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You can search through the full text of this book on the web at |http : //books . google . com/| THE FIGHT FOR FREE SPEECH A brief statement of present conditions in the United States, and of the work of the AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION against the forces of suppression \ *'It is time enough for the rightful purpose of civil government for its officers to inter- fere when principles break out into overt acts against pea-ce and good order/' — — Thomas Jefferson, Published by the AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION 138 West 13th Street New York City US. ^ September, 1921 181 5t312S aV y' << CONTENTS Pa What We Fight For and Against Free Speech or Violence How the Union Started The Situation Confronting Us Centers of Resistance The Union's General Work Demonstrations Field Work Pamphlets * • • Service to Lawyers Bail Fund Amnesty . Sedition Bills * How the Work is Directed The Work Ahead . . . , Finances Statement of Principles Treasurer's Report Contributors and Subscribers to the Pamphlet Service .... 21 National Committee and Officers S\ Local Committees 3! rHIS is more than the formal report of activities which is due to our friends and contributory. It is also an attempt to escribe the forces behind the struggle for and against civil berty, and to state the social philosophy underlying our efforts, b is a message of hope to some of our discouraged and baffled riends. It is an answer to some of our critics in the camps of eaction and of revolution. "Why," asks the disheartened liberal, "do you fight for free peech when you can't get it? Wait till the reaction is over." ays the revolutionist, "All this talk of free speech diverts atten- ion from the real issues of industrial and political control, and [)ols people into thinking we can 'restore a lost liberty.' Civil ights can't and don't exist during class conflict. Quit it!" And then the reactionary tells us : "Your so-called free peech fight is just a camouflage to put over the radical move- lent. You are for free speech for a particular cause. If the rorking-class ever got power, you would not oppose their sup- ressions. The personnel of your organization proves it. Stand side and let honest Americans do the work." Thus opposed from various angles we are pushing ahead lore vigorously than ever, confident in the soundness of our po- ition and in the worth of the daily human services to the hun- reds of devoted men and women attacked for their loyalty to leir principles. The work is made possible by the co-operation nd support of that limited number of friends in aU parts of the ountry who understand the issues and the necessity for organ- sed effort. Roger N. Baldwin Albert De Silver Directors The Fight For Free Speech What We Are Fighting For and Against NEVER before in American history were the forces of reacti so completely in control of our political and economic 11 Never before were the civil rights guaranteed by constitutioi provision so generally ignored and violated. Th6 reyolutiona changes brought about by the war and industrial conflict are i where more apparent than in the new machinery for the suppr sion of opinion and of traditional minority and individual righ That machinery consists chiefly of the reactionary decisic of federal and state supreme courts, the growing use of injui tions in labor disputes, the sweeping provisions of 35 state se tion and criminal syndicalism laws, an array of city ordinanc and police regulations restricting free speech and assemblai the arbitrary power of the Post Office Department over the pr and the mails, stale constabularies and private gunmen, and t lawlessness of such organizations as the American Legion a the Ku Klux Klan. So complete is the^machinery of supressi that an active political propaganda, — ^the communist — ^^has be outlawed and forced into secret underground channels. Behind this machinery stand the property interests of t country, so completely in control of our political life as to esta lish what is in effect a class government, — a governme by and for business. Political democracy as conceived by mai of America's greatest leaders, does not exist, except in a fd communities. This condition is not yet understood by the pubi at large. They are drugged by propaganda and blinded by press necessarily subservient to property interests. Dazed 1 the kaleidoscopic changes of the last few years, the rank ai file citizens accept the dictatorship of property in the name patriotism. The only groups of the American people conscious of this coi dition and capable of outspoken resistance to it are the radical the more aggressive wings of the labor and farmer movement The Fight for Free Speech tnd a few influential liberal journals, organizations and individ- lals in public life. Among other classes more or less conscious >t the condition but incapable of outspoken resistance are the Negroes, many foreign-born groups and the tenant farmers of he west and south. Resistance to reaction has two aspects, — first, activities look- ng toward a reorganization of our economic and political life, ind second, the demand for the "rights" of those minorities and .ndividuals attacked by the forces of reaction. The demand for 'rights" is couched usually in an appeal to free speech traditions Eind constitutional guarantees, though behind that lies the his- toric insistence on the "natural right" of the advocates of any cause to agitate, — a right prior to and independent of constitu- tions. In the long run causes get that natural right in proportion to their power to take and hold it. Or legal "rights" securing it will be freely exercised when no class conflict threatens the existing order. Free Speech or Violence €€ Whenever conflict grows tense, and the legal machinery of rights" breaks down, a resort to force by one side, or open violence by both sides is inevitable. Such a conflict on a large scale is of course armed revolt or a revolution. It is also obvious that the more freely the forces in conflict can agitate by peaceful means, the less will be the resort to violence. It is therefore clear that the more the spirit and method of peaceful agitation is encouraged here in the United States now, the less violent and destructive will be the inevitable industrial conflict ahead. It is in the interest of orderly progress that organized effort for civil liberty challenges the repressive powers of reaction in America today, headed as they are for violence and destruction. There are many who regard such effort as useless because they feel that the reactionary forces in power will never yield until compelled to do so by superior force. Even if that conten- tion is sound, the propaganda for civil liberty must have the effect of softening the conflict, both by making easier the way for the new forces and by creating a general distrust of the shams of our political system. That weakens resistance to progress. Any efforts for tolerance are justified also by their The Fight for Free Speech general effect on all classes, if we are to help toward a woi in which freedom of the mind is to be a reality. But quite independent of any political or philosophical gument, the work done today in the name of civil liberty is manded by the practical daily services to the host of groups individuals who are prosecuted, or mobbed, or whose rights restricted inside or outside the law. By demonstrations, pi licity, pamphlets, legal