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Full text of "The Firelands pioneer"

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THE FIRE LAISTDS PIONEER. 



VOLUME lY— JUNE, 1863. 



EIRE LANDS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 
NoRWALK, June 11, 1862. 

The Animal Meeting of the Fire 
Lands Historical Society was held in 
Whittlesey Hall, Norwalk, on Wed- 
nesday, June 11th, and was called to 
order by Judge Z. Phillips, of Ber- 
lin, one of the Yice Presidents. 

Kev. A. Newton, of Norwalk, open- 
ed the meeting with prayer, after 
which the order of exercises, as ar- 
ranged by the Committees was an- 
nounced. 
The President, Pl att Benedict,Esc[., 
on taldng the chair, expressed his 
pleasure in meeting so large a con- 
course of Old Pioneers, and his grat- 
ification in the exhibition of so much 
interest in the objects of the Society. 

The Report of the Treasurer, C. A. 
Preston, was then presented and ap- 
proved, as foUows: 

Amount on hand as per last report, $13 01 

Paid for membership during the year, 11 25 

Total, 24 26 

Paid on ord«rs 15 T5 

Balance In Treasury, 8 49 

The Report of the Secretary was 
next presented, showing that the 
work of the Society has progressed 
rapidly during the past year, and that 
its present condition is more satis- 
factory than at any former period. 

Several recommendations made in 
the report, together with a resolution 



presented by P. N. Schuyler respect- 
ing a Soldiers' Record were refen-ed 
to a special committee, consisting of 
the Rev. C. F. Lewis, and Messrs. P. 
N. Schuyler, Z. Phillips, G.H. Wood- 
ruff, for consideration. 

Reports from Historical Commit- 
tees were next received. Tlie follow- 
ing were presented: History of New 
London Township by Dr. A. D. Skel- 
linger; of Hartland, by J. E. Wal- 
dron, Esq., of Ripley, by J . >T. Brown. 
Reports of progress were also made 
from Fairfield, Sherman and KeUey's 
Island. 

^ The Committee on History of Re- 
ligious Denominations ii tiie Fire 
Lands, were requested to make tlieir 
report at the next Annual ]\reeting, 
and on motion Rev. A. DaiTOw, of 
Norwalk, was appointed to serve in 
the place of Isaac Underhill, Esq., 
who was excused. 

The foUo^ving officers were elected 
for the ensuing year. 

President — Piatt Benedict, Esq., of 
Norwalk. 

Yice Presidents — G. H. Woodruff, 
Esq., Peru; Judge Z. Pliillips. Berlin; 
Judge S. C. Parker, Greenfield; E. 
Bemiss, Esq., Groton ; Hosea Town- 
send, Esq., New London. 

Treasurer — C. A. Preston, Norwalk. 

Recording Secretary — D.H. l*easo, 
Norwalk. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



Corresponding Secretaries. — Hon. 
F. D. Parish, Sandusky, P. N. Schuy- 
ler, Esq., Norwalk. 

Directors — D. H. Pease, Norwalk ; 
P. N. Schuyler, Norwalk; O.A.Pres- 
ton, Norwalk; Z.Phillips, Berlin; F. 
D. Parish, Sandusky. 

A letter was read from F. D. Par- 
ish, regretting his inability to attend, 
and expressing his deep interest in 
the success of the Society. 

Eev.C. F. Lewis, of Wakeman, pre- 
sented a communication from the 
Secretary of the Wisconsin Histori- 
cal Society, requesting an exchange 
of the Pioneer for the publications 
of that Society. On motion, the re- 
quest was granted. 

The Society then adjourned till 2 
o'clock. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

After martial music by the Green- 
field band, the meeting was called to 
order, and the exercises commenced 
with singing "Exhortation, 0. M.," 
after which the Publishing Oommit- 
tee made a verbal' report, showing 
that the effort for the Pioneer had 
been successful beyond their antici- 
pations. In consequence of the dis- 
tribution not having been completed, 
they were unable to make a final re- 
port, but the Board of Directors were 
authorized to audit the same when 
completed. 

The Special Committee, through 
P. N. Schuyler, Esq., reported as fol- 
lows, upon the matters referred to 
them at the morning session : 

1st. That a Board of Directors, to 
consist of five members, shall be ap- 
pointed to have charge of the busi- 
ness and property of the Society. 
Said Committee shall also act as a 
Publishing Committee. 

2d. As to the appointment of a 
Histographer, they make no recom- 
mendation. 

3d. Kecommend the passage of 
the following resolution : 

Resolved, That there shall be kept 



by the Society a book to be called 
"The Soldiers' Kecord," in which 
shall be recorded the names of all 
persons from the Fire Lands who 
have enlisted in the armies of the 
Union, to aid in suppressing the pres- 
ent wicked rebellion; and which rec- 
ord shall show, as far as possible, the 
township from which each soldier 
enlisted; his age, time and term of 
enlistment; Regiment, Company and 
branch of service; and the office or 
position held; and shall also hereaf- 
ter show the casualties, &c., or safe 
return of each. 

4th. Recommend no change as to 
the time of holding annual meeting. 

5th. Tlie Committee report that 
in view of the increased labor devol- 
ving upon the Secretary, he should 
be allowed for his services the ensu- 
ing year, twenty dollars. 

Tlie report of the Committee was 
adopted. 

RELICS. 

The folloA\ing relics were present- 
ed: by Piatt Benedict — a fine pair of 
antlers and a Porcupine skin, pre- 
sented to him by his grandson, 0. 
H. Gallup, during his recent visit to 
Micliigan. By E. A. Pray, Esq., a 
magnificent pair of Elk horns belong 
ing to Mr. Griswold of Norwalk. By 
Mrs. Polly Pierce of Sherman — a 
small psalm book o-svned by her 
grandmother and presented to her 
daughter (the mother of J\rrs. P.) at 
her birth, Dec. 24th, 1761, and pre- 
sented to Mrs. Pierce by her mother, 
on her wedding day, Nov. 14th, 1815. 
By the same — a fan, purchased in the 
year 1T84 for her mother, costing ^1. 
By the same — a pair of linen stock- 
ings, worn by her father at his wed- 
ding, April 4th, 1787. By the same — 
a large psalm book, formerly belong- 
ing to her grandfather, Ebenezer 
Curtiss, probably over 100 years old. 
Bv the same — poetry Avritten on the 
death of her father in 1707. Mrs. 
Pierce accompanied the presenta- 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



3 



tion with explanations and comments 
highly amusing. Mr. Ami Keeler of 
Norwalk, exiiibited a string of an- 
cient knee-biickles, formerly belong- 
ing to his ijitlier; also a stone pestle 
found on the farm of Mr. A. B. Hoy t, 
of Nor walk. By a Continen- 
tal $5 bill and a finely embroidered 
work bag, more than 100 years old. 
By 0. H. Jackson, Hartland — a Per- 
sian knife, fork and spoon, presented 
to him by Eev. Jas. L. Merrick, a 
Missionary Tfrom Monson, Mass..) to 
Persia, to wnom it was presentea by 
a Persian lady. By Ezra Wait, Nor- 
walk — a $5 Continental bill. New 
York colonial currency, dated 1775, 
formerly owned by his father. By 
E. M. Barnum, Clarkslield — a ribbon 
made at Owyhee, obtained by Sam'l 
Ruggles, one of the first Missionaries 
to that Island, and presented to Mr. 
Barnum by him in 1815. By Benj. 
Benson, Townsend — a number of in- 
teresting stone relics. By Loyal Red- 
ing, Norwallc — three silver spoons of 
the olden style, used by Mrs. Eed- 
ing's grandmother, Mrs. H. F. Bene- 
dict, of Norwalk, Conn., 100 years 
ago. By the same, from A. B. Keel- 
er, 55th Regiment, O. Y. — a parch- 
ment deed, bearing date 1718, given 
by Lord Fairfax, of Virginia, to one 
of the early settlers of Hampshire 
county, in that State. It was found 
on the floor of the Court House at 
Romney, Ya., by him (Keeler) after 
the building had been sacked by the 
rebels. By Dr. Niles, of Adams, 
Seneca Co. — a Chippewa testament, 
printed in 1833. By the same — a 
book of sermons, supposed to have 
been published in the early part of 
the reign of King James I. By Mrs. 
D. C. Owen, Norwalk — a copy of the 
Yates, (N. Y.) Rejyublican, dated 
July 18, 1826, contaming an account 
of, and in mourning for, the deaths 
of Adams and Jefferson. Also by 
same, the remnant of a Military Dic- 
tionary, formerly belonging to her 
grandfather, Edward Craft, a native 



of Boston, Mass. By John LayHn, 
of Norwalk — an Indian relic found 
by him in 1820. Also, by the same, 
the first spinning wheel of the Fire 
Lands, used in his family soon after 
the war of 1812, see Pioneer, vol. 3d, 
article, John Layhn.) By Chas, E. 
June, New London — a stone axe, 
found on the farm of L.Brundage,in 
that Township, ^j Lieut. Col. Saf- 
ford, 55th Regiment, 0. Y. — a "com- 
mentary upon the Prophet Isaiah,^' 
printed in London in 1714, taken from 
a Chaplain in the rebel army in Yir- 
ginia. Bv Judge S. C. Parker, from 
Charles Kent, Esq.— Toledo City Di- 
rectory^ for 1858-9, containing a his- 
tory of Maumee V alley, by H. L. 
Hosmer, Esq. By the same — three 
ancient books given to the Society 
by Mrs. Celia Newbery, of Green- 
field, viz: "Book of Knowledge," 
printed about 1763 ; " Book of Perse- 
cutions," about 200 years old, and a 
very ancient Arithmetic. These 
books belonged to her father, Lem. 
uel Brooks, (formerly an officer in 
the Revolutionaiy war — see Pioneer 
vol. 1, no. 2, page 17,) and when mo- 
ving to Greenfield in 1817, the box 
containing them, by mistake, was 
carried by to Mackinaw, and when 
recovered the next year, were much 
injured. Judge Parker also present- 
ed, from Frank M. Bixler, Co. B, 4th 
Regiment Michigan YoL, an ancient 
piece of stained glass, picked up by 
him at Yorktown, Ya. 

Mention was made of several in- 
teresting relics present, wiiich there 
was no time to exhibit. 

Rev. L. B. Gurley, of Gallion, then 
delivered an address. Subject—" Fif- 
ty years ago and NowP 
, The address was very able and in- 
teresting, and was heard T\ith undi- 
vided attention by \hQ large audience 
many of whom forty or fifty years 
ago ^vitnessed many of the incidents 
to which he referred. 

Wakeman was selected as the next 
place of meeting, Sept. 10th. Messrs. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863, 



J. E. Hanford, D. E. Bacon, D. S. 
Clark, C. C. Canfield, J. K. Vaughn, 
L. S. Hall and' John G. Sherman, to 
be the Committee of Arrangements. 

On motion of Kev. A. Newton, the 
thanks of the society were tendered 
to the Wakeman Glee Club and the 
Greenfield Martial Band, for the ex- 
cellent music furnished upon the oc- 
casion, and also to Rev. Mr. Gurley 
for his very interesting address, and 
a copy requested for publication. 

I. T. Reynolds was at Ms request 
excused from serving on the Histor- 
ical Committee for Huron, and Ed- 
win West selected in Ms stead. 

PIONEERS PRESENT. 

The number of pioneers present at 
the meetmg was larger than on any 
previous occasion. Tlie following 
embraces nearly, if not quite all in 
attendance, who settled on the Fire 
Lands previous to 1820. 

Names. Settled at. Arrived. 

Piatt Benedict, .Nonvalk 1817 

Mrs. Clarissa Gallup.. '• 1817 

M.K.Cole, " 1816 

Pannelia Eeding, " 1817 

Samuel Sherman, " M817 

Lewis Keeler, " 1816 

EriKeeler, " 1817 

AmiKeeler, « 1817 

C. A. Preston, « 1819 

Lucy B. Wickham, " 1819 

James Cole, " 1816 

PMlena Johnson, wife of 

James Cole, " 1818 

Samuel B. Lewis, " 1814 

Daniel Miner, " 1810 

Wm. D. Gurley, IVlilan 1311 

Mrs. Lucretia Waggoner, " 1815 

Harriet Strong, Ridgefield, 1816 

Isaac Underhill, " 1816 

E. W. Cooke, " 1816 

EnosRose, " 1818 

John Sowers, " 1815 

« Mrs. Fanny Smith,. . .Greenfield 1811 ' 

Rev. John Wheeler,. . . « 1816 

Levi Piatt « 1818 

Franklin D. Reed, " 1812 

•, Erastus Smith, " 1813* 

« P. K. Guthrie, " 1817 

J. F. Adams, Lyme, 1818 

John James, Bronson, 1818 

George Hagaman, — ; " 1818 

Martin Kellogg, " 1815 

John Sanders, " 1818 

Rev. S. C. Parker, " 1819 



Henry Adams, " 1815 

Mrs. P. C. Sanders, ... " 1817 

D. G. Barker, Ripley, 1818 

Samuel Husted, Clarksfield, 1817 

E. M. Bamum, " 1819 

O. Jenney, Greenwich, 1818 

House Biy, New Haven, 1817 

G. H. Camp, Wakeman, 1818 

C.C.Canfield, " 1817 

O. H. ^Vheeler, " 1S19 

Emily Waldron, Hartland, 1811 

H. B. Miles, Berlin, 1817 

Francis West, " 1809 

D. W. Tenant " 1817 

Sterling Tenant, " 1817 

Daniel Re3'nolds, «' 1817 

E. Buruham, " 1817 

Rev. L. B. Gurley,- Milan, 1811 

Amos Felt, ."Perkins, 1817 

M. S. Wiuton, Vermillion, 1817 

L. Rash, Groton, 1819 

S. H. Sprague, Florence, 1809 

D. Chandler, » 1816 

Mrs. L^xj Ivory, Ridgefield, 1815 

Mrs. Sophia Felt, " 1815 

Mrs. Jane Parker, Bronson, 1816 

Mrs. Tina Hagaman, . . " 1816 

Mrs. Sarah Perry " 1816 

Mrs. Emily Smith, . . .Greenfield, 1816 

Wm. Brooks, " 1817 

Mrs. Anna (Parker,) . 

Robinson, Milan, 1810 

G. H. WoodniO; Norwich, 1816 

Zalmuna Phillips, Berlin, 1818 

Xenophon Phillips,... " 1818 

The attendance, especially of old 
Pioneers, was much larger than at 
any previous annual meeting. Whit- 
tlesey Hall was densely packed, and 
all seemed to enjoy the i)roceedings 
with more than usual interest. 



D. H. PEASE, Sec'y. 



QUAETEKLY MEETING. 

Wilson's Grove, Sept. 10. 

The first Quarterly Meeting of the 
current year was held in Wilson's 
Grove, in Wakeman, on Wednesday, 
Sept. 10th, at 10 o'clock A. M., and 
was called to order by the President^ 
Piatt Benedict^ Esq., and opened 
with prayer by the Eev. C. F. Lewis, 
of Wakeman. 

The minutes of the last meeting 
were read and approved. The re- 
port of the Secretary was then pre- 
sented, showing that the vrork of the 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



Society is progressing more satisfac- 
toi-ily than could be expected from 
the state of the country. The fol- 
lowing recommendations in the Re- 
port were adoj)ted : 

"That a set of the Pioneer be fur- 
nished Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull, 
Hartford, Ct., for the State Depart- 
ment of that State. 

"Tliat George C. Huntington, Esq., 
of Kelley's Island, be requested to 
embody in the history of that town- 
ship, which he is preparing, an ac- 
count of the origin, development, 
and present extent of the grape cul- 
tiiff thpTe 

"That L M. Keeler, Esq., of the 
Fremont Journal, be requested to 
prei)are an article from the original 
Field Notes in his possession, of the 
early surveys of the Fire Lands, lo- 
cating the descriptions as much as 
possible on the farms as they now 
exist." 

On motion of the Eev. C. F. Lewis, 
it was 

Resolved^ That a Committee be 
appointed in each township from 
which historical collections have 
been reported, to collect such addi- 
tional facts, incidents and relics as 
have not yet been gathered, and re- 
port the same atthe Quarterly Meet- 
ing of the Society. 

On further motion, the Rev. C. F. 
Lewis^ Z. Phillips and G. H. Wood- 
ruff, Esq., were appointed a Com- 
mittee to recommend at the next 
meeting suitable persons to serve as 
such Township Committees. 

On motion of Mr. George Smith, 
of Birmingham, it was voted that 
each township in the Fire Lands be 
.requested to send a delegation to 
each meeting of the Society, of not 
less than three persons, and that such 
delegates report the statistics of such 
pioneers as have died since the pre- 
vious meeting. 

On motion of Judge S. C. Parker, 
Mr. C. E. Newman, at his 'own re- 
quest, was excused from serving on 



the Committee of the history of the 
Religious Denominations of the Fire 
Lands, and Rev. C. F. Lewis ap- 
pointed in his stead. 

The Society then took a recess un- 
til one o'clock P. M., and escorted 
by the Martial Band under the di- 
rection of Seth Todd, Esq., Mar- 
shal, the audience proceeded to the 
bounteously filled tables, and par- 
took of the refreshments prepared 
for them by the citizens of Wakeman. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Publishing Committee gave 
notice that the fourth volume of the 
Pioneer would be issued as soon as 
arrangem.ents could be made and the 
requisite number of subscribers ob- 
tained. 

The Hon. J. M. Root, of Sandusky, 
then delivered an address upon the 
"Early French Settlements on the 
Fire Lands." It was listened to with 
the closest attention by the large 
congregation present, and, at its con- 
clusion, on motion of the Rev. IVIr. 
Lewis, the thanks of the Society were 
unanimously tendered the speaker, 
and he was requested to furnish a 
copy of his able and valuable address 
for publication in the Pioneer. 

On motion of Hon. F. D. Parish, 
of Sandusky, Art. 6 of the Constitu- 
tion was so amended that pioneers 
of the Fire Lands as well as resi- ^*' 
dents may become members. '■ 

The following articles were then 
exhibited : 

By Mr. Joab Squires of Florence, 
and Frank PaUaday of Nor walk, three 
Secession daggers from Southern 
battle-fields; by Lieut.-Col. F. Saw- 
yer, 8th Reg.O. V.L, a "Capias Respon- 
dendum," found by one of the officers 
of that regiment at Charles City Court 
House, Virginia,dated 1771^ on which 
Benjamin Harrison^ one ol the sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, and father of a President, 
was doubtless arrested for debt; 
by A. Pierce, Wakeman, a wooden 



IHE FIRE LAIRDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



leg worn by Burton Canfield, Esq., 
One of the pioneer settlers of that 
place, when, with Mr. P., he laid out 
the east and west road by Justin 
Sherman's to the mills on Vermillion 
Kiver; by Mr. D. 0. Jefferson, Ber- 
lin, an Indian stone relic; by Mr. 
William Dawes, Berlin, knee-bucldes 
belonging to Capt. E. Hosmer Pow- 
ers, worn by his ancestor, Mr. Hos- 
mer, who was killed at the battle and 
is buried under the Monument of 
Bunker Hill; by Mr. Webb, Wake- 
man, an Ulster County Gazette, in 
mourning for the death of General 
Washington; by Mrs. James Wilson, 
an Indian ornament found on her 
farm ; by Mr. F. D. Barker, of Berlin, 
a nondescript jaw-bone, plowed up 
on his farm about six years ago ; by 
Mrs. jMinerva Pierce, Wakeman, a 
blanket made by her great grand- 
mother in 1760 and handed down 
from mother to daughter in her fam- 
ily; also by the same, a porringer 
bought by her great grandfather in 
1780 and handed doAvn in the same 
manner ; by Mr. Silas French, Wake- 
man, a Latin Testament published in 
London in 1750 ; by J. 0. Strong^ Co. 
H, 41st O. v., a wire from the J< ash- 
ville Suspension Bridge, broken down 
by Floyd; also by the same,minera- 
logical specimen from near Camj) 
Wickliffe, Kentucky ; by Mrs. JuKa 
.Hanford, of Wakeman, a work-bag 
made by her grandmother at 13 years 
of age ; by Mrs. Amos Clark, AVake- 
man, very fine specimens of native 
cloth from the Sandwich Islands; 
also a piece of the inner bark of the 
Cocoa, used by the natives as a sieve ; 
by D. W. Tenant, of Berlin, shoe- 
buckles worn by Smith Tenant, an 
old pioneer of that place, about 70 
years of age — "were then in the hight 
of fashion ; " by Silas C. French, an 
ancient copy of Kutherford's Letters, 
published in 1738; by Mrs. Marilla 
Laborie, Huntington, Lorain County, 
a large number of excellent speci- 
mens of ancient wearing apparel and 



household articles, manufactured by 
her ancestors ; also a horn from the 
first ox driven into the township of 
Huntington and used by John Labo- 
rie as a dinner horn for 41 years ; al- 
so by the same, the Diploma of Dr. 
Laborie, in France, given previous to 
the time of the French Eevolution ; 
by J. Ward, Birmingham, a hand- 
somely engraved powder horn, made 
by his grandfather and used by him 
through the French and Indian and 
Eevolutionary wars ; by Mrs. E. J. 
Bunco, Wakeman, stays, worn by her 
grandmother at her wedding eighty- 
two years ago ; by , a fine pair 

of brass button-molds, used many 
years ago ; by Mr. Benjamin Wright, 
Berlin, a musket used by him during 
the war of 1812 ; by Judge Parker, 
a specimen of petrifaction. 

The foUo^^^uQg are the names of 
some of the Pioneers present, with 
place and date of settlement: 

Lucius TomHnson, Wakeman, 1828; 
Joab Squire, Florence, 1815 ; E. Be- 
mis and "w-ife, Groton, 1823; Uriah 
Hawley, Florence, 1822; S. B. Lewis, 
Norwalk, 1815 ; jVIrs. Lewis, Norwalk, 
1818; F. D. Parish, Sandusky, 1822; 
John Brainard, Berlin, 1817; Mrs. 
Laborie, — tlie first white lady who 
slept in the township of Huntington, 
1818 ; PhHemon K. Peck, Clarkstield, 
1819; K. K. Peck, Wakeman. 1818; 
Ezra Wood and wife, Clarksfield, 
1819 ; Isaac Todd, Wakeman, 1826 ; 
Justin Hill, AVakeman, 1820 ; Peter 
Sherman, Wakeman, 1828; Burton 
French. Wakeman, 1819 ; L. M. Good- 
well, Clarksfield, 1820 ; Betsey Kow- 
land, Clarksfield, 1817 ; Cyrus Miner 
and wife, To^^^lsend,1821•^ Charlotte 
Close, Wakeman, 1817; Mrs. Lvdia 
Bently, 1820; B. M. Canfield, first 
child born in Wal^eman, 1818 ; A. C. 
Hall, among the first born in Brim- 
field, Portaii^e county, ISIS; Mrs. 
HalljBerlin,'lS19; Mary M. Judson, 
Berlin, 1S22 ; Winslow Fay and wife, 
Florence, ISl 7; E.M.Barnum, Clai'ks- 
field, 1819 ; Mrs. E. M. Biirnum, ditto. 



June, 1863. 



THE FIKE LANDS PIONEER. 



