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Full text of "Field Songs Of Chhattisgarh"

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OUP 786 1 3-6-75 1 0,000. 

OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

Call No. ~J g if . 49 ^ i 3 Accession No. "^ 2 ?" 

Author D</^ 

Title 

This book should be returned on or before the date last marked below. 



FIELD SONGS OF 
CHHATTISGARH 



Other Books in the Same Serieb. 

1. SNOWBALLS OF GARHWAL. 

3. FOLK-SONGS OF MIRZAPORE. ( in press ) 



Ethnographic and Folk Culture Society 
U. P. 

President 
The Hon'ble Sir Sita Ram Kt., M. A., LL. B., D. Litt 

Vice-President 
Mr, Gopinath Srivastava M. A., LL. B. 

Members 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Harifch Chandra I. C. S. 
Mr. B. D. Sanwal L C. S. 
Mr. L. M. Sen A. R. 0. A. 
Mr. Mukundi Lai M. A. (Oxon) 
Dr. Naresh Chandra Ph. D. 

General Secretary 
Dr. D. N Majumdar M. A., Pb. D. (Cantab.), F. N. L 

Assistant Secretaries 
Mr. D. P. Bahnguna M. A. 
Miss Esther Newton B. &. 



Folk - Culture Series 

Edited by Di N. MAJUMDAR Lino cuts by L- M. SEN 




FIELD SONGSOF 
CHHATTISGARH 



By S. C. Dube 



The Universal Publishers Ltd. 

LUCKNOW. 



Pfinted in 1947 



All Rights Reserved 

Published & Printed by Govind Ram at the Universal Printing 
Press, for the Universal Publishers Ltd., Hazratgunj, Luck now. 



CONTENTS 

The United Provinces A Cultural Mosaic 

by D. N. Majumdar iii 

Field Songs of Ohhattisgarh by S. C. Dube 1 

Some Folk Tales of Kolhan by D. N . Majumdar 64 



The United Provinces-A Cultural 

Mosaic. 



It was midday in the month of May. The sun was hot 
and the earth steaming. I was winding my way through 
a field towards an aboriginal village in Singbhum in 
Bihar, my camp for the day. There was none to be seen 
anywhere, even the cattle were resting under the mango 
trees in front of the village. Another furlong to go and I 
was very thirsty. I had no water on me as I was 
travelling light 'that day. The dark outline of the village 
in front made me speed up. As I neared the village, I 
heard a dull and confused noise coming out, and I hastened 
towards the village in the direction of the noise. Two 
brothers were quarrelling, their wives trying to pacify 
them while the children gathered round were crying in 
fear. It was an usual brawl in which the neighbours did 
not take any interest. I entered the courtyard and asked for 
a glass of water. The scene changed, the brothers forgot 
their quarrel and joined in their request to one of the 
women present to get the water. An earthen pitcher was 
brought out, a brass lota was handed over to the woman by 
a child, the woman started cleaning the lota, she made it 
shining and then washed her hands. When everything was 
ready, I was asked by her to pour water from the pitcher. 
I asked the woman to do it, she looked round, there was a 
smile on every face and the water flowed sparkling into the 
glass, the whole crowd anxious to help. 'One more lota 
asked the woman, 'One more lota 1 echoed the husband and 
I thanked them all, sat with them, chatted with the 
brothers. There was no sign of bitterness between the 
latter, perfect little hosts, were they not ? I thought it 
vpas culture, it was sweetness. 



jv The United Provinces- A Cultural Mosaic 

On another occasion, I was late in reaching a Gond 
village in the Bastar State, Central Provinces. My 
luggage was following me. It was midnight. The village 
was on the bank of a river, the othereide was a thick forest 
and onr route lay through the latter. I decided to rest in 
the village for the night. There was no house to accom- 
modate us, not even a hut. It was October, the cold was 
on its way down the plateau and the chill of the night 
gathering. I looked round 'and found a group of Gonds 
that had assembled there and were watching me. They 
belonged to the Dandami Maria clan and were infamous 
for murder and human sacrifice. That was the traditional 
story about them, -handed over by generations of officials 
who administered these people. One man in the crowd, 
about 30 years of age, more communicative than the rest 
asked me to follow him. I looked at my assistants, they 
looked at me and we followed together. The man entered 
his house, whispered something to his wife who was in bed, 
there was a rustling of the cloth and a jingle of trinkets, 
she walked out with her husband, gay and happy, all 
smiling. We were then showed the room. There was 
nothing in it, no furniture, no bed, a few utensils f all made 
of earth and two low stones, these serving as pillows which 
nightly breathed sleep to the couple and shared the little 
joys and sorrows, the cooing and humming of songs. We 
were delighted at the prospect of a snug little corner where 
we could rest our tired legs but we were sorry to deprive 
the couple what we so eagerly looked for. We slept all of 
us, such sleep as we never slept before, and the couple also 
slept coiled round under a tree in the courtyard, the gloom 
of the night coupled with the quiet of a lone hut spread its 
canvas to receive their tired bodies. Early in the morning 
the lady of the house was waiting outside with a pitcher 
full of water for our wash and brush up, a pot containing 
national beer, a substitute for tea, all this and more 



fhe United Provinees-A Cultural Mosaic v 

they did for us. If this is not culture what is it ? 

Like the word race, culture has also been uged i?i 
various senses. Alathew Arnold defined culture as 'sweetfr 
ness and light'. Some have used culture as syuonymoua 
with civilisation, others its efflorescence If culture is the 
efflorescence of civilisation, those who do not COIDB within 
its ken must necessarily be without culture. The differed 
betwoen man and animal is culture, for man is $ 'tool 
making' and 'institution making 1 animal, the latter aa we 
know have neither to>ls nor institutions. The qualities 
that distinguish man from other animals are his cap^cHy to 
learn by experience, his group life and his power of speech 
or language which conveys his thoughts and eraotipps, If 
culture is sweetness or reasonableness, the savage is very 
often the embodiment of both, for ungoverned violence m 
savage society is a myth, on the other hand there is 9 
spontaneity and uniformity in tribal life however remote ft 
may be from civilisation. This is why anthropologists 
define culture as the sum total of our knowledge, beliefs 
customs, practices, law, religion, morality and all other 
capabilities of man and ascribes culture to the most savage 
of tribes and the role of anthropology is to study people at 
all levels of cultural development, 

Civilisation in its accepted sense begins with the inven- 
tion of writing and with literary records and is preceded 
by barbarism and savagery. Whether such sahei^es of 
cultural evolution could be worked out is a matter of 
opinion and the distinctions outlined in such schemes, are 
taken to be too arbitrary to have aijy practical ^ppUc^ipQ. 
Civilisation has started with the control of tood supply as 
without the production of food and the necessaries of life on 
a scale adjusted to the requirements of the people, no cultu- 
ral progress is possible. Civilisation must also include the 
production of comforts, works ot art, literary and plastic, 
building up of scientific knowledge, development of par* 



vi The United Provinces-A Cultural Mosaic 

\ 

sonality, rise of world industries and world trade and in- 
creased tempo of life characteristic of urban life, incidence 
of diseases, insanity and other cacogenic factors as they 
are known today. 

No civilisation has sprung up out of a vacuum and none 
can ignore the foundation which is deeply rooted in 
the cultural life of the people whatever levels of deve- 
lopment the various social groups may represent. Each 
particular stage of culture is the product of an earlier one 
in which the germs of progress could survive and flourish 
to produce the tree and foliage that provide the canopy of 
peace. The direction of progress also is not arbitrary 
though chance variation and mutation must have deter- 
mined the character and personality of particular cultures 
as we find them today. Violent catastrophies, like earth- 
quakes, volcanic erruptions, climatic changes, such as 
continual dessication, or shifting of sands from the sea 
which has buried cities and ruined civilisations, soil ero- 
sion and excessive precipitation, all natural or physiographic 
causes have destroyed cultures or scattered people; but in 
any particular region which has been inhabited by successive 
generations of people, from the savage to the civilised, 
there must be a continuity of cultures each of which must 
have assimilated customs and practices from its predecessor 
or built on a foundation more primitive and original than 
itself. To ignore such realities is to divorce cultures from 
thair moorings which ultimately must disintegrate or dege- 
Derate to a level inconsistent with the status which they 
bave a legitimate claim to belong. 

II 

In India, the political divisions into provinces do not 
correspond to culture areas or linguistic zones. The needs of 
administration and the historic relations between territories 



The United Provin&a-A Cultural Mosaic vif 

decided the formation of provinces and each province today 
represents different racial groups, blends and combinations 
out of them, and various levels of culture inbred or out- 
bred. Except Orissa which has recently been curved out on 
linguistic and cultural basis and Bengal where more than 
fifty millions of people speak the same language and share 
more or less the same cultural heritage, the rest of the 
Provinces are bilingual or polylingual. Nor is it the 
difference in language alone that is to be reckoned with. 
Each linguistic group has its cultural heritage which it has 
preserved by isolation achieved through language. The 
United Provinces is also a bilingual province where Urdu 
and Hindi are the spoken languages, the urban centres 
having developed a common dialect with two distinct 
scripts, in some Urdu dominates over Hindi, in some 
Hindi dominates over Urdu -while in the rural parts 
either Hindi or Urdu is spoken though more people speak 
Hindi than Urdu. The castes or social groups which had 
been more associated with the Muslim rule still speak Urdu 
while the cultivating Thakurs or Brahmins speak Hindi, 
Purviya or otherwise. 

The United Provinces contain two distinct political 
regions, viz., Agra and Oudh and there is a lot of historic 
ties between the two areas, though there exist differences 
which are geographical, social and economic. Oudh has a 
distinct culture, an agrarian system and a sedentary popu- 
lation with a feudal social hierarchy. Climatically the eas- 
tern United Provinces is more damp and moist than the 
western parts of the province. The eastern districts pro- 
duce rice, the western wheat and this fact alone must 
produce cultural differences of great significance. Rice 
cultivation is determined by abundant rainfall while wheat 
flourishes in dry parts, the world's wheat belt being all 
located in areas with a rainfall below 32 inches per annum* 
Rioe raising parts are more densely populated and that is 



titi The United Provinces- A Guttural Mosaic 

why the eastern districts hare a higher density than those 
of the wefct, the reason being that rioe with its possible two 
or three crops a year can maintain more people than wheat 
barley of sago put together. 

The northern districts of the United Provinces border 
the cis-Himalayas; the cold and bleak hills of the north 
provide home to a thrifty and conservative population whose 
affinity with the rest of the province is political rather than 
cultural or even racial. The high caste people of these 
parts, the Brahmins and Rajputs are ths Khasas whose 
migrations and achievements are recorded in the Vedas 
and the Epics while a large section of the Brahmins can 
claim their origin to Maharastra and Gujarat from where 
they have filtered in by families during the last three 
hundred years or so. The Khasas still show traces of a 
matriarchal social organisation, practice inter -caste marriage 
and stick to fraternal polyandry, an unique institution which 
id probably Aryan in conception and not borrowed from the 
non-Aryan people as is commonly supposed. The eastern 
districts affiliate both in racial complexion and in culture to 
the western parts of Bihar and under the influence of a rice 
economy and an agrarian distribution based on it, it has 
developed a pattern of culture which is very much different 
from the central or western districts. Rice cultivation has 
everywhere produced a sort of joint tenure of land, a coopera- 
tive farming* a joint living and worship, while wheat with 
its prospects as a commercial crop has developed indivi- 
dualism which has been reflected in the customary rules of 
succession and inheritance. The moist damp and inhospi- 
table climate of the Tarai which fringes the eastern border 
of the province as far as Nepal has had an enervating 
influence on the people and the poverty and incompetence 
thbt one meets in these parts result from inertia and fatalism 
that stiffle human initiative. The rich soil and wet climate, 
however, have encouraged cultivation of sugarcane and 



The United Provinces-A Cultural Mosaic ix 

localisation of the sugar industry in these parts has reorien- 
ted the economic life of the peasantry in recent years. 

The southern districts, particularly Mirzapur is coter- 
minous with the Chota Nagpur plateau and provide home 
to innumerable tribal groups which are racially akin to the 
main stem of proto-Australoid people inhabiting the plateau. 
The distribution of forests in the United Provinces is 
extremely sparse and uneven and the percentage of the 
area under forests is certainly insufficient, but where forests 
are found, remnants of primitive races have scattered them- 
selves, and today they live either as segregated tribes, or 
they have been assimilated by invading groups or live an 
emasculated; life by adopting an economy to which they 
have been forced consequent to their maladaptation or 
disintegration of their indigenous cultural life, 

The western districts of the Province bordering the 
eastern Punjab are culturally linked based on a wheat 
economy, so much so that there is hardly anything that 
distinguishes the people of the two provinces. The shortage 
of women in the eastern districts of the Punjab, due pro- 
bably to hypergamy is normally met by migration of 
women from the western districts of the U. P. as the census 
figures (1931) showed the extent of casual migration by 
marriage, for more women migrate to Punjab than men, a 
fact which is not explained by the peculiar conditions of 
Indian demography. In India racial status descends from 
the west to the east and the custom of hypergamy practised 
by those with a claim to higher racial status who prefers 
to take women from those they regard as inferior to giving 
their own women to the latter reduces the normal parity 
between the sexes to an artificial disparity. 

In the centre of the province and in its domed cities 
and larger towns dwell a mixed population of Hindus and 
Muslims, the latter partly because of their inferior numeri- 
cui strength and partly because of their status as the ruling 



t The United Provinces- A Cultural Mosaic 

classes, filtered into cities and towns where they built up 
an urban civilisation encouraged art and architecture and 
worked out a common political sroal. 

From a racial point of view, the United Provinces 
possess a mixed population. From the Brahmins to the 
Doing and Chamars, there is a gradual lowering of the 
racial status till we come to the aboriginal tribes of proto- 
Australoid stock in Mirzapur and the Mongoloid Tharus of 
the Tarai. Again, as we ascend the scale of cultural pre- 
cedence from the tribes to the castes, from the most primitive 
Korwas of Mirzapur or the cognate Cheros and the Bhuiyas 
who share the same land with the former, to the Brahmins, 
we find the racial difference taking shape till the Brahmins 
appear to belong to a distinct racial constellation. But 
between the Brahmins and the militant Thakurs or the 
trading Khattris, between the latter and the Ahirs, Kurmis 
and other artisan castes and between the Kahar and the 
tribal groups there is little to constitute them as separate 
racial constellations, a fact that made Sir Herbert Risley 
describe the people of this province as Aryo-Dravidian, a 
mixed population whose social status varies with the shape 
and form of the nose. 

The tribal Korwas and other aboriginal groups repre- 
sent one culture area or zone characterised by a system of 
territorial organisation, a primitive economy based on hunt- 
ing superseded in recent years by a crude type of agricul- 
ture combined with magical rites and practices, animistic 
beliefs that keep the people constantly alert and attentive 
to the imaginary needs of a hostile spirit world, and a 
communal life whose solidarity is reflected in communal 
feasts and festivals, in folk culture, farmer dances and songs 
that still lull the people into security. The eastern districts 
provide a culture largely rural in character with the eastern 
Doms and the Mongolian Tharus and Bhoksas providing 
the two tribal outposts, the rest of the people belong to a 



The United Provinces-A Cultural Mosaic xi 

number of inferior castes, largely mixed with the tribal 
elements, while the apex of the social pyramid is held by 
the cultivating Brahmins who conform to the pattern of 
culture that has developed by the intermixture of cultures 
with or without racial admixtures. While the Doms claim 
a mythological descent, the Tharus trace themselves from 
mixed marriages between the Rajput women and their 
servants probably of Bhil origin. The folk art of the 
Tharus depicts the full and free life they had lived in their 
premigration homes and the freedom of movement to which 
the women were accustomed to still survives in the 
amazonian life the Tharu women find delight in. They 
hunt, they fish, they move freely from village to village 
and people the markets and fairs, keeping their menfolk 
in suspense and subservience. The various layers of culture 
that one finds in these parts can be traced to successive 
migrations of races from all directions, and the conflict of 
cultures must have resolved itself by the spread of Buddhism 
which united the various cultural groups into a mosaic as it 
were. A survey of the cultural stratigraphy of this part 
may help towards reconstruction of the social history of the 
various castes of the area as many of the castes from their 
physical features appear to have a mixed descent 

The mountainous belt to the north of the Province 
winds itself through the Tarai to the foothills of the Siwalik 
and include Garhwal and Kuinaon, the entire cis -Himalayan 
region inhabited by three racial strains; the Mongolian from 
the north and the Indo-Aryan from the west, probably from 
the foothills of the Hindukush, have mixed in varying pro- 
portions with a proto-Australoid element which is the basic 
racial strata in these parts and is known by the generic 
name, Dom. We are not sure if the matriarchal matrix 
without which the polyandry of this area could not 
have developed should be traced to the Doms or the Mongo- 
lians but that can be ascertained by a closer study of the 



xii The United Provinces- A Cultural Mosaic 

customs and practices of the area The polyandry of the 
Khasas which includes the Brahmins and the Rajputs, the 
system of inheritance which puts the eldest son in virtual 
possession of the ancestral property, the feudal type of social 
economy, the spirit of freedom and abandon that the folk 
songs of these parts so faithfully depict, all are reflected in 
the folk culture, in the professional and institutional dances 
of the Naik women, in periodical fairs and festivals while 
the majesty of nature, the lofty crowns of the hills, the 
periodical blizzards on the hill tops and the terraces they 
have so skilfully dug out for agriculture, all have contribu- 
ted to a sense of sublimity and devotion reflected in a 
multigod pantheon which is at once their strength and 
weakness. The rigid adherance to customary life, the 
tenacity with which they cling to their traditional rites and 
rituals, find their echoes in masked dances and recitals, in 
their folk art and architecture, the storeyed houses and stone 
walls and in their moral code one for men and another for 
women. 

