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From the collection of the 

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San Francisco, California 




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*** V* •**» l * '»* * * ® c • * '»! 

v 4 * * *- • Offical* Publication of the National Film Music Council 

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■,/T i •*: •*.: ’:i! 26. East 83rd Street, New York City 

• *.* 5.*’* Butterfield 8-3288 






(with score excerpts) 

Harold Brown 


Scott Wilkinson 


Quaintance Eaton 


(with score excerpts) 

David Raksin 


Alfred E. Simon 


William Hamilton 


Marie Hamilton 


Tak Shindo 


Frank Lewin 




Editor, Film Music Notes 

United Nations 

Toronto, Canada 

Eastman Music School 



New York City 

Columbia University 


London, England 

Motion Picture Artist 

Univ. Calif. L. A. 

Ohio Dept, of Education 

Cornell College 

Portland, Oregon 

stanlie McConnell 

San Diego, Calif. 


Juilliard Music School 

Dartmouth College 

Published by the National Film Music Council, 26 East 83rd St. New York City, President, William Hamilton, Vice President and Editor, Marie L. 
Hamilton. Executive Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues yearly with occasional special bulletins. Two dollars a year. Back issues (30 copies) 
Tivc dollars plus postage. Single copies 35 cents. 


FILM MUSIC, publication of the NATIONAL FILM MUSIC COUNCIL, has moved its 
headquarters from Old Greenvdch, Conn, to 26 East 83rd Street, New York City, 
The change in address has delayed this is sub bf thS hAg'aZ'lttd fidWSldfel'aSiy, — 
for which we apologize. We are hoping during the coming months to gather 
material on the film as a teaching supplement, and we will welcome reports 
from teachers, schools, libraries and community groups on their activities 
in audio-visual education. The Council’s collected reviews of seventy 16mm 
films are available for twenty-five cents. Teachers tell us that they are 
using FILM MUSIC increasingly in the classroom and for lecture material. 

Files of the back numbers (30 issues) may be had for $5.00 plus postage, 

AN ELECTRONIC The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is developing an 
DISCOVERY electronic discovery which makes possible the broadcasting 

of television shows to Europe, The Voice of America is 
studying its potential usefulness. Test broadcasts have 
hundred miles from Iowa to Virginia, 

WNBC, WNBT Stations 7/NBC and WNBT have planned a mutual promotion cam- 
and the paign with the Organization of the Motion Picture Industry 

MOVIES of the city of New York. Fred J. Schwartz, head of the lat- 

ter association, states that this agreement should prove 
that radio, television and the movies can benefit each other by working to- 
gether, The plans include radio announcements of current pictures, programs 
on various aspects of the film industry, and the cooperation of the theatres 
in thirty theatre chains in the projects of the newly united groups. 

SUMMER TOURS The Institute for Intercontinental Studies, under the person- 
TO al direction of Dr. Eric Mann, organized- as every year- a tour 

EUROPEAN to the most important of these festivals. Dr. Sigmund Spaeth 

FESTIVALS accompanied the group as musical mentor. In Rome, the group 

attended two open-air opera performances in the Baths of 
Caracalla: Aida and Tosca, elaborated staged and with an outstanding cast - 

an unforgetable experience! During the famous Salzburg Festivals, a perform- 
ance of Mozart’s Figaro was considered by all tour members the finest opera 
performance they had ever seen. The impressive EVERYMAN, as well as a num- 
ber of serenades and church -concerts were also on the program. The Lucerne 
Music Festival, placed in the incomparable setting of this fascinating Swiss 
town, offers concerts of such uniformly high artistic standards as are achiev- 
ed by no other European festival. A Haydn serenade, played in the oren air 
against the background of the famed Lions Monument, left a deep impression. 

A symphony concert at the "Kunsthaus" with Robert Casadesus as soloist and 
Herbert von Karajan as conductor, was considered the musical high spot of the 
whole tour. The military Tattoo at the Edinburgh Festivals thrilled all the 
ten thousand who attended* many of them drawn by the world * 8 famous film 
showings. E. M. 

SALUTE TO Salute to Italian Films Week was observed in New York during 

ITALIAN FILMS the week of October 6th. Seven as yet unreleased Italian 
pictures were shown, one each day at morning and evening 
performances to invited audiences. Notable figures in the 
Italian motion picture world were present to add to the interest of the oc- 
casion. The films, a distinguished selection of current Italian production, 
will be released during the coming season. 



Harold Brown 

This is one of Steiner's best scores; in it he demonstrates that when 
given the opportunity, he has a large fund of musical knowledge upon 
which to draw, and can project various levels of dramatic intensity 
with a versatility comparable to opera composers of the past. Absent 
are the overdrawn sequences of lush sentimentality which have come to 
be associated with some film music - cloying music which tries to outdo 
the film rather than supplement it. Instead, Steiner keeps his music 
on a subdued level throughout much of the film, and, with a sure sense 
of dramatic movement, rises swiftly to a brief climax at the crucial 
point of a particular sequence. This is background music in its truest 
sense; coloring, highlighting, and intensifying what is on the screen, 
and not duplicating it. 

It is the small flurries of excitement which are more interesting to 
the reviewer, for these -are more difficult to Handle. Steiner has a way 
of getting behind the action on the screen with a well chosen burst of 
sound which calls no attention to itself, falls as quickly as it rises, 
yet effects an intensity where none otherwise would exist. The film it- 
self is powerless to produce much excitement in a scene where children 
play with a ram, yet the music makes it a small event. Thus, if the 
larger outlines of drama are accomplished by writer and director, the 
smaller undulations are almost entirely the work of the composer. 

Even in larger climaxes, much is left to the composer. These are mostly 
crowd scenes, and are not handled by the director with the realistic 
detail seen in some European films. The crowd is there, but only as a 
background; the only sound effect is a low murmur. It is left to the 
music to create any real excitement, and Steiner carries the day every 
time. It is interesting to note that only in these larger climaxes does 
he use the familiar Straussian idiom. When one listens to the music, 
it seems scarcely appropriate, yet when one forgets the music and looks 
at the soreen, there is no doubt of its effectiveness. Whether it would 
have been even more effective had he, in keeping with the rest of the 
score, employed a diatonic style, is another Question, which someday I 
should like to see answered. 

For Steiner's use of diatonic material is excellent and refreshing. 

There are fine passages of modal harmony, some with melodies of Gregorian 
nature; elsewhere there are themes of basically diatonic nature which 
slide rapidly through various keys, or diatonic melodies harmonized with 
triads not conventionally considered in the key. I happen to be partial 
to this kind of consonant yet modern writing, and believe it is partly 
responsible for the great economy and clarity of the score. It gives, 
for instance, a certain dignity to the scenes of the angel's appearance, 
where almost any other idiom would have produced something maudlin. 

Steiner has long been an exponent of the leitmotif idea; he gives it here 
a subtle twist. One is not aware of particular passages assigned to char- 
actors; one finds them instead assigned to particular recurring scenes - 
the girl in her bed, the children in the field, or the people in the town. 
We get the impression then of interlocking dramatic threads which are 
dropped and then resumed, and the varying emotional levels of music quick- 
en or slow the pace. After taking time for dialogue, for instance, the 
drama again continues to unfold with the ouickening movement of rolling 
harp chords as the girl lies asleep in her bed. 

There is one notable exception in the handling of the crowd scenes, when 
the people come to demand the children’s release from prison, the music 
ceases altogether. ■'•e hear only the rustle of the people, waiting in 
anxious, but belligerent, suspense. For this is not an ordinary crowd 
scene, but one of religious devotion. The mood is restless but static. 

And when the children are released and rejoin their families and friends, 
there is no burst of orchestral music. Instead, the people break into 
an ancient and austere hymn of praise as they march back to town. And 
there is no orchestral accompaniment. 

This is not only dramatically correct, but of some significance. Steiner 
has presented throughout the film various bits of fine religious music 
which in this country has been stubbornly considered to be over the heads 
of the people. There are two Gregorian hymns, a Bach chorale, an anthem 
by Arcadeltian Chant, and a smaller fragment of an Ave Faria by Josquin 
des Pres. Such music is not esoteric, but has been shunned by producers 
who fear the unfamiliar. Yet it has long since been discovered that, in 
the right time and place, the most dissonant kind of modern music is ea- 
sily assimilated. There is no reason why ancient church music is not 
equally palatable. Now that Steiner has taken the initial step, can we 
hope that more of this music will appear in future films? Incidentally, 
in giving us this music in its original setting - a eapella - Steiner 
reveals not only his musical integrity but his perspicacity; it is the 
most effective setting. 

There are two particular places where I disagreed with Steiner’s handling. 
Early in the picture, the first appearance of the angel is heralded by 
three claps of sudden thunder, coming unexpectedly out of a clear sky. 

Each is accompanied by a sustained forte chord in the low register, and 
with this, the music literally syeals the scene's thunder. The effect is 
ambiguity; is the crash we hear really thunder, or part of the music? 

And has the music dramatic significance, or is it merely adding to the 
noise? I have long felt that important sound effects should be left un- 
accompanied. Here, the first thunderclap slone is of quite enough sig- 
nificance to carry the scene. Any other sound simply dulls the effect. 

If the chord had been introduced at the second clap, we would have had 
two dramatic strokes of cumulative significance. As it is we have but 
one, containing conflicting elements, and merely repeating itself. 

Later, when the police inspectors first appear, their silent march through 
the square is followed by music of definitely fearful character. A more 
subtle effect might have been produced by music of quiet foreboding. 

To be sure, subtlety is not one of the picture's strong points, and the 
music is certainly not out of keeping; still, a grey rather than black 
orchestra might have helped alleviate the melodramatic naivete of the 
character portrayal. 

Finally, I wish that Gounod's "Ave Maria" had not been used as an impor- 
tant theme. It is expertly developed, and certainly associated in the 
minds of millions with religious feeling, which guarantees its effective- 
ness. Artistically, however, it is spurious religious music, certainly 
not on a level with the authentic sacred music in the film. 

But these are minor points in a score which not only contains many pas- 
sages of excellent music, but is in its entirety succinct and well in- 

THE MIRACLE OF OUR LADY FATIMA.. ’.Varner Brothers. Gilbert Roland, Angela 
Clark. Director, John Brahm. Music, Max Steiner. Orchestration, Murray 
Cutter. Warner Color. 



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Scott Wilkinson 

John Ford has made a happy use of the Irish countryside as setting for 
the story of a young American prize-fighter’s return to the little village 
where he was born and his turbulent wooing of a girl he finds there. With 
a fine cast that includes some of the Abbey Players and a full apprecia- 
tion of the natural beauties of the locale, the film has all the pictur- 
esque humor and visual beauty for which Ireland is famous. 

Victor Young’s score for THE QUIET MAN is for the most part extremely well 
dene. His handling of the orchestra and use of musical material gains 
the maximum of effect with the mimimum of means achieving a simplicity in 
the music and orchestra that fits the simplicity of the film. The Irish 
folk themes as well as the folk-like quality of Mr. Young’s melodic line 
are treated with sensitiveity. There is a particularly good use of group 
singing injected from time to time. However, the whole musical atmosphere 
suddenly changes at the introduction of a romantic note- where Mary Kate 
is seen herding her sheep, for example, end in the scene where she realizes 
her love for Sean. 

Here, Mr. Young takes on a lush, lush style that is the most commonly used 
writing for the situation and is quite inconsistent with his previous 
handling of the folkish type of story. Elsewhere, he employs a short 
fugatto, delightful in itself, but for this writer rather pointless. It 
starts sind then dies out, seemingly without any particular reason. It is 
too interesting a theme to be dealt with in so short a period of time. 
Save for these details, which are minor, the over-all effect is very 
pleasing - as is the film. 

SONGS: The Isle of Innisfree - Richard Farrelly 

Galway Bay - by Dr. Arthur Colahan and Michael Donovan 
published by Leeds Music Corp. 

The Humor is on me now -Richard Hayward 

published by Box and Cox 
The Young May Moon - Thomas Moore 
The Wild Colonial Boy - Traditional 
Mu6h Kush - Traditional 

THE CTJIET MAN .. Republic . John Wayne, Maureen O’Hara, Barry Fitzgerald. 
Director, John Ford. Music, Victor Young. Technicolor. 

Records available from Decca and RCA Victor. 



Quaintance Eaton 

In a burst of honest sentiment and somewhat chauvinistic enthusiasm British 
Film Productions and J. Arthur Rank enlisted practically the entire top 
layer of Albion's cinema stardom to make THE MAGIC BOX^.vhich tells the 
story of William Fries e-Greene, inventor and photographer. Willy, as he is 
known to his intimates, was one of the fore-runners in motion pictures, hav- 
ing invented what is said to be the first movie camera - or at least the 
one whose principles persist to this day. Historical accuracy which would 
demand a greater share of the credit for Edison and a couple of Frenchmen, 
is passed over lightly in the film, by the use of a series of tombstone- 
like placques in honor of these and other inventors thrown under the title 
credits. This obeisance to history accomplished, the film proceeds to the 
ups and downs of Willy’s life with two wives, alternate periods of afflu- 
ence and bankruptcy, and eventual obscurity. 

Filmed in T echnico!or,with every resource of the British industry behind it 
and with Robert Donat’s sure and sensitive acting, the picture will appeal 
for its human values if for nothing else. The other two starred performers 

are also very fine - Margaret Johnston as the second wife; Maria Schell as 

the first. And part of t foe enioyment will be trying to pick out the famous 

names attached to minor characters- there are 67 bit parts to be identified. 

We'll give you a couple of hints- the policeman who witnesses Willy's first 
success is Sir L-w-n-c O-i-v-r, and St-n-l-y H-ll-w-y plays an officious 
broker's bailiff. Leo Genn, Glynis Johns, Cecil Parker, Michael Redgrave, 

Peter Ustinov, and Emlyn Williams are others to look for. 

William Alwyn has given us another expert accompanying music score, so well 
tailored that its virtues hardly appear at first hearing. Listened to more 
closely, it is revealed as suave, agreeable, often derivative( its highly 
Tchaikovsky-ized texture makes it almost ballet-like in essence), and per- 
fectly suited to the moments of the script that it embellishes. A detailed 
analysis is hardly necessary or desirable, but Alwyn has used a plaintive 
three-note phrase as a basis for appropriate development and variation. He 
is a past master at leading a musical motive into a natural sound, for exam- 
ple, the startling crash following immediately on the words of Willy's second 
bride-to-be, "I wanted security'] which resolves into stunning fireworks at a 
carnival, and the hurried stringendo passage accompanying the expectant father’ 
rush for a doctor, leading to the neighing of a horse drawing a carriage in 
London traffic. 

One episode gives Alwyn a chance at some original music for its own sake. 

Willy and his first wife are members of the Bath Choral Society, which is pre- 
paring a gala program, to be conducted by Sir Arthur Sullivan(played by the 
experienced conductor. Muir Mathieson, who is responsible for the musical 
direction of the film). The title of the work they are rehearsing is never 
given, but it concerns an abandoned female. "Where has he gone, where has he 
gone?" the chorus asks over and over, as the buxom soloist(01ea Slobodskaya) 
valiantly bewails her lost lover in a high tessitura which almost but not 
quite baffles her. Willy is supposed to reply, in the only c v orus solo, "I 
know not; I know not! Do not ask of me!" But Willy has been detained at a 
meeting with fellow camera enthusiasts, and forgets the concert. His wife 
bravely pipes up with the solo bit, tc the astonishment of Sir Arthur, who 
not having rehearsed the group (unlikely , even in Bath in those days?), 
expects the solo to come from the baritone section. The entire sequence 
is delightful, both for Alwyn's clever music - exactly the type for ambi- 
tious provincial, amateur bodies - and for the human values. 

THE MAGIC BOX.. J. Arthur Rank: Mayer-Kingsley. Robert Donat, Maria chell. 
Director, John Boulting. Music, William Alwyn. Technicolor. 


David Raksin 

Some years ago, in the course of a lecture at the University of Southern 
California, I was trying to explain that empathy, or identification with 
the feelings of his characters, is an inner resource indispensable to a 
film composer. I suggested that talent for a career in film composing 
might be partially assessed through a "Hecuba Test". The reference was 
of course, to the soliloquy ("0, what a rogue and peasant slave am If") 
in Act II of "HAMLET", wherein the Prince, his own feelings in deep 
bondage, marvels at the passion with which the First Player invests the 
contrived emotionality of a playwright. Says Hamlet: 

"What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba, 

That he should weep for her?" 

Many are the Hecubas, from LAURA to AMBER, who have been accompanied by 
noises of my contriving. I have abetted their scheming with clarinets 
and attenuated their yearnings with cellos - molto vibrato. After severe- 
teen years of composing for films, I have learned that empathy is often 
better tempered with restraint. But there is one character who, more than 
any other, made restraint difficult. This is George Hurstwood, the tragic 
lover of Theodore Dreiser's SISTER CARRIE. 

In discussing Hurstwood with William vfyler, director of the film (now called 
CARRIE) I noted that where Dreiser had pitied the man destroyed by his need 
for love, Wyler had suffused him with the sympathy a man of today might feel 
for a brother condemned by the rigid morality of an earlier day. It is our 
compassion toward Carrie and Hurstwood that determines the nature and course 
of the music in this film. 

Thus, the musical material and its development are concerned with expressing 
the great longing of Hurstwood, as when he plods slowly upstairs, after his 
son's departure. Again, the music discovers the awakening of Carrie’s 
feelings as Hurstwood leaves, after their scene in the Drouet flat. In the 
sequence of their first embrace, in the carriage, the music is part of the 
physical passion, and later reaches out after Carrie as she walks quickly 
away from Hurstwood. 

The sound track of the scene in the park is a tour de force of re-record- 
ing for which laurels must go to Leon Becker, sound supervisor of the 
film, and the Paramount dubbing crew. That marvelous actor, Laurence 
Olivier, had pitched his voice in an almost guttural register to avoid 
sounding like the cultured Briton he is. Such delivery and expressive 
music ordinarily do not mix, to the great detriment of the music. But, 
thanks to the gifted Mr. Becker and his cohorts, the music was able to 
tell its part of this scene, including a moment of joy when Carrie con- 
fesses her love, and a touch of foreboding when Hurstwood cannot find the 
courage to tell her the truth about himself - that he is married. 

Inept dubbing, which afflicts so many pictures, is often responsible for 
the sad line one sometimes hears from his colleagues in discussions of 
their film music: "Let me play you the records one day - then you'd 
really hear the score". But more often it is post-scoring cuts, and 
their effect upon the continuity and overall sense of the music, that 
give composers that Kafka look. Such cuts, which are inevitable, and 
sometimes even necessary, are made on grounds other than musical. And 
if there is a composer who can equal the dexterity with which a minor 


executive mutilates the form-and- context relationship of music to 
story, I have never met him. Fortunately for CARRIE the hand that did 
the bidding of the master was that of an artist. In my absence, 

Mr. Steven Caillag, whose ability as a music cutter approaches genius, 
made the necessary elisions and extensions. It was he who saw to it 
that the music of Hurstwood's flight from his wife and employer to 
Carrie remained intact as to form and meaning. 

It was my hope that the music of CARRIE would bear the same relationship 
to the story that existed between the story and music of some of the 
wonderful silent movies for which my father conducted the orchestra at 
the old Metropolitan in Philadelphia. What a warmth there was between 
the screen and score in those days, when "heart-songs", Kinothek music, 
and sometimes excerpts of masterpieces followed hard upon one another! 
The Saturday matinees when I sat in the orchestra pit and responded 
like a seismograph to the heavings of the Gish sisters had made a deep 
impression on my young mind, and somehow I now felt that in CARRIE 
Willie ’fyler had made just such a fable as those I had loved. We agreed 
that the score should have this "chromo" flavor where feasible. 

So the music of Hurstwood’s flight does not endeavor to convey torment 
and urgency through dissonance. It is a kind of distraught aria accom- 
panied by swift, syncopated afterbeats; and the color, which is not a 
trick of orchestration but a function of the dramatic line, remains the 
same for many, many bars. 

Program notes and sermons upon music are always faintly ridiculous. I 
console myself that I am, in part, eulogising a departed friend, for 
cutting has in places reduced the music to the state of that Prism over 
whom Hecuba wept: 

"When she saw Pyrrhus make malicious sport 
In mincing with his sword her husband’s limbs". 

A year and a half ago I may have been one with Haeuba, shedding helpless 
tears over what Pyrrhus was doinp to my poor Friam. Since then, my em- 
pathy has receded, through the First Player, through Hamlet, to compar- 
ative objectivity. And now, seeing the film, and hearing the score 
(which I finished in February of 1951), in a projection room in June, 
1952, I was moved by it» I thought my father and his generation would 
also have liked it, and I was, after all, glad to have composed the 
music of CARRIE. 

CARRIE.. Paramount. Laurence Olivier, Jennifer Jones. Producer-Director, 
William Wyler. Music, David Raksin. 




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Copyright 1951 by Famous Music Corporation 



Alfred E. Simon 

Once again THE MERRY WIDOW is back with us - this time in a dazzling and 
handsome M.G.M. color job. The idea of casting Lana Turner in the title 
role caused consternation here and there, but the powers -that -be got a- 
round that nicely, by changing the plot enough to make her an American 
widow instead of a Parisian one. Very few people could be upset by this 
change in tradition, for the story was hardly a masterpiece in the first 

Although the 1952 -version is considerably less silly than the original (on 
which the 1925 and 1934 versions were closely based), it is certainly not 
strong enough to make you miss the many wonderful melodies that have been 
either glossed over or omitted entirely. The effervescent quality of Lehar's 

memorable score lends itself so wonderfully 
to spectacular ballets and other production 
numbers that it seems really unfortunate 
that M.G.M. didn’t take more advantage of 
it. But no one would be satisfied to sit 
through THE MERRY WIDOW and not hear at 
least its principal melodies, and they’ve 
seen fit to give us those. And to get us 
into a nostalgic Viennese mood, the pict- 
ure starts right off with "Auld Lang Syne", 
sung first in English and then Chinese; 
as a gentleman on my right murmured sarcas- 
tically "That's one of Lehar's best." The 
first of the MERRY WIDOW songs in the film 
is "Vilia". This time, however, "Villa" is 
not "the witch of the wood", but a sultry 
dancing gypsy girl, and the song is sung 
not by the widow, but by the dashing Count 
Danilo( reduced from his original rank of 
Prince), here most effectively acted and 
sung by Fernando Lamas. There has been some 
speculation as to whether the voice on the 
sound track is his own, or dubbed. My guess 
is that it's his own, since it matches his 
speaking voice in quality- this despite the 
fact that the synchronization is not always 
as successful as in other musicals. Lamas also does good work with "Maxim's " 
and "Girls, Girls, Girls", but undoubtedly his best number is the serenade 
"Night", known to MERRY WIDOW purists as the "Romance", as beautiful a melody 
as Lehar ever wrote. In duet with Miss Turner(or whoever sings for her) we 
hear the inevitable and ever-haunting waltz "I Love You So", sung and danced 
in the dimly-lighted quarters of our hero to a most seductive orchestral ac- 
companiment! Later, the waltz is lushly and sweepingly played for a grand 
ballet of the type that Hollywood knows how to stage so well. Then there’s 
a brilliant staging of the can-can number at Maxim's, and that’s all we’re 
granted in the way of set numbers . Paul Francis Webster has modernized the 
lyrics, incidentally, and they're a great improvement on the originals. 

The long, long stretches of dialogue between numbers are fortunately not too 
hard to take, thanks to a delightful and almost continuous background score 
based on various themes from the Lehar music, including songs that have not 
received full-fledged production. This background score, as well as the 
over-all musical direction, is by Jay Blackton, who has had vast experience 
in conducting opera, operetta, and musical comedy. His fine achievements 
in those fields are reflected in this production of THE MERRY WIDOW - only 
it's a pity his light touch was hidden behind a bushel of dialogue. 

THE MERRY WIDOW.. M. G. M. Lana Turner, Fernando Lamas. Director, Curtis 
Bernhardt. Music, F ranz Lehar. Orchestrations, Maurice De Packh. Musical 
Advisor, Irving Aarons on. Technicolor. 


William Hamilton 

Here is one vote for HIGH NOON as the most sophisticated and brilliantly 
executed western to date. Based upon the leanest of plots, it is a mel- 
odrama of almost unrelieved suspense into which is worked a sobering 
message. The story cam be told in a single, somewhat lumpy sentence 
thus: The retiring Marshal at Hadleyville, after learning of the immi- 

nent return to town on the noon train of vengeanoe-bound bad -man. Prank 
Miller, and after trying fruitlessly to recruit a posse, is obliged 
finally to receive Miller and company unassisted. In watching this, 
we are confronted by the uneasy matter of the individual's responsibil- 
ity to support law and order, rather than count entirely on the efforts 
of a Strong-Man, 

As might be expected, such an argumentative script, developed largely 
in terms of character and atmosphere must have a more than commonly 
high ratio of talk-to-action. And so it is with HIGH NOON. Neverthe- 
less, good old-fashioned dramatic tension is so skilfully maintained 
that, far from seeming long-winded, the picture gives an impression of 
unusual brevity. Its running time is eighty-five minutes (just about 
average), and it recounts just about eighty- five minutes worth of story. 

The camera throughout has a predilection for clocks to help increase 
our anxiety at the dread approach of twelve. Also, the device of dis- 
solving from one clock to another to follow the action about the town 
is an effective, if not completely original scene-shifter. 

For all these virtues, it still seems to me that much of the film's suc- 
cess must be credited to Mr. Tiomkin's music score. For the most part, 
the music is derived from a not very idiomatic song (by Mr.T.) which is 

given in full at the beginning sung in fine, mournful, authentic 

style by Tex Ritter. Thus stated, the ballad functions as a theme, un- 
ifying the score which ranges freely back and forth between the general 
and the particular. 

In the latter aspect, the sensitiveness and precision with which both 
speech and movement are accompanied recall the best in operatic pract- 
ice. Witness the scene where the judge quotes to the marshal the might- 
y oath of revenge sworn by Miller years ago. Clearly, his words become 
a text set to the great, towering strokes of the orchestra. Again, in 
the shoot-it-out sequence near the end, the tactics of battle are pract- 
ically spelled out in the notes. The tempo hastens and slackens to match 
the movements of the antagonists so that the eye and ear receive truly con- 
certed stimuli. What might have been a fairly routine spats of gunplay is 
thereby enhanced sufficiently to top all that went before and provide a 
properly forceful climax. 

As for mood music(the 'general'), the composer has tended to employ sim- 
pler and more literal allusions to the theme in a variety of arrangements 
—vocal and instrumental. Mr. Ritter is heard from time to time, repeat- 
ing fragments of it with guitar and thumping, and there are passages fea- 
turing harmonica and accordian. Never have I heard either of these two 
instruments so attractively used in orchestral ensemble. 

Still under the 'general' heading, there are a couple of subsidiary themes 
relating to the two chief female characters on the scene. The more distinc- 
tive of these is a modal, Hispanic melody associated with the queenly Helen 
Ramirez, and some of the score's most deft changes of pace occur between 
this and iterations of the ballad theme. The heroine music on the other 
hand, is not up to the mark, being just another version of that old andante 
favori, "The World's Most Beautiful Girl in Distress". However, I do not 
insist that the heroine, Amy, and her controversy with her bridegroom, the 
marshal should have been any more powerfully expressed in music. This would 
have been in full accord with the argument set forth by the ballad: 


"Now do not leave me, oh, my darling ..." through. ,, "till I shoot Frank 
Killer dead". However, since the story turns mostly on other matters, I 
can appreciate the wisdom of allowing Will»s and Amy's problem to become 
part of the wallpaper, rather than risk an acute attack of misplaced em- 

I also liked the rousing reading of the Battle Hymn of the Republic in the 
church scene, though I wonder if such a church at such a time and place 
would be likely to have so fine a choir. And finally, I»m grateful for the 
harmonium behind Will’s and Amy’s wedding. C uch functions in the movies 
too often subject us to the Hammond Organ. 

HIGH NOON.. United Artists. Gary Coo.per, Thomas ^itchell. Director, Fred 
ZSnnemann. Music, Dimitri Tiomkin. Records available. 


PEOFLE’S LAND.. Lovely shots of the English countryside - a 14th Century 
castle, old estates, hills and rivers, parts of the Lake District, which 
have been turned over to the National Trust to be kept as public parks for- 
ever. Vaughan Williams has made a charming score of English folk tunes. 

( British Information Services, 30 Rockefeller Flaza, New York. 10 min. Tech.) 

THE TITAN.. A 16mm version of Curt Oertel’s Justly famous film, dealing with 
the work and period of Michelangelo in a dramatization of his masterpieces 
and the places in which his life was spent. Frederic March is narrator, and 
Robert Flaherty is credited with presentation. The score by Alois Melichar 
was reviewed in FID’ VTJS I C, January 19 50. (Con temp or ary Films, Inc. 13 East S'/th 
New York. 67 minutes jb and w.) 

FOLK SONG FANTASY. .Emma C as lor sings three 
English folk songs -"The Riddle Song", "Who 
Killed Cock Robin" and "The Cooper of Fife". 
Puppets and their birds act out the stories 
of the presents which a country lad gives 
his lass, the trial of Cock Robin and the 
cooper’s reformation of his vain wife. 

(Color 10 min.) 

SING A LITTLE.. At a CBC microphone Allan 
Mills sings three ballads to the accompani- 
ment of his guitar, "The Farmer's Cursed 
Wife" . rejected even by the devil, "Barbara 
Allen" and her sad love, and "Jack the 
Sailor" are enacted by puppets in a nicely 
balanced film. (Both films from the Nat. Film 
Board of Canada, 1270 6th Ave,N.Y. 9 minutes J 

MUSCLE BEACH.. Few short subjects are as THE TITAN -- DAVID 

much fun as MUSCLE BEACH. It displays dozens 

of beautiful bodies of various ages and sexes all tumbling strenuously 
and skilfully on a beach in California. Visually alone it would be a 
highly evocative and pleasing set of images. Backed up, as it is, by 
the wry, comfortable, improvisatory musing of Earl Robinson and his gui- 
tar, the thing is close to irrisistible. The figures hurtle through the 
air, and Mr. Robinson (lying flat on his back,I’m sure) strums, whistles, 
talks and sings. A real pleasure. W. H. 

( Brand or Films Inc. 200 West 57th St, New York. 9 minutes, b and w. ) 

Tak Shindo 

RASHOMON, the Japanese film which won recognition by the Hollywood Academy 
Award committee and the 1951 Venice Film Festival presents an example of a 
gradually growing attempt by Japanese musicians to adopt or adapt Western music 
to Japanese films. For a number of reasons, of which the American occupation 
may be considered an important one, Japanese musicians more and more have be- 
come conscious of western melodies, rhythm, instrumentation and scoring tech- 
niques. Rather easily detected is the presence of occidental influence in the 
score of RASHOl'ON. The music sequence where the woodcutter is pacing hurried- 
ly through the forest is not an original but an altered passage, based on 
Maurice Ravel*s "Bolero". Other themes in the background score are written with 
the flavor of western melodies, though they were original compositions by 
Japanese composers. 

An outstanding example of borrowing a strictly American rhythm is the Japanese 
use of boogie-woogie, with Japanese lyrics and an occasional word or two in 
English. Though not used in RASHOMON, boogie-woogie is a current fad in the 
Japanese equivalent of "Tin-pan Alley". Typical numbers, both of which have 
been used in Japanese musicals, are "Tokyo Boogie" and "Samisen Boogie". The 
melodies are basically oriental, pentatonic in character, but the rhythm is 
borrowed directly from the American boogie-woogie, minus the profound feeling, 
which is distinctively original. 

The instrumentation is usually occidental in modern films; however occasional 
strain of pentatonic melody by authentic oriental instruments are used to char- 
acterize a sequence. The most often used oriental instruments are the koto(harp), 
shakuhachi(bamboo flute) and the samisen( three string guitar). The kotos are con- 
structed from the wood of the Paulowania 
tree and are built to approximately six 
feet in length and nine inches in width. 

This instrument has thirteen silk strings 
of even thickness strung lengthwise across 
a "quonset" shaped board. The pitch is ad- 
justed by sliding the ivory tipped bridges 
along the strings. The strings are plucked 
by the right thumb, index and middle finger, 
each having a thimble-like pick. There are 
twelve standardized modal pentatonic scale 
of which the Hirachoshi and the Kumoichoshi 
are most often used. In recent years new 
scales have sprung up to correspond with 
the occidental scales. This has come about 
because of the increasing demand of com- 
Koto and Shakuhachi bining the two fields of music. 

The traditional shakuhachi (bamboo flute) is a five hole solo instrument held like 
a clarinet.. The hole on the bottom side is for the left thumb, two holes apiece 
for the index and ring fingers of each hand for the remaining four holes on the 
opposide side. The shakuhachi has a comfortable chromatic range of two octaves 
beginning D above middle C. The instrument has been altered to seven holes in 
order to make chromatic scale easily playable. The shakuhachi comes in various 
lengths but the twenty inch flute is now been considered as the standard size. 
This instrument has a distinctive sound of its own. 

The samisen is a cat-skin covered box with three silk strings, and an ivory 
bridge. The Arabic numbers are found in samisen music, primarily due to the 
western culture in Japan at the time the notation was developed. Banjo and 
samisen sounds are somewhat similar. 

Tak Shindo is a faculty member of the Southern California School of Music 
and Arts and a member of the American Operatic Laboratory, Inc. He serves 
as technical advisor in Hollywood on Oriental films. 


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Due to mechanical difficulties the article on PICTURA in the last issue appeared in an incomplete 
version. It is herewith reprinted in full. 

Frank Levin 

Six films about six different painters are lumped together under the heading PICTURA. They form no 
discernible organic entity either in subject matter, narration or music; on the contrary, they offer a study 
in contrasts. In them, as in a laboratory, may be observed different attempts to cope with the problem 
posed by combining picture, voice and music. This problem is capable of a comparatively satisfactory solu- 
tion in a film employing live sound: speech and music, as well as effects, can be readily integrated with the 
action on the screen. A film about art, however, is composed of three distinct elements: the paintings under 
scrutiny, the narration and the music, all of which must somehow be fused into a whole. 

The subject matter of art films lends itself ideally to an imaginative use of these three elements. What 
seems of specific interest is the solution to the problem of combining voice and music — what happens to mu- 
sic that is interesting in its own right when placedbehind narration? Vice versa, how does "background" mu- 
sic sound when given more than usual prominence in widely spaced narration? What about musical style vis-a-vis 
the subject discussed in the film? Which musical medium is most effective: full orchestra, chamber ensembles, 
solo instruments? Must the score be continuous throughout the duration of the film -- what about silence, what 
about the introduction of realistic sound effects? 

Not all these questions are answered throughout the six films. A good many of them, however, seem very 
pressing after looking at PICTORA. 

I. THE LOST PARADISE - Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516). Narrated by Vincent Price. Music by Roman Vlad . 

A hurdy-gurdy-like section of music for full orchestra accompanies effectively a view of a large section 
of the canvass. When the camera moves in on details, the music grows delicate and illustrates the fantastic 
figures through eerie effects. As long as this music forms a background to the voice the overall impression is 
satisfactory, but when it comes to the fore after a while its lack of substance becomes somewhat pointless. 

Technically all is not as it should be with this section of PICTURA. The track sounds blurred and dis- 
torted, and there are some rather poor cuts in the music. Furthermore, voice and music are not carefully coor- 
dinated. One of the banes of combining narration with music is the artificial, or dial Induced, decrescendo of 
a chord or passage in full bloom. If this process is carried out without regard to fading at logical places 
in the music the effect can be crude in the extreme. As an example, when the angel drives Adsun and Eve out 
of Eden, the full orchestra adequately underlines the scene. Unfortunately, however, it has Just been faded 
down to let the narrator duplicate the point. The Instances could be multiplied. 

II. THE LEGEND OF ST. URSULA - Vittore Carpaccio (l460-1526). Narrated by Gregory Peck. Music by Roman 

Vlad . 

The score employs, as far as could be Judged by listening, as large an orchestra as the film on Hieronymus 
Bosch; it is cursed with an equally bad track, technically. 

As the story unfolds, the music follows it well. In its quieter moments it possesses appeal and charac- 
ter in its own right; when it gets climactic, however, it does not quite bear out the promise of the less ani- 
mated parts and takes advantage of some pretty routine sequences to whip up excitement. The description of 
Ursula and her suitor meeting and their immediate love is accompanied by a solo violin, alas. As in the Bosch 
picture, there seems to have been little, if any, attempt made to plan the placing of the narration entrances 
so as to come at logical places in the music. It may be that no attempt at all was made to correlate the two 
elements before they were mixed. It is discouraging enough to be forced to dispense with such correlation in 
those industrial and documentary films in which the voice must deliver a certain quota of information and the 
music tries to make up for the unnatural silence of the scenes shown. In a film dealing with art, however, 
such lack of sensitivity can hardly be placed under the heading of necessity. 

III. Francisco Goya (1746-1828). Narration by Harry Marble. Andres Segovia plays music by Isaac 
Albeniz on the guitar . 

I have been trying to analyze why this section of the six satisfied me most as a musical corollary to the 
picture. On the one hand the music consists of numbers by Albeniz which, naturally, have been composed inde- 
pendent of this or any other film. Then also here is one solo instrument which cannot hope to match the prac- 
tically unlimited possibilities of orchestral combinations. Yet it seems to me the plus factors in this in- 
stance outweigh the advantages offered by a more traditional approach. 

For one thing, the color of the guitar serves it equally well to stand alone or provide a background to 
the speaking voice. Another point worth considering is that as the music obviously could not be scored to the 
picture, the picture was cut to fit the music. Even though some of the cutting effects do not quite come o.f 
and others are effective on a rather naive level, somehow the music fits. On top of that, an attempt has ob- 
viously been node to correlate voice and music as to placing of narration. Also, the music has contour, pro 
portion and a direction of its own and again this satisfies somehow. Maybe the main factor in all this is 
Andres Segovia. To the individual expression of the painter has been added the playing of an individual artist, 


with all the advantages of flexibility (compared to the relatively impersonal quality of an orchestra) this 
implies. Finally, the intimacy engendered of necessity by the close scrutiny of the camera as it goes over 
the details of a painting seems to call for small effects in the music which suggest more than they illus- 
trate. In the whole course of PICTURA nothing came close to moving me as much as the few plucked notes that 
underline Goya's portrayal of war's aftermath (the narration is considerately absent at this point). 

To sum up, this section of PICTURA satisfied me musically, and I can't help feeling that some of this 
satisfaction must contribute to the overall effect of combining picture, voice and music. 

IV. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (186U-1901). Narrated by Lilli Palmer. Music by Guy Bernard . 

Guy Bernard's score, for full orchestra, does not show to full advantage on the poor track for this film. 
The music must be quite colorful when heard undistorted and could most likely have taken some of the curse 
off a presentation of Toulouse-Lautrec in black-and-white . (All of PICTURA is in black-and-white, incidental- 
ly. ) It is best not to speak here in detail about such technical points as variations in level of the commen- 
tary or the synchronization of picture with music, as they appear in this film. 

The style of the music fluctuates throughout — sometimes imitating or caricaturing the sentimentality of 
the period, at others furnishing music suggested visually by the scenes (can-cans, melodrama, circus): some 
sections where the music is not evocative employ a rather neutral modal style. Throughout there is little unity 
of style, or, if a kaleidoscopic effect was Intended, no separation of illustrative from. .. .well, background mu- 
sic. A comparison with another film dealing with art of approximately the same period, but totally different in 
character (THE CHARM OF LIFE) comes to mind, where the musical problem has been solved cleverly and effectively. 
It must also be remembered that given favorable circumstances all around, Guy Bernard's treatment of the music 
for a film can be very effective, as witness his excellent score for MEDIEVAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

At one point, a scratchy recording of Sarah Bernard's voice is thrust into the continuous flow of music and 
words -- a doubtful stratagem in a track that has no technical distinction of its own to provide a valid con- 

V. Paul Gauguin (1848-1903). Narrated by Martin Gable. Music by Darius Milhaud . 

It Is futile, of course, to recur constantly to the lack of color in these films, but in the case of the 
section devoted to Gauguin this lack invaded the music as well. The bleakness and grayness of wood winds in 
constant imitations is apropos to the opening of the picture, describing Gaugin' s early years. But when the 
scene changes to the South Seas, Milhaud surely could have shifted into high. Instead the same unvarying sham 
polyphony, in total disregard of the screen and frequently in active combat with the narration, Just goes on 
and on. Contributing to this effect of monotony are the insistent, unflexing rhythms which are kept up for 
comparatively long stretches. Constant rhythms, unless used for special effects, can be quite wearying in film 

The quality of the track in this section is good. 

VI. Grant Wood (l892-19*»2) . Narrated by Henry Fonda. Music by Lan Adomlan, Musical Direction Jack 
Shalndlin . 

This last section of PICTTJRA is the most satisfying all around, In many respects. In some scenes, such 
as for example the painting of the farmer's household around the dinner table, the music consists of a clean 
folk tune treatment that is bouncy and refreshing. Music and subject matter go well together — the harmonic 
idiom follows the style that has become associated with stylized American folk music in recent years. 

The strength and clarity of the paintings are not always reflected in the score. Some of the music, es- 
pecially several of the trumpet and wood wind solos of which there are many. Just doesn't say very much. This 
is especially noticeable when the music stands by itself as It does in the calendar sequence. In the Mid- 
night Ride of Pain Revere I had the uncomfortable feeling at one point that picture cuts, Longfellow's poem 
being recited by the narrator, and the music each went their own way, without regard to the rhythm of one an- 

The main title music, preceding the entire production, has also been written by Mr. Adomlan. It is 
strong and interesting and creates expectations about PICTURA which, apart from the Goya and Grant Wood sec- 
tions, are hardly realized. 

PICTURA, ADVENTURE IN ART. Picture Films Corp. Narrators: Vincent Price, Gregory Peck, Harry 

Marble, Lilli Palmer, Martin Gable, Henry Fonda. Music by Roman Vlad, Isaac Albenlz, Guy Bernard, 

Darius Milhaud, and Lan Adomlan. Special musical arrangements: Jack Shalndlin. 









Offical Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 
Butterfield 8-3288 




Score excerpts 


Score, excerpts Ivanhoe and Plymouth Adventure. 



Herschel Burke Gilbert 
Miklos Rozsa 
Mary Powell 

Lt. Col. William F. Santelmann, USMC 

Mary Powell 
D. D. Livingston 
Charles Anthony Biondo 


Herschel Burke Gilbert, composer, president of ASMA 
Dr. Miklos Rozsa, composer 

Lt. Col. W. F. Santelmann, leader, U. S. Marine Band 

Mary Powell, writer, film critic 

D. D. Livingston, Dance film authority 

Dr. Charles A. Biondo, M. E., Notre Dame University 



Editor, Film Music Notes 

United Nations 

Toronto, Canada 

Eastman Music School 



New York City 

Columbia University 


London, England 

Motion Picture Artist 

Univ. Calif. L. A. 

Ohio Dept, of Education 

Cornell College 

Portland, Oregon 

stanlie McConnell 

San Diego, Calif. 


Juilliard Music School 

Dartmouth College 

Published by the National Film Music Council, 26 Hast 83rd St. New York City, President, William Hamilton, Vice President and Editor, Marie L 
Hamilton. Executive Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues yearly with occasional special bulletins. Two dollars a year. Back issues (28) copie' 
Five dollars plus postage. Single copies 35 cents. 


Like everything else, the cost of getting out FILL' MUSIC has gone up and we 
are forced to raise our subscription price. Beginning with our January- 
Februarji, 1953 issue the price of subscriptions will be $2.50 a year. Pres- 
ent subscriptions vri.ll be carried at the current rate until their expiration. 

In coming issues we hope to give more coverage on more pictures, both 16mm 
and 35mm, and a series of articles for teachers by teaohers with practical 
and stimulating suggestions on the use of Audio-Visual aids. Yfe welcome 
reports of experiences in this field from our readers. 

FILM MUSIC College students take a new interest in courses in which cvur- 

COURSES rent films and their musical scores are used as illustrations, 

or so it seems at San Francisco State College, where new units 
were introduced in the fall by Dr. Sterling "Wheelwright, direc- 
tor of the music appreciation and music history courses. The subtle influence 
of film music was developed in a new course, "Music in American Living", which 
attracted 45 students to enroll. One student is a professional movie project- 
ionist and horn player, and with several others brought many fine illustrations 
from private collections of recorded film music. Keen awareness of the psychol- 
ogical tensions portrayed in the music for STREET CAR MAMED DESIRE, and the 
casual prettiness of most sentimental scores, for instance, was evident on the 
part of all students. The many points at which daily living is touched by mu- 
sic are being explored by student committees. Through the courtesy of Dr.Miklos 
Rozsa, and use of FILM MUSIC issue for November, 19 51, the course in Music Histo- 
ry before 1600, was considerably enlightened by studying score and historical 
research for the film, QUO VADI3. Students would welcome analysis of current 
scores in terms of the melodic and harmonic devices, instrumentation and struct- 
ural patterns as they are employed for emotional response. D .3 

ASCAP The American Society of Composers and Publishers is cooperating 

with A. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, administered 
by Carnegie Institute, and the Pennsylvania College for TTomen, 
in recording the First Pittsburgh International Contemporary 
Music Festival for permanent study by music students and teachers, Otto A.IIarbach, 
President of A6 CAT . and Dr. Roy Harris, Executive Director of the Festival have 
announced. A3CAP will underwrite the cost of pressing 500 non- commercial record 
libraries of the entire Festival, to he distributed to university music depart- 
ments, music schools, and — through the State Department — to musical institu- 
tions in friendly nations.. The albums, will not be available through commercial 
channels, but will be reserved strictly for gifts to cultural institutions. 

DISNEY Disney will enter the 16mm field in 1953, making films 

IS mm for non- theatrical risers - churches, schools, clubs and the 

like. The films will be both live action and cartoons. A 
new series, F~CPLH and PLACES will be filmed throughout the 
worl d . Among the pictures ready for first distribution are THE ALASKAN ESKIMO, 
of cartoons. 

FILM C DISPOSERS Lawrence Morton has written a foreword for a much needed 
IN AIERICA reference bock, "Film Composers in America", compiled and 

edited by Clifford McCarty, 160 composers are listed alpha- 
betically, followed by complete checklists of their scores, 
which appear in chronological order. All available credits are given for 
more than 5200 films. There is information on studios, musical directors, 
arrangers, adaptors and orchest^ators. This highly useful book, the only one 
that tells " who wrote what score when »’ as its publisher says, is being 
printed in a limited edition. It may be had for o3.75 from John Valentine, 

415 East Broadway, Plendale 5, California. 



Herschel Burke Gilbert 

An important difference in approaching the scoring of THE THIEF from that 
of a film which contained dialogue, was that all of the music in the film 
would he audible and thus could truly speak for itself without submergence 
under dialogue as is usually the case in most films in which even short 
pieces of music "in the clear" are a rarity. Consequently, I felt this 
dramatic story which is told completely visually without dialogue and with 
only the normal, everyday sound effects, must be complemented with music 
which is broad in scope and which contains as much musical form as I could 
devise, and yet tell the story which is seen on the screen along with the 
story which is not seen but which should be heard in the music. 

Producer Clarence Greene and Director Pussell House completely agreed with 
me that the music must in no way attempt to mimic the characters or imitate 
sounds or sound effects. Recorded sound effects were to be used for the real 
everyday sounds we hear around us such as footsteps, trafic noise, clothes 
rustles, door closes, phone rings, etc. Also we agreed not to use any musical 
gimmicks, electrical instruments or popular music score, for I was convinced 
that only a kind of symphonic sound would be in character with the dignity 
of the story and the seriotisness of the subject matter. Russell Rouse aptly 
put it that the most important counterpoint to the screen must be the music 
interpreting the story subjectively rather than objectively. 

Before discussing the music in detail, I should like to say something about 
the philosophy behind the creation of this film. Neither Hr. Greene nor 
It. Rouse had any intention of beginning a series of talkless pictures. 

Rather they wanted to create a drama using the art form of motion pictures 
in its exact sense: a story to be told entirely by the camera with realistic 
sound effects and music but with no dialogue, printed titles or narration. 

THE THIEF is not a silent picture; there is no dialogue because it is un- 
necessary to the telling of the story. In fact, the very nature of the plot 
precludes any talking, for when the leading characters meet each other, the 
very nature of their secret mission would make them avoid speaking to each 
other for fear of detection. 

The story is about an emminent Unclear Physicist (Ray Uilland) who is sup- 
plying secret information to an alien power, and the tremendous inner con- 
flict arising in him as a result of his actions. 

The picture begins with the close-up of a telephone ringing three times 
while the camera, now moving through the dark room into a bedroom, pans 
up the rigid form of a man lying on the bed. The phone begins ringing and 
again stops after the third ring. A few moments after the final ring the 
man’s (Ray Uilland ) face relaxes from its tension and the music begins soft- 
ly on the theme played by unaccompanied solo viola and clarinet in unison. 

„ (cue 1-B ). 

The bassoon joins at bar four with a counterpoint and the bass enters on a 
G-pedal at bar 5, sustaining through the downbeat of bar 8 and moves through 
a semi-cadence in D major back to G minor at bar 9. Here, the violins, 
doubled with first oboe, take over the second statement of the first theme 
in a slightly altered version. The solo viola continues, now playing the 
counterpoint to the theme it had previously introduced. The colli and add- 
itional bass join in and the tympani gives a soft, rhythmic movement to the 
music. Following the second statement of the main theme which has been ex- 
tended to 9 bars and has now modulated to A minor, comes a five bar episode 
and two bar extension bringing us the second theme. The story is so well 


devised that it pre-supposes music with a definite fom in accompaniment to 
it. Cur main character has been introduced and we have seen him/ ret ur and 
leave the apartment, '.talking through the night he leads us (bar'' 17-24) to 
the story's second subject (Cue 1-C) as the picture cuts dircc J 7y to Hartin 
Gable lighting a cigarette while waiting on a dark street corner. 

The first statement of the second theme (Cue 1-0 bars 1-9) is nine bars lone 
with a full cadence on a D unison. This is followed by the last seven bars" 
of the second, theme in a shortened version beginning in the subdominant and 
returning to D unison at bar 13. Tow begins a fragmentary development of 
the first theme, introducing along with it a new counterpoint of sixteenth 
notes in rhythmic chords of parallel fourths moving in contrary motion 
(bars 15, If, 25). Here for the first time the music is written in direct 
timcd-rclation-ship to the action on the screen. Depicting Dr. Allen Fields 
(Ray Hillard's) mental conflict the rhythmic counterpoint nervously contin- 
ues, even as the first theme broadly and stridently rises to a climax in 
its own riHrt (bars 21-30). The music continues to express Fields' fight 
with his conscience as he reads and rereads the message telling him of the 
mission he must undertake. The music's crescendo emotionally rises (bar 4?) 
as the camera dollies into a large close-up of Fields resigned to the task 
ahead.... and we fade out with both picture and music. 

It is interesting to note that director Rouse did not fall back on the 
cliche' inserts of notes, newspapers and the like to support his picture. 

In every where Fields received a message he acted out the intent of the 
message so that the audience knew what was written in it, I musically 
punctuated the seriousness of each of these scenes. 

Although the entire score is based on two themes and their many variations, 
there are several motives used in conjunction with story points. However, 

I chose several complete sequences to show the method of approach in the 
music of this film rather than a dissection of the musical motives which 
nay appear in the isolated sections of the score. In most cases these were 
fragments based on either of the two main themes. The purpose of the music 
was to subjectively suggest the person or emotion important to that part 
of the story even though he was not on the screen at the time his music 
was played. The music was discussed and planned from the beginning to 
have an overall integrity to the picture and to itself rather than be a 
series of isolated musical sequences. In some instances music was kept 
out entirely to let the sound effects supply the realism to the score. 

It is interesting to note that instances in which the musio needed additional 
time to rise to important climaxes were helped hy film editor Chester Schaeffer 
who cooperated by adding small portions. of film wherever needed. This rave 
the music the time it reouired to help give the picture the right feeling. 

There was no special theme music for the sequences which included Rita Cam. 
Instead I wrote "source-music" : Jazz records from an ajoiring apartment, 

and a meribo and a samba supposedly emanating from ~’iss Cam's radio or record 

TEE THIEF.. United Artists. Ray 1 'ill and. Rita Gam., Harry H. Fopkin, present- 
ation. Director, Russell Rouse. Film editor, Chester Schaeffer, ’usic com- 
posed Paid directed by JTerschel Durkc Gilbert, s. c.a. Orchestrations , Joseph 
I ulleudore, asr.a and .falter 5 beets asms.. 

Husic copyrighted by Harlen I usic Co., 1952. 








Miklos Rozsa 

A composer’s life in Hollywood often runs in odd cycles. rVr eTve years ago, 
■before I .came to Hollywood, I v/rote the music for FOUR FEATHERS, a picture 
’which played in the Sudan. Immediately other pictures with oriental back- 
grounds followed, such as the THIEF OF BAGHDAD, JUNGLE BOOK, SUHDC7JN, FIVE 
GRAVES TO CAIRO, BLOOD ON TEE SUN, 'etc. For years I couldn’t write a scale 
without augmented seconds. Then I wrote SPELLBCUTD. An array of psychologi- 
cal sublects followed and my THERE? REN wailed and vibrated subsequently in 
mention only a few.' TIE' KILLER?, a gangster melodrama, was a new departure 
for a hard hitting, caustic and somewhat brutal score and BRUTE FORCE, 

mediately after. Then come QUO VADIS which stented a new trend in my life: 
music to historical pictures. QUO VADIS , which plays in the 1st Century, 
IVANHCE which followed, in the 12th Century, PLYITUTH ADVENTURE in the 17th 
JULIUS CAESAR in the 1st Century B.C., and KING ARTHUR and. the KNIGHTS of the 
ROUND TABLE, which loons in the not too future, plays in the 5th Century A,D. 

In an article for F ILK HUS IC( Notes ) 
I have expanded my ideas about 
music for historical films, so I 
am not going to repeat them here . 

In rVAHHOE I become my own first 
disciple(l suppose also the only 
one!) and followed the example 
which I set in QUO VADIS. As I 
tried to recreate the music of 
the. First Century by using, after 
thorough research, musical frag- 
ments from the period, I have done 
the same in HI A HOE, by going 
back to sources of the 12th Cent- 
ury. I wanted to create again a 
score, ’which sounds and is stylist- 
ically authentic. I found a some- 
what similar situation in musical 
matters between 12th Century 
Engl and and 1st Century Rome. As 
Roman music was largely influenced 
by the Greek, so came the music of 
of the " axons under the influence 

of the invading Normans. It Is a. well-known fact that people on a lower level 
of civilization readily absorb the culture of the invaders or neighboring 
countries v.’hich have a higher civilization, ar a subconscious expression of 
their longing for the higher level of life, which usually goes with higher civ- 
ilization'. The sources of Saxon music are extremely few and far between, but 
there is a large amount of music y 'ron the 12th Cc'kury available, of the 
French troubadours and troitveros, "duo brought their music with, the invading 
Normans to England . The various themes of ITATHCE are partly based on origin- 

al sources and ore partly my own. 

The opening music introduces the heroic theme of IVAHHOE. 

<r - > 

Tinder the opening narration I introduced a theme from a Ballade by Richard 

the Lionhearted {1157-1199) which recurs later when we come to Sir Cedric’s 
home ? 

Rebecca, the daughter of Isaac of YorTc, needed a Jewish theme, mirroring not 
only the tragedy of this lovely character of Sir '.Valter Scott's but also that 
of her persecuted people. Fragments of medieaval Jewish motive suprested to 

syj, -he battle of Torgul stone Castle introduces new themes, such as the Saxon theme; 


f f ffyf k f 

t; * 


* • " 

1 ' / 



Hi: :: 


i hi i k 

* b>* "*■ T 

~ T T : 


and a' -rhythmic' bnt'tle' theme: 

which contrapuntally, and polytonally, -worked out with the previous thematic 
material, form a tonal background to this exciting battle scene. 

At the final scene the rain themes return and the picture ends with the recap- 
itulation of the heroic rVATHOE theme. 


PLY! TOOTH ADVEFTUKE is the story of the Jayf tower ’ s journey from Fl;>mcuth 
harbor to Plymouth Rock in the year 1620. To be true to my ovm theories 
about the scoring of historical pictures, I was looking for a musical theme 
from the period, which the Pil—* Am Fathers mi"*ht bo-re ’mown and "H. eh also 
nos sos nod their indomitable spirit of religious, personal and political 
freedom. 'The pilgrims had one book with music on board: Henry Ainsworth* 
Psalter, which was printed in Amsterdam in 1612. This book contained the 
melodies the pilgrim.s brought with then to America ard sang in their new 
country, I used as the theme of the Kay flower, the 136th ha aim, a melody 
which is imbued with vigor and fervant faith. It has a very interesting 
history. Cne can trace it back to French Fr. alters of the ea-ly 16th Century, 
and fragments of it (according to .,'aldo Sold on Pratt’s bock "ITuric of the 
Pilgrims) can be found in early German chorales. It has been called the 
Huguenot I'arseillaise as it has the pulsation of a battle song. It has an 
unusual rhythm and I found its text most appropriate and, therefore, used 
it vocally with an orchestral accompaniment for the opening of the picture. 
This is the hymn: 

The theme attains its culmination in 
a sequence of the departure of the 
Fay flower when the sails of the ship 
fill with wind to start a voyage 
into the unknown and the theme ap- 
pears majestically in the orchestra 
as a musical confirmation of the 
faith of the pilgrims. 



To give an atmosphere of authenticity I have tried to build my other themes 
in the manner of the 17th Century English Lutenist composers whose music the 
Filgrim Fathers knew and must have brought to our shores, I didn’t use any 
original material, as these themes had to fit closely the situations and per- 
s onages of our narrative . 

Eere are the main themes : 

1. The departure of the I'AYFLO'.FR starts with a sea shanty- like notiv: 

vL^ — w * — 

> J / 

"rffi ^ ~ 

— }!— 

ff::. *f j 

— 7 * 1 - 

* e^cT 

i# * 

jbw Hi H f 



2- r A nostalgic theme for Winslow, the story teller: 

<=) * ^ • T +- 

• . - 

3. A sunny love theme for John Alden and Priscilla Pullens, 

4. A brooding theme for Christopher Jones. Cantain of the LAYFEGTWET? 

5. A tragic melody for Dorothy Bradford, wife of the future Governor Bradford. 

f: ,±H 

H Sff 


* t 



-J- - 



a * : t ^ • 

T T 



6. An innocent and sad theme for little William Button, who dies Before 
the landing of the T7AYFL0WER. 

7. A theme with a hint for the future, for the first settlers: 

The -picture ends with the departure of the FAYFLC7JER and Captain Jones for 
England, The music swells up and triumphantly reiterates the glorious Psalm 

IVAMOE.. retro- ftoldwyn-l 'ayer . Robert Taylor, Elizabeth Taylor. Birector, 
Richard Thorpe. T'usic, -iblos Eozsa. Technicolor. 

FLYTCTTTH ADVE77TURE. . 1'etro- Goldwyn-Payer . Spencer Tracy, Gene Tierney. 
Director , Clarence Drown, Fusic, ' i’-elos Technicolor. 

All music Copyright by Loew's Incorporated . 

Record Album - IVAHHOE and FLY 1 'CUTE ADVEHVTJRE. T’usic recorded directly from 
the sound-tracks. Avc liable 22 l/3 and 45 r.p.m, I'.G.T’. Records. 

Dr. I iklos Rozsa's music is very much before the public at^the moment. Vox 
Records have ^ust issued his 'Theme ,’ ariationa and • inale with the Royal 
Philharmonic Orchestra, and his "Cm ccrto for string Orchestra". Concert 
Hall Records is bringing out his "Serenade for Email Orchestra" with the 
La Jolla Festival Orchestra, Hihc! -_i Cokoloff conducting. His "Quo Vadis 
Synphonic Suite” has ^ecn played. 5r Kansas City, F or tl and ( Cre ), Burbank, 
Yichita Falls and Philadelphia. "reitVoff and Hartel have published his 
new piano sonata and his"T'otel for ' ixed .Choir '. 



Mary Powell 

1’usic always plays a large part in a Disney film, but in his ROBIN EOOD the 
score assumes more than average importance, and becomes an integral part of 
the story. Throughout the handsome picture, colorful and exciting with its 
period pageantry and its lovely English settings, the music is a notable 
factor in the telling of the tale, emphasizing the place of the balladeer 
in 12th Century community life as news-carrier and historian. 

The minstrel Allan-a Dale opens the film, strolling along a highway strumming 
a lute accompaniment to a ballad of Robin Hood with his Terri e man, fighting 
the oppression that has overtaken England in the absence of R' chard, the Lion 
Hearted. Later, at an archery contest in Nottingham Fair. Allan sings a little 
warning to his friends about probable trickery from their opponents. 'Then Robii 
becomes a fugitive from the law in the Sherwood Forest, All aft' ^ improvised song; 
tell the anxious townfollc of the stout lads in Lincoln green who have ioined 

the young yeoman in his deer and Sheriff hunt- 
ing and his protection of the poor. In the yarc 
of a Nottingham inn, raid Far i an, disguised as 
a page boy, comes upon Allan singing his gossip- 
py ditties and gets him to lead her to Robin. 

He recognizes the growing romance between Robin 
and Narian with one of the score’s prettiest 
melodies, "V/histle,!y Love". It is an amusing 
contrast to a burlesqued love song sung by 
Friar Tuck in another sequence. As Robin recu- 
perates in hie forest camp from his encoun- 
ters with Prince John and the Sheriff, Allan 
and the I'errie Ton ^’oin in a chorus of the bal- 
lad that extols his exploits. And the film's 
happy close, like its opening, is marked by 
the minstrel's tv^ie - ! 'C I'll sing a song, a 
rollicking .song. 

The ballads are based on the melodies of the 
medieval English minstrels, adapted by Elton 
"ayes, British r°dio-singor and guitarist, who 

plays Allan-a-Dale. Lawrence 3.7/atkin, author of the screen play, has written 
the lyrics, adhering closely to period style. Extensive research in the 
British Fuseum of History preceded these ballad adaptations. Two good songs 

"Riddle de Diddle de Day" and "Whistle, !y Love ",the work of George Hyle and 
Eddie Pola, are also in the wondering minstrel ,r! repertory. The effective 
background music was written by Clifton Parker, known to Disneyites particu- 
larly for his TREASURE ISLAND score. The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, under 
the always capable Nuir Fathieson was in charge of the final proceedings. All 
in all, it makes a film of considerable musical interest, as happy an experienc 
to hear as it is to watch - which is no faint praise. 

THE STORY OF ROBIN HOOD.. RKO- Disney. Richard Todd, Joan Rice. Director, 

Ken Annakin. Nusic, Clifton Parker. Ballads by Eddie ^ola ar.d George Pyle, 
Elton Hayes and L. E. Hatkin. Technicolor. 

Records: Record Reader - Halt Disney's Story of Robin Hood. 78 or 45 r p m 
Capitol Records. An album with 2 records and 20 colored pages. }l on 
Billboards listing of best-selling children's records. 


Lt. CoL William F- Santelmann, USMC 

It was the ninth day of June, 1868, that the association of the United States 
Karine land and John Philip Sousa first began. On that day young Sousa, giving 
cabinet making as his trade, first enlisted in the I'arine Band at the tender 
age of thirteen years, six months and three days. He was just another music' 
boy in the band who 7ms given the usual chores delegated to all new members. 

Who was to know that twenty-eight years later this music boy would write a 
march that would be a challenge and goal for every band and, at the same time, 
the most thrilling march ever to come from the pen of a man destined to be 
known as the March King? But this young man had still not dreamed of ivriting 
the "Stars and Stripes Forever March" or for that matter, of writing his other 
hundred marches. Yet with the training he received in the Karine Band and his 
latent talent he was to write music that, as played by the Karine Band in years 
to come, would thrill Americans from coast to coast. These great marches began 
coming from the pen of John Philip Sousa when he served as Leader of the Karine 
Band and only the hand of death stopped them. 

I have often been asked how many times the 
Karine Band has played Sousa marches, but no 
one could answer that question. Under the 
direction of five leaders; Sousa, Fanciulli, 

’William H. Santelmann, Branson and William 
F. Santelmann, Sousa marches have become 
standard equipment and used so many times 
that every member of the band can play at 
least twenty of them from memory. .That 
would a concert on one of its coast to 
coast tours be like without several Sousa 
marches? Well. again no one can answer that 
because to my knowledge there has not been 
a tour concert played in the last thirty 
years that hasn’t had them. "Semper 
Fidelis", "Washington Post", "El Capitan", 

"Rifle Regiment" and all the rest are pop- 
ular, yes, but it’s the "Stars ^nd Stripes 
Forever" that brings the greatest applause, 
v/histles and cheers. And that is the march 
that is on the lips of many who come bag'-: 
stage after the concert to express their pleasure 1 th the concert. Yes, it's 
the march 'whose melodics ran through the mind of the ? arch ■ ’le cross' ng 
the Atlantic in 1896 that still runs through the minds of every Arerican wore 
than fifty years later. 

* * * * * 

STARS AIID STRIFES FOREVER.. The biography of John Philip Sousa turns out to have 
just r/hat ’s needed for a top-flight musical* the career of a popular musician^ 
the humor of a colorftil personality, the background of a colorful era. Beginning 
with Sousa as the leader of the United States Karine Band in Washington in the 
80's, the film carries him with his ov/n band on triumphant tours around the v/orld . 
His marches are ’~eard in varied situations, played at their best by an excellent 
100 piece brass band. Fine recording and camera-work bring out the individualities 
in the big ensemble. Apart from these really stirring performances, there are min- 
or delimhts -a ’white House reception, a burlesque show, a feotton States Exposition 
all staged with much humor and skill. But it is the marches and the marching that 
will be remembered longest. A deep bow is due musical director, -Tired j sum an. 

STARS AID STRIPES FOREVER.. 20th Century-Fox. Clifton Vebb, Debra Paget. Director, 
Henry Koster. Musical director, Alfred Bowman. Technicolor. 

Records available from K.U.K. Records, Decca, Columbia and RCA Victor. 



D. D. Livingston 

A major problem music teachers and program chairman often have fcxmd in 
planning Film Concert programs is that the visual content of many music 
films tends to be static, though the director usually works overtime on 
excuses for camera movement to liven un the ins tr> mental ists and singers. 

An hour and a half of that can be pretty eye-tiring, even with the best 
of ar tists. One way out is to book a feature film on the life of a com- 
poser, or some such subject, and in this most of the footage usually will 
be taken up by the love story , with the musical numbers spaced at intervals. 
The other solution is to try creative programming, making your ovm selection 
of shorter films of a variety of types and diverse musical content. There 
are ever so many to choose from — half-hour opera condensations: short vocal, 
orchestral, or solo instrumental films galore; abstract visualizations of mu- 
sic; background information films such as THE STORY OF A VIOLIN; and a wonder- 
ful new series of choral films in color by the National Film Board of Canada, 
illustrated by puppets. The main points to remember are not to have too 
much of one ty pe on any one program, and to try to have the strongest film 
at the just-before -intermission and closing spots. 

The recent series of 16mm showings by the New York Dance Film Society brought 
to attention a wide range of films of music interest , many of real value as 
program - brighteners for Film Concerts, Several had notable works by contem- 
porary composers — always the hardest items to find among the available films. 
Others had classical or folk music accompaniments. In one film — BE GONE DULL 
CARE— the sound track itself was the dance star, as visualized by two artists 
from the musical inspiration of Oscar Peterson’s progressive jazz trio. 

Half of the t opening show in the three-program series was devoted to "Chaplin 
as a Dancer", with critic Arthur Knight commentating on scenes from THE CURE 
of the bill was Tchaikovsky’s NUTCRACKER PAS DS DEUX with Nary Ellen Hoy lan 
and Oleg Tupine as the Sugar Plum Fairy and the Frince; a short silent film 
of a Fred Astaire -Ginger Rogers rehearsal; Jose Lir.on and company in the 
modern dance NOOR'S F AVARS with music by Simon Sadoff after Furcell (see FILL 
LUSIC Narch-April 1950) and CCRRC3CRBE, a new Australian^ icture. 

CCRRCBOREE was the hit of the program 
musically, if not dance-wise. The 
Australian ballet was inspired by the 
dances and rites performed at the cer- 
emonial gatherings of the Australian 
aborigines. Rex Reid’s choreography 
draws partly upon their movements, 
partly upon modern dance technique. 

The costumes .are black tights and 
black masks, which film badly. Color 
photography or stronger side-light- 
ing ’would have helped. The dancing in 
this eight-minute condensation of the 
ballet appears to be unexciting, com- 
pletely overshadowed by John A^till’s 
brilliant score. The powerful pan- 
sages of the finale w-re described by 
Eugene '"-oesens as the most exciting ho 
’anew in contemporary music. 


To some producers all "native" music sounds alike. Whether the setting is 
Bangkok or Chichicastenago doesn't matter, once again we have to hear a monot - 
onous hanging of the bass drum, a violin scraping some tuning-up noises and a 
flute tootling aimlessly and helplessly as the narrator drones on about the 
beauties of this or that far land. It may be libelous to an advanced and sub- 
tle musical culture, but its quicker and cheaper(they figure) and besides, 
who'll know the difference in Des Moines? These atrocities occur less fre- 
quently now, but even the usually more careful March of Time staff so sinned 
in a recent film on India. 

A taste of musical authenticity too often lacking is found in Dr .Margaret 
Mead's TRANCE AND DANCE IN BALI, her anthropological film study of a symbolic 
battle between the Witch of Evil and the Dragon of Good. Oriental musicolo- 
gist Colin McPhee has arranged the sound accompaniment from selected portions 
of Balinese gamelamg recordings that synchronize well with the movements. At 
one point in^the film, the witch places the dragon's followers in an actual 
hypnotic trance and compels them to turn their daggers upon themselves as 
they writhe in her magic spell. This scene is re-examined in slow-motion 
nnd McPhee here repeats one quiet phrase endlessly, mesmerizingly . The 
gamelang orchestra then swells to the conclusion of the ceremony and there 
is a period of deep silence as the exhausted dancers gradually begin to come 
out of their trance, unharmed. 

Other welcome examples of musical integrity werein three films repeated by 
reauest from previous Dance Film Society programs: sifARATA HATYAM, the music 
and dance of South India; GITA1E D 'ESFAGNE, the flamenco festival that 
starts out fiery and gay and then grows quieter and sadder, as gypsy reunions 
do (the American release version of this film, SPANISH GYPSIES, reverses the 
order so there can be a socko finish); and Jean Cocteau's RHYTHM OF AFRICA 
with haunting flute melodies recorded in the Chad region. 

Good intentions that went slightly astray were BALLET OF THE ATLAS and A 
SHITE OF BERBER DANCES, two films of Arab dancee of French North Africa. 

The visuals are well filmed and exciting, but the music was recorded separ- 
ately and is out of synchronization. But withal, they are good program 
films and certainly the best of their field to appear so far. They have 
not yet been shown to members of the New York Dance Film Society, but are 
scheduled for a forthcoming series. 


Winner of the 1951 Avant-Garde Award at the Venice Film Festival was LAMENT, 
Walter Strate's film version of the American modern dance cl as sic, "Lament 
for Ignacio Sanchez Mejias , "choreographed by Doris Humphrey, danced by Jose 
Limon and company, and composed by Norman Llpyd. 

Other films screened inoluded A NATION DANCES — the most exoiting danoes 
in the series, a number of folk dances from various regions of Russia, se- 
lected as always to present a cheery group spirit and to strongly mimimize 
solo or individualistic effort; FCLIES BERGERE, which displays Josephine 
Baker's Charleston at a very early age in her career, and some now-hilari- 
ous shots of French chorus lines of the Twenties; WALTZ OF THE FLC7.ERS, 
a modest piece with the Leningrad corps de ballet and orchestra; SADLER'S 
'.’.'ELLS BALLERINA, with a portion of Ravel's BEAUTY AND TEE BEAST; ’'AREA'S 
FIRST YEARS, in 'which a Balinese baby is shown being taught to dance and 
play the gamelang at the age of 16 months; and AIR FOR THE G STRING, a vis- 
ual interpretation of the Bach melody by Doris Humphrey and e-roup, filmed in 
the early Thirties. 

Rental sources of the films mentioned: The New York Dance Film Society, New 

York University, Contemporary Films , Brandon Films, National Film Board of 
Canada, and A. F. Films. 


Charles Anthony Biondo 

Too often in the teaching of music the teacher relies almost entirely on 
aural methods and explanations while neglecting the possibilities of the 
visual. Since 1941 I have been associated with the TTaval Reserve as a line 
officer as well as a training officer and have since 1946 been particularly 
concerned with the Navy’s use of "Training Aids" for educational purposes. 
Whereas, at the present time the TTaval Reserve training program is fortunate 
enough to possess all types of so-called "Training Aids' 1 , it is handicapped 
by having too few oualified teachers who are able to teach what they them- 
selves know. Cur profession, on the other hand, fortunately possess eminently 
qualified teachers who could easily adapt Audio-Visual Aids if they were avail- 
able and if a few suggestions were offered to get them started, in this still 
un-exploited field. 

US of a course in orchestral on. The teacher is con- 

fronted with the problem of illustrating the sounds of various instruments in 
different registrations and passages, playing in diverse combinations, and dis- 
playing an infinite number of instrumental techniques! Of course there are many 
texts in the field, but most of them vail not satisfy your specific needs. You 
want the course to be interesting, to organize thinking, and to set up rone de- 
velopmental musical experiences. It cannot be organized mechanically and still 
produce these results. So you inventory your personal possessions with the view 
toward setting up some audio-visual syllabus. As a music teacher, you already 
possess some scores and some records. 35 mm film in large quantities can be very 
cheaply purchased by the school system. An economical tape machine can be bought 
by public institutions and teachers themselves for less than $200 with substan- 
tial discounts. All you need now are a 35mm camera with a telescopic sight, a 
projector, a screen and you are in business. 

You set up an outline of orchestrational effects you wish to illustrate (and 
which either you or your school library has available in score and on disk). 

Find and take slide pictures of these illustrative score segments and either 
leave the entire 35 exposures (negatives) on one strip and use it as a strip 
film, or later mount each exposure as an individual slide. Rind that you use 
the negatives, not positives, since they show up more dearly on the white 
screen and are more restful to the eyes. Benefits of the strip film are read- 
ily apparent in saying time to find a slide and money in not having to buy the 
mountings for slides. The Navy employs silent strip films with typed statements 
on each individual film to explain the point. This additional detail i$ also 
possible for the teacher. Of course if you should later want to add an excerpt 
here and there you have to cut and splice as necessary. In this respect the 
slide system is more adjustable than the film strip, ilow that the class can 
see the cases in point, you want to supply the music, "o set up twenty or 
thirty records of 78,33 and 45 before class andfumble around for the exact 
spot in the record is time and patience consuming. So you record the slides 
on tape. Allowing several minutes for taking attendance, discussing the work 

of the class, and what-have you, you record hour, or 3/4 hour of examples. 

Of course it is well to play a little more than the brief 4 measures so as to 
condition the listeners to the individual example. Then, too, you can always 
stop the tape for discussion purposes, or rewind and replay as necessary, 
while pointing out pertinent items in the score. 

Tow that the students have seen and heard the excellent examples of the mas- 
ters, they will want to hear the results of their own endeavors. Accordingly 
they may write on transparent plates which can be inserted in the opaoue 
projector( or"goose-neck" transparency” machine) and shown on the soreen on 
which the slides were shown a few moments ago. A small student instrumental 

ensemble can readily play the excerpt by reading directly from the screen. 
Changes can be easily made on the plate with a special pencil and eraser so 
that the musicians can play various on-the-spot ideas of their own and their 
classmates .' This now becomes a trial-and error system, showing where and how 
they need to improve their orchestration. Modifications of the foregoing 
can be arranged, of course, depending upon limitations of equipment. It should 
be stressed, however, that several music teachers can influence the public 
school board to buy much of this equipment since it can be used for all the 
musical organizations, -band, orchestra, and glee club. 

Classes in Musical Form may be conducted similarly with slides, showing the 
motives, phrases, periods, etc., coupled with a series of tape recordings to 
eliminate groping for the "right spot" on the record and to by-pass the nec- 
essity of adjusting the 3 speed player for the various speeds. Workbooks 
are often a help in certain courses as in this case in which the student 
studies out of, refers to, and writes in his Form Workbook. 

Since almost every public school system has its"Music Appreciation" course 
let us consider some new approaches to the presentation of time-worn mate- 
rials: Take, for example, the televised performance of the Chicago Sym- 

phony Chamber Orchestra. With paintings, figurines or sculptured ornaments 
furnished by the Chicago Art Institute, the program is be, gun by setting the 
mood of the selection about to be played. A Mozart overture is preceded by 
eighteenth century figurines dancing a minuet. How better can the music of 
the eighteenth century, as epitomized in Mozart’s music be depicted? I feel 
sure that the teacher who has taught this course has found that visual aids 
do add a great deal to the course. And this is true particularly in the case 
of the Junior High School. It is not so much what we can tell the class but 
what we can show and play for them. 

We may want to illustrate the so-called Frenoh Overture of Lully with its 
dotted rhythms and pompous style. How better can we get our point across 
than to show slides of the decorative seventeenth century French Court of 
the Palais Royal? These and countless other examples can be inexpensively 
set up by the inventive teacher. 

The use of movie and sound film is extremely limited in this field unfor- 
tunately. For use in my classes at Hotre Dame I gathered a list of films 
for this purpose only to find miniature compositions offered such as the 
Minute Waltz of Chopin or a three-ninute Scherzo of Beethoven, the sound 
recordings of which are much inferior to an amateur home tape recording. 

It is to be hoped that more will be done with major symphony orchestras 
playing recorded perfected sound track. 

Much more can be written about this still unexploited field in music educa- 
tion. The foregoing examples are illustrative of some of the many possibil- 
ities available to the enterprising teacher. In schools where no audio-vis- 
ual aids are as yet available a tape machine ought first to be bought. All 
teachers can use this machine, the dramatics teacher, the English teacher, 
as well as the music teacher. Other equipment can be purchased as the budget 
permits. 3y combining her own possessions with the school's a teacher can 
start her audio-visual program on a small scale right away. 



The magazine FILm MUSIC has become a very useful part of my teaching 
files. Every copy brings me new and broadening interests. Teacher, Iowa. 

Your FILM ITS IC enables us as veterans to keep informed as to what is 
going on in this field of motion pictures. Captain, Korea. 

The purpose of the National Film Fusic Council is challenging. We, in 
outlying places removed from active centers, are deeply interested and 
must rely on sources such as your desk for assistance. Club chairman, kinn. 

Just today I discovered in the university library a bound volume of your 
'46 to'50 issues, which I naturally spent the rest of the day exploring. 

I wish I could tell you how elated I am to discover that there is an or- 
ganized group with interests parallel to mine. Student, Northwestern Univ. 

We find FILM MUSIC extremely useful in our library work. We use one copy 
for binding and clip the other two copies . We then file the clippings 
under MUSIC and MOVING PICTURES with the name of the movie. As soon as 
the picture is shown we have countless questions about the music. We do 
not know what we would do without FILM MUSIC. Librarian, Maryland. 

I find FILM MUSIC extremely interesting * We need publications such as yours 
to rescue film music from the anonymous riches taken for granted by film 
goers. Made available to the public, suoh material should help build a 
critical taste in film music, which would lead, I am sure, to an advance 
in composition for the screen comparable to the highest standards in acting 
demanded by the public educated away from the stereotyped characterizations 
of early films . 

Catherine Edwards, Motion Picture Editor, Parents Magazine. 

FILM MUSIC is a publication I value highly and I have tried to bring it to 
the attention of our music educators in the state. I am also calling atten- 
tion to it in a letter which is to gO but with the music packet of the Ohio 
Congress of Parents and Teachers. You have gone far in your pioneer work. 

Edith K. Keller, Surervisor'bf Fusic, Ohio State Dept, of Education 

This publication is of the greatest value to all those interested in motion 
picture music or even in the general subject of the screen. I have recommend- 
ed it to all local chairman of the National Federation of Music Clubs and 
continually use its material in my lectures and radio broadcasts. FILM MUSIC 
has performed a tremendous service to the art of the motion picture. 

Sigmund Spaeth.. 

I have had FILM MUSIC since its beginning and have enjoyed it immensely. I 
have used every copy in club work, study classes, junior clubs. I enjoy 
the good music scores. You and your staff are to be congratulated on the 
progress you have made. 

Exec. Secy., Community Concert Association, Mich. 

Cinema scores, a subject of increasing interest to composers, are covered 
in FILM MUSIC, official organ of the National Film Music Council. This is, 
to my knowledge, the only publication dealing in an independent way with this 
important field, Thero are occasional articles elsewhere but no systematic 
investigations . The Hollywood organs say everything is beautiful, but this 
paper expresses real opinions. Vor,*- important of all, it gives musical 
quotations and detailed analyses of scores. 

Virgil Thomson. 






Offical Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 
Butterfield 8-3288 





Score excerpts by David Raksin, composer William Hamilton 

TONIGHT WE SING Qnainrance Eaton 


Because You’re Mine 
Sky Full of Moon 

Hans Christian Andersen 

The Importance of Being Earnest 

The Jazz Singer 

Peter Pan 

Peppermint Tree 

The Lusty Man 

Richard Lewine 
Mary Powell 
Arthur Kendy 
Mary Powell 
Harold Brown 
M. Langdon 
Mary Powell 
Gene Forrell 
M. Langdon 


RE - EDITING A FILM Gene Forrell 

James Limbacher 
Delinda Roggensack 
Sigmund Spaeth 


William Hamilton, writer 

Quaintance Eaton, film critic and writer 

Richard Lewine, TV producer 

Mary Powell, writer 

Harold Brown, teacher, writer 

M. Langdon, film critic 

Karline Brown, Librarian 

Gene Forrell, film composer 

James Limbacher, music department Bowling Green University, Ohio 
Delinda Roggensack, chairman of Films for MENC and MTA 
Sigmund Spaeth, author, lecturer 



Published by the National Film Music Council, 26 East 83rd St., New York City 28, President, William Hamilton, Vice President and Editor Marie I 
-lamilton Executive Secretary and Publisher, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues yearly with occasional special bulletins. Two dollars and fifty cents a yeai 
ingle copies 40 cents. Back files (28 copies) Five dollars plus postage. 


FILM MUSIC, as the only publication devoted to this subject, is constantly 
being called on for information in its field, and faced with appeals for more 
attention to its many aspects. Requests come from teachers, students, libra- 
rians, club-women, exhibitors, publicity people, musicians, schools, radio 
stations and so on, asking for more emphasis on their particular interest in 
the musio of the motion picture. Specific authoritative information on any 
phase of film music is curiously hard to come by, and unearthing it takes a 
good deal of time and work. There are no salaries connected with any part 
of the National Film Music Council’s work. But we are realizing that we must 
pay for special help that will satisfy our reader’s wants. A limited amount 
of advertising is the logical solution, and if you can help us in this 
new venture we will be happy to answer inauiries as to advertising rates 
and space, 


FILM MUSIC CBC Trans Canada, now in its fourth season, is beginning a new 

ON THE series in its popular weekly programs, "Music from the Films", 

AIR Present programs are drawn from the recorded "Music from British 

Films", with selections played by the London Symphony Orchestra 
conducted by Muir Mathieson. American composers are featured also and future 
broadcasts will include the "Concerto" from Leith Steven’s NIGHT SONG, and a 
talk by David Raksin on his score for CARRIE, WQXR, the radio station of the 
New York Times, continues to broadcast its half hour program, "Movie Musio" 
each Saturday afternoon, as it has for some years. Current programs feature 
the film work of Alex North, Alfred Newman and Vaughan Williams. 


FILM Helen C. Dill, of the musio department of the University of Cal- 

FESTIVAL ifornia, and one of our council members, reports on her visit to 

the Sixth International Film Festival in Ed inburgh last September. 
Mrs. Dill was particularly impressed by two programs. The first, 
program featured the American psychological film, THE LONELY NIGHT and three 
British films, LOCAL HANDYMAN, RIG 20, and one on the new planes. Film viewers 
seemed alert, curious, and most appreciative, says Mrs. Dill, 


JACK The Hollywood offioe of Filmusie Co. of New York is making over 

SHAINDLIN 1500 recorded selections available for TV *nd non-theatrical pro- 
ducers. The company, the largest independent musio-on-film lib- 
rary in the country, is headed by Jack Shaindlin and features bis 
sound tracks. Mr Shaindlin has been musical director for the March of Timd, 
Louis de Rochemont and the major studios in the east since 1937. His Filmusie 
sound track is used exclusively by NBC- TV. 


MUSIC February 27-March 3, 1953, Eastern Division Biennial Con. Buffalo, N,Y, 

EDUCATORS March 6-10, 1953, Southwestern Division Biennial Con. Springfield, 0. 
NATIONAL March 18-21, 1953, Northwest Division Biennial Con. Bellingham, Wash. 
CONFERENCE March 29-April 1, Calif. Western Division Biennial Con. Tucson, Arir. 

April 10-13, 1953, Southern Division Biennial Con. Chattanooga, Term. 
April 17-21, 19 53 .North Central Division Biennial Con. Milwaukee, Wise. 

June 30-July 9, International Con. on Musio Education, Brussels, Belgium. 

June 28-Wuly 3, National Education Assn. 91st Annual Meeting; M.E.N.C. annual 
Stimmer meeting; Miami Beach, Fla. 



William Hamilton 

There are two distinct ways to exploit an actor. The more common is 
to prefabricate a situation where his raw, native quality - virtue, deprav- 
ity or whatever - will be thrown into the sharpest possible relief. And 
sometimes it seems even sharper than that. The artistic way is to allow an 
actor to act: to create with word and deed a unique character among unique 
characters. Then, situation becomes as it usually is in life, the product 
of human activity. The script, direction and performances of THE BAD AND 
THE BEAUT I FX combine to make a superb example of this second procedure. 

Without troubling to make the usual ethical affirmation, or even to 
leave a good taste in the mouth, the picture offers a pointed but compassion- 
ate account of civilized people casually injuring one another. The struggle 
is drawn between Jonathan (Douglas) on the one hand and Fred, Georgia and 
James Lee (Sullivan, Turner and Powell) on the other. A flashback layout 
is used, the beginning and end recording the retaliation of the three upon 
Jonathan, and three interior episodes showing his original provocations. 

The film gets a lot of sparkle from innumerable tiny touches of fine the- 
atrics, and there was a magnificent sense of the ridiculous at work as well. 
Watch for the bit where the wardrobe man (uncredited, I'm deeply sorry to 
3ay) displays some costumes to Fred and Jonathan for their "Cat-Wen" pro- 
duction. These peripheral matters, however, only emphasized my feeling that 
the propelling force of THE BAD AND THE BEAUTIFUL resides definitely in its 

The pirpose of all this non-ousioal discussion is to help explain my one 
demurrer in the matter of Mr. Raksin's score. His aim has been to build 
scenes, rather than characters. This is so universal a procedure, of course, 
that there would be no reason t<r bring it up’ except for the fact that THE B 
AND THE B has such a clear bias in the other direction. 

It should not be inferred that the music is a jangling mass of cross- 
purposes and missed points. On the contrary, it fits like a glove, and I 
can't recall a single scene that doesn’t gain much from it in mrely dramatic 
impetus. The trouble is that the rest of the production is so personal in its 
nature, that, by contrast, the score often has a detached, above -the -battle 
qualityi Only rarely does it seem to participate, preferring instead to stand 
off and make objective comment. 

Participate or not, Raksin's music abounds in lovely and striking pas- 
sages, and to say that the loveliness and striking-power arise only from the 
nicest balance of musical impulse and dramatic requirement is surely no ad- 
verse judgment. I suppose that the possibility of refined characterization 
through music is and must continue to be severely limited as long as movies 
take their present shape. Action and externals must be attended to before 
ideas. Otherwise people will complain that the composer ignores the .story. 

And now some particulars. 

James Lee and Georgia are identified by themes of their own^ his a jag- 
ged four-note motive resembling one of Holst's "Planets" and hers a full ABA 
chorus. The main title music contains the A section and a 'preliminary!' 
version of the B. This is quoted under the heading New Introduction. (The 
score actually begins with a four— bar Introduction Revised which introduces 
the New Introduction. ) 


The first sequence is accompanied by a light, schereando movement, Jon- 
than Calling , whose opening subject ranks among the main themes of the film, 
subsequently reappearing a number of times with altered rhythm. 

The movement which opens the "Fred" episode has a troubled quality: 
mournful, chromatic melodies, discordant harmonies, throbbing pedal-points* 

The same movement, varied and extended, recurs at the end of the episode, 
as Jonathan happily blurts, "— and with von Ellstein to directi* 

A fascinating recording trick is used for an earlier scene between FTed 
and Jonathan as they figure out how to make "The Cat-Men" more' frightening* 

(See The Dark ) Here the microphone was turned on after each chord was struck, 
so that only the sustained part of the sound - without the impact - was re- 
corded. The effect is totally strange, demenitrating the fact that the qual- 
ity of an instrument’s attack is an essential part of its characteristic "tone"* 
Some will remember the use of this device in Ur* Raksin’s LAURA* 

The next movement, Hurry , is the background to the preparations for the 
"Cat-Men" preview. Here the composer develops already stated mhtCrial with 
great effectiveness as well as ingenuity* A variant of Jonathan Calling 

begins the movement, and presently the Georgia theme enters 
at about four times its original speed* These two motives 
are worked together for a little over a minute, the cue. be-C 
ing succeeded immediately by main and end titles as they 
might be manufactured for a "Cat-Men” picture* 

The second section starts with a variant of the Georgia theme on the 
alto flute. The scene moves into low-pressure action, and a circumspect 
allegretto proceeds behind it, fading presently after an especially beauti- 
G-eorQ tttr Cadence ful -cadence. Actual - 

V'.-a. cPf'W ly, this cadence has 

4 -TIlT ^ J l fl I f j | a j* been U89d » slightly 

A) t f j li i i t " ‘ r — •^r— — £- modified, twice before - 

*■ “ *- l -er- s a er- linking the Georgia 

and James Lee sequences 
in the Jonathan Calling 
cue, and shortly after, 
at the arrived of Geor- 
gia, Fred and James Lee 

in Harry Rebbel’s office. I agree heartily with Mr* Raksin's determination 
to use it again* 

Most of the music for this section is drawn from the Georgia theme* 

One of the most* distinctive of these cues is heard under the scene where 
Georgia visits the set alone at night. First the melody is given out softly 
and intimately by trombone. In a moment the Georgia variant appears aooomPan 
ied hy a dotted figure in somewhat grinding harmony* 


The Premeer is a reworking of the Hurrv subject. 

The doleful keening heard at the beginning of the "Fred" section returns 
as Georgia arrives at Jonathan's house following the' premiere , and a new set- 
ting of the agitated Georgia variant follows their scene together. IVesently 
the music fades and is replaced by the sound of the careening automobile. 

The third episode - dealing with the adventure of James Lee Bartlow opens 
with a longish cue in playful style based on the James Lee mo- 
tive. This is a most successful movement. (Oddly, I find my- 
self reminded of Elgar by much of the James Lee music when it 
gets' under way. As already mentioned, the theme itself is 
much like a theme of Holst . ) 

There are' several additional entries of this material similarly reworked. 
An attractive sample forms the background for the return of James Lee and Jon- 
athan from Arrowhead. This cue finishes with the Georgia cadence. 

The present section contains two of Ur. Raksin's quite wonderful take- 
offs. The first, entitled California , is heard as James Lee and wife arrive 
in Hollywood. I don't believe the composer' could have made music more vapid 
than' this, and I like to think that here, at last, is utter refutation of my 
earlier carping on the subject of characterization. As James Lee gazes around 
him with obvious distaste, it is only too clear that California is California 
to him. 

The other spoof is an over-magnificent finish for "The Proud Land", an 
epic photoplay of which James Lee is the author. 

*hie brief denouement of THE B AND THE B promptly follows the James Lee 
section. As Harry Psbbel, in Jonathan's behalf, asks the other three, "What 
about it - will you do this picture with him?", there is a reprise, slightly 
extended, of the music for Jonathan's letdown after finishing "Cat-Men". 

Then follows a complete statement of the Georgia theme in all its glory for 
the final playoff, end title and screen credits. 

In summary, I would acknowledge my great enthusiasm for this score. It 
is an enthusiasm which has increased with familiarity. Examining the notes 
has brought to light all sorts of admirable conceptions and maniiulqtions 
which one fails to notice at a screening. However unobserved they may be in 
the theatre, there can be no doubt as to the vital role they fill as the ele- 
mental ingredients of a gifted composer's style and as the ultimate determi- 
nants of his expression. 

TIP BAD AND THE BEAUTIFUL .. Metro- Goldwyn-Mayer. Lana Turner, Kirk Douglas. 
Director, Vincente Minnelli. Music, David Raksin c 



ihSI'j 4 

- 2 - 

Copyright 1952 bv Locw’s Incorporated Courtesy Metro - C. 

nlrlwvn . \ t -. . . _ c. i 


lS£! + 

- 4 - 


Loew's Incorporated 


1 - 1 ) 0-52 

The. Hark 





Copyright 1952 by Loew’s Incorporated • Courtesy Metro ■ Goldwyn - Mayer Studios. 


Quaintance Eaton 

TONIGHT WE SING, the Technicolor Titari of Twentieth-Century-Fox that is 
based on Sol Hurok ’s life story, is one of the best — if not the best — 
of the popularising films to come out of Hollywood. That is to say, it 
has the popular appeal hoped for, and at the same time, preserves a cer- 
tain modicum of taste, even though larsce portions of it are apocryphal. 

It will undoubtedly fare well at the box office and should not, by an- 
other token, offend the purists . 

There are, it seems to me, two reasons for the general euphoria that this 
picture spreads. One is the sympathetic story of a rags-to renown type 
familiar and beloved to the American public since Horatio Alger days. 

The other is the respectful treatment of the music involved , to its 
glory and our gain. 

Immediately after seeing the film, I obtained a copy of "Impressario.y the 
book from which it was made. S. Hurok is a well known character in my 
baliwick, but I had never happened to read his "memoir”, as the volume 
written in collaboration with Ruth Goode is called, and I am glad that I 
did not before I saw the picture, for the discrepancies might have 
struck much more forcibly if the ingratiating script put together by 
Harry Kurnitz and George Oppenheimer had not had its chance to impress 
first. And as long as Hurok himself has given his blessing( he was a 
technical advisor) who am I to worry about the particulars of, say, his 
association with Chaliapin - - - whether the famous bass ever really 
saved the impresario by dumping out a suitcase full of money in a black 
moment — - or similar other trifles. What does it matter that the Emma 
of the picture. is in real life Hurok’s second wife; that it was 
Zimbalist, not Ysaye, who played the concerts in the Hippodrome, and so 
on. It is not every man who has a chance to remake his life more nearly 
ideal for public consumption - - - Solomon Hurok is lucky. But then he 

has always been a figure 
of excitement and chal- 
lenge; the one impresario 
in the music world who 
could command as much 
ballahoo as the stars he 
pres ents . 

So, to the Hurok Story, 
with a capital S, in 
movie-land, ^rom the 
beginning, when he de- 
serts his Emma at the 
opera to sign up Chaliapin 
on the pretext of managing 
him in America, Hurok is 
star-struck. Even in the 
tough months of his early 
American life, he never 
loses faith, and he is 
able to capitalize on 
defeat even after 
Chaliapin plays a cruel 
joke on him, sending for 
him to come to Psris and 
then denying him a con- 


tract. Meeting Ysaye on the boat home, he sells the Belgian violinist 
the idea of concerts for the masses; then sells the masses. At last, 
Chaliapin capitulates -when the Russian revolution drives him from home. 
Pavlova comes under Hurok’s management ; he helps young Americans to 
fame. But he neglects his Emma , and she leaves him. When he is in 
trouble, she returns, but the final scene, when Hurok is listening to 
an Irish cabby sing instead of discussing long-postponed second-honey- 
moon plans, leaves no doubt that the story will be repeated as often 
as the impresario scents new talent. 

The high standard of the picture is maintained in the choice of cast. 

David Wayne, while no Hurok, is a charmer, a kind of leprechaun 
Russian. It is said that he worked very hard to achieve the appropri- 
ate accent; thick Russian at first, merely cosmopolitan as he grows up 
in the world. Hurok himself told me that Mrs. Hurok is mad about 
Wayne; he pretends jealousy. 

Neither is Ezio Pinza a Chaliapin, but he is very, very good indeed. 

With a soft, blonde wig and a personality that dominates every scene, 
the Italian bass plays one of the great roles of his career, and at 
the age of sixty, looks young and vigorous and sings with consumate 
art. His scenes in Boris Godounov and Faust are wonderfully compell- 
ing, aided by the perceptive staging of Armando Agnini, of the 
San Francisco Opera. The settings are also from this company, and, 
although a few touches may have been added by Hollywood, show a real 
operatic flair. 

Roberta Peters as a young America singer, performs delightfully in 
Sempre Libera from La Traviata, and in the Butterfly duet with another 
young protege of Hurok’s. This is the poorest character in the film, 
as played by Palmer, a weakly-handsome young man, who does not deserve 
Jan Peerce's beautiful voice, dubbed for him. 

Tamara Toumanova as Pavlova is hauntingly lovely and dances two of the 
divine ballerina’s favorites - - The Swan and Autumn Leaves — enchant- 
ingly. Isaac Stern, while not resembling Ysaye any too closely, has 
his own dignity and performs with breath-taking virtuosity some music 
by Sarasate and Wieniawski, The close-ups of his hands are as communi- 
cative as any I have ever seen. Fis own accompanist, Alexander Zakin, 

These are the only musical personalities, with the exception of Alex 
Steinart, who plays an opera conductor for whom the sound is undoubted- 
ly dubbed by Alfred Newman, the musical director. But other characters 
contribute valiantly, notably Anne Bancroft, as Emma; Oscar Karlweis, as 
Golder, Hurok' s faithful but timorous friend; and Mikhail Rasumny, as 
Nicolai, Chaliapin’s diminutive valet. Among other notables should be 
mentioned David Lichine, who did the choreography, and Sergei Malavsky 
a third technical advisor. Mitchell Leison directed for human as well 
as musioal values, and george Jessel produced in the spirit of show 
business as well as the art world. 

TONIGHT SING.. 20th Century-Fox. David wayne, Ezio Finza, Roberta Peters 
Isaac Stern, Tamara Toumanova. Musical Director, Alfred Newman; G horal 
Arrangements, Ken Darby. Choreography, David Lichine. 

Music; Excerpts from Mme Butterfly, Boris Godunov, La Traviata, Faust. 
Moonlight (Russian folk song) 

Sweet and Low, Bamby 
Minuetta, Franz Schubert 
The Swan, Saint Saens 
Mattanati, Leoneavalle 

Records: Album RCA Victor; Sound track of film. 



Richard Lewine 

In BECAUSE YOU'RE MIRE MGM has provided Mario Lanza with a vehicle which 
should delight his fans and bring good cheer to exhibitors around the 
country, while operating at a minimum level of originality. The slim 
story takes place at one of those impossible Hollywood Army Camps and 
Lanza plays a conscripted opera star who falls into the hands of a top- 
kick with a large collection of long-playing records, most of them, happi- 
ly* by Lanza. In due course, he falls in love with the Sargeant’s sister, 
but not until there have been tha usual clinches, misunderstandings and 
"I Never Want to See You Again", all running for the customary length of 

Lanza sings constantly through the picture, going through some half dozen 
operatic excerpts, the "Lord's Prayer" and three not especially outstanding 
new songs. Singing opposite him is Doretta Morrow, recruited from Broadway. 
Her voioe seems to lack warmth and richness, for all the skill of the orches- 
trating and recording, but she is, as someone remarked, especially"good in 
the misunderstandings". 

Generally speaking there is very little to take seriously other than the 
skillful use of music throughout the film. Lanza's voice is splendidly 
recorded and his accompaniments are rich and colorful. There is very little 
present other than the picture's musical sequences and these are a model of 
orchestral taste and intelligence. 

BECAUSE YOU'RE MINE.. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Mario Lanza, Doretta ^orravr. 
Director, Alexander Hall. Operatic numbers coached by Wolfgang Martin. 

Choral direction, Jeff Alexander. Musical Direction, Johnny Green, Technicolor. 

Songs: "Because You're Mine".. Sammy Cahn, Nicholas Brodszky. 

"The Songs Angels Sing".. Brahms -Aarons on- Webs ter. 

"Lee-ah-loo" . .John Lehmann, Raymond Sinatra. 


SKY FULL OF MOON. A brief interlude in the growing up of a young cow-hand 
takes him to Las Vegas and exposes him to the temptation of rodea prizes, 
gambling machines end a disillusioned girl who needs money. The encounters 
with all three age him a trifle, but leave no assurance that hewon't do it 
all again the next time he gets some cash. Except for an improbable touch 
or two, the little film is surprisingly satisfactory - its characters and 
local feeling colorful, alive and well-rounded . Paul Sawtell gets credit 
for the helpful score. An unusually pleasing Western ballad "A Cowboy Had 
Ought to be Single" by Charles Wolcott and Harry Hamilton is sung at the 
film's opening and closing, and does a good deal towards setting the tone 
of the picture. Mary Powell 

SKY FULL OF MOON.. Metro- Goldwyn-Mayer. Carleton Carpenter, Jan Sterling. 
Director, Norman Foster. Music, Paul Sawtell. "A Cowboy Ought to be Single", 
Charles Wolcott-Harry Hamilton. "Old Paint" , Paul Campbell arrangement. 