The place for the next Quarterly- 
Meeting is to be designated by the 
Board of Directors. 

The hearty thanks of the Society 
were tendered the Martial Band and 
Glee Club, the citizens of Wakeman, 
and especially the energetic com- 
mittee of arrangements for their suc- 
cessful efforts in maldng the meeting 
so pleasant and satisfactory. Those 
in attendance ^\lll long remember 
the profase hospitality of the citi- 
zens, the excellent music by the 
Band and Glee Club, the good order 
maintained by the Marshal and his 
aids at this, one of the most inter- 
esting meetings vet held by the So- 
ciety. D. H. PEASE, Sec'y. 



QUAKTEKLY MEETING. 

Peru, March 11, 1863, 

This being the day and place ap- 
pointed, the Fire Lands Historical 
Society assembled in the Presbyte- 
rian Church at 10^ A. M., to hold its 
Second Quarterly Meeting for the 
current year, in accordance with pre- 
vious arrangements made by the 
Board of Directors'. 

The President, Piatt Benedict, Esq., 
upon calling the meeting to order, 
expressed his gratification in seeing 
the house so well filled, thus mani- 
festing a readiness to advance the 
interests of the Society over which 
he had so long presided. 

An appropriate prayer for the oc- 
casion was then offered by the Rev. 
John D. McCord, Pastor of the 
Church. 

The efficient Secretary of the So- 
ciety, D. H. Pease, being detained 
by illness, Rev. C. F. Lewis was ap- 
pointed ^r^ tem. instead. 

Minutes of the preceding meeting 
were read and adopted. 
_ The President announced, in befit- 
ting language, the death of a well- 
known and mucli esteemed pioneer, 
lately gone to liis rest, E. S. Barnum, 



of Cleveland, and for many years a • 

resident of Florence Corners. 

The following resolution, which 
was adopted at the Wakeman meet- 
ing, was then read : 

Resolved^ That a Committee be 
appointed in each township, from 
which historical collections have 
been reported, to collect such addi- 
tional facts, incidents and rehcs as 
have not yet been gathered, and re- 
port the same at the Quarterly Meet- 
ing of the Society. 

On further motion, the Rev. C. F. 
Lewis, Z. Phillips, and G. H. Wood- 
ruff, Esq., were appointed a Commit- 
tee to recommend at the next meet- 
ing suitable persons to serve as such 
Township Committees. 

In accordance with the above Res- 
olution, the Committee named there- 
in reported the following names as 
Historical Committees for the sev- 
eral townships specified below, ^iz : 

For Bronson, Martin Kellogg ; Ber- 
lin, Z. and X. Phillips; Clarksfield, E. 
M. Barnum; Fitch ville, J. C. Curtis; 
Greenfield, Hon. C. B. Simmons; 
Groton, E. Bemis ; Milan, Rock- 
well ; New Haven, Judge E. Stewart; 
Norwalk, D. H. Pease; Peru, G. H. 
Woodruff; Portland, Hon. F. D. Par- 
ish; Ridgefield, Enos Rose; East 
Townsend, Benjamin Benson; Yer- 
milHon, Benjamin Summers; Flor- 
ence. Simeon Crane ; Lyme, Deacon 
J. S. Pierce; Margaretta, Rev. Mr. 
Smith ; Norwich, John H. Niles ; Ox- 
ford, William Parish ; Ripley, S. W. 
Thomas; New London, Dr. A. D. 
Skellenger ; Hartland, Bartlett Davis; 
Wakeman, C. F. Lems. 

Whereupon, M. Kellogg reported 
and read biographies of Bronson. 

The Historical Committees of Hart- 
land, West Townsend and A^ermilhon 
also reported. 

The several Committees of all the 
townships above it was understood 
would be expected to report from 
time to time at each meeting of the 
Society, until the Iiistory of those 



8 



THE FTBE IiAOT)S PIONEEB. 



June^ 1863. 



townships should be completed. 

Judge Phillips, G. H. Woodniffand 
C. E. Newman were appointed to 
read documents for the afternoon 
session, pertaining to the histoiy of 
to\vnships. 

The biography of the late lament- 
ed E. S. Barnum, prepared by the 
Kev. E. Barber, was then read. 

Tlie Report of the Publishing Com- 
mittee being presented, it appeared 
that in consequence of the advance 
in paper, 900 subscribers would be 
required in order to secure the pub- 
lication of the next volume of the 
Pioneer; 600 of that number had 
been procured. To secure the pub- 
lication at the Quarterly Meeting in 
June, the report proposed the follow- 
ing plan, which was unanunously 
adopted, viz: That, in addition to 
previous subscriptions, individuals 
pledge themselves to pay for a cer- 
tain number of copies, the Society 
agreeing, when in funds, to take 
what remain on their hands at the 
original cost. A generous response 
in pledges followed. It was strongly 
recommended that the canvassers in 
the several townships make special 
exertions to add to the list already 
described. Ten persons then be- 
came members of the Society. 

At twelve o'clock the Society ad- 
journed for one hour to Williams' 
Hall, to partake at a sumptuous ta- 
ble provided by the citizens of Peru, 
under the direction of the Commit- 
tee of Arrangements. The delicious 
repast was enlivened by pleasant 
conversation and reminiscences of 
pioneer life, and especially by the 
presence of three original '"''Johnny 
Cakes^'' baked, as in early times, on 
a board, and passed around on this 
pioneer dish to the company, under 
the graphic and appropriate title of 
"Pioneer Cake." 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The meeting was called to order, 



Vice President Judge Phillips in the 
Chair. 

An interesting article upon the 
histoiw of Hartland, from the pen of 
E. J. "iValdron, was then read by C. 
E. Newman, Esq. 

A paper upon the history of West 
Townsend, prepared with much care 
by Mrs. Elizabeth Miles, was also 
read by Judge Phillips. 

The following articles were then 
put on exliibition : 

By Alpheus Manly, a'piece of cur- 
tain, embroidered by his mother 80 
years ago ; by Mrs. Alpheus Manly, 
a manuscript diary, kept nearly a 
century and a quarter ago, in the 
days of Whitefield; by Mrs. S. F. 
Deyo, a gold ring, bearing date 1763, 
and presented by her grandmother ; 
an earthen duck, the property of 
Dea. John Manly, carried on horse- 
back from Connecticut to Vermont, 
by liis mother, a distance of one hun- 
dred and twenty miles; by W. G. 
Mead, court documents issued one 
hundred years ago, captured from 
the rebels at Romney Court House, 
Virginia, and sent by John Benfers, 
of the 55th Ohio, to his father, Ehas 
Benfers, of Bronson. 

The Society received additions to 
its Cabinet of Curiosities by present- 
ations from the following named per- 
sons : 

M. M. Hester, twelve specimens of 
geological and Indian relics, a brass 
tea-kettle used by his mother in 1810, 
a part of her setting-out — been in use 
over 50 years and brought into the 
Fire Lands in 1827. Aunt Polly 
Pierce, the first skimmer in Peru, 
made from an old brass kettle taken 
from an Indian camp, a huzzy, made 
by her mother 96 years ago, a cL op- 
ping-knife nearly 100 years old, a 
certificate of church membership, 
bearing date 1821. Harvey Pierce, 
a stone mallet, found on a farm of II. 
Pierce in 1 853, a Continental eight- 
pence bill, dated 1773, a very small 
gimlet, made 41 years ago in Massa- 



June, 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



9 



chusetts; humorously said to have 
been imported into the Fire Lands 
for the pur[)ose of "boriug out mos- 
quito bills." 

The exliibition and presentation of 
relics was followed with interesting 
and graphic sketches of pioneer life 
by AuntPolly Pierce, Judge Pliillips, 
Hon. C. B. Simmons and others. 

The Committee of Arrangements 
for the Annual Meetiug to be held 
at Norwalk in June, arc Piatt Bene- 
dict, S. Patrick, Judge Sears, J. W. 
Baker, C. A. Preston and C. E. New- 
man. 

The performances of {\\q day were 
marked by good order and quiet 
throughout, by solicitude and watch- 



fulness on the part of the citizens of 
Peru to administer to the comfort 
and happiness of those present, by 
kind attentions on the part of the 
Committee of Arrangements to see 
that all were well provided for, and 
by the excellent and tasteful music 
oi' the Presbyterian Church choir, 
under the direction of George W. 
Atherton. Before its adjournment 
the Society voted its hearty thanks 
to the choir, the Committee of Ar- 
rangements, and to the citizens gen- 
erally, for their hospitality and kind- 
ness in contributing so much to the 
day's enjoyment in another re-unioii 
of the Pioneers. 

C. F. LEWIS, Sec.^>r^ tern. 



FIFTY YEARS AGO AND NOW.* 



BY REV. L. B. GURLEY. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentle- 
men : 

I confess to some embarrassment 
in rising to address this unexpected- 
ly large assembly. 

Although long a resident of the 
Fire Lands, yet twenty years of ab- 
sence has made me a stranger in the 
very home of my boyhood, as well as 
to most of this audience; yet I have 
great pleasure in meeting many on 
this occasion with wliom I have as- 
sociated in other days. I am truly 
glad to meet you once more, my 
friends; to take your hand and ex- 



change friendly and christian greet- 
ings ere we meet above. 

Time has touched us since last we 
met; but some of you, I am pleased 
to see, more gently than myself. 

Though absent, my friends, I have 
not been tar from your borders ; gen- 
erally within hearing distance, and 
the published notices of your quar- 
terly and annual meetings, and greet- 
ings, could not escape my attention. 

I have read witli profound interest 
your Pioneer Magazine, and your re- 
ports and the able and useful addres- 
ses, thus preserved, have alibrded me 



♦Annual Address delivered before the Fire Lands Historical Society, June lltb, 1802. 



10 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June^ 1863. 



a rich repast. It would have been 
especially gratifying to me to have 
listened to the last one, on the Mo- 
ravian Missions, by Hon. E. Lane — 
not only because the subject is one 
intimately connected with my call- 
ing, but also because the location re- 
ferred to was the ground of iny boy- 
hood rambles, and near the old home- 
stead, hallowed by the bright recol- 
lections of earher days, and old com- 
panionships. 

On former occasions you have 
been addressed by able speakers, 
whose efforts I cannot hope to equal, 
yet, of this I am sure, you could have 
found no speaker who would have 
taken a decider interest in the cause 
which has brought us together. To 
me, hallowed indeed are the associa- 
tions which gather round the Fire 
Lands. The place where just fifty 
years ago this Spring, with my little 
hatchet, I helped to clear away the 
hazel bushes from the site of our 
first cabin ; the rude log school-house, 
where I learned to write my name ; 
the fields where I swung the scythe 
or plied the hoe ; the aspen groves, 
beneath whose quivering foliage I 
loved to sit at sultry noon, regaling 
my youthful fancy with the poetic 
beauties of Milton, Thompson and 
Burns ; the cherished spot where, in 
"'depth of wood embraced,^ religion 
found me, a wild backwoods boy, and 
throwing her mantle over me bade 
me follow her ; the well-remembered 
tree, long spared by the woodman's 
axe, beneath whose shadow I conse- 
crated my life, then in the freshness 
of its morning, to the sacred service 
of the church ; the place where I 
first drew my youthful bow in the 
moral battle-field; the old forest 
grave-yard, where repose the mold- 
ering forms of my venerated parents 
and more than forty of my kindred; 
the barns, school-houses, groves and 
churches, where, in other days, with 
assembled hundreds^ we worshipped 
and praised God with a loud voice 



on high. With such hallowed mem- 
ories of the past,, how can the Fire 
Lands cease to be to me the most 
beautiful oasis in my life's pilgrimage. 
I have felt some'^perplexity as to a 
suitable subject on which to address 
you. The historic incidents of pio- 
neer times, have been so industri- 
ously sought out and reported, that I 
could add but little in that direction. 
And yet, any tlieme, to be appropri- 
ate to the occasion, must have some 
reference to those days. 

Just sixty-four years ago, in 1798, 
while Doane, Kingsbury and Eel- 
wards were clearing the land where 
the noble city of Cleveland stands, 
my father was h"ing in Wexford City 
Prison, for loyalty to his Government 
and his God. Three years after, lie 
found a home in Norwich, Connec- 
ticut — the birth-place of your speak- 
er. Ten years after, in the Fall of 
1811, our family reached the Fire 
Lands, which was as famed as the 
garden of the world. There has, 
therefore, been the roll of fifty years 
since the footsteps of my childhood 
first trod the soil of North-western 
Ohio ; and were the remarks I shall 
offer worthy of any cognomen, the 
most appropriate, perhaps, would be 
— Fifty Years Ago and Now. 

Fifty years is but a short period in 
the lifetime of a nation, ordinarily; 
but the world has increased its speed 
since the days of Luther and Colum- 
bus, and mighty and marvelous have 
been its changes during the last half 
century. The rise of nations, the 
downfall of empires, the shock of 
armies, the progress of science, the 
wonders of art^ recall the words of 
the persecuted, but immortal Galli- 
leo — "The world moves after all." 

How instructive is the march of 
Time. Empires decay and cities 
molder at his touch. Where arc now 
the great empires of antiquity and 
the men who swayed their destiny ? 
Where is Ninnevah, and Babylon, 
and Thebes, and Petra, andPiilmyra, 



e/«ne, 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



11 



and the busy millions who thronged 
the crowded streets ? 

*' Ix)ne Ruin speaks from out his waste of years, 

** And tells that Time hath laid them in the grave, 

'• With all tiieir ditys of glory and of tears ; 

**He, like a desolating ocean's wave, 

♦' Hath swept them from the earth, and none might save." 

Time treads softly as he passes, and 
his wings are noiseless. The sun 
rises and sets just as it did a thou- 
sand years ago ; the stars look down 
from the crowded galleries of heaven 
like angels' eyes — bright and beauti- 
ful as when they looked on the watch- 
ful shepherd of Bethlehem ; the 
ocean with its mighty harp discours- 
eth the same grand music with which 
it welcomed the landing of the Pil- 

fims at Plymouth Rock; and old 
iagara rolls up to heaven the same 
anthem that it did when Columbus 
first cast anchor on the shores of a 
New World. All these are change- 
less; not so man. The men who 
controlled the movements of society 
fifty years ago have mostly passed 
away ; but not so the results and se- 
quences of their activities. These 
remain; for, although the tread of 
Time is silent, his footprints are deep. 

Fifty years ago the star of the great 
Napoleon Bonaparte was at its ze- 
nith. It is just half a century this 
month since he commenced his 
march to Moscow. On his return 
united Europe crushed him ; but they 
could not crush but the spirit he 
awakened in the French nation, and 
to this day his ideas and the prestige 
of his name sway the destinies of 
Europe. 

Fifty years ago next Wednesday 
the United States declared war with 
England, and with, comparatively, a 
few thousand men was able to defy 
her power. To-day it requires an 
army of half a million to suppress a 
rebellion of a portion of our oa\ti 
population. 

Never, since the sun shone on the 
first pair in Eden, has there been a 
period of fifty years in which was 
crowded so much of human progress. 



Fifty years ago who thought of ocean 
steamers? Now they plow every 
sea. The wonderful locomotive and 
iron rail track that now facilitate 
travel and commerce, binding the 
continent together in bonds of iron 
were then undreamed of. And that 
magnificent annihilation of time and 
distance, by which we are enabled to 
transmit our messages of love or sor- 
row with the rapidity of lightning it- 
self, was reposing in the shades of 
undiscovered possibilities. It has 
been an era in which the discoveries 
of Science, the labors of Philosophy, 
the inventions of Genius have all 
been pressed into the service of man 
—enlightening his mind, diminishing 
his toils, multiplying his comforts, 
and extending the area of civiliza- 
tion. By the appKcation of stea^a 
power and the construction of ma- 
chinery, domestic labor has been les- 
sened, and especially has the inven- 
tion of implements of agriculture re- 
lieved the tiller of the soil of much 
of the drudgery of the field and barn. 
No longer do you hear through the 
long AVinter's day the sound of the 
flail. The drill, the cultivator, the 
reaper, and threshing machines, do 
the work of millions of hands ; and, 
indeed, in all departments of human 
activity gigantic progress has been 
made. 

Nor should we fail to perceive in 
this the hand of the Great Disposer 
of events, " whose going forth is pre- 
pared as the morning." Do ^ve not 
see the dawn of a brighter day for 
humanity? — the opening splendor of 
a golden era of the world which shail 
surpass the dreams of antiquity 'i ll 
would seem that the same Provi- 
dence that kept the golden treasures 
of California and the rivers of oil in 
our rocks a secret for ages, has also 
held in reserve the mighty develo])- 
ments of modern science and skilJ, 
to give prestige and power to this 
Eepublican Nation; for the exten- 
sion of Bible Christianity and en- 



n 



THE FIRE LAlSnDS PIONEER. 



fune. 



1863. 



lightened civil liberty to the nations 
of the earth. May we, as a people, 
be faithful to our high responsibili- 
ties. 

I have said that lifty years ago this 
Spring my father erected his first 
cabin on the Fire Lands. It stood 
on a ridge about one mile east from 
Blooming\ille. We reached the 
neighborhood the preceding Fall. 
Our immediate neighbors at Pipe 
Creek, as the settlement Avas called, 
were the Woods, Dunhams, James, 
the Spragues, Magills and Harring- 
tons, and a few others. The Fire 
Lands — now improved by labor and 
adorned by art — w^as then reposing 
in all the wild luxuriance of Nature. 
True, the smoke from a few cabins 
circled up here and there, but a wil- 
derness surrounded them. Where 
Bellevne, and Monroe, and Sandusky 
and Norwalk now liit their spires, 
solitude reigned profound. Over 
your grand prairies, where the rattle 
of the cars and the scream of the 
locomotive now wake the echoes of 
the morning air, nothing was then 
heard, save perhaps the tinkling of 
a solitary bell — or the monotonous 
notes of the wild prauie hen. Over 
your broad fields, now ripening with 
harvests, the Lingering Indian passed 
with silent step, in pursuit of game, 
which he still claimed as his right, 
though he had parted with the soil. 

The present aspect of the prairies, 
even where they have not been im- 
proved, aiibrds no idea whatever of 
their lormer magnificence, when 
clothed in their gorgeous and prime- 
val robes of grass and flowers. The 
beauty of their Summer dress could 
only be surpassed by the grandeur 
of their Autumnal conflagration. 

It is impossible adequately to des- 
cribe in words the grandeur of the 
prairie on fire in these days. Imag- 
ine a line of fire, like a vast army 
extending for miles, approaching 
with the speed of a running horse, 
accompanied with a sound Like the 



roaring of the sea. Tufts of grass 
borne on the wind like blazing rock- 
ets fell in advance, hastening the ra- 
pidity of the march; and when, to 
secure their property, the ])eople 
kindled a " back fire," so called, to go 
out and meet the coming enemy, it 
was grand to see the encountering 
forces meet— waving on high tlieir 
'B.ery banners and rolling on their 
columns of flames, until meeting, 
they flash, tower and die away, leav- 
ing only a smoldering ruin iDehind. 

The details of our family history — • 
though of deep interest— I shall not 
attempt to enter into, as they have al- 
ready been published; but I will al- 
lude to a few points of interest, re- 
lating to my childhood, and still well 
remembered. 

On our arrival at Pipe Creek, I was 
in my eighth year. Most vivid in my 
memory is the log school-house. It 
stood not far from the banks of the 
creek, at Bloomingville. It was a 
very humble edifice, with its pun- 
cheon floor, stick chimney and oiled 
paper windows. A down-easter, by 
the name of Bigsby, was the teacher. 
He was a young man, and was quite 
familiar — x>laying with the larger 
boys when out of school; but within 
he stood on his dignity and preserved 
good order. I remember one mode 
of securing order, which was novel 
and quite peculiar. About the cen- 
ter of the house a large hole had 
been excavated to furnish clay for 
the chimney, (fee. By raising a pun- 
cheon the transgressor could be let 
down there in " durance vile," and as 
rattlesnakes abounded in the vicinity 
and might be under the house, it was 
no desirable location for Young 
America. This discipline was very 
effective, and he must have been a 
most incorrigable urchin who would 
go there the second time. 

Nor can I forget the first mill 
erected at the head of Cold Creek. 
It was four miles from our dwelling 
— a rude structure built of logs. I 



#'^ 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIOKEER. 



t$ 



often took a grist of corn on horse- 
back to it — following an Indian trail 
through the woods, looking this way 
and that, lest an Indian should be 
ni£:h. 

The declaration of war on the 18th 
of June, 1812, fell on the ears of the 
settlers like the hoAvl of the wolf on 
the sheepfold. It was some two 
weeks before the news reached us. 
A block-house, for protection, was 
erected at Blooming^^lle, and con- 
siderable alarm was felt. I can nev- 
er forget the scene when the news 
of Hull's surrender reached us. A 
few hours might bring the blood- 
thirsty savages on our defenceless 
frontier. Our family, consisting of 
parents and five childreu, were at 
dinner when a messenger rode uj) to 
the door, exclaiming — "Detroit is 
taken; the Indians are expected — 
all hands must go to the block-house 
for the night and prepare to leave 
the country to-morrow." My parents 
gazed on each other with mute ter- 
ror, and the silence was broken by 
the children crying — "Oh, father, 
will the Indians kill us ? — will the In- 
dians kill us?" "I trust not; God 
will protect us," was the reply. 

That night the people mostly met 
at the block-house and a house ad- 
joining. The floor was covered with 
bed qnilts, <fec., and the women and 
children lay down to sleep. A por- 
tion of the men kept watch as senti- 
nels, while others spent their time 
in melting pewter plates, spoons, &c., 
to make bullets, no lead being at- 
tainable. It was a night of indes- 
cribable terror, llie impressions 
made on my tender mind have never 
been effaced. Even to this day my 
slumbers are, at times, disturbed by 
dreams of the Indians, with bloody 
tomahawk, seeking my life. But 
morning came and all were, so far, 
safe. 

I shall not attempt to describe the 
flight of the inhabitants the next day 
from their peaceful homes. Soon all 



were on their way — some to Cleve- 
land and others to Mansfield. Our 
family took the latter route and pro- 
ceeded to Zanesville, where we re- 
mained until two years after the close 
of the war. 

Judge Whittlesey has justly re- 
marked, in his address before this 
Association, that the first epoch of 
the history of the Fire Lands prop- 
erly closes with the war of 1812, and 
that the second epoch should begin 
with the return of the pioneers to 
their deserted homes. 

It was during the years immedi- 
ately succeeding this period that the 
resources of the country began more 
rapidly to develop. On our return 
from Zanesville, we settled two miles 
west of Milan. A considerable 
change in the aspect of the country 
was already apparent. A large ad- 
dition to the population of the Fire 
Lands had been made and new set- 
tlers were almost daily arriving. 
Sandusky City ( or Portland ) and 
Norwalk had been laid out and ouild- 
ing commenced. 

It was at this period, also, that those 
important and potent influences 
were put into operation, which have 
contributed so largely to the forma- 
tion of the character of this now 
highly cultivated portion of Ohio ; 
for it is with communities as ^vitli in- 
dividuals — the influences which sur- 
round them in youth, deeply affect 
and often decide their future charac- 
ter and destiny. You will allow me 
to refer to some of those influences, 
and, in doing so, to allude to some 
incidents of my experience and ob- 
servation for illustration. 

