<SUED TO THE PHILOLOGICAL
"; II COURTESY BOOK
F.DITED FROM THE MS. BY
R. W. CHAMBERS, M. A., I.rrr.D.
EDITED FROM THE MS. BY
WALTER W. SETON. M.A.
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10 lea tCtx I DC^ . Xo
<Jfif toft- <*n tor jj d^tiri^g jxu!t
EDITED FROM THE MS. BY
R. W. CHAMBERS, M.A., LITT.D.
Cto0 Jfiftjemt^-dE^nteg Jframisrait
EDITED FKOM THE MS. BY
WALTER W. SETON, M.A.
PUBLISHED FOR THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY
BY KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., LTD.,
68-74 CAKTEB LANE, B.C.
AND BY HUMPHREY MILFORD, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS,
AMEN COBNEB, E.G.
M DCCCC XIV
OXFORD : HORACE HART
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY
PROFESSOR ROBERT PRIEBSCH
A GENERALL RULE TO TECHE EUERY MAN
THAT IS WILLYNGE FOR TO LERNE TO
SERVE A LORDE OR MAYSTER IN EUERY
THYNG TO HIS PLESURE
INTRODUCTION ......... 3
TEXT ' . . .11
NOTES ....... ... 18
THE THIRDE ORDER OF SEYNT FRANCEYS, FOR
THE BRETHREN AND SUSTERS OF THE
ORDER OF PENITENTIS
THE REWLE OF SUSTRIS MENOURESSES EN-
BIBLIOGRAPHY ......... 78
NOTES ON THE RULE OP SUSTRIS MENOURESSES . .117
NOTES ON APPENDIX TO RULE . . . . .120
GLOSSARY FOR THE THIRDE ORDER AND THE REWLE OF
SUSTRIS MENOURESSES ENCLOSID . . . .126
t0 tdjxe mrg man lljat is toillgnge
f0r to Jenu, id swrfce a J0rfre 0r tnagsier
in tmt tn t0 ' is
EDITED FROM A XV^H CENTURY MS.
IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM
(MS. AddL 37969)
INTRODUCTION AND NOTES
R. W. CHAMBERS, M.A., D.Lit.
IT is almost exactly four years since Dr. Furnivall, during his
last illness, asked me to edit the first of the tracts in this volume.
' A month ago,' he wrote, ' Quaritch sent me a little 1 5th-century
MS. of twelve pages (I think) on the duties of the Marshal and
other officers of a big household. Thinking it interesting and
unique, I sent it on to Dr. Warren, and he, agreeing, bought it for
the British Museum.'
MS. Addl. 37969, as it now is, consists of nine leaves. It con- i
tains, besides this part detailing the duties of officials, various
memoranda about wood carried partly at Talatun (? Talaton in
Devon), some medical recipes in English and Latin, and a vellum
fragment which was formerly in the binding, and contains
some fifteenth-century accounts. But the only thing of much
interest is the ' generall Rale to teche euery man that is willynge
for to lerne to serve a lorde or mayster in euery thyng to his
plesure'. So far as I can gather, Dr. Furnivall was right in
describing this tract as unique ; no other treatise seems to corre-
spond to it closely in detail. But it is one of a very numerous class
of which, in the opening years of the Early English Text Society,
Dr. Furnivall made a special study. During the sixties he edited
for the Society three volumes of Books of Courtesy, Books of
Nurture, Books of Carving, Babies' Books, and other treatises
illustrating English manners.
It was during the fifteenth century that this type of book *
flourished peculiarly in England : in other countries in Italy and
Provence it is found much earlier. It has been stated that the
early Italian courtesy books ' are few and of little mark V But
probably there was a considerable body of Italian courtesy books
which has been lost : 2 and, in any case, some early and important
1 Italian Courtesy Books in the Sixteenth Century, by James W. Holme,
in Mod. Lang. Rev., v, 1910, p. 145.
a Italian Courtesy Books, by Jessie Crosland (Mod. Lang. Rev., v,
Italian books of manners have been preserved. Thomasin von
Zirklaria, the author of the South German treatise Der Walsche
Gast, was an Italian. Der Walsche jGfast, though not essentially
a courtesy book, contains the elements which go to make one.
And Thomasin tells us that he had written in welhschen a book of
courtesy, buoch von der hiifscheit. 2 Then there is Ser Brunetto
Latini, who wrote much concerning courtesy in his Tesoretto, the
little book in which he treated of all things appertaining to the
Above all, long before any courtesy book appeared in English,
whilst Dante was still a young man, ' Fra Bonvexino da Riva ' wrote
his Zinquanta Cwrtexie da Tavola, ' Fifty rules of courtesy for the
table.' In many ways these rules remind us of the English
courtesy books of two centuries later. Cats and dogs are not to
be fondled at meals :
' The third rule after the thirtieth : not to stroke with the hands, so long as
thou eatest at the table, either cat, or dog. It is not allowed unto the
courteous to stroke animals with the hands with which he touches the dishes.' s
Compare this with the English rule :
Where-sere J>ou sitt at mete in borde,
Avoide Je cat at on bare word ;
For yf )x>u stroke cat o]>er dogge,
J>ou art lyke an ape tey3ed with a clogge. 4
Yf J>y nown dogge ]x>u scrape or clawe,
J>at is holden a vyse emong men knawe. 6
Pley ]>ou not with a dogge ne jit with a cate
Before Jri better at J>e tabull, ne be syde ;
For it is no curtasy be ]>ou sure of J>at
In what place of crystendome ]>at ]>ou dwelle or byde.*
1 Der Walscke Gast, 11. 1174 etc.
a By ' welsh ' Thomasin probably means ' Italian ' (see Schonbach, Anfange
des Minnesanges, 62) though his editor has interpreted the word as ' French '
(Der Walsche Gast, ed. Efickert, p. 531).
3 La terza poxe la xxx a : no brancorar con le man,
Tan fin tu mangi al descho, ni gate, ni can ;
No e lecito allo cortexe a brancorare li bruti
Con le man, con le que el tocha li condugi.
4 Sloane Boke of Curtasye, 105-8.
8 Same, 87-8. But this second rule is a mistranslation of the Latin original.
Stems puer ad mensam, 143-6 (MS. Ashmole, 61).
Or again, take Bonvicino's rule that a man should keep silence
whilst his companion is drinking, and not disturb him with
questions. 1 With this compare the English Urbanitatis :
Also when JHJU sest any man drynkyng
That taketh hede of ]>y karpyng,
Soone anon ]>ou sece ]>y tale
Whejmr he drynke wyne or Ale. 8
or again :
And if pou be in any place wer J)i better is drynkyng,
So J>at )>e coppe be at his hede, odour with ale or wyne,
Doctour Paler seys ]>ee ]>us, and byddes J>ee sey nothing,
For brekyng of Jri curtasy at syche a curtas tyrne. 3
If the drinker is a great man, good manners demanded that
those near should refrain from eating and drinking, as well as from
speaking. If your neighbour is a bishop, says Bonvicino, you
must not eat* or raise your bowl 6 so long as he is drinking.
Compare the English rule :
And yif thi lord drynk at J>at tyde,
Drynk JHJU not, but hym abyde ;
Be it at Evyne, be it at noone,
Drynk ]>ou not tylle he haue done. 6
Yet here we see an essential difference between the Italian and
the English instructions. The Italian writer thinks of guests
dining together: the Englishman is thinking of the demeanour
due from a subordinate to his lord. This distinction does not hold
good universally. Once, at any rate, Bonvicino speaks as if he were
addressing those who serve. 7 But what is occasional in the Italian
is almost universal in the English writers; they address youths
who are supposed to be serving in the households of noblemen.
That a boy, instead of growing up at home, should be sent into
some other house to learn manners, was, of course, an ancient
1 Rule 37.
2 11. 61-64 (MS. Cotton Calig. A. ii.).
8 Stems puer ad mensam, 235-8 (Ashmole, 61). Cf. Babees BoJte, 92-3.
4 Mangiando apresso d'un vescho, tan fin ch'el beve dra copa
Usanza drita prende : no mastegare dra bocha.
Chi fosse a provo d'un vescho, tan fin ch'el beverave,
No di' leva lo sb napo, over ch'el vargarave.
6 The Lytylle Childrenes Lytil Boke, 69-72.
7 In his thirtieth and thirty -first rules, recommending the use of a pocket-
custom of chivalry. But it seems to have had greater vogue, and
to have endured longer, in England than abroad. Young Thomas
More served Cardinal Moreton as a page, notwithstanding the con-
siderable distinction to which his father had attained ; and Scott,
in his essay on Chivalry, records a survival of this practice into the
eighteenth century in the case of a ' gentleman bred a page in the
family of the duchess of Buccleuch and Moninouth, who died
during the reign of George III, a general officer in his Majesty's
. service V And, in the form of apprenticeship, this custom of
sending boys away from home was as prevalent in England among
the middle as among the upper classes. It aroused the hostile
comment of foreigners, as is shown in an Italian account of
English customs, written about the year 1500 :
I The want of affection in the English is strongly manifested towards
' * their children ; for after having kept them at home till they arrive at the
age of seven or nine years at the utmost, they put them out, both male*
and females, to hard service in the houses of other people, binding them
i generally for another seven or nine years. A-nd these are called appren-
tices, and during that time they perform all the most menial offices ; and
i few. are born who are exempted from this fate, for every one, however
rich he may be, sends away his children into the houses of others, whilst
he, in return, receives those of strangers into his own. And on enquiring
their reason for this severity, they answered that they did it in order that
' their children might learn better manners. But I, for my part, Celieve
that they do it because they like to enjoy all their comforts themselves,
and that they are better served by strangers than they would be by their
own children. Besides which the English being great epicures, and very
avaricious by nature, indulge in the most delicate fare themselves, and
give their household the coarsest bread, and beer, and cold meat baked on
Sunday for the week, which, however, they allow them in great abun-
dance. If they had their own children at home, they would be obliged
to give them the same food they make use of for themselves. 2
The young man ' willing to learn ', to whom the English book of
manners is addressed, is accordingly assumed to be in the service
of some lord : at the same time he is often himself assumed to be
of good birth. Such books generally combine instructions as to
deportment with practical hints as to serving.
Perhaps the most important of these books is the Boke of
Nwrture which goes under the name of John Russell. But the
1 Miscellaneous Prose Works, 1834, voL vi, p. 55.
2 A Relation of the Island of England, trans, by C. A. Sneyd. London,
1847 (Camden Society).
Sloane Boke of Curtasye is nearer akin to the ' Generall Rule '
which is here printed : its first two sections give general
instructions as to conduct and demeanour : in the third part the
duties of the different officers are defined, in a manner which affords
many close parallels to the ' Generall Rule '. And practical hints
are given which bring vividly before us the picture of the page
serving his lord, placing slices of bread under the hot dish to avoid
burning his hands :
Yf Jx> syluer dysshe wylle algate brenne,
A sotelte I wylle Je kenne,
Take ]>e bredde coruyn and lay by-twene,
And kepe ]>e welle hit be not sene ;
I teche hit for no curtayse
But for J>yn ese.
A duller work, and more nearly parallel to the ' Generall Rule ',
is the treatise ' For to serve a lord V
But the closest parallel of all is to be found in a paper roll many
yards in length, printed at some uncertain date in the sixteenth
century. A copy of this is in the Bodleian, and no other is known. 2
This roll gives an account of the proceedings at the feasts held to
celebrate the enthronization of George Neville as Archbishop of
York, in 1466, and of William Warham as Archbishop of Canter-
bury, in 1504.
The Neville feast has been described as ' the greatest entertain-
ment that ever subject made ', 3 and some account of it is given in
Godwin's De Praesulibus Angliae.* Earth, sea, and air appear to
have been ransacked for victims of Neville's archiepiscopal hospita-
lity. Of more common dishes, we read that there were served 4,000
woodcocks, 4,000 ducks, 4,000 pigeons, 4,000 rabbits, and 3,000
geese. But what makes this ecclesiastical gluttony of importance
to us is the elaborate instruction as to the serving of the feastf
which is appended. Nowhere else, so far as I am aware, is so
1 Printed in the Relation of the Island of England, trans, by C. A. Sneyd,
1847 (Camden Society), and in FurnivalTs Early English Meals and Manners
(Early English Text Society), p. 349, &c.
2 Reprinted (in part) in Hearne's Lelandi Collectanea, vol. vi, 1770, and
in Warner's Antiquitates culinariae, 1791.
3 Drake, Eboracum, London, 1736, p. 444.
* Cambridge, 1743, p. 695.
near a parallel to the ' Generall Rule ' to be found. Most of the
relevant passages I have quoted fully in the notes.
I have to thank Mr. John Hodgkin for having drawn my atten-
tion to this document; and Mrs. Crosland for valuable informa-
tion, which I had overlooked, as to Spanish books of courtesy.
And I ought to apologize for having been so long in carrying out so
light a task. The delay enables this tract to be printed with two
others, which, like it, throw that light upon the manner of life of
our ancestors which always gave such keen joy to Dr. Furnivall.
The following books contain matter which illustrates the text
printed here :
A Collection of Ordinances and Regulations for the Government of the Royal
Household. London, printed for the Society of Antiquaries, 1790.
The Regulations and Establishment of the household of Henry Algernon
Percy, the fifth earl of Northumberland, 1770.
Warner (Richard). Antiquitates culinariae, or curious tracts relating to the
culinary affairs of the Old English. London, 1791.
Early English Meals and Mannert. By J. F. Furnivall. London, 1868
(E.E.T.S.). [Contains, amongst other tracts, Russell's Boke of Nurture,
the Sloane Boke of Curtasye, The Babees Book, Urbanitatis, Slans Puer
ad Mensam (Lambeth MS.), The Lytylle Childrenes Lytil Boke, For to
serve a Lord.]
Caxton's Book of Curtesye. Ed. by F. J. Furnivall. London, 1868 (E.E.T.S.).
A Book of Precedence, etc. Ed. by F. J. Furnivall. London, 1869 (E.E.T.S.).
J. Lelandi Collectanea, ed. T. Hearnius, Oxonii, 1715, Londini, 1770. 6 vols.
[Contains the account of the Neville Feast.]
Henry of Aragon, Marquis of Villena. Arte Citoria, 6 tratado del arte
del cortar del cuchillo. Madrid, 1766.
A GENERALL RULE
TO TECHE EUERY MAN TO SERVE A LORDE
A generall Rule to teche euery man that is
willyngefor to lerne to serve a lorde or maystev
in euery thyng to his plesure.
f l^he marshall in the mornyng ought to come into f>e hall and se
JL pat it be clene of all maner thyng pat m#y be fond vnhoneste
Iper In : J>e stolis trestelles or elles formys yef ony be, Jxzt J?ey be set
in ther owne places at melis at }>e bordes, and afore and aftur melis
in corners farthest from encombrauwce : and all J>e hallynges and 5
costers dressed in per kynde places and shaken or betyn wyth
Roddes yef nede be : and \>ai none houndes be abydyng in fe halle >
from morne to evyn. And to parforme }>ese thynges seyd afore he
shall charge J>e vsshere and J?e grome of the hall Iper wyth.
Also in wynter tyme J>e seyd grome by Je ouersight of ]?e vssher 10
shall bryng into pe hall as moche wode and colis as shall be spent >
dayle in the hall, and here oute pe ashes and all olper fylthe of pe
hall. The seyd grome shall also kepe Je kay of J?e woode and cole
and delyuer it oute dayle by taill to | ]?e kechyn, halle and leuereys, [Fol. 2 6]
and bryng the seyd taill to ]?e stywarde at Je wokes ende ; J?e seyd 15
grome shall also contenually be in J)e halle at Je firste mete or
souper to bere away dysshes and kepe oute houndes and feche
sawces and to obey all oj?er commondmewtes of ]?e hede offycers, Ipat
is to sey of stywarde, marshall and vssher.
Also halfe an oure or f>e lorde go to mete or souper ]?e marshall 20
shall take J?e Rodde in his hande and cowmonde f>e panter and
ewer to couer and make redy for f>e lorde and for ]?e housold;
and assone as it is made redy Je marshall shall commond the
sewer to awayte when pe cokes be redye ; and f>en shall Je
sewer go to fie ewry and take a towell vppon his shulder and J?e 25
marshall and he to go togeder and shewe afore the lorde, so
Jjat he may knowe \er by when his mete is redy. And when it
lyketh ]?e lorde to axe water ]?eu shall J>e esquyres and J>e marshall
and sewer goo by and by next J?e lordis basyn and evyn at f>e
lorde ; pe sewer shall delyuer ]?e towell to pe worthyeste pat bethe
aboute hym and go streight to f>e kechyn vrith all pe men j?at shall
The marshall pen shall uncouer pe basyn yf it be coueryd and
5 holde it in his handes also vnto ]?e lord haue wesshe, and pen make
a salutacoiw and take it to pe squyre pat brought it theder, and he
to bere it to J>e ewry, and anone commonde water for all pern pat
[Fol. 3 a] shall sytte at J?e lordes borde, and go wyth pe lorde to | be sette,
and per asketh hym howe his bord shall be set.
10 And pe yemen and gromys or grome of pe chambre yef it be ber,
or the vsshere or gromes or grome yef it be J>ere, shall set vp borde*
and make redy pe stoles afore mete and haue hem redy at pe settyng
of bordes, and bryng hem redy to be marshall when he callithe, and
also after mete bere away Je bordes, trestelles, and stolis ; and when
*5 be lorde is set, and be ober bordes in his presence, the marshall shall
feche in his courses wyth j?e sewer by and by ; )?e marshall and
sewer shall make a salutacouw. when pey come allmoste at pe
borde, and none oper J>at berythe mete or drynke at pat tyme, to he
be delyuerd of pat pat he berythe.
2 And when all pe lordes messe is sewid, Ipen shall anoper esquyre
next J?e hande sewe J?e olper messes at the borde or in his presence.
And anone forthewyth ]?e amener shall bryng in ]?e almesse dyshe
with a loofe \>er Inne and set it bynethe f>e lordes salt or elles
vppon pe copborde yf no Rome be vppon pe borde ; and a litill
25 afore be seconde cours pe amener shall take of euery standarde or
grete mete that comys byfore be lorde at pe first cours a sertayne,
wyth \>Q helpe of pe kerver, and put it in pe almes dysshe and send
pe voyde dysshes to pe kechyn. And all pis mene while pe
marshall shall loke bothe in be chambre and halle pat per lake
[Fol. 3 1] noper bred, | ale, wyne ne mete ber as it ought to be seruyd, and pe
sewer shall loke pat per lake no sawce in J>e lordes presence,
And when pe second cours is redy, pe sewer shall come and warne
pe marshall, and pe marshall all esquyres and yemen waytors, to go
to J>e kechyn. And lyke as pe marshall and sewer dyd at pe first
35 course so shall pey do at J>e seconde ; and when pe marshall seyth
tyme, pat is to say wythin iij quarters of an oure that pe laste
messe be sette in f>e halle, the marshall shall commoude to take vpe
and all pe broke mete and broke brede to by cast into J>e alines
vessell ; and when it comyth to J?e vsher yemen of be chambre or
lentilmen Then f>e ewer to be J?er, redy for to delyuere to pe
grome of pe hall or mens seruantes wajtors towelles for J?em pat
shall wesshe, and som men to be \er redy -with voyders for to take
vp trenchoures and broken breed, and assone as pey haue wesshe pat
pe ewry be bore away and Ipe hall newe coueryd for pe latter mete. 5
And forthe wyth all, the amener shall send for voyders for pe
lordes borde, and all oj?er bordes in his 'presence, and call all yeraen
of chambre and yemen waytors for to awayte vppon, and he shall
take vp at pe lowest borde in \>e same wyse that it was set downe,
and so at all olper bordes. And J>e seyd yemen shall be redy at his 10
honde per to take at hym and bere J?em to | J>e kechyn. And when [Fol. 4 a]
pe mete is vpe the amener shall take Ipe voyders wyth pe trenchers
and broken brede and pe clothe also and take it to one pat
stondy th aboute hym for to bere it to pe almesse vessell. Then
shall the amener go to f>e lordes borde and take of dyuerse metes as 15
it may goodly be forborne and augment per wyth pe almes dyshe,
and all pis in pe lordes presence. And when it lykethe pe lorde to
coTranonde to take vpe, pe sej r de yemen shall be redy per to aWayte
vppon ]?e amener to do in all wyse as it is seyde afore. And forthe
wyth all as f>e seyd mete is vpe pe voyders to be set vppon pe 20
borde, pe laste afore Ipe lorde. All esquyres pen awaytynge to put
in broken bred and trenchers or oper mete, and pen pe amesse
dyshe to be take away wyth a salutacoun, and set vp into a sure
howse and after yevyn to one persone. Then shall pe amener take
vp frute yef ony be, and j?e voyders aftur pe panter, chese by it 25
selfe and foithe wyth aftur pe salt?, hole bred, hole trenchers,
kervynge knyves, sponys and napkyns togeder.
Then shall pe sewer, yf it be in a grete day and a durmant lye
vnder pe clothe, let pe surnape wiih pe towell Rynne vppon the
durmant. In a mene day festyuall )?e surnape and towelles rynne 30
vppon pe borde. When pe clothe is take away In a symple day J>e
towelles only vppon J>e clothe, when | it is made redy from cromys. [Fol. 4 6]
At all tymes J?e towelles to be dubble, yef \>er syt ony body byfore
hym at his owne messe, and elles not. And yef per be a messe by-
nethe hym and anoper above, Then pe seyd towelles to be leyd 35
sengill afore hym selfe and turnyd In ayen at eyper ende of pe
table as ferre as J>e persones sytte afore. And yef pe seyd towell
be to shorte, pen Ipat per be ij short towelles to fullfille per
defautes bore in Ipe handes of ij squyres or yemen of ]?e chambre or
14 A generall Rule to teche euery man
awayturs, and when be surnape is leyde and be esstate is made
afore be lorde, Then all be esquyres to make a salutacouw at onys
and go bake to be ewry and ber abyde to graces be seyd.
Then bryng in be water in all wyse byfore be lorde as bey dede
5 byfore mete, save be towell. And yef ber sytte at be lordes messe
one or moo bat be egall in esstate wyth be lorde, ben make be
esstate byfore eche of bera, and bryng hem a basyn or basyns yef
ber be nede of mo ben one. And yef ber syt ober persones at his
messe ben of his esstate, ben let bryng a basyn or elles basyns
10 vncoueryd and set afore hem when be lordes basyns be set afore
hym, and set be ewer in be myddes of be basyn till be lorde haue
wesshe; and when be lorde hathe weshe ben let be squyre bat
bryngyth thee basyn knele still till all be borde hathe weshe, ben
be seyd esquyre shall bere the basyn to be ewry and be ober basyns
[Fol. 5 a] shall ben | folowe hym. And wyth oute ony tareyng be copbord
clothe and be ewry shall be take away and anone be surnape and
towelles shall be strecchid; and be marshall bygynnynge at be
lowere ende and after at be higher ende shall bryng all bat leythe
vppon be borde byfore be lorde and per take it vpe wyth a
20 salutacouw. Then shall be ber redy yemen of be chambre yef it be
ber, yemen way tors yef it be in be hall, to take away stolis and
bordes and trestelles, and set J>em in ber kynde places, and be
marshall shake be lordes lape.
All suche poure, rule, and commondmentes as be marshall hade
25 at be fyrst mete, whiles be lorde sat, be vsher shall haue at the
seconde mete when bat be marshall syttythe, wythouten bat it be
countermauralid by be stywarde or marshall.
Nota : as all these seyd servantes and offecers haue don at mete so
to do at souper ; and in be same wyse be seware bat stondyth shall
30 do as be sewer bat knelythe except be knelynge and be assay.
That is to say, he shall take the dyshes from bem bat bryngyth hem
and vncouere euery dyshe evyn byfore be grettyst at be borde,
except potages and sawces bat shall be set afore ober persones, and
couere hem ayen and set hem afterward in ber kynde places, neuer
35 a dyshe above anober and euer bt next be lorde bat he shall assay
[Fol. 6b] of firste aftur J?e maner as it was sewid. And | bat none sawce*
come In wyth be courses except mustard, but aftur set in wyth
be sewer and esquyres wayters to euery mete as nedythe, or elles
all sawces togeder afore the courses ; and bat all esquyres waytors
to serue a lorde or mayster 15
or yemen yef esquyres lake be attendant in pe mele tymes vppon
pe comondmentes of pe marshall in all thynges of pe kerver, in
fechyng voyde dyshes or wyne for sawce of capons of f>e sewer, in
fechyng of sawce or all Ipat sawce shall be made of.
\J Also pat pe marshall sewer or esquyres wayters at mele tymes 5
make honest chere wyth softe speche to straimgers syttyng at \>e
lordes borde or in his presence, yef pey may goodly come to hem.
and as pey se tyme. Also pat in pe lordes presence suche silence be
kepte J?at per be no lowde speche save only of pe lorde and suche
as he speketh to. And in f>e hall suche lowe cowimunecacouw be 10
hade pat Ipe hede officers voyce be herde vnto all oper offecers ;
and Ipat no gromys hede be coueryd seruyng at-meles yeman, ne
yeman lentilman, ne lentilman pe sty warde ; also J>t Je lentilmen
and yemen serue all J>o in Ipe lordes presence ; and oute of pe lordes
presence yemen serue lentilmen and set downe yemen and gromes 15
serue hem, set gromes and pages to serue J?em.
Then J5e marshall in a lordes howse is lentilman herberoure and
f>e vsher of Ipe hall yeman of pe same ; and after pe vsher of thee j
chambre yef ony be, or yemen of Ipe chambre l in his absence haue [Fol. 6 a]
take vpe logyng for his lorde and for hym selfe in his owne maner 20
or in oper places, Ipe marshall or ]?e vsshere in his stede shall assigne
all oper men per logynges, as well strangers as men of housold ; and
also he shall assigne J?em bred, ale, wyne, wex, talowe, and fewell
to f>er logynge after pe season of pe yere, and per degrees, and
rekyn for it dayle and wokely as pe lordes bookes be made. 25
Then Ipe marshall and vssher shall dayle reken all pe messes
wythin Ipe howse, pat is to say pe lorde for ij messe and euery
lorde in Ipe same wyse at Ipe borde ; afturward euery man at pe
borde for one messe, and pen aftur J>roughe pe howse lentilmen,
yemen, gromes and pages euery ij to one messe ; and in Ipe same 3
wyse bryng hem dayle and wokely to pe clerke of ])e kechyn as pey
ben asked, and Ipe bokes made.
Also pe marshall hathe poure to correcte all suche as dothe
grete offences wythin pe howse or wythoute, as in fightyng, oreble
chydyng, makyng of debates, drawyng of knyves and stelynges, 35
affrayes and suche cityer : to put hem into Ipe porters warde or in
stokkes in all wyse as ferre forthe as fe stywarde, save in puttyng
out of pe howse. And in all J>ese poyntes in lyke wyse \>e vssher
1 yef ony be deleted.
16 A generall Rule to teche euery man
[Fol. 66] hathe \>e same | powre in J>e marshalles absence; all J>is to be pus
vnderstond, pe sty ward above all the lentilmen, pe marshall above
yemen, the vsher above gromes and pages.
Also at all tymes of Ipe day Ipe marshall shall haue his commond-
5 mentes fullfillid in euery office of Ipe house, and J>e vsher in pe
same wyse ; to it be contermaundid, restrayned, or moderd by
pe lord for per waste or inportunyte.
Also at euery tyme Ipat pe lorde commondyth drynke, fe
marshall or vssher shall warne esquyres or yemen to awayte Iperon,
10 and bey shall goo wyth hym and commpnde it at euery office ; and
In case }>er be so many lordes and strangers Ipat Ipere shall nede pottes
wyth wyne, ben shall Ipe marshall call euery lordes squyre or assigne
oper squyres of his owne lordes for hem, and |?en delyuer coppis to
Ipe seyd squy[r]es for pe seyd lordes, coueryd or vncoueryd, as fat f>e
15 case requeryth at pe seler dore ; and he hym selfe shall take as many
coppis voyde eche wythin olper by twix his handes wyth his rodde
as he supposythe to serue J?e remnant of Ipe howse, and so shall he
goo afore; all Ipe olper coppis, voyde save be chef lordes, folow hym, and
laste of all pe boteler wyth Ipe copborde clothe on his shulder and
20 pottes of wyne in his handes; and when J>ey come, into J>e place j?er
as pe lordes be, \>e marshall, kerver, copberers shall make a saluta-
[Fol. 7 a] couw | and go streight to a bay wyndowe, a forme or copborde at pe
lower ende of pe house yef ony be Iper, and stond Iper in order lyke
as f>ey were delyuerd at Ipe seler dore, till J>e coppis be fillid.
25 Then shall pe butler lay downe his copborde clothe and sette Ipe
pottes peron, and Ipe marshall all Ipe coppis Ipat he berythe in lyke
wyse. Then shall Ipe marshall call Ipe squyres wyth the coppis, and
do fell hem by order aftur J?er esstates, and when all Ipe coppis be
fillid he shall commonde hem to goo forthe to Jje lordes, and forthe
30 wyth he shall call ofer lentilmen or yemen of Ipe chambre or
awayters and delyuer hem coppis suche as he brought, as many as he
supposyth will serue Ipe house and tell hem where pey shall serue ;
and when bey haue all dronken pe marshall shall take ay en all J?e
coppis f>at he brought hym selfe, puttyng J>e wyne lefte in J?em, yef
35 ony be, in a voyde potte of suche as be botteler brought. And
when he hathe ayen all Ipe seyd coppis, he shall take hem in lyke
wyse as he brought hem, and Ipe boteler caste his clothe ayen
vppon his shulder and take Jje pottes in his handes, and forthwyth
pe marshall shall geve awarnyng to Ipe kerver and copberers and
to serue a lorde or mayster 17
all togeder shall make a salutacoim and }?erwyth departe, Ipe keruer
first, pe copberers | next, Ipe marshall wyth pe coppis aftur pern, [Fol. 7 b]
and laste of alle pe bottele wyth the pottes of wyne.
A generall Rule of all mane? 1 of fysshes, as }>ey shall be
seruyd in order and course of sewynge.
The firste sprottes, rede heryng and whyte lyng, dogdrawght,
grene fyshe, salt samoii, salt elis, salt storgon and salt lamprey. 5
Then all maner of freyd metes, pat is freyd of salt fyshes or
powderd ; pen, folowynge f>ese fryed metes, all maner of see fysshe
both rede, rounde and flat ; and folowyng pern all reuer fyshe aftur
as J?ey bethe of deynte and in gretnesse ; and nexte folowynge all
maner of pole fyshe and pen all maner of rostid fyshe, what so euer 10
Jey bee ; and pen folowyng all maner of shell fysshe ; and folowyng
pern all maner of bake metes, be it fishe or doucetes ; lese pen ye
haue many of pern J?at ye lyst to departe som to \>e firste course,
som to pe seconde, and so to pa thyrde ; and laste of all, all maner
of leche metes and metes of deynte. I 5
A generall Rule to euery lentilman \ai is a keruer to
ony maner lorde.
The towell muste be layed vppon his shulder when he shall [Fol. 8 a]
bryng his lorde brede, and yef he bryng frute his towell to be
folden and leyd vppon his arme, what maner of frute so euer it be ;
and pe cause is J?at pe towell ought to be spred vnder pe dyshe or
pece or what so pat ye bryng it Inne ; and euer yef pat pe esstate 20
J>at ye serue stonde, f>en aftur youre obeysance ye may stonde, and
yef he sytte ye muste knele, and kepe J?e dyshe or pece Ipat you
here in youre handes ; etc.
Explicit a good techyng.
p. 11, 1. 9. J>e vsshere] The duties of the Usher are explained in the
Neville document :
First the Usher must see that the Hall be trymmed in euery poynt, and
that the Cloth of estate be hanged in the Hall, and that foure Quyshions
of estate be set in order vpon the Benche, beyng of fine Silke, or cloth of
Gold, and that the hygh Table be set, with all other Boordes, and
Cubberdes, Stooles and Chayres requisite within the Hall, and that a good
fire be made.
p. 11, 1. 10. wynter tyme] Wood was brought in from All Saints' Day to
Candlemas Eve (Sloane JBofce of Curtasye, 393-4).
p. 11, 1. 21. commorlde fe panter and ewer to couer and make redy} Thi
is more fully described in the account of the Neville Feast :
Item, the Yeoman of the Ewrie must couer the hygh Table with all other
Boordes and Cubberdes, and the Ewrie must be hanged, and a Bason of
estate therevpon couered, with one Bason of assaye, and therevpon one
Cup of assaye to take thassay therof, and thervpon to lay the chiefe
napkin : and of the ryght syde of the Ewrie the Basons and Ewers for the
rewarde, and of the left syde for the seconde mease.
Then the Panter must bryng foorth Salt, Bread, and Trenchers, with
one brode and one narrow Knyfe, and one Spoone, and set the Salt right
vnder the middest of the Cloth of estate, the Trenchers before the Salt,
and the Bread before the Trenchers towardes the rewarde, properly
wrapped in a napkyn, the brode knyfe poynt vnder the Bread, and the
backe towardes the Salt, and the lesse Knyfe beneathe it towardes the
rewarde, and the Spoone beneathe that towardes the rewarde, and all to be
couered with a Couerpane of Diaper of fyne Sylke. The Surnappe must
be properly layde towardes the Salt endlong the brode edge, by thehandes
of thaforenamed Yeoman of the Ewrie : and all other Boordes and
Cubberdes must be made redy by the Yeoman of the Pantry, with Salt,
Trenchers, and Bread.