aid, bail, test cases in the courts, fii cial appeals, — ^by all these methods of daily service the friei of progress to a new social order make common cause, regi less of their political faith or of their view of the principle civil liberty itself. How the Union Started The American Civil Liberties Union is an outgrowth of tl National Civil Liberties Bureau, which came into being in 19 with the war restrictions on civil liberty, — first as a departme of the American Union against Militarism, and later, in Octobc 1917, as an independent organization. The Civil Liberties Union succeeded the Bureau in Janua 1920, extended its scope beyond war cases, enlarged its gover ing body, and restated its objects to meet the post-war attac on the civil rights of labor, the farmers and the radicals. The Situation CAnfronting Us The reorganization came on the heels of the great coal ai steel strikes, the greatest demonstrations of working-class powj in the history of the country, both of which were beaten large] through the wholesale denial of civil rights, engineered joint! by the government and the employing interests. These strikes, with the outlaw switchmen's strike which fc lowed them, marked the height of working-class resistance 1 industrial tyranny, as a result of the war shortage of labor. Th( marked, too, the effective beginning of those determined cai paigns of organized business which throughout the country ha^ either disrupted, weakened or put on the defensive every orgai ized movement of the workers, farmers, radicals and liberal This has been accomplished through the diverse methods < anti-labor and anti-radical legislation, injunctions and judg made law, by the open shop campaign, by economic boycott, I 6 The Fight for Free Speech B raids of the Palmer regime, and by the lawless activities of B American Legion, the Ku Klux Klan and similar organiza- During the political campaign of 1920, the forces of resist- ce to reaction made determined efforts through various armer-labor" combinations to achieve power, — emphasizing erywhere the issues of civil liberty. All such efforts were ried under the Republican landslide. And they have stayed ried. There is nowhere in the country any effective political industrial organization of the forces of resistance to reaction cept in a few scattered localities and a few exceptional indus- es. Unemployment and propaganda have made effective .tional organization of any sort for the present impossible. Centers of Resistance Yet to this general condition there are conspicuous excep- )ns. There is the armed resistance to company gunmen among e mountaineer coal-miners of southern West Virginia in their rht for the right to organize ; there is the determined campaign the Kansas district of the United Mine Workers under Alex- ider Howat against the Industrial Court law which wipes out e right to strike ; there is the heroic effort of the Alabama coal iners to maintain their organization against the forces of the , S. Steel Corporation; the victory of the Amalgamated Clothing 'orkers in New York; the continuous defiance of repressive easures by the I. W. W. lumber-jacks of the Northwest; the gnificant growth of working-class unity between whites and acks in southern industrial centers; the vigorous organizing impaigns of the Non-partisan League in the middle west ; and le steady growth of the independent farmer and labor press. Underneath this surface of exceptional centers and move- ents there are other forces at work, — the secret organ- ation of the Communist Party, the increasing rank and file sol- arity in the trades unions, and a spreading cynical conviction nong certain groups of the ultimate necessity of armed re- stance. The Union's General Work Into this whole situation the American Civil Liberties Union irects its efforts wherever it can be of practical help. It makes 7 The Fight for Free Speech no distinction as to whose liberties it defends; it puts no li on the principle of free speech. The headquarters in New Y keep informed of all cases reported in the press by a sp clipping service and close perusal of the labor papers, and through investigations in various parts of the country by m bers of the staff. In every case reported anywhere in the c try or in our island possessions, we act at once by letter or to advise the person or organization attacked that our serv are at their disposal. Those services consist of legal advice, b publicity and protests to local officials. To help with that service we have 800 co-operating lawy in 47 states, and over 1000 correspondents and investigators. 17 of the larger cities we have local co-operating committ which act on important cases. The most active of these is New England Civil Liberties Committee in Boston. The nan and address of these local committees appear on page 31. In t New York headquarters the daily work is in charge of two rectors, a field secretary and an attorney. A representative Washington handles matters requiring direct contact with gc emment officials. The chief activity necessarily is publicity in one form other, for ours is a work of propaganda,— getting facts aero from our point-of-view. That consists of a regular news servij to 450 weekly labor, farmer and liberal papers ; special news r leases to daily papers; occasional news statements to sped groups of papers, including foreign labor and liberal public tions; pamphlets; an information service to 420 co-operatii speakers and writers throughout the country; and a weekly mil eographed report on all cases, which is sent to selected pap€ and list of subscribers. Demonstrations The most effective publicity has resulted from dramatizii the issues of civil liberty by demonstrations in areas of confli* During 1920, the Union conducted four such conspicuous fr speech fights. The first, in Passaic, N. J., in cooperation wi the Amalgamated Textile Workers, wiped off the books a i strictive police order and city ordinance and opened up that wc town to workers' meetings. The second, in May, at Duquesr 8 The Fight for Free Speech , in co-operation with the National Committee for Organizing n and Steel Workers, staged the issue squarely, but resulted L most restrictive decision from the State Supreme Court which laws meetings in public places. The third, during the fall itical campaign at Mt. Vernon, N. Y., in co-operation with the ialist Party, opened up the streets of that city to Socialist akers, though the legal issues at stake are still pending in the rts. The fourth, also during the campaign, in four Connecti- cities in co-operation with the Socialist Party, secured various nediate results in the different cities (Waterbury, New Lon- i, Meriden and Norwich). The final outcome was a wholly orable decision by the State Supreme Court forbidding dis- nination between speakers on public streets. Field Work In addition to the demonstrations, the Union has helped plan al civil liberties campaigns carried on by labor organizations. I are the means frequently of getting local groups and indi- uals in touch with one another when they have never before rked together. Many groups and individuals are so isolated t they do not know of one another's existence in the same imunity. We also have brought national agencies to bear, local situations, hiring publicity men, getting investigators on field, waking up magazines to the publicity possibilities in il dramas, and urging public authorities to action to correct ises. We have put in much effort in these ways, particularly he long strike conflicts in the coal fields of Alabama and West ginia. Pamphlets The pamphlets published since the Union was organized in uary, 1920, are: Why Freedom Matters, by Norman Angell, 32 pages, (re- printed). Amnesty for Political Prisoners, 12 pages. Freedom of Speech and of the Press, a compilation of quo- tations arranged by John Haynes Holmes, 32 pages (reprinted). Do We Need More Sedition Laws? Testimony of Alfred Bettm^n and Swinburne Hale, 22 pages. 