LILI. MGM's new production is a love story with variation^ on a tradition^ 
al theme that makes a pleasant experience for the eye and ear. There is a 
beguiling freshness in the romance between Leslie Caron, a naive little or- 
phan who becomes part of a French carnival, and Mel Ferrer, a crippled dancer, 
who operates a puppet show through which he expresses his secret love for her. 
The young girl's day-dreaming provides opportunity for the film's two striking 
danoe sequences. They are a far cry from the elaborate production numbers we 
have become accustomed to in recent years, particularly from MGM. The first 
is filmed inside a large tent with only Miss Caron, Zsa Zsa Gabor and Jean 
Pierre Aumont. A simple road with an unobstructed horizon and clouds is the 
setting provided for the second, danced by the four puppet characters, Mr. 
Ferrer and Miss Caron. 

Bronislau Kaper's acore is varied from the traditional French character of the 
opening to the very rhythmio and jazzy accompaniment for the first dream se- 
quences it complements the mood and action very well. With Helen Deutseh 
(author of the screen-play) he has also written an attractive and catchy 
waltz song, "Hi-Lili, Hi-Lo" which is effectively introduced by the puppets 
and repeated several times during the remainder of the film. 

Arthur Kendy 

LILI.. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Leslie Caron, Mel Ferrer. Director, Charles 
Walters. Music, Bronislau Kaper. Technicolor. 

* * * * * . 

HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN. An opening statement that this is a fairy tale 
disarms biographically- minded carpers, and permits acceptance of the adven- 
tures of a Danish cobbler and story-teller Hans Christian Andersen who meets 
love and success during a stay in Copenhagen, but returns nevertheless to 
the peace of his village. It is a four million dollar fairy tale with Danny 
Kaye in the title role, vivacious Jearmaire as his beloved, a Quantity of 
Frank Loesser songs, crowds of happy children and grown-ups in the pretty 
costumes and pretty sets of stereotyped early 19th Century town^and rural 
life. Danny tells three of the Andersen tales - Thumbelina , The Ugly 
Duckling!' and "The King's New Clothes" to his child audiences in song ver- 
sion. Mr. Loesser has five other good songs as well, and the most is made 


of all of them, both in staging and musical presentation. The ballet sequences 
get handsome treatment, too, culminating in the elaborate "Little Mermaid" 
number, whose music is made up of excerpts from Frans Lissts Qnomenreigen, 

Les Preludes, Tasso, Mephisto Waltser and Pas d 'Amour. Roland Pettit is 
responsible for the brilliant choreography and dance direction. 

Songs: The King's New Clothes 

The Inchworm 

I'm Hans Christian Andersen 
Wonderful Copenhagen 

The TJgly Duckling 
Anywhere I Wander 
No Two People 

Director, Charles Vidor, 


. Samuel Goldwyn. 
Words and Music, 

* * 

RKO, Radio, Danny Kaye. Farley Granger. 
Frank Loesser, Technicolor. 

Mary Powell 

* * 

THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING EARNEST. The main substance of this picture is 
seme of the wittiest dialogue ever to appear on film, and little else. Nota- 
bly absent are the staples of the film composer's art- action, suspense, 
and mood. But the film does have a definite tone, elegant, sophistocated, 
deftly satirical. And Mr, Frankel has caught the exact quality of this tone, 
implimenting it with a score no less deft and sophistocated. Shunning the 
brash or bizarre, and employing the most sparing methods, the music moves 
suavely and unobtrusively in and out of the background, to produce an occa- 
sionalnote of mock heroics or mock tragedy, to underscore briefly some 
small movement, ckuck its tongue good-naturedly, chuckle mischievously, 
and generate a subtly satirical atmosphere of the nineteenth century draw- 
ing room. Since, as in all good film scores, music is employed only where 
it contributes to the total effect, it provides here just the right dash 
or spioe and definitiveness in a nigh perfect production. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING EARNEST.. Universal- international . 
Michael Redgrave. Director, Producer, Anthony Asquith. Music, 
Frankel, Technicolor. 

Joan Greenwood, 

Herald B r0 wn 



Baok in 1927 Warner Brothers brought sound to the screen in the THE JAZZ SINGER 
and A1 Jolson became famous as its star, -^n this modern release, the basic 
story of a cantor’s son who forsakes his father’s calling to be an entertainer 
remains the same. Musically the film divides attention between a bright col- 
lection of popular songs, old and new, and deeply impressive religious music. 
Peggy Lee, of record and radio fame, shares the vocal numbers with Danny 
Thomas and her version of "Lover" is a highlight. In pleasant contrast is the 
fine solo and choral singing of traditional Jewish music in the synagogue, in 
the carefully and reverently simulated observance of the ceremonies of the High 
Holidays. Langdon 

THE JAZZ SINGER.. 'Varner Brothers. Danny Thomas, Pesgy Lee. Director 
Mkchael Cuutiz. Musical Director, Ray Heindorf. technicolor. 

Music: Kol Nidre 

I Hear the Music(based on the overture from "Ravmond") 

Living the Life I Love 
What are New Yorkers Made Of? 

Jerry Seelen and Sammy Fain. 

PETER PAN now takes its place beside the other Disney feature-length cartoon 
versions of childhood classics, and is perhaps the biggest show of the lot. 

J. M. Barrie’s tale of the "boy who wouldn’t grow up",who tempts the Darling 
children from their London nursery to his Never Land, has been filmed with its 
full quota of pirates. Lost Boys, mermaids and Indians, and an impressive 
casting of Captain Hook, the orocodile and tiny golden pixie Tinker Bell. The 
lavish production has all the color, characterization, humor and thrills that 
mark the Disney style. True to Disney format also, a string of lively songs 
becomes part of the action. "You Can Fly" is sung by Peter and the Darling 
children in their flight to Never Land? "What Makes the Red Man Red" is chanted 
by the braves in celebration of their Princess Water Lily's rescue from the 
villainous Hook; "The Elegant Captain Hook " and "A Pirate's Life" extol the 
lot of the buccaneer; a jolly marching tune, "Tee Dum,Tee Dee" keeps the Boys 
moving briskly on an Indian hunt; "Your Mother and Mine", which Wendy sings 
to the Lost Boys and her brothers. Curiously, the popular "Never Smile at a 
Crocodile ( Churchill and Lawrence) is never sung in the film, although its 
funny pompous melody always announces the presence of the monster. 

Mary Powell 

Songs: "You Can Fly" " A Pirate's Life" 

"What Makes the Red Man Red" " Tee Dum, Tee Dee" 

"The Elegant Captain Hook" Oliver Wallace and Ed Penner. 

"Your Mother and Mi ne " 

Sammy Cahn and Sammy Fain. 

PETER PAN.. Walt Disney: RKO Radio. Musioal Score, Oliver Wallace. Orches- 
tration, Edward Plumb. Vocal arrangements, Jud Conlon. Technicolor. 



When Jerome Moross considered the orchestration of Donald Puller's score 
for the new theatrical animation short, THE PEPPERMINT TREE, he pondered 
for some time the problem of what to do with the six musicians allotted by 
the budget. He wanted to avoid the severely economical sound of"one of 
everything" — that is, one instrument of every category, woodwinds, strings, 
percussion, etc. The problem was to create a satisfying over-all balance 
sls well as an appropriate musical characterisation of the style and charm 
of the figures in the cartoon. 

The film was made to a delightful poem by John Latouche (lyricist of "Ballad 
for Americans" and "Cabin in the Sky") and is narrated and sung by a multi- 
voiced Carol Charming (star of GENTLEMEN PREFER BLONDES), It is extremely 
humorous and touching as it describes the situation and adventures of a 
Dr. 0 ’Zany whose reputation among his neighbors as the town’s most befuddled 
genius and fool gradually becomes altered in fairy tale-like quality to a 
hero completely and lovingly accepted by his fellow citizens, 

Moross came up with a solution for the orchestra that well-fulfilled the 
story’s events and quality, ^e chose a harp, guitar,harpsichord, piano and 
celeste(double), vibraphone and xylophone (double) and Hammond organ. The 
resultant sound is highly commended to this magazine’s readers for its ima- 
gination, gentleness and ingenious blend of sound. Its relationship to 
the film is as precise and fascinating as a cartoon should be, 

A song called "If You Wish on a Star" is as enchanting and warm a melody as 
one would ever want to whistle after a movie. The unioue treatment of the 
score and its orchestration is heartily recommended. Gene Foirell 


Something of the rodeo riders career comes alive in this account of two per- 
formers - an exchamp and his successor; the dreary round of the circuits with 
their battered has-been hangers-on, the flashy girls, the anxious wives, the 
craze for quick money, glory and excitement, the inevitable tragic end. Roy 
Webb’s score has a number of lovely passages, and in conjunction with Lee 
Garners* distinguished camera-work is memorable in building up the haunting 
atmosphere of this bit of Americana. M. Langdon. 

THE LUSTY MAN,, RKO, Radio. Susan Hayward , Robert Mitchum. Director, 
Nicholas Ray, Music, Roy ■'Vbb. 



Karline Brown 

Five years ago the Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County had a 
empty room in a storage building and an idea. Now that room has over six 
hundred and fifty 16mm sound films, thousands of recordings both in stand- 
ard and long playing speeds, film strips, a large collection of glass 
slides and a growing one of 2"x2" Kodachromes. 

Many public libraries today, among them the Cincinnati Public Library, have 
the point of view that it is the function and responsibility of a public 
library to meet the community’s needs for knowledge, information, recrea- 
tion, inspiration, whether these needs are met through the traditional book 
printed on paper, or through the film, filmstrip or Kodachrome slide printed 
on celluloid, or through the recording pressed on shellac or reproduced on 
vinyl ite. 


We pioneering audio-visual librarians are having stimulating experiences 
in our field. We are seeing the horizons of the 16mm film expand tech- 
nically, in variety of subject matter. Musical background is ringing in- 
teresting changes, too. 

For instance, in the early days of the 16mm documentary film the two classic 
scores of background music to which film librarians always pointed with just- 
ifiable pride were THE RIVER and THE CITY, with expressive scores by Virgil 
Thomson and Aaron Copland respectively. These two films still keep high 
place, but many others in the Cincinnati Public Library's collection show 
true artistry in their handling of the musical score. 

In a rather subtle motion picture like THE STORY OF TIME produced in 1952 by 
Robert G. Leffingwell for Cornell Films, as the rich animation unrolls on 
the screen the original score by Guy Warrack partially replaces speech. In- 
deed, the film was produced only with a musical score without narration, but 
it proved too abstruse for the average viewer, and commentary was added. 
Correlated with the visual images the musical score is an invaluable adjunct, 
reflecting the film’s mood. 

PICTURE IN YOUR MIND, a sequel to BOUNDARY LINES, produced by Julien Bryan, 
is even more subtle in its concepts of intercultural relations. Gene Forrell's 
original score is so perfectly integrated with the clever animation by Philip 
Stapp that it renders an emotional situation specific, provides continuity 
and cohesion to the screen material. The score gives Mood, warmth, emotion- 
al tone. It points up the action. It adds humor. It is important in estab- 
lishing and maintaining the emotional tone. In PICTURE IN v OUR MIND there 
is a trinity of elements in nice balance-realistic use of speech, evocative 
musio, exciting forms and colors. 

Norman McLaren’ s ingenious hand-drawn abstract productions such as FIDDLE- 
DE-DEE and BEGONE DULL CARE, pioneers in their field, are now progenitors 
of a line of avant-garde abstract films. McLaren's work, however, remains 
outstanding for its fine synthesis of visual image and musical accompaniment, 
whether it be LISTEN TO THE MOCKINGBIRD in FIDDLE-DE-DEE or the boogie of 
the Oscar Peterson Trio in BEGONE DULL CARE. 

On programs of Music at Noon, the Publio Library of Cincinnati’s weekly re- 
corded concert, we often interpolate a musical film per se, such as that 
lovely example of piano music, MYRA HESS, so cleverly photographed that it 
avoids monotony and a notable example of a true sound track. Or we may use 
a slight variation, perhaps PACIFIC 231, Honegger’s vigorous score with a pho- 
tographic accompaniment of a train traversing the French countryside. With 
the Diesel engine gaining ascendancy, this motion picture and Honegger’s con- 
cept of the sound of a steam locomotive, may become museum pieces before too 



The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County has some forty musical 
films in its collection and many more document ary- type or "idea" films with 
specially composed musical scores to lend atmosphere, heighten a situation 
or serve as connecting link between sequences. 

For the collection of the Western Ohio Film Circuit, composed of eight 
public libraries in Western Ohio and administered by the Public Library 
of Cincinnati, musical films have been carefully selected and are having 
quite a whirl. 


BLOOD BROTHERS was originally a F renc h feature film called, THE TOWER OF 
BABEL and was released abroad more than a year ago. It traced the rise 
and threats of Nazi and Communist totalitarianism through the exclusive 
of extraordinary documentary and newsreel material from pre-World I days 
to the present. The score for the film was composed by Arthur Honegger, 

Arthur Hoeree, and Tibor Harsanyi with Honegger conducting the Concert 
Orchestra of the Paris Conservatory of Musio. 

When Robert Snyder ( The TITAN) was placed in charge of directing a much- 
revised version to a new script of Quentin Reynolds for American distrib- 
ution, he suggested a new approach to the music as well as the visual ma- 
terial in the film. The original score was therefore supplemented by music 
and sounds of documentary origin to match the new structure. 

The prologue and end of the film showing man in his lowest estate as concen- 
tration camp victims is accompanied by the singing of Medieval Catholic musio. 

To accompany most of the Nazi history, ideas were culled from the score to 
the famous Nazi film, TRIUMPH OF THE WILL. Here was found a long, sustained 
trumpet tone (like the opening to Wagner's Rienzi) which was used to signal 
"Heils " and various political pronouncements throughout this sequence. A 
real Nazi march with all its hero-glorifying quality was used repeatedly to 
accompany each invasion made by Hitler. Another march created solely by 
magnificently co-ordinated feet and drums produced a perfect deadly and 
hollow sound for a theme of the robotization of men in both German and 
Russian sequences. 

For scenes of the life of the last of the Czars, the old Imperial Russian 
National Anthem as played by the Czar's own band and recorded many years' 
ago is heard. Also, for the more recent Russian material since the Revolu- 
tion, Soviet music is frequently employed. This includes the original 
"Internationale” played, sung and recorded at the time of Lenin's reign. 

During a sequence of historical and sentimental paintings of the life and 
rise of Stalin, the quiet, serene music of the Tschaikovsky String Quartet 
is heard as casual satire. 

Most of the original score for the French version is retained, although con- 
siderable liberty was taken in the re-arranging of its sections. In it 
there is an outstanding collection of drum rdlls, marches and an exciting 
use of the Theremin which constantly gives a vocal aspect to the orchestral 

BLOOD BROTHERS.. Produced by Parliament Productions .Distributed by Classio 
Pictures, Inc. 

Gene Forrell has recently completed a score to an entertaining and unusual 
film about the lives and adventures of young children in a well-known 
private school in New York City. The film is called, HOUSE OF THE CHILD. 
Forrell's latest score accompanies a film produced for the American Cancer 
Society called THE WARNING SHADOW, Both films are scheduled for early release. 


James Limbacher 

Until a year ago, the problem facing members of the FILM ARTS SOCIETY a t 
Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, was the acceptance 
of film music by the students, faculty and townspeople of Bowling Green. 

The problem was solved last September when the society began a series of 
thirty programs of film music discussions on the radio called "Music from 
the Films. 

The society, (which at present consists of four members) also sponsors the 
campus Cinema Club, a motion picture study group; film research, and a 
film program planning service. All these things being successful, the so- 
ciety turned to the introduction of film music appreciation to the layman 
film goer. 

In Cinema Club, which has a membership of 54 students, faculty and towns- 
people, the musical score of a film is discussed before the film is shown, 
much to the enjoyment of the members. Good and bad points of the musical 
score are pointed out. 

The Film Arts Society is encouraging other film societies to adopt film 
music radio programs as a project and several university film societies 
are now planning such shows, 

"Music from the Films" is presented weekly on Tuesday evenings and each 
program is one-half hour in length. More than a "disc jockey" broadcast 
the program is limited mostly to instrumental musio and does not include 
the more "popular" scores from the Hollywood musicals. The programs are 
done in discussion form, usually with myself as moderator and one of the 
Film Arts Society members as guest. A variant of the rerular program 
format has been a feature called "My Favorite Film Music "which presented 
five University students discussing their favorite musio from a motion 
picture. The scripts are prepared several weeks ahead of the broadcast 
and sent to the participants so they may study them and make desired 
changes. None of the programs is presented without a script. The programs 
of film music are derived frcm the standard recorded works distributed by 
the major recording companies. The recordings of the J. Arthur Rank studios 
are not available for use. After 15 programs the listenership, although 
small, has become enthusiastic. The programs are broadcast from WBGU, the 
Bowling Green State University FM radio station, which has a radius of 20 
miles around Bowling Green. 

When the musical score being discussed does not fill out the entire half 
hour, we add a shorter piece of film music. Some are not in their origin- 
al form — suoh as Bach-Gounod f s "Ave Maria" used as a theme in THE MIRACLE 
OF OUR LADY OF FATIMA and "La Vie En Rose" from TO THE VISTOR. All are 
instrumental versions. 

Oh each program we offer a seven-page report on film music free for the ask- 
ing. Requests have come in from several students and faculty members and, 
through a note in FILM MUSIC , have been requested by a St, Louis radio 
station, an Army band director in Michigan, and interested persons in sever- 
al other states. 

The program schedule for "Music from the Films" is as follows: 









5. Ballet Music — THE RED SHOES and "Slaughter on Tenth Avenue" from WORDS AND MUSIC 



7. Academy Award Scores by Max Steiner — SINCE YOU WENT AWAY, NOW VCYAGER and 


8. Music of David Raksin — FOREVER AMBER, LAURA. 

9. My Favorite Film Music — Featuring five student guests. 

10. The Film Arts Society Christmas Party— Featuring the favorite music of the 

society members. 



13. Musio from Experimental Films — MUSIC OUT OF THE MOON, "Creation du Monde" 


16. An Alfred Newman Program — — ALL ABOUT EVE, PINKY, A LETTER TO THREE WIVES, 


17. A Miklos Rozsa Program— MADAME BOVARY, LOST WEEKEND, and LYDIA. 



21. MuSic from American Film Dramas — FOUR WIVES, DUEL IN THE SUN, UNDERCURRENT, 



23. Music from American Mysteries — THE PARADINE CASE, THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA, 


24. Scores by Aaron Copland — FIESTA and OUR TOWN 


26. Gershwin Film Themes — AN AMERICAN IN PARIS and RHAPSODY IN BLUE 


28. Love Themes from Motion Pictures 

For those interested in film music — whether it be on the university or commu- 
nity level, a group of four persons can present an interesting and stimulating 
series of programs, and most radio stations should find time in their "public 
interest" schedules — especially the smaller ones with the specialized listen- 
ing audience. 

If programs such as this are broadcast throughout the United States, they should 
bring film music into greater prominence as one of the most creative of the 
musical arts. 



Delinda Roggensack 

The motion picture ranks with the newspaper and the radio in being one 
of the greatest forces of mass communioation of our modern day. Because 
it is so, it behooves educators to reconsider courses of study to include 
the development of appreciation for the entertainment soreen, and to set 
some values and standards for the young. 

Few great writers of fiction had any ideas of education in mind when they 
wrote their great stories or plays. As with the theatre, it is the box- 
office on which the motion picture industry casts its eye. If there are 
by-products for education in the entertainment movie, so much the better. 
The motion picture is a very strong factor in our current culture and a 
powerful educative force. It being strong in and of itself, it corres- 
pondingly strengthens other areas. Calls for books of biography, history 
and fiction, increase materially following certain movies. Sales of re- 
cordings following musicals, —lives of composers or performers, oper- 
ettas, or musical comedies, or excerpts of great compositions performed 
by great artists, - rise to astounding heights. While the story content 
of the average picture is the important consideration, an analysis of the 
complete structure shows a beautiful integration of art, music, and drama 
produced through the media of modern invention in the hands of highly 
skilled technicians and directors. 

The modern school music teacher must be a paragon of virtues. Nut only 
must he (or she) have an intimate knowledge of all phases of the music 
program, but he must keep up with the world in all matters that contri- 
bute to music. He must know recordings. He must know in radio what is 
on the "hit parade" as well as the so-called"classical offerings". The 
same is also true of TV. Since the students in his classes will see, on 
an average, two movies a week, it should be one of his objectives to de- 
velop some knowledge and some standard of taste. 

How can one do all this? First, a knowledge of what is coming to the 
local theatres in the future. Your theatre manager will be happy to 
release such information and will give you, in addition, any materials 
he may have regarding "coming attractions". If one of the coming pro- 
ductions is a musical, or the life of some great composer or performer 
your opportunity is a gold mine? It serves as a perfect ready-made 
spring-board for future study in: — biography; history of music in re- 
lation to history of man: performing groups; study of structure and 

form; and the artists and stars of the production. The prospeot ahead 
for such films looks very happy indeed.* 

If the picture is other than musical, it usually has. a music background 
to enhance the plot. Most people know little, if anything about this 
new art-form. Knowledge of what goes into the writing of music for 
films; how that writing differs from other types of composition! who 
the music writers are; their experiences with specific films; their 
integrity in providing authenticity in music; - all aid in this pro- 
blem of teaching for appreciation. If one can get students to observe 
the titles at the beginning of the picture for the music writers and 
music directors, he has started on his way. The next step is to hear 
the music! 

While movie music is not generally concert music because of the necessary 
quick changes in moods, much of it is really good and even great musio. 

To aid you in this "teaching appreciation" many themes from films have 
been excerpted and expanded for recordings and have been made available. 
Lists of those recordings appear from time to time in FILM MUSIC publi- 


Sigmund Spaeth 

Just about the funniest thing in Gabriel Pascal’s production of Bernard 
Shaw's ANDROCLES AM) THE LION is haring the early Christian martyrs enter 
the Roman Coliseum singing "Onward Christian Soldiers" and other modern 
hymns. G.B.S. himself would probably hare appreciated this rather grim 
joke, if he did not actually originate it. 

* * * * * 

The charming songs of Frank Loess er are perhaps the greatest asset enjoyed 
by Samuel Goldwyn's gorgeous HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSON. But the elaborate 
ballet of "The Little Mermaid" should hare most of its musie credited to 
Franz Liszt. 


There is now a Polish film on the life of Chopin which is probably as author- 
itatire as any yet made. Nerertheless it is not likely that the American 
public will erer forget A SONG TO REMEMBER, in spite of its musical anachron- 
isms and historical, inaccuracies. It happened to hare audience appeal. 


Eileen Joyce, the British pianist, who did the off-screen playing for the 
SEVENTH VEIL and other motion pictures, is now the subject of her own film 
biography, WHEREVER SHE GOES, whose title is obviously derired from the 
old Banbury ross nursery rhyme ("she shall hare music"), etc. Miss Joyce 
concentrates mostly on the Grieg Concerto but also plays Beethoren's "Fur 
Elise" for a seene representing her as a child prodigy. 


Darid Wayne hardly suggests the impresario S. Hurok whom he impersonates 
in the biographical TONIGHT WE SING. But Ezio Pinza is a good double for 
the fabulous naliapin, rocally as well as physically, and Toumanova should 
make a fairly corrrincing Parlowa. The tenor roice of Jan Peerce is merely 
dubbed in for a minor character I 


It was a good idea to break up the documentary OF MEN AND MUSIC into a 
series of short subjects for television. That is the way the material should 
have been originally released to theatres and it is still a possibility even 
for so successful a feature as Walt Disney's FANTASIA. 


There is keen anticipation of the filmed life of Dame Nellie Melba, with 
Patricia Munsel singing the role of the great soprano. John Philip Sousa 
has been successfully transferred to the screen in the waspish person of 
Clifton Webb, while Gilbert and Sullivan are on their way, with Robert 
Morley and Maurice Evans playing the famous pfcir of musical collaborators. 



Concert ■' 


, __ jea TOUS Las SOIKS 


\ ' 



ARCH - APRIL 1953 



Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 28 
Butterfield 8-3288 




MOULIN ROUGE Lee J. Pockriss 

SALOME (with score excerpts) George W. Duning 

CALL ME MADAM Nathan Kroll 




William Hamilton 


Roger Bowman 


Lee J. Pockriss, composer 

George W. Duning, film composer 

Nathan Kroll, composer-conductor, radio, films, TV. 

David Raksin, film composer 

Mary Ellen Bute, artist-musician 
William Hamilton, writer-musician 
Roger Bowman, TV Producer. 



Editor, Film Music 

United Nations, N. Y. 

Toronto, Canada 

Eastman Music School 

Beverly Hills, Calif. 

Libraries, Stamford, Conn. 

New York 

Columbia University, N. Y. 

New York 

London, England 


Univ. Calif. L. A. 

Ohio Dept, of Education 

Cornell College, Iowa 

Portland, Oregon 

stanue McConnell 

San Diego, Calif. 

New York 

Oberlin College, O. 

Dartmouth College, N. H. 


Published by the National Film Music Council, 26 East 83rd St., New York 28. President, William Hamilton; Vice President and Editor, Marie L. Hamilton; 
Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues yearly with occasional bulletins. Two dollars and fifty cents a year. Single copies fifty cents. Back files (28 copies) 
five dollars plus postage. 


THE NATIONAL FILM MUSIC COUNCIL has selected the following scores for their 
distinguished contribution to film music in 1952. 












David Raksin 
Hugo Friedhofer 
Dimitri Tiomkin 
Miklos Rozsa 
Roy Webb 
Georges Auric 
Bernard Herrmann 
Herschel B. Gilbert 
Alex North 

BECAUSE YOU'RE MINE. Musical direction, Johnny Green. 

HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN. Songs, Frank Loesser. Musical 

direction, Walter Scharf. 

SINGIN' IN THE RAIN. Songs, Arthur Freed, Nacio H. Brown. 

Musical direction, Lennie Hayton. 
WITH A SONG IN MY HEART. Musical direction, Alfred Newman. 

SIR WILLIAM Sir William Walton will pay his first visit to the United States 
WALTON this summer. He has been invited by the Southern California Symphony 

Association to conduct a concert of his work at the Hollywood Bowl 
in August. His new 33 ml Phonic march "Orb and Scepter", written for 
the coronation of Oueen Flizabeth II, will be included in the performance. Sir 
William is well known to American audiences for his many film scores, notably his 

JOHNNY Johnny Green, General Musical Director for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 

GREEN has been made a life member of the Academy of Motion Picture 

Arts and Sciences for his work as chairman, producer and director 
of the recent Academy Award Program. Life membership has been 
voted to only three members in the twenty-five years of the Academy's existence. 

Mr Green has been identified with the Awards programs since 1945. 

STANDARD OIL Although the Standard School Broadcast does not come under the 
BROADCASTS heading of film music, we would like to draw attention to it. The 
Broadcast has been presented to western classroom audiences once 
a week for the past quarter century by the Standard Oil Company 
of California over the NBC network, ar.d is designed as a course in music enjoy- 
ment. Each program this year was devoted to the music of a different country 
and its place in America. A teacher's manual is provided, giving background 
material for the various lessons. The Broadcast features an orchestra of thirty- 
five men, directed by Carmen Dragon, film score composer and conductor. 



Lee J. Pockriss 

MOULIN ROUGE purports to be the 'story’ of Toulouse-Lautrec. As the syno- 
psis says, it is "the human drama of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, a strange 
little man who was a giant in the world of art." It would seem to me that 
any picture dedicated to the 'human drama' of an important figure in the 
history of art would attempt to (l) capture the dominating spirit of his 
time and milieu — (2) establish his artistic and social relationship to «■ 
this milieu — and (3; to try and give as honest and rounded a portrayal 
as possible of the person considered, consistent of course with the de- 
mands of making a commercial motion picture. 

This film unfortunately limits its responsibility to a stated subject of 
scope and integrity by — (l) watering down the dominating spirit of 
Lautrec's time to a presentation of superficial aspects of Parisian life 
in the 1880's, such as the ebullience of the patrons and performers in 
the nightclub from which the picture draws its title, and several isola- 
ted shots of stereotyped segments of both the higher and nether regions 
of society — (2) showing the artist's professional surroundings to be 
little more than the inescapable group of picturesque but ever impecunious 
group of painters clustered at a cafe table sharing pleasantries and a mu- 
tual thirst, and the late 19th century Bohemia of the operetta and roman- 
tic novel, complete with garret, misunderstanding blue-nosed art-patronesses, 
and copious amounts of cognac — and (3) limiting its appraisal of Lautrec 
as a person by focusing attention on his physical deformity, and its con- 
comitant unhappiness. This facet of his personality is admittedly an im- 
portant one, and must have undeniably colored his personal life to a great 
degree, butto dwell unceasingly on this one sensational aspect to the 
exclusion of everything else seems unfair. 

These qualifications would not be necessary if MOULIN ROUGE did not imply 
that it was the definitive film work on Toulouse-Lautrec, because consid- 
ered purely on the grounds of film entertainment, MOULIN ROUGE is a 
colorful and unusual evening's entertainment. 

The score for MOULIN ROUGE was written by Georges Auric, one of the Group 
de Six, who of recent years has devoted much time to the composing of 
film scores. The music here is excellent, refreshing in texture, imagin- 
ative in orchestration, and discriminating in choice of material, I 
think the question of texture is the most important factor in setting this 
music apart. It is generally very light and translucent with a predilec- 
tion for using woods in a solo capacity and in such a characteristic 
way, that they are able to extricate themselves from the usual gluey 
background of strings and horns in which they are so often buried. The 
texture is very French and piquant, and the music itself has a 'point of 
view* and immediacy which is at once apparent and quite important in 
successfully fulfilling its commitments. The problems of mise enscene, 
presence, etc, will be mentioned as they occur in the film. 

The title music is in the form of a small three-part overture beginning 
with an agitato - like theme in the strings and a hazy background of woods. 
This is followed by a charming and nostalgic little waltz lightly scored 
for flute, harp and strings. The material for this middle section is 
taken from one of the two songs which later occurs in the film, and later 
is used once again as background music. A short reprise of the opening 


agitato ends the title music, and the film proper opens with a shot of the 
crowds entering the Moulin Rouge. There is no music for the establishing 

The following scene inside the Moulin Rouge contains one of the longest 
sections of music in the film, most of which is devoted to the dances 
which follow. At first it is orchestrated in a very realistic fashion; 
perhaps one trombone, one trumpet, one sax, several woods and a modest 
number of strings, resulting in a very believable sound consistent with 
what one might expect a twelve or fifteen piece band to sound like in an 
unsavory dancehall. The balance, however, is occasionally too low for a 
hall containing two thousand noisy people. As far as the music itself 
is concerned, it is almost rondo-like in form. A lively little theme 
in the flute keeps recurring, interspersed with different sections of 
polka material. The flute theme is very simple, but demanding and 
stayed with me. 

Next on the floor show is Miss Gabor (Zsa Zsa,that is) who as the char- 
acter of Jane Avril sings the song from which the middle section of the 
title music was taken. The music of the song is warm and appealing, but 
the lyrics are completely out of keeping with the decor, the voice used 
is of the bad concert hall variety, and Miss Gabor's staging is unbeliev- 
ably bad. And suddenly the orchestration becomes more complicated and 
sophisticated. It is, considered by itself, charming and tasteful, but 
quite inconsistent with the surroundings after the realistic use of os- 
tensibly the same orchestra which played for the dances. 

The can-can girls then enter to a burst of the traditional Offenbach 
music, played by an orchestra miraculously augmented for this purpose 
to symphonic proportions. 


As everyone leaves the Moulin, Lautrec is left seated alone at his table 
t e lights grow dim, and the scrubwomen begin to clean up. It is here that 
the first music of dramatic intension occurs. A mysterioso, funereal in 
character, beg ins with the strings playing a tremelo figure and celeste 
figurations. Slowly it builds till Lautrec stands to reveal his stature, 
and then recedes again. As he walks through the deserted streets he is 
accompanied by a sad and somewhat modal theme used throughout the film 
to signify his loneliness and enforced isolation. 

A flashback of his childhood follows with fragments of music in several 
scenes, always returning to his walk through the streets, and continua- 
tion of the initial music. After meeting Marie Chalet, they both con- 
tinue to his apartment, and this section of the music ends with a run 
on the bassoon repeated several times which is quite atmospheric in 

There are quite a few scenes which follow establishing Lautrec *s unhappy 
relationship to Marie and his life of waiting for her to return to him. 
For this Auric uses music of basically non-thematic character relying 
again on solo woods in ostinato and dreary recurring figures. 

One scene takes place in a very fashionable restaurant and the music is 
drawn from what one might expect to hear ifc such a place* It is a string 
ensemble playing rather contemporary sounding salon music, sweet in char- 
acter. As the relationship between the two people becomes strained they 
begin to argue, and the refined sound of the string ensemble continuing 
in the background is a striking contrast to the bitter haranguing taking 
place between them. However, they leave as they aro-ue, and the music 
accompanies them outside, and down the block, which was a little discon- 

The use of realistic music is occasionally inconsistent for a little later 
Lautrec in his search for Marie goes to the Paris stews. Here he finds 
her in a cheap bar of Hogarthian aspect, and the music is wonderfully re- 
alised through the use of a concertina and out-of-tune piano. 

There are several important and wholly dramatio scenes which gain from 
an intelligent and sensitive use of music showing the oomposer's insight 
into the situation and his characters, but they all cannot be discussed. 
One is the suicide scene where the music ominously follows Lautrec's 
thoughts, as he turns on the gas and' closes the window. It follows 
closely as he sees an unfinished canvas and realises slowly that this is 
his reason for continuing to exist. He adds a few brush strokes to it, 
and then turns off the gas and opens the window to reveal the light and 
hope of the morning. This is a complicated psychological transition 
which takes place in a short amount of time, and is successful I feel 
through the ever present support of the music. 

There is also a river scene on the Bateau Vouch with a simple use of har- 
monica and huramimg which is quite effective, and a montage of Lautrec ’s 

paintings and sketches, which allows for a lively and successful little 
concertino for woods and chamber orchestra, and a circus scene where 
again a use of solo instruments and light orchestration is charming and 
well oonceived, 

Another song by Zsa Zsa (Gabor) again leaves much to be desired but I 
doubt whether Mr, Auric can be saddled with this responsibility. It is 
compensated for by another montage of Lautrec's works, these concerned 
with his subjects of lesser social repute. The music for this is very 
strange, modal, and almost oriental in character, and quite desolate 
in feeling. 

Finally in Lautrec’s death scene the spirits of his Moulin Rouge that 
was, dance in to wave goodbye to him. Here again is used the little 
flute theme I mentioned earlier, and other musical elements of the open- 
ing dance section. 

MOTJLIN ROUGE .. Romulus: United Artists. Jose Ferrer, Suzanne Flon. 
Director, John Huston. Music. score, Georges Auric. Technicolor. 



George W. Duning 

The -writing of the hackground score for the Columbia Picture, SALOME was 
one of those "once in a blue moon" opportunities for a film composer. The 
film story by Harry Kleiner presents Salome in a sympathetic light. The 
main ingredients of the story are the love of Claudius for Salome, the 
plotting of Queen Herodias against John the Baptist by King Herod. The film 
was directed by William Dieterle, a director who has a tremendous flair for 
this type of picture. A great deal of the score, over an hour in length, 
plays in the open without dialogue or sound effects to cover it. 

All of the chief characters, Salome, Claudius, King Herod, Queen Herodian, 
John the Baptist, and Esra, the King's religious counselor, are more or 
less of equal importance. The tried but true technique of the leit-motif 
was suggested. 

Unlike QUO VADIS, whoae fine score by ^iklos Rozsa was stylistically cor- 
rect and authentic, SALOME was filmed as a dramatic love story, and it was 
the opinion of Morris Stoloff (head of Columbia Music Department) and myself 
that the music should be written in a symphonic manner. I did considerable 
research in ancient Hebrew music and the music of the Greeks and Romans of 
that period, I found, in wading through several centuries of music both 
prior to and following the time of Christ, a remarkable similarity in melod- 
ic lines. I noted numerous examples of music settings for Psalms of David 
in which the same sequences of notes could be found in the Gregorian Chants 
which came several centuries later. A s a matter of fact, when I set up the 
material for the "Baptist" theme, I instinctively did so in terms of the 
Gregorian Chants . 

The only concessions that were made as to authentic sounds of instruments 
of the period were the occasional uses of an Irish harp, a viola d'amore, 
an oboe d’amore, cymbalsm camel bells, and flute. Ify orchestrator, Arthur 
Morton and I felt that the occasional use of these colors was sufficient 
to indicate the geographical flavor of certain scenes. Otherwise, the en- 
tire score is written in the grand symphonic manner, using a modern orches- 
tra consisting of full strings, woodwinds in twos, four horns, three trum- 
pets, three trombones, tuba, harp, and a battery of percussion. 

The main theme, which is the Salome (Rita Hayworth) and love story theme, 
was divided into three sections; The first section (example A) has a 
somewhat modal character. 




Comp. 6y GEORGE W CONING 4 J.c 4 ?. 

( -'•qU.i Cclu*nb«fl Net- Ccrp ^ 

The seoond section (example B ) is of a rather light and expressive character. 

The third section (example C) was used for the more moody and dramatic scenes: 
for instance, the quarrel between Claudius and Salome and the scene where 
Queen Herodius asked her daughter to dance for the King and Salome storms out 
of the Queen's quarters. 

The Claudius (Stewart Granger) theme (example D) is usually heard in horns, 
or horns and oelli. It was written so that it could be played as a counter 
line to the first section of the Salome theme (example K). 

,D) " C L AUDI I S 


The main theme (example A) was also used in the light manner (example I). 
This treatment was used in an amusing scene between Salome and Claudius 
in which Salome is piqued because she has been supplied with sea water 
for her bath. 

King Herod( Charles Laughton) called for a strong and somewhat pompous 
theme (example E). This theme usually was played by the low strings in 
the tutti passages, or as a bass clarinet solo in the quieter dialogue 
s cenes . 


The Queen Herodias (Judith Anderson 'theme (example F) is of a fragmentary- 
nature and is usually heard in the cold tones of a pair of muted horns or 
a olarinet played non-expressive. 





The character of Pontius Pilate and his Roman followers is set up in a martial 
piece of music in which I used a unison of horns set above a bass line con- 
sisting of a succession of parallel fourths and fifths (example G). 

© JUodtz 

TrbU. 7 \ 



As noted above, the character of John the Baptist (Alan BadelJ was set forth 
in a melody adapted along the lines of the Gregorian Chants, This melody is 
usually heard in horns in unison played very softly with a cushion of strings 
above. In one wonderful scene, near the end of the picture, in whioh Salome 
and Claudius visit the Baptist who has been imprisoned in a dungeon in Herod’s 
palace, I was able to use the Baptist theme to greater advantage. The scene 
is over six minutes in length, and most of it is covered by a long speech by 
Claudius in which he describes the miracles he has seen performed by Christ, 
Because of the low, soft quality of the dialogue, I had to be extremely care- 
ful in the treatment of the background music, I used two groups of strings, 
one with mutes, and played them against each other. Under one very low line, 

I even thinned out the orchestra to four violins. At the climax of the scene, 
where John the Baptist has been overcome with emotion over the realization 
that the Messiah has cane, he gives his blessing to Salome and Claudius and 
tells them to "go in peace". This dialogue was extremely low and I got over 
it by resolving the climax achieved with the full string orchestra to a single 
note whioh holds over the dialogue line "go in peace". 

The caravan scene in which Salome is being transported by the Roman soldiers 
baok to Galilee is beautifully filmed. A great many of the scenes were 
actually shot in Israel. As a matter of fact, the scene on the river bank 
in which the Romans attack the Baptist and his followers, was shot on the 
bank of the river Jordon. Because of the length of the caravan scenes I 
set up special material (example J) and alternated this material with 
treatments of the Salome music. Ifflhen the caravan arrives at the castle of 
Herod, I was able to alternate this music with the Herod theme. 

(srEA-»iLy) , The CAR. A VAN " 

TvkTx j, * r > m > 

The picture ends with excerpts frtrn the Sermon On The Mount. Again, I had 
the problem of a low dialogue level plus the fact that I wished to bring in 
the Roger Warner Chorale and work to a climax for the end title. I used four 
horns in a modal melody which starts on a low n g n played very softly to an 
organ of high strings. The melody played by the horns gradually climaxes to 
a high n b" at which point I had all the violins repeat the horn melody in a 
higher register. The Chorale is singing a supporting structure; the entire 
soene resolving to ”D n major. 

® { Salome ) 

Warmly * 



SALOME (/ V ) 4 //v Title. T&latment) 

f $ 









* M £ ROD*The.M£ ( Main Title T^eatmeht') 

The musio for the "Dance of the Seven Veils" was written by my eminent 
colleague, Daniele Amfitheatrof. 

A thirty minute album of some of the principle scenes in SALOME will be 
available on Deoca records. 

SALOME.. Columbia Pictures.. Producer, Buddy Adler. Director, William Dieterle. 
Musical Director, Morris Stoloff, ^usic Score, George Duning. Orchestrations, 
Arthur Morton. "Dance of the Seven Veils", Daniele Amfitheatrof. 


Nathan Kroll 

20th Century Fox may well take a bow for this excellent film version of Irving 
Berlin's CALL ME MADAM. It's a big lush musical in the best Hollywood tradition* 
It boasts a good workable plot, a bag full of good tunes by one of America's 
great tunesmiths , Plus the incomparable Ethel Merman. 

As in the Broadway success, the screen version is about one Sally Adams (Ethel 
Merman) who has gravitated from Oklahoma to Washington, DiC. where with her 
naturalness and her oil millions she has rapidly become the leading party giver, 
hostess to some of the biggest names in the news. Such unusual talents bring 
their own rewards, and as the story opens, Ethel is being sworn in as the 
ambassador of the United States to the Grand Duchy of Lichtenburg (Mythical, of 
course). Not knowing beans about her new job, she takes with her as her press 
attache a young man of great erudition and charm (Donald O’Connor). Once in 
Lichtenburg we meet the usual servicable Grand Duke and Duchess, Prince and 
Princess (Vera-Ellen), and the handsome Secretary of State (George Sanders). 
Ambassadorial proceedings are studded with amusing imaginary telephone 
conversations between Mbadsador Ethel and "Harry" that take in good-natured 
kidding of Margaret's adventures with music critics. 

Musically, "the film offers a 
flock of typical Berlin tunes, 
all expertly handled, though 
a bit on the brassy side. 

When Miss Merman is on she 
literally pops out of both 
the screen and the sound 
track. After thirteen tunes 
this can become a bit wear- 
ing. However, most audiences 
will enjoy Merman's singing 
"Hostess with the Mostes on 
the Ball" ."Marrying for Love", 
and many others. "I Like Ike" 
is the only tune that was 
eliminated from the original 
Broadway version. Irving 
Berlin substitutes a song 
he wrote in 1913, called 
"International Rag." This number introduces Ambassador Ethel to the assembled 
Lichtenbur|$er8 at a Palace reception. The song is in the mold of "Alexander 's 
Ragtime Band" and serves its purpose very well in this film. It gives La Merman 
a chance to really let go. She is accompanied by the old world orchestra led 
by Leon Belasco, the conductor of the palace musicians. 

Donald O'Connor as the Ambassador's personal press attache and lovely Vera- 
Ellen as the Princess have had scenes built up for them that give both performers 
song and dance opportunities that are exceptionally pleasing to watch. This is 
This is especially true of the way in which "It's a Lovely Day Today" is used. 
Robert Alton contributes his usual competence to the dance routines. A show 
stopper is Vera-Ellen 's dance "The Ocarina" as wellas Donald 0 Connor s solo, 
wherein he is given ample opportunity for diving, Prat falls, dancing on a 
xylophone, etc. 


George Sanders also deserves mention for the charm with which he plays the 
Secretary of State. More important, he reveals a melodious bass baritone voice 
which he uses very nicely, particularly while singing "Marrying for Love." 
Herbert Spencer and Earl Hagen are responsible for a smooth scoring job, and 
as always Alfred Newman can be relied upon for a perfect job of musical 

Call Me Madam .. 20th Century Fox. Ethel Merman, Donald O'Connor. Director, 
Walter Lang. Songs by Irving Berlin. Musical director, Alfred Newman. 


After ray review of David Raksin's music for THE BAD AND THE BEAUTIFUL appeared 
in the last issue of FILM MUSIC, Mr Raksin favored me with a note which disclosed 
some of the philosophy underlying the course and quality of his score. Although 
his remarks were not intended as anything more than a friendly personal communi- 
cation - to show me that his "errors are not arrived at without considerable 
pre paratidn" - he consented when I proposed passing some of them along. 

First of all, my round declaration that his aim had been to build scenes rather 
than characters turned out to be a rash one, for, in a modest statement of 
purpose, he writes, "My object, hardly sublime, was neither to build characters 
nor scenes, but to write a whole score." This could be inferred to some extent 
on careful inspection of the excerpts quoted with the review* but I might well 
have made it plainer. Most of the score's apparently 'independent' ideas are to 
be found in the 'Georgia' theme (now called "Love is for the very young"). Such 
procedures belong to a formal conception which goes beyond the mere supplying of 
occasional textures and melodies « TWO priate to the action. Mr Raksin doesn't 
feel that the score will be perceived as a single, unified composition since 
there is relatively little of it in a longish picture. This seems likely enough, 
but I'm sure that, heard or not, it is the constructional element that gives 
the music its general aspect of rightness. 

On dharacter-building, the composer has this to say: "It was precisely the film's 

concentration on character that impelled me away from it I think the course 

upon which I decided (and in which Minelli and Houseman concurred) was correct. .7 
"There is no theme for the central character. When we realized how our instinctive 
thinking was leading us away from this universal procedure, we decided that, if 
I was not to write 'Jonathan music', perhajfc it would serve the picture best - 
even in certain crucial scenes - to be consistent and not pop up with heavy music 
delineating the baser side of Jonathan, like a Hungarian playwright introducing 
an important new character in the third act." 

The composer agrees in part with my remark that the score comments, "but, if I 
may split a hair, it is subjective commentary. I could not see myself writing 
'Well, how d'ye like this swine*' music for Jonathan, and only bitter music 
would have been right for him. Just as we know Jonathan chiefly through the 
peoPLe he has hurt, it is through them also that the music speaks of him and of 
Hollywood. And do not forget that Minelli, Houseman, Schnee and I are, for all 
to see, denizens of Hollywood, and all commenting madly* like a local -color man 
on a pool -telecast of an atomic blast. We are all frank to say that we too 
are movie people." 

W. It 



Mary Ellen Bute 

The usual service of music to films is the portrayal of character, to qet 
the mood for the plot and to form a fabric for the knitting together and 
pointing up of documentary or literary ideas. It is often used as a 
running commentary developing in parallel or contrary motion with the 
intellectual mood of the film, and serves as a basic fabric out of which 
the sound effects and dialogue emerge. It sets the rhythm and pace for 
the audience's impression of the action. 

For all this integral relationship with the current cinema, MUSIC plays 
an even more salient part in the ABSOLUTE film where it is actually 
inter— composed with the visual material. I have been dedicated to the 
advancement of ABSOLUTE film for some time and my interest in it is 
growing and branching out. 

Many contemporary composers have been intrigued with the idea of one 
kinetio composition to be realized in the two materials (aural and visual) 
in such a way that they were inter-dependent and neither the musical 
composition or the picture would be complete alone. I have worked to such 
an end with the late and deeply lamented Joseph Sohillinger and George 
Gershwin, and with the brilliant and forward looking composers, Henry 
Cowell and Edwin Gers chef ski. 

For some years, in order to explore the possibilities of the film medium, 

I have been working on the visual perception of classical and semi-class- 
ical musio such as Saint Saens ' "Dance Macabre" for "Spook Sport", Liszt’s 
"Hungarian Rhapsody i?2" for"Color Rhapsodie" and Shostakovich’s Polka 
from his "Age of Gold" ballet for "Polka Graph" which uses the graph pat- 
tern of the musio as a springboard for the visual interpretation. 

I am doing two films with Leopold Stokowski, who has long been actively 
interested in this field. The first film which is completed is PASTORAL, 
a visual interpretation of Bach's"Sheep May Safely Graze". The second, 
EXUBERANCE, is a visualization of excerpts from "Carmen", 

The acute reaction of an inspired musioian to the visual development of my 
work is a source of great concern and excitement to me. For instance, in 
the following passage from Carmen 
I have a series of pictures whioh 
start in the background on each 
note and zoom out at the audience. 

The effect is cumulative and at the 
end of the phrase I feel that I have 
approximated the sound effect of 
Bizet's music. Mr. Stokowski feels 
that one visual element in a contin- 
uous zoom from distant field, would 
be more eloquent of the music. As 
it was his immediate and spontane- 
ous reaotion, I will try it that 
way and see how it fits in with my 
overall idea. 

EXUBERANCE is like a painting which 
this way the painter can control the succession of visual impressions de- 
livered to the on-looker and involve his audience aurally at the same time. 
The picture part of EXUBERANCE is more than a "visual interpretation" of 
the music. It has the elements of an interrelated composition. 

My story is one of metamorphosis, which I am sure no creative worker who 
may read this will be in the least surprised to hear. As a painter desir- 
ous of expressing movement and controlled rhythms in time sequence. I 
turned to the then existent optical instruments and color organs and went 
to work with Leon Theremin, the inventor of electronic musioal instruments, 
among whioh his Theremin Ether Wave instrument is the widest known. 

There seemed to be no idea that was foreign to Leon Theremin. Among his many 
incredibly wonderful inventions and devices he had platforms surrounded by 
magnetic fields. One oould dance on these and with the gestures of his arms 
and legs m a k e his own music. Joseph Schillinger, who was most outstanding 
himself, said that Leon Theremin's mind was of such a high order that he made 
everyone else he (Schillinger) knew seem atavistic. 

From the first half hour with Theremin I was installing tiny mirrors, about 
l/8th inch in diameter, on minute oscillators in tiny tubes of oil to cut 
down the friction and make them amenable to control. We would reflect light 
through prisms on these mirrors to get a range of spectral colors, then move 
the point of colored light about on the screen. We felt that much form is 
latent in a point, that a travelling point inscribes a line} a point return- 
ing on itself a circle, a cube, an angle. From a vibrating point we got a 
spiral, the figure 8 "line of beauty" and so on. 

Needless to say these visual "goings on" were accompanied by eleotrical tones 
and sounds of the most unusual order. The wave lengths of the colors were 
arithmetically related to the wave length of the sounds and I found the re- 
sults exhilerating as did the little group in the workshop. But it wasn't 
enough for wide publio demonstration. It was the kernel of something marvel- 
ous, but it needed money and concentrated effort to make it grow and flourish. 

None of us had any money or the ability to interest venture capital in our 
ideas and Theremin had no bump of self-preservation. So he left the world 
poorer than it would have been had he been able to sustain himself in it 

is. this phase of my work shut down, I turned to the film medium and found 
that with careful budgeting I could buy an adequate amount of 16mm film, 
use borrowed cameras and carry on with my experiments . 

One day a girl, a friend from Houston, came to see me. Naturally 1 exposed 
her to sane of my ideas and showed her my films. She said that she could 'rrt 
understand why I skinned and struggled. Why didn*t I go to a bank and bor- 
row money to make a proper movie? I put on my hat and went to a bank. With 
a little research I found I knew two boys with adequate jobs to act as co- 
makers. So I took a personal loan and made my first ABSOLUTE film, RHYTHM 
IN LIGHT, which was then booked by the Radio City Music Hall. 

Ted Nemeth, ace cinematogranher and film producer, photographed RHYTHM IN 
LIGHT. He not only filmed my first productions but taught me enough about 
motion picture photography so that I now expend only about 97^- % of my vital 
energy on the technical realization of my ideas and have a full 2 ^ % left 
over for creative work. 

% next film, which is taking shape in my head and is charging my emotions, 
is entirely new visually and aurally. For it I have turned baok to many of 
my early experiments which I am now technically equipped to develop. 

A mathematical system serves as a basis for this pioture. I take the rela- 
tionship of two or more numbers, for instanoe 7:2, 3:4, 9:6:4, fraction them 
around their axis, raise to powers, permutate, divide, multiply, subtract 
and invert until I have a complete composition of the desired length in num- 
bers. Then I realize this composition in the materials I have selected to 
employ. I use this composition of numbers to determine the length, width 
and depth of the photographic field and everything in it. This numerical 
composition determines the length, speed, and duration of a zoom, a travel 
back with the camera, the curve and angle at which the camera approaches a 
subject. It determines the shape, size, color and luminosity of the sub- 
ject; how, when and in what relationship to other elements of the composi- 
tion it develops and moves. The melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, etc., of 
the sound are elaborated from the same numerical composition, thus setting 
tip an exquisite relationship between the structural and rhythmical interfer- 
ences of the ocmbined materials. 

If at some time I compose a visual and aural combination that stands my hair 
on end I assure myself that it is ny art impulses that are at fault. I am not 
neoessarily to blame, but rather long generations of dull training of visual 
and aural perceptions have retarded my aesthetic tastes and emotional respon- 
ses to a point where they are far behind the type of art I am capable of real- 

But I and my indefatigable and far flung confreres feel there are indications 
that the day is close upon us when we will cast aside our atavistio art atti- 
tudes and impulses, leaving ourselves free and unencumbered to be exhilarated 
by the ever expanding revelations of this art which is expressive of our cul- 
ture and refreshing entertainment for modern man. 


The ten abstract films Miss Bute has completed to date are 
TELLA, COLOR RKAPSODIK and PASTORAL. In the past fourteen 
months POLKA GRAPH, which won' the award at the Internation- 
al Film Festival in Venice in 1952, CCLOR RHAP50DIF and 
SPOCK SPORT, each of which premiered at the Radio City Music 
Kail, have had a phenomenal number of theatrical bookings 
from coast to coast. PASTORAL, on which Miss Bute collabor- 
ated with Mr Stokowski, is scheduled for early release. 

These films are also available on 16mm. 

■■ I 

William Hamilton 

At the end of November, the 2nd International Art Film Festival ran its course 
in five sessions at the Hunter College Auditorium in New York. Representing 
as it did the collaboration of a large number of dedicated, responsible people, 
the whole affair was probably as comprehensive and authoritative a survey of a 
rather sprawling field as could be produced. It comprised forty-four items, 
most of which were films on Art - expositions of Personalities and pre-created 
works. The remainder, a more experimental category not yet named satisfactorily, 
were attempts at creation directly in terms of motion picture. However worthy 
and promising these latter efforts were, I was a little surprised to find 
myself impressed oftener by the gains which have been made in the more conserv- 
ative documentary practice. Many of these film-makers in their writing, shoot- 
ing, and editing seem to have found the knack of banishing that tired travelogue 
quality, no mean feat when dealing with subject matter that just sits there. 

Musically, these dozen or so hours of film provided a wide sampling of attitudes, 
methods and budget sizes. The ultimate in thrift is, of course, to have no 
music at all but to lard the commentary with fancy talk by way of compensation. 
This was done in JOAN MIRO MAKES A COLOR RUENT, and the result was not happy. 
Conditioning has done its work, and, for me at least, a movie entirely without 
music is probably bound to seem half-finished. Another picture of similar 
content, bluntly titled NEW WAY OF GRAVURE, typified the next lower stage in 
cost-cutting. Here the credits are accompanied by a few measures of one of the 
Brandenburg slow movements, apparently dubbed from an old phonograph record. 

When the commentary begins, the music fades in mid-phrase and is heard no more. 

As in the Miro film the speaker is William Hayter, who in this one also appears 
on the screen as print maker. He is a man blessed with a fine voice and force- 
ful delivery, but his ringing announcement "Angels Wrestling.'" - the name of 
the finished print - 3till calls for some formula of conclusion. Even a firm 
V-I on the piano would have helped. 

Quotation from the standard literature was also applied to TOULOUSE-LAUTREC. 

The treatment was fairly systematic in that the excerpjts used had some connection 
with the subject matter: Of fenbach-typs vivace for the dancing girls and the 
Debussy Ouartet for the serious stuff. Yvette Guilbert singing "Le Fiacre" was 
all to the good, too. On the other hand, rough and random cutting gave the 
'score' a patchy, disconnected character which deprives this motion picture 
of much of its motion. 

Two abstract animations , AMERICAN MARCH and MOTION PAINTING NO. 1 by Oskar 
Fischinger present respectively "The Stars and Stripes Forever" and the 
fourth Brandenburg Concerto complete, accompanied by beguiling stripes and 
colors on the screen. For me, this sort of thing is fun only when the sound 
is in close sync with the picture^ For this reason (and I guess, just this 
once) I was more beguiled by Sousa than by Bach. 

The Festival's most distinguished musical offering was MISERERE, a study of 
Rouault's series of etchings. It's a completely professional job of picture 
making and the sound track brings us an uncut and thoroughly magnificent 
recording of an authentic masterpiece. Josquin des Prez • setting of the fourth 
Penitential Rialm, "Miserere mei, Deus", is as beautiful and historically 


important as itv is rarely heard, and to come upon it as a film background is a 
windfall indeed. Ideally I should have preferred to hear it without narration 
on top of it, (the commentator has a slight tendency to 'pong') but that would 
have been egg in my beer. The performance is by the Ensemble Vocale Marcel 
Couraud plus a trombone for the vagans, here a fifth voice which enters eight 
times to repeat the opening phrase on successively lower scale degrees* 

A large trend observable in the scoring of’ films which deal with art of the 
past is the making up of music in the appropriate antique idioms. The most 
studied essay along this line was the score for THE GREAT PASSION, a film 
devoted to DUrer's treatment of the life of Christ. The idiom chosen is 
pretty clearly Eighteenth Century - of course long Past Durer. However, 
when thinking of Passion music, Bach comes much more readily to mind than 
Josquin, so the anachronism should probably be excused. The composer gives 
us a good capsule assortment of Bach-like forms and textures. There are 
fugatos, simulated recitatives (without voices) and chorale 'workings up'. 

The recorded sound of the instruments is unusually fine. In case anyone's 
interested, the three chorales used are "Christus der uns selig macht", 
the Passion Chorale, and "Meinen Jesum lass ich nicht. " 

The antiquity Principle is applied more loosely and, I think, more success- 
fully in two French pictures (with English commentary) LES GISANTS and 
ST. LOUIS, ANGEL OF PEACE. The former is a study of recumbent statuary 
on the tombs of French royalty and nobility. Music for voices and organ 
with a rather generalized liturgical' flavor accompanies it very impress- 
ively. ST. LOUIS takes up the story of Louis IX as told in picture and 
sculpture of the XIII and XIV centuries. Here, in sonorous brass and organ 
are the rough harmonies and bounding triple rhythms of the late organa. 

There is also a "Dies Irae" and (*ith men's voices) a "Veni, Sancte Spiritus." 

The work of Veit Stoss, a fifteenth century wood sculptor is shown us in 
ALTAR MASTERPIECE. the score for this film and that for STEPHAN LOCHNER, 
a painter of the same period, are both of a less heroic cast than the two 
French items just mentioned. Both are obviously of the present day with 
antiqueness conscientiously worked in as flavoring matter. In both cues 
the result was quite attractive, although of the two, I found the LOCHNER 
music a little less interesting in content. At the same time, LOCHNER 
does Provide several lovely seconds of light organ registration in the 
restored Baroque style. 

Sir Arnold Bax’ setting of JOURNEY INTO HISTORY (a very brief survey of 
Fnglish art in the eighteenth century) has its topicality completely 
absorbed into the personal style of the composer. Here it is not a 
matter of citing this figure or that turn of Phrase as being redolent 
of the age of Hogarth and Johnson. Rather, we have a piece which 
renders the sentiment of the eighteenth century in the vocabulary of 
the twentieth. Such control - proprietorship, even - of ends and means 

is the mark of a very accomplished worker, and the geniality and elegance 
and verve of the whole production must be credited in large part to Sir Arnold. 

Henri Storck, Director and Cyril Knowles, Photographer 
at work on THE OPEN WINDOW 


BUS TELL I is a charming display of Porcelain figurines by another eighteenth 
century artist who worked in Germany. The music for it ranged rather freely 
in idiom — from old dance forms to conventional present-day illustrative 
music such as the ornamental flute and harp stuff we've heard so often ac- 
companying fountain shots, or a few bars on the black keys to identify some- 
thing Chinese. Altogether the track has an appropriate gentleness of sound; 
there is properly sparing use of the brass, and the occasional small pleasant- 
ries serve well in the place of more imposing musical incidents. 

The two pictures last mentioned mark a kind of boundary line between the Fest- 
ival's pastiche, or mimic composition, and its composition-f or-real, wherein 
the music represents the composer's direct, personal slant on the subject. 

Films falling in the latter group were, as might be expected, much more nu- 
merous, due, no doubt, to the mythical cachet associated with "originality". 
Again, the factor determining the style of many of these scores was economic. 

As a result, there were many attempts to bring forth multvn in parvo by using 
solo instruments and small ensembles. That the attempts were not all completely 
satisfactory is less important, I think, than the fact that these byways in 
film music are being explored. 

Two pictures, GOYA and A PAINTER'S WORLEe MILTON AVERY are accompanied in a 
vagrant improvisatory manner by solo guitar. In both cases the quality of the 
scene is reflected in the music with ease and suppleness, though there is no 
clear connection shown between the American Avery and the slightly flamenco 
accent of his sound-track. Neither guitarist is credited on the screen, but 
the Festival program advised me that GOYA is backed up by a man named Segovia. 

Piano - entirely alone- supplies the music for PHILIP EVERGOOD. This score 
strikes me as quite a substantial piece in its own right— one which I would 
be glad to hear again. Unf ortunately it also seems to wag the dog. While 
it is adapted, at least superficially, to the ins and outs of the picture, 

the music lives its own life without really providing the desired background. 

IMAGES D’ARGILE and a companion piece, IMAGES DE L'ANCIENNE EGYPTE are scored 
predominantly for woodwinds , and, as forecast by Rimsky-Korsakow, the effect 
"soon becomes wearisome? Occasional harp and pizzicato strings are not suf- 
ficient to relieve the deadly sameness of texture, and the writing itself is 
dry and austere. Consequently, our perusal of these beautiful objects from 
the Greek and Egyptian collections at the Louvre is made something of a chore. 

A similar ensemble was used for DAftflJI, VIRGIN OF THE GCLDEN LAURELS, but 
with happier results. The instrumentation is nicely varied and the musical 
matter quietly appealing throughout. 

A 'one -of -everything' wood-wind and string group plays a slightly avant-garde 
score behind MIRROR OF HOLLAND, a gimmick picture in which an assortment of 
Dutch landscape is seen as reflected in adjoining bodies of water. The music 

am ploys fractions of the semitone in unessential positions, thereby lending 
strangeness without disrupting the tonal sense, and it follows beautifully 
the mood and shape of the film. 

In totally different style, the same sort of forces play a fine, sassy back- 
ground to MADELEINE, a cartoon in the manner of Ludwig Berne lm an s and based 
on one of his whimsies. And a final more arty example— ABSTRACT IN CONCRETE— 
which is another reflection study, this time taken in midtown New York. The 
score for this one is pleasant, lively, unsurprising music in a cultivated 
jazz vein. 

Se much for now. The remainder of this summary, some general observations and 
a complete list of credits will appear in the next issue of FILM MUSIC. 

Roger Bowman 

The situation in television today with regard to the use of live music, 
aside from variety showB, and the incidental org&n or celeste obligatos 
on "who dunnits" is in a sad state. The expense involved in both the 
hiring of musicians - let alone composer-conductors - is pleaded by 
s pond or 8 as reason enough in view of the generally soaring production 
oosts for minimixing or eliminating them. 

Sponsors admit sadly that a television drama without background musie 
is like a stage setting without scenery - bare, empty, and lacking the 
third dimension required to round out the mood of the play. 

In the light of the paucity of live, creative music, let us concern our- 
selves at this writing with the procedures used by one network for 
choosing musio from recordings at a minimum or no-charge to sponsors 
from the extensive-growing library of the network. There are, at NBC 
in New York, approximately 10,000 selections in the special library of 
background music and up to 100,0d0 records in the NBC library of 
classical music. 

In 1945, when this operation started, there was only a desk and a turn- 
table and aooess only to the standard classical record library. Today, 
with the physioal facilities equal to a staff of five people (four 
roomettes where directors and music programmers can listen to musie) 
there is a library of specially recorded musio on 16-ineh vinylite discs, 
seven English libraries of speoial background musio, composed originally 
for films and now used extensively in both television and radio in the 
United States and in England. 

Catalogues provide dues to the general mood of each record. "Dramatic 
Atmosphere" had as subtitles » "Aftermath," "Deserted City", "Haunted 
House", "Snow Scene", "Motif for Murder", "Stop Press". Under "Fanfares" 
are titles: "Big Moment", "Majestic? "Light Atmosphere" has "All Strings 

and Fancy Free", "Exhilaration," "Shopping Center". Other titles in- 
clude "Marches", "Melodic", "National", "Oriental", "Sea" and "Storm, Maohines, 
War", etc. 


According to Miss Margaret Snyder, director of the music section, "The in- 
dividual compositions are broken down into several moods and oan be used 
in whole or in part. But the library is so much larger and so much more 
varied than a written catalogue could indicate that the music programmer 
must rely on his memory. Besides* he should keep an open mind, since one 
piece may be applied in many different situations - one week tragedy, 
another mystery, still another comedy. You have to interpret the mood 
of the script and paint- in the background from knowledge tucked away in 
your mental file." 

A full-hour TV drama, such as HBC's "Television Playhouse" or "Robert 
Montgomery Presents", takes a varying amount of time for music selection, 
depending on the individual director and the amount of music to be used. 
Ten to Id hours is average for a single script. A period piece takes 
longer because the selector tries for authenticity, but also considers 
maintaining the mood of the play and keeping the music unobtrusive and in 
good taste. The script is received about a week in advance. The music 
programmer, assigned to a specific group of shows, reads the script, gets 
an idea of the type of musie needed. Sometimes the director marks the 
places in the script where he wants musio. The programmer selects music, 
sometimes pulling out ten times the amount of musio needed. With the 
music programmer, the director decides on the final choices. 

After the director approves the selections, the musio programmer makes a 
synopsis of the visual or dialogue cues for the turntable engineer, and 
indicates the reoord numbers, starting positions (marked on records in red 
crayon), stacks the records in proper order and arranges to have them de- 
livered to the studio in time for rehearsal. 

The programmer of music has other duties. Music must ne cleared for copy- 
right, kinescope rights, tape-recording and other rights. As is to be 
expected, the music-programmer is always on the watch for new material 
and is sensitive to the need for replenishing old stock. 

Said Miss Snyder, "We’ve just ordered our third dosen of King Palmer’s 
"The Film Opens". This is the popular theme of WNBT’s 'Eleventh Hour 
Theater,’ and is played four or five times a day - - for station-break 
announcements besides being played on the program. What a windfall for 
the composer!" 

"Generally, we can make better use of unfamiliar music for backgrounds. 
Many well-known classics are specifically identified with a composer or a 
drama. There are exceptions. W© make wonderful use of Stravinsky’s 
’Rites of Spring* in an Indian battle scene on the Gabby Hayes show. And 
the works of Howard Hanson, Aaron Copland and Prokofiev are excellent 
standbys for various kinds of backgrounds." 



JUL 6 

— Y 


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MAY -JUNE 1953 



Offical Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 
Butterfield 8-3288 




(with score excerpts) 


(with score excerpts) 




Ann Ronell 
George Antheil 

Clifton Parker 
Quaintance Eaton 
Quaintance Eaton 
Musical Leader 


William Hamilton 



Ann Ronell, Film and Theatre composer 
George Antheil, Film and Opera composer 
Clifton Parker, Film and Opera composer 
Quaintance Eaton, Writer and Critic 
Musical Leader 

William Flamilton, Writer, Musician 

COVER: Stars of "Main St. To Broadway”. Left to right, Gertrude Berg. Oscar Hammerstein II, Richard Rodgers, Faye Emerson, Rex 
Harrison, Lilli Palmer, Joshua Logan, Leo Durocher, Shirley Booth, Tallulah Bankhead, Cornel Wilde, John Van Druten, Agnes Moore- 
head, Ethel Barrymore, Herb Shriner, Mary Martin, Louis Calhern, Helen Hayes, Lionel Barrymore. 



Editor, Film Music 

United Nations, N. Y. 

Toronto, Canada 

Eastman Music School 

Beverly Hills. Calif. 

Libraries, Stamford, Conn. 

New York 

Columbia University, N. Y. 

' g» 

New York 

London, Eogland 


Univ. Calif. L. A. 

Ohio Dept, of Education 

Cornell College, Iowa 

Portland, Oregon 

stanue McConnell 

San Diego, Calif. 

New York 

Oberlin College, O. 

Dartmouth College, N. H. 


Published by the National Film Music Council, 26 East 83rd St., New York 28. President, William Hamilton; Vice President and Editor. Marie L. Hamilton; 
Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues yearly with occasional bulletins. Two dollars and fifty cents a year. Single copies fifty cents. Back files (28 copies) 
five dollars plus postage. 



(with score excerpts) 

Aon Ronell 


Uniting the original soore and direoting music for MAIN ST. TO BROADWAY - 
a story about love and show business in which numerous stars of the theater 
and films appear as themselves for the first time on the soreen - was for 
all its exciting experiences a difficult and challenging assignment, taking 
three times as long as any other beoause of its special nature. The aotual 
composition of the background musio was done in 3 weeks . However, the technical 
work of cutting the soundtracks took 5 months* The picture was shot in 3 differ- 
ent cities. Hew York, Hollywood, Chicago, with as maiy different production units. 
The first scene with Lilli Palmer and Rex Harrison was shot in 3 hours near Third 
Are# (y ou can hear the subway on the soundtraok) where 3 blocks had to be roped 
off from eager Hew Yorkers. There were 3 recording sessions on both east and 
west coasts with 3 different sound service crews, 3 songs published from the pio- 
ture,£nd to wind up this list of gleeful threefuls, there was a trio of organiza- 
tions responsible for MAIN ST. TO BROADWAY - sponsor The Counoil of the Living 
Theater, independent produoer Lester Cowan, distributor MGM. For attending to 
the enormous detail neoessary in my department alone, I should have had 3 arms, 

3 legs, at least 3 heads, but extraordinary coincidence ended here and left me 
with only the ordinary number* 

Assisting the produoer on planning music for the 
film when the soreen play was first being written, | 
I worked in New York while he set Hollywood 
studio schedules with film director Tay Garnett 
and camera-man James Wong Howe. One important 
musical sequence to be prepared was the Theater 
Rehearsal scene, in which famous writers Richard 
Rodgers and Oscar Hammer stein, singer Mary 
Martin, stage director Joshua Logan, conductor 
Salvatore Dell’Isola appear as themselves (much 
as they might have acted during the staging of 
their hit musioal SOUTH PACIFIC}* I met with 
Rodgers and Hammerstein as they composed their 
song "There’s Music in You" for the picture. 



discussing the scenes in v/hich they would be 
shown writing it. 

On the set: Aaron Copland, 

Ami Ronell, and Oscar Hammerstein, 2nd 

The Hollywood oempany was busy preparing the 

dramatic theater soenes involving Tallulah Bankhead, Agnes Moorehead, Cornel Rilde 
«nd the unknowns chosen from the ranks of new talent to play the romantic roles 
of Mary, the young drama student from Main St. and Tony, the budding playwright of 
Broadway. Reporting to the producer by long distance and reams of typed ideas, I 
traveled down to Bucks County, Pa. to oonfer with the author of the screenplay, Sam- 
son Raphaelson, on the R Jfc H soenes and the integration of their song into the 
soript* Since it would be developed as the "love theme" in the films core, story 
and musio continuities had to be oreated at the same time. 

With no precedent for making a film "where so many stars in real life are woven 
into the very fabric of the fictional script, it was up to the producer to un- 
ravel countless, conflicting committments of the actors, singers, writers and 
others tied up with stage, TV and tour dates so that their scenes in MAIN ST, TO 
BROADWAY - oould he filmed amenably with his own complicated and travel-burdened 
dates for production. To say it took intense work and a lot of genius is an 
understatement. Recording sessions were demanded to fit into tight production 
schedules, sometimes called at a few hours’ notice, Mary Martin’s committments 
abroad would allow her only ten days' visit to the TJ.S, from England to appear 
in the picture. Before leaving London, Kiss Martin had already received her song 
"There’s Music In You", However, the musical comedy routine as it would be staged 
by Josh Logan for the film still had to be vocally arranged for her recording. To 
plan this routine with Miss Martin, Mr Logan flew to join her in the Virgin Island* * 
where she stopped en route to the TJ.S. to visit Noel Coward. Though it would have 
been far more pleasant for me to fly there too, we conferred by overseas operator. 
It was my job to have the music ready on time. Glamor, begone, I had to looate 
nrirf work with her accompanist and arranger on the vocal, choral and orchestral 
settings of the routine, get the music written and copied in her keys, check with 
Mr Rodgers for last minute ohanges, obtain personnel for the recording session, 
and prepare all other oues possible to get reoorded at the same session. 

By this time our production unit had moved from Hollywood into the Martin Beck 
Theater in New York to shoot the Theater Rehearsal scenes and the Opening Night 
sequences in whioh celebrities of theater, art, and society would appear. All 
action had to be shot within the two week period that the house would be available 
between its rental committments for plays "The Gray-Eyed People" and "The Crucible 
Plans had to be set with the New York sound studio to conform with the film schedu! 
Our speoial needs for recording voice and piano with isolation channels had to be 
explained and taken care of, equipment specified for the technique to be employed, 
and a orew secured to stand by in the studio for making the play-back discs after 
the recording of all tracks was completed, T?hen Miss Martin landed in New York, 
John Lesko was ready to rehearse her the first day, the principals in her sequence 
were on stage to rehearse with her the second day, and we recorded all song and 
realistio cues for "There’s Music in You" the third day, 'Torking with the sound- 
service crew from 2 p,m, till midnight, I left the studio only when I had the 
actual play-back discs under my arm for shooting on stage next day. 

The disos recorded were Miss Martin’s vooal arrangement by Ted Royal oonduoted by 
J&ek Shaindlin, S sets of vooal solos, some with different lyrles and accompani- 
ment, various piano and ohoral settings of the song by Mr Lesko for 6 voices, and 
numerous cues for the Rodgers and Hammerstein soenes in whioh they themselves sing 
play, and whistle their song. All in a day’s work? Easy as falling off a log, Th 
takes were reoorded in time to satisfy the committments of Mary Martin, who had to 
get her costume fitted, R&H who had to attend a testimonial event in their honor, 
the ohoral group who had to oatoh trains, the pianist who had a show on the air, t 
sound recorders who went on overtime and the music director who went without dinne 

Haste was also the keynote recording 
Herb Shriner for his song "Just a G: 
while he was in Hollywood on a 4-da; 
shooting schedule between TV dates 
New York, Herb arrived on a Sunday ■ 
learn his role as Frank, the Main S* 
rival to Torny. It was decided that 
FYank’s progress with Mary’s folks : 
Indiana could be more briefly and d: 
tioally shown by an informal singini 
scene, I wrote the song Monday, it 

New York 



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* Copyright 1953 by Ann Ronell Musio, Ino., 

played and sung for Mr. Garnett onstage Tuesday, aooepted and worked into the screen, 
play during breaks. I made the musical arrangement for the scone, reserved space aai 
oresr for the sound-stage, looated Perry Botkin, Bing Crosby *s ukelele-ist, and obtained 
the necess ary permit from the Musioians* Union. We rehearsed and recorded the song 
that night -November 4 - and we didn’t know who was eleoted President of the U.S. until 
we got out the door at 2 o’ dock in the morning. The playback discs were ready for 
the seene on stage Wednesday, and by Thursday Herb was back in New York. 

During production of musical scenes, I was oalled upon to assist Mr. Garnett when 
playback were used on the set. We worked with different sound engineers in each 
city, naturally, and recorded sound not only in the studio, but on the street and 
inside the theaters. Most singers are familiar with playback technique, synchronis- 
ing their aotion to musio already recorded. In MAIN ST. TO BROADWAY Herb Shriner 
m ade his debut as an actor as well as singer, and with so much material to perform 
in the picture, he left lyrios to remember up in the air. That’s where they stayed. 
We wrote the song out on a huge blackboard facing him overhead on the set .Rehearsals 
were conducted before each take with instruments seen in the sequence, to matoh fing- 
ering, breathing, and tempo with the playback. This meant long hours on the set. 

Problems always rose unexpectedly. During NT production in the Martin Beck, the 
sound equipment didn’t work the day Mary Martin was being filmed in her song sequence, 
I was called on to be responsible for okaying synch in a nev set of circumstances .Al- 
though musio could be played on the machine, it could not be recorded with the film 


action, thus making no provision for essential synch musio cues needed by the film 
editor in Hollywood, Jimmie Howe had me stand in front of the camera when action be- 
gan and dap my hands just as the inusio oue started, in this way photographing visual 
synch marks for the editor instead of sound. Miss Martin graciously complied with our 
startling signal until the sound equipment was repaired. There were jobs other than 
w&tohing the synch of the performers* lip^novement and correcting it when necessary to 
match playback# The sound crew had to be instructed when various sets of disos were 
indicated for certain soenes, being sure the right one was played at the right time (Mr, 
Rodgers chose out of 3 sets the one he preferred for Miss Martin* s performance). Start *" 
and stop marks had to be looated on the disos according to the needs of the director 
for the action. Since few technicians in the sound crew are musioians, I would make 
these marks in red pencil right on the groove of the diso. Rehearsals had to be held 
with everyone concerned with music j finally, there was checking and listing for the 
mus ic-outter of what number takes and camera setups were ordered for printing. 

Though playbaek is the medium for getting perfect musical soundtrack, it was decided 
that the RftH scenes would be more spontaneous taken *live*, When we heard the film in 
the projection roam, the live track was filled with traffic noises which had penetrated 
the theater, and the level on Dick’s piano playing was higher than that of Oscar’s voioe 
There was no way to equalise levels, olarify dialog or music. We had no other take of 
their action to matoh their playbacks, so this sequence with RAH and Mary Martin join- 
ing them at the piano are ad lib as shot. You will hear realistic sourkL all through 
the picture, auto horns, gears, strett hubbub having been recorded with the dialog. In 
the re-recording process, the musio tracks having to fight noise effects, oould not mix 
properly as intended. You may notioe all kinds of extraneous sound which oouldn’t be 
discarded or printed down unless dialog was also lost* live sound which, for all its 
nuisance value, seems finally to give that authentic touch of v itality aid documenta- 
tion to the picture against which no jmisioal theory, good or bad, can ever argue. 

For sooring the diverse elements of MAIN ST, TO BROADWAY, I found I had to provide 
as many as 10 themes. The first identifies the train in the Main Title, Whereas 
this cue was composed for footage without action at the time of recording, other 
cues had to be prepared in our rush schedule for action which was not yet in its 
final edition. We faced unusual problems in sooring all the background musio at 
one time for a picture whioh oould only be edited for final footage s after experi- 
mental previews. 

Though the musio director was harassed by complications in the ones, I as the com- 
poser was pleased by the variety of their character. Prom the descriptive, emotional, 
functional, to the fanteatio, our cues had to be timed in various techniques, by the 
seoond, by the foot, by the olioktraok, or by imagination, to suit the film action 
sequences already edited for the recording schedule and those only planned for later 
filming. Greatly assisting me during the 3^week deadline of composition, film edit- 
or Steve Previn took care of mechanics and strategy for the sooring session* Leon 
Arnaud took care of both orchestration and orchestra. With dose knowledge thus gained 
o f the material to be recorded, Mr. Arnaud expertly conducted our sessions within 
schedule, and the music department with a staff of only 3 was able to wave the flag of 
victory over the calendar. The Main Title oue - See Excerpt A. Part 1 and Part 2 - 
was composed for a montage showing a train on its way from the Main Sts. of the country 
to the skyscrapers of New York. The train musio first establishes rhythmie Figure 1, 
then in combination. Figure 2 full string and woodwind sections, brass taking pulse 
and color from the train bell heard as we see the wheels of the train. Figure 3 enters 
with trombones oounterpointing 1 and 2, followed sonorously by horns stating 4. 

When the train swerves onto the track pointing to the skyline of NT City, Figure 5 the 
"Main St* to B ’way "theme" is announced by trumpet, within progression of 4 to 6 by 
trumpets in higher register. Built up on successive repetitive Figures, the train 
musio was planned for special Sound -effects as part of ‘(die arrangement. Note train 
bell indicated Bars 3-6, doppler. Bars 18 into Part B, train whistle over inner Over- 
ture seotian of Part B ’not illustrated) and traffic in Prolog cue. As train slows 
down, per Figure 2, supposedly landing us on Broadway with change of scene and dissonance 
the rhythmlo roll of train wheels, described in 16th notes Figure 1, resolves into quar- 
ter notes for same Figure, providing a related baas pattern sustained against the new 
“Times Square theme" and a smooth transition into Part 2 of the Title. 

Stating tempo for the eleotrio signs whioh flash on the star oredits. Figure 5 reappears 
to develop as a slow blues , We hear the theme extended to aooompaiy Helen Hayes* desortpi^ 
ion of the Broadway soene, its theaters old and new, its stars past and present, its 
hopes and dreams for those who write its plays. As we meet Tony in the Playhouse, the 
"Main St. to B’way theme" closes the Title sequence, and appears from then in the score 
in various guise or combination with other themes whenever Broadway or its special 
characters arc identified musically# After sooring was completed. I was requested to 
develop this theme into song form with lyrios for publication as "Theme from Main St. to 
B’way" (Blue New York).* 

The "Indiana theme" appears when Mary and 
Toiy arrive in Terre Haute, and identifies 
Mary’s sweet qualities. It is heard as a 
piano pieoe whioh Mary is seen playing at 
heme. See Bxoerpt C. Part 1 and Part is 
where plan o musio counterpoints love theme 
in soene where Tony visits Mary’s folks. 

Flute takes melody over seetion in Part 1. 
Later, the piano music is combined with Frank’s theme when he visits her folks. Flute 
again takes counterpoint to section in Part 2. The "Indiana theme" is satirically treated 
as a march when Tony starts to write his play in Mary’s heme, and is used in cues "Fantasy" 
and "Goodbye to Indiana". 

-/faw Mi*. t u - — JZ-i f~ ft-i I ^ suu^s et~ 

. s 

♦"Blue New York" ♦"There’s Musio in You" 

1963, by Arm Ronell Musio,Ino. NT 7 Copyright 1953,by the RodgersAHAmmerstein Fdtn.NI 

Themes for the Artist-at-Work and the 
P 1 aywr i ght- at- Work intertwine with the 
others. See excer pt _D. "Errands" cue, 
where A1 Hirschl'elc^ cartoonist of the 
N. Y. Sunday Times appears in the film 
as himself, drawing for the Drama Section. 
-Vhen sketching Mary Martin, his theme is 
countered by her song theme. Part I r bars Zb 
Later, after rehearsal, both themes are re- 
called in Pari 2. Sketching Tallulah's re- 
hearsals, the Broadway theme joins his. 

The Playwright-at-Work theme is heard as we see 
Tory working on his plays "Into Blue" cue, celeste 
and harp wafting us over his typewriter, the heat 
of the keys punctuated by marimba. As he types, we 
watoh the creative prooess at work, seeing the play 
which he is writing for Tallulah ocatrie to life in 
his imagination. See Excerpt E.Part 1 p-nd Par+. 2 

where this theme enters "Tony’s Walk"oud to remind 
him of his work seemingly done in vAin -Part 2, 

Bars 10-12 -when Tallulah’s words turning 3 own 
his play ring in his ears. These phrases "But 1 
thought I was to be a sweet woman, a good woman, 
a nioe woman" were transferred fTcm dialog to 
music, Re-reoording the dialog track at variable 
speed, the inflections of Tallulah's voloe be- 
came tonalities comparable to middle C,B,F, Note 
the actual tones of all syllables in rhythmio 
pattern Part 1, With strings simulating her words* 
the downbeats of the pattern C,B,F, resolvef into 
the pedal beat of the composition aooompanying 
Tory as he despondently walks the streets of the 
ci-ty, Against this, the play theme quivers insist- 
ently with the typewriter beat of marimba and 
harp, the B’way ‘theme enters Bar 12, the "Fantasy" themes follow, flutes to violins recalling 
sue musio describing Tallulah in his play as a "sweet woman". Part 2 . Bars 13-16, 

he s ©quo no© in which Tory writes his pi ay, moving his actors around as his thoughts dictate, 
*ing out their lines when he changes the soript, and directing Tallulah, is the "Fantasy" cue 
minute musical sequence oamposed to fit every action on the split-seooni. We timed this 
n olicktraok, composition matching the oomedy aotion ahd special optioal effects of stop- 
otion and freeze frame. Sound-effects of t y pewriter k eys and oarriage hell used as part of 
he oanpo8ition -See Excerpt F -clicks marked above manuscript indicating aotion to matoh. 

ther cues are functional for backstage theater when John Tan Druten directs Constance Car- 
snter and the Siamese children from the "King and I" sequence, for intermission music Open- 
ing Night sequenoe, for jukeboxes, organ-grinder on the street, and cocktail bar swing ocmbo. 

ion you read the glittering list of stars in MAIN ST • TO BROADWAY, I can hear you exclaim, 

)h, what fun it must have been!" "What a ball working on that pieturel" With fresh 
snories of the long, too long, hours spent cutting my own music tracks into ribbons to 
It the soenes of these glittering personalities, I answer, "Tes, what fun!" With raw 
loollections of re-recording schedules starting at 8»30 a»m. and going through till S a.m. 
i answer, "Tes, what a ball!" I find it hard to remember the short, too short, moments 
aught of pleasure or arythlng more glittering than the list of duties which assailed me 
idles 8 ly with music continuity, personnel, arrangements, copies, synoh, and running be- 
reen sound stage, movieola, an d projection room without meals, sleep, or relaxation. 

> I wanted to be a music director! But I ought to know, after this 6th picture I*ve superv- 
ised, that memories, too, have a way of cutting their own sound tracks. In no time, 1*11 

> remembering the laughter, the good times, the wonderful relationships, the joy of another 
>b aoocmplished. Oh, good grief, I forgot I haven* t made out the Cue Sheet yet, 


UN ST. TO BROADWAY.. MGM-Lester Ccwan Produoticn . Tallulah Bankhead, Ft he 1 Barrymore, Lionel 
Jrrymore, ffertrude' Berg, Shirley Booth, Louis Calhecm,Leo Dur ocher, Faye Emerson, Oscar Hammerstein* 
sx Harris on,Helen Hayes,Joshua Logan, Mary Martin.Agnes Moorehead, Lilli Palmer, Richard Rodgers, 
srb Shriner, John Van Druten, Cornsl Wilde. Direct or, Tay Garnett. Composer, soore and lyrics, 
an Ronell. SONGS"There*s Musio in You".Musio by Riohard Rodgers, lyrios by Oscar Hammerstein II. 
ibli sher,WilTTeE5bn Musie,Ino.N.Y. "Just a Girl 1 * and "Thame from Main St. To B*way .Musio and 
Tries by Ann Ronell. Publisher,Keys Musio, Ino.N.T. RECORDINGS available MGM,Deo*a,Victor,Capito. 
Dlumbia Records c 


George Antheil 

At first sight, perhaps, a composer at the first running of this unscored 
picture might think that the most important thing about it was that it 
was mostly shot in Israel, a place of enormous interest to the rest of 
the world, due to its religious background, plus the facts of recent his- 
tory, That, certainly, was most tremendously important; and I did not 
ever forget this fact, BUT, also, I did not want to make it an out and 
out Jewish score. Particularly of the kind of Jewish music which, through- 
out the centuries, in Europe and elsewhere, the world now supposes Jewish 
music to be. For in the first place, the music of present-day Palestine 
is not like that: for the most part it is gay, different, because the new 
people of Palestine do not, particularly, want to remember the past, and 
Europe particularly. So, in the interim, they have almost created a new 
folksong, folksong based on the past, but with optimistic coloring. This, 
of course, created some problems copyright-wise; for, naturally, music 
recently written is not of that beloved Public Domain character which, 
then, may be used indiscriminately. To buy various folksongs, recently 
composed, would have necessitated a tremendous cash outlay; moreover, 
frankly, I personally faintly disapprove of the introduction of well- 
known material within the realm of any motion picture score; it invar- 
iably sticks out like a sore thumb. The further we motion picture com- 
posers get into good sooring for motion pictures, the further we get into 
outright symphonio development composing: and, as any symphony composer 

oan tell you, there is nothing that is harder to develop than a well known 
theme or folksong. It cannot easily be picked apart for development. 

Accordingly, and for THE JUGGLER I listened to a tremendous amount of 
Israelite folksongs, and studied many more, soaked in their peculiar 
quality. Then I invented , from this atmosphere, a series of my own; 
and used them as basic material myself. Thus, I believe, I secured the 
atmosphere of the country without handcuffing myself, symphonic ally, 
or introducing material which, later, I should have to butcher into 

pieces, the murder being apparent - - and unpleasant at each step. 

The a capella hora dance, towards the middle -end of the picture, was 
prescored and, consequent ally, had to be used in the picture; but I did 
not derive any of my thematic material, otherwise, from it. 

Secondly - - though perhaps this should 
have come firstly - - I also realized, 
at the first running without score 
that this was a highly dramatic picture; 
and, therefore, merely to commit it to 
a highly atmospheric score would mean 
nothing. The picture, as the title 
implies, is mainly about a juggler, a 
mad juggler at that. I therefore had 
to invent - - and quite against the 
otherwise atmosphere of the picture, 
the sort of musio which would have 
surrounded a vaudevillian juggler of 
1920-33; and fortunately, having at- 
tended many such shows during my so- 
journ in Europe during the 20’ s, I 
knew that it had a special quality, 
quite different from American vaude- 

ville of the same period. I had to invent a bright and identifying 
theme for the juggler, and from the very outset, for he appears in^ 
the title. (Main title.) I followed him with this music wherever he 
went, except for the rare instances in which he nostalgicly recalled 
"Wiener Blut", by Strauss. However, and as his madness developed, or 
became apparent, it, too, became appropriately twistedj and, here 
again, it would have been difficult to twist a known tune, so I invent 
a special vaudevillian juggler theme, which I show in the accompanying 
theme quotations. In short, as this picture is about a juggler, this 
theme is one of the most important in the pieoej but it does not 
portray the atmosphere of the country, and fits as ill in it as, at 
first, the juggler himself. Finally, however, it does commence to fit. 

Thirdly, there are other interesting characters who needed musical 
treatment, identification. The little girl, and the boy particularly. 

The love interest. Miss Vitale, needed only romantic music} but here, 
again, the problem was to create a romantic music which was Israelite, 
not American or European. The same Israelite quality had to be se- 
cured for the little boy juggler} it oould not be of the same quality 
as the big juggler, as the boy was bona and raised in Palestine. 

Fourthly, of oourse, this is a gripping chase story. The chases had 
to be new and original, with coloring appropriate to the country in 
which these chases were taking place. The chief of detectives, there- 
fore, comes into cities in a jeep, follows the juggler first frcm a 
distance, then more and more closely, with a chase music that is appro- 
priately themed from the color of the country. In short, it was my 
duty, wherever possible, to emphasise two things (l) the juggler him- 
self, his problems, his fundamental nioeness and fine character, his 

f rowing madness his European background which was, actually, terrify- 
ng, and (2) tne color of a country which interests us all, of what- 
ever religion, and wherever possible, through the other characters , 
chases, or what. As it could not, too often be done with (l). I had 
to do it through ( 2 ), above. 

This, in quintessence, gives the basic problems encountered as I com- 
menced the writing of this particular motion picture soore, and how I 
attempted to carry them out. 

THE JUGGLER.. Columbia Pictures.. Producer, Stanley Kramer. Kirk Douglas, 
Killy Vitale. Director, Edward Dmytryk. Musio, G eorge Antheil. Orches- 
trations, Arthur Morton. 

1 1 






Clifton Parker 

Having worked for ten years on an opera on a medieval subject, just com- 
pleted and published, I was in close touch with early music and found 
it very useful for this picture, I did not use any existing music, but 
composed original music in the style of the various forms I wished to use. 

In Queen Katherine's audience chamber the players seen on the screen are 
a consort of viols, represented by a string quartet. They played a 
Fantasia followed by a Fassepied, 

For the practice scene in Wary's drawing-room the instrument used was a 
Lute. This has a very sweet but extremely quiet tone, and we had some 
difficulty in recording because the player's breathing could be heard! 

The two pieces . were an Almain and La Volta, the latter to be used again 
in the ballroom scene, and to become, in a slow variant, the romantic 
theme associated with the lovers. In the ballroom scene the visual or- 
chestra consisted of recorders, serpent, consort of viols and tabor also 
Lute represented by Harp, flutes, bassoon, string quartet and tenor-drum, 
and the two dances were a Favan and La ^dta, The extended version of 
the latter was in the form of what the Elizabethans called divisions of 
beat -crotchet, quaver, semiquaver, demi-semi-quaver. This gave us the 
cumulative effect we wanted. We also cheated a bit by slowly adding a 
much larger orchestra. The music for the French wedding banauet was 
based on the rhythmic possibilities of an old Dutch dance called a 
Lesquercade, (incidentally, there lies the reason for not using actual 
old music. It would have seemed rather unsophisticated for film pur- 
poses, apart from the question of fitting, but many of these old forms, 
also the instruments on which they were played, suggest all sorts of 
possibilities which are old enough to be new. For example, the use of 

trombones - or their old equivalent the saokbut - - to accompany gentle 
love songs. There was -- perhaps fortunately - no opportunity to revive 
this practioe in this film! ) In the Lesauercade I used little bells 
(represented by Glockenspiel), which were very popular in early secular 
musio, it seems. The music for the ride in the park was a variation of 
the Lesquercade. 

I have confined my remarks to the period music of the score, because the 
rest of it is normal film music and not, I should think, of any particular 
interest. I felt this would give more scope for underlining the dramatic 
side of the story, and as all the period music is actual - that is be- 
iongs to dancing or festive occasions - I don't think there is a confliot 
of styles. Perhaps one interesting point is the musio for Brandon's escape 
from the Tower. This is a very peculiar score, designed to be used with 
an echo chamber, and I think it did create some quite strange noises. 

THE SWORD AND THE ROSE.. RK 0-Radio. Walt Disney. Richard Todd, Glynis Johns. 
Director, Kenneth Annakin. Music, Clifton Parker. Teohnicolor. 


Quaintance Eaton 

Almost co- incidentally vdth the sparkling production of Rossini's comic 
opera CENERENTQLA, at the New York City Center, an Italian picturization 
of the work came to the Little Carnegie Theatre in New York. Entitled 
plain CINDERELLA, the film is about as different from the staged opera as 
can be imagined. At City Center, the production was completely stylized, 
which accounted a great deal for its charm. The film is in naturalistic, 
fussily rococo settings, and never quite leaves the ground. My chief 
objection to it is that so many bits of action and mugging have been devised 
to keep pace with the music that the music is often lost sight of in visual 
"appeal" - - surely this is going to an extreme to "produce" musical sto- 
ries. It took five writers to accomplish this effect. Perhaps three would 
have been enough. The music was obviously dubbed, and in the case of the 
heroine, rather incongruously. For from the pretty mouth of an ingenious 
young wench issue the heavy-weight tones of Fedora Barbieri's lush mezzo- 
soprano voice. The part, of course, was written for a low voice, and there 
are few today who can sing it. But this distracted me, as if you were to 
hear Pinza’s voioe out of a slim tenor. 

The cast included Lori Randi as Cinderella; Gino del Signore as the Prince; 
Afro Poll as Dandini, the Prince's valet; Enrico Formighi as the Magician, 
who replaces the Fairy Godmother in Rossini's version; Vito de Taranto as 
Don Magnifico, Cinderella's stepfather; and Franca Tamantini as one of the 
sisters. The other is identified only as a voice, that of Fernanda Cadoni, 
a bit of obscure listing. Neither of the sisters seem to sing much , by the 
way, as far as lip movement goes. Altogether a curious business, consuming 
95 minutes. 

CINDERELLA.. Times Film Corporation. Lori Randi, Gino Del Sijmore. Director 
emando Cerchio. Adapted from the opera," La Cenerentoln" by Rossini. 




Quaintance Eaton 

A half-dozen of the best operatio films seen hereabouts in the past 
couple of years may now be obtained on 16mm through Brandon Films, and 
should be a weloome addition to 16mm menus. Two German productions, 
two from Russia, a post-war Italian film and one from post-war France 
are included, as well as a new short film, ALTAR MASTERPIECE, All of 
course, have English titles, * 

The German films are Mozart’s MARRIAGE OF FIGARO and Nioolai’s THE 
MOUSSORGSKY. Verdi's IL TROVATGRE cames from Italy; Rossini's BARBER 
OF SEVILLE from France, Four of these I can report on from recent 
viewings; my memories of MARRIAGE OF FIGARO are not too sharp but pleas- 
ant enough; ALTAR MASTERPIECE and MOUSSORGSKY I have not seen, although 
fron reports it seems certain that lovers of the opera "Boris Godunov' 
are sure to get more than a fair sample of that work in the Russian film. 

The four I can recommend highly are GRAND CONCERT, BARBER OF SEVILLE 


Because it seems the most exotic, let us consider GRAND CONCERT first. 

Filmed in vivid Magieolor, its 105 minutes are divided into gour parts of 
"serious" music and one part folk celebration. This is all to the good, 
because the one sequence where modern-day Soviet citizens appear - - opera 

singers and farm workers .joining in a great "victory" celebration is the 

one where propaganda rears its head ever so slightly, and the citizens are 
self-conscious instruments for the kind of stilted supervised talk that 
passes for Soviet conversation, instead of artists doing their work in free- 
dom. Except for same charming singing by Natasha Zvantzeva as a farm girl - 
she has by far the best and steadiest female voice in the entire cast - - 
this episode struok me as the one false note. It was so obviously "staged". 

However, when the camera enters the opera house, all is well. The first and 
longest section of the picture is a representative slioe of Borodin's "Prince 
Igor", an opera all too rarely seen in this country. It contains some good 
bass solos, a few fine choruses, and, of course, the famous Polovstian role, 
and others were Ivan Kozlovsky, Yevgenia Smolenskaya, and Maxim Mikhailov. 

The dances, performed with a wild abandon that seldom reaches ahy screen and 
never gets into an opera house, were done by Elen A Chikvaidze, Olga 
Pepeshinskaya and Asaf Messerer. 

I said that the camera entered the opera house, but in PRINCE IGOR, it 
quickly exited. This is the superiority of movie technique over the 
stage, «*nd the Russians took full advantage of it. The scene opened on 
the Bolshoi Opera stage, but soon we were out on the stteppes with Igor 
and his army, watching his imprisonment by the Khan and the blandish- 
ments offered him to call off a long war a good theatrical way to 

bring in the dancing girls. Once in a while we touch the stage boards 
again, to re-orient ourselves , but soon spring off into the outside, 
world. What a colorful world it is too! Reds seem to dominate this 
picture, and that is intended in no way a pun. 

To touch briefly on the other elements of GRAM) CONCERT: the tenor 

Kozlovsky sings Lensky’s aria from Tchaikovsky's "Eugene Onegin" in 
a painfully mawkish staging; several rehearsal scenes of Tchaikovsky's 
ballet, "Swan Lake", brings us the art of Maya Plisetskaya, Yuri 
Kondratov, Marina Semyonova and Vladimir Preobrazhensky; a stunning 
excerpt from Prokofeiff's ballet, "Romeo and Juliet", shows Galina 
TJnanova, Mikhail Gabovich, A. Ermolayev and S. Koren; and the film 
closes with the finest single artistic episode of all - a scene from 
Glinka's "Ivan Susanin" in which Mark Reizen, the revered bass, sings 
the aria, "You Will Come,lfy Dawn", Reizen not only possesses the best 
voioe in the picture, he is the most communicative artist, the most 
subtle actor. Is it quibbling to contend, as I have contended for 
years, that Russian high voices almost invariably are either whiney or 
wabbly or both? And a new oontention that Russian ballerinas seem to 
have' thickened in the thigh and ankle sinoe the old days? Quibbles 
aside, GRAND CONCERT is an absorbing and more often than not artistically 
satisfying document, Vera Stroyeva directed; the music was arranged by 
N, Kryukov: the screenplay was by Y, Maksimenko; and the cameramen, 

who deserve a special nod, were M, Gindlin and V, Nikolayev. Chorus and 
orchestra were from the Bolshoi Theatre, with A, Melik - Pashayev, Y, Fayer 
Golovananov and V, Nebolsin as conductors, 


Matching PRINCE IGOR in unconventionality is the Italian production of 
H TROVATORE, To tell the complicated story of the abduction by the gypsy 
of a noble baby, her destruction of her own child, her revenge as this 
child is eventually destroyed by his own brother, and the love story that 
runs parallel to this theme of vengeance. Carmine Gallone, creator of 
THE LOST ONE, ranges far and wide over natural settings and never once 
enters the portals of an opera house. The story is considerably ampli- 
fied by the pictures of battles, tournaments, gypsy and army oamps, and 
castle gardens and fortifications, but it must be confessed seme of the 
impaot of Verdi's musie has had to be sacrificed. The operatic style 
does not mix too well with naturalistic acting. So we lose seme dramatic 
communication when Ezno Masoherini (Count de Lima), Gino Sinimberghi 
(Manrico), and Vittorina Colonnello (Leonara), are singing their famous 
arias and ensembles, Only Gianna Pederzini (Azucena) fits both the musio 
and dramatio frame. Contrariwise, we tend to undervalue the musio in the 

scenic grandeurs and well-handled crowd effects. Still, Gallone has made 
a good try, and probably won a wider audienoe for opera through his story 
telling. The orchestra and chorus of the Rome Opera are conducted by 
Gabriele Santini. The picture runs 98 minutes, 


The BARBER OF SEVILLE also benefits from explioit story-telling, by the 
device of added dialogue written by Castil-Blaise to clarify the portion 
of Beaumarchais' play used by Rossini as a libretto. Thus, certain motiva- 
tions that can be ignored in the opera house (the venality of the music 
teacher, Don Basilio, for example) are clarified. Usually, I cringe at 
spoken dialogue in the midst of music - - opera comique and singspiel are 
not my favorite dishes - - but here it seems excusable. This may partly be 
due to the presence of several fine singing-actors in the cast, I thorough- 
ly enjoyed the art of Louis Musy as Bartholo and Roger Bourdin as Basilio — 
two rogues with wonderfully rich characters, and not the mere caricatures 


that the opera stage usually makes of them. Lucienne Jourfler as Rosina 
was pert and pretty, and sang with only occasional shrillness. Roger 
Bussonet was agile enough to be everywhere at once, as Figaro is expected 
to be. Raymond Amada as Almaviva seemed too boyish and fragile in face, 
voice, and figure, when the picture opened — he reminded me disturbingly 
of a very youthful Rudolf Bing- - but gradually gained credibility in all 
three departments, and occasionally appeared really elegant. 