In the centre and in the sparsely inhabited plateaus f 
in Bundelkhand and adjacent areas are found scattered a 
large number of nomadic, vagrant and criminal tribes who 
number about two millions and , whose menace to the coun- 
tryside has always baffled police vigilance. The problem 
of rehabilitating the tribes and weaning them away from 
their career of crime are being tackled by the administra- 
tion. The heroic struggles, the people of these parts have 
waged against the Muslim power in Delhi have been 
immortalised in their folk songs and much of their cultural 
life finds expression in their folk literature, all awaiting to 
be put together and recorded before they are lost or for- 
gotten. The achievements of the Rajputs which find men- 
tion in earlier accounts, in the Aunals of R-ijasthan, for 
example, the bravery and fortitude displayed by them in 
the medieval days, the sufferings that their womenfolk 



The United Provino*8-A Cultural Mosaic xiii 

went through, are sung even today all over the countryside 
and any nation would feel proud of this oral literature that 
pass from mouth to mouth to instil confidence in their 
strength and give direction to their cultural life. 

The rest of the province is inhabited by a medley of 
castes, interior and exterior, who own kinship both in race 
and culture to one another. Anyone who moves from dis- 
trict to district, from its modern cities to the smaller towns 
from the urban centres to the rural parts, must find the 
culture of the province a bit paradoxical. On the one hand 
we find a highly urbanised life with its infinite attractions, 
its varieties of gaieties, from the lazy fight of the Abater 9 
and 'tetar to the Mushaira and Kavi Sammelan, and serious 
lyrical poetry competitions which attract admiring crowds, 
on the other, we have a solid and confident rural life with 
its conservative moorings deeply rooted in history. The 
paradox becomes more clear when for example, one com- 
pares the highly conventionalised Lucknow life with its 
leisurely pace and flippant recreations, the formalities and 
gossips skilfully woven into highly flown Urdu spoken 
with sonorous and sweet accents and cadences, the immac- 
ulate dress of men in 'Sherwani and Pyjama 9 , the customs 
of elaborate feasts and festivities sprinkled a with 'attar' 
and a liberal distribution of 'pan and tamaku', with the 
militant Thakurs of the villages in the neighbourhood who 
care for little or no education but are the proprietory bodies 
in the villages, or say with the cultivating Brahmins whose 
outlook has not changed since the days of the epics when 
the plough was the symbol of peace and the tool of security. 
Again, we find the same paradox when we compare the 
traditional ways of the castes and tribes, the wild Rajis of 
Ascot in Almora with their indigenous system of invisible 
barter or the inbred Korwas who do not respect any prohi- 
bited degree of relationship in marriage, the Tharus whose 
women control their menfolk and even maltreat their hue- 



xiv The United Provinc*s-A Cultural Mosaic 

bands, the Khasa who share wife with their brothers, the 
Kayaathas who have adopted the court manners, dress and 
food of their Muslim masters whom they served and who 
even today maintain a dominant share in the services and 
the professions as the most literate caste in the province, 
and lastly the orthodox Brahmins who would not touch food 
without a dip in the Ganges, and the hundred and one 
religious sects, mendicants and Sadhus whose annual meet 
dn the banks of the Ganges has inspired millions to service 
and sacrifice. 

On the one hand we have the tempo of industrial life 
aa in Cawnpore with its palaces and giant factories, crowded 
Bustees, insanitary dwellings, high infant mortality, trade 
unions and a growing middle class poised between perpe- 
tual strifes and labour unrest and a contented class of em- 
ployers and enterpreneurs, a panorama of life from the 
cradle to the grave, on the other hand we have Benares, the 
holy city of the east, the citadel of ancient learning, where 
knowledge is sought for the sake of understanding, where 
peace of mind is still compatible with poverty, where 
the soul of man has been freed from the mire of supersti- 
tions and sensuality and where ignorance gives place to the 
splendour of resplendent knowledge, 'the nothingness of the 
uttermost withdrawnness' as Sister Nivedita has described 
Siva's eternal pursuit. Nowhere in India, there is such 
poverty and competence as in Benares, nowhere perhaps 
the stature of man has been higher than in the city of the 
Gods, the trident of Vishwanath embracing the mineret 
of the great mosque, proclaiming to the world the fact of 
spiritual unity of mankind. 

Such is the mosaic that the United Provinces represent 
and in any scheme of cultural reconstruction the spirit of 
the Province mast be rehabilitated in flesh and blood to 
infuse and enthuse the people with all that culture stands 
for. 



The United Provinces-A Cultural Mosaic *v 

III 

The Next Step In Folk Culture. 

The first thing that strikes a field investigator who 
goes to a people to study them, armed with theories, dog- 
mas and may-be preconceptions as Prof. Maiinowski put 
it, is the conflict that exists between what he knows al- 
ready and what he sees in actual life. There are two 
alternatives for him, either he must set down to clear the 
debris of unsound dogmas and undefinable concepts from 
the floor of historical reality which must be an up-hill task 
and may be difficult to achieve, the other is to unlearn what 
he has learnt and immerse himself in reality, the imponder- 
ables of life as they are lived by the people he wants to 
know of. The latter method is advocated by some, parti- 
cularly in the field of art and music, as the novice is first 
made to unlearn what he has learnt or mislearnt and then 
proceed to learn what he should. In the study of culture 
whether it be primitive or advanced there is a continuity 
of existence, so much so that the past is often understood in 
terms of the present and the present in terms of the past so 
that a divorce from the past can hardly be conceived. The 
prepotency of the past is so great in tribal society that 
some tribes do not and will not do anything that was not 
done before by the ancestors of the clan or of the tribe. 
The past of a tribe can only be known from what has been 
recorded of it as most of the tribal or backward groups 
do not have a script and have not themselves recorded their 
achievements. It is therefore necessary that the field worker 
must be well versed in the literature on tribal life and cul- 
ture and must be prepared to verify his knowledge by test- 
ing what he knows, ao that he can throw new light or new 
interpretation to what is known. The first requisite of a 
field investigator is a thorough knowledge of literature 
on the people he wants to study. It may be that a 



The United Province$-A Cultural Mosaic 

cular tribe he choses to investigate may not have any lite- 
rature on it, but that does not absolve him from the obliga- 
tion as there must be similar tribes whose cultural life must 
have been the subject of intensive study by competent 
field investigators* 

The second requisite is a knowledge of the methodo- 
logy he should follow. There are various approaches to 
the study of culture. A good deal of attention has been 
paid by early anthropologists to the study of culture which 
could throw light 011 the past history of a people. The 
historical school aimed at the reconstruction of the hypothe- 
tical past and although the efforts of the school did not lead 
to very tangible results the accounts of savage societies that 
were compiled by them give us not merely the 'quaint and 
grotesque' customs and practices of primitive people, but 
also a picture of the historical transition or culture change. 
The diffusionist school has studied the migration of culture 
from particular centre of origin and though we may dis- 
count the non-serious charge against the school that drink- 
ing of water originated in Egypt and spread to other parts 
of the world, a lot of data on historic and protohistoric mig- 
rations of our culture can be picked up which would illu- 
mine the dark corners of our cultural life. The functional 
approach to culture again, has its limitations but if proper 
care is taken to avoid pitfalls as it must be taken, any 
tribal culture will be an absorbing interest for the field 
investigator and he can work out an integrated system 
of culture by linking trait with trait and evaluating 
the role of specific items of culture. The methodology 
developed by the Boas-Benedict school in America is also 
full of significance as the study of the pattern of a culture, 
its configuration, may fortify a field investigator against 
rash and uninformed generalisations, for each cultural item 
can be tested against the background of the pattern and its 
strength and weakness with reference to the pattern may 



The United Proviiices-A Cultural Stosate xvit; 

be assessed with competence. 

The third requisite of the field worker should be his 
capacity for discrimination. This is possible by an objective 
evaluation of customs and mores of the people he is studying 
but even if all care is taken to do so, the field worker is often 
at the mercy of his interpreters or the people to whom he 
directly approaches for evidence. Many a field investi- 
gator has paid dearly for indiscriminate reliance on their 
informants. Two methods are often found to meet this 
danger. One is to document the statements of the 
informants giving date and time of recording, the name 
of the informant, his social status, whether he is paid for 
his services or not, whether he gives information in his offi- 
cial capacity or in his personal capacity, whether he hate 
volunteered the news himself or he has done so in answer 
to querries. The second is to test such evidence by record- 
ing multiple statements from different people and request- 
ioning the original informant. 

The fourth requisite of a field investigator is patience; 
he must not come to hasty generalisation or rush to print 
before finally scrutinising his data. Much of what we know 
of primitive people and backward cultures would not have 
been written at all had the authors exercised reticence and 
caution against rash publication of data. 

The last but the most important requisite of a field inves- 
tigator is his knowledge of the language and dialect of the 
people he wants to study as it is impossible to obtain any 
idea of t^e fundamental springs of culture, the motivation or 
the ethos without which many of the customs and practices 
remain unexplained. This has been sadly ignored in a 
large volume of literature on primitive peoples. There ar6 
gome who have a genius for language. The late Professor 
Malinowski, for example, knew a large number of langua- 
ges and could express himself fluently in all of them* 

Even if all the precautions are taken, if all the nectssary 



xviii The United Provinces' A Cultural Mosaic 

equipments are there, the investigator may be fully trained 
in methods and techniques, his at titude must be and remain 
scientific. The greatest harm to the science of man can be 
done by competent scientists who willingly misread their 
findings. In India as we are situated, there are only a 
handful of field investigators competent for the task. It is 
hardly possible to expect that two investigators would study 
the same people so that we have to rely on the available data 
and therefore the responsibility of the field investigator 
assumes a greater magnitude than is otherwise warranted. 
In one of my investigations among a people on whom a 
learned monograph has been published by an otherwise 
competent field investigator. I found that the village 
mentioned in the text exists but the people whose family 
trees are described do not. Instances like these can be 
multiplied. They are there and it is for the field invest- 
gator to see that such accounts do not multiply* 

IV 

I would now introduce you to the Field Songs of 
Chhattisgarh ably compiled by my friend Prof. S. C. Dube 
of Hislop College, Nagpur. Prof. Dube is already known as 
a competent folklorist and his publications in Hindi are 
widely read. The songs that he has presented in this short 
anthology breathe a close parallel to the folk songs of 
Mirzapur and when the latter is published, probably in the 
next volume of the series, they will show a family 
likeness. We intend to present the originals of the songs 
in this volume as also of the Snow Balls of Garhwal in 
our forthcoming publications. We invite you to the 
songs presented by Prof. Dube and we want you to tell us 
what they are worth. 

Anthropology Laboratory, D. N. Majnmdar, 

Lucknow University, 
20th March, 1947. 



FIELD SONGS OF 
CHHATTIS6ARH 

By S. C. Dube. 



Introduction 

The South-eastern region of the Central Provinces 
is known as Chhattisgarh, the land of thirty-six forts. This 
area comprises the present districts of Raipur, Bilaspur, 
Drug, Balaghat and Bhandara, and a number of adjoining 
states forming the Chhattisgarh block of the Eastern States 
Agency. Historically and linguistically only the first three 
districts and the adjoining states come in Ghhattisgarh 
proper; Balaghat and Bhandara having only a very minor 
fraction of Ghhattisgarhi pDpulation, naturally fall outside. 

The great plains of Ghhattisgarh, watered by the 
Mahanadi and her tributaries, are inhabited by a large 
number of agricultural castes and tribes. The hills and 
forests are the abodes of a number of primitive people living 
at varying levels of culture. Important among the people 
inhabiting the plains are the Rawat, Teli, Satnami, Kewat, 
Ganda and Panka, with a sprinkling of many others tribes* 
The principal primitive tribes living in tliis tract are the 
Gond, Baiga, Binjhwar, Kainar, Bhunjiya, Dhanwar and 
Korwa. Improvomonts in the system of communication 
have brought a continuously flowing stream of alien popu- 
lation from the North and the South, and the Brahmin 
Marwari, Punjabi and the Kachchhi notably have infiltrated 
even into some of the remote villages of Chhattisgarb. 

Barring the small section of immigrants who have 
settled here in the past few decades, the people of Ohhattis- 
garh have, in general, a distinctive culture, In their vill- 
ages they share together their appalling poverty, misery 
and suffering; for although the forests and agricultural lands 
of Ohhattisgarh are rich, her people are unbelievably poor. 
They suffer from the ruthless oppression and exploitation of 
an alien government, rapacious land-lords and corrupt officials, 

The 'Field Songs' are the songs of these people of 
Ohhattisgarh. They may be regarded as truly represea- 



tative of their culture. They picture their joys and sorrows.; 
They graphically describe their changing moods. These 
songs play a part of considerable importance in their dull 
and uneventful life and occasionally lighten their burdens, 
cheer up their hearts and impart mirth and enjoyment to 
their dreary existence. 

The study of folk-tales and the folk-lore of India 
started many years ago but it has yet to be put on a scien- 
tific plane. Little effort has so far been made to collect 
and publish the treasure of India's rich folk-poetry on a 
nation-wide basis and on scientific and systematic lines. 
Much valuable work has, however, been done by individual 
field- workers and their collaborators, and it is largely 
through their efforts that some of the wealth of India's 
woodland poetry has been put on permanent record. In 
Hindi, Pandit Ram Naresh Tripathi was the first to devote 
himself to this work. He toured extensively in the United 
Provinces. 

In the different provinces lovers of folk-songs have 
undertaken the work of collection individually, and have 
published many valuable collections of songs recorded by 
them in their respective languages. Meghani in Gujarat, 
Parikh in Rajasthan, Ram Iqbal Singh Rakesh in Bihar 
and Devendra Satyarthi have done very valuable work. 
Meghani's writings have popularized the folk-songs of 
Gujarat. In the work of the late Suryakaran Parikh 
are preserved some of the precious gems of the folk- 
poetry of Rajaethan. Ram Iqbal Singh Rakesh has 
produced a very fascinating collection of the Maithil 
folk-songs of Bihar. In Bengal, Maharashtra, and South 
India keen interest is also being taken in the study 
of folk songs, and besides a few collections in book form a 
number of articles relating to them appear in periodicals 
from time to time. 



Folk-songs hare also received the attention of field 
workers engaged in sociological and anthropological rese- 
arch. In many monographs detailing the life of different 
tribal people, specimens of their oral poetry have also been 
included. Some others have made an independent study 
of the folk-songs themselves. Archer has published a 
charming collection of the folk-songs of Bihar. Miss. A. R. 
Bhagwat of the School of Economics and Sociology, 
Bombay, has specially studied the Ovis of Maharashtra 
and has published an extensive paper on the subject in the 
journal of the Bombay University. In the Central Provi- 
nces, work of far-reaching importance has been done in 
this direction by Shamrao Hivale and Verrier Elwin. They 
first brought out their Songs of the Forest: later, in his 
monograph on the Saiga, Elwin included a large selection 
from the folk-songs of the tribe. The next to come from 
them were the Folk-tales of Jfahakoshal and the Folk-songs 
of the Jfaikal Hills. Miss Durga Bhagwat, a research 
student of the Bombay University studied the folk-songs of 
the Satpura region, and has published a very interesting 
paper in the Journal of the Bombay University. The snow 
Balls of Garhwal edited by D.N. Majumdar depicts the folk 
songs of an interesting culture area. 

The author is perhaps the first to undertake an exhaus- 
tive study of the folk-songs of Chhattisgarh. Touring 
extensively in parts of the Eaipur, Bilaspur and Drug 
districts, he collected over twelve hundred songs and a 
dozen ballads. In 1940, a collection of the representative 
folk-songs of Chhattisgarh was published in book form f 
and in the same year the full text of the famous legend 
of Dhola-Maru was also separately published, The author 
has contributed a number of articles on the rural, tribal and 
ballad poetry of Chhattisgarh. This little book includes 
some representative songs from his collection. Verrier Elwin 

3 



has also worked in Chhattisgarh and has recently published 
his Folk-songs of Chhattisgarh. 

The Field Songs of Chhattisgarh are the songs of the 
people; and are themselves uncertain, as the quickly chang- 
ing moods of those who sing them. They do not admit of 
any formal classification, although, they can be roughly 
divided into certain more or less well-marked groups : 
(i) General Songs (ii) Dance Songs (in) Caste- Songs 
(iv) Songs for Special occasions (v) Tribal Songs (vi) Legends. 

General songs 

The Songs belonging to this class can be sung by all 
people at all occasions irrespective of their caste. The 
Dadariya is certainly the most popular and the most im- 
portant of the Chhattisgarhi folksongs. In its two simple 
lines, one of which is often only lor tuning, it conveys some 
eternal aspect of their life. People may sing it in fields 
and forests, mountains and rivers; women may sing it when 
they sit by the fireside; a pretty maid may sing it to her 
lover when they are alone together, for loveiis generally the 
central theme of this type of song. The Chhattisgarhi dada- 
riya is rich in fancy and poetic concepts, and stands apart 
as a class by itself. Its lighter vein is sometimes crossed 
by a sudden outburst of spicy and penetrating observations 
on life as these people know it. 

Dance songs 

In this category fall the Karma Nachori and Sua-geet 9 
which are sung only to the accompaniment of particular 
dances. The great Karma dance is always accompanied 
by suitable songs which determine its rhythm and pauses. 
The dance indeed becomes a splendid sight when 
the Madar and Chhaddi are played well together, 
and the songs are suitably chosen. These songs are very 



sweet and beautifully express the sentiments of love. In 
some of the older Karma songs there is a philosophic 
reflection on life. It is indeed tragic that tho people are 
now giving up their beautiful Karma songs, and are disfi- 
guring their otherwise lovely dances by importing cheap 
and drab cinema songs. 

Nacha is the commonplace popular folk-danco of Chha- 
ttisgarh, which together with its music consists of many 
humorous dramatic dialogues and pleasant lyrics. Nachari 
songs always accompany this dance. Each line of the 
song is repeated twice by the main singor and is then 
followed by a chorus and vigorous dancing. 

The prime Diwali attraction in rural Chhattisgarh is 
the 5wa-dance of the Ohattisgarhi women. A group of 
about twelve young women participate in this dance. Their 
leader, the first in the Hue, has a basket fall of the golden 
paddy of the recent crop t with a pair of earthen parrots, in 
it. With the opening line of the song the women divide 
themselves into two groups. While the first sings, the 
second bends down and begins clapping and dancing, and 
while the second sings, the first in turn bends down and 
dances, The bulk of these songs concern the women them- 
selves, and vividly reflect their joys and sorrows. Many of 
them have a sad note, and many others have a tragic ending. 