9 The Fight for Free Speech Seeing Red: civil liberty and law since the armistice Walter Nelles, 12 pages. New Gags on Free Speech : a one-page map showing ext( of "criminal syndicalism", "sedition" and "red fla laws. Civil Liberty : a statement of the Union's position on t present issues. The Police and the Radicals : a report on the attitude a methods of the police in handling radical meetings about 100 cities, 12 pages. The Supreme Court vs. Civil Liberty: opinions of Justi Brandeis and Holmes in cases affecting civil libei 8 pages. Lynching and Debt Slavery, by William Pickens, 8 pages The Persecution of the L W. W., one-page leaflet summai ing the prosecutions to March, 1921. The Communist Prosecutions : one-page summary to Mar 1921. Since the Buf ord Sailed : a summary of developments fi December, 1919 to June, 1920, 14 pages. Leaflets entitled "Real Americanism" and "Maintain Y Rights" ! Pamphlets and books now in course of preparation are : The Open Shop and Civil Liberty. Injunctions against Civil Rights. "Force and Violence" in High Places. The Mob Mind vs. Civil Rights. The Alabama Coal Miners and the Steel Trust. The Black Workers' Struggle for American Rights in Virgin Islands. Mountaineers and Gunmen : the Coal War in West Virgii Conscientious Objectors in the Great War, by Norn Thomas. j The History of Civil Liberty in the United States, by L< Whipple. The Gag on Teachers, by Dr. Henry R. Linville and Thou A. Mufson. 10 The Fight for Free Speech Service to Lawyers To our 800 co-operating attorneys, our counsel, Mr. Nelles, Bnds each month a bulletin on some legal aspect of civil liberty kely to be helpful to them in cases involving civil rights.These uUetins in recent months have covered : Free Speech on the Streets. Control of the Press by Injunction. Constitutionality of Criminal Anarchy and Criminal Syn- dicalism Statutes. Postal Censorship through the Second-Class Mailing Priv- ilege. Searches and Seizures. Scope of Labor Sections of the Clayton Act. Mr. Nelles is a member of a law firm which devotes its atten- ;ion chiefly to civil liberty cases. The members of that firm [Hale, Nelles and Shorr) have participated in most of the signi- icant civil liberty trials in and near New York, — Mr. Nelles par- :icularly in the cases arising under the New York anti-anarchy statute and the deportation laws. The growing menace of the power of injunctions in labor dis- putes prompted us to call a conference of interested agencies, lawyers and others* in January, 1921. The result was an agree- ment to undertake a thorough study of the whole subject, to* be made available for attorneys and labor organizations in the form of a pamphlet covering law and tactics. That work is under way. Other Work Much of the work we do does not appear with our name because the primary responsibility for it rests with others. For instance, considerable of the publicity relating to the West Vir- ginia miners was arranged for by us and carried out indepen- dently. Similarly, much of the work in the amnesty campaign is handled by us as part of a joint effort of a number of organi- zations. Meetings and conferences on local and national civil liberty issues have been held by members of the staff of the Union from time to time especially in Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Pitts- 11 The Fight for Free Speech burg, St. Louis and New York. Talk's on civil liberties by mem- bers of the National Committee or the staff have been arranged through the Union before many audiences, particularly in the east and middle west. Bail Fund An attempt to create a National Bail Fund to provide bail for persons held in civil liberty cases has only recently been success- ful, after over a year's effort to get the minimum fixed for an operating basis, — $100,000. The fund is administered by a com- mittee of trustees independent of the Union, but working in close co-operation with it. The trustees are L. HoUingsworth Wood, Albert De Silver and Norman Thomas, with an Auditing Com- mittee supervising the work, consisting of Oswald Garrison Vil- lard, Charles J. Rhoads and Arthur Garfield Hays. Cash, lib- erty bonds or other marketable securities are accepted as loans to be used for bail. The risk of loss is minimized and would be shared by all participants alike; interest is paid; and no pub licity is attached to those participating. A total fund of $200,- 000 is needed to meet immediate demands. Amnesty The efforts to secure amnesty have been unceasing. The re- lease of the last of the conscientious objectors in November, 1920, was probably due in part to our constant agitation, but more to the determination of the men themselves, and to the conspicuous hunger-strike of one of their number. Sedition Bills Efforts to fasten a peace-time sedition law on the country have been vigorously opposed by the Union and allied organiza tions, so far with success. We conducted a hard fight against the Sterling bill in Congress in 1920, and have kept after the situation continuously since. The Union has also participated in efforts to repeal, test or defeat various peace-time sedition laws in a number of states. How the Work is Directed ! The policies of the Civil Liberties Union are determined j by vote of the National Committee, voting by mail. 12 The Fight for Free Speech A statement of the general policy on the chief issues pears on page 15. The carrying out of this policy is en- sted to an Executive Committee, composed of twenty mem- rs of the National Committee, meeting weejcly in New York, e members of that committee are: John A. Fitch, Paul J. rnas, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, John Haynes Holmes, James »ldon Johnson, Mrs. Agnes Brown Leach, Henry R. Linville, lliam J. M. A. Maloney, A. J. Muste, Scott Nearing, Walter lies, John Nevin Sayre, Rose Schneiderman, Helen Phelps tkes, Norman M. Thomas, B. Charney Vladeck, Harry F. ird, L. HoUingsworth Wood, Roger N. Baldwin and Albert De ver. The Work Ahead The work in hand, besides the regular services, deals with the lowing chief matters: 1. Amnesty for political prisoners. Constant efforts on this npaign in co-operation with other agencies, directed particu- ly to action by the federal government in behalf of the 150 itical prisoners still in prison (of whom 103 are members of ! I. W. W.) and also directed to similar action by governors states. I. Campaigns against laws restricting free speech, free press 1 free assemblage. Efforts to defeat proposed laws and to an- : such laws by tests in the courts, campaigns for their repeal, i general publicity aimed at making them ineffective in prac- » i. Demonstrations in areas of conflict: Test meetings as a lis of getting laws before the courts or of putting to the front I free speech issue, held as occasions prompt. I. A special campaign against mob violence — particularly di- ted to the American Legion and the Ku Klux Klan. >. Completion of the study of injunctions, with suggested tics for labor organizations. >. Publication of a study of the restrictions