Also at the Cubberde in lyke maner must the Panter make redy, with
Salt, Bread, Trenchers, Napkyns, and Spoones, with one brode Knyfe for
the rewarde. . . .
Then the Marshall with the Caruer must go towardes the hygh Table,
and the Panter to folowe them, makyng their obeysance first in the
middest of the Hall, and agayne before the hygh Dease : then the
Marshall and the Panter must stande styll, and the Caruer must go to
the Table, and there kneele on his knee, and then aryse with a good
countenance, and properly take of the Couerpane of the Salt, and geue it
to the Panter, which must stande styll.
Then the Caruer must remoue the Salt, and set it vnder the left edge
of the cloth of estate towardes the seconde messe, and set your Bread
beneath the Salt towardes the seconde messe, and let it remain styll
Then with your brode Knyfe remoue your Trenchers all at once tofore
the Salt, or towarde the rewarde, and then with your brode Knyfe
properly vnclose the napkyn that the bread is in, and set the Bread all
beneath the Salt towards the second messe : then the Table cleansed, the
Notes on A generall Rule 19
Caruer must take with his brode Knyfe a litle of the vppennost Trencher,
and geue it to the Panter to eate for thassay thereof, and of the Bread gene
assay in lyke maner : then vncouer your Salt, and with a cornet of Breade
touch it in four partes, and with your hande make a floryshe over it, and
geue it the Panter to eate for thassay e therof, who goeth his way, then
cleanse the Table cleane : that done, one Gentleman at the rewarde,. and
the Yeoman of the Ewrie at the seconde messe, must let downe the
Surnappe from the Table.
Then with your brode Knyfe take one of the Trenchers stockes, and set
it in your napkyns ende in your left hande, and take foure Trenchers,
eche one after another, and lay them quadrant one besydes another before
... the Lordes seate, and lay there principal a lofe on them, then set downe
your Trenchers, and take up your Bread with your brode knyfe, and cut
therof three small peeces one after another, and, lay them on the left
hande of the Lorde, then cleanse the Table cleane.
p. 11, 1. 24. J>en shall J>e sewer go to fie eiory and take a totcell vppon his
shulder] Cf. the Neville Feast : '
That done, the Yeoman of the Ewrie shall arme the Caruer with one
Towell from the left shoulder to vnder the ryght arme, and geue the
napkyn of estate for thassay, and lay it vpon the same shoulder of the
Caruer, and the Caruers owne napkyn vpon his left arme, and in lyke
maner he shall arme the Sewer with an other Towell, from the ryght
shoulder to vnder the ryght arme.
p. 12. 1. 5. The washing ceremony is more fully described in the account of
the Neville Feast thus :
In the meane time the Yeoman of the Ewrie kysseth the Towell of
estate, and layeth it on the Marshal's left shoulder, and he taketh the
assay of the water, and geueth the Cupbearer the bason of estate, with
the Cup of assay. Then the Marshall with the Cupbearer goeth to the
Lorde, and there maketh their obeysaunce. Then the Marshall kysseth
the Towell for his assay, and so layeth it on the left shoulder of the Lorde
of the house, or maister of the same, yf any such be, and the same Lorde
or maister standeth on the left hande of the Baron bishop. Then the
Marshall taketh the Cup of assay, & the Cupbearer putteth foorth water
into the sayde Cup, and drynketh it for tlie assay therof, then he powreth
forth water into the sayde Cup, and drynketh it, &c. and then powreth
foorth water out of the Bason of estate, into the Bason of assay. Then
the Lorde or maister of the house doth geue the Towel ende to the cheefe
dignitie or prebendarie, to holde tyll the Bishop have washed, and then
all other do washe in their degree in Basons prepared for them.
p. 12, 1. 16. ]>e mar shall and sewer shall make a salutacoun] This is
described more fully in the Neville Feast :
When all is in course, the Marshall and the Sewer goeth together
before the course to the hygh Table, makyng their obeysaunce in the
inyddest of the Hall euen before the hygh Table. Then the Mai-shall
standeth styll, and the Sewer kneeleth on his knee besydes the Caruer,
who receueth euery dyshe in course of kynde, and vncouereth them.
p. 12, 1. 22. J>e amener shall bryng in }e almesse dyshe with a loofe J>er
Inne~\ Cf. Neville Feast :
The Chaplyn must take the almes dyshe at the Cubborde, and bryng it
before the boorde, and take the lofe of breade that standeth vpon the
almes dyshe, and set it vpon the trencher that lyeth vpon the boorde, and
then take the trencher and the lofe together, and set them vpon the almes
20 Notes on A generall Rule
dyshe, and with a good covmtenaunce take vp the dyshe, anJ delyuer to
the Almner, and so depart. -
For the office of the Almoner cf. also Sloane Boke of Curtasye, 729-48.
p. 12, 1. 30. fa seioer shall loke J>at J>er lake no sawceinfie lordes presence]
Cf. Neville Feast : "The sewer must see that there want no sawces for any
dyshe in his kynde.'
p. 13, 1. 4. trenchoures and broken 'breed'] The trenchers are therefore still
of bread, not of wood. In the tract For to serve a lord, mention is made of
' Trenchours of tree or brede '. In [John Russell's] Boke of Nurture, of tine
early fifteenth century, the trenchers are of bread, ' a loofe of trench urs ' ; and
as late as 1465 the trenchers were clearly of bread at the Neville banquet, for
* cornetts of trenchers ' were tasted by the assayer.
p. 13, 1. 29. For the bringing in of the towels at the end of the Banquet,
cf. the Neville Feast : at the close of dinner, after the wine is brought in :
Then the Sewer bryngeth the double Towell to thende of the rewarde
upon both his armes, with an obeysaunce, and kysseth it for his assay,
and then the Marshall comineth before the Lorde, makyng his obeysaunce.
Then the Sewer layeth downe the Towell upon the Table, and geueth
thende thereof to one Gentleman, and so from one to another tyll it be
conveyed to the Marshall. Then the Marshall must properly unclose
thende of the Towell, and spreade it playne in the myddle of the Table
before the Lorde : that done, he must have a rodde in hishande lyke unto
an arrow stele, three quarters long, with a needle in the ende, puttyng
the sharpe ende therof under the Towell, through the farre syde, holdyng
the nearer syde to the rodde with his thombe, and also holdyng the end
of the Towell towardes the Lorde for the estate therof, then make your
obeysaunce, and geve the same ende to an other Gentleman towardes the
Then the Sewer at one ende, and a Gentleman at thother ende, to pull
the chiefe Towell harde and strayght. Then laye over the one Towell
towardes the neather syde of the boorde, and pull the chiefe Towell harde
and strayght. Then the Marshall must put the sharpe ende of his rodde
under the chiefe Towell agaynst the Lordes ryght hande, and therewithall
take hold of the farre side of the Towell, and holde fast the neare syde to
the rodde with your thombe, and drawe the Towell halfe ayarde forwarde
the rewarde, and lay the bought backewarde for the estate therof towardes
the rewarde, and after that an other of estate in lyke maner towardes the
seconde messe. Then with thende of your rodde take up the narowe syde
of the Towell, and lay it forwarde one hande brode, and stroke it over
with your rodde from the estate to the other. Then laye the seconde
Towell strayte wynyng it to that other Towell of estate, and so make
your obeysaunce all and depart, and stande in the mydwarde of the Hall.
p. 13, 1. 29. For the laying of the surnape, elaborate instructions are given
in the Articles ordained by King Henry VII for the regulation of his house-
hold (Ordinances and Regulations, 119 : the whole passage is quoted in Early
English Meals and Manners, p. 92) ; instructions are also given in Russell's
Soke of Nurture, 237. In the Liber Niger domm of King Edward IV it is
ordained that the ' usher of the chambre ' ' maketh his towell or surnape, as
dothe a Marchall when the King is in the hall ' : ' if the Kinge kepe estate in
his chambyr, these ushers make the estate in the surnape, like as the marchall
doth in the hall' (Ordinances and Regulations, 34, 38).
Notes on A generall Rule 21
p. 14, 1. 4. Then l>ryng infe water} Cf. Neville Feast :
That done, the Lordes Cupbearer, with other Cupbearers, do bryng in
water, and the Lordes Cupbearer taketh assay as he did before dyner,
and so setteth downe the Bason of assay, and putteth foorth Water of the
Bason of estate before the Lorde. Then every man washeth at the rewarde
and seconde messe, and at the Church boorde, and dryeth. Then the
Sewer and Gentleman wayter draweth the Towel as they dyd before the
washyng, and the Marshall maketh his estate as he dyd before the washyng.
That done, the Cupbearer bryngeth in Ale, the Lord hath his assay, ut
supra, and drynketh sytting, and al others, then do they aryse, and ever
the better the latter, and the Lord last of all.
Then the Yeoman of the Ewrie must take up the Table cloth, the
Usher must see the table, chayres and stool es taken away in order. Then
the Lorde must drynke Wyne standyng, and all other in lyke maner, and
that done, every man departeth at his good pleasure.
p. 14, 1. 30. For the custom of taking the Assay, cf. the following passage
from the Neville Feast : '
In the meane tyme [i. e. while the guests are seating themselves] the
Sewer goeth to the dresser, and there taketh assay of every dyshe, and
doth geue it to the Stewarde and the Cooke to eate of all Porreges,
Mustarde, and other sawces. He taketh the assay with cornetts of
trenchers bread of his owne cuttyng, and that is thus : He taketh a cornet
of bread in his hande, and toucheth three partes of the dyshe, and maketh
a florishe ouer it, and geueth it to the aforenamed persons to eate, and of
every stewed meate, rested, boylde, or broyled, beyng fyshe or fleshe, he
cutteth a litle thereof, &c. Andyf it be baked meate closed, vncloseit, and
take assay therof as ye do of sawces, and that is with cornettes of breade,
and so with all other meates, as Custardes, Tartes, and Gelly, with other
such lyke. The ministers of the Churche doth after the olde custome, in
syngyng of some proper or godly Caroll. . . .
And again, when the dishes are brought to the High Table and uncovered
by the Carver :
Then the Caruer of all potages and sawces taketh assay with a cornet
of trencher bread of his owne cuttyng, he toucheth three partes of the
dishe, and maketh a florishe ouer it, and geueth it to the Sewer, and to
hym that beareth the dyshe, who kneeleth in lyke maner, to eate for the
assay therof. Then of your stewed meates, broylde, fryed, or rost meates,
be it fyshe or fleshe, take assay therof at the inyd syde with your brode
Knyfe, and geue it to the Sewer, and to the bearer of the dyshe : and yf
it be any maner of fowle, take the assay therof at the outsyde of the
thygh or wynge : and if it be any baked meate that is closed, vncouer
hym, and take assaye therof with cornettes dypt into the grauy, and geue it
to the Sewer, vt supra. And of all Custardes, Tartes, Marchpaynes, or
Gelly, take thassay with cornettes. And of all Suttleties or Leches, with
your brode knyfe cut a litle of, and geue it to the Sewer and Bearer,
And when the last dyshe of the first course is set in, the Sewer goeth
to the dresser, and as he dyd at the first course, so he must at the seconde
course in euery poynt, as touchyng the assay with other thynges, and
when he is redy the ministers of the Churche do syng solemnly.
p. 15, 1. 17. Then pe marshall in a lordes Jiowse is lentilman herberoure\
Cf. Sloane Boke of Curtasye, 427-8.
The marshalle shalle herber alle men in fere,
That ben of court of any inestere.
p. 15, 1. 33. J>e marsliall hathe powre to corrects] For the marshall's power
to correct, cf. Sloane Boke of Curtasye, 379, &c. :
Now of marschalle of halle wylle I spelle
And what falle to hys offyce now wylle y telle ;
In absence of stuarde he shalle arest
Who so euer is rebelle in court or fest ;
Jnmon-vsshere, and grome also,
Vndur hym ar )>es two . . .
p. 16, 1. 8. For the serving of drink, cf. the Neville Feast :
In the meane tyme the Marshall goeth to the Buttery, to see the
couered Cup be right serued, and geueth to the Butler his assay, and
delyuereth to the Cupbearer the Cup of estate, and when the Cupbearer
commeth to the Table, after his obeysaunce, he kneel eth on his knee, arid
putteth foorth three or foure droppes of Ale into the insyde of the couer
of the Cuppe, and suppes it of for his assay. Then he settes the Cup
besydes the Lorde and couereth it, and then all the Table is serued with
Ale. Marke when the first rost meate beyng fyshe or fleshe is broken,
then the Cupbearer goeth to the Seller, and when the Cupbearer commeth
to the Table, he vseth hym selfe as afore, &c.
p. 17, 1. 12. Doucetes] Recipes for the making of these will be found in
MS. Harl. 279 (see Early English Meals and Manners, 146), and in the
Fifteenth Century Cookery Books, edited by Austin for the E. E. T. S.
EDITED FKOM A XV CENTURY MS.
FORMERLY IN THE PENNANT COLLECTION
INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND GLOSSARY
WALTER W. SETON, M.A.
THE THIRD OEDEE
THE Rule of the Third Order, or Ordo de Poenitentia, as well
as the history of the origin of that Order, is one of the subjects
upon which criticism has been directed from the time, rather more
than thirty years ago, when a serious study of Franciscan sources
began. As in the case of so many other mediaeval problems, the not
very extensive basis of ascertained facts and documents is liable in
process of time to become overlaid and even concealed by the mass
of theory and commentary which has been built upon such a basis.
And yet there has not appeared in English a summary, first of
the facts and documents which lie outside the region of doubt,
and secondly of the criticism to which they have been subjected.
As a Middle English version of the Rule is published here for
the first time, it appears not unsuitable that an attempt should
be made to provide such a summary.
Before, then, anything in the way of criticism or commentary
is stated, it will be well to set out what are the actual materials
and what facts are known about them.
1. In 1901 M. Paul Sabatier discovered in the Franciscan.
Monastery of S. John of Capestrano in the Abruzzi, in a fifteenth-
century MS., a version of a Rule of the Third Order, having the
following title :
Memoriale propositi fratrum et sororum de Poenitentia in
domibus propriis existentium inceptum anno Domini M C CC Q XX1
tempore domini Gregorii noni Papae XI1I Cal. lunii indictione
prima tale est.
Whatever differences of view there may be as to this document
in detail, all agree in regarding it as the earliest version of the
Rule at present known. The full text will be found in Sabatier,
Opuscules de Critique historique, Paris, 1901; and in Boehmer's
Analekten zur Geschichte des Frandscus von Assist. Tubingen,
1904. This version, which consists of thirteen chapters, will be
referred to as R 1.
2. In 1902 Pere Mandonuet, commenting on Sabatier's dis-
covery of the Capestrano text, called attention to the mention of
a fourteenth-century MS. formerly in the library of the Convent of
SS. John and Paul, Venice, and described in 1 755 by Berardelli in his
Catalogue of that Conventual Library as having the following title:
Memoriale propositi fratrum et sororum de poenitentia in domibus
2yropriis existentium. Inceptum anno domini MCCXXI, tale est.
It begins with the words : Viri qui huius fraternitatis fuerint
and ends : tanquam contumax obligetur ad culpam. These words
are identical respectively with the first words of chapter i and the
last words of chapter xii of Pi 1.
This MS. is at present lost. Pere Mandonnet and H. Boehmer
have both made fruitless inquiries for it. The library of the
convent was dispersed in the early part of the nineteenth century.*
3. Bernard de Bessa, writing about 1 290, states that the Rule
was the joint production of S. Francis himself and Pope
Gregory IX :
In regulis sen Vivendi formis ordinis istorum dictandis sacrae
memoriae dominus papa Gregoritis in minori adhuc officio con-
stitutus, beato Francisco intima familiaritate coniunctus, devote
supplebat, quod viro sancto in dictandi scientia deerat.
4. On March 30, 1228, the Bull Detestanda^ was issued, con-
ferring certain privileges and exemptions upon the members of the
5. A version of the Rule, differing from R 1 but containing
a large portion of the material of the first twelve chapters of
R 1, is contained in Wadding's Beati Patris Francisci Assisiatis
Opera Omnia, 1623, and in other later writers baaed upon
Wadding. This version is generally divided into twenty chapters.
It will be referred to as R 2.
6. On November 21, 1234, j Gregory IX issued letters to the
* It may be worth mention, in order to save trouble to other students,
that the present editor in August, 1913, also made <i search in Venice for this
MS. He ascertained that there were only three public collections in Venice
which were known to contain volumes from this convent, viz. the library of
S. Mark, the Mu'seo Civico which received the Cicogna Bequest, and the
State Record Office in the Frari. He went through the catalogues of all three
institutions and consulted the librarians, but failed to find the MS. It
must have passed into private hands, if it has not perished.
f Sbaralea, i, p. 39. J Potthast, 9768.
Bishops placing the Tertiaries under the protection of the Bishops,
and at the same time committing to them the visitation and
correction of the Tertiaries.
7. A version of the Rule, substantially the same as R 2 in
arrangement and contents, but nevertheless differing from it in
certain respects, is incorporated in Nicholas IV's Bull Supra
Montem of August 18, 1289. This is the version of which the
text here published is a translation. It will be referred to as
R 3. The best Latin text is contained in Seraphicae Legislationis
Textus Originates, Quaracchi, 1897. This is the Rule which
governed the Third Order from 1289 until 1883, when the Order
was reformed by Leo XIIl's Bull Misericors.
8. On August 8, 1290, Nicholas IV published a Bull Unigenitus
Dei Fllius* with a view to overcoming the hostility with which
R, 3 was received in some quarters. The most important sentence
in this Bull is as follows :
Ordinem ipsum approbando, ordinationes nonnullas salutaris
persuasionis, nostris litteris in eodem Ordine duximus observandas ;
inter caeteras eisdem fratribus, paterno consulentes affectu, ut
huiusmodi normam vivendi sequerentur, et sequendo amplecterentur
eamdem. Ut cum naturalis persuadeat ratio et rationi aequitas
acquiescat, ut praedicti Ordinis professores, ob ipsius Confessoris
reverentiam dilectorum fliorum nostrorum Ordinis Minorum diri-
gantur et regulentur doctrina, qui utriusque Ordinis alumnus extitit
institutor, de Ordine supradicto fratrum Minorum visitatores et
informatores assumere procurent.
Other documents of lesser importance could be mentioned,
especially other Papal Bulls relating to the Tertiaries, but the
documents already mentioned are those which are most im-
portant for a study of the Rule.
Something must first be said as to the date at which the
Tertiaries were founded, a question which at once brings us into
a region of some uncertainty. Here again it is safest to start
from a fixed point, viz. a Papal document, and that fixed point
is provided by the letter pf Honorius III, dated December 16,
1221, to the Bishop of Rimini, which makes the first official
reference to the Franciscan Tertiaries and recommends their pro-
tection : Significatum est nobis quod Faventiae et in quibusdam
* Potthast, 23855.
aliis civitatibus et locis vicinis quidam sunt, quibus ilium D&minus
inspiravit affectum ut . . . semetipsos ad poenitentiam se converter ent.
This letter is sufficient to show that at any rate by the date
December 1221, the Order of Penitents had come into existence,
and it may- indicate that Faenze was the place of their origin.
On the other hand, Mariano of Florence, whose authority as a
sixteenth-century writer is not particularly high, claims that the
first congregation of Penitents was established by S. Francis and
Hugolino (Gregory IX) at Florence, in May 1221, a statement
the accuracy of which is challenged by Boehmer. The traditional
view has been that the Order was founded by S. Francis soon
after his return from the East in 1221, in order to meet the
need of the large multitude of lay folk, both men and women, who
were anxious to ' do penance ', but who owing to the circumstances
of their lives could not become members of the First or Second
Orders. Fourteenth-century tradition, as given by Bartolomeo de
Tolomaeis, even specifies the names of the first members of the
Third Order as Luchesio and Bonadonna, citizens of Poggibonsi.
There is no evidence for the ' Luchesio ' story earlier than the
fourteenth century. The Bollandists have further confused the issue
by identifying Luchesio with Lucius, mentioned by S. Antonino
of Florence as being the first member of the Third Order.*
The authority of both Thomas of Celano and of the 'Three
Companions ' has been invoked for tracing the existence of the
Third Order to an even earlier period, indeed to a period con-
temporaneous with the early preaching of S. Francis before his
journey to the East ; it must, however, be remembered that there
is a tendency with these writers, even though they are describing
events within their own lifetime, to ascribe much which was
actually later to the early days of the Order, somewhat at the
* Curiously enough, both names are mentioned in the Latin extract from
Bernardine de Bustis contained in the Pennant MS. and printed on pp. 55-7.
It will be seen that Bernardine places S. Luchesio at the beginning of his
list preceded only by S. Louis and S. Ivo, and that he says of S. Lucius that
he was primus sanctus de isto tercio ordine. This may be a clue to the way
in which the whole story has originated. Lucius, who has never been
canonized, but only beatified (Festival on April 15), has perhaps been con-
fused with S. Luchesio. It is difficult to say why Bernardine describes him
as he does. For it was not until long after Bernardino's time that Lucius
was beatified by Innocent XII.
expense of historical accuracy and perspective. This at any rate
however is certain, that the Third Order as a distinct organization
must have come into existence by 1221.
It is scarcely then a coincidence that the first known version
of the Rule, R 1, should contain the date 1221. Whatever view
one may hold as to the Capestrano Document, there can be little
doubt that it points to a Rule composed in 1221, which may or
may not be wholly or partly contained in R 1 as it is now extant.
Assuming that the Third Order received its first organized form
not later than 1221 it would naturally be expected that the new
organization would require a Rule.
The title of R 1 * is in itself ambiguous^ The most simple
and obvious way of understanding it is that of Pere Mandonnet,
who merely places a full stop after the numerals 1221. If this
is done, R 1 appears to be the original ' Memorial ' or Rule of
1221 with its first twelve chapters, with a later addition of 1228,
viz. chapter xiii. Sabatier and Boehmer make emendations of the
title by supplying words which they believe to have fallen out.
Under their view the first twelve chapters are certainly in the
main the Rule of 1221, but already subjected to a redaction in
1228; while chapter xiii contains material added not necessarily
in 1228, but according to them probably later and at various
periods, Both authorities see in chapter vi of R 1 an allusion to
the Bull Detestanda of March 30, 1228, though the reality of
that allusion seems questionable.t Pere Mandonnet's argu-
ment, based upon the Venetian MS., has not been successfully
answered. It is much to be hoped that the lost MS. will ulti-
mately be found, so as to place beyond doubt the actual form
of the Rule of 1221, and to show whether chapter vi contains the
same phrase now understood as an allusion to Detestanda or not.J
The next question which naturally arises is as to the authorship
* See p. 25.
j* The clause in question is : Omnes a iuramentis solemnibus abstineant nisi
necessitate cogente in casibus a summo pontifice exceptis in sua indulyentia
videlicet fro pace, fide, calumnia et testimonio.
J More recent evidence has been brought to bear on this question by
P. Lcmmens, who has published in Arehiv. Franc. Hist., April 1913, a newly
discovered version of the Rule of 1221 contained in Cod. 1159, Roy. Lib. of
Konigsberg. This version confirms Mandonnet's view as to the understanding
of the Capestrano title and Sabatier's view as to the allusion to Detestanda.
of R 1, or rather of that part of R 1 which came into existence
in 1221. On this point there is the greatest variety of opinion,
ranging from those who have claimed it as the unaided work of
S. Francis himself, to those who deny S. Francis any hand
in it at all. There are probably few, if any, to-day who would
assert the Rule of 1221 to be the unaided work of S. Francis.
On the other hand, Boehmer in his Analekten combats the view
that the Saint was in any sense its author, and in publishing
the works of the Saint he classifies it neither as genuine nor
doubtful, but as spurious. Reference has already been made to
the testimony of Bernard de Bessa, who probably derived his
information from S. Bonaveutura (who was himself in direct
touch with the disciples of S. Francis), that the Rule of 1221
was the joint work of S. Francis and Hugolino, afterwards Pope
Gregory IX. We have evidence that Hugolino took some part
in the composition of the Rule of the Friars Minor in 1223, and
there is reason to think that he also participated in writing the
Rule of the Clarisses in 1218-19. There is no good reason to
doubt the testimony of Bernard de Bessa, and it is not unsafe
to attribute the Form of R, 1 to Hugolino and its contents to
S. Francis. This is the view taken by Pere Mandonnet, as well
as by Jb'rgensen and Father Cuthbert in their recent biographies
of the Saint. After all, the extant body of undoubtedly genuine
writings of S. Francis is so limited as to make it somewhat
unsafe to argue, as Boehmer does, that R 1 cannot be in any sense
the work of S. Francis, because it is so different from his
The Capestrano Rule, Hi, gives then a fixed point, namely,
the date 1228 as the year of the composition of part or perhaps
the whole of it. Sixty-one years later another fixed point is
provided by the Bull Supra Montem, dated August 18, 1289, and
containing a new Rule, R 3. What then lies between R 1 of
1228 and R3 of 1289?
Somewhere between these two dates lies R 2, the Rule as
known to Luke Wadding, the seventeenth-century chronicler, and
published by him. At first sight it might be supposed that the
differences between R 2 and R 3 are so small that they are in
reality the same Rule. The differences, however, though perhaps
few and slight in extent, are impoitant, and serve, taken along
with other facts, as a clue to the processes lying behind the
evolution of R 3. They may even at the same time throw light
on the authorship of II 2.
Pere Mandonnet * has worked out a theory showing how the
various versions of the Kule of the Third Order reflect in their
provisions the conflict which went on in the Franciscan Order
between the Conventuals and those of the Strict Observance from
a date even anterior to the death of the Founder. Into the
precise meaning of the sundry titles given to the officers of the
Order in R 1, viz. Ministers, Visitor, and the Spiritual Coun-
sellor, later called Director, and what these terms exactly connote
it is not possible to enter here, nor is it necessary, as the subject
has been so fully discussed by Pere Mandonnet and others. An
examination of chapters i-xii of El, i.e. of the portion of R 1
which is mainly assignable to 1221, will show that although the
Order of Penitents owed its origin to S. Francis and the move-
ment which he founded, there is not a phrase or provision in
those chapters which indicate a link between the Penitents and
the Friars Minor. Neither the Visitor nor the Director need be
a Friar Minor. On the contrary, the first chapters of R 1 define
that the Director must be a religious, thus expressly leaving it
open whether he is to be a Friar Minor or a religious of some
other Order. In other words, the provisions of 1221 aim at
separating the Penitents from the influence of the Friars Minoi\
The opposite process characterizes the provisions of chapter xiii,
i.e. of 1228. Under these provisions a Friar Minor is to be
placed as spiritual director to the congregation, f and the monthly
gathering is to be in the ' place ' of the Friars Minor. The Order
of Penitents is thus deliberately brought back into a closer con-
nexion with the Friars Minor. The alterations are so marked
that they can scarcely fail to be a matter of intention. Now
it will further be found that if R 2 as known to Wadding is
* Opuscules de Grit, histor. Fasc. IV, pp. 206-45.
t 4. Item visitator et ministri huius fraternitatis petant a ministro vel
custode fratrum Minorum unum frafrem Minorem de conventu, cuius fralris
comilio et voluntate fratrum ista fraternitas gubernetur in omnibus et regatur.
5- Et quando ille frater recederet de conventu, petant alium loco eius, ita
quod semper comilio fratrum Minorum regatur ista fraternitas que a, beato
Francisco habuitfundamentwm. 6. Item omnes fratres conveniant in prima
dominica cuiuslibet mensis ad missam in loco fratrum Minorum.
compared with R 3, contained in the Bull Supra, Montem of 1289,
the same process is at work. Leaving aside for the time the
question of the date of R 2, it will Le seen that in R 2 the Visitor
must be a priest of some recognized religious Order, but there
is neither a direction nor even a suggestion that he should be
a Franciscan ; moreover the work of Visitor must not be done
by any other. Now in R 3 an effort is again made, due no doubt
to the influence of Nicholas IV, who had himself been a Minister
General of the Franciscan Order, to restore the dominance of
the Friars Minor in the counsels of the Penitents. Under chap-
ter xx of R 3 * the Visitors and Directors of the Penitents are
to be Friars Minor nominated for the purpose by the ' Custodes '
of the Franciscan Order ; and it is denned that the Visitor must
not be a layman. A smaller indication of the trend of policy
is in chapter viii of R 3, where it is provided that those who
labour may eat thrice a day from Easter until S. Francis's Day
(October 4), instead of until Michaelmas as in R 2. To what
date then, between 1228 and 1289, must the promulgation of
R 2 be assigned 1 The date cannot be fixed with any degree
of certainty, but an indication is afforded by the letters of
Gregory IX, issued on November 21, 1234, by which the correc-
tion and visitation of the Tertiaries is committed to the Bishops.
R 2 probably came into existence about 1234.
Thus, just as the process of separating the Penitents from the
Franciscan Order in 1221 was reversed in 1228, so the same
process which characterized R 2 in or about 1234 was reversed
in 1289. In 1221 the influence which was dominant in the
Franciscan Order was that of Elias of Cortona. In that year
the Chapter had been held at which Elias had been called to
the government of the Order ; in that year the first outward
organization of the Order of Penitents had taken place ; in that
year the Rule in its first form had been written. Even if Bernard
de Bessa is right in his account of its authorship, that it was
a joint work of S. Francis and Hugolino, it may be supposed
that the dominating personality of Elias was not altogether absent
in its composition. It was assuredly no part of the plan of
S. Francis that that which he regarded as the one spiritual
family should be split up, and that the Penitents should be
* See page 54.
segregated from the Friars Minor. The policy represented by
the Rule of 1221 was the policy of Elias and also of Hugolino.
From 1226-32 Elias was under a cloud; his policy no longer
guided the Order ; the Friars of the Strict Observance had gained
the upper hand. But about 1232 Elias returned to power, and
held the position of Minister General until his deposition in
1239. By 1234 Hugolino had been raised to the Pontificate as
Gregory IX, and Elias was still in his counsels and was trusted
by him. It is somewhat unlikely that the Rule of 1234 would
be drafted by the Pope himself. It is quite possible that in R 2
the handiwork of Elias himself may be seen. There is no docu-
mentary evidence in support of this theory, nor is there any to
refute it. Given the facts that the Rule, known to Wadding,
came into existence about 1234, and that it reflects faithfully the
known policy of Elias, there is scarcely any person to whom the
responsibility for the changes of 1234 and the composition of R 2
can be with more probability assigned than Elias of Cortona.
While the general accuracy of this explanation of the history
of the evolution of the Rules of the Third Order may be admitted,
too much weight must not be attached to it, especially so far as
the early form of R 1 is concerned. There may be another reason
why R 1 contains no reference to the Friars Minor, and why it
is not until 1228 that the visitation of the Tertiaries is committed
to them. The Tertiaries in the nature of things, whether originally
as individuals or later as congregations, were people with fixed
abodes. The Friars Minor in the early years of the Order were
without any such abodes. Even if in some districts it would have
been possible to rely on their services as Visitors or Directors of
the Tertiaries, it could not until a later period have been uniformly
possible. This consideration, which affects equally the visitation
of the Clarisses, has been effectively pointed out by Pere Livarius
Oliger in his De Origine Regularum Ordinis S. Clarae.*
In the present somewhat incomplete state of knowledge regarding
the early beginnings of the Franciscan Order and of the forces
at work in the composition of the Rules, this fact is one for which
room must be left in theories as to the Rules.
* ArcMv. Franc. Histor. Tom. v. Fasc. II, p. 202.
THE ENGLISH VERSION OF THE RULE.
Having thus considered briefly the history and constitution of
the Third Order of 8. Francis or Ordo de Poenitentia, it remains
to consider the special characteristics of the English version of the
Rule here published.
It will first be observed that this version begins with a list of
chapter headings or table of contents which is not found in the
published Latin originals. It is an addition made probably for
the convenience of the English Tertiaries for whom this copy
of the Rule was written. The chapter headings thus given
correspond exactly to the rubricated headings which introduce
each chapter in the text. For the most part the English headings
are close translations of the traditional chapter headings of the
Latin Rule. It will, however, at once be noticed that, whereas
the Latin Rule as generally found is divided into twenty chapters,
the present version has been divided into twenty-four chapters.
Before considering the reasons for this, it will be well to set out
the divisions comparing the English text with the Latin text
as published by the Quaracchi Fathers.*
Pennant MS. Quaracchi Text.
Chap. I. Of the catholik faith, &c. Preamble not treated as a
Chap. II. Chap. I and Chap. II, to
' proximis reconciliare
Chap. LTL Chap. II. From ' quibus
omnibus ad effectum
productis ' to ' solicita
consideratione discussis '.
Chap. IV. Chap. II. From' Ordiuamus
praeterea ' to end.
Chap. V. Chap. III.
Chap. VI. Chap. IV.
Chap. VH. Chap. V down to ' tribus
vicibus Pater Noster'.
* Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originates, 1897, pp. 77-96.
Chap. V. From ' Qualibet
vero' to 'noscitur insti-
Chaps X and XI.
Chap. XIII to 'inibi audi-
Chap. XIII. From ' unus-
quisque autem' to 'et
Chap. XIII. From <Stu-
deat quilibet' to end.
