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fif ty~ttae ytars 
in Syria 

Ace. No. 



D D3DQ3S7 D 

Taken when Moderator of the General Assembly. 

Fifty-Three Years 
In Syria 


Introduction by James S. Dennis^ D. D. 



Fleming H. Re veil Company 


F1EMING ft: 

New York: 158 Fifth Avenue 
Chicago: 80 Wabash Avenue 
Toronto: 25 Richmond Street, W. 
London: 21 Paternoster Square 
Edinburgh: 100 Princes Street 




XX. A CHOLERA YEAR ...... 430 



XXIII. SKETCHES (1887) ...... 526 


XXV. MARKING TIME . . . . . .572 

XXVI. A NEW CENTURY DAWNS (1899-1900) . . 664 

XXVII. THE WHITENING FIELDS (1901-1902) . . 695 


XXIX. JUBILEE TIMES (1905-1907) .... 753 


I9O8-MAY 1909 781 


I. Missionaries in Syria Mission from 1819 to 

i9 8 797 

II. The History Bibliography . . .801 

III. American Medical Missionaries and Agencies 

in Syria Mission . 802 

IV. List of Mission Schools of the Presbyterian 

Board of Foreign Missions in ^Beirut and 
D am as c as, and in the Mutserfiyet of 
Lebanon . . . . . 805 

V Outline of the History of the Syria Mission 
of the American Presbyterian Church and 
Contemporary Events, 18201900 . . 809 

VI. "Figures," 1908-1909 Statistics of the 

Syria Mission . . . . .814 

VII, Statistics of the Syrian Protestant College 

from 1866 to 1906 .... 819 
INDEX . . . * . . .821 



Facing page 

Dr. Jessup ........ 

College Hall, Syrian Protestant College . . . . 412 

Mission Group ......... 429 

A View of Lebanon ......... 440 

A View in the Lebanon ........ 456 

Hasroun, A Lebanon Village ."...... 465 

Geo. E. Post Science Hall, Syrian Protestant College . . . 480 
Assembly Hall, Syrian Protestant College ..... 490 

Sarcophagus of Alexander the Great. Sarcophagus of Weeping Women 507 
Front View of Gerard Institute, Sidon . . , . . 5 1 3 

Dar es Salaam Orphanage. Gerard Institute Pupils . . .516 

Asfuriyeh Hospital. General View . . . . . .521 

Pietro's Hotel, 1875 ......... 530 

Jedaan the Bedawy ......... 541 

Kamil Aietany .......... 559 

Syrian Mission in 1893 with Drs. Bliss and Post, .... 570 

Gorge of Nahr Barada ........ 585 

American Press .......... 590 

The Damascus to Mecca Railway . . . . . .601 

Beirut Memorial Column . . . * . . . .618 

Daniel Bliss Hall ......... 630 

Mission Stations . . . . . . . . .680 

The Seventieth Birthday Picnic. Ancient Mule Bridge . . . 690 

Yusef Ahtiyeh, Kasim Beg Amin ....... 700 

Dr. Daniel Bliss in 1905 . . . . . . . .711 

Syrian Churches and Houses . . . . . . .720 

Group of Syrian Teachers and Preachers . . . . .730 

Interior of the Chapel of the Protestant College, Beirut . . 737 
Group of Syrian Churches ........ 749 

Plan of the American Mission Property . . . . . .781 

Notable Visitors and Converts 

The one-eyed kadi Mr. Roosevelt Two great sheikhs The new 
bell Wm. E. Dodge Abu Selim and Moosa Ata The monthly con- 
cert at home, 

AT the close of 1873 the stations were manned as follows : 
Beirut, Drs. Thomson, Van Dyck, Dennis, and H. H. 

Abeih, Messrs. Calhoun and Bird. 

Sidon, Messrs. W. W. Eddy and Pond. 

Tripoli, Messrs. S. Jessup and Hardin, and Dr. Danforth. 

Zahleh, Messrs. Dale, Wood, and March. 

The theological seminary was opened in Beirut in premises 
adjoining Dr. Dennis's house, the teachers being Dr. Dennis, 
Dr. C. V. A. Van Dyck, Dr. Wm. M. Thomson, and my- 

The Syrian Protestant College at this time had eighty-four 
students in all its departments and all its friends were much en- 
couraged. They little thought that in 1907 the number would 
be 878. 

In September the notable meeting of the International Evan- 
gelical Alliance, postponed from 1870 on account of the Franco- 
Prussian War, was held in New York. My paper on " Missions 
to the Oriental Churches " was read in my absence by my dear 
friend, Rev. D. Stuart Dodge. It was subsequently the basis of a 
booklet on "The Greek Church and Protestant Missions/* written 
at the request of the Christian Literature Society of New York 


406 Notable Visitors and Converts 

and a special edition of which was published in England by my 
friends, Canon H. B. Tristram and Rev. H. E. Fox, and sent to 
hundreds of clergymen of the Church of England. The object 
of this act of Canon^Tristramiwas to counteract the efforts of the 
High Church Anglican Clergy to fraternize with the Greek 
Church ecclesiastics, ignoring the anti-scriptural teachings of the 
Greek Church. A reformation of the Greek Church is possible, 
but not very probable. With education and the Bible the people 
some day will demand the abolition of Mariolatry and ikon wor- 

Early in March Dr. Van Dyck, manager of the press, was sent 
for by Kamil Pasha, the governor, to come to the seraia, as he 
was about to shut up the press for a violation of the press laws, 
Dr. Van Dyck proceeded to the seraia and asked the pasha what 
lie meant. The pasha, holding up a little tract, said, " Was this 
printed at your press ? " "Yes." "Then it must be confiscated, 
as it contains an attack on the Turkish government/' Dr. Van 
Dyck asked, '^Wherein does it attack the government ? " The 
pasha pointed out several passages which criticized the bribery 
and corruption everywhere prevalent, perjury and lying among 
witnesses and public officials ; and the fact that " truth had fallen 
In the streets and equity could not enter." Dr. Van Dyck re- 
plied, " Are not these statements true f Your Excellency ought 
to put a copy into the hands of every government official in 
your pashalic. Is it not so?" asked the doctor. " Yes," said 
the pasha, " but we don't like to be so constantly reminded of it. 
Have you never heard the story of the Kadi el Ah-war ? " (i. e. 9 
the one-eyed judge). " And what is that ? " asked the doctor. 
" Well, once there was a famous one-eyed kadi. One day a 
man came into the court and addressed him as follows : * Good- 
morning, oh, one-eyed kadi ! May your day be blessed, oh, one- 
eyed kadi. I have heard of the noble character and justice of 
the one-eyed kadi, and I would ask the distinguished and revered 
one-eyed kadi to do me justice/ and, * Stop/ said the kadi, ' sup- 
posing I am one-eyed, do I want to be everlastingly reminded of 
it ? Get out of my sight/ 

Roosevelt and the Donkey 407 

" And so," said the pasha, " we know that these reflections on 
our country and our courts are true, but we don't want to be 
publicly reminded of them. Who wrote that tract?" The 
doctor explained that it was a prize tract oa veracity and the 
prize was won by Rev. Sarafim Potaji of Shefa-Amr near 
Nazareth. But the pasha insisted that it be destroyed. The 
doctor withdrew and the case was taken up by the British 
consulate, as the tracts belonged to the London Tract Society. 
Then the pasha insisted that the consul seal them up in a box 
and send them out of Syria. The consul sent a dragoman and 
sealed the box and left it at the press. Dr. Van Dyck sent and 
asked the consul to remove the box. He did not do it. Then 
the doctor gave him a week's notice that if it were not taken 
away in that time the press would not be responsible for its safe- 
keeping. The British consul never sent for it and it disappeared, 
being scattered throughout the land. 

The prohibition by the Sultan of all criticism in the newspaper 
press is one great cause of the universal official corruption in the 
empire. Bribery exists in civilized lands, but is kept at a 
minimum through fear of exposure in the press. Here there is 
no such fear, and it is at a maximum. 

On Saturday, March 22d, I called at the hotel on Mr. 
Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., of New York, and the next day he 
spoke to our Arabic Sunday-school on his work among the 
newsboys of New York. His son Theodore was with him and 
was a boon companion of Frederick and Howard Bliss, sons of 
Dr. Daniel Bliss. The three boys rode together on one donkey, 
the property of Mrs. Bliss. One of those boys is now President 
of the United States, while another is president of the Syrian 
Protestant College, and, as a witty Arab remarked on hearing 
this reminiscence, " The donkey is now the Waly of ." 

Mr. Roosevelt gave $500 to the college in Beirut His visit 
was memorable and an inspiration to young and old. 

In February, 1871, we were favoured with a visit from a cele- 
brated Arab sheikh, the noted Sheikh Mohammed Smeir Ibn ed 
Dukhy, the emir of the Anazeh tribe, who can command ten 

408 Notable Visitors and Converts 

thousand horsemen and who receives 280,000 piastres annually 
from the Turkish government to keep the Bedawin in order. 

He had just sent off a detachment of his tribe with the great 
Mohammedan caravan of pilgrims from Damascus to Mecca and 
was sent for by Rasfaid Pasha, Waly of Syria, to come to meet 
him In Beirut While here, he was the guest of a friend of ours 
and we invited him to call He came on Thursday, February 2d, 
at 2 P. M V first calling at my house and then at the female 
seminary. He looked through the institution and after examin- 
ing the appearance of the pupils, turned to them and said, " Our 
Bedawin girls would learn as much in six months as you learn 
in two years." I told him we would like to see the experiment 
tried. He said, " Perhaps it may be some day. 11 Our friend had 
informed us that although the sheikh could not read, one of his 
wives could both read and write well, being the daughter of a 
sheikh near Hamath, so we had prepared an elegant copy of the 
Arabic Bible bound in green and gilt with a waterproof case to 
prevent injury on his long return journey of twelve days into the 
desert, and when we reached the press it was presented to him* 
He received it with the greatest respect and asked what he would 
find in it. We told him it was the complete " Tourah " and 
"Ingeel" (Old and New Testaments) and he said it would be 
profitable to read about Ibrahim the friend of God, and Ishmael 
the father of the Arabs, and Moosa (Moses) and Soleymaa the 
king and Aieesa or Jesus the son of Mary. The electrotype 
apparatus deeply interested him but when Mr. Hallock showed 
him the steam cylinder press rolling off the printed sheets with 
so great rapidity and exactness, he stood back and remarked in 
the most deliberate manner, " The man who made that press can 
conquer everything but death/' It seemed some satisfaction to 
him that in the matter of death the Bedawy was on a level with 
the European. 1 

From the press the sheikh went to the church and after gazing 

1 Mr. Waldmeier, who was formerly in Abyssinia and is now in Beirut, 
informs me that one of the Abyssinian princes once made a precisely 
similar remark when looking at a piece of European machinery. 

Naslf el Yazlgy 409 

around on the pure white walls, remarked, " There is the Book, 
but there are no pictures. You worship only God here." 

He was anxious to see the tower clock, and although he has 
lost one arm and had the other nearly paralyzed by a musket 
shot in the desert wars, he said he would climb up the long 
ladder to see that clock, whose striking he had heard at the other 
end of the city. So up he went and it would have done the 
maker, Mr. Hotchkiss of Cortlandt Street, New York, great good 
to see this son of the desert gazing admiringly upon that beautiful 
piece of mechanism. We helped him down the ladder, greatly 
to his relief, and then he went to the college where he heard 
Dr. Van Dyck deliver a lecture on chemistry, and the doctor 
performed several brilliant experiments for his benefit. Dr. Bliss 
showed him the large electrical machine and he took several 
severe shocks in hopes of deriving benefit to his left arm. 

The botanical collection, the library of Arabic books, the 
cabinets of minerals and fossils, and the anatomical museum all 
interested him and he finally left us expressing his gratitude for 
what he had been permitted to see, and especially for the Book. 
He left by diligence stage early the next morning for Damascus 
and was soon in the desert again as another tribe had revolted 
and he hastened to quell the revolt 

On Wednesday, February 8, 1871, one of the notable char- 
acters of Syria died in Beirut. Sheikh Nasif el Yazigy was the 
greatest living Arabic poet, author of fourteen different works in 
Arabic, and formerly for years the companion and assistant of 
Dr. Eli Smith in the translation of the Bible into Arabic. He died 
aged seventy-one years. He had been partially paralyzed for 
two years past but never forgot Dr. Eli Smith. He often said to 
me, " When Dr. Smith was on his death-bed he preached to me 
a sermon which I have not forgotten and never can forget No, 
sir, I cannot forget it. Dr. Smith was a man of God." 

An immense crowd followed the sheikh to his grave, among 
them nearly 800 pupils from the schools and seminaries of Beirut, 
a noble tribute to his great learning. Such a sight had not been 
seen in Beirut since the days of Justinian. 

4 id Notable Visitors and Converts 

On Sunday, February I2th, the little stone church in Kefr 
Shima, six miles from Beirut, was dedicated, with more of state 
and formality than had been known by any Protestant church in 
Syria. Among those present were H. E. Franco Pasha, Governor 
of Lebanon, Mr. Johnson, American consul-general, Mr. El- 
dridge, H. B. M. consul-general, Mr. T. Weber, German consul-- 
general, Dr. Daniel Bliss, president of the Syrian Protestant 
College, Dr. Thomson, several of the Prussian deaconesses who 
had pupils in the village and a great crowd of Syrian villagers, I 
preached the Arabic dedication sermon. Five years later I 
preached the same sermon at the dedication of the churches in 
Judaideh and Zahleh. At the latter place the kaimakam (a 
Papal Greek) was present, and a fortnight later sent a formal 
complaint to Rustam Pasha that I had taken advantage of the 
presence of Roman Catholic officials to attack the Holy Catholic 
Church. The pasha sent the complaint to the British consul, to 
whom I sent a copy of the sermon reminding him that it was the 
same one I delivered before Franco Pasha and himself and others 
in 1871. I heard no further complaint. It was afterwards 
proved that the complaint was instigated by the Jesuit priests of 
Zahleh. 1 

On Saturday morning, April 15, 1871, the American bark 
Marguerita Blanca came into port bringing the new church bell 
The captain said that he had a tempestuous voyage across the 
Atlantic and for three days gave up all hope of deliverance. The 
bulwarks of the vessel were carried away, 10,000 feet of lumber 
on the deck were swept overboard, the kitchen and water casks 
were swept away, and the bell was about the only thing that 
remained. The fixtures were in the cabin and although the sea 

1 In January, 1878, Mr. James Black, a noble specimen of the British 
Christian merchant, whose word was sworn by both by Moslems and Chris- 
tians, and who had taught the Syrians a lasting lesson in business 
integrity, erected at his own expense a bell tower on the Kefr Shima 
church, which stands to-day a monument of his liberality and true Chris* 
tian zeal, His self-denying labours in the erection of the Beirut church 
are commemorated in a beautiful white baptismal font erected after his 
death by the congregation. 

The American Bell Dr. Clark's Visit 411 

broke in and deluged the cabin, nothing was damaged. The 
only effect that we could observe was that the yoke of the bell 
(which was evidently meant to be a revolving yoke so as to 
change the place of the stroke of the tongue) was so firmly welded 
on to the bell by rust that we found it impossible to remove it 
when elevating the bell into the tower. We were thankful how- 
ever that it was not lost during that Atlantic hurricane. 

Ten porters brought it up from the custom-house swung be- 
tween two oak poles, and a fine set of tackle blocks from the 
American bark enabled Mr. Hallock, our efficient press agent and 
electrotypist, to hoist it into place with comparative ease. It is 
the largest bell in Syria and its clear sweet tones can be heard to 
the very suburbs of this widely scattered city. 

We were honoured in 1871 by a visit from Rev. N. G. Clark, 
secretary of the American Board, and Rev. George W. Wood, 
D. D., who after labouring as a missionary in Singapore and Con- 
stantinople and then as district secretary of the Board in New 
York was returning to Constantinople to renew the work he so 
much loved. Dr. Clark's visit was especially gratifying. We had 
separated from the American Board, but not from the love and 
confidence of this beloved man with whom we had corresponded 
for years. He had often intimated that we should not erect ex- 
pensive buildings on mission ground, and he had many misgivings 
when we were building the girls 1 school, the church, the Bible 
depository and press. But on this visit he expressed his gratifi- 
cation with all he saw in Beirut. He said, " Brethren, you are 
right. These buildings are a credit to your taste and judgment. 
Protestantism looks as if it had come to Syria to stay and not 
merely to pitch a tent and then decamp. There should be sub- 
stantial buildings of a superior character in our chief centres of 
labour and influence/' He was delighted with the large plot of 
ground owned by the college at Ras Beirut and gave the mission, 
much credit for wisdom and broad views, as might be expected 
from a man of such large experience and wide observation as he 
is. The purchase of that college site is universally regarded as 
one of the master-strokes of Dr. Daniel Bliss, and it is to this 

412 Notable Visitors and Converts 

day (1908) still looked upon as the finest college site in the 
East. 1 

In December, 1871, we were favoured with a visit from the 
Hon. Wm. E. Dodge and Mrs. Dodge. Their presence was a 
benediction, They showed interest in every detail of all depart- 
merits of our work, and his laying the corner-stone of College 
Hall of the Syrian Protestant College, December 7th, was an oc- 
casion long to be remembered. An immense crowd assembled 
and Mr. Dodge made a brief but eloquent address. His son 
Stuart, after accompanying his parents to Egypt, returned here 
and laboured for many months with Dr. Bliss during the prog- 
ress of the new edifice. The use of iron beams and flat stone 
arches between the girders, for the first time in Syria, awakened 
great interest. The building, finally completed in 1872, is a 
monument to their patient and faithful attention to all the details 
of the architect's plans. The same may be said of all those who 
superintended the construction of all the buildings on the college 
campus. The names of Hon. Wm. E. Dodge and Dr. D* Stuart 
Dodge will be forever linked with the history and success of the 
Syrian Protestant College. 

The closing months of 1871 were full of hope and cheer. The 
congregations in Beirut were crowded and the Sunday-school 
flourishing, the church-members active and willing to work, and 
some twenty young people asking admission to the church. 
Rev. Samuel Jessup had returned from Scotland to Tripoli and 
been joined by Rev. 0. J. Hardin and Galen B. Danforth, M. D., 
who had married Miss Emily Calhoun of Abeihu Rev. and Mrs. 
Frank Wood had arrived in November and were stationed in 
Sidon. Dr. Danforth opened a clinic in Tripoli which was 
thronged, and the faithful Moslem friend, Sakh Sabony, was con- 
stant in his attendance, aiding the doctor for three and one-half 
years till his death, July, 1875, and keeping the crowded throng 
of patients in order, 

1 Dr. Bliss states that John Jay Pheips, father-in4aw of Rev. D. Stuart 
Dodge, was the first person to insist on the purchase of the Uas Beirut 


o S 

The Druse Cataclysm Indefinitely Postponed 413 

At this time I conducted the Sunday-school of 300 scholars s 
preached in Arabic twice every Sunday, Monday evening held a 
neighbourhood prayer-meeting, Wednesday a class of catechu- 
mens, Wednesday evening a Bible class of eighty young men, Friday 
morning short services at three boarding-schools, and Saturday 
evening a teachers' meeting of thirty young men and women. 

This year, 1872, is said to be the year for the final crisis or 
cataclysm of the Druse religion. Their prophet, El Hakem, who 
claimed to be an incarnation of the deity, and is worshipped by 
them, promised when he died, 1021 A. D., to return again with an 
immense army from China, overthrow Islam, and subject the 
earth to his sway. This year, according to certain Druse author- 
ities, is the year for the return of El Hakem, but the educated and 
thinking men among them have the sense to know, firstly, that 
there are no Druses in China, and secondly, that if there were, 
there would be no prospect of their getting to Syria without such 
a conquest as the world has never seen. Despairing of this, some 
of them, though not many as yet, are asking what is to be done. 
If El Hakem does not appear in 1872 the Druse religion is false, 
and we must cast about for another. One of their leading men 
said a few days ago, " If the crisis comes some of us will turn 
Moslems and some Protestants. God only knows ; God knows 
all things." 

We have had one extraordinary Protestant on the docket in 
Beirut but now he has returned like the sow that was washed, 
etc. He was asked for an extra donation in the Maronite 
church and was so enraged that he turned Protestant. He re- 
mained Protestant two months, and had several prayer-meetings 
at his house. He acknowledged to me that he had committed 
not less than twenty murders. He sleeps with several loaded 
pistols under his pillow, and one day threatened to kill his wife. 
He presented the loaded double-barrelled pistol to his own breast 
in the presence of two of the brethren, exclaiming, Bear me 
witness, that I die a Protestant and give three-fourths of my 
money to the Protestant Church and one-fourth to my wife." 
They snatched the pistol and brought it to me ; I declined to 

414 Notable Visitors and Converts 

harbour it. He afterwards calmed down and came with his wife 
to call on me. We laboured with him faithfully, but when he 
heard that we had collections in the Protestant Church, he went 
back to the Jesuits. It is one of the marvels of this Eastern land 
that so many men of that kind go unhung. This hopeful char- 
acter murdered his first wife and may at any day despatch his 
present one. It was a relief to us all when he ceased entangling 
the Protestant community with his iniquities. Crimes and sin 
have hardened his nature and though he has amassed great wealth 
by his crimes as a highwayman and villain, he will not loose his 
grip on a cent without a struggle. 

How different this man from Abu Selim, the blind Damascene, 
who has lately united with the church, a man once steeped in 
iniquity, but now a gentle and loving disciple of Jesus. Kind, 
affectionate, prayerful, zealous, going about the streets led by a 
little boy, preaching the Gospel early and late, bringing strangers 
to the church and the prayer-meeting, and thinking only of one 
great theme, salvation through Christ, who sought him when a 
stranger, and sent blindness of natural vision five years ago, in 
order that his spiritual eyes may be opened ! He said the other 
night at a prayer-meeting, " Would that He had sent this blind- 
ness twenty years ago before I had spent so much of my life in 
sin. Praise to His name for not leaving rne now." 

On April 5th, Antioch was destroyed by earthquake. The 
shock continued for several days. Sixteen hundred were killed, 
1 ,000 wounded. The Turkish governor, Ahmed Beg, was a marvel 
of efficiency and humanity. More than 15,000 people were with- 
out food or shelter. Help poured in from Alexandretta, Aleppo, 
Beirut, Damascus, and Constantinople. Theraia Pasha, Waly of 
Aleppo, sent 100 tents and soldiers to guard the city and prevent 
plunder. The stench from bodies buried under the ruins became 
intolerable. A series of shocks continued for ten days, 
Suadiyeh on the coast, Bitias, and scores of villages were in ruins 
and hundreds perished. The house of Mr. Powers, the American 
missionary, was not injured, though surrounded by ruins. He 
raised $>8oo in Alexandretta to aid the sufferers, Caravans with 

The Earthquake at Antioch 415 

provisions, bread, flour, rice, and butter came daily from Aleppo, 
and were distributed by the Aleppo committee, Sheikh Beha ed 
Din Effendi Rufaiee, Mustafa Agha, Siyas Effendi, Rizkullah 
Effendi Bulleet. The commercial council of Aleppo sent $3,200 
in cash. Edward Van Dyck, United States vice-consul in Beirut, 
Rev. O. J. Hardin, Dr. Galen Danforth and wife of the American 
Mission in Tripoli and two graduates of the medical college, 
went on to Antioch, April 27th, with medicines and blankets to 
aid in the care of the sick and wounded. The desolation and 
suffering were heartrending. The entire population were liv- 
ing in the open country, and daily shocks for three weeks added 
to their terror and distress. No such earthquake had occurred 
since the days of Justinian in 526 A. D., when the ancient Antioch 
was destroyed and according to Gibbon 250,000 perished and the 
city thereafter was only an abject village. 

On April I2th the Greek priest Jebra was searching amid the 
ruins of the Greek Church for the silver ornaments and furniture 
buried under the debris when he heard a faint groan. He at 
once informed the government, and the Greek bishop and the en- 
tire body of government officials repaired to the spot with 
labourers who dug away the debris. The groans gradually grew 
louder and louder until they found two persons, the one clasping 
the other in her arms. They were a girl of twenty and her 
younger brother. As they drew them out after digging three 
hours they found them still alive. They had been entombed 
seven days. They begged for water. Dr. Franki gave them 
wine and water in very small quantities. They had no sign of 
wound or bruise on their bodies but the girl did not survive long. 
The boy, aged twelve, revived and recovered. 

Sabbath evening, April /th, I retired about midnight, ex- 
hausted by the labours of the day, and was just losing myself in 
sleep when the door-bell rang, and the telegraph messenger 
brought me a telegram from Miss Wilson, the English teacher in 
Zahleh, stating that Moosa Ata was dying, and my presence was 
absolutely necessary. No reasons were given and I was seriously 
perplexed. The Damascus diligence would leave at 4 A. M., and 

41 6 Notable Visitors and Converts 

this was the only way of getting there unless I rode ten hours 
on horseback, which I was quite too weary to attempt. There 
was no time to consult the brethren, and such was the pressure 
of duties on hand in Beirut that it seemed impossible for me to 
leave. At last I decided to leave the question to the divine 
Providence. If there proved to be an empty seat in the dili- 
gence I would go ; otherwise not. I went down to the office at 
half-past three and found a seat. On reaching the house of Miss 
Wilson in Zahleh at noon, I found the town in a state of great 
excitement. Moosa had died one hour before my arrival. He 
was the first Protestant in Zahleh and had been a steadfast 
evangelical for fifteen years. The town numbers 1 2,ooo souls, all 
Greek or Greek Catholic, and the people have been noted in years 
past for their insubordination to the government and their blind 
devotion to the priests. Years ago they boasted that the Prot- 
estants should never enter Zahleh, and twice have they driven 
out missionaries by violence. The town was sacked and burned 
by the Druses in 1860, and the great church of Mary, the citadel 
of Mariolatry in Lebanon, was destroyed. It is now rebuilt, the 
houses being constructed of stone and sun-dried brick, It stands 
in a narrow valley which runs down the eastern slope of Lebanon 
to the plain, and is built on both sides of the river, the north and 
south quarters of the city rising abruptly from the river and fa- 
cing each other, the roof of one house often forming the court or 
floor of the house above. The power of the Jesuits and the 
native Catholic and Greek clergy was once supreme and is now 
enough to incite the masses to almost any act of rowdyism, un- 
less restrained by force or fear. A month since, the young 
heroes of the town, of various aristocratic families, attacked the 
governor and threatened to kill him. He barely escaped with 
his life and an army was despatched for his protection. Numer- 
ous arrests were made and six of the finest young men of the 
town were sent for six years to the penitentiary in Acre. This 
condign punishment has somewhat tamed down the fire of the 
masses or we might have had serious trouble in burying our 
deceased brother* Moosa Ata. Ever since he had become a 

Moosa Ata 417 

Protestant the priests had vowed vengeance upon him, and al- 
though a venerable man, respected by all, and admired for his 
skill (he was a gunsmith, and received a reward from the Lon- 
don^Exposition for a curiously wrought and inlaid weapon), they 
resolved that when he died, he should be dragged through the 
streets and be denied decent burial 

On Sunday, April /th, he was very ill. The Protestant native 
helper, Giurgius, went to see him and was refused admittance. 
The Greek Catholic priests had gone a dozen strong to his house, 
fastened the doors, and sent out word that Moosa had recanted 
and returned to the papal church. His son Abdallah, who is a 
Protestant and a lovely young man, told the brethren that this 
was not true. Still none of the brethren could get access to him. 
At length Miss Wilson sent word to Jebran Meshaka, city judge, 
and, since the riot, acting governor, asking leave to visit Moosa, 
the Protestant. He at once sent the chief of police and two of 
his men to accompany her. Giurgius, the preacher, and several 
of the brethren went with her. The roof of Moosa's house and 
all the adjoining houses were covered with thousands of women 
and children and the roughs of the town hooting and cursing and 
railing at the Protestants. The chief made his way through the 
mob, and took the party with him into the room of the dying 
man. The room was crowded with the black-robed and hooded 
priests. ' Said the chief, Butrus Agha, to Giurgius, the Protestant 
preacher, "You may now question Moosa as to his faith." 
Giurgius sat down by his side and said distinctly, " My brother, 
are you still in the faith of the Gospel, or have you returned to 
the papal church ? " He replied in a clear voice, " I am a Prot- 
estant and die a Protestant" At the request of the agha, the 
question was repeated, with the same reply. Then the agha 
ordered the priests to leave at once. " What business have you 
here by the death-bed of a Protestant ? Leave him without de- 
lay/' Moosa then asked Giurgius to read and pray with him. 
When Miss Wilson left, the mob began to shout and threateri the 
life of Giurgius. " Bring out the dog and we will kill him ! Break 
down the door and let us shoot him ! " etc., etc. Giurgius went to 

418 Notable Visitors and Converts 

the door and told them, " I am ready to die, but I will not leave 
my brother while the breath of life is in him. If you kill me I 
will die between his feet." The agha then drove back the crowd 
but they soon returned instigated by the priests. The agha 
stayed with Giurgius all that night and the next day until 1 1 A. M., 
when Moosa died. For three years the papists had been threat- 
ening that when Moosa died he should not be buried. As no 
Protestant death had ever occurred in Zahleh they gave out word 
that Protestants have no funeral service, no clergy, no honour for 
the dead, and that no Protestant dog should ever be buried in the 
sacred (?) soil of Zahleh. When he died they would drag him 
through the streets and throw his corpse into the river. The 
gathering of these thousands on the housetops meant mischief. 
As soon as Moosa' s death was known, his wife and sons, and 
Abdallah's wife, arose and left the house, declaring that as none 
but street dogs would follow a Protestant to his grave they would 
not attend the funeral. The brethren had telegraphed to me but 
my coming was uncertain, and they sent for Mr. Rattrey, a 
Scotch gentleman living a few miles away, to come and aid them. 
When my arrival was known, a great change came over matters, 
and although I was almost faint from exhaustion, loss of sleep 
and riding in a burning sirocco, I forgot my weariness in the joy 
of the brethren at my coming. At half-past two I went over to 
the house with Miss Wilson and instead of finding none but 
street dogs, we found the entire body of Zahleh aristocracy as- 
sembled to condole with Abdallah and to attend the funeral All 
the parties in the late riot who had^taken up arms against one 
another were sitting side by side. Outside the building the scene 
beggared description. Thousands were surging against the house 
or on the adjacent roofs screaming, cursing, and calling us dogs 
and wild beasts. One woman cried out, " If they bury that dog 
in the sacred soil of Zahleh the earth will vomit him forth." An- 
other said, " They cut up their dead and bum them/' " Let me 
see/' " See the heretics/' " God curse them and their preachers 
and their books," and volleys of similar vituperation and insult, 
to all of which we paid no attention whatever. Butrus Agha, the 

The Funeral In Zahleh 


chief of police, charged upon them repeatedly, but the crowd 
rolled back again like the waves of the sea. The clamour outside 
and the roaring of the sirocco wind made it most difficult to 
speak, but I conducted a short service standing in the door be- 
tween the crowd inside and the mob outside. When it was 
ended, the body was placed in a coffin, wrapped in a white cloth, 
as there was not a woman in the family who would make a 
shroud, and the crowds of young men, seeing the chief dignitaries 
of the town in attendance, vied with one another in carrying the 
body to the chapel on the opposite side of the town. The pro- 
cession was immense. Five of the Protestant young men walked 
in advance singing in Arabic, " My Faith Looks up to Thee," 
and " How Sweet the Name of Jesus Sounds/' and their loud, 
clear voices had a palpably soothing effect upon the tumultuous 
throng. On reaching the chapel (Miss Wilson's large school- 
room) the crowd was excessive so that they literally trod upon 
one another. The doors and windows and the fields outside were 
jammed with the curious multitude, anxious to see what we were 
going to do. I was getting hoarse from sheer exhaustion, but 
when the agha had literally cudgelled the crowd into silence at 
the request of some of the leading men, though against our 
solemn protest, it became quiet enough to speak, and I conducted 
a funeral service. The service was brief. I had to speak with 
the voice of a sea-captain giving orders in a hurricane, yet the 
people gave good attention and some seemed to be effected by 
the truth. The singing was good and on leaving the chapel for 
the cemetery, the young men again sang as we passed through 
the streets, and the interment took place decently and in order. 
I walked by the side of Abdallah as he followed his father to his 
grave, and he was sad to think that not one of his family was 
present. I told him that it was just so with Christ in His hour 
of extremity. All His disciples forsook Him and fled, and He 
could sympathize with His bereaved and lonely children now. 

In the evening the brethren all called and said that though 
they were all sad at the death of Moosa, their patriarch and chief, 
yet the providence of God had made this day the gladdest and 

420 Notable Visitors and Converts 

most auspicious in the history of the Gospel in Zahleh. Op- 
posers had been silenced and the enemies had heard the truth, 
the priests had been foiled in their lying plots, God's truth had 
been openly honoured, and Protestantism had been recognized 
by the government, Early in the day they had telegraphed to 
Franco Pasha, the governor of Lebanon, for authority to select 
a cemetery from the Government lands in the suburbs. For 
years they had tried to get this concession but priests and bishops 
had prevented. While we were assembled in the evening, a tele- 
gram came from the pasha ordering the judge to set apart a 
cemetery for the Protestants at once and without delay. So the 
next morning we called at the Mejlis with Miss Wilson and sev- 
eral of the brethren. The judge sent a high official with us and 
we selected an appropriate place near the cemetery of the other 
sects, and before one o'clock the deed was made out, signed, 
sealed, recorded and given to the Protestant brethren, I made 
various calls on the people and was everywhere courteously re- 
ceived, and in the house of one of the leading families a young 
woman whose husband is in the penitentiary asked me to read 
the Scriptures and offer prayer, in which request the whole com- 
pany joined. 

The effect of my visit to Zahleh in my mind was this : that it 
is a most important centre and should be occupied as our mission 
previously voted and that as speedily as possible. It is sur- 
rounded by important villages, is easy of access, a good climate, 
and could be manned by two families to-morrow were they on the 

On Wednesday evening, April 8th, Mr. Calhoun and brother 
Samuel Jessup arrived from Tripoli after a tedious ride of nine- 
teen hours on horseback, and on Friday, April loth, at sunrise, 
Samuel and I embarked on the Austrian Lloyd steamer for Jaffa 
en route for Jerusalem, It was a trip for mental rest and recrea- 
tion on the part of both of us for the sake of seeing the land in 
which we live and the Christian labourers in Palestine, to say 
nothing of the sacred associations of the Holy Land. I had not 
beea to Jerusalem in fifteen years^ and lie had never been either 

Going to Jerusalem 421 

to Jerusalem or Damascus and It seemed high time for him to 
go. The Austrian steamer was crowded with Russian and Ar- 
menian pilgrims going to Jerusalem. These Russian pilgrims 
are the most abject and filthy creatures to be seen in the East 
They must be chiefly of the lowest of the serfs. They are 
herded together like cattle and seem lost to all sense of decency. 
They lay up money for many years to make the pilgrimage to 
Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Bethany, and the Jordan, and go back 
fleeced and plundered by the priests and monks to spend the 
rest of their lives in poverty. They carry back the clothes in 
which they bathe in the Jordan and keep them to be buried in. 
How long they will keep with so much filth matted on them I 
cannot surmise. Their ignorance and infatuated superstitious 
devotion to saints' pictures, and holy places, make one ashamed 
of Christianity. No wonder the Mohammedans scoff and ridicule 
Christianity when thus identified with the grossest idolatry. I 
saw two Moslem sheikhs from Shechem (Nablus) standing at a 
Christian shop in Jerusalem with a view to purchasing cotton 
cloth, when the eye of one of them fell upon a piece of carved 
and painted wood designed to represent the Virgin. " Do you 
see this ? " said he to his companion. " These are the gods of 
the Christians," and he turned away. I stopped him and said, 
" My friend, these are not the gods of true Christians. Such 
things are contrary to the Old and New Testaments and against 
the law of God and His Son Jesus Christ. They are the gods of 
mere nominal Christians who have forsaken God's Word and fol- 
lowed the traditions of men. True Christianity is a spiritual re- 
ligion and forbids all worship of the creature." The shopkeeper 
blushed, and the Moslems said " that kind of Christianity would 
suit us Moslems, but this idolatry never." 

On board our steamer were three Russian gentlemen of the 
higher class, tall, slender, gray-bearded men, with long black 
coats and flat black caps, and they paced the deck side by side 
with faces of the most awful solemnity, as if the responsibility of 
some momentous task was weighing them down. I soon learned 
that they were bringing two ponderous bells, one of them weigh- 

422 Notable Visitors and Converts 

ing 6,600 pounds, as a present from Russia to the Russian con- 
vent in Jerusalem. The bells were on the main deck and the 
problem as to how they were to land them at Jaffa and transport 
them to Jerusalem was probably tasking their minds day and 
night I have since learned that the bells were landed and that 
400 of those poor Russian women who were at the convent in 
Jerusalem came down to Jaffa and drew the bells up to Jerusa- 
lem, thirty-six miles, on trucks, as a work of religious merit, thus 
adding to their stock of good works and increasing their chance 
of getting to heaven. 

We took breakfast at the hotel kept by our courteous vice-consul, 
Mr. Hardegg, in one of the houses of the defunct Adams Colony. 
That colony has been brought out principally by the industrious 
and God-fearing German sect of Hoffmanites, who are now 
firmly settled here and in Haifa under Mount Carmel They are 
steady, honest men who tolerate no drones in their hive, and 
have set about their work in earnest Their numbers in Wur- 
temburg are large, but they will allow no new immigrants until 
they have work provided in advance. The great problem in their 
future will be whether the Turkish government will protect them 
or allow them to be harassed and gradually worn out with petty 
annoyances until they finally break up in despair and leave. The 
wooden houses in Jaffa will not last long but they can be replaced 
with stone in due time. 

It is twelve hours 1 ride from Jaffa to Jerusalem but Mr. Hardegg 
gave us animals that took us up the thirty-six miles in six hours, 
without great effort on their part or ours. Fifteen years have 
made great changes in this ancient land. This road is aa in- 
calculable blessing and a Greek lady who broke her arm in riding 
down to the Jordan has expended 700 in making a fine, broad, 
and easy road all the way from the gates of Jerusalem to the 
banks of the Jordan, 

The Plain of Sharon was covered with waving grain, as if 
literally groaning under an excess of luxuriance. 

Amateur missionaries abound in Palestine, some of whom hold 
extraordinary views. We met a white-bearded patriarchal apostle, 

Seed Sown by the Wayside 423 

Dr. Zembal, when encamped at the Fountain of Elisha at Jericho. 
Me sat in his tent door at sunset, looking out on the mountains 
of Moab, now tinged with purple and gold by the rays of the 
setting sun. He had just returned from a journey, with no com- 
panions but his guards and muleteers, to Ramoth Gilead, Rabbath 
Ammon,and Heshbon, where Sihon, king of the Amorites, lived, 
and had only recrossed the Jordan because his supply of bread 
had failed. He said, " Do you know what I have been there for ? 
I have been to find a place for ' the Woman ' in the wilderness. 
The time is at hand, rapidly approaching. A fine tract of land 
here in Jericho is offered for sale. It must be secured. Na- 
poleon must soon become King of Rome, and then the Jews will 
begin to return in thousands. Everything must be ready/' It 
was really affecting to witness the tearful and intense earnestness 
with which the old man expressed his views. He is very aged 
and fears lest he may die before the Messiah actually appears. 

On our way to the Jordan we were escorted by Sheikh Rashid, 
a stalwart and dignified Arab, with whom I had a two hours' 
conversation on our return when riding slowly up the long 
ascent. It was pleasant to have an opportunity to preach the 
Gospel so practically to one of the sons of the desert. He listened 
most patiently and with apparent interest to a full exposition of 
the gospel plan by which God can be just and the justifier of 
them that believe. The idea was new to him and I trust that it 
will not be lost upon him. 

While in Jerusalem we were invited to view Mr. Shapira's 
unique and unparallelled collection of Moabite pottery, just 
brought, as he said, from Makkedah, east of the Dead Sea. It is 
covered with Phoenician and other antique characters, and was 
claimed to be of immense importance and value. A small 
selection of the vases, tesseras, and earthern gods, was offered for 
100. German savants examined the collection and it was pur- 
chased for the Berlin Museum for a fabulous sum. But soon 
after, M. Ganneau, a French savant, let the whole Moabite cat out 
of the bag and proved that Shapira had manufactured the whole 
olle<?tion at a pottery of his own in a secluded place arjl }iir?d 

424 Notable Visitors and Converts 

trans- Jordanic Bedawin to bring them in on camels, as if just dis- 
covered at Makkedah, The exposure subjected Shapira to such 
indignity and contempt that it was reported that he had com- 
mitted suicide. 

During this visit we met the genial and godly Bishop Gobat 
and had full conference with him about the basis of missionary 
comity established between our missions. We were told that 
the recent Episcopal invasion of Aintab was in spite of his 

We received on Sabbath, May 19, 1872, to the communion of 
the Beirut church nine persons. One is a Damascene, a Jew of 
a wealthy family, who have now disowned and disinherited him* 
He gives good evidence of being a true disciple of Christ In 
1906 three 'of his children were received into the same church* 
The Jews in Syria are in a sad condition. There is not a more 
superstitious or fanatical class in the community and they are 
hated intensely by all the sects, but more especially by the 
Greeks and Latins, In the gradations of Oriental cursing, it is 
tolerably reasonable to call a man a donkey, somewhat severe to 
call him a dog, contemptuous to call him a swine, but withering 
to the last degree to call him a Jew. The animosity of the 
nominal Christian sects against the Jews is most relentless and 
unreasoning. They believe that the Jews kill Christian children 
every year at the Passover and mingle their blood with the Pass- 
over bread. Almost every year in the spring, this senseless 
charge is brought against the Jews ; senseless because blood is 
unclean among the Jews, but an impossibility is no obstacle to 
Oriental fanaticism. 

The Jews of Beirut and Damascus are obliged to pay heavy 
blackmail every year to the Greek and Latin " lewd fellows of the 
baser sort 1 ' who threaten to raise a mob against them for killing 
Christian children. Quite a number of Jewish children are 
gathered in the missionary schools of the Scotch and English 
missions in Beirut, but the chief rabbi of Damascus ordered 
aH r^nioved on hearing of the recent bloody assault of the 

Mohammed's Long Lost Shoe 425 

Smyrna Greeks on the Jews of that city. It is one of the most 
practical comments on the degraded character of these Oriental 
so-called Christian churches, that they never lift a finger for the 
instruction or conversion of Jews, Moslems, or Druses, but hate 
them with a perfect hatred and not only in theory regard them 
as children of hell, but would rejoice to send them there if they 

One of the most remarkable items of news in this part of the 
world just now is the recent discovery in Diarbekir of one of the 
shoes of the Prophet Mohammed ! It is generally supposed that 
Mohammedans are above the superstitious relic worship of the 
Greeks and Latins but those who live among them know very 
well that they sanction some of the most foolish, superstitious 
practices and revere sacred places and footprints and tombs with 
what is akin to idolatrous homage. To give you a correct idea 
of the wonderful relic just discovered I will translate from the 
Turkish government official organ published in Damascus and 
called La Syrie or Suriyek. 

" The long-lost sister of the noble prophetic shoe, which has 
long been preserved with distinguished honour in the treasury of 
the imperial wardrobe in the new sultanic palace in Constanti- 
nople, has now been found in the possession of Derwish Beg, a 
descendant of the family of the Abbassides, living in the 
province of Hakari east of the Tigris, and under the government 
of Diarbekir. The beg has brought it to Diarbekir with the 
most ancient testimonies, which prove beyond a question that it 
is the mate of the famous shoe of the prophet, and in view of 
these facts the entire population of Diarbekir great and small 
went out a distance of several hours to meet it, and it was 
brought in and placed in a special room prepared for it in the 
house of the mufti of the city, and the curious and eager multi- 
tude thronged the house in crowds to visit it 

" Now it is clear that the noble and holy relic, wherever found, 
ought to be most sacredly preserved and guarded, and his Im- 
perial Highness the Sultan, caliph of the two worlds and imam 
of all Mussulmen, being entrusted with the protection of the two 

426 Notable Visitors and Converts 

Harams (at Mecca and Jerusalem) most honoured and noble and 
delegated for the preservation of all the exalted prophetic relics, 
will doubtless preserve this relic also in the holy treasury above 
mentioned. The effendi above mentioned has left Diarbekir for 
Constantinople, after allowing the entire population to visit it. 
The celebration and pious rites performed by the Mussulman 
population of Diarbekir in high honour of this sacred relic are 
sufficiently described in the Diarbekir official journal in an extra 
edition, and there can be no doubt that the lords of Moslem 
orthodoxy will feel under great obligations for its perusal and 
show to the editor some substantial proof of their appreciation. 

" There can be no question that this most precious and holy 
relic is one of immense value and importance, the flood of whose 
benefits, material and moral, will overflow the whole Moham- 
medan world. There is therefore the most assured hope that it 
will be borne into the Court of Happiness (Constantinople) on a 
special steamer, with the most exalted honour and ceremony and 
may God grant (may He be exalted) that we may yet receive the 
particulars of its grand entrance into the Sublime Porte. . . /' 

The girls 1 school in Hamath is proving a great success. It is 
one of the darkest cities in Syria and one of the most beautiful 
For years the brethren of the Tripoli station have had a native 
preacher, Nasif Selluni, working away in Hamath knocking at 
the Ear Gate and looking in at the Eye Gate of that Man Soul, 
but none replied. During our recent visit on June 5th, we met a 
young woman, Raheel Weider, who had been for eight years a 
pupil in the orphan house of the excellent Prussian deaconesses 
in Beirut She had married and removed to Hamath, and the 
native preacher found her out I called on her with him and 
asked her what she was doing for the good of the people of 
Hamath, " What can I do, a lone woman in such a dark place ? 
My husband is poor and I have no means of doing good.** 
" Would you be willing to gather a few girls around you from 
among your neighbours and give them instruction every day ? 
We will furnish you a room and pay you for your time*" u I 
will be delighted to do it and will do my best" Very well. 

Raheel Welder's Work in Hamath 427 

Do you begin next week ? If you have less than ten girls you 
shall have two dollars a month, and if more than ten, four dol- 
lars." After giving her earnest advice as to how to carry on the 
work, and the need of looking to God for aid, we bade her good- 

She commenced. The Greek bishop and his priests, with the 
bishop's Mejlis or council came together in great indignation. 
A deputation waited on both her and her husband Daud, and en- 
treated her to desist, or the rather, to teach a school for them, but 
on this condition that no Protestant child should be allowed in 
the school, and they would pay her a good salary. " Never," 
said she, " will I consent to such a plan. I shall invite Moslems, 
and Jews, Jacobites, Greeks, and Catholics to my school, and 
shall I reject Protestant children, when for eight years I have 
been taught and trained by Protestants ? " 

They then threatened excommunication against all who would 
send their children to her, and in the Greek Church the great 
curse was fulminated against all such erring and foolish ones as 
should send children to the heretics. Raheel held on her way. 
Nasif Selium encouraged her and soon they had twenty girls of all 
sects. The bishop was in a rage. He is a foreign Ionian Greek 
and hates Protestants in the most senseless and fearful manner. A 
Prussian prince visited Palmyra and Hamath last spring and on 
reaching Hamath, sent to the Greek bishop and asked his hospi- 
tality. The brutal ecclesiastic, on hearing that he was a Protes- 
tant, refused to entertain him, and the prince went to the little 
upper room of the Protestant preacher Nasif, and spent the night. 
The bishop raged against the new girls' school with such violence 
that the Greek community became divided in two parties, one for 
the school and one against it The last letter from Raheel states 
that she has sixty pupils. 

At this time the mission decided to occupy Zahleh. In No- 
vember, 1872, Rev. Gerald F. Dale was stationed in Zahleh. The 
Zahleh church was organized June, 1873, and Rev. F. W. March 
joined Mr. Dale November 19, 1873. On November 19, 1876, 
the Zahleh church edifice was dedicated. 

428 Notable Visitors and Converts 

I have often thought of the monthly concert as the great link 
between the Christian Church and a perishing world. One hour 
a month is certainly little enough to devote to prayer and infor- 
mation about the hundreds of foreign missionaries, in various em- 
pires and nations, engaged in preaching, teaching, writing, and 
translating books, editing journals, visiting the people, travelling 
by land and sea, training a native ministry, overseeing the native 
churches, planning new modes of reaching blinded and hostile 
populations, conducting Sunday-schools, Bible classes, and hav- 
ing under their influence more or less directly, thousands of chil- 
dren and youth, and hundreds of thousands of heathen, Moham- 
medans and nominal Christians ; with seminaries, schools, colleges, 
hospitals, printing-presses, and type foundries, to say nothing of 
that most responsible and difficult of all works, the translation of 
the Word of God into the language of millions of our race. On 
the foreign field are combined all the Boards of our Church : 
Home Mission, Foreign Mission, Publication, Sustentation, 
Church Erection, Church Extension, Education, Primary, Colle- 
giate, and Theological There are hundreds of native churches, 
whose members, pastors, and teachers, need the sympathy and 
prayers of the whole Church. Your missionaries are a mere 
handful thrown out into the frontier line of the Lord's host 
among organized and mighty foes. The great source, the only 
source of their strength and success, is in the sustaining hand of 
the Lord Himself in answer to the prayers of the Lord's people. 
The thoughts and hearts and sympathies of the churches at home 
are naturally and inevitably taken up through the month with 
interests that are near and visible and pressing. The home work 
in all its branches must and ever will be linked to the very heart 
and life of the Church, and all through the month, it must and 
will be remembered in earnest prayer. But let the Church give 
that one sacred hour in the month, twelve hours in the year, to 
the work they are doing among the kingdoms of darkness. Let 
all missionaries and mission churches be assured that this one 
hour is the hour of contact between them and the great heart of 
the Church ; that they and their cokbourers, the churches and 

' .JH 


E-T Ct3 3 




*g P 





Is the Church at Home Praying? 429 

pastors, the schools and seminaries, the translators and physicians, 
the editors and itinerants, the colporteurs and teachers, the per- 
secuted and the suffering, the inquiring and awakened, as well as 
the great perishing myriads of the ignorant, superstitious and 
fanatical, are being thought of, prayed for, wrestled for and borne 
up on the arms of faith before the interceding Saviour, the 
faithful Promiser, who is Head over all things to the Church ! 

The thought that the Church at home is praying is a tower of 
strength to the missionary in distant lands. Whatever else Is 
neglected let not the Church forget to pray ; and what time more 
fit and more hallowed than the monthly concert, when those at 
home and their brethren and sisters abroad bend around one com- 
mon mercy seat. 

A Cholera Year 

The Tripoli school Close brethrenism Government hostility Dr. 
Ellinwood's visit The Dog River Dr. Danforth's death The scourge 
of cholera 1873-1875. 

FRIDAY, January 31, 1873, Mr. Calhoun and I went in a 
little Russian steamer to Tripoli to hold communion, re- 
ceive members and negotiate for premises for the girls' 
boarding-school. We received Mr. Yakub Surruf (now Dr. Sur- 
ruf), a college graduate and for twenty- five years editor of the 
Muktutaf Scientific Magazine in Cairo. " Only one received ? " 
some would say. Yet that one has become one of the most in- 
fluential men in Modern Egypt In that little congregation was 
Nofel Effendi, the well-known Arabic author and M, Elias Saadeh, 
who was converted in Beirut in 1886. 

Mr. Antonius Yanni, our brother beloved for seventeen years, 
offered us his spacious house for ten years for 6,000 piastres or 
$240 a year with eight rooms above for the girls* school and four 
spacious stone vaulted rooms below for chapel and boys' school. 
It was a cheap bargain and an admirable home for the school. 
The Board in New York finally modified the lease to five years, 
the owner to make needed repairs. It was subsequently pur- 
chased and enlarged and is one of the most complete educational 
establishments in the land. It has set the pace for schools of 
other sects and kept the lead in the education of girls in North- 
ern Syria. 

I shall never forget our return voyage on the Messageries 
French steamer. Mr. Calhoun and I walked the long deck with 
a calm sea all the way for four hours to Beirut. It was a delight 
to hold converse with such a man, who, for thirty-three years, 
had been studying the Bible and teaching it to the youth of 


The Old Man of Sin 431 

Syria. He was dignified and grave in appearance but had the 
heart of a child and enjoyed humour with great zest. In the 
higher realm of theological thought he had few peers. As 
Professor Park of Andover remarked, " He knows more about 
theology than any of us." 

In February, 1873, Mr. Chas. Crocker of Sacramento, builder of 
the Pacific Railroad, visited Beirut and dined at President Daniel 
Bliss's. I was present. Mr. Crocker gave $100 for the new col- 
lege building, and on hearing of a Nubian slave girl who had 
taken refuge in Dr. Eddy's house in Sidon and whose late owner 
demanded $25 for her, took out his purse and gave six Napoleons. 
He had been a strong anti-slavery man and this case appealed to 
him. The girl was set free. 

On the nth Franco Pasha died and was buried in great state 
at the Hazimiyeh on the Damascus Road four miles from Beirut 
His chief monument is the row of " Pride of India " trees on both 
sides of the Damascus Road and on some of the mountain roads, 
He was a plain man and well meaning, but too easily influenced 
by political hacks and a fanatical priesthood. 

At this time I was putting through the press Mosheim's 
Church History, a Sunday-school Question Book, and an 
illustrated book for children, with nine religious services every 
week and an extended correspondence in Arabic and English. 

In January, 1874, Mr. P , once connected with the United 

Presbyterian Mission in Egypt, came to Syria to propagate close 
Brethrenism. He was a man of morbid disposition, at times 
seeming to be mentally disordered but had a gift of prayer and 
pious language which fascinated not a few. Several discharged 
mission and college employees and some who were restless under 
the demand of the native churches for liberal gifts towards self- 
support joined him. He denounced a paid ministry and all 
church organization and taught perfectionism in its baldest phase. 
11 No Christian can sin. It is the old man who sins. We are the 
new man. If the old man inside gets rampant and lies and steals 
I am not responsible." His illustration was that the entering of 
the new man into the old one was like thrusting a single cartridge 

432 A Cholera Year 

into a double-barrelled gun. The new man cannot sin. If the 
other barrel goes off and somebody is hurt, it is the old man's 
work. He travelled about and made a few converts here and 
there. In Hums one of his disciples robbed the shop of another. 
When called to account he replied triumphantly, " It was the 
1 insan el ateuk ' (the old man) who did it" 

In Germany one of this type of believers committed a crime 
and was brought before the judge. He put in the plea, " The 
old man did it ; I did not." " Very well then/' said the judge, send 
that old man to jail for six months/ 1 

This peculiar sect has had many godly adherents in England 
but its tendency in this land has been Ishmaelitic and disinte- 
grating. Each brother is bound to sit in judgment on every 
other and to commune with no one who is not perfect The 
logical result soon followed. 

At first they all met and each in turn administered the com- 
munion. None but brethren were admitted. Soon they split 
into sections neither of which would commune with the other and 
finally each formed an exclusive sect by himself. The result has 
been demoralizing, and has blasted the spiritual life of many, 
stopped all charitable and religious contributions among them, 

and stifled all evangelistic work. Mr. P said he was called to 

preach to the elect and to pull them out of the other sects. He 
seemed to have lost all hope and never laboured for the uncon- 
verted, The great aim seemed to be to break up the little 
evangelical church in Syria. Thirty-six years have passed and 
only the scarred and tattered remnants of his work remain. 
When he died, his widow, a strict follower of the w Brethren " 
views, sent for me to conduct his funeral, and I have conducted 
the funeral of all the members who have died in Beirut* One of 
the last was this same widow Sada, in her early days a gifted, 
sprightly and beautiful Christian teacher, but in her widowhood 
lapsed into melancholy. The son asked me to conduct her 
funeral service, which I did, assured that with ail the strange 
vagaries of her later life, she was at heart a true cUld of Christ, 
who trusted in Him alone for salvation. 

The Press and the Pasha 433 

The Tripoli Girls' School which commenced with three pupils 
has now over forty. The New Year's festival of the school was 
noticed commendably by the Arabic journal of Beirut* 

The Jesuits have lately been proved guilty of abducting two 
Greek girls from Beirut, one of whom they sent to Zahleh and 
the other to Sidon to their convents. Both of the girls were 
rescued and restored to their parents, after the French monks and 
nuns had tried to conceal their whereabouts by an amount of 
hedging that would shame a Nusairi. 

The American Press in Beirut, established in Malta in 1822 
and removed to Beirut in 1834, has always confirmed strictly to 
the laws of the empire. The code of laws of public instruction 
was issued in the Turkish language in 1869, but not translated 
for years afterwards. The pashas themselves were ignorant of its 
provisions. All knew that it was unlawful to print anything at- 
tacking the Sultan or his government or prejudicial to good 

In March, 1874, Dr. Van Dyck printed a little tract for Louis 
Sabanjy a papal Syriac priest, replying to attacks upon another 
priest, Yusef Baud, printed without objection from the govern- 
ment and written by the Maronite bishop of Beirut. Priest Y. 
Daud had established the well-known fact in church history that 
the Maronites were a heretical Monothelite sect holding that 
Christ had only one will, a divine will. Sabanjy's tract defended 
Baud's position and contained nothing against the government 
or good morals. The Maronites complained and Ibrahim Pasha 
sent and ordered Br. Van Byck to shut the press for a month 
and pay a fine of ten Turkish pounds. Dr. Van Byck referred 
him to Mr. Consul Hay and protested against the pasha's adjudg- 
ing the case without a trial. The protest was forwarded to Con- 
stantinople and not heard of again. A few days later the deputy 
chief of police sent a piece of job work to our press and it was 
printed for the government. A Maronite banker more zealous 
than discreet offered our mechanical manager two hundred 
pounds as a bribe if he would shut up the press for a month, to 
the dignity of the Maronite bishop. 

434 A Cholera Year 

Since that day the government has given the press a regular 
official permit, and as the new laws are perfectly understood we 
have comparatively little trouble. The chief difficulty is with the 
censors of the press. No one objects to a censorship, in a land 
where men of all sects are ready to fly at each other's throats and 
to vituperate others in language surpassing an Arkansas back- 
woods editor. But the trouble is with the censor himself. Every 
foreign book coming into the empire through the custom-house 
is detained by the censor for examination. If the book contains 
anything about Mohammed or the Sultan or Turkey or Syria or 
Arabia or Mecca it will be either mutilated or confiscated. En- 
cyclopedias as such are prohibited as they are supposed to con- 
tain articles on these subjects. As a result all encyclopedias 
coming to Turkey have these v articles cut out before shipment 
from America. 

Even Murray's and Baedeker's guide-books are often seized and 
confiscated by overzealous inspectors. Of every Arabic book pre- 
pared in manuscript for publication we must send two manuscript 
copies to Constantinople for examination. There it may be de- 
tained six months or a year, and then it comes back so mutilated 
in many cases as to be unfit for publication. And the printed 
copy must be sent to Constantinople for comparison again before 
it is offered for sale. Sometimes the censors are grossly ignorant 
and make endless trouble. Alas for the daily papers which must 
send a proof of every day's edition to the censor who may at the 
eleventh hour strike out several columns and oblige the editor to 
substitute other matter and refer it again to the censor. On this 
account the editors keep in type quantities of padding, such as 
poems and European gossip, etc., which they substitute for the 
victimized and proscribed matter. 

Prof. John Orne of Harvard published an account of the Amer- 
ican Press in 1894 * n *he Bibliotheca Sacra. His estimate of its 
importance is of great value, and ought to be read by all inter- 
ested in missions. 

On February 12, 1874, 1 wrote Rev, F t F, Ellmwood, D t D., in 

Rain, Hail, Snow, Storm 435 

" The past month has been one of unprecedented storms 
throughout Syria. Rain, hail, snow, accompanied by violent 
gales of wind, have swept over sea and land. The destruction of 
property by landsides and floods is wide-spread and disheartening 
to the poor fellahin. In the north the sheep have died by hun- 
dreds. Many poor wayfaring men have been swept away by the 
swollen streams, and the heights of Lebanon are covered with 
such a mass of snow that the Damascus diligence has not been 
able to run for a fortnight so that thousands of men are now at 
work digging through the drifts. The houses of the mountaineers 
are saturated with water and many roofs have fallen in. One 
caravan from Hums to Tripoli had to slaughter three camels 
which had broken their legs in the deep mud sloughs on the way 
Last year the whole land was perishing from drought and now it 
is suffering from floods of water. Would that we had such tokens 
of the spirit's presence as we long for ! The news of financial 
pressure at home is painful to us here, and we must apply the 
knife of retrenchment without shrinking. We are beginning to 
shut up some of our schools already. The printing work is to be 
reduced at once, and we are proposing to stop the issue of the 
weekly, Neskra, the Arabic religious paper which is identified 
with the name of the mission throughout Syria. You may de- 
pend on our willingness to make all possible sacrifices to help the 
Board of Missions to weather the storm. The Austrian Lloyd 
steamer is just in, having thrown overboard a part of its cargo to 
save the ship during a storm. We must do the same. At all 
events we will not give up thb ship." 

During this year Mr. Dale was greatly troubled in Zahleh by 
the arbitrary arrest of the keeper of the book-shop and his ban- 
ishment without a trial. Miss Wilson had gone to England. 
Some months later the priest who had preferred charges against 
him was himself banished for striking and insulting the same 
native helper, and subsequently His Excellency, the pasha, became 
the warm friend of Mr. Dale, the mission, and the college. Mr. 
Wood was transferred to Sidon, as the work done in the Abeih 
s?$lool bad tjeea transferred to the college. In Beirut lane} 

436 A Cholera Year 

purchased in the eastern quarter for a chapel and a school- 

Consul-General Hay was removed and Col. George Fisher 
came in his place. 

Miss Fisher's health having failed, she returned to America 
and Mrs. Shrimpton resigned her position in the Tripoli School. 

Dr. Thomson spent six months in England on business con- 
nected with " The Land and the Book." 

Dr. and Mrs. Eddy and children and Misses Anna H. Jessup 
and Lilian Jessup left for America in June. 

At this time the Turkish authorities allowed it to be published in 
Constantinople that all Protestant schools were to be closed. The 
word reached Europe and we received letters asking if it were true. 

1. Rev. Mr. Zeller of Nazareth tried to open a girls' school in 
Acre and was forbidden. 

2. In Safita where American schools had been in operation 
for nine years the local mudir got orders to close them but told 
the people he thought it too small a business to make trouble about. 

3. In the Nusairiyeh Mountains east and southeast of 
Latakia, twenty-five schools of the American Reformed Presby- 
terian Mission which had been in operation for twenty years 
were forcibly closed by the Turkish officials and that poor pagan 
population, thirsting for education, are forbidden to allow their 
children to be taught. The persecution near Latakia was 
brutal and violent. Turkish soldiers broke down the doors of 
the American school building, insulted the teacher's wife and tore 
off her clothing and jewelry, arrested all the Christian young men 
bound them and took them prisoners. 

The case was referred to the Protestant ambassadors at the 
Porte and full statements sent to the Evangelical Alliance in 
London, that pillar of religious liberty and shield of the perse- 
cuted throughout the world, and an investigation was ordered. 
But the Turks have closed the door to all Christian light for the 
pagan Nusairiyeh, resolved on making them Moslems. But 
they still hate and curse Islam and pray for the day when their 
be taught in the Christian schools again. 

A Prophecy Fulfilled 437 

Notwithstanding the outburst of hostility to our schools not 
one of them has been closed. In December, 1874, we had 
sixty-one common schools with 1,753 boys and 510 girls; 
three female seminaries in Beirut, Tripoli and Sidon with seventy- 
six pupils ; one boys' seminary with thirty boys ; one college with 
sixty-eight students, making 2,474 pupils in all. 

In 1860 Dr. Thomson declared that the Arabic Press would 
one day be sent over 120 degrees of longitude, from Mogadore 
on the Atlantic to Pekin in Eastern China. In 1874 this had 
become a fact, and in December, 1874, an order came from the 
governor-general of Allahabad in North India for a considerable 
number of Arabic books published at the Beirut Mission Press. 
Books had already been sent to Liberia and Pekin and thus the 
influence of the Syria Mission Press was extending more and 
more widely. 

September 19, 1874, I wrote a friend: " The Syrian summer 
is drawing towards its close and I write to tell you of a few facts 
bearing on its recent history. As the last winter was one of 
intense cold, deep snows, famine and suffering, so the summer 
has been one of unprecedented sickness. I suppose it would be 
safe to say that tens of thousands of the people are now lying 
sick of various fevers from Gaza on the south to Aleppo on the 
north. In some villages work is almost suspended. Yesterday 
I was in Ain Zehalteh, one of the highest and healthiest of the 
mountain villages, and 150 of the people were prostrated with 
fever out of a population of less than 600. Two young students 
of, the Beirut Medical College had their hands full in tending 
upon the sick. All through Palestine and the region east of the 
Jordan fevers are an epidemic. 

" The Turkish military expedition to Northern Moab for the 
subjection of the rebellious Arab tribes was broken up by the 
illness of the officers and men. One of the tribes of the Bedawin 
had sent seven young sheikhs to a certain village as hostages and 
one of them fell sick. The tribe demanded their release or re- 
moval to a healthier place. The Turks declined. Soon after the 
Bedawin mustered a force of 400 horsemen and attacked the 

438 A Cholera Year 

town by night, overpowered the forty Turkish troops, released 
the hostages, and plundered the treasury of 30,000 piastres. 
The Arab tribes on the borders have been unusually turbulent 
and destructive in their raids this summer, and the villagers 
north, east, and south of Damascus have suffered irreparable loss 
in cattle, sheep, camels, and grain. The ' Sabeans ' and * Chal- 
deans ' of the time of Job maintain worthy successors in the land of 
Uz in these modern times. The Bedawin question is as great a 
problem for the Turks as is the Indian question for the Americans. 

" After all that is said of the decay of the Ottoman power, it is 
certain that they have shown marvellous energy in keeping up 
their military and civil service throughout the empire. They 
do somehow collect enormous taxes and gather immense sums 
of money from the people; even when famine and want are 
crushing them to the dust. They maintain a well-equipped 
army and have recently imported into Syria 180 rifled steel 
breech-loading pieces of field artillery, and cargo of American 
breech-loading rifles, with fixed ammunition. They are about 
taking a census of the whole empire and seem to be laying their 
plans to live, whatever else the Russian government may be 
planning for them. They have a postal telegraph service, de- 
fective enough, and yet enabling the central power in Constanti- 
nople to move the whole empire like a machine. 

11 Hostility to foreigners, and jealousy of their presence and 
operations of every description, commercial, educational, and re- 
ligious, are on the evident increase. Let us be thankful to God 
that the opportunities of the past have been improved, and that 
the Bible has a foothold in every important part of the Turkish 
Empire to-day, from which nothing short of a second St. 
Bartholomew's day can expel it. The translation and printing 
of the Arabic Bible alone, as accomplished already, will more 
than justify the expenditure of men and means during half a 
century in Syria. And were the Syria Mission to-day to be 
expelled by fire and sword, that Bible would remain and with it 
the evangelical churches and evangelical sentiments of thousands 
of the people of the various sects in the land. 

A Loving Testimonial 439 

"On the nth of November, 1874, two beloved elders of the 
Beirut church, Mr. Elias Fuaz and Mr. John Abcarius, called on 
me and presented me on behalf of the Beirut church a beautiful 
octagonal walnut casket, containing a filigree silver tray, with 
twelve silver coffee cup holders, and a gold lined silver sugar 
bowl, with an Arabic letter from the Beirut church full of expres- 
sions of loving gratitude for my services to them for the fourteen 
years past. I had been acting as their pastor for the past four- 
teen years and although constantly urging them to call a native 
pastor, I had been obliged to continue in this service for want of 
a suitable candidate. I had been acting pastor of the church 
not of my own choice, but by the vote of my brethren. I al- 
ways regarded the relation as a mere temporary one, made neces- 
sary by the failure to find a native pastor. I preached to them 
and 4 visited them when sick and well, married them, baptized their 
children, administered the Lord's Supper, and buried their dead. 
I loved them, tried to bear their infirmities and at times found the 
position a trying one, but I loved them and they evidently loved 
me in return. But the situation was perilous and I was relieved 
more than words can express when in July, 1890, my old pupil 
Rev. Yusef Bedr was settled over the church as its first legitimate 
pastor. I keep this gift as a precious souvenir of the good men 
and women, now almost all gone to glory, with whom I lived and 
laboured for many years. 

" The transit of Venus on the morning of the 9th of December 
was an event of profound interest. Dr. Van Dyck the astronomer 
of the Beirut College had published in the Neshra a calcula- 
tion of the exact time of the beginning and end of the transit 
and though the preceding day was one of clouds and rain, the 
morning of Wednesday was clear and beautiful. When the 
mighty disk of the sun came rolling up above the summits of 
Mount Lebanon, the planet Venus, that bright morning star, lay 
like a minute black speck on its face. It continued to move up- 
ward and northward, until at 8 : 29 it touched the inner edge of 
the sun's circumference and at 8 : 5 3 its outer edge. It was plainly 
visible through a plain smoked glass, and multitudes were watch- 

44 A Cholera Year 

ing its progress. Dr. Van Dyck obtained successful observations 
of the transit which have been transmitted to the Imperial Ob- 
servatory at Constantinople and to London. It was a most im- 
pressive spectacle and affected my mind as no eclipse or other 
phenomenon ever did before. And it was perhaps because my 
thoughts took a religious direction at the very moment of the 
observation. It became a striking illustration of what the 
brightest earthly objects may become when thrust between us and 
Christ. This fair planet whose soft liquid light is so brilliant in 
September that it is reflected in the sea and casts a distinct shadow, 
which knows no peer among the stars when filling its legitimate 
sphere and shedding the reflected rays of the sun's original light, 
is suddenly transformed in December into a positive deformity, an 
unsightly blot on the sun's face, and instead of shining upon the 
earth, actually intercepts a portion of the sunlight and prevents 
its reaching the earth. Thus anything earthly, however shining 
and attractive, however useful and noble, when in its proper 
sphere, subordinate to Christ and borrowing its lustre and glory 
from Him, becomes a blemish, a blot, an injury, when obtruding 
itself between us and our Saviour. Here in the East the whole 
machinery of Oriental Ritualism in the Eastern Churches has 
been thrust between the people and Christ and becomes a dark 
blot, a cloud interrupting the light of the Sun of Righteousness. 
The Church, so lovely in itself when shining in the light of Christ, 
loses its lustre and becomes a mere dark and insignificant body, 
when thrust into the place of Christ or magnified above Him. 

" Venus never appeared to my eye so small, as when brought 
into such overwhelming contrast with the stupendous proportions 
of the King of Day. On a summer's evening when seen from 
Lebanon, just dropping into the sea, whose waves are silvered 
with its light for miles, Venus seems almost a sun in itself. It is 
shining as God intended it to shine, reflecting the bright rays 
of the sun. But when in a transit across the sun's face, it seemed 
so small, so black, that it was easy to believe what the astronomers 
tell us, that one hundred and ten such spots would hardly form a 
line long enough to cross the diameter of the sun/' 

Near Ain Anftb, on the road between Abeih and Beirut. 

Dr. Ellinwood's Visit 441 

1875 On February i/th, we were favoured with a visit from 
Dr. and Mrs. Ellinwood. As secretary of the Board he had been 
in China, Japan, Siam, and India, and his stay in Syria was a 
blessing to us all. We held a meeting of the mission and listened 
to his counsels. There was no air of official dignity nor assump- 
tion of the right to dictate, but a simple, clear, level-headed han- 
dling of even the most complicated questions. He gave us the 
benefit of his observations in the missions in Central and Eastern 
Asia, and we enjoyed the intercourse with a man so scholarly, 
consecrated and refined. 

The long expected celebration of the introduction of the Dog 
River water into Beirut took place yesterday, May 14, 1875, in an 
immense canopy erected on the top of the upper reservoir. The 
Waly of Syria, the Governor of Lebanon, the Pasha of Beirut, 
and the Algerian Prince, Abd el Kadir of Damascus, as well as 
all the dignitaries foreign and native of Beirut and Lebanon, to- 
gether with the missionaries, bishops, priests, merchants, physi- 
cians, etc., etc., assisted at the exercises. 

This living volume of " streams from Lebanon " is a glorious 
boon to this ancient city. The name Beeroth (Beirut) " City of 
Wells " will remain, but the wells from which water has been 
drawn for thousands of years will soon go into disuse. Public 
hydrants are opened in the different quarters of the city, fountains 
are beginning to play in private gardens. Dwellings, schools, 
churches, khans, mosques, shops, and coffee-houses are being 
supplied rapidly with the delicious water, and Beirut is receiving 
fresh vitality. 

Editors and poets are vying with each other in singing the 
praises of the Dog River water and Damascus is no longer suffered 
to boast over its rival Beirut 

What a type water is of the blessings of the Gospel. May the 
life-giving streams of gospel truth soon flow in every house and 
every heart, not only in Beirut but in all Syria ! 

On June 29th, Dr. Van Dyck was summoned by telegraph to 
the bedside of Dr. Galen B. Danforth, in Tripoli. Dr. Danforth 
was dangerously ill with gastric malarial fever and succumbed to 

A Cholera Year 

It July 9th, leaving a widow and two little daughters, just one 
month after Mr. S. H. Calhoun and family sailed for America. 
He had been in Syria three and one-half years and had begun a 
career of great usefulness. His reputation was growing and the 
sorrow at his death was great through the whole region of 
Tripoli, Safita, and Hums. 

When stricken down he was planning to summer with Rev. 
Samuel Jessup in the picturesque village of Seir, six hours east 
of Tripoli. On June $th I rode up there with him, my brother 
Samuel and Mr. Hardin. It is the most beautiful site in Leb- 
anon, crystal streams and fountains of ice-cold water, splendid 
ancient oak trees, and bracing air, and above on the south and 
east towering cliffs thousands of feet high. While there, Mustafa 
Agha, whose guests we were, stole my field-glasses from my 
saddle-bags outside the door while pretending to be getting coffee 
for us. 1 The village is owned by two rival feudal families of Mos- 
lem robbers and sheep thieves, with half a dozen Maronite peas- 
ants as their retainers. Could that nest of cutthroats be cleared 
out and a decent peasantry be placed there, it would be the most 
attractive summer resort in Syria. As it is, no one ventures in 
to that earthly paradise. The death of Dr. Danforth who married 
Emily Calhoun, followed the next year in December by the death 
in Buffalo, N. Y., of Rev. Simeon H. Calhoun, " the Saint of Leb- 
anon," broke up that family in Abeih which for twenty-seven 
years had been the model family of Mount Lebanon, where the 
noble, godly, scholarly life of the father, the sweet, gladsome, 
cheerful piety of the mother, and the loveliness of the children, 
made it the most attractive of earthly homes. 

Mrs; Calhoun returned to Syria in 1877 and laboured in Deir 
el Komr, Beirut, and Shwifat Her daughter Susan was stationed 
in the Tripoli Girls' School in 1879 and at Shwifat in 1880. 

The only son, Charles William Calhoun, M. D., a graduate of 

1 When we came out to mount I missed the glass, and he swore by 
the beard of Mohammed that he would punish the man who stole it. 
Ten years later Dr. Ira Harris of Tripoli was called to the beg's house 
and saw my glass there minus one lens ! 

The Plague Appears 443 

Williams, his father's alma mater, and a skillful surgeon, came 
to the mission from America in July, 1879, and took up the work 
of his late brother-in-law in Tripoli. He was a hearty, whole- 
souled devoted missionary ; boyish, and so full of life and humour 
that he kept his patients laughing even when tortured with pain. 
He was welcomed in the villages where his clinics were 
crowded with hundreds of the diseased and suffering, and his 
skill and patience gave him a great reputation. 

Cholera raged in Syria in 1865, and returned in 1875. The 
latter visitation began in Hamath among the Mecca pilgrims. It 
appeared in June, and spread to Hums, Damascus and Beirut. 

Jewish refugees from Damascus carried the pest to the village 
of Saghbin on the east slope of the Lebanon range facing Mount 
Hermon. Rev. Gerald F. Dale, Jr., who was living in Zahleh 
with his colleague, Mr. F. W. March, had a little Protestant flock 
in Saghbin and hearing that there were some twenty cases in the 
village resolved to go to their help, and, if possible, stay the 

We in Beirut, profiting by the experience of 1865, had pre- 
pared a large supply of the noted " Hamlin Cholera Remedy" 
(equal parts of laudanum, camphor and rhubarb) and sent it to 
all the stations, with printed instructions in English and Arabic, 
taken from Dr. Hamlin's pamphlet and annotated by Dr. Van 
Dyck. Mr. Dale had received a supply and gave out in Zahleh 
that he was going to stricken Saghbin. Now as usual at such 
times the whole country was covered with a network of cordons, 
village against village, and no one from Saghbin could enter 
Zahleh. The people flocked to Mr. Dale's house and begged 
him not to go. " It will be certain death to you." " No matter, 
I am not afraid. I must go and help those poor people." The 
" Zahlehites " begged him not to go and finally when he had suc- 
ceeded in finding one man willing to go as his muleteer, they 
warned him that he would not be allowed to return to Zahleh. 

On reaching the village he found the teacher at his post, who 
reported some thirty cases of cholera, and the victims in despair, 
as it was supposed there was no remedy for it The mass of the 

444 A Cholera Year 

people and all of the priests had fled to the vineyards far up the 
mountainside, leaving the sick without food or care. Mr. Dale 
took the teacher and the medicines and went to every patient, 
giving them the medicine and the directions and assuring them 
that they would recover. His remedies and his cheery and en- 
couraging words did wonders. Only one patient died after his 
arrival. He kept going the rounds and trained the teacher to 
use the medicines. At sunset he rang the chapel bell for service. 
The timid people in the vineyards hearing the bell took courage 
and began to come back. Confidence was restored and the 
plague was stayed. The Protestants all returned to their houses, 
took lessons in the use of the medicines, and in a week the morale 
of the people was restored. 

Mr. Dale, then, finding that he could not return to Zahleh, 
crossed the Lebanon range and came to my house in Shemlan, 
where he was a great favourite with the children. This visit of 
Mr. Dale to Saghbm and his care of the sick, when priests and 
people had abandoned their sick, gave him great influence in all 
that region. On his return to Zahleh in August he had an ova- 
tion, and his example won him and his cause many friends. In 
April, 1876, seventy families there had become Protestants. 

Cholera had now, August 6th, reached Beirut, and the Lebanon 
government placed a quarantine of six days on all persons com- 
ing out of Beirut. As we were all in Lebanon, this put a stop 
to our visiting Beirut Some 20,000 of the Beirut population had 
fled to the Lebanon towns and villages. The muleteers, who 
reaped a harvest by transporting the panic-stricken people to the 
mountains, had circulated the most alarming false reports for 
some twenty days of sudden deaths in Beirut, long before a case 
of cholera had occurred. 

The Arabic journals discussed what ought to be done and the 
city government exerted itself with unprecedented energy in 
cleansing the streets, lanes, and vaults. The Moslems, contrary 
to their usual custom, were leaving the city in large numbers for 
the mountains, and the new Mohammedan journal, Tumrat d 
Punoon, had an elaborate article on the Divine Decrees and Fate 

A Magnificent Fatalism 445 

which is so characteristic that I will translate a part of it. The 
object of the writer, Sheikh Ibrahim Effendi Ahdab, is to per- 
suade his fellow Moslems to remain in Beirut without fear of 

" Man's allotted term of life is an impregnable fortress. God 
has appointed man's sorrows and joys by an eternal decree and 
wherever man turns, he must walk in the path fixed by irrevers- 
ible fate. 

" Be calm then ; our affairs are fixed by decree. Banish from 
your thoughts all deceit. Remain where you are and save your- 
selves the trouble of removing. Nothing you can do will shield 
you from fate. Everything is by decree and fate. No human 
precautions are of any avail. The divine allotment is the castle 
of our life. He decides in His wisdom as He finds necessary. 
When a man's day of doom is far off, no plague or accident can 
hasten It, no arrow or evil eye can smite him. He is safe in his 
way and kept by the care of his Lord. Let him rush into deadly 
battle, let him leave a life of quiet for the crashing of spear-heads, 
let him hurl himself into the jaws of lions, let his only light in 
darkness be the flashing of the shining spear, yet he is safe. 

" But if his day of death be at hand, there is no hope of pro- 
longing life. No care or cunning can ward off the blow of death- 
No precaution of ours can lengthen life the winking of an eye. 
How can care or caution affect what fate has appointed ? 

" Can he escape from fate though he fly away on the wings of 
eagles ? Can the walls of castles keep off the approach of death? 
or shield from his arrows when once his bow is bent ? 

" One of the ancient kings fled from the plague, defying the 
divine decree, and when a short distance away from the city, 
fell a victim to the plague. The lines of his fate met when fate 
decreed. This proves our position and leads one to believe what 
we asserted that there is no use in running away from pestilence. 
It is better for each man to remain in his place and resign him- 
self to the decree and fate ; especially if he be among the leaders of 
the people, whom great and small look up to and imitate and no 
harm shall befall him. 

446 A Cholera Year 

" When Khalid Ibn el Walid, the great Sword of Islam, drew 
near to death, as he lay on his bed in peace, after he had plunged 
in to the very abysses of war and carnage, and there was not a 
spot on his body unscarred by battle wounds and the point of the 
spear and arrow, he exclaimed (may God be propitious to him), 

* Behold, I who have lived amid such perils and raised the stand- 
ard in so many battles, now die a natural death upon my bed ! ' 
And this also proves our position. 

" If it be replied that God has bidden us avoid the leprous and 
to escape from lions, and to this there is no exception, I reply 
that this refers to him whose faith is strong, that if he escapes he 
will avoid these dangers. And the command was given to pre- 
vent men falling into doubt when their faith is not strong enough 
to enable them to face the danger. The traditions of the Prophet 
prove this. He once (peace be upon him) sat down to eat with 
a leper, and thrust his hand into the dish with him saying, * Eat 
trusting in God and fear no evil/ 

" Of a like character is the Prophet's injunction to neither enter 
nor leave a place where there is pestilence. This command 
was given for the confirmation of faith that believers might not 
fall into doubt. 

" Similar is what is said of the Khalif Omr (may God favour 
him) when he refused to enter a plague-stricken city, in obedience 
to the command ' enter not/ and he was asked, * Do you refuse 
to enter in order to escape from the decree of God ? * He said, 

* Yes, we escape from God's decree to God's decree/ and he said 
this to prevent the weak minded from holding views contrary to 
the Prophet's command. 

*' In truth, life is limited by fate. When our time comes it will 
not delay. The Great Agent is God the Exalted. There is 
none beside Him. No creaturp can die without His decree and 
ordinance. Trust in God. Leave all things to His decree and 
you will be at rest from all anxious thoughts. Fate has limited 
our lives* Whatever befalls you was decided from eternity by 
the One Creator/ 9 

This is in brief the substance of the sheikh's poetical utterance, 

A Fortuitous " Concurrence " 447 

and the editor Abd el Kadir Kobbany clinches the argument by 
what he styles " A Practical Sermon Confirming the Above." 

" One of the Christian citizens of Damascus fled to one of the 
villages of Jebel Kolmun to escape from the cholera which has 
driven so many to flee from their homes at great sacrifice and in- 
convenience. He took with him his wife and son and on arriving 
at what he supposed to be a place of safe refuge, and settling his 
house, his servant girl opened a tin of kerosene oil by melting the 
red wax stopper with a lighted candle when by a concurrence (!) it 
took fire and burned up the house and the entire family. Con- 
sider then and wonder how the divine decree and fate led them 
out to the place appointed for their destruction by a cause other 
than what they had feared and tried to escape from ! " 

From this you can derive some idea of the modern Moslem 
journalistic treatment of the great theological doctrine of fate. 
Just how they act upon it and just what they mean by it is better 
seen by their deeds than by their words. 

In 1865 they induced the Mufti of Beirut to decide ex cathedra 
that Mohammed forbade flying from the plague, but inasmuch as 
cholera did not exist in those days, he had no reference to cholera 
and men can act now as they please. 

This year they are going off to the mountains in large numbers 
having permission to leave, on Omr's ground that u they flee from 
God's decree to God's decree," and that if they go to Lebanon 
they are decreed to go to Lebanon, etc. 

But the modern Moslem is not disposed to imitate Mohammed 
by putting his hands into the dish and eating with a leper. He 
would insist that the leper be clean first. Immediately following 
the article on fate is one on cleanliness and diet. 

The editor was in grandiloquent style mixing his remarks with 
wit and satire. 

He warns the people against gluttony and intemperance ; says 
that in some of the streets and alleys he cannot pass without 
holding both his nose and his mouth with his hands and that it 
is enough to give one the plague to look at some of the outhouses 
of the Beirut mansions. He begs the gluttons to restrain them- 

448 A Cholera Year 

selves, to put their minds into tlieir heads and not to eat three 
meals in one. He earnestly recommends that they do not begin 
the day by eating, as he had himself observed, on an empty stom- 
ach, five unpeeled cucumbers, followed by half a dozen hard boiled 
egg s > and crowned with three pounds of apricots, as such a course 
might damage their fellow men. 

He says that unless the town is thoroughly cleaned, few can 
escape the apprehended pestilence. He says that some may 
object that filth and gutters and garbage are not clean subjects 
for a respectable editor to talk about, but he replies that " if you 
will clean the city I will have a clean subject to write upon and 
the cleaner the city the cleaner the paper ! " 

His fatalism fails him on this subject. 

The semi-annual meeting of the mission was held in Abeih in 
September attended by eight missionaries. It was decided that 
the Abeih Boys' Seminary should hereafter, ist, train teachers, 
2d, prepare boys for the college, 3d, teach English to theological 
candidates. Negotiations were set on foot to purchase the Jebran 
Abela house in Sidon for the girls* boarding-school. Miss Kipp, 
broken down in health, sailed December iSth, on the American 
bark Robinson Crusoe for Boston. 

Captain Robinson, on his return to Beirut, said to me, " Miss 
Kipp is the most truly sincere Christian woman I ever met. She 
is pure gold." She afterwards laboured in Auburn in the Old 
Ladies 1 Home with great acceptance and continued there until 
her death. 

Mrs. Hanford (now Mrs. Professor Moore of Andover) took 
her place in Tripoli school. Dr. W. W. Eddy and family and 
Dr. Dennis and family returned from America. Cholera having 
ceased in Beirut, the mission schools and the college opened as 
usual in October, 

The year of 1876 was one of great unrest and excitement 
throughout the Turkish Empire, Insurrection broke out in 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Servia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria. 
May 6th the French and German consuls were murdered in 
Salonica and massacres occurred in Bulgaria, May I2th a revo- 

An Incident Closed with Prayer 449 

lution occurred in Constantinople resulting In the fall of the 
Grand Vizier Mahmoud Pasha. May 30th the Sultan Abdul 
Aziz was deposed and Murad V elevated in his place. June 4th 
Abdul Aziz was assassinated, August 3ist Murad V was de- 
posed, being succeeded by Abdul Hatnid II. December igth 
Midhat Pasha, a man of liberal and enlightened views, was ap- 
pointed grand vizier and on December 23d a constitution was 
proclaimed for the Turkish Empire. 

The Mohammedans were distressed at the drain on their men 
for the wars in the north and the Christians were in constant 
fear. When the constitution was proclaimed, the Pasha of 
Beirut, a liberal and enlightened man, summoned representatives 
of all the sects to the seraia to hear the firman of Abdul Hamid 
giving equal civil rights to all the Sultan's subjects and granting 
to the Christians the right of military service and office. After 
the reading o the official firman in both the Turkish and Arabic 
languages, the pasha asked an old Mohammedan sheikh of the 
Orthodox School to close the ceremony with prayer. All the 
company arose, when the sheikh, a venerable white-bearded dig- 
nitary, stepped forward and prayed the following stereotyped 
prayer which is used in prayers for the Sultan : " O Allah, grant 
the victory to His Imperial Majesty the Sultan Abdul Hamid 
Khan. Destroy all his enemies ; destroy the Russians ; O 
Allah, destroy the infidels. Tear them in tatters, grind them in 
powder, rend them in fragments, because they are the enemies 
of the Mohammedans, O Allah ! " He was about to proceed 
when the mufti, or chief interpreter of the Koranic law, stepped 
rapidly up to him, pulled him by the coat collar, stopped him and 
whispered in his ear, when he proceeded, " O Allah, destroy the 
infidels because they are the enemies of the Moslems, the Chris- 
tians, and the Jews/' This was an Orthodox Mohammedan 
prayer, 1 but the mufti was shrewd enough to see that it needed 
modification, since the new firman guaranteed equal rights to all, 
and it was hardly the proper thing to offer it in the presence of 
the clergy of the Greeks, Catholics, Maronites, Armenians and 
l See Lane's " Modern Egyptians," Vol. II. 

A Cholera Year 

Protestants, and the rabbis of the Jews. When the ceremony 
was ended the bishops left in high dudgeon and sent a protest 
to the pasha against that prayer. He replied courteously that it 
was a mistake and would never be repeated. 

War did not actually break out with Russia until April, 1877, 
but the entire year 1876 was full of anxiety and fear among the 
Christian population. 

The mission suffered great loss this year in the resignation and 
return to America, August 4th, of Dr. Wm. M. Thomson, author 
of The Land and the Book," and the death of Rev. S. H. Cal- 
houn in Buffalo December I4th. We have already given a sketch 
of the lives of these two eminent men, the like of whom we shall 
not see again. Dr. Thomson lived some years in New York and 
then in Denver, CoL, with his daughter Mrs. Maria Walker, in 
whose house he died April 8, 1894, aged eighty-nine years. His 
daughter Miss Emilia removed to Tripoli in May, as colleague of 
Miss H. La Grange, who arrived in January with Miss Everett 
from New York. Since that time for thirty-three years Miss La 
Grange has continued as the faithful, beloved and successful 
head of the Tripoli Girls' Boarding-School. Miss Thomson later 
on came to Beirut where she is an invaluable member of the fac- 
ulty of the girls' school. 

The Emperor Dom Pedro of Brazil has just been in Beirut and 
visited all our literary institutions and went carefully through the 
press. We gave him a set of all our Arabic scientific and educa- 
tional publications and a fine copy of the vowelled Arabic Bible 
for the library of Brazil. He was a plain, modest man, who came 
to Syria incognito and showed a deep interest in all educational 
and literary work. We little thought that in thirteen years he 
would be obliged to abdicate, and that within thirty years not 
less than 25,000 Syrian emigrants would have entered Brazil and 
that several Arabic newspapers would be published in Rio Janeiro 
and San Paulo ! 

la April, 1877, Russia declared war against Turkey and the 
whole empire was in distress. Sixty thousand men were taken 
from Syria, leaving their families in thousands of cases unpro- 

Philip Schaff's Visit 451 

vided for and in great suffering. New money taxes were levied 
and the Christians, who at such times are envied on account of 
not having to furnish soldiers, were in great fear of massacre. 

Rev. Dr. Philip Schaff visited Syria in April and we were 
greatly refreshed by his visit. He was in vigorous health and 
overflowing with wit and wisdom. Mrs. Schaff preceded him to 
Beirut in company with Mr. and Mrs. Egbert Starr of New York. 

It gave me great pleasure to show Dr. Schaff our press, the 
schools, the college, the theological class, and the German Dea- 
conesses 1 Institute. We asked him to address the theological 
students and I offered to translate for him, as the students did 
not know English. He began, and, to my dismay, I found he 
was speaking in Latin. I had been out of Yale College twenty- 
six years and my last essay in Latin was the presbytery trial 
piece in 1855, so that I had to use " that thing which I call my 
mind" with some rapidity, but Dr. Schaff spoke deliberately and 
I succeeded in giving them at least the " substance of doctrine " 
which the doctor was presenting with such mediaeval fluency. 
Dr. Dennis and I made no comment on his fluency in Latin and 
I never spoke of it until the fall of 1879, when on the eve of my 
sailing for Syria he asked me to address the students of the Union 
Theological Seminary in New York. Here was a strong tempta- 
tion to address them in Arabic. But I desisted and instead told 
the students of the doctor's addressing our Beirut students in 
Latin ! At the close of the service the doctor said to me, " Did 
I actually speak at that time in Latin?" " Certainly," said L 
" Well," said he, " I was not conscious of it at the time." He 
was so familiar with Latin that he spoke it as freely as English or 

It was a fete day at the Prussian deaconesses, and as I walked 
down the street with him to visit them, the doctor asked me if I 
had ever read Hans Breitman. I said yes. He was much 
pleased and began to repeat the whole of Hans Breitman gave 
a barty," and " Where is that barty now ? Gone to the ewig- 
keit," and he shook with laughter as he recited it. Leland's 
Anglo-German language he appreciated most keenly. 

452 A Cholera Year 

On entering my study he looked around on the books and his 
eye caught a row of " Lange's Commentary edited by P. Schaff/' 
and he exclaimed, " Mountains of mud with here and there a vein 
of gold." 

" Yes," said I, " and the gold is chiefly the work of the Ameri- 
can editor." 

He was deeply interested in securing a Biblical museum in 
Union Theological Seminary and left $350 with a committee 
consisting of Dr. George Post, Dr. E. R. Lewis, and myself to 
purchase " such implements and articles original or imitated as 
are of real interest and useful to theological students for the 
understanding of Bible history and Bible lands and the domestic, 
social, and religious life of the Jews. Also a judicious selection 
of Bible plants and Bible animals. If you need $300 or $500 
more, I will raise the money. The museum must be completed 
no matter what it costs.' 1 

Just now all is anxiety and alarm about the great war between 
Russia and Turkey. A forced contribution of money about one 
dollar on every male Moslem over fifteen years of age is now 
being levied. 

On February 9th I rode to Zahleh, through great drifts of 
snow from ten to twenty feet deep to help Mr. Dale in dedicating 
the new church at Jedeetha. It was built by funds sent by the 
mission school of the Brick Church in New York. 

On my return I learned that General Grant was hourly ex- 
pected on the Vandalia from Jaffa. He intends to go to Baalbec 
and Damascus, but it has been snowing for forty-eight hours on 
the heights of Lebanon, and I doubt whether even General Grant 
can " fight it out on that line." 

Fifteen hundred Circassians have arrived in Beirut from Con- 
stantinople. They fled from the Caucasus to Bulgaria, and were 
engaged in the murderous assaults on the poor Bulgarian Chris- 
tians, They are here en route for Hauran and other places in 
the interior* They are like walking arsenals, armed with knives, 
swords, pistols, and guns. One of them drew a knife on a young 
Greek merchant here on Thursday, and now the military are dis- 

End of Russo-Turklsh War . 453 

arming them. They are lodged in mosques and khans waiting 
for the Damascus Road to be opened. Yesterday I saw down- 
town a half-bushel of silver church ornaments, bracelets and so 
forth, which these miscreants had stolen from the Bulgarians, 
and are selling to the Beirut silversmiths to raise ready money. 
They have been offering their girls for sale in one of the mosques 
a new business for Beirut. We only hope that they will leave 
as soon as possible, lest something arouse their fierce nature, and 
serious results ensue. 

On January 3ist the Russo-Turkish War ended, and on July 
1 3th the treaty of Berlin was signed which separated from 
Turkey, Roumani Servia, and Montenegro, ceded the most of 
Turkish Armenia to Russia as well as Batum, and made Bulgaria 
a Christian principality. Civil rights were guaranteed to non-Mo- 
hammedans in Turkey. Austria also occupied Bosnia and 
Herzegovina and England June 4th occupied Cyprus, en- 
gaging to maintain the integrity of the Turkish dominions in 

Thousands of Circassians driven out of Bulgaria were brought to 
Syria and established flourishing colonies in Northern Syria and 
in Jaulan east of the Jordan. 

In our mission field, owing to the death of Mr. Calhoun, the 
Abeih Academy has been discontinued, as the college prepara- 
tory department was expected to do the same work in the future. 
Dr. W. W. Eddy was transferred to Beirut for the theological 
class, and Rev. Frank Wood was transferred from Abeih to 
Sidon, but before he removed he was smitten down with mortal 

In April I left for America with my family and in July heard 
of the death of Mr. F. A. Wood of the Syria Mission. Mr. Wood 
had been for ,more than seven years in Syria. He had a fine 
knowledge of the Arabic language, was a man of superior culture, 
an enthusiastic teacher, of fervent piety, and great zeal. 

Having been for three years the principal of Abeih Academy, 
he was about to remove to Sidon, as the training work done 
ill Abeih is hereafter to be dojie in the college in Beirut His 

454 A Cholera Year 

death leaves the Sidon field in the sole charge of young Mr. Eddy 
who is to sail for Syria August 3ist Mr. Wood was greatly and 
deservedly beloved. The missionaries are deeply afflicted in his 
death. The native church will lament his death as will his pupils 
and friends throughout Syria. Physically athletic, he seemed 
likely to outlive us all. His widow and the little daughter Lucy 
are entitled to the sympathies and prayers of God's people. 

In August Mrs. Calhoun, who had returned from America, was 
stationed in Deir el Komr to labour among the women and girls. 
Miss Jackson and Mrs. Wood returned to America. 

I sailed with my family April nth for America. The morn- 
ing of that day at half-past six I called to bid good-bye to Mr. 
N. Tubbajy, that dear man of God whom I loved as a brother. 
He had been confined to his bed for weeks, and after I offered 
prayer he drew me down and kissed me and wept. I was much 
overcome. He was one of the purest, truest men I ever knew 
and loved, and before I returned from America he was released 
from his sufferings. He was the prime mover in the erection of 
the " Eastern Chapel " and left a legacy for the support of a 
school in connection with it. 

At ten o'clock I went with my brother Samuel and other 
friends to the house of Mrs. A. Mentor Mott, where 1,500 school 
children were assembled and I made them a parting address. They, 
through their teachers, presented to me a beautiful Arabic fare- 
well address. That sight of such a multitude of children being 
taught in evangelical mission schools was stamped upon my 
memory and was a comfort to me during the long months of 
my absence. 

After a prosperous trip by land and sea we reached New 
York, May isth, and after spending one night at my mother's in 
Montrose, I went to the General Assembly in Pittsburg, where I 
met many old friends and was entertained by Mr. Robert Hays 
in Allegheny, 

At Yale commencement I was the guest of President Woolsey 
and met Professor Salisbury, Hon. Peter Parker, and S. Wells 

Death of Elias Fuaz 455 

Williams, both of China. In June we also attended the golden 
wedding of Hon. Wm. E. Dodge at Tarrytown. 

In July I attended with my sons William and Henry the 
hundredth anniversary of the city of Wilkesbarre, and at a recep- 
tion given by an old friend, Mrs. Charles Parrish, met President 
R. B. Hayes, Secretary of State John Sherman, and Governor 
Hartranft. Seventy-five thousand people listened or tried to listen 
to the speech of the President. My brother Samuel, Dr. Eddy, and 
Dr. Dennis kept me informed about Syrian affairs ; and I learned 
with sorrow of the death of Elias Fuaz, the oldest survivor of the 
First Protestant Church in Syria. He was always called Abu 
Nasif (father of Nasif ) although he had no children. It was a 
title of respect So when at about the age of sixty-five he 
married and had a son, he was obliged to call him Nasif. Little 
Nasif was a lovely boy, and as his door was directly across a 
narrow lane from my door, he was a favourite with my children. 
When about six years of age he was taken with severe convul- 
sion and after a few days of struggle died. I never saw a more 
pathetic sight than the agony of that aged father over the death 
struggles of his only child, the child of his old age. He hardly 
left the bedside day or night for days and when the little grave 
was filled, he walked daily a mile to the cemetery carrying 
flowers. But life had lost its charm for him and he gradually 
declined and passed away. 

During the summer of 1878 Rev. W. K. Eddy visited us in 
Montrose, and some weeks later, while on a visit to Scranton the 
First and Second Churches jointly agreed to support him, a son 
of Dr. Eddy, as their missionary to Syria. He was appointed 
and assigned to Sidon station, where his knowledge of Arabic 
and the Arab race enabled him at once to enter full upon work 
as a missionary, a work which he maintained with growing use- 
fulness for twenty-nine years. 

One day in June, 1878, when calling at the old mission house, 
33 Centre Street, New York, Dr. Ellinwood took me down to 
the dimly lighted cellar where the luggage of incoming and out- 
going missionaries was stored^ and where young missionaries an<J 

456 A Cholera Year 

their wives did their packing, and showed me two massive slabs 
of wood of the Cedars of Lebanon, sent to him by Rev. O. J. 
Hardin of Tripoli, Syria, but which he found to be an elephant 
on his hands. No one would buy them and they were in the 
way. Would I take them and dispose of them ? At that time 
in Montrose, Mr. Chas. Crandall, inventor of the famous " Build- 
ing Blocks," had a toy factory filled with the most beautiful 
modern machinery, run by steam, planes, saws, dovetailing 
machines, lathes, and polishing sandpaper wheels, which filled 
me with delight. When a child I used to spend hours watching 
the village carpenters and wagon makers, but this elegant 
machinery made my " eyes water." We were kindly allowed 
free access to the mysterious shop from which emanated those 
curious creations of Mr. Crandall's genius which delighted 
hundreds of thousands of children all over the world. It 
struck me that here would be the place to turn those cedar logs 
to account for the benefit of the Tripoli Girls' Boarding-School. 
Mr. Crandall entered heartily into the scheme of cutting up that 
precious wood into table tops, paper folders, rulers, cubes, 
barrels, balls, paper weights, and so forth. So the large slabs six 
feet by two feet by ten inches were brought to Montrose. A 
contract was made with Mr. Crandall with minute specifications 
as to the style and finish of the blocks, and the work began. 
The cedar wood was so hard that the sparks flew from the circu- 
lar saws, and some of the saws were broken. 

