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68-74 CARTER LANE, E.G. 



JUN 4 1959 



October, 1914. 




INTRODUCTION . . -'^ , . . . . . 3 

TEXT . . . . 11 

NOTES . . . 18 

GLOSSARY . . . . \ . . . . 125 




TEXT . . . . ... ... 45 

NOTES . . ... . . . . . 58 




TEXT . . 81 





t0 forjw mrg matt tjjat is 

f0r to hnu, to s.eritt a lartre 0r 
in merjr t^ng f0 ^is p 



(MS. Addl. S7969) 




R W. CHAMBERS, M.A., D.Lit. 


IT is almost exactly four years since Dr. Furnivall, during his 
last illness, asked me to edit the first of the tracts in this volume. 
' A month ago/ he wrote, * Quaritch sent me a little 1 5th-century 
MS. of twelve pages (I think) on the duties of the Marshal and 
other officers of a big household. Thinking it interesting and 
unique, I sent it on to Dr. Warren, and he, agreeing, bought it for 
the British Museum.' 

MS. Addl 37969, as it now is, consists of nine leaves. It con- 
tains, besides this part detailing the duties of officials, various 
memoranda about wood carried partly at Talatun (1 Talaton in 
Devon), some medical recipes in English and Latin, and a vellum 
fragment which was formerly in the binding, and contains 
some fifteenth-century accounts. But the only thing of much 
interest is the ' generall Rule to teche euery man that is willynge 
for to lerne to serve a lorde or mayster in euery thyng to his 
plesure'. So far as I can gather, Dr. Furnivall was right in 
describing this tract as unique ; no other treatise seems to corre- 
spond to it closely in detail. But it is one of a very numerous class 
of which, in the opening years of the Early English Text Society, 
Dr. Furnivall made a special study. During the sixties he edited 
for the Society three volumes of Books of Courtesy, Books of 
Nurture, Books of Carving, Babies' Books, and other treatises 
illustrating English manners. 

It was during the fifteenth century that this type of book 
flourished peculiarly in England : in other countries in Italy and 
Provence it is found much earlier. It has been stated that the 
early Italian courtesy books ' are few and of little mark V But 
probably there was a considerable body of Italian courtesy books 
which has been lost : 2 and, in any case, some early and important 

1 Italian Courtesy Books in the Sixteenth Century, by James W. Holme, 
in Mod. Lang. Rev., v, 1910, p. 145. 

2 Italian Courtesy Books, by Jessie Crosland (Mod. Lang. Rev., v, 



4 Introduction 

Italian books of manners have been preserved. Thomasin von 
Zirklaria, the author of the South German treatise Der Wahche 
Gast, was an Italian. Der Walsche Gast, though not essentially 
a courtesy book, contains the elements which go to make one. 
And Thomasin tells us that he had written in welhschen a book of 
courtesy, buoch von der hufscheit. 2 Then there is Ser Brunetto 
Latini, who wrote much concerning courtesy in his Tesoretto, the 
little book in which he treated of all things appertaining to the 
human race. 

Above all, long before any courtesy book appeared in English, 
whilst Dante was still a young man, ' Fra Bonvexino da Kiva ' wrote 
his Zinquanta Cortexie da Tavola, ' Fifty rules of courtesy for the 
table.' In many ways these rules remind us of the English 
courtesy books of two centuries later. Cats and dogs are not to 
be fondled at meals : 

* The third rule after the thirtieth : not to stroke with the hands, so long as 
thou eatest at the table, either cat, or dog. It is not allowed unto the 
courteous to stroke animals with the hands with which he touches the dishes..' s 

Compare this with the English rule : 

Where-sere Jx>u sitt at mete in borde, 

Avoide >e cat at on bare word; 

For yf ]>ou stroke cat ojrer dogge, 

pou art lyke an ape teyjed with a clogge. 4 


Yf J>y nown dogge Jxm scrape or clawe, 
J>at is holden a vyse emong men knawe. 6 


Pley Jxm not with a dogge ne jit with a cate 

Before >i better at ]>e tabull, ne be syde ; 
For it is no curtasy be Jx>u sure of J>at 

In what place of crystendome )>at J>ou dwelle or byde. 6 

1 Der Wtilscke Gast, 11. 1174 etc. 

2 By * welsh ' Thomasin probably means ' Italian ' (see Schonbach, Anfange 
des Minnesynges, 62) though his editor has interpreted the word as ' French ' 
(Der Walsche Gast, ed. Ruckert, p. 531). 

3 La terza poxe la xxx a : no brancorar con le man, 
Tan fin tu mangi al descho, ni gate, ni can ; 
No e lecito allo cortexe a hrancorare li bruti 
Con le man, con le que el tocha li condugi. 

4 Sloane Boke of Curtasye, 105-8. 

5 Same, 87-8. But this second rule is a mistranslation of the Latin original. 

Stanspner ad mensam, 143-6 (MS. Ashmole, 61). 

Introduction 5 

Or again, take Bonvicino's rule that a man should keep silence 
whilst his companion is drinking, and not disturb him with 
questions. 1 With this compare the English Urbanitatis : 

Also when }>ou sest any man drynkyng 
That taketh hede of )>y karpyng, 
Soone anon J)ou sece }>y tale 
Whejmr he drynke wyne or Ale. 2 

or again : 

And if pou be in any place wer ]>i better is drynkyng, 
So pat e coppe be at his hede, odour with ale or wyne, 

Doctour Paler seys J)ee Jms, and byddes ]>ee sey nothing, 
For brekyng of )>i curtasy at syche a curtas tyme. 3 

If the drinker is a great man, good manners demanded that 
those near should refrain from eating and drinking, as well as from 
speaking. If your neighbour is a bishop, says Bonvicino, you 
must not eat 4 or raise your bowl 5 so long as he is drinking. 
Compare the English rule : 

And yif thi lord drynk at ]>at tyde, 
Drynk )>ou not, but hym abyde ; 
Be it at Evyne, be it at noone, 
Drynk })ou not tylle he haue done. 6 

Yet here we see an essential difference between the Italian and 
the English instructions. The Italian writer thinks of guests 
dining together: the Englishman is thinking of the demeanour 
due from a subordinate to his lord. This distinction does not hold 
good universally. Once, at any rate, Bonvicino speaks as if he were 
addressing those who serve. 7 But what is occasional in the Italian 
is almost universal in the English writers ; they address youths 
who are supposed to be serving in the households of noblemen. 

That a boy, instead of growing up at home, should be sent into 
some other house to learn manners, was, of course, an ancient 

1 Kule 37. 

2 11. 61-64 (MS. Cotton Calig. A. ii.). 

3 Stems puer ad mensam, 235-8 (Ashmole, 61). Of. Babees Boke, 92-3. 

4 Mangiando apresso d'un vescho, tan fin ch'el beve dra copa 
Usanza drita prende : no mastegare dra bocha. 

Chi fosse a provo d'un vescho, tan fin ch'el beverave, 

No di' leva lo s5 napo, over ch'el vargarave. 
e The Lytylle Childrenes Lytil Boke, 69-72. 

7 In his thirtieth and thirty -first rules, recommending the use of a pocket- 

6 Introduction 

custom of chivalry. But it seems to have had greater vogue, and 
to have endured longer, in England than abroad. Young Thomas 
More served Cardinal Moreton as a page, notwithstanding the con- 
siderable distinction to which his father had attained ; and Scott, 
in his essay on Chivalry, records a survival of this practice into the 
eighteenth century in the case of a ' gentleman bred a page in the 
family of the duchess of Buccleuch and Moninouth, who died 
during the reign of George III, a general officer in his Majesty's 
service'. 1 And, in the form of apprenticeship, this custom of 
sending boys away from home was as prevalent in England among 
the middle as among the upper classes. It aroused the hostile 
comment of foreigners, as is shown in an Italian account of 
English customs, written about the year 1500 : 

The want of affection in the English is strongly manifested towards 
their children; for after having kept them at home till they arrive at the 
age of seven or nine years at the utmost, they put them out, both males 
and females, to hard service in the houses of other people, binding them 
generally for another seven or nine years. And these are called appren- 
tices, and during that time they perform all the most menial offices ; and 
few are born who are exempted from this fate, for every one, however 
rich he may be, sends away his children into the houses of others, whilst 
he, in return, receives those of strangers into his own. And on enquiring 
their reason for this severity, they answered that they did it in order that 
their children might learn better manners. But I, for my part, believe 
that they do it because they like to enjoy all their comforts themselves, 
and that they are better served by strangers than they would be by their 
own children. Besides which the English being great epicures, and very 
avaricious by nature, indulge in the most delicate fare themselves, and 
give their household the coarsest bread, and beer, and cold meat baked on 
Sunday for the week, which, however, they allow them in great abun- 
dance. If they had their own children at home, they would be obliged 
to give them the same food they make use of for themselves. 2 

The young man ' willing to learn ', to whom the English book of 
manners is addressed, is accordingly assumed to be in the service 
of some lord : at the same time he is often himself assumed to bfr 
of good birth. Such books generally combine instructions as to 
deportment with practical hints as to serving. 

Perhaps the most important of these books is the Boke of 
Nurture which goes under the name of John Russell. But the 

1 Miscellaneous Prose Works, 1834, vol. vi, p. 55. 

2 A Relation of the Island of England, trans, by C. A. Sneyd. London,. 
1847 (Camden Society). 

Introduction 7 

Sloane Boke of Curtasye is nearer akin to the ' Qenerall Rule ' 
which is here printed : its first two sections give general 
instructions as to conduct and demeanour : in the third part the 
duties of the different officers are denned, in a manner which affords 
many close parallels to the ' Generall Rule '. And practical hints 
are given which bring vividly before us the picture of the page 
serving his lord, placing slices of bread under the hot dish to avoid 
burning his hands : 

Yf Jx> syluer dysshe wylle algate brenne, 
A sotelte I wylle J>e kenne, 
Take ]>e bredde coruyn and lay by-twene, 
And kepe J>e welle hit be not sene ; 

I teclie hit for no curtayse 

But for J>yn ese. 

A duller work, and more nearly parallel to the ' Generall Rule ', 
is the treatise ' For to serve a lord V 

But the closest parallel of all is to be found in a paper roll many 
yards in length, printed at some uncertain date in the sixteenth 
century. A copy of this is in the Bodleian, and no other is known. 2 
This roll gives an account of the proceedings at the feasts held to 
celebrate the enthronization of George Neville as Archbishop of 
York, in 1466, and of William Warham as Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, in 1504. 

The Neville feast has been described as ' the greatest entertain- 
ment that ever subject made ', 3 and some account of it is given in 
Godwin's De Praesulibus AngliaeS Earth, sea, and air appear to 
have been ransacked for victims of Neville's archiepiscopal hospita- 
lity. Of more common dishes, we read that there were served 4,000 
woodcocks, 4,000 ducks, 4,000 pigeons, 4,000 rabbits, and 3,000 
geese. But what makes this ecclesiastical gluttony of importance 
to us is the elaborate instruction as to the serving of the feast, 
which is appended. Nowhere else, so far as I am aware, is so 

1 Printed in the delation of the Island of England, trans, by C. A. Sneyd, 
1847 (Camden Society), and in Furnivall's Early English Meals and Manners 
(Early English Text Society), p. 349, &c. 

2 Reprinted (in part) in Hearne's Lelandi Collectanea, vol. vi, 1770, and 
in Warner's Antiquitates culinariae, 1791. 

3 Drake, Eboracum, London, 1736, p. 444. 
* Cambridge, 1743, p. 695. 

8 Introduction 

near a parallel to the ' Generall Rule ' to be found. Most of the 
relevant passages I have quoted fully in the notes. 

I have to thank Mr. John Hodgkin for having drawn my atten- 
tion to this document; and Mrs. Crosland for valuable informa- 
tion, which I had overlooked, as to Spanish books of courtesy. 
And I ought to apologize for having been so long in carrying out so 
light a task. The delay enables this tract to be printed with two 
others, which, like it, throw that light upon the manner of life of 
our ancestors which always gave such keen joy to Dr. Furnivall. 

The following books contain matter which illustrates the text 
printed here : 

A Collection of Ordinances and Regulations for the Government of the Royal 
Household. London, printed for the Society of Antiquaries, 1790. 

The Regulations and Establishment of the household of Henry Algernon 
Percy, the fifth earl of Northumberland, 1770. 

Warner (Richard). Antiquitates culinariae, or curious tracts relating to the 
culinary affairs of the Old English. London, 1791. 

Early English Meals and Manners. By J. F. Furnivall. London, 1868 
(E.E.T.S.). [Contains, amongst other tracts, Russell's BoJee of Nurture, 
the Sloane Boke of Curtasye, The Babees Book, Urbanitatis, Stans Puer 
ad Mensam (Lambeth MS.), The Lytylle Childrenes Lytil Boke, For to 
serve a Lord."] 

Caxton's Book of Curtesye. Ed. by F. J. Furnivall. London, 1868 (E. E.T. S.). 

A Book of Precedence, etc. Ed. by F. J. Furnivall. London, 1869 (E.E.T.S.). 

J. Lelandi Collectanea, ed. T. Hearnius, Oxonii, 1715, Londini, 1770. 6 vols. 
[Contains the account of the Neville Feast.] 

Henry of Aragon, Marquis of Villena. Arte Cisoria, 6 tratado del arte 
del cortar del atchillo. Madrid, 1766. 



A generall Rule to teche euery man that is 
willyngefor to lerne to stive a lorde or mayster 
in euery thyng to his plesure. 

rFlhe marshall in the mornyng ought to come into fe hall and se 
-L Ipat it be clene of all maner thyng Ipat may be fond vnhoneste 
Iper In : }>e stolis trestelles or elles formys yef ony be, ]>at fey be set 
in ther owne places at melis at f>e hordes, and afore and aftur melis 
in corners farthest from encombrawice : and all fe hallynges and 5 
costers dressed in Iper kynde places and shaken or betyn wyth 
Roddes yef nede be : and f>at none houndes be abydyng in J?e halle 
from morne to evyn. And to parforme J>ese thynges seyd afore he 
shall charge J>e vsshere and f>e grome of the hall Iper wyth. 

Also in wynter tyme f>e seyd grome by J>e ouersight of fe vssher 10 
shall bryng into fe hall as moche wode and colis as shall be spent 
dayle in the hall, and bere oute J?e ashes and all olper fylthe of f>e 
hall. The seyd grome shall also kepe fe kay of }>e woode and cole 
and delyuer it oute dayle by taill to | fe kechyn, halle and leuereys, [Fol. 2 J] 
and bryng the seyd taill to j?e stywarde at J>e wokes ende ; )?e seyd 15 
grome shall also contenually be in j?e halle at J>e firste mete or 
souper to bere away dysshes and kepe oute hound^s and feche 
sawces and to obey all of er commondmewtes of J>e hede offycers, Ipat 
is to sey of stywarde, marshall and vssher. 

Also halfe an oure or fe lorde go to mete or souper J?e marshall 20 
shall take f>e Rodde in his hande and cowzmonde }>e panter and 
ewer to couer and make redy for ]?e lorde and for }?e housold; 
and assone as it is made redy J?e marshall shall commond the 
sewer to awayte when f>e cokes be redye ; and J>en shall fe 
sewer go to f>e ewry and take a to well vppon his shulder and J>e 25 
marshall and he to go togeder and shewe afore the lorde, so 
Ipat he may knowe fer by when his mete is redy. And when it 
lyketh Jje lorde to axe water J>en shall f>e esquyres and J>e marshall 
and sewer goo by and by next ]?e lordis basyn and evyn at }>e 

12 A generall Rule to teche euery man 

lorde ; f e sewer shall delyuer f e towell to f e worthyeste fat bethe 
aboute hym and go streight to f e kechyn witA all f e men fat shall 

The marshall fen shall uncouer f e basyn yf it be coueryd and 

5 holde it in his handes also vnto f e lord haue wesshe, and fen make 

a salutacouw and take it to f e squyre fat brought it theder, and he 

to bere it to f e ewry, awe? anone commonde water for all fern fat 

[Fol, 3 a] ghall sytte at f e lordes borde, and go wyth f e lorde to | be sette, 

and f er asketh hym howe his bord shall be set. 

10 And f e yemen and gromys or grome of f e chambre yef it be Iper, 
or the vsshere or gromes or grome yef it be fere, shall set vp bordes 
and make redy f e stoles afore mete and haue hem redy at f e settyng 
of bordes, and bryng hem redy to f e marshall when he callithe, and 
also after mete bere away f e bordes, trestelles, and stolis ; and when 

*5 f e lorde is set, and f e of er bordes in his presence, the marshall shall 
feche in his courses wyth f e sewer by and by ; f e marshall and 
sewer shall make a salutacouw when fey come allmoste at fe 
borde, and none of er fat berythe mete or drynke at fat tyme, to he 
be delyuerd of fat fat he berythe. 

20 And when all f e lordes messe is sewid, fen shall anofer esquyre 
next f e hande sewe f e of er messes at the borde or in his presence. 
And anone forthewyth f e amener shall bryng in f e almesse dyshe 
Vfitk a loofe f er Inne and set it bynethe f e lordes salt or elles 
vppon fe copborde yf no Rome be vppon fe borde; and a litill 

25 afore f e seconde cours f e amener shall take of euery standarde or 
grete mete that corny s by fore f e lorde at f e first cours a sertayne, 
wyth f e helpe of f e kerver, and put it in f e almes dysshe and send 
fe voyde dysshes to f e kechyn. And all fis mene while fe 
marshall shall loke bothe in f e chambre and halle fat f er lake 
[Fol. 3 i] nof er bred, | ale, wyne ne mete f er as it ought to be seruyd, and f e 
sewer shall loke fat f er lake no sawce in f e lordes presence. 

And when f e second cours is redy, f e sewer shall come and warne 
f e marshall, and f e marshall all esquyres and yemen waytors, to go 
to f e kechyn. And lyke as f e marshall and sewer dyd at f e first 

35 course so shall fey do at f e seconde ; and when f e marshall seyth 
tyme, fat is to say wythin iij quarters of an oure that f e laste 
messe be sette in f e halle, the marshall shall commonde to take vpe 
and all f e broke mete and broke brede to by cast into f e almes 
vessell ; ana' when it comyth to f e vsher yemen of f e chambre or 

to seme a lorde or mayster 13 

lentilmen Then fe ewer to be Iper, redy for to delyuere to fe 
grome pf fe hall or mens seruantes waytors towelles for fern fat 
shall wesshe, and som men to be f er redy with voyders for to take 
vp trenchoures and broken breed, and assone as fey haue wesshe fat 
Ipe ewry be bore away and Ipe hall newe coueryd for f e latter mete. 5 

And forthe wyth all, the amener shall send for voyders for Ipe 
lordes borde, and all of er hordes in his presence, and call all yemen 
of chambre and yemen waytors for to awayte vppon, and he shall 
take vp at f e lowest borde in f e same wyse that it was set downe, 
and so at all olper border. And fe seyd yemen shall be redy at his 10 
honde Iper to take at hym and here fern to | f e kechyn. And when [Fol. 4 a] 
Ipe mete is vpe the amener shall take Ipe voyders wyth Ipe trenchors 
and broken brede and Ipe clothe also and take it to one fat 
stondyth aboute hym for to here it to f e almesse vessell. Then 
shall the amener go to Ipe lordes borde and take of dyuerse metes as 15 
it may goodly be forborne and augment f er wyth Ipe almes dyshe, 
and all f is in f e lordes presence. And when it lykethe Ipe lorde to 
commonde to take vpe, Ipe seyde yemen shall be redy Iper to awayte 
vppon f e amener to do in all wyse as it is seyde afore. And forthe 
wyth all as Ipe seyd mete is vpe Ipe voyders to be set vppon f e 20 
borde, Ipe laste afore f e lorde. All esquyres fen awaytynge to put 
in broken bred and trenchors or of er mete, and fen f e amesse 
dyshe to be take away wyth a salutacoura, and set vp into a sure 
howse and after yevyn to one persone. Then shall f e amener take 
vp frute yef ony be, and fe voyders aftur f e panter, chese by it 25 
selfe and for the wyth aftur fe salt, hole bred, hole trenchors, 
kervynge knyves, sponys and napkyns togeder. 

Then shall f e sewer, yf it be in a grete day and a durmant lye 
vnder f e clothe, let f e surnape with Ipe towell Kynne vppon the 
durmant. In a mene day festyuall f e surnape and towelles rynne 30 
vppon f e borde. When f e clothe is take away In a symple day f e 
to welles only vppon f e clothe, when | it is made redy from cromys. [FoJ. 4 6] 
At all tymes f e towelles to be dubble, yef f er syt ony body byfore 
hym at his owne messe, and elles not. And yef f er be a messe by- 
nethe hym and anofer above, Then f e seyd towelles to be leyd 35 
sengill afore hym selfe and turnyd In ayen at eyf er ende of fe 
table as ferre as f e persones sytte afore. And yef f e seyd towell 
be to shorte, fen fat fer be ij short towelles to fullfille Iper 
defautes bore in f e handes of ij squyres or yemen of f e chambre or 

14 A generall Rule to teche euery man 

awayturs, and when f e surnape is leyde and fe esstate is made 
afore f e lorde, Then all f e esquyres to make a salutacourc at onys 
and go bake to f e ewry and fer abyde to graces be seyd. 

Then bryng in f e water in all wyse byfore f e lorde as fey dede 

5 byfore mete, save f e towell. And yef f er sytte at ]>e lordes messe 

one or moo fat be egall in esstate wyth f e lorde, fen make fe 

esstate byfore eche of fern, and bryng hem a basyn or basyns yef 

fer be nede of mo fen one. And yef fer syt of er persones at his 

messe fen of his esstate, fen let bryng a basyn or elles basyns 

10 vncoueryd and set afore hem when f e lordes basyns be set afore 

hym, and set f e ewer in f e myddes of f e basyn till f e lorde haue 

wesshe; and when fe lorde hathe weshe fen let fe squyre Ipai 

bryngyth thee basyn knele still till all f e borde hathe weshe, fen 

fe seyd esquyre shall here the basyn to f e ewry and f e of er basyns 

[Fol. 5 a] shall fen | folowe hym. And wyth oute ony tareyng f e copbord 

clothe and f e ewry shall be take away and anone f e surnape and 

towelles shall be strecchid; and fe marshall bygynnynge at fe 

lowere ende and after at f e higher ende shall bryng all fat leythe 

vppon fe borde byfore fe lorde and Iper take it vpe wyth a 

20 salutacoim. Then shall be f er redy yemen of J>e chambre yef it be 

fer, yemen way tors yef it be in fe hall, to take away stolis and 

bordes and trestelles, and set fern in per kynde place*, and fe 

marshall shake fe lordes lape. 

All suche poure, rule, and commondmentes as f e marshall hade 
25 at fe fyrst mete, whiles fe lorde sat, fe vsher shall haue at the 
seconde mete when fat f e marshall syttythe, wythouten fat it be 
countermauraiid by f e stywarde or marshall. 

Nota : as all these seyd servantes and offecers haue don at mete so 

to do at souper ; and in f e same wyse f e seware fat stondyth shall 

30 do as f e sewer fat knelythe except f e knelynge and f e assay. 

That is to say, he shall take the dyshes from fern fat bryngyth hem 

and vncouere euery dyshe evyn byfore fe grettyst at fe borde, 

except potages and sawces fat shall be set afore of er persones, and 

couere hem ayen and set hem afterward in f er kynde places, neuer 

35 a dyshe above anofer and euer fat next f e lorde fat he shall assay 

[Fol. 5b] of firste aftur fe maner as it was sewid. And | fat none sawces 

come In wyth f e courses except mustard, but aftur set in wyth 

f e sewer and esquyres wayters to euery mete as nedythe, or elles 

all sawces togeder afore the courses ; and fat all esquyres waytors 

to serue a lorde or mayster 15 

or yemen yef esquyres lake be attendant in f e mele tymes vppon 
f e comondmentes of fe marshal! in all thynges of fe kerver, in 
fechyng voyde dyshes or wyne for sawce of capons of f e sewer, in 
fechyng of sawce or all fat sawce shall be made of. 

Also fat f e marshall sewer or esquyres wayters at mele tymes 5 
make honest chere wyth softe speche to strauwgers syttyng at f e 
lordes borde or in his presence, yef fey may goodly come to hem. 
and as fey se tyme. Also fat in f e lordes presence suche silence be 
kepte Ipat f er be no lowde speche save only of f e lorde and suche 
as he speketh to. And in f e hall suche lowe communecacowz. be 10 
hade fat f e hede officers voyce be herde vnto all olper offecers ; 
and fat no gromys hede be coueryd seruyng at meles yeman, ne 
yeman lentilman, ne lentilman f e sty warde ; also fat f e lentilmen 
and yemen serue all f o in f e lordes presence ; and oute of f e lordes 
presence yemen serue lentilmen and set downe yemen and gromes 15 
serue hem, set gromes and pages to serue fern. 

Then f e marshall in a lordes howse is lentilman herberoure and 
f e vsher of f e hall yeman of f e same ; and after f e vsher of thee | 
chambre yef ony be, or yemen of f e chambre l in his absence haue [Fol. 6 ] 
take vpe logyng for his lorde and for hym selfe in his owne maner 20 
or in of er places, f e marshall or f e vsshere in his stede shall assigne 
all of er men f er logynges, as well strangers as men of housold ; and 
also he shall assigne fern bred, ale, wyne, wex, talowe, and fewell 
to f er logynge after f e season of f e yere, and f er degrees, and 
rekyn for it dayle and wokely as f e lordes bookes be made. 25 

Then f e marshall and vssher shall dayle reken all f e messes 
wythin f e howse, fat is to say f e lorde for ij messe and euery 
lorde in f e same wyse at f e borde ; afturward euery man at f e 
borde for one messe, and fen aftur f roughe f e howse lentilmen, 
yemen, gromes and pages euery ij to one messe ; and in f e same 30 
wyse bryng hem dayle and wokely to f e clerke of f e kechyn as fey 
ben asked, and f e bokes made. 

Also f e marshall hathe poure to correcte all suche as dothe 
grete offences wythin f e howse or wythoute, as in fightyng, oreble 
chydyng, makyng of debates, drawyng of knyves and stelynges, 35 
affrayes and suche olper: to put hem into fe porters warde or in 
stokkes in all wyse as ferre forthe as f e stywarde, save in puttyng 
out of f e howse. And in all f ese poyntes in lyke wyse f e vssher 

1 yef ony be deleted. 

16 A generall Rule to teche euery man 

[Fol. 6 &] hathe f e same | powre in f e marshalled absence ; all f is to be f us 
vnderstond, f e styward above all the lentilmen, f e marshall above 
yemen, the vsher above gromes and pages. 

Also at all tymes of f e day f e marshall shall haue his commond- 
5 mentes fullfillid in euery office of fe house, and f e vsher in f e 
same wyse ; to it be contemn aundid, restrayned, or moderd by 
f e lord for Tper waste or inportunyte. 

Also at euery tyme fat fe lorde commondyth drynke, fe 
marshall or vssher shall warne esquyres or yemen to awayte f eron, 
10 and fey shall goo wyth hym and commonde it at euery office ; and 
In case f er be so many lordes and strangers fat fere shall nede pottes 
wyth wyne, fen shall f e marshall call euery lordes squyre or assigne 
of er squyres of his owne lordes for hem, and fen delyuer coppis to 
f e seyd squy[r]es for f e seyd lordes, coueryd or vncoueryd, as fat f e 
15 case requeryth at f e seler dore ; and he hym selfe shall take as many 
coppis voyde eche wythin of er by twix his handes wyth his rodde 
as he supposythe to serue f e remnant of f e howse, and so shall he 
goo afore ; all f e of er coppis, voyde save f e chef lordes, folow hym, and 
laste of all f e boteler wyth f e copborde clothe on his shulder and 
20 pottes of wyne in his handes; and when J?ey come into ]?e place f>er 
as f>e lordes be, fe marshall, kerver, copberers shall make a saluta- 
[Fol. 7 a] coun | and go streight to a bay wyndowe, a forme or copborde at f>e 
lower ende of )?e house yef ony be Iper, and stond Iper in order lyke 
as fey were delyuerd at J>e seler dore, till J?e coppis be fillid. 
25 Then shall f>e butler lay downe his copborde clothe and sette f>e 
pottes feron, and Ipe marshall all j?e coppis fat he berythe in lyke 
wyse. Then shall J?e marshall call f e squyres wyth the coppis, and 
do fell hem by order aftur j?er esstates, and when all J>e coppis be 
fillid he shall commonde hem to goo forthe to fe lordes, and forthe 
30 wyth he shall call ojer lentilmen or yemen of fe chambre or 
awayters and delyuer hem coppis suche as he brought, as many as he 
supposyth will serue J>e house and tell hem where fey shall serue ; 
and when fey haue all dronken f e marshall shall take ayen all f e 
coppis fat he brought hym selfe, puttyng f e wyne lefte in fern, yef 
35 ony be, in a voyde potte of suche as f e botteler brought. And 
when he hathe ayen all f e seyd coppis, he shall take hem in lyke 
wyse as he brought hem, and fe boteler caste his clothe ayen 
vppon his shulder and take f e pottes in his handes, and forthwyth 
f e marshall shall geve awarnyng to f e kerver and copberers and 

to serue a lorde or mayster 17 

all togeder shall make a salutacoim and f erwyth departe, f e keruer 
first, f e copberers | next, f e marshall wyth f e coppis aftur fern, [Fol. 7 b] 
laste of alle f e bottele wyth the pottes of wyne. 

A generall Rule of all maner of fysshes, as fey shall be 
seruyd in order and course of sewynge. 

The firste sprottes, rede heryng and whyte lyng, dogdrawght, 
grene fyshe, salt samoii, salt elis, salt storgon and salt lamprey. 5 
Then all maner of freyd metes, fat is freyd of salt fyshes or 
powderd ; fen, folowynge f ese fryed metes, all maner of see fysshe 
both rede, rounde and flat ; and folowyng fern all reuer fyshe aftur 
as fey bethe of deynte and in gretnesse ; and nexte folowynge all 
maner of pole fyshe and fen all maner of rostid fyshe, what so euer 10 
fey bee ; and fen folowyng all maner of shell fysshe ; and folowyng 
fern all maner of bake metes, be it fishe or doucetes ; lese fen ye 
haue many of fern fat ye lyst to departe som to f e firste course, 
som to f e seconde, and so to f e thyrde ; and laste of all, all maner 
of leche metes and metes of deynte. 15 

A generall Rule to euery lentilman fat is a keruer to 

ony maner lorde. 

The towell muste be layed vppon his shulder when he shall [Fol. 8 a] 
bryng his lorde brede, and yef he bryng frute his towell to be 
folden and leyd vppon his arme, what maner of frute so euer it be ; 
and f e cause is fat f e towell ought to be spred vnder f e dyshe or 
pece or what so fat ye bryng it Inne ; and euer yef fat f e esstate 20 
fat ye serue stonde, fen aftur youre obeysance ye may stonde, and 
yef he sytte ye muste knele, and kepe f e dyshe or pece fat you 
bere in youre handes ; etc. 

Explicit a good techyng. 


p. 11, 1. 9. J>e vsshere] The duties of the Usher are explained in the 
Neville document : 

First the Usher must see that the Hall be trymmed in euery poynt, and 
that the Cloth of estate be hanged in the Hall, and that foure Quyshions 
of estate be set in order vpon the Benche, beyng of fine Silke, or cloth of 
Gold, and that the hygh Table be set, with all other Boordes, and 
Cubberdes, Stooles and Chayres requisite within the Hall, and that a good 
fire be made. 

p. 11, 1. 10. wynter tyme] Wood was brought in from All Saints' Day to 
Candlemas Eve (Sloane EoTce of Curtasye, 393-4). 

p. 11, 1. 21. commonde ]>e panter and ewer to cover and make reefy] This 
is more fully described in the account of the Neville Feast : 

Item, the Yeoman of the Ewrie must couer the hygh Table with all other 
Boordes and Cubberdes, and the Ewrie must be hanged, and a Bason of 
estate therevpon couered, with one Bason of assaye, and therevpon one 
Cup of assaye to take thassay therof, and thervpon to lay the chiefe 
napkin : and of the ryght syde of the Ewrie the Basons and Ewers for the 
rewarde, and of the left syde for the seconde messe. 

Then the Panter must bryng foorth Salt, Bread, and Trenchers, with 
one brode and one narrow Knyfe, and one Spoone, and set the Salt right 
vnder the middest of the Cloth of estate, the Trenchers before the Salt, 
and the Bread before the Trenchers towardes the rewarde, properly 
wrapped in a napkyn, the brode knyfe poynt vnder the Bread, and the 
backe towardes the Salt, and the lesse Knyfe beneathe it towardes the 
rewarde, and the Spoone beneathe that towardes the rewarde, and all to be 
couered with a Couerpane of Diaper of fyne Sylke. The Surnappe must 
be properly layde towardes the Salt endlong the brode edge, by thehandes 
of thaforenamed Yeoman of the Ewrie : and all other Boordes and 
Cubberdes must be made redy by the Yeoman of the Pantry, with Salt, 
Trenchers, and Bread. 

Also at the Cubberde in lyke maner must the Panter make redy, with 
Salt, Bread, Trenchers, Napkyns, and Spoones, with one brode Knyfe for, 
the rewarde. . . . 

Then the Marshall with the Caruer must go towardes the hygh Table, 
and the Panter to folowe them, makyng their obeysance first in the 
middest of the Hall, and agayne before the hygh Dease : then the 
Marshall and the Panter must stande sty 11, and the Caruer must go to 
the Table, and there kneele on his knee, and then aryse with a good 
countenance, and properly take of the Couerpane of the Salt, and geue it 
to the Panter, which must stande styll. 

Then the Caruer must remoue the Salt, and set it vnder the left edge 
of the cloth of estate towardes the seconde messe, and set your Bread 
beneath the Salt towardes the seconde messe, and let it remain styll 

Then with your brode Knyfe remoue your Trenchers all at once tofore 
the Salt, or towarde the rewarde, and then with your brode Knyfe 
properly vnclose the napkyn that the bread is in, and set the Bread all 
beneath the Salt towards the second messe : then the Table cleansed, the 

Notes on A generall Rule 19 

Caruer must take with his brodeKnyfe a litle of the vpperinost Trencher, 
and geue it to the Panter to eate for thassay thereof, and of the Bread gene 
assay in lyke maner : then vncouer your Salt, and with a cornet of Breade 
touch it in four partes, and with your hande make a floryshe over it, and 
geue it the Panter to eate for thassaye therof, who goeth his way, then 
cleanse the Table cleane : that done, one Gentleman at the rewarde, and 
the Yeoman of the Ewrie at the seconde messe, must let downe the 
Surnappe from the Table. 

