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Full text of "Fifty years in Amoy : or, a history of the Amoy Mission, China, founded February 24, 1842 ..."

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PRINCETON, N. J. 



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Purchased by the Hamill Missionary Fund. 











t iFTY Years in Amoy 



OR 



A History of the Amoy Mission, 

CHINA. 



FOUNDED FEBRUARY 24, 1842. 



Under tlie Patronage of the Aiueik-aai Board of Coniniissioneo-s for 

Foreign Missions from 1842-1857. 

Transferred to the govermnent of the Board of Foreign 

Missions of the Reformed (Dutch) CliurLh 

in Americii in June. 1857. 



BY F^. W. P^ITCFiKR, 

]MJSSI0XA11Y 01'' THE REFORMED (DUTCH) CMLPvCH 
AT AMOY, GHIXA. 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION 
OF TFIE REFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA, 

25 EAST TWEXTY-SECOND STREET, 

NEW YORK. 

1893. 



OP 

Rev. J. V. N. TALMAGE, D.D., Veteran Missionary, 

whose memory will ever remaiu fragTaut in the hearts of 
those who had the pleasure of being co-laborers with 
him, as well as in the hearts of those wlio walk with 
Ood through the Word he preached unto them, this re- 
view is most affectionately dedicated. 



CONTENTS. 



CilAFTEE I. 

INTRODUCTION-A SURVEY OF THE WORK 9 

CHAPTER II. 

HISTORICAL. OUTLINE OF FOREIGN MISSIONS OF 
THE REFORMED (DUTCH) CHURCH 17 

CHAPTER III. 

HISTORY OF MISSIONS IN CHINA.... 21 

CHAPTEK IV. 
AMOY • 25 

CHAPTER V. 
KOLONGSU 44 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE DOORS OF AMOY OPENED.. 47 

CHAPTEK VII. 

IX)UNDING OF THE AMOY MISSION 58 

CHAPTER VIII. 

THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONARIES 62 

CHAPTER IX. 

MISSIONARY METHODS AND AGENCIES 90 

CHAPTER X. 

THE CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA 92 



\y FIFTY YEARS IX AMOY. 

ciiAPTEii xr. 

THE xint: churches 9» 

CHAPTER XI r. 

THE BENEVOLENCE OF THE AMOY CH rUCHES 128 

CHAPTER XII r. 

TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS 134 



CHAPTER XIV. 
MEDICAL WORK 161 

CHAPTER XV. 

EDUCATIONAL WORK 168 

APPENDIX 200 

INDEX .... 204 



AUTHOR'S PREKACK. 



Tlio purpose ol this little volume is, fii*st : To acquaint 
the churches with a history of the origin and progress 
of the Amoy Mission, China, and with some of tlie im- 
portant politic-al events insepai*ably connected there- 
with ; and, secondly- : To arouse a deeper interest in the 
salvation of, and a deeper respect for, the people amongst 
whom the Mission is established. 

Its author would simply say tliat he has been led to 
attempt this history for these two reiisons, viz : 

(Ij Because no such history exists. 

(2) Because the close of fifty years seems most oppor- 
tune to record that history. 

The volume claims to be nothing more than a plain 
narration of facts that the autlior has gathered by a per- 
sonal relation with the work, and such as he has been: 
able to glean from the following sources : The Annual 
Reports of General Synod of tJie Reformed Cliurch, the 
"Missionary Herald, " Manual of the Reformed Qiurcli in 
America, History of the Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions, 1842, William's Middle Kingdom, History 
of the Insurrection in Qiina, the "Christian Intelli- 
gencer," Annals of the American Reformed Dutch Pulpit,, 
and other works mentioned herein. 

The author feels under obligation to Revs. A. P. Van 
Gieson, D. D., and Wm. Bancroft Hill, of Poughkeepsie,. 
N. Y., for so generously placing their libraries at his 
disposal, and to the former for otlier courtesies and help- 



8 FIB^rV YEARS IN AMOV. 

fill suggestions as well ; and to Rev. Win. Wurts, of 
Berno, N. Y., for kind assistance in gathering personal 
infoi'niation. Acknowledgments are also due to Rev. 
Elbert Nevius, of Stnyvesant, N. Y. ; Rev. J. B. Drury, 
D. D., Editor of the "Christian Intelligencer" ; Mr. Wm. 
Adriance. of Elniira, N. \'., and to members of the Ainoy 
Mission for ;i helping hand. 

It is unfortunate that in tJie spelling of Chinese names 
no harmonious system has been adopted by the Mission- 
aries of China; the endeavor has therefore been made to 
follow a system of spelling conforming somewliat to the 
Amoy Romanized Colloquial. 

The illustratione are a selection from a series of pho- 
tographs collected while engaged in the work at Amoy, 
and it is with the hope of both increasing the value and 
interest of the book, that so many are incoi-porated 
therein. 

If, therefore, the book can in any way fulfill its pur- 
pose by promoting the great and good object for which 
the Amoy Mission exists, the labor herein expended will 
not have been in vain. For such reward only, the 
author earnestly seeks. P. W. P. 

Poughkeepsie, Aug. 1st, 1893. 



CHAPTER I. 



INTEODUCmON-A SrEVFA' OF THE WORK. 

A review- of fifty years of toil— a half century 
of faithful service in any one of the Master's 
vineyards, must contain much of interest, much 
of encoui-agement, and much of inspiration for 
those who are engaged in the building up of 
Christs' Kingdom, by set^ldng the lost ones in 
this sin-stricken world. But is there not an 
added interest, encouragement, and inspiration 
attending a re\'iew of fifty years of labor— the 
founding and successful carrying forward of a 
work in a land of heathen darkness, in that land 
where idolatry, superstition, and sin in blackest 
•forms have existed side by side for four thou- 
sand years and more — the Kingdom of China? 

There is no thrilling romance connected with 
missions in Amoy. Excitement and anxiety have 
not been entirely out of our borders, yet dangers 
and i)erils have never encompassed our (hvell- 
ings. There has been no startling evolution out 
of heathenism, no >ast strides made toward new 
an<l better ways and methods in the fields of 
Amioy. It has been sIoaa but sure progress. 
There may be little or nothing to call forth ap- 
plause in behalf of the silent plodders and toil- 
ers who have spent their lives without ostenta- 
tion in this ^'ineyard, yet when the record is 
fully read, much will be discovered that will 



10 FIFTY VEARS IN AMOY. 

aANJikeii coinnieiidation and inspiration to go 
forward and coniplet/e what thej have so well 
begun. 

While it has not been battle-axes and fire- 
brands of Avild and uncivilized tribes that have 
threatened and demanded attention, it has been 
hosts upon hosts who, clinging to a system of 
vforship hoai-y with age, ha\'e Avi-itten upon their 
faces and hearts stolid indifference and blank 
unconsciousness, Avhich has required long and 
tedious years of patient waiting for signs of 
yielding, and which has required quite as much 
courage to face as the sharper and sliorter con- 
flict with savagery, a fact that is not ahvays 
recognized. 

Yet this is not man's work, but the work of 
the Holy Spirit, that we review, so we may 
sound the highest notes of praise our lips and 
hearts can raise. No one can read the history 
of the Amoy Mission without recognizing the 
hand of Jehovah guiding and blessing all tlie 
way. They who ha\e labored there have only 
been His instruments — vessels for His use — suf- 
ficiently luujored to be such and nothing more, 
and glad if iu any way they have fulfille<l His 
purpose, in seeking and bringing back these lost 
ones into His fold and into eternal life through 
His Son. For of Him, and through Him, and 
to Him are all things, to whom he the glory for- 
e\ei'. Amen. (Kom. i., 3(i.) 

And noAv, in this Jubilee year, the redeemed 
of the Ix)rd, of ''The Church of Clirist'' in Amoy, 
China, \\'ould sound the "yobel" until its notes 




Residence of Rev. Dr. Abeel. 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

echo the world around, that all people might 
know that the Lord is bringing His redeemed 
ones home. He has made them to feed in the 
way, and their pastures have been in all high 
places. Their hunger has been satisfied, their 
thirst quenched. The sun has poured down 
upon them only gentle rays, for He that had 
mercy upon them hath led them, even by the 
springs of water hath He guided them. The 
mountains have been made a way tmd the high- 
w-ays exalted. And, behold! they come from 
afar, from the north and from the west, aind 
these from the land of Sinim. Sing, O heavens, 
and be joyful, O earth; and break forth into 
singing, () mountains; for the Lord hath com- 
forted His peo|)le, aud will have mercy upon the 
aiiiicted. (Isa. xlix.) 

Just fifty years ago, February 24th, 1842, Dr. 
David Abeel first planted the standard of the 
cross on Kolongsu, a small island lying off from 
Amoy about one furlong. Possessed with un- 
bounded faith, he began what must have ap- 
peared to the outer A\orld an insurnionntable 
task. I^ut he believed tlmt nothing was too 
hard for God, so with an unfaltering trust, and 
unsliaken confidence in the covenant-keeping 
Loi'd, he laid the foundations of a work that 
the Church may Avell view with satisfaction and 
becoming pride. 

Traders and merchants nmy have laughed at 
him ^^hile they scoilhngly said: 'VSo you will 
make the Chinese Christians?" Let the records 
answer. 



12 FIFTV l-EAES IN AMOY. 

To-day there are in the territory of the Amoy 
Mission 3,000 conmmnicants, 8,000 to 10,000 ad- 
herents, 20 organized churches, 150 ordained 
and unordained native jjastors and helpers, 
3 Fotreign Missionary Societies represented, 50 
male and female missionai'ies at work, 4 hos- 
pitals, 2 theological schools, 2 high schools for 
boys, 4 girls' schools, 2 schools for women, and 
a score or more of parochial schools and numer- 
ous chapels and churches scattered everywhere. 
Of tliis enumeration, there are under the par- 
ticulai' care and supervision of the Missionaries 
of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Re- 
formed (Dutch) Church, 968 communicants,^ 
9 organized^ and (practically) self-supporting 
churches, 9 ordained native pastors, 10 unor- 
dained native helpers, 12 teachers, 23 regular 
preacliing places, 1 theological seniinai^y,^ 1 
academy, 2 parcKdiial schools, 1 school for 
women, 2 girls' schools, 1 hospital, and 18 male 
and female missionaries at work. Yet another 
item for which we can nevei- cease rejoicing. 
These churches (of the Reformed (Dutch) Church) 
during these fifty years have contributed about 
$50,000, and in 1891 their benevolence reached 
the magnificent sum of .13,882.08.-* 

Such facts and figures are sutiicient to awaken 
throughout the whole Church one song of praise, 
and should constrain us all to join the chorus of 

(1) 1893, 1,008 communicants. 

(2) 1893, 10 churclie.s. 

(3) The tiheological seminary and academy are under Uie super- 
intendence of tlie English Presbyterian and Keformed (Dutch) 
Church Mission. 

(4) 1893, $3,894.80. 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

our brethren in Amoy, as tliey remember the 
works of the Lord. It was a gi'eat pleasure to 
every member of the Mission, and to the native 
church as well, to have our beloved secretary, 
Dr. Henry N. Cobb, and Miss Cobb, and their 
companions'' with us during this Jubilee year. 
And it mHist have been a source of great satis- 
faction to Dr. Cobb to behold Avith his oAvn eyes 
some of the results of tiie mar\'elous things the 
Lord had wrought this half century in Amoy, 
and to liear Avith his owa ears the testimony of 
those Avho had given up all their idols and turned 
aside from the paths of darkness, to serve the 
itrue God, and to walk forever in the paths of 
light. 

These are gTeat events, yet all have taken 
I)lace in a lifetime. One of our missionaries Avas 
permitted to Avitness the entire history, save 
five years, of tlie work at Amoy. Dr. David 
Ab^l, Eevs. E. Doty and W. J. Pohlman ]jassed 
aAvay, and to their rcAvard, Avhile the Avork was 
yet in its infancy, but to Dr. Talmage alone was 
the beautiful vision granted of watching and be- 
holding the Avork nearly from its inception to 
the A^ery close of fifty years. And to us has 
been afforded the beautiful sight of beholding 
two such eminent and godly men as Dr. Abeel 
-and Dr. Talmage standing, the one on the 
threshold and the other at the close of fifty 
years' work for the Master in Amoy. They 
clasp hands over the intervening years, while 

(5) Miss M. Celeste AVeed, Miss Margaret B. Thorne, Mr. 
Samuel Thorne, Jr., Mr. S. B. Thorne. 



14 FIFTV YEAES IN AMOY. 

from their lives we receive inspiration and cour- 
age to go forward as we stand on the threshold 
of another fifty years. O'verarciiing these lives 
a bow of brightest colors seems to span the skies 
— and that bow is full of promise of Ohina'a 
full sal Nation. For on that bow is transcribed 
the words of the Psalmist when he was bearing 
the Ark into that former impregnable fortress 
of Jebus: "Lift up your heads, O ye gates, even 
lift them up, ye everlasting doors, and the King 
of Glory shall conie in." We rejoice also in 
that greater work that lias been done in the Em- 
pire. A half century ago there \^■el•e only six 
converts in the whole Empire of China. At the 
expiration of fifty years we find there are 38,000 
comumnicauts,^ 150,000 adherents, 500 organ- 
ized churches, 1*11 ordained and 1,-6G unor- 
dained native pastors and helpers, 40 different 
societies represented, 1,290 Diale and female mis- 
sionaries at ^\'ork, ()1 hospitals and 44 dispen- 
saries, besides numerous schools and colleges es- 
tablished. (See Appendix A.) 

Such statemeids, though by no ]neans start- 
ling, will do to banish any fears or unbelief of 
China's ultimate i-edemption. China is slow by 
nature and slow by practice. Time seems 
to be of no consequence with them. Since the 
prize is so great we can afford to be patient and 
not be ha.stdy disheartened. Slow progress, 
but sure progress, may be expected. 

The Japanese have been compared to the im- 
pulsive and inconstant French, while the Chi- 

(6) 1893, over 40,000 conununicants. 



INTKODUCTION. 



15 



1890. 



1880. 



1870. 



1860. 



2,000 



1850. 
a50 11842. 



COMPARATIVE GROWTH OF NATIVE COMMUNICANTS 
IN FIFTY YEARS. 



1() FIFTY' YEARS IN AMOY. 

nese compare favorably with the sturdy and en- 
(hiring Saxon. "They have their staying quali- 
ties/' "They never give ui).'' Once'set out to 
accomplish a i)ui'pose, accomplish it they will, 
though centuries are required to accomplish it. 
The foUowing story fully illustrates one of the- 
chief characteristics of the Chinese. 

A noted general, who commanded the forces 
of the Chinese army in the war against Eussia, 
"aAvay over in Central Asia," came to a desert 
covered with liun<lreds of miles of sand, '^with 
here and there an oasis." This desert lay be- 
tween his army and the ''province A\here the 
military operations were to be carried on. They 
could not get pro\isions across to the armies 
that were fighting the Russians, so Avljat did. 
the}' do? Why, this old gentleman set himself 
to planting colonies of Chinese soldiers in these 
oases, and they planted crops year after year. 
So they pushed their AMiy along. He wasn't 
in a huny; he knew the Russians would wait 
there for him, and when he got his crops all 
ready tlien he moved his armies on over these- 
oases AA'ith a base of supplies a good deal more 
complete than General Sherman had in his 
march do\Nii to Atlanta. Then he engaged in 
all those hard-fought battles in which the Chi- 
nese armies did not suffer." Such a people once 
won for Christ will wield a power which will 
be felt, not only throughout Asia, but through- 
out the whole world. 





Rev, Henry N. Cobb, D. D., 

Rev. Jap-Han Chiong (front) , 

J. A. Otte, M. D., Ng Ma Hui (back.) 



CHAPTEE II. 



HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF FOREIGN MISSIONS OF 
THE REFORMED (DUTCH) CHURCH. 

According to the records, the Reformed 
(Dutch) Church has always possessed the mis- 
sionary s])irit, but the first records of any for- 
eign missionary organization is made in tlie 
year 1817. At that time the United Foreign 
Missionary Society, composed of Presbyterian^ 
Associate Reformed, and Reformed (Dutch) de- 
nominations, Avas founded for the purpose of 
carrying the (Jrospel to the heathen. 

This society continued in existence nine years, 
when in 1820, upon the recommendation of the 
Board of Managers, the General Synod trans- 
ferred its interest in the Society to the Ameri- 
can Board of Connnissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions. . 

In 1830 the (jeneral Synod sought closer re- 
lations with the A. B. C. F. M., and after a 
conference between rei)resentative committees 
of the two Boards, a plan of co-operation Avas 
adopted in October, 1832. By this plan the 
Genei'al Synod reserved the right, first: Of 
using the funds they appropriated to the sup- 
port of the missionaries of their own recom- 
mendation, though the appointing power still re- 
mained vested in the Prudential Committee of 



18 FIFIV YEAKS IX AMOV. 

the A. B. C. y. M.; and second: of forming ''sl 
new an<l distinct mission, with a distinct ecclesi- 
astical organization, according to their own 
i\dshes," and the privilege of using funds and 
men of the Board at their own discretion for 
tlie maintenance of such Avork. 

This very liberal agreement and co-operaticm 
remained in force for a quarter of a century. 
They were twenty -five years of delightful fel- 
lowship, with love and confidence unbroken, 
Tvith not the least sign of unbrotherly or un- 
xjhristian jars or contentions. 

At Ithaca, June, 1857, (leneral Synod estab- 
lished its own independent Board of Foreign 
Missions, w^hich has ever since carried on the 
missionary operations of the Beformed (Dutch) 
Chnrch. The two missions that were to come 
under its immediate supervision were tlie Amoy 
lyiission, China (See Appendix B), and the Arcot 
Mission, India, and along these lines (and with 
Japan later) the history of the Missions in this 
Chnrch has followed during these fifty years. 



THE OKKilNAL MEMBERS AND OFFI- 
CERS OF THE BOARD OF FOREIGN 
MISSIONS OF THE REFORMED 
(DUTCH) CHURCH IN 1857. 

MEJNIBERS. 

Eev. Isaac Ferris, D. D., Rev. J. Demarest, Jr., 

Rev. Thos. DeWitt, D. D., Rev.A.P.VanGieson,D.D., 

Rev. E. P. Rogers, D. D., ReV.D.McL. Quackenbusli, 

Rev. D. H. Riddle, D. D., Hon. T. Freliiighuysen, 

Eev. H. R. WiUsoQ, D. D., Mr. Win. B. Crosby. 

Rev. D. D. Demarest, U.D., Rev. J. E. Moore, 

Rev. J. H. Berg, D. D., Rev. C. S. Little, 



HISTORICAL OUTLINE. 1^ 

Rev. J. M. Strong, D. D., liev. A. J. Beekiiian, 
Eev. W.J. R.Taylor, D.D., Rev. S. Van Kensseler, 
Rev. W. W. Halloway, Rev. A. B. Preston, 
Rev. A. R. Thompson, Rev. S. Cobb, 

Rev. 'P. Peltz, Rev. J. J. Johnston, 

Ezra A. Hoyt. 
OFFICERS. 

Hon. Theo. Frelinghuysen, Pieeident. 

Rev. Tlionias DeWitt, D. D., Vice-President. 

Rev. Isaac Ferris, D. D., Corresponding Secretary. 

Rev. Plulip Peltz, Sec'y of Domestic Correspondence. 

Rev. Jeremiali S. Lovel, D. D., Recording Secretary. 

Mr. Ezra A. lloyt, Treasurer. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
Rev. T. DeWitt, D. D., Mr. Wm. B. Crosby, 

Rev. D. H. Riddle, D. D., Rev. S. Cobb, 
Rev. J. S. Lord, D. D., Rev. A. B. Preston, 
Rev. W. W. Halloway, Rev. A. J. Beekman, 

Rev.A.R.Thompsim, D. D., Rev. J. E. Moore, 



MEMBEKS a:ND OFFICERS OF THE 
BOAKl) OF FOREIGN MISSIONS 

OF THE 
REFORMED (DUTCH) CHURCH IX 1892. 

MEMBERS. 
Rev. A.P.VanGieson, D.D., Mr. D, Jack>son Ste^vard, 
Rev. C. L. Well8, D. D., Hon. N. F. Graves, 
Rev. :M. II. Hutton, D. D., Mr. O. H. Tiebout, 
Rev. J. F. Riggs, D. D., Mr. John C. Giffing, 
Rev. A. R.Thompson, D. D., Mr. Wm. L. Brower, 
Rev. Lewis Francis, Mr. Henry I^tcli, Jr., 

Rev. Wm. R. Duryee, D. D., Mr. Joseph C. Pool, 
Rev. E. G. Read, Mr. W. L. M. Phelps, 

Rev. J. H. Wliiteliead, Rev. J. H. Oerter, D. D., 

Rev. T.W. Chambers, D.D., Mr. Pet*'r Donald, 
Rev. T. S. Brown, Mr. F. S. Douglas, 

Rev. P. Stryker, D. D., Mr. Chas. L. Ricker»ju_ 

OFFICERS. 
Rev. T. W. Chambers, D. D., I'resident. 
Rev. M. H. Hutton, D. D., Vice-President. 
Rev. C. L. Wells, D. D., Recording Secretary. 



20 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

Eev. John M. Ferris, D. D., Hon. Secretary. 

Eev. Henry N. Cobb, D. D., Corresponding Secretary, 
25 Eaet 2 2d St., New York. 

Mr. Peter Donald, Treasurer, 25 East 2 2d St., New 
Yorlr. 

EXECUTIVE COAEVIITl^EE. 
Rev.A. R.ThompS)ii, D. 1)., .Nfr. Peter Donald, 
Eev. Lewis Francis, Mr. Cha*s. L. Eickersou. 

Eev. C. L. Wells, D. D., Mr. F. S. Douglas, 
Eev. M. 11. Hutton, D. D., Air. Joseph C. Pool, 
Rev. E. G. Eead, Mr. John C. Giffing, 

MEDICAJL ADVISEES. 

Henry R. Baldwin, M. D., New^ Brunswick. 

E. G. Janeway, M. D., New York. 



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CELAPTKR III. 



HISTORY OF mSSIONS IN CHINA. 
The first missionary enterprise among th^ 
Cliinese was conducted by the Nestorians as 
early as the sixth century, A. D., and their work 
was so firmly establislie<l that, notwithstanding 
tlie fierce persecutions that shattered their or- 
ganizations and scattered their converts and 
turned "their places of worship into heatheoi 
temples/' way down in the seventeenth century 
traces of it are said to have been found. It is 
said that several of tlie Emperors of the Tong 
Dynasty (GIT-DOG i favored these early misslon- 
ai-ies and ''had copies of the Bible translated 
and placed in the library of the palace." 

In the twelfth or thirteenth century the 
Eoman Catliolic Church began its worli, but did 
not meet -with much success until the arrival 
of Matteo Ricci, in the seventeenth century, who 
was a noted matliematician as well as priest, 
and who seemed to have made a profound im- 
pression upon the Chinese hy his scholarly mind, 
and gained much favor for his sect. Great suc- 
cess followed his efforts, and before persecution 
fell upon them, they intimated that they were 
successful in organizing 300 churches, with a 
membership of 300,000 converts. 

In the eighteenth century (1723) the Govern- 
ment became wearied with their intrigues and 



22 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

contentions, and ordered that all, except a few 
of their best niatliematicians,shoiil(l be banished 
to Macao. But the work was kept alive by na- 
tive catechists, and by secret visits of priests 
from Europe. 

In the sixteenth century the Greek Church 
became established at the Cai)itol, but it is only 
in recent years that they have made any vigor- 
ous attempts in making converts. 

^Modern Protestant Missions began under the 
auspices of the London Missionary Society of 
Great Britain, who sent ou^t Dr. Robert Morri- 
son in January, 1807, and who aiTived in Can- 
ton (Kwang-tung Province, i. e., the most south- 
east province of China) September, 18077"^ 
<^The next year he took upon himself added 
duties and became translator of the East Indian 
Company. In 1814 Dr. Morrison baptized his 
first convert, and in the same year issued the 
]S^ew Testament in Chinese. In 1818, assisted 
by Rev. Wm. Milne, who arrived at Canton in 
1813, he issued the whole Bible in that lan- 
guage. Dr. Morrison's labors were confined to 
Canton, and even thei"e, were greatly cir-cum- 
scribed. \ 

The first American Society (and tiie second in 
the Empire) to begin missionary work in Cliina. 
was the A. B. C. F. M., who sent out Rev. 
Elijah C. Bridgman and Rev. David Abeel (con- 
ditionally) in October, 1829, and who arrived at 
Macao February 0th, 1830, and at Canton Feb- 
ruary 25th, 1830. 

Rev. E. C. Bridgman \\'as the fii'st e; liter of 



HISTOEY OF .AnSSIONS IN CHINA. 23 

tlie "Chinese Repositoiy,'- which was issued 
for the first time iMay 31st, 1831, under tlie di- 
rection of an organization called the "Chrisr 
tian Union, "founded by Drs. Morrison and Abeel 
aud others. The object of this Union was to 
diffuse Christian knowledge and useful knowl- 
edge concerning the Chinese among English 
readers. And this was done through the col- 
umns of the "'Chinese Repository." This pen- 
odical changed its name in later years to the 
penodical issued now, viz.: "The Chinese Re- 
corder." 

The year 1834 ^^'as noted for two important 
events. (1) The death of Dr. Morrison. (2) The 
first persecution upon the native Christiana. 

The anthorities became aronsed on account of 
the work missionaries liad already accomplished 
and took measnres at once to stop any further 
increase by issuing a jjroclamation condemning 
the 'traitorous natives" \\'ho had taught the 
foreigners the Chinese langnage. ^subsequently 
their arrest was ordei*ed, an<l all printed matter 
'destroyed. Much valuable material, as Avell its 
the labor of years, was thus demolished, and 
the little band of converts and a school of boys 
dispersed. The next year (1835) the printing 
press, and \Ahat remained of the type, was re- 
moved to Singapore, where the tracts and other 
books were thereafter issued. Five Chinamen 
went along as printers. 

The story of those early years of pioneer work 
is tJirilling juid intensely interesting, but we 
must onlv linger for a moment over those events. 



24 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

Various tiMi)s were made along the coast, ex- 
tending to the Province of Shantung, Central 
China. Once the missionaries visited the City 
of Shanghai and distributed 4,000 tracts. The 
first visit to the interior was probably made by 
Messrs. Steven and Gutzlaff and an English 
gentleman in ^Jay, 1835, by Siiiling up the Min 
Eiver, in the Fukien Pro>'ince. They only suc- 
ceeded in getting se\enty miles west of Foo- 
chau, when they were hred upon by Chines© 
soldiers and compelled to return, suffering only 
to the extent of having one of their crew 
wounded. 

Thus the Axork continued until the barricaded 
doors sAN'ung open and the walls of separation 
began to crmnble. 

Other societies rapidly followed in establish- 
ing themselves in the land of the celestials, viz.: 
The third society to find a footing m the Ein- 
pire was the American Baptist, North, 1834. 
The fourth: American Protestant Episcopal, 
1835. The fifth: American I^resbyterian, North, 
1835. And sixth : The Reformed (Dutch) Churchy 
1842, at Amoy. 






Amoy City. 



CHAPTER IV 



MIOY 



Amoy is the name of an island, a city, and 
is also applied to the disti-ict occupied by onr 
Mission, hence the name: Anioy Mission. 

Amoy Island lies just off of the southeastern 
part of the Fukien Province (and forms a part 
of itj, in the Formosa Channel. The island is 
12 miles long, 10 broad and 30 in circumference. 
The surface is extremely rough and rugged. 
Great boulders and high rock-capped hills 
stretch out before the vision in a line of un- 
broken profusion, making a landsca.pe that is 
wild, if not pleasing. A>getation is scarce. The 
Chinese farms must be conhned to the very small 
patches of ground that lie in the vallej^s or 
nestle by the hillside. The only thioigs that 
seem to tlourish are men, women and children. 
They abound. One hundred and forty villages 
are hidden away somev\'here amongst these hills 
and rocks — ^just where is too great a mystery 
for human eyes to penetrate — ^^lth an estimated 
population of 400,000. In three of these 
villages, viz. Kang-thau, Kio-thau and Chhan- 
chliu-oa, are chapels connected " ^\dth the Re- 
formed (Dutch) Church Mission, where congi*e- 
gations meet every Sabbath to worship the true 
God. 

Amoy City is a commercial port, situated on 



26 FllTV YEARS IN AMOY. 

the soutlieru i)oint of the island, nortJL latitude 
24^* 28*, about one degree above the Tropic of 
Cancer, east longitude 118" 10*. Its latitude is 
almost identiciilly the same as that of Key 
AVest, Florida, 24" 30*. It is located about 300 
miles north of Hong-Kong, 150 miles south of 
Foochau (the Capitol of the Province), 550 
ndles south of Shanghai, and 1,100 miles from 
Pekin (these are English miles and in a straight 
course). 

The seasons are four: Spring, summer, autmim 
and winter; or it may be classified in two, viz.: 
Wet and dry. Spring begins in February, sum- 
mer in June, fall in October, winter in Decem- 
ber. The si)ring is <lecidedly moist, the summer 
broiling, the late fall and early winter delight- 
ful. NAMien the weather gets at it, it sticks to 
it on the s;une tack for one hundred and twenty 
days. There is no rise or fall in the mercury 
of 20 degrees in twenty-four hours, if you please, 
.and for those who object to sudden (dianges, 
here is a perfect elysiumi. 

The rainy season keeps it up four or five 
months. It lias been knoAvn to pour for forty 
days at a stretch, reminding one very forcibly 
of the days of Noah. 

The summer runs on the same schedule. Four 
months of hot weather, v^ith 75 or 80 per cent 
of humidity thi'own in gratuitously, is a s])ell 
of weather some would rather read about than 
experience. HoAve\er, there is compensation in 
all things. The four months of fall and winter, 
merged into one season of delightful California 



AMOY 



27 



weather and Italian skies, in a nieasnre make 
up for all the cruel things one has had to endure 
before. In siinimer the mercury goes up to 9G 
(in the shade), and in muter goes down to 47. 
Occasionally there is frost. 

And now let us take a peep into the city. It 
has a population of several ten-thousands— ac- 
cording to the accuracy of a Chinaman. That 
is to say, that is close enough figuring for him 
—a matter of one or two thousands more or 
less is of no consequence. 

The estimated population is be;tween sixty 
and one hmidred thousaud. If that statement 
is any clearer than the former, you are entitled 
to all the satisfaction you can derive therefrom. 

Besides the foreign business houses, banks 
and Custom House, and the native warehouses, 
stores aud shops, there are four nati\e churches, 
supporting their own pastoi's, located in the 
city. Two of the churches, viz.: The first and 
second churches (Sin-Koe-a and Tek-Cliliiu- 
Kha) are under the supervision of the Reformed 
(Dutch) Church, and the other two are under 
the supervision of the London Mission Society. 
Services are held there every Sabbath at 9 a. m. 
and at 3 :30 p. m. A weekly prayer-meeting is 
also observed in each church. A woman's meet- 
ing is held twice a week, as well, in each church, 
one being held on Sunday, which is conducted 
by the pastor's wife, and the other held on a 
weekday and is conducted by one of the lady 
missionaries. 

There are also two hospitals in Amoy city. 



28 i-IFTV YEARS IN AMOV. 

One under the support of the English Presby- 
terian Mission, Dr. A. L. Macleish in charge^ 
and the other su})]Jorted by the foreign com- 
munity, Dr. 13. S. Ringer in charge. 

Anioy has a re])iitation. Fe^v cities have not. 
It is reputed to be the dirtiest city in China. 
Pit}' the city that is laore so. From all ap- 
pearances, as well as from all infonuatiou that 
comes through the olfactory cliannel, it sustains 
tliat re[)utation admirably. Happy is the man 
in China Avhose olfactory ner\e has lost its 
power. To our knowledge, there is but one 
missionary so blessed, and he is the most de- 
voted missionary on the ground. This may ex- 
jdain it. 

A city. Banish from your minds the thought 
of wide avenues, clean sti-eets, beautiful pri- 
vate residences, magnificent public buildings 
and imposing mercantile houses. Amoy is not 
built in tluit wny. Her streets are as crooked 
as lum's horns, ever winding and twisting, de- 
scending and ascending and finally ending in 
the great no\\iiere, and the wayfai4ng man, 
though ^^•ise, shall err therein. There is no 
street either straight, or called ''straigiit". They 
do not make them that way. And for a reason. 

Peo]de have an idea that the upper world is 
full of spirits — generally evil — who, if allowed 
to move in a straight line, somebody would get 
hurt. Hunum beings caimot move about cor- 
ners and sharp turns with the same momentimi 
as in straight lines. No more ca<n the creatures 
of the upper air. Hence the turns and twists 



MIOY. 2» 

in the streets of Amoy, so as to ease up against 
the force of the bumps of these wicked spirits 
as they strike poor weak and human creatures. 
Then in addition to the crookedness, the}' must 
add another aggi-avation by making them like 
lemon-squeezers. There are streets in Amoy so 
narrow that you cannot carry an open umbrella. 
The aTerage street is ab;)ut four feet wide. 
Why do they make them so narrow? To keep 
out the sunshine. They do it effectually. But 
the princii)al reason for their narroAvness is for 
protection. 