on teachers, with ampaign in the schools and colleges for academic freedom. r. Special efforts in California, to counteract the exceptional ;ver of reaction there. i. Development of the National Bail Fund to reach all de- dants in civil liberty cases unable otherwise to get bail. 13 The Fight for Free Speech Finances The operating expenses of the work are about $20,000 year, excluding the printing of pamphlets, which cost, at the ra we want to publish^ $4,000 a year. There are also various sp cial funds to meet needs that come up unexpectedly. The Unic operates on a budget, and on a general financial system approve by the National Information Bureau, 1 Madison Ave., New Yor an agency for the information of contributors to public cause The Treasurer's report on page 28. gives the essential figur for the fiscal year which closed January 31, 1921. Our income is derived wholly from voluntary contributio in amounts from one dollar a year to one thousand. The tot number of contributors on our list, January 1, 1921, was 150 The pamphlet printing fund is in part made up from receipts t pamphlets sold, — a comparatively small item. Public appeals for defense funds in civil liberties cases ha been made frequently through the Union, notably for the Ce tralia I. W. W. case, the general defense work of the I. W. the National Defense Committee (which defends cases of Co munists), and the Sacco-Vanzetti case at Boston. We also ci lected a fund to help buy a printing press to start a labor pap run by the organized workers of the Virgin Islands. I M The Fight for Free Speech Statement defining the position of the American Civil Liberties Union on the issues in the United States today (Adopted by the National Committee) We stand on the general principle that all thought on matters I public concern should be freely expressed without interfer- ice. Orderly social progress is promoted by unrestricted free- om of opinion. The punishment of mere opinion, without overt ets, is never in the interest of orderly progress. Suppression f opinion makes for violence and bloodshed. The principle of freedom of speech, press and assemblage, mbodied in our constitutional law, must be reasserted in its pplication to American conditions today. That application lust deal with various methods now used to repress new ideas nd democratic movements. The following paragraphs cover he most significant of the tactics of repression in the United tates today. 1. Free Speech. There should be no control whatever in dvance over what any person may say. The right to. meet and speak freely without permit should be unquestioned. There should be no prosecutions for the mere expression of pinion on matters of public concern, however radical, however iolent. The expression of all opinions, however radical, should \e tolerated. The fullest freedom of speech should be encour- iged by setting aside special places in streets or parks and in he use of public buildings, free of charge, for public itieetings of my sort. 2. Free Press. There should be no censorship over the mails >y the post-office or any other agency at any time or in any way. ^rivacy of communication should be inviolate. Printed matter hould never be subject to a political censorship. The granting >r revoking of second class mailing privileges should have noth- ng whatever to do with a paper's opinions and policies. If libelous, fraudulent, or other illegal matter is being cir- culated, it should be seized by proper warrant through the pro- lecuting authorities, not by the post-office department. The busi- less of the post-office department is to carry the mails, not investigate crime or to act as censors. 15 The Fight for Free Speech There should be no control over the distribution of literature at meetings or hand to hand in public or in private places. No system of licenses for distribution should be tolerated. 3. Freedom of Assemblage. Meetings in public places, parades and processions should be freely permitted, the only reasonable regulation being the advance notification to the police of the time and place. No discretion should be given the police to prohibit parades or processions, but merely to alter routes in accordance with the imperative demands of traffic in crowded cities. There should be no laws or regulations prohibiting the display of red flags or other political emblems. The right of assemblage is involved in the right to picket in time of strike. Peaceful picketing, therefore, should not be pro- hibited, regulated by injunction, by order of court or by police edict. It is the business of the police in places where picketing is conducted merely to keep traffic free and to handle specific violations of law against persons upon complaint. 4. The Right to Strike. The right of workers to organize in organizations of their own choosing, and to strike, should never be infringed by law. Compulsory arbitration is to be condemned not only because it destroys the workers' right to strike, but because it lays em- phasis on one set of obligations alone, those of workers to society. 5, Law Enforcement. The practice of deputizing privately paid police as general police officers should be opposed. So should the attempts of private company employes to police the streets or property other than that of the company. The efforts of private associations to take into their own hands the enforcement of lav/ should be opposed at every point. Public officials, employes of private corporations, and leaders of mobs, who interfere with the exercise of the constitutionally established rights of free speech and free assembly, should be| vigorously proceeded against. The sending of troops into areas of industrial conflict to main- tain law and order almost inevitably results in the government taking sides in an industrial conflict in behalf of the employer. The presence of troops,whether or not martial law is declared, 16 The Fight for Free Speech 3ry rarely affects the employer adversely, but it usually results I the complete denial of civil rights to the workers. 6. Search and Seizure. It is the custom of certain federal, ate and city officials, particularly in cases involving civil liberty, > make arrests without warrant, to enter upon private property, id to seize papers and literature without legal process. Such ractices should be contested. Officials so violating constitutional larantees should be proceeded against. 7. The Risrht to a Fair Trial. Every person charged with 1 offense should have the fullest opportunity for a fair trial, for 'curing counsel and bail in a reasonable sum. In the case of a DOT person, special aid should be organized to secure a fair ial, and when necessary, an appeal. The legal profession lould be alert to defend cases involving civil liberty. The reso- itions of various associations of lawyers against taking cases of idicals are wholly against the traditions of American liberty. 8« Immigration^ Deportation and Passports. No person lould be refused admission to the United States on the ground : holding objectionable opinions. The present restrictions jainst radicals of various beliefs is wholly opposed to our tradi- on of political asylum. No alien should be deported merely for the expression of >inion or for membership in a radical or revolutionary organi- ition. This is as un-American a practice as the prosecution of tizens for expression of opinion. The attempt to revoke naturalization papers in order to de- are a citizen an alien subject to deportation is a perversion ol law which was intended to cover only cases of fraud. Citizenship papers should not be refused to any alien because the expression of radical views, or activities in the cause of bor. The granting of passports to or from the United States should t be dependent merely upon the opinions of citizens or member- ip in radical or labor organizations. 