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This concluding portion of my Recollections scarcely 
needs any introductory words. It comprises the last 
fifteen years of my official life, and tells my diplomatic 
story to the end. I can only commend it to the 
favourable notice of those who have kindly taken 
an interest in the preceding volumes. 

August 1905. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



I. ON THE WAY TO GREECE, 1885 . . . 1 
II. ATHENS REVISITED, 1885 . . .17 





V. ATHENS, 1 885- 1 886— THE DELYANNIS IN- 



VIII. ATHENS, 1886-1887— THE JUBILEE YEAR . 118 
IX. ATHENS, 1887- 1 888— A GLIMPSE OF INDIA 138 
X. THE HAGUE, 1 888-1 889— FIRST IMPRES- 
SIONS 155 


BURG 178 








XIV. THE HAGUE, 1 892-1 894— SUMMER IN HOL- 
LAND 236 





ELIZABETH . . . . . . .310 


VISITS— THE BOER WAR . . . .336 


XXI. VALEDICTORY . . ... 382 





On the 18th of February 1885 I left Stockholm with 
my family for Gothenburg, and thence had a very 
pleasant journey, for the time of year, direct to London 
in the old-fashioned but most comfortable s.s. Bele of 
the long-established Thule Line. Like the great mass 
of travellers from foreign parts who are daily disgorged 
at the Victoria or Charing Cross stations, I had never 
before approached London by what is its truly Im- 
perial avenue, and, favoured as we were by a beautiful 
spring-like day, the passage up the Thames — assuredly 
at all times a most striking and indeed unique ex- 
perience in travel — interested me far more even than 
I had expected. 

Somehow the impression it made upon me recalled 
to my mind a story which had been told me many years 
before by Julian Fane. He was leaving the Embassy at 
St. Petersburg, in the old days when railway communi- 
cation with the Russian capital was still incomplete, 
on board a steamer bound for some German port. 
Apprehending a tedious passage, he proceeded to 
take stock of his fellow-passengers, amongst whom 



he soon singled out an intelligent-looking man — 
evidently a Transatlantic cousin. On entering into 
conversation with him, Fane thought it good policy 
at once to express his admiration of the astonishing 
strides made by the Great Republic in the paths of 
progress and culture, and of the marvellous energy 
and resourcefulness of its citizens. These, he ended 
by saying, conveyed in his opinion such valuable 
lessons that it seemed to him as if the education of 
an Englishman who had never been in the United 
States might almost be considered incomplete, and 
he, for his own part, felt quite ashamed of not 
having yet visited that wonderful country. In short, 
he very freely buttered the American toast ; his new 
acquaintance impassively listening to this flow of 
buncombe, and, when it had at last come to an end, 
dryly observing, " Well, sir, it is your duty to do so." 

In the same way I would venture to say to 
those among my much-travelled compatriots who by 
chance have never had sight of the grand highway 
of the Thames, from its mouth to the giant city that 
lies astride of it, that it is almost " their duty to do 
so." They will thereby have brought home to them, 
in the course of a few brief hours, a far more im- 
pressive object-lesson on the greatness of British 
enterprise and wealth than they could derive from 
even the most diligent study of the trade statistics with 
which the country is now being flooded. The tide 
that helps to bear the countless, deeply - freighted 
vessels up the broad stream, to mile upon mile of 
wharves and quays and docks, is a tide of Empire 
in very truth, and, if an outburst of Jingoism be 
excusable at any time or anywhere, it would be so 
to my mind on the deck of a steamer passing up this 
unparalleled thoroughfare of sea-borne traffic. 


As far as we were concerned, the only drawback 
to this mode of arrival by the via triumphalis of 
our so-called nation of shopkeepers was that, through 
not getting up to Millwall Docks before nightfall 
of the 2 1st, and being detained there by somewhat 
vexatious Custom House formalities, we did not 
reach our distant home in Sloane Street until past 
9 p.m. I now indulged the hope of enjoying two 
or three months' leave in England. Unforeseen cir- 
cumstances, however, much curtailed my stay there, 
and reduced it to little over six weeks. It so 
happened that in the domain of foreign affairs our 
political horizon at this period very suddenly assumed 
a threatening aspect. The more than customary 
activity manifested by Russia in Central Asiatic 
regions brought about between the two Governments 
a marked tension which, soon after, culminated in 
the Pandjeh incident, and brought us to the very 
verge of war. 

Shortly before leaving Sweden I had been able 
to furnish to Lord Granville information of some value 
on this question which came from a perfectly un- 
impeachable and dispassionate source, and revealed 
the sentiments expressed, in private conversations on 
Asiatic affairs, by the head of the Imperial Foreign 
Office at St. Petersburg, M. de Giers, as well as 
by the Governor-General of the Caucasus, Prince 
Dondoukow Korsakow, who chanced to be on leave 
from his command at this time. The pith of the 
remarks attributed to M, de Giers was that Russia 
might possibly be compelled " by circumstances " — 
these no doubt being partly the favourable oppor- 
tunity afforded by the difficulties in which the British 
Government then found itself placed in Egypt, and 
partly Russia's own entanglements in Turkestan — to 


advance further than she desired in that direction, 
and that she would not at any rate bind herself to 
stop in such advance. Prince Dondoukow, on his 
side — representing as he did the aspiring military 
element to which, by force of circumstance, the lead 
in these Russian warlike enterprises has always fallen, 
from the days of Tchernaieff and Skobeleff to those of 
AlexeiefF — was reported to have put the matter more 
tersely by saying that Russia on her Eastward march 
knew of no frontiers but such as she made for herself. 
" Nos frontieres marchent avec nous " were the words 
attributed to the Governor- General, and unfortunately 
nothing could be in greater contradiction with the 
friendly assurances given to our Embassy in the 
Russian capital by the Government which was at 
that very moment engaged with us on a peaceful 
delimitation of the Afghan boundary. 

Without attempting to go at further length into 
the inner diplomatic history of that critical period, it 
is, I think, worth pointing out, that this untoward re- 
crudescence of Russian energies in the middle East 
curiously coincided with a recent marked rapproche- 
ment between Berlin and St. Petersburg, following 
upon something like ten years' coolness — not to say 
estrangement. This coolness originated in the part 
taken by Russia, and more particularly by the Emperor 
Alexander II., with respect to the " French scare " 
of 1875, some graphic incidents of which have been 
lately given to the world in the Blowitz Memoirs. 
Shortly before, too, in September 1884, Prince Bis- 
marck, as has since been revealed to us, had pre- 
vailed upon the Russian and German Sovereigns 
at the meeting of the three Emperors at Skier- 
nievice, to enter into the so-called Ruchversicher- 
ungsvertrag, or secret treaty guaranteeing to each 


of the two contracting Empires the benevolent neu- 
trality of the other in the event of its being attacked ; 
an arrangement the more remarkable from its being in 
some sense directed against the friendly Power with 
whom Germany had, only a few years before, come to 
the intimate understanding, for their mutual protection 
against aggression, which was later on perfected in the 
Triple Alliance. 1 The Skiernievice compact answered 
its purpose for a time, but was allowed to lapse by 
Count Caprivi after the fall of its author, the great 

Through these greatly improved relations with her 
formidable Western neighbour — at that time in the 
full zenith of world power and influence — Russia had 
of course acquired a much freer hand. Indeed it 
might, I think, be pretty safely laid down as an axiom 
that neither of the two great Northern Empires can 
well engage in any active course of policy, without 
having previously, in some degree, made certain of what 
has been well described as a circumspectly benevolent 
attitude on the part of the other. In this respect, if I 
do not entirely misread it, the history of the relations 
between those Powers — from the far-distant days of 
the Crimean war down to the Austro-German war of 
1866, and to my own recollections of the repudiation 
of the Black Sea clauses of the Treaty of Paris — shows 
recurrent symptoms of a tacit understanding (by no 
means excluding mutual watchfulness) between the 
bordering Monarchies, based on a readiness to con- 
cede something to each other's ambitions a charge de 
revdiirlte. Similar symptoms might possibly be dis- 

1 The defensive Treaty between Germany and Austria was concluded 
on October 7, 1879, ^ut waa not made public till February 1888, alter the 
signature of the Triple Alliance with Italy which bears the date of March 
13, 1887. 


cerned without much difficulty at the crisis of the 
present hour, 1 and have in fact been freely commented 
upon in such a sense by a more or less well-informed 

But I must turn from this digression to the affairs 
with which I was now to be directly concerned. The 
threatening outlook in Central Asia reacted on the 
situation in the nearer Levant in the same way as it is 
to be feared that the actual conflict in the Far East can 
also scarcely fail to do. Although the great settlement 
of Berlin in 1878, barely seven years before, had, it was 
fondly hoped, set at rest for some time to come the 
rival aspirations and conflicting claims of restless Bal- 
kanic nationalities, the recoil from afar was already 
making itself felt and producing disquietude in the 
nearer Eastern regions. The first overt signs of im- 
pending trouble in the Balkanic Peninsula were the 
disputes that arose between the Governments of Servia 
and of the newly - created Bulgarian Principality on 
certain boundary questions, and about the asylum 
given in Bulgaria to Servian political refugees. These 
discussions, which covered the last six months of 
1884, left behind them deep traces of ill-will that 
finally led to open war in the following year. The 
political atmosphere in the Near East was in fact suf- 
ficiently charged to justify our Foreign Office in the 
wish to see its representatives in that perturbed corner 
of Europe present at their posts. Some local incidents 
at Athens, which it is needless to enter into here, 
further contributed to render it desirable that I should 
repair to my new destination without too much delay. 
Lord Granville none the less considerately made 
due allowance for the fact that I had been very little 
in England in the course of the last six years, and that 

1 Written in the spring of 1904. 


my private affairs therefore urgently required attending 
to before I could once more take up my diplomatic 
wandering staff. I thus went through a few weeks of 
the earlier London season, during which I renewed my 
intimacy of days long past with a valued Vienna col- 
league, Christian de Falbe, who had now been for some 
years Danish Minister in London, and, through his 
marriage with the very wealthy widow of Mr. Gerard 
Leigh, had acquired in society a position quite unique 
of its kind for a Foreign representative in this country. 
So kind a friend did M. de Falbe show himself 
to me that I may be not unpardonably partial to 
his memory. Certain it is at any rate that nothing 
could be more genial than the hospitality which 
he and his wife — the handsomest couple, though 
no longer young, that could be seen — dispensed in 
Grosvenor Square and at Luton Hoo, which fine place 
became in their hands the most comfortable and luxu- 
rious of country homes. Of course ,£60,000 a year 
goes more than a long way towards keeping up a large 
establishment, but it was the perfect organisation of 
the entire household, the thorough finish of every 
detail throughout the beautiful house, and the many 
choice artistic objects it contained — picked up at 
Christie's and other sales, which the Falbes much 
frequented — that bore striking witness to their great 
taste and discernment. Seldom within my experience 
have great riches ministered with so much intelligence 
to the more refined luxuries of life, and this without 
the slightest vestige of ostentation. But the era 
of the South African millionaire had not yet then 
fully burst upon the London world, bringing with it 
examples of a faux luxe and a proneness to excessive 
display which have since become such questionable 
features of much of the entertaining at the present day. 


We went down to Luton for Easter, our first 
visit to that delightful place, and met there a small 
and pleasant party, amongst whom — besides a daughter 
of the house, charming Mrs. George Forbes — were 
the Swedish Minister, Count Piper, Percy Ffrench of 
Monivea, and the universally-popular Major Seymour 
Wynne Finch. Beautiful, I remember, was the 
musical part of the service on Easter Sunday in the 
private chapel, Mme. de Falbe taking a great interest 
in the organ and choir. Luton Hoo, with its historic 
memories of Lord Bute and its massive Georgian 
grandeur, has now, it is sad to think, passed into 
entirely new hands. Its last owner, Mr. Gerard 
Leigh, succeeded to it on the death of his step- 
mother, Mme. de Falbe, but shortly after he too 
died, when all its contents were sold, including some 
very fine tapestry that filled the panels of one of 
the large reception rooms. These tapestries, it may 
be remembered, ultimately became the subject of an 
interesting law-suit involving the correct definition 
of what ought in strict law to be considered as bond- 
Jlde fixtures. 

Among my social recollections of London at this 
time are the dinners and musical evenings at the 
Duff Gordons', very old friends of my wife. The 
two kindly spinster ladies in Hertford Street, May- 
fair — aunts of the late Sir Maurice Duff Gordon — 
were most hospitable, and entertained in a simple 
old-world fashion, having after dinner the very best of 
amateur music and an assemblage of artistic and agree- 
able people. These parties, which dated back to the 
days of old Lady Duff Gordon, will be remembered 
by many as a sort of landmark in a certain section 
of society, and only ceased with the death, at a good 
old age, of the younger of these typical English 


gentlewomen of the fine old school ; the elder one, 
known to her many friends as " The Captain," from 
the decision with which she ruled the family quarter- 
deck, still surviving. 

Well worthy of mention, too, are the perfectly- 
appointed dinners and interesting concerts given by 
the Blumenthals in their picturesque and artistic 
house at Hyde Park Gate, which to this day con- 
tinues to be one of the pleasantest points de reunion 
in London, paradoxically remarkable though it be 
for the poor acoustics it affords to so much charm- 
ing music. The walls of the quaint, low-pitched 
rooms were decorated by Miss Jekyll, and Madame 
Blumenthal, with her own delicate-looking but clever 
hands, elaborately inlaid the mahogany doors and 
panellings with ivory, &c. The popularity of Mon- 
sieur and Madame, as they like to be called, grows 
greater year by year, and their Tuesday invitations 
seem to be more and more sought after. The 
Blumenthal parties rank with the equally beneficent 
and attractive Sunday musical afternoons of my old 
ally Mrs. ltonalds, for innumerable are the real kind- 
nesses thereby done by both hostesses to friendless 
musical artists of all nationalities, too often rashly 
launched on the uncertainties and risks of a London 
musical season. 

The date fixed for our departure for Greece now 
came pressingly near. Shortly before Easter (on the 
24th March) I had kissed hands at Windsor on my 
new appointment, and on Easter Monday (April the 
5th) my wife and I had a take-leave audience of the 
Prince and Princess of Wales, at which the two young 
Princes, whom I had not seen since their visit to 
Buenos Ayres, were both present. The Prince of 


Wales, as I have said elsewhere, had been so good 
as to interest himself about my possible appointment 
to Athens, when I was passed over for that post and 
sent a second time to South America instead, and 
H.R.H. was pleased to express his satisfaction at 
the selection now made of me ; both he and the 
Princess charging me with letters and particular 
messages for the Court with which they w T ere so 
closely connected. 

The private matters I had had to look after 
being finally disposed of, we left London on the 
15th of April; our departure being marked by a 
series of mishaps, which, however trivial in them- 
selves, have since seemed to me, when looking back 
upon them in the light of subsequent events, as 
absurdly prophetic of the difficulties I afterwards 
had to cope with in my new diplomatic sphere. 
We provokingly began by missing the morning 
express for Paris at Charing Cross, and, while wait- 
ing at the station for a later train to Dover, I 
was seized by a sudden attack of faintness and 
prostration, which prevented our proceeding on our 
journey before the afternoon. To complete our con- 
tretemps a butler, whom we had engaged only a 
few days before with the best of characters, showed 
such signs of intoxication on our arrival at the 
"Lord Warden," where we dined and awaited the 
night-boat, that he had to be discharged and sent back 
to London there and then. Altogether — as my wife 
put it in the diary she kept very conscientiously at 
this time and during most of our sojourn in Greece — 
it was "a terrible day of disasters." The same ill fate 
pursued us to Paris, where my wife was laid up for the 
best part of ten days ; fortunately at the very comfort- 
able Hotel Liverpool in the Hue de Castiglione. 


Our forced stay in Paris was quite devoid of in- 
cidents beyond a pleasant dinner at the Embassy, in 
company with the Bonhams, the young Leghs of 
Lyme, 1 and our two future successive Ambassadors 
at Washington, Sir Julian Pauncefote and Mungo 
Herbert, 2 and some family gatherings at the house on 
the Boulevard Malesherbes of Alphonse de Polignac's 
widow, who was remarried to a Comte Rozan. This, 
by the way, was one of the last opportunities I had, 
after a long interval, of foregathering with the eldest 
surviving of my Polignac cousins, Ludovic, who died 
only the other day (January 13, 1904) at Algiers, 
where he had made his principal home for many 
years. A retired colonel of the Etat Major, and 
an officer of conspicuous merit and great scientific 
attainments, he had fought, like his younger brother 
Camille, all through the Franco-German war, during 
which he served on the staff of General de Ladmirault. 
On the renewal of diplomatic relations after the peace 
he was sent as Military Attache" to the Embassy of 
M. de Gontaut at Berlin, where, thanks to his name 
and courtly ancien regime bearing and looks, together 
with his thorough command of German, he soon 
achieved great popularity, and enjoyed the special 
favour of the old Emperor William. His recollections 
of that period, if he has left any record of them, ought 
to be highly interesting. 

We pursued our journey Eastwards on the 28th, 
with a day's break at Turin, where we put up at 
the Hotel de l'Europe (formerly Trombetta) on the 
Piazza Castello, the very same caravansary where I 
had landed — then but a raw, new-fledged Attache — 
in November 1849, over thirty-five years before. The 

1 Now Lord and Lady Newton. 

2 The late Right Honourable Sir Michael Herbert, G.C.B. 


best part of our day was spent with our former 
Stockholm colleagues, the Spinolas, who had an old, 
rambling family Palazzo at Porta d'ltalia, and whom 
we were to meet again at The Hague some years 
later. I found the discrowned Piedmontese capital 
immensely changed since the days of my youth. 
It had quite lost its former distinct type of a 
medium-sized Court residence, with a dignified his- 
torical past that was well expressed by its formal, 
somewhat somnolent aspect. Its ancient stateli- 
ness and repose were now merged in the bustle 
and activity of a greatly enlarged commercial and 
industrial centre. The town had spread in all direc- 
tions, and even in the older districts so much of it 
had been pulled down and rebuilt, that I had much 
difficulty in retracing some of my best-remembered 
haunts, and went about with the feeling of being 
an utter stranger, or as it were a ghost of the past, 
in a city every stone of which had formerly been so 
familiar to me. In my eyes certainly all charm and 
character had departed from the place I had known 
and loved so well in the glamour of my first burst 
into the pomps and vanities of diplomatic life. 

We went on to Brindisi by the crowded, sluggish, 
ill-appointed night-mail of those days, having to turn 
out and change at Bologna at three in the morning. 
(Query : Why is it that travelling by rail through the 
glorious land of an eminently kindly, intelligent people 
is often made so singularly unpleasant by worn-out or 
insufficient rolling-stock and bad management, and by 
the too frequent want of civility of the Italian railway 
staff — not to touch upon other far graver drawbacks ?) 
Anyhow the journey to Brindisi seemed to us endless 
and most wearisome — even though for the greater part 
of the day we skirted the lovely Adriatic seaboard — 


and it was not until long after midnight that we were 
settled on board the small Greek steamer bound for 
Corfu. I had intended going on thence direct to the 
Piraeus by the next boat, but, hearing that the King 
was expected almost immediately, I determined to 
await his Majesty's return to Corfu, and took up 
my quarters at the Hotel St. George — now thoroughly 
renovated and improved since I first knew it in 1864 
when we gave up our protectorate over the Islands 
in favour of Greece. His Majesty's customary Easter- 
tide stay in his Ionian dominions had been interrupted 
by the Ministerial crisis following upon the general 
elections that had proved so unfavourable to the 
Administration of M. Tricoupis, and which had led 
to that statesman's resignation. 

A day or two later the King arrived, just in time for 
the feast of St. George, and his Majesty drove in with 
the Queen from the country to attend the service at 
the garrison church in the fortress. I went out on to 
the esplanade to see them pass, and was gratified 
when the King at once recognised me and greeted me 
cordially with a wave of the hand. I had of course 
immediately applied for an audience through the 
Marechal de la Cour, Admiral Sahini. That dignitary, 
however, having to go with the Queen in the Royal 
Yacht to Trieste to meet H.M.'s brother the Grand 
Duke Constantine Constantinovitch, the matter of my 
audience had escaped his attention. I therefore had 
to renew my application through the Aide-de-Camp 
in waiting, when the King at once graciously sent 
word that he would see me the next day at luncheon 
at his country villa of Monrepos, built by Sir Frederick 
Adam, and formerly the summer residence of our Lord 
High Commissioners during the British occupation of 
Corfu. Nothing could be kinder or more cordial than 


the welcome which his Majesty was pleased to give me 
at this strictly informal private interview. At luncheon 
there was no one present but the young Princes and 
Princesses, with their tutor and their French and Eng- 
lish governesses, Mile. Hinal and Miss Boyd. The 
King afterwards took me to his study, where he talked 
with me for a long time on every kind of subject, begin- 
ning with our common recollections of his first visit to 
these Islands, when I had accompanied him as Charge 
a" Affaires and had been in daily intercourse with him 
for several weeks, as I have narrated elsewhere. 1 

King George had now entered on his fortieth 
year. The ingenuous youth of eighteen had, since I 
parted from him, weathered some twenty-two years of 
a chequered reign, during which he may well have lost 
a good many of the hopes and illusions that gilded its 
outset. Though still in the very prime of life, he had 
matured into a monarch of many and not always satis- 
factory experiences. He in part perhaps owed the 
remarkable insight he had acquired into men and 
things to disenchanting though unavoidable contact 
with party leaders whose keen intellects were too 
often bent on personal aims. Himself a thoroughly 
conscientious and patriotic ruler, he had sometimes 
been obliged by the exigencies of the hour to turn 
for advice to politicians of a very different type. 
H.M. had none the less steered his course with 
great tact and ability through many difficulties and 
disappointments. It so happened that shortly before 
my arrival both he and Greece had lost, in M. 
Coumoundouros, a statesman of great experience and 
capacity, and that they were now deprived, by the 
chances of a general election, of the services of by far 
the ablest and most high-minded of Greek Premiers, 

1 " Recollections of a Diplomatist," vol. ii. 


Charilaos Tricoupis, a man fitted for a much bigger 
stage than that to which his exceptional talents and 
energies were confined. To his largeness of concep- 
tion, in fact; to a generous tendency to view and 
attempt things on a grand scale — partly arising out 
of a liberal English education, 1 but mostly inspired by 
the noble and genuine faith he nourished in the des- 
tinies of the Greek people — M. Tricoupis chiefly owed 
the crushing defeat he had just experienced. 

The King was of course full of the recent crisis, 
and spoke of it with real concern. He was of opinion 
that M. Tricoupis had brought about his own down- 
fall — and a very rough one it was — by an almost 
reckless disregard of public sentiment. He had been 
repeatedly warned of the danger of too largely in- 
creasing the public burdens, and thereby preparing 
serious financial embarrassments for the country. 
Nevertheless, he had persisted in attempting to com- 
pass too much in too short a time, with the result 
that the nation had just unmistakably shown its 
thorough disapproval of his policy. It was now to 
be feared that the late Ministry might be impeached 
by the hostile majority which had placed M. Delyannis 
in power in its stead. Impeachment was a weapon 
that had been used by the new Premier on former 
occasions, and it would be surprising if it were not 
resorted to again. Passing to other topics, King 
George did not omit to touch upon the threatening 
aspect of affairs in Central Asia. Personally he did 
not anticipate that Russia would push matters so 
far as to bring about a conflict, the issue of which 
might possibly be unfavourable to her. Although 

1 M. Tricoupis had passed much of his youth in England, where his 
father had been Envoy for a good many years, and had afterwards been 
attached to the Greek Legation in London. 


the remarks made by the King were strictly guarded, 
it was pretty clear that he had not lost his sym- 
pathies for the country to which his Kingdom owed 
the Ionian Islands, and which had been mainly 
instrumental in enlarging his dominions by the 
splendid province of Thessaly. I came away from 
my audience much impressed by the shrewd sense, 
and charmed by the frank simplicity and easy, affable 
address of the Sovereign to whom I had the good 
fortune to be accredited. 

Three days later we were on our way to Athens 
in the good ship Austria, reaching the Piraeus in 
the early morning of the 1 3th of May — an inauspicious 
date, as I have since been reminded, for entering on 
duties which before long were to entail the gravest 
responsibilities. At the Piraeus we were met by my old 
friend, Consul Merlin, formerly Manager of the Ionian 
Bank at Athens, and were taken on shore with all due 
honours in the galley of the Captain of the Port. 



I was of course prepared to find the Greek capital 
much improved and altered since my last view of 
it in 1864, but was none the less surprised by its 
development, and the signs it showed of steady ex- 
pansion and growing prosperity. The kernel of the 
small town of former days remained much as I re- 
membered it. Its busiest part centred as of old 
round the narrow streets of Hermes and Eolus with 
their shabby shops and execrable pavement ; a few 
picturesque types — islanders with the baggiest of 
breeks, or swaggering fellows in fustanellas — still 
giving here and there a semi-oriental relief to the 
commonplace crowds with which they mingled. Un- 
changed, too, was most of the yet more primitive 
region round about the site of the recently excavated 
Agora and the Temple of the Winds, which thence 
went straggling up, in crooked lanes and wynds, 
to the first slopes of the Acropolis ; a region still 
enduring in witness of the sad level of Eastern mean- 
ness and squalor to which the city of the violet 
garland had sunk under Turkish rule. But, in 
almost every direction beyond these narrow districts, 
an entirely modern town had sprung up which was 
intersected by spacious avenues or boulevards, laid 
out on an ambitious scale, and a not too judicious 
design as regards their proportions. Under the cloud- 
less, burning Attic sky, they simply afforded long, 

17 B 


shadeless vistas of fierce sunlight, and in winter were 
too often swept by hurricanes of blinding dust. 

Nevertheless, these broad thoroughfares, which ran, 
one above the other, in parallel lines, up to and along 
the rocky base of Lycabettus, were not devoid of 
dignity. At intervals their monotony was broken 
by a few really fine public buildings, among them the 
University and the Academy of Science and Art — 
the latter the work of the eminent architect Hansen, 
who, later on, was to erect that splendid Temple of 
Discord, the Parliament Plouse at Vienna — and by 
various large educational institutions like the Arsa- 
keion, the Varvakeion, and others. Sparsely scattered 
about these main streets, too, were a few sumptuous 
private residences, as, for instance, Schliemann's some- 
what pretentious " Palace of Ilion " ; the beautiful 
house of that most munificent of Greek citizens, the 
late M. Syngros ; and those of half-a-dozen other 
rich Hellenes who, unlike the great majority of 
their prosperous congeners of Trieste, Alexandria, 
London, and other important Greek centres, had 
returned to live in their own country instead of 
contenting themselves with endowing it or financing- 
it from a distance. For, splendid though be their 
donations to the Fatherland, the leading members 
of the Greek communities abroad show but little 
inclination to come and reside amongst, and throw 
in their lot with their own people. This seems a 
pity, and may indeed be accounted in some degree 
a national misfortune. In the complete absence of 
any clearly defined aristocratic, or upper, class, 
a cultured and patriotic plutocracy would furnish 
a valuable reinforcement to the feeble conservative 
elements of the country, and might serve as a counter- 
poise to the clique of professional politicians and 


office hunters who, from the first, have played too 
great a part in its destinies, and are now subjected 
to no check beyond the very limited powers of the 
Crown. Both the political and social life of Greece 
could not but benefit by such a remigration of her 
sons who, together with their riches, would bring 
back with them the sounder traditions and principles 
current in their respective Western homes. 

But if it was impossible not to note with satis- 
faction the signs of progress and improvement which 
Athens evinced at first sight, personally I was at 
once doomed to bitter disappointment in the Legation 
House which was to be our home. We drove there 
straight from the Pirseus, and to our dismay found 
it in a state of disrepair and neglect that was really 
incredible, seeing that it had only a short time before 
been vacated by my predecessor. I had preserved so 
vivid a recollection of it in the days of its tenancy 
by the Scarletts ; of its handsome vestibule and marble 
staircase, and its great terrace facing the wondrous 
temple -crowned hill, that I had given my wife a 
glowing description of it. Great, therefore, was our 
disillusion on realising the deplorable plight it was 
in. There was nothing for it but to make up our 
minds to remain at some hotel until this state of 
affairs had been reported home and I had obtained 
the requisite authority to thoroughly repair certain 
parts of the house which by degrees had been allowed 
to get into a positively ruinous and uninhabitable 
condition ; next to nothing having been done to 
keep it in proper order during the forty years or so 
that it had been the home of British representatives, 
from Sir Edmund Lyons onwards. Fortunately we 
found comfortable apartments at the Hotel d'Angle- 
terre, a well-managed establishment at the corner of 


the Constitution, or Palace, Square and the street of 
Hermes, and there we had to live for over ten months 
before moving into our official home. 

The staff of the Legation, when I arrived, con- 
sisted for a time solely of the Second Secretary, Ernest 
Lyon ; the First Secretary of Legation, in the person 
of Mr. Henry Howard, 1 only joining it some months 
later. Ernest Lyon 2 — whom my wife had known from 
his boyhood, and whose acquaintance I had first made 
some eight years before at his historic family home 
of Glamis — and his wife, a very attractive little 
lady, with an unusually deep-speaking voice in 
curious contrast with her slight, fairy-like figure, are 
chiefly associated in my mind with a sadly painful 
incident. One day, early in November, on getting 
back from our usual afternoon drive, I found waiting 
for me a telegram which, in accordance with the 
custom of the place, bore on its envelope the name 
of the station whence it had been despatched. This 
was " Glamis," and, being addressed to me instead 
of to Lyon himself, I felt certain that the message 
must contain unfavourable news of some kind. Little, 
however, was I prepared for what I read: "Tell 
Ernest ship wrecked, baby and nurse drowned, 
Hubert saved." Never before or since has it been 
brought home to me with such force how brutal 
can be the brevity of announcements by telegraph. 
We knew that the Lyons were expecting their two 
little children by long sea route in the s.s. Sidon 
(she struck on some rocks off Corunna 3 ), and now fell 

1 Now Sir Henry Howard, K.C.M.G., C.B., and H.M.'s Envoy at the 

2 The Honble. Ernest Lyon, third son of the late Earl of Strathmore. 

8 I am tempted to extract an account of the circumstances of the 
wreck from my wife's diary: "Nov. 18. The Lyons have just received 
form Glamis a letter, written to Lady Strathmore by a Miss Evans, who 


to us the task of breaking to them this terrible 
catastrophe. They had taken for the hot season a 
small villa on the cliff at Phalerum ; where we 
frequently went to dine and spend the evening on 
the verandah whence, in the perfectly lovely Attic 
moonlit nights, the outlook seawards and across the 
bay towards Hymettus and the intervening plain of 
Athens was quite enchanting. We drove out there 
at once, and my wife went in to see and prepare the 
unconscious mother while I paced up and down 
outside in the gathering dusk waiting for Lyon, who 
had not yet returned from his day's occupation in 
town. Poor Ernest Lyon ! Full of intelligence, and 
with a most pleasant manner and much social talent, 
he too was destined to an early and violent end, being 
killed a few years later at Belgrade by a fall from 
his horse. 

Almost my first association, however, with the 

was one of the passengers on the wrecked Sidon. They had had very bad 
weather from the moment of leaving Liverpool, and on the evening of the 
27th October at 7.30 p.m., the ship struck on a rock off Malpica, which is 
not far from Corunna. Two passengers and the head nurse and baby 
got into a boat which was swamped at the side of the vessel, all four being 
drowned. The remaining passengers were then placed on the forecastle 
— the communicating bridge being swept away just after the Captain, 
at the risk of his life, had carried Hubert over it. They then clung 
on to ropes until ten o'clock the next morning, washed over and 
threatened continually with destruction by the raging sea. Miss Evans 
says that the young nurse, Annie Jackson, behaved admirably. Her foot 
had been much crushed and injured, but she only let the child out of her 
arms twice, just to enable her to change her cramped position, and what 
that must have been may be imagined, for the ship was on her beam- 
ends, and the passengers could only keep themselves from being washed 
overboard by holding fast to the ropes. The two nurses, who had been ill 
all the voyage, were roused from their cots when the ship struck, and 
had no time to put on any clothes, so this poor Annie was in her night- 
gown only. In the morning boats came from the land, which proved to 
be so close that, when day broke, the poor wretched creatures could see 
people sitting on the shore under umbrellas (for it was raining) watching 


Lyon menage was of an entirely different and decidedly 
cheerful description ; when, in beautiful weather at 
the end of May, they induced me to join them on 
a day's trip to the Aero Corinth. The German 
Charge d y Affaires, Prince Francis Thurn and Taxis, 
and his extremely pretty wife — a Countess d'Orsay, 
of an Austrian branch of the French family to 
which belonged the well-known dandy of the first 
half of last century — were also of the party. We 
had a longish journey by rail there and back, and 
upwards of an hour's steep climb — the ladies, of 
course, mounted on mules — to the summit of the 
rocky eminence and the triple line of mediaeval 
fortifications which, from the Latin Crusaders who 
erected them, passed successively into Venetian and 
Turkish hands. The toil of the ascent in the 
mid-day heat was more than repaid, for the view 
obtained from the top is quite surprising, not 
alone for its beauty and extent but for its entirely 
exceptional character. Greece in fact — or as much 
of it as enables one clearly to take in the entire 
configuration of the country which looms so large 
in the world's history and yet is territorially so small 
— lies stretched out before one exactly as it looks 
on the map. 

From this fortress eyrie — rising abruptly to a 
height of close upon two thousand feet above the level 
of the isthmus, midway between the Corinthian and 
Saronic gulfs, and with an incomparable outlook 
over both — the horizon stretches far away to the 
majestic background of Parnassus and Helicon, whose 
masses tower above the plains of Phocis, Bceotia and 
Attica in Continental Greece ; while in the opposite, 
Peloponnesian, quarter, it is bounded by the barren 
range that conceals Argos, and behind which, much 


further to the south, the mind's eye takes in Laconia 
with the rugged Spartan country. In the brilliantly 
transparent atmosphere and the wondrous light that 
lend a special enchantment to Greek scenery, even 
when most bare and arid, the map-like prospect is 
so clear that it looks almost possible to place one's 
finger, as on the map itself, on half-a-dozen world- 
renowned spots — Delphi, and Leuctra, and Platsea, 
and Mantinea — let alone Salamis and Marathon — the 
latter, however, being screened from view by the ridges 
of Pentelicus. Every one of these sites is included 
in the marvellous prospect, and the whole story of 
ancient Greece is spread out, as it were, at one's 
feet. We picnicked gaily in the shade of some 
giant rocks just below the summit, and of all the 
enjoyments of this delightful day perhaps the most 
perfect was slaking one's thirst at an old well — the 
kerb and orifice of which were thickly overgrown 
with delicate maiden-hair fern, and which lay not 
far from the famed Pirenian spring — a goat-herd who 
was tending his flock drawing up for us a bucketful 
of the most delicious ice-cold water I have ever tasted. 

The Greek sky and climate lend themselves so 
admirably to outings such as I have just described, 
that we subsequently went, on several occasions, with 
the pleasant Lyons and Taxis couples and a few other 
colleagues, to that favourite resort of the tourist, Pen- 
telicus. On leaving the sun-scorched, almost treeless 
plain, after a hot, dusty drive, nothing can be more 
grateful than the verdure with which the ravines by 
the side of the ascent and the first acclivities of the 
mountain are thickly clad. Further on one presently 
comes to a group of splendid plane - trees, of im- 
mense age, grouped round a fresh spring of bubbling 


water, and giving shelter to a sort of platform just out- 
side the old monastery of Mendeli. There could be 
no more ideal setting to our midday feasts than this 
charming shady spot, which is of course familiar to 
most travellers in these regions. Nowhere do the 
beauties and restfulness of foliage make them- 
selves so keenly felt as in stony Attica, and yet no- 
where are an ignorant peasantry more wanton in the 
destruction of timber. The chief offenders in this 
respect are the shepherds and goat-herds who, in 
defiance of all forest laws, recklessly set whole planta- 
tions alight for the sake of procuring a few acres of 
meagre pasturage for their herds. 

Only a few years after I left Greece, there occurred 
a most disastrous conflagration which destroyed a great 
part of the woods that I had seen standing on the 
south-western slopes of Pentelicus. Half the garrison 
of Athens was employed for several days in checking 
the progress of the flames on the burning mountain. 
To the laying waste of the forests which, in ancient 
times, probably covered much of the Attic uplands, is 
mainly due, no doubt, the excessive dryness of the 
climate and the lightness of the soil. For the resident 
at Athens it has this other disastrous effect, that, un- 
like most southern capitals, there exist in the neigh- 
bourhood of the city no shady retreats on the hill- 
slopes, where one can take refuge from the oppressive 
summer heat. Athens, in fact, is almost unprovided 
with villeggiaturas, if one excepts the glaring sea-side 
resort of Phalerum, and Kephisia with its few gardens 
and, at that time, very second-rate hotel. 1 In the earlier 

1 Kephisia, the guide-books remind us, was in ancient times a favourite 
resort of the citizens of Athens, and is praised in the Nodes Atticae of 
Aulus Gellius. It may of late years have been living up to its former 
reputation, but in my recollection it is a hot, uninteresting place, with 
little to recommend it. 


days of King Otho it was not so. Some villas were 
built on Pentelicus, chiefly at the initiative of that 
eccentric Philhellene Frenchwoman, the Duchesse 
de Plaisance, who then played a prominent part 
in Athens society, at the same time as her 
friend and intimate, the beautiful Ianthe, 1 whose 
chequered matrimonial and other adventures brought 
her to Greece before she finally ended her wayward 
existence under the tent of the Bedouin Sheikh 
Mijwal of Damascus. Strolling about in the neigh- 
bourhood of the monastery on one of our excursions, 
I found myself almost unawares inside a broken- 
down fence enclosing a neglected old pleasaunce, half 
garden and half orchard, which the rank growth of 
vegetation had turned into a pathless jungle. Through 
the great flowering shrubs and towering brambles there 
peered out the pink marble walls of the deserted, only 
half-finished villa built by the strangely capricious, and 
romantic Duchess, 2 where, in the bright garden, with 
its distant view of the iEgean waters, at the first dawn 
of the newly - created kingdom, many a dream may 
have been dreamt, and many a plan discussed for the 
recovery of Byzantium. Why these perfect sites for 
summer retreats should have been afterwards com- 
pletely abandoned, I never heard satisfactorily ex- 
plained. Possibly, in addition to the devastation of 
the woods, the insecurity of the country due to the 
plague of brigandage may account for it. As late as 
1870, only a few miles from here, took place the 
capture by brigands of the victims of the shocking 
massacre of Oropos. 

1 Lady ElK'iiborough. 

2 One. of tlic singularities of this daughter-in-law of the Napoleonic 
Arrhi Ghancelier Lebrun, Due de Plaisance, was to build houses of fan 
tastic architectural design which Bhe never completed, from a superstitious 
dread that she would die as soon as she had put the last touch to them. 
See E. About's Grece contemporaine for her and Ianthe. 


On his return from Corfu at the end of May, the 
King opened the newly-elected Chamber in person. 
In the speech from the throne reference was made to 
Balkanic affairs in terms to which events that were 
to follow soon gave a special significance. It was both 
"the duty and the interest of Greece," it was said in 
the speech, " to desire the maintenance of the territorial 
status quo, established some years before at Berlin." 
Peace, it was added, with a passing allusion to the 
national aspirations, would best enable the country 
to effect those internal improvements which it still 
needed, " and thereby render itself worthy of its 
mission." On the whole — making allowance for this 
slight touch of Panhellenism — the language put in 
his Sovereign's mouth by the new Prime Minister 
was fairly correct and satisfactory. For the rest, the 
ceremony was attended with little outward display 
beyond the lining by troops of the road along which 
the Royal carriages passed from the palace to the House 
of Parliament. From our rooms at the hotel, overlook- 
ing the Palace Square, we had an excellent view of the 
military pageant such as it was. A battery of artillery 
was drawn up right under our windows, but the only 
really picturesque item of the show was a battalion of 
Evzones, or Riflemen, clad in the national, or rather the 
Albanian, dress, with the fustanella, or white kilt. 
Wonderfully smart, active, soldier -like fellows, and 
held to be the flower of the Greek army, though by 
their extraordinarily slender waists, and starched full- 
pleated white petticoats, they irresistibly reminded one 
of a corps de ballet. 

On the evening before the opening of the Chamber 
I had had my official audience of the King, for the 
delivery of my credentials, and had been afterwards 


received by Queen Olga, whom I now saw for the first 
time. The Queen, then barely thirty-four years of age, 
was, like most of the grandchildren of the Emperor 
Nicholas, strikingly handsome, and had besides in- 
herited much of the good looks of her mother, the 
Grand Duchess Constantine, one of the most beautiful 
women of her day. Although brought up in the most 
splendid and luxurious of Courts, no princess of a great 
reigning house ever led a saintlier life of perfect self- 
denial and charity than Queen Olga. Her days were 
almost entirely given up to good works. The " Queen 
of the poor," as she had been affectionately proclaimed 
by the public voice, personally looked after the various 
hospitals and other charitable institutions on which she 
bestowed her patronage. Scarcely a day passed without 
her visiting the Evangelismos — which, under her care 
and supervision, had become a hospital worthy of any 
great Western capital— and she was deeply interested 
in the needle-work institution she had founded for the 
employment of women, and for which so much has 
been done in recent years by Lady Egerton. The Queen 
received me most graciously, and captivated me by her 
simple charm and dignity. Her Majesty kindly in- 
quired after my wife, whose health, I explained to her, 
had thus far prevented her applying for an audience. 
When this indispensable form had been gone through, 
we were at once, on the 8th of June, asked to 
luncheon — or more properly early dinner — together 
with the Lyons, at the Royal country place at Tatoi'. 

This favourite residence of King George — entirely 
his own creation — lies about eighteen miles to the 
north of Athens, on one of the lower spurs of Parnes. 
The first part of the road to it is of an uninteresting 
character, and at that time of the year we found the 
drive extremely hot and dusty. Beyond a certain 


point, however, the ground gradually rises and is 
covered with fir-trees, the road itself being planted 
on each side with the beautiful oleanders which grow 
so luxuriantly all over Greece. On entering the Royal 
domain the trees become more varied and are more 
thickly planted, and one soon finds oneself driving 
through prettily laid-out and well-kept grounds. The 
house, which is scarcely visible till one is close upon 
it, is but a villa of moderate size, affording just suffi- 
cient accommodation for the Royal family. The gentle- 
men of the suite in fact were at that time lodged in 
rooms above the stables and coach-houses. 1 We were 
taken to one of these rooms to shake off the dust of 
the road, and when we came down were met in the 
grounds by the King himself, to whom I presented my 
wife ; his Majesty then showing us the way through 
the gardens to the house, where the Grande Maitresse 
(Mistress of the Robes), Mme. Theocaris, took charge 
of Lady Rumbold and conducted her to the Queen's 
apartments. I will borrow here some details from my 
wife's diary : — 

"We were to have dined al fresco, as is the 
pleasant custom here, but the clouds which had all 
the morning shaded the sun, now burst, and a violent 
thunderstorm, with heavy rain, necessitated the transfer 
to the house of all the dinner arrangements ; this being 
accomplished by the servants — some of them rather fat 
Palikares in the Albanian dress — in their shirt-sleeves, 
quite heedless of the passing to and fro of their Royal 
masters and their guests. At about 3.30 dinner was 
served in the dining-room, where we were rather 
closely packed. The party besides ourselves was only 

1 This description applies to the villa first erected on the estate, and in 
no way to the present spacious Royal chdteau of Dekeleia, which was only 
entirely finished shortly before I left Athens in 1888. 


a family one, including governesses and professors — 
the latter coming out from Athens two or three times 
a week to the Princes ; in all about sixteen people. 
The dinner was good and not too long, and the table 
decoration of the simplest, the only ornament being 
a bouquet of flowers. 

" H. and I sat on the left respectively of their 
Majesties, aud the Crown Prince and his sister on the 
right. On my left was Prince Nicholas, a charming, 
bright boy of thirteen, full of talk, and very keen to 
hear all I could tell him about English boys and their 
ways. Conversation was easy and pretty general, and 
when the subject of ghosts incidentally cropped up, 
the presence of the Lyons naturally led to the mention 
of the mysteries and legends of Glamis Castle, which 
were discussed with the greatest interest, as is indeed 
always the case in any society. 

" The storm was sharp but short, and after dinner 
we were able to go out and admire the gardens, which 
their Majesties showed us with an evident and justi- 
fiable pride in their own work. Their work it really is, 
for when they took it in hand twelve years ago, Tato'i 
was little better than a bare, uncultivated hill-side. It 
is difficult to realise, when wandering about this green 
and luxuriantly shaded retreat, that one is within a two 
hours' drive of sun-scorched, treeless Athens. (Shade 
of the Olive groves, forgive me ! You are so grey and 
dusty that you don't count.) 

" The new building is in progress and will probably 
be finished by next summer. It is not a palace, but a 
well-planned, solid, stone house with a fine terrace, 
from which there is a magnificent view right away to 
the sea, including Athens and the Acropolis. Their 
Majesties took much trouble in explaining to us the 
details and arrangements of the house, letting appear, 


in all they did and said, a simple, unaffected interest in 
their new abode, such as might have been shown by 
any ordinary country gentleman and his wife. 

" Having exhausted the sights of the garden, we 
were taken for a drive through the very fine oak woods, 
again all planned by the King and his Danish bailiff. 
The King drove H. in his phaeton, while I and the 
Lyons were with the Queen, the Royal children follow- 
ing in another carriage. On the way back we visited 
the stables, farm-buildings, &c, and their occupants, 
among them being a dear little baby donkey, which 
was evidently on the best and most affectionate of 
terms with the whole Royal family. 

" On again reaching Tato'i we found our own car- 
riages ready (7.30 p.m.). The Queen took leave of us 
at the foot of the steps, and retired, while the King and 
the children waited to see us off. 

" It was a fatiguing day, but I shall soon forget 
that, and only remember its being a very pleasant 
one, passed in the society of this most charming and 
amiable Royal family." 



The summer wore away, and with it the well-nigh 
intolerable heat. In our rooms, most of which looked 
on to the narrow street of Hermes, it was almost 
as trying by night as by day. The only approach to 
relief from it was during our late afternoon drives 
to the beach at Phalerum, whence we used to return 
after dusk, when the lamps in the mean, populous 
suburb on the way to the Piraeus were just being 
lighted, and at the street corners one heard, through 
the stifling haze, the clear tinkle of ice in the re- 
volving machines of the vendors of lemonade and 
other cooling drinks — a deliriously refreshing sound 
which remains associated in my memory with the 
purgatory we underwent during these endless Athenian 

Contrary to all expectation, the first session of the 
new Legislature, although sufficiently stormy, passed 
off without any attempt on the part of the incoming 
Ministry actually to impeach their predecessors. The 
Government candidate for the Presidency was duly 
elected in the person of M. Kalliphronas, a very old 
Parliamentary stager who had sat in every Legislature 
for the last forty years. M. Kalliphronas was quite 
a survival of Edmond About' s Grece contemporaine, 
and one of the few Greeks, of any standing, who 
still clung to the national dress. I remembered the 
picturesque old gentleman twenty years before as a 



deputy for Attica, where he was a considerable land- 
owner. The story told of him then was that he had 
come to a friendly understanding with the brigand 
chief, Kitzos, at that time the scourge of the country. 
When pressed too hard by the Gendarmerie, Kitzos, 
it was said, was sure of a refuge in M. Kalliphronas' 
house at Athens ; that gentleman's property and 
tenants being in return exempted from the chieftain's 
operations. At that period M. Kalliphronas held the 
portfolio of Justice in the Provisional Government 
of the day. 

M. Tricoupis' financial administration did not, of 
course, escape violent, and in some measure well- 
merited attack in the Chamber. He had left the 
Treasury in such a state of depletion that scarcely 
one-third of the funds required to meet the July 
coupon of the Foreign Debt was available at the 
end of May. The heavy outlay incurred for so-called 
productive purposes, such as the extension of the 
railways and the making of new roads — though both 
these were undeniably much needed — had been far 
in excess of the normal resources of a country further 
burdened with a military and naval expenditure quite 
out of proportion to its reasonable requirements. That 
the late Prime Minister had been actuated in his 
financial policy by any but the purest patriotic motives 
could not be questioned. None the less he had 
brought Greece to a condition bordering on bank- 
ruptcy. Heated discussions took place about the 
Budget brought in by M. Delyannis, which was a com- 
plete overthrow of the economic system initiated by the 
preceding Government. Similar ruthless reversals of 
policy have been seen elsewhere, but, in this in- 
stance, the programme of M. Delyannis could be 
summed up as a systematic undoing of everything 


attempted by his predecessor. The entire fabric of 
fiscal legislation and administrative reform, patiently 
reared by the late Premier during his three years' 
tenure of office, was destroyed in as many weeks ; 
the Chamber getting through the various stages of 
the numerous Bills laid before it, at the rate 
of from twenty to thirty in a single sitting, and 
the Budget itself being disposed of in two days. 
Hard words probably break fewer bones in Greece 
than elsewhere, but the virulence of the onslaught 
made upon M. Tricoupis and his policy was no 
doubt proportionate to the exceptional duration of 
his Administration. 

The fallen statesman showed an undaunted front 
to his adversaries. On the occasion of an attempt 
made by the Governmental majority to invalidate the 
election of one of the deputies for Missolonghi who 
was a supporter of his, he challenged the Chamber, 
in a speech of great vigour, to annul his own elec- 
tion for the same constituency. If they annulled the 
election of his colleague alone, he would forthwith, 
he said, resign his own seat, for he would never 
consent to be indebted for it to his position as 
Leader of the Opposition. Whatever charges were 
brought against the election of his friend, applied 
equally to his own. Let them, therefore, have the 
courage to strike the man at whom the blow was 
really aimed, by declaring the entire election void 
and expelling him. 

The lamentable condition of the national finances 
had the effect of bringing public opinion face to 
face with the unpalatable truth that the only effectual 
means of righting the country economically was a 
reduction of its excessive armaments. A movement 
in this sense was indeed observable iD part of the 



public press, though it was difficult to say whether 
it reached to any great depth. In the Chamber M. 
Tricoupis at once grappled with this question with 
characteristic boldness and much skill. If, he said, 
a saving of Fifteen Million Drachmai could be effected 
in the Estimates, the problem of achieving an equi- 
librium in the Budget would at once be solved. 
Such a result, however, could only be attained by 
giving up those military preparations to which he had 
himself so much contributed. Nothing would induce 
him to consent to such a step, which must bring 
with it the relinquishment of the national aspira- 
tions or, as he preferred to put it, the national policy 
of Greece. Greece, he maintained, could not be made 
ready too rapidly to take her part in the inevitable 
— to his mind the immediately impending — struggle 
in the East. Whatever the cost of such prepara- 
tions, it was far better it should be incurred than 
that the country should be found powerless to assert 
itself at the proper time. He dared the Govern- 
ment to follow any other line. He knew that public 
opinion of all shades was unanimous on this one 
point of upholding the national policy. It was clear 
that even the actual Ministry shared these views, 
since they had only tinkered at the Military Estimates 
with a few economies, but had practically left them 

I have quoted from M. Tricoupis' speech at great 
length because of the unfortunate influence which 
his attitude in this question had on the course of 
the untoward events that were soon to follow. 
Equally regrettable in its tendencies was the charge 
he brought against M. Delyannis of having cut down 
an item figuring in the Estimates of the Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs under the head of " Unforeseen 


Expenses," and which was devoted to fostering Greek 
schools and Greek literature in the Turkish provinces. 
The sum — some 800,000 Drachmai — set apart for 
this object, was disbursed through a Syllogos, or 
Committee, which had its seat at Athens, and, no 
account being rendered of its expenditure, was 
practically a secret service fund applied to the pro- 
pagation of Panhellenic ideas and aspirations. M. 
Delyannis made but a feeble defence against what 
was in the eyes of every patriotic Greek a most 
damaging imputation, and in fact allowed himself to 
be brow-beaten by his masterful antagonist. Passion 
on both sides of the Chamber rose to such a pitch 
during the debate that at one moment it came to a 
free fight with fists and sticks. Fortunately a ther- 
mometer registering over 100 degrees in the shade, 
and the approaching currant harvest, shortly after- 
wards combined to bring the session to a desirable 

Among the efforts at retrenchment made by the 
new Administration was the recall of the Greek 
Envoys at Foreign Courts, and the substitution for 
them of simple Charges d! Affaires with greatly re- 
duced salaries. The candidate for the vacancy in 
London was M. Gennadius, an old acquaintance of 
mine, who had lived a great many years in England, 
had been Secretary to the Legation there, and not 
only spoke, but wrote English more perfectly than 
almost any other foreigner I have ever known. M. 
Gennadius was at Athens, and, when consulted about 
his appointment by M. Delyannis, I strongly backed 
him as extremely well suited for a post which he 
before long filled with much distinction. 

In another instance the new Premier who had 


taken charge of the Foreign Department, was not so 
well inspired. The Greek Legation at Berlin had 
been held for a good many years by M. Rhangabe, 
one of the most distinguished Hellenes of his time. 1 
M. Rhangabe was a man of great erudition, a brilliant 
writer and dramatist, and a charming poet, who stood 
in high favour not only with the Emperor William 
and the Crown Prince and Crown Princess, but with 
Prince Bismarck himself. On his being recalled, in 
accordance with the scheme for the reduction of 
diplomatic expenditure, the German Charge d y Affaires, 
Prince Taxis, was instructed to make an urgent un- 
official representation, in the name of the Emperor, 
for the maintenance of the Greek Minister at his 
post. The action thus taken was undoubtedly of 
an unusual character, but M. Delyannis was so ill 
advised as to intimate his inability to comply with 
the request in language which at Berlin was looked 
upon as conveying a discourteous rebuff. He had 
not counted, however, with the imperious Chan- 
cellor, who not only returned to the charge, in almost 
peremptory terms, but took the quite unprecedented 
course of getting the Austrian and Russian Govern- 
ments to support his request diplomatically at Athens. 
L Affaire Rhangabe, in fact, attained quite serious 
proportions, and certainly not a little contributed to 
the very hostile attitude towards M. Delyannis per- 
sonally, which was taken up by Prince Bismarck in 
the serious crisis that ensued a few months later. 

The simple, unassuming object of this sharp diplo- 

1 Alexander-Rizos Rhangabe" (b. 1810, d. 1892) had been Envoy at 
Washington and Constantinople and at one time Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, and had represented Greece at the Congress of Berlin. Apart 
from his diplomatic and literary labours, he had acquired distinction as 
an archaeologist in the excavation of the ruins of the Temple of Juno 
at Aruos. 


matic interlude was too interesting a personality to be 
passed over without further notice in these Recollections. 
M. Rhangabe, who must then have been considerably 
past seventy, was a diminutive and fragile-looking old 
gentleman, with a charming, mobile countenance, and 
a splendid intellectual forehead crowned with a long, 
carelessly-brushed silver mane. His talk was most 
interesting and his manner was full of an almost 
boyish vivacity which made it easy to understand his 
being a favourite with so admirable a judge of intellect 
and genius as the late Empress Frederick. We saw 
a good deal of this fascinating old diplomatist, 1 who 
had taken rooms in a house in Hermes Street almost 
exactly facing our windows, and in the sultry summer 
evenings it was amusing to watch the balcony opposite 
where he and the handsome, rather showy, Miss 
Rhangabes held their small court of friends and 

The Chamber now adjourned until October, and 
the King started on his annual journey abroad, first 
going to Vienna, and thence to visit his relatives at 
Gmunden and at Copenhagen. Shortly before his 
Majesty left an incident occurred which well illus- 
trated the abnormal position of the Crown in Greece, 
and, in some degree, foreshadowed the difficult situa- 
tion that not long after arose between it and its 
responsible advisers. Among the few intimates of 
the Royal circle was the King's favourite aide-de-camp 
Colonel Hadjipetros, who always accompanied his 
Majesty on his travels, and filled the functions of 
what at German Courts is known as a Reisemarschall. 
The Colonel was a bluff, outspoken soldier, thoroughly 
devoted to his master, and, although taking no active 

3 A son of M. Rhangabe is now, I believe, Greek Minister at Berlin. 


part in politics, an admirer of the late Prime Minister 
M. Tricoupis. Some incautious remark he allowed to 
drop at the time of the Ministerial crisis in February, as 
to his belief that the King would certainly not grant 
M. Delyannis power to dissolve the Chamber, reached 
the ears of the new Premier, who thereupon pressed 
his Majesty to dismiss his aide-de-camp in sign of his 
confidence in his new advisers. On the King's demur- 
ring to this request, M. Delyannis threatened to resign 
if the obnoxious officer were not at once removed. 
Under what was very improper pressure, the King 
thought it well to acquiesce, and it was officially 
announced, on the very eve of his Majesty's departure, 
that Colonel Hadjipetros had ceased to hold his Court 
appointment and was placed at the disposal of the 
Minister of War. 

The removal of the Colonel was stated to be 
technically correct, inasmuch as the army regulations 
did not allow of any officer being taken for more 
than three years from the corps to which he belonged, 
and the aide-de-camp had long exceeded that limit. 
But of this petty display of power on the part of M. 
Delyannis there could be no two opinions. The affair, 
besides being the general talk of the town, caused much 
indignation among the Foreign Diplomatists, who were 
all agreed in blaming the conduct of the Greek Premier. 
Shortly afterwards, at one of my frequent interviews 
with him, M. Delyannis, to my great surprise, spoke 
to me of the incident. The explanation which he 
volunteered of it was that he had been compelled 
to insist on M. Hadjipetros' dismissal because his sup- 
porters in the Chamber threatened to desert him if 
he did not obtain it. 

I thereupon told the Minister that, since he him- 
self alluded to a subject which I should certainly 


not have broached to him, I would tell him, in as 
friendly a manner as I could, what I thought of it. 
I did not, I said, presume to judge whether he had 
had what he considered sufficient reasons for acting 
as he had done. I could not, however, conceal from 
him that what had occurred had produced a very 
unfortunate impression on me and on all my col- 
leagues. We regretted that such undue pressure 
should have been brought to bear upon the King. 
It must be borne in mind, I said, that under the 
Greek Constitution 1 the Crown was singularly power- 
less, and for that reason any proceeding that infringed 
upon the Royal dignity seemed to me, to say the least, 
imprudent. Yet it was hardly to be supposed that 
Greece could exist without a monarchy. I had myself 
been a witness of the interregnum between King 
Otho and King George, and knew what that had been 
like. Monarchy being, therefore, a necessity for Greece, 
she might deem herself fortunate in having a King 
who commanded the sympathies of Europe. Since he 
had started the subject I was glad of the opportunity 
of frankly speaking my mind about it, and I must add 
that, as the representative of the Power which had done 
most to place the King upon the Throne, and had on 
two occasions taken the lead in greatly increasing his 
dominions, I should at all times, while carefully avoid- 
ing immixing myself in internal politics, consider it 
my special duty to support his Majesty. I will do 
M. Delyannis the justice to say that he took what I 
said in good part, and thought it right to assure me 
of his devotion to his Sovereign. 

'& j 

With the Royal departure and the Parliamentary 

1 See "Recollections of a Diplomatist," pp. 125 and 126, as to the 
acquiescence of our Government in this very faulty Constitution. 


recess, an absolutely dead season, both politically and 
socially, came over Athens sweltering in the heat and 
dust. But for the works at last begun on the Legation 
House, to which, together with a sixteen years' lease 
of it, Lord Salisbury had got the Treasury to agree, 
there would have been nothing to interest or occupy 
us. All of a sudden, at the end of September, the 
startling turn of events in Eastern Roumelia woke 
up Greece with a vengeance out of her summer siesta, 
and threw her into one of those wild fever-dreams of 
conquest and aggrandisement which have periodically 
marked her troubled history since her first struggle for 
freedom and independence. 

Eastern Roumelia — a creation of the Congress of 
Berlin — had been given a semi-independent existence 
as a vassal province of the Ottoman Empire, and was 
feebly administered by a Phanariot Pasha of the 
name of Krestovitch. During the summer, Philip- 
popolis had already been the scene of serious disturb- 
ances between the Slav and Greek elements of the 
population, in the course of which, the former being 
unduly favoured by the Ottoman authorities, many 
recriminations had been exchanged between Athens 
and Constantinople. The sudden, bloodless revolution 
of the 1 8th September — when the Turkish Governor- 
General was seized in his Konak and expelled, and 
Prince Alexander of Battenberg proclaimed ruler of 
a greater, united Bulgaria — was so defiant a violation of 
the arrangements sanctioned by all the Great Powers 
at Berlin that it could not but produce a profound 
impression at Athens. Not only did it constitute a 
flagrant infraction of the status quo in the Balkans which 
the King, in opening the Chamber, had declared it to 
be the duty and the interest of Greece to respect and 


uphold, but it was a signal triumph for the rival Slav 
in whom, far more than in their ancient oppressor the 
Turk, the ITellenes had long come to see their most 
dangerous enemy. 

At first, nevertheless, I was able to report home 
that, beyond a certain degree of effervescence at Athens 
and in some of the provincial towns, there were no 
signs of undue excitement. As for the Government, 
they were of course much disturbed, and all the more 
so that, only a few days before, they had received ad- 
vices from Vienna to the effect that peace was now 
more than ever assured ; nothing, therefore, they had 
hoped, standing in the way of their devoting all 
their attention to purely internal concerns. Unfor- 
tunately, the Opposition press at once set to work 
to increase the ferment by clamouring for the calling 
out of the reserves, and when news arrived of a 
mobilisation having been ordered in Servia, even the 
Greek Foreign Office, though at first professing a 
sincere desire to keep the country quiet, began to 
admit that some active steps might become neces- 
sary for the protection of Hellenic interests at so 
grave a crisis. 

The return of the King was now anxiously awaited. 
His Majesty reached Athens on Sunday, the 27th 
of September, having stopped on his way back at 
Vienna. With the rest of the Diplomatic Body I 
went to receive the Royal traveller at the Corinth 
Railway station. The streets were thronged with 
holiday folk, together with various corporations and 
patriotic associations which, when the King drove 
by, cheered enthusiastically, and, forming into pro- 
cession with their banners, marched to the Palace 
square where the bulk of them gradually dispersed. 
An obstreperous mob, however, chiefly composed of 


Thracians and Macedonians, continued shouting under 
the Palace windows until the King came out on the 
balcony with the Queen and the Royal children, and 
said a few words to them, exhorting them to patience 
and fortitude in the serious circumstances which had 
arisen, and bidding them rely on his unceasing care 
for the interests of Hellenism. 

It soon became evident that the Government were 
being swept along by the fast-rising tide, for before 
the end of the week two classes of the reserve — some 
12,000 men — were called out by Royal decree. I had 
prepared Lord Salisbury * for this turn of affairs, and 
had asked for definite instructions for my guidance, 
giving it as my opinion, and that of most of my 
colleagues, that M. Delyannis' Administration was 
much too feeble to arrest the movement which had 
set in for a vindication by force of arms, if neces- 
sary, of the claims of Greece to her share in what 
was then believed to be the impending final break-up 
of the Turkish Empire. In reply, I was commissioned 
to deliver a friendly but earnest remonstrance from 
Her Majesty's Government against the course that 
was being followed in Greece, coupled with the warn- 
ing that that country would only be laying itself open 
to humiliation and disaster if it persevered in it. 

I found M. Delyannis very obdurate. He maintained 
that, although certain military measures were being 
taken with a view to meeting possible eventualities, 
it could not be said that Greece was bent upon war, 
since she had no immediate tangible adversary. In 
the event, however, he added, of the unity of Bulgaria 
under Prince Alexander becoming an accomplished 
fact recognised by the Powers, or of the status quo 

1 A Conservative Government had come into office at the end of June. 


in Macedonia being in any way infringed, he could 
bind himself to nothing. After assuming this high 
tone at first, he nevertheless presently let me perceive 
what was the drift of his policy by insinuating that, 
inasmuch as the events which had taken place must, 
if ratified, entirely displace the equilibrium contem- 
plated by the Treaty of Berlin, Greece might justly 
pretend to some territorial compensation, such as 
would be afforded for instance by the frontier which 
she had in vain claimed at the Congress. 

I strongly cautioned M. Delyannis against enter- 
taining any hopes of that description. At the same 
time I felt, as I reported home, that he was being 
swayed in this crisis much more by the internal than 
by the external difficulties of the situation. He had 
not been strong enough to oppose at the outset a firm 
resistance to the clamour raised against him by his 
political adversaries, backed by the Macedonian and 
other semi-revolutionary committees, on the score of 
his inaction and apparent disregard of the interests 
of Hellenism. * At first he had humoured the move- 
ment without exactly lending himself to it, in the 
hope that the action of Turkey or the intervention 
of the Powers might restore matters in the Balkans 
to their former condition. This hope proving vain, 
and the excitement in Greece daily increasing, he and 
his colleagues had resolved to turn events to account 
for their own purposes. They had now practically 
placed themselves at the head of the movement, and, 
as far as could be judged, had embarked on a policy 
of adventure. They had thereby acquired for the time 
a fictitious strength and popularity, and, what was of 
much greater concern to them, had relieved them- 
selves of the irksome obligation of endeavouring to 
restore some order in the finances of the country. 


Their desperate financial position had, in fact, con- 
tributed to make them reckless, and the alternative 
that presented itself to their minds was probably 
either bankruptcy or an accession of territory. What 
they left entirely out of account was that the latter 
would by no means stave off the former. As I said 
to the Prime Minister, it seemed to me almost folly 
that he should talk of the necessity of incurring the 
expense of mobilisation in the very same room where, 
all through the summer, he had poured out to me his 
lamentations over the terrible straits in which he had 
been left by his predecessor. 


Meantime the warlike movement rapidly gained 
strength. The Chamber was convoked in extraordi- 
nary session, and money was raised by loans obtained 
from the National Bank of Greece and two other 
smaller Banks, in exchange for the privilege granted 
to them of forced currency for their Notes. By these 
means the Government at once secured the command 
of something like £1,200,000, which was supplemented 
afterwards by a further advance from the National 
Bank. Finally, on the 12th of October, a decree was 
issued calling up three more classes of the reserve 
and mobilising all the military and naval forces of 
the Kingdom. The Minister of Marine, M. Roma, 
who disapproved the adventurous policy of the Premier 
and seceded from the Cabinet at this juncture, told me 
that it was intended to place at least 100,000 men in 
the field. 

We now began to experience the effects of these 
measures at Athens. Large bodies of men poured 
into the capital from every part of the Kingdom and 
made the streets hideous both day and night by their 
vociferations and shouts of " Zito polemos ! " (Long 
live war !). After dark, these continuous processions 
with banners and discordant bands of music, derived 
an almost sinister character from the torches and red 
Bengal lights that accompanied them. Seen and heard 
from a distance, as they threaded the narrow streets, 


the hoarse cries of the marching masses, the lurid 
reflection on the white walls of the houses, and the 
smoke and glare of the torches suggested riot and 
arson, and every excess of mob law. In reality these 
poor peasants and labourers, taken from their hearths 
and homes, where many of them were the only bread- 
winners, were harmless and inoffensive enough, though 
some of the contingents from the interior of the 
Peloponnesus — mountaineers of splendid physique — 
certainly looked very ugly customers. No proper pro- 
vision having been made for them on their arrival in 
Athens, and the quarters assigned to them being quite 
inadequate, they in some instances invaded the smaller 
inns and eating-houses of the town and committed a 
few excesses. But much the greater number of them 
uncomplainingly lay out in the open in the chilly 
October nights which gave but a faint foretaste of 
the hardships that awaited them all through the 
following weary winter on the bleak uplands of 

An attempt which was made to billet the reser- 
vists on residents of the better class was the occasion 
of my renewing acquaintance with George Finlay's 
widow, in whose favour I interfered successfully and 
got her relieved of her unwelcome garrison. We 
went to see her in the old house where the historian 
had died ten years before, which she kept in perfect 
order, and in whieh she evidently took much pride. 
This last link with Byronic days — a quaint, ancient 
Levantine dame, very neatly attired in black silk and 
velvet, with a smart little black-and-gold Greek jacket, 
and wearing a funny and all-too-palpable wig — was 
much gratified by our visit, and profuse in her thanks 
for the small service I had been able to do her. 

In the opinion of the most competent judges 


nothing could be more disastrous than the military 
measures to which the Government had committed 
themselves. General Vosseur, a French officer of 
distinction whom M. Tricoupis had engaged some 
years before to reorganise the Greek army, and place 
it on a small working footing, made no concealment 
of his dismay. It might have been useful and politic, 
he said, to call up the first reserves as an earnest to 
the country and to the Powers that the Government 
were resolved to guard the interests of Greece ; but 
the decree of mobilisation (which had been issued 
without his being in any way consulted) was in his 
view quite indefensible. There existed no provision 
whatever for clothing or equipping this mass of men 
or turning them into anything like soldiers. There 
was further this most dangerous side to the step which 
had been taken that on two occasions already (in 
1877 and 1880) the reserves had been needlessly sum- 
moned, so that in joining the colours now they would 
probably do so with the determination not to be baulked 
again. 1 General Vosseur spoke of these raw levies as 
being quite incapable of any serious effort in the field ; 
they were " des hommes avec des fusils et voila tout." 

The ex - Garibaldian General Tiirr, who was at 
Athens on business connected with the cutting of the 
Isthmus of Corinth, held exactly the same views about 
the mobilisation, and complained at the same time of 
his undertaking being practically stopped for lack of 
hands. In a variety of small ways we ourselves felt 
the discomforts occasioned by this removal of such a 
large proportion of the male population from their 

1 In the event these fears proved groundless. The withdrawal from 
the Turkish frontier and the general disarmament were acquiesced in 
without any trouble by the reservists, who showed a very creditable and 
orderly spirit. 


avocations. The Athens tradespeople were unable to 
supply customers punctually, on account of the loss of 
many of their assistants. Much more serious in such 
a climate was the insufficiency of the supply of ice, 
nearly all the ice-making factories being closed for 
want of workmen ; while half of our staff of inn- 
waiters were enrolled and taken from their duties. In 
a small country with limited resources, like Greece, 
the strain of this state of things made itself felt very 
keenly, and the game of bluff — for it was little else — 
to which it was due, became quite exasperating. M. 
Rhangabe who, to his great joy, had been reinstated in 
his post at Berlin, came to say good-bye to us about 
this time. He told my wife that he had a son with 
the troops in Thessaly, but had managed to get him 
back to Athens. She replied, in fun, that it was 
depriving him of a chance of glory. " Non" replied 
Rhangabe, " ce n' est pas le danger que je crains pour 
lui, c'est le ridicule ! " And, with this valedictory shaft 
at the policy of his Government, the evergreen old 
Envoy took his leave, and bundled down the steep 
hotel stairs, on his very shaky little legs, at a pace 
that was quite alarming. 

Meanwhile the Powers, in their very sincere desire 
to prevent the spread of the existing complications in 
the Balkans, lost no time in endeavouring to arrest the 
action of the Greek Government. About the date of 
the King's return from abroad, Prince Bismarck, whose 
sentiments towards M. Delyannis, as I have already 
explained, were far from cordial, proposed through the 
Ambassador in London, Count Miinster, that effective 
pressure should be brought to bear by means of a naval 
demonstration of the Powers at the Piraeus. This 
proposal was abandoned, partly on account of un- 


willingness on the part of the French Foreign Minister, 
M. Waddington, to join in it. Shortly afterwards the 
German Envoy, Baron de Brincken, on his return from 
leave, was instructed to suggest some combined diplo- 
matic action for the same purpose. This led to a 
demarche collective, when the Ministers of the six 
Powers — Italy, Germany, Austria - Hungary, France, 
Russia, and Great Britain — waited upon M. Delyannis 
by appointment, and each in turn warned him of the 
dangers of the course on which he was engaged, im- 
pressing upon him the thorough disapproval with 
which it was viewed by their respective Governments. 
In the discussions with my colleagues which preceded 
this step I had urged that a written identic or collective 
Note would carry more weight than our verbal expostu- 
lations, but had been overruled. Our interview with 
the Greek Premier, who looked downcast and ill at 
ease, produced upon me, I confess, the not very digni- 
fied impression that we were, so to speak, the ushers 
of Dame Europa's school having up before them the 
last offender reported for misbehaviour, and giving him 
a good jobation. 

The Powers, nevertheless, made it clear that they 
were fully in earnest. The Greek Charge cV Affaires at 
Berlin reported that nothing could exceed the severity 
of the language held to him by Count Herbert Bis- 
marck ; while, at Vienna, Count Kalnoky absolutely 
refused to listen to the explanations by which the 
Greek representative attempted to justify the line 
taken by his Government. Lord Salisbury, about the 
same time, took what ought to have proved a still 
more effective step, by using very plain language to 
M. Tricoupis, who was on a sort of political tour in 
England, and urging him to use his influence with his 
countrymen to allay the rising storm in Greece. It 


was finally decided to make another joint effort to 
bring the Hellenic Government to their senses ; the 
form it took on this occasion being a collective Note, 
signed by the representatives of the same six Great 
Powers, and founded on a Declaration which had been 
drawn up by the Ambassadors at Constantinople. 1 We 
sent in our Note on the 22nd of October, the day before 
the opening of the extraordinary session of the Cham- 
ber ; our hope being that it might have some sobering 
effect on the attitude of the Government at that critical 
juncture. The tone of the Royal Speech, which was 
exclusively devoted to the events in the Balkans, was 
decidedly moderate. Referring to the complete change 
which the revolution at Philippopolis had produced in 
the situation, and the military precautions it had ren- 
dered expedient, the Speech simply expressed the con- 
fidence that the Powers, in their solicitude for peace, 
would devise means for establishing a just and durable 
equilibrium between the several nations that occupied 
the Peninsula. 

The guarded character of this language caused the 
greatest dissatisfaction both in the Chamber and out- 
side of it. On the following day the Tricoupist 
organ, the Hora, issued a violent manifesto calling a 
mass indignation meeting for that afternoon. This 
was in exact accordance with the instructions sent 
from London to his adherents by M. Tricoupis, which 
were to support the Government, but only on condition 
of their " doing their duty by the country," and being 
prepared, if necessary, "to smash up everything" (sic). 
Under the pressure of the threat of so formidable a 
manifestation, M. Delyannis, who once before had been 

1 The final arrangements as to the future of the two Bulgarias had 
been entrusted to the representatives at Constantinople of the signatories 
of the Treaty of Berlin. 


the object of a similar outburst of public anger which 
nearly degenerated into riot, a few shots being actually 
fired under his windows, went down to the Chamber 
and made a declaration which for the first time clearly 
committed the Government to action in the national 
cause in given eventualities. The Prime Minister in 
fact saved himself by the skin of his teeth, and, to a 
great extent, at the expense of his Royal Master, in 
Avhose mouth he had placed unpopular language, re- 
serving for himself all the credit of giving expression to 
the national will and passion, while not even attempt- 
ing to associate the Crown in any way with the policy 
he announced. There was a great scene of fraternisa- 
tion in the House ; M. Lombardos, the former arch- 
agitator in the Ionian Islands, who acted as Tricoupis' 
locum tenens, going up to the Premier and warmly con- 
gratulating him. In the town, too, which was crowded 
with rampant reservists, the enthusiasm attained de- 
lirious proportions. The return, a few days later, of 
M. Tricoupis, who received a tremendous popular ova- 
tion, still further increased the ferment, and although 
he was carefully moderate in his language and attitude, 
his watchful presence acted as a constant warning to 
his rival that at the least faltering he would be swept 
from power. 

Under these circumstances, we foreign representa- 
tives could not conceal from ourselves and from our 
Governments that the attempts made to stop the Greek 
Cabinet in their perverse course had completely failed. 
Our demarche collective had been replied to by the 
decree of mobilisation, and now came the almost defiant 
declaration of the Premier in answer to our joint Note 
of warning and remonstrance. The warlike movement, 
so far as could be judged, had passed beyond the 
control of a feeble, irresolute Administration. 


It has seemed to me indispensable to recount — 
although it has been at immoderate length — the first 
stages of these difficulties, because of my sincere desire 
to apportion, with all due fairness, the responsibilities 
of the principal actors in them, and at the same time 
to set forth as clearly as possible the main causes that 
led to this curious phase in the affairs of Greece, at 
a memorable and decisive turning-point in Balkanic 
history. I have, as will presently appear, special 
reasons for seeking to deal in a spirit of the strictest 
impartiality with the motives and acts of the persons 
most concerned in the grave and painful crisis that 
followed, and trust that the distance of nearly twenty 
years which divides us from that period will enable me 
to treat of it as dispassionately as it will be truthfully. 

This may perhaps be the most fitting place for 
speaking of the colleagues with whom I was now 
closely associated in these affairs. The doyen of our 
Diplomatic Body happened to be the Italian Minister, 
Marquis Curtopassi, a lively little Neapolitan of 
middle age, an intelligent man and a good fellow. 
Next to him in seniority came the German Minister, 
Baron de Brincken, who was an old London acquaint- 
ance of mine. We worked together most harmoniously 
at a very difficult time, and I never had, in the whole 
course of my career, a stauncher or more loyal friend 
and colleague. With the Austro-Hungarian Minister, 
Baron de Trauttenberg (now the delegate of his 
Government to the Caisse de la Dette in Egypt) my 
relations were likewise very cordial. He showed some 
hesitation at first as to going full lengths with us in 
the pressure we were instructed to bring to bear on 
the Greek Government. The position, however, of 
Austria-Hungary in regard to Balkanic affairs is neces- 


sarily a peculiar one for geographical and racial reasons. 
Certain advantages which were believed to have been 
promised to Servia by the Cabinet of Vienna, and the 
protecting shield later on thrown over that country in 
stopping the short and, to Servia, disastrous war against 
Bulgaria, made it still more difficult for Baron de 
Trauttenberg to keep completely in line with us at the 
beginning. He was subsequently able to give us his 
full co-operation. Russia was represented in our com- 
mittee of six by M. de Butzow, a pleasant man who 
had won his spurs in the Far East. At the final, and 
most critical, period of the crisis, however, he happened 
to be away, and left in his place as Charge oV Affaires, 
M. Bakhmetiew, who proved a very capable represen- 
tative of his Government. M. Bakhmetiew has since 
been playing a prominent part at the Court of Prince 
Ferdinand of Bulgaria. Albeit typically Russian, or 
rather perhaps Tartar, in outward appearance, this able 
and astute diplomatist had been partly educated in Eng- 
land, and was a graduate of Oxford. He spoke English 
like an Englishman, and was married to a bright little 
American lady, who was a valuable coadjutor to him in 
his diplomatic duties. With a Russian Grand Duchess 
as Consort of the Sovereign, M. Bakhmetiew's position 
was in certain respects a responsible one and some- 
what analogous to my own, both our Legations being 
essentially Missions de famille. He agreed with me in 
thinking that we had a common interest in the welfare 
of the King and the dynasty, and I found him perfectly 
straight and reliable during the most delicate phase 
of our combined action. The French Minister, M. de 
Moiiy, was an agreeable, eminently cultivated speci- 
men of the older diplomatic school of his country. 
His archaeological interest in Greece inclined him to 
espouse her cause with something of the ancient 


Philhellenic ardour. From the first he rather encour- 
aged the Greek hankerings after aggrandisement, and, 
by playing too much for his own hand at the last 
moment, gravely compromised, and indeed partially 
marred, the success of the joint efforts made to safe- 
guard Greece from the evils wrought by an impolitic 

The autumn months brought no essential change 
in the political situation, beyond accentuating the 
tension between Greece and Turkey. An inferior 
Agent of the name of Zygomalas, whom the Greek 
Government had injudiciously placed in temporary 
charge of their Consulate in Crete, was the cause of 
much acrimonious correspondence between the two 
Governments. The Turkish Vali, Sawas Pasha, charged 
this individual with seditious manoeuvres in the island, 
and finally expelled him. The Greek naval arma- 
ments likewise contributed to raise Turkish suspicions. 
Although small, the Greek navy was fairly efficient, 
and there was wild talk at Athens of the ease with 
which a coup de main might be attempted in Crete 
and the signal of rebellion given throughout those 
islands of the Archipelago which were still under 
Ottoman sway. The mobilisation of the land forces, 
which, owing to the alacrity of the reserves in respond- 
ing to the call to arms, had enabled the Government 
to place their raw levies, to the number of some 
seventy thousand men, in the field, was another stand- 
ing menace to peace. I informed M. Delyannis, on 
the authority of our able and experienced Consul- 
General at Salonica, 1 that the Turks had massed a 
well -organised force of upwards of eighty thousand 
men on the Greek borders. The warning, however, 

1 Sir John Elijah Blunt, C.B., now retired on a pension. 

BLUFF 5 s 

produced little or no effect upon him, and all I was 
able to obtain was a general promise that he would 
see to the troops in Thessaly being cantoned at some 
distance from the frontier. 

The attitude of the Greek Premier now became 
not a little disconcerting. He affected to be waiting 
" les bras croises'" for the decision of the Confer- 
ence of Ambassadors sitting at Constantinople as to 
the fate of the two Bulgarias, and quite gave up the 
apologetic tone he had before assumed of being con- 
strained against his better judgment to adopt military 
precautions. Early in December he became still more 
plain-spoken. Echoing intemperate language used in 
the Chamber by his colleague, the Minister of War 
(Mavromichalis, a descendant of the old feudal Beys of 
Maina), he now spoke of war as being unavoidable. 
It would come to a duel with Turkey. Very erroneous 
notions were entertained in Western Europe of the 
Greek military aptitudes, but these would before long 
be revealed to the world. His feeling at first had 
been that Greece could attempt nothing without the 
support of at least one of the Great Powers, and he 
had indeed looked to England to back him, but he 
had received no encouragement from that quarter, and 
certainly the British representative " ne lui avait pas 
souri." He was now, however, quite prepared to go 
on alone at the right moment. His language, in fact, 
sounded like a travesty of the famous " Italia fara 
da se!" 

There was some truth in his complaint of my " not 
having smiled upon him," for, as I wrote home in a 
report of one of my frequent interviews with the Greek 
Premier, I had " gone the length of almost brutal frank- 
ness " by telling him that his policy seemed to me to 
savour much too strongly of what the French call 


chantage. It is only fair to him to add that he voiced 
to some extent the unreasoning public belief that to 
force the hand of Europe " a Greek question must be 
raised at all costs." M. Tricoupis himself had distinctly 
stated on his return from England that, had he been at 
Athens at the time of the Philippopolis coup d'etat, he 
would, whether or not in power, have endeavoured to 
effect a. fait accompli in favour of Greece by pushing a 
small force across the border at all risks, and thereby 
compelling attention to the just claims of his country. 
And, although unable to displace the mechanical 
majority in the Chamber of which the Administra- 
tion disposed, he narrowly watched every move of 
M. Delyannis, and, while carefully avoiding all sem- 
blance of factious opposition, sedulously left him to 
bear the full responsibility of affairs at this dangerous 

At the same time, as regards my personal views, 
although bound by my instructions in no way to foster 
any hopes of territorial compensation in the recalci- 
trant Greek Government, I could not help thinking 
that some degree of friendly intervention on the part 
of Great Britain might have good results. In fact, 
when asked for my opinion of a suggestion made by 
the Ambassadors at Constantinople that the time had 
come for threatening language to be used at Athens to 
bring the Greeks to their senses, I represented that 
the Hellenic Government were unquestionably in a 
position of great embarrassment. For internal reasons 
they could scarcely disarm without some hope of an 
equivalent being held out to them. The alternative 
that might, I thought, be placed before them was that, 
if they did not disarm, Turkey would fall upon them, 
and they would be left to the consequences of their 
rashness ; while, if they did disarm, her Majesty's 


Government might possibly be disposed to support 
their pretensions in reason. The Greeks I believed 
would probably be content with less than they had 
claimed at Berlin. As for Turkey, I thought she 
would find some compensation, for whatever territorial 
concession she might consent to, in an intimate 
alliance with Greece against the common danger from 
Russia or from the Slavs, while our friendly inter- 
vention, if successful, must make us paramount in 
Greece, and greatly strengthen the Royal authority. 