1st. And among those influences I 
would name Industry. Honest labor 
has never been deemed disreputable 
wherever the sons of New England 
have made their home. It was an 
appropriate remark of J. Q. Adams, 
in Congress, on the subject of "In- 
ternal Lnprovements,"— " Sir, what 
has God given us a country, for, but 



u 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



to improve it and make it better for 
those who shall come after us ?" It 
was in the spirit of this noble senti- 
ment that the early pioneers came 
to this then wilderness. The senti- 
ment is one worthy to be cherished, 
maintained and transmitted to the 
generations to come. 

Industry is a necessity, and it is 
more than that — it is a virtue. It 
lies at the foundation of all human 
progress. When some moralizing 

Eoet gave us that rhyme of our child- 
ood: 

•' For Satan finds some mischief still 
" For idle bauds to do,'» 

he gave us " midtum inparvoP He 
compressed a great trutli in a small 
sentence. Indolence degrades and 
debases, while Industry ennobles and 
blesses ; it develops the resources of 
a country; it excites emulation, stim- 
ulates ambition, promotes habits of 
self-rehance, and fosters that noble 
independence of spirit which is the 
crowning glory of the people of 
these Northern States. 

Industry has cleared our forests 
and turned our prairies into fruitful 
fields. It has dug our canals, laid 
down our railroads^ and woven a web 
of thought-transmitting wires over 
our heads. It has blasted our rocks, 
tunneled our mountains and spanned 
our noble rivers with bridges of iron. 
It has covered our waters with noble 
craft, and our land with beautiful cit- 
ies, towns and villages. 

The early settlers of this country 
were industrious. All labored; and 
by labor I include brain-work as well 
as hand-work. The man who, by 
some great thought or patient eilorts, 
originates some useful invention — as 
the loconiotive, or spinning jenny, 
or threshing machine — does more 
for humanity than if he had worked 
with his Iiands merely for a thousand 
years. Professional men of early 
days— whether lawyers, physicians 
or clergymen — did not repose on 
beds of roses ; they were live men, 



stirring men; all were itinerants; 
all rode circuits, if circuits they can 
be called, whose boundary lines ex- 
haust all geometrical figures. 

The ministers, so far as I know, 
were all traveling preachers. Wheel- 
er, and Coe, and Conger, and Betts, 
and Judson, as well as Methodist 
preachers. Some of the circuits of 
those days would w^ell nigh frighten 
out of their propriety some of the 
young clergy of these modern times, 
of college honors, gilded bibles, 
broadcloth and buggies. Yet I \dVi 
do the latter the justice to say, that 
had they lived in those days they too 
would probably have been equal to 
the occasion, as were their fathers. 

Nor were the ladies of those days 
less industrious than their husbands 
and brothers. The loom and the 
wheel were in the wealthiest house- 
holds as well as the poorest. It is 
doubtless true, that ladies then 
worked harder than the same class 
of ladies now. But I have no sym- 
pathy with those who condemn the 
ladies of the present day, because 
they do not perform the same kind 
of work as did their grand-mothers. 
Certainly it would be easy for me to 
point to a class of modern belles — 
intelligent and beautiful — and say: 
" Behold the lillies of the field, they 
tod not, neither do they spin; yet 
Solomon in all his glory was not ar- 
rayed like one of these." But we 
must remember circumstances have 
changed. The factory has, to a great 
extent, superseded the domestic 
wheel and loom. That our ladies of 
even the wealthiest class are willing 
to work when prompted by proper 
motives, the rooms of the Soldiers' 
Aid Societies aflbrd one happy illns- 
tration. And as to onr yonng ladies, 
let our timid bachelors take them to 
pleasant homes of their own and see 
if they cannot be industrions. 

The^ lawyers, too, of early times did 
not expect to rise to eminence in 
their profession by some baloon llight 



I? 



m 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



15 



of popular favor ; but were content 
— ^step by step with patient toil — to 
ascend the steep where "fame's i^roud 
temple shines afar." I could name 
one distinguished member of the bar 
of the Fire Lands on whose shoul- 
ders the judicial ermine has for years 
hung gracefully, whose eloquence 1 
first heard before a church commit- 
tee, on the floor of a log barn, in a 
case between two belligerent church 
members, to either of whom his own 
peaceful disposition would have been 
a commendable example. 

Thus it was with all classes of com- 
munity, and the result has been that 
the hand of improvement is every- 
where visible, and the desert blos- 
soms as the rose. Nor should we for- 
get that Industry contributes to our 
enjoyment. Hence the Bible, which 
always seeks to promote our happi- 
ness, enjoins it. The blessed Re- 
deemer said, "My Father worketh 
hitherto, and I work." We are re- 
quired to be "diligent in business," 
as well as "fervent in spirit." And 
who is the happier man — he who has 
inherited wealth, or he who has ac- 
cumulated it by patient, honorable 
industry? A cottage secured by a 
man's own labor is dearer to him 
than is a palace to one who has 
earned nothing. Fruit gathered from 
a tree one's ov/n hand has planted, 
has a sweeter flavor than any other, 
and the flower her own hand has 
raised, has a sweeter fragrance for 
the lady than have a thousand found 
in the market. 

The dignity and nobility of labor, 
then, must be maintained. It is one 
of the grand pillars which sustain the 
mighty fabric of human society, and 
the sentiment so prevalent in certain 
portions of these States which would 
stigmatize the laboring classes of the 
North as the " mud-sills of society," 
is one which, if universal, would 
sweep like a withering sirocco over 
the earth, turning its lovliest Edens 
into deserts and blasting the fairest 



hopes of the world. Let the dignity 
of labor—of honorable industry — be 
ever maintained and cherished in our 
land. 

"Labor is glory, the flying cloud lightens, 

"Only the wooing wing changes and brightens : 

"Idle souls only the dark future frightens, 

"Play the sweet keys, wonld'st thou keep them in tune. 

"Work ! and pure slumber shall wait on thy pillow, 
""Work! thou shalt ride over care's coming billow ; 
"Work for some good, be it eversr> slowly, 
"Cherish some flower, be it ever so lowly, 
"Labor, all labor is noble and holy." 

2d. Taste. Taste is a sentiment, 
or faculty, which perceives and ap- 
preciates the beautiful and appropri- 
ate ; that seeks to combine the ele- 
gant and the useful. 

The pioneers of the Fire Lands 
were, many of them, persons of in- 
telligence and cultivated taste, and 
the result is, that there is a differ- 
ence between the Western Reserve, 
settled chiefly with New Englanders, 
and some more central portions of 
the State. True, in a state of society 
where all dwelt in cabins and many 
dressed in deer skins, it may readily 
be imagined there was but a limited 
range for the display of taste. Still 
it could be seen even there, llie 
Southern man builds his house of 
rough logs ; the Yankee splits them 
and hews them smooth after the 
walls are up. The former would 
build a huge appendage of sticks and 
mud at the end of the house, outside, 
as a chimney; the Eastern man 
would build inside, and thus hide the 
unsightly thing from public view. 
The Southerner builds his house in 
some remote corner of his farm, be- 
cause perhaps a spring of water hap- 
pens to be there; but the Yankee 
builds near the road, spring or no 
spring — where he can have a front 
yard adorned with shrubbery and 
flowers — where he can see what is 
passing in the world, and ask ques- 
tions to his heart's content. The in- 
fluence of this taste is now seen in 
the many beautiful villages and 
lovely fai-m-houses, which, from 
Belle vue to Cleveland, adorn the 



A 



HO 



U 



tSS FIEE tAtoS KONEEE. 



June, 1863. 



iaiidseaj)^, giving it the appearance 
almost of a continuous town ; and 
allow me to say, Mr. President, your 
own beautiful Norwalk affords one 
of the tinest specimens of that taste 
of which I am speaking. And if 
there is another spot of equal size 
with the Fire Lands, in our noble 
State, where so many flourishing 
towns and villages are to be seen, I 
do not know where to look for it. 

Inventive genius usually attends 
Industry and Taste combined; and 
among the old pioneers this was not 
wholly wanting. The first threshing 
machine I ever saw was the original 
invention of one of our neighbors — 
Ephraim Hunger. It was erected on 
his barn floor. Its main features 
were a huge wheel of plank, 12 or 
15 feet in diameter. It had an armor 
of sheet iron, pierced like a grater, 
or, rather, hke a tin lantern. It re- 
volved perpendicularly against a 
wall of plank, similarly armed. It 
was moved by horse power, and was 
said to work well for a time, but it 
never was patented. 

A hunter, who lived near the gi'eat 
marsh, (so called), came to a gun- 
smith and complained that the wild 
geese had become so shy that it was 
impossible to reach them with an 
ordinary gun, and proposed a novel 
improvement in fire-arms. He 
brought a long " Queen's Arm" mus- 
ket and the barrel of another, and 
required the two united, so as to in- 
crease the length. Hints were given 
by the artizan as to the probable re- 
sults of the union; but not caring to 
lose either a job or a joke, too much 
was not said on the subject. To my 
certain knowledge the job was per- 
formed. Not long after the owner 
came back "a wiser if not a better 
man," having discovered, as he said, 
that the shot got tired before it 
reached the mouth of the gun ; and 
so suggested a dissolution of the un- 
ion, wluch was not quite so hard a 



job as that which our Southern 
friends have undertaken. 

These instances, if not very suc- 
cessful, aflbrd evidence at least that 
inventive genius was not altogether 
wanting among the early pioneers. 

3d. Education also has exerted a 
most favorable influence on this com- 
munity. I only aflirm what is gen- 
erally admitted when I say, that in 
no part of Ohio is there a better ed- 
ucated people than on the Western 
Reserve ; and this, too, is traceable 
to the intelligence and enterprise of 
the pioneers of the country. The 
school-house was coeval with the 
first cabins of the settlers. True^ the 
branches taught were very limited, 
but they laid a foundation for future 
progress. These schools, however 
humble, were porticoes to the Tem- 
ple of Knowledge. Some, it is true, 
never passed the threshhold, but 
others did. There was a class of 
minds who thirsted for deeper waters, 
but no academy or high school ex- 
isted in Northern Oliio ; yet the "pur- 
suit of knowledge under difiiculties" 
was not without illustrations. A lit- 
erary club for mutual improvement 
was formed, of young men residing 
in the townships of Milan, Perldns 
and Huron. To this I had the honor 
of belonging. Among the members 
were Horace Bell, William Morden, 
James Frees, Anson Comstock, Wil- 
liam Chapman, and a Dr. Randal. 
During the Winter we held our meet- 
ings in school-houses, at night, on 
one or the other side of the prairie ; 
but in the Summer we resorted to a 
ridge of timber half way between 
Milan and Perldns. There, on each 
Saturday morning, we assembled, be- 
neath the foliage of a large oak, and 
debated all day. We carried with 
us our dinner, i)erhaps johnny cake 
and raccoon meat, and not unfre- 
quently others accompanied us to 
enjoy the discussions. We studied 
such books as chance threw in our 
way, some of which were veiy good 



June^ 1863; 



THE vim LAiroS PIONEER, 



17 



— such as Paley's Theology, Lock 
on the Human Understanding, 
Morse's Universal Geograijhy, and 
Kollin's Ancient History. vSeveral 
of these young men have filled pub- 
he stations ; but, so far as I can learn, 
few are now living — probably, with 
one exception, I am the sole survivor 
of that club. 

There was, at that time, no aca- 
demical institution, I believe, within 
150 miles. 

In 1822 the press came to our aid. 
It was indeed an epoch in the history 
of the Fire Lands. In the S^jring of 
that year the Sajidushy Clarion was 
issued at Sandusky City. I was one 
of its first subscribers. Having no 
mail facilities in our immediate 
neighborhood, a club was formed, 
one of whom went weekly for the 
paper. It found home contributors 
to its columns, among the most tal- 
ented of whom was the Hon. Eleu- 
theros Cooke. 

With no pretensions to the title of 
poet, I have, from my childhood, in- 
dulged in versification. The taste 
for it was inherited ; it descended as 
a kind of heir-loom in the family. I 
could not avoid making rhj^me. I 
" took to it " as naturally as the young 
duck to water. Almost with the first 
issue of the Clarion a new idea 
seized me — how would a strain from 
my "wild- wood harp" look in print? 
That was the question, compared 
with which the rise and fall of em- 
pires seemed trifling. I resolved to 
test it. 

It was a beautiful day in May, just 
forty years ago ; I was at work on a 
ridge which skirts one of the large 
prairies between Milan and Sandus- 
ty. At noon I took a fancy to climb 
a taU hickory tree which threw its 
shadow on tlie cabin. From its ele- 
vated top the scene was enchanting. 
The eye could range for many miles 
over verdant prairies, interspersed 
with lovely groves. Touched with 
the inspiration of the scene, I de- 



scended, plucked a quill from a tur- 
key wdng, used to sweep the earthen 
hearth ; with a shoe knife made a 
pen. I tore a fly leaf from an old 
book; some gunpowder dissolved in 
a vial furnished ink. Thus equipped, 
I again ascended a tree, ancl, seated 
in its branches, composed one of the 
first (if not the first) poetical etfu- 
sion published in North-western Ohio 
— commencing with : 

"Thy plains, Sandusky, and thy green retreats, 
"Thy perfumed flowers and their opening sweets." 

The piece w^as signed, "A Citizen of 
Milan Township," and w^as forwarded 
for publication by a neighbor. 

It was my turn next to go for the 
papers. The town was nine miles 
distant, and on the day of publica- 
tion I started for the oflice, with a 
fluttering heart. I was still in my 
teens and very diffident. My great 
curiosity was to see if my verses 
would look in print like those of oth- 
ers. I reached the ofiice before the 
papers w^ere ready — the editor, ^Ir. 
Campbell, being occupied with pre- 
paring an engraving of the Superior 
— the second steamer of the lake. 

Stealthily I cast my eyes around 
the ofi[ice, and soon I saw atom proof 
sheet, ana there indeed was my poem. 
It was a moment of thrilling interest. 
I was a stranger to the editor and in 
no danger of being detected, nor of 
being suspected as the author. I 
was clothed in brown tow cloth, with 
a large, coarse straw hat, braided by 
my sister, and minus both coat and 
shoes. The papers were struck ofl', 
and while my package was being 
folded who should enter the room 
butEleutheros Cooke, Esq. He took 
a paper, threw himself back in a 
chair, and turning to the poet's cor- 
ner, commenced reading in his inim- 
itable style the piece. He ques- 
tioned the editor as to the author — 
declaring that he knew eveiybody 
who could write in Milan Township; 
and finally, after speaking in quite 
flattering terms of the poem, he 



1^^ 



TfiE FtRE LAI?D8 PlOKEfilt. 



Jiin^^ 1863 



gravely decided that the merit of the 
production belonged to a Mrs. Dr. 
Harkness, a very respectable lady of 
Milan. 

I turned away to conceal my emo- 
tions, and my package being ready, 
1 left the office with great dispatcli, 
and wondering if my guilt in writing 
such composition would ever be 
brought to light. I have had occa- 
sion frequently since then to furnish 
pieces for the press, both prose and 
verse; but to none do I look back 
with such peculiar sensations. 

4th. Religion. Of the early set- 
tlers of tills region a fair proportion 
were church members. Public wor- 
ship, after some mode, Avas estab- 
lished in almost every neighborhood, 
.•iu<l men not professedly religious gave 
their inlluence in its favor. A Meth- 
odist class was formed by my father, 
who was a local minister, at Pipe 
Creek, which was tlie first religious 
organization on the Fire Lands. This 
was in the Autumn of 1811. 

Among the early ministers I see 
in your magazine, honorable men- 
tion is made of Rev. Alvin Coe. 
I remember to have heard him once 
at the house of William Spear, of 
Milan. 

How varied are the fortunes of 
men I How strildng the difference 
in the lot and labor of this Presby- 
terian servant of God and that of the 
distinguished and popular Henry 
Wai-d Beecher, with his princely 
home and amj^le salary. The one 
has the honor of proclaiming the 
Gospel and defending the principles 
of Divine Truth in crowded halls, in 
a great city, dealing his giant blows 
at the sins of dense populations ; the 
other was called to travel through 
forest and prairie, enduring the toils 
and hardshii)s of anew country, look- 
ing up and feeding the scattered 
sheep in the wilderness. Both en- 
gaged heartily in the work allotted 
them by the Lord of the Vineyard. 
Beecher is still battling for the truth 



and the rights of humanity; Coe is 
resting from his labors above. But 
who can say whose reward shall be 
the greater, wlien "they who turn 
many to righteousness shall shine as 
the stars forever and ever ! " 

There was a primitive simplicity in 
the religious meetings of those early 
times. What hallowed memories 
cluster round them ! In the absence 
of a stated ministry, different per- 
suasions met together in school- 
houses or private dwellings. Some 
one would open services by reading 
the Scriptures, singing and prayer — 
perhaps a few words of exhortation ; 
then saying, "Where the Spirit of the 
Lord is there is liberty," would take 
his seat. All who felt disposed would 
then take part without being called 
on — frequently both male and female. 
Sometimes the tide of feeling would 
rise and swell over its banks. The 
visit of a minister, on either a week 
day or Sabbath, was a treat. Barns, 
cabins and the groves served instead 
of churches. The rudest bench suf- 
ficed for a communion altar ; a chair 
or a log was an acceptable pulpit; 
the whole assembly formed the choir, 
and God was praised vith a loud 
voice on high. Conversions were 
not unfrequent. Often at early morn 
and dewy eve, while treading the 
forest with rifle on my shoulder, have 
I heard in the grove the voice of 
prayer. By these meetings was the 
spirit of religion kept alive among 
the people ; the Rose of Sharon was 
planted in the wilderness. Revivals 
often occurred, and the revivals of 
those days set the woods on fire — 
overran whole townsliips; and 
churches were born in a day. 

Those were halcyon days, when 
simplicity and equality characterized 
whole communities. They afi'orded 
compensation for the deprivations 
and hardships of a new country, and 
through the blessing of Heaven many 
a golden sheaf was ripened for the 
Garner above. The sacred entlmsi- 



6' 



J%tne^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



rl9 



asm which marked these occasions, 
and the earnest and often truly elo- 
quent discourses of the early preach- 
( rs, did much to stimulate the reli- 
pous sentiments of the people. 
Sabbath schools were instituted, 
benevolent associations organized, 
houses of worship erected and Min- 
isters of the Gospel raised up. 

It would be interesting to know 
how many young men fi'om the Fire 
Lands, during the last fifty years, 
have devoted themselves to the work 
of the ministry in the different de- 
nominations. Those who ventured 
into the field in early days had hard 
struggling to become, even to a lim- 
ited extent, qualified for the respon- 
sible work. 

Suitable religious books were 
scarce. The first Theological work I 
ever purchased was a Bible Diction- 
ary. It cost three dollars; and I 
earned the cash to pay for it by split- 
ting rails at fifty cents per hundred. 
It was not far from the same time 
that Abraham Lincoln was splitting 
those wonderful rails that qualified 
him for the Presidency. We have 
both attained our object, and I am 
happy to say that if he has reached 
the acme of his ambition, so have I 
mine. 

I see by your records that a Com- 
mittee on Religious Statistics has 
been appointed, and I trust their re- 
port will be deeply interesting ; but 
when you have all, there will yet re- 
main an unwritten history of religion 
on the Fire Lands — unwritten save 
in the books above. The prayers of 
many a mother, the tears of many a 
devoted wife shed before the Throne 
of Grace for the salvation of her be- 
loved husband; the struggles of 
many a young man with his own 
heart before he could give up all and 
follow Him who had called him to 
hibor in His vineyard. 

Of the ministers who helfjed to lay 
*he foundation of the church of the 
Fire Lands, were Alfred Bronson, 



James McMahon, Bigelow Ruark, 
and Adam Foe, and others whom I 
have not time to refer to. Their la- 
bors were blessed of Heaven, and 
much of the religious prosperity 
which has long since marked this 
section of the State, may be traced 
to the religious influence and devo- 
tion of the pioneers. 

Thus have we noted some of the 
influences v/liich have given shape 
and character to the population of 
the Fire Lands — Industry, Intelli- 
gence and Religion. May they nev- 
er be undervalued by us or our chil- 
dren. They constitute the basis of 
all national prosperity ; they are the 
great moral pillars which support our 
free government, and if ever they 
are disregarded, we shall soon see 
the "hand WTiting on the wall." 

The Fathers have and are passing 
away. Those who are now in the 
prime of life, and the freshness of 
years, have the future destinies of 
tiiis great Republic entrusted to their 
hands. 

Who can look down the coming 
centuries without the most thrilling 
emotions. It is related that one of 
the earliest parties of emigrants Irom 
the east to Ohio, having reached the 
summit of the Alleghany Mountains, 
paused on an elevation, where, for a 
vast distance, the eye could range 
over the great valley of the West. 
While gazing over the grand and 
magnificent scenery, the leader of 
the party exclaimed: "Hark! I hear 
the tread of coming generations ! " 
Whether on these coming genera- 
tions the sun of Freedom, which rose 
on Bunker Hill and Yorktown, shall 
continue to shine, or shall go down 
in a long night of treason, anarchy 
and blood, ^vill depend on the intel- 
ligence, the \irtue and the patriotism 
of the people. 

At the present, a dark cloud hangs 
over our country. In the grand up- 
rising, wliich has given half a million 
of heroic men to the battle-fields of 






m. 






20 



THE FIRR LANDS PIONEER. 



JuneSS63, 



Freedom, the Fire Lands has nobly 
done its part. like the honored 
matrons of Sparta, yon, ladies, have 
giYen yonr husbands and sons to go 
out in this terrible struggle for our 
National existence against the most 
gigantic treason the world ever saw. 
May Heaven shield their heads in the 
day of battle and restore them in 
safety to your arms ! 

Malignant and mighty are the 
forces at work to pull down the fair 
fabric of our Government. But, 
Heaven be praised! mightier are the 
forces engaged to hold it up. 

What are the two mightiest moral 
forces in the civilized world ? Are 
they not the love of God and the love 
of country ? — ^patriotism and piety ? 
In mechanics a given power is esti- 
mated by the resistence it will over- 
come. If this principle be applica- 
ble in moral forces, what so power- 
ful as these? The love of God — how 
oft has it girded the soul for conflict 
and for death ! It has defied kings ; 
sung praises in dungeons; shouted 
in the flames. Tell me, ye heroes of 
the past, is there aught which can 
conquer the principal — the love of 
Christ? Speak, Paul, from the dun- 
geons of Rome ; speak, Luther, from 
the Diet of Worms ; speak, Bunyan, 
from Bedford Jail; speak, ye Pilgrims 
from Plymouth Rock. Only one re- 
sponse comes back — ^*'The love of 
Christ constraineth us." 

And mighty, too, is the love of 
country. It gave to Rome a Regu- 
lus; to Sparta a Leonidas; to Switz- 
erland its Tell, and to the world our 
Washington! Never, since history 
began, have these great forces been 
so combined as in this sanguinary 
struggle. Not only have thousands 
of christian men left their heajths 
and their altars, followed by the fer- 
vent prayers of their christian friends 
— but even ^Ministers of the Gospel, 
of superior abilities, have left popu- 
lar pulpits and crowded assemblies, 
to lead our armies in the deadly field. 
Our camps are made vocal with sing- 



ing, and the number of bayonets is 
equalled by the number of Bibles. 
These are the moral forces by which 
we can stand against the fury of the 
world — Patriotism and Piety. Be- 
neath the Cross and our country's 
Flag our heroes rally — "the Cross 
highest and the Stars and Stripes only 
just below"; and while Heaven has 
no attribute which can take sides 
with our enemies, these two great 
principles are " the mighty power of 
God." ^ yi . 

