in Pacific island material life are readily 
visible; less apparent to the casual visitor may be the 
underlying social values. Cotton may replace bark 
cloth, but 70 percent of Tahiti's people are native 
Polynesian speakers. A rich tradition of performing 
arts is still valued as cultural expression, not simply 
a means for tourist earnings. As the world approaches 
a new century, Tahitian people will continue to define 
and redefine their own culture, preserving what works 
from the past and adapting what they need for the 
future. 

Preview of Pacific II 

For the next year, visitors will exit Traveling the Pacific 
after their stop in the Tahitian market. In November 
1990 we'll be opening the second and final phase of 
Field Museum's new Pacific installation. An addition- 
al 7,200 square feet of exhibit space will be devoted 
exclusively to displaying and celebrating some of the 
finest objects from our collection in an in-depth dis- 
play of traditional Pacific arts and rituals. There will 
be more to see and learn about Polynesia and New 
Guinea, as well as memorial sculptures from New Ire- 
land, unusual symbols of prestige from Vanuatu 
(formerly New Hebrides), and rare monumental 
masks from New Britain. Few museums can offer the 
public a new understanding of Pacific cultures; it's our 
goal to do so with the spectacular collection of Pacific 
artifacts now housed in storage at the Field Museum. 



AUTHOR'S NOTE 

Many people have contributed research and editorial skills 
to Traveling the Pacific, providing ideas and words that ap- 
pear in the exhibit's label text. Some of them are borrowed 
for this article. 1 would like to acknowledge the contribu- 
tions of the following individuals: Eileen Campbell, Susan 
Curran, Nora Deans, Richard Faron, Robert Feldman, 
Robert Izor, Peter Laraba, Judy Rand, and Michael Rigsby. 
Any errors of fact or interpretation that may appear in this 
article are, however, entirely my own. 




21 



Artifacts from HuonGulf, Papua New Guinea: feather headdress (14594o; anu Dull roarers — wooden slats that "roar" when whirled 
(144225, 146345, 146344, 138220, 146346). Diane Alexander wnue 



A Recipe for Museum Lava: 

Take 400 square feet of rock , 
add liberal quantities of latex. . . 



by Tamara Biggs 
Project Supervisor 



(reation of the lava flow — just inside the entrance 
to "Traveling the Pacific" — began with a trip to the 
Big Island of Hawaii in February, 1988. We wanted to 
find out if we could collect material or find a suitable 
lava site to cast. It was our conviction that a lava flow 
belonged in the exhibit, since lava builds islands in 
the Pacific, and we knew about how big we wanted it. 
But that was all we had figured out. 

One of our group suggested that we excavate part 
of a recent lava flow, package it, ship it to Field 
Museum and reassemble it; or better yet, lay a large 
plate of high-tempered steel in the path of an advanc- 
ing flow, then just pick up the plate, full of lava, 
when the flow had cooled! After learning that it's 
against Hawaiian custom to remove lava from the is- 
lands, we decided instead to fabricate a fiberglass rep- 
lica, cast from a mold of a real lava flow. 

Early in March we began purchasing supplies for 
a mold-making trip to Hawaii, scheduled for May. 



Making a mold of 400 square feet of ground formation 
here on the mainland would have been challenge 
enough, but we were now faced with the additional 
problem of transporting our supplies across thousands 
of miles of ocean. 

We bought small tools and supplies in Chicago 
and shipped them by air freight to Hawaii. The bulky 
materials which would become the finished mold were 
purchased in Los Angeles and shipped by barge to 
Hilo, Hawaii. Everything had to be on the dock in 
Los Angeles by April 18 to make it to Hilo in time. 
The situation seemed well in hand, with positive 
assurances from our Los Angeles suppliers until the 
day before the dock cut-off date. Then a supplier 
phoned to say a factory mishap had destroyed our 
latex rubber, but they would see what they could do 
by the next day. Somehow, the materials made it in 
time. 

