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THE FIGHT FOR 
FREE SPEECH 



A brief statement of present conditions in 

the United States, and of the work of the 

AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION 

against the forces of suppression 



\ 



*'It is time enough for the rightful purpose 
of civil government for its officers to inter- 
fere when principles break out into overt 
acts against pea-ce and good order/' — 

— Thomas Jefferson, 






Published by the 
AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION 

138 West 13th Street 
New York City 



US. ^ 



September, 1921 



181 



5t312S 



aV 



y' 



<< 



CONTENTS 



Pa 



What We Fight For and Against 

Free Speech or Violence 

How the Union Started 

The Situation Confronting Us 

Centers of Resistance 

The Union's General Work 

Demonstrations 

Field Work 

Pamphlets * • • 

Service to Lawyers 

Bail Fund 

Amnesty . 

Sedition Bills * 

How the Work is Directed 

The Work Ahead . . . , 

Finances 

Statement of Principles 

Treasurer's Report 

Contributors and Subscribers to the Pamphlet Service .... 21 

National Committee and Officers S\ 

Local Committees 3! 



rHIS is more than the formal report of activities which is due 
to our friends and contributory. It is also an attempt to 
escribe the forces behind the struggle for and against civil 
berty, and to state the social philosophy underlying our efforts, 
b is a message of hope to some of our discouraged and baffled 
riends. It is an answer to some of our critics in the camps of 
eaction and of revolution. 

"Why," asks the disheartened liberal, "do you fight for free 
peech when you can't get it? Wait till the reaction is over." 
ays the revolutionist, "All this talk of free speech diverts atten- 
ion from the real issues of industrial and political control, and 
[)ols people into thinking we can 'restore a lost liberty.' Civil 
ights can't and don't exist during class conflict. Quit it!" 

And then the reactionary tells us : "Your so-called free 
peech fight is just a camouflage to put over the radical move- 
lent. You are for free speech for a particular cause. If the 
rorking-class ever got power, you would not oppose their sup- 
ressions. The personnel of your organization proves it. Stand 
side and let honest Americans do the work." 

Thus opposed from various angles we are pushing ahead 
lore vigorously than ever, confident in the soundness of our po- 
ition and in the worth of the daily human services to the hun- 
reds of devoted men and women attacked for their loyalty to 
leir principles. The work is made possible by the co-operation 
nd support of that limited number of friends in aU parts of the 
ountry who understand the issues and the necessity for organ- 

sed effort. 

Roger N. Baldwin 
Albert De Silver 

Directors 



The Fight For Free Speech 



What We Are Fighting For and Against 

NEVER before in American history were the forces of reacti 
so completely in control of our political and economic 11 
Never before were the civil rights guaranteed by constitutioi 
provision so generally ignored and violated. Th6 reyolutiona 
changes brought about by the war and industrial conflict are i 
where more apparent than in the new machinery for the suppr 
sion of opinion and of traditional minority and individual righ 

That machinery consists chiefly of the reactionary decisic 
of federal and state supreme courts, the growing use of injui 
tions in labor disputes, the sweeping provisions of 35 state se 
tion and criminal syndicalism laws, an array of city ordinanc 
and police regulations restricting free speech and assemblai 
the arbitrary power of the Post Office Department over the pr 
and the mails, stale constabularies and private gunmen, and t 
lawlessness of such organizations as the American Legion a 
the Ku Klux Klan. So complete is the^machinery of supressi 
that an active political propaganda, — ^the communist — ^^has be 
outlawed and forced into secret underground channels. 

Behind this machinery stand the property interests of t 
country, so completely in control of our political life as to esta 
lish what is in effect a class government, — a governme 
by and for business. Political democracy as conceived by mai 
of America's greatest leaders, does not exist, except in a fd 
communities. This condition is not yet understood by the pubi 
at large. They are drugged by propaganda and blinded by 
press necessarily subservient to property interests. Dazed 1 
the kaleidoscopic changes of the last few years, the rank ai 
file citizens accept the dictatorship of property in the name 
patriotism. 

The only groups of the American people conscious of this coi 
dition and capable of outspoken resistance to it are the radical 
the more aggressive wings of the labor and farmer movement 



The Fight for Free Speech 



tnd a few influential liberal journals, organizations and individ- 
lals in public life. Among other classes more or less conscious 
>t the condition but incapable of outspoken resistance are the 
Negroes, many foreign-born groups and the tenant farmers of 
he west and south. 

Resistance to reaction has two aspects, — first, activities look- 
ng toward a reorganization of our economic and political life, 
ind second, the demand for the "rights" of those minorities and 
.ndividuals attacked by the forces of reaction. The demand for 
'rights" is couched usually in an appeal to free speech traditions 
Eind constitutional guarantees, though behind that lies the his- 
toric insistence on the "natural right" of the advocates of any 
cause to agitate, — a right prior to and independent of constitu- 
tions. In the long run causes get that natural right in proportion 
to their power to take and hold it. Or legal "rights" securing 
it will be freely exercised when no class conflict threatens the 
existing order. 

Free Speech or Violence 



€€ 



Whenever conflict grows tense, and the legal machinery of 
rights" breaks down, a resort to force by one side, or open 
violence by both sides is inevitable. Such a conflict on a large 
scale is of course armed revolt or a revolution. It is also obvious 
that the more freely the forces in conflict can agitate by peaceful 
means, the less will be the resort to violence. It is therefore 
clear that the more the spirit and method of peaceful agitation 
is encouraged here in the United States now, the less violent and 
destructive will be the inevitable industrial conflict ahead. It 
is in the interest of orderly progress that organized effort for 
civil liberty challenges the repressive powers of reaction in 
America today, headed as they are for violence and destruction. 

There are many who regard such effort as useless because 
they feel that the reactionary forces in power will never yield 
until compelled to do so by superior force. Even if that conten- 
tion is sound, the propaganda for civil liberty must have the 
effect of softening the conflict, both by making easier the way 
for the new forces and by creating a general distrust of the 
shams of our political system. That weakens resistance to 
progress. Any efforts for tolerance are justified also by their 



The Fight for Free Speech 



general effect on all classes, if we are to help toward a woi 
in which freedom of the mind is to be a reality. 

But quite independent of any political or philosophical 
gument, the work done today in the name of civil liberty is 
manded by the practical daily services to the host of groups 
individuals who are prosecuted, or mobbed, or whose rights 
restricted inside or outside the law. By demonstrations, pi 
licity, pamphlets, legal aid, bail, test cases in the courts, fii 
cial appeals, — ^by all these methods of daily service the friei 
of progress to a new social order make common cause, regi 
less of their political faith or of their view of the principle 
civil liberty itself. 

How the Union Started 

The American Civil Liberties Union is an outgrowth of tl 
National Civil Liberties Bureau, which came into being in 19 
with the war restrictions on civil liberty, — first as a departme 
of the American Union against Militarism, and later, in Octobc 
1917, as an independent organization. 

The Civil Liberties Union succeeded the Bureau in Janua 
1920, extended its scope beyond war cases, enlarged its gover 
ing body, and restated its objects to meet the post-war attac 
on the civil rights of labor, the farmers and the radicals. 

The Situation CAnfronting Us 

The reorganization came on the heels of the great coal ai 
steel strikes, the greatest demonstrations of working-class powj 
in the history of the country, both of which were beaten large] 
through the wholesale denial of civil rights, engineered joint! 
by the government and the employing interests. 

These strikes, with the outlaw switchmen's strike which fc 
lowed them, marked the height of working-class resistance 1 
industrial tyranny, as a result of the war shortage of labor. Th( 
marked, too, the effective beginning of those determined cai 
paigns of organized business which throughout the country ha^ 
either disrupted, weakened or put on the defensive every orgai 
ized movement of the workers, farmers, radicals and liberal 

This has been accomplished through the diverse methods < 
anti-labor and anti-radical legislation, injunctions and judg 
made law, by the open shop campaign, by economic boycott, I 

6 



The Fight for Free Speech 



B raids of the Palmer regime, and by the lawless activities of 
B American Legion, the Ku Klux Klan and similar organiza- 

During the political campaign of 1920, the forces of resist- 
ce to reaction made determined efforts through various 
armer-labor" combinations to achieve power, — emphasizing 
erywhere the issues of civil liberty. All such efforts were 
ried under the Republican landslide. And they have stayed 
ried. There is nowhere in the country any effective political 
industrial organization of the forces of resistance to reaction 
cept in a few scattered localities and a few exceptional indus- 
es. Unemployment and propaganda have made effective 
.tional organization of any sort for the present impossible. 