9. Liberty in Education. The attempts to maintain a uni- rm orthodox opinion among teachers should be opposed. 16 attempts of educational authorities to inject into public hpol and college instruction propaganda in the interest of any 17 The Fight for Free Speech no distinction as to whose liberties it defends; it puts no lin on the principle of free speech. The headquarters in New Yo keep informed of all cases reported in the press by a sped clipping service and close perusal of the labor papers, and al through investigations in various parts of the country by mei bers of the staff. In every case reported anywhere in the ecu try or in our island possessions, we act at once by letter or wi to advise the person or organization attacked that our servic are at their disposal. Those services consist of legal advice, ba publicity and protests to local officials. To help with that service we have 800 co-operating lawye in 47 states, and over 1000 correspondents and investigators. 17 of the larger cities we have local co-operating committe which act on important cases. The most active of these is t New England Civil Liberties Committee in Boston. The nam and address of these local committees appear on page 31. In t New York headquarters the daily work is in charge of two rectors, a field secretary and an attorney. A representative Washington handles matters requiring direct contact with gc ernment officials. The chief activity necessarily is publicity in one form other, for ours is a work of propaganda,— getting facts aero from our point-of-view. That consists of a regular news servi to 450 weekly labor, farmer and liberal papers; special news i leases to daily papers; occasional news statements to speci groups of papers, including foreign labor and liberal public tions; pamphlets; an information service to 420 co-operatii speakers and writers throughout the country; and a weekly mil eographed report on all cases, which is sent to selected pape and list of subscribers. Demanstrations The most effective publicity has resulted from dramatizin the issues of civil liberty by demonstrations in areas of conflic During 1920, the Union conducted four such conspicuous fre speech fights. The first, in Passaic, N. J., in cooperation wit the Amalgamated Textile Workers, wiped oflf the books a re strictive police order and city ordinance and opened up that woo town to workers' meetings. The second, in May, at Duquesne 8 CONTRIBUTORS and Subscribers to tbe Pamphlet Service The following list covers all contributors, and subscribers to he pamphlet service, during the year 1920. There is no mem- bership in the Union in the sense of committing those who join o any dogmatic statement of principles. Inclusion in this list lesignates only an interest in the work of the organization. linnie D. Abbotf Sarah Root Adams Vayne Adamson )r. Leon A. Adler ilary Ware Albin kirs. M. S. Alderton Cdith D. Alexander Cdw. F. Alexander }. M. Allen rlrs. Clarence E. Allen ^rs. E. S. Allen Cdward S. Allen •"lorence Allen r. H. Allen dary Norton Allen Vm. P. Allen Ats. a. V. Alexander •"rederic Aloy C. Altenberg Martha Anderson •'rank F. Anderson LIbin A. Anderson Albert Anderson Lue. Andrae J. P. Andrews t. C. Andrews 3arl M. Anerswald Samuel Arbitman ohn A. Armalo ilrs. Eunice Armstrong V. J. Arthur »f rs. C. P. Atkinson lissie Auerbach Catharine H. Austin jeonora Austin ver Axelson B )r. Charles Babcock lara Bache-Wing 3arl G. Bachman )orinne Bacon Mrs. L. C. Bacon Caroline L. Babcock Otto J. Bader Robert C. Baer Joshua L. Bailey, Jr. J. M. Baker R. A. Baker Mary E. Bakewell Edith R. Baldwin Ruth S. Baldwin Amelia Muir Baldwin Mrs. F. F. Baldwin Prof. Fred G. Bale A. C. Ballard Wm. P. Bancroft Alexander Bannwart J. Barlach Samuel Barlow Mrs. Eunice Barnard E. P. Barnaby John M. Barnhart Mr. and Mrs. Mahlon Barnes Earl Barnes James D. Barnett C. D. Barnum Mrs. Wm. Barrett Jas. Barron A. Glen Barry James S. Barstow Richard Barthold Jessie Bartlett W. E. Barton Mrs. G. V. Baur Mrs. H. E. Bausch Dr. S. Bayne-Jones ^rs. Anna W. Beardsley Helen D. Beaver Geo. Becker Mrs. Oaka G. Beeler K. Beer John J. Beggs Hal Bell J. C. Bell Mrs. Geo. W. Benedict M. Toscan Bennett 19 W. F. Bennett Irene Benton Anna Bercowitz O. W. Bergan A. A. Berle, Jr. Alfred L. Bernheim Miss E. H. Bessell F. Bestelmyer Alfred Bettman Mrs. Bevesson Edward H. Bierstadt Geo. W. Biddle Elizabeth Biddle Frederick Bigger Alexander M. Bing Mary C. Bird Chas. W. Birtwell Gen. W. H. Bixby Antoinette Bigelow Morris A. Black T. A. Black Inetta P. Blackburn Alice Stone Blackwell S. Blonder R. J. W. Bloom Mrs. Alexander Block S. John Block Carola Bloomfield Mrs. L. Bloomfield R. E. Blount Herman Blumgart Mrs. Herman Blumgart Mrs. E. Blumenthal R. H. Boeck B. Bodlander Jessie Bogen Mable Bogue Mrs. Sophie Bohn Bolmer, S. V. & P. A. David E. Booth F. L. Borland W. P. Borland J. Borry Prof. G. L. Burr Rev. H. C. Burr Prof. C. J. Bushwell The Fight for Free Speech Seeing Red : civil liberty and law since the armistice I Walter Nelles, 12 pages. New Gags on Free Speech : a one-page map showing ext( of "criminal syndicalism", "sedition" and "red fla laws. Civil Liberty : a statement of the Union's position on I present issues. The Police and the Radicals : a report on the attitude a methods of the police in handling radical meetings about 100 cities, 12 pages. The Supreme Court vs. Civil Liberty: opinions of Justij Brandeis and Holmes in cases affecting civil libei 8 pages. Lynching and Debt Slavery, by William Pickens, 8 pages The Persecution of the L W. W., one-page leaflet summai ing the prosecutions to March, 1921. The Communist Prosecutions : one-page summary to Mai 1921. Since the Buf ord Sailed : a summary of developments fi December, 1919 to June, 1920, 14 pages. Leaflets entitled "Real Americanism" and "Maintain T Rights'' ! Pamphlets and books now in course of preparation are: The Open Shop and Civil Liberty. Injunctions against Civil Rights. "Force and Violence" in High Places. The Mob Mind vs. Civil Rights. The Alabama Coal Miners and the Steel Trust. The Black Workers' Struggle for American Rights in i Virgin Islands. Mountaineers and Gunmen : the Coal War in West Virgil Conscientious Objectors in the Great War, by Norn Thomas. The History of Civil Liberty in the United States, by U Whipple. The Gag on Teachers, by Dr. Henry R. Linville and Thou A. Mufson. 