Caste songs 

Caste-songs include the Danda-geet and the Bans-geet 
which are exclusively the songs of the Rawats and the 
numerous '^legends and songs of the wandering Dewars, 

Tradition has secured to the Rawats the monopoly oi 
the Diwali Danda-dance of Chhattisgarh. Dressed in 
beautiful red and yellow clothes, decorated with cowries and 
peacock feathers, the Rawats participate in the ceremonial 
dance in batches of twelve to twenty. The Vanda-geet is 

5 



sting to the accompaniment of this dance. Some of the 
comparatively recent Danda-songs have religious touch 
about them; but the others are beautiful love- songs which 
charm the people when they are sung with proper pause 
and jhunjhunfya dance. 

The Bans-geet is also a song only of the Rawats. While 

they sing it, they also play on a huge bamboo flute which 

they call the bans. This is song for the hours of leisure 

when the Rawats have nothing else to do. Many of these 

songs are in praise of Lord Krishna, who is specially 

worshipped by the Rawats. Many others are in the form of 

dialogues, chiefly between husband and wife. They truly and 

vividly depict the domestic scenes of rural Chhattisgarh. 

The nomadic Dewars of Chhattisgarh are a very poor 
tribe, and many of them are professional beggars and 
singers. They have a very rich store of folk-songs, legends 
and ballads. Their songs provide many evenings of enjoy- 
ment to the Chhattisgarhi village-folk, end many of their 
legends continue night after night for weeks together. 

Songs for special occasions 

Special occasions call for special songs. Child-birth 
provides an occasion for the Sohar, and the Bihaw-geet 
provides a musical back- ground to marriages. 

The advent of the new-born is an occasion for unmixed 
rejoicing, while the sentiments in the marriage songs are 
mingled. They express sorrow for the girl's break from 
the past, and joy for her step forward in the future. Some 
of the marriage-songs of Chhattisgarh are very pathetic. 
Many of them contain the lofty ideas of the past; acd many 
others are the bitter-sweet stories of women in love. Many 
of them express in a simple and vivid style the feelings of 
the bride at the time of her separation from her parents. 
The Goura-geet are the songs relating to Parvati, sung 



daring the days preceding Dewali when goddess Goura is 
worshipped in Chhattisgarh. The Mata-Sewa songs are 
sung in honour of the Mata. Small-pox, from times imme- 
morial has been propitiated as a Mother-Goddess by the 
Hindus to please her, to expedite the recovery of the patient 
affected by small-pox. There are various other worship- 
songs for different occasions. 

Tribal songs 

Many of the recent monographs on Indian primitive 
tribes turn upon the subject of their folk-songs. Chhattis- 
garh has a large aboriginal population, and some of the tribes 
even to-day retain different dialects of their own. Because 
of the stress of modern life, most of them have become bi- 
lingual, and their legends and songs are fast disappearing. 
The Gond and the Baiga have a sufficiently advanced folk- 
poetry, but the folk-songs of the Kamar and Bhunjia are 
disappearing quickly. Not many of their songs are rich in 
poetic value, but they are still of great interest to the 
scientist. The tribal songs of the Kamar recorded in this 
volume point to the importance which the folk-songs of a 
people may have for anthropological field-workers. 

The legends 

The importance of the legends and ballad poetry of 
Chhattisgarh has not yet been sufficiently recognized. The 
legend of Rasalu Kuar is perhaps the only one, besides the 
legend of Dhola-Maru, which has been published in full by 
Verrier El win. Chandeni, Lachhman jati, Pandwani and 
Parghania have not been published so far. 

Chandeni is claimed to be an original legend of Chat- 
tisgarh. Near Arang in the Raipur district, there stands a 
monument commemorating the memory of the beautiful 
princess Chandeni, her gallant lover Lorik and their loye. 



In wealth of imagery and subtle descriptions, Chandeni can 
easily win for itself a place of honour in the folk-poetry of 
India. In fact, the legend of Lorik and Chandeni has 
already travelled far and has captured the hearts of village- 
folk in Bundelkhand and a] so in other parts of the United 
Provinces. 

The legend of Dhola-Maru, originating perhaps in 
Rajasthan, has come down to Chhattisgarh in a modified 
form. Although its atmosphere is alien, it holds people 
spell-bound and is universally popular in Chhattisgarh. 
Next comes the legend of Rasalu Kuar. the hero who starts 
on matrimonial adventures and marries the princesses of 
seven different kingdoms after braving considerable difficul- 
ties in each adventure. Lachmanjati is the legend of ascetic 
Lachman who, on being alleged to have illicit connections 
with Seeta, proves his innocence and purity by passing 
through the ordeal of fire. Similarly, Pandwani is the 
Chhattisgarhi version of the Mahabharat with Bhim as its 
legendary hero whose deeds and adventures form a major 
part of the legend. Pargbania is the long legend of Good 
heroes. Chandeni and Dhola have been included in this 
book as typical specimens of the legends of Chhattisgarh. 

The Field Songs of Chhattisgarh do not represent the 
folk-culture of Chhattisgarh in all its aspects; yet, they do 
give us a glimpse of it. Through them we can visualize a 
picture of the life lived in rural Chhattisgarh, a life of little 
love and perpetual struggle, crossed by a sullen note of 
uncertainty and pessimism. 

Life is precious, only once we get it 
Its pleasures too we get only once 

Never shall we get them again. 
******** 

For how many days more shall we live? 
Life is short and we may not have much 
How shall we escape 
When death comes over our head ? 

8 



Life 

"Born are we on this earth to live, 

And BO shall we pass our life merrily and playfully; 

For how many days more shall we live ? 

Life is short and we may not have much, 

How shall we escape 

When death cornes over our head ? 



Youth 

The lamp needs a wick, 
And the wick needs oil, 
The two eyes want sleep, 
And youth -longs for romance 



The eager heart 

Shall I be able to meet my sweetheart,? 

Who knows ! 

I adorn myself with fineries, 

Dress my hair beautifully, 

And admire my beauty in the mirror, 

But God only knows 

If I shall meet my sweetheart! 



Separation 



eister! My sweet heart is in a distant land, 

He neither writes a letter to me, 

Nor does he send me a word, 

For whom should I apply mekndi? 

For whom should T dress my hair? 

And for whom should I cook vegetables and rice ? 

My sweet-heart is in a distant land. 

Sister ! I do not like my father-in-law's house, 

When my sweetheart is in a distant land. 



Friendship 

A hard piece of wood it is, 
Easily you can not break it ; 
Very old, indeed, is our friendship, 
Only at our death will it end. 



Tears will move him 

When the rains come ; 
Green grass grows on the Earth. 
Moisten with tears the tale of your woe : 
Then will they move him, girl 1 

10 



Eager steps 

Peep from the window, 
An hour for sun-set, there is yet 
My sweetheart is coming homeward 
With hasty eager steps. 



The magic of her charms 

In the nights we sleep, 

And work throughout the day ; 

The magic of her charm keeps me alive, 

Only for her I live, friend! 



I am pining for you 

Oh foreigner ! Oh man from Doomerkhol, 

You shot the arrow to my heart ; 

The whole of me is pining for you. 

For you I went astray 

You sealed my fate, Oh you sealed my fate! 

King, the whole of me is pining ; 

Only to have a glimpse of you. 

To the government I will pay a fine ; 

And to the caste I'll give a penalty feast 

O King ! But I will never leave you. 

foreigner ! man from Dhoomerkhol, 

Yon shot the arrow to my heart ; 

The whole of me is pining for you. 

11 



The love girl 

There stands the mango tree in the forest, 
The ripening fruit is full of juice; 
Lone is the girl in her blooming youth 
There is none, none to console her. 



The unhappy man 

In the forest there is no animal 
And in the pond no fish ; 
Life to him is a miserable burden, 
There is none to console his heart. 



The unfortunate girl 

My father died, 
And my mother also is dead; 
Only my brother loves me, 
But my sister-in-law ; 
She is very jealous of me. 
What a life, I lead! 

12 



The happy man 

The crops are rich, 

Every evening the drum beats, 

How happy is the village? 

0, how happy is the man, 

Whose pretty wite has firm and rounded breasts. 



They make me mad 

The graceful leap of the deer; 
And the thrill of the tiger's roar, 
The firm and rounded breasts of my girl 
They make me mad, friend! 



Love songs 

The tarai flowers in the evening! 

How slender IB your waste? 

It befits you only! 

Garry the manure to the field, 

In the broken cart. 

My JRajal you proceed ahead 

I will follow you soon. 

Sometimes I pur on a red sari, 

And sometimes pink 

The pardeskt meets me only for a little while. 

Over the temple there is a blooming flower, 

On you only, my bird! 

I have set my heart. 

From silver we make ornaments, 

Tell me, Raja! 

Where should I wait for you. 

I went to the market, 

And bought a Dhoti, 

My heart was in you, 

My Raja\ I remembered you every moment. 

In the months of Sawan and Bkadon; 

There is such an abundance of Karela 

Friend! I never knew 

That so soon we would part company 

Come, let us go fishing, 

Ever in my eyes looms that face 

The face of my Raja. 

Bit by bit, look, how I burn for you? 

Oh ! you never told me before. 
A place in my home, 

14 



Love Song* (Contd.} 

I would have given you willingly. 

Cook the chana-bhafi for the meals to-day, 

Be in complete readiness, my girl! 

I will come at the usual time. 

Eat some more sweets, my friend ! 

Why at a distance you stand from me? 

Come near me, my girl ! 

Homeward I was coming, 

And you were going away, 

Its good we met here, 

Let us have a parting embrace, friend 1 

To cook the fish there is no butter-milk ! 

Speak your heart freely, my love ! 

None can overhear us. 

Comb your hair 

And put vermilion at their parting 

For you, my bird ! 

I will come again in the night. 

How shall 1 shake the mango branch? 

0, so small are my breasts, 

How shall 1 let him fondle them? 

This gram! you can not fry it ! 

We made friends when we were young, 

How can we forget each other? 

The well is there 

How to draw water ? 

I forbade you repeatedly, 

And yet you fell on my body ! 

Take your bath 

And change your clothes 

you look so beautiful 

In your silk so,ri. 

The plum on the tree is ripe 

How shall I pluck it? 

15 



Love Sengs*- (Concluded.} 

He is standing in the neighbour's courtyard, 

How shall I call him? 

In the evenings everyday, 

When the Shukwa appears in the sky 

I see you always on the path 

With a beautiful basket on your head. 

The roti on the frying pan was burnt 

So engrossed was I in your thoughts ! 

Balaml with a single masric word 

You have captured me entirely. 



Pangs of separation 

My mind is unsteady, 

And melancholy is the heart, 

There is water all around me, 

Yet I am thirsty, 

Without you, my love ! 

Only a few words you said to me, 

They got stuck in my heart. 

I am rnad after you, 

It's for you I am wandering in the jungles. 

The boat is damaged, 

And there is no one to row it ! 

0, I may die, 

But none will weep for me, for 

My balam is in a distant raj. 

The forests are green, 

And so are the hills, 

The man with the cap is nowhere to be seen, 

I will offer a coconut, 

If I find him soon. 

Pour the oil on the earth ! 

It will be a simple waste. 

I weep and weep 

And narrate to him my sufferings 

No heed he pays to them. 

On his body he wore a fatuht\ 

And over it his Kurta, 

I remember him so often. 

The water in the well, 

0, it is there I 

My pardeshi is going away, 

17 



Pangs of Separation (confrf.) 

I feel like crying for him. 

Eat drink and make merry, 

But never, never should you remember me, my girl! 

Brutal are the pangs of separation, 

In remembrance, my bird! 

Bit by bit you will perish. 

When you smoke a chongi, 

It burns little by little. 

My love! in your remembrance I am gradually burning. 

The house is broken and its roof is destroyed; 

He was to return within a couple of days. 

But it is long since, that I have not seen him, friend! 

I do not know what I did unconsciously 

My love! I do not even care for food in your absence. 

God! I never knew 

That I would feel the pangs of separation so much 

My father is in Ratanpur, and father-in-law in Orissa, 

And between the two parts is the Koeli river 

To-day, I am what the rice plant is without water, 

Father-in-law is suffering from tijera arid his daughter from 

fever, 
And my Dewar is laid down with Kkarfarha, 

To-day I am what a leaf is after falling from the tree. 
The legs of the cot are broken, 
And now it is useless 
Gori has lost her lover 
And she weeps till dawn 

God! I never knew that I would feel the pangs of separa- 
tion so much. 

A courtyard without a tree, 
And a village without a dog are lonely. 
A woman without her lover weeps till the dawn 
God! I never knew that I would feel the pangs of 

separation so much. 

18 



Pangs of Separation (Concld.) 

"I have come here from my father's home for the first time. 

Sweetheart! why are you going out leaving me alone? 
With whom shall I play? 

With whom shall I eat ? 

And how shall I console my heart?' 7 

"Plant a tuhi in the court-yard, 

And console your heart with it 

If you find it green, 

Imagine your husband engaged in trade; 

And if you find it yellow, 

Think that he died in war." 

The cat goes from this roof to that; 

We are foreigners 

People of a far distant land 

To-day let us love each other with all our heart 

For tomorrow comes separation, 

And I have to depart with a Ram Earn for ever. 

It was a bamboo stick, 

With which was the snake killed! 

You have gone away luaviu 

All my life 

1 will be sorry for it 



19 



Complaints 



How beautiful was the leaf 

When it was fresh; 

It is yellow now. 

How sincere were you to me 

When we were children 

In youth, you have deceived me now. 

In the leaves there is no flutter. 

Nor do the branches move 

Sweetheart, you regard me as an enemy, 

You don't speak a word to me. 

It is a full moon night, 

Yet the moon is nowhere to be seen. 

My sweetheart has become mad, 

He is not coming back. 

Across the river 

There is a mine of red clay 

By your sweet words 

Why did you mislead me? 

0, I was so innocent! 

The evenings are disturbed, 

Always by the crows 

Here you made love to me 

And went away to a distant village. 

The moon rises, 

And brightens the night! 

you are a woman! 

You deceived me and went away. 

The night is moonlit, 

And the stars are twinkling 

My tiafa has become my enemy, 

20 



Complaints (Condd) 

He does not speak to me. 

In the mango leaves 

There is no flutter 

My Raja has taken to silence, 

He does not speak even a word to mo, 

I plucked the mango fruit, 

Avowedly to eat it. 

He deceived me, 

By promising that he will come 

The rope you left tied to the cart 

0, 1 have newly come to you 

For the first time; 

And you have stopped talking to me, 



21 



A warning 

Behold the mango tree! 
The solitary fruit is ripening there 
Note it, take care my girl 
Nowhere can you elude my notice 
Not even by drowning. 



Passion 

I went to the market, 

And bought a tuma there 

I will make you sleep in my lap. 

And kiss you. 

Massage your body, 

With the til oil, 

I am alone here, my Raja, 

Make me sleep with you. 

Ripe was the lemon 

Its juice was gushing out! 

He wanted to have me by the road-side, 

And 1 was hesitating so much. 

Mother-in-law went to the market, 

Father-in-law to the field 

0, look to the girl! 

When she was alone in the house, 

She got herself involved. 

It is a Keru tree, 

Garlands will you make from its flowers? 

No more has she a place in my heart, 

Now I don't like her. 



22 



Two wives 

In the leave? of the Pipal tree 

There is a constant flutter 

In the house of a man having two wives 

Always, always there is quarreling. 

You eat the betel, 

And your lips become red; 

Do not develop fascination. 

It will take your life. 



The dadaria 

The pongs from field and forest, 

They are the songs of our life, 

The whole world may leave us 

But the Dadariya is our precious heritage. 

In the pot there is last night's rice, 

And in the hand a pinch of rice I have, 

I am singing the Dadariya, 

Lend your ear to it. 



23 



Englishman's Raj 

In the leaves of the Pi pal tree 
There is a constant flutter 
In the Englishman's Raj 
Everyone is unhappy. 



A dialogue 



Wife : 

We will sell the goat and the sheep, 

And the buffalo also we will sell; 

We can live by working hard, 

And sleep restfully ia the night stretching long our legs. 
Busband : 

Neither will I sell the goat, nor the sheep. 

Nor will I sell the buffalo 

Pll get my living by selling milk and butter-milk* 

But you will I sell. 
Wife : 

Who will do the cooking for you? 

And who will serve you meals? 

Who will spread the bedding on your cot? 

And who will await you at home? 
Husband : 

My mother will do the cooking for me, 

And my sister will serve me my meals, 

The maid will spread the bedding on my cot, 

And my flute will await me. 

24 / 



A Dialogue (Concld.) 

Wife : 

Your mother is old and will die, 
And sister will go to her husband, 
The maid will be sold in the;market. 
And the flute will float away in the river. 

Husband: 

I will make my mother immortal, 

On nector will I feed her, 

And will keep my sister for six months, 

Will keep the maid tied with a rope, 

And will ever keep the flute in my heart. 



25 



Child birth 

In the first month changes begin to appear, 

The body becomes yellowish 

And face becomes pale 

It appears she is pregnant. 

In the second month, 

The mother-in-law recognizes it, 

Doubtless it is pregnancy!' 

When she walks 

Her right leg lags behind. 

Doubtless it is pregnancy! 

In the third month the nanad laughs 

'Let the newcomer come, 

I'll get a present of munga and moil 

In the fourth month the mother-in-law laughs 

'Let the newcomer come 

I'll distribute pearls?/ 

In the fifth month the expectant mother says: 

*The whole body aches badly 

I don't like the betel'. 

In the sixth month she requests her Lord: 

'Now I can't serve your bed 

My body is heavy'. 

In the seventh month she requests her mother-in-law: 

'Now I can't cook 

My whole body aches? 

In the eighth month the eight limbs are developed 

With all her care 

Never can she wear her clothes properly 

In the ninth month 

The mother-in-law sleeps in the neighbouring courtyard 

The daughter-in-law is having pain, 

Call the nurse soon! 