Jean Loubigmac is credited with the screen production; M. Loui 3 Musy of the 
Opera Comique with the art direction; Claude Dolbert was the director. The 
orchestra and chorus of the Opera Comique were directed by Andre Cluytens. 

As in IL TROVATCRE, there was no hint of a stage; the action took place en- 
tirely in naturalistic — and very charming — scenes. The film runs 105 min. 


This film has the fascination of the almost unknown — it has not been 
seen in these parts for a good long time. A new production of Nicolai's 
opera is due at Central City, Colorado, this summer, so that the film 
served me as an introduction to the opera's content, musically at least. 

The story is the familiar Falstaff yarn made more famous by Shakespeare - 
and Verdi. But Nicolai's version has its own delights. The music is as 
sprightly and fetching as Offenbach's, and the story only gets longish in 
the last scene which was Shakespeare's fault, after all. 

Georg Wildhagen, director and co-author with Wolff von Gordon of the screen 
play, has used the device of making the theatre a springboard into reality. 
His stage is that of a band of strolling players - - a la Pagliacci - - in 
a small German town. The overture sees them through credits and the esta- 
blishment of the little theatre. Once the play has opened, the action 
widens to realism, an clever realism at that. The daily doings of a tiny 
town are delightfully portrayed, and sometimes the livestock seem better 
actors them the humems. 

Here, as in Rossini's CINDERELLA, which I have reported on in another col- 
umn, the camera is so busy filling your eye with incident that your ear 
is often distracted. Still, there is a great deal of the charming Nicolai 
music to enjoy, emd it is well sung by all. The cast includes Sonja 
Ziemann as Frau Fluth (Mrs Ford); Camilia Spira as F ra u Reich (Mrs. Page); 
Paul Esser as Falstaff; U laus Holm as Herr Fluth (Mr. Ford); Alexander 
Engel as Herr Reich (Mr. Page); Eckart Dux as Fenton; Ina Halley as Anna 
Reich (Anne Pare) 5 J°a° him Tee S e as Spaerlich (Slender); and Gerhard 

Frickhoffer as Dr.Cajus. 


The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth, with its dazzling pageantry, is also a 
great musical event, ,l ?hile the solemn rites are being performed on June 2nd, 
Vfestminster Abbey will ring out the work of Britain's best contemporary 
composers blended with the hymns and anthems of the lfith and 17th centuries. 

Massed in the Abbey will be 
an orchestra of 60 musicians 
drawn from Britain's 12 lead- 
ing symphonies, a choir of 400, 
and the State Trumpeters whose 
fanfares will have a thrilling 
effect resounding through the 

Dr. ’Tilliam MeKie, organist of 
Vfestminster Abbey, selected the 
music. He has commissioned 
eight new works. Heading the 
list of distinguished composers 
is Sir Arnold Bax, Master of the 
Queen's Musick, whose title is 
the music world's equivalent of 
poet laureate. His contribution 
is a Coronation March which will 
he played as the Queen, wearing 
the Imperial State Crown, leaves 
the Abbey to begin her drive 
through the tumultuous London 
streets . 

Ralph Vaughan Williams has made the arrangement for the hymn, "All People That on 
Earth Do Dwell" which will be sung by the congregation and the choir and accompan- 
ied by the orchestra, organ and trumpeters. He has also composed a short motet 
which will be sung pianissimo and unaccompanied during the Communion, 


British Information services. 

Sir William Walton's "Te Deum is presented on a tremendous scale for choirs, 
large orchestra with important parts for the organ and trumpets. Sir William 
has also composed a march "Orb and Sceptre" which will be played as the Queen 
enters the Abbey, 

Other new musical works have been specially composed by Sir Arthur Bliss, Sir 
George Dyson, William Harris and Herbert Howells. A homage anthem has been 
composed by Healey Willan of Toronto, Canada, which is probably the first time 
that a Commonwealth composer has contributed music for the Coronation service. 

Blending with new compositions will be hymns dating back to the 16th and 
17th centuries. They include John Redford 's "Rejoice in the Lord", Jilliam 
Byrd's "I ’Will Not Leave You Comfortless," and Orlando Gibbons "0 Clap 
Your Hands , During the Anointing Handel's anthem "Zadok the Priest will 
be sung. It was written for the Coronation of King George II (1727; and 
its words go back to Saxon times. 

Courtesy of Chicago's MUSICAL LEADER. 

The foregoing is the musical program to be followed in the ceremonies 
on June 2nd, which will be televised and appear in film at a later date 

rppvwnH^ 1 sh Inform^ ttm Servioe has an excellent short film, CORONATION 
MONY, 7/hich gives a history of the ceremony and explains its deep 
national and religious significance. Old prints, historical documents, 
and drawings of the procedures as they will take place at the coronation 
or Elizabeth II illustrate the impressive narration by Leo Genn. John 
Gardner has written a background soore with indications of the traditional 
music used for the occasion. 

CORONATION CEREMONY.. British Information Services. 35 min.,b and w , 16mm, 35ira 
Music s o ore , J ohn Gardner. Played by the Royal Philharmonio Orchestra. Conducted 
by' John Hollingsworth. 


William Hamilton 

As to method and approach, there is no Sharp line separating the films mentioned at 
the end of Part I of this summary and the first few considered here. Roughly, the 
order followed indicates a trend from chamber towards orchestral concepts. 

The common traits of four Italian films are not sufficient to mark a national tendency 
but the likenesses among the four sound-tracks in question are worth noting together. 
The most conspicuous thing about them is that they are scored in a style quite close 
to that of the music heard on the radio in this country, usually in dramatic shows. 
There is the frequent tutti by the slightly-too-3mall orchestra, the very dead, very 
close-mic recorded sound and a pervasive use of the organ — which, under these con- 
ditions, sounds excessively Hammond. The writing does not have radio's extreme short- 
ness of breath, however; the composers here have had the opportunity to get their idea 

CHRIST AMONG THE fftBilTIVES shows (without commentary) the effect of Christian teaching 
on African sculpture. In brief, the composer's job was to follow the cutting back and 
forth between "influenced" and "uninfluenced" sculptures. This is a simple enough 
scheme, but, executed with precision, it succeeds splendidly. The "Christian" music 
and the "barbaric" are highly contrasted ~ unfortunately in such a way as to make a 
pretty powerful esthetic argument in favor of the latter. One i3 overwhelmed by the 
ferocious barrage of brass and percussion (which recorded magnificently), and there is 
a distinct letdown when this is supplanted by the organ, snivelling along in the tear- 
ful tradition of late nineteenth century church music. The latter conception has to 
prevail, of course, and it is developed to a reasonably climactic level for the finish 
the cloying opacity of the organ being mitigated by the addition of strings. But in 
spite of this musical deficiency, CHRIST AMONG THE TfalMITIVFS is a notable example of 
the visual decisively providing its own climax and asserting its own rhythn. It ends 
with a succession of hieroglyphic symbols to illustrate a spoken recitation of the 
Apostles' Creed. For simplicity and grandeur both at once, there is probably no con- 
clusion to equal "And the life everlasting. Amen." (Unless it '3 "And the life of the 
world to come. Amen.") 

BIBLE OF THE POOR and BICCHERNE DI SIENA are concerned with, respectively, the carving 
on the doors of a church in Verona, and the decorated covers of mediaeval Siena's city 
ledgers. Since I have neither the specialist's enthusiasm nor a knowledge of Italian, 
these two rather bald presentations of two rather small subjects didn't move me much. 
The music is respectable, old-fashioned stuff with the same unpleasant sound quality 
referred to above. Of the two, the BIBLE score is the more up-to-date; it ventures 

into modernity — or modemisticity — to about 1926. This is a style better suited 
to a film study of the Chrysler Building or of those constructions in dirty celluloid 
of which the Museum of Modem Art keeps a few samples on hand. It should have some 
interest for those of a nostalgic turn. BICCHERNE DI SIENA lacks even so small an 
attribute as this. 

The last of the Italian items , SICILIA BAROCCA, gets handily over the language barrier 
by virtue of livelier camera work and a topic which must be of wider appeal than the 
two described above. The argument is that the Sicilian community at large was and is 
thoroughly permeated by the exuberant spirit of the Baroque. The evidence is present- 
ed at all levels, from the 3hape of dolls and candy to architectural ornamentation. 

The amiable extravagances are often quite astonishing and as often quite charming. 

The score, again though far from lovely in sound, is definitely more than just doing 
what comes naturally. The organist earned himself a screen credit due to the command- 
ing nature of his part. It is an interesting one which shifts among the functions of 
3 ol o , accompaniment and combination on equal terms with other instruments. This last 
is new to me. To combine, say, two voices on the organ with two in the wood-wind, 
ought, I should think, to raise questions about blend and balance. In SICILIA BAROCCA 
the procedure gives the Organ something of the character of a dancing elephant - which 
is not inappropriate. 

My organ 'kick* ends with an American picture, CRUCIFIXION, a presentation of Paintings 
by Rico Lebrun. The sound contrasts absolutely with all of the foregoing. Here is 
spaciousness and brilliance in place of suffocating confinement and a three thousand 
cycle cut-off. The organ used in CRUCIFIXION (like those heard in LFS GISANTS and 
ST. LOUIS) is the real article. Together with the organ, which throws its weight 
around - very brio - in the manner of Messaien^ the score also includes orchestral 
winds and percussion to dramatize with great power and sonority the depicted incidents. 

Of the full-3ized symphonic scores, EOUILIBRE was notable for its deftness. The film 
discourses (in French) on some of the fundamentals of architecture, with animated 
drawing and footage of great buildings of the world. A large part of the score is dev- 
eloped from the Hallelujah Chorus, first in little distorted fragments, and finally 
whole and correct. This is a witty parallel to the synthesizing nature of the script. 

Of the remainder of the program, the four most interesting musical items were the exotic 
scores to SEVEN PAGODAS, OUETZALCOATL , BUMA and MASOUERAGE. Mr Shir&li of the Government 
of India Film Division ha3 Provided SEVEN PAGODAS with music which I assume to be auth- 
entic and undoctored. I wonder, though, if authenticity would have been seriously com- 
promised by just a few tacets. The music as it stands has attractions, the greatest 
of these being the gorgeous soprano voice which enters towards the end. But if this and 
other episodes had been separated from the continuous skein of music, they would them- 
selves have stood in sharper relief and would have provided the punctuation that western 
film music usual! y strives for. I don't suggest that this shou ld have been done in a 
production from India, since I am totally ignorant of the musical ideals of that country. 
Besides, plenty of western film music is just as incessant and a good deal more wearisome 

OUFTZALCOAU, examines rel^js of the Toltec culture, and, when its eighteen minutes have 
run out, we are hip-deep in pot 3 , baskets and graven images. The man with the scissors 
should have had another go at it. The music is played on a few conventional wind and 
percussion instruments. It is mostly a synthesis of what I'm perfectly prepared to be- 
lieve the Toltec in the street was used to* There are odd rhythmic tatoos, and micro- 
tones and curious scratching, rasping noises. It's an enlivening score for the picture; 
it's also sufficiently strange to our normal system of musical weights and measures to 
stand cutting without too much damage. 


4 The sound track for BUMA: AFRICAN SCULPTURE STEAKS is 
primitive music in its purest condition, having been 
performed by real natives in genuine Africa. There is 
no indication that the recording was cut to fit the 
joints in the picture. So, both elements go their 
separate ways, neither supporting the other except at 
a fairly high level of abstraction: both sound and 
pictures have "some connection" with the African native. 

The music is fun to listen to and is, naturally, a fine, 
authentic source of primitive scales and rhythms. 

In the matter of musical aptness which I have be- 
labored so hard in this report, my point of reference 
has been the Festival's one perfect picture, 

MASOUERAGE. It is a film whose photography and 
sound track - both of the first rank - combine to 
produce something that is, mysteriously, more than 
the sum of its parts. I hardly hesitate to call it 

MASOUERAGE is another African study, a collection of 
masks in the Leyden Museum in Holland. Illuminated 
only by an ordinary flashlight, these masks are photo- 
graphed with unusual elan, and every shot is cunningly 
composed to intimate some special individual quality. 

It's a magnificent exercise in the exploitation of 
rigorously limited resources. The sound track is BUMA 

the first example I've encountered of Musique Concrete, a technique which has been 
written about for a couple of years now, It qualifies as music only where we accept 
the definition: 'Music is organized noise', and I doubt that the definer, in propound- 

ing his definition, ever contemplated Musique Concrete which can, for artistic necessity, 
forego the organization part. Without its theoretical basis (of which I know nothing), 
her's what it is: a recorded arrangement of natural and man-made sounds, either in the 
form in which they occur or modified in any manner that recording equipment is capable 
of. The development of high-fidelity magnetic tans has made an endless vocabulary of 
prodigious effects not only possible but economical. It is not music to be pe rf o me d 
in the usual sense. It is produced once and for all by the 'composer' and, automatically 
every performance is absolutely authoritative. I'm not sure I’m ready yet for a dress- 
up concert of this sort of thing, but MASOUERAGE convinces me that Musique Concrete is 
a natural for the movies - or, at least, for a documentary about African masks. 

The picture and sound are joined with breath-taking precision into a single composition 
of extraordinary power. I can't identify the sounds themselves with any certainty. 

There seems to be machinery, both crashing and brumming, animals, birds, a couple of 
patches of music, an unintelligible babble of humans, and for one short moment, somebody 
speaks - only it's in Dutch. Some sounds undoubtedly are distorted, versions of others 
speeded up, slowed down, run backwards or whatever. It makes fascinating listening. 

And as an adjunct to the mask footage, it is flawless. The composer, Pierre Schaeffer, 

is, by the way, the chief practitioner of Musique Concrete. 

The attached list contains a number of titles of which I have made no mention, jf this 

demotes what I've been fondly thinking of as a "report" to the status of a mere sampling 

so be it. It should be remembered that the assemblers of the Festival were not attempt- 
ing a selection of film scores. Consequently, most of the scores included in it tend to 
be of average quality, with little to distinguish them — good or bad. Such being the 
case, it seems to me that a sampling should be sufficient to indicate accurately enough 

what's going on. 

ABSTRACT IN CONCRETE; 16; Music: Frank Fields 

ALTAR MASTERPIECE; 35; Music: Andrea j Panufnik; Brandon Films, Inc. 200 W 57, NY 19 
AMERICAN MARCH; 16; Music: The Stars and Stripes Forever: J. P. Sousa 
ANIMATED GENESIS: 35; Music: Thomas Henderson 

ART AND MOTION; 16; Encyclopedia Britannica Films Inc. Willamette, 111 

THE BIBLE OF THE POOR; Music: Gino Marinuzzi Jr; Italian Films Export, 1501 B'way , NY 18 

LE BICCHERNE DI SIENA; Music: Roman Vlad; Italian Films Export 

BUMA: AFRICAN SCULPTURE SPEAKS; 16; Arthur S. Alberts, Recordist;, Enc Brit Films 

BUS TELL I; 35; Musio: Armin Knab 


CRUCIFIXION; 35; Music: Boris Kremenliev; Unir Calif Extension , Los Angeles 24 
DAFNI: VIRGIN OF THE GOLDEN LAURELS; 35; Music: Howard Brubeck; Helen Ainsworth Conp 
197 N Canon Drive, Beverly Hills 
EOUILIBRE; Soci^t^ C. D. L C. 


THE GOLDEN FISI^ 35; Music: Hugo Godron; Martin Toonder Film NV, Amsterdam 
GOYA; 35 4 16; Music: Andres Segovia; Pictura Films, 55 Tarrytown Road, 

White Plains, NY 

THE GREAT PASSION; 35; Music: : Viktor Hruby; Fides f\ib, 21 W Superior, Chicago 10 
HENRY MOORE; 16; Music: William Alwyn 

IMAGES D’ARGILE; 35; Music: Van Hoorebecque; Les Films Maurice Cloche, 

25 Avenue Kleber, Paris 16e 

IMAGES DEL'ANCIENNE EGYPTE; 35; Music: Van Hoorebecque; Les Films Maurice Cloche 

20th Century Fox , 444 W 56 , NY 19 
JOAN MIRO MAKES A COLOR HUNT} 16; Thomas Bouchard, 80 W 40, NY 18 
JOURNEY INTO HISTORY; 35; Music: Sir Arnold Bax; British Information Service^ 

SO "Rockefeller Aui, NY 20 

LIGHT IN THE WINDOW; 35; Music: Jacques Belasco; 20th Century Fox 
MADELEINE; 35; Music: David Raksin; Columbia Pictures, 729 Seventh Ave. NY 19 
MAMBO; 16; Kinesis, 566 Commercial. St. SAn Francisco 
MARK TOBEY: ARTIST; 16; Music: Mark Tobey; Brandon Films 
MASOUERAGE; 35; Music:: Pierre Schaeffer; Isderlandse Filmonderneming VISIH 
MASQUES ET VISAGES BE’ JAMES ENSOR;“ 16; Mus ic: : Andr^ Souris; Scientif ique- 
Institut Beige de Clnematographie , 23 Rue Ravenstein, Brussels 
MIRROR” OF HOLLAND; 35; Music: Max VTe den burg; Forua Films, Amsterdam 
MISERERE; 35; Music: . Josquin des Prez; Picture Films 

MOTION PAINTING NO. 1; 16; Music: Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 e JwS. Bach 
NEW WAY OF GRAVURE; 16; A. F. Films, 1600 B’way, NY 19 
THE OPEN WINDOW, 35; Music: Georges Auric; Hritish Information Service 
A PAINTER’S WORLD: MILTON AVERY; 16 Walter Lewis ohn, 49 W 19, NY 11 
PHILIP EVERGOOD; • 16; Music: William Ames, Flayed by Ray Lev; Howard Bird, 

Woodstock, NY 

OUETZALCOATL; 16; Musio: John Paddock; Enc Brit Films 

SEVEN H8G0DAS; 16; Gov't of India Services, 2107 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington, DC 
SICILIA BAROCCA; Music: Ennio Porrino; Italian Films Export 

STEPHAN LOCHNER; 16; Music: Walter Gimatis; Kultur und Lehrfilm Institut, Bremen 
ST. L0UI8, ANGEL OF PEACI^' 35; Foreign Agencies Inc, 67 Wall St, NY 5 
TCBLOBSE-LAUTREC, PAINTER OF 1 THE PARIS BOHEME} 16 4 35f Brter Riethof , 59 E 79, NY 21 



Films and television continue to prove their worth as teaching mediums 
resulting in a rapid increase in source materials and training centers. 

In Texas, Station KUHT went on the air in May, operated by the University 
of Houston and the Houston Independent School District. At the University 
of Southern California in Los Angeles, Station KUSC -TV will also be oper- 
ating shortly under an educational license, with plans for serving the com- 
munity as well as the university. The station is financed by a $500,000 
grant from the Allan Hancoook Foundation. Audio-Visual departments are 
steadily increasing in importance in sohool systems and the college curricu- 
lum. Mrs. Helen Dill, of the National Film Music Council, reports success 
of the Audio-Visual Center in the recent California-Western Music Educator 's 
Conference held in Tucson. The University of Southern California offers 
about a dozen courses in the evaluation and use of audio-visual materials, 
and closely allied cinematic studies. Provision for the subject is being 

made in the University of Montana’s new building. David Foltz of the 
University of Nebraska is chairman of a progressive department that has 
published a useful listing "Evaluation of Sound Films for Music Education". 
In Indiana alone there is an amazing amount of activity in the field. The 
Indianapolis City Schools have set up a program of Visual Education Pro- 
duction. Summer school sessions abound. Butler is holding a work-shop, 
Notre Dame has scheduled two courses, Purdue is having four -workshops and 
a course for teaohers. Indiana University is offering some eighteen 
courses in the graduate sohool, and will hold an Audio-Visual Conference 
in cooperation with the university’s other departments in early July. The 
account of similar activities all over the country could be carried on in- 

MUSEUM OF The Film Library of the Museum of Modern Art in New York an- 

MCDERN ART nounces that five kinescopes of the Museum's television 
series "Through the Enchanted Cate", on creative art for 
children between 5 and 10, are available for rental. The five 
half-hour kinescopes show teachers and children absorbed in the activities 
arising from "Tell Your Ideas with Clay". "Make a Space Design", or "Paint 
a Pioture of Sounds". These demonstrations have been selected for "teacher 
training, parent-child study groups, educational conferences, courses in 
visual aids for education, oourses in television production, and for direct 
motivation for children's creative activity". An adaptation of this excel- 
lent program in the field of children and musio is something greatly to be 

MUSIC FROM The L on don Symphony Orchestra with Muir Mathieson conducting 

THE FILMS and Eileen Joyce as soloist presented a program "Music from 

the Films" in London’s Royal Albert Hall. The selections 
played were pieces from the concert repertoire that had been 
adapted to film use, and excerpts from scores specifically composed for films 
John Huntley wrote the notes for the program, which follows : 

Overture* The Barber of Seville .. Rossini. Film, 
Helen's Minuet and Jig.. William Alwyn. Film, 
Pas de deux .. Offenbach Film, 
Symphonic Variations.. Cesar Franck. Film, 
Suite .. Sir Arnold Bax . Film, 
Piano Concerto in A .. Edward Grieg. Film, 
Prelude .. Vaughan Williams. Film, 
Touch Her Soft Lips and Part.. Sir.W.Walton. Film, 
Legend of Glass Mountain.. Nino Rota. Film, 
Overture: Oberon.. Weber. Film, 







(with score excerpts) 


CARRIE (with score excerpts) 

16mm FILMS 


* * * * * 


THE THIEF (with score excerpts) 


( with score excerpts of Ivanhoe A Plymouth 

SOUSA’S MUSIC Lt, Col. William F. 


* * * * * 




(score excerpts by David Raksin, composer. ) 










* * * * 


SALOME (with score excerpts by composer) 



Harold Brown 

Scott Wilkinson 
Quaintance Eaton 
David Raksin 
Alfred E. Simon 
William Hamilton 
Marie Hamilton 
Tex Shindo 
Frank Lewin 

Herschel Burke Gilbert 

Adventure,) Miklos Rozsa 
Mary Powell 
Santelmann, USMC 
Mary Powell 
D. D. Livingston 
Charles Anthony Biondo 

William Hamilton 

Quaintance Eator 

Richard Lewine 
Mary Powell 
Arthur Kendy 
Mary Powell 
Harold Brown 
M. Langdon 
Mary Powell 
Gene Forrell 
M. Langdon 
Karline Brown 
Gene Forrell 
James Limbacher 
Belinda Roggensack 
Sigmund Spaeth 

Lee J. Pockriss 
George W. Duning 
Nathan Kroll 
David Raksin 
Mary Ellen Bute 
William Hamilton 
Roger Bowman 





(with score excerpts "by composer) 

THE JUGGLER (with score excerpts by composer) 



* * * * * 

The following back issues of FILM MUSIC are available* 

VOLUME VI , Number 2 and 5 (1946) 

VOLUME VII, Number 5 (l947) 

VOLUME VIII, Number 2, 4 and 5 (1948-1949) 

VOLUME IX, Numbers 2,3,4 and 5 (1949-1950) 

VOLUME X, Numbers 1,2, 3, 4 and 5 (1950-1951) 

VOLUME XI, Numbers 1,2, 3, 4, and 5 (1951-1952) 

VOLUME XII, Numbers 1,2, 3,4 and 5 (1952-1953) 


Complete files (25 copies) |5.00 plus postage. 

Single copies .30 each. 

VOLUME XI .Number 5 has an INDEX of the magazine through May-June 1952 

Ann Ronell 
George Antheil 
Clifton Parker 
Quaintance Eaton 
Quaintanee Eaton 
William Hamilton 



HO'J s 




' 1/ 


September - October, 1953 



Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 28 
Butterfield 8-3288 

FALL ISSUE: September - October, 1953 VOLUME XIII NUMBER I 





(with score excerpts by composer) 



(Films and Record Collections) 



INDEX of Volume XII 

Harold Bro 1 
Frank Lev 
Miklos Ro: 

Alen Morris 
Ellen L. Wa 

Gerald Prat 
C. Sharpless Hicktr 


Harold Brown, film critic and teacher 
Frank Lewin, composer, arranger, film critic 
Miklos Rozsa, composer 
Alen Morrison, student 

Ellen L. Walsh, Head Adult Education Dept. Seattle Public Library 
Gerald Pratley, Canadian Film Institute 

C. Sharpless Hickman, Film Critic. (Courtesy MUSIC JOURNAL) 


Published by the National Film Music Council, 26 East 83rd St., New York 28. President, William Hamilton: Vice President and Editor, Marie L. Hamilti 
Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues yearly with occasional bulletins. Two dollars and fifty cents a year. Single copies fifty cents. Back files (25 copii 
five dollars plus postage. 


Harold Brown 

It is noteworthy that while the musical film, Hollywood style, is one 
of our most effective movie forms, grand opera as such has been some 
thing less than effective when attempted on film. Perhaps the reason 
is simply that while the particular operas attempted have been excellent 
as music, they did not make very good movies. My own theory goes a bit 
further, holding that the arts mix successfully only when one is dom- 
inant, that traditional opera is invariably dominated by the music, but 
that while music can serve the film, the film does not lend itself 
happily to serving music. The musical comedy makes no pretense of fus- 
ing the elements of drama and music, and is the better for it, though I 
cannot consider it an integrated art form. 

This seems to put Warner Bros.' version of THE BEGGARS OPERA in a class 
by itself,for it is distinctly not an opera, and is much more integrated 
than any musical comedy I have seen. Its realization is eminently success- 
ful )what happens at the box office remains to be seen), and this is due 
to the fact that it is treated primarily as a movie , with all of its 
elements subordinate to the scenario and camera. Yet so carefully is the 
scenario planned to give the music its rightful place that the score be- 
comes an indispensable element in the whole, and there are times when 
one is scarcely aware that the characters deliver their lines in song, 
not speech. In at least one scene only song could support the action 

John Gay's rollicking, witty story of a charming rogue whose weakness for 
women was his undoing retains all of its freshness and much of its satire, 
providing excellent film fare, while Christopher Fry's supplementary 
lyrics and dialogue are delightfully in character. And Sir Arthur Bliss, 
fully understanding the problem at hand, has provided not another version 
of an old score, nor an attempt at a new opera, but an original score 
which is distinctly film music. 

This fact makes it possible to by-pass all but the most die-hard purists, 
and even they scarcely have a case; using traditional times in a con- 
temporary setting has been the custom for composers from the early days 
of polyphony right up to Stravinsky and Bartok. Such a task comes quite 
naturally to a composer like Bliss, for more than any other modern 
school, the British composers have derived their idiom from the folk 
music of their country. Thus Bliss* background music flows easily into 
folk song accompaniment without the slightest break in continuity, mus- 
ical or dramatic. Where the action demands it, however, he does not 
hesitate to underline an old song with new techniques, such as the 
strident brass harmonies which accompany the trapped Macheath's song 
of impending doom. But for the most part, the modal or seventeenth 
een+ury flavor is preserved in a harmonic background which is as time- 
less as the melodies it adorns. Only once did I feel that Bliss 
stepped out of bounds and that is in the final trio at the scaffold, 
where we are somewhat reminded of Rossini, complete with barbershop 
harmony and sentimental melodic lines. 

There are devices used which are indigenous to the film technique it- 
self, such as the final verse, in an entirely new scene and context, 
which Polly sings to the song which Lucy began. Or again the film 
music version of the leit motif (dating back to "WAY DOWN EAST"), 


where a gay drinking song, associated early in the picture with riding in 
a carriage, appears again with new words and orchestral treatment in a 
wild ride as Lockett, Peachum, and Mrs, Trapes, apprised of the escaped 
Captain’s •whereabouts, track down their prey. In a brilliantly executed 
scene of unparalleled freneticism, the carriage lurches dizzily through 
the twisting, cobbled streets, the three pursuers rolling crazily and 
lustily beliowing their song of a now sinister hilarity. Here music and 
action are as one; mere speech, however excited, could never suffice. 

In the freely composed background music. Bliss uses, as might be expected, 
snatches of the thematic material for development, and this is done in a 
subtle unobtrusive manner as befits good film music. And he is expert in 
the art of underscoring; there are the shuddering, lengthening chords as 
the escaping Macheath swings from the prison window, in ever widening arcs, 
climaxing with a crash of glass as he goes through a window, and ending in 
a sudden, tension-breaking silence. The longest freely composed sequence 
is the ride to the scaffold, the Captain seated on his own coffin in the 
cart as it rumbles slowly through the roistering crowds in a scene of fan- 
tastic, macabre gayety. Here a brooding motif is developed in the strings, 
while the winds support the bedlam with dancelike fragments of a folk char- 
acter, Then the pause at the gallows, Macheath’s farewell to his two loves 
("at least now I shall be of one mind", followed by the Rossini trio. But 
before he hangs, the scene reverts back to the prison cell where the beggar 
is conducting the prisoners in the last measures of his opera. A wild 
music strikes up as Macheath and the prisoners escape, and once more we 
hear the opening light-hearted song of the Captain as he gallops away to 

The singing is uniformly first class, with the exception of Olivier, who 
sings his own part and does very well indeed for an amateur. Why he essayed 
to do this leads to seme speculation. I doubt that he would have tried 
Mozart; possibly he thought that folk songs do not require a highly po- 
lished singing style. ’Whatever the reason, he made an unwise choice. 

The English folk song is simply not like any other; it lends itself read- 
ily to an art setting, and in such a setting can be as sophisticated and 


exquisite as any of Mozart's melodies. It has engendered in Britain a 
tradition and style of singing; unlike anything found on the Continent - 
a style which to an instrumentalist like myself is pure joy, for it is 
concerned solely with the delineation of a perfect, musically expressive 
melodic line. 

Absent are the portamento, the quavering vibrato, the heavy accent, and 
a hundred other common devices more related to speech mannerisms than 
to melody. It is a style deceivingly simple, for it requires the high- 
est degree of training in both vocal technique and musical sensibilities. 

Unfortunately the credits do not state which singer sang which part. If 
I had to make a choice for laurels, it would be for the voice of Polly 
Peachum. It is not a voice of operatic grandeur (so much the better), 
but the effortless simplicity with which it molds phrases of exquisite 
refinement and feeling represents the British vocal tradition at its best. 

It is a good evening's entertainment, and if it proves good box office, 
one wonders if it will have successors. We must remember, however, that 
if this film is unique, the contributing circumstances are equally so; 
an excellent libretto, a score which consisted essentially of skillfully 
selected anonymous tunes, and the fact that no great names were involved 
in the original made possible a free adaptation without raising the cry 
of sacrilege. And it is the freedom and brill i«nce o'* the adaptation, 

I am sure, which made it work. 

THE BEGGAR'S OPERA.. Warner Brothers.. Laurence Olivier, Hugh Griffith. 
Director, Peter Brook. Music arranged and composed by Sir Arthur Bliss. 

Frank Lewin 

In any treatment of MARTIN LUTHER and the Reformation muaic plays an 
important role. Part of Luther's reforms consisted of conducted church 
services in the vernacular, and he accomplished this aim not only by 
translating the Bible into German but also with the introduction into 
the service of hymns in German, many of which he wrote and composed. 

The best known of Luther's chorales, "A Mighty Fortress is Our God," 
is employed by Mark Lothar throughout the film. It forms the basis of 
the main title and brings the film to a sonorous close sung by Luther's 
congregation in his church. There is an eloquent quotation of the 
chorale's opening notes, in distorted harmonization, to express Luther's 
doubt in a cell of the August ini an monastery. On his journey to stand 
before Charles V at Worms we hear the chorale struggling to emerge from 
the rest of the music, a parallel to the growing clarification of Luther's 
faith as he sits pouring over his books. It is one of the most effective 
sections of the score. 

A great deal of the music heard in the film is, of course, closely con- 
nected with the lithurgy of the Catholic Church. When Luther arrives 
in Rome, the splendor of the Church is vividly underscored by the sing- 
ing of the choirs. In the monastery at Erfurt, as Luther is ordained 
a priest the plain chant of the monks resounds in the chapel. A felici- 


tous touch is the transition from this scene to the market place of the 
town. The music just heard as plain chant becomes a secular background 
to the bustle of the people. 

Much of the score acts as accompaniment to the document ary- type narra- 
tion employed in MARTIN LUTHER. This music sounds rather vague, possi- 
bly in order not to conflict with the voice. However, even where the 
music is free to make its point in the clear, the impression of indefin- 
iteness persists. In the main title, little of the sturdiness of the 
chorale or of the film's portrayal of Luther is evident in the musical 
treatment. A fine chance for some strong dramatic music would seem 
to be indicated during Luther's burning of the Papal bull threatening 
to excommunicate him. The music, however, does little more them 
picture the flames and misses any commentary on the defiance symbol- 
ized in this act. 

Similarly superficial send redundantly descriptive is the treatment 
of the plundering rabble, unleashed by Luther's colleague Carlstadt - 
the music here is almost gay. An equal lack of incisiveness char- 
acterizes the description of Luther's abduction on his return from 
Worms. Throughout the score, little of Luther's obstinate strength- 
- as portrayed in this film — finds its way into the music. 

MARTIN LUTHER., Louis de Rochemont Associates. Niall Mac Ginnis, John Ruddock, 
Director, Irving Pichel,. Music, Mark Lotar. 

Mark Lotar is music director and composer of the Bavarian State Theatre in 
Munich, The orchestra used is the Munich Philharmonic, directed by the composer, 
and the choral music for the Rome sequence was sung by the Munich Philharmonia 


Miklos Rozsa 

In my previous articles about the music of QUO VADIS, IVANHOE and 
PLYMOUTH ADVENTURE I have expanded my theories about music written 
for historical films. Shakespeare's JULIUS CAESAR presented new 
problems. If it had been merely a historical film about Julius 
Caesar I would have undoubtedly tried a reconstruction or approxima- 
tion of the Roman music of the First Century B.C. However, it is 
more than that. It is a Shakespearean tragedy, and, with its language, 
a true mirror of Elizabethan times, and it is principally this lan- 
guage which dictates its style. In Shakespeare’ s time, as they had few 
scruples about stylistic correctness, the music was undoubtedly their 
own - Elizabethan. Should I have composed it in Roman style, it would 
have been wrong for Shakespeare - should I have tried to treat it as 
stage music to an Elizabethan drama in Elizabethan style, it would have 
been anachronistic from the historical point of view. I decided, there- 
fore, to regard it as a universal drama, about the eternal problems of 
men and the most timely problems about the fate of dictators. I wrote 
the same music I would have written for a modern stage presentation: 
interpretative incidental music, expressing with my own musical lan- 
guage, for a modern audience, what Shakespeare expressed with his own 
language for his own audience three hundred and fifty years ago. The 
example set by Mendelssohn with his music to MIDSUMMER NIUFT’S D^EAM 
was obvious, as he wrote his own, highly romantic music which now 
everybody accepts as authentic, to this romantic play of Shapespeare. 

To emphasize the Shakespearean stage 
drama I wrote an overture, based on 
the main themes of the music, to pre- 
cede the play. It was strong and 
stark, to set the audience in the 
mood of the following events. It was 
later replaced by Tchaikowsky's 
"Capriccio Italien", which addly 
enough, some people found more ap- 
propriate to precede "Julius Caesar!' 

The four protagonists of the play 
are Caesar, Marc Antony, Brutus and 
Cassius. The first two represent 
the ruthless, ambition filled, arro- 
gant, Roman imperialists; Brutus, 
the honest, straight-forward man 
who loves Caesar but loves his coun- 
try better, and finally Cassius 
with a "lean and hungry look" who 
is filled with envy and jealousy of 

The three main musical themes are 

l) The theme of Caesar, which also serves later as the theme of Marc »ntony, 
as the two represent the same basic ideas in the play, for Antony is but 
a limb of Caesar." It is a martial theme, stern and "Constant as the 
Northern Star", which appears the first time as Caesar’s march as he and 
his entourage come for the"Course"and is interrupted by the soochsayer s 
voice, "shriller" than all the music. 


The^theme of "gentle and most noble Brutus" is brooding, musing and 
sighing" portraying musically the man who is willing to sacrifice his 
friend (or was he his father?' who knows "no personal cause to spurn at 
him, but for the general The theme appears first under the titles as 
a canon with motives of the Caesar theme interrupting it. 


3) We first hear Cassius' theme under his monologue after Brutus' depart- 
ure, when he first tells about his intriguing. The music portrays the 
determined character of this envious intriguer who "reads much; is a great 

observer, looks quite through the deeds of men; loves no plays and hears 
no music. " 

This music leads to the street scene of thunder and lightning and dis- 
appears with the opening words of Cicero. 

Calpurnia's dream(this is only mentioned by Shakespeare but in the film 
we can. also see it) about the murder of Caesar, is accompanied by a dis- 
sonant muted brass figure in which high violin harmonies eject the Caesar 
motiv. The nervous music follows the scene until Caesar addresses his 
own statue: "Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace." 


Bef ore I set out to compose the music and before I saw the picture, I 
thought that no dialogue scene should have any music, as on the stage 
one uses music only for pre and postludiums, transitions and entr'acts. 

The filmed stageplay, however, dictates new aesthetics and dramatic 
rules. Scenes with strongly dramatic content could be emphasized and 
brought nearer to our consciousness by the use of appropriate music. 

As Artemidorus waits for Caesar before the Capitol, reads his letter of 
warning, Caesar and the senators arrive, and until he enters the Senate- 
house, there is a tremendous tension - as we know that he enters the trap 
laid for him by the conspirators. 

The music which accompanies this scene is low; dissonant seventh chords 
sire slowly creeping forward on a basso ostinato of tympani and bass 

The whole assassination scene in the Senate and the oration of Brutus 
and Antony at the Forum are without music. These are not only the strong- 
est scenes of the whole tragedy, but undoubtedly the most famous and great- 
est writing of the entire dramatic literature. Here every line is precise 
in meaning and does not need any help from any other medium. Music sets 
in only as a final punctuation , as the citizens of Home rise in mutiny. 

At Caesar's funeral we hear the lament of women. It is a dirge in the 
manner of a ftreek Nenia. 

After the so-called pricking scene, when Octavius leaves, Antony remains 
alone, sitting on Caesar’s chair and imagining himself as his successor. 

The brassy music brings back the ominous Caesar-theme. 

In Brutus* camp, the meeting of Brutus and Cassius, their quarrel over 

music A T 8ce “ e ® of matter-of-fact realism and did not need any 

musio. After Cassius and his captains leave, Brutus asks his little ser- 
vant L ucius to sing a song. Shakespeare only indicates "music and a song" 
and I thought that an Elizabethan song, because of its language, would be 
the most appropriate. I chose John Howland's "Now, 0 now, I needs must 
part , which was published in 1597 and might have been known to Shakespeare. 

The famous scene in the tent when the host of Caesar appears before Brutus 
to tell him that he will see him apain at Philippi, is accompanied by a cold, 
glassy and shimmering sound and we hear the distorted Caesar motiv again. 

It breaks off as the ghostly image of Caesar disappears. 

The next music we hear is during the battle of Philippi. It starts with the 
frantic bugles of Brutus’ array as it is attacked by Antony’s legions. It 
is rather an impression of the battle instead of a detailed and long debacle 
and on the victorious clor^-up of Antony, we hear the victorious Caesar- 
Antony theme. 

The last music starts after Cassius dies and continues from here to the end 
of the picture. The themes of Cassius and Brutus appear aeain in a subdued, 
low and depressed manner. Brutus appeals to his friends for death and they 
refuse him. He asks his servant Strato to hold his sword whilst he runs on 
it. He dies with the words on his lips: "Ceasar, now be still; I kill'd 

Throughout these scenes I wanted to give the impression that the victorious 
armies of Antony and Octavius are continuously advancing and coming nearer 
and nearer. This scene, however, is the culmination of the tragedy, when 
its noblest character, Brutus, like a Greek hero in a Greek drama, faces 
his inescapable fate. I wrote, therefore, two entirely different scores, 
contrapuntally worked out, but in content completely independent. The 
one, which represents Antony’s nearing army, is a march based on Caesar's 
theme and. is scored for brass, woodwind and percussion instruments. The 
other, which plays the scene in the foreground and underlines the tragedy 
of Brutus, is scored for strings only. Thus there is a complete contrast 
jf™° l0r between the tw0 > apart from their emotional, rhythmic and thematic 
differences. The new stereophonic technique, with three loudspeakers behind 
the screen, came to my help. As the direction of the approaching army is 
from the right corner of the screen, we put the march track on this loud- 
speaker and the string track on the two others, screen center and left corn- 
er. Thus there is complete separation of the two scores, which were record- 
ed separately, and geographically the listener immediately feels that the 
«rmy is marching from the rivht corner of the screen. 

As Brutus dies the march becomes louder and louder and as Strato runs out 
from the scene it completely overpowers Brutus's string music and domi- 
nates the whole screen. 

If ^ - 

rm = 









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This juxtaposition of two different moods is not entirely my innovation, as 
Bizet" already most effectively used it in the third act of "Garmen", when 
Escamilio enters the arena and Carmen remains alone with Don Jose 0 In the 
background we hear the gay, bullfighter music which is interrupted by the 
orchestra with somber comments about the impending drama in the foreground. 

Octavius and Antony arrive in the camp where Brutus's body lies in a tent and 
we hear from outside the mournful rhythm of the drums. As 'bitony finishes his 
finel eulogy on Brutus; "his life was gentle, and the. elements, so. mixed in 
him that Nature might stand up, and say to all the world "This was a man", 
the sound of the drums grows with the growing flame of the taper, and breaks 
off as the taper goes out. There is a moment of silence and then the tragic 
theme of Brutus concludes the picture. 

An MOM LP record plbum c? the somewhat condensed soundtrack is available for 
the public. With its beauty of language, rhythm of its words and weight of 
its thoughts, it can be listened to without seeing the action ^ust as much as 
one listens to a recording of an orchestra without seeing the performers. 

JULIUS CAESAR .. Metro-Goldwyn- Mayer .. Louis Calhern, Marlon Brando. 
Dir°ctor, Joseph L. Mankiewicz. Music, Miklos Rozsa. 

Capitol records is releasing a triptych of Pr. Rozsa's film scores (12 inch 
LP) - a symphonic suite based on themes of QUO VADIS, the SPELLBOUND 
Concerto, and THE RED HOUSE suite. SPELLBOUND and THE RED HOUSE are also 
available in a separate album. ( 10 inch LP) as is 'QUO VADIS. 



Alen Morrison 

Since the last listing of recordings of music from motion pictures appeared 
in FIIM MUSIC there has developed a public interest in the field that is without 
equal in its history. This has resulted in the making available and preserving on 
phonograph records music from film productions which otherwise would have survived 
only in faint memories and all but passed from existence. Admittedly, as in the 
past, many of these recordings are but popularized and often even vocalized adap- 
tations of themes from scores, but like their more authentic counterparts, the 
orchestral and soundtrack suites, they are still essentially 'film music' and mer- 
it classification as such. 

The following list contains in order by composer all recordings currently 
(or soon to be) available of nusic from motion pictures. The restriction made is, 
of course, to music that was written especially for the picture, and therefore ex- 
cluded are all recordings from musicals and of works simply used in films. 

Only records available on the 33 and 45 r.p.m. speeds are included because 
the majority of those made pre-1948 on 78 r.p.m. only are now out of circulation 
and insufficient information on them warranted their omission. In parentheses af- 
ter the title there is mentioned either the only recording available or the ver- 
sions believed to be the most faithful to the original score. 

Addin s ell, Richard 

"Suicide Squadron": Warsaw Concerto (Stokowski — vie; Fiedler, Boston Pops 

Qrch. — vie; Mant ovani — Ion ) 

Amfitheatrof , Daniele 

"Salome": Dance of the Seven Veils (Morris Stoloff, Studio Orch.— dec) 

Auric, Georges 

"Moulin Rouge": The Song from Moulin Rouge (Percy Faith— col; A1 Goodman — vie) 
Bassman, George 

"The Joe Louis Story": soundtrack suite (Bassman, Studio Qrch. — mgm) 

theme (Bassman, Studio Qrch. — mgm) 

Bath, Hubert 

"A Lady Surrenders": Cornish Rhapsody (Mant ovani — Ion; Victor Young— dec) 

Bax, Arnold 

"Oliver Twist": suite (Muir Mathieson, Fhilharmonia Orch.— col) 

Berners, Lord 

"Nicholas Nickelby": suite (Ernest Irving, Fhilharmonia Qrch.— ent) 

Chaplain, Charles 

"limelight": Terry's Theme (Frank Chacksfield — Ion; Victor Young— dec) 
Incidental ttisic (Frank Chacksfield — Ion) 

Copland, Aaron 

"Our Town": suite (Thomas Scherman, Little Orchestra Society— dec) 

"The Red Pony": Children's Suite (Thomas Scherman, little Orch. Soc.— dec) 
Duning, George 

"From Here to Eternity": love theme (Ray Bloch — cor) 

"Salome": suite (Morris Stoloff, Studio Orch.— dec) 

Easdale, Brian 

"The Red Shoes": Ballet Music (Muir Mathieson, Fhilharmonia Orch.— col) 
Friedhofer, Hugo 

"The Best Years of Our lives": Wilma theme (Victor Young — dec) 

Gilbert, Herschel Burke 

"The Moon is Blue": The Moon is Blue (Henri Rene — vie) 

Gray, Allan 

"A Matter of Life and Death"/"St airway to Heaven": Prelude (Charles Williams, 

Queen's Hall Light Orch.— ent) 

"This Man is Mine": theme (Charles Williams, Queen's Hall light Orch.— ent) 

Gomez, Vincente 

"Blood and Sand": suite (Gomez Quintet — dec) 

"The Fighter": suite (Gomez Quintet— dec) 

Herrmann, Bernard 

"The Shows of Kilimanjaro": themes (A1 Goodman — vie) 

Kaper, Bronislau 

"Invitation": Invitation (Johnny Green — mgm; Victor Young— dec ) 

"Iili": ballet music (Adolph Deutsch, MGM Studio Qrch. — mgm) 

Karas, Anton 

"The Third Man": The Third Man Theme/Harry Lime Theme (Anton Karas— Ion) 
Komgold, Erich Wolfgang 

"The Private lives of Elizabeth and Essex": theme (Victor Young— dec) 

Iieber, David 

"All I Desire": All I Desire (David Rose — mgm) 

Lopez, Francis 

"Violettes Imperiales": Elaine (Hugo Winterhalter — vie) 

Newman, Alfred 

"All About Eve": theme (Newman, Hollywood Sym. Qrch. — mer) 

"Captain from Castile": suite (Newman, 20th Century-Fox Studio Orch.— mer) 
"David and Bathsheba": themes (A1 Goodman— vie) 

"How Green Was My Valley": love theme (Newman— mer) 

"A Letter to Three Wives": theme (Newman, Hollywood Sym. Qrch. — mer) 

"Pinky": theme (Newman, Hollywood Sym. Orch. — mer) 

"The President's Lady": theme (Jackie Gleason — cap) 

"The Razor's Edge": theme (Newman, Hollywood Sym. Qrch.— mer) 

"The Robe": suite (Newman, 20th Century-Fox Studio Orch. and Chorus— dec) 

"The Song of Bernadette": suite (Newman— dec) 

"Street Scene": theme/ Sentimental Rhapsody (Newman, Qrch.— mer) 

"Wuthering Heights": Cathy (Newman, Hol'd Sym. Orch. — mer; Victor Young— dec) 
Newman, Eknil 

"Island in the Sky": suite (Newman, Studio Qrch. and Chorus— dec ) 

North, Alex 

"A Streetcar Named Desire" : suite (Ray Heindorf— cap) 

Prokofiev, Serge 

"Alexander Nevsky": cantata (Ormandy, Philadelphia Qrch., Westm'r Choir— col) 
"Lieutenant Kije": suite (Kurtz, Royal Philharmonic Orch.— col) 

Raksin, David 

"The Bad and the Beautiful": Love is for the Very Young (Percy Faith— col) 
"Laura": Laura (David Rose — mgm; Hollywood Theme Qrch.— rainbow) 

Rodgers, Richard 

"Victory at Sea": suite (Russell Bennett, NBC Sym. Qrch. — vie) 

Roemheld, Heinz 

"Ruby Gentry": Ruby (Richard Hayman — mer; Percy Faith — col) 

Rozsa, Miklos 

"Ivanhoe": suite (Rozsa, MGM Studio Orch. — mgm) 
themes (A1 Goodman — vie) 

"Julius Caesar" : suite (Rozsa, MGM Studio Qrch.— mgm) 

"The Lost Weekend": themes (A1 Goodman — vie) 

"Lydia": thane (Ray Bloch — cor) 

"Plymouth Adventure": suite (Rozsa, MGM Studio Qrch. — mgm) 

"Quo Vadis" : suite (Rozsa, MGM Studio Qrch. and Chorus— mgm) 

"Spellbound": soundtrack suite (Rozsa, Studio Qrch.— rem) 

themes (A1 Goodman — vie; Victor Young— dec; Ray Bloch — cor) 
Shostakovitch, Etaitri 

"The Golden Mountains": Waltz (Kurtz, Columbia St®. Qrch.— col) 

Spoliansky, Mischa 

"Idol of Paris": suite (Sidney Torch, Queen's Hall light Qrch.— ent) 


Spoil ansky (cant.) 

"That Dangerous Age": Song of Capri (Sidney Torch, Queen's Hall L. Orch.— ent) 
"Wanted for Murder": A Voice in the Night (Charles Williams, Q. H. L. 0. — ent) 
Steiner, Max 

"Gone with the Wind": themes (A1 Goodman — vie; Victor Young— dec) 

"The Informer": suite (Steiner — cap) 

"Now Voyager": It Can't Be Wrong (Hollywood Theme Orch. — rainbow) 
suite (Steiner — cap) 

"Since You Went Away": suite (Steiner — cap) 

Stevens, Leith 

"Destination Moon": suite (Stevens — col) 

Thomson, Virgil 

"Louisiana Story": Acadian Songs and Dances (Thomas Scherman, little Orch. 

Soc.— dec) 

suite (Thomson, Philadelphia Orch.— col) 

"The Plow That Broke the Plains": suite (Thomas Scherman, L. 0. Soc.— dec) 
Ticmkin, Dimitri 

"Blowing Wild": Ballad of Black Gold (Frankie Iaine— col) (sung as background) 
"Duel in the Sun": themes (A1 Goodman — vie; Hay Bloch — cor) 

"The Four poster" : If You're in Love (A1 Goodman — vie) 

"The Happy Time": theme (A1 Goodman — vie) 

"High Noon": Do Not Forsake Me (Tex Ritter— cap) (sung as background) 

"Return to Paradise": suite (Tiomkin, Studio Orch.— dec) 

theme (Percy Faith — col; David Rose — mgm) 

Vaughan Williams, Ralph 

"The Loves of Joanna Godden": suite (Ernest Irving, Fhilharmonia Orch. — ent) 
Walton, William 

"Hamlet": suite (Miir Mat hie son, Fhilharmonia Orch. — vie) 

Waxman, Franz 

"A Place in the Sun": theme (Victor Young— dec; A1 Goodman — vie) 

Williams, Charles 

"While I Live": Dream of Olwen (Mantovani — Ion; Victor Young— dec) 

Young, Victor 

"The Accused": Latin Rhythms (Young — dec ) 

"For Whan the Bell Tows": suite (Young— dec) 

"Forever Female": Change of Heart (Young— dec) 

"Golden Earrings": suite, theme (Young— dec) 

"Love Letters": theme (Young— dec) 

"My Foolish Heart": theme (Young— dec) 

"The Quiet Man": suite (Young— dec) 

"Samson and Delilah": suite (Young, Paramount Sym. Orch. — dec) 

"Shane": Call of the Faraway Hills (Young— dec; A1 Goodman — vie) 

Eyes of Blue (Richard Hayman — mer) 

"Something to live For" : Alone at last (Young— dec) 

"The Star": Moonlight Serenade (Young— dec) 

"Thunderbirds": Wintertime of Love (Young— dec) 

"The Uninvited": Stella by Starlight (Young— dec; Ray Bloch — cor) 

Record label abbreviations : 

cap— Capitol 
col— Columbia 
cor — Coral 
dec — Decca 
ent — Ehtre 

Ion— London 
mer — Mercury 
mgm— MGM 
rem — Rem 
vie — Victor 


(Films and Record Collections) 

Ellen L. Walsh 

With hiking boots and rucksack slung over her shoulder, our film librarian 
was waiting for a bus one Sunday morning when a very lively seven-year-old 
and his mother arrived at the bus stop. So enthusiastic over his experience 
that they had to tell someone, they immediately informed the librarian 
(whom they did not recognize) that the boy had just attended junior church 
services. "We had a swell film", he said, his face shining,"!- it was 
called INSTRUMENTS OF THE ORCHESTRA. Of course the film had been borrow- 
ed from our Seattle Public Library collection. 

This is the kind of experience which makes librarians wish they could 
more often go about in disguise gathering audience reactions from more 
spontaneous comments than those on the statistics slips. We would not 
have considered INSTRUMENTS OF THE ORCHESTRA an obvious choice in recom- 
mending films that would provide an exciting experience for a seven-year 
old boy, yet in the hands of a skilful user of films it had been just that. 

Since then we have been encouraged to try some of our musical films with 
other unlikely audiences. 

There is no problem in in finding audiences for films which present famous 
musicians such as the YEHUDI MENUHIM CONCERT and JOSE ITURBI. These are 
borrowed for the pleasure of seeing a well-known personality in action as 
well as for the music. We expect the film MARIAN ANDERSON to be especially 
popular because it adds to the appeal of a famous name and voice the emotion- 
al impact of deeply moving scenes of singer and audience as they respond to 
the music. Films of radio broadcast music have an obvious appeal. The problem 
- - and the pleasure - - is in finding wider audiences for the film that is a 
little off the beaten track. 

For instance, the delightful Norman McLaren experimentals. FIDDLE-DE-DEE is 
so short that when a borrower has selected almost his full allowance of 
films we can suggest he take it along and see what he thinks of it. We did 
that for a group of old-age pensioners this spring and were delighted when one 
of them returned the film next day because he chuckled and remarked, "Isn't 
that a bunch of darned foolishness? - - but we liked it! " 

In some musical films the producer seems to have been at a loss to know what 
the camera should look at to fill in the time. This leaves the audience won- 
dering why it is looking at a film instead of listening to a record. Since 
the Seattle Public Library has a large record collection and we feel that un- 
der average projection conditions the sound quality of music in a 16mm film 
is inferior to that of a good record, we do not like to buy this type of pro- 
duction. But there is something about the film in which visual and musical 
elements are truly wedded and not merely put together that appeals even to 
many of the musically unsophisticated. For instance, THE STORY OF TIME 
(we have the version without narration, only the symphony score.) 

It is a film which people borrow over and over again to show to 
their children and their friends and relatives and business associates. 

Not yet tried out on our borrowers are two newly-purchased items that are off 
the beaten track - - PACIFIC 231, music score by Arthur Eonneger and IMAGES 
FROM BEBUSSY. The first we expeot to interest musicians for its symphonic 
score, artists and camera fans for its visual patters, railroad fans for its 
subject and ohildren for its Dance groups will like it for its movement. 

Church groups should find it useful because to the music it adds visual pat- 
ters of light and shade, of water and weed and tree, that will fit into their 
theme of the wonders of God in nature. 

Sometimes the subject interest of a film overshadows the musical aspects and 
we need to bring it to the attention of people we know are interested in 
music. Two new acquisitions of this type will go on our shelves this fall. 

QUETZALCOATL, unique visualization of a Mexican legend, owes much to its 
original musical score. So does IMAGES MED IEV ALES, in which the medieval 
spirit touches the audience through the music as well as through the 
beautiful presentation of illuminations from old manuscripts. 


The library’s record collection began in 1S39. With seven years start on 
the film collection, it has reached a total of 4500 items as compared with 
500 for films. 

Who borrows records? Obviously, the musically literate welcome our symphon- 
ies. concertos and operas. Film Musio from such productions as the Olivier 
Shakespeare and records of Broadway musicals attract the attention of our 
local play producers and film makers as well as of the general listener. 

In a theater- conscious community like Seattle it is natural that borrowers 
of our play recordings should include many an "ordinary citizen" who enjoys 
an armchair evening of drama, be it literary classic or modern Broadway, even 
though he is not a member of one of the organized theater groups. A delight 
to amateur actors is our small collection of sound effects records, among 
which fanfares and storm and thunder effects have been most popular. 

For the audience of the future we are beginning to build a non-circulating 
record collection of today's definitive recordings of fine music and of 
on-the-spot records of world events. These may be played in the library’s 
listening roam but are protected from the wear and tear of general use. 

We have no non-circulating films, the problems of preservation and use being 
so much greater them with records. 

If there has been more about audiences than about music in this article, 
that is only natural. To the public librarian, the library's collection 
does not exist for its own sake. It exists for the people who read and 
listen and look. So it would be hard to write about our records and films 
without writing also about our public - the people who in such large num- 
bers and with such enthusiasm have come to believe that their library would 
not be complete if it did not add picture and music to its content of the 
printed word. 


Gerald Pratley 

The most absorbing and unexpected theatrical event to take place this summer 
was the Shakespearian Festival at Stratford, Ontario, in which Alec Guinness 
and Irene Worth came from England to appear in RICHARD III and ALL'S WELL 
TEAT ENDS WELL. The music for these two plays was specially composed by 
Louis Applebaum. Displaying the composer's gift for a strong dramatic ef- 
fect achieved through clever orchestration for a small group of musicians, 
both scores will be used in the National Film Board's film recording of the 
Festival, now being directed by Morton Parker. 

A visitor to the Festival was Ann Ronell, who stopped in Toronto long enough 
to attend a screening of MGM's MAIN ST TO BROADWAY and give press and radio 
film commentators an idea of what composing for the movies is like. 

The National Film Board in Ottawa is working without Maurice Blackburn, who 
has gone to France for a year to undertake a musical research on a $4000 
scholarship awarded by the Royal Society of Canada. Eldon Rathburn and 
Robert Fleming sire busy however, the latter having composed a ballet for the 
Royal Winnipeg Ballet Company. Called SHADOW ON THE PRAIRIE it has been 
filmed by the NFB (director Roger Blais) but the result is a rather flat, drab 
and uninspired creation, with a score which appears more chaotic than melo- 
dious. Fleming's music for A MUSICIAN IN THE FAMILY however, is very at- 
tractive. This cleverly made picture, directed by Gudrun Parker, concerns 
the son of a prairie farmer who learns to play the tranbone. His father 
disapproves until he accompanies the boy to the local music festival, where 
he canes to realize what music means to his son. 

Over at the nearby Crawley Studios in Ottawa, composer William MoCauley has 
turned producer, director, cameraman and writer and is making a short called 
TWO LITTLE RACOONS. Kay Shannon has been added to the music department at 
Crawley's to help McCauley cope with the increased number of films which the 
studio is now making. 

Among the CBC's recent film programs (prepared with the co-operation of the 
BBC) have been reports by Lilian Duff on the Cannes and Venice Film Festivals, 
illustrated by soundtrack excerpts from leading films, and a report by Roger 
Manvell on Edinburgh. On this program Manvell introduced Basil Wright, Forsyth 
and James Beveridge. Wright spoke about UNESCO film, WORLD WITHOUT END made 
with Paul Rotha and scored by Elizabeth Lutyens. In a six-week series THE FILM 
MAKERS’ POINT OF VIEW, Manvell discussed film making with Charles Frend, Jack 
Hawkins, Carol Reed, T,E,B. Clarke and Thorold Dickinson. Other programs in- 
cluded a discussion on THE SURVIVAL OF THE CINEMA with Manvell, Edgar Anstey, 
head of the British Transport film unit. John Elliot of the BBC's film unit 
and Kenneth MacOowan, head of the faculty of film and drama at the University 
of California at Los Angeles. This was based on the conference of "Television 
and Film at Edinburgh". Also heard were broadcasts deal ing with the production 
directors and stars participated and sound track illustrations were used. 

Norman McLaren, the NFB' s director of animation, is back in Ottawa after spend- 
ing nine months in India with Adward Ardizzone, London painter and author. 


teaching film animation techniques to Indian artists, educators, draughtsman 
and photographers, under the auspices of UNESCO. One of many innovationa 
McLaren introduced was the production of film strips by engraving directly 
onto raw film, with a gramophone needle, instead of using cameras to phot- 
ograph artists’ drawings. This low-cost system of making; educational 
materials resulted in the training of 40 students, who produced ? 2 film 
strips, 12 strips by camera, 10 short animated cartoon sequences, 15 silk 
screen posters, 52 wall stencils, and 14 pamphlets. Subjects dealt with 
were literacy, health, village life, composing, industry, folk arts, and 
the production of visual arts. 

Eldon Rathburn has brought his jolly sense of humor to the amusing film 
depiction of transport in Canada through the years called THE ROMANCE OF 
TRANSPORTATION, an animated production directed by Tom Daley. A simpler, 
but equally charming picture is the short- 5-minute music professor, one 
of the FACES OF CANADA series. In this a music professor ruminates on the 
worthyness of his calling as be tries to bring a sense of feeling and 
rhythm to pupils whose ambitious mothers are more interested in having them 
play the piano than are the children. Then comes the moment when a child 
with the instinctive feeling for music sits down and plays, as he knows that 
his life has a purpose after all. Morris Surdin has scored two NFB pro- 
ductions. THE SETTLER and POWERTOWN STORY, and his fresh and forceful 
style are a definite asset to both pictures. 



C. Sharpless Hickman 

Let’s go on the sound-recording stage of one of the Mg studios and see just 
what happens in putting music to an average action-drama picture. On the 
Paramount lot — one of the two majors still actually located in the heart of 
Hollywood — this stage is as Mg as a normal two story house. It has foot- 
thick walls and double-door entrances to prevent the infiltration of outside 
sound. At one end there is an elevated motion picture screen, in front of 
which are "risers" on which the members of the orchestra are seated, with 
the conductor in front of them, facing the screen. At the other end of the 
room are two booths — one for the film projectionist and the other for the 
sound-mixing crew. A series of curved "flats" at the edge of the screen fur- 
ther focuses the orchestra’s sound, and of course there are microphones all 
over the place. The conductor's podium is really a desk, equipped with clock 
headphones, telephone, etc. , in addition to the usual light and score. 

At one side of the room, at a clock and phone-equipped desk sits the orchestra 
contractor — the man who keeps track of playing times and assignments of the 
studio’s orchestra personnel. He is liaison man between the studio and Local 
47 of the American Federation of Musicians. 

We are listening to and watching the recording of a barroom brawl in SANi^ARHE, 
a Pine-Thomas "B" production filmed in "Natural Vision" three-dimensional 
film in Technicolor. This is a low-budget film. The music budget itself is 
under $30,onn f or almost the minimum for a Paramount release, (it will be 
Paramount's first 3-D release by the way). 

On the podium is a man whose transcriptions of Bach, Ravel, and other composers 
are in the repertoire of every symphony — Lucien Cailliet. Cailliet is ideal 
for this picture's budget because he is a one-package man, so to speak. He has 
written the music, orchestrated it and now is conducting it. Many Hollywood 
composers neither orchestrate nor conduct their music, merely indicating sug- 
gested instrumentation on their piano manuscript, and leaving the conducting 
to studio music directors. 

Cailliet has done a brilliant job of orchestrating his rough-and-tumble se- 
quence so that the 29-man orchestra sounds like a 90-piece symphony on the 
sound-track when we hear the replay a few moments after he has led the se- 
quence. We note, by the way , that though the music literally depicts the 
first few blows of the fight, it becomes non-literal as the sequence progresses. 
When it is replayed it sounds more treble in tone, but also less sonorous and 
less instrumentally well-defined. 

Though some of this change is due to the unavoidable distortion of even the 
best of high-fidelity transcription and amplification, more is due to the 
magic of sound-mixer Phil Wisdom, who sits before a Buck Rogers-ish panel 
of flickering lights and knobs and controls, playing up or down the various 
choirs and first-chair instrumentalists in the orchestra as Paramount's 
urbane and knowing Irvin Talbot cues him from Cailliet' s score, ^en li.<e 
Talbot and Wisdom can do as much for the music of a picture as can the com- 
poser, orchestrator and conductor; in fact they can do more, ^or they can 
control and even distort what comes over the microphone lines. Though you 
would never guess it to look at him. Talbot has been in the business since 
before the days of sound (as a set ensemble conductor) and is a close friend 
of many illustrious musicians. 

There are remarkably few retakes by Cailliet because of poor sjmchronization 
with the screen action, especially when one considers that he is not using 


a click-track. This is a device developed at Paramount which keys the mu- 
sical timing to the score by means of a sound-track with a series of clicks 
which can be heard by the conductor over earphones while he is directing. 
Through this track and indications on the score he will know that at a cer- 
tain numbered click within a musical sequence he is to bring in the orches- 
tra crescendo for a specific action on the screen. This permits him to 
avoid the natural lag between seeing the screen action and transmitting 
the cue to the orchestra and hence cuts down the number of replays due to 
poor synchronization. Each click- track’s timing will, of course vary in 
accordance with score. 

After we have listened on the sound stage, listened in the control booth, 
and seen a three-dimensional projection of another part of the picture, 
we have a brief talk with Louis Louis Lipstone, Paramount’s eeneral musical 
director. He tells us that the studio’s music policy is a middle-of-the 
road one, in that music is by and large considered merely an adjunct to 
film action in most pictures, and that few of its productions boast high- 
priced composers who write lenpthy or "heavy "scores . Save for occasional 
musicals. Paramount’s music is toward the "light" side. 

The studio’s music budget for a film will run anywhere from $ 25,000 to 
|200, 000, depending on the scope of the picture and whether it is a musical. 

In some cases the amount may go higher, though it is not always charged to 
the music budget. 

The budget is broken down into two major divisions, preparation and product- 
ion. Under preparation will go fees to composer and /or song writer, musical 
director and / or advisor, composer, orchestrator, conductor and vocal and/ 
or chorus director, as well as library, music-copying, and miscellaneous 
oharges. Production will include orchestra (Paramount keeps 45 on year-round 
salary), recording and sound-stage charges, and special singers and instru- 
mentalists - other than those featured in the film as performing actors. 

Many of these items are paid for by the studio on an annual or retaining basis, 
and their total cost is broken down and percentages are allocated to each pro- 
duction on a varying basis. This is true of fees for sound-stage space, 
recorders, sound control men, staff music directors, and many other items. 

Courtesy of MUSIC JOURNAL. 







Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 28 
Butterfield 8-3288 



THE ROBE with excerpts of score by Harold Brown 

Alfred Newman 

GILBERT and SULLIVAN Sidney Gilliat 

Wills Hollingsworth 


FILM MUSIC AND THE LIBRARY ' Gladys E. Chamberlain 



Harold Brown, film critic and teacher 
Sidney Gilliat, film producer, author, director 
Wills Hollingsworth, film composer 

Otis L. Guernsey, Jr., film critic. New York Herald Tribune 
Gladys E. Chamberlain, music librarian. New York Public Library 
Sigmund Spaeth, author, lecturer 

Many of our readers have found that a subscription to 
FILM MUSIC and a collection of its back issues make wel- 
come holiday gifts. For this purpose we are offering sub- 
scriptions at the special price of $2.00 a year, and 30 copies 
of our back issues for $5.00 plus postage. Because of the 
many inquiries that we have had regarding THE ROBE 
we are devoting most of this issue to its score. We will 
send 10 copies for $2.50 plus postage to students and 
teachers. Prices for larger quantities may be had on appli- 
cation to this office. 

Published by the National Film Music Council, 26 East 83rd St., New York City 28. President, William Hamilton; Vice-President 
and Editor, Marie L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues each year with occasional bulletins. Two dollars and 
fifty cents. Single copies, thirty cents. Back files (25 copies) five dollars plus postage. 


Harold Brown 

Providing the first film in CinamaScope with a score impressive 
enough to realize the full breadth of this new medium and carry 
it to success, a task of no small responsibility, presented 
Mr. Newman with several knotty problems: to use material which 

should not be incongruous with the historical background of an- 
cient Pome and Palestine; to fulfill the religious motivation! 
to give the texture a modern feeling in keeping with the modern 
medium of the film; to fulfill the dramatic scope of the pro- 
duction, and finally, to integrate all these elements into a uni- 
fied idiom. Mr. Newman's solution of these problems is a score 
well worth detailed analysis. 

There is no genuinely authentic music which comes to us from the 
Romans or Hebrews; of Roman music we know nothing, but there is 
a tradition of Hebrew music which has been preserved in the 
orthodox synagogue, though how close this is to the Hebrew music 
of antiquity is a matter for conjecture. No matter, though - 
the effect of background music is largely one of association, the 
important thing being to evoke the proper mood and spirit, what- 
ever the means. Newman achieves this through the use of material 
suggistive of Hebrew chant as w© know it, and by basing all of his 
melodic material on the scales of the Near East. Six short motifs 
are all he needs for the entire soore, and in addition there is an 
eight measure phrase used recurringly in chaconne style. By 
evolving the entire score from these simple though striking souroes. 
ancient and modern elements are fused into an idiom of remarkable 

The title music wasted no time on fanfares, but plunges at once into 
the chaconne theme - a series of Juxtaposed major and minor triads 
derived from the tones of the chromatic scale, and radiating from a 
central C minor triad as tonal center. Deol amatory in nature, it 
not only sets the stage for the dramatic and tragic events to follow, 
but establishes the harmonic character of the entire work, and pre- 
pares the mind for the modal melody and harmony to follow - three 
of the motifs are naturally born of it. 

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The origin of the melodic motifs suggests an interesting question, 
which, to be sure, Newman himself can readily answer. For the song 
which Miriam sings to the text of the Resurrection (taken from 
St. Luke) is created almost entirely from four of these motifs, 
and the melody evolves so naturally out of patterns so clearly 
Hebraic that one wonders if Newman did not write the song first 
and then extract the motifs for use in the rest of the music. I 
am rather inclined to think so, and since to me this is the high 
point of the score, we reproduce it here in full, not only for its 
musical value, but as the best way to introduce the reader to the 
motivic material, which I have lettered and bracketed. 

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To anyone familiar with liturgical Hebrew musio, the striking resemblance 
must be immediately apparent; in fact, one suspects that seme of the devout 
might reoeive a shock upon hearing the words of the Resurrection set to a 
music so intimately associated with their most solemn rituals. We trust they 
will be forbearing, for its authenticity cannot be denied; the earliest 
Christians were a Jewish sect, and if such a text were sung, it must have 
been to the only music they knew. There is, moreover, an authenticity in 
the way the entire melody is derived frem a few simple motifs - the first 
phrase is built by joining three of them consecutively. The little we 
know of Hebrew music tells us that this is exactly the way their liturgi- 
cal melodies were improvised, except that the text, rather than musical 
considerations, determined the manner in which the motifs were joined. 

Motif (A) suggests several suoh modes as Dorian or Myxolydian, but the 
occasional appearance of C natural instead of C# gives the Phrygian, or 
as is suggested by measure 13, an Asiatio mode of the scale B.C,D#,E,F£ 
G»A$. Motif C seems at first merely an extension of A, and is indeed 
usually found in conjunction with it, but its different rhythm and the 
faot that in this music slight differences assume significance compel 
me to regard it as separate. 

Harmonising this melody posed another problem, We know that the Hebrews 
acccrnipanied their singing with such instruments as the primitive harp, 
but just what they played is a great question, Newman circumvents this 
problem by employing only open fifths and occasional fourths, whioh do 
not impair the melody’s ancient character, and characteristically imbue 
it with added purity and beauty. 

By employing not one but several of the old modes, and subtly shifting 
from one to the other. Newman is able to encompass the entire chromatic 
scale (save F natural > and thereby achieve a wider range of expression. 
There is even a change at measure 21 from the tonic center of B to that 
of E, and at measure 30, to the words "rise again", a beautiful rising 
modulation of infinite subtlety, bringing us back to tonic B, At 
measure 41-43 the idea of the changing modes gives rise to a melodio 

change from A minor to A major, which has enough character to recur as 
a motif, and the piece wisely closes on the tonic A rather than the 
expected B, producing a new freshness in keeping with the text. 

Asiatic music is entirely improvisatory, no two phrases being quite 
alike, and this is exactly the method by which Newman’s melodic line 
evolves. The one exception is the theme of Diana, a full-fledged 
theme in the European manner, and since this is the only one of such 
nature, it can bear considerable repetition. 



I am cautious about finding motivic material -where none really exists; 
still, it seems permissible to see the melody as born out of motif C 
inverted, followed by motif B inverted. The third phrase is almost 
a literal inversion of the first, and there is a rising finish on the 
same 4-note pattern. The basis harmony is pure XYI century, a modern 
texture being given by the parallel 5ths and 4ths, and dissonant "non- 
harmonie" tones, while the clearly demarcated phrases, the repeated 
rhythmic pattern, and the rising climax at the very end are distinctly 
nineteenth century. Thus in one short theme Newman has assimilated 
various phases of musical development to furnish the elements needed- 
ancient setting, modern viewpoint, and a romanticism naturally expected 
in the theme of the heroine. Yet it embodies no eclecticism, which I 
should define as combination of disparate elements, rather than purpose*- 
ful integration of assimilable ones. 

The repetitions of this theme are varied only in harmonic end orchestral 
treatment; there is no development in the conventional classical sense, 
for in a work of this nature it would have been disastrous. 

Another problem is presented by the Palm Sunday procession which the 
Greek slave Demetrius witnesses upon his arrival in Palestine, Normally 
the stock-in-trade for all religious processions is a monk-like chanting, 
but here it would have detracted heavily from ensuing sequences of the 
Crucifixion and Marcellus's redemption. The conventional religious as- 
pect is therefore bypassed in favor of one of exultation. Adroitness 
in integrating seemingly contradictory elements is again apparent, for 
while the chorus sings in a style almost literally that of sixteenth 
century dance, complete with the Picardy third, though with a wider har- 
monic range, an Asiatic touch is produced by a lively rhythm of sleigh- 
bells, tambourine and cymbals. My reaction, especially in view of what 
was on the screen, was one of pleasant surprise. 


Later a variation in the voices becomes motif E 

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This was first introduced in the suggestion of march music in the opening scene 
at the slave market. 



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A variation of the rhythmic character later produces a true march for brasses. 

Comparing this with the Palm Sunday chorus, we see that the march of the 
Christians is made of the same stuff as the march of Roman soldiers. 

It remains now to present two instances of the use of the chaconne theme 
The tragic procession of the carriage of the Cross is carried by this 
theme in the brass, given an ominous character by the deep percussion, 
over which the strings weave a sinuous melodic line, stressing neighbor- 
ing tones and working its way through the interstices of the triads. The 
effect is appropriately dissonant, but the underlying consonant triads 
give it harmonic substance and make it readily assimilable to the average 
ear. Motivic material is easily recognised. 

8 ^ - 


The scene of the Crucifixion, being the vital point of the film, must have 
given occasion for considerable reflection before the method to be used 
was finally decided. It is treated fugally in the voices, but in an en- 
tirely original manner, for the subject, continuing throughout in the 
Hebraic vein, is a far cry from the conventional fugue subject. It is built 
directly fran motifs A and D, and we are not surprised to see the other mo- 
tifs appearing during the course of the development. And since the scale 
using a flatted dominant plays an occasional part throughout the score, it 
is perfectly logical that the answering subject here start on the diminish- 
ed rather than perfect fifth. 

At measure 10 the chacotuB theme creeps in, repeating cumul atively to the 
end, while fugal handling of the voices continues. It is a pity that we 
cannot quote this section in its entirety, that one may observe more 
fully how the melodic lines of the voices, revolving about the modes in 
the improvisatory Asiatic manner, combine with a recurring 8 measure 
phrase of modern harmonic nature, a purely European device. 



There are five statements of the chaconne theme, producing a movement of 
considerable structural strength and ingenuity, and culminating in a 
shattering climax worth quoting as an example of Newman’s clear and coherant 

dissonances, here resulting frcsn a shake in the woodwinds, a repeated pat- 
tern in the Novachord (top line), and a trombone alternating between 
A and B flat. 

We cannot reproduce further examples, but one should mention the lovely- 
flute solo taking up Miriam's song, the beautiful chorus of men's voices 
in the scene of Peter, or the chaconne theme in an entirely new treat- 
ment of high divided strings when Marcellus finds his faith. The final 
Scene of Marcellus and Diana walking proudly and fearlessly to their 
death is introduced by the chaconne which suddenly bursts into a final 
Hallelujah in the Handel manner. This emergence for the first time of 
a strongly tonal and diatonic musio has the effect of jarring one back 
into the world of reality, where he becomes more fully aware of the an- 
cient spectacle just witnessed through modern eyes. 

Since Mr. Newman was himself to have written this article, I havw tried 
to present it somewhat as I thought he might, refraining from any great 
amount of eritical appraisal. But here a word of tribute might not be 
amiss. For this is something new in film music; it is not only highly 
successful background music, but is cast in a symphonic mould, each se- 
quence being near to a symphonic movement in itself, and the whole 
strongly unified not only by close adherence to the basic thematic mate- 
rial, but by a keen sense of integration of varying elements. It is a 
definite step toward the "film opera "which has been the dream of many a 
composer, though of course the film itself is very much a movie. In his 
methods, then, Newman shows the influence of Schoenberg and Berg, but here 
the resemblance ends, for his music draws from sources uncircumscribed by 
dogma, and is immediately attractive to the popular audience. 

Hollywood composers have been the butt of many unpleasantries by non film 
composers, but despite the restrictions which the nature of their medium 
imposes, they have enjoyed one great advantage which is the lasting envy 
of other composers - constant contact with their audience. Given enough 
time and talent, it is surely producing a musio of value to both layman 
and connoisseur. The score of THE ROBE is a landmark well worth study 
by any serious composer. 

THE ROBE.. 20th Century-Fox. Richard Burton, Jean Simmons. Director, 
Henry Roster. Music Alfred Newman. Orchestrations, E(j W o r d Powell. 
Technicolor. CinemaScope production. 

Record: Decca DL 9012. Music from THE ROBE; Alfred Newman conducting the 
Hollywood Symphony Orchestra. Carole Richards, alto soloist. 


Sidney Gilliat 

1997— GILBERT AND SULLIVAN — "We are world known and as much an insti- 
tution as Westminster Abbey" During the making of the film I must 
confess that I have found the analogy painfully apt. For at times I 
have a sensation akin to that of being caught organizing a sauare dance 
in a cathedral. 

GILBERT AND SULLIVAN, if not precisely a religion today, have oertainly 
become a cult with thousands of devotees as well up in the subject of their 
devotion as the Dickens Fellowship or the Railway Enthusiasts are in theirs. 
The true disciple of Gilbert and Sullivan resents even the smallest change 
in the presentation of the Savoy operas, as the D'Oyly Carte Company itself 
has discovered on those occasions when it has called for the re-designing 
of sets or costumes. Gilbert and Sullivan Societies in various parts of 
the globe stand resolutely on guard to preserve the Literal Word and the 
Traditional Gesture from contamination or even improvement. 

In fact this Gilbert and Sullivan situation is quite unparalleled. Out of 
the thirteen Savoy operas which they wrote together no fewer than nine 
are still regularly performed under the auspices of the same organization 
which launched the pair in 1875, and two more have only recently been 
dropped out of the repertoire and may very well be restored to it before 
very long. Furthermore these nine operas are of course played almost 
exactly as they were on their first nights back in the last century. They 
have somehow contrived to be at one and the same time museum pieces and 
living entertainment i they have gone on and on for approaching 80 years, 
never changing and so constantly with us that it is doubtful indeed 
whether their audiences in this country ever sit back and really consider 
what it is they are seeing - perfectly preserved little period pieces of 
charming Victoriana. 

The Gilbert and Sullivan Societies, the Amateur Operatic Societies, and 
of course the D’Oyly Carte Company itself, have combined over the years 
to preserve this tradition. 

But quite how lb*. Gilbert 
would have reacted to being 
embalmed whole in this manner 
is quite another matter. It 
is ironical indeed that a man 
who was a tremendous innova- 
tor, always priding himself 
on being ahead of the times, 
should have his work put into 
a sort of deep-freeze, like 
the Englishman's body in the 
story of the creeping glacier 
or the room that has never 
been touched since grand- 
father passed on. When the 
film of THE MIKADO was made 
just before the war, the 
view of the true disciples 
was that poor Mr. Gilbert 
must have been turning in 
his grave, but it is perhaps 

Gilbert and Sullivan Meet Launder and Gilliat. 

permissible to suggest that it is equally likely that, contemplating 
the meticulous preservation of his work in its original state, he is 
in fact rotating like a peg top. 

So much for the Tradition — and there is certainly this to be said 
for it, that one may well shudder to think what might have happened to 
the Savoy operas if their performing rights had not been under fire con- 
trol, I have sketched this brief little reminder of the background to 
give sane idea of hoe Leslie Baily and I felt when we started work on 
the script, gazing upon a field swarming with experts. Perhaps be- 
cause we felt a little intimidated, our first instinct was to attempt 
a rather solemn biographical study, diversified from time to time with 
extracts from the Savoy operas. But in our study of the latter, which 
we did our best to read and to hear as if it were for the first time, 
we came slap up against the far from intimidating facts that there was 
nothing set, solemn or pedantic about Sullivan's scores, which are gay. 
sentimental and considerably under-rated, or about Gilbert's libretti 
which, though somewhat dated here and there, absolutely refuse to deal 
with any subject except in a spirit of topsy-turvy irreverence. 

In this light it seemed to us a positive duty to try to make a film 
which avove all would reflect the spirit of their entertainments 
rather than concern itself with the letter of a straight biography. 
This approach had the advantage that our story(whieh we decided to 
centre primarily round the conflict in Sullivan's mind between his 
ambitions in the field of serious music and his gay and lucrative 
"trifling" with light opera, a conflict which led to fearful complica- 
tions within the partnership ) could be illustrated by apt quotations, 
so to speak, from the operas, and the two elements could run together 
in tandem, each helping the other along. 

To do this we found that a tremendous amount of compression, and, at 
times, rearrangements of events, was absolutely necessary - and some- 
times, for instance, we found it essential to develop or even to in- 
vent characters who could serve to personify a whole trend of Victori- 
an opinion. 

With sane trepidation we went to Miss Bridget D'Ctyly Carte, the grand- 
daughter of the Richard D’Oyly Carte who first entered into partner- 
ship with Gilbert and Sullivan in 1875, and put our problems and their 
proposed solution to her. ^e were delighted when she grasped them at 
once and expressed her approval of our intention to treat the charact- 
ers affectionately and humorously, instead of merely resurrecting 
once more the bare bones of a perhaps small-minded quarrel, which has 
so often been presented to readers in altogether too solemn and serious 
s light. 

Furthermore, Miss B’Oyly Carte and the present general Manager of the 
Company, Mr. Frederick Lloyd, supplied us with a wealth of information 
and expert advice which has proved invaluable in reconstructing the 
extracts from the different operas which we feature, (eight in all). 

YJhether our approach is right nobody can tell until the picture is 
seen. We certainly don't know ourselves, and I can only hope to es- 
cape the wrath of the disciples by removing myself to some remote part 
of the globe before the premiere - perhaps, traditionally, to the South 
Seas, but not, oh most certainly not, to the Gilbert Islands! 


Wills Hollingsworth 

At last Savoyards can see their two gods in parts where they don’t 
serve as virtual extras in a film about Queen Victoria . As a 
matter of fact. Her Royal Highness herself is a bit player in this 
opus , looking like a portly Helen Hayes and exuding a sort of stuffy 
oheer. No indication is given that she was definitely not amused 
by Gilbert’s lyrics, and that she deliberately snubbed the libret- 
tist when she knighted Sullivan, She is shown chuckling at a ccm- 
mand performance of THE GGLDOLIERS at Windsor, and the knighting in- 
cident i 8 introduced only at the very end of the film, when Gilbert 
is dubbed by a sword held in an unmistakably masculine hand, I 
suppose we should be thankful that one shot didn’t show the good 
Queen humming "Little Buttercup" in her boudoir. 

Musieally, the film is a delight. For once, all the Gilbert lyrics are 
completely comprehensible, thanks to Nartyn Green, the excellent singers, 
and even to Messrs Morley and Evans, who go through a chorus of "A Police- 
mans Lot", And Sullivan’s music ccmes from the sound track with reassur- 
ing clarity, blessedly left, for the most part, in its original orchestra- 
tion, In the sequences where the music is modified and arranged, the job 
has been done with taste and imagination - - melodies are begun in the 
theatre during a performance, taken up by a barrel organ in the streets, 
and concluded by a bibulous group in a pub. This contributes greatly in 
giving cinematic qualities to the work, and avoiding the general stagi- 
ness usually found in this sort of film. Possibly the purer Savoyards 
will wince at this tampering. As for people who have seen the operas 
only in High School distortions and such, the whole production will come 
as a revelation. In other words, as they say in the film, "Here’s a 
pretty how d’ye do," 

Even the dyed-in-the-wool fanatics must certainly be thankful that the 
exoerpts from the operas are off the beaten track. One feared that we 
might get a succession of "Tit Willows," and "Buttercups", instead, we 
have unhackneyed scenes from THE GONPOLIERS, RUPPIOOFE (beautifully 
staged), and a generous portion of TRIAL BY JURY. 

Finally, several scenes frcm the repertory have been used to italicize 
the comedy or the tragedy of a scene in the film. When Gilbert, 
Sullivan and the D'Oyly Cartes are having a tempestuous argument, the 
quarrel quartet from THE GONDOLIERS is being sung by the sympathetic 
company on stage; and, toward the end, Sullivan’s last hours are made 
more poignant by Martyn Green's singing of the final scene of THE 
YEOMEN. The amazing thing about this, however, is that its done so 
well that it seems to be an accident. Which exemplifies the quality 
of the entire production; such skill and taste have been lavished on 
it, that even the most contrived effects se«i disarmingly impromptu 
and real. 

Gilbert and Sullivan.. Loperts United Artists. Maurice Evans, Robert 
Morley. Director, Sidney Gilliat. Music, Arthur Sullivan. Conducted 
and directed by Sir Malcolm Sargent and Muir Mathieson. Technicolor. 

Otis L. Guernsey, Jr. 

The animated cartoon parade is strutting through theaters all over the 
world, in a ring-around -the -rosy of cats, mice, dogs, rabbits and 
birds chasing each other through walls. Most of it is the kind of com- 
edy packaged in a round red cylinder clearly labeled "T.N.T" but the 
breathless chain of eye-rolling violenoe is sometimes broken by an un- 
usually rich and imaginative idea. 

Such a one is Walt Disney's TOOT, WHISTLE, PLUNK and BOOM now showing on 
the program with HOW TO MARRY A MILLIONAIRE at the Loew's State and 
Globe Theaters. It is an engaging cartoon short about music, remarka- 
ble in many respects. It is cleverly drawn and animated, and hilarious- 
ly funny. Like all good laughs, it is founded in good sense. It is a 
sort of lesson in musical construction, explaining that all musio is 
based on the four elementary sounds of the title, ripened by modern horn, 
woodwind, string and percussion instruments. 

This short is also the first to be made in the wide-screen CinemaSoope 
process. But most remarkable of all is its style, in which the Disney 
organization departs from the apple-cheeked, roly-poly drawing of the 
past. TOOT, WHISTLE, PLUNK and BOOM is cartooned in the modern manner, 
with angular line sketches, skeleton backgrounds and flatplanes of deli- 
oate. color. 

It resembles closely the work of Stephen Bosustow and his United Product- 
ions Associates(U.P.A. ), the group which created an animated cartoon re- 
volution in 1950 with GERALD McBOING-BOING and has continued with the 
"Mr.Magoo" series and other specialties. If Disney's name were not print 
ed in large letters on TOOT, WHISTLE, PLUNK AND BOOM, you would swear that 
it was a U.P.A. cartoon. It is as though, suddenly and unaccountably, a 
perfect Jaguar were to ccme off the Cadillae assembly line. 

This is actually the second time that the Disney outfit has streamlined 
its style. The first occasion was in MELODY, a stereoscopic 3-D short. 

It was the first of a new series called ADVENTURES IN MUSIC, of which 


TOOT* WHISTLE, FLUNK AND BOOM is the seoond, and there are more earning. 
In the new short his organisation shows complete mastery of the impress- 
ionistic, childlike movements and fast cutting for laughs, 

TOOT, WHISTLE, PLUNK AND BOOM starts with a oubistic owl teaching a music 
class, but its main figures are four crudely drawn cave men making the 
four basic sounds in primitive fashion. With flashes of Egypt, troub- 
adors and other highlights of a sunny imagination, it goes on to show 
how the sounds were improved along with the instruments - how, for in- 
stance, a horn’s pitch is determined by its length, not its shape, so 
that a long one can be bent to spell "George" and still give out the 
same note. 

It has always been difficult to deal with human beings in the convent- 
ional Disney style. The mioe stole "Cindepella"frcm the star, and most 
of his imitators confine themselves to animals. There is no such diffi- 
culty in the new form of caricature, and the Disney group releases its 
frustration delightfully in everything from a jiving Pharaoh to a stiff- 
necked modern string quartet. 

Reprinted by permission of the New York Herald-Tribune 






Gladys E. Chamberlain 

The Music Library of the New York Publio Library's Circulation Department 
at 121 East 58th St. contains some 28,0f>0 volumes of music, 9,000 books 
about music and the dance, and upwards of 13,000 records, but no films. 
However, we are very much interested in film music and consider it an im- 
portant part of the contemporary musical scene, a form that is constantly 
changing and developing, which offers a considerable challenge to the com- 
poser interested in dramatic expression. 

In spite of the strait jacket of split second timing much excellent musio 
has been written for films, musio of intrinsic worth quite apart from its 
dramatic value, music which sometimes carries on a life of its own beyond 
the screen in the form of an orchestral suite, like Virgil Thomson's "Plow 
That Broke the Plains" or "Louisiana Story". The Musio Library can pro- 
vide these and other orchestral scores. In the case of Copland's musio 
for "Our Town", we have the orchestral score, piano excerpts said a record- 
ed version. Our record library includes such items as "Spellbound" 
(Rozsa,1945), "Henry V" with Walton's music, and seme interesting later 
British discs. 

Not so well known are the books about film music. It is a long way from 
Erno Rapee's "Encyclopaedia of Music for Pictures" (1925) with its suggest- 
ed "Hurries" and "ifysteriosos" to Frank Skinner's "Underscore", which pro- 
vides information on all the elaborate technical details involved in writ- 
ing original music for a modern film. The number of books on the subject 
is still small but the Music Library expects to purchase all new publica- 
tions as they appear. The following volumes are now available:- 

Burton,Jack. Blue book of Hollywood musicals 1953 
Chaves, Carlos. Toward a new musio. 1937. (pp. 89-121 ) 
Composing for the films. 1947 
British Film Music. 1947 
The need for competent film music criticism. 
Musio for the movies. 1948 
Film Music. 1936 

Eisler, Hanns. 
Huntley, John. 
Keller, Hans. 
Levy, Louis. 
London, Kurt. 


McCarty, Clifford. Film Composers in America; a check list of 

their work. 1953. 

Skinner, Frank. Underscore. 1950 

Thomson, Virgil. The ^tate of music. 1939 (pp 173-190) 

Some excellent periodical articles supplement this brief list and 
bring it up to date. The Music Division of the Reference Department 
at 42nd St. has also Masetti's "La musica nel film" (Rome, 1950 )and 
Sabaneyev's "Music for the Films" (1935). 

Although these notes relate only to film music, readers may be interested 
in knowing that the New York Public Library maintains an extensive Film 
Information Center in the main building at 42nd St. where books, catalogs 
and subject lists may be consulted, and brief descriptive notes on avail- 
able films are on file, together with the source from which they may be 
obtained. A selected group of films may be borrowed for use by organiza- 

To fill out the audio-visual picture one should add that the library has 
two record collections in addition to that at 58th St. The one in the 
main building is in the nature of an archive and is not open to the pub- 
lic, though it is used for weekly record concerts in the winter and daily 
ones in the summer. The records in the St. George Regional Branch on 
Staten Island may be heard in the building or borrowed for home use. 



Sigmund Spaeth 

Welt Disney’s first CineraaScope cartoon, TOOT, WHISTLE, PLUM AND BOOM, is 
hereby nominated for an Academy Award as the most entertaining and in- 
structive history of musical instruments ever put into animation. 

Alfred Newman's score for THE ROBE is probably his best piece of work to 
date. As a prelude to HOW TO MARRY A MILLIONAIRE, he conducts a stmphony 
orchestra in his own STREET SCENE, which can best be described as a whole- 
hearted tribute to George Gershwin. 

Ernest Gold, who composed some of the early GERALD McBOING BOING music, was 
represented on the season’s opening program of the National Association for 
American Composers and Conductors by a Symphony for Five Instruments. Earli- 
er in the week his wife was the winner on Arthur Godfrey’s Talent Scouts. 

The screen version of KISS ME KATE confirms the belief that Cole Porter has 
never written a better song than "Were Thine That Special Face". Incident- 
ally, the picture of this classic musical comedy is definitely superior to 
the stage original, even when shown, in 3-D. 

Dimitri Tiomkin has potential hit times in both RETURN TO PARADISE and TAKE 
THE HIGH GROUND, and in each case his music strikes this observer as worthy 
of better screen material. 

The entire field of motion picture music profits by the activity of so dis- 
tinguished a composer as Georges Auric, who contributed outstanding scores 
to ROMAN HOLIDAY and MOULIN ROUGE, the latter actually containing a song 
that reached the top of the Lucky Strike Hit Parade. 

The Sterling Television Company of New York is now distributing a series 
of half hour films prepared by Dr. Sigmund Spaeth under the general title 
of "Music For Everybody", Clips of musical performances are used effect- 
ively with Dr. Spaeth himself photographed in informal introductions. His 
syndicated column "Music For Everybody ’ is distributed weekly to thirty 
newspapers by the General Features Corporation of New York. 

We want to draw attention again to Clifford McCarty's "Film Composers in 
America". Its detailed lists of the work of 160 composers of film music 
include scores, arrangements, adaptations and orchestrations and cover more 
than 5200 scores in every branch of cinema production. The completeness of 
Mr. McCarty's research will impress anyone who has ever tried to get even 
the simplest music credits for a film score. Lawrence Morton has written 
an illuminating little essay as introduction. The whole volume is as ab- 
sorbing as it is indispensable to those interested in film music. It may 
be had from John Valentine, 415 East Broadway, Glendale 5, California. 

It oosts $3.75. 

3. t * - 


8 \ 0 — 




Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 28 
Butterfield 8-3288 



THE WILD ONE with excerpts of score 

LITTLE FUGITIVE with excerpts of score 

with excerpts of score 

NOTES on HAMLET (Reissue) 



Cover - Richie Andrusco in LITTLE FUGITIVE 


Leith Stevens, composer 
Eddy Manson, composer 
Louis Applebaum, composer 
Muir Mathieson, conductor 

John E. Braslin, Dir. Film Materials, Teaching Films Custodians 
James L. Limbacher, Dir. Affiliated Film Societies of the U.S.A. 


Leith Stevens 
Eddy Manson 
Louis Applebaum 

Muir Mathieson 
John E. Braslin 
James L. Limbacher 

Published by the National Film Music Council, 26 East 83rd St., New York City 28. President, William Hamilton; Vice-President 
and Editor, Marie L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues each year with occasional bulletins. Two dollars and 
fifty cents. Single copies, thirty cents. Back files (25 copies) five dollars plus postage. 

Leith Stevens 

Stanley Kramer's production of THE WILD ONE starring Marlon Brando, 
is a most unusual picture, and one of the outstanding qualities of 
the film is the high degree of integration of music with story 
telling and mood progression. 

Music could not have been such a definite factor in this film had 
Mr. Kramer and Mr. Lazio Benedek, the director, followed the usual 
practice of leaving any consideration of music until after photogra- 
phy is completed. Instead, they brought the composer in for consult- 
ation while the shooting script was still in preparation. Starting 
at this early point in the development of the film made it possible 
to plan music as a definite factor in the dramatic impact and pro- 
gression of the play. For example, scenes were included where the 
story could be told without dialogue, the dramatic progression 
being carried forward by action and music alone. Also there were 
scenes included where dialogue was not intended to be heard, where 
an effect important to the story was obtained by a melange of sound 
- - - half heard dialogue, music, sound effects etc. This latter 
would be impossible unless planned in advance, as most certainly 
some important plot point would be lost if the dialogue were not 
written with this effect in mind. 

In the beginning there were two possible ways to develop THE WILD 
ONE with regard to use of music. As the film has a rather strong 
documentary ouality, it could have been done without music, with 
the exception perhaps of main and end titles. However, the story 
concerns a few hours in the lives of a group of motorcyclists and 
the unrelieved sound of these machines could be very tiring for an 
audience. Further, music could be used in building tensions and 
assisting in providing certain sudden contrasts necessary to the 
proper telling of the story, and so it was decided to use a score. 


The characters of the play are present day young people, full of 
tensions, for the most part inacticulate about their problems and 
though exhibit! onistic, still confused and wondering. These char- 
acteristics suggested the use of contemporary or progressive jazz 
or bop. (call it what you will) as an important segment of the score. 
This music, with its complicated, nervous searching quality, seemed 
best suited to complement these characters. This is the first score, 
to the writer's knowledge, to use contemporary jazz in actual scoring 
of scenes. 

A considerable part of the action takes place in a small town cafe-bar 
complete with juke-box. Much of the musical material of the score 
is first heard (played in bop styled through this juke-box. The first 
meeting of Johnny (played by Karl on Brando^ and Kathy (played by Mary 
Murphy; is underscored by the following: 

The tempo is a slow four (about 60 metronome) and although the style 
of playing is somewhat reminiscent of the blues idicm, the melodic 
line and harmonic structure are not typically blues. The searching 
restless auality of the melody is further emphasized by the intro- 
duction of double time rhythm in the 7th, 8th, and 9th bars. After 
the downbeat of bar 10 the rhythm returns to four and this alterna- 
ting between slow and fast is continued throughout the piece. The 
instrumentation of example 1 is open trumpet solo, with tenor and 
baritone saxes, trombone and rhythm accompaniment. The figuration 
in bard 8, 9, and 10 is played by brass with tight mute3 in octaves. 

The theme of example 1 appears at several points in the score in 
different forms. In the Main Title as underscoring for Brando’s 
narration it is as follows: 


The notable point here is that although the theme is now in three- 
four it still has a very definite jazz quality. This is caused 
partly by the instrumentation (alto sax 'solo,' with 2 tenor saxes, 
baritone sax, trombone and rhythm) and partly by the rhythm section, 
which although playing basically in the slow 3, plays a very light 
afterbeat for each quarter, thereby giving almost a feeling of 6 
to the bar. 

Another treatment of this theme occurs in a quiet scene in a park, 
where Kathy tries to tell Johnny something of her dreams and hopes. 
At this point the instrumentation is strings with woodwinds and 
horns and there is no feeling of jazz as in the other two examoles. 

The theme is used a<~ain, as an agitato, in the seauence following 
the park scene. Here dark colors and tension predominate. English 
horn, vibraphone and harp play the melodic line and the violas and 
c all os have the nervous figuration below, in octaves nunctuated by 
muted horns and basses. 

Mary other examples of the converting of contemporary jazz themes 
to different forms could be shown. However, the principle would 
remain the same. This conversion of themes from one idiom to an- 
other serves to give a unity to the score which could not be obtain- 
ed otherwise. The first exposure, played on a juke-box, calls at- 
tention to the material and its significance is strengthed by ap- 
pearance in other guises in other parts of the score. TEE WILD ONE 
could have been scored in a conventional manner, but no matter how 
adroitly this might have been done, the impact of the film would 
have been lessened. 

THE WILD ONE.. Columbia, Marion Prando, T'ary Murphy. Director, 
Leslo Penedek. Music, Leith Stevens. 

Mills Music, 1619 Broadway, New York, is publishing eight tunes frcm 
the score in song sheet forms Hot Blood, Scramble, Beetle, Blues 
for Brando, Lovely Way, Hot Shoe, Chino and Windswept. 

Decca Records has reoorded them. Four of the numbers are also availa- 
ble in an RCA-Victor Album recorded by Shorty Rogers and his orchestra. 


Eddy Manson 

Sino© its surprising reception by press and public alike (surpri sing 
to those of us who made the picture), many aspects of LITTLE FUGITIVE 
production have provoked interest. 

Here was a cinematic labor of love - produced more on love than on bud- 
get. People seem amazed that such a high quality film oould be produced 
on such a low quality budget (well under $100,000). I feel that if we 
had had a larger pocketbook, the film might not have had this quality. 
One good thing about laok of money - it forces one to draw on one's 
talent abd creativeness, rather than on one’s bank aeoount. Perhaps 
this is what makes an "art” film an "art" film - no money- which brings 
us to the musio. 