Then with your brode Knyfe take one of the Trenchers stockes, and set 
it in your napkyns ende in your left hande, and take foure Trenchers, 
eche one after another, and lay them quadrant one besydes another before 
the Lordes seate, and lay there principal a lofe on them, then set downe 
your Trenchers, and take up your Bread with your brode knyfe, and cut 
therof three small peeces one after another, und lay them on the left 
hande of the Lorde, then cleanse the Table cleane. 

p. 11, 1. 24. J>en shall J>e sewer go to f>e ewry and take a towell vppon Ms 
shulder] Cf. the Neville Feast : 

That done, the Yeoman of the Ewrie shall arme the Caruer with one 
Towell from the. left shoulder to vnder the ryght arme, and geue the 
napkyn of estate for thassay, and lay it vpon the same shoulder of the 
Caruer, and the Caruers owne napkyn vpon his left arme, and in lyke 
maner he shall arme the Sewer with an other Towell, from the ryght 
shoulder to vuder the ryght arme. 

p. 12. 1. 5. The washing ceremony is more fully described in the account of 
the Neville Feast thus : 

In the meane time the Yeoman of the Ewrie kysseth the Towell of 
estate, and layeth it on the Marshal's left shoulder, and he taketh the 
assay of the water, and geueth the Cupbearer the bason of estate, with 
the Cup of assay. Then the Marshall with the Cupbearer goeth to the 
Lorde, and there muketh their obeysaunce. Then the Marshall kysseth 
the Towell for his assay, and so layeth it on the left shoulder of the Lorde 
of the house, or maister of the same, yf any such be, and the same Lorde 
or maister standeth on the left hande of the Baron bishop. Then the 
Marshall taketh the Cup of assay, & the Cupbearer putteth foorth water 
into the sayde Cup, and drynketh it for the assay therof, then he powreth 
forth water into the sayde Cup, and drynketh it, &c. and then powreth 
foorth water out of the Bason of estate, into the Bason of assay. Then 
the Lorde or maister of the house doth geue the Towel ende to the cheefe 
dignitie or prebendarie, to holde tyll the Bishop have washed, and then 
all other do washe in their degree in Basons prepared for them. 

p. 12, 1. 16. J>e marshall and sewer shall make a salutacouri] This is 
described more fully in the Neville Feast : 

When all is in course, the Marshall and the Sewer goeth together 
before the course to the hygh Table, makyng their obeysaunce in the 
myddest of the Hall euen before the hygh Table. Then the Marshall 
standeth styll, and the Sewer kneeleth on his knee besydes the Caruer, 
who receueth euery dyshe in course of kynde, and vncouereth them. 

p. 12, 1. 22. J>e amener shall Iryng in J>e almesse dyshe with a loofe ler 
Inne~\ Cf. Neville Feast : 

The Chaplyn must take the almes dyshe at the Cubborde, and bryng it 
before the boorde, and take the lofe of breade that standeth vpon the 
almes dyshe, and set it vpon the trencher that lyeth vpon the boorde, and 
then take the trencher and the lofe together, and set them vpon the almes 

20 Notes on A generall Rule 

dyshe, and with a good countenaunce take vp the dyshe, and detyuer to 
the Alinner, and so depart. 
For the office of the Almoner cf. also Sloane Bolce of Curtasye, 729-48. 

p. 12, 1. 30. ]>e sewer shall loke J>at J>er lake no sawcein]>e lordes presence] 
Cf. Neville Feast : ' The sewer must see that there want no sawces for any 
dyshe in his kynde.' 

p. 13, 1. 4. trenchoures and broken breed"] The trenchers are therefore still 
of bread, not of wood. In the tract For to serve a lord, mention is made of 
' Trenchours of tree or brede \ In [John Russell's] Boke of Nurture, of the 
early fifteenth century, the trenchers are of bread, * a loofe of trenchurs ' ; and 
as late as 1465 the trenchers were clearly of bread at the Neville banquet, for 
' cornetts of trenchers ' were tasted by the assayer. 

p. 13, 1. 29. For the bringing in of the towels at the end of the Banquet, 
cf. the Neville Feast : at the close of dinner, after the wine is brought in : 

Then the Sewer bryngeth the double Towell to thende of the rewarde 
upon both his armes, with an obeysaunce, and kysseth it for his assay, 
and then the Marshall commeth before the Lorde, makyng his obeysaunce. 
Then the Sewer layeth downe the Towell upon the Table, and geueth 
thende thereof to one Gentleman, and so from one to another tyll it be 
conveyed to the Marshall. Then the Marshall must properly unclose 
thende of the Towell, and spreade it playne in the myddle of the Table 
before the Lorde : that done, he must have a rodde in hishande lyke unto 
an arrow stele, three quarters long, with a needle in the ende, puttyng 
the sharpe ende therof under the Towell, through the farre syde, holdyng 
the nearer syde to the rodde with his thombe, and also holdyng the end 
of the Towell towardes the Lorde for the estate therof, then make your 
obeysaunce, and geve the eame ende to an other Gentleman towardes the 
second messe. 

Then the Sewer at one ende, and a Gentleman at thother ende, to pull 
the chiefs Towell harde and strayght. Then laye over the one Towell 
towardes the neather syde of the boorde, and pull the chiefe Towell harde 
and strayght. Then the Marshall must put the sharpe ende of his rodde 
under the chiefe Towell agaynst the Lordes ryght hande, and therewithall 
take hold of the farre side of the Towell, and holde fast the neare syde to 
the rodde with your thombe, and drawe the Towell halfe a yarde forwarde 
the rewai'de, and lay the bought backewarde for the estate therof towardes 
the rewarde, and after that an other of estate in lyke maner towardes the 
seconde messe. Then with thende of your rodde take up the narowe syde 
of the Towell, and lay it forwarde one hande brode, and stroke it over 
with your rodde from the estate to the other. Then laye the seconde 
Towell strayte wynyng it to that other Towell of estate, and so make 
your obeysaunce all and depart, and stande in the mydwarde of the Hall. 

p. 13, 1. 29. For the laying of the surnape, elaborate instructions are given 
in the Articles ordained by King Henry VII for the regulation of his house- 
hold (Ordinances and Regulations, 119 : the whole passage is quoted in Early 
English Meals and Manners, p. 92) ; instructions are also given in Russell's 
BoJce of Nurture, 237. In the Liber Niger domus of King Edward IV it is 
ordained that the ' usher of the chambre ' ' maketh his towell or surnape, as 
dothe a Marchall when the King is in the hall ' : ' if the Kinge kepe estate in 
his chambyr, these ushers make the estate in the surnape, like as the marchall 
doth in the hall' (Ordinances and Regulations, 34, 38). 

Notes on A generall Rule 21 

p. 14, 1. 4. Then "bryng in fie water} Cf. Neville Feast : 

That done, the Lordes Cupbearer, with other Cupbearers, do bryng in 
water, and the Lordes Cupbearer taketh assay as he did before dyner, 
and so setteth downe the Bason of assay, and putteth foorth Water of the 
Bason of estate before the Lorde. Then every man washeth at the rewarde 
and seconde messe, and at the Church boorde, and dryeth. Then the 
Sewer and Gentleman wayter draweth the Towel as they dyd before the 
washyng, and the Marshall maketh his estate as he dyd before the washyng. 
That done, the Cupbearer bryngeth in Ale, the Lord hath his assay, ut 
supra, and drynketh sytting, and al others, then do they aryse, and ever 
the better the latter, and the Lord last of all. 

Then the Yeoman of the Ewrie must take up the Table cloth, the 
Usher must see the table, chayres and stool es taken away in order. Then 
the Lorde must drynke Wyne standyng, and all other in lyke maner, and 
that clone, every man departeth at his good pleasure. 

p. 14, 1. 30. For the custom of taking the Assay, cf. the following passage 
from the Neville Feast : 

In the meane tyme [i.e. while the guests are seating themselves] the 
Sewer goeth to the dresser, and there taketh assay of every dyshe, and 
doth geue it to the Stewarde and the Cooke to eate of all Porreges, 
Mustarde, and other sawces. He taketh the assay with cornetts of 
trenchers bread of his owne cuttyng, and that is thus : He taketh a cornet 
of bread in his hande, and toucheth three partes of the dyshe, and maketh 
a florishe ouer it, and geueth it to the aforenamed persons to eate, and of 
every stewed meate, rosted, boylde, or broyled, beyng fyshe or fleshe, he 
cutteth a litle thereof, &c. And yf it be baked rneate closed, vnclose it, and 
take assay therof as ye do of sawces, and that is with cornettes of breade, 
and so with all other meates, as Custardes, Tartes, and Gelly, with other 
such lyke. The ministers of the Churche doth after the olde custome, in 
syngyng of some proper or godly Caroll. . . . 

And again, when the dishes are brought to the High Table and uncovered 
by the 'Carver : 

Then the Caruer of all potages and sawces taketh assay with a cornet 
of trencher bread of his owne cuttyng, he toucheth three partes of the 
dishe, and maketh a florishe ouer it, and geueth it to the Sewer, and to 
hym that beareth the dyshe, who kneeleth in lyke maner, to eate for the 
assay therof. Then of your stewed meates, broylde, fryed, or rost meates, 
be it fyshe or fleshe, take assay therof at the inyd syde with your brode 
Knyfe, and geue it to the Sewer, and to the bearer of the dyshe : and yf 
it be any maner of fowle, take the assay therof at the outsyde of the 
thygh or wynge : and if it be any baked meate that is closed, vncouer 
hym, and take assaye therof with cornettes dypt into the grauy, and geue it 
to the Sewer, vt supra. And of all Custardes, Tartes, Marchpaynes, or 
Gelly, take thassay with cornettes. And of all Suttleties or Leches, with 
your brode knyfe cut a litle of, and geue it to the Sewer and Bearer, 
vt supra. 

And when the last dyshe of the first course is set in, the Sewer goeth 
to the dresser, and as he dyd at the first course, so he must at the seconde 
course in euery poynt, as touchy ng the assay with other thynges, and 
when he is redy the ministers of the Churche do syng solemnly. 

p. 15, 1. 17. Then fie marshall in a lordes hoivse is lentilman herberoure~[ 
Cf. Sloane Bole of Curtasye, 427-8. 

The marshalle shalle herber alle men in fere, 
That ben of court of any inestere. 

22 Notes on A generall Rule 

p. 15, 1. 33. }e marshall hathe powre to corrects] For the marshall's power 
to correct, cf. Sloane BoTce of Curtasye, 379, &c. : 

Now of marschalle of halle wylle I spelle 

And what falle to hys offyce now wylle y telle ; 

In absence of stuarde he shalle arest 

Who BO euer is rebelle in court or fest ; 

Jjomon-vsshere, and grome also, 

Vndur hym ar ]>es two . . . 

p. 16, 1. 8. For the serving of drink, cf. the Neville Feast : 

In the meane tyme the Marshall goeth to the Buttery, to see the 
couered Cup be right serued, and geueth to the Butler his assay, and 
delyuereth to the Cupbearer the Cup of estate, and when the Cupbearer 
commeth to the Table, after his obeysaunce, he kneeleth on his knee, and 
putteth foorth three or foure droppes of Ale into the insyde of the couer 
of the Cuppe, and suppes it of for his assay. Then he settes the Cup 
besydes the Lorde and couereth it, and then all the Table is serued with 
Ale. Marke when the first rost meate beyng fyshe or fleshe is broken, 
then the Cupbearer goeth to the Seller, and when the Cupbearer commeth 
to the Table, he vseth hym selfe as afore, &c. 

p. 17, 1. 12. Doucetei] Recipes for the making of these will be found in 
MS. HarJ. 279 (see Early English Meals and Manners, 146), and in the 
Fifteenth Century Cookery Books, edited by Austin for the E. E. T. S. 

Jf0r tjxe tjet^it nntt 

of % 

0f J&enitmtis. 








THE Rule of the Third Order, or Ordo cle Poenitentia, as well 
as the history of the origin of that Order, is one of the subjects 
upon which criticism has been directed from the time, rather more 
than thirty years ago, when a, serious study of Franciscan sources 
began. As in the case of so many other mediaeval problems, the not 
very extensive basis of ascertained facts and documents is liable in 
process of time to become overlaid and even concealed by the mass 
of theory and commentary which has been built upon such a basis. 
And yet there has not appeared in English a summary, first of 
the facts and documents which lie outside the region of doubt, 
and secondly of the criticism to which they have been subjected. 
As a Middle English version of the Rule is published here for 
the first time, it appears not unsuitable that an attempt should 
be made to provide such a summary. 

Before, then, anything in the way of criticism or commentary 
is stated, it will be well to set out what are the actual materials 
and what facts are known about them. 

1. In 1901 M. Paul Sabatier discovered in the Franciscan 
Monastery of S. John of Capestrano in the Abruzzi, in a fifteenth- 
century MS., a version of a Rule of the Third Order, having the 
following title : 

Memoriale propositi fratrum et sororum de Poenitentia in 
domibus propriis existentium inceptum anno Domini M C CCXX1 
tempore domini Gregorii noni Papae XIII Col. lunii indictione 
prima tale est. 

Whatever differences of view there may be as to this document 
in detail, all agree in regarding it as the earliest version of the 
Rule at present known. The full text will be found in Sabatier, 
Opuscules de Critique historique, Paris, 1901; and in Boehmer's 
Analekten zur GescJiichte des Franciscus von Assisi. Tubingen,. 
1904. This version, which consists of thirteen chapters, will be 
referred to as R 1 . 

26 Introduction 

2. In 1902 Pere Mandonnet, commenting on Sabatier's dis- 
covery of the Capestrano text, called attention to the mention of 
a fourteenth-century MS. formerly in the library of the Convent of 
SS. John and Paul, Venice, and described in 1 755 by Berardelli in his 
Catalogue of that Conventual Library as having the following title: 

Memorials propositi fratrum et sororum de poenitentia in domibus 
propnis existentium. Inceptum anno domini MCCXXI, tale est. 

It begins with the words : Viri qui huius fraternitatis fuerint 
and ends : tanquam contumax obligetur ad culpam. These words 
are identical respectively with the first words of chapter i and the 
last words of chapter xii of R 1 . 

This MS. is at present lost. Pere Mandonnet and H. Boehmer 
have both made fruitless inquiries for it. The library of the 
convent was dispersed in the early part of the nineteenth century.* 

3. Bernard de Bessa, writing about 1290, states that the Rule 
was the joint production of S. Francis himself and Pope 
Gregory IX : 

In regulis seu vivendi formis ordinis istorum dictandis sacrae 
memoriae dominus papa Gregorius in minori adhuc officio con- 
stitutuS) beato Francisco intima familiaritate coniunctus, devote 
supplebat, quod viro sancto in dictandi scientia deerat. 

4. On March 30, 1228, the Bull Detestanda^ was issued, con- 
ferring certain privileges and exemptions upon the members of the 
Third Order. 

5. A version of the Rule, differing from R 1 but containing 
a large portion of the material of the first twelve chapters of 
R 1, is contained in Wadding's Beati Patris Francisci Assisiatis 
Opera Omnia, 1623, and in other later writers based upon 
Wadding. This version is generally divided into twenty chapters. 
It will be referred to as R 2. 

6. On November 21, 1234, J Gregory IX issued letters to the 

* It may be worth mention, in order to save trouble to other students, 
that the present editor in August, 1913, also made a search in Venice for this 
MS. He ascertained that there were only three public collections in Venice 
which were known to contain volumes from this convent, viz. the library of 
S. Mark, the Museo Civico which received the Cicogna Bequest, and the 
State Record Office in the Frari. He went through the catalogues of all three 
institutions and consulted the librarians, but failed to find the MS. It 
must have passed into private hands, if it has not perished. 

f Sbaralea, i, p. 39. J Potthast, 9768. 

Introduction 27 

Bishops placing the Tertiaries under the protection of the Bishops, 
and at the same time committing to them the visitation and 
correction of the Tertiaries. 

7. A version of the Rule, substantially the same as R 2 in 
arrangement and contents, but nevertheless differing from it in 
certain respects, is incorporated in Nicholas IVs Bull Supra 
Montem of August 18, 1289. This is the version of which the 
text here published is a translation. It will be referred to as 
R 3. The best Latin text is contained in Seraphicae Legislationis 
Textus Originates, Quaracchi, 1897. This is the Rule which 
governed the Third Order from 1289 until 1883, when the Order 
was reformed by Leo XIII's Bull Misericors. 

8. On August 8, 1290, Nicholas IV published a Bull Unigenitus 
Dei Filius,* with a view to overcoming the hostility with which 
R, 3 was received in some quarters. The most important sentence 
in this Bull is as follows : 

Ordinem ipsum approbando, ordinationes nonnullas salutaris 
persuasionis, nostris litteris in eodem Ordine duximus observandas ; 
inter caeteras eisdem fratribus, paterno consulentes affectu, ut 
huiusmodi normam vivendi sequerentur, et sequendo amplecterentur 
eamdem. Et cum naturalis persuadeat ratio et rationi aequitas 
acquiescat, ut praedicti Ordinis professores, ob ipsius C&nfessoris 
reverentiam dilectorum filiorum nostrorum Ordinis Minorum diri- 
gantur et regulentur doctrina, qui utriusque Ordinis alumnus extitit 
institutor, de Ordine supradicto Fratrum Minorum visitatores et 
informatores assumere procurent. 

Other documents of lesser importance could be mentioned, 
especially other Papal Bulls relating to the Tertiaries, but the 
documents already mentioned are those which are most im- 
portant for a study of the Rule. 

Something must first be said as to the date at which the 
Tertiaries were founded, a question which at once brings us into 
a region of some uncertainty. Here again it is safest to start 
from a fixed point, viz. a Papal document, and that fixed point 
is provided by the letter of Honorius III, dated December 16, 
1221, to the Bishop of Rimini, which makes the first official 
reference to the Franciscan Tertiaries and recommends their pro- 
tection : Significatum est nobis quod Faventiae et in quibusdam 
* Potthast, 23355. 

28 Introduction 

aliis civitatibus et locis vicinis quidam sunt, quibus ilium Dominus 
inspiravit affectum ut . . . semetipsos ad poenitentiam se converterent. 
This letter is sufficient to show that at any rate by the date 
December 1221, the Order of Penitents had come into existence, 
and it may indicate that Faenze was the place of their origin. 
On the other hand, Mariano of Florence, whose authority as a 
sixteenth-century writer is not particularly high, claims that the 
first congregation of Penitents was established by S. Francis and 
Hugolino (Gregory IX) at Florence, in May 1221, a statement 
the accuracy of which is challenged by Boehmer. The traditional 
view has been that the Order was founded by S. Francis soon 
after his return from the East in 1221, in order to meet the 
need of the large multitude of lay folk, both men and women, who 
were anxious to ' do penance ', but who owing to the circumstances 
of their lives could not become members of the First or Second 
Orders. Fourteenth-century tradition, as given by Bartolomeo de 
Tolomaeis, even specifies the names of the first members of the 
Third Order as Luchesio and Bonadonna, citizens of Poggibonsi. 
There is no evidence for the 'Luchesio' story earlier than the 
fourteenth century. The Bollandists have further confused the issue 
by identifying Luchesio with Lucius, mentioned by S. Antonino 
of Florence as being the first member of the Third Order.* 

The authority of both Thomas of Celano and of the 'Three 
Companions ' has been invoked for tracing the existence of the 
Third Order to an even earlier period, indeed to a period con- 
temporaneous with the early preaching of S. Francis before his 
journey to the East ; it must, however, be remembered that there 
is a tendency with these writers, even though they are describing 
events within their own lifetime, to ascribe much which was 
actually later to the early days of the Order, somewhat at the 

* Curiously enough, both names are mentioned in the Latin extract from 
Bernardine de Bustis contained in the Pennant MS. and printed on pp. 55-7. 
It will be seen that Bernardine places S. Luchesio at the beginning of his 
list preceded only by S. Louis and S. Ivo, and that he says of S. Lucius that 
he was primus sanctus de isto tercio ordine. This may be a clue to the way 
in which the whole story has originated. Lucius, who has never been 
canonized, but only beatified (Festival on April 15), has perhaps been con- 
fused with S. Luchesio. It is difficult to say why Bernardine describes him 
as he does. For it was not until long after Bernardino's time that Lucius 
was beatified by Innocent XII. 

Introduction 29 

expense of historical accuracy and perspective. This at any rate 
however is certain, that the Third Order as a distinct organization 
must have come into existence by 1221. 

It is scarcely then a coincidence that the first known version 
of the Rule, R 1, should contain the date 1221. Whatever view 
one may hold as to the Capestrano Document, there can be little 
doubt that it points to a Rule composed in 1221, which may or 
may not be wholly or partly contained in R 1 as it is now extant. 
Assuming that the Third Order received its first organized form 
not later than 1221 it would naturally be expected that the new 
organization would require a Rule. 

The title of R 1 * is in itself ambiguous. The most simple 
and obvious way of understanding it is that of Pere Mandonnet, 
who merely places a full stop after the numerals 1221. If this 
is done, R 1 appears to be the original ' Memorial ' or Rule of 
1221 with its first twelve chapters, with a later addition of 1228, 
viz. chapter xiii. Sabatier and Boehmer make emendations of the 
title by supplying words which they believe to have fallen out. 
Under their view the first twelve chapters are certainly in the 
main the Rule of 1221, but already subjected to a redaction in 
1228; while chapter xiii contains material added not necessarily 
in 1228, but according to them probably later and at various 
periods, Both authorities see in chapter vi of R 1 an allusion to 
the Bull Detestanda of March 30, 1228, though the reality of 
that allusion seems question able. f Pere Mandonnet's argu- 
ment, based upon the Venetian MS., has not been successfully 
answered. It is much to be hoped that the lost MS. will ulti- 
mately be found, so as to place beyond doubt the actual form 
of the Rule of 1221, and to show whether chapter vi contains the 
same phrase now understood as an allusion to Detestanda or riot.J 

The next question which naturally arises is as to the authorship 

* See p. 25. 

f The clause in question is : Omnes a iuramentis solemnibus abstineant nisi 
necessitate cogente in casibus a summo pontifice exceptis in sua indulgentia 
videlicet pro pace, fide, calumnia et testimonio. 

J More recent evidence has been brought to bear on this question by 
P. Lemmens, who has published in Archiv. Franc. Hist., April 1913, a newly 
discovered version of the Rule of 1221 contained in Cod. 1159, Roy. Lib. of 
Konigsberg. This version confirms Mandonnet's view as to the understanding 
of the Capestrano title and Sabatier's view as to the allusion to Detestanda. 

30 Introduction 

of R 1, or rather of that part of R 1 which came into existence 
in 1221. On this point there is the greatest variety of opinion, 
ranging from those who have claimed it as the unaided work of 
S. Francis himself, to. those who deny S. Francis any hand 
in it at all. There are probably few, if any, to-day who would 
assert the Rule of 1221 to be the unaided work of S. Francis. 
On the other hand, Boehmer in his Analekten combats the view 
that the Saint was in any sense its author, and in publishing 
the works of the Saint he classifies it neither as genuine nor 
doubtful, but as spurious. Reference has already been made to 
the testimony of Bernard de Bessa, who probably derived his 
information from S. Bonaventura (who was himself in direct 
touch with the disciples of S. Francis), that the Rule of 1221 
was the joint work of S. Francis and Hugolino, afterwards Pope 
Gregory IX. We have evidence that Hugolino took some part 
in the composition of the Rule of the Friars Minor in 1223, and 
there is reason to think that he also participated in writing the 
Rule of the Clarisses in 1218-19. There is no good reason to 
doubt the testimony of Bernard de Bessa, and it is not unsafe 
to attribute the Form of R 1 to Hugolino and its contents to 
S. Francis. This is the view taken by Pere Mandonnet, as well 
as by Jorgensen and Father Cuthbert in their recent biographies 
of the Saint. After all, the extant body of undoubtedly genuine 
writings of S. Francis is so limited as to make it somewhat 
unsafe to argue, as Boehmer does, that R 1 cannot be in any sense 
the work of S. Francis, because it is so different from his 
ordinary style. 

The Capestrano Rule, Rl, gives then a fixed point, namely, 
the date 1228 as the year of the composition of part or perhaps 
the whole of it. Sixty-one years later another fixed point is 
provided by the Bull Sujyra Montem, dated August 18, 1289, and 
containing a new Rule, R 3. What then lies between R 1 of 
1228 andRS of 1289? 

Somewhere between these two dates lies R 2, the Rule as 
known to Luke Wadding, the seventeenth-century chronicler, and 
published by him. At first sight it might be supposed that the 
differences between R 2 and R 3 are so small that they are in 
reality the same Rule. The differences, however, though perhaps 
few and slight in extent, are important, and serve, taken along 

Introduction 31 

with other facts, as a clue to the processes lying behind the 
evolution of It 3. They may even at the same time throw light 
on the authorship of R 2. 

Pere Mandonnet * has worked out a theory showing how the 
various versions of the Kule of the Third Order reflect in their 
provisions the conflict which went on in the Franciscan Order 
between the Conventuals and those of the Strict Observance from 
a date even anterior to the death of the Founder. Into the 
precise meaning of the sundry titles given to the officers of the 
Order in HI, viz. Ministers, Visitor, and the Spiritual Coun- 
sellor, later called Director, and what these terms exactly connote 
it is not possible to enter here, nor is it necessary, as the subject 
has been so fully discussed b;y Pere Mandonnet and others. An 
examination of chapters i-xii of Hi, i.e. of the portion of R 1 
which is mainly assignable to 1221, will show that although the 
Order of Penitents owed its origin to S. Francis and the move- 
ment which he founded, there is not a phrase or provision in 
those chapters which indicate a link between the Penitents and 
the Friars Minor. Neither the Visitor nor the Director need be 
a Friar Minor. On the contrary, the first chapters of K 1 define 
that the Director must be a religious, thus expressly leaving it 
open whether he is to be a Friar Minor or a religious of some 
other Order. In other words, the provisions of 1221 aim at 
separating the Penitents from the influence of the Friars Minor. 
The opposite process characterizes the provisions of chapter xiii, 
i.e. of 1228. Under these provisions a Friar Minor is to be 
placed as spiritual director to the congregation, f and the monthly 
gathering is to be in the ' place ' of the Friars Minor. The Order 
of Penitents is thus deliberately brought back into a closer con- 
nexion with the Friars Minor. The alterations are so marked 
that they can scarcely fail to be a matter of intention. Now 
it will further be found that if R2 as known to Wadding is 

* Opuscules de Grit, histor. Fasc. IV, pp. 206-45. 

t 4. Item visitator et ministri huius fraternitatis petant a ministro vel 
custode fratrum Minorum unum fratrem Minorem de conventu, cuius fralris 
conailio et voluntate fratrum ista f rater nitas gubernetur in omnibus et regatur. 
5- Et quando ille f rater recederet de conventu, petant alium loco eius, ita 
quod semper consilio fratrum Minorum regatur ista fraternitas que a beato 
Francisco habuitfundamentum. 6. Item omnes fratres conveniant in prima 
dominica cuiuslibet mensis ad missam in loco fratrum Minorum. 

32 Introduction 

compared with R 3, contained in the Bull Supra Montem of 1289, 
the same process is at work. Leaving aside for the time the 
question of the date of R 2, it will be seen that in R 2 the Visitor 
must be a priest of some recognized religious Order, but there 
is neither a direction nor even a suggestion that he should be 
a Franciscan ; moreover the work of Visitor must not be done 
by any other. Now in R 3 an effort is again made, due no doubt 
to the influence of Nicholas IV, who had himself been a Minister 
General of the Franciscan Order, to restore the dominance of 
the Friars Minor in the counsels of the Penitents. Under chap- 
ter xx of R 3 * the Visitors and Directors of the Penitents are 
to be Friars Minor nominated for the purpose by the ( Custodes ' 
of the Franciscan Order ; and it is defined that the Visitor must 
not be a layman. A smaller indication of the trend of policy 
is in chapter viii of R 3, where it is provided that those who 
labour may eat thrice a day from Easter until S. Francis's Day 
(October 4), instead of until Michaelmas as in R 2. To what 
date then, between 1228 and 1289, must the promulgation of 
R 2 be assigned ? The date cannot be fixed with any degree 
of certainty, but an indication is afforded by the letters of 
Gregory IX, issued on November 21, 1234, by which the correc- 
tion and visitation of the Tertiaries is committed to the Bishops. 
R 2 probably came into existence about 1234. 

Thus, just as the process of separating the Penitents from the 
Franciscan Order in 1221 was reversed in 1228, so the same 
process which characterized R2 in or about 1234 was reversed 
in 1289. In 1221 the influence which was dominant in the 
Franciscan Order was that of Elias of Cortona. In that year 
the Chapter had been held at which Elias had been called to 
the government of the Order; in that year the first outward 
organization of the Order of Penitents had taken place ; in that 
year the Rule in its first form had been written. Even if Bernard 
de Bessa is right in his account of its authorship, that it was 
a joint work of S. Francis and Hugolino, it may be supposed 
that the dominating personality of Elias was not altogether absent 
in its composition. It was assuredly no part of the plan of 
S. Francis that that which he regarded as the one spiritual 
family should be split up, and that the Penitents should be 

* See page 54. 

Introduction 33 

segregated from the Friars Minor. The policy represented by 
the Rule of 1221 was the policy of Elias and also of Hugolino. 
From 1226-32 Elias was under a cloud; his policy no longer 
guided the Order ; the Friars of the Strict Observance had gained 
the upper hand. But about 1232 Elias returned to power, and 
held the position of Minister General until his deposition in 
1239. By 1234 Hugolino had been raised to the Pontificate as 
Gregory IX, and Elias was still in his counsels and was trusted 
by him. It is somewhat unlikely that the Rule of 1234 would 
be drafted by the Pope himself. It is quite possible that in R 2 
the handiwork of Elias himself may be seen. There is no docu- 
mentary evidence in support of this theory, nor is there any to 
refute it. Given the facts that the Rule, known to Wadding, 
came into existence about 1234, and that it reflects faithfully the 
known policy of Elias, there is scarcely any person to whom the 
responsibility for the changes of 1234 and the composition of R 2 
can be with more probability assigned than Elias of Cortona. 

While the general accuracy of this explanation of the history 
of the evolution of the Rules of the Third Order may be admitted, 
too much weight must not be attached to it, especially so far as 
the early form of R 1 is concerned. There may be another reason 
why R, 1 contains no reference to the Friars Minor, and why it 
is not until 1228 that the visitation of the Tertiaries is committed 
to them. The Tertiaries in the nature of things, whether originally 
as individuals or later as congregations, were people with fixed 
abodes. The Friars Minor in the early years of the Order were 
without any such abodes. Even if in some districts it would have 
been possible to rely on their services as Visitors or Directors of 
the Tertiaries, it could not until a later period have been uniformly 
possible. This consideration, which affects equally the visitation 
of the Clarisses, has been effectively pointed out by Pere Livarius 
Oliger in his De Origine Regularum Ordinis S. Clarae* 

In the present somewhat incomplete state of knowledge regarding 
the early beginnings of the Franciscan Order and of the forces 
at work in the composition of the Rules, this fact is one for which 
room must be left in theories as to the Rules. 

* Archiv. Franc. Histor. Tom. v. Fasc. II, p. 202. 

34 Introduction 


Having thus considered briefly the history and constitution of 
the Third Order of S. Francis or Ordo de Poenitentia, it remains 
to consider the special characteristics of the English version of the 
Rule here published. 

It will first be observed that this version begins with a list of 
chapter headings or table of contents which is not found in the 
published Latin originals. It is an addition made probably for 
the convenience of the English Tertiaries for whom this copy 
of the Rule was written. The chapter headings thus given 
correspond exactly to the rubricated headings which introduce 
each chapter in the text. For the most part the English headings 
are close translations of the traditional chapter headings of the 
Latin Rule. It will, however, at once be noticed that, whereas 
the Latin Rule as generally found is divided into twenty chapters, 
the present version has been divided into twenty-four chapters. 
Before considering the reasons for this, it will be well to set out 
the divisions comparing the English text with the Latin text 
as published by the Quaracchi Fathers.* 

Pennant MS. Quaracchi Text. 

Chap. I. Of the catholik faith, &c. Preamble not treated as a 

separate chapter. 

Chap. II. Chap. I and Chap. II, to 

' proximis reconciliare 
procuret '. 

Chap. HI. Chap. II. From * quibus 

omnibus ad effectum 
productis ' to ' solicita 
consideratione discussis '. 

Chap. IV. Chap. II. From* Ordiuamus 

praeterea ' to end. 

Chap. V. Chap. III. 

Chap. VI. Chap. IV. 

Chap. VII. Chap. V down to ' tribus 

vicibus Pater Noster '. 

* Serapkicae Legislationis Textus Originates, 1897, pp. 77-96. 



Pennant MS. 

Chap. VIII. 

Chap. IX. 
Chap. X. 
Chap. XI. 
Chap. XII. 
Chap. XIH. 
Chap. XIV. 
Chap. XV. 

Chap. XVI. 

Chap. XVLE. 

Chap. XVIII. 
Chap. XIX. 
Chap. XX. 
Chap. XXI. 
Chap. XXII. 
Chap. XXIII. 
Chap. XXIV. 

Quaracchi Text. 
Chap. V. From < Qualibet 

vero' to 'noscitur insti- 

tutum '. 
Chap. VI. 
Chap. VII. 
Chap. VIII. 
Chap. IX. 
Chaps X and XI. 
Chap. XII. 
Chap. XIII to 'inibi audi- 

turi '. 
Chap. XIII. From ' unus- 

quisque autem' to 'et 

Chap. XIII. From Stu- 

deat quilibet' to end. 
Chap. XIV. 
Chap. XV. 
Chap. XVI. 
Chap. XVII. 
Chap. XVIII. 
Chap. XIX. 
Chap. XX. 

It is difficult to suppose that it is mere chance which has 
caused the writer of the Pennant text to divide his Rule into 
twenty-four chapters instead of twenty. The explanation is 
possibly much the same as that which Pere Mandonnet * suggests 
in support of his theory that the so-called Capestrano Rule consisted 
of an original Rule of 1221 divided into twelve chapters, to which 
were added, in 1228, later additions forming a thirteenth chapter, f 
He attributes it to the important place occupied by the numeral 1 2 
in Franciscan thought. He claims that the Rule of the Friars 
Minor of 1223 and that of the Clarisses were both divided into 12 

* L'Ordo de Poenitentia. Opuscules de Crit. histor. Fasc. IV, pp. 156-7. 

f This theory of Mandonnet is, however, much injured by Lemniens's dis- 
covery that the text in the Konigsberg MS. is divided into eight chapters 
(see note, p. 29). 