It is a noisy and a busy town. A real Fourth 
of July celebration is going on continually. 
Through the nai*ro\\ thoroughfares, with their 
stall-like shops wide open, ^\ith their wares in 
full view, the multitudes tramp the whole day 
long, while the whiz and bang of the iii'e- 
pressible fire-cracker never ceases. Why do 
they shoot tire-crackers? To make a noise. 
They succeed beautifully. We may say, how- 
ever, that the noise is made for the purpose of 
driving away the evil spirits. 

Pandemonium reigns. Gongs are sounding 
from every direction, travelling musicians and 
theatre orchestras are \ieing with ea<ch other 
to make the louder noise, hucksters and coolies 
are shouting, dogs (with which the land abounds) 
are barking and fighting, and with a street 
fight (war of words, generally) and side shows, 
it is enough to bewilder creatures from other 
lands than ours. 

The port of Amoy is an inii)ort{int one, being 



30 FIFTY' YEARS IN AMOY. 

the fourth in importance for the exportation of 
tea (the most of it being brought over from 
Formosa). It is only in recent years that it 
has reached this importance, and it is not too 
much to say that business successes are in no 
small measure indebted to the influence of mis- 
sions. From their establishment the prog- 
ress has l)een rapid and continuous. And 
if only the effort of our churches had 
ke])t ])ac'e with the effort of commerce, 
Amoy to-day Avouhl not only be the fourth in im- 
portance as a commercial centre, but its im- 
portance as a centre of Christian influence could 
not be estimated. But this in passing. The 
trade luis gone on increasing until now every 
year hundreds of thousands of tons of tea are 
shipped from this port to America and England. 

It is no uncommon occurrence for vessels to 
leave with 1.000 tons of texL at a time. In the 
latest statistics at hand it is reported that in 
one year 5G0 vessels, ^vith an aggi-egate of 
224,436 tons, entered this port, bringing sugar, 
rice, raw cotton, hardware and oil to the total 
value of 19,577,135. The same year 554 ves- 
sels cleared, bearing away tea, porcelain and 
paper, etc., to the total value of 15,720,230. 
Besides this there is an immense trade carried 
on by Chinese junks, statistics of ^^'hich cannot 
be obtained. 

Amoy has been one of the conspicuous names 
in the history of the Chinese Empire. Being 
one of the natural entrepots of the nation, it was 
early brought to the notice of foreign Powders. 



A^IOY. ^^ 



It is quite likely that this is one of |the very 
places that Ptolemy, 'Hhe celebrated geog^ 
raplier," mentions in his writings concernmg 
places along the coast of Cliina. Yet, it would 
be profitless to even attempt to verify this, or 
to identify satisfactorily the names mentumed 
in this early record. But still, there are enough 
undisputed facts to prove that Anioy was known 
to the traveller and the merchants in tlie very 
earliest centuries of the Christian era. 

Amoy's fame has been made world-wide by 
siege and bombardment and captures. 

The great rebel chief, Ohing-Ohing-Kung 
(Koshiuga or Koxinga, as written by the Portu- 
guese), chose the place as his defence against 
the invasions of the Manchus in tlie seventeenth 
century, and here fitted out an ai-mament to 
strengthen himself for the resistance. Under 
the combined forces of the Duteh (who had a 
bone to pick witli him), and the Manchus, Amoy 
was captured in 1GG3, and the subjugation of 
th^, Fukien Pi'ovince U. the Manchu^ power was 
completed. 

The East India Company made Amoy one of 
its chief commercial centres, and in 1()78 
built a factory here, and had invested (together 
Avith a place on Formosa) |30,000 in bullion 
and ^-lOMO in goods. A successful trade \vas 
carried on until 1(381, when the restrictions 
placed upon it by the Manchus' became so griev- 
ous that they were compelled to remove the 
factories to Canton and Foochau. Tirade, how- 

(1) Also Tartars. 



32 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

ever, at Aiuoy was renewed in 11)85. But tlie 
most important event in the history of Amoy 
was its capture by the British forces in 1841, 
during the time of the ''opium war." 

Soon after the capture of Canton, the British 
forces,- '^consistino^ of two 74s and seven other 
ships of ^^'ar, four steamers, twenty-three trans- 
ports, aiifl two other vevssels, carrying in all 
3,500 troops, under the joint command of Sir 
Hugh (lougli and Admiral Parker, moved north- 
ward u]) the China coast for the purpose of sub- 
duing the nation." Four days after leaving 
Canton the whole llotilla (h^opped anciior in the 
harbor of Amoy, Aug. 25th, 1841. The British 
forces had not been unexpected, and extensive 
prei)arations had been made for their reception. 

"Every island and protecting headland over- 
looking the harbor had been occupied and 
armed, and a continuous line of s(tone wall more 
than a mile long, with embrasures roofed by 
large slabs covered with earth to protect the 
guns, had been built, and batteries and bas- 
tions erected at well-chosen points." The broad- 
sides of the ships had little effect on these stone 
walls. 

Twenty-four thousand rounds from the two 
T4s, "besides the dischai'ge from frigates and 
steamers," failed to make any api)arent im- 
pression upon the fortifications. And it was 
not until the troops landed and drove out the 
garrison that the forts were taken. 

Lack of discipline on the part of the Chinese, 

(2) WUliams' "Middle Kingdom," Vol. II. 




Amoy Academy Property. 



A^IOY. 33 

as was everywhere tmanifested in this unfort- 
imate and imjiist Avar, caused them to lose the 
battle, and on the 27th of August, 1841, the 
city fell into the hands of the British. "All the 
arms and public stores, consisting of powder, 
wall-pieces, gingals, matchlocks, shields, uni- 
forms, bows, arrows, spears and other articles 
found in great quantities were destroyed; 500 
cannon were found in the forts." The Chinese 
forces were estimated to be 8,000 troops and 
26 war junks, one two-decker, built on the for- 
eign model and carrying 30 gmis. Leaving a 
detachment of 550 troops on tlie Island of Ko- 
longsu, and three vessels in the harbor to guard 
the city, the flotilla left for Chusan. The Brit- 
ish did not lose a man, and the Chinese not 
more than Mty, in the conflict.^ 

The Amo}' district, or, to be more correct, 
''the territory occupied by the missions at 
Amoy,-' covers an area of country equal to about 
120 square miles, includhig the two large cities 
of Chiang-Chiu ami Choan-Chiu, each of which 
is larger than Amoy. An area of country 60 
miles long an;l 11 wide, by the comity of mis- 
sions, is under the supervision of the Reformed 
(Dutch) Church Mission, with an estimated pop- 
ulation of 3,000,000 "If the cities of Boston, 
New York, Philatlelphia an<l Baltimore were 
situated in a valley 40 miles long, 15 wide, and 
the whole intervening country were so thickly 
studded with villages that a man should never 
be out of sight of one or more of them, still 

(3) Williams' "Middle Kingdom," Vol. II. 



34 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

the population of this valley would not be 
equal to the number of souls accessible to the 
missionary from Amoy." (Annual Report.) 

The people of the Amoy district are an in- 
dustrious and a very peaceable people. 

Mr. Burlingame, special representative of the 
United States Government to the Court of 
China in 1867, after his return to America, at a 
public dinner tendered to him by the merchants 
of New York, in a speech delivered on that oc- 
casion made use of the followmg language in 
regard to the people of China: 

"Tlie 'Chinese are a great people; they are a 
polite people, they are a patient people, they 
are a sober people, and they are an industrious 
people." These are the characteristics of the 
Amoy people, and we might speak of every one 
of them, but suffice it to speak only of their in- 
dustry and their peaceableness. 

"Idleness," it has been well said, "is not 
conspicuous." As John Wesley said of a pros- 
perous and a successful church, so it may be 
said of them: "They are all at it, and always 
at it" — toiling. 

From the dim outlines of dawning day until 
the shadows have wrapped their world in dark- 
ness the hum and whir of traffic pulsates 
through every town and village of this district. 
And week in and week out, month after month, 
and year in and year out, excepting two or 
three weeks at the Chinese New Year, those 
wheels of traffic never cease. 

We are not praising what they accomplish^ 



AMOY. 35 

neither the crude metliods they employ, nor th© 
cruel system of bondag'e to eternal toil, but 
only mention that idleness, as we term the char- 
acteristic, is not in their make-up. 

This same diligence is witnessed amongst the 
scholars in their persistent and indefatigable 
zeal to obtain a coveted degree — even after re- 
peated failures. At a single prefecture ten 
thousand candidates present themselves at the 
regular examinations. In some cases there will 
be found the grandfather, son and grandson, all 
competing for the same degree. In 1889 the 
Grovernor-General of the Fukien Province re- 
ported that at the autumnal examination in 
Foochau there were nine candidates over eighty 
years of age. We may say here that at another 
examination in another province there were 
thii'teen candidates over eighty years and one 
over ninety years of age. At still another, 
thirty -live comi)etitors were over eighty and 
eighteen over ninety. We have nothing to say 
of their system of education, so grossly de- 
fective and circumscribed, and which really pro- 
duces only a few readers and still fewer schol- 
ars, but such indomitable perseverance and 
pluck along elucational lines is seldom wit- 
nessed outside of China. 

Probably there was no intention of defining 
the character of the people of Fukien by the 
name given to the province. The meaning of 
Fukien may be rendered "established happi- 
ness.-' Fu, happiness; Ivien, established. If 
a people are happy they are usually contented 



36 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

and peaceable, especially when that happiness, 
is established. 

If such a reasoning be permissible, then maybe 
in this way this characteristic of the Anioy 
people at least niay be accounted for. 

Whilst both north and south there has been 
serious trouble, nothing like open violence and 
mob forces have ever, to our knowledge, pre- 
sented themselves m the Amoy district. A» 
noted below, in these after pages, the disposi- 
tion toward missionaries from the start has 
been most friendly, and whenever there has 
been trouble, it has been stirred up by the rul- 
ing classes, and not by the people.. 

Only one or two events during these fifty 
years have occurred to disturb this tranquillity^ 
viz., The Tai-peng Rebellion (1850-'64), and the 
"Anti- Missionary Movement'' in South China 
(1871). Possibly to these should be added the 
political disturbances occasioned by the French 
war. Whilst these movements were at their 
height, the people of Amoy were more or less^ 
excited and ill-disposed toward the foreigners. 
Still, even in these most exasperating times, un- 
controlled passion never gained full sway, 
neitlier did mobs ever threaten our dwellinf2;s. 

True, we have never poisessed the full con- 
fidence of this people. We have not yet reached 
that happy condition of having our presence 
among them above suspicion. Even this peace- 
able people cannot banish from their minds the 
idea that we are among them, not as those who 
serve, but as those to obtain some personal or 



A^IOY. 37 

National adyaiitage. But we are confident that 
among such a peaceable people, even confidence 
will be established, also. 

This peaceableness of the people may be ac- 
counted for in another Avay, yiz. : becausa they 
have never been brought into contact, to any 
great extent, with foreign nations. 

What we mean is, that the people of Amoy 
do not emigrate to Europe or America. So 
they are not cognizant of the ill-treatment their 
countrymen receive at the hands of so-called 
Christian nations. 

The Amo}^ people, true to the colonizing in- 
stincts of the nation, do emigrate, but they emi- 
grate to ^ngapore, Penang, ^Manilla and the 
Dutch possessions of the East Indies. A great 
number go to these places, and, like good and 
true Americans and Europeans, maintain their 
citizenship and their individuality, get rich and 
come back to Amoy to enjo}- their riches. A 
people more like the Anglo-Saxon one will have 
.0 search far to find. 

They emigrate and take their naticmality with 
them. Oh, Americans, do you dare to criticise 
them for this? Make them Christians, and you 
will have another Eastern Anglo-Saxon race, in 
very truth, on the other side of the world, that 
will speak louder in actions than the Western 
ever did. 

The people of Amoy are not physically strong 
in appearance. The people of Southern China 
are less robust, shorter, and of lighter build 
than the people of the North. Yet they are 



38 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

hardy and an enduring people. A great many 
old i>eople are found among them. 

AVhen we consider what they eat and how thej 
labor, it is surprising they do live to be eighty 
and ninet}^ years old. Perhaps it is the quantity 
they eat, and not so much the quality, for a 
Chinaman thinks nothing of seven or eight 
bowls of ric^, as a bite. 

Their principal diet consists of rice, fish, 
pork, sweet x>otatoes, pickled vegetables and 
green vegetables. Some of the poor folks live 
on sweet potatoes, and others on such shell fish 
as they can scrape logetlier, and when poverty 
presses them hard, they may be obliged to eat 
rats. 

But let it be understood that it is a ridiculous 
idea, and prei)osterously absurd, for any one 
to say that the Chinese are a race that delights 
in eating rats. They are no more a peoi)le who 
eat rats tlian the American people are a people 
who eat frogs' feet, or horse-flesh, or raw jjork. 
The Chinese are a respectable race, a race with 
5,000 years of history behind them, a race of 
wealth, a ra<!e that need not eat rats, and they 
do not. 

Amoy, like other parts of China, is a jjlace of 
sharp contrasts — the comfortably rich and the 
miserably- poor, the highly educated (Chinese 
education) and the utterly ignorant, living side 
by side. 

There are, however, three distinct classes, 
even as they are divided the world over, viz.: 
the high, the middle and the lower. There is no 



AMOY. 39 

such thing as caste, however; the different 
grades of society are open to all. The Chinese 
divide themselves up into scholars, farmers, 
workmen and merchants. A still better divi- 
sion would be (1) aristocracy, (2) merchants and 
farmers, and (3) the laborers. 

In the aristocracy are included the Imperial 
familj^, the princes, the mandarins and the lit- 
erati. 

The homes of this class are built of brick and 
stone. Whilst the architecture is ver}^ simple, 
yet they are sometimes most exquisitely deco- 
rated with cartings and paintings outwardly 
and inwardly. Sometimes, as in the case of a 
dwelling on Kolongsu, these are built in suites 
of dwellings, arranged around open courts,, 
some to accommodate the numerous wives and 
families, others for guests according to their 
rank, others for secretaries and teachers, and 
still others for the retainers and servants. 

For furnitui'e, carved chairs, hai'd and uncomi- 
fortable, with the indispensable tea-table be- 
tween every two, are arranged about the room. 
Sometimes there are settees also. The walls are 
loaded with scrolls and banners, inscribed on 
which are the choice words of China's gi^eat 
Sage, or perhaps phrases lauding the virtues 
and greatness of the families to which they be- 
long, in each particular instance. 

There is no carpet on the floor. Tile iloors 
are the fashion, and it prevails universally. 
There are no bay windows or balconies attached 
to these houses, and until recently no window- 



40 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

glass was employed in their construction. The 
light nsually travels throngli the open door and 
apertures in the wall, which are called win- 
dows, if it ever at all gains adnuttance into 
these houses. At the present time, however, 
Chinese houses, of the richer classes, at least, 
are modernized and civilized to the extent of 
having window-glass. It is a step in advance, 
a.nd to us, who watch every step so closely, it 
indicates an onward and upward stride of civil- 
ization and Christianization, slow though it be 
and not always apparent. And we breathe the 
prayer that the windows may be place<l in their 
souls, so that the true light may shine in and 
scatter all the darkness that has hung so long 
and so hea^aly upon them. 

In the middle class, i. e., merchants and farm- 
ers, are included the bankers, merchants, clerks, 
teachers and farmers. Their homes gener- 
ally are less elaborate than those just above 
them. While they are not rich as a class (they 
are poor, a's we count riches), still, some of these 
merchants may be well termed ''merchant 
princes," and their homes are quite as grand as 
any. 

In this class, as a class, we find a nearer ap- 
proach to our family life than elsewhere in 
China. We may say here that we consider this 
class to be the backbone of the nation and the 
hope of the Church. And it is of this material 
principally that our Amoy churches are com- 
posed. 

Generally there is but one wife, and she has 



AMOY. 4:1 

a voice in tlie domestic affairs of the liouseliold. 
She may also possess a fair education. 

The business of the country, for respectability, 
competition and honesty wall comi>are favorably 
with the business of other countries, such as 
manufacturing, shipping and mercantile. 

There are no more clever farmers in the world. 
Their farms are exceedingly small, compared 
with Am.erican farms. They ai'e kept under a 
high state of cultivation, and around about 
Amoy are expected to yield two crops each year. 

Their little farms of half an acre to .tlrree or 
four acres, some terraced one above the other 
up the hillside, have more the appearance of 
garden spots than otherwise. 

The principal products about Am.oy are rice, 
sugar-cane, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, 
beans, peanuts, peas, cabbage and wheat. Opium 
is also being cultivated. Fruit abounds. There 
are orange, baniLma and pumelo orchards, yield- 
ing their delicious products. 

Guavas, persinmions, cocoanuts and pine- 
apples, iigs and mangoes are cultivated and yield 
in their season. Tea is not extensively raised. 
Most of the tea is cultivated in Formosa and 
trans-shipped from this port. The farmer is the 
most independent and most respected individual 
in the Empire. 

Ill the laboring class ai'e included the carters^ 
farm hands, wheelbarrow men, chair-bearers^ 
boatmen and rmmers. Theu* homes are simply 
wretched. No pen can describe them as they 
are, for one cannot transcribe smells. (This is 



42 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

not onl3^ applicable to the homes of the poor. 
In every home odoriferous sights fill earth and 
sky.) tSo what need to attempt even to describe 
them. All we need say is that if one wishes to 
"witness poverty, misery, in grossest forms, visit 
the homes of the poor of China. There may be 
places where more filth abounds, but for down- 
right poverty, bai*e walls and floors, one 
w^ould have to search far to find their equal. 
Yet this very class teach us two beautiful les- 
sons of submission and liberality. 

Among all this army of strugglers very few 
words of complaint are raised above the hum of 
toil and labor. Like some wise philosophers 
patiently enduring what they cannot be curing, 
this mighty host of sufferers march on in un- 
broken ranks, toiling on and on under most 
cruel bondage. Who ever heard of such a thing 
as a strike, or a rebellion against capital 
amongst their number? No such thing is 
known. They are not a nation of strikers in 
any sense. They are plodders and toilers, and 
the nation must be very blind that casts them 
off for strikers and rioters and rebels. 

We have not a few of this class enrolled 
among our church members. The dear Lord 
was poor. So we despised not these i)oor ones, 
even though they be Chinamen. It is from them 
that some princely sums are cast into the Lord's 
treasury. 

No more beautiful sight, no more encouraging 
sign can be afforded than this, showing how 
deeply rooted the Word of Grod has become in 



AMOY, 



4a 



the heart of this people when they give their 
dollars out of such poverty for the Lord's work. 
We have reserved another place to speak more 
fully of their benevolence, so there is no need to 
speak further here. 

We do sometimes wonder what kind of crowns 
these will wear, Avhat places they Avill occupy 
in that upper Kingdom. We, w^ho see the con- 
dition in which they live and the magnificent 
Slims they give, imagine it will be a very bright 
crown, sparkling with jewels. And we im- 
agine, too, that some of them will have a plaxie 
very near the great white throne. 



CHAPTEE Y 



KOLONGSU. 



The meaning of this word is ^'The Drum Wave 
Island." Ko, drum; long, a rushing stream of 
water; su, an island. It is supposed to receive 
its name from a part of the island, where there 
is a hollo w^ed rock, through which the waters 
of the sea rush, producing a sound like drum- 
ming. 

On a gi'eat pile of high rocks (in the centre of 
the island), lifting their grey heads 300 feet 
into the air, there is an inscription, the meaning 
of which is: Kolongsu is the most delightful 
spot under heaven, 

Kolongsu lies just off south from the city 
of Amoy — about one furlong. It was at first 
considered more unhealthy than the city of 
Amoy, with all its filth and /iirt. When 
the British soldiers attacked Amoy, they sta- 
tioned themselves on this island. They died 
off by hundreds, stricken down by fever, and 
to them and the early missionaries it seemed 
nothing less than a death-trap. Dr. Abeel, Mx. 
Doty and Mr. Pohlman first resided there, but 
on September 22, 1844, they all moved over to 
Amoy. And there in the city, on the water's 
side, they built their homes, which can be seen 
to this day. After twenty years' residence in 
Amoy, the missionaries discovere<l that Ko- 



^^0"^^ 




iiiA 



Part of Kolongsu. 



KOLONGSU. 45 

longsu was a inucli more healtliy spot than 
Amoy. Tliis was not because tlie conditions of 
Kolongsu had changed, but it was because the 
missionaries and sohliers in former days had to 
occupy Chinese homes, which are bad enough 
themselves, but thrice nninliabit£ible when sit- 
uated in damp, low places. It was all right 
when they got up on the hilltops. Tlie resident 
physician condemned the houses in which the 
missionaries were living in Amoy in the year 
1865, and then they began turning their atten- 
tion to Kolongsu once more. The Mission wrote 
home, asking for 1 0,000 to buy a site on which 
to build a house on this island. In 1867 the site 
wsb^ secured, and the building so long occupied 
by, and called for a quarter of a century. Dr. 
Talmage's residence, was erected. ~Now all the 
foreigners (about 250 English, Portuguese and 
Americans) reside on this island, and, although 
they have not found it ^'the most delightful 
spot under heaven," they have found it tlie best 
and most comfortable place for sixty miles 
around. Here are located, too, the higher edu- 
cational institutions of the three missions, viz.: 
Theological seminary, boys' academy, girls' 
schools, Charlotte Duryee Vv^o man's Training 
School, and the Children's Home (orphanage). 
The Douglas Memorial, erected in 1880 to the 
memory of Carstairs Douglas, member of the 
English Presbyterian Mission, is located on this 
island. The students of all our schools, with 
native Christians residing ion the island, meet in 
this building every Sabbath for public worship. 



46 FIFTY YEARS IN xVMOY. 

There is also a union cliapel on the island, 
AA^here English services are conducted every Bab- 
bath by the missionaries. There are also con- 
sulates, hotels and stores on the island. 

And besides, on this same island there are 
three distinct Chinese villages, with a popula- 
tion of four or tive thousand. 

Kolongsu is a little* more than a mile long 'and 
half a mile wide. 

A road committee Iveeps a road that goes 
round the island in good condition, and as this 
is the only civilized thoroughfare for miles 
around, it is appreciated and enjoyed. 







Group of School Children, Kolongsu. 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE DOORS OF AMOY OPENED. 

For many years China was nothing more than 
a hermit Kingdom. She shut herself off en- 
tirely from the outside "barbaric" world. Her 
walls were high and strong, and ever^- door her- 
metically sealed against all intrusion of the for- 
eigner. 

Early in the nineteenth century, as w^e have 
seen, the missionaries Morrison, Milne, Bridg- 
man and Abeel began knocking at the barri- 
caded gates of the Empire for adndssion to 
preach the e>'erlasting riches of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ. But for years they were obliged 
to confine their labors to the suburbs of Can- 
tou and the island of Macao (a small island off 
the southern coast of China), and the bleak and 
rocky coast of the Empire. In no other places 
in the vast nation were missionaries tolerated. 

This seclusion was persistently maintained 
until the year 184.0, A\'hen the chariots of an un- 
just war came rolling up against these hitherto 
impregnable ^Nalls. The history of this war, 
so extraordinary in its origin, so marvelous in 
its course, so momentous in its results, not only 
forms one of the most interesting chapters in 
the world's history, but the consequences of 
that war itself upon millions of mankind have 



48 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

placed it amongst the most important chapters 
as welL 

Originating in a '' commercial misunderstand- 
ing/' waged between "conscious superiority'^ 
on the one side, and ''ignorant ]3ride" on the 
other, and resulting in bringing one-half of the 
world into intercourse witli the other, demajids 
more than a ])assing notice. Let us confine our- 
selves, however, as briefly as possible to the 
origin and results of that war that led to the 
opening of the barricaded doors (-f China. 

To fully understand the situation it is neces- 
8a.ry to go back in history and discover what 
relations China held with foreign nations before 
the ships from England touched her shores. 
Early did the Romans, Greeks, Mohammedans 
and Phoenecians spread their sails and speed 
a^^ay for far off Cathay to traffic with its in- 
habitants. And there is a record of a commis- 
sion being sent by Marcus Antonius to tlie coun- 
try " producing the rich silks so much prized in 
Rome." In 1254, A. D., two Venetian gentle- 
men, Nicolo Polo (father of Marco Polo) and 
Matteo Polo visited China and were Mildly wel- 
comed by the Grrand Khan, as the Emperor was 
then called. Subsequently Marco Polo \i-sited 
China and remained twenty -five years. He be- 
came a great favorite with the Emperor and was 
made one of his officers, which goes to show the 
good feeling the Emi)eror had toward foreigners. 

So far as the records reveal, the intercourse 
between these nations was above suspicion and 
distinist, and uurestrained commercial relations 



THE DOORS OF A]MOY OPENED. 4D 

extended to all who came to trade Tvitli them, for 
twenty centuries at least. In the seventeenth 
century (A. D.) new powers began to send forth 
their ships, plowing the great waters in search 
of conquest and new territory. Spanish, Dutch, 
French, Portuguese and English sent forth their 
navies in search of new territory and to conquer 
the world if necessary for their respective gov- 
ernments. 

China began to look with suspicion on these 
proceedings. And who can blame her? She 
watched Avith eager interest the events that 
were taking place ^'in the neighboring regions 
of Lnconia, Java and India," and the cruel ti'eat- 
ment the victors visited upon the vanquished. 

Being \Aitnesses of such scenes, as they stood 
on their watch-towers of their nation's de- 
fences, is it strange that the doors and gates 
of China suddenly swung shut, and were seale<l 
and barricaded against the intrusion of the 
avaricious foreigners? As unto Luconia, Java 
ajid the isles of the sea, so must be the ultimate 
purpose of these sea kings concerning them. 

Who shall say that any other policy would 
not have been suicidal? Had she pursued any 
other course the hour of doom to her inde- 
pendence would surely have struck, and her au- 
thority over her subjects have ceased forever, 
and the nation long ago have crumbled to 
pieces and their territory be possessed by 
others. Why? "The belief entertained by 
Europeans at that period, that the Pope had 
the right to dispose of all pagan lands, only 



50 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

wanted men and means to be everywhere car- 
ried into effect." And the probability is that 
had Chnia allowed these Spanish and Portu- 
guese and other colonists to settle at will 
in her domain, the Chinese nation would 
long ago have been swept into that oblivion 
where so many other gi-eat nations are buried. 
Who can criticise her, then, for instituting such 
strict measures under the circumstances for her 
own self-preservation, even to making herself a 
hermit nation for nearlv two centuries? 

When the history of China is fully written it 
will be the most wonderful history of the most 
^^•ondel'ful peo]jle that ever engaged the mind 
of men. And when that people are full3^ under- 
stood there will be little to criticise, much to 
applaud and much to esteem. Five thousand 
years have rolled away, and yet of all the na- 
tions of the world, China is the least under- 
stood and the most shamefully judged and 
ti'eated. 

Not yet is the fulness of time Avith her. The 
hour of her greatness and due appreciation has 
not yet sounded over the world. But if any one 
can read the signs of the times aright, that hour 
is soon to come. Some day this naition will stand 
out the mightiest and strongest nation of the 
world, and let us hope' and pray and work that 
it will be the best, best civilized and the best 
Christianized nation on the face of God's earth. 

With these few observations in mind, we may 
now consider the opium war. After the expira- 
tion of the privilege granted by charter to the 



TPIE DOORS OF AJVIOY OPENED. 51 

Eas:t India Coiiiijaiiy in 1834, and by vihich they 
had enjoyed a monopoly for nearly two cen- 
turies in carrying on trade at Macao and Can- 
ton, the English Government sought to renew 
these commercial relations in such a manner 
that all British merchants might have a share 
of the trade with the Chinese people. 

To this end the Rt. Hon. Lord Napier was sent 
to China to commence negotiations for ^main- 
taining trade on a '' proper footing." He arrived 
in Macao, July 15th, 1834, and, suffice it to say, 
he made a failure of the enterprise simi:>ly on ac- 
count of lack of diplomatic sldll. He faile<i to 
comprehend the Chinese w^ay of doing things, 
and the Chinese failed to comprehend the Eng- 
lish way of doing things as w^ell. The Chinese 
were arrogant and suspicious. The English 
were none the less arrogant, but less slow. 
While w^e cannot excuse either, there was less 
excuse for England than for China. Surely 
China had a right, that England did not there 
possess, of saying how and in what manner 
things should be done. Lord Napier, instead of 
waiting at Macao, pushed on to Canton witliout 
official permission from the Chinese authorities. 
This was too great an affront to the dignity of 
the Chinese, and set in motion a broil and dis- 
turbance that eventually resulted in w^ar. 

Lord Napier died on September 27th, 1834. 
The nervous strain was too much for him, and 
he succumbed under tlie trial. Others followed 
him, but it was not until April 12th, 1837, that 
England was gran tec J the privileges she sought. 



52 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

But at this time trade was almost entirely X20ii- 
fined to traffic in opium, as that was the only 
article that would sell. And some of the Chinese 
as ^vell as foTeiji;ners were ea^^rer for the exten- 
sion of the sale, as it brought them large gains. 
And every effort was made to legalize the use 
thereof. There were many, however, who had 
the welfare of the nation at heart, who fought 
to the bittei' end, both against the introduc- 
tion and the use of it in the land. No truer or 
stancher frfend had the Chinese people in this 
trynio- hour than the Emperor himself, and if 
his government had been the stronger, instead 
of being the weaker, opium would never have 
lodged itself in the Celestial Empire. 

The natives pleaded, and foreigners argued, 
that if it was not introduced now, some other 
way would surely be opened to its introduction; 
still the Emperor and his good advisers re- 
sisted all overtures to let it in, or legalize its 
use. 

For forty years the Ooveniment had shown 
its sincerity of wishing to keep the noxious 
poison out; yet, in spite of all such efforts, so- 
called Christian merchants and monopolists of 
Europe persisted in smuggling it in, and finally 
forced it ui:>on them at the cannon's mouth. 

And the Emperor had goo<l grounds for re- 
sisting it. He looked upon it as a design (rightly 
or wrongly, as the case may be,) of the foreigner 
introducing opium, in order, first: to so debili- 
tate and impoverish the people that resistance 
on their pai't would be in vain, and, secondly: 



THE DOOES OF AMOY OPENED. 53 

the subjugation of the nation woiihl easily fol- 
low. From our point of view, the surmise was 
unjust; but who can sa3% in view of all the 
events that were transpiring about them, that 
such a view of the situation was unjust from 
their basis of observation? This impression 
gained ground, until the whole nation became 
aroused against foreign intrusion. Then, too, 
this impression Avas deepened from the fact tliat 
the Chinese saw that these foreigners never 
smoked the drug themselves, nor was it used in 
their own country. What else could it mean but 
this? Then the baneful effects upon |the minds 
and health of the nation, and the awful drain- 
age of .|!20,000,000 a year was likewise cause 
sufficient to awaken conjectures and sound the 
alarm over the whole domain. And so, instead 
of enacting measures to legalize the sale there- 
of, measures %vere at once instituted to restrain 
its sale, and, if possible, banish it from the Em- 
pire. But the evil had become a monster — too 
great, as the result proved, for the power and 
wisdom of the Chinese to deal wi^th. Imprison- 
m.ent and execution and banishment of offenders 
proved of no avail. Finally, on the 18th of 
March, 183^, a proclamation was issued, de- 
manding the surrender of all the opium in pos- 
session of the merchants, and bon<ls required 
that no more should be introduced under pen- 
alty of death. 

Four reasons were given for such demand: 
(1)' Because they were men and had reason. 
{2) Because the law forbade its use. 



54 FIFTY YEAKS IN AMOY. 

(3) Because they should feel for those who suf- 
fered by its use. 

(4) Because of the present duress of the Gov- 
ernment. 

In response to this appeal, 1,037 chests were 
delivered up, and then, on March 27th, 1839, 
tjirough Chas. Elliot, the Englisli representative, 
20,283 chests, valued at |11,000,000, were passed 
over to the Chinese authorities. But the bond 
was never signed, though an agreement had 
been signed by most of the foreign merchants 
not to trade in opium any more. This agree- 
ment was not kept. This whole quantity was 
destroyed by the Chinese authorities in good 
faith, and, as a noted historian observed, it was 
"a solitar}^ instance in the history of the world 
of a pagan monarch preferring to destroy what 
would injure his subjects rather than to fill his 
own pockets with the sale." In addition, sixteen 
persons — English, American and Indian — prin- 
cipal agents in the trade, were ordered out of 
the country and told never to return again. 
But the opium trade was not banished or de- 
stroyed. 

Before the last chest \^'as destroyed, shiploads 
were on the way and some being unloaded on 
the defenceless shores. And it kept on coming 
and coming until the two nations of England 
and China were plunged in a cruel and destruc- 
tive war — cruel and destructive alone to the 
Chinese Government. So, willingly or unwill- 
ingly, the Chinese had to accept the evil. 

" To obtain reparation for insults and injuries^ 



THE DOOES OF AMOY OPENED. 55 

for indemnifications of losses, and for future se- 
curity and protection," were the i^retexts Eng- 
land offered for making war upon a w eak and 
powerless nation. Each one must judge how 
far she was justifiable in such an action. 

Might made right in those days, and before 
the English power China fell; yet, in these days, 
we ^'enture to say, such action would not be tol- 
erated. Poor China — we say — after all her care 
and concern for her subjects, she had not only 
to accept the deadly drng, but had to pay 
$21,000,000 (part of it for the opium that was 
destroyed in April, 1839), and gave up the island 
of Hong-Kong to the British nation. Let others 
pass their verdict on such justice. 