Since there was not enough left in the piggy-bank to afford a name com- 
poser, an orchestrator and a sixty piece orchestra, I was hired to com- 
pose, orchestrate and play the entire score -on a six-inch harmonica. 
There was one consolation though- the harmonica I use has three octaves. 

When I was called in to see the work print, I was a bit confused ; not so 
much by the lack of sound or optical effects (which had not yet been in- 
serted; as by the faot that I was witnessing scenes that I knew only 
too well as a kid in Brooklyn - the streets of Bensonhurst, the West End 
express, and of course. Coney Island. In faot, watching Joey and the 
kids was in effect watching my own childhood in retrospect* This un- 
balanced me and I had to watch the film a few more times before I could 
recapture the objective feel so necessary to the film composer. As it 
was, this project posed a considerable compositional problem. 

To start with , LITTLE FUGITIVE has a minimum of dialogue end not too 
much sound(both of which were dubbed in after shooting). Besides, the 
action is far from frenetio. This meant that muoh music was needed - 
at least fifty minutes of it - and all of it played on a harmonica. If 
I’d had an orchestra to write for - it would have been smorgasbord - 
but having just one instrument meant I had to write horizontally 
rather than vertically. Instead of thinking in terms of orchestral 
masses and inner voicings, there was but one line to work with - melo- 
dy. To a modern composer, this is like going back to the Dark Ages. 

It was just as well, however, for I had to rediscover the lost art of 
melody-writing. Unaccompanied melody had to carry continuity, had to 
give the necessary emotional color to each scene, had to dramatize 
background, had to probe the personality - a sizable one - of a seven 
year old boy, and had to be interesting enough to keep 'the audience 
from becoming harmonica-conscious. Much as I love the harmonica 
(and all instruments for that matter), fifty minutes of exposure to 
the same color can annoy an audience to the resultant detriment of the 
film, if the actual music played by that instrument fails to do its 

Music in a film is a muoh more powerful factor them critics seem to 
realize. If used properly, music becomes the abstract dictator. For 
instance^ three persona can be watching a scene played without the use 
of musio. The first person might see in it a sort of whimsy, the 
second might suspect overtones of tragedy, and the third might feel 
plain disinterested. Now pipe into the scene seme perceptively writ- 
ten music and all three people are likely to reaot emotionally, pre- 
cisely as the director and musician want them to. This is so. 

probably, because music is abstract. It does not require intellect nor 
even sivht to communicate - it is basically animal in function and -*hen 

oroperly handled and colored becomes all-powerful. 

Lester Troob, an intelligent gentleman with an enviable background in 
the recording industry, supervised sound and music, and worked close- 
ly with me, indicating the sound and dialogue that was to transpire in 
scene. He also served as alter-ego to my efforts, as did Morris Engel, 
Ray Ashley, and Ruth Orkin, the film’s producers. In fact everyone was 
an alter-ego for each other's efforts - such busybodies! Lester and 
I went over the scenario, shot by shot and discussed the musical possi- 
bilities of each scene, I was principally concerned not with what I 
saw, so much as what the scene meant in the light of overall continuity. 
How did we want the scene to play on the emotions of the audience? 

After fine-combing the scenario and jotting down ideas - I sat down to 
organize the score on paper - and on the harmonica. The picture opens 
with Lennie, the older brother, walking down the street, playing the 
mouth-organ. As he arproaches we recognize the strains of "Home on the 
Range". The two brothers talk about each other as "Home on the Range" 
is picked up by the background harmonica and richly played - thus be- 
coming symbolic of the brothers' relationship. Frankly, I was not fond 
of this, the producers' idea, since I knew that this could make "Home on 
the Range" the theme of the picture - and much as I like the tune, fifty- 
minutes of it could become unbearable. I decided to confine the tune to 
purely literal,, or functional uses and to base the rest of the score on 
extracts frcrn the "Home on the Range" melody. This in short, meant a 
completely original score with only a subtle connection to the tune. 

In addition to this connection, there had to be a continuity of style 
and material within the score itself. This was difficult, as I had no 
inner voices to work with, and I love inner voices. ( Mr. Manson's "Fugue 
for Woodwinds" won the Elizabeth SDrague Coolidge award. - Ed.) Mary's 
the time during the scoring of LITTLE FUGITIVE when I wished that pencil 
of mine were traveling vertically down a nice long score page instead 
of forever horizontally. 

There were many scenes which had to be carried by continuous music for 
two and a half minutes or better - an eternity. For instance, there is 
a sequence where little Joey who has fled to Coney Island after appar- 
ently killing his brother, is seen wandering around the beach 0 There 
is not a line of dialogue for three solid minutes and the only sound is 
a soft mumbo- jumbo of beach noises. It is a beautifully photographed 
sequence in which Morris Engel caught all the poetry of a little boy 
roaming in an eternal crowd - with no more big brother to look after 
him. Of course, the audience knows that Lennie is still alive and very 
healthy - but Joey doesn't - and while there are touches of humor in 
this sequence, I let go subjectively, and wrote a blues based quite 
frankly on "Home on the Range". It is played very sparsely and uncrowded 
against a background of many, many crowds. This incongruity seems to 
make us feel very much alone with Joey - alone in the crowd. This is 
a completely abstract sequence in which -we felt a happy marriage of 
direction, photography and music. 


Another -such sequence had to underline the hatching of a plot conceived 
by the older boys to get rid of Joey, wherein Joey is made to think 
that he has killed his brother and takes it on the lam. The music 
builds up from the hatching of the plot to the firing of the "murder 
weapon". For this sequence I switched harmonicas and used one pitched 
an octave lower, which brought me into the bass clef. The sequence 
was played in octaves and double stops for the most part. 

In another scene, Joey ventures into a baseball cage with a man-sized 
bat to try his luck against a barrage of baseballs. The results of 
course are hilarious, as he swings, misses, ducks, falls and cusses 
his way through a most exasperating two minutes. For this I could 
have mickey-moused each little turn and twist - but felt the scene 
needed continuity which mickey-mousing coul not give it. So a clumsy 
eccentric little piece was composed, which leads off in various di- 
rections and really goes nowhere. However, I still managed to catch 
a few turns and twists without breaking the tempo. 



For the pony-ride sequence, Joey was for all purposes an honest-to- 
goodness cowboy riden' the range in the dusty panhandle. Actually 
he was astride an old pony gingerly supported by Jay, the pony man - 
on the panhandle of Coney Island. Nonetheless, cowboy he was- so 
western we went. I wrote a pony theme based on an old cowhand song 
(sonething about Wyomin') which gave the scene an authentic western 

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The neighborhood theme has overtones of the "kids'call" in it, and 
for the scene where Lennie looks forlornly at the beat-up baseball 
his missing brother had given him for his birthday, I mixed the head 
of "Home on the Range” with the head of "Happy Birthday! " and played 
this hybrid theme in wistful fashion. 

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For the bottle-collecting sequence, I took the cue from the kids' 
trudging through the sand as they hunted deposit-bottles. There is 
a peculiar rhythm to their trudging, and from this came the theme. 

For the scene in which Joey goes on a montage of what seems like every 
ride in Coney Island, I wrote a complete two and a half minute select- 
ion which goes like the wind and serves to exhilarate and tie together 
the sequence. This is one of the themes I built up and sketched out 
for harmonica and orchestra, and is now available on a Columbia disc. 
Its called "Coney Island" and is played by Norman Leyden's orchestra 
and yours truly. 

The other side of this recording is "Joey's Theme", a wistful melody 
written .just for Joey, % wife and I boast a twenty-three months old 
infantile delinauent, named David "Butch "Fans on. At home we refer to 
the melody as "Butch's Theme. " 

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Because time was growing short, and money with it, I managed to complete 
the score in thirteen hours. Then I memorized it entirely so my eyes 
would be free to watch the film, Les Troob and I practised cues and en- 
trances for a couple of days and then went into the recording studio, I 
recorded "live" (in direct synchronization with the film) - all nine 
reels in one day. In this way we saved the added expense and delay of 
having to edit "wild" (pre-recorded) tape onto the sound track - although 
I'd rather not do it this way again. It took a week just for the swell- 
ing in my lips to go down. No sir, give me a nice, fat Hollywood con- 
tract with a couple of months in which to compose a score for a nice 
fat orchestra, on nice, fat wild tape - and I’ll be happy - or will I? 

"Joey's Theme" as well as other material from the score has been record- 
ed by all the major recording companies. There is sheet music on dis- 
play, published by Trinity Music in bright red, no less, which shows a 
picture of Joey and of course Little Fugitive titling. It is hard to 
conceive all this resulting from a ridiculously modest picture score 
played on a single harmonica - but there it is. Can you imagine what 
would have happened if I had had two harmonicas to work with? 

LITTLE FUGITIVE,, Joseph Burstyn. Pichie Andrusco. Witten and directed 
by Ray Ashley, Morris Engel and Ruth Orkin, Music, Eddy Manson. 

Score excerpts, courtesy Trinity Music Corporation, New York City, 

Louis Applebaum 

The Academy Award for a dramatic musical score was bestowed in 1947 on 
a work about whose merit there can be no question. Not always this re- 
cognition fall on the most desenring of the year's efforts - nor does it 
always reflect studied judgment and unbiased critical reflection. Film 
fans, students and critics can find no quarrel with the fact that Sam 
Goldwyn’s and William Vfyler’s THE BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES swept off 
most of the important Academy prizes, and those interested in film music 
can be especially happy that Hugo Friedhofer's remarkable score for that 
film was included in the sweep. Mr. Friedhofer’s considerable talents 
have been known to the handful concerned in the making of film music. 

A reading of the score reveals that Mr. Friedhofer, as many composers do , 
has chosen to work on the development juxtaposition and superimposition 
of leit-motifs more or less in the Wagnerian tradition. The material it- 
self is definitely not Wagnerian in character, but the manner of its hand- 
ling derives frc*n the Wagner of the Nibelungen Ring. As a result, it is 
possible, in a few short quotations, to list practically all the root ma- 
terial out of which the score as a whole generated. The most important 
of the themes is the one on which the Main Title is based. In the score 
it is called the "Best Years Theme". 

“ 8 eiT YetX* 

Its simplicity, based as it is on the triad, its straightforward, warm 
harmonization, ably reflects the general theme of the film, principally 
as it concerns the Harold Russell characterization of "Homar". It has 
two main sections, each of which is used and developed separately in the 
course of the score. The first section, (A) states the triad motif, the 
second (B), a chordal, almost hymnal phrase, both easily recognized and 
capable of developed treatment. 

The second theme to appear is here called "Boone City" 

It too contains two ideas: (A), a 5 note motif with the characteristic 
leap of the major 7th to set it apart, and B a syncopated, moving, broken- 
triad motif. The (a) motif occurs often, and its major 7th interval man- 
ages to add interest to the melodic structure of the score. As will be 
seen later, it was eventually enlarged into a separate theme. 

A third theme is once more chordal in structure. This one, associated 
with the neighborly relationship between the families of Homer and that 
of his girl next door, is most interesting for its harmonization of a tune 
that is, like the others already mentioned, derived from the simple triad. 


The theme that results frcm the expanding of the (A\ part of the "Boone 
City" theme is rather conventional, almost "popular", suggesting that 
there glimmered perhaps a faint hope of being able to make the Hit 
Parade list with same aspect of the score. -Phe fact that this was not 
realized, as it was by David Paksin with his score for LAURA , need he 
no reflection on either the score or its effectiveness. The theme called 
"Peggjr" follows: 

Two or three dramatic sequences in the film received special treatment, 
-'•ith no ference to any of the principal motifs. There is, for instanoe 
the hyper-dramatic moment in the tool shed, when Homer, in frustrated em- 
barrasftent , is driven to smash the window. I’r. Friedhofer has used a 
children's playsong in the sequence. The example is quoted here for its 
interesting orchestration and harmonization which can but be suggested 
in this limited space. 




Orchestra coloring of a different kind, plus the full utilization of a 
minimum of musical material, in this case mostly the interval of the 
4th, make an exciting moment of Fred's nightmare, his vivid memories 
of awful war experiences. 

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Here Hr, Friedhofer's clear orchestral thinking, his appreciation and 
understanding of the orchestra's resources, his sensitive feeling for 
tone color, end his good taste are apparent. 

It is sad that present utilization of film music material does not allow 
for any kind of distribution of the music itself. True, in tare cases, 
excerpts from film scores are recorded on commercial discs, and when pop- 
ular songs are used, they are published; but the full scores, even nota-^ 
ble ones such as this are all but ignored. The song, "Among My Souvenirs" 
which was used often in BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES, can undoubtedly be found 
in many thousands of homes, but those interested in the score have re- 
course" only to the meager and too sketchy quotations apnearing in reviews 
such as t’~is one. The only alternative is to go repeatedly to see the 
film in order to become more familiar with its music. THE BEST YEARS 0* 
OUR LIVES offers one of those rare cases where this will prove worthwhile, 

THE BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES,, Samuel Goldwyn Productions. Director, 
William Vfyler. Music, Hugo F r iedhofer. 


Conies o i the issue of FID' MUSIC (Notes) containing Mr. Applebaum's entire 
article on THE BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES are still available. We have also 
a few numbers of the issue which featured excernts from the HAMLET score. 
Though pale and difficult to rend, they have been widely used for study. 

NOTE ON HAMLET (A reissue) 
By Muir Mathieson 

We recorded Laurence Olivier’s HAMLET with the Philharmonia Orchestra 
on the Music Theatre stage at Denham with William Walton(as always) 
present, checking points with the orchestra, discussing improvements 
with Sir Laurence and taking a most active part in the music making. 

A single example taken from the famous player’s scene will show the 
method of approach Walton uses in his music. The arrival of the 
Court is heralded by trumpet calls. Then come the players, introduc- 
ed and accompanied during their performance by a small group of musi- 
cians seated in an alcove overlooking the dais on which the actors 
present their play. We hear first the music makers; for this, the 
composer provided a delightful period work for violins, cello, oboe, 
cor anglais, bassoon and harpsichord. After a section of this 
"realistic" music, a full symphony orchestra of seme 50 players takes 
up the theme as the camera moves round to show the reactions of the 
King. The camera, taking in a full orbit in its movements, re-focuses 
on the actors and the music reverts to the small group of instrumentalists. 
The actor-king has been poisoned; the King can stand it no longer. The 
full power of the big orchestra rises up, underlining the dramatic con- 
tent of the sequence, swamping the small group, and ending in a tremend- 
ous "crash cord" as the King roars, "Give me same light" In this exam- 
ple, the music becomes an integral part of the film. The score goes 
beyond the realism of the small band soon on the screen and extends into 
the emotional texture of the sequence showing the Court and its bedly- 
shaken Sovereign; yet it keeps the line of the actor’s music in con- 
trast, by the off-setting of the two orchestral groups - one of seven 
players and one of about 50. 

HAMLET.. . J. Arthur Rank , Universal-International. Director, 

Laurence Olivier. Music, William Walton. 

Ted Drake, music mixer, Muir Mathieson, music director, William Walton, composer, Lau- 
rence Olivier and John Hollingsworth, conductor, discuss a point of orchestration on the 
rostrum of the Denham music theatre durng the recording of the music for Hamlet. 

John E. Braslin 

Did you know that music educators use Hollywood productions in their 
courses of instruction? It's a fact; and behind this development is 
the story of the cooperation of the motion picture industry with educa- 
tors to produce a more enlightened America. 

It all started back in 1937. Mr. Will Hays, then President of the 
Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, believed that the 
film industry could be of service to American education. He invited 
Dr. Mark A. May, Director of the Institute of Human Relations at Yale 
University, to organize a committee of leading educators for the purpose 
of advising the industry on ways and means to accomplish this objective. 

To serve on the committee. Dr. May recruited the following members: 

James R. Angell, President, Yale University; Frederick H. Bair, Superin- 
tendent of Schools, Bronxville, N.Y.; Isaiah Bowman, President, Johns 
Hopkins University; Karl T. Compton, President, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology; Edmund E. Day, Fresident, Cornell University; Royal B. 

Farnum, Executive Vice-President, Rhode Island School of Design; Willard 
E. Givens, Executive Secretary, National Education Association! Jay B. 

Nash, Professor of Education, New York University; and Francis T. Spaulding, 
Dean, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University. 

This Advisory Committee on the Use of Motion Pictures in Education insti- 
tuted a survey which reported the finding that the "entertainment" films 
were rich in latent teaching materials. The committee made the recommend- 
ation that theatrical short subjects produced by member companies of the 
MPPDA be made available for educational use upon the expiration of their 
commercial bookings. The film industry approved this plan. The following 
companies agreed to make their short subjects available for educational 
use without any financial return to themselves as a service to education: 
Columbia Pictures Corporation; Educational Pictures Corporation; Loew's, 
Inc. (Metro-Goldvrm-Mayer ); RKO Radio Pictures, Inc.; Paramount Pictures 
Corporation; Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation; and Warner Bros. 
Pictures ,Inc. 

As an important first step, the producing companies authorized the commit- 
tee to invite panels of teachers to select short subjects specifically 
suitable for classroom use. Under the guidance of the Advisory Committee, 
teacher panels screened hundreds of "entertainment" short subjects and se- 
lected a list of 364 pictures which became the nucleus of a film library 
for distribution to schools on 16mm. film. 

The members of the Advisory Committee were designated the "custodians" of 
these films, with full responsibility for their educational use. In 1938 
Teaching Film Custodians was incorporated in the State of New York as a 
non-profit educational service agency to distribute the selected motion 
pictures to schools. The members of the Advisory Committee became the 
Board of Directors of TFC. 

Among the reviewing panels of teachers was one composed of music educators. 
This group selected 20 films for use in music classes 0 These included 
such titles as THE ROMANCE OF ROBERT BURNS (Warner Bros.), THE SONGS OF 
selected short subjects enjoyed wide distribution. At two year intervals, 
additional films which had became available were selected by the teacher 
panels, and the program developed quantitatively and qualitatively. 

By the close of World War II the TFC short subject distribution program 
had so well proved and established itself, that approximately 17,500 
prints of films covering all areas of the ourriculum were in active dis- 
tribution throughout the nation. In the interval between the organiza- 
tion of TFC and 1946, Mr, Eric Johnston had succeeded Mr* Hays as 
President of the reorganized Motion Picture Association of America, 

Mr, Johnston furthered the educational service of the industry by estab- 
lishing a Department of Educational Services. Under his aegis the mem- 
ber companies liberalized their contracts with TFC to permit the prepar- 
ation of excerpts from feature photoplays for classroom use. This step 
considerably widened the horizons of the TFC program. 

In 1947 the Music Educators National Conference reauested TFC to investi- 
gate the possibilities of preparing excerpts from feature pictures for 
use in music classes. The Directors of TFC approved this project with the 
provision that the Executive Board of the MENC should designate a committee 
to collaborate with the staff of TFC in preparing the excerpts. The MENC 
gladly complied, and the following committee was appointed: Lilia Belle 

Pitts, Professor of Music Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, 
chairman; Kenneth Hjelmervik, Director of Music Education, Baltimore, 
Maryland; Vanett Lawler, Associate Executive Secretary, MENC; Margaret 
Lowry, Professor of Music Education, Queens College, N. Y.; and Alfred 
Spouse, Director of Music Education, Rochester, N.Y, 

The development of this music film excerpting program has been a coopera- 
tive effort to which the committee members contribute their understanding 
of classroom needs and objectives, and the staff of TFC, their knowledge 
of film techniques and treatment. At the organization meeting of the com- 
mittee with the staff of TFC, a statement of aims was drawn up. It is 
essentially as follows: 

I. General Aim: To use sound films as an additi onal means of motive* 

ting and enriching musical growth. 

II. Specific Aims: 

A. To focus music films directly upon broadening the range of 
musical awareness and interest. 

B. To provide backgrounds of relevant associations with types 
of music and surveys of development. 

C. To improve musical performance in general grasp of structure 
and interpretation. 

D. To aid in developing skills. 

The types of film materials to be sought in feature pictures to implement 
these aims are the following: Choral excerpts, symphonic excerpts, ex- 

cerpts demonstrating the talent and techniques of specific artists, opera 
and operetta forms, the life and works of artists or composers, dance 
forms, and folk materials. 

Although the film excerpting program is decidedly flexible, it follows a 
general pattern. Lists of music photoplays available for excerpting are 
compiled and annotated by a graduate music student designated by the com- 
mittee under the guidance of a TFC staff member. Fran these lists the 
committee selects the titles which seem most promising. The full thea- 
trical versions of these films ere then screened for the MENC committee, 
which meets in New York City once a month throughout the school year. 


Upon screening the complete version, the committee decides whether or not 
there is material in the film suitable for making a classroom excerpt. 

If the decision is affirmative, the musical sequences or episodes to be 
retained in the classroom version are designated. Together, the committee 
and the TFC representatives work out a continuity in which the designated 
sequences will be presented as a smooth, coherent teaching film unit. 

At the ensuing meeting of the committee, this continuity or treatment is 
screened in "rough cut" form without art work or opticals such as dissolves 
and fade-out, fade-in's. At this point in the process, with the preferred 
classroom material presented out of the context of the feature picture, 
the committee has the opportunity to determine how well the excerpted ma- 
terial approximates the aims and objectives they seek. 

In same instances the "rough cut" is approved immediately. In others, the 
committee might detect instances where further deletions are required, 
or where additional footage from the feature picture is necessary to 
clarify the continuity. In such cases the "rough 6ut"is returned to the 
cutting room for additional preparation and re-screened upon revision at 
the next meeting of the committee, When unanimous committee approval is 
achieved, the classroom excerpted version is processed for release to the 

In the processing, several steps are necessary to convert the original 
3£mm. theatrical film into a 16mm. classroom motion picture. In all the 
excerpts new fade-out, fade-in's and dissolves must be printed optically 
&nd cut into the negative of the excerpted version. New title cards and 
art work must also be made, matching exactly the lettering and form of 
the original version. The sound track must be re-recorded and compensated 
for projection on 16mm. machines in classrooms where the acoustics often 
leave much to be desired. 

In planning an excerpt, the committee generally tries to plan a continui- 
ty which can be presented in the classroom with a running time of less 
than 30 minutes. Actually, the shorter the excerpt can be made, the 
better; for a short excerpt permits the teacher more classroom time to 
introduce the film, screen it, and guide the follow-up discussion by the 
class. In this regard it is important to note that the committee pre- 
pares a teacher guide to accompany each excerpt to assist the teacher in 
achieving maximum effectiveness with the film. 

The Audio-Visual Committee of the MENC has completed five excerpts from 
feature photoplays to date, averaging one unit per year. The obvious im- 
plication of the number of excerpts completed in relation to the time 
spent, is that this is a long, slow process of selection, revision, ex- 
perimentation, and processing. Among the films completed are the follow- 

1. THE GREAT WALTZ (MGM); A 20 minute film on the life and works of 
Johann StraussII. 

2. INSIDE OPERA, an exoerpt from ONE NIGHT OF LOVE (Columbia): A 
film dealing with an operatic star's rise to fame and including 
several arias frcm well-known operas. 30 minutes. 

of 1939 (Paramount): A film demonstration of the fugue played by 
the Philadelphia Svmphony Orchestra. 

4. NAUGHTY MARIETTA (MGM): A 29 minute condensation of the Victor 
Herbert Operetta. 

5. THE SC HUT.! ANN STORY, an exoerpt from SONG OF LOVE (MGM); A 

30 minute film biography of the life and works of Robert Schumann. 

Test the reader bemin to wonder why certain outstanding music photo- 
plays have not as yet been considered by the committee, it should be 
realized that all feature pictures are not available for excerpting. 
Primarily, the producing companies correctly reserve the rights to a 
film until it has completed its theatrical bookings; in some cases 
with exceptionally popular films, this may be several years. Further- 
more, the TFC excerpting program is limited to films produced by member 
companies of the Motion Picture Association of America^ this rules out 
all pictures produced abroad. And finally, it has frequently been 
found that feature pictures which seemed to have suitable material for 
classroom use simply could not be revised for the classroom; this may 
be because an extraneous character, from the classroom point of view, 
is plainly in evidence in the "big scene" where the artist performs, 
thus begging the question, "’That is he (or she' doing there?" and dis- 
tracting from the teaching value. 

Occasionally such technical difficulties can be overcome by a bit of 
cutting room magic. In INSIDE OPERA, for example, as Grace Moore sings 
"Chiri Biri Bin", there were freouent closeups of such an extraneous 
character. The committee insisted that he be cut out of the classroom 
version; yet, if his close-ups were cut out, it would also cut into the 
sound track, interrupting the well-known melody. Finally, the TFC tech- 
nicians realized that in the film as Miss Moore sang, there was a cut- 
away shot to the proprietor of the restaurant serving sphagetti; they 
reprinted this shot and substituted it for each of the objectionable 
closeups. Thus, in the classroom version, the restaurateur does a much 
better business, serving four more helpings of sphagetti as Miss Moore 
merrily sings the entire melody. 

How valuable have these classroom excerpts proven themselves? It would 
be impossible to cite instances relative to the merit. 0 of each film in 
an article of this length. Suffice it to say, all have been widely dis- 
tributed and praised by music teachers in all parts of the country. In 
the March, 1950 issue of Music Educators Journal , for example, Mrs. Dor- 
othy Wall, a teacher in the Baltimore School System wrote the following 
about her utilization of the SCHUMANN STORY; 

"All the youngsters who saw the film were simply thrilled 
with it! The discussion which followed each showing con- 
vinced us that THE SCHUMANN STORY was not merely a source of 
entertainment, but that it could provide a charming motiva- 
tion for a full, rich music program." 

In concluding this account of the music film excerpting program, it is 
fitting that emphasis be given to the unselfish service to education 
of the motion picture producing companies which make it possible, and 
to the educators who serve on the MENC committee without remuneration 
as a professional service. 

The original committee named previously has now completed it's "tour of duty", 
and in the committee report to the MENC Dr. Pitts, the chairman, recommend- 
ed that the program be continued. Correspondingly, the Executive Committee 
of the MENC named Miss Delinda Rogginsack, Professor of Music Education at 
Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa, as chairman to succeed the original 
committee. Miss Rogginsack is currently organizing a new group to carry on 
the program. It is to be expected that more and more valuable teaching 
tools will be made available to music educators through their efforts. 


James L. Limbacher 

FILF MUSIC, special interests, film production and circulation all 
go hand in hand at the Audio-Visual Center at Indiana University 
in Bloomington. The nationally-known Center, which has a staff of 
130 in both full-time and part-time capacities, has undertaken a 
varied series of activities in the film field, as well as in other 
forms of audio-visual exoression. The part-time employees include 
53 graduate students working in the various audio-visual fields. 

The film production unit completed 27 reels last year. Three of its 
most popular films, CHUCKY LOU (The Story of a ffoodchuck), YOUR 
scores composed by faculty members, and a new series of five square 
dance films feature arrangements of old folk tunes. CONSPIRACY IN 
KYOTO, with musical score by Professor Bernard Heiden, was shown at 
the annual Edinburgh Film Festival in 1953. Since film production 
began at Indiana in 1944, the Center has produced 65 educational 

The Film Library, which has over 100,000 reels in circulation, boasts 
a total of 4,600 different titles, as well as 2500 film strips and 
394 tape and disc recordings. Every state in the union books films 
frcm the Library and many foreign countries have purchased films pro- 
duced by the Center. In October of 1953, over 14,000 reels were 
shipped - - 1,909 reels in one single day of that month! 

The circulation library features many films with outstanding musical 
films and many others. 

A television program, FILM FORUM WEEKLY, presents a different film each 
week followed by a discussion. The production of these programs is 
supervised by members of the audio-visual staff and are produced by 
graduate students. 

Over 660 students were enrolled in audio-visual classes last year and 
there were 89 doctoral candidates majoring or minoring in audio-visual 

By developing the special interests of their staff, the Center provides 
an opportunity for individuals with varied interests and competencies 
to pursue them. Same are recipients of assistantships whioh help "pay 
their way" while studying special aspects of the film. Persons with 
special interests in film wishing to further their education are en- 
couraged to do so by applying for assistantships in the Center. 

Film-makers and producers present lectures to audio-visual members on 
how their films are made and distributed. They also attend weekly film 
preview sessions to find out the group reaction to their films. They 
further often send shooting scripts for proposed films and "work prints" 
for group reaction and criticism. 

The Center is. directed by Professor L. C. Larson, who coordinates the 
various audio-visuel activities. Five classes are given in film production 
techniques, four classes in the survey, utilizations, selection and admin- 
istration of audio-visual materials, and various seminars are held in mass 
communications, radio, television and the film. 






Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 
Butterfield 8-3288 



(with score excerpts) 

George W. Duning 


(with score excerpts) 

Boris Kremenliev 







Quaintance Eaton 
Elwyn Swartz 
D. Sterling Wheelwright 
Gerald Pratley 

Sigmund Spaeth 


George W. Duning, Film Composer 

Boris Kremenliev, Composer 

Quaintance Eaton, Writer and Critic 

Elwyn Swartz, University of Idaho, Music Dept. 

Dr. D. Sterling Wheelwright, San Francisco State College, Music and Humanities Dept. 
Gerald Pratley, Film Commentator, Canadian Broadcasting Corp. 

Dr. Sigmund Spaeth, Author, Lecturer 

Published by the National Film Council, 26 East 83rd St., New York 28. President, William Hamilton; Vice President and Editor, Marie 
L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues yearly with occasional bulletins. Two dollars and fifty cents a year. Single copies 
thirty-five cents. Back files (25 copies) five dollars plus postage. 


George W. Duning 

From the viewpoint of a film background composer, the year 1953 was a 
most interesting one for me. It was my pleasure to score three pictures 
of highly different subject matter, namely, SALCME,FRCM HERE TO ETERNITY 

SALOME (discussed in an earlier issue of FILM MUSIC) was a very direct 
sort of picture of a Biblical nature, and there was very little doubt 
as to where and what kind of music should be spotted in the background 
score. MISS SADIE THOMPSON called for a jazz approach, but FROM HERE 
TO ETERNITY presented a totally different problem - - mainly where not 
to score. Morris Stoloff, Music Director, Fred Zinnemann, director of 
picture, and I spent many hours discussing the approach to the background 
score. Because of the realism inherent in the picture, we agreed that an 
over amount of background music could do more harm than good. The total 
number of minutes heard amounted to about an hour, divided between source 
music and actual background scoring. By 'source music' I refer to all 
the bugle calls, the jukebox sequences, the piano playing in the New 
Congress Club, and the guitar and vocal tracks of Merle Travis. 

The tune "From Here To Eternity", by Fred Karger and Bob Wells was written 
quite a while before the actual shooting of the picture, and unfortunately 
when the time came for me to do the background score, it was discovered 
that there would be very little music back of the scenes between Pruitt 
and Lorene. I was able to use the tune in two jukebox sequences and once 
as a scoring cue back of the scene where Lorene brings Pruitt to her 

For the Main Title I used a treatment of "Drill Call" which ended in a cli- 
max announcing the Main Title and faded out to a snare drum figure as the 
soldiers get into formation. The music was gradually faded out and the 
rest of the main title played for sound effects only. 

The main part of the original score for ETERNITY consisted of a theme for 
the f rusted love affair between the Captain's wife, Karen, and Sergeant 
Warden. This theme was heard in various treatments — mainly behind the 
wonderful scenes on the beach. The first beach scene opens with a sound 
of crashing waves. Here I had a high violin line playing over the sound, 
and then the sound was gradually dubbed down so that the main theme, in 
the celli, is heard at Bar 7 (Example l). 

EX* * 

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ip v - *- i j x-va j t - x j ii 


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The music covers the action of Karen end Warden arriving at the beach and 
deciding to go bathing. The scene then cuts to Pruitt and Lorene at the 
New Congress Club where a Jukebox is heard. From thie scene we cut back 
to the beach and this scene opens on a kiss in the waves. (Example 2). 


Ex. 2. 

The music at this point remains ecstatic and amorous until the Sergeant 
starts to doubt Karen as he recalls rumors of her infidelities. Bar 27. 
(Example 3). At this point I injected a cold minor triad in muted trom- 
bones and woodwinds over a bass pedal. 


The love theme continues and a gradual change in mood is felt to bar 42. 
(Exauple 4). 

Here a dark string chord (non- vibrato) catches her reaction to his distrust. 
The love theme still continues but this time in a dark flute and bassoon 
color with gradual ascending thirds in strings over a pedal note for mount- 
ing tension. This goes on to the point at Bar 54 (Example 5) where the 
Sergeant accuses her of an affair with a service man with the music ending 
suddenly on a climax. 


A little later after Karen has told Warden of her unhappy experience with 
her husband, the music picks up quietly with a triste treatment of the 
secondary love theme. Bar 7 (Example 6;. 

EX, 4 

In the scene where Pruitt is sneaking over the sand dunes in an effort 
to return to his company, the music had to be extremely quiet, yet tense# 
Here I made use of a high chromatic ascending line for violins, over a 
bass pedal, with sporadic interjection of a nervous piano figure, all 
this over a dark statement of "Re -enlistment Blues". (Example 7) 

I used occasional beads of double piano on snare drum to indicate the 
presence of the guards. 

Re- enlistment Blues, coryright 1953, Bartbn l*usic Corp. 


At Bar 28 (Example 8), Pruitt starts to run from the guards, the music 
becomes agitated and mounts to hysterical climax at Bar 41 (Example R ) , 
where it is stopped suddenly by the machine yun sound effect. 

For the End Title, I used the obvious but very effective "Aloha" to cover 
the scene between the two girls, as the boat carries them away from the 
Islands. At the point where the camera pans to Pruitt’s bugle mouth 
piece, a distant statement of "Taps" is heard. 

FRCM HERE TO ETERNITY. . Columbia Pictures Corporation. Burt Lancaster, 
Montgomery Clift, Frank Sinatra, Deborah Kerr, Donna Peed. Producer, 
Buddy Adler. Director, Fred Zinnemann. Fusic Director, Morris Stoloff, 
Composer, George TT, Duning, Orchestrations, Arthur Forton. 

Fusic copyright 1953 — Columbia Pictures Corporation. 

Frank Sinatra - Montgomery Clift 
Burt Lancaster 


Boris Kremenliev 

The vividly imaginative art work which UPA artist Paul Julian created to 
tell Edger Allen Poe’s morbid story, THE TELL TALE HEART, have made of this 
seven-minute film a production so different from the conventional animated 
cartoon that it has been marked by critics as the beginning of a new art 
form. A highly dramatic narration by James Mason adds a second potent in- 
gredient to the emotion in which the film is steeped. At the first run- 
through, it was my feeling that the music would have to venture into here- 
tofore unexplored areas in order to achieve unity with the other elements. 

Although the final score did not use experimental sound devices, the pre- 
liminary research I made into new ways of producing musical tones was quite 
fascinating, and led down such unexpected avenues that I hope one day to 
put the results to work on sane future score. Because the research was a 
step in the development of the final form the score achieved, I believe that 
a brief report would not be too much of a digression. I discussed some of 
my ideas with a friend ’who is both a -geophysicist and a competent musician, 
and he became intrigued with the possibilities. His laboratory and his 
patience made possible a number of highly improbable experiments. Together 
we worked out a new division of the octave into mathematically equal inter- 
vals, the new scale being produced for the time being (until someone decides 
to finance construction of an instrument) by electronically-controlled me- 
chanisms. it was necessary to compose for this scale on graph paper, and I 
therefore constructed diagrammatic ally a three-voice fugue which we recorded 
on tape. The music had a weird, unreal, indescribably tense quality that 
was beautifully in keeping with the emotional content of the film. 

On. subsequent screenings, however, I became convinced that its distinctive 
visual art was about all the experimental material one film could stand. I 
should mention, right here, that TJPA lived up to its reputation (established 
GARDEN) of giving the composer a free hand with the music. This is a chal- 
lenging, and sometimes a chastening experience. I felt a sense of relief 
when I finally decided that the music in this film must support and streng- 
then the illusion, but not compete with it. I then determined to use for 
the eight instruments allowed by the budget, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, 
horn, piano, novachord and percussion. 

There is not much space to work in on a film of this length, as I was con- 
stantly aware. Take the main title, for example. In a feature film, the 
composer has from a minute to a minute and a half in which to set the stage, 
establish mood, and plant thematic material for later use; here we had to 
underscore the credits, foreshadow horrors and warn the audience that this 
film was not to be the customary humorous treatment with which the studio 
is associated - - all in less than thirty seconds. (Only two measures of 
the main title material come back later in the score, to precede the heart- 
beat cue. The harmonic vocabulary established in the opening, however, is 
basic to the score. Example l). 

The story is told by a madman, who does not appear, but through whose eyes 
the tale unfolds. "I think it vras his eye", he begins his explanation of 
his decision to kill the old man whose house he shares, and the screen is 

filled with a horrible, filmy eye, while the flute builds up. (Example 

Having decided that he must get rid of the eye, the murderer waits and 
watches, night after night. Each night he climbs the stairs, goes to the 
old man's room, opens the door with infinite care, and. finds the eye al- 
ways closed. The stationary rhythmic figure under the descending clarinet 


passage contributes to the tension which is sustained until the oboe solo 
in the middle of measure six in Example 3 descends to middle C to create 
temporary relief. (Example 3) 

"Then on the eighth night, I knew, "says the madman. He climbs the stairs 
to the old man's room to carry out his minutely rehearsed plan. The only 
melodic material which is repeated (and which comes from the main title) 
is used under the preliminary struggle, during which the murderer first 
becomes conscious of the powerful beat of the old man’s heart. In addi- 
tion to the music, an amplified recording of a human heartbeat is also used. 
Then,in exactly seven and two-thirds seconds the deed is done. (Example 4) 

Still according to plan, the murderer conceals the body under the floor- 
boards of the bedroom, replacing the planks lust as there is a knock at the 
door and the police arrive to investigate a reported scream. 

iflhile I was writing this score I was 
frequently reminded of a letter writ- 
ten several centuries ago by Pascal, 
which he finished off with this apol- 
ogy:"! have made this letter rather 
long only because I have not had time 
to make it shorter." Music for a sev- 
en-minute film sounds offhand like 
something anybody ought to be able to 
toss off on a dull weekend without 
much trouble. But when that seven- 
minute film contains all the drama- 
tic punch of a full-length thriller, 

I can testify that the click-track 
achieves a terrifying significance. 

Director, Ted Parmclec, Art,Faul 
Julian. Narration, James Mason. 
Music, Boris Kremenliev. 

"A scream? %■ own, gentlemen," he 
replies, explaining that he has had 
a nightmare. He then conducts them 
around the house, where they see 
nothing amiss. As the search pro- 
gresses, the music reflects the un- 
easiness of the murderer and gradua- 
lly hi 8 growing assurance that he 
has pulled it off. (Example 5) 

As the police are about to leave, he 
cannot resist a final ironic touch, 
and invites them to have tea with 
him in the very room where the body 
is hidden. A cup is accidentally 
overturned however, and hot water 
begins to drip rhythmically on the 
floor. The music picks up this 
rhythm and carries it into the heart- 
beat the murderer is convinced that 
he - - and the police as well- - 
must hear growing louder and louder, 
until he can stand it no longer and 
confesses. (Example 6) 


Quaintance Eaton 

Once upon a 'time, there was a music school in Europe, There was a young 
violinist and there was a young pianist. Both of them loved the same 
rich girl. From here on, there is hardly any resemblance between the 
lushly colored RHAPSODY and the novel from which it was adapted. 

Maurice Guest, by Henry Handel Richardson (a pseudonym for a very gifted 
lady writer in the early part of the century) is a monumental story, a 
searching, painful and often morbid probing into the innermost corners 
of the human heart. It is told from the point of view of Maurice Guest, 
young Australian pianist, whose love for the rich, arrogant and indubita- 
bly wanton Louise Durant ruins his career and poisons his life to the 
point of no return — suicide. The musical background of the novel is 
authentic, detailed, realistic. 

Now, RHAPSODY. It is a vehicle for Elizabeth Taylor, and if you like 
Elizabeth Taylor you are going to love the picture, for she is all 6ver 
it, frequently in closeups, with tears bedewing her long lashes. If vou 
do not like Elizabeth Taylor (and you can guess how this writer feels\ 
you will try to ignore her wilful, wayward, and often really senseless 
progress towards a happy ending, and you will try to concentrate on the 
two young men in the case and on the music they (purportedly) make." It 
is getting so that so much is "dubbed" in films nowadays that we may 
find one famous actor dubbing for another some day — heaven forbid! 

Needless to say, the music in all cases is dubbed, and to perform it, 
two artists from the concert world were chosen - one freshman and one 
veteran. Michael Rabin, still in his teens, plays the violin works that 
Vittorio Gassman is supposed to play. Claudio Arrau, distinguished 
pianist, plays the piano masterpieces that seem to come from the hands 
of John Erics on. 

If you can close your eyes a great deal of the time, you’ll probably 
enjoy this music. Although it is a pity that it was cut into bits and 
pieces. Still, for the purpose, they have done rather well with the 
cuts and segue-ing — a lovely term that dignifies the patchwork - of 
the two longer works, the Tchaikovsky Violin Concerto and the Rachmaninoff 
Second been used in films? Seven? ";Vhy not get another war-horse to whip? 
is my tired comment. 

Mr. Arrau's performance of the work isn't tired by any means — one of the 
most dazzling, in fact, that I have heard. Fart of the excitement comes, 
of course, from the fact that this is the turning point of the young player's 
career — when he plays through the ordeal of a trial performance after 
having slowly won himself back to competence. You see, he had married the 
girl, but knew she still loved the violinist, and so took to drink while 
the violinist took to the concert platform in a big way. 

As for the dubbing, for a layman it will appear perfect. To the musicians 
themselves it is something less than that ,1 hear. I thought the pianist 
was better than the violinist — it seems young Ericson really knows how 
to play and studied hard to play better. Gassman, too, took lessons, but 
the foundation is plainly not there. 

And as for the story that I've been hedging around, it simply cannot be 
taken seriously. The spoiled beauty's motives are never quite clear - 
she loves one, she loves 'tother -- and apparently she loves success 


tetter than anything. The wonder of it is that the pianist (here known 
as James Guest, by the way) still loves her after the brute trick she 
plays him. She tells him just before his crucial performance that she’s 
going away with the violinist even before he plays. Seems she thinks that 
•will buck him up to play better — put him on his own so to speak, not 
dependent on her any more. The plot justifies her by having him play very 
well in spite of seme tense moments when you aren’t sure the Marines are 
going to land or not. 

Her witty cynical father, (Louis Calhern) has tried to help her, but she has 
her own way to the last. So she keeps Guest. And apparently the violinist 
goes on, alone, to greater artistic triumphs. Oh well, he didn’t really 
care for her as much as his career anyway — he ran off and left her after 
his big concert perfprmance because he was bedazzled by the presence of a 
big concert manager, so she tried to commit suicide, but James saved her. 
See what I mean about the plot? 

Hollywood has invaded the music schools in Europe, too, you’ll not be sur- 
prised to hear. Zurich, maybe, was like this — a place of charm and Metro- 
gemtttlicheit, with students all dressed up and ready to play full symphony 
orchestra in the local beerstube when Paul wants some accompaniment. 

Michael Chekhov makes a pretty believable music professor, but one wishes 
his Slav accent hadn’t been attached to a name like Schumann. Richard 
Hageman plays an orchestra conductor very well — for that is what he is, 
oddly enough. But it’s hard to believe that James would stop a rehearsal 
to ask his wife to cone up said look up numbers in the score for him and not 
be called unprofessional, when Paul has been completely routed for unpro- 
fessionalism simply for throwing a fit of temperament. Ch well, never mind. 
Just listen to the nice clean playing of Messrs Rabin and Arrau on the 
sound track and look at the pretty colors of mountain resorts on the screen 
and try not to think of Henry Handel Richeo*dson. " Maurice Guest” which I 
had'nt read till after I saw the picture, is, as show business critics 
would put it, a "real great "book. It will live anyway. So will Chopin, 
Paganini, and the other greats whose music has been called upon. 

RHAPSODY., Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Elizabeth Taylor, Vittorio Gassman. 
Director, Charles Vidor. Musical said Orchestral Direction by Johniy Green. 
Musical adaptation by Bronislau Kaper. Technicolor. 


Elwyn Swartz 

Elwyn Swartz 

Hall M. Macklin, head of the Department of Music at the University of 
Idaho , in setting up the original plans for our new music building, 
included facilities for Audio-Visual Aids use. Music Education students 
have an extraordinary opportunity to enjoy and. use fine films, record- 
ings, and A-V aids in their study and training. 

One large long classroom in the building seats over 100 people, with the 
chairs on succeeding riser steps, Thie room has built-in pull shades 
with an automatic air-changer and conditioner. A 16mm projector and 
screen are on a roll-away projector stand, ready for instant use in this 
room or in the Music Education Workshop. The Workshop is a special room, 
devoted to the display on shelves, tables and in files of publishers' 
materials for all areas of music education in the public schools from 
pre-school through high school - - classroom, choral, instrumental. Cat- 
alogues are available listing films, filmstrips, recordings etc. for 
student and teacher use. In addition, an increasing library of music 
films, filmstrips, transcriptions, tapes, and recordings is available 
to all students. Equipment for Audio-Visual use includes j 

Projectors: 16mm - "Victor" - 35mm Delineascope (American Optical Co.) 

Transcription - Record Players, all speeds, "Newcomb" -Califone 
Recorders -Tape, "Eicor". (2 speakers) 

Our department receives much help and good service from the University Audio- 
Visual Aids Service Center, Allan Perry, Director. Use of equipment, film 
rentals, service source help are readily and cheerfully given by Mr. Perry. 

As editor of the Audio-Visual Aids column of "The Instrumentalist", a 
national magazine for school instrumental music teachers, I receive many 
films from the producers or distributors for review, preview and writeup. 
Films are shown every week. In renting films the Music Department and 
the Education Department share expense which allows twice the number of 
films for student viewing. These films are also shown to my music ex- 
tension classes (comprised of elementary classroom teachers taking a 
16 weeks, three hour night class for state and university credit. 

ly Music Education classes - both for music education majors and for ed- 
ucation majors — review films of a teaching use nature. Following a 
general plan of presenting films which aid the prospective and experienc- 
ed teacher in teaching the Listening, Singing, Creative, Rhythmic, and 
Instrumental areas of music participation and enjoyment. Films are 


selected as to their immediate and future use as teaching aids and helps. 

"FILM MUSIC"(Wotes ^ is used as the basic material for the evaluating and 
study of music used in commercial films. This is presented in a music 
education unit, "Music Education and the Theatre". In addition material 
from the magazine is used often as bulletin board material to explain, 
analyze, and study theatre music scores. 

D. Sterling Wheelwright 

The best seat at a concert is the one which a movie camera might use as 
a site of operation, and the best hearing is at the location of the micro- 
phone. Educational movies in post-war development, and the impact of 
eye-ear appeal of TV have come together, which makes an audience potential 
of the 40 million students in our schools and colleges. The teachers are 
pointed toward providing the finest possible experience within the class- 
room, and the new equipment of new school buildings keep pace with hi-fi- 
del ity LP recordings. Are the producers waiting for directions? Here is 
the opinion of one college instructor who has long wished for more films 
along these lines: 

1. Music analysis through eye and ear: same original compositions which 

trace polyphonic music through folk rounds, to canons, chaconnes arid 
fugues, using diagrams, colored lines along a score page, or other 
"bouncing ball" means. A little practice in repeated hearings of 
shorter works by this means would train the ear to find its own direc- 
tions in other music. The same device could be applied to problems 
of symphonic music, choral works, etc. Mr. Werner Jenssen and the 
Kerr music-graph have pioneered in one approach with Wagner’s MAGIC 
FIRE MUSIC, (to be reviewed in the Hay-June issue'. 

2 0 Better music scores for the "educational" films which now come our 
way: Venice, with all its visual arts - - and the music often in 

either a hackneyed version of Ethelbert Kevin's DAY IN VENICE or a 
third-rate score which fails the producer's intentions. 

A meeting of producers and music leaders, as at the Music Educators 
National Conference, or regional conferences where audio-visual commit- 
tees already gather could lead to productive efforts and ready consumers. 

* * * * * 

A series of films is being used as tour preparation for the Music 
Art Tour, which will again be led by Dr. Wheelwright, Associate Professor 
of Music and Humanities, State College, San Francisco, California. The 
music lovers, teachers and students of the Bay Area are meeting at the 
college to see such films as ARTISANS OF FLORENCE, EDINBURGH FESTIVAL, 
MAGIC FIRE MUSIC. Prior to the departure from New York, July 9th, other 
tour members from various parts of the country will meet at Hotel 
Roosevelt for similar preview. A syllabus and reading list is available 
to those enrolling for six units summer school credit, and Dr. Wheelwright 
will lecture to the party as their private motor coach is enroute to the 
me ^cr European festivals and art -centers, h^-s collection of several hun- 
dred slides and 400 feet of fimm film, taken last summer, to which music 
background is now being added by mrans of tape. 


Gerald Pratley 

The National Film Board of Canada will move to Montreal when its new five 
million dollar studios are completed. Now located in out-moded and 
cramped buildings in Ottawa, the move to Montreal has, aroused opposition 
in the capital city; it comes too late however, as the Government says 
that plans are too far advanced to be changed, Ottawa has traditionally 
been the 'city between’ the much larger English speaking Toronto and 
French-speaking Montreal since Queen Victoria designated it as a ’compro- 
mise’ choice of capital city. The Government feels that NFB will be bet- 
ter off in Montreal, which is a far more cosmopolitan and colorful city 
and has a large number of actors, artists, writers and musicians to draw 
on for work in films. At present, artists are brought from Montreal and 
Toronto at considerable expense. The Board's composers will then, at last, 
have a proper recording studio in which to work and a suitable housing 
for its mixing console which the NIB has purchased from the former Denham 
studios in UK, 

Also expanding is Crawley Studios, which however, are remaining in Ottawa, 
A $200,000 building program has commenced and this will provide new quar- 
ters for the art and animation denartment and the re-recording studios. 

The new section, being built on to the front of the old church in which 
the Crawley company has worked hard and prospered, will be completed in 
April . 

Louis Applebaum has written and directed three short musical films for 
Telepix Movies of Toronto for showing on television. Called MUSIC FROM 
THE STARS and made in association with Artists Management. Incorporated 
of New York, they feature John Knight, pianist, Eugene List, pianist and 
Carol Glenn, violinist; and a choral ensemble called "The Carollers." 

The National Film Board has in production two half-hour films which have 
been shot for wide-screen projection at a ratio of 1.66 - - The Board is 
also making one fifteen minute film each week specially for the CBC tel- 
evision service. Called ON THE SPOT, these are made by a unit of three 
men (Bernard Devlin, producer, Fred Davis, commentator, John Foster, 
cameraman) and their purpose is to bring various facets of the Canadian 
scene to television viewers. The films cover industrial topics, frontier 
life, unusual occupations, tourist attractions, social organizations, 
cultural developments and social problems. With special equipment and 
techniques, the unit moves quickly across Canada from city to community 
and makes, in three or four days, what the Board describes as "a dramatic, 
fair and accurate story on practically any chosen subject. 

The Canadian League of Composers has held two Film Nights during the past 
winter. These are screenings of films scored by Canadian composers, and 
shown to members of the League in order to let them hear what their col- 
leagues working in the film medium have £&$£[ writing. The films shown 
include Robert Fleming's SHADOW ON THE PRAIRIE; Louis Applebaum’s VARLEY; 
Eldon Rathburn’s TODAY IN SOUTH ASIA; Norman McLaren' s TWIRLIGIG; Eldon 
showing how he creates synthetic 'music", and Harry Somer's REHEARSAL, 
-this being a short picture showing the composer's FINALE from SUITE for 
HARP and CHAMBER ORCHESTRA in rehearsal. All films, with the exception 
of NOW MIGUEL ( made for the U.S. State Department) are NFB productions. 


The Canadian Film Awards will be held this year in Montreal's Kent Theatre 
on May 13th. Yousef Karsh, the photographer, will make the presentations, 
and James Mason and Tyrone Guthrie, who will be at this year's Stratford 
Shakespearian Festival, are expected to attend. No awards are given for 

Full credits for all scores composed by Canadian composers for Canadian 
films (features and short subjects) are included in the 1953-54 edition 
of the Year Book of the Canadian Motion Picture Industry, edited by Hye 
Bossin, editor of the trade paper, Canadian Film Weekly. Available from 
Film Publications of Canada Ltd. 175 Bloor Street, Fast, Toronto 5, Ontario. 

Speakers on the CBC's film programs, "The Movie Scene" and "Music from 
the Films" have included Dr. Miklos Rozsa, who discussed his score for 
JULIUS CAESAR; Greer Garson, who spoke about its production; Tommy 
Stobart and George More O'Ferrall, director, of THE HEART OF THE MATTER; 
Hugh Perceval, associate producer of THE MAN BETWEEN* Anthony Danborough, 
producer of PERSONAL AFFAIR and George Pal, producer of WAR OF THE WORLDS. 



The Film Library of the Museum of Modern Art has just completed an eight 
week documentary film cycle - The American Scene, 1945^1953. Teaching 
films, industrial films, films for the United States Information Service, 
films of American life and personalities were represented in the series. 
The work of a number of talented young film, composers were heard in the 
scores. Among them were Albert Hague (CONEY ISLAND), Ulysses Kav (TEE 
QUIET ONE),, Louis Applebaum (FEELING ALL RIGHT, and NOW - MIGUEL), and 

THE CONQUEST OF EVEREST won top honors in the Robert J. Flaherty awards 
for creative achievement in the documentary film. Thomas Stobart and 
George W, Lowe, recipients of the prize for 1953 were the photographers 
in this splendid record of the world's highest mountain. Soecial 
awards were made to Edward R. Murrow and Fred Friendly for ARGUMENT 
IN INDIANAPOLIS, and to George C. Stoney for ALL MY BABIES. The 
former film, ,the report of a community situation, appeared on a uro- 
gram of the CBS television show "See It Now". ALL NY BABIFS is a 
teaching film for midwives, used by the Georgia Public Health Depart- 
ment. The films were screened and the awards Presented at a joint 
Cinema 16 - City College of New York event. Honorable mention went 
to Joseph Krumgold for AND NOW - MIGUEL, and to Herman Van Der Horst 
for two Dutch films, EOUEN ZOJ and SHCCT THE NETS. The annual com- 
petition is sponsored by the Cith College Institute of Film and Tel- 
evision Techniques, Hans Richter, director. 


Johnny Green and the MGM Orchestra 

Metro and 20th Century-Fox are using concert music shorts in CinemaScope 
as overtures to some of their CinemaScope features. Metro's musical 
director, Johnny Green, has led his 95 piece symphony orchestra in 
Tchaikowsky's "Capriccio Italien", and in the "Overture to the Merry 
Wives of Windsor", which won an Oscar in the recent Academy Awards. The 
studio has also issued the "Poet and Peasant Overture", conducted by 
Alfred Wallenstein. Alfred Newman, musical director for Fox, and com- 
poser of scores for many of the company's major pictures, has been 
filmed conducting the 20th Century Fox symphony orchestra in the Finale 
from Tchaikowsky ' s "Symphony --^4", the Polovetzian Dances from "Prince 
Igor", Mr Newman's own "Street Scene", and Haydn's " Farewell Sympnony". 
The players «re in costume for the Haydn, adding to the effectiveness 
of a very attractive short. Mr. Newman won ^his year's award for a 
musical picture, CALL MS MADAM. 

The Film Council of America is holding the First Annual American Film 
Assembly in Arril in Chicago. "This ISmm industry-wide fathering", says 
the announcement, " is designed to bring together film program users 
from hundreds of national organizations and all levels of 16mm film 
■professionals". The main feature of the Assembly will be the Golden 
Reel Film Festival, the screening of nearly A D0 films, shown in 12 
broad subject categories, one film in each category to be given the 
Golden Reel aw-ard. The Film Council of America with the Roosevelt College 
Film Society are sponsoring a Film Society Caucus, another important 
feature of the Assembly which may join the various interested groups 
across the country in an integrated film society movement. Authorities 
participating in the caucus are Margareta Akermark, Museum of Modern 
Art Film Library, Andries Dienum, TJSC Department of Cinema, Cecile 
Starr, Saturday Review of Literature, and Amos Vogel, Cinema 16. 


Sigmund Spaeth 

MGM's RHAPSODY presents the best fictional treatment of musical charact- 
ers yet seen on the screen. It also reaches a new high in the recording 
and staging of great music, with Claudio Arrau and Michael Rabin doing the 
actual piano and violin playing. Herold Gelman and Morris Brenner deserve 
special credit for teaching John Ericson and Vittorio Gassman to act like 
the musicians they represent. 

The Oscar winning song, "Secret Love" suggests a possible background in 
the folk- tune "Careless Love", made famous by W. C. Handy, "Father of the 
Blues". Of the other candidates, "That's Amore" has the lilt of "Gielito 
Lindo", while "The Moon is Blue" echoes a phrase from Irving Berlin's 
"I've Got My Love to Keep Me Warm". 

S. Hurok plans to make a motion picture of Verdi's AIDA in Italy, using 
the Italian language. So far the movies have not discovered the secret 
of putting grand opera on the screen. Certainly it does not lie in 
photographing the originals as presented on the stage. 

The psychoanalytical picture THE LONELY NIGHT, has an interesting score 
composed and conducted by Mel Powell, with Benny Goodman's clarinet heard 
in the chamber ensemble that does the playing off screen. 

The producers of both NEW FACES and TOP BANANA have tried the experiment 
of taking these revues directly from the stage, in color, which certain- 
ly saves both time and expense. The public reaction is still to be de- 

Ann Ronell and Vic Mizzy enlivened the discussion of "What Music Means to 
the Movies" during the New York conference of the newly organized Feder- 
ation of Motion Picture Councils. The former spoke from a widely varied 
experience in creating and. arranging music for the screen, while the lat- 
ter concluded his practical talk by playing and singing his current hit, 
"The Jones Boy". At the same conference Paul Terry gave an interesting 
demonstration of the making of Terry toons. 

The powerful picture, EXECUTIVE SUITE, gets along without a note of music 
in the background. RHAPSODY, on the other hand, is practically a contin- 
tinuous concert of the highest quality. 

The horrifying PRISONER OF WAR gets its comic relief from a oarody of the 
old Irish folk-song, "The Son of a Gambolier", which serves also as a 
signal among the American soldiers in a north Korean camp. 

The music of the Italian VIVALDI provides a classic background to Anna 
Magnani's THE GOLDEN COACH, whose story is set in the time of the fa- 
mous composer. 

Disney's LIVING DESERT gains both realism and entertainment value from the 
accurate and vivid musical score of Paul Smith. 



I first learned of your publication, FILM MUSIC, through correspondence 
with David Raksin regarding THE BAD AND THE BEAUTIFUL, I wish to learn 
all I can about music in relation to films. FILM MUSIC is certainly unique 
in its approach to the field and I am most happy to interest my friends who 
are also interested in music in films. 

Teacher, Maine. 

I find FILM MUSIC particularly useful and interesting, I prepare weekly pro- 
grams devoted to all branches of the motion picture and your magazine will 
ccme in handy. These days far too little seems to be published about the 
all-important art of film background music. 

Program chairman. Radio station. New Zealand. 

Our educational institutions, along with the public at large, are so woefully 
lagging in their cognizance of music for the movies as an important ingredient 
of our cultural life. I am pleased to have an opportunity to make my contri- 
bution to the cause of the National Film Music Council, an organization of de- 
voted and unselfish enthusiasts. Dr. Frederic W. Sternf eld, Dartmouth College. 

I think that your magazine, FILM MUSIC, is doing a fine Job giving students, 
like myself, material which cannot be found in textbooks or ordinary musical 
reviews or periodicals in this very specific field which is film music. I 
cannot find a better way to prove my interest in your publication than by re- 
newing my subscription. Student, Montreal University. 

Your November-December, 1953, FILM MUSIC, let me tell you, was one of the 
greatest and most valuable you have ever put out. Alfred Newman has long 
been my favorite composer, and although I do not consider the score for THE 
ROBE his best, it is certainly one of his best, and deserves every bit of the 
acclaim it is getting. The article by Harold Brovm will long stand as a model 
for score analysis. Student, Northwestern University. 

I am preparing another program for our music club this winter on "Music in the 
Theatre" and will find FILM MUSIC particularly useful, I am interested in 
THE BEGGAR'S OPERA and hope FILM MUSIC has covered it. 

Program chairman. Music Club, Kentucky. 

I was especially interested in the September-October, 1953 edition as the 
picture JULIUS CAESAR is Just going to be shown in Germany. I read the copies 
of your FILM MUSIC publication with great interest, and as I am very keen on 
it I would like to order them for next year. Composer, Germany. 

I have recently secured the complete files of FILM MUSIC end am more t^an 
pleased. As a part-time college student and working for a Music Education 
degree - - my aim in life is to arrange and compose in the film music field, 
so your FILM MUSIC fills a great need. Student, Pennsylvania. 

We are working on a new course in music appreciation here in the Atlanta 
schools and we are seeking every aid to make the course valuable to high 
school students. FILM MUSIC is going to be Just such a classroom help as 
w © have most needed. Supervisor of Music, Georgia. 

I am most interested in your magazine, FILM MUSIC and Miss Merrill, librarian, 
tells me that it fills a real need in her work. We both extend our best 
wishes for continued success. Librarian, Washington. 

I was introduced to your publication, FILM MUSIC, through the public library 
and after receiving the first two issues, I am overjoyed with the articles, 
comments and excerpts of music scores in pictures. As I am an instructor of 
instrumental music, your magazine has been very helpful in my work. 

Teacher, Mich?.gan. 



• J o% 

^ 7 Wf 


MAY -JUNE 1954 



Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 
Butterfield 8-3288 




(with score excerpts) 










Tom Scott, Composer, Singer 
Jack Shaindlin, Free Lance Musical Director 
John Huntley, British Film Institute 
Howard Taubman, Critic, The New York Times 
G. Ray Haney, Composer 
George Vedegis, Composer 

D. Sterling Wheelwright, Music Dept., San Francisco State College 
James P. Dickson, Fine Arts Dept., The Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore 
James Limbacher, Indiana University 

Published by the National Film Council, 26 East 83rd St., New York 28. President, William Hamilton; Vice President and Editor, Marie 
L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues yearly with occasional bulletins. Two dollars and fifty cents a year. Single copies 
thirty-five cents. Back files (25 copies) five dollars plus postage. 

Tom Scott 

Jack Shaindlin 
John Huntley 
Howard Taubman 
G. R. Haney and George Vedegis 
G. R. Haney and George Vedegis 
D. Sterling Wheelwright 
James P. Dickson 
James Limbacher 



Tom Scott 

SUMMER SEQUENCE provided unique opportunities for a film score. Since it 
employed no dialogue and virtually no sound effects, the music was unimpeded 
and the unrealistic story allowed still more flexibility. The essential 
problem was to make the music truly relevant to the film. 

Joe Slevin, the writer and producer, based his film script on the old Scottish 
ballad "Binorie", which tells of two sisters in love with the same man. The 
older girl, realizing that the man prefers the younger, drowns her rival in 
the waters of Binorie. A wandering harper pulls the lifeless sister out of 
the water and makes a harp of her breast bone, stringing it with her golden 
hair. He takes the harp to the court of her father, the king, where it dev- 
elops a magical voice and sings the story of the older sister's cruelty. 

In developing his film, Slevin has evoked but not translated the original 
ballad. He has greatly enlarged its implications by transposing the two 
sisters into one girl and her alter ego. The result is richly poetic and 
leaves each viewer to abstract his own pattern of significance. As composer, 

I too had to discover its meaning for me and then to create a musically in- 
tegrated score which would intensify the film's emotional quality and clar- 
ify its dramatic outlines. 

I saw the story not as an outward drama but as an inner conflict - a sequence 
of events within the soul of a girl. The two girls, two conflicting aspects 
of one psyche, were actually one girl. The old man at the turning wheel 
who opens and closes the film was to me a symbbl of time and of the deep 
wellspring of energies which underlies the manifestations of life in all its 
forms. The youth is a personification of the masculine fate which the fem- 
inine must meet and deal with - either by acceptance, which leads possibly 
to tragic effects, or by withdrawal, which leads to death. When the story 
opens, the girl's spirit is protected from inner division by her innocence. 

A little boy has drawn a circle with his hobby horse in the sand around the 
girl. A youth erases the circle, awakens the girl and arouses her love. 

Her protection gone, there follows the fight to the death within her spirit. 


SUMMER SEQUENCE is scored for harp, violin and cello* It was recorded by 
Lou and Bebe Barron in their studio, Sound Portraits. The success of the 
score was immeasurably aided by their sensitive reproduction, and many mus- 
ical effects were enhanced by their skill with electronic tape techniques* 

The entire score is derived from the melody of the Binorie ballad. 

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From this melody I derived a motif for each of the characters, 
old man and the turning wheel it is four notes of the ballad, 
rating this, I attempted to 
capture something of the dream- 
like, sur-real atmosphere which 
I feel is the essential quality 
of the film. It was my wish 
that the music should immediate- 
ly orient the mind to a world 
of fantasy where communication 
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The child' 8 motif is based on two of the notes from the old man's theme, 
lightly scored in a playful, scherzando manner. Later, as the child draws 
the magic circle and runs away on his hobby horse to awaken the sleeping 
youth, his motif is stated by the violin over the Binorie theme in the 
cello, with a galloping horse rhythm in the harp. 

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As the youth awakens, a variation of the fate(old man) motif is heard 

In creating the motif for the youth, I wished to express his quality as per- 
sonification of masculine potential. His motif is first stated by the violin 
and cello as he walks down to the sleeping girl. It is strong but lyrical and 
is derived from an inversion or "mirroring "of the ballad melody. 

The motif for the positive or "good" side 
of the girl is tender, lyrical and femin- 
ine, and is based principally on two notes 
of the ballad with extensions. It is first 
heard as the youth bends over the sleeping 
girl, and the ensuing music for this scene 
is a dialogue between violin and cello 
with the violin tenderly carrying the girl's 
theme and the cello the boy' s. 

Recording session for SUMMER SEQUENCE at Sound Portraits Studios: 
Tom Scott, conductor, Janet Putnam, harp, Isadore Gusikoff, cello, 

Harold Kohon, violin. 

The instruments come together in a unison as the lovers' hands touch and 
intensify to a rhapsodic statement of the ballad theme in the cello with 
the girl' s motif in counterpoint above, as the lovers walk through the 
forest. The climax of this scene is a kiss which is held for eight seconds. 

As the lovers lips meet, violin and cello again come into a unison which 
is sustained crescendo throughout the kiss and intensified by harp arpeggios, 
the music breaking off sharply as the little boy interrupts the kiss. A 
fragment of the little boy's theme covers his exit and is followed by a dreamy 
dialogue between violin and cello with atmospheric harp effects, as the girl 
wanders about the forest seeking her lover. 

The motif of the dark or "bad" side of the girl is a twelve-tone row which 
follows the melodic contour and rhythm of the ballad melody. The ensuing scenes 

in which the dark girl stalks and destroys her other self and drags the body 
to the beach is written in twelve-tone technique. 

Although my purpose was to create music to fit the picture and to supply 
its missing dimension, I discovered after recording the score that it was 
actually a free use of the theme and variations form. Therefore I adapted 
the score for solo violin, cello and harp with string orchestra, and it 
has had several successful concert performances under the title "Binorie 
Variations". These are variations, not only in terms of the usual tonal 
manipulations, but also in the use of musical idioms. There are four 
distinct styles employed in the score - modal, atonal, diatonip, and 

SLIMMER SEQUENCE • . Written, produced and 
directed by Joe Slevin. 16 mm, b and w; 
rental and purchase. Joe Slevin Product- 
ions, 550 West 101 St., New York City. 

Binorie Variations .. Tom Scott. Score 
and parts available at E.H. Morris Pub- 
lishing Co., New York City. 

* ' * * * * 

Tom Scott, born in Kentucky in 1912, now 
live 8 in New York City. He is well known 
for his research in American folk music 
and has sung ballads internationally. He 
has written for the symphonic repertoire, 
stage, films and ballet. 

Jack Shaindlin 

Examining in retrospect my 28 years of making music for motion pictures, 
starting at 16 with a piano solo job at a J00 seater, makes me wonder 
whether any progress has been achieved in motion picture music. Certainly 
the writing techniques, photography, scenic designs and even the art of 
film make-up have matured and prospered within the very medium that created 
them. However I cannot help but feel that progress made in film music has 
been quantitative rather than qualitative. Today, orchestras of large pro- 
portions are utilized for the creation of sound tracks; composers well known 
in the concert field are employed at a healthy stipend per film, and the very 
best recording equipment to reproduce the music is a prime requisite in every 

major studio. Unfortunately, for the most part, the result is still "concert" 

music, adapted in synchronization to screen action. 

Birds in flight are still accompanied by a flute, or flutes (depending on the 

budget); pastoral scenes are welcomed with open lips by the oboists; trombone 

players await eagerly the appearance of crocodiles and rhinoceros on the screen. 
Back in 1925 as I sat at the piano in a damp pit improvising to a point of ex- 
haustion, the films were accorded just about the same treatment. Perhaps the 
women do not nurse their babies in the front row today, as they did in those 
days, and popcorn, which later went on to make the movies so famous, was not 
consumed at such a tremendous rate. In those days my attempts to add another 
dimension to the screen action by playing "against" the picture (e.g. , play- 
ing a dramatic motif as the hero marches off to war, instead of banging out 
a snappy march) were met with great hostility by the manager, who insisted 
that I wilfully ignored the film and was paying more attention to the young 
ladies seated in close proximity to the piano. 

Today, even in its present relatively advanced stage, the art of film music 
cannot stand on its own two feet. The average motion picture producer will 
contact his favorite composer as his film nears completion and order a 
"Music score". Several weeks later a recital is held, very often in the 
living room of the producer's home. The composer at the piano - producer 
and his family - sometimes the picture's director - and a few favorite assis- 
tants comprise the listening audience. The producer is apprehensive at the 
composer's statement that a prolonged tympani roll is the first sound heard. 

His tension grows as the composer's left hand starts a rumble on the port 
side of the Steinway, imitating the kettle drum. 

"I don't know about that", he ventures, half turning to the director. "People 
like melody." "I like it", says the director. However, the tension eases as 
a series of "brass" swells culminate in a crashing chord, which just happens 
to hit as the producer's name zooms into view. As the concert progresses, 
usual comments are - "I like the first part, it's sweet." "The montage music 
makes me nervous." This needs a strong lyric and it'll land on the hit parade. 1 ? 

The film is almost forgotten and the score is judged solely as music. 

Often this is a fault of the composer, who is reluctant in giving up musical 
concepts of the concert form, and will not try to develop a composing technique 
growing out of the medium itself. The accepted practise is to "follow the action." 
That is, play sad music for sad scenes, happy music for happy scenes, etc. This is 
merely repeating the action or the dialogue on the screen and certainly not doing 


anything for the film. Surely a string note held for 10 seconds while the hero 
writhes in agony on the screen is more effective than the usual 4 cellos moaning 
a mournful tune? One cannot call the sustained 10 second note "music", and it 
would be of no value in concert, but it is merely sound - which in this case fills 
the bill admirably. 

The practise of engaging an orchestra that invariably consists of strings, wood 
winds, brasses, percussion, etc., is also a habit of stubbornly maintaining the 
traditions and concepts of concert music, or music designed for listening only* 
Bearing out my statement is the fact that top composers, such as Aaron Copland, 
Miklos Rosza, Shostakovitch and others, often adapt their film compositions for 
concert performances. How music created to complement dramatic action on the 
screen can be wholly satisfying when performed in concert is a mystery to me. 
Surely even a well written commentary for a sports film would make dull listen- 
ing if recited without the help of the visual. 

There are, however, film composers today who realize that the picture musician's 
work begins, not ends, with the sound track. Even a cursory study of sound on 
film reveals how much new sound material, and sounds otherwise not obtainable 
by ordinary orchestration, can be made. The following indicates just a few of 
the possibilities: A. Sound track played at a speed different from that at which 
originally recorded. B. Playing the sound track backwards. When this is done, 
sounds that flprmally rise in pitch now fall in pitch, creating an entirely diff- 
erent effect. 0. Creation of sounds and music without the aid of performers or 
instruments. This is done by drawing patterns on the sound track by hand, open- 
ing a completely new field of synthetic sound. Thus, rhythmic patterns of great 
complexity are made possible, that otherwise could not be recorded by "live" 
musicians. Norman McLaren of Canada pioneered in this work, producing startling 
results. These few examples indicate almost endless possibilities. 

There are composers working in the film today such as Bernard Herrmann, Louis 
Apple baum and others, who are taking advantage of the technical growth of sound 
and are trying to enlarge the scope of their thinking, seeking new tools with 
which to work. 


Mr Shaindlin is musical director for the second Cinerama feature - CINERAMA 
HOLIDAY - being produced here and abroad by Louis de Rochemont. It will be review- 
ed in our September issue. Morton Gould is writing the score, from which the 
theme below is taken. 

John Huntley 

The British Film Institute was founded in 1935, as the result of a report 
of a Commission set to study "The Film in National Life" in Great Britain. 
It is an independent body, partly financed by a scheme of individual mem- 
bership and partly by an annual grant from the British Government Treasury. 

At the present time, it offers the following servioes to its members: 

(1) One of the largest libraries of film books in' the world; 

(2) A Stills Library of about 70,000 stills; 

(3) A series of regular publications, including a well-known quarterly 
"Sight and Sound", "Critter's Choice", a collated assessment of 
current films by a panel of newspaper critics, and a Monthly Film 
Bulletin", which reviews all the feature; entertainment films re- 
leased in Britain every month, as well as a selection of shorts; 

(4) A large central Information Centre, where all kinds of film queries 
are answered by letter or telephone; 

(5) A Film Hire Library (35mm. and 16mm.) of about 460 films including 
250 films on the Art History of the Cinema, 50 films on the 
Arts (including Music), 125 specialised Scientific films, as well 
as a small collection of films made by Amateurs; 

Since 1952, the National Film Theatre, opened on the South Bank Site, 
where the Festival of Britain, 1951 took place. This is a 400-seater 
modern theatre, with 35 mm and 16 mm projection, 3-D and projection 
television equipment. 

Music forms an important part of the work of the Institute. The library 
includes a large collection of praetioally every book published on musie 
and film, including rare, early pamphlets and manuscripts on the use of 
music in the silent days. A collection of rare sound-on-disc musical 
films are also stored, for one of the most important sections of the In- 
stitute's work is the National Film Library, a massive archive of impor- 
tant works in the history of the cinema which are in permanent preserv- 
ation in- special vaults out in the country at Aston Clinton, Bucking- 

Publications oontain regular references to film musie, with a column on 
"The Sound Track" in each issue. The latest edition of "Sight and Sound" 
carried a Quiz, and readers of "Film Musie" might like to check their 
own memories against the Film Institute's readers :- 

Question No. 6. Music Department 

Do you know (a) What was the origin of the main theme used as incidental 
music for "Frenchman's Creek"? (b) What was the title and who was the 
composer of the main theme in "City Lights"? (c) What was the well- 
known tune used in "Pandora and the Flying Dutchman"? (d) What was the 
work played by Myra Hess in Humphrey Jenning's film, "Listen to Britain"? 

(e) What was the overture conducted by Cary Grant in "People will Talk"? 

(f) Which opera provided seme of the background music for "L'Age D'Or 
by Salvador Dali? (g) Name three films which have featured the 
Tehaikowsky Piano Concerto No. 1 ? 


The National Film Theatre has presented a large number of silent films 
sines it opened in 1962 and this has meant that the old technique of 
piano accompaniments has had to be revived. The man responsible in 
London is Arthur Dulay, himself an old silent film accompanist, who now 
has his own orchestra, broadcasting regularly on the B.B.C. services. 

His first major work was to provide piano music for two of Buster Keaton’s 
best silent comedies - "The Navigator" and "The General". Both involved 
a high degree o£ synchronisation, especially the elaborate train effects 
of "The General , a story about an old locomotive in the Civil War. For 
a programme on "Old-Time Cinema", Arthur Dulay had an unusual problem. The 
feature film, an old 1916-melodrama entitled "The Road to Ruin", showed on 
the screen a blurred manuscript of a song that was suggested regularly in 
the course of this silent picture. By getting a "still" frame enlarged 
Arthur was able to get the exaot scoring of the song, which he played most 
effectively whenever the action on the screen called for it; the song, by 
the way, was entitled "Don't Forget Your Mother", a very sentimental ballad 

The programmes at the theatre include various seasons on special topics, in 
addition to a coverage of the History of the Cinema. For example, there is 
shortly to be a group of programmes on Ballet and the Cinema ; films to be 
shown include the famous shots of Anna Pavlova, filmed in 1924. Two of her 
old musie directors have recently been resolving the problem of fitting 
music to a silent dance film; muoh research had to be done, in order te dis- 
cover the exact scoring of the dances she appears in and seme members of he: 
original oompany have been helping with this work. 

Another projected series deals with the American Musical tradition. Already 
sequences from "On the Town", "gingin'in the Rain" and "An American in Parii 
have been shown; plans are afoot te cover seme of the famous musicals of th< 
past, including "Top Hat", "Broadway Melody" and "Congress Dances", 

The British Film Institute has, in recent years, been responsible for varioi 
types of specialised film production. Recently, Alan Rawsthorne has comple J 
his soore for a film on the drawings of Leonardo Da Vinci; a group of stud* 
from Cambridge University have been preparing a "musical with a difference" 
to be filmed in and around the campus; yet another team have been working a J 
folk music material with Alan Lcmax. 

Although devoted to the general principles of good cinema, the British Film 
Institute has been especially interested in experiment and the cultural pesi 
bilities of specialised productions; musie has naturally played its full pa: 
in these plans and the Institute extends' a hearty we leans to all Interested 
in film music who may be visiting London. The address is* 164, Shaftesbury 
Avenue, London, W.C.2. 

Answers to Quiz: 

(a) Clair de Lune, by Debussy. (b)La Violetera, by Padilla, 
(c) Espani Canl. by Marquina. (d) Mozart Concerto (K 453) 
in G Major, (e) Brahm*s Academic Overture, (f) Tristan and 
Isolde, (g) seven films 

The Common Touch, Song of Russia, The Great Lie, Anchors 
Aweigh, C.E.M.A. and at least two biographies, one American 
and one Russian. 

Howard Taubman 

The complaint of the performing musician that the recordings he makes are 
used to deprive him of employment in radio and television is both familiar 
and justified. There is another victim scarcely ever mentioned - the com- 
poser. Whether he gets paid or not depends presumably on his ASCAP affil- 
iation and rating, but one thing is certain - he gets no credit and is per- 
formed piecemeal. 

It is remarkable how much contemporary music is used as background material 
on the air-waves. A spot check of some representative programs produced 
some startling results. Let us take some examples. 

On "The Big Show", broadcast over N.B.C., there were bits and pieces from 
the following compositions in the course of one month: Strauss' "Heldenleben", 
Prokofieff's Fifth Symphony, Honegger's Fifth Symphony, Vaughan Williams' 
"London" Symphony, D' Indy's Second Symphony, Rubbra's Fifth Symphony, Schoen- 
berg's "Verklaerte Nacht", MacDowell's "Indian Suite", Debussy's "Nuages", 
Stravinsky's "Le Sacre du Printemps", Shostakovich' s Sixth Symphony, Ravel's 
"Rapsodie Espagnole", Holst's "Planet*", Bernstein' s" Jeremiah" Symphony, 
Hindemith's "Mathis der Maler", Prokofieff' s "Scythian " Suite, Stravinsky's 
"Orpheus", Mahler's Ninth Symphony, Walton's 1954 Symphony, Chavez' "Sinfonia 
di Antigona" and Revueltas* "Sensemaya". 

On "Studio One", broadcast over C.B.S., there were excerpts from the follow- 
ing scores during the same month: Prokofieff 1 s "Cinderella" and "Romeo and 
Juliet", Ooleridge-Taylor' s Petite Suite de Concert, Kabalevsky's "The Comed- 
ians", Thomson's "The Plow That Broke the Plains", Charpentier* s "Impressions 
d'ltalie", Sinigaglia' s "Danza Piemontese", Respighi's "Pines of Rome" and 
"Feste Romane", Saint-Saens' "Carnival of Animals", Berlioz' "Roman Carnival 
Overture", Bart ok ' s Concerto for Orchestra and Poulenc's "Lee Biches". 

On the Philco Television Playhouse, broadcast over N.B.C., background music 
was drawn from the following pieces: Vaughan Williams' "Scott of the Antarctic", 
Goeb' s Third Symphony, Bartok' s Divertimento for Strings, Hanson's Third 
Symphony, Franck's "Chasseur Maudit", Prokofieff's Fifth Symphony, Strauss' 
"Zarathustra", Britten's Four Sea Interludes, Barber' s First Symphony, Chauson' s 
Symphony and Schumann' s Third Symphony. 

On the Medallion Theatre, broadcast over C.B.S., background music was drawn 
from these pieces: Hindemith's Concert Music for Strings and Brass, Gould's 

"Fall River Legend", Krenek's Symphonic Elegy, Villa-Lobos' "Erosion", Dello 
Joio's Serenade, Turina's "Danzas Fantasticas", Hindemith's "Philharmonic 
Concerto", Franck's Symphony, Hartmann's Fourth Symphony, Barber's First and 
Second Symphonies, Bartok' s Divertimento and "Miraculous Mandarin" and Pro- 
kofieff's Sixth Symphony. 

Had enough? These, of course, are not the only programs that employ back- 
ground music. Quite a few have taken a fragment from some well-established 
and use it as a regular theme. Perhaps the best-known example is Rossini's 
"William Tell" Overture on "The Lone Ranger". 


Needless to Bay, the music functions as a useful, often powerful, aid, par- 
ticularly on the dramatic programs. Perhaps it is comforting to the compos- 
ers, many of whom cited above are very much alive, to know that their works 
have such value. The chances are, however, that if they were consulted most 
of them would not be too happy to sanction performance of shreds and patches 
of their scores. Perhaps they would resist even if they received credit 
with all the other contributors to a show. 

There is no intention to censure the programs mentioned in this spot check. 
Obviously they are within their legal rights to make such use of recordings 
as they choose. But the practice as a whole involves issues worth reflection. 

Many of the big shows that employ recordings on the air are put together at 
great expense. A few hire live musicians, and some even commission composers 
to write fresh scores. But those which take the easy and cheap way out with 
recordings might well re-examine their procedures. Why should the performer 
and composer be made to contribute because they happen to have had their 
work recorded principally for private use? 

The problem as far as the performer is concerned has troubled the musicians' 
union, and recently there was a sharp difference of opinion on this question 
between the international leadership and Local 802 of New York. For the 
time being the broadcasters can use records, but it is hard to believe that 
this custom will remain tolerable if employment opportunities for musicians 
keep on declining. 

Courtesy of The New York Times. 

G. R. Haney and George Vedegis 

Today' s outstanding concert artists 
are being presented on the screen 
by Rudolph Polk in his World Artists 
Production, CONCERTS ON FILM. 

Jascha Heifetz, Artur Rubenstein, 
Marion Anderson, Andres Segovia, 
Gregor Piatigorsky are among the 
musicians heard in the eleven films 
that make up the series. 

Jascha Heifetz and Artur Rubinstein, 
featured in an assemblage of four of 
these films released as OF MEN AND 
MUSIC (reviewed in FILM MUSIC, Jan. 
1951) have each made a second film 
for the series. The new Heifetz 
picture differs considerably from 
the first, which showed the music- 
ian' s practise habits, his prepar- 
ation for a concert and a part of 
the program. The distinguished 

Amdres Segovia 

violinist no* plays informally for a scattered group of young students at 
Pomona College. His impromptu program includes "Sonatensatz " and "Hungarian 
Dance #7" by Brahns, "Melodie" by Gluck, and a Wieniawsky polonaise. Close- 
ups furnish excellent lessons in the dazzling Heifetz bowing and fingering 
techniques. The artist's presence is admirable, with a poise worthy of his 

Mr Rubinstein choses his own drawing-room for a setting, as he did in his 
earlier film. Here the recital is all Chopin. The pianist comments between 
numbers to a group of guests, whose automaton-like poses and responses 
show up in high contrast to the animation of their dynamic host. The 
Chopin Prelude F# Minor, Mazurka C# Minor, Scherzo C# Minor, Nocturne 
F$ Minor and Polonaise in A flat are played superbly. More close-ups of 
Mr Rubinstein's hands would have been welcome. The recording of the piano 
comes through unparalleled in beauty and tone. 

Rudolph Polk exhibits the virtuosity and musicianship of great artists 
through a medium that permits a detailed examination of their art, and 
brings it to thousands who would otherwise be denied this cultural 
privilege. Mr Polk is indeed to be commended for this exceptional 
series. The films should be included in the fine arts presentations of 
colleges and universities everywhere. G.R.H. 

As his part in the World Artists series, Andres Segovia, at home in his 
Paris studio, talks about the guitar and plays several numbers that show 
its possibilities. Segovia spent his childhood in Granada, where the guitar 
is an element in the daily life of the people. His mastery of the instrument 
has brought about new attitudes towards its performance. Cyril Scott, Manuel 
de Falla, Villa-Lobos, and Castelnuovo-Tedesco are among the composers who 
have dedicated works to Segovia in the creation of a modern repertoire for 
the guitar. In his film appearance here the artist plays a Bach Prelude; 

"theme and Variations" by Fernando Sor; "Sonatina" by Torroba, and a traditional 
Spanish song. The film is a rare treat. The excellent close-ups give a chance 
to see the left hand technique on the fingerboard and the use of the right 
hand. The microphone placement is exceptionally good. Recording is of unusual- 
ly high quality, producing a sound of the guitar that no concert hall can give. 


Concerts on Film •• World Artists, Inc. 16 pn, b and w. Margaret Williams, 
Hurok Attractions, Inc. 711 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 


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D. Sterling Wheelwright 

Three types of musical 16tam films appear to win acceptance these 
Says in public schools and colleges; they seek to interpret music 
to the general student through (l) concert-on-film, performers in 
action, etc,, (2) historical settings, or composers * lives, ( 3 Ana- 
lyses of structure and musical form. 

Two of these classifications were well illustrated at the Music Edu- 
cators National Conference, which attracted over 5,^00 teachers and 
supervisors, and possibly 8,000 participating students , to the 
Conrad Hilton Hotel in Chioago, the last week in March, The usual 
three-ring circus of performances, forums, and talks was augmented 
by a superior commercial exhibit. "Music Fair" of the entire music 
industry, and to our satisfaction, by a consistently operated "audio- 
visual education workshop center," A comfortable large room, with 
exhibits of special materials, and adjacent sound and screening 
rooms, was the scene of several panel discussions, employing both 
educators and producers. Music Educators National Conference chair- 
man of audio-visual adds was Rose Marie Grentrer, Professor of Music 
Education, Oberlin (Ohio) Conservatory, aided by regional leaders, 
including Dorothy Jean Short and William Hartshorn of Los Angeles 

Class 1 films was illustrated by a screening of "THE VIOLIN --JASCHA 
HEIFETZ", one of a series of superbly recorded 30 minute presenta- 
tions of a major artist, his personality and background. These are 
produced by World Artists, under the direction of Rudolph Poik, whose 
interest in music education films merits listing of his address here; 
9608 Heather Road, Beverly Hills, California. 

Our seeond classification, historical films, brought preview showings 
of three new Coronet classroom films of about 16 minute length, pro- 
duced here and abroad, on the men and musio associated with Beethoven, 
Schubert, Mot art. 

While films of class 3( analytical) were not in evidence, Werner Janssen 
and his symphony orchestra of Beverly Hills, have experimented with 
notable results. MAGIC FIRE MUSIC is a visualisation by means of the 
Kerr Musigraph of the motifs in the finale to Wagner's WALKURE. Aided 
by an intelligent commentary from Alfred Frankinstein, music critic of 
the San Francisco Chronicle, the viewer can identify the principle 
themes by their color, and then by means of a "profile"melody score, 
which involves no music-reading, he can follow the progress of the 10 
minute movement from beginning to end as the orchestra plays it. This 
film is on the market, and has been used repeatedly in seme music 
appreciation classes. The experiment is so successful that the produe* 
ers should be encouraged by more purchases from audio-visual aids de- 
partments. One group of music educators offered the suggestion that 
a teacher's manual would expedite its use. 

James P. Dickson 

The music department of an institution like the Enoch Pratt Free Library- 
in Baltimore seldom serves professional composers of film music and only 
infrequently assists conservatory students, investigating a possible 
career, or amateur film producers seeking background music ready-made 
for one-reelers. 

Its principal concern relates to the arts as laymen see or hear them. 

In the film music field the problem day in and day out is that of ident- 
ification, which seems constantly to disturb the memory of the average 
movie-goer. On the telephone or across the desk librarians are asked to 
resolve dinner table disagreements, strengthen vague recollections of the 
distant past, and 'abet the uncertain pursuit of aesthetic pleasure, dis- 
tinguished for the first time before the neighborhood's new wide vision 

What was sung or played in a certain film? 

In what film was a particular composition performed? 

Who played or sang in either of these cases? 

Are scores or records of these works available? 

These are a few of the many queries continuously received. Jack Burton' s 
"Blue Book of Hollywood Musicals" has recently appeared to assist with the 
answers. Also helpful are "The Variety Music Cavalcade" and Sigmund Spaeth's 
"History of Popular Music". 

But for years the catalogue of the Pratt's collection of popular sheet music, 
dating back to the mid-nineteenth century, has included entries for musical 
films and theatrical productions. In addition, staff members expand the file 
of "Tune-dex", those useful three-by-five cards giving the essential facts 
about popular songs with their choruses by typing up on colored stock entries 
for the sources whenever they are known. 

Contemporary reviews of motion pictures, indexed in "Readers' Guide" since 1929, 
sometimes mention outstanding musical works and always the performers in a 
film. If we know the performer and the song but not the film, we consult the 
"International Motion Picture Almanac" which lists each star's appearance and 
gives us opportunity for making a shrewd guess at the most likely combination 
of song title and film title. 

The Library has three subscriptions to FILM MUSIC. One is bound, while the 
other two are clipped for the music section's vertical file, where even the 
smallest sliver of information is often invaluable. 

As for the availability of scores and records - if the library does not have 
them in its catalogue - that can only be determined by searching publishers' 
and manufacturers' lists. The monotony and slowness of this work is implied 
by the frequency with which music shops turn ever to the Pratt their prospect- 
ive customers who lack the information necessary for placing an order. "Long 
Player", a monthly record list, does note discs made from sound tracks which 
are currently available. 


James Limbacher 

People are always asking me, "How can you truthfully say you enjoy 
motion pictures when you’re always breaking them down into their 
smallest parts?" Ify answer is always the same. I liked movies very 
much before I knew what made them "tick", but I enjoy them twice as 
muoh mow that I can share the triumphs of a group of ere at ire film 
artists. The composer of a film score is one of the artistie "team" 
which can make or break a film. As I look back, I hare always shared 
the Joys of the film musie eanposer, even the anonymous fellow who 
composed the "bloop-de-bloop" which made me laugh in anticipation of 
Laurel and Hardy's appear anoe on the soreen. 

But it was when I first saw FILM MUSIC magazine that I realised that 
others also were interested in the film score as a medium of artistic 
expression. I was bound and determined to help others get the same 
Joy from this integral part of almost every film. My reward has been 
the comments of the people who have sat through my film lectures, 
attended my Cinema Club series at Bowling Green State University in 
Ohio and heard my film musio radio programs. Row they share my enjoy- 
ment and take great pride in letting me know it by making intelligent 
comments on the soere of a film they have Just seen. 

When I went to Indiana University, I was surprised that so many stud- 
ents and faculty attending the previews of new educational motion 
pictures made contents on the musical scores. They recognized a good 
score and were not afraid to protest about a bad one. When a film 
on schools featured "Nutcracker Suite" and "Eine Kleine Nachtauaik" 
for its score, the comments flew thick and fast. Film audienoes do 
not want "canned" music anymore for background music. They want a 
soore which is created expressly for the film. A creative film score 
played on a harmonica is now preferred to the unsyohronized music of 
the masters played by a 100-pieoe symphony orchestra. 

I like film music because it is a creative art. But like all oreative 
arts, it takes time for the public to accept it. Acceptance comes 
with awareness and through FILM MUSIC, alert musie teachers in schools, 
film societies, music study groups and intelligent and discriminating 
moviegoers, we are slowly becoming aware of the value of good film 


Marilla Waite Freeman of the American Library Association writes us s 

In this hospital for cheBt diseases, to which I come twice a week as 
librarian, there are always at least two or three young musicians intent 
upon using their time of enforced rest for composing musical scores. 

For the, as for many music and film lovers among the patients, the pages 
of FILM MUSIC are an inspiration and a delight. The use of the woodwinds, 
the celli and the violins, and of the bugle in "From Here to Eternity" 
have been of special interest to some of them, and your March-April issue 
has been keenly enjoyed. The patients see one motion picture here at 
the hospital each week, and FILM MUSIC helps them to appreciate the music 
they are hearing. We are indeed grateful for this uniquely valuable 






Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 28 
Butterfield 8-3288 



ON THE WATERFRONT (with score excerpts) William Hamilton 

THE STRATFORD ADVENTURE (with score excerpts) Gerald Pratley 


BRIGADOON Alfred E. Simon 


Mary Powell 


Sigmund Spaeth 



Published by the National Film Music Council, 26 Hast 83rd St., New York City 28. President, William Hamilton; Vice- 
President and Editor, Marie L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues each year with occasional bulletins. Two 
dollars and fifty cents. Back files (25 copies) six dollars plus postage. 



William Hamilton 

In spite of all the fabled terrors of film-score com- 
position, Leonard Bernstein’s first try at it has succeeded 
with the eclat so characteristic of him. As a composer of 
concert and stage music — accustomed to being in con- 
trol of the proceedings at all times — he planned his 
WATERFRONT score with a boldness which in the 
movies could lead to disaster. There are indeed some 
loose ends — material planted but never dug, passages 
with intended allusions to others which are never heard, 
tutti dozens of decibels below the dialog. But these flaws 
are more disturbing on paper than in screening, where 
the sweep of the production prevents our lingering over 

Here are the chief themes in order of their appearance. 



The first is a sober, somewhat neutral pronouncement 
given initially in simple 2-part canon under the Main 
Title, and again, (more elaborately) only at the end of 
the picture where Terry, redeemed, seeks to resume his 
career as a longshoreman. The impression that Example 
1 is the theme of the whole story is made stronger by the 
syntax of its presentations. After the main title it is 
tagged with a fading, rising, questioning figure which 
invites the listener to consider the oncoming problem. 

It is in the nature of things for the final statement to 
sound final, but ON THE WATERFRONT requires a 
finality that does not say that everything is going to be 
just dandy. Hence, instead of the conventional, trium- 
phant cadence over a major-triad-cum-added-sixth, the 
march of Example 1 is interrupted by the discordant 
snaps (minor ninth to major seventh) in measures 30, 
31, and 32 of Cue 11 D. 

Ex. 2 

11 'HH m n rn nr 

■rj* t a 1 4-*t- i i - ii T rm 

ss LiJUiUJi "T uiuj 7 if "a t f — r 

“1 & 1 * 1 *\ T Z? 1 11 T • 

1 0 

The score’s most daring conception is summarized in 
Example 2. This is a three-voice fugato for percussion 
(timpani, timpani, and side drums without snares). It 
is worked together with Example 3 into an overpowering 
movement of nearly two minutes’ length. In the plan- 
ning, this same movement was to announce each of the 
three murders in the story in the candid fashion of a 
Greek chorus. The design was marred, however, in the 
instance of Kayo Dugan’s killing — by the fact that the 
scene in question was shot on location during a genuine 
unloading, and the sound-track was already too full of 
dialog and ambient noise to accommodate any music at 
all. Consequently, the ensuing dead march for Kayo (Cue 
6 B) loses much of its point as a recast — in different 
texture and much slower speed — of the dramatic sub- 
ject of Example 2. The 'murder movement' does recur 
for the discovery of the third corpse, and again it fits 
perfectly the events which it accompanies. However, the 
sense of repercussion which it was originally intended 
to impart is no longer evident. 

Example 3 (or fragments of it) appears to be the 
most pervasive element in the entire score. In its original 
quick tempo, the snap rhythm is the obvious source of 
the punctuations already referred to in Cue 1 1 D. It is 
as easily recognized in a dozen other places. However, it 
occurs, too, in other tempos and textures and even in 
altered rhythms. A very great contrast in treatment 
appears between the harshness of Example 3 as it is 
heard in the 'murder movement’ and the charming set- 
ting for flute, harp, oboe, and pigeons which follows it. 
(Cue 2 A) Again, in the attack on the dissidents in the 
church basement, the four-note motto from this theme 
assumes several guises: first, as the soprano ’part’ of a 


series of irregularly spaced staccato clusters, and then in 
the original snap rhythm with slightly more civilized 
harmony. Finally, there is a much simpler version in 
evenly-moving half-notes. 

A different sort of application — using the whole 
theme — occurs in "Blue Goon Blues”. Here Example 
3 is divided in the middle with the second half placed 
first. The whole then becomes the subject of a set piece. 
This "Blues”, perhaps a little too sophisticated to be 
mis-en-scene, is heard toward the end of the saloon 
sequence. One more entrance of the motto of Example 3 
should be mentioned. In measures 6 to 9 and again in 
measures 14 and 15 of Cue 9AA it appears in sequence, 
emphasized by the transformation of the beat from 
6/8 to 3/4. 

and, finally, abbreviated: 

It is only after the first phrase of Example 4 is firmly 
settled on G that we are aware of the premonitory nature 
(melodically) of the first of these two figures and the 
strongly dominant effect of the second. 

This same scherzo is introduced again under the 
climatic fight between Terry and Johnny Friendly ( won- 
derful name!). The leading subject is this: 

Ex. 4 — 

PI .1 t i-t 

a 1 r 1 ■ r i i i ■ - i 7 t 

1 I LJ " ' 1 T V L _2 

J * • *-* w' 

M ^ 


at Hf. u i m. iii i r — ■ — 

- I I 1 I 1 I T rj T [ 

» 1 

J — 4 ■ 1 


I V “ I l TT HI y \ 

/K a \ M r ri lj t . 

After the fight comes the same thing in Pfundnoten 
— on the ancient Flemish principle: 

j> njlj.jlrU4:p 

Example 4 is the 'Girl’ or 'Love’ theme. Structurally, 
it is less basic in the score than the other themes. Its 
frankly melodious character and specific sentiment tend 
to set it somewhat apart from the main stream. Never- 
theless, its appearance is always managed with such inge- 
nuity as to make it sound quite inevitable. It is heard first 
under the scene where Edie joins the longshoremen’s 
scramble for the last handful of working-tags. The 
accompanying scherzo contains this phrase, repeated 
twice over at 12-bar distances: 

Another instance of preparation over a much greater 
distance occurs under the scene in which Terry smashes 
his way into Edie’s apartment. The introduction of the 
’Edie’ theme at this point is identical in shape to the 
middle section of the 'murder’ movement, which, in turn 
grows out of the last bar of Example 3. 

murder’: measure 43 

Ex. 5 — 



> ^ IM 1- 


>7 ' 3. 1 I s - 


'bedroom' : measure 45 

b* i i [>■ 


TV 1 r I 1 r am * \ T F ^ 

l'l " ^ f] f 


— \ — r 7 — 

W 1 J J LI L_ 


f y ’ fcUl I- 

IM 11 ' 


♦ O' 

Y Trjj-|iT|- rri'i 

Admittedly the connection between these two pas- 
sages is pretty tenuous as the picture now stands. Bear 
in mind that 'murder' was to have had a second hearing 
which would have come shortly before 'bedroom'. 

One more entrance of the 'Edie' music must be men- 
tioned. It is heard in the sequence 'Dead Pigeons’, which 
accompanies the scorn shown by Terry’s peers for his 
apostasy. 'Edie' combines with the waterfront’ theme of 
Example 1 so perfectly that it is hard to believe that they 
were not composed simultaneously. 

Ex. 7 — 


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The first excerpt quoted in the following pages — 
"Kangaroo Court” — has only a very slight develop- 
mental function in the score. It is heard a second time in 
reverse and much subdued — under the colloquy between 
Terry and Charlie in the taxi. It is included because I 
found this awesome sound ( or, in the words of the com- 
poser himself, "terrible noise” ) one of the most memora- 
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possible here. It cannot be summed up in a few excerpts. 
The purposeful unity of the whole work is one of its 
strongest features, and one which can best be sensed in 
the screening — or better a second or third screening. 


ON THE WATERFRONT . . . Columbia Pictures. 
Marlon Brando, Karl Malden. Director, Elia Kazan. 
Music, Leonard Bernstein. 

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Gerald Pratley 

Early this year the National Film Board of Canada re- 
leased THE STRATFORD ADVENTURE, a forty min- 
ute documentary describing how the Stratford (Ontario) 
Shakespearean Festival came into being, and concluding 
with the opening of last year’s festival. Several of the ac- 
tors who participated (including Alec Guinness) appear 
briefly during the course of the narrative. The most 
ambitious documentary to be made by the Board since 
its inception, it was photographed in Eastman Color and 
scored by Louis Applebaum. The composer, who wrote 
the incidental music for the plays "All’s Well That Ends 
Well" and "Richard III” performed at the festival, com- 
posed twenty minutes of music for the film, for an 
orchestra consisting of five woodwinds, nine strings and 
a harpsichord. Of the music written for the plays, none 
is used in the film with the exception of a brief quotation 
heard in the main title music. 

