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January/February 1990 

Photo Exhibit Continues through February 18 

Field Museum 
of Natural History 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 

Board OF Trustees 

Robert A. Pritzker 

Mrs. T Stanton Armour 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D.BlcKk III 
WillardL Boyd. 

Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Wayne E. Hedien 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John B. Judkinsjr. 
John James Kinsella 
William Kunkler 111 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. JamesJ. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin]. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 


January/February 1990 
Volume 61, Number 1 




Exhibit continues through Febnim-y 18 7 


Exhibit about children of the Holocaust 12 


by Jonathan Haas, Vice President, Collections and Research 14 


by Mark Spreyer 16 


by Sally Wood, Field Museum Volunteer 22 


by Susan Nelson 24 

INDEX TO VOLUME 60 (1989) 28 



Cathken Ham?n and Son Michael, by Mary Ellen Mark. The young boy 
Michael flings his arms around his mother, mindful of the plaster cast 
encasing her right wrist. The pair force grim smiles but their eyes tell a 
different story as they are photographed in front of the Bible Tabernacle 
Mission in Venice, California. A sparkling metal cross hangs pro- 
minently from Cathleen's neck. Cathleen Hamm and Son Michael h among 
more than 60 photos in the exhibit "Homeless in .America: \ Photo- 
graphic Project," continuing through February 18. 

Field Museum iifNalural Hislon Bullelin (USPS 898-940) Is published bimonlhly by Kiold Museum of Nalural Hislory. Rixiscvcll Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL f)060.')-24%. 
Copyright® I99() Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. S.'^.tX) for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do 
not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone (.^ 1 2)922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster: Send address changes to Field Museum of Natural History. Second class postage paid at Chicago. Illinois. 

World Music Programs 

Weekends, 1:00 and 3:00pm 

a Jan. 6. 7 

1 :00pm — Musa Mosley demonstrates 

African drumming 
3;00pm — Shanta deligtits witti African 

stories and song 

D Jan. 13. 14 

1 :00pm — Raices del Ande performs Bolivian and Latin 

American folkloric music 
3:00pm — Keith Eric performs Jamaican music and tells stories 
D Jan. 20. 21 
1 :00pm — Tfiunder Sky Drummers perform using African 

percussion instruments 
3:00pm — Amira Davis demonstrates African shakere 
D Jan. 27, 28 

1 :00pm — Douglas Ewart plays Japanese bamboo flute 
3:00pm — Ari Brown performs a seasoned saxopfione 


L] Feb. 3. 4 

1 :00pm — Thunder Sky Drummers perform using African 

percussion instruments 
3:00pm — Amira Davis demonstrates African shakere 
D Feb. 10. 11 

1 :00pm — Musa Mosley demonstrates African drumming 
3:00pm — Keith Eric performs Jamaican music and tells stories 
DFeb. 17. 18 

1 :00pm — Shanta delights with African stories and song 
3:00pm — Ari Brown performs a seasoned saxophone 

D Feb. 24. 25 

1 :00pm — Douglas Ewart plays Japanese bamboo flute 

3:00pm — Chinese Music Society of North America 

demonstrates instruments from the Chinese 


These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets 
are not required. The World Music Program is supported by 
the Kenneth and Harle Montgomery Fund and a CityArts grant 
from the Chicago Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural 
Affairs, and the Illinois Arts Council, a state agency. 

Adult & Family Programs 

Children and their families are invited to explore the exciting 
world of natural history on weekends in January and 

Beginning Saturday. January 20. children's workshops 
provide children ages 4 and K through 8th grade opportu- 
nities to discover the mighty dinosaur, to celebrate Chinese 
New Year, to unravel some secrets from the world of archeol- 
ogy, and much more! 

Beginning Saturday, February 24, adults may join chil- 
dren in their exploration of the world around them in adult- 
child workshops. These activities provide an exciting, 
participatory experience for one child accompanied by one 
adult. Adult-child workshops are designed for children ages 
2, 3, 4, and K through 8th grade. 

Advance registration is required for both children's 
workshops and adult-child workshops. See the Children and 
Family program brochure for a complete schedule and 
registration forms. Workshops fill quickly: early registration is 
recommended. For further information, call the Department 
of Education, Monday through Friday, 9:00 am-4:00pm at 




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Curator Hymen Marx Honored 
As Participant in Swedish Symposium 

The significant contributions of Curator Hymen Marx to the 
literature on Palearctic reptiles were recognized recently by 
the Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Swedish Museum 
of Natural History. This recognition took the form of his 
invitation to participate in a September 5-11, 1989 sym- 
posium in Stockholm on "Museum Research in Vertebrate 
Zoology." Symposium participants also included 3 other 
American scientists, 30 from the Soviet Union, and 9 from 
Western Europe and Canada, in addition to Swedes. All 
were chosen to attend on the basis of distinguished achieve- 
ment in their respective disciplines. The primary purpose of 
the symposium was to promote contact and cooperation be- 
tween Western and Soviet specialists in vertebrate morphol- 
ogy, speciation, ecology, and biochemistry. 

Marx co-chaired the symposium's opening sessions with 
Dr. Ilya S. Darevsky, of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 
Leningrad who, like Marx, is a world-recognized authority 
on the snakes of Europe and Asia. 

Highlighting the six-day affair, which was held as part 
of the Swedish Museum of Natural History's 250th anniver- 
sary celebration, was a banquet in the Stockholm City Hall, 
with King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia in attendance. 
Marx was especially honored by being placed, as representa- 
tive of the United States, at the royal table, together with 
Mrs. Marx. 

Marx joined the Field Museum's scientific staff in 1949 
and has been a full curator since 1973. 

Hy Marx examining type specimens of reptiles described in the 1 8th 
century by the renowned naturalist Carl Linnaeus and curated at the 
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm. Type specimens are 
those individuals on which original descriptions of species are 

Hy Marx (left) shown in 1 970 with 
William P. Braker, director of the 
Shedd Aquarium, as they exam- 
ine a leatherback turtle which had 
just been acquired by the Field 
Museum. A cast of the extremely 
large specimen was then being 
prepared for the aquarium. 81921 

Homeless in America: a Photographic Project 

Continuing through February 18 

The Problem of Homelessness is one of the most 

pervasive social, economic, and moral problems in 
the United States today. Especially during the holiday 
season, the plight of homeless individuals and families 
remains a harsh reality. Field Museum draws attention 
to this national crisis by presenting the award- 
winning photographic exhibition "Homeless in 
America," through February 18. The exhibit includes 
more than 60 black and white photographs that docu- 
ment the diversity of Americans affected by homeless- 
ness — mothers and children, veterans, runaways, 
victims of eviction, layoff, drug addiction, mental 
illness, and the lack of affordable housing. 

Esteemed photojournalists Mary Ellen Mark, a 
Fulbright Award winner. Bill Pierce of T/me, Eli Reed 
and Eugene Richards of Magnum Photos, and 
Stephen Shames of the Philadelphia Inquirer, created 
the principal photographs on assignment. Their 
powerful images are supplemented with compelling 

photos by 23 artists from cities and towns throughout 
the U.S. "Homeless in America" was coordinated by 
Michael Evans, former personal photographer to Pres- 
ident Reagan. The exhibit also features a 12-minute 
educational video. "Homeless in America" is the reci- 
pient of two awards for photojournalism, the Leica 
Medal of Excellence for photojournalism, 1988 and 
the World Hunger Media Award Judges Award for 
photojournalism, 1988. 

''Homeless in America" is a joint project of Families 
For The Homeless and the National Mental Health 
Association. Principal funding was provided by 
Triangle Industries, Inc., with additional generous 
grants from Eastman Kodak Company, the Public 
Welfare Foundation and the Federal National 
Mortgage Association Foundation (Fannie Mae). 
The traveling exhibition was organized by Lisa 
Cremin & Associates, New York. 


Exhibit Photo Highlights 

8 Randngue Norman. 2. and Aaron Burgess. 7. outside the St. Vincent de Paul Shelter for the Homeless. 

Dayton Ohio September 1987. e Grace Wojda 

Life in the Woods of Naples. Florida, fvlany men camped fiere are Viet Nam Veterans, day laborers wtio 
find fiousing in Naples unaffordable, August 1987. (£) Eugene Richards 

Awaiting Eviction, July Fourth Weekend. Liberty Inn, North Bergen. New Jersey. July 1987. s Eugene 


Metro Station, Wastiington, D.C. October 1987. ^'c; Tonee Harbert 



An Exhibit about Children of the Holocaust 

January 26 through April 22 


Between 1933 and 1945, as many as 1.5 million Jewish 
children lost their lives in the Holocaust. Field Museum 
presents "Remember The Children," January 26 through 
April 22, an exhibition in which today's children learn 
abc:)ut children like themselves, who were killed under 
the Nazi regime. Through a series of walk-through en- 
vironments and participatory activities, adults and chil- 
dren of every race, religion, and ethnic identity are con- 
fronted with the wounds and pain that people inflict 
upon one another as a result of bigotry. 

"The exhibit is meant to sensitize children so they 
will recognize warning signs of prejudice and hate before 
such human behavior is allowed to fester beyond con- 
trol," says Isaiah Kuperstein, guest curator of the exhibit 
and director of education of the United States Holo- 
caust Memorial Council. "We want children to under- 
stand what can happen when hatred grows out of hand 

and challenge them to prevent events like the Holo- 
caust from ever occurring again. While the Holocaust 
represents a blight against humankind, there are impor- 
tant lessons to be learned from it. The challenge facing 
the development team of this exhibit was to reach chil- 
dren with messages about the Holocaust in a sensitive 
and effective way." 

"Remember The Children" takes visitors on a jour- 
ney through a series of recreated environments where 
children who suffered through the Holocaust may have 
spent time. The journey includes recorded narration by 
Daniel, an imaginary young boy who relates his personal 
experience as a Jewish child in Nazi Europe. Parents are 
encouraged to accompany children through this exhibit, 
which is recommended for children in grade three and 

Exhibit Components 

Wall of Faces: As visitors enter the exhibit they are con- 
fronted with a haunting photo mural of children's faces 
— actual historic photos of Jewish children who experi- 
enced the Holocaust. The photo montage has been 
screened to form a pattern of about 1.5 million dots, 
representing the number of children deliberately killed 
in the Holocaust. The majority of these children were 
Jewish, others were Gypsies or mentally or physically 
handicapped. An intrcxluctory video provides back- 
ground information on the people and historic events 
that culminated in the persecution of Jews during the 
1930s and early 1940s. The video is presented through 
the eyes of children. 

Daniel's Home: The first recreated environment that 
visitors encounter is an inviting, colorful parlor of a 
middle-class German home circa 1930. Daniel's young 
voice describes the happy, comfortable life he shared 
with his family in this home. Children who hear 
Daniel's story and visitlthis room may identify with 
the young boy. The life he is describing in this envi- 
ronment might be similar to their own. 

Changing Times: Exhibit visitors leave the comfort of 
Daniel's living room and enter the corridor of Changing 
Times. Life-size photos depict Jewish storefronts shut 
down and boarded up. Uniformed guards dominate the 
scene. As visitors venture along the corridor they get 
further and further away from the glowing warmth of 
Daniel's home. Daniel talks about the changes taking 
place in his life, how new laws were effected against 
Jews. He explains that adults were losing their jobs be- 
cause they were Jewish and wonders how long he 
will be aUowed to attend school. As visitors near the 
end of the corridor, Daniel tells how the Nazis forced 
his family out of their home into crowded ghetto 
quarters designated for Jews only. 

Ghetto Street; Visitors emerge into the ghetto street, 
once again recreated through effective use of life-size 
construction and historic phott)s. The area feels confin- 
ing. Daniel explains that his family and other Jews 
were forced to remain in a ghetto like this, a walled-in 
section of town, ridden with filth and disease. He 
speaks of hunger, unbearable cold, and death. 

Ghetto Apartment: The final recreated scene in the 
exhibit is a dismal room where Daniel and his family 
were made to reside in the company of 14 other people. 
Paint is peeling from the walls and a few straw-filled 

mattresses are strewn on decrepit bed frames. Daniel 
tells how the dirty, cold room was infested with mice 
and rats and describes the intense hunger he suffered at 
all times. His story concludes with the separation of his 
family as they are evicted from the ghetto apartment 
and sent to concentration camps. As a final note, 
Daniel the survivor recalls how he will never forget the 
other children who were killed. 

Activit^y Area; Visitors leave the recreated settings and 
enter an uplifting section of the exhibit to explore 
themes of survival. A video tape outlines the valiant 
efforts of individuals who risked their lives to struggle 
against the Nazi regime. These heroes include Mor- 
dechai Anielewicz, who led the Warsaw Ghetto 
Uprising; Janusz Korczak, an orphanage director who 
protected children left homeless by the Holocaust; and 
Aart and Johtje Vos, a Christian couple who sheltered 
Jews from the Nazis. 

A second video tape presents the true story of a 
Holocaust survivor who lived through the ordeal to 
tell her experiences today. 

An especially effective component of the exhibit 
involves the "Watch Out Wall." Large graphic panels 
carry the headings "Put Dc:)wns," "Stereotyping," "Pre- 
judice," "Hostility," "Discrimination," "Official Sanc- 
tion," "Persecution," and "Genocide." Under the head- 
ings are warning signals, simple derogatory statements 
people make that could lead to extreme acts of hatred. 

A variety of activities in this area allow children to 
express personal reactions and emotions the exhibit may 
evoke. Large, blank-paged binders encourage visitors to 
put their feelings down on paper. Children can draw 
their impressions on cardboard tiles which they may 
leave behind on display or take home with them as a 
remembrance of what they have learned in the exhibit. 

"Remember The Children" was inspired and con- 
ceived by Mrs. Sidney R. Yates and carried out with 
great dedication by many individuals. Capital Children's 
Museum in Washington, D.C., developed the original 
exhibition on which this traveling version is based. 
Funding and additional support were provided by the 
United States Holocaust Memorial Council, cosponsor 
of the exhibition. Additional funding for the traveling 
exhibit was provided by the Arie and Ida Crown 
Foundation, The National Education Association, 
and the Blum Kovler Foundation. 

The Chicago installation of "Remember The 
Children" is made possible through a generous grant 
from Polk Bros. Foundation. 


Of Human Remains 
At Field Museum 

by Jonathan Haas 

Vice President, Collections and Research 


In December of 1989 the Board of Trustees of Field 
Museum adopted a policy for the return of human 
skeletal remains and associated burial objects to the Hv- 
ing descendants of specific individuals. This poUcy was 
developed in response to a growing recognition of the 
need to comply with native people's wishes to have 
their ancestors removed from the Museum and re- 
turned for reburial or reinterment according to tradi- 
tional practices. 

A policy that allows for the permanent removal of 
any objects from the collections is a matter of great 
importance, as the collections of the Field Museum 
stand at the very heart of the institution. It is only 
through the use and maintenance of the collections 
that the Museum can fulfill its basic mission to pre- 
serve, increase, and disseminate knowledge of natural 
history. In thus deciding to establish a policy for the 
reconsecration of human remains, the Museum is mak- 
ing a unique exception to its commitment to maintain 
the integrity of the collections. 

In developing the policy for the return of human 
remains and associated burial objects, many factors had 
to be considered. The first looming issue that had to be 
faced was the loss of the scientific value of these col- 
lections. Field Museum has remains of approximately 
4,000 individuals from around the world. Is there any 
value to be gained through the scientific study of these 
bones long held in our storage facilities? Will we lose 
knowledge if these bones are returned to living peoples 
for reburial? The answer to these questions is a resound- 
ing "yes!" 

The analysis of human skeletal materials is today 
undergoing a revolution equal in every way to the 

revolution brought about by the discovery of radiocar- 
bon dating forty years ago. Discoveries just within the 
past decade now enable physical anthropologists and 
archaeologists to begin to reconstruct the health and 
diet of ancient peoples, biological relationships be- 
tween groups of people, movement of tribal groups 
from one area to another, and even patterns of resi- 
dence after marriage (whether the couple goes to live 
with the bride's family or the groom's). One example 
will help illustrate the kinds of information anthropol- 
ogists can get through new techniques of analysis; 

By comparing the chemical composition of a per- 
son's teeth with that of other, nondental bone tissue, 
anthropologists can now begin to determine whether 
individuals moved around in the course of their life- 
times. As we all know, humans grow a permanent set 
of teeth in childhood. These permanent teeth, when 
growing, incorporate very small — "trace" — amounts of 
certain elements, such as strontium or fluorine, from 
the food and water a person consumes. The kind and 
proportions of trace elements found in the plants, 
animals, and water of a particular area depend upon the 
local geology and the source of the water. Thus, the 
trace elements found in one's teeth reflect the area 
where that person lived as a child, when the permanent 
teeth were growing. 

Like teeth, one's other bones also incorporate 
trace elements from food and water. In contrast to 
teeth, however, the chemical composition of bone is 
constantly changing, as new tissue replaces old. When 
a person moves from one area to another, therefore, 
the chemical composition of the bones changes, 
reflecting the trace elements in the new environment. 

When the tissue stops changing at death, the trace ele- 
ments in the skeletal material represent the latter years 
of the person's life. Therefore, by comparing the trace 
elements in a person's teeth and bones, the anthropol- 
ogist can determine whether the person moved from 
one geographical area to another in the course of his or 
her lifetime, and possibly even the location of the 
childhood home. Taken together, these factors all pro- 
vide the anthropologist with a window into the past to 
look at the movement of people across the landscape. 
This window has just been opened in the past five 
years, and it is but one of several exciting new avenues 
of research arising out of recent analytical break- 
throughs in bone chemistry. 

In the face of such advances in analysis and the 
valuable information that may be gained from an anal- 
ysis of human skeletal material, it was even more diffi- 
cult to make the decision to return human remains for 
reinterment. However, the decision was based on the 
judgement that when descent can be established, pub- 
lic policy and the wishes of the descendants clearly out- 
weigh the scientific values of retaining human remains 
in the collection. 

Having made the decision to return, upon re- 
quest, human remains and associated burial objects, 
several additional factors had to be considered in 
developing the Museum's policy of repatriation. Of 
central importance in returning remains is that they go 
back to the appropriate group. Toward this end, the 
policy states that human remains will be returned to 
any group for reinterment when such material is re- 
quested by an appropriate representative of that group, 
and if the remains are of ancestors of the requesting 
group. "Ancestors" can include any past members of 
the requesting group so long as there is a clear histori- 
cal, archaeological, or ethnographic link to the group. 
It is not necessary to establish direct kinship ties be- 
tween living members of the group and the deceased. 

Although this policy was initiated to respond to 
the wishes of Native American peoples, it directly 
applies to all other cultural groups as well. It was felt 
that such a policy cannot be limited to just one group, 
but must be applied to all as a general principle of 
human equality. In the case of requests coming from 
foreign countries, remains will be considered for return 
only where there is an implemented standing policy on 
the part of the requesting people and their national 
government to reinter deceased individuals and associ- 
ated grave objects. 

Of course, in implementing such a policy there 
may be some disagreements with respect to a specific 

group's relationship to requested remains in the 
Museum's collections. The Museum will continue to 
make its archives and files related to remains available 
for review by representatives of descendant cultural 
groups making claims to such materials. The Museum 
will work cooperatively with these representatives to 
facilitate and expedite the return of such remains for 
reinterment according to the appropriate religious 
traditions. It is also recognized that customs of different 
groups vary, so reinterment will encompass all tradi- 
tions including burial, cremation, or possibly an above- 
ground resting place. 

In the event that there is a basic disagreement 
about the materials to be returned or the disposition of 
these materials, the Museum will submit the disagree- 
ment for resolution to an impartial third party, as 
authorized under the law ot Illinois. All parties will 
also have the right to appeal to the courts for a final 
determination. The means of resolving disagreements 
are outlined in the Museum's existing procedural guide- 
lines covering requests for repatriation. 

The adoption of this repatriation policy at the 
Field Museum does not mean that the entire skeletal 
collections will be taken out and reburied in the near 
future. Most of the human remains in the collection are 
prehistoric in origin and date back hundreds or even 
thousands ot years. With rare exceptions there are no 
known descendants of these prehistoric remains, and 
these will be available for limited scientific research 
while the Museum continues to care for them in a 
respectful fashion. There will also be cases where 
recognizable descendant groups do not request the re- 
turn of ancestral remains. The Field Museum has re- 
mains from Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America, 
as well as North America, and many from countries 
where there is an active archaeological tradition and 
the scientific analysis of human skeletons is a well 
established part of the culture. Furthermore, even in 
those cases where groups do request the return of mate- 
rials, it is likely that most will allow for basic analysis of 
the remains before they are reinterred. 

What this policy does mean is that the Field 
Museum is entering a new era of open dialogue with 
native people in the U.S. and abroad. The rich anthro- 
pological collections in the Museum reflect the cus- 
toms, art, and inventiveness of myriad groups, past and 
present, around the world. It is not enough to be simply 
a caretaker of these collections; however, the Museum 
must take an active role in reaching out to build ties 
and open lines of communication with the people, 
continuing the vibrant traditions of other cultures. Fli 1 5 


Chicago's Endangered Falcons 

by Mark Spreyer 

photos by the author 
except where noted 

^ mm 

1 6 Peregrine with prey 

Watching a peregrine falcon mother with her two 
chicks atop a Chicago office building was how I 
celebrated Mother's Day, 1988. The chicks 
were the first two peregrines hatched anywhere in Illi- 
nois in 37 years, so in the world of birds it was an auspi- 
cious Mother's Day indeed. 

The failure of peregrines to reproduce during that 
time was due to the presence in the environment of 
DDT, a widely used, long-lasting insecticide that pro- 
foundly affects the reproduction metabolism and be- 
havior of many bird species, notably raptors, which 
includes the peregrine. The federal government ban- 
ned its use, except for special applications, in 1971, but 
because of DDT's low solubility in water, its swift ab- 
sorption into the fatty tissues of animals, and its slow 
rate of chemical breakdown, the effects of the ban were 
not immediately realized. 

In the case of the peregrine falcon, the presence of 
the pesticide interfered with calcium absorption, 
resulting in egg shells so thin that they broke under the 
weight of the incubating parent. 

Though the agricultural application of DDT has 
long since been halted in the United States, it should 
be noted that the chemical is still manufactured in this 
country and continues to be applied as an agricultural 
pesticide throughout Latin America, where many 
migratory bird species are exposed to it. 

At about the same time that DDT was banned, the 
peregrine became a charter member of the federal gov- 
ernment's newly established list of endangered species. 
The equally new Peregrine Fund, meanwhile, was suc- 
cessfully breeding peregrines in captivity. By 1975 the 
Peregrine Fund began releasing falcons at various sites, 
in cities as well as rural areas, along the East Coast. 

Cities may strike one as odd places to release en- 
dangered birds, but peregrines have often been spotted 
in urban areas. In an 1877 issue of the magazine Forest 
and Stream, George Boudin described an encounter 
with a peregrine: "On the 13th of September, 1868, I 
shot a fine specimen (male) at the corner of Fifth and 
Girard Avenue, Philadelphia. For nearly three weeks 

Chicago's Northern Building (center, top), showing 1988 and 1989 
peregrine nest site — ledge below dark rectangle near building's top. 

Marie Spreyer is a naturalist for Hennepin County Parks, in Minne- 
sota, where he moved from Chicago in 1989 with his wife. Dr. 
Peregrine Wolff. He was formerly an ornithologist at the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences as well as head of the Chicago Peregrine Re- 
lease. He was co-producer of the ABC TV documentary "Living on 
the Edge: Chicago's Endangered Falcons," first aired during the 
summer of 1989. He has been a guest lecturer at the Field Museum 
and field trip leader. He was a featured speaker at the Midwest Re- 
gional Birding Symposium at the College of Du Page, Glen Ellyn, 
Illinois, in September 1989. 

this bird of prey had made its home in St. Peter's 
steeple." A 1941 Chicago Tribune article reported on 
the peregrine, referring to it by one of its aliases: "The 
duck hawk, who likes to roost on the rooftops of Chi- 
cago skyscrapers and who sometimes preys on the Loop 
pigeons, is the nearest thing in the bird world to a Stu- 
kadive bomber." 

Arctic peregrines are spotted every spring and fall 
as they migrate between their northern breeding 17 


Peregrine falcon egg recovered May 1987 from Wacker Drive 
building ledge. The egg is about 2% inches long and blotched with 

grounds and their tropical winter range, but reports of 
peregrines nesting in Illinois are scarce in the litera- 
ture. E. W. Nelson wrote in Birds o/Northeostem Illinois 
(1876) that the bird was "formerly a rare summer resi- 
dent." In 1889 R. Ridgeway reported finding several 
pairs nesting in the cavities of sycamores along the 
Wabash River near Mt. Carmel. In Birds of Wisconsin 
(1903), L. Kumlien and N. HoUister wrote that per- 
egrines formerly bred at Racine, Wisconsin, several 
miles north of the Illinois border along Lake Michigan. 
The last recorded nest, before the release effort, was in 
Jackson County (far southern Illinois) in 1951. 

Since then, modern agricultural practices and 
urban sprawl have done much to modify the Illinois 
landscape, inevitably affecting the habitats and life- 
styles of much of our wildlife, the peregrine included. 
Fortunately, however, peregrines see nothing odd 
about taking up residence on structures built and occu- 
pied by man. A remarkable example of such adaptation 
was to be seen in the 1940s and '50s on New York City's 
Regis Hotel and, most dramatically, on Montreal's Sun 
Life Assurance Building where, over a period of 16 

years, a female peregrine and three successive males 
raised a total of 2 1 young. 

In 1986, atop another man-made structure — 
University Hall on the University of Illinois campus in 
Chicago, a release effort was initiated by the Chicago 
Peregrine Release, a cooperative effort of the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences, Illinois Department of Con- 
servation, Lincoln Park Zoo, and the Chicago Au- 
dubon Society. It was my privilege to head this group 
during its first three years. 

With its gravel roof and wide ledges on every 
floor. University Hall provided an ideal urban release 
site. The roof was free of dangerous wires and exhaust 
fans, and university officials committed themselves to 
publicizing our enterprise around campus, creating a 
community awareness which could prove critical to the 
success of the program. 

Of the first five falcons released from University 
Hall in 1986, the male named Pacer became a media 
celebrity. Crippled with a broken wing. Pacer had been 
found in August of that year under an airplane at Meigs 
Field, just across the Outer Drive from Field Museum. 
Thanks to the medical know-how of staff at the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota's Raptor Center, in Minneapolis, 
Pacer was successfully rehabilitated. Two months later, 
the fully recovered bird was released from the roof of 
University Hall. At last report he was sharing a terri- 
tory on Chicago's North Side with a female released in 
Milwaukee in 1987. 

In spring of that year, I was excited to learn that a 
pair of falcons had been observed in Chicago's Loop. 
When the reports included descriptions of breeding 
activity, I knew it was time for a closer look. There were 
indeed two falcons, and the female was in adult plu- 
mage. Since none of the Chicago falcons already 
known to us were even a year old, it was safe to surmise 
that the female was from out of town. Shortly after 
newspaper accounts of this nest appeared (including 
information about our peregrine release program), I 
learned from Sears Tower office workers that an egg was 
visible on a ledge of the Northern Building, just across 
the street from the Tower. I hurried over to check out 
the intriguing report. There it was: a lone egg sitting on 
an east-facing ledge at Adams and Wacker. 

But now we had a problem on our hands; If this 
Chicago Loop pair were to defend its territory (for per- 
egrines this involves a radius of some five miles), we 
could no longer release birds at University Hall (well 
within that radius) for fear that the youngsters would be 
attacked by the older, established pair. Then the U.S. 
Army came to our rescue, volunteering a release site at 

Peregrine chicks awaiting shipment to release site. 

Illinois Department of Conservation 

Ft. Sheridan, some 30 miles north of Chicago's Loop. 
The new site was atop a century-old, ten-story water 
tower. It was from this structure that 1 1 falcons came to 
be released in 1987, these birds quickly dispersing 
to other points in Illinois and to Minnesota and 

MacArthur, the first to fly from the tower, ap- 
peared in Milwaukee in 1988 with Madonna, a female 
released the year before in Rochester, Minnesota. 
Much to the surprise of raptor biologists. Madonna and 
MacArthur, both just a year old, hatched two chicks in 
Milwaukee. Nicki, a female Ft. Sheridan release, took 
up residence on a Mississippi River cliff, near Hastings, 
Minnesota. PeriGreen created excitement among Du 
Page County birders when it adopted the Fermi Lab as 
its base of operations during the early spring of 1988. 

PeriGreen was recovered in a weakened condition the 
following June and died only hours later at the Lincoln 
Park Zoo, where it had been taken for treatment. 
Although no bones were broken, examination re- 
vealed that PeriGreen had suffered a tremendous im- 
pact. Oh yes, the name of the Lincoln Park Zoo veter- 
inarian who examined PeriGreen .' Dr. Peregrine Wolff, 
of course. 

Meanwhile, back at the ledge across from Sears 
Tower: The pair that had laid the egg (which proved to 
be infertile) in the spring of '87 continued to be seen 
downtown during the following winter; the next spring 
the birds resumed courtship. We were able to identify 
the female as Harriet, a Minneapolis bird released three 
years before, and the male as Jingles, released from 
University Hall in 1986. In due course, Harriet laid 19 


Peregrine release tower at Illinois Beach State Park. Shields near the 
bottom of the support posts prevent raccoons from climbing the 
tower Tower was built courtesy of the Telephone Pioneers of America. 

three beautiful eggs on the south end of the ledge where 
the infertile one had been found. Two of these three 
hatched. Jingles and Harriet were dutiful parents who 
fed their chicks, named Wacker and Adams, without 
fail. We were able to record much of their parenting 
activities with video equipment that permitted un- 
obtrusive observation. 