It has been said the war Avas necessary to 
break tlie arrogance and pride of the Chinese 
people. Perhaps it was. Still, we do in all 
sincerity ask, would not the result have been 
the same, and more happily accomplished, if, in 
the first place, the East India Company, and 
later the Eiiglisli Government, had been more 
zealous in the diffusion of Christian truth and 
the Word of God? But what was done? For 
nearly two centuries they set their faces against 
tiruth and rigiiteousness, and every effort made 
to translate the Word of God met with their dis- 
approval and bitter opposition. 

The affairs of nations, as well as of individ- 
uals, are in the hands and under the control 
of the Great Kuler of the universe. W^ho can 
read in all this history anything but tlie Al- 
might}^ ''accomplishing His great and wise pur- 



56 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

pose by allowing man to pnrsne Ms petty, pri- 
Tate, and even unjustifiable ends?" Beyond 
this mystery we cannot penetrate. 

But this no more excuses the nation which 
battered down the dooi^, and forced the vile 
opium traffic in upon China, than the unfaith- 
ful disciple was excused for betrcaying the 
Christ to perform the will of God. 

But out of all tliis evil God brought good. 
Canton, Amoy, Ningpo, Foochau and KShanghai 
were opened for foreign tra-de and residence, 
and, best of all, for the introduction of the Gos- 
pel. 

And that gospel power is shining fuller, 
stronger and brighter, in the face of the new 
difficulties that have been throwm in its way 
by the introduction of opium in this land of 
heathen darlmess. It is able to save unto the 
uttennost, therefore, China — in spite of opium. 

And there was good, too, in the fact that 
China had |to deal with England rather than 
Russia or Turkey, or some Mohammedan or 
Roman Catholic power. It Avas Protestant Eng- 
land, and whatever else may be said of her in 
tliis unfortunate and cruel affair, this may be 
truly said: That wherever England goes, there 
go law^s, protection, freedom and libei-ty of con- 
science and Christianity. Had Russian, Span- 
ish or Turkish power gotten control of India, 
or had any of these powders battered down the 
w^alls of China, the condition of affairs in the 
celestial Empire w^ould probably have been far 
blacker and more sad tlian they are in this day. 



THE DOOES OF AMOY OPENED. 57 

Every missionary lias had cause more than 
once to thank God that the British flag floats 
and Avaves over the Eastern Seas rather than 
any of those mentioned above. 

Other ports were opened for trade and resi- 
dence, and to-day the doors stand wide open, 
waiting for the messenger to arrive, bringing 
the gospel message of peace and good will to- 
ward all men. God speed the day when the for- 
eigner shall force out of the Empire that same 
drug that they forced in— not by might, but by 
the Spirit of the Lord. 

By the Treaty of Tien-Tsin, made in 1858 and 
ratified in 18G0, ten new ports were opened in 
China, among them being Tam-Sui, Taiwanfoo, 
Swatow, Cheefoo, Tien-Tsin. In 1878 there 
were tw^enty-one ports opened for trade, and 
permission gTanted to all foreigners (18G0) to 
travel with passports. The treaty ports to-day 
are, viz.: Amoy, Canton, Swatow, Foochau, 
Mngi>o, Shanghai, Tien-Tsin, Pekin, Cheefoo, 
Hankow, Ichang, Chinkiang, Tam-Sui, Taiwan- 
foo, Keloong, Takow, Woohoo, Woochau, I^ew- 
chaAvang, Kiukiang and Kiong-chiu. 



CHAPTER VII. 



FOUTsDING OF THE AMOY MISSION. 

While General Synod was in session in New 
York, in 1842, a comniunication was received 
from Dr. Abeel (then stationed at Macao), giv- 
ing expression, amongst other matters, of his 
confidence that China wonld soon be thrown 
open for the entrance of missionaries, and 
urged that steps be taken for the occupation of 
some fi,eld, as a centre for missionary operations. 
Long before Synod was privileged to hear this 
message, Dr. Abeel, in company with Rev. Mr. 
Boone, was sailing up the coast of China, and 
on the 2d of February, 1842, landed at Hong- 
Kong. After a short stay here they re-em- 
barked, still journeying up the coast, until on 
Thursday, 11 o'clock a. m., on the 24th of Feb- 
ruaiy, before the Treaty of Nankin was con- 
cluded, the}^ entered the port of Amoy, and as 
the pioneer standard-bearers of the banners of 
the cross, set up those emblems in this part of 
that benighted land. 

Dr. Abeel immediately took up his residence 
on the island of Kolohgsu, then occupied by the 
British troops. The house that he occu- 
pied stands to-day in good repair, underneath 
the branches of a great and large banyan tree. 
It is sort of a relic, or an heirloom, which we 



FOUNDING OF THE AMOY MISSION. 59 

think shoiild belong- to us. When Dr. Abeel 
and Bishop Boone liinded, the island of Kolong- 
su was in possession of the British troops. They 
were received Yery kindly by Major and Mrs. 
Cowper, and tendered every hospitality possi- 
ble. Major Cowper escorted Dr. Abeel about 
to inspect the houses, and gave him his choice 
where he might peiinanently establij^i himself. 
But there was not much choice, as the English 
soldiers, in seai-ch of fire^^'0()d, and Chinese like- 
wise in search of plunder, had made havoc with 
them all. The one had strip] )ed them of all 
inflammable material, and the other had toni 
up every brick on the floors in search of buried 
wealth. But a choice had to be made, and Dr. 
Abeel chose this house, Avitli a Jarger room in 
the centre and a smaller room on each side. On 
each si<]e of the entrance there is also an inde- 
pendent projecting building, composed of one 
or more rooms which might be used for a kitchen 
or storeroom, or servant's quarters. As soon as 
possible Dr. Abeel set to work making the neces- 
sary repairs, and by Saturday, February 2()th, 
moved in and took posses>sion. 

In addition to commencing work immediately 
amongst the Chinese, Dr. Abeel gratuitously 
rendered service to the English troops by con- 
ducting an English service for them in his own 
house from time to time. It is a sacred spot, 
for here, we may say, was born the grand work 
AA'hich our eyes are permitted to witness to- 
day. It has long ago passed into the hands 
of others, and save by one man, the fact 



60 riFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

of Dr. Abeel ever having lived there is for- 
gotten. 

So suspicions are the present occupants of 
foreigners that when a party of missionaries- 
and friends desired to enter and let their eyes 
rest for a moment upon the rooms where this 
sainted and holy man lived, they wei^ absolutely 
denied all admission. 

One week after their arrival, March 3d, 
they made their first visit to the city of 
Amoy. The cordiality and kindness of the na- 
tives suri)a«sed their most sanguine expecta- 
tions. Unmolested, they were allowed to hold 
services and distribute religious books and other 
literature. 

After the peace was declared and the Treaty 
of Nanldn (1842) concluded, the officials and dig- 
nitaries of that district seemed to vie with each 
other in their attempts to A^'elcome the mission- 
aries of the cross. ''The head Mandarin, the 
naval commander-in-chief, and the highest civil 
authorities invited them to their houses, I'e- 
tiu-ned their visits, received their books, listened 
to their instructions, accompanied and assisted 
them in their excursions into the surroundtug 
country.'' ''In April (1842) the Imperial Power 
made a complete change of rulers at Amoy. 
But the new rulers displa^^ed to the mission- 
aries the same kindness they had experienced 
from their predecessors. They even aided them 
in procuring conveyances to make excursions 
further and more extensive than could be al- 
lowed by the imperial edicts. They were re- 



FOUNDING OF THE A^IOY mSSION. GI 

C€ived by the people with equal favor. .Such 
confidence they inspired that at one time two 
contending villages, instead of settling their 
disputes, accordmg to usual custom, by combat, 
agreed to refer their differences to the mission- 
aries, as umpires." 

Thus encouraged, they spurred on in their 
course, making tours into the neighboring coun- 
try "as far as the city of Chiang-Chiu," twenty- 
five miles west of Amoy. Preaching, instruct- 
ing, social prayer meetings, Bible classes, were 
the order of the day. Instant in season and out 
of season. Dr. Abeel and M;i\ Boone went every- 
where they could, teaching and preaching "in 
His name," until the 22d of June, 1844, when 
they had the pleasure of welcoming as fellow- 
laborers Rev. Messrs. Doty and Pohlman. Dr. 
Abeel was not permitted to witness any re- 
ward of his labor in Amoy. On tlie 24th of 
January, 1845, on account of completely shat- 
tered health, he was compelled to leave the 
work he loved and set out upon a journey home 
—and there the Lord called him to serve Him 
above, September 4th, 184G. 



CHAPTER A III. 



THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONARIES. 
DAVID ABEEL, D. D., 1842-'45. 

Dr. Abeel was bom at New Brunswick, N. J., 
June 12tli, 1804. At fifteen years of age, fail- 
ing to secure an entrance into West Point Mili- 
tar}^ Academy, he turned his attention to the 
study of medicine. It Avas Avliile in pursuance 
of this course of study that his heart was 
touched by Divine gi'ace, and ever after lie de- 
voted his life to tlie service of his Master. 

At the age of nineteen, in the autumn of 1823, 
he began fitting- himself for his life-work by 
entering the theological seminary at New Bruns- 
wick. After a preparation of three years, not 
only in the '' school of the prophets/' but in that 
school of personal experience, Avhere cme gets 
the best tuition for the ministry, viz.: down 
among the sad and lonely ones, nunistering unto 
the poor, "the sick and afiiicted,'' he began his 
labors in the little village of Athens, Green 
County, N. Y., May 26th, 1826. 

For a little more than two years he was per- 
mitted to labor in this ^dneyard, when failing 
health compelled him to resign and seek the 
warmer airs of St. Thomas, of the West Indies. 

Dr. Abeel was a conscientious, deeply spiritual 
man. His holy life was a power. He was a 
man of much prayer, and, like Daniel of old, 




Rev. David Abeel, D. D. 



THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONAEIES. 63 

would retire (luring the hours of the day and 
commune with his Lord. He set before himself 
the very highest and best ideal, even his Mas- 
ter, Jesus Christ. Complete self-consecration 
to the service of the Master in the promotion of 
the welfare of his fellowmen was his high and 
holy aim. So it was not strange that his mind 
often reflected upon the condition of the heathen 
world, and that in the first flush of manhood he 
heard and heeded the voices calling out of 
darhness bidding him to come over and help. 

Only a man possessed of indomitable pluck 
and perseverance and eminent piety would have 
braved the dangers and perils that David Abeel 
did. Never robust after his ministerial labors 
at Athens, once at death's door, and never re^ 
covering from an organic affection of the hearty 
yet this devoted and courageous 3^oung soldier, 
undaunted and fearless, pushed on bearing the 
banners of the cross until he had unfurled those 
emblems on many isles of the Southern Pacific 
and the heathen lands of the Orient. On the 
14th of October, 1829, he sailed in the ship 
Eoman, Capt. Lavender, from New York for 
China, and after four months and eleven days 
he reached Canton, February 25th, 1830. 

Dr. Abeel went out under the patronage oif 
the Seamen's Friend Society, but at the same 
time made a conditional appointment with the 
A. B. C. F. M. (who were about to establish a 
mission in China), viz.: that if at the ^xpirai- 
tion of a year he saw the way opened, and felt 
it his duty to engage in missionary work, he 



64 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

would sever the relations with the S. F. S. and 
devote his services to the A. B. C. F. M,. 

Dr. Abeel went out in company with Elijah 
C. Bridgman, who was under appointment of 
the A. B. C. F. M. 

Their passage and support for one year was 
contributed by a merchant, David W. 0. Olyph- 
ant, Esq., who was engaged in the Canton trade 
in connection with Talbot & Co., of New York. 
He was deeply interested in this missionary en- 
terprise, and not only furnished the finances 
for this one year, but it was by his presentation 
of facts and arguments that the work was com- 
m,ended by the A. B. C. F. M. (1830). This was 
the first American mission represented in China. 

After serving the vSeamen's Friend Society 
for ten months. Dr. Abeel tendered his resig- 
nation, and in December, 1830, transferred his 
services to the A. B. C. F. M. Then began his 
missionary journeys to Java, Siam, Singapore, 
Malacca, Borneo and the different islands of the 
Eastern Archipelago, and finally to Amoy, 
China, where he establishe;! the work we review 
toj-day. Besides, he traveled far and Vide, 
visiting Christian nations, such as England, 
France, Holland, Prussia, Switzerland and 
America, stirring up churches and awakening 
a missionary fervor in behalf of the cause of 
foreign missions. 

He died in Albany, N. Y., September 4th, 
1846, at the age of forty-two, leading the mem- 
ory of a holy and consecrated life behind him 
and the foundations of a work laid deep and 




Rev. Elihu Dotv 



THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONARIES. 65 

strong, til Jit will last so long as time endures. 
^e rests from Ms labors in the beautiful ceme- 
tery of Greenwood. Brooklyn. His works do fol- 
low him. 

He was the founder of the Amoy Mission, 
February 24th, 1842. 



REV. ELIIIU DOTY, 1844- '65. 

Mi\ Doty, son of Stephen and Phebe Nelson 
Doty, was born at Berne, Albany County, N. 
Y., September 9th, 1809. He attended the 
village school until he w^as thirteen years 
old, when he became a clerk in the store 
of Jacob Settle, Berne, N. Y., and remained 
with him until he w^as nineteen years old. 
Faithful in his duties, he was honored and 
loved by all. At the age of seventeen or eigh- 
teen he became converted, was baptized and 
received into communion of the Reformed 
Church at Berne, N. Y., November 4th, 1827. 
The first seeds of his missionary life were im- 
planted in his heart while attending the Sab- 
bath-school of this chiu'ch, and after his con- 
version he felt it to be his solemn duty to preach 
the gosi^el to the heathen. He shortly after 
resigned his position in the village store, and 
began making preparations for his life-work 
by studying with the Rev. Abram H. Meyers, 
at that time pastor of the Berne church, in 
order to enter Rutger's College. While at 
Berne his fellow-student was the Hon. Joseph 
P. Bradley, and the two men were always close 
friends. He entered college in the year 1830, 



66 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

when he was about twenty years ohl, ''and 
npon this account he overleaped — not by his 
own suggestion, but by the earnest advice of all 
his professors of the college and seniinaiy — ^two 
years of the collegiate course." He probably 
entered the New Brunswick Theological Semi- 
nary in 1833, and after a full course, gTaduated 
in 1836, when he was ordained a missionaiy, 
alnd on the 18th of June of the same year em- 
barked for Java, where he was appointed to be- 
gin his missionary efforts. 

The year 1836 marked a new epoch in the^ 
history of foreign missions of the Reformed 
(Dutch j Church. A deeper and a wider interest 
had been already aroused by the closer union 
with the A. l^. C. F. M. which had been con- 
summated in the year 1832. The new responsi- 
bility excited the entire Church to a greater 
earnestness in belialf of the salvation of the 
heathen. But it w^as in the spring of ]836 
that the whole Church was moved to a greater 
consecration than ever before. This AAas occa- 
sioned by the announcement that four young 
men, viz.: Elihu Doty, Elbert Nevius, Will- 
iam Youngblood and Jacob Ennis, of the New 
Brunswick Theological Seminary, had offered 
themselves and had been accepted for the for- 
eign fiehl. One may easily imagine how deeply 
the hearts of all the people were impressed in 
the early history of missions when it became 
fully known that these four young men had at 
one time consecrated their lives to the foreign 
service for the Master. 



THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONAEIES. G7 

On the 30tli of May, 1836, in the Michlle Dutch 
'Church in New York, they were fonnally set 
:apart for the solemn office of preaching the 
Gospel to the heathen, and there received their 
instructions to proceed to Java to found a mis- 
sion on that island, hoping thereby to receive 
favors and encouragements from the Du;tch 
Oovernment in their new enterprise. But their 
reception was entirely the reverse of what they 
had expected. Arrinng at Batavia (Sept. 15th, 
183G), the jealousies and suspicions of .the Dutch 
government were immediately aroused, and 
they were detained for more than a year, not 
being allowed to proceed with their labors. 
Finally tney were allowed to proceed and locate 
their mission at Borneo. Mr. Doty started 
ahead and reached Sambas, June 17th, 1839. 
Mr. Youngblood arrived September 19th the 
«ame year, while Mr. Nevius, on account of the 
ill-health of his wife, was obliged to proceed 
to Singapore. Subsequently Messrs. Pohlman 
ami Thompson joined the workers at Borneo, 
where, upon their arrival, Messrs. Doty and 
Pohlmau gave themselves to the welfare of the 
"Chinese immigrants, who had come there seek- 
ing fortunes, while Messrs. Youngblood and 
Thompson confined their labors to the Dyachs 
and Malays. 

After laboring here some four or five years, 
Messrs. Doty and Bohlman began to realize 
that this .especial work that they had chosen 
w^ias more or less circumscribed, and that tliey 
could accomi^lish far greater results in wider 



08 FIFTY YEARS IX AMOY. 

fields that were already waiting for them in 
China. So nnder the direction of the Home Board 
(A. B. C. F. M.) they left Borneo in April, 1844, 
and arrived at Amoy, China, in June, and be- 
came co-laborers with Dr. David Abeel in the 
w^ork that he had already founded. 

Mr. Doty's life was a very checkered one. 
His efforts in the Indian Archipelago were, so far 
as human knowledge would lead us to suppose, 
a signal failure, while his efforts in Amoy were 
crowned with marked success. As Dr. Cham- 
bers said at the time of his death, ''A shai^er 
contrast can hardly be furnished by the entire 
history of missions than that which existed be- 
tween the fruitless toil in Borneo and the golden 
harvest in Amoy. But he was the same man in 
both. The ill-success did not dishearten, large 
ingatherings did not puff up. He stood in his 
lot where the Master sent him, and knew how 
to labor and to wait, and knew, also, that the 
faithful herald of the cross is a sweet savor of 
Christ in them that ai*e saved, and in them that 
perish." 

Sorrows and afflictions were multiplied dur- 
ing almost the entire course of his earthly pil- 
grimage. The shadow^s that death cast across 
his pathway' were indeed dark. First of all, he 
was called upon to mourn the death of the '' ge- 
nial and wiiming" Dr. Abeel, then the death of 
liis first wife (Eleanor Ackley), then the death 
of his fellow-laborer and companion, Mr. Pohl- 
man, in 1848, then the death of his second Tvdfe 
(Mary Smith), in 1858. 



THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONARIES. 69 

Yet, the lights and shadows that plaj'ed across 
3iis life brought out in fuller relief the gi^and 
and noble character of this verj unostentatious 
man. Patiently and submissively he bore his 
every trial. Modestly and becomingl}^ he ac- 
cepted the success of his labors, that God 
:granted unto him. 

He was eminently pious. Hirs life breathed 
a beautiful Christian, spirit, and intercourse with 
him showed that he lived near his Master, and 
w^as full of love to tlie Saviour, to His cause and 
His people. He was not brilliant nor profound, 
but he was laborious and determined, deemed 
by many a mere plodder, but he plodded success- 
fully. Whatever he undertook to do, he did with 
his whole might. He was conscientious in every 
duty and spared not his strength to perform it 
to the end, and his death was due to overwork. 

Owing to the lack of co-laborers, he was com- 
pelled to do more than he could safely perform. 

For fourteen years he labore<l wdth but a sin- 
gle companion, first with Mr. Pohlman and after- 
ward with Dr. Talmage. "The harvest was 
white and perishing before his eyes," "and he 
hesitated not in thrusting in his sickle early and 
late, in season and out of season," until his 
strength entirely failed him. 

Much time of his latter years was devoted to 
the literary work of ^the mission, a department 
for which, by his habits of accuracy, his candor, 
judgment and freedom from caprice and preju- 
dice, he was admirably fitted. In 1865 he left 
his chosen field to return to his native land to 



70 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

(lie amcng liis friends. But God ordered it other- 
wise; he departed this life four days before 
reaching the coasts of America, at the age of 
fifty-six. His remains were brought on and 
the funeral services held in the Middle Dutch 
Church, Lafayette place, New York, on March 
27,th, 18G5, where thirty years before he was 
commissioned, and was laid to rest at Troy 
Hills, N. J., the home of his second wife, there 
to await the glorious resurrection. 

At Amoy, his real work was accomplished. 
''There stands his monument upon the coast of 
China, fair as the sun, in a group of churches — 
burning lights among millions of heathen, with 
every element of strength, expansion and per- 
petuity." 

Mrs. Eleanor (Ackley) Doty, 1844-'45^; Mrs. 
Mary (Smith) Doty, 1847-'58.i 



W. J. POHLMAN, 1844-'49. 

Mr. Pohlman was born in Albany, N. Y., Feb- 
ruary 17th, 1812. Leaving the parental roof 
w^hen he was twelve years of age, his young and 
inexperienced life came in contact with severe 
and so great temptations that he was nearly 
swept from the moorings of his faith and piety, 
Instilled into his heart by his faithful parents. 

For four years he was tossed about upon the 
billows of temptation and sin, conviction and 
relapses, good resolutions and broken vows, 
"the struggles between a tempting world and a 
tempting a dversary on the one hand, and a 

(1) Died; buried at Amoy, China. 



THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONARIES. 71 

conscience breathing dismay aiid terror on the 
other." But at last the good conquered, and 
hTs conversion was sudden and almost as vivid 
as Paul's on his way to Damascus; and, as in 
Paul's case, he was chosen of God to carry the 
Gospel to the Gentiles far away from his home 
land. His joy over the assurance of full re- 
demption, his praise over redeeming love, he 
could scarcely frame in words — so full was his 
heart. This change occurred at Geneva, N. Y., 
in 1S28, where he was living with a sister, to 
whose loving, sisterly devotion and patience his 
conversion was due (so far as human agency can 
work). Soon after he decided to study for the 
ministry, and at twenty entered the junior class 
at Rutger's College, 1834. Subsequently grad- 
uating from the New Brunswick Seminary 
(1837), he was ordained by the Classis of Al- 
bany, April 18th, 1838. His attention to the 
heathen world was probably first called by 
hearing a returned missionary from the Sand- 
wich Islands preach shortly after his conversion. 
He was deeply" impressed. This impression Avas 
intensifi.ed by an address delivered before the 
students of the College, February, 1833, by 
Rev. Dr. Wisner, Secretary of the A. B. C. F. M. 
"From this time his mind was not at rest until 
the beginning of the next year, when, after 
many trials and conflicts, arising partly from a 
distrust of his own qualifications and partly 
from reluctance of near friends, especially of 
his aged parents, to part with him, he came 
deliberately to the determination that he would. 



72 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

devote his life to foreign jiiissions; and froinr 
that hour everything else was made subordinate 
and subservient to the accomplishment of this 
one grand object"; and his consecrated and de- 
voted spirit is breathed forth on the pages of a 
letter he forwarded to the A. B. C. F. M. 

"Time has only served to strengthen the de- 
cision which was calmly and dispassionately 
made. After repeated reviews of the same, I 
am confirmed and settled. I cannot now doubt 
for a moment; mine was not a rash or a hasty 
conclusion. If there are no contrary indica- 
tions, I must go; I cannot stay. Eeceive me 
under your care as a candidate for the mission- 
ary service; I wish to be enlisted for life. If 
in your view I can be of any service, I lay my 
all at your feet. Silver and gold have I none, 
but such as I have give I thee. Send me abroad 
to publish glad tidings to the idol-serving na- 
.tions. Send me to the most desert part of all 
the howling wilderness of heathenism, to the 
most barbarous climes, or to more civilized re- 
gions. Send me to the millions of pagans, to the 
followers of the false prophet, to the Jews or 
the Gentiles, to Catholics or Protestants. Send 
me, in fine, wherever God opens an effectual 
door. Send me, for the necessity is laid upon me ; 
yea, woe is unto me if I preach not the Gospel 
to the perishing heathen." (Manual Eeformed 
Church, etc.) 

He was accepted, but before he departed he 
was employed by the Board of Foreign Missions 
of the Reformed (Dutch) Church (then acting in 



THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONARIES. 73 

concert witli the A. B. C. F. M.), visiting the 
churches, and several thousand dollars were 
raised, as well as much enthusiasm aroused in 
the behalf of missions, through his earnest ap- 
peals. 

Mr. Pohlman, with his wife (a sister of Dr. 
John Scudder,' of Indian fame), left for their 
mission field on the 25th of May, 1838. Like 
his brethren who had preceded him at Amoy, 
his labors began elsewhere, having first visited 
Java, Singapore and Borneo. He arrived in 
Amoy in company with Mr. Doty, June 24th, 
1844. 

Through his solicitations and influence among 
friends at home, money was secured for the 
erection of the first church building of Amoy 
January, 1849, at the cost of |3,000, now occu- 
pied by the members of the First Church, Amoy. 
This was the first church erected in China, ex- 
clusively used for Chinese worship. Thus, the 
temple stands an honor to this man and a monu- 
m.ent to his faith and zeal. 

He was cut off in the midst of his years and 
not permitted to witness this crowning act of 
his life in its full cordpletion; for it Avas while 
on a voyage from Hong-Kong, whence he had 
^one to procure lamps for the edifice, that he 
lost his life at sea. 

"He set out to return to Amoy on the 2d of 
January (1849) in the schooner Omega. On the 
morning of the 5th or Gth the vessel struck, in 
a fearful gale, near Breakers' Point, about half 
way between Hong-Kong and Amoy." All on 



74 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

Board perislied save one, either at the hands of 
the pirates who infested those shores, or by 
the overwhehning waters. 

The people at Amoy were waiting Mr. Pohl- 
man's return, when they expected to dedicate 
the new structure. His funeral service and the 
dedication exercises were held at one and the 
same time, February 11th, 1*849. 

Mrs. Theodosia R. (Scudder) Pohlman, 1844- 
'45". 



J. V. N. TALMAGE, D. D., 1847-'92. 

Yery modestly, yet so characteristic of the 
writer of the ''Sketch of the Auioy Mssion,'' 
China (1888), the author closes up the biogra- 
phies of those whom he called the founders of 
the Amoy Mission with these Avords: ''So there 
is no need in this paper to mention the names of 
those succeeding them.'' 

As it was said of Dr. Abeel, so it could be 
said of Dr. Talmage: "The crowning beauty" 
of this man's life was "his humility." If Abeel 
and Dot}^ and Pohlman laid solid and deep the 
foundations upon the bed-rock of sound ortho- 
doxy. Dr. Talmage builded no less sagaciously, 
strongly and solidly thereon. For nearly the 
entire history of the Amoy Mission (up to 1802) 
he has watched and guarded sacredly the trust 
committed to his care. His faithfulness and 
wisdom and love ai'e written in indelible char- 
acters on dome and spire, on walls and columns, 



(2) Died ; buried at Aiuoy, Cliina. 




Rev. John V. N. Talmage, D. D. 



THE SUCCESSION OE MISSIONAEIES. 75 

on cornice and entablature, on chancel and nave 
of the structure we behold this day. 

When he was taken away, if it was not one 
of the great stones in the foundations, surely 
it was one of the strong pillars of the super- 
structure. 

Dr. Talma ge was born at Somerville, N. J., 
August 18th, 1819. Consecrated to God at 
his birth, he was early led to give his heart into 
His keeping. The name in old English used to 
be spelled Tollemache, and Dr. Talmage used 
to jokingly say he was a descendant of Tele- 
machus. 

" There was a pathetic scene fifty years ago in 
a New Jersey farm-house. A tender, loving, 
Christian mother was giving warm welcome to 
her son, who had just graduated from college 
with higti nonors (1842). Only a mother's heart 
can realize the joy and pride she felt in her boy, 
who had distinguished himself and done credit 
to the family name. He was her boy and in- 
expressibly dear to her. What then must have 
been her emotions when he told her, gently but 
firndy, that he had been led to consecrate his 
life to service for Christ in China. China was 
a long way off in those days, and its people hos- 
tile to missionaries; how could she bear to hear 
of her dearly beloved son going into peril even 
in such a cause. ^Oh, John !' she exclaimed. Ma- 
ternal love had its way for a moment, and then 
the higher nature in her triumphed, and she 
said: 'I prayed to God for this, and He has 
answered. How can I object?' They were 



76 FIFTl^ YEARS IN AMOY. 

brave words, which no mother couhi have ut- 
tered but one in whom love of G^od held the 
highest place. They remind one of another 
mother who long ago heard with joy the bless- 
ings which would come to the world through 
the babe she held in her arms; but heard, too, 
that ^a sword should pierce through her own 
soul also.' With faith like that of Abraham,, 
she would not withhold her son when God called 
for him." (^'Christian Herald.") 

Graduating from ^New Brunswick Seminary 
in 1845, he immediately offered himself to the 
Board of Foreign Missions of the Reformed 
(Dutch) Church, but on account of lack of 
finances, he was obliged to wait two years be- 
fore he was commissioned. In the meantime^ 
he served the Middle Church of Brooklyn. 

In April, 1847, he sailed away for the far off 
coasts of China, where he arrived after a four 
months' voyage. 

His life was one of ceaseless activity. " Preach- 
ing and teaching in the theological semmary, 
long tours into the interior, the preparation of 
books,'' and sought by all foreigners and natives 
for counsel, direction and sympathy — all made 
his life an intensely active and useful one. Chi- 
nese officials, the literati, merchants and com- 
mon people, Europeans and Americans, not only 
confided in him, respected him and loved him, 
but held him in high honor for his eminent 
scholarship, his intellectual force and his 
Christian character^ His home was always 
opened to all comers, and all received a kind 



THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONAEIES. 77 

and hospitable welcome. So whether they came 
seekiDg social enjo^anent or the solution of some 
vexing problem, the^^ fonnd just what they 
sought — none ever sought in vain here. An<l 
up and down that extended coast line of China, 
perhaps there w^as not another home so well 
known as his. 

He began his literary work early in his career 
and kept it up until the very end. Five years 
after his arrival he produced a primer (pp. 30, 
1852). Next followed a first reader (pp. 17, 
1853). In the same year (1853) he also made a 
translation of Burn's "Version of Pilgi^im's 
Progress." Then followed translations of Luke's 
Gospel, and tlie Epistles to the Galatians, Ephe- 
sians and rhilippians, and the epistles general 
of John and Peter. These translations were all 
rendered in Amoy Romanized colloquial — a sys- 
tem of writing the Chmese language (in use only 
the past thirty years) that has not only made it 
possible for old and young alike in that region 
to read and write, but has done more toward the 
spiritual enlightenment of that people than 
whole centuries of the old, but more literary, 
method could or can hope to accomplish. 

He gave his best efforts toward the develop- 
ment and use of this Romanized colloquial, so 
all his works are in this style. Perhaps it made 
him appear less scholarly, and received less ap- 
plause, but it brought light and knowledge to 
the very homes of thousands, who would never 
have had either without this system. That was 
all the reputation and applause that this man 



78 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

sought. He crowned his life-work (completing: 
it at Bound Brook) ^^dth a work entitled "The 
Amoy Colloquial Dictionary" — a scholarly work 
which will be of great service to all missionaries 
wdio may labor in that district, as well as to the- 
native Christians of Amoy and Formosa. 

Few indeed have been permitted to see how 
great things God hatK Avrought, what changes^ 
have taken place, in their appointed lifetime, as. 
was granted unto this good man. He went to 
Amoy in the first bloom of manhood, and from, 
start to finish he threw into the work a con- 
secrated zeal and a devoted enthusiasm. When, 
he arrived in Amoy there were no churches, no 
schools, no Christian homes, no hospitals, and 
only three converts. When he left there were 
2,000 converts, seventeen churches, and as many 
pastors under Presbyterian order alone, a theo- 
logical seminary, a training school for women;, 
and boys' and girls' schools and hospitals scat- 
tered throughout that district. 

In July, 1889, after a period of forty-two 
years of ser\ice, in consequence of an enfeebled 
and broken body, he was compelled to relinquish 
all active participation in his chosen work, and 
returned to the land of his birth, seeking rest 
and strength, with the expectation of thus being 
able to take up the work he so reluctantly had 
to leave. 

Until the very last that star of hope never- 
set. Even when he was fast sinking into the 
blessed rest, the last beams of that hope were 
faintly gleaming. He said then: "It seems. 




Residence of Rev. Dr. Talmage. 



THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONAEIES. 79 

HOW as though I may never get back to Amoy." 
It was still only "seeming" — not a settled fact 
with him. It shows how intently his heart was 
set on his life-work. And if there was one im- 
fulfilled wish in his life, it was only this, that 
he might die and be buried among the people 
for whom he had given all — his best. But it 
was not to be. His work was done, fully and 
w^ell done — all done. 

At Bound Brook, N. J., on the 19th of August, 
1892, he fell asleep, and rests from his labors. 

In that building in Somerville, N. J., where 
he was baptized and gave his heart to (iod, ivas 
his body takeii on August 22d, 1892, "for the 
services with which believing friends committed 
the precious dust to the earth in firm hope of 
a glorious resurrection.'' 

Silently, yet gloriously, his sun went down 
behind the hills of time, and for many a day its 
splendor wil! adorn the sides before it has en- 
tirely set beyond our view — its memory, never. 

Mrs. Abby F. (Woodruff) Talmage, 1850-'62; 
Mrs. Mary E. (Van Deventer) Talmage, 1864 

. Rev. J. S. Joralman, 1855-'58: Mrs. 

Martha B. (Condit) Joralman, 1855-'58. 

Rev. and ^Irs. Joralman left Amoy in the year 
1858 on account of the dangerous illness of the 
latter. Had health and strength permitted, 
they, with many others whom the trying clime 
had banished, would have been laboring in 
these fields to-day. Their hearts are there. 