Centers of Resistance 

Yet to this general condition there are conspicuous excep- 
)ns. There is the armed resistance to company gunmen among 
e mountaineer coal-miners of southern West Virginia in their 
rht for the right to organize ; there is the determined campaign 
the Kansas district of the United Mine Workers under Alex- 
ider Howat against the Industrial Court law which wipes out 
e right to strike ; there is the heroic effort of the Alabama coal 
iners to maintain their organization against the forces of the 
, S. Steel Corporation; the victory of the Amalgamated Clothing 
'orkers in New York; the continuous defiance of repressive 
easures by the I. W. W. lumber-jacks of the Northwest; the 
gnificant growth of working-class unity between whites and 
acks in southern industrial centers; the vigorous organizing 
impaigns of the Non-partisan League in the middle west ; and 
le steady growth of the independent farmer and labor press. 

Underneath this surface of exceptional centers and move- 
ents there are other forces at work, — the secret organ- 
ation of the Communist Party, the increasing rank and file sol- 
arity in the trades unions, and a spreading cynical conviction 
nong certain groups of the ultimate necessity of armed re- 
stance. 

The Union's General Work 

Into this whole situation the American Civil Liberties Union 
irects its efforts wherever it can be of practical help. It makes 

7 



The Fight for Free Speech 



no distinction as to whose liberties it defends; it puts no li 
on the principle of free speech. The headquarters in New Y 
keep informed of all cases reported in the press by a sp 
clipping service and close perusal of the labor papers, and 
through investigations in various parts of the country by m 
bers of the staff. In every case reported anywhere in the c 
try or in our island possessions, we act at once by letter or 
to advise the person or organization attacked that our serv 
are at their disposal. Those services consist of legal advice, b 
publicity and protests to local officials. 

To help with that service we have 800 co-operating lawy 
in 47 states, and over 1000 correspondents and investigators. 
17 of the larger cities we have local co-operating committ 
which act on important cases. The most active of these is 
New England Civil Liberties Committee in Boston. The nan 
and address of these local committees appear on page 31. In t 
New York headquarters the daily work is in charge of two 
rectors, a field secretary and an attorney. A representative 
Washington handles matters requiring direct contact with gc 
emment officials. 

The chief activity necessarily is publicity in one form 
other, for ours is a work of propaganda,— getting facts aero 
from our point-of-view. That consists of a regular news servij 
to 450 weekly labor, farmer and liberal papers ; special news r 
leases to daily papers; occasional news statements to sped 
groups of papers, including foreign labor and liberal public 
tions; pamphlets; an information service to 420 co-operatii 
speakers and writers throughout the country; and a weekly mil 
eographed report on all cases, which is sent to selected pap€ 
and list of subscribers. 

Demonstrations 

The most effective publicity has resulted from dramatizii 
the issues of civil liberty by demonstrations in areas of confli* 
During 1920, the Union conducted four such conspicuous fr 
speech fights. The first, in Passaic, N. J., in cooperation wi 
the Amalgamated Textile Workers, wiped off the books a i 
strictive police order and city ordinance and opened up that wc 
town to workers' meetings. The second, in May, at Duquesr 

8 



The Fight for Free Speech 



, in co-operation with the National Committee for Organizing 
n and Steel Workers, staged the issue squarely, but resulted 
L most restrictive decision from the State Supreme Court which 
laws meetings in public places. The third, during the fall 
itical campaign at Mt. Vernon, N. Y., in co-operation with the 
ialist Party, opened up the streets of that city to Socialist 
akers, though the legal issues at stake are still pending in the 
rts. The fourth, also during the campaign, in four Connecti- 
cities in co-operation with the Socialist Party, secured various 
nediate results in the different cities (Waterbury, New Lon- 
i, Meriden and Norwich). The final outcome was a wholly 
orable decision by the State Supreme Court forbidding dis- 
nination between speakers on public streets. 

Field Work 

In addition to the demonstrations, the Union has helped plan 
al civil liberties campaigns carried on by labor organizations. 
I are the means frequently of getting local groups and indi- 
uals in touch with one another when they have never before 
rked together. Many groups and individuals are so isolated 
t they do not know of one another's existence in the same 
imunity. We also have brought national agencies to bear, 
local situations, hiring publicity men, getting investigators on 
field, waking up magazines to the publicity possibilities in 
il dramas, and urging public authorities to action to correct 
ises. We have put in much effort in these ways, particularly 
he long strike conflicts in the coal fields of Alabama and West 
ginia. 

Pamphlets 

The pamphlets published since the Union was organized in 
uary, 1920, are: 

Why Freedom Matters, by Norman Angell, 32 pages, (re- 
printed). 

Amnesty for Political Prisoners, 12 pages. 

Freedom of Speech and of the Press, a compilation of quo- 
tations arranged by John Haynes Holmes, 32 pages 
(reprinted). 

Do We Need More Sedition Laws? Testimony of Alfred 
Bettm^n and Swinburne Hale, 22 pages. 

9 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Seeing Red: civil liberty and law since the armistice 
Walter Nelles, 12 pages. 

New Gags on Free Speech : a one-page map showing ext( 
of "criminal syndicalism", "sedition" and "red fla 
laws. 

Civil Liberty : a statement of the Union's position on t 
present issues. 

The Police and the Radicals : a report on the attitude a 
methods of the police in handling radical meetings 
about 100 cities, 12 pages. 

The Supreme Court vs. Civil Liberty: opinions of Justi 
Brandeis and Holmes in cases affecting civil libei 
8 pages. 

Lynching and Debt Slavery, by William Pickens, 8 pages 

The Persecution of the L W. W., one-page leaflet summai 
ing the prosecutions to March, 1921. 

The Communist Prosecutions : one-page summary to Mar 
1921. 

Since the Buf ord Sailed : a summary of developments fi 
December, 1919 to June, 1920, 14 pages. 

Leaflets entitled "Real Americanism" and "Maintain Y 
Rights" ! 

Pamphlets and books now in course of preparation are : 

The Open Shop and Civil Liberty. 

Injunctions against Civil Rights. 

"Force and Violence" in High Places. 

The Mob Mind vs. Civil Rights. 

The Alabama Coal Miners and the Steel Trust. 

The Black Workers' Struggle for American Rights in 
Virgin Islands. 

Mountaineers and Gunmen : the Coal War in West Virgii 

Conscientious Objectors in the Great War, by Norn 
Thomas. j 

The History of Civil Liberty in the United States, by L< 
Whipple. 

The Gag on Teachers, by Dr. Henry R. Linville and Thou 
A. Mufson. 

10 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Service to Lawyers 

To our 800 co-operating attorneys, our counsel, Mr. Nelles, 
Bnds each month a bulletin on some legal aspect of civil liberty 
kely to be helpful to them in cases involving civil rights.These 
uUetins in recent months have covered : 

Free Speech on the Streets. 

Control of the Press by Injunction. 

Constitutionality of Criminal Anarchy and Criminal Syn- 
dicalism Statutes. 

Postal Censorship through the Second-Class Mailing Priv- 
ilege. 

Searches and Seizures. 

Scope of Labor Sections of the Clayton Act. 

Mr. Nelles is a member of a law firm which devotes its atten- 
;ion chiefly to civil liberty cases. The members of that firm 
[Hale, Nelles and Shorr) have participated in most of the signi- 
icant civil liberty trials in and near New York, — Mr. Nelles par- 
:icularly in the cases arising under the New York anti-anarchy 
statute and the deportation laws. 

The growing menace of the power of injunctions in labor dis- 
putes prompted us to call a conference of interested agencies, 
lawyers and others* in January, 1921. The result was an agree- 
ment to undertake a thorough study of the whole subject, to* be 
made available for attorneys and labor organizations in the form 
of a pamphlet covering law and tactics. That work is under 
way. 

Other Work 

Much of the work we do does not appear with our name 
because the primary responsibility for it rests with others. For 
instance, considerable of the publicity relating to the West Vir- 
ginia miners was arranged for by us and carried out indepen- 
dently. Similarly, much of the work in the amnesty campaign 
is handled by us as part of a joint effort of a number of organi- 
zations. 

Meetings and conferences on local and national civil liberty 
issues have been held by members of the staff of the Union from 
time to time especially in Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Pitts- 

11 



The Fight for Free Speech 



burg, St. Louis and New York. Talk's on civil liberties by mem- 
bers of the National Committee or the staff have been arranged 
through the Union before many audiences, particularly in the 
east and middle west. 

Bail Fund 

An attempt to create a National Bail Fund to provide bail for 
persons held in civil liberty cases has only recently been success- 
ful, after over a year's effort to get the minimum fixed for an 
operating basis, — $100,000. The fund is administered by a com- 
mittee of trustees independent of the Union, but working in close 
co-operation with it. The trustees are L. HoUingsworth Wood, 
Albert De Silver and Norman Thomas, with an Auditing Com- 
mittee supervising the work, consisting of Oswald Garrison Vil- 
lard, Charles J. Rhoads and Arthur Garfield Hays. Cash, lib- 
erty bonds or other marketable securities are accepted as loans 
to be used for bail. The risk of loss is minimized and would be 
shared by all participants alike; interest is paid; and no pub 
licity is attached to those participating. A total fund of $200,- 
000 is needed to meet immediate demands. 