Adams and Wacker took their maiden flights on 
June 10, about 45 days after hatching. Keeping track of 
our novice fliers soaring through the canyons of the 

Loop was a difficult, frustrating task for our observers. 
After searching for two days, determined volunteer 
Matt Gies finally located the chicks on the 90th-floor 
setback of Sears Tower. Litter falling from construction 
sites in the Loop provided the playful young peregrines 
with mock prey; but in time, the play turned serious 
and the remains of various birds — even a Virginia rail, 
normally a marsh inhabitant — were discovered on 
Sears ledges. 

Later in the summer of '88 we launched 10 more 
falcons from a specially built tower at Illinois Beach 

Ft. Sheridan water tower, where 1 1 falcons were released in 1 987. 

State Park, near Zion. So far we have not heard from 
the Class of '88. We have learned from the Peregrine 
Fund, however, that peregrines can now be found in at 
least 22 U.S. cities, nine of which had no release pro- 
grams, and the peregrine population is so well estab- 
lished in the east that releases there have been largely 
discontinued — an astonishing recovery since the bleak 
days of 1964, when the bird was considered extirpated, 
or nonexistent, east of the Mississippi. Three nests 
were reported in Chicago in 1989 and we have had 
reports of peregrines hatching in cities from Baltimore 
to San Diego. 

Other reports remind us that the pesticide threat, 
unfortunately, is not over. According to a U.S. Forest 
Service falcon specialist, the number of peregrines 
hatched in 1989 in southern Oregon and northern 
California dropped by two-thirds from a year earlier. 
Tests on failed eggs from this area showed the pres- 
ence of dioxin as well as PCBs. In Illinois the use of 
Fenthion, an organophosphate, has recently been 
questioned. Primarily an insecticide, Fenthion is also 
marketed under a trade name for use against bird pests. 
Early in 1989 at a hearing held by the Inter- Agency 

Pesticide Committee of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, the chairman of the Illinois Endangered Species 
Protection Board and the director of the Illinois 
Department of Conservation presented evidence that 
at least two Illinois endangered species (Cooper's hawk 
and the sharp-shinned hawk) were among the raptors 
found dead from secondary Fenthion poisoning. This 
resulted from eating so-called nuisance birds such as 
starlings, which had ingested the poison from bait in- 
tended for them. If the peregrine success story is to con- 
tinue, pesticide use must be strictly regulated, moni- 
tored, and reevaluated. 

But the peregrine falcon has made a dramatic come- 
back in the past three decades. The experience has de- 
monstrated that while man is capable of eliminating 
another species, he is also able to restore that species 
before it is too late. The biology of many birds, how- 
ever, could not tolerate such a close call. Release efforts 
are an important step in the species-saving process. 
Such efforts must be planned with an animal's habitat 
requirements and biology in mind. Ultimately, releas- 
ing birds is not saving them. When birds return to nests 
they are saving themselves. FM 

Outdoor mural on Chicago's near West Side. 



A Tale of U)lunteering at Field Museum 

by Sally Wood 

I hand a multicolored rock to the handicapped 
teenager who has been wheeled into the Place for 
Wonder by her mother. The sparkle catches the girl's 
eye. Suddenly, she is all smiles, bursting with the 
excitement of her discovery. 

A six-year-old fascinated by a fossilized dinosaur 
bone confides in me that she plans to become a 

A family about to travel to Africa share their 
stories of seeing coral in the ocean as we look at some 
specimens — pink, white, brittle and gnarled, like 
miniature bonsai trees. Hard to imagine that the brain 
coral specimen in my hand was once alive. 

These are just some of the things that have 
happened in the six months I've been a volunteer in 
the Place for Wonder at "the Field" (as we like to call 
it!). As an Englishwoman in Chicago, I probably 
qualify as one of the unusual objects in the Place for 
Wonder. The only other living exhibits are the 
cockroaches and the crickets, and they're kept behind 
glass! 1 certainly don't think I'm a typical volunteer; 
but then, I doubt whether such a creature really 

About a year ago, I got married. At the same 
time, my husband was asked to come to Chicago on 
an assignment. Always ready for adventure, I resigned 
from my marketing job in educational software and 
crossed the Atlantic with my husband, landing in 
Chicago's western suburbs. Within a week, my 
husband was disappearing into the depths of AT&T 
everyday and I was suddenly a homemaker with a 
Social Security status "not valid for employment." 

It took awhile to decide how 1 wanted to use 
all this "free" time. I was helping out at my local 
elementary school when 1 heard about the volunteer 
22 program at the Field Museum of Natural History. It 

sounded different. It sounded like a challenge. So I 
went along to an introductory session. Unlike most 
of the others attending, I knew practically nothing 
about the Museum; 1 hadn't even been there before 
and didn't have a particular interest in natural 
history. What I did have, however, was a background 
of talking to school groups, lots of curiosity, and a 
desire to use my brain instead of vegetating. 

I decided to offer my services and see what 
happened. 1 had a feeling that it was going to be fun. 
First, there was the interview, which was more like a 
friendly chat really — certainly not as intimidating as 
a job interview. After all, the Museum always needs 
new volunteers. Then the training course. A chance 
to find out all sorts of weird and wonderful facts about 
the Museum and to meet some other new volunteers. 
Speakers from botany, zoology, anthropology, and 
geology came and went, and we learned a lot about 
people and museums in a short amount of time. 

Finally, it was up to us to decide whether to 
commit ourselves to a year as a volunteer and to 
choose the type of work that we thought would be a 
good fit. I chose the Place for Wonder, a small and 
very special part of the Museum, where you can 
explore the natural world through touch, sight, and 
even smell. You can see a shark's fin or a meteorite, do 
a Chinese tangram puzzle or feel some fungus (among 
other things). Whether people or volcanoes are your 
thing, we can oblige. 

A jumble of children rush and tumble from here 
to there, buzzing with questions. Another weekday 
morning. Another school group. We give them a 
sense of the possibilities of the place, then let them 
explore. Sometimes I'm a teacher, sometimes a pupil. 
Sometimes I answer questions and sometimes I can't 
(but 1 try). Recently, a very small visitor to the Place 

for Wonder asked why starfish have points — let me 
know if ;you have the answer to that one! Sometimes 
I tell the stories of the objects in our room and 
sometimes I simply show people where to find things 
(including McDonald's and the bathrooms). 

Afternoons are for everyone. The atmosphere 
of the Place for Wonder changes from moment to 
moment. It can be a quiet refuge from the over- 
whelming sights of the whole Museum or it can be 
hectic and full of the excitement of children making 
music and cooking an imaginary Chinese meal. We 
also have our share of reluctant visitors, but once 
they walk into the Place for Wonder, they're often 
reluctant to leave. Some mothers bring their children 
hack every week, to play with "favorite things," and 
grandparents often bring grandchildren from out of 
town on an annual trip. 

It's the people that make me come back every 
week — the visitors, always different. The Education 
Department staff, who always remember your name 
and treat volunteers as equals. Who share their 
expertise and ideas with you and, if you're lucky, 
sometimes even their lunch! Then there are the other 
volunteers. What an amazing bunch! Some have been 
with the Museum for over twenty years; some have 
busy jobs, yet give up a couple of weekends a month 
to help the Museum tick. Many have retired from a 
profession and are traveling in new directions. I've 
got to know a group of people who share a love 
of natural history, but are different in every other 
way imaginable. 

There's something special about being a 
volunteer. There's no "financial deal" involved. You 
haven't offered yourself "for sale," but have chosen 
to share a part of yourself. To give four days a month 
from choice is a real pleasure. There isn't the daily 
grind, so you can give the best of yourself. You can be 
yourself too, because that's what the Museum wants: 
you. The job you do depends on who you are. You 
don't have to fit into a rigid job description; the job 
can fit you. 

As a volunteer, 1 feel part of something 
important and 1 feel appreciated. There's a lot to 
be said for that. When 1 worked full-time, it wasn't 
something I thought about much, but we all like to 
feel useful and need some sort of routine in our lives. 1 
certainly do. 1 know that every Thursday I'm needed 
at the Museum; they're expecting me. As a former 
full-time homemaker, 1 look forward to my day at the 
Museimi. There's nothing worse than having nothing 
better ti) do than watch "Days of Our Lives"! 

Volunteering means flexibility too. In what 
paid job could you decide to go off to Europe for two 
months in the summer (every summer if you wanted 
to and could afford it!) and be welcomed back with 
open arms? As a volunteer at the Field, you can. Paid 
staff know that volunteers have other things to do. 
They would like you to be there every week, but they 
know this is not always possible. 

There are "perks" too. As a full-fledged 
volunteer, I can enjoy the pleasures of the Art 
Institute and other Chicago museums for free — just 
like a "real" employee. The discounts at the Museum 
shop are great for present buying and who would say 
no to cut-price meals at McDonald's? 

Volunteering is a journey of discovery. I've 
learned about things I never even thought I was 
interested in. I can work Chinese shadow puppets, 
and I now know how rocks can make ice cream! 
Things I learned at school come trickling back to me. 
It's nice to know that they're still in there somewhere. 

Volunteering stimulates your brain — yes, it's 
true. The Museum is more intriguing than a classroom 
and much bigger. Sometimes, if I arrive early, I wander 
through the quiet halls. The Museum has helped me 
to rediscover my own sense of wonder and curiosity 
about the natural world. 

One thing tends to lead to another. Since 
becoming a volunteer I've plucked up the courage to 
go back to college to take a writing course, something 
I've always wanted to do. One of my assignments 
was to interview someone, so I picked John Wagner, 
biology specialist with the Department of Education, 
and learned quite a lot about beetles in the process. 

What's the best thing about being a volunteer? 
I can't really pick out just one thing, so I'll have to 
say — just doing it! FM 


Meet Bob Stoize 
Curator of Ferns 

by Susan Nelson 

Something rather unusual happened at the Field Museuin 
last summer. It was a small reception on the third floor, up 
one floor from the wondrous Hall of Plants and up two 
from the excited voices of children discovering "Sizes" 
and ancient Egypt. 

On that day in July, many of the Museum's 32 cura- 
tors made their way to the Botany Department's library, 
past a door with a bumper sticker reading "Ferns are 
FERNtastic" and along corridors the rest of us may recall 
from Members' Nights for their nonstop walls of gray steel 
cabinets that evoke the government warehouse scene 
near the end of "Raider of the Lost Ark." 

But these cabinets, emitting the faint smell of moth- 
balls, are no bureaucratic jumble. They hold the Field 
Museum's herbarium, a meticulously arranged, well- 
regarded library of 2.5 million plant specimens that in 
respect to certain groups of collections is the world's best. 

This gathering was related to the Museum's herbar- 
ium, because it was a celebration for a new curator of 
ferns, one of the areas in which the Field Museum herbar- 
ium distinguishes itself. And what made the event so un- 
usual was the fact that the person being honored was the 
one who had built up the fern collection during the past 
twenty or so years, without holding the customary title of 

Until his promotion to associate curator of Pter- 
idophytes (ferns and allied plants) last July 1, Robert G. 
Stoize had been something of an anomaly. Though he has 
become a respected authority on ferns and won a 
National Science Foundation grant as co-author of the 
first mcxlem study of ferns and fern allies in an Andean 
Mountain region, Stoize had lacked the title that is uni- 
versally recognized within the academic world. 

He had served on the Field Museum's Personnel 
Committee, and he is an enthusiastic supporter of mak- 
ing Members' Nights even more memorable by assem- 
bling his own medieval/Renaissance music group, TTie 
Ars Subtilior Ensemble, to play in the Plants of the World 
24 And so, earlier last year, the people in the Botany 

Department decided it was time to try to recategorize 
Robert Stoize. The obstacle all along had been his lack of 
a Ph.D. 

Harold Voris, former vice president of Collections 
and Research, explains: "In all of the sciences, there has 
been a strong trend for the establishment of a requirement 
of academic credentials for various academic pxisitions. 
Whereas fifty years ago it was not unusual to have a scien- 
tist initiate his career at the Field Museum, it is now ex- 
tremely rare to find somebody who has the equivalent of a 
Ph.D. without having gone through the traditional 
Ph.D. discipline." 

Stoize is the first person "within at least 20 years" to 
have become a curator without a Ph.D., and "it is not 
likely to happen again," Dr. Voris adds. 

"It was felt that Bob Stoize had proven his academic 
prowess through a distinguished record of publication on 
his research, as well as the recognition from his peers and 
in receiving support from the National Science Founda- 
tion and other sources. " 

And, though he was the first in years and may be the 
last curator so selected, Stoize is not alone. Dr. Voris men- 
tions. Mel Traylor, curator emeritus in the Division of 
Birds and former chairman of the Department of Zoology , 
does not have a Ph.D. 

Hymen Marx, curator and head of the Division of 
Amphibians and Reptiles, also came up through the 
ranks. He has spent most of his 40 years at the Field 
Museum studying relationships of snakes (for m^tre on 
Marx see page 6). 

When Botany Department chairman John J. Engel, 
Ph.D., curator of Bryology (mosses and liverworts), re- 
commended the change to him. Dr. Voris followed the 
formal prcx:edure used for all promotions and new posi- 
tions: a months-long review by a committee within the 
Museum, and a call for letters assessing the candidate's 
work from scientists around the country. At the end of 
eight months, Stoize was handily endorsed. 

Dr. Engel, who was instrumental in seeing that 
Stoize was promoted, says, "I was troubled by the fact 
that, on the one hand, here is a man who has done excel- 
lent research, who is recognized by his peers, and who has 
curated our fern collection in an excellent manner and, 
on the other hand, he was classified as a member of the 
non-curatorial staff. 

It was a situation that Stoize, for one, had never 
expiected to change. 

Susan Nelson is a Chicago writer who also wrote "Welcome 
to Ancient Egypt," appearing in the November 1988 

Bob Stoize during Field Museum Members' Night, May 1 989, He car- 
ries a working replica of a 15th-century hurdy-gurdy. As director of 
The Ars Subtilior Ensemble, which performed on that evening in 
Plants of the World hall, Stoize played about ten different instruments, 
including strings, reeds, miscellaneous winds, and percussion. The 
five-member group, which Stoize founded in 1978, performs music 
from the middle ages and the Rennaisance. 

Diane Alexander White 85096 

"There were never any hones ahciut it," he says sim- 
ply, a tall, trim, soft-spoken man with a generous amount 
of gray, wavy hair and a neatly trimmed beard. His man- 
ner is relaxed; his clothes are sensible, right down to well- 
constructed leather walking shoes. 

He is in his office, inside the door with the FERNtas- 
tic huinper sticker. Two plants are on a windowsill — a 
tern ally that grew unexpectedly from a forgotten spore, a 
Bcxston fern his wife sent to him when she learned of his 
promotion. A long table holds bcxiks and several speci- 
mens of dried ferns that are carefully arranged. Beyond 
two desks with books and clean tops — except for a few 
small photographs, a box of herb tea, and a couple of 
clean mugs — hangs a painting of a cool scene in the 

Bob Stoize is clearly pleased when he is asked about 
becoming a curator. "1 was completely nonplussed," he 

says, in a drawl-touched voice that is part Garrison Keil- 
lor wonderment and part Dennis Weaver assurance. 
Stoize is an attentive listener, to what he himself is saying 
as well as to a visitor's questions. 

He came to the Field Museum in 1963 as a part-time 
employee, a college graduate (B.S. in business from the 
University of Notre Dame, 1949) who needed a job to 
help him support his former wife and a sick child while he 
pursued studies in music at DePaul and Roosevelt Univer- 

Stoize had grown up in Edwardsville, Illinois. His 
father, a banker with interests in a family lumber business, 
had died when he was 14, and Bob, like his brothers, 
went away to college and then returned to work for their 

"I didn't know there was anything out there to make 
money doing what I wanted to do," he says, with the can- 
dor of one who has given it a great deal of thought. He was 
wholesale buyer of lumber for three yards, in Granite 
City, Wood River, and Belleville, and he detested it. 
"The main thing," he says slowly, "is to be happy at what 
your livelihood is." 

Stoize tried flying lessons at a field near East St. 
Louis. "Even now, I can tell you anything about old air- 
planes. I thought I wanted to be a bush pilot in Alaska. 

"And then the Korean War came along. 1 got 
drafted — no, not as a pilot," and he chuckles. "The in- 
fantry. The Army." 

He was sent to counterintelligence school in Balti- 
more for sixteen weeks, which meant he was not shipped 
out for infantry duty but instead went to Japan. In Balti- 
more, he had met a young woman who became his first 
wife, and after the service they moved to Belleville, Illi- 

He tried the lumber business again, and they had a 
son who would require medical care for a long time. The 
pressures of being unhappy at work increased. 

This was 1957, and Stoize was 30. What he decided 
he really wanted to do was music, and it was this decision 
that led him to Chicago and the Field Museum. 

"From the 4th grade I had had a cornet in my 
mouth," he says. "One of my two brothers and I played in 
the bands. My mother, a former schoolteacher, had sung 
on the radio in St. Louis at one time, and so we always 
had music in the house." 

He had enough savings to be able to finance a few 
years' study of cello, harmony, and other courses, he 
figured. And so, to everyone's amazement, Stoize and 
his wife and young son came to Chicago. He enrolled at 
DePaul and then switched to Roosevelt University, 
where his newfound interest in the cello flourished under 


the genius of cellist Carl Fruh. 

"He was marvelous, and 1 learned quickly. 1 just 
loved it, was playing in a chamber music group, practicing 
eight hours a day, and making progress. But then the light 
began to dawn: 'Yeah, you're doing the right thing, Bob, 
but you're doing it about 20 years tcx:) late.' And about 
that time the money began to peter out, and 1 had to get 
some part-time work. " 

It was at that point that he sent out letters with 
resumes to places that wouldn't expect him to sell any- 
thing. One day, in 1963, after getting home from a job at 
a book depository, he saw a note that E. Leland Webber, 
then director of the Field Museum, had called and wanted 
to see him. 

"So I called him, and he said, 'We need someone to 
assist in the Department of Botany part-time, to work in 
the herbarium.' 1 said, 'What's a herbarium?' " 

Stolze remembers being shown to a room that had 
the ferns in it. "In the history of this institution, the ferns 
had never had a curator. So these very nice people told 
me, 'When you run out of things to do, just sort of look 
around and see what you can do there. ' " He laughs. 

"And, as dumb as 1 was about that, 1 found out right 
away that the ferns were in a hell of a mess — filed wrong, 
not classified properly, misidentified. So these wonderful 
people would tell me which bcxiks to go to, to look at, 
how to use the library. And little by little, 1 began 
identifying ferns. I had a good eye for it; I took literature 
home and studied. The collections themselves are 
marvelous study material." 

About then, Louis O. Williams, Ph.D., now cura- 
tor emeritus of Vascular Plants, was in the process of 
becoming department chairman. He began to talk with 
Stolze about becoming a full-time employee. 

Though he could offer no more promise of advance- 
ment than Webber initially had, when the director had 
cciunseled Stolze that he could advance in administration 
but not in the scientific departments without a Ph.D., 
Dr. Williams kept making irresistible assignments to 

He sent him on collecting trips in 1965 and 1966 to 
Wyoming, from which Stolze brought back an impressive 
number of specimens that he then classified and had care- 
fully mounted. In-the-field collecting is one way of get- 
ting specimens for the herbarium. The other is by 
exchanging duplicate specimens with another institu- 
tion's herbarium, and the Field Museum had been in need 
of reducing its obligations. This Stolze helped to do. 

Earlier, two things had happened with Stolze's 

music: His cello teacher accepted an offer to travel with 

26 the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra on a European tour 

and would be leaving Chicago for a time; and a gocxl 
friend, with whom Stolze played chamber music, had died. 

And so he accepted the Museum job in 1964, with 
the title "Herbarium Assistant. " At the time he investi- 
gated taking classes that would result in the required 
Ph. D. , but the time and money it would take were pro- 

That same year, Rolla M. Tryon, Ph.D., curator 
of ferns at Harvard University, came to Chicago and 
stopped by the Field Museum's Botany Department. 
Stolze had been puzzled by a fern that looked like a mem- 
ber of one genus but clearly had different characteristics. 
He showed it to Dr. Tryon, who saw what Stolze had 

"He told me this fern had been described, but only 
once, and that 1 should write it up in a paper and send it to 
American Fern journal, " Stolze recalls. He did, and it was 
published later that year (1964). "I was walking on air — 
here was this dumb punk, and suddenly I get a paper pub- 

In 1968 Stolze was promoted to "Collections Man- 
ager, Pteridophytes." William C. Burger, Ph.D., curator 
of Vascular Plants, was well intti his work classifying the 
flora of Costa Rica. "Dr. Williams thought it was time for 
me to get some tropical experience, and Bill Burger was in 
need of an assistant, so we drove a vehicle to Costa Rica 
from Chicago." Once there, Stolze collected ferns while 
Dr. Burger collected flowering plants for the Museum's 

Dr. Williams had nearly finished his monumental 
work, "Flora of Guatemala," and he suggested that 
Stolze complete the study with ferns. Stolze published 
the final volume of his flora "Ferns and Fern Allies of 
Guatemala" in 1983, a project that took nearly a de- 
cade to complete. With characteristic self-effacement 
and a ready laugh, he calls his section "the caboose" on 
Dr. Williams's work. 

Dr. Burger appreciates Stolze's sense of humor. He 
also says, "Bob's well-organized, well-disciplined work 
habits account for his productivity. And his taxonomic 
decisions — which plant belongs to what species, 
whether you've got two species or possibly three — are 
highly regarded by his colleagues. He's not a 'splitter,' 
who makes lots of little categories, or a 'lumper,' who 
pours everything into the same group. 

"We were very happy about this promotion," Dr. 
Burger says. "Here's someone who has worked his tail 
off for twenty-six years, and this is recognition of that 
achievement and dedication." 

The abiding interest in music, he mentions, adds 
another dimension to Bob Stolze. "He pursues his 

Attention, Fern Buffs! 

Bob Stolze suggests that come spring, the Cook County 
forest preserves are a good place for Chicagoans to start 
looking for the 300 or so ferns that grow in North Amer- 
ica. Better still are two more southerly state parks, 
Starved Rock and Giant City. Generally speaking, the 
farther south one goes, the more ferns there are to see of 
the world's 10,000 species. 

For further reading, he recommends these three hooks: 

# How to Know the Ferns and Fern Allies by John T. Mic- 
kel. William C. Brown Co. Publisher, Dubuque; 1979. 

Dr. Mickel is curator of ferns at New York Botanical 
Gardens. In this book, using a pictured key with geo- 
graphic distributions and realistic drawings of the ferns, 
he provides a good introduction to several hundred North 
American ferns. 

^ The Home Gardener's Book of Ferns by John T. Mickel. 
Holt Rinehart and Winston Publisher, New York; 1979. 
This book, illustrated with photographs, tells how to 
grow ferns indoors and outdoors, from transplants and 
from spores. It includes discussions on watering, light, 
and temperature, and he suggests which are exotic, which 
are easiest to grow, and what problems to try to avoid. 

^ How to Know the Ferns by Frances Theodora Parsons. 
"Unaltered republication" Dover edition of the book 
originally published in 1899 by Scribner's; Dover Publica- 
tions, Inc., New York; 1961. 

Ms. Parsons' charming book, one of the many old 
books of a type, is illustrated with stylized, sometimes 
fanciful drawings. It contains an index to the Latin names 
of ferns and such chapter headings as "Ferns as a Hobby," 
"When and Where to Find Ferns," and "Notable Fern 
Families." Some of the information holds up just fine. 

In addition, the American Fern Society, besides pro- 
fessional activities that include publishing a journal, also 
has a section devoted to amateurs. Several chapters are 
located across the country. Through them, members can 
learn about ferns and, for a nominal fee, send for spores 
from exotic ferns. Though no chapter exists in the Chi- 
cago area. Field Museum members are welcome to ask for 
more information from David Barrington, American 
Fern Society treasurer, Department of Botany, Univer- 
sity of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. Please enclose a 
self- addressed, stamped envelope. — Susan Nelson 

music with the same diligence as he does his ferns." 

With the encouragement of Tryon and Williams, 
Stolze made several visits to Harvard's Gray Herbar- 
ium, where Tryon solicited Stolze's help with his work 
on tree ferns. This culminated with the publication of 
Stolze's monographic revision of the tree fern genus, 
Cnemidaria, in 1974. Collaboration between Tryon and 

Stolze continues today in their joint investigation of 
the ferns and fern allies of Peru, "Pteridophyta of Peru. " 

One of the photographs on Stolze's desk is of a 
smiling woman with short-cropped, silver-edged hair. 
"Oh, that's Sue," he says with obvious pleasure. "The 
light of my life. She's done an awful lot to make my life 

She grew up on the same block he did in Edwards- 
ville, but she's five years younger. "Five years in high 
school is like a hundred years," he says gently. Like 
him, she had married someone else. But, as things 
sometimes happen, they became reacquainted and 
then became the best of friends. They were married six 
years ago. 

"She's a great outdoor person who doesn't scream 
when she sees snakes or flies," he says, his eyes twink- 
ling. They camp out and canoe. For a delayed honey- 
moon, "because I'd bragged it up so much," he says, he 
took her to Costa Rica, his own favorite country. "She 
just loved tromping through the rain forest and riding 
the funny old buses." 

Sue Stolze is also Number One fan of The Ars 
Subtilior Ensemble. "She can't carry a tune in a water 
bucket," Stolze says, "but she played the drums for me 
one time, when 1 gave a demonstration of different in- 

Stolze relaxes at their home in Wilmette — a town 
that reminds them both of Edwardsville because of the 
trees — by practicing on many of the fifty different in- 
struments the members of Ars Subtilior play when they 
reproduce music of the 12th through 16th centuries 
from England, France, Spain, Germany, and the Flem- 
ish countries. 

The holidays are the busiest time for bookings. A 
cassette called "The More Subtle Art" and now mar- 
keted by the group through the mail was made in re- 
sponse to requests for one when the quintet played at 
Members' Night 1988. 

Mondays through Fridays, Stolze likes to walk to 
the train, transfer to the subway, and read during the 
comparatively long stretches between hikes. He may 
look over work-related projects or read — nonfiction 
about the Civil War or Indians, such fiction classics as 
Moby Dick, which he figures he's read five times, and 
Charles Dickens or Joseph Conrad. 

The title of associate curator is highly prized. It 
carries with it a bit more money now, and it will make a 
bigger difference when Stolze retires. But that is some- 
thing for later. Having finally found a life that pleases 
him so much, Bob Stolze is in no hurry to walk away 
from it. Fli 


Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Volume 60 (1989) 


Ancient Egyptian Marketplace, The. by 

Frank Yurco: Feb. 10 
Babysitting and Daycare among the 

Barbary Macaques, by Meredith F. 

Small: Jan. 24 
Bats of Illinois. The. by James E. Gardner 

and David A. Saugey: Jan. 6 
Biennial Report for 1987-88: July/Aug. 4 
Ceramic Cricket Jars in the Field Museum. 

by Ho Chuimei, Lisa Adler, and Bennet 

Bronson: Sept. /Oct. 6 
Changing Chicago: Cultural Diversity: 

April 10 
Collecting Small Mammals in the Atlantic 

Rain Forests of Brazil, by Barbara 

Brown: May 16 
Conservation of Tropical Diversity, by 

Bruce D. Patterson: March 18 
Coyote: A Myth in the Making: April 7 
Day in the Life of the A. B. Lewis Project, 

A: May 22 
Egyptian Mummies, by Frank Yurco: 

Sept./Oct. 16 
Hall Interpretive Program, by Philip K. 

Courington: June 13 
Henry Hering and the Case of the Missing 

Maidens, by David M. Walsten: June 16 
"Human, Approachable and Fun" — The 

Families at Work Exhibit, by Fredelle 

Maynard: April 12 
Indians of the Western Great Lakes — They 

Are Still Here, by Helen H. Tanner: 

March 6 
Musical Amphibians ofChicagoland, by 

John C. Murphy: April 18 
Night of Appreciation. A. by Carol 

Carlson: June 4 
O Darkly Bright: April 1 1 
Odyssey of a Marshall Islands Canoe, by 

Richard S. Faron: Nov. 24 

Plant Collecting in Palawan, by D.D. 