After their return, they served the Church at 
Fairview, 111., for twenty-six ye-ars. They then 



80 FIFTY YEARS Ix\ AMOY. 

removed to Norwood Park, 111., now a suburb 
of Chicago, and still serve that Church (1892). 

LOCATED AT AMOY— EVANGELISTIC WORK. 

Rev. Daniel Eapalje, 1858; Mrs. Alice (Os- 
trum) Eapalje, 18T8; Rev. Alvin Ostrum, 1858- 
'64; Mrs. Susan (Webster) Ostrum, 1858-'G4. 

Rev. and Mrs. Ostrum were also compelled to 
leave the enervating climate of Ainoj. He 
spent two years at home recuperating, and in 
1866 became Stated Supply over the Church at 
Franklin, N. J., South Classis of Bergen. In 
1868 was chosen pastor of this church, and 
served it two years. While at Franklin, Mrs. 
Ostrum departed this life. Lea\ang Franldin 
in 1870, he moved to Tomhannock, having ac- 
cepted a call from the Presbyterian churches of 
Tomhannock and Johnsonville, Rensselaer 
County, N. Y. 

In 1871-^72 he served the Presbyterian church 
at State Centre, Iowa. Subsequently he set- 
tled in Navada, Iowa, where he had charge of a 
Presbyterian church for more than a year. 

In 1875 he moved to Southern California, 
serving consecutively the three Presbyt-erian 
churches of San Luis Obispo, Carpenteria and 
Oroville. About 1882, under the patronage of 
the CongTegational Board of Home Missions, he 
settled at MuiT)hys, Calaveras County, Cal., and 
for three years took charge of all the work in 
that county. He was th eonly minister in Calav- 
eras County and preached in twenty-three dif- 
ferent places. 

In April, 1886, he received and accepted a call 



TPIE SUCCESSION OF iVHSSIONAEIES. 81 

from the Congregational Cliurcli (supported by 
American sugar planters) at Koliala, Hawaiian 
Islands. Here he is still serving the Church, 
and in conjunction with Rev. Frank Damon, 
devotes much labor looking after the spiritual 
welfare of the Chinese, Japanese and Portri- 
g-uese immigrants. 



Rev. John E. Watkins, I860; :Mrs. Sarah A. 
(Heuston) Watkins, 1860. 

These beloved missiouaries Avere never per- 
mitted to enter upon their chosen work. They 
sailed in the ship Edwin Forrest in August, 
1860, and no tidings were ever received of her 
fate. 

They have long ago dropped anchor along the 
shores of the Golden Seas; and instead of re- 
porting for duty in the city of Amoy, theirs has 
been the blessed privilege of reporting for duty 
in that city of light, joy and peace — the City 
of the New Jerusalem. There they served Him. 
With Mr. and Mrs. Watkins, three of the Amoy 
missionaries have found their last resting place 
beneath the waters of the mighty sea, while 
Mrs. i:ieanor (Ackerly) Doty, Mrs. Mary (Smith) 
Doty, Mrs. Theodosia R. (Scudder) Pohlman, 
Mrs. Abby (Woodruff) Talmage, Miss Caroline 
E. Adriance and two or three children of the 
missionaries sleep in the little hallowed ceme- 
tery on Kolongsu, Amoy. 

" They sleep in Jesus and are blest ; 

How sweet their slumbers are, 
From suffering and from sin released, 

And freed from every care." 



'S2 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

MISS CAHOLINE ADRIANCE, 1861-'64. 

Two miles south of Auburn, N. Y., at the out- 
let of Owasco Lake, stands the Sand Beach 
Ohurch (Owasco Outlet Church, Classis-of Mont- 
gomery), Eev. Chas. Maar, pastor. Though per- 
haps unknown to many of the members of the 
Reformed churches, yet, on account of the num- 
ber of missionaries, whose names are enrolled 
on her records, and who have gone out from 
her w-alls to publish the message of salvation 
unto the nations sitting in darkness, is worthy 
of better acquaintance and wilder reputation. 

It was in this church' that Miss Adrianee re- 
ceived both her spiritual and missionary educa- 
tion. 

In 1851, Rev. S. R. Brown, D. D., Avho had 
been a foreign missionary at Canton, China, 
under the auspices of the Morrison Educational 
Society, and in charge of the Morrison Memorial 
School at Canton, became pastor of the Sand 
Beach Church. 

It was under Dr. Brown's instruction, we may 
assume, that Miss Adrianee received her mis- 
sionary enthusiasm, and by whom was awak- 
ened the desire to go and tell the glad tidings 
of salvation to the souls perishing in the dark- 
ness of heathenism. 

Dr. Brown's life was fired with the spirit of 
missions, and the flame flow^ed with such bright- 
ness that it touched and fired the lives of mem- 
bers of his little fiock at Owasco Outlet. 

In 1852 a. Ladies' Foreign Mssionary Society 
was organized in this church, and Miss Adrianee 



THE SUCCESSION OF MISSIONARIES. 83 

was one of the charter members — and a very 
active and consecrated one. It was in this 
school that she for seven years was, uncon- 
sciously, perchance, fitting herself both for the 
Macedonian call and for usefulness on the for- 
eign field. 

But a few years go by before that call comes 
to the pastor and to his child of faith alike. 
Japan had been opened and was readj^ for the 
LoriFs harvesters to enter and begin the seed- 
sowing in the fallow soil. 

So when the call came in 1859 from the Board 
of Foreign Missions of^the Reformed (Dutch) 
Church to Dr. Brown to go and represent that 
denctmination in the "Land of the Rising Sun," 
he was ready to respond most heartily to the 
summons. 

Others had at the same time received the sum- 
mons, and with the same spirit of gladness 
obeyed the call. And thus it came to pass that it 
was that, instead of one or two, quite a company 
set out at that time from that church. 

There were, besides Dr. and Mrs. Brown, 
Bev^. Guide Verbeck, D. D., and wife. Miss 
Mary E. Ki(hler (now Mrs. E. R. Miller, of 
North Japan Mission), and Miss Adriance. Some 
of them were already, and others of them be- 
came, members of this ciliurch before their de- 
parture. 

Dr. A>rbeck was a graduate of the Auburn 
Theological Seminary, and while at Auburn 
became a member of this church.. Mrs. Ver- 
beck was a member. Miss Kidder was teaching 



84 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

at Owasco Outlet in Dr. Brown's school, and 
she thus became attached to this church. Hence, 
it was that at that time when this little com- 
pany set forth for the Orient on the ship Sur- 
prise, from New York, in the spring of 1859, 
they w^ere all members of the Sand Beach 
Church, at Owasco Outlet, N. Y. 

This little memoir has to do, however, with 
Miss A(]riance. 

Caroline Adriance, daughter of Jacob and 
Elizabeth Humphrey Adriance, was born in 
Scii>io, N. Y., October 29th, 1824. When about 
four years old she met»with the greatest loss 
wdiich can come to a child in the death of her 
mother. So the care of her in childhood deyolved 
upon others, who could not feel toward her as 
a mother. 

There was nothing remarkable about her 
childhood, and the only record of those early 
years is that she was obedient and affectionate, 
and grew^ up to be useful and helpful; yet, there 
is a beautiful history written in those lines that 
friends may well cherish. 

At about the age of sixteen, during a revival 
that o(;curre(l in the neighborhood, she was one 
among others at that time to decide to accept 
Christ as her Saviour. Soon after she made a 
public profession of her faith by uniting with 
the Sand Beach Church, where she remained a 
consistent member until she received the call 
to go unto the heathen. 

Miss Adriance was a volunteer. The Board 
was not in the position to send her at that time, 



THE SUCCESSION OF ]\nSSIONARIES. 85 

SO she went out at her own expense. And not 
only that, but before she left New York she 
made her will and bequeathed all her earthly 
possessions to the Board of Foreign Missions, 
which amounted, at the time of her decease, to 
$2,500 or more. 

Miss Adriance's friends were very solicitous 
about her going alone, and on account thereof 
she received no small portion of discouragement 
from them to enter upon what seemed a most 
hazardous enterprise. 

That she made no mistake, and that her life 
was full of joy in her work, we have ample testi- 
miony in a letter (April 8th, 1861,) of hers to a 
cousin now living in Poughkeepsie, N. Y. In 
the letter, she writes: 

"I recollect well the anxiet^^ you felt on my 
account because I was single and alone, with no 
protector, and I presume you have often wished 
to know how your poor lone cousin was getting 
along. Could you have been permitted to have 
looked into my home in Japan you would have 
seen me surrounded with blessings far more 
than you could have imagined. I -^ill not at- 
tempt, nor do I wish to make you think that it 
was no trial to leave brothers, sisters and friends 
to whom I was strongl}^ attached; the dear lit- 
tle church of which I was a member; my own 
native land, which none could love more than I. 
Can any one think that it wa^ not a trial, ajid 
a severe one, too, to be separated from all these 
with little expectation of ever seeing them 
again ? But, strong as are ties which are (for a 



80 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

season, at least,) severed, I do not regret the 
course I have taken, and I am not sorry I am 
in Japan. I trust I am where the Father would 
have me, and that He has somethmg for me to 
do in this far off land." 

Her chosen lot was with the laborers at Yoko- 
hama, Japan, but finding that she could not 
pursue the work she had set out to do among 
the women of Japan, withdrew from the field 
and joined the Mission at Amoy some time in 
1861. 

Here also she was only permitted to labor 
for three brief years, when death cut off her 
life of usefulness March 5th, 1864; yet, during 
that time, by her beautiful Christian character 
and unsparing devotion, she endeared herself 
to all with whom and for whom she had 
labored. 

Loving hands laid her to rest in the little 
hallowed cemetery on Kolongsu, where others 
of the Amoy Mission lie sleeping their calm and 
peaceful slumbers. 

Over her grave, in that far off land, stands 
a modest little monument, with best of inspira- 
tions that one might Avish for at life's close: 
"She hath done what she could." 



LOCATED AT SIO- KITE— EVAXGELI STIC WORK. 

Kev. Leonard W. Kip, D. D., 1861; Mrs. Helen 
(Culburtson) Kip, 1864^; Kev. Augustus Blau- 
velt, 1861-'64; Mrs. Jennie (Zabriskie) Blauvelt, 
186l-'64. 



(3) Died; buried at Amoy, China. 



THE SUCCESSION OF :NnSSIONAmES. 87 

Mr. and Mrs. Blauvelt left Amoy August 30th, 
1864, and arrived in this country the close of 
December. Mrs. Blauvelt's health was shat- 
tered, and as there was no i)rospect of her being 
able to return within a year or two, Mr. Blau- 
velt proposed to the Board that they send him 
back to China and leave his family in this coun- 
try. "The sacrifice did not seem called for, 
though it excited the hearty admiration of the 
Board for the spirit which prompted it." 

In 18G5-'G6 he became pastor of the Bloom- 
ingdale (K. Y.) church, Classis of Ulster, and 
served it until 1871-'72. For a number of years 
past, on account of an enfeebled mind, he has 
been unable to manage his affairs. 



REV. HOWARD VAN DOREN, 1864-'73. 

Mr. Van Doren was compelled to leave his 
work on account of weak eyes, which threatened 
total blindness. 

On his return to America he server! the 
churches at Cato, N, Y., Classis of Geneva, for 
two years, 1874-'76; Tyre, same Classis, 1876- 
'82; Gallupville, N. Y., Classis of Schoharie, 
1883-'86; Esopus, N. Y., Classis of Ulster, 1887- 
'92; Bath-on-Hudson (new organization), 1892 — . 



MISS HELEN M. VAN DOREN, 1870-'77. 

Miss Van Doren was one of the faithful work- 
ers of the Mission, and it was a great loss when 
ill-health compelled her to return to the home- 
land. She had charge of the girls' school, which 
was organized just about the time of her arrival, 



88 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

and she also (lid a great deal of country work, 
visiting the women of the out-stations in com- 
pany with the Misses Talmage. 



JOHN A. DAVIS. 

Mrs. Emma C. (Wyckoff) Davis, 1868-'71. 

Hi-health banished these two also from the 
list of active workers at Amoy. ^Ir. Davis 
served the Board for two years after his arrival 
in America; then served the churches at Palis- 
ades, N. J., Classis of Bergen, 1872-'73 ; Potters- 
ville, N. J., Classis of Karitan, 1873-'78; Oyster 
Bay, L. I., North Classis of Long Island, 1878- 
'82; Second, Newark, N. J., Classis of Newark, 
1883-'89. He is now serving a Presbyterian 
church at Hempstead, L. I., 1802. 



LOCATED AT AJNIOY. 

Miss Mary E. Talmage, 1874; Rev. David M. 
Talmage, 1877-'80. 

Mr. Talmage was obliged to leave his chosen 
field on account of his poor health. So shat- 
tered was his streng-th that several years passed 
before he fully recovere<L Pastor Bound Brook, 
N. J., 1882-'84; Clarkstown, N. Y., 1885-'87; 
Westwood, N. J., 1888. 



MISS CATHARINE M. TALMAGE, 1881. 

Miss Talmage went to China in 1874, and, not- 
withstanding her poor eyesight, at once engaged 
in the active work of the Mission. She labored 
on independently in this way for seven years, 
when in 1881 she was regularly appointed by the 
Board. 



THE SUCCESSION OF mSSIONAEIES. 89* 

LOCATED AT AIMOY-EVANGELISTIC WORK. 

Eev. Alexander S. Van Dyke, 1882; Mrs. 
Alice (Kip) Van Dyke, 188G. 



located at amoy-educatioxal work. 

(acade:\iical.) * 

Rev. Philip W. Pitcher, 1885; Mrs. Anita F. 
(Merritt) Pitcher, 1885. 



LOCATED AT SIO-KHE— MEDICAL WORK. 

Miss Y. May King, M. D., 1887-'88; John A. 
Otte, M. D., 1887;* Mrs. F. C. (Phelps) Otte, 

1887. 



LOCATED AT AMOY-EDUCATIONAL WORK. 
(THEOLOGICAL.) 

Rev. John Gr. Fagg, 1887; Mrs. Margaret (Gil- 
lespie) Fagg, 1889. 



LOCATED AT AMOY. 

Miss E. M. Cappon, 1891. 



LOCATED AT SIO-KHE. 

Miss Nellie Zw^emer, 1891; Miss M. C. Mor- 
rison, 1892. 



CHAPTER IX. 



MISSIONAEY METHODS AND AGENCIES. 

In every missionary enterprise in China there 
are fonr clear and well-defined departments of 
evangelization, viz.: Evangelistic, medical, edu- 
cational and the press. 

The Amoy Mission has been characterized as 
being a "preaching mission." And it is true, 
yet it would be erroneous to suppose that the 
preaching had been confined to the chapels and 
churches. The same blessed Word has been 
preached, not only in the chapels and on the 
streets, but in the medical and educational insti- 
tutions, and in the books and tracts and other 
literature that have been issued from her 
presses as well. The aim has been to preach 
as beautiful sermons in the wards of the hos.- 
pitals, the school-room, and from the printed 
page as from the sacred desk, thus sowing the 
Word broadcast. 

Still, the church has been paramount. The 
church has been of the first importance and al- 
ways led the way — the hospitals, the schools 
folloAving as accessories, or, as new channels 
through which the Word might run and be 
glorified. To this true order of our enter- 
prise, the substantial results we now wit- 
ness are in no small measure due. Medical and 



mSSIONARY IVIETHODS AND AGENCIES. 91 

educational work and tlie press have been con- 
sidered of gi^eat importance— in fact, indispens- 
able — but all these departments have ever been 
kept '^ subservient, to the proclamation of the 
OospeL'- 

We propose to review these four depart- 
ments as briefly as possible, and endeavor to 
ascertain what each has accomplished in these 
'^^ty years. 



CHAPTER X. 



THE CHUECH OF CIIKIST IN CHINA. 

At the present time three missionary societies 
are represented at Amoy, yiz.: The Eeformed 
(Dutch) Church (1842^), the London Mission 
(18441), and the English Presbyterian (1850), 
in the order of their establishment. 

There have been other societies represented, 
but only for a brief period. The American 
Episcopal Church was represented in 1842 by 
Bishop Boone, who arrived at Amoy with Dr. 
Abeel; and the American Presbyterian Church 
(North) was represented for awhile longer by 
J. C. Hepburn, M. D., from 1843 to 1845, and by 
Rev. John Loyd from 1844 to 1848. 

After the death of Rev. Mr. Loyd, the Ameri- 
can Presbyterian Church withdrew and passed 
their interests over to the Reformed (Dutch) 
Church, and established themselves elsewhere 
in the Em]>ire. 

Rev. Mr. Boone did not remain long enough 
to establish any permanent work, and no repre- 
sentative succeeded him at Amoy. 

The London Mission Society represents the 
Congregational or Independent polity of church 
government, and so all their churches have been 
established at Amoy after that order, and thus 

(1) Established. 



THE CIIURGII OF CHRIST IN CHINA. 93 

its representatives have worked independeiitly. 
lUit the other two societies, viz.: Reformed 
(Dutchj Cliiirc]]. and the English Presbyterian 
€lmrch, being closely allied by their ecclesiasti- 
cal politj* became so united in all their efforts 
that they have been practically one mission from 
the start. Perfect harmony has existed between 
these two bodies, and together have they la- 
bored to establish one church under the Presby- 
terian order, but which should be neither Ameri- 
can, Dutch, or English, but the Church of Christ 
in China, literally the "Holy Church of Jesus." 
Only for the sake of economy were there any 
lines that in any way indicated a separation be- 
tween these two societies, and they were these: 
First: Each society keeping its own "pecuniary 
matters distinct"; second: Each society having 
\ts own field, with its particular chapels and 
churches under its particular supervision. There 
was nothing else to distinguish them— if this can 
be called a distinction. Au<l even here the lines 
were so finely drawn as to be almost unob- 
sei'vable, because each was sometimes responsi- 
ble for the work to be done in the other's terri- 
tory. 

As we have already recorded, the missionaries 
at Amoy were well received, both by officials 
and by the people. And they went everywhere 
preaching the Gospel, healing the sick, dis- 
tributing tracts unmolested, "the Lord work- 
ing with them, confirming the work with signs 
following." Thus the good work was continuetl 
until in 1856, when the solemn responsibility 



94 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

fell upon the missionaries of the Eeformed 
(Dutch) Church to organize the first church of 
Amoj. Then, too, the question arose, what wa)s 
the church to be? What was it to be called? 
Was it to be the English Presbyterian, or the 
American, or the Dutch, or the English- Ameri- 
ean-Dutch-Ohinese Church, or simply the Chi- 
nese Church, i. e., "The Church of Christ in 
China'^? To afflict the church with the names 
English, American, or Dutch seemed, after due 
deliberation, both unnecessary and unwise — 
moreover, absurd. They put themselves, there- 
fore, under the leading of Providence, and they 
solemnly felt that they were led by God when 
they founded "a purely Chinese church" by 
adopting the order of the Eeformed (Dutch) 
Church in America. 

In these proceedings the missionaries of the 
English Presbyterian Church united without a 
dissonant note. They entered into the plan 
with their whole heart, and instead of forming 
au other and distinct organization of their own, 
after another and distinct order, gladly ac- 
cepted these (our) proposed forms and ordi- 
nances, and heartily joined with us in consum- 
mating the organization of the one Church of 
Christ in China under the Presbyterian Ecclesi- 
astical Government at Amoy. For neither could 
see "any sufficient reason for organizing two 
distinct denominations." 

The object of this organization was beauti- 
fully stated by Dr. Carstairs Douglass in a let- 
ter addressed to the Corresponding Secretary 



THE CHURCH OF CHEIST IN CHINA. 95 

of tlie English Presbyterian Mission Board as 
follows: "It is an attempt to build on the soil 
of China, with the lively stones prepared by the^ 
great Master Builder, an ecclesiastical body 
holding the grand doctrines enunciated at West- 
minster and Dort, and the principles of Presby- 
terian .polity embraced at the Eeformation by 
the purest churches on the Continent and in 
Britain ; it Avill also be a beautiful point in the 
history of this infant church that the under- 
builders employed in shaping and arranging the- 
stones were messengers of two different (though 
not differing) churches in the two great nations- 
on either side of the Atlantic." 

And the -Presbyterian Church in England, 
with the same beautiful spirit as was mani- 
fested by their representatives at Amoy, heart- 
ily approved of every action taken, and bade 
the work "God speed." 

In the process of time other churches were 
organized after this s'ame order at Amoy, until 
the Reformed (Dutch) Church missionaries had 
three organized churches, viz.: the First and 
Second churches of Amoy and the church of 
Chioh-Be, under their supervision; and the Eng- 
lish Presbyterian Church missionaries had two 
organized churches, viz.: the church of Pe-chui-a 
and the church of Ma-peng, under their super- 
vision. 

This was in 1860, and as yet the churches 
had no formal ecclesiastical organization. The 
missionaries, therefore, felt that the time had 
arrived for such organization and tiie establish- 



96 FIFTY' YEARS IN AMOY. 

ment of higher judicatories, whereby the 
churches might fully enjoy the "essential prin- 
ciples of Presbyterianism." Such a step was, 
moreover, necessary', because the churches, ac- 
cording to their ecclesiastical polity, were not 
independent of each other, but members of each 
other as parts of a whole, and subject t% each 
other, and subject to the whole as well; hence 
the need of some ecclesiastical council or body 
where matters appertaining to the whole might 
be adjudicated. 

In 1862 the " Classis,"^ or "The Great Presby- 
terial or Classical Council " of the Amoy 
churches, was accordingly founded, possessed 
of full powers to perform all duties devolving 
upon such a body. This also received the hearty 
approval of the brethren in the Presbyterian 
Church of England. 

The proposition, to form such a church and 
such an ecclesiastical organization of all 
the churches thus formed, as stated above, on 
account of some misapprehension and misun- 
derstan<ling, met with a different kind of re- 
ception in America. The proposition was op- 
posed by the General Synod from the start, and 
the opposition continued for five years or more. 
We deem it unnecessary to record that history 
in full on these pages. They who desire to 
read it will find it quite fully recorded in the 
General Synod Reports of 1857 to 1863; also 
in a small pamphlet, written by Dr. Talmage 

(2) In 1892 the "Classis" was divided into two, the Northern 
or Chiu-Chiu, and the Southern or Chiang-Chiu. At the same 
time the Synod of Chiang-Chin was formed. 



THE CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA. 97 

in 18G3, entitled "The Ecclesiastical Eelations 
of tlie Cliurches of the Presbyterial Order, at 
Amoy, China. '~' 

It was due chiefly to the efforts of Dr. Tal- 
mage that the tide of opposition that had flowed 
on so long- was turned in favor of this united 
w^ork, and this one united church. 
yWith all due honor to his faithful fellow- 
laborers, and to sympathizing supporters at 
Amoy, and tlie part they took in this unhappj;; 
controversy, no one can review the history of 
those days without feeling that to Dr. Tal- 
mage's patience and skill and courage is the 
unbroken relation of the churches of the Pres- 
byterial Order at Amoy, and consequently the 
foundation of a purely Chinese Church and 
Classis, due. Five years or more were con- 
sumed in the unfortunate struggle. More than 
once Dr. Talmage was defeated, yet he never 
was conquered. For five years he plead and 
wrote and exhorted in exi)laining and removing 
misconceptions and misstatements. And h.e 
never gave up until the Church was convinced 
that the missionaries at Amoy were upholding a 
just and righteous cause. ^ 

There is no man in our Church who would 
have it otherAvise. There is no man in our 
Church who does not rejoice over the consum- 
mation of such a church and such an ecclesi- 
astical organization as was established at Amoy, 
respectively, in 1856 and 1862. 

According to the Synod's Eeport of 1891, 
there were 17 organized churches at Amoy, with 



98 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

1,859 adult members, 15 native pastors, 50 
unor<laine(l native helpers, and a native Hakka 
Mission, under the jurisdiction of Tai-hoey, or 
"Great Classical Council" of the Amoy churches. 
It is only necessary here to speak of the 
churches of this organization, un;ler the Re- 
formed (Dutch) Church Missicm's particular su- 
pervision, which we now procee<l to do. 




Chinese Pastors and Helpers in Amoy Mission. 



CHAPTER XL 

THE NINE CHURCHES.^ 



Name of Church. Name of Present Pastor. 

First Church of Amoy, Eev. Ng Ho-seng.{2) 

Second Church of Amoy, Rev. Ti Peng-teng. 

Chioh-be Church, Rev. Lim Khiok. 

0-Kang, Rev. Li Ki-che 

Hong-San Church, Rev. lu Ho-sui. 

Chiang-chiu Church, Rev. Chhoa Thian-Khit. 

Tong-an Rev. Lim Chi-Seng. 

Sio-Khe Rev. lap Han Chiong. 

Thian-San, Rev. Tiong Lu-li. 



EXPI.ANATION OF CHURCH NAMES. 

Chioh-be church is located at Chioh-be, a 
town of 00,000 inhabitants, eighteen miles west 
of Amoy on the West River. The meaning of 
the name is "Stone Horse." 

0-Kang church is located on the Island of 
Amoy, and is made up of two congregations, 
the one worshipping at O and the other at Kang. 
Hence the name 0-Kang. But "O" is an ab- 
breviation for 0-pi, and "Kang" an abbrevia- 
tion for Kang-thau, the full names of the places. 
The meaning of O-Kang is "Lake River." 

Hong-San church is located on the mainland, 
eight or ten miles north of Amoy, and is also 
composed of two congregations, the one wor- 
shipping at Hong and the other at San. Hence 
the name Hong-San. "Hong" is the abbrevia- 
tion for Ang-tung-thau, "San" the abbreviation 
for Te-soa. The meaning of Hong-San is " Great 

(1) Each church suppoJts its own pastor. 

(2) ''o" pronounced "ung." 



100 FIFTY YEARS IN AJVIOY. 

Hountain." This church has one out-station at 
Te-thau. 

Chiang-chiu church is located in the City of 
Chiang-chiu, a city of 200,000 inhabitants, 
twenty-five or thirty miles west of Amoy and 
six miles west of Chioh-be, on the West River. 
Has one out-station: Chhoa-poa. There is no 
particular meaning to the words. 

Tong-an church is located at Tong-an, a city 
of 150,000 inhabitants, twelve or fifteen miles 
north of Amoy and five miles north of Hongr^ 
San. The meaning of the name is "United 
Peace." Has two out-stations: Poa-thau-chhi 
and Ko-soa. 

Sio-Khe is located in the small market town 
of Sio-Khe, between fifty and sixty miles south- 
west of Amoy on the Sio-Khe River, and 
twenty-five miles w^est of Chiang-chiu. The 
meaning of the name is "Little River." Had 
at the end of the year 1891 six out-stations, 
viz.: Lam-sin, Poa, Toa-Khe, Soa-pi, E-che and 
Toa-lo-teng. 

Thian-San is located between six and ten 
miles north and west of Chiang-chiu, and is 
composed of two congregations, the one wor- 
shii^ping at Thian and the other at San. "Thian" 
Is the abbreviation for Thian-po, and "San" the 
abbreviation for Soa-Sia. The meaning of 
Thian-San is "Heavenly Mountain." Has one 
out-station, viz.: Leng-Shoa. 

Thus we might in English designate the 
churches : 

The First Church of Amoy. 



THE NINE CHURCHES. 101 

The Second Church of Amoy. 
The Stone Horse Church. 
The Lake River Church. 
The Great Mountain Church. 
The Chiang-Chiu Church. 
The United l*eace Church. 
The Little River Church. 
The Heavenlv Mountain Church. 



THE FIRST CHUnCH OF AMOY. 

First pastor, Rev. Lo Tau, 1863-'70; second 
pastor, Rev. Chhoa Thian-Khit, 1871-'83; third 
pastor. Rev. Ng Ho-seng, 1885. 

In Januar^^, 1844, two rooms were rented in 
the city of Amoy, one being used as a chapel 
for regular preaching services, and the other as 
a dispensary, in the charge of Dr. Cummings, 
and in both these places the natives were taught 
both by minister and physician the way of eter- 
nal life. The people were eager to listen to 
the "good news," and so at the first service a 
congregation of seventy "met to worshij) the 
true God.'' The size of the audiences never 
diminished, but frequently they numbered two 
hundred eager listeners. 

On March 21st, 1844, a Bible class of twelve 
scholars was organized, and maintained with 
increased interest and blessing. 

On December l(>th, 1845, a special meeting 
for w^omen was instituted, and has been main- 
tained till this day with unabated zeal by the 
ladies of our mission. 

In December, 1845, the growing congregation 



102 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

moved out of their small room into a more com- 
modious and newly rented chapel. 

On the 5th of January, 1846, the first Chinese 
monthly concert was held, consisting of a morn- 
ing and evening session. The morning was de- 
voted to i)rayer and the afternoon to discussing 
matters pertaining to methods and plans of 
work and missionary news in general. 

It was a Union Service of all Protestant mis- 
sionaries: Eeformed, English Presbyterian and 
London Mission, and all the native converts 
connected with these societies. 

The concert is still maintained once a month. 
And it is a blessed bond of union that w^e trust 
will never be broken. It has bound us one in 
spirit, if not one in name, as we have endeav- 
ored to preach the Word, and sought to bring 
the knowledge of its everlasting fulness to the 
people committed to our charge. 



THE FIRST CONVERTS. 

Four years thus rolled by whilst the harvest- 
ers had gone forth to scatter the seed, patiently 
waiting the fij-st signs of reaping. Dr. Abeel 
passed away before he could thrust in his sickle 
to gather in the sheaves, but on the first Sab- 
bath of April (5th inst.), 1840, Mr. Pohlman had 
both the honor and the pleasure of baptizing 
and receiving into full communion the first con- 
verts of the Gospel at Amoy. 

A letter received by the A. B. C. F. M. from 
Mr. Pohlman regarding these aged converts 
will prove of interest. The name of one was 



THE NINE CHUECHES. 103 

Hok Kiii-peli, and the other Un Sia-peh, both 
over fifty j-ears of age. 

"Hok Kiii-peh is a native of Lam-an, about 
twenty-five miles from Amoy, and came to this 
city at the age of seventeen. His first employ- 
ment was that of a mill grinder, at twenty-five 
cents a month and food. At the age of twenty- 
two he enlisted as a soldier, and now bears the 
scars received in the battle fought with the 
pirates. When nearly fifty, he opened a shop 
for the manufacture and sale of idol paper. 
After the first missionaries, Messrs. Abeel and 
Boone, had been at Kolongsu about sLx months, 
he was brought to the preaching service by a 
friend, and was at once impressed with the rea- 
sonableness of the truth and the utter folly of 
idolatry. For three years and a half he has 
been a steady attendant on the means of grace 
and a diligent seeker of salvation. The change 
in him has been gi^adual, but marked. His em- 
ployment causing him great uneasiness, he aban- 
doned it. 

" Un Sia-peh is a native of Tong-an, ten miles 
from Amoy, and he came to this city about seven 
years ago to take the store of his brother, who 
had died. He was brought to our chapel by 
Hok Kui-peh more than two years ago, and has 
ever since continued a diligent and devout 
hearer of the Gospel. 

"At the public examination, these old men 
referred to Mr. Abeel as the person from whom 
they first heard the tidings of great joy. The 
idols in the house of Kui-peh all belonged to 



104 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

members of his family, and he insisted on their 
removal from the public hall, in which they 
have been many years. This, after a long strug- 
gle, was done. The only idol in the house of 
Uh Sia-peh has been formally given to me, and 
is now in my possession." 
"Amoy, May 1st, 1846." 



THE FIRST CHURCH BUILDING. 

Three more years passed by, and though the 
accessions to the Christian religion were exceed- 
ingly few, yet the brethren felt their labor in 
the Lord was not in vain. 

They had been holding services in rented quar- 
ters, and the missionaries concluded that a 
home dedicated to God would not only be more 
appropriate, but an advantage for the promul- 
gation of the Grospel, "and a valuable assistant 
in the prosecution of their labors." 

Through Hok Kui-peh, the first convert, a 
piece of property, with four small buildiiigs, 
was secured on September Kith, 1847. One of 
the buildings was temijorarily fitted up for a 
chapel and occupied until 1848, when, through 
the solicitations of Mr. Pohlman, |3,000 ha\'ing 
been secured, the work on the new and First 
Church building was begnn. The building was 
dedicated February 11th, 1849. The church is 
located in the eastern part of the city on New 
Street, i. e., Sin-Koe-a. It is usually spoken of 
as the Sin-Koe-a Church, and so reported in the 
Sy nodical Report of the Anioy Churches. The 
dimensions are: Height of ceiling, 19 feet and 




First Church, Amoy, Sin-koe-a. 



THE NINE CHUECHES. 105 

5 inches; to top of tower, 50 feet; length, 60 
feet; width, 37 feet, and portico, 10 feet. It is 
built of brick and after the "Etruscan style of 
architecture." The front is stucco ^^ork of 
pure white, and on an oval slab, from the quarry 
of Canton, aboTe the front entablature, there is 
an inscription in Chinese characters which reads 
as follows: ''A Temple for the Worship of 
the True God, the Great Sovereign Ruler." On 
each side of the inscription are inscribed other 
-Chiuese characters meaning: ''The One Thou- 
sand, Eight Hundred and Forty-eighth Year of 
Jesus' Advent, and To-Kong the Twenty-eighth 
Year," and underneath all the figures "1848." 
The interior is arranged after the fashion of a 
Quaker meeting-house, i. e., a screen separating 
the men from the women. And everything is 
■as plain as those places of worship — no cush- 
ioned seats, no carpeted floors, no stained glass 
windows. In a majority of cases simply benches 
with no backs adorn the churches in the Amoy 
Tegion. Tile flooi^s always. Back of the church 
IS a building, height 26 feet, length 40, width 
14. The upper part was used as a parsonage 
until 1892, and the lower part as a consistory 
room. A new parsonage was provided in 1892. 
In the erection of this building the Reformed 
€hurch had the privilege of establishing the 
•first Protestant church building in the Chi- 
nese Empire, as it had two centuries before of 
establishing the first church organization in 
New York (tlien called New Amsterdam) in 
1628. 