It is difficult to suppose that it is mere chance which has
caused the writer of the Pennant text to divide his Rule into
twenty-four chapters instead of twenty. The explanation is
possibly much the same as that which Pere Mandonnet * suggests
in support of his theory that the so-called Capestrano Rule consisted
of an original Rule of 1221 divided into twelve chapters, to which
were added, in 1228, later additions forming a thirteenth chapter. t
He attributes it to the important place occupied by the numeral 1 2
in Franciscan thought. He claims that the Rule of the Friars
Minor of 1223 and that of the Clarisses were both divided into 12
* UOrdo de Poenitentia. Opuscules de Crit. histor. Fasc. IV, pp. 156-7.
( This theory of Mandonnet is, however, much injured by Leminens's dis-
covery that the text in the KSnigsberg MS. is divided into eight chapters
(see note, p. 29).
chapters ; that as a parallel to the apostolic band of 12, S. Francis
had 12 chief companions : that the Apostles' Creed consists of
1 2 articles. ' Ce que le Symbole etait pour 1'Eglise primitive,
les regies Franciscaines devaient 1'etre pour chacune des fractions
It is true that Pere Mandonnet's theory on this point has been
severely criticized by Pere Livarius Oliger, O.F.M., who in his
two articles ' De Origine Regularum Ordinis S. Clarae,'* points
out that, if we go back to the original Papal Bulls which are
preserved, neither headings nor divisions of chapters appear, and
that 'such divisions are arbitrary. It remains a significant fact
that the ' arbitrary' division of the Rules of the First and Second
Order, from whatever epoch the divisions date, do favour the
numeral 12. And referring to the Pennant version of the Rule of
the Third Order, it seems an inevitable conclusion that either the
translator was translating from a Rule divided into twenty chapters
and that he deliberately re-arranged his material so as to form
twenty-four : or that having before him a Rule without any chapter
divisions, he still divided his material into twenty-four. This
latter possibility is very remote, for it will be seen that in the large
majority of cases he translates the traditional chapter headings.
Another peculiarity of the English version will be found in
chapter xix ; in order to make this clear it is necessary to set out
the English and Latin side by side :
Eche of theme also muste Ministeria quoque ac alia
devoutly take upon theme all officia, quae praesentis formulae
other occupacions and offices series exprimit, imposita sibi
enioyned theme that this reule quisque devote suscipiat, curet-
requireth and treuly execute que fideliter exercere. Officium
them. Also every officer shalbe autem cuiuslibet certi temporis
but for a tyme and none for spatio limitetur. Nullus Minister
terme of lyffe. instituatur ad vitam et eius
ministerium cerium terminum
The words in italics show how the English writer has slightly
altered his material and curtailed Ins translation. The Latin text
expressly states that no Minister is to hold office for life : the
* Archiv. Franc. Histor. Tom. v. Ease. II and III. An. 1912, p. 431.
English text says ' none for terme of lyffe ' but does not specify
the Ministers. This may be a somewhat slender foundation, but
it does suggest that in the place or places where this English
version was current, it was not convenient to specify too exactly
the conditions of tenure of the Ministers. It will be seen that
the repeated injunction eius ministerium c&rtum terminurti com-
prehendat is left untranslated.
In chapter v the text as given on page 49 shows how a later
hand has corrected the original version and brought it into line
with the Latin original. It would appear that the first hand
resorted to abbreviation, because he could not find the English
equivalents of the Latin names of certain vestments. It will be
noticed that whereas the English prescribes for the Sisters 'a
wyde palumdelum of lynnen clothe ', the Latin original gives
' paludellum amplum de cannabo, sive lino,' or as the Pont. Reg.
gives, de canape.
A slight error in the closing words of the Bull is sufficient
to show that the Pennant MS. is almost certainly a copy of
a translation made probably by a scribe not very familiar with
Latin, and that it is not the work of the actual translator. The
word Kalender instead of Kalendes suggests that the scribe was
unfamiliar with the Latin system of chronology.
The Quaracchi Fathers of the ' Collegium Sanctae Bonaventurae '
have shown in their edition of the Rule of the Third Order in the
Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originates* that there are certain
variants as between the Latin text generally published (e.g. in
Sbaralea's Bullarium) and the more authoritative text contained
in the Pontifical Register of the Vatican. An examination of the
Pennant MS. will show that it is a translation of a text which in
the main agrees with the more accurate text of the Pontifical
Register; in one passage, however, it departs from the Pontifical
Register reading in favour of the traditional reading ; in another
the original text agrees with the Register, while the later
correction does not. The points of agreement and disagreement
are as follows :
Preamble. 'The way to come to God.' Pont. Reg. mam
accedendi. Traditional text, mam ascendendi.
* Quaracchi, 1897, pp. 9 and 77-96.
Chap. Ill (Penn). 'Of his instaunce.' Pont. Eeg. instantia.
Trad, text, instantis.
Chap. Ill (Penn). 'The whiche all thinges so done.' Pont.
Eeg. Quibus omnibus ad effectum perductis. Trad, text, productis.
Chap. V (Penn). ' A guarnellum . . . made withoute any
wrynkylle.' Pont. Reg. guarnellum . . . consutum. Trad, text,
garnellum . . . consuetum.
Chap. XVIII (Penn). ' Over this euery brother,' &c. Pont. Reg.
Et praeter haec. Trad, text, et post haec.
Finale. ' And if eny presume to attempte.' Pont. Eeg. ausu
temerario. Trad, text, usu temerario.
On the other hand :
Preamble. ' That promitteth the great rewardes.' Trad, text,
praemia grandia. But Pont. Eeg. praemia gaudiaque.
Chap. V (Penn). ' Vesture clasped close and not opyn.' Pont. Eeg.
non patulas. Trad, text, vel patulas. But the correction in later
hand has ' kut or hole but opyn ', thus departing from Pont. Eeg.
Other variants exist as between the two Latin texts, but they
are too slight to affect the English translation. But the examina-
tion of 'the variants given above is sufficient to show that the
Pennant translator has had direct or indirect access to the text
of the Pontifical Eegister, which in the matter of every variant is
superior to the traditional text. It would appear further that
the second scribe who added the correction in chapter v used the
traditional text in spite of the words ' but opyn ' giving such bad
sense and that he probably did not fully understand his original,
as he left the words guarnellum, placentinum, and palumdelum
untranslated. The variant grandia (great rewards) in the Preamble
is difficult to explain. Somehow this inferior reading must have
crept into the Latin text which the Pennant translator was
THE PENNANT MANUSCKIPT.
The version of the Rule of the Third Order of S. Francis which
is here published, is contained in a manuscript which has recently
come into the possession of the editor. The manuscript is on
thick vellum and measures 193 mm. x 130 mm. It consists of
19 leaves. The first leaf contains an illuminated picture of the
Stigmatization of S. Francis, measuring 130 inm. x 90 mm. Leaves
2-14 inclusive contain the English version of the Rule of the
Third Order ; the writing is in black, with the chapter headings
and some proper names in red. The index of the several chapters
occupies leaves 2 and 3. This portion of the manuscript is written
in a neat and legible English hand of the latter half of the fifteenth
century ; there are generally 19 lines to the page.
Leaves 15 and 16 contain a Latin fragment beginning De tercio
eciam ordine Beatus Franciscus produxit multos flores. This
fragment is an extract i'rom the twenty-seventh sermon of Ber-
nardine de Bustis' Rosarium Sermonum predicabilium* Part II.
It is written in a different and smaller hand frojn that of leaves 2-14,
and is certainly a later addition ; the hand appears to be Italian.
This portion of the manuscript contains 22 lines to the page, and
the capital initials are written alternately in blue and red with
great regularity. There is a finely illuminated initial D with
elaborate scroll-work at the beginning of the Latin fragment.
The Latin text consists of a list of the more important members
of the Third Order, both men and women, including all those
who at the time when Bernardine wrote, i.e. in the last quarter
of the fifteenth centuiy, had been canonized or beatified.
Leaves 17, 18, 19 contain illuminated pictures of Christ being
taken prisoner in Gethsemane and of Christ before Pilate. Facing
these are the twelve Paternosters and Glorias for Matins, and the
seven Paternosters, the Glorias, the Credo, and the Miserere for
Compline in accordance with the requirements of chapter xi of
the Rule. The pages containing the Offices for the intervening
hours have unfortunately been cut out, doubtless for the sake
of the illuminations.
The history of the manuscript so far as it can be traced is as
follows. It was one of the manuscripts acquired by the well-
known antiquary and bibliophile, Thomas Pennant (1726-98), for
his collection at Downing, Flintshire. The library of Thomas
Pennant, including the Downing property, passed to Louisa
Pennant, his great-grand-daughter, who was the first wife of the
late Lord Denbigh. She died without issue some years after-
wards, and left the property to her husband, from whom it passed
to the present Lord Denbigh, his son by a second marriage. The
* Printed at Venice in 1498 by Georgius de Arrivabenis.
chief portion of the Downing Collection, including the present
manuscript, was sold by auction at Messrs. Sotheby's in March,
1913, and was ultimately purchased by the editor. It is now
at University College Hall, Ealing. There is no means of ascer-
taining from what source Thomas Pennant acquired it, probably
in the middle of the eighteenth century. Unfortunately, the
manuscript, which was unbound, gives no clue to show in what
place in England it was written or for whom ; nor is it profitable
to conjecture whether it was written for some individual Tertiary
as a private book of devotion or for a Community. This manu-
script version in the English language is certainly rare, possibly
unique. There appears to be no English manuscript of the Rule of
the Third Order either in the British Museum or in the Bodleian
Library, nor has the editor heard of another similar manuscript,
though others perhaps exist.
Adderley, J. G., and Marson, C. L. Third Orders. London, 1902.
Boehmer, S. Analekten zur Geschichte des Franciscus von Assisi. Pp. xxxi-
xxxv. Tubingen, 1904.
CutKbert, Father, O.S.F.C. Life of Saint Francis of Assisi. Book iii,
chap. vi. & Appendix iii. London, 1912.
Goetz, W. Die Eegel des Tertiarierordens. Zeit. fiir Kirchengeschichte,
vol. xxiii, 1902.
Heimbitcher, Max. Die Orden und Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche.
Vol. 2, pp. 489-527. Paderborn, 1902. (This work contains on page
489 a bibliography of older works on the Third Order.)
Jorgensen, J. Saint Francis of Assisi : A Biography. Chapter x. London,
Mandonnet, Sev. Pierre. Les origines de 1'Ordo de Pcenitentia. Compte
rendu du quatrieme Congres scientifique international des Catholiques.
Mandonnet, Rev. Pierre. Les Regies et le Gouvernement de 1'Ordo de
Poenitentia au XIII 6 siecle. Opuscules de Critique historique. Paris,
Miiller, Dr. Karl. Die Anfange des Minoritenordens und der Bussbruder-
schaften. Freiburg, 1885.
Sabatier, Paul. Regula antiqua fratrum et sororum de Poenitentia. Opuscules
de Critique historique. Paris, 1901.
Sabatier, Paul. Nouveaux travaux sur les documents Franciscains. Opuscules
de Critique historique. Pains, 1903.
Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originates. Quaracchi, 1897.
Works of St. Francis of Assisi. Translated by a Religious of the Order.
London (R. Washbourne), 18 0.
THE THIRDE ORDER OF
FOB THE BRETHREN AND SUSTERS OF
THE ORDER OF PENITENTIS
[Note, Contractions universally recognized are not indicated in the text.
For instance, the scribe signified m or n sometimes by writing it in full, some-
times by putting a stroke over a preceding vowel. Which of these two
methods he preferred to use in any particular word is of no more interest than
which of two possible forms of the letter r.'or s he may have preferred.
Italics are therefore reserved in order to indicate that the editor is de-
parting from the MS. Where a letter is changed, that letter is put in italics
and the MS. reading given in a footnote. Where a letter or a word is supplied,
it is placed in italics between square brackets. This rule naturally applies to
the English only. All Latin is in italics. The more common contractions are
expanded without comment ; more elaborate expansions forced upon the
editor by the necessity of making his Latin intelligible are placed between
This Note refers only to the Text of the Rule of the ' Thirde Order of
Seynt Franceys ' and to that of the Rule of ' Sustris Menouresses enclosid '.]
Here beginnyth the Chapituris of the iii de order of [Foi. 2 r ]
Seynt franceys for the Brethren and Susters
of the order of Penitentis. 1
Of the catholike feyth of the Brethren and Susters of this reule.
Cam. j. 5
Of the comyng of the brethren and susters to this reule.
Of the receyuyng to profession of be brethren and susters of
this reule. Ca m . iij.
How it shall not be leafull to the brethren and susters after 10
they be come in to go oute of this reule. Capim. iiij.
Of the vesture or clothing of the brethren and susters of this rule.
Ca m . v.
How it is forboden going to eny wondringis, gasingis or to eny
dishonest festis to the brethren & susters of this reule. 15
Of the abstinence frome Fleshe eting comaundid to the brethren [Fol. 2 T ]
and susters of this reule. Caplm. vij.
Of the fasting of the brethren and susters of this reule. Caplm. viij.
Of confession and comynion of the brethren and susters of this 20
reule. Cap m . ix.
How it is forboden eny wepyn to be borne by the brethren of this
reule. Capitulum x.
Of prayer of the bretherne and susters of this reule. Capitlm. xj.
Of the testamentis of the brethren and susters of this reule. 25
Capi m . xij.
Of pece keping of the brethren and susters of this reule. Capi m . xiij.
How swering is forboden to the brethren and susters of pis reule.
Ca m . xiiij.
Of hering of masse of the brethren and susters of pis reule. 3
Ca m . xv.
Of almus doing of J>e brethren and susters of this reule. Cap m . xvj. [Fol. 3 r ]
1 The notes to which this and subsequent numbers relate will be found on
pp. 58, 59.
46 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys
Of scilens keping in the Chirche of the brethren and susters of pis
reule. Cap m . xvij.
Of the brethren & susters that be seke or dye after they be
enterid into this reule. Ca m . xviij.
5 Of office bering of the brethren of this reule. Capitulum xix.
How the visitour shall visit pe brethren and susters of this reule.
Capi m . xx.
Of the exchewiug of striues and debatis emonge the brethren and
susters of this reule. Cap m . xxj.
10 Of the dispensacion of Fastingis with the brethren and susters
of this reule. Capitulum xxij.
Of suche as be incorrigible brethren and susters of this reule.
Capi m . xxiij.
How that this reule and order byndith not vnder payne of deadely
[Fol. 3 T ] synne eny of the bretherne and susters of this reule. Capitulum
IN the name of god here beginnith the reule of[ Fo1 - 4 ']
the liuing of the brethrene and susters of the
order of penitentis.
Of the catholik feith of the bretherne and susters of this reule.
Caplm. j. 5
NICHOLAS 2 Busshoppe seruaunt of the seruauntes of god. To
cure welbelouid sonnes the bretherne and to oure welbelouid
doughters in criste the susters of the order of the brethren of
penaunce as well to them that be present as to suche as shal
be in tyme to come, Gretyng and the apostolik blessing. IT is 10
KNOWEN \>&i the stedfast grounde and foundement of cristen
religion is sett vppon the hill of the vniuersall feithe the whiche
Ipe clene | deuocion of cristes discipuls brennyng with the fyre of [Fol. 4 T ]
charite taught with the worde of besy predicacion the peple of
Jentils that walked in derkeness. The which also the churche I5
of Eome holdith & kepith, whose foundement and grounde neuer
shalbe cast doune with troubles nor brosid with no nodes of
tempestes, for this is the right and trew feith, withoute whose
company no man is accepted nor may haue grace in the sight
of god. IT is he ]?at geuith the way to saluacion and Jmt pro- 2 o
mittith the great rewardes of euerlasting felicite. THERFOR the
glorius confessor of criste Saint Fraunceys the founder of this
order, shewing in worde and dede Ipe way to come to god taught
his children in the clennes of the saide feithe & wolde that they
shulde be professed therin & stedfastly kepe it and fulfill it [Fol. 5 1 ]
in deade, so | that they walking heilfully by the same wey might
deserue to be made possessioners of euerlasting blisse after the
disseace of this present lyfe.
Of the comyng of the brethren and susters to this reule. Capi-
tulum ij. 3
FE * THERFOR willing to depart oure fauor to the seid order
and for the encrease of the same haue stabilyshte and ordeyned
that all tho that shalbe receyued to the seid order before ther
* MS. HE corrected in margin.
48 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys
admission or resceying * shalbe examened diligently of their
feith and obedience toward the forsaide chirche of rome. AND
yf they beleue treuly and stedfastly, then they may be resceyuid
suerly to the same order. NEUEKTHELESSE it is to be ware
5 diligently that none heretike or suspect of heresy 3 or noysed
[Fol. 5 T ] theruppon be admittyd in eny wyse to Ipe obseruaunce | of this lyfe
AND yf eny suche were founde that he be comytted anon to the
Inquisitoures of heresies to be ponyshid by theme. ALSO when
eny shalbe admitted to enter into this fraternite, the mynisters
10 that bene deputed to receyue them shall enquire diligently of his
office astate and condicion, declaring to them the charges of this
fraternite, and specially that tha must restore all that thay haue
of oder mennes goodes, and after pat, if it pleasith pam, they
shalbe clothed after the forme of the reule. AND then if thaye
15 haue t ony goodes of other mennes, they must restore it in monye
or after the cawcion of the pleggis. 4 AND be reconsiled neuerthe-
lesse to their neyghbor. *
Of the resceyuing to profession of the brethern and susters of pis
reule. Ca m . iij.
[Fol. 6 r l ^ THE + WHICH E all thinges so done after the space of oone yere w*
the councell and aduyse of sume of the discrete bretherne, if they
thinke that he be worthy he shalbe receyued in this maner, THAT
is for to sey that he shall promitte to kepe all the commaunde-
mentis of god and make satisfaccion of all trespases that .he shall
25 do ayenst this maner liuing to the will of the visitour whan he
shalbe required by hym, the whiche promes so made by hym
shalbe wrytte by a notary in an Instrument. AND that none be
receyued otherwise by the seid ministers w*oute hem thought 5 to
be done by the consideracion of the persons condicion and of his
30 instaunce and Desyre.
How it shall not be leafull to )?e brethern and susters after they
[Fol. 6 T ] ^ e come in to go | owte of this reule. Captm. iiij.
OUEE this we ordeyne and stablisshe that none aftyr that he is
come to this fraternite may retorne in to the worlde but he may
35 haue neuertheles fre going in to eny other approued religion. 6
And as for women that haue husbondes they shall not come in to
the seide fraternite but by the concent & licence of theme.
* MS. ' resceying '. + ' haue ' is added in later hand.
J MS. EHE corrected in margin to THE.
The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 49
Of the vesture & clothing of the Bretherne and Susters of pis
reule. Capitulum v.
FURTHERMOKE the bretherne of this fraternite shalbe comynly
clothed with meke clothes in price and coloure not all whyte or
all blacke w*oute it be dispensid with some by the visitours of the 5
councell of the mynysters of the price of the clothe 7 for a tyme
& for a- lawfull & an open | cause. The forseid bretherne also [Fol. 7']
shall haue * vesture clasped close and not opyn before as honesti
requirith and closed slevis. The susters also shall haue vesture
made w* soche meke clothe. AND as for mekenes of the clothes 10
and furres of the susters it may be dispensed after the condicion
of iche of theme and after the custome of the countrey. They
shall not vse boundes and gyrdilles of sylke. Also the bretherne
as well as the susters shall haue no furres but of lame skynnes
and purses of lether and gerdillis w*oute eny silke & none 15
other, All other vayne araye of the worlde layde aparte after
the holsome councell of the prince of the apostels.
How it is forboden goyng to eny wondryngis, gasingis or to eny
dishonest festis to the bretherne and susters of this reule.
Capitulum vj. 20
THEY SCHALL not go in no wise to no dishonest festis dyners [Fol. 7 T J
or sopers, nor to no gasingis or wonndring places nor to lordes
courtes or daunces. They shall not also geue enything to Joglers
or mynstrellis for loue of ther vaniteis and they shall forbid to
their seruauntes that they gyue theim no thing. 25
Of the abstinence frome fleshe eting comaundid to the brethern
and susters of this reule. Capi m . vij.
ECHE OF THEIM shall absteyne frome fleshe eting the Mounday,
Wednisday, Friday & Saterday withoute that they must do
otherwise by cause of sekenes or febilnes of body. And as to 30
theme that be lett bloode, they may ete fleshe iij Dayes. And they
J>at travell by the way may also ete fleshe all that while. ALSO
* A later hand has deleted four lines from ' vesture . t . . clothe ' and has
added in the lower margin : ' mantelles and pylches w*owte Scalatura kut or
hole but opyn as honesty reqwireth and closyd sieves. The susters also shall
haue mantelle and curtelle mayd w l suche meke cloth or at the leste they
shall haue w* the mantelle a guarnellum or else a placentinum of whyte or els
of blak or a wyde palumdelum of lynnen clothe made w*oute any wrynkylle.'
50 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys
[Fol. 8 r l euery one of theim | may ete fleshe in principall festis whan other
cristen men of olde custome do ete fleshe, and in other dayes pat
be not fastyng thay may ete eggis and chese but whan they come
in ony howse of religion they may ete soche as is sett before
5 theme. ALSO they must holde theme content w* ij meles a day
dyner and soper except tho that bene seke or traveling by the
way. They that bene hoole must ete & drinke temperatly, for
asmoche as the gospel seithe ' Loke that your hartis be no greuid
with gloteney and drounkenesse '. Euermore befor dyner and
10 before soper they shall saye a PATER NOSTER, and aftyr euery
mele a nother PATER NOSTER, w* DEO GRACIAS, and if tha fayle
so to doo they shall say PATER NOSTER thries Jerfor.
Of the fasting of the bretherne & susters of this reule.
[Fol. 8 V ] THEY SCHALL fast euery Friday of the yere withoute eny
sekenes or other laufull cause lett theme or without cristemasse
day fall vpon the friday. FKOME alhalowtide vnto ester day thei
shall fast wednisday and friday and they must kepe neuerthelesse
all oper fasting dayes that bene ordeynde by the churche and pat
20 be commaundid by the ordinaryes for a comyn cause. In seint
martin lente 8 vnto Cristemas day and frome the sonday of
Quinquagesime tyll ester day they muste faste eueiy day excepte
sondayes withoute sekenes or eny other cause lett theme. The
susters that bene with childe vnto the day of per purificacion if
25 they will shall do no thynge of bodeley occupacion except prayers.
THEI that labore for cause of ther werines frome estyr tyll
[Fol. 9 r ] seint FKAUNCEYS 9 may | ete laufully thries in the day whan they
laubor. And when they shall worke for other men they shall ete
such as is sett before them * euery day excepte fridaies or other
30 fasting dayes ordeyned generally by the churche.
Of confession and cominion of the brederne & susters of this
reule. Capi m . ix.
ALSO EUEEY brother and suster iij tymes in the yere, that
is Cristemasse, Ester, and Whitsontide, must be shreven and
35 houseled 10 deuoutly and be reconsiled with ther neyghbours
restoring also other mennys goodes.
* ' euery day ' added in a later hand.
l)f j>mvcr of ^ &cf6d^^/nJfct*--~
ofi#KS x rgulc. <f<ttnfu(nnj. jfj.
PPBiBCi)C of d?iitu* nu$kytuu
f^t* ?>ftftm* iflVrt
. at* if t^er
FOLIO 9 V. OF THE PENNANT MS;
The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 51
How it is forboden eny wepyn to be borne 11 by the bretherne
of this reule. Capi m . x.
THE BKETHERNE shall bere with theme no wepyn withoute it
be for the defence of the churche of Eome or for the cristen faith
or for ther owne | londe or ellis by the lycens of )?e ministers. [Fol. 9 T ]
Of prayer of the bretherne & susters of thes reule. Capitulum xj.
ECHE OF THEME muste say euery day ther service, that is
Matyns, Prime and owers, Evynsong & Complyn 12 , and thei that
be clarkes that can j^e Saulter shall say at prime DEUS, IN
NOMINE TUO and BEATI INMACVLATI U vnto LEGEM PONE 1B whith 10
other psalmys w* Gloria yatri^ as clerkes done. And when thei
go not to the churche they shall sey for matens the psalmis that
the clerkis or the Cathedrall churche saithe, or ellis as other
onlerned men done, For matens xij PATER NOSTER, and for euery
owre vij PATER NOSTER w* GLORIA PATRI. So that at prime and jg
at Complene they that can it shall sey oon CREDE U and MISERERE
MEI DEUS", and if they | say not in dewe tymes, they muste sey [Fol. 10 r ]
iij PATER NOSTER. They that be seke be not bounden to sey the
said owers w*owten they will. IN SAINT Martyn lent & also
in the great lent 18 they shall go to matens to the parishe chirche 20
wher they dwell withoute they haue a laufull excuse.
Of the Testamentes of the bretherne and Susters of this reule.
Capi m . xij.
ALSO ICHE of them that may by the lawe muste make his
Testament and dispose his goodis anon w*in iij monethis after 25
that they be comyn in so that none of them discese withoute
Of pece keping of the bretherne and susters of this reule.
AND AS FOB peace making betwene the bretherne & susters 3
or betwixit strangers it shalbe as the | mynisters woll have it with [ Fol !0 T ]
the councell of the diosesan if nede be to be hade in this party.
And if the bretherne or susters wer vexed by the iuges or
gouerners of the places wherin they dwell ayenst the lawe or ther
priuileges, the mynysters of ther places must goo to the Busshopis 35
and ordinaries and must Do after J>er counsell and ordinaunce.
52 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys
How swering is forboden to the brethern and susters of tins reule.
Capi m . xiiij.
THEY MUSTE also absteyne fro Solempne othes 19 withoute nede
require it and in causes admitted by the pope, that is for the peace
5 for the faithe and for a maner of a nothe J>at is callyd De
calumpnia, for witnesse bering and for contractis of byeng &
selling & of Donacion wher it shall be sene expedient, and in
[Fol. ll r ] ther comen speche they | muste exchew as * moche as tha may
othes andt swering. And he that eny day onwarly svverith by
10 lightnes of tounge, as it fortuneth often tymes in moche J angeling,
he must sey at euyn whan he remernbrithe hym selfe what he
hath done iij PATER NOSTER for soche ondescrete othes. ALSO
iche of theim muste haue goode mynde to teche his seruauntes and
to stere theim to goddes seruice.
15 Of hering of masse of the bretherne & susters of Jns reule.
Capi m . xv.
EUEEY BEOTHEE and suster ]?at hathe ther helthe, of what
countre or place that so euer they be, yf they may goodly, must
here masse euery day 20 and euery moneth they must appere to
20 f>at chirche or place wher the mynisters shall assigne theim ther
to here solempne masses.
[Fol. ll v ] Of almus doing of the bretherne and | susters of this reule.
ECHE or THEME also muste geve a peny of customably money
25 to the storer, 21 the whiche shall receyve it and departe it con-
gruently by the councel of the ministers betwixte the poore
bretherne and susters and specially amonge tho that be seke and
amonge suche that haue not wherwith to be buryed and aftyr that
amonge the poore men.
30 FOBTHEEMOEE they shall offer of the same money to the churche
aboue saide. And then, if it may be, they shall gett theme a-
Religious man competently lettered, the whiche shall stere theme
and enduce them besily ta penance and to the fulfilling of the
dedis of mercy.
* ' moche as ' added in later hand. f ' and ' added in later hand.
The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 53
Of * siZence keping in the chi[r]che of the brethern & susters of
this reule. Ca m . xvij.
ECHE OF THEME muste kepe his silence whan the masse isf [Fol. 12 r ]
in doing, and whan the worde of gode is saide, tha must take hede
to prayer and to the office withoute he be letted for cause of the 5
comen profet of the fraternite.
Of the brethern & susters bat be seke or dye aftyr they be
enterd in to J>is reule. Ca m . xviij.
AND WHEN eny of the brethern shalbe seke, the ministers must
visit theim or sum other in ther place if they haue knowlege 10
therof ones in the weke stering theim besily to penaunce in the
best maner that they shall thinke expedient for theim, geffyng
theim also that is necessary to theim of the comen goodes ; and
if eny of them disseace, | it must be uotyfied to all the brethern [Fol. 12 T ]
& susters of the place wher he is deade, the whiche must be 15
present to the deade man exequies and not Departe till the masse
be done and the body be buried. And this also must be obserued
to the Susters that be seke and }at disseasen. Ouer this euery
brother & suster w*in viij dayes of the obite of hym bat is
disseased shall say for his soule, that is for to sey, preistis shall 20
sey one masse for hym, and they that can be psalter shall sey
1. psalmus and they J>at be vnletterd shall say 1. PATER NOSTER
and at the ende of iche they shall sey REQUIEM ETERNAM, and
besyde all this they shall J cause to be sayd euery yere iij masses
for the welthe 22 of the bretherne and susters quike and deade, | and [Fol. 13 r ]
they that can >e psalter they shall say it ones and other shall sey
an hunderd PATER NOSTER with REQUIEM ETERNAM & cetera at the
ende of iche.
Of office bering of the bretherne of this reule. Cap m . xix.
ECHE or THEME also muste deuoutly take vpon theme all 30
other occupacions & offices enioyned theme that this reule
requireth and treuly execute them. Also euery officer shalbe but
for a tyme and none for terme of lyffe.
* MS. reads ' licence '.
t MS. adds ' be ' which is deleted and then apparently restored.
J MS. 'say' deleted.
54 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys
How the visitoure shall visit the bretherne & susters of pis
reule. Cap m . xx.
ALSO THE ministers and bretherne & susters of eueryCyte and
[Fol. 13 T ] place must gader theme in some Religiouse place or in | a chirche
5 whan ther is no religiouse place and ther they muste haue a preist
of sum religion approued, the whiche shall enioyne thame pennaunce
for ther trespaces. So that none other may execute this office
of visitacion vpon theme. And forasmuche that this maner of
lyffing was ordeyned and stablisshed by Seynt Fraunces, we geue
10 councell that the forseide visitores and techars be taken of the
Frere menores suche as the Custodis or Wardenis of the saide
order whan they be required shall assigne. And we woll in no
wise that suche congregacion bene visit by laye men. And this
visitacion shalbe doon ones in the yere withoute it be nedfull to be
[Fol. 14 r ] done ofter, and if eny of theme | bene rebellis and will not be
corrected, aftyr thryes warnyng they shalbe put oute of the
congregacion by the counsell of Discrete men.
Of the exchewing of Stryves and debatis emonge the bretherne and
susters of this reule. Caplm. xxj.
20 ALSO THE brethern & susters in all that tha may must
exchewe stryves and Debates emonge theme, and if eny hap, they
must besili amend it or ellis they must annswer in the lawe before
hym that hathe Jurisdiction.
Of the dispensacion of fastingis withe be bretherne and susters
25 of this reule. Caplm. xxij.
ALSO THE OEDINAEIES and visitor may despence with all the
[Fol. 14 T ] bretherne and susters in ther | abstinences, Fastingis & other
obseruaunces, whan nede causes resonabill shall require it.
Of suche as be incorrigible brethern and susters of this reule.
30 Cap m . xxiij.
THE MYNISTEES also shall denounce to the visitoure the opyn
fautis of the bretherne & susters and he shall punyshe theme.
And yf eny of theme be incorrigible 23 aftyr thryes waruyng, the
ministers muste denounce theme by the councell of sum of the
35 discrete bretherne to the visitour, the whiche shall putt hym oute
of the feliship and this muste be aftyrwarde publisshid in the
ccfifcrtvct m ckifcutwc ft
*i* jofobnte itfnc" fupcr cbpul
iU fcmcCcu mt0A*
/riic fiwnuut?c/w&u) fonm cu
mfti^ (>afiu.cf c^f m foa> ntdauicft m tufaak
fcrwi iirii|rtj^c<U a Tutcufi&finc
it (uau cofcffctc aui fiutynni* Sale
FOLIO 15 V. OF THE PENNANT MS.
The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 55
How that J>is reule & order byndithe not vnder payne of dedly
synne eny of \>Q brethern & susters of | this reule. [Fol. 15 r ]
NEUEBTHELESSE we woll not that tochyng the premisses eny
of the bretherne or susters of pe order fall in eny deadely synne 5
for soche thynges in the whiche they be not bounden by the
commaundementis of god or by the statutes of the churche but
that they resceyue mekely & affectually fulfylle soche pennaunces
as is put vpon theme for ther offencis.
Therfor be it not leafull to no maner of man to Interrupte 10
or come ayenste this oure present statute and ordinaunce.
And if eny presume to attempte ther ayenste, let hym wytt
]?at he fallith in to the indignacion of almyghty god & of hys
apostles Seynt Petir and seynt Powle.
Gouen at Keate 24 the xv Kalendes* 25 of Septembre Tpe secunde 15
yere of oure pontificacion 26 . Deo gracias. L Fo1 - 15V ]
DE TERCIO EC1AM ORDINE
Beatus Franciscus produxit multos flores, scilicet sanctum Ludo-
uicum regem francie, Elzearium comitem ariani, qui cum beata 2 o
delphina vxore sua in matrimonio iurauit t perpetuam virginitatem.
Item sanctum luonem J iuris vtriusque doctorem presbyterumque et
confessorem de britania minori, qui fuit magne deuocionis et con-
templacionis atque miraculis claruit ; ac semel cum missam celebraret
in eleuacione sacramenti visus est globius igneus super caput eius. 25
Item beatum lucensem siue lucencium de podio bonai cuius capud
ego in manibus habui, et est in loco nostro qui est in tuscia super
montem imperialem, ubi est eciam corpus eius. Et monasterium
nostrum appellat[ttr] sancti lucensis siue lucensii. Item produxit
sanctum lucium confessorem qui fuit primus sanctus de isto tercio 30
ordine Et sanctum Nicholucium de senis ac beatum lacobum de laude
sacerdotem et miraculis clarum, Et beatum Petrum Romanum qui
sub soldano fuit | martirizatus, Sanctum bonazicum de vulterra, Et [FoL 16 r ]
beatum Petrum de colle, Ac beatum Alexandrum de perusio, Et
* MS. 'Kalender'. t Printed edit, 'servavit'.