Exhibit preparator Pat Guizzetti and 1 arrived in 




22 Preparing polyurethane foam jacket for Hawaiian lava flow mold (1988). Tamara Biggs 




Active lava flow during Mauna Ulu eruption at Kilauea (1969-71 ). Stiown here is the collapsed roof of a lava tube. Jeffery b Judd 



Hilo on May 8. The next day we met Tony Hlousek 
and Kurt Lemke, technicians we had hired to help us. 
We rented a U-Haul, a generator and a compressor 
and picked up our supplies. Then we drove to the 
home of Barbara Beardsley, a Hawaii resident and a 
Field Museum volunteer for the Education Depart- 
ment on her periodic trips to Chicago. 

We had enlisted Barbara's help to find a lava site 
suitable for casting. We needed a flow that was not 
too old, because the lava's surface is fragile, brittle 
like glass, and quickly erodes. The site had to be near 
a road so we could drive our tools and supplies right up 
to it. Another stipulation was privacy: we did not 
want to attract the attention of residents or tourists, 
who might interfere with or damage our work. Bar- 
bara knew all the places to look. We spent the after- 
noon shopping for the perfect lava flow, and found it 
at our last stop. The lava we chose had an attractive 
"ropey" section right down the middle, and cracks and 
pillow shapes all around. The front edge looked like 
we could fashion it into the advancing front of lava 
crossing a road — the way we planned to exhibit it at 
the Museum. The road to the site was too rough for 
ordinary cars, but the truck could make it. 

So, our first day's work was done. We had five 
more days to make 400 sq. ft. of mold and mold 
jacket, put together crates and pack them, move the 
crates to Hilo, then fly on to Majuro, Marshall Is- 
lands, some 2,500 miles to the southwest, for the next 
stage of our fieldwork. Other than being interrupted 
by rain a few times, and a momentary dread that a 
new active lava flow might come our way and destroy 
our work, things went fine. We did our best to placate 
Pele, goddess of the volcano, whom we acknowledged 
as responsible for our problems. We had heard that 
she could be placated with offerings of flower leis or 



gin or cigarettes. So every day we brought one of these 
items and did our best to present them in an accept- 
able fashion. Maybe it helped. 

Our first task at the casting site was to remove 
loose fragments and debris from the surface of the flow 
with compressed air, making a clean surface for the 
latex rubber mold. The first and second layers of 
latex — a flexible material that could be pulled away 
from intricate shapes and undercuts — were thinly 
applied with a sprayer. The third layer was brushed 
on thickly. The fourth layer consisted of burlap im- 
pregnated with latex for added strength. The burlap 
was tediously applied in small squares. Then a final 
thick layer of more latex was brushed on. 

Once the flexible mold was finished, 
polyurethane spray foam (commonly used for insula- 
tion) was applied on top to serve as a mold jacket. 
Since the latex mold was flexible, it would need the 
support of the rigid polyurethane to hold its shape 
when the casting was done. 

Next we cut the foam jacket into four sections, 
pulled these off the mold, and cut the mold into four 
pieces along the same seams as the jacket. Pulling the 
mold from the lava was like a tug of war with a rope 
made of broken glass. The latex was firmly attached to 
the lava, clinging to every nook and cranny. Splinters 
of lava ended up in our fingers, though we wore gloves. 

When jacket and mold sections were all removed 
we transported them to Barbara Beardsley's house, 
where her brothers, David and Bill, had built two 
crates the size of Chicago bungalows. Somehow the 
dimensions of the mold did not seem so great until 
translated into plywood and two-by-fours. We packed 
the molds and jackets into the crates, nailed them 
shut, loaded them onto a flatbed truck and waved 
goodbye. 23 



Odyssey of a Marshall Islands Canoe 



by Richard S. Faron 
Assistant Developer 




Field Museum's outrigger canoe on the beach at Jaluit Atoll, 1988. Tamara Biggs 



A, 



24 



mong our foremost concerns in planning 
"Traveling the Pacific" was to show the relationship 
that exists between many Pacific islanders and the 
ocean. To help illustrate this important affinity, the 
development team decided that an authentic Pacific 
sailing canoe should be in the exhibit. 