"The idiom”, says the composer, "is roughly that of 

the Shakespearean period, extended up to the end of the 
17th century. The concerto grossi style of Vivaldi is 
quite prominent throughout the score. The anachronism 
seemingly apparent in using this idiom against scenes of 
activity in present day Stratford ( a busy railway centre ) 
roused some doubts in our minds, but after giving the 
matter considerable thought we decided that the result 
was pleasant, and effectively emphasized the contrast 
between Shakespeare’s time and the present. The climatic 
battle scene is not quoted because we used only a muffled 
drum and off-stage trumpet calls.” 

The following are four quotations from the score. 

l.This music symbolized the spirit of Shakespeare and 
is heard behind shots of a bust of the playwright and 
scenes of a Shakespeare memorial garden. Scored for 
alto flute and harpsichord, it has a gentle, flowing 
melody. . 


— Music No. 1 Shakespeare Theme 


— * Music No. 2 — Guinness on Bicycle — 


3. This theme was used in a series of six variations fol- from shoe-maker, costumer, bell-maker and others, 

lowing the assistant director, Cecil Clarke, as he went busily preparing the properties for the festival. 

— Music No. 3 — Theme for Variation — 

"I enjoyed participating in the festival”, said Mr. 
Applebaum, "and writing the music for THE STRAT- 
FORD ADVENTURE was a joyful task and an interest- 
ing essay into the music of olden days. We are now 
making plans for the inauguration of a major music 
festival to be held with next year’s festival.” 

The composer’s latest score was written for the NFB’s 
showing the geographical evolution of Canada. This will 
be described in a future issue of FILM MUSIC. He is 
now writing the music for an American documentary 
tentatively titled BAD BROUGHT UP, being produced 
by Potomac Films, Washington, D.C. He has also written 
a chapter on the development of film music in Canada 

for a book covering all phases of musical activity in the 
Dominion, entitled "Music in Canada”. Sponsored by the 
Canadian Music Council, it is being edited by Sir Ernest 
MacMillan, and will be published by the Oxford Univer- 
sity Press. 

[Gerald Pratley is a film reviewer, writer and lecturer. 
He has been a film commentator for the Canadian Broad- 
casting Corporation since 1946, with the two very inter- 
esting programs "Movie Scene” and "Music from the 
Films”. For the benefit of our readers who are within 
reach of CBC stations we give the hours of these broad- 
casts: Movie Scene — Trans-Canada Network; Thursday, 
4:00-4:30. Music from the Films — Dominion Network; 
Sunday, 5:30-6:00.] 



Mary Powell 

Jean Renoir’s lovely film is laid in the early 18th 
century, and brings a troupe of the Commedia dell ’Arte 
to a Spanish colony in South America. The adventures 
of the Columbine of the troupe and her three suitors — 
a young Spanish gentleman, a toreador, and the Viceroy 
himself — are carried on with all the extravagant beauty 
that the novel situation can provide. Renoir used the 
same care to retain period color through the score, and 
selections from Vivaldi make up the major part of the 
background music. His Concerto in E major and Con- 
certo in d minor for strings and harpsichord, his Sym- 
phony in b minor for strings, and his Concerto in F 
major for flute, strings and harpsichord are heard. "We 
found fifty musicians who could play Vivaldi,” said 
Renoir. "Then we had to get instruments that could play 
Vivaldi. He used a curved violin bow which sometimes 
touched three strings at once. The effect is marvelous, 
but we had to build the bows to get it.” Dances of the 
17th and 18th centuries were also used, and the serenade 
from "The Beggar's Opera" did service when Ramon the 
toreador sings to his love. The music for the Commedia 

dell 'Arte sequences presented another difficulty, as the 
impromptu spirit of the original performances extended 
to what was played and sung, and it was rarely written 
down. Finally composer Gino Marinuzzi discovered sev- 
eral of the old scripts, with rough notations of single 
melodic lines that fitted the action. He adapted three of 
these, "Chanson des Mes Reves”, ( supposedly a favorite 
of Marie Antoinette’s) "Aria di Ballo”, and "Tarantella 
dei Maccheroni", which is sung by Miss Magnani, the 
Columbine. By referring to old prints, a number of the 
musical instruments of the time were reconstructed, and 
add to the delightful sights and sounds in a charming 

THE GOLDEN COACH . . . I.F.E. Releasing Corp. 
Anna Magnani. Director, Jean Renoir. Music from the 
works of Antonio Vivaldi and traditional Commedia dell 
'Arte airs. Conductor, Gino Marinuzzi, Jr. Technicolor. 
Record: MGM. E3111, LP Microgroove. The Golden 
Coach; recorded selections from the sound track. Rome 
Symphony Orchestra conducted by Gino Marinuzzi, Jr. 



Alfred E. Simon 


So often, when a famous stage musical is transferred 
to the screen, we can safely assume that many of the 
simple 32 -bar songs that graced the original will be 
blown up into tremendous over-arranged production 
numbers, with never-ending endings, sung by off-screen 
choruses of thousands. It was with this fear that your 
reviewer attended the filmed version of BRIGADOON, 
in every way one of the tenderest and most enchanting 
musicals of our time. 

Although some of the Scottish magic of the stage 
production seems to have become lost somewhere along 
the highlands between New York and Hollywood, it’s 
a pleasure to report that Frederick Loewe’s delightful 
score has been treated on the whole with the respect it 
deserves. For that, we can thank three gentlemen whom 
I know to be great devotees of the Broadway musical 
stage: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s music director, Johnny 
Green; Conrad Salinger, who did the orchestrations, and 
Robert Tucker, who made the choral arrangements. 
Tucker’s work is particularly notable for capturing much 
of the underlying mood that is the essence of the show. 
It’s first in evidence near the beginning of the picture, 
when Gene Kelly and Van Johnson, as the first two 
Americans visiting Scotland, first observe the country- 
side of Brigadoon from a hill top, and one hears the 
"Prologue” and the title song. Another instance of fine 
choral work is "I’ll Go Home With Bonnie Jean”. Salin- 
ger’s orchestration here is particularly imaginative and 
often humorous. It’s captivatingly sung by Jimmy Thomp- 
son, the best solo voice in the cast. In fact it makes one 
wish he’d been given the opportunity to sing as well the 
lovely "Come to Me, Bend to Me”, which unfortunately 
has been completely omitted from the film. 

The most exciting feature of the picture unquestion- 
ably is the "Chase” sequence, wherein the townspeople 
attempt to stop a jilted suitor from leaving Brigadoon, 
lest the town be doomed to eternal oblivion. Exciting as 
this was in the stage version, CinemaScope is the ideal 
means of presenting a scene with so much extended 
action — and again the choral work is of great help in 
enhancing the excitement. Another impressive sequence 
is the "Gathering of the Clans”, with the townspeople 
wending their way at dusk through the Scottish high- 
lands. The bagpipes in the accompaniment provide a 
memorable and eerie effect. 

No one has ever denied that Gene Kelly and Cyd 
Charisse dance infinitely better than they sing, and this 
has never been brought home more clearly than their 
versions of "Almost Like Being in Love”, "The Heather 
on the Hill”, and "Waiting’ for My Dearie”, since the 
vocal demands of these songs are greater than practically 
anything they have sung on the screen. And both the 
tempo and orchestration of "The Heather on the Hill” 
are far too sluggish for the gay, light-hearted spirit of 
the song. But perhaps this is quibbling when a picture 
has so much else to its musical credit as "Brigadoon”. 

BRIGADOON . . . MGM. Gene Kelly, Cyd Charisse. 
Director, Vincente Minelli. Music, Frederick Loewe. 
Musical direction, Johnny Green. Orchestrations, Conrad 
Salinger. Choral arrangements, Robert Tucker. 

f Alfred E. Simon is a writer and music critic, and a 
staff member of radio station WQXR in New York 








i ' 



^ I 



The sound effects set-up in REAR WINDOW is a 
masterly achievement — a melange of starting engines, 
taxi horns, near and distant radios and phonographs, 
nagging couples, practising vocalists, child noises, and an 
occasional scream — all kept just below active attention 
level, as every city-dweller lives with it. The reaction is 
perfect for enjoyment of a Hitchcock thriller — a sub- 
conscious tenseness generated by the disquieting mur- 
mer and a sense of realism that brings the film’s cunning 
war between conjecture and common sense very close 
to the audience. Harry Lindgren and John Cope are the 
men responsible for these sound recordings. Says Mr. 
Cope, "Much of the normal background sound was actu- 

ally recorded in Greenwich Village during odd hours of 
the day and night, to give a true perspective effect to the 
scenes as they moved from daylight into the evening 
hours. These special sound effects were augmented by 
specific effects selected from our film stock effects library. 
The sound effects set-up sheet (see opposite page) is an 
example of the cue sheet used by the re-recording mixers 
in synchronizing effects to the picture action.” In the 
score, Franz Waxman composed one main theme called 
"Lisa”. He based his main and end titles on it, and it is 
played at intervals throughout the picture by a song- 
writer whose lively studio is in one of the houses that 
surround Jimmy Stewart’s courtyard. 

REAR WINDOW . . . Paramount. James Stewart, Grace Kelly. Producer-director, 
Alfred Hitchcock. Music, Franz Waxman. Technicolor. 

Song: Lisa. Music, Franz Waxman; lyrics, Harold Rome. Paramount Music Corp. 



Sigmund Spaeth 

Aida with Amneris 

In presenting the Italian film of Verdi’s AIDA to 
American audiences, impresario S. Hurok permits him- 
self to be quoted as follows: "I regard this opera film 
as a milestone in the fields of music, theatre, opera and 
especially the cinema. Both visually and musically it is 
a more glamorous and perfect realization of Verdi’s 
great masterpiece than any production ever staged before. 
I am particularly delighted that my first association with 
operatic film should be a production of AIDA, which is 
probably the greatest and certainly the most popular 
opera ever written”. 

These are strong words, and to some extent they are 
justified. This opulent production may well be considered 
a "milestone”, although not necessarily in four fields at 
once. The superlatives of Mr. Hurok ’s closing sentence 
might also lead to some argument. AIDA has actually 
been called "the perfect opera” (along with CARMEN) 
because of its balance of dramatic and musical appeal, 
but this does not necessarily make it the "greatest”. The 
citation of "most popular” may be deserved, on the 
strength of its having been performed more often at the 
Metropolitan Opera House than any other work, but 


AIDA must still recognize competition from the above- 
mentioned CARMEN and possibly FAUST and one or 
two others. 

The current screen version may honestly be con- 
sidered the best and most successful application of mo- 
tion picture technique yet revealed to the average listener. 
It has the advantages of excellent color (Ferreniacolor) 
and the unlimited sweep of the camera, permitting the 
detailed presentation of scenes which can only be talked 
about on the stage itself. Perhaps most important of all 
is the fact that the leading roles are all sung by singers 
and acted by actors. (The only significant exception is 
the comparatively minor part of the Pharoah, in which 
Enrico Formichi does both the singing and the acting.) 

This device of dubbing the outstanding voices makes 
it possible to use some of the greatest operatic singers 
in the world today, without running the risk of physical 
discrepancies which are too often apparent in even the 
finest stage production. To Americans most of the singers 
are far better known than the actors, but both the mim- 
ing and the vocalism are first class throughout. 

Renata Tebaldi (newly engaged by the Metropolitan) 
sings the music of the heroine, visually represented by 
Sophia Loren. The Egyptian princess Amneris profits by 
the beautiful mezzo-contralto of Ebe Stignani, and in 
this case Lois Maxwell is the actress. Giuseppe Campora 
sings the role of the heroic Radames, with handsome 
Luciano della Marra playing the action. Gino Bechi shares 
the character of Amonasro with the actor Afro Poli, 
while Giulio Neri lends his bass voice to the dignified 
person of Antonio Cassinelli as Ramfis, the High Priest. 
This splendid double cast is supported by the Italian 
State Radio Orchestra of Rome, conducted by Giuseppe 
Morelli, and the chorus and ballet of the Rome Opera. 
Clemente Fracassi is the general director of the produc- 
tion, with Aenzo Rossellini acting as music supervisor. 
The producers are Ferruccio De Martino and Frederico 
Teti. All of these people share in the credit for what 
may well prove the first operatic screen production to 
combine commercial with artistic success. For the general 
movie audience there is still the handicap of the Italian 
language, partly overcome by English narration. 

Mr. Hurok’s hope is "that this film . . . will introduce 
to the movie-going audience of America at popular 

prices the whole magical world of great musical drama, 
whose presentation has heretofore been limited to a 
comparatively few thousands in our large cities.” He 
adds "I am certain that its successful reception will pre- 
sage similarly effective screen versions of other operatic 
masterpieces.” Amen to that! This reviewer has long 
urged a similar approach to what strikes the layman as a 
fundamentally artificial form of music, if only because 
the characters on the stage are singing when they are 
supposed to be talking. This problem can be solved, even 
though the new AIDA has not done so completely. 

There are other details still open to improvement. 
The violent battle scenes of the Ethiopians and the Egyp- 
tians are perhaps too long drawn out (especially since 
Verdi did not supply them with appropriate music), 
and the Italian stunt men do not have quite the tech- 
nique displayed in our westerns. There are some distor- 
tions of the Verdi score, including a rearrangement of 
the orchestral Prelude itself. Some details of action may 
be open to criticism, but mostly the novel touches are 
effective, as when Radames sings his familiar "Celeste 
Aida” with his heavenly ideal in the background, making 
the aria far more than a soliloquy or fanciful vision. 

At the very least this AIDA must be considered a 
step in the right direction. It is far ahead of the literal 
photographing of routine stage productions which have 
so often failed in the past because of their limited appeal. 
Taking all the claims of Mr. Hurok with some reserva- 
tions, he must be congratulated on giving the motion 
picture audience a glimpse of the future operatic pos- 
sibilities of the screen. 

AIDA . . . S. Hurok; I.F.E. Releasing Corp. Sophia Loren, 
Renata Tebaldi. Director, Clemente Fracassi. Musical 
Supervision, Renzo Rossellini, Color. 

[Sigmund Spaeth is now completing his final year as 
Chairman of Audio-Visual Education for the National 
Federation of Music Clubs. In this capacity he also pre- 
views films for the Motion Picture Asociation and the 
Music Clubs Magazine, besides touching upon them in a 
syndicated column called "Music for Everybody”. Dr. 
Spaeth has recently completed his first series of films for 
television, using the same title of "Music for Everybody”. 
A second series is in preparation.} 


Helen G. Williams 

A film music chairman can add much information 
and pleasure to any organization interested in motion 
pictures. Her reports may include discussion of the 
composer of a score, the use of the music, its placement, 
its emotional value, and, if pertinent, the adaptation of 
familiar melodies. Two methods may be used in giving 
a report: recalling details from a noteworthy picture 
showing currently in the nearby theatres, and using an 
artist voice or instrumentalist to illustrate its musical 
highlights. This chairman has used many programs of 
the latter sort, with a concert pianist who played illus- 

trations from score excerpts in FILM MUSIC. Max 
Steiner’s themes from "Gone With the Wind”, and Paul 
Smith’s themes from "Nature’s Half Acre” are examples 
of subjects used in such programming. Audience reaction 
is excellent. The procedure has proved to have a strong 
appeal for junior music groups and clubs. Few people 
seem to realize the artistry in the music of motion pic- 
tures, which gives masses of audiences everywhere an 
opportunity to hear the best. There is no better source 
of information in the field than FILM MUSIC. 



The Film Council of America has announced April 
4 to 9 as the dates for the 1955 American Film Assem- 
bly. The program will be held at the Waldorf Astoria 
Hotel in New York. Preparations are already being made 
for the Golden Reel Film Festival, the outstanding fea- 
ture of the Assembly, in which the best current 16mm 
films are submitted to professional juries and general 
audiences interested in the field. Twenty-six sessions 
screening about three hundred films were held in last 
April’s Assembly in Chicago. The programs attracted 
large audiences from all over the world. The Golden 
Reel awards were given to the twelve films "receiving the 
highest score in achievement of purpose in their respec- 
tive categories”. Further information and entry blanks for 
the 1955 competition may be had from the American 
Film Assembly, Film Council of America, 600 Davis 
Street, Evanston, Illinois. The deadline for entry is 
January 15, 1955. 

Ralph Vaughan Williams will lecture at universities 
across the country during his stay in America. He will 
be heard first at Cornell University, and then at the 
universities of Michigan, Chicago, Indiana and California 
at Los Angeles. He will be gu.est conductor with the 
Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra in a program of his own 
works in early November. Mr. Williams will celebrate 
his eighty-second birthday during his stay here. His film 
scores include those for STORY of a FLEMISH FARM, 
of the ANTARCTIC. Several of these are available in 
concert arrangement from the Oxford University Press. 

Erich Korngold is conducting a full symphony orches- 
tra in MAGIC FIRE, Republic's biography of Richard 
Wagner. The film, in which twelve Wagnerian works 
will be heard, is being produced and directed by William 
Dieterle, and will be made on location in Germany and 

Italy . . . Franz Waxman has been asigned to write the 
music for Warner’s THE SILVER CHALICE and THE 
LINDBERGH STORY . . . David Buttolph has scored 
Joseph Kaufman’s LONG JOHN SILVER in Sydney, 
for the eighty piece Australia Broadcasting Commission’s 
Symphony Orchestra. The film stars Robert Newton . . . 
The Howard Hawks production LAND OF THE PHAR- 
OAHS, a Warner release, is getting a score by Dimitri 
Tiomkin. He will also compose and conduct the music 
for Mervyn Le Roy’s A STRANGER IN TOWN, at the 
same studio. . . .Johnny Green’s new contract with MGM 
calls for an expansion of his duties as the studio’s general 
musical director. Mr. Green has been head of the music 
department for the past five years . . . Paul Smith is 
conducting a fifty-two piece orchestra in his score for 
Walt Disney’s live-action CinemaScope feature 20,000 
LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA . . . David Raskin has 
written an unusual score for Robert Bassler’s unusual 
film SUDDENLY, to be released by United Artists . . . 
Leith Stevens’ first score under his new contract as com- 
poser-conductor for Filmakers is for PRIVATE HELL 
36 . . . Hugo Friedhofer has scored the soon-to-be-released 
Hecht-Lancaster picture VERA CRUZ . . . Gene Forrell 
is giving a course in the art and techniques of film music 
. . . Alfred Newman, executive music director for 20th 
Century Fox, was awarded the Certificate of Merit of 
the American Society of Composers and Conductors for 
his "outstanding contributions to American music”. 

The Composers Guild of America, the new organization 
representing "composers, including composers of lyrics, 
in radio, television, motion pictures and other entertain- 
ment media”, will hold its first election in November. 
At that time the elected Executive Board will take office, 
and the first annual meetings will be held in New York 
and Hollywood. 






Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
26 East 83rd Street, New York City 28 
Butterfield 8-3288 


(with score excerpts) 








Published by the National Film Music Council, 26 East 83rd St., New York City 28. President, 
President and Editor, Marie L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues each year with 
dollars and fifty cents. Back files ( 25 copies) Six dollars plus postage. 


David Raskin 

Gerald Pratley 

Albert J. Elias 

Quaintance Eaton 

Alfred E. Simon 

Nathan Kroll 

Arthur L. Assum 

Gerald Pratley 

William Hamilton; Vice- 
occasional bulletins. Two 

David Raskin 

There is little music in SUDDENLY — just about 
sixteen minutes of it, which is sixteen minutes more than 
we at first thought it should have. However, Robert Bass- 
ler, the producer of the film, is not one of the movie- 
makers who think that realism is achieved by omitting 
music; and when it became clear that certain scenes 
should be scored, he was usually well ahead of everyone 
else in his understanding of the part music would play 
in those scenes. 

SUDDENLY is a story of an attempt by hired assassins 
upon the life of the President of the United States. The 
music is written for strings, horns and percussion, which 
at first glance may seem rather an odd choice of orchestral 
color for such a film. But since the attitude of the music 
was to be somewhat different from that usually taken in 
realistic melodramas, especially in that I felt that the 
suspense could take care of itself, I thought the string 
and horn color would serve quite well. 

The music begins with a motive derived from the 
principal theme, played slowly to achieve what one of 
my colleagues likes to call "an omnious effect”, and goes 
immediately into a fast section composed upon the theme 
in its original 9/8-6/8 form. The motive in its slower 

aspect is used to open six of the eleven remaining se- 
quences, on the theory that (aside from its presumed 
aptness) the repeated use of such a motive would help 
to assure at least some feeling of carryover of thematic 
meaning in a picture whose scored sequences are so far 
apart. After the brief introduction, the scherzo section 
of the Main Title in effect looks the other way, and at- 
tempts no comment on the story. For the rest of the 
score, except for an allegro (boy-running-to-find-Sheriff 
music), the effort is generally to underplay or to sketch 
character. After all, in a picture in which it is clearly 
evident from the beginning that nobody, from the Pro- 
duction Code people to the Stand-in’s agent, will allow 
the writer to kill off the President (especially since the 
Republicans waited so long for their turn), it hardly 
seems cricket to create false climaxes of musical excite- 
ment in the prevailing shameless style by dragging red 
herrings borrowed from Mr. Hitchcock across the sound- 
track. Besides, in the current political climate, the her- 
rings in hypersensitive Hollywood have all turned a 
bilious green, and have a dreadful effect in stereophonic 

SUDDENLY . . . United Artists. Frank Sinatra, Sterling 
Hayden. Director, Lewis Allen. Music, David Raskin. 


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A Radio Program In Two Parts 
Gerald Pratley 

(The following scripts are printed through the 
courtesy of Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 
They are part of the CBC’s regular weekly pro- 
gram, "Music from the Films.”) 

Sunday, July 11th, 1954 
5:30 - 6:00 pm. 

CJBC - Dom. Network 
(Part I) 



This is Frank Herbert with "Music From the Films," 
a CBC program for all who are interested in film scores 
and their composers, prepared by Gerald Pratley. ( FADE 
THEME OUT) This week’s broadcast is devoted to 
Ralph Vaughan Williams’ music for "Scott of the Ant- 
arctic”, ending with the first movement of his "Sinfonia 
Antartica," a concert arrangement of his entire film 

The use of background music in films is often criti- 
cised as being unrealistic, and in many cases this is un- 
happily true. Yet, contradictory though it seems, some 
of the finest and most fitting scores have been written 
for documentary films, which, by their very nature, are 
concerned with the truthful depiction of reality. 

One would assume that as the interpretation of 
reality is the function of the documentary, there would 
be no place for background music in this type of pic- 
ture. But this has not proved to be the case. Where it is 
difficult for a film editor to convey to an audience the 
subjective emotions of people on the screen, particularly 
if they are not actors, and to show their emotional re- 
sponse to all manner of conditions, ranging from the 
geographical and physical to the mental and spiritual, 
the deep emotional and descriptive powers of inspired 
and finely-conceived music can create an understanding 
and sympathy between the audience and the screen, en- 
abling it to become part of the story being revealed, and 
to be aware of, and in some cases even feel, the human 
and emotional qualities inherent in the drama of real life. 

"Scott of the Antarctic” made in 1948, is a perfect 
example of a documentary in which music plays an in- 
dispensable part. No matter how gifted were the actors 
who re-enacted the last journey made by Captain Scott 
and his gallant companions, it was virtually impossible 
for them alone to make an audience feel the full emo- 
tional undercurrents of such an epic story of human 
endurance, triumph and disappointment. 

The misfortunes which befell the explorers were not 
those which lend themselves to spectacular portrayal. The 
men were not given to outward displays of emotion; 
there were no hysterical outbursts of painful words and 
demonstrative actions. The journey proceeds over lonely, 
cold and barren territory, which does not change a great 
deal in appearance. Ice and snow constantly prevail. Miles 
are covered each day, but the audience already knowing 
what lies ahead cannot, like Scott and his party, believe 
in a successful outcome. The journey becomes more diffi- 
cult because the men cannot endure the climactic con- 
ditions. When they reach the South Pole and Scott finds 
that Amunsden has preceded him, the audience must 
feel, with John Mills, the heartbreaking disappointment 
of Captain Scott. On the return journey, the weather is 
against the explorers, progress is slow, their suffering 
more acute, their food supplies running low. 

These almost "matter-of-course" hardships are sensi- 
tively portrayed by the skill and sincerity of the actors 
and the imaginative use of film technique: but the final 
emotional quality necessary to involve the audience in 
this progression of events is provided by the inspired 
music of Vaughan Williams, which conveys the accumu- 
lating misfortune, the mounting difficulties of the journey 
and the everlasting mood of tragedy with a noble and 
moving sense of participation; a graphic tone painting 
of human aspiration, set against Nature in her coldest 
and fiercest realm. 

The score begins with the Prologue ... a musical 
picture of the Antarctic, with mile upon mile of ice and 
snow, towering mountains of white, wind-swept glaciers, 
wide expanses of ice-flows, and a sighing wind that 
catches the snow and carries it along in eerie swirling 
drifts. The composer uses a soprano voice, that of Mar- 
garet Ritchie, to emphasize melancholy and loneliness . . . 



Part 1 HMV C 3834 4.05 



The ponies and the dog teams struggle across the 
icy wastes. . . . 


A moment of humour is provided by the amusing 
antics of the penguins. . . . 


One of the most difficult aspects of the journey, the 


climbing of a glacier, is now described in a most graphic 
way by the composer. . . . 


After finding that Amunsden has reached the Pole 
ahead of him, Scott and his companions start their re- 
turn journey. The music now accompanies the last part 
of the drama with an underlining expression of disap- 
pointment and a foreboding sense of tragedy. The final 
blizzard and the death of Captain Scott have unforget- 
table qualities of vividness and power. . . . 


Part 2 HMV 2 3834 4.15. 




Side 3 1.00. 

CUE IN AT LINE: WIND. "For my own sake . . 

ENDS: . . for God's sake, look after our people." 



Those excerpts from Ralph Vaughan Williams’ score 
for "Scott of the Antarctic” come from the soundtrack 
of the film, and are played by the Philharmonic Orchestra 
conducted by the late Ernest Irving, himself a composer 
and for many years director of music at Ealing studios, 
where "Scott of the Antarctic” was made. It was Ernest 
Irving who was instrumental in having Vaughan Wil- 
liams write the score, the composer having previously 
written the music for Ealing’s "The Loves of Joanna 
Godden.” When the score was completed Irving was as 
proud of it as if he himself had written it. In this record- 
ing, Ernest Irving recalls how the music began. . . . 



Side 2 33 1/3 Start outside 1.15. 

CUE IN AT: "Immediately it was decided to make 
’Scott’ I suggested to Sir Michael Balcon and Charles 
Frend, the director, that Vaughan Williams was the one 
man in the world to compose the score if he were willing 
to do it. I sent him the script and we had a round table 
conference at Ealing with Sir Michael in the chair, to 
which the composer described his musical scheme in de- 
tail. Everybody approved with enthusiasm, though at the 
moment nothing existed of the picture except a few 

location shots of the South Pole. I was afraid that Dr. 
Vaughan Williams might work slowly in this medium 
so about a fortnight after this conference I told the editor 
that we ought to get him started and asked him to send 
Vaughan Williams some rough timings of the scenes, 
however widely inaccurate. The next morning I had a 
telephone call from Vaughan Williams. He said "Thank 
you for the timings, but they have come too late. I sent 
you yesterday, by registered post, the pianoforte sketches 
and the full score of the entire work.” And sure enough 
he had, about fifty minutes of music score for covering 
all the dramatic scenes.” 


That was Ernest Irving, describing the beginnings of 
Ralph Vaughan Williams’ score for "Scott of the Ant- 
arctic.” Mr. Irving, who was director of music for Ealing 
Studios for fifteen years, died last year. In a tribute to him, 
published in the journal, "Music and Letters,” Vaughan 
Williams writes: "To my great sorrow, I only got to know 
Ernest Irving late in life: and both of us being very busy, 
our meetings were not frequent. But I got to know 
enough of him to discover his remarkable and original 
mind ... I had already written some film music” (for 
'49th Parallel’) "which he criticized adversely in an arti- 
cle; not indeed for its artistic quality but for its special 
mission as film music. In spite of this, Irving asked me to 
write some music for Ealing Studios and when, under his 
guidance, I made a success of this, he literally went down 
on his knees and apologized for his former strictures. 

I wish I could have made notes of his delightful and 
informing conversation; but luckily I have kept most of 
his letters, from which I should like to quote. First, a 
letter in verse on the subject of using Margaret Ritchie’s 
singing voice in the score for "Scott of the Antarctic” 
at the same time as dialogue, spoken by Diana Churchill 
as Kathleen Scott, was going on in the picture. Here is 
some of it: 

I very much regret to state 
your scheme for treating number 8 
has pulled us up with quite a jerk 
because we fear it will not work. 

Miss Margaret Ritchie’s off-stage tune, 
besides annoying Miss Lejeune, 
would cover, blur, confuse and fog 
our most expensive dialogue. 

Failure they meet, and ruin black, 
who mix two voices on one track, 
Choose then a horn or cello, which 
have different timbres, weight and pitch. 


You would not wish, with sirens’ tones, 
to deafen fans of Odeons, 
who, listening to Miss Ritchie’s A, 
would miss what Kathleen had to say. 

The frequencies her voice employs 
should be kept free from other noise; 
your tune should be of different hue 
and run below or soar the blue. 

Forgive me, Maestro, if I seem 
to hold the voice in small esteem; 
its use, like oboes, trumpet, flute, 
is when the characters are mute.” 

Vaughan Williams concludes his tribute to Ernest 
Irving with "one more quotation by him ... I had done 
myself the honour to dedicate my Sinfonia Antartica to 
Irving, and I sent him the original full score, saying that 
I hoped it would not prove a white elephant. Here is 
his reply: 

"Of course I shall be delighted to have the score. 
The objection to the original white elephant was, I be- 
lieve, not its colour but its appetite.” 

Vaughan Williams composed his score for "Scott of 
the Antarctic” in 1948. As a concert work, under the 
title "Sinfonia Antartica,” it was first performed in Man- 
chester by the Halle Orchestra under Sir John Barbirolli 
on January 14th, 1953. A recording of it, by HMV and 
Decca, was completed early this year and copies are now 
arriving from England. 

When a film score is arranged as a concert work it 
is frequently not the same score as written for and heard 
in the film. When this is so, the concert work can claim 
little credit as film music; we wondered if this might 
be the case with the "Sinfonia Antartica” and so we 
wrote to the composer, asking him if he had made 
changes in the score for concert performance. He replied: 
"My 'Sinfonia Antartica’ is built on my ’Scott’ music. 
But of course, many of the themes have been developed 
symphonically in a way which was not desirable in film 

music. I do not think there is any new thematic material, 
though some of the music in the course of development 
becomes new. Many of the themes which were originally 
separate are now combined in one movement, for 
example, the Intermezzo, in which I have used the two 
themes connected with the two women in the piece; and 
also the music connected with the death of Oates.” 
Yours sincerely, 

Ralph Vaughan Williams 

The ’Sinfonia’ is made up of five movements: the 
first will be heard now, the remaining four next week. 
The first is called Prelude, and, as described by Scott 
Goddard, begins with the deliberate pace of men setting 
out on some great visionary enterprise. It is to be a long 
journey, for this melody, built in large curves, is appro- 
priate to the commencement of a vast undertaking. This 
theme appears throughout the work, either as a whole or 
in part. Soon there can be heard what the composer calls 
'antarctic shimmerines’ (created by zylophone, pianoforte 
and harp all very soft and feathery). The first sound of 
the wordless chorus of women’s voices and a wordless 
soprano solo join in as part of the instrumental texture. 

The Prelude to "Sinfonia Anartica,” by ■ Ralph 
Vaughan Williams. 


Side 1 Band 1 HMV ALP 1102 10.05. 

That was the Prelude, the first movement, to "Sin- 
fonia Antartica,” a concert arrangement by Ralph 
Vaughan Williams of his score for the film, "Scott of 
the Antarctic.” It wa splayed by the Halle Orchestra con- 
ducted by Sir John Barbirolli, with a section of the Halle 
Choir and with Margaret Ritchie, soprano. 



This has been "Music from the Films,” a CBC pro- 
gram for all who are interested in film scores and their 
composers, prepared by Gerald Pratley and announced 
by Frank Herbert: next week, the remaining four move- 
ments from the "Sinfonia Antartica.” 

This is the Dominion Network of the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation. 



Sunday, July 18th, 1954 
5:30 - 6:00 pm. 

CJBC - Dom. Network 
(Part II) 




This is Frank Herbert with "Music from the Films,” 
a CBC program for all who are interested in film scores 
and their composers, prepared by Gerald Pratley. (Fade 
theme out.) 

Last week we spoke at length about Ralph Vaughan 
Williams’ score for the documentary film, "Scott of the 
Antarctic” and played excerpts from the soundtrack; also 
the first movement from the composer's "Sinfonia Ant- 
arctica,” a concert arrangement of the "Scott” music, con- 
sisting entirely of material drawn from the film score. 
This week we hear the remaining four movements from 
the "Sinfonia Antartica,’ beginning with the second, the 
Scherzo. This contains music used during the early stages 
of Captain Scott’s journey to the Pole: there is the pond- 
erous theme accompanying shots of whales, the sounds 
of the jingling harness of ponies, and the humorous un- 
derscoring of quaint antics by penguins. The remaining 
music suggests steady progress, but ends with warnings 
of difficulties lying ahead. . . . 



Side 1 Band 2 2nd Movement: Scherzo 5.25 

The third movement of Vaughan Williams’ "Sinfonia 
Antartica” is called "Landscape,” and begins with music 
that originally accompanied shots of Ross Island in the 
film, "Scott of the Antarctic." This is the "illusory region 
of atmospheric and visionary impressions: slowly the 
landscape reveals itself through the mist and huge out- 
lines appear.” Then begins the music used in the film to 
illustrate the hardship experienced by Scott and his com- 
panions when climbing the glacier blocking their way to 
the pole. "Landscape.” 


Side 2 Band 1 3rd Movement: Landscape 

4th Movement: Intermezzo 




The fourth movement contains the themes for the 
two women who appear in the early scenes of "Scott of 
the Antarctic”, while preparations are being made for 
the journey. The first is for Kathleen Scott and the sec- 
ond for Oriana Wilson. Near the end of this movement, 
which Vaughan Williams calls the Intermezzo, a sound 
of deep bells ushers in music beginning with slow, quiet 
string chords, which in the film was connected with the 
death of Oates. 


The fifth and last movement of the "Sinfonia Ant- 
artica,” the Epilogue, refers back to the menacing music 
from the Prelude. It contains the chief march theme 
which accompanied the return journey of the explorers 
after they had reached the Pole, where they found that 
Amunsden had beaten them. The courage of the ex- 
plorers is reflected in this noble and inspired music: but 
soon an ever-deepening mood of tragedy is struck as the 
weather worsens and the explorers weaken. Scott and his 
companions perish in a howling blizzard: the end music 
is heard, then all is quiet as the wordless voices set up 
their mournful chant of ice-cold desolation and the lonely 
Antarctic recedes in the distance. 


Side 2 Band 2 5th Movement: the Epilogue 8.10 

"Sinfonia Antartica” ... a concert arrangement by 
Ralph Vaughan Williams of his score for the Ealing 
Studios’ documentary film, "Scott of the Antarctic,” 
played by the Halle Orchestra, conducted by Sir John 
Barbirolli, with Margaret Ritchie, solo soprano, and a 
section of the Halle choir. 

Ernest Irving, the late director of music for Ealing 
Studios, who had commissioned and conducted the film 
score, wrote the following about the "Sinfonia Antartica” 
after its first performance in January, 1953 . - . 

I think some of the modernists forget that the human 
soul is involved in musical inspiration, though of course 
the human brain is useful in fashioning the concept. 
There is no doubt at all that all the main themes were 
composed for the special purpose (of the film) and in- 
spired by the history of the expedition on which the 
film was strictly based. They spring from the deep wells 
of the composer’s mind, from which he draws his ideas, 
so that desolation is the same thing spiritually if ex- 
pressed by the South Pole, the battlefield or the Elysian 
Fields. The relations between the musical forms are 
therefore very deep down, and may not produce any 
similarity in musical notes, but only a similar trend in 
musical thought.” 




This has been "Music from the Films,” a CBC pro- 
gram for all who are interested in film scores and their 
composers, prepared by Gerald Pratley and announced 
by Frank Herbert. 

This is the Dominion Network of the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation. 

SCOTT OF THE ANTARCTIC . . . J. Arthur Rank. 
John Mills, Derek Bond. Director, Charles Frend. Music. 
Ralph Vaughan Williams. Technicolor. Records: SCOTT 
OF THE ANTARCTIC . . . HMV ALP 1102; London 
LL 977. Sinfonia Antartica: Oxford University Press has 
a full miniature score for sale at $4.85. The large con- 
ductor’s score and orchestral and chorus parts are availa- 
ble from them on a rental basis. 

(Gerald Pratley has been film commentator for the 
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation since 1946.) 


Albert J. Elias 

For this remake of a successful movie of some years 
ago, the producers have added several tunes to give the 
now trenchant, now jubilant drama more meaning. Luck- 
ily those songs are by expert show-tunesmith Harold 
Arlen and lyricist Ira Gershwin. In the course of the two 
and a half hour film there are at least five production 
numbers, four of which introduce brand new Arlen and 
Gershwin creations and another which is a sequence that 
features snatches from a series of well-loved all-time hits. 
"The Man That Got Away”, "You Gotta Have Me Go 
With You”, "Someone At Last” and "New World” writ- 
ten expressly for this film, fit the story like a glove; and 
the number which nostalgically brings in "Swanee', "I’ll 
Get By”, "You Took Advantage of Me” and "Melan- 
choly Baby” serves to show off the varied talents of the 
story’s star and heroine. 

Most fortunately, moreover, the young lady who plays 
the part of Vicki Lester, the star who rises higher and 
higher while the man she loves falls lower and lower, is 
Judy Garland. Now here is a real singing actresses. Her 
gifts are many and powerful. She is equipped to act out 
the scenes in the film which call for Vicki Lester to be 
the gay, rambunctious hoofer, as well as the scenes which 
call for her to be the valiant, sympathetic wife to a 
drunkard husband. Whether it is the dramatic story of 
back -stage life or the story of a dramatic home life that 
she is involved in, there is strength, honesty and complete 
conviction in her work. 

The full potency of Miss Garland’s work can be 
caught, naturally, especially when she sings. And this 
film, which is as ambitious in length and in the manner 
in which it develops a simple story of troublesome human 
relations as it is in the Technicolor it calls upon and the 

wide screen it calls for, is generous with Miss Garland. 

We hear her in blues, ballads, novelty numbers. She 
can be warm and soothing, lusty and passionate, cute and 
girlish, grief-stricken and noble. At one moment, then, 
we have Judy Garland, in the after-hours atmosphere of 
a nightclub, singing "The Man That Got Away” with 
gusto and pungency. At the next moment we find her, 
nestled in her husband’s arms, reassuringly crooning 
"New World” to him. Soon she is taking fire again and 
giving "Swanee” a vigorous rendition. Then, in her su- 
preme capacity as cut-up, she is cavorting through "Some- 
one At Last” — briskly whirling about the livingroom, 
dancing on the couch, chairs and coffee table, while a full 
chorus from off screen backs her up vocally. 

There are few people, I think, who can fail to be 
affected by Miss Garland’s brand of singing. For this 
reviewer there is a vibrancy in her singing that makes 
each song ring out, a forcefulness to both the lilting 
and tender measures that makes them properly gay (I 
want to dance) or moving — a glow to everything Judy 
Garland sings. Surely this film, which occasionally strikes 
your reviewer as having less to it than meets the eye, is 
blessed by her luminescence. 

A STAR IS BORN . . . Warner Brothers. Judy Garland, 
James Mason. Director, George Cukor. New songs, Har- 
old Arlen, Ira Gershwin. Song "Born In A Trunk”, Leon- 
ard Gershe. Musical Direction, Ray Heindorf. Orchestra- 
tions, Skip Martin. Vocal Arrangements, Jack Cathcart. 
Technicolor. Record: Columbia BL1201, LP Microgrove. 
A Star Is Born; selections from the sound track. 

(Albert J. Elias is a free-lance writer, music critic, and 
executive member of the New York Music Critics’ 
Circle. ) 



Quaint ance Eaton 

Michael Meyerberg’s HANSEL AND GRETEL de- 
serves a bow of respect from the critic's corner because 
of two things: the sheer weight of time (fifteen years) 
and devotion and ingenuity spent on it, and the attempted 
fidelity to the original musical score. It is a pity that the 
total result of all this affection and energy couldn’t have 
provided a fantasy more appealing to adults. 

Oh, the kids love it, all right. I'm told the afternoon 
sessions in New York were buzzing bedlam, and the eve- 
ning I attended there were still enough junior customers 
to liven up the dead spots. One miss, about eight, sat 
next to me, and her mother had the dickens of a time to 
get her out halfway through the show. So let’s call H and 
G a success in the market it most appeals to anyway. 

I think that what makes it a rather soggy holiday 
cake for grownups is basic. Let’s face it: HANSEL AND 
GRETEL as an opera possesses charming music, both 
from voices and orchestra. Its story isn’t much, already 
threadbare even for some juveniles, who only wake up 
when the Witch broomsticks in sight. But when the 
music is reduced to an orchestra accompaniment only 
occasionally studded with a raisin or two of singing (only 
the most famous vocal bits have been retained but 
somehow they are underdone, to labor a metaphor), the 
mixture is too doughy. Then the puppets, who replace 
human actors but all too strongly resemble them for 
palatable fantasy, move jerkily in their electronic anima- 
tion, and never do anything particularly graceful, antic 
or comical. 

Let me tell you how this cake was baked, for it was 
a feat of some awesomeness. Franz Allers, the experienced 
and enthusiastic musical director, spent several months 
in recording the sound track. It was a multiple affair, in 
forty or fifty dubbings, one over another. 

They began with the orchestra alone (incidentally, 
the score was cut only about sixteen minutes) . Then they 
dubbed in the singing voices, including Hansel’s. (Both 
the parts of the children were sung and spoken by one 
actress, Constance Brigham, who, unfortunately, affected 
a high and piercing speaking voice for Gretel, and didn’t 
sing particularly well. ) Next, Gretel sang alone, dubbing 
over her own voice as Hansel for any duet passages. Then 
the acting voices were recorded. Then Hansel speaking. 
Then Gretel speaking. See how complicated it gets? 

There was a special dubbing for the Apollo Boys 
Choir, which sang exquisitely as the angels and the gin- 
gerbread children. The Witch’s laughs took a special ses- 
sion, too, with the comedienne, Anna Russell, cackling 
away. By the way, her lyrics and dialogue, a little too 
sophisticated in Padraic Colum’s new English version, 
could seldom be understood by this grown-up, but I’m 
sure the children didn’t care whether they got every word 

or not. And it didn’t bother them that she inserted a 
"Ho-yo-to-ho” from Brtinnhilde’s War Cry in the middle 
of her broomstick ride. 

Finally, they overlaid the birds’ twittering and other 
sound effets. A profound bow is due to Fred Plaut, the 
Columbia recording genius. The whole thing had to be 
put on a magnetic sound truck so that the synchroniza- 
tion would be perfect, and sent to Hollywood to be trans- 
ferred to stereophonic sound. 

At last, the picture began to be made. It was fitted 
to the sound track, rather than the other way around. 
Which may account for some of the dull stretches in 
the picture, I am reluctant to say, being all in favor of 
the idea. 

Meyerberg’s little dolls, called Kinemins, constitute a 
new process which, involving electronics and trick 
photography, I don’t pretend to understand. They seem 
to be made of putty, because their facial expressions can 
change. Their large and shiny eyes can move, too. But 
their bodily movements are uncomfortable to watch. And 
they possess neither the lightness and the bewitching 
unexpectedness of cartoons nor the range of human ex- 
pression. The two animals added for variety were rather 
cute — a white goose and a brown teddy bear. Their 
antics are almost charming, while the dance of the 
benches, which reveals faces on their under sides when 
they stand up, is wholly so. 

The Witch — ah, there is the star character in any 
HANSEL AND GRETEL. Even calling her Rosina Ruby- 
lips, a revolting vulgarization, couldn’t spoil her fascina- 
tion for the younguns. I found her slightly repelling, how- 
ever, with a red pony-tail hair-do, a trollop’s make-up — 
even her traditional warts looked like exaggerated beauty 
spots — and music-hall manners. Still, she had the fan- 
ciest, most believable and elaborate cooky-and-ginger- 
bread house I ever saw. I wanted to nibble, along with 
the kids. 

For the record, Colum’s screen play was based on the 
original play by Adelheid Wette; John Paul was the 
director; the scenes (part fantastic, part realistic in a 
way that didn’t quite jell) were by Evalds Dajevskik, 
and the whole was photographed in Technicolor. In addi- 
tion to Miss Russell, Miss Brigham and the Apollo Boys, 
the singers include Mildred Dunnock as the miserable 
Mother; Frank Rogier as the sanguine father; Delbert 
Anderson as the night-shirted Sandman, and Helen Boat- 
right as the Dew Fairy. 

HANSEL AND GRETEL . . . Michael Meyerberg; RKO. 
Anna Russell, Mildred Dunnock. Director, John Paul. 
Orchestra directed by Franz Allers. Technicolor. 

(Quaintance Eaton is a critic, author and editor.) 

Alfred E. Simon 

In the production of the screen biography of any 
show composer, the general idea would seem to be — 
and usually has been — to feature an array of his most 
celebrated and enduring melodies, together with a sprink- 
ling of lesser-known songs that should have made the 
grade, but never quite did. Consequently, it's discon- 
certing to find that MGM, in its tribute to Sigmund 
Romberg, should have devoted so much footage (nearly 
50%) to his early pot-boilers — the "razz-ma-tazz” 
production numbers of which he was scarcely proud but 
forced to write to earn a living ( as the story takes great 
pains to point out). Titles like "Leg of Mutton”, "Fat 
Fatima” and "I Love To Go Swimmin’ With Wimmin” 
should give an indication of their quality. Ostensibly, the 
reasons for including any of his early output at all were 
(1) to demonstrate the conflict between the pressure 
from his producers and his desire to write songs in the 
romantic vein which later brought him fame, and (2) to 
provide material with limited vocal demands for actor 
Jose Ferrer (who portrays Romberg), and dancers Gene 
Kelly and his brother Fred, Ann Miller and Tamara 
Toumanova. Undoubtedly these numbers are at least as 
well produced and performed here as they were in the 
original productions a generation ago. But it does seem 
a pity that, in order to make a biographical point, so 
many of the romantic songs had to be sacrificed. Those of 
the latter that have been retained are attractively per- 
formed in the conventional MGM manner. Jane Powell 
and Vic Damone sing "Will You Remember” from 
"Maytime” quite prettily; Cyd Charisse’s vocal perform- 
ance of "One Alone” from "The Desert Song” is not 
ideal, but her dancing of it with James Mitchell is one of 
the film’s high spots. Another effective number is 
"Lover Come Back To Me” from "New Moon”, set forth 
by Tony Martin and Joan Weldon. Strangely, the only 
time we hear the song which gave the picture its title is 
under the credits at the beginning! 

Easily the greatest distinction of DEEP IN MY 
HEART is provided by a newcomer to Hollywood — 
Miss Helen Traubel. In her screen debut she radiates a 
delightful warmth and spontaneity both in her singing 
and acting that’s all too rare in films of this type. She is 

seen as the proprietress of a Viennese cafe on New York’s 
Second Avenue where Romberg was employed as a 
pianist in the early ’teens, and we first hear her in the 
nostalgic "You Will Remember Vienna” with just the 
wistfulness it should have. Not long afterwards there’s a 
change of pace and the great lady joins Jose Ferrer in the 
"Leg cf Mutton” number not only in song, but a hoofing 
specialty as well. The fun she had in this number is quite 
evident and a joy to watch in itself. Later on Miss Traubel 
returns to a quieter mood and gives us "Auf Wieder- 
sehen”, again just as it should be sung — tenderly and 
devoid of the over-dramatic quality we so often hear. The 
idea of a virile baritone selection like "Stout-hearted Men” 
being assigned to Helen Traubel may strike one at first as 
preposterous. However, here it is sung not in the con- 
ventional rousing manner, but with a slow steady rhythm 
as a fervent song of encouragement to a discouraged 
Romberg, and it proves to be most effective. In fact when 
this reviewer saw the film at the Radio City Music Hall 
the audience burst into spontaneous and loud applause at 
the end of the sequence. The musical background of the 
picture is always tastefully handled under the direction of 
Adolph Deutsch. 

To sum up, let’s say that DEEP IN MY HEART 
will hardly be remembered as one of MGM's better 
musical biographies, but rather as the film in which Helen 
Traubel made an impressive Hollywood debut. 

DEEP IN MY HEART . . . Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Jose 
Ferrer, Helen Traubel. Director, Stanley Donen. Music 
supervised and conducted bv Adolph Deutsch. Orchestra- 
tions, Hugo Friedhofer and Alexander Courage. Choral 
Arrangements, Robert Tucker. Technicolor. 

Records: MGM Sound-Track Series: E3153 ( 12"-33-l/3 
rpm): X276 (3-45 rpm Extended Play records); MGM 
27 6 (4-78 rpm records). DEEP IN MY HEART; selec- 
tions. MGM Studio Orchestra and Chorus conducted by 
Adolph Deutsch. 


(Alfred E. Simon is Director of Light Music at Station 
WQXR, New York.) 


Nathan Kroll 

"When I was a small boy 'opera’ was a bad word in 
our home. Opera was a way people lost money, especially 
Grandpa. Grandpa was a clever man. He was a publisher, 
an inventor, a builder of theatres and a theatrical pro- 
ducer. Whenever he was engaged in any of these pursuits 
our family was rich. As soon as he would get enough 
money together he would put it all into opera and the 
family would become poor again. I began to be curious 
about this word 'opera’ and with a child’s singleness of 
purpose, I persisted in asking until one afternoon I was 
taken to a matinee at the Manhattan Opera House. Well 
— my mother hadn’t told me the worst. Not only were 
they singing all the lines but everything was in a language 
I couldn’t understand. What are they singing?’ I whis- 
pered to mother. ’Italian.’ I looked around at the audience. 
'Do all these people know Italian?’ 'Only a few’, she 
answered. 'Then why do they sing it in Italian, mother?’ 
'They always do and stop asking questions. ” 

The preceding is taken from Oscar Hammerstein 
2nd’s introduction to his text for the stage version of 
"Carmen Jones”. It is highly possible that this early 
experience planted a seed in the mind of young Ham- 
merstein II that grew and bore fruit. Years later he 
thought of doing something about opera in English, an 
opera that would be at home in America. The result was 
"Carmen Jones”. 

Along with your reporter, Mr. Hammerstein believes 
Bizet’s "Carmen” to be a perfect marriage of story and 
music. Consequently, when he wrote "Carmen Jones" in 
1943, he adhered closely to the original. The melodies 
with a few exceptions were sung in their accustomed 
order. The small deviations that were made were necessi- 
tated by the transference of Carmen to a modern Ameri- 
can background. In the elimination of the recitative pas- 
sages, the liberties taken were not as might be supposed. 
Bizet and his librettists originally wrote "Carmen" with 
scenes of spoken dialogue between the arias. "Carmen” 
was not converted to a "grand opera” until after Bizet’s 
death. The music set to the dialogue is not his music, but 
was written by one Ernest Guiraud. 

Now, to the screen version of "Carmen Jones”. Otto 
Preminger has transferred this all Negro production to 
the wide screen with taste and imagination, directing with 
a good blending of comedy and tragedy. Harry Kleiner’s 
screen play follows the Hammerstein stage libretto quite 
faithfully. Naturally some changes were inevitable, but 
none of the basic elements has been removed. Carmen 
is a pleasure-bent southern girl who works in a Dixie 
parachute factory, where Joe (Don Joses) is a member 
of the army contingent on guard duty. She lures him 
away from his sweetheart, Cindy Lou (Micaela), and he 
deserts with Carmen after a fight with his sergeant. 
Eventually, Carmen tires of Joe and takes up with Husky 
Miller (Escahnillo), the fighter, and Joe kills her when 
she refuses to return to him. 

In Dorothy Dandridge, Preminger has a perfect Car- 
men. Her characterization is elemental in its sexiness; she 
is the utterly selfish creature who is bad as a wilful child 
can be bad. She gives the part an extraordinary energy. 
Harry Belafonte as Joe is certainly a match for Dandridge 

in his believable and stunning performance as the decent 
young fellow who fights the infatuation that is to ruin 
him. Of the supporting players, Joe Adams gives a good 
account of himself as Husky Miller. Olga James does 
nicely as Cindy Lou, and Pearl Bailey — with just one 
song to sing — turns in a fine job as Carmen’s friend. 
She is particularly funny in the handling of her lines in 
the nightclub scene. Roy Glenn and Nick Stewart are 
engaging as Rum and Dink, manager and manager’s 
manager for Husky Miller. 

To fill the demands of the score, off-screen singers of 
operatic competence were used to double for Miss Dand- 
ridge and the Messrs. Belafonte and Adams. Marilyn 
Horne sang Carmen, Le Vern Hutcherson, Joe, and Mar- 
vin Hayes, Husky Miller. With due respect to the talent 
of these three singers, I feel that with a little more 
perseverance greater voices could have been found 
among our Negro singers to match the outstanding per- 
formances of Dandridge and Belafonte. Le Vern Hutch- 
erson, for example, has long been wavering between bari- 
tone and tenor. Consequently his singing in this film is 
often on the breathy side and certainly not as full-throated 
as it could be. The dubbing job, however, is excellent. 

Although Herschel Burke Gilbert is a young com- 
poser and conductor of wide experience and recognized 
ability (his score for THE THIEF was nominated for an 
Academy Award), the overall musical direction here 
leaves something to be desired. There are three or four 
entrances for chorus and orchestra where a firm downbeat 
seems to be missing. I need hardly point to the fact that 
conducting a straight film score is quite different from 
conducting an opera. A film score, where the music is 
timed with exactness on the cue sheet, requires the con- 
ductor to catch and respond to the dramatic peaks as they 
appear before him on the screen during the recording 
session (an ability or lack of it that causes either glee or 
consternation in the accounting department.) In the con- 
ducting of this score, I am sure that the reverse situation 
prevailed. Here the conductor probably had opportunity 
to complete as many takes as was desired until the final 
take was chosen. Then, it would be up to the actors to 
conform to the pre-recorded sound track. Therefore the 
fact that this music track is mainly of one color is to be 

But unquestionably, CARMEN JONES is an exciting 
and brilliant film. Unlike Grandpa Hammerstein, Oscar 
II and Otto Preminger need not turn to being publishers, 
inventors or builders of theatres. They should do quite 
well with this "opera”. 

CARMEN JONES . . . 20th Century Fox. Dorothy 
Dandridge, Harry Belafonte. Producer-Director, Otto 
Preminger. Music, Georges Bizet. Musical Direction, 
Herschel Burke Gilbert; Associate, Ted Dale. Music Edi- 
tors, Leon Birnbaum, George Brand. Music Recording, 
Vinton Vernon, Murray Spivak. Technicolor; Cinema- 

Record: RCA-Victor. CARMEN JONES; LM-1881, 
ERC-1881 (45 rpm). 

(Nathan Kroll is a composer and conductor.) 


Arthur L. Assum 

The cue-sheet below, of recorded music to be used 
with Keaton's THE GENERAL, was originally prepared 
for showings of the Roosevelt University Film Society in 
November 1953. Many film societies have discovered that 
silent films "get across” best to the audience when accom- 
panied by a carefully planned musical score — a fact long 
recognized by the early exhibitors of motion pictures. 

Having found the so-called "original” piano scores 
less than satisfactory, (they seemed to be a factor in 
causing the audience to see the films as quaint and ridicu- 
lous) I attempted to use music that would support the 
film to its best advantage. Experience with over 100 
scorings has convinced me that music by serious com- 
posers, whether it be "light” or "heavy”, usually succeeds 
quite well in helping the silent film reach the contem- 
porary viewer and in preventing the unfortunate spectacle 
&f the "hiss-the-villain-and-applaud-the-hero” reaction. 

Now for a few necessary mechanical facts about this 
cue-sheet. I used two 33-1/3 rpm turntables with inde- 
pendent volume controls for each. The output from these 
turntables were fed into the microphone in-put on the 
amplifier of the projector used to show the film. Volume 
level was varied to help fit the music to a particular film 
sequence and to make smooth transitions between musical 
cues. The film was shown at silent speed, that is, 16 
frames per second. All music was cued to either specific 
TITLES on the film or to specific ACTIONS in the film 
story. These two types of cues are indicated by T and A 
in the cue sheet. Titles in quotation marks indicate dialog 
and those without are descriptive titles. Most musical 
cues start with the beginning of a band on the recording. 
However, I found that this did not give the most appro- 
priate results in some cases, and have made use of a 
"music locater” which came with a volume entitled "Ten 
Operatic Masterpieces”, published in 1952 by Broadcast 
Music Inc., G. Ricordi and Co., and Charles Scribner's 
Sons, New York. This is a simple gadget, made of card- 
board with a hole near one end that fits over the turn- 
table spindle and is calibrated along both edges in groove 
widths. Cue No. 3 below, for example, starts at 56-1/2 
on the music locater. I am sure that a note to the pub- 
lisher of the volume listed above will bring information 
as to how to obtain one of these very handy devices. This 
cue sheet has been used by persons other than myself, and 
the musical cues have entered with satisfying accuracy. 

Film credits: Written and directed by Buster Keaton and 
Clyde Bruckman. Adapted by A1 Bossberg and Charles 
Smith. Photographed by Dev Jennings and Bert 
Haines. Technical Director, Fred Gabourie, Lighting 
effects, Denver Harmon. Stars, Buster Keaton, Marion 


Annabelle Lee Marion Mack 

Captain Anderson Glen Cavender 

General Thatcher Jim Farley 

A Southern General Frederick Vroom 

Her Father Charles Smith 

Her Brother Frank Barnes 

Three Union Generals Joe Keaton, 

Mike Donlin, Tom Nawn 
Johnnie Gray Buster Keaton 

Recordings used: 

Auric— Les Matelots I (Coi um bj a ML-2112) 

Satie — Parade > 

Berlioz — Le Corsaire Overture (Columbia RL-3071) 

Copland — Music from "The Red Pony” f ( Decca 9616) 
Thomson — Acadian Songs and Dances ) 

Gottschalk, arr. by Kay — Cakewalk. 

(Columbia ML-4616) 

Gould — Spirituals for Orchestra (Mercury 50016) 
(Columbia ML-4030) 

Kachaturian — Gayne Ballet Suites Nos. 1 and 2 
Thomson — Louisiana Story Suite (Columbia ML-2087) 

Cue-sheet of recorded music to be used with THE 
GENERAL (1927). 












Joseph M. Schenck presents — Buster 
Keaton in "The General” 





There were two loves in his life 

Gayne Ballet Suite, No. 1 
beginning, band 2 



"Don’t enlist him. He is more valuable 
to the South as an engineer” 

Les Matelots, 
at 5 6V 2 



"Did Johnnie enlist?” 

Acadian Songs and Dances, 



"Why not stop and fight them?” 

beginning, band 3 



General Parker’s victorious Northern 
Army advancing. 

Spirituals for Orchestra, 
beginning, band 3 



"At nine o’clock tomorrow morning 
our supply trains will meet and . . 

Louisiana Story Suite, 
beginning, band 3 



Buster gets hands out of bear trap 

beginning, band 2 



"We must pick up more firewood” 

Corsaire Overture, 
at 58 



The "General" stops for water 

Gayne Ballet Suite' No. 2, 
beginning, band 1 



Buster uncouples the "General" 





Officer comes out onto porch of 
division headquarters 

Music from "The Red Pony", 
beginning, band 3 



Nose of train just starting on bridge 





Heroes of the day 

Music from "The Red Pony”, 
beginning, band 3 



"Enlist the lieutenant” 

at 90 

(Arthur L. Assum is Assistant Professor of Education, 
University of Rochester, New York.) 



Adolph Deutsch, president of the Screen Composers’ 
Association, spent seven weeks in Europe, visting London, 
Zurich and Paris in connection with the representation of 
American composer organizations . . . Leonard Bernstein’s 
program will include themes from his ON THE 
WATERFRONT score, in his appearance as guest con- 
ductor with the Los Angeles Philharmonic . . . The 
Christopher Awards for outstanding achievement in 
radio, TV, motion pictures and song-writing during the 
past six months were announced by Father James Keller, 
director of the Christophers. Winners of the film awards 
were producer Arthur Freed, director Vincente Minnelli 
and writer Alan Jay Lerner for BRIGADON (MGM); 
producer Aaron Rosenberg, director Anthony Mann and 
writers Valentine Davies and Oscar Brodney for THE 
GLENN MILLER STORY” ( Universal ) . Irving Berlin 
was awarded the bronze medallion for his song "Count 
Your Blessings” from Paramount’s WHITE CHRIST- 
MAS. . . The Film Society Caucus, set up at the American 
Film Assembly in 1954, under the sponsorship of the 
Film Council of America, is "exploring the possibility of 
establishing a national federation to coordinate and aid 
the work of individual societies”, and ascertaining the 
interest in developing a national program. The results of 
this study will be acted upon at the second American Film 
Assembly, to be held in New York in April 1955. Art 
Assum of the University of Rochester is chairman of the 
Organizing Committee. . . Gordon Hendricks is present- 
ing a weekly program on film music, "The Sound Track”, 
on Sunday evenings at 9 o’clock over Station WEVD in 
New York . . . Charles Brackett, president of the Academy 
of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, has announced the 
appointment of two committees for the coming year. The 
27th Awards Planning Committee has Johnny Green as 
chairman and Hal Mohr heads the Forum and Screening 
Committee . . . The National Biennial Convention of the 

Music Teachers National Assocation will be held in 
St. Louis, Miss., February 13-16, 1955. Convention head- 
quarters will be the Hotel Jefferson . . . Cecil Bentz’ 
"String Quartet No. 1” was played by the Kohon String 
Quartet at the opening concert of the National Associa- 
tion of American Composers and Conductors 22nd Sea- 
son, in New York . . . The American Library Association 
states that the public libraries in this country which re- 
ported on their motion picture activities, circulated 
54,689 films during one month alone last year . . . The 
Cinema 16 Film Center has been established at the New 
School for Social Research in New York, under the direc- 
tion of Amos Vogel, executive secretary of Cinema 16, 
and Arthur Knight, film lecturer and film critic of "The 
Saturday Review”. Two series of programs are being of- 
fered: "The Film and Reality”, made up of memorable 
films of the past, and "New Frontiers for Film”, which 
presents experimental and documentary films. Authorities 
in the field will be speakers at many of the sessions. Mr. 
Knight is conducting the programs ... At the recent 
meeting of the Composers’ Guild of America the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: Leith Stevens, president; 
Gene von Hallberg, Walter Schumann and Ben Ludlow, 
vice-presidents; Mack David, secretary-treasurer; and 
Winston Sharpies, assistant secretary-treasurer. An execu- 
tive board was elected simultaneously in Hollywood and 
New York. West Coast members are Jeff Alexander, 
Alexander Courage, Hugo Friedhofer, Herschel B. Gil- 
bert, Lyn Murray, David Raksin, Walter Scharf, Marlin 
Skiles and Leith Stevens, screen; Basil Adlam, Richard 
Aurandt, Carmen Dragon and Rex Koury, radio; Frank 
de Vol, Wilbur Hatch, Irving Miller, Walter Schumann 
and Nathan G. Scott, TV, and Mack David and Sylvia 
Fine, songwriters. Eastern members are Rudolf Schramm 
and Winston Sharpies, screen; Ben Ludlow and Gene 
von Hallberg, radio; Milton Kraus, Ralph Norman and 
David Terry, TV, and Arthur Schwartz, songwriter. 

Gerald Pratley 

Alan Rawsthorne (whose scores include BURMA 
THE CRUEL SEA) was in Toronto during June and July 
teaching composition at the summer school of the Royal 
Conservatory of Music. His lectures included one on scor- 
ing for films. He told a story about a New York music 
publisher who, when THE CRUEL SEA opened, sent him 
an urgent wire asking if he could find a theme in his 
score suitable for arranging into a 'hit song’. Needless to 
say, Mr. Rawsthorne was astonished at the suggestion, but 
politely replied that there was no theme in THE CRUEL 

SEA suitable for a popular song. (If certain composers 
and producers in Hollywood were to follow this example 
we should not be plagued now with the raft of mediocre 
theme songs from films which do so much harm to the 
cause of film music.) 

Asked if he found it difficult to change quickly from 
concert music to film music, he replied: "No, although of 
course the problems involved in writing for films are 
rather different. In film composition the pattern of the 
musical structure is more or less pre-ordained. You can’t, 
for instance, delay the entrance of the hero for a couple 
of minutes because you don’t want to bring your trom- 


bones just yet. Concert music takes its shape from the 
development of the material. But I find that the limita- 
tions imposed on one when writing film music can be 
stimulating and even good for one’s technique. This hap- 
pened to me with my first film score. I was in the middle 
of composing my Piano Concerto and I was a little wor- 
ried about interrupting work on it, as I had only got as 
far as the slow movement, but it turned out for the best. 
When I’d finished the film I came back to the concerto 
and tore up the slow movement and wrote what I think 
is a much better one.” 

Before leaving London Mr. Rawsthorne completed his 
score for the new Robert Donat picture LEASE ON 
LIFE, produced by Ealing Studios. On his return he ex- 
pects to compose a ballet on a Japanese subject ("a 
Madame Butterfly sort of thing”) for Frederick Ashton 
and the Sadler’s Wells Company. 

At the National Film Board .Norman McLaren has 
almost completed the short called BLINKITY BLANK, 
a highly attractive film of bright and humorous shapes 
and figures appearing against a black background, which 
he engraved on black emulsion-coated film and colored 
by hand. The music is by Murice Blackburn, who wrote 
only rhythm and dynamics for four wind instruments and 
a cello. He gave the musicians a score which contained a 
simple staff with notes marked in three positions: high, 
middle and low. This left the musicians free to improvise 
the melody and the harmony on a vaguely indicated 
rhythm. The edited result is an interesting combination of 
musical lines and tone colors, created by the five instru- 
ments playing independently. BLINKITY BLANK was 
shown by Norman McLaren at the Sao Paulo Film Festi- 
val, but being far from satisfied, he has been making 
changes to bring it up to his high standard of achieve- 
ment. He has also partly findished a short film about 
arithmetic, designed to make the subject attractive to 
young children. The technique is that of photographed 
cut-outs. Sound and music have not yet been added. 

On a recent program in the CBS series, Music from 
the Films, the New Zealand composer Douglas Lilburn 
described and played extracts from his score for the docu- 
mentary film JOURNEY FOR THREE, produced in 
1948 by the New Zealand National Film Unit. Mr. 
Lilburn’s broadcast was recorded for the CBS by the 
National Broadcasting Service of the Dominion of 
New Zealand. 

JOURNEY FOR THREE recorded the impressions 
of three Government-sponsored immigrants from the 
United Kingdom as they took up a new life in New 
Zealand. Of the film, the composer had this to say: 
"Director Michael Forlong (he’s now making films in 
Norway) was very considerate in the matter of music for 
the film. I was invited to be in on some early discussions 
and we were able to work out some of the sequences in 
detail . . . For various reasons the orchestra had to be 
quite small, about 24 players, consisting of 5 woodwinds, 
2 horns, 2 trumpets and strings." 

Douglas Liburn then described the film and played 
the following extracts from his score (recorded on New 
Zealand Tanza CL2-3 by the National Symphony Orches- 
tra: Title Music, Skiing on Mount Cook, Hospital Se- 
quence, Race Meeting, Visit to the Farm, Mackenzie 
County and Climbing the Glacier. The composer ended 
his broadcast with these views on writing film scores in 
New Zealand. "I can hardly start giving my opinions 
about writing film scores, because this was the first film of 
any length I’ve written music for. When I wrote my first 
score for a documentary in 1947 virtually no film music 
had been written in New Zealand. What experience I’ve 
gained so far I’ve had to earn the time-honored way. 

What I would like and what some other composers 
here would like also, is more opportunity to learn this 
rather specialized job. Unfortunately, since JOURNEY 
FOR THREE was made, a change in Government policy 
reduced the National Film Unit (formed in 1939) to a 
strictly self-supporting enterprise. I say reduced because 
I believe an enterprise of this kind develops best under 
a wise patronage. 

JOURNEY FOR THREE, for instance, had to be 
guaranteed financially, but it has returned a handsome 
dividend. But since it was made five years ago, there has 
been no further attempt to make a feature film. Since 
1949 only two scores have been commissioned for short 
documentaries. There has been little or no scope for ex- 
perimental work, and what young artistic venture can 
grow without that? 

Director and composer strike another difficulty. The 
Musicians’ Union insists on high rates of payment by the 
hour. If good players were always available this would 
not matter, but many of them in New Zealand are tied 
up with the National Orchestra. Less competent players 
cannot be used if they must be paid twice as much as the 
job is worth, because they need twice as long to rehearse. 
In view of this, directors find it simpler to dip into a pile 
of phonograph records, but I don’t think this can ever 
give to a film the artistic unity that specially composed 
music may give. 

This state of affairs is a great pity, for our film 
makers are doing excellent work in documentaries. I 
belive New Zealand composers would make real con- 
tributions in this field if they could have opportunity to 
acquire the special techniques the work requires. For us 
as composers it’s a very pleasant and valuable type of 
work. I’m sure that composing for visual images of 
things immediate to our ways of life helps us to develop 
a contemporary and characteristic style.” 

Douglas Lilburn was born in New Zealand in 1915, 
and spent his early life on a hill-country sheep station. 
He studied at the Royal College of Music in London 
under Vaughan Williams, and is now attached to the 
music department of Victoria College in Wellington. He 
has composed some thirty works, including two sym- 


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Roman Vlad 

Joseph S. Dubin 

Jack Shaindlin 

Harold Brown 

Marie Hamilton 



Roman Vlad 

Problems of setting: Similar to those of background, 
costume, etc.; that is, the problems of era and style. 
(The film is placed in the first half of the 15th century.) 

Difficulty: It was not possible to be inspired directly 
by taking musical works of the time as models to the 
extent that contemporary painting inspired the visual 
aspects of the film, because music becomes older more 
quickly than the other arts. The music of the 1400s is 
much more archaic than the painting of the age. Music 
of that day would have been out of keeping stylistically 
with the rest of the picture. 

Solution: Free composition inspired by the music 
in the scene (dances, and religious and secular vocal 
music), these in turn based on 15th century models. In 
the ball scene, for example, the galliards, pavanes and 
so on were modeled on similar pieces by Giovanni 
Battista Besardo and Guglielmo Dufay. Other in-the- 
scene pieces recreate the atmosphere and flavor of the 
Florentine Ars Nova and of the "Canti Carnascialeschi” 
of Tuscany. However, I repeat that these pieces are de- 
vised after the manner of their models. It is a matter of 
evoking the same expressive climate by other formal 


1. Titles. Sampling of the principal choral and instru- 
mental motives. 

2. Brawl of the servants. Dramatic recital. (Exploits 
the rhythmical contrast between the music and the 

3. 4. Music of the soldiers. Palace of the Prince. 

5. Little song during the dressing of Juliet, in the style 
of an ancient English song. 

6. Chattering of the women in Juliet’s room, with de- 
velopment of the theme in Number 5. 

7. The nurse’s prattle. The piece augments the impres- 
sion of her loquacity. ( Bassoon and contrabass. ) 

8. Mother’s entrance and announcement of the proposed 
marriage. (Still theme 5.) 

means rather than of reproducing selected quotations in 
elaborated form. Thus the chants of the friars sound 
Gregorian, but they are not really so. (Castellani had 
recorded some real Gregorian chant, but then preferred 
to substitute for it the "Gregorian” invented by me. ) 

" Stylistic Planes”: When the music refers to the situ- 
ation its structure remains obviously within the limit of 
the classical system of tonal harmony, even though this 
is really much later than the musical language of the 
1400s. Using the idiom of the Quattrocento would have 
given the public an effect of the medieval period rather 
than of the Renaissance. At those times when the music 
is invested with a purely expressive significance (lyrical 
or dramatic) the grammatical structure of the music is 
modified, to the point of even including 12-tone tech- 
niques. (See all of the sequence in the tomb where the 
themes disassociate themselves almost into isolated notes 
which float in the air, prolong themselves and pass into 
sounds and echoes as from voices. This is true also in 
the poison scene.) In the music that is part of the action, 
the color of the period is heightened by the use of an- 
cient instruments: viola d'amore, clavicembalo, harpsi- 
chord, lute, etc., which appear in the scenes themselves. 


9, 10, 11. Entrance to the ball and introduction to 
the dance. 

12. Romeo’s arrival at the ball. 

13. Songs at the ball. 

14. Instrumental intermezzo. 

15. Spring: songs, and dance in the rhythm of the gal- 
liard with the poetic text of Matteo Maria Boiardo; 
a chorus of children’s voices, which becomes then 
the theme of Juliet. (Example 1.) 

Example 1. Juliet’s Theme 


16. Second intermezzo. 

17. Dance with Romeo, which then becomes the theme 
of Romeo. (Example 2.) 

27. Joyful song of the friars (Ave Maris Stella). "Ex- 
pressive counterpoint" between the cheerfulness of 
the song and the dramatic situation. 

28. Romeo’s farewell to his parents. (Theme of Romeo 
in two keys, Example 4a; 12-tone version, Example 

Example 2. Romeo’s Theme 

a-jt- ; ; rr 

**• «r -- f - t . I' . '1 _ 1 1 - 

* ‘l- 

18. Juliet’s prayer, recalling the themes of the ball. 

19. Night music (Mercutio and friends). I composed 
the theme of this piece to the words of Lorenzo de 
Medici "How beautiful is youth”, which was to have 
become Mercutio’s Serenade (Number 20) but the 
actor sang it badly and so we rearranged it as an 
instrumental piece. 

21. Music of the seamstresses. (Theme of the chattering 
of the women; theme of Juliet’s room, with old 
instruments. ) 

22. Chorus of friars during the wedding. (Tractus.) 

23. Psalm of the friars during the wedding, finishing 
with the words "Manum tuam”. 

24. Amen during the wedding. 

25. Death of Tybalt (funeral march), with variations 
on the theme of Romeo. 

25a. Lament of Juliet. Expressionist version of Juliet’s 
theme. (Example 3.) 


~ - j ji" 

t •£ 

m — 

— — 

U — 



Example 3. Juliet’s Lament. ( Expressionist variant of 
Juliet’s Theme.) 

26. Romeo after the killing of Tybalt, (like Number 

Example 4 A. Romeo’s Farewell. (Polytonal variant of 
Romeo’s Theme.) 

Example 4B. Romeo’s Farewell. (12-tone variant.) 

29. Night of love. Dark screen during 30 seconds of 
music; development of the two principal themes. 

30. Dawn. Resolution of the preceding number. 

31. The mother and Paris discuss his marriage to Juliet. 
(Theme of Juliet’s room, Juliet’s theme, Romeo’s 
theme. ) 

32. Despair of Juliet. (Juliet’s theme; 12-tone system.) 

33. Juliet goes to Friar Laurence. Music reminiscent of 
the wedding. 

33a. Chorus of friars in the distance (Dies Irae). 

34. Friar Laurence writes letter to Rome. (Old in- 
struments ) . 

35. Friar John goes to Mantua on a little donkey. (Don- 
key theme.) 

36. 37. The plague-ridden house. (Donkey theme in 
minor and changed rhythms.) 


38. Poison scene. ( 12-tone variant on Juliet’s theme. 
Example 5.) 

Example 5. 12-tone variant of Juliet’s Theme in the 
poison scene. 

39. Introduction to Romeo’s ride. ( Romeo’s theme. ) 

40. Juliet’s funeral. (Miserere.) 

41. Juliet’s funeral. (Requiem.) 

42. Romeo’s ride. (Theme, dance of Romeo.) 

43. Arrival of Romeo in Verona. 

44-47. Music in the Cathedral and in the tomb. (12- 
tone, fragmented. Example 2.) 

48. Reawakening of Juliet. 

49. Death of Juliet. (Superimposition of the various 
themes of the ball.) 

50. Final chorus: "Jacent in pulvere miseri”. (The same 
music as the Main Title.) 

- l „ , CvW 

— . a. fr ft . 1 

l Z 3 + S t 1 t 1 jo U U 

The 12 -tone parts of all the music are based on 
the series: 

Example 6. 

This series is similar in its structure to the one on 
which I based my score for the film LA BEAUTE DU 
DIABLE by Rene Clair, which Hans Keller analyzed in 
"The Music Review”, (London) May 1951. 

ROMEO AND JULIET . . . J. Arthur Rank; United 
Artists. Director, Renato Castellani. Music, Roman Vlad. 
Music conducted by Lambert Williamson. Technicolor. 



Joseph S. Dubin 

When Paul Smith began preparation for composing 
the score of 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA, he 
found himself facing a number of knotty problems, of 
which the greatest was this: how much music to use? 
Unquestionably, many sequences of this picture could 
stand up without music, and Richard Fleischer, the 
director, favored this procedure in many spots, notably 
the fight with the giant squid. Against this, however, 
Paul had to consider the Disney tradition of making 
the fullest use of music to point up both action and 
dramatic implication of a picture, as had been done in 
the "Nature” series, with such films as THE LIVING 

Paul composed over sixty-seven minutes of orchestral 
music, resulting in an impressive score. 

The character of Captain Nemo (James Mason), 
who is portrayed as ruthless toward his enemies, but 
with an over-all humanitarian desire for peace on earth, 
was depicted by the theme which opens the Main Title 
(1-A-l). Starting at bar 1 in the brass, it continues at 
bar 5 with all the strings, while harp, celesta, and bass 
marimba, on a separate track, assist the woodwind to 
produce a "watery” effect. 


Another use of this theme is in the scene where Prof. Arronax (Paul Lukas), 
Conseil (Peter Lorre) and Ned Land (Kirk Douglas) are wandering through the de- 
serted submarine. (3-B). 

. A 

,"i i ii 

i-I— 1 ~- -• • -• 



j T 

jifei-T: =|, 


‘ /n 

a __2 = 

t ~ 






Pr H X- 





[ 4-4 


55= — ? =*===- -1- lj 

ff f — f * H 

iho— j — xi 

Again this theme appears when Captain Nemo is guiding the submarine through 
the labyrinth of underwater grottoes (13-A). The low woodwind and Strings add a 
feeling of powerful motion. 

Once more the theme is paraphrased as Captain Nemo crawls back to his cabin to 
die. (13-C) Here the composer recorded the string melody line on a separate high level 
track, to heighten the feeling of tragic tension. 


To depict the arrogant, foolhardy and avaricious Ned Land, Paul made use of the 
sea chantey, "Whale of a Tale”, which Ned sings, early in the picture. For instance in 
cue 9-C, bars 1 to 5 present a minor paraphrase of this theme, as Ned wanders into the 
New Guinea jungle. Starting at bar 7, Paul used what he calls a "Hollywood-South Seas 
type” melody, to lull the audience into a false feeling of security and repose. Note the 
woodwind bird-calls. 


Later in 10-C, the cannibal chase motif (bars 13 and 15) alternate with fragments 
of the "Whale of a Tale” theme, as the natives chase him back to the submarine. Here 
Paul emphasizes the essentially comic nature of the scene, dramatic though it appears. 

The scene of Ned Land and the pet seal, with Ned very inebriated, calls forth the 
theme in augmented fourths (12-D). 




N.B. One of the bass clarinets in the Disney orchestra is a specially built model, with a range 
down to A, i tone lower than the bassoon. 

In 11 -A the chromatic descending flutes and horns depict the submarine's descent 
into the depths. 

Worthy of special notice is the "underwater effect, which is used many times 
throughout the score. This effect was produced by various combinations of low strings 
and woodwind, piano, harp, gong and an "orchestral bass” marimba, which reaches the 
lowest "F” on the piano. In 4-B the Captain Nemo theme is intoned by horns. 




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theme (1-B), the vicious shark theme (6-A), and, of course, the giant squid fight, 
which starts with 11-C and continues with such passages as 11-D, 13 and 14, and 
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The attack on Captain Nemo’s base is built over a military drum rhythm (13-B) 
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A combination of the Nemo theme and the underwater effect brings the picture 
to its close ( 14-D). 




20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA . . . Walt Disney; Buena Vista. Kirk Douglas, 
James Mason. Director, Richard Fleischer. Music, Paul Smith. Orchestrations, Joseph 
S. Dubin. Song, "Whale of a Tale", A1 Hoffman, Norman Gimbel. Music copyright, Won- 
derland Music Co., Inc. Record: Decca; 



Jack Shaindlin 

When Louis de Rochemont asked me to handle the 
music for his production of CINERAMA HOLIDAY, 
I knew that this assignment would turn out to be the 
most enjoyable one in my fifteen years of scoring music 
for the films. This wasn't just "another job”, but an 
opportunity to explore the possibilities of the finest 
recording system yet devised. One seldom gets a chance 
to work with a seven-speaker high-fidelity sound mira- 
cle with a range of 15,000 cycles, twice that of the 
ordinary sound system, and complete control of sound 

It was my good fortune to secure the services of 
Morton Gould to compose the music. Having worked 
on movie scores with many composers, I was amazed at 
Gould’s technique and facility. Two or three drafts of 
a single sequence were written in a matter of hours 
with a minimum of effort and temperament. I was also 
very fortunate in getting Van Cleave on a loan-out 
from Paramount Pictures. This brilliant orchestrator 
was responsible for composing some of the music used 
in the "Jet Planes” sequence. 

CINERAMA HOLIDAY is the story of two couples 
— their travels and their thrills — as seen through the 
eyes of the latest cinematic miracle, the Cinerama 
camera. The Swiss couple visit the United States and 
discover a new world. At New Orleans, the cradl,e of 
jazz, they hear "Down by the Riverside” sung by the 
congregation of a Baptist church, watch and listen in 
amazement as the Tuxedo Marching Band plays "When 
the Saints Come Marching In", and enjoy the improvisa- 
tions of "Papa" Celestin’s Original Tuxedo Dixieland 
Jazz Band playing "Tiger Rag”. 

The San Francisco waterfront cafe, the Tin Angel, 
contributes a duet singing a sea chanty dating from the 
Gold Rush days — and in another section of the town 
a group of Chinese musicians play the old love song, 
"The Luminous Pearl and Magnolia”. 

Their visit to New Hampshire produces the splen- 
did Dartmouth College Glee Club singing "Men of 
Dartmouth” and the most glorious autumnal scenes 
ever filmed are projected to the accompaniment of "Come 
to the Fair” sung by the University of New Hampshire 
Glee Club. 

The Jet Plane Finale culminates in a stirring rendi- 
tion of "Hail to Our Land” sung by the U. S. Naval 
Academy Choir. This song was written by me in colla- 
boration with James Peterson, a well known New York 
choral director. 

Meanwhile, the other couple, Americans from Kan- 
sas City, embark upon a journey taking them to Paris 
and Switzerland. The Boy's Choir of the Notre Dame 
Cathedral in Paris is heard in a Couperin Mass. The 
famous military band, Garde Republicaine, plays the 
stirring "Sambre et Meuse” and Jean Phillipe Rameau’s 
18th century opera-ballet "Les Indes Galantes" is per- 
formed at the plush Opera House. 

Their adventures in Switzerland end in a visit to 
Le Ferme in Davos where they join a group of skiers 
at a cheese fondue party. Here, a couple of yodelers 
render an old Swiss song, "Hup-sa-sa" with the entire 
group joining in the chorus. 

All the above mentioned musical sequences were 
filmed with synchronous sound at the place of action. 
All other sequences were underscored with background 
music. They included: Plane Ride over the Alps, Swiss 
Scenic, Simple Skiing, The Ski Waltz, Southland, Vista 
Dome, Arizona, Paris Valse, The Louvre, Paris Pro- 
menade, Joan of Arc, Children’s Thursday and Jet 
Plane Finale. Most of the background music is gay and 
rhythmic, depicting a holiday not only on the screen 
but on the sound track as well. 

The music from CINERAMA HOLIDAY will soon 
be released on three major record labels: Columbia’s 
"Papa” Celestin memorial album, RCA Victor’s 
CINERAMA HOLIDAY themes as recorded by Morton 
Gould’s orchestra, and the original sound track album 
conducted by me for Mercury Records. It is quite un- 
usual for a non-musical film to be recorded by three 
major disc companies, and I’m very proud of this. 

Reproduced below are some of the themes. 

CINERAMA HOLIDAY . . . Louis de Rochemont; Stan- 
ley Warner Corp. Directors, Robert Bendick, Philippe 
de Lacy. Music, Morton Gould, Van Cleave. Musical Di- 
rector, Jack Shaindlin. Music copyright, Stanley Warner 
Corp. Publisher, Chappell & Co. 


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Harold Brown 

Warner Brothers’ companion piece to THE ROBE 
presented Franz Waxman with a vehicle not quite as 
gratifying to execute as its predecessor, which allowed 
the music to breathe more easily and did not hem it 
in relentlessly between action and dialogue. But to a 
veteran like Mr. Waxman, who was probably not even 
aware of this fact (and indeed may disagree with me as 
to its verity), it was all in a day’s work as he produced 
a score exhibiting his customary skill and finish. 

Unlike Alfred Newman’s score for THE ROBE, 
this makes no effort to derive its idiom from Asiatic 
sources; Mr. Waxman’s music is in the nature of a 
modern commentary upon an ancient subject. This is 
perfectly legitimate, for I do not believe that historical 
authenticity is a purpose of background music, except 
where it becomes an actual part of the subject matter — 
and then it is no longer background music. At the 
same time, the value of Mr. Newman’s (and other com- 
posers’) approach cannot be denied, for it has produced 
some very interesting and satisfying results that I have 
commented upon. 

Mr. Waxman’s idiom covers wide horizons, ranging 
all the way from the smooth triads of the Dresden 
Amen to parallel fifths and sevenths, and to the raucous 
dissonances of the scenes of turmoil. There are hints of 
variations and passacaglia, passages of pure fugue, and 
frequent use of the devices of inversion, imitation, and 
double counterpoint, which, while unhappily lost in the 
secondary role assigned to film music, point to the com- 
poser’s solid mastery of his craft. The passages I liked 

best were evidently minor ones, for they were not in- 
cluded in the excerpts sent by the studio: the desert 
scene during the journey to Jerusalem, a scene between 
Helena and the magician, where the music quickly pro- 
duces a hushed atmosphere after a previously noisy 
sequence, and a brief but beautiful bit of melodic writ- 
ing as Basil, the sculptor, wrestles with himself in an 
attempt to conceive the head of Jesus. 

Less pleasing to me is Mr. Waxman’s predilection 
for underscoring noise with noise. This is a matter of 
taste, but it seems to me that where stark reality, both 
in sight and sound, is the object, music adds little and 
can detract much. There is little point in theorizing 
about this — one is invited to compare the fight scenes 
of this film, underscored by clashing brasses, with that 
of THE ROBE, where the thud of feet and the clash 
of steel are the only sounds — to decide himself which 
is the more effective. To producers, however, this is a 
purely academic question. Of the millions of movie-goers, 
I have yet to meet one who has complained of lessened 
pleasure owing to the underscoring of a battle or storm 

The themes of three principal characters are given 

THE SILVER CHALICE . . . Warner Brothers. Virginia 
Mayo, Paul Newman. Music composed and conducted 
by Franz Waxman. Orchestrations, Leonid Raab. Music 
copyright, Warner Brothers. 


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16 mm FILMS 

A Musician in the Family (National Film Board of 
Canada; 630 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 16mm, 
35mm; b and w. 17 min.) A ten-year-old’s desire to 
play the trombone and his hard-working father's fear 
that the boy will become a musician instead of a farmer, 
come to light through flashback during performances at 
Saskatchewan’s 43rd annual music festival. This is a 
nicely made picture of the respect of these plain, at- 
tractive people for good music; of the teacher’s place in 
encouraging this taste, as well as stressing that cultiva- 
tion of a child’s talent, even though small, can be a source 
of pleasure to himself and those around him. Although 
the Canadian prairies and farm life are a strong factor 
here, the basic problem is applicable almost anywhere. 
Robert Fleming has written a bright score whose main 
theme — the small musician’s test-piece at the festival — 
is one you’ll hum for several days. 

Totems (National Film Board of Canada; 630 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. 16mm; col. 11 min.) A short 
study of the totem poles in British Columbia describes 
their significance in Indian tribal life and legend. Visu- 
ally they are impressive, standing with their weird carv- 
ings of men and animals in little groups on the river- 
bank of a deserted village, or rising tall and solitary in 
a field of wild flowers. Traditional Indian chanting, with 
an occasional mixed chorus and the vigorous beating of 
tom-toms, makes up a fitting score. 

Georges Braque (Film Images; I860 Broadway, 
New York City. 16mm, b and w. 17 min.) After open- 
ing with a summary of the painter’s style development, 
the film visits Braque in his studio. Something of his 
work patterns is shown, with an emphasis on his regard 
for the poetry in everyday objects and in nature. The 
score is adapted from the Well-tempered Clavier, in 
keeping with the film’s contemplative, leisurely survey 
of a thoughtful artist. 

Images from Debussy (Film Images; I860 Broad- 
way, New York City. 16mm, b and w. 14 min.) Jacques 
Fevrier plays three works of Claude Debussy: "Arabesque 
en Mi”, "Reflets Dans I’Eau” and "Arabesque en Sol”. 
The poetic visualizations — water, clouds, landscape 
reflected in a shimmering pool, are all thoroughly in 

mood with the music. The film was directed by Jean 

It Takes Everybody to Build This Land (Encyclo- 
pedia Britannica Films; 202 East 44th St., New York 
City. 16mm, b and w. 21 min.) Our interdependence for 
daily necessities is emphasized in this little history of 
American agriculture and industry. Oscar Brand sings 
the folk-song commentary, accompanied by his guitar. 
The following songs were adapted for this purpose. 
The Farmer Is the Man: from a 19th century grange 
song. Come All You Young Fellers: "On the Ohio", 
early 19th century favorite among wagon trains going 
west. Swing That Axe : sung as "Roll on Red” by railroad 
tie tampers and shanty boys. And While I Go Out and 
Hoe: from "Shoot the Buffalo", a square dance song. 
A Man Needs a Roof: The chorus words "It’s time for 
the shucking of the corn”, are traditional harvest material, 
sung in America since the 18th century. The Summer's 
Gone: a British importation, "Ivy Sing Ovy”. The Black- 
smith Is the Man, The Cobbler Is the Man, etc. all de- 
rived from The Farmer Is the Man. Fill the Hold with 
Scaly Gold: from the Yankee clipper chanty "Blow Ye 
Winds of the Morning”. Timber, Timber: old logging- 
camp work song. Working on the Tractor, Working on 
the Clothing: from a factory work song "Weave Room 
Blues”. It Takes Everybody to Build this Land: one of 
the cooperation songs from World War II, using folksong 
rhythms. The film was produced by Ritter, Young, 
Lerner Associates. 

Marie Hamilton 

B-flat Clarinet ( McMurry-Gold Productions; 139 S. 
Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, Cal. 16mm, b and w, col. 
10 min.) This film is the first of a proposed series on 
the orchestral instruments. Its purpose is to teach the 
importance of care and proper assembly of the B-flat 
clarinet, as well as the importance of care for any in- 
strument. The film is well designed, artistically pro- 
duced, and is one of the first music films that can be 
classed as a specific teaching film. It should be of con- 
siderable interest and help to the beginning instrumen- 
talist, the teacher in training and other teaching groups. 

James F. Nickerson 



In response to many requests, FILM MUSIC will 
devote a section in each issue to the music credits in 
current pictures. The completeness of this information 
will depend on its availability. 

AIDA . . . S. Hurok; I.F.E. Releasing Corp. Director, 
Clemente Fracassi. Musical supervision, Renzo Rossel- 

ATHENA . . . MGM. Director, Richard Thorpe. Music 
supervised and conducted by George Stoll, Songs, Hugh 
Martin, Ralph Blane. Orchestrations, Robert van Eps. 
Vocal supervision, Jeff Alexander. 

BAREFOOT CONTESSA, THE . . . Figaro; United 
Artists. Director, Joseph L Mankiewcz. Music Mario 

BAD DAY AT BLACK ROCK . . . MGM. Director, 
John Sturges. Music, Andre Previn. 

BATTLE CRY . . . Warner Brothers. Director, Raoul 
Walsh. Music, Max Steiner. Orchestrations, Murray 

BRIDGES AT TOKO-RI, THE . . . Paramount. Direc- 
tor, Mark Robson. Music, Lyn Murray. 

CARMEN JONES . . . 20th Century Fox. Director, 
Otto Preminger. Music, Georges Bizet. Musical direction, 
Herschel Burke Gilbert; associate, Ted Dale. Music edi- 
tors, Leon Birnbaum, George Brand. Records: Decca, 
RCA Victor; albums, sound track recording. 


COUNTRY GIRL, THE . . . Paramount. Director, 
George Seaton. Music, Victor Young. 4 songs, Harold 
Arlen, Ira Gershwin. 

CREST OF THE WAVE . . . MGM. Directors, John 
and Ray Boulting. Music, Miklos Rozsa. 

DEEP IN MY HEART . . . MGM. Director, Stanley 
Donen. Music, Sigmund Romberg. Orchestrators, Hugo 
Friedhofer, Alexander Courage. Choral arranger, Robert 
Tucker. Music supervised and conducted by Adolph 
Deutsch. Record: MGM; Sound track album. 

DESIREE . . . 20th Century Fox. Director, Henry Koster. 
Music, Alex North. "Desiree Waltz”, Alfred Newman. 
Orchestrator, Edward B. Powell. Music conducted by 
Lionel Newman. Record: Coral; Song from Desiree. 

GREEN FIRE . . . MGM. Director, Andrew Marton. 
Music, Miklos Rozsa. Title song, Miklos Rozsa, Jack 

LAST TIME I SAW PARIS, THE . . . MGM. Director, 
Richard Brooks. Music, Conrad Salinger. Title song, 
Jerome Kern, Oscar Hammerstein II. Music supervisor, 
Saul Chaplin. 

ON THE WATERFRONT . . . Columbia. Director, 
Elia Kazan. Music, Leonard Bernstein. 

RACERS, THE . . . 20th Century Fox. Director, Henry 
Hathaway. Music, Alex North. Arranger, Edward B. 
Powell. Conductor, Lionel Newman. 


SABRINA . . . Paramount. Director, Billy Wilder. 
Songs adapted, additional music, Frederick Hollander. 
Title song, Wilson Stone. 

Director, Stanley Donen. Music, Gene de Paul; lyrics, 
Johnny Mercer. Musical direction, Adolph Deutsch. 
Musical supervision, Saul Chaplin. Dances and musical 
numbers staged by Michael Kidd. 

SIGN OF THE PAGAN . . . Universal. Director, 
Douglas Sirk. Music, Frank Skinner, Hans J. Salter. 
Music supervision, Joseph Gershenson. 


SO THIS IS PARIS . . . Universal. Director, Richard 
Quine. Music supervision, Joseph Gershenson. 8 songs, 
Pony Sherrell, Phil Moody. Record: Decca; album. 

STAR IS BORN, A . . . Warner Brothers. Director, 
George Cukor. New songs, Harold Arlen, Ira Gershwin. 
Song "Born in a Trunk", Leonard Gershe. Orchestrator, 
Skip Martin. Vocal arrangements, Jack Cathcart. Musi- 
cal direction, Ray Heindorf. Record: Columbia; selec- 
tions from the sound track. 

SUDDENLY . . . Robert Bassler; United Artists. Direc- 
tor, Lewis Allen. Music, David Raksin. 

20th Century Fox. Director, Walter Lang. Songs, Irving 
Berlin. Vocal arrangements, Ken Darby, Hal Schaefer. 
Orchestration, Bernard Mayers, Edward B. Powell, Her- 
bert Spencer, Earle Hagen. Musical direction, Alfred 
Newman, Lionel Newman. Record: Decca; sound track 

THREE RING CIRCUS . . . Paramount. Director, 
Joseph Pevney. Music, Walter Scharf. Songs, John Rox; 
Jay Livingston, Ray Evans. Record: MGM; The Noc- 
turnes, "Hey, Punchinello". 



UNCHAINED . . . Warner Brothers. Director, Hall 
Bartlett. Music, Alex North. Title song, Alex North, 
Hy Zaret. 

VERA CRUZ . . . Hecht-Lancaster; United Artists. Di- 
rector, Robert Aldrich. Music, Hugo Friedhofer. Title 
song, Hugo Friedhofer, Sammy Cahn. Orchestrator, 


The Federation of Motion Picture Councils will be 
a year old in March. It was formed last spring at a 
Community Relations Conference of the Motion Pic- 
ture Association, after considerable expression of the 
need to organize and make more effective the interests 
of motion picture councils and clubs throughout the 
country. Through the "mutual interchange of ideas and 
experiences” during the past year, the Federation has 
been stimulating the activities of its local member 
groups, generally devoted to the encouragement of the 
industry’s better films. Projects of the individual councils 
of course depend on community needs and situations. 
Youth programs, film appreciation and study, exhibitor- 

conductor, Raul Lavista. Records: MGM, Victor; song, 
"Vera Cruz”. 

YOUNG AT HEART . . . Warner Brothers. Director, 
Gordon Douglas. Songs, Floyd Huddleston, A1 Rinker; 
Ray Heindorf, Charles Henderson, Don Pippin; Paul 
Francis Webster, Sammy Fain. 

•See notes on score in this issue. 


community relationships, are all subjects which engage 
the attention of the clubs. Mrs. Max M. Williams, 
president of the Federation, is a musician, and has used 
the music in films as program material for the past ten 
years. Her article on the subject in the October issue of 
FILM MUSIC has been of help to many program 
planners. The Federation issues a monthly Bulletin from 
September through June, containing pertinent film news, 
council communications, and general information on 
motion pictures in both 16mm and 35mm. Members 
meet at an annual conference. It will be held this year 
on April 14 and 15 at the Hotel Statler in Detroit. 


The Canadian League of Composers held its first film 
night of the 1954-1955 season recently, and screened A 
BLINKETY BLANK (Maurice Blackburn), A MUSI- 
CIAN IN THE FAMILY (Robert Fleming), MON- 
(Eldon Rathburn). The speaker was Desmond Dew, 
formerly with the J. Arthur Rank Organization and 
now production manager for. the N.F.B., who talked 
about sound recording. He illustrated his comments with 
scenes from HENRY V, on which he worked . . . 
Ingolf Dahl’s 'The Tower of Saint Barbara”, written last 
year for the Louisville Orchestra, was performed in the 
WNYC American Music Festival, at a concert featuring 
the works of three composers who had received 1954 
grants from the National Institute of Arts and Letters 
. . . Roger Manvell and John Huntley are compiling a 
book "The Technique of Film Music” for the British 
Film Institute. Producer Mel Epstein will contribute a 
section . . . The Robert J. Flaherty award for "outstand- 
ing creative achievement in the production of docu- 
mentary films" was presented at the annual ceremony in 
January. The winning film was 3, 2, 1, ZERO, made for 
NBC Television by Henry Salomon, producer of VIC- 
TORY AT SEA. Robert Russell Bennett and Morris 
Mamorsky wrote the score. Honorable Mention was 

given to THE GRIEVANCE, a film in the "Labor in 
Canada” series, with a score by Robert Fleming. Roger 
Tilton’s JAZZ DANCE won a special award for its 
notable integration of music and visuals. Arthur Knight 
was chairman of the awards committee. The awards have 
been made for the past six years, sponsored by the 
College of the City of New York’s Institute of Film 
Techniques, and Cinema 16 . . . The Film Council of 
America has set up a full and varied program for the 
second American Film Assembly, to be held at the 
Waldorf-Astoria in New York, April 4-8. All aspects 
of the 16mm field will receive attention in a succession 
of screenings, discussions and technical sessions. A Film 
Users’ Workshop, a Local Film Council Meeting, a 
federating convention called by the Film Society Caucus, 
and the Golden Reel Film Festival are included in the 
schedule. Further information on this promising pro- 
gram may be had from the Film Council of America, 
600 Davis Street, Evanston, Illinois. 

In our last issue, through some mishap, the word 
"editor” was substituted for "maker” in the third para- 
graph of Gerald Pratley’s script on "Sinfonia Antartica”. 
Even worse was the transposing of the letters "s” and 
”k" in David Raksin’s name, three times in the maga- 
zine’s first two pages. Our sincere apologies to both 









Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
11 East 87th Street, New York 28, N. Y. 
FIllmore 8-5502 



A MAN CALLED PETER (with score excerpts) Harold Brown 


THE LONG GRAY LINE Douglas W. Gallez 

THE STORY TELLERS OF THE CANTERBURY TALES (with score excerpts) Robert Linn 
HIGH TIDE IN NEWFOUNDLAND (with score excerpts) Gerald Pratley 

16 mm FILMS Marie Hamilton 



Cover: Richard Todd as Peter Marshall in A MAN CALLED PETER. 

Please notify our new office, 11 East 87th Street, New York 28, N.Y., if you 
wish to have the June issue of FILM MUSIC mailed to your summer address. 

FILMS ON MUSIC! . . . . 


Recognition of Merit 

The Compenius Organ in Denmark 

The magnificent music of Diderich Buxtehude, 
17th century organist and composer who 
played such an important part in the develop- 
ment of Bach, is heard in full splendor on the 
remarkable Compenius Organ. In the music- 
minded era of King Christian IV, about 1610, 
this organ was built, and it has been kept 
playable since that time. 

No visitor actually sight-seeing in the Freder- 
iksborg Palace could hope to see the fascinat- 
ing ornamentation of this unique instrument 
in greater detail than is possible in viewing 
this filth. An excellent, clear demonstration of 
the use of the organ is given. 