The wood came into Mr. Hardin's possession in a peculiar 
way. No one is allowed to cut wood from that ancient cedar 
grove. It is a sacred place of the Maronites and is under the 
protection of the Patriarch of Lebanon. At times when " the 
voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars, yea the Lord breaketh the 
Cedars of Lebanon " (Psalm 29 ; 5) and the lightning rends off 
huge branches from the trees, specimens of the wood can be ob- 
tained. The Grand Duke Maximilian visited Syria in the '603, 
went to the Cedars and obtained permission from the patriarch 
to take several large slabs of wood. A Syrian merchant in the 
of Tripoli took the Job, and at great expense took 

Selling the Cedar Blocks 457 

sawyers up to the grove, cut out these huge pieces, and transported 
them on camels to the Meena to await the frigate of the Austrian 
duke. But he took another route and the merchant was left 
with the lumber on his hands. The Austrian consul did not pay 
the expense he had incurred and he left them stored in a ware- 
house near the port. At length, after years of waiting, he 
offered them to his neighbour, Mr. Hardin, who bought them at 
a moderate figure and shipped them to Dr. Ellin wood. 

They were from the old traditional cedar grove of B'sherreh, 
southeast of Tripoli and about 6,000 feet above the sea. The 
trees are about 425 in number and until the year 1 862 it was sup- 
posed to be the only grove in Lebanon, but I have visited no less 
than eleven in Northern and Southern Lebanon, those at 
Hadeth el Jibbeh and Baruk containing thousands of trees, and 
were the all-devouring goats who eat up every green thing 
banished from Lebanon, there is no reason why Lebanon's 
heights could not again be crowned with magnificent forests of 
these splendid evergreen trees. 

The grand ducal slabs were cut from a branch of one of the 
oldest trees reckoned by Mr. Calhoun and Dr. Thomson to be not 
less than three thousand years old. Ordinary tools made no im- 
pression on the wood, and but for the kind consent of 
Mr. Crandall to use his splendid machinery to cut it up and polish 
it, it must have remained as an heirloom for the Board of Foreign 
Missions. My children took great interest in the scheme of sell- 
ing the finished blocks and fancy articles. Harry, then fourteen 
years old, was made secretary and treasurer of the cedar 
fund for the Tripoli school buildings. Advertisements with the 
descriptive price lists were sent to some twenty religious journals, 
a specimen of the wood being sent to each editor. Soon applica- 
tions with postal money orders or cash began to pour into the 
Montrose post-office, and the outgoing mails and the express 
offices took hundreds of carefully wrapped and labelled packages. 
At the final summing up, after paying all expenses, the sum of 
about six hundred dollars was sent to Dr. Ellin wood for the Tripcl* 
school. It seemed fitting that the money should go to aid in 

458 A Cholera Year 

educating girls from the region of the ancient Cedars, for the 
river of Tripoli, the sacred Kadisha, springs from a gushing foun- 
tain a little way from the old cedar grove. 

After spending July and August in visiting various churches, I 
set out September 9th, under the auspices of the Women's Boards 
of Missions, on a Western campaign. 1 entered upon it with great 
enthusiasm. It was a rare chance to see the West, to cross the 
Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers, to see Chicago, and to meet 
with thousands of good Christian people. I was absent forty-six 
days; made forty-eight addresses, travelled four thousand four 
hundred and fifty miles and addressed about thirteen thousand 
people. After spending Sunday, September 29th, at Dubuque 
with Dr. D. J. Burrell, I was booked for the University of Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, Monday evening. All Sunday afternoon and 
evening the rain fell in torrents and on Monday morning, on 
going to the railroad station I was told that owing to a " wash- 
out " no train could reach Madison that day. As I was expect- 
ing to go from Madison to the meeting of the American Board in 
Milwaukee, Dr. Burrell studied out a route up the Mississippi by 
train to McGregor, then by ferry across the beautiful emerald 
islands to Prairie du Chien, where I remained till 6 p. M. While in 
Dubuque Dr. Burrell took me to a galena or lead mine and I ob- 
tained a ponderous mass, which I shipped to Syria for the cabinet of 
the Syrian Protestant College. In Prairie du Chien I was greatly 
interested in the artesian well which spouts up warm sulphur water 
twenty-five feet in the air and flows through the streets. Tak- 
ing a sleeping car at 6 p. M., I reached Milwaukee in the morn- 
ing and was the guest of Mr. William Allen whose kindness has 
never been forgotten. Meeting Mr. and Mrs. Wm. E. Dodge at 
the Plankinton House in the afternoon, we drove together in a 
downpour of rain to the Immanuel Church, pastor Dr. G. P. 
Nichols, where the Board was holding its opening sessions* I sat 
in the rear of the church, and Mr. Dodge, vice-president of the 
Board, went to the platform. After a little, there was a bustle 
among the officers on the platform, and soon Dr. Clark came down 

The Antique Rug 4.59 

to my seat and said, " Brother Jessup, we are in a sad plight. The 
annual sermon is to be delivered to-night and this church will be 
crowded but we have no preacher. Rev. Dr. Manning of Boston 
who was appointed telegraphed from Buffalo that he has been taken 
ill there en route and cannot come. What shall we do ? Will 
you fill the breach ? " I thought for a moment and said, I can- 
not fill it, but I can stand in it and do my best, but it- will not be 
a sermon." " All right," said Dr. Clark, and I made haste to 
my room at Dr. Allen's, looked over my notes, got my thoughts 
in order, and in the evening spoke ninety minutes to a most at- 
tentive audience, some of whom wanted me to " go on." But I 
thought it wiser to go off, for it is better that the people wish you 
were longer rather than wish you were shorter. Dr. Clark was 
effusive in his thanks and Mr. and Mrs. Dodge said, The Lord 
sent that < washout ' on the railroad in order to bring you here." 
Dr. Nichols, the beloved pastor of that church, afterwards re- 
moved to the First Church in Binghamton where I have since 
been brought Into the most loving and intimate relations with 
him. His has been a model pastorate. 

In~October my old friend and pupil, Rev. Isaac Riley, died in 
Buffalo. He was a man of rare intellectual, spiritual, and social 
gifts, admired and beloved by all. On the i/th of November a 
memorial service was held in his old 34th Street Church, New 
York, and I had the privilege of adding my testimony to that of Drs. 
Martyn, Chambers, Hutton and Schaff to his worth and the loss 
to the Church and the world in his death. He did me a great 
favour in acting as co-editor in 1873 with Dr. Chas. S. Robinson 
of my little books, the " Women of the Arabs/' and " Syrian 
Home Life." 

I was a guest at the house of my wife's uncle, Hon. Wm, E. 
Dodge, just before the Christmas holidays. One morning Mr. 
Dodge Basked me to go with him to the store of Johnston and Co., 
carpet dealers, and aid him in selecting an Oriental rug as a 
Christmas gift to Mrs. Dodge. One of the salesmen was very 
polite and soon brought a rug which he told Mr. Dodge was very 

460 A Cholera Year 

rare, being six hundred years old ; and that the date was woven 
Into it in the Oriental language ! I examined it and found the 
date in Arabic characters, 1281 of the Hegira, corresponding to 
the year 1 865 A. D. ! I informed Mr. Dodge and then told the 
salesman the facts in the case and that the rug was just fourteen 
years old. He looked at me with undisguised disgust and did not 
sell that rug to Mr. Dodge for one hundred and fifty dollars. It 
was worth about fifteen. The salesman had evidently been taken 
in by his purchasing agent in the East 

In December I preached one Sunday morning in a Brooklyn 
church in the absence of the pastor. After the service the pastor's 
wife asked me to dinner. On reaching the house she remarked, 

" I am so glad that my son was not here this morning. 

You certainly would have made a missionary of him ! " I said, 
" My dear friend, who then can be a missionary ? Somebody's 
son must go. Are only orphan children bidden to go and preach 
the Gospel ? " She said, " I know some mother's sons must go, 
but I could never bear it." I did not press the question, and never 
met that young man until after he had been moderator of the 
General Assembly, and then it was quite too late to ask him to 
go. He was entangled in too many lines, lines he had cast and 
lines he had written, to admit the possibility of his becoming a 
student volunteer, 

1879 In the year 1879 the Syria Mission was reinforced by 
the arrival of five labourers, and my own return. The new 
labourers were Rev. Chas. Wm. Calhoun, M. D., and his sister, 
Miss Susan S, Calhoun, both for Tripoli, and Miss Cundall for the 
Tripoli Girls' School ; also Rev. W, F. Johnston and his wife who 
were stationed with Mr. Eddy in Sidon. Mr. Johnston found the 
climate unfavourable and was only able to remain about six 

Miss Jackson and Miss Emily Bird returned to Syria with me 
November 25th. 1 

1 Miss Bird has never found it convenient to take a furlough, and 
now (1909) has been thirty years continuously on the field. 

Friends in England 461 

Early in the year, April i6th, Rev. Gerald F. Dale, Jr., was 
married to Miss Mary Bliss in Beirut, and for seven and a half 
years their home and personal influence were a power for good 
in Zahleh and the Bookaa. 

In the month of May, 1879, before my return I was elected 
moderator of the General Assembly in Saratoga. 

In October and November, 1879, I visited England, Scotland, 
and Ireland with Rev. Gavin Carry le, in the interest of the Turk- 
ish Mission's Aid Society, made various addresses and met many 
great and good men with whose names I had long been familiar ; 
Lord Shaftesbury, Sir William Muir, with whom I kept up corre- 
spondence to the time of his death in 1905, the Bishop of Meath, 
Lord Plunkett, Drs, Johnstone, Fleming Stevenson, Rainey, the 
Bonars, Dr. Andrew Thomson, Dr. N. McCleod, T. Matheson 
Rev. Dr. McFadyen, Dr. Robson (formerly of Damascus), Dr. 
Knox, Lord Polworth, Mr. Geo. D. Cullen, Drs. Cairns, Davidson, 
McCrie, J. Robertson, Dr. Blackie, Lord Balfour, Dr. Kalley, 
Thos. Nelson, Dr. Lindsay Alexander, and many others. In 
going to Dundee in November with Rev. Gavin Carlyle, we 
passed over that slender, lofty, dizzy, iron bridge two miles long 
over the ,Tay. On January 8th we received word in Beirut that 
the Tay bridge had toppled over and fallen with a railroad -train 
which disappeared beneath the deep waters. 

In 1879 certain Arabic inscriptions l were sent to me by Prof, 
S. Wells Williams, the well-known Chinese scholar and mission- 
ary, now Professor of Chinese in Yale College. 

The letter of Dr. Williams enclosing them is as follows : 
" I have obtained a ' rubbing' of an inscription on an incense 
pot of fine bronze, which I enclose to you in the hope that you 
can send to me a translation of it. The piece was obtained from 
a mosque in Peking, but I suppose the work was done in North- 
western China. This one has no date upon it, but I have one 
much like it that was made in 1506, and I think this piece is as 

x The plates of these inscriptions were in \h^ Foreign Missionary Mag- 
azine, April, 1879, and can be obtained at 156 Fifth Avenue in the library. 

462 A Cholera Year 

old as that. The Moslems in China are accustomed to burn in- 
cense on the tables in their mosques much the same as the Bud- 
dhists do in their temples. The inscription I send you is ten 
times as long as any of the others I have ever seen, and I rather 
think the top and bottom may be a quotation from the Koran. 
You will be able to tell me. The use of Arabic in China is very 
limited, few besides the Mullahs or Hajjis ever learning to read, 
and they do not try to speak it to any extent The monosyllabic 
words in Chinese contract the organs of speech as a person grows 
old so that he is unable to pronounce words with many consonants 
coming together, or end a word in a dental. Words like thought, 
strength, contempt, are unpronounceable by a full-grown person 
and the gutturals in Arabic are as much beyond the vocal organs 
of most Chinese as the carols of a canary. Perhaps this inability 
and difficulty have had something to do with the little progress 
made by Islamism in China." 

I found, as Dr. Williams supposed, that all of the extracts were 
from the Koran, and in the Arabic language. 

The great interest of these inscriptions arises from their being 
in the Arabic language, the sacred language of the Koran, and 
thus an illustration of the manner in which the Mohammedan 
religion has carried the Koran throughout Asia and Northern 
Africa, and the Koran has carried the Arabic language. 

The Koran is claimed by the Moslems to have been written in 
heaven by the finger of God Himself, and given to Mohammed 
by the Angel Gabriel. The inspiration is literal and verbal, and 
consists in the Arabic words, letters, and vowel points. The or- 
thodox regard it as a sin to translate the Koran. Where it has 
been translated or paraphrased, as in the Persian, Urdu, and Ma- 
layan, it must be accompanied by an interlineation of the original 

The Emir Abd-er Rahman of Atcheen, in the island of Suma- 
tra, lately exiled by the Dutch government to Mecca on a pension 
of $1,000 a month, is an Arab Mohammedan of Hadramout, and 
the Moslems of Sumatra "use the Arabic language, 

The Mohammedans of India, numbering some 35,000,000, read 

Koran and Bible 463 

their Koran in Arabic and the Urdu language is largely made up 
of Arabic words. The Afgans, Beloochs, Persians, Tartars, Turks, 
Kurds, Circassians, Bosnians, Albanians, Rumelians, Yezbeks, 
Arabs, Egyptians, Tunisians, Algerines, Zanzibarians, Moors, Ber- 
bers, Mandingoes, and other Asiatic and African tribes read their 
Koran, if at all, in the Arabic language. 

If we connect this fact with another, viz., the profound regard 
of the Moslems for the Old and New Testaments, we see the 
present and prospective importance of the Arabic translation of 
the Scriptures. 

A Mohammedan tradition says, " That in the latter day faith 
will decay, a cold odoriferous wind will blow from Syria, which 
shall sweep away the souls of the faithful and the Koran it- 

It may be that the wind is already blowing from the steam 
printing-presses in Beirut, which are sending the Arabic Scrip- 
tures all over the Mohammedan world. 

After the hurried visit to Scotland we left England for Syria 
via Marseilles and reached home November 25 th, a glad occasion 
for me, and I entered upon my preaching and theological teach- 
ing at once. The unsettled feeling of eighteen months' travelling 
soon vanished in the quiet and order of home. During all this 
absence and travelling thousands of miles I had not met with an 
accident and hardly a detention. Our missionary brethren and 
sisters and our Syrian brethren and sisters gave us a hearty and 
loving welcome. 

With Drs. Dennis and Eddy, and occasional lessons from Dr. 
Van Dyck, our theological faculty was fully organized. All the 
boarding and day-schools were prospering as never before and 
the country had not as yet begun to be depleted by the passion 
for emigration. 

One of the missionaries, Rev. O. J. Hardin, remarked that " in 
1876, the time of the Centennial Exposition, the Syrian discovered 
America/' He did, and he has since discovered and done his 
best to populate Brazil and Mexico, every one of the United 

464 A Cholera Year 

States and territories, the Pacific Islands, Singapore, Australia, 
New Zealand, and the Transvaal. 

This passion for emigration is the modern awakening of the 
old Phoenician migrative spirit, after a Rip Van Winkle sleep 
of more than 2,500 years. In the olden time the mariners of 
Phoenicia, of Sidon and Tyre, Gebail and Arvad, braved the 
perils of unknown seas, penetrated the Black Sea, the Atlantic, 
and the coasts of Spain, and even circumnavigated Africa and in 
all probability founded the ancient civilization of Central America. 

Christianity was borne westward on this Phoenician wave. 
Then came a pause, and the centuries of stagnation and impo- 
tence, until the West came to the East, bringing new life and 
kindled again the old restless spirit of adventure and fortune- 
hunting, until now about one-twentieth of the entire population 
of Syria has emigrated to foreign lands. 

This has depleted the towns and villages of the brain and 
brawn of the land, weakened the little churches, carried off the 
graduates of the college and the boarding-schools, raised the 
price of labour and made it difficult in many places to find a 
labourer to do a day's work. Formerly a day-labourer earned 
twenty cents a day. Now he demands forty to fifty cents and 
gets it. Hundreds of emigrants have returned bringing large 
sums of money and have built fine modern houses, paved with 
marble and roofed with French tiles. And they want to have 
their children educated in American schools. Their old bigotry 
is gone. They refuse to be dictated to by priests and monks* 
Many are truly benefited by the change. One-third of the emi- 
grants die, one-third remain abroad, and one-third return. But 
many of those who return are demoralized by European vices 
and go to their old homes to die. 

Time only can solve the question as to whether emigration will 
prove a blessing or a curse to Syria. The best men, those who 
achieve success in America and Australia, generally remain 
abroad and never intend to return to Syria, thus entailing on 
their native land a severe material and moral loss, 

One of our severest trials is to see educated young Syrians # 

O o 

^ a 

t-4 Q) 

o <% 


pq M 

w g 

^ S 


Death of James Black 465 

after a full theological course, dropping their work and going to 
foreign lands to make money easily. This seems inevitable and 
some day the unfolding of the divine providential plan with re- 
gard to this land may show us the reason why so many of Syria's 
choicest sons and daughters have been driven away to the ends 
of the earth. 

About one month after our return from America (December 
28th) the whole city of Beirut was in mourning for Mr. James 
Black, the English Christian merchant who for forty-four years 
had held aloft the standard of commercial integrity and a godly 
life. He founded the Commercial Court of Beirut and was its 
president for years. His word was regarded as being as good as 
his bond. He was a churchgoing, temperate, consistent Chris- 
tian man, and being connected by marriage with the family of 
Dr. Thomson, was in warmest sympathy with the missionary work. 

More potent than the sermons or the tracts of missionaries has 
been the silent influence of men like Mr. Black, who in the temp- 
tations of trade, the crookedness, duplicity, and corruptness of 
Oriental merchants and officials, have maintained their integrity 
untarnished until the highest and most sacred oath a Moslem can 
swear, even above the oath by the beard of the Prophet, is by 
the word of an Englishman. The Beirut merchants to this day 
(1909) speak with wonder of Mr. Black's having " sworn to his 
own hurt and changed not." 

Ail honour to such pure-minded and upright foreigners who 
have thus taught corrupt and immoral men that there are men 
who will stand by their word even to their own loss and whose 
word becomes the synonym of truth, integrity and purity ! 

I once stood before a Moslem shop in the ancient city of 
Hamath and overheard a Mohammedan near by, emphasizing 
his word by the most solemn oath he could command, and he 
finally clinched his assertions by swearing " on the word of Mr. 
Black, the Englishman in Beirut. 1 ' 

The winter was severe and in Kesrawan, February 12, 1880, 
a priest was overtaken in a storm by wolves and devoured* 

466 A Cholera Year 

Handbills were posted on all the churches, mosques, and syna- 
gogues stating that an election was to take place for members of 
the municipality. 

The votes posted were : 

Christians of all sects 820 

Moslems ts ( * " . 440 

Property owners eligible to office : 

Christians 461 

Moslems ...... 263 


This indicates that the Oriental Christian sects, Greeks, Catho* 
lies, Maronites, and Protestants are about double the Moslem 
population in number. This would appear to give the Christians 
the control, but the Turkish Waly of the province is ex-officio 
president of the municipality and has absolute control of its funds. 
It often happens that by orders from Constantinople, the entire 
fund, amounting to thousands of dollars collected by taxation for 
street repairs and salaries, will be taken from the treasury and 
sent off to Constantinople. 

Helps and Hindrances 

Mile-stones of progress Gerald F. Dale, Jr., Memorial Sunday- 
School Hall Missionaries' sons Bereavement Another furlough. 

THE history of the Dale Memorial Sunday-School Hall 
in Beirut is a beautiful illustration of the working of 
the divine Providence to secure a blessing to the chil- 
dren of Syria. 

Rev. Gerald F. Dale, Jr., had been for seven years an honoured 
and beloved missionary in Zahleh, Syria, when I went to 
America in 1878. Gerald was a family name in the Dale family 
of Philadelphia. His brother Henry in New York, and his wife, 
Dora Stokes, named their first-born and only son for the brother 
in Syria and the father in Philadelphia, Gerald F. Dale, Jr, 

In July, 1878, I spent a Sunday in Orange, N. J., and was the 
guest of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Dale on Orange Mountain. On 
Sabbath p. M., July 2Oth, their little son Gerald came running to 
me and sat on my knee, and I told him about his uncle in Syria. 
He looked up in my face and asked, " Are you a minister ? n 
Yes," said I. " That's right," said he. My Uncle Gerald is a 
minister. My father ought to be a minister. Every man ought 
to be a minister. I am going to be Rev. Dr. Dale and be a 
minister." Scarcely four years old, he was devoted to the Sun- 
day-school and went Sunday afternoon with his nurse to the 
little chapel on the mountain in the rear of the premises near 
the present residence of Mrs. John Crosby Brown, to attend the 
Sunday-school. He was a beautiful boy and completely won my 

Seven months after, in February, 1879, 1 saw in a New York 


468 Helps and Hindrances 

morning paper, " Died of scarlet fever Gerald F. Dale, Jr., aged 
four years." The anguish of those doting parents can only be 
known by those who have drunk the same bitter cup. 

A fortnight later they invited me to call, and told me they 
had heard of our need of a Sunday-school hall in Beirut and 
they would like to give the $2,500, which had been set apart for 
Gerald; to build such a hall as his memorial. We began at once 
to make plans and I visited Philadelphia with him to see the 
Bethany Sunday-school and other buildings. 

On reaching Beirut in November, 1 879, we began the work of 
construction. I was greatly aided by Mr. Charles Smith, a British 
merchant and a fine architect, and also by Mr. Jules Loytved 
then connected with the British Syrian Schools. The corner- 
stone was laid February, 1880. The roof is supported by six 
stone arches and slender graceful columns and the class rooms on 
the two sides are separated by sliding glass doors. Within, it is 
bright and cheerful. Dr. Thain Davidson of London pronounced 
it the most beautiful Sunday-school hall he had ever seen. On 
December 19, 1880, the Memorial Hall was dedicated. More 
than 1,200 children and adults were present at the dedication 
and many were unable to obtain admission. Eight different 
Sunday-schools were represented and addresses were made by 
Rev. Gerald F. Dale, Jr., uncle of the little boy, Rev. Dr. W. W. 
Eddy and myself. Tears fell from many eyes when I told them 
the story of little Gerald's faith and his desire to be a minister. 
The singing and responsive reading of the Scriptures were not 
the least interesting part of the services. One of the German 
Lutheran deaconesses brought twenty of her orphan pupils who 
sang a German hymn very sweetly. The Anglo-American Sun- 
day-school of English and American children came in force and 
sang " Whiter than snow." Miss Jessie Taylor's Moslem girls 
were present with their snow-white veils and the Syrian Sunday- 
school children numbered nearly 900. The Sunday-schools ap- 
pointed a committee to prepare a letter of thanks to Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry Dale. A marble tablet over the door bears the in- 

Missionaries' Sons and Daughters 4.69 

" Suffer little children to come unto Me" 
Memorial Sunday-School Hall. 

A memorial of 

Gerald F. Dale, Jr. 

Born August i t 1875. 

Died February 20, 1879, aged three and a half years. 

Erected by his parents Henry Dale and Dora Stokes Dale 

his wife. 1880. 

In January, 1881, another missionary's son, Rev. George A. 
Ford, joined the Sidon station of the mission, after an absence 
of sixteen years in America, studying and acting as pastor of the 
church at Ramapo. Up to the present time (1906) six sons of 
Syria missionaries have entered on the work of the Presbyterian 
Mission work in Syria. These are : Rev. Wm. Bird, Rev. W. K 
Eddy, Rev. C. Wm. Calhoun, M. D., Rev. Geo. A. Ford, D, D., 
Rev, Wm. Jessup, D. D., and Prof. Stuart D. Jessup; while Rev. 
Howard S. Bliss, D. D., is president of the Syrian Protestant 
College. Their knowledge of Arabic and acquaintance with the 
Syrian people have made their labours most acceptable and effect- 
ive for good. 1 

Thirteen daughters of the mission have returned to work in 
Syria after completing their studies in America : Emily Calhoun 
Danforth, Emilia Thomson, Harriette M. Eddy (Hoskins), Mary 
Lyons, Mary Bliss (Dale), Emily Bird, Susan H. Calhoun (Ran- 
som), Sarah Ford, Alice Bird (Greenlee), Mary P. Eddy, M, D., 
Fanny M. Jessup (Swain), Amy C, Jessup (Erdman), Elsie 
Harris, M. D. Six of these continue now in the work, three 
have died, and four have left Syria. Other missionary daughters 
living in Syria, not under official appointment, have rendered 
services as teachers in the mission schools : Misses Lizzie Van 
Dyck, Anna H. Jessup, Carrie Hardin (Post), and especially Miss 
Effie S. Hardin, who for years has given her efficient help in the 
boys' school in Suk el Gharb. 

1 Other sons of Syria missionaries are missionaries in other countries ; 
Mr. Edward Ford in West Africa, Rev. Frederick N. Jessup in Tabriz, 
Persia, Bertram Post, M. D., in Robert College, Constantinople, Wilfred 
Post, M. D., in Turkey, Arthur March in China. 

470 Helps and Hindrances 

The year 1881 was marked by the visit of scores of eminent 
men in the Church in America and England, many of whom oc- 
cupied the pulpit of the Anglo-American Congregation on Sun- 
day. Among them were Dr. A. Erdman, Dr. Theodore Cuyler, 
and Canon H. B. Tristram. Dr. Dennis returned in December 
from a six months' health trip to America. The theological 
class was continued through the academic year. 

In January, 1882, Mrs. Ford, mother of Rev. Geo. A. Ford, 
having returned from America, was stationed, as was Miss Bessie 
M. Nelson (daughter of Dr. Henry A. Nelson) in Sidon, and the 
Sidon Girls' Seminary was carried on by Misses Eddy and 

In April a theological seminary building was begun on the 
college campus through the generous aid of Mr. A. L. Dennis of 
Newark, N. J., the ground having been given to the Board of 
Missions by the college trustees. The building was dedicated 
December 18, 1883, and continued to be occupied by the mission 
theological seminary for ten years, when it was sold to the 
college, and named Morris K. Jesup Hall. The theological 
class was transferred as a summer school to Suk el Gharb, Mount 
Lebanon, where it continued until 1905, when it was reopened 
in Beirut on the new mission premises adjoining Dale Memorial 

In December the mission voted to organize three presbyteries, 
in Sidon, Tripoli, and Lebanon with Beirut. These three presby- 
teries have proved a success, but they have no organic connec- 
tion with the General Assembly in America. When the time 
comes, there may be a General Assembly in Syria and Egypt 
After twenty-four years of experience the Syrian pastors and 
elders have proved themselves competent to transact business 
and to stimulate each other in the matter of self-support. 

In the spring of this year the Lord's hand was heavy upon our 
household. The season was cold and stormy. Three of the 
children had been ill for some weeks with influenza and fever and 
their mother was ceaseless in her watch over them and was soon 
attacked with the same malady. On the evening of MarchTcJth, 



Mr. George Miiller, of Bristol, who had made several addresses 
to old and young in our Beirut church, held a meeting at the 
house of Mrs. A. Mentor Mott I attended it and came home 
at 9 P. M., to find the dear one suffering from inflammation of 
the throat. She soon got relief but it developed into pleurisy 
and after apparent recovery, she suddenly suffered collapse on 
the evening of April 5th, and passed away so quickly that her 
sister, Mrs. Hardin, our guest, could hardly reach her bedside 
before she was gone. 

The shock was like paralysis to me. Friends were never more 
loving, sympathetic, and kind. The five younger children, the 
oldest only twelve, were like little angels around me. Dear 
Dr. Eddy, my colleague, took the little ones to his house and 
was like a brother. My little son Stuart spoke such words of 
comfort to me that I seemed uplifted and sustained. One day 
he said, " Perhaps we loved mamma too much and idolized her." 
Brother Samuel and Mr. Hardin came down from Tripoli. 

On the 25th a missionary conference of eighty missionaries 
and native helpers was held in the Memorial Hall, and being 
asked to preside my thoughts were fully occupied for a week. 
Meantime four of the children had measles, requiring careful 
nursing, but all made a speedy recovery. 

The members of the mission advised my going at once to 
America, and after much prayer and consultation, I reluctantly 
decided to go ; and after many sad parting scenes and strenuous 
labours in handing over my work of editing, proof-reading, and 
teaching, and preaching to Drs. Eddy and Van Dyck, we sailed 
June 1 5th for Marseilles. 

Before our departure, a missionary meeting was held in Beirut 
at which Rev. Gerald F. Dale, Jr., was present. Mr. Dale had at 
his disposal a fund of $10,000 which he offered to the Syrian 
Protestant College as a scholarship fund on condition that $20,000 
additional be raised. I was requested by the college to raise 
that sum and I did it while in America. 

Rumours had reached Syria of the Arabi Pasha Rebellion in 
Egypt, and on our arrival in Port Said on the i/th we had start- 

472 Helps and Hindrances 

ling evidence of its reality. An Austrian steamer was in port en 
route from Alexandria to Beirut with 2,200 refugees going to 
Syria for safety. The decks were so thickly packed that men 
could scarcely lie down. Three infants had been born in the 
night* The captain said to a man who called to him from a shore 
boat, " The Lord deliver us from fire." I heard afterwards that 
they reached Beirut in safety, where both Moslems and Chris- 
tians united in providing food and lodging for them. 

We reached Alexandria Sunday A. M., June i8th. The ships 
and steamers in the harbour were literally black with crowds of 
refugees ; and lines of boats filled the port, carrying men, women, 
and children, pale with fright, to the sailing craft of every de- 
scription. Six overloaded steamers left for Greece, Naples, 
Malta, and Marseilles. Three thousand Maltese had already 
gone to Malta. The panic was universal. Last Sunday, July 
nth, was Black Sunday. Forty Europeans and 1 50 native Chris- 
tians were killed by the Moslem mob in Alexandria. Admiral 
Seymour of the British fleet came on board our steamer to see 
our travelling companion, Mr. Berkeley, M, P., and told us of his 
narrow escape on Sunday. He was on shore with the French 
admiral paying calls. Suddenly the driver of their carriage 
stopped, jumped down, and ran back. A furious rnob was rush- 
ing down the street with guns and clubs, killing every Christian. 
The consular janizary who was with them told them to get out 
and run for their lives, and down they went, the two admirals, 
double quick, and were just able to enter the iron gate of the 
port office and close the door, when the howling mob arrived. 
The port officer called a boat and off they went, glad to reach 
their floating castles alive. The riot was a general conspiracy 
and broke out in several places at once. All the American 
missionaries from Cairo, Assioot, and other places were on board 
the American frigate Galena, Captain Bachelor, where I went 
with my son Stuart to see them. They were awaiting passage 
to Malta and America; Seven trains a day were bringing down 
refugees from Cairo and Upper Egypt. Egypt was in a reign of 

Arabi Pasha 473 

Arabi Pasha was in command in Cairo, and his troops held 
the forts south of Alexandria harbour. The khedive with a 
loyal officer, Derwish Pasha, was in the Ras-el-Tm Palace on the 
north side of the harbour. Arabi, who professed to be advocating 
a patriotic work of " Egypt for the Egyptians J> as against the 
Albanian dynasty of Mohammed All and his successors, raised 
the cry of " Ya Islam " and it was reported that in his excitement 
on entering a mosque he said that he would not rest till the 
streets of Cairo ran with Christian blood. At all events his fol- 
lowers tried it in Alexandria and provoked the intervention of 
England. England proposed to France a joint occupation and 
that Turkey denounce Arabi as a rebel and then send a detach- 
ment of troops to cooperate with the English army and navy. 
The Sultan declined to denounce Arabi and the French declined 
to send troops, so Admiral Seymour and Lord Wolsley were left 
to cope single handed with the rebellion. Arabi's troops went 
on entrenching in the forts south of the harbour, until at length 
the British fleet bombarded them. July nth and 1 2th Arabi's 
troops withdrew from the city and there was another massacre of 
Europeans and the European quarter of the city burned. In 
September the English army entered the Suez Canal and occu- 
pied Port Said and Ismailiyeh. M. de Lesseps protested against 
the passage of the army but in vain. Arabi hastened towards 
Ismailiyeh and camped at Tel el Kebir. Here his sleeping army 
was surprised after midnight by Lord Wolsley's army, who, with- 
out warning, opened fire on the camp with shot and shelL 
Arabi's troops were panic stricken. A few fought bravely but 
all were soon in complete rout. Arabi and officers escaped to 
Cairo on a special train. An English cavalry officer with a small 
detachment galloped along the edge of the desert to Cairo, sur- 
prised the sentinel at the citadel and summoned the commander 
to surrender. The garrison laid down their arms and were 
bidden to disperse to their homes. On the arrival of Wolsley's 
army, September I4th, Arabi surrendered, was tried and sentenced 
to death, but the sentence was commuted to banishment to Ceylon. 
Lord DufFerin came to Egypt. The whole civil and police sys- 

474 Helps and Hindrances 

terns were readjusted and reformed. Law, order and justice soon 
put an end to the bastinado, extortion, cruel oppression and 
bribery, and Egypt entered upon a career of unexampled progress 
and prosperity. 

June 2 1st we sailed from Alexandria, reached Naples June 
24th and Marseilles the 26th. North of Corsica we saw twelve 
whales. Whales have often been seen in the Eastern Mediterra- 
nean and the carcases of two large ones were thrown up on the 
shore near Tyre. The skull of one of them is in the museum of 
the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut We passed through 
Paris and spent July 4th in London. The day was made memo- 
rable by a drawing-room meeting at Mr. Stanley's, Lancaster Gate, 
Hyde Park, where my old friend, Canon H. B. Tristram of Dur- 
ham, presented to me, on behalf of the teachers and pupils of the 
British Syrian Schools in Syria, a beautiful silver inkstand with a 
suitable inscription. Many friends of the schools were present, 
and the occasion was very affecting to me and very comforting. 

From the year 1860 until now (1909), it has always been my 
delight to visit the British Syrian Schools, counsel and pray with 
the teachers, and address the pupils. From 1861 to 1892 I was 
superintendent of the Beirut Sunday-school which was always at- 
tended by about one hundred girls of these schools. 

I have always been a man of peace and have striven to keep all 
the missionary forces in Syria in full cooperation with each other, 
and was a warm friend of Mrs. J. Bowen Thompson and her three 
sisters, Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Mentor Mott, and Miss Lloyd f and their 
successors in the direction of the schools, especially Miss Caroline 
Thompson, the present (1907) capable and consecrated head of the 
schools in Syria. Sectarian discord has no right to enter mis- 
sionary ground. We should seek out our common points of 
agreement and relegate our paltry denominational differences to 
oblivion. Foreign missionaries should work together. Moham- 
medans and heathen care nothing and understand little of our 
peculiar differences and are alienated and repelled by them. 
Protestant missionaries and the Syrian evangelical churches are 
known throughout the land as < enjeeliyeen " or gospel evangel- 

Cooperation in Mission Work 475 

icals. The exclusiveness and narrow sectarianism of certain ultra 
ritualists on the one hand and non-ritualists on the other, have 
confused the Oriental mind and given occasion to the enemies of 
the Gospel to rejoice. I have opposed introducing the word 
Presbyterian into the Arabic language and the Arabic Evangelical 
Church. We call our presbytery " El Mejmaa el Meshkhy/' the 
Elders' Assembly. We do not need the Greek word for elder 
when we have the Arabic term sheikh used in the Acts and the 
Epistles. The Presbyterian order of government seems well 
adapted to the Syrians and they are proving themselves capable 
of managing their own church assemblies, but we desire that it 
be kept free from sectarian names and tendencies, as the simple 
Gospel is by far the best weapon and the best name in commend- 
ing evangelical religion to the priest-ridden people of the Oriental 
Churches and the intensely ritualistic followers of Islam. 

We rejoice in the cooperation of the managers and teachers of 
the British Syrian Mission, the Moslem and Druse Girls' School of 
Miss Jessie Taylor, the Church of Scotland Mission of Dr, 
Mackie and the German pastor and the deaconesses, the mission- 
aries of the Church Missionary Society in Palestine, and the 
British and American Friends' Society in Brummana and Ramul- 
lah. Bishop Blyth, the Anglican bishop in Jerusalem, is trying 
to build up a wall between his constituency and all non-Episcopal 
Christians in Palestine and Syria, and to fraternize with the ec- 
clesiastics of the Orthodox Greek " Brotherhood of the Holy 
Sepulchre " who annually and openly deceive thousands of pil- 
grims with the Satanic farce of the so-called " Holy Fire." Bishop 
Blyth is a genial and lovable man, and I cannot understand how he 
can fraternize with such a set of shameless impostors as the monks 
and bishops of the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre. I have 
spoken of this elsewhere in the chapter on the organization of the 
Syrian Evangelical Church. 

Rev. Dr. Craig of the Religious Tract Society came to our 
lodgings and took my children to the British and South Kensing- 
ton Museums and to the Zoo, We were all deeply touched by 
his kindness and his tender attentions to my flock of little ones. 

476 Helps and Hindrances 

Mrs. Tristram also took charge of shopping for them and fitted 
them out for the Atlantic voyage. 

July 6th we sailed on the City of Berlin for New York. We 
had a rough passage but I was able to preach on Sunday evening,, 
July 9th, and to lecture on Egypt July 14*. We reached New 
York S unday P. M., J uly 1 6th. On the 1 8th we went through by the 
D. L. & W. R. R. to Montrose and were met at the station by the 
three older children, Anna, William and Henry, and soon reached 
the old homestead where mother was still living. She was then 
eighty-four years of age. How delightful to look on her face 
once more, and to see her sitting with her knitting work in her 
favourite armchair by the window, happy in being surrounded 
by so many of her children and grandchildren. I took the chil- 
dren to the lawn under the ancient apple trees, and to the old 
garret filled with so many quaint relics' of the past, to the apple 
orchard and the garden, and from time to time to the blackberry 
patches, the High Rocks," to Jones Lake and Silver Lake, to 
Fall Brook and the Salt Springs. We roamed over the farm and 
at times brought milk, butter, and cream to the homestead. I 
lived over my childhood and had ample time to review my life of 
fifty years. 

Relatives and friends were kind and sympathizing to the last 
degree, and the summer passed rapidly away. Calls for addresses 
poured in upon me and as the events passing in the Nile Valley 
engrossed public attention I was obliged to prepare an address on 
that subject which was finally published in the Foreign Mission- 
ary. On the 9th of August at the request of Dr. Ellinwood I at- 
tended the missionary convention of the Synod of New Jersey at 
Asbury Park, where I stayed at Dr. Ford's sanitarium and met 
Dr. Nevius of China, Dr. H. A. Nelson, Dr. A. A. Hodge, and 
others. Dr. Nevius gave great umbrage to the ladies by saying 
that in foreign missions he knew no difference between work for 
men and work for women. Had he lived in lands where the 
women are secluded in hareems and zenanas, he would have 
probably appreciated better the need of women's work for women. 
I met one singular character, Mangasarian, a protege of Dr. A. A. 

A. A. Hodge's Protege 477 

Hodge, who in a flaming address professed great desire to go to 
Turkey to preach to the Mohammedan Turks, yet when after the 
session Dr. Hodge assured him there were many Armenian Prot- 
estant Churches in Asia Minor which would be glad to welcome 
him as their pastor, he declared that he could not and would not 
go, as the Turks would surely kill him. He afterwards became a 
freethinker, derided Orthodox Christianity and the Bible, and 
forsook the Christian faith. Dr. Hodge told me in November 
that this Mangasarian wrote and begged him to obtain for him 
pulpits to supply as he was in great need. " So/' said Dr. Hodge, 
" I commended him to Mr. Alexander in a New Jersey town. 
He went there, and on Monday I received a letter from Mr. 
Alexander as follows : * Dear Dr. Hodge : If you have no bet- 
ter men than this Mangasarian please send us no more preachers. 
He abused the Board of Missions and Princeton Seminary, and 
declared that all the professors were stupid dolts/ So I wrote to 
Mangasarian and insisted that he come to me at once. He came 
and I read him Mr. Alexander's letter and rebuked him severely 
and said, ' How dare you abuse your own professors ? ' He 
blandly replied, ' Why, doctor, I didn't say much. I only said 
what all the students say ! ' " On this Dr. Hodge laughed 
heartily and said to me, " You can do nothing with such a man. 
Hereafter I shall let him alone to shift for himself." 

His career should be a lesson to theological faculties in Amer- 
ica not to admit foreign adventurers as students without proper 
testimonials as to their character and religious history. 

During the summer Messrs. W. A. Booth and D. Stuart Dodge, 
trustees of the Syrian Protestant College, invited me to remove 
to New York and undertake the raising of the twenty thousand 
dollar scholarship fund in order to secure the fund of $10,000 con- 
ditionally offered by Rev. G. F. Dale, Jr., of Zahleh. 

Before visiting the Synods of Indiana, New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania, I removed the younger children under the care of my 
eldest daughter, October 4th, to New York. On December loth 
my son Stuart and my daughter Mary united with the Church of 
the Covenant, pastor Dr. Marvin R. Vincent 

478 Helps and Hindrances 

That winter was a strenuous one to me. Lectures, addresses, 
sleeping-car travelling, meeting theological students in Union, 
Auburn, Princeton and Allegheny, preparing matter for the 
Foreign Missionary Magazine and interviewing individuals with 
reference to the scholarship fund, kept me under a constant strain. 

November 7th I attended the reception given by the Board of 
Foreign Missions in Centre Street to Sir Richard Temple, for- 
merly a provincial governor in India. As our Board, with its 
intensely conservative traditional policy, had neither stenographer 
nor typewriter, I took pencil notes of Sir Richard's address which 
were afterwards published. After the interview I accompanied 
him to call on ex-Secretary of State Evarts, then to the Cooper 
Institute and the Windsor Hotel. As he was to sail immedi- 
ately, I sent to his hotel the report of his address. He took it 
with him on the steamer, corrected the manuscript and returned 
it by mail for publication. 

The reluctance of those wise brethren at 23 Centre Street 
to allow typewriters, stenographers, etc., nearly sacrificed the 
life of Dr. Ellinwood and gave a wrench to my nervous sys- 
tem such as I have never known. On December 2d Dr. Ellin- 
wood, by his physician's order, sailed on the Britannic for Eng- 
land, and I was appointed to take his place during his absence. 
I consented, and from nine to four worked daily at the office and 
generally took great packages of unanswered letters home with 
me, to work over them Into the small hours of the night. I had 
no conception until that time of the labours of a foreign mission- 
ary secretary. You enter your office at 8 : 30 or 9 A. M., and find 
twenty or more letters and documents from home and foreign 
correspondents. There are mission votes requiring immediate 
attention of the Board ; long missionary journals, from which 
portions are to be selected for publication ; letters from pastors, 
100 or 200 miles away, asking for a rousing sermon next Sunday, 
as it is foreign missions annual collection, and also a talk to a 
children's meeting ; confidential letters from young men and 
women in seminaries, asking numerous questions about enlist* 
ment in the work ; suggestions from pastors as to needed im- 

The Secretary Sinecure 479 

provements in the Monthly Missionary Magazine ; requests for 
leaflets and missionary literature, etc., etc. You arrange these 
letters and are preparing to consult the venerable secretaries 
about the foreign documents when in comes a theological student 
anxious to have full and free talk about going abroad, selection 
of fields, special preparation, etc. ; then comes a pastor full of 
zeal and suggestions ; then a book agent gets by Treasurer 
Rankin's door and up-stairs and literally bombards you with his 
torrent of eloquence and you curtly refer him to the business 
agent in the basement ; then a telegram proposing a missionary 
convention in a Western state four weeks hence and asking the 
address of returned missionaries ; then another telegram that 
good Brother A. of the B. mission is on board the steamer 
coming up the harbour with a sick wife and his children, 
and asking that he may be met and advised where to go on his 
arrival ; then a young lady from a well-known college comes to 
have a good talk about the propriety of taking a medical course 
before going abroad, etc., etc., until twelve o'clock comes. The 
other officers are starting out for lunch. You go with them and 
after a too hasty meal return to find another mail has come in. 
You bend to your work, write a dozen letters and telegrams, 
copy your letters in the screw copying-press, fold them, direct 
them, stamp them, and as it is growing dark, gather up your 
documents and papers, hurry to the ferry, take the Princeton 
train, address the students in the evening, and return on the 
earliest morning train to go through the treadmill again. I 
asked the older officials why they did not have stenographers 
and typewriters. They thought it a needless expense. " Such 
things never have been used and why use the Lord's money for 
them now ? " I went to see Mr. Booth and other members of 
the Board. I felt that this grinding system had nearly killed Dr. 
Ellinwood and Mr. Booth agreed with me. I wrote to Dr. El- 
linwood not to consent to go on with his arduous work on his 
return unless he was supplied with a stenographer and type- 
writer. The point was carried after his return. 

During November and December I visited Wilkesbarre where 

480 Helps and Hindrances 

Mr. J. W. Hollenback gave me $1,200 for a college scholarship ; 
Orange, where Mr. L. P. Stone and Egbert Starr each gave two 
scholarships ; Pittsburg, where I addressed the Allegheny stu- 
dents and dined with that blessed steward of the Lord, William 
Thaw. He gave me $2,400 for two scholarships, with that beau- 
tiful smile that lighted up his face when doing a kind act He 
thanked me for coming and said that he felt it to be a privilege 
to have part in the Lord's work in Syria. 

I went thence to Cincinnati and Lane Seminary, attended a 
missionary convention, and spent Sunday with Dr. Nelson at 
Geneva, N. Y. ; visited Auburn, met several missionary candi- 
dates and called on Dr. Willard, another of God's stewards, who, 
like Mr. Dodge and Mr. Thaw, abounded in good works. 

On the morning of December 20, 1882, as I entered the mis- 
sion house Mr. W. Rankin said to me, " When do you leave for 
Persia ? " I replied, " Never, that I know of. If I live to cross 
the sea again it will be for my Syrian home and work," He 
then asked me, " Have you read the morning papers ? " I re- 
plied, that for a wonder I had not Handing me the New York 
Tribune he said, " Read that ! " I read, " President Arthur has 
appointed Rev. Henry H. Jessup, D. D., of Syria, to be first 
United States Minister to Persia, and sent the nomination to the 
Senate." I said to Mr. Rankin, " Whose work was that ? Who 
sent my name to President Arthur ? " He said he could think 
of no more likely person than Dr. Irenaeus Prime of the New 
York Observer, who was a warm personal friend of President 
Arthur. I went up to my office and shut the door and prayed 
for wisdom that I might get out of this complication before it 
went any further. 

I thought it over. Yes, I had met Dr. Prime at Chi Alpha re- 
cently, and he very incidentally asked me if I spoke Persian, to 
which I replied in the negative. I made haste, by the City Hall, 
down to the Observer office. Dr. Prime was out Dr. Stod- 
dard explained that Dr, Prime had written to President Arthur 
about the Persian Legation and used my name. I went back to 
the mission house, wrote to Dr. Prime, stated that I could not ac- 

H & 


S a 

w * 

o< n, 

Appointed Minister to Persia 481 

cept it, that I was not qualified for a diplomatic post and that I 
would not give up preaching the Gospel I also telegraphed to 
Secretary of State F. T. Frelinghuysen, as follows : <* Please 
tender to President Arthur my cordial thanks for the high honour 
conferred upon me by the nomination to the Persian court, but 
it is impossible for me to accept." Dr. Prime wrote to the chair- 
man of the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, explaining why 
I declined. He received at once an answer, " Please send Dr. 
Jessup on to Washington. The committee would like to see a 
man who does not regard himself as qualified for an office. We 
have never seen one.' 1 I did not go, either to Washington or 
Teheran, but in 1903 was glad to send my youngest son Frede- 
rick to Tabriz, in Persia, as Christ's ambassador to that dark em- 

I have not ceased to be thankful that I declined that post. A 
missionary's son, Mr. Benjamin, the well-known writer, received 
the appointment and after serving his country efficiently, pub- 
lished a valuable book on Persia. 

In January, 1883, in addition to the office work in Centre 
Street, I visited Chicago, Wilmington, Hartford, and Brooklyn. 
On the /th of February Dr. Ellinwood returned much refreshed by 
his journey by sea and land. On Thursday evening, the 8th, I lec- 
tured in the chapel of Dr. Cuthbert Hall's First Church in Brook- 
lyn on the Egyptian crisis. Before going to Brooklyn I called 
on Mr. Wm. E. Dodge, who was somewhat indisposed. Imme- 
diately on my return to 35th Street at 9 A. M., I hastened to Mr. 
Dodge's house only two blocks away and to my surprise was met 
at the door by Edward, the faithful family servant, with the words, 
" Dr. Jessup, Mr. Dodge is dead ! " He had died suddenly of 
heart disease. I found his sons Stuart, Charles, and Arthur, and 
several relatives. To me the shock was stunning. I went to my 
room and by 2 p. M. had a sinking sensation which alarmed the 
children. The doctor came and pronounced it nervous prostra- 
tion. I was ordered to bed and to absolute quiet for a long 
period. I had numerous appointments to speak in Baltimore and 
other cities but the doctor ordered them all cancelled. 

482 Helps and Hindrances 

Mr. Dodge's funeral was February I2th, within a block of my 
lodgings, and Dr. Vincent had asked me to assist at the exercises, 
but I could not leave my bed. The throng was very great and at 
its close Dr. Ellinwood, Dr. H. M. Field, and Drs. Clark and A, C. 
Thompson of the American Board called to see me, 

The death of Mr. Dodge was a public calamity. He was so 
eminent as a Christian merchant, patriot, and philanthropist, that 
no New Yorker was more widely known. He was a lifelong 
friend of missions, home and foreign, a champion of temperance, of 
commanding presence, an eloquent speaker, and the simple piety 
of his family life, his family altar, his strict Sabbath observance, 
and his lovely winning manner made him such a father and hus- 
band and friend as few homes can boast. 

Several of his sons and grandsons caught his spirit and are, like 
him, a blessing to the world. Mrs. Dodge was no less eminent in 
all purely evangelical and philanthropic work and survived him 
long, beloved and honoured. 

Syrian letters from Drs. Dennis, S. Jessup, and W. W. Eddy 
gave full particulars of the death of our promising young mission- 
ary physician, Charles William Calhoun. Dr. Dennis said, " He 
was born in Syria, son of Rev. Simeon Howard Calhoun and was 
thirty-three years of age at the time of his death. He had the 
advantages of the early training of his honoured father, and was 
educated at Williams College, the Union Theological Seminary, 
and the University Medical School of New York. He came to 
Syria in the fullness of his strength and with a hearty consecra- 
tion to the service of Christ in the land of his birth. He was 
connected with the Tripoli station for four years ; and such years 
of enthusiastic work and abounding services, both to the souls 
and bodies of the people of that wide Northern field ! 

"His death occurred at Shwifat near Beirut, June 22, 1883. 
He had recently returned from a long tour in Northern Syria and 
the Zahleh field with Mr. Dale and seemed to have contracted a 
malarial fever of a malignant type which proved fatal. His mother 
entered the sick-room early in the morning soon after the watcher 
for the night had left, and thinking him to be asleep, sat for some 

Deaths of Charles Calhoun and Butrus Bistany 483 

time in the presence of death, without knowing the true cause of 
the patient's strange stillness. She finally approached him and 
was stunned by the painful discovery that his spirit had taken its 
flight homeward. He was ' the only son of his mother and she 
a widow/ The only sign that his spirit left to give a hint of the 
final scene was a placid and heavenly expression on his face as if 
he had met death with a smile, as he passed into rest. The fu- 
neral services were held in Shwifat and the next day in Beirut" 

Dr. Samuel Jessup said, " When his medical practice had 
greatly increased and his surgical skill had attracted attention, he 
was in 1882 obliged by the government through the intrigues of 
a rival physician to leave Tripoli. He spent the time in touring, 
and visited Constantinople where he obtained an imperial Turkish 
diploma that gave him the right to practice anywhere in the em- 
pire. He returned to Tripoli and seemed entering on a career of 
great usefulness when he was prostrated by fever." 

He was genial, courteous, full of good humour, a most skillful 
surgeon, familiar with the Arabic colloquial from his childhood. 
These traits made him very popular. He could sleep anywhere, 
on a mat or on the ground, and eat the coarsest and most unpal- 
atable Arab food with a relish. 

His consistent Christian walk and self-denying labours exem- 
plified the religion he professed and preached. 

The Syrian Evangelical Church and the Syrian people of all 
classes suffered a great loss in the death of Mr. Butrus el Bistany, 
May i, 1883. He was the most learned, industrious, and success- 
ful as well as the most influential man of modern Syria. 

He was born in Dibbiyeh, Mount Lebanon, nine miles north- 
east of Sidon, of Maronite parentage, and studied the Arabic 
and Syriac under a Maronite priest, Michaiel Bistany, during the 
rule of the famous Emir Bushir. He afterwards entered the 
patriarchal clerical school at the monastery of Ain Wurka where 
he studied Arabic grammar, rhetoric, logic, history, with Latin, 
Syriac, and Italian. 

484 Helps and Hindrances 

About the year 1840 he found, in reading the Syriac Testa- 
ment, the doctrine of justification by faith, and leaving his 
monastic retreat, fled to Beirut, where he entered the house of 
Dr. Eli Smith for protection. For two years he was a prisoner, 
not venturing outside the gates, lest he be shot by spies of the 
Maronite patriarch. From that time he became an invaluable 
helper to the American missionaries, and in 1846 began to help 
Dr. Van Dyck in the newly founded Abeih Seminary. During 
this period he prepared a school arithmetic which is still a 
standard work in Arabic. He then removed to Beirut and be- 
came dragoman (interpreter and clerk) to the American con- 
sulate and assistant to Dr. Eli Smith in the translation of the 
Bible, continuing on this work until the death of Dr. Smith in 
1857. He then published two Arabic dictionaries, the " Muhit 
el Muhit/' a comprehensive work in two octavo volumes of 1, 200 
pages each, and the "Kotr el Muhit" an abridgment of the 
former, which were finished in 1869. 

In 1860 after the massacres, when thousands of refugees were 
crowded into Beirut, he published a weekly sheet of advice (the 
Nefeer) to the Syrian people, calling them to union and coopera- 
tion in reconstructing their distracted and almost ruined country. 

In 1862 he founded the " Madriset el Wataniyet" or National 
School on his own premises, receiving aid from English and 
American friends. The school continued for about fifteen years 
and trained a large number of youth of all sects and from all 
parts of the land. 

The Sultan Abdul Haraid II, on receiving copies of his 
dictionary, sent him a present of two hundred and fifty pounds 
sterling and a decoration of the third class of the Medjidryeh and 
another decoration in view of his founding the " National School." 
He also founded thzjenan, a fortnightly literary magazine which 
his son Selim Efifendi edited and also tiitjennek, a semi-weekly 
journal and the Jeneineh, a daily which continued three years. 

In 1875 he began his great literary work, the " Daierat el 
Maarif," an Arabic encyclopedia, in twelve volumes, of which six 
were finished at the time of his death, May 1st, 1883, and four 

M. Bistany's Literary Achievements 485 

more were finished by his sons, but unfortunately it has never 
been completed. It is a jcompilation and translation of the best 
French, English, and American encyclopedias, and the geo- 
graphical and historical parts are enriched from the best works 
of the most eminent Arabic authors. The illustrations were 
furnished by Messrs. Appleton & Co. of New York and the book 
as far as printed is a monument of industry and literary ability. 
The Viceroy of Egypt subscribed for 500 sets of this encyclo- 
pedia and his list of Syrian subscribers embraced pashas, patri- 
archs, bishops, priests, mudirs, muftis, kadis, sheikhs, merchants, 
farmers, teachers, students, monks, and the foreign missionaries 
throughout Syria and India, as well as learned scholars in 
Germany, France, England, and America. 

He also published works on bookkeeping, Arabic grammar, 
and translated into Arabic the " Pilgrim's Progress," "D'Aubigne's 
Reformation," " Edward's History of Redemption," and " Robin- 
son Crusoe." 

He was one of the original members of the Beirut church, 
and an elder for thirty-five years. HeVas also for twenty years 
president of the Native Evangelical Society. For years he aided 
in the preaching and in the Sunday-school, and was looked to 
for addresses on all important occasions. In 1882 he preached 
twice, on " I was glad when they said unto me, let us go into the 
house of the Lord," and " Fear not, little flock." 

His wife Raheel Ata, a pupil of Mrs. Sarah Huntington Smith, 
was the first girl taught to read in Syria, and her home until her 
death was known as a model Christian home. 

He died suddenly May I, 1883, of heart disease, pen in 
hand, surrounded by his books and manuscripts. 

The funeral was conducted in the American Mission Church by 
the missionaries and the crowd was almost unprecedented. 

Remarkable tributes were paid to his memory. When he first 
came to Beirut the Maronite patriarch set a price on his head. 
When he died Gregorius, Papal Greek Patriarch of Antioch, 
Alexandria, and Jerusalem, wrote to his son a most affectionate 
letter 3tating that " the whole nation mourns your father's deatbt 

486 Helps and Hindrances 

Literature, education, learning, and every good cause laments 
his departure. He was a dear friend and a brother to us all, and 
but for the hope that you his son will fill his place and complete 
his work, we would be Inconsolable." 

Truly the world moves and bigotry loses its power. 

His son Selim Effendi only survived him a few months, 
having died suddenly in September, 1884. 

The publication of the encyclopedia was then continued by 
his son Najib Effendi until ten volumes had been printed. Since 
then the want of funds, and the rigorous press laws which 
require two copies in manuscript of every book to be printed to 
be sent to Constantinople for sanction have prevented the com- 
pletion of the book. To make two copies of a book of 1,000 
pages and then wait months and perhaps years for their return, 
is enough to discourage authors and publishers. The book may 
yet be completed in Egypt* 

In September I had interviews with Ira Harris, M. D., on the 
train to New York, and he decided to go to Syria to take up the 
work of the lamented Dr. Chas. W, Calhoun who died in June; 
and with Miss M. G Holmes who was preparing to go to the 
school in Tripoli. I also met during the summer Mr. Hoskins, 
Mr. R. H. West, and Dr. Kay, all preparing to go to the Syrian 
Protestant College in Beirut. 

October 2d I set out on a four weeks' tour to the Synods of 
Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, and Ohio. At Topeka I found Mr. 
Howard S. Bliss, son of our college president and my old 
comrade for thirty years, little thinking that at this time (1906), 
he would have succeeded his revered father in the Syrian Protes- 
tant College. I visited Emporia, Topeka, Park College, St. 
Joseph, Atchison, Kansas City, St. Louis, Alton, Springfield, Mo., 
Clinton, la., Bloomington and Joliet, Oxford, O., Wooster and 
Ann Arbor Universities, and was so refreshed by meeting so 
many consecrated and noble Christian men and women that I 
forgot the fatigues of the journey. 

At the Synqd of Missquri %t Springfield, I Iai4 before the 

First Gift for Korea 487 

people the loud call just received for missionaries to begin a mis- 
sion to Korea, which the Board had asked me to present to the 
churches. I saw in the congregation the apostle of home mis- 
sions, Rev. Dr. Timothy Hill, who had founded more churches 
in the West and South than any living man. At the close of my 
remarks he stepped up to the pulpit and handing me a twenty 
dollar gold piece, said, " Here is from home missions to foreign 
missions ! Let that go to the mission in Korea ! " I took it on 
to New York and it was the first gift, or among the first, for that 
mission which is a crown of rejoicing in the missionary world 

Truly the missionary spirit is one at home and abroad ! I had 
travelled 5,333 miles without a detention or accident and on my 
return to the old homestead found the children well. 

In November I visited South Hadley College and Wellesley 
College, called on my sons, William and Henry, at Princeton 
College, and returned to Montrose to fix up the old homestead 
for winter quarters, as it sometimes happens that in that high 
beech woods region they have ninety continuous days of snow. 

In December I attended a missionary convention in Chicago 
of 800 medical students, young men and women, which lasted 
two days. We had the help of Mr. Wishard, Dr. Henry M. 
Scudder, Mr. Farwell, Mr. Blatchford, and Dr. Dowkontt. 

Thence I went to a missionary convention at Parsons College, 
Fairfield, Iowa, and returned via Buffalo and Binghamton to 
Montrose. In Syria various changes had taken place. Dr. Ira 
Harris and Miss Holmes reached Tripoli to take the places of 
Dr. Calhoun who died June 22d in Shwifat, and Miss Cundall. 
Mr. March was transferred from Zahleh to Tripoli and Dr. Samuel 
Jessup from Tripoli to Beirut. When Dr. Samuel Jessup of 
Tripoli announced to his friends there that he was about to re- 
move to Beirut where he would have charge of the press and be 
relieved from the long horseback rides of the wide Tripoli field, 
the leading Moslems, Greeks, and Maronites proposed to unite 
in a petition to the missionary authorities to have him retained 
them. When told thatt be could not longer bear the 

488 Helps and Hindrances 

work of itineracy they replied, " Then let him stay here and just 
sit, and let us come and look at him. That will be enough." 
Dr. Arthur Mitchell, in alluding to this incident, said, " His faith- 
ful service of twenty years had proved a living evangel known 
and read of all men." Messrs. West and Hoskins joined the 
teaching staff of the Syrian Protestant College, Miss Sarah A. 
Ford was stationed in Sidon and Mr. Greenlee in Zahleh with 
Mr. Dale. On December 6th Mr. Michaiel Araman died in 
Beirut. He was for thirty years a teacher and a preacher a 
translator and an officer of the church. For years he taught in 
Abeih and then in the girls' boarding-school in Beirut. He was 
a faithful teacher, a kind father, and an exemplary Christian, 

December 16, 1883, W. Carslaw, M. D., of Shweir, of the 
Free Church of Scotland, was ordained by the presbytery as an 
evangelist. The new theological hall on the college campus was 
dedicated and occupied December 1 8th. In April, 1884, Rev. 
Gerald F. Dale and family left for America and he and his wife 
were called to suffer the trial of burying their infant daughter 
Lizzie, May 3d, in Alexandria. 

January 31, 1884, a missionary convention was held in Bing~ 
hamton. Dr. Ellinwood and Dr. Arthur Mitchell, who had just 
accepted the position of secretary of the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions, were present. In spite of a severe rain and snow-storm 
the attendance was good. Mrs. Laiya Barakat spoke at the 
women's meeting. I attended the meeting and sat in the rear of 
the church, partly behind a pillar, and as I listened to her earnest 
words, recalled the time twelve years before, when as a sewing 
girl she used to come to me in Abeih, her native village, and re- 
peat from memory Arab nursery rhymes by the score. The 
emigration and scattering of the youth of Syria fills me with as- 
tonishment, and the query often arises, What does it all mean? 
Time will reveal the mystery. 

February 3d I preached in the " coloured " Zion church in 
Montrose. The negroes have a strong church, and their pastor, 
George Washington, asked me to preach and remain for the 
prayer-meeting afterwards, I knew most of the congregation 

Old Booey 489 

and a book might be written about their eccentric ways. They 
once had a meeting to decide what colour they should white- 
wash the meetin' house." In front of the pulpit was the most 
extraordinary character of all, Old Booey. He was short and 
heavy, with large eyes and a mouth of vast size, seeming to ex- 
tend almost from ear to ear. He was a man of great power and 
voice in prayer, and his original sayings became proverbial in 
the town. He drove a " one boss " rickety wagon around the 
county collecting bones, which he " toted " to the railroad station 
and when he had enough, shipped them by the carload to Phila- 
delphia. One day he drove up to a lone farmhouse, hobbled up 
to the door and knocked. The farmer's wife came to the door 
and looked on his glaring eyes and he exclaimed, " I've come 
for your bones ! " She thought her time had surely come, and 
slammed the door in his face. She locked it and watched him 
from the window as he went around the back yard gathering up 
old bones which he threw into his wagon and drove away. 

I had known Booey for many years. He listened to my 
sermon on the Gadarene demoniac and the description of the 
Sea of Galilee, and as a fellow preacher, nodded patronizingly. 
After the sermon, the pastor called on the brethren to pray. 
Booey stepped forward into the aisle, kneeled down, and began 
in a weird sepulchral voice that seemed to send the cold chills 
through me, and at length said, " Oh, Lord, keep us all dis night, 
but if it should please Thee that Thy humble servant should never 
see another day, but this night should be his last and I should 
enter into Thy great glory, oh, Lord, won't Satan be disappointed 
of his great expectations!" "Amen! Amen!" shouted the* 
brethren and I joined with them, " Amen ! " 

That prayer was solemn and pathetic, and some years after, 
the good man entered into glory and Satan lost his victim. 

In March I visited Baltimore, spoke in Brown Memorial 
Church and lectured before the students of Johns Hopkins by 
invitation of my friend, Dr. Daniel Gilman. 

I then went to Washington and on March 22d called, by ap- 
pointment, with Dr. Stuart Dodge, Hon. W. Walter Phelps, and 

490 Helps and Hindrances 

Judge William Strong, on President Arthur and Secretary of 
State F, T. Frelinghuysen with reference to certain outrages upon 
American citizens in Asia Minor. 

On Sunday I preached twice in the New York Avenue Church 
and met many old friends. 

Owing to the death of Rev. Dr. Hatfield, retiring moderator of 
the General Assembly, the stated clerk requested me to preach 
the opening sermon of the General Assembly at Saratoga in May. 

As I went back to Syria in 1879 without preaching the sermon 
the following year, it was only fair that I fill the breach this year. 
The sermon was preached May 15, 1884, on the texts : 

" Fear not, for I am with thee ; I will bring thy seed from the 
east, and gather thee from the west ; I will say to the north, give 
up, and to the south, keep not back ; bring my sons from far, and 
my daughters from the ends of the earth " (Isa. 43 : 5, 6). 

" Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, and, lo, I am with you 
alway, even unto the end of the world " (Matt, 28 : 19, 20). 

The following extracts are true now as they were then. 

The Messianic Prophet and the Christ of all the prophets here 
unite their voices in calling the whole Church to the rescue of the 
whole world. The four quarters of the globe are summoned. 
The Lord's sons and daughters are to be gathered from the ends 
of the earth. This is the high, the supreme mission of the Church 
of Christ. This will remain its supreme mission until " every 
knee shall bow and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, 
to the glory of God the Father/' 

The whole Church as a church needs a higher consecration, a 
consecration all along the line, of person and property, of life and 
service, of ourselves and our children, to Him who has bought us 
with His own blood. Water will not rise higher that its fountain- 
head. A church will not rise higher than the consecration of its 
individual members. 

We need to go out of ourselves, to look upon our church 
machinery as only a means to an end, and that end the glory of 
Christ in saving men everywhere. 

A living orthodoxy is a chain binding the Church to the living 

*d o5 

4; b 

I" Js 


H Pn 

Preaching by Conduct and Practice 491 

Christ, and insuring growth and progress. A dead orthodoxy is 
a splendid seal set upon a sepulchre. 

The modes of preaching the Gospel are various , but the Gospel 
to be preached is one. If missionaries open schools and teach, 
the Bible and the Christian faith must be the foundation of all 
their teaching, Dana, Dawson, and Guyot are illustrations of 
teaching the profoundest and purest science in the reverent spirit 
of Christian faith. Teaching medicine and science, for the sake 
of medicine and science, is not the work of the missionary ; but 
he may teach both in a Christian spirit, and with thorough in- 
struction in the Bible, and thus train Christian physicians and 
scholars who will be pillars of the Church in their native land. 

Type casting and book making are mechanical arts, but when 
done to give the Bible to a nation, as was done by Eli Smith, 
Van Dyck, Graham, Carey, Marshman, Morrison, and Dyer, in 
giving the Bible to the Arabs, the Hindus, and the Chinese, they 
become a noble form and mode of preaching the Gospel. Liv- 
ingstone was teaching when traversing Africa with his Makololo 
companions, Eli Smith was teaching when he spent weary months 
in the type foundries of Germany with Hallock, making the 
metallic punches and matrices for the new so-called American 
font of Arabic type in which the Bible was to be printed for sixty 
millions of Arabic-speaking people ; Hamlin was teaching when 
training the persecuted Armenians to bake bread for the British 
Crimean army ; Dr. Peter Parker when surrounded by thousands 
of patients in Canton ; Dr. Pratt when travelling in the Taurus 
Mountains ; Dr. Azariah Smith when organizing the Christians 
of Aintab into a self-supporting community; the Constantinople 
missionaries, Hamlin and Trowbridge, when caring for hundreds 
of cholera patients ; Dr. Grant, when journeying from village to 
village among the robber Kurds ; Whiting, in sacrificing his life 
to save the famine-stricken Chinese; Calhoun, confided in and 
trusted by both Druses and Maronites in the midst of their fierce 
civil war, when both parties alternately brought their gold and 
jewels to his unprotected house for safe-keeping ; the Syria mis- 
sionaries during the massacres of 1860, when for months they fed 

49 2 Helps and Hindrances 

and clothed the twenty thousand refugees from Damascus and 
Lebanon. ; Dr. Van Dyck, in translating the Bible and treating 
thousands of sufferers from the virulent eastern ophthalmia ; Dr. 
Post, in performing marvellous surgical operations, and in the in- 
tervals of leisure making a concordance of the Arabic Bible which 
cost him and his assistants 15,000 hours of labour ; Dr. West, 
who disarmed the bitter hostility of Armenian ecclesiastics and 
Turkish pashas, and won them to friendship by the patient and 
skillful use of his high medical knowledge ; Dr. Osgood, in de- 
livering hundreds of despairing victims from the opium curse in 
China ; Miss Dr. Howard, in successfully treating the wife of Li 
Hung Chang; Bishop Patteson and his colleagues, in teaching 
the South Sea Islanders the simplest arts of decency in clothing 
and of comfort in building their houses ; these and multitudes of 
others in Asia, Africa, Europe, America, and the far-off isles, 
have truly obeyed the Saviour's last command, in teaching the 
Gospel, by living the Gospel and exhibiting its precious fruits 
amid famine and pestilence, want and nakedness, cannibalism and 
savage ferocity, wars and massacres, relieving suffering, healing 
disease, instructing ignorance and guiding lost men to a Saviour. 

The world needs the Gospel and the Gospel needs labourers of 
every kind ; and the Gospel needed is the Gospel in its purity 
and entirety; the pure word of God with its converting and 
sanctifying power ; not a Gospel diluted and attenuated to suit 
an enfeebled sentiment, nor a mutilated Gospel, but the Gospel of 
salvation by faith in an atoning Saviour. 

The world is groaning under the burden of sin. It is full of 
colossal systems of creature worship, of propitiatory sacrifices, of 
self-torture, of pilgrimages, of bloody rites, of burnt offerings 
of human victims, which men, in the dark groping of their un- 
rest, have invented, or amid the wreck of ancient traditions have 
clutched at with the grip of despair, to satisfy the sense of de- 
served retribution for sin. It is an insult to the moral yearnings 
of man's nature to offer him such a stone, when he is dying of 
hunger for bread. Of what use Is it to tell the pagan or the 
Mohammedan, the " Barbarian and the Scythian," that we have 

Marriage to Miss Lockwood 493 

crossed seas and continents burning with zeal to teach them the 
glorious Gospel of uncertainty ; to enlist recruits in the army of 
mighty doubters ; to assure them that there is nothing sure ; to 
tell them to cultivate their consciousness, if perchance they may 
evolve from it a system of faith which will stand the test of the 
microscope and the crucible. 

When human hearts are aching and bleeding over sorrow and 
sickness, over the bereavements, the broken hopes and racking 
anxieties of life, and struggling with sin and evil, not knowing 
whence they came nor whither they are going, what mockery to 
raise their hopes of relief and comfort, and then drive them to a 
deeper misery by offering such a diet of despair ! 

On Wednesday evening, May 21, 1884, 1 presided by request 
of Dr. Ellinwood at the annual foreign mission rally. Four 
missionaries were to speak. A programme was given to me with 
the directions, " no speaker to exceed ten minutes." When 
Dr. Imbrie of Japan arose he said it was rather hard to have 
an ex-moderator who had preached an hour limit us, his 
brethren, to ten minutes. It was hard, but the rule was inexorable 
and the speakers succeeded admirably in crowding so much into 
the brief allotted time. 

On the 23d of July, 1884, I was married by Rev. Dr. G. F. 
Nichols of Binghamton to Miss Theodosia Davenport Lockwood, 
daughter of the late Rev. Peter Lockwood. We visited Southamp- 
ton, L. I., our ancestral home, met many relatives, and saw the 
houses where my father and grandfather were born. The old 
graveyard is one of the historic spots of ancient Long Island. It 
was a privilege to speak in the old Southampton church and 
meet the Fosters, Posts, and Harrises. We drove to North Sea 
and picked up shells on the beach ; just such shells as mother 
used to show to our admiring eyes in childhood's days. Aunt 
Harriet Harris gave me my Grandfather Henry Harris's family 
Bible, a portly volume of the olden time, and we visited his grave 
in that quaint, quiet old country village. How it carried me 
back to the early days, when father and mother used to tell us 
stories of the Island," the Shinnecock Indians, the return of the 

494 Helps and Hindrances 

whale-ships, and the capture of whales off the Southampton 
beach ! 

The summer was spent in visiting churches in New York, 
Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, and preparing for the journey to 
Syria, after this protracted furlough. 

In August, Gabriel, the negro man-of- all-work of my brother, 
Judge William H. Jessup, told us that he had met an old man 
named Safford, a carpenter, who told him that when a young 
man he worked on building father's law office, and father came 
in, stood by him at the work-bench, and prayed for his salvation, 
and he was thus led to begin a Christian life. 

On Sunday, October 5th, my youngest son Frederick Nevins 
aged eight years and ten months united with the old church in 
Montrose, thus completing the number of my eight children who 
are members of the Church of Christ. It was a joyous day to 
us all. 

October 9th we all, Mrs. Jessup, my six children and my 
brother William's daughter May who accompanied us to Syria, 
left for New York and at the St. Stephen's Hotel met throngs of 
old friends. One New York pastor, a dear friend of mine, who 
six months before had sent me his check for $1,000, said to me, 
" Call on me if you need anything." The kindness and affection 
of relatives and friends quite overcame me. I went once more 
to speak to the students of Union Seminary, in company with my 
brother William and Dr. Arthur Mitchell. My two older sons 
William and Henry came on from Princeton to bid us good-bye. 

Saturday, October 1 1 th, we sailed on the Britannic for Liverpool, 
arriving on the iQth. Mr. A. Balfour of Liverpool met us and 
invited us to his house in Rosset Four of the party accepted 
his invitation and went out for the night We visited Chester 
Cathedral and met Dean Howson, who once preached for us in 
Beirut. Mr. and Mrs. Balfour were most abounding in their kind 
hospitality. Being engaged in trade with Valparaiso, he was a 
warm friend of Dr. Trumbull, the American missionary, and was 
a liberal supporter of the missionary work of our church, Mr* 
Balfour died in June, 1886, greatly lamented and honoured. 

Home Again A New Era Begun 495 

On reaching London, we found that, owing to cholera in 
Southern France, we could not take steamer from Marseilles, so 
we were obliged to take the Orient Express from Paris to Varna 
on the Black Sea. We were quarantined in the Austrian steamer 
Flora, five days at Kavak in the Bosphorus in a cold rain-storm. 
We were met and welcomed to the houses of the missionaries in 
Scutari, Drs. Wood, Isaac G. Bliss, and Elias Riggs. Our stay 
in Constantinople was only forty-eight hours and it rained con- 
stantly. Yet I was able to visit the Bible House, Robert College, 
and the Girls' College in Scutari. On leaving our anchorage, 
November I3th, at 5: 30 p. M., the rudder chain broke, east of 
Seraglio Point and the steamer was driven by the swift current 
directly towards the rocks. There was great excitement on 
board but by a merciful Providence the chain was mended and 
the ship got under control when, apparently, not 200 feet from 
the rocks. 

In Smyrna we called on the missionaries, Mr. and Mrs. Bartlett, 
Miss Page, Miss Lord, and Mr. and Mrs. Constantine. 

November 2ist we reached Beirut at sunrise and were met by 
brother Samuel, his son and daughter, and Drs. Bliss, Eddy, 
Post, Dennis, and a crowd of Syrian friends. It was indeed 
" home again from a foreign shore." The harness was soon 
buckled on and my ordinary work in preaching and theological 
teaching resumed. November 3Oth I preached in Arabic and 
Bishop Hannington of Uganda in English, and at the Sunday- 
school in the afternoon I translated his address to the Sunday- 
school children. 

The annual meeting in December was attended by Rev. Dr. H, 
A. Nelson and his son William. His daughter Bessie was at 
that time connected with the Syria Mission and his son William 
joined it in August, 1888. It may be helpful to take a glance at 
the personnel of the mission at this time ; the beginning of what 
might be called the new era in the mission and college. 

In Beirut were Dr. C. V. A. Van Dyck, Dr. W. W. Eddy, 
Dr. H. H. Jessup, Dr. S. Jessup, Dr. J. S. Dennis and their wives ; 
Rev. S. Jessup had charge of the mission press, accounts, and 

496 Helps and Hindrances 

custom-house work. The others had their portion of teaching 
the theological class, editing, literary and evangelistic work. The 
female seminary was in charge of Miss Everett, Miss Jackson's 
resignation having taken effect in July previous. 

The instruction in the theological class was given as follows : 
Natural Theology and Old Testament Exegesis, Dr. C. V. A. 
Van Dyck ; Systematic Theology, Dr. J. S. Dennis ; New Testa- 
ment Exegesis, Dr. W. W. Eddy ; Church History, Homiletics, 
and Pastoral Theology, Dr. H. H. Jessup ; Scripture Interpreta- 
tion, Mr. Rizzuk Berbari. 

The instruction was in Arabic. It had been hoped that enough 
college graduates and others familiar with the English language 
would be found to warrant using only English text-books. This 
was tried with one class of five, but three of them left for America, 
and were lost to the work in Syria for which they were trained. 
Since that time the instruction has been almost entirely in Arabic. 

In Abeih station were Rev. Messrs. Bird (Abeih), Pond (Shem- 
Ian) and their wives, with Miss Bird ; and Mrs. and Miss Calhoun 
in Shwifat, working among the women and conducting a girls' 

In Sidon station were Rev. W. K. Eddy, Rev. George A. Ford 
and his mother. In the Sidon Seminary were Misses Harriette 
Eddy, Bessie Nelson and Sarah Ford. 

In Zahleh station, Mr. Greenlee; Rev. and Mrs. Gerald F. 
Dale being in America on furlough. 

In Tripoli station were Rev. Messrs. March and Hardin and 
their wives, and Dr. Harris. Miss La Grange and Miss Holmes 
had charge of the Tripoli Girls' School 

In the Syrian Protestant College were Drs. Daniel Bliss, Post, 
Porter, Kay, Dight, Fisher, Messrs. West, Martin, and Giroux ; 
Mr. Hoskins, who afterwards entered the mission, was principal 
of the preparatory department. 

In February, 1885, Dr. and Mrs. Harris and daughter Elsie re- 
turned from America. April 20th Dr. H. A. Nelson married his 
daughter Bessie to Rev. Wm. K. Eddy and immediately sailed for 
America with Mrs, Calhoun, her daughter Susan, her grand- 

Touring with Colonel Shepard 497 

daughters Agnes and Helen Danforth and Mrs. Ford and her 
daughter Sarah. 

Four young men graduated from the theological class at the 
commencement in June. 

April 1 6th Col. Elliott F. Shepard of New York came to Beirut 
and asked that Dr. Van Dyck accompany him to Damascus and 
Jerusalem. As Dr. Van Dyck was unable to travel he referred 
him to me. I did not see how I could be absent so long, but 
after he reached Damascus he telegraphed me that he had hired 
animals, a dragoman, tents, and a palanquin, for Mrs. Jessup and 
myself to accompany him April 23d on a tour via Sidon, Tyre, 
and Nazareth to Jerusalem ! The brethren advised us to go and 
we went, and had a most prosperous and instructive journey. 
Colonel Shepard was a delightful companion and it was a pleas- 
ure to tell him of the sacred sites we visited. At every town 
where there was an international telegraph office he telegraphed 
to his family in Switzerland. 

The moonlight ride down the mountain to the Sea of Galilee 
and the sail on the sea on April 3Oth, were events not to be for- 
gotten. We were seven hours on the Lake of Tiberias and the 
heat was intense. Near Capernaum we saw a Bedawy wading 
among the great stones near the shore and catching fish with his 
hands. Colonel Shepard at once bought the fish. Daud the 
dragoman kindled a fire and we broiled them on the coals and 
ate them for our lunch. The Colonel was much affected by the 
thought that near this very spot our Lord provided a similar re- 
past for His disciples. Colonel Shepard was a thoroughly relig- 
ious man, a careful Bible student, and a strict- observer of the 
Sabbath. We spent a Sunday at Tyre. Dr. Ford, an old fellow 
worker with the Colonel in New York City mission work, after 
preaching in the village of Alma in the morning, rode down to 
Tyre, about four hours in the saddle, to aid in the evening serv- 
ice. Colonel Shepard quite took him to task for Sunday travel, 
and he was hardly satisfied with our explanation of the need of 
Dr. Ford's help in the union meeting in Tyre. He was a genial 
companion, of generous impulses and large liberality. Seeing the 

498 Helps and Hindrances 

utterly meagre furniture of Dr. Ford's room in Tyre, he ordered 
Daud the dragoman to go to the furniture shop and buy chairs, 
tables, bureau, and bookcase, etc. We all told the Colonel that 
in this abject town of Tyre there were no furniture shops and not 
a chair for sale. But he insisted, and Daud went to the private 
house of a Tyrian merchant and bought out his stock of furniture 
without regard to expense, at which the Colonel was greatly grat- 

Nazareth, Samaria, Bethel, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem were full 
of interest Dr. Merrill, our consul in Jerusalem, was most at- 
tentive and gave us valuable instruction on the sacred sites. We 
parted with the Colonel with sincere regrets and returned to Beirut 
May 1 3th. 

On his way to Beirut he had visited Tarsus and resolved to 
found an institute there as a memorial to St. Paul While in 
Paris, on his way home, he learned that the sum of $6,000 had 
been cut off from the usual appropriation to the Syria Mission, 
whereupon he at once sent his check for that amount, filling the 
hearts of the missionaries and Syrian helpers with joy and grati- 
tude and a suitable letter of thanks was sent him by the mission. 
At a later day, we informed him that the Misk property adjoin- 
ing the American Mission Church in Beirut was for sale and he 
promptly sent on, September 8, 1887, his check for $7,000, by 
which aid, after waiting seventeen years, we have been able to 
buy that land and thus complete the mission property in Beirut 
in the most satisfactory manner and furnish a convenient manse 
for the native Syrian pastor. 

In 1886 he consummated his scheme for a St. Paul's Institute 
in Tarsus and in his will endowed it with $100,000. It is doing 
a truly Pauline work in Cilicia. His name will never be forgot- 
ten in Syria. The bronze tablet sent out by Mrs, Shepard now 
shows the passer-by " The Elliott F. Shepard Manse " as one of 
the permanent Protestant buildings in Beirut 

October 7, 1885, Rev. and Mrs. G. F. Dale, Misses Alice S. 
Barber, and Rebecca and Charlotte Brown reached Beirut harbour 
spent six days in quarantine bqfore landing. Miss B&rbej 

Death of Gerald F. Dale 499 

entered the Beirut Girls' School and the Misses Brown the school 
in Sidon. 

November 2/th there was a brilliant meteoric shower of Leonids 
lasting from 6 to 12 p. M. ; almost equal to the marvellous display 
of November 14, 1866. The ignorant part of the native popula- 
tion, especially the Moslems, were filled with terror. 

The year 1886 brought a threefold sorrow to the mission in 
Syria, in the death of Mr. Rizzuk Berbari and Mr. John Effendi 
Abcarius in Beirut and Rev. Gerald R Dale in Zahleh. 

Mr. Berbari, known as Muallim Rizzuk, was fifty years old and 
had been a teacher thirty-three years in Abeih with Mr. Calhoun, 
and in Beirut with Dr. Dennis. He was a thoughtful, scholarly, 
industrious, and faithful man. His home was a model Christian 
home and his children prove the value of the godly training of 
their father and mother. His great modesty only prevented his 
becoming the pastor of the Beirut church. He was the transla- 
tor and editor of various useful Arabic books. He died February 
1 6th, greatly lamented. 

Mr. John Abcarius was the finest specimen of a refined Christian 
gentleman I have known in Syria. He was the son of an Ar- 
menian Protestant, was trained in the mission schools, engaged in 
business in Egypt, and served as dragoman of H. B. M. consul- 
general in Beirut for years. Having acquired wealth, he was the 
most liberal giver in the Protestant community. His word was 
never questioned. His sterling integrity was an example and a 
proverb among the people. He was sound in judgment and in 
the trying times in the Beirut church he never flinched in his de- 
votion to the cause of order and discipline. Had he lived a few 
years longer it is probable that the sad schism in the Beirut 
church would never have taken place. He translated various 
works into Arabic and prepared an English- Arabic dictionary 
which is the standard work of that character for both Syria and 
Egypt. His memory is very precious to me. 

But to us the most bitter affliction of 1886 was the death in 
Zahleh, October 6th, of Rev. Gerald F, Dale, Jr. ? after fourteen 
yc;ars of labour in Syrja. 

500 Helps and Hindrances 

He was a rare and beautiful character. Dr. Hodge of Prince- 
ton described him as " the model gentleman, the model Chris- 
tian and the model scholar of Princeton." And he became the 
model missionary, courteous, kind, patient, prayerful, studious, 
progressive, a church organizer, and a church builder, and be- 
loved by the people. During the cholera epidemic in Sughbin 
in July, 1875, he went to the village, took medicines to the sick, 
and administered them, cheered the despondent, taught the 
native preacher how to use the " Hamlin Mixture " and the 
plague was stayed. His name is revered throughout the Zahleh 
and Baalbec field to this day and his death in October, 1886, 
was one of those sudden and paralyzing blows of the Father's 
afflictive rod which baffles our feeble understanding. 

April 1 6, 1879, he was married in Beirut to Miss Mary Bliss, 
only daughter of Rev. Dr. Bliss, president of the Syrian Protes- 
tant College. For seven years he kept bachelor's hall in Zahleh, 
and for seven years had a happy married life in a home bright- 
ened with domestic love and abounding in loving hospitality. In 
preaching, teaching, organizing churches, counselling the people, 
and settling their quarrels he was an acknowledged leader in 
Zahleh and the whole region of the Bookaa from Mount Hermon 
to Ras Baalbec. 

He was a remarkable man. He at the same time enforced 
your respect by his lofty motives and high character, won your 
love by his gentle and winning ways, and awakened your aston- 
ishment at^ his extraordinary zeal and capacity for work. The 
first text which flashed on my mind when the sad telegram 
reached us was " the zeal of thy house hath eaten me up." He 
was literally on fire with burning zeal. His name was a watch- 
word on every side. Corrupt government officials feared his 
stern integrity, the poor and oppressed loved him, and scores of 
young men and women whom he selected and put in the way of 
acquiring an education looked upon him as a benefactor. He 
could go into a Turkish court and defend the rights of the perse- 
cuted and oppressed and the wily officials would quail before 
him, And he would take a little child by the hand, pat her on 

Mr. Dale's Lovely Character 

the head, ask her name, and win her little heart. He was a fine 
preacher in Arabic, a true and trusty friend, a loving and beloved 
brother, and won the confidence and esteem of the ' natives all 
over Syria where he was known. 

Dr. Eddy wrote : " He was a beloved and honoured Christian 
brother, a most untiring Christian worker, an enthusiastic mis- 
sionary having faith in man and large hopes in the results of 
labour ; fertile in resources, genial in intercourse with all men, 
conciliatory in manner, making friends and keeping them/' 

Dr. Dennis wrote : " He was a strong and earnest missionary, 
and he loved his field with a perfect passion. Through summer 
heat and winter cold, in rain and mud, in snow and sleet, in 
withering siroccos as well as in the bright and glorious sunshine 
of that fair garden of Ccele-Syria, he was in the saddle visiting 
his parish and watching over his spiritual charge," 

Dr. George Ford wrote : " I am touched by the sorrowful 
exclamations of our Syrian brethren. Even those who knew 
him but slightly declare, ' He was wonderful. Never have 
we seen such untiring devotion and holy zeal as his.' In our 
devotional meetings his words were always aflame with holy fire, 
and his prayers those of one eminently a man of God, or to use 
his own favourite expression, < waiting upon God.' 

" He was most sincere, yet most sanguine. He was no less 
remarkable for gentleness than for energy, for superb push than 
for conspicuous modesty. His severity was always kind, and 
his friendliness always dignified." 

The cause of his death was a malignant pustule whose nature 
was not understood until too late. On the day before his death 
Dr. Bliss left Zahleh for Beirut and stopped at the house of Dr. 
Dennis in Aleih to rest. He reported Mr. Dale about the 
same, and Mrs. Dale confined to her room with an infant 
daughter, Geraldine, three days old. That very evening came a 
telegram from Zahleh of Mr. Dale's critical condition. A similar 
telegram was sent to Dr. Post in Beirut but owing to the in- 
efficiency of the telegraph employees it was twelve hours in 
going twenty-seven miles. Dr. Post and Dr. Bliss set out at 

502 Helps and Hindrances 

midnight and rode over Lebanon as fast as their horses could go, 
but reached Zahleh just too late. He had fallen asleep at 4 : 30 
A. M. They wired us and we joined them at the Aleih junction, 
and as the last rays of the setting sun gilded the tops of the 
cypresses we laid him to rest in the old mission cemetery in 
Beirut, where his little daughter Carrie Lyon was laid beside him 
only six days after. 

At the first meeting of the Syrian Mission held after his death, 
February 10, 1887, the Mission Memorial Minute expressed 
" their profound sorrow at the death of a fellow missionary so 
greatly beloved and so eminently useful Mr. Dale had been 
identified with the Zahleh station during his whole missionary 
life of fourteen years. He was a man of prayer, of great zeal and 
earnestness, fully consecrated to the work. He had impressed 
his spirit on many of those brought under his influence, and his 
memory throughout the mission is blessed. He had strong 
faith, was buoyant and sanguine, cheerful and hopeful even amid 
the hours of great difficulty and trial. His death is a loss to us 
as a mission and as individuals/' 

I often recall my visits to him in his bachelor days in Zahleh, 
Once it was midwinter. The narrow streets were piled high 
with snow shovelled from the roofs and it was bitterly cold. He 
did not feel the cold and had only a small stove in one room of 
his house. His dining-room was open on one side and I sat 
at the table in my overcoat and shawl with the mercury at freez- 
ing point, and while I shivered with the cold he did not seem to 
notice it. 

His death left such a burden of responsibility upon Mr. Green- 
lee, who had been but three years on the field and who was 
nervously worn out by excessive night study, that Mr, J. R. 
Jewett, a student of the Semitic languages in Beirut, was invited 
to assist him, and on Mr. Greenlee's leaving for America in 1887, 
Dr. Dennis and Mr. March took charge of the station assisted 
by Mr. Ford. During Mr. Dale's term of service church edifices 
had been erected in Zahleh, Moallaka, Kefr Zebed, Baalbec, 
Sughbin, Aiteneet, and Meshghara. He had also planned a 

Zahleh Remanned Government Oppression 503 

boys' boarding-school, and was preparing to open it when he 
was stung by that poisonous fly which cost him his life. 

In 1888 Rev. F. E. Hoskins was stationed in Zahleh, having 
married Miss H. M. Eddy of the Sidon Girls* School, and in 
November, 1890, they were joined by Rev. William Jessup and 
Mrs. Jessup. On the transfer of Mr. Hoskins, October, 1900, 
to Beirut, Rev. George C. Doolittle was called to Zahleh from 
Deir el Komr. 

Misses R. Brown and Emily Bird gave instruction in the Trip- 
oli Girls' School in the absence on furlough of Miss La Grange. 
Mrs. H. H. Jessup was absent five months in America having 
attended the dying bed of her mother. D. Stuart Dodge Jessup 
went with her to America to pursue his studies. 

At this time the repressive measures of the imperial author- 
ities against Protestant schools, hospitals, and churches, became 
so pronounced and open that seventy-one missionaries and teach- 
ers petitioned the ambassadors to obtain a suspension of this 
official persecution of Protestantism. 

The facts were recited in a pamphlet of twenty -one pages, and 
the different forms of aggression were classified under, 1st, Inter- 
ference with the personal work of the missionaries themselves ; 
2d, Interference with the building of the churches ; 3d, With the 
rights of religious worship ; 4th, With schools ; 5th, With hos- 
pital work ; 6th, A virtual prohibition of the right of petition. 

After long conference between the ambassadors and H. E. 
Munif Pasha, Minister of Public Instruction, His Excellency issued 
orders recognizing all existing schools and forbidding Interfer- 
ence with them. But the animus of the authorities towards all 
foreign institutions is that of suspicion and obstruction. For- 
merly this suspicion was confined to those of the European Pow- 
ers, as America was known to have no political designs on Turkey, 
but latterly it has assumed an anti-Christian phase which is far 
more dangerous not only to religious liberty but also to the peace 
of society* 

In December, 1886, the Suk el Gharb church edifice was ded- 
icated to the worship of God. The devotional services were 

504 Helps and Hindrances 

conducted by Messrs, Bird and Pond, and the sermon was 
preached by H. H. Jessup. Since the growth of the Suk Boys' 
Boarding-School, this church has been crowded for nine months 
of the year, and as Rev. Beshara Barudi is its ordained pastor, it 
occupies a centre of great influence in Lebanon. 

In November we were horrified by the news that a Moslem 
woman of the family of Aitany in our quarter of Beirut had 
killed herself because she gave birth to a girl after having had 
five sons. A few years before a man of the same sect committed 
suicide because of the birth of his seventh daughter. This feel- 
ing is common among the Moslems and among Asiatics gener- 
ally. The birth of a girl is a calamity and even among the 
Maronites they say " the threshold weeps forty days when a girl 
is born." 

In December there was a new outburst of official interference 
with the Arabic Scriptures. Seven boxes of vowelled Arabic 
Scriptures were sent to the custom-house to be shipped to the 
British and Foreign Bible Society in London. We usually had 
no difficulty in shipping books. All books entering the empire 
were examined by the censor, and if objected to were either con- 
fiscated or sent back to Europe or America. But the shipping 
of books out of the empire, especially as all our publications had 
the stamp of the imperial approval, met with no opposition. But 
these seven boxes were seized and the mudir declared that their 
export was forbidden. For ten days we were kept running to 
the pasha and the American consul, until finally by telegraphing 
to Constantinople we secured orders for the shipment of the 
boxes. This act was one of thousands of similar cases in which 
petty officials try to extort bribes and blackmail from all who fall 
into their hands. 

The prohibition of certain books, as e. g., those on Turkey, 
Syria, Mohammed, Islam, the Sultan, etc., amounts to nothing, as 
any book on any subject can be imported by the British, French, 
German, or Austrian mails. Several times the Turkish censor, 
after ordering a certain book to be reshipped to England or 
America, has asked me to order that same book to be imported 

Ancient Pottery Made to Order 505 

for him through the British post But for these foreign post- 
offices, all Europeans would be virtually cut off from news of the 
outside world, as letters and papers would be opened and read 
and in many cases destroyed. As it is, Europeans or Americans 
in the interior can get few, if any, foreign newspapers. Some of 
the Turkish officials, who desire universal reform, are trying to? 
improve the system, but as long as suspicion and espionage con- 
tinue, the European governments will not surrender their post- 

In February, in compliance with orders from the Waly of Da- 
mascus, we sent samples of all our Arabic publications to Damas- 
cus for examination and approval by the Mudir el Maarif, or 
director of public instruction. Some months after, the mudir 
came to our press and asked to see all our publications. They 
were all laid out on tables and he examined them and placed on 
every one the seal of approbation. Since that time we have had 
to send to Constantinople two manuscript copies of every book 
to be printed. After correction and sometimes mutilation by the 
imperial Mejlis, one copy is returned to us for printing. After 
printing and before publication a printed copy must be mailed to 
Constantinople for comparison and woe to the press that varies 
in printing from the corrected copy ! This same precautionary 
process must be gone through with by every daily, weekly, and 
monthly journal, a proof being sent to the local censor for ex- 

In February when on a visit to Sidon, Mr. W. K. Eddy told 
me of the brisk business carried on in Sidon in the manufacture 
of fraudulent Phoenician inscriptions, statuettes, vases, lamps, etc., 
made in the city and sent to the villages to be buried in the 
earth and then dug up and brought in for sale by cameleers hired 
for the purpose and fully in the secret. Innocent travellers are 
accosted by these impostors on the highways and pay high prices 
for the wonderful antiques. They are so well made as to deceive 
the very elect. 

I went with Mr. Eddy to Mejdeluna and Jun for Sunday serv- 
ices and communion. We had good congregations. In the first 

506 Helps and Hindrances 

village the house of the elder was built in the old-fashioned style. 
At one end of the room we could see the heads of the horned 
cattle eating from the manger, which was a trough extending 
along the sides of the room. The floor of the cattle-roorn was 
lower than the floor of the sitting-room, so that the heads of the 
cattle were in plain sight and they looked at us, eating their 
barley and straw with great calmness. One could see plainly 
how easy it was for Mary to lay the infant Jesus in such a 
manger, and Joseph no doubt kept the " horned oxen " back 
while Mary watched over her child. 

In Jun we visited the ruined house and grave of Lady Hester 
Stanhope, whose eccentric career is described by Dr. Thomson 
in " The Land and the Book." The grave has been plowed over 
again and again until it is hardly discernible. 

In Sidon I addressed the girls of the boarding-school, returning 
the next day to Beirut. 

On the I4th of March a letter came from Mr. Eddy of a won- 
derful discovery in Sidon of ancient tombs, containing some white 
polished marble sarcophagi of exquisite beauty and marvellous 
sculpture. Mr. Eddy had been into the tombs hewn in the solid 
rock thirty feet below the surface and had measured and de- 
scribed all the sarcophagi of white and black marble with scien- 
tific exactness. On the 2ist Dr. Eddy received from his son an 
elaborate report on the discovery which was intended to be sent 
to his brother Dr. Condit Eddy in New Rochelle, I obtained 
permission to make a copy for transmission to Dr. 'William 
Wright of London, and sent it by mail the next day. Dr. Wright 
sent it to the London Times with a note in which he expressed 
the hope that the authorities of the British Museum would " take 
immediate measures to secure these treasures and prevent their 
falling into the hands of the vandal Turk/' 

The Times reached Constantinople. Now it happened that 
the department of antiquities at that time as now was under the 
charge of Hamdi Beg, a man educated in Paris, an artist, an 
engineer, and well up in archaeology. When he saw that article 
of Mr, Eddy's in the Times and Dr. Wright's letter, he said to 


The Wonderful Fluid in the Sarcophagus 507 

himself (as he afterwards told us), " I'll show what the * Vandal 
Turk ' can do ! " 

He at once telegraphed to the Governor of Sidon to place a 
cordon of police around the tomb and allow no one to enter it 
until he should arrive. On April 29th he came. He called on 
Mr. Eddy and Dr. Ford and set about the removal of those 
priceless treasures of Greek and Phoenician sculpture. Dressed 
like a common navvy in a blouse and heavy shoes, he superin- 
tended the cutting of a tunnel from the orange gardens to the 
floor of those subterranean rock-hewn rooms, built a tramway, 
rolled out the colossal sarcophagi to the gardens, and then built 
his tramway down to the seashore where he constructed a wharf 
on piles. He then brought a steamer from Constantinople, had 
a large opening made in its side, floated the huge blocks, encased 
in wrappings and boxed, to the side of the steamer, drew them 
into the hold, and carried them away triumphant to Constanti- 
nople, where they remain in the museum, the admiration of the 
learned and unlearned tourists from all parts of the world. One 
of them is supposed to be the sarcophagus of Alexander the 
Great. Mr. W. K. Eddy deserves the credit of having first made 
them known, before the antiquity hunting vandals of Sidon had 
broken them to pieces. As it was, one of the exquisitely carved 
statuettes was broken and the fragments offered for sale, but it 
was finally secured for Hamdi Beg. 

A company of men and ladies from Beirut rode down on 
horseback May i8th to Sidon, and Hamdi Beg was most 
courteous in showing us the entire collection, those in the tombs 
and those already in the gardens. One day his patience was 
greatly tried. One sarcophagus, when the lid was opened, con- 
tained a human body floating in perfect preservation in a 
peculiar fluid. The flesh was soft and perfect in form and 
colour. But, alas, while Hamdi Beg was at lunch, the over- 
officious Arab workmen overturned it and spilled all the precious 
fluid on the sand. The beg's indignation knew no bounds, but 
it was too late and the body could not be preserved, and the secret 
of the wonderful fluid was again hidden in the Sidon sand. 


Mission Schools 

Girls' schools at Sidon and Tripoli The Gerard Institute The 
school at Suk el Gharb Mount Lebanon Hospital for the Insane. 

SIX other boarding-schools connected with the Presby- 
terian Mission have been opened since 1860. 
The girls' schools in Tripoli (1872), and Sidon (1862), 
and the boys' boardings-schools in Sidon (1881), and Suk el 
Gharb (1877), have had a large share in the training of the youth 
of Syria. 

In 1899 the boys* boarding-school at Shweir, Mount Lebanon, 
founded in 1869 by the Lebanon Schools Committee of the 
Free Church of Scotland, in Suk el Gharb, and thence removed 
to Shweir, was transferred to the Presbyterian Board of Missions. 
The principal, Rev, William Carslaw, M. D,, however, continues 
as its head, being supported by the United Free Church. The 
school has a high character for religious influence and scholar- 

Another boys' boarding-school has just been opened in 
Tripoli, under the care of Rev, Dr. Nelson. Its prospects are 
good, and the people are willing to pay for education. It has 
seventy-five paying boarders. The native Protestants in Hums 
have opened at their own expense a boys' boarding-school with 
ninety boarders and ninety day pupils. 


The Tripoli station had been occupied about twenty years, 
when the need of a girls* boarding-school became urgent, A day- 
school for girls had been opened in 1856 and continued, but it 
could not train teachers or benefit Protestant girls in the interior. 


Tripoli Girls' School 509 

Beirut Seminary was too far and its training not adapted to the 
peasant girls of Akkar and Safita, Hums, and Mahardeh. 