J MS. ' Inonem '. Printed edit. ' Luchesium, Luchesii '.
56 The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys
beatum leonem archiepiscopum Mediolani, Gualterium episcopum
triuisii, Et beatum Richardum episcopura fossombroni, Ac beatum
alexandruin magistrum theologie Et beatum Carolum * Ac beatum
Laudonem de monte feltro, Et beatum lohannem de vrbino, Ac
* beatum lohannem de Rauena Et beatum torelum de pupio, Ac
beatum bartolum de sancto gemmanot Et beatum petrum pectinarium
de senis Ac beatum Robertum dominum arimini, Et beatum thoma-
succium de fulgenio prophetam ac miraculis clarissimum : similiter
quo ad mulieres produxit Sanctam elizabeth filiam regis hungarie
10 que fuit vxor landegauii duels lothoringie. Item sanctam Rosam de
viterbio, Sanctam Margaretam de Cothona, Sanctam bonodonam de
bodio bona vxorem sancti luchesii, Beatain emilianam de florencia,
Et beatam Claram de monte falcie in cuius corde inuentus est
sculptus crucifixus cum omnibus misteriis passionis, & tres parue
I 5 pille in eius pectore reperte sunt quarum vna tantum ponderat
quantum due et quantum omnes tres simul. Et non plus ponderant
omnes tres simul quam vna sola: Per quod significatur quod ipsa
[Fol. 16 T ] habuit continuam memoriam passionis cristi et perfectam | fidem
vnitatis diuine essencie et equalitatis trium personarum diuinarum.
20 Que omnia Ego propriis oculis aspexi. Item beatam elizabeth im-
peratricem Romanorum vxorem caroli quarti regis francorum et
Imperatoris que miraculis coruscauit, Et beatam blancam reginam
francie, matrem sancti Ludouici regis francorum, que signis et
miraculis claruit, Et beatam meam de senis, Et beatam paschalinam
2 5 de fulgineo, Et beatam Michelinam de pensauro, Ac beatam angelam
de fulgineo que duodecim annis quotidie sumpsit dominicum corpus
[nihil] t aliud manducans sed illo cibo celesti refecta oracioni et con-
templacioni vacabat. Item beatam beatricem de Rushonibus comi-
tissam que nostris temporibus fuit et a septem anm's citra mortua est
3 multisque miraculis claruit et est sepulta Mulier in ecclesia nostra
sancti angeli. Vt etiam dicit Magister bartholomeus pisanus vbi
supra Iste ordo commendari potest de nobilitate, Nam multi magni
homines de diuersis regnis christianitatis, Comites, Duces, principes,
barones & nobiles, tarn viri quam mulieres, fuerunt de tercio ordine
iol. l/ r ] beati Francissi. Inter quos vltra superius enarratos | fuit ilia Regina
vngarie que fecit monasterium campi regis in austria Et alia regina
vngarie, mater regis ludouici ; istum quoque habitum induit quedam
Imperatrix Constantinopolis, Et vna regina cathalonie, Et rex lacobus
dux sarbundie, & Magister magnifici Domini lohannis lacobi de
40 triulcio Et dominus Bartholomeus de vignate cuius proaui fuerunt
Domini ciuitatis laudensis. Et dominus lanzalotus de decio iuris
* MS. .' Caraluin '. f MS. 'gemmans'.
} MS. < vel '. MS. ' annos '.
The Thirde Order of Seynt Franceys 57
vtriusque doctor peritissiraus ac lector in studio papiensi cum aliis
quasi in[n]umerabilibus * Et inbulla que incipit ' Sacri predicatorum
et minorum ordines '. que aurea appellalfur concessit fratribus et
sororibus tercii ordinis et eoruin congregacionum omnes gracias et
priuilegia que vnquam ipsis fratribus minoribus per sedem aposto- 5
licam sunt concessa dummodo eorum statui non repugnant, sicut
est predicare, Confessiones audire et huiusmodi. Et consequenter
gaudeant priuilegiis omnium fratrum mendicancium, sicut ipsi fratres
minores ut per eandetn bullam patet per Sixtwmt papam quartum,
ut patet in parte secunda rosarii Bernardini de ftustij Sermone t
* The quotation from Bernardine de Bustis ends here.
+ MS. 'Sixtam'.
t MS. 'Rusti'. '
J Third order of Seynt Franceys . . . of the order of Penitentis. This title
is interesting as showing the earlier as well as the later name of the Tertiaries.
From their foundation until nearly the end of the thirteenth century they
were known in ecclesiastical documents and also popularly as Fratres de
Poenitentia or Or do de Poenitentia. It was not until the end of the thirteenth
century that the title ' Third Order ' was used as an official designation of the
Franciscan Tertiaries. It will be noticed that the title, though appearing
here in the heading, does not occur anywhere in the text of the Bull of
Nicholas IV (1289). For full discussion of this topic see Mandonnet, Les
Regies et le gouvernement de V Ordo de Pcnnitentia au XIII e siecle. Paris,
1902. Pp. 194-5.
2 Nicholas. This is Nicholas IV (Hieronymus of Ascoli), a cardinal and
Bishop of Palestrina. He was raised to the Pontificate on February 15, 1288,
and occupied it until April 4, 1292. As stated at the end of this Bull, 1289
was the second year of his Pontificate. Nicholas was himself a Franciscan :
he was indeed Minister General of the Order from 1274 to 1279.
* None heretike or suspect of heresy. This clause indicates the fear which
the Holy See entertained lest the new penitential 'fraternities', which were
multiplying rapidly in the thirteenth century, might become heretical and
a danger to the Church. Consisting largely of lay folk, they were constantly
liable to drift into conflict with the hierarchy and even to lapse into heresy.
Or noysed thereupon, Latin ' aut etiam infamatus *.
4 After the cawcion of the pleggis. A literal translation of the original
' secundum exhibitam pignoris cau tionem '.
5 W t oute hem thought, ' Unless it seems to them ', i. e. to the ministers.
* Eny other approved religion. The mediaeval use of the word ' religion '
is more limited in sense than the modern use. It implies an organized branch
of religion, a religious order.
7 Price of the clothe. This chapter shows the necessary development from
the primitive simplicity of the early days. In R 1 it is prescribed that the price
of the cloth must not exceed six ' solda ' of Ravenna, a local measure which
would obviously be useless for general use.
8 Seint Martin lente, often referred to as the lesser Lent, was the period
from S. Martin's Day, November 11 until Christmas.
9 Tyll seint Frauncys, i. e. until the feast of S. Francis, October 4. For
note on substitution of this feast for Michaelmas, see p. 32.
10 Houseled = ' communicated '.
11 Bearing of weapons. This was one of the points which brought the
' Penitents ' into collision with the secular authorities. They were thus pre-
vented by the Rule from taking up arms in merely secular disputes. The
creation of this Order and others with similar principles was one of the factors
which contributed to the breakdown of Feudalism.
12 Matyns . . . Comply n. These are the seven canonical hours, Matins,
Prime, Terce, Sext, Nones, Vespers, and Compline. In the Latin text the
* hours ' are enumerated in full.
13 Deus, in nomine tuo. The opening words of Psalm liv.
14 Seati inmaculati. The opening words of Psalm cxix.
15 Legem pone. The opening words of verse 33 of Psalm cxix.
16 Crede, that is the Apostles' Creed.
11 Miserere met Deus, i. e. Psalm li.
18 The great lent, i. e. the Lent preceding Easter, in contradistinction to
' St. Martin's Lent ' or ' the lesser Lent '.
19 Absteyne from solempne othes. The provisions relating to the taking of
oaths appear also in the Capestrano Rule and form one of many parallels
with the Rule of the Humiliati. Whether there is a distinct reference here
and in the corresponding chapters of Rl to the Bull Detestanda is dis-
cussed on p. 29. R 2 and R 3 go further than R 1 in extending the circum-
stances for the taking of oaths 'for contractis of byeng and selling and of
donacion ', &c.
20 Here masse euery day. In this respect R 3 is decidedly stricter than R 1 ;
for under R 1 the Penitents were bound to hear Mass only once a month.
21 Storer. Latin ' massarius ' = treasurer.
22 Welthe = well-being. Latin ' salute '.
43 Yf eny of them be incorrigible. It will be noticed that the provisions
relating to ' incorrigible brethren ' appear twice, here in chap, xxiii and also
in chap. xx.
24 Rente. A town in Umbria lying between Assisi and Rome. It has
many Franciscan associations.
25 XV Kalendes of Septembre = August 18. For note on 'Ralender'
nee p. 37.
24 Seconde yere of cure pontificacion = 1289. Nicholas IV ascended the
Papal throne in 1288.
EDITED FROM A XV CENTURY MS.
(MS. Bodl. 585)
IN THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY
INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND GLOSSARY
WALTEE W. SETON, M.A.
THE ORDER or S. CLARE.
THE connexion between the several branches of the great move-
ment in the life of the Church, the Order of S. Francis, is so
intimate and close that it is almost impossible 1 to treat of any one
branch of the Order without treating of the others. Most parti-
cularly is this the case when the Second Order or Order of S. Clare
is considered. For while its history is interwoven with that of the
Third Order or Order of Penitents, its history is quite inseparable
from that of the First Order or Order of Friars Minor.
The Order of S. Clare has recently been the subject of much of
the most valuable research which has been carried out in the field
of Franciscan Studies. For the time being at any rate Pere
Livarius Oliger, 0. F. M., has in his two articles in the Archivum
Franciscanum Historicum,* 'De Origine Eegularum Ordinis /S.
Clarae,' so thoroughly and exhaustively reviewed both the materials
and the criticism based upon them, that a restatement of the whole
case is superfluous until new material comes to light. This does not
imply that there are not some controversial points in Pere Oliger's
statement of the case, to certain of which reference will be made later.
Again, Father Cuthbert's introduction to Mrs. Balfour's Life and
Legend of the Lady S. Clare reviews very clearly one particular
aspect of the Order, viz. the life-long struggle of S. Clare to keep
alive the tradition of the early Franciscan spirit and to win for her
whole spiritual family the Privilege of Poverty. Nor are these two
works the only ones of importance in connexion with the story of
the Clarisses. Much material will be found dealing with every
aspect of the subject.
This being so, it appears unnecessary, in presenting an edition of
the particular Rule of the Second Order which is here published, to
* Tom. v. Fasc. II and III. An. 1912.
restate in detail the facts already ascertained or to reargue the
case. It will be sufficient to recapitulate very briefly the out-
standing facts up to the year 1253 and then deal in greater detail
with the so-called ' Isabella Rule '.
The birthday of the Order was Palm Sunday, 1212, when Clare
left her home in Assisi and in the Chapel of the Portiuncula entered
the religious life as a follower of S. Francis. In the following
year she was placed by S. Francis in San Damiano together with
a small band of sisters who had already followed her example.
Whether there was a written Rule in existence between 1212 and
1218 is a disputed question, but at any rate no such Rule is at
present known, and it would appear more probable that there was
nothing more than a ' formula vitae ' given to S. Clare by S.
Francis, which is found quoted in the later Rule of 1253: Quia
divina inspirations fecistis vos filias et ancillas altissimi summi
Regis Patris coelestis, et Spiritui sancto vos desponsastis eligendo
vivere secundum perfectionem sancti Evangelii : volo et promitto per
me et Fratres meos semper habere de vobis tanquam de ipsis cur am
diligentem, et sollicitudinem specialem.
This ' formula vitae ' is important because it contains in embryo
two of the most vital matters in the history of the Rule, viz. the
' evangelical perfection ' or Privilege of Poverty and the dependence
of the Clarisses upon the Friars Minor and their identification with
the Franciscan Order.
The next fact of consequence is that in or about 1215 S. Clare
obtained from 'the Pope Innocent III an oral grant of the so-called
' Privilege of Poverty '. It must here be explained what was the
essential feature of the Privilege of Poverty as understood and
practised by S. Francis and S. Clare. It did not mean merely
that they personally and their followers individually renounced
private property : that would have been no new feature, for it was
one quite familiar in religious life. The essential feature was that
property was not to be held by the community as a whole or as
a corporate body : in other words, the community was to be depen-
dent on the voluntary gifts of the faithful.
The first extant Rule of the Clarisses is what is generally known
as the Hugoline Constitutions, so-called because they were drawn
up in 1219 by Ugolino, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, under authority
granted to him by Honorius III. The text of the Hugoline
Constitutions will be found in a Bull of Gregory IX.* The aim
of these Constitutions was to bring the newly formed Order more
directly under the authority of the Curia and to make it conform
to a greater extent to the existing religious orders. But the Con-
stitutions deliberately left out the Privilege of Poverty, and indeed
ma.de definite provision for property to be held in common and
inherited by each house. It would seem that after the return of
S. Francis from the East, Ugolino was persuaded by him to modify
the Constitutions in the case of S. Clare's own house of San Damiano,
outside Assisi, by recognizing the oral grant of poverty given to her
by Innocent III, but this concession did not extend to the case of
the other houses of the Clarisses.
The Hugoline Constitutions remained in force as the Rule of the
Clarisses from 1219 to 1247, although it may be doubted whether
they were ever really observed by the mother-house of San Damiano
or indeed by certain other houses. The Papal records between
those dates contain numerous Bulls relating to the Rule, some
addressed to S. Clare and some to Blessed Agnes of Prague. It may
here be mentioned that probably in the past too little attention has
been paid to the part taken by Bl. Agnes in the negotiations with
the Holy See as to the Privilege of Poverty.
The year 1247 was marked by the issue of a new Rule by
Innocent IV, contained in the Bull Cum omnis vera Religio.^
This Rule left the question of the Privilege of Poverty unaltered :
there was still provision for the sisters to hold property in common
for the use of the community. It marked progress, however, in
this respect, namely, that it omitted the references to the Benedictine
Rule, which had raised scruples in the minds of the Clarisses and
of which more will be said later, and it defined their position as
part of the Franciscan Order. Thus it provides that they are to
live ' according- to the Rule of Saint Francis so far as it relates to
three things, obedience, surrender of private property, and chastity'.
In the profession of the sisters the vow is made ' to God, and to
Blessed Mary ever- Virgin, to Blessed Francis and all the Saints'.
But, what is still more important, the care of all the houses of
Clarisses is handed over to the Minister General and Provincials
of the Order of Friars Minor. Such then was the second Rule of
* Sbaralea, i. 263. t Sbar. i. 476.
The year 1253 was that in which S. Clare's victory was won.
Two days before her death, viz. on August 9, 1253, Innocent IV>
issued the Bull Solet annuere* which gave to the Order of Clarisses,
not at San Damiauo alone but everywhere, the long-coveted Privilege
of Poverty. Neither the individual sisters nor the congregations
were to be compelled to receive or inherit property.
S. Francis himself had died in 1226, i.e. twenty-seven years
before the issue of this third Rule ; thus during more than a
quarter of a century S. Clare had stood fast for the primitive
ideals which had governed m S. Francis and which had led her in
the beginning into the path of complete self-renunciation.
Before passing on from this point to the later history of the Rule
which concerns more intimately the particular version here published,
it is necessary to turn back and examine in somewhat greater
detail one aspect of the question, viz. the significance of the
references to the Benedictine Rule in the earlier versions of the Rule
of the Clarisses.
Ever since the middle of the eighteenth century the question
has been debated whether S. Clare at her profession adopted the
Benedictine Rule, and whether and if so in what sense the Clarisses
in the early history of the Order were Benedictines. Some of the
outstanding facts are these :
The day following her profession S. Clare was committed by
S. Francis to the Convent of S. Paulo near Bastia, which followed
the Benedictine Rule, whence shortly afterwards she was trans-
ferred to another Benedictine House, S. Angeli de Panso on the
slopes of Mount Subasio. It was not long, however, before she
was brought to San Damiano, and there formed the community of
Poor Ladies, living, as far as can be ascertained, in accordance
with the ' formula vitae ' given to her by S K Francis.
As has been seen, the first known form of the Rule of the Poor
Ladies is found in the Hugoline Constitutions of 1218-19. Now
these Constitutions contain the following words ;
' Regulam Beatissimi Benedict!, in qua virtutum perfectio et summa discretio
noscitur instituta, quae et a sanctis Patribus a principio devote suscepta est, et
ab Ecclesia Itomana venerabiliter approbata, vobis concedimus observandam
in omnibus, in quibus eidem vivendi formulae vobis a Nobis traditae, cum
adhuc eseemus in minori officio constituti, contraria minime comprobatur.'
* Sbar. i. 671.
These facts Pere Oliger * explains by referring to the XHIth
Canon of the Lateran Council, which had been held in 1215 and
which required that no new ' religion ' should be founded in the
Church, but that those who felt led to a religious vocation should
attach themselves to one of the already existing Orders, e.g. the
Benedictine or the Augustinian. As an illustration, he asserts
that S. Dominic i formaliter Regulam S. Augustini accepit'. He
infers that the references to the Benedictine Rule in the Hugoline
Constitutions and in the later Bulls of the Holy See addressed to
S. Clare must not be understood to imply that the Poor Ladies
were regarded as following the Benedictine Rule otherwise than
* formaliter ', that is as a kind of ecclesiastical fiction. It is of course
quite true that Pope Innocent IV, writing to Bl. Agnes of Bohemia,
had ruled that the obligation in respect of the Benedictine Rule
implied no more than observance of the vows of canonical obedience,
poverty, and chastity .t On the other hand it is clear that, what-
ever interpretation was put by the Curia upon the clauses
requiring observance of the Benedictine Rule by the Poor Ladies,
however much its significance was minimized by Innocent IV, the
question was a very vital and acute one in the minds of the Poor
Ladies themselves, at any rate at Prague. The Bull In Divini
timore nominis, already mentioned, makes clear that it was issued
because Bl. Agnes had written to the Pope, saying that the words
in the Rule ' The Rule of S. Benedict ', troubled their consciences,
as they feared that by attempting to serve two Rules simultaneously
they were committing mortal sin. Nor was this doubt confined to
Bl. Agnes and her sisters at Prague. For in August, 1244, the
Pope sent to S. Clare whether in response to a remonstrance
from her or not, we do not know precisely the same ruling J upon
the words 'The Rule of S. Benedict' which he had sent in November.
1243, to Bl. Agnes. In November, 1245, the Hugoline Constitutions
were reaffirmed in the Bull Solet annuere addressed to all the
congregations of Poor Clares, and still the observance of the
Benedictine Rule is required. Reference has already been made to
the Rule of Innocent IV of 1 247 and to the fact that from this Rule
* De Orig. Eegul. Ordin. S. Clarae, A. F. H., 1912, pp. 181-4, 203-5,
f Bull In Divini timore nominis, Sbar. i. 242.
J Bull Cum universitati vestrae, Sbar. i. 850.
Cum omnis vera Iteligio, see p. 65.
the references to the Benedictine Rule disappear for the first time.
That Rule was probably granted in response to representations
made by S. Clare and Bl. Agnes, for the Pope refers to himself as
being ' vestris piis precibus inclinati ', and it may be supposed that
one of the matters upon which they petitioned the Holy See and
this time successfully was the elimination of the reference to the
This repeated protest on the part of the Poor Ladies themselves
and the tone of the responses from the Holy See make it difficult
to accept Pere Oliger's view that the observance of the Benedictine
Rule by the Clarisses was a mere formality, and that it must not
be understood as having constituted a real obligation ; they make
it hard to suppose that it is in any sense comparable with S.
Dominic's relation to the Augustinian Rule. One illustration
which Pere Oliger himself gives seems to prove rather more than he
intends it to show. He quotes the case of the Clarisses of Barcelona*
who, in 1514, refused to be reformed, and contended that they
were not Clarisses, but in reality Benedictines, giving as evidence
for this the Bulls of Innocent IV, in which they were bidden to
live after the Rule of the Holy Father Benedict ; and ultimately
they went over to the Benedictine Order. This may certainly
show the confusion which arose in later years as to the Rules
which governed individual Houses of Poor Clares, some of which
had no desire to accept the settlement of 1253 ; but it also proves
that the Benedictine character of the Hugoline Constitutions was
something real as well as formal, if the Sisters at Barcelona were
able thus successfully to appeal to the Hugoline Constitutions to
show that they were Benedictines and not Franciscans. Special
emphasis has been laid here on this matter as it is one of the few
doubtful conclusions among those reached by Pere Oliger in his
otherwise most valuable treatise, which one must challenge.
The death of S. Clare in 1253 was an important event in the
development of the Rule. With her passed away one of the last
direct links between her Order and the great Founder. It is true
that her tradition was carried on for more than a quarter of a
century after her death by her friend and correspondent, Bl. Agnes,
who died in 1281/82. But the years which followed 1253 were
marked by a falling away from the ideals of S. Clare in the Order
* Annibal de Latera. Suppl. ad Bull. Kome, 1780, part ii. 60.
generally, rather than by the development of them further. Taking
then 1253 as a fresh starting-point, we find the Rule formulated
in exact accordance with the life-long desires of S. Clare ; the
Privilege of Poverty duly granted and acknowledged ; the Clarisses
occupying their spiritual birthright as part of the Order of S.
Francis. But it may well be doubted whether all the Houses of
Poor Clares were imbued with the fervent spirit of the mother-
The next stage in the history of the Rule centres around a new
House, which did not regard the Privilege of Poverty as an essen-
tial feature of its loyalty to S. Clare. It was in 1254 or 1255
that Blessed Isabella, sister of S. Louis, King of France, founded
in the Diocese of Paris the Monastery of Longchamp, known more
generally as ' Abbatia Humilitatis Beatae Mariae '. The first
stone was laid by S. Louis himself on June 10, 1256. For this
new House, Isabella did not desire to adopt any one of the existing
Rules of the Clarisses, but her plan was to secure the Papal appro-
bation for a new Rule which was to be an amalgam of previous
Rules. To her the absolute poverty which was sought after by
S. Clare was too hard a path ; she was content that the sisters of
Longchamp should hold property, which was to be administered
for them by a Procurator according to the provision made by the
Rule of 1247. On the other hand, she desired to incorporate
provisions making clear their lineal connexion with the Franciscans
and placing them under the direction of the Minister General and
the Provincials of the Friars Minor. A life of Bl. Isabella by
Agnes de Harcourt tells us that the new Rule was drawn up by
five of the Friars Minor who were learned masters of theology.
The names given by Agnes de Harcourt are : Frater Bonaventura,
frater Guilidmus de MilUtonne, f rater Odo de Roni, f rater Gode-
fridus de Vierson, frater Guilielmus de ffarcombour.
According to Pere Oliger this Rule was approved by Alexan-
der IV: later, namely on July 27, 1263, it was confirmed with
some alterations by Urban IV in the Bull Religionis augmentum*
Still later, the Rule thus prepared under the supervision of Bl.
Isabella was slightly modified by Boniface VIII, and it is the
English version of this Rule as revised by Boniface VIII which is
* Sbar. ii. 477.
It was for some time believed that the text of the Rule as
originally approved by Alexander IV was no longer in existence.
That was the view expressed by Sbaralea in his publication of
vol. ii of the Bullarium Franciscanum in which Religionis aug-
mentum is contained. The same view has been quite recently
repeated by Pere Oliger, who in his work already mentioned,
Opus quinque Magistrorum primum approbatum est ab Ale-
xandra IV, cuius tamen diploma non superest.
Pere Oliger appears to have overlooked the fact that Sbaralea
himself had by the time he published his third volume discovered
an original autograph copy of the Bull of Alexander IV with
the leaden seal in the Archives of the Convent of Holy Cross,
Florence : the Bull, which is dated February 2, 1259, has the
following ending :
Explicit Regula Humilium Ancillarum Gloriosissimae Mariae
Virginia Matris Dei, quam Frater Mansuetus de Ordine Fratrum
Minorum de mandato Summi Pontificis et Cardinalium quorum-
dam diligenti consilio composuit et dictavit.
Now the name of Frater Mansuetus does not occur among the
names of the five masters of theology who, according to Agnes of
Harcourt, prepared the Eule. Further, Agnes states :
Prae ceteris volebat ut sorores abbatiae nominarentur ' sorores
minores ', neque ullo modo Regula illi sujficere poterat, nisi istud
nomen illi fuisset insertum.
Now the name sorores minores is precisely one of the alterations
made by Urban's Bull Religionis a^^gmentum upon the work of
' And we ordeynid and establissiu pat pis rule be clepid from
]?is time forjje Menoressis enclosid.' * ; whereas in the Bull of
Alexander IV the name Sorores Minores does not occur and the
sisters are called Sorores Ordinis Humilium Ancillarum Beatissimae
Virginia Gloriosae. The inference is obvious. The Bull approved
by Alexander IV in 1259 is anterior to the one composed by the
five Masters of Theology, and was probably composed not by
them, but by one Frater Mansuetus by the direction of the Pope.
It must be, however, admitted that the only evidence for this
theory is the unique copy of the Bull mentioned by Sbaralea and
* See p. 81, 1. 26.
reprinted also by Flaminius Annibal in his Supplement to the
The first sisters of the Monastery of Longchamp came apparently
from the House of San Damiano at Rheims, as is shown by a Bull
of Alexander IV dated from Anagnia, February 12, 1259, i.e. just
ten days before the Bull which first approved the Isabella Rule.
It appears that the Isabella Rule never had a very great vogue
outside France. It was soon superseded to a great extent by the
Urbanist Rule of 1263. Pere Oliger refers to only one House in
Italy adopting this Rule, and he makes no reference at all to the
English colony which will be described later. There is, however,
one other House, following the Isabella Rule, which has an
interesting link with the manuscript here published, and that is
the Monastery of S. Catherine of Provence. A Bull of Urban IV,
dated June 22, 1264, states in the preamble that the Rule granted
by Alexander IV to Longchamp had been revised by Cardinal
Simon de Bria, and that he (Urban) was moved to this revision
by the King of Navarre (Carissimi in Christo filii nostri Regis
Navarre illustris predbus inclinati). This King of Navarre was
Henry III, who died in 1270, and was the first husband of Blanche,
whose part in bringing the Clarisses to London will appear later.
In order to complete this brief sketch of the development of the
Rule of the Clarisses, reference must be made to the final Rule,
which also was issued by Urban IV in 1263. The Bull Beata
Clara* of October 18, 1263, approved a new Rule written by
Cardinal Caietanus, the Protector of the Order. The new Rule is
to a large extent a compilation based on the previous Rules, and
among other innovations it abolishes the various names by which
the Sisters had come in process of time to be known, and gives to
the whole Order the name .of the ' Order of S. Clare '.
This Rule became the final and authoritative Rule, and has not
since then been superseded.
THE ENGLISH VEBSION or THE RULE.
The English version of the Rule of the Second Order or ' Menou-
resses enclosid 'is contained in MS. Bodl. 585 = 2357 in the
Bodleian Library. The volume, which consists of 104 leaves of
* Sbar. ii. 509.
parchment, is made up of two separate MSS. bound together.
Both MSS. were apparently written in England in the fifteenth
The first MS. in the volume is in Latin, and contains ;
Fol. l r -17 v . Tractatus de vita et nobilitate et marturio sanctorum
Albani et AmpTiibali de q r nodam libro gallico excerptus et in latinum
Fol. 18 V 47 r . De Granario magistri lohannis Wetanstede.
At folio 48 r the second MS. begins. It is written in English in
a neat and legible book-hand.
Fol. 48 r -72 r contain the Eule of the Clarisses which is here
published. It is divided into chapters or sections of varied
length, and each chapter is begun with a finely illuminated
Capital. There are no other illuminations, and otherwise the
writing is entirely in black.
Following immediately after the Rule, and contained in folios
72 r -101 r , is a treatise by the same hand, and clearly forming pai't
of the same Manuscript, consisting of instructions relating to the
ordering of the services.
The Manuscript measures 219 mm. by 143 mm., and is bound
in limp vellum.
The Catalogue* gives the information that the second MS. was
presented to the Bodleian Library by Charles Howard, Earl of
Nottingham, in 1604.
Fortunately it is possible to determine practically with certainty
the particular convent for which this MS. was written.
The Rule which it contains is, as has already been stated, sub-
stantially the Rule of Blessed Isabella of 1263. The fact that the
language of this version is English indicates that it was written
for use in an English convent. The fact that it is the Isabella
Rule and not the ordinary Urbanist Rule (also of 1263) would lead
us to expect that it would belong to a daughter-house of the
Monastery of Longchanip in the Diocese of Paris.
The opening words of the Rule are sufficient in themselves to
establish the connexion with this celebrated religious house.
The house in question is none other than the former convent of
* Summary Catalogue of Western MSS. in the Bodleian Library, by
F. Madan and H. H. E. Craster, 1912
Clarisses or ' Minoressis ' just outside the walls of the City of
London, near Aldgate, in the street now known as 'Minories'.
A very full account of the house, its foundation, history, and
ultimate dissolution, is contained in a paper read by Dr. Fly before
the Society of Antiquaries, June 23, 1803.* An account is also
given in Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum under the general
heading of Franciscans in England, and also in Tanner's Notitia
Monastica. A more modern account will be found in the Victoria
History of London (1909), edited by William Page, vol. i,
It has generally been held the first colony of Clarisses was
brought over to England from the Diocese of Paris from Longchamp
by Blanche, widow of the King of Navarre, and, later, wife of
Edmund, Duke of Lancaster, brother of King Edward I. She was
the daughter of Eobert, Count d'Artois and Maud of Brabant.
The earliest record relating to this colony of Clarisses is a charter
of Edward I authorizing his brother Edmund to convey a parcel
of land given by Thomas de Bredstrete in the parish of S. Botolph
outside Aldgate :
dilectis nobis in Christo monialibus de, ordine Minoruin, quae
per nobilem dominam Blancam reginam Navarrae, consortem eius-
dem fratris nostri, in Angliam sunt venturae, et infra regnum
nostrum moraturae, ac Deo et beatae Marine ac beato Francisco
This document is dated from Westminster, June 28, 1293, and
shows that at that time the Sisters were about to arrive, but had
not done so.
There is, however, some reason to suppose that the Convent was
in existence at least twelve years earlier. Sbaralea gives a Bull
of Martin IV Loca Sanctorum omnium>,\ dated October 9, 1281,
addressed to all the Faithful and granting an indulgence of one
hundred days to those visiting this church (among others) on the
Sunday after Ascension Day and its Octave. As this was a some-
what exceptional privilege, it seems improbable that it would
have boen conferred on the church immediately after its founcla-
* Archaeologia, vol. xv, section viii, pp. 92-113.
"t Monumenta Franciscana. e<\. Brewer (Rolls Series), Appendix xxviii,
J Sbar. iv. 339.
tion, and so probably both Church and Convent were in existence
a good deal earlier than 1281. Moreover, the House is mentioned
in the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas about 1291.*
The first Abbess of the English house was, according to Dr. Fly,
Isabella de Lille and the second Joanne de Nevers, both French
names, which are a further indication of the French parentage of
the ' Minories '.
Six Papal Bulls are extant relating to the Convent of the
Minories, up to and including the reign of Boniface VIII.
The first is dated September 13, 1294,t and reminds the Sisters
of certain privileges to which they were entitled, and of which
apparently they were not availing themselves.
The other five belong to the reign of Boniface VIII.
The second, Vestrae religionist of April 6, 1295, grants to the
' Minoressis ' a church which is in the patronage of Edmund,
brother of the King, subject to the reservation of a portion of its
income for the support of the vicar.
The third, dated July 3, 1295, confines the convent to the
' inclosid Minoresses ' who observe the Rule that prevails in the
monastery of the Humility of S. Mary in the Diocese of Paris.
The fourth, Romana Ecclesia, dated August 31, 1295, places
the Convent under the direct jurisdiction of the Roman See, and
removes it from that of the Bishop of London.||
The fifth, Religiosam vitamfl dated March 13, 1296, commands
that the Sisters are to be protected, and confirms their privileges
The sixth, Petitio vestra** dated March 3, 1298, gives the
Minoressis permission to take possession of the church of Hertindon,
* Victoria History of London, ed. W. Page, vol. i, p. 516.
t Dr. Fly and, following him, the later editions of Dugdale attribute this
Bull to Boniface VIII, in spite of the date : but Boniface did not become Pope
until December 1294. I have been unable to trace this Bull in Potthast or
Sbaralea. If it is rightly dated, it must belong to the reign of Celestine V.
J Sbar. Suppl. p. 203.
This is apparently the same as the Bull given by Potthast, Laudabilis
sacra religio 24859, which is a re-issue of an earlier Bull (Pott. 24346)
addressed to all Houses of Clarisses, relieving them of the obligation of tenths.
|| Sbar. iv. 365. Both Dr. Fly and The Victoria Hist, of London in-
accurately assign this Bull to August 1294, when Boniface VIII was not yet
% Sbar. iv. 385. ** Sbar. iv. 462.
of which Edmund was patron, notwithstanding the fact that the
revenues of that church exceeded 40 marks^ a year.