When the waters of the flood were 
subsiding, God said to Noah : " I do 
set my bow in the cloud." It was a 
token that the waters should no 
more deluge the earth. And now, 
while the desolating tide of rebellion 
is subsiding. Patriotism and Religion 
bend their broad arches to span the 
moral heavens — a double bow of 
promise that treason and rebellion 
shall no more roll their crimson tide 
on our land. We cherish an abiding 
faith that Heaven has in store ages 
of coming greatness and usefulness 
for this nation ; and that these prin- 
ciples will be cherished by our chil- 
dren's children. Let the young men 
take their stand nobly by the altars 
of Divine Truth and the Constitution 
of their country, from which neither 
sophistry nor ridicule shall drive 
them. Let them give to their coun- 
try "clear heads and strong hands 
and souls on fire with celestial love.'' 
Then shall our 

" Coiumbia to glory arise ; 
"The Queen of the world and the child of the skies." 

Then shall the dews of Herman set- 
tle down on our Zion ; Justice, Truth 
and Liberty, throned and sceptred, 
shall guard with peerless hands the 
glorious inheritance bequeathed to 
us by our fathers. The visions of 
faith shall bo realized, and the world, 
so long baptized in tears and bloou, 
shall grow bright and l)eautiful, 
clothed in the verdure of a new 
Eden ; and then may this lovely spot, 
called by our fathers the FireLand:=!, 
be enjoyed bv their descendents as 
the"LandofBeida." 



Jnnt, 1863. 



THE FIRE LAKBS PIONEER. 



21 



^DDIIESS 



OF HON. JOSEPH M. ROOT, TO THE FIRE LANDS HISTORICAL SOCIETY, AT 

THE QUARTERLY MEETING HELD AT VVAKEMAN, HURON 

COUNTY, IN SEPTEMBER, 1862. 



FIRST INDIAN AND WHITE SETTLERS IN 
AND AROUND SANDUSKY, 0. 

As the scenes of my discourse (so 
to speak) all lie in and about San- 
dusky, I may be pardoned for devo- 
ting a few minutes to the considera- 
tion of the origin and signification of 
that name. 

Thirty-two years ago I became ac- 
quainted with William Walker, a 
Wyandot of mixed blood, of much 
native intelligence and some cul- 
ture. From him I learned that San- 
dusky — or Sah-un-dus-kee, as he pro- 
nounced it — was a Wyandot word, 
which, like most Indian proper 
names, was compounded of many 
simple words. Its simplest meaning, 
he said, was " clear water " — literally 
water not concealing the ground; but 
that it had a manifold application, and 
by slight changes in pronunciation 
and gesticulation, it was made to in- 
dicate many difierent conditions of 
clear water. As for instance— 5 ^:^7Z, 
which was applied to the Bay, ana 
running^ which described the River. 
Leaping meant Falls, and Upper 
Leaping and Lower lieaping of course 
designated Upper Falls and Lower 
Falls, or Upper Sandusky and Lower 
Sandusky; and last, and least, was 
Little Sandusky, which was the name 
of the place where two confluent 



brooks first make the Sandusky Riv- 
er. Here we have no less than five 
distinct Indian names, each import- 
ing a different thing, and yet all ex- 
pressed by a single word. 

Mr. Walker gave me another and 
rather amusing instance of one word 
being made to serve for more than 
one diiferent (not to say contrary) 
names. We were traveling together 
from his house at Upper Sandusky 
towards Tiffin. On our way we had 
to cross two streams, affluents of 
Sandusky River, which he called Big 
Tyamochtee, and Little Tyamochtee. 
When we had reached the lower of 
these streams, and he had announced 
its name, I asked: "How is this. 
Walker ? You call tlie smaller stream 
Big and the larger Little Tyamoch- 
tee?" He smiled (at my simplicity, 
I suppose,) and answered thus: "If 
you knew the meaning of Tyamoch- 
tee and the course of these two 
streams, you would'nt ask such a 
question. Tyamochtee signifies 'go- 
mg about? Now, as the smaller 
stream goes , farthest about, it is 
called Ty-a-moch-tee," (pronouncing 
the word long and maldng a wide 
sweep with Iiis hand,) " that is, going 
a big Avay about. The larger stream 
does not make so wide a circuit, and 
therefore it is called Tyamochtee,-' 
(pronouncing the word short and 



THE FIKE LANDS PIONEER. 



June^ 1863. 



making a small sweep with his hand) 
" that is, going a little way about." 

The appropriateness of the signifi- 
cant name, Sandusky, to tlie waters 
that bear it, will be admitted by all 
who have compared them with the 
waters of the neighboring rivers. 

According to Wyandot traditions, 
that nation was an off-shoot from a 
once mighty people of the North. 
In a time of great famine, and one 
long life, or a little less than a cen- 
turj^ beiore the wliites first visited 
Sandusky, the Wyandots crossed the 
lake by way of the islands in pursuit 
of subsistence. They found the San- 
dusky valley a land of plenty, and 
immediately laid claim to the whole 
of it ; and, as they were eminently a 
warlike people, there were none to 
dispute their claim. They estab- 
lished their Big Fire, or chief town, 
at Upper Sandusky, but afterwards 
built Little Fires, or smaller towns, 
in various parts of their territory. 
Their power, the abundance of their 
game and fish, and the productive- 
ness of their corn-fields made their 
countiy the refuge for the weak and 
famishing tribes for a great distance 
about, and to all such they gave pro- 
tection and subsistence, upon the 
easy conditions of acknowledging 
the Wyandot sovereignty and de- 
meaning themselves as friends. In 
.this way tho\^ ere long, became the 
most powerful nation on the southern 
shores of Lake Erie ; and such they 
were when first visited by white tra- 
ders. The French were the first 
white people to trade at Sandusky, 
and that they did in 1708. Twenty 
years later they built there what was 
called a fort, thougli this was proba- 
bly nothing more than a trading 
house wdth a stockade about it. Not 
a vestige ot it can be found, nor is its 
site known. It was probably so 
placed as to be easy of access by wa- 
ter, and well guarded against a sur- 
prise, and may have been on the 
main land or the Peninsula. The 



French enjoyed a monopoly of the 
trade at Sandnsky until 1744, by 
which time they had formed a small 
settlement there. In that year a 
party of Wyandots visited the Eng- 
lish traders on the Upper Ohio, who 
gave them better bargains than they 
had ever been able to get of the 
French. The English, anxious to re- 
tain their new customers and to sup- 
plant their French competitors, found 
means to engage the Wyandots in an 
alliance with themselves, and in a 
war with the French. Soon after the 
Wyandot party returned from the 
Oliio, they, without giving their 
French neighbors any notice of then- 
hostile designs, fell upon them, cap- 
tured their fort, robbed them and 
killed five of their number. The rest 
escaped to Detroit, where their 
friends were in force. How many 
got ofi" with their lives is not known. 
Thus the first French settlement at 
Sandusky was broken up. In 1748 
the Wyandots destroyed the fort. In 
1749 a'^peace was concluded between 
the French and the Wyandots, and 
again French traders were seen at 
Sandusky. 

About the same time. Father Kich- 
ardie, a French Jesuit, established a 
mission at a Wyandot town called 
Sunyendeand, which stood on the 
bank of a creek emptying into the 
Bay. Smith, who was captured by 
the Indians in 1755 and taken to Su- 
nyendeand the next year, says it stood 
on the bank of a creek running into 
the little lake below the mouth of 
the Sandusky and on the south side 
of a large plain, very rich, on which 
some trees and much grass and net- 
tles grew, and where the Indians 
planted corn. The description can 
only apply to Pipe Creek and the 
Big Fields lying south-east of and 
about a mile and a halt from the 
present town of Sandusky. 

For a few years Father Kichardie 
was able to preserve peace in his 
neighborhood, not only between 



Junti 1863. 



THE riRE LANDS PIONEER. 



23 



white men and red men, but also be- 
tween white men of different nation- 
alities, namely — French and English. 
By 1755 the English traders had be- 
come so numerous at Sandusky, and 
were so well fortified, that it was 
not deemed safe by the Indians 
to attack them openly. Still their 
position was most perilous. 

The war between France and Great 
Britain-7-waged for domiidon in 
North America, and which was called 
by our ancestors " the French War " 
— had been begun, and was prose- 
cuted by each party with intense an- 
imosity. All the Indians North and 
West of the Five Nations had ar- 
rayed themselves on the side of 
France, and the few English at San- 
' dusky were three hundred miles 
away from their nearest friends. In 
this extremity the Wyandots opened 
negotiations with them, and assuring 
them that the V/yandots were still, 
in fact, their friends, promised the 
English if they would, to save ap- 
pearances, surrender tnemselves as 
prisoners to the Wyandots, they 
should be protected and restored to 
their friends in Pennsylvania. The 
English trusted the Wyandots and 
surrendered to them ; but instead of 
being protected, they were massa- 
cred. And now the Wyandots had 
balanced their favors between the 
English and the French. In 1744 
they had killed the French traders 
at Sandusky to please the English, 
and in 1755 they had killed the Eng- 
lish traders at the same place to 
please the French. 

From 1755 to 1765 the French were 
the only white people at Sandusky. 
In June, 1756, Smith saw many 
French traders at Sunyendeand, but 
says nothing of a mission, a fort, or of 
any white settlers there or in the 
neighborhood. It is probable that 
Richardie abandoned his mission at 
Sunyendeand and retired to Canada 
on the breaking out of the French war. 
Tliat war was brought to an end in 



1761. British arms had triumphed, 
completely, and French dominion in 
North America had ceased ; yet the 
Indian allies of the French scarcely 
intermitted hostilities against the 
English Colonists until Pontiac's de- 
feat in 1765. 

Throughout the Eevolutionary War 
— and for nearly twelve years after 
its close — the Western Indians kept 
lip predatory wars upon the frontier 
settlements of New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Virginia and Kentucky. In 
1795 the vigorous campaign of ^¥ayne 
— terminating in his crushing victory 
at Fallen Timbers, on the Maumee 
River — finally broke the Indian pow- 
er in all the old North-west Territory. 

It does not appear that the French 
made any very earnest attempt at 
settling in the Sandusky country for 
the next forty years after their first 
settlement there was broken up in 
1744 ; but about the year 1784, and 
soon after the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War, between twenty and 
thirty families from the French set- 
tlements on the Detroit River and 
Lake St. Clair emigrated to the Pe- 
ninsula. Tliey were chiefly induced 
to take this step at that time by the 
promised protection of Ogontz, in 
whose honor and influence theyjust- 
ly placed great confidence. 

As Ogontz acted an important part 
in the early history of the Fire Lands, 
all that can be collected of his char- 
acter and career should seem to be 
worthy the attention of this Society. 
All that I know of Ogontz I learned 
from Mr. Benajah Wolcott, late of 
Danbury, Ottawa County; and, as he 
was one of the very earliest settlers 
of the Fire Lands, I will, before pro- 
ceeding with Ogontz's biography, say 
something of his biographer, 

Mr. Wolcott was originally of Dan- 
bury, Connecticut, but, for many 
years before emigrating to this conn- 
try, he had resided in the city of New 
York. During, his residence in New 
York he had kept up an acquaintance 



24 



Tm FIBB LANDS PIONEER. 



Jun€y 186a 



with liis old neisrhbor and friend, Mr. 
Epaphroditiis W. Bull, of Danbury. 
Li 180S, Mr. Bull had had allotted to 
him a large quantity of land in our 
Danbury— that is to say, on the Pe- 
ninsula and Islands. The Island in 
the Bay fell to him, and hence it Avas 
and still should be called Bull's Isl- 
and; though perhaps whilst it shaU 
continue to be occupied as it now is 
chiefly by rebels, some other name 
may be good enough for it. 

Early in 1809, both Wolcott and 
Bull had severe attacks of the "West- 
ern Fev^er," and it was agreed be- 
tween them that as soon as the roads 
would permit, Wolcott, with his fam- 
ily, should set out for the Peninsula, 
as Bull's pioneer settler, and that 
Bull, with his family, should follow 
the next year. This agreement was 
fulfilled by both parties. They got 
on very well in their new home, build- 
ing houses, clearing and making oth- 
er improvements, until ^1812, when 
the war between the United States 
and Great Britain broke out, and 
then the Peninsula became too hot 
for them, and they, as well as the 
other Yankee settlers, fled from it. 
The Wolcotts and Bulls went to New- 
berg, Cuyahoga County, where Mr. 
Bull soon after died of a disease pro- 
duced by the exposure which he un- 
derwent in their flight from the Pe- 
ninsula. Not long afterwards Mrs. 
Bull and her children went back to 
Connecticut. 

Mr. Wolcott remained with his fami- 
ly at Newberg until Harrison had driv- 
en the British and hostile Indians into 
Canada, and then he returned to the 
Peninsula and went to work on his 
farm, as hopeful as ever. When the 
light-house on the Peninsula was 
built Mr. Wolcott was appointed 
keeper of it — a place which he held, 
faithfully performing its duties, as 
long as he lived. He was an honest, 
industrious and cheerful man ; tried 
to be happy himself and to make 
others happy. He sometimes played 



on the violin, and, as I thought, well. 
With this instrument he used to 
while away many an hour of the long 
night watches whicli he had to keep 
at the light house. When the young 
men of the town wished to give the 
young ladies (and themselves) an 
extra treat, they would get up a sur- 
prise party for the "Governor and 
his lady," as Mr. and Mrs. AVolcott 
were usually called. This was the 
process : Get Col. Hunter's boat — 
which would carry thirty passengers 
very comfortably — then get two com- 
petent persons to manage it; next, 
put on board the boat a good store of 
tea, coflee, sugar, &c., then take the 
girls on board and steer for the light- 
house, feeling sure that about four 
or live o'clock in the evening they 
should find the " Governor and lady" 
at home, and ready to welcome the 
party. The girls would immediately 
set about getting supper. Some- 
times a super servicable young gent 
would ofl"er to help them, but he 
could never get any employment 
above bringing in chips. When the 
supper was over, and the dishes were 
washed, wiped and put away, and the 
big room cleared, the "Governor" 
would tune his fiddle with great 
nicety and then the music and danc- 
ing would begin and be kept up, fast 
and furious, until the girls had twen- 
ty times exclaimed, " A\^hat vnll ma 
say ? I shall never get leave to go 
any where again," and the young fel- 
lows had as often i^rotested, " That 
the wind was dead ahead for going 
home, and it would be downriglit 
nonsense to start yet." The '' Gov- 
ernor and lady" would good-natured- 
ly declare, that they led such a lone- 
ly life that when they did have com- 
pany they wished them to stay just 
as long as they pleased. There were 
no bills to be paid at tlie "Governors" 
— but, as there was always more tea, 
coffee and sugar carried over than 
could be used, and as none was ever 
brought away, 1 don't think the 



Jfune^ I860. 



THE FIRE LAl^S PIONEEtl. 



^ «• Governor and lady " sustained any 
pecuniary loss by their surprise par- 
ties. 

y\r, Wolcott died at a good old age 
about the year 1833. He left three 
daughters and two sons. Two of his 
daughters, Mrs. Ramsdell and IMrs. 
Fettibone. are still living. Mrs. Pet- 
tibone (who is not over seventy) has 
a daughter, Mrs. Kelly, wife of our 
Senator, who has a daughter, Mrs. 
Wright, who has a daughter, Miss^ 
Wright, about nine years of age. If 
all these ladies live but a few years 
longer, Mrs. Pettibone may be able 
to say, " Rise up, daughter, and *go 
to thy daughter, for thy daughter's 
daughter has a aaughter." 

Mr. Wolcott's eldest son survived 
him but a little while. His youngest 
son, Henry, by a second marriage — 
who was born about the time his fa- 
tlier was three score — resides at the 
old homestead on the Peninsula. 

I first became acquainted with Mr. 
Wolcott in 1830. I then kept office 
with Col. Hunter, who was Collector 
of that Revenue District, and was of 
course the official superior of the 
keeper of the light-house. As often 
as the " Governor " came to town he 
called at our office, and we were al- 
ways glad to see him. I took a New 
York paper, which he was fond of 
reading, and I used to lend him each 
number after I had read it. If he did 
not know more of his former neigh- 
bors, the Indians, than any other of 
the old settlers, he was more willing 
to tell, and could teU better what he 
did know of them than any other 
person that I chanced to converse 
with on that subject. Among other 
Indian tales, he told me 

THE STORY OF OGONTZ. 

It was about the middle of an af- 
ternoon in June, 1809, that Mr. Wol- 
cott and his family, on their weary 
journey from New York to Sandusky 
Bay, crossed the Huron River at its 
mouth. They had been told that 



they would find there a French tra- 
der, named Flemont, a good-natured 
man, who would, for a reasonable 
compensation, give them any assist- 
ance or comfort within his power. 
When they had crossed the river- 
they saw alog cabin hard by, which 
they rightly took to be Flemont's 
store and dwelling house, and they 
went immediately to it. When they 
had come to the cabin they saw at a 
little distance from it several Indian 
women, who kept up a continual 
moan, or, rather, howl, over a blan- 
ket which seemed to cover some- 
thing like a human form. Still far- 
ther off, but within plain sight, was 
a pretty large, but very quiet and 
orderly, assemblage of Indians. Fle- 
mont, whose appearance clearly in- 
dicated his nationality and occupa- 
tion, was sitting in tis door. Mr. 
Wolcott approached and saluted him, 
and finding that he could converse 
intelligibly in English, asked of him 
an explanation of w^hat seemed to 
him strange appearances, which Fle- 
mont proceeded to give as follows: 

'These Indians live at the Bay, just 
opposite the place where you are 
going; for I take you to be the man 
who is to go on to Mr. Bull's land on 
the Peninsula. (Wolcott nodded as- 
sent.) Well, they were from their 
toAvn at the Bay, down here yester- 
day, and bought rum to hold d^pow 
vjoio. They got their rum and Aveiit 
about their pow wow in their usual 
way. A small party was selected to 
keep sober, and the others, who were 
to get drunk, gave up their knives, 
tomahawks and other weapons to 
them to prevent mischief; but they 
had two chiefs who had long hated 
each other, and each of them kept a 
knife concealed. One was a bad In- 
dian, and meant, when all were 
drunk, to fall upon the other and kill 
him. The other is a good Indian and 
a wise one. He discovered the oth- 
er's evil design and intended to be 
prepared for him. When the others 



THJB FIIUS LAKD^ PlOl^EER. 



Jmfie, 1863 



drank rum he did not drink. He on- 
ly pretended to drink, but Ivept very 
sober. When the Indians had got 
very drunk he withdrew from them 
and came iiere to my cabin. It was 
then dark, but I had a fire burning at 
the door, wliich gave light. By and 
\sY we saw the bad chief coming to- 
wards us, looking cautiously on all 
sides of him, for though he was wick- 
ed drunk he was not foolish drunk. 
When he discovered the good chief 
standing with his back against the 
cabin, thinking him unarmed, he 
sprang at him like a Avdldcat, mth his 
knife drawn to stab him ; but the 
good chief vms not sleeping. With 
a stick, wdiich he held in one hand, he 
parried his enemy's blow, and with his 
other hand very dexterously, and 
quick as lightning, he slid the point 
of his own knife in between the neck 
and collar bone of the bad chief and 
down to liis heart. The bad chief 
fell down dead in his tracks. You 
may see his blood there on the grass. 
His body Kes under the blanket yon- 
der which the squaws are sitting 
about. The Indians didn't mind tliis 
at the time. They were too drunk 
to mind any thin g b u t r u m ; bu t wh en 
that was all gone they lay down and 
went to sleep. When they aAvoke 
to-day they were most all sober, and 
then they called a council, which 
they are holding yonder now. 

/'I hope they will pass over the 
killing of that bad Indian, but he 
was a chief and has left many rela- 
tives to demand vengeance. The 
good chief has many friends and the 
Indians can't well spare him; but 
still they may order liim to die." 

"But," asked Wolcott, "didn't the 
good chief kill the bad one in self- 
defence ?" 

"To be sure he did," answered 
Flemont, " but Indians know nothing 
and care nothing about that. Their 
law is — hlood for bloody though they 
do sometimes depart from the gen- 



eral rule. We shall soon know their 
decision in this case." 

" Is the good chief at the council ?" 
asked Wolcott. 

"No, indeed; that would be no 
place for him. He sits yonder await- 
ing the result." 

Wolcott looked in the direction in- 
dicated and saw an Indian sitting 
alone on a log, which lay on the very 
verge of the Lake shore, with his 
back towards the land and his face 
to the water, 

"Does heknowliis danger?" again 
asked Wolcott. 

^'^Yes; as well as any one does." 
"Why doesn't he lleefrom it, then?" 
"Where should he go to escape In- 
dian vengeance? If he remain, as 
he will,he may escape; but if lie should 
flee away, as he will not, he would 
certainly be condemned, and then 
he would be hunted and killed like 
a beast. No ! Ogontz is a great chief 
and will behave like one to the last. 
" There," said Flemont, " come the 
messengers from the council; may 
be they bring death — may be they 
bring life to Ogontz. We shall see 
presently. If it be death they bring, 
they ^^^ll go right up to Ogontz li'om 
behind and tomahawk him where he 
sits ; but if it be life^ they will go 
around and approach nim in front." 
For a foAV moments both watched 
the messengers breathlessly; but 
soon Flemont said, not loudly, but 
earnestly,: "He lives!" and then 
Wolcott discovered that the messen- 
gers had departed from the straight 
course to Ogontz and were goi g 
around so as to meet him fiice to face. 
When they had come within a few 
steps of him, they paused, made a 
respectful obeisance and delivered 
their message to him. He rose from 
his seat, calmly, and all went slowly 
towards the Indian assembly, in a 
brief time afterwards, the Indians 
were all on their way home, having 
with them, on a litter, the body of the 
slain chief 






June.lS^' 



THE FtRi tkmh pioneiIrI 



27 



That night Wolcott remained at the 
mouth of the Huron, but early the 
next morning he pursued his journey 
itiwards the Bay. The liidiaiis had 
seen him at the mouth of the Huron 
the preceding day, and had heard of 
his coming before. They treated 
him and his, hospitably, and assisted 
him to transport his family and ef- 
fects across the Bay to his new home 
on the Peninsula. Ogontz acted the 
host and chief with great courtesy 
and dignity. 