D 2 

36 Introduction 

chapters ; that as a parallel to the apostolic band of 12, S. Francis 
had 12 chief companions : that the Apostles' Creed consists of 
1 2 articles. ' Ce que le Symbole etait pour 1'Eglise primitive, 
les regies Franciscaines devaient 1'etre pour chacune des fractions 
de 1'ordre.' 

It is true that Pere Mandonnet's theory on this point has been 
severely criticized by Pere Livarius Oliger, O.F.M., who in his 
two articles ' De Origine Kegularum Ordinis S. Clarae,'* points 
out that, if we go back to the original Papal Bulls which are 
preserved, neither headings nor divisions of chapters appear, and 
that such divisions are arbitrary. It remains a significant fact 
that the ' arbitrary* division of the Rules of the First and Second 
Order, from whatever epoch the divisions date, do favour the 
numeral 12. And referring to the Pennant version of the Rule of 
the Third Order, it seems an inevitable conclusion that either the 
translator was translating from a Rule divided into twenty chapters 
and that he deliberately re-arranged his material so as to form 
twenty-four : or that having before him a Rule without any chapter 
divisions, he still divided his material into twenty-four. This 
latter possibility is very remote, for it will be seen that in the large 
majority of cases he translates the traditional chapter headings. 

Another peculiarity of the English version will be found in 
chapter xix ; in order to make this clear it is necessary to set out 
the English and Latin side by side : 

Eche of theme also rnuste Ministeria quoque ac alia 
devoutly take upon theme all officia, quae praesentis formulae 
other occupacions and offices series exprimit, imposita sibi 
enioyned theme that this .reule quisque devote suscipiat, curet- 
requireth and treuly execute que fideliter exercere. Officium 
them. Also every officer shalbe autem cuiuslibet certi temporis 
but for a tyme and none for spatio limitetur. Nullus Minister 
terme of lyffe. instituatur ad vitam et eius 

ministerium cerium terminum 


The words in italics show how the English writer has slightly 
altered his material and curtailed his translation. The Latin text 
expressly states that no Minister is to hold office for life : the 

* ArcMv. Franc. Histor. Tom. v. Fasc. II and III. An. 1912, p. 431. 

Introduction 37 

English text says ' none for terme of lyffe ' but does not specify 
the Ministers. This -may be a somewhat slender foundation, but 
it does suggest that in the place or places where this English 
version was current, it was not convenient to specify too exactly 
the conditions of tenure of the Ministers. It will be seen that 
the repeated injunction eius ministerium cerium terminum com- 
prehendat is left untranslated. 

In chapter v the text as given on page 49 shows how a later 
hand has corrected the original version and brought it into line 
'with the Latin original. It would appear that the first hand 
resorted to abbreviation, because he could not find the English 
equivalents of the Latin names of certain vestments. It will be 
noticed that whereas the English prescribes for the Sisters 'a 
wyde palumdelum of lynnen clothe ', the Latin original gives 
' paludellum amplum de cannabo, sive lino,' or as the Pont. Reg. 
gives, de canape. 

A slight error in the closing words of the Bull is sufficient 
to show that the Pennant MS. is almost certainly a copy of 
a translation made probably by a scribe not very familiar with 
Latin, and that it is not the work of the actual translator. The 
word Kalender instead of Kalendes suggests that the scribe was 
unfamiliar with the Latin system of chronology. 

The Quaracchi Fathers of the ( Collegium Sanctae Bonaventurae ' 
have shown in their edition of the Eule of the Third Order in the 
Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originates* that there are certain 
variants as between the Latin text generally published (e.g. in 
Sbaralea's Bullarium) and the more authoritative text contained 
in the Pontifical Register of the Vatican. An examination of the 
Pennant MS. will show that it is a translation of a text which in 
the main agrees with the more accurate text of the Pontifical 
Register ; in one passage, however, it departs from the Pontifical 
Register reading in favour of the traditional reading ; in another 
the original text agrees with the Register, while the later 
correction does not. The points of agreement and disagreement 
are as follows : 

Preamble. 'The way to come to God.' Pont. Reg. viam 
accedendi. Traditional text, viam ascendendi. 

* Quaracchi, 1897, pp. 9 and 77-96. 

38 Introduction 

Chap. Ill (Penn). 'Of his instaunce.' Pont. Reg. instantia. 
Trad, text, instantis. 

Chap. Ill (Penn). 'The whiche all thinges so done.' Pont. 
Keg. Quibus omnibus ad effectum perductis. Trad, text, productis. 

Chap. V (Penn). 'A gnarnellum . . . made withoute any 
wrynkylle.' Pont. Reg. guarnellum . . . consutum. Trad, text, 
garnellwm . . . consuetum. 

Chap. XVIII (Penn). ' Over this enery brother,' &c. Pont. Reg. 
Et praeter haec. Trad, text, et post haec. 

Finale. * And if eny presume to attempte.' Pont. Reg. ausu 
temerario. Trad, text, usu temerario. 

On the other hand : 

Preamble. ' That promitteth the great rewardes.' Trad, text, 
praemia grandia. But Pont. Reg. praemia gaudiaque. 

Chap. V (Penn). ' Vesture clasped close and not opyn.' Pont. Reg. 
non patulas. Trad, text, vel patulas. But the correction in later 
hand has ' kut or hole but opyn ', thus departing from Pont. Reg. 

Other variants exist as between the two Latin texts, but they 
are too slight to affect the English translation. But the examina- 
tion of the variants given above is sufficient to show that the 
Pennant translator has had direct or indirect access to the text 
of the Pontifical Register, which in the matter of every variant is 
superior to the traditional text. It would appear further that 
the second scribe who added the correction in chapter v used the 
traditional text in spite of the words ' but opyn ' giving such bad 
sense and that he probably did not fully understand his original, 
as he left the words guarnellum, placentinum, and palumdelum 
untranslated. The variant grandia (great rewards) in the Preamble 
is difficult to explain. Somehow this inferior reading must have 
crept into the Latin text which the Pennant translator was 


The version of the Rule of Ihe Third Order of S. Francis which 
is here published, is contained in a manuscript which has recently 
come into the possession of the editor. The manuscript is on 
thick vellum and measures 193 mm. x 130 mm. It consists of 
19 leaves. The first leaf contains an illuminated picture of the 

Introduction 39 

Stigmatization of S. Francis, measuring 130 mm. x 90 mm. Leaves 
2-14 inclusive contain the English version of the Eule of the 
Third Order ; the writing is in black, with the chapter headings 
and some proper names in red. The index of the several chapters 
occupies leaves 2 and 3. This portion of the manuscript is written 
in a neat and legible English hand of the latter half of the fifteenth 
century ; there are generally 19 lines to the page. 

Leaves 15 and 16 contain a Latin fragment beginning De tercio 
eciam ordine Beatus Franciscus produocit multos flores. This 
fragment is an extract from the twenty-seventh sermon of Ber- 
nardine de Bustis' Rosarium Sermonum predicabilium* Part II. 
It is written in a different and smaller hand from that of leaves 2-14, 
and is certainly a later addition ; the hand appears to be Italian. 
This portion of the manuscript contains 22 lines to the page, and 
the capital initials are written alternately in blue and red with 
great regularity. There is a finely illuminated initial D with 
elaborate scroll-work at the beginning of the Latin fragment. 
The Latin text consists of a list of the more important members 
of the Third Order, both men and women, including all those 
who at the time "when Bernardine wrote, i.e. in the last quarter 
of the fifteenth century, had been canonized or beatified. 

Leaves 17, 18, 19 contain illuminated pictures of Christ being 
taken prisoner in Gethsemane and of Christ before Pilate. Facing 
these are the twelve Paternosters and Glorias for Matins, and the 
seven Paternosters, the Glorias, the Credo, and the Miserere for 
Compline in accordance with the requirements of chapter xi of 
the Rule. The pages containing the Offices for the intervening 
hours have unfortunately been cut out, doubtless for the sake 
of the illuminations. 

The history of the manuscript so far as it can be traced is as 
follows. It was one of the manuscripts acquired by the well- 
known antiquary and bibliophile, Thomas Pennant (172698), for 
his collection at Downing, Flintshire. The library of Thomas 
Pennant, including the Downing property, passed to Louisa 
Pennant, his great-grand-daughter, who was the first wife of the 
late Lord Denbigh. She died without issue some years after- 
wards, and left the property to her husband, from whom it passed 
to the present Lord Denbigh, his son by a second marriage. The 
* Printed at Venice in 1498 by Georgius de Arrivabenis. 

40 Introduction 

chief portion of the Downing Collection, including the present 
manuscript, was sold by auction at Messrs. Sotheby's in March, 
1913, and was ultimately purchased by the editor. It is now 
at University College Hall, Baling. There is no means of ascer- 
taining from what source Thomas Pennant acquired it, probably 
in the middle of the eighteenth century. Unfortunately, the 
manuscript, which was unbound, gives no clue to show in what 
place in England it was written or for whom ; nor is it profitable 
to conjecture whether it was written for some individual Tertiary 
as a private book of devotion or for a Community. This manu- 
script version in the English language is certainly rare, possibly 
unique. There appears to be no English manuscript of the Rule of 
the Third Order either in the British Museum or in the Bodleian 
Library, nor has the editor heard of another similar manuscript, 
though others perhaps exist. 



Adderley, J. #., and Marson, C. L. Third Orders. London, 1902. 
Boehmer, H. Analekten zur Geschichte des Franciscus von Assisi. Pp. xxxi- 

xxxv. Tubingen, 1904. 
CutKbert, Father, O.S.F.C. Life of Saint Francis of Assisi. Book iii, 

chap. vi. & Appendix iii. London, 1912. 
GoetZj W. Die Regel des Tertiarierordens. Zeit. fur Kirchengeschichte, 

vol. xxiii, 1902. 
Heimbucher, Max. Die Orden und Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche. 

Vol. 2, pp. 489-527. Paderborn, 1902. (This work contains on page 

489 a bibliography of older works on the Third Order.) 
Jorgensen, J. Saint Francis of Assisi : A Biography. Chapter x. London, 

Mandonnet, Rev. Pierre. Les origines de 1'Ordo de Pcenitentia. Compte 

rendu du quatrieme Congres scientifique international des Catholiques. 

Freiburg, 1898. 
Mandonnet, Rev. Pierre. Les Regies et le Gouvernement de 1'Ordo de 

Poenitentia au XIIP siecle. Opuscules de Critique historique. Paris, 

Miiller, Dr. Karl. Die Anfange des Minoritenordens und der Bussbruder- 

schaften. Freiburg, 1885. 
Sabatier, Paul. Regula antiqua fratrum et sororum de Poenitentia. Opuscules 

de Critique historique. Paris, 1901. 
Sabatier, Paul. Nouveaux travaux sur les documents Franciscains. Opuscules 

de Critique historique. Paris, 1903. 

Seraphicae Legislations Textus Originales. Quaracchi, 1897. 
Works of St. Francis of Assisi. Translated by a Eeligious of the Order. 

London (R. Washbourne), 18 0. 



[Note. Contractions universally recognized are not indicated in the text. 
For instance, the scribe signified m or n sometimes by writing it in full, some- 
times by putting a stroke over a preceding vowel. Which of these two 
methods he preferred to use in any particular word is of no more interest than 
which of two possible forms of the letter rjor s he may have preferred. 

Italics are therefore reserved in order to indicate that the editor is de- 
parting from the MS. Where a letter is changed, that letter is put in italics 
and the MS. reading given in a footnote. Where a letter or a word is supplied, 
it is placed in italics between square brackets. This rule naturally applies to 
the English only. All Latin is in italics. The more common contractions are 
expanded without comment ; more elaborate expansions forced upon the 
editor by the necessity of making his Latin intelligible are placed between 
square brackets. 

This Note refers only to the Text of the Kule of the ' Thirde Order of 
Seynt Franceys ' and to that of the Rule of * Sustris Menouresses enclosid '.] 


Here beginnyth the Chapituris of the iii de order of [Foi. 2 r ] 
Seynt franceys for the Brethren and Susters 
of the order of Penitentis. 1 

Of the catholike feyth of the Brethren and Susters of this reule. 

Cam. j. 5 

Of the comyng of the brethren and susters to this reule. 

Caplm. ij. 
Of the receyuyng to profession of J?e brethren and susters of 

this reule. Ca m . iij. 
How it shall not be leafull to the brethren and susters after 10 

they be come in to go oute of this reule. Caplm. iiij. 
Of the vesture or clothing of the brethren and susters of this rule. 

Ca m . v. 
How it is forboden going to eny wondringis, gasingis or to eny 

dishonest festis to the brethren & susters of this reule. 15 

Caplm. vj. 
Of the abstinence frome Fleshe eting comaundid to the brethren [Fol. 2 T ] 

and susters of this reule. Caplm. vij. 

Of the fasting of the brethren and susters of this reule. Caplm. viij. 
Of confession and comynion of the brethren and susters of this 20 

reule. Cap m . ix. 
How it is forboden eny wepyn to be borne by the brethren of this 

reule. Capitulum x. 

Of prayer of the bretherne and susters of this reule. Capitlm. xj. 
Of the testamentis of the brethren and susters of this reule. 25 

Capi m . xij. 

Of pece keping of the brethren and susters of this reule. Capi m . xiij. 
How swering is forboden to the brethren and susters of J>is reule. 

Ca m . xiiij. 
Of hering of masse of the brethren and susters of Ipis reule. 3 

Ca m . xv. 
Of almus doing of ]?e brethren and susters of this reule. Cap m . xvj. [Fol. 3'] 

1 The notes to which this and subsequent numbers relate will be found on 
pp. 58, 59. 

46 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 

Of scilens keping in the Chirche of the brethren and susters of f>is 

reule. Cap m . xvij. 
Of the brethren & susters that be seke or dye after they be 

enterid into this reule. Ca m . xviij. 

5 Of office bering of the brethren of this reule. Capitulum xix. 
How the visitour shall visit j?e brethren and susters of this reule. 

Capi m . xx. 
Of the exchewing of striues and debatis emonge the brethren and 

susters of this reule. Cap m . xxj. 
10 Of the dispensacion of Fastingis with the brethren and susters 

of this reule. Capitulum xxij. 
Of suche as be incorrigible brethren and susters of this reule. 

Capi m . xxiij. 

How that this reule and order byndith not vnder payne of deadely 
[Fol. 3 T ] synne eny of the bretherne and susters of this reule. Capitulum 



IN the name of god here beginnith the reule of I. 4 r ] 
the lining of the brethrene and susters of the 
order of penitentis. 

Of the catholik feith of the bretherne and susters of this reule. 

Caplm. j. 5 

NICHOLAS 2 Busshoppe seruaunt of the seruauntes of god. To 
oure welbelouid sonnes the bretherne and to oure welbelouid 
doughters in criste the susters of the order of the brethren of 
penaunce as well to them that be present as to suche as shal 
be in tyme to come, Gretyng and the apostolik blessing. IT is 10 
KNOWEN pat the stedfast grounde and foundement of cristen 
religion is sett vppon the hill of the vniuersall feithe the whiche 
J>e clene | deuocion of cristes discipuls brennyng with the fyre of [Fol. 4 T ] 
charite taught with the worde of besy predicacion the peple of 
Jentils that walked in derkeness. The which also the churche jg 
of Home holdith & kepith, whose foundement and grounde neuer 
shalbe cast doune with troubles nor brosid with no flodes of 
tempestes, for this is the right and trew feith, withoute whose 
company no man is accepted nor may haue grace in the sight 
of god. IT is he pat geuith the way to saluacion and pat pro- 20 
mittith the great rewardes of euerlasting felicite. THERFOR the 
glorius confessor of criste Saint Fraunceys the founder of this 
order, shewing in worde and dede pe way to come to god taught 
his children in the clennes of the saide feithe & wolde that they 
shulde be professed therin & stedfastly kepe it and fulfill it [Fol. 6 1 ] 
in deade, so | that they walking heilfully by the same wey might 
deserue to be made possessioners of euerlasting blisse after the 
disseace of this present lyfe. 

Of the comyng of the brethren and susters to this reule. Capi- 

tulum ij. 3 

TFE * THERFOR willing to depart oure fauor to the seid order 
and for the encrease of the same haue stabilyshte and ordeyned 
that all tho that shalbe receyued to the seid order before ther 

* MS. HE corrected in margin. 

48 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 

admission or rescey[w]ing * shalbe examened diligently of their 

feith and obedience toward the forsaide chirche of rome. AND 

yf they beleue treuly and stedfastly, then they may be resceyuid 

suerly to the same order. NEUEBTHELESSE it is . to be ware 

5 diligently that none heretike or suspect of heresy 8 or noysed 

[Fol. 5 T ] theruppon be admittyd in eny wyse to )?e obseruaunce | of this lyfe 

AND yf eny suche were founde that he be comytted anon to the 

Inquisitoures of heresies to be ponyshid by theme. ALSO when 

eny shalbe admitted to enter into this fraternite, the mynisters 

10 that bene deputed to receyue them shall enquire diligently of his 
office astate and condicion, declaring to them the charges of this 
fraternite, and specially that tha must restore all that thay haue 
of oder mennes goodes, and after ]?at, if it pleasith J?am, they 
shalbe clothed after the forme of the reule. AND then if thaye 

15 haue t ony goodes of other mennes, they must restore it in rnonye 
or after the cawcion of the pleggis. 4 AND be reconsiled neuerthe- 
lesse to their neyghbor. 

Of the resceyuing to profession of the brethern and susters of f>is 

reule. Ca m . iij. 

[Fol 6 T ] ^ THE + WHICHE a U thinges so done after the space of oone yere w* 
the councell and aduyse of sume of the discrete bretherne, if they 
thinke that he be worthy he shalbe receyued in this maner, THAT 
is for to sey that he shall promitte to kepe all the commaunde- 
mentis of god and make satisfaccion of all trespases that he shall 

25 do ayenst this maner lining to the will of the visitour whan he 
shalbe required by hym, the whiche proines so made by hym 
shalbe wrytte by a notary in an Instrument. AND that none be 
receyued otherwise by the seid ministers w*oute hem thought 5 to 
be done by the consideracion of the persons condicion and of his 

30 instaunce and Desyre. 

How it shall not be leafull to f>e brethern and susters after they 
[Fol. 6 T ] be come in to go | owte of this reule. Caplm. iiij. 

OUEE this we ordeyne and stablisshe that none aftyr that he is 

come to this fraternite may retorne in to the worlde but he may 

35 haue neuertheles fre going in to eny other approued religion. 6 

And as for women that haue husbondes they shall not come in to 

the seide fraternite but by the concent & licence of theme. 

* MS. ' resceying '. f * haue ' is added in later hand. 

t MS. EHE corrected in margin to THE. 

The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 49 

Of the vesture & clothing of the Bretherne and Susters of }?is 

reule. Capitulum v. 

FUKTHEKMORE the bretherne of this fraternite shalbe comynly 
clothed with meke clothes in price and coloure not all whyte or 
all blacke wtoute it be dispensid with some by the visitours of the 5 
councell of the mynysters of the price of the clothe 7 for a tyme 
& for a lawfull & an open | cause. The forseid bretherne also [Fol. 7 r ] 
shall haue * vesture clasped close and not opyn before as honesti 
requirith and closed slevis. The susters also shall haue vesture 
made w* soche meke clothe. AND as for mekenes of the clothes 10 
and furres of the susters it may be dispensed after the condicion 
of iche of theme and after the custome of the countrey. They 
shall not vse boundes and gyrdilles of sylke. Also the bretherne 
as well as the susters shall haue no furres but of lame skynnes 
and purses of lether and gerdillis w*oute eny silke & none 15 
other, All other vayne araye of the worlde layde aparte after 
the holsome councell of the prince of the apostels. 

How it is forboden goyng to eny wondryngis, gasingis or to eny 
dishonest festis to the bretherne and susters of this reule. 
Capitulum vj. 20 

THEY SCHALL not go in no wise to no dishonest festis dyners [Fol. 7 T J 
or sopers, nor to no gasingis or wonndring places nor to lordes 
courtes or daunces. They shall not also geue enything to Joglers 
or mynstrellis for loue of ther vaniteis and they shall forbid to 
their seruauntes that they gyue theim no thing. 25 

Of the abstinence frome fleshe eting comaundid to the brethern 

and susters of this reule. Capi m . vij. 

ECHE OF THEIM shall absteyne frome fleshe eting the Mounday, 
Wednisday, Friday & Saterday withoute that they must do 
otherwise by cause of sekenes or febilnes of body. And as to 30 
theme that be lett bloode, they may etc fleshe iij Dayes. And they 
J>at travell by the way may also etc fleshe all that while. ALSO 

* A later hand has deleted four lines from ' vesture . . . clothe ' and has 
added in the lower margin : ' mantelles and pylches w*owte Scalatura kut or 
hole but opyn as honesty reqzareth and closyd sieves. The susters also shall 
haue mantelle and curtelle mayd w* suche meke cloth or at the leste they 
shall haue w* the mantelle a guarnellum or else a placentinum of whyte or els 
of blak or a wyde palumdelum of lynnen clothe made w^ute any wrynkylle.' 


50 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 

[Fol. 8 r ] euery one of theim | may ete fleshe in principall festis whan other 
cristen men of olde custom e do ete fleshe, and in other dayes fat 
be not fastyng thay may ete eggis and cbese but whan they come 
in ony howse of religion they may ete soche as is sett before 
5 theme. ALSO they must holde theme content w* ij meles a day 
dyner and soper except tho that bene seke or traveling by the 
way. They that bene hoole must ete & drinke temperatly, for 
asmoche as the gospel seithe ' Loke that your hartis be no greuid 
with gloteney and drounkenesse '. Euermore befor dyner and 
10 before soper they shall saye a PATER NOSTER, and aftyr euery 
mele a nother PATER NOSTER, w* DEO GRACIAS, and if tha fayle 
so to doo they shall say PATER NOSTER thries f erfor. 

Of the fasting of the bretherne & susters of this reule. 

Capitulum viij. 

[Fol. 8 V ] THEY SCHALL fast euery Friday of the yere withoute eny 
sekenes or other laufull cause lett theme or without cristemasse 
day fall vpon the friday. FEOME alhalowtide vnto ester day thei 
shall fast wednisday and friday and they must kepe neuerthelesse 
all of er fasting dayes that bene ordeynde by the churche and fat 

20 be commaundid by the ordinaryes for a comyn cause. In seint 
martin lente 8 vnto Cristemas day and frome the sonday of 
Quinquagesime tyll ester day they muste faste euery day excepte 
sondayes withoute sekenes or eny other cause lett theme. The 
susters that bene with childe vnto the day of f er purificacion if 

25 they will shall do no thynge of bodeley occupacion except prayers. 

THEI that labore for cause of ther werines frome estyr tyll 

[Fol. 9 r ] seint FBAUNCEYS 9 may | ete laufully thries in the day whan they 

laubor. And when they shall worke for other men they shall ete 

such as is sett before them * euery day excepte fridaies or other 

30 fasting dayes ordeyned generally by the churche. 

Of confession and cominion of the brederne & susters of this 

reule. Capi m . ix. 

ALSO EUEEY brother and suster iij tymes in the yere, that 
is Cristemasse, Ester, and Whitsontide, must be shreven and 
sshouseled 10 deuoutly and be reconsiled with ther neyghbours 
restoring also other mennys goodes. 

* ' euery day ' added in a later hand. 

fern w. rtuxt i^ aiati^i: 

maten* tfie pfaut iffttt 
fic <T<tti^ml( ^i u-rffe ^ et^e , 
iX^ ot^cr ^nfct H4?^ tncn 


mn tt 



The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 51 

How it is forboden eny wepyn to be borne 11 by the bretherne 

of this reule. Capi m , x. 

THE BRETHERNE shall bere with theme no wepyn withoute it 
be for the defence of the churche of Rome or for the cristen faith 
or for ther owne | londe or ellis by the lycens of f>e ministers. [Fol. 9 T ] 

Of prayer of the bretherne & susters of thes reule. Capitulum xj. 
ECHE OF THEME muste say euery day ther service, that is 
Matyns, Prime and owers, Evynsong & Complyn 12 , and thei that 
be clarkes that can j?e Saulter shall say at prime DEUS, IN 
other psalmys w* Gloria patri, as clerkes done. And when thei 
go not to the churche they shall sey for matens the psalmis that 
the clerkis or the Cathedrall churche saithe, or ellis as other 
onlerned men done, For matens xij PATER NOSTER, and for euery 
owre vij PATER NOSTER w* GLORIA PATRI. So that at prime and Ig 
at Complene they that can it shall sey oon CREDE 16 and MISERERE 
MEI DEUS, and if they | say not in dewe tymes, they muste sey [Fol. 10 r ] 
iij PATER NOSTER. They that be seke be not bounden to sey the 
said owers w*owten they will. IN SAINT Martyn lent & also 
in the great lent 18 they shall go to matens to the parishe chirche 20 
wher they dwell withoute they haue a laufull excuse. 

Of the Testamentes of the bretherne and Susters of this reule. 

Capi m . xij. 

ALSO ICHE of them that may by the lawe muste make his 
Testament and dispose his goodis anon w*in iij monethis after 25 
that they be comyn in so that none of them discese withoute 

Of pece keping of the bretherne and susters of this reule. 

Capitulu. xiij. 

AND AS FOR peace making betwene the bretherne & susters 3o 
or betwixit strangers it shalbe as the | mynisters woll have it with C Fo1 - 10T ] 
the councell of the diosesan if nede be to be hade in this party. 
And if the bretherne or susters wer vexed by the iuges or 
gouerners of the places wherin they dwell ayenst the lawe or ther 
priuileges, the mynysters of ther places must goo to the Busshopis 35 
and ordinaries and must Do after Jer counsell and ordinaunce. 

E 2 

52 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 

How swering is forboden to the brethern and susters of tliis reule. 

Capi m . xiiij. 

THEY MUSTE also absteyne fro Solempne othes 19 without* nede 

require it and in causes admitted by the pope, that is for the peace 

5 for the faithe and for a maner of a nothe fat is callyd De 

calumpnia, for witnesse bering and for contractis of byeng & 

selling & of Donacion wher it shall be sene expedient, and in 

[Fol. ll r ] ther comen speche they | muste exchew as * moche as tha may 

othes andt swering. And he that eny day onwarly swerith by 

10 lightnes of tounge, as it fortuneth often tymes in moche J angeling, 

he must sey at euyn whan he remeinbrithe hym selfe what he 

hath done iij PATER NOSTER for soche ondescrete othes. ALSO 

iche of theim muste haue goode mynde to teche his seruauntes and 

to stere theim to goddes seruice. 

15 Of hering of masse of the bretherne & susters of Ipis reule. 

Capi m . xv. 

EUEEY BEOTHEE and suster fat hathe ther helthe, of what 

countre or place that so euer they be, yf they may goodly, must 

here masse euery day 20 and euery moneth they must appere to 

20 fat chirche or place wher the mynisters shall assigne theim ther 

to here solempne masses. 

[Fol. ll v ] ^ almus doing of the bretherne and | susters of this reule. 

Capitulu. xvj. 

ECHE OF THEME also muste geve a peny of customably money 
25 to the fctorer, 21 the whiche shall receyve it and departe it con- 
gruently by the councel of the ministers betwixte the poore 
bretherne and susters and specially amonge tho that be seke and 
amonge suche that haue not wherwith to be buryed and aftyr that 
amonge the poore men. 

30 FOETHEEMOKE they shall offer of the same money to the churche 
aboue saide. And then, if it may be, they shall gett theme a 
Religious man competently lettered, the whiche shall stere theme 
and enduce them besily to penance and to the fulfilling of the 
dedis of mercy. 

* ' moche as' added in later hand. f ' and' added in later hand. 

The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 53 

Of * silence keping in the chi[r]che of the brethern & susters of 

this reule. Ca m . xvij. 

ECHE OF THEME muste kepe his silence whan the masse is f [Fol. 12 r ] 
in doing, and whan the worde of gode is saide, tha must take hede 
to prayer and to the office withoute he be letted for cause of the 5 
comen profet of the fraternite. 

Of the brethern & susters Ipat be seke or dye aftyr they be 

enterd in to J>is reule. Ca m . xviij. 

AND WHEN eny of the brethern shalbe seke, the ministers must 
visit theim or sum other in ther place if they haue knowlege 10 
therof ones in the weke stering theim besily to penaunce in the 
best maner that they shall thinke expedient for theim, geffyng 
theim also that is necessary to theim of the comen goodes ; and 
if eny of them disseace, | it must be uotyfied to all the brethern [Fol. 12 T ] 
& susters of the place wher he is deade, the whiche must be 15 
present to the deade man exequies and not Departe till the masse 
be done and the body be buried. And this also must be obserued 
to the Susters that be seke and J>at disseasen. Ouer this euery 
brother & suster w*in viij dayes of the obite of hym fat is 
disseased shall say for his soule, that is for to sey, preistis shall 20 
sey one masse for hym, and they that can f>e psalter shall sey 
1. psalmus and they fat be vnletterd shall say 1. PATER NOSTER 
and at the ende of iche they shall sey REQUIEM ETERNAM, and 
besyde all this they shall J cause to be sayd euery yere iij masses 
for the welthe 22 of the bretherne and susters quike and deade, | and [Fol. 13 r ] 
they that can J?e psalter they shall say it ones and other shall sey 
an hunderd PATER NOSTER with REQUIEM ETERNAM & cetera at the 
ende of iche. 

Of office bering of the bretherne of this reule. Cap m . xix. 

ECHE OF THEME also muste deuoutly take vpon theme all 30 
other occupacions & offices enioyned theme that this reule 
requireth and treuly execute them. Also euery officer shalbe but 
for a tyme and none for terme of lyffe. 

* MS. reads ' licence '. 

f- MS. adds ' be ' which is deleted and then apparently restored. 

J MS. 'say' deleted. 

54 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 

How the visitoure shall visit the bretherne & susters of }?is 

reule. Cap m . xx. 

ALSO THE ministers and bretherne & susters of euery Cyte and 

[Fol. 13 T ] place must gader theme in some Religiouse place or in | a chirche 

5 whan ther is no religiouse place and ther they muste haue a preist 

of sum religion approued, the whiche shall enioyne thame pennaunce 

for ther trespaces. So that none other may execute this office 

of visitacion vpon theme. And forasmuche that this maner of 

lyffing was ordeyned and stablisshed by Seynt Fraunces, we geue 

10 councell that the forseide visi tores and techars be taken of the 

Frere menores suche as the Custodis or Wardenis of the saide 

order whan they be required shall assigne. And we woll in no 

wise that suche congregacion bene visit by laye men. And this 

visitacion shalbe doon ones in the yere withoute it be nedfull to be 

[Fol. 14 r ] done ofter, and if eny of theme | bene rebellis and will not be 

corrected, aftyr thryes warnyng they shalbe put oute of the 

congregacion by the counsell of Discrete men. 

Of the exchewing of Stryves and debatis emonge the bretherne and 

susters of this reule. Caplm. xxj. 

20 ALSO THE brethern & susters in all that tha may must 
exchewe stryves and Debates emonge theme, and if eny hap, they 
must besili amend it or ellis they must annswer in the la we before 
hym that hathe Jurisdiction. 

Of the dispensacion of fastingis withe f>e bretherne and susters 
25 of this reule. Caplm. xxij. 

ALSO THE OKDINAKIES and visitor may despence with all the 
[Fol. 14 V ] bretherne and susters in ther | abstinences, Fastingis & other 
obseruaunces, whan nede causes resonabill shall require it. 

Of suche as be incorrigible brethern and susters of this reule. 
30 Cap m . xxiij. 

THE MYNISTEKS also shall denounce to the visitoure the opyn 

fautis of the bretherne & susters and he shall punyshe theme. 

And yf eny of theme be incorrigible 23 aftyr thryes warnyng, the 

ministers muste denounce theme by the councell of sum of the 
35 discrete bretherne to the visitour, the whiche shall putt hym oute 

of the feliship and this muste be aftyr warde publisshid in the 



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i s^ cc(cfcar( m cfcmuine ^icniHuiift\?^u6 c^t 
jiitfjtyw ctput ciJXkt 6m Cud/cni 
uiicpSdu) fonm cai^ri^iiJ c^o t WA 
pafui,ct (^f in (oa> nwyuicfi m tulcvik 


i fiiau cc^c/Jfcc 
inc.<t fan >tw& 

<w ciiic- 


The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 55 

How that J>is reule & order byndithe not vnder payne of dedly 

synne eny of f>e brethern & susters of | this reule. [Fol. 15 r ] 
Capitulum xxiiij. 

NEUEKTHELESSE we woll not that tochyng the premisses eny 
of the bretherne or susters of Ipe order fall in eny deadely synne 5 
for soche thynges in the whiche they be not bounden by the 
commaunderaentis of god or by the statutes of the churche but 
that they resceyue mekely & affectually fulfylle soche pennaunces 
as is put vpou theme for ther offencis. 

Therfor be it not leafull to no maner of man to Interrupte 10 
or come ayenste this oure present statute and ordinaunce. 

And if eny presume to attempte ther ayenste, let hym wytt 
]?at he fallith in to the indignacion of almyghty god & of hys 
apostles Seynt Petir and seynt Powle. 

Gouen at Eeate 24 the xv Kalendes* 25 of Septembre fe secunde 15 
yere of oure pontificacion 26 . Deo gracias. [T?ol. 15 V ] 

Beatus Franciscus 

Beatus Franciscus produxit multos flores, scilicet sanctum Ludo- 
uicum regem francie, Elzearium comitem ariani, qui cum beata 2 o 
delphina vxore sua in matrimonio iurauit t perpetuam virginitatem. 
Item sanctum luonem J iuris vtriusque doctorem presbyterumque et 
confessorem de britania minori, qui fuit magne deuocionis et con- 
templacionis atque miraculis claruit ; ac semel cum missam celebraret 
in eleuacione sacramenti visus est globius igneus super caput eius. 25 
Item beatum lucensem siue lucencium de podio bonai cuius capud 
ego in manibus habui, et est in loco nostro qui est in tuscia super 
montem imperialem, ubi est eciam corpus eius. Et monasterium 
nostrum appellat[Mr] sancti lucensis siue lucensii. Item produxit 
sanctum lucium confessorem qui fuit primus sanctus de isto tercio 30 
ordine Et sanctum Nicholucium de senis ac beatum lacobum de laude 
sacerdotem et miraculis clarum, Et beatum Petrum Romanum qui 
sub soldano fuit | martirizatus, Sanctum bonazicum de vulterra, Et [FoL 16 r ] 
beatum Petrum de colle, Ac beatum Alexandrum de perusio, Et 

* MS. 'Kalender'. t Printed edit. servavit '. 