Music by Diderich Buxtehude. Demonstration of 
organ by Jens Laumann, played by Finn Videro. 
Narrated in English. 

16mm SOUND 13 MIN. 

RENTAL $5.00 SALE $55.00 





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Brandon Filins, lnc. D N p Jw™;,k“» W N 7 y s ' 


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New York 19 

Published bv the National Film Music Council, 11 East 87th St., New York 28, N.Y. President, William Hamilton; Vice- 
President and Editor, Marie L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues each year with occasional bulletins, two 
dollars and fifty cents. Back files (25 copies) six dollars plus postage. 


Harold Brown 

A movie whose chief purpose seems to lie in providing a story to set off about a 
dozen sermons of the eminent Chaplain Marshall hardly would constitute the most satis- 
fying vehicle for a film score. Yet within the limited dramatic scope of this picture, 
Alfred Newman has accomplished his task with skill and refinement, and it is a model 
for an effective score which of necessity plays a minor role. If some of the music is 
rather overly sentimental for my particular taste, let it be said that the prevailing mood 
of the film is one of a simple, warm sentimentality which seems to demand the kind of 
music Mr. Newman has written, and that nowhere does the music overreach itself or 
the film. 

Working as usual with extreme economy, Mr. Newman derives most of his material 
from a single straightforward motif, announced immediately in the title music: 


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In this original form the motif is used throughout to impart dramatic sweep and 
unity, but it readily gives rise to a simple folk song of Scotch flavor, which becomes a 
leading theme. This melody itself suggests a contrasting second part. 

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The harmony, varying with each repetition of the theme, is sophisticated yet wholly 
appropriate to the folk music character. 

The main motif is easily turned into the theme of Katharine, which is expanded to 
some length, but never comes to a full cadence, returning instead to the opening phrase, 
whence it is developed anew. This has the decided effect of keeping movement and 
continuity in a leisurely paced film. 


Taking his cue from one of the sermons, Mr. Newman uses this material freely 
throughout, not merely in connection with Katharine herself, but rather as expressive 
of her entire relationship with her husband Peter. 

Another brief excerpt shows how the motif which gave rise to a folk tune and a 
romantic theme, just as readily evokes the majesty of the Capitol at Washington or the 
Lincoln Memorial. 

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Almost all of the leading material in the score is developed from these few frag- 
ments. Of equal importance, however, are those sections which provide a shadowy back- 
ground to rather than a vivid projection of the continuity, and on which much of any 
film depends for establishment and maintenance of a mood. One is impressed by the fact 
that every measure of these passages is thoroughly composed, and satisfying as music 
This despite the fact that passages of such nature are scarcely heard; the vaguest kind of 
orchestral background might well suffice to carry the mood. But Mr. Newman is not 
content to provide a mere background of sound. Every passage is developed motivically, 
and every note precisely calculated as to harmony, orchestration, and emotional effect. 
Thus, where Peter in the fog is calling to the mysterious voice he has heard, the suspense 
is carried by a shadowy tremolo, in which a clear musical pattern is developed, while 
above, the violins sustain a simple melodic line: 



Again, in Peter’s soliloquy, one of the finest passages in the score, the alto flute, 
reiterating a simple melodic fragment reminiscent of a Gregorian Amen, alternates with 
the development of a short harmonic-rhythmic motif, starting in the low strings, and 
taken up later by the violins. The music, carefully spaced to interlock with the phrases 
of the monologue, is easily heard, and if one will avert enough of his attention from the 
film to follow it, he might find it rather the more interesting, part of the sound track: 

e* y 



Auo FuJT£ 

A MAN CALLED PETER . . . 20th Century Fox. Richard Todd, Jean Peters. Director, 
Henry Koster. Music, Alfred Newman. Orchestrator, Edward Powell. De Luxe color, 
Cinemascope. Music copyright, 20th Century Fox. 


Albert J. Elias 

If the magic of opera is as successfully caught in the 
other films which are currently focusing on this form of 
musical art as it is in INTERRUPTED MELODY, we 
will have much to be grateful for. The screen biography 
of the soprano Majorie Lawrence tells the story of how 
she overcame an attack of polio to resume her career 
with a minimum of soap opera grandiloquence. Indeed, 
the film places its accent on music and on the eloquence 
of grand opera. "Singing is Marjorie’s life,” says Mar- 
jorie Lawrence's doctor-husband at one point in the 
movie, and the producers have seen to it that the film 
captures the character’s enthusiasm for song and the 
glory of singing itself. 

Accurate, warm, persuasive, flowing and altogether 
luminous is the singing of the ever magnificent Eileen 
Farrell, who provides the voice on the soundtrack for 
the character of Marjorie Lawrence. She makes it possi- 
ble for INTERRUPTED MELODY to put across to 
the audience what the film’s operatic supervisor and 
conductor, Walter Du Cloux, has declared was his hope 
— "some of the actual immense thrill of a live opera 
performance just as it might have been given in an 
opera house.” 

The dozen opera scenes, moreover, while they are 
just fragments of CARMEN, MADAME BUTTERFLY, 
so staged that they whet the appetite for more. Many 
of the movies in the past which have turned their atten- 
tion to opera have presented us with such slowly paced 
sequences from opera that even the Statue of Liberty 
has looked mobile. This film, happily, liberates operatic 
films from that curse, presenting us with scenes that have 
been chosen for their vitality and which are produced 
with the lavishness of the grand opera medium and yet 
also with a vividness that makes you pay attention. You 
feel the thrilling sensation of being at an actual per- 

Marjorie Lawrence’s most famous operatic moment 
is, of course, the time at the Metropolitan Opera when, 
as Bruennhilde in the final scene of Wagner’s GOET- 
TERDAEMMERUNG, she mounts her white steed and 
gallops into Siegfried’s funeral pyre. That brought her 
cheers at the time from the audience and critics for its 
novelty, for its execution. And now again it brings cheers 
for the way that moment has been captured on film. 

The opera sequences have been generally selected to 
point up important phases of the soprano’s career, both 
before that career was dramatically interrupted and after 
it was just as dramatically taken up again. First we 
have the Australian farm-girl singing "O Don Fatale," 
from DON CARLOS as she wins the local singing con- 
test and, as a result, a trip to Paris. Soon we find her 
making her operatic debut in Monte Carlo, cooing her 
way through the coquettish Musetta’s "Waltz Song”, 
and then becoming a success first in Europe and next in 
the United States as she sweeps easily through the grand, 
full-bodied, rich music of Wagnerian opera or through 
the lyrical and throbbing music of Bizet’s CARMEN, 
Verdi’s IL TROVATORE, Saint-Saens’ SAMSON AND 

Just when we are beginning to think how fortunate 
it is for INTERRUPTED MELODY that the soprano’s 
career has covered so much territory, making it possible 
for the film to present now noble and dark-hued music 
and, in the next instance, snappy and light music — the 
heroine is seen by the Armed Forces in another vein. For 
the wounded soldiers in a Miami hospital and for service- 
men in the Pacific and European battle areas, the para- 
lyzed Marjorie Lawrence croons "Over the Rainbow,” 
"Annie Laurie,” "Anchors Aweigh,” "Don’t Sit Under 
the Apple Tree,” "Waltzing Matilda” and the Marines’ 
Hymn. It is testimony of the singer’s expansive per- 
sonality that she won the hearts of so many varied 
audiences, just as it is a tribute to Eileen Farrell’s sing- 
ing that she manages to put across the popular as well 
as the classical numbers with such clarity and conviction. 

The music of INTERRUPTED MELODY is the 
real star of the film and the way it is presented most 
assuredly the feature attraction. Eleanor Parker, who plays 
the central figure while handsome and persuasive Glenn 
Ford plays her bright and devoted husband, has the good 
looks for the role of the Australian lass who is noted for 
the fact that her voice is matched by her beauty. If she 
tends to make the character unwontedly rigid and if she 
is awkward and stiff, on one hand, and a bit untamed, 
on the other, as she moves through the operatic se- 
quences — that does not hold up the progression of the 
movie, does not take away from its great appeal as the 
story of a singer and as a glimpse into the magic realm 
of opera. 

INTERRUPTED MELODY . . . Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 
Glenn Ford, Eleanor Parker. Director, Curtis Bernhardt. 
Operatic recordings supervised and conducted by Walter 
Du Cloux. Music supervision, Saul Chaplin. Operatic 
sequences staged by Vladimir Rosing. Dramatic music 
score adapted and conducted by Adolph Deutsch. Music 
adviser, Harold Gelman. Eastman Color, Cinemascope. 



Captain Douglas W. Gallez, U.S. A. 

John Ford’s tribute to West Point, THE LONG 
GRAY LINE, is a rather sentimental account of one 
man’s devotion to duty and of his abiding friendship 
for the many cadets whom he instructed. Sergeant Marty 
Maher’s fifty years of service at the United States Mili- 
tary Academy have been retold in Edward Hope’s highly 
episodic screenplay which strings together many cliches 
and yet manages to warm the heart and to strengthen 
one’s admiration for those who sacrifice so much for 
service to their country. We might have expected that 
the Academy background of this story would provide 
composer George Duning with a rare musical opportu- 
nity. The fact is, however, that the music for THE 
LONG GRAY LINE is, by and large, a blend of Irish 
folk music and some of West Point’s traditional songs, 
with a dash or two of other familiar tunes, including 
the Notre Dame victory song, and George M Cohan’s 
"Over There.” 

The music reflects the piecemeal structure of the 
screenplay. The score is most successful when it pro- 
vides unity for related scenes, such as the home life 
of the Mahers, but the musical requirements of other 
scenes constantly interrupt the continuity of the score. 
The following pieces exemplify the disparate elements 
of music used in the film: "Garry Owen,” "Army Blue,” 
"Good Night, Ladies,” "You’re in the Army Now,” 
"Benny Havens, Oh!,” and "America.” 

On the other hand, there were several musical high- 
lights. The off-key rendition of Notre Dame’s victory 
song by the makeshift band from St. Michael’s Parochial 

School hit the right mood for that great Army football 
disaster in which the celebrated Knute Rockne figured 
so prominently. The scene in the hospital between 
Tyrone Power and Maureen O’Hara was all the more 
affecting because of the background of fife and drum 
music (the field music, or "Hell Cats” of the Military 
Academy Band) that accompanied the dialogue. And the 
band’s rousing strains of "Over There” contributed 
mightily to the send-off of newly commissioned second 
lieutenants to the fields of France. Again, after the war’s 
end, the pealing of the chapel chimes provided a strong 
contrast for Marty’s arrival with the tragic news of Sund- 
strom’s death. And last, there are few of us who could 
fail to be moved by the colorful files of cadets on pa- 
rade, first using the squads-right, squads-left, old style 
drill antedating World War II, and later following the 
parade movements currently in use. Certainly the music 
of the United States Military Academy Band helped to 
make the pulses quicken in these scenes. But one might 
have wished, after having heard so much Irish music 
throughout the film — even "Benny Havens, Oh!” is set 
to the tune of "The Wearing of the Green” — that 
Marty’s final review had been accompanied by the 
"Official West Point March” of former bandmaster 
Lieutenant Philip Egner. Then the film would have 
honored not only Sergeant Maher, but even more "The 
Long Gray Line,” with which Marty is inseparably linked. 

THE LONG GRAY LINE . . . Columbia Pictures. 
Tyrone Power, Maureen O’Hara. Director, John Ford. 
Musical adaptation, George Duning. Music supervised 
and conducted by Morris Stoloff. Technicolor: Cinema- 


Robert Linn 

TALES is a 16mm, educational film in color, based on 
excerpts from the "General Prologue" and the "Canon’s 
Yeoman’s Prologue” of The Canterbury Tales by Geof- 
frey Chaucer. The time and place of Chaucer’s master- 
piece is fourteenth century England, at the Tabard Inn, 
where Chaucer describes each of his fellow pilgrims who 
are going to visit the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket at 

Maynard Smith, who conceived the idea for the film, 
stressed authenticity throughout — from the use of accu- 
rately detailed plast'er-of-Paris, polychrome figurines for 
the characters, to the narration spoken entirely in Middle 
English, as well as many shots of the priceless, original 
Ellesmere manuscript (of the Huntington Library col- 
lection). It was therefore essential that the musical score 
provide, as closely as possible, an approximate picture 
of fourteenth century music. However, authenticity 
ceased with the suggestion of fourteenth century nota- 

My objective, then, was to write an original score 
with particular attention not only to the melodic and 
harmonic style of the period, but to the instrumentation 
and techniques of composition, as well. 

In addition to three voices (soprano, alto and bari- 
tone) the instruments used were soprano and tenor 
recorder, harp, trombone, bells, drum, tambourine, viola 
and cello (the latter two instruments representing mem- 
bers of the viol family). 

The music is unified through the use of a tone-row 
which acts as a fundamental element of the entire score. 
Heard in its simplest form as a liturgical chant, ( Ex. 1 ) 
the melody is successively transformed into various moods 
by metric, rhythmic and modal changes. For example, 
the main title music is a monophonic dance in 6/8 meter 
using the mixolydian mode and resembling the English 
Estampie. (Ex. 2) 

Later, the melody is used in a fast 2/4 version composed 
in the lydian mode. (Ex. 3) 

Ex. 4 shows the theme written as a canon. 

Certainly the use of a tone-row has its origin in 
the medieval practice of employing a pre-existent melody 
(plainsong) as the basis for a polyphonic composition. 

A special feature characteristic of the fourteenth 
century, and found in Ex. 1, is the isorhythmic structure 
of the melody. This means the use of a repeated scheme 
of time-values, called talea, which in Ex. 1 comprises 
seven quarter-notes and one half-note repeated six times. 
The tone-row is repeated twice but is not in the same 
proportion to the rhythmic pattern, which results in the 
repetition of the melody in a different rhythm. 

A distinguishing feature of English music during this 
period was the use of parallel thirds, usually referred to 
by the fourteenth century term gymel, and parallel sixth 
chords (first inversion triads), commonly called faux- 
bourdon, which is reputed to be of English origin. This 
is Englind’s most important musical contribution at a 
time when French and Italian music were far more de- 
veloped melodically and rhythmically. 

Exs. 5 and 6 show further transformation of the 
theme and contain passages of gymel and fauxbourdon. 

The isorhythmic principle is again used in the end 
title music, written in motet form, where the tone-row, 
in a new scheme of time-values, is reiterated several 
times in the lower part, above which the upper parts are 
freely composed. (Ex. 7) 

TALES . . . Producer, William Mehring; Director and 
Art Director, William Miller; Script, Maynard Smith; 
Cameraman, Richard Shore; Editors, Erwin Watermeyer 
and Richard Shore; Sound Recording, Kenneth Miura; 
Musical Score, Robert Linn; Technical Adviser, Dr. 
Florence R. Scott; Narrator, Dr. William D. Templeman. 
Produced in the Department of Cinema, University of 
Southern California. 





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Gerald Pratley 

A tribute to the hard-working people of Newfound- 
land, and their efforts to modernize and extend their 
industries, this twenty-minute National Film Board of 
Canada documentary shows what is being done by the 
Government and the people to revitalize the Newfound- 
land fishing industry by more scientific methods and 
improved marketing. 

Directed by Grant McLean and photographed in 
Eastman Colour, the lovely seascapes and scenes of fisher- 
men at work are accompanied by a delightful score by 
Eldon Rathburn. It is a moving work, simple and 
poetic, and imbued with the dark-colored tones which 
seem to be so much a part of the character of those 
steady people who live by the sea. For the basis of his 
score, Eldon Rathburn has turned to the folk-music of 
the island, and the result bears a similarity to his pre- 
vious and equally sympathetic score for THE WIND- 

The composer wrote fifteen minutes of music, scored 
for an orchestra of 8 violins, 2 violas, 2 celli, 1 bass, flute, 
clarinet, horn, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, percussion. The 
following are four quotations from the score, with com- 
ments by the composer: 

1. "This folk-tune is called Green Shores of Togo and 
I used it for the title music because of its beautiful 
sweeping line and rolling rhythm, which seems to sug- 
gest the sea. It was found in a collection of Newfound- 
land folk songs in the National Museum at Ottawa.” 

2 . "I wrote the following music for scenes showing 
fishermen leaving at dawn for the fishing grounds in 
their six-power coaker (a small motor-boat).” 

2A. "A rhythmic variation of No. 2 was played when 
the fishermen were shown "jigging” or throwing their 
lines over the boat.” 

3. "This fragment was used for another early morning 
shot when the fishermen leave home for a trip which 
ends with a violent storm.” 

Eldon Rathburn has been with the National Film 
Board since 1947 and has scored more than fifty docu- 
mentaries. He is a composer, pianist and organist, and 
received his musical education with Dr. Healey Willan 
at the Royal Conservatory of Music, Toronto. An ex- 
tremely versatile musician, he is equally at home at the 
organ, writing in a jazz idiom, or composing for film 
and concert hall. He has an abundant gift for melody, 
a quiet sense of humour and a fluid technique with an 
unflagging rhythmic vitality. His light-hearted and mod- 
ern jazz score for ROMANCE OF TRANSPORTA- 
TION has been widely praised, and he has written in 
a similar vein for Wolf Koenig’s THE STRUCTURE 
OF UNIONS, another animated film. His other recent 
scores include BUSH DOCTOR and THE CHAR- 

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16 mm FILMS 
Marie Hamilton 

The American Film Assembly and Golden Reel Film 
Festival, sponsored by the Film Council of America, was 
held in New York during the week of April 4, and 
proved to be a memorable and rewarding experience for 
the attending crowds of laymen and professionals. "The 
Role of 16 mm Film in American Society” was the 
theme of the event, and filled a well-planned program 
with the many aspects of 16mm production and use. A 
symposium on technical production elements with pro- 
ducers as panel members, an open meeting of the Inde- 
pendent Filmakers Association where discussion of the 
creative film was headed by Norman McLaren, a Film 
Users Workshop, the Film Society Caucus, were among 
the many occasions that afforded a considerable inter- 
change of constructive thinking. Plenty of good talk took 
place, too, during intermissions and in informal after- 
screening gatherings. Bosley Crowther, motion picture 
critic of the New York Times, James Card, curator of 
films of George Eastman House, and Paul Rotha, Head, 
Documentary-TV, British Broadcasting Commission, 
were speakers at the General Sessions and the Golden 
Reel Award Banquet. 

The Golden Reel competitive screenings ran contin- 
uously through the first days of the proceedings, with 
showings of the awards winners at the close. 412 films 
were divided into 25 categories, ranging in subject from 
citizenship and government through medical sciences 
and industrial processes to avant garde films. As usual in 
general collections of films, those that dealt with music, 
musical subjects or had notable background scores, were 

in the minority. The category "Literary, Musical and 
Theatrical Arts” presented BEETHOVEN AND HIS 
JOHNNY and GRAND CANYON among its offerings. 
National music was featured in several films — ARTS 
OF JAPAN (United World Films), DAINIC 
NATYA (Univ. of Southern California) KUMAK 
HAUSWIRTH (Brandon) . The delightful original score 
TALES (Univ. of Southern California), discussed else- 
where in this issue by its composer, Robert Linn, was 
the outstanding musical contribution in this category. 

Beethoven and His Music (Coronet Films, Coronet 
Bldg., Chicago 1, 111. Color, b and w, 12 min. Educa- 
tional collaborator, Rose Marie Grentzer.) Directed to 
students on high school and college levels, the film shows 
the relationship between the master’s music and the rev- 
olutionary times in which he wrote, as well as his part in 
the Romantic Movement. A pleasing use of old prints, 
early editions, autograph manuscripts, and a well-staged 
contemporary interior relieve a somewhat academic ap- 
proach. The music includes excerpts from the Violin 
Sonata #2, the Archduke Trio, the Eroica, the Egmont 
Overture and the Moonlight Sonata — all excellent per- 

Compenius Organ at Frederiksborg Palace, Denmark 
(Brandon Films, Inc., 200 West 57th St., New York, 
b and w, 13 min.) An examination of the famous 17th 

( Continued on page 24) 



Alert Morrison 

The following is a list of the recordings of motion 
picture music available commercially as of April 1, 1953. 
This revises and makes additions to a previous list, which 
appeared in the September-October, 1953 issue of FILM 
MUSIC It also incorporates entry by film title rather 
than by composer, as it was felt this would facilitate 
reference. As before, only recordings of the microgroove 
era are included, and only music that is truly film music, 
i.e., written expressly for the film, is considered.* 

The recordings listed are the ones believed to be the 
most representative of the films concerned. By no means 
are all recordings of each work included, though in 
many instances the one given is the only recording avail- 
able. In other words, no attempt has been made to 
include every recording of film music, but only every 
film which is represented on disc. After the film title 
is given the name of the composition as it appears, in 
most cases, on the record itself; then follows the com- 
poser of the selection in parentheses, the performer (s) 
(orchestra, conductor, vocalist or zither player) on the 
record, and the record label. To conserve space the rec- 
ord labels have been abbreviated as follows: 

e pi 







Am. Rec’g Soc. 












Classic Editions 


















RCA Victor 

The Accused: Latin Rhythms (Victor 
— dec 

Young) Young 

The Adventures of Hajji Baba: Hajji Baba (Dimitri 
Tiomkin) Tiomkin — cor 

Alexander Nevsky: cantata (Serge Prokofiev) Rossi, 
Vienna St. Opera Orch. — van 

All About Eve: All About Eve (Alfred Newman) New- 
man — mer 

All I Desire: All I Desire (David Lieber) David Rose 
— mgm; A1 Goodman — vie 

The Bad and the Beautiful: Love is for the Very Young 
(David Raskin) Percy Faith — col 

•Further information on the composers’ work, dates of 
the films, etc., may be found in "Film Composers in 
America” by Clifford McCarty, which and who were of 
great assistance to me in compiling the information 
contained here. 

Eight O’clock Walk: All My Life (George Melachrino) 
Melachrino Strings — vie 

Everything I Have is Yours: Serenade for a New Baby 
(Johnny Green) Green, MGM Orch. — mgm 

The Fall of Berlin: suite (Dmitri Shostakovich) Moscow 
Radio Orch. — cla 

The Barefoot Contessa: Song of the Barefoot Contessa 
(Nascimbene) Hugo Winterhalter — vie 

Battle for Stalingrad: Suite (Aram Khachaturian) Mos- 
cow Radio Orch. — cla 

Belle le Grand: Spring Madness (Leo Shuken) Victor 
Young — dec 

The Best Years of Our Lives: theme (Hugo Friedhofer) 
Victor Young — dec 

Blithe Spirit: Waltz Theme from Blithe Spirit (Richard 
Addinsell) Harlan Ramsey — cam 

Blood and Sand: suite (Vincente Gomez) Gomez Quin- 
tet — dec; theme (VG) Victor Young — dec 

Blowing Wild: The Ballad of Black Gold (Dimitri 
Tiomkin) Frankie Laine — col 

The Bridges at Toko-Ri: theme (Lyn Murray) Leroy 
Holmes — mgm 

A Bullet is Waiting: Jamie (Dimitri Tiomkin) Tiomkin 
— cor 

The Bullfighter and the Lady: How Strange (Victor 
Young) Mitch Miller — col 

Captain from Castile: Conquest (Alfred Newman) 
Lionel Newman — lib 

suite (Alfred Newman) Alfred Newman, 20th Cen- 
tury-Fox Sym. Orch. — mer 

Cinerama Holiday: suite (Morton Gould) Gould — vie; 
Jack Shaindlin, Cin. Sym. Orch. — mer 

Crisis: Revolution March, Village Square (Miklos 
Rozsa) Vincente Gomez — mgm 

The Czar Wants to Sleep: see Lt. Kije 

David and Bathsheba: theme (Alfred Newman) A1 
Goodman — vie 

Delicious: Second Rhapsody (George Gershwin) Mor- 
ton Gould — col 

Desiree: The Song from Desiree (Alfred Newman) 
Frank Cordell — vie; Paul Weston — col 

Destination Moon: suite (Leith Stevens) Stevens — col 

Dial 'M' for Murder: theme (Dimitri Tiomkin) Tiom- 
kin — cor 

The Dream of Olwen: Theme and Incidental Music 
(Charles Williams) Williams — col 

Duel in the Sun: Duel in the Sun (Dimitri Tiomkin) 
Tiomkin — cor; A1 Goodman — vie 

The Egyptian: suite (Alfred Newman, Bernard Herr- 
mann) Newman — dec 


Ballet Mecanique: Ballet Mecanique (Georges Antheil) 
Brant, N. Y. Percussion Group — col 

The Bandit: The Bandit (Denascimento) Percy Faith 

The Bandwagon: Girl Hunt Ballet (Schwartz) Adolph 
Deutsch, MGM Studio Orch. — mgm 

The Fighter: suite (Vincente Gomez) Gomez Quintet 
— dec 

Flame and the Flesh: Flame and the Flesh (Nicholas 
Brodsky) George Stoll — mgm 

Flesh and Fantasy: Scherzo (Alexandre Tansman) Wer- 
ner Janssen — cam • 

Forever Female: Change of Heart (Victor Young) 
Young — dec 

For Whom the Bell Tolls: suite (Victor Young) Young 
— dec; themes (VY) Paul Weston — col 

The Fourposter: If You’re in Love (Dimitri Tiomkin) 
A1 Goodman — vie 

From Here to Eternity: Re-Enlistment Blues (Robert 
Wells) Buddy Morrow — vie 

From Here to Eternity (Robert Wells, Geo. Duning) 
Stanley Black — Ion 

Genevieve: Waltz (Larry Adler) Adler — ang 

Geraldine: Geraldine (Victor Young) Young — dec 

Gigi: Gigi (Rachel Thoreau) Paul Weston — col 

The Glenn Miller Story: Love Theme (Henry Mancini) 
Victor Young — dec; Ralph Marterie — mer 

Gog: Nightfall (Harry Sukman) Victor Young — dec 

Golden Earrings: Suite, theme (Victor Young) Young 
— dec 

The Golden Mountains: Waltz (Dmitri Shostakovich) 
Efrem Kurtz, Columbia Sym. Orch. — col 

Gone With the Wind: suite (Max Steiner) Steiner — 

Tara’s Theme (Max Steiner) A1 Goodman — vie; 
Victor Young — dec 

Grandma Moses: Grandma Moses Suite (Hugh Martin) 
Daniel Saidenberg — col 

The Greatest Show on Earth: The Greatest Show on 
Earth, Be a Jumping Jack (Victor Young) Irvin 
Talbot, Paramount Band — vie 

Green Fire: Green Fire (Miklos Rozsa) Joe Leahy — 

Grounds for Marriage: Toy Concertino (David Raksin) 
Johnny Green, MGM Studio Orch. — mgm 

Hamlet: suite (William Walton) Muir Mathieson, 
Philharmonic Orch. — vie 

Hangover Square: Piano Concerto (Bernard Herrmann) 
Werner Janssen — cam 

The Happy Time: theme (Dimitri Tiomkin) A1 Good- 
man — vie 

The High and the Mighty: theme (Dimitri Tiomkin) 
cor; Victor Young— dec 

High Noon: High Noon (Dimitri Tiomkin) A1 Good- 
man — vie 

How Green Was My Valley: How Green Was My 
Valley (Alfred Newman) Alfred Newman — mer 

The Hurricane: Moon of Manakoora (Alfred Newman) 
Andre Kostelanetz — col 

I Confess: I Confess (Dimitri Tiomkin) Tiomkin — cor 

Idol of Paris: suite (Mischa Spoliansky) Sidney Torch, 
Queen’s Hall Light Orch. — ent 

Indiscretion of an American Wife: Indiscretion, Autumn 
in Rome (AC) Paul Weston — col 
suite (Alessandro Cicognini) Franco Ferrara, Rome 
Sym. Orch. — col 

The Informer: The Informer suite (Max Steiner) 
Steiner — cap 

Invitation: Invitation (Bronislau Kaper) Johnny Green 
— mgm; Victor Young — dec 

Island in the Sky: Island in The Sky (Emil Newman) 
Newman — dec 

suite (Hugo Friedhofer) Emil Newman — dec 

Ivanhoe: suite (Miklos Rozsa) Rozsa, MGM Studio 

Orch. — mgm; themes (MR) A1 Goodman — vie 

The Joe Louis Story: suite, theme (George Bassman) 
Bassman — mgm 

Journey to South America: Gaviota (Melle Weersma) 
Percy Faith — col 

Jubilee Trail: Jubilee Trail (Victor Young) Young 
— dec 

Knock on Wood: End of Spring (Sylvia Fine) Victor 
Young — dec 

Lady in the Dark: Glamour Waltz (Robert Emmett 
Dolan) Victor Young — dec 

A Lady Surrenders: Cornish Rhapsody (Hubert Bath) 
Mantovani — Ion; Harlan Ramsey — cam 

Land of the Pharaohs: Land of the Pharaohs (Dimitri 
Tiomkin) Tiomkin — cor 

Laura: Laura (David Raksin) Werner Janssen — cam; 

Hollywood Theme Orch. — rai 

A Letter to Three Wives: A Letter to Three Wives 
(Alfred Newman) Newman — mer 

Lt. Kije: Lt. Kije Suite (Serge Prokofiev) Serge Kous- 
sevitzy, Boston Sym. Orch. — vie 

Lili: ballet music (Bronislau Kaper) Hans Sommer, 
MGM Studio Orch. — mgm 

Hi-Lili, Hi-Lo (Bronislau Kaper) Victor Young — 

Limelight: Incidental Music, Terry’s Theme (Charles 
Chaplin) Frank Chacksfield — Ion 

The Little Fugitive: Joey’s Theme (EddyManson) Man- 
son — col 

Story of the Little Fugitive (Eddy Manson) Man- 
son, Norman Leyden — col 

The Living Desert: suite (Paul Smith) Thomas Peluso 
— vie 

Lost Horizon: Lost Horizon (Dimitri Tiomkin) Tiom- 
kin— cor 

The Lost Moment: The Lost Moment (Daniele Amfi- 
theatrof) Victor Young — dec 

The Lost Weekend: Lost Weekend (Miklos Rozsa) A1 
Goodman — vie 


Louisiana Story: Acadian Songs and Dances (Virgil 
Thomson) Scherman, Lit. Orch. Soc. — dec 
suite (Virgil Thomson) Eugene Ormandy, Philadel- 
phia Orch. — col 

Love Letters: Love Letters (Victor Young) Young — 
dec; Paul Weston — col 

The Loves of Joanna Godden: suite (Ralph Vaughan 
Williams) Irving, Philharmonia Orch.— ent. 

Love Story: see A Lady Surrenders 

Lydia: Lydia (Miklos Rozsa) Harlan Ramsey— cam; 
Ray Bloch — cor 

The Magic Garden: Pennywhistle Blues (Willard Cele) 
Cele — Ion 

Magnificent Obsession: suite (Frank Skinner) J. Ger- 
shenson — dec; theme (FS) V. Young — dec 

The Man Between: Theme from The Man Between 
(John Addison) Cyril Stapleton — Ion 

Miss Sadie Thompson: The 23rd Psalm (George Dun- 
ing) Morris Stoloff, Col. Stud. Orch. — mer 

Mr. Robinson Crusoe: Moon of Manakoora (Alfred 
Newman) Andre Kostelanetz — col 

Modern Times: Smile (Charles Chaplin) Frank Chacks- 
field — Ion; Victor Young — dec 

The Moon is Blue: The Moon is Blue (Herschel Burke 
Gilbert) Henri Rene — vie 

The Moonlighter: The Moonlighter Song (Heinz Roem- 
held) Victor Young — dec 

My Foolish Heart: My Foolish Heart (Victor Young) 
Young — dec 

New Wine: New Wine (Renzo Rossellini) Rossellini, 
Santa Cecilia Orch. — mer 

Nicholas Nickelby: suite (Lord Berners) Ernest Irving, 
Philharmonia Orch. — ent 

Now Voyager: It Can’t Be Wrong (Max Steiner) Holly- 
wood Theme Orch. — rai 

suite (Max Steiner) Steiner — cap 

Oliver Twist: suite (Arnold Bax) Muir Mathieson, 

Philharmonia Orch. — col 

One Woman’s Story: themes (Richard Addinsell) Muir 
Mathieson, Philharmonia Orch. — ent 

On the Waterfront: On the Waterfront (Leonard Bern- 
stein) Norman Lockyer — mer 

Our Town: suite (Aaron Copland) Thomas Scherman, 
Little Orchestra Society-dec 

Our Very Own: Our Very Own (Victor Young) Young 
— dec 

Passion: Passion Tango (Louis Forbes) Victor Young 
— dec 

The Passionate Friends: see One Woman’s Story 

Perilous Journey: Bon Soir (Victor Young) Young — 

Phantom of the Opera: Lullaby of the Bells (Edward 
Ward) Mantovani — Ion 

Pinky: Pinky (Alfred Newman) Newman — mer 

A Place in the Sun: A Place in the Sun (Franz Wax- 
man) Victor Young — dec; A1 Goodman — vie 

The Plow That Broke the Plains: suite (Virgil Thom- 
son) Scherman, Lit. Orch. Soc. — dec 

Plymouth Adventure: suite (Miklos Rozsa) Rozsa, MGM 
Studio Orch. — mgm 

The President’s Lady: The President’s Lady (Alfred 
Newman) Jackie Gleason — cap 

Private Hell 36: suite (Leith Stevens) Stevens — cor 

The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex: theme (Erich 
Wolfgang Korngold) Victor Young — dec 

The Quiet Man: suite (Victor Young) Young — dec 

Quo Vadis: Lygia (Miklos Rozsa) Paul Weston— col; 
Themes from QV (MR) A1 Goodman — vie 
suite (Miklos Rozsa) Rozsa, MGM Studio Orch. 
— mgm 

The Razor’s Edge: The Razor’s Edge (Alfred Newman) 
Newman — mer 

Rear Window: Lisa (Franz Waxman) Leroy Holmes 
— mgm; Victor Young — dec 

The Red House:, suite (Miklos Rozsa) Rozsa — cap 

The Red Pony: Children’s Suite (Aaron Copland) 
Thomas Scherman, Lit. Orch. Soc.— dec 

The Red Shoes: Ballet Music (Brian Easdale) Muir 
Mathieson, Philharmonia Orch.— col 

Return to Paradise: suite (Dimitri Tiomkin) Tiomkin 
— cor, dec; theme (DT) David Rose — mgm 

The River (American): suite (Virgil Thomson) Wal- 
ter Hendl, Am. Rec. Soc. Orch. — ars 

The River (Indian): suite (K. N. Dandayuhapani) 
Dandayuhapani Ensemble — pol 

The Robe: Love Theme, suite, Village of Cana (Alfred 
Newman) Newman, Hol’d Sym. Orch.— dec 

Romeo and Juliet: suite (Roman Vlad) Lambert Wil- 
liamson — epi 

A Royal Scandal: Overture (Alfred Newman) Newman 
— mer 

Ruby Gentry: Ruby (Heinz Roemheld) Richard Hay- 
man — mer 

Sabrina: Sabrina (Wilson Stone) Mitch Miller — col 

Salome: Dance of the Seven Veils (Daniele Amfithea- 
trof) Morris Stoloff, G S. O. — dec 
suite (George Duning) Morris Stoloff, Columbia 
Studio Orch. — dec 

Samson and Delilah: suite (Victor Young) Young — dec 

Scott of the Antarctic: Sinfonia Antartica (Ralph 
Vaughan Williams) Boult, London P.O. — Ion 

The Searching Wind: The Searching Wind (Victor 
Young) Young — dec 

Shane: Call of the Faraway Hills (Victor Young) 
Young — dec; A1 Goodman — vie 
Eyes of Blue (Victor Young) Richard Hayman — 

Since You Went Away: suite (Max Steiner) Steiner — 
cap; themes (MS) Paul Weston— col 

The Snows of Kilimanjaro: Love is Cynthia (Alfred 
Newman) Benny Carter — vie 
themes (Bernard Herrmann) A1 Goodman — vie 


So Big: Selena’s Waltz (Max Steiner) Victor Young) 

Something Money Can’t Buy: Such is My Love for You 
(Nino Rota) Richard Hayman — mer 

Something to Live For: Alone at Last (Victor Young) 
Young — dec 

The Song of Bernadette: suite (Alfred Newman) New- 
man — dec 

theme (Alfred Newman) Newman — mer; Paul Wes- 
ton — col 

Song of the Land: Theme, Flight of the Albatross (Du- 
pree) Tzipine, Paris Sym. Orch. — mgm 

Spellbound: suite (Miklos Rozsa) Rozsa — rem; Erich 
Kloss, Frankenland State Orch.— cap 
themes (Miklos Rozsa) A1 Goodman — vie; Victor 
Young — dec; Ray Bloch — cor; Charles Williams, 
Queen’s Hall Light Orch. — ent 

Stairway to Heaven: Prelude (Allan Gray) Charles Wil- 
liams, Queen’s Hall Light Orch. — ent 

The Star: Moonlight Serenade (Victor Young) Young 
— dec 

Strange Lady in Town: Strange Lady in Town (Dimitri 
Tiomkin) Tiomkin — cor 

A Streetcar Named Desire: suite (Alex North) Ray 
Heindorf — cap; themes (AN) Paul Weston — col 

Street of Shadows: Limping Man Theme (Eric Spear) 
Henri Rene — vie 

Street Scene: Street Scene/Sentimental Rhapsody (Al- 
fred Newman) Newman — mer 

Suicide Squadron: Warsaw Concerto (Richard Addin- 
sell) Stokowski — vie; Mantovani — Ion 

Take the High Ground: Julie (Dimitri Tiomkin) Sid- 
ney Torch — cor; Les Baxter — cap 
Take the High Ground (Dimitri Tiomkin) Johnny 
Green — mgm 

That Dangerous Age: Song of Capri (Mischa Spolian- 
sky) Sidney Torch, Queen’s H. L. Orch. — ent 

The Third Man: The Third Man Theme, Cafe Mozart 
Waltz (Anton Karas) Karas — Ion 

This Man is Mine: theme (Allan Gray) Charles Wil- 
liams, Queen’s Hall Light Orch. — ent 

Three Coins in the Fountain: Three Coins in the Foun- 
tain (Jule Styne) Frank Sinatra — cap 

Thunderbirds: Wintertime of Love (Victor Young) 
Young — dec 

Touchez Pas au Grisbi: The Touch, Le Grisbie Blues 
(Wiener) Jean Wetzel — col 

Unchained: Unchained Melody (Alex North) Les Bax- 
ter — cap 

Under Paris Skies: Under Paris Skies (Drejac-Giraud) 
Mitch Miller — col 

Under Water: Cerezo Rosa (Roy Webb) Victor Young 
— dec 

The Univited: Stella by Starlight (Victor Young) 
Young — dec; Ray Bloch — cor 

Valentino: The Gigolo, Valentino Tango (Heinz Roem- 
held) Victor Young — dec 

The Vanishing Prairie: suite (Paul Smith) Smith — col 

Vera Cruz: Vera Cruz (Hugo Friedhofer) Richard Hay- 
man — mer 

Vicki: Vicki (Leigh Harline) Ray Bloch — cor 

Victory at Sea: suite (Richard Rodgers) Robert Rus- 
sell Bennett, NBC Sym. Orch. — vie 

Violated: Violetta (Tony Mottola) Mottola — mgm 

Violettes Imperiales: Elaine (Francis Lopez) Hugo Win- 
terhalter — vie 

Wanted for Murder: A Voice in the Night (Mischa 
Spoliansky) Williams, Queen’s H. L. Orch. — ent 

While I Live: see The Dream of Olwen 

The Wild One: Hot Blood/The Wild One suite (Leith 
Stevens) Shorty Rogers — vie 
Jazz Themes from The Wild One (Leith Stevens) 
Stevens’ All Stars — dec 

Wuthering Heights: Cathy (Alfred Newman) New- 
man — mer; Victor Young— -dec 

Young Man With a Horn: Melancholy Rhapsody (Ray 
Heindorf) Harry James — col 


Cornel Tanassy 

Before we discuss the merits or short-comings of the 
music we hear enhancing our TV dramas let us cate- 
gorize it in some semblance of order. 


( 1 ) Original scores composed for a specific story. 

(2) A combination of live and recorded music. (The 
main title, big climaxes, and closing curtains are 
done with the use of records. The underscoring is 
handled by a lonesome solo clarinet, or one violin 
on an echo chamber, or perhaps a piano improvis- 
ing, as required by the dramatic action.) 

( 3 ) A solo instrument ( as described in 2 ) improvising 
throughout and no recordings. 

(4) Recordings only. 


( 1 ) Original scores composed in the U. S. for a speci- 
fic story or series of stories. 

(2) Original scores composed in Europe for a specific 
story or series. 

(3) Music technically transferred ("dubbed”) from a 
previously produced film to a new one. 

(4) Music in the public domain dubbed from old 
sound tracks and/or phonograph records. 

The reader might gather at first glance that the 
reason for such a great variety of methods of music 
usage is an honest artistic desire to find the best way. 
Absolutely not. It is just a matter of money. Lack of it, 
that is. Composers, orchestrators and live musicians cost 
much more than dubbing from old tracks or using 
phonograph recordings. When John Keats said, 

"Music’s golden tongue 

Flattered to tears this aged man and poor.” 

he obviously hadn’t heard some of the music shovelled at 
us on television. But we mustn’t give the impression 
that all the music we hear supporting dramatic action is 
bland, uninspired, trite, characterless, and generally fee- 
ble. Of course, there have been many capable jobs. 

Our survey revealed during one week of monitoring 
that there were 137 dramatic and/or comedy stories on 
the four major networks during the evening hours (6 
P.M. to midnight). CBS let us see 34. NBC presented 
36. Dumont telecast 23 and ABC topped all by putting 
on no less than 44 shows. We have seen about 80% 
of this list but unfortunately cannot give proper credit 
to the composer in each case as this information is not 
easily come by. Generally, credit for music composition 
is given on shows using live music. Most filmed stories 
give some sort of half-hearted credit to "music super- 
visor". (Who, he? And just what did he do? This, we 

can’t answer.) Let us make clear that many filmed shows 
do give credit, clearly and proudly. When no mention is 
made of music, although credits are listed for costumes, 
make-up, hairdressing, assistants, also assistants to as- 
sistants, we can safely assume some sound service "fixed 
them up” with dubbed music. 

Among the active composers in the East we can 
mention Ralph Wilkinson, ("Appointment With Ad- 
venture”, CBS Sun. 10:00 E.T. and "Justice”, NBC 
Thurs. 8:30) Since Tony Mottola and guitar are gone 
from "Danger” (CBS Tues. 10:00) Dave Broekman 
has done some pleasantly surprising backgrounds with 
only the help that three side-men can give. Bernie Green 
writes for "Mr. Peepers”(NBC Sun. 7:30) and he used 
to do occasional scores for U. S. Steel (ABC Tues. 9:30) 
until his additional chores for the Sid Caesar Show 
prived too arduous. The job of providing the scores for 
this show and the alternate sponsor’s "Elgin TV Hour” 
rests with Abe Osser and Ralph Wilkinson. Vladimir 
Selinsky scores some of the shows presented by "Pond’s 
Theatre” (ABC Thurs. 9:30). Mostly, however, this 
program uses records for its backgrounds and bridges. 
As in the case of "Pond’s Theatre”, "Studio One” (CBS 
Mon. 10:00) uses recordings and live music by some 
solo instrument or small group. Alfredo Antonini is the 
musical director. 

From the West Coast Rudy Schrager’s music for "Lux 
Theatre” (NBC Theatre” (NBC Thurs. 10:00 E.T.) is 
fine. He gets a good satisfying orchestral sound. We like 
the scores we heard for "Life With Father" (CBS Tues. 
8:00 E.T.) by Dave Raksin. The scores for "Medic” by 
Victor Young, "Bob Cummings Show” by Gene Le- 
grande and "Sherlock Holmes” by Paul Durand are cap- 
able jobs. (We hope to have more information regarding 
composer activities in television in subsequent issues. 
FILM MUSIC intends to follow the growth of such activ- 
ity by regularly devoting space to the discussion or re- 
view of music in this field.) 

We must keep in mind that this wonderful electronic 
miracle has grown at a tremendous rate. And we can say 
fairly that the desire for best results in scripts, sets and 
performances has kept pace. Unfortunately, the same 
concern has not extended to music. Much more could be 
achieved by the imaginative use of original music, and 
the cost need not be prohibitive. Let us revalue realist- 
ically the artistic contributions of the many arts neces- 
sary for a complete production and recognize the import- 
ance of music. We don't believe the average television 
production will ever be able to spend as much money 
and care on music as the average movie can and does, 
but there will be improvement. There must be. 

We are the music-makers, 

We are the dreamers of dreams. 

Arthur O’Shaughnessy 


(Continued from page 18) 

century instrument reveals its extraordinary preservatiori. 
The highly elaborate case, on which even the stop-knobs 
are carved, houses a small forest of wooden pipes, cap- 
able of producing an astonishing variety of intriguing 
sound. Organist Finn Videro plays a set of variations by 
Biixtehude. Gobelin tapestries illustrate phases of living 
in the period of the organ’s installation. The film won a 
certificate of merit in the Golden Reel awards. 

Frankie and Johnny (Let’s Have Music Series. Dynamic 
Films, Inc., 112 West 89th St., New York, b and w, 
4 min. ) Oscar Brand sings to his own guitar accompan- 
iment, as the story of the unfortunate lovers is acted out 
in silhouette and pantomime. The lively rendition catches 
the song’s quality admirably. 

Grand Canyon (Capital Film Service, 224 Abbott Road, 
East Lansing, Mich. Color, 26 min.) Activities at the 
National Music Camp, Interlochen, Michigan, centering 
on a performance of Ferde Grofe’s symphonic suite 
"Grand Canyon”, by orchestral players in their early 
teens. The subject, potentially one of great interest, is 
handicapped by its awkward treatment and poor color, 
particularly in scenic shots that accompany the music. 

"Cultural Value Shorts and Features” included 
DAVID, the award winner in the category, THE MED- 
IUM, (reviewed in its 35mm form in FILM MUSIC, 
September 1951) and THE EMPEROR’S NIGHTIN- 
GALE (FILM MUSIC, May 1951). Each of these has 
made a good transition from 35 to 16mm versions, a 
step that will be welcomed by audiences to whom they 
have been unobtainable heretofore. 

David (British Information Services, 30 Rockefeller 
Plaza, New York, b and w, 38 min.) A study of the 
Welsh character and people as seen through the life of 
a miner in the coal fields of South Wales, where the film 
was shot. Semi-documentary in treatment, the picture has 
a strongly attractive simplicity and dignity, with a per- 
vading regional feeling that is emphasized by Grace 
Williams’ score. 

The Medium (Athena Films, 165 West 46th St., New 
York, b and w, 81 min.) The film version of Gian-Carlo 
Menotti’s opera, written and directed by the composer 
himself, has won international recognition. In 16mm, 
the dark musical drama of the self-victimized, preying 
clairvoyant retains its original effectiveness with striking 

The Emperor's Nightingale ( Rembrandt Films, 35 West 
53rd St., New York. Color, 68 min.) The Hans Christian 
Andersen tale is given a "vivid, unique visual presenta- 
tion” that is closely interwoven with Vaclav Trojan’s 
imaginatively fitted score. The charming nightingale’s 
song is a solo played by violinist Ivan Kavacink. 

Comment on musical entries in the 1955 Golden 
Reel Film Festival will be continued in the next issue of 

B. I. S. is pleased to announce that 


its new free catalogue of Films from rlms from Britain 

Britain contains a large selection 
of films on Music and allied sub- 

jects which will be of interest to ar- 
tists, teachers, and film enthusiasts. 

Write today! 


30 Rockefeller Plaza 
Mow York 90 N Y 


MAY -JUNE 1955 

AUG 1 - 1955 



Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
11 East 87th Street, New York 28, N. Y. 
FIllmore 8-5502 

MAY -JUNE 1955 


EAST OF EDEN (with score excerpts) Leonard Rosenman 

THE MAN FROM LARAMIE (with score excerpts) George Duning 




Cover: Julie Harris and James Dean in EAST OF EDEN 

In addition to the available numbers of FILM MUSIC listed in the back of this issue there are copies of two special 
bulletins — THE RED PONY (Aaron Copland) by Lawrence Morton, and CYRANO DE BERGERAC (Dimitri 
Tiomkin) by Irwin Bazelon. Both bulletins are plentifully supplied with score quotations. Single copies of back 
issues and bulletins, 40 cents each. 


Recording Engineer 


New York 19, N. Y. 

Published by the National Film Music Council, 11 East 87th St., New York 28, N.Y. President, William Hamilton; Vice- 
President and Editor, Marie L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues each year with occasional bulletins, two 
dollars and fifty cents. Back files (25 copies) six dollars plus postage. 


Leonard Rosenman 

Elia Kazan and I, in our preliminary discussions con- 
cerning the score to EAST OF EDEN, tried to find a way 
to score the film so that the music is inextractable from 
the dramatic framework of the whole project. We agreed 
that, ideally, the composer should go along entirely with 
the film, write the necessary music before certain scenes 
were shot, and, in places where the music plays a great 
part in determining both the tension and rhythm of the 
scene, confer with the director as to the problems in- 
volved in shooting the scene to the music rather than vice 
versa. After talks involving the details and spirit of the 
story, we agreed to work in this somewhat unorthodox 
manner. Thus I found myself on the first day of shooting 
on location at Mendicino, California, already brewing 
musical ideas on the scenes to be shot. 

In directing a scene, Kazan seemed to be thinking 
of every aspect of the project all the time. He would 
suddenly detach himself from the camera and the actors, 
walk over to me and whisper — for instance — "Re- 
member, play the kid (James Dean) musically”, or words 
to that effect. Since on location in both Mendicino and 
Salinas I had access to a piano, I played my daily sketches 
for Kazan and we discussed the material at hand as it 
applied to the scenes in question. Thus when the film 
was rough cut the music was rough cut, too, and when 
the picture was complete I had only to orchestrate the 
score, and we recorded it. 

Since my concert works are of a highly complex dis- 
sonant nature, Kazan and I had something of a friendly 
disagreement at first. A bargain was made finally to 

score the children simply, and the adults in a dissonant 
fashion. There were exceptions dictated by dramatic 
necessity, of course. 

Contrary to most thoughts on film music, both Kazan 
and I agreed that film music should be intrusive; that 
is to say, music should enter the film medium as a positive 
part of the plot and not merely for sound effects, or to 
add reduntantly to what the eye and ear perceive to 
be happening dramatically on the screen. The necessity 
for music in films is the dramatic necessity for the intru- 
sion of an "unreal” or illusory element for the purpose 
of creating a new and imaginative reality. Music should 
illuminate the deepest well of inner life within the 
character and situation. Too, it should generate that 
dramatic excitement which the marriage of the arts 
(ideally the film medium is just that) should bring 
about, almost in an operatic sense — except that the 
'arias’ are spoken rather than sung. 

With these precepts in mind, certain considerations 
had to be observed. For example, when scoring under 
dialogue I took into account that Julie Harris is a high 
soprano, James Dean a tenor, and Raymond Massey a 
bass-baritone. The design of the instrumentation and 
of the thematic material itself was influenced by con- 
sideration of these voice ranges and qualities. Often 
"holes” were left in the scoring for the voice to be utilized 
as a sort of speaking instrument. Sometimes, in places 
of high tension or concentrated dialogue, music was not 
used at all, and entered later for punctuation in quiet 
reactive moments. 


Theme (a) is not treated as applying to the person 
of Cal himself, but rather to those relationships which 
Cal has to people and objects throughout the picture. 
This strident theme and its counterpart, the lyrical and 
lonely theme (b) are stark and austere, and have the 
color of solo instruments. The constant and intense 
search of love and fulfillment is here depicted, and themes 
(a) and (b) are used as primary and subsidiary motives 
in relation to other themes in the picture. They are essen- 
tially countersubjects in their musical character, and their 
harmonic and/or linear implications are present in almost 
all of the score. 

Again, this theme does not apply directly 
to the father, but in its tranquility and open- 
ness depicts the idealized relationship which 
Cal seeks with his father. It is used always in 
connection with the relationship of the two. 

Example III — The love theme. 

Ex- 3 J.zGQ 

r - 

l | > J r rl t r rf TTfe 



'P.c. at fine 

Since this simple folk-like melody repre- 
sents the lyrical element in the person of 
Abra, Kazan and I thought it only proper 
that Abra herself should introduce it in the 
film. Thus, in the ice-house scene between 
Aron and Abra, she hums it to him. From 
then on it is used in the scoring. A typical 
example of the role of music in this film is 
the use of the love theme in those subtle in- 
direct scenes in which Abra and Cal cannot 
bring themselves to reveal their love for each 
other. While they talk of the problems of 
growing up, the theme suggests the unspoken 
feelings of these two young people. 

These elements, which are the most im- 
portant thematic groups in the picture, are 
developed in a polyphonic style which pro- 
gressively combines them all so that one 
theme takes on certain characteristics of 
another until the final scene where all are 
united in a ten minute work of symphonic 
proportions. This last cue, incidentally, may 
well be the longest single cue to be recorded 
in one piece in the history of sound pictures. 


Here are some examples of the contrapuntal uses of these themes. 

Example IV 

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Con goj, - - 



r r 

(06-Vfir . ^ 

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S' r~ ”i- - ► vL 

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-it. j‘L-rar «!>•-■= 

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Example V 

While the following cue is not thematically related to the rest, it may be of interest 
to demonstrate more fully the methods that were used to integrate the score of the 
picture. Kazan did not want to depict the rioters who run beserk in front of Mr. Al- 
brecht’s house as the vicious ogres usually described on the screen. This mob is like 
many another mob: a bunch of well-meaning neighbors banded together in the per- 
petration of a senseless and violent deed. Thus, instead of being a restatement of the 
brutality shown on the screen, the music is a constant repetition of a rather banal and 
square tune, a sort of moronic scherzo. This theme, first stated by the oboe, grows with 
the mob until the full orchestra is pounding at it. From a simple beginning: 

£x f JsfO-96 

' * 

Example IX- Bar Scene, Cal and Abra. 

Jgrrtb Sotfewrfb 

o " 

= 3 = 

SytA v-rse. - 

iM JV-cQ 



From this point on, it can be seen that all the motives of the picture begin to 
entwine with one another almost as though meeting by destiny. Harmonically the score 
has become more complex so that by the time the last cue is reached, even tonal centers 
are abandoned to a more dissonant chromatic style of harmonization. 

In the love scene at Abra’s window at night, where Cal asks her to help him with 
his father’s birthday party, all the themes are used in a chromatic polyphonic setting. 
Example X: (a) Love theme; (b) Cal’s theme (canon with augmentation); (c) all 
themes together. 


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p ^ M, 

-Up — 

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p - 

L3T 1 T~1 

The final cue returns to a more tonal, classic setting, reflecting the resolution of the 
struggle, in Cal’s repentence and reconciliation. The basis for the piece is the father 
theme, first stated by the lower strings of the orchestra, almost like the beginning of a 

Example XI 

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Li. l Jn 

f"r> • { • " 


W ft ■ 

f* r 1 

■W< — *> — 

— g_ M — 

* — 

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In development, the father theme and the love theme are combined polyphonically. 
Example XII 

Ti £ = n £Zl j. 

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t @ 




- — J ' <r^ 

^TVu». T 


d J 


-44 1 ‘ 

f. *?■ 


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bf' £ 


At the conclusion of this final scene the love theme is stated in full, in the same 
setting as was heard in the titles, bringing the film to a close. 

It was my intention to unify the score into a large cohesive structure paralleling 
that of the film. To both Kazan and myself the functional quality of the score is proof 
of the efficacy of this unusual way in which the composer worked with the director. 

EAST OF EDEN . . . Warner Brothers. Julie Harris, James Dean. Director, Elia Kazan. 
Music, Leonard Rosenman. Music copyright, Witmark Music Co. CinemaScope, 


George Diming 

THE MAN FROM LARAMIE was photographed 
near Taos, New Mexico, and contains some of the most 
beautiful scenic shots of the West that I have ever seen. 
The picture, produced by William Goetz and directed 
by Anthony Mann, is an excellent dramatic western, the 
type most film composers look forward to scoring. The 
plot of "Laramie”, based on a Saturday Evening Post 
story, concerns the quest of an army officer, Will Lock- 
hart, for the man responsible for the death of his brother 
in an Indian massacre. 

Thematic material for THE MAN FROM LARA- 
MIE comprised the following: 

1. The song called "The Man From Laramie”, by 
Ned Washington and Lester Lee, was written months 
before the picture was shot, with picture title exploi- 
tation as the primary objective. This song had an un- 
usually long chorus (64 bars). I was able to use only 
one 16-bar phrase in the main and end titles, sung by 
a chorus of baritones and bassos. Because of the vocal 
nature of the song, it did not adapt itself to instrumental 
under-scoring. As a consequence I could use it but two 
or three times in the background scoring. I would like 
to point out to embryo composers that in planning a 
so-called theme song which is to be played orchestrally 
rather than sung in a background score, it is always well 
to keep the melody simple, avoiding too many repeated 
notes and intricate rhythms. Consideration should be 
given as to whether this theme will be played in strings, 
woodwinds and other colors. 

A1 Newman, Victor Young and Dimitri Tiomkin, 
all of whom have been successful with the theme song 

technique, are not only song writers but also film music 
composers who ire familiar with th problems involved 
in underscoring dialogue and dramatic action. Very 
often it happens that a score will comprise mostly short 
cues running from ten or fifteen seconds to perhaps a 
minute in length. Thus it can readiiy be seen that it is 
well nigh impossible for the composer to squeeze in 
more than one or two 8-bar statements of a song theme 
which may actually be 32 or more bars in length. As 
a matter of fact, many of my own dramatic scores, and 
those of numerous of my colleagues, have been built on 
themes of only two or three bars in length. It is my 
opinion that not more than one out of any ten or twelve 
pictures can be properly scored with a "pop-song” tech- 
nique. Most underscoring is created to highlight action 
and breathe with the dialogue. If the theatre audience is 
always conscious of a tune being played, then the score 
must detract from the visual and audio action. Of course 
there are exceptions where a 32-bar tune can be played 
over and over and be a great help to the picture, but 
this rarely occurs. 

2. For the character of Will, the Man from Laramie, 
I used a lonely sounding theme, first heard as shown in 
Example 1 (Bar 1 through Bar 8). In this cue Will is 
visiting the scene of the Indian massacre, where his 
brother was killed. Will’s theme is heard as a distant 
muted trumpet solo with an accompaniment of muted 
violas and celli. At Bar 9, Example 1, an Indian motif 
is referred to in a reminiscent manner followed by a 
repetition of Will’s theme stated by the oboe d’amore. 

Example 1 - Copyright 1955, Columbia Piet. Music Corp. 


3. Much of the story is concerned with several rides up a steep trail to a mountain 
top where the contraband rifles are hidden. For this I used a two-part climbing structure 
in trumpets and woods over a basso-ostinato. (Example 2) 

Example 2 - Copyright 1955, Columbia Piet. Music Corp. 


4. For the strong character of Vic, the ranch Foreman, a short fragmentary theme 
is heard, usually in horns and low woods, (Example 3). In this cue, Vic is riding up the 
trail, and the obvious thing was to play his theme over a trail motif. The repeated C 
sharps, in the tympani, helped sustain the nervous tension generated in this scene. 

Example 3 - Copyright 1955, Columbia Piet. Music Corp. 


5. Another important piece of material was in the Barb Ranch theme, which I 
also used for Old Man Waggoman (Donald Crisp). (Example 4) Generally for this 
character this theme is heard on the alto or bass flute. (Example 5 

Example 4 - Copyright 1955, Columbia Piet. Music Corp. 

Example 5 - Copyright 1955, Columbia Piet. Music Corp. 



For a long scene at an Indian wedding, I scored with an Indian drum and an old 
"D” flute, which was just enough out of tune to give an authentic sound. Two other 
scenes played in front of the old Indian mission were scored with an off-stage organ, 
the music styled after an old Gregorian chant and played on a harmonium. 

All in all I found that scoring THE MAN FROM LARAMIE a most interesting 

THE MAN FROM LARAMIE . . . Columbia. James Stewart, Arthur Kennedy. Director, 
Anthony Mann. Music, George Duning. Orchestrations, Arthur Morton. Song "Man 
from Laramie”, Lester Lee, Ned Washington. CinemaScope, Technicolor. 

(Dimitri Tiomkin and Jester Hairston) 


Frank Lewin 

The latest in the long list of scores Dimitri Tiomkin 
has written for motion pictures is the music for Warner 
Brothers' LAND OF THE PHARAOHS. The film, in 
Cinema-Scope with sterophonic sound, was shot in Egypt; 
it describes the building of one of the gigantic pyramids 
which house the mummy and treasures of an Egyptian 
ruler. Mr. Tiomkin has provided this subject with an 
appropriately massive score. During an interview in 
New York he supplied some details on its composition. 
The score employed an orchestra of 90 men and a chorus 
of 80. The chorus is used both symphonically, and real- 
istically as an expression of the Egyptian people’s feelings 
during the long years of labor on the pyramid. Mr. 
Tiomkin asked Jester Hairston, a choir master in Los 
Angeles, to assemble a chorus for this recording, in pref- 
erence to employing an established choral group that 
might have sounded too polished. 

The music is not based directly on Egyptian sources. 
Mr. Tiomkin explained that Egyptian music available 
for study did not reach far enough into the past to 
recreate faithfully the period of the pyramids. "It is 
theatrical music,” was Mr. Tiomkin’s description of the 
score, and that is in keeping with nature of the film 
which details the historical facts through the medium 
of a fairly conventional melodrama. 

To digress a moment, Mr. Tiomkin has some inter- 
esting things to say about music and the position of the 
composer in film-making. Music is of value to the final 
product only in so far as it helps to emphasize and 
heighten the impact of the scenes. Its merit is not neces- 
sarily judged by its quality as pure music, but has to 
implement all the elements of the sound track without 
getting in their way. In his own words, Mr. Tiomkin 
takes into consideration what sound effects, if any, are 
to be carried with a certain scene. The music is written 
and orchestrated accordingly. Dialogue, of course, is 
considered carefully — in LAND OF THE PHARAOHS 
there are many instances where the music leads up to and 
introduces speeches with almost operatic emphasis. 
Teamwork with the picture and sound editors helps to 
accomplish an integrated sound track in which none of 
the elements fight or overshadow one another. In many 
cases music might be eliminated when it is found that 
effects alone convey the feel of the scene to greater ad- 
vantage, and vice versa. 

To the question: "Who decides where music is to 
be and where not?” Mr. Tiomkin pointed out that the 
score is most of the time the result of a close personal 
collaboration with the producer or director, often ante- 
dating the actual shooting of the film. In his next score, 
for example, THE GIANT based on Edna Ferber’s novel, 
Mr. Tiomkin is working with the producer, George 
Stevens, in Texas. "The stature of the composer is higher 
than it has ever been, "Mr. Tiomkin remarked. "More 
ajid more his importance is being recognized and often 
the composer (or let us say a composer of Mr. Tiomkin’s 
experience and reputation) suggests picture changes and 
cuts in the final stage of the production. It is being rec- 
ognized that a composer who is dealing with form in 
his work all the time can contribute to achieve this in 
a motion picture.” 

To return to the picture at hand, the music under 
the titles introduces a five-note theme which is carried 
throughout the score in various treatments. After a short 
narrative opening the picture explodes into a brilliant 
spectacle: Pharaoh’s return from a war in a triumphal 
procession of soldiers, musicians, slaves and spoils. Here 

the music has it all: trumpets, drums, harps on scene, 
augmented by the large orchestra that is not suggested 
by the picture, a stereophonic holiday. Short sections of 
explanatory narration superimposed from time to time 
on this scene of jubliation point up a problem which 
is not exactly peculiar to stereophonic sound, but is mag- 
nified when dealing with such a large mass of sound: 
How do you take it down in volume once it has been 
established? The momentary drop of the tremendous 
battery of instruments and sound effects, sudden or grad- 
ual, to allow the narration to be heard breaks whatever 
impact the sound has created. Besides, narration is gen- 
erally an afterthought anyway, added at a time when the 
music has been recorded and the scenes are frozen; 
otherwise it should conceivably be possible either to plan 
the sound so that it reaches a naturally lower level in 
instrumentation and momentary decrease of excitement, 
or place the narration over long shots or scenes in which 
the lowered sound might have pictorial motivation. 

The amount of music in this film is generous — it 
runs under many scenes where it does not seem to have 
much to say; in some cases it appears to have no relation 
to the scene at all, as for instance during the sequence 
where Pharaoh inspects the various plans for his tomb 
submitted by the Egyptian architects. In its long stretches 
of background to dialogue and interiors where its spec- 
tacular quality cannot assert itself, the score brings to 
mind a similar treatment in Mr. Tiomkin’s DUEL IN 
THE SUN, and contrasts sharply with the conciseness 
with which music was handled in HIGH NOON, for 

An impressive use of the chorus is made to portray 
the spirit of willingness with which the Egyptians answer 
the call to work on the building of the pyramid. The 
people march to work shouting in song their devotion 
to this project; in the quarries where great blocks of 
stone are chipped out of the rock the music blends with 
the sound effects of the chisels. The surging music 
carries forward these montage-like sequences. The 
sound effects in the quarries, on the other hand, seem 
curiously tame to suggest the noise made by such a 
gigantic horde of people. To dramatise the change of 
spirit that has taken place in the people after years and 
years of this toil, when willingness and joy have given 
way to resentment and despair under the overseers’ lash, 
big drums take the place of the chanting. The change is 
effective and the slowing down of the human machinery 
is echoed in the music. In this sequence, again, the ap- 
paratus of sound employed to achieve the emotional 
effect has to drop abruptly to make way for explanatory 
narration. The sound of the drum which has just boomed 
out of the screen is suddenly brought down so low that 
it is almost non-existent, yet the picture has not changed : 
the big stick descends on the drum head as before. 

The overall impression of the music matches well 
the theatricality of the plot and acting and it thus suc- 
cessful in carrying out the spirit of the film. It reaches 
a high degree of descriptiveness in the final collapse of 
the pyramid’s interior: stones crash and crunch into 
place, sand runs out of pipes, and mingled with the sound 
effects coming at this point from speakers mounted in 
the side walls of the auditorium, is the music. It is 
an impressive climax to the film and the score that 
accompanies it. 

LAND OF THE PHAROAHS . . . Warner Brothers. 
Jack Hawkins, Joan Collins. Producer and director, 
Howard Hawks. Music, Dimitri Tiomkin. WarnerColor. 


Robin Jon Joachim 

A few weeks ago in Cannes the eighth celebration 
of the International Film Festival brought the latest col- 
lection of the world’s most provocative productions to 
the critical eyes of 2,700 men and women connected in 
some way with the industry, and 517 journalists from 
almost every nation that exists. Certainly, this 17 day 
marathon of movies from both sides of the iron and 
bamboo curtains contained music in a rich variety of 
styles, periods and origins. 

Two prominent composers were present: Francis 
Poulenc and Georges Auric. Mr. Poulenc was asked by 
one of the three daily "required reading” information 
bulletins for his impression of the various musical scorPs 
in the entries. The French composer congratulated the 
West Germans on the "judicial and perfect choice of 
the fragments of Wagner’s music for the film LUDWIG 
II”. But regarding the Soviet film version of Prokofiev’s 
ROMEO AND JULIET the noted musician stated: "I 
regret that the length of the film obliged the director 
(Heifetz) to go over and over certain parts of the ori- 
ginal ballet score. These over-numerous chorusings or 
reprises aren’t always in keeping with the original ballet 
and often spoil the effects of this admirable music.” 

Both Poulenc and Georges Auric belonged to the 
famed "Six” of the 20s with Milhaud, Honegger and 
others. This school had important influences over Ameri- 
can movie music, e.g. Virgil Thomson, Aaron Copland, 
and indirectly Leonard Rosenman, who wrote the score 
for EAST OF EDEN, prized at Cannes for the best 
dramatic film. 

Georges Auric was at Cannes to present the film 
which he had scored, DU RIFIFI CHEZ LES HOMMES. 
This was an official French entry but was directed by 
the American, Jules Dassin, known for his NAKED 
CITY. Strangely, the most noted feature of Auric’s score 
was the lack of it for a 35 minute break. During this 
time there is a robbery performed, in silence except for 
varied sound effects. 

Mr. Auric has been writing many scores for English 
films, but when asked which of the movies he’s written 
for he prefers he replied: "Cocteau’s BLOOD OF A 
POET, one of the first films I ever wrote music for way 
back in 1932 is one of my favorites. It was very jazz 
inspired, and I think the surrealist film is very represen- 
tative of a certain period in cinematographic history. 
I’m told that LE SANG DU POETE has had quite a 
strong influence over the avant-garde abroad.” 

There were two revelations of scores which excited 
interest. One was for the prize winning (Golden Palm 
for the best short lengther) BLINKITY-BLANK, di- 
rected, or shall we say animated by Norman McLaren. 
This was done without the use of a camera, by engraving 
on black emulsion-coated film with a pen-knife, sewing 
needle and razor blade, and colored by hand with trans- 
parent cellulose dyes and a sable-hair brush. The other 
was for one of the three official Japanese feature length 
CIFIED LOVERS, a period piece placed in 17th century 

The Canadian National Film Board produced the 
8 minute short, and Maurice Blackburn wrote the music. 
The group of instruments used for BLINKETY-BLANK 
consisted of a flute, an oboe, a clarinet, a bassoon and a 
cello. The music was written without key signature on 
a three line stave ( instead of the usual five lines ) ; the 
spaces between the three lines were not used, therefore 
there were only three possible note positions to indicate 
pitch. If a note appeared on the top line, it indicated 
that the instrument played in its high register; a note on 
the middle line — in its middle register, and a note on 
on the bottom line — in its low register. The limits of 
the three registers were set before-hand for each instru- 
ment. Inside that register, the musician was completely 
free to choose whatever note he wished. The notes, how- 
ever, indicated the precise time value and rhythmic pat- 
tern, time signatures and bars being used in the usual 
manner. It was therefore possible to conduct the orches- 
tra and give some coherence to the group of instruments. 
Signs for the control of dynamics and for instrumental 
color were used in the conventional manner. 

The best results of this "semi-free improvisation” 
were achieved by taking the orchestra practically by 
surprise and recording without rehearsals, thus insuring 
as complete a divergence of inspiration in each musician 
as possible, a complete freshness of improvisation, and 
a complete disregard for all consciously agreed key sig- 
natures. To create additional percussive effects, synthetic 
sounds were scratched directly on film afterwards by 
Norman McLaren and his assistant Evelyn Lambart. 
BLINKETY-BLANK made a sensation at the Festival, 
which it deserved without any doubt. 

The case of the Japanese feature CHIKAMATSU 
MONOGATARI was entirely different. Unfortunately 
it received no prize. But had there been an award given 
to the film with the best musical score, the Oriental 
entry would certainly have received the Palm for its bold 
and fearless use of a purely indigenous sound track. 

The Nipponese equivalent of William Shakespeare 
is more or less the English playwright’s contemporary, 
a man named Chikamatsu. Monogatari means "the story 
of". Chikamatsu’s play treats of the cruel custom of 17th 
century Japan — that of crucifying adulterous lovers. 
The effect of the tragedy is heightened by one of the 
most remarkable scores ever written for a film. The com- 
poser, Fumio Hayasaka, has given us unadulterated 
Eastern background music that sends shivers up our 
spines. There is a great economy of instruments, pre- 
ponderantly wood percussion, about which I’m not in- 
formed. What is so striking is that the score makes no 
concessions. The recently seen RASHOMON is an ex- 
ample of a Japanese film with Western background 
music. In this and many other cases, what is heard is 
just a poor pastiche and imitation of our style and or- 
chestration. Mr. Nagata, producer of CHIKAMATSU 
(and also the GATE OF HELL which won the Grand 
Prize last year at Cannes) is to be congratulated for his 
use of solely native music. Its use makes the picture of 
17th century Japan only more convincing and gripping. 

(Continued on page 24) 

Vindicates score excerpts.) 


DAGGER (Steiner); I’VE ALWAYS LOVED YOU (Rachmaninoff, etc)...Stanlie McConnell. 



Marie Hamilton. 

1947 April-May. MUSIC NEEDS IN AUDI-VISUAL AIDS... Delinda Roggensack. ACADEMY AWARDS 
1947. THE BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES*(Friedhofer)... Louis Applebaum. TEACHING 

POSSIBILITIES: SONG OF SCHEHEREZADE (Rimsky-Korsakof ; Rozea )...Stanlie McConnell. 




September-October. TEACHING POSSIBILITIES: SONG OF LOVE (Schumann, Brahms; Kaper), 

TUBBY THE TUBA (Kleinsinger)...Stanlie McConnell. THE MUSIC MAKERS... Lawrence Morton. 


November-December. FOREVER AMBER*(Raks in)... David Raksin. FOREVER AMBER*(Raksin)... 
Louis Applebaum. THE MUSIC MAKERS... Lawrence Morton. HOLLYWOOD’S BOY CHOIRS. . .Marie 
Hamilton. ODD MAN OUT (Alwyn)... William Alwyn. TEACHING POSSIBILITIES: REHEARSAL (Smetana, 

Saint-Saens, etc). 16MM FIIMS... James Nickerson. BRIEF REVIEWS: THE BISHOP’S WIFE, BODY 


1948 May- June. FILM MUSIC IN THE MAIN STREAM... Lawrence Morton. ARCH OF TRIUMPH*( excerpt 
only). ..Louis Gruenberg. FILM COUNCILS IN AMERICA. . .Emily Jones. THE IRON CURTAIN* 

(Newman)... Alfred Newman. 1947 INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL. . .Virginia Momand. BEAUTY AND 



November-December. COMPOSING FOR A FILM SCORE*. . .Lawrence Morton. MACBETH* (Ibert)... 
Jacques Ibert. MACBETH. . .William Hamilton. 16MM FILMS: SOURCES. DOCUMENTARY FIIMS... 


1949 January-February. FORCE OF EVIL (Rak3 in)... David Raksin. FORCE OF EVIL*( Raksin)... 
Lawrence Morton. WHISPERING SMITH (Deutsch).. .William Hamilton. WHISPERING SMITH* 

(Deutsch)... Adolph Deutsch. MUSIC IN CURRENT BRITISH FIIMS.. .John Huntley. FILM TUNE 
SLEUTHS... Fred Stanley. COMPOSER PROBLEMS... John del Valle. JOAN OF ARC (Friedhofer)... 



March-April. THE MUSIC OF HAMLET (Walton)... William Walton. THE MOVIE SCENE (Film 
music series for broadcast); INTRODUCTION. . .Muir Mathieson. THE MOVIE SCENE; THE RED SHOES 
(Easdale)... Brian Easdale. THE RED SHOES (Easdale)... Gail Kubik. MUSIC IN TELEVISION AND 



Roger Bowman. 

November-December. FIIM MUSIC PROFILE: ADOLPH DEUTSCH... Lawrence Morton. NEW 
Harold Brown. THE HEIRESS (Copland)... Irwin Bazelon. UTILIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL FIIMS... 
Delinda Roggensack. FIIMS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES... Mary Louise Alexander. 16MM FIIMS. . .Marie 


1950 January-February. THE THIRD MAN*( Karas)... William Hamilton. PRINCE OF FOXES*( Newman) 
... Lawrence Morton. FIIM MUSIC PROFILE: FRA1G WAXMAN... Lawrence Morton. THE MUSIC 

MIXER.. .John Huntley. THE TITAN.. .Ann Ronell. A TIME FOR BACH.. .Gene Forrell. BRIEF 


MUSIC. 16MM F IU1S ...Marie Hamilton. 

March-April. LOVE HAPPY*(Ronell)...Ann Ronell. LOVE HAPP^ftonell) Harry Geller. 


NO SAD SONG FOR ME* (Duning)... George Duning. THE MAN ON THE EIFFEL TOWER* (Michelet ) . . . 
Delinda Roggensack. 

May-June. THE NEXT VOICE YOU HEAR*( Raks in ) . . . David Raksin. FAUST AND THE DEVIL... 
Arthur Christmann. ANNIE GET YOUR GUN (Deutsch)... Adolph Deutsch. IN A LONELY PLACE* 
(Antheil)... George Antheil. DAYBREAK IN UDI... Harold Brown. FILM MUSIC PROFILE: ALFRED 

NEWMAN... Lawrence Morton. PUBLIC LIBRARIES AS MUSICAL CENTERS. . .William Harrison. 

Marie Grentzer. 

September-October. FILM MUSIC PROFILE: HUGO FRIEDHOFER... Lawrence Morton. EDGE OF 

DOGM*(Friedhofer)... William Hamilton. MUSIC OF TREASURE ISLAND (Parker)... John Huntley. 


November-December. AN INTERVIEW WITH GEORGE ANTHEIL... Lawrence Morton. KUBIK’S 
VALLEY (Berlioz, Borodin, etc) ...Quaintance Eaton. PARIS WALTZ (Offenbach). ..R. F. Deke. 
16MM FILMS... Marie Hamilton. LIBRARY SERVICE. 

1951 January-February. FIIM MUSIC PROFILE: ANDRE PREVIN... Lawrence Morton. KIM (Previn) 

...Milton M. Kraus. OF MEN AND MUSIC (Bach, Mendelssohn, etc)...Quaintance Eaton. 

LIBRARIES... Mary L. Alexander. LIBRARY SERVICE. AFTERTHOUGHTS... Sigmund Spaeth. 


(Offenbach)...R.F. Deke. TERESA (Applebaum).. .David Epstein. LULLABY OF BROADWAY. . .Milton 
Kraus. THE BRAVE BULLS (Tedesco). ..Robert Abramson. TALKING BACK.. .David Raksin. SCOPE 

May-June. THE GREAT CARUSO (operatic areas; Green)... Alfred E. Simon. THE EMPOROR* S 
NIGHTINGALE (Trojan)... Arthur Hepner . , . THE EMPEROR’S NIGHTINGALE*( Tro jan). . .R.F. Deke. 

SHOW BOAT (Kern)... Richard Lewine. THE BRAVE BULLS. • .Miriam Teichner. THE TKI.RKINEMA IN 
...Lilia Belle Pitts. AFTERTHOUGHTS... Sigmund Spaeth. 

September-October. FIIM MUSIC; ART OR INDUSTRY.. .Lawrence Morton. WHISTLE AT EATON 
FALLS*( Applebaum)... Louis Applebaum. STRICTLY DISHONORABLE (Gounod, Tedesco, etc). ..Alfred 
E. Simon. THE MEDIUM*(Menotti)...R.F. Deke. NATURE’S HALF ACRE*(Paul Smith)... Wanda Sykes. 
OLIVER TWIST (Bax)... John Huntley. 

November-December. QUO VADIS*(Rozea)...Miklos Rozea. ROZSA* S MUSIC FOR QUO VADIS... 
Lawrence Morton. AN AMERICAN IN PARIS (Gershwin)... Richard Lewine. MUSIC IN THE ROUND... 

Mathieson. 16MM FILMS. . .Marie Hamilton. AFTERTHOUGHTS... Sigmund Spaeth. 

1952 March-April. VIVA ZAPATA*( North )...Lan Adomian. SINGIN’ IN THE RAIN (Freed)... Rich- 
ard Lewine. THE BELLE OF NEW YORK (Mercer)... Alfred E. Simon. WITH A SONG IN MY 

HEART... Alfred E. Simon. RECORD REVIEW. . .Arthur Knight. THE AFRICAN QUEEN (Gray)... Allan 
Gray. THE AFRICAN QUEEN (Gray). ..John Huntley. TEACHING FILM MUSIC... Elwyn Schwartz. 
AFTERTHOUGHTS... Sigmund Spaeth. 

May-June. PICTURA (Vlad, Albeniz, Adomian)... Frank Lewin. CRY THE BELOVED COUNTRY 
(Montbrun)... Robert McBride. HIGH TREASON (Addison)... Quaintance Eaton. MURDER IN THE 
CATHEDRAL ( La jtha)... Frank Lewine. THE TWO MOUSEKETEERS*( Bradley) . . .Albert Mellot. CAN 


September-October. MIRACLE OF OUR LADY OF FATIMA*( Steiner)... Harold Brown. THE 
QUIET MAN (Young)... Scott Wilkinson. THE MAGIC BOX (Alwyn)... Quaintance Eaton. CARRIE* 
(Raksin)... David Raksin. THE MERRY WIDOW (Lehar)... Alfred E. Simon. HIGH NOON (Tiomkin)... 

William Hamilton. JAPANESE MUSIC TODAY.. .Tak Shindo. 16MM FILMS. . .Marie Hamilton. 

PICTURA (complete)... Frank Lewine. 

November— December. THE THIEF**' ( Gilb ert ) • • .Herachel Burke Gilbert. MORE MUSIC FOR 
VAL... D.D. Livingston. STREAMLINED MUSIC EDUCATION... C. A. Biondo. 

1953 THE BAD AND THE BEAUTIFUL*( Raksin ) . . .William Hamilton. TONIGHT WE SING (Gounod, 
Puccini, etc ) . • .Quaintance Eaton. BECAUSE YOU* RE MINE (operatic excerpts etc)... 

AFTERTHOUGHTS... Sigmund Spaeth. 

March-April. MOULIN ROUGE (Auric).. .Lee Pockriss. SALOME*( Duning )... George W. 

Duning. CALL ME MADAM (Berlin)... Nathan Kroll. DEPT. OF AMPLIFICATION (Bad and the Beauti- 
ful)... William Hamilton. NEW FILM MUSIC FOR NEW FILMS... Mary Ellen Bute. MUSIC IN ART 
FIIMS. . .William Hamilton. TELEVISION NOTES... Roger Bowman. 

May-June. MAIN ST. TO BROADWAY* ( Ronell ) • . .Ann Ronell. THE JUGGLER*( Antheil ) • • • 
George Antheil. SWORD AND THE ROSE (Parker)... Clifton Parker. CINDERELLA (Rossini)... 
Quaintance Eaton. GRAND OPERA FEATURE FILMS... Quaintance Eaton. MUSIC FOR THE QUEEN’S 

September-October. THE BEGGAR’S OPERA (Bliss)... Harold Brown. MARTIN LUTHER (Lotar) 
...Frank Lewine. JULIUS CAESAH*( Rozsa)... Miklos ftozsa. FILM MUSIC ON RECORDS. . .Alen 
Morrison. SEATTLE PUBLIC LIBRARY. . .Ellen L. Walsh. CANADIAN FIIM NEWS... Gerald Pratley. 
MOVIES AND MUSIC... C. Sharpless Hickman. 

November-December. THE ROBE* ( Newman ) . . . Harold Brown. GILBERT AND SULLIVAN... Sidney 
Otis L. Guernsey, Jr. FIIM MUSIC AND THE LIBRARY... Gladys E. Chamberlain. AFTERTHOUGHTS... 
Sigmund Spaeth. 

1954 Jariuary-February. THE WILD ONE*( Stevens)... Leith Stevens. LITTLE FUGITIVE*(Manson) 
...Eddy Manson. BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES*(Friedhofer)... Louis Applebaum (reprint). 


March-April. FROM HERE TO ETERNITY* (Duning)... George W. Duning. THE TELL-TALE 
HEART*(Kremenliev)... Boris Kremenliev. RHAPSODY (Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff, etc)... Quain- 
...D.S. Wheelwright. NEWS FROM CANADA... Gerald Pratley. AFTERTHOUGHTS... Sigmund Spaeth. 

May-June. SUMMER SEQUENCER Scott)... Tom Scott. OF THE FIIM AND MUSIC. ..Jack Shaind- 
ON FILM...G.R. Haney, George Vedegis. MUSIGRAPH: MAGIC FIRE...G.R. Haney, George Vedegis. 

J. P. Dickson. WHAT FIIM MUSIC MEANS TO ME... James Limbacher. 

September-October. ON THE WATERFRONT* ( Bernstein)... William Hamilton. THE STRATFORD 
ADVENTURE* (Applebaum)... Gerald Pratley. THE GOLDEN COACH (Vivaldi)... Mary Powell. BRIGA- 
DOON (Loewe)... Alfred E. Simon. REAR WINDOW (Waxman)... Marie Hamilton. AIDA (Verdi)... 
Sigmund Spaeth. MUSIC CLUB PROGRAMS... Helen Williams. 

November-December. SUDDENLY*^ Raksin)... David Raksin. SINFONIA ANTARCTICA (Williams) 
...Gerald Pratley. A STAR IS BORN (Arlen, Gersche, etc). ..Albert J. Elias. HANSEL AND 
GRETEL (Humperdinck)... Quaintance Eaton. DEEP IN MY HEART (Romberg). .'.Alfred E. Simon. 
CANADA. . .Gerald Pratley. 

1955 Jariuary-February. ROMEO AND JULIET*( Vlad)... Roman Vlad. 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE 
SEA*( Smith)... Joseph S. Durbin. CINERAMA HOLIDAY* (Gould, Shaindlin)...Jack Shaindlin. 

THE SILVER CHALICE*(Waxman).. .Harold Brown. 16MM FIIMS. ..J. Nickerson, M.Hamilton. IN CUR- 

March-April. A MAN CALLED PETER*( Newman) . . .Harold Brown. INTERRUPTED MELODY (opera- 
tic excerpts, etc ).. .Albert J. Elias. THE LONG GRAY LINE (Duning). ..D.W. Gallez. STORY 
...Gerald Pratley. 16MM FIIMS. . .Marie Hamilton. FIIM MUSIC ON RECORDS... Alen Morrison. 

May-June. EAST OF EDEN* ( R 03 enman ) . . . Leonard Rosenman. THE MAN FROM LARAMIE* (Duning) 
...George Duning. LAND OF THE PHAROAHS (Tiomk in)... Frank Lewine. ARTICLES AND REVIEWS IN 

Special Issues : THE RED P0NY*( Copland).. .Lawrence Morton; CYRANO DE BERGERAC*( Tiankin ) . . . 

Irwin Bazelon. 

Single copies 40 cents each. 

( Continued from page 20) 

The Yugoslavs showed a production made in collabor- 
ation with Norway. It treats of the imprisonment of the 
Serbs in a Nazi concentration camp in the Scandinavian 
countryside. THE BLOODY ROUTE music was used 
with such discretion and was so closely allied with the 
emotional tension that even the most experienced, wide- 
awake musician couldn’t remember hearing any music 
at all. But according to Aaron Copland, isn’t this the 
criterion of a good score? The fact that the score in 
itself is not remembered but the choking sobs that you 
had during the performance of the film are remembered, 
is the real test of good movie music. 

Greece gave us a film fresh with young talent — 
STELLA, just the Carmen-like story of a beautiful cab- 
aret dancer. Throughout the film we are reminded of the 
orchestra of bouzoukia which punctuates the picture with 
popular music. I never imagined that the music of the 
south Balkan state could be so haunting. Michael Cacoy- 
annis is the young, promising director, and Manos Hadji- 
dakis is responsible for the music. 

From Sao Paulo came a remarkable short called HOPE 
IS ETERNAL, the work of Marcos Margulies, a talented 
young director responsible for an earlier documentary, 
THE TYRANTS. HOPE IS ETERNAL dramatizes oils, 
water colors, etchings and drawings rendered by the 
Brazilian artist Lasar Segal between 1907 and 1954. To 
music written by Lasar’s brother, Bernardo Segall, (at 
present living in New York) a drama unfolds of "fu- 
gitives from oppression, persecution and hatred who seek 

peace and confidence in a new land" — in this case, 
Brazil. Through excellent montaging Margulies has co- 
ordinated the visual and auditory aspects of the subject 
to create a beautifully proportioned job. Certainly this 
was more worthy of an honorable mention than the 

Italy was prized for the outstanding Cinemascope 
and stereophonic sound short, THE ISLAND OF FIRE. 
The work is overwhelming in its power to evoke the 
foreboding of destruction from the live volcano on the 
island it ironically enough nourishes, as the source (lava) 
of the rich soil off which the peasants live. This spot in 
the Mediterranean is not far from Stromboli and Vol- 
cano. Folk songs without orchestral accompaniment 
heighten the realism. Directed by Vittorio de Seta, the 
music consisted of popular songs recorded on the spot 
and sung by the every day multitude of the island’s in- 
habitants. If only from the standpoint of the brilliantly 
managed sound track, THE ISLAND OF FIRE merited 
the award it was duly given. 

In the Indian film BIRAJ BAHU (THE WIFE OF 
BIRAJ), there were utterly charming, almost lilting 
Hindu songs. Bimal Roy, who directed this film, won 
a prize for his other picture DO BIGHA ZAMIN last 
year. The last mentioned contains even more of the 
same kind of music. It is being shown in Paris now 
under the name CALCUTTA, CRUEL CITY because of 
its similarity to Rossellini’s masterpiece ROME, OPEN 

B. I. S. is pleased to announce that 
its new free catalogue of Films from 
Britain contains a large selection 
of films on Music and allied sub- 
jects which will be of interest to ar- 
tists, teachers, and film enthusiasts. 


30 Rockefeller Plaza 






Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
11 East 87th Street, New York 28, N. Y. 
FIllmore 8-5502 


THE GREAT ADVENTURE; notes on the score and cue sheet Ann Ronell 

(with score and cue sheet excerpts) 

THE NIGHT OF THE HUNTER (with score excerpts) 




(with score excerpt) 





Walter Schumann 

Ernest C. Watson 
Eddy Manson 
Mary Powell 

Gerald Pratley 

Marie Hamilton 
Gene Forrell 
Mary Powell 
Mary Pearson 




Published every two months for the 
advancement of the aesthetic and social 
aspects of the motion pictures. 

now teaching private courses in 
the art and techniques of compos- 
ing music for films and television. 

FILM CULTURE offers stimulating articles by 
leading film makers, critics, directors, as well as 
film-goers and serves as a meeting ground for con- 
structive analysis of ideas, achievements and prob- 
lems in the domain of the film. 

Subscription Price For One Year — $3.00 


NEW YORK 24, N. Y. 



Single issue — 50<* 

215 W. 98th St. New York 25, N.Y. 

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Published by the National Film Music Council, 11 East 87th St., New York 28, N.Y. President, William Hamilton; Vice- 
President and Editor, Marie L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues each year with occasional bulletins, two 
dollars and fifty cents. Back files (25 copies) six dollars plus postage. 



Notes by Ann Ronell 

In Sweden, the birds and forest animals wake up the 
morning with their music. At dawn, the cuckoo, the 
fox, the grouse, the sandpipers, the creatures of sky and 
lake, woods and farm, all call and trill and pling and 
boom like an orchestra tuning up. Silvery mist rises from 
the lake waters like a curtain, leaving a "fairyshow of 
cobwebs and dew pearls” glistening on the green reeds. 
In summer, the fish splash in the lake and the waters 
make a rippling music. The hawks swoop down from 
the cliffs and their wings make a whirring music. Soon 
the otters scurry into the marsh to flip and flop in their 
morning bath. 

Weaving a symphony of sound effects thru the mus- 
ical score of Lars-Erik Larsson for THE GREAT AD- 
VENTURE, director Arne Sucksdorff has given us from 
start to finish of his remarkable film the unforgettable 
experience of entering Wonderland itself, which is our 
own wonderful world. The emotions we enjoy in dis- 
covering the creatures of this world, in awakening to 
the beauties of this world, are heightened by hearing the 
actual sounds of nature. 

For the film score, there may be as many as 40 in- 
struments recorded for the orchestra, but there are 200 
at least recorded for the sound track, instruments of the 
natural life around us, rhythms and voices of individual 
character made all the more fascinating in alignment with 
the sounds of man. Mr. Sucksdorff, an imaginative artist, 
has painted in sound what he has so excellently painted 
in emotion, the realization of the wonder of living. 

Composer Larsson evidently worked very closely with 
Sucksdorff and with Nils Gustaf Orn, the sound director, 
whose personal notes on the cue sheet are acknowledged 
gratefully. Directions were given to the composer in 
such detail that only quotation will suffice for explana- 
tion. The cue sheet is explicit in its depiction of the 
screen action and what is demanded thereby from the 
music. I find this kind of cue sheet unique in my ex- 
perience as a composer for Hollywood films, and wonder 
if it is usual in Sweden's film industry. The American 
cue sheet is brief, listing only reel numbers with their 
separate cues, the time duration of each cue in the score, 
and the copyright owners to whose composition or credit 
will go any further use of the music. THE GREAT 
ADVENTURE cue sheet, quoted below, lists by number 
the musical sequence or cue, named here the "Complex”, 
and in lieu of titles for each, gives detailed description 
of film action and mood, poetically, graphically. 

The film score is an outstanding job for fulfilling 
the extensions and limitations of musical collaboration 
on this picture. Well constructed, the composition is 
ever musical in itself. Many of the cues can stand apart 
from the sound track on their own merits of charm and 
melodious unity. 

Technically, the sound recording is fine, all sounds 
of nature recorded by Magnetophone for the film, which 
Sucksdorff took two years to create. He writes: "The 
rhythm of the film is supplied by the four seasons. In 
the first part, farm, nearby forest and lake are seen from 
the viewpoint of the animals, domestic and wild; in 
the second part, from the viewpoint of humans.” The 
story concerns two brothers — Anders, ten, and Kjell, 

six, — and the baby otter they share as a pet in secret 
all winter. What bittersweet experiences they have in 
sharing the secret and suffering its betrayal, make up the 
tale, serious and amusing by turn. 

The score expresses these experiences admirably. On 
page 1 of the cue sheet caption "Head Text” means 
Main Title, for which cue Sommar, employing wood- 
winds and strings to describe summer night visual back- 
ground for the Title, state the "Folksong” material. The 
mood desired here of "Swedish loneliness" is set by the 
melancholy character of the theme. English horn echoes 
andante while a profusion of sound effects is heard iden- 
tifying the film. See Example 1 for this 53 seconds cue. 

Complex 2 totals only 4 bars for its 20 seconds, in 
a variation of the folksong accompanied by strings. As 
morning dawns and every waking voice of nature be- 
comes dominant, musical background is subdued to the 
demands of sound effects. Notes of birdsong and per- 
cussion of insects have their own tempi. The swoosh 
of wings, the rustle of deer through the bush have their 
own rhythms. There’s the scamper of fox paws through 
the camomiles, the flutter of quail. The composer has 
shown wisdom in recognizing sufficiency. Too often he 
is called upon to rival the sound track and run the risk 
of destroying an inspired scene. 

In Complex 4, action music for the chase of the fox 
by the farmer, the music is directed to be "split” at one 
point from what is "tight” before. See Example 2 for 
full orchestration of the ideas referred to in the cue 
sheet; woodwinds, strings accent the "heart-thumping” 
of the pursued fox; flute, clarinet gallop on a repetitive 
figure; tympani interject an ominous pedal; trombone, 
bassoon, basses connote "triumph” in stately half-notes; 
horn with celli "encircle” all themes with the folksong. 
This sequence is given full reality by the sounds of 
the chase and by the camera. Later, the composer steps 
aside for sound and camera in two vivid scenes: the 
death of the vixen, somersaulting in air, a world turning 
dizzily upside down at the shot of a gun; close-ups of 
wild birds and animals looking up at a roaring airplane. 

In Complex 13 the composer speaks freely. For 
the play of the otter and the fox, he creates a gay, 
lilting concert piece; Example 3, Tempo di Valse. Bas- 
soons describe the otter, strings the fox. This music 
increases contrapuntal movement for the woodwinds, 
and is played brilliantly. 

Complex 19 offers another opportunity to Mr. Lars- 
son. I think this is the cue everyone will remember 
from the score. Here the baby otter running away from 
the old fisherman on the ice is described in musical 
language appealing to all tastes. Bassoon and bass clarinet 
exchange triplet figures added to the original otter's 
theme (Complex 13) in humorous articulation and 
change of key. English horn (again "Swedish loneli- 
ness”) first states the old man’s theme, celli and bass 
viols matching his plodding tread through the snow. See 
Example 4, Part 1, showing how much fun is derived 
from the changing color of the orchestra as the themes 
interplay. The plaint of trumpet against the wiles of 
flute and oboe, harp echoing basses, well expresses the 
urgency of the old man to catch the otter. See Example 


4, Part 2, for the witty development of themes, English 
horn commenting on the gauche bassoons, after which 
harp and celeste add sparkle to the 1.50 cue. 

Complex 33 effectively uses the canon form. See 
Example 5, Part 1, where the spring theme, announced 
by bassoon, celli, basses against figuration of woods in 
contrary motion, is richly intoned next by trombone, 
then trumpet. Violent tremolo, strings, is punctuated 
by percussion with "black cocks callings”, harp, celeste 
doubling the contrary motion of flutes, clarinets. At 12 
seconds, the director asks for "brushing the sky clear”. 
This is accomplished by evolvement of themes. See Ex- 
ample 5, Part 2. sonorous brass evolving the Spring 
theme into the folksong theme, bars 3, 4, 5. Following 
here is the "wind effect” in fleeting I6ths, and at 191/2 
seconds, the complete change from "large music” to 
"little music”. See Example 5, Part 3, for the "Child- 
like” mood desired. Solo cello, celeste and oboe play 
variations of the folksong against the arpeggio pattern 
reduced from that of the previous wind effect. 

Complex 34 scores castanets to describe the black 
cocks. For the cranes, castanets, flaring trumpet, decisive 
strings are employed with ballet effect. Through music, 
grotesque movement is made almost graceful. The cue 
sheet then asks for "softer instruments” for the flower 
pictures. See Example 6, wherein triangle replaces cas- 
tanets, bells the tympani, the body of the orchestra is 

reduced to harp, celeste. Continuity, however, is kept 
by the violin playing the same figure solo which was 
previously played by the whole string section. 

The last cue — there are 38 in all — restates the 
folk-song. Thousands of birds fill the sky. When the 
winged host flies out of sight, the score comes to repose. 
Only harp and celeste sound the final chord, "a delicate 
chord” directed as Finis to a touching scene of under- 
standing between the two brothers. Composer Larsson, 
following faithfully the needs of the film and the ideas 
of its maker, has given us an irridescent work, full of 
the warm moods and deep tones of the elements, spark- 
ling with the charm of the "Swedish landscape”, and 
enhanced for all time by the myriad voices of THE 

THE GREAT ADVENTURE . . . Louis de Rochemont 
Associates. Production, photography, story, editing and 
direction, Arne Sucksdorff. Assistant producer and sound 
director, Nils Gustaf Orn. Music, Lars Erik Larsson. 
Music Copyright, Arne Sucksdorff Filmproduction. 

Song: Otty the Otter; James Pattarini, Jack Shaindlin. 

Song: The Great Adventure; words and music, Ann 
Ronell. Unique Records: The Great Adventure. Joe 
Leahy Orchestra and Chorus. 

Arne Sucksdorff and Nils Gustaf Orn 



Complex 1 

Head text music. (Main title.) Clear and pure little folk-song, delicate and 
sad, contrasting with the sound effect of the night song of the reed-singer . . . 
importunate and pressing. The melancholy tune is joined musically to the 
sound effects. Summer night, Swedish loneliness 0.53 

Complex 2 

At the picture of the farm a lonely flute starts the same melody as in the head 

text 0 

Speaker opening: "Yes, looking back, I can see it all so clearly — as it was on 

those early summer mornings" 0.18.5 

Music fading after speaker 0.20 

Complex 4 

( To feed her cubs, a vixen robs a barnyard and is pursued by the farmer. ) 

Chord, quiet and full 0 

Fox head appears. Extreme contrast in music. 0.04 

Like arrow reposing on taut bow-string. Light but tremulously dramatic. ( End 

of reel.) 0.17.5 

(Continuing from reel 1.) 

The fox head 0 

The 'arrow' goes when the fox rushes forth 0.02 

Explosive effect around the fox, but no hen cackle 0.04.5 

The music now becomes as split as it was tight before. The music now becomes 
as split as it was tight before. The arrow’ reaches its goal. Common agita- 
tion 0.15 

The pursuer comes. Dramatic accentuation, exciting and pressing 0.44 

At the first picture of the vixen in the field, where she proudly and triumphantly 0.51 
carries the hen through the Swedish summer landscape, the encircling folk- 
song melodies come in, in much contrast to a parallel music theme — ex- 
citing, expressive of heart thumping and panting. End when the farmer 
gives up his pursuit 1.39 

Complex 13 

Dewy, sunny morning. The young fox coming along 0 

Looks wondering around him 0.05.5 

The otter appears 0.13 

Snaps at the fox 0.16 

They get a little acquainted, nose to nose 0.17 

The play begins, the otter hunting the fox 0.18.5 

Big gay caper by the fox. (Etc. Cue continues to 1.57.5) 0.20 

Complex 19 

The old man’s theme. Swedish loneliness 0 

Otter’s theme, matted with old man’s whenever it appears. (Cue continues to 
1.50.) 0.05 

Complex 33 

Spring as a force. Rushing streams. Effect: storming liveliness. The bubbling 0 
of the water, with the callings of the blackcocks as music background. The 

birches bowing in the wind and brushing the sky clear 0.12 

The same music background as earlier but with wind effect in the music. 

Strength 0.15 

The children bathing the otter in the loft, to console and calm it when it wants 
to get out to liberty. Spring — tenderness. Contrast to the preceding, and 
rapidly going over the melodious "little music”, childlike and pathetic. (Cue 
continues to 1.51.) 0.19.5 

Complex 34 

Picture and sound before music. Two mountain cocks calling, sound as a clap- 
ping of castanets 0 

Hazel catkins. Violins with sensitive timbres. The cranes dancing. Mark their 

jumps 0.10 

The black cocks calling reveille. Mark by trumpet every change in pictures. 

(Etc. to 0.33) 0.28 

Flower pictures, marked like the blackcock pictures but by softer instruments. 