The account which Flemont had 
giTen of Ogontz to Wolcotthad made 
a deep impression on his mind, and 
his subsequent acquaintance with 
the chief, as well as the accounts 
which his other French neighbors 
gave of him, tended to deepen the 
first impression. He felt a strong, al- 
most irrepressible desire to hear from 
Ogontz himself a full account of his 
career; but it was along time before 
he could summon up sufficient reso- 
lution to ask the proud chief to tell 
him all about himself 

By a treaty made between the 
agents of the Fire Lands Company 
and the two tribes of Ottawas living 
on and near the site of the present 
town of Sandusky, in 1805, the Indi- 
ans engaged to quit the Fire Lands 
the next year, but when the Compa- 
ny's Surveyors an*ived in 1807, the 
Indians were still there, and making 
themselves very much at home. The 
Company's Agents remonstrated 
with them for this breach of a treaty 
stipulation, but the Indians, through 
Ogontz, excused themselves by say- 
ing, that they meant no harm, and 
would'nt hinder the Surveyors ; that 
whenever settlers should want to 
use any of the lands they would 
quietly'leave them ; but that, in the 
meantime, the Company ought not 
to grudge the Indians the privileges 
of hunting and fishing upon them, 
or of raising corn and living upon 
such of them as would be otherwise 
unoccupied, "It is not so much your 



hunting and fishing here that we ob- 
ject to," said the agents, " and as for 
your raising com, you might do that 
just as well up the river, at LoAver 
Sandusky." "Ugh!" retorted Ogontz, 
" Big corn groAv at Lower Sandusky, 
but no papoose grow there !" And 
then to put an end to these com- 
plaints, which he probablj^ regarded 
as frivolous, if not vexatious, he ad- 
ded: "Big war by and by; better 
you make Ottawas your friends." 

Ogontz and his people continued 
at the Bay^ until the Fall of 1811, 
when the wise old chief, foreseeing 
the coming war, led them back to 
Canada, where the greater part of 
the Ottawa nation dwelt and where 
they had plenty of lands of their own. 

Wolcott and Ogontz thus lived 
neighbors about two years and a half. 
Ogontz's cabin was near the centre 
of the present town. A few old ap- 
ple-trees — some of them still living 
— mark the spot. Most of the other 
Indians dwelt in tents. Sometimes 
they were pitched near Ogontz's 
cabin, and sometimes elsewhere — 
often on the site of Old Sunyendeand, 
near which were their corn fields. 

Once when Wolcott was crossing 
the Bay in a canoe, with an old Indi- 
an, who could speak a little English, 
their conversation turned upon a boy 
about 14 years of age, who lived with 
Ogontz, and who, AV'olcott liad sup- 
posed, was Ogontz's son. He was 
called by the white people, " Jim," 
and "Jim Ogontz." The Indian said 
— " Jim not Ogontz's boy ; Ogontz 
have no boy." "Whose boy is he 
then, and w^hy does he live witli 
Ogontz?" asked Wolcott. "Jim is 



-'s (and here he pronounced tlie 
name of the chief whom Ogontz had 
killed at the mouth of the Huron, 
and which I have forgotten,) boy. 
When Ogontz kill him he take Jim," 
and then after a pause he added : — 
"Jim kill Ogontz some time. Ogontz 
know Jim kill him." "Does Jim say 
he will, or does Ogontz sav so ?" in- 



^. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1S6S. 



quired Wolcott. " No, no : Jim say 
nothinc: — Ogontz say notning; but 
Jim kill Ogontz, and Ogontz know 
it. 0,;K:ontz kill Jim's father; Jim 
see his father's blood ; Jim Indian — 
Ogontz Indian." 

At length, after rejjeated mutual 
acts of kindness and good neighbor- 
hood between Wolcott and Ogontz, 
Wolcott's curiosity overcome his po- 
liteness and he plumply asked the 
chief to tell him his x^ersonal history 
— and the Indian, after a mementos 
hesitation, answered : 

"I wiU; but don't tell the other 
Yankees. If you do, they will want 
to have it all over again." 
And then he went on to say : 
"I don't know Avhere Iw^as born — 
but far away in the North-west ; nor 
when, though I think I am fifty-five 
j^ears old — may be more. I have an 
mdistinct recollection of a mother 
and a father, and of living in a lodge 
with many other children, older and 
younger than I, and in a village 
where there were many other lodges, 
and of a pestilence in which most all 
the ijeople about me died — of seeing 
the sick, the dying and the dead ; 
and finally, of being earned away by 
an old woman to awdiite man's house; 
but all this is so mixed with what I 
have heard from others thati cannot 
say I know^ it. 

" What I do know of my early life 
is, that when I was a lad of ten years, 
— I think, but maybe I was younger 
— I was taken by a Frenchman — a 
missionary, I think, — a great way by 
land and water to a Catholic school, 
near Quebec, where I was kept and 
educated until I became a man. I 
was intended by my teachers, who 
were missionaries, for a missionary 
to the Indians, and for a long time I 
expected always to be one. Just 
before your Revolutionary war broke 
out I went with a missionary to De- 
troit, and was soon after sent to an 
Ottawa town, not far off, in Canada 
to preach Christianity and teach 



French to the Indians, and there I 
remained until the war was over. 
During that time I contracted a 
strong dislike of the British Provin- 
cial Government, and resolved not 
to live subject to it. If I had known 
where in the United States Territory 
to find even a remnant of my own 
proper people I should certainly have 
gone to them, but the missionaries 
with whom I had lived had always 
said that they had ransomed me of 
an Ottawa woman at Mackinaw, who 
said she had picked me up at some 
Indian town where the small pox or 
some other pestilence had swept 
away all the rest of the people. 

"Two tribes of the Ottawas desired 
to go to Sandusky, where, in former 
years, they had often sojourned, and 
many French people of the neigh- 
borhood, who liked the British "no 
better than I did, but who had al- 
w^ays been on good terms with the 
Ottawas, (some of them were just as 
much Ottawas as French,) wished to 
go there too. So it was stipulated 
that all those should go to Sandusky 
and that I should go with them as 
their Father or Priest ; and we all 
came accordingly. 

"On arri\dng here, I directed that 
all the French should find habita- 
tions on the Peninsula, and that tlie 
Indians should live, and have their 
corn fields and keep their horses on 
the other side of the Bay, The Wy- 
andots, Senecas, and other Indian'^s, 
sent war parties against the Yankee 
settlements in the east and South, 
but the Ottawas did'nt join them. 
When Wayne or "Big Wind," as 
the Indians called him, was marching 
towards Maumee, the Ottawas in 
Canada, instigated by the Britisli, 
went to join the other Indians in 
battle against Jiim ; but I kept the 
most of these two tribes quiet. 

"Some of the French here got 
alarmed and went back to Canada, 
against my advice. All the Indians 
and French who follov>^ed my advice 



^'iM 



June, 1863, 



THE FERE LANDS PIONEER 



and kept quiet at home, escaped all 
iiarm and trouble. On theMaumee, 
Wayne met all the Indians and con- 
.|ucTcd tJiem vritb. a great slau.ii^hter. 
If tlie Indians had conquered Wayne 
we here should have been in trouble, 
for the Wyandots andSenecas would 
not have forgiven us for keejHng out 
of the war; but as it was they were 
very peaceable. The Big Wind had 
♦riven them plenty of war. - - 

"In my heart I had never been a 
good Catholic, though I had tried to 
, be a good Christian. I found it, how- 
ever, much easier to make Catholics 
than Christians of other Indians. 
What I mean is, that they were much 
more willing to observe the forms 
than to obey tlie laws of Christianity, 
and that they grew no better under 
my preaching. I became discour- 
aged, and feared that my preaching 
was an imposition and I an impostor. 
So about fifteen years ago I gave up 
the priest's office, was adopted into 
one of the Indian tribes and became 
its chief. . The Indian I killed at the 
mouth of the Huron was chief of the 
other; He was a bad man. The In- 
dians had no respect for him, and he 
had no influence over them. He had 
been ruled by me in all business so 
long as I was priest, but when I be- 
came chief he hated me. I saAv mis- 
chief in his eyes and was on my 
^uard. You know how I came to 
kill him. 

"I have done these people (Indi- 
ans and French) all the good I could 
and have kept them at peace with 
each other, and so far as 1 could with 
all the world; but trouble will come 
on us all very soon. I had hoped to 
*;^pend all my days near this Bay. 
lour people will take our present 
^'Orn fields for themselves, but we 
<^"onld find others iiear enough, if we 
<'ould be at x)eace. A war between 
.vour people and tlie British is close 
^t hand, and when that comes we 
nuist fly from here— all of us. Indi- 
ans are great fools for taking part in 



the wars of white people, but they 
will do so. Ottawas will join the 
British and Wyandots will join your 
people. I will not fight in such a 
war. I wish your side success ; but 
I must go with my people. Still, 
whilst we are neighbors let us all be 
good friends." 

Of Ogontz I have but a word more 
to say. When peace between the 
-United States and Great Britain had 
been restored, he and his tribe went 
from Canada to Maumee Kiver. In 
. 1817 Jim killed him at a pow wow — 
thus verifying the old Indian's confi- 
dent prediction made to Mr. Wolcott 
eight years before. 

As had been predicted by Ogontz, 
when the war of 1812 broke out the 
French settlers on the Peninsula fled 
to Canada, not because they sympa- 
thized with the British Government^ 
but because they knew they couM 
not safely remain. It is probable 
that they acted upon Ogontz's advice, 
and he had sufficient sagacity to know 
that their intimate and friendly rela- 
tions with the Ottawas would make 
the Wyandots (who, as Ogontz had 
predicted, took sides with the United 
States,) regard them as enemies, 
whilst the Yankees would at least be 
very suspicious. Indeed, it was 
clearly impossible for them to remain 
on the Peninsula and be neutral, lor 
the Ottawas, whilst on their hostile 
expeditions to the country, would 
certainly visit them as friends. 

It is not now believed that any of 
these people took part in the war, , 
though they were under such a sus- 
picion for some years after its close. 
When the war was over the most of 
them returned to the Peninsula. 
They had had no title to \\\ii lands 
which they had occupied, and their 
improvements were not valuable. A 
heap of stones and ashes— some- 
times a few i'ruit trees — and a few 
acres once tilled, but now overgrown 
with brushwood, were all that re- 
mained of their once pleasant and 



m 



TH© JUJU iiANTDS RtOlTEEIt. 



June, 1863. 



happy homes. Some of the French 
who thus returned purchased their 
old places of those who held the le- 
gal titles to Uiem ; otheis purchased 
other lands upon the Peninsula, but 
the greater portion squatted on any 
unoccui>ied places wliich afforded 
good opportunities for fishing, fowl- 



ing and trapping. At length the 
most of them gathered themselves 
together and formed a settlement at 
the mouth of Tout Sants (All Saints) 
Creek, and there, and not in Danbu- 
rv, we must now look for the Bibauts, 
the y elequettes, &c., <fec. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF KELLEY'S ISLAND. 



BY GEORGE C. HUNTINGTON. 



At the regular quarterly meeting 
of the Fire Lands Historical Society, 
on the 11th day of March, 1862, the 
writer of this sketch was appointed 
a Committee to collect and prepare 
for publication the historical records 
of the Township of Kelley's Island, 
as being part of the Fire Lands — so 
called. 

Before accepting the appointment 
theimdersigned suggested that since 
there were doubts as to Kelley's Isl- 
and being now, or ever having been, 
a part of the Fire Lands, it might be 
advisable to settle this question be- 
fore anything farther was done in the 
premises. It was, however, thought 
pest that since Kelley's Island, from 
its geographical position, should, if 
it did not, belong to the Fire Lands, 
and since it was the general impres- 
sion that it did so belong, it was de- 
sirable that its history should be in- 
cluded in that of the Fire Lands 
proper. Under these conditions the 
trust was accepted. 

In order, however, to put the ques- 
tion forever at rest the writer visited 
Hartford, Ct., in August last, and 
through the courtesy of His Excel- 



lency, Gov. Buckingham, and the 
Hon. Secretary of State, J. Hammond 
Trumbull, Esq., he was shown every 
facility which could be desired in ex- 
amining all the records of the State 
of Connecticut having a bearing on 
the subject, or connected in any way 
with the dealings of the State Vvith 
the Connecticut Land Company — v-^^o 
called — to whom the State sold the 
fee of the Connecticut Western Re- 
serve. 

A very supei-ficial examination 
served to sIioav conclusively, that the 
Islands in the west end of the Lake 
were not included in the Fire Lands 
grant. The deed of grant, as it ap- 
pears on record, makes the southern 
shore of Lake Erie, and not the 
boundary line between the United 
States and Canada, the northern 
boundary of the Fire Lands. Conse- 
quently the Islands still remain a 
part of the original Western Reserve. 

The earliest official mention of 
whatis now known as Kelley's Island, 
which we noticed on the record, was 
that when Township No. 5, range IS 
(now Carlisle — next township south 
of Elyria) was d;'awp, in the division 



June, 1863, 



TfiEm? LAlfPS PIONEEJ^ 



n 



among themselves of the Connecti- 
cut Land Company's purchase, which 
covered the whole of the Keserve, 
nrul which tliey owned as tenants in 
common and which was divided by 
lot among the several members of 
tiie Company. Island No. 6 — or Cun- 
ningham's Island — was attached to 
naid Township No. 5, to make it equal 
t/) the average value of townships. 

It should be borne in mind that in 
a division by townships of such a 
tract of land as the Western Eoserve, 
when drawn by lot by the several 
proprietors, some would necessarily 
get a more valuable township than 
others. In order to equalize this, an 
average value was agreed upon, and 
those wiio drew a township below 
the average value were assigned oth- 
er lands— fractional parts of to wnships 
and other odd tracts — to make the 
value equal to the average. On this 
principle, Township No. 5 being be- 
low the average. Island No. 6, (or 
Cunningham's island,) was attached 
to it to make it equal to the average. 
This equalizing tract, or Cunning- 
ham's Island, seems not to have been 
considered of any particular value, 
and was not regularly surveyed until 
the year 1819, when it was divided 
vro- rata among the owners of said 
Township No. 5, and it is from them 
that the Messrs, Kelley acquired 
their title; so that, as yet, we have 
no complication of title to the land 
we occupy. 

Of the early history of the Island 
we know comparatively nothing. 
That it was inhabited by Indians in 
jarge numbers, and for a long period, 
is abundantly evident from the great 
number of human bones which are 
now found in the ancient burial 
places, which are of such frequent 
occurrence, or which meet our view, 
^ it were, at every turn — and from 
\\k€ great number of tlint an-ow heads 
and other implements which were so 
ahundant when modern history may 
be said to commence. What little 



we do know concerning the aborigir 
nal inhabitants is derived wholly 
from the traces above referred to, 
taken in connection with the records 
they have left us in the rude picto- 
rial inscriptions wliich are still to be 
seen on two sei^arate rocks now in a 
tolerable state of preservation on 
the Island, and a copy of one of 
which, as it appeared in 1S50, is liere- 
with given. The one here repre- 
sented is situated a short distance 
east of the Island House and stands 
just in the edge of the water. The 
other is on the north side of the Isl- 
and and contains but few representa- 
tions. 

Even these records, imperfect and 
unsatisfactory as they necessarily are, 
would have thro\vn no light whatev- 
er upon the history or habits of their 
authors, were it not for the efforts of 
the Bureau of Indian Affairs of tlie 
United States Government in their 
endeavors to rescue from oblivion 
and preserve, before it was too late, 
the few traces which still remain of 
the pictorial history of the aborigi- 
nal inhabitants of this countiy — who 
they were, at what time and under 
what circumstances they existed. 

In the year 1850, Capt. S. Eastman, 
U. S. A., under the direction of the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs, visited the 
Island for the purpose of examining 
whatever might be found in this lo- 
cality which would have a bearing 
on the subject under investigation, 
and it is to Capt. Eastman we are in- 
debted for the drawings, copies of 
which are herewith given, and which 
are copied from a work published by 
Government and entitled the " His- 
tory, Condition and Prospects of the 
Indian Tribes of the United States ; ' 
illustrated by Capt. S. Eastman, U. 
S. Army." 

In the year 1851, copies of 
these drawings were submitted 
by Mr. George Johnson, Sault St. 
Marie, to Shingvvauk, or the Little 
Pine, an Aboriginal Archaeologist^ 



^HB FIRE LAm>S PIONEER. 



June, ISek 



whose knowledge of Indian pictog- 
raphy had been previously made 
available in a similar way. Before 
the drawin,£j:s were returned with an 
explanation the second volume of 
tlie work above referred to, and the 
one containing the plates, went to 
press, but without full explanations. 
The author mentions the fact of the 
drawings having been submitted as 
above stated, and says: "It would be 
premature, therefore, to attempt a 
reading in the present state of the 
question. Of one thing, however, a 
definite opinion may be expressed. 
It is by far the most extensive and 
well sculptured and well preserved 
inscription of the antiquarian peiiod 
ever found in America." Being on 
an island and a little one side of the 
main Line of communication this 
rock remained undiscovered until 
within a few years. 

In 1853 the third volume was pub- 
lished, and in this the plates w^ere 
again produced, with such explana- 
tions as the Indian interpreter could 
give. He said, in substance, that 
they related to tribes and transac- 
tions he knewlittle or no thing about, 
who lived on Lake Erie at the time 
of the execution of the inscriptions. 
The general conclusions to which he 
arrived, however, were to the effect 
that the inscriptions related to the 
wars and history of the Eries after 
the Indians became acquainted with 
the whites. The introduction of the 
symbol for a hat, which appears three 
several times, denotes this. He also 
stated that the Indians were not yet 
acquainted with firearms, as no sym- 
bol for the gun was observed. 

For further details on this subject 
the reader is referred to the work 
from which the plates were copied, 
where much curious and interesting 
matter, connected ^vith the subject, 
may be found. 

If the generally received opinion 
be correct, that the Iroquois first re- 
ceived guns from the Dutch at Al- 



bany, in 1614, and that the Lake In- 
dians did not receive them from the 
French until some years later, the 
date of these inscriptions cannot well 
be placed prior to the year lf)25. 
Mr. Jefferson, in his " Notes on Vir- 
ginia," says the Eries were at that 
time in the country, that they lived 
on the Ohio, and that they were of 
the same original stock as the Five 
Nations. 

The earthwork (see plate) is re- 
ferred to the same origin as the in- 
scriptions, from the fact that various 
Indian relics are found within the 
enclosure — flint arrow heads, stone 
axes, bone fish hooks, pipes, net sink- 
ers, bits of pottery, &c. The one 
here represented is on the premises 
of the writer, and the west line of 
the embankment crosses the road 
just west of the ofiice, which, with 
the dwelling and garden, is within 
the enclosure. Tliere is another work 
similar to this on Mr. Addison Kel- 
ley's place, just east of the Island 
House. 

From the time when the Island, 
was inhabited by Indians until within 
a comparatively recent period, its 
history is a perfect blank to us. Tra- 
dition even does not extend farther 
back than near the close of the last 
century. 

In Morse's Geography, published, 
I think, in 1792, or thereabouts, he 
remarks that the shores of the islands 
in Lake Erie are much infested by 
rattle-snakes, so as to make it dan- 
gerous to land on them, and the sur- 
face of the Lake near the shore is 
covered with the leaves of the pond 
lilly, on which the snakeslie basking 
in the sun. When it is considered 
that during a residence on the Island 
of twenty-five years the writer has 
never seen on the surfiice of the 
Lake near the Island a single leaf of 
the pond lilly, and has never heard 
of one havinij: been seen, the convic- 
tion is forced upon us that but very 
little, if anything, was known respect- 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE lAlH)^ PIONEER. 



33 



ing this locality at that comparative- 
ly late date by so good ageographer 
and historian as Doctor Morse. This 
stiitemmit, however, was, to the wri- 
ter when a school-boy, the first 
knowledge of the existence of Cun- 
ningham's Island, and when coasting 
along its shores in the Summer of 
1831, Doctor Morse's snake story was 
recalled to mind, and had the sug- 
gestion at that time been ven- 
tured upon, that we should ever be- 
come domiciled on an island having 
so bad a reputation, the idea would 
have been scouted as utterly beyond 
the bounds of possibility, under any 
conceivable circumstances. The re- 
sult shows that it is unsafe to pro- 
nounce anything impossible at the 
present day. 

From the earliest traditionary pe- 
riod to the time the Messrs. Kelley 
made their purchase the Island seems 
to have been visited occasionally by 
squatters in considerable numbers, 
who remained a longer or shorter pe- 
riod as their inclinations or their 
predatory habits dictated. 

During the earlier years of steam- 
boat navigation on the Lake, as we 
learn from the personal statements 
of those engaged in the business, the 
boats sometimes anchored near the 
Island and sent their crews ashore 
for wood, which was brought on their 
backs to the shore and then taken in 
small boats to the steamer at anchor. 
Sometimes a few inhabitants were 
found, who, for a little whisky, would 
chop a little wood and have it ready 
on the bank when the boats came 
along. At other times there ap- 
peared to be no persons on the Island. 
At such times the boats' crews had 
to cut their own wood and back it to 
the shore. They always selected the 
choicest red cedar, as it chopped easy, 
split easy, and was light to handle. 
It was in this way that some parts of 
the Island near the lake shore were 
nearly stripped of the best cedar, 



which constituted the principal value 
of the Island when the Messrs. Kel- 
ley made their purchase. This state of 
thin;^s continued much the same until 
the Messrs. Kelley took possession, 
and from that time we are no longer 
dependent on tradition, since we have 
a continuous record to the present 
time. 

Some time during the Summer of 
1833 Mr. Irad Kelley, of Cleveland, 
conceived the idea that it would be a 
very fine thing to own a whole island 
and be " monarch of all he surveyed," 
and the more he thought of it the 
more anxious he became to consum- 
mate so desirable a speculation. His 
first idea was to buy Bull's Island, in 
Sandusky Bay, (now knoAvn as John- 
son's Island, and used as a place of 
confinement for rebel prisoners). As 
a preliminary step Mr. Kelley visited, 
or was about to visit, Sandusky to 
make inquiries into tlie matter, when 
his attention was directed to Cun- 
ningham's Island by some one, I 
think Hon. J. W. Allen, of Clevelc^nd, 
who told him it would^ prove much 
the most desirable speculation; that 
Gen. Simon Perkins, of Warren, was 
agent for the owners, who were very 
desirous to sell, and that it couid un- 
doubtedly be bought at a bargnin. 
This idea struck Mr. Kelley very fa- 
vorably, and he proceeded no farther 
in the Bull's Island matter, but em- 
braced the earliest opportunity to 
advise with his brother, Datus Kel- 
ley, — the present patriarch of the 
Island— on the subject. He, too, en- 
tertained a very favorable idea of the 
project — not, however, because lie 
cared anything about the idea of 
"owning a whole Island," but be- 
cause he saw intrinsic value in the 
timber and stone with which the isl- 
and was known to abound; and the 
two brothers, as D. & I. Kelley, went 
immediately to Avork to carry Iheir 
design into execution. Ou the iL^th 
day of July, 1833, they both visited 



34 



THE FIRE LA2sT)S PIONEER. 



■June^ 1863 



the island the first time, for the pur- 
pose of prospecting, (as the Califor- 
nia miners would say,) and the result 
<»i their prospecting seems to have 
been entirely satisfactory, since a few 
days after this event we find Mr. D. 
Kelley at Warren negotiating with 
Gen. Perkins forthe purchase, which 
seems to have been accomplished 
wixh much less delay than is usually 
attendant upon transactions of such 
(to them at that time) magnitude; 
for we find, under date of August 
23d, on the books of the firm of I. & 
D. Ivelley ti charge of cash paid for 
a deed of the Adams lot, (so called,) 
which is a small lot on the west end 
of the island, and immediately after 
tliis a charge of cash paid for expen- 
ses to Norwalk to have the deed re- 
corded. The residue of the island 
was soon secured, and in the Sep- 
tember following Mr. D. Kelley again 
visited the island — this time as joint 
proprietor of the whole and as man- 
ai^nm: agent for the firm of I. & D. 
Kelley. 