The Bodleian MS. makes clear that the Rule used in the London
Convent was the Isabella Rule, but in some details revised by
Boniface VIII. It will be observed, for example, on fol. 52 r (p. 84),
that in the vow of profession the sister undertakes ' to lyve after
pe rule of myne lorde pe apostle Boneface pe eytip correctid and
approuid', whereas in the Rule as issued in 1263 she undertook
to live according to ' the rule granted to our order by the Lord
Pope Alexander IV and corrected and approved by the Lord Pope
Urban IV. Again, in the Appendix to the Rule on fol. 75 V
(p. 100) the following sentence occurs : ,
'And jit as we recordin oure blessid predecessoures pope
boneface pe VIII pat after a constitucioun bi hem ordeynid vppon
pis same religioun vnder vertuous rule, ]?at alle the Sustris schulden
dwelle and abide vnder stedefaste and perpetuel closinge/ &c.
In this sentence the word ' pope ' is rubbed out, and the words
boneface pe VIII ' are crossed through.
Another document relating to the ' Minories ' belongs to the
year 1296, when King Edward I confirms a grant of ten acres of
land de dominico suo in campo de Hertindon in comitatu Derbiae
made by his brother Edmund to dilectis nobis in Christo abbatissae
de gratia Beatae Mariae ordinis Sanctae Clarae extra muros
Londoniae et eiusdem loci sororibus Deo ibidem servientibus.
The house was surrendered to Henry VIII by Elizabeth Savage,
the last Abbess, in 1539,* and in 1540 the site was granted by
the King to the Bishop of Bath and Wells. It appears, however,
at a later date to have reverted to the Crown. In 1797, according
to Dugdale, a fire took place in the neighbourhood which exposed
to view larger remains of the conventual offices than had before
So far, then, as the history of the Bodleian MS. is concerned,
it appears probable that it remained in the Convent of the
Minories until its dissolution in 1539. Reference has already
been made to the fact that -the Manuscript was presented to the
Bodleian Library in 1604 by Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham.
Now it appears, from information courteously supplied by the
authorities of the Bodleian Library, that Charles Howard presented
* Wrioihesley, Camden Soc. i. 94.
also sixteen other MSS. and thirty-four printed books ; of the
seventeen MSS., all except five can be proved to have come from
the Library of King Henry VIII, and MS. Bodl. 585 is among
these five. Other sources from which Charles Howard's books
came are the Libraries of Cranmer, of Sir Thomas Coppley, and
of William Deveuishe, but there is nothing to connect MS. Bodl.
585 with any one of these. On the whole, it would appear prob-
able that the MS. came, like the majority of Charles Howard's
MSS., from the Library of King Henry VIII. It may accordingly
be reasonably supposed that the MSS. of the Convent of the
Minories passed into the hands of the King in 1539 at its dis-
There is further evidence that the MS. remained in conventual
hands until the dissolution. In ever}* case where the words ' pope '
or ' papal ' occur in the MS. they have been either erased or
crossed through with a pen. It is known that about 1536 the
King issued an order requiring such erasures to be made in the
service-books and other MSS. in the possession of religious
houses. Gairdner* gives an interesting illustration of the way
in which this order was received. Sir William Sherbourne, the
parish priest of Woburn Chapel, was rebuked by the Abbot,
Robert Hobbes, for using a knife to rase the Pope's name, telling
him to do it with a pen, for 'it will come again one day'. The
following year (1538) the said Abbot was hanged on an oak-tree
before the gate of his own Abbey. The erasures made so thoroughly
in MS. Bodl. 585 point to the fact that it was in 1536-7 in the
hands of its original owners, who executed the royal command.
It is interesting to note that in cases where the word ' apostle ' is
used as referring to the Pope, the word is not erased, probably
because it was misunderstood.
An examination of the English version shows that it is probably
a translation from a French version of the original Latin, and,
moreover, by no means a good translation. Throughout, the
translator slavishly follows the original text, both in the construc-
tion of the sentences and in the choice of words. In many cases
it is quite clear that the translator has entirely failed to under-
stand the original, and consequently the English makes no sense.
In editing the text, where the sense can be rectified by the addition
* Lollardy and the "Reformation in England, vol. ii, p. 135.
or alteration of a word or two (e. g. sometimes by the addition of
a negative !), this has been done ; but in cases where the sense
cannot be restored without entirely rewriting the sentence, it has
been deemed best to leave it uncorrected and to give the Latin
text in the notes. This applies, in particular, to the first six folios,
which are especially bad.
It remains to say something in conclusion about the material
which forms an Appendix to the Rule in the Bodleian MS. It
follows on to the Rule itself without a break, and is in the same
hand as the Rule. It will, however, readily be seen that it is not one
document, but a compilation of two or more documents. The first
part, from fol. 72 V to fol. 78 V (to ' wi]x>wte any variaunce or lettinge ')
is clearly a Papal document ; it would appear to be a portion of
a Bull containing a confirmation of the Rule and some modifications
of its practice. It contains some material which also forms part
of the Rule itself in other words. The reference to ' pope boueface
]?e viii ' on fol. 75 V as a predecessor may suggest that this Bull was
the work of Benedict X, but it does not necessarily follow that
the immediate predecessor is meant. No Bull containing this
material is found either in Potthast or in Sbaralea's Bullarium
Frandscanum. The material beginning on fol. 78 V : ' At alle ]?e
houres ', is not in the form of a Papal Bull, and consists of regula-
tions setting out the practice of the Convent. Towards the end.
viz. on fol. 100 V , it drifts into the first person narrative. 'We
make vtas of Noel ' ; the same happens earlier on fol. 80 V 'til we
sey Fidelium animae ', but in the context this looks like a slip for
'f>ey '. There is, at present, no further evidence as to the author-
ship or provenance of the material forming the Appendix.
The Editor wishes to record his great indebtedness to Mr. A. G.
Little, Chairman of the British Society of Franciscan Studies,
who called his attention to - the Bodleian MS. ; to Dr. R. W.
Chambers, who has given much help in revising the text; and to
Mrs. Geoffiey Tomes, who made the transcript of the text from the
MS. with great skill and accuracy.
Serguin. La Bienheureuse Isabella de France. Grenoble, 1899.
Breioer, J. S. Monumenta Franciscana. (Rolls Series.) Appendices xxv,
xxvii, xxviii, pp. 622-6.
Cozza-Luzi. Chiara di Assisi secondo alcune nuove scoperte e documenti.
Cuthbert, Father. Introduction to Mrs. Balfour's Life and Legend of the
Lady Saint Clare. London, 1910.
CutKbert, Father. Life of Saint Francis of Assisi. Book ii, chapter iv.
Duchesne, S. Gaston. Histoire de 1'Abbaye Royale de Longcharnps. Paris,
Fly, Dr. Article in Archaeologia, vol. xv, section viii, pp. 92-113. London,
Goffin. La Vie et Legende de Madame Saincte Claire. Paris, 1907.
Heiinbucher, Max. Die Orden und Kongregationen cler katholischen Kirche.
Paderborn, 1902. Vol. 2, pp. 475-89.
Jorgensen, J. Saint Francis of Assisi : A Biography. Book II, chapter v.
Lemmens, Fr. Die Anfange des Klarissenordens. Romische Quartalschrift,
t. xvi, p. 97 ff.
Lempp, E. Die Anfange des Klarissenordens. Zeit. fur Kirchengeschichte,
t. xxiii, pp. 626-9.
Locatelli. S te Claire d'Assise. Rome, 1899-1900.
Oliger, Pere Livarius. De Origine Regularum Ordinis S. Clarae. Archivum
Franciscanum Historicum. Tom. v. Fasc. II and III. An. 1912. (Qua-
Pennacchi, F. Legenda Sanctae Clarae Virginis. Assisi, 1910.
Robinson, Father Paschal. Life of Saint Clare. 1910.
Robinson, Father Paschal. The Rule of St. Clare and its Observance in the
Light of Early Documents. Philadelphia, 1912.
Robinson, Father Paschal. The Writings of St. Clare of Assisi. Archivum
Franc. Histor. Tom. III. Fasc. III. An. 1910. Quaracchi.
Sbaralea. Bullarium Franciscanum, 1759 : with supplement of Flaminius
Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originates, p. 74 ff. and p. 274 ff. (For the
Rule and Testament of S. Clare.) Quaracchi, 1897-
Wauer, E. Entstehung und Ausbreitung des Klarissenordens. Leipzig,
THE REWLE OF
SUSTKIS MENOURESSES ENCLOSID
[Note. The Reader is referred to the note on p. 44 for an ex-
planation of the practice with respect to contractions, italics, and
brackets in this text.]
nuloto of yt monrftrrofointllii ofp
Dioflfr of pans,
lrni runvliAi pr lidp
of oiiiiy; IP ^ofitr. 7 inD frj pat
rr fliTof gwft luntiPftiwOmgr.
uf ouir ihr four m mftrvr no
of (founts tp allf VP luiift* nnip Aiiid
Of nlju mftr pi^ mcpliV fii^Clliinsr % to
iii in oiuir iiionrlhr m(|0f
tj of fonoblr iiamr of prmp
; < STV>" * '
FOLIO 48 r. OF MS. BODL. 585.
URban ' * bisschop seruaunt of seruauntis of god, to his bilouid [Fol. 48']
dowtris in crist, pe Abbes & pe couent of sustris Menowressis
enclosid of J?e monestre of oure ladi of pe diocise of Paris, Greting
& blessynge of pe apostle. For as moche we purchasin pe more
\f\\\i[nglyi\ pe encrese of religioun, as bi pat pe continementis of owre 5
lorde been encresid, & pe helf>e of sowles perebf comip to profite ;
And for pat wipowte dowte, Alisaunder 2 popef oure predecessour of
good werke recordinge, condescendinge & enclinyd to pe supplica-
cions of oure dere sone in criste pe nobel kinge of Frauns 3 , to alle
pe hende maydenis of Ihesu criste pis worlde forsakinge & doinge 10
professioun in owre monestre * whoche ys enfayrid of so noble name
of pe me|kenesse of blessid marie, pe whocbe Minster whan hit was [Fol. 48 T ]
nyew made none body per was dwellinge, as hit is sayde, grauntid
J?e rule whoche ys writyn here after for to holde & kepe perpetueli
in pe same mynster, and beene clepid bi pe name of sustris enclosid 5 . 15
And werevpon alle 6 Hit was to us prayde lowli bi pe same kyng that
[we] pe forseyde rewle in some chapitres diden amende, & pat [we\ %
schulden take bysines, porw beningnite of apostle to put to at pe
schewinge of pis rewle pe name of meneres . And than [wa]
enclinid to pe preyeres of pe same kynge, pe same rule by owre 20
louid sonne Symon Deutre 7 preest Cardinal of pe title of seynt
Cecile did amende, so pat it was || done as it was in name 8 . But
nameli Ipai ye same mynster, as hit is aboue sette, haue worschippid
pe house of humilite of oure | ladi & pat pis rewle may be fayrid bi [Fol. 49 r ]
]?e profit} of pe same humilite, to pe name of pe sayde rule, we 25
sette to pe forseyde name of menours. And we ordeynid &
establissin 9 pat pis rule be clepid from pis time forj>e, Menoressis
enclosid, & pat it be kept perpetual! in pe same mynster & in other
minsteris whoche schal be fownded here after or plantid, In pe
* The numbers given in the text refer to the notes which will be found on
f Word erased, but legible. J MS. ' J>ey '.
MS. later hand, ' )>ey ' over an erasure. || Word erased before ' done '.
82 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
whiche \>e same sustris schal make professioun to pis reddure, as it
is amendid. The whoche rule & pe life of pis same sustris enclosid
we haue do notefiyd here after, pe whiche is pis.
Eche womman whiche bi be grace & gifte of pe holi goste schal
5 be brouht to entre in pis ordre for to nyje to god owre lorde Ihesu
Criste & to his ful swete moder, after ]?e cownsayle of pe perfeccioun
[Fol. 49 T ] of pe gospel, Lyue alle dayes in obediens, & chas|tite, wipowte
properte, And for to dwelle alle dayes of her life enclosid as a
tresoure kepte to pe souereyne kynge.
10 Alle po whoche schal leuen pe vanite of pe worlde & in to }?e
forseyde abbey schal comen, Ipis religioun for to resseyue, schal kepe
bysili pis maner of lyuinge alle here life, after pat time bat pey
been professid, & been bowndin be obediens for to dwelle enclosid
wip in J>e cloyster of pe abbey, But jif so be 10 pat sche haue en-
15 special conge of pe [pope *] or of pe general mynistre of pe ordre
of Frere menowris or of pe prouincial of pe same prouince in pe
whiche pe same Abbey is foundid, & pat bi cause for to edefie, or to
plante pe same religioun, or for cause of gouernauns of somme place
of pe forseyde religioun, Some haue been sent in to oper places, Ipe |
[Fol. 50 r ] whoche haue bihouyd afterwarde to returne to pe same places from
whoche pey comyn bi J?e licence of one of hem forseyde, jif hit seme
good & expedient to Je Mynistre or to one of hem for to do. And
jif hit happe so be werre, or be water, or be fire, or for oper like
case }mt pe same Abbey falle to be destruyid or pat it be like pat
25 pe hous schal falle downe or for drede of enemyes, pey were putte
in soche verray & experte informacioun, pat wi}? oute greuous peril &
opun destruxioun none bodi may dwelle ne abide J>ere, for to haue J?e
counsayle & pe conge of pe Mynster, pat pan bi be counsayle & con-
sentement of alle couent & bi Je comaundement of pe Abbes, pe
30 Sustris per may leueli remew Dennis in to anoper place sure, where
[Fol. 50*] pat )?ey may dwelle honest|li & saueli enclosid vntil J?e time pat it
schal be oj?er weyes wiseli ordeynid for hem what pat pey schul doo.
And jif pe couent bi any cause resonable here Abbey oper place
edifi, J>an J>e sustryn bi licence of be Ministre general may remuyn
35 in to anoper place couenable.
* Word deleted in MS.
The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 83
Alle J?e Nonnes per which happin for to dy3e per professid or
nouices or sustris or seruauntis schal be byriyd wipinne J?e cloyster
of pe abbey. Alle poo whoche pis religioun schal take in pe forseyde
Abbey & in oper whoche of nyew schal be foundid, to pe whoche
Ipis noble rule schal be grauntid & holdin, bifore pat ]?ey haue here 5
abite & pat pey schul enter into religioun, )?at it be wel declarid to
hem pe hardnessis & pe scharpenessis by whoche )?ey comip to loye
of Paradise, & pese whiche |?ey schullen be bownjdyn to after J?is [Fol. 51 r ]
None womman schal be resseyuyd, woche for age or for sikenesse i
or for fole simplesse n after Ipe iugement of hem whoche haue for
to do per of, be nat couenale & suffisaunt for to kepe Ipe maner
of life, & also bi any oper 12 auenture, pat ban in of>er place bi
counsel of pe most wise susteris of J?e place, be for be forseyde
Ministre or one of hem dispense to another soche & pat bi cause 15
Alle Ipo J>at wolen in pis holi abbey abiden & in ani ober whoche
schal be fowndid here after, to J>e whoche pis rule schal be grauntid
& holder), And * pat wole pis holi religiouu resseyue, allegatis for-
sake prides & vaniteis of pis schort life . And as pey schul be 20
resseyuid wij? in )?e cloy|ster, abide pey ]?ere, & as sone as J?ey [Fol. 51 T ]
schullen be schorne, J?ey schullin leue pe robis of f>e worlde.
Thanne a wise maystresse & moste deuowte sustre in J>e Abbey be
ordeyned & be I-take to hem for to exite hem to holinesse & to holi
vertues & for to speke to hem in feruent deuocioun & also for to 25
teche hem for to abide & 6ere t hem in swetnesse of charite in alle
poyntes whoche longin to holi religioun & bisili for to repreue hem
of alle pinges whoche been repreueable. And pat pey be nat suffrid
to entre in to pe chapitre duringe ]>e jere, but sif so be pat it be for
cause of amonissinge & repreuinge. The jere fulfillid, make pey pro- 30
fessioun in hondes of pe Abbesse bifore alle pe couent in Ipis manere.
' I Suster ... | bihote to god & owre ladi blissid mayde marie & to |
* MS. adds ' sche ', which is superfluous. ) MS. 'here'. J No gap in MS.
84 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses endosid
[Fol. 52 r ] seynt Fraunces, to myne ladi seint Clare 1S & to alle seyntis, in
joure hondes, moder, to lyue after pe rule * of myne lorde pe apostle
Boneface pe eytij? 14 correctid & approuid be alle J?e time of myne
life, In obedience, In cbastite, wtyowte properte or voyse in pe
5 Cloyster, After pat wboche is ordeynid bi pe same Rule in alle
This like maner to make professioun boldyn J>ey wboche been or-
deyned to serue & seche. Suche schulyn [nat\ goo owte of J?e
Abbey, But alweyis jif hit happe be any riht & necessari cause
10 for to sende owte of pe cloyster hem whiche servyn & been pro-
fessid, In ]?e same mauer bi leue of pe ministre general, Soche
algatis be sent whoche been honeste & demurid in vertues & in age.
pe whiche whan pey schul so go oute of Ipe Cloyster, J?ey schul be
[Fol. 52 T ] hojsid & schod beringe none cordis 15 & J?ey schulle nat go alone.
*5 EChe suster schal be clojjid in stamyn or heyre & 3if here liki)?,
sche may haue two cotis or )?re or foure, after f>at as it schal beste
lyke to J?e Abbesse, euermore eschuynge Tpe owtrage of elopes & of
robis in gode maner, Soo J>at sche haue a mantel or tweyne couen-
able longe & brode . These robis schullen be of buystouse clojie &
30 low prise & of pouer coloure . And sche schal nat vse here one
resticote lfi alle white ne alle blacke. pes sustris, after pey been
professid, J?ey schul use bifore gerdellis cordes whiche shal be made
wib coriouste 17 . And jjey schul usyn kerchiues honestli in one
maner of kerchiues & of colleres, whoche schal be alle white & nat |
[Fol. 63 r ] precious. And also |jat J>e forhede & pe yjen been couerid, as it
bihouij?, & in none oper maner be fey nat so hard! for to apere
bifore strawngeris ; for it fallip nat to hem whoche ys weddid to pe
kyuge perpetuel pat sche chiere none oj>er but him, ne delite her
in none oj>er but in him. And also J?at pey haue a blacke veyle
30 I-spred aboue her hedis so large & so longe, pat hit may stretche
from eche parti to J?e schuldris & behinde at \>e backe resonabli,
wij>owte whiche ]?ey schul mow be on nytes & some time on dayes
bi licence of J?e abbesse. Alle }ese ]?inges ]?e forseyde sustris
schullin haue & kepe, And pey whoche seruyn & whoche been or-
* The words ' of inyne lorde J>e apostle Boueface ]>e eyti] ' are underlined
The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 85
deyneid nat for to passe oute. But of>er seruauntes & nouicis
schullin haue gerdellis of wolle & white veylis on here hedis. The
abbesse schal ordeyne, after bat sche schal best se for | to do, of [Fol. 53*]
chausures for j^e sustris & to hem whoche seruyn wip inne )?e
The Abbesse & alle sustres hole & alle o^er schullen lye in ]?e
comune dortre & eche bi here selue haue a bed disseuerid fram
ober. The bedde for be abbesse be made in soche place of pe dortoure
pat sche may se [./ram] here bed, }if it may be amenably, alle
oper beddis of be dortoure wipoute any stoppynge ; & pat be alle 10
nyhte in pe dortoure bi clere & continuel liht. From be resurrexioun
of oure lorde til pe Fest of pe Natiuite of ortre ladi, 18 after mete
til pe houre of none pe sustris schulle slepe, pey pat willen ;
& pey pat nille nat slepen, ocupie hem in preyeres & powtes of
god or in oper pesibel & gode trauayles. Eche may haue a sacke 15
I-fillid wip strawe or wip hey, oper ellis a cowche in stede of a sacke
& a woljlin elope buystus I-spred aboue & a cusschin I-couerid [Fol. 54 r ]
wip linnyn elope, I-stoppid wip hey or strawe or grete wolle or
federis, like as pe abbesse schal ordeyne ; & pat pey haue
couertoures wij>oute skynnes wher wij J>ey may couer hem, But bi 2
licence of fe Abbesse ]?o f>at been syke may haue couertoures wij
skynnes. Alle Ipe sustres schal haue here heris rowndid or alle
clippid & Jat at certeyne tyme to here eris.
FOr to do J>e office & seruise of god by day & be nyht to be
preysing of god & to Ipe gladnes of his glorie, The sustris schul 25
haue hem & gouerne hem, as it is writen here after.
pe sustres whoche canne rede & singe schal do Je office reuerentli
& mesurabli after J>e custome & J>e ordre of freris menoures, &
)>e oj>er schal sey xx 19 Pater nosier \ for matyns, v for laudis ; For [Fol. 54 b]
prime, tierce, sexte, none, & complin, For eche owre vii Pater 30
noster, And for euynsonge, xii Pater noster. And in ]?is same
maner be alle binges in pe office of oure blissid ladi ; be hit kepte
wib deuowte preyinge for be dede. And 3if ber be any sustris
couenable & of gode witte, The abbes, $if sche }>enkip hem goode, to
ordeyne & assigne a maystresse couenable & honeste for to teche 35
hem songe, to performe be office & seruise of god stedfastli. The
86 The Reide of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
sustris & pey whiche servyn in werkis & placis stabelliche, be hit
ordeynid pat J>ey schul been ocupiid in profitable & honest
trauayles, bi J>e whiche maner )>at slowf>e & schlugri whoche been
grete enemyes continueli to pe sowle * schal be skerid awey &
[Fol. 55 r ] eschewid, pat it lette nat ne stawnche | nat pe spirit of preyere
& deuocioun, to whom alle oj>er wordli pinges schulde do seruice,
So pat oure lorde Ihesu criste espouse 20 te pe soule be take aboue
al pinges : for as moche pat pe soule may be J?er fed & refestid of
be comfortabel wordis of his espouse.
10 pe sustris first wole be confessid whan it nedip & schul resseyue
twies eche monip in reuerence & deuocioun pe ful holi bodi of owre
lorde Ihesu criste, & also }if it likip hem eche sonday in lentyn
& in }>e Aueut, but }if it so be pat aui of hem bi resonable cause
leeue hit & bi licence of pe Abbesse.
15 THe sustris & j?ey whoche seruyn Schal fast fro pe fest of seint
Fraunces 21 til pe fest of pe resurrexioun of oure lorde, And from
pe Assencioun of owre lorde vnto Pentecoste, Forasmoche pat pey
[Fol. 55 T j may plentiuowseliche | resseyue pe grace of pe holi gost, owte take
pe sonday onliche & \>& fest of alle Halwyn 22 & Cristmas day & pe
20 fest of sent Stephin & Seint lohn euangelist & pe Circumsicioun
& Epiphanye & pe purificacioun. But from pe resurrexioun of oure
lorde till pe Ascencioun & fram Pentecost til pe Fest of seint
Fraunceyse pey be nat boundin to fast, but pe Fridayes & oper
fastis whoche been ordeynid & bowndyn generali bi holi chirche.
2 5 And pey may sureli drinke wyne & ete fisshe & eyrin & chese & soche
of>er pinges as perteynip to mylke. And also fro pe Natiuite of oure
lorde til septuagesme pey may, jif pey wole, to-dite here metis wip
grece owtake Friday & saterday. Also fram pe Fest of alle halwyn
[Fol. 56 r ] til the Fest of pe Natiuite of oure lorde & in lentoun & in | Fridayes
30 and in fastingdayes whoche been generalli I-stablid bi holi chirche,
pe Sustres schul nat ete Eyrin ne cheese, ne none oper pinge pat
perteynip to Milke, but in all o]?er times ]?ey may use hit. The
sustres beinge in gode hele & pey pat seruin kepin hem alle dayes
fram etinge of flesche. And also pey whoche been hole in bodi
35 schul faste eche Friday wi]x>wte fische, but jif it falle so pat pe
Abbesse dispense wip hem, as it is acustumyd, jif any Fest solempne
* MS. '& J>at f , superfluous.
The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 87
come on a Friday . This maner of Fastinge & of abstinence forseyde,
pe jonge sustris wij? inne pe age of xv jere be nat boundin to kepe,
ne pe ouer agid, ne Tpe fiebel, ne pe sike, to pe whiche after her
febelnesse pe Abbesse may merciabli purueye comunliche alle dayes, &
in oper pinges necessaries | to pe sustris. And to hem whoche seruyn, [Fol. 56 T ]
& to pe jonge sustris wi)? inne xviii 3ere pe Abbes may dispense in
fastinge after pat it schal like to here goodli, saue in aduent, & in
lentoun & in friday & in fastinge dayes whiche been enstablid bi
holi chirche. The sustris whoche been lete blode been nat boundin
to fastinge in pe time duringe bi pre dayes, safe in lentoun & in 10
fridayes & in time of advent, And in pe time bitwene Ipe Ascencioun
& pentecoste, & pe fastinges whiche been ensta.blid bi holi chirche
And also Ipe Abbesse muste be ware pat sche suffer nat Ipe
sustris to be lete blood ouer iii times 2S bi pe 3ere, but jif it be for 15
certayne cause enspecial & necessarie. And algatis pat pey be
nat lete blode of any seculere persone straungere, | & nameli of [Fol. 57 r ]
a man by none resoun, jif it may be as goodli.
Of pe syke sustris whan sykenesse fallij) bi grete cure & diligence,
as ferforpe pat men schul mowe or se for to do, pat pey been seruid 20
bi alle maner pinges in metis & drinkes whoche been gode for poo
maladies, And in alle oper pinges nedeful be wey of charite feruent
benyneli, couenabelliche & ententifeliche. And ]?ey whiche been
sike schullin haue proper place in pe whiche pey schul dwelle
desseuerid from hem whoche been in helpe of bodi, For as mochel 25
pat pe reste & pe ordinaunce of \J>i\ Couent be nat distourbid be
The abbesse, for as mochel pat sche schulde be a clere myroure
& ensaumple to alle pe sustris, pat sche enstrengpe her as mochel
as sche | may for to suen continueli pe couent & Ipe comune life. The [Fol. 57 T ]
abbesse pat wole nat ne may nat lede pe comune life, be assigned 24
wipowte tariynge of pe office for to gouerne oper bi pe mynster or
bi pe visitouris of pe ordre, [bot] jif it so be pat pe Abbey had
none harme, bi cause of here longe dwellinge in pe office or ellis
J>at mani grete & schewynge profites pere of comme *. 35
Silence, be it of alle Sustres holden in soche maner, pat pey speke
nat wipoute licence ne one to oper, ne to none oper, sauynge pe
* MS. 'comune'.
88 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
febel & pe syke. But alle gates pat pe Abbesse, or presedente
take kepe ententifeliche in vvhoche place, whan, & howe sche schal
gif licence to sustris for to speke. And pat alle sostres enstrengpe
hem to vse signis religious & honestis. At dowble festis & at
[Fol. 58 r ] Festis | of apostles, & any oj^er dayes after pat it schal best like to
pe Abbesse, * from pe howre of none til euynsonge or ani howre
couenable, The sustris may speke of oure lorde Ihesu criste & of ]?e
solempnite of pe Feste present & of good ensaumplis of seyntis &
of oj>er J>ingis honeste of whoche pey haue for to speke.
10 Whan anybodi to any of Ipe Sustres schal speke, First schal ]?e
Abbesse be warnid per of or pe president, & }if sche graunt, panne
schal Ipe suster speke wip pe straunger so J>at sche haue two oper
sustris at ]?e leste wi here, pat J?ey mow see & here what pat pey
doo or speke, bope on J>at one syde & on J?at oper. And allegatis
i 5 pat J>e sustris whiche haue for to speke to any straunger, J?at pey
[Fol. 58 T ] be welware ]?at pey aboundyn nat hem | for to speke in vayne wip
owtyn profile & houre longe.
Neuerjseles whan any of pe Sustris wole confesse her, bi pe per-
loure make her confessioun in privite alone to one. The confessoures,
20 pe whoche schullin be assingnid bi pe Minster general or bi pe
prouincial, assoyle hem of alle sinnis. None of hem schal speke bi
>e grate of yryn bi Ipe whiche Ipej schullin be huslid & here diuine
office & sermones, but be auenture pat it be for cause resonable &
necessarie & wij? compani, after pat it is ordeynid & establid to
25 speke ; & algatis pat it be seeldyn. This grate 2S of yren be hangin
wipin a blacke elope, so J>at bi resoun none suster may be seyne J5er
porw & Ip&t none bodi may see none pinge wip inne, but 5if it so
[Fol. 59 r ] be for a resonabel cause, pat Ipe same cloje | be drawyn agayne bi
licence of ]>e Abbes ; & in pe same maner schal be holden a blacke
30 cloj^e at pe perlour whiche some may be done awey bi licence of
pe Abbes & of pe Assentement of grete parti of pe couent ; &
])is gratis schullyn haue doris of yreu bund & naylid whoche schal
be alwey closid but jif it be for pe causes forseyde.
JJe perlour be of many & picke roddis of yren, of stronge werke
35 forgid. pis perloure to confessioun schulle be made in pe Chyrche,
o]?er in o]?er place couenabel after hit schal beste seme to pe
mynster, & pat pe gratis be of mani & thicke roddis of yrin bisili
forgid & of stronge werke. Allegatis in one of pe sydis of J?e
* MS. adds 'And'.
The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 89
forseyde grate be a smalle wyndow I-made wij> a goget of yriu, bi
Ipe whiche ]>e preest, whan he schal heue vpjiis honde, may myuistre
to Ipe Sustris goddis bodi, and ]?at none bodi may putte his honde |
wij>inne ]?e grate be ani partie of j?e grate. And Ipe forseyde [FoL 59 T ]
goget alwey sclial be closid wij) two keyis, in J>e warde of a persone 5
couenabel & honeste, sauing whan ]?e sustris schullin resseyue
goddis bodi & here sermonis, or bi olper cause resonable after ]?e
lugement of fe Abbes. Wijxwte licens of ]?e Ministre ]>er schal
nat be in f>e couent but one whele amenable, bi )?e which we takij)
to Ipe sustris }?at whiche schal * nede to hem & take awey J)at 10
whiche is nedeful ; & Tpat J>is wliele be made & ordeynid in soche wise
J>at none fringe may be seyne bi Ipat. Bi ]?5s whele schal none Suster
speke to nobodi, but two whiche kepin pis whele wij? grete diligence.
And also like as Ipe abbesse beri]? here, make sche alle J?e sustris
for to kepe be hem alle bisili j )>e ordinaunce of silence of }>is present [Fol. 60 r ]
rule, t For as mochel J?at alle materis to speke wij? inne be for-
barrid in alle Jjingis to alle sustris, sauinge }>&t ]>e Abbesse may
speke to here sustris at houris & in places couenablis as it schal be
moste plesaunt to god. The sustris sike in f>e time of here maladi
in J?e fermeri, & J>ey whiche been seruauntis, & ojer hole sustris bi 20
cause for to visite J>e sike charitabli bi licence of Ipe Abbesse
entringe in to Ipe fermeri, may speke wilp sike sustris after dis-
posicioun of J?e Abbesse.
MOreouer we comawnde estreyteli in vertu of obedience, at
none Abbesse ne ani suster suffer nat ani persone, 26 what euer he 25
be, for to entre wi]?oute especial licence of | J^e apostle wi]?inne Ipe [Fol. 60 T ]
Abbey or cloyster, ne wty inne none place where >at Ipe sustris been
abidinge, be he religious or seculere or of what maner dignite.
And also we defendin ])e entre to alle maner folke, excepte Ipe
kynge 27 in whoche Eeine J>is Abbey is foundin, whoche kynge may 30
entre to hem wi]? Ipe numbre of x persouis, & excepte Ipe Minister
general of Ipat ordre of Freris Menoures, wij) ii honest felowis,
And excepte po whiche of }?e comaundement of the Abbesse & bi
counsayle & assentemeut of Ipe moste wise suster schal enter inne to
hem for a grete nede wel schewinge of ani werke nedeful or mater 35
profitable ; J?e whiche, }if Iper be many, )?an )^at ]?er be many
* MS. adds ' nat '. f MS. repeats ' for as mochel ': crossed through.
90 The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
suffisauntli ordeynid pe same werke to performe. And whan pat |
[Fol. 61 r ] werke is doon, pat wipoute tariynge pey been made go oute of pe
place ; & in soche materes & causis pat Ipe assentement of pe Ministre
prouincial be requirid whan it may be done couenabli, for as moche
5 J?at pe clerete of here renouns be sauid & kepte . The mynistre pro-
vincial of pe same prouince may entre into Ipe Abbey wif> ii honest
felawis bi cause necessari for to visite & refourme Ipe couent . And
also in oper materis & causes whoche happin for to come, pat may
nat be reformid wipoute entre amongis hem, pe forseyde Ministre
10 prouincial schal entre, if * pat pe Ministre general bi counsayle of
most wise sustris per schal to hem graunt. ^if ^ happe bi auenture
pat any Cardinal wole come & entre in pe Abbey, pat he be res-
[Fol. 61 T ] seyuid in reuerence & deuocioun, but j pat he bringe nomoo saue x
persones. Anoj?er prelate, 28 to whom is grauntid any time bi pe
15 apostle for to entre wi|? inne pe Abbey for to blesse pe Abbesse or
for to sacre a sustre, or in any of>er maner pat it be grauntid at any
time to any Bischop for to singe masse wip inne, it schal suffice for
to haue wip him iii or iiii personis to ministre duli to him . And
whan it schal be grauntid to any man wip inne pe gate for to
20 abide, pe Abbesse may speke wip him alle dayes, wip ii of moste
demures & wise sustris of pe couent. y\f it happe any time pat any
womman have licence to entre in to pe Abbey, pe sustres may speke
to here bi conge of pe Abbesse. & Allegatis pat pe sustris take gode
kepe pat wip alle diligens pey eschiewyn pat none of hem at here
[Fol. 62 r ] knowynge speke to noman pat | is entrid, but in pe maner & bi
ordinauns forseyde, sauinge to vertuous men & to honest, whoche
been here confessoures, or to oper in here stede, & pat in couenable
time to here f consolacioun & edificacioun of here sowlis, some times
pey may speke bi licens of pe Ministre generale or prouincial or of
3 pe Abbes, so ii or iii Sustris be pere present to herin & to see. Of
pis same maner be take kepe, pat pey whoche haue graunt to enter
inne in pe Abbey been so honeste of spekynge & of here maneris
& of her life & of here abit, pat pe sustres whoche seen hem may
vertuousli be edified in here sowlis & none mater of disclawnder
35 per of for to rise. Alle poo whiche bi licence of pe apostle wole enter
wip inne, First pey schullen to pe Abbesse & to oper wise sustres
[Fol. 62 T ] of pe couent | schew here letres of pe apostle of here graunt.