106 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

The first children of native converts were 
baptized by Mr. Doty on May 19th, 1850. At 
this time he baptized his own son and three 
chihiren of native Christians. 



THE FIRST EVANGELIST AND MAYTYR. 

The first native evangelist employed by the 
Mission was Mr. U Teng-ang. He vs^as a native 
of the Kwang-tung (Canton) Province, and in 
1841 went to Siam, where he came into the em- 
ployment of a missionary and thus learne<l to 
love and serve the Lord Jesus. 

He returned to China in 1846, and in August 
of that year arrived at Amoy, becomin.f? con- 
necter! with the Mission in March, 1847. He 
was a faithfid and zealous servant, and useful 
in conversing- with inciuirers, holding meetings 
and touring in the country. In May, 1853, he 
went to Chiang-chiu in company Avitli a col- 
porteur to see about opening a new station 
there. It was during the periocl of the Tai-peng 
rebellion, when the insurgents had captured the 
city. The people of Chiang-Chin suspected 
that these two were spies of the enemy, and 
the authorities commanded their arrest. The 
colporteur escaped, but Mr. U Teng-ang was 
seized and beheaded. May, 1853. A letter from 
Mr. Doty at this time speaks of this sad affair 
in tJiese words: ''From all we can learn, it 
api>ears that our friend fell a sacrifice to the 
violence of an aroused and suspicious populace, 
who were beyond the control of both reason and 
law. The evangelist had mingled with the 



THE NINE CHUECHES. 107 

spectators at the examination of several man- 
darins, wlio had been taken by the insurgents 
at the capture of the place. A mandarin of low 
rank hapi>ened to be questioned by the acting 
insurgent chief, who could only speak the local 
dialect, while the mandarin under examination 
could only communicate through the court lan- 
guage, not understanding the local. The evan- 
gelist was standing near, and, seeing the diffi- 
cult}', voluntarily spoke out as an interpreter 
between the parties. Upon this, tlie insurgent 
chief, in some ])olite manner, expressed to the 
evangelist his approbation and acknowledgment. 
It is also reported that the evangelist interested 
himself in behalf of two or three small man- 
darins, and i)revailed with the insurgent to spare 
their lives. 

"Next day the populace arose and recaptured 
the city. Every stranger in and about the p^/ice 
became an object of popular suspicion. The 
part which the evangelist had acted was con- 
strued into evidence tliat he must have an inti- 
macy with the insurgent chief, and was himself 
one of therebels. Hence he was seized and brought 
before the acting magistrate. This person, for 
aught we know, may have owed his life to the 
interference of the evangelist. Be this as it 
may, the magistrate was convinced of his in- 
nocence and wished to set him at liberty. But 
the mob had the ascendancy. Death to the 
evangelist had been determined upon; they at 
once executed their purpose." 

The First Church of Amoy was fully organ- 



108 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

ized in 1856 '' bj the setting apart of elders and 
deacons." The first pastor, Rev. Lo-Tau, was in- 
stalled Marcli 29th, 1863, and received a salary 
of twelve dollars i^er month (this is the maxi- 
mum sum paid the pastors of to-day). He was- 
a faithful and devoted minister of the Gospel, 
and passed to his reward in the Kingdom above 
in the year of our Lord 1870. 

The progress of this church has not been what 
might have been hoped for. After a period 
of nearly forty years from its organization, its 
present membership only numbers seventy. 
This, to say the least, is disappointing^: and dis- 
couraging. Yet, there remains the comforting^ 
fact that from this sanctuary for two score 
years the invitation has been extended to these 
poor perishing ones in Amoy city to come to 
Jesus and be saved. Moreover, the seed has- 
been scattered, and, though the sowers knew it 
not, may have sprung up to fruitful harvest. 
Such labor is not in vain, and the Lord of the 
harvest knows when it is best to show the re- 
sults of this blessed work done by this old his- 
toric church in the Kingdom of China. Maybe 
it will be one of the brightest gems. 

The second pastor was the Rev. Chhoa Thian- 
Khit. He was installed in 1871, and served 
the church twelve years, when he accepted the 
call to Chiang-Chiu. 

Rev. Ng Ho-Seng was installed in 1885, and 
still continues in the pastorate (1892). 

Kang-thau and 0-pi, before the church organ- 



THE NINE CHUECHES. 100 

ization of (3-Kang, were out-stations of this 
church. 

The first and second churches, since 1800, 
have supported a mission and native evangelist 
at ('hhan-chhu-oa, on the Ishind of Anioy. 



THE SECOND CHURCH OF AMOY. 

First pastor, Rev. lap Han-chiong, 1863-'83; 
second pastor. Rev. Ti Peng-teng, 1884. 

Dr. Talmage arrived in Amoy, on his return 
from America, July 16th, 1850. On December 
22d following he preached his first regular ser- 
mon at the opening of a new place of worship 
in rooms connected with his own house at Tek 
Chhiu-Kha, Amoy — the site of the present Sec- 
ond Church's building. 

The room was crowded with curious, if not 
eager, listeners, and the average attendance 
range<l thereafter from 100, 150 to 200. Thus 
was inaugurated an enterprise under most favor- 
able circumstances that resulted in the organiza- 
tion of the Second Church of Amoy at Tek- 
Chhiu-Kha, i. e., "Foot of the Bamboo Tree," 
in A. D. 1860. It is called in the Synodical 
lieport of the Amoy Churches " The Tek-Chhiu 
Kha Church." 

The cliurch has been more prosperous than 
the First, or Sinkoe-a Church. This may in a 
measure be accounted for by the fact that it is 
in close proximity to the English Presbyterian 
Hospital, located at the same place, and thus 
was brought into greater prominence. But 
there has been, as well, a more consecrated and 



110 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

spiritual life manifested amongst her members. 

The present church buihling was constructed 
in 1859, and dedicated October 30th of that 
year. It is entirely surrounded by other Chi- 
nese shops and houses, and so almost entirely 
hidden from view — making it impossible to be 
photographed. Both of these churches (like all 
the country churches) have day schools for the 
instruction of the children of the church and for 
all the heathen children who may choose to 
come. The two churches together have or- 
ganized a Dorcas Society, which lias contributed 
as much as |60 cash in one year for benevolent 
purposes, and distributed numerous garments 
for the poor. 

The first pastor, Eev. lap Han-chiong, was or- 
dained and installed on the same day, March 
29th, 1863, as Rev. Lo Taw was over the First 
Church. He served the church with great ac- 
cei>tance for twenty years, when he received 
and accepted the call to the new organization at 
Sio-Khe, 1884. The second pastor, Rev. Ti 
Peng-teng, was called from the Chiang-Chiu 
Church and installed in 1884. 

Tong-an, Te-Soa and Ang-tung-thau, before 
they became separate church organizations, 
were out-stations of this church. The present 
membership of the Second Church is 135. 



CHIOH-BE CHURCH. 

First pastor. Rev. Tiong Lu-li, 1872-'82; sec- 
ond pastor. Rev. Lim Khiok, 1886. 
The Gospel message was brought to this place 



THE NINE CHURCHES. 



Ill 



by Christians from Peli-chui-a in 1854. They 
had j^one to Chioh-be to do some business, and 
when that was accomplislied, they occupied a 
few moments in telling the people of Chioh-be 
about the wonderful message they had already 
received and believed. 

The missionaries and native Christians of 
Amoy followed this up with as frequent visits 
as possible. Even sooner than they had faith 
to expect, the first harvest of twenty or more 
converts was gathered in 1855. In 1859 the or- 
ganization of the church occurred, being set off 
from the First Church of Amoy. On February 
13th, 1872, the first pastor, Rev. Tiong Lu li, 
was ordained and installed. 

The history of the church has been one of al- 
most ceaseless struggling. It met with violent 
opposition from the first, both from the officials 
and the people, who did all in their power to 
banish it from their midst. 

For some reason, a wonderful change had 
taken place in the minds and feelings of the 
officials and the people toward Christianity and 
missionaries. Certainly this was not the ani- 
mus displayed when the missionaries first ar- 
rived in 1842. Then officials and people strove 
to win the favor of the ambassadors of Christ, 
and, it would seem, to establish His cause in 
their midst as well. Yet, a dozen years after 
(1854), we have to witness this bitterness and 
hatred, breaking out in violent persecution. 

Was it the Tai-peng rebellion (inaugurated by 
a religious fanatic and a supposed Christian 



112 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

convert, who assumed the title of Emperor by 
the desigDation of "Grand Pacificator," whose 
dogs of war had already been let loose against 
the gates of the city of Ohiang-Ohiu, and whose 
object was to sweep away with one mad stroke 
the idols and temples of the nation, as well as 
the Dragon Throne itself,) that aroused all this 
bitterness and hatred against Christianity? 
Perhaps it was. We Imow no other reason. 
And for fourteen ^'^ears the "test of loyalty to 
the throne" was manifested by "trampling on 
the cross," and by their efforts to stamp out 
the little church already established. But the 
church at Chioh-be suffered internally as well 
as externally. The members became spiritually 
dead. Stroke after stroke fell, adverse fortune 
followed hard and sharp in the track of severe 
persecution, until there was but a flicker left of 
the flame. And when the pastor fell into gTiev- 
ous sin by the use of spirituous liquors, and 
for which he was deposed by Tai-Hoey in 1882, 
it seemed that the flame must cease burning 
longer. In 1886 a new pastor, Rev. Limi 
Khioh, was called to take charge. He was 
young, intelligent, commanding respect, ear- 
nest, and with zeal according to knowledge. 
Under his administration a new order of things 
has taken place. They have awakened to new 
life and new activity. That flame, nearly 
quenched, no longer flickers, but is burning 
brighter than ever in the history of the church. 
Thank God, the church has passed through the 
fires. And may it be like the refiner's fixe, cleans- 




SoA-SiA Chaprl and Pastor's House. 



THE NINE CHUECHES. 113 

ing her from all the dross, leaving only the puri- 
fied gold. This church had for a number of 
years an out-station at An-liau, hut persecu- 
tion banished that. To-day they have an ou1> 
station at Hai-teng, and history is repeating 
itself there in the effort the Church is making 
to get a foothold. The rent for the rooms at 
Hai-teng has been supplied for two years by 
the King's Daughters of the Second Church of 
Poughkecpsie, N. Y. 

The present membership of the Chioh-be 
Church is 71. That shows its history. 

After thirty-five years of toiling, and such 
results. Enough to discourage any worker. 
Over the tumult and above the raging storms 
we hear the voice of Him who is mighty to save 
saying: "Not by might nor by power, but by 
My spirit," in His own good time. 



O-KANG CHURCH. 

First pastor, Kev. Li Ki-che, 1889. 

This church is composed of two congrega- 
tions, viz.: one at Kang-tliau and the other at 
0-pi (more commonl^^ called Kio-thau). The 
missionaries and the native Christians began 
early to sow the seed in these fields, and in 
1863 rooms were rented in ICang-thau, when it 
became a regular appointed out-station of the 
First Church, Amoy. O-pi followed in 1865. 

In 1868 the organization into a regular 
church occurred, with thirty members, tAvo eld- 
ers and one deacon, and put under the care of 
native helpers, among whom were Mr. Ong Ki 



11^ FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

Siong, present pastor of the new church organ- 
ization Avest of Sio-Khe, and Mr. Li Ki-che, pres- 
ent pastor of the 0-Kang Church. 

About 1887, after repeated delays and vexing, 
negotiations, a piece of land was secured at 
Kang-thau, close by the sea, upon which was 
built the first chapel (preAdous to this, as we 
still do at O-pi, we rented a house for public 
services^). Dr. Talmage spent much of his time 
there, and not a little of his finances toward 
the building of this church and chapel. The 
ground and building cost |665. The native 
church provided |316, Dr. Talmage and the 
other missionaries the balance. Rev. Li Ki-che, 
the first pastor, was ordained and installed In 
1889, and ever since has preached the Word 
boldly and with power, and, we believe, with 
blessing. 

Cottage prayer meetings and seed-sowing 
amongst the neighboring villages have been 
carried on constantly by pastor and people. 
There has been much weeping aud many sore 
hearts on account of persistent rejection and 
stolid indifference to the Word of Life. Yet 
their trust is in Him who hath promised: '"They 
that sow in tears shall reap in joy." The time 
is not yet, but we patiently wait His own good 
time. 

The present membership is 103. 



HONa-SAN" CHURCH. 

First pastor. Rev. Tu Ho-sui. 



(3) A new chapel is to be erected at O-pi, 1893. 



THE NINE CHURCHES. 115 

This church also has two separate congre- 
gations, one at Te-soa and the other at Ang- 
tiing-thau. The origin of this organization is 
given in the following narrative: 

Thirty -five or forty years ago a poor widow, 
Mrs. Lee, residing at Te-soa, who had been 
robbed of all her husband's possessions by his 
relatives and friends, save the house in which 
she lived, was compelled to go down to the city 
of Amoy every day to peddle cloth and notions 
in order to gain a living for herself and family 
of small children. 

One day as she was passing through the nar- 
row thoroughfare she met an acquamtance, 
who invited her to go with her and hear the 
foreigner preach the "to-li" (doctrine). So on 
they went together until they came to a place 
where a small crowd was collected about an 
open door. Immediately her attention was ar- 
rested by the wonderful message brought to 
her hearing: "God so loved the world that He 
gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever 
believeth in Him should not perish, but haA^e 
everlasting life." Oh! that was just what she 
was looking for: love. No one loved her. Her 
friends had robbed her, and her portion had 
been only hatred and abuse. But here was One 
who loved indeed. Ah, it was a too wonder- 
ful message — too marvelous for this poor soul, 
so buried in ignorance, to understand all at 
once. Nor is it to be wondered at. Think of 
the thousands of generations that have passed 
away, and they (this nation) dwelling in total 



116 FIFTY YEARS IN AAIOY. 

darkness. In addition to the darkness that sur- 
rounds their yerj souls, think of the difficulty 
we have in conveying the message of the cross 
through the medium of the Chinese language — 
a language than which in the whole world there 
is none other so different from all others; ^'none 
other acquire<l with so much difficulty by for- 
eigners, or employed hy them with so little 
facility." Whether it be supposition or fact 
that Satan w^as the author of the Chinese lan- 
guage or not, it is nevertheless true that there 
is no other nation that has been so long and so 
completely under his sway as China. The lan- 
guage has been one of the highest and strong- 
est walls that has surrounded this nation. Until 
a little more than a half century ago, so-called 
natural religion and earth-born systems and 
false philosophies have had full sway. This 
could not have occurred had there been more 
affinity between the Chinese and the languages 
iof Christendom. Now try to convey your ideas 
of a Saviour — or the doctrines of the Bible — 
and you are met at the very threshold of your 
undertaking ^ylth the barrier of an unknown 
tongue. In translation, the task is no less diffi- 
cult. 

The processes employed in other translations 
must be abandoned here. Words cannot be 
transferred nor new ones coined. '^Here the 
translator must seize fast hold of the sense of 
the original, and then, casting into oblivion the 
old custom, strive to express the same sense in 
the Chinese characters." 



THE NINE CHURCHES. HT 

Then the message is so new — so out of their 
way of thinking. Of a Saviour, of remission 
of sins by blood, of redemption through a cruci- 
fied Christ — they have not the remotest idea. 
Begin to tell them this wonderful story and you 
receive at first stares and iiTesponsive hearts. 
They cannot comprehend it. It goes in one ear 
and out of the other. 

It demonstrates how we have to preach Jesus, 
and Him crucified, to such a people, i. e., like 
to little children. Once will not do, but time 
and time again is required before they can take 
it in. It demonstrates, too, why so few come 
to understand it. They hear it once, go to their 
homes, and because the laborers are so few, 
with no one to teach them, they never come to 
a knowledge of full salvation in Christ Jesus. 
No other result can be expected when the 
Church places twenty missionaries in the midst 
of 3,000,000 souls. That is 150,000 souls to one 
missionary. Think of it. With this little di- 
version, we now turn to the story. 

So, this soul, longing for that love, that pass- 
eth understanding, for that peace that floweth 
like a river, for that comfort that quieteth the 
heart, wended her way homeward, conscious 
only of some sweet music, as that ever old yet 
ever new song was borne and swept along^ 
through the darkened chambers of her soul: 
God so loved the world that He gave His Only 
Begotten Son. 

Another day, a short time after this, we find 
her again sitting at the feet of dear, now 



118 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

sainted, Dr. Talmage, learning the story of the 
<:ross, as he unfolded it, in all its simplicity and 
beauty. From him she learned the meaning of 
that message more fully, and so learned until 
the time came tha^ she committe<i her soul and 
life into the keeping of her Blessed Saviour. 
Thus her life, her Christian experience, ever 
flowed on peacefully and quietly like a great 
deep river. 

Indeed, it w^as a beautiful life. We can see 
her now, at eighty years of age, a dear old 
mother in Israel. How glad she was, what a 
cordial welcome she gave us, when we mission- 
aries visited the little church at Te-Soa, which 
she loved, and where she loved to meet with 
God's children and worship Him. She was the 
first convert to Christianity in Te-Soa. She it 
was Avho lirst invited the missionaries to come 
there and tell of the love of the wonderful Sa- 
viour, Avhom she already learned to love and 
follow. To her, we may say, we owe the Hong- 
San Church, and whose future prosperity and 
welfare was her deepest concern. God blessed 
her life, crowned her with His loving favor, 
granted her long years, permitted her to see 
the walls of her Zion strengthened — and all her 
children and many of her grandchildren and 
neighbors gathered into the fold. Ko disease 
had carried her away. She was just tired out, 
and she laid down and slept in the arms of 
Jesus. A calm and peaceful end of a sweet and 
gentle life. 

Such was the origin of the church of Hong- 




Chha-than po Chapel. 



THE NINE CHUECHES. H^ 

San. Had all the otiier souls in Te-Soa and 
Ang-tung-thau been as anxiously concerned 
about their salvation as Mrs. Lee a larger mem- 
bership would be recorded than is now afforded. 
Planted in the midst of rankest idolatry, every 
effort was made by the people to choke rather 
than to encourage the Word that was being sown 
in their midst. Thank God the church is planted 
upon the solid rock,— and she can never be 
moved. And the Word shall accomplish that 
which He pleaseth. 

Te-Soa became a regularly appointed out-sta- 
tion of the Second Church of Amoy, in 18(>2y 
and the present chapel built in 1874. 

Ang-tung-thau became an out-station in 1805, 
and its present chapel erected in 1867, the con- 
gregation bearing one-third of its cost. 

The church organization occurred on Novem- 
ber 27th, 1870. 

The present pastor, and the first to be in- 
stalled over this church, the Eev. lu Ho-Sul, 
was ordained and installed in 1889. 

There is one out-station connected with the 
church, viz.: Te-thau. 

The present membership is 59. 



CHIANG-CHIU CHURCH. 

First pastor, Eev. Ti Peng-teng, 1882-'84j 
second pastor. Rev. Chhoa Thian-Khit, 1884. 

The Chiang-Chiu Church is located in the city 
of Chiang-Chiu, an important centre of a large 
district, equal in size to Schoharie County, N. 
Y. With a population of its own of 200,000, 



120 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

and with five towns and 200 villag^es with, an 
estimated population of 100,000, lying within 
easy distance to the city, and at the same time 
being one of the chief commercial ports (native) 
of this whole territory, and also a seat of learn- 
ing wliei'e the annual examinations occur, bring- 
ing thousands of students within its limit, makes 
it one of the most strategic and commanding 
centres that any mission might well congratu- 
late itself in being able to occupy. 

Yet, we have been slow in occupying it as 
we should. True, we have a church there, but 
we should also have a missionary and his family- 
there to superintend this vast field of useful- 
ness. The London Missionary Society has 
been less slow in comprehending the situation. 
They have put a large double house on some 
land they bought five years ago (1888), and have 
located there a missionary and his family, and 
a doctor and his family. Our work is neglected, 
and has been neglected for twenty years. 

Permanent work was begun here under the 
supervision of Rev. Wm. C. Burns, of the Eng- 
lish Presbyterian Mission, in 1853. Prepara- 
tioas were being made at this early date to oc- 
cupy a place in the city as a regular preaching 
place, and the native evangelist, Mr. U. Ten- 
ang, had been sent there with a colporteur for 
that purpose. The results of tliat undertaking 
have already been recorded in a former chapter. 

Midst wars and rumors of wars, both the Ee- 
formed (Dutch) Church Mission and the E. P. 
Mission jointly continued the work in the city. 



THE NINE CHUECHES. 121 

In 1863 it was made an out-station of the Chioh- 
fbe Church. 

Early in the '60s the hottest fires of the dire 
"rebellion" came sweeping up against the city 
with all its fierceness and fury. The city was 
again captured, and a terrible massacre 
nearly wiped out the little congregation and 
left the greater part of the city in ruins. In 
1865 the work was committed entirely to our 
care, and from the ashes of this severe perse- 
cution we may say the present church has risen. 
In 1868 lots were purchased and a building con- 
templated. Three years after, in 1871, the 
church organization occurred, being set off from 
Chioh-be. A small chapel was then erected and 
publk worship begun in it. In 1874 the pres- 
ent < ommodious church was erected. The old 
chapel was converted into a school-house. The 
first pastor. Rev. Ti Peng-te3g (licensed in 1873), 
was ordained and installed in June, 1882. The 
second pastor, Rev. Chhoa Thian-Khit, called 
from the First Church of Amoy, was installed 
in 1884. There is one out-station at the present 
time connected with this church, viz.: Chhoa- 
poa. Before the Thian-San Church was organ- 
ized, the congregation at Thian-po and Soa-sia 
were members of this church, and these places 
out-stations. The present membership is 98. 
TMan-San took sixty or seventy of her members. 



TONG-AN CHURCH. 

First pastor, Lim Chi-Seng, 1890. 

Tong-an is another centre of a wide and fer- 



122 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

tile valley. Standing on a hill near the city, as 
far as the eye can reach in almost every direc- 
tion, village after village may be seen, with 
their teeming population. There is no foreign 
missionary residing here. There should be one. 

Rev. Wm. C. Burns, in his indefatigable zeal 
to preach the Gospel in every nook and corner 
of this territory, it would seem, pushed on until 
his feet stood within this city too, and thence 
proclaimed the Gospel message (1853). 

In the year 1866 our Mission began negotiat- 
ing for a room or two, in which they wished to 
hold public services for the worship of the true 
God. In the following year a house was rented, 
and Tong-an became an out-station of the Sec- 
ond Church of Amoy. The first converts were 
baptized by Rev. lap Hau-Chiong in 1870. 

In 1871 larger quarters were secured and a 
church organization was formed with thirty- 
four members. In 1887 the church succeeded in 
buying the property they had been renting 'for 
six years. In 1891, with some funds that a ser- 
vant in Dr. Kip's family in America had willed 
to be used for such purpose in Amoy, a new and 
large church was erected. 

The first pastor, Rev. Lim Chi-seng, was or- 
dained and installed in 1890. 

There are two out-stations connected with the 
church, viz.: Poa-thau-chhi and Ko-Soa. The 
present membership is 99. 

Outside the city of Amoy probably there was 
no new enterprise but what met with bitter 
opposition. The same spirit was manifested at 



THE NINE CHUECHES. 123 

Tong-an as elsewhere. Once they set the ol<i 
chapel on fire, but it was discovered and ex- 
tinguished before miich damage was done. And 
our presence has been more or less resented 
ever since. It is not the first time that the Ark 
of the Lord has awakened opposition amongst 
His enemies. And as in the days of old, so 
will the day come when Dagon shall fall, and 
all this opposition shall forever cease, not only 
in Tong-an, but in the whole of China. 



SIO-KHE CHURCH. 

First pastor, lap Han-chiong, 1884. 

Sio-Khe church is located on a branch of the 
West River, in a little market tow^n or village 
of Sio-Khe. It has only some seven or eight 
thousand inhabitants, but it is the largest town 
of a populous valley twelve miles long and 
three to four miles wide. It is a beautiful plain, 
lying at the foot of high mountains, thickly 
populated and well cultivated. The people are 
all industrious and quiet, and apparently to-day 
well disposed toward the Gospel. There are 
more than 3G0 villages scattered throughout 
the plain, bringing the church in touch with 
thousands of souls. Twenty-five years ago tAvo 
men came from Chha-thau-po, some ten miles 
east of Sio-Khe, down to the Amoy hospital for 
treatment. While there they for the first time 
heard the Gospel and believed, and on their re- 
turn home decided to give up the worship of 
idols and to worship the true God. Not only 
so, but they began telling others the "good 



124 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

news," and soon they had a little company of 
believers. These two men told all they could 
remember of what they had heard in Amoy, 
when they sent to Chiang-Chiu for some one 
to come and teach them further. Among others 
who responded to the call was Dr. Kip, who 
found there ten persons who had renounced 
idolatry and were worshippmg God, the best 
they knew how. Soon after a small building 
was rented, and the place became an out-station 
of Ohiang-Chiu. Alas, the little company could 
not withstand the severe trials and persecutions 
that were visited upon them, and all that re- 
mains of this enterprise is the deserted, house, 
where the little body of Christians were wont 
to worship. And yet it was not all in vain. 
While the Gospel was being preached in Chha- 
thau-po, some strangers from Sio-Khe were lis- 
tening. They in turn became converted ami be- 
lievers, and then they <lesired that the people 
in Sio-Khe should hear the good news too. But 
the people of Sio-Khe said they did not wish to 
hear, and if they attempted to preach they 
would be driven out. Finally they said: "Let 
us try; let us go and preach, and see if they 
will stone us." They secured a small room and 
preached the whole day unmolested, and the 
place soon after came under the charge of the 
Chiang-Chiu Church. Such was the introduc- 
tion of the work at Sio-Khe, whose usefulness 
and success has ever been assured. 

In 1876-'77 the first small chapel was built 
and occupied seventeen or eighteen years for 




Dr. Otte's Neerbosch Hospital, Sio-Khe. 



THE NINE CHUECHES. 125 

regular preaching and other religious services. 
In 1881 the church organization occurred with 
seventy members.' The present and fii-st pastor. 
Rev. lap Han Chiong, was called from the Sec- 
ond Church of Amoy and installed in 1884. The 
present large church was buil,t in 1884-'85, the 
money for it being largely contributed by the 
Sunday-schools of America. At the same time 
a house for the pastor was built next to the 
church. In 188G-'87 a missionary's residence 
was built adjoining the church i)roperty. Dr. 
and Mrs. Kip were the first to occupy it per- 
manently. 

In 1888-'89 Dr. Otte's house and hospital were 
built, when he and Mrs. Otte also took up their 
quarters there, and thus by the introduction of 
medicine, the field was better equipped for 
greater usefulness. Upon Dr. and Mz^. Kip^s 
return to America, Mr. and Mrs. Van Dyck oc- 
cupied the missionary's house for about tw^o 
years. And when they returned to America, 
Mr. and Mrs. Fagg took up their habitation 
there. Subsequently Mr. Fagg took charge of 
the work in the theological seminary, when Dr. 
and Mrs. Kip again moved in. Miss Nellie 
Zwemer joined the forces at Sio-Khe in 1892, 
and is living with Dr. and Mrs. Otte. She, with 
Mrs. Kip, have charge of the girls' school .there, 
and together visit the women of that region. In 
1891 (end) the Sio-Khe Church had a member- 
ship of 240, and with a glorious history back 
of her and a bright future before her, what 
more can be asked than God's continued favor. 



126 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

There are six out-stations, viz.: Lam-sin,'* Poa-a, 
Toa-Klie, Soa-pi, E-che, and Toa-lo-teng, and 
Ko-Khi. 



THIAN-SAN CHURCH. 

First pastor, Tiong Lu-li, 1891. 

Thian-po and Soa-sia were out-stations of 
Chiaug'-Chiu from 187G-'91. The Thian-san 
Church was organized in 1891, and has one out- 
station, viz. : Leng-Soa. A new chapel and pas- 
tor's house was built with the remaining money 
of the legacy that that servant woman be- 
queathed to the Mission (the other portion, as 
already stated, being used to build the church 
at Toug-an). 

The first i)astor, Tiong Lu-li, formerl}^ pastor 
at Chioh-be, was installed in 1891. A complete 
change had taken place during the twenty years. 
He had been thoroughly humbled, and has ever 
since manifested a truly humble and consecrated 
life. And the Church rejoices that he could be 
welcomed back to his holy office. The future, 
of the young enterprise is bright; her history 
is yet to be written. The j^resent membership 
is 73. 



UNORDAINED EVANGELISTS AND OTHERS. 

Connected with this organized work, reviewed 
in the foregoing pages, the names of the help- 
ers, teachers and Bible women should be en- 
rolled. Their labors are confined for the most 

(4) The members of this place united, in 1892, with the mem- 
bers of the English Presbyterian stations, Chia-boe and Chen?-poa, 
and formed a new church organization, viz. : " The Chi-lam 
Church." 



THE NINE CHURCHES. 



127 



part to the out-stations and the outlying regions. 
Some of them are school-teachers of the paro- 
chial schools. 



Li Seng-liong, 
8i Kui-lo, 
Kho Bok, 
Ong Ki-Siong,(5) 
Tan Niii-lo, 
U Pek4o,(5) 
Khng Klioaii-ju, 
Li Biau-lo, 
Lo Kan-chek, 
Keh Tong-eng, 
Keh Tiiai-ohliong 
Te Chhiu-lo, 
Lim Kui-lo, 
Lim Po-tek, 
Li Siong-Clihi, 
Ng Ma-hui, 



Mrs. Kho, (7) 
Mrs. lu Giok-ton^ 



BIBLE 



Pan Tiiong-lo, 
Tan Oan-lai, 
Tan Tui-goan, 
Tan 0-ti, 
Anig Chioh,(6) 
Aug Thun,(G) 
Ang Ek,(6) 
Li Chhun-hiong, 
lu lok-haa, 
Lim Put-chai, 
Chhoa Bian-Seng, 
Kho Lin-bin, 
Keh Un-tian, 
Keh Boah-chui, 
lu Sui-Kiu, 
lu lok-lai, 

WOMEN. 

Mrs. lu Siu-a, 
Mirs. Tan,(7) 



TABLE SHOWING COMPARATIVE INCREASE IN THE 
WORK, UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF THE RE- 
FORMED (DUTCH) CHURCH. 





A.D. 
1857. 


A.D. 
1864. 

3 

348 
37 

$930.87 


A.D. 
1879. 
7 
11 

686 
113 

$1,219.99 


A.D. 
1890 


Out-stations 


1 

172 


12 

968 


Scholars 


10 


240 
$3,382.08 







(5) Licentiate. 

(7) Wife of evangelist. 



(6) Chapel keeper and. preacher. 



CHAPTEK XII. 



THE BENEVOLENCE OF THE AMOY ClIUECHES. 

Not only for its wonderful growth, not only 
for its marked spirituality and solid orthodoxy, 
has the history of the Amoy Church, i. e., tihe 
Church of Christ in Cliina, been a remarkable 
one, but also on account of its consecrated spirit 
of liberality. 

To pause for a moment to consider the amount 
of money contributed by these native Chris- 
tians for the past ten years — ^less than one thou- 
sand Christians giving |23,702.94 — is a suifi.- 
cien^t proof that these are no empty words, but 
most profoundly teaching that they have in 
some measure received the sublime inspiration 
of the gentle coumiand of their Lord and Mas- 
ter: "Freely ye have received, freely give." 

If you will turn to General S^Tiod Report of 
1892 you will see that the Christians connected 
with our Amoy churches contributed during 
the year 1891 the sum of |3,382.08. As 968 
members gave this sum, it amounts to very 
nearly |3 50 per capita. 

^ At first sight, that nmy not seem very start- 
ling. But one or two things must be understood 
before we can appreciate those figures. 

First of all, a Chinaman's estimate of a dol- 
lar is about ten times as high as ours, simply 



BENEVOLENCE OF THE AMOY CHURCHES. 129 

because it is ten times as difficult for him to 
make a dollar. So, really it stands for |35. 
And this fact we will endeavor to demonstrate. 
The medium of exchange in China, i. e., the na- 
tional currency, is a copper ''cash" (the only 
€oin the Government issues), equal in our cur- 
rency ,to one mill. This is the coin for which 
they toil — this tlieir medium for buying and sell- 
ing. 

When I tell you that a good mechauic, a car- 
penter, or mason, earns only three hundred of 
them a day, and many classes of laborers earn 
no more than one hundred (i. e., thirty and ten 
cents respectively), and that it requires 1,040 
of them to make a Mexican dollar (i. e., about 
1,200 to make an American dollar), and that it 
requires thirty-six hundred of them to make 
$3.50, you may be able to get some idea what it 
means when they contribute this amo.unt. Three 
dollars and a half does neither represent the 
sum or the sacrihces made to accumulate it. 
Compared with our own country, the struggle 
for existence and the maintenance of a bare sub- 
sistence is tenfold intensified, and the accumu- 
lation of fortunes well nigh impossible. 

Compare these daily wages with the daily 
wages of the mechanic, the carpenter and the 
common laborer of this country (and the income 
of the wealthy as well), viz.: |3 and |1.50 per 
diem, and can any one say that it is an exag- 
geration to place this sum per capita at |35? 