At tliis time there were some five 
or six men on the island with their 
famiHes. Among the number was 
Mr. A. Clemens, now of Marblehead, 
who was getting out stone on the 
north side of the island, for some par- 
ticular ptirpose, and which he found 
could be quarried there at less ex- 
pense than any^vhere else in the vi- 
cinity. From Mr. Clemens we learn 
that when he went to the island he 
found but two families there. Those 
who went afterwards, and before the 
•Mev-rs. Ktdley took possession, were 
i>rincii>ally in'his (Clemens) employ. 
Mr. Clemens remained some months 
after the Messrs. Kelley took posses- 
sion, assisting them in getting out 
j^tone, and until he made the pur- 
cha-i' on Marblehead, where he now 
re-ide>. Of the transient persons 
whom I he Messrs. Kelley found on 
tlie Island, some had made small im- 
provements or had got out some ce- 
uiu- posts for sale, for all wliich the 



Messrs. Kelley paid the full value, in 
order that they might have undispu- 
ted possession. In accomplishing 
this object they found no difficulty, 
except in one instance, that of Ben- 
jamin Naper, who claimed to have a 
title from some one, and had taken 
possession as owmer of the whole isl- 
and and was determined not to leave 
until dispossessed by due course of 
low. Hence it became necessary to 
resort to legal measures to dispossess 
him. The court records of Huron 
County, to which the island then be- 
longed, and at a later date the records 
of Erie County, probably show 
abundant proof that this Naper was 
not got rid of without great difficulty. 
It has been said, and I believe with 
truth, that the costs to the Messrs. 
Kelley in litigation, before they got 
undisputed possession, was equal to 
the original purchase. The writer 
distinctly recollects being asked by 
an official, during a session of Court, 
as to the whereabouts of Capt. Naper, 
remarking at the time that he had 
been so long a regular customer that 
he feared they couldnot gel through 
a session without liim, 'Hie litiga- 
tion was, however, in the end, pro- 
ductive of good results — other than 
getting rid of a troublesome neigh- 
bor, ^since it served to quiet effectu- 
ally all doubts as to the vahdity of 
the title acquired by the Messrs. Kel- 
ley. When they iirst took posses- 
sion the opinion was freely expressed 
that their title was defective and that 
they could not hold under it. So 
prevalent indeed was the idea at that 
time that the Messrs. Kelley would 
have found it difficult to sell farms, 
had they been disposed to do so, ow- 
ing to the fear of the purchaser being 
ousted by some claimant having a 
better title than they could give. 
During the controversy with Mr. Xa- 
per the subject of title was so thor- 
oughly investigated and the decision 
of the Court so decisive that the 
question w^as considered as forever 
set at rest. 



JunCy 1863.- 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



35 



The limits of this sketch will not 
admit of following the course of 
events from that time to the present 
iu minute detail. It will be sufficient 
for our purpose to follow the pioneers 
to the period when a]l difficulties are 
settled and the township organized 
and in full operation as an independ- 
ent community. 

Among the few individuals Avhom 
Mr. Kelley found on the island was 
Mr, Henry Ellethorpe, (now of Van 
Rensselaer township,) a man of more 
than ordinary intelligence and ob- 
servation, but of very retiring habits. 
Here he, with his family, lived in a 
state of Arcadian simplicity 

" Far from the mad'ning crowd's ignoble strife." 

He had several head of cattle which 
found a good li\"ing, not only during 
the Summer, but even in Winter re- 
quired but very little care. When 
tne ground v/as covered with snow 
it was sometimes necessary to chop 
down a bass wood tree, on the small 
twigs of which his cattle would 
browse; but when the ground was 
bare, which it is most of the time, 
they found plenty of food and re- 
quired no care. These, with a small 
})atch of ground, on which he raised 
lis corn and vegetables, supplied 
most of his wants. 

One of thefirstimprovements made 
by Mr. Kelley, after providing ac- 
commodations for his men, was to 
build a dock; and during the first 
Summer (1833) the nucleus of the 
present steamboat dock was built. 
It was a very small affair, but an- 
swered for a sail boat or other small 
craft. Immediately after this the 
dock on the north side — long known 
as the stone dock — was commenced 
and during the Winter was made suf- 
ficiently large to accommodate what 
was considered at that time a good 
sized vessel. From this dock, during 
the season, (1834) were shipped stone 
to the value of eight hundred dollars 
and cedar, wood and pork to the value 



of four hundred dollars. The next 
year the steamboat dock was en- 
larged sufficiently to accommodate 
the small sized steamboats of that 
day. 

The next thing to which Mr. Kel- 
ley turned his attention, after getting 
business well started, was to bidld a 
school-house. This he did at the sol e 
expense of himself and liis brother, 
and this was the first frame building 
erected on the island and is still 
standing — having been used since 
the new stone school-house was built 
as a cooper and blacksmith shop, &c. 
It is the first building north of tlie 
present residence of Mr. George Kel- 
ley. 

Another of Mr. Kelley's operations 
it may not be out of place to men- 
tion in connection with schools, and 
that is, that among the earlier entries 
in his accounts we find a charge of 
cash "paid to certain of his men for 
temperance " — that is, a bonus or re- 
ward in addition to their regular pay 
for dispensing with the use of intox- 
icating liquors, to which some of them 
had become addicted. In Mr. Kel- 
ley's view two things were essential- 
ly requisite to insure success in build- 
ing up a new community— to make 
provision for the proper educationof 
the rising generation and to encour- 
age habits of industry and sobriety 
in parents and operatives. Under 
this arrangement a decided change 
for the better soon became apparent. 
There are those now living who date 
the commencement of their subse- 
quent prosperity to the change in 
their habits, consequent on the en- 
couragement afforded them at that 
time by the precepts and example of 
Mr. Kelley. 

This was about the state of things 
when we first visited the island on 
the 7th of August, 1835. At that 
time Mr. Addison Kelley (now mine 
host of the Island House) was in 
charge of the business — his father, 
Datus Kelley, not having as yet 



36 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



moved his family here ; but spending 
perhaps half his time, during the 
Summer, on the island and returning 
to his farm in Rockport to spend the 
Winter. 

There was at that time a log board- 
ing house, standi-ng directly in front 
of where the Island House now 
stands. Here we stayed with Mr. 
Kelley some two days, and although 
we enjoyed the visit hugely, we re- 
turned home, to Cleveland, it mnst 
be confessed, not very particularly 
I)repossessed in tiivor of the island as 
a place of permanent residence. On 
reviewing our "first impressions," as 
written down at the time, we find 
two circumstances mentioned v/hich 
it seems we deemed at the time w^or- 
tliy of note. One was the very ex- 
traordinary rank growth of vegeta- 
tion of all kinds, calling to mind, as 
we then expressed it, the jungles of 
Africa, where, as travelers assert, 
weeds and shrubs attain such enor- 
mous size as to appear almost like 
forest trees. The other notable cir- 
cumstance was the meeting on the 
island a man collecting snakes for 
exhibition. Here was Doctor Morse's 
snake story revived again, and under 
circumstances tending to give it some 
color of reality. I presume there are 
many in this section of country who 
^vili recollect that some twenty-five 
or thirty years ago there was a man 
traveling about the country exhibit- 
ing, as his posters and advertisements 
had it "one hundred live snakes." 
This was the veritable individual. He 
told us he had sold out his old stock on 
speculation and having heard that 
Cunningham's Island was a good 
place to get up another stock he had 
come here for that purpose. That 
he had been eminently successful we 
liad not only his assertion, but occular 
demonstration. The time has now 
passed, however, when any one need 
feel any apprehension of meeting 
the loathsome reptiles in their walks 
about the island. 



The following Spring, March, 1836, 
Mr. D. Kelley moved his family to 
the island with the view of making 
it his permanent future residence ; 
and in the course of the ensuing 
Summer built a log house on the spot 
now occupied by the residence of 
Mr. George Kelley, and in the Sum- 
mer of 1838, built a small frame at- 
tached to the log house. This frame 
is still standing and forms the south 
part of the residence of Mr. George 
Kelley. Here Mr. Kelley continued 
to reside until he built what is now 
known as the old part of the Island 
House, in 1843. 

In the year 1837, Mr. Addison Kel- 
ley, beginning to feel quite at home 
on the island, concluded to make se- 
lection of a farm and settle down for 
life. He purchased the farm now 
owned by him, and which was the 
first sub-division made of the D. & I. 
Kelley purchase. On this farm, in 
1838, he built the house now occu- 
pied by Adam Schardt. This was the 
second frame building erected, and 
here he continued to reside until he 
went into the Island House, his pres- 
ent residence. 

During the whole of this period, or 
since 1835, the writer had been in the 
habit of making occasional visits to 
the island, and in the early part of 
1838, while on one of these visits, 
came to the conclusion that the isl- 
and was not by any means the worst 
place in which one could live, and 
made a bargain with i\Ir. Kelley for 
a farm of two hundred acres, and soon 
after commenced building the house 
in which he now lives, and in Sep- 
tember of the same year moved his 
family on to the island as a place of 
permanent future residence. During 
the Summer of the same year (1838) 
Mr. Horace Kelley, now of Cleve- 
land, purchased the farm on the west 
end of the island, and where LIr. 
Charles Carpenter now hves. Here 
he built a dock for the purpose of 
shipping stone, and also a log house 



June^ 1863. 



THE PIKE LANDS PIONEER 



37 



for the accommodation of his men — 
not being himself, at that time, a 
married man. This log house is still 
tiawling a short distance west of Mr. 
Carpenter's house. 

This brings us to the year 1838. In 
the month of September of that year, 
as above stated, we moved to the isl- 
and, and from that time became an 
integral part of the population. Per- 
haps this date will be our best stand- 
point from whence to take a general 
survey of matters as they then stood, 
since the particular status, at any one 
date, being established, it will be an 
easy matter to make comparison be- 
tween that date and any other sub- 
sequent period, and thus determine 
the progress which has been made 
in any given time. 

At this date there were twelve 
families resident on the island, as fol- 
lows: Datus Kelley, who lived in a 
log house on the spot w^here George 
Kelley's house now stands ; Addison 
Kelley, his oldest son, who lived in a 
frame house, the first frame dwelling 
erected, where Adam Schardt now 
lives; P. Martin lived in a log house 
on the farm owned by the writer, and 
which stood near the site of the house 
now occupied by Mr. Jerry Dean ; 
Henry Harris lived in a log house on 
the bank of the lake, directly at the 
mouth of what is now^ called the Ti- 
ber Brook; Joseph Willett, stone 
cutter and mason, lived near Avhere 
Wm. D. K. Kelley's house now stands; 
Mrs. Knowlton kept boarders in the 
log boarding house which stood di- 
rectly in front of where the Island 
House now stands ; Barney McGet- 
tigan lived in a log house on Addi- 
son Kelley's farm and near the site 
of his (Addison Kelley's) new house, 
now in process of construction ; Geo. 
Firkins, Captain of scow xlrgus, lived 
iu a log house on the bank of the 
lake, near F. & N. Kelley's stone 
dock; H.Bicklbrd,blacksm'ith, lived 
near the old north dock ; John Titus 
kept boarding house for quarrymen 



near w^here Mr. Joseph Lincoln now 
lives; J. Juben"ville, quarryman, Hved 
near where W. D. Kelley's house, on 
the north side, now stands, and Sum- 
ner Knapp lived in a new log house, 
just built, on Mr. Horace Kelley's 
farm on the w^est end. This house 
is still standing just at the head of 
Mr. Carpenter's dock. 

These constituted the entire num- 
ber of families resident on the island at 
this time. Horace Kelley boarded 
with his uncle, Datus, and was en- 
gaged in improving his farm and in 
making preparations to build his 
dock, before alluded to, and the same 
now owned by Mr. Carpenter. Jacob 
Play, then as noAV a bachelor, and 
one of our oldest residents, was board- 
ing with Mrs. KnoAvlton, at the afore- 
said boarding house in front of where 
the Island House novf stands. If, as 
political economists assert — that man 
is to be considered a public ben- 
efactor w^ho "causes two spires of grass 
to grow where but one grew before — 
then Mr. Hay is certainly deserving 
great credit, since he has performed 
a much greater amount of physical 
labor than any man now living on 
the island — almost the whole of 
which has tended directly or indi- 
rectly towards the general improve- 
ment. For fifteen years his time was 
devoted almost exclusively to clear- 
ing land, building fences, putting up 
small tenements, &c,, and since that 
date he has been employed in jnak- 
ing and repairing agricultural imple- 
ments, &c., and other mechanical 
pursuits, all tending to the same gen- 
eral result. Besides this, there is not 
a dock on the island but what he has 
had a hand in the building of it. 

These families and indi\iduals, 
above mentioned, and the transient 
laborers — single men boarding at the 
boarding houses — constituted the en- 
tire population at this time, Septem- 
ber, 1838. 

It may also be stated in this con- 
nection, that every one of these in- 



3a 



THE FIRB LANDS PIONEEK. 



June^ 1863. 



dividuals came to the island after Mr, 
D. Kelley, and under his patronage ; 
so that he is now, in point of fact, the 
F'?Dior, in date of residence, of every 
inhabitant of the island. 

At the date of which we are now 
speaking, (Sej^tember, 1838,) but 
three farms hadbeen taken up, those 
of Addison Kelley, Horace Kelley 
and the writer of this sketch — all 
else was still owned by D. & I. Kel- 
ley in common. At this date, also, 
the whole island was but little better 
than one unbroken forest. There 
were probably not more than one 
hundred acres of clearing in all, and 
most of this had been made by the 
Messrs. Kelley since they came into 
possession. The number of laborers 
employed varied from twenty-five or 
thirty to ten, according to the season 
of the year and the amount of busi- 
ness on hand. These were employed 
in quarrying stone, getting out cedar 
posts, chopping steamboat wood, <fec. 

Until the year 1836 the receipts 
were x^rincipally from sales of stone 
and cedar ; but after that date steam- 
boat wood formed the most import- 
antitem. No farming of any account 
was practicable until the land was 
cleared, and this could not be done 
economically any faster than the 
wood could be disposed of. It be- 
came, therefore, an important con- 
sideration to offer such inducements 
in the way of dock accommodations, 
and wood of good quality and low 
prices, as would make it for the in- 
terest of the steamboats to stop here 
for their wood. By doing this, two 
very important objects were accom- 
plished — the receipts from the sales 
of wood paid the expenses of clear- 
ing the land, which thus became 
available for agricultural purposes, 
and at the same time we were afford- 
ed an almost daily communication 
with the several ports on the lake 
during tlie season of navigation. 

This did away, in a great measure, 
with the inconveniences of living on 



an island, since our facilities for get- 
ting to market, for eight Or nine 
months in the year, were even better 
than are eDJoyed by many living but 
a few miles inland on the main shore, 
and even in the Winter season the 
ice, which intervenes between us and 
market, is not much more of an ob- 
stacle than the mud, which even now 
sometimes, for weeks together, 
makes the roads communicating with 
some of our lake cities nearly im- 
passable. 

One thing more was needed, how- 
ever, in order to place our means of 
communication with the main land 
on a sure basis and beyond the reach 
of ordinary contingencies; and this 
was to have some small vessel al- 
ways at command, and which should 
be so constructed as to be perfectly 
reliable and safe in any Idnd of 
weather, and which sliould be always 
at hand in case of emergencies. To 
accomplish this v^^as the next thing 
in order. The expense was to be 
bonie jointly by Messrs. D. & I. Kel- 
ley, Addison Kelley, Horace Kelley 
and the writer — the only individuals 
who then had any particular interest 
in the matter. The model was fur- 
nished by Mr. Addison Kelley, his 
own sole production, and in which, 
considering the end to be accom- 
plished, he took the li])erty to inno- 
vate very seriously upon the estab- 
lished usages and opinions of the 
nautical architects of that day; and 
that he acted wisely in so doing, the 
sequel will show. The craft was built 
precisely according to the model and 
was ready for launching early in 
1839. The next thing was a name 
for such a craft. Several were men- 
tioned, of the ordinary kind, but none 
seemed to meet the entire approval 
of all, when we suggested that if we 
made the i.-l and our permanent home, 
as we anticipated, we might live to 
wear out nor only this, but perhaps 
a number more of a similar descrip- 
tion, and we had better call this one 



J^itne^ 1863. 



THE JlRE iiAlTDS PI6NEM» 



**No. 1," and so on with her sticces- 
gors in numerical order. This was 
unanimously assented to and "No.l" 
<Jie became from that hour, and well 
did she deserve the name. So admi- 
rably did she answer the purpose for 
wliich she was designed, that it may 
not be out of place to mention some 
of the' particiilars of her construc- 
tion and the points in which she dif- 
fered from prevalent ideas of pro- 
priety in such matters. She was very 
narrow and deep in proportion to her 
length and burthen. Her keel Avas 
an oak plank some seventeen inches 
in depth and four inches thick, and 
on the bottom of this was an iron 
shoe, weighing nearly a ton, and suf- 
ficient to counterbalance — situated 
as it was so far below the water line 
— the entire weight of her sails and 
rigging. To capsize such a craft 
would be simply impossible ; for, if 
thrown upon her beam ends, she 
would right herself. With this craft 
we, in a measure, defied the winds 
and waves, and were in the habit of 
crossing in her to Sandusky at times 
when larger vessels were very glad 
to make a harbor. No better evi- 
dence of her sea-going qualities can 
be given than that she lived out in 
safety the gale (one of the worst ev- 
er known) in which the schooner 
Helen Mar, Capt. Judah Ransom, of 
Sandusky, was lost with all on board 
;— an event which must be still fresh 
in the recollection of the older in- 
habitants of this section. Of this 
matter we speak from personal ex- 
perience, since, in company with Ad- 
dison Kelley, we made the port of 
Huron in the height of tlie storm, 
under circumstances well calculatedf 
to leave a lasting impression on the 
mind. 

lliis " No. 1," was our main reliance 
hi our intercourse with the main land 
until the Steamer Islander was built 
Hi 1846, as will be mentioned when 
We arrive at that period in our history. 

Soon after the period of which we 



now write, Messrs. P. Martin, John 
Titus and Barney McGettigan, all of 
whom had been since they lirst came 
to the Island, in tlie employ of the 
Messrs. Kelley, purchased from the 
avails of their labor, the farms upon 
which themselves and their children 
still reside. Up to this time the Isl- 
and had formed a part of the Town- 
sliip of Danbury, now in Ottawa 
County. On the 21st day of January, 
in the year 1840, the General AssenV 
bly of the State of Ohio passed an 
act constituting the island a township 
by itself, by the name of Kelley 's 
Island. 

On the 3d day of April, 1840, tlie 
day on which the Town Elections 
were held throughout the State, the 
Township was duly organized by the • 
election of the usual Township offi- 
cers. As it will always be a matter 
of some interest to the future inhab- 
itants of the island to know the par- ^ 
ticulars of the organization of the 
Township, we give the circumstances 
somewhat in detail. The election 
was held in the school house, and the 
Board was organized by the choice 
of Walter Beardsley, E. T. Smith and 
Chester Stocking, Judges, and Ad- 
dison Kelley and George C. Hunting- 
ton as Clerks of Election. The whole 
number of votes polled was fifteen, 
and but six of this number were tax 
payers at the time — the others were 
principally transient persons, or 
those who were merely employed 
here for the time being. 

The following persons were elect- 
ed Township officers for the first year, 
to wit: Addison Kelley, Oliver Em- 
ory and Walter Beardsley, Trustees ; 
Horace Kelley, Treasurer; Datus 
Kelley^ Clerk; John Titus and Hil- 
kiah Bickford, Overseers of the Poor; 
Chester Stocking, George Wiers and 
Henrv Provost, Fence Viewers ; Jo- 
seph Willett, Constable; Henry Har- 
ris, Supervisor. 

An election was also held at the 
same time and place for Justice of 



(40 



THE ITRE LANDS PIONEER. 



JuneZlSeS. 



the Peace, which resulted in the 
election of George C. Huntington to 
that office by a unanimous vote. 

or tlie \v hole number of those who 
assisted at the birth of the Township 
but four only are now residents of 
the island, to wit: Addison Kelley, 
Henry Harris, Jacob Hay and the 
writer of this sketch. Datus Kelley 
was out of town and did not vote, 
and Horace Kelley, although elected 
Treasurer, did not vote, and has since 
moved to Cleveland. Of the remain- 
der, E. T. Smith and Joseph Willett 
reside now in Yan Rensselaer Town- 
ship, Ottawa Co. ; George Wiers on 
North Bass Island, and John Titus 
died on the island a few years since, 
but his family are still here. Of the 
whereabouts of the remaining seven, 
nothing definite is known to the wri- 
ter — such are the changes which a 
few years suffice to bring about. 

The first enumeration of school 
children, under the new organization, 
took place on the 13th of October, 
1840. The returns show 11 males 
and 11 females as the whole number 
between the ages of four and twenty- 
one years. One small school house 
was more than sufficient to accom- 
modate the whole. The enumeration 
of school children in 1862 shows 99 
males and 69 females — nearly eight 
times the number in 1840. 

From the organization of the Town- 
ship in 1840 until the year 1845, the 
island had been attached to the 
county of Ottawa. The object -of 
this arrangement was to make Port 
Clinton as near the geographical cen- 
tre of the county as practicable, since 
it was desired to have the seat of 
Justice for the county located at that 
point This could only be accom- 
plished by including ^vithin the lim- 
its of tlic new county all that part of 
Lake Erie lying between the lake 
shore bounding the county on the 
North and the line between the Uni- 
ted States and Canada. This, of 
course, included Kelley's Island. 



This arrangement did not suit the 
Islanders at all, since their natural 
iconnection was wdth Sandusky, the 
seat of Justice for Erie County. This 
was their point of connection Tvdth 
the main land andtheir usual market 
towm. They acquiesced, however, 
for the time being, ^Yiih. the tacit un- 
derstanding with Port Clinton that 
whenever the county seat was estab- 
lished and the county buildings 
erected they should be allowed to go 
back to Erie County. When all these 
matters were arranged, the county 
seat established, the county build- 
ings erected, &c., the Islanders 
thought their time had come to go 
back to Erie County, according to 
agreement. But there was a dispo- 
sition on the part of the new county 
to retain us permanently, since the 
taxes we paid were quite an item in 
their receipts. To this we objected, 
and in the Winter of 1844-5 we pre- 
sented a petition to the General As- 
sembly, setting forth the facts in the 
case and asldng that the Township of 
Kelley's Island be detached from Ot- 
tawa County and attached to Erie 
County. This x)rayer w^as promptly 
granted, and an act was passed on 
the 8th of March, 1845, in strict ac- 
cordance therewith. This placed us 
precisely where we wished to be and 
where we hope to remain, Sandusky 
being the seat of Justice for the 
county and also our easiest and only 
natural connection with the main 
land. 

