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Full text of "A field ornithology of the birds of eastern North America"








FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FORSCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 





Frontispiece. 




Painted Bunting. 



Frontispiece. 




I'ainted Bunting'. 



FIELD ORNITHOLOGY 

OF THE BIRDS OF 

EASTERN NORTH AMERICA 

BY 

Cbarlee 3. flDaijnar5 




C. J. Maynard West Neayton Mass. 



COPYIIKJIIT 

BY 

CHAIILE.S J. MAYXARI> 

11J16 



DEDICATED 

TO ALL WHO LOVE 

TO STUDY 

LIVLNG BIRDS 



VALEDICTORY 



This book, begun six years ago, has 
greatly exceeded in number of pages the 
original intentions of the author, but this 
will not, he trust, prove disadvantageous 
to the reader. 

As the title indicates, all the birds, 
excepting perhaps a few very recently 
described forms, which occur between the 
North Pole and the Gulf of Mexico, east of 
the Mississippi Kiver, are given. As the 
natural geographical western avifaunal 
boundaries are the Great Plains, most of the 
species which occur east of them are herein 
included. 

In its scope as an exponent of field 
characters it ma}' be regarded as a com- 
panion to my Director}' to the Birds of 
Eastern North America. 

C. J. M. 

West Xewlon, April, 1916. 



PREFACE. 

Among the many books written on birds 
it will be difficult to find one which deals 
Avholh^ with these beautiful and interesting 
creatures as they are seen in the field. Pro- 
fessional ornithologists must, ol course, study 
external and internal characters of birds from 
the specimens themselves in the hand, but to- 
day there is another class of ornithologists, 
who by far outnumber the professional, and 
who want to know living birds as they ap- 
pear among the foliage of woodlands and 
shrubbery, on the shore, or upon the waters 
of lake, pond, and river, or upon the wide 
ocean. This class want a book that shall 
teach them how they can identify these birds 
as they perch, or fly, or swim. It is evident 
that such a book, in order to fulfill its mis- 
sion, should be written by one who has had 
a wide experience with living birds. 



2 PKEFACE. 

While he who now undertakes this work 
does not daim that he knows living birds as 
well as he could wish, he has had a wide field 
experience with them ; an experience extend- 
ing over half a century, for forty years of 
which he has been a teacher in bird study. 

The author's plan for this book is, to 
give onh^ such points in form, flight, habits, 
and color which can readily be seen with an 
ordinary bird glass, which wdll serve to iden- 
tify the species observed, rigidly excluding 
all others. In short, points that he has been 
teaching his pupils to see when they have been 
with him in the held. It goes without say- 
ing, that those most conclusive means of iden- 
tification, the songs or other sounds uttered 
by birds will not be omitted. Breeding hab- 
its nests and eggs and the young will also be 
noticed. The figures beneath the cuts indi- 
cate the comparative size; if there is none, 
the cut is life size. 

In concluding the author wishes to give 
credit for the idea from which this book orig- 



PREFACE. 3 

inated to his life-long friend, Mr. T. 0. Ful- 
ler of Needham, and for the encouragement 
to begin its iDublication now to many other 
members of his bird classes. 



WEST NEWTON, 

NOV., 1909. 







W '• 



■!iSS*'':ll%ii|fv 



WATEK BIRDS. 



WATER BIRDS. 



By these we mean those birds which live 
on or near water, both salt and fresh, and 
which obtain their subsistence from it. They 
are of diverse forms and habits as will be 
seen as we proceed. They also belong to 
widely different groups. While none are giv- 
en under this head which live away from wa- 
ter, some which do occur about it are exclud- 
ed in order not to break up natural group- 
ings. Examples of these may be found in 
the Kingfishers, Ospreys, Phalaropes, Coots, 
and Gallinules. Most of the species included 
in this section swim well, but exceptions to 
this rule may be found in the Frigate Birds 
which would be as helpless as swallows if they 
found themselves in the w\ater. Partial ex- 
ceptions are seen in the Terns, but these will 
be mentioned later. Most of the young are 
covered with down when hatched, see plate 
I for an example. 



b (JREBES. 

GREBES. 

Are birds which are seen upon both salt 
and fresh water, which when suddenly fright- 
ened dive instantaneously and rarely fly. 
They may be distinguished from most Ducks 
by the short form, absence of tail, shown in 
the rounded rump, more slender neck, and 
pointed bill. This last named can be seen by 
close observation almost as far as the bird 
can be distinguished. From Coots, which they 
somewhat resemble, they may be known by 
the light colors beneath; Coots are dark all 
over. 

Grebes ride lightly upon the ^vater and 
carry their heads well over their backs, see 
figs. 1 and 3, thus differing from Loons which 
Kwim low and carry their heads forward. If 
approached slowly. Grebes sink gradually, 
sometimes leaving the head and neck ex- 
posed. But when suddenly alarmed, they 
dive like a flash, and if much frightened, will 
not reappear for a long time, or w^ll only put 
their bills out of water in order to breath. 



GREBES. 7 

Occasionally when startled they patter along 
the water, using wings and feet. This move- 
ment sometimes ends in flight or a dive. On 
account of their rather singular behavior, 
these interesting birds are popularly called 
Water Witches, and more objectionably. Dev- 
il Divers and Hell Divers. 

The flight is swift and direct, with neck 
and feet outstretched. They never dive from 
the air, nor do they ever voluntarily appear 
on land, and cannot rise in flight from it, al- 
though they can walk and even run. Their 
cries, which are usually heard in spring, are 
weird, hollow, and quavering. 

The nests, which are placed among reeds 
on inland bodies of water, are usually float- 
ing. Eggs, 6 to 8, greenish, covered with a 
chalky incrustation which is usually much 
stained. Young, active when hatched, and 
follow their parents. They are streaked with 
whitish and dark brown. 

Although some species of Grebes are gre- 
garious in habit, all at times, occur singly. 
The males are larger than the females. 



GREBES. 

1. HOLBOELL GREBE 

Our largest species, 18 to 20. The bill 
is large, iig. 2, hence the head looks large, 
and when the bird is alarmed is carried well 
lip, thus straightening the neck, fig 1. The 

Fis. 1. 




Holboell Grebe. 1-14. 

dark back is relieved by the whitish under 
parts, but the neck shows grayish in front. 

Fi-. 2. 




Bill of Holboell Grebe. 



GREBES. 9 

The cheeks and sides of head below the e3^es 
are decidedly gray, but there is a lighter spot 
on either side of the back part of the head, 
yet this cannot be seen at any great distance. 
The bird must also be fairlj^ near to see that 
the bill is partly yellow and that it is about 
as long as the head. There is a white patch 
on the wing that may sometimes be seen 
when the bird is swimming and ahvays as it 
rises upright on the water to flap its wdngs, 
or flies, see fig. 1. In spring the neck shows 
some reddish. Not uncommon on salt water 
and occasionally on fresh, either singly or in 
small companies, from Oct. 15 to May 15 
from Me. to N. J. Breeds in the Arctic. 

2. HORNED GREBE. 

Much smaller than the Holboell, 12 to 
15. Carries the head low and even when 
alarmed does not straighten the neck wholly, 
fig. 3. Is much more silvery white on breast, 
neck in front, and on entire cheeks below eye, 
extending so far on back of head as to nearly 
form a collar there. The bill is shorter than 



10 



(iKEBES. 



tlie head, see lig. 4, and darker than that of 
the Holboell; the bird must be near, howev- 
er, in order to see this, yet I have known 
this species to be so tame that even the red 





Homed Grebe. 1-14 



Bill of liorned Grebe. 



eye could be seen. There is a white patch 
on the wing much as in the larger species. 

In diving the Horned Grebe quite often 
springs out of water. It occurs in large num- 
bers on salt water along the coast, and in Ijays 
and estuaries, seldom singly, usually in small 
companies, but not infrequently in tiocks of 
twenty or more, and is sometimes seen on 
fresh water. It is hy far our most common 
species, being quite al)uudant during the fall 



GREBES. 1 1 

migration in October and early November. 
Some remain as far north as Mass., but the 
majority pass the cold season between south- 
ern N. E. and Fla. 

Fig-. 5. 




Horned Grebe in summer. 1-2. 

In May this species assumes the elonga- 
ted feathers of the head which gives it the 
name of Horned Grebe, see fig. 5. The head 
is then black above and below, with a broad 
line of chestnut on its side which passes 
through eye. The neck is also chestnut in 
front and this color extends down on the sides 
of body. These colors can easily be seen at 
some distance. Breeds chiefly north of U. S. 



12 GREBES. 

In stiKU^ng the two foregoing .species of 
Grebes, experience will teach that w^hile one 
may mistake a Horned for a Holboell, one 
rarely, if ever, mistakes a Holboell for a 
Horned. 

3. PIED-BILLED GKEBE. 

About the size of the Horned Grebe, but 
this is our only species that has the head and 
neck all around decidedly reddish brown in 

Figf. 6. 




I'ied-billed Grebe in winter. 1-4. 

autumn and winter, and this color extends 
along the sides. The throat and under parts 
are silvery white, see fig. 6. The bill is thick 
an-d large, about the size and form of that of 
a domestic hen. It is Ijrown in winter, but 
l)ecomes whitish in summer with a black band 



(IREBES. 13 

crossing the middle which can easily be seen 
at some distance, see fig. 7, and which gives 
it the name of Pied-billed Grebe. It is also 
called Dabchick. The throat is then black. 



Fi^. 7. 



Yicr 8. 





Pied-billed Grebe in summer; bird 1-15. 

The young when fully grown retain the 
stripings on the head, see fig. 9, but the neck 
is reddish brown much as in the adult. 

The Pied-billed Grebe may be found on al- 
most any fresh water stream or pond, if a lit- 
tle remote from habitations and contain 
aquatic vegetation into which the bird may 
retreat when alarmed. It is very rarely found 
on salt water. It is very common, especial- 
ly in Sep. and Oct. in northern U. S. It win- 
ters from the Carolinas, southward, and breeds 
from Fla., northward into Canada. Migra- 



14 



GREBES. 



tion in spring takes place in April upon the 
breaking up of the ice. For the differences 
between the Pied-billed Grebe and the Rud- 
dy Duck, see that species. 



Fio-. 9. 




Head of youni; Pied-billed Grebe taken Auf;. 27. 



LOONJS. 

LOONS. 



15 



Occur on both fresh and salt water in 
summer, but are more common on the latter 
named in winter. They may be distinguished 
from ducks by the pointed bill, long form, 
and habit of sitting low on the water. This 
last mentioned habit, their method of carry- 
ing their head in advance of the body, not oft- 
en over it, see fig. 10, and the presence of a 
tail, w^hich although short, can easily be seen. 

Fig 20. 




Loin. 1-10. 

will at once distinguish them from Grebes. 

Loons dive instantaneously when much 
alarmed, and can rarely be made to ily. They 
slip under water with the utmost ease, leav- 



16 LOONS. 

iiig hardly a ripple behind, and occasionally 
may be seen with the head and neck only 
above the surface. 

The flight is swift and direct. The wings 
are saber-shaped and look small for the large 
body; but they amply serve their purpose, 
and a great Loon dashing through the air 
with the velocity of a hundred miles an hour 
is a fine example of gravity largely overcome 
by speed. The feet and neck are outstretcued 
in flight, flg. 11. They cannot rise into air 
excepting from water, and then are obliged 
to flutter along the surface for some distance 
Ijefore they can start. In calm water they 
may often be seen paddling along the surface 
by using both feet and wings, "steamboating" 
as it is called. They do this sometimes in 
chasing one another, apparently in sport. 

Although the nests are placed on land, 
they are never far from water, as the birds 
cannot walk on land, but are obliged to drag 
themselves along by using Avings and feet. 
Eggs, 2, dark greenish brown heavily spotted 



LOONS. 17 

with black. The voiing are active when 
hatched and covered with down, dark-brown 
above and whitish beneath. Thej- dive well 
when quite small, but when very voung are 
frequently carried about on the backs of their 
parents. Both sexes are similar. 

4. LOON. 

Our largest species, 32. Easily recog- 
nized in summer by the black head and neck. 
There are white markings on the npck as giv- 
en in the figure on page 15, which, ho.vever, 
cannot be discerned any great distance, but 
the white spots on the black back are more 
easily seen. These are nearly square in form, 
and are arranged in pairs at the extremity 
of each feather or near it, fig 12. The bird 
is white beneath, which may be best seen as 
it rises to flap its wings or turns partly over 
when preening itself. In winter, when the 
head and neck are dusky above and white be- 
neath, it may be known from the Red-throat- 
ed Loon by the superior size and absence of 



18 



LOONS. 



spots above, fig. 11. The bill is proportion- 
ately heavier and the head looks larger. The 
neck and back also look darker, and the dusk- 
iness extends down on the sides of the head. 




Feather from back of Loon in somewhat worn summer 
dress. 

The weird cries of the Loon are given 
throughout the year, but are more varied in 
summer. At night a single wailing note, 
like "TT7iere" is uttered; to this sometimes 
added another note, ^'are\ At early dawn 
a shorter sound is heard, terminating these, 
and given with a rising inflection ; all togeth- 
er then become, ''Where are yoiif The 
alarm note, night or day, is, ''Wa-oiL-ou-ar^\ 
given nearly as one continuous cry; the flight 



I.OOXS. 



19 



utterance, heard frequently in summer, is, 
"Go-o-o-along\ Besides these cries, all* of 
which are given in a minor tone, Loons con- 
verse when together by emitting low sounds. 
They may be often attracted toward the shore 
by waving anything white, like a handker- 
chief, and will usually answer a good mimic- 
ry of their cries. 

Fig. 11. 




Loon in winter dress. 1-8. 

Common in winter on salt water along 
the coast from Me. to the Carolinas. Rare in 
Fla. Breeds from northern U. S. northward 
on the borders of lakes and ponds. Occasion- 
all^^ found on fresh water during the autum- 



20 



LOOXS. 



iial mifrr.'itions in Sep. and Oct. Returns 
north in April. 

F]^. 18. 




lied-ibroated Loon in wioter dress, ••steamboatino:*'. 1-6. 



5. RED-THROATED LOON 

Smallest of our Loons, 26. Differs from 
the Loon in being decidedly lighter in color, 
especially on head and neck. In summer it 
has triangular red patch on the throat, and 
this is sometimes (though rarely) retained in 
autumn. In winter the white of the throat 
extends up on the sides of the head to the 



LOONS. 



21 



eye and a little higher behind it, fig. 13. The 
back is always marked with white spots ar- 
ranged in pairs much as in the Loon, but 
they are long, narrow, and placed obliquely 
with the vein of the feather, fig 14. In com- 
paring this Loon with the Holboell Grebe, 

Fig. 14. 




Back feather of Red-throated Loon in winter dress. 

it is well to remember that while the Grebe 
at first usually springs upward in diving, the 
Loon simply slips under water. 

This species is less suspicious than the 
Loon, and sometimes comes quite near shore. 
Two or three years ago, when the harbor off 
Winthrop, Massachusetts, was filled with 
them, some came so near the sea wall, the 
tide being high, that they could be seen un- 
der water as they dove in pursuit of fish, and 



22 LOONS. 

their metliod of using their wings as propel- 
ling agents could also be seen, fig. 15. 

Fis. 15. 



Red-throated Loon flyinor under water 

The cries of the Red-throated Loon are 
not dissimilar to those of the Loon. It breeds 
from the Gulf of St. Lawrence northward, 
cljictly along the coast; Avintering from Mass. 
southward, when it is found off the coast, in 
bays, sounds, etc. Occasionally occurs on 
fresh water. Very common in New England 
in Nov. Migrates south in Sep. and Oct. ; 
north in April. Common names for it are, 
Cape Race and Scape-grace. 



LOONS. 2o 

6. BLACK-^THROATED LOON. 

Intermediate in size between the Loon 
and the Red-throated Loon, about 28. Head 
and neck above, grayish, but the throat and 
neck below are bhick, with longitudinal white 
lines down the neck between it and the gray. 
The back is black with small ovate spots of 
w^iite. The young have the neck grayish in 
front and the back unspotted, but Avith each 
feather broadly margined with bluish w^hite, 
giving the back a scaly appearence. Breeds 
in the Arctic regions ; south in winter to ex- 
treme northern United States only, where it 
is exceedingly rare. While there does not 
appear to be any authentic record of this un- 
common species having been seen in the Unit- 
ed States, it may be well to watch for it, es- 
pecially on the coast, as it could be easily ov- 
erlooked. 



24 



AUKS, MURKES, PUFFINS, ETC. 



AUKS, MITRRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 

A group of birds with bills of varying 
forms, but all agreeing in having rather short 
bodies and necks, and by these characters 
may be distinguished from all other water 
birds. They all occur on the ocean and all 
swim and dive well. They sit upright when 
on land, fig. 14; some walk well, others move 
with a waddling gait. The wings are short. 

Fig. 16. 




Razor-billed Auk in summer dress. 1-8. 

but the flight is swift and direct, with very 
rapid wing-beats. The birds move with a 



AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 25 

swaying motion when flying — thus differing 
from other water birds — and can wheel read- 
ily in air. The horny outer covering of the 
bill is moulted in some of the species, hence 
the bill is of a different form in winter than 
in summer. All assume a special winter plu- 
mage. They nest in cavities on cliffs or 
rocky islands, but some species often excavate 
holes for themselves. The 3^oung are hatched 
covered with down, but are comparatively 
helpless and are fed by regurgitation. 

7. RAZOE-BILLED AUK. 

Size about that of the Ruddy Duck, 16 ; 
like that species it often holds its tail up when 
swimming. The Razor-bill, however, has a 
much shorter neck than that of any duck, 
while its singular bill will always serve to 
distinguish it when adult, fig. 16. This, and 
its manner of carrying its tail, are the only 
characters by which it may be known from 
the Murres when at any distance, for like it 
they also are black above and white beneath. 



26 



AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 



with the head all around black in summer, 
and with the throat white in winter, fig. 17. 
The Kazor-bill also has a white wing band. 



Fig. 17. 




Razor-billed Auk in winter dress. 1-8. 

In regard to the habit of cocking up its 
tail, it will be well to remember that the Rud- 
dy Duck, which usually carries its tail in the 
same way, does not always do so in windy 
weather, and the Auk may follow its example. 
Unless the tail is always carried upright the 
young Razor-bills the first winter w411 be dif- 
ficult to tell from Brunnich Murres as then 
the bill. is comparatively slender, nearly as 
much so as in the Murre. 



AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 27 

In common with the Murres, these birds 
are apt to sit in long lines side by side on the 
water, and they often fly in small flocks also 
side by side. Although usually silent, their 
cries when given are loud and harsh. 

Kazor-bills are found off the coast in Avin- 
ter, generally not far from land, sometimes 
so near that they may be seen from exposed 
sea coasts. Breeds from Grand Menan north- 
ward, nesting in rock cavities. Eggs, one or 
two, white, heavily spotted and blotched with 
dark brown. Winters from Mass. to N. J.; 
migrating north in early March. Very com- 
mon, but not so often seen from land. 

8. MURRE. 

About the same size and form as the Ra- 
zor-bill, but it may be known by the long, 
pointed bill, fig. 18. If near enough when in 
in summer dress, the absence of the white 
line in front of the eye, seen in the Razor- 
bill may be noted. The head is soot-brown. 



28 



AUKS, MUKRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 



all around in summer, but in winter, when 
the throat is white, the head is quite black. 
Also differs from the Razor-bill when on the 



Fis. 18. 




Bill of Murre. 

water in not cockinf^ up its tail. In common 
with the two following species it breeds on 
the shelves of rocky cliffs from the (rulf of 
St. Lawrence northward. One egg only is 
laid. This is very large for the size of the 
bird, pyriform, varying in color from white 
to a bright blue-green, thickly spotted and 
lined with l)la('k. All three species when an- 
noyed utter a murmuring note like '^Mur-r-r^' 



AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 



29 



often repeated. They are all gentle, friend- 
ly, and unsuspicious. It is possible to ap- 
proach within a few yards of them at any 
time, and when sitting on their eggs will al- 
low themselves to be handled without show- 
ing much fear. 

Fig. 19. 




Murre in winter dress. 1-6. 

All of the species migrate southward in 
Nov. and northward in Feb. and early March. 
The Murre winters from northern N. E. 
northward off the coast. Although there 
does not appear to be any specimens in col- 
lections which have been taken as far south 
as Mass., it may occur here. 



30 AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 

9. RINGED MURRE. 
Differs from the Murre in having a 
white ring around the eye and a line extend- 
ing back of it along the sides of the head, fig. 
20. The range is the same as that of the 
Murre. Not very common. 

Fig. 20. 




Ringed Murre in summer dress. 1-2. 

10. BRUNNICH MURRE. 

Differs from the Murre in having the bill 
shorter and thicker, with the edge of the up- 
per mandible swollen on the basal half and 
yellow in color. This may be seen at some 



AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 



31 



distance, fig. 21. For comparison with the 
Razor-billed Auk see that species. Some 



Ficr. 21. 




S=5S5^^^___ __ ^^N. 




Bill of Brunnich Murre. 

birds have the throat nearly black in win- 
ter, but as a rule it is white, ^g. 22. The un- 
der side of the wing is white, and this shows 
as the bird sways in flight. This is the spe- 
cies which occurs o:ff the coast of Mass. in 
winter, and which may often be seen from 
headlands or even beaches when it is migrat- 
ing. Sometimes during severe storms it will 
seek the shelter of salt water estuaries, and 
is occasionally blown inland. Winters from 
Mass. to N. J. Summer range like that of 
the Murre. 



32 



AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 



11. BLACK GUILLEMOT. 

The Guillemots are smaller than the 
Murres, 13, and differ from them otherwise 
in heing black throughout in summer with a 

Fig. 22. 




Brunnich Murre in winter dress. 1-4. 

large, conspicuous white wing patch, which 
in the Black Guillemot is wholly, or partly, 
divided by a black wedge, fig. 23. In win- 
ter the black above is much mixed with 
white in irregular mottlings, and the color 
below is nearly or quite white, fig. 23. The 
white wing patch, however, is about as con- 
spicuous as it is in winter. The feet are crim- 



AUKS, MUllKES, PUFFINS, ETC. 33 

son, showing in flight, or often as the bird 
dives, for it springs upward before plunging 
beneath the water. It is rather shy, even on 

Fiir. 23. 




Black Guillemot; figure in front, summer; behind, win- 
ter, dress. 1-6. 

its breeding grounds. Although the winter 
dress shows considerable white, this species 
ma3^ be distinguished from the ducks which 
show about as much white, like the Buflle- 
head and Oldsquaw, by the pointed bill and 
habit of carrying the head well forward when 
swimming. Guillemots, when at a distance, 
quite closely resemble floating bottles. 

The Black Guillemot breeds from the 
coast of Me. northward, nesting in rock cav- 



84 AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 

ities; eggs 2 to 4, white or greenish, heavily 
marked with black and brown. Note, when 
disturbed, a mournful whistle ; also gives a 
'chuckling cry. Common in winter off the 
coast, not far from land, from N. E. to N. J. 
Migrates south in early Oct., north in April. 
It is often called Sea Pigeon. 

12. MANDT GUILLEMOT. 

Ditt'ers from the Black Guillemot in 
having the white patch on the wing larger, 
and it is never divided by a black wedge. It 
breeds from the coast of Labrador, northward. 
Southward range in winter not well known. 

13. DOVEKIE. 

The smallest of the group, 8, easily rec- 
ognized by its small size, short neck, and 
small bill. It looks tiny on the water, upon 
which it rides buoyantly, fig. 25. Like many 
of the allied species, the head is black all 
around in summer, but the throat is white 
to the bill in winter, and there is a whitish 



AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 



35 



collar around the neck, fig. 24. If near, the 
white tippings to the secondaries and the 
white stripes on the wings can be seen. The 

Fig. 24. 




Dovekie in winter dress. 1.3. 

wings are moved very rapidly in flight, and 
when the bird is going directly away or com- 
ing head on it resembles a winged ball. Al- 
though sometimes found singly, it more often 
occurs in flocks, from companies of four or 
five up to gatherings consisting of hundreds 
of individuals, but the large flocks are usual- 
ly seen far out at sea. 

The Dovekie dives and swims well under 
water. It is very unsuspicious and friendly. 



36 AUKS, MUllRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 

If cau<^lit it is very gentle, showing no signs 
of fear, and may be approached quite near 
when on the water. It breeds in the far 
north, migrating south in Nov. to winter 




Dovekie in winter dress. 1-8. 

from Mass. to N. J., but usualh' keeps well 
out at sea. It is sometimes blown inland du- 
ring severe storms which occur when it is 
migrating. Goes north in xA^pril. The single, 
greenish-white, unspotted ^gg is placed on 
the shelves of rocky cliffs. It is often cjilled 
Little xVuk, and is known to fishermen by the 
rather singular name of Pine Knot. 

14. PUFFIN. 

These odd little birds, which are about 
the size of Teals, 13. are easily distinguished 



AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 



Oi 



by the grayish white cheeks in strong con- 
trast with the black coHar around the neck, 
Large head, much compressed, triangular, red, 
bill, and short neck. The top of the head 
and back are black and the under parts are 



Fiff. 26. 



/^\ 




Puffin in summer dress. 1-4. 

white, fig. 26. The winter adults and young 
have the bill smaller and dark in color, but 
it is always triangular in form. 

The Puffin rides lightly on the water 
and is very expert in diving. Flight very 



38 AUKS, MUREES, PUFFINS, ETC. 

very swift, with rapid wing beats and with 
a slight swaying motion. 

At all times it is very tame, allowing a 
near approach, and on its breeding grounds 
is even more fearless. Although peaceable, 
friendly birds, they resist being handled, and 
will bite fiercely if removed from their bur- 
rows, at the same time uttering a croaking 
sound. The Puffins are the only birds of 

Fijf. 27. 




Pulliu in summer dress. 1-8. 

this group which stand upright on their toes, 
without touching the tarsi to the ground, fig. 
27. 



AUKS, MURRES, PUFFINS, ETC. 39 

The Puffin breeds from tlie Bay of Fun- 
day northward, nesting in holes of rocky cliffs 
or in burrows which it excavetes for itself in 
the soil on the surface of islands. The sin- 
gle egg is white, usually much stained, occa- 
sionally mottled with greenish. Migrates 
south in Oct. to winter from off the coast of 
N. E. to N. J. At this season keeps well out 
to sea, only occasionallj^ approaching very 
near land. Goes north in April. Common. 
It is often called Sea Parrot and Paroquet. 

15. LARGE-BILLED PUFFIN. 

Not to be distinguished at any distance 
from the Puffin, the only difference being the 
slightly larger size and proportionately larg- 
er bill. Breeds in the Arctic regions; south- 
ward range in winter not well known. 

16. TUFTED PUFFIN. 

Differs from the Puffin in being sooty 
gray beneath, instead of white, in all stages- 
of plumage. In the breeding season the sides 



4(1 



TETKELS, SHEAKWATERS, ETC. 









.-, . ' v'^^#^^/''■ 



mr-: 



.4 



.^i 'V . , v,.i;^,V 



m"^^ 






/r\ 



- ^^; ,^^, ;. . ,V, 






I. 






< 



Younjx Audubon Shearwater two days old. 



TUBE-XOfcJED !SAV1MMEES, 



41 



of the head are ornamented by pendant tufts 
of Hilk\', straw-colored feathers, fio-. 28. It 



Ficr. 28 




M^pV..,y,,^^^ 



Tufted Puffin. 1-2. 

breeds on the coasts and isLands of the North 
Pacific ; accidental in the Bay of Funday and 
Kennebeck River, Me. 

17. ANCIENT MURRELET. 

A small, auk-like bird, 10 inches long, 
with form and color much like the Dovekie, 
but with a broad stripe of white on either 
side of the back of the head. Coasts and is- 
lands of the North Pacific. Accidental in 
Wisconsin. 



42 



•ETKELS, .SHEAinVATEKS, ETC. 



TUBE-NOSED SWlMxMERS. 

These are ocean-inhabiting birds of va- 
rying sizes. The wings are long and narrow. 
The flight is strong, but the wings are moved 
rather slowly- with a peculiar downward beat. 
In this group are found some of the strong- 
est flying birds known. The bill is hooked 
with the nostrils opening into tubes, figs. 30 
and 32, whence the group name. All swim 
well, and although some species pursue their 

Fie:. 30. 




Bill of Fulmar. 

prey beneath the water, none are expert di- 
vers. When annoyed, some eject an oily flu- 
id from the mouth, which has a strong, rath- 
ther disagreeable odor. Food, fishes, squid, 



TUBE-X08ED t^WlMMElJIS. 43 

and oily refuse cast into the water b\' fisher- 
men and whalers. Egg, single, white ; j^oung, 
downy when hatched, but are at first help, 
less and fed by regurgitation, B.g, 29. 

ALBATROSSES. 

Very large birds which live upon the 
open ocean, remote from continental land. 
The wdngs are very long and narrow. The 
nests are mound-like structures placed on oc- 
eanic islands. All of the species occur in 
the Pacific or oceans of the southern hemi- 
sphere ; accidental elsewhere. 

18. YELLOW-NOSED ALBATROSS. 

Size, large, 36. Grayish throughout, 
with the rump and upper tail coverts white. 
There is a dark spot before the eye and be- 
hind it. Bill, 3^ellow. Occurs in the Indian 
and South Pacific Oceans. Accidental in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. 



4 1 



iveti:el:s. siieakwatek^, etc. 



F U L M A R S . 

Birds of the open ocean, ver}' seldom ap- 
proaching land in this section. Excepting 
in the peculiar flight, characteristic of the 
group, noted on page 42, the^^ closel3' resem- 
ble gulls, but the bill is shorter and thicker, 
iig. 30. Our species have a light and dark 
phase of plumage. 



Fi<r. 31. 




Fulmar. 1-lU. 

19. FULMAR. 

Al)out the size of a Ring-billed Gull, 18. 
The head, neck, and lower parts are white, 
with the back pale blue in the light phase, 
fig. 31, but in the dark phase the bird is sooty 
l)r()\\n tliroughout. Occurs on the North 



TUBE-X(^SED SWIMMERS. 45 

Atlantic, breeding on St. Kidcla and other 
Scottish islands that lie far out to sea. 
South on the American side, in winter, as 
far as the Georges Banks, where it follows 
the fishing vessels to pick up the oily matter 
of fish cleanings cast overboard. Rarely ap- 
pears in sight of the coast. 

20. LESSER FULMAR. 
Ver3" similar to the Fulmar, but smaller, 
16, yet would be difficult to distinguish from 
it at any great distance. Range and habits 
about the same. 

SHEARWATERS. 

Birds of the open ocean, but which oft- 
en approach within a few miles of the coast. 
They are of varying sizes but none are very 
small. Differ from the Fulmars in having a 
more slender bill, fig. 32. Graceful, easy-fly- 
ing species which seldom rise high above the 
water and often fly in small flocks close to 
the surface, frequentlj' in lines side by side. 



46 TETRELS, SHEARWATERS, ETC. 

During boisterous weather they (as well 
as most other members of the grouy)) fly along 

Fiff. 32. 




Audubon Shearwater. 

the hollows of the ever-moving billows, and 
as they roll under them, the birds cross their 
crests diagonally. Thus by shearing the wa- 
ter, they allow the spray, which is driven 
violently from the wave tops b}' the fierce 
ocean winds, to strike on one side of their tu- 
bular nostrils. They nest on islands, plac- 
ing the egg in rock cavities, or beneath loose 
slabs of stone. 

21. GREATER SHEARWATER. 
Rather large, about the size of the Ring- 
billed Gull, but differs from any gull in hav- 



TUBE-XO.SED 8W1MMP:RS. 



ing the wings longer and more pointed, and 
in the smoother, more gliding flight. The 
color above is sooty brown, but this looks 
nearly black at a distance. The under parts 
are white, and this extends up on the sides 

Fiff. 83. 




Greater Shearwater. 1-6. 

of the head, watha sharp line of demarkation 
between it and the black. The under part 
of the wing is white, with axillaries broadly 
banded with black. This is easily seen when 
the bird flies near. The bill is black, but the 



48 



PETKELS, SHEAKWATEES, ETC. 



feet are yellowish. The primaries and tail 
are black and there is a line of white crossing 
the upper tail coverts, fig, 33. 

It is very light and easy in flight, turn- 
ing from side to side with so little effort that 
it appears to float gracefully in air. Breeds 
in the Southern Hemisphere, but is very 
common off our coast from May until Decem- 
ber. 

Fig. 34. 







Cory Shearwater. 1-2. 



TUBE-XOSED SAVIMMERS. 49 

22. CORY SHEARWATER. 

Diiiers from Greater Shearwater in be- 
ing lighter above, in fact, rather ashy brown, 
the bill is yellow^ish and the ashy marking 
above extend down on the sides of neck and 
throat without any sharp line of demarcation 
between it and the white below, fig. 34. 

The Cor^' Shearwater is an irregular vis- 
itor to our coast, but is common some years. 
From w^hence it comes or w^hither it goes is 
a myster}^, for its breeding jolace and entire 
range is unknown. Occurs off the coast of 
Massachusetts and on Long Island Sound in 
Sept. and Oct. 

23. AUDUBON SHEARWATER. 

Smaller than the Greater Shearwater, 12, 
but generally similar in coloration. There 
is an ashy patch in front of the folded wing, 
and a dusky space beneath the eye; otherwise 
the line of demarcation between the sooty 
brown above and w^hite beneath is sharply 
defined, fig. 34^. Bill, rather slender and blue- 
black, fig. 32. 



50 PP:TKELS. ^IIEAKWATEKiS, ETC. 

The downy youno' are dusk\' brown 
above and lighter beneath, fig. 29. The nests 
are placed in cavities of rocks, beneath loose 
slabs, in caves, and sometimes in the shelter 
of creeping vines. The eggs are deposited 
from March loth to April loth. 

Flight, sw^ift and direct in the daytime 
but more erratic by night, when the birds 
visit their breeding grounds. 

Cries, w4ien the birds are annoyed, harsh 
and discordant; the breeding notes, given on- 
ly in the night, are mellow and musical. 
They are uttered in a minor tone when the 
bird is fl\'ing, like,'' qne-ar-a-var\ accented on 
the second and final sylables, but mainly on 
the second, with the last prolonged. 

Excepting when nesting, occurs far out 
on the open ocean, and even w^hen breeding, 
is seldom seen within sight of land in the day 
time, visiting its nest in the night only. 
Audubon Shearw\ater is found in the warmer 
portions of the Atlantic Ocean. Breeds on the 



TUBE-XOSED SWIMMERS. 51 

Bahamas and Bermudas, where it is common. 
Casual as far north as Long Island; rare on 
the Bahamas in winter. 

24. MANX SHEARWATER. 

Similarto Audubon Shearwater, butlaror- 
er, 14, and with the black of the head extend- 
ing somewhat below the eye, fig. 35. Resi- 
dent on the North Atlantic, but chiefly on 
the eastern side. Casual off our coast and on 
the Banks of Newfoundland. 

25. SOOTY SHEARWATER. 
Similar in form and habits to the Great- 
er Shearwater but sooty brown throughout 
( appearing black at a distance ), darkest on 
the wings and tail; palest beneath, fig. 35. Oc- 
curs on the Atlantic Ocean, breeding in the 
Southern Hemisphere, occurring off our coast 
rather commonly from South Carolina north- 
ward from July 1st until September. 



-rl I'ETKELS. SllEAKWATEKIS. ETC. 




Fi;:. ^b 



^ootv t)liearvt atcr. 



TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS. 



53 



26. BLACK-CAPPED PETREL. 

About the size of the Sooty Shearwater, 
but the tail is wedge-shaped, not rounded as 
in that species. The top of the head and 
upper parts are black with the margins of 
the feathers paler. There is a large white 

Fie-. 35. 





Manx Shearwater 

patch on the rump and basal half of the tail. 
The sides of the head and neck and the lower 
parts are pure white. Occurs in the warmer 
parts of the Atlantic; stragglers have been 
taken in Florida, Virginia^ New York, Ver- 
mont, and Ontario. 



54 PETRELS, SHE AK WATERS, ETC. 

27. SCALED PETREL. 

About the size and form of the black- 
capped Petreh Dark bluish ash above with 
most of the feathers broadly margined with 
ashy white, giving the bird a scaly appear- 
ence. 

White beneath, irregularly and rather 
finely banded with grayish. Known only 
from a single specimen which was obtained 
in a plowed field, Livingston Co., New York, 
in April, 1880. 

28. BULAVER PETREL. 

A small bird, 10 long, with a doubly 
wedge-shaped tail. Sooty brown through- 
out, somewhat paler beneath and in a patch 
on wing. Occurs in Europe, Africa ; occasion- 
al in Greenland and accidental in Bermuda. 

29. STORMY PETREL. 

The smallest of our Petrals, about 5.50 
long. The tail is square. Soot}^ black 
throughout, including bill and feet, with a 



TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS. 55 

white patch of varyino? size on the under side 
of the wing. Occurs on the North Atlantic; 
south to the banks of Newfoundland and west 
coast of Africa. Eare in summer. 

30. LEACH PETREL. 

8 long. Sooty black, paler beneath and 
in a spot on the middle wing which shows dis- 
tintcly at a distance. Spot on rump white. 
The bill is quite large, fig 36, and the wholly 




Bill of Leach Petrel. 

black feet, when outstretched, do not reach 
to the tip of the tail, fig. 37. This and the 
next species fly lightly over the water near 
the surface with a dancing somewhat erratic, 
but very graceful movment, occasionally pat- 
tering on the water with their feet, especially 
when picking up food. 

The Leach Petrel occurs on the north 
Atlantic and north Pacific Oceans. brer^rb'Tio- 



56 



PETRELS, SHEAKWATEES, ETC. 



on our coast from Maine northward in June, 
Tiesting usually in burrows which it digs for 
itself in the peaty soil of islands, or occasion- 
ally on the face of earthy or sandy cliffs like 
Bank Swallows. Common from June until 
October. Winters south of our limits. 

Fio-. 37. 




Leach Petrel. 1-3. 

31. WILSON PETREL. 

A little smaller than Leach Petrel, but 
much darker as it is without the litrht 



TUBE-NOJSED tSWIMMEKS. 



0/ 



patch in the wing. The outstretched feet 
reach at least as far as the tip of the tail, 
(fig. 38), and the webs of the toes are nearly 
yellow. The bill is smaller, fig. 39. Spot 
on rump white. Occurs on the north and 

Fi^. 38 




Wilson Petrel. 1-3. 

south Atlantic and Southern Oceans. Breeds 
on Kergulen Island in Feb. Abundant off 
the eastern coast of the United States from 
June until Sept. 



58 TOTIPAI.MATE JSWIM.MERS. 

3:> WHITE BELLIED PETREL. 

8.50. Tail emarginate. Black or dusky 
above and on throat. BelW and under tail 
coverts white. Intertropical seas, north oc- 
casionally to the coast of Florida. 

33. WHITE-FACED PETEEL. 

About the size of the White-bellied Pe- 
trel. Dark above with the upper tail cov- 
erts ashy. Forhead, line over eye, and low- 
er parts white. Southern Seas, accidental 
off the coast of Massachusetts. 

TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS. 

This is a group of easily recognized 
birds. They are of somewhat varj'ing size 
but none are very small, while others are 
quite large. 

The external characters possessed in 
common, and which bind the group togeth- 
er, are, hind toe connected to the anterior 
toes Ijv a web, fig. 39, and a more or less well 



TROPIC BIRDS. 59 

developed extensible pouch beneath the bill 
(gular sac), iig. 40, with other minor charac- 
ters. The voung; are hatched naked, fig;. 41; 
but are soon covered with down. They are 
helpless, being at first fed by regurgitation 
and do not fly until nearly or quite fully 
grown; they subsist wholly upon fish. 

The order may be divided into well es- 
tablished natural groups as folio ws:- 

TROPIC BIRDS. 

These are perhaps the smallest of the 
Totiplamate Swimmers. In them the gula 
sac is reduced to the minimum size ; the beak 
is comparatively small, not hooked at the 
end but pointed like those of the terns, fig. 
40. In fact, the birds have a very tern- 
like appearence, but differ from them in 
having the central tail feathers greatly elon- 
gated and projecting from beyond the oth- 
ers, fig. 42. The feet are small, fig. 43. 



60 



TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS, 



The single egg is placed in a cavity of 
rocky cliffs on ocean islands. It is purplish 

Fig. 39. 




Wilson Petrel. 

brown spotted with darker brown. The 
downy young are at first wholly w^hite then 
dark feathers appear on the back. 

Fig. 40. 




Bill of White Pelican. 

The flight is steady and direct with rapid 
wino;-beats, but the birds can turn in air 
and circle with ease. The}- procure their prey 
by diving like terns. Their cries are loud 
and harsh. Gregarious when breeding, but 
solitary at other times. Tropical and sub- 
tropical in distribution. The sexes are sim- 
lar. 



TROPIC BIRDS. 



61 




Fig. 41. Young Ganner. iinfiedged. 



62 



TOTirALMATE tSWIMMEKS. 



34. YELLOW-BILLED TROPIC BIRD. 

Body about tlie size of that of the Laugh- 
inp; Gull, but, including the long central tail 
feathers, the bird is 29 long. White through- 
out, well tinged with salmon-pink which be- 
comes deeper on the elongated central tail 
feathers. There is a small curved patch of 
black on either side of the head, two on the 
back, and one near tlie tip of either wing. 



Fig. 39. 



Ficr. 43. 




Totipalmale foot of Cormoraut. Foot of Tropic Bird. 1-2. 

The young are without the elongated central 
tail feathers, and are more or less banded 
with black. The bill and feet are 3'ellow, 
with most of the toes and webs of the latter 
l)hick. her. 43. 



TROPIC BIRDS. 



63 



Breeds in the Bermudas, Bahamas, and 
West Indies in May. Occurs occasionally in 
Florida, and was once taken in western New 
York. 

Fig. 40. 




Head of Tropic Bird, 1-2. 

Unless feeding, or about its breeding 
ground, the Tropic Bird flies high over the 
water, moving with a direct flight. 



G4 



TOTIPALMATE .SWIMMEKS. 




mm 



Fig. 41». Vouug Cory GauDet. partly riedsed. 



TOTIPALMATE ISAVIMMEIIS. 65 

35. RED-BILLED TROPIC BIRD. 
Dil^er from the Yellow-billed in being- 
Larger, 34, in having the bill coral red and 
the elongated tail feathers white. Occurs 
along the coasts of Tropical America. Breed- 
ing on the islands in the Gulf of California. 
Accidental on the Newfoundland Banks. 

GANNETS 

These are Ocean Birds of from moderate 
to large size. They are usually white w^ith, 
black or brown primaries, or are sometimes 
wholly brown. There is a naked space in 
front of the eye, around it, and at the base 
of the bill, but the gular sac is not verj^ well 
developed The bill is pointed and the tail is 
long. 

The nests are placed on the ground, on 
rocks or on trees. They are bulky struct- 
ures, composed of sticks sea-weed, and other 
coarse material. The eggs are one or two, 
white, and covered with a chalky incrusta- 
tion. 



66 GANXETS. 

The flight is steady and direct with 
necks outstretched and rapid wing beats, but 
the birds can turn in air with ease. They 
procure their prey by diving directly down- 
ward, often from a considerable height, be- 
coming completely submerged in the wa- 
ter. 

The feet are usually wholly concealed in 
flight. The birds walk well and perch on 
trees with ease. Sexes, similar. The 3^oung 
in tlie down are white. 

36. GANNET. 

A large bird of a peculiar silvery white 
but becoraming buff about the head and 
neck. The primaries look black and the bill 
whitish. Fig. 44. The A'oung are dark- 
brown streaked and spotted with white, fig. 
45. Length, 39. 

The Gannet breeds in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence in May, migrating south from Sep. 
to Nov. Some few winter off the coast of 
New England but more abundantly south of 



TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS. bi 

this, going as far as Florida. It returns 
north in March and Aprih 

It feeds quite near land and ma3^ be seen 
off nearly all of the exposed ocean beaches 
diving and flying about. It differs from all 
gulls in the downward plunge, often from a 

Fig. 44. 




Gannet. 1-9. 

considerable height, and in the silvery gleam 
of its plumage. Gulls sometimes dive, but 
never with such force as does the Gannet, 
which in its downward rush sends the water 



68 



GANXETS. 



high in the air as it plunges into it. In mi- 
grating the Gannet moves in irregular, strag- 
""lino: lines without svstem. 



BLUE-FACED GANNET. 

Ditt'ers from the Gannet in being much 
smaller, 28, and in having the most of the 
wings and tail (except the central feathers 

Fio-. 42. 




//7 'm 



Tropic Bird. 1-t). 

and base which are white) dark-brown. The 
naked portions of the face are blue. Young, 
with the head, neck, and upper parts dark- 



PELICANS. 69 

brown; lower parts, white. Breeds from the 
Bahamas southw^ard in Ma\'; wandering to 
Florida. 

38. RED-FACED GANNET. 
Similar to the last, but with tail whol- 
ly white; naked space on face, red or yellow- 
ish. Young, brown throughout; lighter be- 
neath. Breeds on islands in intertropical seas, 
wandering to Florida. 

39. BOOBY. 
Large, 30.50; brown throughout, ex- 
cepting on posterior portion beneath which 
is w^hite. Young, brown throughout. Trop- 
ical and intertropical coasts of America; com- 
mon off east coast of Florida; rare north to 
Georgia; accidental in Mass. 

PELICANS. 

Large water birds, white or brown, with 

long, flattened, prominentlyhooked bills, and 

large unfeathered gular sacs; tail, short. The 

nests, placed in trees or on the ground. Eggs 



70 PELICANS. 

one or two, similar to those of Gannets. The 
downy young are grayish. 

Fig. 45. 




Brown Pelican. 1-20. 