In September, 1873, Mrs. Shrimpton, an English lady, and 
Miss Kipp, of Auburn, N. Y., took charge of the school. In 
October, 1875, Miss Mary S. Hanford (now Mrs. Professor 
Moore of Andover) spent a year in teaching. In January, 1876, 
Miss Harriet La Grange began her work as head of the school, 
and was joined in May by Miss Emilia Thomson, of Beirut. In 
October, 1879, Miss Susan H. Calhoun came to aid Miss 
La Grange. In December, 1879, Miss Calhoun was transferred 
to Shwifat, and Miss Cundall took her place, and remained until 
her return to America in March, 1883. In November, 1883, 
Miss C. M. Holmes came, and remained, with one year's absence, 
until July, 1894. Misses R. Brown (1886), Bird (1887), M. T. 
M. Ford (1888), F. M. Jessup (1895), A. H. Jessup (1896), E. M. 
Law, and Mrs. Shaw taught for varying periods until Miss 
Bernice Hunting came in October, 1896. During her furlough 
in 1904-1905 Miss Gillbee of England took her place. 

Not less than fifteen different foreign teachers have been con- 
nected with it, but the success of the school has been owing to 
the faithful and continuous labours of Miss Harriet La Grange 
for thirty-three years. Two classes of girls have been enrolled in 
this school, the more aristocratic Greek girls of Tripoli, and the 
daughters of the fellahin of the interior. To combine these two 
in one school has been no easy task, but the patience, wisdom 
and fidelity of the teachers have surmounted ail difficulties. The 
daughters of the city have been highly educated and fitted for 
the wealthier homes, and the country girls have been fitted to be 
teachers, and to be wives of Syrian artisans and farmers. 

I was present at the graduating exercises of this school in 
1885, and delivered the annual address. At the close, Nicola 
Beg Nofel, the most prominent citizen of the Orthodox Greek 
community of Tripoli, made a brief address, speaking in the 
most eloquent and affectionate terms of the high esteem in which 
Miss La Grange was held by the people of Tripoli, and of the 
fruit of her labours in the moral, religious, and intellectual eleva- 

510 Mission Schools 

tion of the young women of Tripoli. It was one of the many 
similar testimonies given from time to time in Tripoli, Beirut 
and Sidon, to the high appreciation by the Syrian people of 
female education as conducted by the American missionaries. 

The English language has been taught, and certain of the 
pupils have learned French, but all have been trained in the 
Arabic language, and in the Scriptures. In the winter of 
1900-1901 a profound religious awakening moved the whole 

The number of boarding pupils in the Tripoli school from the 
beginning is about 300, thirty-six of whom have become 
teachers in Protestant, native Greek and Russian schools. 
Twelve of the present pupils are daughters of former pupils. 


A glance at the map of Syria, showing three American board- 
ing-schools for girls on the Syrian coast, within a distance of 
seventy miles, has led some to criticize a policy of such educa- 
tional concentration. But the explanation is easy. Each of 
these schools has been a providential growth. The Syrian 
people can best be reached through village schools. Schools are 
an entering wedge, and open the way for the Church and the 
organized Protestant community. But these schools must have 
teachers, and the girls' schools must have teachers from the 
villages where they are opened. To meet this need and to train 
educated wives for Protestant men, there must be boarding- 
schools. Dr. De Forest opened the first girls' boarding-school in 
Syria. On his departure, the Board sent Miss Temple and Miss 
Johnson, who transferred the school from Beirut to Suk el 
Gharb in 1858. The massacres of 1860 broke up the school, 
and the same circumstances which made it impolitic to reopen 
the school in Lebanon demanded its opening in Sidon, Miss 
Johnson having returned to America, Miss Mason came in her 
place, and as the Civil War in America had crippled the funds of 
the Board, Miss Mason was directed to open, in October, 1862, a 
day-school in Sidon, and girls from the outlying villages, in at- 

Sidon Girls 9 School 511 

tendance, were to board in the families of native Protestants in 
the city at the expense of the mission. 

Miss Mason resigned in 1865, having had the aid of Mrs. 
W. W. Eddy, and Mrs. Ford in carrying on the school. The 
mission then decided to place the school wholly in charge of a 
Syrian principal and teachers, under the supervision of Mrs. 
Eddy. This was a pet object with those who originated the 
Beirut Female Seminary, and the Syrian Protestant College. It 
succeeded in Beirut Seminary for six years and then failed, as 
the rarely gifted Syrian preceptress, Miss Rufka Gregory, had no 
successor, and Miss E. D. Everett was called to take her place. 
It was in reality never tried in the Syrian Protestant College nor 
could it have been tried. 

As the American Board were loath to send another American 
in Miss Mason's place, this plan of a Syrian principal was tried* 
But in the fall and winter of 1867, Mrs. E. H. Watson, an Eng- 
lish lady of long experience as a teacher, and her Syrian adopted 
daughter, Miss Handumeh Shekkur Watson, took charge of the 
school. Afterwards it was conducted by Misses Jacombs and 
Stainton, English ladies, from 1871 to July, 1876. These ladies 
were supported by the then prosperous " Society for the Promo- 
tion of Female Education in the East." The courtesy shown by 
this society in supplying Sidon Seminary so long was fully ap- 

Meantime the hope of placing it under a Syrian principal and 
staff was abandoned. In October, 1876, Miss Harriette M. Eddy, 
having completed her education in the United States and re- 
turned as an appointed missionary, took charge of the school. 
She continued in it for twelve years, until her marriage to Rev. 
F. E. Hoskins, August, 1888. During this period she had been 
assisted by Misses M. M. Lyons (1877-1880), E. Bird (1881), 
B. M. Nelson (1881-1885), S. Ford (1883), Rebecca Brown 
(1885-1892), Charlotte Brown (1885). On the return of Miss 
R. Brown to America, in 1892, Miss Ellen M. Law came to the 
school, and was followed in November, 1893, by her sister, Miss 
M. Louise Law. In 1892-1893, Miss M. T. M. Ford taught in 

Mission Schools 

Sidon Seminary, Mrs. Gerald F. Dale, Jr., in 1893-1894, Miss 
F. M. Jessup for the year 1900-1901 ; and in December, 1902, 
Miss Home came to Sidon and remained there nearly two years* 
The school is now (1908) under the charge of Misses Charlotte 
Brown and Louise Law* 

It now has about fifty boarding pupils, and quite a number of 
day scholars. In its curriculum it has vibrated between a purely 
vernacular basis and a broader one teaching the English language. 
It has aimed at admitting only Protestant girls, whether paying 
pupils or not, and its graduates form now the best element in the 
Christian womanhood of the whole mission field east and south 
of Sidon, in scores of villages and hundreds of homes. It does 
not aim at as high a standard of the Beirut Seminary, and its 
graduates often enter the Beirut " Teacher's Class," to fit them as 
first-class teachers, but it gives a solid and substantial education. 

It must be remembered that Syria has no public schools. The 
only government schools virtually receive only Moslem children, 
and exclude the Christian sects. The system is narrow, bigoted 
and short-sighted, intended to bolster up Islam, and ignore Chris- 
tianity. While nominally for all sects, yet probably not more 
than one per cent of their pupils are from the Oriental Christian 
sects" (the London Times, January, 1905 ).* 

Every Christian sect is, therefore, forced to educate its own 
children, and thus the children of the various sects in the empire 
grow up ignorant of each other, and the ancient racial and re- 
ligious hatreds are perpetuated. Protestant schools open their 
doors to all. Yet the authorities, fearing the light, threaten all 
Moslem children attending Protestant schools. As a rule the 
Protestant schools are so much better than others, that they are 
crowded with pupils of all sects. An educated Protestant young 
woman in a village, teaching the children, teaches the mothers as 
well, and becomes the counsellor and guide of all, respected and 
beloved. Each village school becomes a fountain of light and 

l The programme of the new liberal government includes common 
schools for all and universal education. 





Gerard Institute Industrial Work 513 

Sidon school has thus far educated 566 boarders and seventy- 
eight day pupils in the upper department. Of these 190 are 
known to have united with the Church ; and of these, about 140 
of the graduates have become teachers in Syria, Palestine, and 


This institution, now so well established, is the outgrowth of 
a missionary necessity. After a trial of fifteen years, it was found 
that, as a rule, the college graduates were not available as teach- 
ers of village schools, and as ordinary religious helpers. They 
were not content with the moderate salaries, nor a return to 
simple village life and habits. It was, therefore, voted in August, 
1 88 1, that, " in view of the want of a grade of teachers in the mis- 
sion, intermediate between college graduates and the graduates of 
common schools, the different stations (Sidon, Abeih, Tripoli, and 
Zahleh) be authorized to educate a class of pupil-teachers in the 
high schools at the central stations of each field, and to furnish 
in whole or in part the cost of the board of the pupils while 

In accordance with this vote, Sidon station authorized Mr. 
W. K. Eddy to open a boarding department in the day-school 
for boys in Sidon, October, 1881, the boys being chiefly from the 
neighbouring villages. A part of them brought their own food, 
and slept at the school. 

About 1882 a boys' boarding-school was also opened in Sukel 
Gharb, Mount Lebanon, by Rev. T. S. Pond, of the Abeih sta- 
tion, and one at a later date, 1885, in Zahleh, by Rev. G. F. 
Dale, Jr., but the boarding department of the school was discon- 
tinued at his death, October, 1886, after one year's trial, for lack 
of a missionary superintendent. 

In August, 1886, Dr. G. A. Ford, by appointment, read a paper 
before the mission on boys' boarding-schools. He said in part : 
" In view of the suspension of Abeih Seminary, the opening of 
the theological seminary in Beirut, the change in the college 
from Arabic to English, after the Abeih Seminary was closed, 

514 Mission Schools 

and the difficulty of depending on the college for plain teachers 
and preachers, and there being no institution preparatory to the 
theological seminary where a first-class Arabic or Bible educa- 
tion can be obtained ; and in view of the gradual disappearance 
of the men trained in Abeih under Mr. Calhoun, a falling off in 
the grade of native helpers ; the drain Egypt makes on the class 
of highly-educated men ; and the drifting of the boys' boarding- 
schools in Sidon and Suk beyond the scope of the vote under 
which they were founded ; it is evident that there is need of an 
intermediate education for Christian wojkers. A similar need is 
felt in England and America." Dr. Ford quoted the General As- 
sembly, the Methodists, Drs. Crosby, Cuyler, Craighead, Dykes, 
Spurgeon's Lay College, H. G. Guinness' Missionary Institute, 
and Moody's Bible Training-Schools in Chicago and Northfield, 

Mr. Calhoun had said, in 1859 : " To the Scriptures we give 
increased attention. The Bible is doing more to unfold and ex- 
pand the intellectual powers and to create careful and honest 
thinkers, than all the science we teach, and at the same time is 
the chief instrument in ridding mind and heart of those hateful 
doctrines and traditions, which are the heritage of these sons of 
the Church (i. e.> Greeks, Maronites and Catholics)." 

The plea for an intermediate training-school was urged on 
the ground of enlargement, simplicity, rapidity and economy. 
Dr. Ford urged that two schools be opened, one a vernacular 
Bible training-school, excluding English ; the other a thorough 
Arabic academic course, with English enough to enable pupils to 
enter the college. 

In 1890 Mr. March read a paper on boys' boarding-schools, 
urging that the mission should set apart for this work the best 
man with the strongest mind and warmest heart that the mission 
can afford. He urged that the college course is too long and ex- 
pensive, and its graduates cannot supply teachers for the common 
schools. In fact, up to 1890, seventy-two of the boys trained in 
the mission boarding-schools had become teachers in the com- 
mon schools. 

The mission had often discussed the need of an industrial de- 

The Orphanage Mrs. Wood's Liberality 515 

partment in our training-schools. The educated boys were leav- 
ing school with no means of support. All could not be teachers. 
Education of the head without the hand had unfitted them to 
work as their fathers had before them. What Syria needed was 
a body of educated men who could work as carpenters, tailors, 
shoemakers and farmers, and support themselves. Thus far much 
had been said, but nothing done. To Dr. G. A. Ford is due the 
credit of having made the ideal actual. In June, 1893, the mis- 
sion voted approving the establishment of an industrial orphan- 
age for boys, under evangelical management and American 
superintendence, and asking for an endowment of $25,000, apart 
from the cost of property, building and equipment In 1894, Dr. 
Ford presented an elaborate paper on industrial training, and in 
January, 1895, it was agreed that industrial training be begun as 
an integral part of Sidon Academy, now Gerard Institute. 

In 1894, $15,000 were raised: $6,500 by Mrs. Wood, $4,000 
by Dr. Ford, and $4,550 by Dr. H. H. Jessup, and in 1895 the 
Miyeh-wa-miyeh farm was purchased, and the progress of the in- 
dustrial school approved by the mission. Carpentry, tailoring, 
shoemaking and masonry were begun and successfully carried on. 
Eight thousand dollars was expended for land, $4,000 for addi- 
tional buildings, $1,000 for implements, $1,000 for raw materials 
for trades, and $1,000 for running expenses the first year. Mrs. 
George Wood of New York, who had already munificently given 
towards the erection of Wood Hall for the Sidon Boys' School, 
and the Judaideh school and dwelling-house, now gave new 
proofs of her broad-minded generosity. Through her aid more 
land was purchased. Artesian boring apparatus was imported, 
with the aid of Mrs. Livingston Taylor of Cleveland, who gave 
$4,000 for that department of the work and engineers came from 
America and made successive borings for water. Much the most 
successful one is in the campus of Wood Hall. Pipes were driven 
down 900 feet, and a stream of pure water rose nearly to the sur- 
face from over 700 feet depth, and an hydraulic ram forces the 
water up to an elevated tank, from which it flows to the Gerard 
Institute and the girls 1 boarding-school at the other end of the 

51 6 Mission Schools 

city, supplying all the needs of the American colony, with a sur- 
plus that could be sold to the city. 

In May, 1900, the name of Sidon Academy was changed to 
Gerard Institute, in honour of the maiden name of Mrs. George 
Wood. This name covers the literary, industrial and orphan de- 

An orphan house and school building has been erected on the 
Miyeh-wa-rniyeh farm, known as Beulah Home, and extensive 
irrigating works have been constructed in the valley, on the 
northeast, vastly increasing the value and productiveness of the 
farm. This farm with its wheat fields, mulberry, olive and orange 
orchards, is expected to yield an annual net income of at least 
$1,000, for the support of the orphanage. Ramapo Hall is now 
being erected on the farm on an elevation overlooking Sidon and 
the sea. 

During the visit of Rev. Dr. Brown to Syria in 1902, Mrs. 
Wood added to her already generous benefactions the following 
splendidly munificent proposal : 

" Having long cherished a desire to add to the permanence and 
scope of the Mission Training-School for Boys at Sidon, it gives 
me double pleasure to connect the offers I am prepared to make 
with the auspicious occasion of your first secretarial visit to Syria. 
Allow me, then, through you, to make to the mission and the 
Board, for the benefit of Gerard Institute, the following offer : 

" l. Fifteen hundred dollars in cash already loaned by me to 
the stock account of the industrial department of the Gerard In- 

"2. Such a sum in cash (not to exceed $10,000) as may be 
required to erect needful buildings at ' Dar Es Salaam.' 

" 3. The loan of such a further sum in cash without interest, 
as might be required to carry out any plans 1 the Board and mission 
may decide upon, said loan being fully covered in their judgment 
by assets of the mission for the purpose becoming available in a 
few years' time. 

11 4, The title deeds for the new building for the orphans 
1 With reference to the consolidation of the boarding-schools. 


Having an outing by the sea. (The Sea Castle of Sidon is at the right.) 

A Munificent Gift 

known as Beulah Home ' with the large tract of land on which 
It stands and the forest tract near by. 

"5. An annual sum (not exceeding $1,000) to cover any 
needed outlay towards securing more efficient instruction In the 
manual department. 

" 6. An annual sum (not exceeding $1,000) to cover the cost 
of maintaining the orphan department with a maximum of twenty 
boys, including the wages of the farm overseer. 

" When the plans of the mission relative to these offers shall 
have been matured, I shall be ready to take all requisite measures 
to satisfy the Board and the mission regarding the security of my 
offers and their permanent validity.' 1 

This offer was unanimously and cordially accepted by the 
Syria Mission and by the Board, so that the Gerard Institute 
now has a larger financial support than any other boarding- 
school in the world connected with our work. I cannot 
speak too highly of the value of Mrs. Wood's intelligent, sym- 
pathetic and self-sacrificing cooperation. She has given un- 
stintedly of her time, her strength and her money, and without 
her assistance the institute never could have become what it is 

The institute Is situated in the city of Sidon, but while the sit- 
uation is convenient, it was too small before Mrs. Wood's offer, 
and it is altogether impossible from the view-point of the enlarged 
plans which her generosity has permitted. There can be no ex- 
pansion in Sidon proper, for the adjoining property on both sides 
is owned by parties who will not sell, while the tract across the 
street is a Moslem cemetery. It is, moreover, desirable that such 
a school should have a larger area than would be possible in a 
crowded Oriental city, especially as the farm Is to form a promi- 
nent feature of the work of the school. Accordingly a large 
tract of land has been secured about two miles from the city. It 
lies on the summit and slope of a high hill and commands one of 
the noblest views in all the East. It is a superb site for an insti- 
tution ; near enough to the city to be easy of access, and yet far 
enough away to give ample room for Development. The Beulali 

518 Mission Schools 

Home Orphanage is already established at this site, and the whole 
institute will be transferred to it as soon as the necessary build- 
ings can be erected, though it is probable that some work, partic- 
ularly the day-schools, will continue to be done at the old site. 
The industrial departments are (i) farming and gardening ; (2) 
masonry and plastering; (3) carpentry and joining ; (4) tailoring; 
(5) blacksmithing, etc. ; (6) shoemaking. 

A serious difficulty has been experienced in finding suitable 
Christian instructors. None of the missionaries had the requisite 
technical knowledge, and the resources of the institute did not 
permit the employment of suitable superintendents from the 
United States. As a temporary makeshift, therefore, arrange- 
ments were made with local tailors, carpenters, masons, etc., they 
to give free instruction to such boys as wished to learn their re- 
spective trades and to take the profits of the shops for their com- 
pensation. This plan has worked well enough financially. It 
has given foremen without cost to the institute, while on the 
other hand, free student labour has been a sufficient incentive to 
the local workmen. The difficulty is that these foremen have 
had, usually, no thorough training themselves, their knowledge 
being limited to the native methods and that they are apt to lack 
the patience and skill required to impart what they do know to a 
lot of boys who may be but languidly interested. Even more se- 
rious is the fact that such foremen, while then of excellent charac- 
ter, are for the most part not evangelical Protestants, so that they 
are unable to exert that spiritual influence which we regard as so 
essential. In time, it is fair to expect that graduates of the insti- 
tute will become available for foremen in the various departments, 
and special effort should be made to develop the right men for 
this purpose. But for so large a school, a foreign mechanical su- 
perintendent is urgently needed, and with the added resources 
now made available by Mrs. Wood's offer, it is hoped that Dr. 
Ford can carry out his long cherished desire to obtain a foreign 
assistant, who will unite mechanical skill and missionary charac- 

The boarding section of the primary department has now 

The Best Kind of Dividends 519 

been removed to the Beulah Home on the farm. The orphan- 
age edifice has been enlarged, and now has some fifty pupils. 
Mr. Stuart D. Jessup has entered upon his duties as teacher In 
Gerard Institute in the city. Buildings are now in process of 
erection (1909) on the farm hill. The main building is to be 
known as Ramapo Hall, the funds having been given to Dr. Ford 
by the Ramapo Church. 

In December, 1903, Mr. Stuart D. Jessup in his annual report 
of the institute gave some valuable facts about the training of 
native helpers. In this paper it was stated that of 1,019 students 
who have attended Gerard Institute up to 1902, 164 have taught 
in mission schools for from one to fourteen years, or nearly eight 
per year. 

Of 144 native helpers now employed by the mission, forty- 
seven received their training in whole or in part at Gerard, 
twenty-eight at Suk el Gharb, twenty-three at the college, six- 
teen at the old Abeih Academy, six at Shweir, fourteen at other 
mission schools and ten had no academic training, 

Of the thirty-five native preachers in the Syria Mission, 
ordained and licentiates, six received no academic training. Of 
the remaining twenty-nine, ten were trained in the old AbeiL 
Academy, ten at Gerard, four at Suk, three at the college, and 
two at other mission schools. 

It is clear, then, that such schools as Gerard and Suk are a 
necessity as long as native Syrian teachers and helpers are needed. 
The teaching of English in these schools is justified, 1st, by the 
fact that many of the boys intend to enter the college ; 2d, that 
those who become teachers of common schools may be able to 
teach the rudiments of English. 

The English occupation of Egypt and the emigration of tens 
of thousands of Syrians to America have given the English 
language an impetus in these old lands of Western Asia, which 
obliges all schools to teach English or lose their pupils. Emi- 
grants are constantly writing to their friends left behind in 
Syria, Be sure and send your children to the American and 
English schools ! " 

520 Mission Schools 


In the fall of 1883, this school was opened by Rev. T. S. Pond, 
who conducted It until June, 1889, It began with thirty-five 
boarders, and when Mr. Pond left Syria it had ninety-eight. 
During the six years it had about 250 pupils. 

Rev. O. J. Hardin took charge of it November 9, 1889, and 
the whole number under instruction during these sixteen years 
(1905) has been 852, from all the Syrian sects, Protestant, Greek, 
Maronite, Catholic, Druse, Moslem and Jewish. Of the gradu- 
ates, eighty-nine have been teachers ; twelve have been preachers ; 
five have been in the theological classes, and 133 have entered 
the Syrian Protestant College. Mr. Hardin aims not only to 
prepare boys for college, but to fit them for usefulness whether 
they become teachers or not. Arabic, English and French are 
well taught. Miss Effie Hardin has given her services gratui- 
tously, and has been most successful i-n teaching English so 
that her pupils are well prepared for freshman year in the 

It was proposed at one time to suspend the Suk school, or 
merge it in the boarding-school at Shweir, or in the Tripoli 
school. But it has a distinct vocation from its situation in Druse 
Lebanon. The climate is healthful, summer and winter. 

The buildings of cut stone are the property of the Board of 
Missions, and the original structure was built under the auspices 
of the Scotch " Lebanon Schools," and dedicated in June, 1870, 
by the celebrated Dr. Alexander Duff, and his co-commissioner, 
Principal J. Lumsden, whose names were carved in the massive 
limestone blocks near the entrance on the west wall of the build- 
ing. Previous to that visit, the schools had been under the 
control of a Syrian superintendent, but in 1872, Rev. John Rae 
was sent out from Scotland to take charge as superintendent. 
As the Syrian, who had assured Dr. Duff that the property was 
bought with Scotch funds, refused to surrender the keys to Mr. 
Rae, legal proceedings were entered upon and Mr. Rae removed 
to Shweir in 1874, where he was succeeded by Dr. Carslaw in 
i 89. Tfe$ Scotch Mission, having secured through the 

A New Departure in the Orient 521 

court the possession of the Suk el Gharb buildings after litiga- 
tion for fifteen years, sold them to the American Mission In 
March, 1889. 

Dr. Carslaw had been a lay medical missionary in Madras, and 
was ordained by the mission presbytery In Beirut, December, 
1883, and in 1900 the Lebanon Schools Committee transferred all 
right and title to the Shweir property, consisting of a manse, a 
church and two school buildings, to the American Presbyterian 
Board of Foreign Missions. The United Free Church retain 
Dr. Carslaw as their missionary during his lifetime. 


On the i/th of April, 1896, it was my privilege to invite a 
number of foreign and Syrian residents of Beirut to meet in my 
study, to hear from Theophilus Waldmeier a statement of his 
plan to found a hospital for the insane in Syria, As a result ten 
of those present consented to act as an executive committee. 
Rev. John Wortabet, M. D., was elected president, H. H. Jessup 
secretary, Charles Smith, Esq., treasurer, and the other members 
were Theophilus Waldmeier, founder and business superintendent, 
Messrs. Shoucair and Khirullah, Syrians, Drs. Brigstocke and 
Graham, English, Dr. W. T. Van Dyck, American, and Pastor 
Otto Fritze, German. 

Mr. Waldmeier was then authorized to visit Europe, Great 
Britain, and the United States, to interest the public and to raise 
funds to buy land and erect buildings. A native of Germany, 
yet resident in the East for thirty-eight years and of large ex- 
perience in buying the site and erecting the four large edifices 
of the Friends 1 Mission in Brummana, Mount Lebanon, speaking 
German, English, French, and Arabic, and fully consecrated to 
devote the remaining years of his life to the relief of the mentally 
afficted as a service to Christ and humanity, he was admirably 
qualified for the laborious task, and succeeded well. He formed 
auxiliary committees in Switzerland, Holland, Germany, England, 
Scotland, Ireland, Canada, and the United States, and raised 

522 Mission Schools 

about ten thousand dollars. A central committee was formed in 
London composed of such men as Sir Richard Tangye, Dr. F. A. 
Elkins, Dr. R. Fortescue Fox, Dr. R. Percy Smith, Dr. David 
Yellowlees, Dr. A. T. Schofield, Dr. Bedford Pierce, Rev. J. 
Guinness Rogers, D. D., and Dr. R. Kingston Fox, and others, 
and a board of trustees was formed consisting of Wm. A. 
Albright and Joel Cadbury of Birmingham and Rev. C. A. 
Webster, M. D., and Rev, H. H. Jessup, D. D., of Beirut 

Mr. Waldmeier returned to Syria in 1897, and after l n g 
searching and many journeys by sub-committees, we finally 
selected as the best site the place known as El Asfuriyeh, a 
beautiful elevation on one of the lower spurs of Lebanon, 
forty-five minutes from Beirut, yet under the Christian gov- 
ernment of Lebanon, 400 feet above sea-level, with an abundant 
supply of pure spring water, a large tract of land, three stone 
buildings, fine quarries of indurated cretaceous limestone for build- 
ing, a fertile soil, and a most salubrious, cheerful, and attractive 

We purchased it from Hishmet Beg, a courteous and high 
minded Turkish gentleman, long known as the upright treasurer 
of the Lebanon government, for about $9,000, and experience 
has proved that it was a most economical purchase. There 
are now thirty-four acres of land. 

Nine years have passed. Twelve stone buildings have been 
erected ; the administration building (enlarged), the men's ward, 
and isolating ward, the Holland kitchen, Dr. Thwaites' house, the 
house of Mr. Baumkamp, head nurse, the chapel, the clinic, the 
porter's lodge, the wash-house, and the tenant farmer's house. In 
addition to a perennial flowing spring of pure water, it has several 
rain-water cisterns. 

More than 600 patients have received treatment, of whom more 
that thirty-three per cent, have been discharged cured. The aver- 
age number treated annually is 1 5 5 . This being the only organized 
hospital for the insane in Syria, patients come from Syria, Palestine, 
Egypt, Asia Minor, Cyprus, Malta, Persia, India, and foreigners 
from Russia, Italy, Germany and Austria. They represent ten of 

Former Pitiable Fate of the Insane 523 

the religious sects of the land : Mohammedans, Maronites, Jews, 
Orthodox Greeks, Druses, Papal Greeks, Metawilehs, Armenians, 
Roman Catholics, and Protestants. 

The work is international and undenominational, and appeals 
to the liberal in all lands and of all forms of religious faith. Un- 
like insane hospitals in civilized lands, it has no state aid and de- 
pends upon voluntary contributions. 

When we were planning for its organization in 1896-1897, Dr. 
Cornelius Van Dyck said that " we need not expect the people to 
pay for the cure of their insane," but the facts prove that they will 
and do pay. 

In 1900 received from patients 156 



( ( f f\f\ A t 

" 1905 
" 1906 
" 1907 
" 1908 


< " <* 






This is a remarkable result. Yet there are on an average thirty 
poor patients, unable to pay, who add largely to the deficit in the 
annual income. 

As the expenses of the hospital amount to about $10,000 
a year, about $5,000 must come from outside donations, and 
an endowment is needed which would net the amount per 

Under the business superintendence of Mr. Waldmeier, and the 
medical care of Dr. Thwaites, just succeeded by Dr. Watson 
Smith, with the aid of Mr. Baumkamp and Miss Ashley, with a 
corps of native male and female nurses, the institution is well 
equipped. Before this hospital was opened, the treatment of the 
insane was cruel beyond belief. They were beaten, chained, con- 
fined in damp, dark dungeons, or given over to priests who pro- 
fessed to exorcise the demons by cruel torture in the dark cavern 

Mission Schools 

of the Convent of Kozheiya in Northern Lebanon. Some are 
cauterized in the head with red-hot irons. One priest in Brum- 
mana had an insane woman bound to a stone pillar head down- 
ward, read his formula for exorcism, fumigating her with 
incense until she began to curse him, when he beat her on the 
face with his large silver cross until the blood streamed down 
upon it. 

When she was released and had recovered her strength she 
ran six miles down the mountain to the sea and drowned her- 

In contrast the people say, This hospital is the crown of good- 
ness and mercy." A native writer declares the buildings, in their 
neatness and cleanliness, to be more like palaces than insane 
hospital wards. Dr. A. T. Schofield of London who visited 
Asfuriyeh declared it to be " a model institution." 

Dr. Mauser, director of the large Heldburghausen Asylum in 
Germany, in 1906 wrote, " I am astonished to find such an ex- 
cellent asylum in this country : the houses are well built with free 
admission of light and fresh air, clean, comfortable, and substan- 
tial, and what pleases me above all is the absence of the undesir~ 
able walls, which even till now surround some of our asylums in 
Europe. The 'bed treatment' of the maniacal and excited 
patients is much better than the strong ' jackets.* " 

" The hospital now stands," as Mr. Waldmeier says in the re- 
port, March, 1907, " as a beautiful object-lesson before us, in which 
a loving, Christian, humane treatment of the patients, combined 
with modern alienistic science, can be observed. Iron chains 
have to give way to freedom, atrocities and cruelties to Christian 
love and kindness, exorcism to sound reason, filthy and dangerous 
to clean and airy rooms, and ignorance to the light of the Gospel 
and civilization." 

This work, though not under a missionary board, is a child of 
missions, and under the management of Christian men. I regard 
the time and strength I have given to it as secretary for ten years, 
as work done for Christ and His suffering ones, and in this respect 
it is Christian missionary work. 

The Hospital Treasurers 


R. W. Brigstocke, M. D., 

Rev. H. H. Jessup, D. D., 

C. Sigrist, Consul and Banker, 

Theophilus Waldmeier, 
Founder and Business Su- 

Harris Graham, B. A., M. D. 

Rev. C. A. Webster, B. A., 


Rev. G. M. Mackie, D. D. 
Franklin T. Moore, M.D., 


]. J. Effendi Shoucair. 
A. Effendi Kheirallah. 
Walter Booth Adams, M. A., 

Watson Smith, M. R. C. S., 

Medical Superintendent. 

London Treasurer^ Lady Tangye, 35 Queen Victoria Street, 
London, E. C. 

Philadelphia, Pa., Treasurer, Asa S. Wing, 409 Chestnut Street. 
New York 2reasurer t H.enry W. Jessup, Esq., 31 Nassau Street. 

Sketches (1887) 


APRIL 6th the Beirut Boarding-School for Girls cele- 
brated Its twenty-fifth anniversary, and Miss Eliza D. 
Everett, who had been nineteen years at the head of the 
school, bade her pupils good-bye in view of her departure for 
America. After an absence of two years, she returned in 1889 
and remained six years until June, 1895, when she resigned and 
returned to America, and died February, 1902. She thus fulfilled 
twenty-five years of successful teaching in the Beirut school. 
She was attractive in appearance, highly intellectual, thoroughly 
cultivated and consecrated to the service of Christ and her Syrian 
sisters. She was revered and loved by her pupils, and in 1904,, 
the alumnae of the school in Egypt presented to the institution a 
valuable oil painting of Miss Everett. It is impossible to estimate 
the amount of good wrought by her in the Christian homes of 
Syria and Egypt. They rise up on every side and call her blessed. 


Nofel Effendi Nofel, one of the finest specimens of Christian 
manhood I have ever met, died August 9, 1887, in Tripoli. 
His family was the famous Nofel family of Tripoli, and his father, 
a government official, was tortured to death by impalement, be- 
cause he would not yield to the infamous orders of that monster, 
Jezzar Pasha, of Acre. 

When I removed to Beirut in 1860, Nofel Effendi was chief 
clerk in the Beirut custom-house, and a fine scholar in Arabic 
and Turkish. Early in 1862, he united with the Beirut church 
and became a vigorous champion of the evangelical faith. Dur- 
ing the summer he passed through a somewhat remarkable re- 


Nofcl Effendi 527 

ligious experience, a veritable temptation by the devil. He was 
troubled with blasphemous thoughts which increased to such an 
extent that he gave himself up as lost His language was not 
unlike that of Bunyan in his " grace abounding," and only after 
protracted struggles in prayer and study of God's Word and 
finally resolving to go forward and do his duty in both light and 
darkness, did he find any relief. The Spirit of God led him out 
into the light although through a painful struggle. 

Nofel Effendi wrote several valuable Arabic works, a history 
of. the religions of the East, a history of the Arabs, and a reply 
to the Romish priests. 

After removing to Tripoli in 1868, he became an elder in the 
Tripoli church, and was a pillar indeed, a man of strong faith, noble 
bearing, great modesty, a model of courtesy and hospitality, and 
a wise counsellor to people of all sects who came to consult him. 
His success as an author was more remarkable as he knew no 
foreign tongue but Turkish, and his early opportunities for study 
were extremely meagre. Had he the thorough training of the 
present course (1908) of the Syrian Protestant College, he would 
have made his mark throughout the East. As it was he was one 
of the builders of the fabric of reform in modern Syria. 

In the fall there was an evident work of the Spirit among a 
number of young men from Hasbeiya living in Beirut, and among 
the students in Abeih Seminary* 

July 2ist my two daughters, Mary and Amy, and my sister 
Fanny left, under the care of Dr. and Mrs. Fisher, for America. 
This separation from children during the formative period of their 
lives is one of the trials of a foreign missionary. But it is inevi- 
table, and is no more than foreigners in business or civil or mili- 
tary service have to endure. A child may remain in Syria until 
the age of fifteen with safety to health, but the training in the 
home land is far superior in surroundings, in the Christian at- 
mosphere, and the higher standard of morals and life than any- 
thing the children have sqen around them in such a land as this, 
that we may well make the sacrifice and bear the separation for 

528 Sketches 

their intellectual and spiritual welfare. The missionary parent 
can trust a covenant-keeping God to care for His children, and in 
the great majority of cases the children of missionaries have 
proved to be an honour to their parents and true members of 
the Church of Christ. 

From beyond the sea came tidings of the death of Rev. D. M. 
Wilson, formerly of Tripoli and Hums. He came to Syria in 
March, 1848, and left for America in May, 1861, after about 
thirteen years of faithful service. The aristocratic airs of the 
people of Tripoli did not suit him, and he rejoiced to remove in 
1856 to Hums, where among the more simple minded and in- 
genuous Greek weavers of that semi-pastoral city, he took delight 
in preaching and explaining the Word of God. 

He was the founder of the church in Hums, now one of the 
most flourishing and liberal of all the churches in Syria. For 
three years I corresponded with him by camel post, a shoemaker 
in Tripoli and a weaver in Hums acting as our postal agents. 
His letters were always pithy and pointed and I regret that I 
have none kept on file. No Syrian missionary was more mighty in 
the Scriptures and more facile in handling the Arabic proof texts. 
He soon had crowds of the young men of Hums gathered nightly 
at his house to hear the Word of God. 

In 1860 he narrowly escaped being shot by the Arabs, at a 
time when the whole country was in a state of civil war and ter- 
rorism. He had heard rumours of trouble in Lebanon, and set 
out with his teacher, Mr. Sulleeba Jerawan, for Tripoli to consult 
Mr. Lyons as to duty in the threatening state of affairs. When 
three miles from Hums, by the bridge of the Orontes, a body of 
mounted Arabs surrounded them and held a parley as to their 
fate. Not supposing that Mr. Wilson understood Arabic, one 
of them said, " Let us kill them, strip them, and throw them into 
the river." Another said, No, we cannot do that without orders 
from the emir." So they took them several miles south to the 
camp. When the emir came, they told him their story and 
asked why his men had arrested them on the Sultan's highway. 

D. M. Wilson J. Lorenzo Lyons 529 

The emir said, " Do you not know that the whole land is rising, 
and we hear that orders have come to kill all foreigners and na- 
tive Christians ? Why did you not take an armed guard from 
the government? I will take you back to Hums and hand you 
over to the governor. He can give you a guard. But do 
not venture out again alone on the road." It was a lesson to 
Mr. Wilson and has been a lesson to many missionaries since. I 
see no need of bearing arms. If the country is safe, you do not 
need them, If not, you can get a guard. 

In March, my old schoolmate and townsman, my seminary 
chum, and missionary colleague, Rev. J. L. Lyons, died in 
Florida, aged sixty-four years. We were brought up in the 
same village, Montrose, Pa., decided on the missionary work 
about the same time. Our room in Union Seminary was the 
rallying-place for students considering the missionary question. 

Rev. J. Lorenzo Lyons was born April 18, 1824, graduated at 
Williams College in 1851, and at Union Theological Seminary 
May, 1854. He sailed for Syria November 19, 1854, having 
married Miss Catherine N. Plumer, of South Berwick, Maine, in 
October. He spent a year in Beirut and Lebanon, when I joined 
him and we were stationed together at Tripoli, Syria, where he 
remained until June, 1861, when he was transferred to Sidon 
where he laboured for three years. 

During the massacre summer of 1860, he was actively engaged 
in visiting the refugee Christians and desolated villages of the 
Baalbec district, distributing charity to the needy. A serious 
illness in February, 1857, affected his head and sight to such an 
extent that for years his writing and most of his reading were 
done by the aid of his devoted wife. He returned to America in 
June, 1863, and for five years was confined for the most part of 
the time to his bed. He then rallied in a most remarkable 
manner, and from the year 1871 to ^1888 was engaged as district 
agent of the American Bible Society for Florida and Georgia. 
His foreign missionary experience, his affability, his knowledge 
of human nature, and his conscientious fidelity to the work 

530 Sketches 

Master made him acceptable to the people. He had a keen sense 
of humour, was a fine musician, fond of travel, genial in his inter- 
course with the Syrian people, and wise in counsel. He longed 
to return to Syria but his physicians would not consent 

His uncle, Rev. Lorenzo Lyons, was one of the first mission- 
aries to the Sandwich Islands, His widow, and son John Piumer, 
who graduated at Harvard in 1882, survive him. 

In May we had a visit from General Haig, an English officer, 
explorer, and missionary. He delivered a lecture on his recent 
journeys in Southern Arabia, to Sunaa in Yemen, the Arabia 
Felix of the ancients, a country of surpassing beauty and fertility, 
on high table-land, 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea-level, 
abounding in rich productions. From Sunaa, he went south to 
Aden, among friendly Arab tribes. He strongly urged sending 
missionaries to Arabia. He went to Muscat, Bahrein, and Bus- 
sorah and thence to Bagdad. He was ten days of twenty- one 
hours each in crossing the plains from Bagdad to Damascus. 
The camels browsed as they loped lazily along. But they got 
through safely. General Haig was a fine specimen of the Chris- 
tian British officer. 


On the 6th of July, 1888, died Dr. Michaiel Meshaka, the 
Martin Luther of Syria. He was an able physician, self-taught 
by study ing the works of the Boulak Press in Cairo, Egypt *He 
was a fine astronomer and had calculated all the eclipses for a 
century to come. 

Born a Roman Catholic in Mount Lebanon, March 2, 1799, he 
lapsed into skepticism, but was converted through the labour of 
Dr. Eli Smith and Dr. Van Dyck, and especially by studying 
" Alexander's Evidences of Christianity," and " Keith on 

A master of the Arabic language, he now used his pen to 
expose the unscriptural errors of the papacy and wrote a series 
of books, at times $s caustic and severe as anything Luther ever 

H * 
a '? 

* : 



K fl 


Dr. Mesfaaka __ 

wrote, but full of argument* Scripture, historica* ^nce, and 
Irresistible logic. His books liad a wide circulation nd had a 
mighty influence in shaking the despotic sway of the priesthood 
over the minds and consciences of the Syrian Oriental Christians. 
He was a great friend of the Emir Abd el Kadir and of all the 
Mohammedan sheikhs and Ulema. Pashas and European con- 
suls consulted him and he was made American vice-consul In 
Damascus. Some of his historical writings are still in manu- 
script, being too personal as to the powers that be to make it 
safe for his family to publish them. 1 

He was a warm friend of the American and Irish Presbyterian 
missionaries in Damascus, Dr. Paulding, Dr. Lansing, Dr. Barnett, 
Dr. J. Crawford, Dr. S. Robson, Dr. J. L. Porter, Mr. Frazier, and 
the lamented Graham who was killed in the massacre of 1860. 
We have already noted his escape from massacre. 

In July, 1888, Rev. F. E. Hoskins, who had taught three years 
in the Syrian Protestant College and then returned to America to 
complete his theological studies, reached Syria and was married 
August 22d/ito Miss Harriette M. Eddy of the Sidon Girls' School. 
They were stationed in Zahleh where they remained until 1900, 
when they were transferred to Beirut, owing to the death of Mrs. 
Hoskins' father, Dr. W. W, Eddy, so long a member of the Beirut 

The same year, October 3ist, Rev. and Mrs. W. S. Nelson ar- 
rived in Syria and began work in Tripoli. 

Six theological students graduated in June. Three of them are 
in business in America, one is dead, and two are now (1908) 
faithfully preaching the Gospel in Syria. Thus far, no means 
have been found by which our theological students can be bound 
to remain and serve their own country. The temptation to 
amass wealth by emigration is the touchstone by which the 
tone, character, and spirit of young men are tested. Those who 

1 Under the new free Ottoman government, his history, "Meshed ul 
Aiyan," has now been published by the "Helal" Press in Cairo, an 
Arabic book of 200 pages. 

53 2 Sketches 

stand the test and resist the temptation are of good stuff and can 
be relied upon. But alas, a considerable number yield to the 
tempter and are lost to the Church of Syria and it is difficult to 
say whether they are ever connected with the Church in America. 

H. E. Wassa Pasha, Mutserrif of Mount Lebanon, was at one 
time induced by false statements of certain petty officials to enter 
complaint to the American consul against our schools in Lebanon, 
but through the efforts of our efficient consul, Mr. Bissinger, he 
changed his views as completely as his predecessor, Rustam 
Pasha, had done. 

On the 28th of February, a delegation of the missionaries con- 
sisting of Drs. D. Bliss, W. W. Eddy, J. S. Dennis, and S. Jessup 
and Mr. Pond and H. H. Jessup, called upon him at his house in 
Beirut. The pasha was most affable and said, " Assure your 
friends and your government that I will do all in my power to 
protect you and your work." And it has always been found by 
experience that friendly, informal visits to the officials of the 
country will disarm suspicion. As a rule, the Turkish officials 
are personally friendly, and the better educated among them 
appreciate the benevolent work being done "by the Americans in 
the empire. 

They often say, " We like you personally and understand your 
political and beneficial work, but you represent a republic. We 
fear the spread of republican ideas among our people." We as- 
sure them that we never propagate political theories, and always 
teach our Syrian preachers and teachers to pray for the Sultan, 


Three Years of Progress (i 

Oscar Straus St. Paul's Institute Bakir Map making Jedaan 

DURING this year, we were kept busy by the Ottoman 
government because of a series of orders closing our 
schools on the ground of illegality ; that they had no 
permits, and then refusing to grant them permits ; demanding 
diplomas of our teachers and lists of our text-books and courses 
of study, when no such demands were made upon other foreign 
schools. Consul Bissinger at Beirut and Minister Oscar Straus 
at the Porte fought the battle out and obtained finally an order 
from Munif Pasha, Minister of Public Instruction, that all the 
old established schools of the Americans in the empire be recog- 
nized by the government as though they had official firmans. 
This gave us rest for a time. But the new Waly of Beirut, Ali 
Riza Pasha, who reached Beirut March 8th, after a long inter- 
view with Mr. Bissinger, agreed to order the reopening of all our 
recently closed schools on condition that only Christian children 
be received. Mr. Bissinger and Minister Straus absolutely re- 
fused to accept such an odious condition, and finally the schools 
were reopened without conditions. Much has been published 
since that time and much has been done in the way of securing 
recognition of the American schools. The medical college in 
Beirut is visited every year by an imperial medical commission, 
who, in connection with the American faculty, examine the stu- 
dents and confer upon the worthy the imperial medical diploma. 
Various questions with regard to the American institutions re- 
main unsettled, but, as a rule, the established day-schools, board- 
ing-schools, and colleges are not interfered with. Where the 
government refuses a permit, it is generally through fear that $ 


534 Three Years of Progress 

school or hospital with a permit may refuse to pay taxes. In 
this respect, the Americans would cheerfully pay taxes if the 
institutions of other nationalities did the same. But to be asked 
to do what no one else does, and to bear burdens which the 
Sultan has excused others from bearing, savours too strongly of 
injustice and partiality to be meekly endured by an American 

In April, 1888, Minister Oscar Straus visited Beirut. All were 
impressed with his intellectual ability, suavity of manner, high- 
toned patriotism, legal knowledge, and consummate tact. Our 
government was never better represented than by this American 
Israelite, who was, as he said, " first an American and second a 
Jew." He was " suaviter in modo, fortiter in re." His removal 
was a blunder and an injury to American interests. I have never 
ceased to respect him as a man and to esteem him as a friend. 
No one could charge him with being prejudiced in favour of 
Protestant Missions, yet Protestant Missions in the East never 
had a more energetic, discreet, or efficient defender. His con- 
victions in favour of religious liberty are set forth in his fine book 
on the life of Roger Williams. The vicious and shiftless spoils 
system of political appointment to our foreign diplomatic serv- 
ice, which prevailed in those days and has only now in the days 
of Secretaries Hay and Root been radically changed, sacrificed 
Mr. Straus just when he was on the eve of negotiating a natural- 
ization treaty with the Sublime Porte which would have saved 
both governments infinite annoyance and constant friction and 

r " In May Mr. William Bird accompanied his daughter, Mrs. 
Alice Greenlee, to America, and I was placed in charge of Abeih 
station. I made frequent trips on horseback through Southern 
Lebanon, examining schools, visiting the churches, and adminis- 
tering the ordinances. 

As Colonel Shepard had appointed brother Samuel Jessup and 
myself members of the Advisory Board of St. Paul's Institute at 

St. Paul's Institute 535 

Tarsus, I wer|t to Tarsus and Adana in May with Mrs. Jessup to 
attend the first annual meeting. Rev. Messrs. McLachlan and 
Jenanyan were the faculty, and already there were indications of 
an incompatibility which almost invariably develops itself where 
any institution in the East is placed under the dual control of an 
Oriental and an Occidental. Both of these teachers were strong, 
able men, but somehow they could not work harmoniously. 
Eastern ideas differ from ours. Where Eastern men, with funds 
raised from Orientals, manage Oriental institutions and enter- 
prises, they generally succeed. But the East cannot understand 
the West in the matter of managing Western funds. Years after 
this, when matters had twice come to a rupture, Mr. Jenanyan 
came to Beirut and laid the whole case before us. I saw that the 
trouble was not in the American nor in the Armenian, but in that 
mixture of Occidental alkali with Oriental acid, which always 
produces effervescence. 

I then wrote a long document to the New York Board of 
Trustees, which I read to Mr. Jenanyan, and which he approved, 
advising that hereafter St. Paul's Institute be made either wholly 
Armenian with Mr. Jenanyan at its head, or wholly American 
with an American at its head. The latter plan was adopted and 
the school is a success. Mr. Jenanyan has opened another school 
in Iconium (Konieh) and we hear no more of friction and mis- 

While in Tarsus, we visited the reputed tomb of Sardanapalus, 
the falls of the river Cydnus, where Alexander the Great came 
near drowning while bathing ; then to the old Western Gate, the 
Protestant and Armenian Churches, and the so-called tomb of 
Daniel ! 

In the luxuriant gardens watered by streams of living water 
from the Cydnus, we ate for the first time the luscious fruit of the 
Akedunya or Medlar, which grows much larger there than in 
more southerly climes. 

Mr. Montgomery of the American Board in Adana asked me 
to address the Wednesday evening meeting. It was a scene long 
to be remembered. About one thousand men and women were 

536 Three Years of Progress 

assembled in the large church, all seated on the floor on mats. 
When no more could wedge their way in, the pastor asked all to 
rise and close up ranks, and then all sit down together. The 
mass was thus contracted in superficial area and more could find 
sitting room. As the people speak only Turkish, I could not use 
my Arabic, but I spoke in English and Mr. Montgomery trans- 
lated. I never saw a more attentive audience. 

In the Adana congregation I was introduced to a sprightly 
man, who claimed to be one hundred and thirteen years old. 
He went every year out to the great wheat field in the Adana 
plain to help in the harvest, but this year, owing to the weakness 
of his limbs, the church had bought him a donkey on which he 
rode out every morning to the reapers. His memory of the days 
of Sultan Mahmoud II, and other notables of the last seventy and 
eighty years, led the missionaries to believe his claim to be correct, 

Dr. Metheny lived at that time in Mersina. For years he had 
lived in Latakia working among the pagan Nusairiyeh and re- 
moved to Mersina to labour for tribes of the same people on the 
plain of Tarsus and Adana. He was a skillful surgeon and a 
tender-hearted, sympathizing man. 

In June two men interested in work among the Arab tribes of 
Syria and Arabia visited Beirut, Mr. Von Tassel, an American, 
and Bishop Thomas Valpy French, late Bishop of Lahore and 
now resolved to give the last of his life to Arabia. He made an 
address at the house of Mrs. A. Mentor Mott and interested us 
all greatly in the zeal of a man, who, after forty years of labour 
in North India, was going to Muscat on the Persian Gulf to end 
his days. Dr. Zwemer describes him in his " Arabia, the Cradle 
of Islam," and truly his zeal for the salvation of the Arabs de- 
voured him. Mr. Von Tassel came out in youthful zeal and en- 
thusiasm, set about learning Arabic and afterwards brought out 
a large camp equipment, intending to go into the desert and 
dwell among the Aneyzy Arabs, live their nomad life summer 
and winter, and identify himself with them. Under any other 
government he might have succeeded, or had he come twenty 

Von Tassel's Frustrated Plans 537 

years sooner, before the Ottoman government had begun to sus- 
pect every traveller among the Bedawin of being a military spy, 
or a European agent to distribute arms among the Arabs and 
raise them to revolt. But Hassan Bey's filibustering fiasco a 
few years before, and a growing Idea that the British are in 
league with the Arabs, made Mr. Von Tassel's scheme an Impos- 
sibility. When he landed at the port of Tripoli, fifty miles north 
of Beirut, his tents and equipage were stopped and only released 
after long delay. A description of the man and all his baggage 
was telegraphed to Constantinople. On reaching Hums, he set 
up his tents outside the walls, one of them a large triple tent of 
green water-proof canvas. Crowds assembled to see the sight, 
but least welcome of all was a guard of Turkish soldiers ordered 
to watch Mr. Von Tassel's every movement and prevent his hav- 
ing any communication with Arabs of any tribe in the region. 
He was thus thoroughly quarantined, and soon orders came from 
the Waly of Damascus forbidding him to travel to any point east 
of Hamath, Hums and Damascus. Othello's occupation was 
now gone. He had not been sent out to labour among towns 
and cities but only to the wandering tribes of the desert who 
number hundreds of thousands. After waiting until patience 
ceased to be a virtue, he returned to Beirut, sold out his tents, 
beds, and equipage, and left the country in 1892. Dr. Ford has 
to this day (1908) the triple tent and others have mementoes of 
this illustration of governmental persecution and repression. 


It was during this summer that Sitt Miriam, a Mohammedan 
lady of the Shazaliyeh sect from Koraun in the Bookaa, north of 
Mount Hermon, set out on a preaching tour in Syria. She ad- 
vocated reform and an upright life, denounced bribery and cor- 
ruption and insisted that all, Moslems, Christians and Jews, are 
brothers. She preached in the mosques in Damascus, Hasbeiya, 
Sidon, Tyre, and other cities, rebuking the sins of the people. 
Telegrams were sent to Constantinople asking for orders to 
silence her, but orders came to let her alone. 

538 Three Years of Progress 

This sect is numerous in Syria and its members advocate the 
reading of the Old and New Testaments and fraternization with 
the Christians. One of their sheikhs once called on me, and in 
the course of a very calm conversation, repeated from memory a 
large part of the Gospel of St. John, explaining the meaning of 
the first chapter in a peculiar, mystic sort of way in which the 
true spiritual intent seemed lost sight of and vapourized. But the 
man was in earnest and he said he was one of a company of 
twenty-five who meet to study the Bible. 

Another eccentric character, who had been in Beirut several 
years, was banished in September. He was a Persian named 
Bakir, and professed to have discovered a new compromise re- 
ligion on which Moslems, Christians, and Jews could unite. He 
had lived in England and came to Beirut as a Christian in 1884 
and asked aid for his sick wife who was placed in St. John's hos- 
pital March 5, 1885, Rev. Dr. H. A. Nelson, who was visiting 
Beirut, had hired Bakir to translate into English a Persian fare- 
well address presented to Dr. Nelson during his recent visit to 
the missions in Persia, and Bakir brought the translation to my 
house to read it to Dr. Nelson. Bakir had with him a package 
of tracts in English setting forth his peculiar mystic incongruous 
views on religion and gave them to Dr. Nelson. The doctor 
took his hand to say good-bye and said in substance, " I thank 
you for your translation, and am soon to leave for America. We 
may not meet in this world, but I hope that through the merits 
of Jesus Christ, our atoning Saviour and Redeemer, we may meet 
at the last in the heavenly home on high." Bakir flew back, his 
eyes flashed fire, and he screamed so loud that the cook came 
running in from the kitchen to see what was the matter. He 
raved and shouted, " I scorn your Christ, your atonement, your 
sacrifice. You Christians are idolaters, the enemies of God, and 
accursed. Let me hear no more of salvation through the blood 
of Jesus Christ. No, we shall not meet above unless you receive 
Mohammed as the Prophet of God ! " His language at times 
was too coarse and vile to bear repetition. I tried to soothe him 
and change the subject, but he acted like a lunatic and stamped 

No More Death! 539 

across the court and out of the house, shouting and storming un- 
til the whole neighbourhood was roused, and we were glad to get 
rid of him. He worked upon the young son of Ramiz Beg, the 
Kadi of Beirut, and was forming a society of religious reform (!) 
on the basis of a union of Islam and Christianity by all Christians 
becoming Moslems. The old story of the lion and lamb lying 
down together, the lamb inside the lion ; but Bakir was reported 
by telegraph to Constantinople and both he and the kadf s son, 
Jemal-ed-Din, were banished, Bakir in September and the other 
youth at a later date. 

The East is still fertile soil for religious vagaries, but the West 
bids fair to bear off the palm. One only needs to spend a month 
in Jerusalem to see and hear of men and women from the West 
who have views, who are inspired, who out-Dowie Dowie, and 
who have visions and gifts of prophecy. 

Some years ago, a friend of mine visiting Jerusalem met a 
queer-looking solitary stranger pacing back and forth in the 
streets of the Holy City and accosted him, and after the usual 
greetings, said to him, " You are an American, I infer." " Yes, 
I am." " And what are you doing here, if I may ask ? " " Ah, 
yes, I'm glad you asked. You see I've come here to preach the 
new doctrine, that there is to be no more death. If men will 
only accept it, we'll abolish death and there'll be no more dying, 
nor graves, nor coffins, nor funerals. We shall just live right 
on." Our friend said to him, " But supposing you should sicken 
and die, what then?" "Oh," said he, "that would bust the 
whole thing ! " And it did. The poor delirious apostle died a 
few months later and with him his " new doctrine." 

October 26th Professor Hilprecht, who was on his way to 
Bagdad, asked me to go with him to the Dog River to find if 
possible a Latin inscription discovered by Professor Paine but not 
identified since. As I had not seen it for several years, I doubted 
my ability to find it. But by dint of examining every rock face 
along the old Roman road, at length, about eighteen paces east 
of the stone pedestal on the summit, I found the smooth surface 

Three Years of Progress 

of the limestone rock and the traces of the inscription. Professor 
Hilprecht proceeded to take a " squeeze " of it and found it to be 
an inscription of ten lines, mostly effaced. 

He also read the famous so-called Sennacherib cuneiform in- 
scription, and found it to be of Esar Haddon and not Sennacherib. 
Across the river next to the mill is the inscription in cuneiform 
characters of the great Nebuchadnezzar, in which the principal 
sentence remaining unobliterated reads, " the wine of Helbon is 
good " showing that the people of Helbon, north of Damascus, 
who to this day have fruitful vineyards, brought over wine to the 
King of Babylon and he immortalized again the wine already 
made famous by the prophet Ezekiel (27 : 18) in speaking of the 
widely-extended commerce of Tyre : " Damascus was thy mer- 
chant in the wine of Helbon and white wool." 

During the year 1888 I rode on horseback in frequent tours 
nearly six hundred miles through the gorges and ridges of Mount 

Mr. Bird returned from America in December, Rev, and Mrs. 
W. S. Nelson arrived with Miss Holmes for Tripoli, and the mis- 
sionary corps was well reinforced. 

In December, with an expert scribe, I made a new Arabic map 
of Syria which was lithographed at our Beirut Press. 

Map making in general is difficult in this empire. You must 
not allow the word Armenia to appear in any map or atlas of 
ancient or modern Turkey. Neither will it do to make a map 
of many colours/ 1 as is the rule in all maps made in civilized 
countries. We made a map of the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, and 
Arabia, and had copies neatly coloured, showing clearly the out- 
lines of the different provinces and presented one to the Governor 
of Beirut and another to the " Mudir el Maarif," or Superintendent 
of Public Instruction. They were both brought back by the 
mudir, who indignantly asked/' Why is Egypt coloured one colour 
and Syria another and Arabia another and Asia Minor another? 
Do they not all belong to the Sultan? " 

It would not do to insult the zealous official by laughing in his 


Conversion of Jedaan, the Bedawy 541 

face, but we apologized and explained and humbly promised 
hereafter to make Egypt and Arabia the same colour as the rest 
of the empire. A polychrome means to the watchful officials 
polyglot and polynational and polypolitics. So we try to con- 
form to the laws and avoid having our press suppressed by using 
anything beyond a monochrome. 

From their Standpoint, Turkey is a unit All subjects are 
Osmanlies, and the great father in Constantinople will have noth- 
ing of Arab or Egyptian or Armenian or Macedonian. All are 
Ottoman subjects and divisions, names and designations are abso- 
lutely prohibited. We have no fault to find with this. We are 
strangers and the guests of the Sultan, and we are bound in 
honour to conform to the laws. This we have always done and 
intend to do in the future. We really enjoy greater liberty than 
the native subjects of the Porte. It is hard to see the people 
around us taxed and overtaxed, oppressed and outraged by un- 
scrupulous petty officials with no appeal. This to me has been 
my greatest trial of my fifty years in Syria, to see wrongs which 
you cannot right and sufferings which you cannot relieve, while 
the American flag protects our persons and frees us from op- 

1889 On the i6th of January, my brother-in-law, Radcliffe B* 
Lockwood, Esq., of Binghamton, accompanied me on a horse- 
back trip sixty miles south to visit the out-stations and conduct 

a communion service in Ibl, west of Mount Hermon. 


February 2ist I baptized Jedaan O wad, the converted Aneyzy 
Bedawy, a fine, clear-headed, sensible young man who had been 
under instruction for two years. He came to Lebanon to sell 
sheep, fell in with Christians, determined to learn to read, perse- 
vered, and at length became convinced that salvation was in 
Christ alone. He afterwards studied in the school at Suk el 
Gharb, and, while a fellow student with Kamil, made a tour with 
him among the Arab tribes, summering near Hums and Hamath, 
and then returned to his tribe. For nineteen years he has stood 
firm, coming to visit his Christian friends every year. 

54 2 Three Years of Progress 

In March I visited Egypt with a party of friends as their guest, 
and preached in Alexandria, Cairo, Asioot, Luxor, and Assowan. 
The Egyptian pronunciation of the Arabic differs from the 
Syrian, but I had no difficulty in understanding them and they 
seemed to understand me. 

On the 29th of May, 1 888, we received the official "Permit" 
for the American Press, which had existed since 1834, a term of 
fifty-four years. In accepting this permit, Dr. Samuel Jessup 
agreed to abide by the press laws of the empire, which we had 
always done since finding out what these laws were. 

June 1 2th my brother Samuel sailed for America on furlough, 
and on his arrival, was appointed assistant secretary of the Board 
during the absence of Dr. Arthur Mitchell on his journey around 
the world. Mr. Pond and family also returned to America and 
subsequently laboured in Colombia and Venezuela. Dr. Ira 
Harris and family returned from America July I5th. 

In July the Waly, Rauf Pasha, removed to Bitlis and Aziz 
Pasha came in his place. 

It was my painful duty to go to the custom-house and bid 
farewell to forty-six English books which had been ordered by 
various American citizens, but which were refused admission to 
this empire as being " dangerous, obnoxious, and unsafe." At 
first the censor resolved to burn them, but at the protest of our 
consul, changed the sentence from burning at the stake to exile. 
Even exile was no easy matter. The box was sealed and a list 
of the books given to the censor for transmission to the Turkish 
consul in New York who was to be notified by the treasurer of 
the Board of Foreign Missions to be present at the opening at 
the New York custom-house, and to give a certificate (and re- 
ceive his fee) that the very books which were banished from 
Syria had reached New York. Among them were the Koran, 
"The Land and the Book," Stanley's "Sinai and Palestine," 
" Minutes of the General Assembly," " Catalogue of Union Theo- 
logical Seminary," " Introduction to the New Testament," " His- 
tory of Russia," " History of Persia," etc. 

We bade them farewell with the confident hope of seeing them 

A Dollar's Worth of Eulogy 543 

again some day, and we did see them. The New York agent, 
Mr. Dulles, after receiving the books, wrapped them in packages 
and sent them by the French mail via Paris, and in due time they 
all arrived and were delivered to their respective owners, costing 
$2.90 postage in all. Not one of them contained a word con- 
trary to law or good morals, or an attack on the Turkish gov- 

In September the Turkish authorities began a new campaign 
against our schools and closed the Hamath school by force. The 
instigator of this action, as has generally been the case in that 
district, was the Greek bishop, who bribed the local officials, and 
thus secured the closing of the school The school was after- 
wards reopened after long correspondence and telegraphing to 

In August an interesting character called, a Syrian Moham- 
medan, Jaafar Mohammed. He had been fourteen years in Irak 
and Teheran and had been twice in prison for associating with 
Christians. I gave him a Testament and he set forth, bound, as 
he said, for Algiers and Morocco. He claimed to be a Christian 
and was well acquainted with the Scriptures. While in Beirut 
he wrote a Kosidi, or Arabic poem in praise of me, and an elegy 
on my father and grandfather, in the most effervescent panegyric. 
As he probably did it in imitation of the old Arab poets, who 
recited poetry before the caliphs of Bagdad to receive largesses 
of money, I could not do less than give him a mejeedie or Turkish 
dollar to help him on his way. I think he inflicted a similar 
poem on Dr. Van Dyck. Not a few men of his stamp are con- 
stantly floating restlessly about the East. They may be sincere. 
The Lord knoweth them that are His, and the intolerant spirit 
of Islam will not allow an " apostate " to dwell in peace among 
them, and this intolerance is a confession of weakness. Neither 
Rome nor Mecca will let alone a convert from their ranks. 
Protestantism is virtually the only non-persecuting system of 
modern times, for it has long since repudiated the use of force in 
religion. There will never be another Servetus tragedy. 

544 Three Years of Progress 

In November Rev. 0. J. Hardin returned to Syria and occupied 
the Suk el Gharb station, nine miles from Beirut on a spur of 
Lebanon, 2,500 feet above the sea, thus maintaining the work 
begun by Mr. Pond, and reopening the boys' boarding-school 

During the fall Beirut was visited by another epidemic of the 
dengue fever called by the Arabs Abu Rikab or " father of the 
knees," a short, painful fever, never fatal, but leaving the system 
greatly debilitated. Thousands of cases were reported in Beirut 
and both Drs. Van Dyck and Post were prostrated by it. 

We were in Aleih, Mount Lebanon, and had the privilege of 
opening our house to our beloved missionary brother, Rev. Dr. 
Harvey of Cairo, who was suffering from malarial fever. His 
daughter was with him, and he improved steadily. Dr. Wells 
gave him seventy grains of quinine and the fever was broken. 
Not long after, Dr. Wells was taken down with Abu Rikab in 

About this time the little son of one of the missionaries made 
considerable amusement by trying an original prescription for 
fever. A missionary from Arabia was lying sick at his father's 
house, and one day the little fellow came to his bedside with a 
measuring-tape and began to measure him. "What are you 
doing ? " said the invalid. 

" I am measuring you so as to make you a coffin." 

" Why do you do that ? " 

" Because it will cure you. My rabbit was ill and father said he 
was going to die. So I made him a coffin and put him in, but 
he jumped out and ran off and after that he was perfectly well. 
So I thought I would make you a coffin and you would get Well ! " 
(He did !) 

In September Dr. Harris Graham, of the American Board's 
Mission in Aleppo, accepted a call to the medical department of 
the Syrian Protestant College. 

News came of a great revival of religion in Aintab and 600 
conversions. That city has been marvellously blessed with re- 
vivals, and its three churches are models of liberality and Chris- 

Mary Eddy's Consecration to Her Great Work 545 

tian work. No such congregation can be found anywhere else in 
the Turkish Empire and the pastors have been men of learning 
and spiritual power. 

During this year I had charge of the press, reading proofs, 
conducting all the business correspondence, ordering materials, 
and paying the men. The custom-house business was large and 
consumed much valuable time, but it must be done, and this 
pressure on the time of ordained missionaries led the mission to 
insist on the sending out of a Christian layman with a business 
training, to take up this entire secular work. This was effected 
in 1895, when Mr. E. G. Freyer, the present able and efficient 
manager of the press, carne to Beirut and has continued to do 
the work to the satisfaction of both the mission and the Board. 

In October an event occurred which was striking in itself and 
far-reaching in its results. Miss Mary P. Eddy, daughter of Dr. 
W. W. Eddy, was dangerously ill with high burning fever and an 
alarming temperature which yielded to no remedies, until Drs. 
Van Dyck, father and son, pronounced the case hopeless. She 
asked the prayers of the native and foreign Protestant Churches, 
and one by one, bade farewell to all her friends. She lingered 
on, seemingly on the brink of dissolution, when suddenly an ab- 
scess broke, relief came, a large number of gall-stones were re- 
moved, and convalescence set in. During her illness she had 
resolved that if she were spared, she would study medicine and 
devote herself to relieving the sufferings of the women of Syria. 
On her recovery, she went to America, completed her studies, 
received her diploma, came to Constantinople, and after over- 
coming the seeming insurmountable difficulties and objections of 
the imperial medical faculty, passed the severe examinations and 
received the imperial diploma as physician and surgeon ; the only 
woman thus far who has been permitted to receive the imperial 
diploma. Up to the year 1908 she has visited hundreds of villages, 
treated thousands of cases, and wherever she goes, she is sur- 
rounded by throngs of the impotent folk begging for treatment. 

546 Three Years of Progress 

Now appeared on the scene what seemed to be two tall white 
turbaned Moors with black burnouses, no stockings, and red 
pointed shoes. They called on me and stated that they were 
missionaries to Morocco in Mogador. One, Baldwin, was an 
American, and the other, Richmond, an Englishman. They 
always wore the native dress. They set out from Morocco to 
come to Syria first, to seek Syrian Christian helpers to go back 
with them, and to arrange to send out their young missionaries 
to Syria to learn Arabic, preparatory to work in Morocco. They 
said they left Morocco in white woollen ahbas or burnouses, but 
they were so blackened by coal smoke that they had them dyed 
black at Port Said. 

But their whole appearance was impressive. They looked like 
dervishes or fakirs. One missionary lady, who invited them to 
dinner, said afterwards that when they entered her house and she 
saw their John-the-Baptist-in-the-wilderness appearance, she felt 
she ought to provide for them a repast of locusts and wild honey ! 

I took them to the college and the theological classes where 
their addresses in English (they had not learned the Arabic) were 
translated and deeply affected the students* Their ascetic mien 
and devout language impressed us all, and one young Syrian, 
Hassan Soleyman, volunteered to go with them to Morocco. On 
November 2/th Mr. Baldwin sailed for Morocco and Mr. Rich- 
mond went to Suk el Gharb to study Arabic. On Sunday Mr. 
Baldwin preached in Eflglish on Isaiah 6, and in the afternoon ad- 
dressed a mass meeting of Sunday-school children calling for 
twelve volunteer Syrian missionaries, who would go to Morocco 
in faith without any pledged support. He told of the dozens of 
Mohammedans whom he had baptized and the glorious results of 
his work. 

He afterwards sent out two fine young Englishmen to study 
Arabic in Mount Lebanon, He then began to publish in the 
London Christian a series of articles on " the Matthew IO theory 
of missions " ; that foreign missionaries should go forth with 
neither purse nor scrip, dress like the natives and live on the 
natives with no salary, trusting jta God. He clinched his argu- 

The Baldwin Bubble 547 

ments by his asserted actual experience, in that, by going from town 
to town, sleeping in the mosques and coming close to the people, 
he had won over the Moslems to Christ and baptized them in large 
numbers. The articles attracted attention, indeed made a sensa- 
tion. Various missionaries wrote, controverting his theory and 
insisting that the twelve disciples whom Christ sent forth were 
natives of the land, knew the language perfectly, and that the 
customs of Oriental hospitality were, as at the present day, af- 
fording a native shelter, food, and lodging without expense, but 
that there is no evidence that the apostles acted on this principle 
in journeys to Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy. 

He also wrote to the Missionary Review that virtually nothing 
is being done for the Moslems of Syria. I wrote at the time to 
Rev. Henry Grattan Guinness that the whole system of missions 
in this empire is designed to reach eventually the Mohammedans 
whenever the door of religious liberty is opened, that accounts of 
converted Moslems cannot be published, and moreover that the 
Word of God, Christian books, Christian education, Christian 
example, and private conversation will effect vastly more than 
spasmodic efforts and hasty tours, especially when made by those 
comparatively ignorant of the language. 

The discussion waxed warm. But at length the bubble burst. 
Good men sent out from England travelled through Morocco, 
looking for Mr. Baldwin's converts in order to report the glo- 
rious news of converted Moslems to the Christian world. But 
alas, not a one could be found. Mr. Baldwinliad never learned the 
Arabic language so as to preach. He had done all through an 
interpreter, and that a gay deceiver, who induced Moslems to 
accept baptism by Mr. Baldwin, either as a joke or for a buck- 
sheesh, and thus the whole claim of the great success of a " Mat- 
thew 10 " policy vanished like the " baseless fabric of a vision." 
The revulsion of feeling in England and Scotland was painful, 
and the whole mission was reorganized by level-headed men who 
set about learning the language. Mr. Baldwin left Morocco, 
having abandoned his wife, and brought a number of his children 
to Beirut. Dr. Mackie asked him to preach, though with some 

548 Three Years of Progress 

misgivings. His sermon was a painful exhibition of a mind par 
tially disordered, full of dark, pessimistic forebodings. He de- 
clared that the dispensation of preaching the Gospel had come to 
an end ; that the Holy Spirit was withdrawn from the earth ; 
that all things were going to the bad, and Christians now should 
give up all teaching and preaching and sit down and wait the 
appearing of the Lord. His Morocco fiasco was either the cause 
or the result of his dark inky despair. Only one step remained, 
In spite of the protests and entreaties of his children, he went to 
Jerusalem, joined the Spaffordite colony, and there he has re- 
mained " sitting " until this day, resisting the earnest request of 
his wife, his daughter, and son-in-law to " come out from among 

The lessons to be learned from this sad history are various. First, 
every missionary should master the language before attempting 
to preach, and avoid interpreters. Second, the Moslem citadel is 
not to be taken by theories but by faithful instruction, personal 
acquaintance, and persevering effort. Third, that missionaries 
should be sure of their facts before publishing them to the world. 

Just as the year was closing, we were refreshed by a visit from 
Rev. D. Stuart Dodge and his wonderful, dear mother, who at 
her advanced age was full of vigour and vivacity, abounding in 
good works, affable and courteous to all, and enduring " func- 
tions " and journeys with as Jittle apparent fatigue as her active 
and energetic son Stuart. His presence has been always felt to be a 
benediction by all Christian workers in Syria, and the college 
owes more to him than his modesty will allow to be made 

At the same time arrived Dr. T. D. Tallmage, Mrs. Tallmage, 
and their daughter Mary. On Christmas day, Dr. Tallmage 
preached in the church a Christmas sermon to one of the greatest 
crowds ever assembled in Beirut. His text was, " Glory to God 
in the highest, on earth peace, good will to men," and his fer- 
vent eloquence and evangelical spirit kept the audience spell- 
bound. It was a fitting close of the year 1889, 

Suppressing a Religious Paper 549 

1890 The year 1890 was marked by several notable events, 
the fiftieth year jubilee of Dr. Van Dyck, the conversion of that 
beautiful Moslem youth, Kamil, the suppression of our Neskrafi 
journal, and the visit of Dr. Arthur Mitchell of the Board of For- 
eign Missions. 

For " ways that are dark," the officials of Beirut are " peculiar." 
They have laws enough, and good ones, the Islamic Sheria, a 
system well adapted to the Arabs in Mohammed's time, and the 
Code Napoleon, which covers modern law, civil and commercial 
But the execution of the laws is done in a manner which the 
Orientals seem to understand, but which we Occidental strangers 
fail to comprehend. 

The press censor in Beirut, who was at that time the Maktoubji, or 
letter writer for the Waly, knew that all journals, newspapers, etc., 
must have an official irade or permit from Constantinople. Now, 
according to the strict letter, that law was enacted in 1869, but 
was not translated into Arabic for many years after, and then 
was so largely ignored that various high officials had never heard 
of it. 

The Amerian Mission weekly Neskrah had been published for 
twenty-five years, and copies sent every week to the censor for 
approval before printing, and two copies to the Ministry of Edu- 
cation in Constantinople. It antedated the press laws by four 
years and no objection had ever been made to it. In equity, the 
fact that the government at Constantinople had kept copies on 
file during all these years constituted a permit. But the Beirut 
censor, finding that we had no official irade for the paper, de- 
cided that we must have one. The Occidental way would have 
been to inform us that as the law required a permit, we must 
apply for one and ample time would be given us to secure one 
from Constantinople. But men do not always think alike. On 
January 4th, I was summoned to the seraia, and informed that 
the Neshrah was suppressed temporarily for printing in No. 46 
an obnoxious telegram. I asked, " Which telegram ? " The of- 
ficer on duty did not know. Two days later came a letter from 

55 Three Years of Progress 

the Maktoubji ordering the stoppage of the paper on account of 
printing a telegram which alluded to the British ambassador at 
the Porte. On examination, I found that this telegram was 
copied from the Lisan, Arabic journal in Beirut, and three other 
papers had printed it without objection from the censor. When 
I had confronted the official with this fact and showed him the 
other journals, he said, " That makes no difference. You are 
suspended." I then went with Dr. Graham, who speaks Turkish, 
to call on the Waly Aziz Pasha. He was most courteous, and 
promised to telegraph in two days to Constantinople to have the 
order rescinded. We were then ordered to publish in the coming 
issue of our paper the government " Ikhtar," or order of sup- 
pression. After this, on January 25th, the Mudir el Maarif sent 
word that I must draw up a legal petition, to be approved by all 
the requisite^bureaus at the.seraia, asking permission to publish 
a journal, and that he would forward it to Constantinople. This 
official was most courteous, liberal minded, and obliging, and 
we deeply regretted his subsequent removal to another part of 
the empire. 

On the 2Qth, after various consultations and finally securing 
the legal form for such a petition, I signed it and had my sig- 
nature authenticated in the American consulate, and then took 
it to the mudir. He examined it, pronounced it correct, and 
then said, " Take it now to the prefect of police for his signature 
and seal." 

In my unsophisticated inexperience, I asked, " Why ? " 

He smiled and said, " It is the law that a journalji must give 
evidence that he is not a criminal, has not been arrested, and 
that his portrait is not in the rogues' gallery. Only the police 
can give this testimony." 

I went to the chiefs office. He was out, I went again and 
again and finally found him. He looked surprised and I handed 
him the document. He very promptly called his clerk, who 
wrote in Turkish the usual form and then signed and sealed it 
and said to me, " It is all right. Now please take it to the Bash 
Katib, or chief cterk of the Mejlis el Idarat or Political Council/ 1 

Perseverantia Omnla Vincit 551 

I had with me our ever faithful and polite press secretary, Mr. 
A. Kheirullah. He knew that Bash Katib, but he was out. His 
office boy said to come at 2 p. M. We returned home and came 
at two. He was then at a meeting of the Mejlis with closed 
doors. " Come bokra " (to-morrow). We came the next day 
and sat an hour and finally secured him. He looked over the 
document, said it was all right, took a copy of it and Its number, 
date, and signature, and then wrote his part of the complex 
commentary and affixed the seal of the great Mejlis. " That is all 

straight," said he. " Now, please take it to Effendi, Mudir 

en Nefoos " (director of the Bureau of Vital Statistics). 

In this office are innumerable volumes of records containing 
the names of all Beirut subjects of the Porte and foreigners. 
The lists of the foreigners are supplied annually by the foreign 
consuls. The old effendi was a model of suavity, ordered coffee, 
and treated us as friends. After a thousand effusive salutations 
and compliments, he asked if he could serve us. We handed 
him the petition, which he looked at carefully. He then rang 
a bell and called for a " deftar," or record book, which his clerk 
found after turning over a big pile of similarly bound books in 
the corner. The effendi found the right page in his register of 
foreigners resident in Beirut, and then catechized me. 

"Your name?" 

" Henry H. Jessup." 

" Your age ? " 


Your father's name ? " 


" Your wife's name ? " 

" Theodosia." 

" How many children have you ? " 


Their names ? " 

"Anna, William, Henry, Stuart, Mary, Amy, Ethel, and 

11 Right," said he. " YOU are the man. YOU are all right- 

552 Three Years of Progress 

no arrears of taxes charged against you." He then read the 
petition, scanned the previous notes and seals, and then endorsed 
his own " no objection " on it and affixed his seal, and re- 
marked, " This must now go to the Bash Katib of the Court 
of First Instance." 

We could not imagine what that worthy had to do with it, but 
we had to go, found him at lunch, waited for him. He apolo- 
gized for detaining us, looked over the paper, declared it all right 
and regular, and affixed his views and his seal. I began to fear 
the paper would not hold many more certificates of approval, 
and also to feel that I was getting to be a well authenticated and 
recommended individual. He handed me the document, now 
spotted with seals, and politely remarked, pointing across the 
corridor, " This will now have to be submitted to the prosecuting 
attorney such and such an effendi." " Certainly," we re- 
sponded, and away we went. What, now, would this functionary 
do ? We found him in his office, an educated gentleman. He 
saw at a glance the purport of the petition, ran his eye over the 
seals, and at once with his own " no objection," sealed it and 
handed it back, saying that we had only one more stage in the 
matter. " Hand it to the Bash Katib of the Political Council. 
The council meets to-morrow, and after it is read and approved, 
the Waly will affix his seal and order it to be mailed to Constan- 
tinople." We did as we were bid. 

In the course of the fortnight it was mailed. We got the 
official number of the " Mazbata," or decision of the council, and 
sent it to our agent in Constantinople to follow it up. In eight 
months the irade came, authorizing us to print a literary, re- 
ligious, and scientific paper, but not to interfere with politics or 
religion. We had asked a permit for a general news paper. For 
some occult reason this was omitted in the permit, and we have 
apprehended, from that time to this, in trying to make up a re- 
ligious paper without interfering with religion, that we should be 
suppressed for sheer imbecility. 

The empire is now full of newspapers. Few of them make 
both ends meet. No public questions can be discussed and the 

Daniel Coit Oilman's Gift 553 

public soon weary of endless accounts of the visits of European 
kings, and miscellanies from Tid Bits. 

The Mohammedan papers are allowed full swing in religious 
matters, but no Christian paper is suffered to reply. The govern- 
ment is constituted on a theocratic basis, and Islam being the 
religion of the state, including the public service, the army, and 
the navy, the Christian sects merely exist by sufferance. 

This confining of all official promotion to one sect makes the 
empire a mere sectarian machine, and any attempt to conform to 
modern civilization must fail, until this wretched, narrow bigotry 
is set aside, and the army and navy and civil offices thrown open 
to the worthy of all sects. 

The jubilee of Dr. Van Dyck which occurred April 2d has been 
fully described in the account of his life on a previous page. 

In April, 1890, my old Yale College friend, President Daniel 
C. Gilman of Johns Hopkins University, called to see us and 
the mission work. He was much interested in the press, the old 
historic cemetery, and the girls' school building. When we 
were looking at the upper room in which the Bible was translated 
into Arabic, he asked, " Why not have a memorial tablet in 
this room ? " I told him the only reason was the want of 
money to erect one. He immediately said, " Eli Smith was a 
Yale man, and I am a Yale man and so are you, and I will gladly 
pay the cost of such a tablet to be put up in Arabic and English." 
And it was set up. 

The brightest event in the year 1890, if not in my whole mis- 
sionary life, was the conversion to Christianity of a young Mo- 
hammedan effendi, Kamil el Aietany. He came of his own 
accord on February loth, inquiring as to the nature of the 
Christian faith. He was a youth of twenty, with an unusually 
attractive face and a courteous, winning manner. He had met a 
Maronite priest and a Jesuit father but got no satisfaction from 
either of them, and came to Dr. Van Dyck who sent him to me. 

554 Three Years of Progress 

His whole history, his profound spiritual experience, his delight 
in the Scriptures, his loyal and enthusiastic love for Jesus Christ 
as his Saviour, his zeal and fearlessness in preaching the Gospel, 
his blameless life and delight in prayer, his wise and winning 
way of dealing with both Mohammedans and Oriental Christians ^ 
his filial devotion to his father and his remarkable correspond- 
ence with him, and his fidelity to Christ even to death, make 
his life one of profound interest, as showing what the grace of 
God can effect in the mind and character of a Mohammedan 
youth trained for seven years in a Mohammedan school. 
On April 10, 1904, Sir Wm. Muir wrote as follows : 

Dean Park House, Edinburgh. 

I have been for some time deeply engrossed in your "Life of 
Kamil," a book that should be known over all our possessions, 
especially those in Europe and the East. Would it not be well to have 
it reprinted and circulated again? /. e., the book itself without the ap- 
pendix. Please think how this can be done. I should be glad to do 
anything for the purpose. The wider it can be known the better. 
What do you say ? 

After the Bible, the life of this saved disciple is one of the best things 
we can circulate, especially among the Moslems. Will you think over 
this and let me know what is best to be done ? 

Ever yours truly, 

W, Mum. 

That new edition has not yet been printed, although the pub- 
lishers gave their cordial permission to Sir William to reprint if 
he desired. His death not long after interrupted the correspond- 

As I have already published his life, there is no need of enter- 
ing into details with regard to his character and work. He 
studied in the boys' boarding-school of the Rev. O. J. Hardin in 
Suk el Gharb, where he met a young Bedawy Arab convert from 
the Aneyzy tribe, Jedaan, and in the summer of 1890, these two 
zealous young disciples spent two months of the vacation in the 

Kamil Apostle to the Moslems 555 

Bedawin camps in the region of Hums and Hamath. Kamil 
said on his return that Jedaan had the advantage of him In 
knowing the pure Bedawi pronunciation and idioms, and 
Jedaan said at times he felt very timid lest the Arabs injure them 
for speaking of Christ, but that Kamil was bold as a lion. 

In the latter part of September they returned and gave a full 
account of their journey. They had been in every camp for 
miles east, west, north, and south of Hamath, and had read the 
Scriptures to hundreds of Arabs, sowing good seed that may yet 
spring up to the glory of God. Kamil brought as a present to 
my family a beautiful live bird, a rail, or blue heron, which he 
got in the Bookaa near Baalbec. He said he brought it as a 
thank-offering, because he had been permitted to accomplish his 
journey in safety. 

After completing their Bedawin labours they came into the 
city of Hums one Saturday to spend the Sabbath. Taking a 
room in a khan in the quarter of the Greek weavers, they called 
on the Protestant pastor. The news soon spread through the 
city that a young Beirut Mohammedan who had become a 
Christian was in the khan. Towards evening five young Syrian 
weavers of the Greek sect called upon them in the khan, curious 
to see a Moslem convert to Christianity. After the usual polite 
salutations they began to ply Kamil with questions as to his 
name, and whether it was actually true that he had become a 
Christian. He said, " Certainly." They asked, " How did it 
come about ? " " By reading God's Word and by prayer," he re- 
plied. Are you a member of the Orthodox Apostolic*Greek 
Church ? " they then asked. " I don't find the name of any such 
church in the Bible, 11 said he. They then began with great zeal 
to try to convince him that he should be baptized by a Greek 
priest and should believe in prayers to the saints and to the 
Virgin, and in the doctrine of transubstantiation. Kamil took 
out his Arabic Testament and began to explain to them the 
doctrine of free salvation and of justification by faith, with the 
most tender earnestness. Then standing up he offered prayer 
for them all, and when he had finished, they were all in tears. 

556 Three Years of Progress 

They thanked him and went away, full of wonder that a Moslem 
convert should have to show them the way of salvation through 
Christ alone. The next morning they all went to the Protestant 
church and proposed to be enrolled as Protestants. News of 
this was carried to the Greek bishop, Athanasius Ahtullah. 
This bishop is one of the most enlightened of the Greek clergy 
in Syria. When a lad, he attended the Protestant common 
school in Suk, and he has opened large and well-conducted 
schools in Hums, with 1,200 pupils ; and the Bible printed at the 
American Press is used as a text-book in them all. He sent and 
invited Kamil to visit him. On Kamil's arrival in the large 
reception room, the bishop sent out all the priests and servants 
and brought Kamil to the raised divan at the upper end of the 
room, and seating him at his right hand, saluted him most 
cordially. On learning his family name, the bishop said : " I 
know of your family and am glad you have become a Christian." 
Then he began to urge him to enter the Orthodox Greek 
Church, and used the usual arguments of the traditional Oriental 
Christians. Kamil asked, " What does Your Excellency believe 
about Christ? Is He a perfect and sufficient Saviour? " The 
bishop said, " Yes." " Do you believe, as St. Paul says, that, 
' being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our 
Lord Jesus Christ 1 ?" "Yes/ 1 replied the bishop. "Then," 
said Kamil, "we are brethren in belief; and what more do we 
want ? " But the bishop urged him to accept trine immersion at 
the hands of a true priest of the Apostolic Orthodox Greek 
Church, and then he would be all right. Then Kamil, turning 
to the bishop, said, " Your Excellency, supposing that you and I 
were travelling west from Hums and came to the river Orontes ; 
and the river was deep, muddy, swift, and broad ; and there was 
neither bridge nor boat, and neither of us could swim. Then if 
I should say to you, < Bishop, I beg you to take me across, 1 
what would you say ? You would say, ' Kamil, I cannot take 
myself across, and how can I take you ? ' And there we stood, 
helpless and despairing. But supposing that just then we 
should see a huge giant, a strong, tall man, coming towards us, 

God Has Called Me! 557 

and he should take you by the arms and carry you across. 
Would I call out, * Bishop, come and take me across * ? No ; I 
would call to the strong man. Bishop, there is only one strong 
Man the Lord Jesus Christ. Is not He enough ? " Turning to 
Kamil, the bishop asked, " My dear friend, how long have you 
been a Christian ? " " Seven months," was the reply. tl Seven 
months ! And you are teaching me who have been a Christian 
in name from infancy. Kamil, you are right. If you will stay 
here and teach Turkish in my school, I will pay you a higher 
salary than you can get in any school in Syria/' " Your Ex- 
cellency," replied Kamil, " I thank you for your offer ; but I do 
not care for money or salary. God has called me to preach the 
Gospel to the Mohammedans, and I must complete my studies 
and be about my work." 

I shall never forget the truly eloquent and affecting manner in 
which he described this interview with the Bishop of Hums. It 
showed how completely he was imbued with the spirit of faith 
and Christian love, and how his exquisite courtesy and sweetness 
of disposition disarmed all opposition, Kamil and Jedaan re- 
turned to the Suk school and resumed their studies. Kamil's 
religious influence continued undiminished and he took part 
heartily in all religious meetings. Mr. Hardin states that it was 
refreshing to see how new and striking were his views and ap- 
plications of gospel truth. 

In October he wrote to me of his welfare and stated that the 
Greek priest in Suk had offered to teach him Greek in order to 
help him understand the New Testament, but his studies and his 
teaching left him no time for taking up Greek, Some of the 
monks of Deir Shir, a papal Greek monastery near Suk, made 
several attempts to persuade him to become a Romanist, but he 
finally told them they would better preach to the Moslems than 
attempt to pervert a Christian believer to Romish tradition and 

Early in January he wrote me again asking for certain books, 
and closed by saying, " We have been reading Acts 8 : 36-40, 
and I would ask, < Who shall forbid that I be baptized ? ' " 

558 Three Years of Progress 

Up to this time he had been on probation, and it was thought 
better to give him time to take the step deliberately. But now 
there seemed no reason for further delay. He was rooted and 
grounded in the faith of Jesus Christ, and he was baptized January 
1 5th, rejoicing thus to take his stand for Christ, his Saviour. 

Dr. Ellinwood, in his introduction to the " Life of Kamil," says, 
" The story of this young man cannot fail to be regarded as a valu- 
able accession to the missionary literature of the day. First, it 
proves the utter falsity of the oracular assertion so often made by 
transient travellers, that no Moslem is ever converted to the Chris- 
tian faith. We have never known clearer evidence of the genuine- 
ness of the work of the Spirit of God in connection with his 
truth. The transformation in Paul's life was scarcely clearer or 
more impressive. 

" Second, an admirable example is afforded to missionaries in 
heathen and Moslem lands, and indeed to preachers and evangel- 
ists at home as well, of that alert and ever wise tact which finds 
'the line of least resistance* to the heart of one's adversary. 
There are those who stoutly deny the necessity of learning any- 
thing whatever concerning the non-Christian religions, who deem 
it utter folly to study the Koran, even though one labours in Syria 
or Persia, and equally senseless to disturb the musty tomes of 
Buddhist or Hindu lore if one's field is India ; all that is needed is 
the story of the Cross. This young Syrian did not thus believe. 
If he had been a student of the Koran before, there was tenfold 
necessity now, for it was upon the teachings of the Koran and 
the entire cult of Islam that he purposed to move with an untir- 
ing and fearless conquest. He would have to deal with men of 
intelligence and intellectual training, and if he would show the 
superiority of the Gospel of Christ, he must know how to make 
an intelligent comparison. If he would inculcate the supreme 
truth, he must generously recognize any particles of truth already 
possessed. Paul on Mars Hill before a heathen audience of 
Greeks, Paul before Agrippa, a ruler versed in the doctrines of 
the Jews, was not more wise and tactful than Kamil. 

" Third, if there were no other motive for studying this little 


KamiPs Martyrdom 

sketch by Dr. Jessup, It is thrice valuable as a personal means of 
grace. Such a life of clear faith and of untiring devotion is 
tonic, and must be to every truly Christian heart. 

" Fourth, the life of Kami! affords another proof that the 
Gospel has a universal application to the hearts of men, that It is 
indeed the wisdom of God and the power of God unto salvation, 
* to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile/ " 

In the fall of 1890, after his baptism, he joined Rev. Messrs. 
Cantine and Zwemer at Aden, Arabia, where he preached and 
sold Arabic Scriptures to the Arabs, then accompanied them 
December, 1891, to El Busrah at the head of the Persian Gulf in 
Turkish territory, where, after indefatigable labours In preaching 
and witnessing for Christ, he died suddenly In suspicious circum- 
stances, June 24, 1892, and the Turkish soldiers buried him so 
suddenly and so secretly that his grave could not be found, nor a 
post mortem examination be secured. 

But it mattered not to him who buried him or where he was 
buried. He was safe beyond the reach of persecution and harm. 
I have rarely met a more pure and thoroughly sincere character. 
His life has proved that the purest and most unsullied flowers of 
grace in character may grow even in the atmosphere of unchris- 
tian social life. His intellectual difficulties about the Trinity 
vanished when he felt the need of a divine Saviour. He seemed 
taught by the Spirit of God from the first. 

On the 24th of March, 1890, we were visited by one of the 
purest, noblest men of the modern church, Rev. Arthur Mitchell, 
secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions. He 
came with his wife, a sister of Dr. Post of Beirut, after a round- 
the-world visit to the missions in Japan, China, Siam, and India. 
Having had a sunstroke in the Indian seas, he reached Cairo 
quite prostrated, and on reaching Beirut, Dr. Post insisted on his 
staying in bed and seeing no one. When restored, he took a 
three weeks 1 horseback journey, and then was able to meet the 
missionaries assembled in Beirut and to discuss important 

560 Three Years of Progress 

tions. His Irenic disposition, keen insight into affairs, and per- 
suasive eloquence, succeeded in completely obliterating certain 
chronic misunderstandings between some of the foreign residents; 
and in convincing the native church that it was their duty and 
privilege to call at once a native pastor, and in two months Rev. 
Yusef Bedr was unanimously called to the pastorate, and from 
that day to this the church has been served by native pastors. 

The visits of Secretaries Dr. Mitchell in 1890 and Dr. Brown 
In 1902 were a great blessing to the missionaries personally and 
to the work as a whole. Dr. Mitchell died in the summer of 
1893, lamented by the Church at home and abroad. I had known 
him for fifty years, and none could know him without loving him. 

It was my privilege to stand in*his pulpit in Morristown, 
Chicago, and Cleveland. He was always a missionary in spirit. 
The monthly missionary meetings in his lecture-room, illustrated 
by beautiful maps drawn and coloured by his children, were the 
most attractive meetings of the month. I remember well the re- 
mark of Dr. Ellinwood in 1878 when I was about setting out on 
my Western campaign to the churches and synods," You will find 
two Arthurs in the West, both of them in thorough sympathy 
with foreign missions, Arthur Mitchell of Chicago, and Arthur 
Pierson of Detroit," and so I found it Arthur Mitchell died in 
the missionary harness and Arthur Pierson is still doing noble 
service for world-wide missions. 

In July, 1890, 1 found in the Arabic journal Beirut the follow- 
ing account of a truly Oriental romance : 

About twenty-three years ago, a Jew named Oslan came from 
Bagdad to Damascus, leaving his wife and children in Bagdad. 
Soon after, his wife gave birth to a son and named him Ezekiel. 
The husband decided to remain in Damascus, and after five years 
sent for his wife to bring the children to him. 

So in due time she set out with the caravan of the Arab tribe 
of Akeil, taking the road through the Djoul wilderness. On their 
way they fell in with the tribe of Beni Sukhr, and encamped near 
them, pitching their tents for the night. 

A Desert Romance 561 

About nightfall a terrific cyclone burst upon the camp. Tents 
were torn from their fastenings , shrubs and trees uprooted, the 
sand filled the air, and the wind scattered the baggage and be- 
longings of the travellers, and among the missing property was 
little Ezekiel, the son of Semha. She and the Arabs searched for 
three days and found no trace of him and then she resumed her 
journey to Damascus, sad and disconsolate, with the Akeil tribe 
who struck their tents and accompanied her. 

On reaching Damascus, she told her husband of the sad 
calamity which had befallen Ezekiel, and together they mourned 
him as dead. 

Now it happened that a few days after the sand-storm, a 
Bedawy woman named Hamdeh, of the tribe of Beni Sukhr, when 
walking outside the camp, heard a child's cry, and found little 
Ezekiel nearly buried in the sand. She took him home to the 
tent of her husband, the Emir Mohammed Kasim, cared for him, 
named him Nejeeb Paris, and brought him up as her son, know- 
ing nothing of his history or parentage. When Nejeeb reached 
the age of sixteen, a Mohammedan Hajjara (a cupper and cir- 
cumciser) visited the camp. The Bedawyaboys were assembled 
for circumcision and he was among them. When it came his 
turn, the Hajjam exclaimed, " He is already circumcised after the 
manner of the Jews." Hamdeh then remembered that at the time 
when Nejeeb was found, a caravan passed them in which were 
Jewish women and children. She then told her husband Moham- 
med and Nejeeb of this fact. The news flew throughout the 
tribe and the Bedawin began to laugh at him and call him Bedawy 
Jew and ridicule him. He bore their insults, however, with 
patience until he had reached the age of twenty-three. In May, 
1890, he left the tribe of Beni Sukhr at Khaibar near El Medina 
in Arabia and came northward to Mezeirib, east of the Sea of 
Galilee, on a swift dromedary with a single companion, making 
the thirty-two days' journey in sixteen days. 

At Mezeirib he was not long in finding out the highway to 
Damascus, and he entered that city clad in his Bedawy attire, 
carrying his mizmar, shepherd's pipe, with which he h?uj 

562 Three Years of Progress 

wont to awaken weird minor melodies in the Arabian desert. 
He went at once to the Jewish quarter and made himself known. 
The rabbi made a ceremonial examination and found that he was 
circumcised according to the Jewish rite. The Jewish community 
of Damascus was in great excitement, and diligent inquiry was 
made. At length a Jewess recalled that eighteen years before, 
Semha, the wife of Oslan, came with her children from Bagdad 
and lost a son in the camp of the Beni Sukhr. Then began 
a search for Oslan and his wife and they were traced to 

Letters were then written to the chief hakkam or rabbi of 
Beirut, asking him, in case he found them, to obtain from them 
some sign by which they could identify the son and then send 
them on to Damascus. 

They went at once without delay to Damascus, and found their 
son a wild Bedawy, with all the characteristics of an Arab of the 
desert The mother was then asked if she knew of any mark on 
his body by which she could identify Nejeeb Paris, the Arab, as 
her son Ezekiel. She said that when an infant she cauterized his 
right forearm, and that he was once burned on his left thigh. 
On examination, both of these marks were found to be exactly as 
she said. A *' kaief " (physiognomist) was then summoned, who 
declared his features to resemble those of Semha, the mother, and 
his eyes to be like those of his father, Oslan. 

The youth was then delivered to his parents who embraced 
and kissed him, greeting him with warm welcome. Poor Ezekiel 
was stupefied with astonishment. He could not understand their 
expressions, nor could they understand his Bedawy dialect, but 
he was at length satisfied that he was their long-lost boy. 

After a stay of three days in Damascus, they brought him over 
to Beirut. His relatives and fellow Israelites received him with 
great joy and affection. His long Bedawy locks were cut off, his 
Arab Abaieh robe was removed, and new Israelitish garments 
were put on him. He looked at himself with amazement and 
walked about the house as one in a dream. When they called 
fyin} by his name, Hazkiyel " (Ezekiel), he would not answer, but 

Found After Many Years 563 

replied, What do you mean by/ Hazkiyei y ? I am Nejeeb Farls f 
the horseman of Abjar." 

On Monday evening, June 30th, a great feast was made by his 
parents. Men singers and women singers, with players on 
instruments, were hired, and guests were invited, both men and 
women, and there was eating and drinking, and making merry, 
And when the music began and the instruments sounded, EzekieFs 
joy knew no bounds, and seizing his mizmar, he leaped into the 
middle of the room, dancing and shouting and playing his 
shepherd's pipe in Bedawy style. In a moment all the instru- 
ments were silent, the men and women singers paused, Ezekiel 
was left the only performer, and he shouted, " Rise up, brethren 
let us dance together." 

The above I have translated literally from the Arabic paper 
Beirut, of July 2d. 

July 7th To-day Ezekiel called on me with his mother at the 
American Press. He repeated substantially the statements nar- 
rated above. He says that his Bedawy father, the Emir Moham- 
med, is at the head of the Beni Sukhr, who occupy the Arabian 
wilderness from Mecca and El Medina to the north and north- 
east, carrying their raids as far as the vicinity of Bagdad, and it 
was on one of these raids that they discovered him almost dead 
In the sand. 

" The Emir Mohammed," said Ezekiel, " has six sons, but 
none of them are noted for horsemanship and 'Feroosiyeh' 
with the spear, but I have always been a faris, and had command 
of a hundred spearmen." He said that he had often been chal- 
lenged to the " jereed " contest by the best spearmen in Arabia 
(the jereed is a spear shaft with blunt ends used only for exercise 
and drill) and was never yet hit by the jereed. I asked him how 
he escaped. He said, " When the jereed strikes where I was 
thought to be, I am found under the horse's belly, riding at full 

I asked his mother if he knew anything about religion and 
she said nothing. I then asked him where good men go when 
they cjie, To Jenneh " (Paradise). AncJ where do the wicke4 

564 Three Years of Progress 

go?" "To Jehennam" (Hell). "Do ail the Bedawin Arabs 
believe this ? " Yes." " Do they live up to it ? " " Live up to 
it ? A man's life with them is of no more account than the life of 
a beast 11 " Do the Bedawin sheikhs and emirs pray ? " He re- 
plied by extending both hands towards me, palms down, and the 
fingers spreading apart and saying, Sir, are all my fingers of 
the same length? " i. e n are all men alike ? I then asked, Do 
you know the Mohammedan prayers ? " " No, I have never 
learaed them/' " Have you ever met any Christians ? " " Yes, 
at Khaibar there are Christians and I taught a Christian named 
Habib for five months horsemanship and spear practice, and he 
taught me to pray, Abana illeze fis semawat ' " (Our Father 
which art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name, etc.), and Ezekiel 
repeated the whole prayer in Arabic with perfect correctness. I 
was astonished at hearing the Lord's prayer from this son of 
the desert, but remembered that there are scattered through that 
region small tribes of Oriental Christians of the Greek Church, 
who, with all their superstition and ignorance, know the funda- 
mental truths of the Christian faith. It is certainly to the credit 
of this man Habib, living away down at Khaibar, near the tomb of 
Mohammed, that he should teach the Lord's prayer to the son of 
the emir of the Beni Sukhr. I asked Ezekiel why he came thus 
secretly and alone. He said that after he learned that he was of 
Jewish birth he wondered whether his real parents and others of 
his kindred were living, and about the first of May, when in 
Khaibar, he decided to come on alone to Damascus, and, if he 
found no trace of any living relative, he would return to his 
tribe. So he hired a guide and they two set out on dromedaries 
and travelled the six hundred miles between Khaibar and 
Damascus in sixteen days, the ordinary time for caravans being 
thirty-two days. He said that had he known that his father and 
mother were living he would not have come empty handed as he 

His mother said she could not tell what her son would do, that 
it was hard for him to remain shut up in a house, and he wants 
to be out in the open air all the time. He knows no trade or 

Music in Syria 565 

business such as is needed to earn his living and is perplexed by 
his new environment I asked him if he would like to enter a 
school and learn to read and write. He seemed to like the sug- 
gestion arid said he liked the Christians and would rather be a 
Christian than a Jew. When I told him of Jedaan, the Aneyzy 
Arab, in our school at Suk, he seemed much interested and It 
may be that he will consent to learn at least enough to enable 
him to read the Bible and write. I was struck with the differ- 
ence between him and his mother. She had the placid, round, 
open face so common among Syrian Jewesses, with large staring 
eyes. His brow was low, his eyes deeply sunken and small, but 
keen and penetrating as an eagle's. He seemed to be looking at 
something two miles off. His figure was lithe and thin, and he 
showed me the callous, almost bony, marks across the palm, 
thumb, and fingers of his right hand, from long rubbing of the 
spear shaft. Three days ago he was challenged by half a dozen 
horsemen of Beirut to a jereed race at the pines, and lie says he 
left them far behind. 