In the tenth month Kanhaiyalal was born 

Music was played and Sakhis began singing Sahar. 

26 



Marriage songs 

The baratts are standing under the neem, 

And the bride, with her lord, is going round the marriage 

poet. 
Musical instruments are being played 

Beeram ! the girl is going round the marriage post with 

her lord 

Baratis are standing under the neem. 
Mother ! under the bar are the bride and bride-groom. 
Amongst five brothers there is one sister, 
Oh Mother, she will go away with her lord today. 
Father and mother are unhappy, 
But the bhaufi indeed is happy. 
0, do not send her thib year, 
You may send her next year. 
'Get I nath for my nose, 
Mother I will go away in a dola 
Get a pairi for my legs, 
Mother I will go away in a dola 

Got a tttri for my ears. 
Mother, I will go away in a dola 

There is a lemon tree in my lord's house, 
And all birds return to it in the evening 

1 grew to youth in my father's house in happiness 
But now my pride will be shattered to pieces. 

On the high platform ie seated the father, 
And with him are his companions, 
There is a thick bush of tulsi^ 
Under which is seated the bride, 
Nearby is the goldsmith hingul, 
She gets a har, a tikuli and a nat h, 
And yet she weeps! 

27 



Marriage Songs (Contd.) 

c ls it silver or gold- 
That you did not get, my girl? Asks the father, 
'Why are you sorrowful? 
'Neither it is gold, nor it is silver 
Nor yet am I sorrowful 
Father! I am fair and beautiful 
And my lord is dark 
For this 1 am sorry father! 
Talk not about the colour, daughter! 
Dark or fair! colour is not of our making 
Lord Krishna even is dark 
The Mother's womb is like a pot maker's ava, 
Some pots coming out from it are fair, 
And others are dark. 
Raja Janak has one daughter, 
And she is to be married. 
Which prince deserves to marry her? 
To whom should we send the coconut? 
In Ayodhya there is King Dashrath 
Four princes he has 
Playing in the streets of Ayodhya. 
The eldest of them is Rama, 
He will be Seeta's husband. 
Father, have a bamboo fencing 
And let it have four gates. 
Cover it well, my father! 
Let not swans and pigeons enter it; 
Let the Chowk be decorated with pearls, 
And the lamp be of manik, 
Father, call a priest from Benares to write 
Stand with folded hands, Father, 
When Raghuwar. comes for marriage 
To him give all attention you can, 

28 



Marriage Songs (Condd.} 

And when you serve him food 

Forget not to place a few tulsi leaves, 

Be not dismayed by his dark colour, father, 

Many in the world have a dark colour; 

Lord Krishna is dark in colour, 

Yet he enchants the world with his charming flute, 

The rod of the plough is broken, 

And now it is useless; 

To her Sasural I have seat my daughter 

After her marriage, 

And here I am sitting 

Laden with grief, 

Eat drink and make merry, girl! 

Only a day more for you, 

To take you away, the people have come 

All your way you'll have to weep. 



De war- Bhauji 

Slightly he twisted my fingers in the night, 

And woke me up! 

parrot, in the night he woke me up. 

'Dar dur' said I, 

Is it a cat or a dog 

Or a sinner that opened the door? 

'Not a cat, nor a dog 

Nor even has a sinner opened the door, 

It is Nandlal, your Dewar } Bhauji 

Who has opened the door 1 . 

'Come you may, Babu 

But go and sleep on your brother's cot* 

'Not there Bhauji 

There the mosquitoes will eat me up 

With you will I sleep 

I'll sleep happily on your cot! 

'Not here, not here, Babu 

There are sharp knives on my cot, 

And there is a deadly she-cobra 

Which will take your life'. 

'How then, Bhauji ', 

Does my brother save his life?' 

'Great is the magic of your brother, Babul 

Powerful is his spell 

It is through that he saves his life 

parrot, His magic makes this cot his own/ 



30 



The obstinate jogi 

From the North has the jogi come, 

And there he is at the door steps 

There he is! sitting at the door, parrot! 

'Give him a handful of rice, parrot! 

He will leave the door' 

'Not a handful of rice, Sister 

Have that for yourself 

Never will I leave the door/ 

'Give him a plateful of rice, parrot, 

He will leave the door'- 

'Not a plateful of rice, Sister 

Keep that for yourself 

Never, never will I leave the door', 

'Give him the eldest nanad, parrot 

He will leave the door. 

Give him the second natiad, parrot 

He will leave the door'. 

'Not the eldest, nor the elder too 

Keep them for yourself, sister 

Never, never, never will I leave the door'. 

'Give him the youngest nanad, parrot, 

He will leave the door*. 

parrot! 

So happy was the jogi to hear this, 

Not a moment did he lose, 

And brought a dola to the door 

To take away the youngest nanad 



For the dear one 

My mother is out, 

And sister is in Sasural, 

parrot! ray lord is in a far-off land 

Alone am I here, parrot! 

Cheerfully the bride in that, house asks: 

{ Froin where did you get, betel, my love?' 

Joyfully the man replies: 

'In in} 7 father's house there are twenty slaves, 

They gave me the bate!'. 

Cheerfully the bride in that house asks: 

'From where did you get the garland, My love?' 

Joyfully the man replies: 

'In my father's house there are twenty maizes 

They gave me the garlands'. 

parrot! look at me, 

How unhappy am I in separation; 

'1 hey talk and sing and are happy, 

But my sweetheart has forgotten me; 

For my dear one I weep. 



Hunger 

In hunger we have forgotten the Dadariya and the karma 

In poverty did we lose our Dance. 

Such a burden has life become to us 

Even in youth we don't have cravings of love. 



Life 

This broken chongil 

0, we smoke it only once. 

Life is precious only once we get it; 

Its pleasures too we get only once, 

Never shall we get them again, 



TRIBAL SONGS OF THE KAMAR 
A 'Dadur' song 

I caught the fish in the pool, 
Tell me if you will eat it or not? 
In a day or two I shall leave this Raj, 
Tell me will you go with me or not? 



A dance song 

Tastefully did I cook the rice, 

And came to you at mid-night. 

Alas! nowhere did I find you, my love! 

For the rest of my life I will weep for you, 



A marriage song 

Whither are you going, Erother! 

You have the bow ou your shoulders; 

The axe in your hand, 

And behind you is your wife, 

With a basket on her head. 

Whither are you going, O Erother! 

To the neighbouring village we go 

There to attend a marriage, boy! 

Come not with us 

Eat and live here, Boy! 

When the rains of * Asar' set in, 

34 



A Marriage Song (concld.) 

And the whole forest is aglow with flowers; 

Then will 1 come, to take your daughter 

With a crown of flowers on her head. 

Here is a headload of bamboo 

Will you lift it or not? 

The rice for you is cooked 

Will you eat it or not? 

There is a marriage in the neighbouring Kamnr village. 

Will you go there or not? 



A 4 Hana' song 

Uice on the fire is boiling, 

A nd the child tied to her waist is crying, 

Cook the rice and let the child sleep. 

Where are you going? (She is asked) 

To dance, she says, where the drum is being beaten. 

After the dance her whole body ached 

Was it the evil eye on her body? 

The magician is called, 

And he will look it up. 

1 may die or live, (She says) 

Look after the child, 

And don't quarrel with any. 

Be careful when speaking to the sirkar 

Get not yourself beaten, 

And be courteous to the panchayat I 

The charm of the magician worked, 

And she was all-right again. 

'You are well, (he says) 

And now let us not quarrel, 

Let us live and eat'. 

35 



A Turi' love song 

'0 Sister! Give me your dewar > 

'No, no, even if I lose my life-breath, my life, 

I can not give him. 

My husband you have instead*. 

The water in the pot on fire boils, 

And the little bird with its tiny beak is in agony. 

'What shall I do with your husband? (says she) 

Give me, give me, your dewar I 

The elder sister's husband was in Raja's be gar 

And the dewar was in her heart. 

'Wherever I go, he follows; 

To the market for tobacco, and to the forest for tendu leaves. 

In the path- ways, and near the tank 

Every where, everywhere he is present. 

He will get a pair of ornaments for my ears, 

And then shall we leave for a distant Raj. 



Another Turf love song 

On the bank of the river they met- 

The young man and his girl. 

This was the place where they met at dusk. 

'The third day, before day-break we leave 1 (he said) 

Returning from the tank, she laid by the pots, 

And awaited the third day-her man's call. 

One day passed, and BO did second, 

The third day at the appointed moment he came, and came 

out she. 

And together they went to a distant Raj, 
Crossing the twelve mountains, 
Where no man's sight could reach. 
A happy couple they were. 

36 



A song regarding incest between 
father and daughter 

An ugly wretch was he, 

And she a handsome maiden, 

The two lived alone 

The old widower and his lovely daughter 

The old man cast his lustful eyes on her, 

And when the fiery finger touched him, 

He caught hold of her and enjoyed her- 

Enjoyed her breasts, and body and youth. 

They lived secretly, and openly they lived 

As man and woman - as wife and husband. 

For some time it was calm, 

But then came the great rains, the thunder and storm, 

Then suddenly the rains stopped; 

The whole year was dry. 

The dahi failed, I 

Animals left the forest. 

No fish was there in the ponds and pools, 

Edible roots too were scarce. 

One sin 

Of the old wretch, and the lusty girl, 

And such was the penalty. 



A song regarding incest between 
brother and sister. 

The young girl and the young boy- 
Brother and sister they were - brother and sister. 
They danced together, 
And for the whole night they danced. 

37 



A Song regarding incest between brother and sister 
(Oontd.) 

They decided to elope - 

After five days- before day-break 

Before the cock heralds the dawn of the day, 

They decided to run away - 

To run away to a distant 'Raj' 

Til go with you; 

But will go for the whole life. 

Desert me not, or I shall be ruined' 

'Before the cock crows, we start, 

And shall be in' 'Boda Sambhar Raj before the dawn, 

There we shall work, and eat, and live happily. 

The night passed, 

And the appointed moment came. 

She took five katas of rice, 

A handful of tobacco, and a score of tendu leaves for chongi. 

She took two pice, a plate and some pots, 

She arranged all these things 

And at the appointed time they started. 

At dawn they crossed the tract ; 

And reached the l Boda-Sambhar ? raj. 

Nine months passed ; 

And she began to feel miserable, 

Every limb of her body ached. 

Helpless she was utterly helpless, 

*0 Father ! what can I do ? 

For what I did, I must suffer. 

Her agony increased, 

And she had none to help her. 

They pormised to offer presents to spirits ; 

But the spirits would not be pleased ! 

They invoked the family God, 

But He too was hostile. 

38 



A Song regarding incest between brother and sister 
-(Concld.) 

Death seemed the only alternative, 

The punishment for his sin, 

The sin of eloping with her brother. 

None of their relatives had any thing to do with them. 

Nor did any of them smoke with them! 

Such was to be their life ! 



Song regarding the origin of 
the Tribes. 

God created the Earth. 
And then created a couple. 
A man and woman, wife and husband. 
To them were born two children, 
One son and one daughter. 
And as it happened. 
The mad jackal offended God Mahadeo. 
A deluge a mighty deluge he sent to drown it. 
Apprehending the danger impending, 
The couple placed the children in a box, 
A box of wood, and therein 
They kept provisions for them. 
To last till the deluge ended. 
The greater thunder came. 
And came the roaring winds, 

In the deluge were drowned all living things, the old couple. 
Twelve years passed - and 
God Mahadeo created two birds; 
AroUnd the world they flew to see, 

39 



Song regarding the origin of the Tribes fCondd.) 

If the jackal - Mahadeo's enemy was dead. 
Over the endless ocean of water they flew, 
And not one creature was alive! 
Yet, in the wooden box they heard, 
Low voice of human children, 
Provisions enough for three days we have (said they) 
Soon the birds flew back; 
And reported to God Mahadeo. 
In surprise, 

God Mahadeo sent for the box; opened it and found the children. 
There Mahadeo the Great God- 
Ordered the flood to subside, 
And all was well again. 
The children were brought up by him; 
And pleased with them one day; 
He asked them to marry; 
Marry they did; and had children. 
To each of their children, 
The Great God gave the name of a tribe, 
And thus were descended the many, many tribes, 



40 



I 
Chandeni 

Here is Ohandeni beautiful ! 

With youth brimming from all her body- 

Her face like the beautiful full moon, 

This is Chandeni 

The beautiful princess the fairy princess. 

Her nights are damped with tears 

And days she passes in sorrowful musing. 

She with all her beauty and youth 

Has to pass restless nights and mournful daya 

POO 

Behold 1 Here she goes 

Like lightning she passes 

The fairy princess - the beautiful Ohandeni! 

In her ears falls the soft melody of the flute 

Enchanted by it she looks around. 

None, none can her eyes discover. 

Her heart aches, 

And a tender thrill passes through her whole body 

Who can he be - 

This maker of sweet music ? 

Behold! There he is 

Seated under the shadow of the mango tree 

The maker of music 

The most perfect youth on the Earth ! 

Spell-bound, Ghandeni stands there 

Self-forgotten, she looks at the youth 

His is the magic that is wonderful 

His is the charm that is perfect. 

He has charm in his eyes, 

And magic in his turban ; 

41 



Chandent (Cortd.) 

He has charm in every limb, 

And magic in every word, 

It was the triumph of his magic 

That Chandeni lost herself. 

The proud Chandeni 

0, she was proud no more. 

O . 

The queen of beauty 

0! she is the one woman in the world, 

The one perfect woman ! 

But how unlucky? 

Indeed, unfortunate is she; 

Life to her is a desert and youth a waste 

Bawan - her husband, 

01 he is not a man 

For him her youth and beauty and charm have no meaning; 

No curse would have been worse 

With her blooming youth 

And the fire of passion eternally burning in her heart. 

None, none she has to console her 

! there is none to quell her eternal burning 

And Bawan is helpless 

Magic is helpless - spells don't work 

Nor do medicines succeed ; 

Terrific is the curse of God Mahadeo 

Which caused the loss of his manhood. 

Unhappy, indeed, is the woman 

In whose youthful heart there is perpetual burning 

The poor girl, 

Her mental agony is eating her away, 

And now I 

Now look to her 

Our Chandeni is changing, 

Slowly, darling Chandeni is changeing 

42 



Chantim* (Contd.) 

To-day again she has come to the forest* 

The magic of that flute has dragged her hera 

Her beautiful lips today 

She has coloured them with betel 

And her dress: how beautiful ? 

Indeed, she is Chandeni 

The princess (As beautiful as the full-moon. 

Lorik is putting new life into her. 

Coy and beautiful 

So shy was she ! 

Not a word could she utter, 

When Lorik approached her. 

'Speak, speak to me 

Chandeni, beautiful', said the man. 

How could she? the shy girl 

! she wanted to speak 

But she was lost in her own thoughts. 

Lorik, only Lorik could make her happy. 

Speak, speak to me 

Chandeni, beautiful said he again. 

But she only smiled, 

Not a word did she utter. 

'Speak speak to me 

Chandeni, beautif uP said he again. 

Behold! her lips move, 

She is speakipg to her love. 

Unknown, unknown are you to me 1 

tell me, how can I speak? 

* * 

That flute is wonderful, 

Wonderful indeed is his sweet voice, 

Wonderful is the music that brings her into the jungle. 

Behold! what Lorik has done? 

0, it is a madai 

48 



It is a work of magic -it touches the sky. 

'No* he said ; 

'Not unless you give me your betel'. 

Take pearls, take gold 

Take a whole kingdom from me 

But don't take the betel. Lorik' 

'What of pearls and wealth and gold? 

Nor a kingdom, I want 

All that I have myself got 

It's only your betel that I want*. 

'How headstrong are you ? 

Indeed cruel are all men 1 . 

Take what you like, Lorik 

But do give me the magic Swing." 

And look ! 

Here is Lorik, virile and vigorous, 

And coy Cbandeni -the beautiful ! 

He takes her in his lap 

And seats her in the magic madai 

The madai that touches the sky. 

Behold him ! 

0, give a push, 

And up goes Chandeni 

she is in the sky. 

And there Chandeni, in the sky 

she was bewildered 

'Catch me, catch me Lorik 

Catch me in your arms'. 

'No Ohandeni dear 

Call me once 'my dear', 'my lord' 

Then only will I save you/ 

Lorik! when? 

If I fall to the ground, Pll surely die 

How cruel you are! 

44 



Chandeni(Contd.) 

I call you my father, my brother, 

save me from death, Lorik/ 
But adamant was he 

'Address me as your husband* he said 
How cruel ! 
Indeed you are cruel 
Save me, Lorik, dear, save me 
You are my lord, my love, my husband 7 , 
Vigorously he extended his arms 
And down came Chandeni 
Behold ! she is there 

Behold ! they are locked in each other's arms. 
o o 

0, Chandeni rise up, 

0, sweet, feel not so frustrated ; 

1 am here, my love, 

Your Lorik is by your side, 

And when Chandeni looked up, 

Her body like the tender moon of the second night. 

Glowed with joy, 

She was all smiles ! 

Her Lorik was there by her side, 

And now she need fear none, 

The strength of his muscle will protect her, 

And his flute will soothe her heart. 

One, only one remedy was there for all her suffering 

And that she had by her side, 

Lorik, her man, her love. 

o o o * 

Happy indeed was she now, 

But without Lorik her life was a misery, 

Her fire was kindled, 

Her passions rose 

Bawan - the impotent 

46 



Chandeni (Contd.) 

0, he was her enemy. 

Her eternal fire - 

Will it burn her to ashes? 

Or will she get Lorik, her man ? 

Sleepless were her nights 

Full of tears and suffering were the moments of separation. 

Who would not pity her? 

Her youth is being wasted. 

000 

'Come Chandeni 

Let us run away run away to a distant land. 

To a land of happiness 

Where we will satisfy all our desires. ' 

*0 Lorik dear 

Do let us run away 

Without you I cannot be happy 

Only in your bed will I get comfort'. 

Let us not delay then, Chandeni; 

Let us fix the date and time, now 

We will not be happy here, 

Till we drink the water of an impotent man's kingdom. 