Amnesty 

The efforts to secure amnesty have been unceasing. The re- 
lease of the last of the conscientious objectors in November, 1920, 
was probably due in part to our constant agitation, but more to 
the determination of the men themselves, and to the conspicuous 
hunger-strike of one of their number. 

Sedition Bills 

Efforts to fasten a peace-time sedition law on the country 
have been vigorously opposed by the Union and allied organiza 
tions, so far with success. We conducted a hard fight against 
the Sterling bill in Congress in 1920, and have kept after the 
situation continuously since. The Union has also participated in 
efforts to repeal, test or defeat various peace-time sedition laws 
in a number of states. 

How the Work is Directed 

! 

The policies of the Civil Liberties Union are determined j 
by vote of the National Committee, voting by mail. 

12 



The Fight for Free Speech 



A statement of the general policy on the chief issues 
pears on page 15. The carrying out of this policy is en- 
sted to an Executive Committee, composed of twenty mem- 
rs of the National Committee, meeting weejcly in New York, 
e members of that committee are: John A. Fitch, Paul J. 
rnas, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, John Haynes Holmes, James 
»ldon Johnson, Mrs. Agnes Brown Leach, Henry R. Linville, 
lliam J. M. A. Maloney, A. J. Muste, Scott Nearing, Walter 
lies, John Nevin Sayre, Rose Schneiderman, Helen Phelps 
tkes, Norman M. Thomas, B. Charney Vladeck, Harry F. 
ird, L. HoUingsworth Wood, Roger N. Baldwin and Albert De 
ver. 

The Work Ahead 

The work in hand, besides the regular services, deals with the 
lowing chief matters: 

1. Amnesty for political prisoners. Constant efforts on this 
npaign in co-operation with other agencies, directed particu- 
ly to action by the federal government in behalf of the 150 
itical prisoners still in prison (of whom 103 are members of 
! I. W. W.) and also directed to similar action by governors 
states. 

I. Campaigns against laws restricting free speech, free press 
1 free assemblage. Efforts to defeat proposed laws and to an- 
: such laws by tests in the courts, campaigns for their repeal, 

i general publicity aimed at making them ineffective in prac- 

» 

i. Demonstrations in areas of conflict: Test meetings as a 
lis of getting laws before the courts or of putting to the front 
I free speech issue, held as occasions prompt. 

I. A special campaign against mob violence — particularly di- 
ted to the American Legion and the Ku Klux Klan. 

>. Completion of the study of injunctions, with suggested 
tics for labor organizations. 

>. Publication of a study of the restrictions on teachers, with 
ampaign in the schools and colleges for academic freedom. 

r. Special efforts in California, to counteract the exceptional 
;ver of reaction there. 

i. Development of the National Bail Fund to reach all de- 
dants in civil liberty cases unable otherwise to get bail. 

13 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Finances 

The operating expenses of the work are about $20,000 
year, excluding the printing of pamphlets, which cost, at the ra 
we want to publish^ $4,000 a year. There are also various sp 
cial funds to meet needs that come up unexpectedly. The Unic 
operates on a budget, and on a general financial system approve 
by the National Information Bureau, 1 Madison Ave., New Yor 
an agency for the information of contributors to public cause 
The Treasurer's report on page 28. gives the essential figur 
for the fiscal year which closed January 31, 1921. 

Our income is derived wholly from voluntary contributio 
in amounts from one dollar a year to one thousand. The tot 
number of contributors on our list, January 1, 1921, was 150 
The pamphlet printing fund is in part made up from receipts t 
pamphlets sold, — a comparatively small item. 



Public appeals for defense funds in civil liberties cases ha 
been made frequently through the Union, notably for the Ce 
tralia I. W. W. case, the general defense work of the I. W. 
the National Defense Committee (which defends cases of Co 
munists), and the Sacco-Vanzetti case at Boston. We also ci 
lected a fund to help buy a printing press to start a labor pap 
run by the organized workers of the Virgin Islands. 



I 



M 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Statement defining the position of the American Civil Liberties 
Union on the issues in the United States today 

(Adopted by the National Committee) 

We stand on the general principle that all thought on matters 
I public concern should be freely expressed without interfer- 
ice. Orderly social progress is promoted by unrestricted free- 
om of opinion. The punishment of mere opinion, without overt 
ets, is never in the interest of orderly progress. Suppression 
f opinion makes for violence and bloodshed. 

The principle of freedom of speech, press and assemblage, 
mbodied in our constitutional law, must be reasserted in its 
pplication to American conditions today. That application 
lust deal with various methods now used to repress new ideas 
nd democratic movements. The following paragraphs cover 
he most significant of the tactics of repression in the United 
tates today. 

1. Free Speech. There should be no control whatever in 
dvance over what any person may say. The right to. meet and 
speak freely without permit should be unquestioned. 

There should be no prosecutions for the mere expression of 
pinion on matters of public concern, however radical, however 
iolent. The expression of all opinions, however radical, should 
\e tolerated. The fullest freedom of speech should be encour- 
iged by setting aside special places in streets or parks and in 
he use of public buildings, free of charge, for public itieetings of 
my sort. 

2. Free Press. There should be no censorship over the mails 
>y the post-office or any other agency at any time or in any way. 
^rivacy of communication should be inviolate. Printed matter 
hould never be subject to a political censorship. The granting 
>r revoking of second class mailing privileges should have noth- 
ng whatever to do with a paper's opinions and policies. 

If libelous, fraudulent, or other illegal matter is being cir- 
culated, it should be seized by proper warrant through the pro- 
lecuting authorities, not by the post-office department. The busi- 
less of the post-office department is to carry the mails, not 
investigate crime or to act as censors. 

15 



The Fight for Free Speech 



There should be no control over the distribution of literature 
at meetings or hand to hand in public or in private places. No 
system of licenses for distribution should be tolerated. 

3. Freedom of Assemblage. Meetings in public places, 
parades and processions should be freely permitted, the only 
reasonable regulation being the advance notification to the police 
of the time and place. No discretion should be given the police 
to prohibit parades or processions, but merely to alter routes 
in accordance with the imperative demands of traffic in crowded 
cities. There should be no laws or regulations prohibiting the 
display of red flags or other political emblems. 

The right of assemblage is involved in the right to picket in 
time of strike. Peaceful picketing, therefore, should not be pro- 
hibited, regulated by injunction, by order of court or by police 
edict. It is the business of the police in places where picketing 
is conducted merely to keep traffic free and to handle specific 
violations of law against persons upon complaint. 

4. The Right to Strike. The right of workers to organize 
in organizations of their own choosing, and to strike, should 
never be infringed by law. 

Compulsory arbitration is to be condemned not only because 
it destroys the workers' right to strike, but because it lays em- 
phasis on one set of obligations alone, those of workers to 
society. 

5, Law Enforcement. The practice of deputizing privately 
paid police as general police officers should be opposed. So 
should the attempts of private company employes to police the 
streets or property other than that of the company. 

The efforts of private associations to take into their own 
hands the enforcement of lav/ should be opposed at every point. 
Public officials, employes of private corporations, and leaders of 
mobs, who interfere with the exercise of the constitutionally 
established rights of free speech and free assembly, should be| 
vigorously proceeded against. 

The sending of troops into areas of industrial conflict to main- 
tain law and order almost inevitably results in the government 
taking sides in an industrial conflict in behalf of the employer. 
The presence of troops,whether or not martial law is declared, 

16 



The Fight for Free Speech 



3ry rarely affects the employer adversely, but it usually results 
I the complete denial of civil rights to the workers. 

6. Search and Seizure. It is the custom of certain federal, 
ate and city officials, particularly in cases involving civil liberty, 
> make arrests without warrant, to enter upon private property, 
id to seize papers and literature without legal process. Such 
ractices should be contested. Officials so violating constitutional 
larantees should be proceeded against. 

7. The Risrht to a Fair Trial. Every person charged with 
1 offense should have the fullest opportunity for a fair trial, for 
'curing counsel and bail in a reasonable sum. In the case of a 
DOT person, special aid should be organized to secure a fair 
ial, and when necessary, an appeal. The legal profession 
lould be alert to defend cases involving civil liberty. The reso- 
itions of various associations of lawyers against taking cases of 
idicals are wholly against the traditions of American liberty. 

8« Immigration^ Deportation and Passports. No person 
lould be refused admission to the United States on the ground 
: holding objectionable opinions. The present restrictions 
jainst radicals of various beliefs is wholly opposed to our tradi- 
on of political asylum. 