The troublous year came to a close. Although, 
after the departure of the noisy reservists, now shiver- 
ing and sickening in the Thessalian mountains, Athens 
was outwardly restored to calm, the country remained 
armed to the teeth, and, while recoiling from actual 
war, was obstinately bent on reaping some return for 
its efforts and sacrifices, 


The winter season of 1885-86 turned out socially in 
every respect as dull as it was politically gloomy and 
fraught with anxiety. To begin with, the Athens of 
twenty years ago, although it had so much increased 
in extent and population, remained, for a capital of 
its size and importance, singularly backward in the 
amenities of modern life, and was absolutely devoid 
of public amusements or resources. It had indeed 
one theatre — a building of some pretensions — but 
the doors of this were closed all through my three 
years' residence in Greece, though it has since, I 
believe, witnessed the revival, under Royal patronage, 
of some of the masterpieces of the ancient Greek 
drama. In the summer months, a second-rate open- 
air theatre of varieties was to be found close to the 
swampy banks of the slowly-trickling Ilissus, and a 
similar institution of a superior class flourished on 
the sea-shore at Phalerum — the latter much fre- 
quented by the Athenian beau monde — with scratch 
companies of Italian opera or French bouffes. Con- 
certs, or musical parties, were absolutely unknown. 
The modern Greeks are not much addicted to music, 
or in fact to the cultivation of art in any form, though 
living in the midst of so glorious an artistic heritage, 
which, to render them justice, they do their best 
carefully to guard and preserve. 

The result of this state of things was that, beyond 

its incomparable ancient monuments and ruins, and 



its art treasures — at the time I refer to only partially 
put in order and not yet displayed in spacious 
museums — Athens offered but few attractions by day, 
and none whatever at night, to the passing stranger 
or the habitual sojourner. There was not a single 
club, nor were there even any large public restau- 
rants. Cafes on the other hand abounded, as they 
do all over the Levant. Hotbeds of political discus- 
sion and intrigue, where the habits noirs of About, 
now multiplied a hundred-fold, lounged half through 
the day, and late into the evening, in eager dis- 
putation over rival statesmen or parties, the claims 
and wrongs of Greece and the future of Hellenism. 

Neither had the Greek capital kept pace with 
the nineteenth century in respect of its native society 
as much as in its growth and external aspect. A 
nucleus of very pleasant, cultivated people, in full 
touch with Western life and ideas, was nevertheless 
to be found there in a small group of Phanariote 
families that had settled in Greece in the earlier 
days of the young monarchy. These formed a some- 
what exclusive circle or a sort of aristocracy, and 
derived a certain lustre from the title of Prince which 
a few of them had rather arbitrarily arrogated to 
themselves, on the strength of the dignity of Hos- 
podar having been held by members of their respective 
families in the Danubian Principalities, when those 
countries were still under the Turkish dominion. 1 

1 The Hospodars were simply Valis, or governors, like those of the 
other provinces of the Empire. With this difference that they were taken 
from the Christian Phanariote functionaries of the Porte who had heen 
dragomans of the Palace, or had held other civil employments. The office 
was farmed out to them for a period which seldom exceeded three years, 
though they were occasionally reappointed on fresh payment of the neces- 
sary amount. The assumption of the title of Prince by the descendants 
of those who at some time or other held the office seema in many cases to 
have been purely arbitrary. 


Prominent among these were the Soutzos. Prince 
Jean Soutzo, who was a former Athenian acquaintance 
of mine and a most gentlemanlike and agreeable old 
man, had been Minister at St. Petersburg for a good 
many years. He had a genuine taste for art, and 
was one of the earliest collectors of the charming 
Tanagra terra-cotta figurines which had been first 
discovered only a few years before, and have since 
been so extensively forged and imitated. His 
sister was married to Demetrius Paparigopoulos, the 
historian, who, together with Rhangabe, likewise of 
Phanariote origin, was one of the ablest Greek writers 
of that period. Madame Nathalie Soutzo, too, of 
the same stock, was a very accomplished woman, 
and had a salon that bore comparison with those of 
great European centres. The head of another branch 
of the Soutzos was the father of perhaps the prettiest 
and smartest girls in Athens society, but, in true 
Greek democratic fashion, he was simply an army 
doctor and chief of the Medical Staff of the Greek 
forces. Belonging to the same Soutzo connection 
was a pleasant gentleman of the name of Typaldos, 
who, being a personal friend of M. Delyannis, had 
been induced by that Minister to accept the post of 
Under Secretary at the Foreign Office, where he did 
valuable service while professing to disapprove of 
the adventurous policy of his chief. Of him I shall 
have to speak again presently. 

Besides these and other cultured Phanariotes, like 
the Mavrocordatos, Karadjas, Argyropoulos, Murusis, 
with their Byzantine traditions, there were the high- 
sounding names of the descendants of leaders in the 
war of independence, Colocotroni, Canaris, Papadia- 
mantopoulos, Criesis, as well as a few Ionians of 
distinction who sat in the Chamber or had migrated 


for good to the Greek capital — the Theotokis (one 
of whom is now Prime Minister), the Romas from 
Zante, and Messalas, some of whom bore titles that 
had come down to them from the days when Venice 
held sway over the Seven Islands. Count D. Messala, 
Comptroller and Private Secretary to Queen Olga, 
and his wife and very charming daughter, were among 
the few intimates we had at Athens. The cheeriest 
and most humorous of men, Messala was full of 
affectionate memories of the old British connection, 
having spent many days of his youth on board our 
men-of-war, or at the messes of our regiments stationed 
at Corfu, which did not prevent his being a devoted 
servant and counsellor to his gracious and beneficent 
Royal Mistress. 

All through this dismal, stormy winter, with its 
hurricanes of sleet and snow at Christmas and the 
dread shadow of war brooding over the country, 
the Court very naturally abstained from giving its 
customary entertainments. It happened also that a 
considerable part of the Palace was then actually 
under repair. The roof itself was in so bad a con- 
dition that the poor ladies-in-waiting who were lodged 
on the upper story of the great barrack-like structure, 
built in the days of King Otho, had, when going 
along the passages to their rooms in rainy weather, to 
put up umbrellas. On the ist of December, never- 
theless, we were bidden to dinner at Court on the 
occasion of the Princess of Wales's birthday. We 
were the only guests, the rest of the company con- 
sisting of the ladies and gentlemen in attendance 
upon the Royal Family. In every way it was a 
most pleasant party, with scarcely any vestige of 
Court etiquette, admirably served and tres soigne as 
regards the essentials of food and wine. This was 


our first opportunity of seeing the young Priucess 
Alexandra, the King's eldest daughter and favourite 
child, who afterwards so endeared herself by her 
grace and beauty and charm of manner to all those 
who approached her, and was destined to so early 
a death after a short and happy union with the 
Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovitch. She was at this 
time little more than fifteen, and the Queen after 
dinner told my wife that she was thus early accus- 
toming her daughter to see strangers, on account of 
the fear she had of her inheriting the extreme shy- 
ness with which she herself was afflicted. In her 
position, said the Queen, shyness was a positive 
suffering which she had never succeeded in entirely 
conquering. In the course of a long conversation 
I had that evening with the King, his Majesty 
spoke with sincere admiration of the prowess re- 
cently shown by Prince Alexander of Bulgaria, 1 and 
expressed some doubt of the success of any attempt 
to impose upon him the status quo ante, now that 
he was flushed with victory and had shown himself 
in all respects so capable a ruler. The status quo 
ante pure and simple, H.M. seemed to imply, could 
scarcely be re-established in the Balkan Peninsula after 
all these events. 

With the opening of 1886 the situation in Greece 
began to assume a more serious aspect, and to some 
extent rendered the personal position of King George 
more trying and difficult. His Minister gave out 
that he was only waiting for the final settlement 
of the Eastern Boumelian question by the Powers, 
formally to claim the full execution of the decisions 
of the Berlin Conference in favour of Greece. Till 

' In the short war with Servia. 


then Greece would continue to arm and "keep her 
hand on the hilt of her sword." In one of my 
interviews with him at this period, I pointed out 
that there were the best of reasons for believing that 
"the final settlement" he awaited might be deferred 
for months, and I dwelt strongly on the impossibility 
of Greece bearing the terrible strain of her arma- 
ments for so long a time. The Premier admitted 
that the delay would be unfortunate, but said that 
he saw no other alternative. I then did my best to 
impress upon him that he had now an opportunity 
of rendering the greatest service to his country, and 
regaining for it at once the sympathies it was fast 
forfeiting in Europe. I offered, I said, no opinion 
either for or against the justice of the claims he 
put forward in the name of Greece, but there was 
no denying that the worst possible moment had 
been chosen for urging them. It was as clear as 
day that neither Turkey nor the Powers would listen 
to them. It seemed, therefore, the part of a patriotic 
statesman to open the eyes of his countrymen to the 
mistake that had been committed, and bring home to 
them the imperative necessity of disarmament. He 
would thereby gain the good opinion and indeed 
the gratitude of Europe, and when the proper time 
came the attitude of Greece would certainly not be 
forgotten. With the large majority he had in the 
Chamber, no Minister was in a better position to 
follow this wise and prudent course. 

M. Delyannis did not deny that possibly the 
"moment pyschologique" might not yet have come 
for Greece to assert her claims, but, as to the strong 
backing he had in the Chamber, he owed it, he said, 
solely to his following a policy which was that of the 
entire nation. He granted that he might of course be 


left alone face to face with Turkey, but between con- 
cession and war Turkey would probably choose con- 
cession. Besides, it was well known at Constantinople 
that he had only to give the signal for all the Greek 
subjects of the Porte to rise in open insurrection. In 
any case the time had arrived when Greece must settle 
for good and all with Turkey. 

Notwithstanding these vapourings of the Premier, 
which were worthy of ancient Pistol's " prave 'ords at 
the pridge," he had for some time past shown signs of 
depression, and had even hinted that he would be glad 
to be rid of the burden of office. Anyhow his grandilo- 
quence was harmless as compared with the question- 
able arts to which he now resorted in his difficulty. 
He allowed it to be spread about that the militant 
policy he had adopted was much more the King's than 
his own, and went indeed so far as to give out that it 
had been in some degree reluctantly forced upon him 
by the impulse which the King had given to the warlike 
movement on his return to Athens shortly after the 
revolution at Philippopolis. 

Nothing could be more disingenuous than this 
attempt to distort a few words, spoken to the crowd 
which had gathered under the Palace windows, into a 
warlike manifesto addressed to the nation. Although 
no one realised more clearly than did King George 
the dangers that were likely to arise for Hellenism 
out of the union of the two Bulgarias into an enlarged 
Slav State, he was far too sagacious and too accurately 
informed to expect any good from the game of brag 
and bluster played by his responsible advisers. There 
were, besides, reasons for thinking that the King had 
carefully avoided committing himself to their adven- 
turous policy, and was rightly determined to leave with 
them all the responsibility of the critical situation it 


had created. Not only was he supposed to disapprove 
the line followed by M. Delyannis, but he was believed 
to have expressed to him his dissent from it, and had 
probably taken care to put it on record in writing. 
He had in fact steadily applied himself to the task of 
staving off the outbreak of war, although no doubt alive 
to the risk he incurred that his Minister might seek to 
withdraw from a hopeless position by casting on his 
Sovereign the odium of the abandonment of a policy 
which, he would not scruple to assert, had been initiated 
by his Majesty himsel£ 

The Powers, meanwhile, did not relax their efforts 
to restore tranquillity in the East by procuring a 
general disarmament. Although these efforts were 
really directed to stopping the war fever in Greece, the 
forces of Servia and Bulgaria still stood facing each 
other, pending the final settlement of their differences, 1 
and it was deemed both fair and politic to address a Euro- 
pean summons to the three Balkanic States simulta- 
neously. We were, therefore, instructed to send in a 
fresh collective Note to the Hellenic Government, the 
drafting of which was on this occasion entrusted to 
the Russian Minister as representing the Government 
that had suggested this mode of procedure. Our Note, 
dated the nth of January, strongly urged Greece to 
proceed to an immediate disarmament, which would 
be equally recommended to Servia and Bulgaria, and 
which the Porte was disposed to imitate ; the Hellenic 
Government being at the same time invited to name 
the shortest period in which such disarmament could 
be carried out, so as to insure analogous measures being 
simultaneously taken by the two other Balkanic States. 

1 Peace between Bulgaria and Servia was concluded at Bucharest two 
months later, in March i386. 



Coercion, I should observe, was in no way suggested in 
this Note, although it contained in courteous terms a 
peremptory summons having for its object to bring 
home to the Greeks that all Europe was at this 
juncture in perfect accord in the determination not 
to be disturbed by war, or a vain pretence of war. Her 
Majesty's Government were at the same time averse to 
using minatory language, and I had personally taken 
upon myself to point out to Lord Salisbury how un- 
desirable it seemed to me to threaten coercive measures 
which would afford the Prime Minister an opportunity 
for retiring with undiminished popularity, and might 
at the same time rekindle the expiring Chauvinism of 
the nation he was misguiding. By resigning under 
actual compulsion he could contrive to leave all the 
difficulties and dangers of disarmament to the King, 
so that, in the interests of his Majesty, it was far 
better that M. Delyannis and his colleagues should fall 
with all the discredit they deserved and without any 
possible halo of martyrdom. 

Two days after the despatch of our communication 
the celebration of the Greek New Year took place. 
There was a Te Deum at the Cathedral, to which 
every one went in uniform, and afterwards a great 
reception at the Palace with all the ladies in full 
evening dress as at a drawing-room in London ; the 
Queen and her ladies wearing the national costume, 
or rather an adaptation of it, which consists of a full 
white robe — simulating the coarse, long chemise of the 
peasants, who wear no other garment — with a soft, 
white, gold-embroidered train trimmed with red or 
blue velvet. The short Greek jacket worn with 
this was likewise edged with velvet and richly em- 
broidered, the head-dress being a coronet of velvet — 
studded with gold coins — to which was attached a long 
white veil wound round the neck. Altogether a pic- 


turesque and becoming dress that suited Queen Olga 
to perfection. In the evening there was a State dinner 
of some hundred and fifty persons, followed by a cercle 
which lasted fully two hours. It was on the whole an 
interesting but very fatiguing day, during which none 
of us could help watching the countenances and bear- 
ing of the Royal couple who, although under the stress 
of such anxiety, were as pleasant and gracious as 
usual, and allowed no trace of trouble or displeasure 
to appear. 

A few days later (on 18th January 1886) we re- 
ceived the official answer to our collective Note. It 
was couched in moderate language, but reiterated the 
inability of the Hellenic Government to proceed to 
demobilisation, on the grounds that the questions 
raised by " the events of Philippopolis " had not yet 
received a satisfactory solution, and that the negotia- 
tions for peace between Servia and Bulgaria had not 
even commenced. 

Meanwhile, the stubborn attitude of M. Delyannis 
had assumed a graver character in view of the com- 
pletion of his naval preparations, which were much 
more significant and threatening than was the gather- 
ing on the northern frontier of a mass of 70,000 raw, 
ill-organised soldiers, who suffered cruelly from the 
cold of an exceptionally severe winter, and whose 
ranks were being daily thinned by fever and hard- 
ships. On the other hand, the squadron assembled 
at Salamis was known to be in a very efficient state, 
and was on the point of being reinforced by six new 
torpedo boats of a large size which were on their way 
to the Pirseus from Stettin. There was some reason to 
fear that the Premier, relying on naval forces which 
were equal if not superior to those of Turkey, might 
attempt a bold stroke at sea, and, by pouncing upon 


some Turkish island or bombarding a Turkish port, 
create a fait accompli that would in a measure force 
the hand of the Powers and compel them to take 
cognisance of the Greek grievances and pretensions. 

These apprehensions led to my being instructed 
by Lord Salisbury to cause it to be brought privately 
to the knowledge of the King that the Powers had re- 
solved to intimate formally to the Hellenic Government 
that no naval operations on their part against Turkey 
would be permitted. My message, I was afterwards 
informed, was received with much indignation by his 
Majesty, who greatly resented what he considered the 
unfair pressure applied to his country. 

The crisis had now reached such a point as more 
than ever to convince me that the only way out of what 
seemed a hopeless impasse would be through a change 
in the Ministry, if this could be compassed. A few 
days later, on the morning of Saturday, the 23rd, I 
received telegraphic instructions to warn M. Delyannis 
himself, unofficially and in the strictest confidence, 
that naval operations by Greece against Turkey would 
not be permitted by the Great Powers. I at once 
called upon the Premier at his private house in one 
of the side streets leading out of the Boulevard du 
Stade. At that hour, in the forenoon of a very mild 
and sunny winter's day, the door of the Premier's 
unassuming residence stood wide open, and its inner 
hall was already crowded with the hangers-on and 
applicants for favours who, all over the Levant, are 
to be found on the threshold of those in power. I 
was quickly shown into M. Delyannis' study. I had 
brought with me, and subsequently at his request left 
in his hands, a paraphrase of the telegram I had just 
received. In doing so I strongly dwelt on the friendly 
spirit of the private and confidential warning it con- 
tained. I saw in it, I said, a final effort made by 


Lord Salisbury to spare Greece the humiliation of 
the coercive measures which he indicated as impend- 
ing. I had often before used considerable freedom 
of speech in my remonstrances with M. Delyannis on 
the headstrong course he was pursuing, and I was 
now resolved to make a last attempt to shake him in 
it, clearly discerning that, in spite of the bold front 
he still affected, the responsibility for the situation 
he had brought about was weighing more and more 
heavily upon him. On previous occasions I had 
already frankly told him that, in my opinion, and 
in that of my colleagues, he ought, for his own 
credit — let alone the good of his country — to yield 
and disarm, or retire. Now that he was driven to 
his last retrenchments I once more — speaking en- 
tirely for myself — sought to impress upon him that 
the moment had come when he must make up his 
mind to listen to the friendly admonitions addressed 
to him, or else resign. I put this to him in various 
ways, and, among others, in language the character 
of which was afterwards deliberately misrepresented, 
and which I therefore quote, premising that we always 
conversed in French, of which language M. Delyannis 
had a fair but by no means a perfect knowledge. 
" En vous opposant," I said to him, " h, la volontd, si 
nettement exprimee, de l'Europe entiere, vous cherchez 
1'impossible. C'est de la folie que de vouloir persister 
dans la malheureuse voie que vous avez suivie jusqu' ici. 
Croyez-moi : quittez la place et allez-vous-en plutot ! " l 
The Premier took all this in perfectly good part, 
but rejoined that his policy was not only that of the 

1 M. Delyannis took no sort of exception at the time to this 
French colloquialism, though it was afterwards quoted in his organ and 
by his friends as purposely intended to be offensive. As the late M. de 
Blowitz put it in a letter to The Times of the 19th February 1886, it was 
as if I had been made to Bay, with an atrocious accent : " Allez-vous-ini^ 
<mr le Continong ! " 


nation, but also that of the King. I interrupted him 
here by saying, " C'est vous qui le dites ! " The 
movement, he maintained, was irresistible. As for 
that, I retorted, I had watched it carefully. It had 
been started and fostered by got-up manifestations, 
and was kept alive through a press the tone and spirit 
of which I preferred not to characterise. On my 
again adjuring him to weigh well the responsibility 
he was incurring in face of such a demonstration as 
that of which I had given him notice, he replied that 
his responsibility was shared by the King. I rejoined 
that I utterly denied this. The responsibility rested 
with him alone, and I devoutly trusted that his 
Majesty would take care to leave it with him to the 
very end. 

Finally, warming with my subject, I said to him 
that, by so obstinately adhering to a fatal policy, he 
was ruining Greece and imperilling the throne, and 
that if he persisted in it he would go down to pos- 
terity as the author of national disaster. 1 He seemed 
considerably shaken by my earnest expostulations, and, 
far from resenting their warmth and bluntness, he put 
in now and then a deprecatory " Mais mon ami ! " and, 
with a trick that was familiar to him, soothingly laid 
his hand upon my arm. When at last I rose to leave 
him, and asked what reply I was to give from him to 
Lord Salisbury's message, he replied that, before coming 
to any decision, he must take the King's orders and 
consult his colleagues. We then shook hands, and he 
accompanied me from his study to the open street-door, 

1 At a much more recent period it has been M. Delyannis' unenviable 
lot to damage the interests of Greece still more seriously. During a 
debate which took place -only the other day in the Greek Chamber, the 
Prime Minister, M. Theotokis, when attacked by M. Delyannis, vigorously 
retorted with a reference to the last Greco-Turkish war. To M. Delyannis, 
he said, must be attributed that disastrous struggle, with its ruinous 
results to the Kingdom. 


seeing me get into my carriage and drive away in the 
broad sunshine, honestly rejoicing, as I went, that I 
had told him truths he had probably never heard 
before, and had done my best to relieve the King and 
the country of the evil incubus of his Administration. 

On the following day (Sunday) the greatest excite- 
ment was caused by an article in the Nea Ephemeris — 
a paper often used by M. Uelyannis for party purposes 
— which gave a most mendacious account of my inter- 
view with the Prime Minister. I had deliberately in- 
sulted him in the grossest manner, and on leaving him 
had actually slammed the door in his face. My recall 
would, no doubt, be insisted upon. 

The attack, coming from such a quarter, was so 
despicable that I should have been disposed to leave 
it unnoticed, had not the article contained an almost 
textual rendering of the paraphrase of Lord Salisbury's 
telegram which I had left with M. Delyannis, and on 
the strictly private and confidential nature of which 
I had not failed to insist. The imparting of such a 
document to the press was so flagrant a breach of 
well-known diplomatic usage that it could not be 
passed over. I therefore wrote a private line to the 
Secretaire-General (Under Secretary) of the Foreign 
Office, M. Typaldos, with whom I was on terms of 
some intimacy, begging him to call upon me about 
an urgent affair. I then went to my German col- 
league, Baron de Brincken, and, placing him in 
possession of all the circumstances, asked him to 
be present at my interview with M. Typaldos. 

On entering the room that gentleman at once 
said that he knew what I wanted to speak to him 
about. He had heard of the article in the course of 
last evening, and had immediately gone to the office 
of the newspaper to stop its publication, but had 


unfortunately got there too late. M. Delyannis him- 
self was extremely annoyed by it. If so, I said, 
there could be no difficulty in putting a denial of the 
statements contained in the calumnious article in the 
Government official organ, the Proia. That, replied 
M. Typaldos, was a matter of course, and I might 
" look upon it as already done." I inquired what 
form the denial would take, and said it might be as 
well that we should agree upon the wording of it. 
M. Typaldos assented to this, and, at my request, 
wrote down a sketch of the proposed contradiction. 
I made a few emendations in this, and copied it out 
for him, of course keeping the original draft in the 
Secretaire- General's hand writirj g. 

We went on then to speak of the extraordinary 
indiscretion committed by the publication of Lord 
Salisbury's telegram ; M. Typaldos making the remark- 
able admission that as he could answer for the dis- 
cretion of the employes of the Foreign Office, he could 
only conjecture that one of the Ministers present at 
the Cabinet Council held the day before had seen the 
document, and communicated its contents to the Nea 
Ephemeris. Such a breach of confidence, observed the 
German Minister, who had been listening with much 
interest to what passed, was sufficient to make it very 
difficult for any of us to carry on our relations with the 
Hellenic Government. 

To cut too long a story short, no contradiction of 
the statement in the Nea Ephemeris ever appeared in 
the Government organ. M. Delyannis did not hesitate 
to disavow his subordinate, and M. Typaldos himself, I 
regret to say, backed out, in anything but a creditable 
manner, from the engagement he had taken towards 
me in the presence of my German colleague. I had 
been careful, meanwhile, to inform the King, through 
a private channel, of the real circumstances of the 


affair, and received from him a very kind message to 
the effect that he was well aware of its rights, but 
hoped that in his interest I would let the matter drop, 
I had of course also reported the occurrence at full 
length to the Foreign Office, and on the 27th had the 
satisfaction to receive a telegram from Lord Salisbury, 
entirely approving my attitude and the steps I had 
taken, and at the same time directing me to confine 
my intercourse with M. Delyannis within the strictest 
possible limits. The telegram — a very long one — 
arrived after midnight, and Henry Howard and Lyon, 
who deciphered it, most kindly came to our door and 
woke us up to tell us of its satisfactory contents. 

I never met M. Delyannis again, except casually 
in the street, months afterwards, when he carefully 
avoided me. His equivocal attitude in the circum- 
stances I have described, bore, I may now say, 
some bitter fruits as far as my after career was 
concerned. The "Delyannis incident" has since 
furnished a theme to the detractors and ill-wishers 
with whom all those who attain a certain standing in 
the public service have more or less to reckon. I 
owe deep thanks to the great statesman — now justly 
mourned by all England — who so loyally stood by 
me at this sharp and trying crisis. But it is a good 
case in point of the sardonic saying: " Noircissez, 
noircissez ! il en restera toujours quelque chose ! " with 
which Beaumarchais is generally, but wrongly, credited. 
To those who in after years chose to remember against 
me the generally-forgotten "Delyannis incident," it 
may now be a surprise to learn that I was personally 
much opposed to coercive measures being taken against 
Greece; that I thought then, and still think now, that 
it might have been better policy to help to enlarge her 
narrow borders ; that having, during my first stay in 
Greece, seen her enriched by the beautiful Seven 


Isles, 1 it would have been gratifying to me to witness 
her further endowment with the province of Epirus, or 
practically the Berlin frontier she claimed ; and finally 
that, in the unquestionably strong line I took towards 
an irresolute and reckless Minister, I had chiefly at 
heart the cause of his Sovereign, to whom I was 
sincerely attached, and whom I knew to be anything 
but faithfully served by him. The wrong-headed 
policy of those who controlled the destinies of Greece 
at that time, marred what chances she then had, and 
turned all Europe against her. A desire to try and 
make clear the complex causes that led to the events 
of that troublous period must be my excuse for having 
dwelt at such length on the otherwise unimportant 
" Delyannis incident." 

• ••••• 

While what precedes was passing through the 
press, the Minister, with whom it was my unwelcome 
duty to contend during the acute crisis I have de- 
scribed in these pages, has fallen under the hand of 
a brutal assassin. The tragical circumstances of his 
end must alone have prompted me to attenuate, as 
far as I justly could, the strictures I have felt bound 
to pass on his policy. I can now only add that 
M. Delyannis has been truly fortunate in his death ; 
calling forth, as it has, so striking and so imposing a 
recognition by his countrymen of his fervid Hellenism 
and of the absolute integrity 2 of a long life devoted to 
the service of Greece. The barrier between us is now 
impassable, but to readers in a country where political 
life, whatever its failings or blemishes, knows no per- 
sonal rancour, I need not say that I have long since 
shaken hands in spirit with M. Delyannis over our 
differences of yore. 

1 Heptanesos, the State of seven islands. 

2 M. Delyannis lived and died a very poor man. 



The mischievous article in the Nea Epliemeris had 
the desired effect of reviving the failing energies of 
the Delyannist war party. A mass indignation meet- 
ing was held in the Square immediately under our 
windows, at which a resolution condemning the con- 
duct of the British Government was passed, and was 
ordered to be telegraphed to the Speaker of the House 
of Commons. From the square the mob made a rush 
for the Palace opposite, where they were stopped and 
turned back by a cordon of the Evzones on guard, and 
had to content themselves with a tumultuous visit to 
the house of the Prime Minister, who addressed a few 
words to them from his balcony. The general excite- 
ment was further raised to the highest pitch by the 
announcement that the Greek squadron at Salamis 
had left its moorings and put to sea with sealed orders 
" to avoid the brutal blockade of England." 1 British 
ironclads, it was wildly rumoured, might be expected 
to appear off the Piraeus at any moment. As a matter 
of fact, however, there was probably at that time not 
one of our ships any nearer than Malta. 

At a general gathering of all the heads of missions 
held at the Italian Legation, I gave my assembled col- 
leagues a full account of the now famous " incident," 

1 It was soon afterwards ascertained llial the squadron, composed of 
eight ships, one transport and twelve torpedo boats, had simply gone to 
Chalcifl in Euboea, 



and showed them the draft, which they unanimously 
approved, of my note to the Premier demanding the 
public rectification promised me — and which I never 
obtained — of the calumnious version given of my 
interview with him. There was so strong a consensus 
of opinion as to M. Delyannis' proceedings that, all 
through the following events, his official Wednesday 
receptions at the Foreign Office were carefully avoided 
by the Envoys of the Great Powers, who restricted 
their personal intercourse with him to calls on business 
admitting of no delay. 

I now pressed on the despatch of the collective 
Note, based on Lord Salisbury's instructions, by which 
the Hellenic Government were formally notified that, in 
the absence of any just cause of war against the Otto- 
man Empire, no naval aggression by Greece would be 
permitted. However distasteful to me had been till 
then the notion of actually coercing the Greek Govern- 
ment, I was now reluctantly convinced that, in the 
interests of peace and of Greece itself, no other course 
remained open. Thenceforth I applied myself to ren- 
der coercion as effective as possible on the spot, by 
seeking to keep all my colleagues well in line so as to 
insure really cordial combined action. The too often 
derided European concert certainly worked satisfac- 
torily on this occasion, and was faithfully re-echoed 
in the harmony of its mandatories at Athens. 

The motives of M. Delyannis' unwarrantable 
conduct soon became apparent. By means of the 
misstatements which he tolerated even if he did 
not actually inspire them, he not only succeeded 
in inflaming the public mind, but was afforded an 
opportunity of proclaiming, in a communique to the 
papers, the complete solidarity of the Crown and its 
advisers in the face of impending coercion, extolling 


at the same time the patriotic sentiments of the Sove- 
reign. By dint of these manoeuvres he recovered some 
lost ground and regained popularity for the time being. 

Meanwhile the trend of affairs in England no 
doubt contributed to encourage him in his adven- 
turous course. The general elections in Novem- 
ber had proved very unfavourable to the Conservative 
party, and, three days after my interview with the 
Greek Premier, the Government of Lord Salisbury 
was outvoted in the House of Commons on Mr. 
Jesse Collings' amendment to the Address. With 
Mr. Gladstone's return to power M. Delyannis' hopes 
of securing the support of England in his schemes 
of aggrandisement were for a brief period revived. 
He put off for several days replying to our last 
communication, and, when he finally answered us, 
did so in a still more high-handed manner than on 
preceding occasions. What hopes he may have built 
on the change of Administration were, however, 
speedily dashed to the ground. In answer to a 
telegram from the Mayor of Athens, Mr. Gladstone 
clearly stated that, however great his sympathies for 
them, he could not but tell the Greeks that the 
attitude they had taken up was indefensible and 
that the Powers were determined to oppose it. He 
expressed his views still more plainly in a letter to 
Mr. Mundella which was intended for communication 
to M. Tricoupis. " It would be bad enough," he 
wrote, " if the wishes of the Bulgarians were frus- 
trated by Turkey ; but if their fulfilment were 
prevented by Servia or by Greece, it would be a 
disgrace to mankind." It so happened that, only a 
few weeks before, we had been taken to see a statue 
of the illustrious statesman, by the sculptor Vitalis, 


destined for a conspicuous position in front of the 
University buildings — a really fine work of art, and an 
admirable likeness on which we were conscientiously 
able to congratulate its author. Mr. Gladstone's 
message, and the very decided language he was 
known to have previously used, produced such a 
revulsion of feeling in the Greeks, who had hitherto 
idolised him, that all thoughts of setting up the 
statue, and exposing it to the public gaze and possibly 
to a disagreeable manifestation, were wisely given up 
for the time. 

I cannot but contribute here my small meed of 
praise to the new departure in questions of foreign 
policy taken at this juncture by the incoming Liberal 
Administration. From this period may be dated, if 
I am not mistaken, a continuity in the conduct of 
our external relations which had scarcely been prac- 
tised before and had certainly not been openly re- 
cognised. Thenceforward British interests abroad 
were almost entirely withdrawn from the arena of 
party contentions, and successive Ministries have since 
then held fast, with but little variation, to certain 
broad lines of policy in international affairs. The 
effect of this has been to give much greater weight 
with foreign statesmen and foreign public opinion 
to our counsels, these being understood to be now 
no longer chiefly guided by party considerations at 
home. To Mr. Gladstone, and still more to Lord 
Rosebery — who now made his debut at the Foreign 
Office, where he was practically left a free hand — is 
primarily due this great and beneficial change which 
first signally manifested itself in the Greek crisis. 

Warnings were not wanting to M. Delyannis from 
other quarters as to the intentions towards Greece 
of the new British Administration. My colleague 


Baron de Brincken was charged with a private message 
to him from Prince Bismarck, to the effect that he 
must not indulge any expectation that the attitude 
of the Liberal Cabinet would differ from that of 
their predecessors, and that it might indeed prove 
even more decided. The personal intimacy between 
Lord Rosebery and Count Herbert Bismarck gave 
additional significance to this hint. 1 M. de Freycinet, 
too, held very uncompromising language to the Greek 
representative in Paris. The Greek Government per- 
sisted none the less in their preparations. A battalion 
of Evzones was somewhat ostentatiously sent from 
Athens to the front in Thessaly, and directions were 
given to form additional corps of these troops. Several 
steamers of the local companies were at the same 
time taken up as transports, and 20,000 more men of 
the reserves were called out by Royal decree. The 
same exasperating game of defiance in reply to the 
sternest admonitions went on as before. 

Meanwhile the naval forces of the Powers were 
collecting by degrees in Cretan waters, and early in 
March the Duke of Edinburgh, who had succeeded 
Lord John Hay in the command of the Mediterranean 
squadron, took over the supreme direction of the 
International Fleet gathered together at Suda Bay. 
The illustrious Prince placed at the head of this Euro- 
pean Armada — the formidable character of which was 
out of all proportion to the task it had to perform, 
and might well have gratified the susceptible Hellenes 
as a tribute to the importance of their country, second 
only to the vast armaments brought against it by 

1 In delivering this message Baron de Brincken, who was mindful of 
my own experience, strongly insisted on its confidential character. To 

his great disgust it was reported at length almost the next day in two 
of the Athenian papers. 


Xerxes of old — was fully equal to the duties confided 
to him. His officers, with many of whom I came in 
contact during my stay at Athens, all looked upon 
him as a naval commander and tactician of first-rate 
ability, and, in the delicate management of his com- 
posite forces, he showed a rare amount of tact and 
judgment The task assigned to him was rendered 
by no means easy of performance by the limitations im- 
posed upon him. It was at first intended to blockade 
the Greek squadron, wherever it happened to be, 
simply paralysing any action it might be designed 
for against Turkish territory, but without using any 
force. The omelette in short was to be made without 
any breaking of eggs ; Lord Rosebery wittily observ- 
ing, in reply to the suggestion of some stronger 
measures, that he did not quite see his way to shelling 
the Parthenon. It nevertheless became advisable to 
make inquiry as to the state of the defences at Salamis 
and the approaches to the Piraeus, and these, according 
to a report derived from the German officers who 
had recently come in charge of the torpedo boats 
purchased by the Greek Government at Kiel and 
Stettin, were found to be fairly effective. 

It may be doubted whether M. Delyannis ever 
seriously contemplated naval operations, but reports 
which reached me about this time through the well- 
known correspondent of The Times at Athens, Mr. 
Stillman, whose posthumous memoirs were published 
not long ago, pointed to the Greek Government being 
encouraged underhand to attempt a cowp de main 
on the Dardanelles, for which purpose they had been 
furnished with plans of the most recent defences 
erected there. It is not impossible that at this phase 
of the crisis M. Delyannis may have been secretly 
instigated to hold out, but if so, he was soon again 


left to himself, and both at Athens and at Suda Bay 
the concert of the Powers was effectually kept up. 

A short and welcome truce to all this agitation was 
afforded by the Carnival amusements which, though 
by no means brilliant at Athens, engross the popula- 
tion of all classes. In Athenian society these revels 
take the form of house-to-house visiting of small bands 
of maskers who call upon their acquaintances, and, 
under cover of their disguise, try to intriguer them. 

There was a fancy dress children's party at the 
Russian Minister's where Henry Howard — who soon 
afterwards, to our great regret, was transferred to 
Copenhagen — was answerable for some excellent 
fooling. He and M. Bakhmetiew, of the Russian 
Legation, together made up a performing elephant 
which was led in by its black keeper (one of the 
Miss Rhangab^s) and followed by an old woman 
(another of the Russian Secretaries) with a big 
drum, and two boy clowns. The elephant was ad- 
mirably done, and caused the greatest amusement, 
but must have been dreadfully trying to Bakhmetiew, 
who took charge of the hindmost part of the beast, 
and was stooping the whole time in a very cramped 
position. Later on, the same performers re-appeared, 
all draped in long white Turkish bath towels, with 
grotesque masks and wigs and a head-dress con- 
sisting of an enormous sponge tied under the chin 
with red ribbon. It was a capital get-up, and the 
party were a merry lot. Among other antics, Howard 
and one of the Russians fought and knocked each 
other about in wonderful style. Howard was carried 
off and presently brought back as a dead man ! The 
ghastly but ingenious trick was executed as follows : 
The Russian walking in front held his arms out straight 



before him encased in jack boots. Howard followed 
with his arms also outstretched — his hands resting 
on the Russian's shoulders — and supporting a big 
pillow which formed the body of the defunct. A 
sheet tied round the necks of both men provided 
the necessary drapery, the illusion being completed 
by the hindmost man bending his head as far back 
as possible, the effect produced being quite that of 
two men carrying the body of a third on their 

Our family circle now acquired a welcome addition 
by the arrival of our two Etonians — my eldest son 
Horace (now First Secretary to H.M.'s Agency at 
Cairo) and my stepson Algy Caulfeild, 1 who were both 
past seventeen. They came out to us in charge of a 
German gentleman of the name of Homann, who turned 
out a perfect paragon of tutors. Herr Fritz Homann 
had been with young Lord Camden, and his thorough 
knowledge of English and his familiarity with English 
habits and ideas of course contributed to make him a 
very pleasant and valued inmate of the Legation, into 
which we were now at last able to remove from the 
Hotel d'Angleterre. It was a great relief from the 
monotonous strain of public affairs to have to busy our- 
selves with the furnishing of the house, the pile of cases 
we had brought with us from Stockholm many months 
before having of necessity remained untouched till now. 
We found the difficulties of housekeeping at Athens in 
most ways much greater than elsewhere, but ended by 
getting together a workable household and securing 
the services of a very tolerable cook — a stout, oily 
Neapolitan of the name of Ercole Belloni, who, apart 
from his cuisine, which was savoury enough, is chiefly 

1 Algernon St. George Caulfeild, of Donamon Castle, County 


associated in my memory with the reply he once gave 
when my wife had to remonstrate with him about 
his arrangements. He had come up from his kitchen 
for orders on a piping hot day, and, standing there, 
in the not altogether spotless white garments of his 
calling, made many shifty excuses, and finally, with a 
gesture of despair, exclaimed : " Ah / ze voudrais bien 
voir milady dans ma chemise/" by which dreadfully 
graphic phrase the poor man of course only meant " in 
his place." 

The anniversary of the declaration of Greek inde- 
pendence, which fell on the 6th of April, had been pre- 
dicted as likely to be a day of disturbance and tumult. It 
nevertheless passed off very quietly, with the customary 
official Te Deum in the Cathedral, rendered picturesque 
by the attendance of a small remnant of ancient fighters 
in the national struggle, clad in old Palikari garb — a 
sight that reminded me of the touching band of tattered 
veterans of the grande armee whom, in my childhood 
in Paris, I had seen following the ashes of the mighty 
Emperor on the bitterest of December days. But for 
an insulting article in an organ of the Athenian gutter- 
press about the British flag which I hoisted as the other 
Foreign Ministers did theirs, in honour of the national 
solemnity, no unpleasant incident marked the day. 

Our Governments now took an inopportune step 
by instructing us to inform the Hellenic Govern- 
ment officially of the settlement by the Conference at 
Constantinople of the Turco-Bulgarian question, adding 
the expression of the hope that Greece would in con- 
sequence defer to the unanimous wish of the Powers 
in favour of peace. After the menacing position 
which we had already been made to take up, this 
appeal seemed somewhat futile, and, as one of us 


observed, reduced us, in transmitting the message of 
the Conference, more or less to the part of facteurs or 
penny postmen. The only result of this, as was to be 
expected, was another unseemly reply, coupled with a 
still plainer demand for the so-called Berlin frontier. 

In the interval the Chamber had again been con- 
voked in extraordinary session. During a protracted 
debate which ensued on a vote of censure on the 
Government, M. Tricoupis described the preparations 
made for war as quite inadequate, and the organisa- 
tion of the army as much too incomplete for any 
serious military operations. He used scathing language 
about a policy which aimed at reaping victory, how- 
ever improbable, while reckoning on the country being 
shielded from the results of almost certain disaster. 
Such a policy was unworthy of a free people which 
should have the courage fairly to face the consequences 
of its acts. It was certain, he said, that Greece had 
lost, for the time, not only the sympathies of the lead- 
ing Powers of Europe, but those of the nations them- 
selves. There could be no question, therefore, of public 
feeling imposing on the Governments a reversal of their 
bearing towards Greece. " At the same time," he some- 
what perversely added, "the Powers must understand 
that force would have to be applied in this case as 
in that of any other nation, and they must not imagine 
that Greece, because she was small, would give in to a 
mere threat." It was Chauvinistic utterances like these 
from the leader of the Opposition that wrought much 
of the mischief, by hardening his irresolute adversary, 
the Premier, in his pernicious course ; and to Tricoupis' 
speech in fact the division in favour of the Govern- 
ment was mainly due, the Chamber almost imme- 
diately adjourning after voting the credits demanded 
by the Premier and practically endorsing his policy. 


The patience of the Powers was now, however, at 
last exhausted. Early on Sunday morning, the 18th, 
I received an unusually long telegram in cypher in- 
forming me in full detail of the measures it had been 
resolved to take. A collective "Ultimatum would be 
addressed to the Hellenic Government, calling upon 
them to declare within a week whether they would 
undertake to disarm and replace their land and sea 
forces on a peace footing. A squadron, composed of 
one ship of each of the Powers, would simultaneously 
appear off the Piraeus to support the presentation of 
this last summons, and, failing a satisfactory reply to it, 
the Envoys would be withdrawn, and would go on board 
their respective vessels. The East Coast of Greece would 
then be blockaded against all Greek shipping. For my 
part I was ordered in such case to repair to the nearest 
point in H.M. dominions — by which, as was subsequently 
explained, was meant Malta — taking the whole of my 
family with me. It would be difficult to give an idea 
of the excitement, and still more the relief, we experi- 
enced at this decision after the long strain we had been 
subjected to. Having received my instructions first, 
with a caution to keep them secret until my colleagues 
had received their orders, I waited somewhat im- 
patiently for them to be likewise in a position to act. 

We had now reached the beginning of Holy 
Week, which naturally brought with it a complete 
suspension of business. On Good Friday evening we 
took our whole family party to our former quarters at 
the Hotel d'Angleterre, as being the best point from 
which could be seen the processions that came up, 
long after nightfall, from the different churches in 
the lower town, each of them escorting a closed bier 
purporting to contain the body of the crucified Saviour 
on its way to sepulture. The streets on the line of 


road were packed with dense crowds, every one carry- 
ing a long, thin, lighted taper. All the windows and 
balconies were full of spectators, who contributed to 
the illumination by the candles they held, the grease 
from which dripped freely down on the people below. 
It was a warm, beautiful evening, and, in the perfectly 
still air, whiffs of garlic, mingling with the smell of 
the burning wax and tallow and the pungent fumes 
of tobacco, strayed up to us from the patient, orderly 
throng, together with the nasal psalmodies of the 
marching priests. The processions, as they filed past, 
offered a curious, but scarcely an edifying spectacle. 
The great cortege from the Cathedral was of course 
much more effective than the rest, with its multitude 
of banners and the Metropolitan and his Chapter 
and clergy in splendid vestments — a magnificently 
embroidered pall being thrown over the sacred sym- 
bolic bier. Although there was but little real reve- 
rential character about the function — the Bengal 
lights and rockets, with the continual letting-off of 
squibs and crackers and the discharge of firearms 
being suggestive of a riotous day of rejoicing rather 
than one of solemn mourning — the effect of these 
processions, as they all converged on the large Palace 
Square, and filled it with innumerable lights, and with 
the sound of dirge-like chaunts and marches, was un- 
questionably weird and impressive. It was a quaint 
and interesting relic of those archaic forms of cere- 
monial worship which have come down unbroken 
from Byzantine days in the different branches of the 
old Eastern Church. 

During the respite afforded by these celebrations, 
instructions similar to mine reached the other Minis- 
ters, together with the text of the Ultimatum we had 
to deliver. It was indeed high time that some action 


should be taken to avert an almost inevitable collision 
on the frontier. So dangerously near to each other 
were the outposts of the forces that, on the Thursday 
of this week of fasting and prayer, a sharp exchange 
of shots took place near a village called Mitritza, 
brought about, it was said, by the poor, half-starved 
Greeks attempting to forage for sheep on the Turkish 
side of the border, in view of the Easter repast they 
were looking forward to after their long Lenten absti- 
nence. Yet, even now, at the eleventh hour, the un- 
expected departure of the Russian Minister, Butzow, 
to wait upon the Emperor at Livadia in the Crimea, 
threatened seriously to attenuate the effect of our 
concerted action. As a matter of fact, the Russian 
representatives in this part of the world were always 
sent for when their Sovereign visited the southernmost 
part of his dominions. The Greeks, however, were 
only too ready to see in this journey an indication of 
Russian support in their emergency. It was known 
that the Russian Minister had had a long interview 
with M. Delyannis before starting, and those who 
had met the Premier afterwards declared that he was 
beaming with satisfaction. 

By Saturday evening we had completed our arrange- 
ments for presenting the collective Ultimatum on the 
following Tuesday, in the forenoon of which day the 
squadron to be sent up from Suda Bay in support of 
the summons, would appear off the Piraeus. All the 
details of this naval demonstration had been carefully 
settled with the Duke of Edinburgh, with whom I was 
in constant correspondence. It was somewhat discon- 
certing, therefore, to receive early on Easter Sunday a 
telegram from H.R.II. to the effect that he had already 
despatched the squadron, which would therefore arrive 
thirty-six hours before the time appointed. This was 


of course due to some unfortunate misunderstanding, 
but it seriously deranged our plans. I at once requested 
Captain Eardley-Wilmot of H.M.S. Dolphin — which 
had been told off as stationnaire, or guard-ship to the 
Legation — to put to sea as quickly as possible and 
endeavour to intercept and turn back the squadron. 
Before he could do this, however, the ships were 
sighted off the coast in the afternoon, and though they 
stood out again for the night, the news of their arrival 
rapidly spread through the town, and produced the 
most intense excitement. Under the circumstances we 
concluded that our best course would be to sign and 
send in the summons at latest on Monday evening. 

At this stage of the proceedings it was that the ill- 
timed intervention of our French colleague placed us 
in a position of great difficulty. On calling on M. de 
Moiiy in order to ascertain whether his instructions, as 
we had been led to hope, enabled him to sign with us, 
he, for the first time, informed me that on Good Friday 
he had, by M. de Freycinet's orders, made a " supreme 
attempt" to bring M. Delyannis to his senses. He had 
warned the Minister that, if he did not give way, France 
must take part in the impending pressure, and that 
in such case he would have to do "with a united and 
indignant Europe " from which he could certainly not 
expect lenient treatment. M. de Freycinet's message 
had, he believed, greatly shaken the Greek Premier, 
and he seemed on the point of yielding. If this were 
the case, I observed to my colleague, nothing could be 
easier for M. Delyannis than to give at once in writing 
some explicit assurance of disarmament that could 
be submitted for the consideration of our respective 
Governments. I was obliged, I said, to add that my 
instructions precluded my holding back the Ultimatum 


beyond Tuesday. M. de Motiy thereupon undertook 
to try and obtain the indispensable written assurance, 
and later in the day, whilst I was again in conclave with 
my other colleagues, he sent me word, through one of 
his secretaries, that he had already received very satis- 
factory verbal assurances from the Premier, and had 
been promised a written communication to the same 
effect in the course of the evening. 

These vague assurances nevertheless appearing to 
all of us quite insufficient, we determined to accept 
nothing less than a categorical written engagement 
from the Prime Minister that the Greek land and 
sea forces would be placed on a peace footing in 
the shortest possible time. In the evening I went 
once more to M. de Moiiy to acquaint him with this 
decision, when he showed me a private note he had just 
received from M. Delyannis, simply stating that the 
Council of Ministers were prepared " to listen to the 
advice of France," and that, " on the return of the 
Minister of War from Thessaly in a few days," an 
official communication to that effect would be addressed 
to him, the French Minister. I told my colleague that 
we could scarcely be expected to content ourselves with 
vague assurances addressed to France alone, and prac- 
tically leaving the other Powers out of account. As 
regarded myself, I said, I begged him to place himself 
in my position. I found myself by force of circum- 
stance in charge of a combination, as delicate as it was 
powerful and had been difficult of attainment. Ships 
had already been sent to back up our demands, and 
now, at the eleventh hour, I was asked to stop short, 
at the risk of throwing everything out of gear, on the 
strength of flimsy assurances coming from a Minister' 
whom I, as well as my colleagues, had the best reason 
to distrust. Nevertheless, I was ready, if he would 


entrust it to me, to show M. Delyannis' communication 
to my colleagues, and to take their opinion about 
it. I soon found that the latter entirely shared my 
view of the value of the Premier's professions. We 
thought it right, however, to give him a last chance 
of avoiding the delivery of the Ultimatum, and, for 
that purpose, I was requested to address a private note 
to our French colleague clearly stating the nature of 
the assurances that would alone satisfy us. 

Any lingering doubt, as to the expediency of the 
course we were following, must have been dispelled by 
the publicity given by the Prime Minister the next 
morning to what had passed between him and M. de 
Motiy. M. Delyannis not only inserted a communique 
of his own composition in the Prota, but used every 
means at his disposal to disseminate the idea that the 
French demarche had been accompanied by promises 
which would fully satisfy the national aspirations, and 
that Greece, although consenting not to break the 
peace, would continue in a full state of preparation 
until their accomplishment. To the American Minis- 
ter, Mr. Fearn, and to his own brothers and his most 
intimate friends, the Premier stated, in so many words, 
that he had been guaranteed nothing less than the 
Berlin line, including of course Epirus. He was in 
fact making capital out of the French intervention at 
the expense of the other Powers, and was aiming at 
maintaining himself in office by representing the 
transaction as one in which Greece obtained all she 
desired without herself in any way yielding. When, 
therefore, we received from the Minister an identic 
Note which simply covered M. de Freycinet's message, 
together with the private note from M. Delyannis to 
M. de Moiiy which the latter had already imparted to 
us, we resolved no longer to suspend our action, and 


sent in the Ultimatum in the course of that evening 
(Monday, the 26th). 

The intervention of M. de Moiiy proved a regret- 
table incident in the difficult crisis which led to 
the blockade. By electing to act independently from 
his colleagues, he placed us at the last moment, when 
it was almost impossible for us to suspend our proceed- 
ings, in a position of great embarrassment which, but 
for the complete concord existing between us, might 
have seriously impeded the action we were ordered to 
take. At the same time, this distinguished diplomatist 
and writer, who was afterwards French Ambassador 
at Rome, must, I think, be absolved of any ill intent 
in playing for his own hand. He had imprudently 
allowed himself to be cajoled by the Greek Premier ; 
but, a few days later, when he was shown by the 
Italian Minister the terms of the communication by 
which M. Delyannis had tried to stop us, he violently 
struck the table with his hand, and exclaimed that the 
Premier's conduct was positively sickening (e'cceurant). 
At the same time the unfortunate fact remained that 
France did not join in the final pressure exercised, and 
furnished no contingent to the international squadron. 

The Ultimatum of course increased the excitement 
tl>at pervaded the town, and it was announced in all 
the papers that "an armed demonstration " would take 
place on Wednesday, the 28th, on the Palace Square. 
Considerable military precautions were taken in view 
of possible rioting, and all the Legations were guarded. 
The threatening crowds on the Square confined them- 
selves, however, to cheering the stock speeches of mob 
orators; and when a cavalry patrol rode down from 
the barracks above the Palace to clear the roads, a wild 
stampede took place in which our boys, who had gone 


with their tutor to see the fun, were swept along by 
the fleeing demonstrators. It was only another instance 
of the hollow character of the agitation kept up by the 

The squadron from Crete meanwhile was at anchor 
in Phalerum Bay, where it was joined by the Russian 
despatch-boat Plastoun, which had hitherto lain inside 
the Piraeus. 1 We went down to see them on a lovely 
afternoon, and the other Ministers following our 
example, the amount of saluting that took place as 
each Envoy passed from ship to ship was quite pro- 
digious, something like 300 rounds being fired in less 
than two hours. The waste of gunpowder on such 
occasions has always seemed to me unnecessary if not 
unjustifiable. That same Thursday evening the formal 
reply of the Hellenic Government to the Ultimatum 
reached our hands. In substance it was a repetition of 
the very unsatisfactory communication we had already 
received. Excepting for a reiteration of the statement 
that, in deference to the counsels of France, Greece 
would not disturb the peace, it was quite evasive as to 
the all-important point of disarmament, its wording- 
being such as to leave it practically in the power of the 
Government to maintain, for an indefinite time, arma- 
ments that would be an intolerable burthen both to 
Greece and to Turkey. In view of the hopes which 
M. Delyannis boldly asserted had been held out to 
him by France, there was a serious danger in this. 
While all of us agreed as to the objectionable character 
of the reply, we of course could only refer it to our 
Governments for their opinion. 

The week's grace allowed in the Ultimatum was to 

1 This international force was made up of the ironclads Neptune 
(British), Friedrich Karl (German), Kaiser Max (Austrian), Ancona 
(Italian), and the Russian despatch-boat Plastoun. 


expire on Monday, the 3rd of May. In the interval 
various private and unofficial attempts, into which I 
need not enter here, were made, in London and at 
Athens, to find a way out of the hopeless impasse into 
which M. Delyannis had driven his country and his 
Sovereign. All these efforts were rendered fruitless by 
the attitude of the Greek Premier, who, as one who 
knew him well expressed it, remained quite " insais- 
sisable." In the end we had to inform him officially 
that, while our Governments took note of the pacific 
intentions expressed in his reply to the Ultimatum, 
they did not consider these to be sufficiently explicit 
for the object in view, and we must therefore request 
him to furnish us in the course of the day with clearer 
explanations as to disarmament. Late that evening 
we received a reply expressing regret that the explana- 
tions in his Note of the 29th April should be deemed 
inadequate, but simply referring us back to that docu- 
ment. In the forenoon of the next day (7th May) we 
left Athens and went on board our respective ships 
at the Piraeus. 

The festival of St. George had taken place two days 
before, and it being the name-day of the King, I had 
attended the usual service at the Cathedral with the 
other Ministers. The King and Queen both appeared 
very depressed and sad, and to me more particularly 
the whole ceremony was a mournful one. I looked 
back to the days of King George's first arrival in 
Greece, when he was yet but a slight, delicate strip- 
ling, and, remembering his great kindness to me then, 
as well as on my return to his Court after an interval 
of some twenty years, I felt it hard that to me should 
have fallen the distasteful lot of carrying out a policy 
of coercion towards his Government and people. No 
one knew better than I how difficult and indeed 


painful had been H.M.'s position during this pro- 
tracted crisis. In obedience to an, if anything over- 
strict, observance of constitutional usage he had not 
separated himself from a Minister who, by virtue of his 
majority, was supposed to have the confidence of the 
country, although he was really distrusted by its best 
and soundest opinion. According to the generally 
received constitutional doctrine, therefore, the King 
had been right in not seeking to dissociate himself 
from a policy which at heart he certainly disapproved. 
Whether he might not have done better to take upon 
himself the dismissal of advisers who were ruining 
Greece, and make an appeal to the country, is a 
question which I will not permit myself to judge. 
Certain it is that six years later (in March 1892) he 
dismissed the same Minister on the score of his 
financial policy, and did so again in 1897 a t the 
beginning of the war with Turkey. But by that time 
he had acquired a much stronger hold on the affec- 
tions of his subjects, who had come to recognise the 
remarkable skill and sagacity with which he had 
throughout his reign served the best interests of 

Before concluding this long account of tedious and 
abortive negotiations, I would pay a sincere tribute to 
the bearing of the Greek people at large during this 
most trying period. As I wrote at the time, the 
alacrity with which they responded to the calls made 
upon them by a reckless Minister, who all along 
deceived and misled them, and the patience with 
which they endured the burdens and privations of 
the mobilisation, were beyond all praise. What came 
home to me, however, most strongly was the quiet 
dignity with which the population of the capital, 
although exposed to the constant incitements of a 


very low form of journalism, comported itself under 
conditions most galling to the national pride. Not 
a word nor even a gesture of disrespect was used 
towards me or my colleagues during the fortnight 
preceding and following the Ultimatum, though it 
was impossible not to feel that the foreign coercion 
applied deeply stirred the national sentiment. What- 
ever the errors of their Government, the Greek nation 
passed through the ordeal in a manner which only 
heightened the sympathies I for my part have never 
ceased to entertain for them. 



H.M.S. Neptune, which had come up with the inter- 
national squadron from Crete, was a big ironclad only 
recently bought by the Admiralty from the Brazilian 
Government, and had such excellent accommodation 
that she had no doubt been selected on that account 
by the Commander-in-Chief as well fitted to take in 
so large a party as ours. When it came, however, to 
settling the details of our embarkation with her Com- 
mander, that gallant officer showed such undisguised 
dread at the idea of having to provide room for a small 
boy and his nurse, let alone my wife's maid, that I had 
at the last moment to apply to the Duke of Edinburgh 
for an additional ship, which H.R.H.. kindly sent in the 
shape of the Carysfort, a corvette under the command of 
Captain Dupuis, a very pleasant man, whose promising 
career was cut short not long afterwards. We accord- 
ingly went on board the latter vessel, telling off only our 
elder boys and their tutor to the roomy Neptune, some- 
what to the disgust of her exceptionally fussy Captain. 
Before starting I placed in charge of the Archives 
of the Legation Mr. Walter Baring, 1 who had only 
just joined me as First Secretary, in succession to 

1 Now H.M. Minister at Montevideo. Mr. Baring and the other 
Secretaries left behind by their respective chiefs, had no official inter- 
course with the Greek Government, beyond notifying the blockade. Bv 
one of the nice distinctions which are dear to diplomacy, they were 
charges dm affaires and not charges d'affaires. 



Mr. Howard, and took with me our last new Attache", 
Mr. Strickland Constable. Under instructions from 
home, I had before taken the King's orders as to 
whether he wished me to keep within reach off the 
coast of Greece. H.M., however, declining the offer, 
I shaped my course for Malta vid Crete. 

We had a roughish day and night of it in the 
Carysfort, but by 6 a.m. of the 8th anchored in Suda 
Bay right in the centre of the allied fleet, which, in- 
cluding first-class torpedo boats, made up a total of 
forty vessels — a sight which of its kind was unique, 
especially having regard to the composition of this 
imposing force. The Duke, who had requested me 
to come here to confer with him about certain details 
of the blockade, instead of going straight on to Malta, 
showed us much kindness and attention, but explained 
that he was unable any longer to spare the large 
ships which had brought us from the Piraeus, and must 
therefore transfer us for the rest of our journey to 
the Imogene, a yacht of 460 tons, whose habitual duty 
it was to act as stationnaire to our Embassy at Con- 
stantinople. After spending a very interesting and 
busy day amidst all the bustle and preparation of this 
great naval force, which was to put to sea the next 
day, we went on board our yacht towards evening and 
steamed away in great state, each ship, as we passed it, 
turning out its guard to salute the Envoy's Hag we flew 
at our main. 

From these naval honours we all too soon subsided 
into a condition of abject discomfort. We had experi- 
enced half a gale in coming from the Piraeus, but that 
evening, when once we were well out of the bay, we 
found as nasty a sea as I can remember during many 
cruises in the treacherous Mediterranean waters. In 
the ugly North-Easter she had to face for the next 



forty-eight hours the dainty Imogene was of course a 
mere cockle-shell. It blew in fact as hard as must 
have done "the tempestuous wind, called Euroclydon," 
encountered by the great apostle on his journey on this 
very same track. The worst of it was that, from her 
Commander downwards, almost every one on board 
was lamentably sea-sick, even the cook and the ship's 
steward striking work, so that it was scarcely possible 
to get anything in the shape of food. We were in 
fact absolutely neglected. The water, too, came in 
freely and swamped me in my bunk, while, for want of 
ventilation, the closeness of the luxuriously furnished 
cabins became quite intolerable. The Imogene s record 
for that, matter happened to be dead against her. She 
had been sold to the Admiralty by her original owner, 
Mr. John Burns, who had found her unseaworthy, and 
was really only suited for the smooth waters of the Bos- 
phorus, where all her ports could be kept open night 
and day. In rough weather the forepart of the vessel 
was always under water, and the men's things were 
never dry. She had now been temporarily turned into a 
store-ship for the squadron, with the unpleasant result 
that she was anything but clean or fit for passengers. 
In our family circle the miseries of that voyage in the 
Imogene have remained proverbial to this day. 

It was the greatest relief to find ourselves in harbour 
at Malta early on Tuesday, the i ith. Soon after we 
had come to an anchor, the Governor sent me a tele- 
gram from Walter Baring informing me that M. Del- 
yannis had tendered his resignation, which had not 
been accepted by the King, who, I was very glad to 
learn, properly insisted on his Minister bearing the 
full responsibility of the situation he had brought 
about. There was some satisfaction, too, in hearing 
that the great fleet, after leaving Suda Bay for the 


blockade on Sunday, had been compelled to put back 
by the violence of the gale that had well-nigh swamped 
the wretched cock -boat to which our party had been 
consigned. 1 Most welcome of all, however, was the 
sight of the yacht Chazalie, and a pressing invitation 
from its owners, our friends the Falbes, to dine with 
them that evening. They were on their way to Athens 
on a visit to the King, and I had for some time past 
looked impatiently forward to Falbe's arrival there, as 
his intimacy with H.M. might have proved very useful 
to me at the acutest stage of the crisis. As it was, I 
was able through him to convey to the King much that 
it was desirable he should know. 

Presently there came on board Captain Chesney — 
A.D.C. to General Sir Lintorn Simmons, 2 the Governor 
— charged with kind offers of service. By his advice 
we went in quest of rooms to the Grand Hotel, a 
rambling, tumble-down building where in bygone days 
some dignitary of the old Sovereign Order of St. John 
had no doubt dwelt in state. The rooms in it were 
as large and lofty as they were bare, and inside some 
of them nests of bedrooms had been run up with par- 
titions, at varying levels ; corridors and stairs being- 
contrived in them in the oddest way in the different 
corners. In this strangely constructed hostelry we 
none the less soon made ourselves quite comfortable. 
It was admirably situated at the corner of the Strada 
Reale and St. George's Square, at right angles with the 

1 A few hours after our arrival, Prince George (now Prince of Wales) 
embarked in the Imoyene for Lisbon, whither he was going to invest the 
King of Portugal with the Garter. On his return H.R.H. came to see my 
wife, and told her that the weather had been such that he had never left 
his berth, the Captain consoling him by Baying it was nothing to what we 
had gone through. 

2 The late Field-Marshal Sir John Lintorn Arabin Simmons, G.C.B., 


Governor's Palace and the mainguard facing it. After 
our recent experience of raucous Athenian mob gather- 
ings, it was a pleasing contrast to watch from our 
windows trim detachments from the different splendid 
battalions of the garrison — Gordon Highlanders, York 
and Lancaster and' others — relieving guard at noon or 
trooping the colours once a week. The sober, orderly 
routine of English garrison duties struck one all the 
more from its being carried on in the midst of all the 
exuberance of Southern life and colour of this wonderful 
Mediterranean stronghold of ours. 

I gather from my wife's diary that after receiving 
visits from some of the military and other dignitaries 
of the place, we spent the rest of the afternoon with 
Mr. Walter Hely-Hutchinson, at that time Secretary 
to the Government of Malta, 1 and his mother, Lady 
Donoughmore, at a Palazzo they rented a little way 
out of town, and where Lady Mayo and one of her 
sons were staying with them on a visit. We just 
got back in time to dress for dinner on board the 
Chazalie, and there, to my delight, we found my very 
old friend the Marquis de Jaucourt as well as Major 
Seymour Wynne Finch. To me it was genuine relaxa- 
tion to meet people with whom I had been intimate in 
days long past, and in wholly different circumstances, 
and thus to get away entirely from the wearisome train 
of thought by which I had been pursued and oppressed 
all through these last months at Athens. In this re- 
spect our few weeks' stay at Malta was the most perfect 
holiday I had ever enjoyed. M. de Jaucourt, who has 
left so many friends in England, belongs to that small 
class among his countrymen which to this day remains 
the fine fleur of French society, but has unfortunately, 

1 The Honble. Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson, G.C.M.G., now Governor 
of Cape Colony. 


through force of tradition and circumstances, kept too 
long aloof from public affairs. He and I went the next 
day over the Cathedral Church of St. John, where one 
literally treads the dust of chivalry, the splendid fabric 
being entirely paved with beautiful slabs of marble of 
every colour — four hundred, it is said, in number — on 
which are engraved the coats of arms and epitaphs of 
the knights who are buried beneath. The walls, too, 
are covered with armorial bearings, amongst which 
Jaucourt discovered the escutcheon of one of his 
ancestors, though his family happens to be one of 
the very few remaining of the old French noblesse 
which, having adopted the Reformed faith, have 
adhered to it ever since. With its sumptuous monu- 
ments of successive Grand Masters, from Villiers de 
l'lsle Adam to Perellos and Rohan, its mass of gilding 
and its beautiful mosaics, the cathedral is probably still 
one of the most richly decorated churches in the world, 
though the French, when they first took the place, de- 
spoiled it of many treasures and relics. Among these 
was the right hand of St. John the Baptist, encased in 
a great golden glove studded with precious stones, 
which was afterwards restored to the last of the Grand 
Masters, Hompesch, and by him was taken, as an 
offering, to the Emperor Paul, 1 to St. Petersburg, 
where it is said to be still carefully preserved in the 
Winter Palace. 

Jn this church, too, are kept the famous tapestries, 
after designs by Rubens, Poussin, and others, which 
were made at Brussels by order of the Spaniard 
Perellos, whose avmcs jmrlantes (pears) figure on 
most of them. These had been allowed to get into 

1 The Russian Emperor had been most irregularly elected Grand 
Master of the Knights of St. .John in October 1798, six months after 
Malta had been occupied by the French under General Bonaparte. 



a ruinous condition, and, when they were shown to 
us with a private order from Mr. Hely-Hutchinson, 
were being repaired under the supervision of the Italian 
artist Palmieri, who had already been engaged seven 
years on the work. In fact the many traces still left 
of the splendour and luxury of the Order, during its 
rule of just over two centuries and a half, make 
Valletta a singularly interesting place. No statelier 
abode can be imagined than the great Palace on 
St. George's Square, which our Governors have occu- 
pied since the days of " King Tom " ; x and several 
of the ancient Auberges — called after the different 
nations or languages into which the Knights were 
divided, with resonant names like Provence, Auvergne, 
Castille, Baviere, and which now are turned into 
quarters or mess-rooms for our officers — are equally 
striking buildings. 

Nothing could exceed the attention that was 
shown us at Malta by Sir Lintorn Simmons and 
his family at the Palace, with its monumental 
staircase which is so wide and easy of ascent that 
decrepit Grand Masters are said to have been carried 
up it in their litters ; its splendid corridors and state 
rooms ; and the noble armoury rich with Turkish 
spoils taken during the memorable siege of 1563 ; 
and, most precious of all, the silver trumpet that 
sounded the retreat from Rhodes after its heroic 
defence by lTsle Adam. The late Admiral Ward, 2 
Superintendent of the Dockyard, likewise showed us 
much civility at his commodious official residence by 
the waterside, adjoining the immense Admiralty store- 
houses and the dismal dungeons hewn out of the rock, 

1 Sir Thomas Maitland, second son of the 7th Earl of Lauderdale, and 
a great benefactor to Malta as well as to the Ionian Islands. 
- Third son of the 3rd Viscount Bangor. 


where the slaves who manned the Maltese galleys were 
kept chained up when not at sea. 

Certainly our Governors have inherited a number 
of enviable habitations from their knightly pre- 
decessors. San Antonio and its cool loggias and 
spacious shady terraces, its quaint, formal gardens, 
and the scent from its luxuriant orange groves, is 
the very dream of a country home in this semi- 
African climate, and the appropriately poetical birth- 
place of one of the most attractive and interesting 
of our Princesses. Verdala, too, and the then almost 
disused tower of Selmoon, standing on a height that 
overlooks the scene of St. Paul's shipwreck, are both 
in their way delightful summer retreats. 

The Queen's birthday, which was kept on the 29th 
of May, is perhaps the most prominent of my Maltese 
recollections. Shortly before noon of a very hot day 
we joined the Governor's party at the saluting battery, 
whence the view over the Grand Harbour was simply 
magnificent. The men-of-war were all dressed in rain- 
bow fashion for the occasion, the deep blue water being 
dotted by any number of the picturesque tented native 
boats, with tilted prows and painted in the brightest 
colours, while the grim ramparts that girdle the harbour 
were scarlet-lined by the troops of the garrison. On 
the stroke of twelve the flagship gave the lead with a 
Royal salute which was repeated by all the vessels in 
harbour, and, when the thunder of the guns had died 
away, there followed the feu de joie, ushered in by 
twenty-one guns from Fort St. Angelo, fired in three 
sets of seven, in the intervals of which the continuous 
line of infantry manning the walls gave a running fire 
of musketry. The strains of " God Save the Queen " 
were taken up at the same time by one regimental 


band after the other, the whole show ending by the 
Governor, surrounded by a brilliant staff, mounting 
the rampart at the saluting battery and leading off 
in person a deafening cheer which, like the firing, 
was borne echoing round the entire circle of the 
bastions and battlements. It was altogether a most 
imposing and inspiriting function, and the thought 
that at the very same hour similar honours were 
being paid to the Sovereign at every point of her 
world-wide dominions could not but stir and affect 
one at the time. The pageant of the day was fittingly 
concluded by a grand tattoo and concert of the united 
bands of the garrison on the Floriana Parade Ground, 
which was lighted up by bonfires and by the torches 
borne by a cordon of soldiers. Seated as we were with 
the party from Government House in an embrasure of 
St. John's counter-guard, and looking down through 
the dark, sultry night on the troops and the crowd 
in the fitful glare of the torches, the general effect 
f was exceedingly striking and fantastic. From the 

parade-ground we went on to supper with the hos- 
pitable Gordon Highlanders. These loyal festivities 
terminated two days later with a great evening garden 
party at San Antonio, the palace and its square tower 
being most artistically outlined, and the gardens illumi- 
nated with a profusion of small coloured lamps — over 
11,000 in all being used for this decoration; so we 
were told by a smart little Canon of the Cathedral of 
St. John who had designed and carried out the whole 

These halcyon days at Malta were soon to come 
to an end, however. Affairs had settled down at 
Athens. M. Delyannis had at last resigned, and a 
transition Ministry had been got together which de- 
creed the indispensable disarmament. The blockade 


was raised, and M. Tricoupis then consented to form 
a new Administration, which was still in office when 
I finally left Greece nearly two years later. I received 
orders to return to my post, the comfortable troopship 
Humber of 1600 tons being placed at my disposal 
for the journey. I have never revisited Malta, 
but a few pictures of that curiously fascinating sea- 
girt dependency of ours are still vividly stamped on 
my memory. Quite unique is the treeless, wind-swept 
aspect of the interior of the island, which has been 
well compared to a vast stone quarry, so effectually do 
the high inclosure walls that line the roads mask the 
marvellous, painstaking husbandry which supports an 
average of no less than 2000 souls per cultivated square 
mile. A swarming population in fact, with scarcely 
a visible tree or a blade of grass. Then, too, there is 
the lonely, abandoned city 1 high up on the hill, with 
massive seemingly untenanted buildings and empty 
echoing streets — a city of the dead it seems — and its 
grand cathedral full of dim memories of the ship- 
wrecked apostle to whom it is dedicated, and built 
on the traditional site where he was received and 
" lodged three days courteously " by Publius. As for 
Valletta itself, with the gay Southern life of its admir- 
ably kept streets, the bells of its numerous churches, 
the splendid lines of its ancient forts and ramparts, 
and, above all, the singular mingling of British order- 
liness and Philistinism with the exuberant animation 
and the fervent Roman Catholicism of a population of 
semi-Arabic descent and speech, it stands out as one 
of the most striking of my crowded recollections, while 
I am grateful to it to this day for the change and rest 
I found within its walls after a season of much stress 
and anxiety. 

1 ( 'itta Vecchia. 


We found Athens very hot and dull and empty 
when we got back there on the 13th June. But few 
of our colleagues had as yet returned, almost the 
only one being the Turkish Minister, Feridoun Bey, 
a friendly little man, somewhat of the type of his 
countrymen whom Prince Gortchacow used to refer 
to disparagingly as not real Turks, but only " Turcs 
du houlevardr Feridoun, by the way, had taken a 
house in the street which skirts the inclosure of the 
beautiful Palace gardens, so wonderfully conjured up 
some forty years before by poor Queen Amelie out of 
the barren, stony Attic soil. In the scanty shade 
of the pepper trees lining this street he used to 
take his morning walks, and often meeting there our 
small boy with his nurse, had made great friends with 
the little fellow. One day he wrote in English to my 
wife to ask us to lunch with him, and begged that 
she would bring with her "the Turkey's best friend," 
meaning of course his juvenile acquaintance. Poor 
Feridoun ! His French was superior to his English 
and possibly to his diplomacy. His last post was 
Madrid, after which he seems to have got into some 
trouble with the powers that be at Yildiz Kiosk, and 
vanished from the diplomatic horizon. 

Peace, or rather the lassitude following upon a 
protracted period of intense excitement, was now the 
order of the day in Greece. Even the able and reso- 
lute statesman who had fortunately returned to office 
lay on his oars and allowed his ambitious aims to rest 
for a while. In the course of the next two years I 
saw a great deal of M. Tricoupis, who — I have it under 
his hand — came to look upon me as a true friend to 
Greece, and before long freely opened his mind to me 
about his hopes and plans. His adherents in his own 
country, as well as his many admirers in England, 


with the latter of whom he kept sedulously in touch, 
saw in him the Cavour of the East, and confidently 
hoped for results from his indomitable energy similar 
to those we now witness in united Italy. Those who 
thus thought and hoped, took insufficient account, it 
seems to me, of the fact that the great Piedmontese 
statesman had, ready to his hand, an ancient, well- 
organised monarchy with a loyal and disciplined 
people, instinct with the best military traditions — an 
admirable nucleus in fact for the larger State of which 
he laid the foundations. Greece, unfortunately, ful- 
filled but few of these conditions, and was therefore 
not in a position to leaven the East as Piedmont had 
leavened Italy. 

When Count Sponneck, at the dawn of King 
George's reign, made his youthful Royal charge say 
that it would be his task to found a model State in 
the East, the programme, however aspiring, seemed 
possible of performance. Such a State, it was not un- 
reasonably thought, might by degrees attract to itself 
the whole of outlying Hellenism, and thus realise 
what was possible in the impossible dream of the 
grande idee. Since then twenty years had been un- 
profitably spent in Greece in party strife ; in the paltry 
game of ins and outs, with its fatal results of new 
men and new measures at every change, of reckless 
finance and unsound administration. In the words 
of one of our most eminent statesmen, written in 
1887, "the Greeks had lost their opportunity. Be- 
tween their declaration of independence and the Mara- 
thon massacre they wasted about half a century, and 
though they have made progress since that time, the 
lost opportunity cannot be regained." In the interval 
quite new and formidable forces had sprung up in 
Eastern Europe. As Sir William White pointed out, 


about this time, in a remarkable Memorandum on 
"The Rivalry of the Greek and Slavonic Races in 
the Balkan Peninsula," the real nationality of the 
millions of Slavs in Austria and Turkey had been but 
very imperfectly understood down to a quite recent 
period, being in great measure obscured by their re- 
ligious obedience to the Greek Patriarchate. The 
Turkish Rayah, whatever the stock whence he came, 
was roughly accounted a Greek in a region where 
religion entirely overshadowed race. It is in fact just 
possible to imagine a thoroughly prosperous and pro- 
gressive Greece becoming at that period the paramount 
State in the Levant by drawing to itself this great 
body of Slavonic co-religionists in whom racial instincts 
yet slumbered undeveloped. 1 But in the last quarter 
of a century the Slav masses which were now arrayed 
against Hellenism had become conscious of their 
ethnical claims and destiny. Once more to quote the 
same statesman : "The Bulgarian has been created ; 
and though he may not be strong enough to hold the 
Straits, he will be quite strong enough to prevent the 
Greeks from doing so." With such a complete trans- 
formation of its racial conditions scarcely any part was 
left in the East for a Greek Cavour. 

To be fair to M. Tricoupis, he was, in spite of his 
Chauvinist attitude, much too clear-sighted to enter- 
tain extreme views of aggrandisement. The object he 
had at heart was rather to preserve to Hellenic culture 
and Hellenic influences those districts of Central and 
Southern Macedonia that were the last remnant of 
the splendid inheritance to which the Greeks of the 
grande idee not so long ago still laid claim. On one 

1 The Bulgarian schism, so vigorously favoured by General Ignatiew, 
when Russian Ambassador at Constantinople, was a death-blow to any 
such hopes and dreams. 


occasion he showed me on the map a line which, 
briefly described, started from Durazzo on the Adriatic 
and ran to the neighbourhood of Seres, a little to the 
north of the iEgean, while keeping to the south of 
Ochrida and Bitolia (Monastir). This he thought 
quite acceptable, and all he looked for, he said, would 
be a tacit recognition of a right to moral action within 
this Hellenic sphere, the object he held to being that 
" when the pear became ripe" and the final settlement 
took place — say some ten or twenty years hence — the 
region awarded to Hellenism should have been duly 
prepared for Greece to take over, without fear of col- 
lision with Bulgarian or other claimants. It is needless 
to point out that since the period when the Greek 
Premier imparted to me his views for a solution of 
part of the racial difficulties in Macedonia, these have 
only been intensified and rendered well-nigh insoluble 
by the intricate local juxtaposition of hostile popula- 
tions and the bitter warfare waged between rival 
religious establishments. 

M. Tricoupis' personality offers so interesting a 
study that I must be excused for borrowing from a 
sketch of it I made many years ago. Of his 
habits and disposition, I wrote, it is not too much to 
say that they are truly Spartan. He leads a life of 
assiduous labour, with scarcely any relaxation. He is 
frugal to excess, while his cast-iron constitution, which 
seems indifferent to both food and rest, enables him 
to get through an incredible amount of work, and, in 
the case of protracted sittings of the Chamber, makes 
it possible for him literally to tire out his parliamentary 
adversaries. His one passion is power, and for that he 
is willing to pay the price of continuous effort at the 
fullest pressure. Add to this a complete absence of 
self-seeking ; an exalted, though perhaps somewhat 


unreasonable, patriotism ; the most scrupulous integ- 
rity and an absolute rigidity of principle ; and you get 
a statesman of no ordinary type and, what is above all 
striking, having but little in common with that of his 
countrymen. It need hardly be said that M. Tricoupis 
is not, and cannot be, popular in the ordinary sense of 
that term. He resembles Aristides far too much for that. 
When thus writing of the upright, masterful 
Minister — in some respects the most remarkable I ever 
had to deal with — I little foresaw that, after a few 
more years of restless activity, he would be carried 
off in all the vigour of middle age by an insidious 
malady, 1 leaving Greece the poorer by the loss of the 
greatest statesman she had known since the days of 
her ancient glory. No account of Charilaos Tricoupis 
would be complete without a mention of his Egeria, 
the faithful sister who attended to his few wants, 
watched over him with untiring devotion, and was to 
him the most valuable of collaborators. In her simply 
furnished rooms on the upper story of a quiet corner 
house of the Boulevard de V Universite, and surrounded 
by beautiful palms and other plants of all kinds — her 
only luxury — Kvpla *2,o<pla sat, morning, noon, and night, 
at the receipt of custom ; interviewing at all hours 
Tricoupis' friends and supporters, and indefatigably 
doing the work of half-a-dozen able private secretaries 
for the brother whom she passionately worshipped and 
to whom she was useful beyond words. A very clever, 
highly educated woman, brought up in England and 
familiar with the best of English society, but whose 
sole interest in existence was centred in the austere, 
sardonic companion of her youth. The years she went 
through after his loss must have been sad and empty 

1 M. Tricoupis died at Cannes on the nth April 1896. 


I was soon able to establish cordial relations with 
the new Cabinet and its chief, with whom I had had 
more than one interesting conversation during the 
crisis that preceded the blockade. Very shortly after 
our return from Malta we had a big diplomatic dinner 
forM. Tricoupis and his colleague and intimate friend, 
M. Etienne Dragoumis, to whom the Foreign Depart- 
ment had been entrusted. I have preserved a real 
regard for M. Dragoumis, who was an enlightened and 
highly honourable man and a credit to Greek public 
life. The Dragoumis' home, where the Minister's 
mother, wife, and sisters — all very pleasing, cultivated 
women — lived together in patriarchal fashion, was one 
of the most attractive interieurs in Athenian society. 
Altogether the Tricoupis Cabinet was well composed, 
and comprised, as Minister of Marine, the actual Prime 
Minister, M. Theotokis, who belonged to one of the 
best Corfiote families and had an agreeable wife with 
considerable musical talent. 

Meanwhile, private business of a pressing nature 
obliged me to apply for a few weeks' leave of absence. 
I got to London on the 22nd July just after the general 
election which followed the decisive defeat of Mr. 
Gladstone on the Home Rule question. The Liberal 
Government were in fact on the point of leaving office. 1 
Nevertheless, a pleasant surprise was in store for me 
on the part of Lord Rosebery, who wrote to tell me 
that the Queen had been pleased to confer on me the 
honour of a K.C.M.G., and obligingly added the hope 
that I would " find in this distinction some compensa- 
tion for my labours during the late crisis in Greece." 
The grant of this decoration could not have been better 
timed, as being an admirable answer to renewed violent 

1 Lord Salisbury's second Administration, in which Lord Iddesleigh 
held at first the seals of the Foreign Office, came in on the 3rd of August. 


attacks made upon me in the Delyannist press, which, in 
reporting my departure from Athens, stated that I had 
been suddenly recalled and had fallen into complete 
disgrace. I had dined in Berkeley Square a few days 
before, and had already been much gratified by Lord 
Rosebery's reception of me. A circumstance worth 
relating occurred at this dinner. Among the other 
guests were Lord and Lady Grey, the handsome Mrs. 
Brown Potter, whose first season in London it was, and 
old Sir John Drummond-Hay, who had just retired on 
a pension after rendering really eminent service for a 
quarter of a century as our representative in Morocco. 
Sitting next to our host, after the ladies had left us, I 
was pointedly asked by him whether I did not think 
that Sir John, who faced us, looked in the best of health 
and still quite equal to the work and responsibilities 
of his post. The fact was, added Lord Rosebery, that 
as regarded the seventy years rule, under which Sir 
John was retiring, he himself was strongly of opinion 
that it was desirable that, in applying it in certain 
cases, a wise latitude and discretion should be allowed 
to the Secretary of State. 

Although my time was mostly taken up with tire- 
some business, I with my younger boys Willie and 
George spent a few days at Luton Hoo, where the 
Falbes had a party in honour of Princess Mary and the 
Duke of Teck, and their elder children Princess May 
and the present Duke. Percy Ffrench and Maffei l 
were there, and the young Cavendish Bentincks and 
the Duchess of Marlborough with her daughter Lady. 
Sarah. I had to take in the old Duchess, I remember, 
and found her naturally and touchingly radiant over 

1 The late Marquis Maffei, Italian Ambassador at St. Petersburg, 
who had served a long time in England and was well known in English 


the success of her son Lord Randolph. The whole 
party was extremely gay and animated. A band of 
straw-plaiters from Luton, led by the local chemist, 
played during dinner and afterwards for dancing, 
when even Princess Mary was induced to take a turn 
with Falbe. On the following evening the dance 
music was provided by my boy George, then a Naval 
Cadet in the Britannia, who, even at that age, showed 
unusual musical talent and played with all the swing 
and go of a young Viennese. Of other social doings 
of these few weeks I remember dining en 'petit comite 
at Holland House, with a few habitues such as Lord 
Fortescue, Miss Throgmorton and Mrs. Leo Ellis (now 
Harriet, Viscountess Clifden), and meeting there Count 
Hiibner, the ex-ambassador and traveller, with whom I 
arranged to go down the following Sunday to White 
Lodge, where we were both asked to dine with ever 
kind and cheery Princess Mary. The next day I went 
for the night to Knebworth, the Hertfordshire home of 
my old friend and colleague, Lord Lytton. The object 
of my visit was to thresh out with the ex-Viceroy of 
India the question of certain old claims against the 
Government of the Nizam of Hyderabad in which I 
was deeply interested. Lytton, who could be a grand 
charrneur when he chose, gave me some valuable hints 
about this affair, and I spent a delightful, and not 
altogether unprofitable, evening under his roof — 
sadly disfigured, it seemed to me, by the question- 
able heraldic ornamentation it had received at the 
hands of his father. The only visitor besides myself 
was beautiful Miss Mary Anderson, then at the zenith 
of her short but brilliant career on the stage. She 
appeared to me to be as charming as she was attrac- 
tive, and was evidently a great favourite with the 
gracious lady of the house and her daughters. Leaving 



London on the 12th of August, I took the French 
Messageries Mail-boat Donnai at Marseilles on my 
return to my post. 