The labor markets and all avenues of busi- 
ness are crammed and jammed because there 



130 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

are no outlets provided for the miglitj army 
of stragglers. Not because there are no ave- 
nues. Natural resources abound in this ''flow- 
ery land." Coal mines, silver mines, and even 
gold mines, lie buried and untouched. But 
just on accoimt of that antiquated superstition 
of an old dragon that is slumbering underneath 
the soil, whose majestic silence must not be 
disturbed, they everywhere remain hermetically 
sealed. Touch them with pick or spade, and 
dire calamity would sweep over the land from 
the desert to the sea — so the everlasting grind 
goes on. 

That's what it means — all this apprehension, 
all this superstition, besides a hundred other 
ills with which to combat. Taking our circum- 
stances in consideration, our advantages, our 
open avenues of industr}^, our supi)ly and de- 
mand, we venture to say that it is as easy for 
us to contribute |35 per capita as it is for the 
Christians of Amoy to contribute |3.50. 

And so, in the second place, it follows at the 
lowest estimate, we have ten dollars to use 
where they have one. Moreover, the Chinaman 
considers spending one dollar of as much im- 
portance as we do spending ten. And where 
we would hestitate in spending a cent, they 
wrangle and fuss over a cash (one-tenth of a 
cent). So it is in all their monetary affairs, 
whether it be a dollar or a cash, as daily inter- 
course with them bears painful testimony. 

Beainng in mind, then, some such relative 
estimations of money value, do we overstate it 



BENEVOLENCE OF THE AMOY CHURCHES. 131 

When we say that the sacrifice is ten times 
more, and the real amount ten times more than 
the figures show? Ah, but some one says, that 
IS all very well; but, excuse me, you have most 
grievously failed to consider that the Chinese 
have not so many wants (?) as we have; he does 
not require the food, the homes, nor are the 
necessities such as ours. 

Very good. Shall we say that their wants 
needs, etc., etc., are five times less than ours*^ 
Oh! more than that. Well, then, let us main- 
tain the same comparison here as above, and 
we will say they are ten times less in every 
count. But does this alter the situation? The 
Chinaman, you say, has wants and needs, etc 
etc., be they what they may, ten times less than 
yours. Still, you make a sad and fatal mis- 
take If you do not remember that they have 
t^n times less capital to supply them. So too 
wo must remember that with needs ten times 
less than ours, and with ten times less capital 
to supply them, somehow they manage to give 
f ':^3 (equivalent) per capita to the Lord 

^ow, if the Chinamen have wants ten times 
less than (mr.^ it must follow that we have 
wants, needs, etc., etc., ten times in excess of 
theirs, and having ten times as much capital 
to supply them, we should maintain something 
like an equality in our benevolence. But the 
tact IS, we do not. For all purposes, foreign, 
^iomestic, ministers' salaries, etc., etc., we some! 
how manage to give barely |15 to the Lord 
per capita. 



132 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

But this is no argument, for we have never 
yet become acquainted with or heard of a China- 
man whose wants, needs, etc., etc., did not com- 
pare favorably with ours. The fact is, that our 
ohl Edenic grandfather made us all alike. We 
all have wants like Babel towers, and our needs 
and necessities are sometimes aggravated by 
circumstances alone. Be that as it may, let 
me say to you that the Chinaman has needs and 
necessities that are never supplied, and never 
will be until he reaches the better land. Please 
remember this while you read these figures. 
That this giving of the Chinese is no spasmodic 
attack of benevolence, but the steady, healthy 
growth in their spiritual life, the following table 
amply testifies: 

In 1882 750 (Jhurch Members (net) gave $1,877.32 

" 1883 758 " " " ].958.75 

" 1884 742 " " «♦ i;631.77 

" 1885 783 " " " 2,107.37 

"1886 804 " " " 2 076.29 

" 1887 835 '• " " 2.866.70 

" 1888 861 *' " " 2,367.60 

" 1889 855 " " " 2,5;^5.00 

" 1890 899 " " " 2,900.00 

" 1891(1) 908 " " " 3,382.08 

Net tx)tal..068 " " " $23,702.94(2) 

(1) In 1892, 1,008 Church members gave $3,894.80 

(2) Yearly average $2.80. 

THE NATIVE HAK-KA MISSION. 

To further demonstrate the character of the 
Chinese Christians, we bring this part of the 
review to a close by a brief mention of their 
missionary spirit. Having acquired a knowl- 
edge of the blessed Gospel themselves, they 
are endeavoring to carry the "good news" to 
their brethren still in darkness. 

The Hak-Kas are a race of people (perhaps 



BENEVOLENCE OP THE MIOY CHUECHES. 133 

aborigines) living by themselves and under their 
own laws, some twenty miles west of Amoy, 
speaking an entirely different dialect, and, on 
the whole, a different race from tlie Chinese. 
In 1881 a committee was appointed to brino^ 
the subject of establishing a mission amongst 
this people before Tai-hoey. In 1882 $200 was 
subscribed by the native church for its support 
aad the work begun. The progress has been 
slow and often discouraging. In 1891 there 
was a church of eighteen souls; three had been 
received on confession, two died, one excom- 
municated, one suspen.le.J, three adults bap- 
tized and 117.10 contributed. 

In one other way do the native Christians 
seek to make known the message unto their 
brethren. Every Tuesday at Amoy (and once 
a month in the country) a company of Chris- 
tians an.l missionaries (male and female) meets 
in one of the chapels, where they hold a short 
service of prayer, then go out by twos or threes 
and preach in the streets. TJie ladies visit tlie 
homes and tell the Gospel story there This 
IS called the Po-to-hoe, which means, "The 
Proclamation of the Gospel Meeting." Thus 
m these ways the Gospel is being made known. 
But there are other ways which we must also 
consider. 



OHAPTEE XIII. 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 
The two political movements alluded to in 
these pages, viz.: "The Tai-peng Rebellion" and 
"The Anti-Missionary Movement in South 
China," inasmuch as they both played a part 
in the history of religious events in the dis- 
trict and city of Amoy, may well claim a spe- 
cial though brief consideration in this narra^ 
tion. 



THE TAI-PENO REBEILLION. 

The reign of Ham-hong, the seventh Emperor 
of the Manchu Dynasty (1850-'64), was estab- 
lished upon a crumbling and disintegrating 
Em]iire. The affairs of the nation had reached 
a crisis. The old ship of state had been about 
stranded by the preceding Emperor, To-Kong, 
and when Ham-kong took the reins of govern- 
ment, the political affairs of the nation were in 
a greatly unsettled condition. 

His father had been most profuse in his prom- 
ises of reformatory measures for the good of 
his subjects, but they had failed to materialize. 
This made fhe clamoring of the people still 
louder and still more urgent upon the advent 
of the new and young Emperor. For thirty 
years the people had been pleading for justice, 
and that cruel oppression and abuses might 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 135 

cease. For thirty years they had pleaded in vain. 
So now at the very threshold of the new order 
of events the voice of the people was heard in 
no uncertain sound asking again for reform 
in order that the ship of state might not be- 
come a total Avreck. 

At first the young Emperor professed to take 
a deep interest in these demands, and, like his 
predecessor, promised much, and, like him, per- 
formed little for the redress of the people. He 
soon lapsed into the ways of his fathers. By 
surrounding himself with wives and concubines, 
and by indulging in all forms of sensual pleas- 
ure and amusement, the nation's welfare and 
the people's interest were furthest from his 
thoughts and appai-ently soon entirely forgot- 
ten. 

When the people saw their rights thus de- 
liberately trampled in the dust, and seeing at 
the same time no hope of realizing the needed 
reform from that source from which they sought 
it, and had every reason to expect it, their pas- 
sions wei^ Avrouglit up, and to the highest ten- 
sion. 

Under such a condition of affairs it was not 
long before the spirit of insurrection against 
the Government began to manifest itself, espe- 
cially in the Kwang-si Province. The spark 
was soon kindled into a flame, until not only 
Kwang-si, but Hunan and Hu-peh were afire 
with the spirit of rebellion. Now the cry was 
not only for reform, but the banishment of the 



136 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

Tartar Emperor and the establishment of a 
purely Chinese Dynasty instead. 

As a leader in this cause, one who claimed 
to be a descendant of the Mings (the x)receding 
Dynasty, 13G7-1644,) presented himself, and 
under the title of Thian-te, "Heavenly Virtue," 
undertook to drive out the Tartar and re-estab- 
lish the Mings in power. 

Such was the condition of the country when 
we make the acquaintance of Hung Su-chuen, 
the leader of what has become the notable "Tai- 
peng Rebellion (1850-'G4). In view of the fore- 
going, it will be readily seen that the time was 
ripe for such a conflict. 

It is now necessary to demonstrate, if possi- 
ble, how Hung Su-chuen became identified with 
and the leader in tliis insurrection, the most 
marvelous that has engaged the attention of 
men. 

Hung Su-chuen had nothing to do with the 
movement in behalf of that reform that was 
startesl by the people, and of which Thian-te 
assumed the leadership, but on account of 
events that he was unable to control, he was 
obliged to cast in his lot with the insurgents, 
and finally became the leader. 

Hung Su-chuen was a native of the Kwang- 
tung Province, and at the time of these events 
was about forty years old, having been born 
near Canton in 1813. He was a literary grad- 
uate and a teacher by profession. 

During one of his examination periods at 
Canton, portions of the Old Testament and some 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 13T 

Christian tracts fell under his notice. At the 
time, the contents of these books made but lit- 
tle if any impression upon him. In 1837, after 
failing in an examination, he became despond- 
ent, which finally ended in a serious siege of 
illness. While he was ill he had a most vivid 
dream, which made such a deep impression 
upon his mind that he could not forg^et it. In 
his dream he was caught up into Heaven and 
stood in the presence of God and Jesus, ''who 
exhorted him to live a virtuous life," and exter- 
minate imps from the nation. He claimed to 
be washed from all the imi)urities of his nature, 
and to be possessed of a new heart. He spoke 
of God as "Heavenly Father," and of Jesus as 
"Heavenly, or Celestial, Elder Brother." 

Six years after this passed away, yet no change 
in his outward life is apparent. He still pur- 
sues his literary course and performs the duties 
of a village schoolmaster in the Province of 
Kwang-si. But in 1843 his attention is once 
more directed, by a friend, to the books he had 
abandoned and shelved some six or seven years 
before. In tliem he was led to believe tliat he 
had found an interpretation to his di-eams. Per- 
ceiving the fearful denunciations thundered 
against all forms of idolatry, he concluded thait 
^Hhe imps" referred to in his dream must be 
the idols of the land. 

He then embraced Christianity as he under- 
stood it. Some historians affirm that he was 
baptized by the missionary M. Gutzlaff; others 
say he and this "friend" baptized each other 



138 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

and then began to propagate his system of re- 
ligion, "containing a modicum of Christian 
truth, together with many singular misconcep- 
tions and vagaries of their imaginations.'^ 

Hung Su-chuen began his iconoclastic cam- 
paign by demolishing the tablet of Confucius 
that was standing in the village school-room. 
Such an act created a tremendous furor in the 
little hamlet where he w^as teacher. Parents 
whose children were under his instruction be- 
came alarmed and gTeatly excited; sought 
an explanation of such startling innovations. 
His reasons were frankly given, and they proved 
so sufficient that they became his ardent sup- 
porters and followers. 

Then came the elders, or headmen, of the 
village with their remonstrances, but they like- 
wise fell capti^-e to his arguments and enlisted 
under his banners. From village to village the 
new religion spread, until within a very short 
period the number of converts had swelled to 
the marvelous number of 5,000, and in 1851 the 
number had increased to 12,000. 

Temples, idols and all forms of idolatry began 
to fall before the enthusiastic host like grass 
before tlie mower. And when it seemed as 
though the ancient system and customs of 5,000 
years were to be swept away without a mo- 
ment's notice, the officials began to be alarmed 
and sought to put a stop to this awful dese- 
cration. A price was set upon the head of 
Hung Su-chuen. Dead or alive, the officials 
wanted him. True as steel were the people to 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 139 

the leader, and rather than betray him to the 
authorities they wouhl die first. Failing in this, 
the provincial authorities of Kwang-si sent the 
Imperial forces against the new sect to extermi- 
nate it. Even their effor-t met Avith ignoble 
failure, for it resulted in the total destruction 
of the proAoncial troops. 

Up to this time it is fair to assume that Hung 
Su-chuen and his followers had no other motive 
than the desire for freedom of worship, and to 
worship according to the dictates of their con- 
science. 

But now a crisis was at hand. Events that 
he could not control were changing the char- 
acter of his movements. He ha<l not only 
routed, but he had slain the Imperial guards- 
men, and now he assumed that the whole Gov- 
ernment would oppose him, and if he expected 
to succeed he must fortify himself behind 
stronger barricades than were now in his pos- 
session. It T^'as probably then at this time he 
joined forces with the reformers and became 
the leader of that greater movement, whose aimi 
was to drive the Manchus from the dragon 
throne. Be that as it may, he now, at any rate, 
assumed the name of Tai-peng, ''The (xrand 
Pacitlcator,'^ and proclaimed himself the head 
of the new Dynasty — Tai-i)eug thian Kok, i. e., 
"The l*eaceful Heavenly Kingdom." 

The Pretender was not popular, and under his 
leadership the cause made no progi^ess. But 
when Hung Bu-chuen, endowed both with re- 
ligious as well as with political enthusiasm, 



140 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

became the commander-in-chief of the move- 
ment another condition of affairs immediately 
occurred. He speedily won the affection of all 
the enlisted troops, and so fired them with his 
enthusiasm that victory perched upon their 
banners all al(?Qg their w^ay from Kwang-si in 
the southwest to Keang-se in the northeast. 
Various secret societies joined the moyement 
until there w^as an army of about 50,000 enlisted 
men in the field. 

This army soon received the sobriquet of 
"The Long-haired Rebels," because they cut 
off their cue (a token of subjection imposed upon 
the Chinese by the Tartars), ceased to shave 
their heads and allowed their hair to grow nat- 
urally. 

The religious tone of the movement was still 
maintained. Worship of God w^as observed in 
every encampment. The camps were made to 
resound with religious hymns of i^raise. Fre- 
quently before engaging in battle the troops 
would have a ser\ice of prayer. A proclama- 
tion Avas issued setting forth their belief. Among 
the jnany documents issued during the period 
of this notable movement it is difficult to say 
which are genuine an<l which are apocryphal. 
The two inserted here, if not genuine, will give 
at least some idea of the beliefs of ''The Tai- 
peng'' and his followers: 

^"According to the Old Testament, the Su- 
preme Lord, our Heavenly Father, created in 

(1) History of the Insurrection in China. By M.M. Callery 
and Yvan, 1853. 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 141 

the space of six days heaven and eartli, moun- 
tains and seas, men and things. The Supreme 
Lord is a spiritual, invisible, omnipotent Father, 
knowing everything- and everywhere present. 
There is not under Heaven any nation which 
does not know his power. 

"On referring to the reminiscences of past 
times, Tvo find that since the creation of the 
worhl the Supreme Lord has often manifested 
His disideasure. How is it then that you peo- 
ple of the eartii are ignorant of Him still? 

" On the first occasion, the Supreme Lord dis- 
played his wrath by causing a gTeat rain to fall 
forty days and forty nights, Avhich caused a 
universal deluge. 

"On a second occasion, the Supreme Lord 
manifested His displeasure and brought Israel 
out of Egypt. 

"On a third occasion He displayed His tre- 
mendous majesty when the Saviour of the world, 
the Lord Jesus, became incarnate in the land 
of Ju<lea and suffered for the redemption of the 
human race. And of late again showed His 
wratJi when, in the year 1837, he sent a celes- 
tial messenger, whom he appointed to slay the 
infernal bands. Moreover, he has sent the celes- 
tial King to take the reins of empire into his 
own hands and save the people. From the year 
1818 to that of 1851 the Supreme Lord has been 
moved by the misfortunes of the people who 
^veye entangled in the snares of the Evil Ona 
In the third moon of last year the great Em- 
peror appeared, and in the nmth moon Jesus 



142 FIFTY YEARS IN AI^IOY. 

the Saviour of the world, manifested Himself 
by innumerable acts of powei^, and by the mas- 
sacre of innumerable numbers of the ungodly in 
many pitched battles. How then can these chil- 
dren of Hell resist the majesty of Heaven? 

^'How, we add, could the wrath of the Su- 
preme Lord be otherwise than kindled against 
men who worship corrupt spirits, who give 
themselves up to unclean actions, and thus de- 
liberately violate the Commandments of Heaven?^ 
Why do ye not wake, all ye inhabitants of the 
earth? Why do ye not rejoice to be born in a 
time when you are permitted to witness the 
glory of the Most High? 

" Since you fall into an epoch like this, where 
you will have the surpassing peace of heavenly 
days, it is time for you to awake and be stirring. 
Those Avho fulfill the will of Heaven shall be pre- 
served, but those who <lisobey shall be torn in 
pieces. 

'^At this moment the diabolical Tartar, Hien- 
foung (Ham-hong), originally a Mantchou (Mau- 
chu) slave, is the sworn enemy of the Chinese 
race. More than this, he leads our brethren to 
adopt the habits of demons, to adore evil, to 
disobey the true spirit, and thus to rebel against 
the Most High. Therefore Heaven will not suf- 
fer him any more, and men will not fail in their 
resolution to destroy him. Alas! body of vali- 
ant men as je are, ye appear not to know that 
every tree has its roots, every brook its source. 
You seem as though you wish to reverse the 
order of things, for while running after the least 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 143 

advantage you so turn about that you serve 
your enemies, and being ensnared with the 
wiles of the E\dl One, you ungratefully rebel 
against your rightful Lord. You seem to for- 
get that you are the virtuous students of the 
Chinese Empire and the honorable subjects of 
the Celestial Dynasty, and thus you easily ^tray 
in the path of perdition without having pity on 
yourselves. 

^' And yet, among you courageous men there are 
many who belong to the Society of the Triad, 
and have made the compact ef blood that they 
will unite their strength and their talents for 
the extermination of the Tartar Dynasty. After 
so solemn an engagement, can there be men who 
would shrink from the common enemy of us all? 

"Thei'e must be now in the provinces a great 
number of resolute men, renowned men of let- 
ters, and valiant heroes. We therefore call upon 
jou to unfurl your standard to proclaim aloud 
that you will no longer live under the same 
Heaven as the Tartars, but seek to gain honor 
in the service of the new sovereign. This is the 
ardent wish of us who are his generals. 

^'Our army, desirous to act upon ^those feel- 
ings of kindness through w^hich the Most High 
is pleased to spare the life of man, and to re- 
ceive us with a kiss of compassion, have shown 
clemency on our march, and have treated all 
with mercy. Our generals and our troops ob- 
serve the greatest fidelity with respect to the 
rewards due to the country. These intentions 
are known to you all. You ought to know that 



144 FIFTY YEAES IN AJVIOY. 

since Heaven has brought before you the true- 
sovereign to govern the people, it is your duty 
to aid in establishing His dominion. Although 
our diabolical enemies may be counted by mill- 
ions, and their crafty plans by thousands, they 
cannot resist the decrees of Heaven. 

"To kill without warning is contrary to our 
feelings; and to remain in a state of inaction^ 
without attempting to save the people, w^ould 
be contrary to humanity. Hence, we publish this 
proclamation, urging you, O i>eople! to repent 
in all haste, and to awaken with energy. Adore 
the True Spirit and reject impure spirits; be 
men for once and cease to be imps of the Devil 
if you wish for length of days upon earth and 
happiness in Heaven. If you persist in your 
stupid obstinacy, the day of destruction Avill ar- 
rive, as well for the precious stones as for the 
pebbles, and then you will vainly gnaw every 
finger in despair; but it will then be too late to 
repent." 

The second one, it will be observed, was is- 
sued for the benefit of foreigners: 

"The Heavenly Father, the Supreme Lord, the- 
Great God, in ih& beginning created heaven and 
earth, land and sea, men and things, in six days; 
and from tliat time to this the whole world has 
been one family, and all within the four seas 
brethren; how can there exist, then, any differ- 
ence between man and man, or how^ any dis- 
tinction between principal and secondary birth? 
Cut from the time that the human race has been 
influenced by the demoniacal agency which has. 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 145 

entered into the heart of man, they have ceased 
to acknow'ledge the great benevolence of God, 
the Heavenly Father, in giving and sustaining 
life, and cease<l to appreciate the infinite merit 
of the expiatory sacrifice made by Jesus, our 
Celestial Elder Brother, and have, with lumps 
of clay, wood and stone, practised perversity 
in the world. Hence it is that the Tartar hordes 
and Elfin Huns so fraudulently robbed us of 
our celestial territory (China). But, happily, 
our Heavenly Father and Celestial Elder 
Brother have from au early date displayed their 
miraculous power amongst you English, and 
you ha\'e long acknowledged the duty of wor- 
shipping God the Heavenly Father, and Jesus, 
our Celestial Brother, so that the truth has been 
preserved entire and the Gospel maintained. 
Happily, too, the Celestial Father, the Supreme 
Lord and Great God, has now of His infinite 
mercy sent a heavenly messenger to convey our 
royal master, the Heavenly King, up into 
Heaven, and has personally endowed him with 
power to sweep away from the thirty-thi'ee 
heavens demoniacal influences of every kind^ 
and expel them thence into tliis lower world. 
And, beyond all, happy it is that the Heavenly 
Father and Great God displayed His infinite 
mercy and compassion in coming down into this 
oiir world in the third month of the year 1848, 
and that Jesus, our Celestial Elder Brother, the 
Saviour of the world, likewise manifested equal 
favor and grace in descending to earth during 
the ninth month of the same vear, where for 



146 Fli^TY YEAES IN AMOY. 

these six years past they have marvelously 
guided the affairs of men, mightily exhibited 
their wondrous power, and put forth innumer- 
able miraculous proofs, exterminating a vast 
number of imps and demons, and aiding our 
Celestial Sovereign in assuming the control of 
the whole Empire. 

" But now that you distant English 'have not 
deemed myriads of miles too far to come' and 
acknowledge our sovereignty, not only are the 
.soldiers and officers of the Celestial Dynasty 
delighted and gratified thereby, but even in 
high Heaven itself our Celestial Father and El- 
der Brother will also admire this manifestation 
of your fidelity and truth. We therefore issue 
this special decree, permitting you, the English 
vchief, to lead your brethren out or in, back- 
ward or forward, in full accordance with your 
own will or wish, whether to aid us in extermi- 
nating our impish foes or to carry on your com- 
mercial operations as usual ; and it is our earnest 
Jiope that 3^ou will with us earn the merit of 
diligently serving our royal master, and with 
ns recompense the goodness of the Father of 
Spirits. 

"Wherefore we promulgate this new decree 
of (our Sovereign) Tae-ping (Tai-peng) for the in- 
formation of you English, so that all the human 
race msij learn to worship our Heavenly Father 
and Celestial Elder Brother, and that all may 
know that, wherever our royal master is, there 
men unite, congratulating him on having ob- 
tained the decree to rule." 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 147 

The leader, it will be observed, still professed 
to abhor all forms of idolatry and called upon 
all the good people of the Empire to unite with 
him in this crusade of exterminating the idols 
and temples as well as the rulers, whose laws 
and actions were vile and inhuman. 

The ever -victorious army swept everything^ 
before it, and after three years it was in pos- 
session of Nanhin, the old cai)itol, and which 
was immediately proclaimed to be the new Cap- 
itol of the Tai-peng Dynasty. The slaughter 
that followed the capture of Nankin was some- 
thing frightful. 

According to the accounts, the army of the 
Manchus, though well armed and trained, did 
not strike a blow in self-defense, "but, throw- 
ing themselves on their faces and imploring 
mercy in most abject terms, submitted to be 
butchered like so many sheep." 

Out of a population of more than 20,000 only 
about 100 escaped, men, women and children 
being mercilessly put to the sword. 

Amoy, Chiang-chiu and Tong-an all suc- 
cumbed to the insurgents, and much anxiety 
was at one time felt concerning their ulterior 
measures. Some portions of this district still 
beai* the marks of the rebellion to this day, and 
many years will pass before final restoration is^ 
accomplished. 

An account- of an attempted recovery of 
Amoy by the Imperialists is before me. It 
says: The Imperialist admiral, with his fleet 

(2) History of the Insurrection in China. 



148 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

of thirty junks, appeared in the harbor. He 
immediately landed 1,000 men, who marched 
steadily toward the citadel for two miles, when 
the rebels made a rush and drove them back to 
their boats with a loss of about twenty or 
thirty killed and from twenty-five to fifty pris- 
oners. Next day the rebels began trying the 
prisoners wdth great formality. They were ex- 
ceedingly civil to the Europeans, placing chairs 
for all who would like to attend. 

All the Tartai's taken were immediately be- 
headed, the insurgents making no secret of their 
intention of utterly exterminating the whole 
race. 

The other important cities that fell into the 
hands of the insurgents were Soo-chow, Ning- 
po, Kiu-Kiang and Chin-Kiang. Shanghai was 
threatened, but on account of foreign protec- 
tion resisted invasion. 

For many years it seemed possible that the 
Manchus would be overpowered, and that the 
Tai-peng Dynasty would become established. 
Nothing seemed possible to stay the tide of 
success that was ever bearing along the army 
of the insurgents toward the capital, Pekin. 

From Canton in the south to Nankin in cen- 
tral China, the Imperialists had fallen before 
the conquering army of the insurgents. 

And the sympathy of many foreigners, at 
the beginning at least, was with the Tai-pengs. 
They hoped that by their advent to power a 
new order of things would be established and 
more friendly relations between foreigners 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 149 

adopted. But in these hopes they were to be 
disappointed. The sequel of the story may be 
soon told. 

After the capture of Nankin, the army of 
the insurgents was divided and sent into differ- 
ent parts of the Empire in order to subjugate 
the whole Empire to the Tai-pengs. 

One portion of that army marched forward 
toward Pekin, but it never reached the capi- 
tal. Within 100 miles of the city it was turned 
(back. From this time the cause of the "Long- 
haired Eebels" began to decline. Being separ- 
ated from their leader, the troops soon lost the 
religious discipline that had been instituted by 
the Grrand Pacificator. 

Inferior classes of men were also brought in 
to take the place of those Avho had fallen in the 
conflict, and shortly the religious element, which 
was their chief source of strength, became 
weaker and weaker, and finally departed alto- 
gether. 

Hung Su-chuen became despondent, and even 
fanatical in the extreme. The milita^ry chiefs 
became suspicious of each other's motives and 
began quarreling amongst themselves. Corrup- 
tion and dissatisfaction soon became manifested 
among the subordinates and soldiery. Then the 
whole movement collapsed. In time it became 
nothing more than a guerilla warfare. Com- 
merce became greatly disturbed. The nation 
was in a great turmoil, and finally all trade was 
stagnated. Foreigners, though not pleased with, 
the relations that existed between them and the 



150 FIFTY \^ARS IN AMOY. 

Chinese Government, were compelled to recog- 
nize that after all the Pekin Government repre- 
sented law and order, and its overthrow under 
the present circumstances would be disastrous 
to natives and foreigners alike. 

It was for these reasons that the English 
Army, uniler Gordon, was sent on its mission 
to assist the Imperialists to put do\\^l the re- 
bellion that had continued for nearly fourteen 
years. With the ''ever victorious'' army of 
"Chinese Gordon" (he received this title at this 
time) the insurgents were driven out of all their 
strongholds, until finally, in July, 1864, Nankin, 
the last stronghold that represented a struggle 
of a decade and more for an empire, fell, and 
with it the last hope of the Tai-pengs. With 
his cause lost. Hung 8n-chuen had no heart to 
live, so he died by his own hand — a suicide. 

Such a movement, so vast, so momentous, 
though it failed in its special purpose, could 
not fail in producing many beneficial results in 
such a conservative and rut-bound nation as 
China. 

The best result of all was the blow directed 
against the idolatry of the land. That blow 
was for a time well directed and shook the an- 
cient systeuas of worship to their very founda- 
tion. 

W'hat an eye-opener it was to these befogged 
and benighted souls of the Orient! To those 
who would see, it was evident that their gods 
were useless and powerless, and could not even 
save themselves from insults or their jjlaces of 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 151 

abode from demolition. Such was the feeling 
that they lost the confidence they formerly had 
in these gods, for when they saw "the wholesale 
destruction of their finest temples and largest 
idols, and they had not sufficient faith in them 
to restore them," "even when the people went 
to existing temples, where in many cases they 
had only extemporized idols, they worshipi)ed 
with the sense of the fact that the gods had 
been yanquished, and that their prestige had 
passed away." 

In so far as this, then, the revolution did ac- 
complish one of its aims. In a measure, it did 
destroy some of the power of the "imps," if not 
all of the "imps." 

Twenty -five years and more have passed since 
these events recorded here and those "imps" 
still reign over this immense nation. No such 
Christianity as Hung Su-chuen promulgated can 
ever destroy them, but only the pure and unde- 
filed Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

This is the power, and the only power, that 
will SAveep them from the Empire. 



THE ANTI-MISSIONARY MOVEMENT IN SOUTH CHINA. 

This movement was confined especially to the 
Amo}^ district and adjacent localities, and is 
therefore of particular interest to those con- 
sidering the history of the events of the Amoy 
Mission. 

At the time it created a great excitement 
amongst the missionaries and foreign residents 



152 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

at Amoy. For a time the affair looked very 
serious and the final issue extremely uncertain. 

An account of this movement, its cause and 
effects, has been well sketche<i in a letter ad- 
dressed to Gen. C. W. LeGrendi'e, United States 
Consul at Amoj, by the Eev. J. V. N. Talmage, 
September 22d, 1871. 

This letter was published in pamphlet form, 
and we can do no better in sketching this event 
than to embody parts of it here: 

''In July, 1871, inflammatory placards were 
extensively posted throughout the region about 
Canton, stating that foreigners (some of them 
especially designated the French) had imported 
a large quantity of i^oison, and had hired vaga- 
bond Chinese to distribute it among the peo- 
ple; that only foreigners knew the antidote to 
this poison, and that they refused to administer 
it except for large sums of money, or to such 
persons as embraced the f(jreigners' religion, 
and in this latter case, if the patients were 
women, only for the vilest purposes. Of the in- 
tense excitement produced b^^ these vile state- 
ments in the Canton province, and of the man- 
ner in which it was checked, you are as well 
informed as we. 

''In the latter part of July some of these pla- 
cards and letters accompanying them were re- 
ceived by Chinese at Amoy from their Canton 
friends. They were copied, with changes to 
suit this region, and extensively circulated. The 
man at Amoy who seems to have been the most 
active in their circulation was the Chham-hu 



TWO NOTABLE POUTICAL EVENTS. 153 

(highest military officer at Amoy under the ad- 
miral). Almost immediately he united with the 
Hai-hong (highest civil officer at Amoy under the 
Tautai) in issuing a proclamation, warning the 
people to be on their guard against a poison, 
which wicked people were circulating. This 
proclamation was not only circulated in the city 
of Amoy, but also in the countrv around. It 
did not mention foreigners, but the people by 
some other means were made to understand that 
foreigners were meant. 

"Thus, in the city of Chiang-chiu (about thirty 
miles west of Amoy) there was much excitement 
produced on the fli-st receipt of the news from 
Amoy about the poisoning. Whether this was 
caused by the letter of the Chham-hn to the 
i>istrict Magistrate (its contents havino- been 
made public through the underlings of the Mag- 
istrate's office), or whether it was caused by 
other letters from Amoy, we cannot decide with 
certainty. But, however caused, as the people 
saw no evidence of the distribution of poison 
It grad,u,lly subside<l. Then it was that the 
District Magistrate issued his proclamation. In- 
foming the people, on the authority of the 
Ohham-hu of Amoy, of the danger of poison, 
an<l putting them on their guard especially 
against poison in their wells. In this proclama- 
tion the word foreigner is no,t mentioned, but, as 
at Amoy, the people were otherwise informed 
tnat foreigners were meant. 

"Two days later the District Magistrate issued 
another proclamation, reiterating his warnings, 



154 FIFTY YEAES IN AMOY. 

and informing the people that he had arrested 
and examined a man, who confessed that he, 
with three others, had been employed by for- 
eigners to engage in this work of poisoning the 
people. Their especial business was to poison 
all the wells. The Magistrate cautioned the 
people against using water for a few days, en- 
joining on them to clean out and g^ard their 
wells. This so-called criminal was speedily ex- 
ecuted. 

^^A few days afterward a military officer at 
Chiang-chiu (nearly of the same rank with the 
Ohham-hu at Amoy) also issued a proclamation 
to warn the people against poison, and giving 
the confession of the above-mentioned crimi- 
nal with great particularity. The criminal is 
made to say that a few months ago he had been 
decoyed and sold to foreigners. In company 
with more than fifty others, he was conveyed 
by ship to Macao. There they were distrib- 
uted among the foreign hongs, one to each hong; 
that afterward he, with three others, was sent 
home, being furnished with poison for distribu- 
tion and with special directions to poison all 
the wells in their way. They w^re to refer all 
those on whom the poison took effect to a cer- 
tain individual at Amoy, who would heal them 
gratuitously, only requiring of them their names. 
This doubtless is an allusion to the Chinese Hos- 
pital at Amoy, where the names of the patients 
are of course recorded, and they receive medi- 
cine and medical attendance gratuitously. 