It may not be out of place to men- 
tion, in this connection, the fact that 
since the Messrs. Kelley bought the 
island it has been used as a kind of 
make weight in establishing new 
counties. It was originally a part of 
Huron County. When Erie wjis 
erected it was transferred to that 
county.. A7hen Ottawa was erected 
it became convenient, as before 
stated, to attach it to that county, and 
now, again for our own convenience, 
we are again a part of Erie County 
for the second time. 



JmiU!, 1863. 



THE FIBE LANDS PIONEER. 



41 



Tliis last change has left us in rath- 
er a singular predicamant, so far as 
jurisdiction is concerned. The act 
^'t.iching the island from Ottawa 
County and attaching it to Erie 
County, specifies merely the island 
—leaving the surrounding water still 
in Ottawa County. Since that time 
docks have been built, extending 
some hundreds of feet iiito the lake, 
and connected Avith the shore by 
narrow bridges, thus leaving the 
main part of the docks still in the 
county of Ottawa and beyond the ju- 
risdiction of the authorities of the 
island, since they can only exercise 
jurisdiction within the limits of the 
county of Erie. No serious difficulty 
has as yet grown out of this state of 
things, since all processes issued on 
the island and served on the docks 
have hitherto been obeyed the same 
as when served inland, the facts as 
above stated not being generally 
known. I am aware that it will be ar- 
gued by some that the bare fact of 
adding territory by building into the 
lake would make the part so added a 
part of the Township. This may be 
tjo, but we have the best legal au- 
thority in the State, to the effect that 
no act of an individual can change 
the boundaries or limits of a county. 
The part added may belong to the 
township and still be in another 
county. An attempt w^as made, a 
few years since to have this matter 
corrected, but owing to some infor- 
mality in the preliminary proceed- 
ings the matter was not consum- 
mated. 

In explanation of this matter we 
have anticipated events for a few 
years. We will now go back to 1840 
where we left the thread of our nar- 
rative. 

. From 1840 until 1847 there was but 
little increase in the permanent pop- 
ulation of the island, as appears from 
the number of votes polled at the 
several annual township elections, 
which have been regularly held ever 



6 



since the Township was organized. 
Thus in 1841, (Spring election,) the 
number of votes polled was 11 ; in 

1842, (Spring election,) 18 votes; in 

1843, (Spring election,) 15 votes, and 
in 1847, seven years after the organ- 
ization of the Township, the number 
of votes polled at the Spring election 
was but 21. 

As we do not propose to notice in- 
dividual accessions after this date, 
when our modern history may be 
said to commence, we give here the 
names of the families who became 
residents within the period above in- 
dicated. 

In the Spring of 1840, Mr. J. E. 
Woodford, who had been more or 
less about the island since 1837, 
moved on with his family, and since 
that date has been closely identified 
with the affairs of the Township. In 
the Spring of 1841, Mr. Julius Kelley, 
second son of D. Kelley, moved on 
with his family and remained until 
1851, when he sold out to Mr. Webb, 
and in the Fall of that year moved 
to Henry County, where he still re- 
sides. In 1843, Mr. James Hamilton 
became a permanent resident, and 
in 1844, Mr. Edmund Ward also. In 
the Spring of 1845, Mr. Charles Car 
penter, a son-in-law of Mr. D. Kelley, 
and who had spent a considerable 
part of the time on the island since 
1842, bought the farm owned by 
Horace Kelley, on the west end, 
where he has resided ever since. 
During the same season, Mr. S. S. 
Dwelle bought the farm on which he 
now lives and commenced improving 
the following Spring. Early in the 
Spring of 1846 Mr. W.S.Webb, also 
a son-in-law of Mr. D. Kelley, bought 
the house in which he now lives, and 
afterwards, as before stated, bought 
the farm owned by Julius Kelley, 
and since that date has borne an ac- 
tive part in all the ailairs of the Town- 
ship. It will be seen that, with tJie 
exception of Juhus Kelley and fam- 
ily, the entire family of D. Kelley — 



^ 



ifiD ftk^ iiANDS HONEER. 



'Jiih^, 18^. 



his sons with their wives and chil- 
dren, and his daughters with their 
husbands and their children — are all 
residents of the island, formin,^ quite 
a community of themselves. In 1847 
Mr. George Kelley, oldest son of I. 
Kelley, moved on with his family. 
He had been more or less on the isl- 
and, as a single man, from the time 
his father and Ids uncle, Datus,made 
their purchase, and was more or less 
interested in all the improvements 
made. 

We make no mention of the young 
people of both sexes — children or 
connexions of the old settlers, and 
who have, in a measure, been brought 
up here and are now heads of fami- 
lies, shice this would swell this sketch 
to too gi-eat a length and be of no 
particular interest. 

Soon after the date of which we 
have been speaking, a gradual im- 
provement began to be apparent. 

It was in the year 1846 that the 
steamer Islander was built, forming 
a regular and reliable means of com- 
munication betVeen the Island and 
Sandusky, and from that time until 
the present there has been a steady 
increase in the population and an 
appreciation in the value of real es- 
tate, although it was not until the 
year 1850 that the change was very 
marked, as the influence of the grape 
crop did not begin to be very sensi- 
bly felt until after that time. 

'This business has effected such an 
entire change in everything connect- 
ed with the Island that we have 
thought it would be better to give, 
in a separate chapter, a short account 
of the rise, progress and present con- 
dition of the culture of the grape, 
rather than embody the whole in the 
general history. This will be found 
at the close of this article. 

It may not be uninteresting to the 
Islanders to state some particulars 
respecting the getting up of the Isl- 
ander — an event which has had a 
very marked influence in developing 



the resources and adding to the gen- 
eral prosperity of the Island, and 
which may, with truth, be said to 
have marked the commencement of 
a new era in our history. It has been 
already stated that the "No. 1" had 
been our main reliance since 1839; 
but vessels, as well as men, do get 
old and infirm — sometimes prema- 
turely so — more especially if they 
have been subjected to an undue 
amount of exposure and hard usage. 
This was the case with the "No. 1." 
She was constitutionally old, altliough 
her years had been but comparative- 
ly few; and we had already began to 
discuss plans for her successor. It 
was admitted on all hands that steam 
communication would be much 
the most reliable, but this seemed 
altogether out of the question, con- 
sidering our scanty population and 
limited means. Nothing definite, 
however, was decided upon until the 
year 1846, when the matter came to 
a head, so unexpectedly that we 
could scarcely realize it. 

Early in the Spring of that year 
Mr. Addison Kelley and the writer 
had occasion to go to Venice in the 
aforesaid "No. 1." The weather was 
stormy, and our trip was anything 
but pleasant, and when we arrived 
at Venice, concluded it would be 
prudent to remain until pleasanter 
weather before ^'starting for home, 
considering the condition of ourves- 
sel. In the evening, having nothing 
else to do, we strolled into the oflice 
of H. N. Fish, Esq., and while there, 
among other topics discussed was 
that of our means of communication 
with the outside world. Mr. Fish 
said, " Why do you not build a small 
steamboat? You can then go and 
come when you please." We admit- 
ted the fact, but ])leaded inability in 
the infant state of our colony to en- 
gage in an undertakingof such mag- 
nitude ; besides, if we liad a steam- 
boat our business was not suflicient 
to pay running expenses. Mr. Fish 



Jum, 1863. 



THE flRE LANDS PIONEER 



43 



remarked, in substance, that Mr. R. 
H. Haywood, for whom he was acting, 
would have a large amount of w^heat 
\i\ ])e brought from Lower Sandusky 
{now Fremont) and that if we would 
build a boat of sufficient capacity to 
do his business, he w^ould not only 
t^ecure the whole of it to her, but 
would also advance a liberal sum in 
money towards construction, and 
which could be repaid in freight in 
the course of three years. He would 
also furnish a much larger amount of 
freight than would be required to re- 
pay the advance, and this he would 
pay in cash as fast as the business 
was done. This, with our business, 
would be sufficient at any rate to pay 
running expenses. This liberal prop- 
osition suited us exactly, and imme- 
diately on our return home we laid 
the matter before Mr. D. Kelley, who 
would necessarily be the principal 
stockholder. He at once accepted 
the proposition and took immediate 
st-eps to complete the arrangement, 
and in less than one week from the 
time the subject was first broached 
at Venice the Islander was in process 
of construction, and soon after mid- 
summer of that year she was per- 
forming her regular trips. She was 
a decided success every way. In 
1853^ being somewhat in years and 
gettmg to be rather small lor our bu- 
siness, she was sold and the Island 
Queen built to take her place. 

We do not propose to continue 
this branch of our history to a later 
period than 1850, or modern times, 
since our grape history wall make 
mention of any incident that may be 
deemed worthy of particular note 
atter this date. Before leaving this 
branch of our subject, however, we 
will give as a matter for future ref- 
erence, the business statistics of the 
island for the year 1848. Tiiis we are 
enabled to do with a good degree of 
precision, since the writer was ap- 
||hed to in 1840, by a branch of the 
statistical Department of Govern- 



ment, to furnish a statement of ex- 
ports, imports, tonnage, population, 
&c., for the year 1848, which was 
done accordingly. In order to insure 
as minute accuracy as possible we 
took the personal statement of every 
one concerned in any business on 
the Island. As we kept a copy of 
the Report made at that time we are 
enabled to give it in full, as follows : 

1. JjrtPOBTS Coastwise — Quantitt and Valuk. — 

Nothing was imported, excepting building 
materials, family supplies, &c., for consump- 
tion of inhabitants, of which no accurate ac- 
count was kept. 

2. Imports Foreign — None. 

3. Exports Coastwise. — 

Red Cedar, 914 cords, $4,291.00 

Lime Stone, 390 cords, TSO.OO 

Steamboat Wood, .3,248 cords 4,012.50 

Corn, Wheat, Pork, &c., amount not accu- 
rately known, but supposed to be 2,000.00 

$11,083.50 

4. Exports Foreign. — 

298 cords Stone, 696.00 

$ll,6t9.50 

5. Stkamboats and Vksskls — ^Tonnage and Vauje. — 

One steamboat, about 80 tons, say $5,000.00 

One sail boat, 150.00 

$5,160.00 

6. NlTMBEB OF JIeN EstPLOTKD ON 8AMK. — 

Supposed to average, say Y. 

7. Arrivals and Departures or Steamboats. — 

No accurate account has been kept. I should 
think, however, the arrivals (including the 
boat owned here) would not vary much from 
400 — departures same. 

8. Population, January 1, 1849, was about 180. 

9. Works of Internal Improvement. — 

None of a public nature. 

SANITARY, MORAL AND RELIGIOUS CON- 
DITION. 

Perhaps no question is oftener 
asked of an Islander, when away from 
home or among strangers, than as to 
the religious privileges enjoyed by 
the inhabitants of the Island — when 
the reply is made that we have no 
regular preaching; that we never 
had a minister resident among us, 
the inference at once is anything but 
favorable to our moral condition ; 
and the reply is sometimes made that 
no community can be a moral com- 
munity without they enjoy the ad- 
vantages of regular preaching. To 
this v/o can only rejoin, that we must 



44 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



be judged by our own actions; that 
where a very low state of morals ex- 
ists, crimes, against both property 
and person, must be of frequent oc- 
currence, and as a necessary conse- 
quence must furnish the courts a 
great deal of trouble in keeping such 
a community under proper restraint. 
For ourselves we can only refer to 
the records of our county. If we 
have given the courts an undue 
amount of trouble, either in the crim- 
inal or civil departments, then we 
plead guilty. But if on the other 
hand, as we claim to be the case, we 
have had much less business before 
the courtvS, in proportion to our pop- 
ulation, tlian the average of the State, 
then we should be judged according- 
ly. We court the most thorough in- 
vestigation into this matter and are 
willing to abide the result. 

Tlie next question often asked is — 
Have vou any Doctors ? We say, No 
— neither Doctors nor La^vyers. — 
When we are sick, we trust to the 
recuiterative energies of nature, as- 
Kisle<l jserliaps by" a little domestic 
nui'sing, and if necessary a few sim- 
ples, when repose and abstinence for 
a few days does not effect a cure 
without. And if we have any little 
disputes requiring assistance, the 
Justices manage in some way to set- 
tle iheui without making it necessa- 
ry- to resort to the higher courts. For 
fifteen years after the organization of 
the Tuwnsliip there was but one ap- 
peal from a Justice's decision, and 
that decision was allirmed on appeal ; 
and I do not know that there has been 
an appeal since. If so, the instances 
have been very rare. But, says the 
interrogator, although you may get 
ajon^ witii your littte disputes with- 
out the aid of lawyers, and with vour 
>'inii>le ailments without the aid'^of a 
doctor—still there must be cases 
when' a physician's services are tn- 
dt^f fallible. Do you not have any 
natural increase to your population ? 
Most assuredly we do, and our full 



share of it ; but thanks to the kind 
offices of experienced matrons, such 
matters are so easily disposed of that 
in nine cases out of ten, if a doctor 
was within call his services would not 
be called into requisition. For more 
than twenty years Mrs. D. Kelley 
was the sole reliance in all com- 
plaints of every description, and that 
she was eminently successful in her 
practice the very extraordinary good 
health which has generally prevailed 
bears amj^le testimony. Besides be- 
ing always ready to respond cheer- 
fully to every call — no matter how 
humble the applicant. — her services 
have always been entirely gratuitous 
—and it is no small item, in the ex- 
penses of bringing up a large family, 
this having no doctor's bill to pay. 
Mrs. Kelley was wont, sometimes, to 
remark playfully, that they must 
make all the use of her they could, 
while she was about, since she was 
probably the last healthy oldiooman 
they would be likely ever to see. 
That she well merits the adjective 
healthy^ will be conceded when we 
say, that after having been in active 
service for more than half a centu y 
she is still more than a match for 
many women who have not seen half 
her years. Within the pas t few years, 
however, she has retired, in a great 
measure, from medical practice — her 
mantle having fallen u])on Mrs. Pick- 
ett, relict of the late Dr. Picket, of 
Delaware, who "continues the busi- 
ness," and under whose kind care 
and good management the general 
good health of the Island has been 
fully maintained, as formerly. 

The Island, since we have been ac- 
quainted Avith it, has always been 
considered the healthiest locality of 
any of Avhich we have any knowl- 
edge. We could give the statistics 
of mortality for the last twenty-live 
years, but fear we sliould be in the 
predicament of the honest Hiberni- 
an, who, writing to his friends in the 
Old Country, soon after his arrival in 



JunCy 1863. 



THE FIBE LANDS PIONEER. 



45 



America, told them, among other 
things, that he had meat once a day. 
The letter was shown to his employer 
-who, noticing this statement, said 
to him: "How is this, Patrick; do 
vou not have meat three times a day 
If you wish it?" " Yes, your honor; 
but, then, if I should tell them so, 
they would not believe any part of 
my story." It will be sufficient for 
our purpose to say that the average 
annual mortality for the last twenty- 
five years has been less than one per 
cent, per annum. It is true there 
have been cases where physicians 
have been called in ; also, in one or 
two cases, lawyers have appeared be- 
fore a Justice's Court; oftener still 
than either have we had preaching 
'by clergymen of the highest stand- 
ing in the profession; but these are 
the exceptions, not the rule. We 
would not, by any means, be under- 
stood as wishing to disparage, in the 
slightest degree, the labors or ser- 
vices of any of the learned profes- 
sions, but merely to show that in 
cases of necessity, substitutes may be 
found for many tilings which would 
be deemed indispensible if they 
were within reach, and to show, also, 
that there may be cases where it is 
absolutely necessary for a people to 
be a " law unto themselves." 

RISE, PROGRESS AND PRESENT CONDITION 
OF GRAPE CULTURE. 

In the year 1846, the value of 
grapes sold by Mr. D, Kelley~the 
only individual who then had grapes 
in bearing — did not exceed five dol- 
lars. In 1861, as appears by the re- 
turns of the Townsiiip Assessor, J. 
Dean, Esq., the value of the grape 
crop was fifty-one thousand and eigh- 
ty dollars, from one hundred and 
twenty-eight and one-half acres. This 
sum does not show the average value 
of an acre of grapes, since about one- 
half the vines counted as hearing, 
were bearing for the first time, when, 
under the most favorable circum- 



stances, not more than one-half a fuU 
crop would be expected. The whole 
amount of land planted to vines, up 
to and including the year 1862, 
amounts to four hundred and ninety- 
four and one-fourth acres, and the 
business is still, as we believe, in its 
infancy. In January, 1849, the pop- 
ulation of the Island. Avas one hun- 
dred and eighty. It is now over six 
hundred, and the greater part of this 
increase should be credited to grapes. 
Within the last ten years the culture 
of the grape has assumed an import- 
ance which has already efi^cted such 
a change in our agricultural pursuits 
that it may well be termed a revolu- 
tion. This change has not been con- 
fined to the Island. In Sandusky and 
its vicinity, for miles around; on the 
Peninsula, from Marblehead to Otta- 
wa and along the western shore of 
Sandusky Bay; also on Put-in-Bay 
Island the land abounds in thrifty 
vineyards where ten years ago 
scarcely a grape could be found. 
Under these circumstances, it be- 
comes an interesting subject of in- 
quiry to trace from its first inception 
the steps by which a business, but a 
few years since comparatively un- 
known and unthoughtof, should have 
acquired such proportions as to leave 
every other branch of agricultural 
industry in the shade. To do this 
now, w^hile the actors are still upon 
the stage, is comparatively an easy 
matter; but in a few years the pres- 
ent generation will have passed away 
and their places filled by a new race, 
whose earliest recollections will be 
associated with vineyards in full op- 
eration, and who will be dependent 
on tradition for all their knowledge 
of the early history of the business, 
unless the f)i"esent generation shall 
leave behind them such records as 
may be necessary to a full under- 
standing of i\iG matter while it is 
fresh in their recollections. To do 
this, is the object of the present 
sketch. 



n 



46 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



When Mr. D. Kelley first moved 
liis family to the Island, early in the 
Spring oi" 1S3G, he brought with him 
from his »^arden in Kockport a few 
prape roots, of the variety known as 
the "Olmstead," and a few of the 
common wild variety. These were 
Bet in what is now George Kelley's 
giirden, and were the first set, and 
were in bearing a year or two before 
any attempt was made to introduce 
any of the finer modern varieties. 
The " Olmstead " was called a very 
good grape, althougli now discarded, 
and the other variety — if not very 
good — was thought much better than 
none. 

In the Spring of 1841, Mr. George 
Kelley brought from the garden of 
II. H.' Coit, Esq., of Euclid, a num 
ber of cuttings of the Isabella, Ca- 
tawba and some other varieties, not 
recollected. These he jjlanted just 
north of w^here the brook Tiber cros- 
ses the road. The land had been but 
recently cleared of timber and was 
very thickly overgrown w4th briars 
and underbrush, and was all but im- 
penetrable — in fact one of the hard- 
est looldng places on the Island — so 
bad that it had been christened "Ge- 
hena," by common consent. The 
place was selected by Mr. Kelley be- 
cause it would be wet most of the 
season from the overflow of the 
brook, and it was supposed the roots 
would be more likely to grow there 
than in a drver locality. After much 
labor Mr. Kelley succeeded in get- 
ting a small patch sufficiently, as he 
thought, subdued, and here lie set 
his grapes. Not being himself, at 
that time, a resident, they were not 
properly taken care of and the briars 
and weeds gottlie upper hand before 
the season was out, and most of the 
grapes died out. There were a few 
roots of the Isabella, however, wdiich 
pursived, and tliese Mr. Kellev gave 
to his uncle, Datus, who transplanted 
them in the Spring of 184:', to what 
is now the garden attached to the 



Island House, and from these vines, 
in 1845, a small quantity of fruit was 
sold. 

Mr. Coit, of Euclid, from whom 
these vines originally came, is one of 
the oldest cultivators of the grape in 
Northern Ohio. The writer was at 
his house in June, 1830, at which time 
Mr. Coit had wine of his owm manu- 
facture, and w^as then very sanguine 
in the belief that the lake region of 
Ohio would, at some future day, be 
noted for its vineyards. The result 
has shown that he was no false 
prophet. 

Early in the Spring of 1842 Mr. D. 
Kelley, on his return from a visit to 
Cleveland, brought with him about 
three hundred cuttings of the Isa- 
bella grape, which he obtained in 
part from Kev. Dr. Aiken, of Cleve- 
land, and part from Hon. R. Wood. 
These were very carefully set and 
taken care of, and the result was that 
nearly the whole of them grew. In 
the Spring of 1843. Mr. Kelley trans- 
planted a i)art of tliem in the garden 
attached to the Island House, and 
wdiich was then in process of con- 
struction, the balance he di\^ded 
among the members of his family, 
then resident on the Island. Mr. 
Addison Kelley set his portion in the 
garden attached to the house now 
occupied by Adam Schardt, — where 
he himself resided at that time. Mr. 
Julius Kelley set his portion in the 
garden of the house now owned by 
F. &N. Kelley, near their stone dock, 
and the writer set his in the garden 
attached to the house where he now 
resides. AU of these vines are nov/ 
in as good condition, for aught we 
can see, as wdien they first came into 
bearing. The next Spring ( 1844) Mr. 
D. Kelley brought a quantity of Ca- 
tawba cuttings from the garden of 
Judge P^ly, of Elyria. These he dis- 
tributed in much the same manner 
as before, and were the first Cataw- 
bas planted, and are still in as good 
condition as any of the younger vines. 



^# 



Jnti^i 18^. 



^KEg FIRE tAMS PIONEEK. 



41 



Up to this date no idea had been 
entertained of raising grapes for mar- 
ket, or of making a business of it — 
the object being merely to pLant suf- 
ficiently to insure a plentiful supply 
of fruit in its season for their own 
wants. It was not supposed proba- 
ble that there would be a market for 
an)^ large surplus, consequently it 
was of no use to provide for a con- 
tingency which was not likely to 
happen. 

In the Spring of 1845 Mr. Charles 
Carpenter bought the farm owned by 
Horace Kelley, on the west end of 
tlie Island, and where he still resides. 
He, too, soon commenced setting 
grapes, and in two or three years had 
more vines set than any of the older 
inhabitants. Still many doubts were 
expressed as to the practicability of 
making the business profitable — so 
many going into it, the market, it 
was said, would be glutted, and as the 
fruit was perishable, all which could 
not be sold in season would be lost. 
As to making wdne, we were told on 
all hands that we could not make a 
wine that would keep, or be market- 
able, from grapes grown so far North. 
The ball was now in motion, howev- 
er, and the surplus product was be- 
coming larger every year, and some- 
thing must be done to save it, if it 
could not be disposed of. 

In the year 1850 the writer made 
a barrel of wane, as being the readi- 
est way of disposing of his suii)lus 
crop; and as the question whether 
the wine would be good for anything, 
or whether it would possess keeping 
qualities, was likely to become of 
some importance and could only be 
decided by the test of actual experi- 
nient, we resolved to keep some of 
it long enough to decide the matter. 
This wine was called very good when 
it ^vas two years old. We have some 
of it at this present writing, and it is 
now much better than it was when 
two years old, and better than some 
of the same kind now on hand which 



is ^Ye years old. We, therefore, con* 
sider the question as settled to our 
entire satisfaction, and now press all 
our surplus product with entire con- 
fidence in the result. 