The heat all through this summer at Athens had 
been terrific, the thermometer registering as much as 
98 degrees inside our spacious rooms at the Legation, 
and this lasted till well into September. The only 
respite we had were the lovely moonlit evenings passed 
on our great terrace overlooking the gardens of the 
Ministry of Finance, and the queer, dark little church 
of St. Theodore, which is one of those whose founda- 
tion is attributed to the Empress Helena, the mother 
of Constantine, and was rebuilt so long ago as the 
eleventh century. The tranquil tenour of our lives 
in the empty, sun-baked town was first disturbed 
by the deposition and violent abduction of Prince 
Alexander of Bulgaria, soon followed by his return and 
final abdication — startling events which once more for 
a time set all European diplomacy agog, and seriously 
threatened the general peace. Shortly after this 
political upheaval in the Balkans, Greece itself was 
visited by a very severe and calamitous earthquake. 
The shock, which brought back to me my Chilean days, 
was strongly felt at Athens and in Continental Greece, 
but its worst ravages were confined to the western 
coast of the Morea ; the centre of the disturbance being 
the Gulf of Arcadia, along the shores of which flourish- 
ing places like Philiatra and Grigoliani were laid in 
ruins, upwards of six thousand dwelling-houses and 
several hundred lives being destroyed by the visitation, 
which attained the proportions of a national disaster. 
I telegraphed to the Duke of Edinburgh, and, partly 
at my suggestion, the Agamemnon and the Iris were 
ordered to the scene of the catastrophe with stores, 
tents, and succour of various kinds for the sufferers. A 


good deal of money, too, was sent from England, but 
the resentful spirit engendered by the blockade was still 
so strong that a very inadequate sense of this efficient 
help to them in their trouble was evinced by the Greek 
Government and people. 

The same uncordial attitude was observed towards 
the Mediterranean fleet when, in the course of its 
autumn cruise, it visited the Piraeus early in October. 
We of course did our best to entertain the Duke of 
Edinburgh and Prince George, then serving as a lieu- 
tenant in the Dreadnought, and had a couple of dinner- 
parties and a small dance for them at which the members 
of the Government and a few other Greeks of distinc- 
tion were present. The visit, which had been arranged 
by express orders from the Admiralty, was on the 
whole, I am bound to say, unfortunately timed, and 
gave scope to caricatures and articles in very question- 
able taste in the Opposition press, of which my 
excellent friend Martelaos, our model chancelier and 
translator, made for me copious extracts every morning. 
One regrettable result of these unfriendly manifesta- 
tions was to make the officers of the squadron chary of 
granting leave to their crews, none but picked, good- 
conduct men being allowed to go on shore. A great 
deal of money thus remained untouched in our sea- 
men's chests, to be spent afterwards at Zante and Corfu 
instead of benefiting the not over-prosperous victuallers 
and petty tradesmen of Athens and the Piraeus. 

Later on, some British travellers of distinction 
visited Athens. Lord and Lady Herschell, Sir John 
and Lady Lubbock, and after them Mr. Chamberlain, 
with his family and Mr. Jesse Collings, came there . 
on the way from Constantinople. It was a great 
pleasure to us to renew acquaintance with the dis- 
tinguished statesman whom we had seen for the first 


time at Stockholm some four years before. Mr. 
Chamberlain was treated with great distinction at 
Athens. A dinner was given in his honour at Court, 
and the King received him twice in private audience. 
He had some important conversations with M. 
Tricoupis, whom he sounded as to his views of a 
possible future settlement of national spheres in 
Macedonia. On one of those occasions it was that 
Mr. Chamberlain spoke to the Greek Premier of the 
line of division I have already referred to above, and 
which had first been suggested to him at Constanti- 
nople by Mr. Washburne, of Robert's College, a great 
authority on all Balkanic questions, and the educator, 
so to speak, of Bulgaria, and of most of the men who 
have had any leading part in that country. The 
meeting between two statesmen of so high an order — 
differing in many respects, but having in common the 
rare attributes of unflinching determination and ex- 
ceptional clearness of vision — could not but be in- 
teresting. I have little doubt myself that the cordial 
attitude towards him of the eminent English Liberal 
leader contributed to the vigorous action taken by 
M. Tricoupis shortly afterwards. 

The Greek Premier was just then, it may be said, 
at the culminating point of his career. Six months 
before, in June, in the midst of the last throes of the 
mobilisation crisis, he had fearlessly forced through 
a reluctant Chamber a most drastic programme of 
electoral and administrative reform, greatly reducing 
the number of deputies and enlarging the electoral 
districts, and thereby dealing a heavy blow to the 
corrupt wire-pulling by which so much pressure was 
brought to bear on the representatives, and through 
them, on the Government. His measures likewise 
comprised the suppression of numerous eparchies, or 


sous-prefectures, each of which had been a focus of 
intrigue and bribery. Public opinion had strongly sup- 
ported him in these sweeping reforms. 1 In November 
the Chamber met for the autumn session, and M. 
Tricoupis had to lay before it a Budget which, on his 
own showing, imposed the heaviest financial sacrifices 
on the country, and provided for additional taxation 
to the amount of twenty-two million Drachmai. 

It was not to be expected that the deputies who 
had been made to perform a sort of hari-kari would 
give a favourable reception to the Prime Minister's 
financial proposals. The Opposition at once resorted to 
systematic obstruction, which was met by M. Tricoupis 
in a highly characteristic manner. He announced to 
the Chamber that, in view of the difficulty in which 
they were placed of keeping together a sufficient 
quorum for the transaction of business, the Govern- 
ment could not conceal from themselves that they 
had reached a crisis which required serious considera- 
tion. He hoped, therefore, to make next day some 
communication to the House that would remedy this 
unsatisfactory state of things. Meanwhile he pro- 
posed that the House should adjourn. In the evening 
he obtained the King's signature to a decree of dis- 
solution, which was placarded, the following morning, 
on the walls of the Boule, the gates being closed two 
hours before the appointed sitting. Such was the 
contumelious treatment dealt to, and well deserved 
by, a body which, after backing M. Delyannis in his 
disastrous policy, had then deserted him, and through- 
out its brief existence had shown neither principle nor 
real patriotism. 

1 M. Tricoupis' measures diminishing the parliamentary representation 
and enlarging the constituencies were subsequently repealed. 


Early in November we paid a short visit to the Tiirrs 
at their villa of Isthmia near Kalamaki on the Saronic 
Gulf, at the eastern entrance to the Canal which 
General Tiirr was then engaged in cutting through 
the Isthmus of Corinth. The railroad from Athens 
to Kalamaki, which passes through Eleusis of the 
dread mysteries and ancient Megara, is extremely 
picturesque, besides being a fine bit of engineering, 
and in some places indeed, notably near the Kake 
Skala, almost trying to the passengers' nerves — the 
line being boldly carried along a narrow ledge on 
the face of the steep Skironian cliffs, with a sheer 
fall of several hundred feet to the waters of the 
Gulf that wash the rocks below. Close to the 
station at Kalamaki the Tiirrs had built themselves 
a very pretty house, surrounded by broad, shady 
verandahs, and with a spacious garden which, for 
Greece, was exceptionally well laid out and cared for. 

The General's wife, nee Bonaparte Wyse and 
granddaughter of Lucien Bonaparte, Prince of Canino, 
still preserved great traces of beauty and was an 
agreeable woman and an excellent hostess. The 
only guests besides ourselves were a waif from the 
days of the Second Empire in the person of the chief 
engineer of the Canal, a brother of the too notorious 
Marshal Bazaine, with his plain, but bright and 
pleasant daughter, who acted as a sort of dame de 


compagnie to Madame Tiirr. We were made most 
comfortable in every way, and were taken early next 
morning by the General to see the works on the 
Canal. Of its length of six kilometres only two and 
a quarter had been completed at that period and the 
water let into the cutting. On the occasion of a 
recent visit of the Royal Family, a sort of balcony 
had been built out at a point whence one could scan 
the whole extent of the works and form some idea 
of the difficulties of the undertaking, the channel 
being in great part cut out of the solid rock. The 
General told us that the navvies employed on it 
were almost all Italians, Armenians, or Montenegrins, 
the Greeks showing little aptitude, and still less 
liking, for that class of labour. 

At the Corinth end of the Canal we were 
taken in a small steamer for a short run into the 
Gulf, which here appeared as a great inland lake 
with lovely views over the carefully cultivated shores 
towards Aegion and Patras — the centre of the im- 
portant currant-growing industry — the sharp profile 
of the Aero-Corinth, and further back the jagged 
summits of Penteskouphia and Phouka soaring high 
above the smiling prospect. It was altogether an 
interesting visit to interesting people. The great- 
niece of Napoleon and her handsome old Gari- 
baldian General, who had long turned his sword into 
a ploughshare, or rather into the pickaxe of the 
engineer, seemed to be a thoroughly well-assorted 
couple, and led Darby and Joan like lives on their 
property, much taken up with their poultry-yard and 
bee-hives, and aviaries full of rare birds. After fight- 
ing stoutly in his youth in the cause of Hungarian, 
and then of Italian, liberty, Stefan Tiirr was devoting 
himself to opening a new route for international com- 


merce, and had exchanged the revolutionary ideals of 
his youth for the more harmless utopia of universal 
peace and brotherhood among nations. Isthmia — now 
probably deserted since the death of its mistress — figures 
in my memory as the scene of a pleasing idyll of past 
middle age set in beautiful, classical surroundings. 

This winter of 1886-87 at Athens differed in all 
respects from the preceding one. The war-clouds had 
passed away from the horizon, and we were at last 
given an opportunity of judging the social resources 
which the Greek capital afforded. The coming 
of age, too, of the Crown Prince Constantine, Duke 
of Sparta— a title, by the way, by which H.R.H. 
is scarcely ever spoken of in Greece 1 — was made 
the occasion of rejoicings and festivities on a great 
scale at Court and in Society. The young Prince, 
who had just completed his eighteenth year, and, 
on leaving the Military Academy, had attained 
officer's rank, took the military oath in the Cathedral, 
the King himself leading him to the altar, whither 
the colours were brought up by a detachment of the 
Mavromichalis regiment, the Prince reciting the words 
of the oath in a clear, steady voice, while holding a 
fold of the flag in his hand. He really seemed the 
only person unmoved in the crowded Church, the 
Queen and the young Princesses showing much 
emotion, and even the crowd of bearded and gor- 
geously robed bishops and ecclesiastics grouped round 
the altar unmistakably manifesting their feelings. 
A great cry of " Zito " resounded through the Church 
when, at the conclusion of the service, the young heir 
to the throne embraced his father and mother. As 
much eclat as possible was judiciously given to this 

1 Under the extremely Democratic Greek constitution titles, and more 
particularly those with territorial designations, are not recognised by law. 


celebration of the coming to man's estate of the first 
Orthodox Prince born in, and called to reign over, 
Greece. An historically interesting detail of the 
ceremony was the conveyance of the Queen and her 
daughters to the Cathedral in a very handsome State 
coach, used for the first time, and only recently 
bought in Paris, where it had originally been made 
for the proposed solemn entry of the Comte de 
Chambord on his restoration to the throne of his 

But much the most important and characteristic 
feature of these fetes was the attendance from all 
parts of the Kingdom of upwards of three-fourths 
of the Demarchs or Mayors. The majority of these 
were simple villagers, and came to a State Ball at 
the Palace in their ordinary clothing, many of them 
in fustaneUa dress, but all showing perfect good 
manners and decorum. A few of them were accom- 
panied by their wives in the homeliest attire. I 
noticed one of these — a rather pretty, bright little 
woman, in a dark green stuff gown and black gloves 
— being presented to the Queen in the course of the 
evening. She was evidently delighted with H.M.'s 
kindness, but was quite at her ease, and showed none 
of that mauvaise honte which would have made most 
Englishwomen of her class awkward under such cir- 
cumstances. The innate dignity and good-humoured 
simplicity of the country people in Greece are indeed 
remarkable. " Rien," writes the mordant About, " nest 
plus doux, phis honnete et phis bienveillant que la 
gaiete des paysans grecs. Le me'rite en revient a leur 
bon naturel, mais surtout a leur sobrie'te." The De- 
marchs — some four hundred of them — were feasted the 
next day at a Court banquet, and much amused their 
Royal hosts by coming up afterwards, one by one, and, 


after heartily thanking them for their hospitality, simply 
taking their leave without waiting to be dismissed. 

Another significant circumstance of these celebra- 
tions was the presence of deputations from most of 
the Greek communities abroad with congratulatory 
addresses and valuable offerings. Among these, two 
cheques, of 100,000 francs (^4,000) each, were presented 
to the Crown Prince by the Greeks of Pera and Alex- 
andria, to be applied to any purpose he might think 
fit. It was manifest that the whole Hellenic world 
took a lively interest in these rejoicings, following 
as they did upon a period of much and deeply felt 

Two balls were given at Court, for the first of which 
something like two thousand invitations were sent out. 
The Bavarian architect who designed the great unlovely 
Royal abode seems almost to have foreseen these demo- 
cratic crowds, for there was space enough for all, except 
in the immediate vicinity of the Royalties, who, there 
being no estrade or dais for them, were hemmed in on 
all sides, no attempt even being made to keep a clear 
floor for them when dancing. In other respects these 
State functions did much credit to the officials who had 
charge of them, for in the monde egalitaire of Athens 
the order and etiquette without which no Court can be 
properly kept up are but little understood or respected. 

The example set at the Palace was promptly fol- 
lowed during this winter season ; really fine entertain- 
ments being given by the Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
the rich banker and philanthropist Syngros, M. Criesis 
of the Crown Prince's household, and the Schliemanns 
at their Palace of Ilion with its strange mixture of 
admirable classical decoration and incongruous furni- 
ture and upholstering of a deplorable German middle- 
class type. Alas ! for these Athenian balls ! Although 


the brightest and most indispensable element of such 
diversions was not wanting in a number of pretty, 
well-dressed girls, conspicuous among whom were the 
strikingly handsome daughter of the General Vassos 
who afterwards commanded the Greek expeditionary 
corps to Crete in 1897 ; charming Edith Messala, now 
the wife of the Austro-Hungarian Envoy at Dresden, 
L. de Velics ; and a very attractive Mile. Mourousi, 
the male contingent was sadly deficient. The jeunesse 
dore'e of Athens were too deeply immersed in politics or 
business to condescend to take part in these frivolous 
amusements. With the exception of a few officers 
like Hadjipetros (the son), young Messala and others, 
these serious youths were scarcely ever to be seen in 
the salons of Athens. It thus happened that almost 
the most energetic beau valseur of the place was an 
ancient General Ralli — a great character in his way — 
who in his youth had served in the war of independ- 
ence, and was certainly past seventy when I knew him. 
In spite of his tanned, parchment skin, and thick- 
set Quasimodo-like * figure, the old gentleman never 
missed a dance, and was an enrage leader of cotillons. 
He lived and danced on, I suppose, for a good many 
years afterwards, till one fine day, when he found that 
his legs had quite struck work, he deliberately blew 
his brains out. 

There were, nevertheless, in the best set of Greek 
society, some extremely pleasant people, of whom I 
must not forget to mention kind, spirituelle Madame 
Zoe Baltazzi, since dead, who kept a most agreeable 
salon and entertained charmingly, and also her niece, 
the clever, handsome wife of the Deputy Boudouris, 
who some years after we left Athens met with a sad 

1 Quasimodo, the bell-ringer in Victor Hugo's Notre Dame de Pa/ria. 


fate, being drowned with her husband and the Crown 
Prince's private secretary, M. Maskaki, by the capsizing 
of a sailing boat in a sudden squall in Phalerum Bay. 

At Athens we had no large British community like 
those which in some continental capitals prove so 
doubtful a blessing to the unfortunate British repre- 
sentative abroad. Beyond the small staff of the Lega- 
tion, where poor Francis Carew l had now replaced 
Ernest Lyon as Second Secretary, the only resident 
English we saw much of, besides old Consul Merlin 
and his son (now Consul at Volo), were the Penroses 
and the Dicksons. The eminent architect and archae- 
ologist, who only recently died at a very advanced 
age, was at this time guiding the first footsteps of the 
British School at Athens (founded in 1886), which has 
since, under Professor Gardner and his successors, 
achieved so brilliant a record by its work in Crete and 
other Hellenic regions. Mr. Penrose was a long, frail- 
looking, mild old gentleman, with an absent, hesitating 
manner that rather detracted from his powers as a 
lecturer. The truth being that, for a man of his 
great attainments, he was singularly shy and diffident. 
Nevertheless, a thing to be remembered was hearing 
him, on a glorious afternoon, when the western glow 
was just beginning to fade from the Acropolis, expound, 
as he stood on the steps of the marvellous temple, the 
secret he had wrung from it of the perfect harmony 
and proportions of its lines. 2 The last time I came 
across Penrose was a very few years ago in London, 
when I casually strayed into the great Cathedral to 
the care of which he gave much of the closing period 
of his life. 

He was blest with a devoted wife and three 

1 Mr. Carew died at Paris, much regretted, in March 1888. 

2 See his " Principles of Athenian Architecture." 


daughters — a learned one, a lively one, and a lovely one 
— all charming in their several ways, and the last and 
youngest so strikingly statuesque in her good looks, in 
the poise of her head and the line of her neck and 
shoulders, that she might well have stepped down from 
the " Portico of Maidens " in the ancient fane so 
eruditely commented upon by her father. Such a 
type as hers necessarily, one might say, bound her 
to Athens, and there she met with a husband in 
Arthur Dickson, who is now the manager of the Ionian 
Bank. The elder Dicksons, too, were very good friends 
of ours. What slight knowledge I acquired of modern 
Greek I got in puzzling through the graphic pages of 
Loukis Lavas * with the worthy Uickson, who, in col- 
laboration with the present Sir Edgar Vincent, had 
compiled a very useful handbook of the euphonious 
Romaic idiom. Dickson was a great favourite at the 
Palace, where he gave English lessons to the young 
Princes. Eventually, at my recommendation, he was 
appointed British Vice-Consul at Athens. He and 
his helpful, capable wife — both dead now — were of 
great service to us when we first set up house at the 
Legation under considerable difficulties. 

There was yet another English-speaking family 
that contributed to enliven existence at Athens, 
and more particularly made that place of limited 
resources very pleasant for our grown-up youths and 
their tutor. I refer to the United States Minister, 
Mr. Fearn, and his wife and daughters, who were 
exceedingly popular at Athens and in much favour 
at Court, where sprightly Miss Mary Fearn's frank 
ways and quaint Americanisms afforded not a little 
amusement in exalted circles. Mr. Fearn, in whom 
I had a very pleasant and cultured colleague, 

1 The very interesting novel of D. Bikela. 


hailed from Louisiana, and was therefore thoroughly 
at home in French — an accomplishment which my 
experience tells me is not very general in a service, 
preparation for which seems to me to be somewhat 
injudiciously neglected by our Transatlantic cousins. 
Private theatricals, country junketings and other 
amusements brought our respective young people a 
great deal together, and have ever since made the 
friendly Fearns a household word with us. Visits 
from a few distinguished travellers, too, helped to 
diversify our lives. My old friend Sir Henry Drum- 
mond Wolff passed through on his way back to 
Constantinople to negotiate his last, non-ratified, 
Convention about Egypt, while Mr. Samuel Plimsoll 
— of load-line fame — with his wife, and Professor 
and Mrs. Westlake, made a stay of a few days at 
Athens. Later on the Duke and Duchess of St. 
Albans came in their yacht with Miss Mary Higgins, 
and Mr. Frederick Leveson Gower was another of 
our visitors about this time, and went with our 
family party, one brilliant day, I remember, on a 
pleasant picnic to the interesting old abandoned 
monastery of Ksesariani, which lies half concealed 
in a romantic wooded dale at the foot of Hymettus. 

In the midst of this round of unaccustomed 
gaieties I was much shocked by the tidings of the 
sudden death of the Foreign Secretary, Lord Iddes- 
leigh, some interesting particulars of which were 
sent to me from the Foreign Office. This tragical 
event produced all the greater sensation from its 
coming in the midst of the difficulties caused by the 
abrupt secession of Lord ltandolph Churchill from 
the Government. There is every reason to believe 
that, with the object of facilitating any new combi- 
nation that might become necessary, Lord Iddesleigh 


had some days before offered to resign, and thereby 
make matters easier for Lord Salisbury, towards 
whom he had none but the friendliest feelings. On 
the afternoon of the 12th of January, at a quarter 
to three o'clock, he was talking in his usual cheer- 
ful tone to one of the staff of the Foreign Office, 
and had then put on his overcoat to go across to the 
Treasury to keep an appointment with the Prime 
Minister. Five minutes later news came to the 
Foreign Office that he had broken down, and his 
private secretary, who at once went over to him, found 
him lying in a state of collapse, on a sofa in the 
ante-room to the study of the Prime Minister. He 
recovered consciousness sufficiently to say, " Leave me 
alone," and, when his clothes had been loosened, 
asked for a chair. Soon afterwards, however, there 
came two convulsive struggles, and he passed away 
without those who were with him being able to say 
precisely when. Heart failure was of course the 
cause of his death, brought about, it was afterwards 
maliciously and unfairly hinted, by emotion con- 
sequent on a serious disagreement between him and 
his colleagues in the Cabinet. In Lord Iddesleigh 
the country lost one of the most upright and un- 
selfish of its public men. 1 

The winter soon passed away, marked by a brief 
spell of cold such as had not been known at Athens 
for many years. Snow fell so abundantly on the 
21st of January and following days, and lay so deep 
on the ground, that I had a regular snow-balling 
match with our boys at the lawn tennis court on 
the Kephissia road. For a short week one was 

1 Mr. Gladstone spoke of him as "a man in whom it was the fixed 
liabit of thought to put himself wholly out of view when he had before 
him the attainment oi great public objects." 


driven entirely to forget southern latitudes, and was 
carried back to northern winter seasons at Berne 
and elsewhere, so bitter was the north wind blow- 
ing across the mountains and sweeping the bleak, 
whitened Attic plain. Presently came all of a sudden 
the first burst of spring, which in no region that I 
have lived in is more surprising than in Greece. 
A few days' rain and the entire aspect of the country 
was changed as though by magic. A touch of the 
wand, as it were, brought out the new tender tints 
of the olive groves round Colonus, the first silver 
foliage of poplar and plane trees, and, in their 
slender shelter, the sprouting of the wheat and 
barley. The dry water-courses by the wayside were 
now so full to the brim that, in places, the rushing 
water overflowed the roads which but yesterday 
were smothered in white dust a foot deep. Every- 
where, beneath the trees and in the fields, the bare, 
brown, fissured soil was hidden by an eager, vivid 
vegetation, and made bright by myriads of wild 
flowers — hyacinths, scarlet poppies, and glowing 
anemones — while, in the blue vault above, the fleecy 
clouds threw marvellous violet-tinted shadows across 
the pale green shimmer of plain and hillside. In 
the fresh, vernal air there was the rustling of boughs, 
the song of birds, the cooing of doves, and the buzz 
and hum of the countless insect world. It was spring 
in right earnest, loud pulsating spring come into the 
land over-night. How different from our feeble coun- 
terfeit of it; the weary, half-hearted struggle with 
winter and " the rough winds " which, with us, all 
too often " do shake the darling buds of May." The 
ideal transformation scene lasted only a very short 
time — the pitiless sun-rays saw to that — but, while 
it lasted, it was incomparable. 


For us it was the spring of the memorable Jubilee 
year, and our thoughts turned homewards. I applied 
for, and was granted, the cumulative four months' 
leave to which I had long been entitled. Before 
we availed ourselves of it, however, I obtained the 
Queen's permission to celebrate her Jubilee and 
birthday together on the 24th May, when we gave a 
big official dinner for the King and Queen, followed 
by a small dance. With the scanty resources of 
Athens this was no light undertaking. We had to 
order the requisites for a really pretty cotillon from 
Paris, the lights for the illumination from Vienna, 
and essential items for the dinner and ball-supper 
from Marseilles. The hot weather which had now 
set in enabled us to include the terraces at each 
end of the Legation House in our field of operations. 
We lighted up the splendid long one facing the 
Acropolis with a profusion of small coloured lamps, 
and rigged up on it a small tent for the Royal 
Family, decorated with Oriental stuffs, and flags 
and trophies of arms from H.M.S. Condor, Captain 
May, 1 which the Duke of Edinburgh had sent to 
the Piraeus for the occasion. Certainly the vista of 
the great terrace, brilliantly roofed in by arches of 
light, was very effective, and our fdte was in every 
way successful. 

Our Royal guests were most kind and compliment- 
ary about all the arrangements, and I was much amused, 
I remember, by King George's asking me how we had 
contrived to get together none but clean-shaven extra 
waiters (whom we had put into spare liveries), no 
self-respecting Greek servant consenting as a rule to 
part with his hirsute appendages. How our excel- 
lent butler — whom I had brought out from England, 

1 Rear-Admiral May, now Controller of the Navy. 



and who proved a very able organiser — had managed 
to find these men was more than I was able to explain 
to his Majesty. It was in its way quite a tour de 
force. One very sad memory attaches to that even- 
ing. It was literally the first debut of the lovely Prin- 
cess Alexandra, then barely seventeen, whose bright 
promising life was to close so few years afterwards. 
The Queen had graciously 'Consented to let her daughter 
enjoy her first ball at our house with her brothers the 
Crown Prince and Prince Nicholas. 

We got to London in June, a full week before the 
great celebration, and parted there, to our sincere re- 
gret, with Mr. Homann, of whose pupils Algy Caulfeild 
was now going to an army crammer in Essex, while I 
proposed sending my eldest son, Horace, to Lausanne 
to perfect himself in French before competing for the 
Diplomatic Service. Of my two other boys Willie was 
at Wellington, preparing for the Woolwich Academy, 
and George had become a midshipman in the Alex- 
andra flag-ship in the Mediterranean, to which the 
Duke of Edinburgh had kindly got him appointed. 

It would be idle, and quite beyond the scope of 
these reminiscences, to dwell at any length on a 
solemnity which is present to the memory of so many 
of us. Nevertheless, to an Englishman whose fate 
had been cast abroad since early youth the sight of 
London at this time, and the spirit animating the vast 
crowds that thronged its streets, conveyed many a valu- 
able and satisfactory lesson. The Jubilee, it is now 
generally admitted, gave open expression, for the first 
time, to those Imperialist sentiments which had been 
growing apace — though more or less unheeded, or ill- 
understood — throughout the component parts of the 
Queen's world-wide dominions, and it thenceforth 
made the Queen, as has been well said, the living 


symbol of British unity, and of the great Imperialist 
movement to which the South African war was later 
on to lend additional force and impetus. 

We were fortunate in seeing to the best advantage 
most of the festivities and official functions that took 
place during this memorable season. As for the 
splendid and impressive thanksgiving service in West- 
minster Abbey, we had, from the places allotted to 
us in a gallery immediately above the Royal estrade, 
a much better view of the ceremony and the principal 
personages concerned in it than we obtained of the 
recent Coronation from the more dignified Choir stalls 
reserved for the Foreign Ambassadors and Envoys and 
the Privy Councillors. At this crowning moment of 
her reign, which the aged Sovereign had, it is said, 
so much dreaded as an ordeal beyond her powers, the 
Queen's countenance bore, as far as one could judge, 
an aspect of mild and perfect serenity which was well 
expressed in the reply she is reported to have after- 
wards made to the Duchess of Cambridge's anxious 
inquiries : " I am very tired, but very happy." The 
touching central figure of the great Queen, who, 
although so small in stature, bore herself with such 
incomparable grace and dignity ; the splendid group 
of Princes w T ho surrounded her, so conspicuous among 
whom was the knightly presence of her son-in-law, 
even then doomed to a cruel and pathetic fate ; and 
the extreme beauty of the music (far more effective 
it seems to me than that performed at the late 
Coronation) were what impressed one most in this 
historic scene with all its splendid accompaniments. 

In spite of the fairly good arrangements made for 
the carriages, we had to walk a long way before we 
found ours, and so reached the Borthwicks in Picca- 
dilly too late to see the State procession go by. We 


returned there in the evening on foot without diffi- 
culty for the illuminations, which were really fine 
of their kind, Piccadilly being a perfect blaze of 
light. No doubt the most striking features of the 
whole day were the admirable temper and behaviour 
of the masses which filled the great thoroughfares 
from side to side, and were admirably regulated into 
two streams coming and going. The huge town with 
its millions, in unwonted festal garb, and in the most 
brilliant weather imaginable, bore so different an ap- 
pearance to its every day, mostly unlovely, aspect as 
to be well-nigh unrecognisable. The series of great 
receptions held at the Foreign Office and the India 
Office, as well as the State Balls at Court, seemed 
to me, too, unusually magnificent. There was also 
a delightful garden-party at Buckingham Palace, 
and a splendid ball given by Lord Rosebery at Lans- 
downe House, where the number of Royalties gathered 
together was so great that it reminded me of the 
descriptions I had, in my boyhood, heard from my 
aunts of the Congress of Vienna. In this crowd of 
illustrious personages I remember being struck by the 
appearance of the late Queen of the Belgians, who, 
without any special good looks, attracted attention 
by her grand air and dignity. Another to me inte- 
resting recollection of this period was a party given 
by Countess Karolyi — fairest and most popular of 
London ambassadresses — at the Austro-Hungarian 
embassy in Belgrave Square in honour of the Crown 
Prince Rudolf. It was the only time I ever met this 
rarely-gifted but ill-fated Prince, the mystery of whose 
terrible end still remained the subject of endless 
speculation at Vienna when I went there seven years 
after the date of the sombre tragedy. 

At a man's dinner at Lord Derby's early in July I 


made the acquaintance of the late Sir John Pender, 
and was pressed by him to join, with my wife, a party 
of guests whom the Eastern Telegraph Company had 
invited to see the Jubilee Naval Review from the 
cable-laying ships belonging to them. We were taken 
down to Portsmouth in special carriages on the 22nd, 
the large party comprising among others the late Lady 
Galloway, Lady Jersey, Lord and Lady Tweeddale, the 
German Ambassador, Count Miinster and his daughter 
Comtesse Marie, Lord Derby, Lord Wolseley, Mr. 
Maurice de Bunsen, Mr. Davidson of the Foreign Office, 
the Pauncefotes, &c. The numerous guests were 
divided between the Mirror and the Electra — both 
fitted up as luxuriously as private yachts — we being 
told off to the latter vessel where Lord and Lady 
Tweeddale acted as hosts, and where nothing could 
exceed the comfort of the arrangements made by the 
Company for their visitors. What with the glorious 
weather ; the imposing sight of the great fleet drawn 
up in interminable lines — most effective, I remember, 
were the big white hulls of the old troopships, long 
since, I believe, done away with — and the indescribable 
stir and movement on the gleaming waters, as count- 
less steamers, their decks piled with holiday folk, came 
in and took up their berths for the review, I can 
imagine no more delightful outing than was this one 
in every way. After the grand pageant of the review 
itself, and the brilliant illumination of the ships at 
night, we steamed the next day up and down through 
the lines, and on Monday were taken round the Isle 
of Wight and landed in the afternoon at Southampton. 
( ioing up to town in the same carriage as Count 
Miinster, whose habits and sympathies made him 
almost an Englishman, I recollect his expatiating, as 
we sped through Hampshire, on the extraordinary 


luxuriance of our English foliage, and his remarking 
that, tree for tree, he felt certain that, if the leaves 
upon them could be counted, an English oak or 
beech would be found to bear a much greater number 
than any such tree of the same size growing on the 

Before leaving England on the 22nd of September 
we stayed a few days with the Falbes at Luton Hoo, 
where there was a small party that deserves mention 
as including a few of the people best known in 
London society in those days. Besides Lady Cork 
and Lord and Lady Coke, we found Lady Charles 
Beresford, Sir W. Gordon Cumming, Colonel Oliver 
Montagu, 1 Henry Calcraft and Alfred Montgomery. 
Oliver Montagu was perhaps the most popular officer 
of the Household Brigade of his time, while Calcraft, 
familiarly known as the hangman, was a bright light 
of the Treasury, and one of the last causeurs of the 
older caustic school of Bernal Osborne, Quin and 
others. As for dear old Alfred Montgomery, then 
in his seventy-fourth year, with his great experience 
of the world, his charming looks, exquisite manners, 
and a slight, engaging stutter, he had been for half 
a century the pet of all that was best in London, and 
when lying on his death-bed a few years later, almost 
his last visitors were their present Majesties. Such 
types as these have, it seems to me, almost disappeared 
with the last century. An incident of this Luton 
party, I remember, was the baccarat played one 
evening with unpleasantly heavy losses to some of 
those who took part in it. An exciting but purely 
gambling game baccarat, though scarcely more disas- 
trous in its results, I fancy, than the bridge which one 

1 A younger brother of Lord Sandwich, and then in command of the 
Pioval Horse Guards. 


hears of as being played in certain houses at the 
present day. 

The only other visit we paid was to Petworth, 
meeting at this great house, celebrated for its splendid 
gallery of pictures and wonderful Grinling Gibbons 
carvings, the late Lord Inchiquin and his wife. We 
had two of our boys with us, and were made very 
welcome by Lord Leconfield, another perfect specimen 
of the fast vanishing gentilshommes de la vieille roche, 
who has only lately left us, and by our kind and 
charming hostess, both very old friends of my wife. 

At Marseilles we took the Messageries steamer 
Mendoza, and were fortunate in having for a fellow- 
passenger M. de Moiiy's successor, Comte de Mon- 
tholon, who happened to be an old Berne acquaintance 
of mine. Prince Henri d'Orleans was also on board, 
on his way to Constantinople and the East. We all 
had our meals at the Commandant's table, and it was 
not a little amusing to watch the stiff, distant manner 
which the representative of the Republic — himself of 
course a Bonapartist by family tradition, and, as it 
happened, curiously like the Emperor Napoleon the 
Third — thought it right to assume towards the Orleans 
Prince. It was the only occasion on which I came 
across this young scion of the branche cadette, who 
subsequently distinguished himself by his adventurous 
journeys in Extreme Asia, and acquired less enviable 
notoriety through his inordinate Anglophobia. 

On our return to Athens we were fully prepared to 
settle down there for the winter with an almost entirely 
new set of colleagues. My friend Brincken had been 
transferred to Copenhagen and the Trauttenbergs to 
Berne, and had been replaced by M. Le Maistre at the 
German, and Baron Kosjek at the Austro-ITungarian 
Legation. A very pleasant addition had been made to 


the Russian Legation in the Katkoffs. Mme. Katkoff, 
nee Princess Lobanow Rostowski and a niece of my 
Russian sister-in-law, was a sort of connection of mine, 
and we saw a good deal of her. Like her aunt, she 
was a very accomplished woman and an admirable 
pianist, and has since, as the wife of Sir Edwin 
Egerton, 1 done wonders for the native school of 
needle-work and art-embroidery at Athens. Our 
own Legation staff, too, had undergone a complete 
change. Frank Carew had left us for the Embassy 
at Paris, and Mr. W. D. Haggard (now H.M. 
Minister at Buenos Ayres) joined as First Secretary. 
The friendly, hearty Haggard and his wife, who is 
gifted with a lovely voice, were a welcome addition 
to the Legation, which now also included Mr. Ernest 
Lehmann— a brother, I believe, of the composer of the 
melodious " Persian Garden " — who did not continue 
long in the Diplomatic Service. 

The chief event of this autumn was the arrival of 
the Dreadnought, Captain Stephenson, 2 with Prince 
George, who came on a visit to his uncle the King. 
Prince Louis of Battenberg, whom I had scarcely met 
since he came to Buenos Ayres in the Bacchante, was 
also on board. We were asked to a luncheon at Tatoi 
given for the officers of the Dreadnought, and thus had 
another opportunity of seeing something of the delight- 
fully simple country life led by the Royal Family in 
their rural home, which we found greatly improved 
since our first visit to it eighteen months before. 
Prince George was as great a favourite with his Royal 
relatives as he was popular throughout the squadron. 

1 Sir Edwin Egerton, who has just been appointed H.M. Ambassador 
at Rome, was Minister at Athens for more than twelve years. 

2 Admiral Sir Henry F. Stephenson, G.C.V.O., now Gentleman Usher 
of the Black Rod. 


He was soon afterwards transferred to the flag-ship, the 
Alexandra, where my son George, to whom he showed 
much kindness, was midshipman of his watch. 

An unexpected turn now took place in my affairs. 
During my short visit to England in the summer of 
the preceding year I had made the acquaintance of the 
late Mr. Cordery, then Resident at Hyderabad, and, in 
talking over my Indian business with him, had been 
led to hope that I might perhaps achieve something in 
the matter of my claims by going out to Hyderabad 
myself. Subsequent correspondence confirming me 
in this view, I asked Lord Salisbury to give me leave 
to make the attempt. To this he kindly agreed, 
and at the same time apprised me that he had sub- 
mitted my name to the Queen as eventual successor to 
Sir William Stuart, who was about to retire from The 
Hague. The move, I was however told, would not 
take place for some months to come. The future out- 
look being thus entirely changed for us, we at once 
made ready for a journey to India in strictly light 
marching order, having been strongly advised to take 
no European servants with us, 



We left the Piraeus for Alexandria on the 26th of 
November in a steamer of the Khedivial line, and had 
a good tossing, which quite upset, among others, one 
of our fellow-passengers, the gallant General Vosseur, 
who, having done with his task of Greek military re- 
organisation, was going to have a look at the Pyramids 
before returning home. At Alexandria the Consul- 
General, Sir Charles Cookson, obligingly looked after 
us, and quite late in the evening we reached Cairo, 
where we were welcomed by General Grenfell's 
A.D.C., Captain Maxwell, 1 and taken to the home 
which the Sirdar and his bright, clever wife, an old 
friend of ours, had made for themselves in a lovely old 
Arab house, the Maison Ali Fehmi. At a dinner, 
followed by an evening party, which the Grenfells 
gave the next day, we met that greatest of living 
British Administrators, Sir Evelyn Baring 2 and his 
wife, the Egyptian Premier, Nubar Pasha, General Sir 
F. Stephenson, then in command of the army of occu- 
pation, Sir Edgar Vincent, Lord and Lady Dunmore, 
and the best part of the Cairo world. We devoted 
the next two days to the Pyramids, the citadel and the 
bazaars, and then took the train to Suez, arriving 
there after dark on the 1st of December. A wretched, 
over-crowded steam-launch carried us a long way out 

1 Now Colonel Sir J. G. Maxwell, K.C.B., at one time Governor of 

2 Now Earl of Cromer. 



to the s.s. Siam — a vessel of very moderate dimensions 
as compared with the leviathans in which the P. & O. 
Co. now convey their passengers — but which much 
impressed us, I remember, by its brilliant electric 
lighting, a luxury at that time but little known on 
board ship. Of the numerous passengers going like 
ourselves to Bombay I can only recall the lively wife of 
one of the Judges of the High Court, a Civil Commis- 
sioner of one of the Bengal Provinces and his family, 
and a very full assortment of newly-married couples 

On the 13th we reached Bombay, where Lord 
Reay, to whom I had given notice of our journey, sent 
to meet us the two native servants he had very kindly 
engaged for us, together with an invitation to come up 
at once to Government House at Malabar Point. We 
found the Governor and Lady Reay on the point of 
starting on an official tour through the Presidency, but 
they insisted on our accompanying them as far as the 
ancient city of Ahmedabad, which, being rather off the 
beat of the ordinary globe-trotter, is comparatively 
unknown, although for the splendour of its mosques 
and other buildings it deserves almost to rank with 
Agra or Delhi. We travelled through the night in the 
Governor's special train, and, drawing up at the station 
at nine o'clock in the morning, were straightway 
ushered into all the pomp and circumstance of Indian 
public life. The station, red-carpeted and profusely 
beflagged and decorated with rich hangings, was 
thronged with a variegated crowd of European and 
native officials en grand gala. A guard of honour 
was mounted, and we steamed in to the strains of the 
National Anthem ; Lord Reay being received by the 
Municipal Council with an address of welcome to 
which he replied in an excellently worded speech. 


Only here and there did its intonation slightly recall 
the earlier surroundings of the distinguished peer and 
statesman whose curious lot it has been, after first 
entering official life as Attache to the Dutch Legation 
in London, to attain finally so conspicuous a position 
in the public and intellectual life of the country of his 
ancestors. From the station we were driven, barbari- 
cally bedecked with sweet-smelling garlands of honour, 
in open carriages, with a brilliant cavalry escort, 
through the marvellously picturesque old city, rendered 
a bewildering mass of colour by the brightly clad, 
many-hued crowds that covered every inch of ground, 
clustered on the flat house-tops, the walls and parapets 
of the ancient structures, and availed themselves of 
every possible coign of vantage. The hurried glimpse 
we had had of beautiful Bombay, and this progress 
along the streets of what had been the chief city of 
Western India and the capital of one of its oldest 
dynasties, afforded us a most dazzling introduction to 
the splendours of our Eastern realm. No more over- 
powering impression can well be conceived. 

From the outskirts of the populous city a drive of 
some three miles on a thickly-planted road, under over- 
arching trees alive with parrots and big monkeys, 
brought us to the Governor's camp, the tents of 
which were pitched round a curious old building — 
once a hunting-lodge of the Emperor Aurungzebe — 
where quarters had been prepared for Lord and Lady 
Reay with their staff and guests. When I looked 
out, early the next day, and saw before me, in the 
yellow morning light, the wide but shallow stream of 
the Saburmuttee river forded by strings of natives with 
buffalo-carts and pack-horses, the typically Indian colour- 
ing and grouping of the bright picture somehow seemed 
strangely familiar to me, and I once more experienced 


the sensation I have recounted elsewhere as produced 
upon me some twenty-eight years before at first sight 
of the tropical vegetation and aspect of Point de Galle 1 
in Ceylon. It was as though a curtain had suddenly 
been lifted in some remote corner of my memory ; 
the explanation no doubt being that amidst similar 
scenes I had been born, and had lived as a child a few 
brief years, before being sent home by my widowed 

During the two days we passed at Ahmedabad we 
were taken a round of the most notable architectural 
wonders in which the place abounds. We saw 
the Jumma Masjid with its many cupolas and royal 
tombs, said to be one of the most beautiful mosques 
in the East ; the dainty Queen's Mosque or Rani 
Masjid ; the strange Jain temple outside the town ; 
the tomb of Shah Alam, with its adjoining great tank 
or reservoir ; and loveliest of all, the lace-like stone 
tracery of the windows of an ancient palace which 
has now been turned into a jail. Then came, as a 
last sight, the elaborate and most interesting cere- 
monial of a great Durbar held by the Governor and 
attended by the Maharajah of Idar and numerous 
other Guzerat princes and chiefs. We took leave of 
our kind hosts immediately after this function, reach- 
ing our destination at Hyderabad on the afternoon of 
the 1 8th of December. Here we were met by Major 
Gilchrist, the Military Secretary to Mr. Cordery, whose 
guests we were invited to be at the palatial British 
Residenoy at Chudderghaut. 

Nothing could exceed the kindness and attention 
bestowed on us during the seven weeks we were under 
his roof by that able and distinguished member of the 
Indian Civil Service, the Resident. But for indifferent 

1 See " Recollections of a Diplomatist," vol. ii. p. 4. 


health and other causes, Mr. Cordery must have risen yet 
higher, and have borne out, as an Indian Administrator, 
the brilliant promise of his University career. The 
Resident was a man of many accomplishments, and 
among other things a great classical scholar and the 
author of a remarkable version of the Iliad. Although 
his instructions precluded his affording me any official 
support in the business which brought me to India, 
I owe his memory a real debt of gratitude for the 
moral backing, so to speak, and the valuable advice he 
gave me throughout the arduous task in which I was 
engaged. Nor must I — leaving entirely aside the nego- 
tiations I had to carry on — omit to put on record my 
sense of the great courtesy and consideration shown 
to us by H.H. the Nizam himself, and by his Ministers, 
during our stay at Hyderabad. 

Altogether this visit to the scene of my unfortunate 
father's fruitless exertions, and of his premature and 
almost tragical end, 1 was a unique and deeply interest- 
ing experience in a life of many vicissitudes. In my 
case a very sad family history attached to Hyderabad. 
My father was buried in the cemetery in the Resi- 
dency grounds, and the big house in which he and my 
mother had lived — now turned into a college for young 
natives of distinction — still went by the name of the 
Rumbold Kothi. Here, in the old days I had been 
told of, had been the centre of such society as then 
existed, " causing," as the then Governor-General, Lord 
Hastings (my mother's guardian), put it, " offence " 
to the newly-appointed Resident, Mr. (afterwards Sir 

1 He was found dead in Ins bed on the morning of August 24, 1833, 
in his forty-sixth year. The Governor-General, Lord William Bentinck, 
in apprising the Duke of Devonshire of the event, wrote : "lam induced 
to address you as one of poor Sir W. Rumbold's best friends. The loss of 
the warm, kind-hearted man to the cause to which he had devoted such 
incessant anxiety and labour will be irreparable." 


Charles) Metcalfe, " by throwing him somewhat in 
the shade." At a distance of more than half a 
century I found myself treading ground made familiar 
to me from childhood by the story I had repeatedly 
heard of the ruin of Palmer & Co., and the great 
wrong inflicted on that House by that same Resident, 
Sir Charles Metcalfe. 

It so happened that, some ten years before, I had, 
by a singular chance, acquired irrefutable testimony of 
the injury then done to my father and his descendants 
by that very eminent official. Quite by accident I 
learned in 1877 that Sir John Macpherson Macleod, 
who had been sent to Hyderabad in 1835 to arbitrate 
upon the outstanding claims of the House of Palmer 
and Co. after its failure, was still living in London 
at a very advanced age. I sought him out at his house 
in Stanhope Street, Victoria Gate, and, although in 
extremely feeble health, he at once received me on 
hearing my name. The intellect of the wellnigh 
nonagenarian who, together with Macaulay, had drawn 
up the Indian Criminal Code, and had been made a 
Privy Councillor and a K. C.S.I, for his services, still 
shone as brightly as ever in the frailest of tenements. 
He was eager to assist me in the prosecution of the 
claims. The story he told me, or rather confirmed to 
me, was that, after giving his award in favour of the 
trustees of the ruined House in a large claim against 
a powerful subject of the Nizam, 1 he had been abrupt! v 
and arbitrarily withdrawn from Hyderabad, when about 
to inquire into and deal with other equally well-founded 
claims of the Firm against certain Hyderabad subjects 
and the Nizam's Government itself, by Sir Charles Met- 
calfe, who, after being the main author of the downfall 

1 The Nawab Mooneer ool Moolk ; out of the proceeds of thLs award 
a settlement was effected with the creditors of the Firm. 


of Palmer & Co., was at that time acting as Governor- 
General between the departure of Lord William 
Bentinck and the arrival of his successor Lord 
Auckland. On my mentioning at the India Office 
what Sir John had said to me, Lord Salisbury, 
then Secretary of State, commissioned the Permanent 
Under Secretary, Sir Louis Mallet — who proved the 
kindest of friends to me in all this business — to see 
Sir John, who told him in so many words that, in his 
opinion, the responsibility for the irreparable mischief 
originally wrought rested far more with the then 
Government of India than with that of the Nizam. 
But I have been led away at undue length into 
this digression about affairs which have darkened the 
history of my family for three generations, and must 
turn to the more cheerful aspects of our stay at 
Hyderabad. Our host, Mr. Cordery, carried the tradi- 
tional hospitality of our great Indian officials to its 
fullest lengths. Among the numerous visitors he 
entertained during our stay under his roof were Sir 
Howard and Lady Elphinstone, Miss Bradley, niece 
of the Dean of Westminster, Professor Jex Blake, with 
his wife and their distinguished daughter, and Duke 
Ernest Gtinther of Schleswig-Holstein-Augustenburg, 
brother of the German Empress, who was on a sport- 
ing tour in India, and arrived at the Eesidency almost 
at the same time as ourselves. We did the wonderful 
arms' and other bazaars together, went to see the 
tombs and the ancient fort of Golconda, and were 
taken to a cheetah hunt, which my wife and I went 
through the novel experience of following on the back 
of an elephant. It was Christmas-tide, and on Christ- 
mas Eve I joined the Duke and his companions, Baron 
von Leipziger, of the Prussian Gardes du Corps, and 
Professor Friedrich, in their rooms at the Residency, 

H.H. THE NIZAM 14 5 

where they had lighted up a diminutive Christbaum, 
(really a dwarf palm), and, over a Punschbowle, cele- 
brated the Weihnachts Fest in true German fashion, 
to the melody of familiar old students' ditties sung, I 
fear, in somewhat doubtful parts. 

We were shown very great civility by the Nizam 
himself, and were asked to lunch and to dine at H.H.'s 
immense rambling palace in the city, where as many 
as seven thousand retainers and attendants, including 
of course the numerous inmates of the Zenana, are 
said to be housed. A beautiful, open, tent-covered 
state coach (yellow picked out with blue, something 
like the Lowther colours) with four handsome blacks 
was sent, I remember, one morning to fetch my wife, 
and after luncheon the splendid contents of H.H.'s 
stables, together with his carriages, performing horses, 
and fighting rams, were paraded before the young 
German Prince and ourselves. H.H. Mir Mahbid Ali 
Khan, who had only recently completed his twenty- 
first year, could not but impress one favourably by 
the simple dignity of his manner and his somewhat 
sad, pensive countenance — marked of course by the 
Oriental reserve behind which it is given to no Euro- 
pean really to penetrate. Small of stature and very 
slight, he habitually wore well-cut English clothes, 
only the black cloth cap or fez, with an aigrette, 
distinguishing him from the ordinary Europeanised 
members of his suite. Although his hair, which he 
allowed to grow unusually long, gave him a somewhat 
effeminate appearance, he was a fine rider and was said 
to be an excellent shot, and to all outward appearance 
seemed a worthy ruler of the greatest of our feudatory 
states. It is both right and satisfactory to add that 
the reign of this premier native Prince of India has 
thus far shown a notable record of progress, and in 



his personal dealings with me H.H. evinced a liberal 
and generous spirit. 

Among other great houses at which we were 
entertained, the most splendid was that of the late 
Mooneer-ool-moolk, the younger son and heir of 
the well-known Minister, Sir Salar Jung, and a very- 
attractive type of the young Indian grandee. A 
state banquet he gave at his palace — known as the 
Barahdari, or "twelve doors" — in honour of Duke 
Ernest Giinther and ourselves, was the embodiment 
of a fete of the "Arabian Nights." One wandered 
through endless apartments of the most original 
shapes, with profusely gilt walls covered with many- 
coloured looking-glasses and costly china, the rooms 
being littered, in true Oriental fashion, with trumpery 
musical boxes and mechanical figures, but all open- 
ing on to a series of inner courts with gardens 
and great tanks and fountains brilliantly illumi- 
nated. The owner, who spoke English perfectly, 
and had charming manners — but who had already 
then, it was said, what proved a fatal penchant for 
green Chartreuse — had shortly before met, on some 
tiger-shooting expedition, a young French couple, 
the Marquis and Marquise de Mores, and had asked 
them to stay with him as his guests at Hyderabad. 
M. de Mores was the son of the Due de Vallom- 
brosa, whom I remembered well when I was a boy 
in Paris, and who, together with his charming 
Duchess, nee des Cars, was so well known some 
thirty years ago to the English colony at Cannes. 
Considering that up till a very recent period the 
great Mussulman city, with its population of nearly 
half a million, remained one of the most fanatical 
centres in India — our soldiers from Secunderabad 
being still strictly prohibited from showing them- 


selves in it in uniform for fear of insult and trouble 
— the experience of Mme. de Mores (an American 
by birth and very clever and handsome) of life 
in an Indian palace in the heart of it, was ab- 
solutely unique of its kind. Mores himself, then 
still quite a young man, was, as to physique, an ex- 
cellent specimen of the high-bred French aristocrat. 
He was a very good sportsman, had an unusually 
fine seat on horseback, and distinguished himself, I 
remember, in the tent-pegging and sheep-cutting at 
a great Gymkana which was held on the Futteh 
Maidan under the auspices of Afzur Jung of the 
Nizam's household, smartest and most active of 
A.D.C.'s, and at which my wife presented the prizes. 
Mores, who was unfortunately anything but friendly 
to England, was said to be absolutely fearless. The 
stir occasioned later on by his mysterious disappear- 
ance, when adventurously exploring the desert to the 
south of Tunisia, where he had no doubt been mur- 
dered by Touareg banditti, and the insinuations made 
in the extreme French Nationalist press of English 
complicity in the crime, may still be remembered. 

The Hyderabad grandees were certainly well 
housed. Vikar-ul-Umra, one of the most powerful 
among them, who afterwards became Prime Minister, 
was putting the last touches to a splendid palace, on 
a rise just outside the town commanding a beautiful 
prospect, which he only lived to inhabit for a few years; 
and the Minister of the day, the late Sir Asman Jah, 
owned a very fine mansion in the centre of the town 
where he dispensed hospitality on a great scale. For 
barbaric show, however, none of these surpassed the 
house of an Arab chief, of the name of Ghalib Jung, 
the furniture of whose state-rooms — chairs, couches, 
tables, &c. — was of massive gold and silver, some of 


it studded with emeralds, and, by the side of these, a 
monstrous mixture of coloured Bohemian chandeliers 
and ornaments, musical animals and toys and other 
dreadful rubbish. Judging by the wasteful display 
and extravagance of these Indian magnates, the fabled 
riches of Golconda did not belie their fame. 

There was a curious and amusing contrast between 
the glimpses we got of the life of these great native 
folk and what we saw of existence in the large British 
cantonment at Secunderabad only a few miles away. 
We spent the inside of a week with Mr. Cordery at 
the Residency bungalow at Bolarum, which stands on 
high ground not far from the cantonment and its big 
barracks and lines and immense parade-ground, and 
we thereby acquired some notion of the round of life, 
in their distant exile, of the forces which garrison our 
vast Indian dependency. There seemed to be no 
lack of amusement among the officers of this body of 
several thousand men. Polo matches, dinners and 
dances given by the different regiments, amongst 
which was the crack 7th Plussars, gaily succeeded 
each other, and we were present at a very creditable 
performance of that old stock piece " Dandy Dick " 
by Secunderabad amateurs. Nor was sociability 
wanting in the small set of British officials and others 
who clustered round the Residency at Chudderghaut 
and its populous bazaar. The Private Secretary 
to the Nizam at that time, Colonel Marshall, and 
his handsome wife, did a great deal for the com- 
munity in the way of entertainment, and there was 
plenty of quiet dinner-giving by other residents, and 
among them Dr. and Mrs. Laurie, the able Resi- 
dency physician, who subsequently made a name for 
himself by his researches into the effects of anaes- 
thetics. Very interesting are my recollections of the 


semi-European home of the Finance Minister, Mehdi 
Ali, with whom my negotiations were mostly carried 
on, and whose wife, whom mine saw several times, 
spoke excellent English, read a great deal, and 
had all the manners of a refined Englishwoman. 
Although her family life was evidently a happy one, 
she confessed to often suffering from its seclusion 
and restrictions, and longed for greater freedom, and 
especially the possibility of travelling with her hus- 
band and seeing the world she had read about. Syed 
Hussein Belgrami was another accomplished native 
gentleman who showed us much attention. 

But before closing my recollections of Hyderabad, 
over which I have lingered too long, I cannot omit 
mentioning a very old acquaintance whom I quite 
unexpectedly found settled here, and from whom we 
received the warmest of welcomes — the wife, namely, of 
Colonel Nevill, then in command of the Nizam's Regular 
troops, and daughter of Charles Lever — his eldest 
daughter "Jack," the image of her brilliant, inimitable 
father, and, like him, bubbling over with wit and 
humour. We spent several delightful evenings at 
"Nevill's Folley," and I found Mrs. Nevill's shrewd sense 
and knowledge of the place and people of real use to 
me in the business I had in hand. By far my greatest 
debt in this connection, however, is due to Mr. 
Alexander Johnstone Dunlop, Assistant Commissioner 
of Revenue, to whom was entrusted the first inquiry 
into my claims. Without the friendly countenance of 
this experienced civilian, who at once took a decided 
view of the strength of my case in equity, and the 
justice of my appeal for redress, I must have entirely 
failed in the object of my journey. 

At last, in the first week in February, after weari- 
some, protracted discussions, the Government made up 


their minds to allow me some compensation on the 
particular claims I was urging, and, terms being agreed 
upon, a settlement of them was effected and I was able 
to leave Hyderabad. It was highly characteristic, 
however, of Oriental methods that the document 
embodying the compromise on the claims was only 
brought to me on the morning of my departure, and 
I actually signed it in a hurry just before leaving 
the Residency for the railway station. Although for 
many reasons keen to get back to Europe and my 
diplomatic duties", Ti-eft Hyderabad with much regret. 
Among my many memories I have preserved a 
specially bright and distinct vision of that place 
and of the friends I made there. I often think of 
the stately Residency with its spacious rooms and 
broad verandah, the beautiful, restful park in which 
it stands, and the shade of its grand old trees, over 
the tops of which, in the brief Indian twilight, the 
weird flying foxes go circling round and round. 
Pictures, too, stand out clearly before me of the 
big eastern city itself, of the motley crowds from 
every part of India that fill its bazaars and streets, 
with now and then an elephant or a string of camels 
forcing its way through the dense throng, or a group 
of Arab swash-bucklers, armed to the teeth and carry- 
ing ancient long-barrelled, brass-inlaid guns — a sur- 
vival of the fierce old lawless days — passing along 
with evil looks at the hated Feringhee ; and, at the 
central crossing of the ways, the four tall minarets 
of the great ornamental domed archway known as the 
Char Minar that soars high above all the busy stir and 
life of the Nizam's strikingly picturesque capital. 

We had engaged berths in the next steamer home- 
ward bound, but a slight touch of fever that befell my 


wife almost immediately after our arrival at Bombay 
kept us there for ten days as guests of the Reays at 
Malabar Point, where we were put up in a charming 
bungalow forming part of the Government House, and 
standing on the very brink of the cliff, our windows 
looking straight down some eighty feet into the deep 
blue waters of the bay beneath. It was a perfectly ideal 
residence. To the stay occasioned by this temporary 
indisposition we owe most grateful and pleasant re- 
collections of the Reays and of their staff, which com- 
prised Colonel and Mrs Lyttelton * with her sister 
Miss Stuart Wortley, now Mrs. Firebrace, and Captain 
Bruce Hamilton, 2 two officers who have since in the 
hour of need in South Africa done such conspicuous 
service. Here, too, I first met Sir William Lee- 
Warner, now a distinguished member of the Council 
of India. It was the height of the winter season 
at Bombay, and its principal event was a great 
Charity Fancy Fair, held in some of those magni- 
ficent tents peculiar to India, that had been pitched 
on the esplanade facing the great public buildings 
which are deservedly the pride of the beautiful city. 
Lady Reay, who is one of the most accomplished 
mattresses de maison I have had the good fortune 
to meet, and a capital organiser at the same time, 
made a great success of this charitable undertaking, 
in which the Duchess of Connaught also took a 
lively interest, and we all laboured hard to assist 
her, getting scratch meals between whiles at the 
Secretariat close by. In these few days we indeed 
came in for a perfect round of festivities, mostly in 
honour of the Duke and Duchess of Connaught, who 

1 Lieut. -General the Honble. Sir Neville Lyttelton, K.C.B., now Chief 
of the General Staff of the Army. 

• Major-General Sir Bruce M. Hamilton, K.C.B. 


had gone into camp at Bombay for the winter. There 
were several big dinners and a great State Ball at 
Government House, and a brilliant entertainment was 
given by the Byculla Club. I have scarcely met the 
Duchess of Connaught since those days, but H.R.H. 
made upon me a charming impression for which a 
certain reserve — greatly due to shyness — did not at 
first prepare one. Once the ice was broken, I found 
her most agreeable and full of conversation, and 
evidently highly amused and interested by her Indian 
experiences and surroundings. Both she and the 
Duke had made themselves exceedingly popular at 
Bombay. To us they were most gracious and kind. 
We dined with them en petit comite the evening 
before our departure ; the Duchess, who has a very 
pretty voice, doing some music with my wife after 
dinner. Besides these Royalties several other guests 
of distinction arrived or were entertained at Govern- 
ment House. The Portuguese Governor-General came 
from Goa on a visit of ceremony, and the Maharajah 
of Mysore was received one day with the full honours 
due to him. Most interesting to me was the arrival 
of the young Due d'Orleans, then just turned nineteen. 
H.R.H. , accompanied by Colonel de Parse val, was on 
his way to join a battalion of the Rifle Brigade in the 
Punjab with which he did duty for some time. The 
youthful Prince, who is accounted a " grand charmeur " 
by his intimates, was very civil to me, and owing to 
my French connections, most of whom are among 
his staunchest adherents, we had many subjects of 
interest in common. A few years later I had other 
opportunities of seeing and getting to know more of 
the exiled head of the " Maison de France? 

We sailed from Bombay on the 17th of February 
in the P. & O. s.s. Verona, looking back with unmixed 


pleasure to all we had seen and enjoyed in India, and, 
last not least, to the great kindness of our hosts of 
Malabar Point. By the 2nd of March we were back 
again in our Greek home, and before long set to work 
making preparations for our new move, my transfer to 
The Hague having by this time been officially made 
known. We did not, however, finally leave Athens 
for some weeks, during which Victor Montagu, 1 a very 
old friend of mine, arrived with Lady Agneta, on a 
visit to their Hellenic Majesties. With the Montagus 
and Mr. Hamilton Aide, who turned up about the same 
time, we made farewell excursions to our favourite 
haunts of Pentelicus and Ksesariani, and had our last 
look at the wonders of the Acropolis. Personally I 
was loth to leave Greece. The last traces of the 
troublous period of stress and commotion which 
I had gone through had now passed away, and I 
should have been glad to stay on some time longer 
at my interesting post and watch the progress made 
by the country under the Tricoupis Administration. 
Its material condition had already much improved. 
Public undertakings of great utility had been inaugu- 
rated, important railway concessions had been granted, 
and the remote districts of the Kingdom were in a 
fair way to be opened up. Above all, the prestige 
of the Crown — temporarily somewhat shaken by the 
crisis of which I have above given so full an account 
— had entirely recovered the ground it had lost, 
while the perfect understanding between the Sove- 
reign and his gifted Minister gave the best of pro- 
mise for the future. It was indeed a great satisfaction 
to me to feel, when I took my last leave of the Kin*. 1 ; 
and Queen at a family luncheon party to which we 
were asked after I had had an audience to present 

1 Rear- Admiral the Honble. Victor Moir 


my letters of recall, that so bright a prospect was 
opening out for their Majesties, in whose welfare I 
could not but take the sincerest interest. Very glad, 
too, was I to know that our Legation would be en- 
trusted to such capable hands as those of my old ally, 
Sir Edmund Monson. 

On Sunday, the 22nd of April, we embarked in 
the Messageries mail-boat Amazone, at the Piraeus, 
whither we were escorted by a crowd of kind col- 
leagues and friends. As the afternoon wore on and 
we got abreast of Egina and its lofty summits, we had 
a parting, far-off view of the famous city " the eye of 
Greece " — glorious in the past, and still strangely fasci- 
nating in the present — the outlines of plain and town 
and sheltering hills all blurred in the golden flush and 
haze of the rapidly westering sun. Another chapter, 
and that not the least interesting, of my diplomatic life 
had in its turn come to a close. 



From Marseilles we travelled across to Biarritz and 
stayed a week with my sister and her husband at the 
Pavilion La Rochefoucauld, where we found my second 
son Willie on his Easter holidays from the Military 
Academy at Woolwich, and also the old Duchesse de 
La Rochefoucauld. This was destined to be my last 
visit to my sister in her luxurious home by the blue 
Gascon gulf. As I write, mournful memories have 
gathered for me round the spot where she gave us so 
affectionate a welcome, and where her bright, unbroken 
spirit so long defied age and infirmity, shedding to the 
very last gladness around her. Over all that country- 
side the memory of the " bonne Comtesse " will not 
easily fade away. . . . We reached The Hague on the 
6th May. I had never been in Holland before, and it 
would be difficult to conceive a greater contrast than 
that between its general aspect and conditions of life 
and those of the country whence I had just come. At 
first sight, in the tardy Dutch spring, the cold, grey, stag- 
nant waters bordered by almost leafless trees — which, 
later on, with their rich summer foliage reflected in 
placid surfaces, make the "village capital" so attractive 
a spot — did not give one a very cheerful impression of 
The Hague. Equally depressing was our first inspection 
of the old Legation House in the Westeinde, which, 
like the house at Athens, had been badly looked after 


and stood in sore need of thorough repair. We did 
not linger, however, over these first impressions, but 
went over for ten days to England, where I had to kiss 
hands on my appointment and get my credentials. I 
received a command to dine and sleep at Windsor 
Castle, and had my audience of the Queen on the 
17th. Being in deep mourning for my wife's father, 
Mr. Crampton, we saw no one, only going on a short 
visit to Alfred Caulfeild and his wife at Twickenham. 
We were soon back again in our temporary quarters 
at the Oude Doelen, a quaint but comfortable hostelry 
on the Tournooiveld, with a name x and traditions that 
go back to the days when it had been the meeting- 
place, and had contained the butts, of the ancient 
guild of burgher marksmen founded in the fifteenth 
century under the patronage of St. George. The 
house — whose front bears the date of 1636 — stands 
on the site of a still older building erected on 
ground originally granted by Charles the Bold, 
Duke of Burgundy. Mine host of the Doelen 
Hotel — a ceremonious Dutchman of somewhat eccen- 
tric ways — was most attentive to us, and at his 
cosy inn we spent nearly the whole summer while 
the Legation House was being put in order. The 
sum required for the purpose was advanced me by 
the Treasury, which repaid itself by annual deduc- 
tions from my house-rent allowance — a curious 
arrangement not a little characteristic of that great 

Towards the end of August we were at last able to 
move into the Legation, and even then had to drive 
out dilatory workmen room by room. Having suffered 
for some time from acute chronic dyspepsia, the origin 
of which I trace to immoderate indulgence in iced 

1 Doelen, an obsolete Dutch word for shooting-place. 


water and other cooling drinks during the oppres- 
sive heat of our first summer at Athens, I had been 
advised to try the waters of Royat, and accordingly 
went there alone, breaking the journey in Paris at 
Edwin Egerton's hospitable rooms in the Rue Jean 
Goujon. I did not like Royat, and its waters did me 
no good. Poked down in a narrow valley that affords 
a level space of at most a few hundred yards for 
the perambulations of the baigneurs, the Auvergnat 
watering-place produced upon me from the outset 
an unpleasant sense of being "cabined, cribbed, con- 
fined." In that respect it reminded me of Carlsbad, 
without the redeeming points of that far-famed health 

The stuffy little promenade, up and down which 
one stumped when drinking the waters or waiting 
for one's bath, was as dull as it was cramped, in spite 
of the efforts of a feeble band discoursing the typical 
stock pieces of the French repertoire, such as the 
eternal overture to the " Cheval de bronze' 1 or some 
vapid waltz by Waldteufel. Fortunately Lord Salis- 
bury was here with his family, and, in the mostly 
commonplace company of visitors, the massive form 
of the British Premier stood out conspicuously. It 
was almost the only opportunity I had had of meeting 
him otherwise than officially, and those who knew him 
well have not to be told of the kindly charm of his 
manner. He had, I think, an extraordinarily winning 
smile, and, seen thus en villegiature, he showed no 
trace of the aloofness with which he has been some- 
times charged. As far as I remember there was 
nothing in those late summer months specially to 
engage his attention in the domain of foreign affairs, 
though the dreadful red boxes came and went with 
their usual regularity, but his talk was always capti- 


vating, and he easily won my heart by his kindly 
references to the work I had had to do in Greece. 
Much as I disliked Royat I owe the place some thanks 
for the rare chance it gave me of a passing glimpse 
into the intimate life of the most united and gifted 
of families, thereby enabling me to know not only 
Lord but Lady Salisbury as she really was — clever, 
agreeable and sympathetic a ses heures beyond words 
— and the very opposite of the impression which a 
somewhat unfortunate manner too generally gave of 
her. There were other interesting people besides 
the Salisburys at Royat at this time. Henry James, 1 
a very old friend of mine, was there with his niece, 
and also Sir John Gorst, then Under Secretary of 
State for India. With the latter I went longish 
walks over the hills and through the woods, away 
from the valley and its closeness, and with the James's 
I sampled the cookery of the "Gastronome" — an old- 
fashioned ordinary patronised by the officers of the 
garrison — in a back street of gloomy old Clermont 
Ferrand, dreariest, it seemed to me, of French pro- 
vincial capitals. 

I was back at The Hague by the middle of Septem- 
ber, having in no way benefited by my cure, and this 
led to my trying what the then celebrated Amsterdam 
masseur Metzger could do for me. A very clever sketch 
of Metzger is given in M. Maarten Maartens' last, and 
otherwise somewhat disappointing, book. The Pro- 
fessor — as he called himself to the great wrath and 
disgust of the learned Dutch Faculty — was a remark- 
able instance of the success of self-advertisement and 
assurance. He unquestionably achieved wonderful 
results in cases which had defeated the best surgical 
science, but his phenomenal reputation was not a little 

1 Now Lord James of Hereford. 


enhanced by the stories that were current of his cavalier 
ways towards patients of even the most exalted rank, 
his almost brutal bluffness of manner, and rough, 
unsparing humour and sarcasm. The dingy waiting- 
room at the Amstel Hotel — where, by the way, he 
made it a point that his patients should stay during his 
treatment — was a perfect kaleidoscope, so strange was 
the mixture of persons of all countries and conditions 
that passed through it. Semi-royalties, artists, great 
ladies, worn-out ministers, and politicians resignedly 
sat there waiting for their turn, cheek by jowl with 
much humbler folk. Presently the Professor would 
appear in the doorway — a fine, burly figure in a white 
blouse, with shirt-sleeves half rolled up above the 
strong hands that kneaded so searchingly, and yet 
were capable of the softest, almost velvety, touch — 
and would shout out " Einsteigen" / — as they do at 
German railway stations — together with the name 
of the next patient, sometimes accompanying it by 
a bantering apostrophe or sobriquet. He would then 
stride back with his victim along an overheated 
passage redolent of the sickly smell of cold cream, 
to the torture chamber, past a row of dressing-rooms, 
full of more patients who had already been through 
his hands. 

No doubt Metzger did me some, though not last- 
ing, good. His cleverest cure in my time was that 
of a young good-looking Count von der Groben, of 
the German Legation — a connection of the Sidneys 
of Penshurst — whose right arm had been almost 
paralysed by a bad fall with his horse. The cruel 
hands put him all right, but tortured him abomi- 
nably. Although the roughest, Metzger could be on 
occasion the kindest and most humane of creatures, 
and he assuredly had an almost mesmeric influence 


over many of his patients. There was, nevertheless, a 
good deal of charlatanesque pose about him, and par- 
ticularly in his being no respecter of persons. He 
went out of his way once, it was said, to be unpar- 
donably rude to the beautiful Empress Elizabeth of 
Austria, which did not prevent another Empress 1 — 
dethroned alas ! and no longer young, but still most 
se'duisante — being one of his constant patients. At 
this time I had an audience of H.M. to which I 
have referred in the first part of these Reminiscences. 
A not uninteresting circumstance of the interview 
was that I was charged for the Empress with a 
message of respectful sympathy from the Duchesse 
de Doudeauville, wife of the head of the French 
Legitimist party, who was likewise staying at the 
Amstel with her sister-in-law, Princesse Edouard de 

In what might almost be called the salon Metzger 
I came across an old lady of whose sadly stormy history, 
which closed shortly afterwards, I had often heard : 
Lady * # # , at the time of my boyhood in Paris, had 
been, when a young girl, the innocent object of a 
scandalous action brought against her father by a 
rascally Polish doctor, and, after great matrimonial 
misadventures, had ended by marrying a Belgian of 
obscure birth with whom, it was said, she lived very 
happily. Another patient of the great masseur was 
Baron de Goltstein, well known as the successor to 
Count Bylandt as Dutch Envoy to our Court, who 
was drowned in so strange a manner by missing his 
footing in the dark, when crossing a narrow causeway 
between two shallow ponds in his grounds at Olden- 
alla, near Utrecht, where we had paid him a visit one 

1 The Empress Eugenie. See u Kecollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. 
p. 163. 


summer. At Metzger's, too, I again met our old 
Stockholm friends, the Hochschilds, who had long 
retired from the Swedish Foreign Office to their snug 
country home in Scania. But of all my fellow- 
patients the one with whom my acquaintance, 
first made here, was to ripen into friendship was 
Mrs. C. Labouchere, ne'e Munro of Lindertis, who, 
with that best of good fellows, her husband — a 
partner in the banking house of Hope & Co. — then 
lived in a lovely old house on the Heerengracht 
at Amsterdam, one of the four great canals that 
wind their stately course through the ancient city 
—and here we were afterwards more than once their 

Wonderful, bustling, and yet half-dreamyAmsterdam ! 
The tall, massive seventeenth-century mansions of the 
opulent burghers of old that line its more secluded 
waterways, seem ideal homes of ease and contemplation, 
and truly fitting habitations for the men and women, 
in rich dark clothing and beautiful snowy collars and 
ruffs, who look down upon you so placidly as you pass 
along the walls of the Rijksmuseum. And hard by 
these quiet, sleepy backwaters — perfect in all but their 
too often doubtful exhalations — are to be seen the stir 
and movement of a great modern town full of active, 
strenuous lives, still set in the mellow framework of 
the days when there were abroad in its streets and 
market-places those wonderful limners who have ren- 
dered the features and humours of the queen of 
Dutch cities with such incomparable force and truth. 
Indeed so little changed is the outward aspect of the 
country and people, that, all over Holland, in town 
and village, you may yet at some corner chance upon 
a living scene or group that seems taken from the 
panels of Metzu or Jan Steen. 



My cure took me a good deal to Amsterdam this 
autumn, and, in following years, too, I went there 
constantly, the curious charm of the intensely pic- 
turesque old city growing upon me with each visit. 
The splendid Rijksmuseum alone would have been 
an irresistible magnet, but to us it was an end- 
less pleasure simply to wander without any definite 
object, along the ever-changing ways and winding 
quays, from the broad open spaces about the Palace 
of National Industry, to the queer, steamy lanes of the 
Jewish quarter, the workshops of the diamond-cutters, 
or the dreary ancient Breestraat where, through eighteen 
years, poor Rembrandt dwelt and did a giant's work, 
until, crushed by penury and misfortune, he was finally 
driven from house and home. I will not say that, after 
doing justice to M. le Lorrain's excellent dejeuner de la 
Bourse at the Cafe Riche, there was not a more special 
attraction for us in a stroll in the busy Kalverstraat, 
teeming with life and full of fascinating bric-a-brac 
shops. The genuine treasures stowed away in . his 
drawers by old Boazberg for instance, which that 
greatest character I ever met among the tribe of anti- 
quaires made it quite a favour to show one, were in those 
days, when fraudulent imitations had already spoilt the 
market, absolutely marvellous. But perhaps the most 
interesting occupation for the idler at Amsterdam was 
to watch the first laying of the foundations of some 
new building. The sight of the great piles being 
driven, side by side to any depth, by steam-hammers, 
into the black ooze and slush, made one realise the 
wonders of this hive of 500,000 souls, all housed in 
dwellings artificially raised above the swamp, and 
living "like crows perched on the tops of trees," to 
quote the ancient jest of Erasmus about them. At 
my first visit to the great city in 1888 the magnificent 


Central Railway Station, on which millions of florins 
had been spent, was being in great part rebuilt after 
the serious settlements that had taken place in its 
foundations two years before. Between the solidity 
of the Dutchman, and the quaking nature of so much 
of his soil, there is an almost humorous antithesis 
that cannot escape one's notice even in a country of 
which it has been well said that, in every sense, it is 
quite by itself. 

It was ordained that I should hold my post at The 
Hague for upwards of eight years, and pleasant, peace- 
ful years these were on the whole, until there came the 
embittering sense of hope deferred, as time went on 
without bringing the promotion to which I considered 
myself justly entitled. But on this point I may have 
more to say further on. 

One result of our being left so long at The Hague 
was, that in many ways it grew into much more of a 
home to us than had been either Athens or Stockholm. 
For the first time, too, we were now able to set up a 
real family centre for our grown-up sons, and to take 
them all in when away from their several avocations. 
But for the depressing character of the Dutch climate, 
with its trying, all-pervading damp, few posts offer 
greater attractions than The Hague to a British repre- 
sentative content with duties of an interesting though 
not of an absorbing nature, and disposed to make the 
most of what has become essentially a poste d'observa- 
tion. For much can be gathered there by carefully 
watching the big current of international affairs as it 
flows past the quiet backwater that lies so conveniently 
near to our own shores. Then again, although Holland 
has, since the days of Waterloo and of the Belgian 
revolution that followed so speedily, almost entirely 


ceased to have any active concern with the larger Euro- 
pean transactions, it remains of course in touch with 
them. At this moment, indeed, there is perhaps on the 
map of Europe no spot which might all at once, under 
given eventualities, become of greater importance to 
us. The unimpaired independence and neutrality of 
the Dutch Kingdom, under its time-honoured national 
dynasty, cannot but be to us a matter of paramount 
interest, since, in certain given conditions, it is pos- 
sible, without too great a stretch of the imagination, to 
conceive of its peaceful harbours serving once more as 
a base for fleets far more formidable than those which, 
some two centuries and a half ago, fought with ours 
for the dominion of the seas — gallant contests of 
which, in the inner quadrangle of the Rijksmuseum at 
Amsterdam, the great coat-of-arms taken from the stern 
of the Royal Charles to this day remains an unpleasant 
reminder. There is a good deal for the vigilant diplo- 
matist to watch at The Hague. Such speculations as 
these, however, may seem to be somewhat outside my 
present subject, and I will not pursue them further. 

The Legation which, as I have said, became for us 
so attractive a home, fully deserves more particular 
description, being in some respects the most interest- 
ing house I ever occupied in the many changes of my 
career. It was situated in the old street called West- 
einde, or, as its name denotes, the western region of 
the town, whence, contrary to the tendency observable 
in other capitals, the tide of wealth and fashion had 
long set in other directions. A serious drawback to 
it was its position in this very narrow street which 
leads out of the picturesque but untidy Groenmarkt, 
with its busy stalls and the rough market folk who 
crowd the immediate neighbourhood, while the heavy 


country carts too often block the way. The dignified 
old building had in fact been deserted and left by 
itself in the slums. The arms of Castille carved over 
the archway or porte cochere of the house, marked 
its purchase, not long after the peace of Minister, by 
the Spanish Envoy, Don Emanuel de Lyra, who, as 
well as his successors, lived in it in great state until 
the end of the eighteenth century, when it was sold, 
and, after passing through different hands, became the 
property of the Jesuits, from whom we rented it. Its 
fapade had been renewed and many changes made in 
it by its Spanish owners, but the main structure and 
the vast basement and cellars beneath it unquestion- 
ably formed part of a far older building which had 
belonged to the patrician family of Assendelft in the 
middle of the fifteenth century, the house being still 
traditionally known as the Assendelfthuis. Concern- 
ing this older house there was a vague and probably 
unfounded tradition that the ruthless Alva had resided 
in it, and that the basement aforesaid had been used 
for sinister purposes by the Inquisition. 

The commonplace entrance to the more modern 
building, up a few steps under the archway, little pre- 
pared one for the really fine proportions of the suite 
of reception rooms on the ground floor, the main 
feature of which was a beautiful ball-room nearly forty 
feet square, with a perfect parquet floor, for which, in 
after years, I would have given a great deal at the 
wretchedly scamped Embassy House in ball - loving 
Vienna. Upstairs, above this great apartment, there 
ran a long dark corridor with a number of good-sized 
bed-rooms opening into it on either side, some of which 
we made as bright and liveable as we could, without, 
however, entirely succeeding in divesting the passage 
itself of a depressing gloominess for which it was diffi- 


cult to account. Vague stories were indeed current of 
the building being haunted, and the occupants of one 
room in particular were certainly plagued by vivid night- 
mares which, through the recurrence in them of the 
same distinctive features, were singularly akin to spec- 
tral visitations. There is, I am told, no doubt that my 
successor in the house found it advisable to give up 
using the room in question as a bed-room, and turned 
it into a box-room. Be this as it may, we were all 
of us from the first conscious of an undefmable atmos- 
phere of creepiness and mystery pervading the entire 
rambling building after dark. 

I am careful to insist on this point, because it was 
only towards the end of my tenancy of it that I became 
aware of the gruesome and thoroughly authentic tradi- 
tion attaching to the house, and which, had I known 
it at the outset, would have more than accounted for 
the uneasy sense of mystery I have spoken of. I am 
indebted for the story to M. de Kiemsdijk, the Director 
of the State Archives at The Hague, whose wife, by 
the way, was one of the Loudons, a very charming 
family of Scotch descent. In his searches in the mar- 
vellously rich records under his care, M. de Biemsdijk 
had come upon the complete evidence of a criminal 
trial that took place at The Hague in the middle of 
the sixteenth century, and was closely connected with 
the Assendelfthuis. The owner of the house at that 
period was one Gerard van Assendelft, an eminent 
magistrate and President of the High Court of Holland 
under the Emperor Charles the Fifth. Assendelft, pre- 
sumably a man of mature age, had married a French 
lady of good family in Touraine younger than himself. 
One can imagine the lively Catherine de Chessoir — 
brought from the sunny banks of the Loire to a sombre 
manor-house in the mists of Holland, and subjected to 


the rigid rule of a Dutch household conducted with 
all the national regard for due economy — soon evincing 
a rebellious spirit. The union turned out far from 
happily ; but the device resorted to by Catherine to 
procure means when her supplies were stopped, was 
not a little strange. She imported from her own 
country two " young fellows " (gesellen), who were 
experts "in the art of coining," and furnished them 
with the " stamps, implements and materials " re- 
quired for making false money, which she issued 
surreptitiously, at the same time "clipping the gold 
and silver coin of the realm, to the detriment of the 
dignity of His Imperial Majesty and the common wel- 
fare." 1 The unfortunate woman was tried with her 
accomplices, and, having confessed to the crime, "under 
pain (torture) and iron bands," was sentenced to be 
burnt to death, and all her goods confiscated to the 
Emperor. Her fellow-culprits were publicly beheaded, 
but, by special mercy of the Queen of Hungary, then 
Regent of the Netherlands for her brother the Emperor, 
Catherine's sentence was commuted — no doubt in con- 
sideration of the high station of the Assendelfts — to 
private execution in prison and burial in consecrated 
ground. The wretched creature had been taken, when 
arrested, to the grim old jail well known to visitors to 
The Hague as the Gevangenpoort — the walls of which 
have many another dark tale to tell — and here, in 
April 1540, she was barbarously and ignominiously 
put to death by drowning, her head being forcibly 
held down in a pail of water. 

In exploring — for such was their labyrinthine 
character and massive structure — the vaulted cellars 
of the old building, where a bricked-up door marked 

1 Taken from the quaint old Dutch of the sentence passed by the 
High Court. 


the entrance to a subterranean passage leading, it was 
said, to the Groote Kerk a few hundred yards away, 
one could not help speculating whether they had been 
made use of by the ill-fated Catherine in her foolishly 
wicked venture. That the memories of her misdeeds 
and miserable end hovered about the house, and gave 
it the indescribable tinge of latent sadness and secrecy 
we all noticed in it, I will not assert, and, by asserting, 
expose myself to just derision. We are all of us, how- 
ever, more or less ready to grant that stone walls some- 
how keep the impress of things they have witnessed. 
For that matter, are not our homes coloured, if not 
haunted, by our own lives and the lives of those before 
us ? There had unquestionably been tangible traces of 
a mystery about the house in the Westeinde, for not 
many years before, on what I would call its redeeming 
garden-side, a skull and a few bones had been dug 
up — possibly those of some obscure agent in Catherine 
van Assendelft's sordid little tragedy. 