Soejarto: May 24 
Recipe for Museum Lava. A. by Tamara 

Biggs: Nov. 22 
Recreating a Tahitian Marketplace, by Jeff 

Hoke: Nov. 26 
Specimen #2.000.000 Mounted by Botany 

Department, by William C. Burger: 

Jan. 16 
Tracking the E.xtinct Pygmy Hippopotamus 

of Cyprus, by David S. Reese: Feb. 22 
Traditional Crafts of Saudi Arabia: Feb. 4 
Traveling the Pacific, by Phyllis Rabineau: 

Nov. 8 
Tropical Forests and the Number of Plants 

and Animals on Planet Earth, by 

William C. Burger: May 8 
Ushabtis. by Frank J. Yurco: Feb. 8 
Visitor's Guide to 'Traveling the Pacific, ' 

designed by Michael M. Delfini: 

Nov. 15 
Voyage to the Moon (of Mars, that Is), by 

Edward Olsen; Jan. 18 


Adler, Lisa (coauthor): Ceramic Cricket 

Jars in the Field Museum: Sept. /Oct. 6 
Biggs, Tamara: A Recipe for Museum 

Lava: Nov. 22 
Bronson, Bennet (coauthor): Ceramic 

Cricket Jars in the Field Museum: 

Sept. /Oct. 6 
Brown. Barbara: Collecting Small 

Mammals in the Atlantic Rain Forests of 

Brazil: May 16 
Burger, William C: Specimen #2.000.000 

Mounted by Botany Department: Jan . 1 6 
: Tropical Forests and the 

Number of Plants and Animals on Planet 

Earth: May 8 
Carlson, Carol: A Night of Appreciation: 

June 4 
Chuimei, Ho (coauthor): Ceramic Cricket 

Jars in the Field Museum: Sept./Oct. 6 

Courington, Philip K.: Hall Interpretive 

Program: June 13 
Delfini. Michael M.: Visitor's Guide to 

Traveling the Pacific: Nov. 15 
Faron, Richard S.: Odyssey of a Marshall 

Islands Canoe: Nov. 24 
Gardner, James E. (coauthor): The Bats of 

Illinois: Jan. 6 
Hoke, Jeff: Recreating a Tahitian Market- 
place: Nov. 26 
Maynard, Fredelle: "Human. Approach- 
able and Fun " — The Families at Work 

Exhibit: April 12 
Murphy, John C: Musical Amphibians of 

Chicagoland: April 18 
Olsen, Edward: Voyage to the Moon 

(of Mars, that Is): idn. 18 
Patterson, Bruce D.: Conservation of 

Tropical Diversity: March 18 
Rabineau, Phyllis: Traveling the Pacific: 

Nov. 8 
Reese, David S.: Tracking the Extinct 

Pvgmv Hippopotamus of Cyprus: 
Feb. 22 
Saugey, David A. (coauthor): The Bats of 

Illinois: Jan. 6 
Small, Meredith F.: Babysitting and 

Daycare among the Barbary Macaques: 

Jan. 24 
Soejarto, D.D.: Plant Collecting in 

Palawan: May 24 
Tanner, Helen H.: Indians of the We.'itern 

Great Lakes — They Are Still Here: 

March 6 
Walsten, David M.: Henry Hering and the 

Case of the Missing Maidens: June 16 
Yurco, Frank J . : The Ancient Egyptian 

Marketplace: Feb. 10 
: Egyptian Mummies: 

Sept./Oct. 16 
: Ushabtis: Feb. 8 


'Its airline covers the rest? 


Holland's presence may be easy to overlook in 
a world atlas. But not among the world's airlines. 

Everyday, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines blankets 
the globe with flights connecting over 135 business 
capitals on six continents. 

In fact, we reach more cities in Europe, Africa 
and the Mideast than all U.S. airlines combined. 

The result is a truly global network watched 
over by more than 20,000 KLM employees. Includ- 

ing a helpful, English-speaking ground staff that 
makes some 75 foreign countries a little less foreign. 

All of which is reassuring when business calls 
for a long-range journey into the unknown: KLM's 
global passenger network doesn't end at the airport. 

Call your travel agent or KLM.The ^ 
airline of the seasoned traveler. 

The Reliable Airline KLM 

Royal Dutch Airlines 


Legemdary Shores 

Turkey and 

The Greek Islands 

April 26 - May 7, 1990 

Cruise and Land Fares 

$3,395- $4,545 

Add air fare from Chicago - $600 

Leader: William C. Burger, Ph.D. 

Today, as in ancient times, the legendary Aegean 
is best appreciated from the sea. On this com- 
prehensive itinerary we cruise in comfort and 
elegance aboard the llliria to resplendent cities, 
idyllic islands, and ancient sites set against blue 
waters: Istanbul, Santorini, Ephesus, Crete, 
Mykonos, Rhodes, and Lesbos. Enhancing our 
voyage will be the team of expert lecturers, who 
bring the complex history of the region to life. 
Field Museum has selected Dr William C. Burger, 
curator of vascular plants and a former chairman 
of the Botany Department to accompany our 
group. He will provide authoritative commentary 
on the plant life of the region and other aspects of 
natural history. Dr. Burger is also a highly skilled. 

widely published photographer who has taught 
courses in nature photography at Field Museum. 
He will be ready to share this special expertise 
with tour members as well. 

We hope you will join us this spring as we 
visit these historic sites where western civilization 
was born. 

September 16-22, 1990 

Field Museum tours will be conducting an excit- 
ing tour to Denver's Crow Canyon Archaeological 
Center The tour will offer a splendid opportunity 
not only to view, but to participate in an archaeo- 
logical dig. At Crow Canyon you encounter the 
excitement of archaeology first hand. Here adults 
and students of all ages — most with no previous 
archaeological experience — excavate, analyze, 
and learn side by side with archaeologists. 

Together you and the Crow Canyon scien- 
tists work toward an understanding of the 
Anasazi, the "Ancient Ones," who built countless 
stone pueblos centuries ago, and then departed. 
In this beautiful southwestern landscape they 
left villages, ceramics, tools, and silence. At 
Crow Canyon you help widen our knowledge 
of these early Americans. 


Jungle Rivers of South America: 

Puerto Ordaz, Venezuela 

to Manaus, Brazil 

April 10-25, 1990 

Cruise Price: $4,940 - $7, 100 

on the Society Explorer 

Add International air fare from 

Miami: $600 

Leader: Barry Chemoff, Ph. D. 

Our adventure along the Orinoco River into the 
heart of the Venezuelan jungle is an exceptional 
experience. You will pass through some of the 
most vast and virgin wilderness of Venezuela. Dr 
Chemoff, an ichthyologist who has done much of 
his research in this area, is looking forward to 
sharing his expertise as we explore the river's 
tributaries. We will take a special flight over the 
world's highest waterfalls. Angel Falls. After 
stopping at Devil's Island, visiting the eerie ruins 
of this former French penal colony now partly 
reclaimed by the jungle, we cross the equator at 


the mouth of the mighty Amazon River and begin 
our exploration upriver Each day we will make 
excursions in Zodiac landing craft, which make it 
possible for us to visit isolated villages, view 
colorful birds and butterflies, fish for unusual 
species, and take hikes into the jungle itself. 
Join us for an adventure to two of the world's 
greatest rivers. 

The Galapagos Islamds 
March 2 - 13, 1990 

Leader: John riynn, Ph.D. 

On many world maps it's difficult to find the 
tiny specks which appear off the coast of 
Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. Yet, the Galapagos 
Islands are unique in their isolation. They contain 
mountains, forests, beaches, and bays unlike any 
others on earth. These islands lie 600 miles west 
of Ecuador, 800 miles south of Panama and 
almost 3,000 miles east of the nearest Pacific 
landmass. Most are relatively isolated from one 
another; a perfect setting for the evolutionary lab 
they would eventually become. 

The first land inhabitants were windblown 
seeds that drifted into lava crevices and took 
root. The next were birds, perhaps also wind- 
blown, who stayed to breed. The last were 
reptiles, mainly lizards and iguanas, who rode 
tangled mats of river vegetation cast off the South 
American coast. But there the trend stopped. 
Few mammals arrived, and none who did was a 
predator The result was a world which resembles 
earth's past. Birds ruled the air, reptiles the land. 
Furthermore, since there were no hunters, most 
species lived in peace. Life on these islands re- 
mains very much the same today 

We invite you to explore with us one of the 
world's greatest living laboratories of natural 
history. The primeval beauty of the area's colorful 
landscapes and wildlife excite the senses, and 
the remarkable lameness of the animals affords 
superb opportunities for wildlife study and pho- 

We will fly from Chicago to Quito, Ecuador 
for three days, then on to Guayaquil/Baltra, 
where we will board the beautiful MV Santa 
Cruz and cruise comfortably to the islands of: 
Bartolome, Tower, Isabela, Femandina, North 
Seymout, Hood, Florena, Santa Cruz, and 

Our stay in highland Ecuador provides a 
stimulating contrast in geology and wildlife. Dr 
John Flynn, associate curator in the Department 
of Geology at Field Museum looks forward to 
sharing with you this unique experience un- 
matched by any other destination in the world. 

Naturalist in Alaska 

Circa July 10-25, 1990 
(15-day tour) 

Leader: David E. Willard, Ph.D., 


Accompanied by: Dan L. Wetzel, 

naturalist and tour operator 

This expedition has been designed with an 
emphasis on education, for the person with keen 
interests and curiosities about the "real" Alaska. 
The 1 , 000-mile wilderness itinerary allows your 
personal interaction with the wildlife and wild- 
lands of Alaska. 

We begin our trip in Anchorage and move on 
to the Kenai Fjords, where we will experience the 
38-foot bore tides, the second highest in the 
world, and a marked contrast to the one-foot 
tides of Prudhoe Bay where we complete our 
expedition. Our route includes Seward, Denali 
State Park, Denali National Park, Fairbanks, 
Coldfoot, and Sagavanirktok River The Naturalist 
in Alaska Tour was created to bring the natural 
world of Alaska within your grasp. Let us send 
you more information about this unique 

SEPTEMBER 23-30, 1990. 

For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 

Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605 ^^ 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Membership Department MARITAMAXEY 

Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive , / ; , Zr,nl , r-n.r^tl .,-.. 

ChicasoJL 60605-2499 ^^^^ "^^"^^ GRLENVIEU 

N.MH.a3u, iL OUOU3 z^yy CHICAGO IL 60626 


March/April 1990 

Field Museum 

of Natural History 


Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 

Board OF Trustees 

Rt>bert A. Pntzker 


Mr. T- Srantixi Amnxir 
Ri^beri O. Bass 
Giirtkin Bent 
Mn.. Philir 0. BLxk III 
WillardL. Rivd. 

Robert D. Cadieiix 
Worlev H. Clark 
James W. Q^mpton 
Frank W. Q^nsidine 
Thomas E. CXmnelley II 
Thomas J. Everman 
MaRhall FieU 
Ronald J. Gidwit^ 
Wav-ne E. Hedien 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Rkrhard M. Jones 
Jc^n B. Judkinsjr. 
John James Kinsella 
William Kunkler III 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Let> F Mullin 
James J. O'Ctninor 

Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
Blaine J. Yarrington 


Harry O- Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Harrman 
Edward B>Ton Smith 
Robert H. Strot: 
John W. Sullivan 


March/April 1990 
Volume 61, Number 2 



L lEUND WEBBER, 1920-1990 7 


by Frank J. Yurco, Egypt Consultant IS 


byBretS. BeaU 24 



E. Leland Webber, 1920-1990. See pp. 7-9. 82696 

Bulletin on Bimonthly Schedule 

Beginning with the January/February 1990 
issue, the Field Museum Bulletin's schedule has 
changed to six issues per year from eleven. The 
Museum regrets this curtailment, brought on 
by the continuing rise of publication costs. The 
price of the Bulletin subscription, $3.00 per year 
for schools and $6.00 per year for individuals, 
remains unchanged. 

Field Museum of Salural History Bulleun (USPS 898-9401 Is published bimonthly by FicW Museum of Nalural Hislofy. Rcxiscvelt Road al Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 60605-24% 
CopyrighiC 1990 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: S6,00 annually. S3 ,00 for schools- Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription- Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do 
not necessarily reflect Ibe policy of Field Museum- Utisolicited manuscripts are welcome- Museum phone ( .3 1 2) 922-94 10- Ntxification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Depatlment. Postmaster: Send address changes to Field Museum of Natural History. Second class postage paid at Chicago. Illinois. 

'He Works for the Museum" 

Lee Webber examining mask from Papua New Guinea, 1960s plioto. 

Shortly after I came to the Field Museum as Bulletin editor in 1973, a col- 
league told me of a conversation with a young boy visiting the Museum. 
"What does your father do?" he asked the boy. "He works for the Museum," 
was the reply. 

What a telling remark from a guileless 10-year-old. His father, Lee 
Webber, was then director of the Museum, the institution's chief executive 
officer. How eloquently this spoke, in turn, of Lee's estimation of his per- 
sonal slot in the society of man. 

My own most memorable encounter with Lee Webber was in 1976 — 
the details remain clearly etched in my memory. 1 had discovered to my 
horror that two columns in the September issue of the magazine — which 1 
had pasted up — were transposed. But the issue had already been printed; it 
belonged to history. Clearly, my only course of action was to tell Mr. Web- 
ber of the accident before someone else brought it to his attention. Though 1 
was well aware of his reputation for demolishing errant employees, it seemed 
1 had no choice. 

"Can it be fixed?" he asked. I replied that the problem could be easily 
corrected by going back on press for 30,000 copies. "Well," he said, with the 
hint of a smile, "1 guess we'll have to live with it, won't we?" He gave me a 
clap on the shoulder and told me to get back to work. 

From then on, need 1 add, I would have scrubbed floors for the man. 
Lee Webber died on January 7, just days before his 70th birthday, following a 
brief illness. Though he now belongs to the ages, Lee Webber will live 
forever in the hearts of those privileged to have known him and worked tor 
him. — Ed. 

Adult Programs 

Hawaiian hula dancer, member of the Keolalaulani Halau Olapa 
O'Laka, a Hawaiian dance group which will perform during Field 
IVIuseum's Pacific Festival, March 8 through 1 1 . The group will also 
demonstrate traditional crafts from the Pacific. All Pacific Festival 
activities are free for members or with regular museum admission. 
For performance times and complete information call 322-8859. 

Monte Cosla. 1989 Waimea Park Makahiki 

In celebration of tfie opening of Field Museums newest 
permanent exfiibit, "Traveling the Pacific," adult programs 
feature Ihe people and natural history of this region. These 
programs are supported in part by thie National Endowment 
for tfie Humanities. 

Adult Course 

"Colonialists, Missionaries, and Anthropologist: A View of the 
Modern Pacific" 

Western culture hias influenced and, in some cases, 
damaged the cultural and political autonomy of Pacific 
Island peoples. This six-part series provides an overview of 
the ideas and people that have influenced the Pacific region 
and the responses of the diverse Pacific cultures. 

AC901 01, Wednesdays, 7:00 -9:00pm 

March 14 - April 18 (6 sessions): $60 ($50 members) 

Special Lecture 

"Margaret Mead: Pioneer of Ethnographic Film" 
Malcolm Arth, Chairman, Department of Education, 
American Museum of Natural History 

Malcolm Arth, anthropologist and long-time colleague of 
Margaret Mead, explores the coming age of enthnographic 
film. Focusing on Mead's pioneering work in the Pacific, Dr. 
Arth combines lecture with film clips and discussion. This 
lecture introduces the film series. "Films of the South Pacific: 
From Margaret Mead to the Present," scheduled Saturday, 
March 17. 

LL90101, Friday, March 16, 7:00pm: $10 ($8 members) 

Lecture Series 

Sundays, March 1 1 - April 8, 1990 2:00p.m. 
"People and Places of the Pacific" 

The South Pacific remains, in the eyes of many, an area 
undefined geographically and romanticized culturally. This 
senes introduces the many peoples of the area, their 
histories and cultures, and their links with the Western world. 

Sunday, March 1 1 

"Babeldaob to Majuro: A Guide to the Archaeology of 


Brian Butler, Associate Director, Center for Archaeology 
Investigations, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale 

Sunday, March 18 

"Art, Life, and Death in New Ireland, 1953-1981" 

Phillip Lewis, Curator, Primitive Art and Melanesian 
Ethnology, Department of Anthropology, Field Museum 

Sunday, March 25 

"Cargo Cults in the South Pacific" 

Lawrence E. Sullivan, Associate Professor of the History 
of Religions, the University of Chicago Divinity School 

Sunday, April 1 

"Pacific Encounters: Island Memories of World War 11" 

Lamont LIndstrom. Associate Professor, Department of 

Antfiropology, Tfie University of Tulsa 


Sunday, April 8 

"Polynesian Music and Dance" 

Adrienne Kaeppler. Curator of Oceanic Enthnology National 
Museum of Natural History. Smithsonian Institution 

Entire Senes: $20 ($12 members) LL90109 
Single Lecture: $5 ($3 members) 

Film Series 

"Films of ttie Soutti Pacific: Margaret Mead to the 

Ettinograpfiic and documentary films present thie 
remarl<ably diverse cultures of the Pacific Islands in an 
unique manner. Thie filmmaker's sl<ill and ttie filmmal<er's 
individual view combine witti fascinating results. Included 
are early works of Margaret Mead thirougti contemporary 

LL90102, Saturday, March 17, 12:30 - 4:30pm, $10 
($8 members) 

Arth Lecture and Ethnographic Film Series: LL90103: $15 
($12 members) 

Also in March/April . . . 

Family Performance 

"Do You Really Want A Dinosaur?" 
Trinity Square Ensemble 
Saturday, March 24, 1990, 2:00pm 

It is the magical summer before her 10th birthday and Marty 
has permission to get the pet of her choice. Marty's idea of a 
great pet happens to be a dinosaur. Join her as she takes a 
journey through knowledge and imagination in search of her 
dream dinosaur. 

Tickets: $5.00 for adults; $3.00 for children 12 and under. 

Discover the beautiful and sophisticated weaving 
techniques of ttie ancient Peruvians, learn to speak 
conversational Swahili, try your hand at the ancient art of 
Chinese Brush stroke, or create three-dimensional Origami 
figures. For a full listing of adult courses and workshops, 
consult the March/April/May Adult Programs brochure or 
call the Department of Education at (312) 322-8854. 

Registration for People and Places of the Pacific 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this registration 
application. Registrations are confirmed by mail. For registrations 
received less than two weeks before ttie program date, confirmations 
are held at the West Door one hour before the program begins. Phone 
registrations are accepted using Visa/Master Card/Amx/Discover 
Please call (312) 322-8854 to register For further registration 
information, consult the March/April/May Adult Program Brochure. 

Return complete registration with a self- 
addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Department of Education. Program Registration 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago. IL 60605-2497 



Number of 

Number of 


People and Places 
of the Pacific 

Indicate Date(s): 

Colonialists, Missionaries, and 
Antfiropologists: A View of 
Modem Pacific 

March 19. 7:00 pm- 
AprillS, 9:00 pm 

Margaret Mead: Pioneer of 
Ethnographic Film 

March 16, 7:00 pm 

Films of the South Pacific: 
Margaret Mead to Present 

March 17, 12:30 pm 

Malcolm Arth Lecture and 

Film Series 


March 16. 7:00 pm 
March 17, 12:30 pm 

D Scholarship requested 










DAMX nvisa D MasterCard D Discover (Check one) 

Card # expiration date 


For office use only: 

date received 

date mailed 

Thanks to Harold K. Voris 

Harold K. Vorls 84347 

From the Board of Trustees: 

Field Museum of Natural History is indebted to Harold K. 
Voris for almost five years of service as vice president for 
Collections and Research. 

Dr. Voris began his career at Field Museum in 1973 as 
assistant curator of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Zoology 
Department. He established a reputation as a top-notch 
herpetologist and evolutionary biologist. He is one of the 
world's experts on sea snakes and a superb field biologist; his 
publications and analyses are based almost entirely on data 
resulting from his field work. Dr. Voris was also the first sci- 
entist at Field Museum to introduce and make use of bio- 
chemical techniques in systematic studies; Field Museum 
now has a biochemical lab with a full-time manager who is 
expanding the abilities of the lab in new and exciting direc- 

Talents such as those possessed by Dr. Voris did not go 
unnoticed, and in March 1985 he was asked to serve as the 
Museum's first vice president for Collections and Research. 

Dr. Voris brought to this position the same insight and orga- 
nizational abilities that are so successful in his research. 
Under his leadership, the scientific area began a move 
towards excellence that has gathered momentum and is con- 
tinuing now under his successor, Dr. Jonathan Haas. Many 
tasks were accomplished during his nearly five-year tenure as 
vice president, and many directions he initiated will be real- 
ized in the coming years. He has been an exceptional 
academic and administrative leader. He has effectively 
established the role of vice president for Collections and Re- 
search and set a high standard for the future. 

The Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History ex- 
press their sincere gratitude to Harold K. Voris for his service 
and leadership in science at Field Museum. 

From His Colleagues: 

Harold Voris was happily tucked away in the basement of 
Field Museum, in close proximity to his beloved sea snakes, 
where he could study their every move and nuance, when 
along comes some administrative type and asks him to get 
involved in a navel-examining, paper-pushing project called 
Centennial Directions. This is the point at which nine out of 
your average ten curators would have said, "Get serious!", 
but not our Harold. No, Harold was (fill in the blank accord- 
ing to your preference) naive! stupid? foolish! good-hearted! 
enough to say, "sure, sounds like a lot of laughs." Thus began 
his dive into the administrative depths of Field Museum, 
eventually landing him into the position of vice president for 
Collections and Research. 

So Harold moved up to the third floor, where the air is a 
little thinner and tried to keep his brain cells intact, in spite 
of the fact that he had to wear a tie every day and often a 
jacket too, and keep his fingernails clean and his shirt spot- 
less and act polite to people and make rational decisions and 
all kinds of things that are difficult for nine out of your aver- 
age ten curators. Not to mention attending docket and 
countless other meetings that would turn just about anyone's 
mind into Jello. And with occasional forays to Borneo to 
sf)end a few weeks lifting up rocks and hoping something 
slimy would be underneath, he managed to do it for almost 
five years. 

For this, Harold, we say thank you. Thank you for all 
those mornings you put on a tie and did it again for the good 
of science at Field Museum. Thank you for watching over 
the hopes, needs, and wants of the scientific area and 
representing those at those countless meetings. Thank you 
for doing the job with a sense ot humor so we have giggle 
hour at late afternoon meetings. Thank you for doing it so 
that no one else had to. 

E. Leiand Webber 


E. Leiand Webber, chairman of the Field Foundation of 
lUinois, president emeritus of Field Museum of Natural 
History, and long-time civic leader, died on Sunday, 
January 7, at Evanston Hospital in Evanston, Illinois. 
Memorial Services for Mr. Webber were held January 
12, at the Church of the Holy Comforter in Kenil- 
worth, Illinois. 

Mr. Webber was recognized as one of the foremost 
museum leaders in the United States. Born in Chicago 
in 1920, he entered the museum world at age 13 as a 
student usher for lectures at the Field Museum in the 
1930s. Higher education and World War II took him 
away from the Museum. He returned to the Museum in 
1950 following several years with the accounting firm 
of Ernst and Ernst. In 1962 he was appointed director of 
the Field Museum and later president. Mr. Webber re- 
tired as president in 1981 and since that time he had 
remained an active and valued member of the Field 
Museum Board of Trustees. 

Mr. Webber's impact on the Field Museum was 
dramatic and enduring. Although not a museum cura- 
tor himself, Mr. Webber quickly and sensitively 
grasped the essence of an institution engaged in 
research, exhibits, and public programs based on en- 
cyclopedic collections pertaining to the world's physi- 
cal and cultural environments. Under Leiand Webber's 
leadership. Field Museum embarked on a major pro- 
gram of providing increased and advanced collection 
storage and research space, and commenced the 
remounting of exhibits in the nearly 500,000 square 
feet of the Museum that is open to the public. 

Among the many important exhibit projects initi- 
ated during Mr. Webber's tenure at Field Museum were 
the reinstallation of the Northwest Coast Indian, Eski- 
mo, and Jade collections. The Pawnee Earth Lodge and 
the Place for Wonder were inaugurated and became 
national examples of how a museum can involve visi- 
tors actively. Mr. Webber initiated a special traveling 
exhibit program for the Field Museum which brought 
to Chicago "The Treasures of Tutankhamen," "The 
Great Bronze Age of China," and other milestone 
exhibits. The pace of the Museum's public program- 
ming increased dramatically under his leadership. 
Adult courses, field trips, and a variety of festivals were 
introduced to the public. 

Lee Webber was imaginative yet practical; he en- 
gendered respect and affection from all who worked 
with and knew him. The Field Museum stands at the 
forefront of its genre because of his exemplary leader- 

In 1987, Field Museum opened the Webber Re- 
source Center for Native Cultures of the Americas as a 
tribute to Leiand Webber. This center makes available 
to the public a variety of materials concerning the cul- 
tures of the indigenous people of the Americas. This 
in-depth approach to visitor learning reflects the com- 
mitment E. Leiand Webber had throughout his life to 
helping people from all backgrounds learn about nat- 
ural history. 

As a result of his exceptional leadership in Chi- 
cago, Mr. Webber's counsel was sought in the Amer- 
ican and international museum community. He was 
an active and influential member of the American 
Association of Museums (AAM), serving as both vice 
president of the association and as a member of its 
Executive Committee from 1966 to 1970, and was 
chairman of the Association's Committee on Museum 
Needs, which prepared "America's Museum: The Bel- 
mont Report" from 1967 to 1969. From 1979 to 1984, 
he was a member of AAM's Legislative Committee, 
serving as chairman from 1981 to 1984. In the spring of 
1989, the American Association of Museums named 
Leiand Webber recipient of the association's highest 
honor, the "Distinguished Service to Museums Med- 
al," given to an individual who has made a cumulative 
contribution to the field of museums. Mr. Webber was 
an active member of the Association of Systematic 
Collections. He was appointed by President Nixon to 
the National Council of the Arts and by President Car- 
ter to the National Museum Services Board. Mr. Web- 
ber served as a member of the Joint Committee on 
Museums for the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Educa- 
tion and Culture from 1976 to 1982. 

Upon his retirement from the Field Museum pres- 
idency in 1981, Mr. Webber undertook several vital 
projects of significance for metropolitan Chicago. At 
the behest of the philanthropic community, he visited 
the headquarters of corporations located in Chicago to 
encourage increased philanthropic support by corpora- 
tions. In 1985-86, he served as interim president of the 7 

United Way/Crusade of Mercy Campaign. 

In 1982, Leland Webber was elected a director of 
the Field Foundation of Illinois, Inc., and in 1983 was 
elected chairman. The Foundation is an independent, 
philanthropic foundation aiding institutions and 
agencies in the fields of health, welfare, education, cul- 
ture and civic affairs in the Chicago area. 

Among his many activities, Mr. Webber served on 
the boards of the Savings & Profit Sharing Fund of 
Sears Employees, Sears, Roebuck &. Co. , Growth In- 
dustry Shares, William Blair Ready Reserves, Illinois 
Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, the Illinois State 
Museum Board, the State of Illinois Board of Gov- 
ernors of State Colleges and Universities, and served as 
chairman and member of the board of the Chicago 
YMCA Hotel. He was also a member of the Chicago 
Committee of the Chicago Council on Foreign Rela- 
tions, the Southside Planning Board, and the National 
4-H Service Committee. His club memberships in- 
cluded Commercial, University, Tavern, Economic, 
Arts, Caxton, and Michigan Shores. 

Leland Webber was an active member of the 
Church of the Holy Comforter in Kenilworth, Illinois. 

In recognition of his public service, Mr. Webber's 
awards included Egypt's "Order of the Republic" from 
President Anwar Sadat in 1979, for the presentation of 
the "Treasures of Tutankhamen" exhibit and the Ex- 

Lee with dignitaries and other visitors during opening of Moon Rock 
exhibit in 1969. 

Artist John Underwood shows Lee his collection of twin figures from 
western Nigeha which he acquired there in the early 1960s. The 
Museum, in turn, acquired the valuable pieces from Undenwood. 

1967 photo. 81038 

Lee With (1. to r.) DaveWillard, managerof the Bird 
Collection; actress Helen Hayes (a close friend of Lee's); 
Mrs. G. Corson Ellis; and Mel Traylor, curator of Birds. 1980. 

ceptional Community Service Award from the Univer- 
sity Club of Chicago in 1973. He received an LHD 
from DePaul University in Chicago in 1980 and was a 
fellow at the Rochester Museum of Science Center in 

Mr. Webber received his B. B. A. from the Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati in 1942 and completed studies at the 
University of Illinois in preparation for his C.P.A. , 
awarded him in 1949. He served as an officer in the 
U.S. Naval Reserve in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945. 

Mr. Webber is survived by his wife, Joan Wray 
Malloch of Wilmette, and his children: Leland Duer of 
Marlborough, Massachusetts; James Randall of Wil- 
mette, Illinois; Ellen Robinson of Madison, Wiscon- 
sin; and his grandchild, Ellen Duer. Mr. Webber was 
preceded in death in 1974 by his first wife, Ellen 
GowenDuer. — WillardL. Boyd. 

A visiting physicist from China with Lee in 1978. 82858 

The way the world is 
l_ supposed to be. 

yonK mvv\ the thildirn oi'Paiadisc. 
i has been niakiii'j, it casv lor 
ears now. We 'j;i\c vou the most 
tligiits to ttie most islands. Plus Roval 
.Hawaiian ser\ ice on e\ei y Ihuht. ibr a 
laste ol' Hawaii all the wav there. 

I'Hited. Proud to be the Oiiicial 
Airlitie ofthe Field Museum's Traveling 
the Paeitie e.xhihit. Come fly the friendly 



. J^» 


),iJ?P^^8jfe. ] 






April 6 through July 8 

A collection of approximately 50 black and whiite 
photographs that reflect photographer Flor Garduno's 
interest in the traditions of her native Mexico. One im- 
portant tradition captured in these photos is the role 
played by animals in the lives of Mexican people and 
the underlying belief that all human beings are born 
with an animal as a personal guide. 

Flor Garduno's photographs exist simultaneously 
as documents of individuals and communities alive 
today and as mirrors into a culture with a legacy so 
complex and distinct from mainstream western society 
that it is generally misunderstood except by the most 
astute observers. By isolating moments of celebration 
and ritual with such clarity, Garduno's imagery offers 
the possibility of comprehending the connection 
between the past and present, the real and fantastic, 
in traditional Latin American life. 

In Mexico, photography as a document of 
common people has been inseparable from its 
development as an art form. That photography could 
record historic events as momentous as the Mexican 
Revolution as well as interpret the diverse cultures of 
the nation gave impetus to use of the medium early in 
its existence by journalists and artists alike. Perhaps 
because of the very richness of the culture and its 
remarkable visual products, Mexican artists seized 

the opportunity offered by the camera to create a form 
of expression that melded documentation with visual 
poetry. The tradition that developed with this use of 
photography is perhaps best known through the work 
of Manuel Alvarez Bravo; it has evolved and remained 
vital among subsequent generations of artists that 
include Mariana Yampolsky, Pedro Meyer, Graciela 
Iturbide, and most recently, Flor Garduno. 