This is a veritable romance of real life. If Ezekiel is not up- 
set by so much lionizing, he may yet follow Jedaan's footsteps 
and become an apostle to the desert tribes of the great wilder- 
ness of Arabia. 

We sent him to Mr. Hardin's school at Suk but he could not 
endure the confinement and went away. [In January, 1905, his 
father stated that he was settled and at work in one of the 
Jewish industrial colonies near Safed.] 

During this year I baptized two intelligent Moslems in Beirut, 
both of whom had to leave the country. I regret to say that 
one of them was afterwards tempted by high office and large 
salary to deny his Lord and Master. He continues outwardly 
friendly, but must have some fierce struggles with an outraged 


Asiatic music differs so essentially from the European that 
foreigners on hearing Syrian airs for the first time are impressed 

566 Three Years of Progress 

and oppressed with the sad minor melancholy tone of the Arabic 
music. In Arab music the intervals between the full notes are 
thirds, so that C sharp and D flat are distinct sounds. Asiatics 
have no harmony. All their music is simply one part " 
melody. Even in Europe, harmony as a science was not known 
in the early Christian centuries. The introduction of melodeons, 
pianos, harmoniums, and organs by Americans and Europeans in 
the last fifty years, and the regular instruction in harmony in 
the schools, have developed in the second generation of educated 
Syrians several very remarkable cases of musical genius of the 
European style. 

Two of our Protestant young men have distinguished them- 
selves even in the capitals of London and Paris. The first was 
a blind youth Ibrahim, who in Mr. Motfs blind school showed 
musical talent, playing several instruments and singing equally 
well bass, tenor, and soprano. 

In the summer of 1890, after preliminary correspondence with 
Dr. Campbell, principal of the Royal Normal Musical College 
for the blind in Upper Norwood, London, young Ibrahim set out 
for London, At Port Said, having been abandoned by his 
Syrian fellow travellers, he fell in with a godly English family en 
route for London, who took charge of him until he entered the 
college. There, by industry, fidelity, and faithful study, he rose 
high in his classes, received his diploma, and is now supporting 
himself comfortably by tuning pianos. 

The other youth, Wadia, is the son of parents both of them 
pupils and teachers, and both fond of sacred music. I have 
spoken of him elsewhere. 

These two young men, with native genius for music and 
brought up in godly families, show what may be anticipated 
when Christian education becomes general in the East. 

Not only in music, but also in painting, considerable genius 
has developed in the second generation of Protestant youth, some 
of whom have done excellent work in portrait painting, among 
them Mr, Selim Shibley Haddad of Cairo, Raieef Shidoody of 
Beirut, Khalil M- Saleeby of Beirut, and Manuel Sabuujy of Cairo. 

The Bakurah 567 

Mr. Haddad painted the beautiful portrait of Miss Everett 
which was given to the Beirut Girls' School by the alumna In 

In September, 1890, I sent to Sir William Muir the manu- 
script of the " Bakurah," a book which has no superior as an 
exhibition of the Christian argument as addressed to Moslems, 
Sir William in his preface to the English abstract of the book 
published by the Religious Tract Society of London in 1893, 
says, "It is a work in many respects the most remarkable of its 
kind which has appeared in the present day. It may take the 
highest rank in apologetic literature, being beyond question one 
of the most powerful treatises on the claims of Christianity that 
has ever been addressed to the Mohammedan world." 

It is an historical romance located in Damascus, and is full 
of thrilling incidents and powerful reasoning. The book was 
published in Arabic first in Leipsic, the proofs being sent to Dr. 
Van Dyck for correction, and I also aiding in comparing it with 
the original manuscript. It was then sent to Egypt and placed 
on sale and some copies reached Syria. The edition being soon 
exhausted, it was reprinted by the missionaries in Egypt in a 
cheap form and it has been translated into Persian and into some 
of the languages of India. A young Moslem efifendi recently 
Informed me that he was led to accept Christ as his Saviour by 
reading a copy in the Azhar University mosque in Cairo. 

The author's name does not appear, but I am thankful to say 
that he is one of the most refined and scholarly Christian 
preachers in the East, is well versed in Mohammedan literature, 
and has large acquaintance with their learned men. His liter- 
ary taste and ability are only surpassed by the personal loveli- 
ness of a character, amiable, gentle, and fully consecrated to the 
service of Jesus Christ. Another book by the same author, 
" Minar ul Hoc," " The Beacon of Truth," has also been edited 
and printed in Arabic and English through the efficient aid of 
Sir William Muir of blessed memory. 

It is a somewhat striking coincidence that on the I3th of 

568 Three Years of Progress 

February, 1865, a Damascus Mohammedan lay imprisoned In 
Beirut for becoming a Christian, and the very next day, February 
I4th, the author of the Bakurah " took refuge in my house at 
midnight from the persecution of his near relatives, members 
of one of the Oriental churches. It was a dark stormy night 
and they turned him out into the storm to find shelter where he 

The facts concerning the persecution of the Moslem convert 
and the rumour that two more had been hung in the Great Mosque 
at Damascus for becoming Christians, coming to his knowledge 
just at this time when he was suffering the loss of all things for 
Christ's sake, made a deep impression on his mind. 

His deep religious experience, afterwards so beautifully de- 
veloped in his life and teaching, made it possible for him to 
write a book of spiritual power for the unspiritual Moslems. I 
am sure that no member of the Greek Orthodox Church or the 
Romish Church, believing in Mariolatry and ikon worship and 
priestly absolution could possibly write such a book as the 
" Bakurah/' which is Scriptural and evangelical from beginning to 
end. Sir William Muir speaks of this point very tersely and 
earnestly in his introduction to the English edition. 

I wrote to Sir William Muir, August n, 1891 : 

"The Bishop Blyth crusade against the Church Missionary 
Society missionaries is indeed pitiable. Archdeacon Denison 
carries the matter to a logical conclusion. He only needs to in- 
sist that Bishop Blyth ask for rebaptism and reordination at the 
hands of the Greek patriarch and then his position will be con- 

" Your own remarks in the Record are most pertinent Those 
who talk about the Greek clergy labouring for the salvation of 
the Moslems do not know what they are talking about. I 
doubt whether there are a dozen Greek priests in Syria and 
Palestine who can read correctly a chapter in the Koran, or carry 
on an argument with a Moslem sheikh. Or if they could they 
would flout at the idea of preaching to the vile Moslems. Or if 
they felt it a duty, they are so afraid of the Moslems that they 

William Jessup's Arrival in Syria 569 

would not dare to speak to them of embracing Christianity, 
And if they did speak, the Moslems would reply by charging 
them with idolatry and creature worship." 

On November 29, 1890, our hearts were gladdened by the 
arrival of my eldest son, Rev. William Jessup, and his bride, as a 
reinforcement to the mission* He was the child of many 
prayers, and entered upon his work fully consecrated, not only 
by his parents, but by his own free surrender of all to Christ. 

Left motherless in infancy in 1864, he was brought up by lov- 
ing grandparents in Branchport, N. Y., and became strong and 
vigorous. In 1878 I was in America and sent for him to come 
to my mother's home in Montrose. I had last seen him a lad of 
six years, and when I went to the railroad station to meet him f I 
was thinking of the little child of ten years before. The train 
stopped. Only one passenger got out, a tall, broad-shouldered 
man with a satchel I kept looking for my boy but this man 
walked directly up to me with a smile and I saw that it was in- 
deed my boy, the face the same, but so much higher from the 
ground ! It was enough to bring both smiles and tears of joy. 
Then came the more intimate acquaintance, his meeting his 
brothers and sisters, the arrangements for Albany Academy with 
his brother Henry, their graduation at Princeton, and hts course 
in the Princeton Theological Seminary and appointment to Syria. 

Eighteen years have passed. Four lovely olive plants are 
around his table, and he has plenty of solid work in itinerating 
over a field ninety by forty miles, preaching and teaching the 
everlasting Gospel It is a gratifying fact that not less than 
twenty-two of the children of American missionaries in Syria 
have entered on the missionary work. 

As the year drew near its close, cholera appeared in Harnath, 
Hums, and Aleppo and some 25,000 people died. Mr. Wakim 
Messuah, pastor in Hums, had provided himself with cholera 
medicines, and went fearlessly among the people day by day, so 
that during the prevalence of the pestilence not a Protestant died. 

57 Three Years of Progress 

The experience in Hamath and some of the villages was the same, 
as the teachers were forewarned and so forearmed. But after 
the epidemic subsided and all apprehension had ceased, the wife 
and daughter of the Hums pastor were suddenly taken one night 
with a virulent form of the disease and both died ! 

In Tripoli, through the goodness of God and the wise precau- 
tion of Dr. Harris, the girls' boarding-school stood like an angel- 
guarded fortress In the midst of that pestilence-stricken city. 
All water was boiled, all food cooked, and no outsider allowed to 
come In and although people were dying all around and the death 
wails filled the air, not a person in that building had the cholera. 

The people asked, " Has God spread a tent over those Protes- 

The Moslems naturally suffered most, as their fatalistic doc- 
trines lead them to neglect the simplest rules of sanitation and 

This year was an important one in the Tripoli field. Talcott 
Hall, the chapel of the school and community, was begun, and 
Tripoli Presbytery was organized in Amar, a region so wild when 
I lived In Tripoli, that we could not visit it without armed horse- 
men to protect us. Then, as brother Samuel said about Safita, 
we dared not go there lest the people shoot us, but now we fear 
to go lest they ask us for a school, when we have neither the 
means nor the men to supply it. 

The fourth Moslem convert of this year appeared, entered on a 
course of study, and has become an eminently useful man. 

We have just had a Moslem sheikh here from Egypt He be- 
came enlightened there and fled to Syria. Some of the active 
brethren in a neighbouring city became interested in him and he 
came on to Beirut. He attended church regularly here for weeks 
and showed a good deal of religious interest and fervour. But at 
length the gangrene of Islam appeared, and he was found engaged 
in impure practices. He then told us that in Egypt his regular 
business for years was that of a marrier of divorced women, 

A Relapse 571 

This is an approved business In orthodox Moslem circles. If a 
Moslem In anger divorces his wife twice* he cannot remarry her 
the third time until she has first been legally married for a day 
and a night to another man ! This accommodating sheikh would 
marry a divorced woman, take her as his wife for one night, and 
then divorce her, so that she could return to her husband. In 
this way he made his living I No wonder he finds it as hard to 
be moral as the Corinthian converts did. Oh, the depths of cor- 
ruption in Islam ! Let us thank God for a pure and holy religion ! 


Marking Time 

Overworked The High Anglican Church hostility An English 
Moslem Religious cranks The first railroad Educational missions 
The Armenian massacres. 

THE year 1891 was a strenuous one for me. For a large 
part of the time I was alone as I was in 1866-1867. 
Dr. Samuel Jessup and Dr. Eddy were in America and 
Dr. Dennis was called home on account of his father's death. 
Dr. Van Dyck was in feeble health, and I had the management 
of the press with all its accounts, business correspondence, exam- 
ining of manuscripts, reading proofs, editing the Neshrah and the 
Mulhoc, helping the native pastor, taking my turn in preaching in 
the church and in the college, and giving regular instruction in the 
theological class, besides doing the custom-house business. In my 
diary I find that my average weekly letters in English and Arabic 
numbered from thirty to forty, some of them of considerable length. 

We had our usual struggle with the custom-house authorities, 
who freely granted immunities to all nationalities but the Amer- 

Two more Mohammedan converts appeared, one of whom has 
persevered and become a faithful and exemplary man in his pro- 
fession. The other, from Samaria, stated that before he was born 
his mother had vowed that if she had a son she would have him 
baptized by a Greek priest and taught the Greek catechism and 
creed. He grew up and went to school. Not liking the picture 
worship and saint worship of the Greeks, he became a Protestant 
with his mother's consent. He remained some time with Mr. 
Hardin and then disappeared, presumably having gone with a 
company of emigrants to America. 

A cyclone of great violence swept over Lebanon in March. 


High Church Hostility 573 

The Damascus diligence with six mules, and carrying passengers, 
near the summit of Mount Lebanon beyond Sowfar, was hur!ed f 
mules and all, about 200 feet from the road and landed in a field 
below. The mules were killed, but the passengers and driver es- 
caped with slight bruises. A few days after I passed that point 
in the diligence going east and saw the dead mules lying in the 
field where they fell A gaunt wolf stood by them devouring 
the flesh. A French engineer on the diligence sprang down, 
levelled his revolver, and fired. The wolf turned his head and 
kept on with his meal He fired again and the wolf limped 
away. He fired a third shot and the wolf staggered somewhat 
and disappeared down the mountain slope. Some days after, on 
my return, I asked at Sowfar station whether anything had been 
heard of the wolf. " Yes/' they said, his dead body was found 
that day at the foot of the cliff." 

The struggle between High Church Anglicanism and the truly 
evangelical missionaries of the Church Missionary Society in 
Palestine came to a crisis, with the appointment of Bishop Blyth 
as Anglican bishop in Jerusalem. As all the missionaries in Pal- 
estine are decidedly Low Church, it was expected that on the oc- 
currence of a vacancy in the English Episcopate, the appointing 
power would send a man in sympathy with the missionary clergy. 
But what occurred was exactly the reverse. The Right Reverend 
G. F. Popham Blyth, D. D., was appointed. Before his day, 
Anglican bishops such as Gobat and Barclay, with deans, canons, 
archdeacons, and rectors had visited Beirut and officiated in our 
mission church at the English service and conducted the com- 
munion service which we all attended. But on the arrival of 
Bishop Blyth, up went the bars. At his first service in Beirut, 
we Americans, in our simplicity, Dr. Bliss, Dr. Dennis, Dr. Sam- 
uel Jessup and myself attended. We communed. The good 
bishop's holy soul must have writhed in agony at the thought of 
such uncircumcised Presbyterians taking the communion at his 
hands. But he atoned for it the next Sunday by setting up a 
barbed wire fence around the communion table in language some- 

574 Marking Tim 

thing like this : Hereafter any one of this flock wishing to 
commune with Catholics, Greeks, or Presbyterians must first ob- 
tain permission from the bishop's chaplain in charge of this 
church. And any Catholic, Greek, or Presbyterian wishing to 
commune here must first obtain permission from the bishop's 
chaplain." That was a fence intended to be an offense, and the 
little exclusive fold has not been invaded since by Presbyterian, 
nor even by the Evangelical Church of England missionaries in 
this part of Syria. He tried the threat of excommunication 
against two eminent English missionary ladies and received a re- 
ply that if he persisted in his course they would complain of him 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury. I have said enough in a pre- 
vious chapter (on the Greek Church) with regard to the corrup- 
tion of the Oriental churches, 

My little booklet, " The Greek Church and Protestant Mis- 
sions," which was published by the Christian Literature Society 
In New York and reprinted in two editions in England, contains 
all I have to say further on this subject. 

It is a special delight of these high Anglicans to hobnob with 
the Greek monks, bishops, and priests and to do all In their power 
to antagonize the Syrian evangelical churches. Any attempt on 
the part of Maronites, Catholics, or Greeks to break away from 
the Mariolatry and picture worship of their old churches and 
from the grinding tyranny of their priests, as our fathers did in 
the time of the Reformation, will be frowned upon by the Angli- 
can clergy and every possible means be used to drive them back 
Into spiritual bondage. 

In 1850, Archbishop Sumner, in an agreement with Baron 
Bunsen about the Jerusalem bishopric, said that when men in the 
Oriental churches become " emancipated from the fetters of a 
corrupt faith, we have no right to turn our backs upon the liber- 
ated captive and bid him return to his slavery or seek aid else- 

In 1907, the Anglican bishop in Jerusalem "requested his 
Haifa Chaplain Archdeacon Dowling to write to the Greek 
patriarch of Jerusalem asking his approval of opening negotia- 

Anglicans and Greek Catholics 575 

tions, saying, * The terms on which the Anglican Church can ne- 
gotiate with the Orthodox Greek Church are formal recognition 
between the two churches of the validity of Holy Baptism and 
Holy Orders. 1 " The patriarch replied that the Eastern Church 
cannot accept the baptism or the orders of the Anglican Church^ 
and only " the entire Eastern Orthodox Church and the entire 
Anglican Church" are competent to determine this question. 

One little specimen of animated millinery tried to prohibit 
Rev. EL E. Fox of London from preaching In our church in 
Beirut. Finding that he was going to preach at 1 1 A. M., he 
withdrew an invitation to him to officiate in the Anglican even- 
ing service 1 Mr, Fox wrote him a letter in reply which con- 
tained some fatherly counsel and severe rebuke to the little 
usurper which he will not soon forget Mr. Fox sent me a copy 
of his letter which I have on file. The Church Missionary So- 
ciety, true to its evangelical principles, will not allow its churches 
and chapels on missionary ground to be consecrated by a bishop, 
and they freely invite missionaries of other churches to preach in 
them. I would recommend to the Anglican clergy who are so 
keen upon fraternizing with the higher clergy of the Orthodox 
Church in Jerusalem, especially the " Brotherhood of the Holy 
Sepulchre," to read a book published by the Orthodox Russian 
bishop of Moscow about the year 1885 after spending a year in 
Jerusalem. He exposes the shocking immoralities of these clergy 
and says that no one can hear what he heard and know what he 
knows without blushing for the good name of Christianity. He 
enters into details with regard to the numerous progeny of these 
holy celibate monks, who are sent to Cyprus and trained in their 
turn to be monks. A prominent Greek gentleman in Beirut, 
connected with the Russian consulate-general, gave me a copy 
of the book. 

An English traveller who visited Beirut April 16, 1891, wrote 
out the following questions to Dr. Van Dyck, which I give in 
brief with the doctor's replies : 

" I. Can Bishop Blyth and the Church Missionary Society be 
reconciled? Ans. No. 

576 Marking Time 

" 2. Can the Anglican and Greek Churches be affiliated ? 
Ans. Yes, by all Englishmen being rebaptized and the clergy re- 
ordained, and receiving Holy Chrism with a mixture cooked over 
a fire made of rotten and filthy pictures of the saints which have 
been worn oat by being kissed for years. 

" 3. Can the American missions and the British Syrian Schools 
evangelize Syria ? Ans. Yes, in time. 

" 4, Is a theological school, endowed in England and manned 
by natives, needed ? Ans. No, the East is pauperized enough 

While the American Mission was holding its semi-annual meet- 
ing in August in Suk el Gharb, news came of the death in the 
neighbouring village of Shemlan of Mrs. E. H. Watson, an Eng- 
lish missionary aged eighty-seven. She had laboured in Chris- 
tian education for more than thirty years. Before coming to 
Syria, she had taught school in Ireland, in Brooklyn, in Crete, in 
Valparaiso, in Athens, in Smyrna, and lastly in Beirut, Shemlan, 
Sidon, and Ain Zehalteh. For sixty-two years she was a teacher* 
In stature she was diminutive and her physique was that of a 
child, but her life was one of constant toil and self-sacrifice. She 
crossed seas and oceans at her own charges and here in Syria 
erected buildings, founded schools, and aided in Christian work 
with the greatest zeal and patience. She built and presented to 
our mission the house in Deir Mimas and the church in Shemlan. 
The Training-School for Girls in Shemlan was founded by her, 
and its edifice reared and deeded by her to a British Female 
Education Society and by that society finally given to the British 
Syrian Mission. In some other enterprises she suffered grievous 
disappointment, but this alone is her monument. 

The following week, Dr, and Mrs. Hoskins* Infant son 
Horace K Hoskins died in Suk. On August 3 1st, Syria suffered 
a great loss in the death of Mrs. Augusta Mentor Mott, long the 
directress of the British Syrian Schools and Bible Mission, 
These schools were founded by the late Mrs. J. Bowen Thomp- 
son, then conducted by her sisters, the late Mrs. Henry Smith 

Bereavements Quilliam the English Moslem 577 

and Mrs. Mott They were a remarkable trio of sisters^ and with 
the admirable corps of teachers associated with them ? have done 
a work of the highest value In the education of the daughters of 
Syria. Thoroughly spiritual in their religious character, liberal 
* and broad minded, using their fortunes and their sympathies in 
the work, they have left their mark on Syrian family life and done 
this people immortal service. Although belonging to the 
Church of England, they would have nothing to do with the 
ritualistic Romanizing party and cooperated with our own mission 
and the Irish Presbyterian Mission in Damascus, and their teach- 
ers and converted pupils were communicants in the American 
Mission churches. 

Before her death Mrs. Mott sent for me to come and pray with 
her, and stated that she wished the British Syrian Schools to be 
conducted in the future on the same basis as before and to con- 
tinue in cordial cooperation with the American Mission. 

In October and December, 1891, death again invaded the mis- 
sion circle. Little Geraldine Dale, daughter of the late Rev, 
Gerald F. Dale of Zahleh, died after a brief illness, a severe afflic- 
tion to her already afflicted and widowed mother. This beautiful 
child was laid beside her father and sister in the mission cemetery. 
Then followed in two months the sudden death of Mrs. Dr. Wm. 
Schauffler, after childbirth, and on the day before Christmas I 
baptized little William Gray Schauffler over his mother's coffin. 
She was the daughter of my old Hebrew teacher in Union Semi- 
nary, Rev. Dr. Theron F. Hawkes, and the father was the grand- 
son of the distinguished Dr. Schauffler, one of the Bible transla- 
tors of Constantinople. 

On September soth, Rev. Asaad Abdullah was ordained in 
Ain Zehalteh and has continued steadfast in the ministry and is 
now, after fifteen years, the useful pastor of the Beirut Evangel* 
ical Church. 

About this time, one Quilliam, an Englishman in Liverpool, 
embraced Islam. He was invited to Constantinople and honoured 

578 Marking Time 

and received the name of Mohammed Quilliam. The Moslem 
papers of the East rejoiced with great joy that now Mohammed 
Webb, who had collapsed in New York, was to be succeeded by a 
genuine English convert. Quilliam received money in aid of his 
scheme to convert England from Turkey, Egypt, and India. In 
1903, the Moslem sheikh, Abdul Kerim Efifendi Marat, of 
Medina, the Holy City of Islam (where Mohammed was buried), 
having heard of the great English Moslem, visited England and 
became the guest of Quilliam of Liverpool He was surprised, 
shocked, disgusted. He wrote long letters to the Moslem Arabic 
journal Thomrat, No. 1,058, of Beirut, in which he described 
his feelings, on being met at the station by a " dog-cart driven 
by a handsome young lady, daughter of Abdullah Quilliam, who 
wore a fancy hat, without a veil (God forbid !). She was one of 
the converts to Islam, The mosque was his house, the minaret, 
a balcony on the street. The prayer room was fitted with seats 
like a church and at the time of prayer, Quilliam went up to the 
balcony and, Istughfur Allah ! (God forgive !) repeated in Eng- 
lish a call to prayer. Then this unveiled girl sat down to a small 
organ and played the tunes, while the handful of men and boys 
sang out of books hymns such as the Christians use, with the 
name of Christ omitted \ I was amazed. Then Quilliam said a 
few words, and they prayed, not in the required kneelings and 
bowings, but in a free and easy way shocking to the true be- 
liever. I found that he knew no Arabic, that he read the Koran 
in English (!) and that the women go unveiled like Christian 
women. He knows nothing about the principles and practice of 
Islam, but whenever he hears of men converted in Africa or 
India, he announces it to his subscribers in India or Turkey as the 
result of the labours of his missionaries. When the Emir of 
Afghanistan visited England, he gave Quilliam twenty-five hun- 
dred pounds, and the Prince of Lagos, West Africa, gave him one 
thousand pounds, supposing that he is printing Moslem books 
and leading the English people into Islam. Irle asked me to 
preach and I did. I told the whole truth. I told him that if, 
after being in Protestant schools twenty years, he really wished 

Quilliam Exposed 579 

to serve the cause of Islam, he would have studied the Koran and 
Islamic books by bringing a learned sheikh here to teach Arabic 
and the Koran, whereas now he asks them to enter a religion of 
which he knows nothing. 

" In leaving him, after thanking him for his hospitality, I said, 
' I advise you at once to bring three learned Moslem sheikhs with 
the funds you receive from India and Turkey, and let them teach 
Arabic and the holy faith and publish a journal/ I also said> 
< You must command your women and girls to veil their faces 
and never let any man but their fathers and husbands see them/ 
I reminded him that when six hundred negroes in Lagos with 
their emir had accepted Islam through agents we sent from the 
Hejaz in Arabia, he took my report of the same, and sent it to 
the Sheikh ul Islam in Constantinople claiming that these were 
converts of his agents whom he had sent to West Africa ! and I 
rebuked him for this barefaced lying in order to raise money. 
The fact is he knows nothing about Islam." 

This is a literal translation of Sheikh Abdul Kerim's letter. 

During this year, two itinerant evangelists, whom we will call X 
and Z, came to Syria. They held Bible readings and preached 
in chapels in Beirut and vicinity. They agreed on one point, 
and that was their suspicion and jealousy of each other. X 
came to Dr. Mackie of the Anglo-American Church in Beirut 
and said, " I want to warn you against Z. He cannot be trusted. 
He will pry into the secrets of your families and then blaze them 
abroad in the pulpit, Look out for him/' A few days later Z 
came to Dr. Mackie and said, "I hear you have asked X to 
preach in your pulpit a great mistake, sir. He cannot be re- 
lied on. Those X's, even the bishop, are all a little ' off* ; beware 
of him/ 1 One of them afterwards asked permission to lecture 
on the Second Coming. It was known that he held radical 
arithmetical views on the subject. So a pledge was taken from 
him that he would not fix the day nor the year for the Second 
Coming of Christ. He solemnly promised that he would avoid 
that aspect of the subject, A learned elder of the Arabic 

580 Marking Time 

Church acted as Interpreter. After a time his arithmetic got the 
better of his conscience and he solemnly declared that " as sure 
as the Word of God is true, the times of the Gentiles will end in 
1910, and Christ's reign on earth will begin. There will be no 
king, emperor, president, or sultan, and the Turkish Empire will 
come to an end ! " The interpreter was terrified. There might 
be present a Turkish policeman or spy, and the interpreter and 
all his brethren be arrested as enemies of the Sultan. So he 
adroitly generalized the language and perhaps saved us from 
having our Sunday-school closed by the police ! 

After the meeting 1 confronted the man with his violation of 
his solemn pledge, he did not seem to regret what he had 
done, but met my protest with " a smile that was bland." 

It is often difficult to know what is duty when strangers come 
and ask permission to address the Sunday-school, the girls' 
boarding-school or the college. 

It is generally necessary, however, to warn the eager speaker 
to avoid absolutely all flattering remarks about the "beautiful 
bright eyes of the girls," and the "intelligent faces" or "high 
promise " of the boys. I have often been obliged, when trans- 
lating for a tourist speaker, to use my own discretion as to the 
amount of " soft soap " proper to be administered to the hearers. 

One speaker In the college told the students that if they ever 
came to America he would be glad to see them In his home 

in , Out came the note-books and within the next 

two years the quiet country study of this good man was invaded, 
to his dismay, by a number of eager youths, expecting that he 
would find them work in their adopted country. He had no 
means of furnishing them employment. They had taken him at 
his word. He had forgotten it, but they had not, and they were 

In several instances professors, pastors, and teachers have 
given high recommendations to young men for the foreign mis- 
sionary work, and afterwards, when the men found they were 
out of place and had to give up the work, those who recom- 

Disturbing the Good-will of Ishmaei 581 

mended them admitted that they did It " with misgivings/ 1 as 
one seminary professor stated. The result was the expense of 
outfit, thousands of miles out and back, a disappointed labourer, a 
disappointed mission, and the loss of much money. 1 felt at the 
time that the man who had the " misgivings n should now try to 
make amends for his imprudence by liberal " givings " to make 
up the loss. 

In August a Boston man bearing a familiar name wrote to me 
asking Information about the Arabic .language, and added the 
extraordinary " hope that you will not In your missionary work 
be guilty of indiscretion in disturbing the good-will of Ishmaei." 
I wrote him that I was unable to grasp his meaning. According 
to Genesis 16: 12, " Ishmaei will be a wild man. His hand will 
be against every man and every man's hand will be against him." 
The Bedawin and the people of Arabia are the Ishmaelites of 
to-day. It is difficult to see how a foreigner can secure the 
" good-will " of such a body of robbers and murderers. They 
live by constant forays and cowardly midnight " ghazus " upon 
each others' camps. 

The famous Mohammed Smair, the Bedawy emir who visited 
Beirut, told me that a Christian teacher or khotib might 
live among his tribe if he had a good horse and would migrate 
with the tribe in their nomadic life and live as they live, but he 
would have to help in the " ghazu " against other tribes. Our 
Boston friend might say that such a course would be justified if 
thereby we secure the " good-will " of the Arabs. The true way 
to secure the permanent good-will of these poor Ishmaelites 
would be to compel them to abandon their nomad life and 
internecine wars, settle down, and cultivate the soil and live in 
peace. This will come when there is a strong and honest 
government in Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia. 

If the Boston scholar meant that the Gospel Is not to be 
preached to the Arabs because they are Moslems, lest their 
" good- will " be disturbed, I will suggest that he read Matthew 
10 : 34, Think not that I am come to send peace on earth : I 

582 Marking Time 

came not to send peace but a sword." This is the teaching of 
the " Prince of Peace." Light dissipates darkness. Truth 
antagonizes error. Ahab charged Elijah with " troubling 
Israel" Elijah replied that the trouble came from Ahab and his 
idolatrous abandonment of God. In every mission field the 
" Gospel of Peace " stirs up strife and hostility. " Bonds and 
imprisonment " awaited Paul in every city. In our day in every 
heathen and Mohammedan land, sons are persecuted by fathers 
and fathers by sons. I have known an ignorant Maronite 
mother to poison her own son, a worthy and lovable man. Mos- 
lems hang or shoot or poison apostates and glory in their shame. 
Christ has bidden us to go and preach the Gospel. He says " be 
wise as serpents and harmless as doves," but He also says, " go 
and teach all nations " that is " evangelize them, give them the 
pure Gospel," because they are sinners and need it, and without 
Christ they are lost. 

In a land like this, every year yields its crop of cranks. 
Sometimes singly and sometimes in organized companies. The 
careful chronicle of all the religious, political, and ethical cranks 
who have ravaged the Holy Land during the past fifty years 
would furnish a fruitful theme for psychological research. 

Here is one of them. In July, 1891, an archaeological friend 
wrote from Jerusalem that he had been playing " Halma " at the 
house of the British consul with the " Forerunner." Some time 
after, this "forerunner" appeared at Hasbeiya under Mount 
Hermon and put up at the school of an English lady. He was 
in sorry plight, his clothes ragged and dirty and no change of 
raiment ; a package of dried plants about all he possessed. He 
was obliged to go to bed to have his garments washed and the 
good hostess was horrified to find that the guest-room had be- 
come infested with vermin of the third plague of Egypt. 

He stated solemnly that he was the " Forerunner " and that he 
was going to the summit of Hermon to meet the Lord and that 
then they were going to London to resurrect Dean Stanley ! 

He next appeared at the beautiful cottage home of Mr. and 

Tramps 583 

Mrs. Bird ? In Abeih, Mount Lebanon, and asked for a lodging. 
Mrs. Bird, who is a model of the New England housewife, was 
no less horrified than was the Hasbeiya lady to see this unkempt, 
ragged, and unsavoury tramp entering her neat and spotless 
house. Here also he left vestiges. The family were amazed at 
his refined language and his knowledge of botanical science, yet 
none the less relieved when he took his departure. 

Soon after, Dr. George E. Post, of the college in Beirut, found 
a tramp asleep on the porch of his house, and ordered him to 
decamp. He begged for food, and promised to work, if the doc- 
tor would give him passage money to Alexandria. Dr. Post, 
who is a distinguished botanist, soon found out that the " pack " 
of this straggler contained dried plants and flowers. One thing 
led to another. The man said his name was S , from Bos- 
ton. He had tramped on foot from the Suez Canal to Gaza and 
Jerusalem and thence through the land to Beirut, living on the 
people. The doctor agreed to pay his fare if he would write out 
a journal of his trip from Egypt to Beirut. He did so. It was 
written in elegant phrase, a model of Addisonian diction, humor- 
ous, keen in observation, and with a decided scientific turn. It 
was impossible to say whether the man was a scholar with a 
crazy streak of mental hallucination, or whether the "Fore- 
runner" was assumed as a disguise to account for his unwashed 
person and filthy rags, and to enable him to beg his way through 
the tramp-trodden Holy Land. 

This summer I had a visit from a tramp of quite another stamp. 
When at my desk in the press, Sheikh Mohammed Hassan, one 
of the keepers of the Sacred Haram of Mecca, was announced* 
He was not of the unwashed. He had gone through all the ab- 
lutions of the orthodox Sunni Moslems from his youth up. His 
flowing robe and immaculate white turban, with his mellifluous 
Arabic, excited my admiration as it had done at about this time 
of the year for several years. He was on his annual round to 
gather in the spare copper and silver of the faithful. 

On his first visit he received a finely-bound Bible for the sherif 
of Mecca, which he afterwards reported as having been received 

584 Marking Time 

with thanks. This time he descanted volubly on the noble 
generosity of the Americans and how they love all men and help 
all laudable enterprises. He then produced from under the folds 
of his robe a box of Mecca dates and a bottle of water from the 
Bir Zem Zem in Mecca. I accepted the dates with profuse 
thanks, but took pains to see that the Zem Zem bottle was well 
sealed, as the water is reputed to have more microbes to the 
ounce than any water on earth. It would have been preposter- 
ous to give a small present to such a distinguished and learned 
mendicant. I got off with two dollars and an Arabic book. 

Several other " forerunners " have appeared in Palestine in 
latter years, leading all decent and sane people to wish that the 
wardens of insane hospitals in Europe and America would keep 
their lunatics at home. 

The American diplomatic representatives at this time were 
Hon. S. Hirsch, United States Minister at the Porte and Mr. 
Erhard Bissinger, consul in Beirut, both of whom were efficient 
and conscientious men and an honour to their country. The 
American Mission in Syria sent to each of them letters of 
thanks and high appreciation of their efforts to promote Ameri- 
can educational and benevolent interests in Turkey, as well as in 
the interests of our commerce. 

As a rule, our representatives have been able men and efficient. 
In these fifty-one years I have known ten consuls in Beirut, and 
not more than three of them left Syria unregretted. Six were 
total abstinence men. Over a few I would draw the veil Up 
to the year 1906 their salaries were quite inadequate, and they 
were not able without great self-denial to maintain adequately 
the dignity of their country. The new consular regulations will 
insure the appointment of efficient men with sufficient support to 
make it worth the while of first-class men to enter the foreign 
consular service. 

1892 The year 1892 was marked by the death of Kamil in 
Bussorafy of Mr. R. Kouawaty, an aged disciple of eighty in 

And the Damascus Railway. 

The New Railway 585 

Beirut, and of Wassa Pasha, Governor of Mount Lebanon, June 
29th, and the arrival of his successor, Naoom Pasha, Septem- 
ber 4th. 

Dr. and Mrs. S. Jessup, Rev. and Mrs. W. K. Eddy, and 
Dr. and Mrs. Daniel Bliss arrived from furloughs. 

In April Dr. Van Dyck received the honorary degree of 
L. H. D. from the University of Edinburgh and on December 
23d, his friends, native and foreign, congratulated him and Mrs. 
Van Dyck on their golden wedding and presented him with a 
beautiful English cathedral clock. 

On March loth another Moslem convert, Mustafa from Damas- 
cus, passed through Beirut en route for the land of liberty. A 
young Moslem woman educated in a Christian school was sum- 
moned before the Maktubji, with her parents, and charged with 
being a Christian. She said, " Yes, I am a Christian : I trust in 
the Lord Jesus Christ as my Saviour and I am not afraid to con- 
fess Him before men. Do with me what you please. I belong 
to Jesus Christ and do not fear/ 1 The man threatened her but 
she was so calm and firm that he decided to let her alone. And 
she is as firm to-day (1909) as then. 

On August 28th the first locomotive reached Jerusalem, and 
December 8th ground was broken in Beirut for the Beirut- 
Damascus Railway. A great company of invited guests assem- 
bled on the spot, and while the Nakib el Ashraf Abdurahman 
Effendi Nahass offered an eloquent prayer, twelve sheep were 
sacrificed in front of him and the meat given to the poor. The 
sacrifice of sheep is a constant custom in Turkey on laying the 
corner-stone of any new building, or opening any new enterprise. 

A division occurred in Beirut church and the seceding por- 
tion called a pastor of their own. It was a sad experience to all 
concerned, but the new native churches have to learn by experi- 
ence, and the trials through which they pass may yet prove to 
be the means of greater ultimate success and progress. The 
only practical gain was the fact that the new church thus formed 
paid its own way without expense to the mission. Time is a 
great healer and the good men who have been temporarily sepa- 

586 Marking Time 

rated will no doubt eventually come together again. I shall give 
no details of this church dissension, as it is clear that all parties 
would prefer that it be forgotten. 

In January the zealous censor of the press expunged from 
our weekly Neshrah an account of the oppression of the Israel- 
ites by Pharaoh. He said that Egypt is under the Sultan and 
oppression of the Jews could not occur in Egypt We were so 
stupefied by this display of learning and loyalty that we tamely 
submitted. The rebellion of Absalom was also forbidden to be 
mentioned, although taken verbatim from the Scriptures. In 
most cases we might appeal to the Waly, and the Walys are 
generally men of sense and experience and would overrule the 
decision of a petty press censor, but when your type is on the 
press and your hour of publication is at hand you have no time 
to draw up a formal protest on stamped paper stating your 
grievances. In the fall of that same year we printed a collection 
of eulogiums of the Bible by eminent men. These were all 
stricken out as implying that the Koran was not the only divine 
Book in the world, and our paper threatened with suppression if 
we repeated such language ! 

Swarms of locusts again appeared in Syria. In Aleppo the 
Waly ordered every man in the district to bring one oke (three 
pounds) to the government inspectors, to be destroyed. Four 
million okes were brought according to the official journal, or 
about 5,500 tons. These flights of locusts are terrific. They 
darken the sky and lighting down, destroy every green thing. 
I have seen them three or four inches deep on the ground. A 
tailor in Beirut when ordered out with the rest of the crowd to 
gather a sack full of locusts, brought back his sack after sunset 
and locked it up in his shop. Each locust's body contains about 
ninety eggs like the spawn of a fish. The tailor was taken down 
with a fever that night and did not return for a month. On his 
return, he opened the door and a swarm of young " gowgahs " 
came jumping out like gigantic fleas, black imps with heads like 
horses. The eggs had hatched out and for his two thousand 

Mohammedan Relics 587 

locusts he had 180,000, completely covering his shop and ruin- 
ing his stock of goods. 

An event of the year greatly regretted by the mission was the 
resignation of Dr. James S. Dennis. 

Owing to a quarrel in the Orthodox Greek Church in Damascus^ 
three hundred Greeks declared themselves Protestants and at- 
tended the Protestant church. The missionaries welcomed them 
and gave them daily evangelical instruction, but felt assured 
from the outset that it was only the " morning cloud and early 
dew," and was only meant as a menace to the other party to 
yield and in a short time the whole three hundred who had 
marched up the hill marched down again and resumed their 
prayers to the holy pictures and the Virgin. 

A new mosque having been built in Tripoli, Syria, it was dedi- 
cated June I /th, by the arrival of three hairs from the beard of 
Mohammed, from Constantinople. Thousands of Moslems went 
down to the seaport to greet the casket, and half-naked men 
danced in the procession and cut themselves with knives amid 
the jubilation of the populace. In the addresses made on the 
occasion, according to the Moslem journals, there was no expla- 
nation as to what special virtue came from these relics. It has 
been supposed that the Moslems borrowed the custom from the 
Christian crusaders who carried off shiploads of relics from the 
Holy Land to Europe. The conduct of the ignorant populace 
can be explained, as it can in the Orthodox Greek orgies at the 
fraudulent Greek fire at Easter in Jerusalem, and the worshipping 
of bones and hairs and other relics of reputed saints in almost 
every papal church in Europe ; but the winking of Greek and 
Roman bishops and Moslem efifendis and kadis at such puerile 
superstition, and giving them the sanction of their presence and 
cooperation cannot be too severely condemned. 

In April I wrote to Dr. Deanis in New York pleading by 
order of the mission for reinforcements. 

It was urged that " Dr. Van Dyck is seventy-two, Dr. Eddy 

588 Marking Time 

sixty-four, H. H. Jessup sixty, S. Jessup fifty-nine, Dr. Daniel 
Bliss at the college sixty-nine, and Mr. Bird sixty-nine. You 
may get i bottom ' out of such venerable steeds, but you cannot 
expect much * speed/ I am feeling somewhat the burdens of 
this year, and the confusing secularities of running a printing- 
house, in addition to my preaching and teaching duties with my 
voluminous correspondence, sometimes make my head swim, I 
don't think I could carry this load another year. We must have 
one or two first-rate young men in training to take our places 
before we break down." 

I now add to the above, sixteen years later, that Dr. Van 
Dyck, Dr. Eddy, Mr. Bird and W. K. Eddy have gone to their 
reward, Dr. Dennis and Mr. Watson resigned, a loss of six men, 
and only five, Messrs. Doolittle, Erdman, S. D. Jessup, Nicol and 
Brown, have come in their place, so that the mission is numer- 
ically weaker in 1909 than in 1892, and I am seventy-six and a 
half, and my brother seventy-five and a half. 

Dr. R. Anderson, in giving his consent to the establishment 
of the Syrian Protestant College, expressed the fear that its 
teaching English would result in denationalizing the Syrians, 
making them restless, and unfitting them for the work of humble 
pastors and preachers in their own country. He instanced the 
results of English teaching in India as disastrous to the training 
of a native ministry. 

It is not easy now to say what would have been the effect of 
making English the language of instruction in the college, had 
all things remained as they "were. But the discovery of America 
by certain Syrian merchants in 1876, and the British occupation 
of Egypt in 1882 put a new phase on the future of Syrian youth. 
The demand for English-speaking and English-trained doctors, 
lawyers, surveyors, and engineers, clerks and accountants in the 
Anglo-Egyptian military and civil service, tempted the best 
trained youth of Syria to go to Egypt. Then the opening El 
Dorado for Syrian dealers in Oriental wares and fabrics in North 
and South America, Mexico, and Australia sent, first, hundreds 

Value of Teaching in English 589 

and then thousands of Syrians, men, women, and children, to 
seek their fortune beyond the seas. Many sent back thousands 
of dollars, and the rumour of their success spread over the land, 
Then steamer agents and emigrant agency runners visited the 
towns and villages and sounded the praises of America, Brazil 
and Argentine, etc., until every steamer to Naples and Marseilles 
went croxvded with hopeful Syrians. Was the teaching In the 
college and boys* boarding-schools responsible for this phe- 
nomenal exodus ? The answer must be affirmative with regard 
to Egypt The Egyptian and Sudanese governments want 
bright, Intelligent young Syrians, well up in English, and with a 
sound moral training, and this class largely goes to Egypt. But 
the rank and file of the tens of thousands of emigrants know no 
language but Arabic and literally " go forth not knowing whither 
they are going." Not a few college men are In the United 
States, but I was surprised on examining the Syrian Protestant 
College catalogue for 1906 to find that only fifty-eight college 
graduates are now in the United States, and eighty-seven In 
Egypt, or a hundred and forty-five In all, out of one thousand 
three hundred and eighty-seven graduates In all departments. 

It Is perhaps true that a knowledge of English has increased 
the number of emigrants, but their number Is small as compared 
with the whole number of emigrants. Professor Lucius Miller of 
Princeton, who was for three years tutor in the Beirut College, 
spent a year in collecting statistics of the Syrian Colony in New 
York for the New York Federation of Churches, and he found the 
Protestant Syrians comprise fewer illiterate, and more educated 
men and women in proportion to their whole number than those 
of any other Syrian sect in New York. 

The figures are as follows : 

Able to read and write Arabic 

Protestant . . . 60. i% Maronite . . . 39.4% 
Greek .... 44. % Catholic . . . 33-7%? 

Able to read and write English 

Protestant . . . 60. i% Maronite . , * 19.1% 
Greek .... 25.8% Catholic . . . 13.1% 

59 Marking Time 

This ratio would hold good with regard to the Protestant sect 
in the whole Turkish Empire as compared with other sects. It is 
the best educated of all the sects owing chiefly to the American 
schools. The priest-ridden district of Maronite Northern Leb- 
anon stands among the lowest The Maronite higher clergy and 
the hordes of lazy worthless monks have gradually seized upon 
the best landed property and roll in wealth leaving the children 
and youth uneducated. Of late years a few, like the late Arch- 
bishop Dibbs of Beirut, have opened high schools, but the villages 
are left in ignorance. Emigration, however, is beginning to break 
up this monotone of ignorance and illiteracy. Many of the emi- 
grants have returned with liberal ideas and will not submit to 
priestly tyranny and are demanding schools under American and 
English auspices. The next twenty-five years will see a great 
change in the power and influence of this proud and tyrannical 

During this year, the Protestant missionaries in Constantinople 
drew up, signed, and forwarded to all the Protestant ambassadors 
an appeal protesting against the attempted suppression of Bible 
sale and colportage in the empire. The result was, after long 
delay, a new order forbidding interference with Bible work. 

In the Hatti Humayoun of February, 1856, it is said that 
" each community inhabiting a distinct quarter shall have equ^l 
power to repair and improve its churches, hospitals, school^ and 
cemeteries. The Sublime Porte will . . . insure to each 
sect, whatever be the number of its adherents, entire freedom in 
the exercise of its religion/' Yet there is constant obstruction of 
every effort to build churches or open schools. 

The Presbyterian church in Plainfield (New Jersey), Dr. W. R. 
Richards, pastor, sent out this year as a gift to the mission a new 
" Walter Scott " printing machine, made in Plainfield, and it 
arrived in May. On reaching the custom-house, the appraisers 
valued it at about double its real worth and I insisted that if they 
held their ground, they must " take their pay in kind." They 


Machine Room. 

Educational Mission Work 

then summoned several proprietors of presses In the city to aid 
in the appraisal and it was fixed at $8oo s on which we paid eight 
per cent, duty, or $64. We had also to pay moderate buckslieesh 
to boatmen, porters, inspectors, appraisers, clerks, scribes, copy- 
ists, overseers, doorkeepers, and watchmen for facilitating the 
egress of the machine. It was set up by means of a winch and 
tackle blocks by Mr. R. Somerville. This machine added 
greatly to the efficiency of our press, and is a memorial of the 
liberality of the Crescent Avenue Church. 

We were at that time shipping books by mule and donkey to 
the Lebanon villages and the cities of Syria and Palestine ; by 
post to Hamadan, Ispahan and Tabriz in Persia ; by sea, to Con- 
stantinople, Mogador, Tangier, Algiers, Tunis, Egypt and Zanzi- 
bar. Egypt was and is still our best customer. We send also to 
Aden in Arabia, to Bombay and other parts of India, and to 
Bussorah and Bushire on the Persian Gulf, and also to Rio 
Janeiro, San Paolo (Brazil), and to New York, Chicago, Toledo, 
Philadelphia, Lawrence, Mass., and other Syrian colonies in 
America. In concluding my letter of acknowledgment to the 
Plainfield friends, I said, " The labour is ours, the results are 
God's. It is a privilege to preach the Gospel and to print and 
scatter God's Word throughout the world. May the Holy Spirit 
attend our teaching and preaching and our printing with His 
own mighty power from on high. The Lord raise up mission- 
aries from your church in Plainfield and send them forth to the 
whitening harvest field ! I can testify after thirty-six years of 
service in Syria that the missionary work is a blessed work indeed 
and can commend it to your young Christians as a happy and 
glorious work. It was instituted by the command and is crowned 
with the promised blessing of the Son of God." 

In September, at the request of Dr. Arthur Pierson of the 
Missionary Review, I sent him an article on Educational Mis- 
sions, of which the following is the substance : 

We have given much of time and strength to mission schools 
but not to the detriment and neglect of other departments of the 

59 2 Marking Time 

work. Schools have been looked upon as vital to missionary 
success, and yet only as a means to an end, not as the end itself. 
Schools were called " entering wedges " and such they really 
were, introducing the Gospel in many districts where otherwise, 
as far as could be seen, neither Bible nor missionary would have 
been allowed to enter. 

Education is only a means to an end in Christian missions, and 
that end is to lead men to Christ and teach them to become 
Christian peoples and nations. When it goes beyond this and 
claims to be in itself an end ; that mere intellectual and scientific 
eminence are objects worthy of the Christian missionary, that it 
is worth while for consecrated missionaries and missionary so- 
cieties to aim to have the best astronomers, geologists, botanists, 
surgeons, and physicians in the realm for the sake of the scien- 
tific prestige and the world-wide reputation; then we do not 
hesitate to say that such a mission has stepped out of the Chris- 
tian and missionary sphere into one purely secular, scientific, and 
worldly. Such a work might be done by a Heidelberg or a 
Cambridge, a Harvard or a Sheffield, but not by a missionary 
society labouring for purely spiritual ends. The Syria Mission 
has had wide experience in the matter of education. The mis- 
sionaries have had a larger proportion of literary and educational 
work thrown upon them than is common in Asiatic and African 

The Syrian people differ from the " Nature " tribes of Africa, 
and the settled communities of Central and Eastern Asia, in 
having been engaged for centuries in the conflict between the 
corrupt forms of Christianity, the religion of Islam, and the sects 
of semi-Paganism. There being no political parties in the 
empire, the inborn love of political dissent finds its vent in the 
religious sects. A man's religion is his politics, that is, his sect 
takes the place occupied in other countries by the political party. 
To separate any Syrian from his religious sect is to throw him 
out of his endeared political party with all its traditions and 

A Christian missionary must steer clear of all these racial and 

Effect of Schools on Evangelization 593 

sectarian political jealousies and try to teach loyalty to the 
" powers that be/ } the common brotherhood of man, and offer to 
all a common Saviour. The Holy Spirit is indeed omnipotent, 
and can make men of these hostile sects one in Christ " by the 
word of His power," just as He can place a Tammany ward 
politician side by side with a negro Republican at the Lord's 

But as human nature is, it generally requires early Christian 
training to break down these ancient sectarian antipathies. Men 
and women converted in adult years from various sects find it 
hard to forget their former differences and on slight occasions the 
old political lines define themselves with perilous vividness- It 
is different with youths of different sects when educated together, 
and the brightest examples of mutual love and confidence have 
been found among the young men and women trained for years 
together in Christian schools. 

The present educational work of the Syria Mission has been a 
gradual growth. The 119 common schools were as a rule 
located in places where previously there were no schools. In not 
a few cases high schools have been opened in the same towns by 
native sects, who, as experience shows, would close their schools 
at once were the evangelical schools withdrawn. 

The total of pupils in 1891 was 7,117. If we add to this at 
least an equal number in the schools of other Protestant missions 
in Syria and Palestine, we have a total of about 15,000 children 
under evangelical instruction in the land. 

This is a work of large extent and influence, and it is of the 
first importance to know whether these schools are helping in the 
work of evangelization. To aid in a correct estimate on this point, 
we should remember that : 

1. The Bible is a text-book in all of them. These thousands 
of children are taught the Old and New Testaments," Line upon 
Line," " Life of St. Paul," the catechisms, and the advanced 
pupils the " Bible Hand Book," Scripture history and geography. 
The Bible rests at the foundation of them all. 

2. As f ar as possible, none but Christian techers ? communi- 

594 Marking Time 

cants in the churches, are employed In these schools. The com- 
mon schools are thus Bible schools, and where the teachers are 
truly godly men, their prayers and example give a strong relig- 
ious influence to their teaching, and in the high schools daily 
religious instruction is given in the most thorough manner. 

3. Sometimes a school has been maintained for years in a vil- 
lage without any apparent spiritual result, either among the chil- 
dren or their parents, and yet there are numerous instances in 
which the school has been the means of the establishment of a 
church and a decided religious reformation. 

4. The mission schools in Turkey have had one important 
effect and that is that the Protestant community has for its size 
less illiteracy than any other community in the empire, more 
readers than any other, and is in consequence more intelligent. 

5. In the towns and cities where the high schools are situate, 
the majority of the additions to the churches come from the chil- 
dren and the youth trained in the schools. 

6. It is the unanimous testimony of intelligent natives of all 
sects that the intellectual awakening of modern Syria is due, in 
the first instance, to the schools of the American missions. They 
were the first and have continued for over sixty years, and the 
most of the institutions now in existence in Syria, native and for- 
eign, have grown out of them or have been directly occasioned 
by them. 

7. If the question be raised, as to the comparative cost of 
educational and non-educational missions, it is doubtless true that 
the educational are the most costly. 

The Syrian Protestant College is an endowed institution sepa- 
rate from the Board of Missions, and its expensive edifices, which 
are an honour to American Christianity and an ornament to the 
city, were erected without cost to the Board of Missions. 

Since coming under the Presbyterian Board of Missions in 
1870, the mission has introduced the English language in addi- 
tion to the Arabic into its boys' and girls' boarding-schools, and 
many of its day-schools. The English and Scotch schools all 
teach the English language. In this way many thousands of 

Phenomenal Emigration 595 

Syrian youths have learned English, and the Romish and Greek 
schools are also teaching it in addition to French and Arabic. 

The question now arises, " Cui bono ? " Has twenty-five 
years 1 experience in teaching English justified the hopes and ex- 
pectations of the American missionaries ? We reply that it has, 
and that beyond all question. The limited scope of Arabic 
literature, though greatly extended during the past thirty years 
by the Christian Press, makes it impossible for one to attain a 
thorough education without the use of a foreign language. 

One needs but to turn the pages of the catalogue of the Syrian 
Protestant College and of the Protestant girls 1 boarding-schools 
to see the names of men and women who are now the leaders in 
every good and elevating enterprise, authors, editors, physicians, 
preachers, teachers, and business men who owe their success and 
influence to their broad and thorough education. They are scat- 
tered throughout Syria, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa, and 
North and South America. 

The advocates of a purely vernacular system sometimes point 
to another side of the question which is plain to every candid 
observer, namely, that the English-speaking youth of both sexes 
are leaving the country and emigrating to Egypt and America. 
This is true and to such an extent as to be phenomenal. The 
Christian youth of Syria, Protestant and Catholic, Greek and 
Armenian, are emigrating by thousands. The promised land is 
not now east and west of the Jordan, but east and west of the 
Mississippi and the Rio de la Plata. And the same passion for 
emigration prevails in Asia Minor, Eastern Turkey, Mesopotamia. 
It is a striking if not a startling providential fact. The Christian 
element in Turkey is seeking a freer and fairer field for develop- 
ment The ruling power is Moslem. Its motto has become 
" This is a Moslem land and Moslems must rule it" 

The Chicago Fair fanned the emigration fever to a flame. It 
has taken hold of all classes, and farmers, planters, mechanics, 
merchants, doctors, teachers, preachers, young men and women, 
boys and girls, even old men and women, are setting out in 

596 Marking Time 

crowds for the El Dorado of the West. A company of plain 
peasants will pay high wages for an English-speaking boy or girl 
to go with them as interpreter. There is thus a premium on the 
English language. The English occupation of Egypt and Cyprus 
has acted in the same direction by opening new avenues of em- 

On the other hand ignorance of English does not deter the 
people from emigrating. It Is a deep-seated popular impulse, 
wide-spread and irresistible, and it is equally strong in Eastern 
Turkey where little has been done In teaching the English lan- 
guage. The land is too narrow for Its people, at least under the 
present regime. The Moslems cannot get away, and few have gone. 

It cannot be claimed that the teaching of English alone has 
produced this great movement, for the masses of emigrants do 
not know a word of English. The reason is a desire to better 
their condition, " to buy and sell and get gain," and in some 
cases, a longing to live under a Christian government Whether 
the Syrians, like the Chinese, will return to their own land, is a 
problem as yet unsolved. 

The residence of Americans here for sixty years, the great 
numbers of American tourists who yearly pass through Syria and 
Palestine, the teaching of geography in the schools, the general 
spread of light, the news published in the Arabic journals, and the 
increase of population with no corresponding openings for earn- 
ing a living, these and many other causes have now culminated 
in this emigration movement which is sending a Semitic wave 
across seas and continents. Let us hope and pray that those who 
do at length return to the East will return better and broader and 
more useful men and women than If they had never left their na- 
tive land. 

It must be that there is a divine plan and meaning in it all, 
and that the result will be great moral gain to Western Asia in 
the future. 

The suspension of the mission schools in Syria would be a dis- 
aster. These thousands of children would be left untaught, or at 
least deprived of Bible Instruction, 

A New Syria 597 

We do not see cause for modifying our system of Christian 
education. Its great mission is yet to be performed. These 
schools in which the Bible is taught are doing a gradual, leaven- 
ing work among thousands who, thus far, do not accept the Word 
of God. 

There will yet be a new Phoenicia, a new Syria, better cultiva- 
ted, better governed, with a wider diffusion of Christian truth, a 
nobler sphere for women, happier homes for the people, and that 
contentment which grows out of faith in God and man. 

The schools will help on this consummation. The press will 
hasten it. The Christian pulpit will prepare the way for it The 
churches and congregations now existing and yet to be formed 
will lay the foundations for it, and the distribution of the Bible 
will confirm it and make it enduring. We believe in Christian 
mission schools. With all the drawbacks in expense and toil, and 
at times the semi-secularization of the missionary labourer, they 
are a blessing to any land. They let in the light. They teach 
the Bible to the children. They conciliate the parents, remove 
prejudice, root up old superstition, brighten and cheer the hearts 
of the little ones and the houses of their parents and lead many to 
a true knowledge of salvation through faith in Christ. 

They are a means to an end, and that end is the salvation of 
souls and the glory of God. 

1893 The chief events in the mission in 1893 were the reso- 
lution recommending the founding of an industrial orphanage in 
Sidon, the resignation of Miss Rebecca M. Brown from the Sidon 
Girls' Seminary, the baptism of another Mohammedan, Andraus, 
the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Doolittle for Sidon, the transfer of 
Mrs. Dale to Sidon for the year, and the arrival in Beirut of Dr. 
Mary Pierson Eddy from New York and Constantinople, having 
obtained, November 22, 1893, the first official permit granted to a 
woman to practice medicine in the Turkish Empire on the same 
terms as have been previously granted to men only. The learned 
professors in the Imperial Medical College were for a long time 
incredulous as to the competency of a woman to master medical 

598 Marking Time 

science, but when they finally consented to give her a medical 
examination and she passed triumphantly, they were warm in their 
congratulations and gave her not only the legal diploma, but also 
letters of introduction to the different Turkish authorities in Syria. 
She has attained a wide reputation and her hospital clinics at 
Maamiltein and her itinerant camps are crowded with patients. 

Among the prominent visitors to Syria this year were ex- 
Secretary of State John W. Foster and wife, and Dr. F. E. Clark, 
founder of the Christian Endeavour Society. Both of these 
eminent men made addresses in Beirut full of Christian wisdom 
and earnestness. 

In May I prepared two papers for the World's Congress of Re- 
ligions and Missions in Chicago, one on " The Religious Mission 
of the English-speaking Nations/' and the other on Triumphs 
of the Gospel in the Ottoman Empire." As both of these papers 
were published in the volume of Reports, I need not allude to 
them in detail I had no fear of ill effects from that congress. 

Two tragic events occurred during the year. The first was the 
sinking of the splendid British battle-ship Victoria off Tripoli har- 
bour, June 22d, by collision with the Camperdown, in which 375 
officers and men lost their lives. The fleet had been five days 
off Beirut, and Admiral Sir George Tryon and his officers had 
been entertained in a garden party on the grounds of Colonel 
Trotter, H. B. M. consul-general. The admiral was most affable. 
He spoke to Dr. Bliss and myself of Mr. Andrew Carnegie's 
recent plea for an alliance of the Anglo-Saxon nations. We re- 
marked to him that on the recent visit of the French fleet the 
ships went to Tripoli, and in the evening as a cloud hung over 
Tripoli, the gleam of the search-lights could be seen here in 
Beirut forty miles distant He said, " On Friday evening you 
will see the search-lights of our fleet at Tripoli." Alas, on Fri- 
day evening the admiral and his good ship and 375 men were at the 
bottom of the se^ ! The ships left Beirut Friday morning in two 

The " Camperdown "-" Victoria " Collision 599 

parallel lines far apart. They kept far out beyond the Tripoli 
islands and were to make a great curve around to the north and 
then turn inward and backward and deploy on another parallel 
line inside the double line of sailing. As they turned, the vice- 
admiral signalled, inquiring if they were not too near to make 
that curve. The answer of the admiral was, " Go ahead ! " They 
went ahead and as they turned inward, the Camperdown struck 
the Victoria back of the starboard bow, crushing in the solid 
armour and letting in the sea in a mighty stream. Rapid signals 
were interchanged, and there was for a moment danger that the 
other huge floating castles would collide, but they were managed 
with marvellous skill. The boats were lowered and hastened to 
rescue their comrades who had flung themselves into the sea. 
Then as the Victoria sank bows foremost, the engines still mov- 
ing and the screw revolving in the air, there was a fearful explo- 
sion and hundreds of men were sucked down to the depths in 
eighty fathoms of water. Two hundred and sixty-three men 
were rescued and 375 were lost. 

Dr. Ira Harris, missionary in Tripoli, was on the shore and 

saw the Victoria disappear. Dr. M , a Syrian physician, 

a graduate of the Syrian Protestant College, saw the Victoria go 
down and remarked to Dr. Harris, " One of them has gone down 
it is one of those submarines. Watch and we shall see it come 
up again." Soon after, the boats came ashore and officers tele- 
graphed to the consul-general in Beirut of the awful disaster. As 
they sat on the shore, they recited the full details of the dreadful 
event and Dr. Harris took notes. No officer was allowed to 
write or telegraph to the British public the details. When the 
cablegram reached England of the bare fact, " Victoria sunk, 1 ' 
and thence to New York, the New York World, finding that Dr. 
Harris was their only subscriber in Syria, cabled him to telegraph 
them full details. With all the facts now in his possession he ob- 
tained the use of the telegraph office and sent off a detailed ac- 
count of hundreds of words as he had heard it from the officers 
on the wharf. That telegram was printed in New York, repeated 
to London, and published by the New York World in London 

6oo Marking Time 

before any reliable report had been given to the British public. 
The search for the bodies of the dead men was long and thorough, 
on the spot, and on the adjacent shores, but few were ever found. 
Six bodies were brought ashore and buried in a plot given by 
the Sultan, adjoining the American Mission cemetery. Frag- 
ments of furniture floated up on the coast of Akkar and were col- 
lected by the peasants. Owing to the great depth, no divers 
could be employed, and that colossal steel coffin lies on the bot- 
tom, never to be touched by man, safer than the famous porphyry 
sarcophagus of Ashmunazer, Phoenician King of Sidon, who in- 
scribed a curse upon any one who should disturb his tomb, and 
yet that tomb is now in the Louvre in Paris. The reason of Ad- 
miral Tryon's failing to heed the warning signal will never be 
known. It was understood that he said to the officer who stood 
by him on the bridge, when he saw that the ships were colliding, 
" I only am to blame,*' and he went down, holding to the railing 
of the bridge. 

A part of the fleet remained on the coast for some weeks. 
Ex-Admiral Sir George Wellesley, a nephew of the Duke of 
Wellington, was at this time visiting his daughter, Mrs. Colonel 
Trotter, and accepted the invitation of his old subaltern officer, 
Captain Benham of the Camperdown, to be his guest on this 
cruise along the Syrian coast. He was on the deck of the Camp- 
erdown when the collision occurred and saw the awful scene in 
all its heartrending details. He returned to Beirut on a despatch 
boat the next day, but was so heart-broken that he could not 
speak. After four days I called upon him with my brother Sam- 
uel, and it was most pathetic to witness his manly grief over the 
loss of his friend Sir George Tryon and so many brave men. 

Another event which deeply affected the Mohammedan popu- 
lace, and might have led to another massacre, was the burning of 
the famous Mosque of Arnweh in Damascus, October iQth. A 
Jewish tinman had been soldering the leaden plates on the roof 
and left his hand furnace while he went to his noon meal. A 
high wind sprang up which fanned the fire to a flame, the lead 

The House of Riminon 60 1 

melted, the boards and timbers beneath took fire f and owing to 
the great height and the want of fire engines, the whole roof was 
destroyed, as well as many treasures within the building. At 
first ill-disposed persons charged it on the Christians and a panic 
fell on the city* But the pasha published the facts and the ex- 
citement subsided. But the Arabic and Turkish journals were 
prohibited from alluding to it in any way* and months after^ when 
subscriptions were made up by wealthy Moslems, the mosque was 
not mentioned, but the gifts were acknowledged for the sake 
of religious objects." This mosque was originally the " House 
of Rimmon," then the Cathedral Church of St John the Baptist, 
then half of it was made into a mosque by Khalid, the " Sword 
of Mohammed " and finally the whole was seized by Welid, who 
himself destroyed the altar. 

When the Sultan decided to order it rebuilt, the Waly of 
Damascus telegraphed the Sultan that "the city of Damascus 
will alone rebuild it." This produced great indignation, as the 
Damascenes wished it rebuilt in magnificent style with the aid of 
the Sultan himself. In December, Mohammed Said Pasha, man- 
ager of the Hajj pilgrim caravan, subscribed one thousand Turk- 
ish pounds, Yusef Pasha three hundred and fifty, and Beit Odham 
seven hundred and fifty. Contributions of poplar and walnut 
timbers were made by the villagers and brought into the city 
with music and shouts of joy. Plans were decided on, and quarry- 
men, stone carvers, carpenters, decorators, and gilders employed, 
and the work of construction was carried on for thirteen years. 
Presents of costly and beautiful rugs of great size were sent from 
all parts of the empire and Egypt. To-day the work is about 
complete, and the tomb of John the Baptist in the midst is ele- 
gantly adorned. 

The pilgrimage to Mecca this year was unprecedently large 
owing to the " Wakfat," or standing on Mount Arafat, coming 
on Friday. This is regarded as a most auspicious concurrence, 
and the throng was immense. Unfortunately the cholera broke 
out among them and there were a thousand deaths a day. A 

602 Marking Time 

Beirut sailor, Hassan, who was there, told me that as the proces- 
sion started from Mecca out to Jebel Arafat, the men kept drop- 
ping dead by the way and the bodies were left in the field, and 
on reaching the place of sacrifice, the great trenches, dug by the 
Turkish soldiers for burying the offal of the tens of thousands of 
slaughtered sheep, were filled with the bodies of dead pilgrims. 
Hassan said he felt no fear at the time but the sight was horrible. 
All good Moslems regard it as a special blessing to be able to die 
in the Holy City of Mecca or near it. 

Just at this time Mohammed Webb was parading his new- 
fledged Islamism in the Chicago World's Congress. He stated 
that " Woman under Islam is the mistress of the home." The 
Interior asked him, "Which one of her? As she is in the 
plural number, anywhere from two to twenty ? Will Mr. Webb 
tell us which one of the twenty is mistress ? " 

I sent to Sir William Muir a second Arabic manuscript by the 
author of the " Bakurat/' called " Minar ul Hoc," which Dr. Van 
Dyck pronounced superior in argument even to the " Bakurat." 
Sir William was greatly impressed by it, and after numerous 
letters had been interchanged by us, he obtained its publication 
in Arabic and also a clear translation of it into English, to which 
he wrote a preface, in which he says, " I am unhesitatingly of 
opinion that, taken as a whole, no apology of the Christian faith, 
carrying similar weight and urgency, has ever been addressed to 
the Mohammedan world, and I look upon it as the duty of the 
Church, should this opinion be concurred in, to take measures 
for the translation of ' Minar ul Hoc f into the vernacular of 
every land inhabited by those professing the Moslem faith, and to 
see that all missionaries in these lands have the means of becom- 
ing familiar with its contents." 

In November, 1893, R- ev J Phillips of Damascus was return- 
ing from Ireland to Syria, and had in his baggage a number of 
maps. They were nearly all confiscated. A large valuable map 

Serious Losses by Death 603 

of Europe happened to have on the east end a strip of Asia with 
the word " Armenia." For that ill-omened word the map was 
confiscated. A map of" Palestine under the kingdoms of Judali 
and Israel" was destroyed, as " the Sultan Abdul Hamld cannot 
acknowledge any kingdoms of Judah and Israel in his empire/* 
Mr. Phillips remarked that this referred to a period many centu- 
ries before Christ The triumphant reply was, u But this map 
was not made then. Judah and Israel did not know how to 
make maps." That is, all ancient maps showing the historic 
empire of the past are to be suppressed as dmgerous to the in- 
tegrity of the Ottoman Empire. 

Really the Sultan ought to know what a set of ignorant blun- 
derers are appointed censors over the literature of his realm. 
There are intelligent, educated young men enough to fill honour- 
ably this office, but they are not generally worth enough to buy 
official position. 

The death of Rev. Dr. Arthur Mitchell, secretary of our Board 
of Missions, was to me a personal affliction. He was not only 
an accomplished scholar, of great literary ability and a powerful 
pen, but personally of winning and attractive sweetness of char- 
acter. He had strong faith and a tender, sympathetic nature. I 
shall never forget his address at a public meeting in Beirut, de- 
scribing his feelings as he sailed up the great rivers of China at 
night. The steamer passed city after city of 20,000, 50,000, 
100,000, and so on, and he asked how many missionaries were 
here and there ? None, none, none, was the awful reply no light 
here all heathen darkness ! and he said that such a feeling of 
awe and horror and sorrow came over him in thinking of Chrisfs 
command and of His Church's neglect and the blackness of 
darkness resting like a pall on these millions, that he was quite 

The most notable events in the history of the Syria Mission 
in 1894 were the deaths of two octogenarian members of the 
mission, Rev. William M. Thomson, D. D, aged eighty-nine, who 

604 Marking Time 

died at the house of his daughter, Mrs. Walker, in Denver, Colo- 
rado, April 8th; and Mr. George C. Hurter, for twenty years 
(from 1841 to 1861) printer for the American Mission Press, 
who died in Hyde Park, Mass., December 29th, aged eighty 
years. Of Dr. Thomson's life-work, full account has been given 
in a previous chapter. 

Mr. Hurter was bora in Malta, May 10, 1813, his father being 
Swiss and his mother a native of England. He worked first In 
Corfu on a Greek and Latin lexicon. Then he lived in Leghorn 
and Marseilles and went to the United States in 1838, where, in 
Xenia, Ohio, he printed a newspaper for two years. In 1839 he 
married Miss Elizabeth Grozier of Roxbury, and in 1841 was ap- 
pointed by the A. B. C. F. M. to the mission press in Syria, 
Returning to America in 1861 for family reasons, he laboured at 
his trade and did business with Beirut, being the first to intro- 
duce petroleum oil and lamps into Syria. He was a man of 
simple, childlike faith, a lover of prayer, and a student of God's 
Word. His pressmen in Beirut loved him. His life was pure 
and blameless. His pastor, Rev. Mr. Davis, of Hyde Park, said 
at his funeral, " He was for twenty years my parishioner, and I 
loved and admired him exceedingly. I think he came the near- 
est to being a perfect man of any that I have ever known." He 
celebrated his golden wedding in 1889 and survived his wife by 
one year. 

On being presented with an encyclopedia a year before his 
death, he was asked what part of it he would enjoy the most, 
and his characteristic reply was, " Finding the typographical 
mistakes/ 1 

Would that all lay missionaries had his patience, gentleness, 
fidelity, perseverence, and brotherly kindness. His prayers were 
most touching and edifying. Men like Dr. Eli Smith and 
Dr. Thomson, and some of us lesser lights as well, always en- 
joyed a prayer-meeting led by Mr. Hurter. 

This year the theological class was again opened in Mount 
Lebanon, this time at Suk el Gharb, May i6th, as a summer 

A Much Needed Furlough 605 

school. The Instructors were Dr. W. W. Eddy, Dr. Samuel 
Jessup, Mr. Hardin, and Mr. B, Barudi. This plan continued 
with intervals until 1905, when it was resumed In the newly 
purchased Misk house adjoining the church in Beirut. 

In February of this year, another professed convert from 
Islam to Christianity came to Beirut. His name is Ibrahim 
Bffendi from Bagdad a man about thirty-five years of age, of 
scholarly bearing, refined and courteous. He said he was the 
brother of the wife of Abbas Effendl, the new BabI religious 
head, who last year succeeded Beha Allah In Acre. Threatened 
three years ago In Bagdad because he would not become a Babi, 
he fled to Deir on the Euphrates and practiced pharmacy, and 
from there came to Beirut. He was looking for a place where 
he could work for Moslems without restriction from the govern- 
ment. I wrote to Mr. Zwemer at Bahrein about him, and on 
reaching Alexandria, April 28th, I found him there an attendant 
on the religious services of Rev. Dr. Ewing. 

I left Syria on furlough with Mrs. Jessup and my daughters, 
Anna and Amy, April 25th, for needed rest, or rather for a 
change of work In the intense life of America. We arrived in 
New York May 28th, and by December 3ist I had delivered 
seventy-four addresses and sermons and had travelled many hun- 
dreds of miles, from Boston to St. Paul, Minn. 

As in previous visits to America, the most refreshing and com- 
forting feature of that year was revisiting my childhood's home, 
meeting brothers and sisters and their children, walking with 
brother William, the judge, over the old farm, seeing the stock, 
gathering blackberries and raspberries in the " clearings," fishing 
in the old trout brooks, and in Jones Lake, Heart Lake, and 
Silver Lake ; entering the old church and seeing the new gener- 
ation of rosy, bright children in the Sunday-school, meeting the 
elders and deacons, a very few of whom I knew way back in 
1855 afl d of whom I had read in the village paper all these years ; 
attending the County Agricultural Fair, and addressing the farmers 

606 Marking Time 

IE the grove ; meeting on the street men and women whose faces 
and names had long been familiar ; and breathing the clear, fresh 
air of that beautiful village, my native place, Montrose, with its 
broad streets, shaded by maple trees and its village green and 
lawns, with its wide view over the forest clad hills of Susquehanna 
County ; the very thought of these, as I write among the oaks 
and olive trees and vine-clad terraces of Mount Lebanon, brings 
joy and comfort to my heart of hearts. 

During the latter months of 1894 and the early part of 1895, 
I found myself beset with letters, interviews, and questions, re- 
quests for lectures and addresses on the Armenian question, which 
at that time was exciting the whole civilized world. I found it 
necessary to be " wise as a serpent " that I might be " harmless 
as a dove/' Having lived thirty-eight years (at that time) in the 
Turkish Empire, and expecting to return, it would not have been 
wise of me, as one of a body of some two hundred and fifty 
American missionaries, to tell all I knew or express all I felt with 
regard to those infamous massacres. I had no patience with 
Armenian revolutionists, who, at a safe distance, were stirring up 
their coreligionists in the interior of a Moslem Empire to revolt 
It was on the face of it a hopeless and cruel policy. Were the 
Armenians all concentrated in one province, with one language 
and religion, they might reasonably have appealed to Europe to 
give them equal privileges with Bulgaria, under the suzerainty of 
the Sultan. But they are scattered over an immense territory, 
intermingled with an overwhelming majority of Moslems, so that 
a general uprising was only a signal for punishment by the gov- 
ernment. But on the other hand, nothing can justify any gov- 
ernment on earth in punishing a handful of revolutionists by a 
wholesale massacre of men, women, and children. No civilized 
government could do it, or would do it. The real rebels could 
have been arrested and punished with ease, without annihilating 
the whole population. 

I found it difficult therefore to speak on the subject and was 
careful to avoid the ubiquitous newspaper interviewers. Alas for 

The Armenian Massacres 607 

the unwary f who fall into their snares, especially If the vis- 
iting you be a cultivated lady. What can you do? If you 
turn your back and refuse to speak* they will invent an interview 
and saddle upon you utterances which when in print make your 
hair stand on end. 

One interviewer made me say that there were three millions of 
Moslem converts to Christianity in Syria. Others have fathered 
upon me statements which must have led the public to regard 
me as recently escaped from a lunatic asylum. Much as we 
writhe under the inane censorship of the press in Syria, I felt 
when in America, on reading the curious and inexplicable blun- 
ders made in reports of my own language, that a moderate cen- 
sorship of the unbridled statements of the reporters would not be 
an unmixed evil. 

When in Chicago, October 22, 1894, Dr. Hillis kindly invited 
me to attend the ministers' meeting in Association Hall They 
begged me to speak on the Armenian question. I consented on 
condition that no report of my remarks be published without 
being first submitted to me for correction. Mr. Ford, of the 
Chicago News, was the reporter, and agreed to write out the 
remarks verbatim and bring them to me. He met me at the 
" Big Four " railroad station the next morning as I was leaving 
with Mrs. Jessup for Indianapolis and handed me the report. It 
was admirably done, and after making a few corrections in proper 
names and figures, I returned it to him. Some of the Armenians 
in New York afterwards called on me and objected to my allu- 
sions to the "Revolutionary Committee" which was working 
from Russian soil to inflame the minds of the Armenian peas- 
antry in Turkey. I replied that the wisest thing the Armenians 
in America could do was to dissuade those misguided Armenians 
in Russia from occasioning disaster and ruin to the poor Ar- 
menians in Turkey. 

The working force in Syria was weakened this year by the 
departure of Miss M. C. Holmes, on account of the feeble health 
of her mother, and of Miss Mary T. M. Ford, another faithful 

608 Marking Time 

labourer. Both of them are now (1909) on the field 
though doing work independent of our mission excellent work 
which needs no praise from me. Miss Holmes has a school in 
Jebail half-way between Beirut and Tripoli, a town never before 
occupied by a missionary, and Miss Ford is doing brave pioneer 
work among the neglected tribes of Upper Galilee and the 

Among the returning missionaries after absence in America 
were Dr. George A. Ford and his mother, Miss E. Thomson and 
Prof. A. Day, Miss C H. Brown and Mrs. Dr. George E. Post 

In the fall, I stopped one day on 1 2th Street near Broadway, 
where men were blasting for a foundation and had thrown out 
beautiful glistening slabs of mica slate. Having made friends 
with a good-natured labourer, I made several trips to the mission 
house on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 1 2th Street, carrying 
fine f specimens of this rock which I packed in a box and shipped 
to the museum of the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. My 
father used to say in my youthful days that I had the " stone 
fever." I have it still. 

September igth I preached in Binghamton the ordination ser- 
mon of our nephew, Rev. Wm. J. Leverett, under appointment 
as missionary to Hainan, China. 

During the fall I was searching the country over to find a 
Christian layman to become secular agent for the Syria Mission. 
For years, since 1861, the management of the press, the financial, 
custom-house, post-office, and shipping business had been done 
by us ordained missionaries, and the mission decided that it was 
high time to call in some deacon to serve tables " and let us 
devote ourselves to the " ministry of the Word." Before the end 
of the year, we had found Mr. E. G. Freyer, who had been for 
nine years in the United States Navy on the China station and 
now desired to enter upon Christian business work in some foreign 
mission. When in Washington, December 6th, I received from 
Lieutenant Ranney of the United States Navy a warm testimonial 

Resting by Rail 

to the character and ability of Mr. Freyer, and he appointed 
lay missionary, sailing in the winter for Beirut. 

1895 The six months of my stay la America from January to 
July were filled with Intense activity. When not prostrated with 
grippe, I was travelling Incessantly. I was authorized by the Board 
to raise $8poo for the Sidon Industrial School, and secured it all ; 
lectured before the Quill Club in New York on the World's Peace ; 
before Union College ; at the Evangelical Alliance, New York ; 
at First Church, New York t for a collection for home missions ; 
prepared a memorial to President Cleveland asking that the Hon. 
Oscar Straus be sent as a special commissioner to Constantinople 
to negotiate a naturalization treaty ; before the alumni of Union 
Seminary at the St. Denis, on the crisis in Turkey ; and before the 
students and faculty of Union Seminary. In New York I re- 
ceived a call from Mr. Reugh, a zealous young student of Union 
Seminary who was impatient to go to East Africa as a pioneer 
missionary before completing his course. He knew nothing of 
the climate or the country, did not know to what port he should sail 
He said he had no support but should go on faith. I warned 
him by the experience of several persons I had known and 
begged him If he should go, to go first to Cairo and study the 
Arabic language and take advice of Drs. Watson and Harvey as 
to his field. But he did not need nor heed advice. I told him of 
the seven young men and the seven young women who went as a 
" Band " to Japan without money or hardly a change of cloth- 
ing, and found themselves soon in a starving condition and had 
to be taken care of by the missionaries and residents. They had 
been misled by some ignorant enthusiast and came to grief. But 
Mr, Reugh would not be advised, He went to East Africa and 
died May 23, 1896. 

I also spoke at Elmira College ; several times at the later 
Seminary Missionary Alliance at Colgate University, New York, 
when we were literally snowed under and one delegation was 
snowbound in Delaware county and prevented from coming to 
the meeting; at Pittsburg in the church of Dr. Holmes; at 

610 Marking Time 

Wooster University. At Lakewood I met the beloved Mrs. Dr. 
De Forest who had taught the first girls* boarding-school in 
Syria from 1843 to 1853. At Washington, by invitation of Mr. 
Everett Hayden, I lectured on the Turkish Empire before the 
American Geographical Society in Columbian University. I at- 
tended Lackawanna Presbytery; then addressed a women's meet* 
ing in the Missionary House, Boston ; called on the beloved Dn 
N. G. Clark, retired from active service by ill health ; visited the 
Arabic library of Harvard University with my friend and corre- 
spondent, Mr. John Orne; met on the train the venerable Dr. 
A. C. Thompson of Roxbury who was at our farewell meeting 
December 11, 1855, and found him to be en route to lecture on 
missions before the Hartford Theological Seminary ; then gave 
the annual address before the students and alumni of Auburn 
Theological Seminary, and renewed my acquaintance, alas, for 
the last time, with that gifted Christian scholar and gentleman, 
Dr. Henry M. Booth ; then to the church of Dr. Frank Hodge at 
Wilkesbarre ; to the General Assembly at Pittsburg with Mrs. 
Jessup and my brother William. We were the guests of one of 
the Lord's noblemen, Dr. Cyrus W. King of Allegheny. By in- 
vitation of Dr. Holland, we visited the university and met Mr* Bras- 
hear, the noted maker of astronomical instruments. He showed us 
in his workshop a row of glass lenses of all sizes from three inches 
in diameter to one foot, and told us that the molecular structure 
of the glass is so peculiar that sometimes a vibration in the air or 
in the building will cause a lens to explode and fly into a thou- 
sand fragments. He constructed the spectroscope and the visual 
and photographic object glasses attached to the twelve inch re- 
fracting telescope in the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. 
One day I went as a member of the delegation to salute the 
United Presbyterian Assembly in East Liberty. General Beaver 
was chairman, and the committee were my classmate Wm. W. 
Cleveland, brother of President Cleveland, Dr. Howard Agnew 
Johnston, Judge Hibbard, and Mr. Landon. We were astonished 
at the splendour of that beautiful edifice, the gift of one of the 
Pittsburg magnates. Thinking of the past of the old Scotch 

The Clifton Springs Conference 6ii 

Covenanters* I told the audience that 1 almost anticipated 
them huddled In a cave through fear of persecution, but when 1 
looked up at that marvellous roof, the superb organ, and the 
matchless hues of the stained glass windows, it seemed as if I had 
suddenly been ushered into heaven ! General Beaver asked the 
moderator about a dozen questions from the Shorter Catechism, 
answering them himself and saying after each one, " Mr. 
Moderator, do you believe that? 1 ' He answered, "Yes," 
" And that ? and that ? Why then we believe alike, we are one 
in faith, why not be one in fact ? " 

* On Sunday I preached to the Syrians in the Italian quarter in 

In June I attended the International Missionary Conference of 
Foreign Missionaries at Clifton, a meeting of spiritual uplifting 
and fraternal communion. Ever blessed be the memory of Dr. 
Foster and his wife who founded this conference and whose free 
hospitality makes it possible from year to year. After hasty 
visits to the old Montrose home, to the hospitable home of the 
venerable Wm. A. Booth, and to the charming mansion of Mrs. 
Elbert B. Monroe at Tarrytown, we sailed, Mrs, Jessup, my 
daughters, Anna and Amy, my niece, Fanny M. Jessup, and I, 
once more for our Syrian home, on July aoth, reaching Beirut 
August 1 2th, twenty-three days from New York. 

In the opening of this year Dr. and Mrs. Harris and children 
returned from America to Syria. Mr. E. G. Freyer arrived 
February nth and soon took up the work of manager of the 
press and treasurer of the mission, and on December 3d was 
married in Cairo to Miss S. A. French, formerly a teacher for the 
Methodist Board in Japan. 

Miss Everett was obliged to resign from the work in Beirut 
Seminary and left for America June 25th, 

- We arrived August i/th, and in four days I resumed instruc- 
tion in the theological seminary in Suk el Gharb, thus relieving 
my brother who had been teaching during my absence. In 

612 Marking Time 

October his daughter Fanny went to Tripoli to assist Miss La 
Grange in the girls* seminary. 

On Saturday, October I2th, Mr. John R. Mott and Mrs. Mott 
with Mrs. Livingston Taylor reached Beirut. As the college 
term had just begun, Mr. Mott was asked to address the students, 
which he did morning and evening, speaking on " Bible study for 
personal growth." I took copious notes, then translated both 
addresses into Arabic, and published them in our weekly Neskrak 

On Monday, October I4th, we rose early to take the seven 
o'clock train as they were going to Damascus and I to Aleih, 
It was a bright, clear morning. The whole eastern horizon over 
the range of Lebanon was cloudless in a glow with the rising 
sun. To the west and southwest the sea horizon was a clear-cut 
line of blue. But on the northwest was a mountainous pyramid 
of cumulous clouds, the blackness of darkness at the base, but on 
the top tinged with purple and gold. A deep calm rested on 
the sea. I called the attention of Dr. Bliss, at whose house I 
had been staying, to this extraordinary isolated cloud which 
loomed like an island of amethyst. At its base it grew blacker 
and blacker, and as we drove the mile to the railroad station, it 
seemed to be moving towards Beirut. As the train began the 
slow ascent over the cogged railway up the mountain, we could 
see the scouts of the moving column approaching Beirut, and 
farther up at Jumhur, we saw the lofty summit of Lebanon 
covered with scurrying masses of black cloud through which the 
lightning flashed, while deep thunders rolled through the moun- 
tain gorges and reverberated from the cliffs. We had hardly 
reached my door in Aleih when the cloud burst upon us. 
Lebanon was flooded, and the mountain torrents swollen. Five 
inches of rain fell in Beirut within two hours. There is no 
proper sewerage and the water rolled in rivers through the 
streets. The filth from cesspools which is usually cleared out in 
August and spread over the ground among the houses, polluting ' 
the air, was now washed into the streets and spread over the 
highways, when suddenly the cloud monster passed and disap- 

The Typhoid After the Cloudburst 613 

peared, leaving the streets coated over with fever-breeding 
slime. And to make the peril complete, from that time for two 
weeks the sky was as brass and the heat intense. All this 
was dried and pulverized, and driving hot north winds Hew the 
fine dust in clouds into the houses, over the meat, vegetables, 
and bread in the markets and into the throats of the people. 
Within a month there were between seven hundred and a thou- 
sand cases of typhoid fever and it was estimated that at least 
three hundred of the children and youth of the city died. Some 
estimated It still higher. Various theories were put forth to ex- 
plain It. One was that the discharges from typhoid patients in a 
Lebanon village above the aqueduct had been washed down by 
the cloudburst and thus infected the city water, but in that case 
the whole city would have suffered, whereas, the most numerous 
and worst cases were along the line of the streets and highways 
which received the wash of the surface drainage. Others 
ascribed it to the fact that the vegetables raised in the truck 
gardens were washed by the gardeners in pools of foul water, 
and thus the lettuce, radishes, and cabbages carried the Infection 
among the population. 

It was a grievous affliction and the city was in sorrow and 
distress. Early in November the blow began to fall on our mis- 
sion. Our Nestor, the veteran of fifty-five years, Dr. Cornelius 
V. A. Van Dyck, whose strength was already depleted by 
previous illness, was attacked by the dread typhoid, and on 
November 1 3th breathed his last. The whole city felt his death 
as a personal bereavement, and his funeral was attended by men 
of all sects and nationalities. 

By his special request, no address was made at his funeral. A 
simple service was conducted in Arabic and English. But under 
instructions from my missionary brethren, I delivered on Sun- 
day, the 1 7th, a memorial discourse in English and on Wednes- 
day, the 20th, the same discourse in Arabic, with the text, John 
12 : 24, " Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it 
abideth alone, but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit." 

This sermon was afterwards by request repeated in Arabic in 

614 Marking Time 

Tripoli, Sidon, Zahleh, Suk el Gharb and Abeih* and in all these 
places men of all sects, Oriental Christians, Moslems and Druses 
were among the hearers. Dr. Van Dyck was seventy-seven 
years of age. We have already sketched his life and work on a 
previous page. A gloom seemed settling over Beirut. 

Rumours of the Armenian massacres multiplied. On the 25th, 
letters from Constantinople told of 20,000 massacred in the 
region of Bitlis, Sivas, and Erzeroom, etc. A war broke out be- 
tween the Druses and Bedawin Arabs at Mejdel Shems and other 
towns south of Mount Hermon and the two Protestant churches 
of Mejdei Shems and Aia Kuryeh were plundered and destroyed. 
When in Tripoli, I met my old friend, Sheikh Ait Rashid, who 
expressed great sorrow at the death of Dr. Van Dyck, He said 
that he had recently preached in the Great Mosque on the text 
from the Fatiha, Rabbi-ul-Ahlameen, n " Lord of the Worlds " 
in which he taught that Allah is not the God of the Moslem 
world only, but also of the Christian world, and that all men are 
brothers. I could well believe this, as his aged father, Sheikh 
Rashid, during the Crimean War in 1855, when the Moslem 
rabble were threatening to kill the Greek Christians of Tripoli 
for sympathizing with Russia, went through the streets and 
quelled the mob, sending them to their homes. 

Then came news of cholera in Damascus, and, without previous 
notice, a cordon was put on against passengers by the railroad. 
Mrs. Dr. George E. Post and Dr. Mary P. Eddy who had taken 
the train from Aleih to Beirut found themselves at sunset 
ordered to the quarantine outside of Beirut, where they were told 
they must spend the night in an empty room whose floor was 
covered with filth, without a morsel of food. However, Dr. Post, 
hearing of the situation, sent down beds from the city and every- 
thing needed to make the place comfortable for the night. The 
dirt had to be shovelled out And this was for first-class pas- 
sengers on the railroad. Fortunately the quarantine did not last 
more than twenty-four hours. 

Qn December $th the United States ship, San 

Death of Mrs. Samuel Jessup 615 

Admiral Selfridge* reached Beirut He had come out to look 
after American Interests while the massacres were on. 

The Moslem rabble in Mersina, Alexandretta, Latakia, Tripoli, 
and Beirut, and other seaports, hold such a ship in high respect, 
and such an admiral speaks plain English to Turkish officials and 
local sheikhs along the coast. 

But another blow was to fall, to fill up the measure of our grief. 
The theological class had closed In Lebanon and we had all 
moved down to Beirut, when, on December nth/* Aunt Annie," 
my brother Samuel's wife, was stricken dowa with apoplexy. 
He lived in the lower story and I in the upper of the same house. 
Samuel returned from the press before sunset, and went to his 
study as usual. Soon after he looked for his wife and found her 
lying unconscious on the floor of her room. We were called, 
doctors were summoned, but all in vain. Consciousness never 
returned, and as Dr. William Van Dyck stood with us by the 
bedside, she passed away. The only son was in America and the 
only daughter, Fanny (now Mrs. Rev. James R. Swain), was forty 
miles away up the coast in Tripoli. The next morning through 
the aid of a beloved niece, then a visitor, and a namesake of 
" Aunt Annie," the little coasting steamer, Prince George % was 
chartered, and Dr. W. G. Schauffler and my daughter Mary vol- 
unteered to go and bring the absent one. Consul Gibson and 
Dr. Van Dyck went down to the wharf at 6 p. M. to meet them 
and the rest of the friends sat waiting. But we sat four long 
hours that dark night waiting in suspense, not knowing what 
might have befallen that frail, unsteady craft on the troubled sea, 
but at ten o'clock they all arrived in safety. The funeral the next 
day was largely attended by a loving and sympathetic community. 
The exercises were conducted by Drs. Bliss, Post, Ford, and Porter, 
and Messrs. March and Hardin. On the Sunday following, Dr. 
Post, who was the seminary classmate of my brother, his fellow 
chaplain in the army of the Potomac, 1861-1863, and his colleague 
in Tripoli for three years, delivered a most touching and beauti- 
ful discourse on her life and character. She was known by the 
whole Anglo-American community as Auirt Annfo" Full of 

616 Marking Time 

hospitality, with a lovely face s cheerful and winning in her man- 
ner, her home attracted old and young. 

One week later, a little boy, Edgar Kosedale, the son of a 
transient resident physician, died after a remarkable religious 
experience. He was twelve years old, but during the last two 
days of his life, his language was thrilling. He said to me as I 
was about to offer prayer, u I am going to meet Christ When 
you pray tell Jesus I am coming, so He can tell the angels and 
they can recognize me, I will give your love to all your friends 
when I get there. I see Jesus.*' He bade good-bye to all his 
friends. A notorious scoffer being near came in and would not 
leave his bedside, saying, " Now I know that Christ is a real 

A young student of the college was ill with typhoid fever* 
His professors urged the family who lived in a crowded tenement 
house to remove him to the hospital They declined I went 
often to see him. He lay on a pallet in the middle of the floor 
and the room was crowded with a noisy company of men, 
women, and children, talking and walking about, while the poor 
lad tossed in a delirium. The people made their remarks about 
the patient, and literally gave him no rest. I expostulated with 
the mother and tried to drive out the crowd, telling them that 
they would kill the young man, but to no avail, and in a few 
hours he died. The people have an unaccountable dread of a 
hospital, although the service of the trained German deaconesses, 
who are nurses in the German hospital in Beirut, is better than 
any possible service in a Syrian house. Several members of our 
family have been nursed through typhoid in that beautiful hos- 
pital, and we lose no opportunity to commend it to the people. 

On the 26th of December I baptized a young Mohammedan 
convert from near Acre. He gave good evidence of being an in- 
telligent and sincere Christian. His Christian name was Naanet- 
Ullah Abdul Messiah. 

The statement so often made that there are no converts from 
Islam is easily refuted, The facts cannot be published at the 

a Year of Gloom 617 

time, lest the ignorant and fanatical populace, by their 

sheikhs, take the lives of the converts, I have no less 

than thirty males and females. Some are unmolested, but the 
majority had to flee from the country. The whole number of 
converts of whom 1 have knowledge Is between forty and 

1896 This year opened in gloom, New massacres of Arme- 
nians in Oorfa and Eastern Turkey* a desperate rebellion of the 
Druses in Hauran, who killed hundreds of Turkish regulars, the 
excitement of the Moslem populace on being obliged to send 
their brothers, husbands s and sons as reserves to the war, and the 
continuance of the typhoid epidemic in Beirut, filling the city 
with mourning ; all these combined to depress the public mind. 
Ships of war from England, France, and the United States re- 
stored confidence to the seaport provinces, but the apathy of the 
Christian powers with regard to the murder of 50,000 men, women, 
and children in the interior was inexplicable. But it was asserted 
by British residents in the East that a British fleet was ordered to 
the Dardanelles, and to force an entrance to the Bosphorus as a 
protest against the massacres, but just at that moment President 
Cleveland's raising of a critical question with England with regard 
to Venezuela occasioned the instant withdrawal of the fleet, and 
thus the opportunity was lost 

On January 4, 1896, 1 received a cable from a daughter of our 
dear friend Mr. William A. Booth, announcing his death, January 
2d, aged ninety- one. The departure of this patriarch of the 
missionary Board and supporter and friend of every good cause 
was a loss to the whole Church. His breadth of view and grasp 
of all details and bearings of important questions and his im- 
perturbable serenity and sweetness of disposition made him a 
man to be sought for as counsellor and friend. His sons and 
daughters have followed his example, The whole Church mourned 
his departure. With Hon. Wm. E. Dodge, his fellow elder in 
the old I4th Street Church, he was one of the original trustees 
of the Syrian Protestant College, and having visited Syria, he 

618 Marking Time 

was wise in counsel and fertile In resources for the good of this 

During the summer, brother Samuel Jessup and his daughter 
were afflicted with whooping-cough, and soon after I took It 
from them. As both Samuel and I had had it in childhood, we 
concluded that we had it every sixty years. It was quite severe 
and played such havoc with my voice that in November the 
physicians enjoined upon me absolute silence and a change of 
air. This led to my going to Helouan, thirteen miles southeast 
of Cairo. Here a dry, clear, cloudless atmosphere, cool, bracing 
desert air at night, and opportunity for walks and donkey rides 
to the adjacent hills and mountains, with quiet, cool rooms at 
HeltgeFs Hotel, wrought wonders in the way of restoration, and 
after a month I was able to return to ray work in Beirut. On 
my return I brought about five hundred pounds of geological 
specimens of fossil wood and shells from the " drift '* at Helouan 
and from the Mukottam mountains east of Cairo. The custom- 
house inspectors in Beirut were full of amazement at my bring- 
ing so many stones. They said> *' Are there no stones in Syria ? " 
I might have reminded them that the old Phoenician emperors, 
and the Greeks and Romans* brought granite and porphyry 
columns to Syria from Assowan in Upper Egypt 

At the annual meeting of the mission on February 4th, my 
brother Samuel was stationed in Sidon, whither he removed in 
October and Mr. Doolittie removed from Sidon to Deir el Komr, 
the old capital of Lebanon, 

Miss Mary Lyons, who was born in Beirut in 1855 and taught 
for a season in Sidon Seminary, died in Montrose, Pa., the home 
of her father, June I2th. ' 

March 2d Messrs. John Wanamaker, John W. Parsons, and 
W. W. Crapo arrived on the Furst Bismarck. Mr, Wana- 
maker gave a stirring talk to the college students and gave a sub- 
stantial contribution towards a new professorship. 

Mrs. H. A. De Forest died in Lakewood April 3, 1896. 

Death of Mrs. De 619 

it was hard to understand why the blessed work of Dr. 
Mrs. De Forest was so prematurely interrupted In 1854, when 
their mastery of the Arabic language, their Intellectual culture 
and unusual gifts and graces of personal character fitted them 
to mould a whole generation of Syrian youth. 

The Russian consul in Beirut, the Prince Gargarin, who is 
superintendent of the Russian Schools in Syria f ordered our 
Arabic Scriptures to be put in. all the Russian Schools. They 
purchased in one year some 7,000 copies, and thus thousands of 
children of the Orthodox Greek sect wiE be taught to read the 
Word of God. 

After the siege of Zeitoon in Asia Minor by Turkish troops, 
when the hardy Armenian mountaineers defeated the Turkish 
regulars in battle after battle, a surrender was arranged through 
the interposition and guarantees of the British consul in Aleppo. 
But owing to want of food, exposure, and cold, a pestilence 
broke out among the people, attended by famine. The Red 
Cross Society telegraped to Beirut for doctors and medicines, 
and April 4th, Dr. Ira Harris of Tripoli left for Zeitoon accom- 
panied by two faithful doctors, Dr. Faris Sahyun and Dr. Amin 
Maloof, graduates of the Beirut Medical College. After encoun- 
tering great difficulties from the local governors along the road 
who feared that this deputation might in some way " aid or abet 
the Armenian revolt, they reached Zeitoon and found famine, 
fever, and dysentery raging and at once opened a soup kitchen 
and fed the half-starved people, treated them for disease, 
cleaned the town of filth unspeakable and finally the plague was 

In April, the United States minister in Constantinople left on 
a visit to America. He was a man of much energy, and in lan- 
guage more forcible than Scriptural had threatened the Porte, in 
case any American should be killed in the massacres, with dire 
consequences. Orders actually went out from the Porte that all 
American missionaries be ordered to leave the empire at once. 

6io Marking Time 

Nothing \?as known of this the foreigners in Constant!* 

nople until Saturday P, M., March 28th, when Sir Philip Currie, 
British, ambassador, received a telegram from the British consul 
la Moosh that the Waly there informed him that he had received 
such an irade and had ordered the American missionaries in 
Bitlis and Van to leave in forty-eight hours. Sir Philip drove at 
once to the house of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and de- 
manded an explanation. The minister denied that such an order 
had been Issued^ but the next morning, Sunday, when Mr. Block 
was sent by Sir Philip to demand an explanation, he admitted it 
but that it was not his work. Sir Philip then sent word to Mr. 
Riddle, United States Charge d'affaires, in the absence of Judge 
Turrell ? and they went together to the grand vizier and the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs. They both admitted it had been 
sent. Sir Philip then in the joint name of England and the 
United States, demanded that the order be revoked within 
twenty-four hours and that a copy of its revocation be given 

The Turkish official retraction of the imperial irade or order 
for the expulsion of the American missionaries I copy from the 
Beirut Arabic journal, Lisan el Hal. 