Its garden-side was indeed the redeeming feature 
of the fine uncanny old building. The original manor- 
house had stood on the outskirts of the town, in 
spacious grounds which successive sales on change 
of ownership had by degrees curtailed. Its worst 
devastators had been the Jesuit fathers who, on a 
great slice of the property, had built, in the early 
forties of last century, a big church, the high, dead 
wall of which formed the western boundary of what 
garden was left to us, and took from us half our sun- 
shine. The effect of conventual peace and seclusion 
which the overshadowing wall, the subdued peal of 
the organ and the chant of the faithful behind it, 
imparted to our pleasaunce, was not without its charm. 
The grass on our lawn grew lush ; the tall tops of the 
lovely elms — beneath which the guilty Frenchwoman 


may have sat and dreamed of her fair country far away 
— swayed in the evening breezes, gently rocking the 
nests of cawing rooks, and, in the summer nights, now 
and then sheltering a stray nightingale ; what few 
flowers we had seemed all the brighter and sweeter 
for their rarity ; and as the hours sped away they 
were marked by the chimes from the gaunt bell-tower 
of the Groote Kerk close by — varied by the sweetly 
quaint carillon which, all over the Low Countries, 
sends, from many a grey town and market-place, its 
dreamy message through the land. We loved our 
garden, even though the trying Dutch climate robbed 
us of much of the enjoyment of it. 

I remained so long at The Hague that the staff 
of the Legation was several times entirely renewed 
during my stay there. On arriving I found as First 
Secretary my former colleague at Florence, Mr. 
Fenton, who had served here sixteen years, having 
several times declined promotion rather than leave 
a place he knew and liked so well. His experience 
of the country and people, which he unreservedly 
placed at my service, was of the greatest use to me. 
Dear old Fenton ! — spending the peaceful evening 
of his days in retirement in a snug little house in 
the Praktizijnshoek — almost the last specimen left of 
a school of diplomacy more formal and precise than 
that which obtains in these days, but which was 
scarcely less efficient. I found, too, at the Legation 
Vincent Corbett, who has in recent years made his 
mark in Greece and Egypt, and Alan Johnstone, 
now Councillor of Embassy at Vienna, but who that 
summer, as a true Yorkshireman, was successfully 
running his good horse ''Moscow" at the Clingendaal 


And here the mention of Clingendaal — prettiest 
and most enjoyable of Dutch country places, with 
its bright gardens and beautiful grounds, its admir- 
ably appointed house, its race-course and golf-links 
— evokes in me the saddest memories. I had known 
its charming, capable mistress from her childhood. 
Her parents, the Vincent de Tuylls, were constant 
frequenters of Baden-Baden and Nice in long bygone 
days which I remember so well. One of my earlier 
recollections of her was escorting her — then a per- 
fectly lovely girl of seventeen — together with " Jacob 
Omnium," the father of Mr. H. V. Higgins, from Nice 
to Paris, as I have said elsewhere. 1 Almost imme- 
diately afterwards she had married Baron Arnaud de 
Brienen, one of the greatest landowners in Holland, 
and when, long after, I was appointed to that country, 
she was the mother — quite a case of mater pulchrior 
— of the young ladies who for years, with herself, 
were so thoroughly at home and so popular in 
London society. In less than a twelvemonth both 
she and her husband, the kindest of friends to me, 
have now gone, and, with them, her brother and 
next-door neighbour at Oosterbeck, Baron Reginald 
de Tuyll, another highly valued friend of mine. That 
cheeriest, most hospitable corner of the whole pleasant 
Hague country-side knows them no more. Only by 
those who remember what a centre Clingendaal was 
for so long to both the native and the foreign society 
of The Hague, can the void caused by the death of 
its owners be truly realised. 

Misfortune in another shape has also, in the last 
few years, befallen the hospitable Oudermeulens, who. 
next to the Brienen s, were the wealthiest people 
in the most exclusive set at The Hague, and saw 

1 See " Further Recollections of a Diplomatist," pp. 1 60-61. 


many people both at their fine old house in the 
Kneuterdijk and at a big chateau in the French 
style they had built on their estate of Oud Wassenaer 
on the road to Leyden. One venerable couple who 
likewise received a great deal deserve special men- 
tion — Baron Verschuer and his wife. The Baron 
was close upon ninety when I left The Hague in 
1896, and only died some four years afterwards, 
being very soon followed by his wife, who was 
at least ten years his junior. For his age he 
was, I think, physically the most surprising man 
I ever met, standing six foot three or four in his 
stockings, and to the last being as straight as an 
arrow. He was one of the very few who might 
in their childhood have remembered the days at 
Amsterdam of well - intentioned King Louis and 
flighty Queen Hortense, and, as a young officer, he had 
served under Chasse" in the splendid defence made 
by the Dutch during the Belgian revolution. He 
and his wife, an Amsterdam heiress, celebrated their 
diamond wedding shortly after we got to The Hague. 
Up till the end this indestructible couple continued 
to entertain at a house in the Voorhout, which was 
remarkable for its fine carved oak panellings, and 
had been for many years the residence of one of my 
predecessors, Sir Edward Disbrowe, being mentioned 
in the interesting reminiscences lately published by 
his daughter. 1 Madame Verscbuer's salon and hei- 
st; ige-box at the theatre were the very centre of 
the gossip and tittle-tattle in which society in the 
Dutch capital, as elsewhere, not a little indulged. 
There was too in those days a dear old American 
lady who was a kinswoman of John Jacob, the 

1 Sir Edward Disbrowe died in this house in October 1851. It had 
been occupied before by Lord Clancarty, as Ambassador to the Netherlands. 


founder of the Astor dynasty, and the widow of one 
of the Boreels who had been Dutch Minister in Paris. 
She lived the greater part of the year in a bright, 
comfortable house in the Bezuidenhout where she 
gave excellent little dinners, spending her winters 
on the cote d'azur. She and her two daughters, 
Baronne de Pallandt van Neerijnen and Baronne de 
Groeninx van Zoelen, were among our best friends, 
and they too have all passed away since then. The 
gaps in society at The Hague in the last few years 
have indeed been unusually great. 

The Dutch are an eminently sociable people much 
given to hospitality, and in the winter season dinners 
and parties were plentiful at The Hague. Although 
but few families of the somewhat exclusive aristo- 
cracy could be said to have large fortunes, they have 
all been trained for generations to careful habits, 
and seldom live up to their incomes. Thus, while 
eschewing as a rule all idle show and display, they 
are in far better circumstances than many of their 
congeners in larger and richer communities. The 
same feature is noticeable in the different grades 
of Dutch society, so that the average of substantial 
well-being throughout the upper and middle classes 
is probably higher in Holland than in most countries. 
The solid, unostentatious comfort of their homes is not 
to be exceeded. In the dignified patrician houses on 
the Lange Voorhout, the Prinsegracht, and Heeren- 
gracht — the finest of which by the way are mementoes 
of persecution, having been originally built by the 
Sephardim Jews who were driven out of Portugal by 
Pombal — rich heirlooms in pictures, antique furni- 
ture, rare Delft and Chinese ware abound, but their 
owners live in them in perfectly simple, unpretentious 


There is of course a gay set in The Hague world, 
and scarcely any society I have lived in can show a 
greater proportion of nice-looking, well-dressed, and at 
the same time intelligent, highly cultivated women. 
The subscription balls given by a very select club — 
a sort of Dutch Almack's — known as the Society 
du Casino, in the rooms of the Oude Doelen Hotel, 
were some of the best functions of their kind I can 
remember seeing anywhere. The pretty daughters 
of Countess Limburg Stirum, handsome Mile. Sarah 
de Pallandt, and the seduisante Mile. Kiline Nepveu 
of the perfect figure, among others, would have 
been admired even in a room full of London 

That constantly fluctuating quantity, the Diplomatic 
Corps, contained many pleasant elements, renewed at 
intervals during our long stay in Holland. Of our 
former Italian colleague at Stockholm, the Marquis 
Spinola and his family, I have spoken before. The 
German Minister, when I first arrived, was the late 
Baron Saurma, afterwards Ambassador at Constan- 
tinople, a friendly type of the North German junker, 
whom I chiefly remember in connection with an excur- 
sion he induced me to make with him across the 
German frontier, in the summer of 1889. The object 
of the trip was a visit to the splendid old church of 
St. Victor, at Xanten, on the Lower Rhine, which 
is said to be one of the most ancient towns in 
Germany, and the traditional birthplace of Siegfried 
of the Nibelungen. At the frontier fortress of Wesel 
we put up at a moderate inn much frequented by 
the officers of the garrison, and the next day went to 
see this perfect gem of mediaeval architecture which, 
with its beautiful twin spires and grand proportions, 


seems to have been, as it were, left stranded in the 
shrunken, decayed little place that drowses in its 
shadow. Even the most fervent of Wagnerians would 
be hard put to it to find any trace of romance or poetry 
in the fabled cradle of the dragon-slayer as it is to be 
seen at present. We went on the next day to Cleves, 
whence came the poor lady whom our royal Bluebeard so 
coarsely dubbed " a Flemish mare," and whose uncomely 
head — so much did he dislike her — he possibly deemed 
unworthy even of the headman's axe. But we were in 
the Nibelungen country and little concerned in the fate 
of the ill-favoured Anne. In the castle in which she 
was born there stands on high the Schwanenthurm, the 
tower of Lohengrin. From its battlements the pros- 
pect stretches away over the broad valley where — its 
course having ages ago been diverted — the Rhine, 
alas for Lohengrin ! now flows and glitters a long 
distance away, which is somewhat detrimental to the 
mise en seme, inasmuch as it is distressing to imagine 
the son of Parsifal steering his fairy skiff up to the 
castle of the persecuted Elsa along the mean little 
water-course which alone now marks the former bed of 
Father Rhine. It is curious that traditions of descent 
from the Schwanenritter subsist in the very ancient 
Dutch house of Pallandt. Baron " Dop " Pallandt 
van Neerijnen, the husband of the lady I have men- 
tioned above, once showed me a very old pedigree in 
which there figured, in the tenth century, a knight of 
the swan with armes parlantes to match. The neigh- 
bourhood of Cleves, with gentle, verdant hills and 
hanging woods, is exceedingly attractive, and has 
become a favourite health resort for the Dutch from 
across the border. 

Ancient Nimwegen, the next stage on our return 
to The Hague, took us still further up the tide of cen- 


turies to Carlovingian days, for here, dominating the 
sluggish Waal, stands the Valkburg, with scanty ruins 
of the palace stronghold of Charlemagne. But I was 
to see Nimwegen, and all the pleasant Gelderland, in 
quite different company a few years later. 

I must return, however, to my other colleagues from 
whom I have allowed myself to stray too far. We 
found at the Russian Legation Count Pierre Kapnist 
and his wife — the latter as nice and pleasing as she 
was delicate — with whom we soon became great 
friends. I had known all Countess Kapnist's people 
at St. Petersburg, her mother, Countess Stenbock Fer- 
mor, being the elder sister of Princess Soltikow, whom 
I remembered as one of the most attractive of Russian 
ladies, and of the beautiful Princess Mary Dolgorouki. 
For my part I early acquired a real regard for Count 
Kapnist, which was further strengthened at Vienna, 
where we were again colleagues later on. Placed 
there, as every representative of his country must be, 
in a position of great delicacy, having regard to the 
tendency of the Slav elements in Austria to look for 
Russian countenance and support, he showed remark- 
able tact and judgment, and acquired the full confi- 
dence of the Imperial Government to which he was 
accredited. I know no straight er or more high-minded 
diplomatist than Count Kapnist, who has not a little 
contributed to the smooth working of the valuable 
understanding arrived at between Vienna and St. 
Petersburg in Balkanic affairs. But, in touching 
on this subject, I am in some degree anticipating. 1 
With the Kapnists, I remember, we spent a very plea- 

1 The above had only just been written when the news came of the 
almost sudden death of my much valued friend and colleague. The 
official messages exchanged on the occasion between Vienna and St. 

Petersburg more than confirm what 1 have said above. 


sant day at Leyden in June 1890, on the occasion of 
one of the quinquennial celebrations of the foundation 
of that ancient University. We engaged rooms at 
the Hotel Levedag in the main street, and from its 
windows watched the humours of the Dutch crowd, 
the town being full to overflowing for the historical 
procession of the students representing Charles V. and 
his court. Some of the costumes and the armour were 
really fine, it being a point of honour in the best 
Dutch families to rig out their sons for these functions 
with becoming splendour ; but the cortege was badly 
marshalled and came past in straggling detachments. 
It was a pretty sight, nevertheless, and interesting to 
me as the first I saw of these pageants for which the 
Low Countries have been celebrated from time im- 
memorial, though on this occasion the great Emperor 
was not surrounded, as in the great picture of his entry 
into Antwerp, by the Vienna painter Makart, by groups 
of lovely creatures in striking disarray. 

Our doyen at The Hague was the Belgian Envoy, 
Baron d'Anethan, with whom I was on the most 
cordial terms, and who served afterwards for many 
years in a like capacity at Paris, where he is now 
living in well-earned retirement. The Austro-Hun- 
garian Envoy at this time was Baron de Walters- 
kirchen, both he and his wife being very old friends of 
mine. With the latter, when she was Countess Lili 
Hunyadi, I had had many a fixe Tanz in my Vienna 
dancing days. Walterskirchen, one of the cheery 
lot whom the Metternichs had gathered round them 
at their brilliant Embassy in Paris, entered upon his 
duties at The Hague under peculiarly mournful circum- 
stances. I well recollect calling upon him at his hotel 
one morning late in January 1889, a ^ ew days after his 
arrival, and learning from him the bare news which 


had only just reached him of the death of the Crown 
Prince Rudolf. He was then still in ignorance of the 
particulars of the tragedy which had taken place at 
Mayerling. Six weeks after this terrible event came 
the almost sudden death of his own Secretary of 
Legation, Count Seilern, the husband of the beautiful 
Countess Mary Hohenwart, of whom we saw a great 
deal later on in her quiet home in the Heumarkt at 
Vienna. M. Okolicsanyi, formerly the right-hand man 
of Count Andrassy at the Ballplatz, succeeded the 
friendly, hospitable Walterskirchens, who did not re- 
main very long at The Hague. Of Okolicsanyi, and 
his wife, Princess Olga Lobanow, I have already made 
mention in my Swedish reminiscences. An amiable 
couple, M. Louis Legrand and his wife, then repre- 
sented the French Republic, and were deservedly 
popular with their colleagues and with Dutch society. 



Our first summer at The Hague has left me many 
pleasant recollections. Let alone the resources of 
the place itself, the de Brienens had so many 
friends in English society that after the London 
season there was generally a succession of visitors 
at Clingendaal for the races, or the cricket-matches, 
which latter the Brienen young ladies did a great 
deal to encourage ; scratch teams of their English 
acquaintance coming over to play against some local 
eleven or other. The increasing interest which is 
now, by the way, shown in Holland in cricket, foot- 
ball and lawn-tennis, and latterly in golf, is the 
more remarkable that the Dutch were formerly little 
addicted to any form of athletics beyond their 
national pastime of skating. The Hague, too, is 
an admirable centre for excursions to many inter- 
esting places within easy reach of it by rail. 
Lord Bury and the Arnold Keppels x made a 
pilgrimage this summer to the ancient home in 
Gelderland whence their forebear had come in the 
days of Dutch William. Colonel and Lady Mabel 
Slaney and Lady Lascelles (now Lady Harewood) also 
made some stay at The Hague, and one day we took 
bonny, bright Lady Blanche Hozier, who was on a 
visit to the Brienens, to Haarlem with us, where at 
the Town Hall is to be seen the wonderful epitome 

1 The late and the present Earl of Albemarle. 


of the life-work of joyous, rollicking Franz Hals ; the 
last pictures of the series pathetically revealing the 
gradually failing hand and waning powers of the man 
who went on painting till close upon his death at the 
age of eighty-six. 

Meanwhile the same trouble that had taken me 
to Royat the year before induced me, at the end of 
August, to try the waters of Homburg. It was the 
height of the season, and the early morning crowd 
round the Elisabethbrunnen was more than usually 
brilliant and interesting. The Prince of Wales was 
on his annual visit ; a genial and much surrounded 
centre for the small world of his future subjects who 
flock hither at this time of year, mostly following the 
cure in very perfunctory fashion, and practically going 
through a supplementary London season. Of the 
immediate Royal suite and entourage I remember 
Colonel Teesdale, one of the gallant defenders of 
Kars; also Christopher Sykes, and Mr. Reuben Sassoon. 
The Duke of Cambridge, with the late Colonel Greville 
in attendance, was here too as usual. Of the more 
distinguished English visitors I can recall sprightly 
Lady Dorothy Nevill, Lady Hayter, Lord Morris of the 
unctuous brogue that gave such zest to his capital stories, 
and Lord Bowen of the ready wit, whom no one ever 
met without wishing to meet him again. The Prince 
gave his customary pleasant little dinners on the terrace 
of the Kursaal, and at one of these I recollect sitting 
next to Lord Granville, who had taken in the beauti- 
ful Marchesa Montagliari, the daughter of my old 
friend Mrs. Fuller, nee Bagge, and happened to be 
in the best form and spirits. In the course of dinner 
he told us a story which he had heard, he said, not 
long before from Lady * * * A very attractive and 


fascinating woman of somewhat Bohemian antecedents 
and undetermined nationality was being laid siege to 
by an enterprising Frenchman, who was doing his best 
to find out something about her birthplace and former 
existence. The lady fenced very skilfully with him. 
She had evidently been everywhere, knew every- 
body, spoke every language, but carefully avoided 
committing herself to any country, while apparently 
at home in all. Her admirer was completely non- 
plussed, and at last said : " Mais enfin, Madame quelle 
est votre veritable patrief" "Ah! Monsieur /" she 
replied, with a sigh and a languishing air, " la seule 
veritable patrie est celle oil I' on a aimef" "Dans ce 
cas la, Madame," replied the Frenchman, " votre patrie 
doit etre la Macedoine ! " Lord Granville went on to 
say that he had retailed the story to a lady he had 
soon after sat next to at dinner, who was so de- 
lighted with it that she at once passed it on to her 
other neighbour. Lord Granville listened of course 
with some interest to her telling of it, and was quite 
pleased to find how correctly she repeated it, until 
she came to the Frenchman's brutal reply, which, to 
his great amusement, she gave as : " Dans ce cas 
la, Madame, votre patrie doit etre la mayonnaise ! " 
One dish, the poor lady probably thought, would do 
quite as well as another. 

This was, I think, the last time I ever saw Lord 
Granville, for whose memory I have preserved a 
special regard. He had been the best and most 
considerate of chiefs to me, while, as to his social 
gifts, they were almost unrivalled amongst men of 
his generation. " He always seemed to feel," one 
who knew him well wrote of him, "or at least could 
show, a gracious interest in what interested his com- 
pany, and possessed in supreme perfection the happy 
knack of putting those to whom he spoke in good 


conceit with themselves." Unfailing was his personal 
kindness to us whenever we came to England, and very 
different were his ideas of hospitality from those of 
some of his successors at the Foreign Office who 
almost seem to ignore British Representatives at home 
on leave, whose often onerous task it is to keep up 
abroad the good name of England, not only officially 
but socially. 

It is quite another figure, however, that stands out 
with special prominence in my memories of Homburg 
that season and during a stay I made there after- 
wards in September 1893. The Empress Frederick 
was residing at the curious old Schloss at Homburg, 
the abode of the former Landgraves, whose petty 
dominions were merged in Prussia in 1866, and which 
was for many years the dull home of our Princess 
Elizabeth, third daughter of George III. I well 
remember my old chief Sir Hamilton Seymour tell- 
ing me of a surprise visit he had, with more zeal 
than discretion, thought it right to make there to 
the Princess, when he was left temporarily in charge 
of the Legation at Frankfort. After some difficulty in 
effecting an entrance, a servant in faded livery having 
at last let him in, he had been very graciously received, 
but the next day the Princess sent him a message 
begging that he would kindly give her notice when 
next he proposed coming to see her ; the fact being, 
as he afterwards found out, that on such occasions 
gardeners, stable helpers, and other dependants were 
whipped up and put into spare livery coats and a 
semblance of Royal state thus improvised for the 

By some unfortunate chance I had never seen 
the Empress until February of this year. In tho 
autumn before — the year of her cruel bereavement — 
she had passed through Holland on her first visit to 


the Queen, the Prince of Wales coming to fetch her at 
Mushing in the Victoria and Albert. Through an 
omission on the part of our worthy Vice-Consul de 
Bruyne — of all members of that service probably 
the one who has had most opportunities of shaking 
hands with our Royalties — I had not heard in time of 
these arrangements. To make this good I went to 
receive the Empress on her return from England and 
travelled with her as far as the junction at R,ozendaal. 
I shall never forget the impression she made upon me 
during the long audience she granted me on board the 
Royal yacht. The sufferings she had passed through, 
the wrongs she had endured, were still so recent that 
she spoke of them with an exceeding bitterness, 
emphasising what she said with clenched hands, and 
betraying an emotion which speedily gained me, and 
more than explained the Queen's well-known reference 
to her as her " dear, persecuted daughter." * How severe 
had been the moral martyrdom she had undergone only 
those who knew the highly-gifted, impulsive Empress 
well can truly judge. With her generous hopes and 
ambitions, so cruelly foiled, the tragedy of her life 
seems to me one of the most complete of our times. 
I was soon asked to a small dinner at the Schloss, 
the only guests besides myself being Lady F. and 
her lovely daughter. A few years later the Empress 
showed herself the best of friends to me. 

The Prince of Wales soon left Homburg on his 
return to England, and most of us, including Lord 
Granville, went to see him off at the station. There 
was the usual little cercle in the waiting-room ; the 
Prince, when he said good-bye to me, charging me to 
give his best remembrances to the King of the Nether- 
lands when next I saw his Majesty. I replied that I 
would of course not fail to acquit myself of H.R.H.'s 

1 See Mr. Sidney Lee's " Queeii Victoria, a Biography." 


message, but it might be some time before I was able 
to do so, as I had not as yet had an audience of the 
King. "What? not seen the King yet?" exclaimed 
the Prince, and then, turning to Lord Granville, added, 
with a hearty laugh : " Do you think he is properly 
accredited?" and, with this pleasantry, left us and 
got into the train. 

I was unfortunately so far from well at Homburg 
that I joined but little in the gaieties of the place, 
and was more than content in the society of my 
dear friend and relative Mrs. Wellesley, with whom 
and with Miss Ethel Cadogan I generally dined at 
quiet restaurants and went for long drives, going on 
one occasion to see the beautiful house which the 
Empress was having built at Kronberg. Before long 
my wife joined me from The Hague, and the waters 
having proved a complete failure, we went on a few 
days' visit to the Blumenthals at their chalet above 
Montreux — an enviable house in an ideal situation, 
looking down on the turquoise lake and facing the 
magnificent Dent du Midi. During our stay here 
two ladies came down one afternoon from the Hotel 
des Avants, above Glion, to do music with " Mon- 
sieur " and try over some of his songs. One of these 
was Mrs. Arkwright, an old and charming acquaint- 
ance of ours, the other, a Mrs. Armstrong, being quite 
unknown to us. Our host took them upstairs at once 
to his room, whence there presently proceeded the 
sounds of the loveliest voice I had, I think, ever heard, 
with a roundness and purity throughout its whole 
compass, and a perfection in the production of it 
that were absolutely unapproachable. The effect was 
entrancing, and it was a musical experience worth 
noting, for the voice was that of Madame Melba — 
whose name even we then hardly knew — and whom, 
without seeing her, we now heard for the first time. 


Her voice was already then, what it has since remained, 
the most admirable vocal instrument it is possible to 
conceive. We were back at The Hague by the end of 
September, but went over to London for a few weeks, 
where, thanks to the able treatment of Dr. Harper 
of Hertford Street, I was in great measure relieved of 
the ailment I had suffered from for so long. 

At the end of the year we were asked to a wedding 
in the Luynes family at Paris, the young head of which, 
Honord, Due de Luynes, was engaged to the only 
daughter of the Duchesse d'Uzes. The marriage was a 
great event in the monarchical set of French society, and 
all the relatives and connections of these two houses, 
which stand in the forefront of the old French noblesse, 
mustered in force for it. The young bridegroom was 
the representative of a very ancient family, closely bound 
up with the history of France, and specially noteworthy 
for the distinguished character of its heads for several 
generations, and the services they had rendered to the 
country, from the days of the great connetable of that 
name in the reign of Louis XIII. onwards. 

The Luynes are one of the few territorial families who 
succeeded in preserving their estates during the stress of 
the great Revolution. It is a remarkable circumstance 
that, in the worst days of that hideous, sanguinary period, 
their splendid domain of Dampierre — with its chateau, 
built by Mansard, full of precious historical souvenirs 
of all kinds, and its magnificent park and gardens, laid 
out by Lenotre — remained unscathed, the citoyen Luynes 
being left quite undisturbed, he being accounted a bene- 
factor to the whole neighbourhood. Few, if any, are the 
great homes of pre-revolutionary France that passed 
in like manner through the fiery ordeal, and one cannot 
but ask oneself whether, if the majority of the landed 
aristocracy had manfully stuck to their acres, instead 


of swelling the futile ranks of the emigration or of the 
Armee de Conde, the results might not have been very 
different for the country at large as well as for the for- 
tunes of their own valuable class. The great-grand- 
father of Honore de Luynes was a man of the highest 
culture, an eminent savant and archaeologist, while his 
father, as I have said elsewhere, 1 had gallantly met 
death on the battlefield in the Franco-German war. 

We took with us to Paris for the occasion of this 
marriage my eldest son, Horace, who had now been 
appointed Honorary Attache to the Legation, and put 
up at the Hotel Chatham in the Rue Neuve St. 
Augustin in very cold December weather. There was 
a great reception on the evening of the 9th at the 
d'Uzes' house in the Champs Ely sees for the signature 
du contrat and the display of the presents which, I need 
hardly say, were if not so " numerous" certainly more 
" costly " than those often chronicled by our penny-a- 
liners at a so-called fashionable London wedding. It 
was an exceedingly brilliant party, and to me doubly 
interesting by the number of people present whom I had 
known formerly or was connected with through the 
Polignacs. Much the prettiest person in the crowd was 
Lili de Luynes, then just nineteen, who, three years later, 
married the present Due de Noailles, and is, I believe, 
the only French great lady who was personally asked to 
the late Coronation. The wedding itself took place on 
the 12th at the Church of St. Philippe du Roule, my 
wife being provokingly prevented by a sharp attack of 
influenza from going to it. The great feature of the 
function was the display of state carriages which the La 
Tremoilles, d'Harcourts, Noailles, La Rochefoucaulds, 
and other great Faubourg St. Germain people turned out 
for the occasion from the coach-houses where they had 
stood unused for years past. They made a brave show, 
1 " Kecollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. pp. 212-214. 


which in fact had almost the character of a party mani- 
festation, and I remember the Due de Doudeauville — 
the grandfather of de Luynes and one of the heads of 
the French Koyalists — who had brought out the gala 
coaches and liveries he had used when, as Due de 
Bisaccia, he was ambassador in London, telling me 
with some glee, at the afternoon gathering at the 
d'Uzks after the wedding, that, amongst the crowd 
in the Champs Elysdes attracted by this very un- 
Republican spectacle of ancient Court splendour, he 
had seen the President himself, M. Sadi Carnot. The 
hopes the ever faithful, ever sanguine party may have 
nourished in those days have since then been dashed 
time after time to the ground, but France remains as 
ever the country of the unexpected, and no one can 
tell what may yet be in store for her. 

It was during this short stay at Paris that I saw 
my old colleague Lord Lytton for the last time. He 
and his wife, a perfect pattern of what an ambas- 
sadress should be, had acquired as much popularity as 
any representatives of ours could hope for, at a period 
when a certain dislike and distrust of England still 
lingered among the higher circles of French society to 
a greater extent even than in its inferior strata. Our 
Government indeed, as the Queen herself had once, it 
is said, pointed out, amply showed their desire to do 
full honour to France by accrediting as successive 
ambassadors at Paris two ex-Viceroys of India, both 
highly gifted and essentially cosmopolitan in their 
tastes and habits, and certain, it might have been 
supposed, to acquire at once tous les droits de 
bourgeoisie with the refined and intellectual French 
people. It may be doubted, nevertheless, whether 
Lord Lytton, and Lord Dufferin after him, achieved 
in this respect the full measure of success to which 
they had every right to pretend, so strong remained 


among cultivated Frenchmen, down even to much more 
recent days, the instinctive antipathy to England as 
the traditional adversary and rival. I say this ad- 
visedly, and as a slight tribute to the wise and skilful 
policy which has now brought about the entente cordiale 
— by far the greatest and most beneficent diplomatic 
achievement of our time. 

That the feeling in certain Parisian circles in 
December 1889 was not altogether favourable to us, 
the following little anecdote may help not un- 
amusingly to illustrate. I dined one evening with the 
Jaucourts, meeting there a few people, among whom 
were Colonel Talbot, 1 then Military Attache at Paris, 
and his beautiful wife. Colonel Talbot had not been 
long at his post, and had just been elected to the 
French Jockey Club. In a small way this was quite 
an event, the " Jockey " being the most exclusive of 
Paris clubs, and many of its members belonging to 
a set reputed to be anything but cordially disposed 
towards the English. Talbot had in fact been warned 
that he ran considerable risk of being pilled, very 
few black balls sufficing to exclude an obnoxious 
candidate. After dinner he told me about his elec- 
tion. He had got in triumphantly, with only one 
black ball, and the first time he Avent to the Club 
had been careful to get presented, as is the custom 
in France, to most of the members. As he was going 
the round of the rooms, an old gentleman had come 
up to him, and, raising his hat with the greatest 
urbanity, had introduced himself as the Marquis de 
* # , and then said : " Je tiens, Monsieur, a vous dire 
que cest 7)ioi qui vous ai donne une boule noire, et 
que je Vai fait parceque vous avez pour ancStre le 
cilbbre Talbot quia fait brMer Jeanne d'Arc/" 

1 Major-General the Ilonble. Sir Reginald Talbot, K.C.B., now 
Governor of Queensland. 



Well might surprise be expressed that an Envoy 
who had been at his post for upwards of fifteen 
months should not yet have had an audience of the 
Sovereign to whom he was accredited. My position 
in this respect was indeed almost without prece- 
dent. On my arrival, in May 1888, I had called at 
once on the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Jonkheer 
Hartsen, and when I requested him to take the 
King's orders as to the delivery of my credentials, 
he had told me that his Majesty much regretted being 
unable to receive me at the Castle of the Loo, where 
he was spending the summer, and therefore desired 
that I would hand my letters to his Minister for 
transmission to him. The same course was followed 
in the case of other foreign representatives who were 
accredited subsequently. 

King William III., then in his seventy-second 
year, had been for some time past in an unsatisfactory 
state of health and unequal to the strain of any state 
functions. The chronic complaint with which he 
was afflicted before long assumed a more serious 
character. For many months, during which he was 
nursed day and night, with unflagging devotion, by 
Queen Emma, there were such frequent ups and 
downs in the King's condition, and so little tran- 
spired about it, that it was next to impossible, even 


for the best informed, to arrive at an accurate opinion 
on the subject. A dark and impenetrable cloud 
seemed to hang over the remote country house where 
the last male representative of the illustrious line 
of Orange-Nassau lay lingering in the grasp of an 
incurable malady. 

The position during this weary time was before 
long aggravated by complications that arose in the 
transaction of the public business, owing to the diffi- 
culty of obtaining the Royal signature, which, under 
the forms observed in Holland, is indispensable for 
even the simplest decrees or appointments. The 
Ministerial Departments were in fact constrained 
day by day to overstep their powers by taking upon 
themselves decisions which were practically illegal 
without the Royal sanction, and the entire adminis- 
trative machinery was temporarily thrown out of 

At the beginning of March 1889 there were un- 
mistakable signs that the King's normally vigorous 
intellect was partially obscured, and the necessity of 
providing before long for a due exercise of the 
renal functions had to be taken into immediate con- 
sideration. The establishment of a Regency was 
surrounded with difficulties. The articles of the 
Dutch Constitution dealing with this question are 
so framed as to bear the construction that the 
Sovereign, whose powers have to be delegated, is 
incapacitated from exercising them either by tender 
age or by mental decrepitude. The Constitution 
indeed appears only to contemplate the case of a 
Regency to be installed during the reign of a minor 
or of a lunatic, and in no way provides for such a 
contingency as the temporary illness of the Sove- 
reign. The Ministers naturally, therefore, recoiled 


from a decision which would have the effect of 
making public the painful fact that the last male 
Sovereign of the revered House of Orange was ending 
his days in a state of mental incapacity. 

Meanwhile it became their first duty personally to 
assure themselves of the actual condition of the King, 
whom none of them had seen for some months past. 
Accordingly the Prime Minister, Baron Mackay, 1 
together with his colleagues of the Foreign Office 
and of Justice, went down to the Loo on the 
23rd of March, and acquired sufficient proof of the 
King being, for the time at least, incapacitated from 
exercising the Royal powers, to justify their making a 
formal announcement in this sense to the Legislature, 
and taking the initiatory steps necessary for the 
installation of a provisional Regency. Queen Emma 
herself was, on many and the best of grounds, very 
unwilling to assume functions which might interfere 
with what her Majesty considered her paramount 
duty of tending the Royal sufferer. Fortunately, 
the Constitution provided for such an emergency by 
giving powers to the Council of State to act for a 
period of thirty days pending the formal appoint- 
ment of a Regent, and this expedient was accordingly 
resorted to. 

Some particulars of the visit of the Ministers to 
the Loo, which afterwards became known, were of 
a very interesting character. They were unable, it 
seems, to see the King, who was in bed, but from 
the next room they recognised his well-known voice, 
and easily convinced themselves that his Majesty 
was wandering in his mind. Nor were they ad- 
mitted to an audience by the Queen, who, as M. 

1 Baron Aeneas Mackay is a cousin of Lord Reay, and heir presumptive 
to the Reay peerage. 


Hartsen put it to me, had, with characteristic tact, 
preferred, under the painful circumstances that had 
arisen, to keep as much as possible personally aloof 
from these delicate transactions. Her Majesty, how- 
ever, had taken due care that the Ministers should 
be placed in possession of all the information they 
could possibly desire, and from the King's resident 
physician, as well as from the gentlemen in attend- 
ance upon him, they had received the most circum- 
stantial details as to his Majesty's condition. 

A pathetic little incident which occurred about 
this time was the King's reconciliation with one 
of the officers of his household, who had long been 
a great favourite with him, but had incurred the 
Royal displeasure by venturing to offer a respect- 
ful remonstrance on some decision taken by his 
Majesty. The officer in question, after a somewhat 
prolonged absence from Court, had just returned 
to the Loo for a month's duty. The King had got 
out of bed that morning at an unusually early hour — 
one of the strange features of his condition being that 
he no longer had any exact notion of time — and was 
dressing. lie suddenly asked for his Aide-de-camp, 
and on recognising his familiar features, at once 
addressed him in jocular fashion, as in the days of 
his favour, as " Seigneur Comte ! " forthwith adding : 
" Passons une eponge sur toute cette histoire et donnez- 
raoi la main!" and then, quite unconscious of the 
hour — it was barely half-past six — directed his Aide- 
de-camp to have the carriage brought round. Count 
* * * left the room, pretending to carry out the order, 
and, on his return, found that the King had put on 
several wraps, and over these his fur pelisse, and had 
then gone quietly to bed ajrain, apparently satisfied 
that he was out for his morning drive. 


M. Hartsen gave me another instance which well 
illustrated what he called the inherent nobility of 
King William's disposition. The King was known 
to be subject to almost ungovernable fits of temper, 
partly perhaps attributable to his maternal descent 
from the Russian Emperor Paul. 1 M. Hartsen, who 
always spoke of his Sovereign in terms of real affec- 
tion, said he well remembered being once consulted 
by the King at Amsterdam on a point of business 
respecting which he had given an opinion that was 
distasteful to his Majesty, who had then dismissed 
him from the presence very roughly. The next day, 
at dinner at the Palace, the King had come up to 
him and said, "There were two of them quarrelling 
here yesterday, and you were not the one who was in 
the wrong." Together with his well-known foibles 
and defects King William unquestionably had re- 
deeming qualities. 

The King's first marriage with the singularly 
brilliant and accomplished, indeed erudite, 2 Princess 
Sophie of Wurtemberg turned out unhappily, the 
more so that their disagreements in some measure 
affected the prospects of the dynasty. There can 
be little doubt that the promising eldest son of that 
ill-starred union, the Prince of Orange — the universally 
popular "Prince Citron" whom I knew well in old 
days at Baden-Baden, in a set of which the Duke 

1 King William the Third's mother, Queen Anna Paulovna — a re- 
markable woman, very favourably mentioned in the recollections of Miss 
Disbrowe — was the daughter of the unfortunate and eccentric Emperor. 

2 The late M. de Gonzenbach (see " Eecollections of a Diplomatist," 
vol. ii. pp. 193-5) told me how amazed he had been when, in referring in 
conversation with Queen Sophie to some question of dogma that had been 
discussed at one of the earliest and least known Councils of the Church, 
and being at a loss for its name, the Queen had at once supplied it. It 
was, I think, the Council of Utica. 


of Hamilton 1 and Baron Vincent de Tuyll (the 
father of Madame de Brienen) were prominent mem- 
bers — was more or less driven from his home, into the 
restless, erratic courses which hastened his untimely 
end, by the dissensions between his parents. Other 
circumstances, however, may have contributed to the 
Prince's self-imposed exile. Perhaps the only occa- 
sion en which the King and Queen Sophie were 
found to be in agreement was in preventing a mar- 
riage on which their eldest son had set his heart. 
The handsome and quite charming young lady for 
whom the Prince had conceived a very sincere affec- 
tion belonged to one of the best and most highly 
connected families in the Kingdom. So bent was he 
on making her his wife, that the question whether the 
marriage of the heir to the throne with a lady who, 
however bien nee, was not of royal rank, should, for 
State reasons, be allowed or not, was actually referred 
to the Council of State, and was decided in accordance 
with what was for once the joint will of both his 
parents. The Prince was then sent on a tour to the 
principal European Courts in the hope that he might 
find there some suitable consort. The attempt entirely 
failed, and he soon afterwards took to a wandering 
Bohemian life which ended sadly in Paris at an 
early age. 

Travellers visiting The Hague are well acquainted 
with the House in the Wood where dwelt and died 
the gifted, but ill-mated Queen Sophie, full of am- 
bitions that were never to be realised, and profoundly, 
indeed exceptionally, versed in the political transac- 
tions of her time in which fate denied her the part she 
was so well qualified to play. Her rooms are shown as 
they were lived in by her. Portraits of her children 

1 The father of the late Duke. 



and of a few friends and intimates — the historian 
Motley's in a place of honour — hang on the walls ; 
the furniture is symmetrically arranged in the stiff, 
formal lines dear to the fifties and sixties of last 
century, and all things have been left religiously un- 
disturbed. In the room where ended her much-vexed, 
unsatisfactory life, there stands the simple bedstead 
draped with heavy hangings of dark-green silk — a dismal 
colour befitting a dreary chamber — and her big Bible 
still lies open on the table. But a careless glance at 
these rooms, and at one or two others chiefly decorated 
with exquisite Japanese needle-work and lacquer-ware 
— curiously reminding one of the days when the Dutch 
were the only people allowed any contact with the 
then stubbornly secluded race which is now amazing 
the world by its exploits — suffices for the tourist, who 
passes on to the great octagonal, painted saloon known 
as the Oranjezaal. It is here that his widow, Amalia 
von Solms, caused the deeds of Frederick Henry to be 
so oddly immortalised in the bewildering allegories, by 
Jordaens and others, in which nude goddesses and un- 
clad captives of the hero's bow and spear so boldly 
obtrude themselves as to have made the room, one 
cannot help thinking, an incongruous meeting-place 
for sedate plenipotentiaries to the famous Conference 
that has become the new titre a la gloire of the 
deserted house in the beautiful shady wood. The 
latter, by the way, one is glad to note, has lately been 
preserved by a discerning Municipality from the eye- 
sore of the " Palace of Peace " projected for its adorn- 
ment by well-meant but somewhat self- advertising- 

Truly beautiful is this Hague wood — a genuine 
fragment of the primeval forest that formerly covered 
the country as far as Leyden, and is spoken of by St. 


Evremond, in one of his letters, as " le plus agre'able 
que faie vu de ma vie." So dense is the shade of 
its hoary oaks and beeches that in the damp Dutch 
climate it chills one even on a warm summer day. Its 
glades and recesses are diversified by a graceful chain 
of lakes which in winter are much frequented by 
skaters. But the Haagsche Bosch is seen at its best 
on the occasion of some national holiday, such as the 
birthday of the Queen or the Queen Regent, when 
the trees along the main roads are all hung with 
Chinese lanterns, the margins of the great ponds 
are outlined with festoons of coloured lights, while 
big illuminated barges with bands of music move 
slowly upon the water. Nowhere have I seen more 
effective illuminations. 

Our first experience of one of these typical Dutch 
high-days was the memorable celebration, on the 1 2th 
May 1889, of the fortieth anniversary of the King's 
accession to the throne which, for weeks past, it had 
been feared would never be held. What might almost 
be called the King's miraculous resurrection had been 
accompanied by incidents of a well - nigh dramatic 
character. On the fourth day after the transfer of the 
Royal powers to the Council of State the King had 
suddenly quite recovered his normal consciousness. 
On waking in the morning he had at once asked 
what was the date and the day of the week — he had 
before lost all count of time — and his brain thereupon 
clearing completely, he without hesitation approved 
all the steps that had been rendered necessary by his 
mental breakdown, and himself expressed his desire 
that the Queen should be invested with the Regency. 
He then sent for his resident physician, Dr. Vlaan- 
deren, and with his own hand bestowed on him the 
order of the Golden Lion of Nassau. As a result 


of this astounding change, the States-General which 
had been called together in plenary session on 
the 2nd of May to pass the Regency Bill, were 
in lieu thereof officially informed that the Sovereign 
had recovered sufficiently to resume the reins of 

Under such circumstances as these, the Jubilee was 
celebrated with truly striking demonstrations of loyalty 
on the part of the population. It was clear that, with 
all their Republican traditions and their largely demo- 
cratic sentiments, the feeling of devotion to the House 
of Orange had not in the least lost its hold on the 
Dutch people. The whole town was spontaneously 
illuminated a giorno, and the old traditional Kermesse 
spirit being roused in the Dutch lieges, the rejoicings 
took a decidedly noisy, convivial turn. Bands of revel- 
lers of both sexes, linked arm in arm — hossajjartijen as 
they are called — swept the narrower streets from side to 
side with uproarious cries and songs; soldiers in uniform 
— alas ! for the enforcement of discipline in the Dutch 
army — here and there forming part of them. A staid, 
orderly lot the Dutch lower orders as a rule, but, on 
these occasions, prone to indulge in the roughest of 
horse-play. Even in our remoter corner of the town 
the shouts of " Oranje bove ! " and snatches from the 
grand old chaunt of " Wilelmus van Nassouwen " kept 
one awake half through the night. 

Though, when once we had settled down in the 
Hooge Westeinde, we fairly did our duty by colleagues 
and Dutch society, in the shape of dinners and small 
dances — for the latter of which the young people we 
had at home and the excellence of the parquet floor 
in our ball-room offered a ready excuse — the quiet, 
even tenour of our lives has left me, I fear, but little 


of real interest to chronicle. In one respect, however, 
the closeness of The Hague to bigger centres afforded 
us, with our musical proclivities, many opportunities 
of hearing and doing music in the pleasantest way. 
Poor Arthur Goring Thomas stayed with us for 
ten days one spring — the last time, if I remember 
right, that we saw much of this most graceful of 
English composers of his day. We went through 
the scores of his "Esmeralda" and "Nadejda" with 
him, not to speak of his many charming songs, 
some of which had been written expressly for my 
wife. We had besides almost yearly glimpses of two 
distinguished artists — both Dutchmen by birth — who 
have made London their musical centre and enjoy 
there the greatest popularity : MM. Hollmann and 
Wolff. Hollmann, when on his way to his native 
home near Maastricht, never failed to put in an ap- 
pearance at the Legation, and, after dining with us, 
would casually say : " J'ai laisse Madame Hollmann 
(his 'cello) a V antichambre" and then would play for 
us most good-naturedly all through the evening as he 
only can do. I cannot say that there was much music 
in society at The Hague, but there were a few really 
good musicians among our friends and colleagues, and 
these we gathered together at our little musical parties. 
Monsignor Rinaldini — the Papal Internuncio — an 
amiable specimen of the mundane prelate, who was 
frankly fanatico per la musica, was a constant visitor 
on these occasions, but was before long succeeded 
by Monsignor Lorenzelli, a learned ecclesiastic of a 
very different type, whose name bids fair to go down 
to posterity in connection with the great conflict now 
being waged between Church and State in France, 
where he was, up till the other day, the representative 
— possibly the last in that country — of the Holy 


See. To go back to music, the admirable Lamoureux 
orchestra, which has since lost its great conductor, gave 
a series of splendid performances in the hall of the 
Gebouw voor Kunst en Wetenschappen — a concert- 
room such as London cannot boast of. The fine 
Philharmonic band of Kass from Amsterdam, too, 
came over occasionally to play at the Diligentia 
rooms ; a feature of these concerts being the rapt 
attention of audiences mostly taken from the 
higher middle class where serious music is sedu- 
lously cultivated. 

The theatre, on the other hand, was sadly neglected 
at The Hague, and offered no real resource. In the 
earlier years of the reign of King William III. some 
interest had been taken by the Court in the Italian 
or French opera companies which came for the winter 
season to the small, but fairly attractive, theatre in 
the Korte Voorhout. At the time of our stay, the 
cessation of the Royal subvention, added to the nig- 
gardly spirit of the Municipality — where a narrow- 
minded Calvinistic clique, who objected to the stage 
on principle, then ruled the roast — reduced successive 
impresarios to such straits that they had to recruit 
their leading singers from second-rate French or Bel- 
gian theatres, while the mise en scene was wretched, 
and the chorus and ballet-corps were absolutely gro- 
tesque both in their performances and appearance. 
A set of us, both Dutch and diplomats, did our best 
to help the struggling undertaking by subscribing to 
a large omnibus box, one of the members being a 
worthy colleague of mine who was the cheeriest of 
men and had a keen sense of humour which, when 
tickled, was apt to find vent in formidable peals of 
laughter. There were, among the so-called ballet- 
girls, a few matronly frumps whose looks and dancing- 


attire defy description. My genial colleague's hearty 
guffaws at sight of these poor creatures enlivened 
many a dreary performance, though they not a little 
startled sedate Hague audiences. I am afraid there 
is no denying that the behaviour of our omnibus box 
was not at all times strictly decorous. 

It is only fair to add that the quality of the opera 
troupes improved later on. We had through two 
or three seasons a good tenor who, as Don Jose* 
in " Carmen," for instance, both acted and sang 
extremely well, while the French mezzo - soprano 
who took the part of the Philistine enchantress in 
" Samson et Dalila " — that masterpiece of Saint 
Saens, the production of which in England has been 
prevented by, to my mind, a most absurd prejudice 
— had made a very clever and brilliant study of it 
which would have brought her success anywhere. 
She had all the makings of a great artist, but died 
quite young, and almost unknown except to the 
audiences of a few provincial theatres. Even the 
name of the poor thing has escaped a memory which 
I too often find oblivious of important matters and 
idly tenacious of trifles. 

If music did not stand on a pinnacle in Holland 
in my time, the same could not be said of the great 
sister-art of painting, in which Josef Israels, the 
Marises, Mesdag, of the living, with Mauve and 
Bosboom among the lately departed, had done or 
were doing more than honour to the splendid tradi- 
tions of the Dutch school. The almost unbroken 
line carried down from the giants of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries to the foremost painters 
of our day is in every way remarkable. Pictorial 
art has taken such deep root in Dutch soil that the 
men of the present time may fairly claim to be the 


direct continuators, both in landscape and in genre, 
of their great forefathers, whose footsteps they cer- 
tainly follow in their earnest search after truth and 
honesty of design. With all due diffidence I venture 
to hold that among modern schools of painting the 
Dutch stands on a very high plane. We paid several 
pleasant visits to the studio of Josef Israels, then 
already turned seventy, but still brimful of life in 
that tiny frame of his — for, like his celebrated con- 
temporary " die Heine Excellenz" Menzel, of Berlin, 
he is one of the most diminutive of mortals. Sadly 
sombre though may be his conception of the poor 
and desolate, as expressed in the almost painful 
pathos of his presentments of hard, narrow or broken 
lives, the shrewd countenance of the great painter 
nevertheless has a bright, kindly look. Very interest- 
ing are the appliances he resorts to for the exact 
rendering of some of his favourite scenes ; part of 
his big studio being turned into a fac-simile of a 
room in one of the poor cottages he mostly chooses 
for the setting of his pictures, with its scanty furni- 
ture, and homely implements and utensils. Very 
different in appearance is his fellow-townsman of 
Groningen, Hendrik Mesdag, the celebrated marine 
painter. With his strong, burly build he looks made to 
stand on occasion the buffetings of the rough element 
he depicts so admirably. Half his day is spent on the 
sands at Scheveningen, watching the changing moods 
of the grey North Sea and the quaint ways of the fisher- 
folk, and the rest of it in his luxurious home in the 
Zeestraat where, with his artist wife, he has gathered 
together a splendid collection of French pictures of 
the Barbizon and other schools. M. Mesdag is or 
was President of the Pulchri Studio Society, the 
annual exhibitions of which are among the most 


interesting to be seen abroad, and take a very credit- 
able place even in the capital which contains the 
Mauritshuis, to my mind perhaps the most perfect 
picture gallery I know. But I must check myself 
lest these recollections should turn into an inferior 
Baedeker or Murray. 

Having, however, mentioned the Mauritshuis, I 
may go on to say that the building has, for an 
Englishman, a special interest besides its gruesomely 
splendid " School of Anatomy," its lovely Vermeer of 
Delft, the mighty bull of Paul Potter, and — at right 
angles with what I permit myself to think that rather 
overrated picture — the saddening presentment, by Van 
der Heist, of its great painter already visibly a dying 
man. At the Mauritshuis it was that Charles II. was 
lodged, and most sumptuously entertained by the 
States-General during the few days he passed at 
The Hague, when on his way to England in May 
1660. A banquet given to him there was com- 
memorated, together with other incidents of his 
sojourn, by the contemporary Dutch artist F. T. 
Vliet. 1 At an auction at The Hague I secured the 
original drawing for this banquet scene, in which 
the Royal group, seated above the salt, is historically 
of great interest. The restored monarch is at the 
head of the table, between his aunt, Elizabeth 
Queen of Bohemia, and his sister, the widowed 
Princess of Orange. To the King's left are his 
brothers of York and Gloucester, and to his right 
is a boy of ten, looking over his shoulder, who is no 
other than William Prince of Orange, and who imme- 
diately faces the uncle whose daughter he was to 
marry and whose throne he was to usurp. The 

1 There is a set of six or eight engravings, known to collecturs, which 
depict the principal incidents of the King's stay in Holland. 


departure of the Merry Monarch for the Kingdom 
to which he was recalled became a favourite theme 
for the painters of the day. The Dutch museums 
contain various pictures of more or less merit, de- 
picting his embarkation at Scheveningen, with a 
grand display of troops on the sands, the lumbering 
state coaches that brought him and his suite from 
the town, and, in the offing, the tall masts of 
Montagu's fleet. Changed though be the place 
since those days, there is not much difficulty in 
reconstructing the whole memorable scene. 

But in a space of at most a few acres there are at 
The Hague half-a-dozen spots, but little altered, that 
have witnessed remarkable, and in some instances 
terrible events. Leaving the Mauritshuis, and cross- 
ing the inner square of the Binnenhof, one passes the 
steps leading up to the old Hall of the Knights on 
which was erected the scaffold of the venerable Olden 
Barneveld, judicially murdered by Maurice of Orange. 
In the ancient chapel of the Counts of Holland hard 
by, the headless corpse of the Grand Pensionary was 
temporarily deposited, and here, too, were found at 
the close of the eighteenth century, the embalmed 
remains of a daughter of the Lamoral Egmont equally 
murdered judicially by Alva at Brussels. Not five 
hundred yards further, at the angle of the Kneuter- 
dyck, stood the Wassenaer house — now turned into 
the Ministry of Finance — where their High Mighti- 
nesses, 1 with characteristic munificence, during forty 
years, lodged and provided for all the, by no means 
modest, wants of the Queen of Hearts, after she had 
been driven from her one year's kingdom at Prague 
to seek an asylum in Holland. In this house were 
celebrated the nuptials of the valiant Frederick Henry 

1 The official style given to the Dutch States-General. 


and his Amalia von Solms, then attached to the Court 
of the refugee Queen. Here, too, bold Rupert of the 
Rhine used to stay when on his holidays from the 
University of Leyden, and within those walls may 
have been hatched the daring plot for the assassina- 
tion of Cromwell's Envoy, Dorislaus, with which the 
younger, wild, dissolute sons of poor Elizabeth were 
credited. On the Plaats, close by, on the site of 
Van der Pyl's much-frequented fashionable restaurant, 
there had stood the ancient hostelry of the Witte 
Zwaan, where, not six months after the execution 
of King Charles, in whose trial he had been deeply 
implicated, the Republican Envoy, when at supper 
with the other inmates of the inn, was surprised by 
a band of masked men, who, extinguishing the lights, 
fell upon him and cut him to pieces. 1 

1 I am tempted to subjoin an extract from a curious letter in The 
Hague Archives, written by a Royalist, signing himself G. Lane, and 
addressed to his namesake "at H.M. Court the King of Brightaigne at 
Brugge," and dated Hage the 9th of April 1658 : 

" Both the Dukes " [York and Gloucester] " are heere, they came on 
Tuesday night late, with the Earle of Norwich, Mr. Jermyne and Mr. 
— ; they were yesterday with there sister over all the faire and in the 
dancing of the Ropes, and to-day they are at Ryswyk at dinner, enter- 
tained by La and some other of our Dutch gentry, but Downing 

hath complained already of there being heere, he is a fearful! gentleman, 
and the next day after the Princess came to toone from Breda, he set two 
of his footmen to stand sentry the whole day : one on the top of the stairs 
before the doore, and the other below at the corner of the house at the 
end of the little streete over against prince Maurits his house, to watch 
the Bar* 1 gate in that Lane, but since that day (nor before) I never 8a w any, 
bee is now removed to a house that hee hath hired (or Mr. Harvy for him) 
at the end of the Caesemart [Cheese market] for 700 gs. [guilders] ye 
yeare, but hee would faine have put it of againe if hee could : and have taken 
a house in the forehoult [Voorhout], but I hope his next (with all the 
rest of his comrades) remove will be to the gallowes, where they may 
have that they soe justly feare and their due rewards,"' &C. &c. 

The "fearfull gentleman " trimmed his sails so well that at the Restora- 
tion he was confirmed in his appointment, and created a Baronet hy Charles 
II. Downing Street, built on land purchased hy the successful diplomatic 
trimmer, will carry his name down to the remotest generations. 


In the same Kneuterdijk, barely a stone's throw 
away, stand, divided by the narrow lane called Har- 
togstraatje, two old houses, of which one became in 
later days the abode of my first chief in diplomacy, 
Sir Ralph Abercromby, while in the other we were 
present at the wedding of the beautiful Mademoiselle 
Corry Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, daughter of 
one of the Queen's Dames du Palais — an important 
social event in The Hague world of our time. In 
the last quarter of the seventeenth century these 
two houses were respectively lived in by the Grand 
Pensionary John de Witt and his brother - in - law 
van Zwyndrecht. To the last-mentioned of the two 
houses was addressed on the morning of the 20th 
August 1672, a message to de Witt from his brother, 
Cornelius, who some time before had been arrested, 
and was confined in the prison of the Gevangenpoort 
close by, on a trumped-up accusation of complicity in 
a conspiracy to murder the young Stadtholder William 
III. Cornelius had been barbarously tortured in 
prison, ,but in vain, and finding they could extort 
nothing from him, his judges had sentenced him, on 
a charge they were unable to substantiate, to banish- 
ment for life from his native province of Holland. 
The innocent man wished, before submitting to an 
iniquitous sentence and going into exile, to have 
speech with his brother, and therefore sent him word 
to come to him. 1 De Witt happened to have gone 
over to his relative Zwyndrecht in the opposite house 
across the lane, and there the fatal message, which 
had been entrusted to a maid-servant of the gaoler 
of the Gevangenpoort, Van Bossi, was delivered to 

1 The generally received version of the incident is that the message 
was a trap devised to get hold of the Grand Pensionary. This, however, 
M. Lefevre Pontalis entirely disproves in his very line work entitled 
Jean de Witt. 


him. In the dead wall of the lane can still be seen 
the garden door through which the statesman uncon- 
sciously went to his doom. A few hours later both 
brothers were dragged out of the prison by a raging 
Orangist mob, and massacred, with every possible 
indignity, in the public square, in full view of the 
house where their aged father was then residing. 
By a curious chance one of these two houses — 
Zwyndrecht's I think — became the appropriate abode 
of John Lothrop Motley when he was American 
Minister at The Hague, and here, on the very spot 
that had witnessed some of the most dramatic occur- 
rences of Dutch history, he wrote the greater part of 
his admirable account of the rise and growth of the 

But I must go back from this historical digression 
to my somewhat disjointed narrative. In some rough 
notes I have by me, I find that the opening of 1890 
was marked at The Hague by one of the most severe 
visitations of the fiend influenza that I can remember. 
The Government departments were thrown entirely 
out of gear by it, and at the Legation not only were 
most of our servants laid up, but the only two mem- 
bers of the Chancery, Mr. Fenton, the First Secretary, 
and Mr. Conyngham Greene, 1 were both confined to 
their houses for several weeks. I had just lost the 
services as Honorary Attache of my eldest son, who, 
having obtained a nomination for the forthcoming 
competitive diplomatic examination, had gone to 
England to prepare for it, so that I was actually re- 
duced to asking my wife to copy my despatches for 
me. Conyngham Greene served with me for nearly 

1 Sir William Conyngham Greene, K.C.B., is now H.M. Envoy at 


two years, and acquired a knowledge of the Dutch 
and their language that was to be very useful to him 
later on. More than a passing mention is due to him, 
as well as to his wife, Lady Lily, full of bright Irish 
humour, and happily blest with a fund of spirits 
which must have been a godsend to her and her 
husband during the trying period preceding the out- 
break of the South African war, when, as our Agent 
at Pretoria, he well earned the K.C.B. afterwards 
conferred upon him. 

The Slave Trade Conference then sitting at 
Brussels gave us an unusual amount of work through- 
out this year at The Hague ; thanks to the deter- 
mined opposition made by the Dutch Government to 
the proposal, accepted by the other Powers, that the 
newly created Independent Congo State should be 
authorised to levy certain import duties for fiscal 
purposes. This tiresome business took me twice to 
Brussels, where I stayed at the Legation with Creppy 
Vivian, 1 an old Foreign Office friend of mine, and 
made the acquaintance of Baron de Lambermont, 
Secretaire-General at the Belgian Foreign Office, who 
was presiding over the Conference with great skill 
and tact. I had several important interviews with 
him which impressed me with a sense of his excep- 
tional abilities. During one of these flying visits to 
Brussels, I renewed acquaintance with the Dowager 
Princesse de Ligne, ne'e Princesse Lubomirska, whom 
I had known in my youth in France — a delightful old 
lady whose salon at the Hotel de Ligne in the Rue 
Royale was open to her friends every evening, and 
who up till the last preserved the peculiar charm and 
seductive manner that so distinguish Polish women of 

1 The 3rd Lord Vivian, afterwards Ambassador at Rome, where he 
died a very few years afterwards. 


her class, and have not a little contributed to keep 
alive the interest felt in the wrongs and misfortunes 
of Poland. The Princesse de Ligne came to The 
Hague a year or two afterwards and dined with us, 
I remember. She was then well on her way to 
eighty, but still the prettiest of old ladies, and almost 
a Ninon de Lenclos in her quick intelligence and 
active ways. 

Meanwhile a great surprise was in store for the 
heads of Missions accredited to the Court of the 
Netherlands, in the quite unexpected invitation to 
a State Banquet at the Castle of the Loo, for the 
19th February, on the occasion of the King's seventy- 
third birthday. From time to time one had heard of 
the improvement which had taken place in the Royal 
invalid's condition since his wonderful recovery nearly 
a twelvemonth before. The Royal invitation none the 
less came as a surprise. The only drawback to it was 
the railway journey of two hours and a half in full 
uniform, to xApeldoorn, which is fifty-five miles from 
The Hague. A special train, however, took us there, 
together with the Cabinet Ministers, the Dames du 
Palais and other Court dignitaries, Royal carriages 
meeting us at the station. We had been given to 
understand that it was uncertain whether the King 
would be able to go through the fatigue of seeing any 
of us. We were, therefore, scarcely prepared to hear, 
on our arrival, that it was H.M.'s intention to receive 
the Belgian Minister, Baron d'Anethan, as Doyen of the 
Diplomatic Corps, and then those Ministers who, like 
myself, had been prevented by the King's prolonged 
illness from delivering their credentials to him in 

On entering the audience chamber, I found the 


King seated in a big arm-chair, and wearing the 
undress uniform of an AdmiraL I was familiar with 
his features from the portraits I had seen of him, and 
found him looking far better than I expected, though 
somewhat pale and worn, while the exceptionally 
strong voice for which, like the first Duke of Cam- 
bridge, he was well known, remained quite unim- 
paired. I have kept a vivid recollection of this 
audience. Nothing could be more gracious than the 
King's reception of me. He spoke in excellent 
English of the Queen, for whom he professed the 
greatest regard, and referred to his constant friend- 
ship for England and the many " members of our 
aristocracy " whom he had known and liked, inquir- 
ing after several of them by name. He dwelt, too, 
on the ties " that bound together the two greatest 
seafaring nations of the earth," and, during the ten 
minutes' interview he granted me, clearly laid himself 
out to show me special kindness and cordiality. After 
dismissing me he received the Austro - Hungarian 
and United States Ministers, and one or two Charges 
cV Affaires. 

Queen Emma in the meantime had been holding 
a cercle, in a long gallery adjoining, with Princess 
Wilhelmina, then a little girl not ten years old, in a 
short frock with her hair down her back. I joined 
the cercle after my audience of the King, and, as 
I stood waiting there for the Queen to address me in 
my turn, could distinctly hear the King speaking in 
loud tones to my colleagues or his own Ministers. 
The sounds, however, soon came to an end, and 
almost immediately a gentleman of the Royal house- 
hold approached the Queen with a message ; the little 
Princess thereupon leaving her mother and going to 
the upper end of the gallery where two doors, one of 


which led into the presence chamber, faced each 
other. In a minute or two she reappeared walking 
hand-in-hand with the King, who passed straight 
across the gallery into his private apartments beyond. 
It was an interesting and memorable sight, and there 
was a touching contrast between the slender figure of 
the child-princess, and the tall, big frame of her father, 
side by side with, and towering over, her. The King 
walked quite briskly, but with a slight halt in his gait, 
and held himself singularly erect, though, in doing so, 
it was evident that he was pulling himself together. 
His exit was wonderfully dignified, and proved to be 
final, for having once passed the door, he was never 
beheld again by any of those who watched the scene, 
except by a few of his more immediate attendants. 
Altogether, he went through the ordeal, which he con- 
fessed to one of his intimates had been most trying to 
him, with extraordinary pluck. He had not put on 
a uniform, nor seen any one beyond the persons of 
his household, for upwards of eighteen months. A 
curious circumstance of this his last birthday was that, 
among its honours (to which he always personally 
attached much importance), he conferred the Grand 
Cross of the Lion of the Netherlands on Prince 
Henry of Prussia and on President Kriiger. 

After this supreme effort, there were constant 
alternations in the Sovereign's condition, though, in 
August, he was sufficiently well to see his brother-in- 
law, the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar, who, with his 
daughter the Duchess John Albert of Mecklenburg, 
paid a visit to the Loo after the Scheveningen bathing 
season. At last, early in October, there came a 
sudden change for the worse, and the States-General 
had to be called together again in plenary session to 
provide for the due exercise of the Koyal powers. 



Affairs in fact took exactly the same course they 
had followed a twelvemonth before, with this 
difference, that Queen Emma, knowing the King's 
wishes, now consented to assume the Regency, and 
accordingly, on the 20th November, took the oaths 
before both Houses of the States-General assembled 
in joint session. The Queen proceeded to the Binnen- 
hof in semi-state, and throughout the solemn, and to 
her necessarily painful, function, bore herself with 
admirable composure and dignity. Three days later 
the King passed quietly away, having been quite 
unconscious for some time before. 

The Royal obsequies were celebrated with great 
solemnity, the ceremonies in connection with them 
being of a very impressive character. On Monday, 
the 1st of December, the King's remains were con- 
veyed to The Hague from the Loo in a train that 
passed through Amersfoort, Utrecht, and Gouda. At 
all the stations, and along the whole line, great 
crowds were assembled to watch for its passage, and 
at the principal towns, where the train drew up and 
was received with full honours by the civil and 
military authorities, the entire population was afoot. 
Thus, steaming slowly through a short December 
day, along the flat Dutch country, to the tolling of 
bells from village churches half shrouded by the 
winter mists, past ancient cities whose records are 
wrapped up with those of the dynasty, the Royal 
funeral train finally reached the capital late in the 

The procession which was formed from the Railway 
Station to the Palace was wonderfully striking. I 
saw it from the windows of the German Legation 
on the Vijverberg. It took fully an hour to reach 
the Palace in the Noordeinde, so that by the time 


it came along the line of the Vijverberg, facing 
the splendid old Binnenhof across the water, with 
its picturesque buildings and countless historical asso- 
ciations, the winter light was fast fading away, and 
the passage of the great Royal hearse, surrounded 
by all the high officers of State, took place by 
torchlight, leaving an impression not readily to be 
forgotten. The last direct male representative of 
William the Silent could not have been brought 
back in more solemn and fitting guise from the 
secluded seat in Gelderland where he breathed his 

Then came the lying-in-state in a large room 
on the ground floor of the Palace ; the throngs of 
people of every class, all in deep mourning, that 
filed past the catafalque surrounded by the King's 
aides-de-camp and the grenadiers of the guard, being 
such as had never before collected in the quiet 
Dutch capital. The King was buried at Delft in 
the Royal vault — in the so-called New Church built 
at the end of the fourteenth century — close by the 
fine monument to the Silent One who was murdered 
in the Prinsenhof a few hundred yards away. From 
the house of the antiquaire Teunissen in the 
Noordeinde, we saw the great funeral procession 
leave the Palace. It was of imposing proportions ; 
and its extreme length, with the narrow streets and 
roads along which it had to pass, unfortunately so 
impeded its progress that it took upwards of four 
hours to reach its destination, barely six miles 
distant. One of the Court carriages, with the foreign 
princes attending the funeral, contained the Grand 
Duke Alexis of Russia, the Comte de Flandre and 
Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar— the latter repre- 
senting our Queen — who were all unusually tall, big 


men, and to them the drive may well have appeared 
endless. After the procession had started, my coach- 
man drove me round by devious ways, with Conyng- 
ham Greene and George Jolliffe, 1 to the Delft road, 
thus easily outstripping the sombre cortege. In true 
Dutch fashion, the avenue to Delft hugs a canal the 
whole way, and the banks of this were lined by dense 
masses of people, who occupied every point of vantage, 
from the bridges to the barges on the canal and the 
platforms half way up the quaint, giant windmills. 
The scene in the great, bare, whitewashed church, 
where we waited some three hours in the cold, was 
unquestionably striking, but to me the very short 
ceremony seemed bald and unsatisfactory, no religious 
character attending it beyond a sort of funeral oration 
by the Court chaplain. Not a single prayer was said, 
and not even a blessing pronounced over the coffin. 
The whole function unmistakably bore the stamp of 
the sternest Calvinism. Its only emotional feature was 
the ancient melody of " Wilelmus van Nassouwen" 
which was finely played on the organ with minor 
chords as the coffin was lowered into the vault. This 
beautiful archaic tune dates from William the Silent, 
and is said to have put heart into the hard-pressed 
citizens of some besieged town during the great 
struggle against Spain when the strains of it reached 
them from the vessels that were bringing them succour. 
I was reminded of Kadetzky's funeral at Vienna, 2 
when the splendid bands, as they filed past, played 
the dare-devil Radetzky march in the same way as a 
dirge in a minor key. 

In accordance with a custom which is traditional 

1 Now the 3rd Lord Hylton, who left The Hague all too soon, and, 
a few years later, retired from the Diplomatic Service. 

2 " Recollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. pp. 262-64. 


at the Dutch Court, the ceremonies concluded with 
a great banquet, given the same evening in honour 
of the numerous Foreign Princes and the other 
Foreign Representatives who had attended the 
funeral ; the Grand Duchess of Saxe- Weimar, the 
late King's sister, presiding at it on behalf of the 
Queen Regent. 

The death of King William made a profound 
impression all over the Kingdom, although he had 
during the space of more than two years been with- 
drawn by ill-health from the public gaze. The atti- 
tude of the Dutch people had throughout been 
exemplary. Devoted to the House of Orange, they 
had sadly watched the decay of its last King, con- 
doning, as it were, his foibles — those of Henri IV., 
of Charles II., and other popular monarchs — in their 
recollection of his sturdy patriotism, of his love for 
the country and of his conscientious discharge of 
his kingly duties. It now became the earnest prayer 
of all but a small fraction of ultra Democrats and 
Socialists, that the youthful Queen might be pre- 
served to her people, and . attain marriageable age, the 
tender years and grace of the new Sovereign appealing 
with irresistible force to the loyalty and to the best 
instincts of the nation. 



By the death of King William III. the personal 
union under one Sovereign between the Grand Duchy 
of Luxemburg and the Kingdom of the Netherlands 
had come to an end ; the Duke of Nassau, as head of 
the senior, or Walram, line of that illustrious House, 
succeeding to the throne of Luxemburg in virtue of an 
old compact between the two branches of the family. 

When dispossessed of his old hereditary dominions 
by the events of 1866 the Duke had retired to Vienna, 
which he had made his chief home, and where he 
built, in what is known as the Ambassadors' quarter, 
a fine house which was afterwards purchased by the 
Russian Government for the use of their Embassy. At 
his advanced age — he was then in his seventy-fourth 
year — it seemed almost hard upon the Duke to have 
to leave Austria — where he was held in the highest 
esteem by the Emperor and was universally popular — 
in order to make a fresh departure in the government 
of what was practically to him a strange country. 
The exercise of power and authority has undeniable 
attractions, but in the case of the Grand Duke Adolf 
it was principally a high sense of duty towards his 
new subjects that influenced a decision which neither 
he nor they have since had any cause to regret. No 
European ruler is more respected and beloved than is 
their venerable Grand Duke by the inhabitants of the 
smiling, rose-growing land of Luxemburg. 

It was my good fortune to be specially accredited 


to this kindly Sovereign when the political severance 
between the Kingdom and the Grand Duchy took 
place, having before been Envoy to the late King 
William in his capacity as Grand Duke. In June 
1 89 1 I went to Luxemburg to present my letters. 
The traveller who enters the country for the first 
time as I did from Belgium — that being the nearest 
approach to it from The Hague — might easily imagine 
that he is crossing the German frontier, the Customs 
line being that of the German Zollverein, and the 
Luxemburg railroads forming part of the German 
Kail way system. None the less, though to outward 
appearance folded in the German embrace, the small 
country is very tenacious of its idiosyncrasy among 
autonomous States. There are a few German and 
French sympathisers in the Grand Duchy, but the 
Luxemburgers rightly prize their neutrality, as guaran- 
teed to them by the Treaty of London of 1867, and 
still more the accompanying advantages it brings to 
them of exemption from all military burdens. They 
had indeed already enjoyed full administrative free- 
dom under their Dutch ruler; — the Netherlands 
Government scrupulously avoiding even the appear- 
ance of any interference in the internal concerns of 
the Grand Duchy — but they were now for the first 
time in their history invested with complete national 
independence under a Prince of their own, and were 
thoroughly resolved not to sacrifice their privileged 
position to any neighbour, however powerful. 

These were indeed halcyon days for the peaceful 
little city, which, not a quarter of a century before, 
had still been the most formidable of fortresses — a 
sort of inland Gibraltar — and, as such, gave rise to a 
t^rave European crisis which well-nigh antedated by 
three years the great Franco-German conflict. Even 


in unfavourable June weather the small town — raised 
on its rocky platform, and surrounded by deep pre- 
cipitous ravines, with only just a few remaining 
fragments of the fortifications, such as part of the 
picturesque old Spanish towers, left to adorn it and 
recall its martial history — had an engaging well-to- 
do aspect. I was fetched for my audience with the 
Grand Duke from the then somewhat mean and 
primitive (since greatly improved) Hotel Brasseur by 
an extremely well-turned-out Royal carriage, and in 
the evening was asked to dinner at the Chateau de 
Walferdange, which is about half-an-hour from the 
town, and was the Grand Ducal residence for the 
time being. The Royal household was admirably 
organised in all respects, as indeed it had been in 
the old days at Wiesbaden, where I could remember 
going over from Frankfort to the prettiest of balls 
with my chief Sir Alexander Malet. Towards the 
end of a very soigne dinner, the Grand Duke's own 
particular Steinberg Cabinet was handed round, and, 
turning to me, H.R.H. pledged me in it in the kindest 
of terms as the representative of " la jmissance la 
plus amie," adding in a sort of aside : " Ce vin est 
tout ce qu'on w!a laisse ! " 

I went to Luxemburg again six weeks later for 
the celebration of the Grand Duke's birthday on the 
24th of July. My wife was with me this time, and 
several of our Hague colleagues who, like myself, were 
accredited to the Grand Ducal Court. The Walters- 
kirchens, the Spinolas, the Nuncio, Mgr. Rinaldini, 
and the Spanish Minister, Villa Urrutia, all travelled 
with us, and the journey became a diplomatic outing 
which was repeated nearly each year during our stay 
at The Hague, and was one of the most enjoyable 
interludes of the summer season. There were great 
festivities on this occasion in honour of the accession, 


and the Grand Duke and Grand Duchess, together 
with the Hereditary Grand Duke and his sister the 
charming Hereditary Grand Duchess Hilda of Baden, 
made a State entry into the Luxemburg capital. This 
joyeuse entree, as it was called, was an extremely pretty 
sight. One of its most pleasing features was a guard 
of honour composed of young landowners, uncom- 
monly well mounted, and wearing a neat hunting dress 
in the Anhalt colours, out of compliment to the 
Grand Duchess — a Princess of that House who still 
preserved great traces of beauty. These gentlemen 
escorted the Royal carriages, which were admirably 
appointed in every respect ; the general effect of the 
small cortege as it passed through the gaily decorated 
town being remarkably smart. In lieu of troops, the 
streets were lined by some two hundred associations 
from all parts of the country, composed of fire- 
men, workmen's unions, gymnastic, choral and other 
societies, who all marched past the Palace by torch- 
light in the evening. 

There was a Te Deum in the old Gothic Cathedral 
of Notre Dame, where, almost hidden away in a dark 
corner, is the quite plain tomb of the blind King John 
of Bohemia — of the House of Luxemburg — killed when 
charging at Crdcy. His remains, however, no longer lie 
beneath it, having loug since been removed elsewhere. 1 

1 The strangest vicissitudes attended the remains of the grand old 
fighter whose crest and motto are borne by our Princes of Wales. He 
was first buried in the Abbey of Valloire, but was afterwards moved no 
less than five times — the coffin being twice saved from the flames which at 
two different periods destroyed the Abbey of Miinster. At the French 
Revolution, when the Luxemburg Franciscan Monks — in whose custody it 
then was — were expelled, a baker of the town rescued and preserved the 
coffin, and it came later into the possession of a rich manufacturer, who 
placed it in his collection of curios. Here it was seen and purchased in 1838 
by Frederick William IV. of Prussia, and was finally interred by him at 
Ca8tell on the Saar under a monument — the fourth erected to this heroic 
son of the Emperor Henry VII., and father of the Emperor Charles IV. 


After this function came an official luncheon given 
to the Diplomatic Corps and the principal authorities 
by the Ministre d'JEtat, M. Eyschen, an able ad- 
ministrator well fitted to play a leading part in a 
much more important country than that to which 
he devotes his services. The only drawback to this 
entertainment was its lasting so long that one barely 
had time after it to get ready for the Grand Ducal 
State banquet at Walferdange. 

In the course of our yearly visits we came to 
know the Luxemburg Royalties and their suite so 
well — the charming wife of the heir to the throne, a 
Princess of Braganza, and sister of the Archduchess, 
Marie Therese of Austria, being soon added to the 
Royal circle — that the birthday celebration which took 
us to the Grand Duchy became a date we looked 
forward to with no little pleasure. No Court of its 
size is on a better footing or more perfectly organised 
than this, the ample private income of the Grand Duke 
enabling him to live en tres grand seigneur. He is a 
thorough sportsman, a capital shot, and an experi- 
enced whip. His stables are full of first-class horses, 
and his teams of thoroughbred Hungarian juckers do 
great credit to his master of the horse, Count WolfT- 
Metternich, who is the best type of an Austrian 
cavalry officer. After dinner, in the summer even- 
ings at Walferdange, the Grand Duke himself would 
take us for a drive in a light break, tooling his team 
over the hilly roads with much skill and judgment 
notwithstanding his somewhat failing sight. Varied 
by excursions to Diekirch and the splendid ruins of 
the castle of Vianden, or across the border to Trier 
or Liege, these summer diplomatic holidays were 
among the most pleasant I can look back to, and 
in writing of them here I rejoice to think that the 


doyen by age of European sovereigns, the Grand 
Duke who showed us so much kindness, and from 
whom I took my final leave in 1896, is still in the 
enjoyment of excellent health, and more firmly than 
ever established in the affections of his subjects. A 
model Court of its kind is that of Luxemburg, with 
its gracious Royal Mistress, and her amiable Grande 
Maitresse, Baronne de Preen, and her strikingly pretty 
lady-in-waiting, Baronne Apor. 

Meanwhile the mourning for the late King put 
an almost entire stop to social life at The Hague. 
Even in private society mourning is more rigidly 
observed in Holland than in any other country I 
know. A widow for instance must not drive in an 
open carriage, and for two years after her bereave- 
ment she may pay no visits. When that period has 
elapsed, her cards are left on her friends by her nearest 
male relative, after which she may in a measure re- 
sume her old life, though at the risk perhaps of being 
thought somewhat worldly if she does so. These out- 
ward tokens of reverence for the dead — very different 
from our own practice, which tends more and more to 
diminish and shorten the observance of mourning — 
are a characteristic feature in Dutch life, and somehow 
seem to accord with all too often leaden-hued skies, 
and gloomy and severe — however earnest — forms of 
religious worship. They are, too, a part of the con- 
servative attachment of the Netherlander to ancient 
customs and traditions. The aanbidder, in funereal 
garb of knee-breeches, white stockings, and high 
white neckcloth, who passes from door to door with 
black-edged announcements of the decease of some 
local worthy, and the big Dutch hearse with its driver 
and attendant mutes in long cloaks and wide-brimmed 


seventeenth-century hats, are relics of the bygone age 
so vividly personified in the " pot-boilers " by Govaert 
Flinck or Backer — not to speak of Franz Hals and 
others — those splendid "Regenten" pieces, with the 
speaking groups of earnest, rather tiresome-looking, 
civic dignitaries, that people the walls of every Dutch 

The Court mourning made it impossible for me to 
present my new credentials to Queen Emma until the 
end of March, when, on my return from a short stay in 
England, I was able to deliver the specially affectionate 
messages with which the Queen, during a visit I 
had made by command to Windsor, had charged me 
for the widowed Regent. The earliest break that 
occurred in the strict seclusion of the Court was at the 
end of May, when Queen Emma took her daughter 
with her to Amsterdam and Rotterdam for the laying 
of the first stone of a hospital at the former, and of a 
new quay at the latter place. These public functions, 
although performed as quietly as possible, necessarily 
partook of a popular character, and, for the first time, 
brought the youthful Sovereign into touch with large 
numbers of the citizens of these great commercial 
centres, by whom she and the Queen Regent were 
enthusiastically welcomed, the little Queen, by her 
vivacity and intelligence, making an excellent im- 
pression upon all those who approached her. 

No task, even though in this case it was a labour 
of love, could have been undertaken and carried to 
an end with greater personal solicitude than that to 
which the Queen Regent devoted herself of preparing 
the young Queen for her regal duties. From the 
first she gave herself up to it with complete self- 
abnegation. She made it a point, when possible, to 
assist at her daughter's lessons, scarcely let her out 


of her sight, and shared the same bed-room with her 
until, at eighteen, Queen Wilhelmina attained her legal 
majority, and assumed the reins of government. The 
young Queen was most carefully educated ; and equal 
pains were taken to develop her physically no less than 
intellectually. She soon took to riding and driving and 
other out-of-door exercises, was devoted to her dogs 
and horses, and grew up fresh and blooming and the 
very picture of health, with a strong will of her own 
and a fitting sense of her exalted rank and of the high 
destiny in store for her. When still quite a young girl 
she used to have small children's parties at the Palace 
at The Hague, to which among others the younger 
members of the diplomatic families were bidden. The 
invitation in our case, addressed to my wife, ran quaintly 
as follows : Par ordre de la Reine Regente, Mile, van 
de Poll prie Lady Rumbold de permettre a son jils 
Hugo de venir jouer avec Sa Majeste la Reine. 
According to the accounts brought us by the boy 
thus privileged to be one of her playmates, the little 
Queen, while the most gracious of hostesses, could be 
the greatest of romps. 

Certainly Queen Wilhelmina's childhood and first 
youth were wisely guarded and must have been 
truly happy in every respect. It is a curious and 
interesting circumstance that the tender years of 
the rulers of the two nations which, three centuries 
before, were locked in deadly struggle, should now, 
in our own times, have been left to the guidance of 
two such devoted and remarkable women as Queen 
Christina of Spain and Queen Emma of the Nether- 
lands. The Dutch people owe Queen Emma a deep 
debt of gratitude, and it is satisfactory to know that 
her Majesty's popularity and the regard in which she 
is held have gone on increasing year by year. 


But the seclusion of the Dutch Court was soon to 
be broken into by a Royal visit of no ordinary import- 
ance. In the course of the spring the German Em- 
peror privately notified his wish to pay his respects to 
the two Queens when on his way to England in July. 
Nothing could be more cordial and complimentary than 
the proposal, and, having regard to the general char- 
acter of the relations between the two countries, it was 
not without significance. There was no denying that 
a certain degree of distrust and apprehension of the 
great German neighbour had grown up in Holland ever 
since the victorious issue of the contest with France 
had made Germany the paramount military Power in 
Europe. At Berlin no pains had been spared to 
attenuate these impressions, and it was a singular 
fact that the improvement which had more recently 
shown itself in the intercourse between the two 
Governments coincided with the appointment some 
years before of the Iron Chancellor's son, Count 
Herbert Bismarck, to the mission at The Hague. 
Several causes of friction had then been removed by 
the adjustment of pending questions like those of 
the salmon fisheries in the Rhine, and the surtaxes 
levied on Dutch vessels engaged in the German 
coasting trade. 

The arrangements for the Emperor William's visit, 
which was fixed for the ist of July, were minutely 
gone into some weeks before. H.I.M. had announced 
his intention of coming by sea with the Empress 
to Ymuiden with a powerful naval escort, and 
wished to pass up the North Sea Canal to Amster- 
dam in his yacht the Hohenzollern. The measure- 
ments at first sent from Berlin of this large vessel 
unfortunately proved to be erroneous, it being finally 
only just discovered in time that she could barely 


scrape through the locks. It was therefore settled 
that Their Majesties should transfer themselves for 
the canal passage to the smaller yacht the Jagd, 
which could be sent inside the lock. The Imperial 
party had to land and walk about 150 yards through 
a tent which had to be put up and decorated in 
a hurry. This, and the very large suite brought 
with him by the Emperor, which somewhat taxed the 
resources of the Dutch Court — especially as regards the 
stable department — at a time when, owing to the long 
illness of the King and the change of reign, that Court 
was in some degree disorganised — were the only, very 
slight, difficulties that attended an otherwise most 
successful and memorable visit. It was favoured by 
glorious weather, during which the aspect of one of 
the most picturesque of cities and the demeanour of 
its inhabitants could not fail to make a deep impression 
upon all who witnessed them. 

Our friends the Laboucheres asked us to stay with 
them for the occasion, and, with a number of our 
colleagues and other people from The Hague, we saw 
the entry of the Imperial and Royal party from the 
windows of a restaurant at the corner of the great 
square on which stands the Royal Palace. An uneasy 
impression had got abroad, and was shared, it was 
said, by the Emperor himself, that although the 
reception given to him would be such as befitted 
the occasion, and would be in keeping with the 
traditions of an essentially decorous and hospitable 
people, it might, under the influence of the latent 
distrust I have referred to above, be wanting in cor- 
diality. When, however, the Emperor was driven 
in state across the Dam to the Palace, with the little 
Queen by his side, there was a spontaneous outburst 
of enthusiasm from the surging crowd that filled the 


square and the adjoining quays which plainly showed 
that all cautious reserve had been thrown aside, and 
the Amsterdammers were bent on giving the best of 
greetings to their Imperial visitors. It was in fact 
a triumphant welcome which gained in intensity as 
certain graceful acts on the part of the Emperor were 
noticed and bruited about, such as, during a tattoo 
of the massed military bands on the Palace Square, 
his remaining at the salute all through the perform- 
ance of the Wilelmus National Anthem ; his going 
on foot to the Nieuwe Kerk to deposit a wreath on 
the tomb of De Ruyter ; and his laying special 
stress on his descent from Frederick Henry of 
Orange through the marriage of that national hero's 
daughter with the Great Elector. 