No alien should be deported merely for the expression of 
>inion or for membership in a radical or revolutionary organi- 
ition. This is as un-American a practice as the prosecution of 
tizens for expression of opinion. 

The attempt to revoke naturalization papers in order to de- 
are a citizen an alien subject to deportation is a perversion ol 
law which was intended to cover only cases of fraud. 

Citizenship papers should not be refused to any alien because 
the expression of radical views, or activities in the cause of 
bor. 

The granting of passports to or from the United States should 
t be dependent merely upon the opinions of citizens or member- 
ip in radical or labor organizations. 

9. Liberty in Education. The attempts to maintain a uni- 
rm orthodox opinion among teachers should be opposed. 
16 attempts of educational authorities to inject into public 
hpol and college instruction propaganda in the interest of any 

17 



The Fight for Free Speech 



no distinction as to whose liberties it defends; it puts no lin 
on the principle of free speech. The headquarters in New Yo 
keep informed of all cases reported in the press by a sped 
clipping service and close perusal of the labor papers, and al 
through investigations in various parts of the country by mei 
bers of the staff. In every case reported anywhere in the ecu 
try or in our island possessions, we act at once by letter or wi 
to advise the person or organization attacked that our servic 
are at their disposal. Those services consist of legal advice, ba 
publicity and protests to local officials. 

To help with that service we have 800 co-operating lawye 
in 47 states, and over 1000 correspondents and investigators. 
17 of the larger cities we have local co-operating committe 
which act on important cases. The most active of these is t 
New England Civil Liberties Committee in Boston. The nam 
and address of these local committees appear on page 31. In t 
New York headquarters the daily work is in charge of two 
rectors, a field secretary and an attorney. A representative 
Washington handles matters requiring direct contact with gc 
ernment officials. 

The chief activity necessarily is publicity in one form 
other, for ours is a work of propaganda,— getting facts aero 
from our point-of-view. That consists of a regular news servi 
to 450 weekly labor, farmer and liberal papers; special news i 
leases to daily papers; occasional news statements to speci 
groups of papers, including foreign labor and liberal public 
tions; pamphlets; an information service to 420 co-operatii 
speakers and writers throughout the country; and a weekly mil 
eographed report on all cases, which is sent to selected pape 
and list of subscribers. 

Demanstrations 

The most effective publicity has resulted from dramatizin 
the issues of civil liberty by demonstrations in areas of conflic 
During 1920, the Union conducted four such conspicuous fre 
speech fights. The first, in Passaic, N. J., in cooperation wit 
the Amalgamated Textile Workers, wiped oflf the books a re 
strictive police order and city ordinance and opened up that woo 
town to workers' meetings. The second, in May, at Duquesne 

8 



CONTRIBUTORS 
and Subscribers to tbe Pamphlet Service 

The following list covers all contributors, and subscribers to 
he pamphlet service, during the year 1920. There is no mem- 
bership in the Union in the sense of committing those who join 
o any dogmatic statement of principles. Inclusion in this list 
lesignates only an interest in the work of the organization. 



linnie D. Abbotf 
Sarah Root Adams 
Vayne Adamson 
)r. Leon A. Adler 
ilary Ware Albin 
kirs. M. S. Alderton 
Cdith D. Alexander 
Cdw. F. Alexander 
}. M. Allen 
rlrs. Clarence E. Allen 
^rs. E. S. Allen 
Cdward S. Allen 
•"lorence Allen 
r. H. Allen 
dary Norton Allen 
Vm. P. Allen 
Ats. a. V. Alexander 
•"rederic Aloy 
C. Altenberg 
Martha Anderson 
•'rank F. Anderson 
LIbin A. Anderson 
Albert Anderson 
Lue. Andrae 
J. P. Andrews 
t. C. Andrews 
3arl M. Anerswald 
Samuel Arbitman 
ohn A. Armalo 
ilrs. Eunice Armstrong 
V. J. Arthur 
»f rs. C. P. Atkinson 
lissie Auerbach 
Catharine H. Austin 
jeonora Austin 
ver Axelson 



B 

)r. Charles Babcock 
lara Bache-Wing 
3arl G. Bachman 
)orinne Bacon 



Mrs. L. C. Bacon 
Caroline L. Babcock 
Otto J. Bader 
Robert C. Baer 
Joshua L. Bailey, Jr. 
J. M. Baker 
R. A. Baker 
Mary E. Bakewell 
Edith R. Baldwin 
Ruth S. Baldwin 
Amelia Muir Baldwin 
Mrs. F. F. Baldwin 
Prof. Fred G. Bale 
A. C. Ballard 
Wm. P. Bancroft 
Alexander Bannwart 
J. Barlach 
Samuel Barlow 
Mrs. Eunice Barnard 
E. P. Barnaby 
John M. Barnhart 
Mr. and Mrs. Mahlon 

Barnes 
Earl Barnes 
James D. Barnett 
C. D. Barnum 
Mrs. Wm. Barrett 
Jas. Barron 
A. Glen Barry 
James S. Barstow 
Richard Barthold 
Jessie Bartlett 
W. E. Barton 
Mrs. G. V. Baur 
Mrs. H. E. Bausch 
Dr. S. Bayne-Jones 
^rs. Anna W. Beardsley 
Helen D. Beaver 
Geo. Becker 
Mrs. Oaka G. Beeler 
K. Beer 
John J. Beggs 
Hal Bell 
J. C. Bell 

Mrs. Geo. W. Benedict 
M. Toscan Bennett 

19 



W. F. Bennett 
Irene Benton 
Anna Bercowitz 
O. W. Bergan 

A. A. Berle, Jr. 
Alfred L. Bernheim 
Miss E. H. Bessell 
F. Bestelmyer 
Alfred Bettman 
Mrs. Bevesson 
Edward H. Bierstadt 
Geo. W. Biddle 
Elizabeth Biddle 
Frederick Bigger 
Alexander M. Bing 
Mary C. Bird 
Chas. W. Birtwell 
Gen. W. H. Bixby 
Antoinette Bigelow 
Morris A. Black 

T. A. Black 
Inetta P. Blackburn 
Alice Stone Blackwell 
S. Blonder 
R. J. W. Bloom 
Mrs. Alexander Block 
S. John Block 
Carola Bloomfield 
Mrs. L. Bloomfield 
R. E. Blount 
Herman Blumgart 
Mrs. Herman Blumgart 
Mrs. E. Blumenthal 
R. H. Boeck 

B. Bodlander 
Jessie Bogen 
Mable Bogue 
Mrs. Sophie Bohn 
Bolmer, S. V. & P. A. 
David E. Booth 

F. L. Borland 
W. P. Borland 
J. Borry 

Prof. G. L. Burr 
Rev. H. C. Burr 
Prof. C. J. Bushwell 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Seeing Red : civil liberty and law since the armistice I 
Walter Nelles, 12 pages. 

New Gags on Free Speech : a one-page map showing ext( 
of "criminal syndicalism", "sedition" and "red fla 
laws. 

Civil Liberty : a statement of the Union's position on I 
present issues. 

The Police and the Radicals : a report on the attitude a 
methods of the police in handling radical meetings 
about 100 cities, 12 pages. 

The Supreme Court vs. Civil Liberty: opinions of Justij 
Brandeis and Holmes in cases affecting civil libei 
8 pages. 

Lynching and Debt Slavery, by William Pickens, 8 pages 

The Persecution of the L W. W., one-page leaflet summai 
ing the prosecutions to March, 1921. 

The Communist Prosecutions : one-page summary to Mai 
1921. 

Since the Buf ord Sailed : a summary of developments fi 
December, 1919 to June, 1920, 14 pages. 

Leaflets entitled "Real Americanism" and "Maintain T 
Rights'' ! 

Pamphlets and books now in course of preparation are: 

The Open Shop and Civil Liberty. 

Injunctions against Civil Rights. 

"Force and Violence" in High Places. 

The Mob Mind vs. Civil Rights. 

The Alabama Coal Miners and the Steel Trust. 

The Black Workers' Struggle for American Rights in i 
Virgin Islands. 

Mountaineers and Gunmen : the Coal War in West Virgil 

Conscientious Objectors in the Great War, by Norn 
Thomas. 

The History of Civil Liberty in the United States, by U 
Whipple. 

The Gag on Teachers, by Dr. Henry R. Linville and Thou 
A. Mufson. 