Only when we two are together, alone and free, 

We will be happy. 

And they decided to run away 

They thought, they would 

But at that moment there was an ill omen ! 

Would there be an obstruction in their way ? 

She was anxious 

The malin had overheard them 

And they knew nothing about it. 

* * 

The appointed hour came 

And the two met together 

'Let us leave this land for ever they said, 

46 



Chandeni~~ (Cantd.) 

And started on their journey. 

They crossed one forest, 

And then they crossed another ; 

While they were entering the third forest. 

A fierce tiger came rushing on them 

'Pooh' said Lorik, it is a dirty cat. 

One arrow from his bow, and the tiger was dead, 

But Chandeni, 0, she was really afraid, 

I'll omen ! she had it, once again 

What is to happen? 

Lorik braced her up, and they crossed the forest. 

On came the forces of Bawan, 

His soldiers and horsemen. 

c All our dreams are shattered 1 whispered Ohandeni 

C A frustrated life only shall we have' she said in a low tone. 

'0 Chandeni ! how timid you are I 

Be not afraid, 

Your Lorik is by your side 1 . 

'No, Lorik ! you are brave, I know 

But they are forty and you are one. 

How will you fight them all?. 

Don't worry dear* said he 

Til fight them all 

With only one of my arms, I'll fight, 

The other will protect you 

With only one arm I'll beat them all', 
ooo 

Behold him fighting 

The gallant hero, the brave Lorik 

His one arm is protecting Ohandeni 

And with the other he is fighting. 

He is one and they are forty 

And he is fighting with only one arm! 

Behold! How swift is he? 

47 



ffattfmi-" (CowcW) 

His sword moves like lightening 
And his arrows pour like the rains, 
He is one, and they are forty. 
Behold the gallant hero in action. 
He defends himself and also attacks. 
see, the enemies are falling, 
One, two, three, ten of them are dead 
And there is not a scar on Lorik 's person 
0, see how strong is he ! 
Not for a moment does he rest 
He is killing them all, one by one 
Behold! half the enemies are dead 
And the others are running away 
He was one, and they were forty 

And yet he beat them. 

* t * 

Happy was Chandeni by his side 
She had got him, got the man of her dreams. 
No more tears will she have - 
And no more of sorrowful brooding! 
She will not have restless nights. 
Her passions have got their reward - 
;That fire will burn her no more. 
|pae has got her Lorik by her side 
The craving of youth will burden her no more. 
Happy indeed is she, 
She has got her Lorik, the man of her dreams ! 



48 



II 
Dhola-Maru 

In the fort of Narhula lived King Nala, 
And in the Pingala fort was King Ben 
In the palace of Nala was born a son 
And in Pingala, Maru, a girl. 
Happy were the kings to hear the news! 
Overwhelmed with joy, Nala called his queen, and said: 
'In half our age a child is born; 
Let us name him Dholalal. 
'Hear me, Raja' said the queen 
'From Pingala has come the news 
There to Ben a daughter has been born 
For their marriage let a word be sent, 
Pleasant, indeed, was the idea! 
The king called for paper and ink, 
And wrote a letter to Ben. 
'In your palace is born Maru, a girl, 
And in my palace, Dholalal. 
Marriage of the two we propose 
If you approve the idea, send us word/ 
The messenger took the letter, 
And went to the Pingala fort 
There, in his court was seated King Ben 
Happy, very happy, was he to read the letter 
In joy he called his queen, and said: 
In Narhula Dhola has been born, 
For him they ask our Maru in marriage'. 
Happy was the queen to hear the offer. 
Together the two wrote the reply- 
Back came the messenger to Narhula with the reply, 

49 



Dhola(Contd.) 

There, in his court, was seated king Nala 
Saluting him respectfully he gpve the letter 
Happy was everyone in Narhula 
Preparations for the marriage started. 

o o 9 

The time for marriage has corae 
In the streets the nagarq, is being be^tep, 
Its beauty cannot be described ! 
The first call was giyeju, 
And all he baratit ^ere ready, 
Twelve pairs of musical instruments ^re f b^g played ip. 

the streets, 

Its beauty cannot be describe^ I 
The barat started from Najrhula, 
It is going towards 
0, they have reached 

And are resting in the gardens on the pot,skptg, 
Hearing the news, Ben ordered everyone 4 to 
And went out to meet King Nala. 
The two samdhis met together ; 
And the parghani was performed 
Together they started for th<? Pipg^la paj^ce, 
To the baratis a feast yr^s giye^, 
And then the priest was callecj, 
The bride and bride-groom were carried m l ; ap, 
And were taken roui|(| the marriage jtoty seven times 
The ceremony epded 
And together they all retm;^ .to ^arh 

,..,. . / L .: ,-, 



Widespread was magic through out 

It was evil magic! 

The King called the queen; 

And asked her to keep Oh$a jp a guarded roonj. 

'There should always oe a strict watch 1 said r the 'king. 



50 



jDk/a (Contd.) 

'Nowhere should the child go , . - . 

Lest an evil eye fall on. him 1 . 

There in the guar4ed*ijoom Dhola grew up. 

For some time he was an infant, 

And then a boy! 

Some time more, and Dhola was a youth; 

* * * 

Q, Dhola's youth has approached 

Who can describe its beauty? 

Enclosed within the four walls of the palace,' thought I 

'Ever since my birth I have been here, 

Enclosed within the four- walls, 

Nothing, nothing whatever I have seen of the world; 

Nor do I know anything about my own Kingdom! 

Thus he thought and mused 

And in the dead of the night 

He determined to go out-to see the wide worid. 

In anger he ground his teeth, 

And kicked the doors fiercely; 

Behold! the doors are shattered to pieces, 

The watchman are fast asleep; 

They do not hear anything* 

* * ' 

Dhola came out of the palace, 
look, how handsome he is! 
He is wearing the shoes of velvet, 
And is going about in the town. 
His dhoti is of gaja-moti^ 
And round his head is a Benarsi turban; 
Who can describe his beauty? 
'Zummum Zummum' 
Came the sound from his shoes, 
Even those who were asleep woke up to see him, 
Old women paused to glance at him, 

51 



Dkola-(C<mtd.} 

And the young looked at him with longing. 
Brides peeped through the windows, 
And the young ones came out on the road to see him* 
0, never have we seen such a person 
Roaming in the street of the bazaar! 
Every limb of his body is proportionate- 
As if they had been weighed by the creator. 
As if some goldsmith had moulded him on the pattern of 

God, 

He looks like Narayan 
0, he is so akin to the image of God! 
He passed the palaces of the rich, 
And then crossed the fifty-two markets, 
He crossed the quarters of the businessmen, 

and goldsmiths 1 houses. 
He crossed also the bazaar of the girls. 
And reached the tank! 
There, in the garden adjoining the tank, 
He began to roam about, here and there, 

Looking all around, 

* t 

Behind a mango tree was Rewa 

The woman with potent magic. 

From her right hand she took out some dirt, 

And a parrot out of it she fashioned; 

From her magic bag she took yellow and black rice, 

And began chanting her spells. 

'Ram Bam' said the parrot 

0, it came to life! 

'0 Parrot! Hear me', said Rewa, 

'Dhola has come to the tank, 

Go, go and sit on a branch laden with flowers, 

When Dhola sees you, utter the words 'Ram Ram\ 

He ie the son of a king-he will shoot at you 9 . 

52 



The parrot Sew and sat amidst the flowers. 

'Teho' Teho 9 said the parrot, 

And Dhola's eyes were turned to it; 

He took out his gulel, 

And aimed at the bird. 

The parrot escaped the first shot, 

And the second too it escaped- 

Hiding behind the leaves 

But with the third it came down, say ing 'Ram Ram 9 

Seeing this, Rewa Malin was happy- 

Within herself she was very happy, 

'I found out the one, I wAttfed'- she exclaimed with jbjr. 

She laughed heartily! 

Running, she went to Dhola, 

Her head was uncovered. 

And a part of her sari was flying in the aif, 

Her hair was swinging here and there 

Her fair body was beautiful. 

One cannot describe her beauty. 

She collected all her sixty four sets of magical charmB, 

And armed with them, she Went to Dhola, 

And caught him by his arm. 

'From where do you come, Pardeshi?' she asked. 

f l am Dhola of Narhula' replied he. 

'0, you killed this poor woman's parrot; 

You must bring it back to life 

Or else it will be a difficult affair 9 . 

How can the dead parrot come back to life 9 aftked he. 

Try your sat, and bring it back to life 1 said she. 

Dhola remembered his Guru 

And with his inner force he asked the parrot to come to life. 

Behold! so potent was the name of his Guru! 

so potent was his sat. 
That the dead parrot came back to life! 

** 



fihola (Cmtd.) 

But Rewa once agarin chanted her spell 

And the parrot fell dead again. 

'This won't do' exclaimed Rewa. 

I won't let you go till you bring it back to life, 

'By mistake did I kill your parrot' said he. 

'Do forgive me for it. 

Take the price of your bird from me, 

And do let me go*. 

The parrot must come to life',, said she. 

And Dhola was helpless; 

He had no powers left with him. 

'See Dhola, I'll do the needful' said Rewa 

'But if I succeed in giving it life. 

Til catch you by your arm 

And take you for all your life' 

Helpless was Dhola; nothing more could he say 

'Do as you like' was all he said. 

'You swear by the water of the holy Ganges 

That you will become mine for life, 

If I give life back to the parrot' 

Dhola did swear by the water of the Ganges 

And when she saw him do this; 

She smiled within herself. 

4 You have been trapped' she said 

* How can you escape now ?, 

She took out black and yellow rice, 
And chanted again her spells 
Behold the parrot came back to life 
Dhola was stunned, 
Rewa caught him by his arm ; and said 

* Pardeshi ! Now come along with me to my country ', 
Within himself Dhola thought 

'0, I could have escaped this misfortune, 
Had I not come to the tank to-day'. 

54 



Dhola Jfaru (Contd.) 

She sent her charms and magic in advance, 
Ordering some to make palaces, 
And the others to make beautiful gardens, 
With Dhola she went to live there. 

00*9 

Leaving here the thread of Dhola's story 

Turn your attention to Maru now 

Her youth has approached. 

And she is feeling its cravings. 

Letter after letter she writes, 

Addressing them all to Narhula 

l Maru's lemon is ripe, its juice may flow away, 

If Nala's Dhola comes now, he will get brimming youth, 

If he comes late, he will get nothing 

And will have to return disappointed/ 

Such a letter she wrote to him 

And sent it through a messenger. 

In Narhula, nowhere could he find Dhola, 

From the maid he got the news, 

Of Dhola's captivity in Rewa's domain, 

Back came the messenger with the news 

Which brought only sorrow to Maru's heart. 

hi the dead of the night she began to cry, 

4 0, my childhood's partner was he, 

He is in Rewa's captivity. 

What enmity had I with her? 

That witch Rewa! what had I done to her ? 

The Moon is the enemy of darkness 

And the sword is the enemy in war 

Rewa is Maru's enemy 

She has held her companion in captivity'. 

Hearing her weeping, 

The parrot asked her, 

"Tell me, sister, 



Dhola Waru(Contd.) 

Why are you weeping to-day? 
What misery has befallen you, Maru? 
Why are you weeping at mid-night?" 
'What shall I tell you?' replied she 
4 You are a bird, a parrot, 
How can you be of any use to me?" 
'Always, always were you kind to me, my sister 
You cared for me so much; 
And always gave me ghee and gur 
I'll not be ungrateful, nor unfaithful, 
Tell me, sister ! I may be helpful to you". 
4 My beloved is in captivity, parrot ! 
He is iu Rewa's prison, 
I'll write a letter to him 
Go brother ! deliver it to him, 
In the dead of the night she began to write 
Tearing a piece from her sari's end 
She used it as paper. 

Of the colerium in her eyes she made ink 
And with her second finger she began to write. 
'In childhood we constructed a tank, 
Its dam is being destroyed, 
If Raja Nala's Dhola comes now, 
He only can repair it, 
Or else, the water will flow away. 
In childhood we planted a mango tree, 
Its fruit is ripe, 

If Raja Nala's Dhola comes now, 
He can enjoy its juice, 
Or else, it will be lost to him, 
Somebody else may come and partake of it. 
If Dhola has royal blood in his veins, 
He will come and meet me soon. 
If he is the offspring of an impotent wretch 

56 



Dhola Maru(Contd) 

He will stay away ? 
Such was the letter which she wrote, 
And sent it through the parrot 
To her beloved. 

3 

Twice Dhola tried to escape but failed. From Maru he 
received two more messages. They inspired him to 
make a final effort. 
f a % o 

'I don't get food to suit my taste', said Dhola, 

'To-day I will prepare Rusumba myself. 

If you don't allow me to do so 

Nothing, nothing whatever will I eat/ 

'No, my Raja, 

No cause to worry should you have, 

When I am with you 

Order what you like 

And I will cook it for you.' 

But Dhola was adamant 

And again and again he insisted; 

Rewa had to yield, 

And he joyfully set to work 

Twelve paseries of ganja he got 

And twelve paseries of opium and dhatura 

These he mixed with twelve paseries of gur 

And prepared a poisonous Kusumba. 

Then, in a different pot 

Some more Kusumba he made ; 

This without poison. 

In one plate he brought the Kusumba with poison, 

And in another the sweet one, 

Before himself he kept the plate with poison 

And before Rewa the sweet one. 

Full of suspicion as nhe was, 



Dhola Xarufflontd.) 

She took up Dhola's plate 

And gave her own to him. 

Behold ! The girl is lying intoxicated 

Behold! She has lost her senses. 

0, look at her, she is fast asleep. 

Dhola knew, the moment had come, 

He took out a rope and tied her up, 

And threw her on her cot; 

Kicking her seven times he said; 

'Meet your death, you witch, 

May lightning strike your head. 

He locked her in her palace, 

And came to the camel Juiha 

'Gome friend, carry me to Pingala' he said 

'Not I, I'll never go/ the camel replied 

But Dhola entreated; and Jut ha agreed, 

And instantly they started. 

When Rewa regained her consciousness 

She became anxious. 

Dhola has escaped! She must find him 

She ran as she was 

She had to run fast, and long, 

For Dhola had traversed a lon^ distance! 

And when at last he came in sight, 

He was in the middle of the river Rewa 

A step more, and he would cross the limit 

Beyond which her magic would not work; 

Desperately she ran, 

And reached the middle of the river, 

Alas! Dhola had crossed her boundary, 

Only Juthas tail was in her reach, 

She cut it mercilessly 

On the bank of the river Dhola alighted, 

He knew he was safe 



58 



Dhola Maru(Contd.) 

He knew that here the evil magic of Rewa would not wofk. 
* * 

There in Pingala, a royal reception was he given 

After twelve long years of captivity he was free, 

Free to meet his beloved. 

Everyone rejoiced at his escape 

His father was happy, and so was his father-in-law. 

And Maru? 0, who oan describe her feelings? 

How happy were they all? 

Ben's only daughter was Mara 

And Dhola was Nala's only son 

Happy was th^ir meeting, 

After twelve long years of separation, 

In Narhula was Rewa's evil magic, 

Reigning supreme over one and all 

Dhola knew her powers, 

Never again did he want to be her captive. 

Together they all sat and decided 

To make Pingala, Dhola's permanent abode 

And there he lived and ruled with Maru 

For many long years. 



NOTES. 

Life A Gond Karma from Raipur Dis- 

trict. 

Youth A Dadariya from Bilaspur district. 

The Eager Heart A Karma from Sarangarh State. 

Separation A Nachori from Raipur district. 

The Chhattisgarhi women use 
.\lehndi leaf paste to decorate their 
hands and feet with its yellowish 
red colour. 

Friendship A Dadariya from Raipur district. 

Tears Will Wove A Dadariya from Raipur district. 

him 

Eager Steps A Karma from Raipnr district. 

The Magic Of her A Karma from Drug district. 

charms 

I am pining for A Karma from Raipur. 

you 

Doomerkhol is the iiarne of a village. 
The Lone Girl A Dadariya from Raipur district. 

The Unhappy man A Dadariya from Bilaspur. 
The Unfortunate A Nachori from Raipur. 

Girl 

The happy Man A Nachori from Raipur. 

They make me mad A Karma from Bilaspur district. 

Love Songs Dadariya from Raipur and Bilaspur. 

Taroi is the name of a creeper. 

Sari is the ordinary dress of Indian 

women. 

Pardeshi literally means a foreigner, 

Pafa literally means King. 

Dhoti is a man's loin cloth. 

Sawan and fihadou are the names 

of two months falling in the rainy 

season. 

80 



Notes (Contd.) 



Karel is the bitter gourd. 
Chana-bhaft is the vegetable prep- 
ared from the leaves of gram-plant. 
Suktoa is the name of the bright 
star Venus, which is the first to 
appear in the sky every evening. 
Roti means bread* Balam means 
Sweetheart. 

Fangs of Separation A Dadanya from Bilaspur and 

Raipur. 

Raj means a kingdom. 
Fatuhi means an under-shirt. 
Kurta is an Indian type of shirt. 
Chongi is the village smoking pipe 
made of tender leaf. 
Tijera is a type of fever which 
comes every third day. 
Dewar IB husband's younger brother. 
Kharjarha is type oi fever. 
(jtori literally means fair-complexi- 
oned. 

Tutsi is the basil plant sacred to 
God Vishnu. 

Ram is the name of Hindu God. It is 
customary for the village folk to 
wish each other saying Ram- Ram, 
Karma and Dadariya from Raipur 
and Bilaspur. 
A Dadariya from Raipur, 
Dadariya from Raipur and Bilaspur 
Tuma is a sweet gourd. 
Karma from Raipur. 
Pipal is ficus reltgiosa, 
A Dadariya from Raipur. 



Complaints 

Warning 
Passion 

Two Wives 
The Dadariya 



61 



Englishman's Raj 
Dialogue 
Child Birth 



Marriage Songs 



Dewar Bhanji 
The obstinate Jogi 



For the Dear one 



N'otcs (Contd.) 