Pelicans are rather awkward birds mov- 
ing on the ground with a wadding gate ; 
w^hen the the birds are at rest, the bill is 
held against the breast, fig. 45. Flight, slow 
and direct, with alternate flapping and sail- 
ing, the birds often forming lines side by 
side or fly in V-shaped flocks; wing beats, 
slow ; neck, doubled back in flight ; highly 
gregarious at all times. Incapable of pro- 



PELICANS. 71 

ducing any sound, save a low grunt. Sexes, 
similar. 

40. WHITE PELICAN. 

Very large, 68. White, large portion of 
wings black; bill and naked space about face, 
yellow. There is a central elevation on bill 
in summer, fig. 40, which is absent in winter. 
Iris, white in summer, brown in winter. 
Feet, yellow. 

The White Pelican fishes by swimming 
and scooping the small fishes, upon which it 
subsists, into its gular sac by a side move- 
ment of the head. The sac is then contract- 
ed and the water forced out on either side of 
the bill and the fish swallowed at once. Aft- 
er feeding, many will rise together to a con- 
siderable height and circle about for an hour 
or more on nearly motionless wings, cross- 
ing and recrossing one another constantly. 
Rests on isolated sand bars by night and oft- 
en resorts to them by day. Breeds in the in- 
terior of North America from Utah north- 



/ j! PELICANS. 

ward in May ; common in Florida and along 
the Gulf coast in winter ; rare on the Atlan- 
tic coast of Florida, occasionally straying as 
far north as Mass. Goes north in April, 
south in Sept. 

46. BROWN PELICAN. 
Smaller, 50, grayish above and black 
below where there are some streaks of whit- 

Fio- 46 




Brown Pelican. 1-15. 



ish ; head and stripe on side of neck, white; 
back of neck, chestnut-brown; bill, whitish; 



COKMORAKTS. 73 

naked space about face and gular sac, green- 
ish; feet, bluish; iris, white. In winter the 
back of the neck is white, fig. 46, right, sum- 
mer, left, winter. Young, gra3'ish above and 
white beneath. 

Brown Pelicans move in a straight line 
side by side often fl^'ing parallel with the 
coast and yerj near it. In fishing, they usu- 
ally fly at a slight elevation over the water, 
then by dropping into it with partly spread 
wings, secure their pre\\ Breeds in abun- 
dance on islands in southern Florida, Car- 
ibbean Sea, and West Indies, wandering reg- 
ularly to N- C. and accidentally to 111. 

CORMORANTS. 
More slender water birds of from mod- 
erate to large size ; black or brownish ; bill, 
shorter than head, it is not flattened, but is 
prominently hooked; gular sac^ small, fig 
47 ; wings, rather long ; tail long and round- 
ed. Nests, placed on rocky cliffs, trees and 
bushes, composed of sticks, seaweeds, etc; 
eggs, 2-5 ; greenish, covered with a chalky 



74 CORMORANTS. 

incrustation. Flight, rapid, direct, often in 
lines or Vs, but frequently breaking into ir- 
regular masses; wing-beats, continuous and 

Fig 47. 




Double-crested Cormorant. 1-10. 

rather rapid ; neck, outstretched, fig. 47; oft- 
en perch on buoy's, beacons, roi.'ks, and trees; 



CORMORANTS. i O 

when sittinof the head is held well up slight- 
ly in advance of the body, the neck in the 
form of an S, sometimes the wings are wind- 
]y spread for a considerable time, fig. 48. 

Cormorants walk quite well and dive 
with ease, sometimes iiom the wing, but 
more often when swimming, and can remain 
under water several mintites. In alighting, 
they will usually pass the object on which 
the\' intend to rest, then turn and go back 
to It. In starting from a perch, will drop 
nearly to the water, then rise. If suddenly 
alarmed by a shout or a gun shot when fly- 
ing low over the water, will often drop into 
it, diving as soon as they reach it. The cry, 
seldom given, is a harsh croak. 

The young are hatched naked with the 
skin bluish or black and shining as if pol- 
ished. Sexes similar. There are usually 
white, filamentous feathers about the head 
during the breeding season, but these can- 
not be seen at anj^ great distance. 



CORMORANTS. 



47. CORMORANT. 

Large, 38, blue black throughout; gra}'- 
ish above ; prominent white patch on flanks 
and upper throat; gular sac. orange; feet 
black. Young, brown above, ver}^ light be- 




Double-crested Cormoranr. 1-16. 

neath, but there are no white patches as in 
the adult. 

Atlantic coast of N. A., breeding from 
the Gulf of St Lawrence northward in Ma}' ; 
goes south in Nov, north in April winters 
from Greenland to N. J.; comcuon north of 
the U. S., uncommon in N. E. and south of it. 



CORMOKANTS. i / 

48. DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT. 

Differs from last in being smaller, 32^ 
in having no white patches any where, and 
with white filamentous feathers over the eye 
in spring. Young, not as white beneath. 
Gula sac, orange ; bill and feet, black, figs. 
47-48. Our common species in Kew Eng. 
land ; frequent in migration in Sept., Oct.^ 
and April, off the coast or crossing headlands. 
Occasionally seen on fresh waters. Winters 
from N. E. south through the Gulf States. 
Breeds from the Bay of Fundy, the Great 
Lakes, Minn., and Da. northward in Ma\'. 

49. FLORIDA CORMORANT. 
Smaller, 30, seldom has white feathers 

over eye. Resident in South Atlantic and 
Gulf States, breeding chiefly in April ; wan- 
dering occasionally as far north as 111. Very 
common ; also occurs on the Bahamas. 

50. MEXICAN CORMORANT. 

Small, 26, browner than the others, 
more slaty on back, white line adjoining gu- 



78 AXIIINGA. 

la sac. this and ndked space about face, brown- 
ish. Young grayish brown, lighter beneath, 
sometimes white on throat and under tail 
coverts. Breeds in Texas. Mexico, and Ba- 
hamas, w^andering along the Gulf of Mexico 
and up the Mississippi Valle}^ tonorthern 111. 
Common. 

AXHINGAS. 

Large, slender birds which occur on in- 
land w\aters ; long ne(?ks, small heads, point- 
ed bills, long, fan-shaped tails, with central 
feathers corrugated, fig. 49. Flight, steady 
and direct, wing-beats, rapid, often soar at a 
considerable height in circles. 

51. ANHINGA. 
Large, 35 ; male, greenish black, spotted 
and streaked above with gray ; tail, tipped 
with ashy. In. spring there are long, ashy, 
filamentous feathers on head and neck, fig. 
49. Young, more or less whitish on lower 
neck. Female differs in having lower part 
of neck and upper breast ash}' 3'ellow. Young 
brownisli throughout. Resident in tropical 



ANHINGA. 



and sub- tropical America, north in summer 
to the Carolinas, the mouth of the Ohio and 

Fig- 49. 




Male Anhincra. 1-8. Female, in flight. 

southern Kansas. Breeds in Fla. in March. 
Nests of sticks placed in trees ; eggs, five or 
six, much like those of Cormorants. 



80 frictATe birds. 

Common on inland waters where it sits 
upright on trees which project over the wa- 
ter. When suddenly alarmed, drops into the 
water and instantly disappears. Has the pow- 
er of sinking slowly and swims beneath the 
surface with ease and swiftness, thus captur- 
ing the fishes upon which it feeds. Sometimes 
plunges obliquely into the water when on 
the wing and can emerge in flight. Often 
swims with the head and neck projecting 
above the surface, or even with the bill only 
in sight. Crv, seldom given, gutteral and 
harsh. 

FRIGATE BIRDS. 

Coast-wise birds of large size and power- 
ful flight ; bill, longer than head and strong- 
ly hooked ; head, large and somewhat crest- 
ed ; gula sac, rather large ; neck, short ; wings 
and tail long, the latter deeply forked; feet, 
small and weak, but although the birds perch 
well on trees, they are incapable of walking 
and swimming well. Nests and eggs, much 
as in the Cormorants. Younsr, naked at first. 



GULLS. 81 

lead-colored, but is soon covered with long, 
white down. 

Flight, when the birds are moving from 
place to place, steady, strong, with slow wing 
beats, but when in pursuit of other birds, 
very rapid and exceedingly graceful. Cries, 
harsh, loud, and resilent. Food is chiefly 
procurred by robbing other birds of fishes. 
Highly gregarious, even breeding in commu- 
nities. Sexes, not similar. Tropical and sub- 
tropical. 

52. MAN 0' WAR BIED. 

Very large, 40; male, black throughout, 
back, lustrous with green and purple, fig. 50. 
Female with breast and sides whitish. Young, 
white beneath. Tropical and sub-tropical 
coast regions chiefly north of the equator. 
Breeds as far north as the Bahamas, Fla., and 
Texas. Accidental in Pa., 0., Kan., Tex., and 
Nova Scotia, 

Several together may frequently be seen 
floating high in air over harbors or islands. 



82 



LONG-WIN(IED SWIMMERS. 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 
Water birds of variable sizes; wings, long; 
toes, webbed, wholly or in part, fig. 61; col- 
ors, somewhat variable, but often bluish or 
slaty above and white beneath. Food, chief- 
Fig. 50. 




Mau O' War Bird. 1-10. 



SKUAS AND JAEGEKS. 

Fie:. 52. 




Parasitic Jaeg^er. 1-5. 



84 long-win(;ed swimmeks. 

ly fishes, but some species are scavengers 
and some subsist partly on insects. Occur in 
all regions of the globe on bodies of salt and 
fresh water. Sexes, similar. 

SKUAS AND JAEGERS. 

Gull-like birds, nu3st species of which 
procure much of their food by robbing Gulls 
and Terns. Color, dark above and often be- 

Fig. 58. 




Parasitic Jaeger, adult in aprinjr. 1-10' 

low; tail moderate, slightly rounded with the 
two central feathers longer and projecting 
beyond the others, figs 52-f58. The flight is 
swift and the wing beats rapid. Ocean birds, 
breeding on the coasts of the colder waters 
of the world. Nests placed on ground; eggs^ 
2-0, l)r()wn spotted w^ith darker. 



SKUAS AND JAEGEKS. 



85 



[Note:. The Southern Skua. Megalestrin antarcticus, 
which elosely resembles our Northern Skua, and which 
breeds on Kurguelen Island, is said not to rob Gulls and 
Terns. Is has hawk-like habits and preys upon other birds, 
especially the younj^ of species that nest on the island. 

These hawk-like habits are shared to some extent not 
only by our Skua, but also by all of our Jaeg'ers, more fre- 
quently, however, when on their breeding grounds. All 
members of the group are sometimes scavengers.] 

53. SKUA. 

A little smaller than a Herring Gull, 24. 
Central tail feathers, project slightly and are 
very bluntly point- Fig. 54. 

ed terminally, fig. 
54; brown streaked 
with pale reddish; 
distinct Avhite spot 
at base of primari- 
es. Young, more distinctly streaked. Breeds 
on the coasts and islands of the North Atlan- 
tic; not common on our side; casual as far 
south as S. C. 

54. POMARINE JAEGEE. 

Smaller, size of Laughing Gull, 22. Pro- 
jecting tail feathers longer, but not sharply 




86 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 



pointed, llgs. 55-56. Two phases of plumage: 
Lio^ht phase; top of head and above dusky,^ 
sides of head and below white. Dark phase, 

Fi^. 55. 




~^^'--,'^,,>'~^. 



Pomarine Jaeger in autumn. 1-5. 

uniform dusky and all intergrades occur be- 
tween the two phases. Young, banded below 
with buff. Breeds far north. Migrates south 
from Aug to Oct; winters far south; north in 
May. 

55. PARASITIC JAEGER. 
Similar, smaller^20, projecting tail feath- 



SKUAS AXD JAEGERS. 



87 



ers pointed, figs. 52, 53,57. Breeds far north. 
South from July to Sept; winters from N. J. 
southward; north in May and early June. 

56. LONG-TAILED JAEGER. 

Size of last; central tail feathers 
ly elongated, 8 to 10 inches, fig. 
58. General colors paler, espe- 
cially above. Breeds in the far 
north; exact winter range un- 
known. South in Aug.; north 
in May. Very rare on our coast 

Pomarlne Jaeger. 1-2 

GULLS . 

Of varying size. Adults nearly or whol- 
ly white beneath, sometimes rose tinted; blu- 
ish or slaty on back 




Fig. 52, 




and wings — this area 
is called the mantle. 
The bill is somewhat 

Parasitic Jaeger. ^ hooked, fig. 59; tail, 

short, square, rarely forked or wedge-shaped, 
fig. 60; feet, large and fitted for walking; 
toes, fully webbed, fig. 61. Nests, placed on 



88 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 



the ground, sometimes in trees, composed of 
weeds and sticks; eggs, 2-4, brown mottled 
Fig. 57. Fig. ^58. ^ith darker. Food, which 
XX^>/f Mp^y consists of fishes, other sea 
animals, and floating gar- 
bage, is securred by the 
birds swooping downward 
at an angle, and, although 
when catching living fish, 
gulls occasionally become 
submerged, I have never 

Jaegers 1-2, Parasitic. Long-tailed, seen OUC dlvC perpeudlcU- 

larly. Some eat dead fishes which are cast 
on shore, and a few feed upon insects. Cries, 

Fig. 5». 





Ring-billed Gull. 

often harsh but sometimes modulated and 
not unmusical. Immature plumage quite 
unlike the adult. 



GULLS. 



89 



57. IVORY GULL. 

Medium, 19, Pure white; fig. 62. Young, 
more or less spotted witli dusky. Breeds very 

Fig. 60. 




American Herring Gull. 1-8. Young in flight. 

far north. South regularly to Labrador and 
Newfoundland; casually to N. B. and Mass. 

58. KITTIWAKE GULL. 
Medium, 17; mantle pale; white below, 
on tail and head; bill yellow, feet black; five 
^^-- ^^- outer quills have the ter- 

minal portions black, 
forming a patch the in- 
Bonaparte Gull. 1-2. ncr Outline of whicli goes 
staright across the wing, fig. 63 and plate 2. 




90 



LOXG-WIXGED SWIMMERS. 



In tlie young this black is more extended, 
and a line along bend of wing, a patch on 
hind neck, and tip of tail is black, plate 2. 



Ficf. 62. 




Ivory Gull, i-10. 

The Kittiwake is an ocean loving Gull oc- 
curring far from land in moderate weather. 

Fig. 63. 




Kittiwake Gull, adult. 1-10. 

but during hard storms often approaches the 
land and is then sometimes found associating 



GULLS. ' 91 

with other gulls in bays and sounds. Flight, 
exceedingly graceful, easy, and tern-like and 
this distinguishes it from the Herring Gull 
when seen at a distance. Common cry in the 
breeding season; Kitti-wcike wake wakewak- 
er. 

Breeds from the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
northward in June, migrating southward in 
Oct.; winters from off the coast of New Eng- 
land south to the Middle States, casually al- 
most to the Bahamas. ♦ 

Nests, usually placed on rock i^helves of 
perpendicular cliif s overhanging the ocean. 
They are small for the size of the birds, and 
are made of sea-weed. 

Coast Gulls. 

Gulls of this group are of somewhat va- 
riable size. Adults are white beneath and if 
not white above, then the mantle is bluish 
of some shade. If the wing is not entirely 
white, the dark tips of the primaries have 
white spots in them called mirrors; tail, short 
and square. Young are at first brownish and 



92 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 



assume the adult dress slowly. Very social, 
associating in large flocks, especially at night, 
in winter when many hundreds gather to 
sleep on the water. 

59. GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL. 
Our largest common Gull, 30; mantle, 
dark slate, but it appears perfectly black in 

Fig. 64. 




Great Black-backed Gull. 



the distance; w^hite elsewhere and there is a 
white wing band; bill yellow and feet pink- 
ish, fig. 64. Young for the first year, rather 



GULLS. 93 

pale brownish, darkest above. Adults are 
are easily distinguished; the young are pale- 
er than those of the Herring Gull, larger, 
have slower wing beats, and a more majes- 
tic flight. Breeds from the Bay of Funday 
northward; south in Sept.; winters from 
southern Greenland to Long Island; north in 
April, a few often remain as far south as 
Cape Ann, Mass., all summer. 

60. SIBERIAN GULL. 
Smaller than the Black-back, 20; mantle 
a little paler; feet yellow. Northern Asia; ac- 
cidental in southern Greenland. 

61. GLAUCOUS GULL. 

About the size of the Black-back, and 
the flight is similar, but the mantle is pale 
pearl-gray and the wings nearly or quite 
white. Young, pale grayish, mottled above 
with light brown. Bill yellow, feet pink. 
Breeds in the Arctic Regions; south in win- 
ter regularly to the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 
rarely to Great Lakes and along coast to L. I. 



94 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 



62. HERRING GULL. 
Smaller than the Black-back, 24, man- 
tle, pearl gray; white mirror at tip of outer 
primary is not interrupted by a black cross 
bar, fig. 65; bill, yellow; feet, pinkish. Young 

Fig. 65. Fig. 66. 





European, 



Ameiicau, 



Herring Gulls. 



the first year, nearly uniform dark brown; 
tail, almost black on terminal third. Second 
year, pale buff above, much banded and mot- 



GULLS. 95 

tied with darker, a broad, very dark subter- 
niinal tail band; beneath, quite uniform yel- 
lowish brown; no white on primary tips. 
Third year, although showing some of the 
colors of the adult, is more or Jess mottled 
throughout with dusky. Bill, brown in all 
immature birds. The Old World form, but 
also occurs not infrequently on our side of 
the ocean. 

63. AMERICAN HERRING GULL. 
Differs from the last in having the 
white on tip of first primary divided by a 
black bar, fig. 66. Breeds on both salt and 
fresh water from southern Me. northward; 
constantly resident on the coast south to 
Cape ^Ann, Mass.; winters in great abund- 
ance from Me. to the Carolinas and is rather 
common to the St. Johns River, Fla.; occa- 
ally occurs on the coast of Cuba. 

[Note:- Although I am, of course, aware that many or- 
nithologists no longer separate the Herring Gulls on eith- 
er side of the Atlantic, I still continue to do so for reasons 
which cannot wel) be here stated.] 



96 LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 

64. KUMLIEN GULL. 

A little smaller than the Herring Gull; 
much paler; back, slightly bluish; primaries, 
gra3ash, but with the mirrors distinct; the 
wings, however, usually appear quite white 
in flight; bill, yellow, feet, pinkish. Young, 
creamy, mottled with pale brown. Breeds 
about Cumberland Gulf; south in winter reg- 
ularly to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Mass. 
but is rather uncommon with us. 

65. ICELAND GULL. 

Similar to the above, but pure white; 
young, pale brown mottled with a little dark- 
er shade. Breeds on the northern coasts of 
the north Atlantic; south in winter rather 
rarely as far as Mass. 

Both the Kumlien and Iceland Gulls 
fly with a little quicker movement of the 
wings than the Herring Gull with which 
they often associate. The Iceland Gull al- 
ways appears paler than the Kumlien even 
when seen at a distance. 



GULLS 



66. RING.BILLED GULL. 
Smaller than the Herring Gull; similar 
in color, but with the mantel a little darker 

Fig. 63*. 




Kiitiwake GulL Young. 1-6, 

bill, green crossed by a black band, fig 59. 
Young much lighter than in the Herring 
Gull, even in the first year the head, neck, 
and lower parts appearing nearly white; the 
mantle is pearly as in the adult, but mottled 



98 



LONCi-WIXCxEI) SWIMMERS. 



in irrigular patches with brownish; there is 
a conspicuous, sharply defined band of black 
on end of tail; bill, black yellowish at tip, fig. 
67. In this first plumage much like the Her- 
ring Gull of the third year, but aside from 
the much smaller size of the Ring-bill, its 
black tail band is narrower and more sharp- 
ly defined. As in Black-backs, there is no in- 
termediate dress between first year and adult. 

Fig. 67. 




Young King-biiled (xull. 1-5. 



GULLS 99 

Breeds in northern N. A.; south in au- 
tumn over the whole country in Aug. and 
Sept.; winters from the Carolinas to Cuba 
and Mexico. Not uncommon in Mass. in 
migration, but more common elsewhere in 
its range. 

67. MEW GULL. 

Similar in size and general coloration to 
the Ring-bill, but the bill is a little stouter. 
Europe and Asia, accidental in Labrador, 
one record. 

Hooded Gulls. 

Size medium or small; heads in summer 
adults black, grayish in winter; white be- 
neath tinged with rosy in summer; white 
markings on primaries variable or absent, 
but never like those of the Coast Gulls. 

68. LAUGHING GULL: 
Size, medium, 16; mantle, dark bluish 
gray darker than in any species given ex- 
cepting in the Black-back; primaries, black, 



100 



LON (TWINGE I) SWIMMERS. 



slightly tipped with white; prominent white 
wing bands; bill, crimson-lake; iris and feet, 
brown; iig. 68. In winter, head white tinged 




Adult Lau^biug Gull in summer. 1-8. 
Fio-. 69. 




Auuli Lau>iliing Gull iu wiuier. 1-4. 



<IULLS 



101 



with color like that of back, fig. 69. Young, 
brownish throughout in fall, tip of tail black; 
first winter, whitish beneath, bluish gray on 
back, fig. 70. Breeding cries like peels of de- 
Fig-. 70. 










YouDo- Lauohinsf Gull in -winter. 14-. 



risive laughter; adult also gives a short call 
note that is answered by the fully grown 
young with a snarling cry. Breeds from the 
southern coast of Me. southward through the 
Bahamas; south in Sept., remaining on coast 
of Carolinas until Dec: winters from Mex^^o 



102 



lox(;-wixgp:i) swimmers. 



to S. A.; comes north in April. Not common 
north of Cape Cod. 

69. FRANKLIN GULL. 
A little smaller than last, 14; differs in 
being darker above; primaries, bluish-gray 
and in all stages ])roadly tipped with white. 
Breeds from 0. north through Minn, and the 
interior of Canada. Often occurs far from 
water subsisting upon insects, and is known 
as the Prairie Dove. 

70. BONAPARTE GULL. 
Smallest of our Gulls, 13; mantle pale bluish, 

Fig. 71. 




Bonaparte Gull ; upper li^r;. summer auult : lower, young. 

tail and lower parts, white; primaries, white 



C^ULLS 



103 



narrowly margined with black outwardly 
and more broadly at tip; tail and beneath, 

Fig. 72. 









Bonaparte Gull, first year. 1-5 



white; bill, black, feet, yellow, fig 71 upper; 
in winter white with dunky spot back of eye; 
young differs in having wing black margined 
all around excepting near bend, ^g 72, thus 
differing from the young Kittiwake which 
has wing black margined all around fig. 63*, 



104 J/LXG-WINGEI) SWIMMERS. 

in front, but is white behind. 

Breeds in the Arctic and migrates over 
the whole U. S.; south from Aug. to middle 
Nov.; winters from Carolinas to Gulf of Mex- 
ico; north March to May. Flight, swift, easy, 
graceful, and tern-like. When migrating oft- 
en flies along shore, usually in small compa- 
nies. In winter occurs more scatteringly fly- 
ing over sounds or creeks or often far up riv- 
ers. Cry, seldom heard in migration, is harsh 
and rasping. Common. 

71. LITTLE GULL. 

Smaller than the last, 11; little or no 
black on wings; in the young the tail is with- 
out the black tip. Old World; accidental in 
in Bermuda and Long Island. 

72. ROSS GULL. 
Tail graduated, fig. 73; small, 14; white 
tinged with pink; pearl-gray above and on 
wings below; outer web of first primary and 
collar around neck, black. In winter black 
collar absent, head tinged with grayish, black 
spot in front of eye. Young clouded with 



TERNS. 



105 



Fig. 73 



^/y 



dusky above, some of inner tail 
feathers tipped with black. 
Breeds in the Arctic, south in 
winter as far as Disco Bay in 
Greenland. 



Ross Gull. 



73. SABINE GULL. 

Small, 13.50; tail prominently forked, 
white, head and upper neck dark plumbeous, 

Fig. 74. 




• Sabine G-ull : summer adult. 1-4. 

below this a black collar; mantle, dark blue- 



lOG 



I.ONd-WlNaEI) SWIMMERS. 



gray; primaries, black five inner tipped with 
white; bill, black yellow tipped; feet, black, 
figs. 74, 75. In winter, head white, spot on 
side and patch on occiput plumbeous. Young, 




Sabine Gull: summer adult. 

brown-gray above; tail, white with a sub ter- 
minal band of black. Arctic; south in winter 
very rarely as far as Mass., N. Y. and Great 
Lakes. 

T E R N S . 

Variable in size but generally more slen- 
der and graceful than gulls; bills, pointed 
never hooked; wings, long and pointed; feet. 



TERNS. 107 

small and rather unfitted for walking in ad- 
ults, yet the birds swim well in quiet water. 
Ocean coasts and estuaries and fresh waters. 
Nests placed on sand, rocks, or bushes; eggs 
1-5, similar to those of gulls. Procure their 
prey, which usually consists of small fishes, 
by diving perpendicularly downward, often 
becoming wholly submerged in water. The 
flight is swift with graceful, swallow-like 
movements; when the birds are searching the 
water beneath their bills are pointed down- 
ward. After alighting, and at other times 
when on land, the wings are often stretched 
upward. When a number are flying together, 
frequently in response to a signal cry of a 
leader, all will dart obliquely downward and 
fly rapidly along the water. Downy young, 
buffy spotted above with dusky, plate, I. 

74. GULL-BILLED TEEN. 
Large, 14; bill, thick and gull-like, fig. 
76; tail, slightly forked; white, head and 
nape, black. In winter, head white mottled 



108 



LONG-WIXGEI) SWIMMERS. 



with dusky on nape and ear-coverts. Young, 

Fig. 76. 




Gull-billed Tern. 

similar, but buffy above. Bill and feet, al- 
ways black, fig. 77. Nearly cosmopolitan; in 

Fig. 77. 




Gull-billed Tern. 1-7. 

N. A. breeds from southern N. J. southward 
to the Gulf Coast, rarely wandering in late 
summer and early fall to Mass. Flight, heavy 
and slow; Cries, harsh and rasping. 

75. CASPIAN TERN. 

Largest of our Terns, 21; form, robust; 
bill. long, thick, heavy, dull red; tail, slight- 



TERNS. 



109 



ly forked, feathers not narrowed terminally, 
fig. 78. White, black-capped, mantle pale. In 

Fig. 7«. 




Caspian Tern. 1-2. 

winter back of head, streaked with white. 
Feet, black. Young, grayish flecked above 
with dusky; each tail feather has a subter- 
minal dusky spot. Flight, although heavy, 
is swift and tern-like. Cries very harsh and 
rasping suggesting a rapid honking of the 
Canada Goose. Nearly cosmopolitan, breed- 
ing south in N. A. to Va., Tex., Nev. and 
Mich. Not very common on the coast of N. 
E. 



no 



[/)X(;-^vixrxET) swniMEKS. 



76. ROYAL TERN. 
Similar to last; tail more deeply forked, 
its outer feathers narrowed, fig. 79; flight, 
rather heavy and jerky. Cry, a harsh, rosp- 

Fis. 79. 




Caspian Tern. 1-2. 

ing croak. Breeds from coast of Va. south- 
ward in June; rare as far north as Mass. and 
the Great Lakes; winters from the Carolinas 
soutlnvard; Al)undant. 

77. CABOT TERN. 
Similar in color to last, but smaller, 14, 
and more slender; bill, black yellow^ at tip; 
feet, black, fig. 80. Cry, single, harsh, often 
repeated. Breeds on Gulf Coast and Bahamas, 
accidental at Chatham, Mass., one record; 
winters from the Fla. Keys southward. 



TEKNS. Ill 

Pale=backed Terns. 

Smaller Terns; tails deeply forked; out- 
er feathers narrowed terminally, fig. 81. All 
of our species, excepting 79, have black caps 
and pale blue-gray mantles. Flight, graceful 
and rapid. 

78. TRADEAU TERN. 
Size of Common Tern, but differs from 
this and all others of the group in having 
head white with dusky spot on either side 
extending from bill to ear coverts enclosing 
eye; remaining plumage, pearl-gray; bill; 
black, yellow at base and tip; in winter en- 
tire under parts white. Southern S. A., acci- 
dental in N. J. and Long Island (Audubon). 

79. COMMON TERN. 
Size, 14; mantle, rather dark; tips of out- 
er tail feathers not extending beyond points 
of folded wings and their outer webs are dus- 
ky, fig. 81; chiefly white below; bill, red 
black at tip, fig. 80; in winter, cap white 
black on occiput only. Young with forearm 



112 I.OXCMVINOEI) SWIMMEFvS. 



W 

o 

o 
o 

2 
O 

^^ 




TERNS. 



113 



dusky; cap, white anteriorly, dusky behind 
wholly across occiput, extending forward 

Fig. 80 




Cabot Tern, 1-7. 

narrowly around eye; mantle, a little darker 
than in adult sometimes banded with dusky 
bill, nearly black ; wings, much as in adult 
tail, shorter, ashy with outer webs dusky 

Fig. 81 




Common Tern. 1-10. 



feet, red. Cry, " te-arr,'' last syllable pro- 
longed; alarm, " A;^," repeated rapidly many 
times. Greater portion of Northern Hemis- 



114 LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 

phere ; in N. A. breeds on coast and it suit- 
able places in interior east of plains from 
Fla., Tex. and Ariz., north to the Arctic in 
May; south in Sept., but a few linger on 

Fig. 82 




Young Common Tern. 

coast until middle Oct.; winters south of the 
U. S. Abundant. 

80. FOSTER TERN. 
Differs from last in having bill black, 
outer webs of tail feathers white, fig. 82; in 
winter entire top of head and occiput white, 
but there is a wide black space about eye, 
fior. 88. Young similar to winter. Bill and 
feet, always black. Breeds chiefly, in the in- 



TERXS. 



115 



terior from Va., 111., Tex. and CaL, north to 
Manatoba, in May. South in Sept.; winters 
from N. C. to Brazil; north in April; rare 

Ficr. 88 










Forster Tern. 1-2. 

on the coast of Mass. Cries, similar to those 
of Common Tern but harsher. 

81. ARCTIC TERN. 

Differs from Common Tern in having 
bill wholly red, fig. 85, under parts pearl- 

Fiff. 84 




Forster Tern. 



gray, and feet coral-red. Young have l)ill 
black, feet yellow but the rump in all ages 



116 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMEKS. 



Fis. 85 







'■'Mf'-' 






■^fJh \,(f^^; i ..=: / y 



■mm rv" /-•••>./" "^ ^. X 

vKyff 

Arctic Tern. 



TEKXS. 117 

is always abruptly white ; cries qviite 
similar to those of common Tern but more 
interrupted. Northern Hemisphere, now 
breedino^ from Me. (formerly from southern 
Mass.) north to Arctic. Time of migration 
similar to that of Common Tern with which 
is then associates at least as far south as 
coast of Mass. ; winters in the Antarctic. 

82. ROSEATE TERN. 

More slender ; tail longer than any of 
the preceeding, and this has the outer 
feather very narrow terminally and is wholly 
white; bill, black; feet, yellow; in summer 
tinged with rosy lieneath, fig. 86. Young 
have back banded and mottled with dusky 
and bill and feet black, fig. 87. Cry O-ar-ar- 
ar, harsh and rooling, difficult to imitate. 
Temperate and Tropical regions ; breeds, 
from south shore of Mass. southward in 
May; winters south of U. S., south in Aug.; 
north in May ; often wanders in fall north 
.of Cape Ann. Common. 



lib 



LONG-WINGED SWIMMER 




Fi<^. 86— Roseaie Tern, 



TERNS. 119 

83. LEAST TERN. 

Our smallest Tern, 9; entire upper parts 
including tail, pale pearl-gray; top of head 
(excepting lunette on forehead), and two 

Fig. 87 




Roseate Tern Youngr. 1-10. 



outer primaries black; white beneath ; ])ill, 
yellow black at extreme tip, fig. 88-89; feet, 
yellow; in winter, white of lunette more ex- 
tended. Young with a patch of dusky on 
wing and V-shaped marks of dusky on back; 
tail not as deeply forked. Beeds from south 
shore of Mass. (formerly Ipswich), south- 
ward from late May (Bahamas) to early 
July (Mass.) South in Sept., north in May 



120 LONG-WINGED SWIMMEKS. 

and June; winters south of U. S. Cries, 
Tee-deel-deedle ; alarm a decidedly given 
Hoyt repeated irregularly, flight rather 
jerky. 




Least Tern. 

Dusky=backed Terns. 

Size, rather large; mantle and head 
dusky or black ; bill, slender and with feet 
wholly black ; tail deeply forked. Flight, 
swift with long, sweeping wing-beats, single 
egg lighter than in the preceding groups. 



TERNS. 



121 



84. BRIDLED TERN. 

Length 14; pale slate above; white 
collar on back of neck; crown, black, lunette 
of white of forehead the horns of which 
extend over and just back of eye, fig. 90: 
beneath, pure white. Young have white 
of forehead more extended and the back is 
gravish more or less streaked with white. 



Fis:. 89 




Least Tern. 1-6. 

Cries, shrill, ordinary- note " killick " often 
repeated: alarm a croak: signal for flock to 
dart downward when flying is a shrill, snar- 
ling cry, see page 107. Tropical sea coasts 
in general; breeds commonly on Bahamas 
in May, placing Q<g^ in cavities beneath 



122 



I.ONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 



rocks, comes north in April, goes south in 
in fall. Accidental in Fla. 

85. SOOTY TERN. 

Larger than last: 16; not as slender; 
black above; horns of lunette not extending 
back of eye, fig. 91. Young, sooty brown 
throughout paler below; wing coverts and 

Fiff. 90 




Bridled Tern. 



scapularies narrowly but distinctly tipped 
with white. Ordinary note. Quank repeated 
irregularly; alarm, Qn-ank rapidly repeated, 
signal cry for darting downward like that of 
last species. 

Flight heavier and less graceful than 
tliat of Bridled Tern. Ranire similar, but 



TERNS. 128 

breeds commonly on Tortugus. Fla., and 
occurs regularly but rarely along the coast 
of S. C, casually to N. E. 

Short=tailed Terns. 

Small, dark above and sometimes be- 
low ; tail, shorter* than tips of folded wings 
and but slightl.y forked. Eggs, 3-4 averaging 
darker than others of the family. 

Fior. 91 




Sooty Tern. 1- 

86. BLACK TERN. 

Length, 9; black throughout with under 
portions of wings and under tail coverts, 
white, fig. 92. Winter, head, excepting 



124 LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 

occiput, neck all around and below white. 
Young, brown plumbeous above, white on 
forehead and below with sides plumbeous. 
Flight very light and graceful as it hovers 
closely over water. Breeds in interior from 
middle U. S., west of Alleghanies. northward 

Fior. 92 * 




Black Tern. 1-4 



in May. South in May and Sept. when not 
uncommon on coast of N. E. and near it ; 
rare here in June. Winters in S. A.; north 
in May. 

87. WHITE-WINGED BLACK TERN. 
Differs from above in having tail and 



upper coverts white and wings whitish 



111 



TERNS. 



125 



all stages. Europe, a single one taken in 
Wis. a number of years ago. 

88. NODDY. 

Large, lo; tail, much rounded; sooty 
brown throughout, white on top of head, 
fig. ,93; bill and feet, black. Flight rather 
erratic, wdth long, sweeping wing-beats, 

Fm. 93 




Noddy. 1-5. 

keeping low over water w^hen it somewhat 
resembles a petrel; when sitting, unlike 
other terns w^hich usually keep head on a 
level with body, holds head high like a dove. 
Cries, a series of croaks. A gentle bird which 



126 



LONG-WINGED SW1M:SJERS. 



may be taken from its nest without making 
an effort to defend itself. Intertropical 
seas; breeds on the Tortugus and Bahamas 
in May; rare on coasts of South Atlantic 
and Gulf States. 

Fiff. 94 




Black Skimmer. 1-5 



SKIMMERS. 

Birds with a Tern - like appearance 
having: lony: wings and a short slightly 
forked tail; bill singular, thin and knife- 
like with under mandible over-lapping 
upper, fig. 94. 



TERNS. 



12^ 



89. BLACK SKIMMER. 

Large, 18; white beneath, on tail and 

forehead, black elsewhere above ; bill, black 

with base and feet vermillion. Young 

whitish on head and tail tipped wdtli brown- 

Fis. 95 



Eed Phalaroyje. 

ish. Rests in large flocks on isolated sandbars 
by day and w^hen started moves with an 
excentric flight with long sweeping wing- 
beats; at nightfall separates into small com- 

Fig. 96 




Red Phalarope 

panics, and forming lines, sweeps up estuaries 
and rivers against tides or current, keeping 
close to water with the elongated lower 



128 



I.ONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 



mandible below surface, thus secure what 
food floats on surface. Cries harsh and 
abrupt, much like the bark of a young 
puppy or fox. Eggs placed on sand near 
sea; 2-3, white handsomely mottled with 
dark-brown and lilac. Coasts of warmer 
portions of America breeding on Atlantic 



Fiu-. .97 



.^r-^ 




Aault ^ Red Pbalar()])e. 1-4. 

side from N. J. southward in May. Winters 
from Fla. Keys northward. 

SHORE BIRDS. 

Long-legged and usually long-winged 
with elongated tertiaries; bill variable but 
quite long and slender; size, also variable 
but never very large. Eggs, usually 4, 
pyraform, almost always placed on ground. 



TERNS. 



129 



Young, covered with down and active when 
hatched. Inhabit nearly all regions of the 
globe. 

PHALAKOPES. 

Sandpiper-like with duck- like habits; 
breed far inland, but pass a greater portion 

Fig. 98. 




Wilson Phalarope. 



of lives on open ocean upon which their 
thick plumage enables them to float readily, 
while their lobed toes enable them to swim 
with ease. Sexes, disimilar the females, 
being brighter than males; gregarious. 



130 



SHORE BIRDS. 



90. RED PHALAROPE. 

Median size, 8, bill short and thick, 
fiof. 95; toes, well lobed. Summer female, 
purplish cinnamon beneath and on neck 
behind, sides of head and rump, white; top 
of head, dark plumbeous; back, light reddish 
streaked w^ith Ijlack, fig. 97. Summer male 

Fig. 99 




Adult 9 Wilson Phalarope. 1-4. 

smaller and duller. Winter adult, head, 
neck and lower parts, white; back, pearl- 
gray. Young, black above and w-hite be- 
neath, tinged with buff. Occurs in Northern 
Hemisphere, breeding far north ; south in 
winter in N. A. as far as off coast of N. E. 
in Sept., Oct., and May; rare in the interior. 



PHALAROPES. 131 

91. WILSON PHALAROPE. 

Smaller than last, bill lon<?, slender and 
awl-like, fig. 98; has toes less lobed, fig. 98. 
Summer female, white beneath, gray-white 
above, becoming white on upper tail coverts 
and a portion of tail; line of black on side of 
head becoming chestnut on sides of neck 

. Fig. 100 




Northern Phalarope. 

and broadening on back, ^g. 99. Summer 
male, duller. Winter adult ash-gray above, 
white on upper tail-coverts and beneath. 
Young, similar but blackish above. Tem- 
perate N. A. breeds, from Southern 111. and 
and Utah north to Saskatchawan region. 



132 SHORE BIKDS. 

Winters off coasts of Brazil and Patagonia. 
Rare on coast of N. E. in May and Aug. 

92. NORTHERN PHALAROPE. 

Smaller, 7.50; bill smaller, foot more lobed, 
fig. 100. Summer female, black above, white 
on rump; distinct way band and under parts 
white. Sides of neck and chest rufous, 

Fig. 101 




Northern Phalarope. 1-4. 

fig. 101. Summer male, duller. Winter adult 
grayish above with blackish patch on sides 
of head, forehead, line over eye and beneath, 
white, young, similar, but streaked with 
buft' above. Northern Hemisphere, breeds 
far north; winters, from coast of N. C. 
soutliward. Common off coast of N. E. from 



PHALAROPES. 



133 



middle Aug. to Oct.; occasionally seen on 
beaches and rarely on waters of interior; 
comes north in May. 

AVOCETS AND STILTS. 

The longest legged of any of the Shore 
Birds ; social and occur near fresh water ; 
size rather large. 

Fig. 102 




American Avocet 1-4 



93. AMERICAN AYOCET. 

Length, 17; bill longer than head and 
decidedly recurved; folded wings not quite 



134 



SHORE BIRDS. 



reaching end of tail; head, neck and chest 
light cinnamon, wings and two broad stripes 
on back, black; tail, ashy; elsewhere white, 
fig. 102 ; in winter cinnamon is replaced by 
white. Swims well and frequently alights 

Fig. 108 




Black-neeked Stilt 



on water. Cries, harsh and continuous. 
Breeds in the interior west of Mississippi 
River from Kansas north to Saskatchawan 
and Great Slave Lake; winters south to 
Guatemala; exceedingly rare in eastern U. S. 



STILTS. 



135 



94. BLACK-NECKED STILT. 

Size. 14; bill longer than head and 
nearly straip:ht; top of head to middle of 
back and wings, black; tail gray; spot be- 
hind eye and plumage not mentioned, white; 
bill, black; iris, red; feet, crimson; fig. 103. 
Female with back brownish. Young differ 
from last in having back banded with dull 

PiiT. 104 




American Woodcock. 

white and top of head finely mottled with 
it. Breeding note a loud put repeated many 
times at regular intervals as the bird either 
sits or flies; alarm, a series of harsh screams. 
Flight, steady, not swift, wing-beats rather 
slow and low sweeping. When on the wing, 
the head is held partly back, but the legs 
are fully extended or in short flights are 
held dangling. Although it often wades in 



136 



I.ONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. 



water so deeply that it nearly floats, it 
seldom swims. A number will sometimes 
sit together in the water moving the pri- 
maries up an down with a fan-like move- 
ment while the secondaries are kept motion- 
less. Breeds from northern U. S. west of the 
Mississippi southward to Fla., the Bahamas, 
and Antilles in late April and early May. 

Fig. 105 




American Woodcock. 1-6. 

Common but rare in Eastern U. S. north of 
Fla. Arrives in Fla. in March, goes south 
in early Oct. 

WOODCOCK AND SNIPE. 

Birds of fresh water swamps and marshes. 
Bill much longer than head; wings and legs, 



WOODCOCK. 



137 



short; tail, short and rounded, All of the 
species are well-known game birds. Sexes 
similar. 

95. AMERICAN WOODCOCK. 
A short-necked stout-bodied species 11 
long which lives in wooded or bushy swamps. 

Fisf. 106 



Wilson Snipe 



Wings very short folding, at base of tail, 
with the outer j)rimaries much narrowed, 

Fig. 107 




Wilson Snipe . 1-6. 

fig. 104; brown above with the buify bars 
crossing top of head, elsewhere faintly 



lo8 SHORE BIRDS. 

banded with reddish buff and mottled with 
ashy brown; beneath, reddish-buff; bill and 
feet, brown, fig. 105. Downy-young, rust- 
buff throughout mottled and spotted above 
wdth brown. Often occurs in alder swamps. 
Flight direct and swift, wing beats rapid 

Fig-. 108 




Dowitcher. 1-6. 

often accompanied by a whistling sound. 
From early March to July gives the evening 
flight sono^ on or near feeding ground. 
After giving a series of bleating cries on 
ground the male bird rises in a huge ever- 
narrowing spiral until at its apix he is 
directly over where he started; he then 



WOODCOCK. 



139 



discends on rocking wings to his starting 
point, giving a continuous melodious sub- 
dued whistle. The performance is often 
repeated many times during the evening, 
but great caution is necessary in approach- 
ing the bird as he is easily alarmed. 

Fiff. 109 




Stilt Sandpiper. 

Breeds throughout eastern N. A. from 
Fla., north to Canada in March and April. 
Often nests in birch or alder swamps. Goes 
south in Oct. and Nov.; north in late Feb. 
and March. Once common but becoming 
rare. 



140 



81IOKE lilKDS. 



96. EUROPEAN WOODCOCK. 
Differs from last in being larger, 13, 
and in being distinctly banded beneath. 
Northern Eastern Hemisphere; occasional 
in Eastern N. A. 

Fig. 110 




Knot 



97. WILSON SNIPE. 
More slender than Woodcock but about 
the same length; grayer above, mottled and 
streaked with darker ; crown with a divided 
line of lighter; white beneath with a band 
of dusky streaks across breast; a subterminal 
band of chestnut on tail, fig. 107. Occurs 
in (^pen fresh water marshes; when startled 



WILSOX SNIPE. 



141 



rises quickly and flies swiftly in a zig-zag 
course uttering a bleating scape as it goes 
and showing the under wing marking which 
are banded with black and white, the black 
being as wide or wider than the white; 
when high in air winds are circles about, but 
Fis:. HI 




Purple Sandpiper. 



1-5. 



is quite apt to return and alight near where 
it started. In spring on its breeding ground 
and sometimes in migration, can be heard 
producing the sound called winnowing; it 
rises high in air sometimes singly, but often 
three or four together and flying in a zig-zag 
way utters a soft bleating cr\' . Breeds from 



142 



SHORE BIRDS. 



northern U. S. northward, occasionally 
further south. Winters from N. C. south 
to northern S. A. North in April and May; 
south in Sept. and Oct., but sometimes re- 
mains in Mass. into Nov. 

98. EUROPEAN SNIPE. 
Differs from last in having the white 
bandings on wing lining wider then the 

Fig. 112 




Pectoral Sandpiper. 

dark interspaces. Europe, northern Asia and 
Africa, frequent in Greendland; accidental 
in Bermuda. 

SANDPIPERS, ETC., ETC. 
Occur chiefly in marshes, either salt or 
fresh or on sea beaches, occasionally in dry 



SANDPIPERS. 