There was a great Court dinner at the Palace, 
to which all the heads of the Foreign Missions were 
asked. This gave me the only opportunity I ever 
had of meeting the ruler who looms so large on 
the world's stage, and is perhaps the most interest- 
ing of living personalities. The Emperor was in a 
very gracious mood, and when I was presented to 
him, as we all were, in the cercle after dinner, by the 
Queen Regent herself, spoke warmly of the pleasure 
with which he looked forward to his visit to Eng- 
land. To the distinguished Dutch Admiral Casem- 
broot, who had been attached to his person and 
addressed him in French, he at once replied in 
Flnglish, observing that he was a British Admiral 
and that English was the proper language for sea- 
men. On comparing notes afterwards with my col- 
leagues I found that the Emperor had, in each case, 
said to them what was most appropriate and most 
gratifying. Of the French Minister he inquired par- 
ticularly after " His Excellency the President of the 


Republic," eulogising the activity he showed in his 
tours in all parts of France, and little foreseeing 
that in the course of one of them M. Carnot 
was destined to be assassinated. To the Papal 
Internuncio he expressed admiration of the last 
Encyclical, being, he added, greatly pleased to find 
himself at one with His Holiness on " the social 
question," and, passing to the Italian Envoy, he 
spoke in highly cordial terms of the great promise 
shown by the young Prince of Naples, whom he had 
recently met for the first time. All through this 
function — which is in some degree a touchstone for 
all Princes — he showed unusual tact and aptness, and 
fully vindicated his reputation of being, when he 
chose, singularly captivating. 

The Imperial visit was in every way a success. 
It was appropriately terminated by a magnificent 
display of fireworks on the basin of the Y, which we 
saw from a private steamer engaged by the Labou- 
cheres, and our enjoyment of the striking scene 
would have been perfect had not the stillness of 
the hot summer night been torn by the deafening 
screams from the sirens of the steamboats plying to 
and fro with their cargoes of sightseers. Politically 
too, the visit was decidedly beneficial to the rela- 
tions between the two countries, and proved the 
starting-point for the many attentions subsequently 
shown by the Emperor to the girl-Queen towards 
whom his attitude has since remained one of chival- 
rous solicitude. 

In the autumn of this same year the Dutch Court 
had another interesting visitor in the person of the 
Prince of Naples. The Prince stayed a few days at 
The Hague, where I met him several times and was 
greatly struck by his quickness and intelligence, and, 



for so young a man, his remarkable information on 
a variety of subjects. At that period he seemed very 
well disposed towards England, and certainly did me 
the honour of singling me out at a party at the Italian 
Legation and conversing with me most of the evening, 
somewhat to the exclusion of the other Foreign Repre- 
sentatives. We ourselves had a big reception in his 
honour, to which he kindly came after a fatiguing day 
of sight-seeing, including a luncheon party at the Loo, 
where a somewhat ludicrous incident had occurred. On 
the Queen Regent proposing H.R.H.'s health, the band 
struck up what its conductor evidently imagined to be 
the Italian National Anthem, but was simply that well- 
known old Neapolitan ditty " Santa Lucia," played in 
very slow, dirge-like time, to the, with some difficulty 
suppressed, amusement of the young Prince and his 
suite, among whom was a very old Turin acquaintance of 
mine, General Count Morra di Lavriano, who has since 
till recently been Ambassador at St. Petersburg. 

I have said nothing thus far of the great summer 
resort of Scheveningen, which is perhaps too well 
known to require description. We found it a rela- 
tively primitive place, but it altered much and 
greatly improved in the course of the eight years 
we spent at The Hague. On the really fine summer 
evenings, which, with the changeable Dutch climate, 
can almost be counted, it offered an animated scene, 
always making allowance for the dreary stretch of 
beach, thickly covered with great hooded wicker 
chairs, and the still drearier outline of dunes that 
framed in a highly respectable, but by no means 
brilliant crowd, mostly drawn from the well-to-do 
German and Dutch burgher class. Our own people 
do not affect Scheveningen, and except the late Lady 


Jersey, Lady Headfort, and Lady Edward Cavendish 
with one of her sons, I scarcely remember any English 
of note making a lengthened stay there. With 
Vienna society on the other hand Scheveningen is 
decidedly in favour, and there was generally a coterie 
of genial Austrians and Hungarians whom I had 
known before and was ere long to meet again. The 
late pompous old Grand Duke of Saxe- Weimar — 
whom his brother-in-law, King William, could not, 
it was said, abide — was a regular visitor every year, 
and the Princess of Wied, who was the daughter of 
Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, and almost the 
last of the House of Orange, came there pretty often, 
as did one of the very nicest but shyest of Royal ladies, 
the Hereditary Grand Duchess Hilda of Baden. 

Unfortunately the cost of living at Scheveningen, 
as indeed all over Holland, is decidedly high, and 
the hotels some ten years ago were big and expensive 
caravansaries affording but small comfort. The Cur- 
haus itself, rebuilt, shortly before we arrived, on the 
site of a former one destroyed by fire, is, however, 
a fine building which redeemed its character as an 
hotel by its great Cursaal where the magnificent 
Philharmonic orchestra from Berlin gave the most 
interesting symphony concerts. The pretty woods 
that extend behind the desolate dunes to the gates 
of The Hague and, in particular, the ancient avenue 
known as the Oude Weg, shaded by splendid trees 
planted some two hundred and fifty years ago, are 
attractive features which no other seaside resort can 
boast of. 

But it is only those who have known Scheveningen 
in severe winter weather who can realise how seriously 
exposed, were it not for the protection of its huge 
desolate ramparts of sand, would be the pretty woods, 


and even the streets of the capital beyond them, to 
incursions from the ocean which lies barely three 
miles away. The level of The Hague happens in 
fact to be considerably lower than that of the shore- 
line ; and close to the Plein, in the heart of the 
town, there stood, not long ago, a stone marking the 
furthermost point reached by the flood that came 
pouring down the Oude Weg, through a gap in the 
dykes, in an exceptionally violent tempest in 1609. 
The water, it is chronicled, stood several feet high 
in some of the streets, and fish were caught in the 
low-lying quarters. I well remember our going down 
to Scheveningen one Sunday morning in February 
1889, to look after the wants of the crew of a British 
three-master which was driven ashore at daybreak 
in a heavy gale from the north-east which lasted 
fully a week. The hands, twenty-two in number, 
had been all taken off by the plucky life-boatmen 
of the village and were lodged at the Curhaus. No- 
where, even on our own storm - swept coasts, have 
I seen a more raging sea, or been better able to 
gauge the force of wind than on this and other 
occasions at Scheveningen. A still more severe 
gale caught the fleet of picturesque pinken, 1 while 
snugly laid up for the winter on the sands, the 
waves banging them about and driving them further 
up the shore, where they remained wrecked and 
disabled for weeks afterwards, to the great misery 
and impoverishment of the poor fisher-folk. 

All Holland on skates, too, is an experience little 
known to the bulk of English visitors to that country. 
From one extremity of the kingdom to the other, 
every stream and canal is covered with skaters of 
all classes, swinging freely, with the Dutch roll, on 

1 The name given to the Scheveningen fishing-boats. 


immensely long skates, turned up at the end, and 
frequently only loosely tied on with a mere piece 
of string. Across the snow-bound flat endless moving 
lines of them can be seen as far as the eye can reach 
in the low winter light. Half the marketing between 
town and country is done by them with hand-propelled 
sledges, and in the well-to-do classes the younger 
folk make expeditions to distant places, such as 
Amsterdam or Utrecht and back, the party on these 
occasions keeping in single file, and leaning, as they 
make their swinging, rhythmic stroke, on a long stout 
pole held at each end by the two strongest and safest 
skaters amongst them. 

We had one or two very hard winters during 
our stay in Holland, exceptionally severe being that 
of 1894-95. For several weeks there was excellent 
skating in the private grounds at Oosterbeek and 
Clingendaal, where the Tuylls and Brienens kept 
the ice on their ponds in perfect condition. But 
by far the most interesting expedition we made 
was to Dordrecht, where the great river Maas was 
completely frozen over, a thing which had not hap- 
pened for a great many years, though in the days 
of the old Dutch painters these Arctic seasons must 
have been of pretty frequent occurrence, to judge 
by the winter scenes that were such favourite sub- 
jects with Van Goyen, Molenaar, and others. The 
wide expanse of snow and ice was studded with booths 
where food and drink were for sale, and thronged 
with merry skaters of all ages : burghers with their 
wives and families, girls and children in bright 
peasant garb, and, passing through and scattering 
the crowd, sleighs with bells and jingling harness, 
the grey mass of the Dordrecht minster looming in 
the background through the winter mist. It was a 


perfect embodiment of one of those old pictures, 
and, skating through this kermesse on the ice, one 
could easily fancy oneself back in the days when 
Dort and its fateful Synod engrossed the attention 
of the Protestant world. There is in truth a curi- 
ously unbroken continuity in these popular Dutch 
scenes, and the land of the Mynheers remains in 
not a few respects unchanged. On this skating trip 
we took with us, besides the sons we had at home, 
two of the four daughters of my Russian colleague, 
M. de Struve, a widower, who had succeeded my 
friend Count Kapnist. The eldest of these capti- 
vating little maids — they are all married now — kept 
house for her father, and managed her gay, turbu- 
lent sisters quite admirably, although she was barely 
nineteen. For the gilded youth of The Hague the 
cheery, hospitable Struve home in the Korte Voorhout 
was a real godsend. 

Two of our winters were unexpectedly darkened 
by mournful events. It was at the wedding of 
M. van Haeften's second daughter with the eldest 
son of my Belgian colleague, Baron d'Anethan, 
that the Minister for Foreign Affairs took me aside 
and showed me a telegram he had that moment 
received announcing the death of the Duke of 
Clarence. I was the more shocked that the day 
before I had, at the request of Queen Emma, wired 
to the Foreign Office for news of the Prince, and 
not having received any answer, had no idea of the 
gravity of the case. The greatest possible sympathy 
was called forth in all classes of Dutch society 
by the painful circumstances attending the event. 
We were overwhelmed with visits and messages 
of condolence even from people with whom we 


bad no personal acquaintance — deputies, artists and 
professors amongst them — while the veteran Dutch 
poet, Nicolas Beets, gave voice to the general feel- 
ing in a touching poem of which I sent a copy 
to the Duke of Teck. An official memorial service 
was held at our pretty English Church in the Bosch- 
straat, 1 at which places were of course reserved for 
the representatives of the Queen Regent and the 
Court, the Dutch Ministers and the Diplomatic 
Corps ; all the foremost private seats, including 
our own, being given up for that purpose, and 
the main body of the church being left free for 
the general public who attended in large numbers. 
Sir George Bonham, who had now joined as First 
Secretary on Mr. Fenton's retirement, and the other 
gentlemen of the Legation, saw to every one being 
properly seated, and the whole service, with the 
musical part of which we had taken special pains, 
was conducted with great decorum and was very 
impressive. It so happened, however, that an 
English lady connected with the Court, but whom 
no one belonging to the Legation knew even by 
sight, was, entirely by accident, kept out of her 
habitual seat, which, as afterwards appeared, she 
looked upon as an intentional slight, and resented, 
with consequences that in the end proved very far 
reaching. But here I am anticipating, and will 
only add that I have good cause to remember that 
memorial service. 

Having, however, referred to church matters, 1 
may take this opportunity for saying that, according 
to my experience, one of the most troublesome of 

1 The church was built by Mr. Tinnc, a Liverpool merchant of Dutch 

extraction, partly in memory of a sister of his who had been murdered by 
a fanatical tribe when engaged on an adventurous journey in the Soudan. 


the duties that fall to the lot of British representa- 
tives abroad is that of looking after the chaplaincies 
at their respective places of residence. At The 
Hague, for instance, I found on my arrival a 
venerable chaplain of the name of Brine — a dis- 
tinguished Greek scholar and in many ways a re- 
markable man — but who, having held the appointment 
for nearly forty years, was well past his work. His 
health entirely broke down at this time, but as he 
was generally respected, and had the best reasons 
for not resigning his post, it became necessary to 
provide a temporary substitute. This was no easy 
matter, and, besides entailing upon me endless cor- 
respondence with clergymen at home, once or twice 
actually reduced me to drawing The Hague hotels 
at the week's end for a stray parson to take the 
service. I remember similar difficulties at Stockholm 
and at Athens, and not to speak of the objections 
which were frequently offered by members of the con- 
gregation to the manner in which the services were 
conducted, there was the still graver question of 
obtaining the subscriptions indispensable for the 
support of the church. The British Minister is in 
fact saddled with most of the responsibilities, with- 
out the patronage, of an unendowed living. At 
The Hague I was fortunate at last in securing the 
services of the present Legation chaplain and my 
very good friend, the Rev. H. Ratford, who has 
done excellent work among the congregation, and 
is deservedly popular even with many of the best 
Dutch families, several of whom now attend his 

Early on Christmas eve of 1893 I received an 
alarming telegram from Florence about my brother 


William. He had long been in indifferent health, 
and had never entirely got over the loss of his wife, 
Nadine Lobanow, 1 but the last accounts of him had 
given no cause for immediate anxiety. We left for 
Italy at once that afternoon without any servants, 
travelling all through Christmas day and only break- 
ing the journey for a couple of hours at Milan 
the following evening. Thence on by the night- 
mail to Florence, which we reached in the early 
winter daylight. We arrived too late, however, for 
at the Villino Cusumano, where my brother had 
lived, in an out-of-the-way corner of the town, 
we learned that he had passed away in the course 
of the night. He had been the companion of my 
childhood and youth, but my necessarily roving diplo- 
matic life had long separated us, and we had not 
met for a good many years which, for him, poor 
fellow, had been troublous ones, making a sad 
ending to what at first had bid fair to be a 
brilliant life. He was the most pleasant and agree- 
able of companions, full of wit and fancy, and in 
these respects much resembled our gifted cousin 
Edmond de Polignac. We buried him in the Russo- 
Greek cemetery at Leghorn near his Russian wife 
who had died there three years before. Looking 
through his papers and settling his affairs kept 
us a week in Florence in bitter, sunless weather, 
during which I met for the last time my very old 
friend Charles de Talleyrand 2 and his wife, and also 
his cousin the old Due de Dino, who had all been 

1 " Recollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. pp. 185-187. 

2 The. Baron de Talleyrand had been French Ambassador in Russia. 
See "Recollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. pp. 221-223, and vol. ii. 
pp. 242-243, 258, 265-266, 270, 304. 


intimate with my brother and had shown him much 

We were glad to turn our backs on Florence, 
which, after the many bright days I had formerly 
known there, had now for me none but mournful 
recollections. On our homeward way we passed a 
day or two at Nice, with the La Rochefoucauld s 
who were wintering there, and at Paris, to see 
our friends the Malaspinas who had some time 
before been transferred thither from The Hague. 
We took great interest in the Malaspina menage, 
having from the first watched the Italian Secre- 
tary's attachment for Mile. Louise de Zuylen, who, 
with her sister, Madame Van der Staal, was among 
the most intimate of our friends in Holland. The 
husbands of both these ladies have since dis- 
tinguished themselves in diplomacy ; the Marquis 
Malaspina having till quite recently been Italian 
Ambassador at Constantinople, while M. van der 
Staal now holds the blue ribbon of the Dutch Diplo- 
matic Service in the Legation at Brussels. 

At Paris I had a long talk with Lord DufTerin, 
and was much concerned, I remember, at the some- 
what desponding view he took of our relations with 
France, which he had certainly done his very utmost 
to improve. I was still more impressed, when 
dining en famille the same evening with the Dou- 
deauvilles, by the suspicions which the Due, for 
whom I have a great regard, scarcely attempted to 
conceal from me of unfriendly sentiments towards 
France on the part of our Embassy. Lord Dufferin's 
correspondence at that period unquestionably be- 
trayed some anxiety, and indeed manifested fears 
of matters taking a serious turn between us and 
France in the event of any general complication 


arising. This seems to me worth mentioning as an 
instance of how deeply rooted still were in France, some 
ten years ago, those feelings of distrust and of tradi- 
tional animosity against us which have been now, it 
may be hoped, overcome for good. 



Were it not for the fickleness of the Dutch climate — 
on which I may possibly seem to harp unduly — 
nowhere would the best months of the year be more 
enjoyable than in Holland. Although, when it is fine, 
it is sometimes intoxicatingly so, the genial influences 
of spring and summer have great difficulty in getting, 
and still more in keeping, the upper hand. No more 
interesting struggle can be watched than that between 
a vigorous vegetation, favoured by superabundant 
moisture, and the blighting action of froward, incle- 
ment skies. The beautiful hyacinths, for instance 
— soon to be replaced by the tulips — that turn 
the ground of certain districts round The Hague, 
and the entire neighbourhood of Haarlem, into a 
gorgeous carpet where all the colours of the rain- 
bow run riot, for "all too short a date," almost 
invariably come out under leaden skies or in the 
teeth of a nipping east wind. It was piteous to see 
the glorious glowing blossoms shiver and shake 
through half their brief lives, only in the end to 
be ignominiously consigned to the dunghill. When 
we first went to Holland there was so little market 
for these lovely flowers, that in the fields at well- 
named Bloemendal could be seen cut hyacinths in 
great odorous mounds reaching half-way up the 
walls of the farm-buildings, and left there to decay 

as mere refuse. The blooms which now easily find 




their way to Covent Garden, were then quite worthless 
in Holland, and we often brought home from the 
Wassenaer gardens, on the Leyden road, great baskets 
full of gorgeous tulips which the owner was only too 
glad to part with for a florin. 

None the less in Holland there is a wonderful 
i*enouveau — to borrow the expressive French word — 
which is nowhere more enchanting, when spring has 
at last asserted itself, than on the same umbrageous 
road to Leyden. The highway to that ancient seat 
of learning runs, for several miles after leaving the 
Haagsche Bosch, between the old-world grounds and 
parks of the Prince of Wied, the Lyndens, Ouder- 
meulens, Stirums, and other wealthy owners, which 
are not screened from view by unsightly walls, but 
are bounded only by ditches and luxuriant hedges 
topped with the finest timber. The lilac bushes toss 
their fragrant sprays across the grassy slopes that line 
the road, and bright clumps of rhododendron here and 
there overhang it. The thickets are resonant with 
bird-calls, and the " piping clear of merry thrush " 
and blackbird proclaim the advent of May almost more 
lustily than in our English groves and lanes. Even 
the wearisome Dutch stretches of meadow lose some 
of their monotony and put on a beauty of their own 
under a summer sky, the rich verdure and the cloud- 
less vault above producing a pleasingly restful symphony 
in blue and green. 

I have many pleasant memories of our summers 
in Holland, where Lord Reay had kindly prepared 
the way for us with his kinsfolk and his many 
friends. Among these — besides his distinguished 
cousin, Baron Mackay, who was Prime Minister when 
I arrived, but was succeeded in 1892 by M. Tak 


van Poortvliet with a Radical Government — there 
was the late Baron de Brantsen, with whom, and 
with his wife and charming only child and heiress, 
since married to Count C. von der Goltz, we soon 
established the most cordial relations. We paid a 
good many visits to the Brantsens at their place in 
Gelderland, close to Arnhem. The Zyp is a typical 
Dutch manor-house of the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, surrounded by a deep moat where the 
ducks come quacking under the dining-room windows 
to be fed. It stands in a good-sized park, with much 
broken, well-timbered ground, and is altogether a 
dignified and most enjoyable place. Nothing can be 
prettier than the whole of the country round Arnhem, 
with its mixture of purple moor and hill-sides clad 
with splendid beech-woods, and grand views over 
the fertile plains of the Betuwe and the valley of the 
Rhine. The district contains a number of pleasant 
country houses, the homes of Pallandts, Bentincks, 
Heeckerens, and other leading families of the Dutch 
aristocracy. Middachten, the seat of Count William 
Bentinck, with many traditions of William III. and 
Queen Mary, is a large and stately place, as is also 
Amerongen, which belongs to his younger brother 
Count Godard. We were taken many drives by the 
Brantsens along the well-kept, shady roads to see 
these and other sights of the neighbourhood. One 
of them is the old castle of Doorwerth, which, 
although deserted by its owners, still remains in a 
complete state of preservation, and is a very interest- 
ing specimen of mediaeval work, with massive double 
towers mirrored in the moat that runs right round 
it and is fed by the Rhine hard by. A truly charm- 
ing liveable country is Gelderland, and among my 
recollections of The Hague there are none that give 


me greater pleasure than those of the summer or 
autumn days we spent at the hospitable manor-house 
of that perfect specimen of a Dutch gentleman of 
the best school, the last Baron Brantsen van de 

A very pleasant visit, too, we made in the June 
of our last summer in Holland to La Foret, the 
country house, near Utrecht, of the Louis van Loons 
who are closely connected with the banking-house 
of Hope of Amsterdam. Besides our hostess, Mme. 
Adele van Loon, there were the wives of the two 
other Van Loon brothers, and 1 can scarcely ever 
remember meeting in any family three prettier women 
than this trio of sisters-in-law, the palm to my mind 
being due to Mme. William van Loon, nee Egidius, 
the Norwegian wife of the eldest of the three brothers. 
The party were specially asked for the occasion of a 
great tournament got up by the students of the 
University of Utrecht, to which we were all taken in 
a well-turned-out coach and other smart carriages. 
The pageant, which was honoured by both the Queens, 
who came to it from the Castle of Soesdyck, was a 
great success; the jousting and tilting at the ring 
being extremely well managed, and the armour and 
horse-trappings of the knights very splendid and 
historically correct. An unfortunate contretemps hap- 
pened to young Count * # # (an exceedingly nice 
fellow, and the best match in Holland), to whom 
the principal part as King of Bohemia had been 
assigned. Just as he was entering the arena with 
the whole of his court and retinue, his charger, being 
scared by the band, bolted and threw its rider, so 
that the poor young fellow had to walk on foot in 
the procession to his royal tent at the further end of 
the lists. 


But I have given more than enough space to these 
notes of summer in hospitable Holland. We were so 
close to England at The Hague that friends came fre- 
quently to stay with us at the roomy Legation. Among 
our guests at various times were the Bishop of Ely and 
Lady Alwyne Compton with her niece Miss Florence 
Anderson. Cheery Admiral " Rim " Macdonald also 
came to us, as well as Miss " Cossy " Graham ; and the 
Dowager Lady Lonsdale and a very old Madeira friend 
of my wife's, Miss Hinton; while Lady Adelaide 
Taylour stayed with us for some time. Of a number 
of other travellers passing through, or staying at, The 
Hague, I remember my cousin, William Levinge, 1 who 
had come to Amsterdam in the yacht Dolphin with 
his Sutton brothers-in-law ; the Duke and Duchess of 
Abercorn ; the late Lord Arran and his son ; and the 
Evelyn Ashleys. The Duke of Westminster, with 
his charming Duchess, made a longer stay, chiefly 
devoted to visiting the picture - galleries under the 
guidance of that eminent authority on Dutch art 
Doctor Bredius. The Duke afterwards sent several 
pictures from Grosvenor House on loan to the Maurits- 
huis, one of which — a small Paul Potter — quite 
eclipsed for a time the celebrated bull. 

And this visit of the Westminsters reminds me 
that, being two years afterwards (in June 1893) on a 
week-end visit to Cliveden, the Duke, on our arrival 
there, told us that he had just concluded an arrange- 
ment for the sale of that lovely place, the sum offered 
to him for it being such as, with a second family grow- 
ing up, he did not feel justified in refusing. He made 
no concealment of the great wrench it was to him, and 
spoke at the same time somewhat bitterly of certain 

1 The late Sir William Levinge, Bart., of Knockdrin Castle, Co. 


pretensions put forward by the purchaser to the pos- 
session of one or two family souvenirs in the house. 
It so happened that some weeks later we came over 
again for a few days on business, when the heat in 
London on a certain Sunday in August was so insuffer- 
able — the empty town being wrapped in a thick haze 
almost resembling a November fog — that we escaped 
from it to Maidenhead, and spent the afternoon in a 
boat on the river. Towards evening as we lay in 
the shade of the trees almost opposite Cliveden, we 
noticed a pair-oar putting off from there with a 
lady and some children. Presently, as the boat 
neared us, we saw that it contained the Duchess, 
who, on recognising us, came alongside and told 
us that it was her last day at Cliveden, which she 
was leaving for good the next morning. Beautiful 
Cliveden — the pearl of the river, and quite unique 
among properties of its kind — one could well imagine 
with how sad a heart its mistress was bidding it 

In that same summer of 1893 there came, too, the 
Duke and Duchess of Leinster who, like the West- 
minsters, were on a tour of the Dutch galleries. They 
dined with us, in travelling clothes, I remember, the 
evening they went back to England by the new Hook 
of Holland route, and, having myself to go to London 
on urgent business, I crossed over with them. For 
various reasons that short journey is still present to 
my memory. I had formerly known very well the 
family of the Duchess, who was certainly at this 
time the most beautiful woman in English society, 
and I could not have had pleasanter travelling com- 
panions. I parted from them at the Liverpool Street 
station, much looking forward to meeting them again 
before long. In December of that year the Duke 



died after a very short illness, his lovely widow 
following him in less than eighteen months. 

Many changes took place in course of time in our 
Legation and in the diplomatic set in general. The 
friendly, hospitable Bonhams, at whose engagement 
years ago at St. Petersburg I had so to speak assisted, 
and their pretty daughter, now the wife of Mr. Evelyn 
Grant Duff, left us and were succeeded by the 
" Mungo " Herberts, a delightful couple whose stay 
at The Hague was unfortunately but short. Charles 
des Graz joined the Legation about the same time, 
and later on Bryan Clarke Thornhill, one of the most 
entertaining of men and the very best of good fellows. 
At the French Legation the Legrands were replaced 
by M. Bihourd, now Ambassador at Berlin, and the 
Comte de Se'gur and his wife, who were universally 
liked, were transferred to Vienna. M. Legrand had 
represented France at The Hague for thirteen years, 
and only left it on his appointment to the Conseil d'Etat. 
Baron # # # , who was well known for his want of tact, 
thought it right on meeting my French colleague, to 
condole with him on his retirement, saying : " Mais 
cest un enterrement ! " "Non pas!" was the ready 
reply, " cest une exhumation ! " We had, too, a suc- 
cession of American Ministers ; Mr. Roosevelt, a cousin 
of the actual President, being followed by my excel- 
lent colleague Mr. Samuel R. Thayer, of Minneapolis, 
and, after him, by Mr. Quinby. 

The effect of these diplomatic shuffles was to make 
us respectively doyen and doyenne of the corps, which 
placed us in more immediate relations with the officials 
of the Court, the doyen becoming on occasion the spokes- 
man of his colleagues in questions of ceremonial and 
etiquette, and the doyenne having to apply for and assist 


at the audiences of presentation of the diplomatic 
ladies, communicating for that purpose directly with 
the Grande Maitresse or Mistress of the Robes, who 
was then the Baronne de Hardenbroek, a very hand- 
some woman, tres grande dame, and looking the part 
to perfection. An amusing incident occurred one day 
when my wife had to present to the Queen Regent 
an American lady whose first visit to Europe it was. 
Nothing could be kinder or more gracious than Queen 
Emma at these audiences, and when on this occasion 
everybody was seated, and the Queen had said a few 
words to the lady in question, she naturally turned to, 
and talked chiefly with my wife, whom she knew well. 
During a short pause in the conversation the American 
lady — who was immediately facing the Regent, and 
probably felt rather out of it — suddenly pointed to the 
wall over H.M.'s head and said, with a high-pitched 
voice and an unmistakable accent : "I see you have a 
very good picture of your little girl up there ! " much, 
I need scarcely say, to the amusement and astonish- 
ment of the Queen. 

The most important of our diplomatic changes was 
the departure of the German Envoy, Baron Saurma, 
and the appointment, in his stead, of Count Rantzau, 
the son-in-law of the ex-Chancellor Prince Bismarck. 
I was from the first on the best of terms with my new 
German colleague. He was full of humour, and of a 
hearty, cordial disposition, a good sportsman and an 
admirable host. At his table I remember sampling 
wines from the cellars of his illustrious father-in-law of 
a quality quite unknown to the wine-trade, these being 
offerings sent to the Prince by patriotic owners of vine- 
yards on the Rhine, or in the Palatinate, in token of 
their admiration for the restorer of the Empire. 
Count Rantzau came to The Hague from a very 


desirable post at Munich, whence he had been ousted to 
make room for his subordinate, Count Philip Eulen- 
burg, whom I subsequently had for my colleague at 
Vienna. Even a man of his genial temperament 
could not but feel aggrieved by the circumstances of 
his removal. He nevertheless held his post at The 
Hague for nearly four years, during which time inte- 
resting echoes from Friedrichsruh occasionally reached 
me through him. The studied neglect with which the 
" hermit of the Sachsenwald " was treated for so long 
after his fall — mostly due to the hostile influence of 
the permanent officials, the " vortragenden Rathe," at 
Berlin, who had accumulated stores of ill-will and 
resentment during the long years of the Chancellor's 
stern, imperious sway ; the advances subsequently 
made to him, and the reconciliation so skilfully put 
on the stage on the memorable eightieth birthday, 
when, with what might almost be called a cruel 
irony, the ex - Chancellor was persistently referred 
to as a distinguished warrior and general, and no 
allusion whatever made to his wonderful work in 
building up Imperial Germany — on all these and 
other incidents of the great breach, side-lights 
were now and then unconsciously thrown by my col- 
league, who was devoted to his wife's father. When 
Count Rantzau finally resigned, on the ostensible 
motive that Prince Bismarck, since his bereavement, 
could not do without his daughter, he was accorded 
none of the distinctions usually conferred on retiring 
Ministers. He was not given any of the customary 
decorations, and the official notification of his retire- 
ment was not even accompanied by the stereotyped 
phrase about his meritorious services. He was re- 
placed at The Hague by my fellow-labourer in the 
Greek vineyard, Baron de Brincken. 


In looking through old jottings of that period I 
come across what, viewed in the light of actual events, 
are not uninteresting references to Japan. Admiral 
Casembroot — the last naval commander who had led 
Dutch ships into action, and was popularly known 
as the hero of Shimonoseki for the gallant manner 
in which he had forced the passage of that name — 
died in the spring of 1893 an d was buried with 
great honours. His death, almost coinciding with 
the conclusion of the war between China and Japan, 
contributed to draw more particular attention in 
Holland to the trend of events in the Far East 
and to the complete change brought about there by 
the triumph of Japan. It is curious to note the 
apprehension with which, as far back as nine years 
ago, some of the shrewdest observers in Holland 
looked upon the growth of Japanese power. Spain, 
it was pointed out in one of the ablest of the Dutch 
papers, was taking measures for the protection of 
the Philippines now that Formosa had fallen into 
Japanese hands, and Formosa, which once upon a 
time had been Dutch, was not so very much further 
removed from the Moluccas and Borneo. It surely 
behoved Holland to see to strengthening her forces 
in those regions. Such being the views and fears 
entertained at that time, how anxious may well appear 
at the present day the future outlook for Holland, 
as well as for all other countries that hold a stake 
of any importance in Oceania. It might, it seems 
to me, make us look twice before committing our- 
selves to a renewal of the Treaty which binds us 
to the Nippon Empire, and still more to an extension 
of its scope. 

Remarkable, too, were the evidences to be ob- 
served, ten or fifteen years ago, of the keen interest 


with which the course of affairs in South Africa 
was watched in the Netherlands. The tone of the 
Dutch press during our differences with Portugal at 
the beginning of January 1890 was extremely anti- 
English ; even such a sober, Conservative organ as 
the Daghlad referring to the ultimatum presented 
at Lisbon as " a sample of the bad manners which 
the British are apt to indulge in towards weaker 
Powers." The fact is, to speak frankly, that the 
Dutch as a nation have good cause not to love us. 
Not only have we supplanted them on the seas as 
the chief carriers of the commerce of the world, and 
deprived them of such splendid possessions as Ceylon 
and Cape Colony, but we took a leading part in the 
arrangements under which Belgium was severed from 
Holland. These are bitter memories which, although 
fortunately not influencing the general relations be- 
tween the two countries, in some degree explain, 
even if they do not justify, the passionate line after- 
wards taken by the Dutch of all classes during the 
great contest in South Africa. But quite apart from 
this latent sense of, so to speak historical, wrongs 
sustained at our hands, there were at work in Holland, 
long before the complications that immediately led 
to the war, active agencies whose aim and interest 
it was to foster and support the Dutch South 
African communities in their attempt to guard their 
national existence from the encroachments of the 
rising Anglo-Saxon tide. The task of helping to 
stem the flood, besides being a congenial one to the 
dyke-building Dutch, offered a tempting opening to 
the youth of their upper middle-class, whose ener- 
gies scarcely found sufficient scope within the narrow 
borders of the Netherlands. For a good many years 
past a certain proportion of the output of the Dutch 


universities and technical colleges — students of law 
or divinity, teachers, engineers, electricians and others 
— had found their way to the Orange Free State 
or the Transvaal, where they in great degree sup- 
plied the higher needs of the rougher and less 
cultured denizens of those Republics. Although by 
no means popular with the native Boer element, 
these Hollanders had necessarily acquired the in- 
fluence and authority due to men of superior 
training. It of course became an object with them 
to get fresh recruits from the mother country, and 
before long they founded a Netherlands Association 
(Nederlandsche Vereeniging) at Pretoria and Johan- 
nesburg, the funds of which were devoted to the 
encouragement of Dutch immigration and the ex- 
tension of the commercial relations with Holland. 
Another powerful agency was the Transvaal Railway, 
the seat of which was at Amsterdam, while the line 
itself was worked almost entirely by Dutchmen. The 
presence of German men-of-war at the inauguration 
of that line in 1894 was hailed with satisfaction by 
an extreme section of the Dutch press as a demon- 
stration intended to check possible British designs on 
Lourenco Marquez. So charged indeed with danger 
seemed the atmosphere fourteen years ago, that, 
writing in June 1891, the Pretoria correspondent of a 
leading Dutch paper described the situation as certain 
before long to lead to an armed struggle between the 
Dutch and British elements. 

To return to my jottings, they show that, besides 
watching and reporting upon these and other ques- 
tions affecting our interests, I had to attend to the 
settlement of Anglo-Dutch boundaries in Borneo and 
New Guinea ; the conditions of the employment of 


our East Indian coolies in Dutch Guiana ; Sugar 
Bounties and Liquor Trade Conventions, and many 
other questions arising out of the extensive com- 
mercial relations of both countries. In dealing with 
these affairs I invariably met with the most perfect 
courtesy on the part of M. Hartsen and of his suc- 
cessors at the Foreign Office, M. Tienhoven and 
Jonkheer van Roell, as well as from their chefs du 
cabinet, M. van der Staal and M. Ruyssenaers. 

A troublesome question which arose during the 
last years of my stay at The Hague deserves for cer- 
tain reasons more particular mention. In November 
1 89 1 the master of the whaling barque Costa Rica 
Packet of Sydney, New South Wales, a man named 
Carpenter, was arrested by the Dutch authorities 
at Ternate, the principal Residency in the Molucca 
Islands, on a charge of theft, which later on, it 
was sought to magnify into piracy, and was thence 
conveyed to a gaol at Macassar, in the great spider- 
like island of Celebes, where he was treated with 
much harshness and indignity, until finally released 
on the interposition of our Consul at Batavia. The 
act for which the man was arrested had taken 
place on the 24th of January 1888, or nearly four 
years before, and consisted in his having appro- 
priated the cargo — composed of several cases of 
mostly damaged spirits and a tin of petroleum, of 
the total value of about £1% — of a derelict native 
prauw, which he had met, waterlogged and aban- 
doned by her crew, off the island of Boeroe, and, as 
was afterwards conclusively established, quite outside 
the Dutch territorial waters. Captain Carpenter had 
transferred the paltry cargo to his vessel, but, finding 
that some of his crew had got drunk on the contents 


of the cases, he ordered the whole of the spirits to 
be thrown overboard. He then reported all the cir- 
cumstances at the first Dutch port he stopped at. 
A claimant to the cargo subsequently came forward, 
and an official inquiry was held, the whole matter, 
however, being soon allowed to drop. Nearly four 
years later the affair was unexpectedly taken up 
again by a newly-appointed and over-zealous Dutch 
official, and a warrant was then issued against Car- 
penter who, as I have said above, was arrested during 
one of his cruises among the Dutch islands. 

The case caused great excitement at Sydney, where 
Carpenter was well known, and it was strongly com- 
mented upon in the New South Wales Legislature. 
A claim for damages and compensation, which I was 
instructed to present at The Hague, was, after endless 
correspondence, referred to arbitration. The Emperor 
of llussia was requested to arbitrate, and finally an 
award which was in complete accordance with the 
British contention was given by that eminent interna- 
tional jurist M. de Martens. I had taken great interest 
in this affair, and, as far as I was personally concerned, 
had permitted myself, while of course bound by my 
instructions, to urge upon our Authorities at the 
Foreign Office my view of its importance from an 
Imperial standpoint, being convinced that any show 
of indifference on our part about an incident which 
had so thoroughly roused our Australian fellow- 
subjects was much to be deprecated. There could 
be no question as to the high-handed character of 
the proceedings against the master of the Costa 
Rica Packet, and. by a strange chance, the incident 
resembled the Tacna affair, which had given me 
so much to do in Chile ; * it being a cardinal feature 

1 "Further Recollections of a Diplomatist," pp. 35-36, Co-71, 81. 


in. both cases that the criminal acts imputed had 
taken place on the high seas, and beyond the limits of 
any local maritime jurisdiction. Before leaving this 
matter I may mention that a little over two years ago 
— when my name was brought somewhat prominently 
before the public in connection with an article I 
had contributed to the National Review 1 — I received 
a letter from a well-known member of the New 
South Wales Legislature, with whom I had no 
acquaintance, thanking me in the kindest terms for 
the line I had personally taken in the Costa Rica 
Packet incident, and going even so far as to assert 
that, in the writer's opinion, the efficient protection 
afforded to the captain of a Colonial vessel had 
contributed towards making Australia so essentially 
staunch and loyal to us in the war in South Africa. 
Nothing could be more gratifying than the generous 
approval of my distinguished correspondent at the 
Antipodes, but I must disclaim having done more 
than my duty in a question where I had simply 
followed the lead of such a man as Lord Jersey, at 
that time Governor of New South Wales, who had 
warmly taken up the Carpenter case on its own 
merits as well as on Imperial grounds. It has, I 
confess, been a satisfaction to me since then to 
know that the finding of perhaps the greatest living 
authority on international law was partly based upon 
a memorandum I had drawn up on the case in French. 

It was about this time that, feeling very depressed 
over my diplomatic prospects, I was induced by des 
Graz, the kindest-hearted of men, to try for distraction 
the game of golf, which he had lately introduced at 
The Hague, and which has proved a solace to men in 

1 " An English Tribute to the Emperor Francis Joseph." 


far greater trouble than mine. Although we never 
became proficient at golf, both my wife and I took 
to it very kindly, and drove most days to the nine- 
hole links which Baron de Brienen had laid out round 
his picturesque race-course at Clingendaal. Many an 
exhilarating game did we play, losing innumerable 
balls in a certain rough wood by the fifth hole, and 
in the ditches that intersect the links. How well 
I recollect it all, and how delightful was the fresh, 
salt air blowing in from the downs close by ! 
Golf became quite the rage in Dutch society at this 
time, and the fashion extended from The Hague to 
provincial centres. A pretty club-house was put up 
at Clingendaal, and we had interesting competitions 
— in which Mile. Daisy de Brienen distinguished 
herself, as did also my gunner - son — and cheery 
club luncheons, where as Honorary President of the 
Club I had sometimes to take the chair. Des Graz, 
who had made himself an exceptional position among 
the best people at The Hague, may well claim it as 
a feather in his cap that he was the first to introduce 
this fascinating pastime to their notice. 



Meantime the years sped on and promotion came 
neither from the East nor from the West. In the 
space of less than four years no less than five 
Embassies which became vacant were given to men 
junior to me in the service, and I was left at the 
head of the list of Envoys, and thus — so I put it to 
one of our Foreign Secretaries — pilloried as it were 
for incompetence. 

It had now in fact become so evident that I was 
being systematically passed over that I determined if 
possible to discover the cause of my disfavour, and at 
last, during a short visit to London in the early spring 
of 1894, I learned from a foreign diplomatic friend 
what was being said about me. The story went, 
that I had been mixed up in a disgraceful "row" 
at The Hague. I had endeavoured one day, it 
was said, to force my way to the platform of the 
railway station, on the occasion of some official 
reception where everybody was in uniform — being 
myself in plain clothes — and had insisted, on the 
strength of my privileged character, on being allowed 
to pass. Finally, the employe still refusing to admit 
me, I had straightway knocked him down ! Such 
was the strange tale related to me which, I was 
further assured, had been talked about in London 
for upwards of a year, and was credited even in 
exalted circles. 

Now it so happened that five years before, not 


long after my arrival at The Hague, when I was 
constantly going to and from Amsterdam for Dr. 
Metzger's treatment, I did have an unpleasant affair 
at the railway station. I was coming back to The 
Hague one afternoon with a return ticket which I 
gave up at the wicket. My. brougham was waiting 
for me outside in full view of the said wicket, and I 
was about to jump in when the footman told me that 
my wife and child had come to meet me, and had 
gone up to the arrival platform where in the crowd 
I had missed them. I turned back to find them, 
and made for the wicket through which I had passed 
only a few seconds before. When I reached it, the 
ticket-collector said something in Dutch — a language 
which at that time I only imperfectly understood. I 
told him in German that I had just passed through, 
that I was simply going back to fetch my wife, 
and, as he still seemed to demur, explained who 
I was. I then passed on, when the man seized me 
from behind by the collar and pulled me back in the 
roughest possible way. I of course turned round and 
shook him off, and not understanding why he stopped 
me so rudely, repeated that I was the " Englische 
Gesandter," again trying to pass on, whereupon the 
fellow barred the way, and hit out at me. I had little 
difficulty in warding off his clumsy fists, and, in the 
midst of this absurd encounter, my wife appeared 
on the scene. I was naturally much incensed, and, 
calling the policeman on duty outside, insisted on the 
ticket-collector going with me to the station-master, 
before whom I lodged a formal complaint, giving my 
full name and description. Only then did I ascertain 
that non-travellers unprovided with ordinary tickets (I 
had just given up mine) were not admitted into the 
station without a perronkaartje or platform ticket — 


a regulation of which I was entirely unaware, having 
been only a short time in Holland. I now drove 
straight to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, M. 
Hartsen, and recounted to him the whole occurrence. 
He expressed the greatest regret, and promised to 
attend to the affair at once. I ought, indeed, never 
to have heard again of an incident which, as I said to 
the Minister, was the result of a consigne Trial executee. 
Nevertheless the story, grossly distorted, got about at 
The Hague and was thence transmitted to London, 
where it was further embellished. I of course took 
immediate steps to let influential friends at home 
know the rights of the matter, but was none the less 
bitterly annoyed by the version which was current 
of it. 

Far worse, however, was yet to come. A year 
later, in the spring of 1895, a Dutch lady of high 
position with whom we were on intimate terms, 
returned from a long official stay abroad. She had 
seen a great deal of one of our Ambassadors, and, in 
conversation with him, had kindly mentioned my wife 
and myself as being popular and well thought of at 
The Hague, observing at the same time that some 
surprise was felt at my not being further promoted. 
To this the Ambassador replied that, after a certain 
unpleasant incident at the Dutch Court, it could not 
well be otherwise. The lady then inquiring to what 
the Ambassador alluded, he said it was well known 
that I had had a violent altercation with one of the 
officials at some Court function, and had very nearly 
come to blows with him. The lady at once indig- 
nantly denied the truth of the story, laying stress on 
the fact that if such a thing had occurred, she must 
have heard of it at the time. The Ambassador, never- 
theless, shrugged his shoulders, and maintained the 


accuracy of his account. On hearing this extraordi- 
nary statement from my friend, who added that she 
thought it only right I should know what was being 
reported about me, I mentioned it to one of my staff, 
who said that, since I alluded to it, he must tell me 
that in the south of France, the winter before, this 
supposed incident at Court had been spoken of to a 
mutual friend of ours (now dead) by a person of the 
highest station, as being the legitimate cause of the 
prejudice against me, and that when our friend utterly 
denied that anything of the sort had taken place, the 
personage in question had insisted that he knew it for 
a fact. 

In view of the character of these statements, I 
felt bound to bring the matter to the knowledge of 
the Queen Regent. A gentleman of her household 
(now one of the great officers of State) and Baron 
Clifford, the Marechal de la Cour, both great 
friends of ours, very kindly undertook to inform 
H.M. of what had occurred. Queen Emma at once 
sent me the most gracious messages as to the 
concern and annoyance with which she had heard 
of these fabrications, together with assurances that 
on her approaching visit to England she would 
take good care to contradict and dispose of these 
injurious assertions — a promise which H.M. kept to 
the full. Indeed nothing could exceed the kindness 
and sympathy she showed me on the occasion. 

And now I have done with much the most pain- 
ful occurrence of my long career, and will only add 
that to this day I am unable to understand why, if 
these stories of misconduct on my part were believed, 
I should not at once, in common fairness, have been 
charged point-blank with them, and thus given an 
opportunity either of explaining them or proving 


their falsehood. As to the growth of the myth, it 
was evident that the railway ticket-collector had been 
raised to the dignity of a Court Chamberlain, while 
I am probably not far wrong in tracing its origin to 
an apparently insignificant circumstance on which I 
have touched lightly in the preceding pages. 

The Royal visit to London took place in the spring 
of 1 895. The meeting between her late Majesty and the 
young Dutch Sovereign, then in her fifteenth year, was 
in itself a highly interesting event, and though the two 
Dutch Queens observed the strictest incognito, every- 
thing was done to make their sojourn both agreeable 
and instructive. As for the young Queen, she captivated 
all who saw her by her charming countenance sparkling 
with fun and intelligence, and by the child-like simplicity 
with which she enjoyed everything. Her visits to the 
Tower and the museums and picture galleries, the shop- 
ping in Bond Street, and, above all, a drive through the 
city in a hansom cab, which she insisted upon, afforded 
infinite delight to the bright girl-Queen, who, so went the 
gossip of the day, asked her late Majesty at Windsor 
whether she, too, did not love going in a hansom. 
We came in for our share of the Royal hospitalities, 
dining at Marlborough House to meet the Queen 
Regent, and also with the two Queens at Brown's 
Hotel in Dover Street where they were staying, besides 
later on receiving a command to dine and sleep at 
Windsor Castle, when it became evident that Queen 
Emma had more than fulfilled the promise she had 
made to me. There still seemed every likelihood that 
I might be left on at The Hague until the date of my 
compulsory retirement, but I had ceased to feel that I 
was living under a sinister and mysterious cloud, and I 
no longer fought a disheartening fight with windmills. 


With the winter of 1 895-96 there came a general 
intimation that, in view of the approaching visit of 
Queen Emma's youngest sister, Princess Elizabeth 
of Waldeck Pyrmont (since married to the here- 
ditary Count of Erbach - Schonberg), H.M. might 
during the season be disposed to accept a few invi- 
tations to private houses. We inquired whether it 
would be agreeable to her to come to a ball at the 
Legation, and, receiving a favourable reply, did our 
best to make this a successful entertainment. In 
graciously assenting to our proposal the Queen 
Regent sent me word that she would be glad if 
her acceptance of the hospitality of the Doyen and 
Doyenne of the Diplomatic Corps were looked upon 
as a general compliment to my colleagues as well as 
to myself. For a number of years no diplomatic 
house at The Hague had been thus honoured — neither 
Queen Sophie nor the late King having ever attended 
any diplomatic receptions — so that the exceptional 
compliment paid us by the Queen Regent gave our 
ball a special interest which was most unfortunately 
heightened by the arrival of the news of the Jameson 
raid in South Africa. The first telegram on the sub- 
ject, giving only the baldest of outlines of the occur- 
rence, reached The Hague from Berlin on the 31st 
of December, and produced a sensation which at 
once found expression in violent articles in the Dutch 
papers, the Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant taking 
the lead in the attacks upon England. Our ball 
was fixed for the 6th January, and there was much 
speculation in society as to whether the Queen 
Regent would, under the circumstances, come to it, 
the betting, so to speak, being against her doing 
so. H.M., nevertheless, not only came and was as 
gracious as possible, but, in order not to disappoint 



us, postponed the announcement of a slight Court 
mourning until the following day, besides putting 
off to a later date a ball which was to be given in 
her honour by her Mistress of the Robes, Baronne 
de Hardenbroek. 

The crazy, bungled raid, followed by the Imperial 
telegram of congratulation to President Kriiger and 
the storm of resentment called forth in England by 
that message, roused public opinion in sober Holland 
to a pitch of unparalleled excitement. The interests 
of the South African Republic in Europe were at 
that period confided to the late M. Beelaerts van 
Blokland, a deputy for Gelderland and owner of a 
small estate near Arnhem, and a somewhat pro- 
minent member of the so-called Anti-Revolutionary, 
rigidly Calvinist, party. M. Beelaerts at one time 
anomalously combined the dignity of President of 
the Second Chamber of the States-General with the 
appointment of Envoy of the Transvaal to Portugal, 
France, and Germany. He was a man of some 
ability, but with a decided bent for intrigue, and a 
strong dislike for the Suzerain Power. At this con- 
juncture he displayed more even than his habitual 
activity, his journey ings to and from Paris and 
Berlin being frequent and carefully chronicled in 
the press. There is good reason to believe that 
a hurried visit he made to Berlin, very shortly after 
the Jameson raid, had for its object to persuade the 
German Government to assume some sort of protec- 
torate over the Transvaal. " The spontaneous chival- 
rous outburst" of the Emperor William, as it was 
characterised in the Dutch press, convinced the Boer 
sympathisers in Holland that a bright future lay 
before the Republic, inasmuch as it could now 


fully reckon on the firm support of Germany. The 
Boer State, it was held, had ceased to be a quantite 
negligeable, for Germany would, if it were need- 
ful, . become for it what France had been for the 
North American Republic in the days of its infancy. 
Although these illusions were before long to be dis- 
pelled by the prudent and statesmanlike attitude of 
the German Government in the complications that 
followed, it is interesting to note the hold they at 
the beginning acquired in Holland, and how readily 
public opinion there rose to the fly which had been 
adroitly cast over it. From this period, too, dates the 
first appearance on the scene of that stormy petrel, 
Dr. Leyds, whose mischievous activity contributed 
so largely to turn Continental opinion against us, 
and who showed himself much the ablest of the 
clique of Hollanders on whom rests so large a share 
of responsibility for the subsequent disastrous conflict. 

The year 1896 ran its course without any sign 
of a change in our prospects, another Embassy be- 
coming vacant and being filled up. We paid our 
annual visit to Luxemburg in July, and went on 
by Trier and Coblentz to Homburg, where, on our 
advising Count SeckendorfT, of whom we had seen 
a great deal the summer before at Scheveningen, of 
our arrival, we were asked to luncheon the next day 
at Kronberg, where the Empress Frederick was now 
living in her beautiful Castle of Friedrichshof. The 
weather being unfortunately very wet, after one of 
the most terrific thunderstorms I can remember, we 
were unable to see the lovely gardens on which so 
much care had been lavished, but the Empress herself 
showed us many of the treasures she had amassed 
with so perfect an understanding of art, and which 


made Friedrichshof as interesting as it was luxurious 
and homelike. I have preserved a vivid recollection 
of this afternoon spent in the society of the most 
accomplished, and in some respects the most unfor- 
tunate of Princesses, whom I never saw again after 
this day. She had heard a good deal about my mis- 
adventures from Count Seckendorff, who had taken a 
very kind interest in my case, but she made me tell 
her the whole tiresome story at length, listening 
with wonderful patience, and evincing, I am bound 
to add, some indignation, and then, when dismissing 
us, said very pointedly : " I shall not forget." 

We returned to The Hague on the ist of August, 
and had barely been there a week when I received a 
letter from Mr. (now Sir Eric) Barrington letting me 
know privately that there was a very good chance of 
the Embassy at Vienna being offered to me when the 
move consequent on the approaching retirement of 
Lord Dufferin took place. My appointment was finally 
dated the 15th October following, and on that day we 
took our final leave of The Hague, having had our 
farewell audience of the Queen Regent at the Loo a 
fortnight before. I left The Hague with very mixed 
feelings, for, great though was the sense of relief that 
I had at last, after no little tribulation, reached the 
topmost rung of the diplomatic ladder, I could not 
but feel that, at my age, the long desired promotion 
came almost too late. We had, besides, both taken 
deep root in Holland and had met there with in- 
numerable kindnesses. It was with heavy hearts, 
therefore, that we wended our way to the railway 
station, where, to judge by the crowds of our 
acquaintance who came to bid us Godspeed, we left 
behind us not a few well-wishers. 


Our hands were more than full, when we got to 
London, with the orders we had to give for State 
carriages, harness and liveries, besides other expensive 
paraphernalia indispensable at such a post as Vienna. 
Time, too, was short, as we did not propose spend- 
ing more than a few weeks in England, hoping to 
settle down in our new home before the winter fully 
set in. 

A week-end visit we made to my old friend and 
colleague, Lord Sackville, early in November, deserves 
a passing mention. It was the first time I saw 
Knole, where I have since been several times, and 
the impression it then made upon me is still 
present to my mind. Knole is, I imagine, almost 
unique among our old historic homes for the care 
bestowed on it by successive generations of its 
Sackville owners, who, in a rare conservative spirit, 
have not only left its contents untouched and 
undisturbed, but seem to have applied themselves 
to keeping the most interesting portions of the im- 
mense rambling building exactly as they were when 
lived in three centuries ago in early Stuart times. To 
these laudable instincts of its former inmates must 
now be added the happy circumstance that the splendid 
place and the treasures that fill it are committed to 
the care of Mrs. Sackville West, whose exceptional un- 
derstanding of pictures, ancient furniture, and artistic 


brie a brae of all kinds, united to perfect taste, is such 
as to make her the most competent of custodians for 
the stately possession that first came to the family 
in Elizabethan days, though a great part of the vast 
fabric a dates back to a much more remote period. So 
interesting are the contents of Knole, with its in- 
numerable portraits — now for the first time properly 
catalogued — and its many curious historical memorials, 
that they afford, to those who have the good fortune 
and the leisure to study them, a perfect epitome of the 
annals of England. 

The pleasant party staying there with us com- 
prised Lady Bantry (now Lady Trevor), Mr. and Mrs. 
Edward Hope, my late Secretary at The Hague, des 
Graz, and, with his popular wife, John Savile Lumley 
— now Lord Savile and owner of splendid and ghostly 
Rufford — whom I had first known years before as a 
mere boy in his uncle's house at Berne. 

It is an interesting fact that, among the many 
valuable things at Knole, there are two complete 
services of plate marked with the Royal arms, which 
were brought there by two successive husbands of the 
charming Duchess of Dorset whose curious fate it was 
to be twice Ambassadress at Paris, the second time as 
the wife of the Lord Whit worth so well known in con- 
nection with the rupture of the peace of Amiens. In 
the good old days which ended some time before I 
entered the ranks of our diplomacy, a full service of 
plate was always issued by the Crown to Ambassadors 
and Envoys on their first appointment, which on retire- 
ment, they were allowed to retain as their private pro- 
perty. Nous avons change tout cela and many other 

1 Knole was given by Queen Elizabeth to her cousin, Sir Thomas 
Sackville. The house contains 365 rooms, 52 staircases, and 7 courts, 
while, it is said, there are no less than seven acres of roofing — including 
stables, &c. 

KNOLE 263 

things besides. By the same token this Duchess of 
Dorset, whose lovely presentment by Hoppner is one 
of the chief treasures of the house, was on terms 
of great intimacy with Queen Marie Antoinette in the 
early days of the Revolution, and her letters, and, 
if I am not mistaken, her diary, preserved among 
the family records, would, if they saw the light, be 
most interesting reading. But I have lingered too 
long over beautiful Knole which has a remote family 
interest for me, inasmuch as Lady Anne Sackville, the 
eldest daughter of the first Earl of Dorset — Queen 
Bess's Treasurer — happens to be an ancestress of my 
mother. 1 

On the 19th of November we received a Royal 
command to dine and sleep at Windsor, where, shortly 
before dinner, Sir Edmund Monson and I each had 
private audiences of the Queen to kiss hands on our 
respective appointments to Paris and Vienna. Besides 
the customary Royal remembrances with which she 
was pleased to charge me for the Emperor Francis 
Joseph, H.M. gave me particular messages for the 
widowed Crown Princess Stephanie, in whom she took 
a great interest, as she did at all times in her relatives 
on the Coburg side. As usual on these occasions the 
party at Windsor was quite a small one. The only 
Royalties staying there were the Duchess of Coburg — 
who inquired very kindly after my son George, whom 

1 Lady Anne Sackville married Sir Henry Glemham, of Glemham, 
Suffolk. Their daughter married Thomas Cressy (of Fulsby, Lincoln), 
whose daughter and sole heir became the wife of Sir Thomas Parky ns, 
Bart., of Bunnej , Notts. 

Sir Thomas Glemham, son of Sir Henry and Lady Anne Glemham, 
was one of King Charles' trustiest generals. He defended Carlisle with 
great tenacity, and only surrendered it when on the verge of starvation. 
•• He was the first man," sayB an old writer, "thai taught soldiers to eat 
catfl and dogs." Glemham was afterwards Governor of Oxford. The 
Glemham family has long been extinct. 


she had known well at Malta when he was serving in 
the Alexandra — and Princess Henry of Battenberg. 
Lady Downe, who was in waiting, was an old friend 
of ours, as were also Mrs. Bernard Mallet and Miss 
Minnie Cochrane, and with them the next day we 
spent a pleasant forenoon going over the beautiful 
State rooms before returning to London. 

I have never had occasion to see Windsor since its 
complete renovation in the present reign, but in the 
old days the simple dignity of the etiquette observed 
there, the quiet dinner-parties of seldom more than 
twelve or fourteen people, and the informal cercle held 
afterwards in a certain corner of the great corridor 
whither the Queen was wont to adjourn, and where she 
sent for and conversed with the dinner guests in turn 
— not to speak of the admirable arrangements made 
for one's comfort — all bore a character of old-world 
repose and refinement that were in perfect keeping 
with the age of the venerable Sovereign and the life 
of retirement she had led for so many years. My 
periodical visits to this most splendid and picturesque 
of Royal residences count among the noteworthy 
memories of a long diplomatic career. 

A week later, I returned to Windsor on an ex- 
tremely cold day, to be sworn of the Privy Council. 
The Council was held in a small sitting-room — which 
in former days would have been termed a closet — 
generally used by the Queen when giving private 
audiences, and which contained a number of interest- 
ing miniatures. When the oath had been administered 
to me, and I had been congratulated by our Lord 
President, the Duke of Devonshire, who, I may here 
mention, has through life been the kindest of friends 
to me ; we all stood — the other Privy Councillors and 
the late Sir Charles Lennox Peel, Clerk to the Council 


— in a sort of semicircle round the sofa where the 
Queen was seated, and I have a strong recollection of 
the strikingly clear, precise enunciation with which 
she uttered the word " approved," after the Lord 
President had read out to her the title or summary 
of each of the documents respecting which her pleasure 
had to be taken. 

Before the Council I had had to wait for some 
time in one of the large State rooms which, on this 
bitterly cold afternoon, seemed to me very insufficiently 
warmed — the Queen, as is well known, had a great dis- 
like to hot rooms — and I had been thoroughly chilled. 
Although already feeling far from well I went that 
evening to the Royalty Theatre, but on my return 
home after the performance had a sleepless night, and 
by the morning was in a high fever. My friend and 
neighbour the late Dr. Macla°;an — the loss of whom 
his many patients to this day deplore — at once pro- 
nounced it a case of influenza complicated by bronchial 
pneumonia. For some days I was very ill indeed and 
was kept to my bed for nearly a fortnight. All our 
plans were upset, and it was only on the 23rd of 
December that I was able to get as far as Dover, 
where we stayed over Christmas day at the Lord 
Warden Hotel. At last, after once more breaking 
the journey at Brussels, we reached Vienna on the 
afternoon of the 28th, and were met at the Westbahn 
terminus in the Mariahilf by the entire staif of the 
Embassy and taken to the Hotel Bristol on the 

It is very difficult for me to summarise the 
feelings I experienced in returning after an interval 
of many years, and in a very different capacity, to 
a place I had known and liked so well as I had 


Vienna. The dominating note in one's thoughts 
was, and of course in part remained, a sad one. 
There was no blinking the fact of the change that 
had taken place in one's self, while the ancient 
Imperial city had undergone an almost complete 
transformation. Of this, however, I had already had 
an inkling during the hurried visit we had made to 
Vienna in September on leaving Marienbad ; the 
object of the journey being to assure ourselves of 
the capabilities of the Embassy House, which, after 
the departure of the Monsons for Paris, had been 
entirely overhauled by the Office of Works and was 
still, when we now came for good, in the hands of 
the workmen putting in the electric light and a new 
hot-air apparatus. But even with these great im- 
provements the house could not be considered a 
really good one for the purpose for which it had 
been built some thirty years before when my old 
St. Petersburg chief, Sir Andrew Buchanan, was 
Ambassador. The estimates for it had been ruth- 
lessly cut down by the Treasury, with the result 
that the original plans had to be essentially reduced 
and modified. For entertaining on a large scale it 
was quite inadequate, and, what was almost a crime 
in a dance-loving capital like Vienna, it had no 
ball-room worthy of the name, and very insufficient 
accommodation for the sitting-down supper which 
is a feature of all big entertainments there. The 
ground on which it stood had formed part of the 
spacious gardens of the Villa Metternich in the 
llennweg which I well remember in the days of 
the old Chancellor. Only a small portion of those 
gardens now remains attached to the Villa, the bulk 
of them having been disposed of in building-lots 
on which, besides our own Embassy, there stands 


the splendid house built by the German Govern- 
ment for the use of their Ambassador — which was 
immediately opposite to, and sadly overshadowed, 
ours — and beyond it, the charming petit hotel that 
had been purchased by the Russian Government 
from the Duke of Nassau. Having, however, re- 
counted the deficiencies of our new official resi- 
dence, I am bound to add that we succeeded in 
making it very habitable, and were able in it to do 
our duty by the Vienna w T orld, and that it has left 
in my mind none but the pleasantest associations. 

I may as well say at once that I was highly 
fortunate in the composition of my staff during the 
whole of my tenure of the Embassy at Vienna. In 
Ralph Milbanke, the First Secretary of the Embassy, 
who died some two years ago to the sincere regret 
of all who knew him, I had the best of friends and 
most useful of collaborators. His knowledge and 
experience of affairs in the Dual Monarchy, and of 
the society of Vienna and of Pesth, were quite excep- 
tional, the greater part of his career having been spent 
there. He enjoyed deserved popularity in the most 
exclusive Austrian and Hungarian sets, was a wel- 
come guest in the best houses, got the best of shoot- 
ing, and, while being accounted a Viennese of the 
Viennese, remained a most efficient and zealous 
diplomatic servant of the Crown. Our service suf- 
fered a real loss by the untimely death of Milbanke. 
Colonel Wardrop, who was the smartest of cavalry 
officers and had made a name for himself in the 
Soudan, was, as far as I could judge, an unusually 
competent Military Attache in an Empire whose 
mounted troops have at all times been renowned 
for their quality. Wardrop did the Embassy essen- 
tial service during the crisis of the South African 


war, and was not only much liked in the leading 
military circles at Vienna, but was fortunate in 
being in great favour with the Emperor Francis 
Joseph himself. It has always seemed to me un- 
fortunate that the opinion of an officer with such 
a special knowledge of horseflesh as his should not 
have been turned to better account by our military 
authorities at home, in the contracts they made for 
horses in Hungary for the army in South Africa. 

Findlay, one of the nicest fellows in the service, 
who is now doing excellent work under Lord Cromer 
in Egypt, was all through my time the very efficient 
head of our Chancery, which also numbered "Freddy" 
Clarke, Rennie — the latter still at Vienna — and was 
later joined by young Lord Granville whom, as his 
father's son, I was very glad to have on my staff, of 
which he became one of the most popular members. 
My eldest son, Horace, too, before long came to me 
from Teheran as Second Secretary. 1 

I had found on my arrival two promising juniors, 
who, however, soon left : Mr. J. L. Baird for Cairo, 
and eventually for Abyssinia, and Mr. Colville Barclay 
who followed Sir Edmund Monson to Paris. Besides 
these regular members of the service we had a suc- 
cession of young Honorary Attaches. Lord Newport, 
who is at present one of the Prime Minister's Private 
Secretaries, Lord Langton (now Lord Temple), and 
Lord Hyde, each in turn served with me for a time. 
It would, I think, be a good thing if more of our 
eldest sons went through a course of diplomatic 
training abroad, and thereby acquired a special 
knowledge and experience which could not but 

1 He went up in February 1891 for the competitive Diplomatic 
Examination, passing first of the three successful candidates, thirteen 
haying competed. 


be of advantage to them later on as hereditary- 

I was still far from restored to health on reaching 
Vienna, and was not sorry that my audience of the 
Emperor had to be deferred for a short time on 
account of H.M.'s absence on a shooting expedition. 
On the nth of January, however, I was received 
with all the ceremony observed at this ancient Court. 
Three dress carriages were sent to the Embassy 
to fetch me and my staff, the latter preceding me 
in the two first, while I followed in the last — 
a very handsome glass coach — with one of the 
Emperor's officiers d'ordomiance — a young Prince 
Thurn and Taxis, seated opposite to me. I was 
afterwards told that the Emperor had selected this 
smart young officer to fetch me on hearing that I 
had known his father, Prince Lamoral Taxis, well in 
bygone days, when he was a brilliant Vortanzer at 
the Vienna balls instead of a K.K. Feldmarschall 
Lieutenant on the retired list. 

The stable department of the Imperial Court, 
which is presided over by the Master of the Horse, 
Prince Rudolph Liechtenstein (who is at the same 
time Premier Grand Maitre of the Household), is ad- 
mirably managed under the direct supervision of the 
First Equerry, Count Ferdinand Kinsky, a younger 
brother of Count Charles — now Prince — Kinsky who 
is so well known in English society. The State 
carriages, drawn by splendid grey Lipizzaners from 
the Imperial stud-farm near Trieste, were turned out 
to perfection, and as we drove down the spacious 
Iling at noon, the time when it is most crowded, 
every one saluting as we passed, I could not help 
remembering the far-away days when I had lived 
here as a simple Attache. 


As we passed under the archway of the Burgthor, 
and thence across the wide esplanade, now decorated 
by the fine equestrian statues of Prince Eugene 
of Savoy and of the Archduke Charles, into the 
Hofburg, the guard turned out and presented arms, 
the drums beating aux champs. We got out at 
the Botschafterstiege, and going upstairs, preceded 
by Court officials, passed through an enfilade of 
rooms, lined with detachments of the German and 
Hungarian Body Guards, where I was at once met 
by the Grand Master of the Ceremonies, Count 
Kalman Hiinyadi, the most picturesque figure at 
the Austrian Court, who was an old acquaintance 
of mine and the brother of the beautiful Princess 
Julie Obrenovitch, now the widow of Prince Charles 
d'Arenberg. 1 In a further room I was greeted by 
the Grand Chamberlain, Count Abensperg and Traun, 
another old acquaintance and former colleague when 
I was at the Paris Embassy. The First Aide-de-Camp, 
General Count Paar, then went into the next room and 
announced my arrival, when, the doors being thrown 
open, I was ushered into the presence chamber and 
left alone with the Emperor. 

After I had duly made my obeisance and delivered 
my credentials, the Emperor, whom I had not seen 
for nearly forty years, addressed me with the utmost 
graciousness — I might almost say cordiality — and, 
kindly referring to my former service at the Em- 
bassy here, said that he was glad to meet again in 
me une tres ancienne connaissance. Those alone 
who have the privilege of knowing the Emperor 
can realise the winning charm of his manner, and 
the alert look and benignant expression that light 
up and transfigure a face whose somewhat rugged 

1 " Recollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. p. 235. 


features are all too careworn in repose. It is the 
expression in fact which, as I have seen related 
somewhere, made the painter Lenbach throw down 
his brush in despair one day when the Emperor was 
sitting to him, and reply, with the freedom of a 
great artist, when H.M. asked what was the matter, 
that he was thinking that the kindly face must have 
become a mask, concealing the real countenance of 
the most worried, sorely tried man in the whole 

After speaking at length and very warmly of 

the value he attached to the immemorially friendly 

relations subsisting between our two countries, the 

Emperor emphasised their special importance at a 

time when such serious questions were being treated 

at Constantinople, and when the necessity was so 

great for a complete accord on the part of the 

Powers in dealing with them. My private audience 

—which, my Austrian friends told me afterwards, 

had been an unusually long one — now came to an 

end, and, according to the prescribed etiquette, I 

had, after backing as far as the door, to give a 

knock on it as a signal for the admission of my 

staff, whom I then presented to the Emperor, who 

addressed a few words to each of them. I was 

asked to dinner at Court a few days later, when I 

was even more captivated by the Emperor's manner, 

and struck by the great decision he showed in 

referring to Eastern affairs which, at that moment, 

and for some months afterwards, fully absorbed 

the attention of the Great Powers. Most gratifying, 

too, was the interest evinced by the Emperor in 

our preparations for a final advance on Khartoum, 

and the admiration he expressed of the manner in 

which the Dongola campaign had been conducted. 


Public opinion throughout the civilised world 
was then still under the sinister impression of the 
Armenian massacres, which, beginning in 1895 with 
the atrocities committed in Armenia proper, had 
spread westwards, and had culminated in the abomi- 
nable scenes of bloodshed that took place in August 
1896 in the very capital of the Empire. The indig- 
nation aroused by these events had been reflected in 
an unanimity of reprobation not always to be noticed 
in the Powers interested in the affairs of the Levant, 
and had led, in December 1896, to an Anglo-Russian 
understanding as to assuring the execution of the 
reforms deemed indispensable in the Armenian dis- 
tricts of Turkey. This was one of the attempts to 
improve the condition of the subject races of that 
Empire, which, however honestly made at the outset, 
have been in turn defeated by the jealousy and dis- 
cord of those races themselves, or by the diverging 
aims of the Powers — to say nothing of the skill with 
which the least symptom of disaccord between them 
has been at once exploited at Yildiz Kiosk. On 
this occasion, however, a definite step had been taken 
by the assembling in a conference ad hoc of the 
Ambassadors to the Porte who, when I took up my 
duties at Vienna, were, as I have said, busy working 
out a general draft of the beneficial changes in view. 

Although the ambassadorial conference was pur- 
suing its labours harmoniously and without friction, 
there was still discernible at Vienna much of the 
old distrust of Russian designs in that quarter, and 
a corresponding anxiety to learn how far it was 
possible to rely on our Government not departing 
from its traditional policy in regard to the cardinal 
points — as they had been heretofore considered — of 
maintaining the status quo at Constantinople and in 


the Straits, in accordance with the provisions of the 
Treaty of Paris. The more immediate fear then enter- 
tained in Austrian Government circles was that renewed 
disturbances in the Turkish capital — whether these 
were provoked by the Armenian Committees, or other 
fanatical elements such as the Softas or the Young 
Turks — might, by imperilling the safety of the 
European communities, and even of the Embassies, 
afford to Russia a welcome pretext for a coup de 
main on that capital itself. On the other hand the 
Sultan was credibly reported to be highly irritated 
by the pressure put upon him by the Powers. On 
one occasion he had indeed exclaimed that sooner 
than be troubled again with these reforms he would 
call in the Russians and place himself in their hands. 

Coupled with these apprehensions was the uncer- 
tainty generally expressed, and shared in by eminent 
authorities like Count Kalnoky and M. de Kallay, 
as to whether, in such a sudden emergency, the other 
Powers could be counted upon to uphold the Treaties 
and put an effectual check on Russia. The general 
impression at Vienna was decidedly pessimistic ; 
even a statesman so inclined to optimism as Count 
Goluchowski — Count Kalnoky's successor at the 
Imperial Foreign Office — sharing in the gloomy view 
taken of the outlook in the East. It so chanced that, 
very shortly after my arrival, Count Goluchowski had 
been to Berlin, where he attended a Chapter of the 
Order of the Black Eagle, and was treated with marked 
distinction. He had returned thence to some extent 
imbued with the theories current there as to a com- 
plete change having taken place in our attitude in 
England towards the Near Eastern problems. He 
had heard it confidently asserted at Berlin that this 
change had been partly brought about by the dominant 



position we had recently acquired in Egypt having 
lessened our interest in the question of the control 
of the Straits, and in a still greater degree by the 
revulsion in public feeling towards our ancient ally 
and protege which, more or less dating from the 
Bulgarian atrocities, had now been revived by the 
persecution of the Armenians. In short, H.M.'s 
Government were represented as being compelled by 
the growing anti-Turkish sentiment essentially to 
modify their attitude in Eastern affairs. The object 
in view in propounding this theory was, of course, 
to sap still further the waning British influence with 
the Porte, and thereby to prepare the way for the 
gradual building up of that German preponderance 
at Yildiz Kiosk of which we are now witnessing the 
remarkable political and economic fruits. 

The scepticism which was at the same time openly 
and contemptuously professed or affected at Berlin as 
to Great Britain ever drawing the sword again, except 
in those petty quarrels to which her overgrown empire 
necessarily exposes her, had likewise not been without 
its effect in Vienna, and it was not easy under these 
circumstances to convince the Imperial Government 
that the fundamental lines of our policy in Eastern 
affairs remained unaltered and continued to rest on 
the Treaty of Paris. To this period of doubt and 
anxiety must in fact be assigned the new direction 
taken at Vienna in dealing with those vital Balkanic 
concerns on which Austria-Hungary, cast out as she 
has been from Germany and despoiled of Italy, now 
almost entirely concentrates her attention. 

The Imperial Government, in the fear that had 
been instilled into them of their possible isolation 
in the event of a sudden acute crisis on the Bosphorus, 
very naturally bethought themselves of the advantages 


of a direct understanding with the Power of whose 
designs they had been led to entertain somewhat 
exaggerated apprehensions. It was during the visit 
paid by the Emperor Francis Joseph to St. Petersburg, 
at the end of April of this year (1897), that the bases 
were laid for the general agreement with Russia on 
Balkanic affairs which still subsists, and has done 
much to further the cause of peace in Europe. In 
my opinion great credit is due to Count Goluchowski 
for his share in effecting this arrangement. It has 
worked very well on the whole, and, now that Russia 
is so hampered by the disastrous contest in the Far 
East, has necessarily led to a legitimate increase of 
the Austro-Hungarian influence in the Balkanic Penin- 
sula. Indeed it may almost be counted as one of the 
singular effects of that distant contest that henceforth 
the Dual Monarchy will have seriously to reckon at 
Constantinople, not so much with the weight of her 
colossal northern neighbour, as with that of her for- 
midable ally and predominant partner in the Triplice. 
So strangely has the Russo-Japanese war transformed 
for the time the elements of the nearer Eastern 
problem. Here, however, I feel that I am travelling 
somewhat out of the record and must put a check 
upon myself. 

As for my intercourse, both personal and official, 
with Count Goluchowski, it was of the most agreeable 
character throughout my four years' residence at 
Vienna. I ever found him, as did my colleagues, 
patient, obliging, and eminently conciliatory, while, 
on occasion, fully capable of holding his own. It 
would perhaps be out of place on my part to try 
my hand at a portrait of the statesman who, after 
upwards of ten years, still enjoys the unabated con- 
fidence of his Sovereign, and has become an essential 


factor in European politics, but on one marked charac- 
teristic I would, however, venture to touch. " A 
sanguine Sarmatian with the most perfect Parisian 
gloss," as he was once described, Count Goluchowski 
is essentially a statesman homme du monde, a type 
that tends more and more to vanish from the Great 
European Chancelleries. The fine reception-room at 
the Ball-Platz, 1 in which he works seated at a bureau 
that once was used by Prince Kaunitz, is replete 
with historical recollections, having been succes- 
sively tenanted by Metternich, Felix Schwarzenberg, 
Rechberg, and, last not least, by Kalnoky. It was, 
moreover, a pleasant resort for the diplomatist who, 
coming thither to exchange views or to carry out 
instructions, was grateful when arid political discus- 
sions were occasionally relieved by an amusing sally, 
or by some detail of social life at Vienna or elsewhere 
which showed how carefully the Minister kept himself 
informed of all that went on in the world around him. 
From Paris, where he had served for several years, 
and had enjoyed much popularity, Count Goluchowski 
had brought back the most charming of wives in Prin- 
cess Anna Murat, who did the honours of the Imperial 
Foreign Office with infinite tact and grace. 

In spite of the clouded political horizon, this first 
winter season we went through in the Kaiserstadt was 
very animated. There were the two customary Court 
balls, the Ho/ball and the Ball bei Hof, the delicate 
distinction implying that the first is a great official 
function, in full uniform, to which every one entitled 
to go to Court is bidden, while the second is much 
smaller and more select. The Hof ball was a splendid 

1 The name by which the Imperial Foreign Office — situated on the 
Ballhausplatz, so called from an old tennis-court, now pulled down — is 
known, as we say Downing Street of our Foreign Office. 


fete and most interesting as a sight, though necessarily 
ceremonious and fatiguing, especially the long diplo- 
matic cercle that preceded it, our Corps Diplomatique 
comprising an unusual number of persons — about 
one hundred and forty, not counting the ladies — who 
were nearly all in turn honoured with a word from the 
Emperor and the Archduchess Marie Josepha (wife of 
the Archduke Otto), who, in the absence of the Empress, 
did the honours of the Imperial Court. The immense, 
profusely-lighted ball-room into which we presently 
followed the Royalties, offered a brilliant coup oVceil. 
The family jewels of the great Austrian ladies are 
justly noted for their splendour, and the mass of varied 
uniforms, and, still more, the national Court dresses 
of the Hungarian magnates, and of a few Polish 
nobles, gave a striking touch of colour to the scene. 
Although smart, the Austrian military uniforms of the 
present day, however, are not to be compared with 
those I remember in old times, while no doubt far better 
adapted to active service. The Emperor went about 
indefatigably between the dances. Singling out the 
persons of mark with whom he wished to converse ; 
causing the debutantes at Court to be presented to 
him ; and now and again addressing a few words to 
one or other of us foreign representatives, he practi- 
cally got through as much business in the course of 
the evening as one of his Ministers in an ordinary 
day's work. 

There is no regular supper at these large State 
balls, the dancing coming to an end at midnight after 
a long cotillon, during which the wearied Ambassador, 
who has been on his legs since half-past seven, finds a 
corner where he can listen comfortably to the enchant- 
ing strains of the perfect band led by Eduard Strauss, 
almost the last of that gifted dynasty of composers of 


dance-music. As for the Ambassadresses, they are far 
better off than their husbands at these Court enter- 
tainments. Besides having a privileged bench of their 
own, they are asked in turn to sit by the presiding 
Archduchess on the dais occupied by the Imperial 
family, and afterwards adjourn with her and the other 
Archduchesses and a few Austrian Furstinnen of the 
highest rank to a sort of tea-supper. In fact the great 
distinction with which the wives of Ambassadors are 
treated at the Imperial Court often reminded me of a 
saying of the late Countess Apponyi, which I have, I 
fancy, already quoted elsewhere, that the only really 
enviable positions in diplomacy are those of an Attache 
and of an Ambassadress. Much the pleasantest of the 
Court entertainments was the Ball bei Hof which is 
strictly confined to the creme de la creme of the Vienna 
world, and, but for the stars and decorations of the 
men (Grands Cordons being, oddly enough, not worn 
on the occasion) is more like a magnificent private fete, 
only officers appearing at it in uniform. It is not 
preceded by a cercle, the Imperial family coming in — 
a pretty procession as at our own Court balls — 
when the guests have assembled. Before the cotillon 
there is an excellent sitting-down supper at which the 
Ambassadors are placed at the Archduchess Marie 
Josepha's table and their wives at that of the 

There were big balls, too, this winter at some of the 
principal Vienna houses, among others at the splendid 
Pallavicini Palais on the Josefs-platz which contains 
a perfect ball-room, and a brilliant fete was given by 
the Prime Minister, Count Badeni, at his official 
residence in the Wipplingerstrasse, which the Emperor 
honoured by his presence. This was a rare distinc- 
tion, and th.e fete — which struck me chiefly at the time 


by the almost painfully excessive electric lighting of 
the great suite of rooms — proved to be in some 
respects memorable ; preceding, as it did by only a 
few months, the sensational fall of the Premier 
who stood in such high favour with his Sovereign. 
Altogether, I think it may fairly be said that the fes- 
tivities in the houses of the Austrian aristocracy — such 
as the Liechtenstein, Harrach, and Auersperg Palaces 
— have a certain ancien regime air and stamp of their 
own which is probably only equalled by the hospi- 
talities of the historical princely families of Rome. 
So far as I know, this atmosphere is seldom met with 
elsewhere, however more recherche, luxurious, and 
lavish of display may be the dissipations of the Paris 
or London gay world. 

One of the duties we had to go through on our 
arrival was to apply for audiences of the several mem- 
bers of the Imperial family residing at Vienna, and 
these were not few in number. The audiences were 
generally appointed for the afternoon, and, in the case 
of Archduchesses, my wife was expected to go to them 
in full evening dress. But if the etiquette imposed was, 
to English ideas, somewhat strict and irksome, nothing 
could be more amiable and pleasing than the reception 
one met with. The kindly, genial manner, which finds 
its most perfect expression in the Emperor, is distinc- 
tive of the entire Imperial family with scarcely an 
exception. It is indeed traditional in the House of 
Ilabsburg, and in great measure explains the popu- 
larity the members of it have always enjoyed even at 
times of the greatest stress and difficulty. It is in 
accordance with the simple, cordial bearing, devoid 
either of distrust or servility, which extends through all 
classes down to the lowest, and, as the late Lord Lytton 
used to say, makes Austria the pleasantest of countries 


for a gentleman to live in. Even the proud, exclusive 
aristocracy, so careful to preserve its blue blood in its 
matrimonial alliances, and intolerant of attempts to 
force a way into its inner circle, is by no means so 
haughty and arrogant as it is sometimes represented 
to be, though it still no doubt keeps very much to itself, 
and is entirely free from certain traits too noticeable 
in our own society. The highest classes in Austria 
and Hungary have a well-bred dislike to anything like 
affectation or pose, and except on special occasions are 
averse to display. They lead simple lives in their 
great homes, care little for the pleasures of the table, 
and of more recent years show a decided preference 
for the private unnumerirter Fiaker over the family 
carriages, in which, in the old days I so well remember, 
they were driven in state up and down the Prater 

But I have strayed away from our audiences of the 
Imperial family. Perhaps the most interesting figures 
among them were the three widowed Archduchesses : 
Elizabeth, mother of the Queen of Spain and of the 
Archdukes Frederick and Eugene — a wonderfully 
handsome old lady, full of spirit and intelligence, 
who had played no uninteresting part in the history of 
the Imperial family — and the beautiful Marie Therese, 
of the House of Braganza, the Emperor's sister-in- 
law, who, since the death of her husband, the 
Archduke Charles Louis, has led a retired life in 
her palace in the Favoritenstrasse, but, as step- 
mother of the heir to the throne (the Archduke 
Francis Ferdinand), who is much attached to her, 
is a factor not without importance in the future of 
the Monarchy. I regret to have seen this gracious 
and fascinating lady only on the occasion of our 
audience of her, when she kept us for a long while 


and captivated us by her bright conversation and 
the winning charm of her manner. The third figure 
— historically the most interesting of all — was the 
Crown Princess Stephanie, then residing with her 
dear little daughter (the Archduchess Elizabeth, at 
that time quite a young girl) in the Hofburg under 
the wing of the old Emperor who was devoted to 
his grandchild. A kind, gaiety-loving Princess, with 
artistic tastes ; greatly to be pitied both as a wife 
and daughter, but one of those on whom, fortunately 
for themselves, the tragedies and mischances of life 
seem to leave outwardly but little trace. 