10 The Fight for Free Speech 5V. George F. Degen S. DeJong m. DeJong m. T. Demmler ary Ware Dennett >rothea DeSchweinitz ar^aret DeSilver Ibert DeSilver >uis G. Deubachs abette Deutsch . Deutsch dfrii r DeVol ev. Smith O. Dexter ranees M. Dickey arry L. Diehl H. Dierkes [rs. G. Dietrichson ralter F. Dietz .. M. Dobbs [rs. Geo. R. Dobler avina L. Dock '. P. Dodd 'homas J. Dolan ;has F. Dole )oniestic Electric Co. talph S. Doud lidney F. Downing ). C. Drake luth Dredge )r. L. E. Dreher ielena S. Dudley barren S. Dudley- Iklrs. Francis Duffield fames A. Duncan rlobert Dunn Walter R. Dunn Frank W. Dusey J. H. D'Willes E Pat M. Earley Crystal Eastman Howard Eaton Sarah J. Eddy Franklin Edgerton Henry White Edgerton Charles E. Edgerton Mrs. Wm. Ehrich John T. Emlen Saml. Einwohner Dr. G. G. Eitel J. Gerhard Ekhoff Helen T. Elder Robert B. Eleazer John Lovejoy Elliott T. D. Eliot James B. Ellery Mrs. N. B. Ells Bertha Elston Horace B. English Harry Epstein Gertrude Erickson Mrs. M. G. Erickson Mrs. W. A. Erickson C. W. Ervin Henry Minor Esterly Oswaldo Eusepi Clara W. Evans Anna Cope Evans Albert G. Evans D. H. Evans Edmund C. Evans Mr. and Mrs. Edw. W. Evans Mrs. Eliz. G. Evans Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Evans Mrs. Harold Evans Harold Evans Rachel Cope Evans Paul F. Even Prof. M. S. Everett Will Everett James Everington J. G. Evert Edith G. Fabens H. P. Fairchild W. H. Fancher H. Everett Farnham Marion Fay Frances Feingold M. Felman Mrs. Catherine Fertig Besd;rice S. Fetz Sara Bard Field Miss A. M. Fitz Gertrude Filtzer M. Eleanor Fitzgerald A. R. Fincke N. T. Fisher Alex. Fleischer John Flour Melville A. Floyd Frank P. Foisie P. H. Forbee Gertrude Ford Alia W. Foster Mabel P. Foulk Theodore Foulk Walter D. Fox Edgar S. Fraley R. W. France Rothschild Francis Eva A. Frank Fred E. Frank Walter Frank Alice Franklin M. Franklin Everett Eraser Mrs. Chas. T. Frazier Ellen A. Freeman S. Edward Fretz A. Friedman Addie Davis Fries Sam Freed Helen Freeland F. D. Freeman Prof. Robert D. French Prof. Ernst Freund Isaac K. Friedman Edith Frisbie Arthur Frisch H. A. Fromke Julia W. Frothingham W. C. Fuhr H. A. Fuller Hugh M. Fullerton Prof. Kemper Fullerton Paul J. Furnas G ^'heo. Gaasch Francis Gaegler Zona Gale Mrs. M. T. L. Gannett Andrew Garbutt Mrs. Mary E. Garbutt Robert H. Gardiner Gilson Gardner Mrs. D. Garfinkle Mrs. M. T. Garland C. S. Garman W. M. Garretson Flint Garrison Miss M. Garside Mrs. Kate C. Gartz E. B. Gaston Herbert E. Gaston Georgia Gates Mrs. Gebhardt Frank Geeks Herbert A. Grehning Abraham Gelerter O. E. Geppert Mrs. E. L. Gerard Dr. E. F. German Charles Gerrish Wm. C. Gerrish Geo. C. Gilbert Andrew Gilfillan Sophia Gillespie Alice Ives Gilman Elizabeth Gilman Mrs. Helen B. Gilman Robert Ginther Pauline L. Gitnick Adele S. Gleason A. Glover A. Roland Gminder 21 The Fight for Free Speech burg, St. Louis and New York. Talks on civil liberties by mem bers of the National Committee or the staff have been arranged through the Union before many audiences, particularly in the east and middle west. Bail Fund An attempt to create a National Bail Fund to provide bail for persons held in civil liberty cases has only recently been success- ful, after over a year's effort to get the minimum fixed for an operating basis, — $100,000. The fund is administered by a com- mittee of trustees independent of the Union, but working in close co-operation with it. The trustees are L. HoUingsworth Wood, Albert De Silver and Norman Thomas, with an Auditing Com- mittee supervising the work, consisting of Oswald Garrison Vil- lard, Charles J. Rhoads and Arthur Garfield Hays. Cash, lib- erty bonds or other marketable securities are accepted as loans to be used for bail. The risk of loss is minimized and would be shared by all participants alike; interest is paid; and no pub licity is attached to those participating. A total fund of $200,- 000 is needed to meet immediate demands. m Amnesty The efforts to secure amnesty have been unceasing. The re- lease of the last of the conscientious objectors in November, 1920 was probably due in part to our constant agitation, but more to the determination of the men themselves, and to the conspicuous hunger-strike of one of their number. Sedition Bills Efforts to fasten a peace-time sedition law on the country have been vigorously opposed by the Union and allied organiza tions, so far with success. We conducted a hard fight against the Sterling bill in Congress in 1920, and have kept after the situation continuously since. The Union has also participated in efforts to repeal, test or defeat various peace-time sedition laws in a number of states. How the Work is Directed The policies of the Civil Liberties Union are determined by vote of the National Committee, voting by mail. 12 The Fight for Free Speech Mrs. F. D. Jacobson Roy Jacobs Charles James Louise C. James Rev. Fleming James Mrs. Helen R. Janes Mrs. H. C. January W. E. Japhet Clarence Jasmagy Mrs. Cora Jeffers J. M. Jeffrey Charles H. Jenner G. K. Jensen How^ard E. Jensen C. F. Johns ]Slisabeth Johnson F. E. Johnson Ernest T. Johnson Fred L. Johnson John Johnson Robert H. Johnson Mr. and Mrs. W. T. Johnson Wm. S. Johnson Mercer G. Johnston Joint Bd. of Control of the Almalg. Clothing Wkrs. of America Paul Jones H. H. Jones Mr. and Mrs. R. Jones . Prof. Ruf us Jones David Starr Jordan A. G. S. Josephson Amy R. Juenglind K H. H. Kaeufer H. M. Kallen Max K. Kallo Irving H. Kaplan E. Martha Kaschub Augusta Kastendieck George Kastner Anna Kaufman Dr. I. E. Kaufman Erwin Kaufman H. E. Keas George Keino Harriet Keith Helen Keller Ann H. Keller Mrs. Grace Keller H. M. Kelly Mary Kelsey E. W. Kemmerer F. L. Kennedy J. Kennedy Mrs. G. B. Kenyon Mrs. Wm. Kent E. Keppelman Mrs. John Kepke, Jr. J. M. Kerr J. L. Kesler Daniel Kiefer Louisa Kimball Alice Kimball Jean Kimber John L. King R. E. King Mrs. S. D. King Joe Kirby George R. Kirkpatrick Lillian Kisluik Miss A. D. Kittel Edwina L. Klee John J. Klein Ivan A. Klein H. G. Klein Mrs. W. F. Kleimpell Leila Kleinschmidt Mrs. L. Klemptner Solon T. Klotz Wm. Kluender Louisa Kneeland Mrs. Mary Knoblauch N. N. Kolaas . Julia C. Kolbe Dr. M. J. Konikow Paul Kosok • S. Kovler Arend M. Kraan L. 0. Krahl Marcell Krauss H. Krogman Charles Kroll Frank Kuntz Victor H. Kunz F. J. Kustenmacher 0. J. Kvale Dr. Wm. Sargent Ladd F. W. Lake Dr. B. J. Lammers Caroline LaMonte Rev. L. G. Landenberger 0. P. Landor Joseph L. Lane Allan Lincoln Langley 1. Langsner Geo. W. Lanning Chas. W. LaRue M. Lapatin Fiorina Lasker Loula Lasker August Larson Ed. C. Lasater Julia C. Lathrop T. E. Latimer Jack Latourney 23 Florence L. Lattimore Alexander Law Agnes Brown Leach Mr. and Mrs. H. B. Leavens Rev. R. F. Leavens Lotta Leavensohn Edmund J. Lee Charles Leavitt Algernon Lee Joseph Lee Arthur S. Leeds C. F. Leet Rabbi J. A. Leibert Wm. Leihsing Katharine Leiper John J. Lenney Dr. Olga Lentz Geo. Leonard Michael H. Leonard Wm. EUery Leonard Louis Lerner Dr. E. LeSage Arthur LeSueur Olga Lesh Chas. H. Levermore M. B. Levick Morris Levy Alfred Baker Lewis Austin Lewis C. A. Lewis Rev. Edward A. Lewis Fay Lewis John E. Lewis Mrs. J. R. Lewis Alice Lewisohn Adolph Lewisohn 0. G. Libby Walter W. Liggett Catherine C. Lillie Henry T. Lincoln W. H. Lindsey F. S. Lingenfelder Mrs. Margaret M. Link M. Albert Linton Joel Lishten S. Liss Mrs. L. D. Litzki Wm. Bross Lloyd Mrs. Virgil Loeb R. L. Loesch Gustavus Loevinger Sarah F. Long Walter C. Longstreth 0. Lobergan Rev. L. B. Longacre Frank Lopez N. Loudenbach Owen Love joy W. H. Loves L. W. Lowry Frances Lucals The Fight for Free Speech Alfred Ludemann B. H. Lunde Theo. H. Lunde John Lundeen Florence H. Luscomb E. W. Lybrand Harold A. Lynch M Victoria McAlmon Mr. and Mrs. E. C. MacDowell Charles P. MacFall Frank Marrow E. A. McColly Daniel S. McCorkle Jas. A. McGulloch A. James McDonald Donald McDonald Duncan IScDonald J. H. McGill J. E. McGowan James McGrath Mrs. E. M. McJilton Jean MacKenzie Paul McKercher Mrs. L. E. MacKnight Dr. T. M. MacLachlan Judah L. Magnes Bertha H. Mailly Hugh McLean, Esq. Ellen McMurtrie Mary McMurtrie John F. McNamee Percy Mackaye A. MacLeed Alex Mackel A. MacLeod Kenneth D. Magruder H. Mahneke Fred R. Maier Hilja Maki Helen Mallery John Malone Dr. L. Mannheimer Henry K. Manko Basil Manly Annette Mann Roy