143 



fields but never in wooded swamps. Folded 
wings reaching bayond tail. Highly grega- 
rious in habit. Summer and winter plumage 
different, but sexes similar. General flight 
swift and direct with a rapid wing-beats; 
turning and wheeling in air is performed 

Fi?. 113 




White-rumped Sandpiper. 1-4. 

with ease and grace large flocks moving with 
a regularity which is surprising. All species 
run swiftly ; although none when adult 
swim voluntarily when uninjured, wounded 
birds and young often enter the water and 
swim with ease. 



144 SlIOKE BIRDS. 

99. DOWITCHER. 

Bill ver3' long, 2.35, nearly twice the 
length of the head; size, medium, 10, Sum- 
mer; cinnamon throughout streaked with 
brown above spotted with dusky beneath; 
lower back, rump and tail white, banded w4th 
dusky; bill brown; feet, greenish; fig. 108. 

Fio-. 114 




Baird Sandpiper. 

In winter the color above is plain gray; 
white beneath banded on lower neck and 
sides with gray. Young are darker above 
tinged on both surfaces with reddish buff. 
Note a mellow whistle uttered as the bird 
rises and when on the wing; this call is 
often followed by one or two others which 
are low and querulous. Occurs about muddy 



\ 



km 




^ 't:M^ 






/ /: 




146 



SIIOKE 131KDS. 



spots on salt marshes and slou<ilis, singly or 
in flocks, some of which are very large. 
When feeding j)robes with bill by pushing 
it straight downward often putting its head 
under water. Tame and easih' approached. 
Eastern N. A. breeding far north, passes 



Fio-. 116 




Ked-backed Sandpiper. 



south chiefly along the coast in July and 
Aug. Winters from N. C. to the W. 1. and 
Brazil; north in May; abundant at this 
season in the Bahamas but not as common 
further north. 



SANDPIPERS. 147 

100. LONG-BILLED DOWITCHER. 

Differs from last in having bill longer, 
3.10, and being deeper in color beneath 
where there are few or no blotches, western 
N. A. heeding in Alaska and near Arctic 
coast, south through western U. S. including 
the Mississippi Vallej', and less commonly 
along Atlantic coast to winter in Mexico. 

Fi^. 117 




Curlew Sandpiper. 

101. STILT SANDPIPER. 

Slender, 9; bill, longer than head; 
summer, tail, white; remaining ujoper parts 
dusky brown streaked and banded with 
dusk\': patch on side of head, reddish; white 
beneath, banded with dusk3^ Winter gray- 
ish above, no redish spot on side of head, 
beneath, white unhanded, fig. lOL Young, 
more huffy above than last and with a buff 
tinocing on breast. Note, a chuckling whistle. 






-111 




X 









i 



lii 






V lii 



li H 







K 



SANDPIPERS. 149 

Flight, swift and direct with rapid winir- 
beats. Occurs often with Dowitcher in similar 
places. In feeding, habituallj^ puts head 
wholly l^eneath water-. For comparisons with 
Lesser Yellowlegs, see that species.. 

Eastern X. A. breeding north of the 
U. S. Winters in S. A.^ south in July when 

Fig. 119 




>- ■ 






Western Sandpiper. 

it is not uncommon on coast of Mass. ; north 
in April when common in Fla. but rare 
further north on the coast. 

102. KNOT. 
Rather stout, 10.50, witb rather short, 
quite thick bill. Summer, ashy-gray above, 
mottled with dusky and reddish; upper tail 



15U 



SIIOKE BIKDS. 



coverts, white banded with dusky; pale cin- 
namon beneath narrowly streaked on breast 
and banded on sides with dnsky. fig. Ill; 
bill, brown; feet, greenish. Winter silvery 
p-rav above ; white beneath tinofed with 
yellowish. Young differs from winter in 

Fis. 120 




Sanderlin^. 1-4. 

being w^ithout the 3'ellowsbip tinge below. 
Note, a clear, double whistle not loud nor 
often given in migration. Occurs on sand3^ 
beaches in small flocks, by itself or singly 
in company with other beach birds. North- 
ern Hemisphere, breeding far north; goes 



SAXDPIPEK8. 



151 



south on the Athunic oohhI of N. A. from 
middle July until Nov. Winters from N. C. 
southward, but is not found on the Bahamas 
and is rare in the W. L; north in May, when 
not uncommon on sotuh shore of N. E. but 
rare north of Cape Ann. 

Fitr. 121 




Lesser yellow-le2:.s. 1-5. 

103. PURPLE SANDPIPER. 

Stout, short-legged, 8.50; bill about as 
long as head; summer anpearing nearly 
black above and white below; with breast 
and sides strongly overwashed with crray- 



152 SIIOKS BlRBtS. 

isli; bill dark brown, orange at base; feet, 
greenish yellow, fig. 109; winter and young 
with dark upper parts obscured with gray- 
ish which is more extended below; upper 
tail coverts and rump black in all stages. 
Note, a feeble whistle. Noithern portion 

Fis:. 122 




[Solitary tSandpiper. 1-4. 

of Northern Hemisphere, breeding far north; 
migrating south in N. A. in Oct.; appearing 
on the coast of N. E. about Nov. 1. Winters 
from Canada, south to the Great Lakes and 
upper Mississippi Valley and on the x\tl antic 
coast locally from Grand Menan to the south 
shore of N. E., more rarely to N. J. and 



SAXDPirEEiS. 



casuall\^ to Fla. Occurs most freqiientlj^ on 
rocky islands; pfoes north in April but occa- 
sionally remains until May. 

104. PECTORAL SANDPIPER. 

Rather stout, 8.50, bill about as long as 
head; summer, dark brown above with 



Fisr. 123 




Willet.- 1-4. 

feathers marcrined with brownish buff; white 
beneath; foreneck and breast cloiuied with 
buff streaked with dusk^^; bill, bro\vn; feet, 
greenish, fig. 113. Winter more obscured 



154 



SHORE BIRDS. 



with buff above. Young more rusty above 
and more buff below; rump and upper tail 
coverts always dark. For comparison see 
White-rumped Sandpiper. Note, a rolling 
whistle, often given harshly and gratingly. 
Flight, when startled swift and erratic, 

Fig. 124 




Ruff. 



something like that of Wilson Snipe. 
Occurs with other Sandpipers about sloughs 
and among the grass of salt niarshes where 
it has the habit of squatting to hide when 
approached. Breeds in the Arctic of N. A. 



SAXDriPEKS. 



155 



south from the middle of July until the first 
of Nov. when abundant on coast and rather 
common in interior, not common on Atlantic 
coast south of N. J. Winters far south in 
S. A., north in May when rare on coast and 
common in interior. 

Ficr. 125 










Bartr-amian Sandpiper. 1-8. 

105. WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPKR. 
Smaller than last, 7, more slender; sum- 
mer, rump and upper tail-coverts white, 
graj'er above, tinged with reddish; no de- 
cided clouding across breast, fig. 113, as in 
the last. Winter with no reddish tinge 
above. Young more reddish above and bufty 



156 



SHORE BIRDS. 



below. Note a short, sharp whistle. Flight, 
ordinary. Occurs on beach, salt marsh and 
margins of pounds near sea. Occasionally 
occurs in small flocks but are usually found 
with other sandpipers. Eastern N. A. breed- 
ing far north; winters in southern S. A. 

Fio^. 126 




Butt-breabiea ^andplpeI•. 1-4. 

casualh^ as far north as Fla. This is the 
Bull Peep of sportsmen. 

106. COOPER SANDPIPER. 

Differs from last in being larger, 9.50, 

in having only a trace of reddish above, and 

in having conspicuous V-shaped marks of 

black on upper tail coverts. Only a single 



SANDPIPERS. 157 

specimen known, obtained on Long Island, 
N. Y., May 24, 1833. 

107. BAIRD SANDPIPER. 
Similar to Pectoral but smaller, 7.25, 
and with weaker bill, fig. 114, is much paler 
below and there are fewer streakings on 

Ficr. 127 




"^^^ 






''^f^ 






■^ 







S^jotted Sandpiper. 1-4. 

breasts. Young have all of the feathers 
above narrowly and abruptly margined w^ith 
pale grayish buff which is conspicuous 
enough to give the back a scaled appearance. 
Note not unlike that of Pectoral but weaker. 
Breeds in Alaska and on the Barren Grounds: 



158 



SHORE BIRDS. 



goes south in Aug. and Sept., but chiefly 
through the interior of the Western States; 
rare on the Atlantic coast from N. E. south- 
ward; north in April, but always through 
the interior. 

Fio-. 128 




Marbled Godwii. 

108. LEAST SANDPIPER. 

Smallest of our Sandpipers, 6.15; in 
spring much like a small edition of the 
Pectoral, but not as much clouded nor 
streaked on breast, fig. 115; winter, grayish 
above but with dark markings prominent 
and with buffy clouding on breast. Young 



SANDPIPEES. 159 

with much rufous above and the breast 
decidely buff. Bill always brown and feet 
greenish yellow. Ordinary call a trilling 
whistle; also gives a low piping note when 
feeding, besides these gives sweet tremulo 
calls as a flight song. This is the Peep or 

Fig. 129 




Hudsonian Godwit 



Mud Peep of gunners and is very abundant, 
occurring most frequently about ponds on 
the marshes and in sloughs; less seldom on 
fresh waters and sea beaches. While it 
sometimes occurs singly or in small com- 
panies, it also occurs in flocks from 100 to 
500 or more. Breeds north of the U. S.; 



IGO 



SHOKE BIRDS. 



passes south in July and Aug.; winters from 
N. C. southward into S. A.; comes north 
in May. 

109. RED-BACKED SANDPIPER. 
Larirer, 8.25; bill longer than head and 
curved, fig. IIG. Summer, above red dis- 

Fio-. 180 







Lon^billed Curlew. 1-S. 

tiuctly spotted with black; wings, gray; 
white beneath, wnth large patch of bhack on 
l)elly. Winter, ashy above, white beneath 



SANDPIPERS. 



161 



with breast tinged with a.sh\\ Youns: show 
traces of rufous. Upper tail coverts, bill 
and feet always black. A very unsuspicious 
species that occurs on sandy beaches more 
often than elsewhere, sometimes singly but 
more often in flocks or in company with 

Fig. 131 




Hudsonian Curlew. 1-8. 

other Shore Birds, call, a rather plaintive, 
melodious Purre; when alarmed utters a 
short cackling cry. N. A. breeding far 
north; goes south from Sept. to Nov.; winters 
from N.C. southward; north in May. Abund- 
ant on Atlantic coast in fall but rather un- 
common in spring north of N. C. 



162 SHORE BIRDS. 

110. DUNLIN. 
Differs from the Red-back in having 
less red above, the black markings predomi- 
nating, is more heavily streaked with black 
below, but black of belly is less conspicuous. 
Northern parts of Old World; accidental in 
eastern N. A. ; one record for Mass. 

Fig. 132 




Esquimo Curlew. 

111. CURLEW SANDPIPER. 

About size and form of last with bill 
slightly curved, fig. 117; summer, upper 
tail coverts white; tail gray, lower parts 
reddish chestnut; upper parts varied with 
blackish and rusty. Winter, not dissimilar 



SANDPIPEKS. 



163 



to Red-blacked at this season but the upper 
tail coverts are white, not black as in that 
species. Old World, occasional in eastern 
N. A. and Alaska. There are a number of 
N. E. records. 

Fisr. 133 




Black-bellied Plover. 1-8. 
(Adult, youns: in tiio^hr.) 

112. SEMIPALMATED SANDIPER. 
Differs from the Least Sandpiper in 
being larger, 6.75, bill, 75; grayer above 
with only a slight tinge of reddish on sides 
of head in spring and with no clouding 
below, but a few streakings on breast, 



164 



SHORE BIRDS. 



fig. 118. Winter there is no bu:ff or reddish 
anywhere. Young, slightly marked with 
reddish above; the breast is slightly clouded 
with no streakings; bill and feet, black. 
Are abundant species both spring and fall 

Fio^. 134 




Golden Plover, 1-8. 

all along our coast and often on fresh water 
of interior frequently occurring in flocks of 
hundreds. Ordinary note not unlike the 
peep of the Least Sandpiper and a low roll- 
ing note given both when sitting and in 
flight; in spring gives a series of musical 



SANDPIPERS. 



165 



notes, a kind of love song as the bird ad- 
vances with down-curved pinions and rapid 
wing-beats. Occurs throughout eastern N. 
A. breeding north of the U. S.; comes south 
from middle of July until Nov.; winters 
from N. C. throu^rh the Bahamas and W. I. 

Fig. 135 




Kiildeer. 1-3. 



to S. A.; north in May. Stragglers of this 
species and of a number of other sandpipers 
that usually go north of us are often found 
in Mass. all summer. Sportsmen en 11 this 
species, Peep, Bhick-legged Peep and Sand 
Peep. 



166 



SHORE BIRDS. 



113. WESTERN SANDPIPER. 

Similar to the Semipalmated but bill 
longer and stouter, and in spring upper 
parts and head marked with bright cinna- 
mon and distinct streaks and triangular 
spots of dusky which extend along sides, 
fig. 119, in fall distinguished by a longer and 

Fis:. 136 




Semipalmated Plover. 

larger bill. Breeds far north in western N. 
A., goes south about the same time as the 
Semipalmated and winters in the same 
sections ; common in Fla. in winter and 
spring but uncommon further north; a few 
occur along the coast in fall as far north as 
N. E., but not in spring. 



SANDPIPERS. 



167 



114. SANDERLING. 
A medium sized, 7.50. stoutish three- 
toed Sandpiper with a rather short bill. 
Summer, light rusty above and anteriorly 
below, spotted and blotched on back and 
breast with dusky; white wing band and 

Fis:. 137 



^.^^■tei^^ 



Piping Plover, 1-.3. 

conspicuous patch of black on bend of wing. 
Winter, the whitest of our Sandpipers; pale 
gray above, under parts pure white then 
dark patch on wing is very conspicuous, 
fig. 120. Young differ from winter adult 
in being slight mottled with black above 
but are pure white below; bill and feet. 



168 



SHORE BIRDS. 



always black. Common on sand beaches 
from middle July to middle Nov. often 
occurring in large but straggling flocks. 
Winters from N. C. to Patagonia; goes north 
in May when it is less common. An un- 

Fijr. 138 




Wilson Plover. 

usually silent bird, the sounds emitted 
being a squeeky w^histle and low conversa- 
tional notes when feeding. 

115. GREATER YELLOWLEGS. 

One of our largest Shore Birds, 14; bill 
longer than head, 2.25; neck and legs long; 



SANDPIPERS. 



169 



summer, upper tail coverts white banded 
with dusk}^; dark gray above spotted with 
yellowish white; white beneath, streaked 
and spotted on lower neck and banded on 
sides, axillaris and under wing coverts with 

Fio-. 139 




Wilson Plover, Young. 

dusk\^; winter and young not noticeably 
different. Bill, black; feet and legs, yellow. 
Occurs on marshes and mud flats, where it 
makes itself conspicuous, especiall}" in flight, 
by its loud, clear whistle which consists of 
three or four notes and is frequently uttered; 



170 



SIIOKE BIRDS. 



beside this call it gives a kind of scream in 
spring, something like put of the common 
Tern, and a rolling or scolding note. Common 
on the coast and not unfrequent in the in- 
terior near water. Flight, steady with long 
wing beats varied w^ith intervals of sailing. 

Fiff. 140 




Turnstone. 1-5. 

In settling, the bird sails then suddenly 
ab'ghts by dropping its long legs; w^hen 
down it often raises its long wings over its 
l)ack. Breeds in northern N. A., goes south 
from July 1-3 to Aug. 15; winters from N. 
C. southward, north in April and May. 



SANDPIPEES. 



171 



116. LESSER TELLOWLEGS. 
Smaller than last, 10.25, color very 
similar, fio-. 121. Calls not very different 
but the whistle usualW consists of two notes 
and these and the roll are not as loud; the 
whistle is so^netimes p:iven as continuous 



Fi2. 141 




Oyster-catcher. 1-10. 

repetitions as bird sits. Breeds far north in 
N. A.; comes south from July 1 to Sept. 15, 
when it is common along the coast and not 
infrequent in the interior; winters in soutli- 
ern S. A.: rare in Fla. at this season; north 



172 SHORE BIRDS. 

in April and May, when uncommon on 
Atlantic coast but abundant in Mississippi 

Valley. 

117. GREENSHANK. 

Differs from Greater Yellow legs in 
having the lower back and rump pure white 
without markings. Eastern Hemisphere, 
breeding far north ; accidental in Fla. 

Fi?. 142 




White Ibis. 1-20. 

118. SOLITARY SANDPIPER, 

Slender, small, 8.50, bill, slender; sum- 
mer, upper tail coverts, dark but tail is 
broadly branded with white; dark above 
finely marked with white, white below dis- 
tinctly streaked on lower neck, breast and 
sides with dusky; bill, black; feet, dark 
gn^enish, fig. 122; winter but slightly differ- 



SANDPIPERS. 178 

ent, young rather lighter. Note, a whistling 
peat repeated four or five times when the 
bird is on the wing; flight rather rapid, not 
very direct with wings kept high and thus 
beats are strong. Teters somewhat when 
sitting: but not as much as does the Spotted 
Sandpiper. Breeds occasionally in northern 

Ficr. 143 



p:^^^^. 




Koseate ISpoonbill. 1-4. 

U. S. but more commonly further north; 
goes south in Aug., Sept. and Oct. Winters 
in extreme southern states, the W. I. and 
northern S. A., north in April (Bahamas, 
rare) and May. Occurs on fresh waters, 
usually ponds and pools, in pairs or at best 
in small companies of five or six, never in 
large flocks. 



174 



SHORE BIRDS. 



119. GREEN SANDPIPER. 

Diilers from the last in being a little 
longer, 10, and in having the middle tail 

Fiii-. 144 




(flossy Ibis. 1-1(3. 

feathers broadly banded with white and the 
upper tail coverts pure white. Places its 
eggs in the abandoned nest of some tree- 
building bird, and our closely allied Solitary 
probably has the same habit. Northern 
parts of Old World; accidental in eastern 
N. A. 



SANDPIPERS. 



175 



120. WILLET. 
Large, 14, stout with long, thick bill 
and large feet. Summer, brownish buff 
varied with dark brown. There is a large 
white patch on wing and the axillaries and 
wing linings are black, best seen in flight, 

Fi^. 145 




Bitteru. 1-20. 

fig. 123; white beneath, head and sides 
streaked and banded with dusky; bill, brown; 
feet, bluish. Winter, without bands or spots 
above or below. Young more yellowish 
above and on sides. A noisy bird constantly 
crying Pill ie-ivilUe-ivillet in loud, shrill tones. 



176 SHORE BIRDS. 

also gives a loud rasping crj" and a chuckling 
note ^vhen alighting. Occurs singh^, in 
pairs, or in small Hocks, on mud flats or 
sandy beaches. Occasionally perches on 
dead branches of trees. Flight rather slow 
and direct; wing-beats strong and well down, 
not rapid. Breeds from N. J. to Fla. and 

Y\cr. 146 




Least Bittern. 1-d. 

irregularly north to N. E. Resident from 
N. C. southward and in the Bahamas, un- 
common on the coast of Mass. in fall and 
rare in spring. 

' 121. WESTERN WILLET. 

Larixer than last with a longer more 
slender l)ill, and with fewer and paler band- 



SANDPIPERS. 177 

ings in summer. Interior of N. A. from the 
Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains. Winters 
on south Atlantic and Gulf coast. 
122. RUFF. 
A large, 11, stout Sandpiper, males of 
which are remarkable in having a cape of 
elongated feathers about neck and a ruff 
above it, fig. 124; face naked. Color variable, 
ruff and cape, either chestnut, buff, black 
or white, plain, streaked or barred; beneath 
and on sides of rump, white. Female, with- 
out ruff or cape; plumage, barred with 
black, wdiite and rusty; white beneath. 
Northern parts of eastern Hemisphere, occa- 
sional in eastern U. S. but chiefly on coast. 

123. BARTRAMIAN SANDPIPER. 
Rather large, 12, with short slender bill; 
neck long; buffy throughout, darker above 
spotted and barred with black, fig. 125. Call 
note, a clear, rather shrill whistle. Flight 
strong and direct, with comparatively slow 
wing-beats. Breeds in the far north in N. A.; 
goes south in Aug. at which time it is not 



178 



SHORE BIRDS. 



uncommon on the coast of Mass., frequent- 
ing hills near the sea. 

The upland Plover, the popular name 
of this species, frequents hill tops near the 
coast, especially in Autumn, both in N.E. 

Fig. 147 




Ward's Heron. 1-12. 

and further South, but when breeding is 
found in fields. 

124. BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER 

Rather small and slender, 8, with a short 
bill: buft'y mixed with black above and 



SANDPIPERS. 179 

spotted with it below, fig. 126, axillaries and 
wing lining white, showing in flight. Young 
have feathers bordered with w^hite. Flight 
rapid, but rather flitting. Call, a clear whistle 
given when on the wing. Breeds in the far 
northern interior of N. A. where it is 
abundant; goes south in Aug. and Sept., but 
in fall appears to be nowhere common; 
winters in S. A., north in May when seldom 
if ever found on Atlantic coast. An in- 
conspicuous species. 

126. SPOTTED SANDPIPER. 

Rather small, 7.50; short leireed; bill, 
medium; w4iite beneath, mrirked with 
rounded spots of dusky; broad band through 
wn!ng, w^hite; greenish brown above streaked 
and spotted with dusky, fig. 127; t;nl tipped 
with white and outer feathers are banded 
with same; in winter is without handings 
above or spots below, fig. 127. Young with 
buff bandings on wings and tail. Downy 
young yellowish gray above, with narrow 
black line down back and on eirher side of 



180 SHORE BIRDS. 

head; white beneath. Flight direct but 
slow, the wdng tips being held below the 
level of the body and vibrated quite rapidly. 
In passing over water flies close to surface 
and if attacked by a hawk dives into it out of 
sight, to afterw^ards emerge flying. Occurs 
singly or in small companies in late summer 
or autumn, never in large flocks on both salt 
and fresh w^ater. Goes south in late Oct., 
stragglers remaining into Nov. as far north 
as Mass., winters sparingly from N. C. to 
Fla.,. common from this point, and on the 
Bahamas, southward to southern Brazil; 
north in April. 

126. MARBLED GODWIT. 

Large 18.50, with a very long, 4, some- 
what recurved bill; pale cinnamon, through- 
out, streaked on head and neck and irreg- 
ularly banded elsewhere w^ith dusky, fig. 128. 
Young, without markings beneath. Cries 
in spring a series of shivering notes; in 
winter w^hen alarmed, harsh and discordant. 
Breeds in interior from Iowa and Neb. 



SANDPIPERS. 



181 



northward to Manitoba and Saskatchewan 
where it occurs on dry prairies. Goes south 
in Aug. and Sept. when accidental or very 
rare on the Atlantic coast from Mass. to N. 
C; formerly wintered commonly in northern 
and middle Fla. on both coasts, now rarely 

Fig. 148 




White Heron. 1-30. 

found on the east coast, but occurs on the 
west coast and in Guatemala and Yucatan; 
north in April. Is found on the borders of 
pools of both salt and fresh water and on 
mud flats in flocks as in eastern Fla. up to 
1877 and probably somewhat later. 



182 SHORE BIRDS. 

127. HUDSONIAN GODWIT. 

Smaller, 15, upper tail coverts always 
pure white; tail black; otherwise chestnut 
spotted with dusk3^;axillaries, black, fig. 129. 
In winter chestnut replaced by gray. Young 
more bufty. Breeds far north in eastern 

Fig. 149 




Snowy E^ret. 1-8. 

N. A.; south in Aus. and Sept., when un- 
common on coast of N.E.; winters in extreme 
southern S. A.; north in April and May. 
Frequents mud Hats, sloughs and beaches. 
Flight, swift and direct. Note, low and 
double. 



SANDPIPERS. 183. 

128. BLACK-TAILED GODWIT. 

Differs from last chiefly in having axil- 
laries white. Europe, accidental in Green- 
land. 

129. LONG-BILLED CURLEW. 

Larger, 24; bill, strongly curved varying 
in length from 3 to 8; cinnamon throughout 
but more reddish below, marked above and 
streaked below on neck, breast and sides 
with dusky; fig. 130. Breeds through the 
interior of temperate N. A; south in Sept. 
when formerly not uncommon on coast of 
N. E. now seldom, if ever, found here; 
winters chiefly in Guatemala; formerly, up 
to 1877 and somewhat later was common 
at this season from N. C. to middle Fla. now 
none occur over this section; north in April. 
Note, a shrill, scream-like whistle. Flight, 
slow with long sweeping wing-beats. 

130. HUDSONIAN CURLEW. 
Smaller, 17, paler. There is a super- 
cilliary and central line on head, axillaries 
banded with dusky. Breeds in far northern 



184 



SHORE BIRDS. 



N. A.; south in Aug. when not uncomnon 
on coast of N. E. and southward, sometimes 
remaining until Oct.; winters all over S. A. 
call note, a clear whistle, fig. 131. Flight, 
strong and direct with rather slow wing- 
beats. 



Fioj. 150 




Green Herou. 1-5. 

131. ESQUIMO CURLEW. 

Smaller, 13.50, bill 2.25; differs from 
last in color in absence of buff on crown 
and in having markings on side arrow- 
shaped, fig. 132. Call note, a soft, mellow 
whistle given in flight. Moves in large, 
dense flocks, sweeping about much as sand- 



SANDPIPERS. 185 

pipers do. Breeds far north in eastern N. 
A., south in Aug.; when it was once abundant 
on coasts of Labrador and south to N. E.. 
now exceedingly rare and on the verge of 
extinct'on; winters in southern S. A., north 
in April when it avoids the Atlantic coast, 
passinsr through the Mississippi Valley and 
westward to the plains. 

132. WHIMBREL. 

Differs from the Hudsonian Curlew in 
having the rump and axillaries white, the 
latter banded w^ith black. Northern parts 
of Old World, occasional in Greenland. 

P L Y E E . 

Difiers from other Shore Birds in having 
shorter bills and necks, and larger heads; 
toes, three. 

133. LAPWING. 

About the size of the Black-bellied 
Plover, 13; wings round, head crested, top 
of head and forehead, throat and breast, 
blue-black; back, metallic green, bluish and 



180 



SHORE BIRDS. 



purple; upper and lower tail coverts, rufous; 
tail, black with basal half and tip, sides of 
head, neck and belly, white; in winter the 
throat is black. Active and noisy. Northern 
parts of Eastern Hemisphere; occasional in 
Greenland and on Lonpr Island. 

Fig. 151 




Louisiana Heron. 1-6. 

134. BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER. 
Our largest Plover, 12. Summer, lower 
parts and sides of head, black; forehead, 
sides of breast, upper and under tail coverts, 
white; above irregularly spotted with dusky 
and white, fi^. 133; bill and feet, black; in 
winter gray above, white beneath. Young, 
like last but have the back spotted with 



SANDPIPERS. 187 

yellow; in all stages the axillaries nre black. 
Breeds in the northern portioQ of northern 
Hemisphere, sonth from middle July to 
Nov. 1; winters from N. C. and Bahamas 
south through the West Indies into S. A. 
Common on coasf^rare in interior. Frequents 
beaches, but is sometimes seen on mud flats. 
Notes, a wild, sweet whistle, also gives a 
chuckling sound when alighting. Flight, 
swift and strong with rapid wing-beats. 
Occurs singly or in small flocks. 

135. GOLDEN PLOWER. 

Smaller, 10.50, bill, more slender, the 
axillaries are always gray and the back 
spotted with golden yellow; in winter and 
young, grayish beneath, fig. 134. Breeds 
in Arctic America; south in Aug. and Sept. 
when common on coast of Labrador, rare in 
in N. E. when up to the early 7('s it was 
common, frequenting the hills on the shore. 
Now the greater number fly directly south 
from Newfoundland to West Indies on their 
way to winter quarters* in southern S. A.; 



188 SHORE BIRDS. 

north in May, passing through interior of 
N.A. Note, a single, mellow whistle. Flight, 
as in the last. 
136. EUROPEAN GOLDEN PLOVER. 
Differs from the last in having the 
axillaries and under wing coverts white. 
Northern Europe and Eastern Greenland. 

137. KILLDEER, 
A slender Plover, 10 long; tail, long, 
rounded; double black ring on neck. Ashy- 
brown above; lower back, rump, upper tail 
coverts and tail pale cinnamon, the lattter 
tipped with white, preceded by a black 
band; band on wing, forehead, and under 
parts, white ; eyelids, red; fig. 135. Young, 
a little more reddish above. Bill, black; 
feet, yellow in all stages. Downy young, 
with a single band on neck. Noisy, con- 
stantly cr3'ing, hilldee, in loud and shrill 
tones as it flies. Flight, rapid, not direct 
for the bird twists and turns; wing-beats 
quick, but long and decided. Frequents 
moist places either on the coast or in the in- 



SANDPIPERS. 189 

terior, sometimes on the sea beaches or on 
bodies of fresh water. Often squats to hide 
when approached then rises suddenly with 
loud cries. Somewhat nocturnal, flying 
readily by night. Breeds throughout tem- 
perate N. A. but although it nests in Mass., 

Fig. 152 




Little Blue Heron. 1-8. 

it is not common here at any time. Goes 
south in Oct. and Nov.; winters from N. C. 
(rarely from Mass.) south to northern S. A.; 
not common in the Bahamas and Greater 
Antilles; north in March and April. 

138. SEMIPALMATED PLOVER. 

Smaller, 7, and not as slender; single 
black ring completely surrounding neck, 



190 



SHORE BIRDS. 



paler brown above than last; lunette on 
forehead, outer tail feathers, tips of all but 
central pair, and beneath, white; bill, black 
orange at base; feet, yellow, fig. 136. Young, 
with black less bright and more buify above. 
Breeds in Arctic and Sub- Arctic N. A. ; south 
from middle July to middle Oct., when 

Fig-. 158 




Black-crowned Night Hertni. 1-6. 

abundant on coast and somewhat common 
in suitable places in interior; winters from 
southern Fla. and Bahamas through the W. 
1. to Brazil. Occurs on beaches, sloughs, 
and mud flats. North in April and May 
when less common on Atlantic coast. Move 
in compact flocks but when feeding scatter 



SAXDPIPERIS. 191 

much, running about in all directions, keep- 
ino: head well up. (These two latter named 
habits characterize all of the Plovers). Flight, 
swift and direct with rather long wing- 
beats. Call note, quite a plaintive w4iistle; 
also gives a single prolonged note when 
sitting. 

139. PJNG PLOVER. 
Differs from the last in having the 
ring much broader. Breeds in northern 
parts of Old World and on west shore of 
Cumberland Gulf in N. A. 

UU. PIPING PLOVER. 
Palest of our Plovers, size of last, but 
differs in being yellowish brown above, in 
having no black on side of head, and the 
ring is represented by two spots, one on 
either side of neck, fig. 137. Young with 
often no trace of ring. Breeds from coast 
of Va., north to Newfoundland, in June, 
south in Sept., winters on the Fla. keys and 
in the Greater Antilles; north from middle 
April through May when it is rare on 



192 



SIIOKE BIRDS. 



Bahamas. Note, a long, sweet mournful 
whistle. Common but rare on the coast of 
Mass., north of Cape Ann in Summer. 

141. BELTED PIPING PLOVER. 
Differs from last in having the black 
band crossing the breast. Mississippi valley, 

Fio-. 154 



^^ 




Black-crowned Xiobt Heron. 1-S. 

breeding from northern 111., north to Lake 
Winnipeg. Occasional on the Atlantic coast. 

142. WILSON'S PLOA^ER. 

Larger, 8, bill thicker and longer; sexes 
not similar. Male, with forehead, stripe 



SANDPIPERS. 193 

over eye and beneath, white. Fore part of 
crown, streak from bill to eye and con- 
tinuous band on breast, black; above but 
little darker than Piping Plover, fig. 138. 
Female, with neck ring brown. Young, more 
reddish above. Breeds from Long Island 
southward through the Bahamas, W. I. and 
along the Gulf coast, in May; casual as far 
north as Nova Scotia in summer. Winters 
from the FLa. Keys, south, through the W. I. 
to S. A. Flight, rather heavy. • Call note, 
a single short, but loud, wdiistle; during the 
breeding season utters a series of rattling 
notes. 

143. MOUNTAIN PLOVER. 

Larger, 8.o0; similar in general color to 
the last, but the black on head is replaced 
by a more or less continuous tinging of 
brown. J^reeds on the western i)l;uns from 
Kansas northward to Canada, in May. 
Occurs on dry plains and feeds chiefly on 
insects; goes south in late fall to winter in 
Southern Cal., Lower Cal., Tex. and Mex.; 



194 



SHORE BIRDS. 



accidental on Key West, Fla. Note, a plea- 
sing whistle. 

144. TURNSTONE. 
Medium, 9.50, forehead, middle and 
lower hack, wing hand, upper tail coverts, 
tail and helow, white; large patch on hreast. 




Yellow-crowned Night Heron, adull and young. 1-8. 

extending on side of head, V-shaped mark 
on rump, subterminal band on tail, hlack; 
above varied with black and red, fig. 140; 
winter, with less reddish above; young, 
wholly without it, but the black V on rump 
is always present. Breeds far north, comes 
south from Aug. to Oct. Winters, from N. 



SANDPIPEKS. 195 

C. .south through S. A. to the Straits of 
Magellan; goes north in April and May. 
Frequents sandy and ston\^ beaches where 
it turns' over small stones, seaweed, etc., in 
search of food, whence its name. Call, a 
clear, melodious whistle, consisting of two or 
three notes; also gives a chuckling sound. 
Flight, moderately swdft and direct wnth 
strong wing-beats. Less common on our 
coast, north of X. C. in spring than in fall. 

145. OYSTER-CATCHER. 

Large, 19; above, head and neck black- 
ish; patch on wing and beneath, white. Bill 
and eyelids, crimson; feet, pale pink, fig. 141. 
Young, marked wutli buff above. Breeds 
on the Atlantic coast from N. J. southward; 
formerly wintered from N. C. to Patagonia, 
now rare on our coast at this season, ac- 
cidental north to Grand Menan. Frequents 
sandy shores and mud flats, feeding chiefly 
upon oysters. Flight slow but direct, with 
strong wing-beats. Alarm note when start- 
led, a harsh discordant scream, but gives a 



196 SPOONBILLS AND IBISES. 

series of more mellow, yodeling cries. Now 
not very common in eastern U. S. 

146. EUROPEAN OYSTER-CATCHER. 

Differs from last in being smaller, 16, 
and the white of the upper tail coverts ex- 
tended on to the lower-back. Europe, oc- 
casional in Greenland. 

SPOONBILLS AND IBISES. 
Large birds with long necks, bills and 
legs; wings, broad; tails, short. Aquatic, 
frequenting mud-flats and muddy shores of 
both salt and fresh water. Food, small 
crustaceans and fishes. Flight, direct and 
rapid with quick wing-beats, the neck is 
extended and the feet held straight out be- 
hind. Nests, placed in trees, composed of 
sticks. Social, often gathering in large 
flocks. Sexes, similar. 

147. ROSEATE SPOONBILL. 
Large, 30; bill, flattened and spoon- 
shaped. Rose pink, patch of crimson on 
lower neck in front, on wing, on upper and 



IBIS. 



197 



lower tail coverts; naked head, green; bill, 
bluish; feet, pink, fio:. 143. Young have 
head feathered, and color pale without crim- 
son markings. Resident in southern Atlan- 
tic Gulf States. Bahamas and southward to 

Fis:. 156 




Wood Ibis. 1-10. 

Patagonia. Eggs, ashy white spotted with 
brown. 

148. WHITE IBIS. 

Smaller, 24; bill, curved; white; tips of 
four outer primaries, black; bill, naked 



198 



SHORE BIRDS. 



Space about head, and legs, yellow, fig. 142. 
Young, head, neck and above slate-brown; 
lower back, rump, upper tail coverts and 
beneath, white. Eesident in Fla. and other 
Gulf States, Greater A^ntilles and northern 
S. A.; north in summer to N. C. and 111., 
casually to L. I. and Conn. 

Fig. 157 




Sandhill Crane. 1-4. 



149. SCARLET IBIS. 

Larirer, 29; scarlet throughout, tips o^ 
outer primaries, black. Young, brown; 
belly, wdiite. Resident on eastern coast of 
Troj)ical America; accidental in Fla., La. 
and Tex. 



SANDPIPERS. 199 

150. GLOSSY IBIS. 
Smaller, 23; head, neck, lesser wing 
coverts and beneath, dark chestnut; above 
metallic green, bronze and purple; space in 
front of eye, greenish; bill and feet, brown, 
fig. 144. Young, gray-brown, head and neck 
streaked with white. Warmer parts of 
Eastern Hemisphere; not uncommon in ex- 
treme southern portion of eastern U. S. 
wandering casually north to N. E. and 111. 

151. WHITE-FACED GLOSSY IBIS. 

Differs from last in having a narrow 
line of w^hite at base of bill, and space in 
front of eye, lake-red. Western U. S., south 
to the Argentine Republic; occasionally 
breeding in Fla. 

Herons. 

Wading birds with long neck and 
legs and long, pointed bills; wings, broad; 
tail, short; flight, strong with comparatively 
slow wing-beats; the neck is doubled back- 
w^ard, but the legs are extended out behind. 
Food chiefly fishes, occasionally crustaceans, 



:^oo 



SHORE BIRDS. 



frogs or even small iiiamiiials. Cries harsh. 
Young, at first naked, helpless and fed by 
regurgitation, but are soon covered with 
down, unless otherwise stated; nests are 
made of sticks and are placed in trees or 
bushes; eggs 3-5, greenish blue. 

Fio-. 158 




Limpkin. 1-S. 

152. AMERICAN BITTERN. 

Large, 29, dark-brown streaked and 
s])otted with yellow-buif; triangular patch 
on side of neck, black; bill and feet, greenish, 
fig. 14-5. Young, similar but paler. Nest- 
lings covered with long yellowish down. 
Breeds throughout temperate N. A. ; south 



BITTERNS. -01 

in Oct., winters from Fla. southward to 
Guatemala; north in April. Common, breed- 
ing: habits solitary. Nests, placed on ground 
in inaccessable fresh water boyrs or occasion- 
ally in salt marshes; ego;s 3-6 green-ash or 
brown, when alarmed the bittern often 
squats in grrass or will even enter water 
leaving the bill only exposed; at other times 
will stand motionless with neck perpen- 
dicular and bill pointing upward, then re- 
sembles a stake. Cries, when startled, harsh 
and sharp. In May and June the singular 
pimk-a-poy notes are given. Flight, direct 
and rather swift with quick wing-beats. 

153. LEAST BITTERN. 

Small, 13; male; top of head, back and 
tail greenish black; sides of head, sides of 
neck, upper wing coverts, and beneath, 
yellow-buff, fig. 146. Female, with back 
brown. Bill and feet alwa\^s yellow. Tem- 
perate N. A. breeding from Mass. (w^here it 
uncommon) to Fla.; winters from Fla. to 
Brazil. Eggs 3-4, pale greenish 



202 



HERONS. 



154. CORY LEAST BITTERN. 
Differs from last in being darker above 

and uniform reddish chestnut beneath. 
Rare, has been taken in Fla., Mich., Mass., 
Wis., 0., N. Y., Toronto. , 

155. GREAT WHITE HERON. 
Large, 47. Pure white; bill, yellow; 

feet, greenish. Occurs on low, mud-bordered 

Fisr. 159 




Kiujy-Kail. 1-6. 

Fla. Keys. Not common; rare in Fla. as far 
north as Ormond and Lake George. Flight, 
heavy with slow wing-beats. 

156. WURDEMAN HERON. 
Differs from last in being darker, ash 
above, in having streaks of black and rufous 



BITTERNS. 203 

on neck in front, bend of wing and tibia 
chestnut and top of head white,' streaked 
with black. Kesident on Fla. Keys; rare; 
possibly a color phase of last. 

]57. WARD HERON. 
A little smaller than last, differs in 
havinor lower parts more broadly streaked 
with black, a larp:e black patch on sides of 
breast, and the occiput with its plume and 
sides of head, black, leaving middle crown 
and forehead, white. Neck, yellow gray, 
fig. 147. Young, with top of head dull slate; 
neck, darker and back marked wnth reddish. 
Resident in Fla., breeding in March. 

158. GREAT BLUE HERON. 

Smaller, 45, bill smaller, usually has 
more black below. Breeds throughout entire 
N. A. from the Arctic southward, excepting 
at least middle and southern Fla., Bahamas 
and W. I. nesting in high trees; goes south 
from Sept. to Nov.; winters from N. C. to 
northern S. A.; occasionally as far north as 
Mass.; north in March and April. 



204 HERONS. 

159. EUROPEAN BLUE HERON. 
Smaller, 37, with tibia and bend of wing, 
white. Northern portions of Eastern Hemis- 
phere; accidental in southern Greenland. 

160. WHITE HERON. 

88; back with greatly elongated plumes, 
stiffened, with barbs separated ; white 
throughout; fig. 148. Winter and young 
without plumes; bill, orange; feet, black. 
Breeds through temperate and tropical 
America, from N. J., Minn, and Ore. south 
to Patagonia; casual on Atlantic coast as far 
north as Nova Scotia. Now not common 
anywhere in U. S. 

161. SNOWY EGRET. 
Smaller, 24, head, breast with egret 

plumes which are more or less recurved at 
tips; white throughout, fig. 149; winter and 
young without plumes; bill and legs, black; 
feet and space at base of bill, orange. Tem- 
perate and tropical America from N. J. 
south to the Argentine Republic and Chili; 
casual as far north as Nova Scotia. 



EGRETS. 



205 



152. REDDISH EGKET. 
Medium size, 80, back plumes present; 
head and neck, reddish; bill, black, purple 
at base; feet, black. Young, plain gray. 
Resident in southern Fla., chiefly on the 
extreme southern and western coasts, west 
along the Gulf coast to Texas and both 

Fiff. 160 




1-4. 



Clapper Rail. 

coasts of Mexico and Guatemala; in summer 
wandering north to southern 111.; recorded 
from Cuba and Jamaica; now rare in U. S. 

163. CHANGING EGRET. 
Differs from last in having the plumage 
irregularly mixed with white. Young, 



200 



HERONS. 



similar but frequently without white mot- 
tlings. Not rare on west coast of Andros, 
Bahamas, casual in Fla. 



Fio:. 161 




Sora. 1-3. 

164. PEALE EGRET. 

Differs from the two last in being white 
throughout m all stages. Resident in Fla. • 
chiefly the east coast, west along the Gulf 
coast to Texas, south to Honduras; Andros 
and Inagua, Bahamas. 



HERONS. 207 

165. LOUISIANA HERON. 
Medium, 25; neck and bill long and 
slender. Head, neck and back plumes 
present; above, asli-l)lue; line down neck in 
front, reddish and white; beneath, white; 
bill, black, bhie at base; feet, gray, fig. 151. 
In winter, bill and feet greenish, changing 
to yellow towards spring. Young, much 
tinged with reddish. Wing-beats, rapid. 
Solitary when not mating. Resident in 
Gulf States, Mex., C. A., Bahamas and W. 
I., casual northward to N. J. and Ind. 

166. LITTLE BLUE HERON. 

Smaller, 22; dark slaty blue; head and 
neck, maroon, fig. 152; this is the usual dress 
but specimens occur which have the plumage 
much mixed with white. Young, always 
white wath the tips of primaries bluish at 
base, and feet greenish. Very aocile; springs 
quickly into air to fly with rapid wing-beats. 
Eastern U. S., from N. J., 111. and Kan. 
south to Bahamas, W. I. to northern S. A., 
casually north along coast to Mass. and 
Me.; winters, from N. C, south. 



208 



HERONS. 



167. GREEN HERON. 
Small, 17.50; above, greenish, looking 
dark in the distance; neck, chestnut-red, line 
down front black and white, beneath brown, 
bill and feet yellow, fig. 150. Young, mot- 
tled with reddish above. Agile running on 

Ficr. 162 




Florida GalUnule. 1-5 

ground and springing quickly into air and 
flying with rapid wing-beats. Note, a shrill 
cry often repeated several times. Common, 
frequenting swampy margins of rivers, 
ponds and lagoons. Nests in low trees and 
bushes. Breeds throughout temperate N. A. 
south to Key West Fla. and southern S. A. 
Winters, from N. C. southward. 



E(iKETS. 209 

168. BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON. 

Larger. 26, and stouter; ash-white; top 
of head and back bLack; bill, dark; feet, 
yellow; slender plume on back of head, 
white. Young, brown, white streaked, figs. 
153 and 154, small fig., young. Very com- 
mon, breeding in large heronry. Flight 
and wing-beats, slow. Cry a harsh, abruptly 
given qnack uttered in flight and other 
gutteral sounds best heard on the breeding 
grounds. Social at all time. Although noc- 
turnnl, frequently feed by day, especially in 
breeding season. Nests from March (Fla.) 
to June (northern N. E.) 

169. YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT 
HERON. 

Smaller than last, 23; bill, thicker; 
head and back plumed, darker above strekaed 
with black especially on crown and sides of 
head. Young, darker brown, narrowly 
streaked with lighter. Cry, similar but not 
as harsh and is less seldom given. Often 



210 



STORKS. 



feeds by day; a large portion of its food 
consists of crabs. Rather solitary but nests 
in small communities. Flight, rapid with 
rather quick wing-beats. America from N. 
C. and the lower Ohio Valley, south to Brazil 
and Peru, casually north to Mass., fig. 155. 



Fi2. 163 




Purple Gallinule. 1-5. 

STORKS. 

Large birds with stout bodies, long 
necks, legs and bills, head and a portion of 
neck destitute of feathers. Young, helpless; 
sexes, similar. 