J MS. * Inonem '. Printed edit. ' Luchesium, Luchesii'. 

56 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 

beatum leonem archiepiscopum Mediolani, Gualterium episcopum 
triuisii, Et beatum Richardum episcopuin fossombroni, Ac beatum 
alexandrum magistrum theologie Et beatum Carolum * Ac beatum 
Laudonem de monte feltro, Et beatum lohannem de vrbino, Ac 
5 beatum lohannem de Rauena Et beatum torelum de pupio, Ac 
beatum bartolum de sancto gemmanot Et beatum petruin pectinarium 
de senis Ac beatum Robertum dominum arimini, Et beatum thoma- 
succium de fulgenio prophetam ac miraculis clarissimum : similiter 
quo ad mulieres produxit Sanctam elizabeth filiam regis hungarie 

10 que fuit vxor landegauii ducis lothoringie. Item sanctam Rosain de 
viterbio, Sanctam Margaretam de Cothona, Sanctam bonodonam de 
bodio bona vxorem sancti luchesii, Beatam emilianam de florencia, 
Et beatam Glaram de monte falcie in cuius corde inuentus est 
sculptus crucifixus cum omnibus misteriis passionis, & tres parue 

J 5 pille in eius pectore reperte sunt quarum vna tantum ponderat 

quantum due et quantum omnes tres simul. Et non plus ponderant 

omnes tres simul quam vna sola: Per quod significatur quod ipsa 

[Fol. 16 V ] habuit continuam memoriam passionis cristi et perfectam | fidem 

vnitatis diuine essencie et equalitatis trium personarum diuinarum. 

20 Que omnia Ego propriis oculis aspexi. Item beatam elizabeth im- 
peratricem Romanorum vxorem caroli quarti regis francorum et 
Imperatoris que miraculis coruscauit, Et beatam blancam reginam 
francie, matrem sancti Ludouici regis francorum, que signis et 
miraculis claruit, Et beatam meam de senis, Et beatam paschalinam 

25 de fulgineo, Et beatam Michelinam de pensauro, Ac beatam angelam 
de fulgineo que duodecim annis quotidie sumpsit dominicum corpus 
[nihil] J aliud manducans sed illo cibo celesti refecta oracioni et con- 
templacioni vacabat. Item beatam beatricem de Rushonibus comi- 
tissam que nostris temporibus fuit et a septem anm*s citra mortua est 

3 multisque miraculis claruit et est sepulta Mulier in ecclesia nostra 
sancti angeli. Vt etiam dicit Magister bartholomeus pisanus vbi 
supra Iste ordo commendari potest de nobilitate, Nam multi magni 
homines de diuersis regnis christianitatis, Comites, Duces, principes, 
barones & nobiles, tarn viri quam mulieres, fuerunt de tercio ordine 
[Fol. 17 r ] beati Francissi. Inter quos vltra superius enarratos | fuit ilia Regina 
vngarie que fecit monasterium campi regis in austria Et alia regina 
vngarie, mater regis ludouici ; istum quoque habitum induit quedam 
Imperatrix Constantinopolis, Etvna regina cathalonie, Etrex lacobus 
dux sarbundie, & Magister raagnifici Domini lohannis lacobi de 

40 triulcio Et dominus Bartholomeus de vignate cuius proaui fuerunt 
Domini ciuitatis laudensis. Et dominus lanzalotus de decio iuris 

* MS. ' Caralum '. f MS. ' gemmans '. 

J MS. < vel '. MS. ' annos '. 

The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 57 

vtriusque doctor peritissimus ac lector in studio papiensi cum aliis 
quasi in[n]umerabilibus * Et inbulla que incipit * Sacri predicatorum 
et minorum ordines '. que aurea appellatur concessit fratribus et 
sororibus tercii ordinis et eoruui congregacionum oinnes gracias et 
priuilegia que vnquam ipsis fratribus minoribus per sedem aposto- 5 
licam sunt concessa dummodo eorum statui non repugnant, sicut 
est predicare, Confessiones audire et huiusmodi. Et consequenter 
gaudeant priuilegiis omnium fratrum mendicancium, sicut ipsi fratres 
minores ut per eandem bullam patet per Sixtwnit papam quartum, 
ut patet in parte secunda rosarii Bernardini de &usti Sermone 10 
vicessimo septimo. 

* The quotation from Bernardine de Bustis ends here. 
+ MS. 'Sixtam'. 
1 MS. 'Rusti'. 


1 Third order of Seynt Franceys . . . of the order of Penitentis. This title 
is interesting as showing the earlier as well as the later name of the Tertiaries. 
From their foundation until nearly the end of the thirteenth century they 
were known in ecclesiastical documents and also popularly as Fratres de 
Poenitentia or Ordo de Poenitentia. It was not until the end of the thirteenth 
century that the title ' Third Order ' was used as an official designation of the 
Franciscan Tertiaries. It will be noticed that the title, though appearing 
here in the heading, does not occur anywhere in the text of the Bull of 
Nicholas IV (1289). For full discussion of this topic see Mandonnet, Les 
Eegles et le gouvernement de V Ordo de Pcenitentia au XIII 6 siecle. Paris, 
1902. Pp. 194-5. 

2 Nicholas. This is Nicholas IV (Hieronymus of Ascoli), a cardinal and 
Bishop of Palestrina. He was raised to the Pontificate on February 15, 1288, 
and occupied it until April 4, 1292. As stated at the end of this Bull, 1289 
was the second year of his Pontificate. Nicholas was himself a Franciscan : 
he was indeed Minister General of the Order from 1274 to 1279. 

3 None heretike or suspect of heresy. This clause indicates the fear which 
the Holy See entertained lest the new penitential 'fraternities', which were 
multiplying rapidly in the thirteenth century, might become heretical and 
a danger to the Church. Consisting largely of lay folk, they were constantly 
liable to drift into conflict with the hierarchy and even to lapse into heresy. 
Or noysed thereupon, Latin ' aut etiam infamatus '. 

4 After the cawcion of the pleggis. A literal translation of the original 
' secundum exhibitam pignoris cautionem *. 

5 W^ute hem thought, ' Unless it seems to them ', i. e. to the ministers. 

6 Eny oilier approved religion. The mediaeval use of the word ' religion ' 
is more limited in sense than the modern use. It implies an organized branch 
of religion, a religious order. 

7 Price of the clothe. Tnis chapter shows the necessary development from 
the primitive simplicity of the early days. In R 1 it is prescribed that the price 
of the cloth must not exceed six ' solda ' of Ravenna, a local measure which 
would obviously be useless for general use. 

8 Seint Martin lente, often referred to as the lesser Lent, was the period 
from S. Martin's Day, November 11 until Christmas. 

9 Tyll seint Frauncys, i. e. until the feast of S. Francis, October 4. For 
note on substitution of this feast for Michaelmas, see p. 32. 

10 Houseled = ' communicated '. 

11 Bearing of weapons. This was one of the points which brought the 
' Penitents * into collision with the secular authorities. They were thus pre- 
vented by the Rule from taking up arms in merely secular disputes. The 
creation of this Order and others with similar principles was one of the factors 
which contributed to the breakdown of Feudalism. 

Notes 59 

12 Matyns . . . Comply n. These are the seven canonical hours, Matins, 
Prime, Terce, Sext, Nones, Vespers, and Compline. In the Latin text the 
* hours ' are enumerated in full. 

13 Deus, in nomine tuo. The opening words of Psalm liv. 

14 Beati inmaculati. The opening words of Psalm cxix. 

16 Legem pone. The opening words of verse 33 of Psalm cxix. 

16 Crede, that is the Apostles' Creed. 

17 Miserere mei Deus, i. e. Psalm li. 

18 The great lent, i. e. the Lent preceding Easter, in contradistinction to 
' St. Martin's Lent ' or ' the lesser Lent '. 

19 Absteyne from solempne otlies. The provisions relating to the taking of 
oaths appear also in the Capestrano Rule and form one of many parallels 
with the Rule of the Humiliati. Whether there is a distinct reference here 
and in the corresponding chapters of Rl to the Bull Detestanda is dis- 
cussed on p. 29. R 2 and R 3 go further than R 1 in extending the circum- 
stances for the taking of oaths ' for contractis of byeng and selling and of 
donacion ', &c. 

20 Here masse euery day. In this respect R 3 is decidedly stricter than R 1 ; 
for under R 1 the Penitents were bound to hear Mass only once a month. 

21 Storer. Latin ' massarius ' = treasurer. 

22 Welthe = well-being. Latin salute '. 

23 Yf eny of them be incorrigible. It will be noticed that the provisions 
relating to ' incorrigible brethren ' appear twice, here in chap, xxiii and also 
in chap. xx. 

24 Reate. A town in Umbria lying between Assisi and Rome. It has 
many Franciscan associations. 

25 XT' Kalendes of Septembre = August 18. For note on 'Kalender' 
see p. 37. 

26 Seconde yere of oure pontificacion = 1289. Nicholas IV ascended the 
Papal throne in 1288. 



(MS. Bodl. 585) 








THE connexion between the several branches of the great move- 
ment in the life of the Church, the Order of S. Francis, is so 
intimate and close that it is almost impossible to treat of any one 
branch of the Order without treating of the others. Most parti- 
cularly is this the case when the Second Order or Order of S. Clare 
is considered. For while its history is interwoven with that of the 
Third Order or Order of Penitents, its history is quite inseparable 
from that of the First Order or Order of Friars Minor. 

The Order of S. Clare has recently been the subject of much of 
the most valuable research which has been carried out in the field 
of Franciscan Studies. For the time being at any rate Pere 
Livarius Oliger, 0. F. M., has in his two articles in the Archivum 
Franciscanum Historicum* 'De Origine Regularum Ordinis S. 
Clarae,' so thoroughly and exhaustively reviewed both the materials 
and the criticism based upon them, that a restatement of the whole 
case is superfluous until new material comes to light. This does not 
imply that there are not some controversial points in Pere Oliger's 
statement of the case, to certain of which reference will be made later. 
Again, Father Cuthbert's introduction to Mrs. Balfour's Life and 
Legend of the Lady S. Clare reviews very clearly one particular 
aspect of the Order, viz. the life-long- struggle of S. Clare to keep 
alive the tradition of the early Franciscan spirit and to win for her 
whole spiritual family the Privilege of Poverty. Nor are these two 
works the only ones of importance in connexion with the story of 
the Clarisses. Much material will be found dealing with every 
aspect of the subject. 

This being so, it appears unnecessary, in presenting an edition of 
the particular Rule of the Second Order which is here published, to 

* Tom. v. Fasc. II and III. An. 1912. 

64 Introduction 

restate in detail the facts already ascertained or to reargue the 
case. It will be sufficient to recapitulate very briefly the out- 
standing facts up to the year 1253 and then deal in greater detail 
with the so-called ' Isabella Rule '. 

The birthday of the Order was Palm Sunday, 1212, when Clare 
left her home in Assisi and in the Chapel of the Porfciuncula entered 
the religious life as a follower of S. Francis. In the following 
year she was placed by S. Francis in San Damiano together with 
a small band of sisters who had already followed her example. 
Whether there was a written Kule in existence between 1212 and 
1218 is a disputed question, but at any rate no such Rule is at 
present known, and it would appear more probable that there was 
nothing more than a ' formula vitae ' given to S. Clare by S. 
Francis, which is found quoted in the later Rule of 1253: Quia 
divina inspiratione fecistis vos filias et ancillas altissimi summi 
Regis Patris coelestis, et Spiritui sancto vos desponsastis eligendo 
vivere secundum perfectionem sancti Evangelii : volo et promitto per 
me et Fratres meos semper hdbere de vobis tanquam de ipsis cur am 
diligentem, et sollicitudinem specialem. 

This ' formula vitae ' is important because it contains in embryo 
two of the most vital matters in the history of the Rule, viz. the 
' evangelical perfection ' or Privilege of Poverty and the dependence 
of the Clarisses upon the Friars Minor and their identification with 
the Franciscan Order. 

The next fact of consequence is that in or about 1215 S. Clare 
obtained from the Pope Innocent III an oral grant of the so-called 
' Privilege of Poverty '. It must here be explained what was the 
essential feature of the Privilege of Poverty as understood and 
practised by S. Francis and S. Clare. It did not mean merely 
that they personally and their followers individually renounced 
private property : that would have been no new feature, for it was 
one quite familiar in religious life. The essential feature was that 
property was not to be held by the community as a whole or as 
a corporate body : in other words, the community was to be depen- 
dent on the voluntary gifts of the faithful. 

The first extant Rule of the Clarisses is what is generally known 
as the Hugoline Constitutions, so-called because they were drawn 
up in 1219 by Ugolino, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, under authority 
granted to him by Honorius III. The text of the Hugoline 

Introduction 65 

Constitutions will be found in a Bull of Gregory IX.* The aim 
of these Constitutions was to bring the newly formed Order more 
directly under the authority of the Curia and to make it conform 
to a greater extent to the existing religious orders. But the Con- 
stitutions deliberately left out the Privilege of Poverty, and indeed 
made definite provision for property to be held in common and 
inherited by each house. It would seem that after the return of 
S. Francis from the East, Ugolino was persuaded by him to modify 
the Constitutions in the case of S. Clare's own house of San Damiano, 
outside Assisi, by recognizing the oral grant of poverty given to her 
by Innocent III, but this concession did not extend to the case of 
the other houses of the Clarisses. 

The Hugoline Constitutions remained in force as the Rule of the 
Clarisses from 1219 to 1247, although it may be doubted whether 
they were ever really observed by the mother-house of San Damiano 
or indeed by certain other houses. The Papal records between 
those dates contain numerous Bulls relating to the Kule, some 
addressed to S. Clare and some to Blessed Agnes of Prague. It may 
here be mentioned that probably in the past too little attention has 
been paid to the part taken by Bl. Agnes in the negotiations with 
the Holy See as to the Privilege of Poverty. 

The year 1247 was marked by the issue of a new Rule by 
Innocent IV, contained in the Bull Cum omnis vera Religio. 
This Rule left the question of the Privilege of Poverty unaltered : 
there was still provision for the sisters to hold property in common 
for the use of the community. It marked progress, however, in 
this respect, namely, that it omitted the references to the Benedictine 
Rule, which had raised scruples in the minds of the Clarisses and 
of which more will be said later, and it defined their position as 
part of the Franciscan Order. Thus it provides that they are to 
live ' according to the Rule of Saint Francis so far as it relates ta 
three things, obedience, surrender of private property, and chastity'. 
In the profession of the sisters the vow is made c to God, and to 
Blessed Mary ever- Virgin, to Blessed Francis and all the Saints '. 
But, what is still more important, the care of all the houses of 
Clarisses is handed over to the Minister General and Provincials 
of the Order of Friars Minor. Such then was the second Rule of 
the Clarisses. 

* Sbaralea, i. 263. t Sbar. i. 476. 

66 Introduction 

The year 1253 was that in which S. Clare's victory was won. 
Two days before her death, viz. on August 9, 1253, Innocent IV 
issued the Bull Solet annuere* which gave to the Order of Clarisses, 
not at San Damiauo alone but every where, the long-coveted Privilege 
of Poverty. Neither the individual sisters nor the congregations 
were to be compelled to receive or inherit property. 

S. Francis himself had died in 1226, i.e. twenty-seven years 
before the issue of this third Rule; thus during more than a 
quarter of a century S. Clare had stood fast for the primitive 
ideals which had governed S. Francis and which had led her in 
the beginning into the path of complete self-renunciation. 

Before passing on from this point to the later history of the Rule 
which concerns more intimately the particular version here published, 
it is necessary to turn back and examine in somewhat greater 
detail one aspect of the question, viz. the significance of the 
references to the Benedictine Rule in the earlier versions of the Rule 
of the Clarisses. 

Ever since the middle of the eighteenth century the question 
has been debated whether S. Clare at her profession adopted the 
Benedictine Rule, and whether and if so in what sense the Clarisses 
in the early history of the Order were Benedictines. Some of the 
outstanding facts are these : 

The day following her profession S. Clare was committed by 
S. Francis to the Convent of S. Paulo near Bastia, which followed 
the Benedictine Rule, whence shortly afterwards she was trans- 
ferred to another Benedictine House, S. Angeli de Panso on the 
slopes of Mount Subasio. It was not long, however, before she 
was brought to San Damiano, and there formed the community of 
Poor Ladies, living, as far as can be ascertained, in accordance 
with the ' formula vitae ' given to her by S. Francis. 

As has been seen, the first known form of the Rule of the Poor 
Ladies is found in the Hugoline Constitutions of 121819. Now 
these Constitutions contain the following words : 

'Regulam Beatissimi Benedict!, in qua virtutum perfectio et summa discretio 
noscitur instituta, quae et a sanctis Patribus a principle devote suscepta est, et 
ab Ecclesia Koniana venerabiliter approbata, vobis concedimus observandam 
in omnibus, in quibus eidem vivendi formulae vobis a Nobis tradttae, cum 
adhuc essemus in minori officio constituti, contraria minime comprobatur.' 

* Sbar. i. 671. 

Introduction 67 

These facts Pere Oliger * explains by referring to the XHIth 
Canon of the Lateran Council, which had been held in 1215 and 
which required that no new ' religion ' should be founded in the 
Church, but that those who felt led to a religious vocation should 
attach themselves to one of the already existing Orders, e.g. the 
Benedictine or the Augustinian. As an illustration, he asserts 
that S. Dominic ' formaliter Regulam S. Augustini accepit'. He 
infers that the references to the Benedictine Rule in the Hugoline 
Constitutions and in the later Bulls of the Holy See addressed to 
8. Clare must not be understood to imply that the Poor Ladies 
were regarded as following the Benedictine Rule otherwise than 
* formaliter ', that is as a kind of ecclesiastical fiction. It is of course 
quite true that Pope Innocent IV, writing to Bl. Agnes of Bohemia, 
had ruled that the obligation in respect of the Benedictine Rule 
implied no more than observance of the vows of canonical obedience, 
poverty, and chastity .t On the other hand it is clear that, what- 
ever interpretation was put by the Curia upon the. clauses 
requiring observance of the Benedictine Rule by the Poor Ladies, 
however much its significance was minimized by Innocent IV, the 
question was a very vital and acute one in the minds of the Poor 
Ladies themselves, at any rate at Prague. The Bull In Divini 
timore nominis, already mentioned, makes clear that it was issued 
because Bl. Agnes had written to the Pope, saying that the words 
in the Rule ' The Rule of S. Benedict ', troubled their consciences, 
as they feared that by attempting to serve two Rules simultaneously 
they were committing mortal sin. Nor was this doubt confined to 
Bl. Agnes and her sisters at Prague. For in August, 1244, the 
Pope sent to S. Clare whether in response to a remonstrance 
from her or not, we do not know precisely the same ruling J upon 
the words 'The Rule of S. Benedict* which he had sent in November, 
1243, to Bl. Agnes. In November, 1245, the Hugoline Constitutions 
were reaffirmed in the Bull Solet annuere addressed to all the 
congregations of Poor Clares, and still the observance of the 
Benedictine Rule is required. Reference has already been made to 
the Rule of Innocent IV of 1247 and to the fact that from this Rule 

* De Orig. Regul Ordin. S. Clarae, A. F. H., 1912, pp. 181-4, 203-5, 

j* Bull In Divini timore nominis, Sbar. i. 242. 

% Bull Cum universitati vestrae, Sbar. i. 350. 

Cum omnis vera Religio, see p. 65. 

F 2 

68 Introduction 

the references to the Benedictine Rule disappear for the first time. 
That Rule was probably granted in response to representations 
made by S. Clare and Bl. Agnes, for the Pope refers to himself as 
being ' vestris piis precibus inclinati ', and it may be supposed that 
one of the matters upon which they petitioned the Holy See and 
this time successfully was the elimination of the reference to the 
Benedictine Rule. 

This repeated protest on the part of the Poor Ladies themselves 
and the tone of the responses from the Holy See make it difficult 
to accept Pere Oliger's view that the observance of the Benedictine 
Rule by the Clarisses was a mere formality, and that it must not 
be understood as having constituted a real obligation ; they make 
it hard to suppose that it is in any sense comparable with S. 
Dominic's relation to the Augustinian Rule. One illustration 
which Pere Oliger himself gives seems to prove rather more than he 
intends it to show. He quotes the case of the Clarisses of Barcelona* 
who, in 1514, refused to be reformed, and contended that they 
were not Clarisses, but in reality Benedictines, giving as evidence 
for this the Bulls of Innocent IV, in which they were bidden to 
live after the Rule of the Holy Father Benedict ; and ultimately 
they went over to the Benedictine Order. This may certainly 
show the confusion which arose in later years as to the Rules 
which governed individual Houses of Poor Clares, some of which 
had no desire to accept the settlement of 1253 ; but it also proves 
that the Benedictine character of the Hugoline Constitutions was 
something real as well as formal, if the Sisters at Barcelona were 
able thus successfully to appeal to the Hugoline Constitutions to 
show that they were Benedictines and not Franciscans. Special 
emphasis has been laid here on this matter as it is one of the few 
doubtful conclusions among those reached by Pere Oliger in his 
otherwise most valuable treatise, which one must challenge. 

The death of S. Clare in 1253 was an important event in the 
development of the Rule. With her passed away one of the last 
direct links between her Order and the great Founder. It is true 
that her tradition was carried on for more than a quarter of a 
century after her death by her friend and correspondent, Bl. Agnes, 
who died in 1281/82. But the years which followed 1253 were 
marked by a falling away from the ideals of S. Clare in the Order 
* Annibal de Latera. Suppl. ad Bull. Eome, 1780, part ii. 60. 



generally, rather than by the development of them further. Taking 
then 1253 as a fresh starting-point, we find the Rule formulated 
in exact accordance with the life-long desires of S. Clare ; the 
Privilege of Poverty duly granted and acknowledged ; the Clarisses 
occupying their spiritual birthright as part of the Order of S. 
Francis. But it may well be doubted whether all the Houses of 
Poor Clares were imbued with the fervent spirit of the mother- 

The next stage in the history of the Rule centres around a new 
House, which did not regard the Privilege of Poverty as an essen- 
tial feature of its loyalty to S. Clare. It was in 1254 or 1255 
that Blessed Isabella, sister of S. Louis, King of France, founded 
in the Diocese of Paris the Monastery of Lougchamp, known more 
generally as ' Abbatia Humilitatis Beatae Mariae '. The first 
stone was laid by S. Louis himself on June 10, 1256. For this 
new House, Isabella did not desire to adopt any one of the existing 
Rules of the Clarisses, but her plan was to secure the Papal appro- 
bation for a new Rule which was to be an amalgam of previous 
Rules. To her the absolute poverty which was sought after by 
S. Clare was too hard a path ; she was content that the sisters of 
Longcharnp should hold property, which was to be administered 
for them by a Procurator according to the provision made by the 
Rule of 1247. On the other hand, she desired to incorporate 
provisions making clear their lineal connexion with the Franciscans 
and placing them under the direction of the Minister General and 
the Provincials of the Friars Minor. A life of Bl. Isabella by 
Agnes de Harcourt tells us that the new Rule was drawn up by 
five of the Friars Minor who were learned masters of theology. 
The names given by Agnes de Harcourt are : Prater Bonaventura, 
frater Guilielmus de Milletonne, frater Odo de Roni, frater Gode- 
fridus de Vierson, frater Guilielmus de ffarcombour. 

According to Pere Oliger this Rule was approved by Alexan- 
der IV: later, namely on July 27, 1263, it was confirmed with 
some alterations by Urban IV in the Bull Religionis auginentum* 
Still later, the Rule thus prepared under the supervision of Bl. 
Isabella was slightly modified by Boniface VIII, and it is the 
English version of this Rule as revised by Boniface VIII which is 
here published. 

* Sbar. ii. 477. 

70 Introduction 

It was for some time believed that the text of the Rule as 
originally approved by Alexander IV was no longer in existence. 
That was the view expressed by Sbaralea in his publication of 
vol. ii of the Bullarium Franciscanum in which Religionis aug- 
mentum is contained. The same view has been quite recently 
repeated by Pere Oliger, who in his work already mentioned, 

writes : 

Opus quinque Magistrorum primwrn, approbatum est ab Ale- 
xandra IV, cuius tamen diploma non superest. 

Pere Oliger appears to have overlooked the fact that Sbaralea 
himself had by the time he published his third volume discovered 
an original autograph copy of the Bull of Alexander IV with 
the leaden seal in the Archives of the Convent of Holy Cross,. 
Florence: the Bull, which is dated February 2, 1259, has the 
following- ending : 

Explicit Regula Humilium Ancillarum Gloriosissimae Mariae 
Virginia Matris Dei, quam Frater Mansuetus de Ordine Fratrum 
Minorum de mandato Summi Pontificis et Cardinalium quorum- 
dam diligenti consilio composuit et dictavit. 

Now the name of Frater Mansuetus does not occur among the 
names of the five masters of theology who, according to Agnes of 
Harcourt, prepared the Rule. Further, Agnes states : 

Prae ceteris volebat ut sorores abbatiae nominarentur ( sorores 
minor es ', neque ullo modo Regula illi sufficere poterat, nisi istud 
nomen illi fuisset insertum. 

Now the name sorores minores is precisely one of the alterations 
made by Urban's Bull Religionis augmentum upon the work of 
Alexander IV. 

' And we ordeynid and establissin f>at J>is rule be clepid from 
)?is time forf>e Menoressis enclosid.' * ; whereas in the Bull of 
Alexander IV the name Sorores Minores does not occur and the 
sisters are called Sorores Ordinis Humilium Ancillarum Beatissimae 
Virginis Gloriosae. The inference is obvious. The Bull approved 
by Alexander IV in 1259 is anterior to the one composed by the 
five Masters of Theology, and was probably composed not by 
them, but by one Frater Mansuetus by the direction of the Pope. 
It must be, however, admitted that the only evidence for this 
theory is the unique copy of the Bull mentioned by Sbaralea and 
* See p. 81, 1. 26. 

Introduction 71 

reprinted also by Flaminius Annibal in his Supplement to the 

The first sisters of the Monastery of Longchamp came apparently 
from the House of San Damiano at Rheims, as is shown by a Bull 
of Alexander IV dated from Anagnia, February 12, 1259, i.e. just 
ten days before the Bull which first approved the Isabella Rule. 
It appears that the Isabella Eule never had a very great vogue 
outside France. It was soon superseded to a great extent by the 
Urbanist Eule of 1263. Pere Oliger refers to only one House in 
Italy adopting this Eule, and he makes no reference at all to the 
English colony which will be described later. There is, however, 
one other House, following the Isabella Rule, which has an 
interesting link with the manuscript here published, and that is 
the Monastery of S. Catherine of Provence. A Bull of Urban IV, 
dated June 22, 1264, states in the preamble that the Rule granted 
by Alexander IV to Longchamp had been revised by Cardinal 
Simon de Bria, and that he (Urban) was moved to this revision 
by the King of Navarre (Carissimi in Christo filii nostri Regis 
Navarre illustris precibus inclinati). This King of Navarre was 
Henry III, who died in 1270, and was the first husband of Blanche, 
whose part in bringing the Clarisses to London will appear later. 

In order to complete this brief sketch of the development of the 
Eule of the Clarisses, reference must be made to the final Eule, 
which also was issued by Urban IV in 1263. The Bull Beata 
Clara*' of October 18, 1263, approved a new Rule written by 
Cardinal Caietanus, the Protector of the Order. The new Eule is 
to a large extent a compilation based on the previous Rules, and 
among other innovations it abolishes the various names by which 
the Sisters had come in process of time to be known, and gives to 
the whole Order the name of the ' Order of S. Clare '. 

This Eule became the final and authoritative Rule, and has not 
since then been superseded. 


The English version of the Rule of the Second Order or ' Menou- 
resses enclosid 'is contained in MS. Bodl. 585 = 2357 in the 
Bodleian Library. The volume, which consists of 104 leaves of 

* Sbar. ii. 509. 

72 Introduction 

parchment, is made up of two separate MSS. bound together. 
Both MSS. were apparently written in England in the fifteenth 

The first MS. in the volume is in Latin, and contains : 

Fol. l r -47 v . Tractatus de vita et nobilitate et marturio sanctorum 
Albani et Amphibali de quodam libra gdllico excerptus et in latinum 

Fol. 18 v -47 r . De Granario magistri lohannis Wetanstede. 

At folio 48 r the second MS. begins. It is written in English in 
a neat and legible book-hand. 

Fol. 48 r -72 r contain the Kule of the Clarisses which is here 
published. It is divided into chapters or sections of varied 
length, and each chapter is begun with a finely illuminated 
Capital. There are no other illuminations, and otherwise the 
writing is entirely in black. 

Following immediately after the Rule, and contained in folios 
72 r -101 r , is a treatise by the same hand, and clearly forming part 
of the same Manuscript, consisting of instructions relating to the 
ordering of the services. 

The Manuscript measures 219 mm. by 143 mm., and is bound 
in limp vellum. 

The Catalogue * gives the information that the second MS. was 
presented to the Bodleian Library by Charles Howard, Earl of 
Nottingham, in 1604. 

Fortunately it is possible to determine practically with certainty 
the particular convent for which this MS. was written. 

The Rule which it contains is, as has already been stated, sub- 
stantially the Rule of Blessed Isabella of 1263. The fact that the 
language of this version is English indicates that it was written 
for use in an English convent. The fact that it is the Isabella 
Rule and not the ordinary Urbanist Rule (also of 1263) would lead 
us to expect that it would belong to a daughter-house of the 
Monastery of Longchamp in the Diocese of Paris. 

The opening words of the Rule are sufficient in themselves to 
establish the connexion with this celebrated religious house. 

The house in question is none other than the former convent of 

* Summary Catalogue of Western MSS. in the Bodleian Library, by 
F. Madan and H. H. E. Craater, 1912 

Introduction 73 

Clarisses or ' Minoressis ' just outside the walls of the City of 
London, near Aldgate, in the street now known as ' Minories '. 
A very full account of the house, its foundation, history, and 
ultimate dissolution, is contained in a paper read by Dr. Fly before 
the Society of Antiquaries, June 23, 1803.* An account is also 
given in Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum under the general 
heading of Franciscans in England, and also in Tanner's Notitia 
Monastica. A more modern account will be found in the Victoria 
History of London (1909), edited by William Page, vol. i, 
pp. 516-19. 

It has generally been held the first colony of Clarisses was 
brought over to England from the Diocese of Paris from Longchamp 
by Blanche, widow of the King of Navarre, and, later, wife of 
Edmund, Duke of Lancaster, brother of King Edward I. She was 
the daughter of Robert, Count d'Artois and Maud of Brabant. 
The earliest record relating to this colony of Clarisses is a charter 
of Edward I authorizing his brother Edmund to convey a parcel 
of land given by Thomas de Bredstrete in the parish of S. Botolph 
outside Aldgate : 

dilectis nobis in Christo monialibus de ordine Minorum, quae 
per nobilem doniinam Blancam reginam Navarrae, consortem eius- 
dem fratris nostri, in Angliam sunt venturae, et infra regnum 
nostrum moraturae, ac Deo et beatae Mariae ac beato Francisco 

This document is dated from Westminster, June 28, 1293, and 
shows that at that time the Sisters were about to arrive, but had 
not done so. 

There is, however, some reason to suppose that the Convent was 
in existence at least twelve years earlier. Sbaralea gives a Bull 
of Martin IV Loca Sanctorum omnium, I dated October 9, 1281, 
addressed to all the Faithful and granting an indulgence of one 
hundred days to those visiting this church (among others) on the 
Sunday after Ascension Day and its Octave. As this was a some- 
what exceptional privilege, it seems improbable that it would 
have boen conferred on the church immediately after its founda- 

* Archaeoloffia, vol. xv, section viii, pp. 92-113. 

f Monumenta Franciscana, ed. Brewer (Rolls Series), Appendix xxviii, 
p. 625. 

Sbar. iv. 339. 

74 Introduction 

tion, and so probably both Church and Convent were in existence 
a good deal earlier than 1281. Moreover, the House is mentioned 
in the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas about 1291.* 

The first Abbess of the English house was, according to Dr. Fly, 
Isabella de Lille and the second Joanne de Nevers, both French 
names, which are a further indication of the French parentage of 
the ' Minories '. 

Six Papal Bulls are extant relating to the Convent of the 
Minories, up to and including the reign of Boniface VIII. 

The first is dated September 13, 1294,f and reminds the Sisters 
of certain privileges to which they were entitled, and of which 
apparently they were not availing themselves. 

The other five belong to the reign of Boniface VIII. 

The second, Vestrae religionist of April 6, 1295, grants to the 
' Minoressis ' a church which is in the patronage of Edmund, 
brother of the King, subject to the reservation of a portion of its 
income for the support of the vicar. 

The third, dated July 3, 1295, confines the convent to the 
' inclosid Minoresses ' who observe the Rule that prevails in the 
monastery of the Humility of S. Mary in the Diocese of Paris. 

The fourth, Romana Ecclesia, dated August 31, 1295, places 
the Convent under the direct jurisdiction of the Roman See, and 
removes it from that of the Bishop of London.|| 

The fifth, Religiosam vitamfl dated March 13, 1296, commands 
that the Sisters are to be protected, and confirms their privileges 
and possessions. 

The sixth, Petitio vestra** dated March 3, 1298, gives the 
Minoressis permission to take possession of the church of Hertindon, 

* Victoria History of London, ed. W. Page, vol. i, p. 516. 

t Dr. Fly and, following him, the later editions of Dugdale attribute this 
Bull to Boniface VIII, in spite of the date : but Boniface did not become Pope 
until December 1294. I have been unable to trace this Bull in Potthast or 
Sbaralea. If it is rightly dated, it must belong to the reign of Celestine V. 

J Sbar. Suppl. p. 203. 

This is apparently the same as the Bull given by Potthast, LaudaUlis 
sacra religio 24359, which is a re-issue of an earlier Bull (Pott. 24346) 
addressed to all Houses of Clarisses, relieving them of the obligation of tenths. 

|| Sbar. iv. 365. Both Dr. Fly and The Victoria Hist, of London in- 
accurately assign this Bull to August 1294, when Boniface VIII was not yet 

% Sbar. iv. 385. ** Sbar. iv. 462. 