E. Mann Selma March David Marcus Emile Mardfin Marcus Mardfin Victor H. Mardfin S. H. Markowitz A. G. Marks Dr. S. M. Markson K. S. Markstrum Anne Martin Rev. Harold Marshall James J. Marshall Mrs. Oscar Marx M. H. Marvin Theresa Mayer John W. Maskell M. Phillips Mason S. J. Mattox Mrs. J. T. Maule Edward Maurer Max May Walter A. May A. Kenyon Maynard Bennet Mead Chas. C. Merrell Lucia A. Mead James A. Meade Mrs. L. W. Meade Chas. Merz Darwin J. Meserole Paul H. Metcalf Henry V. Metzong J. F. Meyer John C. Meyers Jerome Michael F. W. Michener Geo. R. Miles John E. Milholland Alice Duer Miller Misses I. & M. J. Miller Foster Miller John A. Miller M.D. Payson Miller A. C. Millican Mary Raoul Millis John Mills Enos A. Mills Mrs. Lucille B. Milner Joseph Milner Clara M. F. Minot Geo. M. Mischke Louis A. Mischkind Mrs. J. C. Mitchell James C. Moffet Frederick A. Mohr Frank Monroe George H. Moles M. S. Moll Mrs. H. E. Montague Mrs. John F. Moors Martha W. Moore John D. Moore John B. Moore H. H. Moore W. H. Moore Sidney Morse A. T. Morgan . G. E. Morgan Rose R. Morgan Mrs. W. J. Morgan Wm. James Morgan J. P. Morris 24 M. C. Morris Jas. F. Morton, Jr. Leo Moser, Jr. Olga Moses I. Mosson Ben Mottelson Joseph R. Mountain Allen H. Mowry C. A. Mowry Alice Snell Moyer Chas A. Mullen Anna C. Murdock J. Prentice Murphy James Myers Stephen S. Myrick N Gertrude Nafe John P. Nafe Stephen Naft Mrs. T. M. Nagle J. M. Naron S. W. Narregang Prof. N. B. Nash Mrs. George Nasmyth Sue H. Nason Albert Nast Walter Nef Blanche Needles Oscar H. Neil L. F. Neilson Walter Nelles Ethel Nelson E. L. Nelson Walter M. Nelson John T. Newfeld Anna Gray Newell A. Nidess Max Norden Orlando O. Norris L. C. North R. L. Nottingham M. J. Newberger Mabel Newcomer Frances E. Newland Mrs. A. Newman Ray Newton Mrs. J. Cowdrey Norton W. W. Norton O John Oberly Martin O'Connor Spurgeon Odel Mrs. Daniel O'Day Allen S. Olmsted, 2nd Ruth B. Oppenheimer Theo E. Ordorff John Orth Harry W. Otis Mrs. G. Ott The Fight for Free Speech O a. C. otto Ed. Owen Wm. P. Owens H. E. Padway Joseph A. Padway Ernst Palm P. G. Panagopoulos Mrs. Ella T. Pancake S. G. Pandit Mrs. Alice Park Emily Park Thos. D. Parke Mrs. C. S. Parker Mrs. Ellen B. Parker Mrs. G. H. Parker Mabel G. Parker Miss M. C. Parker Jo. A. Parker Ruth L. Parker Mrs. E. Sutton Parks Mrs. I. W. Parks F. T. Park W. W. Passage E. Patterson Harriet W. Patterson Sara L. Patrick Walter M. Patton Kathryn Peck Celia Pehr D. H. Perkins James Perry Henry Peterson Kate O. Peterson Joseph Pestal James A. Peterson F. Peterson J. M. Pettinger Hubert Phillips J. A. Phillips Clarence E. Pickett David Pierce Wayne Pierce Henry W. Pinkham Edwin Place Chester C. Piatt David Podlasky Dr. H. B. Podlasky Edw. Polak H. Pollack Irvin C. Poley H. Polin Margaret Pollitzer E. R. Pommer Anna Porter Chas. H. Porter Mrs. J. Wood Porter Mr. and Mrs. F. Post James H. Post Rev. L. M. Powers Mrs. Louis Prang Mrs. H. Prange George D. Pratt Henry A. Preuss Matthew Preveden A. Prince * L. M. Price Edw. A. Purdy R. C. Purvis John P. Putnam W. Benj. Putnam Q Vera C. Quinn R J. H. Ralston Reinhardt Rahn N. S. Randall S. K. Ratcliffe Ben Ratlaf Phil Rau A. M. Rauber Clarina V. Rawson Mrs. Wm. M. Rawson Chas. D. Raymer Jas. M. Rea Harlan Eugene Read Edith Reed Hugh Reed Mrs. J. Regensburg Zerlina Reefer Herman Reel Wm. H. Reeves Mrs. W. Reilly Fred Reis, Jr. Clarence J. Reiter Franklin B. Reynolds Eustace Reynolds L. S. Rhoads Joseph Rhoads Stuart A. Rice George H. Richards James Hoge Ricks Alfred Rifkind F. F. Rimbach I. Itinzler A. Ritzi Rev. Richard Roberts S. Robineau Marcus W. Robbins Mrs. Amelia Robinson Clyde Robinson G. Robison Mrs. L. W. Robinson R. J. Robinson Louis Robison Anna Rochester Chas. C. Rodolf Gilbert E. Roe John R. Roebuck Prof. J. E. Roessler Mrs. Emily F. Rogers H. C. Rooberz E. Merrill Root C. T. Root Clarence B. Roote Jacob Rose Vernon J. Rose H. S. Ross Joseph T. Rosenberg Anton S. Rosing Sam Rossum T. Rottkay E. G. Routzahn Edw. G. Royer Dr. V. J. Rowe Michael Rudolph Samuel Rush Robbins Russel Mrs. A. P. Ryan Robert W. Ryan Henry Sabert Lewis, Sabloff Walter E. Sachs Louis Sachs Helen G. Sahler Lucy M. Salmon Esther Samit Mrs. S. E. Samuelson Edward F. Sanderson Mary R. Sanford Porter E. Sargent George A. Sawyer John Nevin Sayre Francis B. Sayre H. J. Scanlan Alfred G. Scattergood Mrs. Thos. Scattergood Wm. Schachner Joseph Schaffer Albert Scheible L. M. Scheuer Mariane Schneiders Dr. J. Walter Schirmer Aug. Schlemmer Robert W. Schmidt Esther Schneider Pauline Schneider A. P. Schoolman Mrs. H. M. Schoepp Alfred D. Schoch Mary & Max Schonberg Wm. E. Schoyer Geo. Schrader J. John Schulman 25 The Fight for Free Speech Emma H. Schumm Paul Schwarz Mrs. A. R. Schweppe Leila V. Scott C. R. Scott Julian P. Scott Dr. L. E. Scott C. H. Scovell Grace Scribner Bertha Scripture C. D. Scully Mary & Helen Seaibury Mrs. H. R. Seager Emil Seidel Herbert Seidenberg Eustace Seligman Alexander Selkin I. Seltzer H. A. Sessions Helen Ayres Shafor C. F. Shandrew Mrs. R. W. Shapleigh Joseph W. Sharts Lois Warren Shaw Mrs. Bertha E. Sheaf er M. H. Shearman Lou Gould Sheddan J. L. Shepard Dr. E. S. Shepherd Jacob Sherman Dr. M. Sherwood Art Shields John R. Shillady Edith M. Short J. W. Shorthill Ethel A. Shrigley Mrs. Clara Shrigley H. Shuer Mrs. Louis A. Shultz George L. Siegel Dr. L. H. Siemon W. H. Sikes Mrs. L. W. Simpson Margaret Shipman W. G. Simpson J. F. Sinclair Upton Sinclair S. Sindo E. 0. Sisson R. F. Skillings H. A. Slakin Marion C. Slonimsky Albert Small Eliz. S. Smedley Agnes Smedley J. Smentoski Miss N. M. Smith Anita M. Smith Carroll Smith Daniel Cranf ord Smith Leonard H. Smith Earl B. Smith Rev. E. W. Smith F. A. Smith Franklin E. Smith J. Allen Smith Marshall E. Smith Luther Ely Smith Mary P. Smith Maurice Smith Mrs. Mildred C. Smith Philip W. Smith J. Russell Smith Stella Warden Smith M. S. Smyre Wm. Smyth Morris Snitzman John G. E. Sohn H. J. SoUiday George C. Sonntag Albert Sortsberg Dr. R. B. Sosman Ruth E. Spaulding Mrs. W. W. Speakman James 0. Spearing Fanny Bixby Spencer William B. Spofford H. Soshinsky Jennie S. Stark L. J. Stark Stella B. Stearns Pauline Stein C. C. Stettbacker, Miss J. A. Stewart Bessie W. Stillman Helen Phelps Stokes S. A. Stockwell Wilbur M. Stone Ernest Stone Dr. Robert S. Stone H. Storm Donald G. Story Albert Streiff Mrs. C. L. Strobell Dr. Sydney Strong F. K. Stutch C. E. Sundberg John I. Sutcliffe G. Sutter Wm. Swanson W. I. Swanton Channing Sweet W. E. Sweet Henry B. Sweetland Prof. David F. Swenson I. A. Swisher Mary H. Swope Horace M. Swope Donald R. Taft 26 Tacoma Finnish Wkrs. Truxton Talbot Peter Talsma Frank Tannenbaum Albert E. Taussig Clara Taylor A. W. Taylor George Taylor Katharine Taylor C. A. Teagle Chester Jacob Teller Sidney A. Teller J. William Terry Jacob Teschner Mrs. A. S. Thayer Theo. F. Thieme Mrs. Alice Themen Elizabeth H. Thomas Ellen W. Thomas Evan W. Thomas Mrs. H. E. Thompson Bertha Thompson M. I. Thompson Dr. T. T. Thomsen A. H. Thorpe Joseph Tickell Edith Tieman D. G. Tierney O. B. Tingley F. S. Titsworth Edw. D. Tittmann Mrs. H. H. Tittmann A. M. Todd C. M. Todd Ida Toepfert Edw. C. Tolman Richard C. L. Tolman Rev. W. H. Tomlins Mrs. Helen R. Tondall A. T. Torge Ridgely Torrence Miss M. V. Townsend Mrs. G. G. Trask A. M. Troyer W. H. Tsognitz Marguerite Tucker Mrs. Fred H. Tucker Katherine Tucker F. H. Tuthill E. Louise Tuxbury Mrs. Hy. B. Twombly H. A, Tyvand U Elsa Ueland Adelaide Underbill Elizabeth Underwood J. H. Underwood V. R. G. Ushkuris Wm. S. U'Ren