CKAXES. 211 

170. WOOD IBIS. 

Large, 43; bill, strongly curved; white, 
primaries tail, bill and legs, black; feet, 
yellow; naked head and upper neck, blackish 
covered with whitish scales. Young, head 
and neck feathered, dull brown throughout. 
Cries, harsh and discordant. Head, neck 
and legs outstretched in flight, fig. 156; 
w4ng-beats slow, frequently rises high in air 
to cricle about. Social, nesting in com- 
munities in high trees; nests composed of 
sticks; eggs, 1-2, chalky-white. Frequents 
ponds in swamps and pine woods, in summer; 
in winter more in thick swamps, southern 
U. S., north to the Ohio Valley, south to 
the Argentine Republic. 

CRANES. 

Our species differ from last in having 
hind toe elevated, thus cannot perch on 
trees; front of head only destitute of feathers. 
Nests placed on ground in fresh marshes, 
eggs 1-3, yellowish-brown. Young leave 



212 CRANES. 

nest early and follow parents. Not very 
social; sexes, similar. 

. 171. SANDHILL CRANE. 
Medium, 41; slaty -blue throughout, 
primaries brown, naked space in front of 
head lake; bill and feet, black, fig. 157. 
Young, somew^hat yellowish above. Give 
loud, harsh gobbling cries. Sometimes dan- 
ces with half-raised wings. Frequents ponds 
in pine woods. Shy and difficult to approach. 
Southern N. A.; rather common in unset- 
tled i^ortions of Fla. 

172. LITTLE BROWN CRANE. 

Smaller than last, 35. Northern N. A. 
from Alaska to Hudson Bay ; accidental east 
of Mississippi. 

173. WHOOPINCx CRANE. 
Larger, 52; white, primaries, black. 
Young, yellowish, otherwise as in the 
Sandhill Crane. All the species have slow 
wing-))eat.s and hold neck and legs out- 
stretched, fig. 157, and sometimes soar high 



CRYIXG BIRDS. 213 

in air. Interior of N. A. from the Fur 
Country to Fla., Tex., Mex. and from 0. 
to Col. Not now found in Fla. 

CRYING BIRDS. 

Bill longer than head; neck and legs, 
long; wings of medium length but broad; 
tail, short. Color, dull. Sexes, similar. 

Fiir. 164 




Coot. 

174. LIMPKIN. 

Length, 26. brown streaked very dis- 
tinctly with white; throat, white; bill and 
feet, brown, fig. 158. Partly nocturnal, 
occurring on the borders of swamps. Cries, 
harsh and discordant; when alarmed gives 
chuckling notes, the head in jerked back 
and forward and the tail held erect; runs 
among bushes with swiftness. Food chiefly 
the animals of fresh water mollusks. Nests 



214 RAILS, GALLINULES AND COOTS. 

composed of sticks placed in bushes near 
water; eggs, 5-7, dull buft' spotted with 
brown. Flight, heavy with slow wing-beats, 
the head outstreatched and the feet dang- 
ling, fig. 158. Fla., Greater Antilles and 
Central America. 

Fig. 165 




Coot. 1-5. 

RAILS, GALLINULES AND 
COOTS. 

Medium size or small, legs long, bodies 
compressed and thin; wings short and 
rounded, all of the species run well but are 
])oor flyers, moving in a straight line with 
rapid wing-beats and dangling legs; in 
aiigiuing will drop from a little height upon 



RAILS. 215 

ground or water. Food, insects, aquatic 
animals and vegetable substance. Young, 
covered with down when hatched and active; 
black. 

175. KING RAIL. 

Large, 18; ash-red above, distinctly 
streaked with dark-brown, chestnut red on 
wing-coverts and beneath; flanks banded 
with white; throat, line from bill over eye, 
and abdomen, white; bill and feet, brown, 
fis:. 159. Usually occurs on fresh-water 
marshes, but occasionally found on salt 
marshes. Breeds in May. Nests, placed on 
grounds, eggs, 5-7, buff spotted with brown. 
Cries, harsh and craking. Eastern U. S., 
north to the middle states; casually to Mass., 
Me. and Ontario. 

176. VIRGINIA RAIL. 

Similar to last in color but smaller, 10. 
Young, nearly black. Besides the harsh, 
rail-like craking, rapidly given, it utters a 
chuckling note when slightly alarmed and a 



216 HKKOXS. 

sharp squeak when niiich annoyed. The 
downy young keep up a constant peeping 
when running ahout in the marshes. N. A. 
from Canada south in early Oct.; winters 
from N. C. to Guntemahi; north in early 
April. 

177. CLAPPER RAIL 

Differs from the King Rail in being 
smaller, 14, and in being overwashed with 

Fi2. 166 




Merganser. 

ashy above and below; streakings not as 
distinct, Notes fig. 160. The usual rail-like 
crake and a harsh scream when annoyed. 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. north 
to Conn.; casual in Mass.; resident from the 
Potomac southward. Breeds in March and 
April. 



RAILS. 217 

178. LOUISIANA CLAPPEE RAIL. 
Paler than last above, but more dis- 
tinctly streaked, and red below deeper. 
Coast of Louisiana. 

179. FLOPJDA CLAPPER RAIL. 

Bill more slender, much darker, nearly 
black above, ashy-gray below, mixed with 
cinnamon. Salt marshes of Western Fla. 

180. SORA. 

Smaller, 9, bill shorter than head; face 
and throat black; bill, yellow; feet, green; 
brownish-yellow above broadly streaked 
with brown, dotted and short-lined with 
white; breast and sides of neck, bluish; re- 
maining under parts, white; sides and flanks 
banded with black. Young are over washed 
with reddish below and black markings are 
absent. Notes not as rapid as with the 
Virginia Rail; gives a whistling cry like 
cur-iue and some short chuckles. When a 
gun is discharged or a stone thrown into 
the water of the marsh that it inhabits, will 



218 



RAILS. 



respond by givino^ explosive cries. Tem- 
perate N. A. breeding from the middle 
states northward; goes south in earl^^ Oct.; 
north in April, fig. 161. 

181. SPOTTED CRAKE. 
A little smaller than last, head neck 
and breast thickly spotted with white. 
Northern parts of Old World; occasional in 
Greenland. 




Merganser. 1-10. 

182. YELLOW RAIL. 
Small, 7; yellow-buH', broadly streaked 
on flanks w^ith dark brown, secondaries 
white-tipped, conspicuous in flight. Occurs 
in marshes but sometimes in weedy upland, 
fields. 



RAILS. 219 

183. BLACK RAIL. 

Our smallest Rail, 5.50, very dark- 
brown above, spotted and transversly banded 
with white; back and neck chestnut-red; 
sides of head and under portions, blue-ash, 
banded on abdomen and under tail coverts 
with white. Breeds, throughout temperate 
N. A., north to Mass., northern 111. and 
Ore.; winters from Fla., south through the 
W. I. to Guatemala. South in Sept. ; north 
in April. Very rare everywhere. 

184. CORN CRAKE. 

Larger, 10.50; dark-brown above, mot- 
tled with yellowish; upper, and under tail 
coverts, rusty-red; beneath, blue-gray; flanks 
barred with reddish. Europe and northern 
Asia; casual in Greenland, Bermuda and 
eastern N. A. 

G A L L I N U L E S . 

Rather larger, rail-like, but w^ith stouter 
bodies; toes, long and narrow; bill, shorter 
than head w^th a frontal shield on fore- 



220 GALLINULES. 

head; sexes, similar. Inhabit borders of 
reed-margined streams or ponds. 

185. FLORIDA GALLINULE. 
14 long; bluish slate; back, bronzy, 
under tail coverts and streaks on flanks, 

Fio. 168 




Keti-breasted Meroanser. 1-10. 

white; head, dusky; bill, yellow at tip re- 
mainder and frontal plate sealing-wax red; 
fig:. 162. Young, duller with bill and frontal 
plate greenish. Rather social. Swims well 
and dives with ease; clings to aquatic vegeta- 



GALLINULES. 221 

tion beneath water; when swimming the 
feet are moved as in walking and the head 
is moved backwards and forward with them. 
Notes, a harsh, Rail-like kea repeated several 
times and given more often at night-fall and 
a metallic chuck when annoyed. Flight, 
direct with rapid wing-beats and dangling 
legs. Temperate and tropical America from 
Brazil and Chili north to Canada; rare in N. 
E. and middle States; resident in Fla., migra- 
tory further north. 

186. PURPLE GALLINULE. 

Smaller, 12.50; bright brown-green 
above; blue-purple beneath; sides, greenish; 
under tail coverts, white; bill, red tipped 
with yellow; frontal plate, larorer and blue; 
fig. 163. Young, duller above, reddish 
mixed with white below. South Atlantic 
and Gulf States south through the W. I., 
Mex., C. A. and northern S. A.; rare or 
casual north to Me., N. Y. and Wis., migra- 
tory in the U. S., going south in Sept., 
north in May. Habits, similar to those of last. 



9>0 



COOTS. 



COOTS. 

Dilfers from Galliiiules in having toes 
widely lobated. fig. 164. 

187. COOT. 
Larger than last, 16, differs from it 
in having bill white and white tips to 
secondaries, conspicuous in flight; fig. 165. 

Fis- 169 Fig. 170 




Hooded Merganser. 1-8 



Smew. 1-8. 



Young, duller with feathers more or less 
tipped with white. Notes, half melancholy 
whistles followed by a gutteral chuckle. 
Flight, direct with rapid wing-beats with 
neck outstretched and legs held straight out 
behind; in raising from water, swims rapidly 
then runs with flapping wings, swims well, 



COOTS. 223 

but head is moved as in the last; dives but 
does not use wings under water. Breeds 
chiefly in northern U. S. and southern 
Canada; occurring more rarely north to 
Greenland and Alaska; goes south, largely 
through the interior (but occurring in 
immense, compact flocks at this season on 
fresh and brackish waters in Fla.); north in 
May when less common along Atlantic 
border. 

188. EUROPEAN COOT. 

Differs from last in having edge of 
wing and first primary white, and there is 
no white on under tail coverts. Northern 
Eastern Hemisphere; accidental in Green- 
land. 

DUCKS, GEESE, AND SWANS. 

Water birds which swim readily. They 
occur upon both salt and fresh water. 
Usually social, frequently assembling in 
large flocks. Sexes, dissimilar. 



224 



MERGANSEliS. 



MERGANSERS. 

Long-bodied, long-necked Ducks with 
slender bills, fig. 166. Males appear in the 
eclipse or female plumage in summer. 

189. MERGANSER. 
Large, 24; head upper neck and anterior 
back, black; remainder of back, ashy; white 



"% 



FiiT. 171 



Vicr, 172 





^-^--^ 'Zl-'i^^^^ 



Mallard. 1-12. Black Duck. 1-2. 

beneath, stronirlv tinged with salmon; bill 
and feet, orange. Large white wing-patch, 
iig. 167. Female and summer male; head 
and neck reddish with a well defined line of 
demarkation between it and the white 
beneath; throat, white; back, wholly ashy. 
Young, similar to female. Breeds from Pa. 



MERGANSEKS. 225 

northward; goes south in Sept. and Oct.; 
north in April. Winters, from the Middle 
States southward to the Gulf of Mexico. 
More scatteringly north to Mass. Common 
on fresh water; occasionally seen on salt 
water. Nests placed in holes of trees; eggs, 
6-10 pale buff. Cry harsh, but duck like. 

190. RED-BREASTED MERGANSER. 

Smaller, 22, males with a well defined 
crest, breast and sides of neck, buff, streaked 
with black, creamy white beneath, fig. 168; 
female and summer and fall male, throat 
less white and red of head and neck not 
separated from white beneath by a well de- 
fined line of demarkation. Young, similar 
but duller. Nests, on .s;round; eggs, 6-10, 
greenish-brown. Breeds chiefly north of 
the U. S. : winters from N. E. to Fla. when 
it occur off our coast in flocks of thousands 
which sit on the water in compact masses 
or rise and fly about in a disorderly manner; 
south in Oct., north in April. 



226 



MEKGANSERS. 



191. HOODED MERGANSER. 
Smaller, 19. head prominently crested; 
male, head, neck and collar on lower neck, 
black; patch on head and crest, streaking 
above; patch on wing and beneath, white; 
sides chestnut, finely banded with black; 
bill, black; feet, dusky-orange, fig. 169. 

Fio. 178 




lied-leg^ored Black Uuck. 1-2. 

Female and young brown on head, neck and 
back; white beneath. Occurs more often on 
fresh than salt water; sits low when swim- 
ming and does not associate in large flocks; 
is apt to turn quickly about on water and 
back again. Nests in cavities of trees; eggs, 
6-10, white. N. A. south to Mexico and 



RIVER DUCKS. 227 

Cuba, breeding throughout most of its 
range; resident from N. C. southward. 

192. SMEW. 

Smaller, 17; patch in front of eye, back 
and two crescent-shaped bars on side of 
breast, black; otherwise, white. Female, 
top of head, brown, rest of head and beneath, 
white; back, pale brown. Northern Europe 
and Asia; accidental in eastern N. A. 

RIVEK DUCKS. 

Bill, wide and flattened; legs, short, but 
the birds walk well and often feed on land. 
Terminal portion of inner secondaries, irri- 
descent, forming a shining surface, the sper^ 
ulum. Do not dive but reach down into 
shallow water sometimes tipping the body 
forward. Nests, on ground; eggs, 6-12^ 

greenish. 

193. MALLARD. 

Large, 24; head and neck, green; lower 
neck in front and breast, chestnut; lower 
neck behind and back, reddish-brown, flnely 



228 



inVKK DUCKS. 



banded with white, but becoming bhick on 
upper tail coverts, the tips of w^hich are up- 
turned; beneath, back of breast, creamy- 
white. Speculum, dark blue bordered by 
black, which is marcrined before and behind 
with white; bill, greenish; feet, orange. 
Female and young, dark-brown, banded and 

Fig. 174 Fig. 175 




Gadwall. 1-12. Baldpate. 1-12. 

spotted w^ith yellowish red; speculum as in 
male. Northern parts of Northern Hemis- 
phere; in N. A. breeding south to southern 
U. S.; most common in northeastern U. S. 
during migration in April, Sept. and Oct., a 
few remain all winter as far north as Mass. 
but the greater portion winter in the south. 
In starting from water, rises obliquely. 



RlVEli UUCK8. '2'2'\) 

Easily tamed and is the origin of many of 
our domestic ducks, iisc. 171. 

194. BLACK DUCK. 
A little smaller, 23; dark brown streaked 
with reddish-yellow; speculum, ofreen, bor- 
dered by black only; fig. 172. Female ajid 
young rather more yellowish; in all stages 
the throat is yellowish with few or no spots; 
feet, brownish; bill, green. In rising from 
water springs into air nearly perpendicularly 
to the height of ten feet before darting 
away in swift flight. More often occurs on 
fresh than salt water. Breeds from Mass. 
northward, most abundant during migra- 
tion, in April and Sept. Winters from 
Mass. to S. C. 

195. RED-LEGGED BLACK DUCK. 
Larger than last, darker; throat, thickly 
spotted, fig. 173; bill, yellow; feet, red. 
Breeds north of U. S.; goes south in Oct. to 
winter in great numbers from Mass. to the 
Chesapeake; north in April. Occurs more 
often on salt water than on fresh: sometimes 



280 



DUCKS. 



congregating along the coast in flocks of 
hundreds. 

196. FLORIDA BLACK DUCK. 

Smaller, much more yellowish than 
Black Duck and more broadly streaked; bill, 

Fig. 176 Fig. 177 




Green-wing Teal. 1-8. 



1-8. 



Blue-winged Teal. 

greenish; feet, reddish-orange. Central and 
southern Fla. Not seen in large flocks. 

197. GADWALL. 
Smaller, 21; speculum, white bordered 
in front with black, grayish above, reddish 
on top of head; bill, black; feet, greenish, 
fig. 1 74. Female, brown throughout, spe- 
culum as in male. Nearly cosmopolitan; in 
N. A. breeds in western U. S. where com- 



KIVEl: LUCKS. 231 

mon; rare on Atlantic coast. Goes south in 
Nov. to winter in Central America, north 
in May. Nests, on ground; eggs, 6-10, pale 
brown-buff. 

198. BALDPATE. 

Size of last; speculum, bhick; top of 
head, white; grayish above, breast and 
sides ashy -red; dark stripe behind eye, fig. 
175. Female, duller, crown spotted with 
dusky. Breeds in interior of N. A., chiefly 
north of U. S. Winters from southern 
border of U. S. to Central America; south 
in Sept. and Oct., north in April; rather 
rare on Atlantic border north of Fla. Fre- 
quents fresh and brakish waters. 

199. WIDGEON. 

Differs from last in having crown yel- 
lowish and remainder of head and neck 
chestnut -red. Female, speculum, gray 
bordered with white, excepting below. 
Northern parts of Old World; occurs fre- 
quently in eastern U. S. 



TEALS. 



200. GREEN-WINGED TEAL. 

Small, 16; speculum, green above, 
black below, narrowly bordered by white 
behind; head and neck, chestnut-red, green 
patch behind eye; grayish brown above; 
crescent shaped mark in front of wing, ring 
around neck and beneath, white; breast 



Fig. 178 



Fig. 179. 




Shoveller. 1-10. 



Pin Tail. 1-10. 



purplish with rounded spots of black; bill 
and feet, brown, fig. 176. Female, brown 
above, white beneath, slightly spotted with 
dusky on breast; young similar to female 
with all stages occurring between this dress 
and that of adult male, speculum always as 
in male. Breeds chiefly north of U. S., 



TEALS. 233 

winters alono; southern border of U. S. 
southward, goes south in Sept. and Oct., 
comes north in March and April. On 
Atlantic border occurs more frequently on 
salt than fresh water. Nests on ground, 
eggs, 6-10, pale buff. 

201. EUROPEAN TEAL. 
Differs from last chiefly in absence of 
white crescent in front of wing and in 
having a whitish border to green patch on 
head. Female and young, scarcely different 
from last. 

202. BLUE-WINGED TEAL. 
Larger than Green-winged, 16; patch on 
wing, blue, speculum, black bordered with 
white behind. Head and neck gray; white 
crescent in front of eye; top of head, black; 
back, brown; outer webs of scapularies, blue, 
black and green; beneath, pale purplish 
spotted with black; bill, black; feet, yellow, 
fig. 177. Female, brown marked with white; 
wings as in male. Young, similar to fe- 
male with intermediate stages in males. 



234 * DUCKS. 



Breeds chiefly in the interior of N. A. from 
Kan. and southern llh, north to the Saskat- 
chewan; winters from N. C. south to north- 
ern S. A.; south in Sept., north in April. 
Frequents small ponds or even pools usually 
of fresh or brackish water, but occasionally 

Fit?. 180 



'&- z 






f^^ 



Wood Duck. 1-9. 

is found on salt water creeks. When alarmed 
and in flocks on water gathers into a com- 
pact mass. Flight exceedingly swift. 

203. CINNAMON TEAL. 
Differs from last in having speculum 
green, head, neck and lower parts rich pur- 
plish chestnut and feet orange. Female 



SHOVELLER. z6o 

differs in being more heavily mai-ked with 
darker. Western America; in N. A. west of 
the Kocky Mountains; rare east of the Mis- 
sissippi River. 

204. SHOVELLER. 
Larger, 20; bill greatly widened at tip; 
speculum, violet-green, blue patch on wing 

Fit?. 181 




Redhead. 1-15. 

as in last; head and neck, dark -green; breast, 
sides of back and wing- band, white; belly, 
chestnut;, bill, Llack; feet, orange, fig. 178. 
Female, mottled and streaked with pale 
brown, dark brown and black; wing like 
male. Young male with intermediate plum- 
age. Northern Hemisphere; in N. A., breeds 



236 DUCKS. 

from Tex. to Alaska. Winters, commonly 
from N. C. through Gulf States; south in 
Sept. and Oct., north in April. Uncommon 
in Atlantic coast states north of N. C. 
Occurs in small ponds both salt and fresh in 
small flocks. Nests, on o^round; eggs, 6-10, 
greenish. Note of male, a short, gutteral 
thuck; female, quack. 

205. PINTAIL. 

Larger, 25, neck, long and thin; central 
tail feathers, long, narrow, bill not widened 
at tip; speculum, violet-green; head, neck 
and back, brown; two lines of white extend 
down sides of neck with a patch of black 
between and join the of lower parts; wing 
coverts ashy, greater tipped with reddish; 
bill blue, line on top black, feet bluish, 
fig. 179. Female, speculum gray; dark- 
brown above marked with lighter; yellow- 
ish-white beneath; white wing-band in both 
sexes. Northern Hemisphere, in N. A. 
breeds north of U. S.; south in Sept.-Nov. to 
winter from Gulf States to Paraama, when 



WOOD DUCKS. Z6 i 

very abundant in Fla., frequenting salt 
estuaries of coast and fresh waters of in- 
terior; north in March. Not common on 
Atlantic coast, north of Ga. Male, whistles; 
female, quacks. 

206. WOOD DUCK. 

Our most beautiful species, 18; head, 
crested, green; line over eye, one behind it, 

Fi<T. 182 




Canvasbaek. 1-16. 

triangular throat patch, ring around neck 
and belly white; breast, chestnut; back, 
brown; sides buff finely banded with black 
with coarser black and white bandings on 
flanks; iris, red; bill, pink; feet brown, fig. 
180. Female, young, and eclipse plumage of 



238 DUCKS. 

adult male (occurring in mid- summer) duller; 
head, brown; line at base of bill and space 
about eye, white, this being larger in adult 
males; breast, streaked. Breeds throughout 
temperate N. A., south in Oct.; winters in 
Gulf States; north in April. Nests, placed 

Fig. 183 



Lesser Scaup. 1-10. 

in holes of trees; eggs, 6-10, pale brown. 
Frequents wooded streams and small ponds 
often hiding in thickets; rises suddenly and 
flies swiftly aw^ay usually following the 
stream. Breeding note, given by both sexes, 
a clear, long-drawn, plaintive whistle, re- 
peated rapidly. 



REDHEAD. 



239 



SEA DUCKS. 

Sea-inhabiting in winter, but some 
species breed m the interior. All dive well. 

207. RUFOUS-CRESTED DUCK. 

Of medium size, 21; head, conspicuously 
crested; speculum, white; head and neck, 
reddish; back, brown; below and rump, 

Eig. 184 




Scaup, 9 • 1-3- 

black; large patch on flanks, white; bill and 
feet, bright red. Female, brown; speculum, 
gray; crest, small. Eastern Hemisphere; 
accidental in eastern U. S. 

208. REDHEAD. 
A little smaller, 20; bill, low at base 
and not projected back on forehead; spec- 



240 KEDHEAD. 

culuui, 2!:ra3^, bhick margined above; head 
and upper half of neck, brown-red; remain- 
der of neck and body in front of wings, and 
lower back, black; canvassing on back and 
sides, dark; feet, bluish, fig. 181. Female, 
brown with canvasing of back showing 
faintly. Breeds from northern Mich, and 
northern Me., northward; south, in Oct. 
to winter from Mass. (where it is rare north 
of Cape Cod) southward of Fla. ; common 
in the middle sections of winter range; north 
in April. Nests, on ground; eggs, .8-12, 
brownish. 

209. CANVASBACK. 
Differs from last in having a longer 
bill, higher at base, and back much whiter, 
fig. 182. Breeds from northwestern states, 
northward, migration, winter range, and 
nesting habits similar to last. 

210. SCAUP. 
Smaller, 19; speculum, white; head, 
neck and upper breast, black, the former 
glossed with green ard violet; back, sides 



LESSEK SCAUP. 



241 



and beneath, appearing white, fig. 183. 
Female with black of male replaced with 
brown, white space at base of upper man- 
dible; bill, blue; feet, black, fig. 184. Young 
male similar with intermediate stages. 
Breeds from northern North Dacota, north- 
ward through northwestern N. A.; south in 

Fi<r. 185 




Golden-eye. 1-10. 

Oct.; north in April. Winters from Mass. 
south to Ga.. usually found on salt water, 
often in large close tlock or rafts and in 
rising flies in a close body. Nesting habits 
and eggs, similar to last. 

211. LESSER SCAUP. 
Smaller than last, IT, head without 
greenish gloss. Breeds a little further 



242 DUCKS. 

south and more in the interior of Canada 
away from coast; south in Oct. to winter 
from N. C. south to W. I., north in April, 

212. RING-NECKED DUCK. 
Differs from hist in having speculum 
gray, a distinct reddish ring around neck, 

FiiT. 186 




Barrow Golden-eye. 1-8. 

and a hlack bill. Breeding, winter range 
and time of migration similar. Occurs 
singly or in small flocks on fresh or brackish 
waters. 

21.3. GOLDEN-EYE. 

Larger, 20; head, upper neck and back, 
black; lower neck, under parts, and wing 



BAKROW GOLDEX-EYE. 243 

patch white; bill, black; feet, yellow, fig. 
185. Female and young male, black, re- 
placed by brown with intermediate stages. 
Breeds from northern U. S., northward to 
tree limit; south in Oct. to winter from 
Mass. to S. C; north in April. Place snest 
in cavity trees; eggs, 8-10, ashy-green. 

Fig. 187 



Buffle-bead. 1-10. 

214. BARROW GOLDEN-EYE. 

Differs from last in having bill higher 
at base and the white spot at its base more 
triangular, fig, 186. Breeds from northern 
U.S. northward; uncommon in northern U. 
S. in winter; south in Oct.; north in Aj^ril. 
Nesting habits and eggs similar to last. 



244 



sguAws. 



215. BUFFLEHEAD. 

Small, 14; feathers of head elongated; 
head and back, bhick; triangular patch, 
back of eye, broad line through wing and 
beneath, white; fig. 187. Female, brown 
above, white below; white patch on wing 
and a small one back of eye and below^ it. 

Fiff. 188 Fig. 189 




1-15. 



Harlequin. 1-15. Old Squaw. 

Breeds chieHy north of the U. S. ; south in 
Oct. to winter from Mass. to Fla. ; north in 
March. 

216. OLD SQUAW. 

18, neck short; central tail feathers 
elongated and narrow; summer, head, neck, 
breast, upper parts and middle tail, black; 
sides of head and body, ashy; patch behind 



SQUAWS. 



245 



eye, longitudinal streak on side of occiput, 
under parts and side of tail, white; bill, 
black; feet, bluish. Winter differs in having 
head, neck, upper breast and back, white; 
patch of brown on side of head below one 
of ashy, fig. 189. Female differs in lacking 
long central tail feathers; head and neck, 



Fig. 191 



Fig. 190 




Northern Eider. 1-3. 



American Eider. 1-3. 



dusky with whitish patch around eye and 
on neck behind. Breeds in the Arctic, 
south in Oct., wintering from coast of N. E. 
to S. C; north in late April. Frequents 
bays along coast in close flocks from a few 
pairs to hundreds. In feeding all of the 
flock are apt to dive at one time and reappear 
simultaneously; sometimes rise in air atid~hy 



2i6 



DUCKS. 



circling about to a considerable liight. Cries 
musical and frequently given both when on 
the water and in flight, they are: Er-lit ah- 
er-lit^ varied by Ah-ah oh-tr-lit. Nests 
placed on ground; es^gs, 7-12, ashy. 

217. LABRADOR DUCK. 

Shorter, 19; head, breast and large 
wing patch, white; top of head, collar, around 

Fio-. 11)2 




King Eider. ]-3. 

neck and body, black; bill, black, orange at 
base; feet, bluish. Female, ash-brown; wing- 
coverts and secondaries, white. Former 
breeding range, north of the U. S.; in winter 
as far south as N. J. Now extinct; last 
specimen captured was at Grand Menan, N. 



DUCKS. 247 

B., in 1871, but I saw one living in the 
mouth of Ipswich River in 1872. 

218. HARLEQUIN DUCK. 

Smaller, 17, appearing black; triangle 
in front of eye. spot on back of head, two 
crescents on sides, and markings on back, 
white, fi^. 188. Female, ash-brown; face 

¥[g. 193 




Scorer. 1-3, 



and spot on sides of occiput, white. Breeds 
in N. A. from Newfoundland northward 
chiefly in interior, placing nests in holes of 
trees, stumps, etc.; eggs. 6-8, pale-brown. 
Winters, from Gulf of St. Lawrence to N. 
J., but uncommon from Mass. southward. 
South in Nov.; north in Feb. 



248 



EIDERS. 



219. AMERICAN EIDER. 
Large, 25; head, neck and above, white; 
forehead, line through eye and beneath, 
black; portion of head, pale green; naked 
space at base of bill, white, fig. 190. Female, 
reddish-brown, transversely banded with 
dark-brown. Breeds of Atlantic coast from 



Fis:. 194 



Ficr. 195 




Surf Scoter. 1.10. White winged Scoter, 1.10. 

Me. to Labrador, south in late Oct. to winter 
from Mass. to Del.; on coast of Mass. keeps 
well out to sea feeding about remote islands. 

220. NORTHERN EIDER. 
Differs from last in having naked space 
at base of bill narrow, fig. 191. Breeds in 
north-eastern N. A. and Greenland, vsoutli 
in winter to Mass. 



DUCKS. 249 

221. KING EIDER. 
Size of last, differs from it in having 
base of bill considerably swollen and naked 
process widened; black of head reduced to a 
narrow line about process and there is a V 
of black on throat, fig. 192. Female differs 
in having swollen process at base of bill. 

Fig. 196 




Ruddy Duck. 1-2. 

Breeds in the Arctic, south in winter as far 
as northern N. E. and rarely to Ga. 

222. STELLEE DUCK. 

Smaller, 15; greater portion of head, 
patch on w^ing and breast, white, remainder 
of plumage appearing black. Female, head, 
neck and breast, brown the last barred and 
spotted with black; head and neck, light 



250 GEESE. 

brown; elsewhere appearing black. Breeds 

on Arctic coast of Siberia; winters on coast 

of Alaska. Accidental in Greenland and 

Quebec. 

228. SCOTER. 

19; base of bill, slightly swollen and 
orange; wholly black, fig. 193. Female, 

Fis. 197 




Masked Duck. 1-2. 

brown whitish on sides of head. Breeds in 
Labrador and northw^ard; south in' Oct. to 
winter from N. E. to Fla.; north in April. 

224. WHITE-WINGED SCOTER. 

Larger, 21; base of bill, swollen; black 
with small spot beneath e\'e and patch on 
wing, white, fig. 19-5. Female, differs from 
last- in having white patch on wing. Breeds 



DUCKS. 251 

north of U. S. in Canada; winters, from N. 
E. to S. C; time of migration as in last. 
Nfests placed on ground; eggs, 5-8, pale 
brown. 

225. VELVET SCOTEK. 

So similar the last as to be indistin- 
guishible in field. Northern Old World, 
accidental in Greenland. 

Fig. 198 




Blue Goose. 1-6. 

226. SURF SCOTER. 
Bill considerably swollen at base and 
brightly colored. Black, with spot on front 
of head and another on occiput white, fig. 
194. Female, brown with light spot at 
base of bill and on side of head. Breeding 



252 DUCKS. 

range and migration similar to last.. In 
swimming all Scoters frequently hold tail 
upright, as does the Kuddy Duck. They 
often associate together in great flocks; 
when a small number are together they fly 
in line one behind the other close to the 
water, but when in large flocks will some- 
Fig. 199 



Lesser Snow Goose. 1-J8. 

times fly higher and in a more confused 
manner; all are apt to fly into the months 
of estuaries at low tide to feed upon mussels. 

227. RUDDY DUCK. 

Smaller, 15; neck and upper parts, 
chestnut. Top of head, black, spot on its 



DUCKS. 253 

side, white p beneath, grayish; bill and feet, 
bluish, fig. 196. Female and winter male, 
chestnut replaced by reddish-brown; throat, 
lighter. Breeds locally throughout N. A. 
south to Guatemala; south in Oct. to winter 
from N. C. to the W. I.; north in April. 
Occurs singly or in small flocks on both 

Fi^. 200 




American White-fronted Goose. 1-4. 

fresh and salt water, but seldom on the 
ocean, often in small ponds and pools. Very 
unsuspicous. Often holds tail erect when 
swimming. Dives well. When startled flies 
swiftly, but is apt to circle and return to the 
place from which it started. Nests placed 
on ground; eggs, 6-10, dull white. 



254 GEESE. 

228. MASKED DUCK. 

Smaller, 13; front of head, black; body, 
reddish brown, lighter beneath; white w^ing 
patch, fig. 197. Female, duller; top of head 
and two stripes on its side, black. Tropical 
America, accidental in Wis. N. Y. and Mass. 

Fio-. 201 




Canada Goose. 1-4. 

GEESE. 

Large wdth long necks, quite long legs 
well fitted for walking. Bill, short and high 
at base. Sexes, similar; nests on ground; 
eggs, 6-10, dirty wdiite or j^ellowish. 

229. BLUE GOOSE. 
Large, 28; appearing brown; head and 
neck, white, fig. 198. Young, dark all over. 
Breeds on eastern shore of Hudson Bay; goes 



GKESE. 255 

south through interior to winter on coast of 
Gulf of Mexico, west of La.; rare on Atlantic 
coast. 

230. LESSER SNOW GOOSE. 

Smaller, 25; white; primaries, black, 
fig. 199. Young, appearing dark brown. 
Breeds in Alaska, south in Oct. and Nov. to 

Fisf. 202 




Barnacle Goose. 1-4. 

winter to southern 111. and southern Cal.; 
casual in N. E. Flight and cries much as 
in Brant. 

231. GREATER SNOW GOOSE. 

Differs from above in being larger, 35. 
Breeds on eastern coast of Hudson Baj^; 
south in winter, very rarely to N. E. and 
southward as far as Cuba. Rare in U.S. 



256 GEESE. 

232. AMERICAN WHITE-FRONTED 
GOOSE. 

Smaller, 30; gray above, forehead and 
beneath white mottled with black on breast, 
fig. 200. Breeds far north in N. A.; goes 

Fig. 203 




Brant. 1-4 

south in Oct. to winter in the south west; 
north in March; rare in Atlantic coast. 

233. WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. 

Smaller, with a considerably smaller 
bill. Northern parts of Eastern Hemisphere; 
accidental in Greenland. 



GEESE. 257 

235. CANADA GOOSE. 

Larger, 40; brown above and on head 
and neck; patch on cheeks usually meeting 
on throat, and beneath white; head and neck, 
black, fig. 201. Breeds in northern U. S. 
and Canada; south in Nov. to winter from 
Md. to Fla. and Mex.; north ia March. 
Flight rather rapid but with slow wing- 
beats; moves in lines or Vs but never masses 
in front. Cries loud and sonorous. 

The Canada Goose is frequently domes- 
ticated and breeds readily if kept in suffi- 
ciently large enclosures. In order to keep 
it from migrating, however, after the first 
year one wing should be clipped. It asso- 
ciates with the common domesticated Geese 
and the ganders sometimes take charge of 
their young, but it does not appear to hy- 
bredize with other geese. The cries, given 
continuously in flight, as a call to keep 
members of the flock to straggling; are 
also uttered when the birds are on the 
ground. 



258 




J 



^^. 



.'>^.> 



%¥:% 



I 



J 



Fulvous Tree Duck. 



GEESE. 259 

236. HUTCHINGS GOOSE. 

Much smaller than last, 32; otherwise 
similar. Breeds in Arctic N. A.; south in 
Oct. through western U. S. and Mississippi 
Valley to wdnter from Kansas southward; 
north in March. 

237. CACKLING GOOSE. 

Smaller, 24; distinct white collar on 
low^er neck; nearly as dark below^ as above. 
Breeds on northern Pacific coast; south in 
winter into w^estern U. S.; rarely east to 

Wis. 

238, BARNACLE GOOSE. 

26; fore part of head and beneath, white; 
back of head, neck and breast, black, fig. 202. 
Northern parts of Old World; casual in 
eastern N. A. 

239. BRANT. 

25; no while on head, but streaked 
with it in patch on side of neck; gray above; 
white beneath, fig. 203. Breeds in Arctic, 
in N. A., chiefly on Atlantic coast; south in 



260 



FLAMINGOES 



Oct. and Nov. to winter in southern U. S.; 
north in April, occurs chiefly on coast over 

Fig. 205 




Flamingo. 1-ld. 



the sea seklom crossing land. Flight, swift; 
wing-beats, rather rapid; moves in lines, 
but frequently breaks into irregulur masses 



swAxs. 261 

in front. Cries more shrill and less sonorous 
than in Canada Goose. 

240. BLACK BRANT. 
Differs from last in having white of 
neck clear and meeting beneath. Breeds 
in Arctic N. A.; south through West to 
winter as far as lower Cal.; casual on 
Atlantic coast. 

Fig. 206 




Bobwhite. rf'. MO. 

241. FULVOUS TREE DUCK. 

21; head neck and beneath light cinna- 
mon; back and bill, black; fig. 204. 

SWANS. 

Large birds with neck longer than 
body; swim with ease and have power of 



202 SWANS. 

elevating the enlarged secondaries as sails; 
fly with great swiftness, when migrating 
moving high in air often in V-shaped flocks; 
cries, loud and harsh. Nests on ground, 
eggs, 3-5. 

242. WHOOPING SWAN. 

60; white, basal portion of bill, including 
nostrils, yellow. Northern Eastern Hemis- 
phere; occasional in southern Greenland. 

243. WHISTLEING SWAN. 

A little smaller than last, and has only 
a small spot of yellow at base of bill. Breeds 
far north, winters from Md. to Gulf of Mex.; 
very rare on Atlantic coast, north of Md. 

244. TRUMPETER SWAN. 

Larger, 65; bill wholly black. Breeds 
in interior of N. A. from Iowa northward; 
casual on Atlantic coast. 

FLAMINGOES. 

Large birds with long necks and legs, 
wdth feet and bill abruptly bent in middle. 



FLAMINGOES 



263 



Frequent islands and sea coasts in tropics 
or sub-tropics. 

245. AMERICAN FLAMINGO. 
Large, 45; scarlet; primaries, black, fig. 
205. Breeds from Bahamas south through 

Fig. 207 




Bobwhite, youug. 

Atlantic coast of tropical America. Flight, 
rapid with rather slow wing-beats and w^ith 
outstretched neck and legs. Nests built of 
marl piled in form of truncated p3'ramid. 



264 



LAND BIRDS. 



Eggs, 1 or more rarely 2, greenish but 
covered with chalky incrustation. Food, 
small mollusks. Cries, sonorous and goose- 
like. 

LAND BIRDS. 

Birds which live on land and which, 
with a few exceptions, do not procure their 

Fiof. 208 




Canada Grouse. 1-12. 

food from water. While the young of most 
of the species are hatched naked and help- 
less, a few, as in the first group given, are 
covered with down and are active as soon 
as they leave the egg. Not migratory. 



GROUSE, QUAIL, ETC. 265 

GROUSE, QUAIL, ETC. 

Of var\dng sizes; young active when 
hatched, covered with down and capable of 
feeding themselves. All species run rapidly, 
often hiding when alarmed to rise suddenly 
with a whirl of wings when approached 
closely. Nests, placed on ground; eggs, 
many. Flight, rapid, direct with very quick 
wing-breast. 

246. BOB WHITE. 

Small, 10, chestnut-brown above; throat, 
line over eye and beneath, white; streaked 
on upper breast and sides with chestnut; 
patch on side of neck extending to bill, 
black, fig. 206. Female has throat buff. 
Downy young, buff streaked with dark- 
brown, fig. 207; unable to fly until well 
grown. Notes, Bob-white or More-wet-, some- 
times. No more-wet, also a chuckling when 
disturbed, and a call when the bevy is 
separated. Eastern U. S. from southern 
Me. to Fla. Eggs, white. 



266 OROUSE . 

247. FLORIDA BOBWHITE. 

Smaller, darker, with black of breast 
considerably extended. Florida. 

248. CANADA GROUSE. 

Larger, 15, black, blotched and banded 
below with white; terminal band on tail, 

Fig. 209 




^..^^^ 




Ruffed Grouse. 1-12. 

chestnut, fig. 208. Female, duller with 
much of black replaced by chestnut, espe- 
cially on breast. Young, much more red- 
dish. Canada, east of Rocky Mountains 
south to northern Minn., Mich., N. Y. and 
N. E. Very unsuspicious birds inhabiting 
coniferous forests. 



GROUSE . 267 

249. RUFFED GEOUSE. 

Larger, 18; tail long and. when spread, 
fan-like; reddish brown above banded and 
mottled with darker; white below marked 
with brown especially on breast; tail with 
subterminal band of black, fig. 209. Female, 
duller with a smaller tail. Downy young, 
reddish buff lined, mottled, and spotted with 
brown, fig. 210; can fly when about a week 
old. Eastern U. S. south along the moun- 
tains to northern Ga. Frequents bushy 
woodlands. Note, a whistling chuckle when 
alarmed. Drums in spring, summer and 
autumn; this begins loud and distinct, in- 
creases in rapidity, but diminishes in volume 
until it dies away. 
250. CANADIAN RUFFED GROUSE. 

Differs from last in being grayer, espe- 
cially on tail. Spruce forests of northern 
N. E., northern N. Y., north to James Bay. 
251. THAYER RUFFED GROUSE. 

Differs from last in being darker above 
and in having the under parts more heavily 



268 



GROUSE. 



Fig. 210 




Ruffed Grouse, youno:. 



PTARMIGANS. 269 

banded. Nova Scotia, and possibly also 
New Brunswick. Habits, etc., similar to last. 

252. WILLOW PTARMIGAN. 

15; winter, white; tail, black, fig. 211. 

Summer, reddish-brown spotted and banded 

with black; greater portion of wing, middle 

under parts, and feet white, fig. 212. Arctic 

Fig. 211 



Willow Ptarmigan, winter. 1-8. 

and Sub-arctic, in N. A. south to Sitka and 
British Provinces, accidental Me. and Mass. 
253. ALLEN PTARMIGAN. 
Similar to last, primaries more or less 
mottled with dusky. Newfoundland. 
254. ROCK PTARMIGAN. 
Scarcely different from 253 in winter; 
in summer, grayer above and more coarselv 



270 PTARMIGANS. 

banded with black above, markings below 
darker. 

255. REINHARDT PTARMIGAN. 
Diifers from last in summer in being 
even more coarsely banded above where the 
black predominates. Greenland, western 
shores of Cumberland Gulf, and northern 
Labrador. 

Fig. 212 




Willow Ptarmigan, summer. 1-8. 

256. WELCH PTARMIGAN. 

Differs from Allen Ptarmigan in being 
much darker above in sumnier and with 
more dark bandings elsewhere. Newfound- 
land. ^^^ PRAIRIE HEN. 

Large, 18; head, crested, elongated 
plumes on neck; light brown above, white 



GROUSE .. 271 

beneath, banded with black, fig. 213. Prairies 
of Mich, and Westward. 

258. HEATH HEN. 
Differs from last in having brown 
bandings broaded and feathers of neck tufts 
pointed. Martha's Vineyard, Mass. 

Fig. 213 




Prairie Hen. 1-8. 



259. PRAIRIE SHARP-TAILED 
GROUSE. 

Differs from above in absence of neck 
tufts and in having large rounded white 
markings on wings, and in being tinged 
with rusty above; white beneath with V 
shaped marks of black. Great Plains of U. S. 
east to Wis. and northern 111. 



272 PIGEONS. 

PIGEONS . 

Birds of varying size, long wings and 
well-developed tails; bills weak. Flight, 
rapid, direct, with quick wing-beats. Stick- 
built nests often placed in trees in our 
species, but sometimes on ground; eggs, 2, 
white. Young hatched naked and very 
helpless fed by regurgitation. Food, vege- 
table substances. 

260. WHITE-CROWNED PIGEON. 

About the size of domestic pigeon, 13; 
dark slate-blue; top of head, white. Baha- 
mas and some of West Indias; rather un- 
common on Fla. Keys. Notes, given in 
minor key, ivof, wof wo, co-iuoo, the first 
three repeated several times, the last long 
drawn out. Social, occurring in flocks and 
breeding in communities. 

261. PASSENGER PIGEON. 

Large, 16.50; tail, long and pointed; 
upper parts, sides, neck and head, ash-blue; 
beneath, purplish-red, under tail coverts 



DOVES. 273 

and tip of tail, white; sides and back of 
neck, irridescent. Formerly ranged through 
eastern N. A. from Hudson Bay southward, 
now probably extinct. 

Fig. 214 




Passenger Pigeon. 1-8. 

262. MOURNING DOVE. 

Differs from last in being smaller, 12, 
more brownish-red and in having tail more 
broadly tipped with white and crossed by 
a black band above this, fig. 215. N. A. 
from southern Me. and Canada south to 
Panama; not common in the Bahamas; local 



274 DOVES. 

in distribution. Social when not breedinj^. 
Note, a mournful double coo. 

263. ZANAIDA DOVE. 
Tail not pointed, but short and rounded, 
yellow-brown, a narrow white wing-band, 

Figj. 215 




Mourning Uove. 

small black spot on neck where there is an 
irridiscent patch. Common on Bahamas 
and in some of the West Indias, rare on the 
Fla. Keys. Not social, lives mostly on 
sround. Coo of two notes, the first uttered 
with a falling inflection, the second fol- 



DOVES. 



lows quickly, but is not prolonged, then 
comes, who, who, ivho, with a decided pause 
between the first two, all are loud, but in a 
minor key. 

264. GROUND DOVE. 
Small, 7, slate-brown above, under por- 
tion of wing, seen in flight, chestnut, purple- 
Fig. 216 




Grouud Dove. 

red on breast; bill, orange, black at tip, 
fig. 216. Female, duller. South Atlantic 
and Gulf States. Note, who, often repeated 
in a minor tone. Ordinary flight, especially 
in thickets, which it frequents, flitting, but 
when passing over wider spaces more direct 
and rapid. 

265. BAHAMA GROUND DOVE. 

A little smaller than last, paler; bill, 
nearly black. Bahamas; accidental in Fla. 