Introduction 75 

of which Edmund was patron, notwithstanding the fact that the 
revenues of that church exceeded 40 marks a year. 

The Bodleian MS. makes clear that the Rule used in the London 
Convent was the Isabella Rule, but in some details revised by 
Boniface VIII. It will be observed, for example, on fol. 52 r (p. 84), 
that in the vow of profession the sister undertakes ' to lyve after 
Ipe rule of myne lorde )?e apostle Boneface J>e eytij? correctid and 
approuid \ whereas in the Rule as issued in 1263 she undertook 
to live according to ' the rule granted to our order by the Lord 
Pope Alexander IV and corrected and approved by the Lord Pope 
Urban IV. Again, in the Appendix to the Rule on fol. 75 V 
(p. 100) the following sentence occurs : 

'And $it as we recordin oure blessid predecessoures pope 
boneface Ipe VIII ]?at after a constitucioun bi hem ordeynid vppoii 
f>is same religioun vnder vertuous rule, j?at alle the Sustris schulden 
dwelle and abide vnder stedefaste and perpetuel closinge/ &c. 

In this sentence the word ' pope ' is rubbed out, and the words 
' boneface f>e VIII ' are crossed through. 

Another document relating to the 'Minories' belongs to the 
year 1296, when King Edward I confirms a grant of ten acres of 
land de dominico suo in campo de Hertindon in comitatu Derbiae 
made by his brother Edmund to dilectis nobis in Christo abbatissae 
de gratia Beatae Mariae ordinis Sanctae Clarae extra mures 
Londoniae et eiusdem loci sororibus Deo ibidem servientibus. 

The house was surrendered to Henry VIII by Elizabeth Savage, 
the last Abbess, in 1539,* and in 1540 the site was granted by 
the King to the Bishop of Bath and Wells. It appears, however, 
at a later date to have reverted to the Crown. In 1797, according 
to Dugdale, a fire took place in the neighbourhood which exposed 
to view larger remains of the conventual offices than had before 
been visible. 

So far, then, as the history of the Bodleian MS. is concerned, 
it appears probable that it remained in the Convent of the 
Minories until its dissolution in 1539. Reference has already 
been made to the fact that the Manuscript was presented to the 
Bodleian Library in 1604 by Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham. 
Now it appears, from information courteously supplied by the 
authorities of the Bodleian Library, that Charles Howard presented 
* Wriothesley, Camden Soc. i. 94. 

76 Introduction 

also sixteen other MSS. and thirty-four printed books ; of the 
seventeen MSS., all except five can be proved to have come from 
the Library of King Henry VIII, and MS. Bodl. 585 is among 
these five. Other sources from which Charles Howard's books 
came are the Libraries of Cranmer, of Sir Thomas Coppley, and 
of William Devenishe, but there is nothing to connect MS. Bodl. 
585 with any one of these. On the whole, it would appear prob- 
able that the MS. came, like the majority of Charles Howard's 
MSS., from the Library of King Henry VIII. It may accordingly 
be reasonably supposed that the MSS. of the Convent of the 
Minories passed into the hands of the King in 1539 at its dis- 

There is further evidence that the MS. remained in conventual 
hands until the dissolution. In every case where the words ' pope ' 
or ' papal ' occur in the MS. they have been either erased or 
crossed through with a pen. It is known that about 1536 the 
King issued an order requiring such erasures to be made in the 
service-books and other MSS. in the possession of religious 
houses. Gairdner* gives an interesting illustration of the way 
in which this order was received. Sir William Sherbourne, the 
parish priest of Woburn Chapel, was rebuked by the Abbot, 
Robert Hobbes, for using a knife to rase the Pope's name, telling 
him to do it with a pen, for 'it will come again one day'. The 
following year (1538) the said Abbot was hanged on an oak-tree 
before the gate of his own Abbey. The erasures made so thoroughly 
in MS. Bodl. 585 point to the fact that it was in 1536-7 in the 
hands of its original owners, who executed the royal command. 
It is interesting to note that in cases where the word ' apostle ' is 
used as referring to the Pope, the word is not erased, probably 
because it was misunderstood. 

An examination of the English version shows that it is probably 
a translation from a French version of the original Latin, and, 
moreover, by no means a good translation. Throughout, the 
translator slavishly follows the original text, both in the construc- 
tion of the sentences and in the choice of words. In many cases 
it is quite clear that the translator has entirely failed to under- 
stand the original, and consequently the English makes no sense. 
In editing the text, where the sense can be rectified by the addition 
* Lollardy and the Reformation in England, vol. ii, p. 135. 

Introduction 77 

or alteration of a word or two (e. g. sometimes by the addition of 
a negative !), this has been done ; but in cases where the sense 
cannot be restored without entirely rewriting the sentence, it has 
been deemed best to leave it uncorrected and to give the Latin 
text in the notes. This applies, in particular, to the first six folios, 
which are especially bad. 

It remains to say something in conclusion about the material 
which forms an Appendix to the Rule in the Bodleian MS. It 
follows on to the Rule itself without a break, and is in the same 
hand as the Rule. It will, however, readily be seen that it is not one 
document, but a compilation of two or more documents. The first 
part, from fol. 72 V to fol. 78 V (to ' wifowte any variaunce or lettinge ') 
is clearly a Papal document ; it would appear to be a portion of 
a Bull containing a confirmation of the Rule and some modifications 
of its practice. It contains some material which also forms part 
of the Rule itself in other words. The reference to ' pope boiieface 
fe viii ' on fol. 75 V as a predecessor may suggest that this Bull was 
the work of Benedict X, but it does not necessarily follow that 
the immediate predecessor is meant. No Bull containing this 
material is found either in Potthast or in Sbaralea's Bullarium 
Franciscanum. The material beginning on fol. 78 v : 'At alle j?e 
houres ', is not in the form of a Papal Bull, and consists of regula- 
tions setting out the practice of the Convent. Towards the end. 
viz. on fol. 100 V , it drifts into the first person narrative. 'We 
make vtas of Noel ' ; the same happens earlier on fol. 80 V ' til we 
sey Fidelium animae ', but in the context this looks like a slip for 
' ]?ey '. There is, at present, no further evidence as to the author- 
ship or provenance of the material forming the Appendix. 

The Editor wishes to record his great indebtedness to Mr. A. Gr. 
Little, Chairman of the British Society of Franciscan Studies, 
who called his attention to the Bodleian MS. ; to Dr. R. W. 
Chambers, who has given much help in revising the text; and to 
Mrs. Geoffrey Tomes, who made the transcript of the text from the 
MS. with great skill and accuracy. 



Bergidn. La Bienheureuse Isabella de France. Grenoble, 1899. 

Brewer, J. S. Monumenta Franciscana. (Rolls Series.) Appendices xxv, 

xxvii, xxviii, pp. 622-6. 
Cozza-Luzi. Chiara di Assisi secondo alcune nuove scoperte e document!. 

Rome, 1895. 
CutJibert, Father. Introduction to Mrs. Balfour s Life and Legend of the 

Lady Saint Clare. London, 1910. 
Cuthbert, Father. Life of Saint Francis of Assisi. Book ii, chapter iv. 

London, 1912. 
Duchesne, H. Gaston. Histoire de 1'Abbaye Royale de Longchamps. Paris, 

My, Dr. Article in Archaeologia, vol. xv, section viii, pp. 92-113. London, 


Gqffin. La Vie et Legende de Madame Saincte Claire. Paris, 1907. 
Heiiribucher , Max. Die Orden und Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche. 

Paderborn, 1902. Vol. 2, pp. 475-89. 
Jorgensen, J. Saint Francis of Assisi : A Biography. Book II, chapter v. 

London, 1912. 
Lemmens, Fr. Die Anfange des Klarissenordens. Ro'mische Quartalschrift, 

t. xvi, p. 97 ff. 
Lempp, E. Die Anfange des Klarissenordens. Zeit. fiir Kirchengeschichte, 

t. xxiii, pp. 626-9. 

Locatelli. S te Claire d'Assise. Rome, 1899-1900. 
Oliger, Pere Livarius. De Origine Regularum Ordinis S. Clarae. Archivum 

Franciscanum Historicum. Tom. v. Fasc. II and III. An. 1912. (Qua- 


Pennacchi, F. Legenda Sanctae Clarae Virginis. Assisi, 1910. 
Robinson, Father Paschal. Life of Saint Clare. 1910. 
Robinson, Father Paschal. The Rule of St. Clare and its Observance in the 

Light of Early Documents. Philadelphia, 1912. 
Robinson, Father Paschal. The Writings of St. Clare of Assisi. Archivum 

Franc. Histor. Tom. III. Fasc. III. An. 1910. Quaracchi. 
Sbaralea. Bullarium Franciscanum, 1759: with supplement of Flaminius 

Annibal, 1/80. 
Seraphicae Legislations Textus Originates, p. 74 ff. and p. 274 ff. (For the 

Rule and Testament of S. Clare.) Quaracchi, 1897. 

Wauer, E. Entstehung und Ausbreitung des Klarissenordens. Leipzig, 



[Note. The Reader is referred to the note on p. 44 for an ex- 
planation of the practice with respect to contractions, italics, and 
brackets in this text.] 

of fmiaiuiti* of suo- 

DionlV of pans, c^trtmf .fblrfl^ 

Of ye ^oJWp.ffb^iWliWi^f Wf piHTl|,lfi)i 

^f inojf 

lltrni r nnviito ppliflpp of fuuHw. |;rtf 
of fljiuip tP-pjofitr. 7 ino fbj pat IBI>. 

tdib" of good lurrhritntfomgr. twiAf 
rtjl midmgrftfndiiydto pr fn^lHnoiif 
' of putr.tor fpnf m mftr f nourl lun^r 
t>f ifivuim* to 

piofririiiii HI o mir nioii dhv ml\oit\ 

FOLIO 48 r. OF MS. BODL. 585. 


URban l * bisschop seruaunt of seruauntis of god, to his bilouid [Fol. 48 r ] 
dowtris in crist, Ipe Abbes & Ipe couent of sustris Menowressis 
enclosid of J>e monestre of oure ladi of fe diocise of Paris, Greting 
& blessynge of Ipe apostle. For as moche we purchasin Ipe more 
willi[V^Z2/e]}>e encrese of religioun, as bi fat f e continementis of owre 5 
lorde been encresid, & f e helfe of sowles f ereof comif to profite ; 
And for fat wif owte dowte, Alisaunder 2 popef oure predecessour of 
good werke recordinge, condescendinge & enclinyd to }>e supplica- 
cions of oure dere sone in criste ]>e nobel kinge of Frauns 3 , to alle 
f e hende maydenis of Ihesu criste fis worlde forsakinge & doinge 10 
professioun in owre monestre 4 whoche ys enfayrid of so noble name 
of f e me|kenesse of blessid marie, f e whoche Minster whan hit was [Fol. 48 T ] 
nyew made none body f er was dwellinge, as hit is sayde, grauntid 
f e rule whoche ys writyn here after for to holde & kepe perpetueli 
in f e same mynster, and beene clepid bi f e name of sustris enclosid 5 . 15 
And werevpon alle 6 Hit was to us prayde lowli bi f e same kyng that 
[we] Ipe forseyde rewle in some chapitres diden amende, & fat [we] \ 
schulden take bysines, f orw beningnite of apostle to put to at f e 
schewinge of fis rewle ]>e name of meneres . And than [we] 
enclinid to Ipe preyeres of f e same kynge, f e same rule by owre 20 
louid sonne Symon Deutre 7 preest Cardinal of pe title of seynt 
Cecile did amende, so f>at it was || done as it was in name 8 . But 
nameli f>at ye same mynster, as hit is aboue sette, haue worschippid 
]>e house of humilite of oure | ladi & f>at f>is rewle may be fayrid bi [Fol. 49 r ] 
J>e profits of Ipe same humilite, to j?e name of Ipe sayde rule, we 25 
sette to ]>e forseyde name of menours. And we ordeynid & 
establissin 9 fat f>is rule be clepid from J>is time forj>e, Menoressis 
enclosid, & fat it be kept perpetuali in Ipe same mynster & in other 
minsteris whoche schal be fownded here after or plantid, In J?e 

* The numbers given in the text refer to the notes which will be found on 
pages 117-19. 

f Word erased, but legible. J MS. < >ey '. 

MS. later hand, ' }>ey ' over an erasure. || Word erased before ' done '. 


82 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

whiche f e same sustris schal make professioun to f is reddure, as it 
is amendid. The whoche rule & f e life of f is same sustris enclosid 
we haue do notefiyd here after, f e whiche is f is. 

Eche womman whiche bi f e grace & gifte of f e holi goste schal 

5 be brouht to entre in f is ordre for to 11756 to god owre lorde Ihesu 

Criste & to his ful swete moder, after fe cownsayle of fe perfeccioun 

[Fol. 49 T ] of Ipe gospel, Lyue alle dayes in obediens, & chas|tite, wif owte 

properte, And for to dwelle alle dayes of her life enclosid as a 

tresoure kepte to f e souereyne kynge. 

10 Alle f o whoche schal leuen Ipe vanite of f e worlde & in to f e 
forseyde abbey schal comen, f is religioun for to resseyue, schal kepe 
bysili f is maner of lyuinge alle here life, after fat time fat fey 
been professid, & been bowndin be obediens for to dwelle enclosid 
wif in f e cloyster of f e abbey, But :jif so be 10 fat sche haue en- 

15 special conge of f e [pope *] or of Ipe general mynistre of f e ordre 
of Frere menowris or of Ipe prouincial of f e same prouince in f e 
whiche f e same Abbey is foundid, & fat bi cause for to edefie, or to 
plante f e same religioun, or for cause of gouernauns of somme place 
of f e forseyde religioun, Some haue been sent in to of er places, f e | 
[Fol, 50 r ] whoche haue bihouyd afterwarde to returne to f e same places from 
whoche fey comyn bi f e licence of one of hem forseyde, $if hit seme 
good & expedient to Ipe Mynistre or to one of hem for to do. And 
$if hit happe so be werre, or be water, or be fire, or for of er like 
case fat f e same Abbey falle to be destruyid or fat it be like fat 

25 f e hous schal falle downe or for drede of enemyes, fey were putte 
in soche verray & experte informacioun, fat wif oute greuous peril & 
opun destruxioun none bodi may dwelle ne abide fere, for to haue f e 
counsayle & f e conge of f e Mynster, fat fan bi f e counsayle & con- 
sentement of alle couent & bi f e comaundement of f e Abbes, f e 

30 Sustris f er may leueli remew f ennis in to anof er place sure, where 

[Fol. 50 T ] fat fey may dwelle honestjli & saueli enclosid vntil f e time fat it 

schal be of er weyes wiseli ordeynid for hem what fat fey schul doo. 

And }if f e couent bi any cause resonable here Abbey of er place 

edifi, fan f e sustryn bi licence of f e Ministre general may remuyn 

35 in to anof er place couenable. 

* Word deleted in MS. 

The Rewle of Sustris Menour esses enclosid 83 

Alle f e Nonnes fer which happin for to dyse fer professid or 
nouices or sustris or seruauntis schal be byriyd wif inne f e cloyster 
of f e abbey. Alle f oo whoche f is religioun schal take in f e forseyde 
Abbey & in of er whoche of nyew schal be foundid, to f e whoche 
f is noble rule schal be grauntld & holdin, bifore fat fey haue here 5 
abite & fat fey schul enter into religioun, fat it be wel declarid to 
hem f e hardnessis & f e scharpenessis by whoche fey comif to loye 
of Paradise, & f ese whiche fey schullen be bown|dyn to after f is [Fol. 51 r ] 

None womman schal be resseyuyd, woche for age or for sikenesse 10 
or for fole simplesse n after f e iugemerit of hem whoche haue for 
to do fer of, be nat couena[6]le & suffisaunt for to kepe ]) e maner 
of life, & also bi any of er la auenture, fat fan in of er place bi 
counsel of fe most wise susteris of f e place, be for fe forseyde 
Ministre or one of hem dispense to another soche & fat bi cause 15 

Alle fo ]mt wolen in f)is holi abbey abiden & in ani ofer whoche 
schal be fowndid here after, to J)e whoche pis rule schal be grauntid 
& holden, And * J>at wole pis holi religioun resseyue, allegatis for- 
sake prides & vaniteis of Ipis schort life . And as f>ey schul be 20 
resseyuid wij> in fe cloy|ster, abide fey fere, & as sone as fey [Fol. 51 T ] 
schullen be schorne, fey schullin leue f e robis of f e worlde. 
Thanne a wise maystresse & moste deuowte sustre in f e Abbey be 
ordeyned & be I-take to hem for to exite hem to holinesse & to holi 
vertues & for to speke to hem in feruent deuocioun & also for to 25 
teche hem for to abide & bere f hem in swetnesse of charite in alle 
poyntes whoche longin to holi religioun & bisili for to repreue hem 
of alle f inges whoche been repreueable. And fat fey be nat suffrid 
to entre in to f e chapitre duringe f e jere, but :jif so be fat it be for 
cause of amonissinge & repreuinge. The jere fulfillid, make fey pro- 30 
fessioun in hondes of f e Abbesse bifore alle f e couent in f is manere. 
' I Suster . . . } bihote to god & owre ladi blissid mayde marie & to | 
* MS. adds ' sche', which is superfluous, f MS. here'. J No gap in MS, 


84 The Rewle of Sustris Menour 'esses enclosid 

[Fol. 52 r ] seynt Fraunces, to myne ladi seint Clare 1S & to alle seyntis, in 
;oure hondes, moder, to lyue after Ipe rule * of myne lorde ]>e apostle 
Boneface fe eytij? 14 correctid & approuid be alle J?e time of myne 
life, In obedience, In chastite, wifowte properte or voyse in j?e 
5 Cloyster, After J?at whoche is ordeynid bi ]>e same Rule in alle 

This like rnaner to make professioun holdyn Ipey whoche been or- 

deyned to serue & seche. Suche schulyn [nat] goo owte of Ipe 

Abbey, But alweyis }if hit happe be any riht & necessari cause 

10 for to sende owte of f>e cloyster hem whiche servyn & been pro- 

fessid, In Ipe same maner bi leue of ]>e ministre general, Soche 

algatis be sent whoche been honeste & demurid in vertues & in age. 

pe whiche whan Ipey schul so go oute of Ipe Cloyster, Ipey schul be 

[Fol. 52 T ] hojsid & schod beringe none cordis 15 & f>ey schulle nat go alone. 

X 5 EChe suster schal be clojrid in stamyn or heyre & jif here likif>, 
sche may haue two cotis or f>re or foure, after f>at as it schal beste 
lyke to Ipe Abbesse, euermore eschuynge J>e owtrage of clones & of 
robis in gode maner, Soo J>at sche haue a mantel or tweyne couen- 
able longe & brode . These robis schullen be of buystouse clofe & 

20 low prise & of pouer coloure . And sche schal nat vse here one 
resticote 16 alle white ne alle blacke. pes sustris, after J>ey been 
professid, Ipey schul use bifore gerdellis cordes whiche shal be made 
wif> coriouste 17 . And ]>ey schul usyn kerchiues honestli in one 
maner of kerchiues & of colleres, whoche schal be alle white & nat | 
[Fol. 63 r ] precious. And also ]?at Ipe forhede & ]>e y$en been couerid, as it 
bihouif>, & in none o}>er maner be }>ey nat so hardi for to apere 
bifore strawngeris ; for it fallif nat to hem whoche ys weddid to f>e 
kynge perpetuel fat sche chiere none oj>er but him, ne delite her 
in none oj>er but in him. And also ]?at Ipey haue a blacke veyle 

3ol-spred aboue her hedis so large & so longe, f>at hit may stretche 
from eche parti to Ipe schuldris & behinde at Ipe backe resonabli, 
wifowte whiche Ipey schul mow be on nytes & some time on dayes 
bi licence of Ipe abbesse. Alle J>ese finges Ipe forseyde sustris 
schullin haue & kepe, And Ipey whoche seruyn & whoche been or- 

* The words ' of myne lorde J>e apostle Boneface J>e eyti> ' are underlined 
in MS. 

The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 85 

deyneid nat for to passe oute. But ofer seruauntes & nouicis 
schullin haue gerdellis of wolle & white veylis on here hedis. The 
abbesse schal ordeyne, after fat sche schal best se for | to do, of [Fol. 53 T ] 
chausures for fe sustris & to hem whoche seruyn wif inne fe 
cloyster. 5 

The Abbesse & alle sustres hole & alle ofer schullen lye in f e 
comune dortre & eche bi here selue haue a bed disseuerid fram 
ofer. The bedde for f e abbesse be made in soche place of Ipe dortoure 
fat sche may se [fram] here bed, }if it may be couenably, alle 
ofer beddis of f e dortoure wif oute any stoppynge ; & fat be alle 10 
nyhte in Ipe dortoure bi clere & continuel liht. From f e resurrexioun 
of oure lorde til Ipe Fest of Ipe Natiuite of oure ladi, 18 after mete 
til f e houre of none Ipe sustris schulle slepe, fey fat willen ; 
& fey fat mile nat slepen, ocupie hem in preyeres & f owtes of 
god or in ofer pesibel & gode trauayles. Eche may haue a sacke 15 
I-fillid wif strawe or wif hey, ofer ellis a cowche in stede of a sacke 
& a wol|lin clofe buystus I-spred aboue & a cusschin I-couerid [Fol. 54 r ] 
wif linnyn clofe, I-stoppid wif hey or strawe or grete wolle or 
federis, like as f e abbesse schal ordeyne ; & fat fey haue 
couertoures wif oute skynnes wher wif fey may couer hem, But bi 20 
licence of f e Abbesse f o fat been syke may haue couertoures wif 
skynnes. Alle fe sustres schal haue here heris rowndid or alle 
clippid & fat at certeyne tyme to here eris. 

FOr to do f e office & seruise of god by day & be nyht to f e 
preysing of god & to f e gladnes of his glorie, The sustris schul 25 
haue hem & gouerne hem, as it is writen here after. 

pe sustres whoche canne rede & singe schal do f e office reuerentli 
& mesurabli after fe custom e & fe ordre of freris menoures, & 
f e ofer schal sey xx 19 Pater noster \ for matyns, v for laudis ; For [Fol. 54 b] 
prime, tierce, sexte, none, & complin, For eche owre vii Pater 30 
noster, And for euynsonge, xii Pater noster. And in fis same 
maner be alle f inges in f e office of oure blissid ladi ; be hit kepte 
wif deuowte preyinge for f e dede. And jif f er be any sustris 
cou enable & of gode witte, The abbes, }if sche f enkif hem goode, to 
ordeyne & assigne a maystresse couenable & honeste for to teche 35 
hem songe, to performe f e office & seruise of god stedfastli. The 

86 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

sustris & fey whiche servyn in werkis & placis stabelliche, be liit 
ordeynid fat fey schul been ocupiid in profitable & honest 
trauayles, bi f e whiche maner fat slowf e & schlugri whoche been 
grete enemyes continueli to f e sowle * schal be skerid awey & 
[Fol. 55 r ] eschewid, fat it lette nat ne stawnche | nat f e spirit of preyere 
& deuocioun, to whom alle of er wordli Binges schulde do seruice, 
So fat oure lorde Ihesu criste espouse 20 te f e soule be take aboue 
al f inges : for as moche fat f e soule may be f er fed & refestid of 
f e comfortabel wordis of his espouse. 

10 pe sustris first wole be confessid whan it nedif & schul resseyue 
twies eche monif in reuerence & deuocioun f e ful holi bodi of owre 
lorde Ihesu criste, & also }if it likif hem eche sonday in lentyn 
& in J>e Auent, but }if it so be fat ani of hem bi resonable cause 
leeue hit & bi licence of f e Abbesse. 

15 THe sustris & fey whoche seruyn Schal fast fro f e fest of seint 

Fraunces 2l til f e fest of f e resurrexioun of oure lorde, And from 

f e Assencioun of owre lorde vnto Pentecoste, Forasmoche fat fey 

[FoL 55 T J may plentiuowseliche | resseyue f>e grace of f e holi gost, owte take 

f e sonday onliche & f e fest of alle Halwyn 22 & Cristmas day & Ipe 

20 fest of sent Stephin & Seint John euangelist & f e Circumsicioun 
& Epiphanye & fe purificacioun. But from f>e resurrexioun of oure 
lorde till ]>e Ascencioun & fram Pentecost til J?e Fest of seint 
Fraunceyse )?ey be nat boundin to fast, but J>e Fridayes & of>er 
fastis whoche been ordeynid & bowndyn generali bi holi chirche. 

2 5 And J>ey may sureli drinke wyne & ete fisshe & eyrin & chese & soche 

ofer finges as perteyni]? to mylke. And also fro f>e Natiuite of oure 

lorde til septuagesme fey may, jif fey wole, to-dite here metis wif 

grece owtake Friday & saterday. Also fram f e Fest of alle halwyn 

[Fol. 56 r ] til the Fest of fe Natiuite of oure lorde & in lentoun & in | Fridayes 

30 and in fastingdayes whoche been generalli I-stablid bi holi chirche, 
fe Sustres schul nat ete Eyrin ne cheese, ne none ofer f inge fat 
perteynif to Milke, but in all of er times fey may use hit. The 
sustres beinge in gode hele & fey fat seruin kepin hem alle dayes 
frain etinge of flesche. And also fey whoche been hole in bodi 

35 schul faste eche Friday wif owte fische, but jif it falle so fat f e 
Abbesse dispense wif hem, as it is acustumyd, jif any Fest solempne 
* MS. '& >at', superfluous. 

The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 87 

come on a Friday . This maner of Fastinge & of abstinence forseyde, 

f e 3onge sustris wif inne f e age of xv jere be nat boundin to kepe, 

ne f e ouer agid, ne f e fiebel, ne f e sike, to f e whiche after her 

febelnesse f e Abbesse may merciabli purueye comunliche alle dayes, & 

in of er Binges necessaries | to f e sustris. And to hem whoche seruyn, [Fol. 56 T ] 

& to Ipe jonge sustris wif inne xviii 3ere Ipe Abbes may dispense in 

fastinge after fat it schal like to here goodli, saue in aduent, & in 

lentoun & in friday & in fastinge dayes whiche been enstablid bi 

holi chirche. The sustris whoche been lete blode been nat boundin 

to fastinge in f e time duringe bi fre dayes, safe in lentoun & in 10 

fridayes & in time of advent, And in f e time bitwene f e Ascencioun 

& pentecoste, & Ipe fastinges whiche been enstablid bi holi chirche 


And also Ipe Abbesse muste be ware fat sche suffer nat fe 
sustris to be lete blood ouer iii times 23 bi f e 3ere, but }if it be for 1 5 
certayne cause enspecial & necessarie. And algatis fat fey be 
nat lete blode of any seculere persone straungere, | & nameli of [Fol. 57 r ] 
a man by none resoun, :jif it may be as goodli. 

Of f e syke sustris whan sykenesse fallif bi grete cure & diligence, 
as ferforf e fat men schul mowe or se for to do, fat fey been seruid 20 
bi alle maner f inges in metis & drinkes whoche been gode for f oo 
maladies, And in alle of er f inges nedeful be wey of charite feruent 
benyneli, couenabelliche & ententifeliche. And fey whiche been 
sike schullin haue proper place in fe whiche fey schul dwelle 
desseuerid from hem whoche been in helf e of bodi, For as mochel 25 
fat f e reste & f e ordinaunce of \J>i\ Couent be nat distourbid be 
none wey. 

The abbesse, for as mochel fat sche schulde be a clere myroure 
& ensaumple to alle f e sustris, fat sche enstrengf e her as mochel 
as sche | may for to suen continueli f e couent & f e comune life. The [Fol. 57 T ] 
abbesse fat wole nat ne may nat lede f e comune life, be assigned 24 
wif owte tariynge of f e office for to gouerne of er bi f e mynster or 
bi f e visitouris of f e ordre, [bot] jif it so be fat f e Abbey had 
none harme, bi cause of here longe dwellinge in f e office or ellis 
fat mani grete & schewynge profites fere of comme *. 35 

Silence, be it of alle Sustres holden in soche maner, fat fey speke 
nat wif oute licence ne one to of er, ne to none of er, sauynge f e 
* MS. < comune'. 

88 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

febel & Ipe syke. But alle gates fat fe Abbesse, or presedente 
take kepe ententifeliche in whoche place, whan, & howe sche schal 
gif licence to sustris for to speke. And fat alle sostres enstrengf e 
hern to vse signis religious & honestis. At dowble festis & at 
[Fol. 58 r ] Festis | of apostles, & any of er dayes after fat it schal best like to 
f e Abbesse, * from f e howre of none til euynsonge or ani howre 
couenable, The sustris may speke of oure lorde Ihesu criste & of f e 
solempnite of f e Feste present & of good ensaumplis of seyntis & 
of of er f ingis honeste of whoche fey haue for to speke. 

10 Whan anybodi to any of f e Sustres schal speke, First schal f e 
Abbesse be warnid f er of or f e president, & }if sche graunt, f anne 
schal f e suster speke wif f e straunger so fat sche haue two of er 
sustris at fe leste wif here, fat fey mow see & here what fat fey 
doo or speke, bof e on fat one syde & on fat of er. And allegatis 

T 5 lp & ^ J 56 sustris whiche haue for to speke to any straunger, fat fey 
[Fol. 58 T ] be welware fat fey aboundyn nat hem | for to speke in vayne wif 
owtyn profit e & houre longe. 

Neuerf eles whan any of f e Sustris wole confesse her, bi f e per- 
loure make her confessioun in privite alone to one. The confessoures, 

20 f e whoche schullin be assingnid bi f e Minster general or bi f e 
prouincial, assoyle hem of alle sinnis. None of hem schal speke bi 
f e grate of yryn bi f e whiche fey schullin be huslid & here cliuine 
office & sermones, but be auenture fat it be for cause resonable & 
necessarie & wif compani, after fat it is ordeynid & establid to 

25 speke ; & algatis fat it be seeldyn. This grate 25 of yren be hangin 

wif in a blacke clof e, so fat bi resoun none suster may be seyne f er 

f orw & fat none bodi may see none f inge wif inne, but }if it so 

[Fol. 59 r ] be for a resonabel cause, fat f e same clof e | be drawyn agayne bi 

licence of f e Abbes ; & in f e same maner schal be holden a blacke 

30 clof e at f e perlour whiche some may be done awey bi licence of 

f e Abbes & of f e Assentement of grete parti of f e couent ; & 

fis gratis schullyn haue doris of yren bund & naylid whoche schal 

be alwey closid but jif it be for f e causes forseyde. 

. pe perlour be of many & f icke roddis of yren, of stronge werke 

35 forgid. pis perloure to confessioun schulle be made in f e Chyrche, 

ofer in ofer place couenabel after hit schal beste seme to fe 

mynster, & fat f e gratis be of mani & thicke roddis of yrin bisili 

forgid & of stronge werke. Allegatis in one of f e sydis of fe 

* MS. adds 'And'. 

The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 89 

forseyde grate be a smalle wyndow I-made wip a goget of yrin, bi 
pe whiche pe preest, whan he schal heue vp his honde, may mynistre 
to pe Sustris goddis bodi, and pat none bodi may putte his honde | 
wipinne pe grate be ani partie of pe grate. And Ipe forseyde [FoL 59 T ] 
goget alwey schal be closid wip two keyis, in Ipe warde of a persone 5 
couenabel & honeste, sauing whan pe sustris schullin resseyue 
goddis bodi & here sermonis, or bi oper cause resonable after Ipe 
lugement of Ipe Abbes. Wipowte licens of ]>e Ministre per schal 
nat be in Ipe couent but one whele couenable, bi pe which we takip 
to Ipe sustris pat whiche schal * nede to hem & take awey J>at 10 
whiche is nedeful ; & pat pis wbele be made & ordeynid in soche wise 
pat none fringe may be seyne bi pat. Bi pis whele schal none Suster 
speke to nobodi, but two whiche kepin pis whele wip grete diligence. 
And also like as Ipe abbesse berip here, make sche alle Ipe sustris 
for to kepe be hem alle bisili | Ipe ordinaunce of silence of pis present [Fol. 60 r ] 
rule, t For as mocliel fat alle materis to speke wip inne be for- 
barrid in alle pingis to alle sustris, sauinge pat pe Abbesse may 
speke to here sustris at houris & in places couenablis as it schal be 
moste plesaunt to god. The sustris sike in Ipe time of here maladi 
in Ipe fermeri, & pey whiche been seruauntis, & olper hole sustris bi 20 
cause for to visite Ipe sike charitabli bi licence of Ipe Abbesse 
entringe in to Ipe fermeri, may speke wip sike sustris after dis- 
posicioun of Ipe Abbesse. 

MOreouer we comawnde estreyteli in vertu of obedience, pat 
none Abbesse ne ani suster suffer nat ani persone, 26 what euer he 25 
be, for to entre wipoute especial licence of | pe apostle wipinne pe [Fol. 60 T ] 
Abbey or cloyster, ne wip inne none place where pat pe sustris been 
abidinge, be he religious or seculere or of what maner dignite. 
And also we defendin pe entre to alle maner folke, excepte pe 
kynge 27 in whoche Reine pis Abbey is foundin, whoche kynge may 30 
entre to hem wip pe numbre of x personis, & excepte pe Minister 
general of pat ordre of Freris Menoures, wip ii honest felowis, 
And excepte po whiche of pe comaundement of the Abbesse & bi 
counsayle & assentement of pe moste wise suster schal enter inne to 
hem for a grete nede wel schewinge of ani werke nedeful or mater 35 
profitable; pe whiche, }if per be many, pan pat per be many 

* MS. adds 'nat'. f MS. repeats 'for as mocbel ' : crossed through. 