(Etc. to 0.45.) 0.34 

The very marked rhythm going over into a music lying as a distant echo of the 0.45 
cock calling. A low background melody, suggestive of an echo 1.56 


Example 1 


Example 2 


Example 3 — Tempo di Valse 


Example 4 ; Part 1 


Example 4 ; Part 2 




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Example 5: Part 3 

0 6j£ 

Walter Schumann 

It has been a great privilege for me to be associated with Paul Gregory and Charles 
Laughton for the past four years. Mr. Gregory, as producer, has an uncanny aptitude for 
originating ideas and bringing together various sympathetic talents for carrying out these 
ideas. Mr. Laughton, as director, has the great intellectual ability and experience to ad- 
vance a script and theatrically bring to life works of fine authors. 

My first meetings with Mr. Laughton on the NIGHT OF THE HUNTER project 
were concerned with the philosophical approach of developing the novel and the musical 
pre-scored themes necessary for a shooting script. The basic plot of the Night of the 
Hunter is pure melodrama. It is the story of a murderous, maniacal pseudo-preacher and 
his pursuit of two children. Their father, an executed bank robber, had hidden $10,000 
in the little girl’s doll. There is always present in the story the symbolism of good versus 

In our preliminary discussions Mr. Laughton and I agreed that since melodrama was 
ever-present in the plot, that photography and music would be used to capture the lyric 
quality of Davis Grubb’s writing. 

In the novel, the preacher continually sang the religious hymn "Everlasting Arms.” 
In the picture he does so on four separate occasions. However, I could not use this hymn 
as underscoring for the preacher since it would dignify and create sympathy for his psycho- 
pathic religious beliefs. Therefore, for Preacher’s theme, I wrote what I considered a 
pagan motif, consisting of clashing fifths in the lower register. ( Ex. 1 ) 


Example 1 

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ory Prods., 1955 

Two other themes in the form of songs had to be written before shooting was begun. 
The first, "Pretty Fly” (Ex. 2) was to be sung by the little girl. It developed into the 
main theme of the picture. The second was "Lullaby" which was to be used as a lonely 
setting for two tired children wandering down the river while escaping the preacher. 
(Ex. 3) 

Example 2 

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Copyright — Paul Gregory Prods., 1955 

Example 3 

Copyright — 1 Paul Gregory Prods., 1955 


In concluding our preliminary discussions of the shooting script we decided upon 
the scenes where music would be of primary importance. As Mr. Laughton put it, "In 
these scenes you are the right hand and I am the left”. So in the shooting of these scenes 
he purposely went far over footage. This, of course, is a composer’s dream; to have 
flexibility and not be tied to exact timings. In actuality, to edit the film to the music. 

During the shooting of the picture, I was present at all of the scenes where music 
was to be used. At its conclusion I attended all of the editing sessions with Mr. Laughton 
and our editor, Bob Golden. A rough cut was completed with all of the "music” sequences 
left overlength until the score was finished. 

In composing the score for this picture Mr. Laughton suggested a technique which 
he called "long muscles”. We divided the music sections into six segments, each of which 
would become an entity. Since no one scene in the picture lasted more than a minute and 
a half, the purpose of the music was to form a continuity for each segment. This simply 
meant that I would not play each scene but write an overall composition to cover the 
entire segment. 

The first segment consisted of the main title and establishing scenes. I have always 
believed that a main title, as in the case of an overture, should establish the character of 
the main subject. Since we were dealing with the symbolism of good versus evil, I started 
the main title with Preacher’s stark foreboding theme and then segued to the lullaby sung 
purely and simply by children’s voices. 

The second segment involved the transformation of Willa, the children’s mother, 
from the time of courtship by Preacher, through the marriage to the murder scene. My 
first thought for underscoring these highly dramatic sequences was to use an emotional 
and tense musical treatment. But in discussion with Mr. Laughton he used an expression 
I will always remember. He said, "If the actors and I have stated it properly on the 
screen, then you don’t have to re-state it with music.” Consequently, I devised a very 
simple waltz (Ex. 4) which, when used against the preacher theme (Ex. 5) formed 
a dramatic background against which the actors seemed to be playing. 


Copyright — Paul Gregory Prods., 1955 

Segment three was the beginning of the chase. For this I used high register strings 
and woodwinds with distorted rhythmic patterns. (Ex. 6) 

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Segment four was the river sequence. Symbolically, Mother River protected the 
children in their plight, and on the screen it emerged as pure fairy tale. Here I had com- 
plete musical freedom, and wrote a twelve minute tone poem based on the "Pretty Fly” 
and "Lullaby” themes. 

Segment five was completely devoted to Rachel Cooper, the ageless and kind woman 
who befriended the two children and protected them from the preacher. We called her 
theme "The Hen and the Chicks”. (Ex. 7) 

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The final segment was concerned with the lynching scene (Ex. 8) and the Christmas 
scene, which in its beauty showed the triumph of good over evil. Through both these 
scenes the Hen and the Chicks" scherzo was predominant but combined with various 
themes of the picture. 

Copyright — Paul Gregory Prods., 1955 

Throughout the entire writing of the score, I worked with Arthur Morton, whose 
taste and understanding contributed much more than pure orchestration. 

“HTOE THE HUNTER . . Paul Gregory Prods.; United Artists. Robert Mit- 

w/T’ cu y Wlnr i rS ' Dlrector > Charles Laughton. Music composed and conducted by 
Walter Schumann. Orchestration, Arthur Morton. 



Ernest C. Watson 

Jack Webb, who looks like a cop, manages to look 
like a cop with a cornet in "Pete Kelly’s Blues.” Had 
he acted more like a cop and used some of his "Dragnet” 
technique before going into production, he might have 
said, "All I want is the facts, ma’m,” and any madame 
of bootleg vintage (when Pete Kelly got the blues) 
could have told him that tenor saxophonists with a 
Coleman Hawkins style weren’t due for another two 
decades and a chorus of "Dinah.” And never in a Dixie- 
land group. The real cats of the saxophone, at the be- 
ginning of that era, were Paul Biese, Chicago, ( Columbia 
records), Nathan Glantz and his sobbing saxophone, 
New York (Victor records) and six of the Six Brown 
Brothers in vaudeville. Incidentally, here is one for the 
"Small world” department. George Van Eps, who plays 
the guitar in Pete’s band in the picture is the son of 
Fred Van Eps who made banjo records for Victor along 
with Nathan Glantz and his sobbing saxophone. 

But I am wandering. The locale of "Pete Kelly’s 
Blues” is Kansas City, Mo., and from 1919, when Pete 
gets out of his doughboy uniform, to 1927 he never 
changes his style — in music or shirts. His high-collared 
jazzbo makeup is topped only by his clarinet player’s 
Norfolk jacket and Lloyd Hamilton cap. 

The "facts” might have spoiled some very pleasant- 
sounding music however, and this reviewer is willing 
to forego anything that might sound like the Six Brown 
Brothers or Earl Fuller and his Famous Jazz Band. (I 
nearly forgot them). It is a far cry from the catch-as- 
can harmonies and rhythms of those days to the smooth 
arrangements of Pete Kelly’s unit but Matty Matlock, 
who has been around for a long time, is credited with 
the arrangements so there is some measure of authen- 
ticity. This "fact” remains: Pete Kelly got the 1950 
blues in 1920. But is this bad? 

A nebulous prologue to the picture, prior to the 
title and credits, introduces Pete’s cornet and later, Pete. 
There is a shot of a riverboat and suddenly, we are 
whisked away to a cemetery in New Orleans. A Louis 
Armstrong-ish figure blasts a riff, a choir sings and, as 
the funeral cortege swings off, (completely out of 
intonation) , a silver cornet which has been placed on 
the back of the hearse falls off into a puddle. It is next 
produced as collateral in a bring-down crap game and 
refused. The bottom half of a World War One uni- 
form (Pete) throws in some cash, walks off with the 
horn, takes it (via freight train) to Kansas City, the 
title and credits are shown and — WHAM — there 
is Jack Webb in front of a band playing the cornet, 
fingering it with the inside of his knuckles in the ap- 
proved gutbucket idiom. 

It is a story of rackets and rhythms with occasional 
jazz names thrown in. There is mention of Benny Moten, 
an old K.C. band, but no mention of his old stomping 
ground, Twelfth Street, the inspiration for "Twelfth 
Street Rag”. If Pete’s jazzbo shirt, a pre-Nineteen 
Twenty model, is an indication of the year then the 
reference to Bix playing with Jean Goldkette is a little 
premature. Bix wasn’t with Goldkette’s band before 1920 
— neither was Goldkette. Pete Kelly’s clarinetist was 
though, because he left Pete’s band to join Jean’s. This 
doesn’t stymie Pete. He gets a new clarinetist from the 
Mound City Blue Blowers. This probably accounts for 
the fact that the Blue Blowers had no clarinetist when 

they played the Arcadia Ballroom in New York City 
in 1924 — just two comb-and-tissue players, a banjo 
and a guitar. 

Pete, by the way, uses a bugle mouthpiece on his 
cornet. It had belonged to a bugler of Pete’s army days 
who got a good tone — if you like bugles. It would 
seem that Pete had a mouthpiece but no cornet when 
he walked into that crap game in the prologue. Another 
facet of Pete’s peculiar behaviour as a cornetist is his 
belligerence. Most wind instrumentalists are more than 
willing to eschew the knockdown and dragnet stuff and 
save their teeth. 

Ela Fitzgerald sings fine, Peggy Lee sings like Peggy 
Lee and Ray Heindorf supplies music between Pete’s sets. 

Such fine musicians as Manny Klein, trumpet, Frank 
Signorelli, piano, and Chauncey Morehouse, drums, (he 
did play with Goldkette) are still top of the heap and 
available if ever Pete Kelly forms a new band. 

Did I mention that I enjoyed the picture? Especially 
the music. 

PETE KELLY'S BLUES . . . Mark VII Ltd., Warner 
Bros. Jack Webb, Janet Leigh. Director, Jack Webb. 
"Pete Kelly’s Blues”; music, Ray Heindorf, lyrics, Sammy 
Cahn. "He Needs Me”, "Sing a Rainbow”, music and 
lyrics, Arthur Hamilton. Arrangements for Pete Kelly’s 
Big 7, Matty Matlock. Music director Ray Heindorf. 

Records: Decca, Columbia, RCA Victor. 

(Ernest Watson has been associated with NBC as com- 
poser, arranger, conductor, and producer. He played and 
arranged for the name bands of the twenties, Whiteman, 
Lopez, George Olsen. 


Eddy Manson 

MGM has turned out a creditable hundred minutes 
of entertainment with very few lags. The film contains 
an unusual twist on an old theme, exceedingly clever 
production, and with a basic exception, an* excellent 
music job in the hands of talented Andre Previn. 

It is interesting to note that unlike most musicals 
of this type, MGM did not see fit to hire an outside song 
writer to do the music to the songs (they did hire, 
Comden and Green to do the lyrics ) , but instead turned 
over the entire music assignment, songs, background 
music, arrangements, conducting, to one man, Previn. 
He does a more than adequate job in all departments. I 
felt, if a comparison must be drawn between his various 
areas of operation, that he was less at home with the 
songs, than he was in the more intricate and challenging 
areas, such as background music to the various montages, 
"stream of consciousness” production numbers (some- 
thing new and enjoyable, in which the actors "think” 
their dances and songs ) as well as overall musical super- 

The score was original except for the use of "The 
Blue Danube” and the title song "Always Fair Weather”. 
However with one or two exceptions, the dozen or so 
songs were undistinguished, or at least uninspired. It’s 
possible that since the music business today has a vested 
interest in mediocrity, that Previn, Comden and Green 
are simply too talented to write a good mediocre score. 
It is often difficult for artists of this type to hew to a 
level on which a vacuum exists instead of a challenge. 


It means writing down, or "hacking it”, which is at best 
uninspired. It is probably better to hire less talented 
Writers who would have to write up to vacuum. Oh for 
the days when one could write great pop music, when 
Hollywood musicals had not just one or two good songs, 
but six or seven. Table it among the lost arts. 

Previn’s backing of the production numbers was ex- 
tremely effective .without getting in the way. His over- 
all score, including the songs in question, is marked by 
a refreshing lack of pretension. While the old work- 
horse "It’s Always Fair Weather” is the title song it is 
not used except in main titles, and nothing is substituted 
for it as a main theme through the picture. This movie- 
goer found himself wondering which was the important 
song or theme. 

The performances by Cyd Charisse, Dolores Gray 
( who heads up a superb satire on an unctuous TV show) , 
as well as those of Gene Kelly, Dan Dailey, and Michael 
Kidd are just great. Notable were the ashcan cover 
dance, Kelly’s roller skate routine, and Dolores Gray’s 
"Thanks, but No Thanks”. 

"It’s Always Fair Weather” is . worth seeing and 
worth hearing, but golly, how much more effective it 
would have been had the writers put together a score 
with more abandon and inspriation than was allowed to 
go into this one. 

IT’S ALWAYS FAIR WEATHER . . . Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer. Gene Kelly, Dan Dailey. Directors, Gene Kelly, 
Stanley Donen. Music arranged and conducted by Andre 
Previn. Songs: Music, Andre Previn; Lyrics, Betty Com- 
den, Adolph Green. Vocal supervision, Robert Tucker, 
Jeff Alexander. Dances and musical numbers, Gene 
Kelly, Stanley Donen. Eastman Color. 

The Pound’s Quartet 

Mary Powell 

Records: M-G-M, Heritage. 

The Mello Men 

Walt Disney’s cartoon feature is set in a canine 
world, with only occasional human intrusion for the sake 
of plot and variety. Lady, a spaniel with a delicate air, 
lives a sheltered life until misfortune throws her into 
the cold world. Tramp, an adventurer mongrel, becomes 
her gallant knight and brings things to a pretty ending 
by his wit and courage. Peggy Lee and Sonny Burke 
have written five songs that fit situation demands sweetly 
and amusingly. The versatile Miss Lee, in differing voice 
characterizations, also sings three of them: the melodious 
"La La Lu” for Lady’s young mistress, the torchy "He’s 
a Tramp” for a somewhat shopworn Pekingese, and a 
duet for two mean Siamese cats, whose deviltry to the 
Oriental rhythm of their "Siamese Cat Song" is a film 
high spot. Tramp and Lady are serenaded during a spa- 
getti dinner by the voice of George Givot, singing "Bella 
Notte” to the music of a mandolin. The fifth Lee-Burke 
song "Peace On Earth" comes with the happy Christmas 
closing. But before that there is another musical interval 
in the dog-pound when a quartet of the inmates reduces 
the others to tears with its rendition of "Home Sweet 
Home". Off-screen the Mello Men are responsible for 
the mournful sound, howled and bayed in appropriate 
registers. Oliver Wallace has written the pleasant back- 
ground score. 

THE LADY AND THE TRAMP . . . Walt Disney; 
Buena Vista Films. Peggy Lee, Barbara Luddy, Larry 
Roberts. Musical score, Oliver Wallace. Songs, Peggy 
Lee and Sonny Burke. Orchestration, Edward Plumb, 
Sidney Fine. Vocal arrangements, John Rarig. Techni- 



Gerald Pratley 

Norman McLaren, now forty, continues to maintain 
his objective of trying to make films with the simpli- 
city and directness of the one-artist approach; that will 
be understandable to people all over the world re- 
gardless of language, racial, political or economic dif- 

Now working on a film that will help children to 
learn arithmetic, McLaren is presently receiving praise 
from Europe and North America for BLINKITY 

About this picture, Norman writes: 

"An animated film done directly on 35mm celluloid, 
without the use of camera, by engraving on black emul- 
sion-coated film with a penknife, sewing needle and 
razor blade, and colored by hand with transparent cel- 
lulose dyes, and a sable-hair brush. 

"Animating directly on opaque black film poses the 
problem of how to position and register accurately the 
engraved image from one frame to the next. To bypass 
this problem "Blinkity Blank’’ intentionally set out to 
investigate the possibilities of intermittent animation and 
spasmodic imagery. 

"This meant that the film was not made in the usual 
way, one frame of picture following inexorably after 
the next, each second of time crying out for its pound 
of visual flesh — its full quota of 24 frames; instead, on 
the blackness and blankness of the outstretched strip 
of celluloid on my table top I would engrave a frame 
here and a frame there, leaving many frames untouched 
and blank — sprinkling, as it were, the images on the 
empty band of time; but sprinkling carefully — in 
relation to each other, to the spaces between, to the 
music, and to the idea that emerged as I drew. 

"Optically, most of the film consists of nothing at 
all. When such a movie is projected at normal speed, 
the image on a solitary frame is received by the eye for 
a 48th of a second, but, due to after-image and the per- 
sistence of vision, the image lingers considerably longer 
than this on the retina, and in the brain itself it may 
persist until interrupted by the appearance of a new 

"To make play with these factors was one of the 
technical interests of producing "Blinkity Blank”. Some- 
times, for greater emphasis, I would engrave two ad- 
jacent frames, or a frame-cluster, (that is, a group of 
3, 4 or more frames ) ; sometimes a frame-cluster would 
have related and continuous images within it and would 
thus solidify some action and movement; at other times 
the frame-cluster would consist only of a swarm of dis- 
connected, discontinuous images, calculated to build up 
an overall visual "impression”. Here and there, to provide 
much needed relief from the staccato action of single- 
frame images and frame-clusters. I introduced longer 
sections of contiguous frames with a flow of motion in 
the traditional manner. 

"During the process of making the film, tests and 
experiments revealed a number of definite laws relating 

to persistence of vision, after-image effects and inter- 
mittent imagery as it effects both the retina and the 
mind, especially when organized in sequences and with 
continuity. If the film does not succeed, it is partly 
because I have not yet fully understood these laws. 

"Perhaps the film can be likened to a sketch", sums 
up Norman McLaren, "which uses a kind of impres- 
sionism of action and time, much like a draughtsman 
when he suggests a scene by leaving most of the page 
blank and only here and there draws a stroke, a line, 
or a blob of tone — often to indicate quite a complex 
subject; this is in contrast to the usual animated film, 
in which all the frames of celluloid carry images, and 
which could be likened to a surface of paper which a 
draughtsman has completely covered with a fully ren- 
dered drawing”. 

Visuals and sound are happily wedded in BLINKITY 
BLANK, as a result of the close co-operation between 
Norman McLaren and composer, Maurice Blackburn. 
Mr. Blackburn, who finds speaking English rather a trial, 
has set down, with his quiet sense of humour, an ex- 
cellent description of his score. He writes: 

"The group of instruments used for recording 
"Blinkity Blank” consisted of a flute, an oboe, a clarinet, 
a bassoon, and a cello. The music was written without 
key signatures on a three-line stave (instead of the 
usual five lines); the spaces between the three lines 
were not used, therefore there were only three possible 
note positions to denote pitch. If a note appeared on the 
top line it indicated that the instrument was to be played 
in its high register; a note on the middle line, in the 
middle register; and a note on the bottom line, in its 
low register. The limits of the three registers were set 
beforehand for each instrument, inside that register, the 
musician was completely free to choose whatever note 
he wished. 

"The notes, however, indicated the precise time value 
and rhythmic pattern, time signatures and bars being 
used in the usual manner. It was therefore possible to 
conduct the orchestra and give some coherence to the 
group of instruments. 

"Signs for the control of dynamics and signs for 
instrumental colour were used in the conventional 

"The best results of this semi-free improvisation 
were achieved by taking the orchestra practically by 
surprise and recording without rehearsals, thus ensuring 
as complete a divergence of inspiration in each musician 
as possible, a complete disregard for all consciously 
agree key signatures. 

"To create additional percussive effects, synthetic 
sounds were scratched directly on the film afterwards. 

"I would certainly have preferred," concludes Maurice 
Blackburn, "to write another experimental score than 
to have explained this one". 

Maurice Blackburn was born in Quebec City of a 
well-known French-Canadian family of Scottish deri- 


vation. He has studied in Boston and Paris and has 
been with the NFB since 1942. Among his compositions 
are "Nocture for Flute,” "Piano Concerto,” and "Fan- 
taisies en Moccasins”. 

During the past summer the following short docu- 
mentaries scored by the Board's composers have been 
released. Maurice Blackburn: "Bottleneck", a report on 
the progress of the St. Lawrence River project; "Farm 
Calendar,” a general picture of farming in Canada; and 
"Backstage,” showing the production of Moliere’s 'The 
Miser’ in a Montreal theatre. Eldon Rathburn: "Bush 
Doctor,” dealing with the work of a doctor in the far 
north. "The Structure of Unions,” a humorous cartoon 
by Wolf Koenig and Robert Verral examining the or- 
ganization of labour unions; "Needles and Pins,” which 
shows how a union and an industry take the monotony 
out of working a sewing machine in a garment factory; 
"Gold,” a description of gold mining in Canada today; 
"Sorel,” a glimpse of this ship building port; "To Serve 
the Mind,” Stanley Jackson’s dramatic film of a doctor 
who suffers a nervous breakdown; and "Les Aboiteaux,” 
a French-language film set in Acadia. Robert Fleming: 
"The Colour of Life,” a cine-microphotographic study 
of a maple leaf; ’’Vigil in the North,” showing the train- 
ing of soldiers at Fort Churchill; and "L’Avocat de la 
Defense," a French-language film about legal procedures. 
Louis Applebaum, who again acted as music director 
at the Stratford Shakespearian Festival, has scored "Riches 

Score Extract from Blinkity Blank (NFB) 

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“«• in 

of the Earth,” an animated film by Colin Low showing 
how Canada’s mineral resources were formed, and 
"Jolifou Inn,” dealing with the paintings of Kreighoff. 

At Crawley Films, William McCauley’s latest score 
was written for "The Face of Saskatchewan,” a half-hour 
documentary commemorating this province’s fiftieth 

The two independent film makers, Alma Duncan 
and Audrey McLaren have recorded a lively score written 
by Frederick Karam for their next picture, details of 
which they are keeping as a surprise. The film will be 
animated to the music. Their previous picture, "Kumak 
the Sleepy Hunter,” was also scored by Karam. 


Marie Hamilton 

The Singing Street (British Information Services, 30 
Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y. b and w, 18 min.) This charm- 
ing selection of singing games and rhymes is a record 
of children’s play in the misty, cobbled streets of Edin- 
boro. The rhythm of ball tossing and rope skipping, 
of the gestures and dance steps of the games is closely 
followed in the chants and songs. Taken down in the 
forms that generations of child singers have perpetuated, 
the collection is a fascinating mixture of ballad and 
folksong adaptations, nonsense refrains and topical ref- 
erences. Words are sometimes lost in the vigorous move- 
ment or in accompanying street noises, but a booklet 
of the verses is provided with each rental or sale of 
the film. The Norton Park Film Group has made the 
picture with the taste and feeling for the quality of its 
subject that distinguish its work. The producers, J. T. 
R. Richie, Nigel Mclsaac and Raymond Townsend, are 
to be thanked for the preservation of these verses and 
tunes, never before recorded. 

Royal Scotland (British Information Services, Tech. 9 
min.) Traditional Scottish melodies are sung by the 
Kirkintilloch Junior choir conducted by the Rev. J. R. 
Macpherson and are played by the Pipe Band of the 
Glasgow Police directed by Pipe Major John Macdonald. 
More than mere musical background, they frame an 
imposing tour of Highland sites that have historical and 
royal significance, and accompany the ceremonies — 
dances and sports — that greet visits of the royal family. 
The Glasgow Orpheus Choir (British Information Serv- 
ices, b and w. 12 min.) Under the direction of Sir Hugh 
Roberton, the famous choir gives a varied program: 
"Kedron”, a Scots Psalm tune, two Scottish songs — 
"Mice and Men” and "The Isle of Mull”, the Faery 

Chorus from "The Immortal Hour”, and the choral dance 
"The Dashing White Sergeant". Visually, the film is 
unattractive, but the fine mixed chorus, singing a capella, 
presents a performance of warmth and great finish. This 
is the one film record made by this distinguished group 
before the organization was dissolved. 

Ballet Festival (Nat. Film Board of Canada, 630 Fifth 
Avenue, N. Y. 16mm, 35mm. b and w, 11 min.) The 
week-long celebration of Canada’s first national Ballet 
Festival in Toronto brings dancers from all parts of the 
Dominion, many of whom are making their first pro- 
fessional appearance. Shots of their excited backstage 
preparations are intercut with reactions of an enthusi- 
astic audience towards the good performances. The bal- 
lets vary from the traditional "Les Sylphides" to the dis- 
sonant, stylized "Visages” and the hearty "Red Ear of 
Corn", both modern Canadian works. 

Opera School ( Nat. Film Board of Canada. 16mm, 35mm. 
b and w. 26 min.) Something of the three year course at 
the opera school of the Royal Conservatory of Music 
in Toronto is shown through one student’s work. 
Glimpses of class work, lessons, rehearsals, staff con- 
ferences indicate her three years of preparation, and 
are climaxed by her appearance in "The Marriage of 
Figaro”, in the annual opera performance. Louis Apple- 
baum, who supervised the music, introduces it easily 
and naturally. There is a constant conservatory back- 
ground of strains from Schubert, Franck, Humperdinck 
and the like, as well as the performance of selections in 
their entirety, particularly in the Mozart opera. Nice 
bits of characterization and humor, and the excellent 
handling of the music, keep the subject from any aca- 
demic dryness. This is an unusually attractive film. 


Sunday by the Sea (Contemporary Films Inc., 13 East 
37th St., b and w, 15 min.) Insight, humor, luck and 
much talent have gone into this comfortable funny look 
at unselfcounscious humanity on holiday, relaxed and 
uninhibited at an English amusement beach. English 
music hall songs make the perfect background, especially 
when sung and played as these are. Joan Sterndale Ben- 
nett and John Hewer divide between them favorites like 
"A little of what you fancy”, "Ain’t It Nice”, "My Wife’s 
Cake”, "Flo from Pimlico” and many more, delivered in 
warm, raucous music hall style, with interjections of 
patter. Equally happy are Betty Lawrence’s piano ac- 
companiments and short solos — sentimental or bouncy 
as required. She has, too, an appealing interlude of 
nursery tunes, as background to a Punch and Judy show 
for a child audience. 

A Song to Remember (Columbia Pictures Corp., 16mm 

Film Division, 729 7th Avenue, N. Y. Tech. 112 min.) 
The film biography of Chopin released some years ago, 
which did so much to popularize his music, is now 
available in 16mm. Cornel Wilde is starred as the com- 
poser, Paul Muni as his teacher Joseph Eisner, and Merle 
Oberon as George Sand. Although more romantic than 
strictly accurate, the Technicolor picture has a wealth of 
period detail, and makes a stimulating introduction to 
the composer's music. This is heard constantly as an 
essential part of the story line. The Fantaisie Impromptu, 
the polonaise in A flat, the scherzo in B flat minor, the 
etude in E major, the nocturne in E flat and the waltz 
in C sharp minor are among the works performed wholly 
or in part. A concert tour is represented by a montage 
made up of moments from some seven selections, and 
the nocturne in C minor is used at the close. Jose Iturbi 
is the pianist who performs brilliantly off-screen for 
Mr. Wilde. 


Gene Forrell 

The Book of Job (Film Images, I860 Broadway, New 
York. 16mm., color, 16 min. Produced by Lewis Baer; 
Score adaptation, Gene Forrell.) 

In these days when films serve to introduce new 
popular songs like "Davy Crockett’ and the like, it 
is encouraging that one can be found that will present 
an important contemporary symphonic work that both 
movie and music-loving audiences will consider it a 
privilege to hear. This is true of the new color pro- 
duction created by Lewis Baer entitled JOB. 

The music is excerpted from the ballet of R. Vaughan 
Williams called, "Job — A Masque for Dancing”. It 
is performed magnificently by the London Philharmonic 
Orchestra under the direction of Sir Adrian Boult on 
London FFRR records. 

Curiously, the music has appeared only occasionally 
on concert programs since it was composed over 25 
years ago for the Camargo Society of London, with 
choreography by Ninette de Valois, presently head of the 
world-famous Sadler’s Wells Ballet Company. But, thanks 
to the new film, the music will be enjoyed by an audience 
expanded way beyond the concert hall. 

It may be noted that this is indeed a fortunate con- 
sequence for the music. Both the film and the music 
were inspired by one and the same source, William 
Blake’s "Illustrations of the Book of Job”. These great 
and dramatic drawings come to vigorous life when the 
arts of cinema and music combine forces. 

The only possible regret is that the music had to 
accomodate the film’s shorter length. But even with 
this sacrifice, it could not be a more successful and ex- 
citing merger of interpretations. In fact, with advance 
knowledge of the necessary editing, Vaughan Williams, 
himself, concurred in the use of his music for this pur- 
pose. The characteristic dynamic power, intimate ex- 
pressiveness, and colorful orchestrations of this compo- 
sition are intact. 

The Saraband of the Sons of God, with its gloriously 
expansive and exalting chord sequences; the rhythmic 
and driving ferocity of Satan’s Dance of Triumph; the 
wailing saxophone solo expressing more directly than 
any combination of instruments the hypocrisy of Job’s 
Comforters; Elihu’s Dance of Youth and Beauty, in a 
tender and moving violin solo; and the Altar Dance 
which with its lovely melodic grace and dignity brings 
the work to a close, are all major portions of this ballet 
heard in the film. 

JOB offers a rare opportunity to be in lively contact 
with several works of art at once; the Blake drawings, 
the Vaughan Williams ballet score and the unusual 
cinematic treatment of both of these. 

(Gene Forrell is composing and arranging a film score 
to be played and recorded by the St. Louis Symphony 
Orchestra this winter. He has just completed a musical 
score for a children’s play by Peter Glushanok, New York 
cinema director and photographer.) 



Pete Kelly’s Blues (RCA Victor LP) Jack Webb, pro- 
ducer and star of the film PETE KELLY’S BLUES, in- 
troduces music from its score — the title number and 
ten period tunes, "Bye, Bye, Blackbird”, "O Didn’t He 
Ramble ”, "Breezin’ Along" and the like. Matty Matlock 
and his Jazz Band, who did the playing for Pete Kelly 
and his Big Seven in the picture, make a good recording 
of the small-band jazz of the 20s. 

Pete Kelly’s Blues (Columbia LP) Ray Heindorf con- 
ducts the Warner Brothers orchestra in four numbers 
from the film score, including his own haunting title 
melody and the new "He Needs Me". The rest of the 
disc is like the Victor set, featuring Matty Matlock’s 
band playing eight of the same tunes, with an occasional 
difference in the jazz improvisations. 

Pete Kelly’s Blues (Decca LP) Peggy Lee and Ella Fitz- 
gerald, who have roles in the movie, sing a dozen songs 
from the score. Miss Lee is effective in seven old stand- 
bys — "Sugar". "I Never Knew”, "Somebody Loves Me” 
among them, and the new "Sing a Rainbow” and "He 
Needs Me” by Arthur Hamilton. All of her numbers are 
directed by Harold Mooney. An instrumental quartet 
accompanies Ella Fitzgerald in "Hard-hearted Hannah”, 
Ray Heindorf’s "Ella Hums the Blues” and the title song, 
three examples of great blues singing. 

Academy Award Favorites (Mercury LP) Jack Shaindlin 
conducts a selection of film song winners of the past 
twenty years, with an orchestra that features Will Bradley 
and A1 Gallodoro. There could have been a bit more 
variation in treatment. This may be a result of a desire 
to get away from the complex arrangements that occa- 
sionally burden these tunes. As it stands, the recording 
is pleasantly nostaglic, meeting the demands of the num- 
bers selected. 

The Kentuckian Song The nine versions of Irving Gor- 
don’s tune from the Hecht-Lancaster production THE 
KENTUCKIAN are ample evidence of its popularity. 
Three seem to be outstripping the others — a straight- 
forward delivery by the Hilltoppers, featuring Jimmy 
Sacca (Dot), Bobby Sherwood’s fresh unmannered re- 
cording (Coral) and Eddy Arnold’s rendition. The di- 
rect Arnold style suits the folksy material, but Hugo 
Winterhalter’s lush accompaniment is out of keeping 
with singer and song. 

It’s Always Fair Weather (M-G-M LP) Andre Previn, 

who wrote the score for M-G-M’s bright and barbed 
film, lead the studio orchestra and chorus in selections 
from the sound track. There are Comden-Green lyrics 
for the nine featured songs. "March, March”, "Time for 
Parting”, "Once Upon a Time” are shared by the trio of 
ex-G.I.’s — Gene Kelly, Dan Dailey and Michael Kidd. 
A chorus of battered plug-uglies appropriately presents 
"Baby, You Knock Me Out” and "Stillman’s Gym”. 
Delores Gray, a temperamental TV star delivers "Music 
Is Better Than Words" and "Thanks a Lot” with infect- 
ious zest. Dan, an advertising executive, levels a crack 
at his craft, "Situation-wise”, and Gene, in a happy 
dance on roller-skates, puts over the show’s most tuneful 
number, ”1 Like Myself”. 

It’s Always Fair Weather (Heritage LP) Betty Comden 
and Adolph Green sing six of the songs they wrote with 
Andre Previn for the M-G-M film. The talented team 
have lost none of the easy style that brought them and 
Judy Holliday an earlier success as the night-club Re- 
vuers. Here, with the Bernie Leighton Trio, they have 
a session that is engagingly personal. The record has 
the quality of fun and intimacy of a top-class audition. 
Two songs "I Said Good Mornin’ ” and "Love Is Nothing 
But a Racket” that do not appear in the film, are inc- 
cluded in this album. 

The Night of the Hunter (RCA Victor LP) Charles 
Laughton, storyteller, and Walter Schumann, composer, 
have combined a reading of Davis Grubb’s little novel 
with the Schumann score from the film in unique and 
powerful integration. The interweaving of tale and 
music re-creates all the dark suspense in Mr. Grubb’s 
story of the two orphaned children and the dreadful 
Hunter who pursues them. A strong sense of the great 
river that is so much a part of what happens, of the 
pitiful little ones, of the evil that would destroy them 
and the love that saves them, rises and is held in Mr. 
Schumann’s mood-stirring music. It is nearly impossible 
to hear this recording and ever again to disassociate the 
music from the story. Kitty White’s voice is heard in 
the strangely appealing songs "Once Upon a Time There 
Was a Pretty Fly” and "Lullaby”. Robert Mitchum 
heightens the nightmarish apprehension by making his 
singing of the old hymn "Leaning on the Everlasting 
Arms" a signal of his awful approach. "Close your eyes 
and — listen", says Davis Grubb in his notes to this 
recording. We add our urging to his. 





Mary Pearson 

Our Record Desk gets daily requests for recorded 
film music. It is one of the most popular subject head- 
ings in our card catalog, and one of the best topics to 
arouse interest in a patron who wants "something” but 
doesn’t know what. Because of the link with the film, 
this music has become a friend that the public wants 
to meet again. In this subject field there isn’t that awk- 
ward period of introduction that is so often found when 
we suggest trying out music whose title rings no bell 
of recognition. 

"Film Music” came to our library in 1944, and has 
been one of the magazines we always take time to read. 
This we do for our own interest as well as for informa- 
tion for the patrons. The magazine is also widely used 
by the patrons, especially the teen-age boys. Probably 
our nearness to Hollywood has something to do with 
this interest, though it seems to reflect a general aware- 
ness of young people to the language of music in the film. 

Our film librarian, with her city-wide programs and 
loan collection of art and music films, has helped develop 
some of this taste for "Film Music”. Part of it can 
also be attributed to vocational interest, but most of it 
to cognizance of the impact of a film when it has the 
fourth dimension of effective interpretative music. 
(Miss Pearson is Record Librarian in the Long Beach, 
California, Public Library.) 


The Screen Composers Association celebrated its 
tenth anniversary in September at the Beverly Hilton 
Hotel in Beverly Hills. The big affair was also the 
occasion of presidential installation ceremonies, as Adolph 
Deutsch, the Association’s first president, turned over 
his office to Miklos Rozsa, his successor. In spite of the 
constant pressure of his work as composer and conductor, 
Mr. Deutsch has accomplished much for his organization, 
and may well look with pride at his long years as its 
leader. ... A symposium on the musical aspects of TV 
was held at the Screen Director's Guild Theatre by the 
Academy of Television Arts and Sciences on August 31: 
The two part discussion had Dinah Shore, Bob Banner, 
Gordon Jenkins and Jud Conlon representing the singers. 
On the composer-arranger panel were Wilbur Hatch, 
Johny Mercer, John Seely, Victor Young and Meredith 
Wilson. President Don De Fore presided. . . . The 
Museum of Modern Art in New York is presenting a 
subscription series of six programs of rarely seen Ameri- 
can and foreign films, for the benefit of the Museum’s 
Film Preservation Fund. The fund has been established 
to transfer important films in this irreplaceable collection 
from their original perishable nitrate stock to the new 
and practically everlasting triacetate. The Museum has 
just completed its highly successful two months’ exhibit 
of UPA art work and films. In addition to the well 
known theatrical cartoons, daily screenings have included 
several of the studio’s equally individual training and 
industrial films. . . . The Film Council of America 
announces a new service — the Film Users’ Guide — 
which will have particular interest for FILM MUSIC 
readers. Detailed information on 16mm films, including 
credits, content, audience use and programming sugges- 

tions, will be sent bi-weekly to specified information 
centers. A subject-title index will be published every 
four weeks, and a cumulative index will appear an* 
nually. Further information may be had from the Film 
Council of America, 600 Davis St., Evanston, 111. ... A 
testimonial concert will be given to Dr. Sigmund Spaeth 
in October at New York's Town Hall, on the occasion 
of his 70th birthday. Famous artists in musical and 
theatrical circles will appear in his honor. The proceeds 
will go to the Louis Braille Music Institute, of which 
Dr. Spaeth is president. The Institute serves the music 
needs of the blind with scores and music magazines in 
braille, and records with braille labels and envelopes. 
. . . Leith Stevens, president of the Composers Guild of 
America, announces that the Guild has been certified 
as the collective bargaining agent for composers of music 
and words in connection with music, with the nine 
major film studios in a National Labor Relations 
Board election. The Independent Motion Picture Pro- 
ducers Association and the Society of Independent 
Motion Picture Producers have also recognized CGA 
in this capacity. The Guild has added Specialized Com- 
position to the Screen, Song, Radio and TV groups 
represented in its membership. The new group includes 
composers of "music, lyrics or special material for re- 
cording companies, publishers, nightclub and theatre acts, 
commercial jingles" and the like. . . . The 1955-56 sea- 
son of the NBC Opera Theatre will offer six productions. 
The new Lukas Foss work "Griffelkin”, which NBC 
commissioned, will open the Opera Theatre’s seventh 
season with its world premiere performance. Following 
programs are "Madam Butterfly” on December 4, the 
now traditional Christmas performance of Menotti’s 
"Amahl and the Night Visitors”, and 1956 presentations 
of "The Magic Flute”, "Eugen Onegin”, and another new 
American opera commissioned by NBC — "La Grande 
Breteche” by Stanley Hollingsworth. Samuel Chotzinoff 
heads the Opera Theatre’s staff as producer. Peter Herman 
Adler is music and artistic director, Charles Polachek, 
associate producer, and Kirk Browning, director. 

Miklos Rozsa, Dore Schary, Adolph Deutsch 






Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
11 East 87th Street, New York 28, N. Y. 
FIllmore 8-5502 



THE ROSE TATTOO: Notes on the Score 
(score excerpts) . 

Alex North 


Norman Lloyd 

Record Review 

John Gruen 



Alfred E. Simon 


Ernest C. Watson 


Eddy Manson 


Eddy Manson 


Roger Tilton 

16mm FILMS 

Marie Hamilton 


(score excerpts) 

Gerald Pratley 

Cover: The Rose Tattoo; Anna Magnani, Burt Lancaster. (Still copyright MCMLV by Paramount Pictures Corp., Hal B. 
Wallis and Joseph H. Hazen, all rights reserved.) 


Music lovers, whether performers, students or simply listeners, will appreciate this unusual film and its pre- 
sentation of two great musicians, Denis Brain and Denis Matthews, in a performance of the Beethoven Sonata for Horn and 
Pianoforte. The film opens with a brief introduction by Denis Brain. Although familiar with the piano, many people know 
little of the horn. Mr. Brain shows us the instrument as it was in Beethoven’s time, a simple tube with a bell at one end and the 
mouthpiece at the other. He explains that the instrument was only capable of a simple series of notes, rather similar to 
those of the bugle, but that by careful use of the hand within the bell, it was possible to alter the pitch and play a scale. 
As he demonstrates this, it is noticeable that the scale is imperfect by modern standards in that it consists of a series of 
alternately strong and weak notes. 

Denis Brain concludes his description of the hand horn by playing a part of the first movement of the Beethoven Horn 
Sonata. Thus we hear it as it sounded when Beethoven composed it. He then describes the horn as we know it today. It is 
a far more complex affair with many valves, each capable of a series of notes, and by playing a combination of these 
notes, a chromatic scale can be obtained. 

Following this introduction, Denis Brain plays the whole of the Beethoven Sonata with 
Denis Matthews at the piano. 

Preview audiences have praised the film highly for its usefulness in music appreciation 
studies and simply as a brilliant performance of a great work. It should be noted that 
the film is of value to students of both piano and horn in that the technique of both 
musicians can be studied closely. 

2 Reels 18 Minutes Rental $2.50 Sale $55.00 

Published by the National Film Music Council, 11 East 87th St., New York 28, N.Y. President, William Hamilton; Vice- 
President and Editor, Marie L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues each year with occasional bulletins, two 
dollars and fifty cents. Back files (25 copies) six dollars plus postage. 

Alex North has written some of the most distinguished musical scores for American 
films. In a sense they are elemental in the way they drive relentlessly to the deepest 
emotions. North has the gift of seeming to write in a new style for each picture, and 
yet each measure of his music is typically his own. He has an almost uncanny knack of 
getting inside the dramatic meaning of a script. Sometimes he mirrors the dramatic 
action. Other times he counterpoints: tenderness with toughness, for example. 

In his orchestrations he is constantly finding new resources, such as the plaintive 
piccolo in "Streetcar Named Desire”. He writes sparsely and achieves effects that others 
try to get with lushness and a bloated orchestra. He can break the heart of an audience 
with fewer notes than any other Hollywood composer — or maybe we should not limit 
it to Hollywood. 

Like the scores of Copland and Virgil Thomson those of Alex North show what 
can be done with film music, given a gifted composer and sympathetic producer and 

Norman Lloyd 


Alex North 

In general the score is divided into three categories: 
folk, jazz and abstract (or absolute) music. I discovered 
after extensive research that the Sicilian folk music is far 
richer and more varied than the Neopolitan folk tunes 
because of its Moorish, North African influence, and I 
found a tune which I treat in various scenes in accord- 
ance with the dramatic values of the scene. 

In the Main Title it is stated in its pure form, more 
or less, with use of contralto solo voice and children’s 
choir so that it has directness and purity like the love 
Magnani has for her husband. As the story develops it 
is stated now and then within the texture of the abstract 
score to point up the disillusionment and torment of 
Magnani regarding her husband’s fidelity, etc. 

I have used four mandolins and four guitars exten- 
sively because of the Sicilian characters involved. I even 
went so far as to use mandolins soaring above the or- 
chestra in the scene 1-C 2-A "Night Run” as Magnani’s 

husband goes off in his truck and is killed, instead of the 
usual chase music. I tried to convey Magnani’s deep feel- 
ing for this man as he suddenly departs from her life. 

The first part of the score (or picture) is stated 
mostly in the folk idiom, more or less as a prologue. I 
establish jazz in the scene "Clowns” 3-D 4-A in which 
the two prostitutes come to Magnani’s home. This jazz 
motif is also indicated in various scenes where there is 
some implication of sex. "Bacio” 4-D is the theme set 
up for the two youngsters. ( This will come out as a song 
titled "Rosa”. ) Cue 9-D is an original piece of "South 
American” music which is gay (Burt Lancaster’s late 
dressed-up visit to Magnani) and designed as a piece 
coming from source, that is, possibly a radio in one of 
the nearby homes. Aside from this and the folk tune 
which is established in the Main Title ("Song of the 
Wagoners”), all the remaining material is a simulation 
of the Italian music. 

THE ROSE TATTOO . . . Hal Wallis; Paramount. Anna Magnani, Burt Lancaster. 
Director, Daniel Mann. Music, Alex North. 

Record: The Rose Tattoo. (Columbia; Sound Track Al- 
bum CL 727. Music composed and conducted by Alex 
North.) In listening to this sound track record before 
seeing the film, I was eager to hear whether the music 
would stand on its own merits or whether it would be a 
melee of disconnected musical ideas. What struck my 
ears first were the altogether unexpected sounds of man- 
dolins and children’s voices, combined in a haunting 
melody which became the core of the entire suite. There 
are eleven sections, each one executed with a rare sim- 
plicity and a skillful blending of musical ideas. Although 
a full orchestra is employed, North has chosen to make 
small instrumental combinations, lending a greater in- 
timacy to the entire work. 

What pleased me especially was that the composer 
went to original sources for his material: Sicilian folk 
songs and American jazz. Although the combination may 
seem far-fetched, it comes off, and I think mainly because 
both idioms are so essentially earthy and human, in keep- 

ing with the story of the film. On the one hand there is 
that Italian nostalgia always brimming with tenderness 
and the bitter-sweet sensation of something lost or for- 
gotten. Here, North has succeeded in creating an imme- 
diate atmosphere — conjuring up some very expressive 
musical magic. On the other hand, he has gone to a 
splendidly realistic jazz motif and has produced a most 
winning blues, exemplifying what must be the low-down 
aspect of the story. Although some purely abstract musi- 
cal ideas are presented from time to time, it seems to 
me that they only serve to highlight the two main musi- 
cal streams. Mr. North has produced an independent 
piece of music which might easily be adapted to a ballet 
score, as was so successfully done with his music for A 
STREETCAR NAMED DESIRE. This record is a pure 
delight, for Alex North has written his most evocative 
score. On this well-produced Columbia recording the 
composer conducts a symphony orchestra. 

John Gruen 


PRELUDE (Main Title) 

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Music copyright 1955 by Paramount Music Corp. 

Alfred E. Simon 

The guy who played Mark Antony in M-G-M’s 
JULIUS CAESAR and the doll who played Ophelia in 
the Olivier HAMLET have made the year’s most fas- 
cinating transition; in GUYS AND DOLLS they have 
become the most believable pair of musical comedy lovers 
we’ve had around in a long time. Neither of them sings 
particularly well, but it’s just for this reason that their 
voices are ideal for their roles. Nobody expects Sky 
Masterson or his Save-a-Soul Mission girl, Sarah Brown, 
to sing as beautifully as Gordon MacRae or Shirley Jones. 
Therefore, when Brando begins singing "A Woman In 
Love” or "Luck Be a Lady”, out comes the kind of a 
voice you’d expect from the smoothie he plays — a high, 
husky and somewhat uncertain baritone with not too 
much volume but lots of conviction. Jean Simmons, too, 
is completely right because her voice is pleasantly un- 
trained, and she sings "If I Were a Bell” with a refresh- 
ing lack of Broadway and Hollywood know-how; it’s one 
of the film’s most wonderful scenes. 

So much for the vocal news in GUYS AND DOLLS. 
What should not come as particular news is that Frank 
Sinatra does the best singing in the picture — especially 
in the plaintive and lilting new "Adelaide” song which 
seems to have been tailor-made for him. Vivian Blaine, 
who was one of the delights of the stage version, is if 
anything even better in this film; as before, she shines 
particularly in the comic and touching "Adelaide’s La- 




Frank Loesser's varied and dynamic score is substan- 
tially the same as the one he wrote for the original show. 
Three new songs have been added by him for the screen 
version. One, "A Woman In Love”, replaces "I’ve Never 
Been In Love Before” which was the featured ballad in 
the stage score. To this reviewer, the latter number al- 
ways seemed a bit too gentle and conventional in char- 
acter for the GUYS AND DOLLS atmosphere. The new 
song, however, fits perfectly here, and is perhaps the most 
haunting that Loesser has ever written. It’s introduced 
first in the Havana sequence, where it lends itself beau- 
tifully to a sultry Latin-American beat; later, when the 
lovers reprise it in New York, it becomes a quietly torrid 
love song. 

Another new song is the above-mentioned "Adelaide” 
for Sinatra, and the third addition is "Pet Me, Poppa”, 
which replaces the outrageously corny but wonderful 
"Bushel and a Peck”. It’s a mystifying substitution since 
the new song isn’t nearly as good. "My Time of Day”, 
one of the stage version’s most effective and original 
songs has also been dropped, though it’s used as back- 
ground material. Possibly its vocal version is resting on 
the cutting room floor? 

Practically all the rest of the score is there, though, 
and it's good to hear again such fine and colorful numbers 
as the "Fugue for Tinhorns”, "I’ll Know”, "The Oldest 
Established Permanent Floating Crap Game”, "Follow 
the Fold”, "Take Back Your Mink”, "Sit Down, You’re 
Rocking the Boat”, "Sue Me”, and of course the rousing 
title song. Jay Blackton is the man who supervised and 
conducted the musical end of GUYS AND DOLLS, and 
Frank Loesser and all the rest of us can thank him for 
a superb job. 

GUYS AND DOLLS . . . Samuel Goldwyn; Metro- 
Gold wyn-Mayer. Marlon Brando, Jean Simmons. Direc- 
tor, Joseph L. Mankiewicz. Music and lyrics, Frank 
Loesser. Music supervised and conducted by Jay Black- 
ton. Background music adapted by Cyril J. Mockridge. 
Orchestrations, Skip Martin, Nelson Riddle, Alexander 
Courage, A1 Sendrey. 

Records : Decca, Columbia, Coral. 

Sheet music: Songs from the film score, Frank Music 


Ernest C. Watson 

Oklahoma has never been spelled with as many OK’s 
as in the film version of Rodgers & Hammerstein’s musi- 
cal. It introduces a new film process called TODD-AO 
which seems to be TODD-OK too . . . but with a book, 
lyrics and music like OKLAHOMA! a Brownie camera 
and an ancient Edison phonograph record would have 
been good. 

With all the sound and fury raised by TODD-AO 
(which, ridiculously, shares equal billing with Rodgers 
& Hammerstein) very little of it is sound — the best 
part of TODD-AO. You can see Technicolor, Cinerama 
and Three-D and you’ve seen ’em all, but you haven’t 
heard the magnificent sound reproduction of TODD-AO. 
If you dig deeply enough into the wordy saga of TODD- 
AO you will find that the sound system was developed 
by Westrex. 

But even Westrex had help — the original songs of 
Rodgers & Hammerstein, polished by arrangements by 
Robert Russell Bennett and Adolph Deutsch. Bennett 
can do no wrong and Deutsch only what’s right in the 
world of orchestration. Bennett has arranged the best 
Broadway musical for years — and it is rumored in the 
byways haunted by arrangers, where the conversation 
sparkles with dominant sevenths, that he added much 
to the TV series "Victory at Sea.” Deutsch first became 
noteworthy as an arranger for the Paramount Theatre 
stage shows in the late twenties. He was Paul White- 
man’s right-hand man a few years later until he got the 
Hollywood call. 

From the minute the overture begins you are a part 
of OKLAHOMA — even if it was filmed in Arizona — 
and whether or not you are a Gordon MacRae fan you 
will like him as Curly. I’m not and I did. 

There is a moment of doubt when you hear two 
such songs as "Oh, What a Beautiful Morning” and 
"Surrey With the Fringe On Top” within the first ten 
minutes of the picture. Can one keep up this pace? One 
can and one does — or rather many can and do. Especi- 
ally stimulating is the railway station scene with Gene 
Nelson and the cowboys (to say nothing of two young 
lasses in middies) when he arrives home from Kansas 
City. The dancing is highlighted by a ragtime sequence 
that won’t quit till you’re enjoying Gloria Grahame and 
Gene Nelson in "I Can’t Say No.” 

"Pore Jud” and many others help keep up the pace 
set by "Beautiful Morning” and "Surrey” and the show 
closes as strongly as it opened, with "Oklahoma!” and 
"People Will Say We’re in Love.” 

Back to TODD-AO. There is no doubt that the 
sound reproduction represents a greater advance than 
the visual, but you can’t just ignore a screen that threatens 
you from all angles. Just when you prepare to drink in 
a beautiful scene, it drinks you in. But why not? I’m 
now homesick for Oklahoma and I’ve never been there. 

OKLAHOMA! was always good and now it’s better. 
See for yourself. And I haven’t even mentioned the 
ballet — and the color — and the tasteful direction. 


OKLAHOMA! . . . Magna. Gordon MacRae, Gloria 
Grahame. Director, Fred Zinnemann. Music, Richard 
Rodgers. Musical arrangements, Robert Russell Bennett, 
Adolph Deutsch. Music supervised and conducted by 
Jay Blackton. 

Record: Oklahoma! (Capitol. Film sound track album. 

SOA 595; FDM 1, 2-595) Taken from the outstanding 
sound track of the film, these ever-welcome tunes are 
presented at the peak of their performance, with fine 
solo voices and choruses, and arrangements that couldn’t 
be bettered. Overture and songs make up a dozen num- 
bers and plenty of lively listening. 


Eddy Manson 

M.G.M has put together a beguiling comedy, based 
on the Max Shulman, Bob Smith play. Frank Sinatra, 
Debbie Reynolds, David Wayne, Celeste Holm are 
starred, and one would imagine that TENDER TRAP 
would be loaded with music, inasmuch as any one of the 
four has quite a way with a song. Despite the tempta- 
tion, M-G-M seemed to feel that having these stars romp 
through one musical number after another would have 
emasculated the delightful script, or at least slowed it 
down to a walk. As it stands, the happy result is a first 
rate comedy, colored by a cute title song by Cahn and 
Van Heusen, and a frothy but pointed background score 
by Jeff Alexander. Alexander's score has a "pop” sound 
which fits TENDER TRAP to a T. The music, like the 
comedy, is sophisticated, but naturally so, rather than 
"Tennis, anyone?” The score reminded me of Herschel 
Gilbert’s work on THE MOON IS BLUE. The resem- 
blance is, of course, purely one of approach and style, 

but both are equally effective. The story has a musical 
framework. Sinatra is a theatrical agent with song and 
dance starlet Debbie Reynolds as a client. One of his 
many girl friends is Celeste Holm, a violinist in a radio 
symphony. Joey Faye, a trombonist, also has his moment. 
Faye is a "hip” musician and at one point asks David 
Wayne — "Say, man, what band do you play with?” 
Wayne explains that he is merely a business man from 
the west. Faye replies "Oh, lost your lip, huh?” Such is 

THE TENDER TRAP . . . Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Frank 
Sinatra, Debbie Reynolds. Director, Charles Walters. 
Music conducted and background score composed by 
Jeff Alexander. Song "The Tender Trap”, Sammy Cahn, 
James Van Heusen. 

Records: M-G-M, Capitol. 


Eddy Manson 

Robert Wright and George Forrest, of "Song of Nor- 
way” fame, have a talent for popular adaptation of the 
classics. They demonstrate an understanding of the orig- 
inal composer's style so acute that it is often difficult to 
tell where the composer stops and they begin. Their gift 
for integration of Wright and Forrest with the masters 
is again skillfully used, this time in partnership with 
Alexander Borodin in KISMET. The story, a tongue-in- 
cheek composite of Cinderella and the Arabian Nights, 
is liberally sprinkled with their numbers. 

"Not Since Ninevah", sung expertly by Dolores Gray, 
is essentially W. and F., with a short phrase from the 
waltz in the Polovetsian Dances ( "Prince Igor” ) . "Stran- 
ger in Paradise” uses the principal phrase from the song 
of the Polovetsian maidens. "And This Is My Beloved” 
also makes bold use of a poignant theme from the third 
movement of the Quartet in D major. Other adapta- 
tions are "The Olive Tree” from the love duet in "Prince 
Igor”, "Fate" from the Second Symphony, "Night of My 
Nights” from "Serenade for Piano”, "Sands of Time” 
from "In the Steppes’. I do not know whether "Baubles, 

Bangles and Beads" ( beautifully produced and sung with 
much feeling by Miss Blyth) is a W. and F. melody 
based on the Borodin style or a Borodin theme from one 
of his lesser known works. At any rate, such is their 
skill that I can only guess in favor of Wright and Forrest. 

The form of the music and lyrics is mostly Broadway 
and Tin Pan Alley, with a notable exception in "Gesticu- 
late” (based on Borodin's First Symphony). This is in 
the vein of comic opera, employing the aria buffa form 
rather than the usual A B A or 32 bar. It has a Gilbert 
and Sullivan quality, and requires virtuosity and musi- 
cianship on the part of the singer, as well as a dramatic 
flair. Howard Keel meets the test nobly. 

The boys at New York’s Colony Record Shop pointed 
out that "Was I Wazir” and "He’s In Love” from the 
original cast album are not in this production. On the 
other hand, the film has two numbers not in the Broad- 
way version — "Bored” and "Rahadlakum”, sung by 
Delores Gray, with Keel’s assistance. These numbers 
may well have been added with Miss Gray's particular 
talents in mind. 



The arrangements and musical direction are first rate. 
The arrangements for the most part combine elements 
of jazz and pop music with East Indian and Arabian 
elements. In "Fate”, for example, the use of tamborines, 
cymbals and Indian drums played with a mambo beat 
is amusing and exciting. I felt that this droll blend of 
East and West might be due to the influence of Jack 
Cole. Cole’s brilliance is evident in the musical numbers 
and dances he staged, which in turn motivated arrange- 
ments such as "Fate". 

One thing bothered me — and that was the credits 
Inasmuch as "Prince Igor”, the chief musical source, was 
completely by Rimsky-Korsakov and Glazounov after 
Borodin died, shouldn’t they have been mentioned too? 
Of course, we don't know how much of "Prince Igor” 
was pure Borodin, or where Rimsky-Korsakov took over, 
or where Glazounov added his talents. As this sort of 
thing can continue endlessly, let it be said in conclusion 
that M-G-M’s KISMET adds up to lavish entertainment, 
no small part of which is Wright and Forrest’s score. 

Record: Kismet. (M-G-M, film sound track album. 

E 3281.) Howard Keel, in fine voice, is heard in six of 
the eleven songs in this collection. He joins Ann Blyth 
and Vic Damone in the romantic "And This Is My 
Beloved”. The lovely melodies of "Baubles, Bangles and 
Beads”, "Night of My Nights", and "Stranger in Para- 
dise” are shared by Miss Blyth and Damone, and Delores 
Gray offers typically high-spirited numbers — "Bored” 
and "Not Since Ninevah”. Andre Previn conducts the 
M-G-M studio orchestra and chorus. 

KISMET . . . Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Howard Keel, 
Ann Blyth. Director, Vincente Minelli. Music and Ly- 
rics, Robert Wright, George Forrest. Music adapted from 
themes of Alexander Borodin. Music supervised and 
conducted by Jeff Alexander and Andre Previn. Orches- 
tral arrangements, Conrad Salinger, Alexander Courage, 
Arthur Morton. Vocal supervision, Robert Tucker. 

Howard Keel, Delores Gray, 
Ann Blyth, Vic Damone 


Roger Tilton 

Given: an evening jam session of Dixieland jazz at 
the Central Plaza in New York; how then, through pho- 
tography and editing, can the moviemaker transmit, or 
translate, the overwhelming excitement of this event for 
the enjoyment of theatre audiences throughout the world? 
This was the problem which the film JAZZ DANCE 
had to face. Bob Reisner, well known jazz impresario 
and the film’s associate producer, put it another way. 
"So many films on jazz have been phony, plaster-of-Paris 
glamorizations of jazz. What is needed is a film which 
will let people experience real jazz!” While the film 
itself is our answer to this problem, it might prove en- 
lightening here to examine some of the reasoning which 
lay behind the screen solution. 

Certain technical choices were instantly recognized 
to be most suitable for the pictorialization of jazz music. 
Black and white film was selected rather than color. Low 
key, high contrast lighting was favored over flat, high- 
key lighting. In the editing, sharp staccato cuts were 
used instead of long, slow dissolves. Finally, live, on the 
spot sound, filled with all the noises and echoes of the 
hall, was chosen for its feeling of presence, over the 
technically more polished alternative of a studio record- 
ing with dubbed-in crowd effects. 

Since jazz music, per se, cannot be photographed, 
any film must of necessity take an elliptical approach in 
bringing it to the screen. Nor is it sufficient to simply 
fill the screen with photographs of the musicians as they 
play the music. The powerful dynamics of jazz music 
require a visual counterpart more forceful and moving 
than the comparatively static results one achieves by 
photographing musicians at work. We solved the prob- 
lem by turning our cameras on the 500 ardent, gyrating 
fans and dancers whose reactions to the music provided 
us with ample, eloquent, and motion-packed pictorial 
material. It was more than proper to do this in the case 
of jazz music, since the enthusiastic "build” of a jam 
session such as this is the result of an inspirational give 
and take between the musicians and their audience. The 
rising exuberance of the evening is indeed an organic 
event created by everyone in the hall, eventually absorb- 
ing into its rhythmic pattern the very tables, cbairs, and 
glasses of the ’inanimate’ background. Each participant 
progresses through a series of stages expressing exactly 
the extent of his involvement. The spectator, beginning 
the evening seated in his chair, rising later to clap in 
front of the bandstand, and ending standing on a table 
with his hands overhead, forms a plastic, photographable 
’graph’ of jazz 'in the groove’. A beer mug bouncing on 
the table keeps time with the music as surely as a danc- 
er’s footwork. On the screen, these images mesmerize 
the audience, fix its attention, and eventually absorb it 
into the movement pulse ( feet start tapping, hands clap, 

While all of these little signs and symptoms of re- 
action could be posed, lighted, and filmed in a formal 
studio manner, it was felt that a vital quality of spon- 
taneity would be lost in the film thereby. Jazz music, so 
essentially improvisational could hardly be imprisoned 
in a photographic image which was formally constructed 
according to a set and rigid scheme of composition. 
Therefore, a photographic approach was used which 

Jimmy McPartland, and Willie (The Lion) Smith 

would be as free, spontaneous and newsreel-like in its 
immediacy, as possible. Lens flare, flashed frames, and 
other photographic effects shunned by studio technicians 
became perfect translations of the heat and fever of the 
musk. With two such imaginative cameramen as Dick 
Leacock and Bob Campbell, working intuitively in the 
thick of the crowd, images were seen, recognized for 
their expressiveness, and quickly captured on film, pro- 
viding a wide and sensitive coverage of all aspects of 
the evening. 

In the editing stage, the final ’locking’ of picture to 
sound occurred. The sound, which was recorded on tape 
at the time of the photography, though not in synchroni- 
zation with the pictures, was first edited into a twenty 
minute track which ’built’. Beginning with an improvised 
blues, followed by the Lindy "Ballin’ the Jack”, with a 
pause at mid-film to provide a breather, the film went 
into its second section with "Royal Garden Blues” and 
culminated in the rousing "When The Saints Go March- 
ing In”. Editor Richard Brummer ingeniously fitted each 
picture shot beat for beat to this track. 

A variety of constructural devices were used to es- 
tablish the music to spectator-dancer relationships dis- 
cussed earlier. The trombone’s movements were juxta- 
posed to a dancer’s in and out leg movements, many jazz 
dance movements having been inspired originally by 
movements of the instrumentalists. A trumpet’s ’ride’ 
was tied to the frenzy of a gone spectator gyrating by 
himself among the tables. All shots were organized into 
sequences which ebbed and flowed (long to close shots) 
with the music, building to the final climax of the 
"Saints”, visually created through extreme closeups in 
violent, Dionysic movement, struck through with flash- 
ing frames, cymbal flare, and blurred drumsticks. 

By presenting jazz music as it manifests itself in a 
human milieu, attention was perhaps diverted from purely 
musical issues. However, in a broader sense, these as- 
pects themselves had their germination in a country, a 
time, and a cultural context. The screen is the proper 
medium through which this music can be given back 
as a birthright to hundreds of thousands of Americans 
who might otherwise have gone untouched by their own 
great indigenous musical form. 


16mm FILMS 

Marie Hamilton 

Mary Ellen Bute has been delighting people here 
and abroad for some time with her Seeing Sound film 
shorts, which produce an absorbing rhythmic, science- 
based interrelation between music and abstract images. 

That they appeal to all audience levels is evidenced by 
their theatrical success and their international critical 
recognition. The following Seeing Sound films are avail- 
able in both 16mm and 35mm from Ted Nemeth Studios, 

729 7th Avenue, New York 19, N. Y. 

Rhythm in Light (b and w, 5 min.) "Anitra’s Dance" 
from Grieg’s "Peer Gynt Suite” has a visual accompani- 
ment of abstract forms whose graceful motion accentu- 
ates the mood of the music. 

Synchromy #2 (b and w, 5!4 min.) Reinald Werren- 
rath sings the "Evening Star from "Tannhauser”. Sim- 
plified Gothic arches and the flowering rod are among 
the symbolic figures that weave a background for the 
Wagnerian melody. 

Parabola (b and w, 9 min.) With Darius Milhaud’s "La 
Creation du Mode”, Miss Bute uses various forms of the 
parabolic curve and combines the poetry of their beauti- 
ful changing manisfestations with the movement of the 
symphonic tone poem. 

Escape (color, 5 min.) Animated geometric forms in a 
symbolic struggle and its resolution become a visual part 
of the Bach D minor Toccata, fitting in with the agita- 
tion of its opening and the quiet of its close. 

Spook Sport (color, 8 Vi min.) A "graveyard gambol” 
flits across the screen to the measures of Saint-Saens’ 

"Danse Macabre”. Semi-abstract ghosts, bats and spooks, 
animated by Norman McLaren, leap and frolic until the 
dawn in this jolly fantasy. 

Tarantella (color, 5 min.) Edwin Gerschefski plays his 
brilliant little piano composition, and Miss Bute inter- 
prets the 'swift moving dance’ in clever, sparse designs 
that enter at telling moments with much humor and 


Color Rhapsodie (color, 6 min.) The ever-popular Liszt 
2nd Hungarian Rhapsody inspires a most effective use 
of animation in explosive designs — showers of fireworks, 
pinwheels, flares, all in dazzling color. 

Pastoral (color, 7 min.) Leopold Stokowski made the 
recording of his own arrangement of the Bach "Sheep 
May Safely Graze” for the Bute abstract film interpreta- 
tion. The peace of the music is expressed in starlit skies, 
swirling clouds, and incoming and receding waves of 
color through which soft images move harmoniously. 

Abstronic (color, 6V2 min.) For her first electronically 
animated films, Miss Bute chose "Hoe Down” by Aaron 
Copland and "Ranch House Party” by Don Gillis, with 
their simple, well-defined rhythms. Miss Bute says "These 
electronic pictures of the music are natural phenomena 
which take place in the sub-atomic world.” Wherever 
they take place, they are exquisite and startling in their 
unnatural beauty. Their absolute synchronization with 
the music gives the robust rhythms great emphasis and 
excitement. As in the other films, the Bute color sense 
is a most notable asset. 

Gerald Pratley 

In CORRAL (directed by Colin Low), movement 
and music combine to make visual poetry from a simple 
theme; the breaking in of a young horse that has known 
only the freedom of the range. 

The story, set in the foothills of Alberta, is told to 
the accompaniment of music on the guitar. A cowboy 
on horseback tops a ridge, searching out a herd of horses. 
Among them is a yearling that is being trained for the 
saddle. Driven into the corral, the young horse is deftly 
separated from the rest. A battle of wills between man 
and horse then begins. Without a single word of dialogue 
or off-screen commentary, the film conveys the cowboy’s 
love of horses, as, with clever handling and reassuring 
actions, he overcomes the colt’s fears. With the saddle 
finally in place, he mounts and gives the horse free rein. 
Still not reconciled to a rider, the animal races at break- 

neck speed across the prairie. 

Accompanying this beautifully photographed and 
refreshing 12-minute picture is an original score by 
Eldon Rathburn containing variations on several Western 
ballads. The composer remarks, "Following the action, 
this music was devised to accentuate each movement, 
weaving the whole into a fluid pattern, with the strains 
of the old cowboy tunes building up the tempo until 
horse and rider finally vanish in the distance, with the 
cowboy victorious. Naturally, the use of this type of 
music is fitting to the subject, creates atmosphere and 
helps to give the impression that several hours of work 
have been depicted in the brief running time of the film.” 

The composer has sent along four extracts from his 
score, which he describes as follows: 

Section 1 — "This was used over the titles and also over the introductory sequences 
prior to the cowboy’s ride to the corral. I tried to capture the feeling of loneliness and 
aloofness which goes with shots of open prairies. This theme was used at the end of 
the film also as a kind of postlude, also to give a suggestion of form to the musical con- 
tent. In other words, it is a kind of 'Once upon a time’ theme. Guitar music was used 
to further the feeling of solitude. Two guitarists, Stan Wilson and A1 Harris, were em- 


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'sizing up’ the horse in the corral. The folk tune, 'I Got No Use for Women’ was played 
in an improvisatory manner in keeping with typical cowboy nonchalance. Earlier this 
theme was used in a straightforward manner during the ride to the corral." 

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Inc., I860 Broadway, New York.) 



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Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
11 East 87th Street, New York 28, N. Y. 
FIllmore 8-5502 


PICNIC: Notes on the Score George Duning 

(score excerpts) 




David S. Rattner 
Eddy Manson 
Ernest C. Watson 
Frank Lewin 

16MM FILMS Marie Hamilton 


Peter Herman Adler 


Music lovers, whether performers, students or simply listeners, will appreciate this unusual film and its pre- 
sentation of two great musicians, Denis Brain and Denis Matthews, in a performance of the Beethoven Sonata for Horn and 
Pianoforte. The film opens with a brief introduction by Denis Brain. Although familiar with the piano, many people know 
little of the horn. Mr. Brain shows us the instrument as it was in Beethoven’s time, a simple tube with a bell at one end and the 
mouthpiece at the other. He explains that the instrument was only capable of a simple series of notes, rather similar to 
those of the bugle, but that by careful use of the hand within the bell, it was possible to alter the pitch and play a scale. 
As he demonstrates this, it is noticeable that the scale is imperfect by modern standards in that it consists of a series of 
alternately strong and weak notes. 

Denis Brain concludes his description of the hand hom by playing a part of the first movement of the Beethoven Horn 
Sonata. Thus we hear it as it sounded when Beethoven composed it. He then describes the horn as we know it today. It is 
a far more complex affair with many valves, each capable of a series of notes, and by playing a combination of these 
notes, a chromatic scale can be obtained. 

Following this introduction, Denis Brain plays the whole of the Beethoven Sonata with 
Denis Matthews at the piano. 

Preview audiences have praised the film highly for its usefulness in music appreciation 
studies and simply as a brilliant performance- of a great work. It should be noted that 
the film is of value to students of both piano and horn in that the technique of both 
musicians can be studied closely. 

2 Reels 18 Minutes Rental $2.50 Sale $55.00 


30 Rockefeller Plaxo New York 20, N. Y. 

Published by the National Film Music Council, 11 East 87th St., New York 28, N.Y. President, William Hamilton; Vice- 
President and Editor, Marie L. Hamilton; Secretary, Grace W. Mabee. Five issues each year with occasional bulletins, two 
dollars and fifty cents. Back issues (25 copies) six dollars plus postage. 



George Duning 

Composing the background score to PICNIC was a challenging and grateful experi- 
ence. First of all, having come from the middle West, I believed the story and characters. 
Under the sensitive direction of Joshua Logan, the principals really come to life. 

For Hal Carter, the restless and wayward ex-college football hero, I used a somewhat 
tense and irregular theme, with a touch of the blues (Example 1, bars 8, 9, & 10) first 
heard over the Main Title cards, in a unison of trumpet, alto and tenor sax. At bar 13 
(Example 1), Hal’s theme is repeated in the violins and woods with the trumpet and 
saxes imitating in common form a half bar later. Contrary to usual practice, the Main 
Title starts without music — just the sound effects of a diesel engine freight train arriv- 
ing in the railroad yards of a small Kansas wheat town. Hal gets out of a freight car, and 
after a facetious remark from the train man he violently slams the freight-car door shut. 
At this point the opening music is heard, a harsh fragmentary motif (Example 1, bars 
1 and 2 ) . Near the end of this opening cue a motif of ascending thirds is heard ( Example 
1, bars 27 to the end). This motif is the basis of the love theme (Example 2, bars 3 to 5). 


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An interesting unbalanced orchestral effect will be found 
in Example 2, bars 10 to 14. In several scenes the mother, 
Flo, makes bitter references to her ex-husband, and in other 
scenes feels the similarity between Hal and her ex-husband. 
The four-bar passage in Example 2, bars 10 to 14 is the 
musical reference to the ex-husband and was set in two flutes 
and two horns with piano and vibraphone accents. Arthur 
Morton, my orchestrator, and I debated re-enforcing the two 
flutes and tried adding two clarinets on the recording stage, 
but this seemed to destroy the somewhat tense and cold 
effect of two flutes and two horns alone. 



For the Owens family, consisting of the older daughter, Madge, (Kim Novak), the 
younger sister (Susan Strasberg) and the anxious and somewhat bitter mother, Flo, (Betty 
Fields), there is a sort of village theme, usually heard in woodwind colors (Example 3). 
The mother is chiefly concerned with having Madge "marry the right man.” In some of 
the dialogue sequences between Madge and her mother, there is a waltz-like tune heard 
in the strings, with a simple harp accompaniment (Example 4, bars 7 to 15). Notice 
the use of the inversion of the ascending thirds from the love theme (Example 4, bars 
12 to 14). Example 5, bars 50 to 58, is a distorted tense version of the mother theme. 

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Boarding with the Owens family is a lovely frustrated school teacher, Rosemary 
(Rosalind Russell). In spite of her brash, devil-may-care personality, her main desire 
in life is to get married to a local bachelor, Howard, (Arthur O’Connell). Here the 
theme is lovely and plaintive, usually heard on the oboe d’amore (Example 6, bars 8 
to 15). Most of the source music in the wonderful picnic sequence was picked up on 
location in Kansas. The brass band, quartets and soloists were all local talent. 

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An interesting cue at the picnic is the scene where Hal and Madge are dancing 
to a rhythm group. They are oblivious of their surroundings and at a certain point they 
move closer together and we can feel the inevitable attraction between boy and girl. At 
this point I was able to superimpose a three-part string treatment of the love theme 
playing against the rhythm group (Example 7, bars 47 to 58). This scoring was re- 
corded separately against the rhythm track and then "reverbed". 

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Following this scene where Rosemary (the teacher) is dancing with Hal, she 
suddenly rips the sleeve of his shirt, at which point the underscoring crashes in with 
a shocking chord, wiping out the source music ( dance band ) . ( Example 8, bars 1 to 8 ) . 
The effect is one of suddenly shocking the audience out of the reality of the picnic 
sequence and pointing up the frustrations and inner turmoil that has grown within 
the principal characters. 


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In reel 12, Hal is fleeing to the freight yards, pursued by the police. Example 9, 
bars 11 to 16, are from this cue. The horns state Hal’s theme (Example 9, bars 11 and 
12) over a jazzed accompaniment of woods, piano and trumpets and an eighth-note 
patter in the strings and harp which set up the basic tonality. 

In the last reel, Madge has decided to follow Hal and her mother pleads with her 
to stay and marry the "nice, rich boy." The agitation and tension were set up in a long 
harp, piano and celeste mixture (Example 10, bar 1). The ascending thirds of the 
love theme are heard in the violins. The mother motif enters in flute and trumpet 
(Example 10, bar 7). At the point where Madge tears her hands loose from her mother, 
a sharp accent occurs, followed by complete silence (Example 11). This was what 
Joshua Logan called "The cutting of the umbilical cord”! ! (Example 11, bar 46). 

At the end of the picture there is a high helicopter shot showing the bus carrying 
Madge and the freight train on which Hal has "hitched a ride.” Here both Hal’s theme 
and the boy-girl theme are heard simultaneously (Example 12, bars 82 to end). 




PICNIC . . . Columbia. William Holden, Kim Novak. Director, Joshua Logan. Music, 
George Duning. Orchestrator, Arthur Morton. Music conducted by Morris Stoloff. 
Music copyrighted 1955 by Columbia Pictures Corp. Technicolor. 




Erich Wolfgang Korn gold 

Erich Wolfgang Korngold (right) coaches Alan Badel as Richard Wagner. 

When I accepted William Dieterle’s invitation to 
supervise the musical shaping of his Richard Wagner 
film MAGIC FIRE, I did it with the understanding that 
it would be my artistic intention to use Wagner’s music 
in its original form, without adding a single bar to 
satisfy the demands of the "background music” or chang- 
ing the orchestration of the opera excerpts actually per- 

Furthermore, a fortunate idea came to my mind: to 
utilize as background music for every episode in Wag- 
ner’s life only the music of that opera which he was 
composing at that particular time, each "scoring music” 
thus culminating in either a rehearsal, a visualization or 
a stage performance of an excerpt of the completed 
music drama. I tried also to give Wagner’s "Leitmotives” 
a parallel or at least similar significance to the happen- 
ings in his life: when Wagner is banned from Germany, 
we hear Telramund’s sinister music from "Lohengrin”, 
the contemplated Richard Wagner Theatre in Munich 
gets Wotan’s "Walhall” motiv and it is only appropriate 
that Wagner is married to the famous strains of his 
own Wedding March. 

I did all the piano playing for Wagner, Liszt and 
Hans von Buelow myself and even appear in person on 
the screen as the renowned conductor Hans Richter 
conducting the world permiere of the "Ring of the 
Nibelungen” in Bayreuth. 

Fortunately, I had at my disposal as my musical col- 
laborators not only the magnificent orchestra and chorus, 
but also some wonderful soloists of the Munich Prinz- 
Regenten Theatre: Leonie Rizanek, Annelies Kupper, 
Hans Hopf and Otto Edelmann (almost all of them 
known in this country). Our conductor was Germany’s 
number one film composer-conductor: the admirable 

Alois Melichar. 

I needn’t explain or apologize for the obvious: 
namely, that there was much music to be cut — the 
fifteen hours of the "Ring” are flashed on the screen in 
less than three minutes! — that I had to insist on livelier 
tempi throughout than the strict Wagnerian may be used 
to and that I was forced to transpose some passages into 
different keys in order to avoid adding "bridges” or 
modulations. Even today, however, after the "final cut”, 
in which I had to sacrifice a good portion of the origin- 
ally recorded music, I still have a clear conscience re- 
garding my initial purpose of using Wagner’s music in 
its original and undistorted form. 

MAGIC FIRE . . . Republic. Alan Badel, Yvonne De 
Carlo, Rita Gam, Valentina Cortese. Produced and di- 
rected by William Dieterle. Music, Richard Wagner. 
Musical supervisor, Erich Wolfgang Korngold. Conduc- 
tor, Alois Melichar. Orchestra, choir from the Bavarian 
State Opera. Trucolor. 


David S. Rattner 

Billed as an "opera film in color,” Mozart’s "Don 
Giovanni” emerges, in this Austrian production, as an 
exciting motion picture. H. W. Kolm-Veltee, the di- 
rector who also had a hand in the screen adaptation, has 
managed to avoid, in a most pleasantly surprising de- 
gree, the usual static posturings of grand opera. The 
characters move during the arias and the camera wan- 
ders in a skillful atmospheric support of the mood of the 
music. The settings are authentically Sevillanos, the 
costumes most appealingly 18th century Spanish and 
both are served up in Agfacolor that borrows more than 
a little from the charming hues of the Goya and Velaz- 
quez palettes. There is much dancing in the picture, 
not only in the scene of Don Giovanni’s party, where 

dancing is traditional, but also in the opening scene dur- 
ing Leporello’s aria and in the scenes having to do with 
the wedding of Zerlina and Masetto. In the choreography 
by Dia Luca, as performed by the Corps de Ballet of the 
Vienna State Opera, this dancing is rhythmically literal 
in its respect for Mozart’s music. Yet it is so imagina- 
tive in movement, groupings and costuming that it 
creates a truly Spanish flavor and lends added zest and 
piquancy to this Mozartean masterpiece. 

The story is told completely and faithfully according 
to the original libretto. In the interest of cinema realism, 
however, the statue of the Commendatore is never seen. 
Instead, weird lighting, the terror on Leporello’s face, 


the defiance of the Don and Mozart’s magnificently dra- 
matic music make its presence felt far more intensely 
than it is usually projected from a stage. The storming 
of the door of the room into which the Don leads Zer- 
lina results in a blood and thunder chase through the 
wine cellars of the Don’s palace and the streets of Seville 
worthy of any Hollywood thriller. The inventiveness of 
director and photographer fail only in the treatment of 
Donna Elvira’s big aria. Here she is photographed mus- 
ing on the Don’s treachery. Her voice is heard simply 
as a projection of her inner thoughts, but she mouths no 
words and smiles only an enigmatic, Mona Lisa-ish smile 
throughout this long and taxing song. By the end of it, 
she looks pretty silly. 

The film makes use of separate singing and acting 
casts, and the dubbing in of the sound is very well done. 
For the most part, the actors even breathe like singers 
and succeed in conveying a feeling of effort, drama and 
excitement when they "sing” a long phrase or seem to 
hold a long note. Leporello, as sung by Harald Progelhof 
and acted by Josef Meinrad, is the outstanding charac- 
terization. His "Madamina” is sardonically sung and im- 
pudently acted. The Don is not as well sung nor as con- 
vincingly acted, until the later scenes when singer Poell 
and actor Danova do create a defiant sinner who is will- 
ing to die for the standard by which he lived rather than 
grovel before the supernatural in repentance. The film, 
like most modern stage productions, omits the self- 
righteous moralizing ensemble of principals which Mo- 
zart so anti-climactically tacked on the end of this opera. 
It ends most effectively with the death of the Don in 
flames which are ignited by his hurling a lighted can- 
delabrum at the unseen apparition. Zerlina and Donna 
Anna are both sung by Annie Felbermayer. The former 
is acted by Evelyne Cormand, the latter by Marianne 
Schoenauer, while Donna Elvira is sung by Hanna Loeser 
and acted by Lotte Tobisch. Masetto, sung by Walter 
Berry and acted by Hans von Borsody, is rather less the 
country bumpkin than is usual on the stage. And Don 
Ottavio, sung by Hugo Meyer-Welfing and played by 
Jean Vinci, occasionally rises to the stature of an aveng- 
ing hero when he duels with and chases the Don. 

Cesare Danova (Don Juan) and Josef Meinrad (Leporello) 

It is regrettable that the interesting and moving play- 
ing of the Vienna Symphony Orchestra under Professor 
Bernhard Baumgartner suffers a loss of fidelity in the 
sound track. The voices come through very much better. 
The score is sung in German and adequate but unob- 
trusive subtitles in English are provided by Boris Goldov- 
sky. Musical purists will object to the cuts made in the 
music, but the fact is that an amazing amount of the 
score is included in the film with an easy and natural 
continuity and in an astonishingly apt visual realization. 
DON JUAN . . . Times Films. Cesare Danova, Alfred 
Poell, Josef Meinrad, Harald Progelhof. Director, H. 
W. Kolm-Veltee. Musical supervision, Professor Birk- 
meyer. Conductor, Bernhard Baumgartner, with the 
Vienna Symphony Orchestra. Agfacolor. 


Ernest C. Watson 

good swing arrangements played by Benny Goodman 
and orchestras featuring a host of other "name” instru- 
mentalists. If you’re a Benny Goodman fan you’d be 
well-advised to stick to your record collection and Hi-Fi 
equipment and save yourself the embarrassment of look- 
ing too closely into the intimate life of a contemporary. 
Not that I believe for a minute that B. G. took his clar- 
inet up to the roof of the apartment building in which 
he lived and played the Blues to the moon whenever he 
was stuck. If life’s little difficulties did move Benny to 
bay, instrumentally, at the moon he was more of a 
square than this reviewer ever suspected. If it is Holly- 
wood’s way of showing us Benny the thinker, you will 
appreciate the suggestion that you take your Goodman 
without THE STORY OF . . . But then you wouldn’t 
see Steve Allen, and Steve does a good job in the role 
of Benny. 

It is difficult to conceive of two cats as sharp as Steve 
and Benny tolerating a story that ends in the melodra- 
matic tradition of the old silent movies. The hero, Benny, 
is saved in the nick of time (Carnage at Carnegie, or, 
Flopping at the Philharmonic) by the arrival of the 
U. S. Marines (Benny’s fiancee). This causes Benny to 
trill like a bird on his clarinet (excellent music for 
animated cartoons) and break into a last rendition of 
another tried and true gimmick — "Our Song.” The 
arrival of the future Mrs. G. is nothing new in this pic- 
ture. Whenever Benny plays a new dancehall on his 
barnstorming tour, the ubiquitous Alice just happens to 
be visiting a handy relative in town and manages to 
appear before the band packs up. 

Steve Allen is excellent, Benny Goodman plays, as 
always, beautifully, and the story ...??? 

It is not Benny’s fault that he has, up to now, en- 
joyed a more or less uneventful life. But it is the fault 


of movie manufacturers when they make it even less 
eventful. This reviewer played saxophone and clarinet 
and arranged for Rubinoff on the Chase & Sanborn pro- 
gram when Benny was in the band and remembers more 
excitement and story material in one Sunday rehearsal 
and show than is in the whole movie version of Benny’s 

Re that same era when Benny was starving to death 
(at around $500 a week) in pursuit of the great idea — 
Swing — the picture makes much of a Saturday night 
NBC dance program. At this point the title should have 
been changed to the "Kel Murray Story,” because Kel 
had, with the exception of Benny’s clarinet, the best band 
of the three, i.e., Benny Goodman, Xavier Cougat, and 
Kel Murray. 

The popular misconception of Chicago as a cradle 
of jazz prior to New York is fostered in the B. G. Story, 
but the fact remains that when Benny came to New York 
he was just another good clarinet player until he was 
seasoned in the bigger music of radio and the wider 
music of Harlem. There were always more good musi- 
cians in New York because it had more to offer musicians 
from all over the country, including Chicago and New 
Orleans — more money and a chance to play with the 
best. And don’t let the jazz experts who can’t read or 
play a note of music fool you. 

In the picture sequence where Benny sits in with 
"Kid” Ory’s band on the Lake boat, there is a laugh 
for the initiates. Benny on a 1955 soundtrack sounds 
much too good for Benny the boy in short pants. If he 
had played like that at twelve we’d have been saved all 
the trivia that happened in the years that make up THE 

In fairness to Benny Goodman and the other splendid 
musicians who would be good in any picture with sound, 
special mention must be made of "Slipped Disc” ( played 
in a jam session scene at the Trombone Club) and the 
two Goodman classics, "Stompin’ At The Savoy” and 
"One O’clock Jump.” For a change of pace, everyone 
should enjoy Benny’s rendition of the "Mozart Concerto 
For Clarinet". Harry James shines in "Shine” and Ziggy 
Elman, approaching the trumpet valves from right field, 
does a good job of his classic, "And The Angels Sing”. 
How many viewers will remember Ben Pollack’s Band 
when it included Benny Goodman, Glenn Miller and the 
best rhythm drummer of those times — Ben (Himself) 

THE BENNY GOODMAN STORY . . . Universal-In- 
ternational. Steve Allen, Donna Reed. Director, Valen- 
tine Davies. Additional music, Henry Mancini. Instru- 
mental coaches, Sol Yaged, Alan Harding, Harold Brown. 
Music supervision, Joseph Gershenson. 


Eddy Manson 

Here is a musical that is solid entertainment in the 
best lavish show business tradition. In this period of 
great production and barren scores the Cole Porter songs 
stand out like a beacon in the dark. The producers made 
the fullest use possible of the Porter score in Paramount’s 
newest version of ANYTHING GOES, even using the 
melodies for background scoring, instead of the usual 
separate series of background cues. 

"All Through the Night”, "I Get a Kick Out of You”, 
"Blow, Gabriel Blow”, "Anything Goes" and the others 
prove their timelessness in production numbers tailor 
made to show off the best qualities of Mitzi Gaynor and 
Jeanmaire, Bing Crosby and Donald O’Connor. The 
smart rendition of'"You’re the Tops” has Crosby with 
Gaynor and O’Connor with Jeanmaire working out the 
number simultaneously but differently in two adjoining 
rehearsal rooms. Gaynor and O’Connor under the stars 
on the top deck of an ocean liner fall in love while 
singing and dancing to "It’s D’Lovely” in the lushest of 
orchestrations. What could be cornier? Yet it comes 
off as a delight, thanks to the taste of everyone involved. 

The integration of plot and music is excellent. At 
no time does one get the feeling of "Oh, oh, they’re 
going to sing now.” The musical numbers are motivated 
so naturally that one is often unaware that a song has 
snuck up. Particularly enjoyable is the ease of all the 
performances, with the possible exception of Miss Gay- 
nor in "Anything Goes”. Of course Bing Crosby’s casual 
artistry had much to do with setting the key for the 

Apparently there was nothing in the Porter catalog 
to fit the duets scheduled for Crosby and O’Conner, so 
they went to Sammy Cahn and James Van Heusen. In 

a couple of the new songs ”Ya Gotta Give the People 
Hoke” and "A Second Hand Turban and a Crystal Ball”, 
the two stars give burlesques of corny routines that are 
among the most entertaining numbers in the show. 
O’Connor alone sings the third new tune "You Can 
Bounce Right Back”, and gets in clever work with out- 
sized bouncing balls and some adorable moppets. 

Added to these plusses are the better than average 
orchestrations of Joseph Lilley and Van Cleave. In some 
places, notably Jeanmaire’s dream ballet, they are bril- 
liant. Lilley ’s musical direction is a real 'pfo’ job in the 
best studio tradition. The blend of music and action 
is nearly perfect, the timing is flawless, and the arrange- 
ment never gets in the way of the performer. Interesting 
effects in the arranging are many; the counterpointing 
of "All Through the Night” with "Blow, Gabriel, Blow”, 
the insinuating sound of a tenor sax against strings, the 
droll blend of classical ballet and jazz in Jeanmaire’s 
dream ballet. 

As for the story, it is basically a show business plot, 
one that has to do with a confusion of selections for the 
feminine lead in a coming musical in which Crosby and 
O’Connor are to co-star. It travels from New York to 
London to Paris and back to New York again, and is 
a satisfactory enough rack on which to lay a big delect- 
able serving of good old-fashioned entertainment. 

ANYTHING GOES . . . Paramount. Bing Crosby, Don- 
ald O’Connor, Jeanmaire, Mitzi Gaynor. Director, Rob- 
ert Lewis. Music and lyrics, Cole Porter. Musical num- 
bers arranged and conducted by Joseph J. Lilley. Special 
orchestral arrangements. Van Cleave. New songs, Sammy 
Cahn and James Van Heusen. Technicolor. 



Frank Leivin 

Walt Disney’s FANTASIA is back for what appears 
to be a highly successful run. In this age of stereophonic 
wonders the sound portion of FANTASIA may seem 
less startling than it did 1 5 years ago. The entire project, 
however, is still a marvel of imagination dnd execution. 
In its new version the picture spans the width of a 
Cinemascope screen; during some of the sequences the 
size of the image is reduced by drawn curtains. The 
sound which originally issued from speakers placed 
around the auditorium now emanates from behind the 
screen. There are five magnetic tracks: four of them 
carry music, the fifth one carries a signal that opens and 
closes the width of the projection lens and at the same 
time operates the curtains on either side of the screen. 

FANTASIA consists of pictorial representations of 
the following musical compositions: 

1. The toccata and fugue for organ in D Minor by 
Bach, transcribed for symphony orchestra by Leo- 
pold Stokowsky; 

2. Excerpts from the ballet "The Nutcracker” by 

3. The tone poem "The Sorcerer’s Apprentice” by 

4. Stravinsky’s score for the ballet "The Rites of 

5. The Symphony No. 6 in F Major, "Pastorale,” by 

6. The Dance of the Hours from Ponchielli’s opera 
"La Gioconda”; 

7. The tone poem "Night on Bald Mountain” by 

8. An arrangement for voices and orchestra of Schu- 
bert’s "Ave Maria.” 

Interspersed among the weightier items are scenes 
of the instruments of the orchestra tuning up, a jam 
session springing up quasi-impromptu among some of 
the members of the orchestra, and a short dissertation on 
the life and manners of an optical sound track. The 
Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokowsky, 
performs the music impeccably; Deems Taylor acts as 
efficient narrator introducing each sequence. 

Chinese Dance from The Nutcracker Suite 

On the whole, the wedding of picture and music 
seems most successful in those selections which origin- 
ally told a definite story, i.e. "program music,” or were 
composed for the ballet. One may easily quarrel with 
the pictorial representations of some of this music, but 
that is really a matter of individual taste. Physically the 
sound is truly magnificent — a hi-fi fan’s dream, with 
its resonant basses, brilliant trebles and full-bodied cli- 
maxes. As a matter of fact, this larger-than-life, or rather 
larger-than-heard-in-the-concert-hall sound may give some 
listeners a kind of audio fatigue. In conjunction with 
the generous number and variety of sequences presented 
it may make the entire program seem a bit long. 

The inspired sky writing accompanying Bach’s "Toc- 
cata” still seems as astonishing a tour de force of anima- 
tion as it did when FANTASIA was young. The sonor- 
ous climax of the fugue finds Mr. Stokowsky ’s giant- 
sized silhouette framed by what resembles rising wreaths 
of smoke, and that may not seem quite on an equal 
level of impressiveness with the beginning of the se- 
quence. To this viewer and listener the excerpts from 
"The Nutcracker” form the high point of the film. Pic- 
ture and sound seem matched perfectly here. In the next 
sequence Mickey Mouse, and the audience, have a great 
time romping through "The Sorcerer’s Apprentice.” At 
some points of his incantations the youthful magician, 
with smoke rising high, looks suspiciously like Mr. 
Stokowsky at his conductorial grandest in the above- 
mentionad "Toccata and Fugue.” 

Stravinsky’s "Rites of Spring” has come a far way 
from its clamorous first performance in 1912. No riots 
today when it serves as a point of departure for pictures 
of wild scenes during the earth’s early history. Volcanic 
bubbles rise and burst in synchronization with the music, 
monstrous reptiles yawn stereophonically and devour 
each other — it’s a grand show! Beethoven’s "Pastorale" 
Symphony provides a quiet relief after this great up- 
heaval; it accompanies scenes of mating and merriment 
in a toy-land-like mythological setting. Hippos and al- 
ligators cavort gaily to Ponchielli’s "Dance of the Hours”; 
yet they seem slightly miscast. 

The last two sections of FANTASIA depict images 
representing the contrast between profane and sacred 
love. The first as shown in a pictorialization of Mous- 
sorgsky ’s "Night on Bald Mountain” consists of an orgy 
of sight and sound; it is followed without a break by 
Schubert’s "Ave Maria.” The two sections vividly con- 
trast complex animation, exploiting fully the resources 
of the Disney technicians, with the simplicity of an 
almost monochrome treatment — each superbly effective 
in its place. 

In short: FANTASIA is back — and it’s still a 
wonderful show! 

FANTASIA . . . Walt Disney. Conductor, Leopold 
Stokowski, with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Commen- 
tator, Deems Taylor. Production supervision, Ben Sharp- 
steen. Musical direction, Edward H. Plumb. Musical 
film editor, Stephen Csillag. Recording, William E. 
Garity, C. O. Slyfield, J. N. A. Hawkins. Fantasound, 



Abram Loft 

When The Fine Arts Quartet, familiar to music- 
lovers through concert, broadcast, telecast, and record- 
ings, and Encyclopaedia Britannica Films joined forces 
to produce the first in a new series of EBF films on music, 
they aimed primarily to supply much-needed audio-visual 
material for use in school-music instruction. They wanted 
to show, through the quartet repertoire, what makes 
serious music tick; and they wanted to show this in 
straightforward, clear, interesting manner. The results 
were two 16 mm films, LISTENING TO GOOD MUSIC 
and PLAYING GOOD MUSIC; and all concerned were 
delighted to be able to say of these movies that ( to para- 
phrase the EBF film guide): "the films were designed 
for junior and senior high schools. However, they are 
so basic in their fundamentals and the performance of 
the Fine Arts Quartet is of such caliber that colleges, 
schools of music, and adult groups will find them a great 
aid in learning to appreciate and understand good music.” 

One might go even farther than this: the films have 
already been shown to all kinds of audiences, from fourth- 
and fifth-graders on up to general adult groups, educa- 
tors, music critics and professional musicians . And all 
are unanimous in their acclaim of these films. Wherein 
does the success of these films lie? Well, the sound- 
track is superb, for one thing. It was recorded by, and 
under the direct supervision of, the Fine Arts Quartet, 
a foursome long experienced in the niceties of broad- 
cast and recording techniques. The instruments played 
were the Quartet's own carefully matched set of fine old 
Italian masterpieces: Stradivarius, Balestrieri, Gaspar da 
Salo, Gofriller. The finest in modern recording equip- 
ment was used — Ampex tape recorders, Telefunken 
microphones. Every step in the processing of the sound- 
track was planned to preserve the live quality of the 
performance. The photography, by Andrew Costikyan 
of EBF, is artful in its closeup inspection of the tech- 
niques and skills of quartet-playing. The editing of the 
finished films gives minute attention to the smooth in- 
tegration of patterns of sight and sound. And above all, 
the scripts of the two films, written jointly by the Quar- 
tet and David Ridgway, the producer of the films, are 
entirely professional in their outlook. They give the 
audience the "feel" of serious performance, of serious 
composition. The music used is all of sterling quality: 
Schubert, Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart, Wolf, Tchaikov- 
sky — these are the composers represented. However, 
the music is offered not as a filmed recital, but rather in 
an inspection of the very stuff of composition. Specific 
passages from various quartet movements are carefully 
chosen to demonstrate individual musical and technical 
points. And each passage is presented in a manner that 
will emphasize, through photography, narration, and 
sound-track, the precise detail under inspection at the 

Two examples illustrate the imaginativeness of the 
film treatment: a passage from the finale of Mozart’s 
Quartet in G Major, K. 387, is played; to underscore the 
fugal relaying of the essential line through all four in- 
struments of the quartet, each player in the group is 
spotlighted as his instrument takes the central role in 
the music. (To insure smoothness and synchronization, 
EBF’s technical staff contrived special equipment that 
enabled the players themselves to control the spotlights 
while they played the passage! ) 

The Fine Arts Quartet 

Another illustration: as the Quartet plays a passage 
from Hugo Wolf’s Italian Serenade, the printed score 
of that passage moves across the screen, with the measure 
of the moment photographically highlighted. Any view- 
er, whether or not he can read a note of music, will get 
the sense of motion, of up-and-down, of interweaving of 
musical parts, as he watches this scene. 

At no point is there any "talking-down” to the audi- 
ence. The wording of the narration is non-technical, 
but always specific, always aimed at revealing a musical 
detail. And the music itself is constantly at hand to make 
absolutely clear the point indicated by the narration. 

Youthful audiences appreciate this directness. They 
would be quick to detect any condescension or artificiality 
of approach and would transfer their distrust to the music 
under discussion. (The adult audience is hardly gullible, 
either, let us hasten to add.) The films are convincing 
because — in short — they help the viewer come to 
grips with the music and with the driving force that the 
composer built into the music. Each film ends with a 
brief, full-dress performance of a movement that has 
previously been inspected by the film. And the viewer 
watches the Quartet in action with a new awareness of 
the musicianship and physical skill required of the in- 
strumentalist. Most important, the viewer is left with 
new-found confidence in his own capacity to understand 
and enjoy music. 

Incidentally, the films are provided with film guides, 
brochures that describe the films, offer background in- 
formation about the material and the performers, give 
the narration and continuity of the films in complete 
detail, identify the musical selections played, and provide 
suggestions for preparation of the audience, for post- 
viewing discussion, and correlated projects appropriate 
to the films. The film guide for PLAYING GOOD 
MUSIC even offers a "classified list of string quartet 
movements for student practice and performance.” 


James L. Limbacher, Audio-Visual Director 

Since its establishment in 1948, the Dearborn Public 
Library Audio-Visual Department has been moving 
toward the development of the use of good films and 
music by the schools, churches, organizations and homes 
of Dearborn, a community of 130,000 citizens just out- 
side of Detroit, Michigan. The film library began with 
just a few motion pictures and some 78 rpm records, 
but now has more than 500 long-playing records and 
more than 300 sound films. 

Taking a cue from FILM*MUSIC magazine, the Au- 
dio-Visual Department is expanding the number of films 
and records dealing with good music and film scores. 
Its record library now contains music from such films 
Several of these, such as PACIFIC 231, are correlated 
with the film itself. 

Experiments in music are being tried. Again, taking 
PACIFIC 231 as an example, the recording is played 
first, then the music is discussed, and finally the film is 
shown. This gives music students a chance to see how 

music can be put into visual terms. Supplementing this 
type of experiment are many film concerts with such 
artists as Heifitz, Piatagorsky and Paderewski preserved 
on film for all to see. Visual music is represented by 
FIDDLE DE DEE and other experimental films. 

In the new 1956 film catalog, a special category is 
devoted to films in the Dearborn Public Library con- 
taining exceptional musical scores. These include THE 

For film appreciation, the library maintains a collec- 
tion of special films including MARCH OF THE 
Other films in this category are forthcoming. 

By maintaining a general, rather than a specific, li- 
brary of films and recordings, the Dearborn Public Li- 
brary hopes to continue to serve to the fullest the needs 
of its community — in the home, in the church, in the 
school and everywhere that music and films can be used 
to enlighten and entertain. 

16 MM 

Music: Career or Hobby? (Coronet -Films, Coronet 
Building, Chicago 1, 111. Color, b and w, 10 min.) A 
high school student with some musical talent looks for 
the answer to this question. He talks with his teacher 
and his guidance counselor, interviews a night-club mu- 
sician, a disc-jockey, an arranger, an orchestra member 
and a teacher, and reads up on the opportunities and re- 
quirements in the field. In the end he has a fair idea of 
the drawbacks and rewards in various musical careers, 
and to what degree they fit his tastes and aptitudes. The 
useful little film also stresses the musical pleasure open 
to the enlightened listener and the amateur performer. 
(Educational Collaborator, Dr. Frank S. Endicott, Di- 
rector of Placement, Northwestern University.) 