Garduno has traveled extensively to those 
areas of Mexico where popular traditions persist. 
The photographs reproduced here were made in 
the 1980s in Guerrero and Puebia, states which 
precariously accommodate communities of both  
modern and traditional populations. The indigenous 
Indian people that are Garduno's subject live in the 
shadow of alien ways that aggressively encroach 
upon them; the fiercely guarded traditions that foster 
meaning in their individual and communal lives are 
at once the fuel for their vitality and the cause of 
their vulnerability in the contemporary world. Her 
photographs could be valued solely because they 
illustrate disappearing customs but they are not 
dispassionate documents. Rather, they suggest why 
tradition endures — even at the end of the twentieth 
century — and can be valued in and of itself. 




World's fair 




' JL. cPFMIMkfti^Wkl€h Furmino in its e/itirety the mos' 3ionificant 
' ^yi^*z!^'^^^''^^y'^' d/ie/ G/^'^gest Spcofdc/e o: Afodem Times. 

Field Museum to Participate in Chicaso Day 1990 

On Sunday, April 29, the Field Museum will participate 
in Chicago Day 1990 — an event uniting eleven Chicago 
cultural institutions in a celebration of the city's heritage 
of art, architecture, music, theatre, social reform, and 

Chicaso Day is sponsored by AT&T and is based on 
a similar celebration which took place at the 1893 Columbian 
Exposition — nearly 100 years ago. At that time, citizens of 
Chicago boasted of the city's rise from the ashes of the 1871 
fire and celebrated with a free admission and open house 
day at this world's fair. Similarly, participating institutions will 
be opening their doors free of charge to the public during 
Chicago Day 1990. 

Chicago Day 1990 on April 29 is a special highlight 
of a five-year period of centennial celebrations taking place 
between 1989 and 1993. Free admission, special programs, 
and behind-the-scenes tours will be offered at the Field 
Museum and at the following institutions: Art Institute of 
Chicago, Auditorium Theatre/Roosevelt University, Chicago 
Botanic Garden, Chicago FHistorical Society, Chicago 
Symphony Orchestra, Frank Lloyd Wright FHome & Studio 
Foundation, FHull FHouse Association and Jane Addams' 
FHull-House Museum at UIC, Illinois Institute of Technology, 
University of Chicago, and Visiting Nurse Association of 

There will be a special bus service linking these 
institutions on Chicago Day; however, it will not serve 
participants in Oak Park and Glencoe. 

For more information on Chicago Day, contact Field 
Museum's Public Relations office at (312) 322-8859. 

Littiograph poster (original In color) 

announcing the first Chicago Day, 

Oct. 9, 1893, held during the World's 

Columbian Exposition, Courtesy 

Chicago Historical Society. ' 3 

Pacific Encounters 

Island Memories of World War II 

March 7 through June 3 

World War II swept into the Pacific islands with 
incredible speed and force. The story of the massive, 
cross-cultural encounters and social disruption that 
islanders experienced during the war is documented 
through this interesting exhibition of 70 black and 
white photos, taken in the Pacific islands between 
1942 and 1945. 

The sheer magnitude of the war would be enough 
to ensure its place in island memories. On the island of 
Guadalcanal, for example, the number of Allied and 
Japanese who died on the island in just nine months 
of fighting was nearly double the total indigenous 

population of 15,000. But, for most islanders, the 
events which unfolded between 1942 and 1945 
amounted to much more than a massive military 
confrontation; they marked a turning-point in the 
history of race relations and the development of island 
nations. It is this story of massive cross-cultural 
encounters and social disruption, which is the main 
focus of this exhibition. 

The war came at a critical moment in the history 
of many island communities struggling to define their 
relations with colonial authorities and the wider world. 
For some people, the war presented opportunities for 
improved status and government involvement; while 
for others it offered new ideas and skills which could 
be used to challenge entrenched colonial regimes. 
In areas where Islanders had become increasingly 
restless with domineering colonial officers, the 
encounter with powerful, exotic, and often friendly 
military personnel was a catalyst for change. 

Like any major event in the history of island 
societies, wartime experiences have been 
incorporated in local oral traditions — historical 
"archives" which depend for their existence on the 
memories of a disappearing generation of Pacific 
islanders. This exhibition is designed to use these oral 
traditions plus photographs from the war era to portray 
contributions that islanders made to the war effort (on 
both Allied and Japanese sides), as well as something 
of the meaning of those events for islanders 
themselves. Although mostly taken by foreign 
military personnel, the photographs capture many 
of the activities and scenes which recur in island 
recollections of the war. The selection of photographs 
is necessarily limited to the topics and events which 
suited the purposes of Allied and Japanese 
photographers. So, for example, ceremonies of 
all kinds — awarding medals, conducting church 
services, and the like — were highly photogenic, 
whereas there is little photographic record of the 
experiences of village women and children who 
struggled to survive while whole villages of 
able-bodied men were recruited as laborers 
and fighters. 


The Cat and Ancient Egypt 

by Frank J. Yurco, Egypt Consultant 

) . The "Great Cat " (right) among the 75 other manifestations of the sun-god. Re: 
tomb of Pharaoh Siptah. Valley of the Kings, Thebes. Egypt: Dynasty XIX. F.J. 
Yurco photo. 

The domestic cat, Felis siivestris familiaris (or man- 
iculata), is a relative latecomer among the various 
domesticated animals associated with human- 
kind. Representations of it won't be found in the cave 
and rock paintings of prehistoric Africa and Europe, 
nor does it appear for certain among the domesticated 
animals of the early Neolithic period in the Middle 
East. It is in ancient Egypt that the pictorial and in- 
scriptional evidence first comes together to make cer- 
tain that the domesticated cat is present; and indeed, 
in Egypt the cat attained a very lofty status, becoming 
associated with divinity in the personae of the goddess 
Bastet and in one manifestation of the solar deity. 

Small catlike carnivores like Felis silvestris libyca 
proliferated in the North African environment of 
ancient times. ' The Sahara has passed through cycles of 
dry and wet periods within recent geological time (the 
last 12,000 years), and during the arid periods such 
large carnivores as lions and leopards could not sustain 
themselves in that environment. Their niche was 
occupied by smaller carnivores, including jackals, 
hyenas, wild dogs, and, among felines, by several possi- 
ble ancestors of the domestic cat. In the wild state, the 
small felines like the cat focus their hunting on small 
animals, birds, reptiles, and occasionally insects. As 
this group of prey includes rats and mice, such small 
felines had a natural inclination to associate with hu- 
mans, especially once humans began the large-scale 

storage of foods, cereal grains in particular. 

Grain storage bins were appealing to small ro- 
dents, including rats and mice, and these were in- 
cluded among the regularly hunted prey of the small 
felines. This may well be how the ancestors of the 
domestic cat were drawn first to associate with humans. 
Grain storage on a large scale first appeared among the 
ancient Egyptians of the late Predynastic era, the 
Sumerians in Mesopotamia, and the peoples of the In- 
dus Valley and China. All these civiliations produced 
grains on a large scale (wheat, barley, or rice) and had 
occasion to store surpluses, for export, or as a reserve 
against years of famine. It is in those civilizations, 
then, that the ancestors of the domestic cat likely 
would appear first. Indeed, at Hagilar and Jericho, sites 
in what are now southwestern Turkey and northern 
Israel, respectively, bones of small felines have been 
found among the remnants of early farming villages of 
the 6th and 5th millennia B.C.;- but whether these 
bones represent domesticated ancestors of the cat is un- 
certain. Likewise, bones of catlike felines have been 
found at Egyptian Predynastic sites (5000-3100 B.C.);' 
but again, lacking pictorial or incriptional evidence, it 
is not certain which of the small feline carnivores these 
remains represent. 

It is in Egypt that the pictorial and inscriptional 
archive for the domestic cat eventually becomes quite 
well documented. In the language of ancient Egypt, 


2 Cat. as bailiff, brings bad boy before mouse judge: Oriental Institute limestone ostracon. painted, no. 13951; Deir el-Medinati, Egypt: 
Dynasty XIX-XX. Oriental Institute ptioto- 

the word for cat is d S Ja Js5 miw, "meow, " with a pic- 
ture of a seated cat as determinative, or word classifier.* 
The earUest dated literary references are from the Mid- 
dle Kingdom {ca. 2040- 1 786 B.C. ) , in the earlier part of 
the period." Earlier pictorial representations do occur, 
hut they are somewhat ambiguous. Small felines, or 
felinelike animals are represented on Early Dynastic 
(ca. 3100-2770 B.C.) objects." The problem lies in that 
these depictions are not labelled miw, or are so frag- 
mentary that establishing just what feline is involved is 
difficult.  Add to this situation the fact that the ancient 
Egyptians venerated a variety of felines ranging from 
lionesses to leopards and panthers, as well as smaller 
felines, and the complexity of the evidence becomes 

With the coming of the Middle Kingdom period, 
the mystery begins to clear up. In this period, as seen 
above, inscriptions certainly refer to the miw, and the 
pictorial references make it certain that the domestic 
cat is present beyond doubt.* Once attested, the cat 
speedily made itself well adjusted to Egyptian culture. 
Besides becoming a cherished pet, it was a relentless 
mouser, helping to protect granaries and other food 
1 6 storehouses; and further, its daring in challenging ser- 

pents won for it much additional veneration. 

The ancient Egyptians recognized divinity in 
many aspects,'* and various felines found themselves in- 
cluded in this development. Very early in pharaonic 
history, one such feline was recognized by the name 
Mafdet. ''' She is represented on a vase fragment, on a 
mud jar-sealing, and on the royal kinglist known as the 
Palermo Stone; usually she is shown in full feline form 
scampering up the pole of an execution device." This 
depiction linked Mafdet with the execution of evil- 
doers, and in this guise she became popular in Old 
Kingdom religious cult. She was also known for bat- 
tling serpents, and this won her great respect. Schol- 
arly opinion is divided on whether Mafdet should be 
seen as the domestic cat, '- as some other feline, " or as a 
mongoose. '* 

In favor of the domestic cat. Sir Alan Gardiner 
recounted an incident at Abydos, where a cat belong- 
ing to two English scholars working there in the 1930s, 
killed homed vipers, a very deadly type of serpent, by 
pouncing on them, holding them down with its claws, 
then biting them. " From my own experience in Egypt, 
I recall a domestic cat confronting, although not 
attacking, a cobra. Likewise, in religious texts the 

3. Statue of Sektimet. biack granite: Temple of Mut. Karnak, Egypt: 
Dynasty XVI 1 1^ F. J. Yurcoptioto. 

ancient Egyptians recognized this serpent-killing abil- 
ity of the cat. Both in the funerary papyri known as 
Books of the Dead (chapter 17) and in tomb paintings of 
the New Kingdom Period {ca. 1570-1080 B.C.), a tom- 
cat, titled as "the Great Cat who dwells in Heliopolis," 
is depicted and described as cutting off the head of the 
dangerous serpent, Apophis, entwined around a Persea 
tree. '* This tomcat, whether the short-tailed jungle cat 
or the domestic cat, usually is shown with a spotted 
coat and ringed legs and tail; he was so venerated that 
one of the 76 manifestations of the sun-god was repre- 
sented as a tomcat (fig. 1 ). The ability of modern Egyp- 
tian cats to tackle vipers or other serpents lends support 
to the idea that the Great Tomcat of Heliopolis was 
indeed a domestic tomcat. " This aspect of the cat — the 
ability to tackle serpents — assured its status in Egypt, 
for while a cat that is a good mouser is both useful and 
desireable, a cat that takes on serpents can be, abso- 
lutely, a lifesaver. 

In the New Kingdom period and later, the domes- 
tic cat achieved widespread popularity. Frequently the 
subject of tomb paintings, it is shown in hunting scenes 
helping catch marsh birds from its owner's papyrus 

skiff, " or else sitting or lying down under the chair of 
the lady of the house. " Its position as a cherished pet is 
well attested. A son of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1386- 
1348 B.C.), Prince Thutmose, was so attached to his 
cat that when she died he had her embalmed and fitted 
out with a small sarcophagus (now in the Cairo 
Museum), complete with reliefs showing the cat and 
funerary texts. ^° She is called "The Osiris, Ta-Mit," the 
kitty's name evidently being simply the feminine form 
oimiw. At the head and foot of the sarcophagus, she is 
under the protection of Isis and Nephthys, so that just 
like a human, she was envisioned as gaining eternal life 
through Osiris. The prince included his own titles and 
name, so we learn that he was the elder brother of the 

4. Head, from Sektimet statue, black granite: Field Museum 
no. 31720: from Mut Temple. Karnak. Egypt: Dynasty XVIII. Dave 
Walsten photo. 

prince who later became Pharaoh Amenhotep IV 
(Akhenaten); he was High Priest of Ptah, stationed in 
Memphis, and also crown prince and royal heir, but 
evidently predeceased his own father, Amenhotep III. 
Most painted depictions of cats in the New King- 
dom show them with brown tabby markings, in various 
attitudes and modes of behavior familiar to anyone 
owning a domestic cat. More and more in this period, 
the domestic cat was identified with Bastet, and it even 
entered into literature and humor. On one papyrus, 
cats are shown acting as servants at a mouse-king's 
court. ^' They carry baby mice wrapped in swaddling 
clothes and serve their mouse masters in various ways. ■\ 7 


5. Miyisis, or Mahes, son of Bastet, bronze figures: cats. 30282 (left) 
and 30283: Late Period: negs. 8067, 8069. 

Another satirical and humorous papyrus in Turin, Ita- 
ly, shows cats defending a fortress under attack by a 
pharaoh-mouse in a chariot drawn by dogs. " In another 
scene on this papyrus, and on another in the British 
Museum, cats act as shepherds herding a flock of 
geese." At the Oriental Institute in Chicago, a lime- 
stone ostracon (fig. 2) shows a cat acting as bailiff who 
brings a miscreant boy into court before a mouse acting 
as judge. All of this suggests that the cat had secured for 
itself a familiar and comfortable niche in the milieu of 
ancient Egypt. 

In the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom peri- 
ods the domestic cat became more firmly associated 
with the feline deity, Bastet, mistress of Bubastis. Bas- 
tet was originally a lioness, with a cult center also at 
Heliopolis, where she was "daughter of Atum," and at 
times she was identified with Tefnut. ^^ The existence of 
other feline deities, such as Sekhmet (figs. 3, 4) of 
Memphis, and Pakhet of the Beni Hasan area in Mid- 

dle Egypt, gave her entrance to cults in those areas, 
when she was identified with the resident felines. Both 
Pyramid Texts and a Middle Kingdom hymn associate 
Bastet with the crown and make her a protectress of the 
king and of the Two Lands (Egypt) . " Clearly, the feroc- 
ity of the lioness was stressed in Bastet in these aspects. 
In the New Kingdom, Pharaoh Ramesses IV (1151- 
1145 B.C.) forbade the hunting of lions on the various 
feast days of Bastet.^' These associations reinforced the 
image of Bastet as an aspect of Sekhmet, and she was 
even thought to have given birth to a lion diety, 
Miyisis, or Mahes, who became a warrior god, guardian 
of pharaoh and of sacred sites (fig. 5), and the one who 
mauls the foes of pharaoh (fig. 6)." 

Bastet, though, had another nature, as shown by a 
text that calls her "ferocious as Sekhmet, and as peace- 
ful as the domestic cat."" In these two guises she typi- 
fies the ability of Egyptian deities to be manifest in 
differing aspects, something seen in almost all the ref- 
erences to deities discussed here. The magnificent 
bronze figure of Bastet in the Field Museum's collection 
(no. 31642) well illustrates these dual aspects (fig. 8). 
Majestically seated on a throne, she has the head of a 
lioness, but in her right hand she holds an instrument 
called a sistrum, and texts on the throne identify her as 
Bastet. The sistrum is associated with music-making, 
more in keeping with the character of Hathor (fig. 9), 
goddess of love, music, dance, and festivity.^' 

Increasingly, in the Post-New Kingdom era ( 1080- 
664 B.C. ) , Bastet came to be associated with the domes- 
tic cat rather than the lioness. A major boost to her 
popularity came in Dynasty XXII-XXIII (945-712 
B.C.), when pharaohs of Libyan ancestry made Bubas- 
tis, home of her principle shrine, their royal city. Large 
temples to Bastet were built, and she became a national 
ranking deity. Perhaps it was in this period that com- 
menced the feasts and pilgrimages, replete with feast- 
ing, dancing, and merry-making, that were mentioned 
by Herodotus, the Greek historian, who visited Egypt 
in 448 B.C. '" It was also in this period that vast numbers 
of small and medium-sized bronze images of Bastet, 
shown either as a female human with a cat's head, 
sometimes with kittens standing before her or held in a 
basket, or simply shown as a cat, were produced as vo- 
tive gifts to the goddess (figs. 9 and 10). These have 
been found in areas with shrines devoted to Bastet and 
often are inscribed with prayers. The presence of kit- 
tens stressed another aspect of Bastet, that of protec- 
tress of family and children. That indeed was the 
environment in which the domestic cat was often 

wmiy^mmm ^^^^^'^^^^ 

6. Miyisis as a lion, mauls foes ofpharaoh; wall relief, sandstone; Temple of Kom Ombo, Egypt: Roman Period. F. J. Yurco ptioto. 

By the Late Period (664-332 B.C.) and the sub- 
sequent Ptolemaic Era (332-30 B.C.), the sanctity of 
Bastet was extended to cover all domestic cats. This is 
demonstrated in the now-growing practice of mum- 
mifying and burying all dead cats in cemeteries 
attached to the various shrines associated with Bastet. 
Vast numbers of cats were thusly interred, at Bubastis, 
at Memphis (where recently the enormous cemetery 
adjacent to Bastet's shrine has been discovered intact 
with thousands of mummified cats), and at Beni Hasan 
(whence large numbers of mummified cats were 
extracted in the 19th century)." Most of the Field 
Museum's mummified cats (fig. 11 ) probably came 
from the Beni Hasan cemetery. Yet, so numerous were 
the cat mummies that all but the finest were unwrapped 
summarily. Their linen bandages were exported to the 
United States during the American Civil War (1861- 
65) to a New England factory that turned them into 
linen-based paper." The cat mummies were shipped to 

England, where, pulverized, they were used as plant 

Stories from the Ptolemaic era recount how highly 
cats were regarded in Egypt. According to Herodotus, 
if a house caught fire, the inhabitants rushed in to save 
the cats, or ringed it to keep the cats out." Diodorus 
Siculus recounts that at Alexandria, when a visiting 
Roman dignitary accidently killed a cat in 60-59 B.C., 
an outraged mob gathered and lynched him.^'' 

If not earlier, then certainly in the Late Period, 
domesticated cats spread beyond Egypt to surrounding 
Mediterranean lands. Roman period mosaics and mu- 
rals depict the cat. The use of cats aboard ships to keep 
rats under control no doubt helped Egyptian cats to 
spread abroad. So, many European, and by extension 
American cats may have some genes derived from the 
miiv of ancient Egypt. Indeed, cat fanciers identify one 
breed, the Abyssinian, as descended directly fi-om the 
cats of ancient Egypt. More certainly, the current 


7. Above: ha:r,or p,a,.::g Castanet, 

column relief, sandstone: Temple 

ofDendera. Egypt: Roman Period. 

W. J. Mumane photo. 

8. Lett: Bastet enthroned, with 

lioness or panther head, bronze: cat. 

31642: perhaps Dynasty XXVI: neg. 

108334 Dave Walsten photo. 


9. Bastet as a cat, bronze with gold, silver, and copper details: cat. 30286; perhaps Dynasty XXVI; neg. 1 1 1081. Photo by Ron Testa and 21 

Diane Alexander White. 

1 1. Cat mummies: cats. 1 1 1503 and 1 1 1512: Ptolemaic Period: neg 


10. Left: Bastet as cat-tieaded female, bronze: cat. 30287: Late 
Period: neg. 8068. Right: Cat with kittens, votive to Bastet, bronze: 
cat 30285: Late Period: neg 1358. 

fascination with the domestic cat mirrors that of 
ancient Egypt. " 

The tameability of small felines makes it difficult 
to assess the question of who first domesticated the cat. 
Was it in one locale or in several, for small felines fill an 
ecological niche worldwide? Egyptian paintings and re- 
liefs of the New Kingdom Period show us cats on board 
ships, and Egyptian ships were plying the Mediterra- 
nean and Red Seas from the Old Kingdom period (fig. 
12) and probably earlier. The bones and statuette 
found at Hacilar and Jericho might argue for multiple 
domestication places, but the bones found in Predynas- 
tic Egyptian sites, and the presence of Felis libyca on the 
prehistoric Sahara make certain that Egypt was one of 
the domestication sites also. The Abyssinian breed de- 
rives from Felis libyca, and it is found in modem Egypt 
alongside more common varieties. In the Ptolemaic 
Period and later (after 118 B.C.), Egyptian ships sailed 
to India and the Far East for trade; did the miw accom- 
pany them on those voyages? Probably, but there are 
again small felines indigenous to the Far East that may 
have been independently domesticated. 

Certainly, in Egypt proper domestic cats never 
lost their popularity. Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic 
Egypt all document their presence, and today they 
occur in every Egyptian city, town, and village. No 
doubt the continued presence of mice, rats, and ser- 
pents, and the cat's ability to tackle them all, assured 
its place even after the worship of Bastet waned with 
the spread of Christianity. FM 

12. Egyptian ships arriving from 

Syria, wail reiief, iimestone; 

causeway of Unas Pyramid complex. 

Saqqara, Egypt: Dynasty V. 

F. J. Yurco photo. 

»?  » 




1 . Banks, Kimball M. Climates. Cultures, and Cattle: The 
Holocene Archaeology of the Eastern Sahara (Dallas: Dept. of 
Anthropology, Southern Methodist Univ., 1984), pp. 16, 51 (table 
111:1), 119, 164 (table V:9), and 232-233. 

2. Petzsch, Hans. "Zur Problematik der Primardomestikation der 
Hauskatze {Felis Silvestris 'Familiaris')." in Janos Matolcsi, ed., 
Domestikationforschung und Geschichte der Haustiere (Budapest: 
Akademiai Kiado, 1973), pp. 109-113; Heick, Wolfgang, "Katze," in 
Lexikon der Agyptologie. Band III (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 
1978), pp. 367-369. The Hagilar find included a statuette of a 
woman playing with a cat. 

3. Brunton, G., and G. Caton-Thompson. The Badarian Civiliza- 
tion {London . British School of Archaeology, 1928), p. 94; Janssen, 
Jacques and Rosalind. Household Animals. Shire Egyptol- 
ogy, vol. 12 (Princes RIsborough: Shire Publications, 1989), pp. 14- 

4. Erman, Adolf and Hermann Grapow. Worterbuch der Agyp- 
tischen Sprache. Vol 11 (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandiung, 
1928), p. 42. 

5. Ibid, including the feminine form, Ta-Mit. "Kitty" used as a per- 
sonal name for a woman in Dynasty XI; see too Neville Langton, 
"Cats in Egypt," The Antiquarian Ouarterly\. no, 3 (September, 
1925) 69; and Paul Remecki, "A Cat in Bronze," Field /Museum of 
Natural History Bulletin 46. no. 6 (June, 1975) 8-13. 

6. Petrie, William M. F. The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty, Part 
I (London; Egypt Exploration Fund, 1900), p. 20, and pi. VII, no. 4; 
pi. XXXII, no. 39; Petrie, William M. F, The Royal Tombs of the Earli- 
est Dynasties. Part II (London: Egypt Exploration Fund, 1901) p. 25, 
nos. 7 and 10, pi. VII, nos. 7 and 10. 

7. The feline is identified, in fact, as Mafdet; see Lurker, Manfred. 
The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt {London: Thames and 
Hudson, 1980), p. 78, and figure at lower left. Opinions vary about 
whether the domestic cat is involved here. 

8. Besides Langton's article and the Worterbuch citation (notes 4 
and 5 above), see William C. Hayes. The Scepter of Egypt. Vol I 
(New York; Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1953), pp. 223-224, and fig. 
1 40 (lower right); see too Jacques and Rosalind Janssen, Egyptian 
Household Animals, p. 16 (referring to an Xlth Dynasty representa- 
tion of a tomcat crouching under a chair, on a stela in the Petrie 
Museum, University College, London). 

9. Hornung, Erik. Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt, trans- 
lated by John Baines (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982), 
pp. 109-125, 

1 0. See notes 6 and 7 above. 

1 1 . Lurker, The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt, p. 78, figure 
at lower left. 

12. So, Gardiner, Alan H., "The Mansion of Life and Master of 
King's Largess," Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 24 (1938) 89-90. 

13. For instance, Lurker, The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt. 
p. 76, considers Mafdet as a leopard. 

1 4. Gardiner, 89, "The Mansion of Life and Master of King's 
Largess, ' surveying the various opinions. 

15. Ibid, 89-90. 

1 6. Lurker, The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt, p. 38, figure 
at lower left. 

1 7. The Egyptians themselves called him miw '3 "Great (Tom) 
Cat," see for instance, LiseManniche. Crty o/ f/ie Dead.- Thebes in 
Egypt (London: British Museum Publications, 1987), p. 64, fig. 51 ; 
Hornung, Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt, p. 120, fig. 12. 

18. Manniche, C/fyo/^he Dead, p. 36, fig. 28 (where the cat paws 
its owner in a manner familiar to all cat owners); also James, T.G.H. 
Egyptian Painting in the British IVIuseum (London: British Museum, 
1985), p. 27 fig. 25. 

19. For instance, Jacques and Rosalind Janssen, Egyptian House- 
hold Animals, p. 15, fig. 8. 

20. Corteggiani, Jean Pierre. The Egypt of the Pharaohs at the 
Cairo r^useum {Par\s: Hachette Blue Guides, 1986), no. 58, pp. 99- 
100, pi. on p. 100. Amenhotep Ill's family may have been cat lovers, 
see Desroches-Noblecourt, Christiane. Tutankhamen: Life and 
Death of a Pharaoh (New York; New York Graphic Society, 1963), 

p. 118, fig. 59, where the prince's mother. Queen Tiy, is shown sitting 
with a cat underneath her chair. 

21 . See Omiin, Josef A. Der Papyrus 55001 und seine Satirisch- 
Erotischen Zeichnungen und Inschriften. Catalogo del Museo 
Egizio di Torino. Serie Prima-Monumenti e Testi, Vol. Ill (Torino: 
Edizioni d'Arte Fratelli Pozzo, 1971 ), pi. XXb. 

22. Ibid. pp. 30-31 , pi. XI, X -I- 11 ; XIII, and XIV. 

23. Ibid, p. 30, and pi. XI, x-i-9; XIII, XIV, and XXa. 

24. Otto, Eberhard, "Bastet," Lexikon der Agyptologie \, pp. 628- 
630; Lurker, The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt, p. 32. 

25. Otto. "Bastet," Lexikon der Agyptologie \, pp. 628-630. 

26. Ibid. 



and 112 

30. Herodotus. rA7e/-//stones, translated by Aubrey de Selincourt 
(Baltimore; Penguin Books, 1954), pp. 125-126. 

31 . Conway, William Martin. Dawn of Art in the Ancient World 
(London; Percivaltand Co., 1891), pp. 182-183; Remeczki, "A Cat in 
Bronze, " pp. 9-10, and note 9. 

32. El-Mahdy. Christine, Mummies. Myth, and Magic {London: 
Thames and Hudson, 1989), p. 33. 

33. Herodotus, The Histories, p. 128. 

34. Diodorus Siculus. Diodorus on Egypt, translated by Edwin 
Murphy (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland and Co., 1985), p. 108. 

35. Recently cats surpassed dogs as the most widely kept pet in 
the United States; see Margaria Fichtner, "Life with a cat," Chicago 
Tribune ^ 43. no. 2^ (Jan. 21, 1990) Sect. 15, p. 15. 

Lurker, The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt, p. 32. 
Otto, "Bastet, " Lexikon der Agyptologie \, p. 629. 
Lurker, The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Egypt, pp. 59 


The Mystery of the A/\onster 

by Bret S. Beall 

Forest of the Coat Age diorama in Hall 38. Recreated tiere is a forest of ttie Pennsylvanian Period, a quarter-billion years ago, showing 
a number of species that occurred then in the tvlazon Creek area — about the time that the Tully monster is believed to have flourished. 
As a marine animal it occurred in nearby coastal waters. 75400 


The weathering piles of gray shale dotting the 
landscape of Grundy, Will, and Kankakee coun- 
ties in northeastern Illinois have yielded some of 
the most spectacular fossils known to science. Col- 
lectively known as Mazon Creek fossils because they 
were first found along the banks of that small creek in 
Grundy County, they are often exceptionally well pre- 
served, revealing rarely seen clues to life of the past. 

Other specimens are spectacular as objects of 
mystery, because their relationships and identity con- 
tinue to frustrate paleontologists, though they are well 
preserved. Perhaps the most mysterious of these fossils, 
and one whose mystery has long intrigued researchers 
at Field Museum, is the so-called Tully monster, which 
achieved enduring fame on January 1 of these year, 
when it became Illinois' official state fossil. 

The mystery begins 300 million years ago, during 

the Pennsylvanian Period, or Coal Age. Illinois lay 
near the equator then, and was covered by a warm, 
shallow sea. The seacoast crossed what is now Will, 
Grundy, and Kankakee counties. When the plants and 
animals in that region died, many were buried by mud. 
As they decayed, the chemical environment surround- 
ing the organisms allowed iron and carbonate to form a 
gel that cemented the mud around the plants and 

Bret S. Beall recently served as curatorial coordinator of 
Mazon Creek Paleontology at Field Musuem. He is currently 
engaged in free-lance research on arthropod evolution and 
non-marine paleoecology, consultation, and scientific illus- 
tration. His article "The Tully monster and a new/ approachi to 
analyzing problematica" will appear in the forthcoming The 
Origin of Metazoa and tlie Significance of Problematica. 
edited by A. Simonetta and S. Conway-Morris (Cambridge 
University-University of Camerino Press). 

animals. With time, the mud cemented by the gel 
hardened into round structures known as concretions. 
When split, these concretions reveal the Mazon Creek 
fossils at their centers. 