"Whan any of J?e sustris been greuou[s]li syke, pat sche may nat
* MS. af. t MS. repeats ' here ' superfluous.
The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 91
godeli come to Ipe perloure for to be confessid or for to resseyue
goddes bodi or ober sacramentis of holi. chirche, pan here con-
fessoure arayid in vestimentis longynge to a preest excepte pe
chesiple schal entre wij)inne, & his felaw reuestrid alle in white ;
J?at pan Ipe sike suster confesse here bi soche maner J?at iii oper 5
sustris be so nyje pat ey may se ]>e same confessoure & also her
whoche is confessid. And whan pe confessioun schal be herde or
any oper sacrament miinistrid, like as pey come inne reuestrid, so
goo ]?ey owte, ne dwelle pey per inne, ne wip any o]?er Suster speke
J>ey nat, but in Ipe forseyde maner. And also | whan any comendacioun [Fol. 63 r ]
schal be done for sowlis of Sustris, or for obsequies of any of hem
dede, ii freris menoures or preestis preuoyres pr pre, whan Ipe bodi
is brought to entierment, schalle mowe entre reuestrid wip orne-
mentis longynge to a preest, and pey for to do alle pat longij? to a
preest in soche cas. And be pey alle wey to gyderes bi alle pe time 15
j?at Ipey schullin be ocupied abowte pe execucioun of Ipe same office,
and pat fulfillid for to departe Dennis wipowte tariynge. And also
pat gode kepe be takyn of the Ministris, & bi him whoche schal be
visitoure in pat tyme of hem whoche schal entre in to Je Abbey for
any soche werkis to make jif pey be necessari, whan & how fey 20
schullin entre, & gouerne & haue hem wipinne. And up pat J>ey
ordeyne and dis|posin per of as hem schal best like, so allegatis pat [Fol. 63 T ]
pe name & ]>e gode fame of Ipe Sustris be sauid in alle poyntis.
For to kepe pe forseyde entre duringe Ipe tyme, one of pe sustris
best louynge god, wise & vertuouse, be ordeynid & enstablid & in alle 25
maner of diligence J>at ]>e keyes of ]?e same entre be saueli kepte &
putte in saue warde of pe forseyde sustre keper in pat case assignid,
so Jsat none dore ne gate j?er be nat openid wij>oute verray knowinge
of pe same Suster. The oper keye alle diuers schal pe Abbesse kepe.
And also pat per be assignid & ordeynid an oper suster for to be 30
felow & helpinge to Ipe forseyde porteresse in alle times & in alle
Binges longinge to pe same kepinge, whan ]?e chief porteresse schal
be ocupiid oper weyes rejsonabeli in pe nedis of pe Abbey necessari. [Fol. 64 r ]
And ful ententli f>at pis porteresse suffer nat pat Ipe dore be nat
openid but whan f>at grete nede askip it, & J?at pe dore diligentli 35
be kepte & schet & pe Guyches of barris of yrin & pe openinge be
nat any tyme lefte wipoute warde of one of pe forseyde porteresse,
& pat it be schette be day & be niht wip ii keyes, & f>at it be nat
openid to sone at eche knockynge, but jif hit so be J>at j?e porteresse
92 The Reide of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
firste see bi be smalle wyndow who bat he is, & bat it is none
dowte but bat he bat knockij? be soche a persone whoche may
lefolli come inne after >e rule of f>e same religioun aforseyde. We
wole of alle binge, ]?at be jate be of luhenesse bat ber may nat come
[Fol. 64 T ] ber to but wif> a ladder, 29 whoche be lefte | vp & vnder a chayne of
yrin, & schet wib a keye ; & in be mornyninge whan it is day, bi
be chayne avale bifore iii of be sustris. We graunt that bey haue
a lowe jate, where borwe bat bey may bringe lime grete binges as
tunnys of wyne & ober binges like, & bat it be schette wib locke &
10 keye & diligentli I-kepte . And }if it hap any tyme }?at any werke
be for to do wij? inne ]?e Abbey, & bat seculeris persones muste
enter bere for bat, ban be Abbesse puruoye & ordeyne iii sustris
wise, sad, & vertuouses of be Couent, whiche kepe hem in silence to
alle ]?o persones whiche schal make werke, & algates bat none o]?er
15 persones entre. And jif it happe bat ]?er be multitude & prees, bat
[Fol. 65 r ] oj?er persones honest & couenable be ordeynid & chaun|gid 30 for to
helpe be forseyde sustris to kepe J?e same jate sureli & bysili.
OF be visitacioun of bis religioun : be alle weyes ordeynid ]?at who
bat schal be establid Generall or special visitoure, bat he be soche
20 one whoche is wel knowen of stedfastnesse of religious life & gode
vertuis ; be whoche whan he comi]? to be Abbey & is entrid wib
inne, ]?at he bere him & schewe him soo bat he may dravve be
Sustiis from goode in to beter, & bat he enstrengbe hem in be loue
of oure lorde, & bat he alwey estabel amonges hem feruent desire in
35 charite. And whan he schal entre bi reson [of visitacioun *], bat he
take him ii religious felawes honest & couenable, be whoche felawes,
[Fol. 65 T ] wille bey be wibinne be Cloyster, schulle nat departe j asunder by
none time. Alle be Abbeyes of be same religioun been I-visitid eche
$eer ones or at be leste in ii ;ere ones. The visitoures be algatis of
30 be ordre of Freris menoures & bat he be I-sent by be minister general
of the ordre.
AT alle jeres bat be Abbey may nat be visitid bi be visitoure,
whoche ys sent fro be mynister generale, $if it be nedeful, fat ]?an
be abbey be visitid bi be Mynister of be same prouince after be
* Words supplied by comparison with Latin original.
The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 93
forme of J>e Rule of f>is religioun forseyde . The visitoure. whiche wole
goo ferper in his visitacioun, 31 after tyme. pat Ipe rule ys redde,
enquere he besili pe trow})e of alle Sustris & of eche of hem bi
hemselfe generali, & especiali Tpe estate of alle ]?e sustres & how J?ey
kepin here religioun ; & j?ere he fyndij? any defawte, | for to amende [Fol. 66*]
& refourme hit in Ipe principal & in ]?e membris in jelosie of charite
& in >e loue of rihtwisnesse & bi grete discresioun in alle times.
WHan ]?at he visitij) 32 in alle times any of Ipe Sustres, Ipe Abbesse
schal abide oute of >e chapitre, & * resigne j?e seele, & sche schal
nat be at here owne visitacioun ; & none fringe be purposid of one 10
suster to anoj?er, but f>at whoche may be prouid haue be done by
coniune spekynge or bi apert knowynge. An ouer alle Binges 33
pat he take kepe & penke bisili & nameli in Ipe visitasioun of pe
Sustres, }?at stere nat to any J>inge but to pe loue of god for to
speke of, & of pe amendement of Ipe Sustris whoche wole nat knowe 15
here trespace & j?e defauhtes whoche been putte on hem, }if | f>ey [Fol. 66 T ]
wole excuse hem of Ipe same ; & jif it be grete Binges, audience schal
nat be denyed to hem. And f>oo sustris whoche acusij? olper of
greuousis Jinges, jif pey faylen in prouing per of, after Ipe blame
whoche is put vppon hem, be lawfullich punischid. And J?e trespace 20
or defaute whiche ha]5 be punischid biforne bi a visitottr, schal [nat]
be redressid of newe. The visitoures schullin kepe ]?e maner of
spekynge forseyde, Ipat is for to vnderstonde, ]?at ]?ey speke to alle
pe sustris or to ii at pe leste bifore maiii whiche be nat ferre ; &
also whan he is oute of \>e place & wole speke to one or to many of 25
fringes whiche perteyni]? to his office.
And we wole ]?at j?e visitoures spede hem of here visitacioun of alle
wij> owte greuauns | of pe Abbey, & algatis pat wijnnne iiii dayes or [Fol. (J7 r ]
v atte moste bi here visitaciouu, but jif it so be f>at it nedij? lenger
to abide for hope & grete nede. And after pat pey for to haue none 30
power to entre in to Ipe Abbey. The time of J?e visitacioun whoche is
aboue seyde schal nat be esloignid wij>owte special conge of ]?e
Mynistre. And we wole nat pat J?e generalle Minister dwelle ne
* MS. adds ' >e '.
94 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
abide lenger but pe same time, but-jif it so be for a grete certayne
cause. Allegatis at J>e nyhte from pe sonne goynge to reste til in
pe morwe at pe sunne risinge, ]?at none be suffrid for to dwelle or
to entre wip inne, neyj>er visitour ne oper, of what auctorite pat he
5 be * warnid, but }if it so be j?at it be for confessioun for to here of
[Fol. 67 T ] any | sike Suster gretli syke or for any grete peril schewynge. And
wolyn & monestyn 34 ententifeli, f>at f>e Sustres in priue & aperte
po J?inges whiche after pe forme, as it semi]? to doo to kepe here
rule, whoche been to establid & to amende, After pat whoche schal
i o best seme to hem & ]?er vppon Jmt J>ey myngin & preposin couenabli
& besili to visitoure to whom pey been holden by vertu of obedience
for to obeye stedfastli wi)? in ]?e time forseyde In alle }>nige
longinge to pe visitoures office. And jif per be any Suster pat haj>
trespassid ajenst pe Rule, be sche punyschid rihtfulli bi ]?e visitoure,
15 as itlongip for to be done. The abbesse also, jif here meritis & here
defawtes axen hit, be sche assoylid of here office bi )?e visitoure &
[Fol. 68 r ] bi him also corec|tid. The couent & oj>er familieres, }if pey be re-
prouable in any pinge, pat pey be repreuid ; & jif ]?ey wole nat be
repreuid, J>at J>ey be algatis remuyd. The confessoures & here
20 felowes be of pe ordre of freris Menoures, whoche J?ey schullyn
dwellin pere & minister )?e sacrament of pe awter & oper sacramentis,
but jif it so be pat Ministres general or prouincial ordeyne in o]?er
maner bi cause resonable & honest. And ;if J>e visitoure fynde any
cause notable ageynist pese confessoures, he is holdin to enforme per
35 of Ipe Ministre prouincial, whoche schal redresse hem or putte hem
awey owte of pe place.
AFter pat we enmonestyn stray tli pe visitoure, J>at poo pinges
[Fol. 68 T ] whoche he fynt in his visitacioun ]?at | he kepe priue, ne schewe hit
nat bi his knowinge to none bodi, but assone as misdedis schal be
30 redde & penaunce enioynid, alle pat whoche is writen schal be brent
bifore pe couent, but jif J?er be soche pinges whoche bi pe counsayle
of moste wise sustris of pe couent schul be reportid to J?e Ministre
general of pe ordre. And also }if so be J?at J?e Minister prouincial
finde after pe visitacioun any pinge notable ageynis ]?e visitoure or
ageynis his felawes, He is holdin to make enformacioun to )?e Minister
* MS. repeats ' that he be '.
The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 95
general. The felaws to pe visitoure schul nat be at be visitacioun,
but jif it so be pat bat it seme to be visitoure for pe beste
The eleccioun of be Abbesse perteynib alle oneli to be couent, but
f>e confirmacioun quassacioun & deposing | pertenip to be Ministre [Fol. 69 r ]
general of pe ordre of Freris Menoures, jif he be present in be
prouince; & jif he be nat, bat it schal pertien to pe Minister
prouincial, In be whiche be forseyde Abbey is foundid, To whom
pertenip be ordinaunce of fis ordre, be gouernaunce, be cure, be visi-
tacioun, >e correccioun, & reformacioun, & bi hqm & bi oper visitouris 10
after J?at at it be enioynid hem in place & in time; bi be whiche
visitoures be abbesse schal be assoylid of here office, as it is expressid
aboue. And bere for ban in vertu of obedience we comaunde
straytli senden & enioynen alle Abbessis & Sustris of Jns religioun,
}>at pey be obedientis to J>e Minister general of ]>e ordre of frere 15
Menoures & to be Minister prouincial of be same prouince, in be
whiche be same | Abbey is sette, in binges whiche been nat ageynis [Fol. 69 T ]
here sowlis, ne ageynis Ipis present rule. For we wole J?at Ipey be
alwey sogettis to here gouernouris. Also we enioynin to alle pe
sustris of bis same religion, bat ]?ey obey diligentli to here Abbesse } 20
after bat be Abbesse be confermid, as longe as bat sche dwellij? &
abidij? in here office. Whan for maladi or for any ober caas J?at J?e
Abbey be destitute or voyde of an Abbesse, bat ban >e sustris schal
*-chesyn a president to whom in ]?e mene time Jey schul be obedientis
til a nyew Abbesse be confermid & ocupie here office. And bis same 25
president schal vse & execute in be mene time be office who ys
longynge to be Abbesse. 35 The mynistris [<mdt] be visitoures 36 schul
refourme alle dis|honeste & amende alle ]?ingis whoche been for to [Fol. 70 r ]
amende boo}) in spiritualite & in temporalite. And it [is] for to
eschiewen comynges &goinges of straungeris bi occasioun of temporal 30
pinges & forasmoche bat J?e Sustris may lyue more in pees for to
serue god allegatis, bat J?ey haue in comune & for to resseyue fe
profites of rentis & possessions & sureli to kepe. And for to trete
pe forseyde possessions in riht maner, haue pey in J>e forseyde
Abbey a procuratoure 37 wise & trew, whoche schal be establid of 35
the counsayle of the Abbesse & bi consentement of f>e couent & be
* Before ' chesyn ' a word erased, probably ' mow '. t MS. whoche.
96 The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
he put owte at alle time, whan hem schal seme goode & profitabel ;
& pat pe procuratoure be holdin to jeelde acounte resonable to ]>e
[Fol. 70 T ] Abbesse & to pe wise Sustres enspeciali bi pe couent per|to assignid,
& to pe visitouris whan pey wolen herin of alle pinges vvhoche haue
5 be deliurid to him & pat he ha)? despendid. And pis procuratoure
schal nat in none maner selle, ne bynde ne draw awey any goodes
or catallis of pe Abbey, & alle pat which is done in damage to pe
Abbey bi soche maner of bad gouernauuce, we Juge it for nawt & of
none auayle . And for as moche pat in oper place is oure life
10 perpetuel, we wole aboue alle pinges pat pe sustris of pis religioun
eschuen outrage & pe sourfait of bigginge & of alle maner curiosite,
whiche been contrarious to alle godenesse & whoche god hatip in
The seel of pe couent be kepte after pe ordinaunce of pe same
[Fol. 71 r ] couent. And alle pe letres whiche | schul be sent from pe couent
schal be firste I-redde in pe chapitre. None of pe Sustres sende ne
resseyue any letres but soche whoche pe Abbesse schal rede first, or
ellis pat pe same letres be I-redde bifore pe Abbesse be anoper suster
per to assignid. The Abbesse schal holde chapitre eche wike twies
ao at pe leste, one of corecciouu & amonisschment, & anoper of pe ordi-
naunce of Sustris. And ouer alle pinge we defende pat none
Ministre ne visitoure bi here auctorite make none constitucionis in
pe Abbey ageynis pe forme & rule aforseyde, wher porwe pe sustris
be bounde or enclinid to any vice or payne, but }if so be pat it be
25 done bi consentment of alle pe couent ; and jif ani soche nyew
ordinaunce be made, by no maner pat pe sustres schul be boundyn
per to. 38
[Fol. 71 T ] We seyn pan pat none persone of holi chirche ne seculer take in
despite ne varie ne transpose pis present rule correctid & approuid,
30 ne any pinges whoch been compreheudid per inne, ne for to go
folili per ageynis. And jif any be so hardi pat dare take pat vppon
him,knowe he pat he rennip in pe wrap of god almyhti& indignacioun
of pe apostles Peter & poule. This was jouin at vienj 89 pe vi
kalendis of august J>e secuude jer of oure dignite.
The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 97
This 40 is rule of sustris enclosid, whoche haue lefte alle binges
of bis worlde for loue of god. Certis bey do^ grete vnderstondinge,
for in bis worlde may no man dwelle in profitabel pees. At alle
dayes ber been enemyes And berfor ]?at ]?e sustres put here >owtes
for to loue god ententifely, whoche schal putte hem in goode place. 5
And | for as mochel >at bey been enclosid, allemihti god schal ^eue [Fol. 72 r ]
to hem of his fayre Binges & Ip&i is fayre paradise, bi . cause bat
bey haue louid him in vertuouse seruise. Now prey we bis gode
ladies bat J>ey preyen for oure Bowles bat we may come & haue be
Joye of heuyn bi his blessid grace perpetuelly for to endure. Amen. 10
|)ra im]) be $Letoie 0f
98 The Reu-le of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
I Or as moche pat it is couenabel lowli seruauntes & deuowtes
hand maydenes of owre lorde Ihesu criste for his loue be
worlde wip alle vaniteis to forsake, And pe batayle for to vndertake-
igaynes pe deuel & him for to wipstonde & his temptacions, & hem
[ Fol. 72 T J selfe to refreyne bi name of professioun, | bi whoche pey been submittid
to diuerses obseruauncis of religioun, so pat bey mowen bi pe forseyde
avowe of regulere obseruaunce helpe in sowle & bodi haue in pis
worlde, And after here departinge for to reioyse perpetualli pe
revvarde of blisse, whoche ys ordeynid for here rewarde, we perfor
10 fader spirituel of his J^ingis penkinge wip gode diligence, hauin
ordeynid pat pe sustris whoche been or schal been vnder J>e gouer-
naunce in pe cure of freris Menowres, alle pow pat pey be clepid
Menowressis or of be ordre of Seint Clere or of seynt damian 1 ,* or
of what oper name pat pey hauyn or berin, bat in eche place wher
15 bey been dwellinge bi pe ministris prouincial of pe Freris Menours
[Fol. 73 r ] & bi pe Abbesse of pe same place & of pe | couent or of pe gretter
parti of pe couent be per ordeynid be oure auctorite certeyne nombre
of hem after pe quantite & sufficiant of godes & rentis longinge to
pe same Abbey, so pat pey may of here goodes couenabli be sus-
20 taynid. 2 And ouer pat certayne nomber bi pis maner assigned,
pat none be resseyuid in pe same hous wi^owte special licence of
pe apostle, But jif so be bat here godes & rentis been of soche
encrese whoche may suffice to moo; & algatis byfore any soche
resseyuinge, pat pe encrese of here godes bi be grace of god be
25 denounsid to be chapitre general of freres Menoures. Atte whiche
chapitre it schal be pan ordeynid how many persones may per putte
inne ouer the nombre of olde time, bi resoun of be encrees of here
[Fol. 73 T ] goodes & reue|nuys, as it is forseyde. And }if it happe bi pe grace
of god any persone or many persones for to be resseyuid ouer pe
30 olde numbre, Algatis pat none soche resseyte be made wi]? owte
licence of be Ministre general or prouincial, to be whoche Ministris
we comaundin straytli pat bifore ani soche graunt schal be done,
pat pey auise wel, pat none cowenaunt t per in be made vnduli, ne
* The numbers given in the text refer to the notes which will be found on
f MS. ' comenaunt'.
The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 99
ani pinge pat towchip Simoni. And }if it happe bi auenture pat
any of pe kynrede or oper Frendes make l^gacioun, deuise or ^ifte
of ani manerpossessioun, gode, catelles or luyelles to any Suster, pat
it schal be resseyuid bi pe Abbesse & dispendid in profite to Couent ;
& sche bi cause of wboin Ipat gifte is done for, pat allegatis sche 5
in here necessitees be holpyn & rele|uyd to here ese goodli. And [Fol. 74 r ]
pat pe ministris be wel ware, bope general & prouincial, pat for
none leue bifore grauntid ne after, bi none wey, for none coloure ne
requeste,ne for any oper occasioun, none miner suster of pis religioun
bi here selfe ne be any oper do resseyue or take any pinge whoche 10
is longynge to ani frere or to any Couent or to Ipe chirches or werkis
of pe forseycle ordre. And also pat bi resoun qf soche resseyte none
pinge be procurid ne 5ouin, & pat none pinge be suffrid to be
resseyuid bi resoun of custume, ne bi any oper wey, For alle soche
dediswereccoune*corrupcioun. And jif any ministre do or suffer Ipe 15
contrarie, be he cursid in so mochel pat he may nat be assoylid 8
but onli of pe popet excepte peryl of dee]?, & jif he be conuic|tid [Fol. 74 T ]
per of, pat pan he schal be deposid of pe office of Ministre perpetueli.
And more ouer we ordeyne pat pe Abbessis & alle oper whiche
Ipe goodes of be Abbey schal gader, resseyue, miuistre, or despende, 20
eche ;ere pat pey schal jeelde acounte bifore pe Ministre general or
prouincial & before ani wyse Sustres I-chosin pere bi be Couent, of
alle maner resseytis & expensis & of alle o|?er ]?inges in diew maner,
& of alle bat whiche is owynge bi anj r persone, & of be astate of be
Abbey. And we wole also pat in eche hous of be ordre in J>e 25
biginnyuge of be Abbes, after bat sche is in pesible possessioun of
Ipe godes, & alle binges whoche longyn to be hous, pat wip inne
ii monpis in pe present of pe Ministre general or prouincial or J of [Fol. 75']
pe visitoure of pe house, & in presens of vi wise Sustris of pe same
place be an Inuentari made of alle here godes & catallis meuabel & 3
not meuabel ; & pis Inuentari schal be regestrid or dowblid in alle
poyntis acordinge & enselid wip pe seeles of pe Abbesse & of pe
couent ; and amongis oper pinges in pe foi seyde register be con-
teynid what bestis pey hauyn, & what pey been worpe, & what
corne pey hauyn, & what wynes, & alle oper maner store, & pe 35
dettis whoche pe hous owip, & pe dettis whoche been owynge to pe
house, & to whom pey been bowndyn & pe names of here dettoures,
& what orneraentis, & what vessel & couertoures, & what oper
* MS. ' rettoune'. t Word rubbed out, but still legible.
100 The Rewle of Sustris Men&uresses enclosed
soche thingis been in pe hous. And }if any Abbesse resseyue pe
[Fol. 75 T 1 hous in | gode estate & sche doop enpeyre hit, bi alienacioun or
destruccioun of here godes or bi dette & foli obligacioun, pan be sche
deposid of here astate, & ouer pat be sche punyschid as it longip
5 to. And we wole pat })6 forseyde Inuentaries or regestris been
redde opunli & playnli in pe Chapitre bifore alle ]?e Couent ; and
after tyme pat pey been redde, one register dwelle wip pe Abbesse,
& pat oper wij> pe Couent, & pe transcrite wip pe Ministre general
10 And 3it as we recordin oure blessid predecessoures pope boneface
pe VIII *, 4 P a t after a constitucioun bi hem ordeynid vppon pis same
religioun, vnder vertuouse rule, pat alle pe Sustris schulden dwelle
& abide vnder stedefast & perpetuel closinge, & as we been efformid
[Fol. 76 r ] In some placis of pe ordre | pis poynt is nat kepte holi, And perfor
15 owre wille is, pat pis same constitucioun be kepte outerli. Wherfor
we comawnde straytli to alle Ministris & Abbessis & to alle po to
whom soche kepinge of closure pertenip, pat f>ey alle doo here
feruent diligence for to kepe truli, pat none Suster priuyli ne
apertli passe nat oute bi none maner wey, But $if so be in case pat
20 any of hem been sent & ordeynid for to edifie & ocupie a newe
place of pe same religioun, or ellis pat it happe pat ani of hem be
in so stronge maladie opunli, J^at sche may nat dwelle ne abide per
inne wip owte grete sclaunder or perille importabel.
And ouer pat we wole pat none religious ne seculere, of what
[Fol. 76 T ] astate or dignite pat he be, J>at he enter nat to hem | wipowte
licence of pe Apostle, owtake pes persones to whom is grauntid
conge, bi here rule & bi ordinaunce of owre predecessouris . And
ouer pat we comaundyn streytli to pe Ministris, Custodis & war-
deynis bi pis tenoure present, f>at J?ey distreyne alle here freris to
30 hem sogettis, pat in here comynges & abidinges in pe Abbey pey
gouerne hem vertuousli in alle poyutis after pe rule of seynt
Fraunceys & statuses of holi popis t & oj>er holi t Freris of J>e
same ordre. And alle poo whiche doo pe contrari schullin be
punischid & chastisid after pe ordinaunce in pe same statutes
And also sauynge in pe same rule of pe Sustris made bi seynt
* The word ' pope' is rubbed out and a line drawn through ' boneface J>e
VIII ' in MS.
t Words have been rubbed out, but are readable.
The Heu'le of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 101
Clare is a clause conteynyd, J?at in eche house ]?er may be resseyuyd
certayjnis personis for to serue hem & J> whiche schal be con- [Fol. 77 r ]
streynid to alle maner obseruaunces of professioun like as oj>er been
wij) inne, owtake closure, &c., we neforf>at, for j?e honeste & gode fame
of pe Sustris of }?e ordre of seynt Clare or Menoressis or of seynt 5
Damyan, OJ?er weyes we ordeyne at Ip'is time, & wolin J^at oure ordi-
naunce endure perpetuelli, whiche is J>is }?at we comaundin straytli
>at from ]?is time forbe, soche seruauntis f>at now been or scliullin
been, J>at J>ey been as ferforj) & astray tli boundin to pe obseruaunce
of professioun as olper sustryn in pe same Abbey vnder obedience, 10
& J?at bey dwellin & abide perpetueli vnder closure. Neforjmn j^ey
schul mowe haue in eche house of soche religioun certaines wommen |
but fewe, be whiche schullen be of gode age & wel auysid & of [Fol. 77 T ]
goode maneris & honestes in seculere habite ; & soche schal entre
nat in \>e closure of Ipe Sustres, but for profite of Ipe Abbey & for 15
grete necessite to J?e Sustres, after J?at is euioynid to hem, & Ip&t
J?ey be J^ere of warnid. And $if pe Abbesse take vppon here
ageynes oure comaundement for to goo owte of pe forseyde closure,
or geue licence to any of j^e Sustris, ]?at J>an bi pe Ministre in pe
counsayle of ]?e freris, The same Abbesse schal be remewid of here 20
goueruaunce, & J?e Sustris bi )?e maner goynge owte of j?e closure,
but in case sufferablis, schullyn be made enables to alle offices of J>e
ordre, & neuer]?elese J?at J?ey been enioynid to do ]?e penaunce
assignyd & ordeynid in J)e ordre j for greuouses trespasis. [Fol. 78 r ]
And also we defenden straytli J?at \>Q Sustris of J>e order, haue 25
none cellis in here dortoure, & ^if any J?er be, we senden & comauuden
J)at bi Ipe ministris or be visitoures in Ipe nexte visitucioua Ipat ]?ey do
destruye vtterli alle soche mauer cellis; & ^if any oj?er be coun-
sayliuge procuringe or helpinge ere agaynes, ]?at J?ey been chastised
& punischid sadli by censure & sentence of holi chirche & that by 30
oure auctorite. And jif any of Ipe forseyde Ministris or olper freris
of f>e same ordre presumyn now or in tyme coniynge to make ojer
statutis or obseruaunces ageynes owre ordinaunce forseyde, we bi
auctorite papal * enioynyn & coinaundyn J>at soche coustitucions
been holden for nauhte& of none valu. Andwewolen | & comaunden [Fol. 78 T ]
straytly Ipat alle Ipe Ministris prouinciallis in alle here prouinces do
sende to alle Abbeyes of J?e same ordre whoche been or schulde
been vnder cure & gouernaunce of freris Menoures, The copies of
* Word rubbed out, but readable.
102 The Eeide of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
}?is ordinaunce enselid vnder f>e sele of ]>e mynistre & of ]?e cliuyni-
toures, And bat bey been redde to f>e sustris in here couentis opynli
& bat ]>e Miiiistris comaunden stray[*]li f>at Jns ordinaunce from >is
time forbe be I-kepte entierli & holdin stedefastli wif> owte any
$ variaunce or lettinge.
At alle be houres bey scbal first a litel ringe & make a suffisaunt
restinge, so bat be Sustres may make hem redi & assemble in be
chirche vf'ip owte tariynge. & ban schal Ipe belle be rungyn wel
[Fol. 79 r ] lenger,. & bis maner ringinge be vsid in alle times, safe | in dobel
10 Festis 5 . For ban we schal ringe iii tymes longe bo]?e to euensonge &
to matynnis, bi espacis suffisauntis. And at be tierce i>wey tymes
longe with couenabel espace, & after }?e tierce iiii time to be
masse couenabli. . Eche day we schal ringe in time longe bifore be
biginninge of be Inuitatorie 6 . On sundayes, at dobel Festis, &
15 semydobel bey schal ringe, whan J?e[2/] byginne Te deum l\audamus\
tille soche a verse pleni sunt celi Sf terra. And on sundayes
whan bey syngen J?e ix respons 7 , while Gloria patri is asinginge,
}?an bey schal ringe til Ipe biginnynge ageyne of Ipe response.
Whan bey been at be leuacioun 8 , bey schal ringe a litel in Ipe masse
20 conuentuel withowte more. At be mete & at be soper in alle times
[Fol. 79 T ] J>ey schal sowne be smale belle, And after | til ]pe Sustren haue
wasschin here hondis & asserabel togyderes bifore ])e freytoure,
& after here refeccioun bey schalle smyht iiii strokes on Tpe belle
of be freytoure. And after bis smytinge be S'ustres schullin rise
25 & entre honestli in to be Freytoure, & after bat bey schal sowne
>e belle, bi be space of seyinge of iiii Aue maries. And after J^at
J?e Chauntresse in sesynge of J)e sowninge schal seye Benedicite 9 .
And f>e Couent schal answere in J?e same tune. And ]?an Ipe
Chauntresse schal bigynne be verse, & alle Ipe couent schal sey after.
g At lube d[omne\ 10 Sche bat schal rede fromme be ende of f>e Couent
til sche comeinmyddis of ]?e Couent schal sey lube d[omne]& bowynge
schal resseyue }>e blessynge. And in J?e end of J>e mete, )?e refrey-
[Fol. 80 r ] touresse schal smyte | iiii strokes on Ipe sinale belle, & anone be reder
schal sey Tu autem ". And be Sustres at Ipe tabel schul seye Deo
35 gratias. And after anone be Somenerere schal sowne be smale
belle as longe til be sustres been fro table, & in renges bifore, one
The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 103
Suster ageynis anoper. And pan pe chaunterere schal biginne ]:>e
verse & alle Ipe couent after, & atte Gloria jpatri Eche Suster schal
turne ageynis oper. Whan alle is done, pe almoynere schal turne
here towarde pe ymage 12 & sey Agimus tibi 13 wif> Benedictus deus
in do\_nis\, And after pat pe Chaunterere schal bigynne for to go to pe 5
Mynystre wij? Miserere mei, deus, & alle pe couent & pan ]>e quere
on pat one syde schal take his verse, & Ipe Quere on pat oper syde
schal take anoper verse. And assone as pey | haue bowid hem to pe [Fol. 80 T ]
ymage reuerentli, pey schul go in to pe chirche singyng Ipe same note.
And at Ipe entre of Ipe Quere pey schul bowe towarde Ipe awter, & 10
whan pey been entrid in here segis Ipej schul stonde one ageynes
anoper, til pey sey Retribuere H . And Jeanne, alle schal bowen at
Per dominum, & panne turne hem te pe auter til me seyp * Fidelium
anime 15 . And whan pey haue answerid Amen, pey schul bowe
& sey Pater noster, }if it be Test, stondinge; jif hit be Feri, 15
knelinge ; And after in pe ende smyte pe forme & seye Deus det
nobis 8[uam] p[acernj and Ipe couent answeringe Amen.
WHan Ipej jelden graces at ]?e soper in Ipe Freytoure, J>ey schul
do as it is seyde biforne, saue ]?at J>ey schullyn nat knele but bowe &
seye | Deus det nobis s[uamj p[acem] wi]j owte smitynge, & answere, [p i. gir-j
Amen. And ]?ey schul honestli in silence goo owte of }?e freytoure,
sauinge Ipoo whoche Jey schul seruyn.