W. Lee Ustick The Fight for Free Speech Al. M. Van Auken Mrs. Sara H. VanDusen Mrs. Doris Van Du Zee Thos. Van Lear D. D. Vaughn John C. Vaughan Eraste Vidrine • Walter Vincent Morris Vogel Adrian W. VoUmer Helena Von Holland Franklin Vonnegut W Lillian D. Wald Willard Wattles Frank P. Walsh Kenneth E. Walser Henriette R. Walter Wm. W. Walters Elizabeth Walton J as. Walton James P. Warbasse Kate M. Ward . Mrs. Harry Ward Aldyth Ward Rena Ware Mr. and Mrs. H. M. Ware Clarence Warner Clifford P. Warren Pfescott Warren Wm. C. Warren Blanche Watson Agnes C. Watson W. M. Weatherly J. P. Weatherby Mrs. George Weber A. 0. Weekland W. J. Wehlau Ernest Weidhaas. Dora Weinberg Bernard Weinig Etelka Weiss Irving M. Weiss J. W. Welbome Rev. Howard M. Wells Franklin Wentworth Miriam E. West Thomas West Mrs. Bertha P. Weyl R. J. Whitaker J. A. Whitfield Ella Keats Whiting Mrs. H. A. Whitmarsh Charlotte Anita Whitney Margaret Whitney Elsie G. Whitney Alma Wiesner E. D. Wilcox Harry Emerson Wildes John Wilkie Jesse M. Williams Mrs. J. M. Williams Mrs. Laura C. Williams Viola R. Williams Beatrice Wimser Birch Wilson Geo. R. Wilson John A. Wilson W. T. Wilson Mrs. A. N. Winslow Ellen Winsor Mary Winsor Mrs. B. Winter Thos. E. Wise Anne Withington William A. Wittick W. P. Wohlheter Dr. Alex S. Wolf Chas. H. Wolf J. H. Wolf W. E. Wolf Leo Wolff E. Wolff Leo Wolman Juliana Wood C. E. S. Wood J. B. C. Woods Amy Woods W. J. Woodward Robert Wormser N. E. Wort A. P. Workman Victor Wort Julius Wortsman David Wortsman H. N. Wright J. M. Wulfing H. E. Yarnall, Jr. Dr. M. M. Yates Dora M. Young E. W; Young J. 0. B. Young E. H. Zaiser Cloyd E. Zeiders Wm. A. Zervas Gregory Zillborg Savel Zimand A. G. Zimmerman John Zimmerman 27 ST ATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS, YEAR ENDED JANUARY 31, 1921 Balance Sheet, as at January 31, 1921 Assets .Cash in Bank $799.51 Petty Cash lOJ Total $809.5 Liabilities Loans Payable $1,500.01 Funds for Transmission: Upton Sinclair ; $27.15 Virgin Island Printing Press 60.00 Sacco-Vanzetti Defense 17.50 104 i $1,604.6! Surplus and Deficits : . Deficit: Printing Fund $1,488-91 Deficit: Amnesty Fund 21.27 $1,510.18 Surplus: Book Fund $132.52 Surplus: L W. W. Publicity Fund 133.12 Surplus: Operating Fund 44ft.47 715.11 Net Deficit, all funds 795.01 Total $809.51 5 Income Receipts and Disbursements Account Operating Fund Operating Fund Receipts: Contributions $18,495.7 Du4ss 1,069.4 Miscellaneous receipts 693.9 Transfer from other funds: Anglo-American Conference Fund (1919) Surplus Transferred 4.6' Total Receipts $20,263.8 28 The Fight for Free Speech Disbursements : Salaries |12,117.00 Additional office work 1,288.28 Rent and care of office 1,378.70 Office equipment^ supplies and repairs 340.74 Office printing and stationery 1,004.68 Telephone 322.23 Telegrams . 352.60 Postages and express 1,313.86 Newspaper clippings, etc 179;19 Miscellaneous 318.66 $18,615.94 Special appropriations 2,078.55 $20,694.49 Transfers to Other Funds: Legislative Campaign $478.41 Advertising Campaign 4.00 Centralia Defense Fund 36.92 Bail Fund 10.00 529.33 Total Disbursements . $21,223.82 Excess of income disbursements over income receipts $960.02 Surplus, February 1, 1920, represented by cash in bank (part of) $1,399.49 Petty Cash 10^ 1,409.49 Surplus, January SI, 1921, as per Balance Sheet $449.47 Special Funds Book Fund: Receipts $ 500.00 Deficit, February 1, 1920 f .48 Disbursements 367.00 Surplus, January 31, 1921 ^ 132.52 $500.00 Printing Fund : Receipts $1,680.97 Deficit, January 31, 1921 1,488.91 $3,169.88 Deficit, February 1, 1920 500.68 Disbursements 2,669.20 $3,169.88 Legislative Campaign Fund: Surplus, February 1, 1920 $ 92.41 Transfer from Operating Fund 478.41 $570.82 Disbursements $ 570.82 29 The Fight for Free Speech Amnesty Campaigfn Fund: Surplus, February 1, 1920 $ 214.68 Receipts 212.94 Deficit, January 31, 1921 21.21 $ 448.89 Disbursements ..,.,.- $ 448.88 I. W. W. Publicity Fund ; Receipts $1,040.73 Disbursements $907.61 Surplus, January 31, 1921 133.12 $1,040.73 The above is a full statement of accounts as of Jan. 31, 1921. Helen Phelps Stokes, Treasurer. Auditor's Certificate I have examined the accounts of the American Civil Liberties Union for the year ended January 31, 1921. I received all the information and explanations I demanded. The accounts were kept in the offices of the Union under the general supervision of the Treasurer. All monies re- ceived appear to have' been deposited to the credit of the Union. Any contributor may demand from me within a reasonable time after publica- tion of this general certificate, a certificate of verification as to the proper disposition of his contribution. My examination was sufficiently ex- haustive to satisfy myself that all disbursements made by the Union were for proper purposes. Salaries and expenses paid were reasonable and there was no evidence of extravagance. In my opinion the above statement of accounts for the year ended January 31, 1921, is drawn up to present a true and correct view of the cash transactions for the period under review and of the cash position of the Union, as at January 31, 1921. J. B. COLLINGS WOODS^ Chartered Accountant 501 Fifth Avenue, March 22, 1921. New York City, 30 Officers larry F. Ward, New York, Chairman ; Ouncan McDonald, Illinois; and reannette Rankin, Montana, Vice- Chairmen ; L. Hollingsworth Wood, Treasurer. Albert De Silver and Roger N. Baldwin, Directors ; Walter Nelles, Counsel; Lucille B. Milner, Field Secretary. Jane .Addams Herbert S.. Bigelow Sophbnisba P. Breckin- ridge Robert M. Buck Joseph D. Cannon Parley P. Christensen John S. Codman Lincoln Colcord James H. DiUard James A. Duncan Crystal Eastman John LoTejoy Elliott Edmund C- Evans Edward W. Evans William M. Fincke John A. Fitch Elizabeth Gurley Flynn William Z. Foster Felix Frankfurter Ernst Freund National Committee Paul J. Furnas Andrew Furuseth A. B. Gilbert Norman Hapgood Arthur Garfield Hays Morris Hillquit John Haynes Holmes Frederic C. Howe B. W. Huebsch James Weldon Johnson Helen Keller Agones Brown Leach Arthur Le Sueur Henry R. Linville Robert Morss Lovett Allen McCurdy Mary McDowell Grenville S. MacFarland Oscar Maddous Judah L. Magnes W. J. M. A. Maloney Anne Martin James H. Maurer John D. Moore A. J. Muste Scott Nearing Julia S. O'Connor Wm. H. Pickens John Nevin Sayre Rose Schneiderman Vida D. Scudder Seymour Stedman Helen Phelps Stokes Norman M. Thomas Edw. D. Tittmann Wm. S. U'Ren Oswald Garrison Villard B. Charney Vladeck Bishop Chas. D. Williams L. Hollingsworth Wood George P. West AflSliated District Chicago -Civil Liberties League, Room 303, 166 West Washington St., Chicago, Illinois. Youngstown Workers Defense League, 1432 W. Federal Street, Youngstown, Ohio. New England Civil Liberties Committee, 44 Edgehill Road, Brookline, Mass. Workers' Defense Union, 7 East 15th Street, New York City. Philadelphia Civil Liberties Committee, 1301 Morris Building, Philadelphia. Workers' Defense Union of Baltimore, 435 South Broadway, Baltimore, Md. 81 Subscription to Pamphlet Service for one year, one dollar. Weekly Reports on Civil Liberty Cases in the U. S., one dollar a year. (To subscribers only.) Law Bulletin Service (monthly) free to attorneys co-operating, and to law libraries. Publicity Service, free to interested periodicals and writers. The services of lawyers, correspondents, wi'iters, speakers and investigators are welcomed anywhere in the' United States. Contributions in any amount always welcomed and needed.