In 1955, Francis TuUy, a private collector, was 
looking for fossils on the so-called strip piles — great 
mounds of waste from coal-mining operations in Will 
and Kankakee counties. He found several elongate 
concretions that contained bizarre wormlike fossils 
that were totally unlike anything he had ever found. In 
1958 TuUy took the specimens to the late Dr. Eugene S. 
Richardson, then Field Museum's curator of fossil in- 
vertebrates. Richardson had spent years studying both 
living and extinct animals and plants, so he was in an 
excellent position to identify the specimen, but TuUy's 
beast had him stumped also. 

To honor its discoverer, Richardson gave the 
mysterious creature its evocative name, Tullimonstrum 
gregarium, meaning "Tully's common, or abundant 
monster." Within a few years several hundred speci- 
mens of the monster were deposited in Field Museum's 
collections, and private collections held several hun- 
dred more, providing Richardson with an excellent 
sample for his investigations. 

In a paper published in 1966 he described Tulli- 
monstrum as having a wormlike body, with a long, flex- 
ible proboscis bearing a toothed "claw" or "jaw" at one 
end (probably the anterior, or front), and a pair of flex- 
ible, horizontal fins at the other. Most bizarre of all was 
a rigid bar that traversed the body's supposed anterior; 
at each end of the bar was a puzzling rounded organ, 
which Richardson hesitantly interpreted as an eye. Be- 
ing a careful scientist, Richardson chose not to assign 
Tullimonstrum to a particular phylum (the next largest 
classification category below "kingdom"). 

In 1969 Richardson collaborated with Dr. Ralph 
G. Johnson, a professor at the University of Chicago 
and research associate of Field Museum, in expanding 
his earlier description of the TuUy monster. They had 
more specimens, and the addition of Johnson's impres- 
sive expertise in marine invertebrates greatly en- 
hanced the likelihood of their solving the monstrous 
mystery. Johnson and Richardson took measurements, 
constructed models, drew diagrams, and considered a 
wide range of alternative interpretations of Tullimon- 

They believed that a light-colored feature along 
the midline in some specimens was the alimentary ca- 
nal (part of the digestive system) and that certain 
transverse lines were mesentery (internal supportive 
tissue), which kept the alimentary canal suspended 

Before you add 

another dollar to 

your I.R.A., ask 

us about our 


For more information about 

creating a retirement plan with Field Museum of 

Natural History, please call or write: 

Melinda Pruett-Jones 

Director of Major Gifts and Estate Planning 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496 

(312) 322-8868 

within the body cavity. Though they considered TuUy 
monster to be similar to nemertines (a phylum of 
wormlike animals), to chaetognaths (arrowworms), 
and to echiurans (a phylum related to annelids — the 
segmented worms), they again argued that Tullimon- 
strum was so different from anything else that it could 
not be assigned to a known phylum. The mystery con- 

In 1978, Dr. Matthew Nitecki, also a curator of 
fossil invertebrates at Field Museum, organized a sym- 
posium on the Mazon Creek deposit at the North Cen- 
tral regional meeting of the Geological Society of 
America, held at the University of Michigan at Ann 
Arbor. One of the symposium participants. Dr. Merrill 
Foster, professor at Bradley University, discussed sim- 
ilarities between Tullimonstrum and certain moUusks 
called heteropods. Like Tullimonstrum, these shell-less 
relatives of snails have an elongate, flexible proboscis, 
a broadened body, eyes in the same position as the 
transverse bar's terminal organs, and a flattened tail. 
Tullimonstrum' s "teeth" are quite similar to the minute 
rasplike, radular teeth of heteropods. Foster argued 
that the "claw," or "jaw" could be interpreted as an 
unnatural condition not found in life, but a con- 
sequence of the cylindrical oral region having been 


compressed after death. The fossil evidence is extreme- 
ly consistent with interpreting Tullimonstrum as a mol- 
lusk, and the differences in the monster — such as inter- 
nal segmentation, absence of a swimming fin, and a 
rigid bar connecting the purported eyes — were not 
enough to rule out classification as a moUusk. The 
mystery was solved. Or was it? 

Foster's arguments are compelling, but other in- 
vestigators questioned whether Richardson's recon- 

Field Museum's most famous resources), I had the 
opportunity to examine them all. In studying nearly 
2,000 specimens of Tullimonstrum, I noticed that at 
least one aspect of previous reconstructions was prob- 
ably incorrect. The tail fins of most Tully monsters are 
preserved horizontally. Interestingly, these same speci- 
mens have a large crease extending diagonally from the 
anterior edge of one fin into the body. Foster had sug- 
gested that the crease may have been caused by twisting 

The late Francis Tully, who 

found the first of these 

enigmatic fossils in 1955. 

He holds an especially fine 

specimen, Ron Testa 

photo, 84794 


struction of Tully monster was correct. Mary Carman, 
former paleontology collection manager at Field Man- 
ager, believed that Tullimonstrum could be interpreted 
in yet another way. In particular, she thought that the 
transverse bar and its terminal organs might have been 
on the animal's upper, or dorsal surface, instead of on 
the lower, or ventral side, where Richardson had 
placed them. She also thought that the trunk's 
segmentation might be a condition intermediate be- 
tween the clearly segmented state reconstructed by 
Richardson and the strictly internal segmentation of 
Foster's model. 

1 entered the story while Carman was working on 
her reconstruction. Being responsible for curating the 
world's largest collection of Mazon Creek fossils (one of 

a tail that had vertical fins, but he believed the evi- 
dence to be equivocal. Two lines of evidence support 
another interpretation. First, the crease is exactly as 
expected if the tail were twisted 90 degrees. Secondly, 
the tail fins are slightly asymmetrical; if they were 
oriented horizontally, Tullimonstrum would have swum 
in circles! Clearly, the evidence favors a tail with ver- 
tical fins. 

Richardson, Johnson, Foster, and Carman were 
all correct; their reconstructions were consistent with 
the fossil evidence. The problem is that much of the 
morphology of Tullimonstrum remains ambiguous. For 
example, since it is impossible on the basis of known 
evidence to determine whether a particular surface of 
the animal was dorsal or ventral, the function of the bar 

The late Eugene S. Richardson (left), curator of Invertebrate fossils, and Field Museum artist TIbor Perenyi. as they regard the Tully 
monster reconstruction fashioned by Perenyi; 1964 photo. 82825 

organ cannot he determined. Were those terminal 
structures eyes, as Johnson and Richardson had pro- 
posed? Or was it possible, as Carman suggested, that 
they were statocysts (equilibrium organs) for balance 
while swimming? Were they structures to support the 
animal on the sea bottom? Or, as Nitecki suggested, 
were they copulatory organs similar to those of certain 
modern annelids? All of these interpretations were pos- 
sible on the basis of information available, but could all 
be used as clues to the solution of the Tully monster 
mystery? I thought that they could. 

The problem to solve was "To what organism was 
Tullimonstrum most closely related?" Richardson, John- 
son, and Foster had each used arguments that were 
generally similar to suggest the closest relatives ofTulli- 
monstrum (or the lack thereof). This method of 
approach, known as phenetics, is one of the two primary 
ways of inferring relationships between organisms. The 
other method, known as phylogeneticsystematics, or cla- 
distics, groups organisms together according to the re- 
cency of their common ancestry; organisms that are 
similar because of more ancient ancestry tend not to be 
grouped. Since the cladistic approach had not been 
used to interpret the affinities of Tullimonstrum, it could 

be used to test the existing, as well as new, hypotheses 
of relationship. However, the variety of interpretations 
that had been put forth and the absence of important 
information about Tully monster added a unique chal- 
lenge as well as special difficulties to this problem. 

In order to search for the closest relatives of TuKi- 
monstrum by means of the cladistic method, I chose Dr. 
David Swofford's (Illinois Natural History Survey) so- 
phisticated computer program called PAUP (Phyloge- 
netic Systematics Using Parsimony). Parsimony as a 
philosophical term refers to simplicity, postulating 
that, in the absence of contrary evidence, only the sim- 
plest solution to a problem is acceptable. This does not 
mean, however, that the simplest solution is necessar- 
ily 'correct.' Indeed, it underscores the limitations of 
inference imposed by the incompleteness of the data. 
PAUP analyzes the data and provides the simplest 
path(s) connecting the organisms in the data set. This 
approach indicates that in our particular search there 
are two main data components: (1) those organisms 
that qualify for comparison with Tullimonstrum, and 
(2) the parts of their bodies to be compared. These two 
components provided the unusual twists to the 


The organisms in the analysis can be called taxa or 
operational taxonomic units (OTU's), which I selected 
from suggestions in the scientific literature about TuUy 
monster's affinities as well as from my own observa- 
tions. I compiled a list of 13 OTU's, or viable candi- 
dates, and then determined which parts of the organ- 
isms were appropriate for comparison. 

My first PAUP analysis revealed two most likely 
candidates for close relationship with Tullimonstrum: 
Foster's moUusk and an almost equally intriguing 
organism known as the conodont animal. Conodonts 
and their placement in the animal kingdom have also 
frustrated paleontologists. Conodonts are microscopic 
toothlike structures that have been known for more 
than a century, but only in the last decade have exam- 

ples of the animals to which they belong been dis- 
covered. There are thousands of types of conodonts, 
but only three types of animal bodies associated with 
the conodont structure are known so far. There is no 
reason, then, to think that the range of variation 
embraced within the conodont animal group might not 
include a creature like the Tully monster. The PAUP 
analysis merely says, however, that Tullimonstrum is 
more closely related to conodont animals than to any of 
the other 12 OTU's. Dr. Derek Briggs, a University of 
London paleontologist who spent several months at 
Field Museum as a visiting scientist in 1983-84, wrote 
of the history of searching for the bearers of conodonts 
in the July-August 1984 Bulletin. After studying more 
conodont animals, Briggs and his co-workers con- 

Two specimens of concretions containing Tullimonstrum gregarium fossils. 85336 4. 85335 12 


The author's reconstruction of Tullimonstrum gregarium. 

eluded that these organisms were primitive vertebrates 
related to modern hagfish and lampreys, which are 
themselves primitive fish that have changed little over 
many millions of years. With that mystery solved, it is 
possible to use what we learned from that case to solve 
other mysteries, including the identification of rela- 
tives of the TuUy monster. 

I used the results of my first PAUP analysis to mod- 
ify the data for a second analysis. The most significant 
modification was combining the conodonts with the 
chordates for a more general comparison. The chor- 
dates include vertebrates (such as hagfish) and a few 
invertebrate relatives. The second analysis again pro- 
vided almost equal support for both the moUusk and 
chordate hypotheses. 

Is Tullimonstrum a mollusk similar to recent shell- 
less snails, or is it a chordate related in some way to 
hagfish and lampreys.' With the information that we 
have now, it is impossible to choose one suspect over 
another. The jury is hung on this case, and without 
additional data, will remain hung. The intrigue of the 
TuUy monster continues. FM 

Additional Reading 

Baird, G. C. 1978, Mazon Creek Census. Field Museum of 
Natural History Bulletin 49 (8): 15-18, 20-21 . 

Briggs, D. E. G. 1984. The Search for Paleontology's Most 
Elusive Entity: theConodont Aninnal. Field Museum of Natu- 
ral History Bulletin 55 (7): 11-18. 

Briggs, D. E. G., R. J. Aldridge, and M. P. Smith 1987. Con- 
odonts are not aplacophoran nnollusks, LethaiaZO: 381-2. 

Carman, M. R. 1989. The Monster of Illinois: Paleontology and 
Politics. Rocks and Minerals 64 (1): 36-41 . 

Foster, M. W. 1979. A reappraisal of Tullimonstrum gregarium. 
In: Nitecki, M. H. (ed.). Mazon Creek Fossils, p. 269-302. 
Academic Press. 

Johnson, R. G., and E. S. Richardson Jr. 1969. Pennsylvanian 
invertebrates of the Mazon Creek area, Illinois: the 
morphology and affinities of Tullimonstrum. Fieldiana 12 
(8): 119-149. 

Phillips, T. L., H. W. Pfefferkorn, and R. A. Peppers 1973. 
Development of paleobotany in the Illinois Basin. Illinois 
State Geological Survey 480: 1 -86. 

Richardson, E. S., Jr. 1966. Wormlike Fossil from the Penn- 
sylvanian of Illinois. Science 151 : 75-76. 




Leqemewry Shores 

Turkey and 

The Greek Islamexs 

April 26 - May 7, 1990 

Cruise and Land Fares 

$3, 395 -$4,545 

Add air fare from Chicago - $600 

Leader: William C Burger, Ph.D. 

Today, as in ancient times, the legendary Aegean 
Is best appreciated from tlie sea. On this com- 
prehensive itinerary we cnjise in comfort and 
elegance aboard the llliria to resplendent cities, 
idyllic islands, and ancient sites set against blue 
waters: Istanbul, Santorini, Ephesus, Crete, 
Mykonos, Rhodes, and Lesbos. Enhancing our 
voyage will be the team of expert lecturers, who 
bring the complex history of the region to life. 
Field Museum has selected Dr. William C. Burger 
curator of vascular plants and a former chairman 
of the Botany Department to accompany our 
group. He will provide authoritative commentary 
on the plant life of the region and other aspects of 
natural history. Dr Burger is also a highly skilled. 

widely published photographer wtio has taught 
courses in nature photography at Field Museum. 
He will be ready to share this special expertise 
with tour members as well. 

\Afe hope you will join us this spring as we 
visit these historic sites vs^ere westem civilization 
was bom. 

September 16 - 22, 1990 

Field Museum tours will be conducting an excit- 
ing tour to Denver's Crow Canyon Archaeological 
Center The tour will offer a splendid opportunity 
not only to view, but to participate in an archaeo- 
logical dig. At Crow Canyon you encounter the 
excitement of archaeology first hand. Here adults 
and students of all ages — most with no previous 
archaeological experience — excavate, analyze, 
and learn side by side with archaeologists. 

Together you and the Crow Canyon scien- 
tists work toward an understanding of the 
Anasazi, the 'Ancient Ones," wrtio built countless 
stone pueblos centuries ago, and then departed. 
In this beautiful southwestern landscape they 
left villages, ceramics, tools, and silence. At 
Crow Canyon you help widen our knowledge 
of these earty Americans. 


Jungle Rivers of South America: 

Puerto Ordaz, Venezuela 

to Manaus, Breizil 

April 10-25, 1990 

Cmise Price: $4,940 - $7, 100 

on the Society Explorer 

Add Intemational air fare from 

Miami: $600 

Leader: Barry Chemoff, Ph. D. 

Our adventure along the Orinoco River into the 
heart of the \fenezuelan jungle is an exceptional 
experience. You will pass through some of the 
most vast and virgin wilderness of \fenezuela. Dr 
Chemoff, an ichthyologist who has done much of 
his research in this area, is looking forward to 
sharing his expertise as we explore the river's 
tributaries. We will take a special flight over the 
world's highest waterfalls. Angel Falls. After 
stopping at Devil's Island, visiting the eene ruins 
of this former French penal colony now partly 
reclaimed by the jungle, we cross tfie equator at 


the mouth of the mighty Amazon River and begin 
our exploration upriver. Each day we will make 
excursions in Zodiac landing craft, which make it 
possible for us to visit isolated villages, view 
colorful birds and butterflies, fish for unusual 
species, and take hikes into the jungle itself. 
Join us for an adventure to two of the world's 
greatest rivers. 

The Galapagos Islands 
March 2- 13, 1990 

Leader: John Flynn, Ph.D. 

On many world maps it's difficult to find the 
tiny specks which appear off the coast of 
Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. Yet, the Galapagos 
Islands are unique in their isolation. They contain 
mountains, forests, beaches, and bays unlike any 
others on earth. These islands lie 600 miles west 
of Ecuador, 800 miles south of Panama and 
almost 3,000 miles east of the nearest Pacific 
landmass. Most are relatively isolated from one 
another; a perfect setting for the evolutionary lab 
they would eventually become. 

The first land inhabitants were windblown 
seeds that drifted into lava crevices and took 
root. The next were birds, perhaps also wind- 
blown, who stayed to breed. The last were 
reptiles, mainly lizards and iguanas, who rode 
tangled mats of river vegetation cast off the South 
American coast. But there the trend stopped. 
Few mammals arrived, and none who did was a 
predator. The result was a world which resembles 
earth's past. Birds ruled the air, reptiles the land. 
Furthermore, since there were no hunters, most 
species lived in peace. Life on these islands re- 
mains very much the same today 

We invite you to explore with us one of the 
world's greatest living laboratories of natural 
history. The primeval beauty of the area's colorful 
landscapes and wildlife excite the senses, and 
the remarkable tameness of the animals affords 
superb opportunities for wildlife study and pho- 

We will fly from Chicago to Quito, Ecuador 
for three days, then on to Guayaquil/Baltra, 
where we will board the beautiful MV Santa 
Cruz and cruise comfortably to the islands of: 
Bartolome, Tower, Isabela, Fernandina, North 
Seymout, Hood, Florena, Santa Cruz, and 

Our stay in highland Ecuador provides a 
stimulating contrast in geology and wildlife. Dr. 
John Flynn, associate curator in the Department 
of Geology at Field Museum looks forward to 
sharing with you this unique experience un- 
matched by any other destination in the world. 

Naturalist im Alaska 

Circa July 10-25, 1990 
( 1 5-day tour) 

Leader: Dauid E. WUlard, Ph.D., 


Accompanied by: Dan L. Wetzel, 

naturalist and tour operator 

This expedition has been designed with an 
emphasis on education, for the person with keen 
interests and curiosities about the "real" Alaska. 
The 1 , 000-mile wilderness itinerary allows your 
personal interaction with the wildlife and wild- 
lands of Alaska. 

We begin our trip in Anchorage and move on 
to the Kenai Fjords, where we will experience the 
38-foot bore tides, the second highest in the 
world, and a marked contrast to the one-foot 
tides of Prudhoe Bay where we complete our 
expedition. Our route includes Seward, Denali 
State Park, Denali National Park, Fairbanks, 
Coldfoot, and Sagavanirktok River The Naturalist 
in Alaska Tour was created to bring the natural 
world of Alaska within your grasp. Let us send 
you more information about this unique 
opportunity ii 

SEPTEMBER 23-30, 1990. 

For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 

Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605 ^^ 

Field Museum 

of Natural History 


Published since 1930 bv 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 


Robert A. Pritzker 

Mrs. T. Stanton Annour 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. PhihpD. Block III 
WillardL. Boyd. 

Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H. Clark 
James W. Compton 
Frank W. Considine 
Tlwmas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwit: 
Wayne E. Hedien 
Richard M. Jones 
JohnB. judkinsjr. 
John James Kir\sella 
William Kunkler 111 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mull in 
James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
Blaine J . Yarrington 


Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 


May/June 1990 
Volume 61, Number 3 



by David M. Walsten 6 

G. ALAN SOLEM, 1931-1990 

by Rupert L. Wenzel, curator emeritus of Insects 8 


by Susan Nelson 11 


by Edward Olsen, curator of Mineralogy 18 



by Patricia Dodsou, associate. Department of Anthropology 26 


The Indiana Dunes in the first lush greenery of summer. Saturday, May 
18 is the day to join the Field Museum's hiking outing to the Indiana 
Dunes, one of many outdoor activities offered by the Department of 
Education. Under the leadership of .\lar\anne Kalin-.Miller, of the Fran- 
cis Parker faculty, hikers will experience one of the most ecologically 
diverse areas in the Alidwest. $22 for members, S27 for nonmembers. 
Call 322-3854 for additional information. 
Photo bv Dave Walsten. 


About the Children of the Holocaust 
Is extended to May 28 


Special cicada exhibit to coincide 

with May/June emergence of these 

fascinating insects. 

On view in the North Gallery. 

Field Museum's Public Programs Support Group 

will host its second annual benefit on Saturday, June 23, with a 
cruise along Lake Michigan aboard the new luxury yacht, Anitd 
Dee II. Cocktails, a buffet supper, and dancing to music by the 
Stanley Paul Orchestra will be featured. Tickets are $100 per per- 
son, and proceeds will go to the Museum's Community Outreach 
Program. For information please call 922-9410, ext. 858. 

FirU Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published bimomhly b\ Field Museum of Natural Hislors . Rixisevell Road al Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. IL 60605-2496. 
CopyrightC 1990 Field Museum of Natural Histot>. Subscriptions: S6. 00 annually. S.^ .00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletm subscription . Opinions expressed b\ author^, are their own and do 
not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. .Museum phone (3 12)922-9410 Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster; Send address changes to Field Museum of Natural History Second class postage paid at Chicago. Illinois. 

World Music Programs 

Weekends in May and June 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

D Mays. 6 

1 :00pm — Listen to the blues harmonica of Chicago Beaux. 

3:00pm— Join Eli Hoenai for a program of African Percussion. 

D May 12. 13 

1 :00pm— The Chinese Music Society of North America 

demonstrates instruments from the Chinese 

3:00pm — Henry Huff presents a program of music for the harp. 

D May 19. 20 

1 :00pm — Enjoy the sound of classical Spanish guitar with 

Librado Salazar. 
3:00pm— Join Fan Wei-Tsu as he demonstrates the zheng, a 

Chinese zither. 

D May 26. 27 

1 :00pm— The Chinese Music Society of North America 

demonstrates instruments from the Chinese 

3:00pm — Join Eli Hoenai for a program of African percussion. 

D June 2. 3 

1 :00pm — Enjoy the sound of classical Spanish guitar with 

Librado Salazar 
3:00pm— Join Fan Wei-Tsu as he demonstrates the zheng. a 

Chinese zither 

D June 9, 10 

1 :00pm— The Chinese Music Society of North America 

demonstrates instruments from the Chinese 

3:00pm — Join Eli Hoenai for a program of African percussion. 

D June 16, 17 

1 :00pm — Listen to the blues harmonica of Chicago Beaux. 
3:00pm — Join Raices del Andes as they perform traditional 
South American folk music. 

D June 23, 24 

1 :00pm— The Chinese Music Society of North America 

demonstrates instruments from the Chinese 

3:00pm — Experience the sound of flutes from Japan and 

Australia with Douglas Ewart. 

D June 30 

1 :00pm — Join Eli Hoenai for a program of African percussion. 

The World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and 
Harle Montgomery Fund and a CityArts grant from the Chicago 
Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 

Programs for Adults 

One-Day Field Trips 

A variety of one-day field trips are offered in May. From an invigorating hiking trip along 
the Indiana Dunes to a study of the archaeology of Aztalan, there are trips to match every 
interest. For further information, consult the March/April/May Adult Program Brochure or 
call the Department of Education at (312) 322-8854. 

Family Programs 

Family field trips begin in June and run through August. These one-day, weekend trips 
are designed for children ages 6 and up who are accompanied by an adult. Go fossil 
collecting, take a night hike, discover techniques for insect collecting, or learn the basics 
of birding. For further information, consult the June/July/August Children and Family 
Program Brochure or call the Department of Education at (312) 322-8854. 

Children's Workshops 

Have fun while learning about ancient Egypt, amazing owls, mighty dinosaurs, or the 
deep, dark ocean. An exciting selection of children's workshops begin in June and run 
through July. The two-hour programs are scheduled Saturdays through Tuesdays and 
are designed for children age 4 through eighth grade. For further information consult 
the June/July/August Children and Family Programs Brochure or call the Department 
of Education at (312) 322-8854. 




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cukural attractions: The Field Museum, 

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On a pre-meeting run outside 
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Tigers Wilhout 
Their Stripes 

by David M. Walsten 

Mother Nature is commonly represented as a lady 
of caprice, if not malice. The fact is that animals 
hideous or bizarre enough to foster such superstition 
are sometimes created as the result of genetic 
mutation or by injury to the organism early in 
its development. 

One such aberration is the gynandromorph, 
which exhibits male as well as female characteristics. 
Accidents of this sort have been observed in a wide 
range of animal life, but are perhaps commonest 

among the insects. Those shown here are all 
specimens of the tiger swallowtail {Fapilio ^ucus) , 
a common North American butterfly. In these 
butterflies the male-female difference occurs not 
just in the visible characteristics, such as wing 
pattern, but may also involve the internal organs of 
reproduction. In some gynandromorphs (also called 
gynanders) one side of the body may have a testis 
while the other side has an ovary. 

The condition of gynandromorphism is ordained 
shortly after fertilization of the ovum, or egg, and 
such individuals always develop from a male egg; 
that is to say, one with two X chromosomes — a 
configuration known as XX (Eggs destined to develop 
normally as females have an X chromosome and 
a Y chromosome — a configuration known as XY). 
Only birds and Lepidoptera (moths & butterflies), 
it is believed, have this configuration. In most other 
animals, the female egg is XX and the male is XY. For 
reasons that are not fully understood, an accident of 

some sort may occur to one of the X chromosomes, 
resulting in an XO configuration. Such a cell gives rise 
to tissues with male characteristics. After a normal 
fertilized XX cell undergoes its first division, the two 
resultant cells both have an XX configuration. If an 
accident occurs to an X chromosome in one of these 
two cells, the configuration of that cell becomes XO 
or, in effect, female, while the unaffected cell remains 
male. As embryonic development continues, all the 
cells from the XX cell inherit and transmit male 
characters; those from the XO cell inherit and 
transmit female characters. The resulting mature 
insect, known as a bipartite gynandromorph, is exactly 
50 percent male and 50 percent female. 

If the accident occurs to one of the cells during 
the four-cell stage, the resulting individual is 25 
percent female and 75 percent male. The later the 
accident occurs, the less obvious are the female 
characters. Butterflies in which the accident occurs 
at the eight-cell stage or subsequently, may show a 

splattered, or "mosaic," effect in the wing pattern. 
The specimens illustrated here show the effect of 
that accident occurring at various stages in the early 
development of the embryo. 

In some insects the fertilized egg may sometimes 
be binucleate (i. e. , with two nuclei instead of the 
normal complement of one). If one of these two 
nuclei is female (XY), while the other is male (XX), 
the resulting individual will be gynandromorphic. 
This phenomenon has been observed particularly in 
adults of the commercial silkworm (Bombyx mori). 
The production of a greater number of 
gynandromorphs in certain wasp species has been 
artificially induced by subjecting the female insect 
to a temperature of 37°C, before she lays her eggs. 

The specimens shown here are from the Herman 
F. Strecker collection, acquired by Field Museum in 
1908. Though not on public exhibit, the Strecker 
specimens have been much studied and photographed 
by geneticists and insect physiologists. FM 

G. Alan Solem 

1931 - 1990 

by Rupert L. Wenzel 
Curator Emeritus of Insects 

With the death, on February 26, of Dr. G. Alan 
Solem, curator and head of the Division of Inverte- 
brates, Field Museum lost one of the most active and 
productive members of its scientific staff. 

A world authority on the anatomy, classification, 
biology, evolution, and distribution of land snails, 
Solem began his career quite unpredictably. His father 
was a physician, his mother was active in church and 
community work in Oak Park, Illinois, where Alan 
lived for most of his life. An uncle, on returning from 
service with the Navy Seabees in World War II, gave 
Alan a small collection of shells that he had made on 
Midway and Tinian Islands. 

These piqued Alan's interest, but he was unable to 
identify them from the books available. His mother, 
who had an interest in birds, went with him to Field 
Museum, where he compared the shells with specimens 
in the systematic shell exhibit. Because he could not 
find some like his, he assumed that the Museum did not 
have any, and he gave them to the receptionist as a gift 
to the Museum. 

He received a note of thanks from Dr. Fritz Haas, 
then curator of Lower Invertebrates, who pointed out 
that only a fraction of the Museum's collection of shells 
was on exhibit, and he invited him to visit the division. 
From there, the connection is not clear, but in the sum- 
mer of 1946, just before his 15th birthday, Alan be- 
came a volunteer in the Division of Insects(!). It was 
quite obvious from his behavior that this very bright 
and brash young man had no heart for insects. In 1949 
he worked as a volunteer with Dr. Haas and with Karl 
P. Schmidt, chief curator of Zoology. Haas, a world 
expert on bivalve molluscs, and Schmidt, a dis- 
tinguished herpetologist who inspired many younger 
scientists and colleagues, greatly influenced Alan's fu- 
ture. While in college, Alan continued to work peri- 
odically as summer assistant to Dr. Haas. 

He obtained his baccalaureate, summa cum laude, 

from Haverford College in 1952, and his M. A. ( 1954) 

and Ph.D. (1956) from the university of Michigan, 

under the direction of another noted malacologist, 

8 Prof. H. Vander Schalie. During his University years. 

Alan spent considerable summer time at the Academy 
of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, working with Dr. 
Henry Pilsbry, one of the foremost world authorities on 
snails. Few students have had the opportunity, as Alan 
did, to be closely associated with such a group of noted 
specialists in their chosen field. In 1957, he was ap- 
pointed assistant curator of Lower Invertebrates, and 
in 1959, he succeeded Dr. Haas as curator, a position he 
held for the remaining 3 1 years of his life. 

Solem's field work and research dealt with mol- 
luscs of many parts of the world , but his most important 
work focused on snails of the Pacific islands and the 
Australian Region. His dissertation, published by Field 
Museum in 1959, was a treatise on the systematics and 
biogeography of land and fresh water molluscs of the 
New Hebrides. Later, this was followed by a two- 
volume monograph of the endodontid land snails of the 
Pacific Islands. 

He became interested in the problem of how 
numerous closely related species, presumably from a 
single or only a few colonizations, could evolve on one 
small island, possibly as a result of conditioning to spe- 
cific food resources and microniches, leading in turn to 
microgeographic and reproductive isolation, followed 
by differentiation into species that differed in their 
feeding specializations. 