276 DOVES. 

266. KEY WEST QUAIL DOVE. 

11; dull chestnut, purplish red beneath 
glossy above with metallic purple and 
bronze; broad white stripe on side of jaw. 
Bahamas and some of the W. I. ; casual in 
summer on Fla. Keys. Keeps hidden in 
scrub most of time. Nests placed on top of 
air plants, in trees. 

267. RUDDY QUAIL DOVE. 

Differs from last in being without 
metalic luster above and the white jaw 
stripe is less conspicuous, being somewhat 
buffy. Tropical America; accidental on 
Key West, Fla. 

268. BLUE-HEADED PARTRIDGE 
DOVE. 

A little larger, 12, dark brown above, 
more reddish beneath; head, black; crown, 
blue; line on side of head beneath eye and 
one bordering throat, white. Cuba, casual 
on Fla. Keys. 



TURKEYS. Z i i 

269. WHITE-WINGED DOVE. 

A little smaller than last; grayish- 
brown, conspicuous white patch and bar on 
wing. Female, duller. Western U. S.; ac- 
cidental on Key West, Fla. 

Fig. 217 




Turkey Vulture. 1-12. 

TURKEYS. 
Large birds with naked heads and necks 
with a tuft of black bristles, depending from 
upper breast; tail long and fan-like; tarsus 
furnished with a spur. 

270, WILD TURKEY. 
Large, 45; differs from the dark form 
of the well-known domestic Turkey in 



278 VULTURES. 

having rather more brilliant irridescent 
tints and in having pink feet. U. S., from 
Cbesapeke Bay to Gulf Coast and west to 
Plains. 

271. FLOKIDA TURKEY. 

Darker than last with little white on 
wings. Southern Fla. 

Fiff. 218 




Black Vulture. 1-12. 

VULTURES. 
Large; head, naked; large wings fitted 
for strong flight; feet, adapted for walking, 
but not for grasping; food, usually animal 
matter found dead and sometimes partly 
decayed. Nests in hollow logs, rock cavities, 



VULTURES. 279 

etc. Eggs, 2, in our species white mottled 
with brown. Young, covered with down 
when hatched, but helpless. Sexes, similar. 

The small figures in circles are silhouettes of the 
birds as seen in flight to give the proportions of wings 
and tail. 

272. TURKEY VULTURE. 
Dark-brown; head, liv'td red; tail, 
rounded, fig. 217. America from N. J., the 
Ohio Valley, and Saskatchewan, southward 
to Patagonia, casual in N. E. Flight, steady 
with long, sweeping curves, sailing most 
of the time without flapping, sometimes at 
a considerable height where it moves in 
wide circles. Food, mainly freshly killed 
animals. Only vocal sound, a harsh hiss. 
Social, gathering in large flocks, especially 
to roost at night. 

273. BLACK VULTURE. 
Black, including head; space on wing 
beneath, showing in flight, white; tail, short 
and square, fig. 218. N. C. to Fla., north 
to lower Ohio Valley west to Great-Plains, 
south to Mex. and into S. A., casual in N. 



280 



HAWKS, EAGLES, ETC. 



E. and N. Y. Flight by alternate sailing 
and flapping with rapid wing-beats; some- 
times ascends to a considerable height, but 
moves in comparatively small circles. Food, 



FiiT. 220 



Fig. 219 




Mississippi Kite. ]-8. 



Swallow-tailed Kite. 1-8. 

Rather 



largely decaying animal matter 
more social than last. 

HAWKS, EAGLES, ETC. 

Birds of varying sizes; bills, strongly 
curved and hooked; feet, strong; claws, 



KITES 281 

capable of grasping. Young, covered with 
down when hatched, helpless and fed by 
parents. Females, larger than males. 

274. SWALLOW TAILED KITE. 

Large, 22; form, slender; tail, deeply 
forked; black above; head and lower parts, 
white, fig. 219. Breeds in U. S. from N. C. 
and Minn, southward, goes south in Oct. to 
winter in S. A., north in April; casual in 
southern N. E. Flight, swallow-like, very 
graceful and easy. Food, chiefly snakes and 
other reptiles, which it catches by swooping 
downward and, grasping them w^ith its 
claws, eats them as at flies. Nests in trees; 
eggs, 4-6, green-white marked with brown. 

275. MISSISSIPPI KITE. 

Smaller, 14; head, neck and beneath, 
ashy; back, black; longitudinal stripe on 
each wing (showing in flight), chestnut; 
white wing bar, fig. 220. Southern U. S. 
from S.C. southward; casual north toPenn., 
Wis. and la. Winters in Guatemala. 



282 



KITES 



276. WHITE-TAILED KITE. 
Larger, 16 ; head, neck, tail and beneath, 
white; above and central tail feathers, ash- 
gray; patch on bend of wing, black. Breeds 
Fijx. 221 in southern U. S. from S. C. and 
southern 111. to Tex. and Cal.; 
M^ winters in S. A.; casual in Mich. 

277. EVERGLADE KITE. 

A little larger, 17 ; black 
above, brown beneath; base of 
tail and its coverts, white; female, 
EvergiadT duller, fig. 221. Breeds in Fla., 
Kite. 1-8. Cuba, and southward into eastern 
S. A. Nests placed in low bushes, eggs, 1-2, 
bluish white marked with brown. Flies low 
over marshes with rather slow wing-beats 
and erratic movements. Food, chiefly fresh- 
water mollusks. 

278. MARSH HAWK. 

Larger, 23; above, ashy-blue; upper 
tail-coverts, white; white beneath, fig. 222. 
Female and 3^oung, brown above, reddish 




GYRFAI.COXS 



288 



beneath. Breeds throughout N. A., south 
in early Nov. to winter from N. C. south to 
Panama, rarely as far north as Mass.; north 
in April. Nests placed in bushes in marshes, 
eggs, 3-5, white, slightly spotted with 
reddish. Flies, low over fields and marshes, 
moving with irregular flight and slow wing- 
Fig. 222 




Marsh Hawk. 1-6. 

beats. Food, frogs, mice, snakes and lizards. 
Common. 

279. WHITE GYRFALCON. 

22, wings pointed, white somewhat 
banded on back with dusky, fig. 223. Young, 
streaked below with black. Arctic, wander- 



284 GYRFALCONS 

ing south in winter to northern N. E. Nests, 
on cliffs. 

280. GRAY GYRFALCON. 

Size of last, dusky throughout, rather 
hroadly streaked on head and banded on 

Fig. 223 




White Gyrfalcon. 

tail and beneath with white. Arctic, strag- 
gling southward in winter. 

281. GYRFALCON. 
Differs from last in being darker; light 
bands much narrower. Young, even darker. 
Northern Europe, Greenland and Arctic 
America, south to northern Labrador, rare 
in winter in Mass. and R. I. 



HAWKS 285 

282. BLACK GYRFALCON. 
Size of last, but appearing nearly black. 
Labrador, south in winter, rarely to Canada, 
Me., Mass. and N. Y. 

283. DUCK HAWK. 
Form of last, but smaller, 18; wings, 
very pointed; seeming black above, white 

Fis. 224 




Duck Hawk. 1-6. 

below; prominent black markings on side 
of head; tail, banded with white, fig. 224. 
Young, reddish beneath. N. A., breeding 
locally throughout U. S., nesting usually on 
cliffs; south in Sept.-Oct. to winter in Fla., 
southward into S. A. Flight, swift with 



286 HAWKS 

rapid wing-beats, seldom sailing. Captures 
its prey, ducks and other birds, on the wing. 
Eggs, 3-4, creamy white, very thickl^^ mot- 
tled with dark-brown. Not very common. 

284. PIGEON HAWK. 

Smaller, 11; form of last but appear- 
ing black above; white beneath, heavily 

Fio-. 225 




Pi|2ceon Hawk. l-d. 

streaked with dark brown; tail, with four 
light bands, one of which is at tip, fig. 225; 
wings banded on innner webs with white; 
conspicuous in flight. Female, and young, 
more reddish below. Flight as in last. 
Breeds from northern border of U. S. north- 



MERLINS 



287 



ward; nests, on branches of trees and in 
holes of trees and cliffs; south in Sept. and 
early Oct. to winter in the Bahamas and 
northward. 

285. RICHARDSON MERLIN. 
Differs from last in having five or six 
light bands on tail and both outer and inner 

Fig. 226 








Sparrow Hawk. 1-4. 

webs of primaries banded with white. 

Western N. A. from Mississippi River to the 

Pacific. 

286. MERLIN. 

Differs from last in having a large patch 
of black on cheek. Old world, accidental 
in Greenland. 



288 iiAWK^ 

287. SPARROW HAWK. 
Smaller, 10; cinnamon above, lighter 
below; two oblique marks on side of head, 
some bands above, spots below, subterminal 
band on tail and wings, black; top of head, 
upper wing coverts and band on secondaries, 
ashy-blue; outer tail-feather, throat, cheek 

Fio-. 227 




Sharp-shinned Hawk. 1-6. 

and tip of tail, white, iig. 226. Female, 
lighter below, banded above and streaked 
below with black. Eastern N. A. south to 
Ga.; winters from Mass. southward. Nest, 
in holes of trees, cavities in cliffs or houses; 
eggs, 4-6, bulf thickly spotted with cinna- 
mon. Cry, a rather shrill rattle. Flight, 



HAWKS 289 

rapid with quick wing-beats, sometimes 
suspends itself on rapidly vibrating wings, 
like a Belted Kingfisher; frequently jerks 
its tail when perching. 

288. LITTLE SPARROW HAWK. 
Similar to last, but smaller; cinnamon 

spot on head, small or absent in male; 
female, more broadly banded with black 
above. Gulf States, resident. 

289. CUBAN SPARROW HAWK. 
Differs from last in being nearly slaty- 
gray above; beneath, deep rusty. Female, 
rusty above and below. Cuba; casual in Fla. 

290. KESTREL. 

Differs from Sparrow Hawk in being 
larger and in having blue of head extending 
over a portion of upper parts, and in being 
conspicuously streaked below. Europe; ac- 
cidental in Mass. 

291. PRAIRIE FALCON. 

Large, 18; brown above; band on back 
of head and beneath, white, heavily streaked 
with brown. Western U. S.; casual in 111. 



290 HAWKS 

292. SHARP-SHINNED HAWK. 

Small, 11; wing, short; tail, long, 
square; legs, long slender; brown above, 
pale reddish beneath; four black bands on 
tail, fig. 227. Young, streaked beneath. 
Flies with alternate flappings and sailing; 
seldom circles in air. Readily flies through 
foliage in pursuit of small birds. Breeds 

Fig. 228 




Cooper Hank. Silhouette. 

throughout N. A. south to Panama; winters 
from Mass. southwrad, south in Oct. ; north 
in April. Nests, in trees; eggs, 4, blue- 
white, spotted. Cries, a series of short 
rather shrill screams. 

293. COOPER HAWK. 
Differs from last in being larger, 17, 
and in having tail rounded; ^^. 228. Cries, 



HAWKS 291 

louder and more whistling. Range, times 
of migration and nesting habits, similar to 
last. 

294. GOSHAWK. 

Larger, 21; similar in form to last; dark 
slate above, blue-gray beneath; three bands 
on tail; top of head and head band on its 
side, black. Young, brown above, white 
beneath, streaked with black. Breeds from 
northern N. E. northward; goes south to 
winter from Middle States northward; north 
in April. Sometimes common in Mass. 

295. MEXICAN GOSHAWK. 

Smaller than last, 16; also differs in 
having upper tail coverts white, and tail 
black with two or three bands of white. 
Young, tail banded with black. Mexico and 
southward; accidental in southern 111. 

296. RED-TAILED HAWK. 

Larger, 20; wings, longer; tail, long in 
proportion to wings, but somewhat rounded; 
legs, stout; brown above; tail, cinnamon, 



292 



HAWKS 



with a subterminal band of black; white 
beneath with a band of heavy black streak- 
ings across middle of body, fig. 229. Young, 
with tail paler and with several black bands 
(twelve or more). Breeds throughout eastern 
N. A., north to Labrador. Note, a wheezy 

Fig. 229 




scream, often given as the bird circles high 
in air. Nests in trees, eggs, 4, white spotted. 

297. KRIDER HAWK. 

Differs from last in being lighter above; 

no terminal band on tail, and lacks band of 

spots beneath. Plains of U. S., from Dakota 

and Wyoming to Minn., and 111. south to Tex. 



HAWKS 293 

298. WESTERN RED-TAIL. 

Differs from Red-tail in being darker 
above with sometimes three bands on tail, 
more rufous beneath. Western N. A. from 
Rockies to Pacific; casual in 111. 

299. HARLAND HAWK. 

Size of last; seeming black above, 
varying from black below to white, but, if 
white, then streaked across breast and on 
sides with black. Young, tail banded with 
lighter. Breeds in the Gulf States and 
lower Mississippi Valley; occasionally north 
to Penn. and la. 

300. EUROPEAN BUZZARD. 

Similar to Red-shouldered Hawk, but 
tail with from 10 to 13 narrow black bands. 
Europe, accidental in Mich. 

301. RED-SHOULDERED HAWK. 

Smaller than Red-tailed, 21; tail shorter 
in proportion to spead of wings; appearing 
black above; wings with many white bands. 



294 



HAWKS 



tail with four; fig. 230; white beneath, 
banded with reddish. Younp:, streaked w^ith 
black beneath; tail with many white bands. 
Breeds throughout eastern N. A. from Fla. 
to Nova Scotia; winters from Mass. south- 
ward, south in Oct.; north in April. Note, 

Fis. 230 





Red-shouldered Hawk. 1-10. 



a loud high ke-arr repeated several times 
with the last syllable prolonged. Breeding 
habits much like Ked-tail. 

302. FLORIDA RED-SHOULDERED. 

Differs from last in being smaller and 
darker. South Atlantic and Gulf States. 



HAWKS 295 

303. SWAINSON HAWK. 
Differs from Ked-shouldered in having 
tail tipped with white; there is a dark phase 
in which the under parts are dark brown 
and intermediates occur between this and 
light phase. Young, ash-red beneath thickly 
marked with drop-shaped streakings, espe- 
cially across breast. Western N, A., east to 
111. ; casual to Mass. and Me. 

304. BROAD-WINGED HAWK. 
Smaller than Red-shouldered, 15, there 

are two white bars only on tail. Young, 
has throat whiter. Breeds throughout N. A. 
from Fla. to New Brunswick; south in Oct. 
to winter from Va. to northern S. A.; north 
in April. Note, a squeaking whistle. 

305. SHORT-TAILED HAWK. 

A little larger, 16; dark brown above, 
white beneath; seven ashy bands on tail; 
reddish on sides of breast. Young, streaked 
beneath; red of breast absent. A dark 
phase has breast dark brown; forehead al- 
ways white. S. A. north to Fla. 



296 



HAWKS 




306. ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK. 

Large, 21, six to eight white tail bands; 

white beneath, band of spots on breast and 

Fi*r 231 broad band on abdomen, black, 

fig. 231. Then is also a black 

phase with intermediates, but the 

basal three -fourths of tail, seen 

from below, is always white. 

Breeds throughout N. A. north 

of the U. S.; winters from N. E. 

south to N. C. from Nov. to April. 

Legs ver3' short and thus the 

bird sits low. Flight, heavy 

with slow wing-beats. 

307. FERRUGINOUS HAWK. 

Size of last; differs in being more 
reddish above; beneath, white unmarked; 
tail, nearly white; from this varies into a 
nearly black phase. Western N. A. west 
to the plains; casual in 111. 

308. GOLDEN EAGLE. 

Large, 35; dark- brown throughout; 
bill, brown; feet, yellow; tarsus feathered to 



Rou^h- 

legged 

Hawk. 1-8 



EAGLES 297 

toes, fig. 232. Young with basal two-thirds 
of tail white. N. A. south to Mex. Breeds 
chiefly on unsettled mountaneous districts; 
nest, usually on cliffs; eggs, 2, white spotted 
w^ith brown. 

Fig. 232 




Golden Eagle. 1-12. 

309. BALD EAGLE. 

Size of last, differs in having head, 
neck and tail white; tarsus, naked; bill and 
feet, yellow, fig. 233. Young, dark-brown 
throughout. U. S. breeding in unsettled 
districts; nests in trees or on cliffs; eggs, 2, 
white, unspotted. Cries, harsh and loud, 
alarm note, a cackling cry. Ordinary flght, 
strong and direct with slow wing-beats. 



298 EAGLES 

Frequently robs the Osprey of fish, when it 
moves with a rapid flight with quickened 
wing-beats. Sometimes circles high in air. 

310. NORTHERN BALD EAGLE. 

Differs from last in being larger. N. 
A. north of the U. S. 

¥ig. 233 




Bald Eagle. 1.16. 

311. GRAY SEA EAGLE. 
Differs from last in having the head 
always brown. Northern Europe, Asia and 
Greenland. 

312. OSPREY. 

23; wings, very long; tail, short; black 
above, white beneath; line through eye and 



EAGLES 



299 



band of spots on breast, black, fig. 234. 
Breeds from Hudson Bay to Fla. west to 
Pacific. Winters from N. C. to northern S. A. 
South in Oct., north in April. Food, wholly 
fishes. Flight, strong, direct; wing-beats, 
slow; often circles over water and drops 
into it to secure prey which it carries head 

Fis. 234 




Osprey. 1-10. 

forward. Nests in trees, eggs, 3-5, creamy 
thickly spotted with red -brown. Cries, 
shrill, whistling screams. 

313. AUDUBON CARACARA. 
Wings, tail and legs, long; 23; dark- 
brown above; base of tail, sides of head, 



300 



PARROTS 



bands on tail and beneath, white, broad 
band on abdomen and finer elsewhere, black; 
feet, yellow. Resident in Fla., Tex., Ariz, 
south to northern S. A. Flight, direct by 
alternate flippings and sailings and will 
sometimes circle in air like Vultures. Chiefly 
terrestrial, feeding much upon dead animals, 
fig. 235. 

Fis:. ^•:i5 




Audubon Caracara. 1-8. 

PARROTS, ETC. 
Birds of varying sizes and colors, with 
strong hooked beaks. 

314. FLORIDA PAROQUET. 

Medium size, 14; tail, long and pointed, 
yellow-green; head and neck, j^ellow; fore- 



PARHOTS 



;oi 



head, sides of head, and inner webs of tail 
feathers, orange, fig. 236. Young, with 
head and neck green. Flight, very swift 
and direct, with rapid wing-beats. Cries, 
harsh and loud. Nests in communities. 
Former range, throughout the Gulf and 

Fig. 236 




Florida Paroquet. 1-6. 

south Atlantic States. Now nearly extinct, 
perhaps still found in a small section of Fla. 

315. WESTERN PAROQUET. 

Differs from last in being more blue- 
green in color. Mississippi Valley south to 
northern La. Now wholly extinct. 



302 OWLS 

WLS . 

Well known-birds of varying sizes; 
bills strong and hooked; chiefly nocturnal. 
Young, inactive when hatched, and covered 
with whitish down. Eggs, white, 2-7. Flight, 
direct with rather slow wing-beats. Food, 
small animals, insects and occasionally fishes. 

Fig. 237 




/ 
Barn Owl. 

316. BAKN OWL. 

Wings, very long; tail, short; 17; pale 
yellow -brown spotted with darker; iris, 
brown, fig. 237. U. S., rare in northern 
portion, resident from middle sections south- 
ward. 



OWLS 303 

317. BARRED OWL. 

Larger, 20; banded with black and 
white, transvesely on upper breast, longi- 
tudinally below this ; iris, brown ; bill, 
yellow, fig. 238. Eastern U. S. from Gulf 
States to Canada. Frequents woodlands. 
Nests in trees. Cries, prolonged hoots, 

Fig. 238 




Barred Owl. 1-11. 

woe woe wu WOO followed by a series of 
wock wock wock wo-o-o. 

315. FLORIDA BARRED OWL. 

Smaller and darker than last. South 
Atlantic and Gulf States. 



304 OWLS 

316. GREAT GRAY OWL. 

Larger, 22; gray, irregularly barred 
above and streaked below with white; iris 
and bill, yellow. Arctic America straggling 
south in winter as far as N. J. and 111. 

Fig. 289 




LoDf^-eared Owl. 1-10. 

317. LONG-EARED OWL. 

Smaller, 15; wings, long; head with 
prominent ear tufts; dark-brown spotted 
and mottled with yellow-white which pre- 
dominates below, fig. 239. Resident through- 
out temperate N. A. Occurs in thick swamps. 
Note, a single loud screech. Nests in trees. 



OWLS 305 

318. SHORT-EARED OWL. 
Size of last, differs in having light 
markings predominating, fig. 240, prominent 
dusky spot on under wing showing in flight. 
Occurs in open sections commonly on sea 
coast among low bushes ; rises suddenly 

Fig. 240 




\ 

Short-eared Owl. 1-10. 

when alarmed and flies with long, downward 
wing-beats moving with excentric flight. 

319. GREAT HORNED OWL. 

LargerJ 23, wings shorter, ear tufts 
long and large. Dark brown, mottled, 
barred and spotted with lighter; patch 
on throat and upper breast, white, fig. 



306 OWLS 

241. Eastern N. A. from Labrador to Fla. 
Occurs in unsettled sections in heavy wood- 
lands. Cries, not unlike those of the Barred 
Owl, but rather louder and more deliberately 
given. Nests in trees, sometimes in cavities. 

Fig. 241 




Great Horned Owl. 1-12. 

320. LABRADOR HORNED OWL. 

Similar to last, but with the dark 
areas more extended. Labrador, Newfound- 
land and south in winter to Ontario. 

321. ARCTIC HORNED OWL. 
Similar to Great Horned, but much 
lighter the light areas predominating. North- 
central Canada, south in winter to Wisconsin 
and northern 111. 



OWLS 307 

322. SCREECH OWL. 

Smaller. 9; reddish above, white beneath, 
streaked on back, barred on wings and tail, 
barred and streaked beneath, with black, 
fig. 242. Above form red varies to gray 
with markings grayish in tone. Resident 
in temperate eastern N. A. west to the 
plains, south to Ga. Yery common, but 

Fig. 242 




Screech Owl. 1-5. 

unless at night, seldom seen on account of 
many passing the day in holes. Nests in 
holes. Note, a shivering cry often repeated. 
Gives a croak of alarm. 

323. FLOUDA SCREECH OWL. 

Differs from last in being smaller and 
darker. South Atlantic and Gulf States. 



308 OWLS 

324. SAW-WHET OWL. 
Smaller, 8, red-brown above; narrow 
white lines on bead and face, and spots else- 
where; beneath, white, streaked with red- 
brown, three bars of spots on tail, fig. 243. 
Breeds from Middle States northward. Not 
common. Note, a rasping cry. 

Fijj. 248 




Saw-whet Owl. 1-8. 

325. HAWK OWL. 

Medium, 15; tail, long, graduated; wings, 
long; dark-brown above; lined and spotted 
with white; eight lines of white spots on 
tail and beneath, white, here transversly 
banded with black; face, white, nearly sur- 
rounded by black line; spot on neck, black, 
fig. 244. Breeds from Newfoundland north- 



OWLS 



309 




ward, wandering south into northern U. S. 

in winter. Rather diurnal. 
Fig. 2u 326 SNOWY OWL. 

Large, 22; white spotted and 
barred, especially above, with 
black, fig. 245; females, more 
heavily banded than males. Note, 
a whistlinsr cry. Northern por- 
tions of northern hemisphere; 
breeds north of U. S., wandering 
south in winter to Middle States, 
Nov. to April. Flight, heavy and 

direct. Frequents sand dunes on coast. 

Rather diurnal. 

327. BURROWING OWL. 
Small, 10; white, barred 

and spotted, more heavily 

above, with red - brown. 

Wings and legs, long; tail, 

short. Frequents open sec- 
tions. Nests, in holes in 

ground. Western U. S. from 

Great Plains to Pacific; ac- 



Hawk Owl. 
1-10. 



Fig. 245 




\\\\\ -HJftv 



cidental in N. Y. and Mass. saowy Owi. i-i5. 



310 



CUCKOOS. 



CUCKOOS. 

Slender birds of varying sizes; tails 
long; two toes in front and two behind. 



Fiff. 246 




Ani, 



328. ANI. 
Large, 14; bill, compressed, ridge, ele- 
vated; black, ^g. 246. Cries loud, but minor 



CUCKOOS. 



311 



in tone. Flight, heavy and jay-like. Social 
at all times, several females placing their 
chalky-white eggs in one nest; probably 
polygamous. 

Fig. 247 




Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 1-4. \ 

329. YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO. 

Smaller, 12; brown above, white below; 
tail dark; outer feathers- broadly tipped with 
white; wing, strongly tinged with cinna- 
mon; under mandible, yellow; space about 
eye dark, fig. 247. Breeds in eastern tem- 
perate N. A., west to plains: winters in 



312 CUCKOOS. 

Costa Rica, south in Sept., north in May. 
Nests of sticks in bushes; eggs, 4, green un- 
spotted. Notes, coiV'CO, given at intervals. 

330. MANGROVE CUCKOO. 

Differs from last in being strongly 
tinged with reddish yellow beneath and in 
having dark space about eye larger. Breeds 
in West Indies; rare on Fla. Keys and in La. 

Fig:. 248 




Black-billed Cuckoo. 

331. MAYNARD CUCKOO. 

Differs from last in being paler beneath. 
Bahamas, largely resident; rare on Fla. 
Keys. Notes, om-on-on-on-qiia-qua-qua-coo- 
coo-co; the first four and last three are 
cuckoo-like, but the three middle harsh. 

382. BLACK.BILLED CUCKOO. 
Differs from Yellow-bill in having tail 
like back, and narrowly tipped with black 



WOODPECKERS. 



313 



and white, fig. 248; absnce of cinnamon on 
wins: and black on head; under mandible 
dark blue; eyelids, red, fig. 249. Breeds 
through eastern N. A. west to Rockies, north 
to Labrador, winters in S. A. Notes, coo<oO' 

Fi^. 249 




Black-billed Cuckoo. 

COO-COO^ given without interruption. Eggs, 
dark blue-green. 

WOODPECKRS. 

Well-known birds with chisel-shaped 
bills, large heads, long wings; tail feathers 
stiffened and pointed; toes two in front and 



WOODPECKERS. 



two behind. Eggs. 6-7, white, polished, 
placed ill holes. Young, naked and help- 
less. Flight, heavy and undulating, but 
often swift. Drum on trees, etc., as a roll 
call. Climb head first, but back down. 

Fig. 250 




3P^ 



Yellow-bellfed Jiapsucker. 1-6, 

.o^. YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKEK, 
Small, 8.50, longitudinal white patch 
on wing; male, with crown and throat, 
crimson, fig. 250; female, throat white; both 
much mottled above, yellow below, and 
with black spot on breast; young with black 
spot on breast replaced by gray and with 
little red on head; adult plumage gradually 



WOODPECKERS. 315 

assumed. Breeds in eastern N. A. from 
northern Mass., northward to middle Canada 
and south along the mountains to N. C. 
Cries harsh and rattling; gives the yucka 
rather rarely. 

334. RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER. 

Larger, 10; male, top of head all scarlet, 
ashy beneath, tinged with red; back, banded 

Fi^. 251 




Red-bellied Woodpecer. 1-7. 

with black and white; upper tail coverts, 
white, fig. 251. Female, top of head, gray, 
nape scarlet. Resident in eastern U. S. 
from Pa. southward; casual as far north as 
Mass. Cries, often uttered, harsh and quer- 



316 



WOODPECKERS. 



ulous, yucka note rarely given. Frequents 
open woodlands. 

335. RED-HEADED WOODPECKER. 

Smaller, 9; colors in masses; head and 
neck all around, crimson ; band on second- 
aries and rump and beneath, white; remain- 

Fiff. 252 




Ked-headed Woodpecker. 1-6. 

ing upper portions, black, fig. 252. Young, 
head, gray; white of secondaries, broadly 
banded with black. Sexes, similar. Breeds 
in the U. S. west to the Rockies; local east 
of the Hudson, usually migratory north of 
Penn. Very noisy, cries harsh and loud. 



WOODPECKEKS. 317 

336. HAIRY WOODPECKER. 

lOj black above, white beneath; on side 
of head, longitudinal stripe on back trans- 
verse bands of spots on wincrs and outer 
tail feathers, white, fig. 253; male, with red 
on nape. Resident in northern and middle 

Fi^, 253 




Hairy Woodpecker. 1- 

TJ. S. north into southern Canada, south to 
Va., cries sharp sometimes rapidly repeated 
as a call. Gives yucha notes. 

337. NORTHERN HAIRY WOOD- 

PECKER. 
Differs from last in being larger. Breeds 
in northern N. A. north of U. S. 



318 WOODPECKERS. 

338. NEWFOUNDLAND WOODPECKER. 
A little smaller than last with much 
less white on back and wings, black spots 
on dorsal stripe. Newfoundland. 




Downy Woodpecker. 1-4. 

339. SOUTHERN HAIRY WOOD- 
PECKER. 

Smaller than Hairy a little darker. 
South Atlantic and Gulf States, north to Va. 

340. SOUTHERN DOWNY WOOD- 
PECKER. 

Smaller than last, 5.50, bill proportion- 
ately smaller, white of outer tail feathers 
barred with spots of black; dusky beneath. 



WOODPECKERS. 



319 



341. DOWNY WOODPECKER. 

Larger than last, white beneath, fig. 
254. Eastern N. A. from eastern Ya. and 
mountains of Ga. north to Canada. 

Fiff, 255 




Red- cock ad ed Woodpecker, 

342. NORTHERN DOWNY WOOD- 
PECKER. 
Larger than last, bars on tail narrower. 
Northwestern N. A., south in winter to 
Wis. and N. Y. 

343. RED COCKADED WOODPECKER. 
Larger, 8.25; differs from Hairy Wood- 
pecker in being transverslj banded on back 



320 



WOODPECKERS. 



with white, without dorsal stripe, red of 
head in male confined to a small spot on its 
on its side, fig-. 255. Southern N. S. from 
Va. southwards; casual in Penn, and N. Y. 
Frequents pine barrens. Somewhat social 
and very noisy; cries, harsh and querulous. 

Fig. 256' 




344 



Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker. 1-6. 

ARCTIC THREE. TOED WCK)D- 
PECKER. 



Larger than last, 9.50; toes three, black 
above, wings banded with white; beneath, 
white, banded on sides with black. Male^ 
with top of head yellow, fig. 256, Northern 



WOODPECKEKS. 821 

N. A.; in winter, wandering south into north- 
ern U. S. as far as N. E. 

345. AMERICAN THREE-TOED 
WOODPECKER. 

Differs from last in having the entire 
back banded with white, fig. 257, Range 
similar to last. 

Fig. 257 




American Three-toed Woodpecker. 1-6. 

346. IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER. 

Large, 21, neck thin; black; bill, second- 
aries, line extending on side of neck, white; 
crest on back of head, scarlet; black in fe- 
male, fig. 258. Former range through 
most of the southern States^ now restricted 



322 GOATSUCKEKS. 

to a few isolated localities in the lower 

Mississippi Valley and Gulf States, chiefly 

Fla. 

347. PILEATED WOODPECKER. 

Smaller, 18.50, black; throat, line on 

side of neck, patch on primaries, basal half 

Fi^. 258 




Ivory-billed Woodpecker. 1-10. 

of wing beneath, showing in flight, white; 
maxillary patch, top of head and crest, scar- 
let, fig. 259. Female, front of head and 
maxillary patches, black. Eastern U. S. 
from northern Fla., southern Tex., north to 
Md., Penn. and southern 111. 



WOODPECKEKS. 323 

348. FLORIDA PILEATED WOOD- 
PECKER. 

Similar to last, but darker and smaller. 
Central and southern Fla. 




Pileated Woodpecker. 1-9. 

349. NORTHERN PILEATED WOOD- 
PECKER. 
Similar to Pileated, but larger and lighter. 
Northern eastern N. A. from Wesst Va., 
western Penn., north into Canada. All of 
the Pileated Woodpeckers frequent heavy 
forests in the wilder sections. Notes, not 



o24 FUCKERS. 

unlike those of the flicker, but are louder. 
Roll-call also similar but with more volume. 

350. FLICKER. 
Smaller, 12; bill, curved, white spot on 
rump, conspicuous in flight; brown above, 
banded with black; ash-red beneath, maxil- 

Fijr. 260 




lar\' patch, crescent on breast, and round 
spots beneath, black; tail and wings beneath, 
(rolden-yellow ; scarlet patch on back of 
head, fig. 260. Female, without black max- 
illary patch. Eastern U. S. from Fla. north 
to N. C. and southern Ya., Ind. and TIL 
Cries, varied; a whistling scream, an in- 



FLICKERS. 



325 



terrupted call, and in spring a series of 
yucca notes. Subsists chiefly on ants in 
summer. 

351. NORTHERN FLICKER. 

Similar to last, but larger. Northern 
and Central U. S., east of Rockies, south to 

Fig. 261 




Chuck-Will's Widow 



Va. and southern 111., north to northern N. 
E. In winter to Gulf Coast and Tex. 

352. BOREAL FLICKER. 

Larger than last. From Labrador, 
north to limit of tree growth, north west to 
Alaska. 



326 GOATSUCKERS. 

GOATSUCKERS. 

Long-winged birds with small bills, 
wide gape, large eyes, small feet; colors 
dull and inconspicuous, when perching on 
trees sit longitudinally. Food, insects. 

Fig. 2{)2 




VVhip-poor-wi] 

253. CHUCK-WILL'S WIDOW. 

Large, L3, mixed reddish brown and 
black; yellow-red crescent on throat; patch 
on three outher tail feathers, buff below 
white above, fig. 261. Female, lacks the 
crescent on throat and white on tail. Breeds 
from Va. southward through South Atlantic 
and Gulf States, winters in Cuba, eastern 



WOODPECKEliS. 327 

Mexico, south to Central America; 80uth in 
Sept., north in March; rare in Bahaman; 
accidental in Mass. Note. chuck-wilV s-widow 
rapidly oriven, sometimes also a series of 
chuckling sounds. Found in woodlands by 
day. often flies about dwelings at night. 
Flight, erratic and Hitting. 




jS"ighthawk, 1-5. 

354. WHIP-POOR-WILL. 

Smaller, 10, darker than last, white 
crescent on throat and patch on outer tail 
feathers white on both surfaces, fig. 262; 
female, without crescent on throat. Breeds 
throughout eastern N. A. from N. C. north 



328 NIGHTHAWKS. 

to Canada, west to Plains. Note, ivhip-poor- 
luill, ^iven very rapidly and repeatedly, 
also a chuckling sound. Found in wood- 
lands by day. Flight, similar to last. 
355. NIGHTHAWK. 

Size of last, gray above, banded with 
white and black beneath; large spot on 
primaries, crescent on throat and band of 
spots on tail, white, fig. 263. Female, lacks 
white on tail and crescent is indistinct. 
Breeds throughout eastern N. A. from north- 
ern Fla. to Labrador; winters in S. A.; 
south in Sept., north in May. Eggs placed 
in gravely spots, sometimes on gravelled 
roofs of buildings. Note, a shrill, rasping 
cry repeated when the bird is darting zig- 
zag high in air and a booming sound as the 
bird descends from this height to a point 
near the ground when he turns to ascend. 
Often flies in the day time and regularly in 
the evening, not by night. 

356. FLORIDA NIGHTHAWK. 

Smaller and darker than last. Fla. to 
Tex.; winters in S. A. 



SWIFTS. o2U 

357. HOWELL NIGHTHAWK. 

Similar to last, but lighter above and 
more reddish. Western U. S.. casual in 111. 

SWIFTS. 

Compact birds with short bills, long 
primaries, but other parts of wing short- 
ened. Flight swift. Fiv. 264 

358. CHIMNEi^ SWIFT. 

Small, 5; spindle-shaped, tail 
short and spiny at tip; appearing; 
black, fig. 264. Young naked and 
helpless when hatched. Nests of 
sticks fastened together with glue 
secreted by the mouth of the bird, 
(sticks gathered when bird is on 'J^hiinney 
the wing) placed usually in chim- fejwift. 
neys or occasionally in hollow trees, caves, 
etc. Eggs, 4, white. Flight swift, con- 
tinuous by a rapid alternate quivering move- 
ment of wing tips and sailing. Food, 
insects. Cries, a shrill chatter, always given 
in flifrht. never when in the chimnev. 




330 llUM^IlNGliiKDS. 

HUMMINGBIRDS. 

Small birds with winors similar to last, 
but differ in having an awl-like bill. Nests 
made of tine material covered with lichens; 
eggs, 2, white. Young, naked and help- 
less. Flight, swift and darting; wing-beats 
exceedingly rapid. Food, sweet nectar of 
flowers and insects. Found only in America. 

359. RUBY-THROATED HUMMING- 
BIRD. 

Small, 3.50; tail forked in male, rounded 
in female; green above, white below% male 
with throat metnlic ruby; female with tail 
w4iite tipped, fig. 265. Breeds throughout 
eastern N. A. from Labrador to Fla. Winters 
from Fla. to Mex. Has a weak chirping cry. 

KINGFISHERS. 

Of varying sizes. Bills and wings, long; 
tails, short; feet, small. Food, usually fishes. 

360. BELTED KINGFISHER. 

12. head crested; bluish above, white 
beneath; male with a single band of bluish 



llU.MlllNClJinD.S. 



Ul 




66Z 11UMM1N(;131KI)S. 

on breast, fig. 266; female, with an ad- 
ditional one of red-brown. Breeds through- 
out N. A. from southern border of U. S. 
north to Arctic Ocean ; winters from Middle 
States, occasionally from Mass., south to 
Panama; south in Oct., north in April. 




Belled Kingfisher, 1-10. 



Nests, in holes in perpendicular banks; eggs, 
6, w^iite. Note, a harsh rattle. Flight, 
direct, often slow and rather jerky, but 
sometimes swift and darting. Poses in air 
when fishing and drops into water to 
secure prey. 



nU3IMI>^GIJlRDS. 



333 



SONGLESS PERCHERS. 
Small birds inhabiting temperate and 
tropical regions which are not capable of 
producing greatly varied songs. Young, 

Fitr. 267 




8cissor-tailed Flycatcher. 1-4. 

naked and helpless. All of our species are fly- 
catchers, taking insects chiefly on the wing. 

361. FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER. 
Long, 12; tail, very long and forked; 
ashy above, white beneath; top and sides 



KlNdBlRDS. 



of head, l)lack; crown patch, yellow. S. A. 
north to Mex.; accidental in U.S. east to N.J. 

3G2. SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER. 
Differs from last in having portion of 
tail, under wing coverts and hind parts 
beneath, rosy, fig. 267. South-western 




Kingbird. 1-4. 

States, casual in Fla.; accidental in N. J., 
Md., Va., 111., N. E. and Canada. 

363. KINGBIRD. 
Shorter, 8.40; black above, white be- 
neath and on tip of tail, fig. 268. Crow^n 
patch, orange, but rarely seen. Breeds 



HUMMINXGBIRDS. 



335 



throughout eastern N. A. Winters from 
Mex. to S. A., south in Sept., north in early 
May. Nests in trees and bushes, often uses 
everlastino^; eggs, 4, creamy, spotted with 
brown. Cries, shrill and loud, sometimes 
darts about in air, especially in evening 




Gray Kingbird. 1-4. 

Uttering a shrill twittering; flight, direct, 
with rapid, downward w^ing-beats. Fre- 
quents open sections and perches much, 
often low, launching out after insects. 

864. GRAY KINGBIRD. 

Differs from last in being larger, 9.50, 
tail somewhat forked, lighter above, no 



KIN(UURDS. 



white on tail tip, tig. 269, 1-4. Bahamas, 
West Indies, coast of Fla., Ga., and S. C. 
Winters in S. A.? north in April. More 
noisy than last with harsher cries. 

Fi^. 270 




Crested Flycatcher. 1-4, 

365. ARKANSAS KINGBIRD. 

Differs from last in being bright yellow 
beneath, throat ashy, lighter above. Western 
U. S.; accidental in Md., N. J., Mass. and Me. 

366. CRESTED FLYCATCHER. 

A little smaller, 9, feathers of head 
elongated; back, green; throat, ashy; else- 
where beneath, yellow; inner webs of wings 



FLYCATCHERS. 



337 



and tail, cinnamon, fi^. 270. Breeds through 
eastern U. S. north into southern Canada, 
south in Sept., north in May. Nests in 
holes of trees, and always uses the cast off 
skin of snake among other material; cries, 
surprised whistles, follow^ed by a series of 

Fi^. 271 




Phoebe 



chatters, all loud. Frequents open wood- 
lands and orchards. Of local distribution in 
N. E. 

367. PHOEBE. 

Smaller, 7.; brown above, yellow^-w^hite 
beneath, fig. 271; more so in w^inter; bill, 
wholly black. Breeds throughout eastern 



O O Q 



FLY CAT( HERS. 



N. A. from S. C. north to Me. and southern 
Canada. Winters from N. C. to Fla. ; south 
in Oct., north in April. Moves tail up and 
down and switches it immediately after 
aliorhting. Note, p/^ee-^ee quickly and rather 
harshly given with accent on first syllable, 

Fitr. 272 




Wood Pewee. 1-4. 

sometimes the note is prolonged and then 
becomes more musical; occasionally it is 
used as a flight song given in spring when 
it is quickly repeated with some variation; 
heard from spring to late in fall. Nests 
placed in shelter of out buildings, bridges, 
rocks, banks, etc., composed of moss, grass, 



FLYCATCHERS. 



339 



etc., mixed with mud; egg's, 4-5, white, 
occasionally dotted w^ith reddish. 

368. SAY PHOEBE. 
A little larger than last, paler above 
and ash-red beneath. Western U. S., acci- 
dental on Cape Cod, Mass. 

Fia. 273 




Olive-sided Flycatcher. 1-1. 

369. WOOD PEWEE. 
Smaller, 6.50; darker above 
beneath, prominent w^hite wing 
under mandible, yellow, fig. 272. 
throughout eastern N. A. from Fla. to New- 
foundland; south in Oct. to winter in 
Central America; north in May. Notes, 



w^hite 
bands; 
Breeds 



340 FLYCATCHERS. 

pee-ivee or pe-e-ivee oriven in a sweet, long 
drawn resigned tone. Frequents open wood- 
lands and groves, sometimes in villages. 
Nests of grass, etc., covered with lichens, 
saddled on a limb of a high tree. Eggs, 3, 
creamy blotched with brown. 

370. OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER. 

Larger, 7.50; more robust, a band across 
breast, olive, a patch' of white on sides of 
rump (only occasionally seen), under mandi- 
ble yellow, fig. 273. Notes, rather con- 
tinuously given, much like those of a young 
Robin, but louder and more minor. Fre- 
quents open spots near woodlands, and 
often perches on dead trees. Breeds in 
inoutainous parts of U. S. from northern N. 
E., occasionally from Mass. north into 
Canada. Nests, of sticks, placed in trees; 
eggs, 4, similar to last. 

371. LEAST FLYCATCHER. 

Smaller, 5.50, brownish-olive above; 
yellow-white beneath ; two wing-bands and 



FJ.YCATCIIERS. 



341 



eye-ring, white; under mandible, dark, fig. 
274. Breeds in eastern N. A. from Penn. 
and N. J. northward into Canada; winters 
in Central x\merica, south in Sept.. north 
in May. Alarm note a short petvit, song 
notes, chehec, given with great energy and 

Fifj. 274 




Least Flycatcher. 1-4. 

repeated constantly as the bird throws its 
head up and jerks all over; also gives a low 
twitter while wings are slightly raised and 
fluttered. Frequents orchards and low 
open growths; nests in trees of hempen- 
fibers; eggs, 4, white, usually unspotted. 



.-)4:Z FI.Y CATCHERS. 

372. TRAIL FLYCATCHER. 

A little larger than last; eye-ring pale- 
yellow; under mandible, yellow. Western 
N. A. from Mississippi Valley east into 
Ohio. 111. and Mich. 



373. 



ALDER FLiXATCHER. 



Darker than last. Breeds in eastern 
N. A. from Me., rarely from Mass., north- 
ward. Nests of sticks often placed in 
alders; eggs, creamy spotted with red-brown. 
Notes, ke-wicky often repeated, but rather 
more slowly and harshly than in the Least 
Flycatcher. Frequents low growths in 
swampy land, often alders. 

374. GREEN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER. 

Larger than Alder, green above and 
lighter beneath with less olive on sides. 
Eastern N. A. north to southern N. Y. and 
southern Mich., rare as far north as southern 
Mass.; winters in Central America, south 
in Sept., north in late May. Notes, se-wink 
emphatically given, sometimes followed by 



FJ.YCATCUERS. 343 

a series of chucklinof notes made with flut- 
tering wings; frequents low growths in 
wooded glens. Nests of sticks, lichens, and 
moss, placed in bushes, usually a witch hazel; 
egrgs, 4, creamy, spotted and blotched with 
red-brown. 

375. YELLOW-BELLIED FLY- 
CATCHER. 

Smaller than last, \"ellow-green above; 
pale greenish yellow on wing-bands, eye- 
ring and beneath. Breeds from northern 
U. S. northward to southern Labrador; win- 
ters in Mexico and Central America; south 
in Sept., north in late -May. Occurs in 
alder and other thickets, keeps low among 
the foliage, not very active. Note a low 
peea rather plaintive and long drawn, fre- 
quently given; then, less often, a gravely 
rendered kil-lick. Nests on ground in 
shelter of upturned roots of fallen trees or 
in a bunch of moss; eggs, 4-5, white, dotted 
w^ith pale reddish. 

While all of these four species of Flv- 



34-4 FLYCATCHERS. 

catchers are not difficult to recognize in 
spring when they are giving their notes, in 
autumn when they are silent it is extremely 
hard to identify them, especially as all are 
then in more obscure dress, when the char- 
acteristic markings are quite alike. It is 
well also to remember that all migrate al- 
most as soon as the young are able to do so. 
and consequentK' none of the species would 
be apt to have time to wander north of 
their usual habits in autumn. 