We considered two types of canoe: a large, 
ocean-going type for covering great distances and a 
smaller type commonly used for tasks such as fishing, 
trading, and for island-hopping. After a great deal of 
research and lengthy discussion, we decided to get a 
smaller canoe, if possible, since it could more effec- 
tively illustrate the intimate relationship between 
Pacific islanders and their ocean. We were also guided 
by a very practical consideration: the smaller canoe 
would be far easier to ship to Chicago and set up in 
the exhibit. 

At one time, smaller canoes, 20-30 feet long, 
were common on many Pacific islands. In many re- 



spects these sturdy craft were the local "pickup 
trucks," and were especially important for people liv- 
ing on the low-lying islands of coral atolls, where the 
ocean and its abundant resources were critical for sur- 
vival. Today, islanders travel more often in power 
boats and even by plane; nonetheless, the canoe re- 
mains an important element in the day-to-day life of 
many Pacific people. 

As we began our canoe search, a three-volume 
treatise in the Field Museum Library became an 
invaluable resource: The Canoes of Oceania (Hon- 
olulu, 1933), by A.C. Haddon and James Hornell. 
The authors describe in great detail the different types 
of sailing and paddling canoes of the Pacific islands, 
and make special note of the high level of refinement 
achieved by Micronesian canoe-builders, particularly 
those of the Marshall Islands where, they said, "the 
outrigger was brought to relative perfection." 

The Marshall Islands consist of two parallel 



chains of atolls some 2,000 miles southwest of 
Hawaii. The sailing canoes built there are single out- 
rigger types with an oceanic lateen (triangular) sail. 
The canoe's lines and contours are dramatic because 
of the hull's asymmetry and an outrigger system that 
has both curved and straight booms. A testimonial to 
this elegantly designed craft was recorded in 1824 in 
the captain's log of the USS Dolphin: "Their canoes 
display the greatest ingenuity and 1 have no doubt 
that in any other country they would be ranked 
amongst the rarest specimens of human industry. 
They move through the water with astonishing veloc- 
ity, and in turning to windward, no boats can surpass 
them." 

The master of an early 19th-century schooner 
must have had ample reason to be so lavish in his 
praise, and we became even more convinced that a 
Marshall Islands outrigger canoe was just what we 
were after. 

In May of 1987, with assistance from the Alele 
Museum of the Marshall Islands, I made a trip to 
that island group to see about getting a canoe. As I 
traveled among the atolls of Mili, Wotho, Ujae, Lae, 
and Alinglapalap, I studied and documented canoes 
currently in use. I also had long conversations at the 
Alele Museum with Arento Lobo, a canoe-builder 
and navigator from Kwajelein Atoll and with the 
Rev. Kanaki Amlej, historian-in-residence at the 
Alele Museum. With the kind and enthusiastic 



cooperation of these two canoe authorities, I gathered 
information on the materials and construction of tra- 
ditional canoes; 1 also gained insights into the ancient 
and still-practiced art of navigating according to the 
movement of ocean swells. 

During the next two years, with assistance from 
the Alele Museum staff and the Marshall Islands gov- 
ernment, Field Museum was able to acquire an outrig- 
ger canoe on Jaluit Atoll. Through the good offices of 
the Alele Museum, the canoe was donated to the 
Field Museum, dismantled, created, and shipped to 
the United States. It took eight weeks for the canoe 
to reach the Museum, first by freighter to Seattle via 
Honululu, then by semitrailer truck to Chicago. The 
final leg of the trip was on the shoulders of eight Field 
Museum Staff members, who carried the uncrated 
canoe up the Museum's south steps. 