This "flowering" of species was exemplified by 
the endodontid snails (as well by weevils) on the tiny 
Pacific island of Rapa and appeared at variance with 
accepted biogeographic theory on island colonization 
and establishment of biotic equilibrium. It also con- 
flicted with then widely accepted doctrine — formulat- 
ed chiefly from the study of vertebrates — that new 
species did not form in the absence of (macro) geo- 
graphic isolation. Solem's concern with these problems 
led him to pursue detailed analyses of differences in the 
feeding mechanism of snails, correlating them with dif- 
ferences in reproductive anatomy and niche and food 
specialization. These analyses are essential to delineat- 
ing their evolutionary relationships and to exploring 
the history of their distribution through geologic time. 
Solem pioneered in applying scanning electron micros- 

copy in such studies in malacology. Through his efforts 
the Museum obtained its first electron microscope with 
a grant from the National Science Foundation. 

In 1964, at Solem's request, Dr. William Turn- 
bull, the curator of Fossil Mammals, collected some 
snails in Western Australia. These and other specimens 
that came to his attention greatly excited Solem 
because it was evident that they represented a largely 
unknown fauna and seemed to pose questions similar to 
those encountered in his studies of island faunae. In 
some ways they proved to be even more interesting 
because isolated "islands" of vegetation possessed clus- 
ters of species that could interact for feeding and 
reproduction only during the scarce and very short 
periods of rain. Between rains, they underwent long 
periods of dormancy. 

After seeing additional material collected by an 
Australian colleague, Solem resolved to pursue inten- 
sive collecting in the ancient arid areas of Western 
Australia. In 1973, he asked the Museum for "seed 
money" to finance preliminary field investigations. 
The monies were provided, and the field work was 
carried out in 1974. 

The exciting results of this trip led to the Western 
Australian Field Program of 1976-77, a major inter- 
disciplinary expedition supported by the National Sci- 
ence Foundation, Field Museum, William and Janice 
Street, and the Western Australian Museum. It in- 
volved as many as 30 people in the field at one time, 
including specialists in such diverse disciplines as 
malacology, parasitology, mammalogy, botany, and 
acarology (the study of spiders, mites, and ticks). Many 
of the specimens they collected are still being studied 
and published on, and will be for years to come. 

Solem's Australian field work did not end there. 
Seven additional field trips to Australia and/or New 
Zealand added much more material and raised addi- 
tional questions concerning the evolution and rela- 
tionships of the snail fauna to that of the rest of the 
world. Five monographs by him have been published 
on the Camaenid land snails of Western and Central 
Australia and two others, as well as a two-part mono- 
graph on those of Southern and Eastern Australia, are 
in press. 

At the time of his death, Solem and Dr. John 
Kethley, associate curator of Insects, were actively 
planning further studies which would involve the use 
of newer sophisticated techniques to assess evolution- 
ary relationships and augment (or alter) the con- 
clusions based on work done and in progress, or even 
provide whole new ways of looking at the data. 

1979 view of Alan Solem at 
work in his laboratory 

Solem's published work includes more than 150 
technical and scientific papers, totaling about 4,500 
pages. They set new high standards for the study and 
description of molluscs as well as for analysis of the 
data. In these, he described dozens of new genera and 
several hundred new species and subspecies, a remark- 
able output, but in itself not as important as the gener- 
alizations as well as other research which they make 
possible. He also wrote about 50 popular articles — 
many of them for the Bulletin — and articles for ency- 
clopedias, chapters for textbooks, and a popular book. 

Solem was noted for his ability to obtain financial 
support for his research program and for his division, 
including nearly $800,000 in grants from the National 
Science Foundation, the National Geographic Soci- 
ety, and the Office of Endangered Species, as well as 

funding and support from private individuals. He was 
responsible for the growth of his division and its col- 
lections to a position of international importance. 

He was active in scientific organizations here and 
abroad and served in numerous capacities, including 
president of the American Malacological Union. He 
served on the editorial boards of a number of scientific 
journals and on several national systematics panels and 
councils. He was an invited speaker and participant in 
many national and international congresses and sym- 
posia. He was a research associate of the Western Aus- 
tralian Museum. He held faculty appointments at the 
University of Chicago and Northwestern University. 
One of his students, Dr. Betty Lou Girardi, also spe- 
cializes in Pacific land snails. 

The above recitation recounts some of Alan's 
work and achievements, but says little about him as a 
person. In matters of his personal life, Alan was a very 
private individual. He was very sensitive. He could 
hold strong opinions and be very stubborn in holding 
to them when he felt that he was right. He often played 
the devil's advocate. Yet, he had a well-developed 

sense of humor, droll and sometimes quixotic. 

It is self-e\'ident that he had enormous energy and 
drive. He was a perfectionist, methodical, and ex- 
pected excellence from those under him, but at the 
same time he instilled in them the confidence to 
achieve it. They held him in esteem and affection. He 
was kind and caring. It was probably for these reasons 
that he was able to attract and hold a group of loyal and 
devoted employees and volunteers, some of whom 
assisted him for many years. He was proud of his chil- 

Alan cared strongly about the Museum and its fu- 
ture. He also cared for his community. He served on 
the library board of Barrington, Illinois from 1970 to 
1976, and played an important role in obtaining a new 
library for that village. The research collections and 
facilities which he built are a monument to his dedi- 
cated efforts. His publications, especially his mono- 
graphs, will be used for generations to come. 

Dr. Solem is survived by his wife Sylvia, a son, 
Anders, a daughter, Kirsten, and his sister, Elizabeth 
(Mrs. George) Dutton. 

A Tribute to Dave Walsten 


We pay tribute to a person who, for seventeen years, 
has been the "voice" of Field Museum to you, our 
Members, and to our many friends across the country' 
and beyond its borders. We have all benefited from 
Dave's broad knowledge, integrity, writing, editorial 
and publication expertise which resulted monthly in 
the Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. 

His focus on items and issues brought to the 
forefront Field Museum's great collections, scholarly 
research, and informative public exhibitions. Early 
in his career at the Museum, Dave initiated and 
produced a page in the Bulletin devoted to 
environmental issues, and later he instituted the 
"Events" section to alert readers to the diversity of 
participatory opportunities for adult and family 
learning. He also produced an annual calendar to 
illustrate specific Museum collections on exhibition. 
As an articulate reporter on scientific research 
activities, Dave covered the Museum's past, present, 
and future. Under his Editorship, the Bulletin ran 
10 personal accounts from various scientists and letters 

from the field, together with a wide range of scientific 
and programmatic historical documentation. His 
keen eye for photographic excellence, and proficiency 
as a practicing photographer, illuminated many 
articles which added to their inherent appeal. Dave's 
love of travel, personal desire for exploration and 
discovery, and opportunity to ply his craft in a larger 
arena are part of his legacy. 

We thank you, Dave, tor communicating 
the purposes of Field Museum so well and for so long. 
We will chart new courses to communicate with 
our constituency as you did, providing current 
information and sharing our challenges and 
continuing opportunities for involvement. We 
wish you continued success. Our Members and 
colleagues join in these good wishes. 


Curators Emmet Blake and Melvin Traylor 

And Their Prodigious Contributions 

To Field Museum and the Science of Ornithology 

by Susan Nelson 

The Field Museum of Natural History has the fourth 
largest collection of birds in the world. Packed 
carefully away in countless drawers in the Division 
of Birds are some 375,000 specimens, collected during 

Susan Nelson is a Chicago writer wlnose most recent contribution to 
the Bulletinwas a profile of curator Bob Stolze. (Jan/Feb, 1990). 

a period of more than a century. 

The collection is beyond price. Its carefully 
skinned, cotton-stuffed bodies of birds include several 
that have become extinct because their habitats have 
been destroyed. It reveals, because specimens are 
meticulously tagged, distributions of species, 
sometimes showing that birds thrived where cities 


Mel Traylor (I.), with visitor, viewing South American collecting area. 


Mel Traylor during his 1941 collecting trip to the Southwest with Bob 

now stand. The plumage of urban birds, for that 
matter, are often dulled by the air pollution of the 
time they were collected. 

The birds in the Museum's collection are studied 
by scholars from around the world. The collection has 
been used to help lay the foundation of ornithology; 
today, using blood and tissue sampling techniques, 
its birds are providing answers to yet more complex 

And, of all the people at the Field Museum who 
are associated with all those feathers, two are known 
and respected as rather rare birds themselves. 

They are Emmet R. (Bob) Blake, 81, and Melvin 
A. Traylor, 74. Both are curators emeritus, which 
means that, though they draw no salary, they 
continue to do research in their offices at the 
Museum, surrounded by science and colleagues. 

Blake joined the Museum staff in 1935 as an 
assistant curator, who had already done collecting for 
the Smithsonian and the Carnegie Museums. 

Traylor first became associated with the Field 
Museum in 1937, as a recent college graduate who 
went on a trip to collect birds in the Yucatan. Like 
Blake, he was a bird-watcher from childhood. Unlike 

him, Traylor worked for years as a volunteer at the 
Museum until there was an opening as assistant 
curator of birds, in 1956. 

Together, Blake's 38 years on staff and 17 years of 
emeritus status, and Traylor's 24 years on staff and 10 
of emeritus — plus his dozen or so years before he was 
paid for his work — come to better than 100 years. 

During that time the two explored remote areas 
and collected thousands of birds for the Museum. 
They returned from their field trips and meticulously 
identified their findings, in perhaps two dozen cases 
discovering they had collected species or subspecies 
no one before them had seen to name. They have 
published scores of scientific articles, which has 
earned them the respect of their peers and election 
as fellows of the 1,500-member American 
Ornithological Union. 

Blake and Traylor took one three-and-a-half- 
month expedition together, in 1941, to watch, 
photograph, and collect specimens of nesting birds of 
the Southwest. Blake later wrote about the scientific 
highlight, spotting and photographing more than 15 
pairs of Colima (Mexico) warblers in the Chisos 
Mountains of Texas, where the birds had first been 
identified in 1928 and not seen since 1933. 

There are differences between Mel Traylor and 
Bob Blake, to be sure. But the similarities are striking. 
Most obviously, both are 6' 1" and wear neatly 
trimmed mustaches. Both spend several days most 
weeks of the year in their offices in the Museum, 
working at old, solid wood, rolltop desks they insisted 
on keeping when new steel desks were made available 
to the staff. Above his desk, each man has a painting 
of several of the birds he has been the first to identify, 
Traylor's painted by the director of an African 
museum and art gallery, who was also an 
ornithologist, and Blake's by a missionary-collector in 
Peru. Both enlisted in World War 11 and rose to the 
rank of captain in the field, Traylor as a Marine who 
lost an eye in the Gilbert Islands, Blake as an Army 
counterintelligence agent who nearly lost a hand 
in Germany. 

They speak of having built their life's work upon 
a bachelor's or, in Blake's case, a master's, degree 
rather than upon the Ph.D. , which major museums 
now require of their curators. 

Each seems quietly proud of the contributions he 
has made in laying the foundation of ornithology and 
speaks of retirement as the time he decided to step 
aside to make room on the staff for one more member 
of the new breed of young ornithologists. 

They also seem grateful to he ahle to have 
schedules that let them see their projects through and 
also spend more time with their wives. Both men 
married young, to women who did not share their 
enthusiasm for ornithology. Both also married a 
second time, Blake in 1948 to a physician, Margaret 
Bird, who was a neighbor of Traylor, and Traylor, in 
1970, to a mathematics teacher and birder, Marjorie 
Sharp, who came to visit other good friends who 
introduced the two. 

Both have two grown children, no pets to worry 
about but backyard birds at feeders, and homes in the 
suburbs north of Chicago. Traylor generally drives 
to work after walking four miles with Marjorie, an 
exercise regimen he began in the early 1980s, after 
a heart attack. 

The way to Traylor's office is marked by an 

occasional taped-up Gary Larson "The Far Side" 
cartoon spoofing Homo sapiens and serious scientists. 
Traylor settles into a chair near his desk. In the office 
is a computer terminal he acknowledges might have 
been helpful in the series of 13 "gazetteers" to the 
countries of South America that will be completed 
soon with a volume on Brazil. His co-author is 
another esteemed birdman, R.A. Paynter, Jr., of 
Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

The books, which are used by scientists other 
than just ornithologists, are specific-location, 
country-by-country guides to every published 
identification of species of birds. 

"We went through all the literature we could lay 
our hands on to research the guides," which Traylor 
further says are "guaranteed to be as boring as 
anything. But," he adds, "I don't know how most 
people survive without them." Having such a book 
eliminates the need to look up such tedious details a 
second time. 

The series, mentions David Willard, Ph.D., 
manager of the bird collection, is an example of what 
he calls both Traylor's and Blake's "fairly ego-less, 
altruistic contributions to ornithology that really are 
drudge work to produce." 

Scott Lanyon, Ph.D., head of the Division of 
Birds, mentions that the work for Blake and Traylor 
and others has established the foundation of 
ornithology. "Now we can ask why birds are where 
they are and how things came to be — the more 
theoretical end of the science," he says. 

Traylor is self-disparaging about what others in 
his department call his meticulous attention to detail, 
and he speaks lightly of an early life that made few 

demands of him. 

He was born December 16, 1915 in St. Luke's 
Hospital and lived in the South Shore community 
until 1922, when his parents and sister moved to the 
North Side. He spent idyllic summers with his family 
in rural Wisconsin, where he fished and learned 
about birds and, later, golf. 

In defining himself, Traylor speaks of his father, 
Melvin A. Traylor, Sr. : born in a log cabin in 
south-central Kentucky; got a teaching certificate 
after high school and saved money for train fare to 
Hillsboro, Texas, where an uncle lived; became a 
volunteer fireman so he could sleep in the firehouse at 
night; read law and became licensed in Texas; while 
delivering groceries, met a young woman who became 
his wife. Her uncle was a banker, and through him the 
senior Traylor was posted to one little hank and then 
another. He moved to St. Louis, where he became 
president of Livestock Bank, and came to Chicago in 
1913 to be president of that bank here. Eventually he 
became president of Chicago's First National Bank. 
In the 1932 national Democratic convention he was 
the favorite son candidate of Kentucky, Texas, and 

He died in 1934, when Mel Jr. was 18 and a 
student at Harvard. The boy earned a bachelor of art's 
degree with a major in biology in 1937. One class in 
ornithology proved helpful that summer, when he 
went with a Chicago friend, "a boy genius in 
anthropology. Bill Andrews," who planned to spend 
the summer at Chichen Itza in the Yucatan, studying 
Mayan hieroglyphics for the Carnegie Institute of 
Washington. Andrews was also going to collect snake 
specimens for the Field Museum and suggested, 
because Traylor liked birds, that he go along to collect 
Mexican birds. 

The Museum, Traylor says, chuckling, probably 
figured it had nothing to lose and dispatched the two 
with a double-barreled shotgun, very fine "dust shot," 
and assorted tools for skinning and borax powder for 
preserving bird skins. They left from New York, 
stopped in Havana, and continued to the Yucatan. 

Traylor collected fewer than a hundred birds 
during two months, but he found work he liked. No 
job was open at the Museum, so he decided to enter 
the foreign service, studying birds wherever he might 
be sent. He went to Georgetown University in 
1938-39 and did well on written exams but failed 
the orals. He was told, he says, that he had led a 
cushioned life and should "Go out and be a reporter 
for a couple of years and then come back." 13 


Instead, he returned with Andrews to the 
Yucatan in the fall of 1939 for seven months as an 
unpaid collector for the Field Museum. This time 
Traylor brought hack about 600 birds, more carefully 
prepared than before: He had sought and received 
advice from a young staff member, Bob Blake, "who 
taught me everything I know about skinning birds," 
Traylor says now. 

He returned to Chicago and resumed work as an 
unpaid associate in the Division of Birds. He wrote a 
paper about the birds he had collected and then, in 
the first three months of 1941 , was asked to go on an 
expedition led by Leon Mandel of Mandel Brothers 
department store. 

He had been back for only a few weeks when 
he and Blake took off in Traylor's DeSoto coupe, 
carrying 800 pounds of camping and collecting 
equipment that would take them nearly 7,000 miles 
from the King Ranch in Texas, where they stayed, 
into the mountains outside Denver. 

Upon his return, Traylor talked a couple of 
friends into enlisting with him in the Marine Corps. 
In rapid order he went to boot camp in San Diego, 
came home and got married, and was shipped out to 
Samoa as an engineer with the first group readied for 
action after Pearl Harbor. His artillery unit was sent 
to reinforce Guadalcanal. After rest and recuperation 
in New Zealand, he was sent to Tarawa in the 
Gilberts, where a bullet that hit his carbine sent 
fragments into his left eye. 

He was shipped back to San Diego, and after 
he left the hospital he met someone from Scripps 
Institution, where Traylor served out the end of the 
war. In 1946 he was named project officer of a survey 
of the fish on Bikini, before and after atom bomb 
tests, and he was advanced to the rank of major. 

Traylor returned to Chicago and the Field 
Museum in 1946. Still a volunteer, he went on a 
collecting expedition in 1948 to Veracruz, Mexico. 
"I continued to be a gentleman scientist — until I 
found out I didn't have enough money to be a 
gentleman scientist," he says. He left in 1952 to 
run a small towboat business along the Chicago 
and Mississippi rivers, until 1956, when an 
assistant curatorship of birds opened and he returned 
to the Field Museum as a paid employee. 

At that time, to complement the Central and 
South American work of Blake, Traylor turned his 
attention to the Museum's Old World collections. 
He had already studied extensively the African 
bird collections from Gabon and Angola; his next 

Bob Blake during his 1937-38 collecting trip to British Guiana and 
Brazil Here he is shown with rhea eggs in Mato Grosso. Brazil. 

expedition, in 1959, was to Egypt and the Sudan, 
where he worked with a medical zoologist, Harry 
Hoogstraal, to track a particular species of tick 
as it traveled on kestrels that migrated from Africa 
to Europe and Asia. 

Back in Chicago, Traylor continued his studies 
of African birds, identifying several new species or 
subspecies from the British colonies. "The British 
colonial service was one of the major factors in the 
world's knowledge about birds." he explains. "A lot 
of colonial officers were very interested in birds, and 
they studied them wherever they were sent." 

In 1961 Traylor went on a six-month field trip to 
northern and southern Rhodesia (now, respectively, 
Zambia and Zimbabwe) and Bechuanaland 
(Botswana). He arrived, bought a Land Rover, was 
lent a guide named Jali Makawa — "a wonderful, 
magnificent collector who would whistle up 
birds" — and set out to collect some 1 ,600 birds he 
would bring back to Chicago and then study and 

write about, becoming one ot the world's experts on 
relationships of birds in Africa. His final expedition 
was to the southern Sudan, in 1977. He retired 
to emeritus status at the end of 1980, when he 
completed three years as chairman of the Department 
of Zoology and numerous nonscientific administrative 
roles for the Museum. 

Traylor and his wife have revisited places he has 
especially enjoyed, the Galapagos Islands and the 
Yucatan among them. They returned to Guadalcanal 
in the summer of 1989, and later this year they will 
attend an international ornithological congress in 
New Zealand. 

Mel Traylor is also known, says John Fitzpatrick, 
Ph.D., executive director of Archbold Biological 
Station in Florida and curator on leave from the Field 
Museum, for his work on New World flycatchers, the 
largest family of birds in the Western Hemisphere. 
"He is the first in history to produce a coherent 
taxonomy of this huge, 375-species family of birds." 

The work, which Traylor characteristically 
minimizes, consists of grouping closely related species 
into subfamilies and genera, which simplifies the work 
of other scientists. In addition, he has written dozens 
of articles and edited one volume of Peter's Check-list 
of Birds of the World (Harvard University Press) and 
contributed, as did Blake, to several others. 

Bob Blake joined the Museum with a reputation 
for expeditions into wild places. His skill and flair at 
collecting and his general derring-do made him 
"among the stalwart travelers throughout the 
hinterlands of South America during the '30s, '40s, 
and '50s," says John Fitzpatrick admiringly. "He 
literally charted boundaries of countries — he was 
part of a boundary survey team for Brazil, for 
instance — and is one of the get-out-and-rough-it, 
get'CoUections-into-the-Museum curators." 

He also, Fitzpatrick says, "is by far best known for 
the enormous amount of work he has done on birds of 
the New World tropics and perhaps most famous for 
having written the first guide to the birds of Mexico." 

Blake's office is especially orderly and has three 
prominent decorations: a plaster-of-paris dodo bird on 
the highest ledge; a poster-sized photograph of himself 
in bush clothes including pith helmet, with his wife 
dressed as his "demure native assistant. Peg" at a party 
soon after Blake's return from six months in Peruvian 
jungles; and a quotation: "The meaning doesn't 
matter/If it's only idle chatter/Of a transcendental 

"That quote's just a gag," Blake says brightly. 

tapping tobacco into one of three corncob pipes on 
his desk and then lighting it. "I'm loaded with gags 
around here." A trace of a Southern accent meshes 
with his slightly courtly manner. 

It is quickly apparent that, while this man may 
kid about himself, his work as a naturalist is quite 
another matter. Several 8-by- 10, black-and-white 
framed photographs are arranged on two other walls: a 
camp in Guatemala, Blake in dugout canoe reading a 
book on the Orinoco River, a clutch of rhea eggs. On 
the back of each photo is a summary of that particular 
expedition — dates, birds and other animals collected, 
personnel including native guides, a brief narative, 
and the cost. ("1 could go to South America for a 
few hundred dollars," he says. "Now it might take 
20 thousand dollars.") 

Organization seems natural to Blake. In 1949 the 
Museum published a 38-page booklet. Preserving Birds 
for Study, that was a best-seller among museum 
collectors around the world. The same sort of clear, 
expository writing is evident in his 1953 book Birds 
of Mexico: A Guide for Field Identification (University 
of Chicago Press), the first illustrated guide for 
bird-watchers, which, though out of print after seven 
editions, is still considered the standard reference, 
says curator Scott Lanyon. 

Blake got the idea for the Mexican book, he says, 
when he was in the army overseas, working, as he 
puts it, "as a spy-catcher in the Counter Intelligence 
Corps. " 

"One day I thought, 'What will I do when I get 
back?'" He looks up from relighting his pipe. "I'd been 
studying Mexican birds for years; 1 knew it was time 
for somebody to do a guide. 'I think I'll crank out a 
field guide.'" 

After it was published, he took a belated trip 
throughout Mexico to double-check his research. 
Several times, he says, he ran across groups of 
Americans with binoculars — and his book. He looks 
up again, delighted. "I'd approach them and ask, 
'What are you doing?' They'd tell me, and I'd say, 
'But there's no bird guide, is there?' 

"And they'd say, 'Oh, yes, we have this one,' and 
hold it up. 'And I'd lay it on: 'Oh, Blake. He's kind 
of a dopey guy; he doesn't know anything about 
Mexican birds.'" He laughs heartily. 

"Eventually I'd tell 'em who I was, and then I'd 
autograph their books." 

Having a sense of humor is obviously important 
to Blake. "I'm the 13th — the smartest and prettiest 
and, yes, particularly the most modest — from a large 15 

family," he says, and reaches for another photograph. 

"This is a family photo, 1903. 1 came from 
Scotch-Irish Presbyterian stock. What a grim-looking 
crowd," and he points out specific stem-faced people 
who surround a smiling bride and groom. The 
occasion was the marriage of his father to his second 
wife, Blake's mother. The first wife had died, as would 
seven of Blake's siblings, "three in one week, from 
typhoid fever, years before I was bom." 

Looking again at the photograph, he says, "that 
gives you an idea of the people I came from. People 

of South Carolina, 40 miles away, Blake tumed a 
vacant dormitory into a small museum for specimens 
he had collected. It was science from an early age, he 
knew: "1 flunked almost everything but biology and 
science" on his way to a bachelor of arts degree in 

He also knew he would have to go north for any 
exposure to real museums. To eam money for graduate 
school, he traveled throughout the South with 
a camival as its "meet-all-comers" prizefighter. 
In 1929 he started out for Carnegie Institute of 

Bob Blake in his lab, 
ca. 1980 

have been working on my soul ever since." He adds, 
mischievously, "I didn't buy it from Day One." 

Blake was bom November 29, 1908 in 
Abbeville, South Carolina. When he was 5, the 
family moved 15 miles away, to Greenwood. His 
father owned an insurance company and had a family 
farm, Blakedale, three miles out of town, where Blake 
remembers trapping muskrat and mink and doing 
other "Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer" kinds of things. 
"In my day the Blakes were people of some local 
consequence," he says softly. But the Depression 
was not kind to his family. 

As a boy he knew he wanted to be a naturalist, 
even though the only museum he ever visited was a 
relatively small one in Charleston. A distant cousin 
who had married Emest G. Holt, a National 
Geographic explorer, came to visit one day, and she 
showed Blake how to skin a bird and prepare it as a 
museum specimen. 
1 6 While he was a student at Presbyterian College 

Technology, in Pittsburgh, where he was to study 
art, the field in which a grandfather had been 
successful and Blake showed talent. 

"1 rollerskated up there — had two dollars and 
sixty-five cents and went 900 miles," he said. "1 slept 
by the side of the road, and took my skates off at 
night. The first day I made 113 miles, from 
Charleston almost to the North Carolina boundary. 
After that 1 skated only at night — couldn't do it 
during the day because of the traffic and heat." 

He mentions that someone wrote about him 
in a column like a "Ripley's Believe It or Not" and 
admits that he enjoyed the attention. He reached 
Pittsburgh before his college records arrived and 
before taking a job as a YMCA lifeguard, "so I slept a 
week or 10 days on newspapers with the other bums in 
Schenley Park, between the University of Pittsburgh 
and Carnegie Tech. " 

In August 1930, he went as the assistant on a 
year-long National Geographic Society expedition 

to Brazil. The team helped to map boundaries of 
Brazil, collected specimens of some 3, 100 birds, 98 
mammals, and 115 reptiles, and thousands of pressed 
plants. On his own, Blake climbed previously 
unsealed mountains, saw and was observed by 
primitive people, and found that he was, after all, 
better suited to be a naturalist than an artist. 

He returned to Pittsburgh in August, began work 
on his master's degree in biology at the University of 
Pittsburgh, and was off to Venezuela again, on a 
December 1931 to April 1932 expedition sponsored 
by Chicagoans Leon and Fred Mandel. He led a 
second Mandel expedition to Guatemala, between 
October 1933 and May 1934. Between them he 
completed his master's; in February 1935 he led an 
expedition for the Carnegie Museum to British 
Honduras (now Belize). Their guides, Mayan 
cargadores, deserted and Blake became severely ill 
from parasites. He found passage to Belize and 
returned to the field after being hospitalized 10 days. 
The next month, July 1935, he reported to work at 
the Field Museum as assistant curator of birds. 

In 1937 he led a year-long expedition to British 
Guiana (now Guyana) and Brazil. In 1938 he 
returned to British Guiana and survived the most 
harrowing of his adventures, when his boat hit a 
submerged boulder and sank in the Corentyne River. 
Nearly 500, or half, of the bird skins were saved, but 
many more specimens of birds, mammals, and insects 
were lost. 

Blake's final South American expedition was to 
Amazonian Peru between May and November, 1958. 
He brought back more than 1 ,000 bird specimens as 
well as collections of reptiles, fish, and mammals. 

The work has obviously fulfilled his boyhood 
dreams. "But science has now moved on into different 
areas," he says, mentioning DNA and other high-tech 
research. "We have some very brilliant young men 
working here, the Young Turks, 1 call them," he says 
and laughs. 

"They leave me alone; 1 leave them alone; we're 
both happy. They might come up with the right 
answers; they may not." After a pause, he says, "Mel 
and 1 represent a past generation of ornithologists and 
may now be a bit obsolete by present-day standards." 

Asked about the absence of a computer terminal, 
Blake chuckles. "I don't even type. 1 had a secretary 
most of my life. My books? I do 'em in longhand." 

He moves to a cabinet and opens drawers that 
contain lovely, four-color illustrations of birds by 
Guy Tudor for volume 2 of his landmark Manual of 



Ci* Ifyou have provided 

^'^ for Field Museum in 

Jh^ your estate plans, please 

^^ tell us about it. If not, 

let us show you how. 

Through a bequest, you can; 

Provide for the future of Field Museum, 

Possibly reduce the tax burden on your estate, and 

Permanently link your name to Field Museum. 

For information about establishing a bequest to 
Field Museum of Natural History, please call 

or write: 

Melinda Pruettjones 

Director of Major Gifts and Estate Planning 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496 

(312) 322-8868 

Neotropical Birds (University of Chicago Press), a 
series of several volumes that will include all birds 
recorded in tropical America, or more than a third 
of the world's total species. It is a work his juniors at 
Field Museum hail — and seem somewhat amazed by. 

"People tell me 1 should at least publish the 
pictures; they are that exceptional. I'm so far behind 
with the text and come in so irregularly now, that I 
probably never will be finished with it." His schedule 
was recently interrupted by health problems of his 
wife, he mentions. She is doing better now. 

"We did travel a bit," he says. "She joined me in 
Mexico on one occasion and was ready to bring the 
babies to Peru when I was there," he says. They have 
made trips together in recent years, mainly to Europe. 

Blake says he wouldn't care to go back to 
Mexico, or most of the other countries he's explored, 
because of the pollution, the overpopulation, and the 
destruction of habitat. Yet, both he and Tray lor look 
back on their travels with fondness. 