In somewhat dingy apartments at the old Palace of 
the Augarten — since renovated and in part rebuilt — 
dwelt the Archduke Otto, with his wife, the amiable 
Archduchess Marie Josepha, on whom mainly devolved 
the duties of representation at Court. In the equally 
distant Wieden was the Palace of the most genial per- 
haps of Imperial couples, the Archduke Rainer and his 
wife, both well advanced in years. One of the most 
accomplished of Austrian Princes, the kindly old 
Archduke takes a deep and active interest in science 
and art, is President of the Academy of Sciences and 
of the Geographical Institute, while at the same time 
doing essential service to the State by the efficiency 
to which, as its Commander-in-chief, he has brought 
the Landwehr, or Militia, a most valuable adjunct of 
the Austrian land forces. The last to be mentioned 
in this long list of Royal personages is the Emperor's 
youngest and only surviving brother, the Archduke 
Louis Victor, much the most rdpandu member of the 
family, and himself entertaining very pleasantly in 
his Palace on the Schwarzenberg Platz. The Arch- 
duke had always been well affected to the British 
Embassy, was a great friend of poor Milbanke's, and 


told not a few good stories of the late Lady Buchanan 
of whom the Vienna world had stood in some awe. 
I had known him as quite a young man in ancient 
Baden-Baden days, and was cordially greeted by him 
as an old acquaintance. 

It was only later on that we became acquainted 
with the most touching figure of the much tried 
Imperial house in the Archduchess Marie Valerie, the 
Emperor's youngest daughter and his Antigone, who 
came but seldom to Vienna from her lovely home 
at the Castle of Wallsee on the Danube. From the 
mother whose favourite companion she was the 
Archduchess has inherited the beautiful eyes and 
sweet low-pitched voice, with a play of counte- 
nance full of character and intelligence, which quite 
transforms somewhat irregular features, while her 
gentle, winning grace makes one well understand 
the comfort and peace which the much harassed 
monarch finds in her society. 

Before long we had a State function of our own 
in the formal ricevimento which is held by every 
Ambassador after his arrival at the Imperial Court, 
but in our case was retarded until April by the 
unfinished state of the Embassy House. These func- 
tions are entirely taken charge of by the Court, who 
issue an official notice that on two consecutive evenings 
the Ambassador will receive from nine till eleven. A 
piquet of cavalry is posted outside the Embassy door ; 
the staircase is lined with soldiers ; minor officials are 
sent by the Great Chamberlain's Department to an- 
nounce the visitors ; and two dignitaries of the Court 
— in our case Prince Clary and Aldringen and his 
wife, ne'e Princess liadzivill — are told off to present 
the company to the Ambassador and the Ambassadress 
respectively. The men of course are in full uniform 


as at a Court reception, and all the sommites of the 
Vienna world file past, some of the greatest ladies 
sitting down for a minute by the Ambassadress before 
passing on. It need scarcely be explained that the 
ceremonial observed is based on the fiction that the 
Ambassador is the direct representative of his Sove- 
reign, and, as such, entitled to quasi-Royal honours. 
At no Court is that fiction carried so far as at Vienna ; 
foreign representatives of Ambassadorial rank being 
placed in quite a separate category from the Envoys 
and Ministers, and taking precedence, even at other 
Embassies, of Austrians of the highest rank, an 
arrangement which not a little distressed me at first, 
and sometimes made difficult the placing of one's 
guests at great dinner parties. But enough of these 
official pomps and vanities. Ein Botschafter, a 
Viennese would say, ist ein sehr grosses Thier! 1 and 
so indeed he is occasionally ! 

1 An Ambassador is a very big animal (or beast). 



The taking stock, after an interval of many years, 
of friends and acquaintances in a society that had 
been so familiar to me as that of Vienna could not 
but be a melancholy experience. At first indeed I 
almost felt as though I belonged to an entirely 
defunct generation, and was a very Rip van Winkle 
among my colleagues, this dismal impression being 
strengthened by the fact that several of those 
whom I had most looked forward to meeting again 
had left the scene a relatively short time before. 
Foremost among these was Prince Richard Metter- 
nich, a friend of forty years' standing, with whom 
as a youth I had hunted in couples at Brighton — 
at the period when the Chancellor, his father, had 
taken refuge in England during the revolutionary 
winter of 1 848-49 1 — and of whom I had seen a great 
deal in after years at the Johannisberg and elsewhere. 
The name of the capable, warm-hearted, cool-headed 
Richard is bound up with the story of the Second 
Empire. He it was who, together with Count Nigra 
— whom I now met for the first time at Vienna — 
had escorted the Empress safely out of the Tuileries, 
on that memorable September day. He died eighteen 
months before my arrival at Vienna of premature decay, 
the very shadow, so I was told, of his former self. 

" Kecollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. p. 93. 


Another associate of the same period, Prince Alex- 
ander Schonburg-Hartenstein, had been carried off 
very unexpectedly in the preceding autumn. I first 
remember him as a playmate in Paris, where his 
accomplished mother — the sister of the statesman, 
Felix Schwarzenberg, and daughter of the unfortu- 
nate Ambassadress who was burnt to death at the 
fete given in 18 10 on the marriage of Marie Louise 
— had resided for some years in the reign of Louis 
Philippe. From his daughter, Comtesse Czernin, 
one of the most charming women in Austrian society, 
I learned that, just before his sudden end, he had 
heard of my appointment and much rejoiced over it. 
A man of much ability and of the highest character, 
Prince Schonburg was President of the Herrenhaus, 1 
or Upper Chamber, of the Reichsrath, and by his death, 
and that of Prince Richard Metternich, the Moderate 
Conservative Party in that House was deprived of two 
enlightened and influential members. 

A few months after my arrival I lost in Count 
Kalnoky another highly valued friend, my first ac- 
quaintance with whom dated back to the time when 
he formed part of Count Rodolphe Apponyi's Embassy 
in London in the sixties. Count Kalnoky had not 
very long before retired from the Imperial Foreign 
Department over which he had presided with great 
ability, a victim in great measure to one of those 
periodical waves of political passion in Hungary by 
which too many Austro-Hungarian statesmen have 
been swept from office. In tribute to his memory 
I may mention here a circumstance, showing his 
friendly remembrance of me, which came to my 
knowledge from an unimpeachable source when I 

1 Prince Schbnburg's third son is now Councillor to the Austro 
Hungarian Embassy in London. 


was still at The Hague. On our Embassy at Vienna 
becoming vacant a few years before, Count Kalnoky 
caused it to be privately hinted in Downing Street 
that he would be very pleased if the choice were to 
fall upon me to fill the post. In reply he was told 
that he would find me anything but easy to get on 
with {difficile a vivre). Notwithstanding the some- 
what harsh judgment passed upon me, he kindly 
returned to the charge, and said that he knew me 
quite well enough to be willing to incur the risk. 
Nevertheless, another Envoy, who was in every way 
junior to me, was selected instead of me for promotion. 

In spite of the many gaps, I soon felt at home again 
among the kindly Austrians, and found the Vienna 
world in most respects but little changed. The few 
salons, however, where, in old days, one could drop 
in of an evening in prima sera, as in Italy, had ceased 
to exist. The only one of such a character left was 
that of the Dowager Princess Dietrichstein, mother 
of the present Austro-Hungarian Ambassador at our 
Court. On most evenings the fine Palais on the 
Minoritenplatz, overlooking that quiet old - world 
square and the sombre church whence it takes its 
name — one of the few characteristic corners still left 
of fast vanishing Alt Wien — was open to a small 
and very select coterie of relatives and intimates. 
Here were generally to be found the old Princess's 
two sisters, Princess Hatzfeld and Countess Clam 
Gallas — the latter of whom to the end preserved much 
of her great beauty and all her charm — a foreign 
representative or two, or some members of the 
Liechtenstein, Hoyos, Khevenhuller, or other well- 
known families. Half-a-dozen or so in all — but the 
very pick of Vienna — gathered round a big polished 


table which was the central point of the sanctum on 
which a carping outside world had, in token of its 
inaccessibility and the serenity of its atmosphere, 
maliciously bestowed the appellation of L'Olympe. 

An interesting event which took place at the Die- 
trichstein Palais, not long after our arrival, was the 
marriage, solemnised in the private chapel with much 
state and eclat, of the daughter of the house, Comtesse 
Clotilde Mensdorff, with Count Albert Apponyi. The 
bridegroom, then already immersed in the politics of his 
country, has since taken so prominent a part in them 
that his figure is familiar to those who follow with any 
attention the intricate, disheartening course of affairs 
in the Dual Monarchy. I subsequently had oppor- 
tunities of getting to know Count Apponyi better at 
Pesth. To a strikingly handsome physique and bear- 
ing, this aristocratic leader — I had almost written 
tribune of the people — unites the rarest command 
of language and of languages. By common consent 
the most eloquent speaker in the Hungarian Parlia- 
ment, be would be able to address with equal fluency 
and effect a French, an English, or a German audi- 
ence. Unfortunately the views and aims he now 
professes may well, I permit myself to think, make 
this wonderful gift of his an element of danger for 
the country he worships, let alone for the Monarchy 
to which it is united by already sadly loosened ties. 
For, surely, the most recent events in Hungary show 
only too clearly that the party to which Count Apponyi 
now lends the prestige of his name and the magic of 
his eloquence, is — one would fain believe, uncon- 
sciously — impelling the Magyar State to the verge of 
a slope — the pente savonneuse of French parlance — - 
down which it can only glide to destruction, carrying 
with it the great Central European Empire. But I 


am touching here on questions which are somewhat 
beyond the scope of these pages, and, respecting 
which, any remarks I may have to offer will find a 
more appropriate place further on. 

To go back to my experiences of social Vienna on 
my return to it after such a lapse of years, I found the 
old Metternich house at the corner of the Rennweg, 
only a few doors away from our Embassy, tenanted by 
Prince Paul — the half-brother of the late Prince — 
with whom I had renewed the friendliest acquaintance 
some years before at Marienbad. The Metternich 
salon, presided over by handsome Princess Melanie 
and her thoroughly nice, unaffected daughter, was a 
real resource, especially for those who were musically 
inclined. Young Princess Pauline, or " Titi " — as she 
was generally known in a society much addicted to 
nicknames and diminutives — played the violin charm- 
ingly, and with the tours de force of Alfred Griin- 
feldt, a pianist of incomparable brio and agility, and 
the lovely mezzo-soprano of a very good-looking 
Baroness Bach — a niece by marriage of the Minister 
who, in the fifties, ruled the Monarchy with an iron 
hand — the musical evenings at the Palais Metternich 
were quite delightful. The house contained, too, 
some very interesting mementoes of the celebrated 
Chancellor. Unique among them was the magnifi- 
cent writing-table — a master-piece of ancient French 
decorative furniture — which had belonged to Choiseul, 
the Minister of Louis XV. and the ally of Madame de 
Pompadour, and had been brought from Paris by the 
Prince in Napoleonic days. There was a room, too, 
entirely panelled with the finest old mahogany sawn 
from a number of huge logs only recently discovered 
in a loft where they had lain forgotten since they 

HEBE 289 

came, as an offering to the Chancellor, on the signature 
of a treaty with some petty Transatlantic Republic. 
The most interesting treasure was a portrait of a 
daughter of the Prince by Sir Thomas Lawrence to 
which there attached a pretty story. Lawrence came 
to Vienna two or three years after the Congress, and, 
as the most fashionable portrait-painter of the day, 
was a welcome guest of the renowned statesman 
whom he had painted before both in London and at 
Aix la Chapelle. One day he came in some excite- 
ment to the Imperial Chancellerie on the Ballplatz 
where Metternich then resided. He had for some 
time past, he told the Prince, had it in his head to 
paint a picture of Hebe, but had sought in vain for 
a suitable model. That very morning he had met in 
the streets of the city a beautiful young girl, accom- 
panied by a governess or duenna, and evidently be- 
longing to the highest class, who was the perfect 
personification of the young goddess as he conceived 
her. He had followed her until she entered the 
grounds of a villa in the distant suburb of the Land- 
strasse beyond the glacis} Would it be possible, 
he inquired of the Chancellor, to trace this exquisite 
embodiment of his dream ? While he spoke, the 
divinity he was in search of entered her father's 
room ; the result being perhaps the loveliest portrait 
ever painted by the man to whom the most famous 
beauties of the age had all sat in turn. Poor Hebe 
died quite young — almost a child — leaving her sweet 
features and youthful grace to glow on the canvas in 
memory of the short day of her triumph. 

The most important member of the Metternich 

1 "Recollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. p. 258. The Villa Metter- 
nich, or rather the park in whieh it afterwards stood, was at that time 
entirely outside the town. 



family was still Princess Pauline, the widow of the 
late Prince Eichard, of whom I have fully spoken 
before in the first part of these Recollections. 1 Time 
had in no way diminished her social activity nor 
impaired her originality and her brilliant imagination. 
She had become, in the widest sense, the most popular 
of grandcs dames with the Vienna public, as she had 
been the most conspicuous of Ambassadresses in the 
salons of Paris. Most of her time and attention was 
devoted to the furthering of charitable and artistic 
undertakings which she had a special knack of com- 
bining with great skill and ingenuity ; doing an im- 
mense deal of good, and at the same time keeping all 
Vienna alive and amused by the prodigious charity 
fStes, fancy fairs and flower Corsos, which she took 
the lead in organising, and on which she lavished the 
resources of a mind ever fertile in new, though occa- 
sionally somewhat bizarre ideas. Assisted by dis- 
tinguished philanthropists like Count Wilczek and 
others, or the ever open-handed Rothschilds, together 
with a posse 'of artists and clever pressmen, she dis- 
pensed charity on a great scale and with such extra- 
ordinary success that her name cannot but remain 
enshrined as one of the great benefactresses of the 
Imperial city. After her husband's death she had 
built herself a charming petit hdtel on the Parisian 
model exquisitely furnished and decorated, in one of 
the new streets beyond the Botanical Garden, where, 
with her unmarried daughter, graceful, gentle Princess 
Clementine — the image of the calm, kindly Richard — 
she entertained her friends en petit comite, with the 
inexhaustible fund of humour, the same quaint, not 
seldom paradoxical, way of looking at things, which 
from her youth up had always made her the very best 
of company. 

1 " Recollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. pp. 237-239. 

"SOIREE A TftTES" 291 

One of her most intimate friends, Princess Rosa 
Croy, ne'e Comtesse Sternberg — an aunt of the writer 
of certain letters on the South African war which 
caused some stir at the time — was another of the 
most hospitable and accueillantes Vienna hostesses 
in her pretty house in the Schonburggasse. I re- 
member a very amusing party she gave in carnival 
time — a soiree a tStes, when all the guests, with the 
exception of an ancient dignitary or two, appeared 
either in fancy dress or with their heads and faces 
so dressed or made up as to defy recognition. 
The Archduke Louis Victor was thus disguised en 
rastaquouere, while Count Henry Larisch, so well 
known in the Shires, was admirably got up as 
Svengali in " Trilby." The greatest hit of the 
evening was a little old Bedouin chief, with tanned, 
brown skin, scrubby moustache, and a dingy white 
burnous and turban to match, whom nobody was at 
first able to make out; the illusion being still more 
complete when, at the end of the party, the man of 
the desert was seen seated on the stairs, smoking, in 
default of a tchibouk, a big cigar — a reprehensible habit 
in which too many of the Vienna ladies indulge — 
while calmly waiting for the carriage of Princess 
Clary, nee Radziwill, one of the cleverest and most 
agreeable women in Vienna. 

Quite new to me were the splendid houses built 
of recent years by Baron Albert and Baron Nathaniel 
Rothschild in the Wieden, whither they had migrated 
from the family home in the Renngasse, in the heart 
of old Vienna, where I had often formerly been the 
guest of their father Baron Anselm, but which is now 
entirely given up to the offices of the great banking 
establishment. Baron Albert's really beautiful abode 
in the Heugasse, full, like all the Rothschild houses, 


of magnificent objects, had seldom been opened since 
the death of his wife, Baroness Bettina, one of the 
Paris branch of the family, and by all accounts a 
thoroughly charming woman who, during her short 
married life, had found her way to the hearts of 
the nicest of the Vienna ladies and was universally 
popular and greatly regretted. A big dinner, how- 
ever, given by him in a room the whole of the lovely 
boiseries of which came out of some French eighteenth- 
century palace, struck me as one of the most perfect 
entertainments I was ever present at. 

The beau ideal, too, of luxury and comfort, stored 
with artistic treasures and standing in lovely grounds, 
was the house of Nathaniel, or "Natty," Rothschild, 
who had retired from the firm and devoted himself to 
art and charity, the latter of which he practised on a 
most munificent scale. The benefactions both public 
and, still more, private of the Rothschild clan in the 
several countries where they stand at the head of 
the financial world, are known to be enormous ; but 
few people are aware of the vast extent of their 
unrecorded donations, and the sums expended by 
" Natty " Rothschild on hospitals and other good 
works in a centre where of late years there has 
sprung up so malevolent a spirit towards his co- 
religionists, show him to be imbued with the very 
quintessence of charity. Here again, however, I 
come upon a subject to which I may have to 
return later on. Nothing could be more enjoyable 
than the small gatherings in his house in the 
Theresianumgasse, where — very different from the 
old days I could call to mind — one met a select few 
of the most distinguished and intelligent set of the 
Vienna world, and, after dinner, listened to the 
strains of a small private string band which was 


quite perfect of its kind. It is sad to think that 
the dispenser of these refined hospitalities is now a 
martyr to ill-health and is seldom to be seen in his 
Vienna home. 1 

One of the best shows in this essentially military 
country is the spring Parade of the troops quartered 
in and about Vienna, held every year by the Emperor 
in person. It takes place on the vast parade-ground 
known as the Schmelz quite close to the Palace of 
Schonbrunn. The first we witnessed of these military 
pageants was rendered more interesting even than 
usual by the presence of the German Emperor 
who was on a short visit to his Imperial neighbour 
and ally. The twenty thousand men or so who 
turn out on the occasion are drawn up in long dark 
lines — gone alas ! are the spruce white tunics of old — 
facing the saluting-base whence the Emperor will 
presently witness the march past. On this fine 
April morning no prettier sight could be imagined 
than this martial display. We had to make an early 
start from town to get to the ground in good time, 
the Emperor, who is punctuality itself, being due 
there before ten o'clock. The interminable road 
through the streets of Margarethen and Mariahilf was 
crowded with vehicles of all kinds, but at sight of 
my Jiiger's white plumes z way was made for us at 
once by the police all along the line, and we drew 
up in the first row of the carriages that faced the 
immense open space and the troops massed in the 
distance beyond it some time before the first bars of 

1 Since the above was writ ten Baron Nathaniel de Itothschild has 
died, bequeathing munificent Bums for charitable purposes. 

1 AmbaBsadora at Vienna all have a body-servant, known as the Jdgm 
or Chasseur, wearing a green uniform with a cocked hat and feathers 
which insures their cutting through any string of carriages. 


Haydn's " Gott erhalte" told of the approach of the 
Emperor from Schonbrunn ; H.M. with a small suite 
joining the Archdukes and the numerous mounted 
staff who were awaiting him. There then followed 
an ever-lengthening pause, and people began to look 
at their watches until, at least half-an-hour after the 
time appointed for the review, Kaiser Wilhelm, belated 
by some misunderstanding as to the hour, at last 
arrived from the Vienna Hofburg. 

The splendid many-hued body of horsemen now 
moved on diagonally across the ground, the Emperor 
Francis Joseph, with the figure of a man of thirty, 
and a seat which the youngest and smartest officers 
in his army might well envy, riding a few yards 
ahead. On his right was his Imperial guest, 
not looking to the best advantage in a hussar 
uniform with a cumbersome white, embroidered 
dolman which, for the fine horseman he is known 
to be, gave him a bunchy, awkward look in the 
saddle. There was certainly a marked contrast be- 
tween the two Sovereigns. The glittering swarm 
of riders — princes, generals and aides-de-camp by 
the dozen, with numerous foreign military attache's 
— among whom my friend Wardrop was conspicuous 
by the British scarlet and smartness of his turn-out — 
made a wonderfully bright picture as they cantered 
leisurely across the field. As soon as the extreme 
right of the line had been reached, the Emperor was 
received with a royal salute, the bands struck up, one 
after another, the national anthem, and a long and 
minute inspection took place of the forces assembled. 
When this was completed, the brilliant cortege returned 
to the saluting-point and the march past commenced. 
The easy elastic tread and excellent dressing of the 
infantry could not but strike even a civilian, and 


contrasted curiously with the peculiar, forced step — 
a parade drill recently introduced from Berlin — which 
they fell into when immediately passing the Emperor, 
and over which some of my old Austrian military 
friends shook their heads rather disparagingly. This 
was particularly noticeable when the dapper little 
Kaiser-jager — the flower of loyal Tyrol — came up, 
with their free swinging stride, to the sound of the 
Andreas Hofer march, and then suddenly, as they 
got within a few yards of the Sovereign, took to 
the cramped, artificial motion aforesaid. Very fine 
were the Bosnian battalions wearing the red fez and 
short Oriental jacket. Perhaps the most striking 
figure of all, however, was that of the Archduke 
Otto, heading his own regiment of Uhlans, a very 
paladin in appearance, and the best-looking cavalry 
officer in the Imperial forces. It was altogether a 
very fine sight, and much interested me, for I 
had not seen any large body of Austro-Hungarian 
troops since the day when the last honours were 
rendered to the victor of Custozza and Novara. 
Many years lay between then and now, and with 
them the mournful memories of Sadowa. 

With the exception of the slight untoward incident 
referred to above, the visit of the German Emperor 
passed off most satisfactorily. It was significant, and 
was no doubt intended to be so, as an affirmation 
on the very eve of the Austrian Emperor's departure 
for St. Petersburg, of the unimpaired vitality of the 
alliance between the Dual Monarchy and Germany. 
Certain Germanophile organs of the Vienna press 
professed indeed to see more in it, asserting that a 
renewal of the old Drei Kaiserbund was now close 
at hand, and that the Western Powers would hence- 
forth have to reckon, in all questions that depended 


on the European concert and more particularly the un- 
conditional recognition of the integrity of the Turkish 
Empire, with the superior will of the three closely 
leagued Imperial Powers. This foreshadowing of a 
new Holy Alliance devoted to the bolstering up of 
the Grand Turk was quite a curiosity in its way. 

In sober earnest there was ample matter for 
consultation between the allied Sovereigns at this 
conjuncture. To the Armenian troubles had succeeded 
the Cretan and Greek imbroglios. The condition of 
Crete had for months past been a source of anxiety 
to the Great Powers. Schemes for a reform of the 
evils by which the island was afflicted had long 
been debated at Constantinople between the Porte 
and the Ambassadors, and, under great pressure, the 
Sultan had been induced to consent to the appoint- 
ment of a Christian Governor and to a renewal of 
the old Halepa pact which had formerly afforded 
certain guarantees to the Christian element of the 
population. The promises extracted from the Sultan 
were, however, very imperfectly carried out. A 
chronic state of warfare continued between the 
scattered Turkish garrisons and the insurgent bands, 
the latter receiving arms and reinforcements from 
Greece through the agency of the Cretan Committee 
and the powerful secret organisation known as the 
Ethnike Hetairia. The readiest means of pacifying 
the Island would have been an effective blockade 
of its coasts, and this measure — to which the Powers 
were later on obliged to resort— had, to do him 
justice, been strongly advocated by Count Golu- 
chowski and somewhat contemptuously dismissed by 
Lord Salisbury. 

Before long, however, the imprudent action taken 


in February 1897 by the Greek Government in 
despatching a torpedo flotilla under Prince George 
and an expeditionary corps commanded by General 
Vassos, precipitated matters and compelled the 
Powers to intervene, in the interests of the general 
peace of the Levant, and indeed of Europe. The 
course pursued by the Greek Government was an 
almost exact reproduction of that which I too well 
remembered their following under the same Premier 
some ten years before, with this difference that, by 
the Vassos expedition, they made a futile attempt 
to create a fait accompli. A marked division of 
opinion soon manifested itself among the Powers as 
to the mode of dealing with the recalcitrant Hellenes. 
Should Greece be coerced again as she had been 
before, under almost parallel circumstances, or should 
she be left to take the consequences of the hazardous 
enterprise on which she had embarked? The latter 
view prevailed in the end. The project of a blockade 
of the seaboard of the Kingdom, which was urged 
by the Northern Powers — Germany taking the lead 
in it — was abandoned in view of our opposition to 
it, for without England there could be no blockade. 
On the other hand the Cretan waters were strictly 
guarded by an international squadron which landed 
forces for the occupation of Canea, and, on our 
initiative, the bases of Cretan autonomy were laid 
down, and, after much discussion, it was finally 
agreed to send military contingents of each of the 
Powers to occupy the Island. 

The Porte meanwhile had made formidable pre- 
parations and assumed a threatening attitude, and 
mediation was attempted at Athens with the object 
of preventing the outbreak of war. To the indis- 
pensable condition laid down, however, of the recall 


of Vassos, the most stubborn resistance was offered 
by the Greek Government, and it was only in May, 
after the first crushing disasters of the war, and on 
the intimation that nothing would be done to pre- 
vent a Turkish advance upon Athens, that orders 
were sent to the ill-starred expeditionary corps to 
evacuate their untenable positions. On this occasion 
President Faure is reported to have sent a message 
to King George to the effect that H.M. ought to 
find some consolation in the thought that he had 
acquired " une hypotheque qui lui assurait Vavenir" 
— a prognostication which thus far, and, in my humble 
opinion, unfortunately, has not been realised. 

For me, with my Greek experiences, the long 
and difficult crisis that preceded the outbreak of 
this regrettable war naturally had a more direct 
personal interest than for my colleagues. I was all 
through it in constant communication with the 
Greek representative, M. Manos, for whom I ac- 
quired a sincere regard, and with my old friend 
and colleague Mr. Egerton 1 at Athens, respecting 
the means of warding off a conflict which might 
bring with it grave consequences for the King and 
the dynasty. In the end it was mainly due to the 
anxiety felt equally by all the Powers to shield King 
George that the short struggle was fought out en 
champ clos, the marshals of the lists calling a truce as 
soon as the Greek champion seemed to be getting the 
worst of it. It would, I believe, be difficult to over- 
state the extent to which solicitude for the King 
and his family has acted as an aegis for Greece at 
the most critical periods of her recent history. 

After the war came lengthy negotiations for the 
settlement of Crete and the choice of its future 

1 Now the Right Honble. Sir Edwin Egerton, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. 


governor. It might not be unamusing to give a 
list of the numerous candidates proposed for the 
office, and eliminated in succession out of regard for 
the susceptibilities of one or other of the Powers, 
before Prince George of Greece received his mandate. 
Respecting one of them, the late M. Droz, a dis- 
tinguished Swiss Federal Councillor whom I had 
known at Berne, but whose experience, as an able 
administrator in the best ordered of communities, 
scarcely seemed to fit him for dealing with a tur- 
bulent and lawless population emerging from Turkish 
slavery, I was tempted to commit in one of my 
despatches a feeble pleasantry — a heinous offence at 
all times in the eyes of the Foreign Office — by 
writing that in the land of the legislator Minos, 
M. Droz' chief qualification would perhaps be the 
Christian name he bore of Numa. 

Of the fellow-Ambassadors with whom I worked 
during the crisis, I have already paid an affectionate 
tribute to my friend the late Count Kapnist, whose 
services to his Government at Vienna can scarcely 
be over-estimated. I would nevertheless mention 
here that in the very open talks we often had, he 
frankly manifested his doubts of the wisdom of the 
policy of expansion in the Far East upon which 
Russia was then entering. He has been spared much 
in not living to witness the fatal consequences which 
he appeared almost instinctively to have foreseen. 

The most interesting personality among my col- 
leagues was Count Nigra, who besides being our doyen, 
could claim to be senior to all the Ambassadors then 
serving at the great Courts. A favoured disciple of 
Cavour, he had for nearly half a century taken an 
active part in all the political transactions that 
affected the country which, in his time, had grown 


from small, sturdy Piedmont into united aspiring 
Italy. To a diplomatic experience which was un- 
rivalled, he united unusual tact and a rare under- 
standing of those he had to deal with. From St. 
Petersburg and London he had been transferred to 
Vienna, where he had immensely improved relations ; 
successfully smoothing down troublesome questions 
too apt to arise out of the ambitions of the Irredenta 
party, the divided ownership of the Adriatic, or spheres 
of influence in the Balkanic peninsula. The Italian 
Ambassador had now been at Vienna twelve years 
and equally enjoyed the full confidence of his own 
Sovereign and of the monarch to whom he was ac- 
credited. The most brilliant epoch of his life had 
of course been when, as still quite a young man, 
he had been selected by Cavour for the delicate 
functions of Sardinian Minister to the French Im- 
perial Court. At the Tuileries he had been an especial 
favourite, and even in his old age he retained great 
traces of the good looks and gallant bearing that 
had stood him in such good stead in Paris, and to 
which a Subalpine accent and way of pronouncing 
certain letters in French added a piquant trait. In 
Count Nigra I found a kindly and trusty colleague 
by whose sage counsel I often benefited. He has 
now retired from the old Palffy Palais which he 
rented in the Josephsplatz, to a sunny home over- 
looking the Pincio, whither I send him a cordial 
greeting on this page with the expression of the 
hope that he is engaged on the memoirs he was 
then preparing, and which will surely be a contribu- 
tion of surpassing interest to the history of the last 

At the French Embassy in the stately Lobkowitz 
Palais I found, on my arrival, M. Lozd, ex-Prefect of 


Police, a cordial, capable man, who soon left diplomacy 
for a seat in the Senate. M. Loze is somehow associ- 
ated in my memory with the late King Milan of Servia, 
with whom he was on very friendly terms, having, 
when he was responsible for the safety of the French 
metropolis, done the ex-King a good turn in some 
difficulty he had got into there. On his frequent 
incognito visits to Vienna, King Milan never failed 
to call at the French Embassy. I heard a good deal 
about him and his views and schemes from my col- 
league, who had a high opinion of his capacity. Milan 
bitterly regretted his abdication, and fearing for his 
weakly, inexperienced son, to whom he was much 
attached, was prepared, had he lived longer, to resume 
an active part in the affairs of Servia as the power 
behind the throne. In this design he could have 
counted on the army with which he was popular, and 
but for his premature death, the world would probably 
have been spared the most hideous massacre of modern 
times, of which, it is satisfactory but sad to think, our 
King and Government have alone manifested adequate 

InM. Lozd's successor, the Marquis de Reverseaux, 
who was a diplomatist of much experience, I had a 
very pleasant and interesting colleague who soon 
proved a valuable resource in our small diplomatic set. 
His staff before long acquired a notable addition in the 
Military Attached Marquis de Laguiche and his wife, 
a daughter of Prince Auguste d'Arenberg — well known 
in England as the Chairman of the Suez Canal Com- 
pany — and niece of Louis d'Arenberg whose brutal 
murder at St. Petersburg I have recounted elsewhere. 1 
A most charming, spirituelle woman, she and her 
husband imported as it were a fine fleur du Faubourg 

1 " Recollections of a Diplomatist," vol. ii. pp. 275-278. 


St. Germain element not often to be met with nowa- 
days in French Embassies. Being also nearly related 
to several of the great Austrian families, Mme. de 
Laguiche had quite a special position in Vienna 

If the Italian Ambassador was the most interesting 
of my colleagues, my opposite neighbour, Count Philip 
Eulenburg, was certainly the most important. In him 
the distinctive representative character of the Ambas- 
sador as alter ego of his Sovereign was nowise a fiction, 
for when he had occasion to speak at the Ballplatz on 
any urgent matter, his voice was that of his Imperial 
master — through the telephone. I saw a good deal 
of Count Eulenburg, who at that time stood high in 
favour at Berlin, and more than once, while sitting 
talking to him, have known him to be " rung up " 
from the highest quarters. He has great artistic 
tastes and aptitudes, and has written a charming cycle 
of songs entitled " Rosenlieder." He could be a very 
pleasant companion, and both socially and, I believe, 
politically, served his Government at a very difficult 
post, with much tact and ability. Seconded by his 
wife, an amiable Swedish lady, and their bright, cheery 
daughters, he made his splendid Embassy house a great 
centre of hospitality. I am inclined to think, how- 
ever, that he rather unwisely overdid certain Biera- 
bende at which he gathered once a week distinguished 
artists, literary men, and members of the Reichsrath. 
These decidedly interesting informal men's parties 
afforded the ill-disposed a pretext for saying that the 
Embassy was a rallying-point for disaffected deputies 
with Pan-German proclivities. He was nevertheless 
decorated with the Grand Cross of St. Stephen — a high 
distinction which he owed, it was said, to the adroitness 
he showed in effacing the painful impression caused 


at Vienna not long before by the revelation of Prince 
Bismarck's Ruchversicherungs Vertrag with Russia. 
Shortly afterwards his own Sovereign raised him to 
the rank of Prince. 

Among my many other colleagues I found in the 
Bavarian Envoy, Baron de Podewils, a remarkably 
shrewd and competent observer of the sadly compli- 
cated affairs of the Empire, and a most agreeable man 
to boot. He has since become Prime Minister in his 
own country, and, judging by the extremely soignes 
little dinners he and his clever, lively wife used to 
give in a quaint miniature Palais in the Josefstadt, 
the Diplomatic Corps at Munich may well be congratu- 
lated on his appointment. I should be forgetful were 
I to omit in this lengthy enumeration mention of the 
Roumanian Envoy, M. Ghika, and his artistic wife, who 
liberally contributed to Vienna social life by frequent 
and interesting concerts and amateur theatricals. My 
Roumanian colleague had a curious experience when 
he was a student at Paris, having been enrolled in 
one of the battalions of the Mobiles and fought during 
the great siege against the German invaders. What 
I could never quite understand was why, during the 
Boer war, the otherwise friendly Ghikas should sud- 
denly have developed violent Anglophobe sentiments. 

While, all through the spring, war and the patching 
up of peace engrossed the attention of European dip- 
lomacy, happy England was wholly engaged in pre- 
parations for commemorating the Queen's Diamond 
Jubilee. I was placed in some difficulty in this matter, 
as compared with many of H.M.'s representatives 
abroad, by the peculiar character of the, by no means 
numerous, British community whom I was of course 
most anxious to associate with the celebration by the 


Embassy of so eminently national an event. It was 
almost entirely made up of governesses and teachers, 
with a certain number of musical and other students 
of both sexes, a few electrical engineers, some gasfitters, 
and a trainer or two. The most praiseworthy loyalty was, 
however, evinced by even the humblest of them. In 
approved British fashion, they formed a Jubilee Com- 
mittee presided over by our distinguished Consul- 
General, Hitter von Schoeller, an Austrian industrial 
magnate of the highest standing, and now a member 
of the Upper Chamber of the Reichsrath. Besides 
preparing a dutiful address to the Queen, which was 
inclosed in a handsome casket of the best Vienna 
workmanship, they raised a fund for the purchase of a 
new organ (sorely needed) for the Embassy Chapel, 
and for the placing there of a stained glass window 
in commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee. 

There was of course an official thanksgiving service 
which we all attended in uniform, and the following 
evening a charity fete,, in favour of the British relief 
fund and the Governesses' Home, took place at Venedig 
in Wien in the Prater — the Olympia of the Austrian 
capital — in the course of which my wife was asked to 
drive the last bolt into the Great Wheel just erected there 
by an English Company. On the Jubilee day itself 
the whole Jubilee Committee dined with us, our party 
being reinforced by the Dowager Countess Liitzow, nee 
Seymour, mother of the present Austrian Ambassador 
in Italy, and — to give a thorough Anglo-Saxon finish 
to the proceedings — by the United States Charge 
d Affaires, Mr. Townsend, and his attractive wife, who 
is well known in London society. 

As for the difficult question of dealing with the 
community at large, it had been triumphantly solved 
by an announcement in the Vienna papers that " the 


Ambassador and Lady Rumbold " would be " at home 
in the evening to all members of the British Colony," 
supplemented by the distribution through the Con- 
sulate-General of cards of invitation for all whose 
names and addresses could be ascertained. Of the 
many functions with which I have been in any way 
concerned, this turned out, I think, the most satis- 
factory and at the same time the most uncommon 

I can remember. The Embassy House was of course 
en grand gala, brilliantly illuminated both inside and 
out, with Drescher's excellent band playing in the ball- 
room. I and my staff and that of the Consulate- 
General were in full uniform, my wife and our dinner 
guests being also en grande toilette. In curious con- 
trast with these surroundings there began to pour in 
at nine o'clock a stream of nice, somewhat shy ladies 
in the simplest of evening attire, not a few in plain 
morning gowns, with a sprinkling of men mostly in 
every-day clothes, until the rooms were filled by a 
crowd of people — containing, to use a slang adjective 
of the day, one or two decidedly weird figures — few 
of whom either my wife or I knew even by sight, 
but whom, as they arrived, we cordially welcomed in 
true White House fashion. The dining-room was then 
thrown open and all our guests went in to supper, 
in the course of which a well-timed telegram, for 
which I had arranged with a friend at the Foreign 
Office, was brought to me, and I was able to announce 
the close of the Queen's triumphant progress through 
London. Enthusiastic cheers followed the announce- 
ment ; the Queen's health was drunk and the National 
Anthem sung by the whole assembled company ; and by 
the time I had shaken hands with, and toasted, Baron 

II Natty's " veteran trainer, Mr. Butters, I felt that T 
had done the best I could under the circumstances. 



That morning I had received from Lord Salisbury 
a telegram announcing that the Queen had been 
pleased to confer upon me the Grand Cross of the 
Bath, but the most gratifying event of a successful 
day was the visit of the Emperor, who came, just 
before luncheon, in the uniform of his regiment (the 
King's Dragoon Guards), and wearing the ribbon 
of the Garter, personally to congratulate me on this 
auspicious occasion. H.I.M. stayed with us for some 
time, speaking of the Queen, as he always did, with 
great regard and admiration, and afterwards touching 
on some of the current topics of the hour. I received 
so short a notice of the Emperor's gracious intention, 
that I barely had time to put on my uniform and collect 
my staff for his reception. 

It was no secret that the Emperor had been 
anxious to attend the Jubilee in person, and it is 
deeply to be regretted that he was prevented from 
doing so by the doubts felt by the Queen's advisers as to 
whether she would be equal to the strain of receiving 
crowned heads, whose presence would necessarily in- 
volve more ceremony and consequent fatigue. There 
may have been other motives for the decision taken, 
but it was unofficially made known to all the principal 
Courts some time before the Jubilee. In Austria 
it became a question of some importance which of 
the Princes of the Imperial House should be deputed 
to represent the Emperor. The Archduke Francis 
Ferdinand, as the eldest son of the late Archduke 
Charles Louis, and next in succession to the throne, 
of course seemed the fittest representative of his 
august uncle. For some time past, however, the 
state of H.I.H.'s health had caused considerable 
anxiety. He had wintered in the south, mostly at 


Ajaccio in Corsica, and a notion, which happily soon 
proved to be unfounded, prevailed that he was almost 
to be looked upon as a confirmed invalid. During 
his prolonged absence his younger brother the Arch- 
duke Otto had been put forward a good deal on 
official occasions, and had accompanied the Emperor 
on his recent journey to St. Petersburg. He had thus 
come to be so generally regarded as the eventual 
heir that the return of his elder brother, in greatly 
improved health, gave rise to much idle speculation 
as to the outcome of what was assumed to be a 
rather painful situation. So sincere, however, was 
the mutual affection of the two brothers, that, as far 
as they themselves were concerned, no difficulty was 
to be apprehended. In fact I remember, when dining 
at the Augarten, being impressed by the manner in 
which the Archduke Otto referred to the excellent 
news that reached him about his brother, and his 
telling me how eagerly he looked forward to his 
speedy return. Soon after his arrival the Archduke 
Francis Ferdinand simply resumed the position to 
which he was entitled, and early in June was selected 
to represent the Emperor in London. 

The choice made of him gave me the opportunity 
of an audience of H.I. and R.H., who occupied a 
small Palace in the Reisnerstrasse, whence he after- 
wards removed to the much more dignified Belvedere. 
He received me most courteously, and conversed with 
me for a long time in German, evincing much intelli- 
gence as well as a real interest in general affairs, to 
a study of which he is known to have since applied 
himself assiduously. The Archduke, although less 
strikingly handsome than his younger brother, is a 
very good-looking man, with a somewhat pensive cast 
of countenance. His greatest passion is sport, and 


he is accounted one of the finest shots in a country 
remarkable for its sportsmen. Leading of late a 
comparatively retired and happy domestic life, but 
little is really known about him to the general 
world, which does not prevent much being said of, 
or attributed to him. He is, probably correctly, re- 
puted to have decided opinions, and has certainly 
given proof of a strong will and a tenacious dis- 
position, and, whenever the mournful day comes of 
a vacancy in the throne, he is certain to grasp the 
reins of government with no feeble hand. 

AmoDg the many things that were some years ago 
currently reported of H.I. and R.H., it was said that 
his sentiments towards the Hungarians as a nation 
were not of the most cordial. This is a delicate point 
to touch upon, but I think I may without indiscretion 
relate what I gathered on the subject during my last 
day at Pesth in May 1900. I had then some highly 
interesting conversations with the Premier of that 
day, M. de Szell, a statesman of much judgment and 
perspicacity who may, it is to be hoped, again do 
good service to his country and to the Crown. The 
perennial question of the economic relations between 
the two halves of the Monarchy had brought about 
at the time a more than usually acute crisis. The 
Archduke Francis Ferdinand had just passed through 
Pesth, on his way to some shooting on the Lower 
Danube, and had had a long interview with M. de 
SzeTl, who of his own accord told me that he had 
been greatly impressed by the quickness and intelli- 
gence of the Archduke and by his charm of manner. 
The very friendly tone in which the Premier spoke of 
the Archduke quite excluded the idea of his looking 
upon him as ill-disposed towards his future Hungarian 


Still, I must again repeat, the heir to the throne 
is relatively so little known that it would be as pre- 
sumptuous to express any judgment of him, as it is 
to attempt to forecast the future in which he is 
destined to play so important a part. Whenever, 
therefore, questions are put to me, as they frequently 
are, about the Archduke, I can only say that he is 
as yet almost an unknown quantity. And indeed 
he must be so by force of circumstance. Having at 
the age of twenty-six so unexpectedly become heir- 
apparent by the tragical end of his brilliant and 
accomplished cousin, he was in very small degree 
prepared for the high destiny that awaits him, and 
for which he has since been sedulously fitting him- 
self. He has, therefore, as it were, to feel his way, 
and above all to maintain a strict reserve. So pro- 
found, too, is the deference for the Emperor felt by 
all the members of his House, that it is hardly con- 
ceivable that the Prince who stands nearest to the 
throne should allow his personal views and opinions 
to pass beyond the threshold of his private circle. 
The Archduke, therefore, and, like him, the future of 
a much distracted Monarchy, may be best described 
in German parlance as " ein grosses Fragezeichen " 
(a big sign of interrogation). 



Of our representatives abroad none can have a more 
splendid or more varied playground than the fortu- 
nate occupant for the time being of H.M. Embassy 
at Vienna. Without leaving his post he may roam 
at leisure over some of the fairest regions of Central 
Europe, from the broad plains and sombre forests of 
Bohemia in the north, to Styrian and Tyrolese moun- 
tains, or far down south to Istria and the blue waters 
of the Adriatic. Eastwards there comes within his 
purview the whole of the great semi-oriental Magyar 
realm ; or, pushing northward again, the bleak, 
marshy Galician plateau where, under the easy Habs- 
burg sway, some seven million Poles breathe freely 
and contentedly, leaving it to their less fortunate 
brethren across the border to indulge in sad and 
hopeless dreams of national resurrection. And where- 
soever he may direct his steps across the big, motley, 
polyglot Empire, he is sure to find friendly, hospitable 
races, which, whatever their mutual antagonism and 
the diversity of their origin, have all in common a 
trait of simple unaffected kindliness that can only 
be accurately expressed by the untranslatable word 
Gemuthlichkeit. Unfortunately for him the Ambas- 
sador is usually too much tied down to his work 
thoroughly to explore the manifold beauties of his 
diplomatic domain, and such was certainly the case 


with me during my brief tenure of the Embassy House 
in the Metternichgasse. 

I was seldom able to leave Vienna before August, 
by which time it had, more even than most capitals, 
become a city of the dead ; even the small bourgeoisie 
and shop-keeping class taking refuge from the heat 
and dust in the countless villa residences and cottages 
nestling close at hand on the nearer slopes of the 
lovely Wienerwald, or in pleasant villages like Hiet- 
zing, Dornbach, or New-Waldegg, with cheerful Garten- 
wirthschaften where some Lanner or Strauss of the 
future led a spirited band. The environs of the great 
city are indeed gay and charming, though to reach 
them otherwise than by suburban trains one has to 
drive through long, ugly, straggling faubourgs, over 
rough pavement intersected by tram-lines, a sore trial 
to one's horses' feet and to the rubber tyres of one's 
carriage. Nowhere better than from the heights of 
the Kahlenberg does one realise the beauties of 
Vienna's surroundings. The great town lies stretched 
out before one, backed by the forest-clad range of 
the Wienerwald and the distant Styrian Alps beyond 
it, the majestic spire of St. Stephen's soaring high 
above the countless roofs. But for the wide girdle 
of suburbs round the now dismantled inner city, 
and the many factories that deface its outskirts, the 
prospect is much the same as that on which Sobieski 
and his fellow-commanders gazed before their vic- 
torious assault on the besieging Turkish host, when, 
writing to his " Marysienka," the hen-pecked Polish 
hero announced that he had that evening supped in 
the tent of Kara Mustapha. My colleague Nigra 
generally took up his summer quarters on this much- 
frequented hill, and one day I was taken by the 
Nestor of diplomatists to visit, in a secluded spot 


among some neglected shrubberies, the grave of the 
celebrated Field Marshal Prince de Ligne who, 
dying in 1 8 14, at the age of eighty, while the 
Congress of Vienna was at its height, had expressed 
the wish to be buried in full view of the city he 
had loved so well. I remember my aunts mention- 
ing him to me as one of the celebrities they had 
known at that most historical of diplomatic gather- 
ings — not an ordinary link with the past, considering 
that the old Marshal was born upwards of a century 
and three-quarters before the year in which these 
lines are penned. 

When at last we took our holiday, we began it 
at Marienbad, whither we had for some years past 
gone regularly from The Hague. Of the various 
health resorts I am acquainted with it is the one I 
decidedly prefer. English people flock to it now, 
and, by yearly becoming more and more the fashion, 
it is fast losing its pristine character. When I first 
saw the place — in 1892 I think — its ways were still 
quite simple and unconventional. In the crowds that 
went patiently past the Kreuzbrunnen in single file, 
and afterwards tramped virtuously up and down the 
promenade, I scarcely recollect half-a-dozen persons 
of British nationality. That first year the Dowager 
Lady Radnor, with Mrs. Scott-Gatty, Lord and Lady 
Romney, the Francis Newdegates, and dear old Sir 
" Billy " Russell and his wife, were among the few 
English of any note that I can call to mind. That 
same year, too, it was that I renewed my acquaint- 
ance of upwards of forty years' standing with Prince 
Paul Metternich. The Metternich seat of Konigs- 
wart, with its shady grounds and gardens — in which 
an obelisk commemorating a visit made by the 
Emperor Francis to his Chancellor is a conspicuous 


feature — and its adjoining inclosed Thiergarten, or 
deer park, now thrown open and partly turned into 
building lots, has always been the most hospitable 
of resorts for visitors to Marienbad. 

At the popular Bohemian watering-place I again 
came across the young Due d'Orldans, whom I had 
not seen since he was staying at Government House 
in Bombay in 1888, on his way to undergo a military 
apprenticeship under our colours with a battalion of 
the Rifle Brigade. This was of course long before 
certain unfortunately indiscreet manifestations which 
H.R.H. has no doubt since sincerely regretted. The 
Prince can be, it is said, a grand charmeur, and 
has certainly about him a knot of devoted adherents 
who form part of what is best in French society. For 
several years he was a regular habitue of Marienbad, 
where he took tremendously long walks over the 
hills, and thought nothing of a tramp of thirty odd 
miles to Carlsbad between breakfast and dinner. A 
still more indefatigable walker, by-the-by, was breezy 
Sir John Fisher — now our eminent First Sea Lord at 
the Admiralty — whose acquaintance I first made at 
Marienbad. The presence of the exiled chef de la 
maison de France no doubt contributed to attract 
a good many French people, and amongst them 
Comtesse Mdlanie Pourtales and Mrs. Standish, nee 
des Cars, than whom French society never produced 
two more charming ladies. Of this French coterie 
not the least interesting figure was General de 
Galliffet, the finest cavalry leader of Imperial France 
and the hero of the desperate charge at S^dan. 
He was to be seen here year after year, wearing 
the roughest country clothes ; the broadest-brimmed 
of sombreros shading the keen face with the fiery 
eyes and eagle nose ; a large cape thrown carelessly 


over the shoulder of his spare gaunt figure, giving him 
the air of one of the grand old fighters of the days 
of the Ligue. The General is withal a most original 
causeur, of a caustic wit, and, among his countrymen, 
England has no better friend than the Marquis de 

We went on from Marienbad for a so-called 
Nachkur to the baths of Gastein, to which, in spite 
of the wild beauty of the scenery, I took a positive 
dislike. The constant roar of the great waterfall 
above Straubinger's Hotel, where we had unfortunately 
pitched our quarters in almost sunless rooms, was, 
I thought, most trying ; and the narrowness of the 
valley, too, gives the whole place a gloomy, confined 
aspect. I was glad to get away, after a short stay of a 
fortnight, to beautiful Salzburg and the comforts of the 
admirably managed Hotel de l'Europe. At Gastein 
we had found a small set of very pleasant English 
people, in Lady Lathom and one of her daughters, 
Lord Northbrook and his son, Lord Baring, and my 
old friend Lord James of Hereford and his niece. 
Of this agreeable coterie two have now gone : Lady 
Lathom being killed that same autumn in a most 
distressing carriage accident, and Lord Northbrook 
dying only the other day. 

The Eastern troubles which had caused so much 
anxiety at Vienna and elsewhere having now subsided, 
it was not unreasonable to look forward to a quiet 
autumn in the domain of public affairs. From this 
period dates, nevertheless, the parliamentary break- 
down in Austria, which has had such disastrous con- 
sequences for the entire Monarchy. Its ultimate, 
unavoidable, reaction on the relations between Cis- 
Leithania and Hungary, clearly bringing out the 


defects and dangers of the dual system which, the 
other day, was so truly and eloquently stigmatised 
as " a vulture gnawing at the very vitals of 

Although it would be imposssible to set forth 
with due brevity the genesis of the troubles by which 
the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy is beset, some re- 
capitulation seems indispensable. A general election 
had taken place in Austria, in the spring, under a 
new electoral law which had been successfully piloted 
through the last Legislature by Count Casimir Badeni, 
whose able administration of his native province of 
Galicia had acquired for him the Emperor's con- 
fidence. The Polish Premier was pledged to carry 
through the Reichsrath the so-called Ausgleich, or 
economic portion of the fundamental compact of 1867 
with Hungary, which, under an ill-advised stipula- 
tion of that arrangement, has to be renewed, and 
if necessary revised, every ten years, the most vital 
interests of both countries being thereby periodically 
subjected to a perilous strain. For carrying through 
the Ausgleich Count Badeni had counted on the 
return to the Chamber of elements, partly Conser- 
vative and partly Clerical, similar to those which 
predominated in the former House, and had through 
six years ensured the regular working of the par- 
liamentary machine. The general election brought 
about instead a complete change in the composition 
of the Chamber. The Germans returned to it no 
longer formed a fairly compact body of moderate 
views, but were broken up into groups with separate, 
more or less advanced, 'programmes. The character 
of the Czech parliamentary contingent was likewise 
essentially modified by the preponderance in it of 
the Young Czech party with its extreme national 


pretensions. Indeed the chances of the Government 
being able to rely on a sufficiently large majority in 
the all-important matter of the Ausgleich seemed so 
doubtful, that the Premier tendered his resignation, 
the Emperor, however, declining to dispense with 
his services. 

In the autumn that preceded the general election 
the Premier, foreseeing the difficulties he would 
have to contend with, had made a bold stroke to 
secure the support of the discontented Czechs by 
the promulgation of the Sprachenverordnungen of 
disastrous memory. By these ordinances the know- 
ledge of Czech as well as of German was required 
of all Government functionaries in Bohemia and 
Moravia, and both languages were placed on a footing 
of equality in all judicial and administrative trans- 
actions in those provinces. The elections had taken 
place in the midst of the agitation produced among 
the Bohemian and other Germans by a measure they 
deeply resented. When the Chamber met in April 
they at once resorted to obstructive tactics, and 
brought in a motion for the impeachment of the 
Ministers, on the ground that they had infringed 
the Constitution by issuing the Language Ordinances 
without first obtaining the sanction of Parliament. 
Disorderly scenes ensued, and the session was abruptly 
closed in June by Imperial decree. 

In November the Keichsrath was called together 
again, Count Badeni having all through the summer 
and autumn endeavoured by private negotiation to 
bring about some understanding between the con- 
tending Czechs and Germans. The events that 
followed are but too well known. Proceedings of 
an unprecedentedly violent character disgraced the 
Lower House of the Austrian Legislature, the lead 


in them being taken by a handful of Pan-German 
deputies headed by the notorious Schoenerer and 
Wolf. These deplorable episodes, which, for a time, 
made the Austrian Chamber a by-word among Par- 
liaments, have been graphically described by the 
quaintest of American humourists, Mr. Clemens, 1 
who was then on a prolonged visit to Vienna. I 
was myself present at the memorable sitting when 
the Falkenhayn motion, having for its object to 
strengthen the hands of the President in checking- 
members guilty of disorderly conduct, was brought 
in, 2 and I shall never forget the extraordinary and 
scandalous sight presented by the Chamber. The 
resolution was at once passed by the majority of 
the House, who rose en masse and held up their 
hands in sign of approval ; the enraged deputies of 
the Extreme Left meanwhile hurling the grossest 
invectives and insults at the President to a deafening 
accompaniment of penny trumpets, tramway whistles, 
and hammering of desks, followed the next day by 
the storming of the Presidential platform and a free 
fight between Germans and Slavs. The Chamber in 
fact had worked itself into a frenzy bordering on 

The passions let loose soon spread to the street, 
and for a few days Vienna was on the verge of a 
popular rising. Matters looked so serious that the 
Emperor, who, with characteristic loyalty, had stood 
by his Minister to the last, finally consented to part 

1 Mark Twain : " The Man that Corrupted Hadleyhurg ; and other 
Stories and .Sketches." 

2 Under the existing standing orders the President had no disciplinary 
powers whatever. The Falkenhayn Law, although irregularly introduced 
and forced through without debate, simply enabled the Chair to exclude 
for three days disorderly members who had been twice called to order ; 
the exclusion to be extended, if necessary, to thirty days by the Chamber, 
at the instance of the President. 


with him. Much the most ominous and discreditable 
feature of the movement, both in and outside Par- 
liament, was its thoroughly disloyal, Pan-German, 
character ; and it may truly be said that the fall of 
Count Badeni — who honestly, though maladroitly, 
aimed at restoring concord between the Bohemian 
Germans and Czechs — took place to the treasonable 
strains of the Wacht am Rhein and the Bismarchs 
Lied. Nevertheless, the personal popularity of the 
Emperor is happily so great that, almost immedi- 
ately after this period of stress and storm, I re- 
member his being more than usually well received 
when he attended — at the beautiful Votivkircbe built 
in memory of his escape from assassination in 1853 
— the funeral of the Austrian naval hero Admiral 

This lengthy account of the origin of the diffi- 
culties under which Austria proper has been labour- 
ing ever since, could scarcely be avoided because of 
their direct bearing on the much more important 
relations with Hungary. Prince Bismarck is credited 
with having said in 1866, in the excusable elation 
of a signal triumph, that thenceforth the centre of 
gravity of the Austro-Hungarian Empire must move 
more and more towards Pesth. The crisis I have 
related above gave a great impetus to the evolution 
predicted by the Iron Chancellor. The grave embar- 
rassment caused to Austria by internal dissensions, and 
by her complete — though temporary — parliamentary 
breakdown, unavoidably became Hungary's oppor- 
tunity. At any rate Hungary had to be reckoned 
with more and more at Vienna. With the keen 
political instinct that distinguishes the race, the 
Magyars at the same time sedulously courted their 
Sovereign, and whenever he visited his Hungarian 


dominions gave him a warmer welcome than he was 
accustomed to from the less demonstrative Viennese. 
The more ambitious Hungarian aspirations none the 
less grew apace, although, under the prudent guid- 
ance of statesmen like Banffy and Szell, they were 
restrained within due bounds. At one period in fact 
the wise counsels that obtained in the Government 
at Pesth much contributed to assist the Austrian 
Executive in their parliamentary difficulties, and, 
when I left Vienna for good in the autumn of 1900, 
the legitimate influence acquired by Hungary was 
such as to make her not only the predominant 
partner in the Union, but, as far as could be 
judged, its sheet anchor. The regrettable turn 
since taken in Hungarian affairs is outside the 
limits of these pages, but, in considering the dangers 
it portends to the great Monarchy which is the 
central arch of the European fabric, it is only just 
to bear in mind that they have grown up in great 
measure out of the evil days first brought upon 
Austria by a group of demagogues whose deliberate, 
unconcealed aim it has all along been to procure 
her disruption, and through it the accomplishment 
of the Pan-German designs. Well might that dis- 
tinguished leader of the Czechs in Parliament, M. 
Kramartz, exclaim at that period : " Avant tout il faut 
sauver VAutriche ! " 

The eventful year 1897 had closed under the 
painful impression of the parliamentary tornado, but 
with the new year the light-hearted Viennese began 
to look forward to the celebration of the Jubilee of 
the Emperor's accession, for which extensive pre- 
parations were being made throughout the Imperial 
dominions. As regards Vienna society, the fact of 


several young Archduchesses and a Princess of Cum- 
berland having just "come out" gave a special 
impetus to the gaieties of the season. The Duke 
of Cumberland, whose eldest daughter, Princess 
Marie Louise, was one of the debutantes, has, since 
the death of the King his father, made Austria his 
permanent home. In the winter he spends a few 
months at his villa at Penzing, just outside Schon- 
brunn, and the rest of the year is passed on his 
estate at Gmunden overlooking the beautiful Traunsee. 
H.R.H. is a special friend of the Emperor, and he 
and his family are universally beloved in Austrian 
society. No dispossessed Prince could show more 
simple dignity in the difficult position in which he 
is placed, or at the same time make a better use 
of the large income saved out of the Hanoverian 
wreck. In that respect — like the other chief suf- 
ferer by the events of 1866, the Duke of Nassau 
(now Grand Duke of Luxemburg) — the heir of the 
last King of Hanover offers a bright example to all 
dethroned Royalties. " Es sind so edle Menschen ! " 
said to me one of the most intelligent women in 
Vienna society who was a great intimate of the 
Cumberlands. Of the kindly, gracious Duchess who, 
in figure and carriage, bears so strong a likeness to 
her sister, our Queen, it would be difficult to speak 
too highly, and indeed we received so much kind- 
ness from all the members of this most charming 
family that we cannot but hold them in very grateful 

In honour of the Cumberlands we gave our first 
big dinner party, followed by a small ball which I 
remember chiefly for the number of Royalties — no 
less than eleven in all — for whom we had to arrange 
places at supper with the very deficient accommoda- 


tion I have already referred to. Of dancing Royalties 
there came, besides the Cumberland Princess, the 
Archduke Frederick's lively little daughter, Arch- 
duchess Christine, and the two half-sisters of the 
heir to throne, the eldest of whom, the Archduchess 
Marie Annunziata, is abbess of the Convent of noble 
ladies of the Hradschin at Prague — a position of 
great dignity always reserved for some Princess of 
the Imperial House — which did not prevent the 
present charming holder of it from dancing with 
all the spirit of a true Viennese. There was no 
lack of animation throughout this winter, and among 
our visitors was Lady Adelaide Taylour who came 
on her way from Fiirstenstein to enjoy some of the 
gaieties of the Vienna Fasching. 1 The Archduke 
Frederick gave a really splendid ball in the Palace 
he inherited from his uncle the Archduke Albert, 
the victor of Custozza, whose equestrian statue, 
inaugurated while I was at Vienna, is finely placed 
in front of the building which stands high on the 
Augustiner Bastei, a remnant of the old fortified 
enceinte of the city. Besides its priceless collection 
of drawings by Raphael, Diirer, Rembrandt, &c, 
known as the "Albertina," the Palace is full of 
fine eighteenth century furniture, 2 curios and works 
of art which have descended to its present owner 
from that eminent collector and conoscente Duke 
Albert of Saxe-Teschen. Many of these beautiful 
things, as well as some interesting mementoes of 
his other warrior ancestor, the victor of Aspern, 
were shown me by the Archduke Frederick himself, 

1 Carnival. 

- Much of this valuable property had been treated as rubbish by an 
earlier generation ami relegated to the garrets, when the Archduchess 
Isabella discovered it and restored it to use. 



who took me through the rooms and did cicerone 
in the most amiable way. 

An interesting function of the Vienna winter 
season is the great ball given by the Municipality 
in the magnificent Rathhaus, or Town Hall, which 
the Emperor always honours with his presence, most 
of the Diplomatic Corps beiug likewise present at 
it. This year we were among the guests, and, after 
a few greetings in the reception room, a procession 
was formed to the ball-room, the Emperor giving 
his arm to the senior Ambassadress, on this occasion 
Countess Eulenburg, while the Duke of Cumberland 
took in my wife, the other Princes and distin- 
guished personages pairing off with the remaining 
ladies. The chief civic dignitaries and their 
wives were already assembled on a big estrade 
erected against the side wall of the fine, lofty 
Gothic Hall, and thither the Imperial party pro- 
ceeded. Conspicuous on this estrade, with his 
handsome wife, was Prince Alois Liechtenstein, 
formerly so closely connected with Holland House 
by his first marriage, and now a prominent leader 
of the Anti-Semite party, of which the Burgomaster, 
Doctor Lueger, is the mischievously active head. It 
was on such occasions as these that one was able 
to realise how closely the Emperor keeps in touch 
with every class of his subjects. He patiently went 
the round of the wives of the substantial burghers 
of the Town Council, was seldom at a loss for their 
names, and inquired after the condition and prospects 
of their several trades and industries with a frank, 
cheery bonhomie that could not but gratify and 
win them. It was a perfect object lesson in the 
easy paternal attitude towards all ranks of their 
people which has always been characteristic of 


Austrian Sovereigns, and, under the old regime, did 
so much to temper and render tolerable the rigours 
of absolute rule. By eleven o'clock the whole 
Court party had retired, possibly to the relief of the 
recently installed Burgomaster, whose election the 
Emperor had five times before refused to confirm. 

Towards the end of February all the Chefs de 
Mission received a private intimation that the Em- 
peror was going to Budapest for the end of the 
Carnival, and would be glad of their presence dur- 
ing his stay there. We engaged rooms at the 
Hotel Hungaria, and went down, in a train crammed 
full of colleagues, the evening before the State Ball 
given at the Palace of Ofen — a brilliant fete to 
which the picturesque and becoming gala national 
costumes of the Hungarian magnates, and the re- 
markable beauty of many of their wives and 
daughters, gave an extraordinary eclat. It was a 
dazzling spectacle, the only drawback to it being, to 
my mind, the monotonous and ungraceful czardas 
that was danced constantly during the evening, and 
the wild, semi-oriental music of which becomes very 
wearisome to the foreign ear. This last week of 
Carnival was a perfect whirl of dissipation. Count 
Aladar Andrassy, a younger brother of the celebrated 
statesman, and uncle of the deputy who is so much to 
the fore in the present acute crisis in Hungary, gave a 
big dinner party and reception, and there was a dinner 
at Count " Pista " Karolyi's — a sumptuous entertain- 
ment in a very beautiful house — followed by a ball at 
the Kan'ttsonyis' in honour of the Emperor. At tXiisfete 
I remember that gallant old blade General Fejervary, 
Hungarian Minister of National Defence, showing 
the younger generation how the czardas ought really 


to be danced — a wild spirited performance, not unlike 
a Highland reel, and very different from the tame 
czardas des salons. 

This was the first time I saw Budapest, which 
its grand position, astride of the mighty river that 
flows between the twin cities, certainly seems to 
have marked out as a seat of empire. Seen from 
the heights of Ofen, the expanse of the city of quite 
recent growth, its long-stretching, much betrammed 
boulevards, and the boundless plains beyond, appear 
typical of the ambitions of a generous, imaginative 
race. What I cannot quite forgive the Magyars is 
that, in jealously safe - guarding their nationality, 
they turn to such extreme account a language which, 
with the exception of the Finnish and Basque still 
lingering in remote European corners, is the only 
tongue having no affinity with any of the forms of 
speech that are current on our Continent. For 
instance, the notices posted up exclusively in Hun- 
garian in railway trains and stations, much to the 
inconvenience of foreign travellers, seem an almost 
childish way of asserting independent national exist- 
ence. Their unique language is, of course, a for- 
midable obstacle to the assimilation by the nine 
millions or so of pure Magyars of the about equal 
number of their fellow-citizens of Roumanian, German, 
or Slav descent, but they relentlessly use a stern com- 
pulsion in the matter. 1 Their aim, it would almost 
seem, is to turn the realm of St. Stephen into a strict 
preserve or a sort of island in the centre of Europe. 
As this would not be girt by any sheltering sea, while 

1 As an instance of the extent to which the Hungarian idiom is 
fostered, and German discountenanced, it may be mentioned that the 
distinguished editor of the Pester Lloyd, Doctor Falk, complained of the 
increasing difficulty of finding sufficient German scholars for his editorial 


it is actually surrounded on all sides by the rising Slav 
and Teutonic floods, the bold, and to some extent 
romantic, conception appears scarcely reconcilable with 
the dictates of a sound, far-sighted policy. 

On the whole we were so delighted with what we had 
seen of Pesth, and with the civility and kindness shown 
us, that we returned there in May for the races, when the 
Hungarian beau tnonde come to town for a few weeks. 
At this time of year, before the fierce heat of summer 
has invaded it, the Danube city looks its very best and 
brightest. We saw a good deal of Count and Countess 
Tassilo Fdstetics (the only sister of the late Duke of 
Hamilton), who, during the short Pesth season, live 
and entertain most hospitably — very much a VAnglaise 
— in their fine house in the town. We also made 
great friends with the family of Count Louis Apponyi 
— Marechcd de la Cour in Hungary — and went in 
July to stay with them at Nagy Apponyi, their old 
family place in the Comitat of Neutra. Here, in a 
pretty broken country among the first spurs of the 
Carpathians, and not far from the ruins of the ancient 
stronghold from which he takes his name, the Count 
owns a large deer forest containing, among other 
game, a herd of that rare animal the moufflon, or 
wild sheep, which in Europe is only indigenous in 
Sardinia and Corsica. We led quiet, idyllic lives, 
in most comfortable quarters, in the Apponyi family 
circle — composed of two pretty daughters and some 
promising sons — taking long drives or fishing for trout 
in the cool of the evening, and spending the morning 
in a large library which contains a remarkable collec- 
tion of autographs and old family papers. Among 
the latter was the entire correspondence of a Count 
llodolphe Apponyi, whom, by the way, I remember 
seeing at my Aunt Delmar's house in my boyhood. 


These letters were addressed to his mother from the 
Austrian Embassy in Paris, and gave a vivid account, 
day by day, of the French Court and society before 
and after the Revolution that drove Charles Dix from 
the throne in July 1830. Countess Apponyi herself 
kindly devoted some time to showing me these papers, 
which have a real historical value and fully deserve 
to be published. 

Another delightful visit was that we had shortly 
before made to Count and Countess Roman Pot6cki 
at Lancut in Galicia, halfway between Cracow and 
Lemberg. After our ten hours' journey from Vienna 
we were met at the station by our host, and taken 
in the smartest of country carriages to the chateau, 
an ancient square fabric of imposing size and dignity, 
partly surrounded by the original, now dry, grass- 
grown moat, and by double lines of splendid trees. 
Lancut, which is one of the most historical domains 
in Poland, came to its present owners from the Lubo- 
mirskis. It is full of memories of a celebrated Prin- 
cess Lubomirska, an eccentric and very diminutive 
lady, known as la petite Marechale, who wielded great 
influence in Polish society at the end of the eighteenth 
century, and whose rooms are still religiously kept 
exactly as she lived in them. The contents of this vast, 
rambling house and the traditions connected with it are 
remarkably interesting, being so closely bound up with 
the whole history of Poland. Its long vaulted passages, 
low ceilings, and walls of almost mediaeval thickness, 
would give it a sombre aspect, were it not for the 
touch of modern luxury and comfort added to it by 
its present owners. Besides the numerous state and 
family living rooms, it contains a chapel, a theatre, and 
no less than thirteen complete apartments for visitors, 
each composed of a sitting-room and two bedrooms, with 


separate dressing-room and bath-rooms attached. The 
train de maison at Lancut is indeed on a princely 
scale. The lofty stables with over sixty horses — some 
of them hunters well known with the Quorn and the 
Cottesmore — are worthy of a great English establish- 
ment ; and the dairy with an equal number of prize 
Dutch cows is just as luxurious. Yet, in spite of 
its modern refinement, the whole place has a distinctly 
feudal air that takes one back to the splendid, semi- 
barbaric lives of those great Polish nobles whose social 
and political extravagance did so much to bring to the 
ground perhaps - the most interesting and picturesque 
of ancient monarchies. The spirit of feudalism still 
lingers in Galicia, and as one drove over his big 
domain with Count Roman — a typical grand seigneur 
of his country — it was interesting to see the lord of 
the soil greeted with lowly, almost oriental, saluta- 
tions which he acknowledged with a gracious wave 
of the hand. 

As is the case with many old residences abroad, the 
roofs of the small town of Lancut cluster almost in the 
shadow of the castle, so that, in close proximity with 
its luxury and grandeur, could be seen all the squalor 
and litter of Polish Jewry of the most debased order 
— hook-nosed, be-ringleted men in greasy gabardines, 
with their slovenly womankind, making up a large 
proportion of the population — while about the rough 
market place and its taverns there lounged the well- 
set-up dragoons of a crack regiment quartered just 
outside the town. The Russian frontier lies at no 
great distance, and half the cavalry of the Imperial 
army is quartered along it. I paid several visits to 
Lancut. Its chdtelaine, a daughter of the late Prince 
Anton Radziwill — an intimate friend of the old Em- 
peror William — is the daintiest and smartest of Vienna 


ladies, with all the indescribable Polish charm, and a 
sunny French grace and brightness which come to her 
from her Castellane mother. 

Meanwhile the festivities in honour of the im- 
pending Jubilee had begun to run their course, though 
it was reported — with some truth, I believe — that the 
Emperor personally shrank from them, and admitted 
to his intimates that he wished the year were well 
over. He, nevertheless, opened in state the Jubilee 
Exhibition in the Prater, which, of world-fairs of its 
kind, was a very attractive one. Of the many public 
demonstrations of loyalty to the Sovereign none was so 
characteristic and interesting as the gathering known 
as the Waidmanns Huldigung} which took place at 
Schonbrunn, on a glorious day in June, under the 
auspices of all the larger landowners of the monarchy, 
who brought up to Vienna for the occasion their 
entire staffs of foresters and gamekeepers. The men 
— some 5000 in number — were drawn up in military 
array in the great central parterre of the Palace 
gardens, which, with the colonnade of the Gloriette 
on the hill in the background and the high stiff 
hedges on either side, made a perfect open-air theatre. 
The seigneurs all stood in front of their several con- 
tingents : Prince Adolf Schwarzenberg, for instance, 
whose estates are said to cover one-fifth of Bohemia, 
being at the head of several hundred men. Both they 
and their people wore the sober, becoming Austrian 
shooting clothes of grey and green. They came from 
every part of the Empire ; some particularly stalwart, 
wild-looking fellows hailing from Transylvania and 
the Bukovina. When they were duly marshalled, the 
Emperor, accompanied by the Archdukes, all in the 
same plain sporting attire, came down into the gardens, 

1 The sportsmen's homage. 


and passed through the lines with a kindly word or 
a friendly nod, this pick of the sturdy manhood of 
the Empire giving a most enthusiastic welcome to 
the best sportsman of them all. It was really a 
heart-stirring scene. 

In connection with the Schiltzenfest that followed 
this demonstration, there took place the next day 
round the Ringstrasse a fine costumed procession, 
such as the gifted Viennese painter Makart had 
years before taught his countrymen to organise. 
One of the cars, beautifully draped in the national 
colours of black and gold, and drawn by black 
horses, carried a strikingly handsome woman repre- 
senting Austria, and was extremely effective. The 
summer heat, however, soon put an end to these 
fUes and rejoicings. As for ourselves, after a few 
days passed with the friendly Kapnists in the lovely 
valley of Gutenstein, where they rented a chateau 
belonging to the head of the Hoyos family, we found 
ourselves early in August in our old quarters at 
Klinger's Hotel, Marienbad. Not counting old habi- 
tues like Lady Radnor and Lord and Lady Romney 
and the Campbell-Bannermans, more English than usual 
came this year, among them the Duke and Duchess 
of Newcastle, Lord and Lady Brougham, the Walter 
Campbells, Sir Arthur Ellis, Sir Charles Euan Smith, 
and of parliamentary and other notabilities Mr. T. P. 
O'Connor, Mr. John Dillon, and Mr. Beerbohm Tree. 

We left Marienbad at the end of August, choosing 
a very circuitous route for our return home, and 
were well repaid for doing so. Stopping on the way 
at Munich and Innsbruck, we travelled by rail as far 
as Toblach, and thence drove through the wonder- 
ful Dolomite country to Cortina d'Ampezzo, and on 
through Titian's birthplace, Pieve di Cadore, over the 


Italian border to Belluno, ending our holiday with 
a few perfect days at Venice, where we again met 
Lady Radnor and Mrs. Hulse. By the 6th of Sep- 
tember we were back at Vienna, which we found 
still half empty and scarcely awakened from its 
summer siesta. 

On the afternoon of the ioth I had just returned 
from a drive with my wife in the deserted Prater, and 
was in the Chancery looking for some papers, when 
Freddy Clarke unexpectedly came in, with consterna- 
tion writ large on his countenance, to tell me of a 
report he had just heard that the Empress Elizabeth 
had been murdered at Geneva. I telephoned at 
once to the Ballplatz, and receiving from Count Golu- 
chowski a confirmation of the dreadful report, which 
it seemed impossible at first to credit, immediately 
cyphered it to the Queen and to Lord Salisbury. I 
later on learned that a telegram from Countess Sztaray 
(the Empress's lady-in-waiting) had reached Count 
Paar, the Emperor's most trusted intimate and head 
of his military household, at four o'clock ; Count Paar 
had at once driven out to Schonbrunn to break the 
terrible news to his Imperial master, who had only the 
day before returned from the autumn manoeuvres near 
Temesvar in Southern Hungary. The Emperor, while 
quite overwhelmed, had shown the greatest fortitude, 
bitterly observing, however, that he was spared no mis- 
fortune (mir bleibt nichts ers'part auf dieser Welt). 

Although the Empress had for reasons of health 
resided but little in Austria of late years — leading a 
restless life of travel, and having in fact never recovered 
the shock caused by the tragical end of her son — 
the impression produced by the atrocious crime to 
which she had fallen a victim was almost indescrib- 


able. She was now only thought of as the most 
bounteous and charitable of beings, and certainly as 
the loveliest that had ever graced the Imperial throne. 
It was remembered, too, how great a support and solace 
she had formerly been to her husband in the many 
dark hours of his reign. That she, who had never in 
any way sought to influence public affairs, and had 
simply devoted herself to good works and to the en- 
couragement of literature and art, should have been 
struck down by the dagger of a brutal political fanatic 
was felt to be the cruellest of fates. 

Meanwhile arrangements had to be made for bring- 
ing back the remains, and Countess Harrach, by birth 
a Princess Thurn and Taxis, who had been Mistress 
of the Robes to the Empress, left for Geneva with the 
rest of the Imperial household. Late on the evening 
of the 15th the funeral train reached the Westbahn 
station in Mariahilf, and we went — taking with us the 
Duchess of Leeds and her sister, Lady Robert Cecil, 
who were staying at Vienna — to see the cortege pass 
from a house in the Babenberger-strasse which was 
on the line of route. The street lamps all along the 
road from the station to the Burg had been turned 
into flaming torches so that it was as light as day. 
Mounted men from the Imperial stables, bearing lan- 
terns, opened the march, followed by cavalry. Then 
came the Grande Maitresse and the ladies-in-waiting 
in great mourning coaches with six horses, the G 'rami 
Mattre and other officers of the Empress's household 
coming after them ; and then the simple open hearse 
with black plumes at the corners and a plain black 
pall. More guards and cavalry, and the procession — 
beyond words impressive — passed on across the Ring 
and into the Burg, where, at the foot of the great 
stairs, the stricken Emperor was waiting to receive it. 


My wife, who was on terms of much friendship 
with Countess Harrach, went to see her the next 
evening. She found her still dreadfully upset by her 
painful journey, but heard from her very full details 
of the tragedy as described by Countess Sztaray, who 
had been its sole witness. The Empress had shortly 
before taken up her residence at Caux, a favourite 
resort of hers, on the heights above Territet at the 
eastern end of the Lake of Geneva. Early on the 
morning preceding the fatal day she had gone to 
Geneva with a small suite, and, after visiting Baroness 
Adolphe de Eothschild — an old friend of H.M. and an 
intimate of her sister the Queen of Naples, at her 
beautiful villa at Pregny — had stayed for the night at 
the Hotel Beau Rivage. The following day she had 
sent her chamberlain and other attendants back to 
Territet by rail, arranging to return there by steamer 
in the afternoon with her lady-in-waiting. Shortly 
before one o'clock H.M. left the Hotel on foot to 
embark, when, within a few yards of the landing-stage 
on the Quai du Mont Blanc, a man, coming from the 
opposite direction, ran up against her with such 
violence, striking her at the same time in the chest, 
that she lost her balance and fell backwards at full 
length, touching the ground with her head, which was 
only saved from injury by the splendid coils of her 
hair. With the help of Countess Sztaray, she quickly 
rose to her feet, and walked on to the steamer with her 
usual elastic step, arranging her disturbed coiffure as 
she went, though she seemed rather dazed, and said in 
German to her companion : " Was is denn geschehen ? " 
(What has happened?). Soon after getting on board, 
however, she fainted, and, on her dress being opened, 
a slight blood-stain was perceived. The steamer being 
meanwhile well under way, Countess Sztaray, now 


thoroughly alarmed, begged the captain to put back, 
which he at first refused to do until told who his pas- 
senger was. A litter was then made, and the Em- 
press, still unconscious, was carried back to the Hotel, 
expiring quite painlessly at the moment, so Countess 
Sztaray thought, when she was laid on the bed in her 
room. The weapon — a shoemaker's awl with murder- 
ously sharpened point — having perforated the heart, 
the victim had succumbed to internal hemorrhage. 
It is difficult to imagine a more painful position than 
that of the unfortunate lady-in-waiting, left quite 
alone with her dead mistress until the rest of the 
suite joined her in the evening, and having mean- 
while to telegraph to Vienna, interview officials, and 
take upon herself all the indispensable arrangements. 
When she reached the Burg late at night, the Emperor 
was of course most impatient to hear her account of 
the tragedy, but, seeing how weary and exhausted she 
was, told her to come to him the next day, when he 
showed such kindness and patience while she told her 
terrible story that the poor girl, who had greatly 
dreaded the interview, came away from it quite com- 
forted and relieved. 1 

At the funeral, which took place on the afternoon 
of the 17th, the Queen was specially represented by 
Prince Christian — who stayed with us at the Embassy 
with Lord Denbigh and Major Evan Martin — and the 
Prince of Wales by General Sir Arthur Ellis. The 
Capuchin Church, where the obsequies were solem- 
nised, is very small, and no places being assigned in 
it to Ambassadors not actually representing their 

1 On the day after the funeral the Emperor instituted the Order of 
Elizabeth in memory of the Empress. The first Grand Cross of the < )rder, 
which whs intended for women of all ranks who had devoted themselves 
to religious or humanitarian objects, was bestowed on Countess Sztaray. 


Sovereigns, we watched the splendid pageant of the 
procession from the French Embassy on the Lobkowitz 
Platz. When the great cortege had passed into the 
church by the main portal on the Neue Markt, we 
saw the Emperor drive up to a side entrance in the 
narrow Gluckgasse, with the Emperor William, who 
had arrived from Berlin only two hours before. Next 
to the pathetic figure of the bereaved Sovereign, what 
seemed most to have attracted the attention of those 
who were present at the funeral service was the rigid 
attitude of the German Emperor and the special 
honours that were paid to him. He was placed quite 
by himself in front of the other Sovereigns present, 
such as the Kings of Saxony and Roumania, and stood 
without stirring a muscle all through the long function. 
The political exigencies of the moment no doubt amply 
justified the marked distinction with which a powerful 
ally was treated ; but to those few who were still im- 
bued with the old Austrian traditions there could not 
fail to be something saddening in the sight of the 
illustrious head of the great Monarchy in his hour 
of trial, side by side with the grandson of him who 
dealt that Monarchy so deadly a blow, and this amidst 
an immense concourse of Princes of German Houses 
whom hereditary veneration for the descendant of 
Holy Roman Emperors had moved to gather round 
him in traditional fealty, by the grave of his Consort. 
I never saw the Empress Elizabeth during my 
second stay at Vienna. She came there for a short 
time in the spring of 1898 — her last visit. I applied 
of course in the usual form for audiences for myself 
and my wife, and, knowing how unwilling H.M. 
was as a rule to grant them, went to see the Premier 
Grand Maitre, Prince R. Liechtenstein, privately 
about it. Both he and the head of the Empress's 


household, Count Bellegarde, were of opinion that, 
in view of II.M.'s well known English proclivities, 
she would no doubt make an exception in our favour 
and receive us. A few days later, to my great dis- 
appointment, there came an official reply to my 
application stating that the Empress's health and 
her impending departure prevented H.M., to her 
regret, from seeing us, but that she looked forward 
to doing so on a future occasion. "It is perhaps 
as well on the whole that you did not see her 
again, " said one of her intimates to me afterwards, 
remembering that some forty years before I had 
beheld her in all her youth and loveliness. And 
indeed, it is well that she should remain only a 
memory for those to whom she had thus appeared 
— a perfect dream of Imperial beauty — bearing now, 
after her sad, strange, wayward life, a perfecting 
crown of martyrdom. The Emperor caused portraits 
of her to be painted by the best Vienna and Pestli 
artists, Horowitz, Laszlo, Benziir and others, for the 
several ladies who had been her most devoted friends 
and attendants. He took a deep interest in the 
production of these pictures, visiting the artists in 
their studios, and himself guiding them in that almost 
impossible task of making live again on the canvas 
the features of those whom we have loved and lost. 



In December of this winter of deep mourning the 
Jubilee so eagerly looked forward to, and for which 
so many preparations had been made, came and 
passed away almost unnoticed, except for official 
thanksgiving services and a general illumination of 
the capital. It was the fiftieth anniversary of that 
day at Olmlitz when Franz Josef, then only a 
stripling of eighteen, had been so suddenly and 
unexpectedly called upon to relieve his lack-brained 
uncle of the burden of a tottering Empire. The 
now aged Sovereign's gloomy forebodings about his 
Jubilee year had only been too cruelly realised, and 
the 2nd of December found him in the strictest 
retirement and wholly engaged in the daily patient 
State drudgery which, as one of his intimates ex- 
pressed it, had, throughout his long reign, made 
him the hardest-working Beamte (official) in his 
dominions. 1 

In the domain of public affairs a lull in the 
strife between Czechs and Germans had followed 
upon the fall of the Badeni Cabinet. The obnoxious 
Language Ordinances had remained practically a 
dead letter. The unmanageable Reichsrath had been 

1 The Emperor is the earliest of risers, being at work both winter and 
summer long before 5 a.m. Under these circumstances, it is not to be 
wondered at that, when possible, he retires very early to rest. 



prorogued for several months, and government was 
being carried on by means of an Article of the 
Constitution which in certain circumstances reserved 
power to the Crown temporarily to levy taxes and 
provide for the more pressing administrative needs 
of the country by Imperial decree. Without this 
valuable Article XIV. — so much inveighed against 
as a disguised instrument of despotism — the Govern- 
ment machinery in Austria must have entirely col- 
lapsed at several critical moments during this period. 
Even we, with what we — I assume rightly — consider 
our absolutely perfect institutions, are not unconscious 
of the benefits of those intervals when the wheels 
of administration run none the less smoothly for the 
few months' silence pervading St. Stephen's. 