This past year, a footnote was added to the 
canoe's historic odyssey: On September 15, the do- 
nated outrigger's former owner, Jima Jimna, and 
master canoe-builder Jenadde Leon flew from Jaluit to 
Chicago to reassemble the canoe in the exhibit hall. 
It has taken four years and 5,500 miles to see an idea 
realized, but a Pacific journey from west to east has 
been concluded in midwestem America. An outrigger 
canoe that once sailed the waters of the Marshall 
Islands has come to permanent rest at the Field 
Museum in "Traveling the Pacific." 



Maori textile (88527) with incised canoe paddles on view in the exhibit. The top paddle Is from New Zealand, the others are from the 

Austral Islands, Ron Testa and Diane Alexander white 




Recreating a 

Tahitian 

Marketplace 



^JefFHoke, Exhibit Desigrxr 



Lush, tropical mountains, cool aquamarine la- 
goons, and islanders dressed in colorful floral 
prints are some of the images that may come to mind 
when you think of Tahiti. And when approaching 
this group of islands by plane, they appear pristine, 
primeval, and unchanged. Upon landing in the is- 
land's largest city, Papeete, however, you are quickly 
reminded that Tahiti is in the twentieth century. 

Papeete is a bustling metropolis of some 25,000 
inhabitants and a crossroads for several cultures. The 
influence of French colonialism can be seen in the 
town's architecture and in the names of streets. Many 
of the shops bear the names of their Chinese pro- 
prietors, and among the crowd one sees Polynesian 
women wearing parens, wrapped dresses decorated 
with colorful patterns. 

There is rock and roll music blaring from car 
radios and "boom boxes" throughout the crowded 
streets, and the latest movies can be rented on video. 
But there is also traditional dance to be seen and 
music to be heard, and people weaving items from 
pandanus and palm leaves as they have for hundreds 
of years. All these elements come together in Pape- 
ete's central market — the inspiration for a replica on 
view in the Field Museum's new exhibit, "Traveling 
the Pacific." 

As you walk through the exhibit, you are intro- 
duced to the natural history of the Pacific area, and a 
portion of the Museum's anthropology collection. 
Since our collections date from 1900 and earlier, there 
is little opportunity for visitors to see cultures in a 
present-day setting. By recreating the marketplace 
from Papeete, we have the opportunity to show a con- 
temporary view of the mix of traditional Tahitian, 
European, and Asian cultures. 

Upon entering the space, visitors are first con- 
26 fronted by the towering structure of a tin-roofed mar- 



ketplace. Wandering through the arcades, there are 
stalls displaying meats, local fish, ancient Polynesian 
food crops, along with Chinese and European vege- 
tables. Nearby are tropical flowers for sale and a stand 
of locally crafted items. Across the street is a row of 
shops that reflect some of the French colonial influ- 
ence, with covered walkways and decorative railings. 

Walking under the balcony, visitors first pass the 
window of a boutique, with displays of colorful im- 
ported fabrics with "tropical" designs. In the store's 
doorway. Museum visitors can try on a traditional 
Tahitian pareu. Next door to the fabric store, you 
can peep into a general store stuffed with French, 
Chinese, and Tahitian items — with many familiar 
objects displayed alongside unfamiliar items. The 
shopkeeper's radio blares out a beat of rock music with 
a Tahitian touch. Passing down the sidewalk, you can 
look into the window of a tackle shop to see a display 
of fishing gear used to catch local sea life. Handmade 
spear guns, nets, and traps are offered, in addition to a 
colorful display of odd-looking fishing lures used to 
attract a wide variety offish, eel, and octopus. At the 
end of the block is a Chinese pharmacy. Through the 
doorway, you can see shelves lined with imported 
medicines and bins of hand-prepared remedies that 
have been carefully measured and packaged by the 
pharmacist. 

To recreate a comer of Papeete in the middle of 
Chicago, we first depended on the research efforts of 
Stanford University anthropologist Laura Jones, in 
addition to help from Papeete's museum director, 
Manouche LeHartel. Jones took time out from her 
own fieldwork in Tahiti to take hundreds of color 
photos — everything from panoramas of street scenes 
to details of walls and cracks in the sidewalks. She 
sent us back handicrafts, along with store-bought 
items and audio recordings made during Papeete's 
market day. 