"In this confession foreigners are designated 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 155 

by the opprobious epithet of "Little (i. e., con- 
temptible,) Demons.'' This, by the way, is a 
phrase never used to designate foreigners by 
any people in this region except those in the 
Mandarin offices. Besides the absurdity of 
charging foreigners with distributing poison, 
the whole confession bears the evidence, not 
only of falsehood, but, if ever made, of having 
been put into the man's mouth by those inside 
of the Mandarin office, and forced from him by 
torture for the express purpose of exciting the 
intensest hatred of the people against foreigners. 

"At the city of Tong-an (some twenty miles 
north of Amoy) the District Magistrate also is- 
sued a proclamation warning the people against 
poison, and giving the Chham-hu of Amoy the 
autliority for the danger. The District Magis- 
trate in the city of Chin-chin (some fifty or sixty 
miles northeast of Amoy) issued a similar procla- 
mation, giving for his authority the Magistrate 
of Tong-an and the Chham-hu of Amoy. 

"In consequence of these proceedings of the 
Magistrate, the excitement and terror and 
hatred to foreigners, and consequently to the 
native Christians, on the part of the i)eople, be- 
came most intense, and extended from the cities 
far into the country around. Wells were fenced 
in and put under lock and key. People were 
called together by the beating of gongs to draw 
water. The buckets were covered in carrying 
water to guard against the throwing in of poi- 
son along the streets. At the entrance of some 
villages notices were posted warning strangers 



156 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

not to enter lest they be arrested as poisoners^ 
In various places strangers haA^e been arrested 
and severely beaten on suspicion merely be- 
cause they are strangers. 

"The native Christians everywhere were sub- 
jected to much obloquy and sometimes to immi- 
nent danger, charged with being under the in- 
fluence of foreigners, and employed by them 
to distribute poison. From various mission 
stations in tlie country letters were written by 
the native Christians to the missionaries at 
Amoy, a(hdsing them, in consequence of the in- 
tense excitement against foreigners, not to run 
the risli of visiting them for a season. Even 
at the Amoy Hospital, which has now been in 
existence for thirty years, tlie number of pa- 
tients apph ing for medical treatment greatly 
decreased. Some days there w^ere almost none. 

"Letters and placards were sent from Amoy 
(and perhajjs also from Canton) to Foochow. 
The excitement there, especially in some parts 
of the country around, became even more in- 
ten^ve than at Amoy. At least two foreigners, 
one of them an English missionary, and a num- 
ber of native preachers were very badly treated 
by mobs, and narrowly escaped death.- ' 

Thus, we see that great excitement prevailed 
over the Avhole region, and not only the lives of 
the native Christians w^ere endangered, but the 
lives of the foreigners as well. As it was, some 
of the iiative Christians had to suffer severely 
from the intrigues of their enemies. 

It is presumed, and on good authority, that 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAX, EVENTS. 15T 

tiie whole moyement originated with, the Man- 
darins, not with the people. It was a political 
scheme of theirs whereby they hoped to banish 
the ob;noxiou;S foreignei) from their domain. 
And the way they were to begin this "retro- 
grade policy" was to open the attack upon the 
missionaries. And thej^ imagined this would 
be the easiest way, for they considered tliat 
such a policy would meet with "the least op- 
position from all foreign nations except France.'' 
The purpose, then, was to embroil the nation 
in a war with foreigners, with the ultimate 
hope, in some inexplicable manner, of conquer- 
ing and driving them out. 

In those days the officials were ringing the 
changes on foreigners pretty much as in these 
days our American officials are upon the Chi- 
nese. Then it was, "the foreigners must go.'' 
Now it is, "the Chinese must go." 

And the method the Chinese were to employ 
was to first get the missionaries on the run and 
all others would follow. 

The great objection of the ruling classes of 
China to Christianity (at least Protestant Chris- 
tianity) is, that it is a foreign religion. Those 
officials who have residences near where Prot- 
estant missions have long been established must 
be acquainted with the good character of mis- 
sionaries, and with the fact that Christianity 
tends to make better subjects of those who em- 
brace it. But they regard missionaries as the 
pioneers of foreign civilization. They know 
that, so far as missionaries are successful in 



158 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

their labors, they are preparing in the minds of 
the people a better feeling toward foreigners, 
and thus preparing the way for the extension 
of foreign intercourse and the introduction of 
foreign improvements. A few years ago, on 
the opening of a Christian chapel at the neigh- 
boring town of Tong-an, the literati, in order 
to excite a riot, reviled Christianity as being 
deficient in the matter of filiality, but they 
stated as their strong argument against the 
chapel that if it were allowed to remain, soon 
the foreign merchants would also establish 
themselves there as they had done at Amoy. 

The ruling classes also know that, when the 
time comes ^^at a given moment to dispose of 
the fate of foreigners," the greatest obstacle 
in their way will be the missionaries and the 
native Christians. Hence, when a few years 
ago an attempt was made to get up a riot 
against the 'missionaries at Foochow, the pla- 
cards stated that the missionaries w^ere the 
"eyes and the ears" of the other foreigners, 
and that if only these could be got rid of there 
could be no difficulty in disposing of the rest. 
No doubt the recent affairs have made the rul- 
ing classes here dislike missionaries more than 
ever. 

They know well that the information, by 
which the foreign Consuls were able to check- 
mate them, must have come from the mission- 
aries. In so far as this only was it in any way 
anti-missionary — its ulterior purpose was far 
more reaching. 



TWO NOTABLE POLITICAL EVENTS. 159 

And how was this movement suppressed? 
How was this disastrous war avoided? How 
came it about that the foreigners did not go? 

In the first place, the matter was presented 
to the attention of the different Consuls of for- 
eign nations, and they in turn placed the state 
of affairs before the Chinese authorities. All 
disastrous results were avoided on account of 
the lirni stand the foreign Consuls took for ttie 
observance o^ treaty rights. They demanded 
that they should be and must be observed. 

And be it said to the credit of those heathea 
officials, those demands were respected. 

Jn view of such facts, what a spectacle this 
Aniei'ican Christian nation must present when 
this Chinese people come in turn to us and ask 
us to respect the treaties we have made with 
them, and we in turn face about and break 
the sacred obligations without the least com- 
punction ! 

Supposing the Chinese officials had not lis- 
tened to the demands of the foreign Consuls^ 
what would have been the result? Simply this, 
that the foreign l*owers would, altogethe<r, 
likely, have swept the whole Chinese Empire 
with shot and shell, if necessary, until their 
demands were granted. 

It might be a grand, good lesson, and it 
might have a purifying effect upon some of 
our thoroughly diseased body politics, if a dose 
of shot and shell were administered unto them. 

But the Chinese are more patient than we 
are, and whether they know it or not, it is not 



160 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

shot and shell that makes right, nor will such 
forces in the end prevail, nor any nation built 
on such combustible materials, but only truth 
and righteousness will endure to the end, and 
the nation whose foundation are these. 



CHAPTER XIV 



MEDICAL WOEK. 

Medical work in China has long been proved 
to be indispensable in carrying on a mission- 
ary enterprise successfully. In many instances 
it has been the tliinnest edge of the wedge that 
has finally cleft the hard and conservative 
hearts of these China's millions. It has " gaine<l 
privileges'' that no other agency has been able 
to as yet, and has risen rapidly in esteem and 
estimation of the natives. The hope of obtain- 
ing bodily relief for all their sufferings has 
been and is inducement sufficient for them to 
lay aside all their prejudices that they may 
entertain in regard to the foreigner and his re- 
ligion and come to the hospital for treatment. 
But by thus coming they are brought in con- 
tact with the Gospel and led to know of a 
deeper malady, and of Him who is the Great 
Physician. 

This has ever been the purpose of this agency, 
and it is not too much to say that in this way 
souls have been won for Christ whose salva- 
tion we could never have looked for without 
this open door, through which they have walked 
into the Kingdom. 

Of course, this is human language, and you 



162 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

will understand the meaning it is intended to 
C0B\ey. 

Medical work at Amoy began June Ttli, 1842^ 
when Dr. Cummings, a seli'-supporting mission- 
ary, under the patronage of the A. B. C. F. M.^ 
opened a dispensary in one of the rooms of Dr. 
Abeel's house, on Kolongsu. 

In January, 1844, Dr. Cummings moved his 
dispensary over to Amoy, into one of the twa 
rooms that the Mission (Reformed) had rented 
for Gospel services. 

Daily he ministered unto the sick as they came- 
to him "for medicine and medical advice," both 
as regards spiritual and bodily diseases. Dr» 
Cummings was obliged to leave Amoy on ac- 
count of ill-health in 1847. 

Dr. J. C. Hepburn, under the patronage of 
the American Presbyterian Church, w^as en- 
gaged in medical work at Amoy from Novem- 
ber 25th, 1843, to 1845. He w as a co-laborer of 
Dr. Cummings. 

In July, 1850, Dr. James Young, of the Eng- 
lish Presbyterian Church, arrived and con- 
ducted the medical work until 1854, when ill- 
health banished him also from the field. From 
that time until about 18G2 medical Avork was 
carried on under the co-operation of the three 
societies represented at Amoy. 

At this time the foreign merchants offered to 
relieve the missionary bodies of all pecuniary 
support and to carry on the hospital work at 
Amoy on the old religious basis. Still, the mis- 
sionaries maintained their interest in the work^ 



MEDICAL WORK. 163 

both by financial snpport and by individnal ser- 
vice in ministering the Word to the patients in 
the wards. 

A Community Doctor was put in charge. In 
1877 or '78 they began to secularize the work, 
until 1879 it was decided by the foreign mer- 
chants (the principal supporters) to withdraw 
or dispose of any religious character that might 
have been attached to the institution and make 
it an entirely secular institution. 

Under these circumstances the missionaries 
felt obliged to suspend their Interest. 

However, medical work w^as not abandoned. 
Four years later the English Presbyterians built 
a hospital of their own in another part of the 
city, which was opened for the reception of 
patients in 1883, under the care of Dr. A. L. 
Macleish. In this institution our Mission felt 
that it lield almost an equal interest. The hos- 
pital was built on some land o^^Tied by our 
Mission in close proximity to our Tek Chhiu 
Kfia Church (Second Church of Amoy). More- 
over, we contributed largely (until we began 
work at Sio-Ivhe) toward its financial support. 
We also took a deep interest in the spiritual 
welfare of the institution, as both the female 
antl male members of the Mission visited the 
hospital frequently to talk with the patients 
upon their spiritual condition, as well as taking 
a share in the other regular religious services 
of the hospital. 

In October, 1887, the Woman's Board of the 
Reformed (Dutch) Church commissioned and 



164 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

sent out Dr. Y. M. King, a Chinese lady, who 
had been adopted in childhood by Dr. Mac- 
Cartee, to begin medical work among the women 
of Amoy, China. 

She seemed well fitted for the work, and we 
considered that it was a long-felt need supplied 
when she began such a work. She had already 
entered upon what promised to be a most use- 
ful and successful Avork, when, for reasons v^e 
need not mention here, she transferred her ef- 
forts to Kobe, Japan (Autumn, 1888). 

Thus our hopes, which we had every reason 
to suppose were to be realized, were su<ldenly 
dashed to pieces. 

Only one who resides in China, and is ac- 
quainted with the seclusion of the Chinese 
women, can ever fully know what grand work a 
Chinese woman's hospital can accomplish in 
Amoy. May the day not be far distant when 
the Board may be able to send out a consecrated 
woman to take up this important work at Amoy 
and make a success of it. 

In 1889 what we may call our independent 
medical work was begun at Sio-Khe, sixty miles 
inland from Amoy. In the fall of 1887 the 
Board of Foreign Missions commissioned and 
sent out Dr. J. A. Otte, who arrived in Amoy 
January 1 3th, 1888, to take charge of that work. 

After much bickering and fussing with the 
natives of Sio-Khe, who did not like our com- 
pany very much (they have learned to think 
more of us), a site was secured, the Neerbosch 
Hospital erected, and opened for the treatment 



MEDICAL WOEK. 165 

of patients in 1880. The next year enlarge- 
ments and improvements were necessary, and 
the present dimensions of the hospital are 
about 05x30 and two stories high. 

On the lower floor are the chapel, dispensary, 
consultation room, woman's ward, store-room 
and kitchen. 

On the upper floor are the general ward, 
eye ward, ulcer ward, opium ward, and two 
students' rooms. 

The wards can accommodate 46 single beds 
and nearly all have been supported by friends 
in America at |35 each. Outside the hospital 
are two large open courts, the one for men and 
the other for women. The upper story has a 
nice wide veranda. 

Natives as well as foreigners have joineil in 
making the work a success. Both the civil and 
military Mandarins of Sio-Khe and vicinity are 
good friends of the institution, and take a deep 
interest in the work by contributing liberally 
to its support and by frequent visits. And, 
moreover, the work has lately won the favor of 
the District Magistrate. Better still, a Military 
Mandarin was won for Christ. Only a few year^ 
ago some of these same officials were bitter 
enemies of Christianity m general, and the hos- 
pital in particular. It is none too high praise 
to say that such happy and blessed results are 
due in a large measure to the skill and Chris- 
tian courtesy of Dr. Otte. 

In 1891 the Chinese alone contributed |200 
to the hospital. Besides this, native Christians 



166 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

and foreigners contributed in the same year 
$378.10 for bui'dln.o- the opium refuge. 



THE IMEDICAL STAFF. 

John A. Otte, M. D., Physician in Charge; 
lap Chi-seng, Dispenser; Ng Madiui, Evan- 
gelist. 



MEDICAL STUDENTS. 

Ng lan-gi, Tan Thian-un, lap Su-^.n, Tan 
Khe-ju, Lim lau-pang. 



The design of the institution is medical, evan- 
gelistic and educational. 

1. According to the xVnnual Eeport of the Hos- 
pital for 1891-'92, 1,774 new names (male) were 
enrolled on the register, 283 female; total, 2,057; 
533 patients were admitted for treatment, 2,7-^5 
new cases were treated, 197 old cases continued, 
6,892 return visits Avere made by pa.t'ents; total 
9,844; !225 patients were visited in their homes, 
iOl patients underwent surgical operations. 

2. Thus we see that several thousand souls 
were brought in touch with the Gospel message 
not once but many times. The students, as w^ell 
as the evangelist, have been most devoted, not 
only in dispensing medicine, but in their spir- 
itual ministrations as ^Aell. They have mani- 
fested the true missionary spirit, n-.t '.nly in 
preaching the Gospel to their c:>untrymen lying 
in wards in the hosp'tal, bat by going out one 
evening of each week into the neighbarin;'- towns 
and villages to tell the story of releeming love. 



MEDICAL WORK. 1G7 

Such work cannot fail of blessed results, and 
there are signs of abundant "showers of bless- 
ings"; the first droppings are already falling. 

In 1891 four of the former patients were ad- 
mitted in the full communion of the Sio-Khe 
Church. Among the four was "the Yery fiviit 
patient who received treatment in the hospital.^' 
And tidings come of those who, having returned 
to their homes, have not only made an open pro- 
fession of their faith in the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ, but are telling others the story. 

3. Anothej' object of the institution is to train 
up native Christian physicians, who, wo trust, 
will manifest the character of that Apostle who 
was both an evangelist, apostle and "good 
physician." Five, as mentioned above, are under 
course of traininjr. 



CHAPTER XV. 



EDUCATIONAL WORK 

This is another important agency in onr mis- 
sionary enterprise. It is another line of attack 
in the enemy's country, another way of train- 
ing our guns toward the foe. It has a double 
purpose, as it is instructive and constructive. 

It is instructive, as it aims to reach the youth, 
the "literati," and the ignorant of China, and 
constructive, as it seeks to furnish the Amoy 
District with a native educated ministry. 

I. Instructive. — (a) We listen and catch 
the sound of the tramp of coming genera;tions, 
Tvho, before we can count the time, will take 
the places of the present. Boys and girls they 
are now, but faster than the shadow^s climb the 
mountains they are becoming men and women. 
What kind of men and women? Young, mis- 
guided, if guided at all, wasting precious mo- 
ments, they are following hard and fast in the 
footsteps of their fathers and mothers, in hot 
pursuit of iniquity, superstition and idolatry. 
NoAv is the time to seek them; now is the best 
time and the easiest time to teach them better 
things and lead them in better ways. 

This is solid missionary work; and do we mag- 
nify the office too much when w^e say there is 
no more powerful advocate or counsellor before 



EDUCATIONAL WORK. 1G9 

the bar of this people's conscience than Chris- 
tian education? It strikes at the fountain and 
root of this Empire in its endeavor to lead the 
youth "in the right way" — ^the way of truth and 
righteousness. Are we going to provide for 
eveiything else and make no provision for the 
youth? 

We w^ould not, and do not, maintain that this 
agency is the only agency, much less the best 
or foremost or most important, nor the one to 
be pushe.l vigorously above all others; but we 
do insist that it is as important as the next. 

The Rev. W. T. A. Barber relates how he once 
was approached by ''a dear and respected sis- 
ter," who said: "It surely must be very refresh- 
ing to you when you can get away from your 
school and preach the Gospel." "Preach the 
Gospel!" he replied. "I am preaching the Gos- 
pel ever day. I am not a Christian first and a 
schoolmaster afterward. I am not a school- 
master first and Christian afterward. I am a 
Christian schoolmaster in and through all, try- 
ing to bring home to my pupils the fact that 
the faith that makes their teacher patient, that 
makes him thorough, that makes him true, is 
founded on Christ, the incarnate Son of God." 
And here, as Christian schoolmaster, we add, 
are afforded the grandest opportunities, most 
inspiring of congregations for preaching Christ 
as you preach Him elsewhere: the Saviour of 
their lost and guilty race; blessed occasions for 
instilling into their dull, ignorant, heavily-laden 
hearts the first notes of that angel song and 



170 FIFTY YEARS IN MIOY. 

story: "Behold! I bring you good tidings of 
great joy, . . , for there is born to you ... a Sav- 
iour, which is Christ the Lor<i." Can we begin 
too soon to knock at such hearts, ground and 
crushed by three or four thousand years of su- 
perstition, ignorance and idolatry, till death- 
like stniiefaction possesses every chamber of 
heart, mind, will and conscience? O! we must 
strike deep at the foundation, the very roots of 
this nation, if we ever hope, by the grace (xod 
vouchsafes us, to see China amongst the re- 
deemed. 

(b) Moreover, is not education the very door 
to the hearts of the upper classes? We have 
touched but the fringes of this gTeat garment 
as yet; Ave have succeeded in planting our guns 
in a few places ou the outer boundaries of this 
vast domain, but the chief cities and the capi- 
tal still remain barricaded fortresses. As we 
look up toward those heights, higher than the 
watch towers on the mountain fortress city of 
Jebus they seem to us, and as insurmountable. 
The besieged — for besieged they are — are "in- 
finitely self-satisfied with the accumulated, in- 
tellectual pride of centuries, infinitely scornful 
of all that bears not the stamp of Confucian 
lore," and infinitely unconcerned about their 
ultimate overthrow and eternal doom. The de- 
mands that come from the hosts of Jehovah for 
an absolute, unconditional surrender are hurled 
back with persistent defiance, and even the ap- 
peals to escape from their imminent peril and 
seek safety in salvation provided by God, in- 



EDUCATIONAL WORK. 171 

carnated in the person of Jesus Christ, seems 
not yet, at least, to have touchel the outermost 
pickets of their hearts. 

There is a certain literary class in China 
which we can no more hope will be touched by 
the churches than we can hope that that other 
class of sick and infirm can (humanly speaking). 
The sick must first feel the physician's touch; 
so must these ignorant ones feel the educator's 
touch before we can hope to see tliem forsake 
their ancient fortresses, before we can hope that 
that innate conceit will be broken. And until 
we have brought all our instruments of warfare 
up to the breach already opened can we hope 
to take the city? 

This upper class, known as the "literati," 
profess to be soaked with knowledge. The 
Church does not reach them, the hospital can- 
not, the school will. The schools will, because 
the Chinese respect knowledge, and through 
this door, over which we will inscribe ""True 
Knowledge," iimst these pass to enter the King- 
dom of God. 

Is this limiting the power of the Gospel or 
of the Church? Is this magnifying the office? 
Kot at all. Far be it from me to attach any 
such limitations, 'or make au}^ such foolish, 
intimations. But God helps them who help 
themselves. He has left us to employ human 
means in this great Avork, and here is one that 
will bring the Gospel in contact Avith a certain 
class that no other agency has reached as yet. 
We claim nothing more of it. May God make us 



172 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

wise to use all things wisely and every means 
possible to lead this people to a knowledge of 
the Truth. 

(c) There is still another class to whom edu- 
cation has ever been a boon and a blessing, 
viz.: the females of China. 

When we consider the possibilities of this 
department amongst th^ girls and the women 
of China, and what it ha^f already accomplished, 
it is something wondrously gTand, and perhaps 
beyond our conception. 

Of the two sexes, woman's mind is the most 
benighted, as they have no opportunity to learn. 
Men may learn, women not. Whilst the Chi- 
nese boast of a civilization, yet the treatment 
of their women has been little better than bar- 
barian. Depriving them of souls, they have 
deprived them of an education. The Chinese 
woman has no business to know anything, and 
few do. She is little more than a slave of her 
husband and her mother-in-law. However 
much mothers-in-laws may be abused in our own 
land, it is a painful truth that in China they 
are perfect terrors. 

Under her dominion the young wife's epito- 
mized historj^ is recorded in these few words: 
^'Rise, run, work; eat little, spend little, be si- 
lent, obey, bear." Kather bleed, starve, die, 
than dare complain. 

The ignorance of these women is something 
frightful. And what else could be expected? 
That it is a great obstacle in the advancement 
of our churches and all that is good, is apparent. 



EDUCATIONAL WORK. 173 

Imagine a woman tlius deprived of all advan- 
tages of an education being brought in contact 
with the Gospel. Nay, more. Imagine a con- 
gregation of women, who cannot read one sylla- 
ble of their own language, much less think one 
intelligent thought, sitting under your min- 
istrations Sabbath after Sabbath. What kind 
of impressions could you make upon such 
minds? What kind of improvement could you 
hope for in their spiritual and intellectual lives? 
What of expansion and widening of vision could 
one expect under such circumstances?* 

So the story comes freighted with everlasting 
love and compassion, and full of food for 
thought. But how much can sucli minds drink 
in? How can such minds think that have never 
ibeen taught to think? Why, their husbands 
(or their mothers-in-law) do all their thinking, 
if you please. 

Here are some samples of the way they com- 
prehend the Gospel messages. You repeat the 
story over and over again, until you imagine 
they have it at last. And they Avill make you 
feel encouraged by insisting that they really do 
understand. ''Oh, yes," they assure you; "we 
understand it all." Pleased and satisfied, you 
:go your way rejoicing, until you are brought 
face to face with some such facts as these: 

A woman was asked if she could tell who com- 
posed the Trinity? "Oh, yes," she could tell. 
'" Well, who ?" She replied : " Mary, Martha and 
Lazarus." 

Another was asked if she could give the order 



174 FIFTY YEARS IN AIVIOY. 

of creation. With the same conhdence and in- 
trepi<iity, she assured them that she coiihl. This> 
is the wa}^ she did it. First day: Thou shalt 
have no other Gods before Me; and so on to the 
end of tlie Ten Commandments. But thera 
were ten days in the order of her creation in- 
stead of six. 

A woman was once asked to tell the story of 
Nebuchadnezzar. She started in and got on 
finely until she came to the persons walking in 
the furnace that the king had prepared. These 
persons she designated as God, Jesus Christ, 
and the third she had forgotten, but she guessed 
it must be Jehovah. 

Do you say these are extreme cases? Surely 
these are, but the sorry fact is that there are 
multitudes of these extreme cases. As Dr. Tal- 
mage once wrote, we rewrite: "After our Chris- 
tian friends at home have done their utmost to- 
picture to themselves the mental darkness of 
such extreme cases, I do not believe that the 
picture they form in their minds is more than 
adequate to represent the mental darkness of 
the large majority of the women in our own 
country churches when they first come under 
the power of the Gosijel.'^ 

Besides all this, think of such mothers. What 
of the children trained by such mothers? If 
the destiny of a nation lay in the bosom of a 
mother, what destiny are we compelled to have 
in mind if these mothers are to be kept in ig- 
noi'ance? 



EDUCATIONAL WORK. 175 

Such questions need no answer; that answer 
is apjjarent to every thinking mind. 

It has been the blessed work of Christian 
•edncation, in these early years of its work, to 
change the condition of some of the women in 
China. It has raised them from these low 
depths to which they have been plunged, and 
crowned them with true womanhood, and place<i 
them in that position where God intended them 
to stand. It has made them useful— useful in 
the whole home, in the whole community, and 
the whole Church. 

The use of the word Christian in connection 
with education will disabuse any mind in re- 
gard to our view of education. Anything less 
than a Christian education is folly. Mere secu- 
lar knowledge, mere knowledge, is vain and use- 
less here. But what is brought to these be- 
nighted minds along the channels of knowlerlge, 
m', in other words, what true knowledge brings! 
is the boon and the blessing of education to this 
people. 

II. Constructive.— The educational work has 
another purpose and important end in view. 
It looks to the construction of a native educated 
ministry. It goes without saying that a native 
ministry is absolutely essential to carry the Gos- 
pel everywhere, and to establish churches in 
every town, city and village of the Amoy Dis- 
trict. But, above all things, an educated min- 
istry is essential. How do we ever hope, then, 
to construct such a ministry wdthout well- 



17G FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

equipped and well-furnished educational insti- 
tutions ? 

Blind leaders of the blind would conduct them 
all into the ditch. 

China, boasting over her literary productions 
and Confucian lore, is no place for an unedu- 
cated ministry. Whatever the Chinaman may 
be, he has no respect for ignorance, but a most 
profound regard for intelligence. 

Now, the sooner this educated ministry is 
provided, so much the sooner aviII our forces 
and our efforts in China be unnecessary. 

These are the aims and purposes of our edu- 
cational institutions at Amoy. And having 
made these observations, we wall be able to 
tnore intelligently review these institutions, 
and Avhat has been done during these fifty years 
in this department. 



THE UNION THEOIjOGICAIi SEMINARY. 

The training of young men for the ministry^ 
was considereil from the beginning of the Mis- 
sion to be of the utmost importance. And just 
so soon as possible a class of five or six young: 
men was formed and instruction in the Bible 
begun. Rooms were provided at first in th^ 
Mission House, in Amoy. 

In 1866 the young institution moved over to 
the island of Kolongsu, where the missionaries 
had gone. In 1867 a})plication was made to 
the Board for the sum of |300 to build a theo- 
logical seminary on Kolongsu. In response,- 
the sum of money was furnished, and (1869-'70). 




Thomas De Witt, Theological Hall. 



EDUCATIONAL WORK. J 77 

the first theological seminary of the Amoj Mis- 
Bion was completed and named "The Thomas 
DeWitt Theological Hall." The hall Avas built 
of brick, two stories, and about 30x40. It con- 
tained one lecture room, which was also used as 
a dining-room, eleven bedrooms an<l a kitchen. 
Besides the missionaries, Ng Chek-teng was em- 
ployed as an instructor. 

In 1885 the two missions, viz.: the English 
Presbyterian and the Reformed (Dutch) 
Churches, united the theological departments 
of their educational work. Previous to this each 
mission had its own theological seminary. Under 
the new arrangement, the English Presbyterian 
Mission was to provide a theological seminary 
building and the Reformed (Dutch) Cliurch Mis- 
sion to provide the academy. This was done. 

Until 1892 the theological seminary building 
consisted of a purely Oriental Chinese house, 
slightly changed and adapted for such a pur- 
pose. But in this year a new and commo<lious 
building has been erected by the English Pres- 
byterian M,ission. It is built of brick and stuc- 
coed cream color, with trimmings to match^ 
having two recitation rooms and thirty or thirty- 
five single rooms for the students. 

From this school of the prophets our present 
ministry has gone forth. Besides these, many 
of the native helpers and unordained evangelists 
have spent one or two years under a special 
course of training in the institution. 

Each Mission has, in recent years at least, 
appointed one from its respective body to the 



178 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

special work of giving instruction to the stu- 
dents of the seminary. At present Rev. Wm. 
McGregor, of the English Presbyterian Mission, 
and Rev. J. G. Fagg, of the Reformed (Dutch) 
Church Mission, hold these appointments. 

Mr. Un Sain-goan, a promising young native 
Christian, also assists in the instruction. Others 
have shared in this important work. Here Dr. 
Talmage taught, and left such an impression 
upon the hearts of those who sat under his 
instruction as time will never wear away. Here 
he labored in all his aroused enthusiasm as he 
sought to fit the young men for the responsi- 
ble and sacred office of the ministry — jesi, and 
to send them forth imbued with some of his 
xeal and spirit to herald the messages of the 
cross to their perishing brethren. One could 
not sit long under his teaching without dis- 
covering how his heart and soul were all aglow 
with zeal and love for the messages of Divine 
Truth he sought to impart — nor long before that 
flame was kindling some responsive zeal or love 
for the same Truth in his own heart. Such is 
but a glimpse of the character of the teaching of 
Dr. Talmage, and such teaching must leave an 
imperishable impression. 

Rev. Henry Thompson, Rev. John Watson 
<E. P.), Rev. Daniel Rapalje and Rev. L. W. 
Kip, D. D. (R. C), have also devoted not a 
little of their time to instruction in this semi- 
nary, and been no less zealous in this good 
work of filling the ranks of the ministry in the 
Amoy District. 



EDUCATIONAL WORK. 171> 

It is the purpose of those in charge to have 
all the young men remain three years, and dur- 
ing that time to pursue a thorough, unbroken 
course in theological studies. 

On account of the great lack of helpers in the 
fields, whitening unto the harvest, such a course 
up to the present has been impossible. After 
a young man has been in the institution a year 
an earnest appeal comes from some unoccu- 
pied quarter for some young man to come and 
"hold the fort," for a time, at least. In re- 
sponse, the young man has to reluctantly break 
out from his studies and go in answer to the 
call. But he goes with the promise that as soon 
as possible he will be allowed to come back and 
finish his course. That is the way the young 
men have to get their theological training in 
Amoy. It is the aim of this institution to pro- 
vide that educated native ministry mentioned 
above. And it is only necessary to say that, 
having two sucli men as Rev. William Mc- 
Gregor and Rev. J. G. Fagg in charge, just 
such work and just such results will be accom^ 
plished. 

The course at present embraces the follow- 
ing subjects: Old and New Testament Exegesis, 
Churcli History, Systematic Theology, Genu- 
ineness and Authenticity of the Scriptures and 
Homiletics. Besides these studies, two Chinese 
tutors are engaged to give instruction in Chinese 
classics, ^'the art of polite address and composi- 
tion according to Chinese standards." A 
preaching hall, opened on the island of Ko- 



ISO FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

longsii in 1892, affords the students a splendid 
opportunity of gaining and developing facility 
in addressing tlieir heathen brethren. 

During the history of this institution upward 
of 100 young men have been under 'instruction. 
Upward of 70 have graduated, the majority of 
whom have become evangelists. One-third or 
more have become ordained pastors, and 17 still 
occupy the sacred office to-day. To these and 
those who follow in the main must be committed 
the sacred trust of gathering in the heathen, 
the organization and development of the native 
churches of Amoy. May your prayers ever go 
up in their behalf. 



THE BOYS' ACADEMT. 

The Theological Seminary, having vacated 
the Thomas DeWitt Theological Hall, an addi- 
tion of another two-story buihiing, quite as large 
as the original building, was made (1885), and it 
became the home of the Middle School or Acad- 
emy of the two Missions, when for two years 
or more it was un<ler the care of Eev. A. S. 
Van Dyck. He then took charge of the Sio- 
Khe District, when the school came under its 
present regime. It was called the Middle School 
because it was the school between the paro- 
chial schools and the Theological Seminary. 

There is still another name in Chinese at- 
tached to it. The building at the time of its 
erection was given the name of Sim-goan-tsai, 
the meaning of which is: "Seeking the origin 
of truth." This name still clings to it, and the 



EDUCATIONAL WORK. 181 

natives know it and speak of it as the Sim-goan- 
tsai. 

The superintendence of this work has been 
largely placed under the control of the Re- 
formed (Dutch) Church Mission. Hence, in the 
year 1885 Rev. A. S. Van Dyck was appointed 
by his mission to take special oversight of the 
duties connected with the school. His super- 
intendence continued until he voluntarily of- 
fered to transfer his residence from Amoy to the 
inland station of Sio-Khe, in order to take 
charge of the work akeady grown to great im- 
portance there. 

In 1887 Rev. P. W. Pitcher was appointed to 
take charge of the academy. Mr. Aug Khelv- 
Chhiong, appointed to be the native assistant 
in the academy, has proved an invaluable co- 
laborer. Being chosen instructor of the Chi- 
nese classics in 1885, lie has become closely 
identified with tlie prosperity of the school. 
Faithfulness, devotion and efficiency have char- 
acterized his labor. His high Christian char- 
acter has won the esteem and confidence both 
of missionaries and pupils alike. 

Rev. Wm. McGregor and Rev. Henry Thomp- 
son (E. P.) and Rev. J. (>. Fagg (R. C.) have 
also given their assistance in the special 
branches of mathematics imd history. In this 
connection it may be well to say that the school 
at present needs a well-trained teacher, who can 
devote his time to the higher branches of edu- 
cation. Under the present regime only the com- 



182 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

Imon high school branches can be handled. Pro- 
Tision should be made for both. 