April 77, 1896. 

The Imperial government issued orders to the Walys of Anatolio 
(Asia Minor) to expel from the kingdoms preserved of God all for- 
eigners who had had a hand in disturbing the public tranquillity. The 
Waly of Bitlis supposed that these orders referred to the American mis- 
sionaries living in his district. This has obliged the imperial govern- 
ment to remove the ambiguity. It has therefore issued other orders 
enjoining the protection of the aforesaid missionaries, and that they 
continue to carry on their work as usual, and that they enjoy what they 
have enjoyed and still continue to enjoy, of rest, security and liberty, 
in their religious works. 

This was done, and thus the intrigues of the Russian agents 
who instigated the Turk to this action were thwarted. Hopkin- 

Hopkinson Smith's 621 

son Smith's theory of American responsibility for the 

about as logical as that the Bible was to for 

massacre of St. Bartholomew, or the Spanish Inquisition, or that 
the English Magna Charta was responsible for the horrors of the 
French Revolution. 

It was an important element In the case that owing to the fact 
that the American missionaries were acting as disbursing agents 
of British charity to the Armenian widows and orphans, Sir 
Philip Currie regarded them as so far under British protection, 
and thus Mr. Riddle could act jointly with him in all representa- 
tions at the Porte. Had Judge Turrell been at his post, he 
might, with his Texan independence* have declined to join with 
Sir Philip in the forcible protest to the Sultan, and thus the 
representation failed of its immediate object. As it was, the 
dual intrigue of the Cossack and Tartar was thwarted by the 
joint action of the Anglo-Saxon representatives, 

Hopkinson Smith stated to the American journals that Judge 
Turrell told him that "the missionaries are to blame For the 
massacres and that they have fomented rebellion, sedition," etc. 
Judge Turrell utterly denied this statement of the American 

Mr. Smith seemed incapable of appreciating the great work 
done in Turkey by his countrymen in founding schools, colleges, 
seminaries, printing-presses, and hospitals during the previous 
seventy years. 

On May 2d I went aboard the French steamer to see Rev. 
Geo. Knapp, an American missionary from Bitlis, who informed 
me that he was forcibly arrested and expelled from the city, leav- 
ing his mother, wife, and two children behind him. False 
charges were made against him and he only consented to come 
away, as a massacre was threatened if he did not At Diarbekir 
they refused to let him send a telegram to his minister in Con- 
stantinople and he was expelled in midwinter. They offered to 
release him in Aleppo if he would sign a pledge not to return to 
Bitlis, Of course he refused. They endorsed liis passport 

622 Marking Time 

expelled from Turkey." At Akxandretta they refused to give 
him up to the American vice-consul^ Mr. Walker. Mr. Walker 
telegraphed to Consul Gibson in Beirut who at once telegraphed 
Captain Jewell of the United States ship Marblehead to go to 
Alexandretta. The Turks heard of this telegram and on Friday 
released Mr. Knapp f who went at once to Mr. Walker's. The 
arrived Sunday 3, April 26th and Captain Jewell sent 
his boat and took Mr. Knapp to the French steamship bound for 
Constantinople via Beirut He went to Constantinople to 
demand a fair trial there. The British consul in Bitlis declared 
the charges against him to be utterly unfounded. 

Senator Sherman in the Independent of April 3oth, replying to 
Prof. A. D. F Hamlin, makes the announcement that " if our 
citizens go to a far distant country, semi-civilized and bitterly 
opposed to them* we cannot follow them there and protect 
them," etc. 

This is an astonishing statement. Can it be that Mr. Sherman 
never heard of Daniel Webster's letter to the United States 
minister in Constantinople in 1841 that ** an American citizen will 
be protected as an American citizen always and everywhere no 
matter what his business or occupation/* Fortunately, Senator 
Sherman did not voice the policy of our government It would 
be well if our public men, especially the Senate Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, could take a journey around the world and see 
something more of the world than their own states and districts, 
and perhaps enjoy the privilege of being kicked out of the 
" semi-civilized " lands by men who have no fear that America 
will protect her sons. He seems to think that a " declaration of 
war 11 Is the only way of protecting our citizens. But surely 
England, France, Germany, and Italy protect their citizens with- 
out declaring war, because they know how to speak in plain 

Should Mr. Sherman's views be adopted by the American 
government, it would be wise for our citizens in the interior of 
Turkey, Persia, and China to put themselves under the protection 
of the British consuls who would protect them against all comers. 

Scarlet Fever Gets In Duty Free 623 

The 1 8th of April was a memorable day for the 
people of Syria. The executive committee of the " Lebanon 
Hospital for the Insane " was organized In Beirut 

In May, the scarlet fever appeared in Beirut for the first time 

and many children fell victims to it It was thought to have 
been brought In the baggage of emigrants returning from 
America, as It also appeared among them in Zahleh. 

In June the Presbytery of Mount Lebanon and Beirut was 
organized in Zahleh, and has continued an efficient working 
body until the present time. 

In October Miss Bernice Hunting arrived from America as 
colleague with Miss La Grange in the Tripoli Girls' School. 

September 2oth, to the great regret of the entire American 
community and all the Europeans and natives who knew him, 
our excellent consul* Thomas R. Gibson, of Georgia, died of 
smallpox in the hospital of the Knights of St John in Beirut. 

Mrs. Gerald F. Dale, having written from America resigning 
her connection with the mission, the members in attendance at 
the semi-annual meeting in June embodied in a minute their 
deep regret at this sundering of our official connections and 
commending her to the care and guidance of the Great Head of 
the Church. She has endeared herself to not only her fellow 
labourers, but to the women and girls in many towns and 
villages in Syria. She is now (1908) superintendent of the Maria 
DeWitt Jesup hospitals for women and children and training- 
school for nurses in the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. 

In July a new rebellion broke out in Hauran and the Druses 
surprised and massacred two battalions of Turkish troops and 
tore up the railroad tracks and the telegraph wires. Twenty-five 
hundred troops were brought on from Macedonia to quell the 
insurrection. Only last winter the Druses were defeated, crushed, 
and nominally brought into subjection. The Lebanon Druses 

624 Marking Time 

claim that the reason of the present outbreak Is the outrages 
committed by the Turkish troops on their women and girls. 

The Turkish government with great military sagacity have 
now (1936) opened three railway lines of approach to the Druse 
strongholds* the two roads from Damascus to Mezeirib from the 
north, and the Haifa railroad from the west, so that a future 
Druse rebellion In Hauran is well-nigh impossible. 

During this year the Zahleh manse was erected but not com- 
pleted. Mr. Hoskios sailed for America in September, having 
ably superintended the work of construction. But the funds 
were exhausted and the building was roofless, and in peril from 
the coming winter rains and snows. I went over September i8th 
and with my son William contracted with Omar, the head car- 
penter, to put on the tiles at once, raising the necessary funds 
from private sources. 

It has been the policy of the mission not to erect residences 
for missionaries where suitable dry native houses can be leased. 
But years of leaky roofs and vermin-infested ceilings and walls 
in Zahleh and the large amount expended annually in rents, con- 
vinced the mission and the Board that Zahleh was an exception 
to the rule. Hence through the liberality of intelligent friends 
in New York, Pittsburg, and other places, the funds were pro- 
vided, and the members of the station have a dry, clean, com- 
fortable house, 

1897 In January I was at Helouan, the desert city southeast 
of Cairo, trying to recover my voice lost by whooping-cough. 

In February, the mission having again changed its mind as to 
the desirability of conducting theological education in Beirut, 
voted to sell the fine edifice known as the " Theological Build- 
ing " on the college grounds to the college trustees, the same 
being changed to "Morris K. Jesup Hall" in honour of the 
donor of the purchase money. The fund received was retained 
by the Board for use In case of future need for theological edu- 

Brainless Censorship 625 

Our Argus-eyed friends, the censors, suppressed our Arabic 
geography, which the government had officially approved in 
several editions, as the word " Armenia " was used to describe 
that province In Eastern Turkey which has been known by 
name since the days of the kings of Israel; and Arabia was 
spoken of as an independent province. 

They also struck out of the book, " The Right Road/" the verse 
quoted from Titus 1 : 5, " For this cause left 1 thee in Crete 
that thoii sfaouldest set in order the things that are wanting and 
ordain elders in every city." The censor argued, '* Crete is un- 
der the Sultan, and who dares assert that anything can be want- 
ing 1 in his imperial domains ? " So they struck out the disloyal 
passage, although every verse in the Bible has the official sanc- 
tion of His Imperial Majesty's government ! 

Alas, protest is useless. Were His Majesty cognizant of the 
lack of brains in his press censors, he would probably order them 
to be put on a diet of fish and phosphorus. When a jealous 
general complained sanctimoniously to President Lincoln that 
General Grant, the captor of Vicksburg, drank whiskey, the 
President replied, " Is that so ? If you can tell me what brand 
of whiskey General Grant uses, I will order a supply for all the 
generals, as he seems to be the only one who does things/' It 
would be well if educated men could be put in charge of the de- 
partment of public instruction. We have had censors in Syria 
who knew neither geography nor history, and who pronounced 
on books whose language they did not understand. 

In March we were favoured with another visit from my dear 
friend, the venerable Canon H. B. Tristram, who was travelling 
with Miss Ken na way, daughter of Sir John Kennaway of the 
Church Missionary Society. We drove together to the Dog 
River and examined again the locality of bone breccia which he 
discovered thirty-three years before, and from which I had 
quarried a camel load for him and his English scientific friends. 
He viewed with interest the great progress made in all the 
Protestant missionary institutions, and spoke as a scientific 

626 Marking Time 

botanist with the highest appreciation of the great work of Dr 
Geo. E. Post on the Flora of Syria and Palestine." 

We were grieved to learn afterwards from Jerusalem that he 
was kicked by a horse at Bethany and had his leg broken. 

The friendship of such men as Canon Tristram and Sir William 
Muir I greatly prize. They both were fine specimens of the 
learned class in England, who are at the same time earnest 
Protestant evangelical Christians, in warm sympathy with Chris- 
tian missions as well as with the progress of learning. Canon 
Tristram had no sympathy with those mimics of popery in the 
Church of England, who repudiate the name Protestant, nor had 
he any sympathy with the attempts to fraternize with the ikon 
worshipping and Mariolatrous Oriental Church. 

During the month of April I was visiting the well-known Mo- 
hammed Effendi B of Beirut during Ramadan and the con- 
versation turned to the subject of fasting. He remarked that 
some of the Christian ecclesiastics who compel their people to 
fast in Lent are not very scrupulous themselves about fasting. 
He said that he was once Invited during Lent to dine with a 
company of officials at the house of a Christian bishop. The 
bishop was fasting and had special dishes prepared for him and 
his priests. The rest of the food consisted of meat and chicken 
and the usual courses. He sat next the bishop around the Ori- 
ental table and each one was helping himself with his hands 
from the dish before him. In the midst of the meal the light 
went out, and they were left in darkness. While the servant 
went for another lamp they continued eating, and as he ex- 
tended his hand to help himself to chicken, he grasped the hand 
of the bishop in the platter of chicken ! There was mutual 
laughter and the matter passed as a capital joke. One can 
imagine the effect produced upon the mind of this intelligent 
Moslem by the insincerity of his ecclesiastical friend. When he 
told it to me, he added, " We have Moslems who eat in Ramadan 
on the sly." This is notorious. The back room of a well-known 
druggist ii| Beirut is frequented in Ramadan by young 

A Season of Sorrow 627 

who lunch there unseen by the public. Not a few Turkish 

officials lunch openly during Ramadan at the 


The summer of 1897 was a season of sorrow and anxiety 
throughout mission circles in Syria. 

On the 6th of June Rev, Archibald Stuart, of the Irish Pres- 
byterian Church in Damascus, died of typhoid fever. His riend f 
Dr. McKinnon f brought him in from Nebk to the Victoria 
Hospital in Damascus, but he sank rapidly and passed away. He 
was probably the most "promising young missionary in Western 
Asia, of great intellectual and spiritual gifts, a preacher of power 
and unction and beloved by the people. He gave a series of 
sermons to the college students in Beirut in February, and won 
the hearts of all On the same day, Miss James, recently 
directress of the British Syrian Schools, died in England, greatly 
lamented. Her influence while in Syria was profoundly spiritual 
and uplifting. 

The week previous, Rev. David Metheny, M. D., the veteran 
missionary of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Mersina, the 
port of Tarsus, died of heart failure. He was a man of great 
medical and surgical skill, a good Arabic preacher, of extra- 
ordinary energy, tender hearted and self-denying, generous and 
sympathetic with the poor. He was on the point of sailing for 
America with his family, when heart disease, which had kept 
him long in expectation of sudden death, culminated in instant 
release from pain and suffering. I loved the good brother. We 
differed on the subject of hymn singing, but he was a great lover 
of good music. In 1886 we sang together the old negro 
melodies and he accompanied on the violin, as Mrs. Jessup and I 
sang the words. We taught him " Old Black Joe," whose 
pathetic weirdness seemed to touch a tender spot in his refined 
nature. But at family prayers nothing but the psalms could be 
used. And we did not discuss the hymn question. I used to 
tell him that we have one advantage. " You can only sing psalms, 
We can also sing psalms, and hymns treicfes," flf would sing 

628 Marking Time 

hymns as musical practice in off hours, but never in public or 
priYate worship. His successors are good and true men and I 
long for the day \vfaen we can all meet in religious conferences 
and sit together at the table of our common Lord. 

After his removal from Latakia to Mersina, he purchased 
land on the seashore near the port and proceeded to erect a mis- 
sion house. The Waly at Adana ordered him to stop, after the 
house was Bearing completion* He did not stop. The Waly 
then sent word that he would come down on the railroad with 
troops and force him to stop and tear down the building. Be- 
fore the train arrived, a telegram reached the doctor, " The 
United States ship Marblehead will be in Mersina to-morrow." 

Just then the train came in and the troops began their march 
with the Waly at their head. The doctor gave the telegram to 
his teacher and said, " Take this to the Waly wherever he is, on 
the street, and ask him to appoint a suitable officer to escort the 
American admiral to-morrow to the American premises 1 " The 
Waly read the telegram, gave new orders, and the troops 
wheeled and after marching around the city, brought up at the 
railroad station headed for Adana. The doctor was not molested 
after that episode. 

The Zahleh station was severely smitten. My son William 
was ill with typhoid fever for forty days and during his illness, 
when too weak to know what was transpiring, his infant son, 
Henry, died of cholera infantum. I was there at the time, and 
at midnight left Zahleh in a carriage with an aunt of the dear 
child and drove to Beirut, bearing the little casket for burial in 
the old mission cemetery. That midnight drive over the heights 
of Lebanon, with that little dead grandchild, was one of those 
solemn scenes which can never be effaced from human memory. 
The father was not informed of his death for two weeks, when 
fever had ceased and his strength began to return. The 
Lord gave him strength to bear it patiently but it was a bitter 

While William was at the most critical stage of the fever, a fire 

Fighting Fire 

broke out in the flue of the kitchen fireplace. The walls were 
of sun-dried brick and the chimney was simply a hole between 
the outer and inner walls made of clay and cut straw or tibn. 
The tibn had ignited and when the cook discovered the fire at 
3 P, M., the entire chimney up to the roof was a glowing coal of 
fire. A terrific wind was blowing at the time and the only 
available water was a fe\v jars in the house brought from the 
river a quarter of a mile distant I went up a ladder to the roof 
and gave the alarm to the neighbours. Owing to the gale we 
could hardly stand on the roof and as jar after jar of water was 
brought by the kind neighbours, we poured it down the chim- 
ney. For a full hour we fought the fire and finally thought we 
had subdued it The tiled roof which adjoined the chimney was 
made of timber dry as tinder and extended over the court and 
over the room of the sick one. Had the cook not discovered the 
fire just as he did, the flame which had already licked the ends of 
the beams of the tiled roof would have swept over the whole 
house and blocked all exit from the sick-room. Before sunset 
the watchman whom we had left on the roof shouted that the 
fire had broken out afresh and we had another half hour's 
struggle, using all the water in the vicinity until at length the 
whole wall was water soaked and the house was saved. It was one 
of those providential deliverances which fill the heart with grati- 
tude and praise to Him who careth for us. I cannot think of 
that hour of peril without a shudder. 

Later in the season, his daughter Elizabeth was 'prostrated 
with typhoid and December i8th, Mrs. William Jessup, the 
mother, perceiving symptoms of the same malady, took the train 
for Beirut and entered the St. John's Hospital, where, under the 
care of Dr. Graham and the German deaconesses as nurses, she 
came through safely. Meantime, a lovely English girl, Miss 
Kitty Dray, teaching in the British Syrian School in Zahleh, 
died of the same fell disease and was brought to Beirut for 

Our hearts were gladdened by the arrival of my son Frederickj 

630 Marking Time 

who, after graduating at Princeton, had come to serve a three 
years" course as tutor in the Syrian Protestant College In Beirut. 

At this time came a staggering blow from the West The 
Board of Missions, in view of financial stress, cut off at one 
stroke fifteen thousand dollars from the annual appropriation to 
the mission. That is, more than one-fourth of the allowance for 
the foreign and native labourers, the seminaries, schools, 
Itineracy, publication, and hospital work. The bitter pill ivas 
sugar coated with fraternal assurances of great regret and 
sympathy with us ia our distress. The mission was called to- 
gether and the surgeon knife of vivisection had to do its work. 
About forty village schools were closed, about one-half of which 
were kindly taken up by the British Syrian Mission. 

Many teachers, trained and experienced, were discharged; 
others resigned and entered the employment of other societies 
with our full approbation. Who could blame a man with a wife 
and nine children for resigning when his salary was reduced from 
thirty to twenty dollars a month ? 

Every department took its share of the cut." The native 
churches and congregations were urged to assume more of their 
expenses. The missionaries gave of their scanty means to re- 
lieve the pressure. Owing to the extraordinary rise in the cost 
of living, hardly a missionary in Syria can live on his salary, and 
but for private resources would have to resign and go home. 

We have had frequent cuts/' as they are called, but this was 
" the most unklndest cut of all," not because of any conceivable 
tinkindness on the part of the Board or the Church at home, but 
from its placing us In the position of discriminating in our own 
favour, when applying the excision to others. It would be a 
happy day for missions if they could be carried on without 
money ; and the most trying feature of the work is its making the 
foreign missionary an employer and the native labourers em- 
ployees. In a great press like that in Beirut, we have nearly 
fifty male and female employees, but the press manager, for- 
tunately now a layman, pays all the wages. When Dr. Van 

Who Should the of a u Cut " ? 631 

Dyck, myself, Dr. Samuel Jessup, Dr. Eddy, in turn for 
years the management of the press, and at the same 
preaching to the people and doing pastoral work among them, 
our souls were vexed beyond measure with begging and 

begging visits, asking for employment or for increase in wages, or 
complaining of each other, and, in case of disappointment, 
threatening to leave the church and accusing us of partiality or 

Alas, that although we have transferred this odious business 
relation in the press to the broad shoulders of Mr. Freyer, whose 
nine yea* 3 in the United States Navy enable him to carry on the 
business like clockwork, and whose *' Savings Bank " system has 
won the admiration and secured the loyalty of all his employees, 
we still have to act as school superintendents and pay masters to a 
small army of helpers and teachers all over the land. Happy the 
missions, like Korea and Uganda, where the people support their 
own mission churches and schools, and glad will be the day when 
Syria follows in their train. 

This mission began years ago by giving everything gratis and 
hiring men to teach and preach. Many " false brethren f * were 
thus foisted upon the mission " unawares " who afterwards denied 
the faith and went back " worse than before. 1 * And when in the 
period between 1860 and 1870 the question of paying for educa- 
tion and church support was raised, the missionaries were openly 
charged with robbing the natives of money intended for them. 

The news of the severe retrenchment of our work was accom- 
panied by a letter suggesting a contribution from every mission- 
ary of the Board towards paying the debt of the Board. The 
letter implied that some have already given to the extent of their 
ability to relieve the work in the field from the cut This was 
true of us all. Yet we were willing to do and did even 

I received from England a contribution which touched me 
much. Miss Mary P. Bailey, one of the secretaries of the British 
Syrian Mission, wrote me as follows : 

632 Marking Time 

British Syrian Mission^ Wimbledon, England 9 July 7, 1897* 

I was very much touched yesterday, by receiving from an 
officers servant a gift of two shillings six pence for the American Mis- 
sions in Syria. So I forward it at once to you in English stamps. 

The man's address I enclose. The gift is small but it comes from a 
man of prayer* and I believe God will use it as a lever to raise a large 
sum of money to supply your need. He has used small, weak things 
before* He still uses them. This man (although only an officers groom) 
gives six pence every month for the British Syrian Mission. Writing 
to him the other day, I told him of the sad sorrow you were in and asked 
him to pray that your helpful, beautiful work might not be reduced for 
want of funds. 

' We cannot spare one of your stations in Syria. May the Lord in- 
crease you more and more. 

A little boy was once present in a church in London, when one of 
our missionary societies was in terrible need, and the cause was being 
earnestly pleaded. When this child got home, he said to his mother, 
" Mother, did you hear what the minister asked for, so very much money ? 
I am only a little boy, but I would like to give him my silver mug for 
the missionaries: may I?" The mother said, "I am not quite sure, 
my boy, if your father will like you to do that, but we will ask him." 
The father gladly agreed and the mug was sent to Mr. Bickersteth and 
sold. He told the story of the child's love to his congregation next 
Sunday, and in the two following Sundays the whole of the necessary 
money was raised. "A little child shall lead them." That child is 
now a missionary in India. 

May this be so with you, and may your hearts be gladdened by your 
treasury being filled, and your work extended. I well remember our 
prayer-meetings in Beirut in your drawing-room and long to join you 
again one day. Till then, and while my Lord keeps me working at 

Believe me, 

Yours in the hope of His speedy coming, 

Deputation Secretary British Syrian Mission ^ 

The gifts of the poor, transfigured by prayer, and winged with 

Source of Missionary 633 

love s will surely stir up the more favoured of our 

to give liberally and upbraid not. 

There will be a good deal of heart searching new dedica- 
tion of all to Christ awakened by this movement of a universal 
offering of the seven hundred missionaries of the Board ! There 
will be much giving out of straits and distresSj but none the 
it will be a joyous offering. 

For many years, the smaller missions IE Syria a Palestine, and 
Egypt, and the irrepressible " independent n one-man and one- 
woman missions, having few native agente, and having no better 
principles about self-support than we had fifty years ago, would 
offer higher salaries than we with our 120 native agents coulcl 
possibly pay, and hence our best trained young men and women, 
naturally desirous of improving their condition f would suddenly 
resign and leave us in the lurch. Served you right/' our Korean 
missionary brethren would say to us. " You set the pace and now 
they* re only following your example." Tis true 'tis pity, and 
pity 'tis 'tis true." 

But the experience of this year, 1897, has helped to forward the 
cause of self-support and now, in 1909, owing to the increasing 
self-respect of the Syrian brethren, and the fact that many who 
have emigrated to America, Brazil, and Australia are either re- 
turning with ample means or sending money to pay for the edu- 
cation of their kindred, the native contributions show a constant 
and hopeful increase. 

In response to a request of the Board, I prepared an article for 
the Church at Home and Abroad on " From whence does the 
Church derive its Missionary Inspiration ? " and argued that it is 
not from our church standards which have only remote allusions 
to the subject, nor from spasmodic appeals in public meetings. 
The then recent Lambeth Conference admitted that " the Thirty- 
nine Articles do not allude to the Church's duty to the heathen 
world," That conference of 194 bishops in its encyclical letter 

634 Marking Time 

declared that " The cause of missions is the cause of our Lord 
Jesus Christ For some centuries* it may be said* we have slum- 
bered. The Book of Common Prayer contains very few prayers 
for missionary work," Why did not these good men add some 
new missionary prayers to their prayer-book ? And why does 
not the Presbyterian Church inject a missionary spirit into its 
Confession of Faith ? 

The only conclusion is that we must depend for our " inspira- 
tion " upon the Word of God, the commands of Christ, and the 
example of the apostles, 1 

Two epidemics scourged Beirut In the fall, in addition to the 
typhoid, malignant black smallpox and rabies among the dogs, 
Scores died of the smallpox and patients walked the streets and 
rode unmolested by the police in the public carriages. It is not 
safe for any foreigner, tourist or scholar, to come to this land 
without revaccination, for smallpox lurks everywhere and nu- 
merous tourists have taken it while here or soon after leaving. 

A young German was taken ill in Beirut with smallpox and 
removed to the pest-house of St. John's Hospital where he was 
attended by Dr. Graham and the deaconesses. Delirium set in 
and his whole body was black with the virulent disease. One day 
Dr. Graham entered the room and found the patient a raving 
maniac, having stripped off all his clothing. He sprang like a 
tiger upon Dr. Graham, caught him by the throat and hurled him 
to the floor. Then followed a terrific struggle, and the doctor 
succeeded at length in throwing him off, and calling for help. 
He was smeared with blood but made out to bind the poor suf- 
ferer, who soon expired. The doctor's account of that loathsome 
wrestling match almost curdles one's blood. He did not contract 
the disease, however, and his example must have had a wholesome 
influence upon his medical pupils who were cognizant of the facts. 

The epidemic of rabies among the street dogs, for the first time 
in my knowledge, alarmed the Moslems. They dread to kill a 
dog. Dogs are the scavengers, living in colonies in the streets 

1 Since this was written, the Presbyterian Confession has been " r&* 
vised/" and a better showing given to the work of missions. 

Mad Dog! 635 

and making Eight hideous with their howling. But Mos- 

lems were bitten by a rabid dog and were hurried to the 

Institute in Constantinople. Other dogs had been bitten. Some- 
thing must be done. The example of the English in Alexandria, 
who had annihilated the whole dog population, was resorted to. 

The edict went forth and in one week 1,300 dogs were poisoned 
or shot, and were buried a mile distant in the sands. For once, 
Beirut was quiet at night. The Moslems felt lonely. Two years 
after, they sent to Sidon and Tripoli and imported two sloop- 
loads of " curs of low degree " and repopulated the deserted 
streets, and now the dogs own the city oace more, and are in- 
creasing with fearful rapidity. 

A Moslem convert, Naamet Ullah, who was converted in 1895, 
came to Beirut in the spring. He was arrested, thrown into the 
army and wrote me a letter from the military barracks* He was 
taken with his regiment to Hauran where he deserted, reappeared 
in Beirut, thence to Tripoli, where he took ship to Egypt and 
disappeared from view. 

Three Maronite priests and one Coptic monk called at different 
times and offered to become Protestants on condition that their 
expenses be paid to America. They were treated kindly, but we 
informed them that we were not an emigration agency, and tried 
to convince them of the sin of such a hypocritical profession. It 
is to be taken for granted that the most hopeless, spiritually, of 
all the Orientals are the priests and monks. Their consciences 
seem seared as if with a hot iron, 

In November I mailed to America the manuscript of the life 
of Kamil to which allusion has already been made. I cannot but 
regret that the dear young man requested me to return to him 
the original of all his Arabic journals and the correspondence with 
his father. Providentially I had translated them all into English, 
and it would be possible to retranslate them into the original 
Arabic, but the aroma of his beautiful style could not be repro- 
duced. All those manuscripts fell into the hands of the Turkish 

636 Marking Time 

soldiers In Bussorah and whether they were kept or destroyed 
cannot be ascertained* 

In August Naoom Pasha, Governor of Lebanon, was re ap- 
pointed for five years. He was a good governor. A deputation 
of fie members of our mission called upon him and congratulated 
Mm on his reappointment. He was most courteous and showed 
us through all the apartments of the B'teddin palace. 

In October 1 received a letter from Chicago inquiring about Mr. 
Ibrahim Khairullah, the Syrian, who was attempting to propagate 
Babism in the United States. I sent to Mr. Stowell a " Life of Mr. 
Ibrahim Khairullah," written by his relative and intimate friend in 
Beirut I give here a copy of my letter, but the " Memoir " Is 
not of sufficient value to be reproduced. His temporary success 
In the occult art business Is only another instance of the gullibil- 
ity of human nature. Three years later I visited Abbas Effendi 
In Haifa and an account of the interview was published in the 
Outlook of June 22, 1901. A recent book by M. H. Phelpsof 
New York, 1904, gives a very fair account of this Persian bubble* 
showing that it Is nothing new in religious history but a revamp 
of ancient Pantheistic theories. Mr. Phelps* summary of Abbas 
EfFendi's teaching as Love to God and Man " shows it to be as 
old as Christ and Moses, It Is the essence of New Testament 
ethics, and there are millions of Christians to-day living according 
to this standard as far as they can by the aid of divine grace. Abbas 
Effendi is almost a Christian. But his latitudinarian views that all 
men, pagans, idolaters, and all are accepted of God, would seem to 
make any attempt to propagate Babism a work of supererogation. 

The letter to Mr. Stowell is as follows : 

" I received yours of September 24th in due time, and last 
week sent your letter to a reliable person in Beirut who is a rela- 
tive of the man you mention. It is evident that the man has 
been at his wit's end to know how to make a living and is now 
trying a new religion. The enclosed brief chronicle you can rely 
upon as being correct. 

" The book you speak of as ' Bab el Din/ Revelation from the 

The 637 

East, is either that mongrel of stuff by the 

priest, Christofory Jebara, for the World's Parliament of Religions, 
IE which the author would bring about a union between Chris- 
tianity and Islam by our all becoming Moslems ; or some new 
rehash of Professor Browne of Cambridge^ England, on the 
* Episode of the Bab/ the Persian delusion whose 
Beha-ullah IE Acre claimed to be an incarnation of God and on 
his death a few years ago his son, Abbas EfFendi, succeeded him 
and is running the * Incarnation ' fraud for all that It is worth, and 
that is worth a good deal, as pilgrims constantly come from the 
Babite sect in Persia and bring their offerings of money with 
great liberality, 

" Such men as Jebara and the Babites of Persia turn up now and 
then in the East, * go up like a rocket and down like the stick/ 
The priest Jebara made no converts as far as I can learn, unless 
Mr. Khairullah be one. The fact is there was nothing to be con- 
verted to. You can't love or pray to a mere negation. 

" The Babite movement in Persia started out as an attempt at a 
reform of Islam and ended by the leader claiming to be divine 
and invulnerable in battle, but when he died, another was found 
ready to succeed to his pretensions. 

" They teach a strange mixture of truth and error, of extreme 
liberality and unscrupulous persecution of those obnoxious to 
them. I had a friend a few years ago, a learned Mohammedan of 
Bagdad, who was feeling his way to Christianity. His father, a 
wealthy man, died when he was young, and his uncle, a Babite, 
determined to train up the lad as a Babite. But the boy as he 
grew up refused to accept Babism. The uncle then robbed him 
of his property and drove him out of Bagdad. A few years ago 
he came here, professed Christianity, and was baptized in Alex- 
andria, Egypt. While here, he went down to Acre to visit one 
of the Babites whom he had formerly known. After remaining 
there a few days, he found out that his uncle had written to Acre 
about him and one night he received word that his life was in 
danger if he stayed through the night and he escaped to Beirut in 
great terror. 

638 Marking Time 

* Some months ago* an elderly Persian Babite called at our press 
in Beirut, and some time after brought a beautiful gilt motto on a 
large wail card which he gave us. He said he prayed to that 
motto for twelve years, and now, after reading the Bible, he has 
decided to give up such folly. (On the card was written in 
Arabic ' O glory of the most glorious/ the mystic prayer of 
the Babites.) 

" The Greek Jebara wants the Moslem lion and the Christian 
lamb to lie down together, only the lamb must be inside the lion. 

** The Babites want all to become lambs, even if they have to use 
force to make them so. Their blasphemous claim that the Acre 
sheikh is God is quite enough to condemn them. 

11 1 earnestly pray that Mr. Khairullah may be led by God's Spirit 
back to the pure faith of his youth when he covenanted to take 
the Lord Jesus Christ as his Saviour. 

" It is easy to be specious and plausible but secret religious sects 
are dangerous and secret propagandism which you say is his 
method, is a confession of weakness. Truth loves the light and 
if the ' Bab el Din * is afraid of the light and of open discussion, 
it should be avoided by every God-fearing man and woman. 

" We have two secret religions in Syria, that of the Druses and 
the Nusairiyeh, both bound to secrecy by awful oaths and impre- 
cations. Our divine Lord in the third chapter of John says, * Men 
love darkness rather than light because their deeds are evil/ 
* But he that doeth truth cometh to the light that his deeds may 
be manifest that they are wrought in God/ 

" If a Druse or Nusairy leaves his sect, his life is regarded as 

" American Christians believe that Christ is the Light of the 
World. The Lord deliver them from the delirious blasphemies of 
the Asiastics who claim to be God Himself! " 

In reply to a letter from Dr. Paul Carus, I wrote the following : 
" I owe you an apology for so long delaying in acknowledging 

the receipt of the ' edition de luxe ' of the secretary's report on 

the Religious Parliament Extension. 

Parliament of 

11 You request an expression * of your views of the of 

the religious life as it appears to you both in your 
and the world at large/ 

" The Parliament had little influence on the public in 

Western Asia* No Mohammedan from this part of the globe at- 
tended it, and the Greek archimandrite who read a paper, repre- 
sented no one but himself in advocating a union of Christianity 
and Islam by surrendering the cardinal doctrines of the former* 

11 The Mohammedans would not go and had they gone they 
would have been prohibited from publishing any report on their 

" Liberty of the press on religious questions is unknown in this 
empire, and any journal which should criticize Islam or the Koran 
would be summarily suppressed, 

<i Thg events of the past two years, whatsoever their cause, 
have brought out into bold relief the worst features of an exclusive 
and uncompromising religious system. 

" Murders, robberies, rapes, spoliation, the abduction of women 
and girls, and enforced apostasy from Christianity have been 
sanctioned not only by the officials of the dominant faith, but by 
a responsive awakening of popular fanaticism, 

" Thoughtful men who are restless under the suppression of 
free thought are compelled to be silent and cry to God for relief. 
There is no such thing as public opinion. The press simply 
echoes the views of the local censor, and the censor, the views of 
the central authority. 

" With regard to the Maronite, Orthodox Greek, and Papal 
Greek sects of Syria, there is little to hope for from the higher 
ecclesiastics. One prominent patriarch purchased his chair by 
bribes, amounting, it is publicly asserted, to ten thousand pounds. 

" A notable exception to the simony intrigue and avarice of the 
higher ecclesiastics is the Orthodox Greek Bishop of Hums (the 
ancient Emesa), who has placed the Bible in all his schools where 
twelve hundred children are taught and is labouring efficiently to 
enlighten and elevate his people. 

" The influence of Protestant education and literature on the 

640 Marking Time 

rank and file of the people is palpable on every side. The rising 
generation of all sects is better informed, more liberal and 
tolerant, than the past Schools which have been founded to 
keep out the light have let it in. Public sentiment with regard 
to the honour and dignity of woman has undergone a wonderful 
change. The veil continues and the hareem seclusion continues, 
but the veiled and secluded have begun to think for themselves. 

"^Mohammedan young men will no longer consent to many 
girls they have never seen, but now in Beirut, visit them and drive 
out with them on the public highways with the mothers as 

** A visit to the homes of educated Christian young women In 
Syria is an impressive object-lesson as to the value of a Christian 
education for girls. Their houses are well ordered, tidy, cheer- 
ful, and happy. The more attractive features of Oriental hos- 
pitality have a new charm in these enlightened Christian families. 

" The general religious outlook in the empire is hopeful, not- 
withstanding the dreadful Armenian massacres of the past two 
years. The healing touch of the divine hand and the awakening 
tones of the divine voice have brought life and thoughtfulness 
and spiritual quickening, whereas before the massacres all was 
apathy and death, God's judgments, instead of hardening, have 
softened men's hearts. In Anatolia the schools are crowded with 
pupils and the churches cannot contain the thronging worshippers. 
Old enemies have become friends of the GospeL The very 
means used for the extermination of gospel light have ended in 
its wider dissemination. The Gregorian Armenian hierarchy have 
become the friends of the Protestant missionaries. As the 
massacres of 1860 in Syria broke up the fallow ground and pre- 
pared the way for the new sowing of the gospel seed, so the 
events of 1895-1896 are proving to have turned out for the 
furtherance of the GospeL 

"Taking a wider view of religious thought in the Eastern 
world, the truth is not lost and will not lose by the brotherly 
exchange of thought ' that is now more and more pervading the 
world. Insincere and designing men may deceive all of their 

Mission in 1897 641 

countrymen some of the time, and of them ail of the time ; 

but they cannot cheat all men always/ 

" Truth is patient, God is patient. It can afford to be conde- 
scending though misunderstood, and generous though It be 
weak, but it is never impatient for the harvest before the seed has 
had time to grow. 

41 Western Asia, India, China and Japan may be misled for a 
time by those who assure them in obscure and misty phrase that 
the citadel of Christian truth is fallen forever; but when the 
mists have cleared away, the shining battlements will * look forth, 
bright as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and ter- 
rible as an army with banners/ 

" In diplomacy, nothing baffles cunning like the frankness of 
simple truth, and in the sphere of religion, nothing defeats the 
sophistries of Asiatic heathenism and the assumption of Islam like 
the plain preaching of salvation through Christ and Him crucified," 

The missionary statistics for the year 1897 were as follows: 
The whole number of children in Protestant schools in Syria 

and Palestine is about 17,000, of whom at least 8,000 are girls. 

Enrolled Protestants as a civil sect, 7,000. 

American Press, Beirut 

Number of publications on press catalogue . 60 1 

Publications issued in 1896 and 1897 . . . 282,000 

Pages printed from the first 5 78,000,000 

Syrian Protestant College^ Beirut 
1896-1897, whole number of students ...... 309 

Graduates to date, collegiate . . 164 

" " medical . . 163 

" " " pharmaceutical . 53 

Number of professors and instructors ...... 25 

Protestant orphanages in Syria and Palestine . .... 5 
Protestant hospitals and dispensaries in Syria and Palestine, 36 

642 Marking Time 

Hospitals in Beirut 
Protestant, St. John's. 
Roman Catholic, St. Joseph's. 
Orthodox Greek, St. George's. 
Turkish military hospital. 
Municipality hospital. 

Arabic Journals in Beirut 

Protestant ........ 4 

Orthodox Greek ...... 2 

Turkish official ...... i 

Roman Catholic ...... 4 

Mohammedan ....... 2 

A New York gentleman wrote asking me to give him an ac- 
count of all the missionary work and " societies of a political 
character " at work in Turkey. I replied, giving an account of 
the various missions but stated that, " I know of no political 
societies but the order of Jesuits. All the Americans in Turkey, 
an empire of absolute despotism, keep entirely aloof from political 
questions. In our published books and periodicals we cannot 
mention politics. The censorship of the press is more severe than 
in Russia. Our object is to introduce light, to educate the young, 
to care for the sick and suffering, publish good and useful books, 
and let the government alone." 

In September, my daughter, Ethel Hyde Jessup, was married 
in Aleih, Mount Lebanon, to Franklin T. Moore, M. D., of the 
Syrian Protestant College. 

In October Miss Ellen Law was obliged to leave for America 
on account of her health and my daughter Anna took her place 
for a year and a half. 

Rev. Messrs. Hoskins and Hardin returned from America, the 
former in October and the latter in December. 

1898 March I3th we had a visit from President Angell, United 
States Minister to Constantinople. 

Minister Angell's Visit 643 

That visit was a benediction to us all, nationally, intellectually, 
and spiritually. He arrived with Mrs. Angell on Sunday morning, 
March 1 3th, on the steamship Alter, which had been lying at 
Jaffa, as its excursion tourists had gone up to Jerusalem. A pro- 
tracted gale of wind had prevented the usual steamer from com- 
munication with Jaffa and consequently the volume of detained 
travellers who had returned from Jerusalem to Jaffa was very 
great, and all the hotels were crowded. Dr. Angell, Mr. Isidor 
Straus of New York, and about twenty others tried to catch 
English and Egyptian steamers which came to Jaffa to take them 
to Beirut, but in vain. At length the captain of the Aller having 
extra time on his hands, agreed to bring the party to Beirut for 
$1,000. They arrived on Sunday morning. I preached at the 
college in Arabic that morning at nine o'clock and just as the 
last bell was ringing for the service, and Dr. Bliss and I were 
entering the chapel door, the carriage drove by with Dr. and Mrs. 
Angell, and the kavass of the United States consul on the box. 
We bade them welcome. 

I recalled the time when, at Dr. Angell's invitation, I addressed 
the students at Ann Arbor University. He was in excellent 
health and spirits. We found that Dr. and Mrs. Angell and 
their party were booked for Baalbec and Damascus the next 
morning, Monday, and must return and sail for Constantinople on 

At 3 : 30 P. M. after seeing other parts of the work he came to 
the Arabic Sunday-school, accompanied by the United States 
consul and his kavasses, and made a brief address to the 250 
children urging them to the study of God's word and to trust in 
Christ as their Saviour. It was delightful to hear his testimony 
to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

On Sunday evening Dr. Angell made an address to the college 
students on " Intellectual, Moral, and Spiritual Culture " which 
was a most impressive and beautiful address and will never be 
forgotten by those who heard it. I took careful notes and on 
Monday translated it all into Arabic. On Friday it was published 
in our weekly Neshrah and I had half a dozen copies struck off in 

644 Marking Time 

gilt letters which I presented to him on Friday evening, when 
Mrs. Bliss gave a reception to all the American community for 
Dr. and Mrs. Angell 

On Saturday morning before leaving on the French steamer for 
Constantinople, he visited the press and went through all its de- 
partments and I then went down with him to the wharf. His 
visit was brief but he manifested the deepest interest in all de- 
partments of the work. 

We said little to him about the United States claims against 
Turkey for indemnity for losses during the massacres. His hands 
are tied by the diversion of our government's attention to Spain 
and Cuba. England can carry on half a dozen wars in different 
parts of the world and grapple with the knottiest diplomatic ques- 
tions all at one and the same time. Our government, with its 
frequent changes of administration and diplomatic officials, seems 
to be able to deal with only one question at a time. Dr. Angell 
evidently accepted this post at great sacrifice, in order to do 
what others had failed to do, and now finds himself unsupported. 
(Mr. McKinley evidently needs a Secretary of State able to deal 
with foreign questions with promptness and vigour.) 

President Angell was succeeded by the Hon. Oscar Straus of 
New York whose great ability, loyal devotion to his country's 
honour, and conscientious attention to business gave him the 
confidence of his countrymen and great influence with the Sultan 
and his ministers. 

Our consul, Colonel Doyle, was now removed and in his place 
President McKinley appointed Mr. G. Bie Ravendal who has 
proved himself an efficient business man and a loyal American in 
full sympathy with the work done by his fellow citizens in Syria. 
This consulate, having become in 1906 a consulate-general, will 
now have greater influence and do better work for American com- 
mercial interests in the East. 

In April, Mr. A. Forder, an independent missionary, attempted 
to penetrate Arabia from the north by the way of Bashan and 

Foolish as Doves 645 

Moab. He secured seven hundred Arabic New Testaments from 
our press and had them bound in special red morocco binding, 
with broad flaps, in imitation of the Arab binding in Cairo and 
Damascus. The box was sent to Damascus and he set out from 
Jerusalem with his cameleers, intending to pick up the box in or 
near Damascus, so as not to give the Turks an idea that he was a 
military spy or correspondent, but unhappily he fell from his 
camel near Nablus and broke his leg. In May he was still de- 
tained there with his Danish companion until it was too late to 
undertake the trip that year. On a previous trip he was robbed 
so often that one wonders what he had left to live on in a region 
where, for two days, he found neither food nor water. No one 
could question his courage and pluck and some day Christian 
men may get into Central Arabia. But the new Mecca railroad, 
and the jealousy of all European influence in that great peninsula, 
will make it difficult for any one hereafter to enter Arabia from 
the north or west. The vulnerable sides are the east and south, 
and for the reason that where the spirit of British rule prevails 
there is liberty. And yet, there was once a foreign young woman 
of comely appearance, who seriously proposed making a trip to 
Arabia by that robber-infested route where every man claims the 
ancestral right to rob every stranger he meets, taking with her 
only a woman attendant and a cameleer. It was with great diffi- 
culty that we dissuaded her. Had she tried to do it, we should 
have felt called upon to ask the interposition of the consul. It is 
a pity that deep piety and personal loveliness should sometimes 
be linked to an utter want of common sense. Faith sometimes 
becomes spasmodic with high nervous exaltation. It then be- 
comes unreasoning, harmful as serpents, and foolish as doves. 
Believing itself inspired, it will take no advice and will sacrifice 
all the capacity for usefulness attained by long years of prepara- 
tion, study and spiritual equipment for the sake of making one 
grand leap into certain destruction with no possible thought of 
any corresponding or compensating good. I have often said to 
one of these " inspired " friends, " Be careful, protect your head 
from the sun ; if you take that journey, take at least some proper 

646 Marking Time 

food and clothing." " Thank you/' they would say, " we do not 
need these worldly wise precautions for we can trust in the Lord 
who has called us." So away they went. Not long after there 
was a funeral r-a life thrown away that might have been a bless- 
ing to many. It only made others say, " What a fool not to take 
advice ! " Dr. S. H. Cox, of Brooklyn, was told by a ranting 
Mormon apostle, " God does not need your learning ! " He 
replied, " God does not need your ignorance ! " 

The news of war with Spain made a great stir in this land. 
The Moslems and Jews could not say enough in praise of 
America. They recalled the days of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
when Moslem power was crushed in Spain and when hundreds of 
thousands of Jews were expelled from Spain and found refuge in 
North Africa, Constantinople, Salonica, Smyrna, and Aleppo. 
And in the year 1906, the Jews are rejoicing that a granddaughter 
of a Jew has become Queen of Spain. 1 

I recalled April, 1861, when we heard of the firing on Fort 
Sumter and the beginning of the Civil War, when we all felt like 
going home to defend the flag. The Cuban War was a smaller 
matter and we had no fear of the result, but we apprehended 
financial disorder and the crippling of the Board's resources. 

Happily the war was brief and the only effect from a mission- 
ary standpoint was opening the millions of Cuba, Porto Rico, 
and the Philippines to the enlightenment of Protestant Chris- 

On March I7th my very dear friend and classmate, Dr. 
Charles S. Robinson, of New York, arrived on the Aller. The 
ship only remained twelve hours. I went on board in a rough 
sea and a pouring rain to bring him ashore. 

It seems to us residents in Syria a great shame that tourists in 
the Holy Land should be " hustled " through in such a hurry that 
they can only gain the most superficial idea of the land and its 

1 We may add that in 1907, the Jews were again glad to hear that a 
Jew had been elected mayor of Rome, 

A Presbytery Meeting 647 

On May 2d the Lebanon Presbytery met in Beirut; eight 
churches were represented by fifteen Syrian and seven American 
members. Nine subjects were discussed and it was the most 
thoroughly spiritual assembly we have ever known in Syria. A 
report was given by Dr. S. Jessup of the religious conference in 
February conducted by Dr. Elder Curnming and Rev. Messrs. 
Luce and Paynter, and one of the Syrian brethren gave an ac- 
count of his visit to Mildmay and Keswick and the new appre- 
hension he gained of the spiritual life. Meetings were held with 
the children, a social gathering for the local congregation, and a 
joint communion season. It was altogether a model meeting of 
presbytery, a minimum of ecclesiastical routine and a maximum 
of uplifting spiritual conference on religious and missionary sub- 

In May, our able and accomplished consul-general, Charles M. 
Dickinson, of Constantinople, visited Syria and Palestine and 
presented an elaborate report to the government at Washington 
of the so-called SpafFordite colony in Jerusalem. Any persons 
desirous of knowing the facts with regard to that phase of relig- 
ious communism should consult the documents in the State 

Two somewhat remarkable Christian women passed away in 
the months of February and May, Mrs. Giles Montgomery, 
formerly of Central Turkey, and Mrs. Hannah Korany, a Syrian 
lady from Kefr Shima, near Beirut. Mrs. Montgomery came out 
with her husband in 1863 and laboured for thirty-five years in 
Marash and Adana. She was a woman of rare Christian char- 
acter, one of those bright, radiant spirits who make the Christian 
life so attractive. She had long struggled with that fell disease, 
consumption, and was the guest and patient of Dr. and Mrs. 
Graham, who felt it a benediction to have her in their home. It 
was touching to see a little Armenian girl laying white flowers on 
her grave she was baptized by Mr. Montgomery and narrowly 
gscaped beingj carried off by the Turl^s during the in^ssacr^s $ 

648 Marking Time 

came here to our seminary as a refuge- Mrs. Montgomery xvas 
a missionary of the American Board, which supported the Syrian 
Mission until 1870, and four former missionaries of that Board, 
Dr. W. W. Eddy, Dr. Daniel Bliss, Rev. W. Bird, and Rev. PL H. 
Jessup conducted the funeral services. 

Mrs. Korany was educated, as was her mother before her, in 
the Beirut Girls* Seminary, and, after teaching for a time, went 
with her husband to the Chicago World's Fair in 1893 and re- 
mained in America several years, engaged in the sale of Syrian 
fabrics and in lecturing on Syrian themes by invitation of a so- 
ciety of American ladies. The American climate prostrated her 
and she was obliged to flee to milder climes, struggling like Mrs. 
Montgomery with consumption. I met her at Cairo and Helouan 
in the winter of 1896-1897. Her mind seemed to grow brighter 
as her body grew weaker under the relentless progress of the dis- 
ease. She had fine conversational powers and wrote English 
with great facility and force. At length she returned to her 
home, six miles from Beirut, where a loving father and mother 
watched over her. But such is the dread of the Syrian people of 
this malady that no one would come near the house. No woman 
would do washing or baking or any service for the family. The 
American ladies, her former teachers, and Miss C. Thompson of 
the British Syrian Mission were frequent in their visits and I was 
greatly comforted to hear her words of faith and hope as I sat 
by her dying bed. 

She died May 6th, and the funeral was an impressive scene. It 
is the custom in Lebanon villages for the women to give them- 
selves up to fanatical grief, wailing, screaming, and often throw- 
ing themselves upon the body and trying to prevent its removal. 
But in this Christian home there was perfect silence, the mother, 
Im Selim, showing a Christian resignation and quiet self-control 
which filled the village women with astonishment It was an ob- 
ject-lesson which they will not soon forget. 

About that time a remarkable conversion took place in the 
Syrian Prot^st^nt College. A Jewish student, son of a prosper- 

Well-Meant Counsel 649 

ous Hebrew family, declared himself a Christian and began at 
once the most earnest and intense labours for the conversion of 
all his fellow students. He walked with them, talked with them, 
and prayed with them and spoke in the college prayer-meetings 
and in the church meetings in town. He was most fearless and 
resolute in trying to bring all around him to Christ. His friends 
were dismayed and his father threatened to disinherit him. He 
applied for baptism and communion in the Arabic Evangelical 
Church and a day was appointed to receive him. But he disap- 
peared suddenly we heard of him afterwards in Port Said and 
later as marching in the Salvation Army procession in London. 

I have known several similar cases of sudden religious enthu- 
siasm, great promise for usefulness, which have afterwards with- 
ered away, not Jhaving depth of root or stability. Yet this young 
man may have found his proper sphere in the Salvation Army. 

Our good secretary, Dr. Brown, was convinced that the mis- 
sionaries should do more itinerating work, and administered a 
gentle rebuke to the tendency among our number to yield to the 
claims of confining literary and educational work. As usual, the 
appeal wrought most powerfully upon those least able to respond 
to it. We all felt, even those of us tied down to one place by 
teaching and literary work, that more should be done to reach the 
outlying districts and to lead to a personal decision the hundreds 
of youths in our schools. One member of the mission, my good 
brother Samuel, of Sidon, was so wrought upon by the stirring 
appeal that he nearly sacrificed his life. He is never perfectly 
well, and hardly a week has passed in his thirty-five years of 
service in Syria but he has had turns of severe pain and prostra- 
tion. The mission removed him from the " horseback " station 
of Tripoli to Beirut in 1882 to relieve him from the wear and tear 
of long journeys in the interior. And he removed to Sidon to 
engage in quiet educational work and the management of the 
station treasury. But that appeal was like fire in his bones. The 
latter part of May, true to his centrifugal instincts, he rose from 
his bed, hired a horse, and with his boy riding a mule with the 

650 Marking Time 

bedding and a few cooking utensils, rode down the coast to Tyre 
and the next day to Bussah, east of Acre, wracked with head- 
ache. Preaching there and working among the crowds who 
gathered, he went on east over a frightful breakneck road to 
Dibl, where he had dreadful pains and sinking turns. Miles away 
from a doctor, he lay a whole day on the floor, faint, and rolling 
from pain and nausea, his host, a kind, elderly man, doing his best 
to help, but unable to relieve him. The next day he rode on 
horseback six hours to Tyre, almost falling from his saddle many 
times. On reaching Tyre, he could not walk to the Syrian pas- 
tor's house and fell prostrate. The next morning he rose at six 
and rode six and a half hours to Sidon. He now writes that he 
must " do more itinerating." He says the Cuban War reminds 
him of 1861-1862, when he was ill of typhoid fever at Drains- 
ville, and then went through McClellan's Potomac Campaign end- 
ing at Malvern Hills. And now like a veteran cavalry horse at 
pasture, the bugle call sets him all on fire. If it be true that some 
of the best of men need urging, others, as truly, need restraining. 
It is my experience that most missionaries work up to the full 
extent of their ability and opportunity. When men get " views " 
about sitting still to see the salvation of the Lord, they need stir- 
ring up. I was once told the following story of Mr. Moody : 
Young George Barnes, the Kentucky evangelist, whose words 
were burning and inspiring, fell into that trap. Mr. Moody left 
him in Chicago to carry on the work. On his return, he could 
not find George. After inquiry, he was told, " Oh, he has joined 
the little circle of ites, who are sitting down to await the com- 
ing of the Lord." Mr. Moody rushed to him and taking him by 
the collar, said, " George, out of this. The Lord calls you to go 
work in His vineyard. Out of this, or you are ruined." Mr. 
Moody was right. What became of George I do not know, but 
an able-bodied evangelist can make no greater mistake than " to 
sit down and wait " for something to turn up. 

At the request of Consul Ravendal I prepared in July the follow- 
ing statistics of the Americans, their schools and property in Syria : 

American Interests in Syria 651 

Number of Americans, old and young . . . 115 

Number of American schools 150 

Value of mission property in Beirut $410,000 

" " " " " Lebanon field . . 36,108 

" " " " " Sidon . . 73,535 

" " " " " Tripoli " . . 3^,875 

" " " " " Zahleh " . . 23,236 


The only purely American hospital is that of Dr. Ira Harris in 
Tripoli. Dr. Mary P. Eddy does clinical medical work and itin- 
erating camp work in different parts of Syria. 

The American medical professors in the Syrian Protestant Col- 
lege are the physicians of the German Hospital of the Knights of 
St. John in Beirut which treated the past year 545 in-door patients* 
11,816 polyclinic patients. 

A conference of Christian workers from all parts of the empire 
was held in Brummana, Mount Lebanon, August gth to I4th. 
The missionaries of different societies had long felt the need of 
such a conference to promote the spiritual life, fraternal coopera- 
tion, mutual help and counsel in our common work. A com- 
mittee was formed in Beirut with officers for correspondence and 
preliminary arrangements, and a circular letter was sent to all the 
missions in Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. 

The conference met in Brummana August 9, 1898, and was 
opened by Rev. Dr. George A. Ford, One hundred and ninety- 
six persons were present, of whom seventy-six were British, fifty- 
seven Americans, eight Germans, four Danes, twenty-three 
Syrians, eighteen not reported. 

Eleven Protestant denominations were represented: Church 
of England, Established Church of Scotland, Free Church of 
Scotland, American Presbyterian, Irish Presbyterian, Reformed 
Presbyterian, Congregational, Lutheran, Friends, Baptists, Meth- 

Thirty-four papers were read and about twenty-five addresses 

652 Marking Time 

given, besides remarks often of great interest offered by mem- 
bers of the conference. There was a half hour sunrise prayer- 
meeting every morning and a forty-five minutes' sunset service 
daily. The regular sessions were from 9 : 30 to 1 1 : 30 A. M., and 
from 2 : 30 to 4 P. M. 

Brummana, the place of this remarkable conference, is three 
hours 1 drive by carriage from Beirut on a spur of the Lebanon 
range, 2,500 feet above the sea, seeming to overhang the seashore 
and looking directly down upon Beirut, its fertile plain and 
harbour. It has in summer a clear sky (there is no rain for five 
months), beautiful forests of the Lebanon pine, several good hotels 
and many private boarding-houses. The grounds and buildings 
of the Friends' Mission were offered freely to the conference and 
many of the members were given free board. Some had rooms 
at the hotels and others encamped in the pine groves. 

The conference proved to be a blessing and a means of spirit- 
ual uplifting to all and it was agreed to hold another in 1901. 
One of the most interesting features was the presence of Miss C 
Shattuck of Urfa, who held her post alone during the awful mas- 
sacres of 1894-1895, when 8,000 were killed. She protected 
hundreds, gathered the widows and orphans, opened industrial 
work, until she had 1, 800 women at work making laces and em- 
broideries for the European markets. She brought affecting 
messages to the conference from nineteen of her widows and 
helpers, which brought tears to all eyes. 

After the conference I baptized in Beirut another convert from 
Islam, a young baker from a Lebanon village, who had been long 
in Beirut attending night school and working in a public oven. 
I afterwards baptized his younger brother. He is now working 
in a print mill in Rhode Island and is helping the younger brother 
in his education. 

During the summer I was closely confined with literary work 
for the weekly Neshrah and correcting proof sheets. 

The Syrian Protestant College had 375 pupils, a large increase 
on the previous year. 

Emperor William's Visit 653 

The statistics of the theological seminary show that sixty young 
men have been trained for the ministry in this mission. 

On the 9th of October, the Protestant Orphanage at Dar-es- 
Salam on the Sidon Industrial Farm was formally dedicated. It 
was the gift of Mrs. George Wood of New York who has placed 
the people of Syria and the missionary body under lasting obli- 
gations by her munificent gifts of buildings, land and endowment 

On the 5th of November, His Imperial Majesty, William III, Em- 
peror of Germany, with the Empress Augusta, reached Beirut from 
Haifa on the ship Hohenzollern. The city was decorated with 
triumphal arches, festoons, flags and greens, and the streets covered 
with sand. The whole population turned out to greet them. They 
did not land until the next day, Sunday, when they paid official 
visits, and visited the German Hospital of the Knights of St. 
John. A decoration was conferred upon Dr. Post, dean of the 
American College medical faculty. 

At night the villages of Lebanon were ablaze with bonfires. 
No potentate in modern times has had such a regal reception in 
Syria. He had already visited Jerusalem and dedicated the new 
German Protestant cathedral, delivering a sermon full of high 
evangelical sentiment ; had been to Bethlehem and Nazareth, and 
went from Beirut to Baalbec and Damascus. His journey had 
apparently a threefold object, religious, political, and commercial. 
His visit to Jerusalem was religious ; to Damascus, commercial ; 
to Constantinople, political. The promotion of German com- 
merce was no doubt a prime object. The Bagdad Railway, the 
opening of new markets for goods made in Germany, and secur- 
ing special privileges for German subjects in business and ar- 
chaeological concessions, were all direct or indirect proofs of the 
Kaiser's friendship for the Sultan. Politically, no European power 
can compare in influence at the Porte with Germany. 

Religiously, his simple gospel sermon in the German church 
in Jerusalem was a truly missionary work. It was copied into all 
the Arabic journals and read all over the land. In his outspoken, 

654 Marking Time 

evangelical sentiments, he witnessed for the great truths for which 
Martin Luther contended. 

In preparation for his coming, we prepared a life of Luther and 
an Arabic translation of his famous Theses with illustrations, and 
published it on the occasion of the emperor's arrival. The Turk- 
ish censors made no objection. We published an edition of it in 
gilt letters, which was presented to the emperor on his return 
from Damascus and Baalbec, through Dr. Schroeder, the German 

At the official banquet in Damascus, which was worthy of the 
days of Haroun el Raschid, the Sheikh Abdullah greeted the 
Kaiser in the name of His Imperial Majesty, Abdul Hamid II, 
the caliph of three hundred millions of Mohammedans. (The 
actual numbers, according to the latest statistics, are nearly 200,- 
000,000.) The Kaiser in reply quoted this number as if it were 
correct and since that time the Moslem journals, near and far* 
have quoted him as announcing that three hundred million Mos- 
lems look to the Sultan as caliph. 

There was one curious feature in the entertainment of the 
emperor. Jowwad Pasha, who was sent down as the Sultan's 
representative to oversee the welcome to the Kaiser, was not al- 
lowed to come near him. The Germans said that as this pasha 
was governor of Crete at the time of the massacre of Christians 
and foreign troops, the Kaiser would not even allow him to come 
into his presence. Jowwad Pasha, after the departure of the 
Kaiser, visited the college in Beirut and spent a long time in 
the observatory with Professor West, He greatly enjoyed the 
large twelve-inch refractor and the Brashear spectroscope. He 
said that he had translated books on astronomy and taught it but 
had never seen a good telescope before. 

Before leaving Damascus, the emperor placed a green wreath 
on the tomb of Saladin and promised to send one of bronze. 
Months afterwards, a German war-ship reached Beirut with high 
military officers, who went in state to Damascus and hung the 
beautiful bronze wreath on the marble tomb. Subsequently, a 
devout sheikh visited the tomb of Saladin, but stepped back in 

Saladin's Tomb 655 

horror, pointing to the wreath, which had on it the Maltese cross 
of the Knights of St. John. He said, " Take that cross away ! 
A Crusader's cross on the tomb of the Sultan Saladin ! God 
forbid ! " It was then removed and hung in a deep niche in the 
wall, facing the tomb, where it is greatly admired by tourists, but 
that cross costs the keeper of the place many moments of effort 
to explain its presence to the faithful. 

There is another story connected with that tomb. When Dr. 
Crawford discovered it in the early '6os, I was in Damascus, and 
he took me to see it. Up to that time it was virtually unknown, 
both to tourists and to the sheikhs of Damascus. Not long after, 
a Russian prince visited Damascus and the kavass of the Russian 
consul took him to see this tomb. At that time it was badly 
neglected, covered with dust, and the floor piled with rubbish. 
But the tomb itself was encased in an exquisitely carved walnut 
sarcophagus of delicate tracery with the name of Saladin in 
ornamental Arabic and the date. It was dusty and neglected 
and the prince very shrewdly said to the sheikh through his in* 
terpreter, " It is a shame to leave the tomb of so great a hero in 
a perishable wooden case. Give me permission and I will put in 
its place a beautiful polished marble tomb." The sheikh eagerly 
accepted. The prince's servants took away the old walnut case 
and boxed it carefully and shipped it to Russia where it is con- 
sidered a priceless treasure. The present marble tomb is beautiful, 
but the old was better. 

In Baalbec a memorial tablet was placed on the interior wall 
of the reputed Temple of the Sun commemorating the emperor's 
visit. But his visit will ever be memorable, not on account of that 
marble tablet, but from the fact that through his influence the 
German scholars at enormous expense cleared almost the entire 
temple area of the debris and rubbish of ages and brought to view 
the exact configuration of the interior, exposing the exquisite 
sculpture which had been before unknown. They identified the 
beautiful Temple of the Sun, so many of whose columns are 
standing, as the Temple of Bacchus, certainly not a very appro- 
priate place for the tablet of a Christian emperor. 

656 Marking Time 

There must be a divine plan and purpose in giving this Prot- 
estant emperor such an extraordinary hold on the confidence and 
enthusiasm of the whole Moslem population of Turkey from the 
Sultan down through all the ranks and grades of military and pivil 
officers to the common peasantry. 

In one sense, his visit has already had its effect It has dimin- 
ished sensibly the prestige and influence of France in Syria and 
Palestine. The emperor not only dedicated a Protestant Church 
in Jerusalem on the anniversary of Luther's Theses at Wittem- 
burg, October 31, 1517, but he has also taken all the German 
Catholic clergy, laymen, and institutions away from the French 
protectorate and put them under German control. French in- 
fluence here has been identified with the worst phases of Jesuit 
intrigue and anything that weakens it is a public benefit. In 
1906, the French government had almost ceased to aid the 
Roman Catholic orders in Syria owing to the open rupture be- 
tween France and the papal curia. 

During the entire period of the emperor's stay in Palestine 
and Syria, the sky was cloudless and the heat intense. On the 
plain of Caesarea south of Carmel fourteen horses of the cavalcade 
died of the heat. The whole country was dry and parched as not 
a drop of rain had fallen for six months. He sailed November 
1 2th and on the i6th the windows of heaven were opened, a pour- 
ing rain refreshed the land and the mountain summits were frosted 
with fresh snow. 

In December, Mrs. Gerald F. Dale, Jr., who had returned from 
America, entered the Beirut Girls' Boarding-School, owing to the 
absence of Miss Alice Barber who had been summoned to her 
home in Joliet by the infirmities of her aged parents. 

The most striking historical event in Syria in the year 1898 
was without question the visit of the Emperor and Empress of 
Germany and his address at the dedication in the German Prot- 
estant Church in Jerusalem. 

Religious Forces at Work 657 

Five great religious forces are now contending for religious 
supremacy in Syria and Palestine, the Jewish, the Mohammedan, 
the Papal, the Orthodox Greek, and the Protestant. 

1. THE MODERN JEWISH ELEMENT, backed by the Rothschild 
colonization scheme and the Zionist movement, is striving to buy 
land, to erect buildings, and gradually get control of the ancient 
land of Israel. It is antagonized by the Ottoman government 
and by the fellahin of the rural districts of Palestine, who regard 
this influx of foreign Jews as a menace to their own rights and 
privileges. In the vicinity of Jerash, east of the Jordan, where a 
small Jewish colony had been planted, the Moslem fellahin 
recently drove out the colonists, ruined their houses, and up- 
rooted their trees. The rabbis, embittered by the fiery persecu- 
tions against the Jews in Russia and other parts of Europe, are 
extremely hostile to Christianity in every form and continually 
issue their anathemas against Christian missions. The recent 
Jewish immigrants are under the protection of the countries from 
which they have come, but no one foreign power stands forth as 
their champion. 

2. THE MOHAMMEDANS, who constitute about one-half of the 
population of Syria and Palestine, enjoy the special favour and 
protection of the Sultan and regard themselves as the lords of the 
land. Where they are in the large majority, as in Damascus, they 
do not trouble themselves to persecute the Christians and Jews, 
but look down upon them with a feeling of haughty superiority. 
Where they are in the minority, as in Beirut, the lower classes are 
insolent and offensive in their attitude towards Christians and are 
often allowed to use personal violence with little fear of punish- 

There has been of late a great resuscitation of Mohammedan 
esprit de corps. Their newspapers report news from all parts of 
the Mohammedan world and urge a Pan-Islamic Alliance. Just 
now they are especially earnest in advocating the recovery of the 
Sudan from the false teaching of the Mahdi and his Khalifa 
Abdullah el Taaishy. They are trying to stir up the Moslem 
to OTulate the English in founding the Gordon College in 

658 Marking Time 

Khartoum, and found Moslem schools to save the poor Sudanese 
from being won to Christianity by the kindness and medical 
services of Christian medical missions. 

The Moslems are using the press and schools for boys and girls 
as a means of keeping abreast of the age. And it is a striking 
fact that since the British occupation of Egypt the Turkish 
government has obliged the newspapers everywhere to abuse the 
English and never allow an article in praise of their just and suc- 
cessful administration of the affairs of Egypt Up to 1878, the 
Turkish journalists could not say enough in praise of the English 
Since 1882 all is changed, and within the past few years all their 
love and sympathy has been transferred to Germany whose 
emperor was silent and sympathetic in 1896, when Armenian 
massacres were horrifying the world ; active and auxiliary in 1897, 
during the Greek War, and most demonstrative and effusive in 
1898 during his visit to this empire. 

The Mohammedan official and unofficial journals have ex- 
hausted a vast vocabulary of adulation, for which the Arabic lan- 
guage is so famous, in praising the friend and ally of His Imperial 
Majesty the Sultan and they love to descant upon the magnificent 
German army and the rapidly growing navy. There must be a 
divine purpose in all this and we will speak of it before closing 
this chapter. 

It is sometimes said that Islam has ceased to be aggressive in 
Turkey and is in a state of stagnation. This is not true. Not 
less than eighteen emirs of the princely family of Shehab in 
Mount Lebanon who have been Maronites and Greek Catholics 
for about one hundred years, have recently become Moslems and 
have been appointed to lucrative posts in the Turkish civil service. 
They were originally Moslems of the family of Koreish and the 
Turks are straining every nerve to bring them back to the fold 
of the prophet of Mecca, and we hear from various places of Ori- 
ental Christians won over to Islam by bribery and favouritism, 
while all Moslems becoming Christians are obliged to suffer 
persecution and generally to leav$ th country to save their 

Aggressiveness of Papal Agencies 659 

3. THE PAPAL FORCES in this land are numerous, organized, and 
intensely aggressive. The Maronites of Lebanon are equal to 
the peasantry of Spain in their subjection to the priesthood and 
in ignorance and fanatical hostility to the Bible and the Prot- 
estant faith. The Jesuits and papal nuncio lead the van, fol- 
lowed by a host of patriarchs, bishops, priests, monks, and nuns. 
They glory in the protection of France, and the French consul- 
general is open and untiring in encouraging the papal campaign 
of conquest of the Holy Land. France expels the Jesuits from 
France and expends millions of francs yearly in supporting them 
as political agents, educators, and intriguers in Turkey. What- 
ever may be the strength of the Russo-French Alliance in 
France, it does not exist nor appear in these lands. It is Latin 
against Greek, French priests and nuns against Russian priests 
and nuns, jealousy and bitter ecclesiastical hatred. The Latins 
have exhaustless supplies of money, men, and women. They are 
buying land and erecting buildings in all the towns and many of 
the small villages throughout the land. Beirut is full of their fine 
establishments. One of their zealous propagandists remarked 
that they had orders to open schools in every place where Prot- 
estants are at work and if possible on land adjoining Protestant 
schools. They are following up the Greek schools in the same 

France is their idol. On France they lean for protection and 
every blow aimed at France is felt to be aimed at Rome and the 
Church. Some of the Syrian Romanists are getting their eyes 
partly opened. One of their leading merchants in Beirut re- 
cently asked their bishop, " Why is it that Catholic countries are 
everywhere declining and Protestant countries rising in power ? 
Why are Spain, France, Portugal, and Italy going down and 
England, Germany, and America really ruling the world?" 
The bishop replied, " It is true, but I do not understand the 
reason. 1 ' 

4. THE ORTHODOX GREEK element in these lands is like the 
conies, " a feeble folk." They are divided into three parties, the 
native Syrian Greeks ^ who are the rank an4 fil of the Church ; 

660 Marking Time 

the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre > an Hellenic foreign Greek 
party of immense wealth in Jerusalem, enjoying the special fa- 
vour of the Turks and engaged in constant intrigues to control 
the patriarchates and bishoprics ; and thirdly, the Russian party 
backed by holy Russia, supported by its consuls and just now 
intensely active in resisting the aggressions of the Papists and 
Protestants on the Greek Church constituency. 

The Russians have entered in earnest upon the work of saving 
the Greek Church in Syria and Palestine from disintegration. 
They have opened schools within a few years and are pushing this 
work on every hand. It is a saving feature in their work that 
they are introducing the Arabic Scriptures published at the 
American Press into all their schools. 

They antagonize the monks of the Brotherhood of the Holy 
Sepulchre and aim at securing Syrian bishops and patriarchs over 
the churches instead of the Hellenic monks. 

The conflict is now waging in Damascus between the patriotic 
Greek bishops and the Hellenic party in trying to elect a patri- 
arch. They have been in session nearly a year without coming 
to an election. The Russians support the native Greek bishops ; 
and the Hellenes, through their influence and money power in 
Constantinople, are opposing them, as every Christian bishop's 
election must be ratified by the Sublime Porte. 

It is a humiliating and painful spectacle and a scandal that the 
Mohammedan Turks should control the election of a Christian 

In Palestine itself the Russians are active in buying land and 
erecting buildings and mingling political and religious considera- 
tions in all their operations, striving first of all to thwart the 
schemes and projects of Rome and of France, the tool of Rome in 
the East. 

5. PROTESTANTISM in Syria and Palestine is represented by the 
American, English, Scotch, Irish, and German Missions, by a 
native evangelical community of nearly ten thousand adherents. 

In former years, England stood forth as the great protector of 
Protestantism au4 of religious liberty. The word of a British 

Status of Protestantism 661 

consul made pashas tremble, and the persecuted looked to Eng- 
land for relief. This state of things still continues to some 
extent but consular interference is generally officious and not 

Protestantism has become an established and recognized ele- 
ment in the empire and does not ordinarily suffer greater disa- 
bilities than the other Oriental sects. 

The change of attitude on the part of the Turks towards Eng- 
land naturally threw a shadow over the Protestants all over the 
empire who are supposed to be in sympathy with England. But 
the most important Protestant literary institutions in the empire, 
being American, have kept steadily on their way, growing in 
number and influence, and there are more children and youths 
in Protestant schools than ever before. In some places the free 
tuition and books supplied by Jesuits or Russians have enticed 
children away from the Protestant schools but the more thorough 
teaching given generally brings them back again. 

The Syrian Protestant College in Beirut has increased so rap- 
idly in numbers that new buildings are imperatively needed. It 
has three hundred and seventy students in its halls this year, of 
whom seventy are in medicine and pharmacy, one hundred and 
four in the collegiate department, and one hundred and ninety- 
six in 'the preparatory department. It ought to have at once 
new buildings to accommodate two hundred additional pupils. 
Its language is English and the people of Asia Minor and Egypt, 
as well as those of Syria and Palestine, appreciate the importance 
of a thorough English education for their sons and the demand 
will increase in years to come. 

It is not my purpose to give statistics with regard to the other 
societies labouring in Syria but they are all encouraged by the 
growing interest of the people in Protestant education. And 
their willingness to pay is a good proof of substantial interest. 
In the first year of the college there were sixteen pupils, all 
charity pupils. This year the college receipts from the students 
were ^3,700. This is a remarkable fact and full of encourage- 
ment. But this brief summary of the status of the five religious 

662 Marking Time 

forces at work in Syria and Palestine would be incomplete with- 
out reference to the British Syrian Schools with fifty schools and 
four thousand pupils, Miss Taylor's school for Moslem and Druse 
girls, schools of the Church of Scotland, and the Free Church ; 
of the Friends in Brummana, Miss Procter in Shwifat, of the 
Church Missionary Society in Palestine, the London Jews' Society, 
and lastly the extensive work carried on by the Germans in 
Beirut, Haifa, Jaffa, Jerusalem and Bethlehem, in hospitals, orphan- 
ages, boarding-schools, and industrial schools, as well as in their 
chapels for German colonists, they are doing a solid work for the 
sound training of the people, and the exhibition of the Spirit of 
the Master. 

With all these religious forces and elements in view, the ques- 
tion is asked, What has been the effect of the German emperor's 
visit on the public mind? 

1. It has brought Protestantism to the front and given it dig- 
nity in the eye of the Mohammedans, who look upon the em- 
peror as the great exponent of the Protestant faith. 

2. It has dealt a crushing blow to the French prestige in all 
this empire. Even among the French Catholics, Germany is 
praised on account of the liberal spirit shown by the emperor in 
buying and presenting a plot of ground in Jerusalem to the Ger- 
man Catholics and pledging the protection of Germany to all 
German Catholic subjects in the East. 

3. It has no doubt drawn out the sympathy of the Turkish 
government, the army, and the common people towards a great 
Protestant power. With all due respect to the emperor, we can- 
not but feel that he made a mistake in his speech in Damascus. 
The Moslem sheikh who welcomed him spoke of the three 
hundred millions of Mohammedans in the world. The emperor 
in reply declared himself the friend of all these three hundred 
millions. As the most exact statistics make the highest estimate 
less than two hundred millions, it was a great mistake to echo 
the grandiloquent utterance of the sheikh and thus give sanction 
to a statement which has puffed up the Moslems to a new sense 
of their own importance in the world, I sent to the Beirut censor 

God's Use of Kings and Princes 663 

of the press an exact table of the census of Islam In the empires of 
the world (taken from the Missionary Review) with reference 
to publishing it in our Arabic journal and he prohibited the pub- 
lication as it was not in accord with the emperor's Damascus 

Whether the Mohammedan regard for the emperor will help 
Protestantism does not appear. It will certainly give the Ger- 
man ambassador at Constantinople and their consuls throughout 
the empire a mighty influence for good in insisting on liberty of 
conscience for all the people. 

And who knows but that the emperor has come to the throne 
for some great and good end in this empire ? His influence is 
now unequalled. German commerce will thrive more than ever, 
and if the new hopes of near approach between England, Ger- 
many, and the United States are realized, we may yet see Teu- 
tonic and Anglo-Saxon influence displacing and effacing French 
and Russian influence throughout the land. 

We do not put our trust in princes, but our God and King can 
use them as His own servants to accomplish His will on earth. 

A New Century Dawns (1899-1900) 

THIS year was crowded with hard work, interesting events, 
laborious correspondence, and sad experience in the 
death of many native friends and one missionary lady* 
Mrs. Shaw, of typhoid fever. 

Our plan of making the theological class a summer school 
precluded our having a summer vacation, as I had to teach in 
Suk el Gharb, two miles from my summer home, for six months, 
driving over daily, and at the same time keeping up editorial 
work for the Beirut Press and a heavy correspondence. I have 
copies of five hundred pages of letters, English and Arabic, 
written in that six months. 

Sir William Muir kept up regular communication with me 
about printing his book, " Call to the Moslems to Read the 
Bible," and a new book by the author of the Bakurah," entitled 
" The Torch of Guidance/' or, " Masbah-ul-Huda." This latter 
work Sir William translated and printed in English in London. 
In our correspondence, we were agreed as to the unseemly mis- 
carriage of the Gordon Memorial Fund of ; 100,000 raised in 
England to found a Gordon University in Khartoum. The 
British authorities in Egypt saw fit to found with this fund a 
purely Mohammedan university from which all allusion to Christ 
and Christianity should be excluded. The Christian people of 
England and other places who gave this money never dreamed 
that it would be used to rear a barrier against the Bible and 
Christianity, and to teach the Sudanese that the Christian English 
are ashamed of their faith ; that it would be open for work on 
Sunday and all teachers forced to labour on that day ; and that 
no Christian boy could enter it unless he would study the Koran, 


The Gordon Memorial Blunder 665 

Had this policy been honestly announced before the fund had 
been raised, probably the great part of it would have been with- 
held. When the news was first printed, the Moslems of Syria 
exclaimed, " If the Christian English will give such a sum for a 
school in Khartoum, we Moslems should give as much to found 
a Moslem school there." They took it for granted that it would 
be a Christian school, for Gordon's high Christian character was 
known everywhere among the Moslems, and they respected him 
for it, as they do not believe in a man who has no religion. 
Great, then, was their surprise when they learned that it was to 
be a mere Moslem " Medriseh." The whole policy of the British 
rulers of Egypt with regard to Christianity is simply shameful. 
They ignore the Christian Sunday. All employees of the gov- 
ernment, Moslem, Christian, and Jew, must work on Sunday, 
Hundreds of our Christian young men who have gone from 
Syria to Egypt and found employment and high salary under the 
government, are forced to work on Sunday and given a holiday 
on Friday, the Moslem holy day. Thus compelled by Christian 
Englishmen to break the fourth commandment, it would not be 
strange if they should break the eighth commandment. The 
Hon. William E. Dodge sold out all his stock in the New Jersey 
Central Railroad because it would run its trains on Sunday. He 
told the directors, " If you teach your employees to break one 
commandment, do not wonder if they break another and rob 
your treasury." 

Had the English in the outset given all Christian employees 
the option of working on Sunday or Friday they would have 
been respected by all. As it is, the Moslems are beginning to 
say, " After all, the English have no religion. They violate their 
own sacred law because they are afraid of us and want to win our 

Instead of gaining the respect and favour of the Moslem popu- 
lation they have gained their contempt. The Moslems despise a 
Jew who opens his shop on Saturday and a Christian who opens 
his on Sunday. 

The Gordon College should have two departments made op- 

666 A New Century Dawns 

tional to all, one with Christian teachers and one with Moslem 
teachers. This would have been regarded as fair and honourable, 
and no one would have complained. As it is, Christianity, the 
religion of General Gordon and the millions of English people, is 
ignored in the Sudan and Egypt, and the Christian sacred day 
of rest is shamefully dishonoured. English prestige has lost and 
not gained by this truckling to imaginary lions in the way, this 
denying their own faith, this ignoring what has made England 
great and honoured among the nations. No Englishman knew 
the Moslem mind both in India, Arabia, and Egypt better than 
Sir William Mtiir. He knew their Koran, their sacred books and 
commentaries and all their history. He had governed millions 
of them in India ; he had among their eminent Ulema and schol- 
ars many personal friends, and he loved the Moslem people and 
laboured to lead them to Christ their Saviour. But he felt that 
the true policy of England is to obey the laws of Christianity and 
act according to its own professions. To give up one's own prin- 
ciples to win favour of others is a suicidal policy. It cannot be 
that the blessing of God will crown this present Sabbath-breaking 
and Bible-ignoring policy of England in Egypt and the Sudan. 
It was adopted to win favour and tide over a crisis. It has won 
no one and has forced a worse crisis and every month's delay 
makes it more and more difficult to return to an honest Christian 
course. Could Sir William Muir have been consulted, and had 
he been younger and been given the Sirdarship of the Sudan, 
Christianity would not have been, as it is, trailing its skirts in sor- 
row in the dust. Let us hope that a change will be made ere it 
be too late. 

On the 26th of February, a novel event occurred in Beirut 
The Orthodox Greek Committee of St. John's Hospital unveiled a 
white marble bust of an American missionary, Rev. Cornelius 
V. A. Van Dyck, M. D., D. D., L. H. D. 

After Dr. Van Dyck's resignation of his professorship in the 
Syrian Protestant College, he could no longer, according to the 
rules of the Knights of St. John, attend the clinics of the German 

The Van Dyck Memorial 667 

St. John's Hospital. But his heart was in medical work, as it was 
in Arabic Bible translation, and he offered his services to the 
Greek hospital which was sorely in need of his aid. And al- 
though his house was nearly two miles from that hospital, he 
drove there several times a week in a carriage sent by the hos- 
pital, and for years treated the sick and diseased, and from his 
own private funds built an airy ward to increase the capacity of 
the hospital The Greek community, which fully appreciated 
his long, faithful and self-denying services, prepared this beautiful 
bust which stands in the open area of the quadrangle and was 
unveiled with imposing ceremonies. It was made of Carrara 
marble by an Italian sculptor. A great crowd of people was 
present, Greeks, Protestants, Mohammedans, Maronites, and 
Jews, and some very eloquent and beautiful addresses were made 
by Syrian scholars and physicians expressing their admiration of 
their friend, teacher, and benefactor. 

Mr. William T. Stead of London has recently visited Con- 
stantinople with his eyes and ears open. He made a study of 
Robert College and all the American colleges, seminaries and 
schools in the empire and wrote to the Associated Press a letter 
which naturally made a sensation. He was shrewd enough to 
see the moral and intellectual benefits of this great system of 
Christian institutions and their uplifting influence among the 
varied population. But as a politician he looked through a 
politician's eyes at all this and saw in it a propagation of Free 
Republican ideas* But he did not know that the American mis- 
sionaries studiously avoid politics, living as they do under an ab- 
solute monarchy and that they pray for the Sultan and the 
" powers that be " that " are ordained of God," and enjoin obe- 
dience to the laws of the land. Such letters as that of Mr. Stead 
do no good to the work of Christian missionaries who are labour- 
ing for the spiritual welfare of the people and have no political 

1 A change has come over Turkey in 1908-1909. No one will now 
fear to claim that American schools have had great influence in bringing 
about the new era of liberty in Turkey. 

668 A New Century Dawns 

object whatever, and, however well meant, they utterly misrepre- 
sent the real spiritual and moral aims of the whole body of mis- 
sionaries and stir up official hostility. Fortunately the great body 
of the educated Turkish officials appreciate the good which has 
been done and not only favour the American schools but are glad 
to send their own children to them for education. 

It is not often that a foreign missionary feels impelled to warn 
young Christian medical graduates against joining a medical mis- 
sion. But a letter just received from Kingston, Canada, obliges 
me to speak out. 

A young final-year student in medicine at Queen's Medical 
College, Kingston, Ontario, writes me, under date of January nth, 

that he and two other students have been invited by Dr. E , 

" president of the White Cross Medical Missionary Alliance," to 
go with him as medical practitioners to Palestine, their fare to 
Palestine being paid by the Alliance ; a complete outfit to be 
given them for going into the field of medical work, on arrival at 
Jericho, the headquarters of the mission ; a location for practice 
to be provided ; a guarantee of plenty of work, for which they 
must accept pay in cash in all cases where patients can afford it, 
and otherwise accept labour, produce, various articles, etc. Dr. 

E also guaranteed $25 a month, and says that no doctor 

of those already in the work has yet made less than $75 a month. 
In return for these privileges, the young men are to agree to re- 
main with the organization for two years, to give twenty-five per 
cent, of their earnings to the society for that period, and to be 
subject to the Turkish government. 

The young student asks whether the work will be fully as re- 
munerative as Dr. E promises, and whether there is any 

danger of their being left in the lurch among a wild people. He 
explains that they have not been asked to go as missionaries in 
the true sense of the word. " Our only missionary work is to 
treat all who need it, on the above terms." He also adds that 
the doctor is taking with him twenty-five young graduates in 
medicine, and that the treasurer is Count C of Brooklyn, 

A Quixotic Scheme 669 

N. Y. The writer also says that his family friends wish some 

guarantee of the correctness of Dr. E 's statements and also 

proof of the financial backing and the surplus funds of the society. 

I have no knowledge of Dr. E or of the treasurer Count 

(who had evidently begun to count his chickens before they were 
hatched) but I know something of Jericho and the surrounding 
country, and therefore wrote the ingenuous medical student, dis- 
suading him and all other medical students from entering on such 
an extraordinary undertaking. It is difficult to be patient with 
such a Quixotic scheme. Of all the spots on the face of the 
earth, Jericho would be the last one to be chosen as the head- 
quarters of a paying medical mission. I have written to this 
young man : 

" i. Jericho is the lowest village on earth, being nearly 1,300 
feet below the level of the sea, and as low morally as It is physic- 

" 2. It is about the hottest place, has a pestilential climate, 
and from May to November is practically uninhabitable by white 

" 3. The entire population, according to Baedeker, is not more 
than 300, and, if they were equal to the peasants of Syria, could 
not support a single medical man. 

" 4. These Arabs of Jericho are of the lowest, most vacant and 
worthless type, a byword and a proverb in the whole land. 
They are thievish, lying, filthy, and morally degraded, poor, beg- 
garly, and abject, lazy and half naked. Their highest aim is to 
dance around the tents of pilgrims and tourists and beg for a re- 

" 5. There are two or three small hotels, used only in the tourist 
season, but the huts of the wild Arabs are abject and filthy. It 
is doubtful whether the entire population could raise five dollars 
in cash. 

" 6. As to the population accessible from Jericho and available 
to furnish paying patients, the Bedawin of the Ghor, or Jordan 
Valley, on the north ; of the mountains of Moab on the southeast, 
and of the wilderness south of the Dead Sea are poor, predatory p 

670 A New Century Dawns 

and uncertain. These tribes are wild, migratory, living in black 
goafs hair tents. They are all experienced robbers and cut- 
throats. The Ghor Arabs yield to none in thievishness and 
rascality. To the west, it is eighteen miles to Jerusalem through 
a waste, howling wilderness, where it is never safe for a man to 
travel alone. 

" 7. As the object of the mission is to charge fees for medical 
practice and gain from twenty-five to seventy-five dollars a month 
for each doctor, it must be borne in mind that Jerusalem, 
Bethlehem, Jaffa, Gaza, Nablus, Haifa, Nazareth, Tiberias, and 
Safed are already supplied with a large number of foreign medical 
missionaries, many of whom are forbidden to take fees, so that 
independent medical practitioners cannot earn their bread. 
Graduates from our medical college in Beirut find it next to im- 
possible to earn a living in Palestine, as the people will not pay 
for what they can get for nothing. 

" 8. The proposition to send twenty-five or ten or five or even 
one medical missionary to Jericho as headquarters of a mission, 
which is to be supported by fees, strikes our medical men here as 

"9. If any of your medical friends do actually decide to 
establish a ' White Cross Mission ' in Jericho, they would do 
well to provide themselves beforehand with coffins, as wood is not 
obtainable there, and they would hardly wish to be buried in the 
Bedawin style, and I take it for granted that they would succumb 
to the first summer heat and malarial poison. 

" 10. Missions are generally established where there are men, 
at great centres of population, or where large numbers are acces- 
sible, but this is the first society to my knowledge to propose 
work in a ' howling wilderness/ 

" What Dr. E proposes to do with twenty-five medical 

graduates I cannot imagine. The Turkish government will not 
allow Europeans to live among the Bedawin, as they suspect 
them of being military agents, fomenting rebellion against the 
government. And the Bedawin are virtually the only people 

Tarry at Home Not at Jericho 671 

" It is incredible to me that the * floater ' of this scheme should 
propose it, if he has actually been in Jericho. 

" As a friend and as an American, not to say as a Christian, I 
would warn you against involving yourself in such an undertak- 
ing. It could only end in disaster. 

" There are hundreds of cities in China where the people swarm 
in thousands and hundreds of thousands, and you would have 
more actual medical practice in a week than you would have in 
five years in desolate Jericho. 

" When King David sent his servants across the Jordan on a 
kindly errand, and the suspicious Hanan shaved off one-half of 
their beards, David sent word to them, ' Tarry at Jericho until 
your beards are grown/ I would recommend these young men 
to tarry in the United States until their beards are grown, or, at 
least, until some better field of labour is opened to them. When 
you can find men by the hundred thousand in other lands, 
why go to such a deserted spot as Jericho or even to Palestine, 
which is already overstocked with medical practitioners ? " 

I never received an answer to this letter and I never met Dr. 

E , but in 1903 I was informed that a man with his name 

was lecturing in Northern Pennsylvania on his adventures in the 
Holy Land. 

February I4th I baptized a beautiful Druse maiden of a high 
Lebanon family, who had been ten years under instruction in 
Miss Jessie Taylor's school in Beirut. She gave the best evidence 
of a work of grace in her heart and intelligently took a bold 
stand for Christ 

The last week of the year I attended the funeral of another 
Druse girl, Dhiya el Kadi, of a once eminent family in Lebanon, 
whose father and grandfather were warm friends and pupils of 
Dr. Van Dyck. This delicate girl, a victim of consumption, 
lingered for weeks in growing infirmity and was visited by Eng- 
lish and American ladies and Syrian Bible-women. Her whole 
conversation was of the love of Christ. She always asked me to 

672 A New Century Dawns 

pray with her. The father, who loved her tenderly, watched her 
ebbing strength with great agony. Her last words were those of 
trust in Christ and seeing Him as her Saviour. After her death 
the Druse sheikhs crowded into the house. The father sent for 
me to conduct the funeral The Druses claimed the right to 
bury her. I told them it could make no difference to her who 
buried her. I then read the Scriptures, made some remarks, and 
offered prayer. The crowd were silent and reverent, and they 
bore the frail body away to their burial-ground on the summit of 
the sand-dunes west of the city. 

Two sudden deaths in the college from the use of firearms 
made a deep and sad impression on the community. Tutor John 
Mitchell, while cleaning a revolver, accidentally shot himself 
through the head (in October). The investigation instituted 
by Consul Ravendal proved this to be the case. 

A student from Jerusalem, who had been greatly depressed 
and had written bitter things against himself, obtained a revolver, 
and in a fit of temporary mental disorder, took his own life. 

As a contrast to this latter, we were called to conduct the 
funeral of one of the Lord's Syrian saints, Mrs. Lulu Araman, 
widow of Mr. Michaiel Araman, She was a pupil of the first 
girls' school in Syria, under Mrs. De Forest, from 1848 to 1852, 
and was one of the original eighteen members of the first evan- 
gelical church, founded in Syria in 1848. She laboured in the 
Beirut Girls' Boarding-School from 1861 to 1869. She was truly 
a mother in Israel, amiable, calm, trustful, and faithful in training 
her children. Her home was a beautiful testimony to the value 
of Christian education and her daughters follow her lovely 
Christian example in their well ordered households. The Lord 
raise up many such daughters of Syria to take her place, 

Dr. Thomson, so long identified with the Syria Mission and 
famous for his great work, " The Land and the Book," used to 
quote the saying of old Yusef el Malty, a Maltese ship-chandler 

Patience Rewarded 673 

of early days in Beirut. Turkish officials had kept Dr. Thomson 
waiting for hours at the port and then disappeared, leaving word 
for Dr. Thomson to come the next day. Old Yusef said, " Doc- 
tor, this is a plenty patience country." So Dr. Daniel Bliss has 
found it. In 1870, after the college premises had been bought, a 
Moslem neighbour who owned a fig orchard within the college 
plot refused to sell. His family begged him to sell and move 
away from the neighbourhood of the great crowd of students but 
he would not yield. The college waited and waited, until, after 
twenty-nine years of patience, the heirs sold the fig orchard, the 
old walls were demolished and the college line straightened along 
the street 

In like manner, I waited eighteen years to secure the Misk 
property which was bought in 1905. It adjoined and overlooked 
our church, Sunday-school, and girls' seminary. Colonel Shepard 
gave the money to buy it. We had to wait eighteen years and 
then our patience was rewarded. 

Our good secretaries at home sometimes ask more questions in 
a letter than we can answer in a dozen letters. Dr. Brown asks, 
" Are you not sacrificing evangelistic for institutional work? " I 
tried to reply : 

1. That missionary institutions are the press, the theological 
seminary, translation of the Scriptures and good books, the prep- 
aration of commentaries, etc,, the boys' and girls' boarding- 
schools, and hospital work. 

2. The evangelistic work is regular preaching in the churches 
and itinerating among the villages, distributing tracts, holding re- 
ligious meetings, and personal work for individuals. 

3. In Syria, we have four stations, Beirut, Lebanon and 
Bookaa, Sidon, and Tripoli. There are twelve ordained mission- 
aries, one physician, one lay teacher, and one lay press manager, 
and one Free Church of Scotland missionary teacher and doctor. 
Five out of the twelve ordained missionaries are free-lances, 
horseback missionaries, constantly moving about the fields of 
Sidon, Lebanon, and Tripoli. Three are tied up in the work of 

674 A New Century Dawns 

theological instruction in Beirut, doing also constant literary work 
in the press. Four are confined the most of the year in the 
boarding-schools in Sidon, Suk el Gharb, and Tripoli. The 
medical missionary, Dr. Harris, divides his time between hospital 
work in Tripoli and itinerating work in the interior. And with 
regard to those engaged in theological instruction, they are in a 
truly evangelical work. The training of native preachers is of 
vital importance and is the hope of the future Syrian church. 
The boarding-schools are the nurseries of the church and the 
effect wrought in moulding character and building up the 
Christian life by one year's continuous instruction in a boarding- 
school is worth more than five years 1 transient visits to scattered 
groups in the villages. 

The real evangelistic work of the future is to be done by 
native evangelists and these can only be fitted for their work by 
large and systematic Bible study. One such preacher as Mr. 
Yusef Aatiyeh, now preaching in the Beirut church, is worth 
years of our time in training him. He has no peer as an Arabic 
preacher. Dr. Brown suggested that Dr. W. W. Eddy was leav- 
ing evangelistic work to enter upon the " institutional." But in 
fact, Dr. Eddy was giving six hours a day to the preparation of a 
commentary on the New Testament for which the native 
preachers and people of Syria have been waiting for years, and 
which will be a blessing to the Arabic reading races through all 
time. And in addition, he has a regular Arabic preaching ap- 

Teaching the Bible is evangelistic work. Translating, editing, 
and training theological students are only different forms of evan- 
gelistic work. And as the missions grow older and one thing 
after the other is handed over to the natives, the foreign mission- 
aries, with their long experience and thorough training, will more 
and more confine themselves to the training of a native ministry 
and preparing helps for their work. 

There is a charm in the name " evangelistic " work, but there 
is just as great a charm in the same work done in the same spirit 
and by the same persons under a different name, Let us not say 

Keeping in Touch With the Field Work 675 

" institutional versus evangelistic work," but, " the institutional 
for the sake of the evangelistic work." 

Then came another momentous question. We had written 
urging Dr. Brown to visit the Syria Mission and by personal con- 
ference aid in deciding the question he had raised as to our tele- 
scoping our four boys' boarding-schools into one and our three 
girls' boarding-schools into one or two. It was intimated from our 
transatlantic friends that secretarial deputations are expensive and 
should only be resorted to in case of pressing necessity. Where- 
upon I was moved to write a somewhat prolix defense of such 
visits, under the following heads : 

1. The secretary needs such a visit for his own information. 
No commander of an army can conduct a campaign ten thousand 
miles away by post and telegraph. . . . Secretaries need the 
information which comes through the eye and ear. Seeing is be- 
lieving, and so is hearing. 

2. The secretary should know the missionaries personally. 
Few missionaries can make the personal acquaintance of the 
secretary when home on furlough. The missionary may get a 
snap-shot at a secretary at the mission house in the whirl of busi- 
ness or meet him on the platform, but the secretary has little 
more leisure than a Constantinople porter would have to salute a 
friend while tottering under a five-hundred pound bale of mer- 

3. It is impossible to grasp the great problems on the field 
without personal observation. 

4. Such a visit would lighten the work at home and enable 
the secretary to decide intelligently and act promptly, when other- 
wise he must await lengthened and unsatisfactory correspond- 

5. The missions need it. Our missions are self-governing and 
justly so. But they need the personal counsel of men familiar 
with other missions in other lands. The Board is responsible to 
the churches for the right conduct of the missions and responsi- 
bility involves control, and control cannot be wisely directed 

676 A New Century Dawns 

without that personal knowledge which comes from personal in- 

6. It is not to be supposed that a pastor at home called to the 
secretaryship, however much he may have studied foreign mis- 
sions, can grasp all the questions connected with Asiatic and 
African missions without a visit to the field. 

7. The expense should not deter the Board from so important 
a service. The enhanced value of a secretary, sent out on such a 
tour, would more than compensate for the expense. 

About thirty years ago, Professors Park of Andover and Hitch- 
cock and H. B. Smith of Union Seminary visited us in Syria. 
They all agreed, as the result of their tour of Palestine, that the 
best possible post-graduate course for a student of the Book was 
a visit to the land of the Bible. And we may say that the best 
possible preparation for efficient work in the office of a secretary 
at home is a thorough visitation of the mission fields. 

The Syria Mission was visited by Dr. R. Anderson, of the 
A. B. C. F. M., in March, 1844 and September 24, 1855; by 
Dr. N. G. Clark in 1871 ; Dr. F. F. Ellinwood of the Presbyterian 
Board in February, 1875 ; Dr. Arthur Mitchell in March 24, 
1890; and Dr. A. J. Brown in April, 1902. 

In the spring and summer of this year, after extended cor- 
respondence, the Foreign Missions Committee of the Free Church 
of Scotland deeded in fee simple, or rather in " wukf " simple, the 
entire property of that church in Shweir, Mount Lebanon, to the 
Board of Foreign Missions of the American Presbyterian Church. 
" Wukf " is the entail of property for religious or benevolent 
purposes, and the income of wukf property cannot be alienated. 
The deed of transfer of that property, consisting of manse, 
church, and boys' and girls' school buildings, is a curiosity. No 
Philadelphia lawyer could tie up property more exhaustively 
than has been done in this case. 

i. Dr. W. Carslaw purchased the property. 

Wukf Or Religious Entail 677 

2. He entailed it as wukf or religious foundation to Mr. Mitry 
Sulleeba as agent of the Free Church of Scotland. 

3. The said Free Church agreed to spend the income of the 
property in keeping it in good repair. 

4. If any of the said income remains, it goes to the Free 
Church to use what is necessary to promote its own interests. 

5. After that, it goes to the poor, male and female, of the 
said church. 

6. After them, to the poor of the Protestant Church of 

7. After them, to the poor of the Protestants in Lebanon. 

8. After these, to the Protestant poor in all the world. 

9. If all these perish, then to the poor generally of all the 
world, and then he shall have the oversight who shall be ap- 
pointed by the spiritual head of all the world ! 

Now as to the management of this wukf property, Dr. Carslaw, 
when deeding it to the Presbyterian Board, kept to himself its 
management while he is in his present position as missionary of 
the said Free Church. 

The deed of transfer contains among other things the follow- 
ing : 

" 2. Wukf and dedicated, true and legal, which shall not be 
sold nor granted nor mortgaged, neither in whole nor in part 
but shall remain intact upon its foundations, flowing in its course, 
guarded according to the following conditions, mentioned in it, 
forever and ever, and forever, until God shall inherit the earth 
and all that is upon it, and He is the best of inheritors. 

" 3. He (Dr. Cafslaw) wakkafed this to the Board of Foreign 
Missions of the Presbyterian Church, well known and testified 
of, whose centre is 156 Fifth Avenue in the City of New York 
in the United States of America, for the purposes of this Board in 
preaching and teaching and works of mercy to the poor as long 
as God wills. 

" 4. After the passing away of this Board, this wukf shall re- 
vert to the Board which takes its place and assumes its functions 
and when this new Board fails in its oversight and functions, the 

678 A New Century Dawns 

wukf shall revert to the Protestant poor of Shweir, as stated in 
Nos. i to 9 above." 

Fortunately, another clause states that "This wukf may be 
exchanged in whole or in part when necessary for what shall be 
of greater value to the wukf." 

Dr. Carslaw still continues to engage in medical work, preach- 
ing and teaching in the boys' boarding-school The school is, 
financially, nearly self-supporting. 