A Dadariya from Nandgaon state 
A Bansgeet from Raipur 
A Sohar from Sarangarh. 
Nanad is the term for husband's 
sister. 

Kanhaiyalal is derived from the 
name ot Lord Krishna. 
Sakhis are women friends. 
A Bihaw-geet from Raipur. *> 

Baratts, persons going in a marriage 
procession. 
Neem, a tree 

Bhaufi, Elder brother's wife 
Nath, an ornament for nose 
Pairi, an ornament for legs 
Tttri, an ornament for ears. 
Tar t a necklace. 

Tikuh\ an ornament for the head. 
Ghowk, rectangular designs made in 
various colours on the earth for 
special ceremonies. 
Lagun a document fixing the 
marriage written by a priest at a 
special cer&mony. Raghuwar^ God 
Ramchandra. 
A Sua-geet from Raipur. 
A Sua-geet from Bilaspur. 
Jogi, an ascetic. 
Dola, P^anquin. 
A Sua-geet from Sarangarh, 
Samrcdj father-in-law's house. 
Barais, People dealing inbetel 
leaves. 
Matins, Women making garlands. 



Note$(Concld ) 

A Dadariya from Raipur. 
Life A Dadariya from Raipur. 

Tribal Songs of the All these songs have been recorded 



Kamar 



Chandeni 



Dhola Mam 



from the Kamars of the Fingeshwar 
and Bindranawagarh Zamindaris of 
Raipur district. 
Beffar, Forced labour. 
Strkar, Government. 
Panchayat) Tribal council. 
Daht, The primitive method of 
shifting cultivation employed by the 
Kamars. They first fell the trees 
and then burn them. The seeds are 
sown later on the ashes. 
Katha, One katha is nearly equal to 
four seers. 

Chandeni literally means moon-light 
It is a very romantic name. 
Nagara, a huge drum. 
Samdhis, The fathers of bride and 
bridegroom are each other's samdhi*. 
Parqhani, Taking the marriage 
procession round the village, at least 
nominally. 

Benarsi, style common in Benares. 
Narayan, One of the many names 
ol God Vishnu 
(ruru, Spiritual teacher 
Sat, Truth, inward force. 
<rhee, Butter heated and purified. 
<7ur, Unrefined sugar. 
Kusumba, A beverage. 
Paseri, Five seers. 
Ganja and Dhatura, poisonous subs- 
tances. 
63 



Some Folktales of Kolhan 
(Singhbhum, Bihar) 

By D. N Majumdar 

Sahadeya Bura Ondo Chutu 
reya Kahani. 

Munu-reya kaji ehi musing din Sahadeya Bura Siutane- 
taikena 

Old ttory that one day Sahadeya the old man was ploughing 

Ondo sitan-sitante miad chutu sinum tada. E n t e 
and while ploughing one rat ploughing found. Then 

Sahadeya Bura chutu do goji teya namtaiia, mendo chutu 
kaji keda 

Sahedya fold) rat to kill wanted, but rat said 

A ! Sahadeya Bura alom gqjiuga, ain miad asu bugin budinj 
"Oh ! Sahadeya Bura don't kill me, I one very good trick 

jagarama". Ente en chutu do lijare tondom-kite oate idi-kia 
will tell you/' Then that rat in cloth binding home he took, 

Chutu mi chipud leka baba jom-keto kaji-keda, Sahadeya 
rat one handful of paddy eating said, Oh! Sahadeya (old) 

Bura tising karamcha ko ama chare sim-ko-jom-teyako- 
kepaiji 

today foxes your house in to eat your fowls pro- 
tana, enamente am miad datarom sabakayate simko cha- 
duar rey ukua 
posing, therefore you one say the holding bowl house on door 

kanome ondo bolo-tan redo-ko tombakome" Sahadeya Bura 
remain hiding and they entering itrike them/' Sahadeya 

enkage rika keda ondo sabin karamchako tomba-ked-koa, 
mende 

accordingly acted and all the foxes he hit; but 



baadia karamcha kaji-keda, Ohuilaraatey aim sodape tana? 
tail-loss fox said, when the fowl did peck you ? 

Sahadeya Bura cha tombapetana." Ohanab do Sahadeva 
Bura * 

Sahadeya it was who pecked/' Afterwards Sahadeya 

ol'lente sabin karornchako kaki-nir-ked-koa. Eta musing 
coming out all foxes put them to flight. Another day 

ondoge karamchako bichar-keda chi abu Sahadey Bura 
once again foxes planned that we Sahadeya Bura's 

obare godra-mindibu kumbua. En kaji chutu aumnda ondo 
house-in ram shall steal. That plan the rat heard and 

Sahadeya Bura kajiada ohi tising do karamchako ama chare 
Sahadeya told that today foxes your house-in 

Godra-mindiko kumbua ena mente am rniad mogaru 
saba-kayte 

ram will steal therefore you one mallet taking 

mindi-ko cha duar re ukuakanome ondo bolo-redo ko ente 
ram's fold door on remain hiding and enter if they with that 

koram kom. Sahadeya rniad rniad-te sabin koy koram 
pura ked koa. 

strike them. Sahadeya one by one all he struck 

ondo chanab te bandia ko bolo-ichitana mendo bandia 
and afterwards tail-less one they asked to enter but the tail- 

aher tege adana ondoy kajiakotana chi chuilamatey mindi 
less beforehand knew and he said that when is it that rams 

ro-pe tana? ini Sahadeya Bura cha koram pe tana. 
Ohanab do 
butt you ? there Sahadeya surely is striking youi Thereafter 

Karamcha-ko 

the foxes 

e-poromogekonreana, Anreage Karamchako kako boroyana 
passing stool took to flight. Even then foxes were not frightened 

65 



Ondo musing din bakaire kakaru kutnba teya ko tik keda-an 
and one day in garden pumpkin to steal they planned that 

en kaji chutu ayumad koa. En kaji Sahadeya Bura kajiruaia 
plan the rat overheard. That plan to Sahadeya re-told 

ondo kaji keda, "A Sahadeya Bura, am tising do pura leku 
and said, *' Oh ! Sahadeya you today a good deal ot 

kakaru-utu amakam ondo kakaru dupila kaete sikaur-baher 
purapkin'curry eat and pumpkin on head hanging a rope 

haka taete. 
to rest on. 

en-re dubakanome ondo en kakaru ko huaeteya ko sanang 
thereon sit and that pumpkin to bite they want 

redo petepetetan ehi me." Sahadeya Bura enkage rika 
keda 

if you purge, " Sahadeya accordingly acted- 

Karanachako seneyana ondo miad ujeyane te kakaru 
hua keda. 

Foxes went and one jumping pumpkin bit. 

En dipilang Sahadeya Bura potopototane ohi adu keda. 

In the mean time Sahadeya purged down. 

En chi jornkedte kamranaoha esui ransaiana ondo kajikeda 
chi 

That stool eating the fox very glad became and said that 

nen kakaru da esu matakana ondoin boga tab keda. 
En kage 

that pumpkin was over-ripe and so I broke it. In the same way 

sabin karamohako rika keda ondo kaji keda-mendo bandia 
all foxes did and said, but tail-less 

karamcha kaji keda, "Naha danae kakarutn joman-eni 
fox said, " Well now you think to have eaten ripe 

Sahadeya Bura cha ohitan-enape jo/n tan." En bandia do 
pumpkin, Sahadeya surely is purging, you eating/' That tail-less 

66 



Saning rege taina ondo eta karamcha kodo esu ko kurkuraia 
at a distance stood and the other foxes much got angry* 

En Sahadeya Bura's nutura kaji ked rege bandia karamcha do 
That Sahadeya's name uttered tail-less fox 

esu ko kakia ondo ko huaia. Ente musing karamcha 
ko bichar keda, 

they chased and bit. Then one day foxes planned 

"Nen Sahadeya Bura halteabui ejakad bua, musing-bu 
This Sahadeya Bura us out wits, one day, 

baigoia " Nen kaji kapaji tan re chuti aumad koa ondo 

we will kill him by black art. While talking about this 
plan the rat overheard them and 

Sahadeya Bura jagarada-ente chanab do chutu Sahadeya 
buri 

Sahadeya Bura informed them afterwards the rat Sahadeya's wife 

te kaji samjao taiyal chi am musing din haming gojerjana 
explained to that you one day your husband's death 

mente ra-ra me. Buri era ankage musing din ra-a tana ondo 

bewail. The old woman accordingly one day mourned and 

karamchako ayumaia. Eute karamchako buri era ko kulitana, 
foxes heard her. Then foxes old woman asked, 

"Ohia jianj okoye gojeyana-anam ra-a tana." Buri era 
well grand mother who is dead that you weeping? The old woman 

kaji keda, "Haming cha gojeyana." Karamchako kajikeda, 
replied, ' 'My husband died. " Foxes said 

"Enredo jiang aleole ra-ra ondo hasa gara reole ur-denga 
meya." 

Then grand ma' we also shall mourn and grave help digging 

Ante buri era ehad ko gehae. Karamchako ondo buri era 
Then old woman said 'yes' to them. Foxes and old woman 

ser jati te eu potom tadah miad mutu ko topa keda. Ante 
torn mat wrapped one long they buried. 

67 



chanab do sabein rea key diliad koa, Sahadeya Bura do 
afterwards aubsin ceremony invited them. Sahadeya Bura 

ukuakante menae gea. Dilikan somae tebayan re sabin 
remained hidden. Fixed time having come all 

karamohako seter lena. Buri era orakente oiido mundekete 
foxes arrived* The old woman bathing and cooking rice 

omad koae. Ente nelko tanae chi sabin ko repe tana, 
served them. Then she saw them all snatching one another's share 

Buri era metad koa chi apedo nekape repaya ena mente 
Tfre old woman told them, you this way snatch, therefore 

tangan tangau nein tol tapeya en redo esu bugilekatepe 
separately I will tie you. Then only much peacefully 

jomeya. Buri era tol tad koe te raadi amad koa. Tik 

kojom 

will eat. The old woman tying them rice gave them. Just when 

sikao tan dipilang Sahadeya Bura mogaru sabakaete oa 
bitarete 
they finishing Sahadeya Bura mallet holding from within house 

ol lena ondo sabin karamcha koe koram goe ked koa* 
came out and all foxes struck them dead' 

Sikuar baer rope to rest on. 

pete pete tan with the sound l pete pefe 1 

poto poto tan with c poto poto' sound. 

sera jati te eu potara fcadah adj. clause, qualifying log. 
meaning, a log which was wrapped up with an old mat 

Sabsin-sradh ceremony 



68 



Masuri Jang Rea KahanL 

A Masuri Seed the Story of 

Esu din rea kajichi mido doba hon oado barandi honlo king 
Long ago of story that one Dhobi's son and a barber's son they 

sapakiana. Musing doba hon esu ko erang kia ondo eni 
had same name. One day Dhobi's boy was much scolded and he 

ohaete sta-dismn-te nir teyae namtana-Enkage barandi hono 

from home to other land to flee wanted. In the same way barber 
boy 

erang ki teko nir tana, Ohanabdo musing din midtareking 
being scolded was fleeing. Afterwards one day at one place 

bapetaeyana. Doba hon kaji keda, * l chia saking! okon tern 

tana?" 

met each other. Dhobi's son said, "Well my name sake, where to?'* 

Barandi hon kaji keda chi ain ko arangintana anamentein 
Barber boy said that 1 am scolded therefore I 

nir-tana ondo am saking okoa tern tana? Doba kaji keda chi 
am fleeing and you name sake where are you going?, Dhobi's son said 

ainyo ko arang kiding tein nir tana. Ente chanabdo midte 
1 being scolded am fleeing/ Then afterwards together 

nir tea king kaji keda. Huring saning king senoeyan re 
to flee both agreed. A little distance having gone 

miad ro-masuri Jang king beta tada ondo ana holad-te 
one dry masur seed both met and that with razor 

had chata kedte miad miad chata king hating keting jotn 

keda. 

splitting each one piece dividing ate 

Barandi hondo holad, nepelupurum, racham eman sabine 
edakada 

Barber boy razor* looking glass, scissors, etc took with him, 

69 



mendo doba hondo sama tege eenotana. 

but Dhobi's boy empty went 

Seno seno te miad esu marang buru reking tebaeyana 
Going one vast forest in both reached 

En buru re miad munda lekan kulaha undu taikena ondo eni- 
In that forest one headman-like tiger's den was and he 

aya undutarege dubakante porja koa bichare bichara. Doba hon 
near his den sitting was administering justice, Dhobi's son 

ondo barandi hon king giti teya taed nam namtetik en kula 
and barber boy sleeping place in search of just tiger's 

undu king nam keda ondo nida do anrege king taiken Tik- 
den both found and night therein passed. Just 

nida dipilang do kula hujulena ondo chadlom do undu-re 
in the night the tiger came and tail in den 

adutaete dubeana. Anpa undu bitar re doba hon ondo 
barandi 

placing sat* There den within Dhobi's son and barber's 

hon lo king kapaji tana. Barandi hon menkeda, ''Alangnen 
son were talking. Barber's son said, '* We both 

kula chadlom lang hadia." Nen kaji ayum ked te deba hou 
this tiger tail will cut,*' This speech hearing DBobi's boy 

kaji keda, "Kalanga, neko nentare nitnin kulako duba 
kana, ondo 

said "We wont, these here so many tigers and sitting and 

nilang-hadiredo alang doko hua gos langa " Mendo barandi 
if we both cut this one we both shall be bitten to death. 9 ' 

on kae manatingeyana ondo sakite kajiada, "Earn 

But barber boy did not obey and said to his namesake "As you 

manatingredo enanga masure jang am ruainme." Ante 
doba hon 

don't obey masur seed return me* "Then Dhobi's 

70 



manating eyauaiondo kula chadlomhad ked geyakiag. Kula 
agreed and tiger's tail they cut. The tiger 

hasu ki redo esui betengeyana ondo sabin kulako nireyana, 
with pain much startled and all the tigers fled 

Doha hon ondo barandi hon king dida nidage etare tainteya 
Dhobi's boy and barber boy also by night other place to 

king nameyana. Ente miad marang daru reking rakabeana 
lodge went in search. Then one big tree both climbed 

Huring gari re burn ren raja joto kula en-daru-suba-rege 
Shortly jungle's king the lion under that tree 

soba kada. Sabin kula ko ondo had ked baudia kulao 
held a meeting. All the tigers and the tail-cut tiger too 

seterakaua. Doba hondo kulako nelked te esui boro keda. 
arrived Dhobi's boy tigers seeing got very much afraid 

Barandi hon doba hon lija te koto re toljuataiya, enreyo 
The barber boy Dhobi's boy with cloth to a branch tied him 

imine boro keda chi dokol dokol te aye tola kau koto 
nightly, even then so much frightened that trembling the 

rapudeyana ondo etere hasa hoso tane eueana. Euton- 
dipiiang 

branch broke and on ground with a crash fell. With 

barandi hon daji keda, "Mara talang saking sabkame, 
falling barber boy said "Go on my namesake, catch them, 

nekogelang nambatana." Nena ayum kedte sabin kula ko 

these we seek." This hearing all tigers 

nireana. Chanab do sapakia endo eta tiking sen oy an a. 

fled. Afterwards both to another place went. 

Sen sente musing nida pang miad rakshas oha reking taiy ana 
Going one night one giant's house in both stayed. 

ondo liora paete kercha kudlam, bid bor baer, Ghacha hata 
and in their way worn out spade old rope, winnowing 

71 



ondo miad sukuri hon king id torsa kada. Angeyan redo 
fan, and one small pig both took. At dawn 

rakshas huju lean ondoe neletana chi cha do bitar pahete 
the giant came and saw that the house from within 

hardeda kana. Ente Bakshas okoy meha mente eukeda 
Bit are 

was shut- Then giant who is there to find out cried. From 

teking kaji ruaiya, "Aling mena linga." Rakshas kuli ked 
within both replied, we two are." Giant asked them 

kinga, "Ghimin ben peana? Aking kaji keda. " Kaling 

peana " 

both, "How much strength have you? Both said, "We two have no 

Bakshas kaji keda, ' Acha, abena datain nel leka." Ante 
strength/' Giant said, "Well, your teeth I will see.' Then 

Khirki-hora kercha kudlain king udubaiya. Bakshasa 
anae nel 
through window wornout spade both showed. Giant that seeing 

kete leye udub echi-ked kinga. Aking sidboro baer king 
tougue told them to show. They both old straw rope 

udubaeya, Bakshas kaji keda, "Aben luturnel-teyain-sanang 
showed. Giant said " You two's ear I want to see 

tana." Ante chacha hata king ududaeya. Chanab re 
Then old winnowing fan both showed. Afterwards 

Rakshas kaji keda, "Acha sabinein nel pura keda-boren 
Giant said, " Well I saw everything of head 

miad siku udubainben," Aking tukuri hen king udubaeya 
one louse show me. " Both pig's young one showed 

Aking Rakshas king Knlikeda, "Alingado Sabinam 
nelkeda, 

Both giant asked, " Our all thing saw, 

ama leye honang jakam nel achialing redo esu bugina." 
your tongue if you show us it will be very good/' 

72 



Rakshas akinga! kaji manatiugeyana ondo leye udubad 

kinga 

Giant to both's speech agreed and tongue showed them- 

Ente barandi hon Rakshasa leye had-teyae-namtana 

mendo 

Then barber boy Giant's tongue wanted to cut but 

doba hon do esui boroye tana. Barandi hon kaji keda, " Da 
Dhobi's boy was much afraid. Barber boy said, "Give 

anredo holama-nem-jom-ked-masuri-jang am urainme."Doba 
then the Masur seed you ate give me back. >f Dhobi's 

hon kaji keda, "Acha anredo hadi reom masurijang 
okonetein 

boy said, l Well then you may cut him, masur seed where 

namana." Barandi hon chilika Rakshasa leye had keda 
from I shall get. Barber boy as soon as Giant's tongue cut 

ankage Rakshas gurean te goeana ondo anta mayom te 
pereana. 

soon Giant fell down dead that place with blood 

Aking chanab do Rakshas oa kata rama, ti-rama ondo lutur 
overflowed. Both afterwards Giant's toes, fingers and ears 

king had ketj ata tiking senoyana. En Rakshas iminang 
cutting elsewhere went. That Giant was so 

dustui taikena chi okoyo aya chate sen keya kaka borsaeya 

wicked that no one to his house to go dared. 
Ena mente raja hukum tada chi okoye hen Rakshas goia-ini 
Therefore the king ordered that whoever that Giant will kill 

lo ayain hon arain andi kite ada rajain amaia. Aking-had- 
with him my daughter marrying half the kingdom I will give. 

ki chanab miad kuntal chatu bari tade te en Rakshas-oha- 
Their cutting him afterwards a potter carrying pots past 

iapate seno tan taikena. Ghilika en kunkal Rakshas goa 
Giant's house was going. As soon as the potter saw the 

73 



kane nel kia ankage chatu ko taba rapud kete Rakshasoa 
dead Giant soon threw away pots in Giant's blood roll- 

mayom-ro bati kena ondo osu ransa te ohate rnaena. Ente 
ed himself and very gladly to home returned. Then 

Kaji biur keda, "Ain (Kunkal) an Rakshas-ain goe kia. f> 
declared. ' that Giant killed." 