90 The Reide of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

suffisauntli ordeynid ]>e same werke to performe. And whan fat | 
[Fol. 61 r ] werke is doon, fat wif oute tariynge fey been made go oute of f e 
place ; & in soche materes & causis fat f e assentement of fe Ministre 
prouincial be requirid whan it may be done couenabli, for as moche 
5 fat f e clerete of here renouns be sauid & kepte . The mynistre pro- 
vincial of f e same prouince may entre into f e Abbey wif ii honest 
felawis bi cause necessari for to visite & refourme f e couent . And 
also in of er materis & causes whoche happin for to come, fat may 
nat be reformid wif oute entre amongis hem, f e forseyde Ministre 

10 prouincial schal entre, *f * fat fe Ministre general bi counsayle of 

most wise sustris fer schal to hem graunt. }if it happe bi auenture 

fat any Cardinal wole come & entre in f e Abbey, fat he be res- 

[Fol. 61 V ] seyuid in reuerence & deuocioun, but ] fat he bringe nomoo saue x 

persones. Anof er prelate, 28 to whom is grauntid any time bi f e 

15 apostle for to entre wif inne f e Abbey for to blesse f e Abbesse or 
for to sacre a sustre, or in any of er maner fat it be grauntid at any 
time to any Bischop for to singe masse wif inne, it schal suffice for 
to haue wif him iii or iiii personis to ministre duli to him . And 
whan it schal be grauntid to any man wif inne f e gate for to 

20 abide, f e Abbesse may speke wif him alle dayes, wif ii of moste 
demures & wise sustris of fe couent. 3^ ^ happe any time fat any 
womman have licence to entre in to f e Abbey, f e sustres may speke 
to here bi conge of f e Abbesse. & Allegatis fat f e sustris take gode 
kepe fat wif alle diligens fey eschiewyn fat none of hem at here 
[Fol. 62 r ] knowynge speke to noman fat | is entrid, but .in f e maner & bi 
ordinauns forseyde, sauinge to vertuous men & to honest, whoche 
been here confessoures, or to of er in here stede, & fat in couenable 
time to here t consolacioun & edificacioun of here sowlis, some times 
fey may speke bi licens of f e Ministre generale or prouincial or of 

30 f e Abbes, so ii or iii Sustris be fere present to herin & to see. Of 
f is same maner be take kepe, fat fey whoche haue graunt to enter 
inne in fe Abbey been so honeste of spekynge & of here maneris 
& of her life & of here abit, fat f e sustres whoche seen hem may 
vertuousli be edified in here sowlis & none mater of disclawnder 

35 fer of for to rise. Alle f oo whiche bi licence of f e apostle wole enter 
wif inne, First fey schullen to f e Abbesse & to ofer wise sustres 
[Fol. 62 T ] of f e couent | schew here letres of f e apostle of here graunt. 

Whan any of f e sustris been greuou[s]li syke, fat sche may nat 
* MS. af. f MS. repeats ' here ' superfluous. 

The Eewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 91 

godeli come to f e perloure for to be confessid or for to resseyue 
goddes bodi or of er sacramentis of holi chirche, fan here con- 
fessoure arayid in vestimentis longynge to a preest excepte fe 
chesiple schal entre wif inne, & his felaw reuestrid alle in white ; 
fat fan fe sike suster confesse here bi soche maner fat iii of er 5 
sustris be so ny}e fat fey may se f e same confessoure & also her 
whoche is confessid. And whan fe confessioun schal be herde or 
any of er sacrament ministrid, like as fey come inne reuestrid, so 
goo fey owte, ne dwelle fey f er inne, ne wif any of er Suster speke 
fey nat, but in f e forseyde maner. And also | whan any comendacioun [Fol. 63 r ] 
schal be done for sowlis of Sustris, or for obsequies of any of hem 
dede, ii freris menoures or preestis preuoyres or f re, whan f e bodi 
is brought to entierment, schalle mowe entre reuestrid wif orne- 
mentis longynge to a preest, and fey for to do alle fat longif to a 
preest in soche cas. And be fey alle wey to gyderes bi alle f e time 15 
fat fey schullin be ocupied abowte f e execucioun of f e same office, 
and fat fulfillid for to departe f ennis wif owte tariynge. And also 
fat gode kepe be takyn of the Ministris, & bi him whoche schal be 
visitoure in fat tyme of hem whoche schal entre in to f e Abbey for 
any soche werkis to make jif fey be necessari, whan & how fey 20 
schullin entre, & gouerne & haue hem wif inue. And up fat fey 
ordeyne and dis|posin f er of as hem schal best like, so allegatis fat [Fol. 63 T ] 
f e name & f e gode fame of f e Sustris be sauid in alle poyntis. 

For to kepe f e forseyde entre duringe f e tyme, one of f e sustris 
best louynge god, wise & vertuouse, be ordeynid & enstablid & in alle 25 
maner of diligence fat f e keyes of f e same entre be saueli kepte & 
putte in sane warde of f e forseyde sustre keper in fat case assignid, 
so fat none dore ne gate f er be nat openid wif oute verray knowinge 
of f e same Suster. The of er keye alle diuers schal f e Abbesse kepe. 
And also fat f er be assignid & ordeynid an of er suster for to be 30 
felow & helpinge to f e .forseyde porteresse in alle times & in alle 
f inges longinge to f e same kepinge, whan f e chief porteresse schal 
be ocupiid of er weyes re|sonabeli in f e nedis of f e Abbey necessari. [Fol. 64 r ] 
And ful ententli fat f is poiteresse suffer nat fat f e dore be nat 
openid but whan fat grete nede askif it, & fat f e dore diligentli 35 
be kepte & schet & f e Guyches of barris of yrin & f e openinge be 
nat any tyme lefte wif oute warde of one of f e forseyde porteresse, 
& fat it be schette be day & be niht wif ii keyes, & fat it be nat 
openid to sone at eche knockynge, but }if hit so be fat f e porteresse 

92 The Ee^cle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

firste see bi fe smalle wyndow who fat he is, & fat it is none 
dowte but fat he fat knockif be soche a persone whoche may 
lefolli come inne after f e rule of fe same religioun aforseyde. We 
wole of alle f inge, fat f e jate be of Mhenesse fat f er may nat come 

[Fol. 64 T ] f er to but wif a ladder, 29 whoche be lefte | vp & vnder a chayne of 
yrin, & schet wif a keye ; & in f e mornyninge whan it is day, bi 
f e chayne avale bifore iii of f e sustris. We graunt that fey haue 
a lowe sate, where f or\ve fat fey may bringe Inne grete f inges as 
tunnys of wyne & of er f inges like, & fat it be schette wif locke & 
10 keye & diligentli I-kepte . And jif it hap any tyme fat any werke 
be for to do wif inne f e Abbey, & fat seculeris persones muste 
enter fere for fat, fan f e Abbesse puruoye & ordeyne iii sustris 
wise, sad, & vertuouses of f e Couent, whiche kepe hem in silence to 
alle f o persones whiche schal make werke, & algates fat none of er 
15 persones entre. And jif it happe fat f er be multitude & prees, fat 

[Fol. 65 r ] of er persones honest & couenable be ordeynid & chaun|gid 30 for to 
helpe f e forseyde sustris to kepe f e same jate sureli & bysili. 

OF f e visitacioun of f is religioun : be alle weyes ordeynid fat who 
fat schal be establid Generall or special visitoure, fat he be soche 

20 one whoche is wel knowen of stedfastnesse of religious life & gode 
vertuis ; f e whoche whan he comif to f e Abbey & is entrid wif 
inne, fat he here him & schewe him soo fat he may drawe f e 
Sustris from goode in to beter, & fat he enstrengf e hem in f e loue 
of oure lorde, & fat he alwey estabel amonges hem feruent desire in 

35 charite. And whan he schal entre bi reson [of visitacioun *], fat he 

take him ii religious felawes honest & couenable, fe whoche felawes, 

[Fol. 65 V ] wille fey be wif inne f e Cloyster, schulle nat departe | asunder by 

none time. Alle f e Abbeyes of f e same religioun been I-visitid eche 

:jeer ones or at f e leste in ii ^ere ones. The visitoures be algatis of 

30 f e ordre of Freris menoures & fat he be I-sent by f e minister general 
of the ordre. 

AT alle jeres fat f e Abbey may nat be visitid bi f e visitoure, 
whoche ys sent fro f e mynister generale, $if it be nedeful, fat fan 
f e abbey be visitid bi f e Mynister of f e same prouince after f e 
* Words supplied by comparison with Latin original. 

The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 93 

forme of f e Rule of f is religioun forseyde . The visitoure whiche wole 

goo ferfer in his visitacioun, 31 after tyme fat fe rule ys redde, 

enquere he besili f e trowf e of alle Sustris & of eche of hem bi 

hemselfe generali, & especiali Ipe estate of alle f e sustres & how fey 

kepin here religioun ; & fere he fyndif any defawte, | for to amende [Fol. 66 r ] 

& refourme hit in f e principal & in f e membris in jelosie of charite 

& in Ipe loue of rihtwisnesse & bi grete discresioun in alle times. 

WHan fat he visitif 32 in alle times any of Ipe Sustres, Ipe Abbesse 
schal abide oute of lp e chapitre, & * resigne f e seele, & sche schal 
nat be at here owne visitacioun ; & none f inge be purposid of one 10 
suster to anof er, but fat whoche may be prouid haue be done by 
comune spekynge or bi apert knowynge. An ouer alle f inges 33 
fat he take kepe & f enke bisili & nameli in f e visitasioun of f e 
Sustres, fat stere nat to any f inge but to f e loue of god for to 
speke of, & of fe amendement of fe Sustris whoche wole nat knowe 15 
here trespace & f e defauhtes whoche been putte on hem, }if | fey [Fol. 66 T ] 
wole excuse hem of f e same ; & }if it be grete f inges, audience schal 
nat be denyed to hem. And f oo sustris whoche acusif of er of 
greuousis f inges, }if fey faylen in prouing f er of, after f e blame 
whoche is put vppon hem, be lawfullich punischid. And f e trespace 20 
or defaute whiche haf be punischid biforne bi a visitour, schal [naf\ 
be redressid of newe. The visitoures schullin kepe f e maner of 
spekynge forseyde, fat is for to vnderstonde, fat fey speke to alle 
f e sustris or to ii at f e leste bifore mani whiche be nat ferre ; & 
also whan he is oute of f e place & wole speke to one or to many of 25 
f inges whiche perteynif to his office. 

And we wole fat f e visitoures spede hem of here visitacioun of alle 
wif owte greuauns | of f e Abbey, & algatis fat wif inne iiii dayes or [Fol. <J7 r ] 
v atte moste bi here visitacioun, but ^if it so be fat it nedif lenger 
to abide for hope & grete nede. And after fat fey for to haue none 30 
power to entre in to f e Abbey. The time of f e visitacioun whoche is 
aboue seyde schal nat be esloignid wif owte special conge of f e 
Mynistre. And we wole nat fat fe generalle Minister dwelle ne 
* MS. adds ' >e '. 

94 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

abide lenger but fe same time, but^if it so be for a grete certayne 
cause. Allegatis at f e nyhte from f e sonne goynge to reste til in 
f e morwe at f e sunne risinge, fat none be suffrid for to dwelle or 
to entre wif inne, neyf er visitour ne of er, of what auctorite fat he 
5 be * warnid, but }if it so be fat it be for confessioun for to here of 

[Fol. 67 V ] any | sike Suster gretli syke or for any grete peril schewynge. And 
wolyn & monestyn S4 ententifeli, fat f e Sustres in priue & aperte 
f o Binges whiche after Ipe forme, as it semif to doo to kepe here 
rule, whoche been to establid & to amende, After fat whoche schal 
10 best seme to hem & f er vppon fat fey nryngin & preposin couenabli 
& besili to visitoure to whom fey been holden by vertu of obedience 
for to obeye stedfastli wif in f e time forseyde In alle f inge 
longiuge to f e visitoures office. And $if f er be any Suster fat haf 
trespassid a^enst f e Rule, be sche punyschid rihtfulli bi f e visitoure, 
15 as it longif for to be done. The abbesse also, ji'f here meritis & here 
defawtes axen hit, be sche assoylid of here office bi f e visitoure & 

[Fol. 68 r ] bi him also corec|tid. The couent & of er familieres, jif fey be re- 

prouable in any f inge, fat fey be repreuid ; & jif fey wole nat be 

repreuid, fat fey be algatis remuyd. The confessoures & here 

20 felowes be of f e ordre of freris Menoures, whoche fey schullyn 

dwellin fere & minister f e sacrament of f e awter & of er sacramentis, 

but $if it so be fat Ministres general or prouincial brdeyne in of er 

maner bi cause resonable & honest. And }if f e visitoure fynde any 

cause notable ageynist f ese confessoures, he is holdin to enforme f er 

25 of f e Ministre prouincial, whoche schal redresse hem or putte hem 

awey owte of f e place. 

AFter fat we enrnonestyn stray tli f e visitoure, fat f oo f inges 

[Fol. 68 T ] whoche he fynt in his visitacioun fat | he kepe priue, ne schewe hit 

nat bi his knowinge to none bodi, but assone as misdedis schal be 

30 redde & penaunce enioynid, alle fat whoche is writen schal be brent 

bifore f e couent, but ;if f er be soche f inges whoche bi f e counsayle 

of moste wise sustris of f e couent schul be reportid to f e Ministre 

general of fe ordre. And also ;if so be fat fe Minister prouincial 

finde after f e visitacioun any f inge notable ageynis f e visitoure or 

ageynis his felawes, He is holdin to make enformacioun to f e Minister 

* MS. repeats * that he be '. 

The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 95 

general. The felaws to f e visitoure schul nat be at f e visitacioun, 
but }if it so be fat fat it seme to f e visitoure for fe beste 
to doo. 

The eleccioun of f e Abbesse perteynif alle oneli to f e couent, but 
f e confirmacioun quassacioun & deposing | pertenif to f e Ministre [Fol. 69 r ] 
general of fe ordre of Freris Menoures, $if he be present in f e 
prouince; & }if he be nat, fat it schal pertien to fe Minister 
prouincial, In f e whiche f e forseyde Abbey is foundid, To whom 
pertenif f e ordinaunce of f is ordre, f e gouernaunce, f e cure, f e visi- 
tacioun, f e correccioun, & reform acioun, & bi hem & bi of er visitouris 10 
after fat at it be enioynid hem in place & in time; bi fe whiche 
visitoures f e abbesse schal be assoylid of here office, as it is expressid 
aboue. And fere for fan in vertu of obedience we comaunde 
straytli senden & enioynen alle Abbessis & Sustris of f is religioun, 
fat fey be obedientis to fe Minister general of f e ordre of frere 15 
Menoures & to fe Minister prouincial of f e same prouince, in f e 
whiche f e same | Abbey is sette, in f inges whiche been nat ageynis [Fol. 69 T ] 
here sowlis, ne ageynis f is present rule. For we wole fat fey be 
alwey sogettis to here gouernouris. Also we enioynin to alle f e 
sustris of f is same religion, fat fey obey diligentli to here Abbesse, 20 
after fat f e Abbesse be confermid, as longe as fat sche dwellif & 
abidif in here office. Whan for maladi or for any of er caas fat f e 
Abbey be destitute or voyde of an Abbesse, fat fan f e sustris schal 
*-chesyn a president to whom in f e mene time fey schul be obedientis 
til a nyew Abbesse be confermid & ocupie here office. And f is same 25 
president schal vse & execute in fe mene time f e office who ys 
longynge to f e Abbesse. 35 The mynistris [araZf] f e visitoures 36 schul 
refourme alle dis|honeste & amende alle f ingis whoche been for to [Fol. 70 r ] 
amende boof in spiritualite & in temporalite. And it [is] for to 
eschiewen comynges &goiuges of straungeris bi occasioun of temporal 30 
f inges & forasmoche fat f e Sustris may lyue more in pees for to 
serue god allegatis, fat fey haue in comune & for to resseyue fe 
profites of rentis & possessions & sureli to kepe. And for to trete 
fe forseyde possessions in riht maner, haue fey in fe forseyde 
Abbey a procuratoure 37 wise & trew, whoche schal be establid of 35 
the counsayle of the Abbesse & bi consentement of f e couent & be 
* Before ' chesyn ' a word erased, probably ' mow '. f MS. whoche. 

96 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

lie put owte at alle time, whan hem schal seme goode & profitabel ; 

& fat f e procuratoure be holdin to jeelde acounte resonable to f e 

[Fol. 70 T ] Abbesse & to f e wise Sustres enspeciali bi f e couent f er|to assignid, 

& to lp e visitouris whan fey wolen herin of alle f inges whoche haue 

5 be deliurid to him & fat he haf despendid. And f is procuratoure 

schal nat in none maner selle, ne bynde ne draw awey any goode s 

or catallis of f e Abbey, & alle fat which is done in damage to f e 

Abbey bi soche maner of bad gouernaunce, we Juge it for nawt & of 

none auayle . And for as moche fat in of er place is oure life 

10 perpetuel, we wole aboue alle f inges fat f e sustris of f is religioun 

eschuen outrage & Ipe sourfait of bigginge & of alle maner curiosite, 

whiche been contrarious to alle godenesse & whoche god hatif in 

alle Binges. 

The seel of f e couent be kepte after f e ordinaunce of f e same 
[Fol. 71 r ] couent. And alle f e letres whiche | schul be sent from Ipe couent 
schal be firste I-redde in Ipe chapitre. None of Ipe Sustres sende ne 
resseyue any letres but soche whoche f e Abbesse schal rede first, or 
ellis fat ]>e same letres be I-redde bifore f e Abbesse be anof er suster 
f er to assignid. The Abbesse schal holde chapitre eche wike twies 

20 at f e leste, one of corecciouu & amonisschment, & anof er of f e ordi- 
uaunce of Sustris. And ouer alle finge we defende fat none 
Ministre ne visitoure bi here auctorite make none constitucionis in 
f e Abbey ageynis Ipe forme & rule aforseyde, wher f orwe f e sustris 
be bounde or enclinid to any vice or payne, but }if so be fat it be 

25 done bi consentment of alle f e couent ; and }if ani soche nyew 
ordinaunce be made, by no maner fat fe sustres schul be boundyn 
J? er to. 38 

[Fol. 71 T ] We seyn fan fat none persone of holi chirche ne seculer take in 
despite ne varie ne transpose f is present rule correctid & approuid, 
30 ne any f inges whoch been comprehendid f er inne, ne for to go 
folili f er ageynis. And ^if any be so hardi fat dare take fat vppon 
him,knowe he fat he rennif in f e wraf of god almyhti& indignacioun 
of f e apostles Peter & poule. This was 5ouin at vien} S9 f e vi 
kalendis of august f e secunde jer of oure dignite. 

The Beivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 97 

This 40 is rule of sustris enclosid, whoche haue lefte alle Binges 
of f is worlde for loue of god. Certis fey do grete vnderstondinge, 
for in fis worlde may no man dwelle in profitabel pees. At alle 
dayes f er been enemyes And f erfor fat f e sustres put here f owtes 
for to loue god ententifely, whoche schal putte hem in goode place. 5 
And | for as mochel fat fey been enclosid, allemihti god schal ^eue [Fol. 72 r ] 
to hem of his fayre f>inges & fat is fayre paradise, bi cause fat 
fey haue louid him in vertuouse seruise. Now prey we f is gode 
ladies fat fey preyen for oure sowles fat we may come & haue f e 
Joye of heuyn bi his blessid grace perpetuelly for to endure. Amen. 10 


98 The Eewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 


I Or as moche fat it is couenabel lowli seruauntes & deuowtes 
hand maydenes of owre lorde Ihesu criste for his loue f e 
worlde wif alle vaniteis to forsake, And f e batayle for to vndertake 
agaynes f e deuel & him for to wif stonde & his temptacions, & hem 
[ Fol. 72 T ] selfe to refreyne bi name of professioun, | bi whoche fey been submittid 
to diuerses obseruauncis of religioun, so fat fey mowen bi f e forseyde 
avowe of regulere obseruaunce helf e in sowle & bodi haue in f i& 
worlde, And after here departinge for to reioyse perpetualli fe 
rewarde of blisse, whoche ys ordeynid for here rewarde, we f erfor 

10 fader spirituel of his fingis f enkinge wif gode diligence, hauin 
ordeynid fat f e sustris whoche been or schal been vnder f e gouer- 
naunce in fe cure of freris Menowres, alle f ow fat fey be clepid 
Menowressis or of f e ordre of Seint Clere or of seynt damian 1 ,* or 
of what of er name fat fey hauyn or berin, fat in eche place wher 

15 fey been dwellinge bi fe ministris prouincial of fe Freris Menours 

[Fol. 73 r ] & bi f e Abbesse of f e same place & of f e | couent or of f e gretter 

parti of f e couent be f er ordeynid be oure auctorite certeyne nombre 

of hem after f e quantite & sufficiant of godes & rentis longinge to 

f e same Abbey, so fat fey may of here goodes couenabli be sus- 

20 taynid. 2 And ouer fat certayne nomber bi f is maner assigned, 
fat none be resseyuid in f e same hous wif owte special licence of 
fe apostle, But ^if so be fat here godes & rentis been of soche 
encrese whoche may suffice to moo ; & algatis byfore any soche 
resseyuinge, fat f e encrese of here godes bi f e grace of god be 

25 denounsid to f e chapitre general of freres Menoures. Atte whiche 

chapitre it schal be fan ordeynid how many persones may f er putte 

inne ouer the nombre of olde time, bi resoun of f e encrees of here 

[Fol. 73 V ] goodes & reue|nuys, as it is forseyde. And $if it happe bi f e grace 

of god any persone or many persones for to be resseyuid ouer f e 

30 olde numbre, Algatis fat none soche resseyte be made wif owte 
licence of f e Ministre general or prouincial, to f e whoche Ministris 
we comaundin straytli fat bifore ani soche graunt schal be done, 
fat fey auise wel, fat none cowenauntt fer in be made vnduli, ne 

* The numbers given in the text refer to the notes which will be found on 
pp. 120-3. 
f* MS. ' comenaunt ' . 

The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 99 

ani finge fat towchif Simoni. And }if it happe bi auenture fat 
any of f e kynrede or ofer Frendes make legacioun, deuise or }ifte 
of ani maner possessioun, gode, catelles or luyelles to any Suster, fat 
it schal be resseyuid bi f e Abbesse & dispendid in profite to Couent ; 
& sche bi cause of whom fat gifte is done for, fat allegatis sche 5 
in here necessitees be holpyn & rele|uyd to here ese goodli. And [Fol. 74 r ] 
fat f e ministris be wel ware, bof e general & prouincial, fat for 
none leue bifore grauntid ne after, bi none wey, for none colour e ne 
requeste,ne for any of er occasioun, none miner suster of f is religioun 
bi here selfe ne be any of er do resseyue or take any f inge whoche 10 
is longynge to ani frere or to any Couent or to f e chirches or werkis 
of f e forseyde ordre. And also fat bi resoun of soche resseyte none 
finge be procurid ne ^ouin, & fat none finge be suffrid to be 
resseyuid bi resoun of custuine, ne bi any of er wey, For alle soche 
dedis we reccoune * corrupcioun. And }if any ministre do or suffer f e 15 
contrarie, be he cursid in so mochel fat he may nat be assoylid 3 
but onli of f e pope t excepte peryl of deef , & }if he be conuic|tid [Fol. 74 T ] 
f er of, fat fan he schal be deposid of f e office of Ministre perpetueli. 
And more ouer we ordeyne fat f e Abbessis & alle of er whiche 
f e goodes of fe Abbey schal gader, resseyue, ministre, or despende, 20 
eche }ere fat fey schal 3eelde acounte bifore f e Ministre general or 
prouincial & before ani wyse Sustres I-chosin fere bi f e Couent, of 
alle maner resseytis & expensis & of alle of er f inges in diew maner, 
& of alle fat whiche is owynge bi any persone, & of f e astate of f e 
Abbey. And we wole also fat in eche hous of f e ordre in fe 25 
biginnynge of fe Abbes, after fat sche is in pesible possessioun of 
fe godes, & alle f inges whoche longyn to fe hous, fat wif inne 
ii monf is in f e present of f e Ministre general or prouincial or | of [Fol. 75 r ] 
f e visitoure of f e house, & in presens of vi wise Sustris of f e same 
place be an Inuentari made of alle here godes & catallis meuabel & 3 
not meuabel ; & f is Inuentari schal be regestrid or dowblid in alle 
poyntis acordinge & enselid wif f e seeles of f e Abbesse & of f e 
couent; and amongis ofer f inges in fe forseyde register be con- 
teynid what bestis fey hauyn, & what fey been worf e, & what 
come fey hauyn, & what wynes, & alle ofer maner store, & f e 35 
dettis whoche f e hous owif , & f e dettis whoche been owynge to f e 
house, & to whom fey been bowndyn & f e names of here dettoures, 
& what ornementis, & what vessel & couertoures, & what ofer 
* MS. ' rettoune '. f Word rubbed out, but still legible. 

H 2 

100 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

soche thingis been in f e hous. And }if any Abbesse resseyue fe 

[Fol. 75 V ] hous in | gode estate & sche doof enpeyre hit, bi alienacioun or 

destruccioun of here godes or bi dette & foli obligacioun, fan be sche 

deposid of here astate, & ouer fat be sche punyschid as it longif 

5 to. And we wole fat f e forseyde Inuentaries or regestris been 

redde opunli & playnli in Ipe Chapitre bifore alle f e Couent ; and 

after tyme fat fey been redde, one register dwelle wif f e Abbesse, 

& fat of er wif f e Couent, & f e transcrite wif f e Miuistre general 

or prouincial. 

10 And 3it as we recordin cure blessid predecessoures pope boneface 

f e VIII *, 4 fat after a constitucioun bi hem ordeynid vppon f is same 

religioun, vnder vertuouse rule, fat alle f e Sustris schulden dwelle 

& abide vnder stedefast & perpetuel closinge, & as we been efformid 

[Fol. 76 r ] In some placis of f e ordre | f is poynt is nat kepte holi, And f erfor 

15 owre wille is, fat f is same constitucioun be kepte outerli. Wherfor 
we comawnde straytli to alle Ministris & Abbessis & to alle fo to 
whom soche kepinge of closure pertenif, fat fey alle doo here 
feruent diligence for to kepe truli, fat none Suster priuyli ne 
apertli passe nat oute bi none maner wey, But $if so be in case fat 

20 any of hem been sent & ordeynid for to edifie & ocupie a newe 
place of f e same religioun, or ellis fat it happe fat ani of hem be 
in so stronge maladie opunli, fat sche may nat dwelle ne abide fer 
inne wif owte grete sclaunder or perille importabel. 

And ouer fat we wole fat none religious ne seculere, of what 
[Fol. 76 T ] astate or dignite fat he be, fat he enter nat to hem | wifowte 
licence of fe Apostle, owtake f es persones to whom is grauntid 
conge, bi here rule & bi ordinaunce of owre predecessouris . And 
ouer fat we comaundyn streytli to f e Ministris, Custodis & war- 
deynis bi f is tenoure present, fat fey distreyue alle here freiis to 

30 hem sogettis, fat in here comynges & abidinges in f e Abbey fey 
gouerne hem vertuousli in alle poyutis after fe rule of seynt 
Fraunceys & statuses of holi popis t & of er holi t Freris of f e 
same ordre. And alle foo which e doo f e contraii schullin be 
punischid & chastisid after fe ordinaunce in fe same statutes 

35 assignyd. 

And also sauynge in f e same rule of f e Sustris made bi seynt 

* The word ' pope ' is rubbed out and a line drawn through ' boneface be 
VIII 'in MS. 
t Words have been rubbed out, but are readable. 

The Reide of Sustris Menour 'esses enclosid 101 

Clare is a clause conteynyd, pat in eche house per may be resseyuyd 
certay|nis personis for to serue hem & pe whiche schal be con- [Fol. 77 r ] 
streynid to alle maner obseruaunces of professioun like as oper been 
wip inne, owtake closure, &c., we neforpat, for pe honeste & gode fame 
of pe Sustris of pe ordre of seynt Clare or Menoressis or of seynt 5 
Damyan, Oper weyes we ordeyne at pis time, & wolin pat oure ordi- 
naunce endure perpetuelli, whiche is pis pat we comaundin straytli 
pat from pis time forpe, soche seruauntis pat now been or schullin 
been, pat pey been as ferforp & astraytli boundin to pe obseruaunce 
of professioim as oper sustryn in pe same Abbey vnder obedience, 10 
& pat pey dwellin & abide perpetueli vnder closure. Neforpan pey 
schul mowe haue in eche house of soche religioun certaines wommen | 
but fewe, pe whiche schullen be of gode age & wel auysid & of [Fol. 77 T ] 
goode maneris & honestes in seculere habite ; & soche schal entre 
nat in pe closure of pe Sustres, but for profite of pe Abbey & for 15 
grete necessite to pe Sustres, after pat is enioynid to hem, & pat 
pey be pere of warnid. And :jif pe Abbesse take vppon here 
ageynes oure comaundement for to goo owte of pe forseyde closure, 
or geue licence to any of pe Sustris, pat pan bi pe Miuistre in pe 
counsayle of pe freris, The same Abbesse schal be remewid of here 20 
gouernaunce, & pe Sustiis bi pe maner goynge owte of pe closure, 
but in case sufferablis, schullyn be made enables to alle offices of pe 
ordre, & neuerpelese pat pey been enioynid to do pe penaunce 
assignyd & ordeynid in pe ordre | for greuouses trespasis. [Fol. 78 r ] 

And also we defenden straytli pat pe Sustris of pe order, haue 25 
none cellis in here dortoure, & ^if any per be, we senclen & comaunden 
pat bi pe ministris or be visitoures in pe nexte visitacioun pat pey do 
destruye vtterli alle soche maner cellis; & jif any oper be coun- 
saylinge procuringe or helpinge pere agaynes. pat pey been chastised 
& punischid sadli by censure & sentence of holi chirche & that by 30 
oure auctorite. And ^if any of pe forseyde Ministris or oper freris 
of pe same ordre presumyn now or in tyme comynge to make oper 
statutis or obseruuunces ageynes owre ordinaunce forseyde, we bi 
auctorite papal* enioynyn & comaundyn pat soche constitucions 
been holden for nauhte&ofnouevalu. And we wolen | & comaunden [Fol. 78 T ] 
straytly pat alle pe Ministris prouinciallis in alle here prouinces do 
sende to alle Abbeyes of pe same ordre whoche been or schulde 
been vnder cure & gouernaunce of freris Menoures, The copies of 
* Word rubbed out, but readable. 

102 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

pis ordinaunce enselid vnder pe sele of pe mynistre & of pe diuyni- 
toures, And pat pey been redde to pe sustris in here couentis opynli 
& pat pe Miuistris comaunden stray [Y]li pat pis ordinaunce from pis 
time forpe be I-kepte entierli & holdin stedefastli wip owte any 
5 variaunce or lettinge. 

At alle pe houres fey schal first a litel ringe & make a suffisaunt 

restinge, so pat pe Sustres may make hem redi & assemble in pe 

chirche wip owte tariynge, & pan schal pe belle be rungyn wel 

[Fol. 79 r j lenger, & pis maner ringinge be vsid in alle times, safe | in dobel 

10 Festis 5 . For pan we schal ringe iii tymes longe bope to euensonge & 
to matynnis, bi espacis suffisauntis. And at pe tierce twey tymes 
longe with couenabel espace, & after pe tierce iiii time to pe 
masse couenabli. Eche day we schal ringe in time longe bifore pe 
biginninge of pe Inuitatorie 6 . On sundayes, at dobel Festis, & 

15 semydobel pey schal ringe, whan pe[y] byginne Te deum l[audamus^ 
tille soche a verse pleni sunt cell $ terra. And on sundayes 
whan pey syngen pe ix respons 7 , while Gloria patri is asinginge, 
pan pey schal ringe til pe biginnynge ageyne of pe response. 
Whan pey been at pe leuacioun 8 , pey schal ringe a litel in pe masse 

ao conuentuel withowte more. At pe mete & at pe soper in alle times 

[Fol. 79 Y ] pey schal sowne pe smale belle, And after | til pe Sustren haue 

wasschin here hondis & assembel togyderes bifore pe freytoure, 

& after here refeccioun pey schalle smyht iiii strokes on pe belle 

of pe freytoure. And after pis smytinge pe S'ustres schullin rise 

25 & entre honestli in to pe Freytoure, & after pat pey schal sowne 
pe belle, bi pe space of seyinge of iiii Aue maries. And after pat 
pe Chauntresse in sesynge of pe sowninge schal seye Benedicite 9 . 
And pe Couent schal answere in pe same tune. And pan pe 
Chauntresse schal bigynne pe verse, & alle pe couent schal sey after. 

30 At lube d[omne\ 10 Sche pat schal rede fromme pe ende of pe Couent 

til sche comeinmyddis of pe Couent schal sey lube d[omne]& bowynge 

schal resseyue pe blessynge. And in pe end of pe mete, pe refrey- 

[Fol. 80 r ] touresse schal smyte | iiii strokes on pe smale belle, & anone pe reder 

schal sey Tu autem ". And pe Sustres at pe tabel schul seye Deo 

35 gratias. And after anone pe Somenerere schal sowne pe smale 
belle as longe til pe sustres been fro table, & in renges bifore, one 

The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 103 

Suster ageynis anof er. And fan f e chaunterere schal biginne f e 
verse & alle f e couent after, & atte Gloria patri Eche Suster schal 
turne ageynis ofer. Whan alle is done, f e almoynere schal turne 
here towarde f e ymage 12 & sey Agimus tibi 13 wif Benedictus deus 
in do[nis], And after fat f e Chaunterere schal bigynne for to go to f)e 5 
Mynystre wif Miserere mei, deus, & alle f e couent & fan f e quere 
on fat one syde schal take his verse, & f e Quere on fat ofer syde 
schal take anof er verse. And assone as }>ey | haue bowid hem to f e [Fol. 80 r ] 
ymage reuerentli, fey schul go in to f e chirche singyng f e same note. 
And at fe entre of fe Quere fey schul bowe towarde fe awter, & 10 
whan fey been entrid in here segis fey schul stonde one ageynes 
anof er, til fey sey Eetribuere 14 . And f anne alle schal bowen at 
Per dominum, & f anne turne hem te Ipe auter til me seyf * Fidelium 
anime 15 . And whan fey haue answerid Amen, Ipej schul bowe 
& sey Pater noster, ^if it be Fest, stondinge ; }if hit be Feri, 15 
knelinge ; And after in Ipe ende smyte J?e forme & seye Deus det 
nobis s\_uam~] p[acem~\ and J>e couent answeringe Amen. 

WHan J>ey 3elden graces at Ipe soper in Ipe Freytoure, J>ey schul 
do as it is seyde biforne, saue fat fey schullyn nat knele but bowe & 
seye | Deus det nobis s[uam~\ p[acem~\ wif owte smitynge, & answere, [F O I. gl r ] 
Amen. And fey schul honestli in silence goo owte of f e freytoure, 
sauinge foo whoche fey schul seruyn. 