All these elaborate preparations, however, would 
not have been enough without the efforts and enthu- 
siasm of the Museum's production staff to translate 
and recreate the marketplace environment from the 
sources we gave them. 

Museum preparators Dan Brinkmeier, George 
Chavez, Doug Jewell, Bruce Scherting, and Robin 
Whatley, among others, were given the task of 
recreating the marketplace. The goal was to build not 
just a simple structure, but to create an illusion of an 
urban environment weathered by wind and rain and 
give the impression of decades of use by Papeete's 
inhabitants. 




27 



The model for Field Museum's Tahitian market: Papeete storefronts (1988). Phyiiis Rabmeau 




Flower and butcher stalls at Papeete market. PhyiiisRabineau 



Much of the town's storefront facade was con- 
tructed from materials scavenged from local dumps in 
Chicago — one, a junk-strewn field where the stock- 
yards once stood, another a large dump near China- 
town, as well as a huge illegal garbage dump within 
sight of the Field Museum. As early as January, lead 
preparator Brinkmeier and his crew were often out 
poking around the dumps, slogging through the snow, 
choosing a choice board here, selecting the perfect 
piece of sewer pipe there, then hauling their treasures 
back to the Museum. 

On one of their early collecting forays, Brink- 
meier observed a police car nearby. Worried that the 
policeman inside would think he was illegally dump- 
ing junk, Brinkmeier went over to explain his mis- 
sion. The policeman rolled down his window an inch 
or two, and Brinkmeier began describing in detail the 
task of replicating a Tahitian marketplace in a natural 
history museum. Before Brinkmeier could finish, the 
officer slowly rolled up his window. "After that, I've 
never tried to explain to anyone what I was up to," 
says Brinkmeier. 

The preparators' gathering trips also took them 
across the state, from a farm in northwestern Illinois 
to a site in downstate Pontiac, where they gathered 
rusted roofing tin. 

Detailed replicas were needed to complete the 
market stalls. Preparators George Monley and Andrea 
Stanislav made fresh-looking fish, mouth-watering 
chunks of meat, and garden produce, through casting 
and painting techniques. Among the interesting tech- 
niques they devised was squirting hot glue into a bowl 
of swirling water, thus recreating the translucent, 
crisp strands of Chinese bean sprouts that are dis- 
28 played in the marketplace's vegetable stand. 



Through their expertise in painting, carpentry, 
and sculpture, the production team created a living 
environment that transcends the Museum walls, 
transporting the visitor thousands of miles away to 
experience the sights and sounds of Papeete. 

The architecture around the marketplace reflects 
Tahiti's history of French colonialism, and many of 
the shops show the influence of Chinese commerce; 
but the market itself, though not traditionally Tahi- 
tian, is used today primarily by Tahitians. It is a place 
where Tahitian culture and craft thrives amidst the 
changes brought on by the 20th century. 

Even though the marketplace's contemporary 
setting did not allow us to include artifacts from the 
Museum's collections, craft items shown in the mar- 
ket and stores were bought by anthropologist Jones in 
Tahiti, and as such can be considered contemporary 
artifacts, whose importance will only increase with 
time. 

Change is constantly taking place in Tahiti, and 
this exhibit may be one measure of that change. 
Shortly after we began construction of our exhibit, 
the colonial structure in Papeete on which we mod- 
eled our own market was demolished and replaced 
with a modem structure on the same site. Our mar- 
ketplace at the Museum is already a reminder of the 
constantly changing world we live in, a measure of 
the past. 

The marketplace environment we've recreated 
within the Field Museum's walls has barely been 
finished, and it already reflects an isolated moment in 
time. In the future, the exhibit's importance as a 
"time capsule" will increase, evoking one time and 
place in the evolution of people and cultures across 
the Pacific. 