376. VERMILLION FLYCATCHER. 

Small, 6; head and beneath, scarlet 
Vermillion; brown above. Female, dull 
white beneath, tinged with orange poster- 
ally. South-western U. S. One taken in 
Tallahassee, Fla., March 25, 1901. 

SINGING PERCHERS. 

Usually small birds capable of pro- 
ducing varied and more or less musical 
sounds. Young hatched naked and helpless. 



LARKS. 345 

Larks. 

Wings, long; secondaries, short; colors, 
dull. 

377. SKY LARK. 

7.50; brown above and streaked with 
lighter, white beneath reddish on breast 
and sides where streaked; outer tail feather 
white. 

Europe, accidental in Greenland and 
Bermuda. Celebrated in song and story. 

378. HORNED LARK. 
Size of last, 7.50; pinkish-brown above, 
white below; forehead, line over eye, and 
throat, black markings about head as in 
fig. 275; outer portion of tail showing white. 
Breeds in north-eastern N. A., Greenland, 
and northern parts of Old World; south in 
Oct. to winter, especially along coast from 
N. E. to Middle States, less commonly to 
S. C; north in April. Nests on ground; eggs 
4-5, gray-white spotted with yellow-brown. 
Song given when soaring in air. Spend most 
of time' on ground, w^here they run about 



846 



LAKK^. 



ver\' activeh^, squat lor concealment, rise 
when alarmed and move with a Hitting 
erratic flight; gregarious. Give a shrill 
double note when on the wing. 

378. PRAIRIE HORNED LARK. 
A little smaller than last and much 
paler above, nearh^ white about head, at 

Fig. 275 




Horned Lark. 

best faintly yellow. Young, mottled black 
and buit". Breeds in Mass. quite to coast, 
N. H., Vt., N. Y. and west to Mississippi 
Valley. Rare in Mass. in winter; south in 
Oct. as far as S. C; north in April. 



MAGPIES AND JAYS. 347 

379. HOYT HORNED LARK. 
A little paler than Horned Lark; yellow 
of throat confined to middle line; over eye 
white. Breeds in British America from 
west shore of Hudson Bay to Arctic coast; 
south in winter to Mich., Kan., Utah and 
Nev.; casually to Oiiio and N. Y. 

Fiij. 276 




American Magpie. 1-10. 

Magpies and Jays. 

Large birds with bright colors; wings 
short and rounded; tails long, often rounded. 
Cries, harsh, seldom musical. Intelligent 
and active, somewhat gregarious, not migra- 
tory. Flight, heavy and direct. Nests in 



MAGPIES AND JAYS. 



trees of sticks; eggs, 4-5, gray or bluish, 
mottled \vith darker. 

380. AMERICAN MAGPIE. 
Large, 20, iridescent black; scapularies, 
inner webs of secondaries and abdomen, 
white, fig. 276; northern and western N. A.; 
casual east to Mich, and northern 111. 

Vi^. 277 




="^^ 



Blue Jay. 1-6. 

381. BLUE JAY. 
Smaller, 12; head crested, blue above, 
white beneath, black and white markings 
on wings; tail, and about head as in fig. 277. 
Eastern N. A. from Fla. northward to 
Canada. Abundant in woodlands and about 



MAGPIES AND JAYS. 



349 



dwellings. With the harsh and well-known 
varied cries has a low song given in spring. 

382. FLORIDA BLUE JAY. 

A little smaller than last, and duller 
blue above. Fla. and Gulf coast to Tex. 

Fig. 278 




1-6. 



383. 



Florida Jay. 

FLORIDA JAY. 



Size of last, tail proportionately longer; 
no crest; dull blue above; band of darker 
streakings on breast, fig. 278. Scrub lands 
of Fla. Gregarious; not shy. Cries and 
general habits, very jay-like. 



350 :^IAGP1ES AND JAYS. 

384. CANADA JAY. 

Size of last, tail rounded; gray, darker 
on hind head; yellowish on top of head and 
hind neck, hg. 279. Frequents heavily 
wooded sections from northern Mich., north 

Fio-. 279 




Canada Jay. 1-8. 

to Arctic America. Very unsuspicious. 
Cries, varied but jay-like. 

385. LABRADOR JAY. 

Differs from last in having black of top 
and sides of head more extended forward. 
Coast of Labrador and Newfoundland. 



TITMICE. 



351 



Titmice. 

Small birds resembliDg Jjn^s in form. 
Nests in holes of trees; eg-gs, 6-7, white 
spotted with reddish. Food, chiefly small 
insects and their eggs. Plumage, usually 
long and tiuli'y. 

Fiff. 280 




Black-capped Chickadee. 1-3. 

386. BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE. 

Small, 5.60, gray above; w^iite beneath 
crown and throat, black; sides, reddish, 
especially in winter, figs. 280-281. Eastern 
N. A., north of Potomac and Ohio Valley. 
Note, cliick-a-dee-dee-dee, given with energ3^, 
a short squeaking chip w^hen disturbed and 



6o2 



TITMICE. 



other low conversational notes, a lon^ 
drawn cee-clee (given at all seasons, and 
often mistaken for the notes of the Phoebe), 
and a low, silvery song seldom heard. Flight, 
waverino: and unsteady. Nests, often placed 
in hole of decaying birches. 

Fig-. 281 







Black-capped Chickadee. 

CAROLINA CHICAKDEE. 

Smaller than last with line of demark- 
ation between black and white of breast 
more sharply defined, fig. 282. Southern 
States from N. Y. southward. Sings silvery 
sonff more often than last. 



CHICKADEES. 353 

388. FLORIDA CHICKADEE. 
Smaller and darker than last. Lake 
Aslib.y region Fla. 

389. HUDSONIAN CHICKADEE. 

Differs from Chickadee in having black 
on throat only and in being more rufous 

Fisf. 282 




Carolina Chickadee. 

on sides and above, fig. 283. Northern N. 
A. from shore of Hudson Bay northward. 

390. ACADIAN CHICKADEE. 

Similar to last, but smaller and browner 
above. South-eastern British Provinces 
and extreme north-eastern U. S., Me. moun- 
tains of N. H., Vt., and N. Y., wandering 
south in winter to southern N. E. 



54 



CHICKADEES. 



391. TOWNSEND CHICKADEE. 

Similar to last, but much darker above 
and with no rufous on sides below, dis- 
covered in the summer of 1915 by Dr. Chas. 
W. Townsend in the wooded section of 
Labrador. Described in the Auk for Jan. 
1916. 

Fijf. 283 




Acadian Chickadee. 

392. TUFTED TITMOUSE. 
Larger, 6.00; gray above, white be- 
neath; forehead, black; sides, reddish, fig. 
284. Eastern U. S. from southern N. J. 
southward, casual as far north as southern 
N. E. Notes, similar to those of Chickadee, 
but harsher and louder; song, similar. 



CROWS. 



355 



CROWS. 
Large birds; wings, long, folding nearly 
to tip of tail. All of our species are black. 
Cries, harsh. Nest, placed in trees or on 
cliffs; e^^gs. 3-6, grayish spotted with darker. 
Flight, strong and direct. 



Fi^. 284 



^ 

:^^ 




Tufted Titmouse. 1-3. 

393. AMERICAN CROW. 

Medium, 20. N. A., excepting Fla., 
fig. 285. Notes, caiv, repeated several times, 
more rapidly when alarmed; a series of 
croaks given quickly, and various guttural 
sounds; some individuals, at least, have quite 
a musical but low song; gregarious in winter. 



356 RAvr.xs. 

394. FISH CROW. 
Smaller, 16. Atlantic and Gulf coasts 
from Conn, to La.; casual as far north as 
Mass. Notes, ha-ha and some guttural cries. 
Flight, rather more rapid than last with 
quicker wing-beats. Highly gregarious. 

Figr. 285 




Crow. 1-10. 

This species in common with last gathers in 
large numbers at night to roost in some 
chosen swamp or woodland. 

395. NORTHERN RAVEN. 
Large, 24. Northern N. A., south to S. 
C. in unsettled and mountainous districts. 
Note, a harsh croak. Flight, heavy; sails 
much. Nests, often on cliffs. 



ORIOLES. 



396. STARLING. 

Medium, 8; wings, long; tail, short, 
black, streaked and spotted with buff, fig. 
286. Europe, now introduced into eastern 
and middle States, where it is common. 
Notes, various, whistles, chucklings and 

Fig. 286 




Starling-. 1-4. 

guttural sounds. Flight, not unlike that of 
Meadow Lark. Feeds much on ground. 
Nests, chiefly in holes. 

ORIOLES. 

Variable in size and color; bill iDointed. 
Eggs, usually bluish, lined with black. 



358 



MEADOW LARKS. 



397. MEADOW LAKK. 
Medium, 10.50; wings, long; tail, short, 
brown above, streaked with black; yellow 
beneath, black crescent on breast; outer tail 
feathers, white, fig. 287. "Eastern U. S. from 
Canada to Fla. ; winters, from Mass. south- 
Fig. 287 




Meadow Lark. 1-5. 

ward; south in Oct.. north in March. Call 
song, you can't see me\ rather high and pro- 
longed; a sharp chatter when alarmed; a 
song, clearely heard, often, possibly always, 
given on the wing, consisting of a sweet, 
continuous warble. Flight direct, wing- 
beats rapid with wings held low, sometimes 



BLACKBIKDS. 359 

sails. Frequents open fields. Nests on 
grounds; eggs white, brown spotted. 

398. FLORIDA MEADOW LARK. 
Smaller than last, darker above and 
more j^ellow below. Fla. and Gulf coast to 
La. Call song, shorter and not as loud 
as in last, see me here, rather plaintively 
given. Occurs in open savannas and pine 
woods. 

399. WESTERN MEADOW LARK. 
Differs from Meadow Lark in being 

much paler. Western U. S. east to 111. Sings 
true song while setting and when flying. 

400. RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD. 
Smaller, 9; black with red patch on 

wing, bordered below with buff. Female, 
smaller, streaked with brown and buff. 
Young male, like female, gradually assuming 
male dress, fig. 288. N. A. from Great 
Slave Lake to Fla.; winters from N. C. south- 
ward; south in Oct., north in March. Fre- 
quents open marshy sections; gregarious. 



;60 



BLACKlilRDS. 



Nests, placed in bushes or on tursocks. 
Notes, a sharp chuck, a squealinp^ cry, a 
chatter, criven by both sexes, and the oker- 
ree song of male. Males and females do 
not associate, excepting to breed. Flight 
not direct, but erratic. 

Fi^-. 288 




Red-winoed Blackbird. 

401. FLORIDA RED-WING. 

Differs from last in being smaller, buff 
margin on wing deeper; female, with rather 
more pinkish on throat. Fla. and Gulf 
coast to Tex. Song, shorter, like cre-e-e. 

402. BAHAMA RED-WING. 

Bill, longer than last; female, much 
paler. Many of the Bahama Islands; casual 



BLACKBIRDS. 



361 



in southern Fla. on the Keys (Ridgway). 
The song is considerably more shrill 
than that of our Red-wing and the alarm 
note is sharper or more squeeky. Fre- 
quents mangroves and sometimes scrub 
lands. 

Fis^. 289 




Baltimore Oriole. 1-3. 



403. NORTHERN REDWING. 

Considerably larger than Fla. Redwing 
but like it in coloration, excepting female, 
w^iich is much paler. Breeds in interior of 
British America, south in winter to Minn., 
la., western 111., northern Ey. 



?j()2 ORIOLES. 

404. TROPICAL. 

9.50; black patch on wing, broad collar 
on hind neck, upper back, and beneath 
behind chest, orange; patch and stripings 
on wing, white. Northern S. A. introduced 
into Jamaica and other West Indies; acci- 
dental at Charleston, S. C. (Audubon). 
Songs, a series of loud clear whistles. 

Fig. 290 




Orchard Oriole. 1-3. 

405. BALTIMORE ORIOLE. 

Smaller, 7.70; orange; head, upper 
breast, back, wings, and band on tail, black, 
bar and streakings on wings, white, fig. 
289. Female and young duller without 
Ijlack on tail. Breeds in eastern N. A. from 



ORIOLES. 363 

Va. to Canada; winters in Mex. and Central 
America; south in Sept.; north in May. 
Son.s: loud, clear distinct whistles, but very 
variable, given full only in May and June; 
heard somewhat shortened in late Aug. and 
early Sept. ; has a scolding chatter when 

Fig. 291 




Yellow-headed Blackbird. 1-6. 

anno3'ed; young utter a monotonous piping 
when first out of nest in July. Nests in 
trees, woven and pendulous. 

406. BULLOCK ORIOLE. 

Differs from last in having orange of 
throat extending on cheeks, often over eye, 



oG4 ORIOLES. 

large patch of white on wings; tip of tail, 
black. Female differs in having broad 
wing patch like male. Western U. S., ac- 
cidental in Me. 

407. OKCHARD ORIOLE. 

Smaller, 6.70; differs from Baltimore 
chiefly in having oranore replaced by chest- 

Fi^. 292 




Rusty Blackbird. 1-0. 

nut and tail wholly black, fig. 290. Female 
green with whiter markings in a male. Young 
male like female, gradually assuming full 
male dress. Eastern U. S. from Fla. north 
to Mass. where it is rare. Winters in Mex. 



BLACKBIRDS. 365 

and Central America; south in Sept.; north 
in May. Nests made of grass woven when 
green, then bleached. Song softer and rather 
more musical than in Baltimore. 

408. YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD. 

Larger, 10.50; black; head, yellow; 
white patch on wing. Female, duller, no 

Fio-. 29.-; 




Brewer Blackbird. 

white on wing. Young male like female, 
but has white on wing, fig. 291. Western 
U. S. east to 111.; casual in Mass., Pa., Md., 
W. Ya., District of Columbia, S. C. and 
Fla. Song a wheezy squeak. Largely res- 
ident. 



366 BLACKBIRDS. 

409. RUSTY BLACKBIRD. 

Smaller, 9.50; wings and tail, long, 
latter a little rounded; black throughout; 
iris, white, fig. 292. Female, gray; both 
tinged with rusty in autumn. Eastern N. 
A. from northern N. E. northward; winters, 
on Gulf coast; south in Sept; north in 
March; gregarious, often associating with 
Red-wings. Nests, in bushes. 

410. BREWER BLACKBIRD. 

Differs from last in having a thicker 
bill, fig. 293; head more irridescent, grayish 
in autumn. Female not as gray in summer. 

411. BRONZED GRACKLE. 

Larger, 12.50; tail, long and graduated; 
black; head glossed with green-blue, and 
sharply defined against bronze of back, fig. 
294. Female, darker. Young, at first brown. 
Temperate N. A. east of Rockies, excepting 
regions occupied by next two. Winters in 
southern States, south in Nov.; north in 
March. Notes harsh and grating, not un- 



GRACKLES. 



36' 



like the creaking of a rusty hinge; alarm a 
rather, soft chat. Gregarious at all times. 
Nests in communities on trees or bushes. 

412. PURPLE GRACKLE. 

Differs from last in having glossing of 
head more greenish and back less bronzy. 

Fie?. 1:94 




Bronzed Grakle. 1-5. 

and mixed with colors of head. Atlantic 
coast region east of Alleghanies from north- 
ern shore of L. I., Sound and lower Hudson 
Valley to Ga. Winter range and migration 
as in last. Flight steady and direct. 



168 



GRACKLES. 



413. FLORIDA GRACKLE. 
Differs from last in being smaller, in 
having head glossing violet-blue which 
tinting extends to wings and back. Fla. and 
Gulf coast to La. 

Fig. 295 




Boat-tailed Grackle. l-d. 

414. BOAT-TAILED GRACKLE. 

Large, 16, tail more strongly graduated, 
black, glossed with blue-green, fig. 295. Fe- 
male smaller and red-brown, darker above. 
Young male, like female. South Atlantic 



COWBIRD. 369 

and Gulf coast of U. S. from Va. to Tex. 
Song, a series of sharp, loud notes, given 
rapidly as a kind of chatter, this is some- 
times preceded by a sins'le, more mellow 
note; also makes a shuffling: sound which 
may be produced by wings, and a sharp 

Fig. 296 




Cowbird. 15. 

croak when annoyed. When singing bows 
head, spreads wings and ruffles feathers. 
Occurs in open marshy places. Flight slow 
and very direct. 

415. COWBIRD. 
Smaller, 7.80; wings and tail, medium; 
black; head and neck, chocolate-brown, fig. 



370 



COWIUKD, 



296. Femtile, gray-brown. Nestlings, both 
sexes similar to adult female, but moult at 
once into adult dress. Breeds from Ga. north- 
ward throughout temperate N. A.; winters 
in Mex. and southward; south in Oct., north 



Fio-. 297 




Bobolink c{' and 9 . 1-4. 

in April. Flight swift and winding, espe- 
cially when in pursuit of female. Gregarious 
in autumn, often alighting about cattle to 
feed upon locusts. Song, sweet sn-sie, very 
sweetly given in a liquid tone, also a wheezy 
douljle croak iriven while the bird ruffles its 



BOBOLINK. 371 

feathers and bows its head, also a prolonged 
whistling cry, usually emitted when flying, 
and a blackbird-like chirp. Deposits eggs in 
nests of other birds. 

416. BOBOLINK. 
7.50; wings, long; tail, medium, with 
feathers pointed. Spring male, black, buff 




Black-throated Buntinn:. 1-4 

patch on back of head, and white markings 
above, fig. 297. Female, yellow-buff, streaked 
with black above and on sides (behind male). 
Male in autumn like female. Breeds from 
Middle States northward into British Pro- 



:;72 SPAKKOWS AND FINCHES. 

vinces, west to Utah; winters in northern 
8. A., south in Sept., north in May. Fre- 
quents meadows and moist, grass^^ fields. 
Nests, on grounds. Food, seeds and insects. 
A well-known rollicking song, a blackbird- 
like chirp and a metalic clink w4ien migra- 
ting. Flight, slow with dow^n drooping 
wings and quick wing-beats. Gregarious 
wdien migrating, assembling in large flocks. 

SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

Generally robust birds, with short, 
tliick bills.. A wide -spread family with 
numerous species. 

417. BLACK-THROATED BUNTING. 
Medium, 6.15; streaked above, un- 
streaked beneath; ash-yellow on back, white 
below, yellow on breast, black spot on 
•throat, fig. 298. Female, duller. Breeds 
in U. S. between Alleghanies and Rockies, 
now rare in eastern section. Winters in Mex. 
and Central America. Nests in trees and 
bushes; eggs, 3-5. Song, a lisping twitter. 



SPARROWS AND FIXCHES. 



O/O 



418. CHIPPING SPARROW. 

Small, 5. 50; tail slightly forked. streaked 
above, not below; crown red-brown in strong 
contrast to gray of neck above; gray beneath, 
bhick line through eye; bill, black, fig. 299. 
Young, streaked below and on crown, 

Fior. 299 




Chippincr Sparrow. 



Breeds throughout eastern \. A. from 
Canada south to Gulf coast; winters in 
southern U. S.; south in Oct., north in April. 
Frequents open sections often near settle- 
ments, sometimes near houses. Song, a thin, 



O i 



SPxVRKOWS AND FINCHES. 



quickly given trill of double wirey notes; a 
low, rather sharp chirp of annoyance. Nest 
of fine rootlets lined with horse hair; eggs, 
3-4, blue black-spotted. 



Fig. 300 




Tree Sparrow. 1-4. 

419. TREE SPARROW. 

Larger than last, 6.50; crown color not 
in strong contrast with black; sides of head 
plain gray, under mandible yellow; dark 
spot on breast; chestnut patch on side; 
white wing bands distinct, fig. 300. Breeds 



SPAKROWS AND FINCHES. 



<0 



in eastern N. A. from Labrador northward; 
winters from N. E. to S. C. ; south in late 
Oct., north in late April. Frequents mar- 
gins of woodlands and thickets, venturins: 
into weed patches in winter. Song, a clear 

Fi^-. 8U1 




Field Sparrov/. 1-8. 

chant, beginning with two or three loud 
notes, falls to other lower notes and ends 
with a low, sweet warble; in autumn and 
winter gives a low murmuring warbling 
song. Nests in trees, eggs pale blue spotted 
with reddish. 



:j/() SPARROAVfe AND FINCBES. 

42U. FIELD SPARROW. 

Smaller, 5.90; tail longer than in chip- 
pie, crown uniform in color with back, sides 
and beneath yellow-gray, bill red. fig. 301. 
Breeds in eastern N. A., north to southern 
British Provinces; winters in southern U. S., 
south in Oct., north in April. Frequents 
brushy on cedar -covered hill sides; song 
begins with two or three single notes, than 
continues with a constantly decreasing trill, 
which ascends, is a monotone, or descends; 
very sweetly given and appeals to all who 
love bird music. Nests usually in low 
bushes, sometimes on ground, of grass, etc.; 
eggs, pale blue, reddish spotted. 

421. WESTERN FIELD SPARROW. 

Differs from last in having wings and 
tail longer, grayer above, crown with median 
line; paler below. Western portions of Great 
Plains; south in winter to Tex., casually to 
eastern La. 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 



377 



422. CLAY-COLORED SPARROW. 

5.65; crown, streaked; ear coverts, 
brown in contrast with buft' of sides of head; 
buff-brown above, streaked with black; dull 

Fie:. :^02 








White-throated Sparrow. 1-3. 

white beneath; bill, pale brown. Breeds 
on Great Plains from north-western 111. 
west to Rockies; south in winter to Mex.; 
rare during migration in western Md. and 
Mich. 



378 SPARROWS AND FIXCHES. 

423. BREWER SPARROW. 

Differs from last in absence of brown 
on side of head. Western U. S. in winter 
south to Mex.; accidental in Mass. 

Fif?. 303 




White-crowned Sparrow. 1-3. 

424. WHITE THROATED SPARROW. 

Larger, 6.35; streaked above, not be- 
low, crown, black and white; distinct white 
wing -bands, red-brown above; white of 
throat in strong contrast with gray of 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 379 

breast; yellow line over eye, white beliind, 
fig. 302. Breeds in eastern N. A. from 
mountains of Mass. north to Hudson Bay; 
winters from Mass. (not commonly) south 
to Fla.; south in Oct., north in April. Fre- 
quents margins of woods and thickets near 
or on ground. Song, a series of prolonged, 
sweet whistles: pea-body, pea-body , pea-body, 
etc. Nests on ground; eggs, 4-5, pale blue, 
spotted. 

425. WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW. 

Large, 7; grayer above; no yellow about 
head, white of throat grading into gray of 
breast without strong contrast, head with 
three distinct w^hite stripes, bill deep red, 
^g;. 303. Breeds in eastern N. A. from 
northern N. E. northward through Labrador 
to southern Greenland; winters in Mex., 
south in Oct., north in May. Frequents 
open sections near thickets. Song, much 
shorter than in last and more quickly 
sriven. 



380 SPARROWS AND FIXCHES. 

426. GOLDEN-CROWNED SPARROW. 
Differs from last in being gra3^er, espe- 
cially on throat; median line on crown, 
yellow and wider. Breeds in northern 

Fig. 804 




Song- Sparrow. 1-3. 

Pacific Coast region, south in winter to 
Lower Cal., casual in Wis. 

427. HARRIS SPARROW. 
Larger than last; top of head and 
throat, black, and lower parts white. In- 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 381 

terior plains of N. A., in winter south to 
Tex; in migration east to Wis. and. III. 

428. SONG SPARROW. 
Smaller, 6.46; wings, short; tail, long 
rounded, body streaked above and below; 
reddish above, white below where streaks 
accumulate to form spots on sides of jaw 
and center or breast, fig. 304. Breeds in 
Eastern N. A. from Va. north to Fur Coun- 
tries; winters from Mass. to Fla. ; south in 
Nov., north in March. Frequents open sec- 
tions especially near water. Flight weak 
and erratic, seeks shelter in bushes. Song, 
variable, but typically begins with three 
notes, runs into a warble, ends with two 
notes, a summer variation is be-e-e-e turetched, 
the first portion being given slowly, the 
loretched rapidly with accent on the ed; 
alarm chirp soft. 

429. LINCOLN SPARROW. 
Smaller, 5.00, paler red above streak- 
ings finer, buff band across breast, fig. 305. 



!82 SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

Fift. 305 




Lincoln Sparrow. 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 383 

Breeds throughout N. A. chiefly north of U. 
S.; winters in Panama, south in Oct., north 
in May. Not very common in N. E. Song, 
low, prolonged, varied, and pleasing. Fre- 
quents thickets, often near water. 

Ficr. 306 




Swamp iparrow. 1-3. 

430. SWAMP SPARROW. 

Size of last, top of head wholly red- 
brown, colors above, especially on wings, 
much richer; beneath gray across breast 
with faint streaking, fig. 306; winter and 
and young, top of head streaked and mark- 
ings below more distinct. Breeds in eastern 



384 SPARKOAVS AND FINCHES. 

N. A. from Mass. north to Labrador and 
Newfoundland; winters from Middle States 
(occasionally from Mass.) to Fla.; south in 
Oct., north in April. Frequents swampy 
thickets which border large marshes. Song, 
an explosive, loud trill; in autumn a low 
murmuring warble. Nests on trassocks in 
open marshes. 

431. FOX SPARROW. 

Larger, 7.25, longer wrings, tail a little 
rounded; yellows-red above, white beneath, 
heavily streaked on both surfaces with dark 
red-brown, spottings often as in Song Spar- 
row, fig. 307. Breed from islands in Gulf 
of St. Law^rence, northward to Arctic (rarelj^ 
in northern Me); w^inters from Mass. to Fla., 
south in Oct., north in April. Frequents 
thickets, feeding on ground, scratches much 
among leaves, etc. Songs begins loud and 
clear w^ith three double notes, ending with 
two, the last ascendent, icil-lie,unl-lie, wil-lie 
toork you, one of the finest of our sparrow 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 



385 



songs. Nests, on ground; eggs, pale blue 
heavily spotted with red-brown. 

432. RED-EYED TOWHEE. 

Larger, 8, tail, long, wings short; above, 
lower neck and upper breast, black; sides, 
red-brown; tips of outer tail feathers, middle 

Vis. 307 




Fox Sparrow 



parts beneath, and few makings on wing, 
white; iris, red, fig. 308. Breeds from 
southern British Provinces south to Gulf 
coast, winters from Middle States to Fla.; 
south in Oct., north in May. Frequents low 
growths; feeds on ground, scratching among 



386 SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

fallen leaves. Song, uttered when bird is 
perching high, like drink your te-e-e-e, first 
note accented, last prolonged, a loudly and 
sharplj^ o:iven tow-hee when annoyed (some- 
times interpreted as che-wink). Nests on 
ground, eggs pale blue, thickly dotted with 
red brown. 

Fiij. 308 




Red-eyed Towbee. 1-4. 

433. WHITE-EYED TOWHEE. 

A little smaller than last, less white on 
tail and wings, paler, especially on sides; 
song, shorter and more quickly given, 
alarm jo-ret. Florida. 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 387 

434. ARCTIC TOWHEE. 

Differs from last in being grayer above, 
paler on sides, more white on wings, and 
tail, streaks of white on sides of back. Great 
Plains to Rockies, casual in Wis. 

435. GREEN-TAILED TOWHEE. 

Wings and tail, olive green; crown, 
rufous; sides of head, ashy; throat, line on 
side of head, and maler streak, white; body, 
brown above, gray beneath. Rocky moun- 
tain distinct; accidental in Va. 

436. JUNCO. 

Smaller, 6.25; slate-gray, middle por- 
tions below and outer tail feathers, white; 
bill, pink, fig. 309. Young, streaked. Fe- 
male, duller. Breeds from mountains of 
Penn., Mass. and N. Y. northward to Arctic 
coast; winters from Mass. to northern Fla., 
south in Oct., north in April. Nests on 
ground; eggs, pale blue, finely spotted with 
red-brown. Frequents thickets and margins 



of woodlands. Song, a musical, tinkling 
trill; in winter and early spring, a low, more 
musical warble; note of annoyance, a sharp 
chirp, given double when much disturbed. 
Flight, rapid and darting, but somewhat 
erratic. 

Fig. 809 




JUECO. 1-4. 

437. CAROLINA JUNCO. 

Differs from last in being larger, lighter 
above; young, more narrowly streaked. 
Breeds on higher portions of southern Alle- 
ghanies from Va. south to northern Ga.; in 
winter descends to surroundinor low lands. 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 389 

438. MONTANA JUNCO. 

Differs from Jiinco in being a little 
smaller, brownish patch on back, sides and 
flanks, purplish cinnamon; grayer above. 
Breeds in Montana, etc.; winters from Ariz, 
to Tex., straggling eastward to Kan., 111., 
Mass. and Md. 

439. GEAY-HEADED JUNCO. 
Differs from Jiinco in being uniform 

gray above; patch of cinnamon on back. 
Breeds in mountains of southern Wyo. 
Utah, Nev. and northern N. M. ; winters in 
surrounding low lands and south to north- 
ern Mex,; accidental in Mich. 

440. PINE WOOD SPARROW. 
5.70; tail graduated; gray above, thickly 

streaked with chestnut; white below, buff 
on throat, breast and sides, unstreaked, fig. 
310. Partly resident, but some migrate a 
little south. Southern Ga. and Fla. Fre- 
quents flat, grassy pine woods. Flight, 
low, fluttering and erratic, keeps much in 



390 



SPARROWS AND FINX^HES. 



grass through which it runs nimbly and is 
quite difficult to start. Song, given when 
perching on lower limb of tree or on a 
stump, a prolonged, rather sweet trill, 
ending in the series of chirps or a harsh trill. 



Fis. 310 




Pine-woods Sparrow. 1-4. 

441. BACHMAN SPARROW. 

A little larger than last, more buffy 
above, streakings more rufous; clearer buff 
beneath. Breeds from S. C. northern Ga. 
and Gulf coast north to southern Va., 
southern Ind., and southern 111.; south in 
winter to Fhi. 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 391 

Fig-. 811 




Grasshopper Sparrow. 1-1. 



392 SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

442. GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. 

Smaller; wings, very short; tail, graduated; 
feathers, pointed. General tint, buff; crown 
with light central stripe; above streaked 
with rufous and black; line over eye to bill, 
yellow; uustreaked beneath; young and 
winter adults, obscurely streaked on breast, 
with rufous, fig. 311. Breeds in eastern 
U. S. from Middle States north to Mass. and 
southern Out.; winters in Fla.; south in 
Sept., north in May. Nests placed on 
ground; eggs white, spotted with rufous. 
Frequents sandy fields, if grassy, thus local 
in distribution. Flight, fluttering and direct, 
runs nimbly through grass and is difficult 
to start. Song, given as bird perches on a 
slight elevation, a feeble, stridulating trill, 
inaudiable a few yards away. 

444. FLORIDA GRASSHOPPER 

SPARROW. 
Smaller than last, lighter in bulfy 
tints, but darker above. Southern Fla. 



SPAKEOWS AND FINCHES. 



393 



444. HENSLOW SPAKROW. 

Size of last, but more slender; back and 
wings more rufous; head and neck above 
more greenish, distinct dusky streaks across 
breast and on sides; no yellow over eye, 
figs. 312 and 313. Breeds in eastern U. S. 

Fig. :^12 




Henslow Sparrow. 

from Middle States northward to Mass.; 
winters from southern range to middle Fla.; 
south in Sept., north in May, local in N. E. 
Frequents fresh marshy land in summer, 
grassy savannahs in winter. Flight much 
like two last. Song, a feeble se-e-e wink, the 



;94 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 




Fig. 313. — Heuslow Sparrow 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 



395 



first notes prolonged the last quickly giving 
and accented. 

445. LECONTE SPARROW. 

Size of last, but more slender, head and 
hind neck buff, latter streaked with chest- 
nut; more buff beneath, fig. 314. Breeds in 

Fig. 314 

1/1 




Leconte Sparrow. 

prairie marshes of upper Mississippi Valley 
north into Canada; winters in southern 
States from S. C. to western Fla. Habits, 
similar to last. 

446. SEASIDE SPARROW. 
Larger, 5.50; gray above, slightly 
streaked with darker; line over eye, yellow; 



;96 



SrAKROWS AND FINCHES. 



white beneath, buft' on breast, streaked here 
and on sides with gray; sides of head, gray, 
a black maxilLary line, fig. 315. Salt marshes 
of Atlantic Coast of U. S., breeding from 
southern N. E. to Ga. ; winters from N. C. 
scnith to Fh\. Frequents tall grass of salt 

Fio-. 315 




Seaside Sparrow. 1-3. 

marshes which are submerged by the tide. 
Nests, on dry marshes, sometimes on ground, 
but often fastened to grass sterns or placed 
in low bushes. Song, a low twitter, given 
as l)ird hovers low over the grass. Flight, 
low, direct with rapid wing-beats. 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 397 

447. MACGILLIV ARY SEASIDE 
SPARROW. 

Differs from last in being darker, back 
more distinctly streaked with black and 
streakings beneath broader. From Charles- 
ton, S. E. to eastern Fia.; breeding on Anas- 
tasia Island; in winter along Gulf coast to La. 

448. SCOTT SEASIDE SPARROW. 

Differs from last in having no prom- 
inent streakings above, grayer above, more 
streakings below often on throat. Breeds 
in western Fla. from Tarpon Springs to 
Cedar Keys. Song, four notes, the first two 
low and quickly uttered with a distinct 
articulation, the last two more connected, 
more prolonged with a decided accent, thus 
the song somewhat resembles that of a Red- 
wmged Blackbird, and the bird spreads his 
wings, bows his head, and ruffles his feathers 
much as does the Red-wing; song given as 
bird sits low in grass. 



398 SPARROWS AND FIXCDES. 

449. FISHER SEASIDE SPARROW. 

Diliers from last in being much darker, 
more black above; breast and sides deep 
bulfy. Breeds on coast of La.; in winter 
along west coast of Fla. to Tarpon Springs. 

Fiir. 316 




Sharp-tailed Sparrow. 1-3. 

450. DUSKY SEASIDE SPARROW. 

Differs from last in being black above, 
white beneath broadly streaked with black, 
Merritt's Island, shore of Bannana and In- 
dian Rivers north to Old Haulover Canal 
and about upper St. Johnis River, Fla. Fre- 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 399 

quents dry marshes. Song and manner of 
singing like Seaside Sparrow. 

451. SHAKP-TAILED SPARROW. 

Size of last, sides of head deep buff, en- 
closing a gray spot; paler buif elsewhere, 
streaked above on sides and across breast 
with black; top of head, dark-brown with a 
median line of buff, fig. 316. Breeds on 
Atlantic coast of U. S. from Mass. to north- 
ern Fla.; casually as far north as Mass., 
south in Oct., north in Ma\^ Frequents 
rather dry salt marshes. Song, a feeble 
twitter, given as bird hovers over grass. 

452. NELSON SHARP-TAILED 
SPARROW. 

Smaller than last, brighter in color, 
streaking narrower, but more sharply de- 
fined. Breeds on prairie marshes of Missis- 
sippi Valley from northern 111. north to. 
Manitoba; winters along Gulf coast from S. 
C. to Tex., regular during migration in 
Oct. on coast of Mass. 



400 



SPAKROWS AND FINCHES. 



453. ACADIAN SHARP-TAILED 
SPARROW. 

Differs from last in being larger, paler 
and in having indistinct streakings, espe- 
cialU' below. Breeds on Atlantic coast of 
British Provinces from north of St. Lawrence 
southw^ard, occasionally to coast of Me. 

FiM. 817 




454. SAVANNAH SPARROW. 

Wings, long; tail, short and square, 
5.75; gray above, white beneath, streaked 
everywhere with sharply defined black lines; 
line from bill over e^-e, yellow, crown with 
central line, figr. 317. Eastern N. A., breed- 
ing from Middle States north to Hudson 
Bay, more commonly in N. E. (excepting in 
Connecticut Valley) on coast. Winters, from 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 401 

Carolinas to Fla. ; casually north to Mass., 
south in Oct., north in April. Flight, swift 
and dartin<?, never takes refuge in a thicket, 
runs nimbly through grass where it hides. 
Song, a series of feeble grasshopper-like 
notes, followed by a low warble given as the 
bird perches at a not high elevation. 

Fig. 318 




Vesper Sparrow. 

455. IPSWICH SPARROW. 

Larger than last, 6.25, and much paler, 
about sand-color, streakings not well defined. 
Breeds on Sable Island off Nova Scotia; 
winters south to N. J., casually to Ga.; 
south in Oct.. north in April. Frequents 
sand dunes on coast. 



402 SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

456. VESPER SPARROW. 
Size of last, gray above, white below, 
streaked on back, crown (where there is no 
dividing line) upper breast and front part 
of sides with black, sides of head with two 
dark lines; outer tail feathers, white, fig. 
318. Breeds in eastern U. S. from Middle 

Fig. :^19 




Lark Sparrow. 1-4. 

States north to southern Canada; winters 
from N. C, rarely from Mass. to Fla.; south 
in Oct., north in April. Frequents open 
fields and pastures where there is scanty 
herbage; nests in such places on ground, eggs, 
4-5, gray blotched and lined with darker. 
Runs much on ground; unsuspicious. Song, 
given at an elevation, two short notes fol- 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 



403 



lowed by a pleasing warble, ending with 
three detached notes. 

457. LAKK SPARROW. 

Medium, 6.50; tail, rounded and white 
tipped, brown above, heavih^ streaked with 
black; white beneath, with a black spot on 
breast; crown, chestnut, central line of 

Fio-. 820 




Lark Buntins:. 1-8. 

white; checks, chestnut, black markings as 
in fig. 319. Breeds in northern Mississippi 
Valley, south in winter to Gulf coast, east- 
ward rarely to Atlantic States north to 
Mass. Frequents open fields and cultivated 
lands, often in vicinity of houses. Song, 
rich and clear, consisting of a series of liquid 
notes freely intersperced with trills. 



404 SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

458. LARK BUNTING. 
Smaller, 6.00, black; large white patch 
on wing and tip of tail, white, fig. 320. Fe- 
male, winter male and young, brown above; 
white beneath, streaked with black; wings 
and tail as in adult male in spring. Great 
Plains from Kansas north to Manatoba; 

Fiii. 321 




Snow Buutino-. 



winters, south to Mex., accidental in migra- 
tion in N. Y., Mass. and S. C. 

459. SNOW BUNTING. 

Larger, 6.65; wings, very long and 
pointed; white; back, middle wing and tail, 
l)lack; in winter, and young tinged with 
rufous, especially on head; bill, orange, fig. 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 405 

321. Breeds in Arctic and Sub-Arctic from 
northern Labrador northward; migrating 
south regularly to N. E. and more rarely to 
Ga.; south in Oct., north in April. Greg- 
arious in winter, frequenting sand and dunes 
of coast and open fields in interior. Flight, 
strong, swift, but erratic, a flock resembling 

Fig:. 322 




Lapland Longspur. 1-4. 

dried leaves drifting before a high wind; 
restless, often flying from place to place. 
Song, a sweet warble, given when hovering, 
not often heard off breeding grounds. In 
winter, a sweet single or double note, less 
often a quite melodious trill and a kind of 
chirring sound, all given on wing. 



40G SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

LAPLAND LONGSPUR. 

Smaller, 6; brown above, streaked with 
li.i>:hter; a distinct chestnut collar, pale buff 
beneath; throat and spots on side, black; 
outer tail feathers with terminal spot of 
white, tig. 322. Female and young have 
markings duller and less well defined. Breeds 
in Arctic and Sub-Arctic districts of Europe, 
Greenland and northeastern N. A. Winters 
from N. E. south to S. C; common in N. E. 
from middle Oct. to Dec; less common in 
winter; rare in spring. Song, on breeding 
ground, a rollicking joyous melody, given 
when hovering; in autumn and winter a 
single or double note a little sharper than 
that of Snow Bunting. Associates with 
Horned Larks and Snow Buntings or gathers 
in small flocks by itself in similar places. 

461. SMITH LONGSPUR. 

Differs from last in having outer tail 
feathers white, entire lower parts deep buff, 
crown and sides of head, black; stripes on 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 407 

head and middle bar, white. Breeds on in- 
terior plains of N. A. from Great Slave Lake 
north to Arctic coast; south in w^inter to 
Texas, east regularly to 111. and northwestern 
Ind., casually to S. C. 

Fig. 323 




Purple Finch. 1-4. 

452. CHESTNUT-COLLARED 
LONGSPUR. 

Differs from Lapland Longspur in 
having top of head, spot on ear covert, and 
beneath, black; throat, broad-stripe over 
eye, and wing-band, white. Breeds on 



408 SPARROWS AND FINCHES* 

Great Plains of N. A. from Kansas north to 
Saskatchewan ; south in winter to Mex. and 
casually east to coast of ]S. E. and Long 
Island. Sonf^, short, shrill, and sweet, 
usually given in ilight. 

463. MCCOWN LONGSPUR. 
Size of last, tail shorter, flight undula- 
ting, white beneath; front of crown, crescent 
on breast, black; gray above, broadly 
streaked with black; outer portion of tail, 
white, broadly tipped with black. Female, 
without black on head or breast; buffy 
beneath. Breeding range and southward 
migration much as in Smith Longspur; 
casual east to 111. 

464. PURPLE FINCH. 

Small, 6; wings, long; tail, forked; bill, 
short and thick, brown; crimson-lake obscu- 
rely streaked with darker on breast, fig. 323. 
Female and young, brown above, white 
below, heavily streaked with dusky; a 
l)roininent white line over eye; adult male 



SPARKOWS AND FINCHES. 



409 



dress not assumed the first year. Eastern 
N. A.; breeds from Penn. north to Hudson 
Bay; winters from Mass. to Fla. Frequents 
open country. Nests, in cedar trees; eggs, 
blue, spotted with black. Song also given 

Fig. 324 




Canadian Pine Grosbeak. 1-5. 

by young male and, at least occasionally, 
by female, a continuous warble; sometimes 
given more rapidly and musically as bird 
ascend in air and descend; a low whispered 
melody given in concealment; alarm, a sharp 
chirp. Flight, direct, undulating with a 



410 SPARROWiS AND FINCHES. 

characteristic quiver of wings. In perching 
sits upright. 
4GG. CANADIAN PINE GROSBEAK. 

Larger, 8; wings, long; tail, forked; 
rosy-red; back, o])SCurely spotted with dusky; 
two white wing-bands, fig. 324. Female, 
gray; top of head and rump, bronzy-yellow. 
Young male similar to female, but more or 
less red, depending on age. Breeds in north- 
eastern N. A. from New^ Brunswick north 
to limit of conferous forests, wandering 
south when cone seed and ash seed crops 
fail to N. J., northern Ohio, Ind. and 111.; 
casually further south. Occurs wMth us 
wherever it can find food, w^hich consists of 
cone seeds, cedar berries, mountain and 
common ash seeds. Very unsuspicious. 
Song, alow, continuous warble, and a loud, 
clenr double call note. Flight, swift and 
undulating. Gregarious in winter. 
406. REDPOLL. 

Small, 5; wings, long and pointed; tail, 
long and forked, brown above; crown crim- 



SPAEROWS AND FINCHES. 



411 



son, rosy beneath; black spot on throat. 
Females and young without the rosy on 
breast, fig. 325. Northern part of northern 
Hemisphere, breeding from Gulf of St. Law- 
rence northward; south irregularly when 

Fis:. 325 




Redpoll. 

food fails in north to northern U. S., rarely 
to Va. and northern Ala.; south in Nov., 
north in April. Song, a sweet, melodious 
warble; a call which is similar to that of 
the Goldfinch, but not so clear, and a kind 
of chatter when flying. Flight, undulatory 



411! SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

4(i7. HOLBOELL REDPOLL. 

Diiterj^ from hiist only in beinp: larger. 
Extreme northern portions of Europe, Asia 
and >;. A., wandering south in winter, rarelj* 
as far as Mass., northern Ind. and Mich. 

468. GREATER REDPOLL. 

Size of L^st; streakings broader; rosy 
less extended. Resident in Greenland wan- 
dering south in winter, irregularly and at 
wide intervals as far as Mass. (where some- 
times common), N. Y., Mich., northern Lid., 
and northern 111. 

469. GREENLAND REDPOLL. 

Size of last, very pale; rump, w^hite, 
unstreaked. Resident in Greenland, Ice- 
land, and Spitzbergen, wandering in w^inter 
irregularly to Hudson Bay and casually to 
Ontario. 

470. HOARY REDPOLL. 

Differs from last in being smaller, bill 
very short. Circumpolar-continental dis- 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 413 

tricts; irregularly south in winter to north- 
ern U. S., Mass. (rare), Mich, and 111. All 
Eedpolls frequent open country and are 
gregarious. 

Fig. 826 




Pine Siskin. 1-4. 

471. BREWSTER LINNET. 

Like an immature female Redpoll, but 
has no red on crown; primaries and tail 
feathers edged with pale yellow; rump, 
tinged with yellow. Known only from the 
type specimen taken at Waltham, Mass., 
Nov. 1, 1870. 



414 SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

472. PINE SISKIN. 

5.25, bill longer, white streaked with 
black; small patch on wing and base of tail, 
yellow, fig. 326. Breeds in the mountains 
of N. C, Penn. and N. E., and north through 
coniferous forests into Canada; south in 
winter, irregularly into U. S., sometimes as 
far as the Gulf of Mexico. Notes, harsher 
than those of Goldfinch, but similar. Fre- 
quents open sections and birch woods. 