And also at f e colacioun 16 whoche schal be done eche day in f e 
freytoure, First fey schul sown fe belle in Monastre bi espace 
auenaunt, & refectuouere schal sowne f e smale belle of f e Cloyster 25 
be as longe time fat alle f e Sustris may be redili ensemblid in fe 
Freytoure. And anone after f e Bed ere schal sey lube domne, $c., 
& resseyue blessinge bowinge, as hit is forseyde. The benisoun is 
f is : Noctem quietam finem perfectum concedat nobis omnipotent 
<J* misericors dominus. R Amen. And after f e firste or secunde 30 
verse of f e lessoun f e Reder schal sey Benedicite wif | titel & poynt- [Fol. 81 V ] 
ing in tone of a lessoun. pe blessing is Potum ancillarum suarum, 
$c. In nomine patri[s] filii 6f s[piritus] s[ctncti\. R Amen. And in 
f e ende of f e lessoun f e Reder schal sey Fratres, sobrii estote c. . Tu 
autem d[pmine] $c. R Deo gratias. The sustris schul goo to monastre 35 
ordeyneli seyinge, Miserere mei, deus wif owte note, & fan fey schul 

* ' me ' and the J) of ' sey]) ' erased and ' ]>ey Bey ' in later hand in margin. 

104 The Eewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

ringe f e grete belle in fe clogere for complin, whan it is ronge & 

seyd in fe chircbe Adiutorium fyc. & Pater noster knelinge. pan. 

fey schal sey Confiteor $c. & Misereatur Sfc. And as oftyn fat 

fastynge day is, Collacioun schal be done & seyde & nomore. And 

5 in of er tyme fey schal come to Complyn as to of er houres of f e 

day. And f e time fat fey schul slepe bi day Fro Pasche vnto 

[Fol. 82 r ] seint Croyse. . Sche fat haf redde at f e tabel, as sone as sche haf 

etin, sche schal sowne fe smale belle of fe freytour bi f e space of 

an Aue maria. And after anone fe Sustris schullin rest hem in 

10 pees & silence & in f e time of slepinge none persone schal be wif 

in f e cloos but f e sustris oneli. 

Whan fey schullin goo in to chapiter, fey schul sowne f e smale 

belle longeli, & anone wif owte tariinge f e Sustres schal assemble 

in f e Chapitre ; & whan f e Sustris been ensemblid at f e Monastre 

15 & fat f e last stroke is srnetyn, f e ebdomodari 17 make a tokin in 

smytinge f e forme wif here honde honestli, & anone fe sustris 

schul bowyn hem }if it be a Fest ; but if it be a feri, knelinge & 

seyinge Pater noster. And after fat f e ebdomo[ Ja]ri make a syngne, 

[Fol. 82 V ] as | hit is aboue seyde, for to make hem redi & fan sche schal 

20 bigynne f e office in here sege & here visage tumid to fe awter. 

And so schal alle f e sustris do til Gloria patri. And fan schal f e 

one syde of f e Quere turne hem ageynis f e of er in obeyinge. Alle 

in f is maner schal fey be whan fey seyn f es psalmes wif owte 

note in fe Quere. Alle sustres schul stonde vpriht saue in fe 

25 psalmodiinge at f e seruice of dede, for fan fey schul sitte. Whan 

ii psalmis or mi been seyde vpon one antirne 18 , fe quere schal 

stande vp while f e antym ys bigonne excepte at prime & in tyme 

of Pasche & at Complin. In alle of er times bof e one & of er schul 

stonden & sitte chaungeabli sauing at Laudate d[ominum] o[mnes] 

[Fol. 83 r ] g[entes], & laudate d[ominum'] de cells, \ Quicunque unit, Benedictus, 

Nunc dimittis, & Magnificat, Wher fey schullen alwey stonde, 

whef er fey rede or singe, & an of er time, at f e office of oure ladi, 

whan it is seyde wif owte note. But at f e lessons whan fey schul 

sey psalmodi, fan fey schul sey distinctly & atrete, & also whan 

35 V e y naue seyde & endid on f e one syde f e verse til time fat f e 

of er syde schal biginne f e of er verse, & specialli in f e offices of 

oure ladi & of f e dede. Whan fey synge, fat ey make none 

treyne ne poynt of metre, but fat fey make pause euenli & 

auenauntli. For to jeue fe antemes & for to tune fe psalmis- 

The Reide of Sustris Menour 'esses enclosid 105 

f er schul be ii chaunteressis, one in fat one syde & one in fat of er 
side in eche quere ordeynid & assignid, whiche schullen | ^euin f e [Fol. 83 T ] 
antemis & entune f e psalmis eche on here syde, & f e chauntresse 
whiche schal ^eue fe anteme schal entune fe psalmes. And 
a anteme schal neuer be bigonne of tweyne bifore fe psalme. pe 5 
lessonis schullen be redde in myddes of f e quere ; f e responses bof 
bi day & bi nihte schul be songoun sittinge in here seges, like as 
antemis been. "Whan fat * lube d[omne\ riht in middis of f e quere, 
sche schal obey to f e awter for to resseyue fe benysoun, & f e 
Ebdomodari schal sey fe benisons sittinge, after time fat sche is 10 
sette. But f e benisons of f e Gospellis sche schal euer sey boof bi 
day & be nihte & nat chaunge here voyse, but in one poynt, & 
nameli benisones chaungin neuer for festis ne for fed. The absolu- 
cions 19 , as Exaudi, domine, Ipsius pie\tas & A uinculis, alle wey [Fol. 84 r ] 
schullen be seyde in here places in dayes ferialis f e one after f e 15 
oJ3er, alle fowe fat a -Gospel be seyde. The benisons 20 been Euan- 
gelica lectio $c., & fe of er n schul alle wey be seyde whan f e 
Gospel is seyde, be it fest, be it feri. The absolucions schullin be 
seyde in fe tune of chapitres, f e benisons in fe tune of lessons. 
And also f e orisouns at f e houres of f e day, of prime, of mydday, 20 
& of none, schul be determinyd vnder f e tune of chapiteris ; & f e 
Ebdomodari whiche schal sey f e orisoun schal sey Domine exaitdi 
& Benedicamus domino in fe same tune, & fey schul answere 
Deo gratias, holdinge vppe. And f e ori&ons whiche schullen be 
seyde at euynsonge & atte matyns fey schul be seyde vnder f e 25 
same tune as orisons | at masse solempli. And in f e tyme of entre- [Fol. 84 V ] 
dite general 21 f e Sustrin schul sey alle maner offices distinctly & 
sympli wif owte note. Whan f e orisoun is seyde in ferial day, hit 
schal be seyde knelinge til per dominum & so schal f e orisons of 
owre ladi & of seynt Frauncesse, but f e orisoun after preciosa schal 3 
be seyde at alle tymis like as f e Pater noster schal be seyde. At 
f e bigyiminge of houres, & in f e ende whan fe pater noster ys 
seyde boof bifore lessons, & at f e blessinge of f e tabel, & whan 
graces schul be seyde in f e Freytour, fey schul nat knelin, & at 
f e preces of prime & of cornplyn & at f e su'ifragis of euensonge & 35 
matynnis, whoche been seyde in lowe & f e orisons sa whiche been 
songoun schul be songoun (schal be seyde) stondinge ; & whan f e 
preface 2S is seyde at masse, fey | schul knelyn at f e orisoun til [Fol. 85 r ] 
Dominus uobiscum, be it Feest or feri, & nat biforne & so for to 
* Some words must be supplied here, e.g. ' sche seyj> '. 

106 The Rewle of Sustris Menour esses enclosid 

stonde til Per dominum. And also after fat f e Offertorie 24 is 
songoun til orate., fratres, Ipe sustres schul turne hem riht towarde f e 
awter. And [whan] Orate is seyde, fey schul knelin til Per omnia, 
& f anne rise vppe & bowe hem towarde Ipe awter til Sanctus, & fan 
5 Ipe one syde of f e Quere agaynes f e of er & singe Sanctus, & after 
fat for to knelin duringe fe leuacioun of f e bodi of oure lorde Ihesu 
criste, & fan rise & worschip deuowtli on knees towarde f e awter, 
& fey schul dwelle greuelinge 25 til Per omnia at Pax domini. 
And whan Agnus del is seyde, \]>ey\ schal lye greueninge til fe 
10 Post eom[munions]?* And in festiuale dayes & Festis of ix lessons 

[Fol. 85 V ] & in masses of Requiem whoche been songyn in soche Festis, | fey 
schul nat make prosternacioun whan Sanctus is in seyinge, til f e 
leuacioun, but after f e leuacioun fey schul make prosternacion til 
Per omnia of f e Pater nosier. And of masse of Requiem for bodi 
15 present, of whom vigilies were done bi note in a Ferial day, fey 
schal do as in a festival day & so schul fey doo at masse of f e holi 
goste, of oure ladi, of seint Fraunces, and in massis for anniuersa- 
riis, & of of er seintis ; & in f is massis of seyntis fey schal sey 
Kyrie, Sanctus & agnus, as of Festival dayes, f ow it be feri. Item 
20 fey schul knelin in ferial dayes at Salue, sancta parens, & at Vent 
sancte spiritus, & in f e massis of f e holi goste & of oure ladi, & in 
lentyn at f e verse of f e tracte, 27 Adiuua nos deus salutaris nosier 

[Fol. 86 r ] & at Salue regina & A ue regina, & at fe bigyn|ninge of f e verse 
crux, aue, spes unica fyc. And in eche time & place fat fey 
25 knelin in ferial dayes, fey schul knelyn in festival dayes, except at 
preces of prime & of complyn. And also fat fe sustris been riht 
turnid eche agaynis ofer. In fe masse whan fe Offertori is 
songouu, fey schulle turne hem towarde f e awter, & after f e Sanctus 
also fat fey been vpriht, & at alle times fat any is songe in 
30 comune. Item alle times fat Gloria patri is seyde, fey schul bowe 
hem lowli, & at Te deum laudamus, whan Te ergo quaesumus is 
seyde, & at Credo whan Homo factus est, & at Gloria in excelsis, 
whan suscipe deprecacionem is seyde,& in f e endis of ympnis, & whan 
f e last verse saue one of Benedicite 29 is seyde. Item f e benisoun 

[Fol . 86 T ] after complin | schal be seyde bifore f e anteme & after f e anteme 
fey schul sey Fidelium. Item Te deum & Credo schal be songoun, 
as it was ordeynid at f e chapitre general. Item fey may singe som 
sequence 30 bi ordinaunce general, as fe ordinal makif mencioun 
except at f e masse of holi goste. 

The Reide of Sustris Menouresses endosid 107 

In lentoun pey schul sey pe Intrat Dum sanctificatus nos 
fuero * Item Ipe antemes Lux orta est iusto And to oper soche 
lyke instede of In eternum For alleluia, whan one Alleluia ys 
seyde . And also Rex gloriose & soche like may be songin some 
time for a Test solempne in pe note of Eterna lux. Oper ymnys 5 
schullin be songe in alle times after Ipe ordinal, whoche schal nat 
be chaungid for Auent ne for any Fest ne for lentoun. Item pey 
schul nat leuyn for masse of Ipe holi gost, or of oure ladi, ne for | any [Fol. 87 r ] 
oper masse, but for Ipe masse of Ipe ordinari schal be songe in his 
place & at Ipe riht houre. Inuitatoriis & alle oper verses & 10 
benedicite schul be seyde in alle times of one Suster in here sege in 
Festis of ix lessons & of iii lessoun, & jif it be dubbil fest or half 
dobel, ii Sustris schul sey pe verse bifor Ipe .awter. And in feriis 
bitwix paske & pentecoste, Alleluia in Ipe masse schal be seyde 
alwey wip n Sustres . And in festis of ix l[e]c[ions] & in sondayes, 15 
Inuitatori & pe last Respons & Alleluia in pe masse schal alle wey 
be songe of 11 sustris at Ipe lectroun in myddes of pe Quere. In 
Festis half dowble Ipe orison alwey schal be seyde in myddis of Ipe 
Quere at Ipe first euynsonge & at Ipe secunde & at Ipe matyns & in 
]>e in & vi | Respons & at Ipe gravel of Ipe masse & of 11 sustris & [Fol. 87 T ] 
pe smale verset, but jif pe chapitre at Ipe secunde euynsonge be 
chaungid. For a feste simple pan be it done as pey may godeli, 
& }if it may be atte euynsonge & at matyns pat per be had an 
cierge or a chaundel of wexe & especialli in half dowbel festis & 011 
sondayes. pese been pe half dobel Festis. 81 Seint lucy, seint 25 
Nicholas, Ipe fest of Innocentis, of seint Thomas of Caunterbiri, pe 
.vtas of pe Epiphanie, Ipe fest of seint Anneys, & of seint Agase, Ipe 
fest of Ipe holicrosse, Ipe apparicioun of michel, Ipe octanes of pe 
ascencioun & of seint Antony, & of seynt John Baptist, Ipe fest of 
seint Marie magdalene, pe translacioun of seynt thomas, & Ipe fest 30 
of seynt J Margare, Ipe vtas of seint laurence, & of seynt lowis, & Ipe [Fol. 88 r ] 
fest of Ipe decollacioun of seint lohn, Ipe vtas of Ipe Natiuite of oure 
ladi, the fest of seint Martin, Ipe fest of seynt Elizabep, & of seynt 
Cecile, & of seynt katerin, & pe vtas of corporis cristi. 

In festis douce dobles, 32 pe Abbes or sche whiche schal do Ipe 35 
office in pe ende of Ipe thrid stroke, bop of pe one euynsonge & of 
pe oper 33 & of Matyns, schal go to pe lectroun in myddis of pe 
Quere . And pere n sustris Congest apparaylid schullen holde 
eche of hem a cierge in here honde, pe one in pe riht syde, & pe 
* So the MS. : it should be Dum sanctificatus fuero in vobis. 

108 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

of er in f e lefte syde, & f e f rid schal holde a censer ful of fyre ; 
& as sone fat sche schal see a tokene made for to bigynne f e office, 

[Fol. 88 V ] fat sche turne here bifore here whoche schal bigynne | f e office & 
anone encense in times bifor fat f e signe be made, fan turne here 
5 towarde f e awter, And f e Quere f e one syde agaynes f e of er, 
whan f e Pater noster is seyde. pan anof er tyme schal f e signe 
be made & alle f e sustris schul ryse up & stonde riht towarde f e 
awter at Deus in adiutorium & singe also, and whan fey come to 
Gloria patri, alle schul bo we, f e one Quere agaynes f e other. Whan 
10 fey come to Sicut erat, sche whoche biganne fe office returne here 
to here sege, & fan f e cierges schullyn be I-sette bifore f e awter 
ordeynli. The chaunteresses schul stonde in middis of f e quere & 
byginne to gyder alle fat longif to here office. Sche whoche dof e 
f e Office schal biginne alle f e antemes of Magnificat & benedictus 

[Fol. 89 r ] & f e | Inuitatori & Benedictus schal be seyd of mi, & f e bigyn- 
ninges of f e Resf ons of matyns & alle f e smale Responses at alle 
f e houres schullen be seyde of n in myddes of f e quere bifore f e 
auter. Whan fey ensence in f e quere, $if it be a dowbel fest, fey 
schul first ensence here whoche doof f e office, And after f e chaun- 
20 teresse in myddes of f e quere, & fan fey schal eusence eche syde 
of f e quere, & fan fey schul ensence f e ceroferessis u * times or 
mi times at fe moste. In f is maner fey schul 5eue fe pees. 
Whan it is dowbel Feste or encense, fey schul biginne towarde f e 
semennere & f erfor to gyffe of f e pees. Whan fey schal sey f e 
2 5 orisoun, hit be seyde in myddis of f e Quere. Sche whoche doof f e 
office & of er wif cierges schullin be vpriht as longe fat f e orison 

[Fol. 89 T ] is aseyinge. & f e ebdomodarie schal | goo to here seege & sey fere 

This been f e Festis doubles. 34 Noel, Fest of seynt Stephen, seynt 

30 lohn, f e Circumsicioun, f e Epiphanie, f e fest of conuersioun of seynt 

poule, f e purificacioun, & alle f e festis of oure ladi, f e fest of seynt 

antoun, & his translacioun, Cathedra sancti petri, fe Fest of seint 

Mathee, of seynt Gregori, of seynt Benet, Pasch wif n dayes after, 

fe Fest of seynt Marke, fe fest of fe ascencioun, & of Pentecoste 

35 wif n dayes after, & of f e blessid Trinite, & of Corpus cristi, & 

* MS. ' IIII times or II times at )>e moste '. 

The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 109 

fe Fest of seint Fraunces, fe vtas of seynt barnabe, & seynt 
lohn Baptiste, of seint Petir & Paule, & f e commemoracioun of seynt 
paule, f e vtas of seynt Petir & seyiit paule, of seynt lames, & 
ad uincula sancti petri *, of seynt laurence, of seint Clare, & Ipe 
vtas of owre ladi, & f e fest of seint lowis bisschop, of seint [Fol. 90 r ] 
barth[olem]u, of augustyn doctor, of seint Matheu, of seint Misshel, 
of seint lerome, of seint luke, of seynt symon & seynt lude, Ipe 
Fest of alle halwyn, f e translacioun of seynt lowis, Ipe fest of decli- 
cacioun, & of seynt andrew. In alle f ese festis fey schal haue nil 
ciergis at masse, at euinsonge, & at matyns, n at Ipe auter & n 10 
at f e chandelabris. In alle of er times fey schal haue n ciergis. 
At masse, whan fat fey syngin in Ipe quere, Comunly f e one syde 
of f e quere schal turne hem to f e of er side, but at Ipe chapitres 
towarde f e awter, & at fe orisons whan fey bowen hem or makyn 
prostracioun & whan Ipe offertori is seyde, fey schul turne hem 15 
towarde fe awter til Sanctus> whan fey encline hem or make 
prostracioun. At orisoun, be it at masse or | houres, fey schul [Fol. 90 T ] 
stonde vp whan Per dominum ys in seyinge & turne towarde fe 
auter til amen ys seyde. Whan one suster seyf fe Inuitatori or 
biginnif an anteme or seyf a schort Response or Benedictus, sche 20 
schal turne here to Ipe awter, and one [syde] of f e Quere ageynis 
fe of er. Whan fey sey Flectamus ge\nua\, leuate, fey schullin 
turne hem to f e auter after leuate til f e ende of f e orisoun. At alle 
fe orisons fey schal do so, saue at fat whan fey seyf Dominus 
uobiscum, at fe whiche fey schal knelin til Per dominum. At 2 5 
alle f e orisons of f e masse & of houres fey schul turne to f e awter, 
& at fe orisoun after Asperges*'' 

Item whan masse of f e feri ys seyde in a Festiual day, alle 
maner obseruauns schal be kept as in a feri. Item whan f e office 
of owre ladi is seyde, fey schal | haue a cierge or a chaundel 3if it [Fol, 91 l ] 
may be. Item in f e ende of alle f e houres fey schul sey Fidelium 
anime $c. & pater noster, $if fere schal nat be bigune a masse or 
a houre anone after, & to make a signe wif prosternacioun & sey 
dominus det n[obis] s[uam] p[acem], but ^if it be after Complyn 
or after matyns, & fe sustris schul answere A men. Whan fey sey 35 
many houres to gederis 36 wif in f e couent or owte, fey schal sey 
Fidelium after eche houre & pater noster, & anone after bygynne 
anof er houre. Whan fey haf e I-smyten f e forme for to encline or 
* MS. 'scepetre'. 

110 The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

for to rise vp, fey scliul sey Fiddium anime cf*c. & whan fey 
haue seyde f e pater noster, fey schal seye Dominus det #c. 

In festis [of] ix l[e]c[ions] n Sustres schul sey Alleluia at fe lec- 
troun }if it be to sey ; jif f e tracte be longe, hit may [be] songen 
[Fol. 91 T ] of nil or of vi, fe one after | ofer. In festis half doubles & in 
sondayes n sustris schul say fe Grayel & inr Alleluia & mo 5if it 
lyke for to do. Whan fey syngif Alleluia in Feriallis dayes at fe 
first tyme wif owte endynge of f e newme 37 after f e verse, be it 
songyn til fe ful ende of Ipe newme. And whan Ipej singif n 
10 Alleluia, as in tyme of pasche, from f e vtas of pasche til f e vtas of 
Pentecost, }>ey schal singe Ipe firste Alleluia alle & his verse & it 
schal nat be bygonne ageyne bifor his verse ne after . pe secunde 
Alleluia schal be bigunne bifore Ipe verse & after. 

THe sustres schul kepin hem from goynge & comynge custumabli 
15 forwe Ipe Quere but bicause of necessite grete. 

The maner for to hoselin f>e sustres in massis conuentuales : first 

[Fol. 92 r ] Ipey schul sey her confiteor in here | places knelinge lowliche, & 

whan Ipe preest haf> assoylid hem beinge in here places, Eche of 

hem wif> lowe voys ones schal sey Non sum digna fyc. And fan 

20 anone n sustris schulle be redi for to holdin a towayle bifore }?e 

preest. And fe freris whoche schal hosel hem, schal first hosel fe 

mhustressis of ]> e awter, & after fat hem of f e Quere n & n to 

gydris of fe syde of fe quere, ordeynli alle with deuocioun & 

knelinge & fan for to drinke of f e chalis, and after fat for to 

25 returne in here places agayne. 

AT f e blessinge of f e tabel 38 at mete, but whan fey haue propre, 
Oculi omnium. Gloria patri. Sicut erat. Kyrieleison. Criste 
eleison. Kyrieleison. Pater noster ["#]. Et ne nos [$]. Set libera 
nos; & fan sey Or emus on hye wif Benedic nos, d[omine] & 
[Fol. 92 T ] [hec tua] dona $c., Blessing | wif here honde opynli; answere Amen. 
And anone after fe listresse schal seye lube d\omne\ benedicere. 
pe benisoun, Mense celestis $c. answere Amen. In fe ende of fe 
mete, after Tu autem & answere Deo gratias, fey schul sey 

The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 111 

Conjiteantur tibi $c. [^] Gloria patri. Sicut erat. And sche whoche 
liaf blessid f e tabel schal turne here to f e ymage, }if any be in f e 
freytoure, & seyinge on hye, & syngynge Agimus tibi gratias c. 
answer Amen, & after fat seyinge fe psalme Miserere mei, deus 
wif all fe versife 39 , Gloria patri, Sicut erat, Kyrieleison, criste 5 
eleison. Kyrieleison. pater noster. [^] Et ne nos wif alle fe 
versis & in f e ende ["$"] Sit nomen domini benedictum. [^] Ex 
hoc nunc & seying-e wif> owte oremus Retribuere dignare $c. 
\$ji] Amen. ["#] Benedicamus d{omino\. [^ ] Deo gratias. [~^] 
Fidelium anime per $c. answere Amen. Atte soper | Benedicite, [Fol. 93 r ] 
answere Dominus. [^] Edent pauperes $c. Gloria patri . Sicut 
erat . Kyrieleisori . Criste eleison. Kyrieleison, as it is seyde 
aforne after Tu a[utem] & answere. Deo gratias. ["^] Memoriam 
fecit . Gloria patri . Sicut erat . and after J?at Benedictus fyc., psalme 
laudate dominum $c.', & in alle times laudale schal be seyde atte 15 

Whan fey etif but ones on fe day, fey schul sey benisoun & graces 
as at soper wif f e psalme Miserere mei deus. This ordinaunce of 
f e Benysoun & of graces schal be kept in alle times excepte in festis 
whoche haf propre. 

The benisoun on Cristismasse day & bi fe vtas : Benedicite fyc. 
Verbum caro f[actum est], alleluia. [1^] Et habitauit in nobis, 
alleluia . Gloria patri . Sicut erat ; & in fe ende after Tu a[utem], 
["$"] Notum fecit d[ominus\, alleluia. [^ ] Salutare s[uum ], alleluia. 
Gloria patri. Sicut erat. On twelfef e daye and bi fe vtas, 25 
Benedicite. [ty] dominus. ["$"] Reges \ Tharsis $ insule munera [Fol. 93 T ] 
of^ferent] $c. [^] Reges ara[bum\ $c., alleluia. Gloria patri fyc. At 
fe ende of fe mete ["5^] Omnes de saba $c., alleluia. [J^] Aurwn 
thus defer[entes^ alleluia, psalrne Deus indicium. 

On schere f ursday 4 ^650^6* wif owte note & wif more seypjnge 30 
at fe mete Cristus factus est pro nobis o\bediens] usque ad mortem, 

* MS. A bsoluimus '. 

112 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

& fan schal be seyde Pater nosier lowli & wif ovvte am more 42 
blesse f e tabel, & wif [owtfe] lube d\omne\ & wif owte Tu a[utem]. 
And whan f e lessoun is redde & endid, & after fat fey haf smetyn 
vppon f e tabel, as it is vsid at f e lessons of f e dede, fan fey schul 
5 sey as biforne cristus factus est c. psalme Miserere wif owte 
Gloria patri, but f e Pater noster alle lowe ; & after wif owte 
seyinge Oremus, JKespice, quesumus domine $c. & wif owte pro- 
nunsinge Qui tecum $ Fidelium, but after f e orisoun fey schul seye 
Pater noster & nat sey Dominus det nobis. 

[Fol. 94 r ] In f is same maner graces schul be seyde on gode friday, sauynge 
fat fey schal ioyne to fe verse cristus factus, mortem a[utem\ 
crucis. On pasche euyn. ["#] Benedicite $c. ["#"] Vespere autem 
sdbbati, que lu[cescit] in prima sa\bbati~\, alleluia : venit maria 
magdalene $ altera maria vi[dere] se[pulcrum~\, alleluia. Gloria, 

15 patri, & in fe ende as bifore euynsonge, f e psalme Laudate, & fat 
may be seyde H times or more, til fey comyn to f e quere. On 
pasche day to f e soper in the saterday nexte, Benedicite Sfc. ["#] Hec 
dies quam fecit dominus, alleluia. [^] exsultemus fy letemur in ea t 
alleluia . Gloria patri . Sicut erat $c., . After rnete, Hec dies. 

20 psalme Confitemini, 

On ascencioun day & be alle f e vtas, ["^] Ascendit deus in iubila- 
cione, alleluia. [J^] Dominus in voce tube, alleluia. Gloria patri. 
Sicut erat tyc. ; After mete [T^] Ascendens cristus in altum : [^] 
captiuam d[uxii] c[aptiuitatem], alleluia . Gloria patri . Sicut erat 

25 $c. psalme Qmnes gentes. 

[Fol. 94 V ] On pentecost day & bi f e vtas. ["#] Spiritus domini repleuit 
orbem terrarum,alleluia, [J^] Et hoc quod continet omnia>sci[entiam~\ 
habet vocis, alleluia. Gloria patri . Sicut erat fyc. After mete ["$"] 
Repleti sunt o[mnes] s\_piritu\ s\_ancto~\, alleluia. [^] Et coe[perunt] 

30 loqui, alleluia. Gloria patri . Sicut erat . psalme Magnus dominus 
<f-c. And on f e Trinite sonday fey schul sey f e comune graces. 

THe auent of oure lorde alwey schal bigynne on f e sonday bitwix 

f e v. kal. of December & f e in Nones of december, & also general 

rule fat*fe mi times namyd ymber dayis schul be holdin fe first 

35 wednisday after f e Fest of seynt lucie & f e First sonday of clene lent 

& in pentecoste wike & after f e day of exaltacioun of f e holi Croys. 

The Reide of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 113 

And also a general rule, }if any fest of any apostle or euangelist or 
of seynt michel | or of lp e holi Croys, or any op er fest whoche haf [Fol. 95 r ] 
proper respons, or any other fest generalli double fal on a sonday, 
fere as none estori 43 shal be first entrid, f e offise shal be seyde of 
f e fest, & meniori of f e sonday at f e first & secunde euynsonge 5 
& at matyns & at masse ; & f e ix lessoun schal be of f e sonday. 
And whan a stori schulde be first entrid & may nat be I-putte oner 
vnto anof er sonday, f e fest so fallinge schal be deferrid til monday 
nexst after, & :jif fe stori whoche shulde be songyn in fat same 
sonday be deferrid in to fe nexst sonday after, fan fe fest shal be JQ 
songen in fat sonday wif a memori of f e sonday, except f e fest of 
alle halwyn. But ofer festes, whoche be nat doble, schul be 
deferrid til after, as it is forseyde. What maner festis of ix 
lessonis ofer fan | f e forseyde comyn on f e sonday schullyn be [Fol. 95 V ] 
deferrid vnto monday, except fe fest of seynt Thomas Cauriterbiri, 15 
& lp e festis of seynt Siluester, 44 of seynt leon, & seynt Eustache ; 
& }if in f e same Monday be anof er fest of ix lessons, hit schal be 
deferrid til tiewesday nexst after, & so schul lin ofer festis be 
seruid fat fallyn on ofer dayes, til fey been seruid, But }if it be 
a Fest of apostel or Euangeliste or anof er feste whoche haf 20 
propre Respons or ani ofer fest double generalli. And soche 
simple festis of ix lessons whoche may nat be seruid for soche 
maner festis biforseyde been seruid on fe morwe after. Also 
festis solempnis in ofer londes & places schullyn be seruyd in f e 
same dayes whiche fey fallin on. For f e courte of Rome doof in 25 
f e same maner. Whan, many festis | of ix lessons simple fallin [Fol. 96 r ] 
continueli togyder eche fest after ofer, at f e secunde euynsonge 
of fe first feste, J>ey schalle chaunge fe chapitre of fe fest folwinge ; 
but jif * Tp e fest whoche comyf after fallif on ojer of whom fey 
makef solempne memorie, at f e first euynsonge after f e first 3 
orisoun, f er schal be seyde a memorie of fat same fest, & after fat 
a memorie of fe fest biforne. And f is is for to vnderstonde, fat 
festis simples or lasse be fo festis whoche be nat dowblis, ne of 
f e holi Croys, ne of f e awngelis, ne of f e apostlis, ne of f e Euan- 
gelistis, ne festis solempnis in some londis & some placis. Eche 35 
vtas fat is nat double is lugid for a fest simple or lasse, excepte 
f e vtas of f e Epiphanie. Eche fest of ix lessons whiche is seruid 
on | Saterday, be it of f e apostlis or of er, whoche be nat doubles [Fol. 96 V ] 
* MS. adds ' in '. 

114 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses endosid 

except ]?e fest of Innocentis, f>ey schul chaunge at \>e chapitre of 
]?e sonday or of j?e fest or of J^e vtas ; wherfor f>at f>e seruise of 
sonday is lefte, & Ipey schul make meraori of Ipe fest biforne, but 
;if it be a dobel fest, Ipey schul make only memori of fe sonday. 
5 And whan any fest is seruid on J?e sonday, Ipey schal nat chaunge 
at Ipe chapitre at Ipe secunde euinsonge, but $if it be soche a fest 
on Ipe monday of whoche }>e seruise schal be seyde on f)e sonday, ;if 
it falle Iper vppon. Of a fest f>at is nat dowble whoche is seruid on 
Ipe monday, at euynsonge of Ipe sonday J>ey schul make memoiie 

10 Iper of wij> owte more, 3if it be nat a fest of apostle, or of euangeliste, 

[Fol. 97 r ] or anofer fest whoche haf> propre Kespons, | or a fest solempne 

generali in some londis & in some placis ; For soche maner of 

festis, \>ey schal chaunge Ipe chapitre at euynsonge, & make memori 

of Ipe sonday. At J?e secunde euynsonges of festis dowblis of ]>e 

15 holi Croys, of aungelis, of apostlis, of euangelistis, of festis solem- 
pnis generali in some londes & in some places, f>ey schul make 
memorie oneli of Ipe feste folwynge on Ipe morwe, }if it be nat a 
fest double or anofer feste whiche is equypollent, )?at is for to 
vnderstonde, a fest of f>e same dignite, or Ipe vtas of a fest whan 

20 J>ey chawngij) at Ipe chapitre of Ipe fest folwinge ; except Ipe festis 

whoche hauen vtas, whoche Festis comyn wif> in Ipe vtas of Noel, 

Ipe whoche hauyn secunde euynsonges; except f>e fest of translacioun | 

[Fol. 97 T ] of seynt Fraunceys, 45 of whom is made memorie whan it fallif> in 

f>e vigillis of assencioun, or Pentecost, but }if Ipe seyde Fest Trans- 

25 lacioun of seynt Frauncesse come on ]>e morwe of Ascensioun, fan 
memorie schal be seyde of Ipe translacioun of seynt Fraunceys, But 
$if so be f>at in som place f>e chirche of Ipe freris be halwid in f>e 
name of seynt Fraunceys ; For in soche places, & in soche chirchis 
Ipe euynsonge schal be seyde of seynt Fraunceys & memorie of f e 

3 o Ascencioun. And it is for to know Jat in ]>e vigil of a double fest, 
Ipe euynsonge schal al be seyde of Ipe dobel fest, & 5if in J?e same 
day be a fest nat dobel or sonday neyj>er of Ipe one ne of ]>e oj>er 
schal be made memori except in lentyn & in aduent, for in Ipo 
times memori schal be made of J?e sonday. And it is for to knowe 
[Fol. 98 r ] f>at at alle double Festis, Ipe \ antemys schullyn be doublid at euyii- 
songe & matyns wif> owte more. Also }if a fest of ix lessons come 
wifin any vtas wif in which vtas Ipey seyn of Ipe Fest jmt so fallin, 
Je euynsonge schal be seyde fro Ipe chapitre forf>e of fe Feste, 
whiche so falli)?, but :jif so be J?at f>e fest come on a monday or on 

The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 115 

f e morwe which e hath vtas ; For fan fey schul sey on f e sonday 
of f e vtas & memorie wif owte any of f e fest, }if it he nat a fest of 
apostle or of Euangelist, or a fest whoche haf propre Respons, or 
fest solempne generali In some londis & placis. But at Ipe secunde 
euynsonge of a lasse feste, fey schal sey fro f e chapitre forf e of 5 
Ipe vtas wif memorie of f e fest. And }if Ipe fest come on a sonday, 
hit schal he deferrid }if it haue none propre Respons, except Ipe 
fest of seynt leon | pope, whoche schal nat be deferrid. And hit is [Fol. 98 V ] 
for to vnderstonde fat in alle times fat wif inne any vtas, festis 
been seruyd euermore at euynsonge & matyns, Ipe last memorie schal 10 
be seyde of Ipe vtas. And hit is for to know fat wif inne vtaces alwey 
fey schal sey at Magnificat f e antym of Ipe secunde euynsonge of 
f e Fest. But at f e first euynsonge of f e vtas fey schal sey at 
Magnificat Ipe anteme vppon Magnificat in fe vigil of fe feste. 
Also }if a fest of in lessons come on f e daye folwinge after f e fest 15 
of ix lessons, at f e secunde euynsonge of f e fest [of] ix lessons, fey 
schul make memorie of f e fest of in lessons. But jif f er be none 
fest on fe day whoche comyf bifore f e day in whoche is fe fest of 
in lessons, fey schal chaunge | at f e chapitre at euinsonge, like as [Fol. 99 r ] 
of a fest of ix lessons. The Inuitatori schal be songen feriali & 2 
f e ympnis of f e fest at f e nocturne schullin be songyn wif his 
note. The psalmis feriallis wif here antemes, f e versetis & alle 
of er f inges schul be seyde of f e festis as of a fest of ix lessons. 
After None seyde fey schal riht nauht do, but like of festis of 
commemoraciouns. $\i ^ happe a fest of ix lessons to be differrid to 25 
a day of f e fest of in lessons, or fat a fest of m lessons come on 
a sonday of f e fest of in lessons, memori onli schal be made at f e 
first euinsonge & at matyns & at masse & at f e ix lessoun }if it 
haue propre, & ^if it haue none propre legende, f e ix lessoun schal 
nat be of f e fest of in lessons. Also jif a fest of whom | fey [Fol. 99 T ] 
makif onli a memori come on a sonday, of f e same feste schal be 
made memorie in f e masse & at f e firste euynsonge & at matyns 
in versicle & anteme & orisoun & in f e laste lesson, :jif it haue 
propre legende. And :jif it so be fat in J>at sonday, fey sey of 
a fest of ix lessons & memorie made of f e sonday, fan f e last 35 
lessoun schal be of f e Omeli of f e sonday, & f e propre legende of 
f e feste of conimemoracioun schal be lefte & f e memorie of f e sonday 
schal be made bifore f e memori of f e feste of commemoracioun. Also 
in festis whoche been seruyd in lentyn, alwey memori schal be 

i 2 

116 The Re^vle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 

made of f e ferie at euynsonge & at matyns & f e last lessoun, ;if it 

haue an omeli. At Ipe festis whiche comyn in aduent, fey sclial 

do in Ipe same maner, except felaste lessoun, sif fe fest come nat 

[Fol. 100 r ] in any | of f e ymber dayes. In none olper tyme fey schal nat make 

5 memorie of a ferie in Ipe day of a fest. 3\i any fest haf propre 

stori & is nat entier, but is fulfillid of f e comune sanctorum* fey 

schal bygynne at fe secunde Kespons. And generali alle times 

fat fey make none f inge of properte of a fest, fey schul make 

recours fe comune sanctorum. We make vtas of Noel, & in 

10 dayes nexst after Epiphanye, of pasclie, of Ascencioun, of Pente- 
coste, of seynt Antonye, of Corpus cristi, of Natiuite of seynt 
lohn Baptiste, of seynt peter & poule, of seynt laurence, of seynt 
Clare, of fe Assumpcioun of owre ladi, of seynt lowis, of fe Natiuite 
of owre ladi, & of seynt Fraunceys. Hit is for to vnderstonde 

15 fat Te deum laudamus schal be seyde anone after f e laste lessoun 

[Fol. 100 V ] from pasche | til f e vtas of pentecost, as wel in feriis as in festis, 

& in alle times fat fey redif ix lessons, except f e sondayes fro f e 

bigynnynge of auent til Noel & from septuagesme to pasche & in 

day of Innocentis, jif it come nat on a sonday. And also it is for 

20 to know fat whan fey redif nat ix lessons, fey schal rede in 
lessons & singe in responsis, except from f e day of pasche til f e 
Ascencioun & hi f e vtas of pentecoste & in f is fey singif n responsis, 
alle f ow fat m lessons be redde. 