10 



The Fight for Free Speech 



5V. George F. Degen 

S. DeJong 
m. DeJong 
m. T. Demmler 
ary Ware Dennett 
>rothea DeSchweinitz 
ar^aret DeSilver 
Ibert DeSilver 
>uis G. Deubachs 
abette Deutsch 
. Deutsch 
dfrii r DeVol 
ev. Smith O. Dexter 
ranees M. Dickey 
arry L. Diehl 

H. Dierkes 
[rs. G. Dietrichson 
ralter F. Dietz 
.. M. Dobbs 
[rs. Geo. R. Dobler 
avina L. Dock 
'. P. Dodd 
'homas J. Dolan 
;has F. Dole 
)oniestic Electric Co. 
talph S. Doud 
lidney F. Downing 
). C. Drake 
luth Dredge 
)r. L. E. Dreher 
ielena S. Dudley 
barren S. Dudley- 
Iklrs. Francis Duffield 
fames A. Duncan 
rlobert Dunn 
Walter R. Dunn 
Frank W. Dusey 
J. H. D'Willes 



E 



Pat M. Earley 
Crystal Eastman 
Howard Eaton 
Sarah J. Eddy 
Franklin Edgerton 
Henry White Edgerton 
Charles E. Edgerton 
Mrs. Wm. Ehrich 
John T. Emlen 
Saml. Einwohner 
Dr. G. G. Eitel 
J. Gerhard Ekhoff 
Helen T. Elder 
Robert B. Eleazer 
John Lovejoy Elliott 
T. D. Eliot 
James B. Ellery 
Mrs. N. B. Ells 
Bertha Elston 
Horace B. English 



Harry Epstein 
Gertrude Erickson 
Mrs. M. G. Erickson 
Mrs. W. A. Erickson 

C. W. Ervin 
Henry Minor Esterly 
Oswaldo Eusepi 
Clara W. Evans 
Anna Cope Evans 
Albert G. Evans 

D. H. Evans 
Edmund C. Evans 
Mr. and Mrs. Edw. W. 

Evans 
Mrs. Eliz. G. Evans 
Mr. and Mrs. F. A. 

Evans 
Mrs. Harold Evans 
Harold Evans 
Rachel Cope Evans 
Paul F. Even 
Prof. M. S. Everett 
Will Everett 
James Everington 
J. G. Evert 



Edith G. Fabens 
H. P. Fairchild 
W. H. Fancher 
H. Everett Farnham 
Marion Fay 
Frances Feingold 
M. Felman 

Mrs. Catherine Fertig 
Besd;rice S. Fetz 
Sara Bard Field 
Miss A. M. Fitz 
Gertrude Filtzer 
M. Eleanor Fitzgerald 
A. R. Fincke 
N. T. Fisher 
Alex. Fleischer 
John Flour 
Melville A. Floyd 
Frank P. Foisie 
P. H. Forbee 
Gertrude Ford 
Alia W. Foster 
Mabel P. Foulk 
Theodore Foulk 
Walter D. Fox 
Edgar S. Fraley 
R. W. France 
Rothschild Francis 
Eva A. Frank 
Fred E. Frank 
Walter Frank 
Alice Franklin 
M. Franklin 



Everett Eraser 

Mrs. Chas. T. Frazier 

Ellen A. Freeman 

S. Edward Fretz 

A. Friedman 

Addie Davis Fries 

Sam Freed 

Helen Freeland 

F. D. Freeman 

Prof. Robert D. French 

Prof. Ernst Freund 

Isaac K. Friedman 

Edith Frisbie 

Arthur Frisch 

H. A. Fromke 

Julia W. Frothingham 

W. C. Fuhr 

H. A. Fuller 

Hugh M. Fullerton 

Prof. Kemper Fullerton 

Paul J. Furnas 

G 

^'heo. Gaasch 
Francis Gaegler 
Zona Gale 

Mrs. M. T. L. Gannett 
Andrew Garbutt 
Mrs. Mary E. Garbutt 
Robert H. Gardiner 
Gilson Gardner 
Mrs. D. Garfinkle 
Mrs. M. T. Garland 
C. S. Garman 
W. M. Garretson 
Flint Garrison 
Miss M. Garside 
Mrs. Kate C. Gartz 
E. B. Gaston 
Herbert E. Gaston 
Georgia Gates 
Mrs. Gebhardt 
Frank Geeks 
Herbert A. Grehning 
Abraham Gelerter 
O. E. Geppert 
Mrs. E. L. Gerard 
Dr. E. F. German 
Charles Gerrish 
Wm. C. Gerrish 
Geo. C. Gilbert 
Andrew Gilfillan 
Sophia Gillespie 
Alice Ives Gilman 
Elizabeth Gilman 
Mrs. Helen B. Gilman 
Robert Ginther 
Pauline L. Gitnick 
Adele S. Gleason 
A. Glover 
A. Roland Gminder 



21 



The Fight for Free Speech 



burg, St. Louis and New York. Talks on civil liberties by mem 
bers of the National Committee or the staff have been arranged 
through the Union before many audiences, particularly in the 
east and middle west. 

Bail Fund 

An attempt to create a National Bail Fund to provide bail for 
persons held in civil liberty cases has only recently been success- 
ful, after over a year's effort to get the minimum fixed for an 
operating basis, — $100,000. The fund is administered by a com- 
mittee of trustees independent of the Union, but working in close 
co-operation with it. The trustees are L. HoUingsworth Wood, 
Albert De Silver and Norman Thomas, with an Auditing Com- 
mittee supervising the work, consisting of Oswald Garrison Vil- 
lard, Charles J. Rhoads and Arthur Garfield Hays. Cash, lib- 
erty bonds or other marketable securities are accepted as loans 
to be used for bail. The risk of loss is minimized and would be 
shared by all participants alike; interest is paid; and no pub 
licity is attached to those participating. A total fund of $200,- 
000 is needed to meet immediate demands. 

m 

Amnesty 

The efforts to secure amnesty have been unceasing. The re- 
lease of the last of the conscientious objectors in November, 1920 
was probably due in part to our constant agitation, but more to 
the determination of the men themselves, and to the conspicuous 
hunger-strike of one of their number. 

Sedition Bills 

Efforts to fasten a peace-time sedition law on the country 
have been vigorously opposed by the Union and allied organiza 
tions, so far with success. We conducted a hard fight against 
the Sterling bill in Congress in 1920, and have kept after the 
situation continuously since. The Union has also participated in 
efforts to repeal, test or defeat various peace-time sedition laws 
in a number of states. 

How the Work is Directed 

The policies of the Civil Liberties Union are determined 
by vote of the National Committee, voting by mail. 

12 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Mrs. F. D. Jacobson 
Roy Jacobs 
Charles James 
Louise C. James 
Rev. Fleming James 
Mrs. Helen R. Janes 
Mrs. H. C. January 
W. E. Japhet 
Clarence Jasmagy 
Mrs. Cora Jeffers 
J. M. Jeffrey 
Charles H. Jenner 
G. K. Jensen 
How^ard E. Jensen 
C. F. Johns 
]Slisabeth Johnson 
F. E. Johnson 
Ernest T. Johnson 
Fred L. Johnson 
John Johnson 
Robert H. Johnson 
Mr. and Mrs. W. T. 

Johnson 
Wm. S. Johnson 
Mercer G. Johnston 
Joint Bd. of Control of 
the Almalg. Clothing 
Wkrs. of America 
Paul Jones 
H. H. Jones 
Mr. and Mrs. R. Jones 
. Prof. Ruf us Jones 
David Starr Jordan 
A. G. S. Josephson 
Amy R. Juenglind 

K 

H. H. Kaeufer 
H. M. Kallen 
Max K. Kallo 
Irving H. Kaplan 
E. Martha Kaschub 
Augusta Kastendieck 
George Kastner 
Anna Kaufman 
Dr. I. E. Kaufman 
Erwin Kaufman 
H. E. Keas 
George Keino 
Harriet Keith 
Helen Keller 
Ann H. Keller 
Mrs. Grace Keller 
H. M. Kelly 
Mary Kelsey 

E. W. Kemmerer 

F. L. Kennedy 
J. Kennedy 

Mrs. G. B. Kenyon 
Mrs. Wm. Kent 



E. Keppelman 
Mrs. John Kepke, Jr. 
J. M. Kerr 
J. L. Kesler 
Daniel Kiefer 
Louisa Kimball 
Alice Kimball 
Jean Kimber 
John L. King 
R. E. King 
Mrs. S. D. King 
Joe Kirby 

George R. Kirkpatrick 
Lillian Kisluik 
Miss A. D. Kittel 
Edwina L. Klee 
John J. Klein 
Ivan A. Klein 
H. G. Klein 
Mrs. W. F. Kleimpell 
Leila Kleinschmidt 
Mrs. L. Klemptner 
Solon T. Klotz 
Wm. Kluender 
Louisa Kneeland 
Mrs. Mary Knoblauch 
N. N. Kolaas . 
Julia C. Kolbe 
Dr. M. J. Konikow 
Paul Kosok 
• S. Kovler 
Arend M. Kraan 
L. 0. Krahl 
Marcell Krauss 
H. Krogman 
Charles Kroll 
Frank Kuntz 
Victor H. Kunz 
F. J. Kustenmacher 
0. J. Kvale 



Dr. Wm. Sargent Ladd 
F. W. Lake 
Dr. B. J. Lammers 
Caroline LaMonte 
Rev. L. G. Landenberger 

0. P. Landor 
Joseph L. Lane 
Allan Lincoln Langley 

1. Langsner 
Geo. W. Lanning 
Chas. W. LaRue 
M. Lapatin 
Fiorina Lasker 
Loula Lasker 
August Larson 
Ed. C. Lasater 
Julia C. Lathrop 
T. E. Latimer 
Jack Latourney 

23 



Florence L. Lattimore 
Alexander Law 
Agnes Brown Leach 
Mr. and Mrs. H. B. 