In February I heard of the death of our dear friend, Dr. Charles 
S. Robinson, of New York. We spent junior year together in 
Union Seminary, and the intimacy then begun has never ceased. 
He was a loving friend and brother. When in Union, he sup- 
ported himself and helped his family by writing articles for the 
magazines. I was amazed at the fecundity of his brain and the 
variety of his literary productions. His service to the whole 
Church in preparing " Songs for the Sanctuary " was invaluable. 
The book was a great success and sold by the hundred thousands. 
His profits were great and his gifts to the Church were great. 
The Memorial Church, 5 3d Street and Madison Avenue, was 
built chiefly from his personal gifts. The shadow of depression 
which settled upon him in his last months did not surprise me, 
when I remembered his intense mental activity for the forty-six 
years of our acquaintance. He should have the credit of having 
'* set the pace " for all the modern " hymn " and " tune " books 
of the Protestant Church. His lectures on ancient Egypt were 
eloquent and fascinating and it is to be regretted that he did not 
live to complete his great work on Egypt. On my last visit to 
him in New York, he showed me a portly manuscript volume on 
Egypt, and said that he was at work on Volume II, and when 
finished it would be printed. It will not be long before we join 
him in singing the " Songs of Zion " in the upper heavenly 
" Sanctuary." 

I had some experience, as usual, this year with escaped monks. 
la February, four young monastic novices escaped from the 

Monastic Fugitives 679 

Papal Greek monastery, Deir el Mukhullis, near Sidon, and came 
to Beirut. They said they had become Protestants and aban- 
doned the monastic order. They were being taught theology by 
an enlightened priest who wished to use the Bible as a text-book. 
There are thirty monks in that monastery, but when this class 
asked for Bibles, not one could be found but the folio copy on 
the chapel desk. So they sent to Beirut and bought Bibles, and 
a six months' course of Bible study landed them outside the nar- 
row sacerdotal teachings of Rome in the full liberty of justifica- 
tion by faith in Christ. They soon made their escape from their 
prison walls, cast off their black robes, shaved their beards and 
have gone to work as Protestants, farmers, and labourers in what- 
ever employment they could find. Their reports of the immo- 
ralities of the Syrian monks were shocking in the extreme and 
they said they felt that they had escaped from a veritable Sodom. 

Another monk, a priest from the same sect, from Aleppo, pro- 
fessed to have become enlightened, fled to New York, was aided 
by Father O'Connor, studied in the Franco- American school in 
Springfield, then worked in a factory. But hard work was griev- 
ous to one trained to the indolent life of a Syrian priest. He 
knew no trade, had not sufficient knowledge of English to teach 
or to fit himself for preaching and fell into despair. The shrewd 
Romanists in New York offered him support and he abjured 
Protestantism and went back. When in New York he sent me 
an Arabic manuscript exposing the errors and immoralities of 
the Aleppo Romish clergy, which was printed in Egypt at his 
request and distributed in Syria. His case shows the hopeless- 
ness of a reform among the Oriental clergy. If they leave their 
office they are helpless. Their peculiar training or want of train- 
ing unfits them for practical life. 

When sincere men among them break away, as so many are 
doing in France and Rome, they are thrown at once upon chari- 
table aid. Father O'Connor in New York has done a wonderful 
work in finding avenues for self-support for so many ex-priests. I 
always advise them to go to work as farmers, carpenters, on 
tailors an4 <$% th$jr br^ad by the sw^t f 

680 A New Century Dawns 

The monastic system is unnatural, unscriptural, and unsavoury. 
It is a curse to modern Syria. The best part of the fertile land 
of the Lebanon belongs to the monasteries and the peasants are 
their tenants, Mr. Butrus el Bistany, himself in early years being 
trained for a celibate life, used to say that in those days no one 
entered the monastic life except the half-witted or the avaricious, 
that is, fools or knaves : fools, who are too lazy to work, or 
knaves, who hope to be one day promoted to be abbots and ap- 
propriate the rich revenues to themselves. Some day a new 
order of things will come to Syria and the government will follow 
the example of Italy and confiscate all this monastic property and 
devote it to popular education. As it is, monasticism is the great 
barrier to the prosperity and development of the fair province of 
Mount Lebanon. For ages the monks and priests have extorted 
from the dying money, houses and lands, until the condition is 
becoming intolerable. 

A letter to our mission stated that it was " better to build twenty 
churches at $20 each than one church at $400." We replied that 
the cost of a church has some relation to the cost of dwellings in 
the same place. On the Gaboon, West Africa, a native house or 
hut of reeds and thatch costs about $4, and a big hut to be used 
as a church from $10 to $30, chiefly in labour, as materials cost 

In Syria, the half-naked Arabs of Jericho live in thatch huts, 
but the villagers of Syria and Palestine in stone houses, which 
cost from $100 to $200, or more, as timber is scarce and costly 
and the walls are double walls of hard limestone or trap rock. 
In Zahleh and the villages north and around Hamath, the houses 
are of adobe or sun-dried brick, but in all the villages over the 
land, the churches and mosques are built of stone, and a plain 
edifice, twice the size of a dwelling-house, to hold seventy-five to 
one hundred people sitting on mats on the floor, would cost about 
$400 or $500. The most of the churches and mosques in the 
cities are massive and expensive edifices, with high arched ceil- 
ings and b3utifijl Columns. The suggestion of a ryijssionaiy 

New Power Set in Motion 68 1 

board that $20 churches be built is out of the question in Syria. 
The principle of strict economy is sound, but it can hardly imply 
that the Christians in Syria are to worship in " wood, hay, and 
stubble " houses, like the half-naked savages of Africa. A relig- 
ious edifice here is supposed to be at least respectable, and, as a 
fact, almost all the modern churches in Syria of all sects have 
been built with foreign help. The American Board from 1850 to 
1870 opposed the building of church edifices here. ^But when 
Dr. N. G. Clark came here in 1871 and saw the Beirut church 
building, he was greatly gratified and said, "You are right 
Protestantism has come to stay/' Of thatch and reed matting 
one could hardly say, " It has come to stay." 

On Monday, October 2, 1899, at 3 p. M., a goodly company of 
foreign missionaries, Syrian friends, and employees of the Amer- 
ican Press at Beirut assembled in the press room of the printing- 
house to celebrate by appropriate religious exercises the inaugu- 
ration of a new cylinder press. The old press, presented years 
ago by the American Bible Society, and used for printing the 
Arabic Scriptures, was showing the infirmities of age, and this 
new machine had just been set up and got ready for work. 

After the benediction, Mr. Freyer requested the youngest mis- 
sionary of the Presbyterian Church in Syria, who had arrived only 
that morning from the United States, Miss Rachel Tolles, of the 
Beirut Female Seminary, to turn on the steam and set the new 
Bible press in motion, and the freshly printed sheets of the first 
chapter of Genesis were distributed to the visitors present as 
mementoes of this memorable occasion. 

Among the varied events of this year were the visits of Rev. Dr. 
G. J. Nichols of Binghamton and Dr. Richards of Plainfield ; a 
letter from Sir Arthur Cotton in England, aged ninety-six, who 
was writing a book and wrote to ask about Asaad es Shidiak. 
Sir Arthur was in Syria in 1832, the year of my birth. I wrote 
him, " Truly the Lord has been good to you in prolonging your 
life and vigour to such a good old age, like a cedar of Lebanon 
bringing forth fruit in old age." 

68l A New Century Dawns 

This year the British Syrian Mission took up the Shemlan 
Girls' Boarding-School, owing to the disbanding of the " Society 
for Promoting Female Education in the East" 

Mrs. Dale and Miss Emily Bird visited Rishmeiya, where Mr. 
Bird had a school and a preaching service. The women and girls 
were deeply impressed. I spent Sunday there with Mr. Bird in 
August and on Sunday night, after the service, as we sat in the 
open air in the moonlight, a young girl about fifteen, who is lame, 
said to Mr. Bird, " We are so glad Mrs. Dale and Miss Bird came 
here. I had never dreamed that there were such women in the 
world. I was astonished at their words. They did not talk on 
the frivolous subjects we women talk about. They told us of 
heavenly things and holy living. I feel that a change is coming 
over me. I am not what I was. Let them come again and 
soon." She is now learning to read with great zeal, and next 
month Mrs. Dale is going again to spend a fortnight. 

In December the winter rains set in with unusual violence. 
The Lebanon gorges, which are mostly dry in summer, were 
filled with boiling, roaring torrents, hurrying to the sea. The 
famous Dog River rose in freshet and swept away the massive 
stone wagon bridge and the railway iron bridge below it, just 
at the mouth of the river where it empties into the sea. 

As the year closed, we were all anxiously watching the resist- 
less progress of heart disease, which was gradually weakening Dr. 
Eddy's hold on life. From hour to hour he was expecting the 
summons and ready to meet his Lord. 

1900 Rev. W. W. Eddy, D. D., a beloved brother and man of 
God, entered into rest on January 26th, aged seventy-four years. 
Like a shock of corn fully ripe, after a life of arduous labours and 
faithful witnessing for Christ, he is summoned to go up higher. 
Having known him for forty-four years as a fellow missionary, I 
am glad to testify to the pure and noble life he has led. 

Wm. Woodbridge Eddy was born in Penn Yan, N. Y., Decem- 

Dr. Eddy's Service 683 

ber 1 8, 1825, his father, Rev. Dr. Chauncey Eddy, being at that 
time pastor of the Presbyterian church. His father and mother 
had been accepted as missionaries of the American Board in 1823, 
but ill health had prevented their going. The father then prayed 
that God would raise up one of his children to take Ms place, and 
his son, William, grew up with the idea that God would enable 
him to go as a substitute for his father. He prepared for college 
under Dr. Chester in Saratoga in 1841, graduated from Williams 
College in 1845, taught school for two years, graduated from 
Union Theological Seminary in 1850, married Miss Hannah 
Maria Condit of Oswego, N. Y., in November, 1851, and then 
sailed for Smyrna on the bark Sultana^ arriving in Beirut January 
3i, 1852. 

He laboured in Aleppo four years, until 1856, then one year in 
Kefr Shirna, until September, 1857, when he removed to Sidon. 
In that extensive field he laboured for twenty-one years, and 
then came to our help in Beirut where I was intimately associated 
with him for eighteen years. 

Among his fellow passengers on the Sultana were Dr. Lobdell 
of Mosul, Mr. Morgan of Antioch, and Mr. Sutphen of Trebizond. 
Of all the missionaries whom he and his wife met on their arrival 
in Smyrna and Beirut, only Mrs. Dr. Van Dyck of Beirut and 
Mrs. S. H. Calhoun of Natal, South Africa, still remain. 

In 1875 the University of New York conferred upon him the 
degree of D. D. 

In 1858 his father and mother visited Syria. They made tours 
with their son to the different outstations of the Sidon field, at- 
tending communion services, the father speaking through the 
son as interpreter to the numerous congregations. He would 
o/ten exclaim, as did Simeon of old, that now he was ready to 
depart because he had realized his prayer and hope. He would 
have rejoiced with still greater joy could he have anticipated that 
three of his grandchildren would be colleague missionaries with 
their parents : Rev. Wm. King Eddy, for twenty years in Sidon, 
Mrs. Harriette M. Hoskins, from 1876 to 1888 in Sidon, in Zahleh 
from 1888 to 1900 and since then in Beirut, Dr. Mary Pierson 

684 A New Century Dawns 

Eddy, who came in December, 1893,10 be a general medical mis- 
sionary, itinerating in different parts of the field, but connected 
with Beirut station. 

After an illness of more than four months, struggling with the 
shortness of breath resultant from heart disease, he gently fell 
asleep on January 26th, in the early morning. His bedchamber 
was peace. His mind retained its great vigour and activity to 
the last All the members of the mission were present at his 
funeral, having come by sea and land, and all excepting his son 
and son-in-law took part, with the Syrian pastors, in the funeral 
service, which was attended by a great concourse of natives and 
foreigners, with students of the college and the American, Eng- 
lish, and German boarding-schools. The pall-bearers were eight 
American and English young men and eight Syrian brethren. 
The Arabic address was by H. H. Jessup and the English by 
Dr. George A. Ford. 

My love for Dr. Eddy was that of a brother. I had known 
him in joy and in sorrow, in labours oft, in journeying, in teach- 
ing the theological students, in the Church and Sunday-school, in 
the business management of the press. 

For fifteen years he gave the best of his strength to the Arabic 
Commentary on the New Testament which was completed July 
29, 1899, just three weeks before the stroke of heart disease which 
laid him aside from active labour. The commentary was com- 
piled from the best modern works and is eminently practical, 
spiritual, and homiletical and adapted to the needs of the evan- 
gelical communities in the East. It is in five volumes octavo, 
comprising in all 3,033 pages. Dr. Eddy was scholarly, accurate, 
judicious, a safe counsellor, and a thorough missionary in the best 
sense of the word and in every fibre of his being. The spiritual 
impression of his godly life will long remain in this land. He 
was studious, yet practical ; sound, level-headed ; modest, yet bold 
as a lion. 

His English style was clear, concise, and ornate. His hand- 
writing was like steel engraving and it was a comfort to receive 
his letters. One can hardly claim that a man is known by his 

The Temperance Reading-Room 685 

handwriting, as several of our most eminent missionaries have had 
a handwriting which was simply execrable, but there was a cor- 
respondence between the clearness of his handwriting and the 
classic purity of his style. 

He was a builder, I remember seeing him at one time on the 
steep zinc roof of the Khiyam church near Mount Hermon, re- 
pairing the leaks in the blazing sun, and at another overhauling 
a gang of masons and carpenters in the summer heat in Sidon, 
repairing and rebuilding the old Abela house for the girls' board- 
ing-school. He proved the truth of the maxim that a foreign 
missionary must be a many-sided man, and that no gift nor ac- 
complishment is lost in the life of one who would be all things to 
all men and make his work most effective. 

That church in Khiyam was the occasion of serious discussion 
in the mission. And the same question arpse with regard to 
other churches roofed with zinc or corrugated iron. Why build 
roofs of materials which the people themselves cannot use nor re- 
pair ? The Syrian churches of the old sects are generally arched 
with vaulted roofs of solid masonry with earthen roofs which they 
can roll and keep in repair. Owing to the rapid development of 
the country and the introduction of French-tiled roofs in the 
small villages, there would be no need to-day of a missionary's 
doing what Dr. Eddy did forty years ago in El Khiyam. 

Early in February, through the earnest efforts of American and 
English ladies, led by Mrs. Jessup, and the Syrian Y. M. C. A., a 
Christian temperance reading-room was opened in Beirut to fur- 
nish a counter attraction to the young men of the city who would 
otherwise be drawn into the saloons and gambling hells of the 
city. It has proved a great success, and what remains to make 
it a permanent blessing is a building for the Y. M, C. A. and 
reading-rooms, which shall be designed especially for this object. 

In the readjustment following the death of Dr. Eddy, Rev. 
F. E. Hoskins, of Zahleh, was transferred to Beirut. Mr. Yusef 

686 A New Century Dawns 

Aatiyeh, the eloquent and earnest preacher of the Beirut church, 
was obliged by reasons of health to leave for Tripoli and Rev. 
Asaad Abdullah was called to his place. 

In February a young Moslem convert, Haj Kasim, from 
M'arrat Naaman, north of Hamath, came to Beirut seeking work 
and finally left for Egypt. The same month we received into the 
Beirut church seven Moslem and Druse maidens, all of whom 
were intelligent Christians. 

In October Mrs. Gerald F. Dale began her work in the distant 
outpost of Ras Baalbec, instructing and visiting the women and 
girls of that far-off and uncouth region. Hardship, exposure, the 
vicinity of the notorious robbers and sheep thieves of the clans 
of Dendesh and Harfoosh, and the annual visits of the nomad 
Aneyzy Arabs have made the villagers hardy, rough, and brave. 
Mr. Dale opened the way there for a school and won their confi- 
dence, and in spite of monks and nuns and every species of ma- 
licious persecution, a few stand firm and the school has greatly 

The mission boarding and day-schools were all increasing in 
numbers, in financial income and in influence in the land. 

Dr. Mary P. Eddy, having been physically prostrated by 
months of constant watching at her father's bedside, was ordered 
on furlough to America February 27, 1900. 

Five theological students graduated at Suk el Gharb, Novem- 
ber /th, and went out to their fields of labour. 

November I2th, by the advice of our physician, Mrs. Jessup 
and I took the Austrian steamer Helios for Haifa to spend a 
season at Hotel Pross on Mount Carmel. There is no more rest- 
ful place in Syria. The scenery is inspiring and the absolute 
quiet of that German hotel and its clean, wholesome appointments 
give one just the rest and refreshment that the weary in mind 
and body need. We remained the first day after landing at 

Calling on the Bablte Leader 687 

Hotel Carmel in the German colony, and there were brought into 
contact with the Babites. An American lady, who became enam- 
oured of this system of mysticism, was at the hotel, and Captain 
Wells, a chaplain from the Philippines, had come there for the 
express purpose of keeping her out of that abyss of religious plati- 
tudes. We spent four and a half hours in conversation with her. 
She could give no reason for following Abbas Effendi, excepting 
a kind of hypnotic fascination. Abbas Effendi's two brothers, 
Mohammed AH and Bedea, were then in a bitter quarrel with 

him, and Mrs. said that Abbas feared for his life. While 

we were talking, a tall youth with a long Persian coat passed the 
door and stopped. She called out, "There he is, that awful 
creature. He is trying to kill Abbas, and is a spy trying to hear 
what we are saying." 

The next day, by invitation, I called with Captain Wells on 
Abbas Effendi. I published in the Outlook a full account of my 
conversation with him in Arabic. He is an elderly and venerable 
man, very similar to scores of venerable Moslem and Druse 
sheikhs I have met in this land. I can understand how an intel- 
ligent Moslem might be attracted to Babism, on account of its 
liberality towards other sects, as contrasted with the narrow con- 
ceited illiberality of Islam. But I cannot understand how a true 
Christian can possibly exchange the liberty with which Christ 
makes us free and the clear, consistent plan of salvation through 
a Redeemer, for the misty and mystical platitudes of Babism. It 
has helped in breaking up the solidity of Islam in Persia, but is 
becoming more and more of a " sect." It may result in good if 
it spreads among the Sunni Moslems of Turkey and Egypt as 
it has among the Shiahs of Persia. 

An extensive movement towards Babism, or the doctrine of 
the Mystic Shadhilees, would do more than anything else to 
break up Pan-Islamism. 

In March, 1901, Rev. Mr. Bray of Wisconsin dined with Mo- 
hammed Ali and Bedea Effendi, brothers of Abbas. They 
showed him the tomb of their father, Beha Allah, who they in- 
sisted was an incarnation of the Holy Ghost " What," said 

688 A New Century Dawns 

Mr. Bray, " is this the tomb of a dead Holy Ghost f " Mohammed 
Effendi was perplexed and made no reply. 

Any religious system which depends on the life of one man or 
family must tumble one day from its foundation of sand. 

I left Abbas Effendi with the painful feeling that he was accept- 
ing divine honours from simple-minded women from America 
and receiving their gifts of gold, without a protest or rebuke. 

I hear that his younger brother, Bedea, has become reconciled 
to him, but I would not guarantee that his main object is not to 
gain his share of the money which is in the possession of Abbas 
Effendi. It is not long since he was threatening to kill Abbas, 
and assassination is an old fashion of Persian fanatics. 

In December an American woman was brought ashore from 
a steamer and placed in St. John's Hospital in Beirut in a state 
of collapse. When sufficiently revived to speak, she said she 
was Mrs. of Chicago, and had left contrary to her hus- 
band's request to visit the Bab Incarnation, Abbas Effendi of 
Acre. She was literally starved through seasickness, and before 
her death, she moaned and mourned her folly in leaving her 
husband and home to visit the " Master " Abbas. An autopsy 
revealed perforation of the coats of the stomach. The poor 
woman had taken this long journey alone and must have suffered 
untold agonies, ignorant of the language and helpless through 
seasickness in a winter voyage. Yet to what lengths of ex- 
posure will religious delusion drive people ! This Holy Land is 
the happy hunting-ground of cranks and visionaries of all stripes, 
Oriental and Occidental. 

One of the recent woman pilgrims to the shrine of Abbas 
Effendi was an English-speaking woman who stated that she had 
been successively an Agnostic, Christian Scientist, and Theos- 
ophist and now was going to try Abbasism. Palestine, whether 
it ever witnesses the turning of the Jews from Europe and 
America to their old fatherland or not, is certainly now witness- 
ing the " turning of the cranks." 

1900 After forty-four years of residence in Syria, I cheerfully 

Attractive Syrian Traits 689 

bear my testimony to the many attractive traits in the character 
of the Syrian people of the Arab race. 

1 . Their hospitality. This is proverbial and it is real Whether 
among the Bedawin Arabs of the desert, or the dwellers in cities 
and villages, they are kind and liberal in entertaining strangers. 
And they do it with great kindness and native courtesy even 
among the very poor. On great occasions, such as weddings or 
betrothals, they invite literally the whole village to a feast. If 
Europeans, in travelling, reach their village, the best house will 
be put at their disposal. 

2. Their fondness for their children. No people are more 
fond of children, and since education is available, they are all 
anxious to educate their children. And the Syrian children are 
very bright, attractive, and lovable, and will compare favourably 
with the children of any other people. 

3. Their aptness to learn. You would be pleased to hear the 
little Arab boys and girls recite by heart whole chapters of the 
Bible. Their memories are remarkable. 

4. They are a naturally religious people, and a man without a 
religion of some kind would be looked upon as a strange creature. 
And they believe in divinely inspired books, whether the Koran 
or the Bible. 

5. The literature of the Arab race is very extensive and beau- 
tiful. Their poetry is exquisite and their proverbs have no su- 
perior in any language. The Arabic language is capable of great 
eloquence and great nicety of expression and the people are very 
fond of it 

6. Many of their educated men, trained in the missionary col- 
leges and schools, are now filling high positions as editors, clerks, 
business managers, physicians, preachers, and teachers in all parts 
of this empire, in Egypt, and in North Africa. 

7. They have caught the enterprising spirit of Western civili- 
zation and are starting out in a new Phoenician migration to the 
ends of the earth, seeking to better their condition ; and at some 
time in the future the more solid and reliable part of them will 

b^gk to bei^fit $n4 $vat their country. 

690 A New Century Dawns 

8. The evangelical churches scattered throughout Syria have 
many members whose pure and consecrated lives are a living 
witness to their sincerity and faith. Thousands of the children 
are in Christian schools, in preparation for future usefulness. 

9. Some of these Syrian believers have been an honour to the 
Church of Christ. 

Dr. Samuel Jessup and his daughter Fanny went June n, 
1900, by invitation of a friend, to the Paris Exposition, and took 
with them a box of Arabic Scriptures to be given to the Arabic- 
speaking visitors from Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Egypt. At 
this time, also, Arabic Testaments were given freely to the hun- 
dreds of emigrants going from Syria to North and South America. 

June 2Oth our daughter Amy was married to Rev. Paul Erdman. 

They had been appointed missionaries to Korea. All prepa- 
rations were made for their journey to the far East, when sud- 
denly there came another voice, not from the cloud, but from 
under the sea, " Assigned to Syria," and the dear children were 
given back to us and to Syria. The Board had come to see 
our need of reinforcement since Dr. Eddy's death, and accord- 
ingly reversed their former decision. 

Just eighteen months afterwards, the dear daughter in giving 
life lost her own, and her monument stands among the olive 
trees east of Sidon where she had begun her missionary life. 
Only a parent can understand the anguish of that hour when we 
saw her life ebbing away. So beautiful, so vigorous, so well 
fitted by nature and grace to honour her Lord and Saviour by 
loving, faithful service in Syria, she had won all hearts, and now so 
suddenly summoned away ! We were indeed stricken and smitten, 
but found it sweet and comforting to say, " Thy will be done." 
She was His and He called her home. 

" That life is long which answers life's best end," and she hath 
done what she could to serve the Master in the land of her birth. 
May her son, Frederick Erdman, live to witness for Christ in 
Syria or some other mission $s hjs Uncle Frederick is doing in 


The Christian Endeavourers 691 

On April 1 4th a remarkable body of Christian tourists, known 
as " Christian Endeavour Party," led by Dr. Wilbur Chapman and 
Dr. Shaw, left Beirut for Constantinople, the whole company sing- 
ing in chorus, " God be with you till we meet again," and as we 
rowed away to the shore, with such a farewell, we felt as if a part 
of our own family were leaving us. On Good Friday, Dr. Shaw 
preached in the American Church and in the evening, the Syrian 
Christian Endeavourers gave a reception to the hundred tourists 
and some forty resident Americans and English in the Memorial 
Sunday-School Hall. After a social reunion and simple refresh- 
ments, addresses were made by Drs. Shaw, Chapman, and 
Countermine and responded to by Syrians and missionaries. The 
opening prayer was offered by a missionary son, Dr. Ford of 
Sidon, and the benediction by a missionary grandson, Rev. 
Ezekiel Scudder of the Arcot Mission in India. Time would fail 
me to mention the names of all the good and great men in that 
goodly company. They brought a blessing to us and to our 
Syrian friends and will, no doubt, carry a blessing to their homes. 

In June, 1900, two men with their wives, converts from Islam, 
passed through here, en route for Egypt. They were brought to 
accept Christ through their godly Protestant neighbours in an 
interior city and after long probation were received as brethren. 
We obtained passage for them on a steamer bound for Alexan- 
dria, and they went to their new home in Egypt, where they en- 
gaged at once in self-supporting work and gave great satisfaction 
by their sincerity and steadfastness. The old mother of one of 
the women insisted on coming with them to Beirut and after they 
sailed, returned to Damascus. 

In order to relieve the minds of the brethren who sent them on 
to us and who feared they might be prevented from Bailing, I 
wrote a letter to one of them as follows : 

" The goods you forwarded to us came safely and we shipped 
them to Egypt by the khedivial steamer June 3Oth to our busi- 
ness agent. The large bale, which was found too old for ship- 
ment, we returned to tfre Dani^scus agent to be forwardec} tg 

692 A New Century Dawns 

you. We have hopes of great profit from the portion sent to 

The reason for writing in this commercial style was that an 
Arabic letter giving the literal facts might have been read by the 
postal police, and brought some of the parties concerned into 

In September my friend, Miss Holmes of Pittsburg, in a letter 
on missions, asked me the above question, in view of the dread- 
ful massacres by the Boxers. I replied that the true soldier of 
Jesus Christ will never give up as long as there are men to be 
saved. The Christians in Madagascar were burned alive, cast 
down precipices, and cruelly tortured, but God's Word remained 
and the missionaries went back and were more successful than 
ever. In 1860 Syria was desolated with fire and sword. Thou- 
sands of Christians were massacred, churches, schools and homes 
destroyed. Some thought we should come home and leave such 
a land. They said, " Wind up and come home." We did wind 
up the machine, and it has kept running for forty-eight years 
with no sign of needing another winding at present The 
Church will have to wind up its mission clock in China afresh. 
We would not give up or leave the country. We fed and 
clothed some 20,000 refugees in Beirut who had come from 
Damascus, Hasbeiya, and Lebanon. And from that time has be- 
gun a new interest in Christianity all over Syria. I have no 
doubt that the same will eventually be the result in China. It 
may be delayed by the rapacity, land hunger, and jealousies of 
the European Powers, but some day and in some way, the Lord, 
who bought that people with such a precious ransom, will see to it 
that they have the light and comfort of the Gospel. Alas, that 
the Christian Church should have waited so long before sending 
the Gospel to China. 

Dr. Brown visited China in 1901 and I wrote to him, "If you 
cannot rectify everything in China during your visit, be content 
to l$t the Iord finish up the job/' 

Murder But Only a Christian Dog! 693 

In September the Moslem roughs in Haifa insulted a body of 
German women from the colony who were bathing in the sea. 
The German consul obtained the severe punishment of the of- 
fenders. The Turks will not allow outrages upon the subjects of 
Emperor William, above all, the peaceable colonists In Haifa. 

On the 1st of October, Abdullah, the American Press watch- 
man in Beirut, was found brutally murdered and mutilated in his 
room and the money drawer of the office broken open. The 
murderer found little money. Suspicion fell on a young Moslem. 
In entering the press over the wall, he had stepped into a bed of 
soft mortar and left the exact impression of his bare foot. The 
Moslem was brought and his foot exactly fitted the mould. The 
evidence against him was clear, but as he was a Moslem, and had 
only killed a Christian infidel dog, he was soon released. There 
is hardly a case on record where a Moslem has been executed 
for the " highly meritorious " act of killing a Christian. Their 
sacred book and law allow it, and a Mohammedan government 
is not adapted to rule over a semi-Christian, semi-Moslem people. 
The day has passed when a purely sectarian government can rule 
justly and without constant friction over a mixed population. It 
is religiously obliged to discriminate in all cases in favour of one 
sect and against all others. 

I translated Rev. S. M. Zwemer's statistical table of the Moslem 
population of the world, giving it as 196,000,000. On sending 
it to the Mudir el Maarif, he prohibited its publication on the 
ground that the Emperor William in Damascus had declared the 
number to be 300,000,000. I replied that the emperor only 
quoted what the Moslem sheikh had asserted to be the number. 
But the mudir kept it, and months after it was published in the 
Independence Beige in an official statement of the Ottoman 
government as the result of its own researches. I then copied it 
from the Belgian journal and published it in our Neshrak. The 
Mudir Jelal ud Din Beg, however, got the credit of it, 

694 A New Century Dawns 

A review of the year 1900 shows that the press printed 24,000,000 
pages, of which 17,884,000 were Arabic Scriptures. Fifty-eight 
thousand copies were issued, although, owing to repair, the 
presses were idle for two months. 

During the year, the Russian Schools Committee bought 4,026 
copies of the Arabic Bible and Testament for use in their schools 
and in addition, 7,893 volumes of educational and scientific 

The local press censors have continued to remind us that we 
are under their paternal scrutiny. They refuse now to sanction 
any map of the Holy Land showing the divisions made by Joshua 
among the twelve tribes of Israel, as the Sultan Abdul Hamid has 
not authorized such a division in the past nor will he in the 
future. In Mr. Moody's book, " To the Work," all the illustra- 
tions and lessons drawn from the story of Gideon and his 
victorious band of three hundred are suppressed, probably from 
the perilous suggestiveness of the possibility that such an event 
might occur again. 

The Beirut Girls 1 Boarding-School continued to prosper and 
the return of Miss Barber from America was cause for special 

The college students numbered 512, showing a steady growth 
from year to year. 

The Whitening Fields (19011902) 


MY elder brother, Judge Wm. H. Jessup, reached his 
seventy-first birthday on January 29th, and I wrote 
him. a letter of congratulation. " It is a great matter 
and a good one, too, to have lived during the last half of the 
nineteenth century and to see the opening of the twentieth. We 
cannot expect to journey far down into the new century on this 
little globe, but we shall see greater things than these in that 
land to which we are going. Last year you were seventy and 
next year, D. V. I shall be seventy. President Dwight of Yale, 
your classmate, Dr. Hunger, and President Daniel C. Gilman, old 
Yale friends of mine, resigned at seventy. But how can a lawyer 
or a missionary resign at seventy ? Can a sea-captain resign 
when two-thirds across the Atlantic, because he is seventy ? 
We can throw off certain burdens upon younger shoulders, but 
to give up all work is out of the question. Our missionary 
patriarch at Constantinople, Dr. Elias Riggs, is now ninety and 
still does effective literary work. Daniel Bliss, of the college, is 
in his seventy-seventh year and so is Mr. Bird of Abeih. Yet 
Dr. Bliss as president fulfills his college duties well and Mr. 
Bird can itinerate in Lebanon and preach with great fervour and 
power. Last Sunday I preached in Arabic at the college at 9 
A. M., then in English in the Anglo-American Church at 1 1 
A. M., and at 3 p. M. went to the Sunday-school, and then at- 
tended Christian Endeavour consecration meeting from 4 : 30 to 
6 p.^ M., and did not feel * Mondayish ' the next day. 

" Dr. Cuyler did right to resign that large pastorate at seventy 
and be thus in a quiet way able to serve the Church at large. 

6 9S 

696 The Whitening Fields 

Yet how easy it is to say what other people ought to do, and how 
hard for us to stop work or even to go at half speed, when our 
heads are white, our step begins to be unsteady, and our knees 
and feet refuse to obey orders from headquarters ! 

" The * line of fire ' is fast working down to 1830, the year of 
your birth, and 1832 of mine; the men who stand in front of us 
are growing fewer and feebler and the shafts are flying thicker 
than ever, and ere long our old neighbours will say of us, ' See, 
they are now in the front ; their turn will come next ! ' 

41 But why should we not work on ? If we live temperately, eat 
moderately, work steadily, sleep soundly, exercise regularly, never 
worry, and calmly and lovingly trust in our God and Saviour, we 
ought to work on right up to the gates of glory/ 1 

And he did. The following January 16, 1902, he attended 
an evening religious meeting, returned home, and retired, and be- 
fore sunrise was suddenly summoned by his Lord. A cablegram 
brought me the news while the mission was in session in my 

The week before he had delivered before the Bar Association 
of Scranton, composed of some of the most eminent lawyers and 
judges of Pennsylvania, an elaborate address on the relations of 
capital and labour and the legality of strikes, which was pro- 
nounced to be one of the best presentments of the legal aspects of 
the question ever written. It was published and widely circu- 
lated. He was as prominent in the Church as in the law, a 
zealous and successful Bible class teacher, a lover of the Church, 
the Sunday-school, and the family altar. By his death, brother 
Samuel and I alone remain of the five brothers in our family, and 
yet it was thought that an early grave awaited us both in the dis- 
tant land of Syria. 

February I3th Mrs. Jessup and I were returning on horseback 
from Sidon to Beirut. The horses were of the kind that ha,d 
"seen their fast days," and although the sheikh of the horses in 
Sidon had assured us of their superior qualities, we had a 
laborious time in reaching the river Damur, half-way to Beirut. 

A Dangerous Ford 697 

Muleteers whom we met assured us that we need not go around 
by the bridge, as the stream was low and easily forded above its 
mouth near the seashore. I rode ahead and Mrs. Jessup followed. 
Suddenly, when near the middle of the swift, deep current, I 
heard a sound, and looking around, saw Mrs. Jessup's horse pros- 
trate in water and she lying in the stream. I sprang from my 
horse and rushed back through two feet of water and slipping on 
a boulder, fell headlong into the river ; but in a moment I was 
up, and seizing her hand, helped her out with one hand, leading 
the two horses with the other until we reached the north shore. 
There we found a little room nearly empty, and proceeded to dry 
our clothes in the hot sun, sitting barefoot while we ate our 
lunch. As our warm woollen wraps and waterproofs were in the 
saddle-bags, we made a partial change, and rode on to Beirut. 
Providentially, instead of a cold north wind, we had a dead calm 
and a blazing sun which prevented our taking cold. I had 
travelled over that road for forty years but never met with such 
an accident before. 

It is well known that modern Islam, like the papacy, believes 
the traditions to be of equal authority with the sacred volume. 
The Moslem traditions, sayings of the Prophet and his doings, 
etc., are embodied in several ponderous and tedious volumes, full 
of puerilities and impurities, so that respectable Moslems are 
ashamed of them. The Shiah Moslems of Persia reject the tra- 
ditions. The Sunnites, on the contrary, accept them and swear 
by them. These latter are the Orthodox sect, but of late, many 
of their leading sheikhs have become alarmed at the use made of 
their traditions by Christian writers and are demanding an ex- 
purgated edition of the Hadeeth. They will find it impossible to 
agree as to the true and false traditions. In all the ages of 
Islam, a bitter controversy has been waged as to which passages 
of the Koran are abrogated, and which are not. If all the false 
traditions are weeded out, there will not be much left. The 
Arabs tell a story of Dr. Thomson, that soon after his arrival in 
Syria he tried to eat a ripe prickly pear (the luscious fruit of the 

698 The Whitening Fields 

giant cactus). Finding it full of woody seeds, he began to pick 
them out and when he got them all out, there was nothing left 
but the skin. 

And yet modern Islam is moulded by the Hadeeth more than by 
the Koran, and a thousand customs and superstitions, passing as 
sound in doctrine by the Moslem world, rest entirely on the 
Hadeeth, just as the unscriptural papal doctrines of Mariolatry, 
Immaculate Conception, Transubstantiation and Papal Infalli- 
bility, etc., rest entirely on Romish tradition. 

In March another Moslem convert appeared, an ingenuous 
young man, who was longing to breathe the air of religious 
liberty. We wrote to Egypt with regard to him, as Egypt is a 
refuge for the oppressed, and although private family persecution 
is the same everywhere, there is no religious liberty for Moslem 
converts in Turkey, while in Egypt, the government, as such, 
does not persecute. 

A convert of another type appeared in April, a Benedictine 
monk of fine education and musical talents, named Jean. He 
was a good Semitic scholar and a remarkable organist. I gave 
him a letter to Father James A. O'Connor of New York, so well 
known as a Protestant " usher " of Romish priests Into the 
Protestant fold, asking him to give him aid in securing a place as 
organist in some American city. Having a good profession as 
organist, he seemed far more hopeful than the ordinary run of 
ex-priests who ask to be fed, clothed, and sent to America at our 
expense, a request which we invariably decline. 

In April, 1901, we were visited by the " Riggs Party" of 
American ministers and laymen, among whom were Professor 
Riggs, Dr. Merle Smith, Mr. Ammidon, Dr. and Mrs. Maltbie 
Babcock, and others. Such visits are the oases in the life of a 
Syrian missionary and are always refreshing and inspiring. This 
party embraced a larger number than usual of refined and conse- 
crated men and women whom it was a privilege to meet Dr. 

Maltbie Babcock 699 

Maltble Babcock I was especially anxious to meet His father, 
Henry Babcock, then of Truxton, New York, and his Uncle John, 
were schoolmates of mine in Montrose in 1846, and I afterwards 
visited them when they were settled in business in Syracuse. 
Those two brothers were the means of teaching me in one lesson 
how to swim. We were out in a flat-bottomed boat, fishing on 
Jones' Lake, near Montrose, About a hundred feet from the 
shore, a dead tree loomed up from the water which was quite 
deep. The boys asked me to lay hold of a broken limb of the 
tree and draw up the boat and lash it to the trunk. I reached 
out and the boat began to move away. Down I went into the 
deep water and the boat, under the impulse, was now far from 
me. I turned about in the water and swam towards the boat 
without an effort, although I had frequently before that time 
tried In vain to learn. 

When Dr. Maltbie called on us in Beirut, I told him this story 
and of his father's and uncle's fondness for music, and with Mrs. 
Jessup at the piano, we sang familiar hymns and songs with great 
comfort. His clear, sweet voice reminded me of his lamented 

He preached in the college chapel Sunday, April 2ist. In the 
afternoon was a^full meeting of the Christian Endeavour Society. 
On Friday evening, April 26th, a reception was given to the 
Riggs party and other travellers, among whom was Dr. Newman 
Smyth and my old friend of 1855, Titus B. Meigs of New York. 
After several addresses had been made Mr. J. Ailing of Rochester 
announced, on behalf of the Riggs party, a gift of $1,500 for a 
new printing machine for our press, and $200 for the Zahleh and 
Sidon stations. 

The next morning we all went down to the port and accom- 
panied that party of beloved an4 noble friends to the French 
steamship Equateur, little dreaming that we should see the loved 
face of Dr. Babcock no more. Not long after came the startling 
news of his death in the Naples Hospital, and we mingled our 
tears with the tears of thousands of Christian people in America, 
who sympathized in a common sorrow and bereavement. 

700 The Whitening Fields 

Years ago, Dr. Washburn telegraphed me from Cairo. The 
envelope came addressed, " Jessup American Machinery," a new 
way of spelling missionary. When one thinks of the multiplicity 
of duties devolving upon a missionary, the title seems not inap- 
propriate. There are wheels within wheels and revolutions with- 
out number, and the wonder is that with translation, editing, 
importing, accounting, preaching, teaching, itinerating, visiting, 
the machinery does not give out and the men die prematurely. 
But for the oil of grace freely supplied to the running gear, no 
man could survive it long. 

One of the most epoch making books of the last decade of 
progress is " The Emancipation of Woman," by Judge Kasim 
Beg Arnin, counsellor of the court of appeals in Cairo, Egypt, 
and a second work, " The New Woman." This brilliant author 
and judge was one of the lights of the New Egypt, and a broad- 
minded, liberal man, but died suddenly April, 1908, aged forty- 
two years. The following extracts from the book will show that 
the Moslem world is going to be roused from its slumber of ages 
by its own sons. 

Sir William Muir in writing to me under date of May 15, 1901, 
quotes from a letter addressed to him by a correspondent as fol- 

" ( . . . I am forwarding an Arabic book which will be of 
interest to you. It is causing a great sensation in Moslem cir- 
cles. Its author, Kasim Beg Amm, of Cairo, is a well-known 
Moslem counsellor of the court of appeals. In 1889 he wrote a 
book called " Tahrir al Mir'at," advocating the emancipation of 
the women of Egypt, their education, and admission into the 
same rights and privileges as European women enjoy. It raised 
a perfect storm of opposition, the Ulema and Fikaha, the big- 
oted and ignorant section of the community, being especially 
bitter in their attacks on the book and its author. They ac- 
cused him of being an unbeliever, an enemy of Islam, and guilty 
of propagating ideas contrary to the precepts of the Koran. In 
reply to these denouncements and in justification of his views, he 

p 2 


-S i 

w 5 

H ^ 

EH cd 


The New Woman 70! 

has just published a second book, called " Al Mir'at el Jadidah," 
or " The New Woman." In the preface he gives the sheikhs 
of the Azhar such a proof of his mettle as they are not likely to 
forget soon, every word he writes is so true : and, to add to their 
consternation, the mufti and other enlightened leaders of Islam in 
Cairo are inclined to support these revolutionary views/ 

" What Kasim Beg advocates is the training of the coming 
generation to take that place in the home and social circle which 
the woman in Europe occupies. He says : 

" If this is accomplished, and the woman instead of being the 
slave of the man, becomes his equal, his companion, friend and 
counsellor, the manager of his house, the educator and trainer 
of his children, Kasim Beg is certain that the movement will be 
one of the greatest events that has happened in the history of 

" The principal obstacle to the education of woman is, without 
doubt, the state of seclusion in which she is condemned to-day to 
live. While this custom prevails nothing can be accomplished." 

The author of these books shows that the veil and separation 
of men and women are not creations of the Koran, but have been 
enjoined because they have been thought to have an extraordi- 
nary influence on morality. The result he proves to be entirely 
the opposite, and he proceeds : 

" Here, too, as elsewhere, the charm of prohibiting produces a 
result contrary to its object. 

" Humiliating to the woman, detrimental to her health and 
morals, wounding the dignity of man himself in the sense of the 
reciprocal distrust which attaches to them, it has degraded our 
customs, and condemns our primitive precautions, which are re- 
pulsive to every cultivated mind. 

" If we raise woman by giving her education and liberty, we 
may be able to change the whole history of Egypt, and possibly 
of all the East. This is a question of life and death for us, and 
for all Mussulmans, because the misfortune of the East is not, in 
my opinion, a religious problem as generally understood. That 
does not mean to say that our religion has not undergone a de- 

702 The Whitening Fields 

formation which requires some reforms. But if our religion has 
been degraded it is because our character has been lowered. The 
great subject the subject of subjects is in connection solely or 
principally with the education of ^voman. 

" We cannot seriously change our social state before changing 
that of our family. Religious and moral instruction, which are so 
generally extolled and praised by us as a remedy for our misfor- 
tune, would not produce the desired effect. It is not sufficient 
alone that grain should be good in order to germinate ; it requires 
also to light upon favourable soil. But this favourable soil will 
be always lacking as long as woman is unable to prepare the fu- 
ture welfare of her children. A common saying among us is : 
* Woman should never leave her home till borne from it to her 

' The changes which I would urge upon my countrymen are : 

"I. Let the women be educated. -.-..^^ 

" 2. Accord to them the liberty of their acts, their thoughts, 
and their sentiments. 

" 3, Give to marriage its dignity by adopting, as its base, the 
reciprocal inclination of both parties, which is impossible if they 
do not see each other before marriage. 

" 4. Make regulations in regard to the husband's right of re- 
pudiation ; give the same right to the wife. Make it in all cases 
a solemn act which cannot validly take place except before a 
tribunal, and after having been preceded by an attempt at con- 

" 5. Prohibit polygamy by law." 

In one passage the author exclaims, " Why is it, my brethren 
of Islam, that I cannot allow my own brother to see the face of 
my wife? Why do we never trust one another or trust our 
women ? Is it because we are inferior to the Christian nations 
of Europe and America whose women go unveiled and are trusted 
and honoured ? Are we so degraded that no one can trust an- 

" Why do we boast of the virtue of our women and at the 
same time claim that they can only be kept so by the force of 

F. B. Meyer at Brumman^ 

watchmen, the strength of locks and bolts, and the height of our 
walls ? Is it not strange that not a man among us trusts his wife 
no matter how long she has been married? Is it not a shame 
that we imagine that our mothers, daughters, and wives do not 
know how to protect their own honour? Is all this suspicion 
consistent with our own self-respect ? 

" Our only relief is in family training and the moral and intel- 
lectual education of our girls." 

In speaking of polygamy, he is very eloquent and severe. He 
says, " Polygamy produces jealousy, hatred, intrigue, crimes in- 
numerable, and great suffering. My critics claim that women in 
the hareems are happy. How do they know ? Have they any 
statistics of hareem life ? " 

On August 12, 1901, the second conference of Christian work- 
ers in the Turkish Empire was conducted in Brummana, Mount 
Lebanon, by Rev. F. B. Meyer of London. Mr. Meyer's pres- 
ence was Inspiring. He spoke twice a day for seven days, and 
missionaries from all parts of the empire occupied the rest of the 
time. It was a season of heart-searching, of uplifting, and new 
self-dedication to Christ. I took full notes of his addresses and 
translated them all into Arabic for our weekly Neshrah. 

A part of our company had been travelling before the confer- 
ence along the upper backbone range of Lebanon and ascended 
to the summit of Jebel Sunnin, 8,600 feet above the sea. On 
that day, we at Aleih and Brummana were enveloped in thick 
clouds and fog. On their arrival we asked them how they suc- 
ceeded in climbing the heights of Sunnin on that cloudy day. 
They replied, " Clouds ? We had no clouds. We were above 
the clouds and saw the fleecy masses far below us. We were in 
a cloudless sky. We could see the Cedar Mountains on the 
north, Hermon on the south, and all the high ranges. Only 
you, who were lower down, were in clouds and darkness/' 

So at Brummana we felt that for a season we were above the 
clouds, high up in the clear sunshine of the Saviour's presence. 
The Lord bless Frederick B. Meyer ! 

The Whitening Fields 

His visit will never be forgotten. His teachings will be re- 
echoed along the Bosphorus and the Black Sea, the Orontes, the 
Jordan, and the Nile. He has left seed thoughts which will 
germinate and bring forth blessed fruit on the plains of Galatia 
and Cilicia, of Syria and Palestine, and in the fertile soil of 

Among the features of this conference was a question box, in 
which about one hundred answered the question, " What is the 
ideal missionary ? " 

In more than one instance sanctified common sense was held 
up as the threefold essential One, whose ideal, like George Fox 
in his leather suit, preferred the plain and practical, wrote briefly, 
" (i) A warm heart. (2) A hard head. (3) A thick skin." 
With another, it was the case of" right relationship (l) with God, 
as loyal ambassadors ; (2) with others, by the exercise of tact and 
common sense ; (3) with oneself, by observing in all physical and 
intellectual matters a due proportion between work and relax- 
ation, so as neither to burn out nor rust out" 

Other fundamental requisites were an adequate knowledge 
of the language ; knowledge of the problems of his field ; a 
trained and experienced mind ; one who cultivates his mind to 
the best of his power ; mighty in the Scriptures, fully acquainted 
with the Word of God ; thoroughly acquainted with the Bible, 
history, human nature, and especially his own self; giving con- 
stant thought to whatever things are true, honest, just, pure, 
lovely, and of good report ; having an experimental knowledge 
of the Scriptures and of the way of salvation ; sure of the ultimate 
triumph of the Gospel, He knows how to set other people to 

1. Surrender of the will; desiring not to be ministered unto 
but to minister, emptied of self ; a man with a single purpose, to 
glorify God ; unadvertised self-denial. 

2. Filled with the spirit, and much in prayer and in interces- 
sion on behalf of others ; in constant communion with the Lord. 

A sent one, ever about his Father's business ; a witness to what 
the Holy Spirit has shown him of the Lord Jesus ; a strong be- 

A Missionary's Requisites 705 

lief that God will have all men to be saved ; such a belief in the 
possibilities of human nature that he will never be discouraged ; 
ever striving to find the angel in the rough block of marble ; 
looking always on the bright side of people, events, and circum- 
stances ; with God's love shed abroad in the heart by the Holy 
Ghost till His love streams over all barriers and covers all for 
whom Christ died ; a love to Christ so deep in the heart that it 
will make him tender, patient, forgiving, and winning to all; 
copying the Master in every way, Christlike. 

Among other not to be despised requirements were humour, 
good humour, such a sense of humour as will save him and his 
efforts from getting into ridiculous situations ; the power of living 
at peace with all men without sacrificing right principles. Over 
and over again reference was made to tact, courtesy, common 
sense, " plenty of common sense," " good common sense," " sanc- 
tified common sense," " consecrated common sense." 

Sympathy in like manner was frequently insisted on, and 
specialized as broad, loving, whole-hearted, unaffected ; a sym- 
pathy that wins the love and confidence of those among whom 
one works. 

Again, the missionary keeps near his fellow missionaries and 
works harmoniously with them. The same spirit enables him to 
understand the people, sympathize with them, and to live Christ 
among them. Further, he should be a man of magnetic charm ; 
of enthusiasm ; interested in every person he meets, he should have 
an open mind and be able to deal with new developments. He 
is " made all things to all men that he may win some " ; and yet 
he is able to stand alone leaning on God's arm. He has a cor- 
rect sense of proportion, enabling him to see first things that are 
first, and to choose always what gives glory to Christ. He lives 
up to what he preaches. The life of the ideal missionary like a 
planetary orbit is thus constantly under the influence of its two 
foci consecration to God and service to man. 

In reply to an invitation to be present at the Hi-Centennial of 
Yale, I wrote to the president and fellows of Yale University : 

706 The Whitening Fields 


I am in receipt of your invitation to me to be present at the cele- 
bration of the two hundredth anniversary of the founding of Yale Col- 
lege, on October 2oth. 

I should esteem it an honour and a privilege to be present, did not 
duty to my work in Syria prevent my being absent at that time. 

I congratulate you all on this auspicious day, and as a loyal son of 
Yale, permit me to say that we missionary sons of alma mater look to 
her to train the missionaries of the future. A noble band have gone 
forth from Yale to plant Christian institutions in distant lands. 

On my arrival here in February, 1856, one of the first men to greet 
me was Eli Smith, a Yale graduate of 1821. He was then engaged in 
that monumental work, the translation of the Bible into the Arabic lan- 
guage, which Dr. Cornelius Van Dyck took up on Dr. Smith's death, 
January n, 1857, a work which has forever connected the name of 
Yale with the spiritual enlightenment of tens of millions of our race. 

Dr. Eli Smith's son is now an honoured professor in Yale. 

The sons of Yale are scattered over the earth, but more of them are 
needed. The missionary work to-day calls, as never before, for men 
thoroughly equipped, highly educated, broad-minded, level-headed. Is 
Yale doing her whole duty in this great mission of American Christianity ? 
Yale was founded to train men for the Church and the world and not 
merely for the " American Nation. 1 ' 

Would it not be well to put on record at this great anniversary what 
Yale has done in planting Christianity and a Christian civilization in 
Asia, Africa, and Polynesia? Is Yale keeping pace with the great work 
entrusted by our divine Master to Christian America? Is she sending 
more men into the world's harvest field now that she has 2,500 students, 
than when she had only 600 ? 

May the Yale of the new century be preeminent for liberal learning, 
sanctified science, and self-denying consecration to the highest spiritual 
welfare of the whole brotherhood of man ! 

Invoking the divine blessing upon you, Mr. President, son of my old 
professor, upon you, the fellows, among whom is a beloved classmate, 
and upon all the alumni and students of Yale who may be so fortunate 
as to be present at this two hundredth anniversary, I am ever, 
Yours loyally and lovingly, 


Of the Class o/xSj/* 

A Hold-Up 707 

My brother Samuel recently had an unusual experience when 
travelling in the mountains west of Mount Herrnon. In riding 
through a lonely valley, he met several Moslem horsemen. One 
of them, an aged man, dismounted and stepping forward seized 
the bridle of my brother's horse, exclaiming, " I shall not let go 
this bridle until you give me what I ask." My. brother said, 
" What do you ask ? " He replied, " Years ago you sent a teacher 
to my village, Belott, and my son Khalil attended the school. It 
made a new boy of him. He became a Christian, and now I want 
you to send another teacher to instruct and train my younger 
sons. I am a Moslem, but I want them to be Christians like 
their brother Khalil. Now do not refuse rne. If you do, I shall 
hold you responsible. Ere long we shall both stand before the 
judgment bar of God. If you do not give us a teacher and my 
boys grow up ignorant, God will say to me, ' Why did you neg- 
lect these sons ? ' And I will reply, ' I wanted them taught the 
right way, but this man, Dr. Jessup, would not send us a teacher. 
He is responsible/ " My brother explained the extreme difficulty 
of getting the means to carry on so many schools, but said 
he would see what could be done. Then said the sheikh, " We 
will gladly pay a part, only tell us what we should pay." 

My brother writes that he was never addressed in that way 
before by a Moslem. Truly the Lord is opening the way to the 
hearts of the people. 

When the college was founded, its board of trustees and local 
board of managers, or executive committee, adopted a declaration 
of religious belief, being the brief creed of the Evangelical Alli- 
ance. This embraced " the divine inspiration, authority, and 
sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures : the right and duty of private 
judgment in the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures : the unity 
of the Godhead and the Trinity of the Persons therein : the utter 
depravity of human nature in consequence of the fall : the incar- 
nation of the Son of God, His work of atonement for the sins of 
mankind, and His mediatorial intercession and reign : the justifi- 
cation of the sinner by faith alone : the work of the Holy Spirit 

708 The Whitening Fields 

in the conversion and sanctification of the sinner: the immortality 
of the soul, the resurrection of the body, the judgment of the 
world by our Lord Jesus Christ, with the blessedness of the 
righteous, and the eternal punishment of the wicked ; the divine 
institution of the Christian ministry and the obligation and perpe- 
tuity of the ordinances of baptism and the Lord's Supper, and 
the sacredness of the Lord's day which is to be duly honoured : 
the whole body of evangelical doctrine as contained in the 
inspired Word of God, and represented in the consensus of 
Protestant creeds, as opposed to the erroneous teachings of the 
Romish and Eastern Churches, We also declare our hearty 
sympathy with, and pledge our active cooperation in advancing, 
the chief aim of this institution, which as a missionary agency is 
to train up young men in the knowledge of Christian truth, and 
if possible secure their Intelligent and hearty acceptance of the 
Bible as the Word of God and of Christ as the only Saviour, and 
at the same time inspire them with high moral purposes and 
consecrated aims in life. 

" We further pledge ourselves to the inculcation of sound and 
reverent views of the relation of God to the natural universe, as 
its Creator and Supreme Ruler, and to give instruction in the 
special department assigned to us, in the spirit and method best 
calculated to conserve the teachings of revealed truth and demon- 
strate the essential harmony between the Bible and all true sci- 
ence and philosophy. 

" In view of the responsibility of the instruction of the young, 
and the influence of personal example, we recognize the im- 
portance of unusual care in maintaining a high standard of Chris- 
tian consistency in life and conduct with reference to all the 
moral questions of the day." 

This continued in force for years, until it was gradually disused 
and new professors and tutors came out to the college who had 
never been required to assent to it. On the election of a new 
president in 1902, the board of trustees in New York, probably 
in view of the fact that a number of the faculty had never been 
asked to sign the declaration, decided to set it aside entirely as 

Arthur J. Brown 709 

no longer needed, and it was decided to require it no longer as a 
condition of appointment to the college faculty. As long as the 
trustees, who appoint the faculty and staff, continue to be ortho- 
dox Christian men, who use the most scrupulous care in the se- 
lection of candidates, there will be no danger " to the soundness 
and high character of the staff of instruction," but the abolition 
of the declaration has never commended itself to the missionaries 
of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. 

The board of managers, finding their services no longer needed 
by reason of the number, high character, and experience of the 
faculty, who were able to decide all questions of importance in 
correspondence with the trustees, decided to disband July 9, 1902, 
and the whole responsibility, which had been nominally dis- 
tributed over a body of some twenty missionaries, was now 
thrown upon the trustees and faculty. The missionaries con- 
tinue in warm support and cooperation with the college, preach 
in its pulpit and conform the system of training in their high 
schools to the requisitions of the college. 

On March 21, 1902, Rev. A. J. Brown, D. D., and Mrs. Brown, 
after two days in the Beirut quarantine, reached our house in 
good health and spirits, evidently none the worse for their long 
journey, visiting the missions in Japan, China, Korea, Philippines, 
Siam, India, and Egypt A more indefatigable worker we have not 
seen. During the thirty-six days of his stay in Syria, he visited 
all our mission stations besides Damascus and Jerusalem, attended 
a full week's mission meeting with three sessions a day, discussing 
questions of vital importance, asking questions and taking copious 
notes, attending receptions, making addresses in the college, the 
church, and the various meetings, and at the same time burning 
midnight oil in writing up his official reports on the Philippines* 
Siam, and India. He attended the memorial service for Miss 
Eliza D. Everett, who died in February, and was present April 
1 9th at the seventieth birthday picnic of the writer, when a special 
car on the little steam tramway took our whole American com- 
njunity to the Dog Riv^r, where? we inspected the ancient tablets 

7 10 The Whitening Fields 

of Esarhaddon, Rameses, and Nebuchadnezzar, and had our basket 
lunch in the riverside khan. 

His visit to Syria was not only instructive to us, by reason of 
his wide observation of mission work in eastern and southern 
Asia, but his religious character, strong faith, and intelligent en- 
thusiasm were inspiring to us all We all felt that his presence in 
our homes was a blessing to us and to our children and our chil- 
dren's children. In Dr. Brown there was no tinge of official 
authority. He was one of us and the " Secretary " was lost in 
the man. 

On Saturday, April 25th, he sailed for America, accompanied 
by Mrs. Brown, Dr. Samuel Jessup, and his daughter Fanny, my 
daughter Anna, Mr. and Mrs. Doolittle and two children, and 
Miss Gertrude Moore. He occupied the time of the voyage 
writing notes of his Syrian visit and the various questions of 
policy agreed upon at our meetings, reached America in time for 
the General Assembly, and during the summer was prostrated 
by a long illness resultant from the overtaxing of his physical 

Just before his visit there was a religious awakening in the 
girls' boarding-school and thirteen young women declared their 
acceptance of Christ as their Saviour. There was also unusual 
interest in the college and in the Suk Boarding-School, In 
Adana, Asia Minor, there was a Pentecostal work of the Spirit. 
The two Protestant churches were crowded every night and some 
of the worst characters in the city were converted. The annual 
report of the mission for 1901 shows an addition to the churches 
on profession of faith of 151, a record year. 

In January the trustees in New York of the St. Paul's Insti- 
tute in Tarsus, founded by the late Col. Elliot F. Shepard, 
requested our mission to take over the institute as a part of the 
Presbyterian Mission in Syria. After careful consideration, we 
declined the offer and recommended that it be transferred to the 
American Board of Missions in Boston: ist, because it is within 


The Reaper at Work 711 

the limits of their mission field ; 2d, the language of the pupils 
and of the school is Turkish and not Arabic ; 3d, it is too far 
from Syria to insure proper supervision ; 4th, we have enough 
high literary institutions already under our care; 5th, it would 
not be true missionary comity for us to invade the field of another 
society; 6th, although Colonel Shepard, who founded and endowed 
the institute, was a Presbyterian, he was a broad-minded man, and 
the transfer to the American Board would be only an illustration 
and fulfillment of his own Christian liberality. 

Our recommendation was adopted and that interesting school 
Is now under the wise supervision of the Central Turkey Mission 
and presidency of Rev. Dr. Christie. 

The election of Rev. Howard S. Bliss to succeed his father, 
Dr. Daniel Bliss, by the New York trustees, on nomination of 
the Syrian resident board of managers at their meeting January 
1 3th, met with general approbation. He arrived in Beirut with 
his family November nth, and entered at once upon his duties. 

During this year several persons well known in Syria Mission 
circles passed away. 

In February Miss Eliza D. Everett, for twenty-five years prin- 
cipal of the Beirut Girls' Seminary, died in Chicago. March 1 3th, 
Miss Meleta Carabet, one of Mrs. Whiting's .pupils and daughter 
of Bishop Carabet, one of the earliest Protestant converts in Syria, 
entered into rest For many years she taught in various schools 
and then served for fifteen years in the British post-office. 

November 2/th my infant granddaughter, Martha Day, died 
in Beirut, and about the same time my old teacher and pupil^ 
Rev. Elias Saadeh, pastor of the Syrian Evangelical Church in 
New York, died in Brooklyn, aged about sixty. 

During the special meeting of the Syria Mission, April i8th 
to 25th, to confer with Dr. Brown, the Rev. Wm. Bird, the vet- 
eran missionary of Abeih, Mount Lebanon, was a guest at our 
house, but so prostrated by a mortal rpalady that h$ w^s only 

712 The Whitening Fields 

able to attend a few of the sessions. Mrs. Bird and Miss Emily 
Bird were with him, and when I was obliged, May 1 5th, to re- 
move to Aleih in Mount Lebanon, to teach in the Suk theo- 
logical class, they all remained in our house until his decease^ 
August 3Oth. He had the best of medical attention from 
Dr. Geo. Post, his physician, and of faithful nursing, but nothing 
could arrest the fatal disease. 

He died August 30, 1902, aged seventy-nine years and thirteen 
days, having been born August 17, 1823, the same day and the 
same year with Dr. Daniel Bliss, who survives him. His sick- 
room was a Bethel and none visited him without receiving a 
benediction and a heavenward impulse. 

On August 3Oth I wrote to Dr. A. J. Brown as follows : 

" This morning at 12 : 30 the Nestor and patriarch of our mis- 
sion, Rev. William Bird, entered into rest He has hardly left 
the room in my house in which you bade him farewell April 26th. 
The long struggle with disease, aggravated by the infirmities of 
age, is at an end. He has gained the victory and now wears the 
victor's crown. 

" This morning at sunrise, we in Aleih looked through the 
telescope at a certain window in my house in Beirut for a pre- 
arranged signal. For three months we had looked daily for that 
signal seven miles away, but this morniug the black cloth hung 
from the window, and we knew that Mr. Bird had fallen asleep. 
We at once sent word to the families in Aleih and Suk el Gharb, 
and Mrs. Jessup, Dr. Frederick J. Bliss, our guest, and I drove 
down to Beirut Mr. Hardin had already been two days in 
Beirut, and was with Mrs. Bird and Miss Emily Bird when the 
end came. 

" He fell asleep as gently as an infant, without a struggle, a fit 
ending of a beautiful life. 

" The funeral services were held at the house and church at 
3 * 3 and 4 o'clock p. M., and were conducted by Rev. Dr. Geo. 
E. Post of the Syrian Protestant College, Rev. Dr. Mackie of the 
of Scotland Mission^ Rev. O. J, Hfcrdjn, R$v ? F. W. 

"They Do Rest in Their Graves" 713 

March, Rev. Asaad Abdullah, Syrian pastor, and Rev. Dr. H. EL 
Jess up. 

" He was buried in the old mission cemetery below the press, 
where lie buried Pliny Fisk, Whiting, Eli Smith, William Cal- 
houn, Wood, Danforth, Dale, Van Dyck, and Eddy, and many 
Christian women and little children. Not far from his grave are 
the graves of his two infant brothers who died in 1825 and 1826. 

" Rev. Wm. Bird was born in Malta, August 17, 1823, when his 
parents, Rev. and Mrs. Isaac Bird, were on their way to Syria, 
They reached Syria November 16, 1823. On May 2, 1828, as war 
was imminent between England and Turkey, all the missionaries 
left Syria for Malta. The following year the missionaries laboured 
there in connection with the Arabic Press, which was started 
there in 1822, and Mr. Isaac Bird explored the Barbary States in 

" May I, 1830, the missionaries returned to Beirut, and were met 
at the ship's side by the entire Protestant community of the 
Turkish Empire, i. e., six persons (now there are nearly 90,000). 

" In 1836 Rev. I. Bird returned to America on account of the 
health of his family, arriving October I5th. 

" William studied with his father and graduated at Dartmouth 
College. He also taught in his father's high school in Hartford, 
Conn., and taught arithmetic to a lad named J. Pierpont Morgan, 
whose attainments in addition and multiplication are just now 
astonishing the world. 

"On June 19, 1853, Rev. Wm. Bird and his wife, Sarah F. 
Bird, arrived in Beirut. He went at once to Mount Lebanon, 
and has been stationed in two places, Abeih and Deir el Komr. 
For forty-nine years he has been an itinerant missionary, riding 
over the heights and ravines of Lebanon and over the plain of the 
Bookaa between Mount Hermon and Baalbec. At times he has 
had as many as fifty-eight schools under his superintendence, all 
Bible schools, where boys and girls were taught the Bible and the 
rudiments of a simple education, and in the high schools were 
carried on the higher branches of study. He was most faithful 
and exact in examining the children. He loved them and was be- 

714 The Whitening Fields 

loved by them and thousands to-day remember Mr. Bird as their 
childhood's friend. 

"As a preacher he was eminently evangelical and earnest, speak- 
ing from the heart and to the heart, and his fluency in Arabic 
brought him very close to the people in their houses, in private 
conversation as well as in village preaching. 

" At the same time, he had decidedly scientific tastes, and made 
a unique collection of the fossil shells of the Lebanon cretaceous 
limestone and the Jura deposit of Mejdel Shems south of Mount 
Hermon. As he rode over the desolate gorges of Lebanon, the 
monotony of the ride was relieved by an eye eager to observe the 
geological strata and the wonderful paleontological remains. His 
collection of fossils is now in the museum of the Syrian Protestant 
College in Beirut, and scientific men of Europe and America have 
attached his name to rare fossils of his discovery, 

" One day during his illness he said, * Should it please the Lord 
to raise me up from this sick bed, how I would preach ! I would 
beseech men to come to Christ and it seems to me that I could 
preach with a power that I never knew before/ I said to him, 
< My dear brother, you have always preached with your whole 
heart and oftentimes with tears. How could you preach with 
more unction and earnestness than before ? ' < I know it/ said 
he, < but I have had such a vision of Christ and of men's need of 
a Saviour that I am sure I could preach wittijpower.' 

" But it was not the Lond's will that he should speak again from 
the pulpit. ' He being dead, yet speaketh/ His life has been 
one of seed sowing, and holding forth salvation in Christ. 

" Mr. Wm. Bird was constantly thrown into contact with the old 
traditional sects of Syria and was mighty in the Scriptures and in 
full sympathy with his father's abhorrence of papal superstitions. 
H has led many to the light and now has gone to see the Great 
Prophet, Priest and King in His beauty. We shall not soon see 
his like again/' 

The grief of the people of Southern Lebanon knew no bounds. 
When the funeral memorial service was held in his old home in 

Our Mr. Bird 

Abeih, It was the day of the annual " Feast of the Cross," a kind 
of Fourth of July celebration with fireworks, firing of guns, and 
ringing of bells. But the Maronite priest gave orders, '* Let not 
a bell be rung, not a fire be kindled, nor a gun fired this day* 
Our Mr. Bird has died." 

The writer preached a memorial sermon in Beirut, Abeih, and 
Deir el Komr and everywhere the people felt that a prince had 
died in Israel. The Druse begs of Abeih, after the service, 
formally requested that Mrs. Bird and Miss Emily might remain 
among them to bless them by their teaching and example. 

In April, a Greek monk, Athanasius, called to see me. He 
said he had been secretary to the Greek Patriarch Melatius in 
Damascus, and that he had met my brother Samuel in Sidon* 
His father in Nazareth begged him to abjure monasticism and 
come home but he declined. He stated that twelve other Greek 
monks were ready to doff their cowls and robes and become 
Protestants, of whom three were in Beirut. He then left me, 
ostensibly to go to Tripoli and join the other nine. The next I 
heard was in a letter from him and his three conferres in 
Marseilles in which he told the extraordinary story that the agent 
of the Greek patriarch seized him here in the street and induced 
the Turkish police to banish him and his three companions to 
Marseilles, and that they were all penniless and starving, and un- 
less I sent them at once money for their return to Beirut, the 
three would commit suicide and the sin rest on me ! Now, as 
the Greek patriarch cannot exile men, and their'passage to Mar- 
seilles would be four Napoleons ($16) each, which the'patriarch 
would not be likely to pay for such tramps, I did not believe their 
story, yet, out of pity, I sent them forty francs to buy bread and 
declined to pay their passage, as it was thought here that they 
were en route for America. 

Then I received a letter from Prof. Dr. Lucien Gautier, of the 
Protestant Theological School in Geneva, stating that Athanasius 
had appeared there and asked to be admitted as a student of 
theology, but they had declined and had aided in paying his fare 

716 The Whitening Fields 

back to Marseilles. If the same credulous and over-trustful spirit 
still prevails in Princeton as existed in 1880-1882, we may yet 
hear of this man's supplying churches in New Jersey and then 

turning, as did one M , and cursing the faculty who had 

borne with him and taught him gratuitously. It is a fact that in 
some of our theological seminaries there is less strictness as to 
credentials of candidates from the ends of the earth than as to 
those brought up in our home churches, colleges and presby- 

Professor Gautier did right to shake off this monkish tramp. 

In August, our attention was called to the importance of 
bookkeeping as a part of a missionary's preparation, and I wrote 
to reiterate what had often been written before, that every young 
missionary candidate should have some definite instruction in 
bookkeeping. No young man going out can tell how soon he 
may have thrust upon him the accounts of a large station, with 
banking, cashing drafts, balancing complicated accounts, etc. 
The ordinary " sundry " accounts of theological students of ten 
cents for peanuts and soda water do not exactly qualify a young 
man for keeping the accounts of an entire station. A few weeks' 
course in a commercial college would be of more value than an 
equal time spent in almost any other form of preparation. 

In October, we gave diplomas in Suk el Gharb to six theo- 
logical students, all of whom gave promise of usefulness. That is 
doing well for Syria. I noticed in the statistics of Princeton 
University for 1 90 1 that 305 graduated. One year later, they 
had chosen professions. Business, one hundred and sixty-one ; 
law, thirty-five ; medicine, twenty-five ; teaching, twenty-three } 
theology, four. What a showing that is ! What is the matter 
with Princeton, and of what use a million and a half for the 
theological seminary, if students are not forthcoming? Our 
Beirut College does not make a much better show. Very few of 
its hundreds of graduates have become preachers of the Gospel. 
They are attracted by flattering prospects of business and profes- 

Cook's Tourists 717 

slonal success in Egypt and swept away by the tide of emigra- 
tion. The English language, as the language of the Syrian 
Protestant College, is, for the present at least, unfitting men to be 
the humble pastors of Protestant Arabic-speaking churches in 
Syria. Dr. Anderson in 1863 said that he feared the effect of an 
English education upon Syrian candidates for the ministry. Still, 
it is true that godly Syrian pastors who know enough English to 
use English commentaries and other books are broader men and 
last longer than those with a mere vernacular training. When 
the tide of emigration turns and we have a reformed Syria, there 
will be a supply of well-trained men coming back from America. 
Already, three of our pastors are returned emigrants, who have 
seen enough to satisfy them with foreign life and customs and are 
reconciled to a humble post in their dear native land. 

We were favoured this summer with a visit from Dr. and Mrs. 
Albert Erdman of Morristown. We were refreshed by their pres- 
ence in our mountain home, with their son Paul Erdman and the 
little motherless grandson, Frederick, who was the joy of all our 

Syrian missionaries are greatly favoured by meeting so many 
good and eminent friends from America, owing to this land 
being the Gate of Palestine and the resort of Christian tourists. 

Sometimes American tourists come here who do not seem to 
know why they came to Palestine. One man said it was an im- 
position for Cook to advertise Palestine tours, as there is not a 
first-class hotel in the land ! A young lady from America was 
shown through the college. In the geological museum, she 
paused before the case of fossil fish from Lebanon, and re- 
marked to the professor, who was her guide, " Ah, how beautiful. 
I suppose these are the work of the students ! " She evidently 
thought they were etchings on stone. 

About forty years ago, a broad-brimmed, brown-bearded 
Californian came into the American consulate, took a chair, and 

putting his feet on the table, remarked to Consul J , " I suppose 

you are the counsel." " Yes, I am the consul." " Well, you see, I 

718 The Whitening Fields 

always stops on the counsels when Fm travelling." Mr. J- 

said, " Sir, I will give you any advice you need, but this is an 
office and I do not run a hotel." The man then said, " Can you 
tell me how much they charge for deck passage on a mule to 

Damascus ? " Mr. J told the kavass to inquire and the man 

went his way. 

But while a few of the tourists are eccentric, the great body 
are intelligent, cultivated lovers of the Bible and deeply inter- 
ested in Bible lands. 

On the i gth of December, brother Samuel Jessup of Sidon ar- 
rived from America bringing with him our new missionary, Miss 
O. M. Home. They had a violently rough passage on a small 
Italian boat from Naples to Smyrna, and at times were in peril. 
It was the more trying to Samuel, as he had suffered on the 
North German Lloyd steamer, just before reaching Naples, from 
ptomaine poisoning from canned meat. Several of the passengers 
were seriously ill from the same cause. The " Jungle " had not 
then been written, and greed for gain suffered packers to trifle 
with the lives and health of the public. 

Dr. Samuel reached Beirut in time for the closing session of 
the annual meeting of the mission, and after a brief visit, left for 
Sidon, just in time for the funeral of the saintly Mrs. Mary Perry 
Ford, mother of Dr. George Ford. 

My Latest Furlough Years 1903-1904 

THE year 1903 opened with cholera in Damascus and 
traffic on the railway stopped on account of cordons. 
There was an unusual interest in the week of prayer in 
college and church in Beirut. 

Having prepared, with the able assistance of Mr. Haurani, a 
commentary on the Pentateuch based on Ellicott, I was per- 
plexed by being unable to find Volume I of the Arabic manuscript. 
We searched my library, the theological class library, where I 
had used it with the class, and also the manuscript case in the 
press, but in vain. Later a letter came from Yebrud, on the road 
from Damascus to Palmyra, from a student, saying that he found 
the book in his chest on reaching home, and had sent it to 
Damascus ; so after the cholera cordon was removed, it was for- 
warded to me to my great relief. The preparation of books in 
Arabic is laborious, and before printing, we have to prepare 
three copies in manuscript, two of which we must send to Con- 
stantinople to the public censor of the Bureau of Public Instruc- 
tion. He examines it, returns a corrected copy to us and retains 
one in his library. We have to print from the corrected copy, 
and before issuing the book after printing, we send a volume 
back to Constantinople to be compared with the manuscript. 
This naturally costs the censor and his aids immense labour, and 
us immense patience. 

When one sees the scandalous vituperation and the exposures 
of abominable crimes in the " yellow press " of New York and 
Chicago, he can almost feel reconciled to the Turkish restrictions 
on the press. It is inconvenient and often expensive to have a 
manuscript detained in Constantinople for a year, but then in the 
East, time is a negligible factor in most matters, and one gets 

used to waiting. 


720 My Latest Furlough 

In February, Mr. Samuel Dennis of New York, a trustee of the 
college, spent a month here and went through all the depart- 
ments of the college with the keen scrutiny of an experienced 
business man and gave many useful suggestions to the faculty 
and wise counsels in addresses to the students. 

March 8th Professor Day, professor of geology in the college, 
was requested by Muzaffar Pasha, Governor of Lebanon, to pro- 
ceed to Akoura, a village in the heights of Lebanon, situated at 
the foot of a cliff a thousand feet high, and report upon a land- 
slide which threatened to overwhelm the village. He made a full 
report and received the thanks of the government. 

Before leaving for America, March, 1903, I went with Mrs. 
Jessup to visit Dr. Mary P. Eddy in her medical mission outpost 
at M'aamiltein, the terminus of the French tramway on the coast, 
twelve miles north of Beirut Her house and hospital are in the 
centre of the Maronite district of Kesrawan, the Spain of Syria, 
and the stronghold of papal superstition. Churches, chapels, 
monasteries, and nunneries abound. They are perched on the 
rugged mountain crags, and ensconced in the ravines and valleys. 
The monks and bishops own almost the entire landed property 
of this part of Lebanon and they have kept the people in abject 
and servile subjection. The most of the fellahin (farmers) are 
tenants of the ecclesiastics and the possession of a Bible or the 
suspicion of liberal <or Protestant sentiments will eject a man from 
his house and ruin his family. They have boasted that no Prot- 
estant could live north of the Dog River. When Dr. Mary 
leased her present house, the patriarch thundered against the 
landlord, but she had the wit and the grit to hold on, and now he 
declares that he will keep Dr. Mary as a tenant and enlarge or 
repair the house to suit her. The priests, monks, and nuns who 
raged against her, now come when ill to consult her and receive 
her treatment Her clinics are crowded by people from scores of 
villages. Her professional skill and mastery of the Arabic 
language with a thorough insight into the tastes and habits of the 

Mary Eddy Holds the Fort 721 

people have won their confidence. Later the patriarch proposed 
to use force and drive her back to Beirut, and the American 
consul-general, Mr. Leo. Bergholz, sent word to the pasha that 
Dr. Mary P. Eddy and Miss Holmes in Jebail were under the 
protection of the American flag and interference with them would 
not be tolerated. 

On March 1 5th, just before sailing for America, I conducted 
an Arabic preaching service in Beirut in the house of Miss Jessie 
Taylor. The congregation consisted of Moslem men and boys 
on the front seats, and in the rear, the Moslem and Druse girls 
of the school. My son William and I spoke to them in the 
plainest manner of the way of salvation through Jesus Christ, and 
the men leaned forward and listened with close attention and fre- 
quent signs of approbation. The common people of Islam, in 
the cities and villages, would gladly hear the Gospel but for fear 
of their sheikhs and the government It is a fact that the gov- 
ernment in this land is a purely sectarian government, ruled by 
Moslems, its army and navy Moslem, its public schools Moslem, 
and its laws everywhere discriminating in favour of Moslems and 
against Christians and all others. Christianity has not a fair 
chance. Islam is exclusive, assumptive, and domineering where 
it has the power. But there are multitudes who are longing and 
praying for liberty of conscience and liberty of worship. 

On the loth of May, Rev. Howard S. Bliss, D. D., son of the 
Rev. Daniel Bliss, D. D., and for ten years pastor in Upper Mont- 
clair, N. J., was inaugurated as president of the Syrian Protestant 
College. The father, as president emeritus, after living in the 
Marquand House for over thirty years, moved outside the college 
campus, and the son, now president, moved in, a worthy succes- 
sor of his noble father. 

In resigning his office in July, 1902, Dr. Daniel Bliss rendered 
his thirty-sixth and final report to the board of managers, closing 
with the words, " With this report closes the first generation of 
College history. From a few rented rooms, we have reached the 

722 My Latest Furlough 

threshold of a university career. May the great work that calls 
the second generation be achieved in the fear of God." 

Whereupon the faculty passed the following minute : " We, 
the faculty, with hearts full of affection and love for our vener- 
able president, desire to express our gratification that, in health 
and strength beyond that usually given to men of eighty years, 
he has been permitted to lay down the burden he has so long 
and faithfully and so successfully borne. We pledge our loyalty 
to his son and successor. 

"July g, 1902" 

In March word was received that the honoured and saintly 
mother of Dr. D. Stuart Dodge, Mrs. William E. Dodge, Sr., had 
been summoned, after her long pilgrimage of ninety-four years, 
to the joys, privileges, reunions, and occupations of the heavenly 
life. The announcement was made at college evening prayers, 
and it was received by the great concourse of students with a 
hush of reverent sympathy. 

How well I recall my many visits to that Christian home on 
Murray Hill, from the year 1852, when I entered Union Semi- 
nary, until my last visit. She was a woman of great intellectual 
and spiritual power, full of good works, and full of intelligent in- 
terest in foreign missions. She visited Beirut several times and 
won the esteem and admiration of both the foreign and Syrian 

She was disinterested, generous, devout, and prayerful a 
model wife and mother. " Aunt Melissa/ 1 as she was called by a 
large number of nephews and nieces and friends, was a universal 
favourite. In her later years, when no longer able to walk to 
church, she rode in her wheeled chair, and continued to attend 
the house of God at an age when the aged are usually supposed 
to be too infirm to venture out. And the loving devotion and 
thoughtful attention of her son, Dr. Stuart, were most affecting. 
He was like husband, son, and daughter combined, tenderly an- 
ticipating every want There are few such mothers and few such 
I recall his early desire to b$ a foreign missionary 

A Noble Son Homeward Bound 

7 2 3 

and when God In His providence hedged up his way, he nobly 
sent his substitutes, not one but many, and no small part of the 
success of the Syrian Protestant College is due to his generous 
gifts and incessant labours. In selecting tutors for three years' 
service in the college, he has shown remarkable sagacity and 
knowledge of human nature. Only the revelations of the last 
great day will reveal the mighty influence for good exerted by 
the noble family of Hon. Wm. E. Dodge, Sr. 

Pursuant to a recent custom, favoured by the Board, I was 
adopted by the church in Kirkwood, Mo., as their missionary. I 
have kept up an intermittent correspondence with that church 
ever since. The relations between churches and their own mis- 
sionaries are very delightful. 

On the i6th of March, 1903, I sailed for America with Mrs. 
Jessup. Our furlough in Syria comes every eight years. Only 
those who have been engaged in exacting labours for a long 
period abroad can appreciate the feelings of one who treads the 
deck of a steamer homeward bound. A heavy load of responsi- 
bility and care seems to be lifted at once. The air is clearer, the 
sea more inspiring, and though the heart is divided between the 
adopted land and dear native land, the thought of a change and 
the anticipation of seeing once more the " land of the free " is 
enough to heal the sick and inspire and revitalize the weak. 

And then you are leaving the land of espionage and censorship 
and secret police and of political and ecclesiastical tyranny, at 
least for a time, and the thoughts reach forward and westward to 
a land which, with all its faults, is the best land the sun shines on. 

Now inhale the pure air, face the ocean gale, rise superior to 
the perils and discomforts of the sea for 

" Should the surges rise, 
And rest delay to come, 
Blest be the sorrow, kind the storm, 
Which drives us nearer home," 

We stayed a week in Naples, then on by North German Lloyd 
Steamship Molt fa, by Gibraltar aad the Azores then the Nan- 

724 My Latest Furlough 

tucket light-ship Fire Island, Sandy Hook, the Narrows the 
American flag waving everywhere, and the friends on the wharf 
and the reunions and the greetings, and even the uniformed cus- 
tom-house officials, though they overhaul the baggage, seem 
like blessings in disguise. 

(What a contrast between this voyage and my first Atlantic 
voyage in December, 1855, The steamship Moltke was of 
13,000 tons the bark Sultana was 300 tons ! The former was 
forty-tree times the size and tonnage of the latter !) 

There on the wharf, April I3th, were two sons and their 
wives, one daughter, two grandchildren, and other kindred, 
among them a brother-in-law, who has met me on the pier on 
every visit I have made to America. There were also Dr. Den- 
nis, Dr. A. Erdman, Dr. A. J. Brown, and my old friends, T. B. 
Meigs and Judge Vanderberg. 

We were the guests of my son, Henry W. Jessup, Esq., in 130th 
Street, and we certainly learned the length of New York City if 
not its breadth during the weeks we spent in that lovely home. 

A basket of lemons which we had picked from our own trees 
in Beirut and brought in cold storage were in perfect order on 
reaching New York. 

We made history rapidly the next few months. 

On the 2Oth met the members of the Board of Missions in 
their room at 156 Fifth Avenue; on the 2ist heard George 
Kennan and Professor Wright of Oberlin lecture on Siberia, at 
the Quill Club; then on the 23d and 24th to the old childhood 
homes of Mrs. Jessup and myself in Binghamton and Montrose; 
on the 28th attended the ordination of my youngest son, Fred- 
erick Nevins, by the Presbytery of Bath, as missionary to Persia, 
in the church of the Rev. Mr. Frost in Bath. I was asked to 
give him the charge, which I did with all my heart. 

I was glad to give the charge to my own son and to aid in 
setting him apart as a missionary to Persia. Why not Syria ? 
was the question of many, Frederick preferred to go farther 
afield than his childhood's home. My son William, who is a 
missionary in Syria, went to A.merica when he wa? two years 

A Blessed Charge to Service 725 

old and his coming to Syria was going to a foreign land. Fred- 
erick said going to Syria would be going on a home mission and 
he wanted to go to a foreign land as his father did in 1855. 

I felt a strong drawing towards Persia. It was through the 
burning eloquence of the sainted Stoddard of Persia that I 
received one of my early impulses towards foreign missionary 
work, during his visit to Yale College, his alma mater, during my 
freshman year. And in 1882-1883 I was nominated American 
Ambassador to Persia by President Arthur, and declined to go, 
as I could not give up my missionary work, and now it was a joy 
to see my youngest son going to that same land as an ambassa- 
dor of Jesus Christ As my youngest son, my Benjamin, it 
would have been agreeable to my parental heart to have him 
near me in my advancing years. The heart clings to the 
youngest, but I would not give to the Lord that which cost me 
nothing. Freely I gave him up and invoked for him the Sa- 
viour's benediction. He had been chosen as the special mission- 
ary of the churches of the Bath Presbytery and before sailing he 
visited them all. 

On the /th of May we attended his graduation at Auburn 

On May 1 3th Mrs. Jessup and I set out for the General As- 
sembly at Los Angeles, California, in " Car B of the special train, 
Assembly's tour/' It would require a volume to tell of that won- 
derful journey over mountain and plain ; of the inspiring meet- 
ing of the Assembly ; the great and good people we met ; and the 
spiritual uplift of that great meeting. And then, on the return 
journey, new perils in the great Kansas floods along the caving 
banks of the ^treacherous Missouri River, so that for twenty-four 
hours our train was reported lost in some unknown region among 
the floods, and our gratitude at getting safely over the St. Louis 
bridge and away from East St. Louis which was two-thirds under 

June 7th, after preaching in the Fifth Avenue Church, New 
York, a lady spoke to me and said that her grandmother gave a 

726 My Latest Furlough 

contribution to Levi Parsons, the first missionary to Palestine, in 

It took two elders and one clergymen to clothe me with the 
clerical gown in which to preach to that congregation. Gowns 
are eminently becoming and levelling, as a poor man looks as 
well as a rich man, but I have never yet possessed one. Our 
college professors in Beirut have adopted the hood, cap, and 
gown habit and on great occasions give the platform an air of 
rainbow-hued splendour. Yet they cannot vie with the Greek 
and Maronite clergy with their mitres and embroidered and 
jewelled robes. I once at a funeral in Beirut wore a black velvet 
study cap to protect my head from the cold wind as the service 
was in the open air. Dr. Post stood by me without a cap. The 
humble people at once decided that I was the bishop and Dr. 
Post only a priest or deacon ! 

June loth " we three " attended the conference of the Board's 
secretaries with the " outgoing " missionaries, among whom was 
our Frederick. It lasted a week and was about as useful to us 
old missionaries as the new recruits. We did our part in giving 
practical ideas to these fine young men and women who were 
about to sail for Africa and all parts of Asia. 

One evening (June nth), Rev. Dr. J. Balcom Shaw invited me 
and my three sons, a missionary, a lawyer, and a doctor, to a 
dinner given to us by him at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, at which 
fourteen Presbyterian ministers were present. It was an un- 
speakable privilege to meet such men, and the memory of that 
occasion is very delightful, 

On the 1 3th we were among the privileged guests at a garden 
party given to members of the conference by Mr. and Mrs. John 
Crosby Brown on Orange Mountain, in their beautiful home, 
beautiful for situation as Mount Zion is beautiful, and beautiful 
in its cordial, bounteous and loving Christian hospitality. Many 
will be the comforting memories of that scene, its host and 
hostess, its lawns and gardens and hothouses, when these 
young missionaries are scattered abroad in distant and perhaps 
desolate regions, 

Yale Alumni Dinner 727 

Then after various visits and services, I went to New Haven to 
Yale commencement. It was delightful to be the guest of my dear 
classmate, Dr. Theodore T. Hunger, and a fellow guest with such 
genial men as Hon. Andrew D. White, Dr. Lyman Abbott, and 
my classmate Enos N. Taft. It was a surprise to find such 
weather on the 23d of June. From the time of my arrival, for 
two days it rained most incessantly and we sat before a blazing 
fire in the grate, morning and evening. The growth of Yale in 
numbers and in buildings has been marvellous. The campus has 
crossed streets and blocks so that I got lost trying to find my 
way about. The Peabody Museum interested me greatly and I 
was fascinated by the exquisite specimens of minerals and fossils, 

The alumni dinner, when 1,500 sat at the table, was an im- 
pressive sight, and we four of the class of 1851 were near the 
highest tables of the oldest alumni next the platform. The after 
dinner speeches were good, but what was my amazement to see 
the President of Yale University coolly drawing out a match and 
lighting a cigar and puffing out smoke before that vast multitude 
of graduates and students. Shades of Elihu Yale, of Dwight and 
Day and Woolsey and Porter ! " What a fall was that, my 
countrymen " and my fellow alumni ! Has the President of Yale, 
who preaches and teaches continence and self-control to 2,500 
university boys, no control over the appetite for cigar smoke ? I 
exclaimed when I saw it. Dr. Hunger, who sat by me, said, 
" Times have changed since our day. Yale is not what it was. 
It is in some things better, in some things no better." I agreed 
with him. Dr. Schaff said to me that the Heidelberg fifth cente- 
nary celebration was the greatest beer drinking bout in human 
history. Is Yale commencement to shrink into a smoking bout ? 
June 2/th I made a pilgrimage with my son Frederick and 
my niece Fanny and her husband, Rev. Jas. R. Swain, from 
Flushing to Southampton, L. L, the home of my ancestors. We 
visited our cousins the Fosters, went to the house where my 
father and his father were born, visited the ancient cemeteries and 
the rolling Atlantic surf. We returned to Flushing for Sunday 
and then went to the old restful village of my childhood, the 

728 My Latest Furlough 

lovely Montrose, with its maple avenues, lawns, and forest-crowned 
hills. The fishing excursions with my sons and grandsons were 
frequent and often fishless. We had, however, outdoor exercise, 
good appetites, and sound sleep at night. 

A prominent character in my brother William's family was his 
" coloured " man- of-all- work, Gabriel ChappeL He had been the 
body -servant of General Gordon in the South before the war, and 
came North after peace was restored. He was intelligent, active, 
a good groom, gardener, and carpenter, and was prominent in the 
African Church. He was also a champion prize winner in the 
cake walk, and a politician. The negro brethren down in the 
valley in Montrose at one time were divided, some being in 
favour of slavery and some opposed to it. They once had a 
meeting to decide what colour to whitewash the meeting-house. 
Gabriel was once at Alford railroad station with my brother's 
carriage and about to drive back the eight miles to Montrose 
alone. A stranger accosted him and asked to ride, as there was 
no stage going. Gabriel took him in. On the way, he told Ga- 
briel he was coming to Montrose on business and wanted to know 
who was the best lawyer in town. Gabriel replied, " This team 
belongs to Judge Jessup and he is said to be the most lawless 
man in northern Pennsylvania. You'd better try him." The 
stranger smiled inwardly and called on my brother the next day 
and told him of Gabriel's flattering language and they had a good 
laugh together. Gabriel died in 1905, greatly lamented by all 
who knew him. He was above eighty years of age. 

While in Montrose, the heirs of my childhood's pastor, Rev. 
Henry A. Riley, presented to me for the Syrian Protestant Col- 
lege his fine cabinet of minerals and fossils which used to be my 
delight and wonder when a boy. For twenty-five years since his 
death, the glass cases had never been opened, and I spent days 
with my four grandsons and several nephews and friends in dust- 
ing, arranging, and packing in six strong boxes this valuable col- 
lection. The coal fossils from the Lackawanna and Wyoming 
anthracite, the fossil ferns and plants from the Montrose old red 
sandstone, and the Devonian fossils from Central New York, are 

The Attack on Consul Magelsen 729 

an addition to the Beirut College cabinet which could not have 
been secured in any other way, and the Riley family deserve sin- 
cere thanks for their generous donation. 

Then August pth came the shock of the death at Bar Harbor 
of Wm. E. Dodge, a worthy son of a noble father. 

On the 22d we bade farewell to Frederick on the deck of the 
Campania, commending him in prayer to God, rejoicing that this 
dear son and brother was going on the King's business and at the 
King's command. 

We were greatly stirred by the cablegram in the papers that 
" the American Vice-Consul Magelsen had been assassinated in 
Beirut," arid that the ships Brooklyn, San Francisco, and Machias 
had been cabled to proceed to Beirut. It soon turned out that 
he had only been shot at and not shot, but Mr. Magelsen had the 
pleasure of reading obituary notices of himself in scores of Amer- 
ican journals. The President acted with his usual promptness in 
ordering those ships to Beirut, and they arrived in the " nick of 
time," as a riot broke out between the hereditary factions of Mos- 
lems and Greek Christians in Beirut, which threatened to produce 
a massacre, but the presence of these ships, and Admiral Cotton's 
declaration that in the case of a Moslem rising, he would land 
marines and take possession of the city, spurred the worse than 
worthless Waly, or governor-general, to put a stop to the riot. 
Great excesses had been committed. Innocent Greeks were 
murdered in their houses at noonday, and firing was going on 
promiscuously, when the consul and the admiral reached the spot 
and virtually forced the Waly to " call off his dogs " and stop the 
bloodshed. Thousands of Christians had fled from the city, and 
for three years afterwards some of their houses remained unoc- 
cupied. During the excitement, some 4,000 armed Maronite 
Catholics rallied in Lebanon and threatened to rush down from the 
mountains and punish the Beirut Moslems, but the consuls and 
pashas succeeded in restraining them, pledging that no further 
outrage should occur. 

These panics among Syrian Christians are terrible and uncon- 
trollable. Usually in other lands, when a riot occurs, the people 

730 My Latest Furlough 

look to the government and the .military to restore order. But 
here in Syria, where the military are all Moslems, the Christian 
people are as much afraid of the soldiers as of a mob of Moslem 
roughs, and they can never forget that regular troops joined in 
the awful massacres in Damascus, Hasbeiya, and Deir el Komr in 

The faithless Waly of Beirut, Rashid EfiTendi, was removed to 
a distant post, and another appointed in his place, who has suc- 
ceeded well in keeping order. 

One day an American resident in Beirut remarked to a com- 
pany of foreign and Syrian friends, " Years ago two little boys 
rode on one donkey in Beirut. One of those boys is now pres- 
ident of the Syrian Protestant College (Dr. Howard S. Bliss), and 
the other is Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States." 
One of the Syrian gentlemen here observed, " And the donkey, 
what has become of him ? " He answered his own question, 
" The donkey is now Waly of Beirut/ 1 That remark shows the 
estimate in which that Waly was held by the people of Syria and 
his removal was a positive relief to the tension of the public mind 
in Syria. He was distrusted by all sects and he bled all alike. 

The respectable Moslems, merchants and literary men, are men 
of peace, and as they have everything to lose and nothing to 
gain by rioting between Moslems and Christians, they cooperate 
with the Christian notables in trying to keep order. 

But alas, it is hard to control drunken Moslems and drunken 
Greeks and Maronites. An orthodox Moslem will not touch 
ardent spirits, not even wine. The Koran says, " Surely wine 
and games of chance and statues and the divining arrows are an 
abomination of Satan's work " (Sura 5 : 92). Whosoever drinks 
wine, let him suffer correction by scourging, as often as he drinks 
thereof " (Hidayet 2:53), But in these degenerate days, espe- 
cially since the occupation of Syria by six thousand French 
troops in 1860, intemperance has greatly increased. When I 
first came to Syria, the Pasha of Beirut closed the only grog- 
shop. Now there are 120 licensed saloons, and Moslems of the 
two extremes of society, the Turkish civil and military officers 


i i 


g 02 




S OQ | 2 

M H -*J 

( 02 





Drunkenness in Syria 731 

and the lowest class of boatmen and artisans, drink as much as 
the foreign Ionian Greeks, and the native so-called Christian 
sects. The Moslem middle class, the well-to-do merchants, the 
Ulema and property owners, are generally temperate and peaceable. 

There are old feuds arising from stabbing affrays between the 
Greek masons and quarrymen of the southern suburbs of Beiruft 
and the Moslems of the Busta quarter, through which the Greeks 
must pass on the way in and out of the city. A glass or two of 
arrak, the poisonous Syrian whiskey, will make a Greek insolent 
and a Moslem pugnacious, and on the feast days, which come 
about once a week, the Greeks generally throng the saloons and 
the arrak does its work. As every native in Beirut (and one 
might say, in all Syria) carries either a knife or a revolver in his 
girdle, not much time passes between an exciting word and a 
knife thrust or a pistol-shot. Some one will be killed. The 
murderer will be caught, imprisoned for a few weeks until his 
friends bribe him free, and then he is ready for another victim. 
If a Christian is killed, a Moslem will be killed in revenge, and if 
a Moslem is killed, a Christian will fall. The want of punish- 
ment for crime and the prevalence of bribery make crime easy 
and life insecure. 

If all the saloons in Beirut were shut and the liquor traffic sup- 
pressed, there would be few disturbances of the peace. And if 
the law against carrying concealed weapons were executed, there 
would be little danger of Moslem " uprisings." As it is, a Chris- 
tian boy will now and then be searched for weapons, but Moslems 
are unmolested. This is the weakness of the whole system. It 
is a sectarian government and rules in the interest of one sect. 
Such a state of things is antiquated and narrow and cannot long 
survive the contact with modern civilization. 

Admiral Cotton and his officers greatly endeared themselves 
to the American colony in Beirut in the mission and the college, 
and the admiral addressed the college students, giving them excel- 
lent advice. 

In August, 1855, 1 went on a trout fishing trip to the Beaver- 

My Latest Furlough 

kill, Delaware County, N. Y., on invitation of my dear friend, 
Dr. David Torrey of Delhi. In the party was young Titus B. 
Meigs. We had a week of marvellous success in the woods, 
bringing back about a bushel of trout. 

This summer of 1903 Mr. Meigs, now a large lumber merchant 
and landowner, invited me to visit him on Follensbee Pond, near 
Tupper Lake, in the Adirondacks. I reached his cottage Sep- 
tember iQth, after driving six miles through the woods from the 
railroad and then rowing two and a half miles to the spruce log 
cottage. It was an ideal spot, quiet and peaceful, the unbroken 
forests coming down solid to the water's edge and unapproach- 
able, as Mr. Meigs owned 25,000 acres around the lake on every 
side. The first afternoon we trolled for pickerel and I had the 
glorious luck to haul in a pickerel twenty-nine inches long and 
weighing six and a half pounds. Three days later I caught a 
pike twenty-seven and a half inches long weighing five pounds. 
Our luck was varied, with bass and pickerel. The calm repose 
and lovely landscape refreshed my very soul. It was an unspeak- 
able comfort to visit these refined, intelligent, and" godly families 
of Mr. Meigs, his son, and son-in-law. 

After a week in the woods I went to Mount Hermon, North- 
field, and spent the Sabbath with Mr. Duley, who was once our 
guest in Mount Lebanon. It was a privilege to speak to those 
earnest young men in preparation for future usefulness. I found 
a decided interest in missionary work. 

I returned then to Montrose, the dear old home, where every- 
thing reminded me of childhood days and youthful happiness. 
With my grandsons and nephews I overhauled the old cabinets 
of minerals and fossils in father's office and made little boxes for 
each of them with specimens of the various ores and stones. 
Father used to enjoy seeing his boys interested in natural science 
and said we had the " stone fever," and I was delighted to find 
that some of my grandsons had a passion for geology. 

After visits in Binghamton, where I had an Arabic service, and 
Oswego, I attended the Synod of New York at Ithaca and had 
the pleasure of seeing Cornell University. It was a pleasure to 

The Stone Fever 733 

meet Judge Francis M. Finch, whom I knew in Yale as a member 
of my brother William's class of 1850. 

In Binghamton Dr. Cobb presented me with a box of beautiful 
specimens of the zinc ores of Joplin, Missouri ; and in Scranton I 
packed a box of the coal fossils from the mines, and shipped 
them all to New York en route for the college in Beirut. 

On November i6th I addressed the Congregational Union of 
New York at the St. Denis, and had the honour of hearing 
Dr. Herrick and Miss Dr. Patrick of Constantinople. 

On the following day Mrs. Jessup and I left New York for 
St. Louis to attend a foreign missionary conference, with Dr. 
Halsey of the Board. Mr. Coan of Persia and Mr. McConaughy 
were in attendance. We were the guests of Mrs. Mermod at 
Kirkwood, where the pastor, Rev. P. V. Jenness, with his people, 
had adopted me as their missionary. It was my privilege to 
speak several times in the Kirkwood Church and in Webster Grove; 
in several churches in St. Louis (Dr. Gregg's and Mr. Chalfant's) ; 
and at the ministers' meeting at the Presbyterian rooms ; and in 
the library of Mr. Semple. At Grace Church Mr. Chalfant, Sr., 
said to me that his China missionary son had led seven men to 
the missionary field, and he himself was led to become a mis- 
sionary by an address I once delivered in Lafayette College. 
Truly, " bread cast on the waters " does return, though it be 
" after many days." 