"I'm glad I saw things when I did and got the 
traveling out of my system when wilderness areas 
were relatively pristine. 1 have no regrets now about 
a lifetime spent in the world of birds and natural 
history museums." 17 

The Message from Halley's Comet 

what We Learned from the Space Probes 

19th-century cartoon. "Searching for Halley's comet, at Greenwich 
Observatory," by Heath Robinson. 

by Edward 01 sen 
Curator of Mineralogy 

The far reaches of the Solar System are regions of strange- 
ness. Seemingly empty space, utterly silent, but filled 
with physical forces. Streams of atoms and subatomic 
particles ejected from the sun — the "solar wind" — cross 
other streams of similar stuff coming from distant sources 
in our galaxy — galactic cosmic rays. Electromagnetic 
radiation — light, radio waves, x-rays, ultraviolet and in- 
frared rays — come from all directions. And gravity, also in 
waves, permeates the space between the planets. Gravity 
from the planets, gravity from small asteroids, gravity 
from near and not so near stars and, most important of all, 
18 gravity from the sun. In this region of silent forces, one 

object of fascination to mankind only a few years ago, 
Halley's Comet, moves swiftly along its graceful, elliptical 
path. It aims toward an empty point in space around 
which it will swing and again begin its return journey 
toward the sun, appearing in our sky in the year 2061. 

The sun's gravity swings planets, asteroids, and 
comets around it. Ancients knew this and wrote of the 
seeming perfection of it all. Spheres swing about a central 
sphere. Spheres were, to them, esthetically perfect bod- 
ies. And equally perfect was the circle. It was inconceiv- 
able to them the universe could run on any pattern other 
than that which was esthetically perfect. 

Perfection, of course, is in the eye of the beholder. 
Time passed and it became clear that perfect spheres and 
circles are rare in nature. Indeed, the planets and all the 
solid bodies of the Solar System are quite "imperfect" 
shapes — flattened ellipsoids, slightly tetrahedral, even 
lumpy and irregular And the paths they follow are not 
circles but ellipses; and because of gravitation from bodies 
other than the sun the ellipses are themselves not ideal. 

Except for the odd little planet Pluto, the elliptical 
paths of the other eight planets are only a bit off being 
circles. Most of the objects with really elongated elliptical 
paths are the periodic comets. Although dim comets pass 
through our sky at regular intervals, bright comets, ones 
we can see by eye, are not so common. 

Five years ago excitement surrounded the appear- 
ance of Halley's Comet. It was the first time it returned, 
along its elliptical path, to our part of Solar System space 
since 1910. The first time since we had entered the age of 
space exploration. More could be done than merely 
watch and make measurements of its peculiarities 
through the imperfect window of our surrounding gaseous 
atmosphere. We could launch vehicles to race out to 
encounter this famous comet and measure more of its fea- 
tures than would ever be possible from the ground. 

Japan and the Soviet Union each sent off two 
probes to make measurements at moderate distances — 
as close as 5,000 miles. The European Space Agency 
(ESA), a consortium of European nations, sent the heavi- 
ly instrumented probe called Giotto. It passed within 375 
miles of the comet s head, or nucleus. 

So much publicity four years ago. So many books 
published. So many television interviews of scientists 
about this new adventure — a spacecraft encounters this 
bright, famous comet. And since then, almost utter si- 
lence! What came of all this? Why don't we see the same 
scientists on television telling us the wondrous facts of 
their new finds? This is potentially exciting, imaginative 
science. Yet, the comet is four years departed and totally 
out of the public mind. 

After data came pouring in, there followed a flood of 
published technical results, talks given at international 
meetings, and press releases. An issue of the scientific 
journal Nature' published 38 reports (107 pages) while 
the outward-bound comet was not so far gone that it 
could still be seen with a small telescope. Little of this has 
come to the popular media, in strong contrast with the 
hoopla that preceded the comet's arrival. 

All we learned from early newspaper and news 
magazine accounts is that the comet is not a sphere (many 

•Vol. 321, no. 606; May 15, 1986 

scientists never believed it was). It is a lumpy, potato- 
shaped object 10 miles long by 5 miles wide and about 5 
miles thick. It rotates around one of the smaller (5 mile) 
axes once every 53 hours. Little else was reported about 
the mass of new information because all of it was very 
specialized, terribly abstruse, and difficult to translate into 
popular terms. An early press release, for example, was 
titled, "The D/H and "D/'*0 isotopic ratios in Comet 
Halley." This is not the sort of stuff to compete with the 
latest activities of Princess Di — and an awfully lot harder 
to popularize than some newly found dinosaur bone. But 
it is still not too late to try to describe some of the more 
tractable results — to say whether all this effort by so many 
nations produced anything we didn't already know. I'd 
like to try. Hang on! 

The Dirt of the "Dirty Snowball" 

Certainly every space scientist would agree that a big re- 
sult was the direct confirmation of the "dirty snowball 
hypothesis." Since ancient times men have speculated 
about the physical state of comets. Why does a comet 
have only a small tail when first seen far out in space, and 
gradually "grows" a longer tail as it approaches the sun? 
When it swings around the sun the tail points always away 
from the sun so that it moves back out into space tail first, 
the tail gradually decreasing in size. 

There have been many ideas about them, some 
pretty ingenious, some fancifiil, some plain nuts. The two 
that emerged in the twentieth century were "the buck- 
shot hypothesis" and the "dirty snowball hypothesis," in- 
vented by Harvard astronomer Fred Whipple. 

According to the buckshot hypothesis a comet con- 
sists of zillions of separate stone and ice granules all travel- 
ing together through space, the way buckshot travels after 
being blasted out of a shotgun. The granules themselves 
were thought to be porous and to contain trapped gases of 
several kinds, in their pxare spaces. As the bunch of grains 
approaches the sun, the sun's radiation warms them and 
the gases boil out. Solar radiation causes some gases to 
emit light, and some dust grains to reflect light; hence, 
the tail. The closer to the sun, the stronger this effect and 
the longer the tail. And, the tail must always point away 
from the sun. 

With a bunch of tiny grains, spread out through a 
volume of space, the hypothesis suggested that the den- 
sity of matter within any part of the whole mass is very 
low. In fact, the old joke used to be that "a comet is as near 
to nothing as you can have, and still have something." It's 
kind of a neat idea — but wrong! 

Fred Whipple found that some features of comet 19 

behavior were difficult to explain with the buckshot 
hypothesis. Decades ago he suggested a different picture. 
A comet consists of pieces of rock, some large, many 
small, and most of them tiny granules and dust particles, 
all held together in ice. The ice is mainly the ice we all 
know so well from our refrigerators and ice machines — 
fix)zen water. The word, "ice," however, is used here in a 
broader sense to cover every liquid or gas that is frozen to a 
solid condition. Carbon dioxide, we know, can be frozen 
to ice, called "dry ice." So can methane, ammonia, and 
other compounds be frozen as ices if it is cold enough, as 
indeed it is in the far reaches of the Solar System. So the 
ice of Fred Whipple's snowball is a mixture of ices. The 
whole thing is as if you scoop>ed up a handful of snow that 
lay on a gravel driveway. The snowball you make would 
have lots of gravel, sand and clay mixed in it — that is, a 
"dirty snowball." 

As the dirty snowball approaches the sun, melting 
ices (on the surface) release their molecules, which react 
with the sun's radiation and glow. Dust and stony granules 
are also let go, and they can reflect sunlight. Again, the 
tail forms and grows as the snowball rounds the sun. Each 
time a comet passes around the sun it loses a lot of mass by 
melting. If it doesn't have much mass at the start it can be 
destroyed the first time. If it has a lot of mass, like Halley's 
Comet, it can make repeated trips, getting smaller each 
time until it finally wastes away. 

The cameras aboard the Giotto probe recorded a 
solid comet nucleus (head). The nucleus was clearly 
releasing gas and dust. It is a real dirty snowball. The 
probe photographs indicate that the mass of this snowball 
is around 100 billion tons! The output of dust is between 3 
tons per second and 1 tons per second. Taking the higher 
estimate (10 tons/sec), this means the nucleus of Halley's 
Comet can, under the worst scenario, suffer over 300 to- 
tal years of close exposure to the sun. But it loses material 
at this rate only for a few months every 76 years. So Hal- 
ley's Comet can last for over 90,000 years before being 
wasted away completely. 

But something new appeared in the probe pictures. 
A slowly rotating snowball, being "cooked" by the sun — 
like a leg of lamb being roasted on a spit in a Greek restau- 
rant — would be expected to give off a cloud of dust and 
gas mainly on the side facing the sun. But no such general 
cloud was seen. Instead, the cameras recorded distinct 
sharp jets of gas and dust spurting from only about 10 
percent of the sunny side's surface. The rest of the surface 
was quiet. Ground-based observations of other comets, 
over many years, led some space scientists to conclude 
that such jetting occurred. The Halley images suggested 
20 this may be the main mechanism expelling matter from a 

comet nucleus. 

The dust held some surprises, as well as some unsur- 
prises. Space scientists long ago formed mental models of 
what to expect from a comet. The models are based on 
two bodies of facts. The first is what is known from 
meteorites, the main solid objects we have from Solar 
System space beyond the region of the Earth and the 
moon. The second is what we know about interplanetary 
dust. First, about meteorites: 

There are about 30 different kinds of meteorites 
if you take into account all the subtle differences in 
composition, structure, and mineral make-up. Most 
meteorite types are obviously fragments of asteroids of 
various sizes and complexities'. Generally, they have 
been transformed by well known geological processes into 
compositions and structures different from the pristine 
state in which they formed originally, 4.6 billion years 
ago when the Solar System was formed. Two kinds of 
meteorites, though, do not appear to be much changed. 
They are two of the carbonaceous meteorites, types 1 and 
2 — or CI and C2 in meteorite jargon. Both kinds appear 
to be largely primitive agglomerations of mineral grains 
derived from several early Solar System processes. The 
main process is direct formation of mineral grains from 
the cooling gas cloud that surrounded the newly formed 
sun. This process is called condensation from the solar 

A CI meteorite, for example, is just what you would 
expect to find in a dirty snowball. It has about 20 percent 
water tied up in mineral structures. It has tarry organic 
macro-molecules and trapped gases of many kinds. A CI 
looks like a rock that has sat in a damp place for a long, 
long time. 

A C2 is quite similar to a CI, but has about half the 
Cl's water content and about 50 percent of grains of 
minerals that are formed by condensation from the solar 
nebula. These mineral grains are very small and were the 
first dust grains to form as the high temperatures of the 
early solar nebula began to drop. C2 meteorites also con- 
tain trapped primitive gases, a large variety of organic 
molecules (including numerous amino acids, the building 
blocks of proteins) and tarry organic macromolecules. 
The C2 meteorites also show signs of a good soaking. 
Mineral grains are corroded and have taken up water to 
different degrees. Again, here is a meteorite type one 
might suspect of having been the "dirt" of a melted-away 
dirty snowball. 

Now, about interplanetary dust. Over a decade ago a 

'Asteroids are extremely small planets ranging from a few fiundred 
feet to a few hundred miles in diameter 

program was begun to collect the small particles that per- 
meate the space between planets. You can think of these 
dust particles, if you wish, as extremely small meteorites. 
They have been known for centuries. On a dark, clear 
night (especially in March) away from manmade lights 
you can observe a faint glow in the western sky long after 
the twilight of sunset has disappeared. It can best be seen 
from latitudes nearer the equator. The same glow also 
precedes dawn in those latitudes and is most noticeable in 
the month of September. Both glows are broad, wedge- 
shaped streaks against the background of constellations, 
which make up the zodiac. The glow is called the zodiacal 

The glow of the zodiacal light is caused by reflection 
of sunlight off zillions of dust grains circulating around 
the sun, like so many microplanets. They cannot be dust 
grains left over from the first days of the Solar System 
because the larger of those grains have long ago been 
swept up by gravitational attraction into the sun, and the 
smaller grains of these have all been pushed out of the 
Solar System by the solar wind. If all the original dust is 
gone, one way or another, the fact there is dust there now 
means it must be constantly renewed. If they were not 
renewed by addition of about one ton of dust per second 
the whole dust mass would be gone in only 100,000 years 
and there should be no zodiacal light. The source of the 
new dust must be from the many comets, including Hal- 
ley, which pass through the inner Solar System peri- 
odically and episodically, spewing out jets of dust grains 
that trail along in their wakes. By capturing some of this 
dust we should be able to form a better idea of what com- 
ets are like. 

It was in the 1970s that successful collections of 
interplanetary dust were first made, using sticky panels 
deployed from aircraft flying at over 60,000 feet. Later, 
another source turned up when summertime melt puddles 
on the Greenland ice cap were found to contain inter- 
planetary grains. These grains originally drifted down 
through the atmosphere and were frozen into the ice. 
Slight melting of the surface ice in the summer formed 
rivulets of water, which drained into low spots. Many, 
many years of this left small pockets of space dust along 
with some terrestrial mineral grains. 

Interplanetary dust is harder to study than meteor- 
ites. Typical dust particles are less than 60 micrometers 
(two thousands of an inch). They are made up of very 
porous, delicate clusters of mineral grains, each of which 
is less than one-tenth of a micrometer (forty millionths of 
an inch). Microhandling techniques, electron micros- 
copy, and microanalysis instruments were finally success- 
fril and a body of knowledge about them gradually grew. 

Contrary to expectations, some mineral grains 
turned out to have significant differences in compositions 
from the same minerals in the carbonaceous meteorites. It 
was possible to see similarities between them, and a few 
mineral grains did look very much like miniclumps of the 
water-bearing minerals in the CI andC2 meteorites. The 
conclusion is that the "dirt" of the dirty snowballs, while 
similar to some of the things seen in carbonaceous 
meteorites, is just a bit more primitive then even the most 
primitive type 1 carbonaceous meteorite — ^what we might 
think of as a "type zero" carbonaceous meteorite — one 
never sampled as a meteorite that survived falling to 
Earth. Such a meteorite would probably never make it 
through the Earth's atmosphere as a large chunk because 
it would be so fragile it would break up into tiny pieces 
high in the air before hitting the ground. The collected 
dust grains are strong candidates for the dust released from 
passing comets and the stuff recharging the dust belt that 
causes the zodiacal light. 

The dust emitted from Halley's Comet exhibited 
some new features. Because dust came off the comet 
mainly in erupting jets, the distribution of dust in the 
space around the comet's nucleus was uneven. Ground- 
based observations of other comets, in times past, sug- 
gested to astronomers there should be a cutoff of dust 
particle sizes in the range of three-trillionths of an ounce. 
Particles were detected by the Giotto probe, however, 
that weighed only a ten-thousandth as much as this, and 
no cutoff size below this was detected. The smallest parti- 
cles are so small it would take five billion billion of them 
to weigh a pound! 

Although the instalments on the five space probes 
could not make precise measurements of the proportion 
of gas to dust coming from the comet, values in the range 
often to one-half were estimated. That is, the abundance 
of gas compared to dust is between half as much and ten 
times as much. Ground-based estimates on other comets, 
in 1957 and again in 1970, are in this same range as the 
measurements on Halley's Comet. 

Instruments aboard the space probes measured a 
number of chemical elements coming from the bursting 
jets of matter from Halley's Comet. When compared to 
the composition of matter coming from the sun, oxygen 
and carbon abundances in the comet are very similar, but 
nitrogen is a little lower in the comet than in the sun. 
When compared to carbonaceous meteorites, nitrogen 
and carbon are ten times higher in Halley, and oxygen is 
two times higher. These differences, again, mean that 
this comet (and perhaps all comets) is more primitive 
than carbonaceous meteorites. 

Dust particles coming from Halley's Comet are not 


The Horsehead Nebula, a dark, dense interstellar dust cloud. 
Clouds such as this are the "factories" for simple and complex 
organic molecules. 

all the same, or even similar in composition to each 
other. Some grains are high in carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, 
and nitrogen. Others are high in magnesium, iron, sili- 
con, and oxygen. These two types of grains are not emit- 
ted uniformly from the jets on Halley's surface. Some jets 
apf)ear to spurt out mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, 
and nitrogen type compounds, while other jets apf)ear to 
eject mainly magnesium-iron-silicon-oxygen grains. This 
is interpreted to mean that the dirt of the "dirty snowball" 
is not well mixed on the surface of Comet Halley. 

Grains made up mainly of compounds of magne- 
sium, iron, silicon, and oxygen are the "silicate," or in- 
organic, fraction. In general, magnesium silicates require 
very high temperatures to form originally, while iron sili- 
cates form at lower temjjeratures. 

Grains made up mostly of compounds of carbon, 
hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are the "organic" frac- 
tion, and these form only under fairly cool tempterature 
conditions. We must be careful to understand that using 
the word organic doesn't mean these compounds must 
have been formed by living organisms. The words organic 
and inorganic today have different connotations from 
22 when the terms were created centuries ago. A long time 

ago chemists divided themselves into two main groups — 
inorganic and organic chemists. Organic chemistry is the 
study of compounds that are usually, but not always, pro- 
duced by living organisms. These are mostly compounds 
made of combinations of the chemical elements carbon, 
hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Such compounds can 
be made in a laboratory without the action of any living 
organism. If a compound is a combination of these chem- 
ical elements, it is called "organic," whether made by a 
creature or made (inorganically) in a laboratory or in na- 
ture. Many organic compounds found in types 1 and 2 
carbonaceous meteorites were not formed by organisms, 
but by inorganic processes. The terminology can be very 
confusing. So, grains of solid compounds and gaseous 
molecules trapped in ice and dust grain pores of Halley's 
Comet are both inorganic and organic. 

Over the past decade astronomers have been able to 
detect many organic compounds in space. They occur 
along with inorganic compounds in dark, dense dust 
clouds that have been seen by telescof)e. These clouds fill 
regions of space between distant stars. Such compxaunds 
had to have formed in these clouds at cold temperatures. 
The main factor promoting their formation is a relatively 
higher density of matter than generally occurs in space. 
Formation by cold reactions is known to affect the kinds 
of hydrogen atoms in these compounds. 

Hydrogen can occur in nature as either of two kinds 
of stable atoms, one weighing twice that of the other — 
normal hydrogen and what is called deuterium. When 
atoms of a single element occur in different weights, but 
retain the same chemical properties, they are called iso- 
topes of each other. Organic compounds formed in cold 
dust clouds have a high percentage of the deuterium iso- 
tope in them. The organic compounds in carbonaceous 
meteorites have similarly high deuterium contents, and 
so do the organic compounds in interplanetary dust parti- 
cles, described before. The organic gases in Halley's Com- 
et also show high deuterium contents. 

The conclusion from all this is that all organic com- 
pounds found in carbonaceous meteorites and in comets 
come from giant dust clouds in space where they are, in a 
sense, "manufactured." As they form, they apparently 
drift out of such cloud regions and permeate space, both as 
gaseous molecules and absorbed into inorganic dust 
grains. When such dust grains drift into regions of space 
where new stars and planets form they are destroyed 
because star formation and planet formation are initially 
very energetic, hot, violent processes. The only places 
they escape destruction is where they are incorporated 
into small, cold bodies, such as tiny asteroids that are the 
sources of carbonaceous meteorites, or into the "snow- 

balls" of comets. So, comets, such as Halley, are the 
source of surviving ancient matter from incredibly far 
reaches of our galaxy! In other words, Halley 's Comet 
carries in it grains and organic compounds that are older 
than the Solar System! 


Mankind has long puzzled over the origins of life. The 
flow of earthly life — birth, growth, death — has been an 
issue of deep concern in most religions and some philo- 
sophical systems. The basic sciences, chemistry and phy- 
sics, while never openly avowing that understanding the 
origin of life is a major goal, nevertheless perform experi- 
ments from time to time, which clearly deal with this 

Speculations about the process by which life might 
have started on Earth, and elsewhere in space, have 
usually involved extraordinary circumstances: organic 
molecules accidentally form in isolated environments in 
sufficient concentration to interact and form the sugars, 
amino acids, and proteins necessary for any living system. 
Possible, but unlikely. 

In the early 1950s, Nobel laureate chemist Harold 
C. Urey, ofthe University of Chicago, became fascinated 
with the chemistry of meteorites, especially carbonaceous 
meteorites containing organic compounds, which so 
obviously formed by some inorganic process, someplace, 
sometime — out there. He reasoned that these organic 
compounds might be the result of some processes going on 
during the early stages of formation of the planets. Such 
times were frill of energetic processes. If too much energy 
pervaded the system, organic compounds, if formed, 
would be destroyed relatively quickly, compared to the 
more stable inorganic compounds. But once things began 
to cool down, organic compounds could persist. 

The atmosphere of the planet Jupiter was considered 
to be primitive and fairly typical of the starting atmos- 
pheres of most of the planets, which circle the sun. Jupi- 
ter's atmosphere contains hydrogen, methane (a com- 
pound of carbon and hydrogen), water (a compx)und of 
hydrogen and oxygen), and ammonia (a comjjound of 
hydrogen and nitrogen). If simple lightning discharges 
took place in such a gas mixture, could interesting new 
compounds form? (Today, from space probes to Jupiter, 
we know that lightning is going on all the time in the 
Jupiter atmosphere.) Urey's student, Stanley Miller, per- 
formed a series of experiments, sending electrical dis- 
charges (little lightning bolts) through mixtures of the 
kinds of gases on Jupiter. The results were astounding. A 
large number of organic compounds formed, including 

amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. It 
was one of the few times that a student's Ph. D. project 
was reported in national and international newspapers 
and news magazines. At the time it was thought possible 
that by similarly reprocessing the amino acids, primitive 
proteins might form. This never happened. 

When the relative amounts and kinds of these or- 
ganic compounds were later compared to the organic 
compounds in carbonaceous meteorites, the comparison 
was poor. The lightning process (called the Miller-Urey 
process) also failed to show the high proportion of the 
deuterium isotope which characterizes the hydrogen con- 
tent of the organic compounds of the carbonaceous 
meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, and Halley's 
Comet. Although the Miller-Urey process could generate 
complex organic compounds by a pretty simple inorganic 
process — a process that does not require extraordinary 
circumstances — it failed to match the compounds which 
are observed. The only processes known that can produce 
the high deuterium contents are the processes forming 
organic compounds in dense, cold interstellar dust 
clouds, far out in the galaxy. 

There is a rich variety of organic compounds pro- 
duced in these dust clouds. Two of these compounds, hy- 
drocyanic acid and formaldehyde, are very important in 
the chemical steps to form amino acids, nucleic acids (the 
acids that make up important parts of living tissue), and 
sugars. Among the organic compounds detected in Hal- 
ley's Comet is hydrocyanic acid. Formaldehyde is proba- 
bly also present, although it has not been measured 
directly because the sun's radiation easily decomposes for- 
maldehyde molecules as they spurt out of the comet 

There is a very old idea, called the panspermia 
hypothesis. It states that life permeates the universe and 
that life began on our little planet. Earth, not by any 
process special to the Earth or the Solar System, but by 
drifting in from space on dust grains and implanting itself 
on any planet with a set of surface conditions suitable to 
allow life to survive and evolve. TTie surface conditions 
would have to be warm (but not too warm) , wet, and with 
a nearby star (sun) bright enough with light ofthe appro- 
priate wavelengths. It is possible life existed on the plan- 
et Venus long ago but disappeared when conditions 
changed. It is possible that life exists now on the planet 
Mars. The oldest known living matter (algae) appeared 
on Earth around 3.6 billion years ago. The Earth was still 
relatively young then, only 1 billion years old. It had 
undergone a violent formation pericxi 4.6 billion years 
ago; was largely, or wholly melted for a period of time, 
underwent a devastating glancing blow from another ear- 23 

ly planet (and survived), and then underwent repeated 
bombardment by small asteroids and comets between 4.3 
billion and 3.7 billion years ago! So, in less than 100 
million years (that is, 3.6 billion year ago) after all these 
violent, horrific events, we find that life was up and run- 
ning in the form of tiny algae. 

Recently a group at Cornell and Yale universities 
completed calculations which showed that comets, such 
as Halley's Comet, could have deposited up to a trillion 
tons of organic matter onto the infant Earth. Further- 
more, comets have a high water content. They are, after 
all, mostly "snowballs." Analysis of the data from the 
Giotto probe to Halley's Comet suggests that the water of 
the Earth's oceans could have been brought by comets, 
during the vigorous period of impacts 4-3 to 3.7 billion 
years ago. Certainly the oceans did appear very early in 
Earth history. One of the oldest dated rocks on the Earth's 
surface can be seen as an outcrop in western Greenland. 
It is 3.77 billion years old. The rock is now dense and 
granite-like; however, it was originally a sedimentary 
rcxk, which was deposited in water. The age, 3.77 billion 
years, marks the date of its metamorphism from a soft 
sediment to a crystalline metamorphic rock. This means 
the original sedimentary rock was older yet. It also means, 
in turn, that some bodies of water were present, say 3.8 
billion years ago, just when the known high bombard- 
ment by asteroids, large meteorites, and comets was 
winding down in intensity. The Earth was cooling off 
by then, and liquid water could exist on its surface, as 
could organic compounds. 

Evolutionary biology today is happening in the lab- 
oratories of molecular biologists. The goal of molecular 
biology is to understand the working of molecules which 
govern all living processes. This research will ultimately 
lead to an understanding of the series of self-sustaining 
chemical reactions we call life. 

Summing Up 

The Giotto mission was a sp)ectacular success. Although 
most of the scientific results are of interest only to special- 
ists, there are results the interested citizen can appreciate 
and understand. 

1. Halley's Comet is a "dirty snowball." By implication 
(at least until we know otherwise) all comets are probably 
dirty snowballs. Variations in the appearances of different 
comets suggest some of them may have more "dirt" or 
more "snow" than others, but the basic idea is a good one. 

2. Dust and gas are ejected from comets mainly by jets 
erupting over a small percentage of their surfaces. 

2^ 3. Dust particles show no obvious cutoff size, but appear 

to range downward to smaller and smaller sizes. 

4. Interplanetary dust particles collected high in the stra- 
tosphere are very probably dust grains released from com- 
ets. If so, intensified study of these can give us more direct 
data on comets. 

5. The organic compounds in Halley's Comet show the 
same enhancement of the heavy isotope of hydrogen, 
y.e., deuterium, found in carbonaceous meteorites and 
interstellar dust particles. The source of such high deuter- 
ium comfX)unds must be dense clouds between distant 
stars in our galaxy. This revives the panspermia hypoth- 
esis. Life on Earth may have resulted from a huge early 
infusion of complex organic compounds from comets. It 
also suggests that life in our universe is a common phe- 
nomenon on any planet with congenial surface con- 

6. The Earth's oceans are known to be older than 3.7 
billion years. It is possible ocean waters are melted com- 
etary "snow." 

7 . The chemical composition of Halley's Comet shows it 
is more primitive than carbonaceous meteorites, which, 
until now, were thought to be the most primitive objects 
in the Solar System. Many thought that carbonaceous 
meteorites were the "dirt" from former comets long ago 
wasted away by repeated close encounters with the sun. 

These are only some of the more understandable re- 
sults from the probes to Halley's Comet. Data were ac- 
quired which are of meaning only to specialists in space 
science, chemistry, and physics. What has been learned 
from this project has whetted the appetite of the space 
science community for cometary studies in the future. 
Plans have been underway for the past four years. 

The Future— CNSR and "Rosetta" 

From time to time a group of nineteen scientists gather to 
plan an ambitious project — the Comet Nucleus Sample 
Return, or CNSR. They come from West Germany, 
Switzerland, France, Italy, England, the Netherlands, 
and the USA. The idea they work on is to send a probe to 
an encounter with one of 43 possible comets, chosen for 
their suitable orbits and apparent size. Halley's Comet is 
not on the list because its orbit puts it too far away for the 
near future, when the mission is planned. 

A vehicle will be launched from Earth, or from a 
space station in orbit around Earth, and will ultimately 
move into a "parking" orbit with the chosen comet 
nucleus, at a distance far out from the sun. At such a cold 
place in space the surface of the comet will be inactive — 
no jets or gas, no spurts of dust. Just a cold, quiet giant 
"porato" cruising through space. The vehicle will collect 

a core of solid material (dirty snow) and gases. The col- 
lected material will be put into a storage container where 
it will be kept at a temperature of 225°F below zero! The 
vehicle will return to Earth and the samples analyzed and 
compared to carbonaceous meteorite material and inter- 
planetary dust particles. The comet sample may contain 
significant amounts of material that predates the forma- 
tion of the Solar System. 

When the Solar System formed, 4.6 billion years 
ago, it was composed of a mix of matter from all parts of 
the galaxy. This matter was stirred up well enough by the 
process of planet and asteroid formation that it developed 
a high degree of homogeneity. By study of planets and 
meteorites we see the mixture of chemical elements that 
existed at that particular time. 

From Halley's Comet we now know that comets are 
not quite like meteorites. Comets are more primitive 
stuff. They could not have been intimately involved in 
the hot, violent processes of the early Solar System, 
otherwise they would have been homogenized along with 
the rest of Solar System matter. Comet dust particles will 

have different ages from different times before the Solar 
System formed. Some may be as old as the first solid mat- 
ter to appear after the formation of the universe — the so- 
called "Big Bang," about 10 billion years ago! 

The CNSR probe has been given the tentative name, 
"Rosetta. " It is scheduled to go off under the auspices of 
the European Space Agency by the year 2000. The name 
refers to the famous Rosetta Stone. Lx)ng ago archaeolo- 
gists discovered the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt. They 
puzzled over them for a long time, but could not figure out 
how to translate them. Modem Egyptians had long ago 
abandoned and forgotten the hieroglyphic system of writ- 
ing. Then the Rosetta Stone was found. It has a long 
inscription on it in hieroglyphs, repeated in Demotic and 
ancient Greek, which is well known. Comparison of this 
three-alphabet version led to the hieroglyphic "code" be- 
ing deciphered. It opened up all Egyptian hieroglyphs to 

The probe to a comet is expected to be the Rosetta 
Stone of space research, giving mankind the code book to 
translate the history of the galaxy. FM 

39th Annual Members^ Night 

Friday, June 22 

When you visit Field Museum do you ever wonder how an 
exhibit was created? Who thousht up the subject matter? Who 
chose the artifacts from the collections? Where did all these 
artifacts come from? hlow did a three-thousand-year-old necklace 
from Egypt or a ceremonial mask from Canada end up in 
Chicago, and why is a canoe from the South Pacific docked 
on the second floor of the Museum? 