Leavens 
Rev. R. F. Leavens 
Lotta Leavensohn 
Edmund J. Lee 
Charles Leavitt 
Algernon Lee 
Joseph Lee 
Arthur S. Leeds 
C. F. Leet 
Rabbi J. A. Leibert 
Wm. Leihsing 
Katharine Leiper 
John J. Lenney 
Dr. Olga Lentz 
Geo. Leonard 
Michael H. Leonard 
Wm. EUery Leonard 
Louis Lerner 
Dr. E. LeSage 
Arthur LeSueur 

Olga Lesh 

Chas. H. Levermore 

M. B. Levick 

Morris Levy 
Alfred Baker Lewis 

Austin Lewis 

C. A. Lewis 

Rev. Edward A. Lewis 

Fay Lewis 

John E. Lewis 

Mrs. J. R. Lewis 

Alice Lewisohn 

Adolph Lewisohn 

0. G. Libby 

Walter W. Liggett 

Catherine C. Lillie 

Henry T. Lincoln 

W. H. Lindsey 

F. S. Lingenfelder 

Mrs. Margaret M. Link 

M. Albert Linton 

Joel Lishten 

S. Liss 

Mrs. L. D. Litzki 

Wm. Bross Lloyd 

Mrs. Virgil Loeb 

R. L. Loesch 

Gustavus Loevinger 

Sarah F. Long 

Walter C. Longstreth 

0. Lobergan 

Rev. L. B. Longacre 

Frank Lopez 

N. Loudenbach 

Owen Love joy 

W. H. Loves 

L. W. Lowry 

Frances Lucals 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Alfred Ludemann 
B. H. Lunde 
Theo. H. Lunde 
John Lundeen 
Florence H. Luscomb 
E. W. Lybrand 
Harold A. Lynch 

M 

Victoria McAlmon 
Mr. and Mrs. E. C. 

MacDowell 
Charles P. MacFall 
Frank Marrow 
E. A. McColly 
Daniel S. McCorkle 
Jas. A. McGulloch 
A. James McDonald 
Donald McDonald 
Duncan IScDonald 
J. H. McGill 
J. E. McGowan 
James McGrath 
Mrs. E. M. McJilton 
Jean MacKenzie 
Paul McKercher 
Mrs. L. E. MacKnight 
Dr. T. M. MacLachlan 
Judah L. Magnes 
Bertha H. Mailly 
Hugh McLean, Esq. 
Ellen McMurtrie 
Mary McMurtrie 

John F. McNamee 
Percy Mackaye 

A. MacLeed 

Alex Mackel 

A. MacLeod 

Kenneth D. Magruder 

H. Mahneke 

Fred R. Maier 

Hilja Maki 

Helen Mallery 

John Malone 

Dr. L. Mannheimer 

Henry K. Manko 

Basil Manly 

Annette Mann 

Roy E. Mann 

Selma March 

David Marcus 

Emile Mardfin 

Marcus Mardfin 

Victor H. Mardfin 

S. H. Markowitz 

A. G. Marks 

Dr. S. M. Markson 

K. S. Markstrum 

Anne Martin 



Rev. Harold Marshall 
James J. Marshall 
Mrs. Oscar Marx 
M. H. Marvin 
Theresa Mayer 
John W. Maskell 
M. Phillips Mason 
S. J. Mattox 
Mrs. J. T. Maule 
Edward Maurer 
Max May 
Walter A. May 
A. Kenyon Maynard 
Bennet Mead 
Chas. C. Merrell 
Lucia A. Mead 
James A. Meade 
Mrs. L. W. Meade 
Chas. Merz 
Darwin J. Meserole 
Paul H. Metcalf 
Henry V. Metzong 
J. F. Meyer 
John C. Meyers 
Jerome Michael 
F. W. Michener 
Geo. R. Miles 
John E. Milholland 
Alice Duer Miller 
Misses I. & M. J. Miller 
Foster Miller 
John A. Miller M.D. 
Payson Miller 
A. C. Millican 
Mary Raoul Millis 
John Mills 
Enos A. Mills 
Mrs. Lucille B. Milner 
Joseph Milner 
Clara M. F. Minot 
Geo. M. Mischke 
Louis A. Mischkind 
Mrs. J. C. Mitchell 
James C. Moffet 
Frederick A. Mohr 
Frank Monroe 
George H. Moles 
M. S. Moll 
Mrs. H. E. Montague 
Mrs. John F. Moors 
Martha W. Moore 
John D. Moore 
John B. Moore 
H. H. Moore 
W. H. Moore 
Sidney Morse 
A. T. Morgan . 
G. E. Morgan 
Rose R. Morgan 
Mrs. W. J. Morgan 
Wm. James Morgan 
J. P. Morris 

24 



M. C. Morris 
Jas. F. Morton, Jr. 
Leo Moser, Jr. 
Olga Moses 
I. Mosson 
Ben Mottelson 
Joseph R. Mountain 
Allen H. Mowry 
C. A. Mowry 
Alice Snell Moyer 
Chas A. Mullen 
Anna C. Murdock 
J. Prentice Murphy 
James Myers 
Stephen S. Myrick 

N 

Gertrude Nafe 
John P. Nafe 
Stephen Naft 
Mrs. T. M. Nagle 
J. M. Naron 
S. W. Narregang 
Prof. N. B. Nash 
Mrs. George Nasmyth 
Sue H. Nason 
Albert Nast 
Walter Nef 
Blanche Needles 
Oscar H. Neil 
L. F. Neilson 
Walter Nelles 
Ethel Nelson 
E. L. Nelson 
Walter M. Nelson 
John T. Newfeld 
Anna Gray Newell 
A. Nidess 
Max Norden 
Orlando O. Norris 
L. C. North 
R. L. Nottingham 
M. J. Newberger 
Mabel Newcomer 
Frances E. Newland 
Mrs. A. Newman 
Ray Newton 
Mrs. J. Cowdrey Norton 
W. W. Norton 

O 

John Oberly 
Martin O'Connor 
Spurgeon Odel 
Mrs. Daniel O'Day 
Allen S. Olmsted, 2nd 
Ruth B. Oppenheimer 
Theo E. Ordorff 
John Orth 
Harry W. Otis 
Mrs. G. Ott 



The Fight for Free Speech 



O 

a. C. otto 
Ed. Owen 
Wm. P. Owens 



H. E. Padway 
Joseph A. Padway 
Ernst Palm 
P. G. Panagopoulos 
Mrs. Ella T. Pancake 
S. G. Pandit 
Mrs. Alice Park 
Emily Park 
Thos. D. Parke 
Mrs. C. S. Parker 
Mrs. Ellen B. Parker 
Mrs. G. H. Parker 
Mabel G. Parker 
Miss M. C. Parker 
Jo. A. Parker 
Ruth L. Parker 
Mrs. E. Sutton Parks 
Mrs. I. W. Parks 
F. T. Park 
W. W. Passage 

E. Patterson 
Harriet W. Patterson 
Sara L. Patrick 
Walter M. Patton 
Kathryn Peck 

Celia Pehr 
D. H. Perkins 
James Perry 
Henry Peterson 
Kate O. Peterson 
Joseph Pestal 
James A. Peterson 

F. Peterson 

J. M. Pettinger 
Hubert Phillips 
J. A. Phillips 
Clarence E. Pickett 
David Pierce 
Wayne Pierce 
Henry W. Pinkham 
Edwin Place 
Chester C. Piatt 
David Podlasky 
Dr. H. B. Podlasky 
Edw. Polak 
H. Pollack 
Irvin C. Poley 
H. Polin 

Margaret Pollitzer 
E. R. Pommer 
Anna Porter 
Chas. H. Porter 
Mrs. J. Wood Porter 
Mr. and Mrs. F. Post 



James H. Post 
Rev. L. M. Powers 
Mrs. Louis Prang 
Mrs. H. Prange 
George D. Pratt 
Henry A. Preuss 
Matthew Preveden 
A. Prince * 
L. M. Price 
Edw. A. Purdy 
R. C. Purvis 
John P. Putnam 
W. Benj. Putnam 