« 



The way the world is 
supposed to be. 

f Come meet ihe thiklrcn of Paradise. 
United has been niakini^ it eas\ !( ir 
■forty yeai's nnw. We ^i\e \oii tlie most 
' "^ tiie most islands, Fkis Royal 
"sei\ieeonc\er\ riiiiht.ibia 
waii all the way there, 
d. Proud to be'theOI'f'idal 
leof'the Field Museum'sTra\elinu: 
ladtic exliibit. Come ilv the tViendlv 



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30 



Legemdary Shores 

Turkey and 
The Greek Islamds 

April 26 - May 7, 1990 

Cruise and Land Fares 

$3,395 -$4,545 

Add air fare from Chicago - $600 

Leader: William C. Burger, Ph.D. 

Today, as in ancient times, the legendary Aegean 
is best appreciated from the sea. On this com- 
prehensive itinerary we cruise in comfort and 
elegance aboard the Mria to resplendent cities, 
idyllic islands, and ancient sites set against blue 
waters: Istanbul, Santorini, Ephesus, Crete, 
Mykonos, Rhodes, and Lesbos. Enhancing our 
voyage will be the team of expert lecturers, who 
bring the complex history of the region to life. 
Field Museum has selected Dr. William C. Burger, 
curator of vascular plants and a former chairman 
of the Botany Department to accompany our 
group. He will provide authoritative commentary 
on the plant life of the region and other aspects of 
natural history. Dr. Burger is also a highly skilled, 
widely published photographer who has taught 
courses in nature photography at Field Museum. 
He will be ready to share this special expertise 
with tour members as well. 

We hope you will join us this spring as we 
visit these historic sites where western civilization 
was born. 



Amazon 

Jungle Rivers of South America: 

Puerto Ordeiz, Venezuela 

to Manaus, Brazil 

April 10-25, 1990 

Cruise Price: $4,940 - $7, 100 

on the Society Explorer 

Add International air fare from 

Miami: $600 

Leader: Barry Chemoff, Ph.D. 

Our adventure along the Orinoco River into the 
heart of the Venezuelan jungle is an exceptional 
experience. You will pass through some of the 
most vast and virgin wilderness of Venezuela, Dr 
Chemoff, an ichthyologist who has done much of 
his research in this area, is looking forward to 
sharing his expertise as we explore the river's 
tributaries. We will take a special flight over the 
world's highest waterfalls. Angel Falls. After 
stopping at Devil's Island, visiting the eerie ruins 
of this former French penal colony now partly 
reclaimed by the jungle, we cross the equator at 
the mouth of the mighty Amazon River and begin 
our exploration upriver. Each day we will make 
excursions in Zodiac landing craft, which make it 
possible for us to visit isolated villages, view 
colorful birds and butterflies, fish for unusual 
species, and take hikes into the jungle itself. 
Join us for an adventure to two of the world's 
greatest rivers. 

Egypt 

And Nile Cruise By Yacht 

February 9 - 27, 1990 

Price: $4,595 
(includes land, cruise, and air fare) 

Leader: Joseph G. Manning, 
Egyptologist 

Egypt's ancient past still lives. You, too, can 
follow its past as we journey from bustling 
Cairo, with its renowned Egyptian Museum, its 
mosques, minarets, and markets into the ghostly 
silence of ruined cities, splendrous temples, Tut's 




tomb, and nobles' tombs. The 5,000-year-old 
Step Pyramid, the massive stone ruins of Karnak, 
and the Colossi of Memnon all beckon the cur- 
ious and inspire respect for a culture as old as 
Western civilization itself. You'll appreciate the 
close observation of age-old scenes along the 
shore as you cruise from Luxor to Edfu, Kom 
Ombo, and Aswan. 

Life in the fertile Nile Valley has changed very 
little. You'll enjoy air transportation from Chicago 
on Swissair, rated the world's best airline, Nile- 
view rooms at the five-star Semiramis Interconti- 
nental Hotel in Cairo, accommodations at the 
superb Oberoi Hotel in Aswan, and cruising on 
board the M.S. Nile Sovereign, the newest and 
most luxurious river cruiser. Your exploration of 
this ancient civilization will be greatly enhanced by 
special lectures, and rare insights into the people 
and their culture as Joseph Manning (Egyptolo- 
gist) and Ismail Mohammed All (resident guide- 
archaeologist) share their expertise with you. We 
hope you will decide to join us. 