473. AMERICAN GOLDFINCH. 

Larger, 5.60; lemon yellow; top of head, 
wings and tail, black; two white wing-bands, 
fig. 327. Female and winter male, green- 
brown above, white below, wing feathers 
tipped with white. Breeds in U. S. east of 
Rockies, north into southern Canada; south- 
ward along mountains to Ga.; winters from 
Mass. to Fla. Frequents open country; gre- 
garious in winter. Song, a continuous 
warble, very sweet, sometimes given as the 
bird flies in circles, call a plaintive, per 



SPAKROWS AND FINCHES. 41.5 



Ficr. 827 




American Goldlinch. 1-4. 



416 SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

chick-er-ry, given when rising in its un- 
dulatino; flight. Nests often in willows or 
ornamental trees; eggs, pale blue, unspotted; 
breeds late in June. 

474. GOLDFINCH. 
Brown above and on breast, white else- 
where beneath. Face crimson, behind which 

Fig. 828 




American Crossbill. 

is a white space, then the remainder of the 
head is black. Wings and tail, black, the 
former with a large patch of yellow. Europe; 
introduced into north eastern U. S.. now 
occurring regularly near N. Y. City and 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 



417 



at Cincinnati, Ohio. Occurs occasionally in 
Conn, and Mass. 

475. AMERICAN CROSSBILL. 

Larger, 6; wings, long; tail, short, 
forked; bill crossed at tip; dull red, wings 
and tail dusky. Female and young male 

Fig. 329 




White-winged Crossbill. ]-3. 

gray-green, yellow on top of head, from this 
male gradually assumes adult dress, fig. 328. 
Breeds in northern and eastern N. A. from 
mountains of northern parts of Canada, 
but irregularly as to season and locality; in 
winter, wandering about irregularly accord- 



418 



SPAKROWS AND FINCHES. 



ing to food supply. Flight, stench', swift 

and undulating; gregarious. Song, a low, 

sweet warble; call loud and clear, also gives 

a murmuring chatter when feeding. Very 

unsus])icious. 

Fio-. mo 




EveniujT Grosbeak. 1-4. 

476. WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL. 

Differs from last in being more slender, 
bill not as stout; crimson; wings and tail, 
black, the former with a conspicuous patch 
of white, fig. 329. Female and young male, 
iiimp yellow : wing-patch as in male. Breeds 
in coniferous forests of northern N. A. from 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 419 

islands in Gulf of St. Lawrence, northern 
Me., N. H., N. Y. and Mich.; irregularly 
south in winter to District of Columbia, 
southern Ohio, central Ind. and southern 
111. Habits, song, etc., much as in last. 

Fig. :i31 




Ro8e-breasted Grosbeak, r7 . 

477. EVENING GEOSBEAK. 

Larger, 7.60; bill, large, yellow; wings, 
long; tail, short, emarginate; black, fore- 
head, broad line over eye and posterior 
portion of body, yellow; large white patch 
on wing, fig. 330. Interior of N. A. east 



420 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 



of Kockiesj wandering east irregularly south 
to Kan., east to N. E. Call note, loud and 
frequently given; song, short and not very 
pleasing. 



Fit:. :V.\2 




Rose-breasted Grosbeak. ?. 1-4. 

478. ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK. 
Larger, 7.75; bill, large, white; wings, 
long; tail, medium, square; head and above, 
black; bands and spot on wing, spots on 



SPARROWS ANT) FINCHES. 



421 



outer tail feathers; rump and beneath, 
white, figs. 331, 332; triangular patch on 
breast and underwing coverts, rose. Female 
brown above, white below, black streaked; 
median line on crown and one over eye, 
white; underwing coverts, saffron yellow. 

Fig. 333 




Rose-breasted Grosbeak, 9- 

fig. 333. Breeds in eastern N. A. from 
Middle States to southern British possessions, 
along xilleghenies to N. C; winters in Cen- 
tral America and northern S. A.; south in 
Sept., north in May. Frequents woodland, 
groves and orchards. Song, rich, clear and 



422 



SPARROWS AND FIXCHES. 



varied, the notes tlowing together, given 
sometimes on the wing; alarm, a metallic 
dick. Flight, swift and undulating. Nests, 
frail structures placed in trees and bushes; 
eggs, blue, spotted with rufous. 

Fio. :m 




479. BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK. 

Differs from last in having line behind 

eye; colhir on neck and lower parts, cinna- 

nion-buif'; no rose color anywhere. Female, 

differs from last m being generally tinged 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 423 

with buff. Western U. S. from Mex. to 
British Columbia; accidental in Mich. 

480. CARDINAL GROSBEAK. 
Longer, 8.50; wings, short; tail, long; 
head, crested; vermillion red; line surround- 
ing bill and throat, black, fig. 334. Female 
duller, yellow-gray above and yellow-buff 
beneath. Eastern U. S. from Gulf States, 
excepting Fla., north to N. Y., including 
Long Island. Resident. Frequents thickets, 
margins of swamps and woodlands. Song, 
loud, clear and very melodious: whe-e-e, re- 
peated six times, liquid and clear; quit-er, 
quickly given five or six times; 'wheat, a 
little prolonged and exceedingly sweet and 
clear, also given six times. Sings at almost 
all seasons. Alarm, a sharp chirp. Nests 
in tree and bushes, eggs gray, spotted with 
yellow brown. 

48L FLORIDA CARDINAL. 
Differs from last in being smaller, 
darker above and deeper red beneath. Fe- 
male, deeper buff. Fla. 



424 SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

482. BLUE GROSBEAK. 
Smaller, 7; wings and tail, long; deep 
blue; wing-bands, tawny, fig. 335. Female 
and young, reddish-brown, paler beneath. 
Breeds in southern portions of eastern U. S. 
from N. J. and Penn. southward. Winters 

Fio-. 885 




Blue Grosbeak. 

in Yucatan and Cuba. Song, low, but 
sweet; alarm, a rather loud chirp. Frequents 
open sections, or among scattering trees. 

483. INDIGO BIRD. 
Smaller, 5. green-blue, fig. 336. Female 
l)ro\vn throughout; both sexes have the 
under bill blue with a line of black from 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 425 

tips to base. Eastern U. S. north to British 
Provinces; winters, in Central America; 
south in Oct., north in May. Nest placed 
in low bushes; eggs, pale blue. Song, given 
when perching high, a rather harsh un- 
musical warble divided into two parts, 
uttered with energy, ending abruptly, heard 
until middle of Aug.; alarm, a sharp chirp. 

Fig. 336 




Indigo Bird. 

484. PAINTED BUNTING. 

Size of last; head, purplish-blue; back, 
green; rump, upper tail coverts and beneath, 
red. Female, yellow-green paler beneath. 
Southern U. S. from southern Fla., 111. and 
N. C. to Fla.; winters, from southern Fla. 
to Central America; south in Sept., north 



426 SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 

in March. Frequents thickets in the con- 
ceahnent of which the exceedingly sweet 
song is given. 

485. VARIED BUNTING. 
Differs from Last in being varied with 
purple, blue, and red; hind part of head 

Fifif. 837 




Bahama (rrassquit. 1-2. 

and neck, vermillion; beneath, dull purple; 
reddish patch on throat. Female, gray- 
brown; white on throat. 

486. BAHAMA GRASSQUIT. 
Small 4, wings short and rounded; tail 
short; black on head, neck and anterior por- 



SPARROWS AND FINCHES. 427 

tions of body; gray-green elsewhere, fig. 
337. Female, sometimes like male, but 
usually duller with little or no black. 
Bahamas; accidental in Fla. Frequents 
settlements, nesting about houses, but also 
occurs in unsettled sections. Song, begins 
with two or three liquid notes, given in a 




Bahama Bananaquit. 1-3. 

clear, bell-like tone, followed by a series of 
lisping notes. ^ 

487. MELODIOUS GRASSQUIT. 

Differs from last in being more greenish 
above, darker below, line back of eye and 
tuft of elongated feathers on side of neck, 



428 



llOXKY CIIEEPEKS. 



yellow. Female, with back of bead replaced 
by chestnut; yellow duller. Cuba; accidental 
on Sombrero Key, Fla. 

H N E r CREEPERS. 

Small birds, with long wings, short 
tails, curved and sharply pointed bills. 




Black and White Warbler. 1-8. 

488. BAHAMA BANANAQUIT. 

4.50; black above; line over e^'e, patch 
on wing, tip of tail and beneath, white; 
patch on breast and rump, bright yellow, 
fig. 338. Bahamas; casual in southern Fla. 



AMERICAN VVAKJ3LEKS. 429 

Frequents woodlands; food, chiefly or wholly 
fruit and the sweet of flowers. Flight, 
strong-, direct and darting. Song, a series 
of low. cackling notes. Nests, in trees, 
domed but irregular in form. 

AMERICAN WARBLERS. 

Small birds, less than six inches long, 
confined to the continent of America and 
adjacent islands. Food, chiefly insects. Eggs, 
white or greenish, spotted with brown of 
varying shades. 

489. BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER. 

Medium, 5.25, black and white in 
stripes, crown divided by a white line; bill 
and wings, long, fig. 339; female duller. 
Breeds in eastern N. A. from Va. north to 
Hudson Bay; winters, from Gulf States, 
Bahamas and West Indies to northern S. A.; 
south in Sept., north in late April. Fre- 
quents open woodlands, creeping with a 
sideling jerky motion about trees. Song, a 
sharp ive-see, given five or six times, a 



430 



AMEKICAX WAR13LERS 



longer, louder la^^, much like the ordinary 
.song of the Nashville Warbler. Nest, on 
ground near base of tree, clump of bushes, 
or rock. 




Yellow-throated Warbler, l-o. 

490. YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER. 

Size of hist; throat, yellow; otherwise 
white below; slate blue above; black mark- 
ings on head and sides as in fig. 340; line 
from bill over eye, yellow in front, white 
behind; tail spots and two wing- bands, 
white. Breeds in Atlantic coast district 
from Fla. north to Va., casuall3' to N. Y., 



AMEKICAN WAE13LERS. 431 

Conn, and Mass.; north in March, south in 
Aug. and Sept. Occurs in open woodlands, 
usually in tree tops. Song, a short, low 
warble. 

491. SYCAMORE WARBLER. 

Smaller than last, line over eye with 
little or no yellow. Mississippi Valley, 
north to southern Mich., east to Ohio and 
casually to S. C. in migration. 

492. BLACK-THROATED BLUE 
WARBLER. 

Size of last, blue above, white beneath, 
spot on wing and spots on tail w^hite, fig. 
341. Female, green-brown above, lighter 
below; white wing spot present. Breeds 
from mountains of Penn. east to western 
Mass. through Worcester Co.; north to 
Hudson Bay; winters in Bahamas, West 
Indies and north eastern S. A.; south in 
Sept., north in May. Song, a short rather 



432 AMERICAN WARBLERS. 

weak zeeping lisp. Occurs often in swampy 
thickets. 

493. CAIRN WARBLER. 
Differs from last in having more or less 
black on back. Higher mountains of Penn. 



nd X. C. 



Ficv. 341 




Black-throated Blue Warbler. 1-3. 

494. MYRTLE WARBLER. 
Larger, 5.60, slate-blue above, white 
beneath, four yellow patches: one on crown, 
one on rump and one on each side, black 
markings as in iig. 342; wing bands and 
tail spots present, latter small. Female and 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 



433 



young, brownish above and somewhat bui^y 
beneath; duller. Breeds from mountains 
of western Mass. and in about same latitude 
west to Rockies, north to Labrador; winters 
from southern coast of Me. and southern 
Ind. to Bahamas, West Indies and Central 
America; south in Sept. and Oct., when 

Fig. 342 




Myrtle Warbler. 

abundant, found everywhere; north in April. 
Sono:, a low warble of four or five notes; 
alarm, a loud flat chirp. Feeds much on 
fruit of bayberry. 

495. AUDUBON WARBLER. 
Differs from last in having throat 
yellow and less black on side of head. 



434 AMEKICAX WARBLERS. 

Western N. A.; accidental in Mass. and 
Penn. 

496. CAPE MAY WARBLER. 
Small, 5; cheeks, chestnut; yellow be- 
low and on rump; much black above and 
streakings below as in fig. 343; large wing 

Fig. 343 




Cape May Warbler. 1-3. 

patch and tail spots, white. Female and 
young, grayer with two wing bands, streak- 
ings beneath, indistinct. Breeds from north- 
ern N. E., northern Mich., north to Hudson 
Bay; winters in Bahamas, West Indies and 
Key West, Fhi. ; north in May, south in 



AMEKICAN WARBLERS. 435 

Sept. Frequents woodlands and orchards. 
Song, low. lively and pleasing. 

497. MAGNOLIA WARBLER. 
Size of last, band of black spots cross- 
ing breast having pendants extending 
along sides; top of head, slate-blue; back, 

Fior. 344 




Maguolia Warbler. 1-8. 



black ; beneath and rump, \'ellow, fig. 344. 
Female and young, duller, but in common 
with male have a band of white spots cross- 
ing middle of tail. Breeds from moun- 
tains of western Mass. west to Mich., north 
to Hudson Ba}'. Winters in Mex. and Cen- 
tral America; south in Sept., north in May. 



436 AMEKICAN WARBLERS. 

Song, a short, pleasing rather broken war- 
ble. Frequents woodlands and thickets. 

498. CERULEAN WARBLER. 
Sruall, 4.50, bright blue above, white 
beneath with a more or less distint bluish 

Fig. 345 




i. 

Cerulean Warbler. 1-6. 

band across breast; wing-bands and tail 
spots, white, figs. 345 and 346. Female, 
green -blue above, yellow-green beneath. 
Breeds from Ohio River Valley north to 
to southern Mich., east to western N. Y., 
rare east of xilleghaneis; casual in southern 



AMERICAX WARBLERS. 

Fior. 346 



437 




Cerulean Warbler. 1-6. 



438 



AMEKICA^ WAE13LERS. 



N. E.; winters, chiefly in U.S.; south in 
Aug. J north in April. Song, a guttural 
trill. Occurs in low woodlands. 
499. CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER. 
Larger, 5, white beneath, broadly 
streaked with chestnut on sides; crown, 
yellow; green above; patch on side of head 

Fii-. 347 




Chestnut-sided Warbler. 1-8. 

and streaks on back, black, fig. 347 and 348 
upper fig. Female, duller; young, without 
chestnut on sides, but in adult and young 
the wing -bands are always pale -green. 
Breeds throughout N. E., N. Y., and Penn., 
north to Ontario, less commonly west to Ind. 
and 111.; winters from Guatemala to Panama, 
south in Aug. and Sept., north in May. Fre- 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 489 




Fig. 348. 



L'pper, Chcstaut-sidcd Warbler; lower. Black-throated Green Warbler. 



-l-iO 



A^klEKlCAN WARBLERS. 



quents brushy fields, especially if moist. 
Usual song: sweety sweet, siveet . . . to-2veeche, 
with a short pause before the two terminal 
syllables, which are given with a rising in- 
flection ; another not unusual song is a rather 
disconnected lay. not unlike that of the 

Fig. 349 




Black-polJed Warbler. 1-3. 

Canadian Warbler: another not usual is one 
similar to that of the Nashville Warbler. 
500. BLACK-POLLED WARBLER. 
Larger, 5.f50; black and white in stripes; 
crown, solid black; white wing bands and 
tail, spots, fig. 349. Female, autumnal 



AMEEICAN WARBLEHS. 441 

male and younsr, green above and pale 
green beneath, streaked above and on 
breast with bhick; wing-bands often pale 
green; under tail coverts, white. Breeds 
from extreme northern N. E. and northern 
Mich, to Hudson Bay; winters in northern 
S. A.; north in May, south in Sept. and 
Oct. Frequents orchards and low growths 
of w^oodlands. Song, a weak zijj, given 
four or five times very quickly; occasionally 
heard in autumn. 

501. BAY-BREASTED WARBLER. 

Size of last; crown, throat and sides, 
red-brow^n or bay; sides of head and fore- 
head, black; white wing bands and tail 
spots; beneath, buff, fisf. 350. Female, 
autumnal male and young, like same plum- 
ages in Black poll, but if not showing some 
trace of bay, always differ in having under 
tail coverts buff. Breeds fiom northern N.E. 
and Mich, to Hudson Bay; winters in north- 
ern S. A., south in Sept. and Oct., north in 



442 



AMEiaCAX AVARUl.EKi^. 



May. Occurs in evergreen woods. Song 
begins witli a series of lisping notes and 
ends witli a short warble. 

502. BLACKBURMAN WARBLER. 

Smaller, 4.80; throat, upper breast, 
spot on top of head and behind ear coverts, 

Fig-. 850 




Bay-breasred Warbler 



and line over eye, bright orange; above and 
steaks on sides, black; wing bands and tail 
spots, w^hite, fig. 351. Female, duller. Breeds 
from southern Alleghanies and Mich, north 
through mountains of western Mass. to 
Labrador; winters in north-western S. A.; 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 



443 



south in Sept., north in May. Frequents 
evergreens, and sometimes other woodlands. 
Sonor, a series of double notes like jtilhtp, 
jullup, jiillup, becomino: a little squeaky as 
they advance, and terminate in an ascend- 
ing scale. 

Vig. 851 




lilackburnian Warbler, 1-3. 



503. BLACK-THROATED GREEN 
WARBLER. 

Larger, o, cheeks and forehead, yellow: 
green above, white beneath; throat and 
streaks on sides, black; large tail spots and 



444 



AMERICAN WAKlil.EKS. 



winp^-bands. white, figs. 348 lower and 352. 
Female, with throat more or less yellow, 
thus encroaching on black patch. Young, 
with little black on breast. Breeds in east- 
ern N. A. from Conn, and southern 111., 
north to Hudson Bay and south along 



Fi<i. 3o2 




Black- throated (ireeii Warbler. 1-3. 

AUeirhanies to S. C; winters in Central 
America; south in Sept., north in Ma3\ 
Occurs in evergreen forests, but less so in 
pitch pines. Song of five or six notes, 
Good Saint The-re-sa. given with a rising 
inflection and with a decided accent on last 



AMEKICAX WAKBLERS. 



445 



syllable; another song, usually late in sum- 
mer, is trees, trees, miir-mur-ing trees, there 
are also other variations but all are given 
with a buzzy intonation that always charac- 
terizes the species. 

Fii?. 353 




Kirtlaud Warbler. 1-3. 

504. TOWNSEND WARBLER. 
Differs from last in having top of head 
and cheeks black, and in being distinctly 
yellow below black breast patch. Breeds 
in western N. A. ; winters in Central 
America; south in Sept., north in May, 
accidental in Pa. 



446 



AMERICAN WARBLEKS. 



505. KIRTLAND WARBLER. 

Large, '5.50, slaty above, yellow beneath; 
patch on side of head, spots on breast and 
sides, black, fig. 353; female, duller. Breeds 
in Mich. Nests placed on ground. Winters 

Fiji'. :Jo4 




Pine Warbler. 1-3. 



in Bahamas; south in Sept., north in May. 
Frequents low bushes in fields; moves tnil 
up and down, orives a sharp note of alarm 
song, ch-ch-che-che-a or che-che-che-chee uiche- 
((-(i. with the terminal a prolonged in both. 
(Norman A. Wood). Rare. 



AMERICAN WARBLEKS. 447 

506. PINE WARBLER. 

Size of last, yellow-green above, prreen- 
yellow below to lower breast, then white to 
end of tail coverts; two wino^-bands and tail 
spots, white: faint dark streakings on breast, 
fig. 354. Female, .srray above, dull white 
beneath. Breeds in eastern IT. S. from 
northern Fla., north to New Brunswick; 
winters from N. C. (occasionally as far north 
as Mass.) to Fla. South in Sept. and Oct., 
north in April. Frequents pitch pine w^oods, 
less common everywhere. Sonsr, a musical 
trill of about six notes, sometimes followed 
by a short warble, sometimes the warble is 
given alone; sings often in Sept. Song 
something like that of Chipping Sparrow^, 
but notes of trill are single, more musical, 
and have more volume. Double brooded, 
nesting in May and June. 

507. FLORIDA PINE WARBLER. 
Larger than last, and decidedh^ golden 
yellow above and below, w^hich is more ex- 



448 



AMEKICAN WARBI.EKS. 



tended along flanks. Female about as bright 
as male. Breeds in Peninsula Fla. 

508. PALM WARBLER. 
Smaller, 5.25; brown above; rump, 
throat and under tail-coverts, yellow; re- 
maining lower portions, white; crown and 
streaks, chestnut; wing bands and tail spots, 

Fig. 855 




Palm Warbler. 



1-8 



white, fig. 355. Young, with no chestnut 
on crown and streaked with dusk}' 1)elow 
on dull white ground; under tail coverts, 
always yellow. Breeds in interior of British 
America west of Hudson Bay; winters from 
N. C, south through Fla.. Bahamas, and 
many of the West Indias; uncommon during 



AMEKICAN WARBLERS. 449 

fall migration north of N. C, east of Allegh- 
anies and in N. E. Frequents open sections, 
feeding much on ground. Eaises and lowers 
tail. Alarm, a sharp chirp; song, a feehle 
trill. Nest placed on ground. 

Fig. 85(5 




Prairie Warbler. 1-8. 

509. YELLOW PALM WARBLER. 
Larger than last, and yellow beneath 
in all stages. Breeds from northern N. E. 
north to eastern shore of Hudson Bay; 
w^inters from N. C. to southern Fla.; south 
in Sept., north in April. Common. 



450 



AMEIUCAN WARBLEKS. 



olO. PRAIRIE WARBLER. 

STiialler, 5; golden yellow above, yellow 
beneath and on line over eye; line through 
eye, spots from base of bill along sides, 
black; spots on middle of back, chestnut; 

Fiu. H57 




Yellow Warbler. 1-3. 

two yellow wing bands; white tail spots, 
large, fig. 356. Female, duller. Breeds from 
northern Fla. to Mass. (where it occurs 
chiefly along coast area); also more rarely 
west to 111., Ind.,and southern Mich.; winters 



AMERICAN WARBLEKS. 451 

in Bahamas and West Indies; south in Aug., 
north in May. Frequents scrub lands. 
Song, a rather harsh triJl of about six notes 
given in an ascending scale. Raises and 
lowers tail. 

511. YELLOW WAKBLER. 

Size of last. Golden yellow above; clear 
yellow beneath, streaked on sides and breast 
with rufous; no wing bands, nor tail spots, 
but feathers of wings and tail margined in- 
ternally with 3'ellow, fig. 357. Female 
duller with few s^^ots beneath. Young, with 
no streaks. Breeds throughout eastern N.A. 
from.northern Ga. to Barren Ground and far 
West. Winters in northern S. A.; south in 
Aug., north in April and May. Frequents 
open sections in the vicinity of thickets. 
Song, a lively warble, consisting of about 
six notes, stveet siveet siveet to sweet-tee. 
Differs from that of Chestnut-sided in not 
having a pause before last two notes and 
these are not accented. 



AMElilCAX WAKULEKS. 
Fiii. 858 




Xonliern Parula Warbler. r{' and $ 



AMEKICAN WARBLERS. 453 

512. PARULA WARBLER. 

Small, 4.75, blue above and on side of 
head; throat and breast, yellow, the latter 
with a band of blue and chestnut. Female, 
duller. Breeds from Va. southward to Gulf 
States; winters in Fla., south in Aug. and 
Sept., north in April and May. Frequents 
woodlands and builds its nest in ^'Spanish 
Moss." Yery active. 

513. NORTHERN PARULA 

WARBLER. 

Differs from last in being larger, darker, 
more chestnut below, especially on sides, 
fig. 358. Breeds from Ya. north to Canada, 
but confined to those places where the long 
usnea grows for in it the birds nest. Occurs 
everywhere in migration. Song, a vehe- 
mently uttered, siuee sivee sivee swee swee 
swee-zee. the last two syllables being given 
quickly, the last ascending; these are some- 
times ommitted. 



4.")i 



AMEUICAX WAlliil.KKi 




Golden-wii)<red Warbler, -^ and 2 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 455 

514. WESTERN PARULA WARBLER. 
Smaller than Parula, but color as in 
last. Breeds in Mich, and Minn, south to 
Gulf. This and last winter in Bahamas and 
AVest Indies. 

515. GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER. 
Larger, 5; ash-blue above; line over 
eye and below, white; throat and broad 
patch on side of head, black; patch on wing 
(sometimes two bands), and crown, yellow. 
Female, duller, fig. 359. Breeds from Mass. 
west to Mich. South to Conn, and N. J. 
along mountains to Ga. Frequents low^ 
growths and is local. Song, a rather drawl- 
ing zee^ repeated from four to six times 
and a guttural warble seldom heard; alarm, 
sharp. 

516. BREWSTER WARBLER. 

Differs from last in the absence of black 

throat patch and in having a very narrow 

black line through eye, fig. 360. Female 

with throat white or dusky, always with 



4:06 



A.MEIUCAX AVARI3LEKS. 
Ficr, 3(30 




Biew.scer War]>ier. ^, 



AMEKICAN WARBLERS. 4b7 

narrow black line through eye, fig. 861. 
Breeds in Mass., Conn., N. Y., Penn.. N. J., 
Md. and Va.; winter range unknown. Song 
averaging shorter and more quickly given 
than in last. 

517. LAWRENCE WARBLER. 

Differ from Golden -wing in having 
sides of head and lower part yellow, but the 
line through eye is narrow as in last; wing- 
bands, white; back, green as in next, fig. 
o62. Breeds in N. Y. and Conn.; winter 
range unknown. 

518. BLUE-WINGED WARBLER. 

Size of last. Greenish above, below 
and crown yellow; wings bluish, wing-bands 
white, narrow black line through eye, fig. 
363. Female, duller. Breeds from Conn, 
west to Mich., rare in Mass., but is local; 
winters in Mex. and Central America; south 
in Aug. and Sept; north in May. Song, a 
wiry, lisping trill. 



4oS 



a:meku:ax wakblers. 



Fi<r. 3t)l 




lirewsler Wnrblcr. x and young:. 



AMEKICAN WARBLERS. 459 

ol9. BACHMAN WARBLER. 
Smaller, 4.25; olive-green above, yellow 
beneath and on forehead; breast, patch on 
crown and on throat, black, a little white 
on outer tail feathers; no wing-band. Fe- 
male, much duller, plain gray below, slightly 
yellow on crown. Breeds in N. C, S. C, and 
Mo.; casually in Va. and Ark.; winters in 
Cuba, north in March, south in Aug. Rare. 

520. ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER. 
Lar.ffer, 5; gray -olive above, yellow- 
gray beneath, nearly concealed orange spot 
on crown, fig. 364. Female and young, 
duller. Occurs in woodlands. Song, a low 
sweet trill. Breeds from Manatoba north 
to Alaska; winters sparingly from S. C. to 
Key West. Fla., more commonly in Mex.; 
south in Sept. and Oct., north in April and 
May. Casual in N. E. 

52L NASHVILLE WARBLER. 

Size of last, greenish above, yellow be- 
low, head bluish, white e,ye ring. Female, 



4(50 



AMERICAN WAKliLERS. 




Lawrence Warbler. (J'. 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 461 

duller; young, very dull. Breeds from 
Conn, to Canada and west to 111.; winters in 
Mex.; south in Aug. and Sept.; north in 
May. Frequents open spots on margin of 
woodlands. Song, four or five harsh, quite 
rapidl^' given notes, etve, followed by four 
in quite a different time, a kind of trill, c?e, 
ending abruptly, as if unfinished, uttered 
as bird perches high in tree. A restless, 
species. 

522. TENNESSEE WARBLER. 

Size of last; greenish above, white be- 
low, head bluish, slight white line over eye, 
1^^. 365. Breeds in northern N. E. north to 
Labrador, uncommon during migration east 
of Alleghanies and Hudson River Valley; 
winters in Central America, south in Aug., 
north in May. Song, a little like last, but 
first part in more divided and last shriller. 

523. PROTHONOTARY WARBLER. 
Larger, 5.40; greater part of head and 
beneath, rich yellow; back, orange green; 



h\'l 



AMERICAN WAKBLEK^. 




Blue-winged Warbler, (J". 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 463 

rump and wings, bluish; spots on tail, white; 
no wing bands. Female, duller. Breeds 
in river bottom lands from Fla. to Ya. 
west to Mississippi Valley. Casual in N. 
E. and New Brunswick; winters in northern 
S. A. south in Aug. and Sept., north in 
April. Song, loud and not unlike the peet 

Fig. 864 




Orange crowued Warbler. 

tweet of the Spotted Sandpiper; also gives 
a flight song which is a low, sweet w^arble. 

524. WORM-EATING WARBLER. 

Size of last; greenish above, head and 

beneath, buff; stripe on sides of head and 

behind eye, black, fig. 366. Breeds from S. 

C. to southern N. Y. and Tnd.; casual in 



464 



AMElilCAN WARULEKS. 



Mass., N. Y., Mich, etc.; winters in Fla., 
Bahani:is, West Indies, and Mex. Sonsf. a 
feeble trill. Frequents low lands, nesting 
on ground. 

525. SWAINSON WARBLER. 

Size of last; olive above, yellowish- 
white beneath; top of head, brown; line over 




Tennessee Warbler. 

eye, buff. Frequents swamps. Breeds from 
Ya. west to Ind.; south to northwestern 
Fla. and La.; winters in Jamaica, south in 
Sept., north in April. 

526. KENTUCKY WARBLER. 
5.50; greenish above, yellow beneath; 
portion of top of head and patch on its side. 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 



465 



^■^v 




Fig. 866. — Worm-eating Warbler. 



460 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 



black, fig. 3G7. Female, a little duller. 
Breeds in Mississippi Valley north of Ohio 
and east to western N. C; casual north to 

Mass. 



-yj^t 



CONNECTICUT WARBLEK. 



5.50; wings, long; dark olive-green 
above, yellow beneath; head, throat and 




Kentucky Warbler. 1-8. 

breast, ash-gray, mixed with black; eye- 
ring, white, f[^. 368. Female, ashy of head 
and breast gray -brown. Breeding range 
as far as known Minn, and Manitoba; 
winter range unknown. South in Sept. and 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 



46' 



Oct., when common in Mass. to N. J. and 
Bahamas; north in May. Frequents swampy 
thickets. Song, a low sweet warble; alarm, 
a very sharp note. Raises and lowers tail. 

528. MOURNING WARBLER. 
Smaller than last, wings shorter, differs 
otherwise in absence of eye-ring and in 




Couuecticut Warbler. 1-3. 

having more black on breast, fig. 369. 
Breeds from northern N. E., west to Mich., 
north to Canada; winters in north western 
S. A., south in Aug. and Sept., north in 
May. Frequents thickets on margins of 



4(»S 



AMEKICAN WARIJLERS. 



woodlands; very rare along Atlantic coast. 
Song, loud, clear and pleasing, suggesting 
that of the Water Thrush. 
529. MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT. 

Size of last; wings short and rounded, 
gray-green above, conspicuous black mask 




M(>uiniii<; Warbler. 

on face which extends back on side of head, 
but not into a point on neck (white mar- 
gined behind); throat and upper breast, yel- 
low; reminder beneath, whitish. Female, 
without nuisk and not as yellow. Breeds 
on Atlantic coast of U. S. from Md., rarely 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 



469 



from Mass.; winters in Bahamas. Song, a 
varied warble. Frequents dry thickets, 
esj)ecially in winter. 

530. NOETHERN YELLOW-THROAT. 

Larger than last, yellow, extending 
into a point on side of neck, fig. 370. Breeds 

Fitr. 870 




Xorthein Yeilow-thruat. 1-4. 

from ^. E. west to Mich., north to Canada, 
south to Md.; winters from N. C. south to 
West Indies; south in Oct., north in April. 
Frequents swampy thickets. Song, ivifch-i- 
ty, repeated rather slowly five or six times; 
a warbling flight song, a continuous ratch- 



470 



A^FEKICAN WAKBLERS. 



like sound, given occasionally, probably by 
both sexes; alarm, harsh. 

531. SOUTHERN YELLOW-THROAT. 
Differs from last in having colors 
darker; deeper yellow below; sides, brown- 




Hooded Warbler. 

ish. Breeds from southern Va. south to 
Fla.; winters from N. C to Key West, Fla. 

532. HOODED WARBLER. 
Larger, 525; black hood covering head 
leaving a yellow mask on face; greenish 
above, yellow below; tail, spots white, fig. 



AMERICAN WARBLERS. 



4/1 



371. Female, duller. Breeds in eastern 
N. A. from southern Conn, to Fla.; winters, 
in Central America; south in Sept., north 
in April. Frequents high thickets in 
swampy places, notably rhododendrons. 
Song, loud and clear, not unlike that of 
Louisiana Water Thrush; alarm, sharp. 

Fiji. 372 




Wilson Warbler. 1-3. 

533. WILSON WARBLER. 
Smaller, 5; golden-ereen above, green- 
yellow below; crown, black, fig. 372. Fe- 
male, less black on crown. Breeds from 
extreme northern N. E. north to Labrador; 
winters in Central America; south in Aug. 
and Sept., north in April and May. Very 



472 AMERICAN WARBLERS. 

active, frequenting low growths, especially 
willows. Song, a trill, sometimes a low 
warble. 

534. CANADIAN WARBLER. 

Larger, 5.50, bluish above, yellow be- 
neath; spots on crown; patch behind eye 

Fi^. 378 




Canadian Warbler. 1-3. 

and necklace of spots on breast (without 
pendents), black, figs. 373 and 374. Female, 
duller. Frequents swampy thickets. Song, 
a warble of from three to six disconnected 
notes. Breeds from elevated sections of 
Mass. south along mountains to N. C; west 



AMERICAN WARBLEKS. 

Fig. 374 




Carjadian Warbiei. 



474 CHATS. 

to Central Minn.; north to Labrador. Win- 
ters in north-western S. A., south in Aug. 
and Sept., north in May. 

585. REDSTART. 

Size of Last; black, with salmon patches 
on wings, sides, and tail, fior. 375. Female 
and young male, grayer w^ith salmon re- 
placed by 3'ellow\ Breeds from N. C. and 
x\.rk. north to Hudson Bay, west to Utah; 
winters in the Bahamas and West Indies; 
casually in S. C; south in Aug. and Sept., 
north in May. Restless constantly flitting 
about and spreading tail. Song, a sharp 
trill-like warble of four to six notes, given 
rapidly and ending abruptl\^ Frequents 
margins of w^oodlands. 

CHATS. 

Large birds; wang short, rounded; tail, 
long, rounded; bill, short and rather thick. 
Sexes, similar. Songs varied, often mimick- 
ing those of other birds. 



AMERICAX WARBLERS. 

Fig. 375 



475 




Redstart. 



476 



CHATS. 



536. YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT. 

8.25; greenish above, yellow below; 

spot in front of eye, white; line in this from 

bill to eye, black, fig. 376. Breeds from 

Mass. west to southern Mich, and Wis. south 




Yellow-biea.steu Chat, 



A 



to N. C; winters in Central America; south 
in Aug., north in May. Frequents thickets 
and low^ growths; shy and retiring, oftener 
heard then seen. Habits, somewhat wren- 
like, drops wings and raises tail. Notes 
much varied, whistles, chucklings, trills and 



WOOD WAGTAILS. 



/ / 



Oriole-like scolds; flight song, a series of 
whistling, tides, given as the bird drops 
downward in jerks with wings thrown up- 
ward, tail down, and legs dangling. 



Fiff. 377 




Ovenbird. 

WOOD WAGTAILS. 

Slender birds, with long wings and 
square tails, that are often moved up and 
down. Nests on ground. Sexes, similar. 

537. OVENBIRD. 
6; pale olive-green above, crown old 
gold color margined with black; white 



478 



WOOD WAGTAILS. 



l)eiieatli streaked with black, tig. 377. Breeds 
from Va. west to Kan., north to Hudson 
Bay; winters from middle Fla. to Bahamas, 
West Indies, Mex. and Central America; 
south in Sept., north in April. Frequents 
open woodlands. Song, techee, repeated five 
or six times with increasing volume; flight 

Fi<T. 878 




Water Thrush. 1-5. 

song, a rapidly given sweet warble, often 
heard at night. Walks much on ground or 
on hirge lower limbs of trees. 

-538. WATER THRUSH. 

Size of last, dark olive-brown above; 
line over eye and beneath, decidedly pale 
green; streaked below with black, fig. 378. 
Breeds from northern N.E. north to Hudson 



WHITE WAGTAILS. 



479 



Bay; winters in Key West, Bahamas, West 
Indies, Central America and northern S. A.; 
south in Aut2^. and Sept., north in May. 
Frequents swampy locations near water 
into which it wades sandpiper-like. Song, 

Fi^. 879 




Louisiana Waler Thrush. 

several loud, clear notes, followed by a 
lower sweet warble; alarm, a sharp chirp. 

539. GRENNELL WATER THRUSH. 

Differs from last in being larger, more 
gray above and less green below, sometimes 
quite white. Breeds in western N. A. from 



480 WOOD WAGTAILS. 

Minn, to Alaska; rare on Atlantic coast 
States from N. Y. south; winters in West 
Indies and Central America, migration as 
in last. 

540. LOUISIANA WATER THRUSH. 

Differs from Water Thrush in beins a 
little larger, decidedly white over eye, white 
or buffy beneath, flanks and under tail 
coverts always bulfy, fig. 379. Song, a 
rather uniform melody terminating more 
softly. Breeds from southern N. E. west to 
southern Minn., south to Gulf States; casual 
in Mass.; winters in Central America, Baha- 
mas and West Indies; south in Sept., north 
in March and April. 

541. WHITE WAGTAIL. 

7; wings and tail, long; bill, slender; 
forehead, sides of neck, beneath and outer 
tail feathers, white; crown hind neck and 
throat, black; back, ashy. Breeds in Europe, 
accidental in Greenland. 



PIPITS. 



481 



542. PIPIT. 
6.50, slender, wings and tail lontr, olive- 
gray above, streaked with darker; cinnamon 
buft' beneath, streaked with black on breast 
and sides; outer tail feathers, white, fig. 380. 
Breeds from Newfoundland and mountains 
of Colorado, northward; winters from N. C. 

Fis:. 380 




Pipit. 1-3. 

to Mex.; south in Sept. and Oct., north in 
May. Frequents open fields, marshes and 
beaches. Gregarious. Call, a low double 
note like, pipit. Flight, undulating and 
pr ra tic 

543. MEADOW PIPIT. 
Differs from last in being darker above 
and below, and more heavilj^ streaked above. 
Europe; accidental in Greenland. 



482 



SWALLOWS. 



344. SPRAGUE PIPIT. 

Smaller than Pipit, paler beneath with 

narrow streakings and paler above. Breeds 

on interior plains of N. A. from Eastern 

Montana north to Manatoba; winters in 



Y\<r. HSl 




Purple ^Jartin. 

Tex., Mex. and southern La.; rare in N. C. 
Flight song, a clear, harmonious melody, 
given as bird hovers in air. 

SWALLOWS. 

Wings, long; bills, short; tails, variable 
but often forked. Eggs, white. 



SWALLOWS. 483 

545. PURPLE MARTIN. 

Large, 8.25; tail, somewhat forked; 
appearing black throughout, fig. 381. Fe- 
male, lighter above, nearly white beneath. 
Breeds throughout temperate N. A.; winters 
in Mex. and northern S. A.; south in Sept., 

Fig. 382 







Clili' Swaliow. 

north in April. Nests in holes of trees and 
bird boxes; eggs, unspotted. Flight strong, 
but heavy, often ascends high in air. Notes 
loud, clear, and melodious. 

546. FLORIDA MARTIN. 

Differs from last in being smaller and 
darker; female, more grayish beneath. 



484 SWALLOWS. 

Breeds in middle and southern Fla.; nortli 
in March. 

547. CUBA^ MARTIN. 

Dilt'ers from hist in having a more 

deeply forked tail; female with white spot 

on abdomen. 

Fis". :^s;? 




Bank Swallow, 

548. CLIFF SWALLOW. 

Smaller, 5.75; tail, square; above and 
spot of breast, deep steel blue; crescent on 
forehead and rump, red-buff; throat, chest- 
nut; white beneath, fig. 382. Breeds through- 
out the greater part of N. A.; winters in 
S. A.; south in Sept., north in x\pril. Nests 
in communities under eaves of buildings 



SWALLOWS. 485 

and on cliffs; eggs, spotted. Notes, a musical 
chatter. Flight, rather heavy. 

549. CUBAN CLIFF SWALLOW. 

Differs from last in having throat pale 
and rump deep chestnut. Cuba, resident; 
accidental on Fla. Keys. 

Fiu. 384 




A 
Rou^h-winged Swallow. 

550. BANK SWALLOW. 

Small, 5.25; brown above, white be- 
neath, band of brown crossing breast, tail 
slightly forked, fig. 383. Breeds through 
northern hemisphere; in N. A. from Ga. 
and northern Mex. north to Arctic; winters 
in S. A.; south in Sept., north in April and 



4sn 



SWALLOWS. 



May. Nest in communities in holes of sand 
banks; eggs, unspotted. Notes, a single 
twitter. Flight, quite weak. 

551. ROUGH- WINGED SWALLOW. 

Differs from last in having throat 
brown, fig. 384. Breeds in temperate N. A. 

Fig. 88;") 




Tree Swallow. 

from Central America north to southern 
Conn., western Mass. and British Columbia; 
winters in Central America; south in Sept., 
north in May. Nests in holes of bridges, 
banks, buildings, etc., seldom in communi- 
ties. Note, a feeble twitter. Flight, not 
very strong. 



SWALLOWS. 



487 



552. TEEE SWALLOW. 
Larger, 6; tail, with medium fork; blue 
above, white below, fig. 385. Female, dul- 
ler; young, brown above. Breeds from Va. 
and Cal., north into British America; win- 

Fiof. 386 




Barn Swallow. 

ters from S. C. through Gulf States and 
occasionallj^ further north; south in Sept. 
and Oct., north in April. Nests in holes of 
trees, bird boxes, or in cavities about build- 
ings. Flight, easy, and rather graceful. 



4S8 SWALJ.OWS. 

Song, a pleasant chatter. Gregarious in 
autinnn, congregating by thousands on 
seashore. 

553. BAHAMA SWALLOW. 

Size of last, green above, white below; 
tail, more deeply forked. Female, duller. 
New Providence, Andros, and other islands 
of Bahamas; accidental in Fla. Song, a 
musical twitter. Nests in holes of trees and 
in cavities about buildings. 

554. BARN SWALLOW. 
Larger, 7; steel blue above; forehead, 
throat and breast, chestnut; remaining 
lower parts, rich brown; tail, deeply forked 
and crossed by a band of w^hite spots, fig. 
386. Female, duller. Breeds throughout 
N. A. from Arctic to Gulf and into Mex., 
excepting Fla.; winters in S. A.; south in 
Sept., north in x^pril. Nests inside build- 
ings and rarely beneath their eaves. Song, 
a pleasing, bubbling, joyous melody. Flight, 
very graceful and easy. 



WAXWINGS. 489 

555. EUROPEAN SWALLOW. 
Differs from last in having a dark band 
across breast. Europe; accidental in Green- 
land. 

WAXWINGS. 

Wings long, pointed, folding beyond 
tip of short square tail. Plumage very 

Fiff. 387 




Cedar Waxwing. 1-4. 

smooth and blended. Nests in trees, eggs, 
spotted. 

556. CEDAK WAXWING. 

7.25; crested; wood -brown above; 
lighter on upper tail coverts; black on chin, 



490 



WAXWIX(iS. 



brown on breast, lighter behind this, white 
on nnder tail coverts; tip of tail yellow; 
secondaries tipped with red (often absent), 
iig. 387. Breeds in temperate N. A. from 
Va. north to Hudson Bay; in winter wander- 
ing irregularly south to Fla. Gregarious. 

Fiir. ;:i8S 




Bohemiau Waxwing. 1-4. 

Flight, strong, steady direct with a peculiar 
flutter of wings. Note, a rather low, his- 
sing chirp. 

557. BOHEMIAN WAXWING. 
Differs from last in being larger, 7.75; 
grayer, yellow or white lines on tips of 



TANAGERS. 



491 



wing feathers, white spot on wing, chestnut 
under tail coverts, fig. 388. Breeds in 
coniferous forests of northern Hemisphere; 
wandering south in winter, irregularly to 
northern U. S. Notes, similar to those of 
last, but louder. 



Fijr. 389 




Scarlet Tana^er. 1-4. 

TANAGERS. 

Rather small birds with thick, finch- 
like bills and long wings. 

558. SCARLET TANAGER. 
7.50, scarlet; wings and tail, black, fig. 
389. Female and winter male, scarlet, re- 



4:92 TANAOEUS. 

placed by greenish. Breeds in eastern U.S. 
from Va. north into southern British Pro- 
vinces; winters, in northern S. A.; south in 
Sept. and Oct., north in May. Frequents 
open woodUmds. Flight, swift and direct. 
Song, loud and distinct, chip cherry, cherry 
chip, varied somewhat, sometimes sweet and 
pleasant, but often marred by a burred in- 
tonation; alarm, cJiip cher, accented on first 
syllable, the last a little prolonged, some- 
what burred. Nests, slight structures placed 
in trees; eggs, green, spotted. 

559. LOUISIANA TANAGER. 
Differs from last in having back black, 
two bands on wing, hind neck, rump, upper 
tail coverts and beneath, yellow. Female, 
differs chiefly in having yellow wing-bands. 
Breeds in western U. S; a(,'cidental in N. E., 
N. Y. and La.; winters in Mex. 

5t)0. SUMMER TANAGER. 
Size of last; dull red throughout. Fe- 
male, yellow-green. Breeds in eastern U. S. 



SHRIKES. 



493 



from southern N. J. south to Gulf States; 
casual as far north as Nova Scotia; winters 
in northern S. A. ; south in Sept., north in 
April. Song, loud and clear. 

SHRIKES. 

Bill, large and hooked; wings short, 
tail long and rounded. 

F\<r. 390 




Northern Shrike. 