Q 

Vera C. Quinn 

R 

J. H. Ralston 
Reinhardt Rahn 
N. S. Randall 
S. K. Ratcliffe 
Ben Ratlaf 
Phil Rau 
A. M. Rauber 
Clarina V. Rawson 
Mrs. Wm. M. Rawson 
Chas. D. Raymer 
Jas. M. Rea 
Harlan Eugene Read 
Edith Reed 
Hugh Reed 
Mrs. J. Regensburg 
Zerlina Reefer 
Herman Reel 
Wm. H. Reeves 
Mrs. W. Reilly 
Fred Reis, Jr. 
Clarence J. Reiter 
Franklin B. Reynolds 
Eustace Reynolds 
L. S. Rhoads 
Joseph Rhoads 
Stuart A. Rice 
George H. Richards 
James Hoge Ricks 
Alfred Rifkind 

F. F. Rimbach 
I. Itinzler 

A. Ritzi 

Rev. Richard Roberts 
S. Robineau 
Marcus W. Robbins 
Mrs. Amelia Robinson 
Clyde Robinson 

G. Robison 

Mrs. L. W. Robinson 
R. J. Robinson 
Louis Robison 



Anna Rochester 
Chas. C. Rodolf 
Gilbert E. Roe 
John R. Roebuck 
Prof. J. E. Roessler 
Mrs. Emily F. Rogers 
H. C. Rooberz 
E. Merrill Root 
C. T. Root 
Clarence B. Roote 
Jacob Rose 
Vernon J. Rose 
H. S. Ross 
Joseph T. Rosenberg 
Anton S. Rosing 
Sam Rossum 
T. Rottkay 
E. G. Routzahn 
Edw. G. Royer 
Dr. V. J. Rowe 
Michael Rudolph 
Samuel Rush 
Robbins Russel 
Mrs. A. P. Ryan 
Robert W. Ryan 



Henry Sabert 
Lewis, Sabloff 
Walter E. Sachs 
Louis Sachs 
Helen G. Sahler 
Lucy M. Salmon 
Esther Samit 
Mrs. S. E. Samuelson 
Edward F. Sanderson 
Mary R. Sanford 
Porter E. Sargent 
George A. Sawyer 
John Nevin Sayre 
Francis B. Sayre 
H. J. Scanlan 
Alfred G. Scattergood 
Mrs. Thos. Scattergood 
Wm. Schachner 
Joseph Schaffer 
Albert Scheible 
L. M. Scheuer 
Mariane Schneiders 
Dr. J. Walter Schirmer 
Aug. Schlemmer 
Robert W. Schmidt 
Esther Schneider 
Pauline Schneider 
A. P. Schoolman 
Mrs. H. M. Schoepp 
Alfred D. Schoch 
Mary & Max Schonberg 
Wm. E. Schoyer 
Geo. Schrader 
J. John Schulman 



25 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Emma H. Schumm 

Paul Schwarz 

Mrs. A. R. Schweppe 

Leila V. Scott 

C. R. Scott 

Julian P. Scott 

Dr. L. E. Scott 

C. H. Scovell 

Grace Scribner 

Bertha Scripture 

C. D. Scully 

Mary & Helen Seaibury 

Mrs. H. R. Seager 

Emil Seidel 

Herbert Seidenberg 

Eustace Seligman 

Alexander Selkin 

I. Seltzer 

H. A. Sessions 

Helen Ayres Shafor 

C. F. Shandrew 

Mrs. R. W. Shapleigh 

Joseph W. Sharts 

Lois Warren Shaw 

Mrs. Bertha E. Sheaf er 

M. H. Shearman 

Lou Gould Sheddan 

J. L. Shepard 

Dr. E. S. Shepherd 

Jacob Sherman 

Dr. M. Sherwood 

Art Shields 

John R. Shillady 

Edith M. Short 

J. W. Shorthill 

Ethel A. Shrigley 

Mrs. Clara Shrigley 

H. Shuer 

Mrs. Louis A. Shultz 

George L. Siegel 

Dr. L. H. Siemon 

W. H. Sikes 

Mrs. L. W. Simpson 

Margaret Shipman 

W. G. Simpson 

J. F. Sinclair 

Upton Sinclair 

S. Sindo 

E. 0. Sisson 

R. F. Skillings 

H. A. Slakin 

Marion C. Slonimsky 

Albert Small 

Eliz. S. Smedley 

Agnes Smedley 

J. Smentoski 

Miss N. M. Smith 

Anita M. Smith 

Carroll Smith 

Daniel Cranf ord Smith 



Leonard H. Smith 
Earl B. Smith 
Rev. E. W. Smith 
F. A. Smith 
Franklin E. Smith 
J. Allen Smith 
Marshall E. Smith 
Luther Ely Smith 
Mary P. Smith 
Maurice Smith 
Mrs. Mildred C. Smith 
Philip W. Smith 
J. Russell Smith 
Stella Warden Smith 
M. S. Smyre 
Wm. Smyth 
Morris Snitzman 
John G. E. Sohn 
H. J. SoUiday 
George C. Sonntag 
Albert Sortsberg 
Dr. R. B. Sosman 
Ruth E. Spaulding 
Mrs. W. W. Speakman 
James 0. Spearing 
Fanny Bixby Spencer 
William B. Spofford 
H. Soshinsky 
Jennie S. Stark 
L. J. Stark 
Stella B. Stearns 
Pauline Stein 
C. C. Stettbacker, 
Miss J. A. Stewart 
Bessie W. Stillman 
Helen Phelps Stokes 
S. A. Stockwell 
Wilbur M. Stone 
Ernest Stone 
Dr. Robert S. Stone 
H. Storm 
Donald G. Story 
Albert Streiff 
Mrs. C. L. Strobell 
Dr. Sydney Strong 

F. K. Stutch 

C. E. Sundberg 
John I. Sutcliffe 

G. Sutter 
Wm. Swanson 
W. I. Swanton 
Channing Sweet 
W. E. Sweet 
Henry B. Sweetland 
Prof. David F. Swenson 
I. A. Swisher 

Mary H. Swope 
Horace M. Swope 



Donald R. Taft 
26 



Tacoma Finnish Wkrs. 
Truxton Talbot 
Peter Talsma 
Frank Tannenbaum 
Albert E. Taussig 
Clara Taylor 
A. W. Taylor 
George Taylor 
Katharine Taylor 

C. A. Teagle 
Chester Jacob Teller 
Sidney A. Teller 

J. William Terry 
Jacob Teschner 
Mrs. A. S. Thayer 
Theo. F. Thieme 
Mrs. Alice Themen 
Elizabeth H. Thomas 
Ellen W. Thomas 
Evan W. Thomas 
Mrs. H. E. Thompson 
Bertha Thompson 
M. I. Thompson 
Dr. T. T. Thomsen 
A. H. Thorpe 
Joseph Tickell 
Edith Tieman 

D. G. Tierney 
O. B. Tingley 
F. S. Titsworth 
Edw. D. Tittmann 
Mrs. H. H. Tittmann 
A. M. Todd 

C. M. Todd 
Ida Toepfert 
Edw. C. Tolman 
Richard C. L. Tolman 
Rev. W. H. Tomlins 
Mrs. Helen R. Tondall 
A. T. Torge 
Ridgely Torrence 
Miss M. V. Townsend 
Mrs. G. G. Trask 
A. M. Troyer 
W. H. Tsognitz 
Marguerite Tucker 
Mrs. Fred H. Tucker 
Katherine Tucker 
F. H. Tuthill 

E. Louise Tuxbury 
Mrs. Hy. B. Twombly 
H. A, Tyvand 

U 

Elsa Ueland 
Adelaide Underbill 
Elizabeth Underwood 
J. H. Underwood 
V. R. G. Ushkuris 
Wm. S. U'Ren 
W. Lee Ustick 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Al. M. Van Auken 
Mrs. Sara H. VanDusen 
Mrs. Doris Van Du Zee 
Thos. Van Lear 
D. D. Vaughn 
John C. Vaughan 
Eraste Vidrine • 
Walter Vincent 
Morris Vogel 
Adrian W. VoUmer 
Helena Von Holland 
Franklin Vonnegut 

W 

Lillian D. Wald 
Willard Wattles 
Frank P. Walsh 
Kenneth E. Walser 
Henriette R. Walter 
Wm. W. Walters 
Elizabeth Walton 
J as. Walton 
James P. Warbasse 
Kate M. Ward . 
Mrs. Harry Ward 
Aldyth Ward 
Rena Ware 
Mr. and Mrs. H. M. 

Ware 
Clarence Warner 
Clifford P. Warren 
Pfescott Warren 
Wm. C. Warren 
Blanche Watson 
Agnes C. Watson 
W. M. Weatherly 
J. P. Weatherby 



Mrs. George Weber 

A. 0. Weekland 

W. J. Wehlau 

Ernest Weidhaas. 