A couple of ephemeral Ministries had succeeded 
that of Count Badeni, 1 and had been replaced in 
March 1898 by the Cabinet presided over by Count 
Francis Thun, one of the principal landowners in 
Bohemia, and for some years Governor of that 
province which he had administered with much 
success. Besides being a man of high courage and 
undoubted ability, and the best possible type of 
an Austrian territorial magnate, Count Thun was 
thoroughly versed in all the intricacies of the racial 
conflict in the Bohemian Crown-lands. A set of 
remarkable, and extremely minute, ethnographical 
charts drawn up by his direction, and which clearly 
revealed an almost hopeless dovetailing of the rival 
races only to be surpassed in Macedonia, went some 
way to show that the Bohemian Premier would 
probably have been more capable of solving the 
problem of an equitable adjustment of the respective 

1 Baron Gautsch vun Frankenthurm, who presided over one of these 
Administrations, is now again Prime Minister of Austria. 



national claims than any other Austrian Minister. 
In this respect his resignation, after holding office 
barely eighteen months, was greatly to be regretted, 
though the circumstances attending his retirement 
were highly creditable to him as a patriotic Austrian 
statesman. That retirement was in great measure 
due to his manly, though ineffectual, protest against 
the wholesale expulsion of Austrian agricultural 
labourers from Silesia and other Prussian provinces, 
under conditions resembling the arbitrary evictions 
of Danish subjects from Schleswig. The Premier was 
in fact a victim of the exigencies of the German 

I was on very cordial terms with Count Thun 
and have preserved a sincere regard for him. While 
I was at Vienna he had the misfortune to lose his 
wife — a Princess Schwarzenberg — from a chronic 
malady with which she had been afflicted for some 
time, and which, at the end, made fatally rapid 
progress. He had been talking over her condition 
with an eminent specialist who was watching the 
case, and had received from him the assurance that, 
as long as the Countess's eyesight was not affected, 
there was no cause for immediate alarm. He went 
home somewhat comforted and relieved, and found 
his wife whiling away the time with a game of 
patience. " I am fairly well," she said cheerfully, 
on his inquiring how she felt, "but it is odd that 
my eyes seem blurred this afternoon and I can't 
quite make out the cards." She died a few days 
afterwards, showing to the end the greatest courage 
and fortitude. 

The rigid Court mourning had brought about, 
among other results, the complete suspension of build- 


ing operations at the Imperial Burg, the splendid left 
wing to which was being completed in anticipation 
of the great Court festivities planned in honour of 
the Jubilee. But elsewhere throughout the city the 
Municipality were almost recklessly engaged in chang- 
ing the face of things. The works for vaulting over 
the Wien — a shabby little stream, something like 
what the Fleet or the Tyburn may have been — and 
the building all along its course through the town of 
the suburban line, afforded employment to hundreds 
of navvies, many of them Italians who, just then, 
had a bad time of it, so bitter was the feeling 
aroused against them as compatriots of the assassin 
Luccheni. A gang of them, it was said, were 
actually driven from their work one morning by a 
mob of infuriated market-women. These gigantic 
undertakings sadly disfigured for the time the outer 
circle of the Ring and made Vienna — always the 
windiest of places — insupportable from the clouds of 
dust they caused ; the civic authorities — chiefly bent 
on Jew-baiting — making little or no attempt to sweep 
or water the streets. In this respect the Lueger regime 
outvied even our own London County Council. 

In the Innere Stadt, too, the house-wreckers 
plied their trade with such vigour that the land- 
marks which had been most familiar to me of old 
were fast disappearing as the streets were widened 
and their picturesque character ruthlessly destroyed. 
In my wanderings through the town I one day tried 
to find a house I well remembered — where, up ever 
so many steps, on the topmost floor, on a level with 
the fourteenth-century roof of Maria Stieg'n — had 
lived Mathilde Wildauer, 1 a star of the Kdrnthner 
Thor Opera, with the sweetest voice and a laugh 

1 " Recollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. p. 288. 


that was irresistible. Poor Mathilde had long been 
at rest in the Central Friedhof in the best of 
company — for there lie Schubert, and Mozart, and 
the mighty Beethoven. When I reached the well- 
known corner of the queer old street — with the still 
queerer name of Stoss im Himmel 1 — which led to 
the house I was in search of, I found it barred ; 
the demolishers had just begun their work on the 
building and were making room for another of the 
immense Zinspaldste with ornate frontages which 
are a questionable glory of modern Vienna. 

The theatres of my day had long since been 
pulled down. The old Karnthner Tlior was replaced 
by the splendid Opera House on the Ring, while the 
somewhat dingy, but cosy little Burgtheater, which 
could boast of the most perfect ensemble I have ever 
seen on any stage — and where Maria Theresa, leaning 
out of her box, herself announced to the audience, in 
genuine Viennese fashion, the birth of one of her 
grandsons 2 — had vanished to make way for the fine 
entrance in the Michaeler Platz to the Imperial Palace. 
Its sumptuous successor, facing the Rathhaus, is if 
anything of too vast proportions, and scarcely lends 
itself to the delicate shading of light comedy or even of 
drama, though the acting there is still of a high order. 
Baumeister, as the ironmaster in Das JErbe — really a 
very fine study of Bismarck — and Fraulein Hohenfels, 
in such different parts as Georg in Gotz von Berlich- 
ingen, or Puck in the Midsummer Night's Dream, were 
both admirable in their way. As for the orchestra led 
by Richter at the Opera House, nothing finer is to be 
heard anywhere, and, without speaking of Wagner 

1 Literally : "A knock in Heaven." 

2 " Der Poldi (Leopold) hat a Bub gekriegt." This eldest son of Leopold 
II. afterwards became Francis II., the last of the Holy Roman Emperors. 


cycles, the careful performance of works like Hansel 
und Gretel, Das Heimchen am Herde, or Tchaikow- 
sky's Eugen Onegin, was above all praise. 

And talking of music reminds me that Vienna 
lost, during my stay there, two composers, each, in his 
own style, among the greatest of his time : Brahms, 
who died in 1897, after leading for years the life of a 
recluse, and the Walzerkoiiig, Johann Strauss, who 
followed him in June 1899. I had heard him a few 
months before at his brother Eduard's benefit concert, 
when he played in public for the last time. The old 
man stepped up to the conductor's desk very stiffly and 
with some difficulty, amidst a storm of applause. But 
once there, he led a new waltz of his own composition 
with all the inimitable fire and entrain of his youth. 
With Strauss it almost seemed as if her light, joyous 
spirit of old had deserted Vienna. He was buried 
with great popular honours, the Ringstrasse being 
blocked by the crowds that followed him to the grave. 

In my sentimental searches after the old land- 
marks, I soon ascertained that the house overlooking 
the Lowel Bastei, on the third floor of which I myself 
had lived, had become the residence of Prince and 
Princess Montenuovo, who kindly asked me to come 
and have a look at my old quarters. I found them 
occupied by their only son, who was profitably engaged 
in his studies with his abbe' tutor in the rooms where, 
in the attache days I have spoken of elsewhere, I 
had idled away many a careless, pleasant hour. My 
hostess — one of the late Prince Kinsky's four fair 
daughters, than whom Vienna society contains no 
prettier or more amiable quartette — showed me some 
interesting family relics, coming from the Empress 
Marie Louise, of the captive of St. Helena and of his 
son — that most mournful of figures in the great 


Napoleonic epic — whose faint, shadowy silhouette has 
been revived for the world with some degree of poetic 
licence by the gifted author of LAiglon. I remember 
both M. Sardou and his " golden-voiced " interpreter 
coming to Vienna and being accorded special facilities 
for studying on the spot at Schonbrunn the mise en 
scene of that fine but highly imaginative drama. 

Another of my ancient haunts I revisited with much 
interest was the Palais Clary, in the Herrngasse, which 
of old had been the home of the British Legation l 
for a good many years. Princess Clary kindly took 
us all over the house, built, with many complicated 
staircases and passages, round two long narrow court- 
yards. I had first known it in the sunshine of young, 
insouciant days, but although it contains some fine 
rooms and has the dignified air common to old Austrian 
family homes, it cannot even on the showing of its 
owners — who now, I believe, live almost entirely at 
Venice — be accounted a cheerful habitation. The 
Princess told me a curious story about it of which I 
recollect the general outline. She and her husband 
had been away from Vienna for some time and the 
house had been shut up. Before returning she had 
sent her housekeeper — a thoroughly trustworthy, intel- 
ligent person, who had been long in her service — to 
prepare for her arrival. The woman affirmed that, 
happening casually to look out across the courtyard, 
she had distinctly seen, in the broad daylight, a group 
of persons, in strange old-fashioned clothes, seated 
round a table near a window exactly facing her at the 
further end of the yard. Knowing the house to be 
entirely uninhabited, she at once hurried round along 
the passages to see who these people could possibly 

1 The Legation was subsequently raised to the rank of an Embassy on 
the appointment of Lord Bloomfield in i860. 


be. When she reached the door, and, unlocking it, 
entered the room, she found it quite empty and no 
sign whatever of occupation. It could scarcely be 
denied, said the Princess, that odd figures had been 
occasionally seen flitting about the old building with- 
out its being possible to account satisfactorily for their 

There is still less doubt that, during its tenancy by 
our Legation, the Palais Clary more completely estab- 
lished its character for uncanniness. The wife and 
daughter of one of my predecessors at Vienna went 
through the following strange experience. One bright, 
sunny morning they were sitting in a long narrow 
drawing-room, or gallery, which they habitually used. 

Miss was reading a French book to her mother, 

when the latter, surprised at seeing — as she supposed — 
her husband's chasseur standing waiting at the end of 
the room, said to her — " Go and tell Fritz (the chasseur) 
to go down to your father who is sure to want him." 

Miss went towards the man, but when she got 

near he was no longer there, and she returned to her 
mother, when they again saw him, and she was once 
more sent with the message. This happened three 
times, with the same result ; both mother and daughter 
distinctly seeing the figure en profile, dressed in the 
unmistakable dark green uniform, with his cocked hat 
and feathers on (Fritz would of course never have worn 
this indoors), the silver of his epaulettes and sword- 
belt glistening in the strong light from the window. 
On inquiry they found that Fritz had not been near 
the gallery, where he would indeed have had no business 
unless sent with a message, and they were later on 
told by the then Prince Clary that, many years before, 
a chasseur serving in his family had been murdered in 
that very room, which he was still reputed to haunt. 


I should perhaps emphasise the fact that these ladies, 
whom I knew intimately, were assuredly not unduly 
imaginative or impressionable, and at first were not in 
the least frightened, but only surprised at seeing the 
man. It is certain, too, that subsequent occupants 
of the house seriously complained of the annoyance 
caused them by the same strange apparition. 

A pleasing and almost distinctive trait of Austrians 
of the uppermost class is their faithful remembrance of 
old friends and acquaintances. It was very gratifying, 
for instance, to be warmly welcomed by ladies whom 
I had first met in their Comtessen 1 stage. Of those 
I had known best and had danced with most in those 
light-hearted days, were Countess Mariette Hoyos, 
now the widow of Count Denesch Szechenyi, and 
Princess Ludwiga Lobkowitz, who had likewise lost 
her husband, a Count Stadion. I have already spoken 
of these ladies elsewhere. 2 Time had dealt tenderly 
with them. Countess Mariette no longer hummed 
Strauss' s waltzes as she danced, but still sang 
charmingly and did a good deal of music with my 
wife, while my dear little friend, the dainty Dresden 
shepherdess, was as trim and bright as ever, and 
plied a fairy needle on the most lovely ecclesiastical 
embroideries. I am tempted here to relate a very 
trifling circumstance in connection with her which 
illustrates in some degree the simple, artless Vienna 
ways. During one of the last cotillons I danced 
with her just before leaving Vienna for China, I 
made a sort of bet with fair-haired little Princess 
Ludwiga that I would send her some slight souvenir 

1 The so to speak generic name by which the unmarried young ladies 
are known in Vienna society. 

2 " Eecollections of a Diplomatist," vol. i. p. 270. 

M. DE K ALL AY 345 

from the, at that time, almost fabulous Flowery Land. 
Accordingly one of the first things I did on reaching 
Hong Kong was to get a small lacquer-ware fan, 
which I sent through the Foreign Office to my Vienna 
partner. I confess that I had entirely forgotten the 
circumstance until I was now rallied about it by a 
personage of very high rank who happened to be 
one of Countess Stadion's great friends. When next 
I found her busy at her embroidery frame, she 
triumphantly produced the trumpery bit of Chinoi- 
serie, and explained with some contrition that when 
it first reached her she had not been allowed by her 
Liechtenstein mamma to write and thank me for it ! 

An old acquaintance of quite a different order, 
who greeted me most cordially, was Benjamin von 
Kallay, whom I had first met at Belgrade in 1870 at 
the outset of his distinguished career, and now found 
Imperial Finance Minister. M. de Kdllay rendered 
great service to the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. 
His profound knowledge of the Balkanic races and 
of their history and aspirations, was strikingly exem- 
plified in his administration of Bosnia and the 
Herzegovina which was a model of enlightened 
statecraft. More valuable still was his influence as 
a link between the too often conflicting halves of 
the monarchy, for, although an essentially patriotic 
Hungarian, he was imbued with Imperial convictions, 
and strongly opposed to any loosening of the Austro- 
Hungarian ties, which would certainly be fatal to 
the prestige and Machtstellung of the Empire as a 
Great Power. 

Next to his Imperial master, England had no 
better friend on the Continent than Kallay. In the 
many interesting conversations I had with him at 
different times, I was greatly impressed by his faith 


in the beneficent authority of England in international 
affairs, though that faith was sometimes, he admitted, 
put to a severe trial by what he believed to be signs 
of a deterioration in the old combative spirit of the 
nation. He lived, nevertheless, to witness and re- 
joice over our South African effort. The advance 
of Russia in the Far East was watched by him with 
the deepest interest, and I clearly remember a talk 
I had with him on the subject seven years ago. 
Ever since the first great raid of Yermak Timofejeff 
and his Cossacks into Siberia, he said, the Russian 
Drang nach Osten, though at first little noticed, had 
been continuous. The stream of emigration to 
America showed that all European races moved 
westwards. The Russians alone were attracted by 
the East. He believed their advance to be practi- 
cally irresistible, little foreseeing the rude check 
which Russian ambition was to meet with, and the 
overthrow of the great Asiatic dominion the vision 
of which seemed to dazzle him while filling him 
with apprehension. In M. de Kallay the Dual 
Monarchy lost perhaps its ablest and most valuable 

Late in April I left Vienna for a fortnight to join my 
wife who was looking after our Eton boy in England, 
and went round by Nice, where I stayed a few days 
with my sister — my last visit to her as it happened. 
The Queen was at Cimiez, which she was never to 
see again. I received a command for dinner, and 
was surprised, I remember, to find the aged Sovereign 
in such good spirits and so full of vitality. But the 
shadow of the dreary war had not yet darkened her 
remaining days. She was still able to go for long 
drives all over the beautiful neighbourhood, where, 


my old friend Sir James Harris 1 told me, she had 
acquired extraordinary popularity by the kindness 
she showed to all the country people and the 
interest she took in their concerns. The Queen, 
during her almost annual visits to France, certainly 
did a good deal towards preparing the way for the 
admirable work which has since been achieved by 
her son and successor. I was back at Vienna in 
time for the celebration of her eightieth birthday, 
when the Emperor again came to the Embassy with 
his personal congratulations. There existed a strong 
bond of sympathy between the two illustrious Sove- 
reigns who had both known such severe domestic 

This summer — a remarkably fine one — we made 
a few pleasant and interesting visits to friends in 
Hungary and elsewhere, besides again going to the 
Potockis in Galicia. Keszthely, on Lake Balaton, 
where we stayed with Count and Countess Tassilo 
Ee^stetics, is a very fine possession in every way, 
where the whole establishment is on a princely and 
most luxurious scale, and included among other 
things a chef whose superior it would be difficult to 
find in the Imperial dominions. From the junction 
at Balaton St. Gyorgy the Count's private train 
brought us nearly to the gates of the chdteau, an 
immense pile with a facade which, by its length, 
almost recalls Versailles. In fact, from our apart- 
ment in one of the wings it took us three minutes, 
watch in hand, to reach the drawing-room on the 
same floor at the other end of the house. In lovely 
weather we were taken some distance to see the 
stud-farm and brood mares and the racing stable of 

1 For many years II. M. Consul at Nice, where lie died in November 


our host, whose colours are often to the fore at 
Pesth as well as on the Freudenau at Vienna. This, 
and sailing in his yacht on the great lake, drives 
to the rich vineyards that line its shores, and 
through the immense woods beyond, filled up the 
days, while an excellent Zigeuner band played after 
dinner, cleverly accompanied by one of the Fe'stetics 
young ladies — then quite a child — on that curious 
national instrument called the cymbalon. It was 
quite a family party, including Count Paul Festetics 
and his very agreeable wife, nee Palffy. My two sons, 
Horace and Willie, the latter on leave from his 
battery at Halifax, N.S., were with us, and, with the 
charming little daughters of the house, made up the 
cheeriest of parties. 

Another hospitable Hungarian home we stayed 
at was that of Count Bela Szecheriyi at Zinkendorf, 
or Nagy Czenk — to give it its Hungarian name — a 
delightful old house surrounded by very fine trees 
and beautifully kept gardens and grounds. A noble 
grass avenue of lime trees, some two miles long, 
leads to a monument erected in memory of Count 
Beta's wife, nee Comtesse Erdody, a sister of the 
Countess Karolyi who was for many years Ambas- 
sadress in London. The two sisters were both so 
beautiful that when they made their debut in society 
they were known as the Gotter kinder. Count Bela's 
attractive sprightly daughter, Countess Hanna, since 
married to her Karolyi cousin, did the honours of 
her father's house admirably, and, besides being a 
perfect and most entertaining hostess, was an excel- 
lent whip. She took special charge of me and 
drove me about the pretty broken country round 
Oedenburg and the Neusiedlersee, a shallow salt 
lake which is being drained out of existence. We 


were taken to Esterhaza, the now almost deserted 
Stammchloss of the great family of that name — an 
immense, empty palace with memories of Haydn, 
who was Kapellmeister to the Prince Esterhazy of 
the day, and wrote most of his compositions there. 
Among the many stately and finely decorated rooms, 
we were shown those where poor Princess Sarah 
dwelt, in almost solitary grandeur, during the short 
spell of her married life ; society, in those benighted 
days, deeming the quartering^ of this daughter of 
Lord Jersey and his proud, imperious wife, not suffi- 
ciently impeccable, and giving her the cold shoulder 
in consequence. 

On the very borders of Austria and Hungary, near 
Bruck an der Leitha, stands the fine old castle and 
domain of Prugg, belonging to Count Harrach, whose 
wife had been Mistress of the Robes to the Empress. 
The Leitha, which flows through the park, marks the 
division between Austria and Magyarland. The house 
is a very ancient one, originally built on to a genuine 
Roman tower, and has an old-world air in curious 
contrast with its beautiful but more modern gardens 
and glass-houses. When we went there, the neigh- 
bourhood was full of military, and our hosts had only 
a few days before been honoured with a visit from the 
Emperor, who had come from Vienna on his annual 
inspection of the troops at the camp of exercise at 
Bruck. Our next visit was to the late Count George 
lloyos and his wife, at Soos near St. Polten — a typical 
Austrian chdteau in lovely country, with a ruined tower 
which, together with the house, was being restored and 
made thoroughly comfortable by the Countess. Findlay 
and his very charming wife — a great ornament to our 
Embassy — were there, so that we made up almost an 
English party, not the least interesting member of 


which was Countess Hoyos's father, old Mr. Whitehead 
of torpedo fame. 

The Hoyos family are remarkably gifted and almost 
cosmopolitan. One of the daughters was married to the 
German Minister at Athens, Count Plessen, while an- 
other was the wife of the late Prince Herbert Bismarck. 
And this reminds me that Count Bismarck (as he then 
was) came to Vienna the year before and called one 
morning at the Embassy. As we happened to have a 
biggish dinner that evening, I asked him to excuse short 
notice and join our party. A good many of our guests, 
including, I remember, the Archduke Louis Victor, 
formed part of a section of society that still holds 
in honour the old Austrian traditions, and by whom 
certain painful events in the national history are not 
forgotten and still less forgiven. When, therefore, 
Count and Countess Bismarck were announced, a 
sudden chill seemed to come over the company. It 
did not last long, however, and the entertainment 
went off quite satisfactorily, Count Herbert making 
himself very agreeable. For a short time, nevertheless, 
the son of the Iron Chancellor lost some of his assurance 
and looked so ill at ease that I almost repented having 
inconsiderately exposed him to an unpleasant ordeal. 
Like his formidable father he could be charming when 
he chose, and his vigorous vitality was such that it is 
sad to think of his death when barely past middle age. 
During our stay at Soos we went over the magni- 
ficent Benedictine Abbey of Melk, a huge, palatial 
structure, raised high above the Danube, in the finest 
imaginable position, with a splendid church and library 
and innumerable historical associations. 

Late in August we went as usual to Marienbad, 
which the Prince of Wales honoured this year for 


the first time as Kurgast. A certain number of 
well-known London people were here, no doubt in 
part attracted by the presence of the most popular 
of Princes. The chief excitement of this early 
autumn was of course the serious turn which affairs 
were taking in South Africa. A rupture with the 
Boer Government seemed almost unavoidable, and 
the chances and results of war were freely discussed 
in the Prince's entourage ; M. de Soveral among others, 
I remember, being of opinion that if we were forced 
into hostilities the struggle could only be short and 
must end in our favour. These views of one of the 
shrewdest and most successful of diplomatists, who 
was likely to have good information from Lourenco 
Marquez as to the situation, struck me very much 
at the time, but proved unfortunately erroneous ; 
the fact being that, like most of the people he lived 
amongst, the Portuguese Envoy evidently underrated 
the Boer preparations and resources. 

There was a great battue in the Konigswart Thier- 
garten in honour of the Prince, with the picturesque 
accompaniment of the crowd of green-coated foresters 
and beaters customary in Austria on these occasions, 
and, two days before his departure, H.R.H. dined 
with us at the Hotel New York with a small 
party composed of the Metternichs, Lady " Algy " 
Lennox, Mrs. Chetwynd, Sir Arthur Ellis and his 
daughter and daughter-in-law, and Lord Ilchester. 
From Marienbad we went for our Nachkur to that 
most delightful of playgrounds the Salzkammergut, 
and — partly enticed thither by the fact that our Hague 
friends the "Reggie" de Tuylls had a chalet there — 
settled down for a week at St. Wolfgang on the lovely 
lake of that name. 

We found small but comfortable rooms at the 


typical country inn " Zum weissen Rossi" — shortly 
before immortalised in a clever farce bearing that 
title, and admirably given at the Deutsche Volkstheater 
at Vienna — which lay low down at the water's edge. 
The weather was as glorious as it usually is in these 
mountains in September, and everything seemed to 
point to our holiday tour having a perfect close. 
Very shortly after our arrival, however, there came 
a sudden change. It rained in buckets for three 
days and nights ; the steamers, by which means alone 
our village — pent up between the steep hillside and 
the lake — communicated with Salzburg at the one 
end and Ischl at the other, ceased to run, and the 
water, lashed by the violent wind and rain, rapidly 
inundated the landing-stage on the ground floor and 
soon rose nearly to the level of the first floor of our 
hostelry, of which we remained almost the sole occu- 
pants. It was really a curious, though unpleasant, 
experience to be absolutely cut ofT, as we were for 
the inside of a week, from the outer world ; even 
the telegraph failing us entirely for two days. As 
for public events — the scandals of the Dreyfus case, 
or the wiles of Oom Paul — we might have been in 
mid-Atlantic the whole of that week for all we learned 
of them. We could have got out uphill at the back 
of the house from a door on the first floor, had not 
the deluge of rain entirely prevented our stirring from 
our rooms, and our fellow-prisoner, Lady Adelaide 
Taylour, who had joined us from the Tyrol bent on 
sketching excursions round the lovely lake, forewent 
all hope of putting pencil to paper, and, like Heine's 
"Frau Sorge," took to knitting. The damage done 
throughout the country was almost incalculable. Ischl 
and Gmunden were entirely under water ; bridges 
were carried away in all directions ; houses fell in 


everywhere — no less than twenty-eight being de- 
stroyed at Ebensee alone. It was only later on that 
the full extent became apparent of a catastrophe which 
embraced the whole upper course of the Danube and 
of its tributaries, from Suabia into mid Hungary. 
When at last it became possible to travel along the 
sadly damaged railway lines, we moved on to beautiful 
Salzburg — that favourite retreat of Imperial dignitaries 
in retirement — where we saw a good deal of our former 
Stockholm and Hague colleagues the Pfusterschmids 
and Walterskirchens. A drive to Berchtesgaden and 
to that wonderful emerald in the grim mountain- 
setting, the Konigs-See, was our last crowning im- 
pression this year of some of the most perfect scenery 
in the world. 

October came, and with it tidings of the outbreak 
of the long-impending war and the invasion of Natal 
by the Boer levies, the first telegrams indeed indicating 
a retreat of our forces and unpreparedness on our part 
to meet so bold an advance. In the midst of the ex- 
citement caused by the war news I received an un- 
expected visit from Sir llobert Collins, Comptroller of 
the Household of the Duchess of Albany, who came 
to advise me of the arrival at the Hotel Imperial of 
H.R.H., with the young Duke and Princess Alice. 
The Duchess had just come from Dresden, he said, 
in the strictest incognito as Lady Arklow, and had 
not even brought a maid with her. It was, in fact, 
a complete escapade which afforded infinite amuse- 
ment to the Royal tourists. Their incognito, al- 
though carefully respected, nevertheless soon became 
more than transparent when the Duchess went to 
Baden to see her aunt, the Archduchess ltainer, and 
assisted at a performance of haute e'cole riding, ex- 
pressly arranged for her at the Spanische Reitschule 



in the Hofburg. The Royal party dined with us 
quietly at the Embassy, Lord St. Levan and his niece, 
Lady Agnes Townshend, being the only other guests. 
I remember this well, for it was the day on which the 
news came of our first success at Glencoe, dearly bought 
by the death of General Penn Symons, followed by the 
victory of Elandslaagte ; the little Duke of Albany— 
now Duke of Saxe-Coburg — who was fresh from Eton, 
displaying a genuine British schoolboy's enthusiasm 
over our alas ! transient triumphs. Scarcely ten days 
after this I was told one morning that Mr. Lavino, the 
very able correspondent of The Times (now transferred 
to Paris), had a message he wished to telephone to me 
in person. It was the full account he had just received 
from Printing House Square of the disaster at Nichol- 
son's Nek. The effect upon me of the distant muffled 
voice conveying this intelligence, word by word, was 
more sinister than I can express, and the worst of it 
was that I had afterwards to transmit it myself to 
Penzing in the same way, for the Duchess of Cumber- 
land, who took the deepest interest in the war and 
had asked me to keep her well informed about it. 

Amidst these preoccupations, the visit to Vienna of 
King George of Greece and of his son Prince Nicholas 
came as a real relief. The King gave me a very long 
audience, at which he showed all his old cordiality and 
kindness, and was good enough to come to luncheon 
with us. I had scarcely seen H.M. since I left his 
Court in 1888. A curious circumstance of the King's 
stay at Vienna was its coinciding with that of the 
young King Alexander of Servia. The two Sovereigns 
occupied contiguous apartments at the Hotel Imperial, 
and it afterwards transpired that the impression pro- 
duced on so shrewd an observer as King George by the 
ill-starred Alexander was that he was in a strangely 


overwrought condition and showed but little reserve 
or reticence. He had come to Vienna hoping to see 
the Emperor, which he failed to do, and must con- 
sequently have been considerably vexed and humi- 
liated when H.I.M visited King George at the Hotel, 
passing along a corridor which was full of the 
Servian King's retinue. 

At the beginning of December we made one of our 
short flights to London, and received a Royal command 
to dine and sleep at Windsor. It was very generally 
reported abroad at this time, especially in those quar- 
ters which were not all too well disposed towards us, 
that the Queen had personally been very averse to 
the war, and had even been with difficulty induced 
to sanction the measures forced upon her advisers 
by the uncompromising hostility of the Boer Govern- 
ment. While not presuming to offer an opinion 
on so delicate a subject as the private sentiments of 
our late revered Sovereign, I may say with perfect 
truth that on the occasion of this visit to Windsor, 
and again during a later one in the following March, 
one could not but be impressed by the high spirit 
shown by the aged Queen at this most trying moment 
of her reign. Far from evincing the discouragement, 
the desire for peace almost at any price attributed 
to her, the feelings dominant in her at that period 
seemed to be those of deep resentment at the insolent 
challenge of the Boer President, and of disappoint- 
ment at the unfortunate turn taken by our military 
operations. The Queen in short was in no meek, 
desponding mood ; she was very keen, very angry, 
and very determined. That the weary length and the 
losses of the war clouded, and may perhaps even 
have shortened, her last days, it were idle to deny, 
but she lived to see it brought to a triumphant 


issue, and, more fortunate than poor, patriotic, much- 
abused Mary, the name found written on her heart 
would not have been one of humiliation like Calais, 
but of victory like Paardeberg. The only guests 
bidden to Windsor besides ourselves on this occa- 
sion were Mr. George Wyndham and Lady Grosvenor, 
and it was truly good to hear the Secretary for War 
explain to us, in the smoking-room, the order and 
number of the reinforcements that were being made 
ready for despatch to the seat of war, and to feel at the 
same time how thorough was his grasp of the subject. 
With this comfort, as it were, we again left England ; 
crossing Germany deeply buried in snow, and reaching, 
late in the evening of December the 14th, Dresden, 
where we had to wait some time for the night express 
to Vienna. I had scarcely seen a paper since leaving 
London, and, after ordering supper, eagerly turned to 
the columns of the first I could lay my hand on, read- 
ing there, in the short, crushing telegraphic style, the 
story of Magersfontein and the death of Lord Win- 
chester. Only two days before leaving London, I had 
been with his aunt, Mrs. Wellesley, and from her had 
heard that he had been on the point of sending in his 
papers, but, when the war broke out, had of course 
abstained from doing so, and accompanied the Cold- 
streamers to whom he was devoted. Poor " Wilty," 
whom I well remember as a youth in his grand- 
father, Lord Rokeby's house, was as gallant a gentle- 
man and soldier as ever lived, and met a soldier's 
death, as he stood facing the murderous volleys, 
while directing and controlling his men's fire as they 
lay. But there was yet more and worse to come. 



The opening months of the winter of 1 899-1 900 — 
the last I was to spend in the Austrian capital — 
were darkened for us all at the Embassy by the 
adverse course taken at first by the South African 
war. Irrespective of the galling sense of national 
discomfiture with which all right-thinking English- 
men entered on the new century, it was especially 
trying for those who represented England abroad 
to watch these untoward events too often amidst 
unfriendly surroundings. At Vienna the pro-Boer 
movement was mostly artificial, but the close in- 
vestment of Ladysmith, Sir Red vers Buller's failure 
at Colenso, the reverses at the Modder River and 
Stormberg, followed by the Spion Kop disaster, 
nevertheless successively called forth in the leading 
organs of the Vienna press manifestations of an 
uncordial spirit. And these, although only echoes of 
openly hostile influences at that time rampant at 
Berlin and throughout Germany, effectually dis- 
turbed one's equanimity. Even papers which were 
known to be in touch with the Ballplatz, such as 
the Wiener Zeitung and Fremdenblatt, revealed pro- 
Boer tendencies ; their comments on our military 
operations being often both unfair and misleading. 
These sentiments, however, were chiefly confined to 
the upper middle-class of Austro-Germans who were 
more or less subject to Pan-German inspiration. 


Slatin Pasha, who happened to be then on a 
visit to his relatives, was extremely indignant at 
this attitude of his countrymen. He had been 
amazed, he told me, when meeting some of the 
leading journalists and literary men at the house 
of a Vienna industrial magnate, to find them so 
inimical to us, and at the same time so essentially 
ignorant of the rights of the affair. They persisted 
in looking on it as a quarrel we had deliberately 
fastened on the Transvaal in order to obtain absolute 
control of its immense mineral wealth ; — as in fact 
a repetition of the Jameson raid on a gigantic 

We saw a good deal of the loyal Sir Rudolph Slatin 
during his annual visits to Vienna, and I was present 
that winter at a special meeting of the Imperial 
Geographical Institute, with the Archduke Rainer in 
the chair, followed by a banquet, both in honour 
of the gallant Anglo- Austrian soldier and explorer. 
In spite of his terrible experiences, he remained a 
thorough Wienerkind, and had preserved his simple, 
cheery, native ways, albeit there could be read — inde- 
libly stamped on his features and reflected in his tired 
eyes, seared by the fierce glare and the sand of the 
Soudan — the record of twelve years of cruel, debasing 
captivity, during which, as he told us, one of the 
greatest physical trials he endured was having to 
run with naked feet in the burning sand at the bridle- 
rein of the brutal Mahdi. 

But, to return to the distasteful subject of the 
war, I hasten to bear grateful testimony to the faithful 
adherence of the Imperial Government throughout 
it to their traditional policy of friendship for Great 
Britain. While an ill-informed and, in some cases, 
possibly corrupt, Press — Dr. Leyds having of course 


been at work at Vienna as elsewhere — was fol- 
lowing the lead of our enemies in Germany and 
France, and seeking to malign and turn opinion 
against us in our contest in South Africa, the 
sympathies of the Austro-Hungarian Government 
were never once led astray. And in this respect they 
simply followed the example and inspiration of the 
Sovereign. On the occasion of a State Ball at the 
Hofburg on the 9th of January — the first entertain- 
ment that took place at Court after the death of 
the Empress — unequivocal proof was given by the 
Emperor of his personal sentiments. At the custo- 
mary diplomatic cercle which preceded the ball, the 
Ambassadors and Envoys were placed as usual 
according to the order of the presentation of their 
credentials. Mgr. Taliani, the Nuncio, who at this 
Roman Catholic Court was given special precedence, 
had the Italian Ambassador, Count Nigra, next to 
him ; then came the German Ambassador, Prince 
Eulenburg, and, after him, in due sequence, the 
Russian Ambassador, Count Kapnist, the Turkish 
Ambassador, Mahmoud Nedim, and myself. The 
French Ambassador, Marquis de Reverseaux, and the 
Spanish, M. Agiiera, came next after me, followed 
by a long line of Envoys from the other Powers. 

The Emperor began the cercle by addressing a 
few words to the Nuncio and to the senior of my 
colleagues in turn. I had not seen H.M. for some 
months ; in fact not since the outbreak of the war. 
When he came to where I stood between the Turkish 
and the French representatives, he greeted me with 
more even than his habitual graciousness, and, after 
inquiring about the Queen and just touching upon 
the difficulties of our campaign in South Africa, 
H.M. said to me in French in the most marked 


manner that he was " entirely on the side of England 
in the war." So clearly and emphatically did he 
utter these words that the other Ambassadors stand- 
ing near me, and their staffs behind them, could 
not have failed to hear them. 1 In fact, when he 
had passed on, after speaking to my French and 
Spanish colleagues, M. de Reverseaux at once turned 
to me and said : " Permettez moi de vous feliciter 
sur la chaleur que VEmpereur a raise a vous dire 
cela" There can indeed be no doubt that the 
Emperor fully intended to take this opportunity of 
making known his sentiments, and it is certain 
that within a few hours the expression of his views 
was telegraphed to the Governments of all the 
principal European Powers. 

I have been particular in recounting the circum- 
stances of this incident, because I was charged, when 
I referred to it some time ago in a contribution to one 
of our leading Reviews, with the grossest dereliction 
of duty in revealing and publishing matter derived 
from strictly confidential correspondence. As a matter 
of fact, the Emperor Francis Joseph never made any 
concealment whatever of his sentiments in our favour. 
On receiving about this time his Minister to the Court 
of Dresden, and hearing from him that the sympathies 
of the late King Albert of Saxony — the Emperor's 
life-long friend — were also on our side, H.M. said 
that he rejoiced to hear it, adding, " Ich filrchte 
wir sind beinahe die Einzigen ! " x In the same 
connection I was enabled by the Emperor's direct 
countenance and assistance to deal effectually — which 

1 A member of my staff at Vienna afterwards told me that not only 
had he himself heard the words of the Emperor quite distinctly, but that 
some fifty persons near him must have done so too. 

2 " I am afraid we are almost the only ones ! " 


was not the case with my colleagues at other Courts 
— with the scandalous caricatures of the Queen 
which for a short time flooded the Continent and 
found their way into some of the Vienna comic 
papers. These disgraceful productions, together with 
a number of objectionable postal cards, were almost 
all introduced from, and designed in, Germany, where 
no attempt whatever was made to suppress them, 
as I repeatedly, but in vain, pointed out to my col- 
league Prince Eulenburg. It will ever be a source 
of gratification to me to remember that of her late 
Majesty's diplomatic servants I was probably the only 
one who had the satisfaction of contributing to the 
stamping out of this intolerable nuisance in the 
country where I resided. 

But we were fortunately soon to be relieved from 
the painful strain of these first winter months by 
Lord Roberts's triumphant advance. And when the 
news reached Vienna of the relief of Kimberley and 
finally of Cronje's surrender, it was received by our 
friends with genuine pleasure, for, with very few ex- 
ceptions, society had been throughout on our side. 
Although there is no denying that our organisation 
and our strategy were freely criticised by military 
men in this essentially military Empire, the national 
spirit evoked by the contest, and the sacrifices made 
by all classes, found nowhere a more generous appre- 
ciation than among our old Austrian allies and the 
chivalrous Hungarians. 

In March we were in England once more for 
a short time, and were commanded to Windsor to 
dine and sleep — a memorable visit to me, inas- 
much as it was the last occasion on which I saw 
the Queen. The circumstances were happily very 
different from those attending our last visit in 


December, and it was interesting to meet there 
the wives of the two generals who had borne the 
brunt of the fighting in Natal, Lady Audrey Buller 
and Lady White. A pleasant innovation, too, had 
taken place in the Court arrangements. The Queen, 
instead of sitting after dinner as of old in the long 
corridor, adjourned to the white drawing-room, where 
the household were assembled, the dinner guests 
being called up to her one at a time. H.M. seemed 
to me still full of vitality and keen as ever about the 
war, talking indeed of little else. I have never again 
beheld Windsor since that day. A few days earlier 
we had witnessed in the Park and at various points 
in the streets the extraordinary enthusiasm with 
which the aged Sovereign was greeted, as she drove 
on her way to Buckingham Palace, on what was, if 
I am not mistaken, her last visit to London. No 
monarch was ever the object of a more imposing 
and spontaneous outburst of loyalty. 

Among the hospitalities of the Court at Vienna 
are the invitations received by the Ambassadors to the 
great chasses held in the Imperial domains. My first 
experience of these was a battue on a very great scale 
near Goding in Moravia. It involved a start at six 
o'clock in the morning in a special train from the 
Nordbahnhof with a run of sixty-five miles, our 
party including, besides several colleagues, Prince 
Alfred Windischgratz, General Baron Beck — the 
chief of the Staff and Moltke of the Austrian Army 
— Prince Montenuovo and others. From Goding 
we were driven in open breaks and fiakers to the 
Imperial preserves, where, at the outskirts of the 
great woods, we did justice to a rough substantial 
breakfast of sausages and beer or spirits, and were 


then placed in line — some twelve or fourteen guns 
— each attended by his own Jager and by game- 
bearers, while a perfect army of foresters and beaters 
moved on in front. It was really an imposing sight, 
and to me a complete novelty. Over 3600 head of 
game were killed — mostly pheasants and hares, with 
a few partridges — and, horresco ref evens, a fox or two. 
An excellent luncheon or mid-day dinner, presided 
over by the Gvand Veneuv, Baron Gudenus, was 
served in the head forester's cottage, after which we 
shot again till dark, and did not get back to Vienna 
much before nine o'clock. At another, much smaller, 
chasse, near Laxenburg, about 1600 head, almost 
all hares, were shot. The prettiest shooting I saw, 
however, was in the Island of Lobau in the Danube. 
The road thither from Vienna passes through the 
big village of Aspern, out of which the French were 
driven back into that island by the Archduke Charles, 
after a bloody two days' battle. A clumsy stone 
monument in the village marks the site of the 
transient Austrian victory. Crossing the bridge 
which replaces that which was burnt by the Imperial 
troops during the fierce struggle, one reaches the 
woods and glades — now thickly stocked with phea- 
sants — where the French army was encamped all 
through June 1 809 ; the baffled conqueror having 
his headquarters here for some time before issuing 
forth again to take his revenge on the field of 
Wagrara. The trees under which his tents were 
pitched and the remains of the earthworks he con- 
structed are still visible. No more interesting and 
ideal shooting-ground can be imagined. 

I was but a poor shot myself compared to my 
German colleague Prince Eulenburg or the Russian 
Ambassador, but the most envage, though not alto- 


gether the safest, sportsman of our corps was our 
Turkish colleague, Mahmoud Nedim — a gloomy, soli- 
tary, discontented man, whose sole passion was shoot- 
ing. As often happens with Ottomans of the best class, 
he had but one wife, to whom he was much attached, 
but could not of course take abroad with him. He 
constantly applied for leave to go home and see her, 
but, like other Turkish officials, he suffered from 
his Sovereign's caprices and was never allowed to 
absent himself from his post. His case, however, 
was not to be compared to that of his predecessor 
who, in spite of repeated entreaties, was peremptorily 
denied leave to go to his wife when she was dan- 
gerously ill, in fact, dying, at Constantinople. He con- 
sequently committed suicide in a fit of despair — clearly 
a victim of the arbitrary methods of Yildiz Kiosk. 

Lent passed away, with its usual accompaniment 
of evening parties and receptions, at one of which, 
given by Prince Fiirstenberg and his handsome wife, 
ne'e Schonborn, the engagement was announced of 
the Duke of Cumberland's eldest daughter to Prince 
Max of Baden — a great event in the Vienna world 
where the Cumberland family enjoyed unbounded 
popularity. At musical parties given in honour of 
this engagement by Princess Metternich-Sandor and 
Comtesse Eric Kielmansegg, wife of the Statthalter, 
Fratilein Kurz and Kreisler the violinist — both now 
so admired in London — made almost their first ap- 
pearance, and we were much struck with their fine 

A fortnight later we were shocked and startled 
by the news of the dastardly attempt on the life of 
the Prince of Wales at Brussels, when on his way to 
Copenhagen. Much sympathy was shown on this 
occasion at Vienna, and the Emperor made a sur- 


prise visit of congratulation to the Embassy on 
H.R.H.'s escape. It seems scarcely credible — 
though it is, I happen to know, the fact — that 
Dr. Leyds thought fit to send the Prince a congra- 
tulatory telegram on his preservation. An act of 
singular effrontery on his part, considering that Brus- 
sels was the centre whence he directed the Anglo- 
phobe campaign against us in the foreign press, and 
that his calumnious denunciations of England may 
fairly be held to have inspired the insane attempt 
of the young Belgian anarchist. 

At the Imperial Court, Passion Week is still 
marked by the ancient ceremony of the Washing of 
Feet (Fusswaschung), which takes place on Maundy 
Thursday in the great marble Rittersaal of the Hofburg. 
For the privileged spectators of the function tribunes 
are erected round the walls of the Hall ; one of them, 
which is reserved for the Corps Diplomatique, being 
placed immediately above the bench where twelve very 
ancient paupers — dressed for the occasion in sixteenth- 
century garb (Alt Deutsche Tracht), with ruffs — are 
seated in a row on a slightly raised dais behind a long 
table covered with a white tablecloth. The other 
tribunes are filled with Austrian great ladies, and in 
the body of the Hall stands a crowd of Court digni- 
taries, high officials, Privy Councillors and others 
entitled to be present. The Emperor enters with 
the great Officers of State, followed by all the Arch- 
dukes with their households. Some short prayers 
are now intoned by the Court clergy ; the Emperor 
takes up his position, standing at the head of the 
long table, while the Archdukes place themselves in 
line, according to their precedence, along the side of 
it facing the aged recipients of the Imperial bounty. 


Conspicuous among the Princes is the tall, knightly 
figure of the Archduke Eugene — a younger brother 
of the Archduke Frederick and of the Queen of 
Spain — wearing over his general's uniform the 
picturesque, flowing white mantle, with the large 
black cross on it, of Grand Master of the Teutonic 

Then comes the rhythmic tramp of infantry, as, 
preceded by minor Court officials, twelve of the Palace 
Guard file into the Hall — each man bearing a large 
wooden tray with several dishes. They come to atten- 
tion in line conveniently near the Emperor and the 
respective Archdukes, who take the dishes from the 
trays and arrange them with great dexterity on the 
table in front of each old man, the Emperor setting 
the example. After a brief pause the dishes, none 
of which have been touched, are replaced on the trays 
by the same hands and carried away by the guards- 
men. Another pause, and a second course is brought 
in and dealt with in the same manner, followed by a 
third and fourth course, after which the tables are 
removed. During the intervals, the Emperor stoops 
across and says a few words to the aged waifs who are 
nearest to him: "How old are you?" "Ninety odd, 
Majestat," comes the answer in wavering tones, fol- 
lowed by the Emperor's hearty : " Sie sehen ja ganz 
frisch aus!" Behind the old gaffers stand a row of 
their proud relatives — mostly women in stuff gowns 
and shawls — and these humble folk the kindly Em- 
peror includes in his gracious smile and nod as he 
speaks, for he does not go through the solemnity in 
the least perfunctorily but in right good earnest. The 
tables being cleared away, Court attendants remove the 
stocking from the right foot of each veteran, and the 
Emperor, closely followed by chamberlains bearing a 


gold basin and ewer and fine linen, then goes down 
on one knee and shuffles, so to speak, in this lowly 
attitude, along the line of the twelve, pouring a little 
water over, and drying their feet in turn. On reaching 
the end of the row, he stands up, and coming down the 
line again, hangs a chain to which is attached a purse 
round the neck of each. It is impossible to bring 
home to those who have not witnessed it the earnest- 
ness, combined with a charming bonhomie, displayed 
by H.M. through the whole of this curious and elabo- 
rate function. An interesting feature of it too is that 
the old people are fetched from, and taken back to, 
their homes with their relatives in Court carriages, to 
which, after the ceremony, one sees them tottering, 
each on the arm of a stalwart guardsman, while the 
dishes, of what to them has so far been a Barmecide 
feast, are carried behind them in immense wooden 
boxes, which also contain the green earthenware 
jug and pewter mug, both handsomely decorated 
with the Imperial arms, with which they are pre- 
sented, and for which later they readily find eager 

There are two other great religious functions de- 
serving of notice in which the Emperor personally 
takes part. On Easter eve he attends service in state 
at a small chapel in the south-west corner of the Burg, 
and thence follows the Host on foot round the inner 
quadrangle of that Palace to the Burgkapelle at the 
opposite end, attended by the whole of his Court. The 
procession is a very fine one seen from the windows of 
the Palace where places are always reserved for the 
foreign diplomatists. Still more striking is the great 
procession of Corpus Domini that winds its way 
through the main streets of the Innere Stadt from and 
back to the porch of St. Stephen's, halting at several 


points by the way, where chapels are erected, and a few 
prayers are said. A magnificent and endless cortege ; 
the banners and vestments of the clergy, the uniforms 
and accoutrements of the troops of all arms, and, above 
all, the gorgeous Hungarian guard, mounted on grey 
Arabs with leopard-skin saddle-cloths — making a per- 
fect feast of colour ; the Emperor going on foot the 
whole way, immediately after the baldachin held over 
the Cardinal Archbishop of Vienna who carries the 
Host. A special interest attaches to these impressive, 
old-world ceremonies, religiously handed down as they 
have been from the days of the Holy Roman Empire, 
much of the etiquette observed at them having been 
imported by the Habsburgs from Spain. There is a 
certain pathos, too, about them at present which can- 
not but appeal to the thoughtful. For many years, in 
the brighter period of the now so heavily clouded 
reign, these functions were doubly magnificent, for 
the beautiful Empress and all the Archduchesses took 
part in them in the full splendour of State robes and 
Crown jewels l — a sight unparalleled at that time else- 
where in Europe. The pomp remains, though shorn 
of half its attraction, and still the aged Emperor, wife- 
less and son-less, treads the old paths and goes through 
the time-honoured duties alone, bravely, patiently, and 
in all things conscientiously as becomes a true Apos- 
tolic King. 

These high festivals and pageants of the great 
Church which, despite the contemptible "Los von 
Rom" propaganda attempted by Schoenerer and con- 
sorts, holds unquestioned sway throughout the Empire, 
bring to my mind the acute stage that was reached by 
the Anti-Semitic movement towards the close of my 

1 The Empress, assisted by the Archduchesses, used to perform the 
ceremony of the Fusswaschung on twelve old women. 


tenure of the Embassy at Vienna. The more im- 
mediate cause of this recrudescence of Judseophoby 
was a sensational ritual murder case tried in the 
autumn of 1899 before the Criminal Court at Pisek 
in Bohemia. The accused — a Moravian Jew of Polna, 
of the name of Hilsner — was charged with having, 
at the approach of the Jewish Passover, enticed a 
Christian servant girl, with whom he was acquainted, 
into the woods near Polna, and after murdering her, 
having extracted the blood from her body and taken 
it to the local Rabbi. The corpse, it appeared, had 
actually been found in a strangely bloodless condition, 
and the trial, which was conducted in a very unfair, 
vindictive spirit, ended in Hilsner being found guilty 
and sentenced to death. 1 An immense sensation was 
produced by this affair. Professor Masaryk, a dis- 
tinguished lawyer who had defended Hilsner, was 
prevented from delivering his course of lectures at 
the Prague University, and the old Anti- Jewish spirit 
in Bohemia and Moravia being roused to a dangerous 
pitch, Jewish houses were pillaged and set fire to at 
Holleschau and other places. 

This revival of the cruel accusation of murder for 
ritual purposes, first brought against the Jews in dark, 
mediaeval times, caused great concern to the heads of 
the Hebrew communities in Western Europe, who 
feared that it might spread to France — where the 
affaire Dreyfus had already caused much ill-blood 
— and even to England. When in London in the 
autumn, I was approached on the subject by the 
Messrs. Rothschild, who are old friends of mine. It 
appeared from what they told me that some of the 
most prominent English Catholics, shocked by the 

1 The case was subsequently tried again on appeal and the sentence 
commuted to imprisonment. 

2 A 


abominable ritual murder charges, intended, with the 
approval of the late Cardinal Vaughan, to memorialise 
the Holy See, with the view of obtaining an authori- 
tative pronouncement from Rome of the same character 
as those formerly issued by several Popes, from Innocent 
IV. to Clement XIV., stigmatising these accusations 
as utterly wicked and calumnious. I had several 
interviews about this question with Mr. Leopold de 
Rothschild and the distinguished Chief Rabbi, Dr. 
Adler, and gladly undertook to try and obtain the 
support of my colleague the Nuncio at Vienna in the 
move that was contemplated at Rome. Mgr. Taliani, 
since raised to the Cardinalate, was a friendly, liberal- 
minded prelate. The Holy See, he said, had, for 
centuries past, endeavoured to shield the Jews from 
misrepresentation and persecution, but, as regarded 
the acerbity of the feelings towards them in Austria, 
I knew, as well as he did, that the hostile movement 
against them had for the most part political and party 
motives at the bottom of it. He assured me, neverthe- 
less, that he preserved a perfectly open mind on these 
questions, and promised to make known at the Vatican 
what I told him of the sentiments of our English 
Catholics regarding them. Some hint no doubt reached 
the Austrian clergy from Rome, for the violent cam- 
paign which had originated in the Polna murder 
promptly came to an end. 

The Anti-Semitic movement is one of the most 
serious evils with which public life in Austria is 
afflicted, and there is no more pernicious influ- 
ence in Vienna than that of its bigoted, overbearing 
leader, the Burgomaster Dr. Lueger, who is unfor- 
tunately gifted with the fluent oratorical powers 
of a born demagogue. The folly of his passionate 
crusade against the Jews was soon made patent 


by the disastrous economic results to which it 
led. 1 

The Austrian Government wisely do their best 
to check Anti-Semitism, to which the Emperor him- 
self is strongly opposed, rightly considering it both 
unprincipled and dangerous. " I will tolerate no Jew- 
baiting (Judenhetze) in my dominions," he said to the 
Chief Rabbi of Prague after the excesses mentioned 
above. Among other ill-effects, the Anti-Semitic 
craze has unfortunately contributed to the growing 
estrangement between Vienna and Buda-Pest ; the 
dislike felt in the old Imperial city for the Jewish 
influences which are no doubt very powerful in 
the capital of Hungary, being expressed by the 
term of Judo- Magyar en applied to Hungarians in 

To the city of the Judo-Magyars we went in 
May, and on our farewell visit alas ! It was the 
race- week, and Pesth was full of our friends, but 
the weather was so exceptionally damp and cold that 
it might have been a wet Ascot, and the racecourse 
offered few attractions. But there were a good 
many dinners and parties, at the Fe'stetics, Andrassy, 
Apponyi and other houses, where we had our last 
look at the brilliant Hungarian society, in which I 
may again say that the beauty of some of the 
ladies is remarkable, and among them two Esterhazy 
sisters, married, the one to her kinsman Count 
Michael Esterhdzy, and the other to Count Sandor 
Andrassy, being indeed fair to behold. But the 

1 Dr. Lueger and his followers were also amongst our greatest 
detractors during the South African war, and he was on one occasion 
severely taken to ta^k by the Emperor for an offensive Anglophobe speech 
he made at a public meeting. 


great centre of amusement for the gay world of 
Pesth in summer-time is the Park Club, situated in 
the Stadtwdldchen, which in the Hungarian capital 
answers to the Prater at Vienna. The perfect equality 
in it of its members of both sexes, and the lavish 
style in which it is decorated and furnished, make it 
quite a curiosity among clubs, while, as regards its 
luxurious appointments, they are characteristic of a 
society in which a certain partiality for display and 
splendour might perhaps be traced to far distant 
Asiatic descent. In no capital, however, can there 
be a more perfect lounge than the hospitable Park 
Club, where we spent many pleasant evenings, the 
honours of the Club being admirably done by its 
President, Count Paul Szapary, and his Polish 

When I left Pesth the political situation bore a 
promising complexion. The Minister President, M. 
de Szell, was then backed by an immense majority 
in Parliament, which certainly held firmly to the 
maintenance and the integrity of the Union, and the 
leaders in Hungarian political life — with the exception 
of M. Kossuth and the then comparatively unim- 
portant party of Independence— were generally sound 
in their views respecting the fundamental, pragmatic 
conditions of that Union, namely, a common Sovereign, 
a common Army, and the conduct in common of the 
foreign relations of the Empire. A great change 
has in the last few years taken place in the aspect 
of affairs, and the present outlook cannot but cause 
the deepest concern to all well-wishers of the Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy. Unfortunately, in those ques- 
tions which tend to gratify the national aspirations 
and amour-propre the Hungarian race knows no differ- 
ences of opinion, and has of late been disposed 


to act on the maxim that Austria's tribulations are 
Hungary's opportunity. 

We returned to Vienna in time for the end of the 
racing-season, and for its principal event, the Austrian 
Derby, which this year was run on the 4th of June 
in lovely weather. Some of the best horses in the 
Empire and in Germany compete for the blue ribbon 
of the Austrian turf, and, next to the Grand Prix 
at Paris, there is no greater racing holiday and no 
gayer spectacle of its kind out of England than this 
gathering on the Vienna Freudenau. The Vienna 
ladies certainly look their best and smartest on the 
occasion and do credit to the world-renowned dress- 
makers of that capital. The Hauptallee of the 
Prater, lined with a four-fold row of splendid chestnut- 
trees, is crowded from end to end with carriages, 
mostly the light Vienna fiakers, their drivers racing 
the wiry, fast-trotting juckers at the top of their 
speed, to and from the course. The stream of 
carriages in rapid motion, up and down the three- 
mile-long avenue, is indeed prodigious, but these 
fiaker folk, who form a curious and popular guild 
of their own, and are the incarnation of the Vienna 
local fun and humour, are fortunately very expert 
whips. One of them, a man called Bratfisch (since 
dead), a great character, well known as a singer of 
Schnaderhupferl, or popular songs in the Vienna 
dialect, was at Mayerling on the night of the terrible 
tragedy enacted there, and was probably one of the few 
persons cognisant of its real facts. The way in which 
those facts have been scrupulously kept from the public 
knowledge is indeed surprising, and reflects the greatest 
credit on the persons concerned. One of the guests of 
the Crown Prince at Mayerling on that fatal night was 


the late Count " Joserl " Hoyos, whom I had known 
well of old. Of him it is related that immediately 
after the catastrophe he hurried to Vienna and sought 
an audience of the Emperor, at which he volunteered 
to take upon himself the death of the Crown Prince. 
He was willing, he said, to declare that he had shot 
him by accident in a battue that had taken place that 
day, and was ready to leave the country at once for 
good, and bear in exile the odium of having caused 
the death of the heir to the throne. The Emperor, 
it need scarcely be said, would not listen to Count 
Hoyos' chivalrous offer. 

For us the brilliant gathering on the Freudenau 
was a day of leave-taking from many of the kind 
friends we had made during our too brief stay of 
barely four years at Vienna. The Vienna world 
disperses immediately after the Derby day, and, 
having myself already run my diplomatic course to 
the end, I was prepared to make immediate room 
for my successor, much though I had hoped to 
spend one more summer in the most perfect of 
countries for summer-holiday making. It so happened 
that a few days later the Emperor laid, in great 
state, the foundation-stone of a church to be erected 
in memory of his Jubilee, most of the Ambassadors 
being present at the ceremony. At the close of it, 
H.M. addressed a few words to each of us, and, 
after greeting my wife and me most graciously, 
observed somewhat pointedly that he was about to 
leave for his habitual stay at Ischl and, being 
unable to grant any audiences before then, hoped 
to find me at Vienna on his return in the early 
autumn. On my then inquiring whether I had 
his Majesty's leave to let Lord Salisbury know 
this, he replied that he certainly wished me to do 


so. To the Emperor's kind initiative, therefore, I 
owe the few months' very welcome respite allowed 
me before my final retirement. Previous to the 
departure of the Court a loyal demonstration on a 
great scale, got up by the Vienna choral societies 
and by numerous bodies of veterans, fire brigades, 
workmen's and other associations of the capital and 
its neighbourhood, took place at Schonbrunn in antici- 
pation of the Sovereign's seventieth birthday, which 
fell on the 18th of August. A serenade was given 
in front of the Schonbrunn Palace by an admirable 
choir of 4600 voices, and this was followed by a 
monster Fackelzug, or march past, of 26,000 men, 
all bearing torches or coloured lanterns ; each society 
of a different colour. It was a remarkable sight, 
and, as far as we were concerned, made a memorable 
conclusion to the series of pageants we had assisted 
at during our sojourn at the Imperial Court. 

Public attention at this period was entirely en- 
grossed by the grave crisis in China and the fate 
of the European residents besieged in the Legation 
quarter at Peking. We were ourselves greatly con- 
cerned about one of them, Mr. Bryan Clarke-Thorn- 
hill, of Rushton, Northamptonshire, who had served 
with me at The Hague for two years. There was some- 
thing almost tragical in the fact of his being at Peking 
at this conjuncture. From The Hague he had been 
transferred to the Embassy at Paris, and was then 
promoted to be First Secretary to the Legation in 
China, an appointment he held for a considerable time, 
without, however — owing to the precarious state of his 
father's health — proceeding to his post. lie retired 
from the service in March 1900, on succeeding to the 
property at his father's death, and almost immediately 


afterwards started on a journey to the Far East which, 
by what seemed a strange fatality, brought him on a 
visit to Sir Claude Macdonald just before Peking was 
cut off from the outer world. For a short time he was 
of course given up for lost with all the rest of the 
besieged residents. He did excellent service during 
the siege, and his gifts of observation and sense of 
humour are such that his recollections of it, if he could 
be induced to give them to the world, would be the 
best of reading. Keenly watching as I did this truly 
agonising crisis, I could not but chafe at the manner 
in which the offer of the Japanese to despatch a 
considerable force — which they had quite ready — to 
the rescue of the victims, was foiled by the selfish 
fears, not to say the intrigues, of some of the Powers. 
My personal opinion at the time was that we 
ought to have taken upon ourselves to urge Japan 
to send off her relieving expedition at once, assuring 
her at the same time that we would " see her safely 
through " the business. What Power would have 
risked incurring the odium of preventing such a work 
of salvage ? Instead of this, the irresolution and lack 
of real accord of the Powers, the want of decision of 
some, and the jealous fears and suspicions of others, 
almost brought about what would have been the most 
hideous massacre of modern times. 1 

Amidst the obsession of this nightmare of the Far 
East, it was a pleasing contrast to have to represent 
the Queen at the marriage of Princess Marie Louise 
of Cumberland, which took place at Gmunden at the 
beginning of July, but was unfortunately marred by 
atrocious weather. I was charged with the Royal pre- 

1 I remember being much gratified by a letter from my old friend Sir 
Nicholas O'Conor thanking me for some plain language I had permitted 
myself to use in despatches at this crisis. 


sent for the bride, and, after delivering it at a special 
andience, was kept to lnnch at a Familientafel at which, 
inclusive of the family of the Duke of Cumberland, the 
Princes and Princesses who had come for the wedding 
numbered no less than thirty-two. Besides the King 
of Denmark, whom I saw here for the first and only 
time, and the Grand Duke and Grand Duchess of Baden, 
whom I had not met since the christening at Stock- 
holm of their grandchild — now by the way engaged to 
Princess Margaret of Connaught — the most interesting 
and picturesque figure at the wedding ceremony was 
the venerable, widowed Queen of Hanover — then 
already in her eighty-third year — who put off her 
mourning for the occasion, and was dressed entirely 
in white, wishing, she said in jest to her ladies, " to 
appear as Pio Nono." She was seated in the chancel, 
next to the Emperor, who had come over from Ischl 
for the ceremony ; his grand-daughter, the Arch- 
duchess Elizabeth, and two daughters of the Arch- 
duke Frederick being the bridesmaids. The numerous 
and valuable presents that came from Hanover and 
Brunswick were a striking and significant feature of 
these festivities. The Hanoverian Ritterschaft sent 
a deputation including Schulenburgs, Grotes, Bern- 
storffs, and other great Hanoverian names, with a 
handsome silver surtout de table, of which the centre- 
piece was the horse of Hanover rampant, and there 
was also a set of water-colours — views in and about 
Hanover — for which a subscription had been made 
by all classes, notwithstanding the attempts of the 
German authorities to prevent its collection. Cer- 
tainly signs were not wanting that a strong Guelph 
feeling still subsisted in the Duke's ancient hereditary 


The few weeks still left to us in Austria were taken 
up by some farewell visits in the country and by our 
annual cure at Marienbad. On our way to that old 
haunt of ours, we stayed at Frischau in Moravia, a 
charming place belonging to my old friend, Countess 
Stadion-Lobkowitz, where we spent a couple of 
very happy days, and much admired the splendid 
woods, containing many really giant oaks, that 
form a girdle round the property. Our time was 
short, however, and we reluctantly took leave of 
our hostess ; on my part, I confess, not without what 
the French call un serrement de coeur. At Marienbad 
we found Lady Radnor and her charming daughter, 
Lady Lathom, the Due de Luynes, General de 
Galliffet, the Standishes, Countess Tassilo Fe'stetics, 
Sir Arthur Ellis, and a few other friends, and while 
there, were successively shocked by the news of the 
assassination of the King of Italy and by the very 
unexpected death of the Duke of Saxe Coburg. On 
leaving Marienbad we stayed a day or two with Princess 
Lobkowitz, nee Sternberg, and her family, whom we 
had met at Frischau, and had promised to visit at her 
chdteau near Pilsen. My two younger sons — George, 
who had been invalided from the Cape after a short 
campaign with Roberts's Horse, and Hugo, who had 
not long before left Eton — accompanied us, and with 
the young people of the house made up a very merry 
party, contributing not a little to the general amuse- 
ment by their musical performances. A curious old 
house is Krimitz, with old-fashioned gardens and views 
over the broad dusty plain that surrounds the Austrian 
beeropolis Pilsen. We were most hospitably enter- 
tained by the Princess and her sons, who quite sur- 
prised me by their undisguised Czech sentiments and 
their distaste for everything that was German. It 


is indeed remarkable how strongly the heads of even 
great families of German origin, such as the Harrachs, 
Schonborns, and even one branch of the Schwarzen- 
bergs, have committed themselves to the national 
Bohemian idea. 

From Krimitz we went on to Prince Trautt- 
mannsdorrTs fine castle of Bischofteinitz, a former 
episcopal abode — half palace and half monastery — 
which came into the family during the great commo- 
tions of the Thirty Years' War. The Prince is one of 
the best shots in Austria, and the walls of a long 
gallery in the house bristle with stags' heads and 
antlers, while large stuffed eagles and other birds of 
prey hang down from the vaulted roof with out- 
stretched wings — an appropriate decoration for a real 
home of sport. Magnificent woods full of game cover 
the estate, and through these I was taken long drives 
by my host and had the chance of an occasional shot 
at a stag or a roebuck. There is no more amiable 
family in Vienna society than the Trauttmannsdorffs, 
and we were indeed loth to part from them on start- 
ing for a twelve hours' journey to our next visit at 
Aschach, on the Danube, above Linz. 

We had to drive as far as Pilsen, across the great 
monotonous plains, passing through straggling Bohe- 
mian villages with huge barns and untidy farm-build- 
ings, along ragged, dusty roads where regiments of 
geese filed past in charge of some small maiden like 
those I had read of in childhood in Grimm's unforget- 
table tales. A few delightful days with Count and 
Countess Alfred Harrach in their sunny arcaded 
chdteau at Aschach by the blue river, and we went 
on again to a farewell visit to the Duke and Duchess 
of Cumberland at beautiful Gmunden. Here we stayed 
only two nights as Their lloyal Highnesses were about 


to start for Copenhagen, but when we departed, on our 
way to Ischl, I felt more than ever assured that we 
were leaving behind us in this Royal home very true 
and kind friends. 

The Emperor was still at Ischl with his two daugh- 
ters, the Archduchesses Gisela and Marie Valerie, and 
on H.M. hearing of our arrival, an invitation to the 
Imperial table was brought us by Prince R. Liechten- 
stein. After dinner H.M. touched upon a variety of 
subjects — the appointment of Count Waldersee to the 
command of the combined European forces in China 
among others — and then referred to the demonstrations 
of loyalty and attachment which had just marked the 
celebration of his birthday ; dwelling more particularly 
on the gratification he had derived from the friendly 
tone of the English press on that occasion. He rejoiced 
to find that his sincere regard for England was so well 
understood by English public opinion. We left Ischl 
the next day for St. Wolfgang and Salzburg, and were 
back at Vienna on the 3rd of September. 

On the 8th I had my farewell audience and 
delivered my letters of recall, being received by the 
Emperor with even more than his habitual conde- 
scension and cordiality. H.M. was pleased to express 
his satisfaction at the way in which I had acquitted 
myself of my duties, and added, with much warmth 
of manner, that he wished me to remember that I 
left in him a very sincere friend. In the afternoon 
he came to the Embassy to say good-bye to my 
wife and sat with us for some time. My wife asked 
him to sign a photograph of himself — one of the 
many done of him by Pietzner — which she had pre- 
pared for the occasion. This he did at once in his 
usual kindly way, and then noticing another one — 
a small group representing him surrounded by his 


grandchildren, one of whom is seated on his knee 
— he asked her whether she would like that signed 
too, and forthwith wrote his name on it. 

My mission to the Emperor Francis Joseph 
was in every sense the culminating honour of a 
long and much chequered career. No Ambassador 
accredited to him can preserve more grateful re- 
collections than mine of the invariable kindness 
and thoughtfulness of the most high-minded and 
beneficent of Sovereigns. An admirable portrait of 
him by Pochwalski 1 presented to me by H.M. hangs 
on the wall of my London home, and when I look 
up at the shrewd, kindly eyes, and see the smile 
lighting the rugged, careworn features, I seem to 
hear once more the majestic and thrilling strains 
of the " Gott erhalte," and feel — because I know — 
how urgent is the need the prayer it breathes, 
and how precious the life on which it calls down 

I left Vienna on the 16th of September 1900 — 
fifty-one years and a few days after entering the 
diplomatic service. 

1 The Order of St. Stephen is generally conferred on Ambassadors 
retiring from Vienna, but a.s a regulation existed prohibiting the accept- 
ance of foreign decorations by the diplomatic servants of the British 
Crown — a rule no longer, I believe, strictly enforced in quite recent 
years — this was replaced, in the case of my predecessors and myself, 
by the much more valuable and interesting gift of a portrait which 
the Emperor caused to be painted for the occasion. 



Half a century spent abroad in the service of the 
Crown more than unfits the retired diplomatist for 
the short span that may be left to him at home in 
England. In my case not only was a lifetime's 
occupation gone, but it was far too late to think of 
replacing it by any serious or profitable employment. 
Much the same has of course been the fate of the 
majority of my colleagues, with the exception of 
those fortunate few who have come back to old 
family homes and to the duties which these en- 
tail. All public careers, it will be rightly said, 
must end in comparative nothingness and obscurity, 
but the oblivion into which those who have 
attained the highest rank in diplomacy lapse on 
their retirement seems to me almost distinctive of 
that profession. 

There is in fact little of the proverbial otiurn 
cum dignitate in the lot of the retired diplomatist ; 
or — to dot the i's — more than enough of the first, 
and but little of the second. To the British public 
at large, whose conception of the service is some- 
what hazy, and which scarcely distinguishes between 
a Consul and an Ambassador, the man on the shelf 
is naturally unknown. But, curiously enough it 
appears to me, he counts almost as little with the 
great department under which he has served so long 

and with the Court which it has been his duty to 



represent, often at no small personal sacrifice. From 
the day of his retirement he practically loses all 
touch with those who have been wont to look for, 
and trust to, his counsel or opinion in unques- 
tionably important affairs. His experience, which 
might be of value to his former chiefs, is treated 
by them, so to speak, as of no account ; while, if 
he should venture to raise an independent voice 
on matters which have been the study of his 
life, he is liable to be rebuked for culpable in- 
discretion, and even threatened with severe pains 
and penalties. 

Certain special circumstances possibly brought 
this sudden and complete breach with the past 
more strongly home to me than to others. The 
eminent statesman under whom I had served for a 
number of years had just resigned and withdrawn 
to his splendid home at Hatfield ; the seals of the 
Foreign Office passing into the able hands of its 
present occupant. I had thus no farewell interview 
with the Foreign Secretary, and disappeared quite 
unnoticed from the service as might any of our 
numerous Vice-Consuls. As for the Queen, she was 
still at Balmoral and in rapidly failing health. Mr. 
"Alec" Yorke, whom I chanced to meet in October, 
shortly after my return to England, told me, I re- 
member, of the great change he had noticed in her 
Majesty when he was in waiting just before in 
Scotland. Although the Queen resided for six weeks 
at Windsor on her return South, it was gener- 
ally understood that she was living there in com- 
plete retirement and received only those persons 
it was indispensable she should see. We, there- 
fore, did not have the audience to take leave 
of the Sovereign which is invariably accorded to 


retiring Ambassadors and their wives. By some 
unfortunate mischance, too, an official invitation 
to the Royal obsequies at Windsor did not reach 
me in time, having been sent to a wrong address. 
In fact it was only at the eleventh hour that 
I succeeded in obtaining cards of admission to 
the balcony overlooking the Friary Court at St. 
James's Palace, and thence saw the memorable 
funeral procession of the great Queen whose phe- 
nomenal reign synchronised with more than sixty 
years of my life, and whom I had served longer, 
I believe, than any of my fellow -workers in 

But enough of this. The contrast between the 
complete effacement into which the ex-diplomatist 
subsides, and a life in which outward show — or 
what the French well describe as representation — 
necessarily has so large a part ; the being suddenly 
cut off from those exclusive channels of infor- 
mation which give to a diplomatic career an 
interest and fascination of its own, not to be 
met with, I think, in any other branch of the 
public service ; chiefly, perhaps, the sense of having 
become half a foreigner, and feeling scarcely at 
home in his own country — all these have the 
effect of diverting his thoughts from the fast 
fleeting present to the long dead past. In the 
waning days that can hold but few interests or 
attractions — none of them of an absorbing character 
— the mind almost mechanically clings to, and seeks 
refuge in, that very different past, and existence 
becomes, as it were, a silent retrospect. The long 
vista of years gone by fills in the now empty canvas ; 
and the de'scsuvre ex-diplomatist, living in some quiet 
corner, on too often straitened means, calls up the 


countless pictures stored away in his memory, and 
takes count of the events and changes he has witnessed 
and was wont to chronicle day by day. 

And, within my own personal experience, wonder- 
ful indeed have been some of those changes. The 
Piedmont which, at the very outset of my career, 
I found still reeling under the crushing blow of 
Novara, figures now as a mere province of the fair 
Kingdom whose sterling nucleus it became, and 
which it raised by its exertions to the rank of a 
first-class European Power. From the ruins of the 
splendid but flashy Empire which I heard proclaimed 
on the Place de l'Hotel de Ville, and saw cruelly 
shattered eighteen years later, France has issued 
forth in entirely novel guise. Strong, but collected 
and confident in her might ; as prudent and practical 
as she is prosperous ; no longer an uncertain, dis- 
turbing element, but a great conservative force of 
infinite value to the stability of European peace ; 
and, for this country, the best of friends and asso- 
ciates, and, I would fain hope, of potential allies. 
Yet more complete has been the transformation — 
whether for the good of the world the future alone 
can tell — of the Germany of my youth. The colossus 
who welded its loose, disjointed parts together with 
the hammer of a Wotan, but whom I first recollect 
as barely holding his own against Austria in the 
Frankfort Bundestag, has long since gone to his 
rest in the cold shade of his oaks at Schbnhausen, 
and a gifted and brilliant potentate now wields the 
power created by him, spasmodically arousing the 
wonder or the apprehensions of mankind. The feeble, 
easy-going, friendly Germany of old has indeed 
vanished ; its grand national spirit and genius freely 
emerging from the complicated trammels — amazing 

2 B 


when one thinks of them — by which they were 
confined so long. Of the future destinies by sea 
and land of the restored Empire who can venture 
to prophesy? 

But far more pregnant and astonishing than all 
these changes is the revolution — for no less word 
can express it — which is running its course in the 
Far Eastern world. The marvellous achievements on 
which our press, and notably The Times, intone their 
paeans to us every morning, do not properly come 
within the bounds of my official Recollections, but 
there are few men now alive to whom they can 
appeal with greater force than to myself. For I 
well remember witnessing the meeting, just forty- 
six years ago, in the harbour of Point de Galle, of 
two brothers: 1 the one bound to, and the other 
returning from, the Far East — the latter taking home 
with him the treaty by which, under great pressure, 
he had obtained a right of entry into Japan, until 
then hermetically closed to the outer world. To 
me, therefore, the complete transformation of that 
country since those days, and since its internal re- 
volution in 1868, may well appear a greater marvel 
even than to others. But, though yielding to no 
one in my admiration of the valour, the intelligence, 
and the absolutely perfect organisation evinced by a 
wonderful people, I cannot but view with profound 
misgiving the mastery they are acquiring in those 
distant regions, and which they could scarcely have 
attained without our countenance. While I frankly 
own that race prejudice in part biases me on this 
point, I am none the less convinced that ere long 
the Powers in any degree interested in the Pacific 
will have to count with a formidable, aggressively 

1 The Earl of Elgin and the Honble. Sir Frederick Bruce. 


spreading Empire, which must seek to enlarge its 
boundaries for its active, teeming population, and can 
only do so at their cost. Well may statesmen at The 
Hague and in Paris already ponder over these possi- 
bilities, which already give rise to anxious speculation 
at Sydney and Melbourne, while here in London we 
are being eloquently lectured on the sublime virtues 
of bushido. For myself I am glad that I shall be 
spared seeing the growth of that yellow-race dominion 
over one-third of the globe whose portentous dawn 
we are now beholding. Liberavi animam meam, 
though I am fully aware that the sentiments I have 
disclosed will find but scant favour with those who 
may chance to read these concluding pages. 

To sum up my experiences, a diplomatic life, in 
spite of its many drawbacks and inconveniences, is 
certainly one of the most interesting and instructive in 
which a young Englishman can engage. Such at least 
would be my answer to any father asking my advice 
on the point, and I remember saying this to the late 

Lord when I met him many years ago at Battle 

Abbey. The son about whom he then consulted me 
has since made a brilliant and unusually rapid career, 
and has recently displayed great qualities in the 
conduct of affairs, under exceptionally difficult cir- 
cumstances, at one of our chief Embassies. Ability 
alone, however, will not suffice to ensure success in 
the service. In no profession, perhaps, is the man 
whom his duties keep constantly abroad more de- 
pendent on the solicitude and backing of friends 
and connections at home. Given equal abilities and 
qualifications, the race will be with the competitor 
whose interests are carefully looked after at head- 
quarters. Real merit makes its way in diplomacy 


as elsewhere, but it must be of the highest 
order to hold its own against inferior capacity sub- 
served by political or family influence. The era of 
competitive examinations — of which the late Lord 
Bloomfleld used to say that they would at any rate 
keep out the half-witted — has of course profoundly 
modified the service I entered, thank Heaven ! in its 
more easy, ignorant, benighted days. The diplomatic 
coverts are no longer so strictly preserved as of old, 
but some care is still taken — and it is right that it 
should be taken — in the allotment of places at the 
greater Lattices. 

Yet one word more and I have done. The well- 
known pleasantry of the German humourist that "a 
man cannot be too careful in the choice of his 
parents " * might, it seems to me, be applied in a 
more special sense to the service I have loved and 
left. But, taking my cue seriously from so light a 
jest, I would say that, in my opinion, the aspiring 
diplomatist cannot be too careful in the choice of his 
wife. As I write these words — a parting tribute to 
our fair sisters — I am thinking of the inestimable 
worth, to the ablest even of our representatives, of a 
pleasing, tactful woman — a real helpmate — in the all- 
important social branch of his duties. I go so far 
even as to ask myself whether, at one or other of our 
Embassies and Legations, the more valuable element, 
from what I would call a strictly professional point of 
view, may not be the lady who presides over it with 
a grace and a cachet all her own — gaining for it the 
popularity which tells so greatly in public affairs — 
rather than her husband delving diligently in his study 
below, to the despair of a long-suffering " Chancery." 

1 Man kann nicht vorsichtig genug sein in der Wahl seiner Eltern. 


Conversely, too, I cannot but think with regret of men 
I have known and greatly liked, whose fair diplomatic 
prospects have been checked, if not damaged, by an 
injudicious, or ill-assorted union. For in diplomacy 
marriage may either make or mar. 

And now I have really had my last say, and it 
is more than time to ring down the curtain on these 
diffuse reminiscences. With the well-known and dis- 
tinguished diarist, in his graphic account of King 
Edward's first Council — though he be perhaps the 
last man I would care to plagiarise — I feel that 
the world to which I belonged has well-nigh passed 


Abdul Hamid II. , Sultan of Turkey, 

273. 2 9 6 > 3 6 4 

Abercorn, Duke and Duchess of, 240 

Abercromby, Sir Ralph, 204 

About, Edmond, cited, passim 

Aero Corinth, view from, 22, 119 

Adam, Sir Frederick, 13 

, Villiers de l'lsle, and his suc- 
cessors, 101, 102 

Adler, Rev. Dr., Chief Rabbi, 370 

Aegion, 119 

Afzur Jung, 147 

Aguera, M., 359 

Ahmedabad, 139; Durbar at, 141 

Ai'de\ Mr. Hamilton, 153 

Albany, Duchess of, 353 

, Duke of (Duke of Saxe-Coburg 

Gotha), 353, 354 

, Princess Alice of, 353 

Albemarle, Earls of. 178 note 

Albert, Archduke, 321 

, King of Saxony, 334, 360 

Alexander of Battenberg, see Bul- 

II., Emperor of Russia, 4, 87 

, King of Servia, 354-5 ; murder 

of, 301 

Alexandra, Queen (see also Wales, 
Princess of), 320 

Alexis, Grand Duke, 211 

Alva, Duke of, 165, 202 

Amelie, Queen of Greece, 106 

Amiens, Peace of, 262 

Amstel Hotel, the, 159 

Amsterdam, 158, 161-3, 220 

, visit of the German Emperor 

to, 222 et seq. 

Anderson, Miss Mary (Mme. Na- 
varro), 113 

, Miss Florence, 240 

Andrassy family, the, 371 

, Count, 17*7 

, Count Aladar, 323 

, Countess Sandor (»(e Ester- 
hazy), 371 
Anethan, Baron d', 176, 207; and 
his son, 230 

Anglo-Dutch boundaries in Borneo 
and New Guinea, settlement of, 
Anglo-Japanese Alliance, the, 245 
Anglo- Russian understanding as to 

Armenian reforms, 272 
Anna Paulovna, Queen of the Nether- 
lands, 192 note 
Apeldoorn, 207 
Apor, Baronne, 219 
Apponyi family, 371 

, Count Albert, 287 

, Count Louis and family, 325 

, Count Rodolphe, 285, 325 

, Countess (the late), 278 

Arenberg, Prince Auguste d', 301 

, Prince Charles d\ and his 

widow, 270 

, Prince Louis d', 301 note 

Argyropoulos family, the, 60 
Arkwright, Mrs., 183 
Armenian massacres, 272 
Armstrong, Mrs. (Mme. Melba), 183 
Arnhem, charms of the district, 238 
Arran, Earl of (the late), and his son, 

Aschach, 379 
Ashley, Right Hon. Evelyn, and 

Mrs., 240 
Asman Jab, Sir, 147 
Aspern, Battle of, 321, 363 
Assendelft family, the, 165, 166-9 
Athens — 
Appointment 1o, and arrival at, 
10-16 ; departure from after Ulti- 
matum, 93 et seq. • return, 106 ; 
final departure from, 153 
Carnival in, 1886, 81 
Cold winter of 1886-7 at, 127 
Dulness of, 58-9 
Environs of, 22 et seq. 
Good Friday procession in, 85 
Improvements in, 1S64-85, 17 et 

Independence Day in, S3 
Jubilee celebrations at, 129 et srq. 
Legation House at, 19 



Athens — continued 

Social resources of (1885), 58 et seq. 
Warlike movement at, 1885,45 
Athens-Kalamaki railroad, 118 
Auckland, Lord, Governor- General 

of India, 144 
Auersperg family, 279 
Augarten Palace, Vienna, 281 
Ausgleich, the, 315 
Austria, Crown Prince Rudolph of, 
132 ; tragic death of, 177, 309, 
33o, 373-4 
, Crown Princess of, see Ste- 

, Emperor of, see Francis Joseph 

Anstria-Hungary — 
Anti-Semitism in (see Lueger), 

And Balkanic affairs, 52 et seq. 
Official attitude in, during the 

Boer War, 358-9 
Parliament and politics in, 314 et 
seq. ; 336 et seq. ; 372 
Austrian Imperial family, 280 et seq. 

Bach, Baroness, 288 

Baden-Baden, 192 

Baden, Grand Duke and Duchess 

of. 377 
, Hereditary Grand Duchess 

of, 217, 227 
, Hereditary Grand Duke 

of, 217 

, Prince Max of, 364 

Badeni, Count Casimir, 278,315, 316, 

3i8, 336, 337 
Baird, Mr. J. L., 268 
Bakhmetiew, M., and his wife, 53, 

Balaton, Lake. 347 
Balfour, Rt. Hon. A. J., 26S 
Balkan politics (see also Eastern 

Roumelia), 26 et seq., 48 et seq., 

62 et seq., 107-8, 114 
Baltazzi, Mme. Zoe, 123 
BanfTy, Baron, 319 
Bannerman, Rt. Hon. Sir Henry 

Campbell-, M.P., and Lady, 329 
Bantry, Countess of (now Lady 

Trevor), 262 
Barclay, Mr. Colville, 268 
Baring, Lord, 314 
, Sir Evelyn (see also Earl of 

Cromer), 138 
Barnevehi, Olden, 202 
Barrington, Sir Eric, 260 
Battenberg, Prince Alexander of, sec 


Battenberg, Prince Louis of, 136 

, Princess Henry of, 264 

Battle Abbey, 387 
Baumeister, Herr, actor, 340 
Bazaine, M., and daughter, 118 
Beck, General Baron, 362 
Beelaertsvan Blokland, M., 258 
Beets, Nicholas, poet, 231 
Belgians, Queen of (the late), 132 
Belgium, 246 
Belgrade, 21, 345 
Belgrami, Syed Hussein, 149 
Bellegarde, Count, 335 
Belluno, 330 

Bentinck, Lord William, Governor- 
General of India, 142 note, 144 
Benzur, Heir, painter, 335 
Berchtesgaden, 353 
Beresford, Lady Charles, 134 
Berlin, 4, 258 

, Treaty of, 40, 43, 62 

Berne, 262 

Bernhardt, Mme. Sarah, 342 

Bernstoi ft* family, the, 377 

Biarritz, 155 

Bihourd, M., 242 

Binnenhof, the, The Hague, 211 

Bisaccia, Due de (Due de Doudeau- 

ville), 186 
Bischofteinitz, Castle of, 379 
Bismarck, Count Herbert, 19, 79, 

222, and his wife (nee Hoyos), 

, Prince, 4, 36, 48, 79, 243, 244. 