And also at Ipe colacioun 16 whoche schal be done eche day in J?e
freytoure, First J>ey schul sown Ipe belle in Monastre bi espace
auenaunt, & refectuouere schal sowne ]?e smale belle of )?e Cloyster 25
be as longe time }?at alle ]?e Sustris may be redili ensemblid in J>e
Freytoure. And anone after Ipe Red ere schal sey lube domne, $c.,
& resseyue blessinge bowinge, as hit is forseyde. The benisoun is
Ipis : Noctem quietam $ finem perfectum concedat nobis omnipotent
$ misericors dominus. R Amen. And after pe firste or secunde 3
verse of pe lessouu pe Reder schal sey JBenedicite wip | titel & poynt- [ Fo1 - 81T ]
ing in tone of a lessoun. pe blessing is Potum ancillarum suarum,
$-c. In nomine 2)atri[s] $ filii $ s\jpiritus\ s\cincti~\. QAmen. And in
pe ende of pe lessoun pe Reder schal sey Fratres, sobrii estate $c. . Tu
autem d[omine^ c. R Deo gr alias. The sustris schul goo to monastre 35
ordeyneli seyinge. Miserere mei, deus wip owte note, & pan J?ey schul
* ' me ' and the ]> of ' seyj> ' erased and ' J>ey sey ' in later hand in margin.
104 The Reuie of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
ringe pe grete belle in pe clogere for complin, whan it is ronge &
seyd in pe chirche Adiutorium cf-c. & Pater noster knelinge. pan
J?ey schal sey Confiteor $c. & Misereatur $-c. And as oftyn J?at
fastynge day is, Collacioun schal be done & seyde & nomore. And
5 in oj?er tyme pey schal come to Complyn as to oper houres of }?e
day. And Ipe time )?at ]?ey schul slepe bi day Fro Pasche vnto
[Fol. 82 r j seint Croyse. . Sche Jat hap redde at }?e tabel, as sone as sche ha]>
etin, sche schal sowne pe smale belle of pe freytour bi pe space of
an Aue maria. And after anone pe Sustris schullin rest hem in
10 pees & silence & in pe time of slepinge none persone schal be wip
in pe cloos but f e sustris oneli.
Whan Jey schullin goo in to chapiter, pey schul sowne pe smale
belle longeli, & anone wip owte tariinge Ipe Sustres schal assemble
in pe Chapitre ; & whan pe Sustris been ensemblid at pe Monastre
15 & Tpat pe last stroke is smetyn, Ipe ebdomodaii 17 make a tokin in
smytinge pe forme wip here honde honestli, & anone Ipe sustris
schul bowyn hem jif it be a Fest ; but if it be a fieri, knelinge &
seyinge Pater nosier. And after pat Ipe ebdomo[c?a]ri make a syngne,
[Fol. 82 T ] as j hit is aboue seyde, for to make hem redi & J?an sche schal
20 bigynne j?e office in here sege & here visage tumid to Ipe awter.
And so schal alle pe sustris do til Gloria patri. And pan schul J>e
one syde of Ipe Quere turne hem ageynis >e o)?er in obeyinge. Alle
in Ipis maner schal Ipey be whan )?ey seyn Ipes psalmes wij? owte
note in pe Quere. Alle sustres schul stonde vpriht saue in J?e
25 psalmodiinge at pe seruice of dede, for J>an Jey schul sitte. Whan
II psalmis or.nn been seyde vpon one antime 18 , \>e quere schal
stande vp while Ipe antym ys bigonne excepte at prime & in tyme
of Pasche & at Complin. In alle ofer times bof>e one & o]?er schul
stonden & sitte chaungeabli sauing at Laudate d\_ominum] o\mnes\
[Fol. 83 r ] g[entes], & laudate d[ominum~\ de celis, \ Quicunque unit, Benedictus,
Nunc dimittis, & Magnificat, Wher |)ey schullen alwey stonde,
whe]?er pey rede or singe, & an o]?er time, at pe office of oure ladi,
whan it is seyde wij> owte note. P>ut at Ipe lessons whan pey schul
sey psalmodi, J?an J>ey schul sey distinctly & atrete, & also whan
35 P e y naue seyde & endid on Ipe one syde pe verse til time ]?at )?e
oj?er syde schal biginne Ipe opev verse, & sptcialli in J>e officts of
oure ladi & of \>e dede. Whan Ipey synge, Jmt bey make none
treyne ne poynt of metre, but Ip&t pey make pause euenli &
auenauntli. For to jeue \>e antemes & for to tune fe psalmis
The JKeivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 105
]?er schul be ii chaunteressis, one in J?at one syde & one in bat oper
side in eche quere ordeynid & assignid, whiche schullen | jeuin J>e [Fol. 83 T ]
anteniis & entune be psalmis eche on here syde, & Je chauntresse
\vhiche schal jeue Ipe anteme schal entune f>e psalmes. And
a anteme schal neuer be bigonne of tweyne bifore J>e psalme. pe 5
lessonis schullen be redde in myddes of J>e quere ; )?e responses bojj
bi day & bi nihte schul be songoun sittinge in here seges, like as
antemis been. Whan bat * lube d[omne] riht in middis of be quere,
sche schal obey to be awter for to resseyue Ipe benysoun, & Ipe
Ebdoniodari schal sey pe benisons sittinge, after time pat sche is 10
sette. But ]?e benisons of J?e Gospellis sche schal euer sey boop bi
day & be nihte & nat chaunge here voyse, but in one poynt, &
nameli benisones chaungin neuer for festis ne for feri. The absolu-
cions 19 , as Exaiudi, domine, Ipsius pie\tas & A uinculis, alle wey [Fol. 84 r ]
schullen be seyde in here places & in dayes ferialis pe one after be 15
oper, alle }?owe ]?at a Gospel be seyde. The benisons 20 been Euan-
gelica leccio $c., & Ipe olper n schul alle wey be seyde whan be
Gospel is seyde, be it fest, be it feri. The absolucions schullin be
fceyde in be tune of chapitres, J3e benisons in f>e tune of lessons.
And also Ipe orisouns at be houres of J>e*day, of prime, of mydday, 20
& of none, schul be deterininyd vnder be tune of chapiteris ; & be
Ebdomodari whiche schal sey Ipe orisoun schal sey Domine exaudi
& Benedicamus domino in pe same tune, & bey schul answere
Deo gratias, holdinge vppe. And be orisons whiche schullen be
seyde at euynsonge & atte matyns f>ey schul be seyde ^ 7 uder be 25
same tune as orisons | at masse solempli. And in be tyme of entre- [Fol. 84 T j
dite general 21 Ipe Sustrin schul sey alle maner offices distinctly &
sympli wib owte note. Whan be orisoun is seyde in ferial day, hit
chal be seyde knelinge til per dominum & so schal pe orisons of
owre ladi & of seynt Frauncesse, but be orisoun after preciosa schal 3
be seyde at alle tymis like as pe Pater nosier schal be seyde. At
be bigyuninge of houres, & in be ende whan be pater noster ys
seyde boo}? bifore lessons, & at J>e blessiuge of be tabel, & whan
graces schul be seyde in be Freytour, bey schul nat knelin, & at
be preces of prime & of com'plyn & at pe suffragis of euensonge & 35
matynnis, whoche been seyde in lowe & be orisons " 2 whiche been
songoun schul be songouu (schal be seyde) stondinge ; & whan pe
preface 2S is seyde at masse, Jey | schul knelyn at be orisoun til [Fol. 85 r ]
Dominus uobiscum, be it Feest or feri, & nat biforne & so for to
* Some words must be supplied here, e.g. ' sche seyj> '.
106 The Rewle of Sustris Menour esses enclosid
stonde til Per dominum. And also after pat pe Offertorie 24 is
songoun til orate, fratres, pe sustres schul turne hem riht towarde pe
awter. And [wAtm] Orate is seyde, pey schul knelin til Per omnia,
& Jeanne rise vppe & bowe hem towarde pe awter til Sanctus, & pan
5 pe one syde of pe Quere agaynes pe oper & singe Sanctus, & after
pat for to knelin duringe pe leuacioun of pe bodi of oure lorde Ihesu
criste, & pan rise & worschip deuowtli on knees towarde pe awter,
& pey schul dwelle greuelinge 25 til Per omnia at Pax doinini.
And whan Agnus del is seyde, \J>&y\ schal lye greueninge til pe
10 Post com[wmraons]. 26 And in festiuale dayes & Festis of ix lessons
[Fol. 85 V ] & in masses of Requiem whoche been songyn in soche Festis, | pey
schul nat make prosternacioun whan Sanctus is in seyinge, til pe
leuacioun, but after pe leuacioun Ipey schul make prosternacion til
Per omnia of pe Pater noster. And of masse of Requiem for bodi
15 present, of whom vigilies were done bi note in a Ferial day, pey
schal do as in a festival day & so schul pey doo at masse of pe holi
goste, of oure ladi, of seint Fraunces, and in massis for anniuersa-
riis, & of oper seintis ; & in bis massis of seyntis Ipey schal sey
Kyrie, Sanctus & agnus, as of Festival dayes, pow it be feri. Item
so pey schul knelin in ferial dayes at Salue, sancta parens, & at Veni
sancte spiritus, & in J>e massis of pe holi goste & of oure ladi, & in
lentyn at pe verse of Tpe tracte, 27 Adiuua nos deus salutaris noster
[Fol. 86 r ] & at Salue regina & Aue regina, & at J>e bigynjninge of J>e verse
crux, aue, spes unica S,-c. And in eche time & place pat pey
25 knelin in ferial dayes, pey schul knelyn in festival dayes, except at
preces 28 of prime & of complyn. And also pat pe sustris been riht
turnid eche agaynis oper. In ]?e masse whan pe Ofiertori is
songoun, pey schulle turne hem towarde pe awter, & after Ipe Sanctus
also ]?at pey been vpriht, & at alle times pat any is songe in
30 comune. Item alle times pat Gloria patri is seyde, pey schul bowe
hem lowli, & at Te deum laudamus, whan Te ergo quaesumus is
seyde, & at Credo whan Homo factus est, & at Gloria in excelsis,
whan suscipe deprecacionem is seyde,& in pe endis of ympnis, & whan
pe last verse saue one of Benedicite 29 is seyde. Item pe benisoun
[Fol. 86 T ] after complin | schal be seyde bifore pe anteme & after pe anteme
pey schul sey Fidelium. Item Te deum & Credo schal be songoun,
as.it was ordeynid at pe chapitre general. Item pey may singe som
sequence so bi ordinaunce general, as pe ordinal makip mencioun
except at pe masse of holi goste.
The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 107
In lentoun J?ey schul sey be Intrat Dum sanctificatus nos
fuero * Item ]?e antemes Lux orta est iu&o And to ober soche
lyke instede of In eternum For alleluia, whan one Alleluia ys
seyde . And also Rex gloriose & soche like may be sougin some
time for a Fest solempne in \>e note of Eterna lux. Ober ymnys 5
schullin be songe in alle times after be ordinal, whoche schal nat
be chaungid for Auent ne for any Fest ne for lentoun. Item bey
schul nat leuyn for masse of pe holi gost, or of oure ladi, ne for | any [Fol. 87 r ]
o)?er masse, but for J?e masse of pe ordinari schal be songe in his
place & at Ipe riht houre. Inuitatoriis & alle ober verses & 10
benedicite schul be seyde in alle times of one Suster in here sege in
Festis of ix lessons & of iii lessoun, & jif it b? dubbil fest or half
dobel, ii Sustris schul sey be verse bifor be awter. And in feriis
bitwix paske & pentecoste, Alleluia in pe masse schal be seyde
alwey wip n Sustres . And in festis of ix l[e]c[ions] & in sondayes, 15
Inuitatori & pe last Respons & Alleluia in pe masse schal alle wey
be songe of 11 sustris at be lectrouu in myddes of pe Quere. In
Festis half dowble Ipe orison alwey schal be seyde in myddis of Ipe
Quere at Ipe first euynsonge & at pe secunde & at Ipe matyns & in
pe in & vi | Eespons & at Ipe grayel of pe masse & of n sustris & [Fol. 87 V ]
pe smale verset, but jif Ipe chapitre at Ipe secunde euynsonge be
chaungid. For a feste simple pan be it done as bey may godeli,
& jif it may be atte euynsonge & at matyns bat per be had an
cierge or a chaundel of wexe & especialli in half dowbel festis & on
sondayes. pese been pe half dobel Festis. 31 Seint lucy, seint 25
Nicholas, be fest of Innocentis, of seint Thomas of Caunterbiri, Ipe
vtas of Ipe Epiphanie, Ipe fest of seint Anneys, & of seint Agase, Ipe
fest of ]?e holicrosse, be apparicioun of michel, be octaues of be
ascencioun & of seint Antony, & of seynt John Baptist, Ipe fest of
seint Marie magdalene, )?e translaciouu of seynt thomas, & Ipe fest 30
of seynt J Margare, be vtas of seint laurence, & of seynt lowis, & be [Fol. 88']
fest of \>e decollacioun of seint lohn, be vtas of be Natiuite of oure
ladi, the fest of seint Martin, be fest of seynt Elizabeb, & of seynt
Cecile, & of seynt katerin, & be vtas of corporis cristi.
In festis douce dobles, 32 ]>e Abbes or sche whiche schal do be 35
office in J>e ende of be thrid stroke, bob of be oue euynsonge & of
be ober S3 & of Matyns, schal go to be lectroun in myddis of Ipe
Quere . And J>ere n sustris jongest apparaylid schullen holde
eche of hem a cierge in here honde, be one in pe riht syde, & be
* So the MS. : it should be Dum sanctificatus fuero in vobis.
108 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
oper in pe lefte syde, &'pe Jjrid schal holtle a censer ful of fyie ;
& as sone pat sche schal see a tokene made for to bigynne pe office,
[Fol. 8S T ] J?at sche turne here bifore here whoche schal bigynne | pe office &
anone encense in times bifor )?at pe signe be made, pan turne here
5 towarde Ipe awter, And pe Quere pe one syde agaynes pe oj^er,
whan pe Pater noster is seyde. pan anoper tyme schal J>e signe
be made & alle pe sustris schul ryse up & stonde riht towarde pe
awter at Deus in adiutorium & singe also, and whan pey come to
Gloria patri, alle schul bo we, J>e one Quere agaynes pe other. Whan
10 ]?ey come to Sicut erat, sche whoche biganne ]re office returne here
to here sege, & ]?an pe cierges schullyn be I-sette bifore pe awter
ordeynli. The chaunteresses schul stonde in middis of Ipe quere &
byginne to gyder alle pat longi]? to here office. Sche whoche dope
Ipe Office sclial biginne alle pe antemes of Magnificat & benedictus
[Fol. 89 r ] & Ipe | Inuitatori & Benedictus schal be seyd of nn, & }>e bigyn-
ninges of Ipe Resj^ons of matyns & alle J?e smale Eesponses at alle
pe houres schullen be seyde of n in inyddes of J>e quere bifore J>e
auter. Whan ]?ey ensence in Ipe quere, $if it be a dowbel fest, f>ey
schul first ensence here whoche doo}? f>e office, And after ]?e chaun-
20 teresse in myddes of \>e quere, & J>an J?ey schal ensence eche syde
of ]?e quere, & )mn Ipej schul ensence ]?e ceroferessis n * times or
nn times at J>e moste. In J?is maner "pey schul ^eue ]>e pees.
Whan it is dowbel Feste or encense, ]?ey schul biginne towarde ]>e
semennere & )?erfor to gyffe of \>e pees. Whan )?ey schal sey pe
2 - orisoun, hit be seyde in myddis of J>e Quere. Sche whoche dooj? ]?e
office & oj?er wij> cierges schullin be vpriht as longe J>at J>e orison
[Fol. 89 T ] is aseyinge. & pe ebdomodarie schal | goo to here seege & sey pere
This been pe Festis doubles. 31 Noel, Fest of seynt Stephen, seynt
30 lohn, pe Circumsicioun, pe Epiphanie, pe fest of conuersioun of seynt
poule, pe purificacioun, & alle pe festis of oure ladi, pe fest of seynt
antoun, & his translacioun, Cathedra sancti petri, Ipe Fest of seint
Mathee, of seyut Gregori, of seynt Benet, Pasch wip n dayes after,
pe Fest of seynt Marke, J?e fest of ]>e ascencioun, & of Pentecoste
35 wip II dayes after, & of pe blessid Trinite, & of Corpus cristi, &
* MS. ' IIII times or II times at J>e moste '.
The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 109
pe Fest of seint Fraunces, & pe vtas of seynt barnabe, & seynt
lohn Baptiste, of seiut Petir & Paule, & \>e commemoracioun of seynt
paule, ]>e vtas of seynt Petir & seynt paule, of seynt lames, &
ad uincula sancti petri *, of seynt laui'cnce, of seint Clare, & Ipe
vtas of owre ladi, & \>e fest of seint lowis bisschop, of seint [FoK90 r ]
barth[olem]u, of augustyn doctor, of seint Matbeu, of seint Misshel,
of seint lerome, of seint luke, of seynt synion & seynt lude, Ipe
Fest of alle balwyn, f>e trauslacioun of seynt lowis, ]?e fest of dedi-
cacioun, & of seynt andrew. In alle pese festis )?ey schal baue mi
iergis at masse, at euinsonge, & at matyns, n at ]?e auter & n 10
at J?e chandelabris. In alle oj^er times pey schal bane II ciergis.
At masse, whan J>at J>ey syngin in )?e quere, (^omunly Tpe one syde
of pe quere schal turne hem to pe oper side, but at pe chapitres
towarde Ipe awter, & at ])e orisons whan f>ey bowen hem or makyn
prostracioun & whan J?e ofFertori is seyde, j?ey schul turne hem 15
towarde Ipe awter til Sanctus, whan J?ey encline hem or make
prostracioun. At orisoun, be it at masse or | houres, Ipey schul [Fol. 90 T ]
stonde vp whan Per dominum ys in seyinge & turne towarde Ipe
auter til amen ys seyde. Whan one suster sey]? Ipe Inuitatori or
biginni}? an anteme or sey]? a schort Response or Benedictus, sche 20
schal turne here to Ipe awter, and one [syde] of j^e Quere ageynis
}?e o]?er. Whan pey sey Flectamus ye[nua], leuate, pey schullin
turne hem to Tpe auter after leuate til J>e ende of Ipe orisoun. At alle
]5e orisons ]?ey schal do so, saue at )mt whan pey sey]? Dominus
uobiscum, at Ipe whiche J3ey schal knelin til Per dominum. At 2 5
alle Ipe orisons of pe masse & of houres )>ey schul turne to J>e awter,
-& at Ipe orisoun after Asperges. 3 ''
Item whan masse of J?e feri ys seyde in a Festiual day, alle
maner obseruauns schal be kept as in a feri. Item whan Tpe office
of owre ladi is seyde, J>ey schal | baue a cierge or a chaundel 3if it [Fol. 91']
may be. Item in pe ende of alle pe houres }>ey schul sey Fidelium
anime SfC. & pater noster, jif pere schal nat be bigune a masse or
a houre anone after, & to make a signe wij? prosternacioun & sey
dominus det n[obis] s[waw] p[acem], but jif it be after Complyn
or after matyns, & Ipe sustris schul auswere Amen. Whan |?ey sey 35
many boures to gederis 3S wip in J?e couent or owte, J>ey schal sey
Fidelium after eche houre & pater noster, & anone after bygynne
r houre. Whan J?ey haj>e I-smyten J?e forme for to encline or
* MS. ' see petre '.
110 The Reivle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
for to rise vp, bey schul sey Fidelium anime $-c. & whan )?ey
haue seyde be pater noster, Ipey schal seye Dominus (let $c.
In festis [o/] ix l[e]c[ions] n Sustres schul sey Alleluia at be lec-
troun }if it be to sey ; jif be tracte be longe, hit may \be] songen
[Fol. 91 T ] of mi or of vi, \>e one after j oj^er. In festis half doubles & in
sondayes n sustris schul say )?e Grayel & mi Alleluia & mo jif it
lyke for to do. Whan bey syngij? Alleluia in Feriallis dayes at Ipe
first tyme wi}? owte eudynge of j?e newme 37 after be verse, be it
songyn til ]?e ful ende of be newme. And whan bey singij) n
10 Alleluia, as in tyme of pasche, from j?e vtas of pasche til }?e vtas of
Pentecost, bey schal singe ]7e firste Alleluia alle & his verse & it
schal nat be bygonne ageyne bifor his verse ne after . pe secunde
Alleluia schal be bigunne bifore be verse & after.
THe sustres schul kepin hem from goynge & comynge custumabli
15 borwe be Quere but bicause of necessite grete.
The maner for to hoselin be sustres in massis conuentuales : first
[Fol. 92 r ] Ipey schul sey her confiteor in here | places knelinge lowliche, &
whan be preest hab assoylid hem beinge in here places, Eche of
hem wij? lowe voys ones schal sey Non sum digna Sfc. And ]?an
20 anone n sustris schulle be redi for to holdin a towayle bifore e
preest. And be freris whoche schal hosel hem, schal first hosel ]?e
miiiistressis of J>e awter, & after J?at hem of be Quere n & n to
gydris of ]?e syde of be quere, ordeynli alle with deuocioun &
knelinge & f>an for to drinke of j?e chalis, and after ]?at for to
25 returne in here places agayne.
AT )?e blessinge of be tabel 38 at mete, but whan bey haue prop re,
Oculi omnium. Gloria patri. Sicut erat. Kyrieleison. Criste
eleison. Kyrieleison. Pater noster ["$"]. Et ne nos [^]. Set liber a
nos; & ban sey Oremus on hye wij> Benedic nos, d[omine] &
[Fol. 92 V ] [hec tua] dona fyc., Blessing ) wib here honde opynli; answere Amen.
And anone after pe listresse schal seye lube d[omne] benedicere.
pe benisoun, Mense celestis <$fc. answere Amen. In ]?e ende of ]?e
mete, after Tu autem & answere Deo gratias, bey schul sey
The Reide of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 111
Confiteanturtibi $c. ["#] Gloria patri. Sicut erat. And sche whoche
haj> blessid J>e tabel schal turne here to Ipe ymage, jif any be in Ipe
freytoure, & seyinge on hye, & syngynge Agimus tibi gratias Sfc.
answer Amen, & after }?at seyinge Ipe psalme Miserere mei, deus
wilp all \>e versis 39 , Gloria patri, Sicut erat, Kyrieleison, criste 5
deison. Kyrieleison. pater noster. [$"] Et ne nos wi]7 alle Ipe
versis & in Ipe ende ["$"] Sit nomen do mini benedictum. [^] Ex
hoc nunc & seyinge wij? owte oremus 40 Retribuere dignare 6fc.
\$L] Amen. ["#] Benedicamus d[omino]. [ty ] Deo gratias. ["$"]
Fidelium anime per $c. answere Amen. Atte soper | Benedicite, [Fol. 93 r ]
answere Dominus. ["$"] -E'cfc/^ pauperes $c. Gloria patri . Sicut
erat . Kyrieleison . Criste eleison. Kyrieleison, as it is seyde
aforne after Tu a[utem] & auswere. Deo gratias. ["5?"] Memoriam
fecit . Gloria patri . Sicut erat . and after ]?at Benedictus Sfc., psalme
laudate dominum $c.', & in alle times laudate schal be seyde atte 15
Whan ]?ey eti]? but ones on J>e day, Tpej schul sey benisoun & graces
as at soper wij) Ipe psalme Miserere mei deus. This ordinaunce of
Ipe Benysoun & of graces schal be kept in alle times excepte in festis
whoche ha]3 propre.
The benisoun on Cristismasse day & bi Ipe vtas : Benedicite $c.
] Verbum caro f[actum est\, alleluia. [1^] Et habitauit in nobis,
alleluia . Gloria palri . Sicut erat ; & in Ipe ende after Tu a[utem],
["5?"] Notum fecit d[pminus\, alleluia. [^ ] Salutare s[uum], alleluia.
Gloria patri. Sicut erat. On twelfelpe daye and bi Ipe vtas, 25
Benedicite. [I^'J dominus. [tf] Reges \ Tharsis $ insule munera [Fol. 93 T }
of[ferent] $c. [^] Reges ara\bum\<$,-c., alleluia. Gloria patri $c. At
}>e ende of >e mete ["^] Omnes de saba $~c., alleluia. [^] Aurum $
thus defer[entes\, alleluia, psalme Deus indicium.
On schere ])ursday* l Absolute* wi}) owte note & wij? more sey[Y]nge 30
at J?e mete Crist us factus est pro nobis o[bediens] usque ad mortem,
* MS. ' A bsoluimus '.
112 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
& ]?an schal be seyde Pater nosier lowli & wif> owte aui more 42
blesse be tabel, & wib [owte] lube d[omne\ & wij? owte Tu a[utem].
And whan be lessoun is redde & endid, & after Jat }^ey ha]? smetyu
vppon Ipe tabel, as it is vsid at be lessons of be dede, ban }?ey schul
5 sey as biforne cristus factus est $-c. psalrae Miserere wif> owte
Gloria patri, but ]?e Pater noster alle lowe; & after wi|? owte
seyinge Oremus, Respice, quesumus domine 6fc. & wip owte pro-
nunsinge Qui tecum $ Fidelium, but after pe orisoun pey schul seye
Pater noster & nat sey Dominus det nobis.
[Fol. 94 r ] In bis same maner graces schul be seyde on gode friday, sauynge
bat bey schal ioyne to be verse cristus factus, mortem a\_uteni\
crucis. On pasche euyn. \^f\ Benedicite fyc. ["$"] Vespere autem
sabbati, que lu[cescit] in prima sa[bbati^, alleluia : venit maria
magdalene f altera maria vi[dere] se[2)ulcrum~\, alleluia. Gloria
15 patri, & in Ipe ende as bifore euynsonge, be psalme Laudate, & bat
may be seyde n times or more, til bey comyn to be quere. On
pasche day to ]?e soper in the saterday nexte, Benedicite $-c. ["5^] Hec
dies quain fecit dominus, alleluia. ^] exsultemus <Sf letemur in ea,
alleluia . Gloria patri . Sicut erat $c., . After mete, Hec dies.
20 psalme Confitemini.
On ascencioun day & be alle be vtas, ["5?"] Ascendit deus in iubila-
cione, alleluia. [J^] Dominus in voce tube, alleluia. Gloria patri.
Sicut erat tyc. ; After mete ["$"] Ascendens cristus in altum : [IJ]
captiuam d\uxit\ c[aptiuitatem], alleluia . Gloria patri . Sicut erat
2 5 $' c ' psalme Omnes gentes.
[Fol. 94 T ] On pentecost day & hi be vtas. ["$"] Spiritus domini repleuit
orbem terraruni,alleluia. [^i] Et hoc quod continet omnia,sci[entiam]
habet vocis, alleluia. Gloria patri . Sicut erat $c. After mete ["#]
Repleti sunt o[mnes] s[piritu] s[ancto\, alleluia. [1^] Et coe[perunt]
3 loqui, alleluia. Gloria patri . Sicut erat . psalme Magnus dominus
fyc. And on be Trinite sonday bey schul sey be comune graces,
THe auent of oure lorde alwey schal bigynne on J)e sonday bitwix
be v. kal. of December & be in Nones of december, & also general
rule bat be mi times namyd ymber dayis schul be holdin >e first
55 wednisday after be Fest of seynt lucie & be First sonday of clene lent
& in pentecoste wike & after be day of exaltacioun of pe holi Croys.
The Reide of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 113
And also a general rule, :jif any fest of any apostle or euangelist or
of seynt michel | or of \>e holi Croys, or any o]?er fest whoche ha]> [Fol. 95 r ]
proper respons, or any other fest generalli double fal on a sonday,
J>ere as none estori 43 shal be first entrid, ]?e offise shal be seyde of
f>e fest, & memori of J?e sonday at J?e first & secunde euynsonge 5
& at matyns & at masse ; & >e ix lessoun schal be of >e sonday.
And whan a stori schulde be first entrid & may nat be I-putte ouer
vnto anoper sonday, ]5e fest so fallinge schal be deferrid til inonday
nexst after, & }if }?e stori whoche shulde be songyn in J>at same
sonday be deferrid in to \>e nexst sonday after, >an J>e fest shal be 10
songen in fiat sonday wij> a memori of ]?e sonday, except f>e fest of
alle halwyn. But ojer festes, whoche be nat doble, schul be
deferrid til after, as it is forseyde. What maner festis of IX
lessonis oTper J?an | ]?e forseyde comyn on ]?e sonday schullyn be [Fol. 95 T ]
deferrid vnto monday, except j^e fest of seynt Thomas Caunterbiri, 15
& f>e festis of seynt Siluester, 44 of seynt leon, & seynt Eustache ;
& jif in >e same Monday be anoj>er fest of ix lessons, hit schal be
deferrid til tiewesday nexst after, & so schullin o]?er festis be
seruid pat fallyn on o]?er dayes, til J)ey been seruid, But jif it be
a Fest of apostel or Euangeliste or anoj>er feste whoche hap 20
propre Respons or ani o]?er fest double generalli. And soche
simple festis of ix lessons whoche may nat be seruid for soche
maner festis biforseyde been seruid on pe morwe after. Also
festis solempnis in oj>er londes & places schullyn be seruyd in }>e
same dayes whiche ]?ey fallin on. For J>e courte of Rome doo]? in 3 e
}?e same maner. Whan many festis | of ix lessons simple fallin [Fol. 96 r ]
continueli togyder eche fest after of>er, at f>e secunde euynsonge
of ]?e first feste, J>ey schalle chaunge J?e chapitre of f>e fest folwinge ;
but jif * ]?e fest whoche corny]? after fallij? on oj>er of whom ]r>ey
makej) solempne memorie, at Ipe first euynsonge after J?e first 3
orisoun, J)er schal be seyde a memorie of pat same fest, & after J?at
a memorie of J>e fest biforne. And f>is is for to vnderstonde, f>at
festis simples or lasse be >o festis whoche be nat dowblis, ne of
J>e holi Croys, ne of f>e awngelis, ne of \>e apostlis, ne of J>e Euan-
gelistis, ne festis solempnis in some londis & some placis. Eche 35
vtas ]?at is nat double is lugid for a fest simple or lasse, excepte
J>e vtas of ])e Epiphanie. Eche fest of ix lessons whiche is seruid
on | Saterday, be it of J?e apostlis or of>er, whoche be nat doubles [Fol. 96 T ]
* MS. adds 'in'.
114 The Eewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
except pe fest of Tnnoccntis, pey schul cliaunge at pe chapitre of
pe sonday or of pe fest or of pe vtas ; wherfor pat pe seruise of
sonday is lefte, & pey schul make memori of pe fest biforne, but
jif it be a dobel fest, pey schul make only memori of pe sonday.
5 And whan any fest is seruid on pe sonday, pey schal nat chaunge
at pe chapitre at pe secunde euinsonge, but 3if it be soche a fest
on pe monday of whoche pe seruise schal be seyde on pe sonday, ;jif
it falle per vppon. Of a fest pat is nat dowble whoche is seruid on
pe monday, at euynsonge of pe sonday pey schul make memorie
10 per of wip owte more, jif it be nat a fest of apostle, or of euangeliste,
[Fol. 97 r ] or anoper fest whoche hap propre Respons, ( or a fest solempne
general! in some londis & in some placis ; For soche maner of
festis, pey schal chaunge pe chapitre at euynsonge, & make memori
of pe sonday. At pe secunde euynsonges of festis dowblis of pe
15 holi Croys, of aungelis, of apostlis, of euangelistis, of festis solem-
pnis generali in some londes & in some places, pey schul make
memorie oneli of pe feste folwynge on pe morwe, jif it be nat a
fest double or anoper feste whiche is equypollent, pat is for to
vnderstonde, a fest of pe same dignite, or pe vtas of a fest whan
20 pey chawngip at pe chapitre of pe fest folwinge ; except pe festis
whoche hauen vtas, whoche Festis comyn wip in pe vtas of Noel,
pe whoche hauyn secunde euynsonges; except pe fest of translaciounf
[Fol. 97 T ] of seynt Fraunceys, 45 of whom is made memorie whan it fallip in
pe vigillis of assencioun, or Pentecost, but }if pe seyde Fest Trans-
25 lacioun of seynt Frauncesse come on pe morwe of Ascensioun, pan
memorie schal be seyde of pe translacioun of seynt Fraunceys, But
jif so be pat in som place pe chirche of pe freris be halwid in pe
name of seynt Fraunceys ; For in soche places, & in soche chirchis
pe euynsonge schal be seyde of seynt Fraunceys & memorie of pe
30 Ascencioun. And it is for to know pat in pe vigil of a double fest,
pe euynsonge schal al be seyde of pe dobel fest, & }if in pe same
day be a fest nat dobel or sonday neyper of pe one ne of pe oper
schal be made memori except in lentyn & in aduent, for in po
times memori schal be made of pe sonday. And it is for to knowe
[Fol. 98 r ] pat at alle double Festis, pe | antemys schullyn be doublid at euyn-
songe & matyns wip owte more. Also }if a fest of ix lessons come
wipin any vtas wipin which vtas pey seyn of pe Fest pat so fallin,
pe euynsonge schal be seyde fro pe chapitre forpe of pe Feste,
whiche so fallip, but jif so be pat pe fest come on a monday or on
The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid 115
be morwe whiche hath vtas ; For ]?an j^ey schul sey on be sonday
of be vtas & memorie wib owte any of J>e lest, jif it be nat a fest of
apostle or of Euangelist, or a fest whoche ha]? propre Respons, or
fest solempne generali In some londis & placis. But at Ipe secunde
euynsonge of a lasse feste, bey schal sey fro be chapitre forbe of 5
Ipe vtas wi]? memorie of be fest. And :jif J?e fest come on a sonday,
hit schal be deferrid }if it haue none propre Respons, except be
fest of seynt leon | pope, whoche schal nat be deferrid. And hit is [Fol. 98 T ]
for to vnderstonde bat in alle times bat wip inne any vtas, festis
been seruyd euermore at euynsonge & matyns, be last memorie schal 10
be seyde of Ipe vtas. And hit is for to know J>at wij? inne vtaces alwey
bey schal sey at Magnificat Ipe antym of be secunde euynsonge of
Ipe Fest. But at Ipe first euynsonge of \>e vtas bey schal sey at
Magnificat be anteme vppon Magnificat in be vigil of be feste.