And also it is for to know fat Gloria patri is alwey seyde at f e 

25 in respons, & at f e vi & at fe ix or last, except from f e sonday 

of f e passioun til pasche But in f is time fey schal sey Gloria patri 

in Festis whoche comyn fere. And in f e office [of] f e blessid virgin | 

[Fol. 101 r ] marie, owre swete ladi. And also it ys for to know fat in alle 

festis f e antemis of f e laudes schullin be seyde at prime, at tierce, 

30 at mydday, at none, bi order ; But euermore f e mi anteme is 
lefte ; & also fey schal sey hem at euynsonge, but jif f er be of er 
assignid. And it is for to know also fat in alle sondayis & alle 
festis of ix lessons & of m lessons, f e orisoun whiche is seyde at f e 
first euynsonge schal be seyde at alle of er houris except at prime 

35 & at complin & at euynsonges in lentyn, & in f e quater temps of 
f e aduent whar fey singif f e grete antymes, 46 fat is to vnder- 
stonde, sapiencia & of er. 

gofcc foerfee te ful complete bleggto be f e !)oli rtmte, fofriclje 
grace euer gouecne f is fjolt ovfcre in jerfite djavtte, 8men. 
* MS. adds ' &.' 


1 Urban. This is Urban IV (James Panteleon, Patriarch of Jerusalem). 
Elected August 1261, died October 1264. 

2 Alisaunder. This is Alexander IV (Raynaldo, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia) . 
Elected December 1254, died May 1261. 

3 Kwge of Frauns. This is S. Louis, otherwise known as Louis IX of 
France. He was brother of Bl, Isabella, who founded the monastery of 

* In owre monestre. Latin ' in vestro Monasterio *. 

6 And beene clepid bi fe name of sustris enclosid. Latin ' cum Sororum 
inclusarum vocabulo nuncupandam concessit '. 

6 And tverevpon . . . meneres. Latin ' Porro ex parte dicti Regis Nobis 
fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut dictam Regulam in aliquibus capitulis corrigi 
facientes nominationis ejus Minorum vocabulum adjicere de benignitate 
Apostolica dignaremur '. The later hand which has substituted l )>ey ' for 
' we ' has spoilt the sense. 

7 Symon Deutre. Latin * Simonem tituli Sanctae Ceciliae Cardinalem '. 
This is Simon de Bria, afterwards Martin IV, elected February 1281. Died 
March 1285. 

8 So that it was done as it was in name. Latin ' ut sicut re, ita et nomine ', 

9 We ordeynid Sf establissin. Latin ' duximus statuendum '. 

10 But jif so be . . .forseyde. The construction is here broken by misunder- 
standing of the Latin, ' Nisi de licentia, &c. ... ad aliquem locum ejusdem 
Religionis aliquae transmittantur : quibus ad ipsum Monasterium, a quo 
transmissae fuerint, reverti liceat &c.' 

11 Fole simplesse. Latin ' fatua simplicitate '. 

12 <f also bi any . . . resondble. Misunderstanding of Latin, c nisi forte 
cum aliqua interdum causa valde ration abili exigente alicubi fuerit de consilio 
discretarum Sororum loci per praetactos Ministros, vel ipsorum aliquem dis- 
pensandum '. 

13 To myne ladi seint Clare. This is an addition peculiar to the English 
version and without anything to correspond to it in the Bull. 

14 Of myne lorde J>e apostle Boneface. The Bull of Urban IV reads 
' regulam a Domino Alexandro Papa IV Ordini nostro concessam, prout a 
Domino Urbano Papa IV est correcta, et approbata '. See also Introduction, 
p. 69-71. 

15 P e V schul be hosid fy schod beringe none cordis fy they schulle nat go 
alone. Latin ' Soleas autem nunquam deferant, neque chordam '. 

16 Resticote. Latin ' superiores ttmicae '. 

17 Whiche thai be made wi]) coriouste. Latin ' nullatenus curiosam '. 

18 From ]>e resurrexioun . . . ladi, i. e. from Easter until September 8. 

118 Notes on the Rule of the Sustris Menouresses 

xx Pater nosier. In Latin Bull XXIV. 

20 So fat oure lorde . . . al J>inges. Latin ' cui [i.e. spirit of preyere] se 
debet Sponsa Christi mancipare '. 

21 Fest ofseint Fraunces, i. e. October 4. 

22 Fest of alle Halwyn, i. e. Allhallows, November 1. 

28 Ouer Hi times bifojere. Latin ' ne ultra quam sex vicibus'. 

24 Be assigned ... of ]>e ordre. Latin ' sine morae dispendio a suo 
regimine per Ministrum, seu per Visitatores Ordinis absolvatur '. 

25 This grate of yren . . . clothe. The cloth hangs within the grating. 
Latin 'Hujusmodi siquidem cratibus ferreis niger pannus interius apponatur '. 

26 Nat ani persone, what euer he be, for to entre. In the early days of the 
Order, the Friars Minor were allowed to visit the Houses of Clarisses, but the 
Bull of Quo elongati published in 1230 forbade them to do so without a special 
licence from the Pope. 

27 fie kynge in whoche Heine, &c. Latin ' rege Franciae '. 

28 AnoJ>er prelate, &c. The translation has run two sentences into one. 
Alius autem Praelatus, cui forte aliquando intrare a Summo Pontifice sit 

concessum, duobus honestia sociis sit contentus. Quod si forte pro bene- 
dictions . . . alicui Episcopo concessum fuerit . . . tribus aut quatuor sociis 
sit contentus.' 

29 A ladder, whoche . . . before Hi of J>e sustris. Latin ' Porta ... ad 
quam per scalam ligneam ascendatur, quae catena ferrea elevatur in sero; 
et cum clavibus firmetur et mane de die lucescente tribus praesentibus 
deponatur '. 

30 Chaungid. Possibly a mistake for ' chargid '. 

31 The msitoure whiche wole goo ferfier in his msitacioun. Latin ' visitator 
ad visitationem procedens, &c.' 

32 Whan }at he visitij> . . . seele. Latin ' Cum autem visitatur aliqua 
soror, extra Capitulum commoretur. Similiter Abbatissa resignato sigillo, &c.' 

33 An ouer alle Binges. This passage is hopelessly corrupt. Latin < Caveant 
autem Sorores et considerent diligenter praecipue in visitatione Sororum, ut 
nihil aliud, quam amor Divinus, et suarum Sororum correctio eas moveat ad 
loquendum. Illis autem, quae noluerint recognoscere culpam, quae ipsis 
impingitur, si excusare se voluerint, praesertim si gravia fuerint, audientia 
non negetur.' 

34 A nd wolyn fy monestyn. Text corrupt. Latin ' Volumus et attente 
monemus, ut ea, quae secundum vitae suae formam et regularem observantiam 
statuenda fuerint, et emendanda, publice, ac privatim Sorores, sicut meliua 
videbitur faciendum, Visitatori diligenter suggerant ; cui per obedientiam 
teneantur in iis, quae ad officium suum pertinent, infra praetactum tempus 
firmiter obedire '. 

36 fie office who ys longynge to }>e Abbesse. Latin ' quae ad Abbatissae 
officium pertinent '. 

86 The mynistris and [MS. whoche] J>e visitoures, &c. Latin * Minister 
autem et Visitator '. Note singular converted into plural in English version. 
The same occurs below (p. 96, 1. 4) to >e visitouris '. 

37 Procuratoure. The procurators were first formally instituted by the 
Bull of Innocent IV of August 6, 1247, Cum omnis. (Sbar. i. 482.) 

' Ad haec liceat vobis in communi redditus et possessiones recipere et habere, 

Notes on the Rule of the Sustris Menouresses 119 

ac ea libere retinere. Pro quibus possessionibus modo dicto pertractandis 
Procurator unus prudens pariter et fidelis in singulis Monasteriis vestri 
ordinis habeatur, quandocumque expedire videbitur, qui per visitatorem con- 
stitui et amoveri debeat, sicut viderit expedire.' 

But, as Pere Oliger points out, the Procurators can be shown to have 
existed at a much earlier date, even in connexion with S. Clare's House at 
San Damiano. 

88 Nothing in English to correspond to Latin : * Volunms etiam et attente 
monemus, ne aliquid eis praecipiant, seu praecipiatur sine magna utilitate et 
valde evidenti et manifesta necessitate.' 

89 Jouin at vien). Latin c Urbem Veterem ' (Orvieto). 

40 This is rule . . . perpetuelly for to endure. Amen. This paragraph is 
peculiar to the English version. There is nothing in the Latin Bull to 
correspond to it. 


[The following Notes do not aim at commenting on or explaining the 
multitude of liturgical practices mentioned in this Appendix. Much of the 
material cannot be explained by separate notes. For example, the regulations 
as to the transference of Feasts cannot possibly be explained without setting 
out the Rubrics in the Roman Breviary, which deal fully with them. The 
author has made much use in these notes of Charles Walker's Ritual,. 
' The Reason Why' (1908), and Addis and Arnold, Catholic Directory (1903) ; 
and he has received valuable assistance from the Rev. Dr. Francis Aveling.] 

1 Seynt damian. The Clarisses were frequently known as ' Damianites * 
or ' of Saint Damian ', because the mother-house of the Order was that of 
San Damiano, where S. Clare was placed by S. Francis about a year after 
her profession and where she lived until her death in 1253. 

2 So J>at fey may of here goodes couenabli be nustaynid. These regulations 
show a very marked departure from the ideals of S. Francis and S. Clare. 
Not only were the sisters to hold possessions, a thing quite repugnant to the 
principles which dominated S. Clare, but the number in any particular convent 
was to be determined having regard to the goods available for their support. 

8 He may nat be assoylid but onli of ]>e pope excepte peryl of deej>. For 
some offences it could be enacted that the guilty person could receive absolution 
from no one except the Pope, unless it were necessary to give him absolution 
when in imminent danger of death, lest he should die in mortal sin. Such are 
known as ' Reserved Cases '. The Bishops similarly have power of reserving 
cases so that absolution from them cannot be validly given by any ordinary 
confessor (Council of Trent, sess. xix, De Poenit. can. 11). 

4 Oure blessid predecessoures pope boneface J>e viii. These words indicate 
that these constitutions were issued by some Pope later than Boniface VIII. 

5 Dobel Festis. Certain feasts are known as ' double ' because the anthem 
sung at the Magnificat and Benedictus was ' doubled ', i. e. sung throughout 
before as well as after the Canticles on the major festivals. Other feasts are 
known as ' semi-doubles ', when half of the Antiphon was repeated before and 
the whole after the Psalm. 

The above is the more modern explanation of the terms. An older explana- 
tion was that double feasts were so called because on them it was necessary to 
say the office of the Feast as well as that of the Feria. 

6 Inuitatorie is the Anthem of the Psalm ' Venite' (Ps. 94), chanted before, 
after, and interpolated with the verses of the Psalm : it is chanted sti the 
beginning of Matins on all days except the Epiphany and the last three days 
of Holy Week. 

7 J>e ix respons, i. e. the words said antiphonally after the ninth Lesson, 
when the Te Deum is not sung. 

Notes on Appendix to Rule 


8 Jje leuacioun, i. e. the elevation of the Host in the Mass. 

9 Benedicite. This whole section will be readily understood only by com- 
paring it with the Benedictio Mensae in the Roman Breviary. The main 
lines of the Benedictio Mensne are followed, with some slight variations of 
local custom. 

10 lube domne. It is doubtful whether the words in MS. should be tran- 
scribed as ' lube domna ' or ' lube domne *. On the whole, the latter seems 
the more fitting as being the normal form. Moreover in one place [fol. 81 r ] 
it is contracted ' dne '. 

11 Tu autem. The versicle sung by the Lector at the end of the Lection at 
the close of the meal. In full it is ' Tu autem, Domine, miserere nobis '. 

12 be i/mage, i. e. the crucifix generally hung in the Refectory. 

13 <f* sey ' Agimus tibi' wi]> 'Benedictus dews in donis'. Here two alterna- 
tive forms are given: 'Agimus tibi, &c.' is said after Dinner (Prandium), 
and Benedictus Deus ' after Supper (Coena). 

14 Retribuere. The beginning word of the prayer : ' Retribuere dignare, 
Domine, omnibus nobis bona facientibus propter nomen tuum vitam aeternam \ 

15 Fidelium anime. The end of the office of Benedictio Mensae : it 
proceeds c per misericordiam Dei requiescant in pace '. 

16 And also at J>e colacioun. ' Collation ' meant originally conference or 
edifying books read aloud in the Refectory after supper and before Compline. 
This is a practice required by the Benedictine Rule. Subsequently the word 
acquired a derived sense, viz. the light refreshment taken before the reading 
of the ' collations '. Addis and Arnold (Cat A. Direct. 1903) refer to a statute 
of the congregation of Clugny (1308) where the word is used for this refresh- 
ment. In the present passage the office of Compline follows after ' collation ' 
quite properly. 

17 pe ebdomodari. These are the two sisters who for a week at a time lead 
the saying of the Hours in Choir. 

18 Antime, i.e. Antiphon, a verse sung before the Psalm or Canticle, giving 
the key-note of it. In the Mass, the Introit, the Offertory, and the Communion 
are regarded as Antiphons. 

19 Absolutions. These, each with its three appropriate ' Benedictions ', will 
be found at the beginning of the Breviary. The first, ' Exaudi Domine ? , is 
used in the first Nocturn of an office of nine Lessons and on Mondays and 
Thursdays for offices of three Lessons. The second, ' Ipsius pietas ', is used in 
the second Nocturn and on Tuesdays and Fridays. The third, ' A vinculis ', 
is used in the third Nocturn and on Wednesdays and Saturdays. They are 
said before the Lessons. 

20 Benisons. In an office of three Lessons when a Homily is read with the 
Gospel, the first Benediction is ' Evangelica lectio ', * and fe oj>er n ' are 
' Divinum auxilium ' and ' Ad societatem '. 

21 Entredite general. If the clergy of a country or town were under an 
interdict, the religious orders were not affected unless the interdict specifically 
included them. 

22 J>e orisons whiche been sonaoun schul be songoun (schal lie seyde} stondinge. 
The words in brackets indicate the alternative practice : the orisons can either 
be sung or said. 

23 Whan ]>e preface is seyde at masse. The preface comes immediately 

122 Notes on Appendix to Rule 

before the Sanctus in the Mass and begins ' Vere dignum et iustum est '. 
There are a number of Proper Prefaces for the several seasons. 

24 pe, Offertorie. Immediately after the Creed the celebrant places the 
Elements on the Altar with accompanying prayers. This is known as the 
Offertory. At the end of the Offertory the celebrant turns to the people and 
begins the ' Orate, fratres '. Then follow the secret Prayers for the day, 
ending with ' Per omnia saecula saeculorum '. 

26 J)ey scnul dwelle greuelinge til ' Per omnia' at ' Pax domini,' i. e. they 
remain kneeling from the Sanctus throughout the Consecration and Elevation 
(' duringe J>e leuacioun ') until after the celebrant has made the Fraction. He 
then says aloud ' Per omnia', &c., and ' Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum '. 

26 Jye Post communions, i. e. the Post-communion prayers for the day, said 
aloud by the Celebrant. They come at the end of the Mass, just before the 
' Ite, missa est '. 

27 In lentyn at fie verse of fie, trade. During the Procession before the 
reading of the Gospel, the choir sing the Gradual for the day, consisting of 
a few verses of Holy Scripture. The Gradual is followed by the chant known 
as the Alleluia, but in penitential seasons instead of the Alleluia is sung the 
'Tract', which consists of two or three verses of a Psalm. Le Brun explains 
the term Tract as something sung ' tractirn', i.e. without break or interruption 
of other voices, by the cantor alone. 

28 Preces of prime & of complyn. The ' Preces ' begin with Kyrie, Pater, and 
Creed ; and continue with versicles, responsories, and the Confession, first of 
the Hebdomodarius and then of the people, with the Absolution. There is 
no Confiteor in the ' preces ' of Compline. 

29 pe last verse saue one of Benedicite. This verse is * Benedicamus Patrem 
et Filium cum sancto Spiritu : laudemus et superexaltemus eum in saecula '. 

30 Sequence. A metrical composition which is sometimes attached to the 
Alleluia. An example of a Sequence is the Dies Irae of Thomas of Celano 
sung in Masses of the Dead. 

81 Half dobel Featis. Seint Lucy (Virgin and Martyr, Dec. 13) ; Seint 
Nicholas (Bish. and Conf., Dec. 6); Test of Innocentis (Dec. 28); Seint 
Thomas of Caunterbiri (Bish. and Mart., Dec. 29) ; >e vtas (octave) of 
Epiphanie (Jan. 13) ; Seint Anneys (Mother of Our Lady, July 26) ; Seint 
Agase ( Virg. and Mart., Feb. 5) ; Holicrosse (Sept. 14) ; Apparicioun of Michel 
(Archangel, May 8) ; Octaue of Ascencioun (eighth day after Ascension) ; 
Octaue of Seint Antony (Abbot, Jan. 24) ; Octaue of seynt John Baptist 
(July 1) ; Seint Marie Magdalene (July 22) ; Translacioun of Seynt Thomas 
(i.e. of Canterbury, July 7); Seynt Margare (Virg. and Mart., July 20); 
vtas of Seint Laurence (Mart., Aug. 17); Seynt Lowis (Conf., his feast is 
Aug. 25, but does not generally have an octave ; probably his octave (Sept. 1) 
was observed at Longchamp on account of his connexion with that House) ; 
Decollacioun of Seint John (Aug. 29); vtas of Nativite of oure Ladi 
(Sept. 15); Seint Martin (Bish. and Conf., Nov. 11); Seynt Elizabe}) (? Queen 
of Lusitania, widow, July 8); Seynt Cecile (Virg. and Mart., Nov. 22): Seynt 
Katerin (Virg. and Mart., Nov. 25); vtas of Corporis Cristi (eight days 
after Thursday following Trinity Sunday). 

82 Festis douce dobles, i.e. Feasts described in the Roman Kalendar as 
' Duplex primae classis '. 

Notes on Appendix to Rule 


38 Bofi of fie one euynsonge & of fie ofier. All Double Feasts have two 
evensongs, i. e. their observance begins with the evensong of the evening before 
(known as 'first vespers'), while the evensong on the day itself is called 
' second vespers '. 

34 Festis doubles. The first eight feasts named need no comment. Seint 
Antoun (Abbot, Jan. 17) ; Cathedra sancti Petri (it is doubtful whether 
Cathedra S. Petri Romae, Jan. 18, or Cathedra S. Petri Antiochiae, Feb. 22, 
is meant : both are ' Duplex majus ') ; Seint Mathee (Apos., Feb. 24) ; Seynt 
Gregori (presumably S. Gregory the Great, Pope and Conf., March 12) ; 
Seynt Benet (Abbot, Mar. 20) ; vtas of Seynt Barnabe (June 18) ; vtas of 
Seint Petir and Paule (July 6) ; Commemoracioun of Seynt Paule (June 30) ; 
Ad uincula Sancti Petri (MS. Sancte Petre, Aug. 1); Seynt Laurence (Mart., 
Aug. 10) ; Seint Clare (Virg., Aug. 12) ; Seint Lowis Bischopp (i. e. of 
Toulouse, Aug. 19) ; Seint Bartholemu (Apos., Aug. 24) ; Augustyn, doctor 
(Aug. 28) ; Seint Misshel (i. e. Dedicatio S. Michaelis Archangeli, Sept. 29) ; 
Seint Jerome (Pres. and Conf., Sept. 30) ; Translacioun of Seynt Lowis: no 
prescribed date for this : probably a local cult. 

35 Asperges. The short service before the Principal Mass when the cele- 
brant makes a procession and sprinkles the holy water. 

36 Whan J>ey sey many houres to gederis. Sometimes several ' hours ' were 
said one immediately after the other : this is sometimes called saying them 
' by accumulation'. 

37 Newme. A term in mediaeval music theories denoting generally either 
a kind of melody or a notational sign. The Catholic Encyclopaedia describes it 
thus : ' Applied to a melody, the term means a series of tones sung without 
words, generally on the last vowel of a text. . . . The usual place of such 
neums is, in responsorial singing, especially at the end of the Alleluia which 
follows the Gradual of the Mass. In the later Middle Ages, however, from 
about the twelfth century onwards, the custom grew up of adding neums, 
definite formulae, one for each mode, to the office antiphons.' Cath. Ency. x, 
pp. 765-773 (H. Bewerunge). 

38 pe blessinge of fie label. This is to some extent a repetition of what has 
already been prescribed earlier on fol. 79-81 ; but it is given more in detail 
here, and includes the special Benedictions for the chief Festivals. 

39 ' Miserere mei dens ' wifi alle fie versis, i. e. the whole of the Miserere is 
said antiphonally. 

40 Sey ing e wifi owte or emus. The word ' Oremus ' is omitted at this point 
before the ' Retribuere '. 

41 Schere fiursday, i.e. Maundy Thursday, the Thursday in Holy Week. 

42 Lowli & wifiowte ani more. Breviary ' Totum secreto . . . sine pronun- 
tiatione aliqua '. 

43 pert, as none estori shal be first entrid, i. e. in which no ' history ' shall 
be first entered, that is to say, in which the lesson is not the beginning of 
a historical book. 

44 Seynt Siluester (Pope and Conf., Dec. 31) ; Seynt Leon (Pope, Conf., and 
Doct., April 11) ; Seynt Eustache (i.e. SS. Eustace and his companions, Mart., 
Sept. 20). 

45 Fest of translacioun of Seynt Fraunceys, May 25. The nominal date of 
the Translation was May 25, 1230, but it is practically certain that the actual 

124 Notes on Appendix to Rule 

Translation of the Saint's remains to the church of San Francesco had been 
carried out by the Minister General, Elias of Cortona, several days earlier. 

46 Grete antymes. The so-called ' great Autiphons ' are sung at Evensong 
before and after the Magnificat on the last eight days of Advent, that is from 
December 16 onwards. They were formerly called the O's, as each Antiphon 
began with the word 0. The first of them, on Dec. 16, is ' Sapiencia ', and 
is so marked in the Kalendar. 


[For A Generall Rule to teche etiery 
to serve a lorde 

man that is willy nge for to lerne 
or mayster.~\ 

Amener, almoner, 13. 6. 

Assay, the formal tasting of a dish by 

a servant, to see if it is poisoned, 

14. 30. 


Coster, a wall-hanging, 11. 6. 

Dogdrawght,dogdrawe, an unknown 

fash, possibly cod, 17. 4. 
Doucet, a sweet dish (see note). 

17. 12. 
Durmant, a fixed table, 13. 28. 

Ewer, ewerer, the official in charge 
of arrangements for washing, 11. 

Ewry, the place where ewers, towels, 
etc., were stored, 11. 25. 


Hallyng, tapestry or painted cloth 

for a hall, 11-5. 
Herberoure, guest-master, enter- 

tainer,15. 17. 


Kynde, natural, proper, etc., 11. 6, 

Leehe, slice, a dish consisting of 
sliced meat, 17. 15. (0. F. lesche.) 

Lese pen, unless, 17. 12. 

Leuereys, retainers, servants in 
livery, 11. 14. 


Panter, the officer in charge of the 
pantry (originally 'baker'), 11. 21. 
Pece, cup, 17. 20. 


Sewe, serve, 12. 21. 

Sewer, a sewer, waiter, 11. 24. 

Sprottes, sprats, 17. 4. 

Surnape, a second cloth laid on the 

table immediately before the lord, 

13. 30. 


Taill, tally, reckoning, 11. 14. 
Take, deliver, 13. 1 3" 
To, till, 12. 18. 

Trenchour, trencher of bread (see 
note), 13. 4. 

. V 

Vnto, until, 12. 5. 
Voyder, tray for removing broken 
meats, etc., 13. 6. 


Woke, week, 11. 15. 


[For The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys and The Beivle of Suztris 
Menouresses enclosid~] 

Algatis, in any case, 87. 16. 

Alle Halwyn, All Saints, Allhallows, 

86. 19. 

Apostle, Pope, 89. 26. 
Assentement, assent, agreement, 88. 

Assigned, transferred, removed, 87. 


Assoyle, absolve, 88. 21. 
Assoylid, excused of, deprived of, 

94. 16. 
Atrete, slowly without break 

( = tractim), 104. 34. 
Auenaunt, suitable, 103. 25. 
Auenture, chance, 88. 23. 
Avale, let down. 92. 7. [OF. avaler.] 
Axen, demand, 94. 16. 
Ayenst, against, 48. 25. 

Besili, carefully, diligently, 54. 22. 
Bigginge, buying, 96^ 1 1 . Sourfait 

of bigginge, excessive buying. 
Bihote, promise, 83. 32. 
Boundes, bands, sashes, 49. 13. 
Brennyng, burning, 47. 13. 
Brent, burnt, 94. 30. 
Buystouse, rough, coarse, 84. 19. 


Catallis, chattels, possessions, 96. 7. 

Cawcion, bond, security, 48. 16. 

Ceroferessis, acolyte, taperer, 108. 2 1. 

Chausures, shoes, 85. 4. 

Chesiple, chasuble, 91. 4. 

Chesyn, choose, 95. 24. 

Cierge, candle, 107. 24. 

Clepid, called, 98. 12. 

Clerete, honour, 90. 5. 

Clogere, belfry, 104. I. 

Cloos, cloister, 104. n. 

Conge, leave, permission, 82. 15. 

Congruently, suitably, 52. 25. 

Continementis, holdings, property, 

81. 5. 

Couenable, suitable, 82. 35. 
Couent, convent, 82. 29, etc. 

Decollacioun, beheading, 107. 32. 
Demurid, demure, 84. 12. 
Denounsid, reported, 98. 25. 
Depart, bestow, impart, 47. 31. 
Desseuerid, separated, 87. 25. 
Disclawnder, slander, 90. 34. 
Distreyne, constrain, compel, 100. 29. 
Dortre, Dortoure, dormitory, 85. 
7, etc. 


Efformid, informed, 100. 13. 
Enfayrid, adorned, 81. u. 
Enpeyre, injure, impair, 100. 2. 
Ententifeliche, carefully, 87. 23. 
Entredite, interdict, 105. 26. 
Equypollent, of equal rank, 114. 18. 
Esloignid, extended, protracted. 93. 


Estori, history, 113. 4. 
Estreyteli, strictly, 89. 24. 
Exchew, eschew, 52. 8. 
Eyrin, eggs, 86. 25. 

Pamilieres, members of the house- 
hold, servants, 94. 17. 

Fayrid, adorned, 81. 24. 

Feri, an ordinary week-day (not a 
festival), 103. 15. 

Fermeri, infirmary, 89. 20. 

For as mochel, forasmuch, in 
order that, 87. 25. 

Forbarrid, forbidden, 89. 1 6. 

Freytoure, refectory, 102. 22. 

Gasingis, spectacles, 49. 18. 
Goget, Guyches, wicket, grating, 

91. 36. [Fr. guichet.] 
Grayel, gradual, 107. 20. 
Greuelinge, prostrate, 106. 8. 
Greueninge, prostrate, 106. 9. 


Halwid, consecrated, 114. 27. 
Heilfully, in a wholesome or salutary 
way, 47. 26. 

Glossary to the Thirde Order, and Sustris Menour esses 127 

Hele, health, 86. 33. 

Hende, gentle, gracious, 81. 10. 

Heue, lift, 89. 2. 

Holpyn, helped, 99. 6. 

Houseled, communicated, 50. 35. 

Importabel, unbearable, 100. 23. 
Intrat, introit, 107. I. 
I-putte ouer, transposed, 113. 7. 
luyelles, jewels, 99. 3. 

Jangeling, disputing, 52. 10. 

Kepe, care, 90. 31. 

Leafull, lawful, 48. 31. 
Lefolli, lawfully, 92. 3. 
Legacioun, bequest, 99. 2. 
Lentoun, Lent, 107. I. 
Leuacioun, elevation, 102. 19. 
Leueli, with leave, 82. 30. 
Listresse, woman-lector, reader, 



Meke, humble, plain, 49. 4. 
Menours, Meneres, Menouresses, 

Franciscan Friars or Clarisses, 81. 

2, etc. 

Meuabel, movable, 99. 30. 
Mo, more, 110. 6. 

Monestyn, admonish, exhort, 94. 7. 
Mow, must, 84. 32. 
Myngin, remember, 94. 10. 

Nameli, especially, 87. 17. 
Neforpat, nevertheless, 101. 4. 
Noysed, rumoured, 48. 5. 
ISTyije, draw near to, 82. 5. 

Obey, bow, 105. 9. 

Obeyinge, bowing, doing obeisance, 

104. 22. 

Obite, death, 53. 19. 
Owers, hours, 51. 8. 
Owte take, except, 86. 18. 
Owtrage, superfluity, excess, 84. 17. 

Pasche, Easter, 116. 21. 
Pontificacion, papacy, 55. 16. 
Possessioners, proprietors, 47. 27. 
Promitte, promise, 48. 23. 
Purposid, put forward, present, 93. 

Recordings, remembrance, recollec- 
tion, 81. 8. 

Keddure, strictness, 82. I. [N. F. 

Befestid, refreshed, 86. 8. 

Refreytouresse, the sister in charge 
of the ' refrectorium ' or refectory, 
102. 32. 

Reine, kingdom, 89. 30. 

Remew, remove, 82. 30. 

Repreue, reprove, 83. 27. 

Repreueable, improvable, 83. 28. 

Resticote, upper part of tunic, 84. 

Reuestrid, arrayed, 91. 8. 

Rihtwisnesse, righteousness, 93. 7. 

Rowndid, cut round, 85. 22. 


Sad, grave, 92. 13. 

Sadli, seriously, 101. 30. 

Schet, shut, 91. 36. 

Schlugri, laziness, sloth, 86. 3. 

Sege, place, seat, 107. IT. 

Seint Croyse, Holy Cross, 104. 7. 

Skerid, frightened, 86. 4. 

Sogettis, subject, 95. 19. 

Somenerere, Semenere, apparitor, 

102. 35. 

Stabelriche, constantly, 86. i. 
Stamyn, an open woollen fabric, 84. 

15. [Fr. estamine.J 
Stawnche, quench, 86. 5. 
Stere, guide, direct, 52. 14, etc. 
Storer, treasurer, 52. 25. 
Suen, follow, 87. 30. 

To-dite, dress, 86. 27. 
porwe, through, 110. 15. 
Treyne, pause, 104. 38. 

Vtas, octave, 107. 31, etc. 


Warnid, furnished, 94. 5. 
Werre, war, 82. 23. 
Wytt, know, 55. 12. 

Y;en, eyes, 84. 25. 
Ymage, crucifix, 103. 4. 
Ympnis, hymns, 106. 33. 

3ouin, given, 96. 33. 


FIFTEE^TH-century courtesy book. BQX