303, 318, 340, 350, 385 
Blake, Prof. Jex, his wife and 

daughter, 144 
Bloemendal, and its flower farms, 

Bloomfield, Lord, 342, 388 
Blowitz Memoirs, 4 

, M., cited, 69 note 

Blumenthal, M. and Madame, 9, 

•8 3 
Blunt, Consul (Sir J. E. Blunt), 54 

and note 
Boer feeling towards Hollanders in 

S. Africa, 247 

War, the, 303, 351 et seq. 

Boeroe, Island of, 248 

Bohemia {see Elizabeth, Queen of, 

and John, King of), Anti-Semi- 
tism in, 369 
Bolarum, India, 148 
Bombay, 139, 151 
Bonaparte, Lucien, Prince of Canino 

Bonhain, Sir George, and Lady, 11, 

231, 242 
Boreel, Mine., 17 1-2 



Borneo, 245 ; boundary question in, 

Borthwick, Sir Algernon, and Lady 

(Lord and Lady Glenesk), 131 
Bosboom, Dutcb painter, 199 
Bosnia, 345 

Boudouris, M. and Mme., 123-4 
Bowen, Lord, 179 
Boyd, Miss, 14 
Bradley, Miss, 144 
Brab ins, composer, 341 
Brandenburg, the great Elector of, 

Brantsen, Baron de (the late), and 

family (Brantsen van der Zyp), 

Bredius, Dr., 240 
Brincken, Baron de, 49, 52, 71, 72, 79 

and note, 135, 244 
Brienen, Baron Arnaud de, and 

family, 170, 178, 229, 251 
, Baroness de (needeTuyll), 170, 


, Mile. Daisy de, 251 

Brine, Rev. E., chaplain at the 

Hague, 232 
Brougham, Lord and Lady, 329 
Bruce, Hon. Sir Frederick, 386 and 

Brussels, attack on the Prince of 

Wales at, 364 

Slave Trade Conference at, 206 

Bruyne, Vice-Consul de, 182 
Buchanan, Lady (the late), 282 

, Sir Andrew, 266 

Bucharest, Peace of, 1886, 65 
Budapest (ice also Pesth), 371 

, Carnival at, 323-4 

, Kace season at, 325, 371 

Bulgaria, Prince Alexander of, 42, 

62 ; proclamation of, as ruler, 40 ; 

abduction and abdication of, 114 

, Prince Ferdinand of, 53 

Bulgarian politics, 50 note, 65 note 
Buller, General Sir Kcdvers, 357, 


, Lady Audrey, 362 

Bunsen, Mr. Maurice de, 133 
Burgundy, Charles the Bold, Duke 

of, 156 
Burns, Mr. John, 98 
Bury, Lord (late Earl of Albemarle), 

178 and note 
Bute, Karl of, 8 
Biitzow, M. de, 53, 87 
Hvlandt, Count, 160 

CADOOAK, Hon. Miss Ethel, 183 
< !airo, 138 

Cal craft, Mr. Henry, 134 
Cambridge, Duchess of, 131 

, the first Duke of, 208 

, the (late) Duke of, 179 

Camden, Marquess, 82 

Campbell, Capt. and Mrs. W., 329 

Canaris family, the, 60 

Canea, 297 

Cape Colony, 246 

Caprivi, Count, 5 

Carew, Mr. Francis, 124 and note. 

Carlisle, defence of by Sir T. Glem- 

ham, 263 note 
Carlsbad, 157 
Carnot, M. Sadi, French President, 

186, 225 
Carpenter, Captain, master of the 

Costa Rica Packet, case of, 248 

et seq. 
Casembroot, Admiral, 224 ; hero of 

Shimonoseki, funeral of, 245 
Castel, final tomb of King John of 

Bohemia at, 217 note 
Caulfeild, Mr. Alfred, and his wife, 

, Mr. Algernon St. George, 82, 

Caux, on the Lake of Geneva. 332 
Cavendish, Lady Edward, 227 
Cavour, Count, 107 
Cecil, Lady Kobert, 331 
Celebes, Islaud of, 248 
Central Asian troubles, 3 
Ceylon, 246 
Chamberlain, Rt. Hon. Joseph, 

1 15-16 
Chambord, Conite de, 121 
Charlemagne, ruins of his fortress at 

Nimwegen, 174-5 
Charles, Archduke, statue of, 270 ; 

victory of, 321, 363 

Louis, Archduke, 280, 306 

, King of Roumania, 334 

I., King of England, 203 

II., King of England, 203 note, 

213 ; at The Hague, 201-2 

IV., Emperor, 217 note 

V., Emperor, 166-7, 176 

X., Kin<; of France, 326 

Char Minar, the, Hyderabad, 150 
Cliasse, General, 171 
Chesney, Captain, 99 
Chessoir, Catherine de, 166-9 
Chetwyml, Mrs., 351 
China, troubles in, 375 
Chino-Japauese War, Dutch views 

on its results, 245 
Choiseul, Due de, 288 
Christian IX., King of Denmark, 377 



Christina, Queen-Mother of Spain, 

221, 280, 366 

Christine, Archduchess, 321 

Chudderghaut, 141, 148, 150 

Churchill, Lord Randolph, 113, 126 

Cimiez, 346 

Citta Vecchia, Malta, 105 and note 

Clancarty, Earl of, 171 

Clarence, Duke of, see Wales, Prince 

Albert Victor of 
Clarke, Mr. F. T., 268, 330 
Clary and Aldringen, Prince, 282 
Clary, Palais, odd stories anent, 


, Prince, 282 

, Princess (n6e Radziwill), 291, 


Clemens, Mr. (Mark Twain), 317 
and note 

Clermont-Ferrand, 158 

Cleves, Anne of, 174 

Clifford, Baron, 255 

Clingendaal and its owners, 169-70 

, races and cricket at, 178 ; skat- 
ing at, 229 ; golf at, 251 

Cliveden, 240-1 

Cochrane, Hon. Minnie, 264 

Coke, Lord and Lady, 134 

Colenso, 357 

Collings, Mr. Jesse, M.P., 77, 115 

Collins, Sir Robert, 353 

Colocotroni family, the, 60 

Colonus, 128 

Congo Free State, the, 206 

Connaught, Duke and Duchess of, 

, Princess Margaret of (Princess 

Gustav Adolf of Sweden), 377 

Constable, Mr. Strickland, 97 

Constantine, Grand Duchess, 27 

, Constantinovich, Grand Duke, 


, the Great, 114 

Constantinople, 116, 272, 296 

, Conference of, on the Turko- 

Bulgarian question, 83 

, Declaration of the Ambassa- 
dors at, on Greco-Turkish 
affairs, 50 

Cookson, Sir Charles (Consul- 
General), 138 

Copenhagen, 37, 364 

Corhett, Sir Vincent, 169 

Cordery, Mr., President at Hyderabad, 
137, 141-2, 144, 148 

Corfu, visit to, 13 

Corinth, Canal of, 47, 1 18-19 

Cork, Countess of, 134 

Corpus Domini festival, Vienna, 

Cortina d'Ampezzo, 329 

Corunna, wreck of the Sidon near, 20 

Costa Rica Packet, the, whaling 

barque, question concerning, 

Coumoundouros, M., 14 
Crampton, Mr., 156 
Cressy, Thomas, and his wife, 263 

Cretan affairs, 54, 296 et seq. 

Committee, the, 296 

Criesis family, the, 60 

, M., 122 

Cromer, Earl of [see also Baring, 

SirE.), 268 
Cromwell, Oliver, the "Protector," 

Cronje, General, 361 
Croy, Princess Rosa {ne'e Sternberg), 

Cumberland, Duchess of, 320, 354, 

, Duke of, and his family, 320, 

322, 377, 379 
, Princess Marie Louise of 

(Princess Max of Baden), 320, 

Curtopassi, Marquis, 52 
Custozza, 295, 321 
Cusumano, the Villino, 233 
Czardas, dance, 323 
Czernin, Comtesse, 285 

Dagsblad, Dutch newspaper, 246 
Dampierre, domain of the Dues de 

Luynes, 184 
Danube valley, floods in, 352-3 
Davidson, Mr., 133 
Dekeleia, royal chateau of, Greece, 

Delft, funeral of the King of the 

Netherlands at, 211 
Delyannis, M., 15, 32-5, 36, 38-9, 

42-4, 48-9, 50, 54-6, 60, 63-5, 

66, 67-9 and note, 70 and note, 

71-3, 76, 80, 87-94, 98, 104, 117 ; 

murder of, 74 
Denbigh, Earl of, 333 
Denmark, see Christian IX. and 

Derby, Earl of, 132, 133 
Devonshire, Duke of, 264 
Dickson, Mr., and family, 124-5 

, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur, 125 

Diekirch, 218 

Dietrichstein, Dowager Princess, 

Dillon, Mr. John, M.P., 329 
Dino, Due de, 233 



Diplomacy as a training, 268 ; as a 

career, 387 
Disbrowe, Miss, 171, 192 note 

, Sir Edward, 171 and note 

Dolgorouki, Princess Mary, 175 
Dolomite country, 329 
Donougbmore, Countess of, 100 
Doorwerth Castle, 238 
Dordrecht, skating at, 229 
Dorislaus, Cromwell's envoy, murder 

of, 203 
Dorset, Duchess of, 262-3 

, Earl of (the first), 263 

Doit, Synod of, 230 
Doudeauville, Duchesse de, 160 

, Due de, 186 

Downe, Viscountess, 264 

Downing Street, derivation of its 

name, 203 note 
Dragoumis, M. Etienne, and family, 

Dreyfus, l' affaire, 369 
Droz, M., 299 
Duff', Mr. and Mrs. Evelyn Grant, 

Dufferin and Ava, Marquis of, 186, 

234, 260 
Dunlop, Mr. A. J., 149 
Dunmore, Earl and Countess of, 138 
Dupuis, Captain, R.N., 96 
Durazzo-Seres boundary, the sug- 
gested, 109 
Dutch attitude towards England, 

Guiana, Coolie question in, 

possessions in Oceania, 245 

Easter Imperial religious function, 

Vienna, 367 
Eastern Iloumelia, 40, 62 
Edinburgh, Duke of (later, Duke of 

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), 79, 87, 96, 

97, 1 14-15, 129, 130; death of, 378 
Edward VII., King of England, see 

Wales, Prince of 
Egerton, Sir Edwin, and Lady, 27, 

136 and iidIv, 157, 298 and note 
Egina, 154 

Egmont, Lam oral, Count of, 202 
Elandslaagte, Battle of, 354 
Elgin, Eaxl of, 386 and note 
Elizabeth, Archduchess, daughter of 

the late Crown l'rince Rudolph, 

281, 377 
, Mother of Queen Christina of 

Spain, 280 
, Empress of Austria, 160, 277, 

36S ; murder of, 330 ct seq. 

Elizabeth, Princess, daughter of 
George III. (Landgravine of 
Homburg), 181 

, Queen of Bohemia. 201, 202-3, 

and note 

, Queen of England, 262 

Ellis, General Sir Arthur, 329, 333, 

35i. 378 
, Airs. Leo (now Harriet, Vis- 
countess Clifden), 113 
Elphiustone, Sir Howard and Lady, 

Ely, Bishop of, and Lady Alwyne 

Compton, 240 
Emma, Queen of the Netherlands, 

188, 190-1, 195, 208 
, as Regent, 210 et seq., 220 et 

seq., 226, 230, 239, 243, 255, 256, 

257, 260 
Erasmus, on houses in Holland, 162 
Erbach-Schonberg, Hereditary Count 

of, and his wife, 257 
Esterhazy, Countess Michael, 371 

, Prince, 349 

, Princess Sarah (n(e Villiers), 349 

Ethnike Hetairia, the, 296 
Eugene, Archduke, 280, 366 
Eugene, Prince, of Savoy, statue of, 

Eugenie, ex-Empress of the French, 

160, 284 
Eulenburg, Count Philip, 244, 302, 

359, 361, 364 

, Countess, 322 

Europe, changes in during 51 years, 

Evans, Miss, 20 note 
Eyschen, M., 21S 

Falbe, M. Christian de, and Mine. 

de Falbe (formerly Mrs. Gerard 

Leigh), 7, 99, 1 12-13, 134 
Falkenhayn Law, the, 317 
Fane, Hon. Julian, 1 
Fame, M. Felix, French President, 

Fearn, Miss Mary, 125 

, Mr., 90, and his family, 125-6 

Fejervary, General Baron, 323 

Fenton, Mr., 169, 205 

Ferdinand, Prince of Bulgaria, see 

Feridoun Bey, 106 
Fermor, Countess Stenbock, 175 
F6stetics, Count Paul and his wife 

(nie PaWy), 348 
, Count and Countess Tassilo, 

325» 347. 371. 378 
Ffrcnch, Mr. Percy, of Monivea, 8, 1 1 2 



Find), Major Seymour Wynne, 8, 

Findlay, Mr., 268, 349-50 

Finlay, Mrs. George, 8 

Fisher, Admiral Sir John, 313 

Flandre, Comte de, 211 

Florence, death at, of W. Rumhold, 

Formosa, 245 

Fort St. Angelo, Malta, 103 

Fortescue, Earl, 113 

France, and the joint Naval Demon- 
stration, 1 386, 88 et seq. 

and the new " entente" 235, 347 

as Republic, 385 

Francis Ferdinand, Archduke, heir 
to the throne, 280, 306-9 

Francis II., Emperor, 340 and note 

Francis Joseph II., Emperor of 
Austria, 263, 277-83, 293-5, 3 o6 > 
312, 316-18, 322, 323, 336, 349, 

355- 365-8, 374-5. 377 
Frankenthurm, Baron Gautsch von, 

337 note 
Frederick, Archduke, 280, 321, 366, 

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, 

194, 202, 224 
Frederick, the Empress, 36, 37, 181, 


, visit to, at Fredrichshof, 259-60 

Frederick William IV., King of 

Prussia, and the coffin of King 

John of Bohemia, 217 note 
Freycinet, M. de, 79, 88, 90 
Friedrich, Prof., 144 
Friedrichshof, Castle of, at Kronberg, 

183, 259 
Frischau, 378 
Fiirstenberg, Prince, and his wife 

(nee Schonborn), 364 

Gallas, Countess Clam, 286 
Galliffet, General, Marquis de, 313, 

Galloway, Countess of (the late), 133 
Gastein, Bad, 314 
Gatty, Mrs. Scott, 312 
Gelderland, 175, 178, 238 
Geneva, murder of the Empress 

Elizabeth at, 330, 332 
Gennadius, M., 35 
Ceorgc III., King of England, 181 
George, King of Greece, 13-16, 26- 

30, 37-9, 41-2, 50, 52, 61-2, 72, 

93-4, 97-9. "7, 120, 129-30, 136, 

153-4, 298, 354 
German Emperors, see William I., 

Frederick, and William II. 

German Empresses, see Empresses 

Frederick and Victoria Augusta 
Germany, changes in, 385-6 

and South African affairs, 258-9 

Gevangenpoort jail, the Hague, 167 
Ghika, M., and his wife, 303 
Gibbons, Grinling, carving by, at 

Petworth, 135 
Giers, M. de, 3 
Gilchrist, Major, 141 
Gisela, Archduchess, 380 
Gladstone, Rt. Hon. W. E., 77-8, 

in, 127 note 
Glamis Castle, 20 ; legends of, 29 
Glemham, Sir Henry, 263 and note 
, Sir Thomas, Cavalier general, 

Glencoe, Battle of, South Africa, 

Gloucester, Duke of (brother of 

Charles II.), 201, 203 note 
Gmunden, 37, 320, 352, 376, 379 
Goa, Portugese Governor-General of, 

Goding, Imperial " chasse " at, 362 
Golconda, 144, 148 
Goltstein, Baron de, 160 
Goltz, Count C. von der, 238 
Goluchowski, Count, 273, 275-6, 296, 

Gontaut, M. de, 1 1 
Gonzenb:ich, M. de, 192 note 
Gordon, Ladv Duff, 8 

, the Misses Duff, 8 

, Sir Maurice Duff, 8 

Gorst, Sir John, 158 
Gortchacow, Prince, 106 
Graham, Miss, 240 
Granville, Earl (the late), 3, 6, 179, 

180, 182, 183 

, Earl (the present), 268 

Graz, Mr. Charles des, 242, 250-1 ; 

and his wife, 262 
Greco-Turkish relations, 54 et seq. 
Greece (see also Athens, Corfu, and 

Blockade of, 75 et seq. 
Constitution of, 39 and note 
Earthquake in, 114 
National bearing in, during 1886, 

Naval preparations in, 1886, 67-8, 

Royal family of, 14, 42, 61, 119, 
Crown Prince of (Constantine, 
Duke of Sparta), 29, 120-2, 
King of, see George, King of 
Greece, see also Otho 



Greece — continued 

Royal Family of — continued 
Prince George of, and Crete, 297, 

Prince Nicholas of, 29, 130, 354 
Queen of, see Amelie, Queen, 

and Olga, Queen 
Princess Alexandra of (Grand- 
Duchess Paul Alexandro- 
vitch), 29, 62, 130 
Sir H. Rumbold's appointment to, 
10 ; life in and affairs during, 16- 

Spring in, 128 
Ultimatum of the Powers to, 1886, 

Greene, Lady Lily, 206 
, Mr. Conyngham (Sir W. 

Conyngham Greene, K.C.B. ), 

205 and note, 212 
Grenfell, General (Lord Grenfell), 

Grey, Earl and Countess, 112 
Grijjolaui, earthquake at, 114 
Groben, Count von der, 159 
Groningen, painters, 200 
Grosveuor, Countess, 356 
Grote family, 377 
Griinfeldt, Alfred, pianist, 288 
Gudenus, Baron, 363 
Giinther, Duke Ernest, see Sehleswig- 

Gutenstein, 329 

H.\ agsche Bosch, the, 193-6 
Haarlem, Flower culture at, 236 

, Franz Hals' paintings at, 178-9 

Hahsburg family, 279, 368 
Hadjipetros, Colonel, 37-8 

, his son, 123 

Haeften, M. van, 230 

Haggard, Mr. and Mrs. W. D., 136 

Hague, The — 

British Legation at, 155 ; its 
story, 164-9 

English Church at, 231 

Famous flood at, 1609, 228 

Historical sites in, 201 et scq. 

Iutluenza at, 1890, public incon- 
venience caused by, 205 

Music at, 196-9 

( >pera at, 198-9 

Political importance of, 163-4 

Sir H. Rumbold's appointment to, 
and first impressions of, 153, 155 
ft eeq.; guests at the Legation, 
240; leave-taking on appoint- 
ment to Vienna, 260 

Social life at, 173, 178 et sr^. 

Halepa pact, the, 296 

Hals, Franz, paintings by, at Haar- 
lem, 178-9 

Hamilton, Captain Bruce (Major- 
General Sir Bruce M.), 151 and 

Hamilton, late Duke of, 325 

, father of the above, 193 and 


Hanover, last King of, 320 

, Queen of, 377 

Hansen, M., architect, 18 

Harcourt, d', family, the, 185 

Hardenbroek, Baronne de, 243, 258 

Harper, Dr., 184 

Harrach family, the, 279, 379 

, Count and Countess {nee 

Thurn and Taxis), 331, 332, 349 

, Count and Countess Alfred, 379 

Harris, Sir James (the late), 347 and 

Hartenstein, Prince Alexander 
Schonburg (the late), 285 

Hartsen, Jonkheervan, 188, 192, 248, 

Hastings, Marquess of, Governor- 
General of India, 142 

Hatzfeld, Princess, 286 

Hay, Admiral Lord John, 79 

, Sir John Drummond (ex- 

Minister to Morocco), 112 

Haydn, Josef, 349 

Hayter, Lady, 179 

Headfort, Marchioness of, 227 

Helena, Empress, 1 14 

Henri IV., King of France, 213 

Henry VII., Emperor, 217 note 

VIIL, King of England, 174 

Herbert, " Mungo " (late lit. Hon. 
Sir Michael Herbert), 11 ; and 
his wife, 242 

Herschell, Lord and Lady, 115 

Herzegovina, 345 

Higgins, Miss Mary, 126 

, Mr. ("Jacob Omnium "), 170 

, Mr. H. V., 170 

Hilsner, the Jew, case of, 369 

Hinal, Mile , 14 

Hiuton, Miss, 240 

Hochschild family, the, 161 

Hohenfels, Fraiilein, actress, 340 

Ilohen wart, Countess Mary (Count ess 
Seilern), 177 

Holland (see Amsterdam, Haarlem, 
Hague, etc.) 
Building methods in, 162-3 
Climate of, 169, 236 
In relation to Far Eastern poll 

tics, 245 
Golf introduced into, 250-1 



Holland — continued 

Increasing interest in athletics in, 

King of Netherlands, see William 

III., of Nassau 
Mourning etiquette in, 219 
Painters and painting in, 199 et 

Political importance of, 163-4 
Queen of, see Emma, and Wilhel- 

Sentiment in, towards Germany, 

Simplicity of good society in, 

Skating in, 228 et seq. 
Holland House, 113, 322 
Hollman, M., 197 
Homann, Herr Fritz, 82, 130 
Homburg, 179, 259 
Schloss, the Empress Frederick 

and her predecessor, at, 181 
Hompesch, last Grand Master of the 

Knights of St. John, 101 
Hope & Co., Messrs., bankers, 

Hope, Mr. and Mrs. Edward, 262 
Hoppner, painter, 263 
Hora, newspaper, 50 
Horowitz, Herr, painter, 335 
Hortense Beauharnais, Queen of 

Holland, 171 
Hospodars, 59 and note 
House in the Wood, the, and its asso- 
ciations, 193-5 
Howard, Sir Henry, 73, 81, 97 
Hoyos family, 286, 329, 350 
, Count George and Countess 

{ne'e Whitehead), 349-50 
, Count " Joserl," devotion shown 

by, 374 
, Countess Mariette, see Szech- 

Hozier, Lady Blanche, 178 
Hradschin, Convent of, Prague, 

Hubner, Count, 113 
Hulse, Mrs., 330 
Hungary, Queen of, Regent of the 

Netherlands, 167 
Hunyadi, Count Kalman, 270 
Hutchinson, Hon. Sir W. Hely (now 

Governor of Cape Colony), 100 

and note 
Hyde, Lord, 268 
Hyderabad, visit to, 141 et seq. 

, Grandees of, 145-8 

, Nizam of (the present), 113, 

141, 145-6 
Hymettus, 21, 126 

IANTHE (Lady Ellenborough), 25 
Iddesleigh, Earl of, in note ; death 

of, 126-7 and note 
Ignatiew, General, 108 note 
Ilchester, Earl of, 351 
Inwgene, H.M.S., 97-8, 99 note 
Inchiquin, Lord and Lady, 135 
India, visit to, 137 et seq. 
Innsbruck, 329 
Ionian Islands, 13, 16 
Isabella, Archduchess, 321 note 
Ischl, 352, 374, 377, 380 
Israels, Josef, Dutch painter, 199- 

Isthmia, 120 

Italy, discomforts of travel in, 12 
, King of, see Victor Emmanuel 

, Kingdom of, 385 

Jackson, Annie (nurse), 20, 21 note 

"Jacob Omnium," 170 

Jah, Sir Asman, 147 

James II., King of England, see York, 

Duke of 
James, Miss, 158, 314 
James, Sir Henry (Lord James of 

Hereford), 158 and note, 314 
Jameson Raid, the, 358 ; effect of, in 

Holland, 257-9 
Changes in, in 51 years, 386-7 
Dutch views on the growth of her 

power, 245 
Offer of forces during the siege of 

the Pekin Legations, 376 
Jaucourt family, the, 187 

, Marquis de, 100 

Jekyll, Miss, 9 
Jermyne, Mr., 203 note 
Jersey, Countess of, 133 

, Earl of, 250 

, Earl and Countess of, 349 

, Julia, Countess of, 227 

Johannisberg, the, 284 

John, King of Bohemia, tombs of, 

217 and note 
Johnston, Hon. Alan, 169 
Jolliffe, Hon. George (now Lord 

Hylton), 212 
Jubilee of the Emperor Francis 

Joseph II., 319, 328-9, 336-7 
Jubilee of Queen Victoria — 

The first: celebrations of at Athens, 

129; and in England, 129-34; 

the Naval Review, 133 
The second : (Diamond Jubilee) 

celebrations of in Vienna, 303-6, 




Jubilee of William III. of the Nether- 
lands, 195-6 
Jung, Ghalib, 147 
, Sir Salar, and his son, 146 

K^sariani, Monastery, near Hy- 

mettus, 126, 153 
Kalamaki, 118 
Kallay, M. Benjamin de, 273, 

Kalliphronas, M., 31 
Kalnoky, Count, 49, 273, 276, 285-6 
Kapnist, Count and Countess Pierre 

(nie Stenbock Fermor), 175 and 

note, 220, 299, 359, 364 
Kapnist family, the, 329 
Kara Mustapha, 311 
Karadja family, the, 60 
Karatsony family, the, 323 
Kdrolyi, Count " Pista," 323 

, Countess, 132, 348 

, Countess Hanna (ne'e Szech- 

^nyi), 348 
Kars, 179 

Kass, M., famous band of, 198 
Katkoff, M., and Mme. (nee Loba- 

now Rostowski, now Lady Eger- 

ton), 136 
Kaunitz, Prince, 276 
Kephisia, 24 and note 
Keppel, Hon. Arnold and Mrs. 

(present Earl and Countess of 

Albemarle), 178 
Keszthedy, 347 

Khartoum, final advance on, 271 
Klievenhiiller family, 286 
Kielmansegg, Comtesse Eric, 364 
Kimberley, South Africa, 361 
Kinsky, Count Charles (now Prince), 


, Count Ferdinand, 269 

, Prince (the late), 341 

Kitzos, brigand chief, 32 

Knebworth, 113 

Knole, treasures at, 261-3, and note 

Ktfniga-See, the, 353 
Kbnigswart, 312 

Korsakow, Prince Dondoukow, Gov- 
ernor-General of the Caucasus, 

Kosjek, Baron, 135 
Kossuth, M., 372 
Kramartz, M., 319 
Kreislcr, Herr, violinist, 364 
Kreatovitch, Pasha, 40 
Ki iniitz, 378 
Kronberg, 183 
, visit to the Empress Frederick 

at, 259-60 

Krtiger, President, 209, 258, 352, 355 
Kurz, Fraulein, singer, 364 

LABOUCHEKE, Mr. and Mrs. C. (nte 

Munro of Lindertis), 161, 223 
Ladmirault, General de, 1 1 
Ladysmith, siege of, 357 
La Foret, country house, 239 
Laguiche, Marquis de, and his wife 

(nee Arenberg), 301-2 
Lambermont, Baron <le, 206 
Lamoureux, M., conductor, 198 
Lan§ut, 326-7 
Lane, G., extracts from his letter on 

the Stuarts at The Hague, 203 

Langton, Lord (now Earl Temple), 

Lansdowne, Marquis of, 383 
Larisch, Count Henry, 291 
La Rochefoucauld family, the, 185, 


, Comtesse de, 155, 346 

, Duchesse de, 155 

Lascelles, Lady (Countess of Hare- 
wood), 178 

La Tremoi'lle, family, 185 

Lathom, Countess of (the late), 378 

Laszlo, Herr, painter, 335 

Lathom, Countess of (the late), 314, 

Lauderdale, 7th Earl of, 102 and 

Laurie, Dr. and Mrs., 148 

Lavino, Mr., Times correspondent, 

Lavriano, General Count Morra «h, 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, painter, 289 
Laxenburg, 363 

Lehrun, Due de Plaisance, 25 note 
Lecontield, Lord, 135 
Leeds, Duchess of, 331 
Legh, Hon. Mr. and Mrs. (Lord and 

Lady Newton), u 
Legrand, M. and Mme. Louis, 177, 

Lehmann, Mme. Liza, composer, 136 

, Mr. Ernest, 136 

Leigh, Mr. Gerard, and his wife 

(afterwards Mine, de Falbe), 7 

, Mr. Gerard, junior, 8 

Leinster, Duke and Duchess of, 

Leipziger, Baron von, 144 
Leitha river, 349 
Le Maistre, M., 135 
Lenbach, Herr, portrait-painter, 271 
Lennox, Lady Algernon, 351 
Lenotrc, landscape gardener, 184 



Leopold, Archduke, 340 

Leo XIII., Pope, 370 

Lever, Charles, Lis daughter, 49 

Leveson Gower, Hon. Frederick, 126 

Levinge, Sir William (the late), 240 

and note 
Leyden, the road to, 237 
— — , University, 203 ; quinquennial 

celebrations at, 176 
Leyds, Dr., 259, 358, 365 
Liechtenstein family, the, 279, 286 

, Prince Alois, 322 

, Prince Rudolph, 269, 334, 380 

Liege, 218 

Ligne, Dowager Princesse de (ne'e 

Lubomirska, 206-7 

, Field- Marshal Prince de, 312 

, Princesse Edouard de, 160 

Liquor Trade Convention, the, 248 

Livadia, 87 

Lobanow, Princess Nadine, wife of 

W. Rumbold, 136, 233 
, Princess Olga (Mme. Okolic- 

sanyi), 177 
Lobau Island, 363 
Lobkowitz, Princess (nee Sternberg), 

and family, 378 
Lobkowitz-Stadion, Countess, 344-5, 

Lohengrin's tower, at Cleves, 174 
Lombardos, M., 51 
London, last visit of Queen Victoria 

to, 362 

, Treaty of, 1867, 215 

Lonsdale, Countess Dowager of, 240 
Loo, the, 188, 190-2, 207, 209, 260 
Loon, Mme. van, 239 
, Mme. William van (ne'e Egi- 

dius), 239 

, M. and Mme. (Adele) van, 239 

Lorenzelli, Monsignor, 197 

Lorrain, M. le, 162 

Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, 

and Queen Hortense, 171 

XIII., King of Fiance, 184 

XV., King of France, 288 

Philippe, King of the French, 


Victor, Archduke, 281, 291, 350 

Lourenco Marquez, 247 

Loze\ M., 300-1 

Lubbock, Sir John (Lord Avebury), 

and Lady, 115 
Lubomirska, Princess, 326 
Luccheni, assassin of the Empress 

Elizabeth, 332, 339 
Lueger, Dr., Burgomaster of Vienna, 

3 22 i 339> 37°> 37 1 endnote 
Lumley, John Savile (now Lord 

Savile), 262 

Luton, 113 

Luton Hoo, 7, 8, 112, 134 
Liitzow, Dowager Countess (ne'e Sey- 
mour), 304 
Luxemburg, 259 
, Grand Duchy of, on the death 

of William III. of Holland, 214 
, Grand Duke (formerly Duke 

of Nassau) and Duchess of, 214, 

217, 219, 320; their Court, 218-19 
, Hereditary Grand Duke and 

Duchess of, 217, 218 
Luynes, Conn^table de, 184 
, Honore\ Ducde, 378 ; marriage 

of, 184 et seq. 

, notable ancestors of, 184-5 

, Mile. Lili de (now Duchesse de 

Noailles), 185 
Lynden family, the, 237 
Lyon, Hon. Ernest and his wife, 

20-2, 73, 124 

, Hubert, 20, 21 note 

Lyons, Sir Edmund, 19 
Lyra, Don Emanuel de, 165 
Lyttleton, Col. (Lt.-Gen. the Hon. 

Sir Neville) and Mrs. Lyttleton, 

1 5 1 and note 
Lytton, Earl and Countess of, 113, 

186-7, 2 79 

Maartens, M. Maarten, novelist, 

Macassar, 248 
Macdonald, Admiral Sir Reginald, 


, Sir Claude, 376 

Mac^doine, or mayonnaise, story 

about, 180 
Macedonia, 108, 116 
Mackay, Baron Aeneas, 190 and note, 

Maclagan, Dr., 265 
Macleod, Sir John Macpherson, 

Maffei, Marquis, 112 and note 
Magersfontein, Battle of, 356 
Magyars and their language, 324 
Mahdi, the, 358 
Maitland, Hon. Sir Thomas ("King 

Tom " of Malta), 102 and note 
Makart, Viennese painter, 176, 329 
Malabar Point, Government House 

of Bombay at, 151 
Malaspina, Marquis and Marchesa 

(ne'e de Zuylen), 234 
Malet, Sir Alexander, 216 
Mallet, Mrs. Bernard, 264 
Mallet, Sir Louis, 144 
Malta, 85, 96-8, 264 



Malta, stay at, and impressions of, 

Manos, M., 298 
Mansard, architect, 184 
Marathon, massacre of, 107 
Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, 

Marie - Annunziata, Archduchess, 

Abhess of Hradschin, 321 
Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, 

Marie Henriette, Queen of the 

Belgians (the late), 132 
Marie Josepha, Archduchess, 277-8, 

Marie Louise of Austria, wife of 

Napoleon I., 285, 341 
Maria Ther^se, Archduchess, 218, 

Marie Valerie, Archduchess, 282, 

Marienbad, 312, 329, 350, 378 
Maris brothers, the, Dutch painters, 

Marlborough, Frances, Duchess of, 

Marshall, Colonel, and his wife, 148 
Martelaos, M., chancellery 115 
Martens, M. de, 249 
Martin, Major Evan, 333 
Mary, Princess of Orange, 201 

I., Queen of England, 356 

II., Queen of England, 238 

" Marysienka," wife of Sobieski, 311 
Masarvk, Professor, 369 
Maskaki, M., 124 
Maurice, Prince of Orange, 202 
Mauritslmis, 203 ; picture gallery at 

The Hague, treasures of, 201, 240 
Mauve, Anton, Dutch painter, 199 
Mavrocordato family, the, 60 
Mavromichalis, M., 55 
Maxwell, Captain (Col. Sir J. G. 

Maxwell), 138 and note 
May, Captain (now Rear-Admiral), 

129 and note 
Mayerling, death of Crown Prince 

Rudolf at, 177, 373 
Mayo, Countess of, ami son, 100 
Mecklenburg, Grand Duchess John 

Albert of, 209 
Mehdi Ali, Finance Minister, Hy- 
derabad, ami liis will', 149 
Melba, Mine. (Mrs. Armstrong), 

ringer, 183 
Melk, abbey, 350 

Mendeli, monastery, Pentelicus, 24 
MensdoriV, Comtesse Clotilde, 287 
Mensdorff-Pouilly, ('mint, Albert, 


Menzel, Adolf, German painter, 

Merlin, Consul, 16, 124 

, Consul, junior, 124 

Mesdag, Hendrik, and his wife, 

Dutch painters, 199-200 
Messala, Count D., and family, 61 
, Mile. Edith (Mme. L. de 

Veiics), 123 

, M. (fils), 123 

Metcalfe, Sir Charles, 142-4 
Metternich, Count Wolff-, 218 

, Prince, the Chancellor, 276 

, Prince Paul, and his family, 

288, 312, 351 
, Prince Richard (the late), and 

his wife, 176, 266, 284, 285, 288, 

, Princess, painted as Hebe by 

Lawrence, 289 
— -, Princess Clementine, 290 

, Princess Melanie, 28S 

, Princess Pauline, 288 

, Princess Pauline, widow of 

Prince Richard, 176, 289-91 
Metzger, "Professor," 158-61, 253 
Metzu, truth of his paintings, 161 
Middachten, 238 
Miiwal, Sheik, of Damascus, 25 
Milan, ex-King of Servia, 301 
Milbanke, Mr. Ralph, 267, 282 
Mitritza, skirmish near, 87 
Modder River, 357 
Molucca Islands, 245, 248 
Monrepos, villa, Corfu, 13 
Monson, Sir Edmund, 154, 263, 266, 

Montagliari, Marchesa {ne'e Fuller), 

Montagu, Admiral Sir Edward (Earl 

of Sandwich), 202 
, Colonel Hon. Oliver, 134 and 


, Lady Agneta, 153 

, Rear-Admiral Hon. Victor, 153 

Montenuovo, Prince and Princess 

(nte Kinsky), 341, 362 
Montevideo, 96 note 
Montgomery, Mr. Alfred, 134 
Montholon, Comte de, 135 
Montreux, 183 
Mooneer ool Moolk, Nawab, 143 and 

Mooneer-ool-moolk (the late), eon 

of Sir Salar Jung, 146 
Moravia, Anti-Semitism in, 369 
Mores, Marquis and Marquise de, 

Morocco, 1 12 
Morris, Lord, 179 

2 C 



Motley, John Lothrop, historian, 

194, 205 
Mourousi, Mile., 123 
Moiiy, M. de, 53, 89-91, 135 
Mundella, Mr., M.P., 77 
Munich, 244, 329 
Miinster, abbey of, 217 note 

, Count, 48, 133 

, Countess Marie, 133 

, the Peace of, 165 

Murat, Princess Anna (Countess 

Goluchowski), 276 
Murusis family, the, 60 
Mysore, the Maharajah of, 152 

Nagy Apponyi, 325 

Czenk, 348 

Naples, Prince of (Victor Emanuel 
III., King of Italy), visit of, to 
The Hague, 225 

, Queen of, 332 

Napoleon I., Emperor, 25 note, 101 
note, 341, 363 

Nassau, Duke of, see Luxemburg 

Nea Ephemeris, newspaper, 71, 72 

Nedim, Mahmoud, Turkish Am- 
bassador, 359 

Neerijnen, Baronne de Pallandt van, 

, Baron " Dop " Pallandt van, 

Nepveu, Mile., Kiline, 173 
Netherlands, see Emma, Sophie, 

and Wilhelmina, Queens, and 

William III., King of 
Nevill, Colonel, and Mrs. (nee Lever), 


, Lady Dorothy, 179 

New Guinea and Anglo-Dutch 

boundary question, 247-8 
New South Wales and the Carpenter 

case, 248-50 
Newcastle, Duke and Duchess of, 

Newdigate, Mr. and Mrs. Francis, 

Newport, Lord, 268 
Nice, 234, 346 . 

Nicholas I., Emperor of Russia, 27 
Nicholson's Nek, 354 
Nieuive Botterdamsche Courant, 

paper, attacks of, on England, 

Nigra, Count, 284, 299-300, 311, 359 
Nimwegen, ruins of Charlemagne's 

fortress at, 175 
Noailles, Due de, and his wife (ne'e 

de Luynes, 185 
Northbrook, Earl of, 314 

Norwich, Earl of, 203 note 
Novara, 295, 385 
Nubar Pasha, 138 

Obrenovitch, Princess Julie, her 
husband and brother, 270 

O'Connor, Mr. T. P., M.P., 329 

O'Conor, Sir Nicholas, 376 note 

Of en, palace of, 323 

Okolicsanyi, M., and his wife (Prin- 
cess Olga Lobanow), 177 

Olga, Queen of Greece, 13, 27, 30, 
42, 61-2, 66-7, 93, 120, 121, 129, 

Olmtttz, 336 

Oosterbeck, 170; skating at, 229 
Orange Free State, Hollanders in 

Transvaal and, 247 
Orange, Prince of (Prince " Citron "), 

Orleans, Due d', 152, 313 

, Prince Henri d', 135 

Oropos, massacre of, 25 

Orsay, Count d', 22 

, Countess d' (Princess Francis 

Thurn and Taxis), 22 
Osborne, Mr. Bernal, 134 
Otho, King of Greece, 39, 61 
Otto, Archduke, 277, 281, 295, 307 
(Judo Doelen Inn, The Hague, 156 
Socie'te' du Casino, balls at, 

Oude Weg, the, Scheveningen, 227 
Oudermeulen family, the, 170, 237 

their seat, 171 

Oxford, 263 

Paar, Count, 330 

Paardeberg, 356 

Palais Clary, formerly British Lega- 
tion, and its mysteries, 342-4 

Pallandt, Mile. Sarah de, 173 

Pallavicini Palais, Vienna, 278 

Palmer & Co., of Hyderabad, ruin 
of, 143-4 

Palmieri, Italian architect, 102 

Papadiamantopoulos family, the, 60 

Paparigopoulos, M. Demetrius, the 
historian, and his wife, 60 

Paris, in Lord Dufferin's day, 234 

, visits to, 10, 11, and passim 

, Treaty of, 5, 273-4 

Parkyns, Sir Thomas, and Lady, 
263 note 

Parseval, Colonel de, 152 

Patras, 119 

Paul, Emperor of Russia, 101 and 
note, 192 and note 



Paul Alexandrovitch, Grand Duke, 

and his wife, 62 
Pauncefote, Sir Julian, 11, 133 
Pavilion La Rochefoucauld, 155 
Peel, Sir Charles Lennox, 264 
Peking, siege of, 375 
Pender, Sir John, 133 
Penrose, Miss (Mrs. Arthur Dick- 
son), 125 
, Mr., Director of the British 

School at Athens, and his 

family, 124-5 
Pentelicus, 23, 24, 153 
Pesth (sec also Budapest), 318-19 

, social life in, 371-2 

Petworth, 135 

Pfusterschmidt family, the, 353 

Phalerum, 21, 24, 31, 92 

, theatre at, 58 

Phanariote "Princes," 59-61 
Philiatra, earthquake at, 1 14 
Philippine Islands, 245 
Philippopolis, revolution at, 40, 50, 

56, 64, 67 
Piedmont, 385 
Pieve di Cadore, 329 
Pilsen, 378, 379 
Pio Nono (Pope Pius IX.), 377 
Piper, Count (Swedish Minister), 8 
Pirams, 16, 48, 80, 85 

, naval demonstration oft", 87 

Pirenian Bpring, the, 23 

Pisek, ritual murder case at, 369 

Plaisance, Duchesse de, 25 and 

Plessen, Count, and his wife (nee" 

Hoyos), 350 
Plimsoll, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel, 

Pochwalski, Herr, painter, 381 
Podewils, Baron de, and his wife, 

Point de Galle, 141* 386 
Polignac family, the, 185 
Polignac, Prince Alphonse de, 11 

, Prince < ami lie de, 11 

, Prince Edmoml de, 233 

, Prince Ludovic de, 1 1 

Poll, Mile, van de, 221 

Polna, 369 

Pompadour, Mine, de, 288 

Pontalis, M. Lefevre, on Jean de 

Will, 204 »"!> 
PoortvliH, M.T.ik van, 237-8 
Potter, Mrs. Brown, actress, 112 
, Paul, the"Bull" painting by, 

, Paul, painting by, lent to the 

Mauritshuis by the late Duke 

of Westminster, 240 

Pot6cki, Count Roman, and Countess 
Potocki (nee Radziwill), 326-7, 


Pourtales, Comtesse Melanie, 313 

Prague, 202, 321, 371 

, Anti-Semitism in, 369 

Preen, Baronne de, 219 

Pregny, 332 

Pro'ia, newspaper, 72, 90 

Prugg, 349 

Prussia, Crown Prince and Princess 
of (Emperor and Empress Frede- 
rick), 36 

, Prince Henry of, 209 

Pulchri Studio Society, 200 

QuiN, Mr., 134 

Radetzky, funeral of, 212 
Radnor, Dowager Countess of, 312, 

3 2 9, 33°. 378 
Radziwill, Prince Anton, 327 
Rainer, Archduke, and his wife, 281, 

353, 358 
Ralli, General, 123 
Rantzau, Count, and his wife, 243-4 
Ratford, Rev. H., 232 
Reay, Lord, Governor of Bombay, 

and Lady Reay, 139-41, 151, 

153, 190 note 

, his Dutch relations, 237 

Rechberg, Count, 276 

Rembrandt, house of, in Amsterdam, 

, "School of Anatomy" by, at 

the Hague, 201 
Reverseaux, Marquis de, 301, 359-60 
Rhaugabc, the Misses, 37, 81 
, M. Alexander-Rizos, 36 and 

note, 37, 48, 60 
, M., son of the above, 37 note, 

Rhine, the, salmon fisheries on, 

Rhodes, siege of, 102 
Richter, Herr, conductor, 340 
Riemsdijk, M. de, and his wife (ne'e 

Loudon), 166 
Rijksrnuseum, the, Amsterdam, 161, 

162, 164 
Rinaldini, Consignor, 197, 216, 225 
Robert^, Field-Marshal Earl, 361 
Roberts' College, Constantinople, 

Roell, Jonkhcer van, 248 
Rokeby, Lord, 356 
Roma family, the, 6i 
, M. (Greek Minister of Marine), 




Rome, 91 

Romney, Earl and Countess of, 312, 

Ronalds, Mrs., 9 
Roosevelt, Mr., U.S., 242 
Rosebery, Earl of, 78, 79, 80, in, 

Rostowski, Princess Lobanow (Mme. 

Katkoff, afterwards Lady Eger- 

ton), 136 
Rotbschild, Baron Albert, 291 

, Baron Anselm, 291 

, Baron Nathaniel, 291-3 and 

note, 305 

, Baroness Adolphe de, 332 

, Baroness Bettina, 292 

, Mr. Leopold de, 370 

family, the, in Vienna, 290 

Rotterdam, 220 

Roumania, see Charles, King of 

Royal Charles, relic of, at the Rijks- 

museum, 164 
Royat, 157, 179 
Rozan, Comtesse, 11 
Rozendaal, 182 
Rudolph, Crown Prince, see Austria, 

Crown Prince of 
Rufford, 262 
Rumbold, George, 112, 113, 130, 137, 

263-4, 378 
, Horace, 82, 130, 185, 205, 26S 

and note, 348 

, Hugo, 346, 378 

, Lady, 28, 205, 216, 251, 253, 

305, 322, 346 
, Sir Horace, 1 ; in Greece, 9 et 

seq. ; at the Hague, 153, 155 et 

seq. ; in Vienna, 200 et seq. ; close 

of his diplomatic career, 380 et 

seq. ; his journey to India, 141 ; 

made K.C.M.G., ui; receives 

the Grand Cross of the Bath, 306 
, Sir William and Lady, parents 

of Sir H. Rumbold, 142, 263 
, William, brother of Sir Horace, 

and his wife(Nadine Lobanow), 

I3 6 . 2 33 
, William, junior, 112, 130, 155, 

251. 348 
Rupert, Prince, 203 
Russell, Sir William H, and his 

wife, 312 
Russia, Emperors of, see Alexander 

II., Nicholas I., and Paul 
Russian action in Central Asia, 

advance in the Far East, views 

of M. de Kallay on, 346, 386 
Russo-German relations, 4-6 
Ruyssenaers, M., 248 

Ruyter, Admiral De, tribute paid to, 
by William II. of Germany, 224 
Ryswyk, 203 note 

Saburmuttee River, Ahmedabad, 

Sackville, Lady Anne, 263 and note 

, Lord, 261 

Sadowa, 295 

Sahini, Admiral, 13 

St. Albans, Duke and Duchess of, 

St. John at Malta, Cathedral of, and 

Knights of, 101 
St. Levan, Lord, 354 
St. Paul at Malta, 103, 105 
St. Petersburg, 101, 175, 242,275, 295, 

St. Polten, 349 

St. Stephen, Order of, 381 note 
St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, 311 
St. Theodore, Church of, Athens, 

St. Wolfgang, town and lake of, 351, 

Salamis, 75, 80 
Salisbury, Marchioness of (the late), 

Salisbury, Marquis of (the late), 40, 

42,49,66,68-73,76,111, 127, 137, 

144, 157, 296, 306, 330, 374, 385 
Salonica, 54 

Salzburg, 314, 352, 353, 380 
Salzkammergut, 351 
San Antonio, Malta, 103, 104 
Sandor, Princess Metternich-, 364 
Sardou, M., 342 
Sassoon, Mr. Reuben, 179 
Saurma, Baron, 173, 243 
Sawas Pasha, 54 
Saxe-Cobur^ Gotha, see Edinburgh 

and Albany, Dukes of 

, Duchess of, 263 

Saxe-Teschen, Duke Albert of, 321 
Saxe- Weimar, Grand Duke of (the 

late), 209, 227 

, Grand-Duchess of, 213 

, Prince Edward of, 211 

Saxony, see Albert, King of 
Scarlett family, the, 19 
Scheveningen, 200, 209, 226 et seq. 
Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, 

Mile. Cony, wedding of, 204 
Schleswig-Holstein, Prince Christian 

of, 333 
Schleswig - Holstein Augustenburg, 

Duke Ernest Gunther of, 144 et 

Schliemann, Dr. and Mme., 18, 122 



Schoeller, Ritter von, Consul-General 

in Vienna, 304 
Schoenerer, Heir, 317, and the Los 

von Rom movement, 368 et seq. 
Schonborn famil}', the, 379 
Schbnbrunn, 293, 330, 375 
Schonhausen, 385 
Schulenburg family, the, 377 
Schwarzenberg family, the, 379 

Palace, Vienna, 281 

, Prince Adolf, 328 

, Prince Felix, 276 ; his mother 

and sister, 285 
Seckendorf, Count, 259, 260 
Secunderabad, 146, 148 
Sedan, 313 

Segur, Comte and Comtesse de, 242 
Seilern, Count and Countess (nte 

Hohenwart), 177 
Selmoon, tower of, Malta, 103 
Servia (see Alexander, and Milan, 

Kings of), politics in, 41 
Seymour, Sir Hamilton, 181 
Shimonoseki, battle of, 245 
Siberia, 346 

Sidney family, the, 159 
Sidon, s.s., wreck of, 20 and note 
Siegfried, traditional birthplace of, 

o. I73 

Simmons, General (afterwards Field- 
Marshal), Sir J. L. A., 98, 99 and 
note, 102 

Skiernievice compact, the, 4, 5 

Slanev, Colonel and Lady Mabel, 

Slatin Pasha (Sir Rudolph Slatin), 

Slav versus Hellene, 107-8 

Slave Trade Conference at Brussels, 

Smith, Sir Charles Euan, 329 

Sobieski, John, 311 

Soesdyck, Castle of, 239 

Solms, Amalia von, "wifeof Frederick 
Henry, Prince of Orange, 194, 203 

Soltikow, Princess, 175 

Soos, 349 

Sophie, Queen of the Netherlands, 
257; lier learning and her troubles, 
192-4, and note 192 

South Africa (sec Boer War, Jameson 
Raid, and Kruger), Dutch in- 
terest in, 246-7 

Soutzo, Mine. Nathalie, 60 

, Prince Jean, and family, 60 

Soveral, M. de, 351 

Spain, see Christina, Queen-Mother 

Sparta, Duke of, see Greece, Crown 
Prince of 

Spinola, Marquis and Marquise, 12, 

173, 216 
Spion Kop, 357 
Sponneck. Count, 107 
Sprachenverordnunc/en, the, 316 
Staal, M. van der, 248 
Stadion, Countess (ne'e Lobkowitz), 

344-5, 378 
Standish, Mr. and Mrs. Henry, 

37 8 
Standish, Mrs. (ne'e des Cars), 313 

Steen, Jan, truth of his paintings, 161 

Stephanie, Crown Princess of Austria 

(Countess Lonyay), 263, 281 
Stephenson, Capt. (Adm. Sir H. F.), 

1 36 and note 

, General Sir F., 138 

Sterneck, Admiral, 318 

Stillman, Mr., Times correspondent, 

Stirum family, the, 237 
, Countess Limburg, and her 

daughters, 173 
Stockholm, 1, 116 
Stormberg, 357 
Strauss, Eduard, composer, 277, 341 

, Johann, 341 

Struve, M. de, and his daughter, 

Stuart, Sir William, 137 
Suda Bay, Naval Demonstration at, 

79, 81, 87, 98 
Suez, 138 
Sugar Bounties Convention, the, 

Sultan of Turkev, see Abdul Hamid 

Sutton, Sir Richard, 240 
Sweden, Prince Gustav Adolf of, 

Sydney, New South Wales, 248-9 
Sykes, Mr. Christopher, 178 
Syinons, General Penn, 354 
Syngros, M., 18, 122 
Szapdry, Count Paul, and ihis wife, 

Szechenyi, Count Bela, and wife (n(c 

Erdody), 348 
, Countess Denesch (nte Hoyos), 


, Countess Hanna (now Countess 

Karolyi), 348 

Szell, M. de, 308, 319, 372 
Sztaiay, Countess, 330-3 

TACNA affair, the, 249-50 

Talbot, < Jolonel the Hon. (now Major- 
General the linn, sir Reginald), 
and his wife, 1S6 and note, 187 



Taliani, Monsignor (now Cardinal), 

359. 37° 
Talleyrand, Baron and Baronne 

Charles de, 233 and note 
Tato'i, 27 
Taxis, Prince Francis Tlmrn and, and 

his wife (n£e d'Orsay), 22, 36 
, Prince Lamoral Thurn and, and 

his son, 269 
Taylour, Lady Adelaide, 240, 321, 

35 2 

Teck, Duke of (the present), 112 

, Duke of (the late), 112, 231 

, Princess Mary Adelaide, Duch- 
ess of, 1 12-13 

, Princess May (now Princess of 

Wales), 113 

Teesdale, Colonel, 179 

Teheran, 268 

Temesvar, 330 

Ternate, 248 

Teunissen, M., antiquary, 211 

Thames, approach to London by, 1, 2 

Thayer, Mr. Samuel R. , 242 

Theocaris, Mme., 28 

Theotokis family, the, 61 

, M. , 70 note, in 

Thessaly, 16, 79 

Thomas, Arthur Goring, composer, 

Thornhill, Mr. Bryan Clarke, 242, 

Throgmorton, Miss, 113 
Thun, Count Francis, and his wife, 

(ne'e Schwarzenberg), 337-8 
Thurn and Taxis, see Taxis 
Tienhoven, M., 248 
Tinne, Miss, explorer, 231 note 

, Mr., ib. 

Titian, birthplace of, 329 
Toblach, 329 

Townsend, Mr., and his wife, 304 
Townshend, Lady Agnes, 354 
Transvaal, the, numbers of Hol- 
landers in, 247 

, Railway, the, 247 

Traunsee, the, 320 

Trauttenberg, Baron de, 52, 53, 135 

TrauttmannsdorfT, Prince, and 

family, 379 
Treaty of Berlin, 40, 43, 62 

of London, 1867, 215 

of Paris, 5, 273-4 

Tree, Mr. Beerbohm, 329 

Tricoupis, Mile., no 

, M. Charilaos, 13, 15, 32, 34, 38, 

47, 49-50, 56, 77, 84, 105, 106-10 

note, in, 1 16-17 and note, 153; 

character of, 109-10 ; death of, 

1 10 ; his sister, ib. 

Trier, 218 

Trieste, Imperial stud-farm near, 269 

Triple Alliance, the, 5 note 

Tunisia, 147 

Turin, n 

Turkey, and Armenian affairs, 272 

, the Sultan of, see Abdul 

Hamid II. 

Tiirr, General, 47, 118-20 

, Mme. (nie Bonaparte Wyse), 


Tuyll, Baron Reginald de, 170, 229, 

, Baron and Baronne Vincent 

de, and their daughter, 170, 193 

Tweeddale, Marquess and Mar- 
chioness of, 133 

Typaldos, M., 60, 71-2 

Utrecht, University tournament 
got up by students of, 239 

Uze"s, Duchesse d', marriage of her 
daughter, 183 et seq. 

Valetta, 102 

, impressions of, 105 

Vallombrosa, Duke of, and Duchess 

(nie des Cars), 146 
Valloire, abbey of, 217 note 
Van Bossi, 204 
Van der Heist, portrait by, of Paul 

Potter, 201 
Van der Staal, Mme., 234 
Van Goyen, skating scenes by, 229 
Vassos, General, 297, and his 

daughter, 123 
Vaughan, Cardinal, 370 
Verdala, Malta, 103 
Vermeer, Jan, painting by, at The 

Hague, 201 
Verschuer, Baron and Baroness, 171 
Vianden, 218 
Victor Emmanuel II., King of Italy, 

assassination of, 37S 
Victoria, Queen of England (the 

late), 105, in, 156,208,211,220, 

263-5, 33°. 333- 339- 376, 383 
, attitude of, as to the Boer 

War, 355, 361-2 

, Jubilees of, 129-34, 303-6, 347 

, last visit of, to Cimiez, 346-7 

, visit to, of Queen Wilhelraina, 


, funeral of, 384 

, on her Ambassadors to France, 

Victoria Augusta, German Empress, 

144, 222 



Vienna, 37, 41, 132, 212 

Anti-Semitism in, see Lueger, Dr. 
British Embassy at, 266, and its 

personnel, 267 
Celebration of Queen Victoria's 

Diamond Jubilee in, 303-6 
Congress of, 1814, 312 
Court and Society in, 276 et seq. 
Environs of , 3 1 1 

Famous musicians buried in, 340 
Fine statues in, 270 
Haussmanising of, 338 et seq. 
Imperial foot - washing at, in 
Passion Week, 365 ; and other 
Imperial religious functions, 
Jubilee celebrations in, 319 et seq., 

328-9, 336 
Music and musicians in, 340-1 
Old and recent friendships in, 

284 et seq. 
Official and public attitude in, 

dining the Boer War, 357, 358 
Racing at, 373-4 
Rathhaus, Ball in, 322 
Sir H. Rumbold accredited to, 
life there and farewell to, 260 et 
seq., 374-5 
Spring Parade in, 293 
Theatres, &c, in, 340 
Viennese partiality for Scheveniugen, 

Vijverberg, the, The Hague, 210-11 
Vikar-ul-Umra, of Hyderabad, 147 
Villa Urrutia, M. de, 216 
Vincent, Sir Edgar, 125, 138 
Vitalis, M., sculptor, 77-8 
Vivian, " Crcppy " (the late Lord 

Vivian), 206 and note 
Vlaanderen, Dr., 195 
Vliet, F. T., Dutch artist, 201 
Vosseur, General, 47, 138 
Votivkirche, the, Vienna, 183 

Waddington, M., 49 

Wagram, 363 

Wmdmanns Huldigung, the, 328 

Waldeck Pyrmont, Princess Eliza- 
beth of (now Hereditary Coun- 
ts uf Krhach Schonberg), 257 

Waldersee, Count, 380 

Wales, Prince of (King Edward 
VII.), 9, 134, 179, 182, 333, 350-1 ; 
attempt on the life of, 364-5 

, Prince Albert Victor of (late 

Duke of Clarence), 9; death of, 
230, 231 et seq. 

, Prince George of (now Prince 

of Wales), 9, 99 note, 115, 136-7 

Wales, Princess of (Queen Alex- 
andra), 9, 61, 134 
, Princess of, see Teck (Princess 

W alferdange, 218 

Wallsee, Castle, on the Danube, 282 
Walterskirchen, Baron de, and his 

wife (nee Hunyadi), 176, 177, 

216, 353 
Ward, Admiral, the Hon., 102 and 

Wardrop, Colonel, 267-8, 294 
Warner, Sir William Lee-, 151 
Washburne, Mr., 116 
Wassenaer gardens, the, 237 
Wellesley, Hon. Mrs. Gerald, 261 
Wesel, 173 

West, Mrs. Lionel Sackville, 261 
Westlake, Professor, and Mrs., 126 
Westminster Abbey, Jubilee of 1887 

at, 131 
Westminster, Duke and Duchess of 

(the late), 240-1 
White Lodge, Richmond, 113 
White, General, Sir George, 362, and 

Lady, 362 

, Sir William, 107 

Whitehead, Mr., 350 
Whitworth, Lord, 262 
Wied, Prince of, 237 

, Princess of, 227 

Wieden, Palace in, Vienna, 281 

, Rothschild house in, 291 

Wilczek, Count, 290 
Wildauer, Mathilde, singer, 339 
Wilhelmina, Queen of Holland, 195, 

213. 239 

, as a child, 208-9 

, life during minority, 220 et seq. 

, visit of, to England, 256 

William I., German Emperor, 4, 11, 

36, 327, 334 
William II.. German Emperor, 224, 

293-5, 302, 334, 385 

, telegram from, to President 

Kriiger, 258 

, visit of, to Holland, 222, and 

attitude to the Queen, 225 
William the Silent, Prince of 

Orange, 211 
William III. of Nassau, King of 
the Netherlands, 182, 227, 257 

, family troubles of, 192-3 

, serious illness of, and conse- 
quences, 188 et seq. ; recovery 
and Jubilee of, 195 ; banquet on 
his seventy-third birthday, 207 ; 

his last public appearance, 209; 
death of, 210; obsequies, 210 
et seq. 

40 8 


Wilmot, Captain Eardley, K.N., 88 
Wilson, Lady Sarah {ntc Churchill), 


Winchester, Marquis of (the late), 

35 6 
Windischgratz, Prince Alfred, 362 
Windsor, 156, 220, 256, 263, 264, 355, 

362, 382-4 
Witt, Cornelius de, 204 

, John de, murder of, 204-5 

Witte Zivaan hostelry, 203 

Wolf, Heir, 317 

Wolff, M. Johannes, violinist, 197 

, Sir Henry Druramond, 126 

Wolseley, Viscount, 133 

Wortley, Miss Stuart (Mrs. Fire- 

brace), 151 
Wyndham, Rt. Hon. George, 356 

Xanten, birthplace of Wagner's 
Siegfried, 173 

Y, the, 225 

Yermak, Timofejeff, 346 

Ymuiden, 222 

York, Duke of (afterwards James II.), 

201, 203 note 
Yorke, Hon. Alexander, 383 
Young Czech party, 315 

Zoelen, Baronne de Groeninx van, 

Zwyndrecht, M. van, 204-5 
Zvgomalas, M., 54 
Zyp, The, the Brantsen mansion, 238 


Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson & Co. 
Edinburgh 6* London 

Telegrams : 4 1 and 43 Maddox Street, 

1 Scholarly, London.' Bond Street, London, W., 

October, 1905. 

Mr. Edward Arnold's 

List of New Books 

ECONOMIC QUESTIONS (i 865-1 893). 



Demy Svo. 15s. net. 

This collection of essays and addresses forms an intensely interest- 
ing survey of all the most important economic aspects of our history 
during the last forty years. Lord Goschen's qualifications for such 
a survey need not be enlarged upon. His treatment of the most 
intricate questions of finance and currency never fails to bring them 
into concrete and vital connection with our national life ; and in this 
volume he deals with these questions rather from the standpoint of 
a practical man of business or of a public servant anxious to inquire 
into financial, economic, and social facts than as the adherent of 
any special school of political economy. 

Completeness and finality has been given to the record here 
presented by Introductory Notes and additions, which represent 
a further expenditure of work and thought out of all proportion to 
their amount, while all the freshness and vividness of contemporary 
expressions of opinion has been preserved. 


2 Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 


Being an account of Bjploration in Central {Tibet, 1903, ano of tbe 

(Barton jEjpeoitton, 1904*1905. 


Somersetshire Light Infantry. 

Demy Svo. With Illustrations and Maps. 15s. net. 

Captain C. G. Rawling, with one English companion, accom- 
plished in 1903 a remarkable journey through North-West Tibet, 
penetrating far into the interior and surveying over 38,000 square 
miles of hitherto unknown country. Great hardships were en- 
countered and difficulties overcome. When the explorers attempted 
to enter the sacred town of Rudok they were captured by the 
Tibetans, and forced to make a long detour in order to reach British 

On his return to India, Captain Rawling joined the Tibet Expedi- 
tion, and immediately after the signing of the Lhasa treaty was 
despatched by Sir F. Younghusband to Gartok. The account of his 
journey through an absolutely unknown country is full of interest. 
At Shigatse, the largest town in Tibet, the highest officials and 
ecclesiastics were visited and the monasteries and forts explored. 
The Brahmapootra was traced to its source, and both the holy 
Manasarowar Lake and the Kailas Peak were visited. The party 
returned to Simla through Gartok and the Indus and Sutlej valleys. 

The photographs with which the book is illustrated are of quite 
exceptional beauty. 



Author of ' With Rimington.' 

Demy Svo. With Illustrations. 12s. 6d. net. 

The author, whose book ' With Rimington ' will be remembered 
as taking high rank among the literature of the South African War, 
sets himself in this work to trace the effect upon Arab architecture, 
religion, poetry, and philosophy of the Desert of which the Arab is 
the child. He believes that, in order properly to appreciate these 
things, it is necessary first to realize the scenery in which they de- 
veloped. The result is an extraordinarily vivid picture of life in the 
Great Sahara, in which notes of travel are combined with descriptions 
of scenery and people, and the history and methods of the French 
administration are handled with great skill. 

Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 3 


Two volumes. Demy &vo. With Illustrations. 25s. net. 

Few men probably know their Norway better than Sir Henry 
Pottinger, and fewer still have described it, from the point of view of 
sport, better than he has done in this book, in which the experience 
of a lifelong sportsman and the graceful literary touch of a skilled 
writer are combined with the happiest effect. Whether the subject 
be elk-shooting, salmon-fishing, or camping, Sir Henry abounds in 
interesting anecdotes and valuable information, and his book cannot 
fail to give pleasure to all lovers of the rod and gun. 

The illustrations are from the author's own sketches, or drawn 
under his immediate supervision. 


JBeiW a IWarrattpe of tbe JBrttisb Rational antarctic Ejpeoition. 

Second in Command of the 'Discovery,' igoi-1904 ; and of the Jackson-Harmsworth 
Polar Expedition, 1894-1897. 

Demy Svo. With Illustrations and Map, 15s. net. 

The objects of the recent National Antarctic Expedition were, of 
course, scientific, but to the general reader there is much more 
interest to be found in a simple account of where the explorers went, 
and what they did when they got there. In this book, therefore, 
Lieutenant Armitage avoids scientific details as far as possible, and 
aims rather at telling a straightforward story of the daily life, with 
all its hardships and perils on the one hand, and its boyish amuse- 
ments and cheery good comradeship on the other, of the little body 
of picked men who went out in the Discovery. His racy narrative, 
assisted by the beautiful illustrations by Dr. E. A. Wilson, artist to 
the expedition, and others, and an excellent map, conveys a vivid 
impression of the Antarctic regions, and the unattractive conditions 
of existence in them. 

4 Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 



Two volumes. Demy Svo. With Illustrations. 21s. net. 

The author is exceptionally qualified for the task of writing thes 
volumes by her own acquaintance with Brahms, begun when sh 
was a young student of the pianoforte, and her personal recollection 
of his teaching are among the most interesting parts of the bool 
Her aim, in giving some account of Brahms' compositions, has nc 
been a technical one ; so far as she has exceeded purely biographic; 
limits she has endeavoured to assist the general music-lover in hi 
enjoyment of the noble achievements of a beautiful life. Th 
materials have been gathered almost entirely at first hand in th 
course of several continental journeys. Dates of concerts througl 
out the work have been verified by reference to original programme 
or contemporary journals. 



G.C.B., G.C.M.G., 

Author of 'Recollections of a Diplomatist,' and 'Further Recollections 
of a Diplomatist.' 

Demy 8vo. 15s. net. 

Sir Horace Rumbold begins the third and concluding series of hi 
' Recollections' in the year 1885, at the point to which he brought hi 
readers in the volumes already published. He describes his life a 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Greece fror 
1885-1888, and to the Netherlands from 1888-1896. In the lattt 
year he was appointed Ambassador to the Emperor of Austria — a 
exalted position which he retained until his retirement from th 
Diplomatic Service in 1900. 

The conclusion of these ' Recollections ' presents a set of Dipl< 
matic memoirs as comprehensive as they are interesting. Sir Horac 
Rumbold has known nearly all the famous personages of his timi 
and the personal touches and pleasant anecdotes with which h 
illuminates their characters render the volumes excellent reading. 

Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 5 


ffielng Xetters to a rtlban of ^Business, 1724*1751. 


Demy Svo. With Portrait. 12s. 6d. net. 

The letters written to an active man of business (those written by 
John Russell are few and unimportant) during a long period of time 
must necessarily be something of a medley. But if they lack the 
kind of interest which centres in the life-story of an individual, they 
offer far more varied and ample material to those who care, with 
Thackeray, ' to people the old world with its everyday figures and 
inhabitants.' To the majority of readers probably the most inter- 
esting correspondents will be the numerous sea captains — fathers 
and grandfathers of those who fought under Hawke and Nelson. 
But all sorts and conditions of men made calls on John Russell's 
capacity for business or for friendship, writing for the most part in 
home and intimate fashion of private and domestic matters, illus- 
trating in innumerable ways the ordinary life of the time, and 
incidentally throwing many interesting sidelights on England's 
position in the world as a State whose future lay upon the ocean. 


B, "KecorD of personal Experience of IRcltGfous "Revivals ano /HMssions. 

Dean of Bristol. 
Author of ' Phases of My Life,' ' Odds and Ends," etc. 

Demy Svo. 16s. 

Dean Pigou has had twenty-five years' special experience of 
Parochial Missions, and is generally regarded as an authority on 
the subject. He has conducted missions in London, Edinburgh, 
Dublin, Liverpool, Huddersfield, Northampton, Tiverton, Bangor, 
and many other places. In this volume he has arranged the records 
of these religious revivals according to the localities at which they 
occurred. The author's characteristic style and treatment render 
the whole a most interesting study, whichf will be welcomed by 
readers of his previous works. 

6 Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 




Associate and Lecturer of Nevvnham College, Cambridge. 
Author of 'Julian the Philosopher,' 'Studies in John the Scot,' 'Rome the Middle 

of the World,' etc. 

Demy Svo. With Illustrations, ios. 6d. net. 

Theodore of Studium (born 759, died 826), though little known in 
Western Europe, was a man of remarkable abilities and character 
who left a deep impression on Byzantine monasticism, and on the 
thought and life of the Eastern Empire. This biography, foundec 
on Theodore's own writings and those of his contemporaries, en- 
deavours to set forth the various sides of his activity. These are prin- 
cipally (1) his very prominent part in the Iconoclastic Controversy 
with his staunch opposition to Caesaropapism ; (2) his monastic 
reforms ; (3) his great services as calligraphist, and as promoter oi 
the preservation and multiplication of manuscripts ; (4) his wide- 
correspondence, which throws much light on the morals and manners 
of his time, as well as on some important historical events ; and 
(5) his poetical activity, shown in works written both in the old 
classical and the new ecclesiastical metres. The events and conflicts 
of his life elucidate the tendencies which led to the separation of the 
Churches and Empires of the East and West. 


%iic as tbeg fin& ft in XLown an& Country. 
Crown Svo. 6s. 
Of those who work professionally among the poor, and have 1 
firsthand knowledge of their lives and thoughts, most, if not all 
have had experiences worthy of record. But, owing either to th( 
absorbing nature of their duties or to the want of a literary gift 
very few of them have put on paper the curious things which thej 
have heard and seen from day to day. Miss Loane has not onl} 
contrived to find time, in the midst of a busy life of district nursing 
to keep notes of her experiences, but has written them in a singularly 
attractive style, revealing a keen sense of humour, as well as i 
plentiful supply of common-sense. Her stories are grouped undei 
such suggestive headings as ' Husband and Wife among the Poor, 
' The Religion of the Respectable Poor,' ' The Art of Polite Con 
versation,' and so forth. 

Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 7 




P.C., K.C.S.I., CLE. 

Author of ' Mind in Evolution.' Author of ' C. J. Fox: A Study.' 

Demy Svo. With Portraits. 14s. net. 

Lord Hobhouse, who died in December, 1904, abandoned in 
middle life a brilliant career at the Chancery Bar for the service of 
the State, in which he had a long and varied experience. His official 
career began with his appointment as a Charity Commissioner in 
1866, and ended with his retirement from the Judicial Committee of 
the Privy Council in 1901. Most of his work was of a kind of which 
the general public knows little. He was Legal Member of the 
Viceroy's Council in India for five years, and he was a member of 
the Judicial Committee for twenty years. But at one time he 
found himself the centre of a vehement controversy, and the part he 
played as a member of the Endowed Schools Commission marks a 
turning-point in the history of English education. He had an 
active share in the movement which won for London its rights of 
self-government, and he gave many legal judgments which have an 
historical significance. 


By W. F. BURNSIDE and A. S. OWEN, 

Assistant Masters at Cheltenham College. 

Crown 8vo. With Illustrations. $s. 6d. 

The Cheltenham College memorial of Old Cheltonians who fell 
in the South African War takes the form of a reredos in the school 
chapel, filled with forty-four figures illustrating certain aspects of 
English history and representative men in different callings of life. 
It has been felt that an account of these great men would be service- 
able, not only to those who see these carved figures every day, but 
to a larger number of readers, who would be glad to have in a com- 
pendious form biographies of many of the leading men in English 
history and literature. The list extends from St. Alban to Gordon, 
and for the sake of convenience chronological order has been 
adopted. Illustrations are given of eight typical personages. 

8 Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 



Lecturer in Moral Sciences, Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Demy 8vo. ios. 6d. net. 

This book attempts to prove, in the first place, that beliefs as to 
certain matters of fact beyond our empirical experience are essen- 
tial for religion, and of fundamental importance for human life. 
Secondly, it is maintained that such beliefs cannot legitimately rest 
on faith, but only on argument. It is suggested that the most 
reasonable form for the doctrine of immortality to take is one which 
makes each person to have existed for many years before the exist- 
ence of his present body, and perhaps for all past time. 


With a Translation by CHARLES J. BILLSON, M.A., 

Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 

2 vols. Crown \to. 30s. net. 

These handsome volumes contain on the left-hand page a text 
based on Conington's, and on the right a line-for-line translation in 
blank verse. 





Author of ' Reminiscences ok the Course, the Camp, and the Chase.' 

Two volumes. Foolscap 8vo. 3s. 6d. each. 

Lovers of rod and gun will welcome these valuable handbooks 
from the pen of an admitted expert. The information given is abso- 
lutely practical, and is conveyed, for the most part, in the form of 
Question and Answer. As the result of some fifty years' experience, 
the author seems to have anticipated every possible emergency, and 
the arrangement is especially calculated to facilitate easy reference. 
There are special chapters on fishing and shooting etiquette, and at 
the end of each book is a chapter dealing with the legal side of the 

Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 


The following five volumes are the new additions to this useful 
series of handbooks, which range, as will be seen, over a wide field, 
and are intended to be practical guides to beginners in the subjects 
with which they deal. 

Foolscap 8vo., is. net per volume, paper ; 2S. net cloth. 



The author is an expert in this all-important subject, and her book is con- 
fidently recommended to mothers as thoroughly sound, sensible, and free from 
fads. The medical information may be relied upon absolutely, and the book 
abounds in practical and most valuable advice. A whole chapter is devoted to 
the development of intelligence and the importance of early training — a matter 
too often ignored by mothers and nurses. 

JEWELLERY. By Robert Elward, Author of ' On Collect- 
ing Engravings, Pottery, Porcelain, Glass, and Silver.' 

In this volume the author pursues the same thorough method as in his former 
work. After several hints to collectors, he gives a careful historical and de- 
scriptive summary of each subject, with a short bibliography. 


Henry Revell Reynolds. 

The demand for motor-cars at reasonable prices is rapidly increasing. Mr. 
Reynolds has taken /500 as the largest sum which his readers are likely to pay 
for a car, with a proportionate amount in addition for up-keep. He lays down 
the general principles which should guide the would-be purchaser, and gives 
sufficient information to enable him to examine any car with understanding. 
The respective capacities, prices, etc., of a number of cars are given in tabular 
form. Motor bicycles and other small vehicles receive a considerable share of 
attention, and there are chapters on driving and the amenities of the road. 

ON TAKING A HOUSE. By W. Beach Thomas. 

A thoroughly practical guide to the science and art of house-taking is urgently 
required by most people sooner or later in their lives. Most people, too, are 
obliged to pay dearly for the kind of experience which is to be found condensed 
into this little book. Mr. Thomas has accumulated an enormous amount of 
information on the subject, and his words of warning are calculated to save 
intending purchasers or lessees from innumerable pitfalls. 

io Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 

THE WALLET SERIES {continued). 
Foolscap Svo., is. net per volume, paper ; is. net cloth. 


THEIR TREATMENT. By M. H. Naylor, M.B., B.S. 

This is a lucidly written handbook, covering rather different ground from that 
usually coming under the description of ' First Aid.' It is intended to meet all 
ordinary emergencies, and to indicate such treatment as may safely be tried 
before the arrival of a doctor. 

The following volumes have been already published : 

LAIN, GLASS, AND SILVER. By Robert Elward. 

By Hubert Walter. 

HOCKEY AS A GAME FOR WOMEN. With the New Rules. 
By Edith Thompson. 

(' Penumbra '). 




(JBaron JBrampton). 
Edited by RICHARD HARRIS, K.C., 

Author of 'Illustrations of Advocacy,' ' Auld Acquaintance,' etc. 

Crown Svo. With Portrait. 6s. 

In this edition a few of the more technically legal passages have 
been omitted, but all the dramatic episodes and characteristic anec- 
dotes remain untouched. 

Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books n 


Crown Svo. 6s. each. 



Author of ' Cynthia's Way,' ' The Beryl Stones,' etc. 







Author of 'A Cynic's Conscience.' 


Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 





Super royal \to. 6s. net. 

A large-paper edition will also be prepared if a sufficient number of sub- 
scribers enter their names before October 3 1 . Prospectus on application. 

12 Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 



Author of 'Facts and Ideas,' 'Knowledge is Power,' etc. 

Crown Svo. 

In this volume Mr. Gibbs tells, in his characteristically interesting 
style, the story of the expansion of Britain, beginning shortly before 
the time of Elizabeth, and bringing the account down almost to the 
present day. Each great division of our Empire beyond the seas is 
dealt with in turn, and without any sacrifice of historical accuracy 
or proportion the author gives to his narrative the attractiveness of a 
well-told romance. 




Demy Svo. With 50 full-page Illustrations. $s. 6d. 




Author of ' The Ship op Stars,' etc. 

Crown Svo. With Illustrations from the Boydell Gallery. 6s. 

The value of this much-appreciated work will, it is believed, be 
enhanced by the addition of sixteen selected illustrations from the 
well-known Boydell collection. 

Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 13 



Secretary of the National Poultry Organization Society. 

Author of 'Poultry Keeping: An Industry for Farmers and Cottagers,' 'Industrial 

Poultry Keeping,' ' Pleasurable Poultry Keeping,' etc. 

Crown Afto. With Illustrations. 6s. net. 

This important and comprehensive work, by an admitted master 
of his subject, will be welcomed by all who are interested in poultry- 
keeping. Chapters I. and II. deal with the origin, history, and 
distribution of domestic poultry, and with the evolution and classi- 
fication of breeds ; the next ten chapters are devoted to the various 
races of fowls ; Chapters XIII. to XV. treat of ducks, geese, and 
turkeys. The remaining chapters are on external characters and 
breeding. There are also Appendices. 



Square crown Svo. With Illustrations by Gertrude M. Bradley. 3s. 6d. 

This is a charming little story for children, describing how 
Ophelia, Thomas, and Heidi learnt cookery with a toy stove. 



jfoc Etuilisb Ibousebolos, witb {Twenty dlbenus worked out in Detail. 

Author of 'Fifty Brkakfasts,' 'Fifty Lunches,' 'Fifty Dinners,' etc. 

Large crown Svo. With Illustrations. 6s. net. 

The author has so largely rewritten this edition that it is prac- 
tically a new book. Besides being brought up to date with the 
very latest ideas on the subject, it is much enlarged, and now 
contains a number of attractive full-page illustrations. 

14 Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 


By A. P. BEDDARD, M.A., M.D., 

Assistant Physician, late Demonstrator of Physiology, Guy's Hospital ; 


Lecturer on Physiology, the London Hospital; 

J. J. R. MACLEOD, M.B., 

Professor of Physiology, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, U.S.A. ; 
late Demonstrator of Physiology, the London Hospital ; 


Johnston Professor of Bio-Chemistry in the University of Liverpool; 

And M. S. PEMBREY, M.A., M.D., 

Lecturer on Physiology, Guy's Hospital. 

Demy Svo. 16s. net. 

This book, which is edited by Mr. Leonard Hill, consists of Lec- 
tures on Physiological Subjects selected for their direct clinical 
interest, and designed to meet the requirements of advanced students 
of Physiology. Dr. Beddard deals with Digestion, Absorption, 
Lymph, Urea, and Secretion of Urine ; Mr. Hill himself with the 
Atmosphere in its Relation to Life, Metabolism of Water and 
Inorganic Salts, and Metabolism of Fat ; Professor Macleod with 
the Metabolism of the Carbohydrates, Haemolysis, Uric Acid, and 
the Purin Bodies ; Professor Moore with Vital Energy, Ferments, 
and Glandular Mechanisms ; and Dr. Pembrey with the Exchange 
of Respiratory Gases, Influence of Temperature, Sources of Mus- 
cular Energy and Fatigue, and Internal Secretion. 


By WALTER E. DIXON, M.A., M.D., B.Sc. Lond., 
D.P.H. Camb., 

Assistant to the Downing Professor of Medicine in the University of Cambridge, 
Examiner in Pharmacology in the Universities of Cambridge, Glasgow, and Dundee. 

Demy 8vo. 15s. net. 

This text-book, which is prepared especially for the use of students, 
gives a concise account of the physiological action of Pharmacopceial 
drugs. The subject is treated from the experimental standpoint, 
and the drugs are classified into pharmacological groups. The text 
is fully illustrated by original tracings of actual experiments and by 

Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 15 



By A. P. BEDDARD, M.A., M.D., J. S. EDKINS, M.A., M.B., 

L. HILL, M.B., F.R.S., J. J. R. MACLEOD, M.B., and M. S. 


Demy Svo. Copiously illustrated with figures of physiological apparatus, 
diagrams, and a large number of interesting tracings. 12s. 6d. net. 


By W. E. DALBY, M.A., B.Sc, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E., 

Profkssor of Engineering, City and Guilds of London Central Technical College. 

Royal Svo. With numerous Illustrations. 21s. net. 

Vaive gears are considered in this book from two points of ? view, 
namely, the analysis of what a given gear can do, and the design of 
a gear to effect a stated distribution of steam. The gears analyzed 
are for the most part those belonging to existing and well-known 
types of engines, and include, amongst others, a link motion of the 
Great Eastern Railway, the straight link motion of the London and 
North-Western Railway, the Walschaert gear of the Northern of 
France Railway, the Joy gear of the Lancashire and Yorkshire 
Railway, the Sulzer gear, the Meyer gear, etc. A chapter is added 
on the inertia stresses in the links of a valve gear, and an actual 
example of the inertia loading of a Joy gear is fully discussed. 




Assistant Physician to the London Hospital and to the Hospital for Sick Children, 
Great Okmond Street. 

Demy Svo. With 3 Plates in colour and numerous Illustrations in 
the text. 1 6s. net. 

This important work, the first edition of which was described by 
the Guardian as ' one of the most enthralling books ever published 
on the subject,' has been thoroughly revised by the author in the 
light of the experience of recent years, and is now absolutely up to 

1 6 Mr. Edward Arnold's List of New Books 


Sno tbe principles of Surgery for IFlurses. 

Lecturer on Surgical Nursing to the Probationers of the London Hospital ; Surgeon 

to Out-patients, Royal Waterloo Hospital for Children and Women ; 

Surgical Registrar, London Hospital. 

Crown 8vo. With Illustrations. 6s. 

This is an exceedingly lucid and comprehensive handbook on the 
subject, and contains all the most approved methods very clearly 


By D. NABARRO, M.D., B.Sc, D.P.H., 

Assistant Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology, University College, London. 

Crown 8vo. With Illustrations . is. 6d. 

This volume takes the form of a very simply-written primer of 
health, in which the direct application of the science of physiology 
to every-day life is shown, while care is taken to avoid technical 
terms whenever possible. The author's chief aim is to give such 
explicit directions as will, if acted upon, help the reader to develop 
a sound mind in a sound body, and, at the same time, to demonstrate 
in a simple manner why each rule or warning is given. He also 
shows in almost every chapter the effect on the tissues and nervous 
system of a misuse of alcoholic drink and tobacco. , 


By R. WILSON, B.A., 

Author of ' A First Course in English Analysis and Grammar,' etc. 

Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

This book is intended for teachers who wish to keep themselves 
abreast of what has been aptly called ' The New English Move- 
ment.' The author discusses in turn each of the branches of school- 
work in English, describes methods adopted in some of the best of 
our schools, and suggests schemes of work to meet the Government 
requirements in the native language and literature. The volume 
aims at being practical and suggestive, a guide to practical work 
rather than a contribution to airy speculation. 




Santa Barbara 


Series 9482 



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