Unlike the theological department, this branch 
of the educational work of the two missions has 
alvvajs been united, and the school was first 
quartered in a native house on the other side 
of the island. That building was forthwith va- 
cated, and the institution began a new period 
of its existence under more favorable circum- 
stances in its new quarters in 1885. 

This building was occupied by the academy 
imtil 1892, when, funds having been secured 
from friends in America, principally through the 
appeals of tlie missionary in charge, who was 
providentially in America in 1891, a new prop- 
erty was secured, and again the academy began 
a new period in its history under still more favor- 
able circumstances in its new quarters. 

Of this property only a passing notice can be 
given. We notice it at all only for the reason 
that some day we triist this site will be adorned 
by a well-equipped college. 

The property comi)rises a piece of gi^ound 200 
feet square, enclosed by a high brick wall. It 
is situated in close proximity to the late Dr. 
Talmage's residence and the other school build- 
ings of our Mission. Being on a high elevation^ 
it commands on the one side a full view of the 
harbo]', the adjacent island of Anioy and the 
mainland beyond, and on the other the ocean 
and the high ranges of mountains that skirt its 
shores. At present there is only a dwelling- 
house on the grounds, which is being used for 



EDUCATIONAL WOEK. 183 

the academy. A project is under way, and an 
effort is being made (1893) to secure |4,000 to 
erect a dorinilory and recitation hall imme- 
diately south of the present building, which is 
to be named in memory of Dr. J. V. N. Talmage 
—'•The Talmage Memorial Hall." And surely 
the man who spent forty-five years of his life 
in connection witJi tlie Amoy Mission is worthy 
of such a recognition. 

It is the ijurpose of the school to give the lads 
who come under its instruction a thorough edu- 
cation, spiritual, mental and physical, and thus 
to assist the seminary in the effort to provide 
an educated ministry. During its history two 
or three hundred boys have been under its im- 
struction. 

The -school has in late years had more schol- 
ars than it could comfortably accommodate. In 
180:^-'03 there were thirty boys, and in 1893-94 
there are thirty-five boys in attendance. 

The ultimate aim of the institutitm, as already 
intimated, is a college, and when it becomes 
such we trust it will accomplish its every aiuii. 
It is unnecessary to trace the steps in devel- 
opment, but merely notice the curriculum al- 
ready provided. This will give some idea how 
much of an advance has been made toward a 
college, and Vv^here we stand to-day amongst 
the educational institutions of China. 

The course is divided into four years, and was 
put into opeiation for the first time in 1890, an<l 
all inytrm-tion is given through the Chinese 
language. 



184 FIFTV YEARS IN MIOY. 

First Year. — Scripture: Acts to Revelations; 
Genesis. Classics: Analects, Commentary, Vol. 
I. Kok-liong (Ode. Subject: Customs, Alanners, 
etc.) lu-hak-su-ti. (Subject: Ancient Chinese 
History). Letter Writing: Composition (i. e., 
learning to use tlie CMnese characters). Arith- 
metic, Decimals and Fractions. Geography: 
Asia and Europe, complete. Historj^: China 
begun. Astronom}-: Introduction. Catechism^ 
164 questions. Reading and writing the Amoy 
Romanized Colloquial. Composition, Map Draw- 
ing. 

Second Year. — Scripture: Exodus to Judges. 
Classics: Analects, Commentary, Vol. II. Tai- 
sian-nga (Ode.. Subject: ^^ili;ues of Kings and 
Princes). lu-hali-su-ti, Vol. II. Tso-toan, Vol. 

I. (Subject: History of Early Feudalism). Tong- 
si. Vol. I. (Ode, Subject: Nature). Composi- 
tion. Arithmetic, finished. Geography: North 
and South America, Africa. History: China. 
Catechism, comi)lete. Reading and writing the 
Amoy Romanized Colloquial. Composition. 
Map Dr-awing. 

Third Year. — Scripture: Samuel to Esther; 
Psalms. Classics: Mencius, ♦Comiiientary. Siong- 
su (Ode., Subject: Kingly Government). Si- 
keng-siong (Ode., Subject: I'anegyrics). lu-liak- 
su-ti, Vol. III. Tso-toan, Vol. II. Tong-si, VoL 

II. Composition. Algebra, begun. Physiol- 
ogy, complete. Physics. History: England, 
France and Germany. Reading and writing the 
Amoy Romanized Colloquial. Composition. 
Drawing. 



EDUCATIONAL WORK. 185 

Fourth Year. — Scripture: Job; Proverbs to 
Malachi. Classics: Mencius, Commentary. Tai- 
hak (Great learning). lu-hak-su-ti, Vol. IV. 
Tso-toan, Vols. HI. and [V. Tong-si, Vol. III. 
Composition. Algebra, finished. Physics. His- 
tory: America, Eussia, Spain. Reading and 
writing the Anioy Romanized Colloquial. Com- 
position. Drawing. 

Since this curriculum has been in vogue a 
further demand has been made by the native 
Christians for the introduction of the study of 
Mandarin (i. e., the court language) and English. 
I'robably the first will be allowed imme<liately 
and the latter in the near future. 

It is expecte<l that these lads will, in a ma- 
jority of cases, become ministers, and thus, after 
the comjtletion of their course in this institution, 
they will j»ass on into the theological seminary. 

In 1891 SO per cent of the boys had the min- 
istry in view, 10 per cent wei'e expecting to 
become physicians. Avhile the other 10 per cent 
were undecided. The boys are all members of 
Christian families, and about two-thirds (1892) 
aire members of the Church. 



PAROCHIAL. SCHOOLS. 

Each church and some of the out-stations have 
a day school. These schools, of course, began 
first, and then followed the Middle School. But 
we have not followed any order in the treatment 
of the e<iucational institutions, as we preferred 
to give the larger institutions the more promi- 
nent place. The day schools are nearly, if not 



180 FIFTY YEARS IN AlVIOY. 

quite, as old as the churches themselves, for 
just as soon as a church was organized a day 
school for the children was instituted. 

The names of these day schools of our chuiehes 
are Sin-Koe-a, Tek-chhiu-Kha, Chioh-be, Chiang- 
chiu, Thian-po, Sio-Khe, Poa, Lam-sin, Te-soa^ 
Tong-an. These schools are all graded, and 
the course is divided into six years. 

Though we mention the parochial schools last 
in order, yet they are by no means least in im- 
portance. In the first place, they are feeders of 
our academy, and in the second place, here is 
the place where the ''good seed" is implanted 
for the first time in the child's heart. What 
the child is here, such is he or she apt to be in 
the higher institutions. Here the seed is sown; 
in the higher grades Ave hope to develop it and 
watch its growth. Some of the heathen families 
send tlieii* childi'en to these schools, and thus is 
afforded an opportunity of reaching homes out- 
side of the Churcli that is afforded in no other 
^N-ay. 



THE CHARLOTTE W. DURYEE SCHOOL. 

When the Misses Talmage were home in 
America in 1881 much of their time was spent 
visiting the ladies of the different churches, giv- 
ing information concerning "woman's work" in 
Amoy, China. At that time, the attention of 
the ladies of the Reformed (Dutch) Church was 
directed by them to the great need of a lady 
physician, and a building for teaching the 
women, in order to carry on the work more sue- 



EDUCATIONAL WOEK. 187 

cesgfully and advantageously than could be ac- 
complished b}^ house-to-house visitation in the 
Amoy District. 

Among the ladies whose heart and soul gave a 
glad response to these appeals was Mrs. Char- 
lotte Duryee, Foreign Corresponding Secretary 
of the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions 
(1877-'85). She became especially interested in 
the woman's school, and became an enthusiastic 
advocate for that institution. Mrs. Talmagei 
also met the Executive Committee of the 
Woman's lioard and placed the matter l>efore 
tkem to consider. 

In due time sufficient funds were provided to 
build the school, and the building was com- 
pleted in 1884. 

About the time of its completion word was 
received at Amoy of the death of Mrs. Duryee. 
Mrs. Talmage wrote home immediately to the 
ladies in America, proposing that the school be 
named in memory of Mrs. Duryee. The proposi- 
tion met with the hearty approval of all, and 
hence it received the name: ''The Charlotte W. 
Duryee School for Women." 

Work among the women of Amoy wias com- 
menced by Mrs. Doty, and has been carried on 
to the present day with untiring devotion by 
the ladies of the Mission. 

There is a record of a meeting for Avomen on 
December IGth, 1845, and another record of 
Mrs. Doty having a regular class of women 
under her instruction in 1849. Ever since those 
days Mrs. Talmage, Mrs. Kip and the other 



188 FIFT\' YEARS IN AMOY. 

ladies connecled with the Mission have devoted 
their time to this Avork, of which the Kef ormed 
(Dutch) Church may well feel proud. No too 
high praise can ever be sounded, either of the 
workers or of the Avork. 

With the completion of the buildings, this 
work entered upon a Avider fiehl of usefulness. 
It is a school for women of the Church ranging 
from 25 to 50 year of age (and some even 
older), and its object is to teach them to read the 
Bible, and to make them useful in the Church 
and their homes. The institution has been 
greatly favored in being able to retain for so 
many years the efficient services of (Mrs.) Bi- 
So, and the hope is that many j^ears more may 
be added to her, and that all of them may be 
devoted to this work. 

"Many of these women live long distances 
from any place of w^orship. Even though they 
walk the long distances, they are so ignorant, 
they understand but little of what is said by 
the preacher j and, on the whole, have but little 
opportunity of making any advancement in 
spiritual truth. Some of tiiese women have 
entered the women's school more ignorant than 
one can well imagine, but after a few months 
have gone liome not only able to read the Bible 
in the Amoy Romanized Colloquial, but also 
wonderfully brightened up in many ways, espe- 
cially in their kno\\'ledge of the Bible. Some of 
them have become very useful Bible women. 
Since the school opened nearly 200 women have 



Ml "W^ ^ 



Girls School, Kolongsu. 



EDUCATIONAL WOEK. 181> 

studied in it, almost all of whom have learned 
to read." (Miss M. E. Talmage's Report.) 



THE GIRLS' BOAHDING SCHOOL. 

There are two schools for girls in the Amoy 
District connected with the Reformed (Dutch) 
Church Mission, one located at Amoy and the 
other at Sio-Khe. The one at Amoy is under 
the supervision of the Misses Talmage, and the 
one at Sio-Khe under the supervision of Miss 
Nellie Zwemer and Mrs. Kip. 

The school at Amoy may be said to have be« 
gun in the Tek-chhiu-Kha, or Second, Church 
of Amoy (about 1869), where Mrs. Talmage and 
Mrs. J. A. Davis would gather all the girls they 
could get and teach them to read, write and 
cipher. Encouraged by the success of their 
efforts, it was decided to organize a ''boarding 
school,'- where the girls of all the cliurches, both 
in the country as well as in the city, might 
come and receive an education. Hence this 
boarding school was opened in a building ad- 
joining the Tek-Chhiu-Kha Church. (This buihl- 
ing was the home at one time of the nnssion- 
aries. To-day it is serving the purpose of a 
hospital and pastor's home.) 

The first native teacher employed was an old 
man named Hap Liong peh, and a matron, also^ 
was employed to care for the girls. The first 
female teacher was Mrs. Lo (widow of pastor Lo). 
Mrs. Talmage had charge oi the school till 1872. 
While Miss Van Doren was permitted to labor 
in Amov she had the care of the school. After 



190 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

she left it came under tlie direction of Miss M. 
E. Talmage, under whose charge it has been 
ever since, excepting when on furlough. At 
present there are two Chinese female teachers, 
viz.: Mrs. Sia and Chhiu Che, who are matrons 
also. Under all these administrations it has 
been a most successful school, <ioing the same 
good worjv among the young girls — girls from 
eight to eighteen years of age — as the woman's 
school is (L'ing among the older women. 

About the year 1878 the present building, lo- 
cated on Kolongsu Island, was erected, and the 
girls were transferred from their old quarters 
to these new an;l more commodious ones. 

The institution is giving these girls an educa- 
tion — something that the Chinese do not give 
their girls. But, better than all, it is giving 
them a Christian education. It is also engaged 
in another good work in its endeavor to break 
up that cruel and horrible custom of foot-bind- 
ing. Every child who enters here must come 
with her feet unbound, and with a promise from 
her parents that they will not be bound, and 
consequently the fifty girls in attendanco have 
natural feet. 

"Since the establishment of this institution 
many girls have passed through it who are now 
scattered through the country congregations. 

"They are the great joy of our work and the 
bright hope of the future. Some of them have 
become teachers, many of them preachers' wives, 
an;i nearly all made public profession of their 
love for the Saviour. The school is crowded 




Children's Home (on the left). Koi.r^NGsu. 




Charlotte W. Duryee's Woman's School, 



EDUCATIONAL WORK. 191 

at present (1892), having fifty girls on the roll. 
The training of these Ave feel to be the most im- 
portant work, deserving all the time and eare 
we are capable of giving." (Miss M. E. Tal- 
mage's Report.) 

The sister institution at Sio-Khe was organ^ 
ized by Mrs. Van Dyck in 1888-'89, and it is 
doing the same good work in Bio-Khe. The 
workers there have had their hearts made glad 
by the news that has just been received (1893) 
of funds to be given by the Woman's Board for 
the erection of a new school building for the 
girls. 



THE CHILDUEN'S HOME (OUPHAISTAGE). 

This institution, founded and supported by 
the ladies of the English Presbyterian and Re- 
forme<l (Dutch) churches in 1887, has for its 
object the rescue of female children from slavery 
and death. 

The name in Chinese clearly defines its object, 
viz.: "Merc}^ Upon the Chihlren (or, ^l*ity the 
Child') Institution." So much suffering among 
the childi^en and so many cases of absolute want 
were brought to the notice of the ladies that 
they felt something ought to be done in behalf 
of these children, and thus originated the idea 
of starting the home. 

Since tlie time of its opening, fifty-four chil- 
dren have been talien under its fostering care. 
Some of these children (and they are only babes) 
were saved from their cruel and inhuman moth- 
ers, who were preparing to drown them or sell 



192 FIFTY YEARS IN AJMOY. 

them. Of these fifty-four, some have died and 
some have been adopted b}' Christian families. 
At present there are thirty-four chihlren under 
the care of the home. Three Chinese ladies, viz. : 
Thiap-a, Put-Chiu and Pek-Soat, look after the 
little ones in the home. 

Thus we see the grand v^^ork that is contem- 
plated in rescuing the females of the Amoy 
District. Provision is made for all classes, 
the women, the girls, and the "little tots." God 
bless these efforts. 



WOMAN'S WORK. 

This department must not close wdthout a few 
lines regarding woman's work. '^ Woman's work 
is never done" in Amoy, for when the school 
duties are over there is some lonely and be- 
nighted soul to be visite<l in the hospital an<l 
told the story of redeeming love. And these 
patients are always glad to have a visit from 
these ladies. Then the little ones in the Chil- 
dren's Home must be looked after, church mem- 
bers and heathen families must be visited, and 
occasionally arranging for marriages, and prep- 
aration for their daily school work besides. This 
is a sample of the lady missionaries' daily life 
at Amoy. But their work is not confined to 
Amoy City. That work branches out into the 
country around for sixty milerj and more. This 
work of visiting the out-stations was begun by 
the Misses Talmage', and the other ladies have 
followed their noble example and have done 
and are doing a blessed work. 



ED LI CATION AL WORK. 193 

It involves much bodily discomfort and loneli- 
ness. "It means starting with a basket of food 
and a bundle of bedding and books (an orthodox 
load for a Obinaman to sling across his shoulders 
on each end of a pole), to be gone, per- 
haps, over a Sunday, i)erhaps for four or five 
weeks, itineratiug auiongst the out-stations (liv- 
ing in chapels! for the purpose of visiting and 
holding meetings with the women." These 
ladies usually go two-by-two, but sometimes 
alone, yet in tins heathen land they go mth per- 
fect safetv and without molestation. 



THE PRESS. 

Not the least important event of these fifty 
years was the construction of the Amoy Roman- 
ized Colloquial, ^^hich, in fact, was nothing less 
than a new written language. 

The Chinese written language is composed en- 
tireh^ of arbitrary characters, or symbols, about 
thirty or forty thousand of them. Each one of 
these symbols represents a word. Consequently 
there is no alphabet. To acquire a knowledge 
of these symbols, so as to be able to read Chi- 
nese literature, requires years, frequently a life- 
time of patience and toil, besides a deal of lung 
power (for they always shout at the top of their 
voices when they study). 

One can readily understand how difficult the 
acquisition of such a written language must be, 
how few do acquire it, and how millions in the 
great Empire of China are de})rived of the bone- 



194 FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 

fit and information containe<l in their books and 
other literature. 

Realizing- the terrible ignorance of the native 
Christians, and realizing the ntter hopelessness 
of ever being able to improve their sad condi- 
tion in this res])ect by means of the old, the very 
literary method, the missionaries of the Re- 
formed (Dntch) Church (in the year 1852 or 
1853) devised a new system of writing tlie Amoy 
Colloquial by using Roman letters. Choosing 
eighteen of these letters, and by aspirating some 
of them, an alphabet of twenty-three letters was 
completed. AVith this alphabet an<l Avith tonal 
and nasal signs a complete transformation of the 
language from the dead arbitrary symbols to the 
living and mnch more comprehensive, simple 
and intelligible style was made, thus nuildng it 
possible for every man, woman and chUd to read. 
This style of writing has been one of the bless- 
ings, among the many others, that has come to 
the people of Amoy during this half century. 
Yet this conservative people have l:)eeii slow in 
appreciating it. It was not literary enough. It 
was too much like child-Avork to sit down and 
read that kind of A^'riting. Some wei^ actnally 
ashamed to be seen reading it. Some despised 
it simply because it Avas too foreign. And so, 
rather than learn to read the Romanized Col- 
loquial (they could not read the symbols) they 
would not read at all. China moves sIoav — but 
she moves. Hoav fast none can tell. They do 
not jump at a new thing in a hurry. There are 
no frog-like movements in the Chinese Avay of 



EDUCATIONAL WORK. 195 

doing things. AVhen tliey jump they know where 
they will land, and when landed they generally 
stay landed. Though they did not appreciate 
this new style oT writing at first, they do appre- 
ciate it to-day more than they did thirty years 
a^o, and will appreciate it more and more every 
year they employ it. 

They have cause to. The proof of the pudding 
is in the eating thereof. The Chinese have 
found it to be so in this case. It has made it 
possible for them to be a respectably intelligent 
people, without which they would liave been as 
dumb as gate-posts. 

It has brought light and knowledge to thou- 
sands of homes that never would liave had either 
without it. It has not only made it possible for 
old and young alike in that disti'ict to read and 
write, but has <lone more toward the spiritual 
enlightenment of that people in these few years 
than whole centuries of the old method could or 
can hope to accomplish. 

It requires, as has been intimated, almost a 
life-time to acquii'e the old method, while in two 
months (or even less) one may acqiiii'e this- 
method. 

We laiow not how many readers have been; 
made by this system, but we are confident that 
where there were ten thirty-five years ago, there 
are a hundred to-day; and where there was one 
who could not read a line of their own language, 
there are ten who can read intelligently and 
with profit to-day. A ten-fold increase, yet we 



196 FIFTV \1EARS IX AMOV. 

deem tiiis not an unfair estimate. It may be too 
low an estimate. 

Thirty -five or forty years ago tliere was not a 
line printed in this new style, while to-day there 
ai'e about fifty different works, besides the Old 
and Kew Testaments published in the Amoy 
Romanized Colloquial. In addition to these, 
mention must be made of a monthly church 
paper, called the "Church Messenger," issue<l in 
this style. 

Bom in the Reformed (Dutch) Church Mis- 
sion, her missionaries have ever taken a deep 
interest in its success. At first the books, 
tracts, etc., were printed from blocks, but in 
ISCM-TiS movable type was introduced, and 
Rev. Howard Van Doren superintended the 
press. Thus a, majority of the books is- 
fened have been issued by the members 
of this Mission, viz.: Sacramental forms of the 
Reformed (Dutch) Church (1853), Anglo-Chi- 
nese Manual of the Amoy District (1853), Mil- 
ner's Thirteen A^illage Sermons, including Mil- 
ner's Tract: ^'The Straight Gate," by Rev. Elihn 
Doty; "Pilgrims' Progress" (1853), Holy Scrip- 
tures (13 books!, Book of Forms, Heidelberg Cate- 
chism, Sacred History, Dictionary Amoy Ro- 
manized Colloquial, Hynms, Arithmetic, Stories 
by Rev. J. V. X. Talmage, D. D. (It is also diLe 
to Dr. Talmage to record here that the ''Church 
Messenger" owes its origin to him. He began 
it, and until the end labored unceasingly for 
its success, both mth his pen and with his 
counsel.) Sacred History, Vols. II., IV.; '^Jes- 



EDUCATIONAL WOEK. 197 

sica's First Prayer'' (1886), ''Robert Annam" 
(1890), by Mrs. J. Y. N. Talniage; Sacred His- 
tory, Vols. I., m. ; Sunday-school Texts (annual), 
Child's Story-book, "Golden Bells," ''How Satan 
Tempts," by Miss Talmage; "Pilgrims' Prog- 
ress," Heidelberg Catechism (revised, 1891)), by 
Rev. D. Rapalje; Church Psalter (1892), Holy 
Scripture (part). Map of the Amoy District, 
showing roads, rivers and places (new, 1892), 
by Rev. L. W. Kip, D. D.; a Course in Astron- 
omy, a Course in Physiology, On the Proper 
Training of cliildren (1892), by Mrs. L. W. Kip; 
Geography of Europe (1888), Geography of 
North America (1890), Geogi'aphy of South 
America (1891), Chinese History (first six dynas- 
ties, 1892), by Rev. P. W. Pitcher; Life of St 
Paul (1891), "Aesop's Fables" (1891), by Rev. 
J. G. Fagg. 



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202 FIFTV YEARS IN MIOY. 

GROWTH OF MISSION WORK IN CHINA. 

la 1842 there were 6 Communicants. 

In 1853 there were 350 Communicants. 

In 1863 there were 2,000 Communicants. 

In 187B there were 13,035 Communicants. 

In 1886 tliere were 28,000 Communicants. 

In 1889 there were 37,287 Communicant-s. 



APPENDIX B. 

THE PERSONNEL AND TABULAR STATEMENT OF THE 
AMOY MISSION IN 1857. 
MISSIONARIES. 
Eev. Eliliu Doty, Eev. J. S. Joralman, 

Eev. J. V. N. Talmage, Mre. J. S. Joralman. 

Mrs. Abby F. (Woodruff) 

Talmage, 
Ohurch Organizations, 1. Theological Class, 1. 
Churcli Communicants, 17 2. Parochial Schools, 2. 
Church Catecliists, 5. Out-stations (Chioh-be), 1. 

Places of Worship, 2. Membership of Chioh-be, 35. 



APPENDIX C. 

THE PEPvSONNEL AND TABULAR STATEMENT OF THE 
AMOY MISSION ON ITS JUBILEE ANNIVER- 
SARY, FEBRUARY 2iTH, 1892. 

MISSIONARIES. 

Rev. J. V. N. Talmage, D.D.,Rev. P. W. Pitcher, 
Rev. Daniel Rapalje, Rev. J. G. Fagg, 

Rev. [i. W. Kip, D.D., Or. J. A. Otto (Medical). 

Eev. A. S. Van Dyck, 

ASSISTANT MISSIONARIES. 

Mrs. J. V. N. Talmage, Mrs. A. S. Van Dyck, 

Mrs. L. W. ICip, ;\lrs. J. A. Otte, 

Miss M. E. Talmage, Mrs. J. T. Fagg, 

Mrs. D. Rapalje, Af'ss E. M. Cappon, 

Miss K. M. Talmage, Miss Nellie Zwemer, 

Mrs. P. W. Pitcher, Miss M. C. Morrison. 

NATIVE PASTORS. 
Rev. Ng Ho-Seng, u'ev. Li Ki-che, 

Eev. Ti Peng-teng, Eev. lu Ho-sui, 

Rev. lap Han-Chiong, Eev. lljong Lu-li, 

Rev. Chhoa Thian-Ivliit, Eev. lam Clii-seng. 
Rev. Lim Khiok, 



APPENDIX. 



203 



Church Organizations, 9. Schools : TJioological, 1 ; 

Native Pastors (ordained), I). Academy, 1; Woman's, 

Church Members, 9 68. 1; Girls', 2; Parochml, 

Native Helpers (unord.), 16. 11. 

Regular Preach'g Places, 23. Hospital, 1. 

Theological Students, 9. luvesited in property, about 

Schools : Theological, 1 ; $.50,000. 



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(a) Composed of two congregations; Kaner-taii and Kio-t;iii. 

(b) Composed of two congregations ; Te-soa and Ang-tung-tau, 
and one out-station, Te-tau. 

(c) Has one out-station ; Chhoa-poa. 

(d) Has two out-stations ; Poa-tau-chki and Ko-soa. 

(e) Has six out-stations ; Lam-sin, Poa-a, Toa-Khe, Soa-pl, 
E-ch8 and Toa-lo-teng. 

it) Has two out-stations ; Soa-sia, Lieng-soa. 



IN13EX. 



Arrival of Kobt. Morrison in 

Chiua, 22. 
Ai-rival of David Abeel, t>2- 

65. 
Abeel, llome of, on Kolong- 

su, 58. 
Amoy Inland, Population of, 

25. 
Amoy City, Latitude of, 26. 
Anioy ( Uty, J3istauces from, 

26. 
Amoy, Clinuite, 2 6. 
Amoy City, Population of, 

27. 
Amoy City, IJesr-ription of, 

28. 
Amoy City, Commercial Im- 
portance, 29. 
Amoy Captured by British, 

33. 
Amoy District , 2 5-3 3 . 
Amoy ]\Iis:<iou, Condition of, 

1857. 
Amoy Mission, Condition of, 

J892, 97. 
Amoy Mission, Founding of, 

58. 
Amoy Mission, Statistics, 

12, 127, 132. 
Amoy People, Characteris- 
tics of, etc., 35-37. 
Amoy PastoTs, Names of, 

99. 
Adria.nee, Miss Caroline E., 

82, 84-86. 



Anti-Missionary Movement, 
151. 

Benevolence of Churches, 
127-132. 

BlauA^elt, Rev. A., 8 6. 

Kisliop Boone, 58, 59. 

Blauveit, Mrs. Jennie (Za- 
briskie), 86. 

Board Foreign JNIissions Or- 
ganized, 17, 19. 

I^ilile, First Translated Into 
Chinese, 22. 

Bible Class Organized, 101, 

Boys' Academy, 180, 182- 
185. 

(Chinese Repository, Found- 
ing of, 23. 

Chinese, Charact«n of, 14, 
34. 
liinese P'avor Foreigners, 
48. 

I'hinese Suspicious of For- 
eigners, 49. 

Church of Christ in China, 
History of its Organiza- 
tion, 92. 

Jhurch Organization at 
Amoy, 96. 

Cldoh-be Church, 99, 110. 

Christians, Persecution of, 
23. 

Conversion of Mrs. Lee, 
115. 

Chiang-Chiu Churcii, 100, 
119. 



INDEX. 



Cummings, Dr. C. loi. 162 

Comparative luereaso of 
Communicants in Amoy, 
127. 

Comparative Increase Com- 
municants of Cliina, 15. 

Ciiina Closed to Foreign- 
ers, 47- 

Classis Organized at Amov, 
96. 

Churches, Names of, 99. 

Gappfon, Miss E. M., 89. 

Converts, The First in 
China, 22. 

Converts, The 
Amoy, 102. 

Chha-thau-po, 

Children's Home, 

Death of Kobt. 
23. 

Death of David Abeel, 64. 

Dedication of First Church, 
104. 



Fir.<t 



191. 
Morrison, 



of, 10.^. 
Against 



C. 



For 



Description 
Doors Closed 

eigners, 47. 
Davis, Mrs. Emma 

(Wyckoff), 88. 
Davis, Rev. J. A., 88. 

koff), 88. 
Doty, Rev. Eiihu, 61, 65-7 0. 
Difficulties of Conveying 

Gospel, 173. 
Douglas Memorial, 45. 
Explanation of Church 

Names, 99. 
Evangelist, The First in 

Amoy, 106. 
Episcopal Church in Amoy, 

92. 
Educational Work, 168. 
Evangelists, Unordained, 

126. 
First Church in Amoy, 94- 

101. 



Amoy, 



■iisr Church iu 

Building, 104. 
/irst Foreign Missionary 
Organization iu the Re- 
formed (Dutch I Church, 
17. 
First Convert in Cliina. 2 2. 
First Convert in Amoy. 102. 
i^'ailure of Lord Napier's 

Mission, 51. 
First Convert Baptized, 22, 

102. 
Fagg, Rev. J. G., 89. 178. 
Fagg, Mrs. M. (Gillespie), 

89. 
First Rooms Rent<xl in 
Hepburn, Dr. J. C, 162. 

pie, 39. 
lloines of tlie Amoy Peo- 
Ifakka Mission, 132. 

165. 
Hospital at Sio-Khe, 125, 
Hong San Church, 99, 114. 

Khe, 123. 
(Gospel First Brouglit to Sio- 

Amoy, 104. 
First Property Bought in 

Amoj-, 101. 
Joralman, Itev. J. S., 79-80. 
J oral man, Mrs. Martha B. 

(Condit), 79-80. 
Jubilee of the Amoy Mis- 
sion, 10. 
Kolongsu Island, 44. 
Kolongsu Missionaiy Resi- 
dences, 
Kolongsu Foreign Resi- 
dences, 45. 
Kolongsu Educational In- 
stitutions, 177. 
Kjp, Rev. L. W., D.D., 

86, 178. 
Kip, Mrs. Helen (Culbert- 

son), 86. 
King, Miss V. May, 89, 164. 



206 



FIFTY YEARS IN AMOY. 



Loudon Mission Society, 92. 
Loyd, Rev. Jolin, 92. 
Mission at Anioy Tudor 

A. B. C. F. M., 
-Missions in Oliina, History 
Morrison, Miss M. C, 89. 
Martyr, The First, 106. 

102. 

Montlily Concert, Ciiinese, 
at Amoy, 92. 

Missions, Kepresentatives 
Agencies, 90. 

Missions, Methods and 
tant, 22. 

Missions in ( liina, Frotes- 
of Kome, 21. 

Missions in China, Cliurch 
of, 21. 

Macleisli, Dr. A. L., 163. 

Medical Worls 161. 

Students, 167. 

New Testament, First in 
China, 22. 

Nine Cluirehes, Names of 
99. 

Native Pastors, 

Organization of Indepen- 
dent Board l^'oreign Mis- 
sions in Reformed (Dutch) 
Church, 18. 

Officers and Members of 
Board Foreign Missions 
Reformed (Dutch) Church 
in 1857, 18. 

Officers and Members of 
Board Foreign Missions 
Reformed (Dutch) Church 
in 1892, 19. 

Ostrom, Rev. A., 80-Sl. 

Ostrom, Mrs. Susa.n (Web- 
ster), 80-81. 

Opium War, History, 50-55. 

Opium War, Origin, 54. 

Opium Trade, 52. 



Opium, Attempts Made to 
Legalize It, 52. 

Opium, Opposition of Gov- 
ernment Against It, 52. 

Opium Destroyed, 54. 

O-Kang Church, 99, 1]3. 

Otte, J. A., 89, 164. 

Otte, Mrs. Francis (Phelps 
89. 

Press, The, 193. 

Parochial Schools, 185. 

Pohlman, Rev. W. J., 61, 
70-74. 

Pdlilman, Mrs. Theodosia K. 
(Scudder), 70-74. 

Ports Opened, 47, 56-57. 

Persecution of Christians, 
23. 

Product of Amoy, 41. 

Pitcher, Rev P. W., 99, 181. 

Pitcher, Mrs. Anna F. 
(Merritt), 89. 

Presbyterian (American) at 
Amoy, 92. 

Presbyterian (English) at 
Amoy, 92. 

Roman Merchants in China, 
48. 

Kapalje, Rev. Daniel, 80, 
178. 

Kapalje, Mrs. Alice (Os- 
trom), 80. 

Keb<-llion, J lie Tai-peng, 
134. 

School, Charlotte W. Dur- 
yee, 186. 

Suspicion of Ciiinese 
Aroused, 49. 

School, Girls' Board'g, 188. 

Statistics of Amoy Mis- 
sion, 12. 

>i()-Klie Churcli, 100, 123. 

Sin-koe-a, 27. 

Second Chnrch of Amoy,. 
109. 



INDEX 

Talmage, Eev. J. V. N., 74 



20T 



TaJmage, Miss Mary E., 88. 

Talmage, Eev. David ISl., 
88. 

Talmage, Miss Catlierine 
M., 88. 

Tong-an Church, 100, 121. 

Thian-Saii Church, 100, 
126. 

Tek-chhiu-kha, 

Union of Presbyterian 
Order at Amoy, 

Union Theological Semi- 
nary, 17 6. 



Van Doren, Kev. H., 87. 
V'a.ii Doren, Mi^ Helen, 87- 

88. 
Van Dyck, Kev. A. S., 89, 

181. 
van Dyck, Mrs. Alice (Kip), 

89. 
Watking, Kev. J. E., 81. 
Woman's Work, 192. 
Woman's ^Meeting Orgaix 

ized, 
Vouug, Dr. James, 162. 
Zwemer, JNliss Nellie, 89. 




i^»MfM^ltSfl»^ 






BW8369 .A5P6 

Fifty years in Amoy, or, A history of 

Princeton Theological Seminary-Speer Library 



1 1012 00040 1879