On the 2 1st we were all invited to make an automobile trip 
around the Exposition grounds and buildings, then rapidly ap- 
proaching completion. We called on President Francis and 
Professor Rogers. Professor Rogers expressed interest in the 
exhibition of a model of the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut, 
and promised to give it an eligible position in the Educational 
Building. I agreed to have it finished in due season after my 
return to New York. On our last day in St. Louis, we removed 
to the Southern Hotel in the city and met my Yale classmate, 
Gen. John W. Noble, who insisted on our having the best of 
everything, and when I came to pay the bill on our departure the 
clerk informed me that it had already been paid. That was Noble I 

734 My Latest Furlough 

We spent Thanksgiving in Binghamton with the Lockwoods 
and Leveretts and heard one of Dr. Nichol's admirable discourses. 
That Binghamton Church and pastor are as near the ideal as any 
I have known. The church of 1,200 members are devoted to 
him and he to them. He is a living force in the community and 
looked up to by clergy and people of all churches. He is a true 
apostolic bishop, as were the bishops of the churches in Ephesus. 
Happy is such a pastor and happy is such a people ! 

December 1st we removed to New York and were the guests 
of my son Henry W. Jessup, a lawyer and an elder in the Fifth 
Avenue Church, and who keeps up the family tradition handed 
down from my father, Judge Wm. Jessup, and my brother, Judge 
Win. H. Jessup, by frequently serving as commissioner to the 
General Assembly. I am thankful that as he did not become a 
minister he became an elder, and as a member of the Board of 
Home Missions and of the Bible Society, keeps in touch with the 
great work of the Church at home and abroad. 

December 2d I began my work of making a new model of 
the campus of the Syrian Protestant College. Professor Bumpus, 
of the Museum of Natural History, assigned me a place in an 
immense unoccupied and steam heated room of the colossal 
edifice, and with the aid of Mr. Strader, a first-rate carpenter, and 
Mr. Orchard, an expert taxidermist and decorator, I entered on 
the formidable work. I had photographs and measurements of 
the Beirut campus and buildings and of the territory below the 
college down to the sea. After enlarging the scale, the wooden 
frame was made, fifteen by eleven feet, the wooden ribs of the 
skeleton sawed and nailed on so as to show the elevation of the 
terraces and slopes of the campus. The huge frame was made in 
three sections, so exactly fitted that when covered with the 
artificial grass and trees, the joints were not visibje. The frame 
was covered with wire gauze, bent and moulded to correspond 
with the uneven surface and then coated with a liquid papier- 
mache made by Mr. Orchard. I do not recall how many lumps 
of this plastic material and how many quarts of liquid glue, with 

The Model of the College 735 

cork and sponge and leafy sponge and moss and green dye we 
used. But day by day it grew into shape and when finally the 
stone carved models of the buildings arrived from Beirut, Mr. 
Strader had finished a beautiful polished mahogany and plate 
glass case, fifteen by eleven feet, and six feet high, to fit over the 
frame, and myjoy was full. 

Owing to constant exposure to the biting and freezing winds 
which often assailed me when I came out from my steam -heated 
workshop in the museum, I took a severe cold, which obliged me 
to keep to my bed at my son's house for eighteen days. 

February 1 3th Mr. Morris K. Jesup, president of the Museum of 
Natural History, invited about seventy-five friends of Syria and 
the college to a reception at the museum at the unveiling of the 
model which had cost me so much time and labour. 

After giving a descriptive lecture to the assembled friends, I 
found myself exhausted and, returning to the hotel, took to my 
bed with grippe, where I remained until the 1 9th, when we hired 
an automobile and returned to Harry's lovely quiet home in !3Oth 
Street. There I remained in bed under the care of good Dr. 
Spaulding and a trained nurse, until March 3d, five days before 
sailing for Syria. 

Through the courtesy of Messrs. E. K. Warren, W. N. Harts- 
horn, and A. B, McCrillis, I was invited to take passage March 
8th on the North German Lloyd steamer Grosser Kurfurst with 
eight hundred delegates to the World's Fourth Sunday-School 
Convention to be held in April in Jerusalem. They offered me 
free passage and reduced rates for my wife and daughter. As the 
time drew near, and I found myself weak and exhausted from 
long illness, I began to doubt the morality of accepting this offer, 
as I would be expected to lecture and speak during the voyage 
on subjects connected with missions and the Bible lands and I 
could hardly stand on my feet. However, the doctor and my 
sons encouraged me, and my wife and daughter, who was herself 
a fellow invalid with me, felt sure that the sea air would soon 
restore my strength, so on the appointed day we drove to the 
ferry, crossed to Hoboken, and with the aid of my two stalwart 

736 My Latest Furlough 

sons, I made out to scale the stairway up the side of the lofty 
steamer. My heavy winter clothing and a ponderous ulster over- 
coat made it difficult for me to move about the ship. The crowd 
was simply indescribable. Eight hundred passengers hunting for 
staterooms, calling to stewards to bring missing baggage, wedging 
their way through the narrow passages with throngs of friends, 
compelled me to take refuge in a corner of the saloon bidding 
good-bye to friends until the good ship left her dock. 

We found our stateroom blocked with baskets of fruit and 

The ship was of 13,180 tons. 

The sea air and change stiffened my bones and revived my 
spirits, and I was able to deliver seven addresses, on advice to 
tourists ; Islam ; Dr. Kalley and Madeira ; Moslem women and 
girls; Abdul Kadir and the massacres of 1860; on temperance in 
Syria; my forty-eight years in Syria. I could hardly whisper be- 
fore sailing, but my voice soon regained its strength. Our visits 
to Madeira, Gibraltar, Algiers, Malta, Athens, Constantinople, 
and Smyrna were full of interest. This was my first visit to 
Algiers and Athens. I found that the Moslems in Algiers could 
understand Syrian Arabic, though their pronunciation is very dif- 
ferent, Athens was a very delightful revelation. In the exhila- 
ration of seeing the Parthenon and other sites, I forgot my phys- 
ical weakness and suffered in consequence, so that I was laid up 
the next day* 

In Constantinople we were taken possession of by our old 
friends, Consul-General and Mrs. Dickinson and Miss Mason, who 
took us to their apartments at Hotel Londres. Miss Mason acted 
as our guide to the Imperial Museum and the Mosque of St. 
Sophia, and took the ladies to the bazaars. Mrs, Ponafidini (nee 
Cochran), wife of the Russian consul, told us of the murder of 
the American missionary, Mr. Labaree, near Salmas. The Sayyid 
who killed Mr. Labaree and his servant intended to kill her 
brother, Dr. Cochran. 

March soth Mrs. Dickinson took us in her carriage to Robert 
College. We first called on my old friend, President Emeritus 

^8 I 

Robert College and Beirut College 737 

Dr. George Washburn, and then attended a mass meeting of stu- 
dents in the college chapel, presided over by President Gates. 
Addresses were made by Willard of Baltimore, Frizzel of Toronto, 
and myself, and a statement on behalf of the college by Presi- 
dent Gates. 

In comparing Robert College with our Syrian Protestant Col- 
lege in Beirut, a natural remark would be that these two colleges 
have secured the two most beautiful sites in the Turkish Empire, 
the former having the Bosphorus (which means Ox-ford) with its 
unique beauties and charming landscape, and the latter the com- 
manding view of the blue Mediterranean and the snowy range of 
Lebanon. Beirut College at first had only Arabic-speaking 
students and its language was Arabic, with English and French 
as secondary ; Robert College, drawing its students from divers 
nationalities, the Bulgarians, Greeks, Armenians, and Turks, 
adopted the English language from the outset and largely out- 
numbered the Syrian Protestant College. To-day Syrian Prot- 
estant College, with its attractive medical and commercial de- 
partments, has adopted the English language for its curriculum, 
with Arabic, French, and Turkish as secondary, and has 865 
students, with a large proportion of Armenian, Persian, Bulgarian, 
Greek, and Egyptian students. 

In religious matters, Beirut Syrian Protestant College is 
more distinctively religious and missionary in aiming at the 
religious instruction of all its students, and both are im- 
portant factors in shaping the future moral destiny of Western 

March I3th our captain gave us a sail to the Black Sea mouth 
of the Bosphorus. As we passed Robert College, the building 
was decorated with flags, and the students sang and cheered, and 
returning, we set sail for Smyrna. Dr. McLachlan, of the Inter- 
national College of Smyrna, lectured that evening. The next 
day, five hundred and eighty of our company visited Ephesus. 
Dr. Hoskins of Beirut, who had come on to meet the excursion, 
delivered an address the evening of April 2d on Beirut, Damas- 
cus, and Baalbec, and the passengers raised $290 for the press 

738 My Latest Furlough 

in Beirut. Dr. Hoskins brought word of the serious illness of 
his mother-in-law, Mrs. Dr. W. W. Eddy of Beirut. 

On Sunday, April 3d, I introduced Dr. and Mrs. McNaughton 
of Smyrna to the audience on board, and after a stirring account 
of their work in Asia Minor, the company gave and pledged 
$600 to the work. 

This interesting journey was now near its- end for me, as I 
was to land in Beirut. And what a unique voyage! Eight 
hundred Sunday-school superintendents, teachers, and friends, 
all of one heart and mind. Prayer-meetings daily, with Bible 
classes and lectures ; harmony and quiet prevailed ; not a profane 
oath nor an intoxicated passenger ; there was not a wine or beer 
bottle on the dining-tables ; the company represented all that is 
good, manly, and womanly in our Christian land. I believe that 
the result of this tour will be a great increase of missionary inter- 
est among all the churches, societies, and Sunday-schools repre- 
sented in this delegation. They can testify to what they have 
seen. They have already done it by generous contributions to 
various missions visited. I thank God for permitting me in the 
closing years of my life to make the acquaintance of such a choice 
and beloved company of Christian brothers and sisters. 

At 6 A. M., April 4th, we cast anchor in Beirut harbour, and 
crowds of our friends came on board to welcome us : brother 
Samuel from Sidon ; my son William from Zahleh ; my daugh- 
ters, Mary Day and Ethel Moore of the Syrian Protestant Col- 
lege ; my sons-in-law, Professor Day, Professor Moore, and Rev. 
Paul Erdman ; with three of Ethel's children ; and my nephew, 
Stuart D. Jessup ; President Howard Bliss, Mrs. Dale, Professor 
Porter, Mr. Freyer, and a company of Syrian and foreign friends. 
It was a joyous reunion and a time of hearty thanksgiving to 

At ten o'clock the ship's company came out to the college and 
addresses were made in the chapel. In the evening Dr, Post and 
Dr. Samuel Jessup lectured on board the steamer and Dr, Mackie 
and others sailed with them to Jaffa for Jerusalem, 

At Home Again 739 

I was now at home in Beirut, the beautiful, with the blue sea, 
the snowy summit of Sunnin, the bright spring flowers, and 
everything homelike and familiar. I was not well enough to 
resume work at once. My daughter Mary, Mrs, Day, insisted 
on our coming to her house and there for days we welcomed old 

On Wednesday, April 6th, a conference of Syrian preachers 
and helpers met on invitation of President Howard Bliss in his 
capacious study in Marquand House and for several days dis- 
cussed important religious and practical subjects and united in 
prayer. The delegates were guests of the college, occupying the 
beds vacated by the students absent on vacation and had their 
meals in one of the refectories. Incidentally, they thus became 
well acquainted with the college. A delightful spirit prevailed 
and God's presence was abundantly realized, and many a testi- 
mony was given at the time and since to the fresh incentives that 
were received to more effective service. 

That evening they met in the Sunday-School Memorial Hall in 
town to bid me and mine welcome back to Syria. Addresses 
were made by Dr. Bliss, Dr. Hoskins, and Pastor Rev. Asaad er 
Rasi to which I responded. Brother Samuel presided. 

This conference was a loving conception of President Bliss and 
brought, our scattered pastors and preachers into close touch with 
the work of the college. And the nearer the college can be 
kept to the fundamental idea of missionary work, the more 
completely will it answer the aim of its founders and the greater 
will be its influence for good in the East Hon. E. W. Blatch- 
ford, of Chicago, President Bliss's father-in-law, was a valuable 
coadjutor in all this. 

On Friday, April 8th, the British contingent of the Jerusalem 
Sunday-school convention reached Beirut, and came to the col- 
lege, where addresses were made by Dr* Munro Gibson, President 
Bliss, his father, and myself. I also met Dr. Schofield of Lon- 
don, a member of the London Central Committee of our As- 
furiyeh Lebanon Asylum for the Insane. 

740 My Latest Furlough 

I found our missionaries greatly concerned by the persistent 
efusal of the Ottoman government to allow to our missionaries 
n Syria the same immunities and privileges which are given to 
missionaries of all other nationalities, Protestant and Catholic. 
For many years we have petitioned our minister in Constanti- 
nople and the State Department but without effect. We are thus 
discriminated against in a manner which no European state 
would submit to. Minister Leischman insists that it is because 
he is of inferior rank, and that if made ambassador he could 
at all times communicate directly with the Sultan, instead of 
being turned over to the ministry, which has no authority to 
decide any political question. 

April nth Mrs. Dr. Moore with her husband and four chil- 
dren left for Switzerland for Dr. Moore's regular furlough. It 
often happens that it is better for health and the purse to take 
one's furlough in a " pension " in Switzerland than to go to the 
United States, where both the climate and the expense of living 
makes one's furlough more a loss than a gain. 

On April I4th, at 6 p. M., Mrs. William W. Eddy entered into 
rest, aged seventy-seven years, after fifty-two years of missionary 
life in Syria. 

She was born in Montgomery, Orange County, N. Y. Her 
father was the Rev. Dr. Robert Condit, long pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church in Oswego, N. Y. She was educated at 
Mount Holyoke Seminary, graduated in 1846 and was the first 
graduate to come to Syria from that missionary institution. She 
taught in Hartford, Conn., and other places. November 24, 
1851, she married Rev. W. W. Eddy and they sailed soon on the 
bark Sultana, arriving in Beirut January 31, 1852. Mr. and Mrs, 
Eddy lived five years in Aleppo and Kefr Shima, then twenty-one 
years in Sidon, and twenty-six years in Beirut 

She lived to see three of her children engaged in missionary 
work. She was full of hospitality, a lover of the people^ and be- 
loved by them, a " mother in Israel/' devotedly fond of teaching 

Our Mrs. Eddy 741 

in Bible class and Sunday-school. When preparing her home 
for a prayer-meeting, she fell and fractured her thigh, an injury 
which eventually caused her death. She died surrounded by all 
her children but one and several of her grandchildren. Truly her 
works follow her. She was a woman of great strength of char- 
acter, a strong will and wonderful energy, which traits are per- 
petuated in her descendants. 

April 22d I attended the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Arabic 
journal, Lisan el Hal, at the house of the editor, Khalil Effendi 
Sarkis. Mr. Sarkis has, by enterprise and industry, founded and 
conducted a printing-house and edited a bi-weekly and daily 
journal, The Tongue of the Times, Lisan el Hal. A great crowd 
of Syrian and foreign friends were present and prose and poetical 
addresses abounded. Arabic poetry lends itself with great effect 
to such occasions. I congratulated him on his success, for as 
editor also of a newspaper, I had had many years of experience 
with the exasperating methods of Turkish censors. 

From this meeting, I went to President Emeritus Dr. Daniel 
Bliss's to a reception given to Mr. Marcellus Hartley Dodge, Mr. 
Crofts, and Professor Kepler. Mr. Dodge has since that time 
given to our press a thirty horse-power oil engine which has 
given new life and efficiency to our work of printing, and to the 
college an eye and ear hospital. 

April 23d we visited Zahleh, where we remained eleven days, 
visiting this important station and making excursions into the 
mountain and the plain. William had found a crystalline sand- 
stone slab by the roadside near the summit of the Lebanon ridge 
with a Latin inscription of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, being 
a " definitio sylvarum," a boundary mark of the forests, and now 
there is not a tree within several miles of it. We drove up to 
visit it, and now it is in the museum of the Syrian Protestant 
College in Beirut. 

Returning to Beirut May 4th, we were just in time to meet the 
friends who had met in the girls' seminary to unveil an oil-paint- 

742 My Latest Furlough 

ing of Miss Eliza D. Everett, which was presented by her old 
pupils resident in Cairo. 

The next day was a still more impressive scene, the unveiling 
of a splendid white Carrara marble statue, life size, of our beloved 
Dr. Daniel Bliss, president emeritus of the Syrian Protestant 
College. Addresses were made by Mr. Nasim Berbari, of Cairo, 
who presented the statue in behalf of college alumni in Egypt 
and the Sudan; President H. Bliss, Dr. George E. Post, H. H. 
Jessup, Dr. Scander Barudi, and Dr. Daniel Bliss. I was deeply 
affected by this deserved tribute to one of my dearest earthly 
friends, and it was a scene not often witnessed in this world, when 
Dr. Bliss stood by the side of his own life-size statue in marble 
and expressed his gratitude to the Egyptian alumni and said, 
" We do aim in this college to make perfect men, ideal men, 
Godlike men, after the model of Jesus Christ, against whose 
moral character no man has said or ever can say aught." 

It is a striking fact that the only two marble statues erected to 
eminent men by modern Syrians are the statue of Dr. Van Dyck 
in the Greek Hospital of St. George in the eastern part of Beirut 
and that of Dr. D. Bliss in the college in the western extremity 
of the city. " Par nobile fratrum ! " These statues prove that 
the people of the East are not ungrateful for what men of the 
West have done for them, 

May 10th the semi-annual meeting of the mission was held in 
Beirut. At the mission meeting, it was decided to purchase the 
Misk and Pharaun houses, the former for a permanent manse in 
memory of Col. Elliot Shepard, and the latter for a mission 
residence and library. 

A Hindu, of Ahmedabad in India, called upon me. He is a 
student of Arabic in the college, and has begun translating into 
Hindustani the " Life of Kamil." 

Dr. George Adam Smith visited Beirut, addressed the college 
students and preached in our mission church. 

Modern Sidon 743 

The last of May we visited Sidon, and in eleven days examined 
all departments of the work. 

Modern Sidon is itself an antique curiosity a town of the 
oldest Oriental pattern, its houses flat-roofed, its streets roughly 
paved, and in many places arched over. There not being room 
enough within its narrow walls for a growing population, houses 
had to be built over the various streets, converting them into 
veritable subways or tunnels. In many places the arches are so 
low that a horseman must dismount Dr. Thomson says that 
" Sidon was iu ruins before antiquity was born," and the town is 
built upon successive strata of ancient ruined Sidons. The gar- 
dens overlie rich treasure of buried coins and antiques, and the 
foothills to the east are honeycombed with Phoenician tombs and 
exquisite sarcophagi. But a city cannot live on its ancient his- 
tory, and but for the American and French schools which have 
stirred up the Moslem Sidonians to open schools for boys and 
girls, the town would sleep on for years to come as it has slept 
on ever since the soporific influence of Islam levelled it into 
slumber 1,200 years ago. It was once the commercial mistress 
of the Mediterranean, but now it can hardly influence a steam 
launch to anchor in its port. The breath of life which has en- 
tered it from America is waking up its young men and maidens, 
and some day it may recover its old renown. But the proximity 
of thrifty, vigorous, commercial Beirut, with its port and steam- 
ers, its railways and gas lights, its government headquarters, its 
schools, colleges, and hospitals, its printing-houses, and news- 
papers, its quarantine and electric tramway, leaves Sidon, Tyre, 
and Jebail, the old Phoenician trio, stranded on the sand-bars of 
decrepit antiquity. 

Sidon is a restful place to us who go as transient visitors, but 
there is little rest in that busy hive which centres in Gerard In- 
stitute, and whose awakening influence extends out through 
Southern Lebanon and Galilee of the Gentiles, and to the north, 
south, and west of glorious Hermon. The mission station there 
superintends twelve evangelical churches, thirty-five preaching 
3ta$ons f twenty-four schools, with 2,000 pupils. Huncjreds of 

744 My Latest Furlough 

the Protestant adherents have emigrated to America, and some 
of them are bringing back new ideas and new aspirations for the 
elevation of their loved native land. For however dreary and 
desolate we may regard many parts of Syria, it is a fair and beau- 
tiful land and its people love it fondly. 

Returning to Beirut in June, we found ourselves at once in the 
whirl of constant duties and engagements. We had an important 
meeting of the executive committee of the insane hospital at 
Asfuriyeh, four miles from Beirut. Some might say, " What has 
that to do with your missionary work?" I reply, " Much, in 
every way." It is a work of blessed and Christlike compassion 
to care for the suffering insane and their more suffering relatives 
and friends. Hundreds of patients have been treated and a fair 
proportion have been discharged cured. Moslems, Jews, Maro- 
nites, Greeks, Druses, and Protestants, alike have received the 
benefit of the hospital, and in view of the fiendish cruelty with 
which the Lebanon monks of the monastery of Kozheiya have 
treated the insane in past years, this well-ordered hospital is re- 
garded as a veritable godsend to the land. An aged Moslem 
sheikh from Mecca was brought to the hospital in a state of de- 
lusional insanity, and on recovering his reason was full of grati- 
tude. A fanatical priest, who had been wont to curse and de- 
nounce all Protestants as emissaries of the devil, was seized with 
acute and violent mania. I saw him in the strong room for 
violent patients. He was stark naked and gesticulating violently 
and preaching in Arabic against his imaginary foes. In a few 
months he recovered, and his gratitude knew no bounds. His 
patriarch and bishops sent their thanks and gratulations to the 
officers of the hospital. 

The eighth annual report gives 157 patients as under care 
during the year, of whom thirty-four recovered and twenty-eight 
improved. The patients have come from Syria and Palestine, 
Armenia, Arabia, and Egypt. 

The site is healthful and there have been no cases of enteric 
fever or tuberculosis. This is the first organized institution of 
fte kind ii^ W^st^rn Asi& and is a missionary hospital in tfcs $$np$ 

A Wonderful Hospital 745 

that it was founded and has been supported by Christian men and 
women for the honour of Christ, in showing the true spirit of 
Christianity by caring for the helpless and afflicted. All honour 
to Mr. T. Waldrneier and the doctor and nurses for their 
self-denying devotion to the mentally afflicted of a strange land. 
I know of no other form of Christian service which requires 
more of self-sacrifice, unless it be that of the leper asylums. 

June nth I attended in Aleih, Mount Lebanon, the funeral of 
an aged peasant in the Greek Church. Eight priests from neigh- 
bouring villages assisted the Khuri Giurgius in the service. An 
aged priest, Antonius, delivered the Arabic sermon, Scriptural, 
earnest, and truly evangelical. I listened with interest and sur- 
prise, but my surprise ceased when I recognized in the preacher 
an old theological student of 1886, who is now priest of the 
Orthodox Church in Bhamdoun. I asked him how he could 
read the prayers to the Virgin in the Greek liturgy, and he said 
in a low tone, " I do not believe them and pass over them lightly, 
and the people know I do not believe them/' I warned him 
to be careful lest he sear his conscience by seeming to be what he 
is not. An enlightened man can hardly be at ease in the Greek 
Church, with its gross adoration of the sacred ikons or pictures 
and its abject Mariolatry. And the mass of the enlightened youth 
of Syria in the Greek sect are in danger of going into infidelity, 
unless they compel their clergy to purge their liturgy of its 
creature worship. 

June 2Oth Sabat, the woman who cares for our Beirut house in 
the summer, was shot at in the afternoon by Moslem roughs, and 
her husband was shot at on the balcony of our house. With a 
rotten, bribe-taking police, we have no redress. Moslem thieves 
and murderers roam at large, or if imprisoned, soon bribe their 
way out, so that Sabat begged me not to complain. A few as- 
sassins have been reported as exiled to Barbary, Africa 

My son-in-law, Professor Day, is collecting snakes, and offers a 
reward to the boys of Lebanon to bring him specimens. Many 

746 My Latest Furlough 

of them are venomous but the most are harmless. In 1903 
Miss Gordon, who was living with Professor West's family in 
Aleih, was bitten by a poisonous serpent when walking out 
after sunset and died in forty minutes. Since that time, we have 
warned our friends against walking in the thickets after sunset 
Mount Lebanon, with its stony hillsides and innumerable stone 
terraces, is a safe haunt for snakes, and the black snake, viper, 
adder, and asp are not infrequently found. 

July ist I met at the Aleih railroad station Dr. Samuel J. Cur- 
tiss, the noted writer on " Primitive Semitic Religions To-day " 
in Palestine. He was returning from Hamath and was en route 
for Nablus, and not long after died in London when on his way 
to America. His death was a distinct loss to the cause of Biblical 

During the summer I preached regularly in the little chapel in 
Aleih in Arabic, as has been my wont for twenty-one years. 
The boys and girls of the day-school sit on the wall benches, and 
the body of the room is filled with summer residents from the 
plain and from Egypt and fellahin from the villages. Arabic 
preaching is my delight. It does a preacher good to have a good 
proportion of his audience young people and children. 

It keeps one's language simple and clear, prevents pedantry, 
and compels one to use plain figures of speech and homely 
illustrations which appeal to all. 

This summer I received a copy of a remarkable book, an 
Arabic metrical translation of Homer's " Iliad," a work of 1,200 
pages, with an introduction of 200 pages on Homer, the " Iliad/* 
and a comparison between Greek and Arabic poetry. The trans- 
lator is Soleyman Effendi Bistany, of the famous Lebanon family 
of Bistany. It is a colossal undertaking. The introductory essay 
on Arabic poetry is worth the price of the volume. The author 
used the original Greek and the English and the French translations 
of the Iliad," and the marginal notes and explanations are full and 
complete, showing remarkable learning and research. The book 

The " Iliad " in Arabic 747 

was printed in Cairo at the author's expense, and should be in 
the library of every college and university. I know of no work 
in Arabic which shows greater scholarship and genius. To 
translate foreign poetry into prose in our own language is prac- 
ticable, but to render it into poetry is a work which only a Pope, 
Cowper, Derby, or Bryant could undertake. 1 

One night in July, Dr. George E. Post, the famous surgeon, 
author, and professor in the Syrian Protestant College, was riding 
up from Beirut, when suddenly near Jemhour a railway train 
passed and the headlight and noise of the engine frightened his 
horse, which sprang backward off a high bank, falling partly on 
the doctor, breaking his wrist and gashing his head. The hair- 
breadth escapes of the foreign doctors in Syria, in travelling by 
night in storms and darkness over rocky defiles, and through 
thickets and quicksands, would fill a volume. 



This third conference was held as before in the beautiful grounds 
of the Friends' Mission at Brummana, Mount Lebanon. No 
speaker from abroad could be secured, and the conference was 
entirely conducted by missionaries from the Turkish Empire. 
The Rev. Geo. M. Mackie prepared the programme, on the sub- 
ject : " The Missionary Gospel and the Missionary ; The Mes- 
sage and the Messenger, and the things that affect his daily life 
and service for the Master.' 1 

No less than thirty-two brief papers were read, after each of 
which there was free discussion and devotional and praise meet- 
ings were held at sunrise and sunset daily. Two hundred dele- 
gates were present, of whom ninety were British, fifty-eight 
Americans, thirty-seven Syrians, six Germans, three Danes, three 
Swedes, two Armenians, and one Hindu. 

Eighteen Christian denominations, representing twenty-six 

1 The author is (in 1909) one of the Beirut members of the Ottoman 

748 My Latest Furlough 

societies, were present. Again all felt that the spiritual benefits 
of such a gathering far more than compensated for the trouble 
and expense incurred. 

On leaving Brummana, we saw below us in the harbour off 
Beirut thirty British ships of war, and the thunder of their salutes 
August 9th, on King Edward's coronation day, when each ship 
fired twenty-one guns, echoed and reechoed through the moun- 
tain ranges of Lebanon. Hundreds of mountaineers thronged 
Beirut, and went on board at certain appointed hours. 

The visits of these fleets always impress the Syrian populace. 
The spectacle at night (August 9th), when the ships were deco- 
rated with thousands of electric lights and the search-lights 
illuminated the mountain villages ten miles away, was one of 
great magnificence. England thus maintains and asserts her 
naval supremacy in the Mediterranean. She holds Gibraltar, 
Malta, Cyprus, and Egypt, and will never surrender her control 
of the Suez Canal, the highway to India, Australasia, and China. 

If this empire suffers dismemberment, the arbiters will be the 
nations who control the sea. 

The visits of the European and American fleets make a deep 
impression upon both Turkish officials and the native people. 
The braggart, fanatical Moslem, roughs hide their heads for a 
time and officials feel encouraged to keep order and give no oc- 
casion for foreign interference or occupation. 

Can anything be more beautiful than the love of a little child ? 
I have always loved children, but the artless love of my grand- 
children is something precious beyond gold and rubies. A little 
grandson, two and a half years old, said to me, " Grandpa, I love 
you." His childish utterances are curious enough. One day his 
father led him out to the garden and called his attention to a 
vulture flying overhead. He looked, but it had passed. Then 

his father called, " F , see that huge bird ! " He looked, but 

the bird had disappeared behind the oak trees, and he began to 
think his father was joking. In a few moments he ran off some 
distance in the vineyard and called, " Come, papa, come see 1 n 

The Lebanon Rhinoceros 749 

His father ran, and the child pointed down between his feet, and 
said, See ! " What ? " said his father. " A rhinoceros ! " an- 
swered the lad and burst into laughter. 

The Zahleh and Lebanon Presbytery met in Zahleh September 
6th, and about twenty members were in attendance. The prog- 
ress made by these organizations composed of Syrian pastors and 
elders and American missionaries is encouraging and hopeful for 
the future. We foreigners are corresponding members, and 
business is transacted in good order and harmony, giving promise 
of the time when the evahgelical church of Syria shall become 
self-supporting and self-propagating. What form of polity will 
be eventually adopted by these churches is a secondary matter. 
As long as they are dependent on foreign funds they will natu- 
rally submit to foreign advice, but when they walk alone and sup- 
port their own pastors and schools, they will be at liberty to 
select that form of church government which suits their tastes and 

In 1901, a Shechemite swindler of the first water, named 
Kerreh, a native of Nablus, went to England to raise money for 
his leper asylum at Tirzah, near Nablus. He represented in 
his long printed programme that he had a leper asylum with 
1,100 patients, extensive buildings, staff, plant, grounds, etc., and 
he wanted to raise 10 a head for each of his 1,100. He deceived 
a few persons, when his fraud was detected, and he was arrested. 
The English judge sent a commissioner, Mr. Francis C. Brading, 
then travelling in Syria, to investigate. He found at Tirzah an 
abject village, but no leper, no asylum, and nothing had ever 
been heard there of Kerreh and his swindling scheme. He was 
then convicted and sent to prison. After serving out his time, 
he crossed the sea and applied to Mr. H. H. Hall, of Orange, 
N. Y., for aid for his 1,100 lepers. Mr. Hall wisely inquired 
through a friend, whose son was in Syria, and obtained the above 
facts. The man was then headed off, but he will no doubt palm 
off his monstrous swindle in other parts of America where he 
has not been exposed. 

750 My Latest Furlough 

The gullibility of good people is amazing. If all who are 
asked to help such wildcat schemes would demand credentials 
and certificates from responsible persons, they would not throw 
away their money. 

On returning home, September loth, we were shocked by the 
cold-blooded and unprovoked murder of a beloved and talented 
young man of Suk el Gharb, a student in the college and a mem- 
ber of a prominent Protestant family in this part of Lebanon. 
He was stabbed to death just at sunset within a quarter of a mile 
of his home by two Druse miscreants. The funeral the next day 
was largely attended and the mudir was present with his soldiers 
to prevent disturbance, as some of the less educated relatives of 
the deceased were ready to revenge his death on any Druse who 
should appear in the village. We conducted the funeral services 
at the house in the open air, as a noisy crowd of distant relatives 
and outsiders declared that, according to their traditional customs, 
to consent to have the funeral in the church would be to admit 
that they had no further claim for the punishment of the mur- 
derers. The father said he would prefer to have it in the church 
but the crowd overruled him. 

The self-control of the father, the brothers, and sister in that 
tumultuous wailing and shrieking crowd, was a beautiful testi- 
mony to the sustaining power of Christian faith. Two years 
passed and no punishment had been inflicted on the assassins, 
though legally convicted of murder in the first degree. 

September 2/th Mrs. Gerald F. Dale, for twenty-five years 
connected with the mission, tendered her resignation to take the 
superintendence of the new Maria Dewitt Jesup hospital for 
women and children and the training-school for nurses. The 
mission only acceded to this request on the ground that the truly 
benevolent and self-denying work which she was about to under- 
take was in every sense a missionary work and an important 
branch of the great work being done for the benefit of the Syrian 

Resigning American Citizenship 751 

On the I4th of October the people of Lebanan saw a brilliant 
meteoric shower which lasted not less than fifteen minutes. 

October Jist word was received that the model of the Syrian 
Protestant College had received a gold medal at the St. Louis 
Exposition. It was deposited in the college. I afterwards heard 
that the medal was voted, but, with many others, might be given 
only on paper. When it came it proved to be bronze. 

In November, United States Consul Ravendal received a letter 
from Vice-Consul Shumacher of Haifa, well known as an explorer 
and archaeologist, resigning his office and also stating that he had 
given up his American citizenship and become a German subject, 
for the reason that, as an American, he could get no rights and 
secure no concessions for archaeological excavation and explora- 
tion, whereas a German subject can get any concession that is 
desired. Dr. Shumacher's statement is no doubt true. The 
German emperor, for reasons too palpable to need explanation, 
has become the backer and friend of the Sultan Abdul Hamid II. 
German railway concessions are necessary to promote German 
commerce, and for these benefits the Emperor William will stand 
by the Sultan, who, as a matter of wisdom, will grant the emperor 
and his subjects privileges allowed to none others. As Mr. Shu- 
macher has large experience in Palestine exploration, and is a 
permanent resident in Haifa, he naturally prefers the government 
which can most successfully promote his interests. 

December 2/th To-day the contract was signed for the pur- 
chase of the so-called Misk property adjoining the American 
Mission premises in Beirut. For sixteen years we had been try- 
ing to secure this valuable property, the funds for which had been 
given by the late Col. Elliot F. Shepard of New York. The 
Arabic proverb " man sabar zafar," " who waits wins," was proved 
true in this case. Colonel Shepard gave the fund to buy the 
property and it was carefully invested in America. He author- 
ized the use of the interest for supplying a residence for the native 

My Latest Furlough 

Syrian pastor, and aiding, when needed, in his support, until the 
purchase should be effected. On completing the purchase, which 
was done by Dr. Hoskins, after meeting with the various depart- 
ments and officials of the local courts for three months, the work 
of demolition and reconstruction was commenced, and the mis- 
sion premises converted into a convenient campus, containing the 
church, press, Sunday-school hall, theological school, manse, 
girls' boarding-school, and cemetery, with two mission residences 
(the Pharaun and Kekano houses) and open spaces covered with 
shade trees and orange and lemon orchards. 

This valuable property belongs to the Presbyterian Board of 
Foreign Missions. The Kekano house was purchased in 1889 
with funds given chiefly by Morris K. Jesup, Esq., John Stewart 
Kennedy, and Robert Lenox Kennedy. The Pharaun house was 
bought with a portion of the theological seminary funds in the 
hands of the Board of Foreign Missions. 

The year has been one of steady progress. The in schools 
have instructed 6,353 pupils- The college has had 750 students, 
more than ever before, and its corps of instructors numbers sixty- 
two. One hundred and forty -three were added to the churches 
on profession of faith and the congregations average 5,534. 

The press printed 34,577,543 pages, of which 24,727,000 were 
Arabic Scriptures for the American Bible Society. The total 
number of pages printed since 1834 has been 760,089,034. 

Jubilee Times (1905-1907) 

THE year 1905 was memorable as the banner year for 
Bible printing in the history of the American Press. 
Nearly sixty millions of pages were printed, of which 
47,275,000 were for the American Bible Society. The number 
of copies of the Scriptures issued during the year was 158,000, a 
larger number than ever before. 

The demand for Arabic Scriptures from Egypt was unprece- 
dented. Our workmen put in extra time, and paper and binding 
materials had to be ordered in large quantities from Europe to 
meet the demand. A new printing machine had just been added 
to our plant to increase our facilities for Bible work. Just at this 
juncture the old steam engine gave signs of failing, and to avoid 
the catastrophe of having all our presses stopped, I wrote to Mr. 
Marcellus Hartley Dodge of New York, son of my old friend, 
Norman White Dodge, and he, with a promptness which filled 
our whole mission with a thrill of gratitude, replied by sending 
out a magnificent thirty horse-power Fairbanks Morse oil engine. 
The iron castings and balance-wheel of this splendid engine were 
so massive that Mr. Freyer had to hire the steam derrick of the 
Harbor Company to lift them to the wharf and from the wharf to 
the truck. And when they reached the churchyard adjoining 
the press, it required many men and many days 1 work to remove 
them to the engine house of the press. 

In May a conference of Christian workers was held in Constan- 
tinople and we were all invited to be present, but owing to the 
May meeting of our mission coming at the same time, we had to 
decline. But at the request of Dr. J. K. Greene, I wrote a few 
words on " Hindrances to the Christian Life Among Mission- 


754 Jubilee Times 

1. We are apt to feel that we have already attained. Deem- 
ing that we are in a higher spiritual plane than those around us, 
we compare ourselves with others and are led to self-satisfaction 
and indolence. 

2. Officialism. Because we are preachers and teachers, we 
are in danger of thinking that we need only to give out, and not 
to take in. 

3. Extreme liberalism. Inclining us to believe that the life- 
less systems around us are good enough, and that we need not 
seek the conversion of their adherents. This blunts the edge of 
zeal and lessens the value of experimental religion. I yield to 
none in broad sympathy for those brought up in the non-Christian 
and semi-Christian faiths, but unless we have something that they 
have not, and unless Jesus Christ is the only Saviour of sinners, 
we have absolutely no vocation in Western Asia and European 

4. Yielding to the spiritual stagnation round us. 

5. Neglect of personal religious duties. 
As to the remedy, I can only suggest: 

1. Constant personal use of the " Word of God," 

2. Personal work for the salvation of others. 

3. Never forgetting that " the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth 
from all sin." " And in none other is there salvation ; for neither 
is there any other name under heaven that is given among men, 
wherein we must be saved " (Acts 4 : 12). 

This conference was conducted by Rev. John McNeil of London 
and was an inspiring and uplifting occasion. 

It is, alas, too often true, that we who are labouring in heathen 
and Mohammedan lands and are regarded by many as the most 
spiritual of all Christian workers feel our need of those special oc- 
casions for the promotion of the spiritual life which are so com- 
mon in Christian lands, in Keswick, Northfield, Chautauqua, Wi- 
nona, and the Northwest. We have many benumbing and 
paralyzing influences to contend with. Familiarity with a Mos- 
lem population makes us forget their spiritual deadness. We see 
o many forms, rites, ceremonies, and pilgrimages ancj so mucji 

Keeping Spiritually Alive 755 

virtue attached to mere outward works, that we need to live in 
a Bible atmosphere and in a spirit of constant prayer to keep our 
garments white and our faith bright and clear. We need to draw 
our theology from the Bible and not from mere reason and hy- 
pothesis. Mere ethics will save nobody. " If righteousness is 
through the law then Christ died for nought " (Gal. 2 : 21). Christ 
is an example our brightest, best, and perfect example, but He is 
more. He is a Saviour, a Redeemer from sin, its power, and 
penalty. His blood was "shed for many for the remission of 

There has been a powerful work of grace in St. Paul's Institute, 
Tarsus, and a number of conversions recently in Gerard Institute, 
Sidon. Six young girls in the British Syrian Institute in Beirut 
were received into the church. 

In March Rev. Drs. Stewart and Lowe of the Irish Presby- 
terian Jewish Missions Committee visited their Damascus Mission 
and on their return proposed to transfer their two Mount Hermon 
stations, Rasheiyat el Wady and Ain esh Shaara, to our mission, 
if their General Assembly should approve. It did approve, and 
in the fall Rev. W. K. Eddy of Sidon was instructed to take 
measures to assume the work at those stations, but the expense, 
about $700 a year, for which our Board felt unable to provide, 
delayed the full support of the work there. Had these little Prot- 
estant communities the spirit of the Korean converts they would 
carry on the work without foreign aid. 

During the summer I visited Suk, Abeih, Zahleh, and Baalbec, 
preaching in Arabic in these places and when at home in our 
own summer cottage in Aleih, I always preached in Arabic. I 
had planned going from Baalbec to Hums with my brother 
Samuel September Qth, but was prevented by illness. He went 
alone by the Aleppo Railroad leaving Baalbec Saturday at 2 p. M., 
and enjoyed meeting that interesting church and preaching once 
more to the people. They have shown great energy in opening 
a boys' boarding-school at their own expense but have not yet 
fulfilled the more important duty of supporting their own pastor. 

While in Zahleh w$ drov$ down to thq plain to visit th 

756 Jubilee Times 

famous Jesuit farm of Taanaille. It is on the Damascus Road and 
covers about half a mile square, on rich land, through which runs 
a splendid stream of water from the Jedetha fountain. It is a 
model French farm, with wheat fields, clover pasturage, shaded 
walks and drives, and fine orchards of European fruits, and vege- 
table and flower gardens. The father superintendent who spoke 
English perfectly was most courteous and showed us all the de- 
partments. An immense American threshing-machine was just 
being brought in, having been imported and transported over to 
Anjar, four miles to the east, for Tahir Pasha of Damascus, who 
refused to accept it and pending a lawsuit to compel him to ful- 
fill his contract, it was being stored by the French Jesuit 
" fathers." 

This French farm looks more like Europe and America than 
anything I have seen in Syria. It shows what might be done 
everywhere with proper care and cultivation. 

In June we sent to New York by order of the American Tract 
Society $325 worth of Arabic books and tracts to be distributed 
by the American Tract Society among Syrian immigrants land- 
ing in New York. We have frequently supplied outgoing 
emigrants from Syria with Arabic Scriptures and they have al- 
most without exception received them with gratitude. Many of 
these Arab emigrants will become American citizens, and it is a 
remarkable providence that the American Press and schools in 
Syria have been used to fit men and women to become Ameri- 
can citizens. It is well to^sow good seed abroad. .Who knows 
when the fruit will come back to be a blessing to the sowers ! 
The best Syrian emigrants to America are those who have been 
trained in the American Mission schools. Westward the Star of 
Syria takes its way I 

"In October we were favoured with a visit from Rev. Dr. 
Howard Agnew Johnston, wife and daughter. An itinerary had 
been prepared and he was able to visit all our principal stations, 
speaking everywhere words stimulating and inspiring on the sub- 
ject of " individual work for individuals." He spoke in the Beirut 
College and to the young people in the city, and gave an hour to 

Howard Agnew Johnston 

the theological class- The unity of his theme, his great experi- 
ence in personal religious work and his sententious summing up 
of Christian duty, as " not merely to be fed, but to feed, not 
merely to be led but to lead, not simply to be saved but to save 
others," gave his addresses great power. 

He spoke to the theological class of the value of an individual 
acquaintance with the contents and teaching of each book of the 
Bible. I remarked that one of the three native brethren who had 
been ordained the evening before had a wonderful knowledge of 
the Bible. Dr. Johnston then asked the class to give him the 
contents of John, chapter six. Just then M. Michaiel, the per- 
son I had quoted, entered the room. Hearing Dr. Johnston's 
request, he quietly arose and gave a complete synopsis of that 
chapter to the minutest detail. It was an object-lesson to the class 
such as few could give. Dr. Johnston spoke fifteen times in 
Beirut, besides visiting Zahleh, Hums, Tripoli, Suk, and Sidon. 

The ordination of three tried and experienced native preachers, 
Rev. Beshara Barudi, Rev. Michaiel Ibrahim, and Rev. Yusef 
Jerjer, took place October 24th, while Dr. Johnston was here, and 
the hands of seventeen ministers, American, Scotch, and Syrian, 
were laid on their heads. 

On the 3 1st of October I sat by the dying bed of a lovely 
young Protestant, Amin Tabet, who died in the prison ward of 
the municipal hospital of Beirut. He had been to America to 
visit his father and returned a short time before, dangerously ill. 
The custom-house detective in examining his baggage found a 
book in which was a picture of the Sultan and written under it 
the word " dog." The young man, a very model of integrity 
and uprightness, stated that he knew nothing of the book, that 
some friends had put a lot of books and papers in his trunk for 
him to read on the voyage but he had been too ill to look at 
them and that he could never have been foolish enough to carry 
such a book had he known of it The zealous police, anxious to 
gain favour and promotion, telegraphed their discovery to Con- 
stantinople and he was thrown into the lowest prison. His many 
Beirut friends interceded, and by order of the government physi- 

758 Jubilee Times 

cian he was removed to the iron-grated ward in the hospital 
But it was vain to ask for his release. Even when the physicians 
pronounced him a dying man, his mother was not allowed to re- 
move him. I had baptized him in infancy, and found him ready 
to depart and be with Christ, and in that Turkish prison, sur- 
rounded by Moslem attendants and patients, I commended him 
to Christ as his Saviour. He soon after passed away, and his 
emaciated body was taken to his mother's house where the fu- 
neral service took place, attended by a great throng. His brothers, 
tutors in the college, were comforted by a large delegation of 
students bearing wreaths and flowers. 

The leading authorities declared their conviction that he was 
innocent and had been victimized by some designing person, but 
not one of the officials ventured to utter openly a word in his 
favour, lest they be reported to headquarters. Would that this 
were the only case of the kind ! He was a victim of the cruel 
despotic rule of Abdul Hamid and Izzet Pasha. 

On the 1 8th of December I acknowledged Dr. A. J. Brown's 
letter speaking of the approaching jubilee of Dr. and Mrs. Bliss 
and myself, I replied in part as follows : " I should prefer that 
no special notice be taken of one of the Lord's servants having 
been permitted to keep at work for fifty years. I ought to be 
grateful It has always been my principle that the missionary 
work is a life enlistment, and I am more than ever convinced that 
it is a^true one. No one can be more grateful than I am for the 
blessed privilege of being able to hold on." 

During December the annual meeting of our mission was 
held. It was a hopeful, inspiring season. We had printed more 
pages of the Arabic Scriptures and taught in our schools more 
children and youth than ever before, when Dr. Bowen, agent of the 
American Bible Society, wrote from Constantinople ordering Mr. 
Freyer to countermand a big order for paper and cut down at 
once all expenditure on account of the Bible Society. We were 
taken aback, like a ship under full sail, with the wind suddenly 
veering from stern to stem and forcing the sails back against the 
masts. The appropriation, under financial stress and distress at 

They Shall Still Bring Forth Fruit 759 

the Bible House, New York, was cut down to a destructive figure. 
I was stirred so deeply that when our mission met, December 
7th, I offered to write the annual letter to the Bible Society. 
This offer was met with applause, as a welcome innovation. 
The office of writing the annual letters to the Bible and Tract 
and other societies is never sought for, as it involves no little out- 
lay of time and labour. The letter was written under a sense of 
being divinely moved, such as I have not often felt. It was sent 
and scattered abroad through a hundred newspapers and some 
months after, Dr. Bo wen writes, " That letter brought into the 
treasury of the Society not less than $150,000, One donor gave 
a piece of property which will give $7,500 annually for Bible 
work in Mohammedan lands." I can see now that the prompt- 
ing to write that letter came from above, and all the praise be- 
longs to the Lord of the Bible who is the God of missions. 

It did seem strange that just as the door is opening in Moslem 
lands for the Arabic Bible, and the machinery is ready to print 
and publish it, we should be obliged to say to Asia and Africa, 
" No, America is too poor. You must wait still longer for the 
Bread of Life. The Beirut Press stands committed before the 
Christian world to supply the demand for Arabic Scriptures, and 
in Bible work this press is the agent and servant of the American 
Bible Society." We have been saying to Syria, Palestine, Egypt, 
and Arabia, Tunis and Algiers, Mesopotamia, and Bussorah, 
" Call, and we will answer ; call for the Scriptures and we will 
supply them." 

And now are we to say to these missionaries : " You will have 
to wait. Tell the Moslems, just beginning to ask for God's 
word, that they cannot have it; that the great Church of America 
has too much to do to think of 60,000,000 of Arabic-speaking 
people, and 140,000,000 more of Moslems whose Koran is 

Will the Christian Church give the $9,000 a year needed to 
keep up the Bible work and manufacture to an extent sufficient 
for the demand ? 

Shall foreign missionaries from England, Scotland, Ireland, 

760 Jubilee Times 

Germany, Holland, Switzerland, and Scandinavia, who have de- 
pended upon us for their Arabic Scriptures, be obliged to write 
to their home societies that the American Bible Press in Beirut, 
which holds the key to the Arabic Bible, has finally admitted its 
inability to supply the increasing demands upon it ? 

We call upon the Bible-loving Church of Christ to come to 
your aid and ours. 

In November Rev. James H. Nicol and wife arrived from 
America for the Tripoli station. Early in the year, January 2, 
1906, Dr. Mary Pierson Eddy and Miss Caroline M. Holmes 
arrived from America, the former to resume her medical work, 
and the latter to labour in the same region, on the coast north of 
Beirut Miss Holmes was for ten years connected with the 
Tripoli Girls' Boarding-School (from 1883 to 1887 and from 1888 
to 1894), and had been absent from Syria eleven years. She now 
returned under the auspices of a number of American friends 
who pledged her support for a term of years. After working 
with Dr. Mary P. Eddy in M'aamiltein for some months, she re- 
moved to Jebail (the Gebal of the Bible), half-way between Beirut 
and Tripoli, and has succeeded in overcoming prejudice until she 
has a school of seventy-five girls. She has begun work as a 
pioneer in one of the most bigoted regions in Syria. 

I cannot but admire the pluck and courage of these two Chris- 
tian women. The Board supports Dr. Mary P. Eddy. Miss 
Holmes with her fine knowledge of Arabic, her splendid capacity 
for organization, and devoted spirit should have abundant sup- 

In November Rev. Paul Erdman, Mrs. Gertrude Erdman, and 
son Frederick arrived from America to take up their residence in 

In October Sheikh Nebhany, Kadi of Beirut, issued a pamphlet, 
attacking Christian schools and all Moslems who patronize them. 
His language was bitter and coarse, full of invective and rant, 
and to the astonishment of the public it had the sanction of the 
Ministry of Public Instruction in Constantinople, The better 
class of Moslems repudiated the book and denounced the author. 

My Fiftieth Anniversary 761 

Several learned sheikhs of Beirut, Damascus and Cairo published 
replies to his book, rebuking him severely for his ignorance of 
history and his narrow intolerance. It not only failed to compel 
Moslems to take their children out of Christian schools, but it 
resulted in a large increase in the number of Moslem students in 
Christian schools, especially in the Beirut College. This result is 
but another proof of the growing independence among intelligent 
Moslems of their fanatical religious leaders. 

The jubilee year, my fiftieth in Syria, was celebrated by many 
friends, Syrian and foreign. 

Dr. and Mrs. Daniel Bliss and I arrived in Syria February 7, 
1856, and on and before February /th congratulatory letters, 
cablegrams, and messages came in upon me like a flood. About 
sunrise a company of Syrian girls from the British Syrian Insti- 
tution came quietly in and sang sweet hymns of cheer. Our 
house was decorated with white almond blossoms, which have 
been for fifty years a reminder of the day of our landing in 1856, 
when the almond trees were in bloom. And these little girls 
each brought a spray of the sweet blossoms and gave them to me 
as a floral offering. 

At half-past nine came all the members of the Syria Mission, 
men and women, and made addresses which quite overcame me 
with their expressions of fraternal affection. They then presented 
me with a massive cathedral chiming clock in a case of polished 
English oak with an inscripton on a gilt brass plate. 

Then came a deputation of the Syrian Protestant sect, eight in 
number, each of whom made an eloquent Arabic address, in 
prose or poetry, the substance of which is too personal to allow 
its being repeated by me. The most of them and their families 
were my spiritual children, and their language, though full of 
Oriental hyperbole, was most kind and sincere. They left with 
me as souvenirs elegant specimens of silver filigree work on a little 
inlaid table of Damascene work. A little Syrian boy gave m6 
some rare specimens of Phoenician iridescent glass, 

At one o'clock eighteen of our kindred and those of Dr. and 

762 Jubilee Times 

Mrs. Bliss sat down to dinner together, the little grandchildren 
being at a side table. 

At 3 P. M. we were taken to the Gerald R Dale Memorial 
Sunday-School Hall, which was densely packed with a crowd of 
people who were awaiting us. This was a complete surprise. 
The hall was decorated with flags, evergreens, and flowers, and 
prominent among them the almond blossoms. The girls of our 
seminary and of the British Syrian Institution were dressed in 
holiday attire, and sang as Dr. and Mrs. Bliss, Mrs. Jessup, and 
myself entered the hall There was a full musical, programme 
and then the entire assembly of five hundred came up to take us 
by the hand, wishing us a joyful jubilee. The ladies of the mis- 
sion then presented to Mrs. Jessup a pyramidal frosted loaf of 
cake which she cut, and Mrs. Hoskins and her sister, Dr. Mary 
Eddy, gave out portions to missionary friends. 

At half-past seven, a beautiful moonlight evening, the church 
was crowded for the memorial jubilee service. Addresses were 
made in Arabic by two prominent Protestant Arabic scholars, 
Messrs. Selim Kessab and Ibrahim Haurani, in German by Pastor 
Fritz Ulrich, and ia English by Dr. George E. Post and Dr. 
George A. Ford, the latter in poetry. Thus closed the jubilee 
day a day full of sacred memories, of many regrets and much 
thanksgiving to God. 

The love and esteem of so many of Christ's children, Ameri- 
can, Syrian, and European, is inexpressibly precious. May every 
one of these dear friends live to celebrate their own jubilee ! 

1906 January was a month of storms, of much sickness, and 
snow. The Damascus railway was repeatedly blocked with snow, 
and the winter rains were constant with frequent electric storms 
of thunder and lightning. Miss Van Zandt of the Woman's Hos- 
pital had a long and severe illness with typhoid fever. Pneu- 
monia, pleurisy, and typhoid fever prevailed throughout the land. 
My son William wrote from Zahleh of icicles ten feet long and a 
foot thick. 

On January 7th, at 4 P. M., Miss Jessie Taylor entered into 

Jessie Taylor and Her Work 763 

rest, aged seventy-nine, after forty years of self-denying labour 
for the Moslem and Druse girls and women of Syria. 

Her death produced wide-spread and unfeigned sorrow among 
the multitudes of Moslem women and girls whom she had in- 
structed and befriended. No foreign woman ever had such a 
hold on the confidence of the Moslems of Beirut, and this, al- 
though she was a fearless witness for salvation through Christ 
alone. Moslem men would come to a preaching service In her 
house when nothing would have induced them to enter a Chris- 
tian church. 

Miss Jessie Taylor was " one called of God." She heeded the 
call and came to this land alone, and began her work among the 
lowly and neglected. I well remember her first arrival and have 
followed her course with sympathy and prayer ever since. Like 
good Mr. Cullen in Edinburgh, she belonged to all the churches 
and all Christian people. Her home was a house of prayer, I 
know of no house in Syria where prayer seemed more natural 
and appropriate, and certainly there was no house where Mos- 
lem, Druse, and Jew and Maronite and Protestant felt more wel- 
come and more at home. 

Without an effort on her part, and by the simple power of an 
unselfish, sincere and blameless life, she secured and held the 
confidence of her non-Christian neighbours to an extent which 
was remarkable. 

And how many perils escaped, difficulties overcome, burdens 
lifted, and spiritual fruits gathered as a direct and comforting an- 
swer to prayer ! Here was the source of her strength, which kept 
up that frail body to a great age ; made her invariably cheerful 
and hopeful ; helped her to look always on the bright side, 
" bright as the promise of God/' and made her the spiritual guide 
to the new life in Christ, of so many of her pupils. 

She believed in conversion, in passing from death into life, and 
the regenerating power of the Holy Spirit, 

At times she needed great courage and decision, and wag never 
left to lack either in times of emergency. 

Her solitary journey to Scotland, when over seventy years of 

764 Jubilee Times 

age in order to save her old mission home from sale, was an illus- 
tration of her simple faith and unflagging energy. Her friends 
in Scotland, when appealed to personally, said, " In these days 
of Boer War and financial embarrassment it is not possible to 
raise 1,100." She replied, "The silver and the gold are the 
Lord's and the fund must be raised," and it was raised and 
amounted to 1,500, sufficient to buy the house and make all 
needed repairs. She returned to Syria looking ten years younger, 
her face beaming with hope and energy, and resumed her work 
with new buoyancy and faith. 

And she had impressed those qualities upon her fellow workers 
and pupils, and we believe that they will go forward, trustful and 
hopeful as she has been. She called her school " St. George's 
School for Moslem and Druse Girls," but the Syrians and the 
foreign community know it and speak of it as Miss Taylor's 
school and there can be no comparison between the solid spir- 
itual work done by her, and the shadowy exploits of the mythical 
St George. 

March /th Beirut was honoured by a visit from Admiral Sigs- 
bee of the American Navy with the ships Brooklyn, Galveston, 
and Chattanooga. Consul-General Bergholz gave them a recep- 
tion which was attended by the American and European com- 
munities. It has been my experience for fifty years that there is 
no finer class of men anywhere than the officers of the American 
Navy. And as a rule they fully appreciate the educational and 
elevating work done by their missionary fellow countrymen. 
Much depends on the man, whether they show hearty sympathy 
with the more spiritual aspect of our work. I knew a naval com- 
mander who would hold prayer-meetings with the men in the 
cockpit, though his officers held aloof and scarcely concealed 
their disgust, lie was deeply interested in the evangelistic work 
of our mission. The majority of naval officers respect religion 
and respect manliness and manly work, but they generally appre- 
ciate educational, publishing, and what is called civilizing work 
more than the purely religious. An address to the college stu- 
dents by an American admiral is always impressive. One can 

Our Fine Naval Officers 765 

hardly conceive of such an address by a Turkish admiral. Our 
government does well to give its citizens abroad an occasional 
glimpse of the Stars and Stripes. I notice that an American 
congressman has given notice of a bill to deprive of the rights of 
citizenship any American who shall reside abroad more than five 
years ! This is aimed at the millionaires who reside abroad to 
evade taxes. But think of the blow it would inflict upon the 
3,300 American foreign missionaries who have gone abroad to 
stay and have burned their ships behind them ! It is inconceiv- 
able that citizenship should be wrested from such a body of men 
and women engaged only in benevolent and unselfish work ! 

And it was not 

Rev. Mr. Franson, a Swedish missionary secretary, who had 
felt a call to visit missions in foreign lands, after visiting the mis- 
sions in India, Persia, and Eastern and Central Turkey, reached 
Beirut and spoke March 25th in the college, and at the Sunday- 
school hall to a large concourse of people. Preaching through 
an interpreter (an " interrupter," as it has been called) is far from 
satisfactory. I have had large experience in translating sermons 
and addresses into Arabic for travellers, and find that the only 
satisfactory way is to sit quietly behind the speaker with a pad 
and pencil and take rapid notes, giving the speaker freedom, 
Then I translate the notes offhand into Arabic and the people 
get the gist of it without a break. 

On the 4th of April, 1906, was held in Cairo the memorable 
conference of missionaries to Mohammedan lands. The sessions 
were held in the Church Missionary Society's buildings, the 
former home of Arabi Pasha. 

The attendance was large, including delegates from the Turkish 
Empire, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, the East Indies, the Sudan, 
and North and West Africa. The papers read, the discussions 
held, and the reports made, showed a striking uniformity of ex- 
perience with regard to the difficulties, the encouragements and 
the magnitude of the work. There was no note of retreat or 
pessimism. The time had come for an onward movement all 

766 Jubilee Times 

along the line. Thirty-two thousand converts in India and the 
East Indies were regarded as but the first-fruits of a great gather- 
ing. It was agreed that we owe it to our Moslem brethren to ex- 
hibit the true nature of Christianity, to show them that we are 
their friends, to disabuse them of their false conceptions of the 
Trinity and the Scriptures, and to show them that the hostile 
and cruel spirit shown by the European crusaders and by modern 
Christian nations no longer exists. That we only ask that they 
read the Tourah and the Ingeel (the Old and New Testaments) 
and judge for themselves. And we ask that Christians in Mos- 
lem lands enjoy the same liberty of conscience that Moslems en- 
joy in Christian lands. We were agreed to appeal to all Chris- 
tian people to pray for our Mohammedan friends, and to send 
forth labourers into the vast fields occupied by two hundred mil- 
lions of Mohammedans. 

Some timid men had apprehended that this conference would 
awaken acts of hostility on the part of the hundreds of thousands 

of Moslems in Cairo, and had even asked Lord Cromer to inter- 

fere and prevent such a calamity. But the Moslem journals 
and populace took no notice of the conference. The evening 
open discussion with the sheikhs of the Azhar University 
and Moslem students continued as usual, and we from other 
and less favoured lands looked with wonder at the notices 
posted on the mission house and in the hotels, of evening 
public discussions with Mohammedans. It was apparent that 
all delegates present were ready for a new forward move- 

Twenty years ago I published a little volume, " The Moham- 
medan Missionary Problem " (a sermon preached before the Gen- 
eral Assembly in Saratoga, May, 1879), and pled for an awakening 
of the Church to its duty towards Islam and insisted that "God 
has been preparing Christianity for Islam : He is now preparing 
Islam for Christianity. The Roman power and the Greek lan- 
guage prepared the way for the coming of Christ and the giving 
of the Gospel to the world. Anglo-Saxon power and the Arabic 
Bible in the sacred language of the Koran are preparing the way 

Our Great Objective 767 

for the giving the Word of Christ and Christ the Word to the 
millions of the Mohammedan world. 

" The religion of Islam now extends from the Pacific Ocean at 
Peking to the Atlantic at Sierra Leone, over one hundred and 
twenty degrees of longitude, embracing 175,000,000 of followers 
(now 200,000,000, 1906). Its votaries are diverse in language, 
nationality, and customs, embracing the more civilized inhabitants 
of Damascus, Cairo, and Constantinople, as well as the wild nomad 
tribes of Arabia, Turkistan, and the Sahara. 

" The evangelization of these vast organized, fanatical, and 
widely extended masses of men is one of the grandest and most 
inspiring problems ever brought before the Church of Christ on 
earth. It is a work of surprising difficulty which will require a 
new baptism of apostolic wisdom and energy, faith, and love. 

" This great Mohammedan problem lying before the Church 
of Christ in the immediate future, connected with its fulfillment 
of the great missionary commission of its divine Head for the 
world's salvation, will tax the intellect, the faith, the wisdom, the 
zeal, and the self-denial of the whole Church in every land. 

" How are we to reach the 200,000,000 of Mohammedans spread 
over one hundred and twenty degrees of longitude from China to 
Mogadore ; embracing vast nations speaking thirty different lan- 
guages, with diverse climates, customs, and traditions, yet unified 
and compacted by a common faith which has survived the shock 
and conflicts of twelve hundred years ? 

"... Let every Christian missionary insist upon the great 
scheme of redemption, the atoning sufferings and death of Jesus the 
son of Mary and when the Mohammedan feels, as many have already 
felt, that he is a lost sinner and tinder the righteous displeasure of 
an offended God, he will gladly and gratefully take refuge in the 
conviction and the faith that man needs a Saviour from sin, and 
that Jesus the son of Mary in order to be a Saviour must also be 
the Son of God." 

When the above words were written the exact statistics of 
Islam were not known. The number of Mohammedans under 
Christian rule was supposed to be ; 

768 Jubilee Times 

England in India 41,000,000 

Russia in Central Asia e 6,000,000 

France in Africa . . 2,000,000 

Holland in Java and Celebes 1,000,000 

Total 50,000,000 

But the statistical survey of Dr. Zwemer presented to the 
Cairo conference gives the total number under Christian rule in 
1906 as 161,000,000, out of a total of 232,966,170. 

Great Britain in Africa .... 171920,330 
" " Asia .... 63,633,783 

Total '. . 81,554,113 

France in Africa 27,849,580 

" " Asia 1,455,238 

Total 29,304,818 

Holland in Asia 29,289,440 

Russia in Europe and Asia 15,889,420 

Germany in Africa 2,572,500 

America in the Philippines 300,000 

Other states 2,150,579 

Total 161,060,870 

Thus two-thirds of the Mohammedans in the world are under 
Christian rule, one-seventh under non-Christian rulers (33,976,500) 
and only 37,928,800, or a little more than one-seventh, under 
purely Moslem rulers. 

This remarkable fact renders any political solidarity of Islam 
impossible. It also insures liberty of conscience to honest- 
minded Moslems who wish to read the Bible and even to profess 

If any of the delegates to Cairo were faint-hearted when they 
went, they all came away full of hope and courage. 

We who labour in the Ottoman Empire have to " learn to labour 
and to wait" We cannot give the names of converts until they 

George Alexander 769 

are dead or exiled. And to publish the names of the exiled 
might bring down wrath upon the heads of their relatives. The 
machinery of political espionage and persecution is so complex 
and ramified that we must be " wise as serpents." Let any Moslem 
believer be charged by another with having cursed the name of 
Mohammed and he will be exiled without a trial. This is one of 
the most monstrous and iniquitous features of the present regime 
in this empire. No man knows when he is safe, and nothing is 
easier than denouncing a Moslem convert with having cursed the 
name of Mohammed. 

Among the delegates to the conference was the Reverend Dr. 
George Alexander, pastor in New York, and president of the 
Presbyterian Board of Missions. He accompanied us to Jeru- 
salem and Beirut and visited several of our stations, preaching 
twice in Beirut and sailing May 4th for America. 

What a blessing to us in this far-off land to see the benignant 
face of such a man and hear his voice in our churches ! We in 
Syria are especially favoured in this respect, being on the line of 
travel to the Holy Land and we appreciate our privileges. 

The steamer which took Dr. Alexander and his niece also took 
our Persian missionary delegates, Dr. Wilson and Miss Holli- 
day, returning from Cairo to Tabriz, Mr. and Mrs. Jordan of 
Teheran, going to America and Rev. George A. Ford of Sidon 
going home on furlough. Dr. Ford returned in December, a new 
man, having been married in America to Miss Katherine Booth, 
daughter of our beloved friend, the late William A. Booth, Esq., 
of New York. They came out buoyant and fresh, ready for work, 
full of hope and cheer. Mi's, Ford will find in the retired and 
secluded life in the mission school in Sidon a striking contrast to 
the life in New York. But missionaries abroad, like pioneers of 
the West, find home where the heart is, and truly consecrated men 
or women can adjust themselves to any environment 

The Hon. Wm. J. Bryan, the Chrysostom of Democracy, vis- 
ited Beirut in May, with his wife, son and daughter. He had a 
taste of the Turkish solicitude for the intellectual welfare of its 
subjects and guests by having his books seized and threatened 

770 Jubilee Times 

with confiscation by the custom-house police. But by the efforts 
of the consul-general the Waly was persuaded to restore the books 
and leave the distinguished visitor unmolested. 

He addressed the Christian Endeavour Society at a public 
evening assembly and lectured in the Syrian Protestant College 
on the Christian religion and its evidences, speaking with a mellif- 
luous facility, beauty of language, and cogency of argument which 
quite captivated his hearers. He made a profound impression, 
and reflected honour on his country as a Christian land. One 
could not help thinking of the contrast between Mr. Bryan and 
the typical Turkish pasha. 

Who ever heard of a political speech by a Turkish pasha ? 
Politics is, in this land, not a subject to be talked about or thought 
about. All the political thinking for the empire is supposed to 
be done on the Bosphorus. A despotism cannot train orators or 
engender eloquence. When even the press must avoid both re- 
ligion and politics, the public mind soon subsides into stolid if 
not sullen indifference. 1 

Among the changes of this year in Syria was the arrival of 
President Howard Bliss from America and the departure of Dr. 
Hoskins and family and Mrs. George Wood for the home land. 

The benefactions of Mrs, Wood to educational work in Syria 
need no praise from me. The fine mission house in Judaideh, the 
Gerard Institute in Sidon, the farm of 300 acres and the Beulah 
Orphan Home known as Dar es Salaam are monuments of her 

The summer was now past. The scattered families and 
labourers returned from their vacations in Mount Lebanon and 
the interior, and preparations were completed for a new year's 
work in the mission stations and the higher schools of learning. 
The prospect for a prosperous year was never brighter, when three 
successive blows fell upon the college and mission circles filling 
all minds with awe and solemnity. First, Mr. E, II. Barnes, 

1 November, 1908 Under the new Turkish Constitution, all is now 
changed. We have a free press, free assembly and free speech* Elo- 
quent orators are arising on every side. 

Death of William King Eddy 771 

tutor in the Syrian Protestant College, was mortally injured by a 
kick from his horse early in October, and survived only three 

Then came the second stroke in the death of one of God's 
noblemen, Rev. William King Eddy of Sidon. I wrote of his 
death as follows : 

" His peaceful, beautiful death seemed as the ' Amen * to a 
noble, harmonious anthem. He was encamped in Wady Darbaz, 
about four miles and a half distant from both Bussah and 'Alma 
at the northeast end of the plain of Acre. His tent companions 
were his two sons, Clarence, twelve years old, and William, ten, 
his servant Hassan, and his Bedavvi disciple and devoted friend, 
'Ali Berdan. Hassan he had taken care of when a poor boy and 
he had proved to be a most faithful and thoughtful servant to 
Mr. Eddy in his constant itinerating over the mountains and 
plains of Southern Syria and Northern Palestine. 'Ali, who was 
once a noted robber, sheep-thief, and highwayman, became ac- 
quainted with Mr. Eddy on a hunting expedition and admired 
his marksmanship so much that he accompanied him on his tours 
through that wild and lawless region. By degrees he left off 
cursing, swearing, lying, and stealing and his change was so 
striking that the Arabs and villagers of that whole region between 
Tyre and Tiberias called Mr. Eddy 'Ali's i kussis ' or minister. 
He loved Mr. Eddy and would do anything for him. 

" Mr. Eddy had been on a long tour through the villages north, 
south, and west of Mount Hermon, and after a few days of rest 
at Sidon set out on Wednesday, October 3ist, for another tour 
to Tyre, 'Alma, Bussah, and Safad. Professor Carrier of Mc- 
Cormick Theological Seminary, who had been with him on the 
Mount Hermon trip, went with him as far as Tyre, and then pur- 
sued his journey to Jerusalem, while Mr. Eddy turned eastward 
to Bussah and pitched his tent near a fine stream of water four 
miles and a half east of the town. On Saturday, November 3d, 
he told his men to take the boys on a hunting trip into the forest 
and among the rugged hills, as he wished to rest and prepare for 
two communion services the next day at Bussah and 'Alma, They 

772 Jubilee Times 

returned at evening, very weary, and, after supper, all retired, 
father and sons in the tent on iron travelling bedsteads and 
Hassan and 'AH in the cook's tent. Before midnight Mr. Eddy 
was seized with acute pain in the heart and called Hassan, who 
came with 'AH and found him suffering and speaking only with 
great difficulty. The boys awoke and sat up in bed. Mr. Eddy 
said to them, < My sons, I am about to die, good-bye/ He gave 
them various messages to their mother and others, and asked 
Clarence to repeat the Twenty-third Psalm, and said, Now, boys, 
lie down and go to sleep, it is too cold for you to get up.' 
(Thoughtful to the end !) Beautifully he wove into the sad news 
of impending death affectionate remembrances of his lifelong as- 
sociate, recently married in America. ' To-day Dr. Ford and 
his bride have sailed from New York on their way to Syria, and 
to-day I am beginning my journey from Syria to heaven. 1 'Ali 
offered to gallop to Bussah for medical aid, Mr. Eddy said, 
1 No, 'Ali, I am too near the end ; nothing can avail now ; I 
shall soon be gone.' He then gave Hassan messages to Dr. 
Samuel Jessup and Dr. Mary Eddy, and to the church in Mejde- 
luna (whom he had especially helped). When the paroxysm of 
pain came on 'AH and Hassan brought hot stones from the fire- 
place outside, where the food had been cooked, and placed them 
at his feet, which were growing icy cold. They chafed his hands 
and did all in their power to relieve him. About I A. M., Sunday, 
November 4th, he said to Hassan, ' You can see by my pulse that 
death is near. When I cease to breathe, close my eyes, dress me 
in my clothes, take all my papers and the contents of my pockets, 
wrap them and carry them to Mrs. Eddy. Pack up the tent 
equipage and carry me to Bussah, and there Mr. Shikri will make 
a coffin. Then take me to Sidon. I wish my body to be buried 
there, among my people, and not in my lot in the Beirut ceme- 
tery.' He then placed his hand on 'All's head and bade him and 
Hassan a loving good-bye. His voice was growing weaker. He 
said to his little sons, < Sleep on now ; I shall sleep and not wake 
here/ His pulse grew feebler and his breathing ceased. His 
soul passed on to glory. 

In Harness In the Wilderness 773 

" Silence fell upon the lonely camp. The little boys say that 
they could not sleep, neither could they get warm. ' How could 
we get warm when our hearts were so cold ? ' At length one of 
them left his bed, got in with his brother, and locked in each 
other's arms they fell asleep. 

" Mr. Eddy had for some time been conscious that a mortal 
malady was fastened upon him. With true prophetic instinct he 
had said to his wife, ' I shall die some day suddenly, so do not 
be alarmed when you hear of my death. I would prefer to die 
in the wilderness where I have spent so much of my time/ And 
his desire was accomplished. He died in his missionary tent, 
apart from the habitations of men, in the silence of the midnight, 
in those mountains of " Galilee of the Gentiles/ his loyal dis- 
ciple, the Bedawi, 'Ali Berdan, being the last to watch his ex- 
piring breath. 

" When all was finished, in the quiet of the night 'Ali rode to 
Bussah and brought bearers. The camp was packed and taken 
to town. The bearers bore the dear form on a stretcher to 
Bussah, where it was laid in the public open area, and the vil- 
lagers surrounded it with great lamentations. Shikri, a devoted 
friend and helper of Mr. Eddy, prepared a coffin. It was borne 
three miles down to the seashore near Zib (the ancient Achzib) 
where a boat with eight oarsmen was engaged to take the body 
to Sidon. After rowing eleven miles, opposite the Ladder of 
Tyre, a fierce north wind arose and made rowing impossible. 
They drew up to the beach and tried to tow the boat with a rope, 
but this was dangerous with the rising surf. They then landed, 
engaged a camel from a passing caravan, and set out for Tyre, 
seven miles distant At Ras el Ain, three miles south of Tyre, 
they met a wagon and a company of friends, the pastor, Rev. 
Asaad Abbud, the Misses Walker and Onslow, of the British 
Syrian School, and others. At the bridge of the river Kasimiyeh, 
five miles north of Tyre, they met Mr. Stuart Jessup and the 
Sidon pastor, Mr. Khalil Rasi, in a carriage, who took the 
wearied little orphan boys oil with them to Sidou, where the party 
furrived about ip P. M., met and Accompanied by large numbers of 

774 Jubilee Times 

brethren and friends. Mohammed Effendi Dada, a Moslem, one of 
the most devotedly attached friends of Mr. Eddy, and a skillful 
carpenter, superintended the making of an appropriate coffin in 
the industrial shops, to replace the rough box made in Bussah, 
and after the body was transferred to it, it was placed in the chapel 
for the night. 

4< The sad telegraphic news reached Beirut at 2 p. M. Sunday, as 
also Tripoli and Zahleh. Dr. Mary P. Eddy, at M'aamiltein near 
Beirut, was informed of her brother's death and set out by moon- 
light by carriage for Sidon. On Monday morning at six Messrs. 
Nelson of Tripoli, William Jessup of Zahleh, H. H. Jessup and 
March of Beirut with Professor Porter and Mr. Kurban of the 
college, and Mr. Powell, United States vice-consul, left for Sidon, 
arriving about noon. 

" The funeral was held at 2 p. M. in the ancient Crusaders' Hall, 
the present chapel of the boarding-schools. It was a magnificent 
tribute to the memory of the departed one, Christians, Moslems, 
and Jews, and representatives of some twenty villages were pres- 
ent to do him reverence. Some came from 'Alma, thirty miles 
distant. The crowds about the chapel were so great that the 
street outside was blocked. The services were conducted by Drs. 
Henry and Samuel Jessup, Rev. F. W. March, Professor Porter, 
Rev. William Jessup, and Rev. Asaad Abbud. 

" As the procession passed through the streets, the Moslems 
shut their shops and stood in silence on both sides of the street, and 
many of them walked the mile out to the cemetery. Thousands 
of the people of Sidon and the vicinity crowded into the streets 
and open spaces as the funeral line advanced. The head of the 
Romish Latin convent exclaimed as the cortege passed, * That 
man has gone straight to heaven/ Three elegiac poems were 
recited over the grave by young men from the Gerard Institute. 
The expressions of sympathy were very affecting. As the peo- 
ple left the cemetery, the missionaries stood with Dr. Nelson, the 
brother of Mrs. Eddy, near the gate to receive, according to the 
Syrian custom, the parting bow and salutation of the friends. 
One elderly Moslem called out, ' We shall never forget him, we 

An Ideal Missionary 775 

shall never forget you, God comfort you.' The grief of the peo- 
ple old and young, of teachers and preachers and neighbours, 
was very great. It was a solemn hour for all. Sidon and Syria 
had lost a champion. 

" Mr. Eddy developed remarkable power as a missionary. He 
was a man of more than ordinary intellectual ability and force of 
character. His whole heart was in evangelistic work. The mis- 
sion assigned to him the care of an extensive district, including 
many outstations with their churches and schools. The Syrian 
pastors and helpers under his superintendence needed and re- 
ceived his constant cooperation in a thousand matters. He was 
indefatigable in his labours. He spent no small part of each year 
on horseback, visiting the various parts of his great bishopric, 
sleeping in the native houses, exposing himself freely to every 
kind of hardship and privation, travelling in summer's heat and 
winter's cold, and not only in sunshine but in rain and snow. In 
the mingled beauty and strength of his Christian consecration, he 
was an ideal missionary. He took, too, a deep interest in matters 
outside of his own immediate field. He was one of the best in- 
formed men in the world regarding the political, economic, and 
moral problems in the Turkish Empire." 

He died December 3, 1906. At the meeting of the mission an 
appropriate minute was adopted, and a memorial service held in 
which fifteen American and English missionaries recounted their 
impressions of his life and character. He was in many respects 
the ideal missionary. 

The third stroke of sorrow came in the death of Prof. 
Robert Haldane West of the Syrian Protestant College on 
December I2th, of typhoid fever. He came to Syria November 
14, 1883, and for twenty years has been a man to reckon upon in 
the college. He won the affection and respect of all who knew 
him. His high scientific attainments as a mathematician and 
astronomer, his mechanical skill, his practical good sense, his 
knowledge of human nature, his firm stand for truth and right- 
eousness, his great humility^and godly life made him a fit example 
foy thi hundreds of young men who c^m und$r his ji 

776 Jubilee Times 

On August 30, 1905, he was one of the astronomers appointed 
to observe the solar eclipse at Assouan, Upper Egypt. Robert 
West was a saintly scholar and a scholarly saint. 

1907 Early in 1907 the Moslem journals in Egypt and Syria 
boasted that Japan was likely to become Mohammedan ; that a 
deputation of learned sheikhs had interviewed the Mikado, who 
was disposed to adopt Islam as the national faith. Well assured 
that the story was false, I wrote to Dr. Imbrie of Tokio, who 
replied that there was not a Moslem in Japan, that no deputation 
of Moslems had seen the Mikado nor could see him. I translated 
Dr. Imbrie's letter into Arabic and had it published in the Ahram 
of Cairo, as we could not print it in Syria. Here the Moslems 
can attack Christianity, but no Christian can reply. (It remains 
to be seen whether, under the new constitution of July 24, 1908, 
free discussions with Moslems will be allowed.) 

In June we gave diplomas to four theological graduates, who 
went at once to their fields of labour, three in Northern Syria, 
and one to the Bookaa. 

The necrology of this year includes the death, on February 1st, 
of Mr, Selim Kessab, a prominent Christian worker, and, on 
March 2d, that of Miss Proctor, founder of the Shwifat schools. 

Mr. Kessab, or " Muallim Selim/ 1 as he was familiarly called, 
was a native of Damascus, born in the year 1841. In July, 1860, 
at the time of the dreadful massacre in Damascus, he was the 
Arabic teacher and helper of Rev. John Crawford, of the Irish 
Presbyterian Mission. They had gone to Yabrood for the sum- 
mer, when the Moslem villagers attempted to kill him, asserting 
that all Christians were to be massacred, but the friendly sheikh 
protected him and the missionaries. The massacre in Damascus 
took place July 9th, and a fortnight later a party of Algerine 
horsemen of the Prince Abd el Kadir went to Yabrood, at the 
request of the British consul and escorted them safely to Damas- 
cus. Two months later he removed with the missionaries Craw- 
ford and Robson to Beirut, where in September he met Mrs. 
Bowen Thompson, just arrived from England t<? ajc} 14 the relief 

Selim Kessab Louisa Proctor 777 

of the widows and orphans. He was her interpreter and teacher, 
and became in time the head master of the institution, and was 
for years the trusted examiner of all the British Syrian Schools. 
He was prominent in the Syrian Evangelical Church, and often 
preached with great acceptance. His Arabic was both clear and 
classical, and he was master of the most extensive " bahr," or 
vocabulary, in Arabic, that I have ever known. He spoke with 
great ease and fluency. On the last morning of his life he entered 
the chapel of the institution as usual, to conduct morning prayers. 
In the midst of the prayer he suddenly fell back and expired 
from heart failure. His death was a great loss to the cause of 
Protestant Christian education and to the church in Syria. He 
was the founder and first president of Beirut City Y. M. C. A. 
called in Arabic " The Shems ul Bir/ 1 or sun of righteousness. 

Miss Louisa Proctor came to Syria as a traveller, in 1880, and 
joined Mrs. Mentor Mott in the British Syrian School work. 
Later she assisted successively Miss Hicks of the Female Educa- 
tion Society in Shemlan, Mount Lebanon, and Miss Taylor in 
her remarkable work for Moslem and Druse girls in Beirut Up 
to 1885 the Shwifat schools were under the American Mission, 
and in August, 1880, Miss Susan H. Calhoun with her widowed 
mother began a high school for girls, which continued until their 
departure, on account of impaired health, for America in April, 
1885. Miss Proctor then acceded to the request of the Shwifat 
people, and, in September, 1886, opened a boarding-school for 
girls with fifteen pupils, being assisted by the Syrian preacher of 
the American Mission, Rev. Tannus Saad, who continued as her 
assistant and manager up to the time of her death. She erected 
a large edifice for a boys' boarding-school, and, at the time of her 
decease, had in both schools 183 pupils, of whom 114 were 
boarders. She devoted her fortune and her whole time and 
strength to these schools. She had remarkable self-consuming 
zeal, great energy and executive ability, and even in advancing 
years taught her class with all fidelity. Her work is now under 
the care of Miss Stephenson, Rev. Tannus Saad, and a committee 

778 Jubilee Times 

of friends in England and Beirut. Shwifat is a large village of 
Greeks and Druses, at the base of the Lebanon range, six miles 
south of Beirut. 

In May an imperial order was issued for the Syrian Protestant 
College and the American schools in the empire, granting them 
the same immunities that are given to the schools of other na- 
tions. The state of the empire seemed almost hopeless. Murder 
and outrage were unpunished, secret police and spies made life 
miserable : everything was under censorship and espionage and 
the best citizens were constantly maltreated, imprisoned or ex- 
iled. No one could blame the people for emigrating in thou- 

In this same month two corner-stones were laid with great 
ceremony : that of the Orthodox Greek bishop's proposed college* 
and the Waly's industrial schools. The latter were completed 
and opened for pupils, but on the removal of the Waly who 
founded them, and having no endowment or fixed income, they 
have been closed. The Greek college is still unfinished, as, owing 
to divisions in the sect, the funds failed for the time. 

In June a young Persian Moslem convert, a pupil of Sidon 
school, who had been teaching in Hauran, was arrested and im- 
prisoned in Damascus and Beirut. No charge was filed against 
him, and he was not given a trial, but the police and zabtiyehs ex- 
pected bribes and kept him in prison for months. 

On June 28th Muzuffar Pasha, Governor of Lebanon, died, re- 
gretted by none. His family had exploited the Lebanon district 
for months, shamelessly taking bribes, until his government be- 
came a byword. He was succeeded in the fall by Yusef Franco > 
son of a former governor, who has yet to prove his competence 
for this high office. 

We were all made very anxious, in September, by the serious 
illness of Dr. Daniel Bliss. It was cause for the greatest thank- 
fulness that he was mercifully restored to health, and he has now 
recovered his usual vigour, to the great joy of the whole com-* 

When Through the Deep Waters 779 

The American Press reported this year that 75,200 volumes, 
and 22,292,842 pages had been printed, making, from the begin- 
ning, 878,756,184 pages. The mission had 100 schools of all 
grades, and 5,089 pupils. The income from pupils in all the 
mission schools was $41,632, and the Syrian Protestant College 
income was even larger. 

In October my only surviving sister, Miss Fanny M. Jessup, 
died In Montrose, Pa., aged seventy-two years. She was a model 
of loving devotion to her kindred and service to her church. 
During the fifty-two years of my residence in Syria she had, 
when not disabled by illness, written me or brother Samuel a 
weekly letter. Through her we have been kept in close touch 
with the home friends and the home land. Though struggling 
for forty years with an incurable malady, she maintained her 
cheerful Christian courage and found joy in blessing others. 

But I little thought what a grievous affliction was in store for 
me, when, after the December mission meeting was over, my 
dear wife, Theodosia, was taken suddenly ill with a cold which 
developed rapidly into pneumonia. Her heart was affected, and 
in the early morning of December igth she breathed her last, 
peacefully falling asleep in Jesus. She said she was ready to go, 
but she longed to remain for the sake of her loved ones, and be- 
cause there was so much more she wanted to do for her Lord. 
Others have spoken and written of her eminent piety, her high 
intellectual gifts, her musical talents and unwearied missionary 
labours, her organization of the societies which are carrying on 
the work of Christian Endeavour, the Beirut reading-room, and 
the Syrian Women's " Helping Hand." The sympathy of our 
friends, Syrian and foreign, was unbounded, and the tributes 
paid to her character and life were beautiful. " She hath done 
what she could." 

A learned effendi of Beirut recently said to me that the so- 
called Koranic learning of the Azhar University is a sham and 
behind the age. Said he, " Of what use is it that this Fukih or 
learned sheikh can tell you twenty different interpretations of a 
verse of the Koran, or a point of law, and strut about in his long 

780 Jubilee Times 

robes full of scholastic conceit ? We want men trained in prac- 
tical things, and not men living in ttie seventh and eighth cen- 
turies ! " 

The Moslems have many fine traits, and hold to much of the 
truth. A poor Protestant girl in Beirut, wasted with consump- 
tion, helped to support herself and her widowed mother by knit- 
ting the beautiful thread edging called " oya " on the border of 
the muslin veils of the Syrian women. One day she started to 
walk down-town about a mile, to deliver to the merchant a dozen 
veils she had finished. When nearly down to the old city she 
sank exhausted by the wayside. Nearly opposite was a Moslem 
coffee-house. An elderly white-bearded Moslem saw her and 
hastened to carry her a stool and help her to sit on it. He said, 
" My child, you look very ill. Why did you try to walk this hot 
day ? " He then ordered iced lemonade, ordered a carriage, and 
drove with her to an educated Moslem doctor in the vicinity. 
Getting a prescription, for which he paid, and paying the phar- 
macist also for the medicine, he ordered the driver to take her 
home at his expense ! She did not know his name, but in telling 
us of it a few days after as we called on her, lying on her bed, 
she said, " Was not that like the Good Samaritan ? " We as- 
sured her that it was. But we could not ascertain the name of 
the kind-hearted old man. 

Let us print and teach and live before them a Christian life 
and we may win them to Christ. 

The Arabic Bible with educational and medical missions will 
be the efficient factors in bringing Islam to Christ. 


What Shall the Harvest Be? January I goS-May 1 909 

WITH this year, in my seventy-seventh year, I conclude 
this sketch of a missionary's life and of the American 
Mission in Syria. I hardly expected to live to see 
the granting of a Constitution in Turkey, but it has come in my 
day, and we are now living in the time of transition between the 
old and the new, a time, naturally, full of ferment and unrest. 

The work of Christian education in Syria suffered a great loss 
by the death, in January, of Mr. Morris K. Jesup of New York, 
a trustee of the Syrian Protestant College, and one of its most 
generous supporters. 

Among other losses by death was that of Mr. Thomas Little, 
the head of the boys' boarding-school of the Friends' Mission 
in Brummana ; that of Mrs. Luciya Zaazooah Saiugh, for many 
years a teacher in the Beirut Girls 1 School, and an exemplary 
Christian wife and mother; and, on November 2ist, Rev. John 
Wortabet, M. D., aged eighty-one years. He was widely known 
as a physician and author. He was ordained May, 1853, in 
Hasbeiya, and served as pastor there about five years when he 
visited Scotland and published his invaluable book on the " Re- 
ligions of Syria." He was then sent out by a Scotch society as 
missionary to Aleppo where he remained until called in 1869 to 
a professorship in the Beirut Medical College as colleague with 
Drs. Van Dyck and Post. He was a man of great industry, an 
exact scholar and successful physician. He was especially kind 
to the sick poor, and had a wide reputation throughout Syria, 
For twenty years he had given up preaching and confined him- 
self to professional and literary work. He was one of the original 
committee which organized the Asfuriyeh Hospital for the 

782 What Shall the Harvest Be? 

Mrs. S. H. Calhoun, the widow of the " Saint of Lebanon/' 
died in the home of her missionary daughter, Mrs. C. H. Ran- 
som, at Adams, Natal, South Africa, November 4th, aged eighty- 
four years. She arrived in Syria March 6, 1849, and for twenty- 
six years until June, 1875, lived in Abeih a beautiful life, the angel 
of a model Christian household, beloved by Druses and Christians 
of all sects, and a tower of strength to her noble husband. In 
June, 1875, she sailed for America with her husband, who died 
in Buffalo, December 14, 1876. The folio wing May she returned 
to Syria and laboured among the women in Beirut, Deir el Komr 
(1878), and Shwifat (1880). In 1885 she returned to America, 
and afterwards accompanied her daughter, Mrs. Ransom, to the 
Zulu Mission, Natal, where she remained until her death, having 
visited Syria in 1901 en route for America. 

Mrs, Wm. K. Eddy, feeling obliged to resign from the mission, 
sailed with her two younger boys and Dr. and Mrs. Nelson for 
America, in April. Rev. Wm. Jessup and family started on their 
furlough in July. 

The work of the press was a record one, 44,589,571 pages, of 
which 30,500,000 were Arabic Scriptures, having been printed. 
Eighteen cases of Scriptures were shipped to Shanghai, for use 
among Chinese Mohammedans. In March orders were on file 
for more than 100,000 copies of Scriptures and parts of Scrip- 

There has been also a marked increase in the number of pupils 
in all the mission boarding-schools for boys and girls, as well as 
in the amount paid by them. 

Mr. Amin Fehad was ordained in the summer over the Abeih 
church, in the presence of a crowded congregation, and I was 
glad to stand in the old pulpit of Mr. Calhoun and Mr. Bird and 
give him the ordaining charge. 

Mr. Tannus Saad was ordained in Beirut in December, during 
the annual meeting of the Syria Mission, as pastor of the Shwi- 
fat congregation. 

Early in December, Mr. Antone Hamawy, a stone-mason of 
Kharaba, in Hauran, east of the Sea of Galilee, was ordained by the 

A Forecast 783 

Presbytery of Sidon and two of the church-members were ordained 
as elders at the same time. He has had no theological training, but 
has studied the Bible for years, and drunk deep from the fountain 
of divine truth. These three brethren came to see me in Beirut, 
came into my sick-room, and I prayed with them. It was re- 
freshing to see these stalwart men, dressed like the Arabs of 
Hauran, consecrated to the service of Christ in that wild region. 

In June, 1908, one month before the fall of the Turkish des- 
potism, I wrote the following forecast of the future of Syria, 
little thinking that in so short a time such great strides would 
have been taken towards its ultimate fulfillment. 


As I look forward from this height to the future of Syria I am 
full of hope. For twenty-three hundred years Semitic Syria has 
been a vassal of Indo- Germanic races, Macedonians, Greeks, Ro- 
mans, Franks, and Turks. And there is little hope that it will 
ever be governed by a Semitic ruler. There will be a new Syrian 
people and a new Syria. But it will not be evolved chiefly from 
political changes, nor by commercial development, but by the 
spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. These effete systems of 
Oriental Christianity will be vitalized by casting off the grave- 
clothes of dead forms and standing up in the purity and life of 
a true Christian faith. The scores of monasteries and nunneries, 
which have appropriated the hard earnings of the poor peasants 
of the Greeks, Maronites, and Greek Catholics for ages, until 
they dominate whole provinces by the money power, holding the 
people as tenants at will, will be confiscated, as has been done 
in Italy, Spain, and France, and the proceeds devoted to schools 
and hospitals instead of supporting an army of lazy, corrupt, and 
worthless monks. 

1 There will arise from among the Moslems themselves earnest 
men who will see in Jesus, the son of Mary, their true prophet, 
priest, and king, and call on the Moslem world to accept Him as 
their Lord and Redeemer. 

784 What Shall the Harvest Be ? 

The evangelical church of Syria will carry on the work of 
evangelizing the Bedawin Arab tribes. The American mission- 
aries, leaving the care of the native churches to the people them- 
selves, will devote their energies to instruction in the universities 
and colleges, to the theological schools, the seminaries for girls, 
and the work of publication. 

Woman, emancipated from the hareem and the veil, will take 
her proper place in Oriental society, supreme in the home and 
eminent in Christian service. 

Can all these things take place under Mohammedan despotic 
rule ? I do not venture to say, but the verdict of history is that 
despotism and reform are incompatible. Whoever is on the 
throne, will have to grant absolute liberty of conscience, abolish 
bribery and corruption in the courts, and make all men equal be- 
fore the law. The interference of priests and bishops, Ulema and 
sheikhs, in the courts of justice will be stopped. No man enter- 
ing a court will be asked, " What is your religious sect ? " or 
" What pull or backing have you ? " but each man will be treated 
as a man and a citizen. No Christian will be told as now that 
" You cannot testify, as testimony is a religious act, and only 
Mohammedans are true believers, therefore they only can testify," 
but this colossal principle of religious bigotry will be abolished. 
The thousands of emigrants to America, returning with their 
foreign-born children, will bring into the old East the free ideas 
and sterling principles of the West. And the broad uncultivated 
acres of the Hinterland of Syria will teem with new villages and 
a crowded, enlightened, and happy people. 

The Arabic Bible will supplant the Arabic Koran : not the 
mutilated and manipulated Bible of the modern sappers and 
miners, but the Old Testament as we have it from the Jews, and 
the New Testament as accepted by the early Church. 

The scholars of the Syrian Evangelical Church, born and bred 
in an Oriental atmosphere and accustomed to Semitic forms of 
thought and expression, accept the Bible as it is, and find no 
difficulty in matters which men trained in Western and European 
surroundings regard as insuperable objections to the Scripture 

The Bloodless Revolution 785 

veracity and verity. And the Arabic Bible, which has no peer 
in Arabic literature, and which as a translation is known to stand 
nearest to the original text, will continue to mould the literature 
of the Arab race in the future, as the Koran has done in the 

The finer qualities of the Syrian character, their courtesy and 
hospitality, their sympathy with the sorrowing and bereaved, 
their loyalty to family and home, will be hallowed and sanctified 
by the added graces of Christian faith and love, and certain de- 
fects, incident to a people oppressed for centuries, will be gradu- 
ally eliminated by the wholesome air of civil and religious liberty. 

It is a great comfort, to one able to compare the dark past with 
the brightening present and the brighter future, that all the 
modern awakening of the Syrian people is ascribed by the people 
themselves to the institutions planted by the American mission- 
aries eight decades ago. The Moslems and Oriental Christians 
alike used to tell us that the education of girls was not only im- 
possible but dangerous. 

Now they vie with each other in founding and conducting 
schools for girls, building fine edifices, using modern methods, 
discussing the benefits of female education in their journals, and 
insisting that the stability of society depends upon educated 
mothers. One wonders at the transformation. This new de- 
parture is leavening society. Girls and women are beginning to 

On Sunday p. M., July 26th, as we were leaving the little Aleih 
chapel after the English service, Consul-General Ravendal startled 
us all with the telegraphic news that the Midhat Pasha Constitu- 
tion of 1876, which had been suppressed by Abdul Hamid II for 
thirty-two years, had now, July 2$d, been restored by a blood- 
less revolution effected by the Young Turkey Party headed by 
Enver Beg and Niazi Beg, commanders of the Turkish army in 
Macedonia in the name of the Committee of Union and Progress. 
The threat of marching on Constantinople with 100,000 men 
Brought the Sujt^n to terms, and after vain attempts tg evade the 

786 What Shall the Harvest Be ? 

issue he was obliged to send telegraphic orders throughout the 
whole empire reestablishing the Constitution, and requiring the 
immediate election of members to the Ottoman Parliament. 

There is no need of going into details which are so fresh in all 
minds and so generally known, but we, as well as the world at 
large, were electrified at the sudden transition. 

It was not only the transition of the Turkish Empire from des- 
potism to constitutional government, but a transition from an 
exasperating censorship of books and newspapers to perfect lib- 
erty of the press ; from a cruel and intimidating system of espio- 
nage managed by that arch intriguer and deceiver of the Sultan, 
Izzet Pasha, to the abolition of the whole system and the flight 
of Izzet himself; from a grinding system of internal tezkeras 
(passports) to free right of transit to all ; from constant banish- 
ment and imprisonment of enlightened men, Moslems and Chris- 
tians, suspected of belonging to the Young Turkey Party, hun- 
dreds having fled from their country, to a full and free amnesty 
to all political exiles, hundreds of whom are now returning to 
their loved native land; from a condition in which no public 
meeting could be held, no public speech uttered without special 
permission from a fanatical censor, to free speech, free right of 
assembly, and freedom in criticizing the acts of the government ; 
from an irresponsible rule of hungry and bribe-taking pashas, to 
a parliament of representatives from all parts of the empire, 
elected by the people from all sects, Moslems, Christians and 
Jews ! 

The whole empire burst forth in universal rejoicing. The 
press spoke out. Public meetings were held, cities and towns 
decorated, Moslems were seen embracing Christians and Jews, 
and inviting one another to receptions and feasts. The universal 
voice of the Moslems was, " We have been compelled by orders 
from the Sultan's palace to hate one another. Now, we are 
brethren and we can live in peace. We shall henceforth know 
each other only as Ottomans." " Long live liberty ! Long live 
the army ! Long live the Sultan ! " 

The pent-up feelings of the populace everywhere burst forth in 

Long Live Liberty ! 787 

loud hurrahs in the public streets. Syria has never seen such 
real rejoicing. Can it be true ? Will it last ? were questions in 
all mouths. It was startling to those who had left Syria early in 
July under the old regime to be greeted in New York harbour 
with the news of free institutions in Turkey. It seemed too good 
to be true, and for weeks we here, foreigners and Syrians alike, 
seemed to be living in a dream. The Golden Age seemed to be 

While the large majority believed in the genuineness of this 
radical change in the institutions of the empire, not a few doubted, 
and it is true that the old Islamic spirit of intolerance, held in 
check temporarily by the popular enthusiasm, has turned out to be 
like a smouldering flame ready to burst out whenever favourable 
occasion should offer. This appeared in various ways : in the 
sullen attitude of the sheikhs and religious fanatics ; in anonymous 
papers printed in Damascus and Aleppo asserting that the Con- 
stitution was destructive to the Sacred Shareaa (Islamic law) of 
the Koran, and in other ways of which I shall speak later. 

A striking instance of the practical outcome of this ferment 
working in the popular mind after the promulgation of the Con- 
stitution was the attempt made by non-Christian pupils in our 
Syrian Protestant College to evade the rule requiring attendance 
upon religious worship. In December, 1908, the college had a 
larger roll of pupils than ever before, of whom 120 were Moham- 
medans. Repeated efforts had been made by them, their families 
and their sheikhs to have them excused from attendance at 
prayers and all religious exercises, including classes for Bible 
study, on the ground that this was the new era of " religious 
liberty/' They were reminded that the college is a Christian 
missionary college, founded by Christian men, controlled by 
Christian trustees in New York, endowed with Christian funds 
and that its fundamental rules require all students to attend all 
the religious exercises. This, however, was well known to all the 
Moslem parents who send their sons to the college as it has been 
the policy for forty years, and is made perfectly clear in state- 

788 What Shall the Harvest Be? 

meats in the college prospectus and catalogue. No one is 
forced to enter the college, there is perfect liberty " in that, but 
if he enters he must conform to all its rules. There is no dis- 
crimination against non-Christian students. All are treated alike : 
Moslems, Armenians, Jews, Greeks, Catholics, Druses and 
Protestants, and these 870 students, living, studying and exerci- 
sing together for four, eight, or twelve years will learn to act to- 
gether harmoniously in the future as citizens of a free country, to 
respect each other and be the leaders in reform and progress. 

This was the case until the close of 1908 when ninety of the 
Moslem students, incited by fanatical men in Beirut, and intriguers 
among their own number formed a league of rebellion and took 
an oath on the Koran that they would " neither attend the relig- 
ious exercises of the college nor leave the college." A consider- 
able number of the Moslem students refused to join the league, 
but seventy Jewish students took similar ground, and the faculty, 
in the absence of the president, had to face the problem of either 
trying to expel 160 students by force, or yielding temporarily to 
their demand to be excused from college prayers and Bible study. 
The latter course was adopted as a temporary expedient, but in 
March, 1909, after the president's return, this action was modified. 
The non-Christian students were excused from chapel exercises, 
but those who wished to remain in the college were required to 
attend the regular Bible classes. This compromise was to be a 
" modus vivendi " until the end of the college year in July, with 
the understanding that when the college opened its doors in 
October, 1909, it would be on the old basis of required attendance 
on religious] exercises. This maintains the missionary character 
of the college, and will be gratifying to all its friends in this em- 
pire and in America. 

The history of this difficulty in the college has been ably sum- 
marized in a printed statement (April, 1909) issued by President 

The dawn of a new era is breaking. A parliament assembled 
in December, 1908, not, this time, to be suppressed again as in 
The entire army of the empire, on which tl 

The New Parliament 789 

Abdul Hamid relied to sustain his throne, has become constitu- 
tional in its policies. It produced the bloodless revolution and 
it will see to it that there is no going back. 