Join us on Members' Night and visit with our scientific 
curators, exhibit developers and preparators, and educators 
to find out what goes on behind-the-scenes at Field Museum. 
Explore the areas of the Museum that are usually off-limits, and 
see how artifacts and specimens are collected. Learn about the 
Museum's ongoing scientific research and talk to the people who 
create the many exhibits you see at the Museum. 

There will be musical entertainment all evening in Stanley 
Field Hall. McDonald's will be open from 5:00 until 9:30 P.M. 

Free bus service will operate between the Loop and the 
Museum's south entrance. These buses, marked "Field Museum," 
will originate at the Canal Street entrance of Union Station 
(Canal at Jackson) and stop at the Canal Street entrance of 
Northwestern Station (Canal at Washington); Washington and 
State; Washington and Michigan; Adams and Michigan; Balbo 
and Michigan. Buses will begin running at4:45 PM. and 
continue at approximately 20-minute intervals until the Museum 
closes at 10:00 PM. You may board the free "Field Museum" 
buses by showing your membership card or invitation. 

Members are invited to bring their families and up to four 
guests. Special arrangements for handicapped persons can be 
made by calling 922-9410, ext. 453 beginning June 11. Behind 
the scenes activities will end at 9:00 P.M. Save the date — June 
22 — and join us for a very special evening. 


Plaza of the Church of the Socavon on a hillside in Oruro, Bolivia. Carnival participants, including their bands, as well as spectators, have 
gathered for the dawn mass. El Alba. 


Each year, 2,500 participate in this 20-hour 
pre-Lenten festival in the town of Omro, Bolivia 

by Patricia Dodson 
Associate, Deportment of Anthropology 

photos by the author 


It was 4:00 A.M. and I was attending mass in a town 
12,000 feet high, Ustening to three dozen bands 
playing a total of 33 tubas in front of the church. This 
was the town of Oruro, in west-central BoHvia, and 
the 2,500 participants in the diablada carnival were 
massed, fully costumed, in the Plaza of the Church 
of the Socavon (known also as the Church ot the 
Mineshaft). I could hear the lively, energetic cueca 
music of the devil dancers — the diabladas, the 
mournful dirge of the morenadas, the high-pitched, 
eerie panpipes of the kallawayas, and the sharp 
whistles of the Uameros. They were all playing at 

once, and all with accents of drums and brass. To my 
ears it was cacophony, but others standing near me 
could actually identify the music. This was the 
beginning of another 20-hour carnival. 

It certainly wasn't like the Brazilian carnivals I'd 
seen, where tropical temperatures reduce clothing 
to a minimum. It's so cold here in the Andean high 
plains, or aldplano, that I wore ski underwear and 
a down jacket. Even if the weather were hot, the 
carnival costumes are unlike anything in Brazil. 
Highly conservative mores prevail in Oruro — no 
near-nude swaying bodies or sexual innuendoes. 

The most provocative costume I saw in the diahlada 
parade was that of a dancer wearing a short black 
velvet skirt over three short ruffled petticoats, set off 
by mid-thigh, black velvet boots. 

The main events of the Rio carnival are carefully 
orchestrated and meticulously staged with a new 
theme, new costumes, and even new songs every year. 
There, the political insinuations of the specially 
written songs delight the Cariocas, or Rio natives. 
The carnival in Oruro, on the other hand, carries 
on, year after year, the myths and traditions of the 
altiplano, providing a folkloric feast for eyes and ears. 

Oruro, a mining town of 125,000, is two hours 
south of La Paz by train and Bolivia's railroad center. 
But now the silver mines are closing and the popula- 
tion declining. Many miners have left to seek work in 
the oil fields near Santa Cruz, 250 miles to the east. 

This is the land of the Aymara and Quechua 
Indians, subdued by the Conquistadores in the 1500s. 
In this pre-Lenten carnival. Catholic rituals alternate 
with indigenous Indian ceremonies in recognition 
of Huari, god of the underground (sometimes called 
Supay), and Pachamama, Mother Earth, in the ten 
days of celebrations preceding Ash Wednesday. 

This carnival probably orginated with the 
miners' ceremony in recognition of Supay/Huari, 
who watches over the mineral wealth. In Andean 
mythology, Huari demands regular appeasement with 
offerings or he will cause the mine to collapse or the 
silver vein to run out. The hell-fire, damnation devil 
of Christianity is unknown to these highland Indians. 

In the 1700s the miners' cult of the Miracle of 
the Virgin of Socavon merged with the cult of the 
devil Supay. The devil dance is thought to represent a 
battle between darkness and light, past and present, 
good and evil. In the 1800s, a Spanish priest 
introduced the struggle between St. Michael the 
archangel and the seven deadly sins in an attempt 
to counter miners' superstitions and to eradicate or 
subdue the local deities. The present-day parade 
includes Lucifer, the chief devil, and several hundred 
lesser devils, along with St. Michael and China 
Supay, the Devil's consort. 

I was told that the myth of the encounter 
between Huari and the Virgin Mary explains the 
presence of lizards, toads, and snakes on the devil 
dancers' masks. Angry with the local villagers, Huari 
dispatched a huge lizard, a toad, and a horde of ants 
to subdue them. The Virgin Mary, protectress of the 
village, cut the lizard and toad into pieces. According 
to legend, these pieces petrified, becoming the hills 

China Supay, the devil's consort, wearing a mask with horns, 
parodies Spanish court dress. She is a member of the diablada 

around Oruro; the ants became the nearby sand 
dunes. The defeated Huari returned to his 
underground domain. The local miners, however, 
continue to appease Huari on the first Friday of every 
month in a so-called cha'lla ceremony at the mine. 

The carnival calendar begins months early, 
with a religious ceremony on the first Sunday in 
November. Groups then practice and rehearse their 
performance every Sunday until the entrada at 9:00 
A.M. on the Saturday before Ash Wednesday. On 
this Saturday morning I was in a spectators' stand on 
the comer of the church plaza when 200 devils led by 
Lucifer paraded into sight. The metal masks of the 
devils are two feet high, adorned with figures of 
lizards, toads, and snakes; they have lightbulb eyes, 
painted red, yellow, blue, and black; and wear 
deep-colored velvet tunics, metal belts with dangling 
coins, white pants, and shiny black boots. Lucifer 
wears a long, jewelled velvet cape and an especially 
elaborate mask. The devils dance a fast-paced cueca, 


A young member of the kallawaya group wears an Andean poncho 
and a white felt altiplano hat. 

leaping and twirling and entertaining the crowd, 
while three bands play tubas, horns, and drums. 

Walking behind Lucifer, with China Supay, is 
St. Michael, in pale blue silk and satin; he wears an 
angelic mask topped by a helmet, and his silver shield 
hears a red cross. China Supay parodies 19th-century 
Spanish court dress — calf-high laced boots, a full, 
28 knee-length skirt, laced bodice, and she wears a 

leering mask with horns. Finally, condor and bear 
figures weave among the dancers. 

Among the 40 groups in this parade, the largest 
are the four diabladas, each with 200 to 300 members, 
followed in size by the six morenada groups, who 
depict African slaves imported by the Spaniards 
centuries ago to work the silver mines. It is startling 
to see a small black face mask with buldging eyes 
and swollen tongue worn together with a 40-pound 
tunic festooned with mine owners' silver wealth. The 
morenada music is a mournful dirge. They dance a 
slow, sideways shuffle, reminiscent of slaves chained 

A recent addition to the carnival is the 
40-member kallawaya group, the altiplano 
medicinemen. They wear traditional woven ponchos, 
ear-flap hats, knee-length pants, and sandals. The 
small woven bags tied around their waists contain 
coca leaves, lime (to be chewed with the leaves), and 
such medicinal herbs as yerba buena and manzanilla. 
They play reed panpipes and Andean flutes 
(popularized in the United States by Simon and 
Garfunkel in their seventies' song "El Condor Pasa"). 

It was midaftemoon before the grimacing faces, 
three-foot-tall feather headdresses and short tunics of 
the tobas rounded the corner. This group, dramati- 
cally leaping and swinging their spears, reminds one 
of the Incas' failed attempt to conquer an Amazonian 

Oruro's main plaza is the site of ten hours of 
activities. The plaza is a block square, with trees, 
benches, and concrete walks surrounding a central 
fountain. Arcaded government buildings, banks, and 
shops line the four sides. Each carnival group stops at 
an official reviewing stand while their band plays and 
they perform well-rehearsed dances that show off their 
costumes. The parade goes around three sides of the 
plaza, and from my corner, at any time, I could hear 
the music of the approaching group, the group in 
front of the reviewing stand, and the departing group. 
Some 50,000 spectators, including foreign diplomats 
and other dignitaries, Bolivians and other South 
Americans view the Saturday entrada. 

Although the parade is scheduled in conjunction 
with a religious holiday, ceremonies recognizing 
indigenous deities alternate with Christian rituals. A 
cha'lla ceremony honoring Pachamama, held by the 
Oruro Club (membership limited to those bom in 
Oruro), is to propitiate Pachamama: "Take care of 
her and she will watch over you." At 8:30 P.M. 30 
men and women — and myself, an invited guest — 

gathered in the club's meeting room. A kallawaya 
medicineman, in native dress, spread a woven poncho 
and white cloth on the floor. Incense, herbs, white 
animal-shaped sugar candies, and a cotton-and-thread 
effigy of a llama fetus were placed in the center of the 
cloth. Small glasses of singani, a clear brandy, were 
placed at the four corners and two 4-inch hollow 
bronze bull decanters also containing singani were 
put on the cloth. 

Ceremony participants sat in straight-back chairs 
in a semicircle around the medicineman while he 
chanted and prayed and added herbs and incense to 
his cloth. Coca leaves and singani were continually 
passed to us. (I chewed the coca leaves, but without 
lime, which releases the alkaloid, so I did not get a 
great sensation.) 

Each celebrant, including myself, knelt in turn 
in front of the medicineman, added four specially 
selected, perfect-shaped coca leaves to the pile on the 
cloth, drank from the four corner glasses and the two 
decanters, and bowed while the medicineman prayed 
and touched each of the celebrant's shoulders with 
his two-foot carved baton. After the blessing, each 
celebrant hoped that Pachamama would look upon 
him or her with favor. When this part of the 
ceremony was completed, a lighted brazier was carried 
into the room and the contents of the white cloth and 
the remaining singani dumped into the flames. No 
one spoke or rose to leave until the last flame had died 
out. The only uncomfortable part of the ceremony 
was the smoke and heat in the closed room — almost 

When the cha'lla ceremony was finished, we 
went to the street dance in front of the market, as 
crowded as Times Square on New Year's Eve. Several 
bands with amplifiers and loudspeakers were playing 
American rock 'n roll, Milwaukee polkas, and 
Brazilian sambas. Food and beer were dispensed from 
numerous stands, and private bottles passed freely 
around. Many carnival participants partied until 5:00 
A.M. , but were again costumed and ready to dance 
when the parade began four hours later. 

Sunday began with the 4:00 A.M. El Alba Mass, 
at the Church of the Socavon. All the participants, 
costumed and carrying their masks, made a sacred 
vow to the Virgin Mary that they would dance in 
carnival for three more years in return for her help 
in their lives. And just as on Saturday, the Sunday 
parade started at 9:00 A.M. — same groups, same 
costumes, same bands, and most of the same 

A tobas warrior from the jungles at Bolivia's border. 

The despedida, or farewell, on Monday afternoon 
marks the death and burial of Carnival. Each fully 
costumed group entered the church with their 
bands. The priest prayed, the bands played, and the 
participants shuffled along on their knees before the 
altar. They paused for a moment at the statue of the 
Virgin, stood up, and backed out of the church. Many 
were weeping. 

Carnival in Oruro dies a very slow death. 
Another despedida is held the following Sunday. 
Carnival is then buried until it emerges the first 
Sunday the following November, when this festival 
cycle begins all over again. 29 




Australian Adventure 

The Great Barrier Reef 
from New Guinea to Tasmania 

Deluxe Expedition Cruise 
Aboard the World Discoverer 

November 7-24 

Leader: Dr. Harold K. Voris 

(Marine Biologist & Avid Snorkeler!) 

Few people on this planet have taken such a 
trip! This unique cruise will proceed from the 
equatorial tropics of New Guinea, southward 
along the east coast of Australia, to the edge 
of the Antarctic ocean — way "down under" 
The diverse marine life of the largest coral reef 
system on earth, the Great Barrier Reef, is 
nothing short of spectacular! Unbelievable 
beauty awaits snorkelers and divers from 
beginners to experts. In the pleasant warmth 
of summer south of the equator, side trips at 
Cairns, Clarence River, and Sydney will provide 
great opportunities to see and learn about 
Australia's unusual fauna and fascinating 
aboriginal cultures. 

You will find this journey greatly enhanced 
by the expert leadership of Dr Harold K, Voris, 
who served as Field tVluseum's vice-president 
of Collections and Research from 1985 to 
1989. Over the past 20 years he has led field 
expeditions throughout Southeast Asia; 
however his favorite role Is that of marine 
biologist. He'll lecture on the marine life of the 
Great Barrier Reef, then invite participants to 
join him snorkeling to make the acquaintance 
of reef Inhabitants first hand! 

Nov. 7, Los Angeles. Depart for Papua New 
Guinea, via Guam. 

Nov. 8, Guam/Port Moresby. Arrive and transfer 
to a deluxe hotel. 

Nov. 9, Port Moresby, board the World 
Discoverer. Before boarding our ship, we tour 
the National Museum, the Botanical Gardens, 
and the Parliament Building. 

Nov. 10, Cruising the Coral Sea. 

Nov. 11, Lizard Island. In 1770 Captain Cook 
named this island for the large monitor lizards 
he found here. We enjoy Zodiac excursions and 
snorkeling as well as a climb to Cook's Look, 
from which the great explorer surveyed the 
Barrier Reef. 

Nov. 12, Calrns/Atherton Tabelands. From 
Cairns we motor to the remarkable Tablelands 
to spot rare birds such as the gold bowerbird. 
Victoria's riflebird, and the spotted catbird 
as well as possums, brushtails, and tree 

Nov. 13, Palm Islands. We take a zodiac 
excursion to snorkeling grounds with fine 
coral formations, beachcomb for seashells, 
and search for lorikeets and parakeets. 

Nov. 14, Whitsunday Islands. Depending 
on the winds and weather, we plan to stop at 

Whitsunday Island, whose beaches are among 
the best of the Great Barrier Reef: at Cid 
Harbor the staging area for the Battle of the 
Coral Sea: and Nara Inlet on Hook Island, 
where we follow a trail up to a rock "gallery" 
laced with ancient Aboriginal rock paintings. 

Nov. 15, Heron Island. Unlike its continental- 
type neighbors. Heron is a coral cay created 
by the Reef itself. On a nature walk we hope to 
spot several of the birds which migrate here. 
Divers enjoy the superb coral gardens full of 
tame undersea life. And, this evening, we 
expect to see nesting turtles come ashore 
to lay their eggs, 

Nov. 16, Fraser Island. On our exploration of the 
"world's largest sand island." we hope to spot 
dingoes, wallabies, and "brumbies." Birders 
should have their lists ready — it's easy to 
identify up to 40 different species at close 

Nov. 17, Flinders Reef. We enjoy snorkeling and 
birdwatching with Zodiac excursions to nearby 
Moreton Island to see one of the world's highest 
stable sand dunes, at nearly 1 .000 feet. 

Nov. 18, Clarence River. We disembark to tour 
the liuka Rain Forest and Yuraygir National 
Park, hoping to spot kangaroos, wombats and 
wedge-tailed eagles. At the Bundjulung Flora 
and Fauna Reserve, we observe emus, koalas, 
and wallabies. 

Nov. 19 & 20, Sydney. We enter the magnificent 
harbor at sunset and overnight aboard ship. 
The next day we tour the city including the 
Opera House, the natural history museum and 
the Royal Botanic Garden 

Nov. 21, Cruising the Bass Strait. 

Nov. 22, Lady Barron, Flinders Island. We 

visit a wildlife reserve in hopes of spotting the 
muttonbirds which are migrating from Japan 
and Siberia and the endemic Cape Barren 

Nov. 23, Hobart, Tasmanla'Dlsembark the 
World Discoverer We tour historic Tasmanian 
villages, such as the old penal colony of 
Port Arthur, and spelunkers enjoy a visit to 
Tasmania's numerous caves. Dinner and 
overnight in a deluxe hotel. 

Nov 24, Homeward. Board our flight 
homeward, via Melbourne, crossing the 
International date line and arriving In Los 
Angeles the same day 

Price ranges from $5,940 to $8,980 per person 
(based on double occupancy): international 
air add-on from Los Angeles $1 .400. Domestic 
air is additional. Deposit $1 .000 per person. 
Included In the cruise cost is a $200 
tax-deductible contribution to Field Museum. 

Crow Canyon 

September 16-23 
Price: $ 1, 225 per person 

Sept. 1 6: Fly from Chicago. O'Hare to Durango, 
Colorado via Denver. Transfer to Crow Canyon 
campus. Evening activities include dinner and 
an introductory program about Crow Canyon 
and surrounding area. 

Sept. 1 7: Today's activities focus on an 
introduction to archaeological method and the 
Anasazi world. "Culture History Mystery" is a 
hands-on Introduction to prehistory using both 
artifacts and group discussion. Artifacts are 
analyzed to determine the food resources, 
subsistence pattern, settlement pattern, tool 
assemblage, and pottery used by Archaic 
to Pueblo 1 1 1 cultures (500 b p to a d 1 300). 
Following lunch, tours to the excavation sites 

provide you with a thorough understanding of 
the Crow Canyon research plan. An evening 
lecture continues the learning experience. 

Sept. 1 8 through Sept. 21 : September 
1 8 begins with an "Eco Hike" where you 
experience the ecology of the Southwest 
through the eyes of the Anasazi. and take part 
in Anasazi lifestyle activities. Try your hand at 
primitive technologies, including fire-starting, 
and spear-throwing with the atlatl. and watch 
a fllntknapping demonstration. For the next 
3Vs days participate in unraveling the mystery 
of the Anasazi world. Work alongside 
archaeologists in the field, excavating your 
portion of the prehistoric site. Learn proper 
archaeological techniques, follow the progress 
of your own excavation square and discuss 
your theories with staff archaeologists. In the 
lab you will wash, sort, analyze, and catalog 
artifacts uncovered in the field. Lectures each 
evening enhance the learning experience. 
On September 21 an optional tour of Mesa 
Verde Is provided. Join staff educators as 
they tie together your Crow Canyon learning 
experience with the lifestyles of the Anasazi 
who Inhabltated Mesa Verde from a d 600 to 
A.D 1300. 

Sept. 22: All-day excursion to Hovenweep 
National Monument with picnic lunch to be 
enjoyed on the site. Return to Crow Canyon 
lodge for the evening. 

Sept. 23: After breakfast transfer to Durango 
airport for the return flight to Chicago. 

The price includes round trip air fare and 
all services as outlined in the itinerary. Your 
reservation will be held with a $1 00 per 
person deposit. 


Past AND Present 

October 19-November3 
Price: $3,985 

Oct. 19, Chicago/Zurich. 

Oct. 20, Zurich'Istanbul. After a change 
of planes in Zurich, arrive Istanbul in 

Oct. 21, Istanbul (Byzantine Art Tour). Divided 
by the magnificent Bosphorus. the watenway 
between Asia and Europe. Istanbul is a city 
that spans two continents. 2.600 years, and 
many cultures. The tour today includes a 
kaleidoscope of wonders: the Kariye Museum, 
whose mosaics and frescoes are masterpieces 
of the renaissance of Byzantine art: the 
surprising Yerebatan underground palace: 
the Roman-built Hippodrome: the obelisk of 
Theodoslus and the 6th-century St. Sophia built 
by the emperor Justinian to be the grandest 
church of Christendom. 

Oct. 22, Istanbul (Ottoman Art Tour). The first 
visit this morning is to the imposing Mosque of 
Suleymanlye the Magnificent, built by Sinan. 
greatest of Turkish architects. We also tour the 
Museum of Islamic Art, and the famous Blue 
Mosque with its six minarets and blue Iznik tiles. 
After lunch, explore the fabulous exhibits of 
the mysterious labyrinthine Topkapi Palace. 

Oct. 23, Istanbul (Bosphorous Cruise)/ Ankara. 

After lunch, tour the Beylerbeyl Palace— 
the personal retreat of Sultan Abdu Aziz, and 
later visit the private collection of the Sadberk 
Hanim Museum. Afternoon flight to Ankara. 
Transfer to the Hilton Hotel. 

Oct. 24, Ankara (HIttlte Art Tour), Cappadocia 
Region. Ankara, set in Turkey's strategic 
heartland. Is a modem city with a long and 
fascinating heritage that stretched back nearly 

10,000 years. During morning exploratory tour 
of the city visit ttie Museum of Anatolyan 
Civilizations; we continue to ttie Citadel, 
original fortress of the old town which offers a 
splendid panorama of Ankara, the (Vlarket, 
and Ataturks Mausoleum, After lunch travel 
by motorcoach to the Cappadocia Region, 
viewing en route the strange phenomenon of 
Tuz Salt Lake, Dedeman Hotel. 

Oct. 25, Cappadocia Region. Start the day with 
the exploration of the amazing refugee city of 
Derinkuyu, a vast underground complex of 
entire communities interconnected by tunnels. 
discovered accidentally in 1963. In the nearby 
Goreme Petrified Valley, there are 365 churches 
scooped out of solid rock and decorated with 
remarkable frescoes. Even the columns have 
been shaped and hewn from the soft volcanic 
rock. After lunch visit the Goreme Valley's 
quaint villages, and take a tour of the famous 
potters of Avanos, on horseback. 

Oct. 26, Cappadocia Region/Izmir. Return to 
Ankara for lunch and an afternoon flight to Izmir, 
once known as Smyrna, also birthplace of 
Homer Grand Efes Hotel or Hilton Hotel. 

Oct. 27, Izmir (Ephesus). Today, explore the 
extensive archaeological Greco-Roman site of 
Ephesus. Here too are the ruins of the fabled 
Temple of Diana, one of the Seven Wonders of 
the Ancient World. We visit the remains of the 
Basilica of St. John and the House of the Virgin 
Mary, and return to our hotel in midafternoon. 

Oct. 28, Izmir (Pergamum), Spend the morning 
at Pergamum, a center of learning and the arts, 
whose library of antiquities once contained over 
200,000 volumes. Here visit Asclepion. the Red 
Basilica, the Acropolis, the Athena and Trojan 
Temples, the Library of the Great Theater, the 
Temples of Dionysos. Hera, and Demeter, and 
the Angora. 

Oct. 29, Izmir (Aphrodisias). Pamukkale. The 

destination this morning is the fabled city of 
Aphrodisias. home of the greatest sculpting 
schools of antiquity Visit the extensive 
archaeological sites and the exquisite museum. 
After a lunch break, continue to Pamukkale 
(Cotton Castle), a beautiful and spectacular 
natural site unique in the world. It is a fairylike. 
dazzling white petrified cascade falling from a 
height of 100 meters. 

Oct. 30, Pamukkale/Antalya. This morning drive 
through beautiful mountain scenery to the city, 
Antalya, set on the perfect crescent of the 
Mediterranean's Konyalti Beach, The Turkish 
Riviera's incomparable beauty makes it a 
paradise on earth; the slopes of the Toros 
Mountains are blanketed in green forests that 
dip to the sea, forming an irregular coastline 
of rock headlands and secluded caves of 
clear turquoise water The afternoon is free, 
Dedeman Hotel. 

Oct. 31, Antalya (Pamphylian Tour). 

Full-day visit to the striking Greco-Roman 
archaeological sites along the Turkish Riviera. 
Stop first at Perge. a wealthy and culturally well 
developed city in ancient times. After lunch 
continue to Side, an ancient Turkish harbor that 
has made a graceful transition into a lovely 
resort village today 

Nov. 1, Antalya'Istanbul. Tour the Museum 
of Archaeology take a brief orientation tour of 
the seaside resort, largest town on the Riviera, 
and visit the recently renovated harbor district 
where there is time to see the ancient buildings. 
Afternoon flight to Istanbul and transfer to the 
Sheraton Hotel 

Nov. 2, Istanbul (Optional Bazaar and Geneseri 

Military Band). The last day in Turkey is at 
leisure, to pursue own interests. A reception 
in a private home overlooking the Bosphorus 
is followed by a festive Farewell Dinner 

Nov. 3, Istanbul/Zurich/Chicago. Board 

homebound flight this morning, arriving 
Chicago in midafternoon. 

Maturalist in Alaska 

Your Fersonal Interaction 

with the Wildlife 
and Wildlands of Alaska 

Leader: David E. Willard, Ph.D., 

ornithologist, accompanied by 

Dan L. Wetzel, naturalist 

and tour operator 

This expedition has been designed with an 
emphasis on education, for the person with 
keen interests and curiosities about the 'real" 
Alaska. The 1 , 000-mile wilderness itinerary 
allows your personal interaction with the wildlife 
and wildlands of Alaska. 

We begin our trip in Anchorage and 
move on to the Kenai Fjords, where we will 
experience the 38-foot bore tides, the second 
highest in the world, and a marked contrast to 
the one-foot tides of Prudhoe Bay where we 
complete our expedition. Our route includes 
Seward. Denali State Park. Denali National 
Park, Fairbanks, Coldfoot, and Sagavanirktok 
River, The Naturalist in Alaska Tour was created 
to bring the natural world of Alaska within your 
grasp. Let us send you more information about 
this unique opportunity 

July 14-29: 16-day itinerary $4,825 (includes air 


July 14-25; Optional 12-day itinerary (Kenai 

Peninsula, Anchorage, Denali Park, Fairbanks, 

Circle District/Yukon River) $3,550 (includes air 



Sunday, Sept. 23-Sunday, Sept. 30 

Field Museum's Leader: 
Dr. Scott M. Lanyon 


Field Museum Tours 

and University of Chicago 

Alumni Association 
Price: $1,725 per person 

Join us for a week of biking and hiking in New 
England during its most spectacular season. 
We will fly into Burlington, Vermont and transfer 
to the Swift House Inn in Middlebury The 
historic inn has been restored to the elegance 
of a former gra and now offers superb 
accommodations as well as gourmet cuisine. 
We will stay here three nights, and each day 
there will be three options for excellent biking 
at a pace comfortable for you. There are many 
things to see in historic Middlebury. as well as 
the beauty and openness of the landscape. 
Next we will take the ferry across Lake 
Champlain to Fort Ticonderoga, where we will 
tour this historic site and enjoy a gourmet picnic 
lunch. Afterwards we will continue on to Keene 
Valley by van-shuttle to the resort mountain 
home of Dr and Mrs Wesley Lanyon. parents 

of Scott Lanyon, where we will be hosted to a 
cocktail party Our final destination this day will 
be the Mirror Lake Inn in Lake Placid, where 
the next four days will be spent enjoying the 
ambiance of this gracious, traditional inn 
on the lakeshore. 

Scott Lanyon, head of the Division of Birds 
and associate curator at Field Museum, will 
accompany the group throughout the week. His 
knowledge of the area will greatly enhance your 
enioyment of this experience. Scott grew up on 
a research station run by New York's Museum of 
Natural History and is right at home in this area. 
He will lead birding and hiking expeditions, as 
well as mountain-climbing exploration. There 
will be opportunities for canoeing, fishing, 
cycling, horseback riding, carriage rides 
around Mirror Lake, 

The trip will be operated by Vermont 
Country Cyclers, and include a fully equipped 
bike, plus orientation and van support. The 
price of $1 ,725 includes air fare and most meals. 
The maximum group size is 20 participants. A 
deposit of $250 per person will hold your space 
and reservations will be accepted in the order 
received. We will be happy to send you a 
detailed itinerary upon request. 

Exploring Costa Ricas 
National Parks and 
The Panama Canal 

Aboard the 138-passenger 

MA/ Yorktown Clipper 
November 22-December 5 

Our voyage exploring the natural treasures of 
Costa Rica and transiting the Panama Canal 
begins in San Jose, located 3,800 feet above 
sea level, and considered the most charming 
city in Central America, Costa Rica is a leader 
in nature conservation. Approximately 20% of 
its territory is permanently protected within 28 
national parks and reserves which are home 
to hundreds of species of birds, as well as 
mammals and plants. We'll have ample 
opportunity to explore the abundant wildlife 
and enjoy the gorgeous beaches. 

Transiting the Panama Canal on the 
138-passenger Yorktown C//pper brings out 
the advantage of smaller vessels. Along the 
Pacific Coast, the Vorfctoivns shallow draft 
and great maneuverability make it possible to 
explore those out-of-the-way bays and coves. 
The Cousteau-type landing craft will be 
launched to discover remote beaches and 
rivers. A staff of naturalists will be on hand to 
bring substance to your enjoyment of the 
unique environment. 

Dr. Winifred Creamer, Research Associate 
in Field Museum's Anthropology department, 
and a specialist in the archaeology of Costa 
Rica, will accompany the group. Dr Creamer 
spent several years conducting research in 
Costa Rica. 

In short, this is truly a voyage in the spirit of 
adventure, to be enjoyed in the comfort of the 
beautifully appointed Yorktown Clipper Cabins 
range in price from $2,750 to $4,050, Single 
Occupancy $4,425 (category 2). Cruise price 
includes two nights in San Jose, Costa Rica 
at a deluxe hotel. Air fare from Chicago is 
approximately $670. A deposit of $400 per 
person is required to confirm reservations. 
The price includes a $200, tax-deductible 
contribution to Field Museum. 

For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, II 60605 


Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, IL 60605-2499 





Friday, June 22