561. NORTHERN SHRIKE. 
Large, 10; pale gray above; white be- 
neath, where finely banded with black; 
patch on side of head, black; markings on 
back, patch on wing and tips of tail, white, 
fiff. 390. Young much obscured above with 



494 



SIIKIKES. 



rusty. Breeds in northern N. A. from 
Labrador to Alaska, wandering in winter 
somewhat irregularly as far south as Va. 
and Central Cal. Song, a loud, clear and 
varied melody; note of annoyance, a harsh 
cry. Frequents open fields. Flight, swift, 

Vig. 891 




Loi^jijerhead Shrike. 1-6. 

direct, but with long, sweeping undulations; 
always raises to alight. Sits very upright. 

562. LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE. 

Smaller, 9.25, differs from last in having 
head patches meeting on forehead in a nar- 
row line and in being clear white beneath, 



viREos. 495 

fig". 391. Resident in coast districts of S. C. 
and Ga., west to La. and all of Fla. 

553. NORTHERN LOGGERHEAD. 

Differs from last in being paler above 

and slightly gray beneath. Breeds over a 

g:reater portion of eastern U. S. from N. C. 

and eastern Kan. north to the more south- 

Fis. "^>2 




Ked-eyed Vireo. 

ern British Provinces; south in winter to 
La. and Tex. 

VIREOS. 

Small, arboreal birds, with large heads 
and bills; rather deliberate movements; 
food, insects, chiefly caterpillars. Colors, 
mostly plain. Nests, suspended from a 



496 viREOS. 

forked twig; eggs, white, usually sparingly 
spotted. 

564. RED-EYED VIREO. 
Large, 6.25; top of head, gray; dark line 
through eye, white line over it, boardered 
by a black line above; gray green above, 
white below, fig. 392. Breeds throughout 
temperate N. A. from Fla. into British Pro- 
vinces; winters in northern S. A.; south in 
Sept. and Oct., north in May. Frequents 
woodlands. Song, a monotonous repetition 
of the syllables, hear me, see me, hear it; 
heed it; sweer imlliam, siveer it, tiveet tweet 
tweet tweet, quickly given at the rate of 
thirty-six or more notes to the minute; also 
the common Vireo scold. 

565. BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO. 
Larger than last, bill longer, dark lines 
on head not as clear, and a slight maxillary 
line of dusky. Breeds in the Bahamas and 
southern Fla.; winters in West Indies; north 
in April. Song, tvhip torn kelley — a decided 



viREos. 497 

accent on kelly — phne, but varying some- 
what. Nest often placed low. 

566. PHILADELPHIA VIREO. 

Smaller, 5; grayer than Red-eye, lines 
on head distinct; strongly tinged, with 
yellow beneath. Breeds from northern N. 
E. north into British Provinces; winters in 

Fij;. 393 




Warbliujjj Vireo. 

Central America; south in Sept. and Oct., 
north in May. Rare east of Connecticut 
River and Alleghanies. Song, similar to 
Red-eye. 

567. WARBLING VIREO. 
Larger than last, 5.40, grayest of our 
Vireos, slight whitish line over eye, white 
beneath with a slight yellow tinging, fig. 



4'J8 



VIliEOS. 



393. Breeds in eastern N. A. from Fla. 
north into British Provinces; winters in 
Mex.; south in Sept., north in April. Fre- 
quents open groves or ornamental trees in 
villages. Song, a continuous warble of 
about six notes, ending abruptly. Nest, 
placed high in tree. 

Fill. 394 




Yellow-rhroared Vireo. 



568. YELLOW-GREEN VIREO. 

Greener above than last and much 
more yellow beneath, especially on sides 
and under tail coverts. Mex. and south- 
ward; accidental in Quebec. 



viPvEos. 499 

569. YELLOW-THROATED YIREO. 

6; white wing bands, green above and 
on sides of head; line over eye, throat and 
breast, lemon-yellow; remaining lower parts, 
white, fig. 394. Breeds in eastern N. A. 
from northern Fla., north to British Provin- 

Fi?. 395 




Solitary Vireo. 

ces; winters in Colombia, S. A; south in 
Sept. and Oct., north in Ma\\ Frequents 
margins of woodlands, orchards and open 
groves. Song, do you hear me; do you see 
me; hear I am, given with emphatic energy, 
slightly burred, repeated eight or ten times 
a minute. Nest, covered with lichens. 



■)(IU VIKEOS. 

570. SOLITARY VIREO. 

Smaller, 5.50; top of head, dark slate; 
back, dark o;reen; rin^ around eye and line 
from it to bill, white; wing bands and sides, 
tinged wnth yellow, fig. 395. Breeds locally 
in southern N. E., but more commonly from 
northern N. E., north into British Provin- 
ces; winters in Gulf States, south into Cen- 
tral America. Son.fr, shortei- and lower than 
last, and given with less energy; a peculiar 
note like swe-e-ive, usually characterizes this 
song. Frequents woodlands. 

571. MOUNTAIN VIREO. 
Differs from last in being: larger, darker 

with more gray on back. Breeds in south- 
ern Alleghanies from Md. to N. C; winters 
in lowlands of the eastern Gulf and south 
Atlantic* States. 

572. PLUMBEOUS YIREO. 

Differs from last in having back wholly 
gray and less yellow beneath. Rocky 



VIKEOS. 501 

mountains of U. S. and mountains of Mex., 
accidental in N. Y. 

573. WHITE-EYED VIREO. 
Smaller, 5.25; green above, white be- 
neath, much tinged with yellow; line from 
bill over e^^e, eye-ring and wing bands, 
sulphur yellow; iris white, tig. 396. Breeds 

Fisi. 396 




White-eyed Vireo. 

in eastern U. S. from northern Fla. and 
Tex., north to Mass. and southern Wis.; 
winters from S. C. to Central America, 
south in Sept., north in Ma\\ Song, varied 
detached notes given emphatically, I-will- 
give-you-a-lick, is an example, sometimes 
these notes are run together as a low, con- 
tinuous song. 



oO^ yiREOS. 

574. KEY WEST VIREO. 
Differs from last in being larger, much 

grayer above and on sides of head, fig. 397. 
Breeds from Middle Fla. south to Key West. 

575. BERMUDAN VIREO. 

Differs from last in being mnch more 
gray with little yellow on sides. Bermuda 
Islands. 






Key West Vireo. 

570. BELL VIREO. 

Smaller, 4.75; head, gra3'-brown; back, 
dull olive green; line over eye, ring around 
it, wing-bands and beneath, white, much 
tinged with yellow below. Breeds in prairie 
districts of Mississippi Valley from southern 




MOCKINGBIRDS AND THEASllERS. 503 



Minn, to northern 111., south to eastern 
Tex.; winters in Mex., accidental in Mass. 

MOCKINGBIRDS and THRASHERS. 

Large birds, with short wings and long 
unhanded tails; bills, slender; sexes, similar. 

Fig. 398 




Mockiugbird. 1-5. 

577. MOCKINGBIRD. 

Larger, 10; ashy-gray above, white 
l)eneath; large patch on wing, and tips of 
outer tail feathers, white; iris, pale yellow, 



504 MOCKINGBIRDIS AND THRASHERS. 

fig. 398. Resident from Mex. north to 
Mass and Cal. Frequents thickets. Song, 
loud, clear and varied, often mimicing songs 
of other birds. Nests in bushes; eggs, 
spotted. 

Fig. 399 




Catbird. 



578. CAT BIRD. 

Smaller, 9; dark plumbeous; top of 
liead and tail, black; under tail coverts, 
chestnut, fig. 399. Breeds in eastern U. S. 
from Gulf States north into British Provin- 



MOCKINGBIRDS AND THRASHERS. 



505 



Fig. 400 



ceSj west to Rockies; winters in southern 
States, casually north to mass.; south in 
Sept. and Oct., north in April 
and May. Frequents thickets, 
often near dwellinofs. Sonpr, rich 
and varied, sometimes mimicing 
other birds; notes, rather deliber- 
ately given. Nests in thickets, 
uses grape vine bark outward}'; 
eggs, green-blue. 

579. k?:y west catbird. 

Smaller than last; darker, 
but with forehead grayish. Key 

nr 171 Brown 

West, J^la. Thrasher. 1-6 

580. BROWN THRASHER. 

Larger, 11.50; bright red-brown above; 
wing-bands and beneath, buff-white; streak- 
ed on side of neck, breast and sides with 
brown, fio^. 400. Breeds throughout eastern 
U. S.; winters from N. C. southward to Fla.; 
south in Oct., north in April and Mav. 




■)0(3 



WRENS. 



Frequents dry thickets. Song, given when 
perched in an elevated situation, loud and 
varied each phrase repeated, like plant it 
plant it J hoe it hoe it, dig it dig it, etc. Sits 
upright when singing. Nests placed on 
ground or near it, built of sticks, lined with 

Fi-. 401 




rootlets, eggs pale blue, sprinkled thickly 
with rufous. 

WRENS. 

Small birds, with slender bills, brown 
above, white below; usually banded on 
tail and wings with bhick, often keep 
tail erect. 



WKEN8. 



50' 



581. CAROLINA WEEN. 
Large, 5.25; rust -brown above; line 
from bill over eye, down neck, buff3^ white; 
narrow^ line over this, black; throat and 
beneath, w^hite, fig. 401. Breeds from 
northern Fla. north to southern N. K., 
rarely to Mass., west to Middle Kan.; winters 

Fiir. 402 




Berwick Wren. 

from N. C. southward, sometimes north to 
Mass. Frequents low thickets. Song, loud, 
clear and varied; often mimics other birds. 

582. FLORIDA WREN. 
Differs from last in being larger and 
much darker both above and below. Penin- 
sula of Florida. 



508 



WRENS. 



583. BEWICK WREN. 
5.50; tail long, plain brown above; line 
over eye, conspicuous spot on tail, and be- 
neath, white, fig. 402. Breeds throughout 
eastern U. S. from N. J. west to southern 
Mich., south to northern Fla. and Tex.; 
winters in southern portion of range; south 



Kiff. 408 




House Wren. 1-4. 

in Sept.; north in May, accidental in N. H. 
Frequents open sections. Nests in holes 
about buildings. Song, a continuous, bub- 
bling melody. 

584. HOUSE WREN. 
Smaller, 5, dark red-brown above, white 
beneath, in addition to wings and tail, 



WRENS. O09 

flanks barred with dusk}', iig. 403. Breeds 
throughout eastern U. S. north into Canada; 
winters from N. C. through Gulf States; 
south in Sept. and Oct., north in May. Fre- 
quents orchards. Nests in holes of trees 
and about buildings. Song, a continuous, 

Fier. 404 




AVinter Wren. 

bubbling melody. In autumn and winter, 
seeks the shelter of brush heaps and thickets. 

585. WESTERN HOUSE WREN. 

Differs from last in being much paler 
with back usually barred with dusky. Breeds 
throughout western U. S. and Canada east 
to 111.; winters in Mex. 



•310 WKENS. 

.386. WINTER WREjN. 
Diii'ers from Iti^t in being smaller. 4.10, 
pale brown beneath, and much spotted and 
banded with black; upper back and sides 
of neck spotted with white, tig. 404. Breeds 
in northern portion of eastern U. S. and 
Canada, from western Mass. and south along 
Alleghnnies, to N. C. west to Mich.; winters 
from Mass. to northern Fla.. and along Gulf 
coast to Tex.; south in Sept. and Oct., north 
in April. Frequents dense thickets along 
w^alls and fences, remaining much in con- 
cealment. Song, given from tree tops, be- 
gins with an abrupt outbreast of melody, 
then falls and rises like tlie tinkling of fairy 
silver bells now near now far, producing 
one of the most exquisiteh^ l)eautiful bird 
songs heard in the north woods. Nest, on 
ground, formed of moss, etc. 

588. LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN. 

Larger, tail much rounded; red-brown 
on head, darker ou l)ack; line over eye, 



WKEXS. 



511 



Fig-. 405 



streaks on back and beneath, white; tail, 
barred Avith dusky, wings with white, fig. 
405. Breeds chiefly east of 
Alleghanies, from Va. and Md. 
north to western N. Y. and 
Mass.; winters from N. C. south 
to Fhi.; south in Sept. and Oct., 
north in May. Frequents very 
wet marshes. Nests attached to 
reeds, grass sterns and bushes. 
Song, often given in flight, a 
bubbling melody rising and 
falling; sometimes one out- 
burst connected with next bj' 
tinkling notes. Flight, weak 




and fluttering. 



Lons-biiled 
Marsh Wren. 



588. MARIA.N xMARSH WREN. 



Differs from last in being smaller, 
much darker and more heavily banded. 
Breeds on coasts of Carolinas; winters in 
western Fla. 



:)12 WRENS. 

589. LOUlSLiNA MARSH WREN. 
Differs from last in being smaller and 
paler; crown with median stripe often 
broad. Coasts of La. and Tex. 
590. WORTHINGTON MARSH WREN. 
Smallest and palest of the Marsh Wrens, 
bein.ix quite gray with white streakings. 
Atlantic coast from S. C. to northern Fla. 

Fio-. 40(5 




Short-billed Marsh Wren. 

591. PRAIRIE MARSH WREN. 

Differs from Long-billed in being much 
more rusty brown above and on flanks. 
Great Plains and Prairie districts of Central 
U. S.; southward in winter along Gulf coast 
to western Fla. 



WKENS. 513 

591. SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN. 

Differs from Long-billed in being small- 
er and in having top of head as well as back 
stredked with white, fig. 406. Breeds in 
eastern N. A. from southern N. H. and 
Manatoba soutli to Gulf Coast. Frequents 



Fiff. 407 







Brown Creeper. 

sedgy, not very wet, marshes in summer, 
dry savannahs in winter. Song, an off- 
repeated tinkle somewhat like the sound 
produced by a light hammer striking an 
anvil with a sharp blow, then rebounding 
three or four times, never given on wing; 



14 



WREXS. 



more often heard during cloudy weather or 
by night. 

593. BROWN CREEPER. 
Small, 5.50; slender with long, strongly 
curved bill, long wings and tail which has 




While-breasted Nuthatch, 

pointed feather tips; brown above, streaked 
with white; white beneath; rump, rusty, 
fig. 407. Breeds in eastern N. A. from 
Mass. north into British Provinces, south 
along mountains to N. C; winters from N. 
E. to FLa.; south in Oct., north in April. 



NUTHATCHES. 515 

Frequents open woodlands, groves and or- 
namental trees everywhere. Creeps spirally 
up trees, than drops to base either of same 
tree or another to reascend. Flight, swift 
and direct. Usual note, a thin sharp lisp; 
also a crackling cry, and a not commonly 
heard silver\% tinkling song. 

NUTHATCHES. 

Small birds with straight bills, long 
wings and short tails. Climb trees some- 
thing like Woodpeckers, but descend head 
downwards. Nests in cavities often excavated 
by the birds; eggs white, spotted. 

594. WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH. 
Large, 6; blue-gray above; top of head 
and hind neck, black; beneath, white, fig. 
408. Female, with crown blue like back. 
Breeds throughout eastern U. S. into Pro- 
vinces, south to northern N. C. west to Great 
Plains, chiefly resident. Frequents wood- 
lands, orchards, and ornamental trees. Usual 
call, a harsh cachl also an interrupted series 



516 



Nl rilATCllES. 

Fiji. 401 > 







Ked-bieasted Xuthalch, cf'. 



NUTHATCHES. 517 

of calls oriven in a rather minor tone, 
vsuggesting the familiar call of Flicker. 

595. FLORIDA WHITE-BREASTED 
NUTHATCH. 

Differs from last in being smaller and 
darker. Female, head black or nearly so. 
Fla. west along Gulf coast to Miss. 

596. CAROLINA NUTHATCH. 

Differs from last in being a little lighter 
with the red of sides not as extended. Fe- 
male with crown very slightly obscured with 
plumbeous. Coast region of the Carolinas. 
Described in Records of Walks and Talks 
with Nature, Vol. VIII, Jan. 12, 1916. 

597. RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH. 
Smaller than last, 4.50; differs other- 
wise in having a black line through eye, 
broadening out behind it, hind neck like back 
and strongly tinged with red-brown beneath, 
fig. 409. Female has head line bluish and 
is lighter below, fig. 410. Breeds in forests 



18 



KUTIIATCIIES. 

¥\<r. 410 




liea-breastpd Xuihaicli. 9 



KINGLETS. 519 

of northern N. A. from Mass. to Labrador; 
south along higher Alleghanies to N. C; 
winters from Mass. to extreme southern 
States; south in Aug., Sept. and Oct., north 
in April. Notes, quite different from White- 
breasted, more clear, like the tooting of an 
elfen horn. Found nearl}^ everywhere, 
but most common in woodlands. 

598. BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH. 

Small, 4; differs from last in absence 
of line through eye, brown head and nape 
and white under pasts. Sexes, similar, fig. 
411. Resident in pine belt from southern 
Del. to Tex., casually north to N. Y., Mich., 
etc.; Great Bahama Island. Note, a harsh, 
solemnly given each, often repeated. Gre- 
garious. 

KINGLETS. 

Very small arboreal birds, with deeply 
notched tails; crown, with a brightly-colored 
spot; wing with single band of white in 
dark area. Globular nests in trees; eggs, 
spotted. 



520 



NUTHATCHES. 

Fij?. 411 




Brown-headed Nui hatch. 



KINGLETS. 521 

599. GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET. 

3.50; gray-green above, white beneath; 
top of head, orange, with yellow and black 
line on eitl>er side, fig. 412. Female, has 
crown between black lines yellow, f[g. 413. 
Young, has yellow replaced by gray, fig. 414. 
Breeds from northern N. E., northern N. Y. 
and northern Mich, north to Labrador; 
rarely south to Mass. and regularly along 
AUeghanies to N. C; winters from Mass. to 
northern Fla. Found everywhere, most 
commonly in evergreen woods. Restless 
flitting (constantly about, often flicking 
wings. Song, a rather feeble, lisping trill; 
alarm, a feeble lisp. 

600. RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET. 

Differs from last in absence of black 
line on head; male with partly concealed 
ruby spot on crown, fig. 415; absent in fe- 
male, fig. 416. Breeding rantre in east, 
similar to last, but winters further south to 
southern Fla. and Mex., rarely in Mass.; 



522 



KINGLETS. 



Fiji. 412 




Goltien-crowned Kiu<j;lei, ^J', 



THKUSHES. 623 

south in Sept. and Oct., north in April. 
Son^ begins with a few lisping notes, runs 
into a clear, high warble, remarkably loud 
for size of bird. Occurs mosth^ in woodlands. 

601. BLUE-GRA7 GNATCATCHER. 

Larger, 4.75; blue-gray above, bluish- 
w^iite below; U-shaped line on forehead, 
black; patch on either side of tail, white, 
fig. 417. Breeds from N. J. west to north- 
ern Mich., south to Gulf States; casual in 
N. E. and Minn.; winters in Gulf States, 
Bahamas and West Indies. Nest in trees, 
hung from fork of limb, lichen-covered; 
eggs, spotted. Call note, see see, lispingly 
given; song, a low, tinkling, silvery warble. 
Very restless and active. 

THRUSHES. 

Well proportioned Singing Perchers of 
wide distribution and fine powers of song; 
eggs, blue-green. 



.324 



TIIKUSIIES. 



602. WOOD THRUSH. 

Large, 8.25; red-brown above, brightest 
on head; white beneath, marked everywhere 



Fi<r. 413 




Golden-crowned Kinijlet. 



with large, round spots of bLack, fig. 418. 
Irreeds in eastern U. S. from Ya. and Kan., 



KIX(^LETS. 



Fig. 414 




Golden-crowned Kinglet, young. 



526 THRUSHES. 

north to Canada; south in Sept., north in 
May. Frequents wooded glens. Song, loud, 
clear and bell-like, trn-ral lu tru-ral lee, 
varied with lower notes; alarm, a harsh, 
stuttering cry. Nests in trees; eggs, un- 
spotted. 

Fig'. 41.5 




Ruby-crowned Kinorlet, (J. 1-4. 

608. HERMIT THRU.SH. 
Smaller, 7; differs from last in being 
more tawny above, brightest on tail, w^hite 
beneath, tinged with cream on breast, spots 
triangular and confined to breast; e\'e-ring, 
creamy, fig. 419. Breeds in eastern N. A. 
from Mass., northern AUeghanies and north- 
ern Mich, northward; winters from southern 
N. E. south to Fla.; south in Oct., north in 




527 



liuby-crowned Kinp^lel. $ 



528 TIIKl\siIES. 

April. Song, the rnovst finished of that of 
all our birds. There are four strains: 1, Oh 
twee twee twee, clear and high; 2, E. twter 
twter twter, lower but pure; 3, Oh phera 
phera phera. lower in tone almost pathetic 
in terminal note, all prolonged; 4. E. die te 
wete, softly given, often whispered. The 
above is the order in which the complete 

Fior. 417 




Blue-gray (Tuatcatcher. 1-4. 

song is given, but strains are frequently 
omitted. Alarm, a whistled chvck. Fre- 
quents woodlands. Nests on ground; eggs, 
unspotted. 

6(J4. OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH. 

Differs from last in being uniform olive 
above, strongly tinged on head and eye-ring 
with rufous, spots beneath broadly trian- 



THRUSHES. 529 

gular and not as prominent, fig. 420. Breeds 
in eastern N. A. northward; winters in S. 
A.; south in Sept. and Oct.. north in April 
and May. Song, tru-ral ru-ral lee, a varia- 
tion is, ru-ral-e-ral e-e; both given with a 
very thrush-like intonation; alarm, a short 
liquid quit and one like pit, more quickly 
given. Nests in bushes; eggs, spotted. 

605. GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH. 
Differs from last in having side of head 
and eye-ring gray, and little or no tinging 
on breast. Breeds in northern N. A. from 
Newfoundland, north to Arctic; winters in 
Central America; south in Sept. and Oct., 
north in May. Frequents woodlands and 
copses. Song, as heard in West Newton, 
Mass., in spring; almost exactly like that of 
Yeery, but lower. 

606. BICKNELL THRUSH. 
Differs from last in being smaller. 
Breeds on higher mountains of northeastern 
States and Nova Scotia. Migration as in 



530 



THRUSHES. 



last. Song, as heard on Mt. Gray lock. 
May 20, 1910, tcher re re e\ one bird song. 
ivliee er rel re, all given in about the same 
time as the Olive-back. A preliminary note 



4LS 




to the song was a very liquid pit-, some- 
times pit cree was given, possibly by female. 

()07. WILSON THRUSH. 

Size of Hermit; reddish ta\vny above, 
white beneath; eye-ring sides of head and 



TIir.UJ^IIES. 



.331 



breast, pale-buff; spots confined to upper 
breast and very pale, fig. 421. Breeds from 
northern N. J. west to northern Mich., 
north into British Provinces, winters chiefly 
south of U. S. Song, a series of fife-like 
notes, beginning softly, gradually decreasing 
in volume, and endinur imperceptably ; alarm 
Fie:. 4\9 




Hermit Thrush. 

a loudly whistled pheu. Nests on ground; 
eggs, unspotted. 

608. NEWFOUNDLAND THRUSH. 
Differs from last in being paler above 
and more indistinctl}^ spotted below. Breeds 
in Newfoundland. 



.182 



THRISIIES. 



609. AYILLOW THRUSH. 
Differs from Wilson in being duller 
above; markings below, darker. Interior 
of U. S. and British Provinces, east to Wis. 
and 111., Ind.j casually' to S. C. 

FiiT. 420 




Olive-backed Thrush. 

010. RED-WINGED THRUSH. 

Larger, 8.50, brown above; line over 
eye, stripes on throat and middle portions 
below, white; sides and Hanks, reddish; 
breast streaked with black. Northern 
pAirope and Asia; accidental in Greenland. 



TIIKU^IIES. OOO 

611. AMERICAN ROBIN. 
Larger, 10, .irray above; top of head, 
black; golden brown beneath; throat, white, 
streaked with black; bill, yellow, fig. 42'2. 
Female, duller. Nestlings, spotted with 
black above and below. Breeds in eastern 

Fiii. 421 




.^ii^-. 






^- 



"r^ 



Wilsou Thrush. 

N. A. from Atlantic to Rockies north of N. 
C; winters from Canada to Gulf States, 
south in Oct. and Nov., north in March and 
April. Found everywhere. Song, loud and 
hurridly given; variable, but a usual form 
is chip cherry chip, with other notes, a single 



534 



THRUSHES. 



sharp whistle of inquirey. Toung, when 
fully fledged, give a practicing song similar 
to adult; uttered with closed bill, and thus 
low and muffled. Nests in trees and bushes, 



Fijr. 422 




American liobin. 

sometimes within buildings or about them- 
eggs, unspotted. 

612. CAROLINA ROBIN. 

Similar to last, but smaller, paler and 
duller. Young, less heavily spotted. Breeds 



WriEATEAll. OOO 

in S. C. and northern Mich., north to Md. 
and southern 111. 

613. TOWNSEND SOLITAIRE. 

Smaller than last, plain brown-gray, 
two red-buff patches on wing with a darker 
intervening space; tail with small white 
spots, at tip. Mountains of western N. A., 
accidental in 111. 

614. GREENLAND WHEATEAR. 

Smaller, 6.-50, ashy-gray above; term- 
inal third of tail, black; remainder with tail 
coverts, forehead, line over eye, and lower 
parts behind, white; otherwise, plain buff 
below; patch on side of head, black. Breeds 
in Iceland, Greenland and Labrador, strag- 
gling south to Nova Scotia, Me., Mass., N. 
Y. and Bermuda, accidental in La.; winters 
in northern Africa, Labrador birds reachinsr 
winter quarters via Greenland and the 
British Isles. 



BLUEBIRDS. 



615. BLUEBIRD. 

Larger, 7, blue above; breast and sides, 
cinnamon -brow 11; remaining lower parts, 
^vliite, lig. 423. Female, duller. Nestlintrg 
spotted above with white and wholy white 




Bluebird. 

below, streaked with red-brown. Breeds 
from Ga. north to British Provinces, west 
to Rockies; w^inters from Middle States to 
Gulf Coast; south in Oct. and Nov., north 
in Feb. and March. Frequents open country. 
(Jail song of three notes, often repeated, 



BLUEBIRDS. 537 

clieer-e-ly, given by both sexes and young; 
song by male, a low, sweet warble, uttered 
sometimes in flight or when perched with 
fluttering wings. Catches insects on ground, 
but flies to perch to eat them. Flight, 
rather indirect and wabbly. Nests in holes 
of trees or in boxes; eggs, pale blue, usually 
unspotted. 

616. FLORIDA BLUEBIRD. 

Deeper in color above and below than 
last. Resident in Fla. 



538 APPENDIX. 



Appendix 



The following species, cbiedy accidental visitors, 
should be included as birds of our section. 

EARED GREBE. 

About the size of Horned Grebe, but bill smaller. 

Conspicuous cinnamon ear tufts in adult. Young and 

winter plumage, scarcely different. Western U. S. ; casual 

in Indiana. 

SHORT-BILLED GULL. 

Differs from Ring-billed Gull in being darker above; 
no band on bill, which is green, with tip yellow, and 
shorter. Difficult to distinguish in field in young stages. 

PIXTADO PETREL. 

Large, 15; head, wings, tip of tail and mottiings on 
back, black; otherwise, incltiding patch on wing, white. 
Southern Oceans, accidental off coast of Me. 

ALLIED SHEARWATER. 

Smaller than Audubon Shearwater, with black of 
head not extending below eye. Australian seas; acci- 
dental on Sable Island, N. S. 



ArrE^Dix. 539 



HAWAIIAN PETREL. 

Similar to Leach Petral, but with tail less forked. 
Pacific Ocean ; accidental in Ind. and District of Columbia. 

RUDDY SHELDRAKE. 

Size and general color of Mallard, but with a knob at 
base of bill. Old world; accidental in Greenland. 

BEAN GOOSE. 

Size of while-fronted Goose, but differs in having an 
orange band on middle of biil. in being darker without 
white on face, or black spots on breast; legs and feet, 
orange. Old World: accidental in Greenland. 

PINK-FOOTED GOOSE. 

Differs from last in beins: smaller. 28: patch on bend 
of wing, gray: upper mandible, pink in center. Old 
world; accidental in Greenland. 

WAYNE CLAPPER RAIL. 

Scarcely to be distinguished from Clapper Rail in the 
field. Salt marshes of Atlantic coast from N. C. to Fla. 

HUDSONIAN SPRUCE PARTRIDGE. 

Similar to Spruce Grouse, but darker. Labrador and 
westward in same latitude. 

BERMUDA GROUND DOVE. 

Similar to Bahama Ground Dove, but smaller and 
with bill wholly black. Bermuda. 



540 APPENDIX. 



GROOVED-BILLED ANI 

Bill grooved,scarcely different in tield from Ani, S. A., 
north to Tex; casual in Fla. 

FLORIDA CROW. 

Bill larger than iu Crow, difference in field almost 
inperceptable. Florida. 

HOODED CROW. 

Ditiers from Crow iu being gray on back and under 
parts. Europe: casual in Greenland. 

ROOK. 

Resembles Crow, but differs in having no feathers 
about base of bill, where skin is whitish. Europe; 
accidental in Greenland. 

CLARK NUTCRACKER. 

Size of Blue Jay; bill, longer and pointed; gray 
wings, and tail black: patch on former and outer feathers 
of latter, white. Western N. A. ; accidental in AVisconsin. 



IXDEX. 



541 



Index 



Albatrosses 43 

Albatross, yellow-nosed 43 

Anhinga 78 

Anhlnoras 78 

Ani 310 

grooved- billed 540 
Auk, razor-billed 25 
Auks, raurres, puffins, etc 

24 
Avocet. american 133 
Avocets and stilts 133 
Baldpate231 

Bananaquit, bahama 428 
Bittern, american 200 
cory 202 
least 201 
Brant 259 

black 261 
Blackbird, brewer 366 
red-winged 359 
rusly 366 

yellow-htaded 365 
Bobolink 371 
Bobwhite 265 

florid a 266 
Bufflehead244 



Bunting, black-throated 372 
lark 404 
painted 425 
snow 404 
varied 426 
Buzzard, european 293 
Canvas-back 240 
Caracara, audubon 299 
Catbird 504 

Key West 505 
Chat, yellow-breasted 476 
Chats 474 

Chickadee, acadian 353 
black-capped 351 
Carolina 352 
florid a 353 
hudsonian 353 
townsend 354 
Chuck-will's-widow 326 
Coot 222 

european 223 
Coots 222 
Cormorant. 76 

double-crested 77 
florida 77 
mexican 77 



542 



INDEX. 



Cormorants 73 
Cow bird 369 
Crake, coin 219 

spoited 218 
Crane, little 
brown 212 
sand-hill 212 
whooping 212 
Cranes 211 
Creeper, brown 514 
Crossbill, americau 417 

white-winged 418 
Crow 355 
florida 540 
tish 356 
hooded 540 
Crows 355 

Cuckoo, black-billed, 312 
mangrove 312 
mavnard 312 
yellow-billed 311 
Cuckoos 310 
Curlew, esquimo 184 
hudsonian 183 
long-bilied 183 
Dove, bahaina ground 275 
bermuaa ground 539 
blue-headed partridge 276 
ground 275 
mourning 273 
ruddy quail 276 
zanaida 274 
Dovekie 34 
Dowitcher 144 

long-billed 147 
Duck, black 229 
tlorida black 230 
fulvous tree 261 
harlecjuin 247 
labrador 246 



Duck, masked 254 

red-legged black 229 
ruddy 252 
ringneck 242 
steller249 
wood 237 
Ducks, geese, and swans 223 
Ducks, river 227 

sea 239 
Dunlin 162 
Eagle, bald 297 
golden 296 
gray sea 298 
northern bald 298 
Egret, changing 205 
peal 205 
reddish 205 
snowy 204 
Eider, american 248 
King 249 
northern 248 
Falcon, prairie 289 
Finch, purple 408 
Flamingo, american 263 
Flamingos 262 
Flicker 225 
boreal 225 
northern 225 
Flycatcher, alder 342 
crested 336 
fork-tailed 333 
green-crested 342 
least 340 
olive-sided 340 
sissor-tailed 334 
trail 342 

yellow-bellied 343 
Vermillion 344 
Frigate birds 80 
Fulmar. 44 



IXDEX. 



543 



Fulmar, lesser 45 
Fulmars 44 
Gadwall 230 
Galinule, tiorida 220 

purple 221 
Gairinules219 
Gannel 66 

blue-faced 6Q 
booby 69 
red-faced 69 
Gannets 65 
Geese 254 

Gnatcatcher. blue gray 523 
Goatsuckers 326 
God wit. black tailed 183 
hudsonian 182 
marbled 180 
Golden-eye 242 

barrow 243 
Goldlinch, american 414 

european 416 
Goose, am. white-fronted 256 
barnacle 259 
bean 535 
blue 254 
cacklincr 259 
Canada 257 
i^reater snow 255 
hutch in ffs 259 
lesser snow 255 
pink-iooted 535 
white-fronted 256 
Goshawk 291 

mexican 291 
Grackle. boar-tailed 368 
bronzed 366 
florida 368 
purple 367 
Grassquit. bahama 427 
melodious 427 



Grebe, eared 538 
holboeil 8 
horned 9 
pied billed 12 
Grebes 6 
Greenshanks 172 
Grosbeak, black-headed 422 
blue 424 

Canadian pine 410 
cardinal 423 
evening 419 
tiorida cardinal 423 
rose-breasted 420 
Grouse, quail, etc. 265 
Grouse, canada 266 

Canadian ruffed 267 
prairie sharp-tailed 271 
ruffed 267 
thayer ruffed 267 
Guillemot, black 32 

mandt 34 
Gull, american herring 95 
bonaparte 102 
franklin 102 
glaucous 93 
o-reat black-backed 92 
herring 94 
Iceland 96 
ivory 89 
kittewake 89 
kumlein 96 
laughing 99 
little 104 
meu 99 
ring-billed 97 
ross 104 
sabine 105 
short-billed 538 
Siberian 93 
Gulls. 87 



544 



INDEX. 



Gulls, coast 91 

hooded 99 
Gyifalcon 284 
black 285 
gray 284 
white 283 
Hawk, broad-winged 295 

cooper 290 

Cuban sparrow 289 

duck 28(3 

ferrugineous 296 

tlorida red-shouldered 294 

harland J98 

krider 292 

little sparrow 289 

marsh 282 

pigeon 286 

red-shouldered 293 

red-tailed 291 

rough-lecged 296 

sharp-shinned 290 

short-tailed 295 

sparrow 288 

swainson 295 

western red-tailed 293 
Hawks, Eagles, etc. 280 
Hen. heath 271 

prairie 270 
Heron, black-crowned night 
209 

european blue 204 

great blue 203 

great white 202 

green 208 

little blue 207 

louisiana 207 

wurdeman 202 

ward 203 

white 204 

yellow-crowned night 209 



Herons 199 

Hummingbird, ruby-throat- 
ed 330 
Hummingbirds 330 
Ibis, fflossy 199 
scarlet 198 
white 197 

white-faced glossy 199 
wood 211 
Indigo bird 424 
Jaeger, long-tailed 87 
parasitic SQ 
pomerine 85 
Jay. blue 348 
Canada 350 
tlorida 349 
florida. blue 349 
labrador 350 
J unco 387 

Carolina 388 
gray-headed 389 
monrana 389 
Kestrel 289 
Kingbird 334 

arkansas 336 
gray 335 
Kingfisher, belted 330 
Kingtishers330 
Kinglet, golden-crowned 521 

ruby-crowned 521 
Kinglets 519 
Kite, everglade 282 
mississippi 281 
swallow-tailed 281 
white-tailed 282 
Knot 149 
Lapwing 185 
Land birds 264 
Lark, tiorida meadow 359 
horned 345 



INDEX. 



545 



Lark, meadow 358 
hoyt horned 347 
prairie horned 346 
sky 3^5 

western meadow 359 
Larks 345 
Limpkin 213 
Linnet, brewsrer 413 
Lon^spur. chestnut-collared 
407 

lapland 406 
mccown 408 
smith 406 
Loon 17 

black-throated 23 
red-!broated 20 
Loons 15 

Maspie. ameriean 348 
Macrpies and Jays 347 
Mallard 227 
Man o'war bird 81 
Martin, cuban 484 
floiida 483 
purple 483 
Merganser, ameriean 224 
hooded 226 
red-breasted 225 
Meroansers 224 
Merlin 287 

richardson 287 
Mockinebird 503 
Mockingbirds and Thrash- 
ers 503 
Murre 27 

brunnich 30 
ringed 30 
Murrelet. ancient 41 
Nighthawk 328 
florida 328 
howell 321) 



Xoddie 125 
Nutcracker, dark 540 
Nuthatch, brown-headed 
519 

liorida white breasted 

517 
Carolina white-breast- 
ed 517 
red-breasted 517 
white-breasted 515 
Nuthatches 515 
Old Squaw 244 
Oriole, baltimore 362 
bullock 363 
orchard 364 
Orioles 357 
Osprey 298 

Owl, arctic horned 306 
barn 302 
barred 303 
burrowing 309 
dusky horned 306 
liorida barred 302 
florida burrowing 308 
liorida screech 307 
great gray 304 
great horned 305 
hawk 308 
long-eared 304 
labrador horned 306 
richardson, addenda 550 
saw whet 305 
screech 307 
short-eared 305 
snowy 309 
Owls 302 
Ovenbird 477 
Oystercaccher 195 

european 196 
Paroquet, liorida 300 



546 



INDEX. 



Paroquet, western 301 
Parrots, etc. 300 
Partridge, hudsonian spruce 

539 
Pelican, brown 72 

white 71 
Pelicans 69 
Perchers. singinjx 844 

son 2 less 338 
Petrel, biack-capped 53 
bulwer 54 
hawaiian 535 
leach 55 
pintado 535 
scalea 54 
stormy 54 
white-beilied 58 
white-faced 58 
Wilson 56 
Pewee. wood 339 
Phalarope. northern 132 
red 130 
Wilson 131 
Phoebe 387 
say 339 
Pigeon, passenger 272 
white-crowned 272 
Pigeons 272 
Pintail 236 
Pipit 481 
meadow 481 
sprajiue 482 
Plover, belted piping 192 
black-beliied 186 
european golden 188 
golden 187 
killdeer 188 
mountain 193 
piping 191 
ring 191 



Plover, semipalmated 189 

Wilson 192 
Ptarmigan, alien 269 
reinhart 270 
rock 269 
welch 270 
willow 269 
Puffin 36 

large-billed 39 
tufted 39 
Rail, black 219 
clapper 216 
Horida clapper 217 
king 215 

lotiisiana clapper 217 
sora 217 
Virginia 215 
wayne clapper 536 
yellow 218 
Rails, galliuules and coots 

314 
Raven, northern 356 
Redhead 239 
Redpoll 410 

greenland 412 
hoary 412 
holboell412 
Redwing, bahama 360 
florida 360 
northern 361 
Redstart 474 
Robin 533 

Carolina 534 
Rook 540 
Rtiff 177 
Sanderling 167 
Sandpipers, baird 157 
bartramian 177 
buff-breasted 178 
oooper 156 



INDEX. 



547 



Sandpipers, curlew 162 

green 174 

least 158 

pecroral 153 

purple 151 

red-backed 160 

semipalmated 1(53 

solitary 172 

sported 179 

stilT 147 

western 166 

white-rumped 155 
Sandpipers, etc . etc. 142 
SaDsucker. yellow-bellied 

■ 314 
Scaup 240 

lesser 241 
Scotor 250 
surf 251 
velvet 251 
wbite-wing-ed 250 
Shearwater, allied 538 

audubon 49 

cory 49 

greater 45 

manx 51 

sooty 51 
Shearwaters 45 
Sheldrake, ruddy 539 
Shore birds 128 
Shoveller 235 
Shrike, loggerhead 494 
northern 493 
northern loggerhead 495 
Shrikes 493 
Siskin, pine 414 
Skimmer, black 127 
Skimmers 126 
Skua 85 
Skuas and jaegers 84 



Smew 227 

Snipe, european 142 

wiison ]40 
Sora 2:7 
Sparrow, acadian sharp- tail 

400 

bach man 390 

brewer 378 

chipping 373 

clay-colored 377 

dusky seaside 398 

held 376 

lisher seaside 398 

florida grasshopper 392 

fox 384 

golden-crowned 380 

grasshopper 392 

h arris 380 

henslow 393 

ipswich 401 

lark 403 

leconte 395 

lincoln 381 

macsfiliiverys seaside 
397 

nelson 399 

pine wood 389 

savannah 400 

scotts seaside 397 

seaside 395 

sharD-tailed 399 

song 381 

southern grasshopper 
392 

swamp 383 

tree 374 

western field 376 

white crowned 379 

white-throated 378 

vesper 402 



548 



INDEX. 



Sparrows and finches 372 
Spoonbill, roseate 196 
Spoonbills and ibises 196 
Starlinof 357 
Stilt, black-necked 135 
Swallow, barn 488 

bah am a 488 

bank 485 

cliff 484 

Cuban cliff" 485 

european 489 

rouoh-winged 486 
tree 487 
Swallows 482 
Swan, trumpeter 262 

whistling 262 

whooping 262 
Swans 261 
Swimmers, tube-nosed 42 

long-winged 82 
Swift, chimney 329 
Swifts 329 

Tanager. louisiana 492 
scarlet 491 
summer 492 
Tanagers 491 
Teal, blue-winged 233 

cinnamon 234 

european 233 

green-winced 232 
Tern, arctic 115 

black 123 

bridled 121 

cabot 110 

Caspian 108 

common 111 

forster 114 

gull-billed 107 

least 119 

noddy 125 



Tern, roseate 117 
royal 110 
sooty 122 
trudean 111 

white winged black 124 

Terns, dusky backed 120 

pale backed 111 

short tailed 121 

Thrasher, brown 505 

Thrush, bickneil. 529 

gray-cheeked 529 

grinnel water 479 

herrnit 526 

louisiana water 478 

newfoundland 531 

olive-backed 528 

red-winged 532 

water 478 

willow 530 

Wilson 532 

wood 524 

varied, addenda 550 
Thrushes 524 
Titmice 351 
Titmouse, tufted 353 
Totipalmate. swimmers 58 
Towhee. arctic 387 

green tailed 387 

red-eyed 385 

white-eyed 386 
Tropic bird, red-billed 65 

yellow-billed 62 
Tropic birds 59 
Troupial 362 
Turkey, florida 278 

wild 277 
Turkeys 277 
Turnstone 194 
Vireo. bell 502 

black-whiskered 496 



IXDEX. 



549 



Yireo, burmudan 502 
key west 5U2 
mountain 500 
philadelpia 497 
plumbeous 500 
red-eyed 406 
solitary 500 
warblincr 497 
white-eyed 501 
yeilow-ofreen 498 
yellow-throated 499 
Vire(js 495 
Vulture, black 279 

turkey 279 
Vultures 278 
Was^tail, white 480 
Wasjtails, wood 477 
AVarbler, auduDon 433 

bachiman 459 

bay-breasted 441 

black and white 429 

blackburnean 442 

black-polled 440 

black throated blue 431 

black-throated f^reen 
443 

blue winged 457 

brewster 455 

Canadian 472 

cape may 434 

cairn 432 

cerulean 436 

chestnut-sided 438 

Connecticut 466 

tiorida pine 447 

golden-winged 455 

hooded 470 

kentucky 464 

kirtland 446 

lawrence 457 



Warbler, magnolia 435 

mourning 467 

myrtle 432 

nashville 459 

northern parula 453 

orange-crowned -159 

palm 448 

parula 453 

pine 457 

prairie 450 

prothonotary 461 

swainson 464 

sycamore 431 

tennessee 461 

townsend 445 

western parula 455 

Wilson 471 

worm-eating 463 

yellow 451 

yellow palm 449 

yello\^-rhroated 430 
Warblers, american 429 
^\■ater birds 5 
Waxwing, bohemian 490 

cedar 489 
Wheatear. greenland 535 
WhiD-poor-wiii 327 
VVhimbrell 185 
Widgeon 231 
Willet 175 

western 176 
Woodcock, american 137 

european 140 
Woodcock and Snipe 136 
Woodpecker, american 

three-toed 321 

arctic three-toed 320 
cockaded 319 
downy 319 
florida pileated 323 



o3(i 



IXDKX. 



Woodpecker, hairy 317 
ivory billed 821 
uewfounulaud ;^^l 
norihern downy 819 
northern hairy 817 
norihern pileaied 323 
piieated 822 
red-bellieo 315 
red-headed 816 
southern downy 318 
southern hairy 318 

\Vood])erkprs 318 

"Wood wicrtail? 477 

Wren, be wick 5J8 
Carolina 507 
llorida 507 



Wren, bjuse 508 

louiT-billed marsh 510 
louisiana marsh 512 
raarian marsh 511 
prairie marsh 512 
short-billed marsh 513 
western house 509 
winter 510 
worihincrton marsh 512 

AVrens 506 

Yellow leffs. greater 168 
lesser 171 

Yellow throat, maryland 
468 
northern 469 
southern 470 



ADDENDA. 

RICHARDSON OWL— 

Larger than Saw-whet Owl, 9. and differs in color in 
being darker and in having five lines of white spots on 
tail. Breeds from Gulf of St. Lawrence northward, rarely 
wandering South in winter into northern U. S. 

VARIED THRUSH— 

Differs from Robin in absence of biack on crown and 
streak on throat with wing bands, line over and behind 
eye. and beneath brownish yellow; band across breast, 
patch on sides of head, black. Pacific coast, accidental in 
N.J.,N. Y. and Mass. 

CoKRECTioxs: pasre 307, 3rd line from bottom, for 
FLOUDA, read FLORIDA. 

Page 362, first line, for TROPICAL read TROUPIAL. 



T HE E ^ D . 



100101348 



I 




1 lilil Uiliitife, ^ ''