The parliament, as at present constituted, is a fair exponent of 
the racial and religious elements of the empire. 

There are 259 members of which 

Turks .... 119 All Mohammedans 

Arabs ' . . . . 72 71 Mohammedans, i Catholic Christian 

Greeks . , . . 23 Orthodox Greek Christians 

Albanians . . . 15 All Mohammedans 

Gregorian Armenian 10 Armenian Christians 

Kurds .... 8 Mohammedans 

Spanish Jews . . 4 Jews 

Bulgarians . . . 4 Orthodox Greek Christians 

Servians . . . 3 " " " 

Wallachs . . . i " " " 


This gives 213 Mohammedan members 
42 Christian " 

4 Jewish " 

As this is their first experience of parliamentary rules and duties, 
this first session should be regarded as a training-school. The 
people in the provinces complain bitterly of the present state of 
disintegration and disorder, and of the failure of Parliament, after 
a few months in session, to give relief and security to the empire. 
But the people must be patient. They have started on a new 
career, and have many able and level-headed men among their 
leaders. The two great needs to-day are money to build up the 
country impoverished by the rapacity of the office-holders and 
honest men. 

The Syrians may well pray, 

" Give me men to match my mountains, give me men to match 

my plains, 

Men with empires in their purpose, men with eras in their 

790 What Shall the Harvest Be? 

And, may I add, men of conscience* integrity and principle. 
Alas, that they are so few ! 

We must anticipate fanatical outbreaks against the constitu- 
tional government Lord Cromer says, To reform Islam is to 
destroy it." The fanatics evidently believe this and resist 

The unclean spirit first rent the lad and then came out of him. 
The evil demon of Moslem fanatical hatred of light and liberty 
will be cast out, but let us not wonder if it first rend and tear the 
Ottoman body politic. 

The question which naturally confronts us is, How will all these 
great changes affect the religious future of the empire ? 

We can be sure that the free publication and importation of 
books, magazines and newspapers will give a great impulse to 
popular enlightenment and tend to break down prejudice. 

Popular education in government schools as well as the inde- 
pendent schools, native and foreign, must be vastly extended and 
improved, as hereafter primary education will be compulsory. 
Heretofore all the government primary schools have been for 
Moslem children, only and under Moslem teachers. It remains to 
be seen whether government aid will be given to schools for 
Christian children. 

The Thumrat, a leading Moslem journal in Beirut, insists that 
the only sure means for fusing the sects of the empire and 
making all Ottomans brethren is the mixing of Moslem and 
Christian children in the common schools to study and learn the 
same lessons from the same books. It is not clear that the 
Oriental Christians will consent to this. Moslem children are so 
foul-mouthed and use such vile language in common conversation, 
that Christian parents dread to have their children associate with 
them. But if a government allowance is given to separate 
schools for the time being, the difficulty may be gradually 
removed. We cannot expect patriotic Turks and Christians 
to do in a year what our ancestors have attained only after cen- 
turies of struggle and experiment. 

What the effect will be on liberty of conscience to Moslems, 

Pan-Islamism Doomed 791 

one cannot predict. They can at least buy the Bible and Chris- 
tian books openly, which they could not do before. One great 
reason for government opposition to Moslems becoming Chris- 
tians has been that the army of the empire is a Moslem army, 
only Moslems being allowed to bear arms hence every Moslem 
convert to Christianity was a loss to the army, a renegade from 
conscription. A late proclamation by the new party of " Union 
and Progress " declares that henceforth the Christians may enter 
the army and the military schools for training officers. When 
this is carried into effect, the government, as such, will not care 
what a man's religion is, as all will belong to the army as loyal 
soldiers under the Constitution. It will develop a spirit of manly 
independence among the youth of the Oriental Christian sects in- 
stead of the cowed, cringing attitude into which they have so long 
been driven by their inferior condition. 
What will be the effect of the Constitution on Pan-Islamism ? 

1. It will not promote it. 1 The policy of the late despotism 
of " Yildiz " was to elevate, promote, and reward Moslems and to 
depress, oppress, and suppress Christians. The new policy of 
equality and justice will elevate Christians and remove fanatical 
prejudice. It will make it difficult for any Sultan in the future to 
proclaim a Pan-Islamic crusade. 

2. It will modify it. It proclaims the absolute equality of all 
sects and religions. It claims that Islam favours justice, liberty 
of conscience, and civilization. If it incites Moslems elsewhere to 
fraternize with Christians and Jews, and upholds Islam as the 
bond of brotherhood with all men, it will be a large step forward. 
A free constitution extracts the fangs of the old Pan-Islamic 
monster nurtured so long at " Yildiz." 

3. The fanatical tribes of Asia and Africa will be slow to ac- 
cept the counsels of a Sultan at the head of a free, self-governing, 
civilized people. 

4. Arabic scholars are already printing tracts to prove that 
Islam is the mother of modern civilization, and promotes brother- 

1 Enver Beg, the head of the reform party, declares that the new Con- 
stitution will have nothing to do with Pan-Islamism. 

792 What Shall the Harvest Be? 

hood among the nations. This is a hopeful sign. The new 
parliament will never vote a Jehad or Holy War I 

5. The right of free assembly and free speech will bring the 
educated young men, Moslems and Christians, into a new fellow- 
lowship and a new feeling of dignity and manhood. As a 
Damascene scholar has just said, " Under the old regime we were 
mere ciphers. There was no manhood and no self-respect 
Suspicion and alienation were universal, but now we can hold up 
our heads ; we are men, we are brethren. We have rights and 
we have a country. Life is now worth living ! " This experi- 
ence of independent manhood is one of the most hopeful features 
of the present outlook. There may be excesses and errors. In 
the present transition state of the empire there is great confusion 
and unrest. The reactionaries are numerous and full of intrigue. 
But the reform government seems to be preparing to do thorough 
work. The great difficulty is to find honest officials. No mat- 
ter. A free people will soon learn in the school of experience* 

The state of Turkey up to July 23, 1908, was like the state 
of Rome up to September 20, 1870, when the Italian army 
entered the Eternal City, Up to that time Rome was a nest of 
spies, informers, and persecutors, governed by the Inquisition. 
Every Protestant foreign traveller had his Bibles and books taken 
from him, his steps were dogged by spies, and informers listened 
at the keyhole of his room. No Protestant book or newspaper 
could enter the city. Every enlightened Italian was persecuted 
and banished. But on September 20th the gates flew open. 
Light and liberty entered. The horde of spies hid their heads. 
Bible and book shops were opened and travellers unmolested. 

So in Turkey, before July 23, 1908, the whole empire was 
under a reign of terror. The best men in the empire were as- 
sassinated or exiled. Spies charged innocent men with con- 
spiracy and crime and they were dragged from their beds and 
thrust into loathsome dungeons. Secret police dogged the steps 
of every foreigner, seized books and newspapers, and levied black- 
mail on native travellers, until the people were driven to despera- 
tion, and while publicly shouting w Long live the Sultan 1 >f in- 

July the Month of Liberty 793 

wardly invoked the curse of God upon him. But on July 24th 
all was changed. The Sultan's power was curtailed. His horde 
of corrupt palace officials imprisoned and banished, and procla- 
mation made of a free press and free right of assembly, free 
speech, free transit, no more spies, or secret police, or arbitrary 
arrests. The exiles called home, no censorship of newspapers f 
books or telegrams, and for the first time in history, Turkey has 
a government of the people, by the people, for the people." 

The month of July will hereafter be known as the month of 
liberty : 

July 4th, America. 

July I4th, France. 

July 23d, Turkey. 

Truly " this is the Lord's doing and it is marvellous in our 
eyes"(Ps. 118:43). 

6. The seed planted in Syrian soil in 1822 by two young 
Americans was slow in germinating, but the root took firm hold 
of the soil. Decade after decade it spread over the empire, from 
village to village, city to city, and province to province. The 
school and the press gradually did their work, until thousands of 
the best youth in Syria, Asia Minor, Palestine, and Egypt are 
now thinking men and women. Tyranny and misrule have driven 
them forth to the ends of the earth to breathe a free air and find 
scope for their energies. They will gradually return, some of 
them at least, prepared to join in the civil, moral, and political 
regeneration of the empire. 

Now is the time for distributing God's Word and spreading a 
Christian literature. A free press will print more bad than good 
books. Let all interested in these historic lands supply the means 
for giving the people a wholesome literature* 

Let us have faith in the Orient, long oppressed and blinded by 
centuries of misrule, and just beginning to see men as trees 

A chain of parliaments from Portugal to Persia is a fact no 
one would have credited when I came to Syria. God's hand is 
in it He changes the hearts of kings and their people. We 

794 What Shall the Harvest Be? 

have doubted long enough. Let us have faith in God and hu* 
manity. Christ will yet come to His own. " His kingdom is an 
everlasting kingdom and His dominion endureth throughout all 


After writing two successive conclusions to this history, I find it 
necessary to add another, in view of the two kaleidoscopic revolu- 
tions just enacted in Constantinople, and the blood-curdling trage- 
dies in Cilicia and Northern Syria. They seem to be parts of t;he 
expiring throes of Islamic despotism. The Liberal Midhat Consti- 
tution of 1876, so soon throttled by Abdul Hamid, and revived by 
the Young Turkey heroes, Niazi Beg and Enver Beg, July 23, 1908, 
roused against itself the fury of all the reactionary and absolutist 
forces in the empire headed by the Yildiz palace gang of Abdul 
Hamid, and the cause of liberty seemed to be lost a second time. 
But the well-drilled and loyal army of Salonica once more saved 
Constantinople, banished the old Sultan and placed his younger 
brother Reshad, a better man, on the throne, April 24, 1909, as 
Sultan Mohammed V. 

Simultaneously with this furious outbreak in the capital, came 
the Cilician, sacrificing more than thirty thousand Armenian 
Christian lives and leaving more than that number of homeless 
and starving widows and orphans. 

Mukhtar Pasha el Ghazi, Turkish commissioner in Egypt for 
twenty years, and now loyal to the Constitution, writes from Con- 
stantinople to a Turkish pasha in Egypt, that had the entrance of 
the Salonica army been delayed five days, not only Constantinople 
but all the cities in the empire would have been given over to 
massacre and pillage. Thank God that such horrors were averted ! 
and only a small part of the fiendish programme was carried out 
i. e., that in Cilicia and Northern Syria. 

I confess myself unable to predict what will come next. Time 
alone will reveal the future of this hapless empire. The hand of 
God is, however, so manifest in recent events that we may firmly 


believe that a higher and better future is in store for the new 
Ottoman nation. 

After the Armenian massacres, in 1896, Sir Lewis Morris 
wrote a burning appeal to Europe to intervene, and seemed to 
have a seer's vision as he wrote : 

" Nay, nay, it is enough I enough ! No more 
Shall black Oppression rule. Her reign is o'er. 

No more, O Earth, no more. 
Let not despair afflict your brethren still ! 
Let the new-coming Age, a happier birth, 
Bless these waste places of the suffering Earth ! 
Let Peace, with Law, the tranquil valleys fill, 
And make the desert blossom as the rose I n 

Postscript : It was impracticable for my father to personally 
supervise the bringing out of this book. He is therefore not re- 
sponsible for any oversights in proof-reading. 

He would desire to record his gratitude to Dr. Dennis for 
valuable suggestions on detail points which his exact knowledge 

made available. 

H. W. J., ED. 

Qutstations with BJack dot 

Mission Boundary Lines, 

Appendix I 
Missionaries in Syria Mission From 1819 to 1908 





Levi Parsons . . . . 
Pliny Fisk 

of Entering 

Jan. 15, 1820 
Jan. it- Tften 

of Leaving 

of Death 

Feb. 10, 1822 

Oct. * Tft^i- 





Jonas King, D. D. . . 
Wm. Goodell, D. D. . 
Abigail P. Goodell . . 
Isaac Bird 




1 6, 


















Ann P. Bird 






*T U fc' 

To U. S. 











Rev. Eli Smith, D. D. . , . 
Mrs. Sarah L. H. Smith . . 
Rev. W. M. Thomson, D. D. 
Mrs. Eliza N. Thomson . . 
Asa Dodge, M. D. 





Mrs. Martha Dodge .... 
Rev. George B. Whiting . . 
Mrs. Matilda S. Whiting . . 
Mrs. Maria Thomson . . . 
Miss Rebecca Williams . . 
) Rev. Story Hebard . . . 
I Mrs. Hebard (Miss R. 
J Williams^ 

*- **" 




00 00 00 OO 00 00 00 < 










* w oj 







John F. Lanneau * . 
Betsey Tilden . . . . 
Chas S. Sherman . . 
Elias R. Beadle . . . 
Hannah Beadle . , . 
Martha E. Sherman . 
Samuel Wolcott, D. D. 
C. E. Wolcott .... 
Nathaniel A. Keyes . 
Marv Keves . . . . . 

May i, 
June 1 6, 
April i, 
April , 
April , 



















Rev. Leader Thomson . . . 
Mrs. Anne E. Thomson . . 
C. V. A. Van Dyck, M. D., 
D. D., L. H. D 














Mr. George C. Hurter . . . 










Elizabeth Hurter . . . 












Maria W. C. Smith . 








Henry A, DeForest, M. D. . 










C. S. DeForest .... 












Julia A. Van Dyck . . 





in Beirut 


Rev. Simeon H. Calhoun . July 











Thomas Laurie, D. D. 







(to Nest. Miss.) 



Appendix I 

M Time 



^ J of Entering 

of Leaving 

of Death 



Henrietta S. Smith . 











Wm. A. Benton . 








Mrs f 

Loanza G. Benton . 






Rev. J. Edwards Ford . 











Mary Ford ... 













David M. Wilson 








4 . 


Emmeline Wilson 












Horace Foote . . 










Roxana Foote . . 










Emily P. Calhoun 




April I, 









W. F. Williams, D. D. 










Sarah P. Williams . . 







5 2 - 

Miss Anna L. Whittlesey . 









Wm. W. Eddy, D. D, 









Hannah Maria Eddy . 









Sarah Cheney (Mrs. 

Aiken ^ ...."./.. 








William Bird . . . . 










Sarah G. Bird .... 




Rev. J. Lorenzo Lyons . . 










Catherine N. Lyons . 






60* Rev. Edward Aiken .... 




i y 


1889 (?) 



Susan D. Aiken . . . 








Daniel Bliss, D. D. . . 








Abby M. Bliss .... 







H. H. Jessup, D. D. . 






Caroline Jessup . . . 








Miss Jane E. Johnson . . . 









Amelia C. Temple . . 








Adelaide L. Mason . 









Samuel Jessup, D. D. . 






Annie E. Jessup . . . 









Philip Berry. . . . 







Magdalene Berry . , . 








Geo. E. Post, M. D.. 

LL. D. .._."..." 










Sarah R. Post .... 






* y* 




S. S. Mitchell . . , . 








Lucy M. Mitchell , . 








Isaac N. Lowry . . . 





2 t 







Mary E. Lowry . . . 










Harriet E, Jessup . . 
Eliza D. Everett . . . 












Ellen A. Carruth . . . 









Jas. S. Dennis, D. D. . 








Ellen Jackson .... 








Sophie B. Loring . 







Galen B. Danforth, M. D. . 









Frank Wood . . . . 









Sophia R. Wood . . 








Emily C Danforth . . 






Appendix I 799 

Names Time Time Date 

of Entering of 

Leaving of Death 

89. Rev. Oscar J. Hardin . . Nov, 

28, 1871 

go. Mrs. Mary P. Dennis . . . Oct 

1872 Feb. 


91. Rev. Gerald F. Dale, Jr. . Nov. 

5, 1872 


6, 1886 

92. Miss Mary Kipp Nov. 

5. 1872 Dec. 

ii, 1875 

93. Mrs. Mary S. Hardin . . May 

jj i ~>- 
5. 1873 

94. Rev. Theodore S. Pond . . May 

16, 1873 July 

i, 1889 

95. Mrs. Julia H. Pond . . . May 

16, 1873 July 

i 9 1889 

96. Rev. Frederick W. March Nov. 

18, 1873 

97. Miss Helen M. Fisher- . . Nov. 

18, 1873 Mar - 

28, 1875 

98. Miss Eliza Van Dyck . . . Sept 



99. Miss Harriet M. Eddy 

(Mrs. F. E. Hoskins) . . Jan. 

20, 1876 

loo. Miss Harriet La Grange . Jan, 

25, 1876 

101. Miss Emilia A. Thomson . May 

30, 1876 

102. Miss Mary M. Lyons , . . Oct. 

H, 1877 May 

6, 1880 June 

12, 1896 

103. Rev. William K. Eddy . . Oct 

i, 1878 


3, 1906 

104. Mrs. Mary Bliss Dale . . . April 

16, 1879 


105. Rev. Chas. Wm. Calhoun . July 


22, 1883 

loo. Rev. W. L. Johnston . . Aug. 

12, 1879 Aug. 

12, l88o 

107. Mrs. W. L. Johnston . . , Aug. 

12, 1879 Aug. 

12, 1880 

108. Miss Emily G. Bird . . Aug. 

20, 1879 

109. Miss Susan H. Calhoun . Oct. 

23, 1879 Apr. 

20, 1885 

1 10. Miss Fanny Cundall . . , Dec. 

18, 1879 Mar. 

I, 1883 

III. Mrs. Jennie H. March . . Nov. 

4, 1880 

112. Rev. George A. Ford, D. D, Jan. 

6, 1881 

113. Miss Bessie M. Nelson 

(Mrs. W. K, Eddy) . . Oct 

12, 1881 April 

13, 1908 

1 14. Miss Caroline M. Holmes . Nov. 

14, 1883 July 

"II, 1895 

lie Miss Sarah A. Ford . , . Dec, 

16, 1883 April 


IlS. Rev. Wm, M.Greenlee , Dec. 

1 6, 1883 July 


07* Ira Harris, M. D, , , , , Dec. 

18, 1883 

n. Mrs. Alice Bird Greenlee . Nov, 

6, 1884 July 


1 19. Mrs. Theodo&ia D. Jessup Nov. 

22, 1884 


19, I9O7 

120* Mrs. Alice E. Harm , . , Feb. 


12X Miss Alice S* Barber , , . Oct 

15, iSSs 

122, Mi Rebecca M. Brown . Oct. 

15, 1885 June 

19, 1892 

123. Miss Charlotte H, Brown . Oct 

15, 1885 

124. Miss Mary T. M. Ford . Oct 

32, 1887 J UIW 

12, 1894 

125, Rev. Franklin E. Hoskins July 

6, i88 

126. Rev, Wm, S. Nelson, D.D. Oct 

31, 1888 

137. Mrs, Emma H* Nelson . . Oct 

31, iSSS 

128. Rev, Win. Scott Watson , Oct 

S 1889 Juine 

8> 18931 

199* Mrs. Watson , Oct 

5> 1889 June 

8, 1892 

130, Rev, William Jeiwp , . Nov, 

29, 1890 

131* Mrs, Faith J* Jep , Nov, 

9 1890 

132; Miss Ellen M, Law . . , Nov* 

a8 f 1892 Oct. 

I2 ( 1897 

*33* Rev* George C* Doollttlc Tune 

9t 1893 

134, Mrs* Carrie S* DooHttte . * June 

135. Miss M* Lottite Law . , . Oct 

16, 1893 

I3& Miss Mary P. Eddy, M. D, Dec. 

as, 1895 

137. Mr* Edward G, Freyer , , Feb. 

ii, 1805 

13*^* Miss Fttwiy M J<tsw|> * * An|f# 

17, 1895 April 

26, 1902 

139, M* Aw Frejw .... Dec, 

15, 1895 


Appendix I 


140. Miss Bernlce Hunting 

141. Miss Rachel E. Tolles 

142. Rev. Paul Erdman . . 

143. Mrs. Amy C. Erdman 

144. Miss Ottora M. Home 

145. Mr. Stuart D. Jessup . 

146. Mrs. Amy C. Jessup . 

147. Mrs. Gertrude B. Erdman 

148. Rev. James H. Nicol 

149. Mrs. Reb. McClure I 

150. Mrs. Katherine B. Ford 

151. Rev. James B. Brown 

152. Miss Ara Elsie Harris, M. D. Aug. 

153. Miss Jane B. Beekman 

(Mrs. J. B. Brown) . . . Dec. 

Time Time DaU 

of Entering of Leaving of Death 

. Oct. 

19, 1896 

. Oct. 

2, 1899 


30, 1900 


30, 1900 Dec. 2, 1901 

. Dec. 

19, 1902 

. Sept. 

19, 1904 

, Sept. 

19, 1904 

n . Nov. 

20, 1905 

. . Nov. 

20, 1905 

ol . Nov. 

20, 1905 

. Dec. 

3, 1906 

. . Dec. 

3, 1907 

D. Aug. 

24, 1908 

30, 1908 

Appendix II 
The History Bibliography 

In writing the history of the Syria Mission I have consulted 

The Memoirs of Pliny Fisk Edinburgh, 1829. 

The manuscript journal of Levi Parsons 1820-1822. 

Bible Work in Bible Lands, by Rev. Isaac Bird Presbyterian Board of Publica- 
tion, 1872, 

Missions to the Oriental Churches, Rev. R. Anderson Boston, 1872. 

Missionary Herald 1819-1870 in loco. 

The Foreign Missionary 

Church at Home and Abroad 1870-1908. 

Assembly Herald- 

Science and Missions, T. Laurie A. B. C. F. M., Boston, 1882. 

Churchill's Druses and Maronites Quaritch, London, 1862. 

Forty Years in the Turkish Empire W. Goodell, Carter's, 1876, 

Among the Turks, C* Hamlin Carter's, 1878. 

Religions of Syria, J. Wortabet Nisbit & Co,, 1860* 

Martyr of Lebanon, Rev* I. Bird American Tract Society, 1864* 

The Marquis of Dufferm and Ava, C. E. D. Black Hutchinson & Co., London* 

Life and Letters of Rev* D, Temple, D. 1L Temple Boston, 1855. 

Kamil, H. II. Jessup- Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1899, 

Encyclopedia of Missions Funk & Wagnalls, 1904. 

Modem Egypt, Lord Cromer London, 1908. 

The Emancipation of Woman m Egypt (Arabic) by Kasim Beg Amin, Judge in 
Cairo, Egypt. 

The New Woman (Arabic) by the same author, 

Dr. Miehaiel Mcshaka's Mashhadul Aiyan," (Arabic), A history of his life 
mud times from i8a> to 1873 Helftl Press, Cairo. 


Appendix III 

(a) List of American Medical Missionaries in the Syria 
Mission., 1833-1909 



Time of 


Length of 


Asa Dodge, M. D. 


Feb. 24, 

Jan. 28, 

I yr., II mos., 



4 days 


Cornelius V. A. Van 


April 12, 

Nov. 13, 

56 yrs., 7 mos,, 

Dyck, M. D., D. D., 




ii days 

L. H. D. 

Abeih Station, 



Henry A. DeFor- 


Mar. 23, 

Nov. 24, 

12 yrs., I mo,, 

est, M.D. 


1858, in 

15 days 




George E. Post, M.D., 


Nov. 28, 

Sept. 29, 

4 years in 

D.D.S., ULD. 





42 years in 



Galen B. Danfbrth, 


Nov. 9, 

J*rfy 9, 

3 years, 




8 months 


Chas. Wm. Calhoun, 


July, 1879 

June 22, 

3 years, 



xi months 


Ira Harris, M. D. 


Dec. 1 8, 



Mary Pierson Eddy, 


Dec. 23, 






Ara Elsie Harris,M, D, 


Aug. 24, 


(6) Other Medical Agencies in Palestine and Syria 

ACRE, Church Missionary Society. Hospital and Dispensary. Rev, S* 
Gould, M. D. 

ALEPPO. Presbyterian Church of England's Mission to the Jews, Dispensary. 

Dr. Charles C. Piper. 

ANTILYAS Dispensary. Dr. B. J, Manasseh. 

ANTIOCH Reformed Presbyterian Mission of Ireto4 iwi Scotland* Rev. Jamei 

Martin, M* A., M. U, M. Ch. 


Appendix III 803 

ASFURIYEH. Near Beirut, Lebanon Asylum for the Insane. Dr. H. Watson 

BETHLEHEM. Swedish Society. Dr. Ribbing. 

BAAKLEEN. Lebanon and Palestine Nurses' Mission. Cottage Hospital and 
Dispensary. Dr. Alameddin. 

BEIRUT. Hospital. Knights of the Johanniter Order of Germany and Dea'con- 
esses of Kaiserswerth. Rev. G. E. Post, M. D., D. D. S., LL. D. ; Dr. Hams 
Graham; Dr. W. B. Adams, M. A.; Rev. C. A. Webster, M. D. ; Dr. Franklin 
T. Moore, M. A. ; Dr. Harry G. Dorman, Syrian Protestant College Hospitals, 
Women's Hospital, Dr. Franklin T. Moore. Children's Hospital, Dr. H. G. 
Dorman. Eye and Ear Hospital, Dr. C. A. Webster. Training-School for 
Nurses, Mrs. Gerald F. Dale, and Miss J. E. Van Zandt. 

BRUMMANA. Friends' Foreign Mission Association. Hospital and Dispensary. 
Dr. A. J. Manasseh. 

DAMASCUS* Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society. Victoria Hospital and 
Dispensary. Dr. F. Mackinnon ; Dr. Turnbull. 

DEIR ATEEYEH. Danish Orient Mission. Dr. Fox-Maule. 

GAZA. Church Missionary Society. Hospital and Dispensary. Rev. R. B Ster- 
ling, M. D, ; Dr. P. Brigstocke, 

HAIFA. Jerusalem and the East Mission. Hospital and Dispensary* Dr. Donald 

HEBRON.United Free Church of Scotland Palestine Jewish Mission, Hospital 
and Dispensary, Dr A. Paterson. 

IM EL FAHM Paleitine Village Mission and Medical Work. 

JAFFA,* -Church Missionary Society Hospital and Dispensary. Dr. Melville Keith. 

Dr. Fuleihan, 
JERUSALEM. -The London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews. 

Hospital and two Dispensaries, Dispensary at Siloam, Dr. E D'erf Wheeler ; 

Dr. E. W. G. Mtsterman ; Dr. Maxwell. 

Moravian Leper Asylum* Jesus Hilf House. 

Ophthalmic Hospital English Knights of St John. Dr. Cant 

Hospital and Dispensary. Knights of the Johanniter Order of Germany and 
Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth. Dr* Gruwdori 
KBRAICQmrch Missionary Society. Dr F, Johnson, 

LATAKIA. Reformed Presbyterian Church of America, Hospital aad Dis- 
pensary. Dr J. M. Baiph. 

LYDDA. English Dispensary* Dr, IL Sallm. 

NABLUS^-Ghoreh Mlaloawy Society. Hospital aad Dispensary, Dr. G, R, M. 
Wright ; 0r Griffiths. 

804 Appendix III 

NAZARETH. Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society. Dispensary. Dr. F. J. 

SAFED. -United Free Church of Scotland Mission. Dispensary. Dr. G. Wilson. 

London Society for Promotion of Christianity amongst the Jews. Hospital and 

Dispensary. Dr. W. H. Anderson. 

ES SALT. phurch Missionary Society Hospital. Dr. N. Kawar. 
TIBERIAS United Free Church of Scotland Mission. Hospital and Dispensary. 

Rev. D. Torrance, M. D. 

(c) Medical Mission Work of the American Presbyterian 
Mission in Syria, 1909 

TRIPOLI Dr. Ira Harris and Miss Ara Elsie Harris, M. D. Hospital and Dis- 
pensary in the Meena. 

SHWEIR, MOUNT LEBANON. Rev, Win. Carslaw, M.D., and Dr. Haddad. 

MA'AMILTEIN. Miss Mary Pierson Eddy, M. D., Wallace Ophthalmic Hospital 
and Dispensary. Dr. Eddy has also oversight of an independent summer Sana- 
torium for Consumptives at Shebaniyeh, and a projected winter home near 

Appendix IV 

1903. List of Mission Schools of the Presbyterian Board 
of Foreign Missions in Vilayets of Beirut and Damascus 



Common School 
unless indicated 

Date of 

owned by 






t Boys 1 school 




i Girls 1 school 

l8 33 



i Girls' Boarding- 






Syrian Protestant 






Theological Semi- 








Deir Mimas 





Ibl es Saki 






4 (i High School) 
















Safad el Buttikh, 






Jubaa Halawi 













Miyeh wa Miyeh 








i Boys* school 




Seminary for girls 





Gerard Institute 

i88a 1909 




Dar es Salaam Or* 



plumage (bays) 


Common scnoot lor 



























Appendix IV 



Common School 
unless indicated 

Date of 

owned by 









Buss ah 





Girls' boarding- 





Boys' boarding- 





Boys' day-school 




Girls' day-school 
El Meena day-school 








El Kaimeh 



Hab Nurnera 









El Mozeibeleh 



Ain Barideh 


Kefr Ram 



Beit Sabat 



El Yazidiyeh, 












1888 * 


Sheikh Mohammed 






Meshta el Helu 

















El Mary 






Rasheyyet Fukkhar 







Ain Qunyet Banias 




Mejdel Shems 














3 (I High School) 







Im Dulab 







Ain Burdhai 



Beit Shama 



Deir el Ghazelle 







Howsh Barada 



Kefr Zebd 






Appendix IV 




Common School 
unless indicated 

Date of 

owned by 





Ras Baalbek 






Timnin el Foka 





































Quabb Elias 













Mission Schools of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign 
Missions in the Mutserfiyet of Lebanon 


^. <?/ 


Date of 

Jfarm&nettt Build* 
ings ffwntd by 
When erected 



El Munsif 












Kefr Hazir 









Karm Saddy 


I >uma 















Miyeh wa Msyeh 










Kefr Jemh 




Appendix IV 


No. of 

Date of 

Permanent Build- 
ings owned by 
When erected 






























Ain Anub 




Ain Zehalteh 




























Deir el Komr 





Deir Kobel 

















Suk el Gharb 


* 8 53 












Ain Sindianeh 









Kefr Akab 



Kefr Shiraa 











Appendix V 

Outline of the History of the Syria Mission of the 

American Presbyterian Church and Contemporary 

Events, 1820 to 1900 

First Period 1820 to 1840 

Turkish Sultan, Mahmoud II, 1808-1839. 

A period of exploration and preparation, intolerance, persecution, banishment, 
wars and pestilence. 

1822 The American Press founded in Malta. 

1834 The Press removed to Beirut 

The principal missionaries were Pliny Fisk and Levi Parsons, arrived in 1820; 
Dr. Jonas King, x832j Dr* William Goodell, translator of the Scriptures into 
Armeno-Turkish, 1823 ; Rev. Isaac Bird, author of "Bible Work in Bible Lands," 
1823 ; Dr. Eli Smith, who began the translation of the Bible into the Arabic, 
1827; and Dr. Wm. M. Thomson, author of "The land and the Book. 1 ' 

October 20, 1827 Naval battle of Navarino, destruction of the Turkish fleet by 
the allied English, French and Russian fleets. 

1826- The first Protestant martyr, Asaad es SMdiak, starved to death in the 
Maronite Monastery of Kannobin, by order of the Maronite Patriarch. 

i $28- War with England expected, missionaries fled to Malta. 

1830. Armenia explored by Dr. Eli Smith and Dr. II. G. 0. D wight 

1830 -The first girls* schools ever opened in the Turkish Empire commenced by 
Mrs. Bird and Mrs. Goodell in Beirut and Mount Lebanon. 

1830 When the missionaries returned from Malta to Beirut one small rowboat 
came out to meet them, containing the entire Protestant community of the Turkish 
Empire* viz,, five persons, (Now in 1900, about 75,000.) 

1834- Mrs. Eli Smith opened school for girls In Beirut 

i$35--Boyft' Seminary in Beirut with sisc pupil.** 

The Greek war, the plague, the Invasion of Ibrahim Pasha, son of Mohammed 
Ali Pasha of Egypt (1825-1^30), and the disturbed state of the country, rendered 
continuous miisionarf labour impossible. 

Protestant Christianity a rtligit* lUidt** 


8io Appendix V 

Second Period 4840 to 1860 

September, 1840 From the expulsion of Ibrahim Pasha by the allied English, 
Austrian and Turkish fleets, to the civil war and massacres of 1860. 

Turkish Sultan, Abdul Medjid, 1839-1861. 

The Turks restored to Syria. 

Protestantism recognized by the Turkish Sultan as one of the religions of the 

1840 Boys' Boarding-School in Beirut under Mr. Hebard. 

November, 1841 Civil war in Lebanon between the Druses and Maronites. 

March, 1844 The Sultan Abdul Medjid issued a firman that Christians of all 
sects are not to be insulted nor to be persecuted for their religion. 

1845 Civil war again in Lebanon. Missionaries ordered down to Beirut. 

1846 Boys' Boarding-School opened in Abeih by Dr. Van Dyck. Girls' Board- 
ing-School in Beirut by Dr. and Mrs. De Forest. 

1847 The Protestant Charter of Rights " was issued by the Grand Vizier in 
Constantinople. (See Goodell's Forty Years in the Turkish Empire.") 

1848 The first Syrian Evangelical Church organized in Beirut with eighteen 

1849 New translation of the Bible into the Arabic language begun by Rev, Eli 
Smith, D. D., assisted by Mr. Butrus Bistany. 

1850 The previous Protestant Charter of Rights " being only Vmerial, the 
Sultan Abdul Medjid issued an Imperial Firman, called the " Imperial Protestant 
Charter of Rights," guaranteeing to the Protestants all the rights and privileges of 
the other Christian sects in the empire. 

1853 First steam printing-press set up in Beirut 

1853-1855 Crimean war, British influence predominant. 

1854 Commenced printing new translation of Genesis. 

February, 1857 The famous Hatti Hamaiyoun or Imperial Edict, or guarantee 
of religious liberty, announces that no Mohammedan becoming a Christian shall be 
put to death. 

1857 Four evangelical churches in Syria with seventy-five members, 

January II, 1857 Death of Dr. Eli Smith. 

February, 1857 Translation of the Bible continued by Rev. Cornelius V. A. Van 
Dyck, M. D., D. D., LL. D., assisted by the Mufti, Sheikh Yusef Asir, graduate of 
the Azhar University in Cairo. 

1858 American Boarding-School for Girls in Suk el Gharb, Mount Lebanon, 

Third Period 1860 to jrSSo 

Light out of darkness. From the civil war and massacres of 1860 to the dedic 
lion of the Gerald F. Dak, Jr., Memorial Sunday-School Hall in Beirut 

Appendix V 811 

1860-1861 Sultan Abdul Medjid. 

1861 -1876 Sultan Abdul Aziz. 

1876-1899 Sultan Abdul Hamid. 

March 29, 1860 Translation and printing of Arabic Reference New Testament 
completed by Dr. Van Dyck. A pocket edition in April. 

April to July 9, 1860 Civil war between the Druses and Maronites in Lebanon, 
followed by bloody massacres in Lebanon, Hasbeiya and Damascus. 

August and September, 1860 Twenty thousand refugees receiving aid from the 
Anglo-American and German Relief Committee in Beirut, The missionaries spent 
four months feeding the hungry and clothing the needy. One hundred thousand 
garments distributed, and ^30,000 given in relief, 

August, 1860, to November, 1861 Occupation of Syria for nine months by 6,000 
French troops, on behalf of the European Powers, and a fleet of twenty-five British 
line of battle-ships, with the consent of the Sultan. 

Increase of European and Christian interest in Syria. New educational and 
benevolent institutions founded. 

October, 1860 British Syrian Schools and Bible Mission founded by Mrs, Bowen 
Thompson. These schools have now fifty- one schools and 4,000 children in Syria, 
chiefly girls, 

October, 1860 Prussian Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth found an orphanage for 
girls in Beirut, with 130 orphans. Up to this date, 1900, they have trained about 
xooo girls. 

June 10, 1861 A new government instituted in Lebanon under a Latin Christian 
Pasha, appointed with the approval of the six European Powers, 

July 18, x86i Daoud Pasha inaugurated as Governor-General of Lebanon, His 
successors have been : 

Franco Pasha. 1867-1871 

Rustura Pasha 1871-1881 

Wassa Pasha ............ 1881-1890 

Naoum Pasha . , . . 1890-1900 


Muzafar Pasha , . . . ^905-1907 

Yusef Pasha 1907+ 

1 86* American Female Seminary reopened in Beirut 

October* x&6a Suk Girls* Boarding-School transferred to Sidon* 

January 27, 186:2 The Syria Mission voted to establish, a college in Beirut, with 

Rev. Daniel Bliss as president 
i $63 The Syrkn Protestant College was incorporated by the Legislature of the 

State of New York* 
March io f 1865 Celebration of the completion of the Arabic translation of the 

Old Testament, thus completing the new Arabic 

812 Appendix V 

June, 1865 ^ r * Van E)yck left for New York and superintended the electro- 
typing of the Arabic Bible, duplicate plates being deposited with the Bible Societies 
in New York and London, and in the vaults of the American Press in Beirut. 

October, 1865 The College formally opened in Beirut with sixteen students. 
Number of students in 1880, 124. In this period Mrs. E. H, Watson, under the 
Society for Promoting Female Education in the East, opened a Girls' Boarding- 
School in Mount Lebanon. 

The Lebanon Schools Committee, of Scotland, opened Boys' and Girls' Boarding- 
Schools in Suk el Gharb and afterwards in Shweir, Mount Lebanon, The Kirk of 
Scotland Jewish Committee instituted schools and a chaplaincy in Beirut. Miss 
Taylor opened the St. George's School for Moslem and Druse Girls in Beirut. 

1869 Imperial press and school laws promulgated, establishing a severe censor- 
ship over all books and newspapers. 

May, 1868 American Theological Seminary opened in Abeih, with Drs, Cal- 
houn, W. W. Eddy, and H. H. Jessup, as instructors. 

1870 The Syria Mission was transferred from the A, B. C. F. M, of Boston, to 
the American Presbyterian Board of Missions. 

December 7, 1871 Corner-stone of the Syrian Protestant College laid by the 
Hon. Wm. E. Dodge, of New York. 

1873 American Female Seminary opened in Tripoli, Syria, 

November, 1873 Theological Seminary transferred to Beirut 

May, 1875 ^ River Water introduced into Beirut. 

August 31, 1876 Accession of Sultan Abttul Hamid. 

April, 1877 Russia declares war against Turkey. 

1877-1878 Great Circassian deportation from Bulgaria to Syria, 

1877 Mohammedan Society of Benevolent Intentions opened schools for girls in 
Beirut, Damascus, Tripoli and Aleppo. 

Greeks, Papal Greeks, Maronites and Jews opened schools for boys and girls. 

Multiplication of newspapers and books. 

Society of Friends founded a mission, hospital and schools at Brummana, Mount 
Lebanon, under Theophilus Waldmeier* 

Fourth Period 1880 to igoi 

December 19, i88o~~From the dedication of the Gerald F, Dale Memorial Sun- 
day-School Hall in Beirut to the present time. 

Growth of all departments of Protestant missionary work, medical* educational, 
publication and evangelistic. 

Beirut becomes the literary centre of Syria* 

1887 T^ Mejlis el-Maarif, or Board of Public Instruction of His Imperial 
Majesty the Sultan, the Caliph of Mohammed, placed the seel of authorization upcm 
thirty-three different editions of the Arabic Scriptures and parts of Scriptures. 

Appendix V 813 

The Local Board in Damascus also approved 330 different Arabic publications of 
the American Press in Beirut. 

April 8, 1894 Death of Rev. Wm. M. Thomson, D. D., author of "The Land 
and the Book," in Denver, Colorado, aged eighty-nine. 

November 13, 1895 Death of Rev - c v A - Van D y ck M. D., D, D., LL. D., 
in Beirut, aged seventy-seven years. 

July, 1895 Railway opened from Beirut to Damascus and Hauran. 

1896-1897 Prince Gargarin, Director of the Russian Schools in Syria and 
Palestine, orders the Arabic Scriptures to be used in all their schools. 

During this period the Syrians of the various Christian sects have begun to 
emigrate in vast numbers to Egypt, Australia, and North and South America. Not 
less than 75,000 have- gone, and others are preparing to go. The young, industrious, 
ambitious, and educated classes are going to seek to better their condition. In- 
security for life and property in the interior and want of employment are driving 
them away. 

January 28, 1900 Death of Rev. W. W, Eddy, D. D,, in Beirut, aged seventy- 
four years. 

1900 The whole number of children in Protestant Schools in Syria and Palestine 
is about 18,000, of whom one-half are girls. 

The number of Protestants enrolled as a civil sect is about 7,000. 

Number of Scriptures issued since 1860, 600,000. 

Whole number of pages printed at the American Press from the beginning is about 

There are sixteen Arabic Journals in Beirut ; one Turkish official, four Protestant, 
two Mohammedan, two Greek, four Maronite, one Independent, two Jesuit 

Four Hospitals have been founded since 1860: St. John's, Protestant (Knights 
of St. John, Berlin) ; St. Joseph's, Papal ; St George's, Orthodox Greek ; and the 
Beirut Municipality Hospital. 

The Syrian Protestant College has 434 Students, sixteen American Professors and 
Tutors, two French Adjunct Professors, one Syrian Adjunct Professor* and nine 
Syrian Tutors, (See pp. 816-817.) 

Its graduates number, in the Preparatory Department, 3095 Collegiate Depart- 
ment, 169 ; in, Medicine, 163 ; and in Pharmacy fifty-eight. 

It has ten stone buildings, a large library, an astronomical observatory with a 
refractor of twelve inches aperture and fifteen, feet focal length, extensive scientific 
cabinets and collections, apparatus and laboratories. 

In the American Cemetery, adjoining the American Press in Beirut, are the 
graves of Pliny Fbk, died 1826, Dr. Eli Smith, Dr. Van Dyck, Dr. C W. Ctlhottn, 
Rev, Gerald F. Dale, Rev, Dr. Wm, W, Eddy, and others. 

In the Female Seminary, & the rear of the Church, can be seen the upper room 
in which the Bible was translated into the Arabic* during a period of sixteen years. 
A tablet commemorating the fact w* placed in the waE by President D, C Oilman, 
of Johns Hopkins University* 

Appendix VI 
" Figures/ 1 1908-1909 Statistics of the Syria Mission 







MISSIONARIES j" Women .... 

,5} 28 

25} 41 

* "1 Ordained pastors 


10 i 

JNATIVE Licensed preachers 



SYRIAN k chool te / chers . . . 

96 I2 

174 r aa6 

LABOURERS j Qther hdpers 


it J 




Outstations . ,. 



Churches , , 



Church buildings ... , .... 



Added on profession during the year 



Male church- members . . 


Female church-members 



Total members from the first 


Regular preaching places , ...... 



Average congregations . . ...... 


- "* 

Sabbath-schools , . 



Sabbath scholars . 



Syrian Protestant community (within the field of the 
American Presbyterian Mission) 



Contributions of native communities, including tuition 
in boarding-schools and seminaries 






Theological seminary 



Pupils in seminary . ...... 

Boys' boarding-schools 


Pupils in boarding-schools ......,.,,. 


Female seminaries . . , % . 


Pupils in seminaries 


High schools 



Pupils in high schools , . . 



Common schools . ...... 



Boys in schools .,.., , . . . 

2.O1I 1 

3JLIO 1 

Girls in schools 

Slo} 2 ' 850 

1 199} 4.W 

Total schools 



Total pupils 

Adult females in Bible classes , .... 

35 o 


Appendix VI 







? I 



B J 

Non-Moslem .... 

3 S 







1 20 


3.7 2O 












Orthodox Greek . . 


Jews , . 









39 2 



Syriac ....... 




























American * . . . . 




English ...... 





6 7 


3 2 5 



4,885 1 


Founded at Malta t i$$% t and at Beirut, 1834 
The Ara&u JF^ess oftke American Mission printed during ike two years : 

1898 1908 

Total pages .................... 28,085,564 44,589,571 

Of which, Scriptures for the American Bible Society . . 18,516,000 30,507,000 

Volumes of Scriptures distributed . , ..... . 64,539 101,000 

Total pages printed from the Erst ......... .625,671,085 9 2 334575S 

Volumes of Scriptures^ Including Bibles, Testaments and Portions, Jsmtd by thi 

Am^ric&n BiMe Svcwty in Beirut 

1880 1908 

Distributed in Syria Sold ..... ...... . ...... 4779 

Consigned to American Mission, E 
** British and Foreign 
** * U. S. A. . , . . 


..... ... 

ible Society . ..... $i 32,207 

Total , 
Aterage ytarly iwties 

44 ** 


1880-18% ^3,000 
1890-1899 39* 000 
jjoo-ijol 84,05 1 

816 Appendix VI 


1876 1908 

Bible House and Press Establishment i i 

Steam Presses ... 3 5 

Hand Presses 2 6 

Hydraulic Press I I 

Type Foundry - i 2 

Electrotype Apparatus I I 

Stereotype Apparatus I 

Embossing Presses I 2 

Hot Rolling Press l 

Cutting Machines 2 2 

Press Employees , . . 44 62 

Publications on Press Catalogue 207 692 

Volumes printed during the year 38,450 171,500 

Pages " " " " 13,786,980 44,589,571 

Of which, pages of Scriptures for the American Bible 

Society 4,277,500 30,507,000 

Of which, pages of Tracts 232,000 

Total pages from the beginning 1591810,300 923*345*755 

Scriptures issued during the year by the American Bible 

Society 5,641 92,30 

Other Books and Tracts sold and distributed ..... 25,721 91*291 

Copies of Publications of all kinds issued during the year 50,000 183,602 


The Syrian Protestant College, situated at Beirut, is not connected with any Mis- 
sionary Society or helped by its funds, but it is a direct outgrowth of the Mission in 
Syria, and is closely affiliated with the Mission and related to its work. It has a 
magnificent location, and in its Preparatory, Collegiate, Commercial, Pharmaceutical 
and Medical Departments it has 870 students. A Training School for Nurses was 
established in 1905 in connection with the College Hospitals* 

The corps of instruction and administration numbers seventyfour, of these sixty- 
three devote all or some of their time to teaching, and eleven are engaged in the 
conduct of the business affairs of the Institution. Thirty-five are from America j 
twenty-five are Syrians; two are Greek; four British ; two, are Itftliatu; 
Swiss ; 3 are Armenian ; 

Appendix VI 817 

STUDENTS 1876 1890 1908 

Medical Department \ f I1 7 I 

Pharmacy Department f 2 ' 45 \ 36 j J 53 

Commercial Department 52 

Collegiate Department 28 56 200 

Preparatory Department . . , 22 217 453 

Training School for Nurses 12 

Total 77 318 870 

The College was opened in Beirut in the autumn of 1866. The first class was 
graduated in 1870. The Medical Department was organized and opened in 1867, 
the Preparatory Department in 1871, and the School of Commerce in October, 1900. 

The College property is situated at Ras Beirut, on a fine site overlooking the sea, 
the city of Beirut, and the long range of Lebanon Mountains, It includes about 
forty acres of land, on which fourteen buildings have been erected for the accom- 
modation of the institution. Of these, College Hall and Medical Hall were occupied in 
the autumn of 1873, the others having been erected at various dates since that time. 

Arabic was originally the language of instruction, and is still thoroughly taught, 
but English was substituted in the Collegiate Department in 1880, and in the Medi- 
cal Department in 1887. 


The Medical Professors of the Syrian Protestant College have been for thirty-six 

years the sole medical attendants of this institution. The hospital is situated on the 

blufif overlooking the Bay of St. George, in a terraced park of about four acres. 
The main building is a stately edifice with a central block, two pavilion wings and 

a rear pavilion connected by a covered glazed corridor* The central block contains 
the administration department, the operating room, the pathological laboratory, the 

kitchen and various apartments, and on its best ventilated faces a number of wards, 
most of them looking out on the sea and Mount Lebanon, The lower story of the 
rear pavilion is the chapel erected by American friends of the noble Johanniter 

Order and of the Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth, The upper story is the surgical 
ward for men, and is a model of its kind, having windows on all four sides and the 
most perfect system of lighting and ventilation. Another building furnishes ac- 
commodations for a large polyclmic, another is isolated for contagious diseases, and 
still others for laundry, dead house, gate house, etc. 

The institution is owned and supported by the Johanniter Crete* composed of the 
flower of the Protestant nobility of Germany, with the son of the Emperor at its 
head* The nursing and administrative ntaff is furnished by the Deaconesses of 
Kaiserswerth. The edifying spectacle of the cooperation of two such institutions a$ 
the Johanniter Hospital and the Syrian Protestant College h a striking testimony to 
ecumenical Christianity resting upon the unity of the Spirit and the bond of peace, 

8l8 Appendix VI 

1876 1908 

Indoor patients 537 792 

Patients treated in polyclinic ... 9,162 13,821 

Total days of treatment 1 7>5 21,024 

These patients come from all parts of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Cyprus, Asia 
Minor, and the Greek Islands. They are Mohammedans, Jews, Druses and Chris- 
tians of various sects. 


This Foundation consists of a plot of about four acres of ground, southeast of the 
College campus, on which is : 

(<z) A structure known as the 'Adrn House, formerly a dwelling, used as a 
Children's Hospital and a Training School for Nurses. In this building there were 
treated, during the nine months of the college year, 1 10 women of whom ten were 
labour cases, and ninety-five children. The days of treatment were 6,500. 

(<5) A Maternity and Woman's Hospital was completed in 1908, with a capacity 
for thirty-five patients. 

(*:) A Children's Hospital, to include an Orthopaedic department, with accom- 
modations for thirty patients, is now about to be erected. 

A commodious building, with room for thirty-five patients, now being built on 
ground adjacent to the Jesup Foundation. It will probably be ready for occupancy 
before the close of the year. 

Appendix VII 

Statistics of the Syrian Protestant College from 
1866 to 1906 


Showing the number of individual students who have graduated from one or 
more departments of the college. 

Graduates of the School of Medicine (since 1871) . . 
Graduates of the School of Pharmacy (since 1875) * 
Graduates of the School of Commerce (since 1902) * . 
Graduates of the Collegiate Department (since 1870) . 
Graduates of the Preparatory Department (since 1883) 


I ^ 2 



9 22 


Showing the number of students enrolled each year from the foundation of the college. 











_ . 






















I 870-7 * 












































,_,. , 



















P . 























.. r|jri 



Appendix VII 
















3 1 






























































, m ^ n 


































3 28 













































52 1 





A. B. C, F. M. turns Syria Mission over 
to Presbyterians, 373 et $eq. 

Abbas Effendi, head of Babism, 605 ; his 
brother-in-law converted, 605 

Abbott, Mrs. Maria, 49 ; marries Wm 
M. Thomson, 49 

Abcarius, John, 499 

Abd el Kadir, his courage and human- 
ity, 196 et seq. % 2OI ; tribute of Prince 
Schamyl, 202 ; visit to de Lesseps, 264 

Abd ul Aziz, Sultan, 267 ; photographed, 
269 ; deposed 449 ; assassinated, 449 

Abdullah, Asaad, pastor, 377 

Abdul Hamid II, Sultan, succeeds 
Murad V, 449 ; decorates M. Bistany, 

Abu Selim Diab, my first teacher, 114, 

Abyssinians, 8 

Adonis myth, 129, 130, 131 

Aiken, 22, 23, 24 

Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, visit to 
Beirut, 247 ; captured by Bedawy, 248 

Ali Beg, Hamady* 102, 103 

American influence summarized, 793 

American naval officers, 764 

American products and devices, intro- 
duced by missionaries, 360-361 

American rights in Turkey, 489 ; pro- 
tected by England, 621, 623 j Senator 
Sherman*s unpatriotic stand, 622 ; in- 
effective status of our minister, 644 ; 
Oscar Straus's influence, 644 ; Consul 
RavendaFs efficiency, 644; Consul- 
General Dickinson probes the Spaf- 
JbrditGS, 647 ; pecuniary estimate, 65 1 ; 
attack on United States consul, 729 ; 
Irishman's reason for ineffectiveness, 

740; resigning American citizenship, 

Anderson* Rttftxt, D, IX, 17, 24, 34, 42, 


Angell, Minister to Turkey, 643 
Anglican High Church hottlUty, 475 

Anti-Chalcedoniani, 79 
Antl-Epheslans, 79 

175 detroyed| 414 

Antiques and archaeological finds, 265 ; 
Shapira's spurious Moabite collec- 
tion, 423 ; Phoenician antique factory, 
505 ; supposed sarcophagus of Alex- 
ander, 507; the wonderful fluid pre- 
servative, 507 j the Dog River in- 
scriptions, 539-540 ; the Arabic tablets 
in China, 461 ; Hadrian's forest pre- 
serve boundary, 741 j German aid, 


Apologetics in Arabic : the " Bakurat, 1 " 
567; the " Minar ul Hoc," 602 

Arabi Pasha Rebellion, 47 1 tt $eq. 

Arabic Bible see Bible 

Arabic books for use in New York, 756 

Arabic encyclopedia, 484-486 

Arabic language, a barrier, 21, 290, 361 ; 
studying, 1 14 ; its use in the college, 
304; mispronunciations, 361? its use 
in theological school, 496 j style of in 
Bible, 75; style of in preaching, 56, 
142, 746; style of in letter writing, 


Araman, Michaiel, 488 

Araman, Lulu, his wife, 672 

Archaeology see Antiques supra 

Armenians (sect), Si 

Armenian massacres, 1894, 606 et sty., 
614; 1896, 617; Hopkinson Smith's 
error, 620-621 ; see Cilician 

Arrak, Syrian whiskey, effect, 731 

Arthur, Chester A., appoints author 
minister to Persia, 480 

Asir, Sheikh Yusef, helping translate 
Bible, 75 

Ata, Musa or Mcosa (the Zahleh Prot- 
estant), 155 ; his death, 415 et segt* 

Aurora borcalis, 374 

BAAIBBC, exploration of after Emperor 

William's visit, 655 
Babeock, Maltbie, fX B., at Beirut, 698; 

his father and the author, 699 

Babim f 329, 605* 636^-633$ American 
women deluded, 6%, $# ; the shai- 
!0w*ie o the cttit, 687-6$$ 

Baker* Mw. Walter, 41^ 330, 336 



Bakir's compromise religion, 538; his 
interview with Henry A. Nelson, 
D. D., 538 

** Bakurat," the great Arabic apologetic, 


Baptism, in Greek church, %&et$eq.; 
among Jacobites, 87 

Barakat, Laiya, 488 

Barber, Alice S., 222 

Barnes, Albert, 16 

Barudi, Beshara, ordination, 757 

Bedawy Arabs, reaching with Gospel, 
359-360, 581 ; the ghazu, 359, 581 ; 
Sheikh Mohammed's visit, 407 

Bedr, Yusef, native pastor, 313, 346,439 

Beirut, 19, 25, 45 ; in 1863, 265 j water 
works, 441 ; election of 1880, 466 

Beirut church see Native Church : 
Syria Mission 

Beha-ullah, the Babite, 637 

Benefactors of the work, 371 

Benton, W. A., 22, 24 

Berbari, Muallim Rizzuk, 499 

Berry, Philip and wife, two years* serv- 
ice, 269 

Bible (see Translation also) ; misconcep- 
tion of its character, 36; forbidding 
its circulation in 1824, 36; version 
originally used, 37 ; priestly antago- 
nism, 37, 38, 82, 83; government 
sanction, 78; government interfer* 
ence, 590 j casting the type, 55, 108 ; 
translators of, bbetsfq.; enormous 
circulation, 78, 220; m 1892, 591; 
vowelled New Testament issued, 250 ; 
demand increasing, 286 ; bought with 
a sword, 296 ; used in Russian schools, 
619 ; 1905 a banner year, 753 ; duty 
of American Bible Society, 759-760 

Bibliography, 80 1 

Bird, Emily, daughter of William, serves 
thirty years without furlough, 460 ; 
her lovely work, 682 

Bird, Isaac, 22, 29, 34, 36 ; his life and 
work, 42 et seq. ; his ** thirteen let- 
ters, 1 ' 45; introduces the potato, 

Bird, William, 102 j his courage during 
the massacre, 1 88 ; his life and death, 
711 et seq. 

Bistany, Butrus, , 106, 402; helps 
translate the fiible, 70; Ms wife's 
death, 295 ; his school, 304 ; his death, 
483 ; his work, 270, 484 

Bistany (the priest), 218, 483 

y, Soleyman Efftndij translator of 

the " Iliad," 746 ; member of Parlia- 
ment, 747 n. 

Black, James, 49 ; his integrity, 465 ; 
death, 465 

Bliss, Daniel, D. D., 19, 22 ; named for 
college president, 241 j starts to United 
States to raise funds, 24 1 ; his efforts 
in England, 281, 297; his remark to 
Lord Shaftesbury, 282. See Chap. 
XIII, p. 298 for full reference to the 
Syrian Protestant College ; succeeded 
by his son, 711 ; his final report, 722 ; 
the statue, 742 

Bliss, Howard S., inaugurated, 711, 
721 ; his spiritual zeal, 739 

Blyth, Bishop, his pitiful narrowness, 
475, 568, 573 ; Dr. Van Dyck's sum- 
mary, 575 ^ 

Booey and his bones, 489 

Bookkeeping, a part of training, 7x6 

Booth, William A,, visits Beirut, 166; 
helps endow girls' school, 280; his 
son dies at Beirut, 1869, 347 ; memo- 
rial in his name, 348 ; death, 1896, 617 

Boxer massacres, should they deter mis- 
sions ? 692 

British Syrian Schools, 227 et seq* 

Brown, Arthur J,, D. D,, 222; advises 
more itinerating, 649 ; his visit to 
mission, 709 

Brummana conferences (for spiritual up- 
lift), 651, 703; F. B, Meyer's help, 

73i 747 
Bryan, Wra. Jennings, Chrysostom of 

Democracy, 769 ; visits Beirut, 770 
Bulwer, Sir Henry, called down, 284 

Burial, using graves over, 254 
Bush, Caroline (author's first wife,, 17? 
illness and death, 278 ti &$ 

CAIRO, conference of 1906, 765 et s$q 
Calhoun, C. William (son of Simeon), 

340 ; returns as a missionary in 1879, 

442-443,460; death, 482 

Calhoun, Simeon (the Saint of Lebanon), 
22, 23, 24, 95, 97 j his life and work, 

97 et $eq ; trusted by every sect, ioo 
101, 170; death, 103, 104^ 442; his 
delightful companionship, 430; his 

wife returns to Syria, 44% 454; Ms 

daughter Susan also, 442, 460; his 

wife*s death, 782 
Cana of Galilee, its real te> 54 
Carabet, Dionysius, archbishop of Jem- 

sal em, 48 



Carabet, Meleta, teacher, 711 
Carruth, Miss, 222 ; sails for Syria, 341 
Carslaw, William, M. D,, enters work in 

Lebanon Schools, 384 ; ordained, 384, 

Cedars of Lebanon, location and char- 

acter, 133-141 ; the sale of the slabs, 

456; age of trees, 457 
Censorship of press see also Mission 

Press, 433, 505, 542, 549, 586, 625, 


Chaldeans (sect), 79 

Chi Alpha, author's appreciation of, 341 

Children of missionaries, long separa- 
tions, 527 

Cholera, in 1865, 283, 286, 443; In 
1866, 311; in 1875, 443; in 1890, 
569 ; Moslem fatalistic view of, 289- 
445 J among Mecca pilgrims, 60 1- 
602 ; generally see Chap. XX, 430 
in 1894, 614; in 1903, 

Christian Endeavour party, visit to 

Beirut, 691 
Church of England hostile to prosely- 

tism, 84 
Church of Scotland, schools, 231 j joins 

in church service, 293, 347 ; deeds 

over Shweir Mission, 666 
Church, F, A,, the artist, visits Petra, 

340 ; his dragoman's ready wit, 340 n. 
Churches see Property 
Church bell and clock, natives subscribe 

for, 347 ; new one arrives, 410 
Churchill, Col., 174 
Cilician massacre of 1908, 794 
Clark, N, G, I), D,, secretary A, B. C. 

F. M, f visit to Syria, 411 
Clifton Springs Conference, 611 
Close Brethremsm, 431 
Coffee drinking, 118 
Cofting murder of, 246 it stg* 
Comity, obstacles to, 357 ; pleasure of, 

402, 474; conference with Bishop 

Gobat, 424 

Constitution see Turkish Government 
Converts, sundry notable ones; Antonius 

Yanni, f/, v* j Abu Selim, 414; Asaac! 

Shidiak, f. w*; Selim Toweel, his 

trance, 253 j Weheby Aatiyeh, 265 ; 

Ishoc ei Shemtnaa, 3081 329, 402 ; 

Elks Saadeh, 318** wf. ; Besham 

Haddad, 322 et uq ; Hanna Bedr 

3241/49?. /JTedaan, q, v*\ Kamil, ^. 
Yakftb Stirraf, Dr. 430 ; Naamot 
635 ; a Jew, 648 ; Druses, 671, 

686; Monks, 678 */ seg., 698, 715; 
Tabet, Amin, 757 ; Moslem see that 
Converts " for revenue only," 291, 350, 

354, 355 4^3* 543> 635 

Cook's tourists, 717-718 

Copts (sect), 81 

Cranks and peculiar people : the roving 
Englishman, 27 1 ; the prophetic Eng- 
lishwoman, 313 ; the death abolisher, 
539; Baldwin and Richmond, 546 
ct scq* ; the " Forerunner," 582; the 
Shechemite swindler, 749 

Crocker, Charles, visits Beirut and frees 
a slave, 431 

Cundall, Miss, teacher at Tripoli, 460 

Cuyler, Theodore, D. D., visits Beirut, 

DALE, GERALD F., enters the danger- 
ous Zahleh field, 427 ; bravery amidst 
cholera, 443 ; the people won by his 
love and courage, 444 ; marries Mary 
Bliss, 460 ; the memorial of his name- 
sake, 467 ft sey. ; his work and char- 
acter, 500 et $eq* ; his death in 1 886, 


Dale, Gerald F,, Mrs* (Mary Bliss), re- 
signs, 623, 751 ; superintendent Jesup 
hospital, 623, 75 1 ; helps in Beirut 
seminary, 656; work in moun- 
tain villages, 682; at Ras Baalbec, 

Damascus, the massacre there, 195 
ft siy, ; the heavy punishment, 206, 
207 ; mosque of Amweh burned, 600 

Danforth, G. B,, Dr. and Mrs. at Trip- 
oli, 404; his death, 441, 442 

Daud Pasha, ICG, 211 ; his inauguration, 
234 ; yields to priestly influence, 249 ; 
becomes liberal in policy, 254, 266 ; 
a difficult rdle, 271; suppresses the 
Yusef Keram rebellion, 290 ; suggests 
Sabbath observance by Christian sects, 

33 2 

Day, Alfred Ely, reports on landslide, 

Dedication, i 

Be Forest, H. A,, his life and work, 95 
*/ seg* ; death, 147 ; his wife's death, 

Deir el Komr, the massacre, i%&tt seg* 

Dennis, James S n D, IX, boyhood 
pledge, 18; pledge renewed in man- 
ftood f 338, 342; ordained, 343; ar- 
rival ia Syria, 345 j at hemd of theo. 



logical seminary, 345, 404; his great 
literary services, 345 ; goes to Zahleh 
after Mr. Dale's death, 502 ; resigna- 
tion, 587 

Diana, statue of, 350 

Disease, sickness and plague : rabies, 
634 ; smallpox, 634 ; Abu Rikab, 238, 
544; cholera, g. v. t and see Chap. 
XX; fevers, 437; typhoid, 613,617, 
629; scarlet fever imported, 6231 
epidemics in 1906, 762 

Divorce specialist, 570-573 

Dodds, R. J., D. D., 379 

Dodge, Harriet Elizabeth, author's sec- 
ond wife, 341 

Dodge, William E., ist, 122, 233, 280, 
617 ; nominates author as moderator, 
363; visits Beirut in 1871, 412; lays 
corner-stone, 412; golden wedding, 
454; death in 1883, 481; Mrs. 
Dodge's death, 722 

Dodge, D. Stuart, D. D., visit in 1861, 
233; visit in 1868 to Petra, 340; 
name linked with Syrian Protestant 
College, 412 ; visit in 1889, 548 

Dog River (Nahr el Kelb), ancient in- 
scriptions, 236 ; water works, 441 ; 
bone breccia, 625 

Dogs, city colonies, 283, 635 ; rabies, 634 

Dom Pedro, 109, 450 

Drought and famine, 380-381 

Drunkenness, a new vice among Mos- 
lems, 119, 1 20, 730; introduced by 
foreigners, 234, 235, 731 

Druses, rooj nature of sect, 157; unfor- 
tunate test of truth fails, 413 

Duff, Alexander, confers concerning 
Lebanon Schools, 383 

Duflerin, Lord, 63, 209 ; his tribute to 
missionaries, 214 

Dwight, H. G. 0., 53 

EDDY, MARY P., M. D., her illness and 
call to service, 545; arrives in 1893, 
597 j her work and pluck, 720 ft ssq. 

Eddy, W. W., D. D., 22, 24; his life 
and death, 682 ,?/ j^.; Mrs, Eddy's 
death, 740; her work, 741 

Eddy, W. K., son of W, W., 455 ; hfe 
sad death, 771 et sey. ; estimate of his 
life, 775 ^resignation of his wife, 782 

Educational missions, the argument for, 
591 ft stq, 

Elfinwood, Frank F, D. D, visits 
Beirut, 283, 441; his estimate of 
Kamil, 55$ 

Emigration of Syrians, 93, 360, 463, 
464, 589, 595 

English language, its use in mission 
schools, 95, 223, 519 ; effect of discon- 
tinuing it, 298 ; objections stated, 
301 ; adopted by the college, 304 ; es- 
sential for theological students, 348; 
summary of its effect, 588, 596, 

Enver Beg, head of reform party, 785, 
79 1 n. 

Epidemics see Disease 

Erdman (Amy Jessup), death, 24, 690 

Erdman, Paul, 339 ; marriage to Amy 
Jessup, 690 ; goes to Tripoli, 760 

Eutychians (sect), 79 

Evangelistic work, what is, 673, 674 

Everett, Eliza D*, 222, 526; her por- 
trait, 227 ; her selection, 335, 339 ; 
resignation, 611 ; death, 711 

Exploration of Palestine: Lieutenant 
Stevens' fiasco, 396 

FASTING (see Ramadan), hypocrisy in, 

Fatalism vs. cholera, 445 

Fehad, Amln, native pastor, 782 

Female education, 59, 222 

Fisher, 222 

Fisk, Pliny, 25, 29, 33, 34; his life and 
work, 34 et set}* ; summary of his la- 
bours, 37 

Foote, 112 

Ford, George A., son of J. E*, joins mis- 
sion in 1881,4695 opens first Brum- 
mana conference, 65 1 \ marries Miss 
Booth, 769 see Gerard Institute 

Ford, J. Edwards, 22, 23 ; death of, 307; 
trusted by natives, 360 

Ford, Mary T. M, 607, 608 

Fossils sec Geology 

Franco Pasha, 397 ; attends dedication 
of church, 410; death of, 431 

Frazier* Colonel, 63, 100; his work 
after the massacre of tS6o f 206 ; helps 
start the female seminary, aaa ; leaves 
Syria, 252 

Freyer, E. G*, secular agent for mission, 
608; arrival, 611 

Fuad Pasha, restores order after the mas* 
were, 204 ; becomes grand vizier, 339 

Fuais, Elias, 40:2 ; death of, 455 

Furloughsthe joy of reunion, 336-337 ; 
the vague meaning of rst** 337 j 
chapter on, 363 tt f/ dfect 0^ 



GABRIEL, the body servant, his sayings, 

Gandolfi, the papal legate, 43 

Geology of Syria, 62; fossils, 123, 125; 
structure of the Lebanon, 124, 294; 
the building stone, 124, 125? litho- 
graphic limestone, 125 ; the trap rock, 
125; quartz geodes, 125, 126; bone 
breccia, 294 ; imports from United 
States, 340 ; Metaiyyar collection, 348 ; 
Win. Bird's collection, 714 

Gerard Institute, account of, t^i^et seg. 

German influences in Syria, 662, and 
context, 693, 751 

Gilman, Daniel Coit, 56, 57, 226; visit 
to, 489 ; his gift, 553 

Goodell, William, 29, 34, 45 ; his life 
and work, 46 et seq^ 248 

Gordon Memorial College, a miscarriage 
of purpose, 664-666 

Graham, Harris, M. D,, comes to Syrian 
Protestant College, 544; terrible fight, 

6 34 

Grant, Dr., Egyptologist, marries daugh- 
ter of David Torrey, 344 

Greek Church, Orthodox, 79, 8ij its 
teachings, 86^ wq, ; possible reforma- 
tion, 353, 405 ; its lax priesthood, 35 3 ; 
author's booklet concerning, 405, 574; 
its inadequacy to convert Moslems, 5 68 

Greek Catholics, 81 

Greeley, Horace, 122 

Gregory, Rufka, teacher, 335 

H ADD A I), ASSAF, author's cook, 1865- 

1908, 282 

Kaddad, Bcshara, el, teacher, 326 
Hallock, Samuel, press superintendent, 

arrival, 334 

Hamawy, Antonc, native preacher, 

Hanford, Mrs., teacher at Tripoli, vfa 

Miss Kip, 448 
Hardin* Oscar J., Ms great work for 

boys, 520; secures the Cedar slabs, 

Karris* Ira, M. D,, decides to go, 486 ; 

his Red Cross trip, 619 
Hasbetya, the massacre there In 1860, 

i So #/ SM, 
Hatfield, Dr, 364 

Hebard f Story, <S, 59, 2a6 

Hill, Timothy* fiis gift to Foreign Mil- 
sons, 4$6 

Hitchcock* Roswell D* wit to Beirut, 

Hodge, A. A., D. D. t his ungrateful 
prot6g<, 477 

Holmes, M, Carrie, 486, 607, 608, 760 

Holy Sepulchre, the fraudulent fire, 90 

Hopkins, Mark, trains Simeon Calhoun, 
97 ; meets author, 337, 340 

Home, 0. M., 222, 718 

Horse, necessity of, 52 ; Dr. Bliss's value 
as an adviser, 333 

Hoskins, Frank ., teacher at Syrian 
Protestant College, 486; marries 
Harriette Eddy, 531 ; stationed in 
Zahleh, 1888, 531 ; removed to Beirut, 
19> 53 *> 6 86 

Hospital, Asfuriyeh, for the insane, a 
unique institution, 521 et seq. ; its need 
of funds, 525; its "organization, 623; 
its work, 744-745 

Hospital, Johanniter, of the Knights of 
St. John, 230, 317 ; manned by Amer- 
icans, 651 

Hospitals, natives* dread of, 616; Trip- 
oli (Dr. Harris's), 651; M. DeW. 
Jesup (for women), 623 ; Greek, Van 
Dyck*s services to, 667 

House of Rimmon, the mosque of 
Amweh, 601 

Houses, native, 26, 115, 117, 120 

Hums, the native church, 755-756 

Hunting, Bernice, teacher at Tripoli, 623 

Hurter, George C., the mission printer, 
21, 22, 24 j introduces kerosene oil, 
314, 360; death, 604; sketch of life, 

Hymn-book, for children, 56 ; translat- 
ing the hymns, 145 ; publication, 251 

IBRAHIM EFFENDI, a Moslem convert, 

Ibrahim Hajj (M. D. ?), 121, 122; Ms 
triturate of Tribune, 122 

Ibrahim Michaiel, ordained, 757 
Ibrahim Pasha, 59, 60, 160, 300 

Iconolatry (eikonolatry), despised by 
Moslems, 85 ; taught by Greek 

church, 89 ; in Russa- Japanese war, 92 
w Iliad,*' translation into Arabic, 747 
Industrial work see Gerard Institute 
Insane see Hospitals 
Institutional work, really evangelistic, 


Iron smelting at DUIEE, lai 
Islam see Moslems 
Ismoeel Kfeire Beg, murder of, 153 
Ismael Pasha (Gen* Ktoety)* restorer 

order after the ma^mcre, 190 



Ismail Pasha (of Egypt), succeeds Said, 

Itinerating, overdone, 649 

JACOBITE SYRIANS (sect), 81, 87, 266 

Jackson, Ellen, 222 

Jebara, Gliubreen, 78 

Jebara, Khun, his address on our schools, 


Jedaan, missionary to his brother Beda- 
wins, 360 ; baptism, 541 

Jerawan, Sulleeba, first native pastor in 
Hums, 243, 244, 286 

Jereed, the spear contest, 563 

Jericho, the idiotic medical mission 
scheme, 668 et seq, 

Jerjer, Yusef, ordained, 757 

Jerusalem, pilgrims to, 421 ; Henry H. 
and Samuel Jessup visit there, 420 
et seq. / Sunday-school convention at, 

Jessup, Amanda Harris, mother of au- 
thor, 15 

Jessup, Anna Harris, daughter of author, 
born during massacre, 193 ; teaches in 
Tripoli, 509 ; also in Beirut, 642 

Jessup, Fannie M,, daughter of Samuel 
(Mrs. Jas. R. Swain), teacher at Trip- 
oli, 612, 615 

Jessup, Frederick Nevins, son of author, 
converted, 494; teacher at Syrian 
Protestant College, 630? ordained, 
724; going to Persia, 725, 729 

Jessup, Henry Harris, D. D,, birth and 
parentage, 15; decides to be a mis- 
sionary, 1 6 ; preparation for service, 
16 ; ordained, 18 ; sails for Syria, 19; 
lands in Beirut February 7, 1856, 19 ; 
first home in Tripoli, 116; first Arabic 
sermon, 141 ; marriage to Miss Bush, 
147 ; relief work in massacre yearsee 
massacre of 1 860 ; raises endowment 
for female seminary, 223 ; removal to 
Beirut in 1860, 233; variety of work, 
2 37 4/343* 545 57 2 ? suggests es- 
tablishing a college, 239 ; death of 
wife and furlough in 1864, 2 7$ et Sf &* / 
heavy labour in 1865, 286; receives 
D. D. from Princeton, 288 ; supervises 
church erection, 315 ; nervous break- 
down, 335 ; meets French evangelical 
leaders in 1867, 336 ; hears of a 4I Mr, 
Dennis/' 338 ; addresses in Canada, 
338; finds Miss Everett, 339; mar- 
riage to Miss Dodge, 341, 343; fa- 
ther's death in 1868, 343 ; return to 

Syria, 344; teaches theology, 345; 
thus helps in training ninety young 
men, 348; furloughs generally, 363 
et seq. ; elected moderator of General 
Assembly, 363, 461 ; asked to take 
chair in Union Seminary, 368 ; bless- 
edness of asking help of God's stew- 
ards, 370; elected secretary of For- 
eign Board, 375 ; declined position, 
375 ; reasons stated, 375 ; missionary 
enlistment is for life, 376; moving an- 
nually to the mountains, 377 ; paper 
before International Evangelical Al- 
liance, 405 ; testimonial from Beirut 
church, 439; whooping-cough at 64, 
618; furlough of 1878, 454 */ ay. ,* 
" Women of the Arabs," 459 ; Syrian 
Home Life, 459; visits England in 
1879, 461 j death of Mrs, Jessup, 
1 88 1, 471 ; return to United States of 
America, Afllet seq. ; substitutes for 
Dr. Ellinwood, 478 ; insists on sten- 
ographers for secretaries, 479 ; raises 
scholarships, 479 ; appointed Minister 
to Persia, 480 ; calls on President Ar- 
thur, 489 ; preaches before General 
Assembly, 490; marriage to Miss 
Lockwood in 1884, 493 J visit in Eng- 
land, 494; promotes the hospital for 
the insane, 521 ; adviser at Tarsus for 
St. Paul's Institute, 534-535; up 
against officialdom, 5<o ; Life of 
Kamil, 554; book on Greek Church, 
574 ; papers before World's Congress 
of Religions, 598 ; furlough of 1894, 
605 ; covering the <* Armenian ques- 
tion," 606 ft seq. ; recurrence of 
"stone fever 1 ' in New York, 608; 
activity of resting, 609-611; trip to 
Helouan, 618, 624; article on mis- 
sionary inspiration, 633; a rest cure 
on Mount Canuel, 686; calling on 
the Babite High Priest, 687 ; activity 
at seventy, 6jX ; a wetting, 697 ; let- 
ter at Yale Bi-centennial, 705 ; com- 
mentary on Pentateuch, 719; support 
assumed by Kirkwood church, ^23; 
furlough of 1903, 723 etsvq,; ordains 
his son, 725 ; the Los Angetes As- 
sembly, 1903, 75 ; conference for 
new missionaries, 726; Balcom 
Shaw's dinner, 726 ; the Yale Alumni 
dinner, 727; pilgrimage to South* 
ampton, 728; fishing, 73^; makes 
model of the college, 734; returns 
with Fourth Sunday-school COTH 



tion, 735 ; first visit to Algiers and 
Athens, 736; model receives a 
" gold " medal, 75 1 ; paper on hin- 
drances for Constantinople Confer- 
ence, 754; jubilee, 758, 761 ; appeal 
for Bible Society, 759 ; prepares 
" Mohammedan Missionary Problem," 
766^ seg. ; death of wife in 1907, 
779; her unselfish life, 779; forecast 
written in 1908, 783 

Jessup, Samuel, IX 0., brother of au- 
thor, 17, 19 ; chaplain in Civil War, 
234; ordained, 1861, 238; resigns 
from army, 253; first missionary to 
cross ocean in steamer, 253 ; arrives 
in Beirut, 264; attack on him in 
1865, 287 ; removed from. Tripoli to 
Beirut station, 1869, 294 ; back to 
Tripoli, 335, 341 ; transferred to Bei- 
rut in 1882, 487 ; acts as Board sec- 
retary, 542 ; death of his wife Annie 
Jay, 615 ; return to Sidon, 1896, 618 ; 
held up by Moslems, 707 

Jessup, Stuart Dodge, son of Samuel, 
teacher in Gerard Institute, 519 

Jessup, Hon. William, LL. JD, f father 
of author, K ; relations to Lincoln, 
1 6, 233; defense of Albert Barnes, 
1 6 ; consecrates his son to service, *8 ; 
death, 343 

Jessup, William, son of author, birth, 
248; physical preparation, 344; be- 
comes a missionary, 248; arrival, 
569 ; illness and bereavement, 628 

Jessup, William !L, brother of author, 
his loyal service, 696 

Jesup, Morris KL, 16, 735 ; death, 781 
ews in Syria, sad condition, 421 ; Jew- 
ish religious influence} 657 
Te&ear Pasha, his cruelty, 159 
Johnston, Howard Agnew, IX D*, visits 
Beirut, 75&-7S7 

KAMIL,' the Moslem Paul, 360, 549, 553 
gt se$.> 635 ; bin argument with Bishop 
Athatuwlus 556 ; death, 559 

Kami! Pjuiha, 329-406 ; his witty illus- 
tration, 406 

KantHch (JCeaaesy) Mountain, 21 

Kendall, Amos, 327 

Keggab* Selim, native pastor* 776 

Khairullah, Xbr*bim, and Babiim, 

Knurshld Paiha, his infamous character 1 ! 
164 ; his meat, 205 

King, Joims, 39, 34 ; nto life tad work, 

38 et seq. ; his farewell letters," 39 j 
in Paris, 336 

Kip, Miss, at Tripoli Girls' School, 404; 
health broken, 448 

Kirk wood church, undertakes author's 
support, 723 ; visit to, 733 

Koran (Korahn), its "divine" origin, 
462 ; enjoins wife beating, 28 ; singu- 
lar inscriptions in China, 462 

Korany, Mrs, Hannah, her piety, 648 


La Grange, Miss, teacher at Tripoli, 450 

" Land and the Book," 61, 62 

Latins, 80 

Law, Miss, 222 

Lease of mission property, 150 

Lebanon (the mountain range), 21 ; its 

glory, 112; its geology, 1 35 */#./ 

its extent, 157 
Lebanon (the province), 210, 211 j its 

Christian pashas, 211 
Lebanon Hospital for the Insane see 

Lights, oil, 26 
Lincoln, Abraham, 16 
Locusts, plagues of, 310, 586 
Loring, Sophie B,, 222, 227 
Lowry, Isaac N. and wife, arrival of, 

335 j return and death, 344 
Luther, Martin, on work of translating, 

Lyons, J, Lorenzo, 16, 21, 22, 24, 35, 

529; first sermon, 1 12; retires from 

service, 268 ; death, 529 
Lyons, Mary, teacher in Sidon Semi- 
nary, 269, 618 

MACKIE, REV, GEORGE M., D. D,, suc- 
ceeds Robertson as Jewish missionary 
and chaplain, 277, 293 

Map making, (X 66, 171, 540; confisca- 
tion of maps, 602-603 

Mariolatry, 90 

Mftronites (sect), 79, 81 ; nature of sect, 

Massacre of 182% 26 

Massacre of iS6o, 63, Chap, VIII, 157 
*/ Mp, ; relief work* for sufferers, 173, 
194, 195, 205-213; end of, 351 

Massacre, Armenian, q* t>,, and tee Cili* 

Medical agencie$-~ee Appendix, Soa 

Medical missionaries' see Appendix, $02 

Meigs, Titus B., visit to Beirut, 699; 
kost to *ut&0fy 73 



Dr., of Damascus, 55 ; pe- 
>; his life, 

culiar effect of wound, 200; 


Meteoric showers, 1869, 316; 1885, 499 

Metheny, David, M. D., sketch of, 627 

Miriam, Sitt (Lady), her preaching, 537 

Mission see Syria Mission 

Mission Press, 25, 219, 220; its type a 
norm of excellence, 362 ; Professor 
Orne's estimate, 434 ; its difficult pol- 
icy under governmental regulation, 
433, 505 ; examples of idiotic censor- 
ship, 433, 434, 603, 625, 694; Dr. 
Thomson's prophecy, 437 ; regularized 
by "'permit" after fifty-four years, 
542 ; new machine donated, 590 ; 
celebrating the gift, 68 1 ; Marcellus 
H. Dodge's gift, 741, 753; record for 
1907, 77&-779 ; record for 1908, 782. 
For statistics see Appendix, 815 
et seq. 

Mission schools (see Schools) ; compe- 
tition with others, 334 ; generally 
Chap. XXII, 508^ segr. For sta- 
tistics see Appendix, 805 et seg* 

Missionaries* names and records see 
Appendix, 797 et seg. 

Missionary Convention at General As- 
sembly: suggested by author, 378; 
carried out by Thos. Marshall, 378 

Missionary monthly concert, occasion of 
author's missionary purpose, 16 ; great 
link for missionary to home church, 

Missionary children return as mission- 
aries, 469 

Missionary activities, 491, 685 

Missionary benevolence, 631 

Missionary inspiration, 633 

Missionary ideals, 704 tt seq. 

Missionary hindrances, paper on, 754 

Missionary's staying powers, 695 

Mitchell, Arthur, D. D,, visits to Beirut, 
277* 559; death, 603 

Mitchell, Samuel S. and wife (Lucy 
Wright), short service, 332, 344 

Moghubgnub, Khalil, na 

Mohammedans see Moslems 

Monastic life, 680 

Monks, escaped, 678 et $eq* 

Monophysites (sect), 79 

Monsur, Nicola, 113 

Montgomery, Mrs. Giles, 647 

Moore, Franklin T., M. D,, marries 
Ethel Hyde Jessup, 642 

Moslems, temperance, 119, 120; respect 

for Christ, 132, 133; contempt of 
image worship, 85 ; stumble at doc- 
trine of the Trinity, 90, 144 ; schools, 
221; conversions, instances of, 547, 
565, 570, 57 2 616, 635, 652, 686, 
091, 698, see Kamil; in different 
lands, 462-463 ; outnumbered in Bei- 
rut, 466 ; total number of, 654, 662, 
693, 768; religious propagandism, 
657 ; appreciation of our schools, 668, 
707 ; attack on our system, 760-761 ; 
repudiated by others, 761 ; two-thirds 
are under Christian rule, 768 ; fine 
traits, 780 ; immunity for crimes 
against Christians, 693 ; respect for 
" tradition," 697 ; the Slriah rejection, 
697 ; prospects of Pan-Islamism, 791 

Mott, Augusta Mentor, 576 

Mott, John R,, addresses in Beirut, 612 

Muir, Sir William, letter about Kamil, 
554; author's friend and correspond- 
ent, 461, 626; estimate of "Minarul 
Hoc," 602; his appeal to Moslems, 
664 ; should have been Sirdar, 666 ; 
analysis of book on woman, 700 
et seq* 

Munger, Theodore T. D. D., classmate 
of author, 337 

Murad V, Sultan, 449 

Music, Arab, 56, 251; peculiar inter- 
vals, 251, 252; possibilities of Arabs, 
252; talent for, in Arabs, 565-566 

MuzufFar Pasha, his unlameuted death^ 

NAAIFY, SITT (*. A, Lady), a Syrian 
Jezebel, i*i%$t seq* 

Naoom Pasha, takes office, 585 j reap- 
pointed, 636 

Native Church, organization! 79 1/ fty, 
83; attempt to reform Oriental 
Churches, 82; native Protestant de- 
mand, 82, 91 ; wisdom of such or 
ganization, 84 ; Presbyterian in form, 
93 j self-support jttMrible, 93, 155, 
359, 749; problem of native pastorate, 
311, 34 346,356; Yiwef Betlrth 
first, 346; Arthur Mitchell's influence 
to ^ that result, 560; cost of church 
buildings, 6So 

Native management, 240, 535, 749 

Native pastorssee Theological Instruc- 
tion Native Church, and individual 

Nelson, Bessie, teacher at Site, 470 

Nelson, William, joins mlio% 495,, 531 



Nestorians, 79, Si 
Ne&torian Catholics, 81 
Newspapers, none in 1856, 131 
Newton, Richard, D. XX, visit to Beirut, 

380 ; his books put into Arabic, 380 
Niazi Beg, 785, 794 
Nichol, G. J., D. D., pastor at Bing- 

hamton, 681, 734 

Nicol, James H., arrives at Tripoli, 760 
Nofel, Effertdi, 159, 509; his life and 

character, 526 
Nusairiyeh, a mystic faith, 255 et $eq* 

OLD SCHOOL and New School reunion, 
373; effect on Syria Mission, 373 
et seq. 

Oriental sects, 79 et $eq, 

Oriental papal sects, 8o<?/j<y., 659 

Oriental Christian churches, 93 and con- 

Orphanage at Sidon, gift of Mrs. Wood, 

Orthodox Greeks, 79, 81; a " coney " 

influence, 659 
Owad, Sheikh, teaches Arabic to the 

"infidel," 115 

PAINTING, native talent, 566 
Palgrave, William Gifford, 295 
Pan-Lslamism, effect of new constitution, 

79 1 . 

Papal influences in Syria, 659 

Parentage and youth of author, 15 et seq* 
Park, Edwards A., visit to Beirut, 381 

Parliament of Religions, 598, 638, 639; 
observations on its results, 639 <?/ seq* 

Parsons, Levi, 29; his life and work, 
32 tt sea, ; summary of his labours, 37 

Fatten, Francis L., D. D. as a parlia- 
mentary pilot, 364 

Perkins, Justin, 5 1 

Pilgrimage to Mecca, 60 1 

Pioneer work, 31 tt sea. 

Pliny Fisk Hall, 35 

Poisoning, via colee, n8, 119 

Political activity of missionaries (see 
Snakes in Ireland), 6425 Stead f s 
error, 667 

Pollard, G, A f 19 

Polygamy in Syrk, aS 

Poiio Theoilore, comes from Mardin, 

Pat Dr. George B., arrival* 272; his 
eminence In many way% a^sij at- 
tempt to Mll t ^87 1 tries to carry two 
watermelons, 314 j resigns M mission- 

ary, 334; in order to work in new 
college, 334; great work on Flora of 
Syria, 626 ; serious accident, 747 

Prayer, sundry instances, 399, 400; 
value to worker of home cliurch*s 
prayer, 429 

Preaching in simple Arabic, 56 

Preaching by living, 491 

Prefatory note, 7 

Preparation for mission work # Chap. I 

Presbyterian Church, United States of 
America, takes charge of Syria Mis- 
sion after reunion, 373 

Presbyterian form of native church, 93 ; 
not of paramount importance, 356; but 
well adapted, 475 

Presbyteries in Syria, 356, 470, 623 ; 
nature of, 356; meetings of, 627, 749 

Press censorship see Mission Press 

Prime, Edward, 50, 52 

Prime, Irenaeus, D. D., 50, 52 

Printing in Syria in 1856, 27 ; see Mis- 
sion Press 

Proctor, Louisa, 777 

Property, difficulty of acquiring, 673, 
752; wukf or religious entail, 677; 
cost of churches, 680 ; manse building, 

Protestants (see Syrian) j false move- 
ments to become, 242, 350, 351, 352; 
activity of influence, 660 et $ey* 

Prussian deaconesses, 230 

QUARANTINE, 106, 614 
Quilliara, the English pseudo Moslem, 
577 et scg. 

RAILROAD, 1892, 585 

Ramadan, the Moslem fast, 400 ; which 

sunset turns into feast, 401 

Relics see Superstitions 

Religion in Syria, its many forms, 27 ; 
its formal character, 27 

Religious liberty, from Moslem stand- 
point, 267, 380 

Retrenchment, 237 ; work jeopardised, 

2 39 

Revolution of 1908 see Turkish Gov- 

Rlggs, Elias, 51 

Riggs party tour, 698 

R!ky t Henry A.> author's pastor in 
childhood, his heirs* gift, 728 

Roads, 117, 1x8 

Robert CoUtge, comrmred with Syrkn 
Protestant College, 737 

8 3 o 


Robertson, Rev. J., D. D., first mission- 
ary under Beirut Jewish Mission, 277 ; 
becomes chaplain of Anglo-American 
congregation, 293 
Robinson, Edward, D. D., 26, 52 
Robinson, Charles S., D. D., 364, 369, 
381, 646; his great work in hymnol- 
ogy, 678 

Romance of Ezekiel the Jew, 560 
Roosevelt, Theodore, Sr. and Jr., visit to 

Beirut, 407 ; the donkey, 730 
Russian religious effort, 660 
Russo-Turkish War, 450, 452, 453 
Rustum Pasha, 121 ; ablest governor, 
397 ; friendship with Mr. Dale, 398 ; 
Dr. Post wins his help for the col- 
lege, 399 

SAAD, TANNUS, native preacher, 777, 

Saadeh, Elias, 113, 144; death, 711 

Sabbath observance, 332, 395 ; English 
disregard of, in Egypt, 665 

Sabony, Saleh (rough h.), 144, 145, 412 

Said Pasha, 264 

Saladin's tomb, 654, 655 

Sarkis, Ibrahim, 402 

Sarkis, Khalil, editor, 741 

Sarroof, Dr., 109 

Schaff, Philip, D. D., visits Beirut, 451 ; 
his Latin address, 45 1 

Schauffler, W. T., 51 

Schools, use of English, 95, 223 ; put on 
pay basis, 249 ; stand test of public 
examinations, 333 ; government inter- 
ference, 436, 533, 543 ; individual ap- 
preciation of, 668; revivals in, 710; 
irade of immunity, 778 ; De Forest 
School for Girls, 95 ; Abeih Seminary, 
98, 107, 235 closed, 237, 453 reor- 
ganized, 448 ; Hamath (girls), 426 ; 
uk el Gharb, strengthens the local 
church, 504 boys, 508 account of, 
520; Sklon, girls, 241, 448, 510 
boys, 508 Industrial, see Gerard In- 
'stitute; Tripoli, 404 property for 
girls* school, 43Ogrowth, 433 his- 
tory, 508 t ssq, ; Shweir, 508 ; Beirut 
Female Seminary, 222 et $eq,~~ mj in- 
terest in its establishment, 280 funds 
come in, 295 success at last, 310; 
demand for, in 1860, 219 ; British 
Syrian, 227 author's relation to, 454, 
474 assume the Shemlan work, 602 j 
Mrs. Watson's, 231, 270, 682; Mos- 
lem, 221 j Church of Scotland, 231 j 

Miss Taylor's, 231; Druse, 244; 

Lebanon, or " Sulleeba," conference 

concerning with Scotch committee, 

383. For statistics see Appendix, 805 

et seq. 
Secretaries of Foreign Board, 377 and 

note ; value of their visiting missions, 

Scranton, its Christian men, 340; gives 

the bell for Beirut, 340 
Shaftesbury, Earl of, 47 
Shaw, John Balcom, D. D., visit to Bei- 
rut, 691 

Shazaliyeh (sect), 538 
Shekkoor, Banna, 254 
Shepard, Elliott F,, tour with, 497 ; his 

liberality, 498, 752 
Shidiak, Asaad, the martyr, 29, 35, 40, 

43 49> 183, 353; Sir Arthur Cotton's 

letter, 68 1 

Sidon, 743^ seq. ; the work there, 744 ] 
Sketching, native superstition, 35 
Smair, Sheikh Mohammed, 92 
Smith, Eli, 17, 22, 23; his life and 

work, $i@t seq, ; Bible translation, 

70; death, 108, 146; the Oilman 

memorial, 56, 553 

Smith, Henry B, visit to Beirut, 381 
Snakes, 116, 327, 380, 746; as a means 

of grace, 379 
Snow, 21 

Soleyman Effiendi, 255 
Spanish War, 646 
Stanley, Dean, 247, 248 
Stead, Wm,JT., his erroneous estimate of 

missions, 667 
Straus, Oscar, protects American rights, 

533; visits Beirut, 534 ; his influence, 

St. Paul's Institute at Tanmft, 534^710, 


Stuart, Archibald, his early death, 627 
Suez Canal, 276 
Sultans: Abdul Medjid, 234; Abdul 

Aziz, 234, 332; Abdul Hamid II, 

449, 7$* ; Mohammed V, 794 
Sunnin (Mount), 21 
Sunstroke, 96 
Superstitions, three hairs of Mohammed, 

245 j one of hi$ shoes found, 435 
Syria, its condition m 1856, 37 j after 

the massacre of 1860, ai6-2ai ; first 

telegraph, 265 ; geology in, 6a i$ 

tt tcg,f storms, 128, 131, 5241, 265, 

435* 57**573 6 * J it 
their attractive twits, 689 


Syria Mission, its state in 1856, 20 
et seq.; isolation of missionaries a 
failure, 24 ; language examination, 
115; statistics for 1857, 153; seven 
stations occupied by 1859, 156; con- 
dition at time of massacre, 176; 1860 
a critical year, 215; results then ac- 
complished, ii^ets&q,; its state at 
end of 1862, 254; at end of 1863, 
272 ; decides to build Beirut church, 
293 ; corner-stone laid, 330 ; the bell, 
331, 410; dedication of church, 1869, 
346; outlook, 1869, 358-359; the 
critical year of transfer, 373^ stq. ; 
jubilee week, November, 1873, 401 ; 
reinforced, 403 ; condition thereupon, 
405, reinforced in 1879, 460; or- 
ganizes presbyteries, 470; comity 
with other missions, 474; personnel 
in 1884, 495 J nee< i of reinforcement 
in 1892, 587; policy as to manses, 
624, 743; the twenty-five per cent. 
cut of 1897,630; missionaries asked 
to contribute, 631 ; statistics for 1897, 
641; religious forces at work in 1898, 
656^ seq. ; progress in 1904, 752; 
statistics for 1900, 694 see Appen- 
dix, 809, 8*4<^ MQ. 

Syrian Protestants, in 1856, 25; de- 
mand a native church, $2, 91 ; 
number in 1862, 242; systematic 
beneficence, 243 ; missionary giving, 
266; itinerating, 272; conversions 
slow, 275 

Syrian Protestant College, the first sug- 
gestion, 2|9 j the mission vote, 241 ; 
Daniel Blins set apart, 242; framing 
by-laws, 274, Chap. XIII, p 298 
et j/y. ; its first faculty, 304; model of, 
by author, awarded gold medal at 
St. Louis, 306; trustees* meeting in 
New York, 339 ; attendance in 1873, 
405; faculty in 1884, 496; attendance 
in 1898, 652; attendance in 1900, 
694; original pledge to Christianity, 
707 ; board of managers dissolves, 
709; the rebellion, vs college chapel, 
787. *ec Appendix, 

TAXATION, for roads, 118 

Taylor, Jessie, schoob, 332-315, 731; 

her death and work, 763 
Temperance reading-room, founded by 

Mrs, Jewwp, 685 
Temple, Daniel, 47 
fenny* Mar/ B, 19 

Theological instruction, 345 ; first class, 
346; faculty, 346; various instruct- 
ors, 346; division of subjects, 348; 
request in 1870 for endowment, 385 j 
faculty in 1879, 463; building be- 
gun, 470; building dedicated, 488; 
faculty in 1884, 496 ; six graduates in 
1888, 531; faculty in 1894, 605; 
building sold to college, 624; sixty 
trained by 1898, 653; as a summer 
school, 6645 five graduates in 
1900, 686 j six graduates in 1901, 

Thompson, Mrs. J, Bowen, founder of 
British Syrian Schools, 227 j death of, 
349 ; her work, 349 

Thomson, Emilia, 49, 64, 222, 450 

Thomson, Henry E,, business manager, 

Thomson, William M,, D. D., 17, 22, 
26; his life and work, 57 <?/ seq*; 
touring Palestine, 146 ; visit to Egypt, 
275 ; resignation, 450 ; death, 603 

Tolles, Miss, 222 

Translation (see Bible) ; its difficulty, 
66; Luther's opinion, 67; the com- 
mittee of 1847, 68> Van Dyck's ac- 
count, 69 ; H$t of " helps," 7 I et $eq t ; 
method of work, 74, 75 ; celebrating 
its completion, 76, 282 

Tripoli, my life while stationed there, 
lizet seq, 9 143; Great Mosque, 143 

Trinity, an obstacle to Moslem conver- 
sion, 90, 144 

Tristram, H. E. (Canon of Durham), 
visit to Palestine, 273; other visits, 
277, 470, 625 ; author visits him, 281, 
474 ; friendship of, 626 

Trowbridge, Tillman C,, 19 

Turkish Government, revolution of 1876, 
448; constitution proclaimed, 449; 
rcpublishecl, 781 ; the bloodless revo- 
lution of July 23, 1908, 785 ; effects 
of, 786 j attitude of people after, 786; 
attitude of Moslem religious leaders, 
787 ? effect on the college, 787 ; Par- 
liament, 788; its make-up, 789; re- 
ligious future of empire, 790; Pan- 
Islamism, 791 ; relation to press, 433; 
military control of country, 438, 624 ; 
hostility to foreign work, 438, 621 ; 
hostility to miHSioE schools, 503, 740 ; 
hostility to ",Bible, 504; trade evicting 
miftftionftries, 619? Sir Philip Currle 
thwarts it, 6o 

*< Twain, Mark," visits Beirut, 335 



VAN DYCK, C. V. A., 22, 23 ; his mar- 
riage, 49 n. t 107; Bible translation, 
69, 71, 73, 95 ; his life and work, 104 
et seq*; his jubilee, 109, 549; his 
modesty, 109 ; his tomb, 1 1 1 ; his de- 
gree of L. H. D., 585 ; dies of typhoid, 
613; marble bust presented by na- 
tives, 666 ; his services to Greek Hos- 
pital, 667 

Venus, transit of 1874, 439; reflections 
suggested by, 440 

Victoria*- Camperdown disaster, 598 et seq. 

Von Tassel, plan for Bedawin conversion, 

the insane hospital, 521 et seq. 

Wassa Pasha, attitude towards mission, 
532; death, 585 

Watson, Mrs. E. H., schools, 231, 270 

Webb, Mohammed, his revamped Mo- 
hammedanism, 602 ' 

West, Robert H., college astronomer, 

West, Sarah E., 19 

Whales in Mediterranean, 474 

Whiting, George B., 23 

William III of Germany, visits Beirut, 
653 ; decorates Dr. Post, 230, 630; 
his tour and doings, 653 <f/ seg, / effect 
of, 656 ; effect of on rain supply, 656 ; 
analyzed, 662 

Wilson, D. M., 17, 22, 23, 24, 149, 176; 
death, 528 

Woman, her condition under Islam, 27 ; 
degradation, 28 ; the curtain of sepa- 
ration in church, 151 ; in relation to 
education, 224 ; can be reached by 
woman, 229 ; singing in church, 252; 
church curtain of separation, 347; 
emancipation of, an epochal book, 700 

Wood, Mrs. George, her interest in and 
gifts to industrial work, 5i6<?/ seq. % 
770; gives the orphanage at Sidon, 


Wood, Frank, decides to go to Syria, 
342 ; transferred to Sidon, 435 ; death, 


Worcester, D. t D., farewell instructions to 
Fisk, 29 

Wortabet, Gregory, an Armenian priest, 
his conversion, 49 

Wortabet, John, M. D., his son,*49 ; ap- 
pointed to medical staff of Syrian 
Protestant College, 303 ; declines na- 
tive pastorate, 345 ; death, 781 ; esti- 
mate of, 781 

Wukf, the law of religious entail, 677 

YALE Bi-centennial, 705 

Yanni, Antonius, 112, 115; his gift for 
United States soldiers, 281, 391; 
sketch of his life, 386 et sea. 

Yazigy (Yozzijee), Sheikh Nasif, Arab 
scholar and poet, 55 ; Bible transla- 
tion, 70 ; teaches Dr.|Van Dyck, 106 ; 
his funeral, 409 

Y. M. C. A., its need in fighting drunk- 
enness, 685 

Yusef el Haddad (Abu Selim), 98, 113 

Yusef el Azir (the Mufti), 100, 145 

Yusef Bedr, 244 

ZAHLEH (middle h. rough), Dodds 1 at- 
tempt to enter it in 1858, 154 ; Benton's 
attempt in 1859, 154; battle of, 1851 
an attractive field, 235 ; excitement at 
Moosa Ata's death, 416 etseq*; occu- 
pied 1872 by Mr, Dale, 4275 Mr* 
March joins him, 1873, 4 2 7 5 Hoskins 
stationed there in i388, 5035 Wra, 
Jessup joins, 569; manse built, 624 

124 655