Crow Canyon 
September 16-22, 1990 

Field Museum tours will be conducting an excit- 
ing tour to Denver's Crow Canyon Archaeological 
Center The tour will offer a splendid opportunity 
not only to view, but to participate in an archaeo- 
logical dig. At Crow Canyon you encounter the 
excitement of archaeology first hand. Here adults 
and students of all ages — most with no previous 
archaeological experience — excavate, analyze, 
and learn side by side with archaeologists. 

Together you and the Crow Canyon scien- 
tists work toward an understanding of the 
Anasazi, the "Ancient Ones," who built countless 
stone pueblos centuries ago, and then departed. 
In this beautiful southwestern landscape they 
left villages, ceramics, tools, and silence. At 
Crow Canyon you help widen our knowledge 
of these early Americans. 



KenyvTanzania Safari 

February 18 - March 1 1, 1990 

$6,300 

(includes air fare) 

Leader: Audrey J. Faden 

This safari is planned to show you Kenya/ 
Tanzania's wildlife, its people, and all the specta- 
cle of its magnificent scenery, and at the same 
time enjoy excellent facilities and travel in up-to- 
date safari vehicles. You will depart from Chicago 
O'Hare on a British Airways flight, stopping in 
London before continuing on to Nairobi, where 
you will stay at the famous old colonial landmark 
Norfolk Hotel. Then proceed to Amboseli 
National Park, justly famous for big game and 
superb view of Mount Kilimanjaro. Next cross the 
border to Tanzania and spend the night at Gibb's 
Farm. You then travel on to the renowned 
Serengeti National Park, unequaled in natural 
beauty Here millions of wildebeest and zebra mill 
across the plains in their annual migratory search 
for fresh grasses. You may see large prides of 
lion; perhaps a leopard; groups of hyena, gazelle; 
topi and kongoni — the list is endless. 




Your next destination is peitiaps your most 
memorable: the Ngorongoro Crater. This great 
caldera contains some of the finest black-maned 
lion in Africa, rhino, eland, and dozens of other 
species. Next move to Lake Manyara National 
Park located in Africa's Great Rift Valley. The park 
is small, but rich, and is home to tree-climbing 
Tanzanian lions, great herds of elephant and hip- 
po. Also, many water birds, including ducks, peli- 
cans, and flamingos. You leave Tanzania, return- 
ing briefly to Nairobi before moving on to Abedare 
National Park and to the ARK, where you watch 
animals in complete comfort — day and night — 
from a ground-level lounge with large picture win- 
dows. As you continue on to the Northern game 
park of Samburu, your game viewing takes you 
through a variety of landscapes, and is home to 
several species found only in these northern 
areas. After a night at the luxurious and renowned 
Mt. Kenya Safari Club, you return to Nairobi, later 
board an Air Kenya flight to the Masai Mara Game 
Reserve with its unmatched variety of game. 
Here you will experience a stay in a luxury 
tented camp. 

Audrey Faden will accompany the small 
group from Chicago; her knowledge, enthusiasm, 
experience, and companionship will add immeas- 
urably to your enjoyment of this unforgettable 
wildlife experience. Wfe invite you to loin us 



The Galapagos Islands 
March 2- 13, 1990 

Leader: John Flynn, Ph.D. 



On many world maps it's difficult to find the 
tiny specks which appear off the coast of 
Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. Yet, the Galapagos 
Islands are unique in their isolation. They contain 
mountains, forests, beaches, and bays unlike any 



others on earth. These islands lie 600 miles west 
of Ecuador, 800 miles south of Panama and 
almost 3,000 miles east of the nearest Pacific 
landmass. Most are relatively isolated from one 
another; a perfect setting for the evolutionary lab 
they would eventually become. 