Dora Weinberg 

Bernard Weinig 

Etelka Weiss 

Irving M. Weiss 

J. W. Welbome 

Rev. Howard M. Wells 

Franklin Wentworth 

Miriam E. West 

Thomas West 

Mrs. Bertha P. Weyl 

R. J. Whitaker 

J. A. Whitfield 

Ella Keats Whiting 

Mrs. H. A. Whitmarsh 

Charlotte Anita Whitney 

Margaret Whitney 

Elsie G. Whitney 

Alma Wiesner 

E. D. Wilcox 

Harry Emerson Wildes 

John Wilkie 

Jesse M. Williams 

Mrs. J. M. Williams 

Mrs. Laura C. Williams 

Viola R. Williams 

Beatrice Wimser 

Birch Wilson 

Geo. R. Wilson 

John A. Wilson 

W. T. Wilson 

Mrs. A. N. Winslow 

Ellen Winsor 

Mary Winsor 

Mrs. B. Winter 

Thos. E. Wise 

Anne Withington 



William A. Wittick 
W. P. Wohlheter 
Dr. Alex S. Wolf 
Chas. H. Wolf 
J. H. Wolf 
W. E. Wolf 
Leo Wolff 
E. Wolff 
Leo Wolman 
Juliana Wood 
C. E. S. Wood 
J. B. C. Woods 
Amy Woods 
W. J. Woodward 
Robert Wormser 
N. E. Wort 
A. P. Workman 
Victor Wort 
Julius Wortsman 
David Wortsman 
H. N. Wright 
J. M. Wulfing 



H. E. Yarnall, Jr. 
Dr. M. M. Yates 
Dora M. Young 
E. W; Young 
J. 0. B. Young 



E. H. Zaiser 
Cloyd E. Zeiders 
Wm. A. Zervas 
Gregory Zillborg 
Savel Zimand 
A. G. Zimmerman 
John Zimmerman 



27 



ST ATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS, YEAR ENDED 

JANUARY 31, 1921 



Balance Sheet, as at January 31, 1921 



Assets 

.Cash in Bank $799.51 

Petty Cash lOJ 



Total $809.5 



Liabilities 

Loans Payable $1,500.01 

Funds for Transmission: 

Upton Sinclair ; $27.15 

Virgin Island Printing Press 60.00 

Sacco-Vanzetti Defense 17.50 104 



i 



$1,604.6! 

Surplus and Deficits : . 

Deficit: Printing Fund $1,488-91 

Deficit: Amnesty Fund 21.27 

$1,510.18 

Surplus: Book Fund $132.52 

Surplus: L W. W. Publicity Fund 133.12 

Surplus: Operating Fund 44ft.47 715.11 

Net Deficit, all funds 795.01 



Total $809.51 



5 



Income Receipts and Disbursements Account 

Operating Fund 

Operating Fund Receipts: 

Contributions $18,495.7 

Du4ss 1,069.4 

Miscellaneous receipts 693.9 

Transfer from other funds: 

Anglo-American Conference Fund (1919) Surplus 

Transferred 4.6' 



Total Receipts $20,263.8 

28 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Disbursements : 

Salaries |12,117.00 

Additional office work 1,288.28 

Rent and care of office 1,378.70 

Office equipment^ supplies and repairs 340.74 

Office printing and stationery 1,004.68 

Telephone 322.23 

Telegrams . 352.60 

Postages and express 1,313.86 

Newspaper clippings, etc 179;19 

Miscellaneous 318.66 



$18,615.94 
Special appropriations 2,078.55 



$20,694.49 



Transfers to Other Funds: 

Legislative Campaign $478.41 

Advertising Campaign 4.00 

Centralia Defense Fund 36.92 

Bail Fund 10.00 529.33 



Total Disbursements . $21,223.82 



Excess of income disbursements over income receipts $960.02 

Surplus, February 1, 1920, represented by 

cash in bank (part of) $1,399.49 

Petty Cash 10^ 1,409.49 

Surplus, January SI, 1921, as per Balance Sheet $449.47 

Special Funds 



Book Fund: 



Receipts $ 500.00 

Deficit, February 1, 1920 f .48 

Disbursements 367.00 

Surplus, January 31, 1921 ^ 132.52 



$500.00 

Printing Fund : 

Receipts $1,680.97 

Deficit, January 31, 1921 1,488.91 

$3,169.88 



Deficit, February 1, 1920 500.68 

Disbursements 2,669.20 



$3,169.88 

Legislative Campaign Fund: 

Surplus, February 1, 1920 $ 92.41 

Transfer from Operating Fund 478.41 

$570.82 



Disbursements $ 570.82 

29 



The Fight for Free Speech 



Amnesty Campaigfn Fund: 

Surplus, February 1, 1920 $ 214.68 

Receipts 212.94 

Deficit, January 31, 1921 21.21 

$ 448.89 

Disbursements ..,.,.- $ 448.88 

I. W. W. Publicity Fund ; 

Receipts $1,040.73 

Disbursements $907.61 

Surplus, January 31, 1921 133.12 

$1,040.73 



The above is a full statement of accounts as of Jan. 31, 1921. 

Helen Phelps Stokes, 

Treasurer. 

Auditor's Certificate 

I have examined the accounts of the American Civil Liberties Union 
for the year ended January 31, 1921. I received all the information and 
explanations I demanded. The accounts were kept in the offices of the 
Union under the general supervision of the Treasurer. All monies re- 
ceived appear to have' been deposited to the credit of the Union. Any 
contributor may demand from me within a reasonable time after publica- 
tion of this general certificate, a certificate of verification as to the proper 
disposition of his contribution. My examination was sufficiently ex- 
haustive to satisfy myself that all disbursements made by the Union were 
for proper purposes. Salaries and expenses paid were reasonable and 
there was no evidence of extravagance. 

In my opinion the above statement of accounts for the year ended 
January 31, 1921, is drawn up to present a true and correct view of the 
cash transactions for the period under review and of the cash position 
of the Union, as at January 31, 1921. 

J. B. COLLINGS WOODS^ 

Chartered Accountant 

501 Fifth Avenue, 
March 22, 1921. 
New York City, 



30 



Officers 



larry F. Ward, New York, Chairman ; 
Ouncan McDonald, Illinois; and 
reannette Rankin, Montana, Vice- 

Chairmen ; 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, Treasurer. 



Albert De Silver and 

Roger N. Baldwin, Directors ; 

Walter Nelles, Counsel; 

Lucille B. Milner, Field Secretary. 



Jane .Addams 
Herbert S.. Bigelow 
Sophbnisba P. Breckin- 
ridge 
Robert M. Buck 
Joseph D. Cannon 
Parley P. Christensen 
John S. Codman 
Lincoln Colcord 
James H. DiUard 
James A. Duncan 
Crystal Eastman 
John LoTejoy Elliott 
Edmund C- Evans 
Edward W. Evans 
William M. Fincke 
John A. Fitch 
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn 
William Z. Foster 
Felix Frankfurter 
Ernst Freund 



National Committee 

Paul J. Furnas 
Andrew Furuseth 

A. B. Gilbert 
Norman Hapgood 
Arthur Garfield Hays 
Morris Hillquit 
John Haynes Holmes 
Frederic C. Howe 

B. W. Huebsch 
James Weldon Johnson 
Helen Keller 

Agones Brown Leach 
Arthur Le Sueur 
Henry R. Linville 
Robert Morss Lovett 
Allen McCurdy 
Mary McDowell 
Grenville S. MacFarland 
Oscar Maddous 
Judah L. Magnes 
W. J. M. A. Maloney 



Anne Martin 
James H. Maurer 
John D. Moore 

A. J. Muste 
Scott Nearing 
Julia S. O'Connor 
Wm. H. Pickens 
John Nevin Sayre 
Rose Schneiderman 
Vida D. Scudder 
Seymour Stedman 
Helen Phelps Stokes 
Norman M. Thomas 
Edw. D. Tittmann 
Wm. S. U'Ren 
Oswald Garrison Villard 

B. Charney Vladeck 
Bishop Chas. D. Williams 
L. Hollingsworth Wood 
George P. West 



AflSliated District 

Chicago -Civil Liberties League, Room 303, 166 West Washington St., Chicago, 
Illinois. 

Youngstown Workers Defense League, 1432 W. Federal Street, Youngstown, 
Ohio. 

New England Civil Liberties Committee, 44 Edgehill Road, Brookline, Mass. 

Workers' Defense Union, 7 East 15th Street, New York City. 

Philadelphia Civil Liberties Committee, 1301 Morris Building, Philadelphia. 

Workers' Defense Union of Baltimore, 435 South Broadway, Baltimore, Md. 



81 



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