Marching the Colours (National Film Board of Canada, 
630 Fifth Avenue, New York. 16mm, 35mm; col. 3 min.) 
Animated abstract and geometric designs accompany a 
Sousa march in an experimental film made without a 
camera. The broad color effects and exploding balls and 
stars keep steady time with the music’s beat. Guy Glover 
was the producer. 

Eneri (Film Images Inc., I860 Broadway, New York. 
Color, 7 Vz min.) Photographer Hy Hirsch combines 
abstract figures and oscilloscope patterns in bold bright 


color with the arresting, changing rhythms of primitive 
African pipes and drums. 

Abstract in Concrete (Film Images Inc., 1860 Broadway, 
New York. Color, 10 min.) The distortion of Times 
Square’s lights on a rainy night in the reflections on its 
wet pavements creates revolving, swelling, dissolving 
color images. Frank Fields has written the faintly blues 
piano score, which with the spattering rain, the sounds 
of juke-box and barkers, the horn dissonances, make up 
the narration of John Arvonio’s atmospheric film. 

Beethoven Sonata (British Information Services, 30 
Rockefeller Plaza, b and w, 18 min.) In an interesting 
introduction to the playing of the Beethoven Sonata in 
F for Horn and Pianoforte, Denis Brain explains the 
differences between the simple horn of Beethoven’s day 
and the infinitely complicated instrument in use at 
present. He plays both briefly to compare their tonal 
range and quality. The little opening talk heightens the 
consciousness of the horn in the excellent performance 
of the Sonata by Mr. Brain and pianist Denis Matthews. 
The work was one of Beethoven’s early triumphs, and 
the presentation here offers a rare opportunity to hear 
it as it should be played. Frequent close-ups permit 
technique-study of the two distinguished musicians. 

M. H. 


Peter Herman Adler 

I am often asked about the special problems we face 
in opera on television. As a conductor who grew up 
in the European opera houses, I found my first new 
problem was to locate singers who were musical enough 
to perform without seeing the conductor. It soon ap- 
peared that the problem was not only to engage artists 
of high musical intelligence but to find a style of re- 
hearsing which permitted them to sing and act inde- 
pendently — to all appearances — while exactly carrying 
out the exact intentions of the conductor. Fortunately, 
America has developed a fairly large number of young 
singers with good musical training who have the in- 
telligence and resourcefulness to work under our difficult 
conditions. In some cases the voices we use may not be 
large enough to perform the same roles in a big opera 
house, but for us this is a purely academic matter, since 
we choose singers to fulfill the requirements of our own 
production and our own medium. 

Microphones handle smaller voices better than larger 
ones for the simple reason that they are constructed to 
be placed in front of a performer’s mouth. It is true 
that in today's radio and recording sessions all kinds of 
voices can be recorded successfully. The reason is that 
in radio and recording the singer’s position is carefully 
arranged in front of a stationary microphone. This ar- 
rangement, however, is impossible in television because 
the singer and pursuing microphone boom are con- 
stantly on the move. 

This brings up the question of pre-recording the 
sound as it is done in the movies. While pre-recording 
may improve the sound and eliminate a number of minor 
or major acoustical accidents, it also, in my opinion, 
diminishes the spontaneity of the performance. The im- 
pact of simultaneous acting and singing is so much more 
effective than the most carefully synchronized perform- 
ance that I prefer to accept occasional tonal deficiencies 
in order to gain the vitality of a live performance. 

"Opera in English” was a battle-cry as recently as 
ten years ago. Adherents of opera in the original lan- 
guage have opposed translated opera for a variety of 
reasons. Usually the opposition begins with the argument 
that the English language is not singable and finishes 
with the undeniable observation that translations seldom 
add to the flavor of the original, and more often than 
not take away something. We may take small consola- 
tion from the fact that these arguments are almost as 
old as the history of opera. Every country has had to 
solve its translation problem in its own fashion. In the 
Vienna of Mozart’s time, anything but opera in Italian 
was viewed with contempt. The only operatic works 
Mozart could write in the language of his country were 
singspeils, operetta-like in form, with dialogue. His 
operas in German — "The Abduction from the Seraglio” 
and "The Magic Flute” — were dialogue operas, or, as 
the French later called the category, opera-comique. 

There are at least as many arguments to be made 
for the unsingability of German, Russian and Swedish 
as there are for English. Still, operatic development all 
over the world has proved that only countries in which 
opera was given in the native language became "opera 
countries”, while the Anglo-Saxon part of the world, 
Britain and America, which until recently stuck to opera 
in its original language, were considered "not opera- 

The more I am acquainted with this problem, the 
more I am convinced that one of the main reasons, if 

not the main reason, for our backwardness in opera de- 
velopment has been the reluctance to translate opera and 
to translate it well. The truth is that a lot of opera has 
been translated, but most of it has been done so badly 
that the response to it has been rather discouraging. Our 
experience has been that the American opera audience 
would rather accept opera in the original language than 
a badly translated one. We at NBC have spent an ex- 
traordinary amount of time proving our English versions, 
and we still feel that we have a long way to go. We 
expect that our new version of "The Magic Flute”, com- 
missioned from W. H. Auden and Chester Kallman, will 
mark an important step in the right direction. 

Television has provided a mass test proving that 
America at large has accepted opera in English. It is 
difficult to imagine how many years might otherwise 
have been required to establish this. What I consider to 
be the supreme test of the acceptability of opera in 
English occurred when Arturo Toscanini discussed our 
production of Puccini’s "Sister Angelica” (Suor Ange- 
lica) with our producer, Samuel Chotzinoff. Maestro 
Toscanini expressed surprise that an opera for which he 
had little regard on the stage came over so well on tele- 
vision. He had enjoyed the performance and mentioned 
a number of details in expressing his satisfaction. When 
Chotzinoff mentioned to the maestro, who had always 
been critical of translated Italian opera, that he had 
enjoyed an Italian opera in English after all, Toscanini 
answered "I didn’t even notice it was in English.” 

When we produce an opera on television we have 
to start from scratch, regardless of whether it is a standard 
or a new work. It has been our experience that selecting 
singers, making translations, conceiving the nature of a 
production, constructing sets and costumes, and rehears- 
ing the artists for a new work is often easier than the 
corresponding job for the standard operas, especially 
the ones which demand true bel canto technique. In 
certain respects this gives us an advantage over the large 
opera houses, for which the mounting of a new work 
is very costly. 

We have found, too, that many works which have 
not been completely successful on the stage, like Ben- 
jamin Britten’s "Billy Budd” and Puccini’s one act operas 
"Sister Angelica” and "The Cloak” (II Tabarro) have 
been highly successful in our more intimate medium. 
In addition the response to NBC’s "Opera Theatre’s” 
first performances of new operas has been encouraging 
to all parties concerned. Menotti’s "Amahl and the 
Night Visitors”, the first opera ever commissioned for 
television; Giannini’s "The Taming of the Shrew”, Mar- 
tinu’s "The Marriage” and Bernstein’s "Trouble in 
Tahiti” have had considerably more than the press re- 
sponse and prestige which the premiere of a modern 
musical work usually can hope for. While it is under- 
standable that a charming little masterpiece like "Amahl” 
should have made a hit on its first showing, the popular 
success of a difficult work like Billy Budd” came as a 
surprise. We expect that this season’s newly commis- 
sioned operas, "Griffelkin” by Lukas Foss and "La Grande 
Breteche” by Stanley Hollingsworth, as well as the new 
Menotti work scheduled for next season, will reconfirm 
our confidance in the future of American opera. 

(The author is musical and artistic director of the 
NBC "Opera Theatre” and co-founder with Samuel 
Chotzinoff of this organization. His article has been 
reprinted in part, through the courtesy of "Theatre 



The American Film Assembly will hold its 1956 
convention on April 23-27 at the Morrison Hotel in 
Chicago. The program of the occasion, which deals with 
every aspect of 16mm production, presents a Sound 
Slidefilm Conference, a Film Workshop, the annual con- 
vention of the American Federation of Film Societies, 
discussion periods at the close of screening sessions and 
the organizational meetings of the Film Review Center 
Project, Local Film Councils, Film Producers, and the 
membership and Board of Directors of the Film Council 
of America. In the Golden Reel Film Festival, highlight 
of the Assembly, 16mm films in 22 categories will be 
screened and judged for the Golden Reel awards. Almost 
400 films have been entered in the competition. Further 
information on the Assembly may be had from the Film 
Council of America, 600 Davis Street, Evanston, 111. . . . 
Officers of the Composers and Lyricists Guild of America 
for the 1955-56 term are Leith Stevens, national presi- 
dent; Winston Sharpies, Walter Schumann, David Terry, 
vice-presidents; Mack David, secretary-treasurer and Ben 
Ludlow, assistant secretary-treasurer . . . The Robert 
Flaherty Foundation is inviting advanced students and 
film makers to the second annual seminar at the Flaherty 
home in Vermont. The ten day seminar (August 21 
through August 30 ) will be given to a study of Flaherty 
films, and discussions of production problems by various 
guest speakers. Among these are Amos Vogel, Richard 
Griffith, Fred Zinnemann and Virgil Thomson. As the 
enrollment must be limited, reservations should be made 
now with the Robert Flaherty Foundation, Inc., RFD 1, 
Brattleboro, Vermont . . . Ann Ronell and her husband, 
film producer Lester Cowan, are to create and produce 
several color Spectaculars for NBC-TV. Their first show 
will be a musical comedy "O Susanna”, based on the 
lives and songs of Stephen Foster and E. P. Christy. Miss 
Ronell has written the score and lyrics for the book by 
Florence Ryerson and Colin Clements. A musical play 
based on Ernie Pyle’s "The Story of G.I. Joe” is also 
planned. The award-winning film based on the book 
was produced by Mr. Cowan, and had a memorable score 
by Miss Ronell and Louis Applebaum . . . The NBC 
Opera Theatre, now in its seventh season, is to be aug- 
mented by a touring company, the NBC Opera Company. 
Beginning in the fall of 1956, performances in English 
will be given in various cities in the United States and 
eastern Canada. The Company will open its season with 
"Madam Butterfly" and "The Marriage of Figaro”. Broad- 
way producer Chandler Cowles will act as General Man- 
ager. The NBC Opera Theatre will continue its TV 
presentations under Samuel Chotzinoff and Peter Herman 
Adler, who will be in charge of the new project as well 
. . . CINEMAGES, which has recently been called "not 
only far and away the best American film periodical, but 
one of the best in the world” ( SIGHT AND SOUND ) , 
has announced its 1956 publication schedule. Among 
the five issues planned are extensive analyses of experi- 
mental cinema, the American screen (with over 100 
stills) and an issue on Alexander Korda. CINEMAGES 

is sponsored by a small panel of distinguished screen 
directors, among them Rene Clair, Josef von Sternberg, 
Jean Benoit-Levy, Hans Richter and others. It is edited 
and published by Gideon Bachmann at 3951 Gouver- 
neur Avenue, New York 63 . . . The second annual 
television showing of the Motion Picture Academy nom- 
inations on February 18, named five candidates in each 
of three musical categories. Best dramatic score: BAT- 
THE GOLDEN ARM - Elmer Bernstein; PICNIC - 
George Duning; THE ROSE TATTOO - Alex North. 
Best score for a musical: DADDY LONG LEGS - 
Johnny Mercer; GUYS AND DOLLS - Frank Loesser; 
LOVE ME OR LEAVE ME - George Stoll; IT’S AL- 
HOMA! - Richard Rodgers. Best song: I’ll Never Stop 
Loving You (LOVE ME OR LEAVE ME) - Sammy 
Cahn, Nicholas Brodszky; Love Is a Many Splendored 
- Sammy Fain, Paul F. Webster; Love Is the Tender 
Trap (LOVE IS THE TENDER TRAP) - Sammy Cahn, 
Jimmy Van Heusen; Something’s Gotta Give (DADDY 
LONG LEGS) - Johnny Mercer; Unchained Melody 
(UNCHAINED) - Hy Zaret, Alex North . . . The re- 
cent Downbeat Magazine Awards for film music were 
as follows: George Duning (Columbia) - best back- 
ground scoring of a dramatic picture, PICNIC; Ray 
Heindorf (Warner Brothers) - best scoring of a musical 


Rudolf Arnhelm 
Jean Benoit-Levy 
Rene Clair 
Paul Falkenberg 
Abel Gance 
Marcel I'Herbier 
Arthur Knight 
Siegfried Kracauer 
Hans Richter 
Paul Rotha 
Josef von Sternberg 



Gideon Bachmann 

Cinemages is devoted to a meaningful exploration of 
the cinema and the personalities involved in its creation. 

Cinemages' main purpose is to create, eventually, a 
discriminating audience for a mature screen product. 

“Cinemages is not only far and away the best Ameri- 
can film periodical, but one of the best in the world.” 

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VJ 'jWB' 4 


SPRING 1956 



Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
11 East 87th Street, New York 28, N. Y. 

FIllmore 8-5502 


THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN ARM (with score excerpts) Elmer Bernstein 

LOVERS AND LOLLIPOPS (with score excerpts) 



16 mm FILMS 


Eddy Manson 
William Walton 

Alfred Simon 
David S. Rattner 
David S. Rattner 
David S. Rattner 
Gerald Pratley 
Marie Hamilton 

Cover: Frank Sinatra in THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN ARM 


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Elmer Bernstein 

First, let me clear up an important point. The score 
jazz score. It is a score in which jazz elements were 
incorporated toward the end of creating an atmosphere, 
I should say a highly specialized atmosphere, specific to 
this particular film. In this respect I was fortunate in 
that jazz has heretofore been used most sparingly in this 
manner. Now there are a rash of unpleasant films using 
jazz more or less skillfully. In the future, therefore, it 
will be difficult, if not impossible, to create a highly 
specialized atmosphere merely by using jazz elements. 
Let us then conclude that my notion was enhanced by 
fortuitous timing. But enough modesty. Let us get on 
to more interesting considerations, and the first one that 
presents itself is: Why Jazz? 

I told Otto Preminger, the producer, of my inten- 
tions after one quick reading of the shooting script. The 
script had a Chicago slum street, heroin, hysteria, long- 
ing, frustration, despair and finally death. Whatever 
love one could feel in the script was the little, weak 
emotion left in a soul racked with heroin and guilt, a 
soul consuming its strength in the struggle for the good 
life and losing pitifully. There is something very Ameri- 
can and contemporary about all the characters and their 
problems. I wanted an element that could speak readily 
of hysteria and despair, an element that would localize 
these emotions to our country, to a large city if possible. 
Ergo, — jazz. 

Before going on to specific examples from the score 
I would like to make some general observations. This 
is not a score in which each character has a theme. It 
is not a score which creates a musical mirror for dia- 
logue. Nor is it a score which psychoanalizes the char- 
acters and serves up inner brain on the half shell. It is 
basically a simple score which deals with a man and 
his environment. There are only three themes which 
are exploited in a compositional manner in the develop- 
ment of the score. These can be loosely identified in the 
following manner: 

1 ) Frank s relationship to his general environment; 
his job as a dealer in a cheap poker joint, to his fight 
against the dope habit, to the pusher who sells him the 
stuff, to the street itself. 

2) Franks relationship to his home environment; 
his neurotic wife, who feigns a debilitating illness in 
order to hold him, to the shabby flat with its "lower 
depth” inhabitants, to his own guilty lack of love for 
his wife. 

3) Frank’s relationship with "the other woman”. 

who is a symbol to him of love, and the better life, such 
small hopes as he has from time to time, and his chance 
of making it away from the habit and even the neigh- 
borhood and its hold on him. 

Before we go on to examine the music in detail you 
should have some knowledge of what went into getting 
the score on film. My first move was to avail myself of 
the counsel and help of two brilliant young jazz musi- 
cians, Shorty Rogers and Shelly Manne. Rogers arranged 
all the band numbers and was of invaluable aid as a guide 
to the wonders of contemporary jazz. Shelly Manne 
created his own drum solos where indicated and thus 
made a unique and exciting contribution to many parts 
of the score. Since time was of the essence, (the score 
was written in twenty days) an orchestrator of the high- 
est caliber was of great importance. In this my sketches 
were graced by the great talents of Fred Steiner, a fine 
composer in his own right, who subsequently went on 
to score the film, "Run for the Sun”, soon to be released. 

Upon completion of the score it was apparent that 
it would take a "super orchestra” of the finest jazz and 
symphonic musicians available to perform it. This job 
was entrusted to Bobby Heifer who, with even more 
than his customary magic, assembled a dream ensemble 
of 57 musicians from the four corners of the Hollywood 
symphonic and jazz scene. Perhaps the best way to 
indicate the cooperation and performance of these ar- 
tists is to tell you than on one occasion Armand Kap- 
roff was roundly applauded by his colleagues for his 
performance of a four bar 'cello solo. There was much 
applause those days for more spectacular feats by Shelly 
Manne, Pete Candoli, Milt Bernhart, Mitchell Lurie, Ray 
Turner, Martin Ruderman, Anatol Kaminsky, but it was 
the reaction to a short 'cello solo that most eloquently 
described the degree of concentration and intensity of 
performance achieved during this recording session. 

Once the music was on film its care was entrusted 
to Leon Birnbaum, who used his vast experience as a 
music cutter to make life easier on the recording stage, 
and who was most helpful in preparing the film for 
transfer to the record album. , 

Of technical matters there is little to say. The score 
was recorded single channel on Westrex equipment. 
The recording room at RKO is too small to successfully 
record a full jazz and symphonic ensemble playing at 
the same time so in one notable case we tried a short 
cut. Leon Birnbaum built a click track for the main 
title and we recorded the two ensembles separately and 
they were reunited in dubbing. Other than that we 
made no further forays into technical fields. 

Ex. 1 is a portion of the main title. Here the intent was to create the atmosphere 
in a dramatic and straightforward way. There are no subtleties here. The repetitive bass 
figure gives us a sense of drive and grim monotony. At the top we have the hysterical 
scream of the brass and within, the chromatic triplets whirling about and circumscribing 
themselves in a hopeless circle from which they finally emerge, but only for the last cry 
of despair at the end of the title. (This material is contained in cut 1 of the Decca 
album from the sound track). 


Example 1 

Ex. 2 is the first statement of the second theme, described in an earlier paragraph. 
Here is a long line, faintly scented with an aura of romanticism, troubled, never quite 
going where you expect it to go, striving but never quite comfortable or fulfilled in its 
cadences. Later on in this scene as the exposition of the relationship between Frank and 
his wife becomes clearer we hear a lonely trumpet with a gentle rhythm accompaniment 
filter through the rather gentle string and woodwind setting of this composition. No 
matter what the specific scene dealt with we never lose our consciousness of the 
basic atmosphere. 

Example 2 


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statement in a rather halting 5/4 lest we become too pat 
or, by making this extremely simple theme too symmet- 
rical, render the relationship with the "other woman” 
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At one point Molly (the other woman) leaves Frank when she realizes that he is 
once again falling before the narcotic habit. She runs from the dingy clip joint, through 
the slum street. Arriving at her place she hurriedly packs her few belongings as Frank 
pounds on the locked door. This scene presented a tough problem. The chase through 
the street was not the difficult part but I am presenting the first part of it (Ex. 4) as it 
is one of my favorite spots in the score. Being a realist I am forced to the melancholy 
fact that my solution of the problem is something less than genius; however, the intense, 
rather nervous rhythmic piano figures, string bass pizzicatto and the insistent drumming 
of Shelly Manne seemed to me to create a kind of grim, driving excitment that suited 
the scene very well. One can judge the result much better by listening to the cut entitled 
"Breakup” in the Decca soundtrack album. The tough part of the scene was that in 
which we have Molly packing and Frank pounding on the door. As you already know 
from Ex. 3 the theme for this relationship is almost dangerously simple, and certainly 
devoid of great emotional impact. I wanted to use the theme in this scene and project 
some of the tears and bitterness of the scene through some use of that fragile motif. 
The results are in Ex. 5 and also in "Breakup” in the album. 

Example 4 



hxample 4 ( cont . ) 

Example 5 

There are various limes in the course of the film when Frank is seized by the desire 
for heroin. In each case the desire is fulfilled as Frank seeks out the "pusher”. The music 
which is used throughout to characterize this situation stems from the first theme and 
although space would not permit reproduction of each of these sequences one can hear 
these treatments in cuts named 'The Fix” and "Sunday Morning in the Album. On 
one occasion Frank approaches the "pusher" without money. During the tension which 
is growing through Frank’s pleading an old jazz device, a form of boogie-woogie bass, 
was used to help increase the tension in consonance with the general atmosphere. (See 
Ex. 6). Although there is no accurate way of notating it, I should mention that when 
Frank’s pleas fail and he attacks the "pusher” in a blind rage and ransacks his room, 
the entire frenzied sequence was underscored by a rather remarkable drum break by 
Shelly Manne. 

Example 6 


One of the most unusual scoring assignments I've run into up to now was that of 
scoring the so-called "withdrawal” sequence. For those of you who haven’t had to break 
the narcotics habit recently I must explain that one manner of effecting some sort of 
cure is deprive the patient of his drugs suddenly and keep it up for a period of three or 
four days. Apparently the only problem with this cure is that the attendant pains and 
discomforting symptoms are so severe as to incite self-destruction, murder or death of 
the patient. The film pictures a most striking performance by Frank Sinatra portraying 
a withdrawal scene. He alternately tries breaking out of the room in which he has been 
locked, rolls around on the floor in agony, tries to quiet his craving by enacting self 
administration of the drug in a charade which is once again brilliantly underscored by 
Manne’s drumming, and finally he’s rescued as he’s on his way out the window. I re- 
member writing this sequence at four, one morning, feeling not much better than 
Sinatra looks in the scene. The entire scene is scored by a series of disconnected, but 
violent outbursts, mounting in fury and intensity until the character, exhausted, collapses 
writhing on the floor in pain. Ex. 7 contains the opening Bars of this sequence. On 
record it is the section entitled "Withdrawal ”. 


Example 7 (cont.) 

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In the end Frank’s wife kills the "pusher” accidentally, and jumps from a fire escape 
in a fit of panic when apprehended. After the ambulance leaves Frank, Molly and other 
minor characters drift away from the scene, silently, thoughtfully, and the film ends 
without indicating more than the slimmest hope for the future. In the instance of this 
last composition I had my only serious disagreement with the producer. I lost. It seemed 
to me that the only honest way to end this film was on a "downbeat" note, to use an 
industry expression. There is a thoughtful feeling at this point in the film. We are left 
full of apprehension for Frank’s future, which seems grim at best. We have seen all 
his dreams shattered by his addiction. It would be almost inconceivable to believe that 
Frank walks off into the sunset to find a pot of gold with the next day’s dawning, and 
even if he found it, we have no reasonable guarantee that he wouldn’t consume the pot, 
buying narcotics. In any case Mr. Preminger felt that the audience would have taken 
enough by that time, and to cheat the stricken spectators of Dr. Quack’s quick remedy 
for narcotics addiction, wife’s suicide, prison record and ruined lives would have been more 
than a body could bear. Let us not scoff too heartily. Mr. Preminger has yet to make 
an independent motion picture that did not require some extraordinary courage in one 
way or another. This a quality which comes very dearly in our industry. In any case in 
Ex. 8 we have Frank dutifully walking into a better life. The composition starts after 
the removal of Frank’s wife. The lone trumpet sounds 1’envoi with the same blues motif 
which had started the film with Frank’s walk down the same street at the opening. 
For one moment we get the feeling that in some wonderfully gentle way we are going 
to follow Frank off the screen, walking beside him quietly, thoughtfully, but then the 
rose glow obediently suffuses the scene and we are sent from the theater in a state 
of euphoria. 

Example 8 


Example 8 (cont.) 

THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN ARM . . . Otto Preminger; United Artists. Frank 
Sinatra, Kim Novak. Director, Otto Preminger. Music, Elmer Bernstein. Orchestrations, 
Fred Steiner. Jazz Arrangements, Shorty Rogers. Drumming Sequences, Shelly Manne. 
Music Editor, Leon Bimbaum. Orchestra conducted by Elmer Bernstein, Assistant to 
Mr. Bernstein, Robert Heifer. Music Copyright, Dena Music, Inc. 

Record: The Man With the Golden Arm (Decca; sound track album DL 8257). It is 
seldom that a score reflects and confirms the atmosphere of a film so wholly. The almost 
savage rhythm of the brass and drum themes conflicting with the poignant sweetness of 
the woodwind and string melodies sustains a moody, apprehensive excitement, only 
interrupted by flare-ups into violence. An outstanding orchestra of jazz and symphonic 
players is conducted by the composer. Here is music that grows with listening, and 
this record plus Mr. Bernstein’s vivid notes furnishes an excellent way to hear it. Lyrics 
have been added to individual themes from the score and issued on other recordings. 
Records: Capitol, Columbia, Coral, Decca, Mercury, Vik, Wing. 



Eddy Manson 

Producers Morris Engel and Ruth Orkin called me 
in to see LOVERS AND LOLLIPOPS in its rough stage, 
without any opticals, sound or dialogue. However it 
was not difficult to get the quality of the film, having 
broken into the Engel-Orkin technique with LITTLE 
FUGITIVE. Morris and Ruth use a candid yet poetic 
approach to the ordinary, extracting humor, wistfulness 
and pathos from the commonplace. One has the feeling 
that he is watching people — not players acting for his 
benefit. It is unexploited drama, and poses unusual 
problems for the composer. 

I went to work in the Engel apartment, into which 
they had smuggled a movieola (not allowed in New 
York apartments). Ruth was then working on final 
editing, and we discussed cuts and splices with due regard 
to music, stretching or cutting to help the music make 
its point. I worked on the movieola for two weeks, tak- 
ing copious notes, deciding on basic musical material, 
and laying out the score in very general terms such as 
"Shot 244 — Larry motif at 806 feet — legato at 823 
feet — busy Larry motif at 857 feet”. The entire score 
was planned in this fashion before I even knew what 
the music was going to be. After the layout was com- 
pleted I put on the composer’s beret and went to work. 

At this stage of the game the wheels are turning 
constantly. I never know when or where an idea is likely 
to hit, so I stay armed at all times with my trusty har- 
monica and score paper. The score to LOVERS AND 
LOLLIPOPS was composed in such inspiring places as 
Hanson’s Drugstore, the Independent Subway, a couple 
of phone booths and a playground bench while baby- 
sitting for four year old David Manson. 

As was the case with LITTLE FUGITIVE, the har- 
monica came in quite handy. I was able to try out 
ideas on it while running the movieola with one hand. 
It also enabled me to demonstrate certain cues to the 
producers as the film unfolded in the projection room. 
With it I could test the lead line of a segment, to see 
if it held up by itself. 

All during the writing of the score we were not 
sure if we should use a small group of instruments or 
full orchestra. The film is intimate and delicate, and an 
over-sized instrumentation could easily have lent an un- 
welcome note of pretentiousness. We settled finally on 
a two-group setup — a large group of twenty-eight men 
(large for us) and a small group of eleven. The large 
group consisted of conventional strings, winds and per- 
cussion; the smaller one was an unusual blend of three 
strings, two woodwinds, piano, electric guitar, two per- 
cussion and the harmonica. This entailed a double or- 
chestration job which had to be done in two weeks — 
thirty-one cues and a total of over fifty minutes of music. 
The reason for the rush was that studio time was terribly 
scarce, and we had to grab what we could. So I took 
off the composer’s hat and put on the orchestrator’s. 

While this seige was in progress, our contractor Julie- 
Held, an excellent musician, scoured the city for the best 
man in each chair. Knowing the pressure of badly lim- 
ited recording time, Julie had to consider the personality 

of each man as well. We simply could not afford the 
time waste of temperament and fussiness. Julie did a 
splendid job and the orchestra was a conductor’s delight, 
including Arnold Eidus, Buddy Weed, Julien Smit, 
Emanuel Vardi, Jimmy Abato, Don Arnone and others of 
that calibre. We were allowed only three sessions, or 
seven and a half working hours in which to record the 
entire score in synchronization with the projected film. 
None of it was to be done the easy way, on plain wild 
tape. Morris feels very strongly about this method — 
that it conveys a dimension not possible with wild tape. 

We prepared the session with great care, leaving 
nothing to chance. Wedo Marasco, who did the extrac- 
tion of parts, carefully proof-read every part so that no 
mistakes would crop up at the session to waste precious 
minutes. Our sound editors John Mack and Ruth Orkin, 
both of whom read music, familiarized themselves with 
the orchestrations, while Morris and I marked the film 
with necessary sight cues. I completed the orchestra- 
tions with three days to spare, which gave me time to 
study the conducting problems. I memorized as much 
of the score as I could so that my eyes would be free to 
watch the film, the stopwatch and the footage-counter. 
Time saving strategy was laid out. It was agreed that 
if a mistake was made we would continue playing until 
the end of the segment, rather than lose time by stopping 
and starting over again, since it was possible that John 
Mack could fix the spot or something else could be 
substituted for it. 

The larger group was recorded in one session, and 
was used for main titles, climaxes and certain scenic 
places. The bulk of the score was done with the smaller 
group. We raced through the three sessions so fast that 
toward the end of the last session I didn’t rehearse the 
group, but simply gave a short explanation, and re- 
corded a whole reel at a time (nine or ten minutes). 
We finished just under the wire, thanks to the marvelous 
musicianship and cooperation of the boys. A full length 
movie score is a rarity around these parts and for all of 
us it had become a real labor of love. This *nore than 
off-set the hectic nature of "Operation New York”. 

LOVERS AND LOLLIPOPS involves three people 
— Ann, an attractive young widow, Larry, a nice guy who 
wants to marry her, and Peggy, Ann’s seven year old 
daughter, a lovable moppet who resents Larry’s infringe- 
ment on her mother’s affections. I based the entire score 
on three themes, bearing the same color and contrasts 
we find in these individual personalities. Ann’s theme 
develops into the love theme, the main theme of the 
three. Peggy’s theme is childlike, and based on "Clemen- 
tine”, a song she associates with her dead father. In 
Example 1, Ann’s theme is stated simply by the guitar, 
segues into "Clementine”, which then develops into 
Peggy's theme. Larry’s theme is a trifle more worldly 
yet introspective in character. Its peculiar rhythm is 
based on the rhythm of his doorbell ring. 


Example 1 


Example 1 (corn.) 

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Example 2 (cont.) 

Fundamentally, the score becomes a set of 
dramatic variations on the three themes, with 
chief emphasis on the love theme. This device 
provides a strong sense of continuity and pace 
for the story. The language of the score is the 
language of the protagonists, simple and con- 
temporary, practically "pop" in nature. The 
technique, however, is only sometimes a "pop” 
~ technique. There are many subtleties in the 
— inner voices, and much polyphony. At one point, 
Peggy sails a boat in the pond at the Museum 
of Modern Art. It gets stuck in mid-stream, 
and people gather one by one to watch, with 
a quite funny effect. This scene is underlined 
by a tongue in cheek fugue. (Example 3) 

Example 3 


Larry and Ann, on their first date without Peg, visit various parts of New York 
and end up at a table in Radio City Plaza. Larry says You know we’ve been together 
since nine this morning?" They clasp hands, against a background of the Plaza fountains. 
Then we see Larry in Ann’s apartment, waiting for their first embrace. At the height of 
their kiss, a sudden cut reveals little Peg peeking through the door. (Example 4) This 
sequence is based on a three note figure which recurs regularly in the love sequences and 
is used to accompany the love theme. (Example 1, bars 9, 10, 11). 

Example 4 


Example 4 (cont.) 


Lux Release. Lori March, Gerald O'Lougl 
lin, Cathy Dunn. Written, directed an 
produced by Morris Engel and Rut 
Orkin. Music, Eddy MansOn. Music cop) 
right, Trinity Music Co., N. Y. C. 

Records: Lovers and Lollipops Themt 
Peggy's Theme. (M-G-M) Eddie Manso 
and Orchestra. Lovers and Lollipop 
Theme. (Mercury) Jan August. 


William Walton 

The value to a film of its musical score rests chiefly 
in the creation of mood, atmosphere, and the sense of 
period. When the enormous task of reimagining a Shake- 
spearean drama in terms of the screen has been achieved, 
these three qualities, which must be common to all film 
music, appear in high relief. In the case of "mood” I 
would quote as an example the incidental musical effects 
in Hamlet’s soliloquies which varied their orchestral 
colour according to the shifts of his thought. For "At- 
mosphere” take the music of rejoicing after the victory 
of Agincourt in HENRY V, which also illustrates the 
power to evoke a sense of historical period in a special 
way, for the contemporary Agincourt hymn which has 
been handed down to us was adapted to my purpose. 
Indeed the atmosphere of human feeling and the evoca- 
tion of a past time are often combined, or made to blend 
from one to the other without any abruptness of transi- 
tion. At the entry of the players in HAMLET I took 
the chance to suggest the musical idiom of the time by 
using a small sub-section of the orchestra (two violas, 
cello, oboe, cor anglais, bassoon, harpsicord) then pro- 
ceeded to make my comment on the action in my own 
personal idiom. 

In a film the visual effect is of course predominant, 
and the music subserves the visual sequences, providing 
a subtle form of punctuation — lines can seem to have 
been given the emphasis of italics, exclamation marks 
added to details of stage business, phases of the action 
broken into paragraphs, and the turning of the page at 
a crossfade or cut can be helped by music’s power to 
summarise the immediate past or heighten expectation 
of what is to come. The analogy with printer’s typo- 
graphy is useful, but beyond this, music offers orchestral 
colour” to the mind’s ear in such a way that at every 
stage it confirms and reinforces the colour on the screen 
which is engaging the eye. 

The composer in the cinema is the servant of the 
eye. In the Opera House he is, of course, the dominating 
partner. There everyone, beginning with the librettist, 

must serve him and the needs of the ear. In the film 
world, however, from the first stage called the "rough- 
cut” where the composer first sees the visual images that 
his work must reinforce, an opera composer finds his 
controlling position usurped. He works in the service 
of a director. Since proportion is as important in music 
as in any other of the arts, the film composer, no longer 
his own master, is to a great extent at the mercy of his 
director. A close and delicate collaboration is essential 
for the film must be served but music must not be asked 
to do what it should not or cannot. After a while the 
composer who stays the pace acquires what has been 
called "the stop-watch mentality”, a quality which I have 
heard deplored, but I am quite certain the habit, a pecu- 
liarly strict form of self-discipline, does a composer far 
more good than harm when he is working on his own 
for his own ends. Within or outside the cinema every 
second counts. 

A film composer must have confidence in his director 
or collaboration will break down. In my three major 
Shakespearean films I have been particularly blessed in 
working with a director who knew precisely what he 
wanted at any given point not only in quantity but in 
kind. Laurence Oliver understands the composer’s prob- 
lems. He has a genius for thinking up ways of adding 
to them or increasing those that already exist, but he 
never demands the impossible, and his challenges have 
invariably led me to be grateful in the end. In the de- 
ployment of his visual resources he is himself a dramatist 
and though a composer’s task is never anything but 
difficult, the confidence inspired by such a director has 
certainly made things far easier than they might have 
been. If the musical aspect of the battle sequences in 
HENRY V and RICHARD III, for instance, is con- 
sidered helpful to the general effect, that is due to an 
unusually complex and close collaboration of sound and 
screen from one bar or visual movement to the next, the 
outcome of much patience and exercise of technique 
certainly, but above all, I think, the fruit of mutual con- 
fidence and esteem. 


Alfred Simon 

Before Alfred Newman went to Hollywood in the 
early thirties to become music director for Twentieth 
Century-Fox, he conducted a memorable series of Ger- 
shwin and Rodgers musical comedies on Broadway. 
There was always something special about Newman’s 
conducting of these shows — a kind of loving care that 
added to their distinction, and this quality is gratifyingly 
in evidence in his conducting and general musical super- 
vision of CAROUSEL. Largely because of it, the film 
version of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s wonderful show 
is as fine an adaptation of a Broadway musical as this 
reviewer has ever seen. 

But of course there is much more to the musical 
delights of CAROUSEL. Vocally, the film is nothing 
short of superb. Gordon MacRae and Shirley Jones, who 
charmed us all in OKLAHOMA! are equally good as 
the ill-fated lovers, Billy Bigelow and Julie Jordan; 
if anything, because of the greater musical and emo- 
tional scope of CAROUSEL they are even more impres- 
sive in their vocal and acting abilities. Then there is 
Robert Rounseville, whose thrilling voice was a high- 
spot of the filmed TALES OF HOFFMANN. Here, as 
Mr. Snow, he has far too little singing to do, but he 
does a charming job in "When the Children Are Asleep", 
which he duets with Barbara Ruick. Miss Ruick, as 
Carrie Pipperidge, is completely delightful, particularly 
in her singing of "When I Marry Mr. Snow”. Still 
another and very important member of the singing cast 
is Claramae Turner, who makes something quite mov- 
ing out of "You’ll Never Walk Alone”. This beautiful 
song is reprised very effectively at the end of the picture 
by the chorus, and while we’re at it, Ken Darby’s fine 
choral direction throughout deserves a lot of applause. 

As in the stage version, the greatest climax of the 
filmed CAROUSEL comes in the singing of Billy Bige- 
low’s "Soliloquy”. Gordon MacRae delivers this mag- 
nificently, as he roams up and down the rocks and shore 

of the Maine coast, with a pounding surf in the back- 
ground. Shirley Jones contributes another high spot 
with her touching singing of "What’s The Use of Won- 
drin’ ’’; in fact, we could go on for quite a while listing 
the musical treats of CAROUSEL. 

Regrettably, some of the songs you may remember 
from the stage version have had to be cut from the 
film. Missing, for instance, are "You’re a Queer One, 
Julie Jordan”, "Blow High, Blow Low”, and the lilting 
verse ( "When I Make Enough Money Out of One Little 
Boat”) of "When the Children Are Asleep”; these, 
however, have fortunately been preserved on Capitol’s 
excellent record from the sound-track. Some of this 
material, as well as the haunting strains of the "Carousel 
Waltz”, are also included in the ballet music, and in 
the extensive and beautifully orchestrated background 

CAROUSEL . . . 20th Century Fox. Gordon MacRae, 
Shirley Jones. Director, Henry King. Music, Richard 
Rodgers. Music supervised and conducted by Alfred 
Newman. Associate, Ken Darby. Orchestration, Edward 
B. Powell, Herbert Spencer, Earle Hagen, Nelson Riddle, 
Bernard Mayers, Gus Levene. 

Record: Carousel (Capitol; film soundtrack album 

W 694; EDM 694). Top-notch performance brings 
out all of the melody and rhythm in the perenially fresh 
tunes. Claramae Turner, Robert Rounseville, Barbara 
Ruick, Shirley Jones and Gordon MacRae, all in excellent 
voice, place this considerably above the usual well pro- 
duced musical. Alfred Newman conducts the orchestra 
and chorus. 

Records: 33 recordings; Capitol, Columbia, Coral, Decca, 
Epic, Kapp, M-G-M, Victor. 

Sheet Music: 7 songs from CAROUSEL, Williamson 
Music, Inc. 

David S. Rattner 

Puccini’s MADAME BUTTERFLY, sung by fine 
Italian singers with the chorus and orchestra of the 
Rome Opera, acted by a cast that includes native Japanese 
in the appropriate parts, and including such added 
touches as a genuine Japanese house, an authentic Bud- 
dhist shrine, and a troupe of Kabuki dancers transported 
to Italy for the occasion — the product of such ingredi- 
ents should be a sure-fire success. But, somehow, nothing 
quite comes off. The producers have devised a prologue 
for the opera. Here, Pinkerton and another "young 
officer on the town” meet Butterfly in a tea house, while 
an English commentary, in documentary fashion, goes 
to great pains to explain that a tea house represents a 
perfectly respectable diversion and that geishas are hon- 
orable young ladies. The prologue also contains some 
interesting singing and dancing by the Kabuki troupe, 
but the titles and credits of the picture proper (there 

are none before the prologue) then appear as a com- 
plete break in the continuity, leaving the viewer only 
with some of the inconsistencies created by this pro- 
logue. For example, in the prologue, Butterfly speaks 
Japanese, and Pinkerton, who speaks dubbed-in English, 
requires a translator to understand her, while in the rest 
of the picture, they both sing Italian, and communica- 
tion between them is direct. Likewise, the prologue 
takes us on a brief, yet interesting, rickshaw ride through 
the streets of Nagasaki; but all the rest of the film is 
limited to the house and garden of the married Butterfly. 

It is here that the film falls shortest of being a good 
movie. It confines its action just as markedly as does 
any stage production of the opera, except that the sets 
are a little bigger and a little more saccharinly techni- 
colored than those most opera companies can afford. The 


camera monotonously notes change of season with that 
most cliche of movie shots — blossoms blooming on 
or falling from a branch reflected in a pool. Except for 
an occasional close-up (and because of the great and 
exotic beauty of Miss Yachigusa as Butterfly, this is an 
important exception), the producers might just as well 
have photographed any standard stage production of the 
opera. For with the prologue and the use of Japanese 
actors, we have had all the directorial originality this 
film has to offer. 

For the rest it is well sung and well cut musically, 
though poorly edited (some of the transitions are too 
explosive). Unfortunately, the English commentary con- 
tinues throughout the opera. It is inadequate in pro- 
viding any real understanding of the longer solos and 
duets. At times it is terribly obtrusive, for it rides rough- 
shod over some of the music’s finest moments. It even 
breaks in on the exquisite music to which Butterfly 
stands her night long vigil after the return of Pinker- 
ton’s ship. The articulation between the voices of the 
actors and the singers is only partly effective. At least 
half the time the actors look as if the singers aren’t even 
half trying (although they are, and with good result). 
The sound reproduction is acceptable, though not out- 
standing, as it comes through the equipment of a small 
preview theatre. 

In the final analysis, MADAME BUTTERFLY is 
an obvious, sentimental, little story of almost soap opera 
proportions. Luckily, it comes supplied with Puccini’s 
ingratiating music, which, while not of heroic stature, 
does manage to change the story’s potentially dangerous 
qualities into virtues. Overburdened and heavily under- 
lined, as it is in this film, even the music cannot save it 
from cheap prettiness and suffocating dullness. Besides, 
it is so long! 

MADAME BUTTERFLY . . . Rizzoli - Toho - Gallone; 
I.F.E. Releasing Corp. Kaoru Yachigusa, Orietta Mos- 
cucci, Nicola Filacuridi, Giuseppe Campora. Director, 
Carmine Gallone. Music, Giacomo Puccini. Orchestra 
and chorus of the Royal Opera House, Rome, conducted 
by Oliviere de Fabritis and Guiseppe Conca. 


HOUSE OF RICORDI hangs a pleasant opera con- 
cert on the slender story thread of the association of the 
publishing house named in the title with five great com- 
posers. Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini, Verdi, and Puccini, 
as well as three generations of Ricordis, appear in some 
highly romanticized tales. Their ladies are all lovely 
and passionate, they themselves extraordinarily hand- 
some men, especially for composers and editors. They 
all wear beautiful clothes in settings that range from 
the picturesque to the sumptuous. And they live their 
lives around opera. 

Such opera! Beautifully sung by some of today’s 
most notable Italian singers, staged for the most part 
with imagination and taste, and photographed in ex- 
quisite colors, these scenes are memorable. Mario Del 
Monaco’s final scene, the "Esulta”, from Othello is 
immensely moving. The garret setting for La Boheme 
is a delightfully lighthearted Parisian rooftop birdcage 
that would serve admirably to heighten the humor of 

Act I. As it is, in the scene of Mimi’s dying, its gay 
contrasts add a deeper and ironic poignancy to Renata 
Tebaldi’s superb singing. If you like what used to be 
called a "gala evening of opera” in which the major opera 
companies used to stage three or four acts from different 
operas in one evening, than this is your film. The con- 
tinuity is insignificant. Only the opera counts .and it is 

HOUSE OF RICORDO . . . Documento Films, Cor- 
moran Films; Manson Distributing Co. Mario Del Mon- 
aco, Renata Tebaldi. Director, Carmine Gallone. Music, 
Bellini, Rossini, Donizetti, Verdi, Puccini. Musical Di- 
rector, Renzo Rossellini. 


SERENADE brings Mario Lanza back to the screen 
in a varied and lengthy program of songs. The story 
line has been watered down from a novel by James M. 
Cain and retains some bite only in Vincent Price’s per- 
formance as a cynical concert manager. Joan Fontaine 
has little to do but look aristocratically lovely, which she 
does with no effort at all. And Lanza and his Mexican 
true-love, Sarita Monteil, act with adequate though 
hardly professional polish. 

Musically, the film introduces two songs, "Serenade” 
and "My Destiny,” in situations so awkwardly sentimental 
that even good songs well sung would suffer. Under 
the circumstances, this reviewer found the pair of them 
banal and excruciating. Lanza also sings a dangerously 
mawkish "Ave Maria,” a shouted and scoopy "Sorrento,” 
and a rhythmically careless "La Danza.” There are two 
duets, one with Jean Fenn and the other with Licia 

However, the long list of operatic arias includes 
some relatively unfamiliar ones, and these Lanza sings 
excellently. Here, he uses his voice impeccably with a 
tasteful understanding of the style and meaning of the 
music. He avoids the big, raw, open tone, the exag- 
gerated portamento, the excessive sob, the cheaply mel- 
odramatic effect that mar so much of his singing of 
familiar music. Whether renewed study and coaching 
or the challenges inherent in the music itself have pro- 
duced this change is anybody’s guess. But it and a 
howling rainstorm are the highlights in an otherwise 
undistinguished picture. 

SERENADE . . . Warner Brothers. Mario Lanza, Joan 
Fontaine. Director, Anthony Mann. Musical Director, 
Ray Heindorf. Operatic Adviser, Walter Ducloux. Op- 
eratic Coach, Giacomo Spadoni. Songs, "Serenade”, "My 
Destiny”, Sammy Cahn, Nicholas Brodszky. 

Record: Serenade. (RCA-Victor; film sound track album 
LM-1996). Mario Lanza’s rich voice is heard in twelve 
of the numbers which he sings in the film. The two 
Cahn-Brodzsky songs "Serenade” and "My Destiny” are 
not suited either to his voice or to this collection. Ros- 
sini, Meyerbeer, Richard Strauss, Puccini are represented 
in operatic excerpts. The tenor is at his best in his 
Verdi, "Di quella pira” (II Trovatore) and "Dio ti gio- 
condi” (Otello), which he sings with Licia Albanese. 
He is accompanied by Jacob Gimpel, and by music di- 
rector Ray Heindorf with the Warner Brother studio 



Gerald Pratley 

Looking back over a recent stay in Hollywood I 
remember with pleasure the vists to the music depart- 
ments of some of the studios. The first composer I met 
was Paul Smith of the Disney studios. Having written 
to him often and heard his voice on recordings, our 
meeting was most enjoyable. I saw him first conducting 
the recording of sequences from his s^ore for a new 
Disney film about children and horses. After this ses- 
sion we went back to his office, littered with manuscripts 
and dominated by a piano, where we talked about film 
music, the problems of scoring nature films and giving 
"character” to animals. Here I met Oliver Wallace, a 
charming and witty gentleman with a shock of white 
hair and a fund of amusing stories about his work in 
scoring cartoons. 

At MGM I met Johnny Green, whose name has 
been for so long associated with popular music and MGM 
musicals. Mr. Green, an alert and busy man, relaxed for 
an hour to talk about film music, stereophonic sound (he 
thinks it is used to the best advantage in OKLAHOMA! ) , 
the scoring presently being done at Metro by Previn, 
Amfitheatrof, Kaper and Alexander, and to reflect on 
the use of modern jazz music as scores for films dealing 
with juvenile delinquency and stories of crime. As Mr. 
Green left, Miklos Rozsa came in. Gentle and kindly, 
with a quiet sense of humour, he spoke at length on the 
scores for his early Korda films, the historical cycle he 
has recently come through, and the ideas he had tried in 
his score for DIANE. Johnny Green, Andre Previn and 
Dr. Rozsa are frequently engaged in concert work. 

At Columbia George Duning was preparing to re- 
cord the score for PICNIC. His office is a comfortable 
peaceful place. After showing me manuscripts of recent 

16 mm 

Folklore Research (Young America Films, 18 East 
41st St., New York, b and w. 27 min. A reduction print 
of the original 35 mm film in the CBS-TV series "The 
Search.”) Charles Romine of CBS and Professor Mary 
Celestia Parler of the University of Arkansas go on a 
ballad hunt through the backwoods country of the 
Ozarks. Folk tunes have been transmitted here from 
generation to generation by descendents of the original 
Scottish and English settlers, and their collection is a 
project of the University. "The Two Sisters”, dating back 
perhaps to the 16th century, is the object in the present 
search. Miles are covered in getting to four colorful 
"informants” — an ancient farmer who sings "Dick 
German the Cobbler”, eighty year old Aunt Sukey, whose 
offerings are a song about Lazarus and a giggled ren- 
dition of "Kissin’ on the Sly”, her brother Fred with a 
strange lovely melody based on an untempered scale, 
and a grey-bearded banjo-player in a hospital bed, whose 
several ballads are entertaining, though comparatively 
modern. "The Two Sisters” is found eventually at an 
evening "play party”, where a girl sings its many verses 
during a rest in the folk-dancing. This is a delightful 
and valuable film. Its unusual musical experience carries 
in it a picture of these fine mountain people, recorded 

scores we went to lunch at the Brown Derby. Tall and 
graying, unassuming and quiet spoken, Mr. Duning 
talked about his recent scores, his early work, and con- 
ducting and orchestrating. Like myself, he is tired of 
title songs. 

In the commissary of Universal-International I met 
Henry Mancini, the youthful staff composer who works 
industriously with Joseph Gershenson. Away from the 
studios were George Anthiel and Andre Previn, whom 
I met at Lawrence Morton’s Monday Evening Concert of 
music by Gesualdo. 

At the Warner studios it was pleasant to meet the tire- 
less Ray Heindorf again, who showed me the entire sec- 
tion of the studio devoted to the complicated techniques 
of recording, dubbing and processing of music and dia- 
logue. We met Dimitri Tiomkin, energetically conduct- 
ing his score for THE COURT MARTIAL OF BILLY 
MITCHELL. In a recording room the final version of 
Waxman’s score for MIRACLE IN THE RAIN was 
being added to the sound track. In a screening room 
we listened to the recordings made by Mario Lanza 
for SERENADE, and then, on the floor, watched him 
singing to playback in a difficult scene staged in a 
splendid restaurant. And in the many rooms which make 
up the music library, Heindorf showed me the hundreds 
of scores for Warner films going back to the pre-sound 

It was a rewarding experience also to meet and talk 
with Clifford McCarty, author of "Flim Composers in 
America," and with Lawrence Morton, whose wise cri- 
tiques on film music (once a part of FILM MUSIC 
surpassed. Their absence now is cause for regret. 


with honesty and character. Henwar Rodakiewicz was 
the director. There are no credits for the excellent 
music supervision. 

Young America Sings (Young America Films, Inc., 
18 East 41st St., New York. Filmstrips.) Filmstrips with 
synchronized recordings are used in this audio-visual 
aid for elementary music education. Dr. W. Otto Miess- 
ner with an editorial board of music educators has pre- 
pared a program of lesson units for the Fourth, Fifth and 
Sixth Grades. Each Grade Unit is equipped with two 
33 1/3 rpm microgroove records, eight correlated film 
strips (two for each record face), and an eight page 
Teacher’s Guide. Procedures for every lesson are the 
same. 1. A soloist introduces a song on record while 
the class listens and follows words and music on the 
screen. 2. Rhythm and melodic study of the song are 
directed by a narrator. 3. Class and soloist sing the 
song together. The lesson is summarized. The Teacher’s 
Guide lists "Related Songs from Your Music Books” so 
that the methods can be applied to music materials already 
in use in the classroom. Young America Films offers a 
Demonstration Kit on ten day free loan to teachers in- 
terested in the program. 

M. H. 



ALEXANDER THE GREAT . . . Robert Rossen; United 
Artists. Director, Robert Rossen. Music, Mario Nas- 

ALL THAT HEAVEN ALLOWS . . . Universal-Inter- 
national. Director, Douglas Sirk. Music, Frank Skinner. 
Music Supervisor, Joseph Gershenson. 

ANYTHING GOES . . . Paramount. Director, Robert 
Lewis. Music, Cole Porter. Music arranged and conducted 
by Joseph Lilley. Special orchestrations, Van Cleave. 
New songs, Sammy Cahn, James Van Heusen. Record: 
soundtrack album, Decca. 

ARTISTS AND MODELS . . . Hal Wallis; Paramount. 
Director, Frank Tashlin. Music arranged and conducted 
by Walter Scharf. Vocal arrangements, Norman Luboff. 
Songs, Jack Brooks, Harry Warren. Records: Capitol, 
Columbia. Sheet music, Paramount Music Corp., N. Y. 

BIRDS AND THE BEES, THE . . . Paramount. Director, 
Norman Taurog. Score, Walter Scharf. Songs, Mack 
David, Harry Warren. Sheet music, Famous Music Corp., 
N. Y. 

BOLD AND THE BRAVE, THE . . . Irving H. Levin; 
RKO. Director, Lewis R. Foster. Music, Herschel Burke 
Gilbert. Orchestrations, Joseph Mullendore, Walter 
Sheets.' Title song, Mickey Rooney, Ross Bagdasarian. 


COMANCHE . . . Carl Krueger; United Artists. Direc- 
tor, George Sherman. Music, Herschel Burke Gilbert. 
Song, Alfred Perry, H. B. Gilbert. 

COME NEXT SPRING . . . Republic. Director, R. G. 
Springsteen. Music, Max Steiner. Title song, Lenny 
Adelson, Max Steiner. 

CONQUEROR, THE . . . Howard Hughes; RKO. Di- 
rector, Dick Powell. Music, Victor Young. Orchestra- 
tions, Leo Shuken, Sidney Cutner. Music supervisor, 
C. Bakaleinikoff. 

COURT JESTER, THE . . . Paramount. Directors, Nor- 
man Panama, Melvin Frank. Music scored and con- 
ducted by Victor Schoeri. Songs, Sammy Cahn, Sylvia 
Fine. Records: Decca, M-G-M. Soundtrack album, 

FOREVER DARLING . . . MGM. Director, Alexander 
Hall. Music, Bronislau Kaper. Title song, Sammy Cahn, 
Bronislau Kaper. Record, M-G-M. 

LAST HUNT, THE . . . MGM. Director, Richard 
Brooks. Music, Daniel Amfitheatrof. 


Century Fox. Director, Nunnally Johnson. Music, Ber- 
nard Herrmann. 


MEET ME IN LAS VEGAS . . . MGM. Director, Roy 
Rowland. Songs, Sammy Cahn, Nicholas Brodszky. Mu- 
sic supervised and conducted by George Stoll. Music, 
"Frankie and Johnny" ballet, adapted by Johnny Green. 
Music, Lena Horne, arranged and conducted by Lennie 
Hayton. Orchestrations, Albert Sendrey, Skip Martin. 
Vocal supervision, Robert Tucker. Music coordinator, 
Irving Aaronson. Records, Decca, M-G-M. Sheet music, 
Feist Miller. 

MIRACLE IN THE RAIN . . . Warner Brothers. Di- 
rector, Rudolph Mate. Music composed and conducted 
by Franz Waxman. Orchestration, Leonid Raab. Song, 
Ned Washington, M. K. Jerome, Ray Heindorf. Sheet 
music, Remick. 

ON THE THRESHOLD OF SPACE . . . 20th Century 
Fox. Director, Robert D. Webb. Music, Lyn Murray. 
Orchestration, Bernard Mayers. Conducted, Lionel New- 

PICNIC . . . Columbia. Director, Joshua Logan. Music, 
George Duning. Orchestration, Arthur Morton. Records: 
soundtrack album, Decca; RCA Victor, Decca, Coral. 
Sheet music, Mills, Shapiro. 

SCARLET HOUR, THE . . . Paramount. Director, 
Michael Curtiz. Music, Leith Stevens. Song, Ray Evans, 
Jay Livingston. Sheet music, Famous Music Corp. 


Warner-Cinerama. Directors, Ted Tetzlaff, Andrew Mar- 
ton, Tay Garnett, Paul Mantz, Walter Thompson. Music, 
David Raksin, Jerome Moross, Emil Newman. Cinerama 
Symphony Orchestra conducted by Emil Newman. Choral 
group, Apollo Club of Minneapolis. Music Editors, Lovel 
S. Ellis, Richard C. Harris. 

SWAN, THE . . . MGM. Director, Charles Vidor. Music, 
Bronislau Kaper. 

TROUBLE WITH HARRY, THE . . . Paramount. Di- 
rector, Alfred Hitchcock. Music, Bernard Herrmann. 
Song, Mack David, Raymond Scott. 

TRIBUTE TO A BAD MAN . . . MGM. Director, 
Robert Wise. Music Miklos Rozsa. 

•Reviewed in this issue. 




\ V 
^ ' *• 

■%. , -j3 

& * 

SUMMER 1956 



Official Publication of the National Film Music Council 
11 East 87th Street, New York 28, N. Y. 

FIllmore 8-5502 


THE MUSIC FOR MOBY DICK (with themes) 


INVITATION TO THE DANCE: Ring Around the Rosy Sequence 
(with score excerpts) 



MUSIC FOR TELEVISION (with score excerpts) 


Philip Sainton 
Francis Thorne 

Andre Previn 

Alfred Simon 
Louis & Bebe Barron 
Tom Scott 

Cover: Tamba Alleny, Noel Purcell, Gregory Peck, Leo Genn and John Huston between shots 

(Please note FILM MUSIC announcement on back page.) 


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Philip Sainton 

I have been composing music for the greater part of 
a lifetime, and although I must confess to having enter- 
tained secret hopes that someone would some day ask 
me to do the score for a film, I had never really expected 
that it would happen. The music chosen to accompany 
the vast majority of film is not the sort of music that I find 
congenial to write. I knew, too, of fellow-composers 
who had been forced by film companies to work within 
time-limits that I should have found intolerably constrict- 
ing. A piece of music that takes a minute to play takes 
a day to write and orchestrate for full orchestra — that 
is what it takes me, at any rate — and so I was never 
really sanguine enough to hope that the day would come 
when a director would not only request of me the sort 
of music I love but would also leave me, within reason- 
able limits, free to write it at my own pace and in my 
own time. 

It is strange the way things happen. Although my 
works have received respectful attention in musical 
circles, it was almost by accident — certainly not through 
any composition of my own — that I was unexpectedly 
enabled to achieve my private ambition to write the score 
for a film. It came about in this way. 

For some twenty years I have enjoyed the friend- 
ship of Jack Gerber, a steel manufacturer of Lowmoor. 
His two hobbies, as dissimilar as you could find, are horse- 
racing and music. He is an amateur composer, and from 
time to time he commissions me to score and arrange his 
more ambitious works. A short while ago I orchestrated 
two of his compositions, Fiesta and Stonehenge, and then 
I assembled an orchestra of sixty players and in a single 
session I conducted them in a recording of both works for 
HMV. John Huston happened to hear Fiesta, and he was 
sufficiently interested in it to ask if he might meet me. 
He was then looking for someone to write the score for 
MOBY DICK. That was in Ascot week in 1954. 

At our first meeting he asked me to set to music 
Melville’s "hymn", "The ribs and terrors in the whale". 
In a day or two I wrote the original tune that is sung in 
the chapel scene. It is of a type that might well have been 
sung by fisherfolk a hundred years ago. Leslie Woodgate 
recorded it for me, and it was sent to John Huston in 
Ireland. It was on this slender evidence that Huston 
later commissioned me to write the whole orchestral score. 

Since those days many people have said to me that 
they supposed, since the score breathes the passion and 
excitement of the book, that I must have been a lover of 
Moby Dick since childhood. They are amazed — just as 
Huston was at our first interview — when I tell them 
that I had never even read it, indeed had scarcely heard 
of it. Huston actually gave me a copy of the novel to 
read at the same time as he handed me the script that 
had been prepared for the film. 

If the score that I subsequently wrote is deemed a 
success, I want to underline the two factors that made it 
so. The first is that John Huston has a great understand- 
ing of music, and knows exactly the kind of sound he 
wants for each sequence in his films. He told me that I 
must treat MOBY DICK just as if I were writing an 
opera. There were no words that I better wanted to hear. 
This treatment ideally suited my own inclinations, and 
in his view it ideally suited the book as well. 

So I happily followed his instructions, and that is 
why there is no one theme that keeps recurring, but 
several themes. In some sequences Huston wanted me to 
intensify in sound the visual scene; in others he required 
the music to reflea the thoughts and feelings of the char- 
aaers. For instance, in the first hunting sequence he 
told me to write music that would be alive with the zest 
of the chase. The excitement of the crew was to be trans- 
mitted in sound. Then, when the Pequod comes upon an 
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for carnival music that would echo their exultation. I 
built this theme round old French hunting-calls, using 
mainly the open notes of the French horn. Again, Huston 
always spoke of the scene in which Ahab addresses his 
crew as Ahab's aria, thus emphasising for me his wish 
that the dialogue should be musically treated as if it were 
being sung. For this sequence, which is also to be heard 
in the title music, I tried to create the illusion of an in- 
cessant hammering, to convey Ahab’s overwhelming ob- 
session about Moby Dick. 

It will be readily understood how helpful it was for 
me — for I had no previous experience of film-making — 
to be thus guided by a director who knew so clearly what 
he wanted. Although he has no technical knowledge of 
music, Huston is urgently aware of the effects which 
music can create; and having indicated what he required 
me to do, he left me to do it, unplagued by interference. 
And that was the second factor that enabled me to give 
of the best of which I was capable. He made no un- 
reasonable demands in the way of a rigid time-schedule. 
I was able to write at my leisure. 

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In November 1954 I went to Elstree at Huston’s re- 
quest to see the film in the making on the studio floor, 
and then from January to April last year I concentrated 
on the script and leisurely wrote the themes I thought 
would be required. There were six of them, all quite 
short. Two I have already mentioned, the whale-hunting 
and Ahab’s aria. For Moby Dick’s own theme I tried to 
convey in music the relentlessness of the brute, its un- 
appeasable thirst for destruction. On the other hand, for 
the Pequod’s departure I wrote some soft music that I 
hoped would be indicative of the crew’s silent dedica- 
tion to their task. 

The sea music I decided should not be divorced 
from the whole orchestration of the score. Thus there is 
no specific "sea” tune. The breadth and depth and silent 
enmity of the sea pervade the whole of Melville’s novel, 
and I have attempted to reproduce this through the music, 
showing its subtle influence on all who lived within its 
power. In this I was mindful of Huston’s advice that in 
certain sequences the sound should communicate what 
was passing through the minds of men. 

Finally, there is the cataclysmic music at the end. 
Here I entwined the opposing themes of Moby Dick and 
Ahab and so fashioned a theme that should be heard 
throughout the dreadful scene in which all but one of 

the Pequod’s crew are killed. Then it changes to what 
I can only call the cataclysmic funereal music that plays 
while the monster slowly encircles the doomed ship. The 
rhythm here is subdued, for I was anxious that this music 
should not sound triumphant. What at last the Pequod 
sinks, we come to the climax of the film, and I have ex- 
pressed it through a complete silence, a silence that last 
for four seconds. And then the coffin bobs up to the sur- 
face, and Ishmael, the only survivor of the crew, climbs 
on it and is rescued by the Rachel. 

I worked on these themes for four months, rising 
each day with the sun in the lovely Surrey town of 
Haslemere, across the hill from Blackdown where Tenny- 
son used to walk the woodlands and declaim his poetry. 
When the tunes were done, I reduced them to be played 
by a septet led by Jean Pougnet — five strings, piano 
and clarinet — and had them recorded. The records I 
took to Huston in Ireland, and he said he was delighted 
with what I had done. 

Looking back on it, I see that my biggest problem 
was how to write music that would really enhance the 
visual scene and make its presence felt by every member 
of an audience, musical or not. I decided that the answer 
was rhythm. If there were a strong rhythmic interest, 
the music would hold the audience, for even the tone- 

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deaf, heedless of melody, can recognize rhythm and res- 
pond to its insistence. I therefore concentrated on writ- 
ing rhymically grammatical sentences of music to fit the 
timings precisely, so that, however long or short the 
periods might be, the music should come, as it were, to 
a logically-placed comma or full-stop. Only where the 
Pequot lies becalmed in the heat have I not done this, 
because throughout this seven-minute sequence the music 
must bring to everyone a feeling of maddening monotony. 
For this scene Huston said he wanted "desert music”, 
reflecting the perpetual relentless heat and the sameness 
of the land. 

I received the first sheets of timings at the end of 
May, and those well versed in the writing of film music 
will smile when I confess that as I looked at the pages 
of timings for Ahab's aria, I gasped with fright. The 
sequence lasts for a little over six minutes, and for every 
20 seconds — often for every 10 seconds — the footage 
was given. I had to accompany the dialogue as if it were 
being sung, and with the mood continually changing. 
I very soon discarded the metronome and stop-watch and 
solved the timings by elementary arithmetic, the sum 
being, "How many beats are wanted to cover 19 seconds 
if the tempo is 144 beats, to the minute?” 

Here I should like to say that I was greatly assisted 
by Louis Levy, director of music for Associated British 
Pictures at Elstree, who gave me a record of the dialogue. 
He conducted the whole score, and I am sincerely in- 
debted to him for the able way in which he directed 
and fitted the music, as well as for the skilled advice he 
so freely gave me during the months we worked to- 
gether. I hope that American audiences will recognize 
the superlative quality of the orchestra, which was com- 
posed of London’s finest players. The music is often very 
difficult, but it does not sound difficult the way this 
orchestra played it. 

The recording sessions generally lasted for six or 
seven hours, and they continued from July until Decem- 
ber. Progress was often slow, because sequences were 
more than once ' recut and I had to rewrite the music. 
At these recordings Huston was represented by Russell 
Lloyd, who earned my thanks and immense admiration 
for his skillful balancing of the music with the sound 
effects. Here again I was lucky, in working with an 
editor whose deep appreciation of music was matched 
by his technical knowledge. Writing this score was a 
tremendous, and sometimes frightening, experience for 
one whose previous work has been done in calmer and 
less momentous circumstances. 

Friedrich Ledebur (Queequeg) and Richard Base- 
hart (Ishmael). 

MOBY DICK . . . Warner Brothers. Gregory Peck, Rich- 
ard Basehart. Produced and directed by John Huston. 
Music, Philip Sainton. Conductor, Louis Levy. Music 
copyright, Leeds Music Corp. 

Record: Moby Dick. Music from the sound track; RCA 
Victor LPM-1247. Eight sequences have been chosen 
from Philip Sainton’s big score and placed under various 
headings, "Quayside Scenes”, "The Hunt”, "Captain 
Ahab”, and the like. From the grave beauty of the open- 
ing to the fury of the end, the music has a sweep of 

composition that reflects the freedom in which it was 
created. The strong poetic writing calls up a constant 
feeling of the ocean, now lively and vigorous, now lonely 
and menacing. "The Sea” is a particularly haunting se- 
quence — its strange, high, soft dissonances voicing the 
hazy melancholy of the men, stretched out in the shim- 
mering heat on the decks of the becalmed ship. Here, 
disassociated from the picture, the music reveals its self- 
sufficiency and a striking power to sustain the mood and 
feeling of its subject. 

Philip Sainton 

(Philip Sainton comes of a family well-known in English music for 
the past hundred years. He himself has had a distinguished career as 
a performer and composer. He has been principal viola with the Queen’s 
Hall Orchestra, the BBC Symphony Orchestra, and a member of the 
Royal Philharmonic. He has toured the United States with the London 
String Quartet. His works have been performed under the direction of 
Sir Adrian Boult, Sir John Barbirolli, the late Leslie Heward and other 
conductors. "Two Sea Pictures”, "Nadir”, "The Island”, "Serenade Fan- 
tastique”, the ballet 'Dream of a Marionette” are among his composi- 
tions that have been widely heard in the concert hall and on the air.) 


Francis Thorne 

Tyrone Power as Eddy Duchin conducts a rehearsal. 

Eddy Duchin achieved an outstanding success by 
taking the “society” dance orchestra and infusing it with 
a very personal style of piano-playing-leadership that 
raised it above the commonplace into the unique. Sergei 
Rachmaninoff was one of his fans, who were many and 
varied. The commercial success he achieved was substan- 
tial, through recordings as well as long engagements in 

very high class hotels. 

His style of piano-playing, which is easily recog- 
nizable, involved a showy bravura — superficial to a 
marked degree and full of frills. Nevertheless, there was 
an elegance in the showmanship and delivery which 
stamped everything he did. Eddy Duchin, regardless of 
his mannerisms, was an artist of originality. 


The movie captures the society-dance feeling and 
the Duchin style well, particularly in the beginning. The 
style is easy to imitate, perhaps, but Carmen Cavallaro 
gets the octave passages and the rhythmic patterns in a 
direct way that sounds authentic. The big "Brazil” pro- 
duction number rang false to me because I don’t recall 
Duchin employing so complicated or involved a tech- 
nique. Nor did his regular band ever achieve half the 
size of the filmed one. There was almost a "chamber” 
sound to the Duchin band which seldom gets across in 
the film. 

As a featured soloist with the Reisman band, Duchin 
may well have employed more bravura and less personal 
directness. His later records with his own band show less 
frill and more bite and drive. In the film there seems to 

be a development in the reverse direction, although the 
question of the post-war band is one I cannot verify. 
THE EDDY DUCHIN STORY is generally successful 
in evoking the sounds of the Duchin style, particularly of 
the piano solos. 

THE EDDY DUCHIN STORY. Columbia Pictures. 
Tyrone Power, Kim Novak. Director, George Sidney. 
Music supervised and conducted by Morris Stoloff. Piano 
recordings, Carmen Cavallaro. Incidental Music, George 
Duning. Music co-ordinator, Fred Karger. 

Records: THE EDDY DUCHIN STORY (Decca; sound 
track album DL8289). Other albums, Capitol, Columbia, 
Coral, Mercury, Vik. Song "To Love Again”, Ned Wash- 
ington, Morris Stoloff, George Sidney. 


Doris Day, Alfred Hitchcock and passersby. 

(Copyright, Paramount Pictures Corp.) 

Alfred Hitchcock’s first version of THE MAN 
WHO KNEW TOO MUCH appeared here in 1935, and 
certified that he combined a flair for the different with 
the ability to frighten one enjoyably half to death. The 
present story, nearly twice as long and in Technicolor, 
substitutes Morocco for the Alps and an American couple 
with a son for the English parents of a daughter. But it 
still concerns a spot of international intrigue that reaches 
its shattering climax at a concert in Albert Hall. Here 
the music, as a time-piece for a planned assassination, be- 
comes as much a part of the action as any of the cast. 
Roy Fjastad, General Music Director for Paramount Pic- 
tures, says " 'The Storm Clouds’ cantata was originally 
composed by Arthur Benjamin for Mr. Hitchcock’s first 
produced in Great Britain about 1931. The composition 
as used in the present picture has been extended to some 
extent, since the dramatic action which takes place during 
the concert is of longer duration. This was done by in- 
corporating some of Mr. Benjamin’s prelude music with 

that of the original cantata. Some slight revisions and 
new orchestrations were furnished by Bernard Herrmann, 
who was the music director and composer of the back- 
ground score. 

Great care was taken so that the piece would unfold 
in such a manner that the audience would hear the more 
lyrical passages during the less dramatic portion of the 
sequence, and that the peaks and minor climaxes would 
punctuate the more dramatic action, and of course reach 
the cymbal crash climax at the moment of the attempted 
assassination. This musical sequence was recorded in 
London by the London Symphony Orchestra and the 
Covent Garden Choir, conducted by Mr. Herrmann”. 

James Stewart, Doris Day. Director, Alfred Hitchcock. 
Score, Bernard Herrmann. Storm Cloud Cantata, Arthur 
Benjamin, D. B. Wyndham Lewis; conducted by Bernard 
Herrmann. Songs: "Whatever Will Be, Will Be”, "We’ll 
Love Again”, Jay Livingston, Ray Evans. 


(Ring Around the Rosy Sequence) 
Andre Previn 

INVITATION TO THE DANCE is a film which 
certainly offered a unique opportunity for the composers 
involved. It is a picture consisting of three separate and 
distinct balletic sequences lasting approximately 40 min- 
utes each. Apart from the visual picture, there is only 
the music track, thus eliminating the customary scoring 
hurdles of dialogue, effect, taps, source music, etc. 

My assignment was to compose original ballet music 
for the middle sequence of the picture. Entitled " Ring 
around the Rosy”, the plot of the ballet concerns a brace- 
let which wanders from owner to owner through a series 
of infidelities, finally completing the circle and reverting 
back to its original recipient. Because of the widely div- 
ergent circumstances involving each of the protagonists, 
and because of the afore-mentioned unusual liberties, the 
assignment sounded like an opportunity all too rare in 
the film-scoring business. However, there turned out to 
be several technical difficulties which made the mechani- 
cal preparation of the film almost as difficult as the writ- 
ing of the music. First of all, there was the following 
hurdle to be cleared: through a series of circumstances 
too involved to detail here, the picture had been shot 
in its entirety before I was assigned to it. There were 

some temporary tracks, some verbal counting, and a lot 
of deep, dark silence. Therefore when the film was turned 
over to me I was faced with the problem of writing a 
balletic score entirely dictated by the already existing 
and unchangeable film. Every nuance of tempo, every 
phrase, every meter change had to be fitted exactly to 
the picture; normal procedure for the scoring of a normal 
film, but certainly the hard way to compose a ballet. 
When the final timing sheets and click track charts were 
put in a bundle, they looked like the Manhattan City 
Directory. No end of credit must be given to Lela Simone, 
the music co-ordinator of the picture, for putting these 
together. She practically lived in the projection and cut- 
ting rooms, and it is due to her musicianship and tech- 
nical skill that not one frame was wrong on the scoring 

The ballet is divided into eleven sections which I 
will discuss briefly. The first is the Overture, written in 
an almost purely classical manner with the exception of 
the recurring shifts in meter, and using the nursery tune 
"Ring around the Rosy” as a starting point for elabora- 
tions and variations. ( Example 1 ) 

Example 1. Ring Around The Rosy; Overture. 


Copyright, Loew’s Inc 

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Example 2. 

Next comes the first sequence proper, called "Cocktail Party”. Gene 
Kelly, in wanting to show the frantic tempo at which certain parties 
are conducted, and during which people do nothing, but do it in a 
great hurry, undercranked the whole sequence, thus giving an almost 
surrealist quality to the proceedings. The music is necessarily fast, loud 
and fairly discordant. (Examples 2, 3, 4). I used a great deal of solo 
piano during this scene. 


Copyright, Loew’s In< 

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Example 3. 

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Example 4. 

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As far as the plot is concerned, The Husband, upon 
entering the party, gives his wife the bracelet as an anni- 
versary present. Upon seeing her dance off with The 
Artist, he leaves the party sadly. The ensuing sequence 
takes place in The Artist’s studio, where he is seen paint- 
ing a young ballerina. He gives her the bracelet and 

Example 5. Artist Studio. 

attempts to woo her in a classical Pas de Deux which is 
hampered by the fact that the girl is mainly interested 
in food, and eats The Artist’s lunch during their dance. 
Here the music is a purposely clumsy waltz, lightly 
orchestrated, with solos by Piccolo, Tuba, and Violin. (Ex- 
amples 5 & 6 ). 

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Example 6. 

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This scene is followed by a dance outside a stage 
door, where The Sharpie, in waiting for the Ballerina, 
executes the only tap dance of the picture. Here again, 
solo piano is used with the orchestra in a fast, light- 
hearted 2/4. The clumsy waltz is heard again as the girl 
appears in the stage door and as she and The Sharpie 

The following section finds The Sharpie and his 
gew amour, The Vamp, in a night club, listening to The 
Crooner. Pictorially, this crooner is a devastating parody 
on all the current rages combined; thin, overdressed, 
boyish with a vengeance, clinging to the mike, and oc- 
casionally rolling on the floor to the delight of his female 
audience. Rather than using a voice, a solo trombone 
was employed to stimulate the singing, thus enabling me 
to write glissandi, scoops and bent notes more vulgar 
than possible with a human voice. After the Crooner’s 

number, The Vamp determinedly drags him off to the 
sound of a jazz rhythm section, stopped horns and solo 
piano. After a Fade-out, the 'Crooner is again seen, sit- 
ting in the now deserted nigbrt club and wearing the 
bracelet. The Hat-check girl comes over to throw him 
out, sees the bracelet, and a frantic dance of attraction 
starts. For this sequence 1 used the standard big jazz band 
instrumentation: 8 brass, 5 saxes, 4 rhythm, with the solo 
piano improvising on the chord changes rather than play- 
ing prescribed passages. The next scene involved the 
Hat-check girl and her boy friend, The Marine. He sees 
the bracelet on her wrist and walks out in a jealous rage. 
After coming out of a neighborhood saloon, he is ac- 
costed by a streetwalker and dances with her on the steps 
of a brownstone. The music features alto sax and solo 
piano trading off the thematic material with muted 
violins, accompanied by muted trombones. ( Example 7 ) . 

Example 7. Tamara. 

Copyright, Loew's Inc. 

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Example 9. 

After his exit, the Streetwalker stops the Husband (remember?). 
He is startled, to put it mildly, at seeing the bracelet again, buys it from 
the woman, and heads for home again. (Example 8). The Cocktail 
Party is again in progress, again undercranked, and there is a recapitu- 
lation and further development of the opening music, played even 
faster this time. The how repentant Wife receives the bracelet once 
more and is re-united with the Husband. At this point, on a separate 
track, the strings are heard playing a romantic counter-theme to the 
still existing party music (Examples 9 & 10). As the couple disappears, 
the partygoers are seen dancing in a large circle, may-pole fashion, to 
an increasingly dissonant version of the nursery tune, and the ballet ends. 

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It was my ambition to accentuate the air of unreality 
of the ballet rather than to score it in a matter-of-fact 
manner. The music is often obviously satiric and calcu- 
latingly cold-hearted, and it is my hope that the end 
result matched the unusual and imaginative concept of 
the production. 

Seven of the sequences (Overture, Party, Artist 
Studio, Vamp, Hat-check Girl, Marine, and Final Party) 
are available on MGM Long-Playing album E3207. The 
other side of the record is devoted to Jacques Ibert’s 
brilliant score to "Circus”, the first ballet seen in "Invi- 

tion and Choreography, Gene Kelly. Music Co-ordinator, 
Lela Simone. Circus: Igor Youskevitch, Claire Sombert, 
Gene Kelly. Music, Jacques Ibert. Conductor, John Hol- 
lingworth; Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. Ring Around 
the Rosy: Gene Kelly, Tamara Toumanova. Music com- 
posed and conducted by Andre Previn. Sinhad the Sailor: 
Gene Kelly, David Kasday. Score based on music by 
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, adapted by Roger Edens, con- 
ducted by Johnny Green. Orchestration, Conrad Salinger. 

Record: Invitation to the Dance. Music from the Sound 
Track; M-G-M E 3207. Music for two of the ballets — 
Circus and Ring Around the Rosy — makes up this re- 
cording. The score for Sinhad the Sailor, intended merely 
as dance accompaniment, is adapted from Scheherezade, 
and is not included here. Circus has the humor and 
melody for which Jacques Ibert is famous; tumblers and 
jugglers clown to his rollicking bells and trick instru- 
ments and carnival oompah, Pierrot and Columbine 
yearn to the poignant sweetness of his "Love Duet” and 
his "Cloak Dance”. Andre Previn sets up a piquant con- 

trast in "Ring Around the Rosy”, as he follows the travels 
of a bracelet that makes the rounds of a circle of lovers. 
From his impudent comment on a cocktail party to his 
Girl-in-the-Red-Skirt blues, he is gaily and cleverly sophis- 
ticated. The youthful composer himself plays his highly 
effective piano passages. Both scores are thoroughly enter- 
taining in themselves, as well as being admirable accom- 
paniment for their screen ballets. 

Claude Bessy and Igor 

Alfred Simon 

In OKLAHOMA and CAROUSEL, the first two 
Rodgers and Hammerstein musical plays to be trans- 
ferred to the screen, the prevailing mood was one of 
light-heartedness, and so the emphasis was quite logically 
on the song and dance sequences. On the other hand, 
because of the more serious and subdued nature of its 
story, the accent in the latest Rodgers and Hammerstein 
film, THE KING AND I, is on its dramatic aspects, 
and of course its pictorial splendors. This is not to imply, 
however, that the musical values have by any means been 
neglected; here the music underscores the action, rather 
than dominates it. 

When THE KING AND I opened on Broadway 
in 1951, Richard Rodgers wrote an article for the New 
York Herald Tribune in which he said "It seems certain 
that a too-accurate reproduction of the sound of I860 
Siam would give less than small pleasure to the Occi- 
dental ear, and an evening of it would drive an American 
audience howling into the streets. The score makes an 
occasional pass at the five-tone scale, but only in the 
interest of color.” 

Fortunately, Alfred Newman, who was responsible 
for so many of the good things about CAROUSEL, is 
again in charge of musical matters in THE KING AND 

1 and again demonstrated his understanding of how a 
Rodgers score should be performed. He has been quite 
faithful to the original score, departing from it radically 
only in some of the more spectacular scenes. For ex- 
ample, in the wonderful ballet "The Small House of 
Uncle Thomas”, to quote 20th Century-Fox publicity, 
"strange instruments of ancient Siam were borrowed from 
collectors, others carefully reproduced to achieve the 
Thailand harmonics which backgrounded the ballet. 
Among the orchestra instruments used were 20 gongs, 
30 cymbals, 14 triangles, 6 anvils, 2 gamelons, 3 sets of 
Siamese chimes, 8 woodblocks, 11 trimpani, a 60-foot 
drum, a IV 2 octave drum, 3 sets of oriental drums, 10 
musical instruments indigenous to Siam; an anklung, a 
konag, a moganang, a rebal, a suling, a gangban, a chek- 
chek, a gendang, a tambur and a salung. Only Western- 
ized instruments in the orchestra were 6 flutes, 3 oboes, 
3 English horns, 3 bassoons, 4 French horns, 3 trumpets, 

2 tubas, 4 basses, 2 harps, 2 pianos, a mandolin, a nova- 
chord, and a banjo.” All of which is as lush to the ear as 
the spectacle is to the eye. And quite as charming, in 
quite a different way, is the "March of the Siamese Chil- 
dren”. With the orchestra augmented, the musical build- 
up to the entrance of the young Prince Chulalongkorn is 
particularly striking. 

Since Deborah Kerr is not a trained singer, her 
numbers have been dubbed by Marni Nixon, and a more 

Deborah Kerr and her Siamese pupils. 

remarkable choice could not have been made. Miss 
Nixon’s voice quality sounds just as one might imagine 
Miss Kerr's would if she were to break into song; in 
fact, there is no noticeable change in quality when Miss 
Kerr apparently goes from dialogue into such musical 
numbers as "I Whistle a Happy Tune”, "Getting to 
Know You”, "Hello, Young Lovers” and "Shall We 

It is too bad that voices were not dubbed for Carlos 
Rivas and Rita Moreno, who play the ill-fated lovers, 
for although they are pictorially right, the strong Mexican 
accent of Mr. Rivas, and the intimate, breathy style of 
Miss Moreno are not suited to the heart-breaking mood 
of "We Kiss In a Shadow”. 

The best singing in the film comes from Terry 
Saunders, who uses her own vocal chords to fine effect 
in the poignant "Something Wonderful”. Miss Saunders, 
incidentally, replaced Dorothy Sarnoff as the original 
Lady Thiang in the Broadway production. And Yul 
Brynner, the original King, is if anything in finer form 
here; like Rex Harrison in "My Fair Lady”, he has the 
amazing faculty of making you believe that he’s a much 
better singer than he really is. There is fascinating con- 
trast in his two solos — first the troubled mood of "Is a 
Puzzlement”, and then the sly humor of "The King’s 
Song”. The most captivating song in the score is still 
"Shall We Dance”. Beginning as a wistful solo and dance 
by Mrs. Anna, the orchestra provides a gently rhythmic 
accompaniment — then, as the King joins her, the or- 
chestra in full force steps up the tempo and sweeps into 
a magnificently compelling, almost barbaric polka, result- 
ing in what should go down as one of the truly memorable 
sequences in the history of musical movies. 

Due to the unusual length of THE KING AND I, 
some of the songs had to be cut from the final version. 
However, you may supplement your enjoyment of this 
superb film by listening to them on a new Capitol record 
(W-750) made from the sound-track. In addition to 
the songs mentioned earlier, the record includes such 
omitted numbers as "My Lord and Master”, sung by Rita 
Moreno, "I Have Dreamed”, with Miss Moreno and 
Carlos Rivas, Mrs. Anna’s Soliloquy, "Shall I Tell You 
What I Think Of You”, charmingly performed by Deb- 
orah Kerr (via Marni Nixon), and a well-played orchest- 
ral medley of the best-known songs. 

THE KING AND I . . . 20th Century-Fox. Deborah 
Kerr, Yul Brynner. Director, Walter Lang. Music, Rich- 
ard Rodgers. Book and lyrics, Oscar Hammerstein II. 



Louis and Bebe Barron 

Electronic Tonalities came into the MGM film, 
FORBIDDEN PLANET, when Studio Chief Dore Schary 
and General Musical Director Johnny Green decided 
that this picture should not have a musical score ( neither 
did EXECUTIVE SUITE), but should in this case ex- 
press its moods and actions with a new auditory an form. 

The need for a completely new art in scoring 
FORBIDDEN PLANET was intensified by the fact that 
MGM had never approached this kind of film before, 
and in their determination to make an adult science- 
fiction picture, had budgeted the production at two mil- 
lion dollars in order to make full use of all the artistic 
resources of the film medium in expressing the really 
unique dramatic values of the story and its out-of-this 
world locale. Dore Schary and Johnny Green both felt 
that these unique emotional expressions required a new 
aesthetic experience for the audience, creating emotional 
messages which they had not before received. 

At this point we were called in. Although we had 
not yet scored a feature film with our new electronic 
medium, we had done several short experimental films 
produced by Ian Hugo and Walter Lewisohn which had 
been seen at European festivals. We had always avoided 
science-fiction themes because of the obvious danger of 
being type-cast, but the challenges offered in FORBID- 
DEN PLANET tempted us to chance the hazards of be- 
ing professionally pigeon-holed. 

Our big problem was (and still is) that we are 
"artistic orphans”, since what we compose is not music 
( it is almost more like choreographing for the ear) . Dore 
Schary christened our work "Electronic Tonalities”, and 
Johnny Green personally took charge of us and super- 
vised us as if we were composing a musical score. 

The MGM music run, as Johnny Green has set it 
up, was most useful to us both in helping us orient our 
dramatic function and in establishing a close rapport with 
the producer, Nicholas Nayfack. In fact, Mr. Green’s 
helpfulness is based not only on his wide musical talents 
and experience, but also a great sense of dramatic values. 

Some of the themes which we worked with were 
Robby, the Lovable Robot; the invisible monster, serene 
space, playful pseudo-love, true love, 60 gallons of bour- 
bon for two, a unicorn theme, night with two moons, 
suspense and terror of the unknown, comic dialogue, etc. 

Electronic Tonalities are not music, but they are 
composed — in the sense that the acting and dancing of 
a scene is composed — differently from the manner of 
music which organizes and structures a sequence of indi- 
vidual notes. In our case we do not compose in the sense 
of note-by-note construction. 

We design and construct electronic circuits which 
function electronically in a manner remarkably similar 
to the way that lower life-forms function psychologically. 
This is really a fascinating phenomenon, and there is 
even a young but respectable science explaining it, called 
"Cybernetics” and first propounded by Prof. Norbert 
Wiener* of M.I.T. It is found that there are certain 

‘Norbert Wiener: Cybernetics or Control and Communi- 
cation in the Animal and the Machine. New York: 
Wiley 1948. 

natural laws of behavior applicable alike to animals ( in- 
cluding humans ) and electronic machines of certain types 
of complexity. 

Although Cybernetics does not concern itself with 
artistic or even audible expressions, the scientific laws 
are there to be borrowed, and electronic nervous systems 
can be specifically designed with built-in behavior pat- 
terns resembling emotional personality types. When these 
circuits are properly designed, controlled, and stimulated, 
they react emotionally with strange and meaningful 

If we think of these electronic personality circuits 
as charactor actors, then when we compose for them, we 
function like writer-director. Like writers, we first decide 
on a cast of characters, and design and build the circuits 
to act out the character parts. Then we structure a dra- 
matic plot in which these electronic characters inter-act 
with each other as the plot unfolds. Now we become 
directors and see to it that the actor-circuits get their cues 
at the right times, and express their characters authenti- 
cally and effectively. This is possible by properly under- 
standing and controlling their electronic activity. 

By amplifying the electronic activity and recording 
it on magnetic tape, we are able to translate the electron 
behavior into audible form. The most remarkable aspect 
of this whole phenomenon is that the sounds which result 
from these electronic nervous systems convey distinct 
emotional meaning to listeners. 

The design and dramatic control of synthetic ner- 
vous systems which care nothing about symbols, but 
which seem to feel, and seem to express audibly the 
emotions which the artist intends, and which the audience 
unconsciously experiences, is the essence of what we do. 
We were gratified to hear people tell us after seeing 
FORBIDDEN PLANET that the Tonalities reminded 
them of what their dreams sound like. 

Actually, this orphan art is more related to drama 
than it is to music, for it is governed very much by dra- 
matic laws, and very little by musical laws. The art of 
"composing” an electronic-nervous-system score is largely 
an art of dramatic construction. Yet musical training is 
invaluable because this is an abstract art, manifesting 
itself in pure form and sonic sensation rather than in the 
literal symbols (like words and gesture) of drama. 

We believe this new art is in the trend of direct 
communication from artist to audience — direct in the 
sense of coming from the unconscious ( non-symbolic ) 
emotions of the artist, and proceeding to the unconscious 
emotions of the audience, without translating the mes- 
sage into the conscious level where symbols are used to 
represent agreed-upon meanings. We are striving to 
make the audience feel a pure flow of sonic sensations 
unrelated either to the world we live in, or to the literary- 
theatrical experiences and traditions we have grown up 

FORBIDDEN PLANET . . . M.G.M. Walter Pidgeon, 
Anne Francis. Director, Fred McLeod Wilcox. Electronic 
Tonalities by Louis and Bebe Barron. 



Tom Scott 

The rare appearances of original dramatic scores on 
television contrast rather shockingly with Hollywood’s 
habitual and knowledgeable use of specially composed 
music. Even in television’s most lavishly produced 
dramas, a budget for original music is not customarily 
provided. In spite of its infatuation with the visual po- 
tentialities of the medium, where settings and their ac- 
cessories are often reproduced with tedious accuracy, 
television is usually content to patch together a dramatic 
score from scraps of taped and recorded musical materials 
which have no relation either to each other or to the 
script which they serve. And when a composer is called 
in, he must frequently produce a score within a very 
limited budget. Paradoxically, this economic factor often 
operates to produce a better quality of music. For many 
scripts, music for single or small groups of instruments 
is far more relevant and evocative than a full orchestrated 

John Drainie in "The Dream of a Ridiculous 

Doubling as an actor, I have written and performed 
scores for guitar and voice for such programs as Chevro- 
let Teletheatre, Lux Video Theatre, the Robert Mont- 
gomery Show and Big Story. These performances have 
been variations of an integrated ballad technique where 
the balladeer carries the story forward with his voice and, 
at the same time, provides dramatic music with the guitar. 
There are many scripts in which this is a natural and an 
economical way of advancing the story and the result is 
a happy cohesion between script and music. A similar 
use of guitar and ballad has been used on Adventure with 
the addition of dance. Also, on Adventure, I have ex- 
tended the usefulness of the guitar by treating it electroni- 
cally on tape for special effects. 

It is not surprising that the low-budget shows have 
been the most daring and successful in their use of origi- 
nal scores. Most notable have been CBS’ Camera Three 
productions by Robert Herridge. Stripped of sets and 
costumes, Camera Three has given to the music the func- 
tion not only of defining the emotional course of the 
story but also of evoking much of the world around the 
characters. Music has been almost continuous, space al- 
lotted to music in the open, simple but striking instru- 
mentation employed and the score has been permitted 
vitality and expressiveness to a very high degree. 

Perhaps the most important and least understood 
value which an original score can contribute to the dra- 
matic medium lies in the domain of form. It can supply 
unity, contour, cohesion and variety to the overall motion 
of a dramatic work. These values cannot be realized 
with a library-tape score since they require the subtlest 
synchronization and careful development of thematic 
material coincident with the development of the drama. 
An exceptional opportunity for this type of scoring was 
Robert Herridge’s beautiful script on Emily Dickinson 
for Camera Three. Music and script were carefully 
worked out in order that the whole would have a dynamic 
congruity. The mold of the show was so cast that the 
entire presentation had the unified impact on the viewer 
of the classic sonata pattern. The poems were so selected 
that the musical themes could be presented and developed 
in the pattern of exposition, development and recapitula- 
tion. This score will be analyzed in detail in a later article. 

To illustrate the use of one instrument, here are two 
excerpts from the score of Camera Three’s "The Open 
Boat,” adapted by Herridge from Stephen Crane’s story. 
Four men, after leaving their storm-wrecked ship, spend 
the night in a life-boat waiting for the surf to moderate. 
Music establishes a mood of the sea (no sea was shown 
on camera) and intensifies the emotional values. 

Ex. 1 : Opening under narration 

(main theme, a variant of the 
chantey "Lowlands.”). The high, 
thin reed of the accordion, sug- 
gestive of a ship’s pipe, needed no 

Ex. 2 : Background for soliloquy on 
the loneliness and immensity of 
the sea. 

Copyright 1955, Tom Scott 

In his dream, he goes to another planet where man- 
kind has remained in the original innocence of the Gar- 
den of Eden. 

The music for Camera Three’s "Dream of a Ridicu- 
lous Man” is scored for three players: cello, accordion and 

Ex. 7: underscores his description of the happy state of 
these people. It is an inversion of the main theme, 
in major mode and treated as a pavanne. 

Ex. 3 : cello solo, under main titles, creates moody Russian 
world of Dostoevsky. 

Ex. 4: theme of protagonist, his despair and welt-schmerz. 

Ex. 8 : heard as he tells of corrupting these happy people. 

Ex. 9: underscores their increasing decadence and corrup- 
tion in the dream. 

Example 3 

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Example 5 

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Ex. 10: (first violin) is the main theme. 

Ex. 11: light drizzle falling through trees. 

Ex. 12: poplars, swaying and rippling. 

"Rendezvous" concerns the last meeting of a valet 
and a peasant girl in which he brutally and callously ends 
their love affair. 

Ex. 13: The girl nervously waits for her lover, her theme 
heard high in the first violin. As he approaches, the 

Ex. 15: Climax. Under the valet’s coldness the girl’s heart 
gradually breaks. Two chords, pizzicato, punctuate 

Ex. 16: As the narrator sums up the story, he feels lovely 
autumn turning to winter, and the music grows cold 
with an organum-like progression. 

Ex. 17: Jungle sequence of Camera Three’s production of 
Conrad’s "Heart of Darkness.” Scored for woodwind, 
accordion and percussion. 

Example 1 7. 

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Copyright 1955, Tom Scott 

Tom Scott’s background contributes uniquely to his career 
as a dramatic composer. An authority in the field of American 
folk song, he has concertized internationally as a balladeer. His 
symphonic compositions have been widely performed by leading 
conductors. His works include a symphony, an opera, several 
ballets, two string quartets, many works for orchestra and an 
extensive list of vocal, choral and chamber compositions. Re- 
cently released are his “Binorie Variations," adapted from a film 
score, and "Hornpipe and Chantey” on the Composers Record- 
ings Inc. label, played by the Vienna Orchestra under the direc- 
tion of F. Charles Adler. Soon to be released are two more per- 
formances by the same conductor and orchestra — "Coney 
Island” and "Sophocles and Hyena.” 

Tom Scott 



and produced by Dore Schary. Director, Herman Hoff- 
man. Music adapted and conducted by Adolph Deutsch. 

CATERED AFFAIR, THE . . . MGM. Bette Davis, 
Ernest Borgnine. Director, Richard Brooks. Music, 1 
Andre Previn. Record: The Catered Affair Theme, 

Buena Vista. Fess Parker, Jeffrey Hunter. Director, g 
Francis D. Lyon. Music, Paul Smith. Orchestration, < 
Franklyn Marks. Song: "Sons of Old Aunt Dinah”, 

L. E. Watkin, Stan Jones. 

JUBAL . . . Columbia. Glenn Ford, Ernest Borgnine. 
Director, Delmer Daves. Music, David Raksin. Or- 
chestration, Arthur Morton. Conductor, Morris Stoloff. 

PROUD AND PROFANE, THE . . . Paramount. Wil- 
liam Holden, Deborah Kerr. Director, George Seaton. 
Music, Victor Young. Sheet music, Paramount Music i 
Corp.: "To Love You”, Mack Gordon,' Victor Young. 
"Ballad of Colin Black”, Ross Bagdasarian. 

PROUD ONES, THE . . . 20th Century Fox. Robert 
Ryan, Virginia Mayo. Director, Robert D. Webb. 

Music, Lionel Newman. Records: Theme from "The 
Proud Ones", Capitol, Columbia, Coral, M-G-M, RCA 
Victor, Wing. 

SEARCHERS, THE . . . C. V. Whitney; Warner. John 
Wayne, Jeffrey Hunter. Director, John Ford. Music, 
Max Steiner. Song, "The Searchers”, Stan Jones. Rec- 
ord: The Searchers (Ride Away), M-G-M. 

Newman, Pier Angeli. Director, Robert Wise. Music, 
Bronislau Kaper. Title song, Sammy Kahn, Bronislau 
Kaper; sung by Perry Como. Record; "Somebody Up 
There Likes Me”, M-G-M, RCA Victor. 

THAT CERTAIN FEELING . . . Paramount. Bob Hope, 
Eva Marie Saint, Pearl Bailey. Directors, Norman 
Panama, Melvin Frank. Music scored and conducted 
by Joseph J. Lilley. Songs, "That Certain Feeling”, 
George and Ira Gershwin; "Zing Went the Strings of 
My Heart", J. F. Hanley; "Hit the Road to Dreamland”, 
Johnny Mercer, Harold Arlen. Record: RCA Victor. 

TRAPEZE . . . Hecht-Lancaster; United Artists. Burt 
Lancaster, Tony Curtis. Director, Carol Reed. Music, 
Malcolm Arnold. Conductor, Muir Mathieson. Rec- 
ords: Sound track album, "Lola’s Theme”, Columbia. 


The CBS presentation of Louis Armstrong’s recent \ 
jazz tour of Europe on a "See It Now” program last * 
December used only part of the footage filmed by Ed- 
ward R. Murrow and Fred W. Friendly. The producers 
are preparing the remainder, including Armstrong ap- 
pearances in France, Australia and Africa, as an 80 min- 
ute documentary for release by United Artists in the fall 
. . . The Music Division of the Library of Congress is 
placing four of David Raskin’s U.P.A. cartoon scores > 
and five of his feature scores in its archives . . . Through! 1 
arrangements between the Ford Foundation Radio-TV 
Workshop and the McGraw-Hill Text-Film Department, 
70 of the "Omnibus” telecasts will be made available 
to educational institutions and civic organizations. A 
number of outstanding "Omnibus” programs have been 
devoted to musical subjects. Leonard Bernstein, whose i 
programs were highlights in the series last season, will 
appear again in the fall when "Omnibus" moves from 
CBS to the American Broadcasting Company . . . Miklos 
Rozsa’s Violin Concerto, played by Jascha Heifetz, re- • 
ceived an ovation at its premiere in Dallas. Franz Wax- i 
man conducted the work with Tossy Spivakovsky as 
soloist at the Los Angeles Music Festival’s tenth anni- 
versary in June, and it will be heard at the Baden-Baden 
Music Festival. The Los Angeles Conservatory of Music 
conferred an honorary doctorate on Dr. Rozsa before 
his summer European tour, on which he will conduct 
his own works . . . Gail Kubik’s Symphony No. 2, com- 
missioned by the Lousiville Philharmonic Society for the 
Louisville Orchestra, had its premiere this spring. The 
work will have at least two more performances before 
being recorded . . . National Educational Television, a 

part of the Educational Television and Radio Center, 
is presenting a 16mm series of 13 programs, "Music for 
Young People”. Members of the Juillard String Quartet, 
the New York Woodwind Quintet, the Trio Concertante 
and others, explain their instruments to small groups of 
children and then give brief recitals that point up the 
distinctive sounds of their ensembles. Yehudi Menuhin 
is commentator for "Introducing the Woodwinds”, 
Thomas Scherman for "Meet the Brasses". The films are 
produced by Nina Collier for Arts and Audiences, Inc., 
of which she is executive director. Seymour N. Siegel, 
Director of the Municipal Broadcasting System, New 
York, is president. The programs will be shown on ed- 
ucational television stations this fall and will be avail- 
able for group use after the completion of their net- 
work run. 

Beginning with the first issue of Volume XVI next 
fall, FILM MUSIC will become FILM AND TV MUSIC, 
introducing articles on television music and musicians 
by composers and producers in the field as a regular part 
of the magazine. We intend at the same time to widen 
our film coverage, and will be glad to have suggestions 
on changes and additions in content. With the first fall 
issue, also, the magazine must raise its price to $3.50 a 
year (5 issues), due to rising production costs. Present 
subscriptions, of course, will be continued until expira- 
tion at the old rate. FILM MUSIC is a non-profit pub- 
lication, wholly unsubsidized, and its expenses are met 
by its subscriptions. We hope that our readers will like 
its expansion as FILM AND TV MUSIC, and will get 
other subscribers for its support.