Also jif a fest of in lessons come on be daye folwinge after be fest 15
of ix lessons, at Tpe secunde euynsonge of be fest [o/J ix lessons, bey
schul make memorie of be fest of m lessons. But jif ber be none
fest on be day whoche comyb bifore be day in whoche is >e fest of
in lessons, bey schal chaunge | at be chapitre at euinsonge, like as [Fol. 99 r ]
of a fest of ix lessons. The Inuitatori schal be songen feriali & 2
be ympuis of be fest at be nocturne schullin be songyn wi]? his
note. The psalmis feriallis wip here ant ernes, J?e versetis & alle
ober Binges schul be seyde of Ipe festis as of a fest of ix lessons.
After None seyde bey schal riht nauht do, but like of festis of
commemoraciouns. %if & happe a fest of ix lessons to be differrid to a 5
a day of pe fest of in lessons, or bat a fest of in lessons come on
a sonday of be fest of in lessons, memori onli schal be made at be
first euinsonge & at matyns & at masse & at be ix lessoun jif it
haue propre, & 5if it haue none propre legende, be ix lessoun schal
nat be of be fest of in lessons. Also 3if a fest of whom | bey [Fol. 99 T ]
makif? onli a memori come on a souday, of f>e same feste schal be
made memorie in be masse & at pe firste euynsonge & at matyns
in versicle & anteme & orisoun & in be laste lesson, }if it haue
propre legende. And jif it so be pat in bat souday, ]?ey sey of
a fest of ix lessons & memorie made of be sonday, Jan be last 35
lessoun schal be of be Omeli of be sonday, & be propre legende of
Ipe feste of commemoracioun schal be lefte & be memorie of be sonday
schal be made bifore be memori of be feste of commemoracioun. Also
in festis whoche been seruyd in lentyn, alwey memori schal be
116 The Rewle of Sustris Menouresses enclosid
made of pe ferie at euynsonge & at matyns & f>e last lessoun, }! it
haue an omeli. At }?e festis whiche comyn in aduent, Ipej schal
do in pe same maner, except pe laste lessoun, }if pe fest come nat
[Fol. 100 r ] in any | of pe ymber dayes. In none oper tyme pey schal nat make
5 memorie of a ferie in J?e day of a fest. $if any fest lasip propre
stori & is nat entier, but is fulfillid of Je comune sanctorum,* pey
schal bygynne at Ipe secunde Eespons. And generali alle times
pat Ipej make none pinge of properte of a fest, pey schul make
recours pe comune sanctorum. We make vtas of Noel, & in
10 dayes nexst after Epiphanye, of pasche, of Ascencioun, of Pente-
coste, of seynt Antonye, of Corpus cristi, of Natiuite of seynt
lohn Baptiste, of seynt peter & poule, of seynt laurence, of seynt
Clare, of J>e Assumpcioun of owre ladi, of seynt lowis, of pe Natiuite
of owre ladi, & of seynt Fraunceys. Hit is for to vnderstonde
15 fat Te deum laudamus schal be seyde anone after pe laste lessoun
[Fol. 100 T ] from pasche | til pe vtas of pentecost, as wel in feriis as in festis,
& in alle times J>at J?ey redip ix lessons, except pe sondayes fro pe
bigynnynge of auent til Noel & from septuagesme to pasche & in
day of Innocentis, jif it come nat on a sonday. And also it is for
ao to know pat whan pey redip nat ix lessons, }>ey schal rede in
lessons & singe in responsis, except from Ipe day of pasche til pe
Ascencioun &bi pe vtas of pentecoste & in pis pey singip n responsis,
alle pow pat in lessons be redde.
And also it is for to know pat Gloria patri is alwey seyde at }>e
25 in respons, & at J>e vi & at pe ix or last, except from >e sonday
of Ipe passioun til pasche But in pis time pey schal sey Gloria patri
in Festis whoche comyn f>ere, And in J>e office [of] f>e blessid virgin |
[Fol. 10 l r ] marie, owre swete ladi. And also it ys for to know J?at in alle
festis ]?e antemis of pe laudes schullin be seyde at prime, at tierce,
30 at mydday, at none, bi order ; But euermore pe nn anteme is
lefte ; & also ]?ey schal sey hem at euynsonge, but jif per be oper
assignid. And it is for to know also )>at in alle sondayis & alle
festis of ix lessons & of in lessons, Ipe orisoun whiche is seyde at Ipe
first euynsonge schal be seyde at alle oper houris except at prime
35 & at complin & at euynsonges in lentyn, & in Ipe quater temps of
Ipe aduent whar J?ey singip pe grete antymes,* 6 pat is to vnder-
stonde, sapiencia & oper.
2Efcte gofcc focrfee t# ful complete bIeg0tD be f>? f)oU 5Trtnite, foljte&e
lie ijis grate cuer gouecnc ]?ts !)oli ovtirc in yerfite chavtte. SJmen.
* MS. adds ' &.'
NOTES ON THE RULE OF SUSTKIS
1 Urban. This is Urban IV (James Panteleon, Patriarch of Jerusalem).
Elected August 1261, died October 1264.
2 Alisaunder. This is Alexander IV (Raynaldo, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia) .
Elected December 1254, died May 1261.
8 Kinge of Frauns. This is S. Louis, otherwise known as Louis IX of
France. He was brother of Bl. Isabella, who founded the monastery of
* In owre monestre. Latin ' in vestro Monasterio '.
B And beene clepid bi fe name of sustris enclosid. Latin ' cum Sororum
inclusarum vocabulo nuncupandam concessit '.
6 And werevpon . . . meneres. Latin ' Porro ex parte dicti Regis Nobis
fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut dictam Regulam in aliquibus capitulis corrigi
facientes nominationis ejus Minorum vocabulum adjicere de benignitate
Apostolica dignaremur '. The later hand which has substituted ' ]>ey ' for
' we ' has spoilt the sense.
7 Symon Deutre. Latin ' Simonem tituli Sanctae Ceciliae Cardinalem'.
This is Simon de Bria, afterwards Martin IV, elected February 1281. Died
8 So that it teas done as it was in name. Latin ' ut sicut re, ita et nomine ',
9 We ordeynid <$ establissin. Latin ' duximus statuendum '.
10 But )if so be . . . forseyde. The construction is here broken by misunder-
standing of the Latin, ' Nisi de licentia, &c. ... ad aliquem locum ejusdein
Religionis aliquae transmittantur : quibus ad ipsum Monasterium, a quo
transmissae fuerint, reverti liceat &c.'
11 Pole simplesse. Latin ' fatua simplicitate '.
12 4" also bi any . . . resonable. Misunderstanding of Latin, ' nisi forte
cum aliqua interdum causa valde rationabili exigente alicubi fuerit de consilio
discretarum Sororum loci per praetactos Ministros, vel ipsorum aliquem dis-
13 To myne ladi seint Clare. This is an addition peculiar to the English
version and without anything to correspond to it in the Bull.
14 Of myne lorde J>e apostle Boneface. The Bull of Urban IV reads
' regulam a Domino Alexandro Papa IV Ordini nostro concessam, prout a
Domino Urbano Papa IV est correcta, et approbata '. See also Introduction,
18 P e y schul be hosid fy schod beringe none cordis Sf they schulle nut go
alone. Latin ' Soleas autem nunquam deferant, neque chordam '.
16 Resticote. Latin ' superiores tunicae '.
17 Whiche thai be made wij> coriouste. Latin ' nullatenus curiosam '.
18 from fie resurrexioun . . . lacli, i. e. from Easter until September 8.
118 Notes on the Rule of the Sustria Menouresses
' 9 xx Pater nosier. In Latin Bull XXIV.
20 So ]>at cure lorde . . . al fiinges. Latin c cui [i.e. spirit of preyere] se
debet Sponsa Christi mancipare '.
21 Fest of seint Fraunces, i. e. October 4.
22 Fest of alle Hahvyn, i. e. Allhallows, November 1.
23 Ouer Hi times bifie jere. Latin ' ne ultra quam sex vicibus '.
24 Be assigned ... of fie ordre. Latin ' sine morae dispendio a suo
regimine per Ministrum, seu per Visitatores Ordinis absolvatur '.
25 This grate of yren . . . clothe. The cloth hangs within the grating.
Latin ' Hujusmodi siquidem cratibus ferreis niger panuus interius apponatur '.
26 Nat ani persone, what ever he be, for to entre. In the early days of the
Order, the Friars Minor were allowed to visit the Houses of Clarisses, but the
Bull of Quo elongati published in 1230 forbade them to do so without a special
licence from the Pope.
27 fie Icynge in whoche Seine, &c. Latin ' rege Franciae '.
28 AnoJ>er prelate, &c. The translation has run two sentences into one.
Alius autem Praelatus, cui forte aliquando intrare a Summo Pontifice sit
concessum, duobus honestis sociis sit contentus. Quod si forte pro bene-
dictione . . . alicui Episcopo concessum fuerit . . . tribus aut quatuor sociis
29 A ladder, ichoche . . . before Hi of fie suslris. Latin ' Porta ... ad
quam per scalam ligneam ascendatur, quae catena ferrea elevatur in sero ;
et cum clavibus firmetur et mane de die lucescente tribus praesentibus
30 Chaungid. Possibly a mistake for ' chargid '.
31 The visitoure tvhiche wole goo ferfier in his visitacioun* Latin ' visitator
ad visitationem procedens, &c.'
32 Whan fat he visitifi . . . seele. Latin ' Cum autem visitatur aliqua
soror, extra Capitulum commoretur. Similiter Abbatissa resignato sigillo, &c.'
83 An ouer allej>inyes. This passage is hopelessly corrupt. Latin ' Caveant
autem Sorores et considerent diligenter praecipue in visitatione Sororum, ut
nihil aliud, quam amor Divinus, et suarum Sororum correctio eas moveat ad
loquendum. Illis autem, quae noluerint recognoscere culpam, quae ipsis
impingitur, si excusare se voluerint, praesertim si gravia fuerint, audientia
34 A nd wolyn Sf monestyn. Text corrupt. Latin ' Volnmus et attente
monemus, ut ea, quae secundum vitae suae formam et regularem observantiam
statuenda fuerint, et emendanda, publice, ac privatim Sorores, sicut inelius
videbitur faciendum, Visitatori diligenter suggerant ; cui per obedientiam
teneantur in iis, quae ad officium suum pertinent, infra praetactum tempus
firmiter obedire '.
86 pe. office who ys longynge to ]>e Abbe&se. Latin ' quae ad Abbatissae
officium pertinent '.
86 The mynistris and [MS. whoche] fie visitoures, &c. Latin ' Minister
autem et Visitator '. Note singular converted into plural in English version.
The same occurs below (p. 96, 1. 4) ' to fe visitouris '.
37 Procuratowre. The procurators were first formally instituted by the
Bull of Innocent IV of August 6, 1247, Cum omnis. (Sbar. i. 482.)
' Ad haec liceat vobis in communi redditus et possessiones recipere et habere,
Notes on the Rule of the Sustris Menouresses 119
ac ea libere retinere. Pro quibus possessionibus modo dicto perti-actandis
Procurator unus prudens pariter et fidelis in singulis Monasteriis vestri
ordinis habeatur, quandocutnque expedite videbiftar, qui per visitatorein con-
stitui et amoveri debeat, sicut viderit expedire.'
But, as Pere Oliger points out, the Procurators can be shown to have
existed at a much earlier date, even in connexion with S. Clare's House at
88 Nothing in English to correspond to Latin : ' Volumus etiam et attente
moneinus, ne aliquid eis praecipiant, seu praecipiatur sine magna utilitate e t
valde evidenti et manifesta necessitate.'
89 $ouin at vien). Latin ' Urbem Veterem ' (Orvieto).
40 This is rule . . . perpetually for to endure. Amen. This paragraph is
peculiar to the English version. There is nothing in the Latin Bull to
correspond to it.
NOTES ON APPENDIX TO EULE
[The following Notes do not aim at commenting on or explaining the
multitude of liturgical practices mentioned in this Appendix. Much of the
material cannot be explained by separate notes. For example, the regulations
as to the transference of Feasts cannot possibly be explained without setting
out the Rubrics in the Roman Breviary, which deal fully with them. The
author has made much use in these notes of Charles Walker's Ritual,
' The Season Why ' (1908), and Addis and Arnold, Catholic Directory (1903) ;
and he has received valuable assistance from the Rev. Dr. Francis Aveling.]
1 Seynt damian. The Clarisses were frequently known as ' Damianites '
or ' of Saint Damian ', because the mother-house of the Order was that of
San Damiano, where S. Clare was placed by S. Francis about a year after
her profession and where she lived until her death in 1253.
2 So ]>at J>ey may of here goodes couenabli be tsustaynid! These regulations
show a very marked departure from the ideals of S. Francis and S. Clare.
Not only were the sisters to hold possessions, a thing quite repugnant to the
principles which dominated S. Clare, but the number in any particular convent
was to be determined having regard to the goods available for their support.
3 He may nat be assoylid but onli of fie pope excepte peryl of deej>. For
some offences it could be enacted that the guilty person could receive absolution
from no one except the Pope, unless it were necessary to give him absolution
when in imminent danger of death, lest he should die in mortal sin. Such are
known as ' Reserved Cases '. The Bishops similarly have power of reserving
cases so that absolution from them cannot be validly given by any ordinary
confessor (Council of Trent, sess. xix, De Poenit. can. 11).
4 Oure blessid predecessoures pope boneface J>e viii. These words indicate
that these constitutions were issued by some Pope later than Boniface VIII.
8 Dobel Festis. Certain feasts are known as ' double ' because the anthem
sung at the Magnificat and Benedictus was ' doubled ', i. e. sung throughout
before as well as after the Canticles on the major festivals. Other feasts are
known as ' semi-doubles ', when half of the Antiphon was repeated before and
the whole after the Psalm.
The above is the more modern explanation of the terms. An older explana-
tion was that double feasts were so called because on them it was necessary to
say the office of the Feast as well as that of the Feria.
6 Inuitatorie is the Anthem of the Psalm ' Venite ' (Ps. 94), chanted before,
after, and interpolated with the verses of the Psalm : it is chanted at the
beginning of Matins on all days except the Epiphany and the last three days
of Holy Week.
' pe ix respons, i. e. the words said antiphonally after the ninth Lesson,
when the Te Deum is not sung.
Notes on Appendix to Rule 121
8 pe leuacioun, i. e. the elevation of the Host in the Mass.
9 Benediciie. This whole section will be readily understood only by com-
paring it with the Benedictio Mensae in the Roman Breviary. The main
lines of the Benedictio Mensae are followed, with some slight variations of
10 lube domne. It is doubtful whether the words in MS. should be tran-
scribed as ' lube domna ' or ' lube domne *. On the whole, the latter seems
the more fitting as being the normal form. Moreover in one place [fol. 81 r ]
it is contracted ' dne '.
11 Tu autem. The versicle sung by the Lector at the end of the Lection at
the close of the meal. In full it is ' Tu autem, Domine, miserere nobis '.
12 be ymage, i. e. the crucifix generally hung in the Refectory.
18 4" sey ' Agimus tibi ' wif> ' Benedictus deus in donis '. Here two alterna-
tive forms are given: ' Agiinus tibi, &c.' is said after Dinner (Prandium),
and ' Benedictus Deus ' after Supper ( Coena). (
14 JRetribuere. The beginning word of the prayer: 'Retribuere dignare,
Domine, omnibus nobis bona facientibus propter nomen tuum vitam aeternam '.
18 Fidelium anime. The end of the office of Benedictio Mensae : it
proceeds ' per misericordiam Dei requiescant in pace '.
16 And also at ]>e colacioun. ' Collation ' meant originally conference or
edifying books read aloud in the Refectory after supper and before Compline.
This is a practice required by the Benedictine Rule. Subsequently the word
acquired a derived sense, viz. the light refreshment taken before the reading
of the ' collations '. Addis and Arnold (Calk. Direct. 1903) refer to a statute
of the congregation of Clugny (1308) where the word is used for this refresh-
ment. In the present passage the office of Compline follows after ' collation '
17 J)e ebdomodari. These are the two sisters who for a week at a time lead
the saying of the Hours in Choir.
18 Antime, i.e. Antiphon, a verse sung before the Psalm or Canticle, giving
the key-note of it. In the Mass, the Introit, the Offertory, and the Communion
are regarded as Antiphons.
19 Absolutions. These, each with its three appropriate ' Benedictions ', will
be found at the beginning of the Breviary. The first, ' Exaudi Domine ', is
used in the first Nocturn of an office of nine Lessons and on Mondays and
Thursdays for offices of three Lessons. The second, ' Ipsius pietas ', is used in
the second Nocturn and on Tuesdays and Fridays. The third, ' A vinculis ',
is used in the third Nocturn and on Wednesdays and Saturdays. They are
said before the Lessons.
20 Benisons. In an office of three Lessons when a Homily is read with the
Gospel, the first Benediction is ' Evangelica lectio ', ' and Jie o]>er n ' are
' Divinum auxilium ' and ' Ad societatem '.
21 Entredite general. If the clergy of a country or town were under an
interdict, the religious orders wei'e not affected unless the interdict specifically
22 fie orisons whiche been songoun schul be songoun (schal be seyde} stondinge.
The words in brackets indicate the alternative practice : the orisons can either
be sung or said.
23 Whan J>e preface is seyde at masse. The preface comes immediately
122 Notes on Appendix to Rule
before the Sanctus in the Mass and begins ' Vere dignum et iustum est '.
There are a number of Proper Prefaces for the several seasons.
84 P 6 Offertorie. Immediately after the Creed the celebrant places the
Elements on the Altar with accompanying prayers. This is known as the
Offertory. At the end of the Offertory the celebrant turns to the people and
begins the ' Orate, fratres '. Then follow the secret Prayers for the day,
ending with ' Per omnia saecula saeculorum '.
26 pey schul dwelle greuelinge til ' Per omnia ' at ' Pax clomini,' i. e. they
remain kneeling from the Sanctus throughout the Consecration and Elevation
(' duringe \>e leuaeioun ') until after the celebrant has made the Fraction. He
then says aloud ' Per omnia', &c., and ' Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum '.
26 J>e Post communions, i. e. the Post-communion prayers for the day, said
aloud by the Celebrant. They come at the end of the Mass, just before the
' Ite, missa est '.
27 In lentyn at ]>e verse of fie trade. During the Procession before the
reading of the Gospel, the choir sing the Gradual for the day, consisting of
a few verses of Holy Scripture. The Gradual is followed by the chant known
as the Alleluia, but in penitential seasons instead of the Alleluia is sung the
'Tract', which consists of two or three verses of a Psalm. Le Brun explains
the term Tract as something sung ' tractirn ', i.e. without break or interruption
of other voices, by the cantor alone.
28 Preces of prime & of complyn. The ' Preces ' begin with Kyrie, Pater, and
Creed ; and continue with versicles, responsories, and the Confession, first of
the Hebdomodarius and then of the people, with the Absolution. There is
no Confiteor in the ' preces ' of Compline.
29 f>e last verse sane one of lienedicite. This verse is ' Benedicamus Patrem
et Filium cum sancto Spiritu : latidemus et superexaltemus eum in saecula '.
30 Sequence. A metrical composition which is sometimes attached to the
Alleluia. An example of a Sequence is the Dies Irae of Thomas of Celfino
sung in Masses of the Dead.
31 Half dobel Festis. Seint Lucy (Virgin and Martyr, Dec. 13) ; Seint
Nicholas (Bish. and Conf., Dec. 6); Test of Innocentis (Dec. 28); Seint
Thomas of Caunterbiri (Bish. and Mart., Dec. 29) ; J>e vtas (octave") of
Epiphanie (Jan. 13) ; Seint Anneys (Mother of Our Lady, July 26) ; Seint
Agase ( Virg. and Mart., Feb. 5) ; Holicrosse (Sept. 14) ; Apparicioun of Michel
(Archangel, May 8) ; Octaue of Ascencioun (eighth day after Ascension) ;
Octaue of Seint Antony (Abbot, Jan. 24) ; Octaue of seynt John Baptist
(July 1) ; Seint Marie Magdalene (July 22) ; Translacioun of Seynt Thomas
(i.e. of Canterbury, July 7); Seynt Margare (Virg. and Mart., July 20);
vtas of Seint Laurence (Mart., Aug. 17); Seynt Lowis (Conf., his feast is
Aug. 25, but does not generally have an octave; probably his octave (Sept. 1)
was observed at Longchamp on account of his connexion with that House) ;
Decollacioun of Seint John (Aug. 29) ; vtas of Nativite of oure Ladi
(Sept. 15); Seint Martin (Bish. and Conf., Nov. 11); Seynt ElizabeJ) (? Queen
of Lusitania, widow, July 8); Seynt Cecile (Virg. and Mart., Nov. 22): Seynt
Katerin (Virg. and Mart., Nov. 25) ; vtas of Corporis Cristi (eight days
after Thursday following Trinity Sunday).
32 Festis douce dobles, i. e. Feasts described in the Roman Kalendar as
' Duplex primae classis '.
Notes on Appendix to Rule 123
33 Bo]> of ]>e one euynsonge & of J>e oj>er. All Double Feasts have two
evensongs, i. e. their observance begins with the evensong of the evening before
(known as 'first vespers'), while the evensong*on the day itself is called
' second vespers '.
34 Festis doubles. The first eight feasts named need no comment. Seint
Antoun (Abbot, Jan. 17) ; Cathedra sancti Petri (it is doubtful whether
Cathedra S. Petri Romae, Jan. 18, or Cathedra S. Petri Antiochiae, Feb. 22,
is meant : both are ' Duplex majus ') ; Seint Mathee (Apos., Feb. 24) ; Seynt
Gregori (presumably S. Gregory the Great, Pope and Conf., March 12) ;
Seynt Benet (Abbot, Mar. 20) ; vtas of Seynt Barnabe (June 18) ; vtas of
Seint Petir and Paule (July 6) ; Commemoracioun of Seynt Paule (June 30) ;
Ad uincula Sancti Petri (MS. Sancte Petre, Aug. 1) ; Seynt Laurence (Mart.,
Aug. 10) ; Seint Clare (Virg., Aug. 12) ; Seint Lowis Bischopp (i. e. of
Toulouse, Aug. 19) ; Seint Bartholemu (Apos., Aug. 24) ; Augustyn, doctor
(Aug. 28) ; Seint Misshel (i. e. Dedicatio S. Michaelis Archangeli, Sept. 29) ;
Seint Jerome (Pres. and Conf., Sept. 30); Translacioun of Seynt Lowis: no
prescribed date for this : probably a local cult.
36 Asperges. The short service before the Principal Mass when the cele-
brant makes a procession and sprinkles the holy water.
86 Whan }>ey sey many lionres to gederis. Sometimes several ' hours ' were
said one immediately after the other : this is sometimes called saying them
' by accumulation '.
37 Newme. A term in mediaeval music theories denoting generally either
a kind of melody or a notational sign. The Catholic Encyclopaedia describes it
thus : ' Applied to a melody, the term, means a series of tones sung without
words, generally on the last vowel of a text. . . . The usual place of such
neums is, in responsorial singing, especially at the end of the Alleluia which
follows the Gradual of the Mass. In the later Middle Ages, however, from
about the twelfth century onwards, the custom grew up of adding neums,
definite formulae, one for each mode, to the office antiphons.' Cath. Ency. x,
pp. 765-773 (H. Bewerunge).
38 pe blessings of J>e tabel. This is to some extent a repetition of what has
already been prescribed earlier on fol. 79-81 ; but it is given more in detail
here, and includes the special Benedictions for the chief Festivals.
39 ' Miserere mei dens ' wij> alle J>e versis, i. e. the whole of the Miserere is
40 Seyinge wi]> owte or emus. The word ' Oremus ' is omitted at this point
before the ' Retribuere '.
41 Schere fiwrsday , i.e. Maundy Thursday, the Thursday in Holy Week.
42 Lowli < wifiowte ani more. Breviary ' Totum secreto . . . sine pronun-
tiatione aliqua '.
43 pere as none estori shal be first entrid, i. e. in which no ' history ' shall
be first entered, that is to say, in which the lesson is not the beginning of
a historical book.
44 Seynt Siluester (Pope and Conf., Dec. 31) ; Seynt Leon (Pope, Conf., and
Doct., April 11) ; Seynt Eustache (i.e. SS. Eustace and his companions, Mart.,
45 Fest of translacioun of Seynt Fraunceys, May 25. The nominal date of
the Translation was May 25, 1230, but it is practically certain that the actual
124 Notes on Appendix to Rule
Translation of the Saint's remains to the church of San Francesco had been
carried out by the Minister General, Elias of Cortona, several days earlier.
49 Grete antymes. The so-called ' great Antiphons ' are sung at Evensong
before and after the Magnificat on the last eight days of Advent, that is from
December 16 onwards. They were formerly called the O's, as each. Antiphon
began with the word 0. The first of them, on Dec. 16, is ' O Sapiencia ', and
is so marked in the Kalendar.
[For A Generall Rule to teche euery man that is willynge/or to lerne
to serve a lorde or mayster.]
Amener, almoner, 13. 6.
Assay, the formal tasting of a dish by
a servant, to see if it is poisoned,
Coster, a wall-hanging, 11. 6.
Dogdrawght,dogdrawe, an unknown
fish, possibly cod, 17. 4.
Doucet, a sweet dish (see note),
Durmant, a fixed table, 13. 28.
Ewer, ewerer, the official in charge
of arrangements for washing, 11.
Ewry, the place where ewers, towels,
etc., were stored, 11. 25.
Hallyng, tapestry or painted cloth
for a hall, 11. 5.
Herberoure, guest-master, enter-
Kynde, natural, proper, etc., 11. 6,
Leche, slice, a dish consisting of
sliced meat, 17. 15. (O.F. lesche.*)
Lese pen, unless, 17. 12.
Leuereys, retainers, servants in
livery, 11. 14.
Panter, the officer in charge of the
pantry (originally 'baker'), 11. 21.
Pece, cup, 17. 20.
Sewe, serve, 12. 21.
Sewer, a sewer, waiter, 11. 24.
Sprottes, sprats, 17. 4.
Surnape, a second cloth laid on the
table immediately before the lord,
Taill, tally, reckoning, 11. 14.
Take, deliver, 13. 13.
To, till, 12. 1 8.
Trenchour, trencher of bread (see
note), 13. 4.
Vnto, until, 12. 5.
Voyder, tray for removing broken
meats, etc., 13. 6.
Woke, week, 11. 15.
[For The Thirds Order of Seyni Franceys and The Rewle of Sustris
Algatis, in any case, 87- 16.
Alle Halwyn, All Saints, Allhallows,
Apostle, Pope, 89. 26.
Assentement, assent, agreement, 88.
Assigned, transferred, removed, 87.
Assoyle, absolve, 88. 21.
Assoylid, excused of, deprived of,
Atrete, slowly without break
( = tractim), 104. 34.
Au.enau.nt, suitable, 103. 25.
Auenture, chance, 88. 23.
Avals, let down. 92. 7. [OF. avaler.]
Axen, demand, 94. 16.
Ayenst, against, 48. 25.
Besili, carefully, diligently, 54. 22.
Bigginge, buying, 96. n. Sourfait
of bigginge, excessive buying.
Bihote, promise, 83. 32.
Boundes, bands, sashes, 49. 13.
Brennyng, burning, 47. 13.
Brent, burnt, 94. 30.
Buystouse, rough, coarse, 84. 19.
Catallis, chattels, possessions, 96. 7.
Cawcion, bond, security, 48. 16.
Ceroferessis, acolyte, taperer, 108. 2 1.
Chausures, shoes, 85. 4.
Chesiple, chasuble, 91. 4.
Chesyn, choose, 95. 24.
Cierge, candle, 107. 24.
Clepid, called, 98. 12.
Clerete, honour, 90. 5.
Clogere, belfry, 104. i.
Cloos, cloister, 104. n.
Conge, leave, permission, 82. 15.
Congruently, suitably, 52. 25.
Continementis, holdings, property,
Couenable, suitable, 82. 35.
Couent, convent, 82. 29, etc.
Decollacioun, beheading, 107. 32.
Demurid, demure, 84. 12.
Denounsid, reported, 98. 25.
Depart, bestow, impart, 47. 31.
Desseuerid, separated, 87. 25.
Disclawnder, slander, 90. 34.
Distreyne, constrain, compel, 100. 29.
Dortre, Dortoure, dormitory, 85.
Efformid, informed, ICO. 13.
Enfayrid, adorned, 81. n.
Enpeyre, injure, impair, 100. 2.
Ententifeliche, carefully, 87. 23.
Entredite, interdict, 105. 26.
Equypollent, of equal rank, 114. 18.
Esloignid, extended, protracted. 93.
Estori, history, 113. 4.
Estreyteli, strictly, 89. 24.
Exehew, eschew, 52. 8.
Eyrin, eggs, 86. 25.
Familieres, members of the house-
hold, servants, 94. 17.
Fayrid, adorned, 81. 24.
Feri, an ordinary week-day (not a
festival), 103. 15.
Fermeri, infirmary, 89. 20.
For as mochel, forasmuch, in
order that, 87. 25.
Forbarrid, forbidden, 89. 16.
Freytoure, refectory, 102. 22.
Gasingis, spectacles, 49. 18.
Goget, Guyches, wicket, grating,
91. 36. [Fr. guichet.]
Grayel, gradual, 107. 20.
Greuelinge, prostrate, 106. 8.
Greueninge, prostrate, 106. 9.
Halwid, consecrated, 114. 27.
Heilfully, in a wholesome or salutary
way, 47. 26.
Glossary to the Thirde Order, and Sustris Menouresses 127
Hele, health, 86. 33.
Hende, gentle, gracious, 81. 10.
Heue, lift, 89. 2.
Holpyn, helped, 99. 6.
Houseled, communicated, 50. 35.
Importabel, unbearable, 100. 23.
Intrat, introit, 107. i.
I-putte ouer, transposed, 113. 7.
luyelles, jewels, 99. 3.
Jangeling, disputing, 52. 10.
Kepe, care, 90. 31.
Leafull, lawful, 48. 31.
Lefolli, lawfully, 92. 3.
Legacioun, bequest, 99. 2.
Lentoun, Lent, 107. i.
Leuacioun, elevation, 102. 19.
Leueli, with leave, 82. 30.
Listresse, woman-lector, reader,
Meke, humble, plain, 49. 4.
Menours, Meneres, Menouresses,
Franciscan Friars or Clarisses, 81.
Meuabel, movable, 99. 30.
Mo, more, 110. 6.
Monestyn, admonish, exhort, 94. 7.
Mow, must, 84. 32.
Myngin, remember, 94. 10.
Nameli, especially, 87. 17.
M"eforJ)at, nevertheless, 101. 4.
Noysed, rumoured, 48. 5.
Ifyje, draw near to, 82. 5.
Obey, bow, 105. 9.
Obeyinge, bowing, doing obeisance,
Obite, death, 53. 19.
Owars, hours, 51. 8.
Owte take, except, 86. 18.
Owtrage, superfluity, excess, 84. 17.
Pasche, Easter, 116. 21.
Pontiflcacion, papacy, 55. 16.
Possessioners, proprietors, 47. 27.
Promitte, promise, 48. 23.
Purposid, put forward, present, 93.
Becordinge, remembrance, recollec-
tion, 81.* 8.
Beddure, strictness, 82. I. [N. F.
Befestid, refreshed, 86. 8.
Befreytouresse, the sister in charge
of the ' refrectorium ' or refectory,
Beine, kingdom, 89. 30.
Bemew, remove, 82. 30.
Repreue, reprove, 83. 27.
Bepreueable, reprovable, 83. 28.
Besticote, upper part of tunic, 84.
Beuestrid, arrayed, 91. 8.
Bihtwisnesse, righteousness, 93. 7.
Bowndid, cut round, 85. 22.
Sad, grave, 92. 13.
Sadli, seriously, 101. 30.
Schet, shut, 91. 36.
Schlugri, laziness, sloth, 86. 3.
Sege, place, seat, 107. II.
Seint Croyse, Holy Cross, 104. 7.
Skerid, frightened, 86. 4.
Sogettis, subject, 95. 19.
Somenerere, Semenere, apparitor,
Stabelriche, constantly, 86. i.
Stamyn, an open woollen fabric, 84.
15. [Fr. estamine.J
Stawnche, quench, 86. 5.
Stere, guide, direct, 52. 14, etc.
Storer, treasurer, 52. 25.
Suen, follow, 87. 30.
To-dite, dress, 86. 27.
porwe, through, 110. 15.
Treyne, pause, 104. 38.
Vtas, octave, 107. 31, etc.
Warnid, furnished, 94. 5.
Werre, war, 82. 23.
Wytt, know, 55. 12.
Y^en, eyes, 84. 25.
Ymage, crucifix, 103. 4.
Ympnis, hymns, 106. 33.
3ouin, given, 96. 33.
A fifteenth-century courtesy
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