Raja ena-aum-kedte-asui-ransaena ondo kunkal-lo raja-hon- 
King hearing that became very glad and with potter 

ara loho andi hobaotea din ko din tada, Nepa kunkul do- 
princess marriage day was fixed. Now potter to 

raja-arain-andi mente aya hon buri sabine ru-nir ked koa. 
marry the princess thinking his children and wife all beat 

Tik andi-din-tebayan-re doba hon ondo barandi hon kinho 
and drove away. When marriage day came up Dhobi's boy and 

an raja oha king setereyana ondo king kaji keda, " Aling 
barber boy too that king's house arrived and said. " We two 

Rakshas do goe taia, hunkal goe tainedo, chikan nisan koe 
Giant killed if the potter killed it what signs has he 

agutada-aling do ne aya leye, lutur, katarama, tirima 
brought ? We two this his tongue, ear, toes fingers 

sabina ling agu tade." Neako nel ked redo ko kunkal do 
everything have brought/' These seeing potter was 

chakad-redo-leka-kia ondo ahako gaha ased taete ru nir kia. 
found a liar and sewing up his mouth beat him away. 

Ghauab do barandi hon ondo raja, hon era lo andi hobayana 
Then barber boy and the princess marriage took place and 

ondo asu bugi leka tako taiana. 

they lived very happily. 



74 



Renge Sitiya KahanL 

Poor boys' story. 

Miaa mido esu range 8itiyae taikena. Aeya engata 
Once one very poor boy was. His mother 

Buad taikena. En sitia merom gupikete ja bati ko 
alone was, That boy goats tending wages they 

emaieya entegeking asulentan taikena. 

paid him by that both maintained themselves* 

Musing din engate baria lad-e baileda, ondo ena mimiad- 
One day mother his two cakes made, and that one each 

king hating-keda, 

both divided. 

Sitia lad jomjomte merom gupi senoyana. 

By cake eating goats to tend went. 

Okontare dimsi goat koa entare 

Where daily he penned them 

miad kuknruakan daru taikena* En sitia 
a hollow tree was. The boy 

jomseare-lad na-aye pang jomea men 

the cake remaining after eating later on to eat 

urukedte en kukuru daru re ema-tuda. 

thinking that hollow tree in placed and went* 

Ayubpang huju-ura tanre neletana 

In the evening while returning found 

chi lad do banoa, mendo endar-re miad 

that cake was not, but there one 

daru harayana ondo en-re lad joa-kana 

tree grew up and there-on cakes grew 

76 



Ena nel kedte en sitia esue ransayatia ondo jo-lad jom-kedte 
That seeing that boy very glad became and fruit-bread eating 

oa-te eenoyana. Enkage dimsi en sitia meromko 
home went This way daily that boy goats 

goat taite en dam reya lade joma. Musing dinjoratu- 
put into pen that tree of bread ate. One day giantess 

en-darusubare seterlena ondo sitiyae kajiatana, *'Aino 
under that tree reached and to the boy spoke, ''For me also 

talang lad euain me." Sitia daruetege kajikeda, 
dear bread drop." Boy from tree spoke, 

"Mar ondo ote renj eu-ama," Jomtu-era kaji keda, 

41 All right on the ground I drop for you,'* Giantess said 

"Kanya, ote-ote-sohano-tedo." Ondo raisa sitia kajikeda, 
* I wan't, it will smell like ground/ 1 Once more boy said. 

Lija-re ondo atangeme." Jomtu-era kajikeda, "Kanya 
"On cloth then receive it " Giantess said. "I won't 

lija-lija-8ohanotedo " Atnge agulente ti-rem emain 
it will smell like cloth/' You personally coming down in 

redo era bugioa." Ente sitia agulente 

hand giTe me if will be very good!" Then boy alighting 

ti-re emaitan taikena. En dipilang 

in hand was going to hand over. That time 

jomtu-era sitiya sabki-te bosta-re tolkiya 

giantess boy catching in a sack tied 

ondo aya oate dupil-id-kiya. Sensente hora-re 

and her home carried him on the bead. Walking on way 

eni da tetang kiya ondo sitia dona-tui te da nu-te 

he felt thirst and boy bringing down from head water 

eenoyana. En japa ta rege sitan hoko taikena 

to drink went. Near that ploughing men were 

76 



ondo enko en bosta ko ra keda ondo sitia ko niriehi-kiya 
and they that sack opened and boy let run away 

Chanab en bosta-re diriko peretira kedteko tol esed keda 
Afterwards that sack in stones refilling fastened 

eate siuteko ruhayaaa, Jointu-era ruhaleute bosta refya 
then to plough returned. Giantess returning sack's 

patatn ay a oa*te dupil seter keda, ondo rakedte nele 
parcel her home carried on head, and unfastening looked 

tan redo sitia kae nam taya. Eate menkeda, "Tisinge 
for the boy could not find him. Then he thought " To-day 

chakad kidinga, gapado kae poeho-a." Gapater tik 
he outwitted me, tomorrow he will not escape/ 1 Next day just 

entarege jomtu-era en sitia-e beta-ura-taia. Ayer 

on the same spot giantess that boy again met. As 

musing leka-ge chakad ki-te sab-kiya ondo bosta-re tol- 
before deceiving him caught him and in sack bound 

kucha-ki te oate dupilid kiya rneudo netora okontareo ka-e 
him to home carried on her head but this time no where 

don-keda Ente eni honte era-a kajiado, "Ni 

put it down. Then he to her daughter said. " This 

tising enj aguakaya ondo isintai-me, ain oraintein 

very day I have brought and cook him, I to bathe 

senotana. Hoate^era chuila boata-e rakeda en redo 

am going. Now daughter when sack unfastened than 

sitia honte-era-e subkucbakite basangakan dare udur 
boy her daughter seizing boiling water in pushed her 

kanju kiya ondo-e nireyana. Jomtu*era orakenete 
down and he ran away. Giantess bathing 

ruha lea redo honte- era basanga-kan dare goja kan 

returned when her daughter boiled water in seeing 

nelkite esue ra-honor-heda 

her dead much bewailed. 

77 



Tuyu Ondo Sitanko 
P ox and ploughman 

Sida nen disutn-re diri, daru, tuyu ondo kula balu-ko 
Formerly this earth, stone, tree, fox and tiger bear 

kap^ji-tana* An dipilang mido siutan ho ta-te miad 
all talked. That time one ploughman to one fox 

tuyu huju leaa. Ente metaja chia saking ! Chutu 
came. Then said, " Well Saking I rats 

kodo-ko si namo tana-chi bano ? Ho kaji kedo-eya 
plough out or not? Man said, yes. 

saking namogeyako, Enta rege miad bunum taikena. 
Saking they are found On the spot an ant-hill was 

An bnnum toang kete tuyu do an chetan-re dub ichi 
That ant-hill breaking the fox thereon made him 

taiya. Huring gari redo tuyua dubui nidir-ko 

sit. After seme time fox hip white ants 

jom-ptrtu kiya. Ho chanab do miad chutu si-nam-li-te 
ate into. Man then a rat ploughing out 

jid-tege tuyui amada, Chilika tuyu chutui jom-keda 
living to fox gave. As soon as fox rat ate 

an-jaked chutu-do dubui-pa horae nir ol tabeyana, Ante 
immediately rat hip through ran out. Then 

tuyu-do ransa-te ni miad tain, ni miad tain chutu mante 
fox through gladness this one my rat understand* 

miad ni-ge jom biur tana. Tuyu dubui nelen tan redo 
ing the same one ate again and again. Fox hip saw when 

aya dubui putuakanae. Ante an hoe kulitana-Chia 
his hip was penetrated. Then that man asked-well . 

78 



Saking dubui-do okoy threiu dalob ichiua. Ho 
S/tking hip who will cover. Man 

metaitana muchi tare dalob ichin-me. Tuyu muchie 
said. " Have it covered by a drum maker." Fox to drum maker 

Kajiado-a muchi ain dubui dalob tain-me ondo dimsi 
said. You drum maker, my hip cover and daily 

mipiad simkoinj aguama. Ohanab-do muchi tuyua kaja 
one fowl I will bring you. Then drum maker to fox's words 

ayum keda ondo dalob taiyae. Ante tuyu dama sotate 
obeyed and covered him, Then fox drum stick with 

dubui ru lekan tana. 

hip beat, 

Musing din tuyu hatute sentana ondo dubui dubu-dubu*tan 
One day fox to villages went and his 

ru idin tante, eyu idi tanai-chi-ochai paiki parja-ko, 
drum. You all people, 

sabin nir-atape. Raja-ko huju tana. Nen kaji ayum 
all flee away, the kings are coming. This speech hearing 

kedte sabin- ko nireana ond tuyu sim-ko aya ji-perejara 
all fled and fox fowls to hi* heart's content 

kedkock miad-do rnuchi idada. Ankage sabin din sim-ko 
eating one he took to the drum maker. In thi& way always fowls 

jom jom-te jom chabako tonaye. Musing din sabin ho ko 
eating he finished. One day all the people 

budi keda. Miad sukuri-oha-re mido buri-ora-ko handed* 
devised a plan. One pig-house in one old woman shut . 

kur taia. An dipilang-re tuyu dubu-dubu taa ru hujui* 
up* That time fox drumming came 

tanai ondo dimsi eyui lekage eyu hujui tana. Sabin 
and as usual came crying All 



lio-ko buriaaa suad-ko bageatuia Okon dipilang tuyu 
people women alone left. While fox 

seter lena buri era kaji keda "Ne gecha tuyu amge 
approached old women said, "There you are ! fox, you 

chakad te sabin bimkoin join chabake taaa " Eute tuyu 
by deceit all fowls eat up/' Then fox 

asui kurkureyana ondo buri-era data-e tuinj rapud kia ondo 
very angry because and old woman teeth struck and broke; 

sim-ko jom ked koaye. Ohanab-do nireyan horko hujurua 
fcnd fowls ate. Afterwards the men who fled re- 

t 

lened buri era-ko kulikia, "Sari gechi Raja, kodo-ko 
turning old women asked, "Was it true that Rajah 

huju lena?" Buri- era kaji keda, 4 Su-yu." o 

came?" Old women said M Fox" 

chanab-do buri-era suku-jang teko tata-rua-liya, ante-ko 
Then they old women pumpkin seeds with made her teeth, then 

kuli kia ondo buri ara tik-tik "tuyu' mente kaji keda. 
they asked and old women Correctly *fox' uttered 

Sabin ho-ko bichar keta-chi-abu nen tuyu-bu Sabia. 

All the people planned. We this fox will watch, 

Ante miad bndi-ko uru nam keda. Ini sabi lagid kit a 
then one plan they thought out. To catch him, making 

galang tan buri-era murti situad-reya ko bai leda ondo 
mat old woman's idol of wax made and 

enado tuyu-huju-hora-reko dub tada. Ante tuyu-do huju 
on the way the fox used to come seal it. Then while fox coming 
tanre kaji keda, buri era! hora atomain-me ban redo dama 
said, "Old wpman make way for me otherwise with 

o As she lost her teeth she could not pronounce 'tuyu (fox) 
but 'suyu' and when artificial teeth were made and fitted 
she could correctly say 'tuyu' 



sota tern hudnaa meya mendo buri ara jokao kay atomeyana 

drum stick hurl at you but the old woman did not move 

even a bit 

ondo tuyu dama sota-te hud ma kia. Dama sota anrege 

and the fox with drumstick hurled at him* The drumstick 

in that 

atayana, ante tuyu buri-era dama sotaye asi urai tana mendo 
stuck, then fox old woman drumstick demanded but she 

kaye amaya. Chanab do tuyui kurkureyana ondo buri-era 
did not give. Then fox too got angry and old woman 

kuam-re tega kia-mendoe atayana. An dipilang sabin bo- 
on the chest kicked but was stuck. That time all men 

ko nir huju leda ondo tuyu ko sab kia ondo esutikilekateko 
came running and fox they caught and very soundly 

tarn kia ondo chanab-do tam-tam teko tarn goy rena kia. 

beat him and then beat him quite dead- 
Raja Hon-Ara Ondo Mantrihon Reya 
Kahani. 

(King's daughter and minister's son's story) 

Asu din reya kaii chi miad raja-a hon ara-ko pura leka-ko. 
Long long ago on king's daughters many 

taikena ondo miad asu bugin koatani taikena, Sabin 
were and one very beautiful. All 

koa kui miad school-re geko parao kena Eratan-ko parao 
boys and girls in the same school read. For girls the 

teya-do chetan mahala-reya ondo koa tan-ko parao teya-do 
room was in upstairs and for boys study room was 

latar reya. Enka enka-te buring din chanab-re Raja-a 
downstairs. in course of time King's 

hon-era-ko mantri hon-re esu-ko loveyana ondo eni-lo an din 
daughter with minister's son fell in love and with him to 

81 



teya-ko sanangeyana. Mendo mantri ayer tegaya hon-do 

marry wished. But the minister beforehand his son 

esu bugilekale kaji samjao taeyae chi Raja hon-era kolo 
well instructed him that with king's daughters 

alom hepela ondo alom kapajia Enlekage mantri-hon-do 
do not meet and do not talk. Accordingly minister's son 

aputeya kaji esu tik lekate saitiba keda, mendo enreoge 
father's words thoroughly obeyed, but even then 

chanab-do perao parao te mantri-hon-do midoRaja-a hon-era 
at length during school hours minister's son with one of the 

laye apasoraye-ana. Chanab-do baro jakeda mon naiad 

sutam 

king's daughters came into intimacy. At last both's hearts 
were bound into one 

re toleyana, Baro jaked king seped hapanumeyan redo 
cord Both grew young then to 

eta saning disum-te nir teya king sanangeyana. Ente 
some distant country to flee they intended. Then 

musing tala nida miad sadom-re dubeyan tiking nireyana. 
En. 

one midnight riding a horse eloped. That 

sadoin-do-misa hansa li-re 1 (7) gaudi ujena. Mantrihon 
horse once 7 miles galloped. Minister's son 

ondo Raja hon-era, jome nuiteya taka poyesa-ko pura-aleka 
and king's daughther, for food and drink money ranch 

king id keda. Raja hon-era-do miad esu tangan lekan 
they took with them. King's daughter one very peculiar sword 

torai ida kada. En torai esu lesera ondo ente diri lekan 
took. That sword was very sharp and with it anything 

kere teya reyo misa ma-a-ke rege odoa. Nepa akinga apn- 
hard as stone with one stroke broke. There their par- 

82 



ko esu-ko nam lekad kinga mendo jan batu reyo kako 
beta tad 

ents thoroughly made a search for them but in any village did 

not meet 

kinga. Aking-do misao ka-nelad lekau disum reking 
setere* 

them. They both a country never seen arrived at 

yana, ondo midta redo sen sente da tetang ked kinga. Aking 
and at a place in their journey they felt thirty. They 

da nam namte miad rakshas-ko oha reking setereyana. En 
both water to search a giant's house came to. In 

rakshas oha-re ho Kohatan-ko ondo akoa eugaie taikena. 
that giant's house seven boys and their mother lived. 

I ho-ko bitar-re*te turui ho-ko andia kana ondo sabin koyete 
Out of seven six were married and the youngest of 

huring ni Damagurguria- do dinda tege taikena. Okon 
musing 

them all Damagurguria bechelor was. That day 

mantrihon ondo raja-honera an rakshas oha king beta 
leda, en 

when the minister's son and king's daughter to that giant's 

reached, that 

musing do Damagurguria re era nam lagid Sabin und* 
boy a eta 

day Damagurguria for bride to search all brothers to a foreign 

disum teko sen lena. Mantri-hon ondo Raja-hon-era en 
country went Minister's son and king's daughter that 

rakshas koa engate da-a nui teya king asitana. Rakshas 
giant's mother for water drinking asked. The 

Buri era-do Raja-hon-era-e nel ked-te esui ransaeria ondo 
old giantess king's daughter seeing became very glad and 

aya honte Damagiirguria-re andi teyae sanangeyana. 
Buri-era 

his son Damagurguria to marry wished. The old woman 



keda-ohi an seped (mantri-hon) do Raja-hoa-efa 
kumbu lite 

thought that youth (Minister's son) king's daughter stole 

nira kana ena mente enkinajagar j'agar-te esui gahari ked 
away therefore talking to made them very 

kinga, enreyo aya hon kodo auri geko Betera. Ohanab do 
late, even then her sons did not turn up. Afterwards 

mantri-hon ondo Raja-hon-era eta tiking senoyeyana-mendo 
minister's son and king's daughter somewhere went-but 

senotan dipilang buriera mi chipud leka mani jang eakam-re 

at the time of their departure old woman one handful of mustard 

seeds in a leaf 

chipud kete akinga sadom chadlom te-tol tada. 
packing to their horse's tail bound. 

manijang okon tare eua, en-ta-re enete miad ba daru 

Hilling- saning king senoyana rege 

A little distance they had gone when 

rakehaeko sabin-ko eeter rua lena, Ente en gate- do 
little giants all returned. Then their mother 

esui erang ked koa, ondo kajiad koa chi na-age mido esu 
scolded them much, and told them just now one very 

bugin kuitani mido ho id taeya, anking na-age nir beta 
beautiful girl a man took, they two just now run and 

kingpe ondo era reye ruai-pe, mani-ba-age otong id-pe-an 
reach them and girl snatch, mustard seeds you follow-and 

rege be betakinga. Engateya kaji ay urn ked te kau bau ba- 

then you will find them. Mother's words hearing hurriedly 

followed 

a otong otong teko beta ked kinga. Beta ked king redo-ko 

the seeds and found them. Where they came over them 

both, 



mautri-hoa-do ma-a goi teya-ko sanangeyana, Mendo Raja 
the minister's son to stay they wanted, But king's daugtr 

boa-era esui kaji keda enteko bagetaiya ondo kajia-ko 
ter much pleaded then they left him and she said to 

tana, 4C Ain am-tege apeloin senoa, mendo ainya miad kaji 
them," I willingly with you shall go but my one word 

ayumepe" Rakshaeko aya kaji manatinge-yana-ko. Raja-hon 
(Damagurguria bage Rete) 

listen to", The giants her words listened excepting Damag- 

urguria, the 

era sabin rakshas-ko panti-re tingu ichi ked koa ondo aya 
king's daughter made all the giants stand in a line and her 

torai olkete sabin misate ma-a goy ked koa. Ente mantri- 
sword drawing all together slew* Then with minis* 

hon-lo esu saning taking senoyana. Damagurguria eau 

ter's son very far went. Damagurguria in the 



renge boa rupre bodola kan-te aking ayer-pa-re aeno tana. 
disguise of very poor man before them walked. 