The first land inhabitants were windblown 
seeds that drifted into lava crevices and took 
root. The next were birds, perhaps also wind- 
blown, who stayed to breed. The last were 
reptiles, mainly lizards and iguanas, who rode 
tangled mats of river vegetation cast off the South 
American coast. But there the trend stopped. 
Few mammals arrived, and none who did was a 
predator. The result was a world which resembles 
earth's past. Birds ruled the air, reptiles the land. 
Furthermore, since there were no hunters, most 
species lived in peace. Life on these islands re- 
mains very much the same today. 

We invite you to explore with us one of the 
world's greatest living laboratories of natural 
history. The primeval beauty of the area's colorful 
landscapes and wildlife excite the senses, and 
the remarkable tameness of the animals affords 
superb opportunities for wildlife study and pho- 
tography 

We will fly from Chicago to Quito, Ecuador 
for three days, then on to Guayaquil/Baltra, 
where we will board the beautiful MV Santa 
Cruz and cruise comfortably to the islands of; 
Bartolome, Tower, Isabela, Fernandina, North 
Seymout, Hood, Florena, Santa Cruz, and 
James. 

Our stay in highland Ecuador provides a 
stimulating contrast in geology and wildlife. Dr. 
John Flynn, associate curator in the Department 
of Geology at Field Museum looks forward to 
sharing with you this unique experience un- 
matched by any other destination in the world. 



Maturalist im Alaska 

Circa July 10-25, 1990 
(15-day tour) 

Leader: David E. Willard, PhD., 

ornithologist 

Accompanied by: Dan L Wetzel, 

naturalist and tour operator 

This expedition has been designed with an 
emphasis on education, for the person with keen 
interests and curiosities about the "real" Alaska. 
The 1 , 000-mile wilderness itinerary allows your 
personal interaction with the wildlife and wild- 
lands of Alaska. 

We begin our trip in Anchorage and move on 
to the Kenai Fjords, where we will experience the 
38-foot bore tides, the second highest in the 
world, and a marked contrast to the one-foot 
tides of Prudhoe Bay where we complete our 
expedition. Our route includes Seward, Denali 
State Park, Denali National Park, Fairbanks, 
Coldfoot, and Sagavanirktok River. The Naturalist 
in Alaska Tour was created to bring the natural 
world of Alaska within your grasp. Let us send 
you more information about this unique 
opportunity 




TRAVELING THE PACIFIC 

Win a trip to Hawaii 
during our Members ' Previews! 

Field Museum has named United 
Airlines the "Field Museum's Official 
Airline for TRAVELING THE PACIFIC" 
This annoimcement is in recognition 
of a major promotional partnership 
between United and the Field Museum 
that will promote the Museum's new 
exhibit and United Airlines' service to 
the Pacific region. As part of the exhib- 
it's opening festivities, United has 
donated a number of trips to its Pacific 
destinations. Three trips for two to 
Hawedi will be given away during the 
TRAVELING THE PACIFIC Members' 
Previews, November 7th, 8th, and 9th! 
Land packages and round-trip tickets 
for the trips will be arranged through 
United/United Vacations and Village 
Resorts and include accommodations 
at one of the foUovving hotels: Islander 
on the Beach on Kauai, the Kiahuna 
Plantation on Kauai, or the Whaler 
on Maui. There will be a separate 
drawing held each preview evening. 
All Members over the age of 18 are 
eligible to enter the drawing when they 
attend the preview. Winners will be 
announced at the end of each evening. 



UniTED 



PLEASE REQUEST INFORMATION ABOUT 
OUR BIKING TOUR THROUGH VERMONT, 
SEPTEMBER 23-30, 1990. 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605 



31 




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\t 



Field Museum of Natural History Nonprofit Organization 

Membership Department U.S. Postage Paid 

Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive Chicago, Illinois 

Chicago, IL 60605-2499 Permit No. 2550 



MR WILLIAM G GREWE-MULLINS 

5633 N KTNMORE: 

APT 042 

CHICAGO TL 606bC 



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