Ini nelkete Raja-hon-era esui urui-ana ondo ini sadom gnpi 

Him seeing king's daughter was much moved and him to graze 

the horse. 

lagid king keya kia. Huring din bugi tege senoyana mendo 
they took. For some days all went well but 

musing din Raja-hon-era-a torai sadom-gupi tani sab keda. 
one day King's daughter's sword syce took 

Ente mantri-hon doye ma-a goe kia ondo Raja-hoa-era idi 
With it minister's son slew and king's daughter to take 

teyae sanangeyana. Musing , din Damagurgnria-lo darn 
ma-a 

he intended. One day with Damagurguria to fell 

a tree 

teking aenoyana. Darn ma-a dipilang torai-do ote-re em 
went. At the time of felling sword on ground 

85 



ada ondo em-torsa-ge Raja-hon-era aya torai sab rua keda. 
placed and immediately king's daughter her sword seized. 

Ente chanab-do Damagurguria-ye ma-a goy kia Raja-hon 
era. 

Then afterwards Damagurguria slew. King's daughter 

do aya goya-kan ham-te ta-te senoyana ondo aye japa-re 
to her dead husband went and near him 

dubakan-te esui ra-a keda. Huring gari rege Singbonga 
sitting much wept, Shortly afterwards God in 

buri-era rup lene-te huju lenaye. Buri-era kuli kiaye chi 
guise of an old woman came. The old woman asked 

"Chikan reyam ra-a tana? Ente Raja hon-era aya duku 
"Why are you weeping ?" Then king's daughter her sorrows 

eabine jagan keda. Chanab-do buri-era esni uruyaua 
all related. Afterwards old woman was much moved 

ondo enia ham-te jid-rua-kia. Ente chanab-do mantri 
and her husband revived. Then afterwards minister's 

hon ondo Raja-hon-era-lo en buri-era eeuking manting kia. 
son and King's daughter that old woman paid much respect. 

Huring gari rege en buri-eraye danangeyana. Chanab-do 
Shortly the old woman ranis bed. Afterwards 

en disum reking rajayaua ondo esu ransa-te ham- buri king 

in that country they became King and Queen and in great 
happiness husband and wife 

taiyana. * 

lived. 

Putam Hon. King Rea Kaji 

Two Young ones of Dove Story 

Munu rea kaji chi miad putam marang daru re bariae jarom 
Long ago one dove big tree on two eggs 

86 



ledk, AIJ jarkm kingete aereeledo raiad aeu bugin andia 
laid. Those eggs from the first one very good bull 

uri ondo chanabaetedo mido koa tan sitia jonom lena. 
and from the second a male child was born. 

Koatan sitia do Lita ko nutum kia. Lita marangoin redoe 
The boy Lita was named Lita when grew big 

andia uri daruite agu kia. An disum rege raja-hon ko 
the bull from tree brought down. In that country princes 

taikena ondo an ko lo Lita ondo andia uri dimsi king 
were and with them Lita and the bull daily both 

inunga. Raja-hon ko andia uri chehera nel kite idi tea 
played. Princes bull's beauty seeing to take him 

ko bichar keda. Musing din raja-hon ko kaji keda, 
thought. One day princes said, 

**A Lita! tising bu inunga. Am daianredo ale miad uri le 
"Aye Lita ! to-day we shall play. You if miss we one bull 

emama ondo ale daian redo ama uri le idia", Lita eyad 
shall give and we if win your bull we shall take." Lita agreed 

k oaye ondo inungean redo ko Lita ge daiana-ante uri maid 
with them and when they played Lita won and bull one 

nam kia. 
he got. 

Musing din enka ko kaji teda chi Raja hon-ko dai redo 
One day they but princes win if 

Lita-bauteya uri ko india ondo Lita daiyan redo barso 
Lita-brother the bull they will take and Lita win if two- 

takae nameya. Enbetnrango Litage daiyana ondo bar-so 
hundred rupees will get. That day too Lita won and two- 

takae nam keda, Eta musing Raja hon-ko Lita-a andia- 
hundred rupees got. Another day princess Lita's bull 

87 



uri ondo akoa uri-lo-ko ropo ichi ked kinga, en muaingo 
and their bull with made them fight, that day too 

aya uri-ge daiyana-ondo pura leka taka-ko emaya. 
his bull won and much money they gave him, 

Enleka-ge hati-lo misa-ko ropo ichi ked kinga, enreyo 
Similarly with an elephant once they made them fight, in that too 

Lita-a andia uri-ge daiyana ondo joka leka rajea-ko emaya. 
Lita's bull won and a part of kingdom they gave him. 

En dipilang Lita-do esui munda-huju-u tana, ente Raja-hon- 
That time Lita very rich began to grow, so princes 

ko esuko kurkuro tana ondo andia uri idi teya geko sana- 

ng7 

very much grow angry and bull to take they wanted. 

ana* Chanab-te Raja-hon-ko kaji keda, Lita ama uri-lo 
Afterwards princes said "Lita your bull with 

top-lo bu larsi kinga". En kaji Lita eya kedtege 

cannon let us make them fight''. To this word Lita had to agree. 

Andia uri kaji keda, U E Lita undi na-do ain top-lo kain 
The bull said, "Oh Lita brother this time I with cannon 

daigeya enamente am ain gojeyan-re ainya med-king, upnia- 
fight. therefore you on my death my two eyes, four 

kata-ko ondo chadlorn aguruayeme, ente ama oa duar-re topa 
feet, and tail you bring, then on your house door bury 

tame. Baria kata-king oa bitar-re, baria baranda pare 
them. Two feet within the house, two toward the verandah 

ondo med-king-do ayer iiata king japa-re ondo chadlom-do 
and two eyes front feet near and the tail 

doya kata king ehanab pare topa tame/' Andia uri top-lo 
hind feet behind bury them." The bull with cannon 

larai kenaye inendo haraoyanaye ondo gojeyanaye. Lita ayer 
fought but was beaten and he died. Lita as 

88 



kajia-kan lekaya rika keda. Raja-hon-ko na-a doko 
settled before acted. Princes now 

daiyana ondo Lita-a baba-biti-ko reye urai teya-ko 
won and Lita's grain and riches to snatch away 

bichar keda. 

they resolved. 

Lita topa tad kataye-te seta-ko, med kinge.te uruking 
Buried by Lita from feet dogs, from eyes two black bees 

ondo chadlomete aye aye-te hansaoteya hanasa baiyana. 
and from tail self-acting ^fc whip was made. 

Musing din Raja-hon-ko Lita kulaye toa-ko agu ichi tayeya. 
One day princes made Lita's milk bring. 

Baria urn-king ayer-tege honan kulaye king nam kiya. 
The two bees before hand a hare with youngones and found out. 

Chanab-do seta ko, uru-king, jadu reya hanasa ondo Lita 
Then dogs bees, the magic whip and Lita 

honan tate7o senoyana. Uru-king-do kulaye med king tui- 
to the hare with youngones went. Bees hare's eyes stung 

tana ; chabuk-do kulaye hansa tana, seta kodo okon pao 
the whip whipped the hare, dogs nowhere 

kako eeno ichiyaia ondo-ko huaitana. Chanab-do kulaye 
allowed her to go and they bit her, Then hare 

kaji keda, " Alope gojinga ape janape sananga enageng 
said, "Don't kill me, you whatever like that will 

emapea." Lita kaji kedo-chi ale janao bono ama toa go 
I give you," Lita said 'To us nothing but your milk 

ama leme. Kulaye ya keda -ye-ondo Lita toae taue ked*ie 
give. Hare agreed, and Lita milking her to the 

Raja-hon-ko ta-te id keda. Lita teko kulaye toa taue 
princes took the milk. Lita while returning after 

89 



kete buju Ufa tan dipilang bauakan kulaye-bon kaji keda-cbi 
milking the hare the eldest hare's son said 

eh ma ainyo iieko loin senoa. Raja bon-ko tate toa-ko id 

*'Oh mother I too with these shall go. To the princei they 

milk took 

keda ondo kulaye bonoy kaji keda cbineko ainya angain 
and young hare also s rid, 'These my mother 

tayetege toa doko agua kada ondo ainyo nain bujuakana. 
from milk brought and I too have come. 

Ente Raja hon-ko-sariyatff-ko. Musing din kula toa 
Then princes believed, One day tigers* milk 

agu lerne ko metaiya Nen dipilango kulaye toa chilika 
teKo 

to bring they told him- This time too hare's milk as they 

agu leda enka rika kede tege-ko aguleda ondo bauakan kula 

brought by doing the same they brought and the 

eldest cub 

honoye huju leiia. Nen dipilango Raja-hon-ko Banyan tege 
also came. This time too princes had to believe* 

hobayana. JSfen hobayan paiti kore Lita-ge daiyan chi 
Raja, 

In all these feats Lita having won princes 

bon-ko esu-ko kurkureyana ondo larai teya-ko din tada. 
were greatly angered and to fight they fixed a day* 

Lita-a sepai kodo upnia seta-ko. baria uru-king, miad 
Lita's soldiers were four dogs, two bees, one whip* one 

banasa, miad kulaye ; ondo mikd kulk ; mendo Raja-hon-koa 
hare and one tiger; but princes' soldiers were 

sepai kodo pura leka-ko taikena. Lita joko-doy boroy tan 
many. Lita somewhat afraid 

90 



taikena mendo kulaye kaji keda, "E Lita jokao alom 
boro-ya 

was but bare said, "Aye Lita, even a bit 

don't fear 

ain-ge sabin goy chaba koa." Larai hobao tar-re kulaye 
I all shall kill." In the battle field hare 

upun-hisi mon hambal torai-te misa tege Raja-hon-ko ondo 
with four-score maund heavy sword at one stroke princes and 

akoa sepai koy ma-a goy ked koa. Raja goy-an redo 
Chanab- 

their soldiers struck them dead. The king being killed 
afterwards 

do Lita Rajayanaye, Kula-do mantri lekaye taiyana ondo 
kodo 

Lita became king. Tiger as minister acted, and the others 

aye dasi-ko ondo chitra-ko leka-ko taiyana. Lita 
became his servants and followers. Lita 

ohanab do Raja honte era and! kete esu suku-te pur a- a 
eirma 

then king's daughter marrying very happily for many years 

Lekaye Raja keda. 
ruled. 

! 

Ritui Gondai Reya Kahani 

Ritui Gondai s Story 

Sida dipilang Jagannathpur-re mido Jagannatheingh nutum 
Long ago at Jagannathpur one Jagannathsingh by name 

raja taikena. Aya hati-ko ondo sadom-ko pura leka-ko 
a king was. His elephants and horses many 

taikena. Sangar-te seno redo aye dub hati-re miad sona 
were during hunting excursion bis elephant one gold 

reya damarkom hakataiya. Kachari oa-do nen barsing 
bell hung. His court building the present 

91 



mena Ganga ram Mankia oa di-re taikena ondo enteyo hati- 
Gangaram Manki's housestead was and there to on ele- 

re dubakan tege seno tane taikena. En dipilange 
phant sitting he used to go. At that time at 

Mirgilindi hatu-re Ritui Gondai Sinku taikena. Ni esn 
Mirgilindi village Ritui Gondai Sinku lived. He was very 

inunda ondo peyaney taikena. Kaji-te ayumoa chi aye miad 
rich and strong was. It is heard that he one 

ti-tege gel ho koy taba daiya koa. Nen Ritui Gondaia 
hand with ten men could figljt. This Ritui Gondai's 

hal chal raja-a oa jake setereyana. 
news even to king's palace reached. 

Musing din Raja-a Gansi hati reya damarkom kumbu kedte 
One day King's Ghansi elephant's bell stealing to 

Ritui Gondai oa-re uku-te akaring kedaye. Okoy okoy doko 
Ritui Gondai's house stealthily sold. Some 

meneya-chi en gansige hapate Ritui Gondai oa re haka tuda 
say that the Ghansi stealthily in Ritui Gondai's house hung 

ente honang Ritui Gondai kumbu sab ichi teyaye bichar 
leda* 

and to get Ritui Gondai arrested as thief resolved, 

Damarkom adeyan re raja sabin hatu ren mnnda manki ko 

khabare ' 

On the loss of the bell king all village Mundas and Mankis news 

emadkoa chi okoy sona reya damarkon nam ruainya eni pura 
sent that whoever gold bell recover be must 

iname namea. Gansi-ko ondo sepai-ko nam tako senoyan- 
reward shall get. Ghansis and Sepoys to search went 

redo miad abarum-tan sim apir oleyanaye. Apir olen tan 
oue sitting on eggs hen flow out. While flying 

92 



re en sim eona reya aparob-te taki keda. En oaren gnria* 

that hen gold bell with wings struck. That house's owner 

do Ritui Gondai. En-ho chanab-do kumbu reko sab kia ondo 

was Ritui Gondai. That man afterwards as thief was 

arrested and 

raja ta teko id kia. Raja chanab-do med reya dinkl te 
to the King they took him. King afterwards from Dhenki with 

rung goji teyaye hukum keda. Gel ho-ko dinki tega keda 
to pound to death ordered- Ten men Dhenki paddled 

ondo hisi hote Ritui Gondai ko sab kucha kite sel undn reko 
and twenty men Eitui Gondai hold and in the hole they 

giti kia Eni ai duna-do dinki tela darom keda chanab-do 
lay him down. He seven times Dhenki held back, afterwards 

aya sanang tege goy ichi kena. Goyki teko dinki-lo-ko 

of his own accord allowed himself to be killed. Killing him 
with Dhenki they 

topa tayeya. Aye topa kan-ta nen barsing jake neloa. 
buried him: The place of his burial is seen to this day. 

Eni pukuri kuti reko topa tayeya ondo en pukuri-do nen 
He was on the bank of a tank buried and that tank even 

barsing jaked Ritui* Gondai pukuri-ko nutum tada. En 
these days Ritui Gondai Pukuri they have named. That 

pukuri-do Jagannathpurete kata chambra pare mena 
tank is to the south of Jagannathpur. 

Chikate Taniko Hoko Kako Jo-Joma 

How the wild dogs men not-they eat. 

Misa taniko boko hora sentanko nelad koa. 
Once wild dogs men footpath walking saw. 

Ente taniko urukeda chi hoko chikate pariya reyo 
Then wild dogs thought that men how waste land too 

93 



sen eenteko bora daiya. Tako menkeda 

by walking make footpath. Wild dogs thought 

Ohi abu chikate ako leka kabu hora-diaya. 
that we how like them not we ean make path. 

Abudu bora leka. Ente taniko boray lagidte esu jor 

We too try to make path. Then wild dogs to make path very hard 

eangiteko jikintana ondo jikijikite dubuiko pora 

jointly rubbed their hips on land and by rubbing hips wore 

chabayana. Mendo jokao kako bora daiyana. 

out completely. But even a bit not they could made path. 

Ente taniko urukeda, "Nen paiti re gechabu haratiugeyana, 
Then wild dogs thought, "This work in we are defeated, 

eta paitire misabu badabadia. Huring din cbanab 
other work in once we will compete. Few days after 

puraleka boko marang diri garite oretane taniko neladkoa. 
many men big stone in a cart drawing wild dogs saw. 

En boko en diri sasanre ho teo topa lagidko or-hujuetan 
Those men that stone burial-ground dead men in order to bury were 

taikena. En paitiko nelkedte taniko kajikeda, 
drawing. That work they seeing wild dogs said 

"Abuo musing diri orte-bu 8ena." Taniko 

We too one day stone will go to draw". Wild dogs 

BOtakote diri tari-utab-kete ore-teako 

with poles stone raising from ground wanted to 

s an an gey an a. Tara tanikodoko tariakada, 
draw, Some of the wild dogs raised 

ondo tarado ti-kalakoteko udurakada. En 
and some with hands and feet pushed That 

dipilang tariyakadko laga ked kote a-tada. 

time those raising with poles feeling tired let down the poles. 

94 



Elite udurtanko sabinko diriteko tengqjeyana. Ghanab 

Then those pushing all of them with stone pressed to death. 
Afterwards* 

jid aareyakan taniko kaji, keda "Hon, hon, abu ako-lo 

surviving wild dogs said, "No more, no more, we with them 

kabn-lapa daiya enamente ako kabu-jom-daiyakoa. En 
cannot compete therefore them we cannot eat. That 

dipilangete taniko abu-hoko kako jombua. 
time since wild dogs us-men do not eat* 



9ft