Another thing resulted very dif- 
ferently from what was anticipated. 
Instead of the market being glutted, 
it was found that the demand in- 
creased faster than the supply and 
that it was much easier to sell grapes 
in 1855 at ten cents per pound than 
it was in 1846 at five cents, w^hicli we 
then considered rather an extrava- 
gant price. 

Even as late as 1854 the quantity 
of land set to grapes was very small. 
The business was then confined to 
but comparatively few individuals, 
and these old settlers, who were grad- 
ually extending their vineyards. No 
subdivisions of farms had then taken 
place with the \iew of increasing the 
number of producers. Tlie first move 
in this direction took place in the 
Fall of 1854. At that time there 
were a number of intelligent Ger- 
mans employed on the Island, some 
of whom w^ere from the wine dis- 
tricts of the Old Country and w^ere 
familiar with the business as there 
conducted. They soon began to ob- 
serve and to remark that gi'apes did 
as well here as in Germany, and were 
disposed to buy land and engage in a 
business ^Yith. which the}^ were fa- 
miliar and which they could make 
much more profitable than ordinary 
labor. 

The first actual sale of land, exclu- 
sively for vineyard purposes, was 
made by Mr. Addison Kelley to Jo- 
seph Shebley, on the 26th of October, 
1854. The quantity was five acres at 
fifty dollars per acre. The fiicts soon 
became known to the entire popula- 
tion, owing to what was then sup- 
posed such an extravagant j)rice for 
land on an island, and Mr. Kelley 
was taken to task by some of tlie 
wise ones for his extravagant views 
as to the value of land. This, how- 



.% 



-^ 



THE FIBE LANDS PIONEER. 



JunCy 1863. 



ever, did not disturb liim at all. He 
merely remarked that it was only for 
tlie imrpose of getting a vineyard 
ttartxjd in that locality that he was 
induced to sell at anything like that 
ligure; that one year's crop would 
more than repay the whole outlay, 
and, moreover, that he would not sell 
to exceed five acres to any individu- 
al, and, also, that the next sale would 
be at a higher ligure. However ex- 
travagant these assertions appeared 
at tlie time, it was soon evident that 
Mr. Kelley was right in his estimate 
of value, and likewise that he was in 
earnest. Soon after this, within a 
very few days at least, he sold five 
acres each to Louis Beaty and Au- 
gust Sheidley, at sixty dollars per 
acre, with the understanding that no 
more could be had at that price. 
This seemed to settle the matter, and 
other Sides soon followed — each suc- 
cessive sale at an advanced rate — 
fieventy-five, one hundred, one hun- 
dred and twenty-five dollars, and so 
on. Messrs. Fred. Shippel, Thomas 
Jlosch, and others, being purchasers, 
and all of the above named purcha- 
sers are now in very easy circum- 
htances — the result wholly of their 
own labors. By this time the epi- 
demic had become general. Sales 
were made all over the Island 
at constantly increasing rates. Al- 
most every one was affected, more or 
less, by the grape fever — the symp- 
toms at times ran liigh, and in some 
severe cases it was feared that the 
patients exhibited unmistakable ev- 
idence of aberration of mind. But 
the result has shown that those who 
were considered the A\aldest in their 
views came the nearest to the truth. 
In fact, the most extravagant notions 
ever entertained as to the future of 
tiie grape business, have been more 
than realized. What the effect will 
be of last year's experience remains 
to be seen. Up to that time nothing 
like a check in the onward progress 
of events had been experienced. It 



was well understood that grapes in 
other localities were- subject to cer- 
tain contingencies — such as early or 
late frosts, rot, &c., which rendered 
the crop at least uncertain. We had 
been looking every year, since the 
commencement, for the rot, or some 
other casualty, by which the crop 
would be cut off; but for eighteen 
years nothing had occurred in the 
way of disease to mar our plans in 
the least; and as to unseasonable 
frosts, we knew we had nothing to 
fear on that score. We were just 
getting settled down into the belief 
that we were likely to be as exempt 
from disease as from frosts, and there 
was a tendency to indulge in more 
extravagant notions as to the future 
than had ever before been dreamed 
of 

The season of 1862 opejied as usual. 
Everything was progressing as favor- 
ably as could be desired. The grapes 
had attained nearly half their size 
and everything promised well for a 
fine crop. Suddenly it was discov- 
ered that the rot had api)eared in 
some vineyards, destroying half the 
crop in an incredibly short space of 
time. Other vineyards were not ma- 
terially affected. Some days elapsed 
without any very material change; 
then the disease made another visit- 
ation cutting off nearly all the 
fruit in the vineyards, first affected 
and seriously injuring those not be- 
fore materially disturbed. It was 
now feared that the entire crop would 
be wholly cut off. From this time 
until the fruit had attained its full 
size it could be perceived that the 
disease had not entirely disappeared 
— and all had prepared themselves 
for the worst. But when the season 
for harvest arrived it was found that 
the case was nothing like so bad as 
had been represented. Some vine- 
yards, it is true, yielded comparative- 
ly nothing; others half a crop, and 
some perhaijs more than that. So, 
that in the aggregate the crop proved 



'une, 



1863. 



teE I'iRE LAiJDS PIONEEfe. 



4& 



more remunerative than any ordina- 
Yv farm crop could be under the most 
favorable circumstances. 

The question now is, whether this 
disease is to be a regular visitant 
hereafter, or whether, like the chol- 
era, it will, after sweeping through 
our vineyards, as it did last season, 
disappear altogether for ten, fifteen 
or twenty years and then appear 
again in the same mysterious man- 
ner. Tliis is a question time only can 
decide. In the meantime the busi- 
ness will be pressed with as much 
vigor as heretofore.. Arrangements 
are being made to set as many or more 
vines this season than ever before — 
enough at any rate to swell the ag- 
gregate amount in vineyard to at 
least six hundred acres. If we es- 
cape the rot this year, the amount set 
next year will far exceed that of any 
previous year. If the rot again troub- 
les us, the next move will bo to find 
some substitute for the Catawba not 
subject to rot. Vineyards will not 
be abandoned on any considerations. 

Perhaps it will be expected that in 
connection with the history and re- 

*Patent Office Report, 1861. 

Note.— The article here referred to is necessarily omitted for want of room. It will doubtlnsa appear in a fatuie 
volume; — Editob. 



suits of the grape experiment, we 
should give the system of training, 
&c., which has been adopted here 
and Vv^hich has been productive of 
results so highly satisfactory. We 
have done this elsewhere* sufficient- 
ly in detail for all practical purposes, 
and as Ave have seen no reason to 
change our views in any essential 
particular, since that article was pub- 
lished, the reader is respectfully re- 
ferred to that for further details. 

In the foregoing sketch nothing 
further has been attempted than a 
plain and simple narrative of facts 
and occurrences as they have come 
under the observation of the writer. 
It has been compiled almost wholly 
from memoranda, made by himself, 
during the last twenty-five years, as- 
sisted by his personal recollections. 
He has also availed himself of the 
public records of the Township in all 
cases where they threw any light on 
the subject. It is confidently be- 
lieved that the statements may be 
relied on as being substantially cor- 
rect in every essential particular. 



MEMOIRS OF TOWNSHIPS— HARTLAND. 



BY E. J. WALDRON. 



NAME OF TOWNSHIP. 

The original name of the Township 
was Canterbury. It was attached to 
Clarksfield till 1826 ; at which time it 
was organized into a separate town- 
ship and received the name of Hart- 
land. The name was suggested by 
Nathan Miner. 



NATIJEAL APPEARANCE. 

The north and west parts are gener- 
ally level, with considerable low or 
swale land. The south and east part 
more rolling. The timber was 
white, black and burr oak, black wal- 
nut, wliitewood, white and black ash, 
hickory, beech, maple, <fcc. No per- 



^4k 



BO 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



ceptible change in timber since its 
first settlement. 



son.. 

Tlie soil is principally clay loam; 
yet in some parts, especially a ridge 
in the second section, is quite sandy, 
mixed with gravel. So in other places 
bordering on or near the river. 

MARSHES. 

One generally known as the "Can- 
terbury Swamp," is some two and a 
half miles long, varying in width from 
40 to 150 rods. Another near the 
centre of the Tov/nship, called the 
"Cranberry Marsh," probably con- 
tiuned 100 acres. In an early day the 
fruit of this marsh was a few cran- 
berries and plenty of massasaugers. 
Then there was the "Bear Swamp," 
the "Grape Swamp" and a goodly 
number of cat swamps. Some x>arts 
of those large swamps or marshes 
have been reclaimed and are consid- 
ered to be the best of lands. 

STREAMS. 

The Vermillion River passes 
through the south-eastquarter of the 
Township into the Township of 
Clarksfield. Indian Creek rises in 
the south-west part of the Township 
and enters the Vermillion River near 
the east line. Brandy Creek rises 
near the centre of the Township, be- 
ing the outlet of Canterbury Swamp, 
passes through the north-east part of 
the Township, through the corner of 
Clarksfield and enters the Vermillion 
River in Wakeman Township. It is 
said its name originated from the 
color of the water. 

WILD ANIMALS. 

Of wild animals, we had the bear, 
deer, wolf, wild cat, oppossum, rac- 
coon, ifec. There were not many 
bears; deer were very plenty; 
wolves and wild cat were in abund- 
ance. We also had very large droves 
or flocks of Avild turkeys. 



Well do we remember the sport we 
had with our unerring ritle in taking 
those famous birds and converting 
them to our own use. 

FIRST SETTLERS. 

William and Alva Munsel came 
into the Township in the Spring of 
1817; built themselves a cabin; 
chopped and burned the brush, and 
planted corn amongst the logs, on 
what was called the Buckley Tract. 
The piece of land that they occupied 
was afterwards known as the Old 
Briar Patch. It lies on the Medina 
road, and is now owned by Elijah 
Bills, Esq. It seems that they left 
the same Fall. Daniel Bills and Ja- 
red Tolls came in about the same 
time. Daniel Bills settled on the 
Ridge on the farm lately owned by 
Daniel Miner. He planted the first 
fruit trees that were put out in the 
Township. He now resides in the 
Township of Clarksfield. Jared Tolls 
also settled on the Ridge on the farm 
that is now owned by Lucien Taintor. 
-Elijah Bills came in the Spring of 
1818; settled on the Ridge on the 
same place where he now resides. 

THE FIRST BIRTH 

Was a child of Jared Tolls, in the Fall 
of 1818. I cannot ascertain any par- 
ticulars. 

THE FIRST MARRIAGE 

Was Elijah Bills to Miss Mary How- 
ard, on the 2d day of June, 1822, at 



the rcwsidence of the 



bride's 



father, 

John Beatty. Esq., officiating on the 
occasion. Tney are now both living 
and reside on Hartland Ridge on the 
same lot that they commenced their 
married life forty years ago. 

FIRST DEATH. 

Jared Tolls was the first person 
that died in the Township. He died 
in the Fall of 1818, and was buried 
on the farm where he lived. A small 
apple tree sprout was set at the head 



June, 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



51 



of the crave, which is now a large 
tree. There being no lumber to be 
had, the wagon box of Daniel Bills 
was nsed to make his coffin. His 
death was caused by eating toofree- 
Jy of wild plums. His family soon 
left the place, and their whereabouts 
is not known to the writer. 

The second death that occun*ed 
was that of Joseph Waldron. He 
was born near Boston, Massachusetts, 
February 7tli, 1753 ; emigrated to 
Bristol, Ontario County, New York, 
in 1801. From there he removed to 
Hartland, Huron County, Ohio, in 

1821, where he arrived on the 2d day 
of June and settled on the Bidge on 
the place that is now occupied by B. 
T. McCormick. He died June 19th, 

1822. His was the first funeral ser- 
mon preached in the Township, and 
was preached by the Rev. David 
Marks, being his first sermon on a 
funeral occasion. He was the first 
one deposited in the burying ground 
on Hartland Ridge. 

The writer well remembers, when 
a boy. of hearing his grandfatiier re- 
late his adventures and sufferings 
while in the Revolutionary War. He 
was present at the firing of the first 
gun at Lexington ; was at the battle 
of Bunker Hill, and afterwards taken 
prisoner and kept on board a British 
man-of-war for two years. He had 
three sons, all of whom were in the 
war of 1812. Sylvester, Stephen and 
Joseph. Sylvester came to Hartland 
in 1819, and died in 1847. Joseph 
came in 1821, and is now living in 
the Township of Townsend. Stephen 
(the writer's father) is now living in 
the State of New York, being 83 
years of age. 

EDUCATION. 

The first school-house was built in 
the Fall of 1821, on the corner of 
the Taintor farm, on the ground that 
l'^ noAv occupied as the Ridge Bury- 
ing Ground. The size was 16 by 20 
J^, with puncheon floor. The door 

•Congregational.— Editob. 



and seats and writing desks were 
made of the same materials ; and in 
the absence of glass we used greased 
paper for windows. 

The first school was taught by Cy- 
rus Munger in the Winter of' 1821 
and '22. The tuition was paid by 
those sending to the school, in pro- 
portion to the number sent. Those 
that sent to school were, Josiah Kil- 
burn, William HoAvard, Daniel Bills, 
Samuel White, Nathan Miner and 
Joseph Osgor. 

Common Schools, from that time 
to the present, have been well sus- 
tained and cared for by the inhabit- 
ants of the Township. Lyceums are, 
and have been, held in good repute. 
As to libraries, the writer can speak 
more particularly for School District 
No. 3 with fraction of Bronson at- 
tached. We concluded to have a li- 
brary, and soon raised forty-seven 
dollars to buy books with ; organized 
and appointed a committee to make 
the purchase, who discharged their 
duty to the satisfaction of those in- 
terested. A general interest was 
taken and books were added to the 
library as they were needed. 

RELIGIOUS. 

The first sermon preached in the 
Township was delivered b}^ the Rev. 
Lot P. Sullivan, of the Presbyterian 
order,* Agent of the Bible Society, 
who distributed Bibles, — some of 
which are extant at this day. 

The first regular preaching was by 
the Revs. True Pattie and James 
Mclntyre, in the Summer and Fall of 
1821, at the dwelling house of Joseph 
Waldron. After the school-house 
was built, preaching was removed to 
that place. 

The first Religious Society was or- 
ganized by the Rev. Leonard Hill, in 
1832, at the house of Peres i\Iiner,in 
the third section of the Townsliip. 

Tlie first Sabbath School was or- 
ganized by the Rev. TVue Pattie, 
Agent of the Sunday School Union, 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863^ 



in 1834. From that time Sabbath 
Schools have generally beenkept up, 
and at the present time, at least, are 
in a flourishing condition. 

T'-'mporance Societies have been 
formed at ditierent times and on dif- 
ferent plans. They flourished for a 
season and then died away. There 
is not an}' Society organized at the 
present time, that we are aware of. 

ORGANIZATION. 

The first election in the Township 
was held at the school-house on the 
Ridge in April, 1826. Eli Barnum 
and Daniel Miner were chosen Clerks 
and Nathan Miner, Josiah Ivilburn 
and Allen Mead, Judges of Election. 



The result of the election was — Dan- 
iel Miner, Clerk of the Township ; 
Nathan Miner, Josiah Kilburn, Jesse 
Taintor, Trustees ; Libeus Stoors, Jas. 
White, Overseers of the Poor; Elijah 
Bills, Libeus Stoors, Fence Viewers; 
Libeus Stoors, Allen Mead, xVpprais- 
ers of Property; xUlen Mead, Lister ; 
Allen Mead, Treasurer ; Arthur Ilow^- 
ard, Constable ; Nathan Miner, Dan- 
iel Miner, Supervisors of Highways. 
Notice was given, at this time, for 
the election of Justice of the Peace, 
to be on the 24th day of May, 1826, 
at the school-house; at which time 
and place the election was held, 
wdiich resulted in the election of Eli 
Barnum, Justice of the Peace. 



MEMOIRS OF TOWNSHIPS— NEW LONDON. 



BY A. D. SKELLINGEE, M. D. 



NAME OF TOWNSHIP. 

The name of the Township has 
neverbeen changed. Itw^as so called 
from the fact that the original pro- 
prietors lived in New" London, Con- 
necticut, Messrs. Nathaniel Richards 
and Nathan Douglass. 

NATURAL APPEARANCE, &C. 

It is generally level — slightly un- 
dulating, and m the south-east por- 
tion it may be considered rolling. 
Originally it was all timbered with 
beech, liard and soft maple, white, 
black and some yellow oak, black 
walnut, elm, hickory, bass wood, 
white wood, white and black ash. 
There has been no change in the for- 



est, beside the great disappearance 
by use. The soil is good and pro- 
ductive, being clayey, or marl, ^^ith 
an excess of clay, and some portions 
are more sandy. There are no stone 
quarries, or mineral, chscovered in 
the towmship worthy of mention. In 
the fourth section, at an early dav, 
there was a small cranberry marsh, 
which is now nearly reclaimed ; there 
are no portions which may not be 
rendered tillable. It has two streams 
— one the east branch of the Vermil- 
lion River, and East Creek, a Inanch 
of the west branch of Black River — 
both running northwardly. 

In the forests w^ere many black 
bears, a few wolves, deer, raccoon 
ott^r, sable gray fox, wild turkeys, 



JunCy 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



53 



}>eaver, wild cat, hedgehog, and fish- 
ers or pekans. For several years af- 
ter the llrst settlements, deer and 
turkey were not plenty; but in- 
creaijed in numbers for years — the 
deer coming on from the townships 
from the east, and the wolves follow- 
ing^. Owing to the scarcity of ani- 
mals fit for food, the pioneers had to 
rely principally ui^on the cereals for 
tiupport; and as there were no mills 
within a great distance, they fre- 
quently sufiered much for provision 
till they could raise more grain and 
pork. In 1822, turkeys and deer be- 
came quite abundant. 

ANCIENT REMAINS. 

There are no mounds or fortifica- 
tions. Peculiarly shaped stones, with 
a hole in them, for slinging, and used 
by the Indians for skinning animals, 
were found. Many arrow heads have 
been ploughed up, though none wor- 
thy of a place in the Historical Cab- 
inet, as relics, can now be procured. 

INDIAN TRIBES, &C. 

The red man of the forest had no 
villages in the Township; yet some 
transient hunters of the Delaware 
and Wyandot nations frequented the 
early settlements for a few years. 
They, as a general thing, were very 
friendly, and gave no trouble or occa- 
sion for alarm. 

THE FIRST WHITE SETTLERS. 

Mr. Abner Green, wife and family 
were the first white persons that set- 
tled in New London. He came with 
his family on foot, having no team, 
and brought on his back all the farm- 
ing utensils, cooldng apparatus and 
household furniture that he possessed 
in a chest taken from Gen, Proctor,, 
and located on Lot No. 10, third sec- 
tion, near the north-west corner of 
^aid lot, a little to the south and east 
of the present residence of Mr. Ze- 
lotes Ban-itt, in the month of Feb- 
ruary, 1815. It was on this spot that 



Green erected the first house in the 
Township — a small log cabin, cov- 
ered with basswood bark for a roof • 
made a small clearing and planted 
the same — some two or three acres 
— to corn that same coming Spring, 
and had a good crop. 

Green was a Revolutionary soldier. 
He also served in the capacity of Ser- 
geant during the war of 1812. The 
State of Vermont was the place of 
his nativity. His wife, a Mrs. Yan 
Deusen, was a widow lady and moth- 
er of several children at the time she 
was married to Mr. Green. (It is one 
of the Yan Deusen girls that will be 
again noticed, when we come to the 
proper place, as having figured quite 
conspicuously in the early history of 
Nevr London romance and tragedy.) 

Mr. Green lived in the Township 
for six or eight years, and then moved 
to the southern part of Ohio, and 
died about the year 1826. His death 
is supposed to have been from the 
eff'ects of his wounds received in the 
battle of Fort Maiden, under Gen. 
W. H. Harrison. 

August 15th, 1815, Mr. Hosea 
Townsend, from Tyringham, Mass., 
came into the Township and took up 
Lot No. 23 in the third section ; re- 
mained a short time and returned 
again to Massachusetts. He will be 
more particularly noticed after his 
permanent settlement, March 28th, 
1816. 

In November, 1815, Mr. Isaac P. 
Case and family, Mr. Simeon Munson 
and family, Mrs. Porter (mother to 
Mrs. Elizabeth Scribner) and Philo 
T. and Aurora Porter, (two brothers,) 
Sherman, Austin and Major Smith, 
(three brothers — young men ; Major 
was but six years of age,) came to 
New London and all settled in the 
third section of the Township, from 
the State of Connecticut — though 
more recentlv from Springfield, Clark 
Co., Ohio. 

Still later in the Fall of 1815, John 
Hendry and his brother Thomas, from 



54 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



Brighton, Monroe Co., N. Y., and also 
their cousin, Anthony Hendry, from 
near Crooked Lake, Wayne Co., K 
Y., and their families, settled as fol- 
lows: Johii on LotNo. 23 in the sec- 
ond section, Thomas on Lot No. 18 in 
same section, and Anthony on Lot 
No. 13, third section. 

March 28th, 1816, Mr. Hosea Town- 
send and his brother, Hiram Town- 
send, accomjDanying him, returned 
from Massaclmsetts and oegan the 
improvement on the same lot wiiere 
Mr. H. Townsend now resides. Hi- 
ram Townsend remained in New Lon- 
don and ^^hacJielored iV with his 
brother for two years, and then w^ent 
to Greenwich Township, w^here he 
still remains. They came all the way 
from Massachusetts with an ox team, 
and were fifty-two days on the road. 
When at Cattaraugus Creek they 
overtook David Gibbs and Henry 
Lockwood and their families, who 
were on their way to Norw^alk, and 
had lost their team through the ice, 
and one child by sickness. 

The Townsend brothers left Flor- 
ence early on the morning of the 
28th, and did not stop to feed their 
oxen till they got to New London — 
the team being the first that ever 
came over the road, w^hich, of course, 
for much of the distance, was noth- 
ing more than blazed trees; and as 
the feed was quite good in the woods, 
they were turned loose in "God's 
first temple." They brought with 
them the irons for a ploAv, which was 
the first ever put into New London 
soil — being used to work on the road 
that Fall, on a small hill south of 
where Wdliam Pressor now lives. 
Also, apple seeds, which were plant- 
ed the same year. They immediate- 
ly, with a firm resolution to succeed, 
made the dense wilderness resound 
with the sturdy strokes of the axe 
and the crashing and thundering of 
falling timber; erected a small cabin 
— cleared and planted to corn about 
four acres, the first season, a portion 



of which was fed to the oxen — some 
sold to the Indians at one dollar per 
bushel in English specie, (crowns,) 
worth $1,06 ; and another division of 
it w^as sacredly reserved^ and iloured 
in a hand mortar, as their chief pab- 
ulum of existence. 

Mr. H. Townsend w^as originally 
endowed with a ^dgorous and healthy 
physical system, a resolute and de- 
termined mind, and endured the hard- 
ships, privations and trials incident 
to pioneerage, far better than many, 
as is evinced by his possession of 
more than one thousand five hundred 
acres of good land in Huron County. 

January, 1816, Mr. William Sweet 
and family, from Brighton, Monroe 
Co., N. Y., settled on Lot 15, third 
section, wnere William Prosser now 
resides. He remained in the Town- 
ship for several years — made quite 
an improvement, planted an orchard, 
&c., and moved, I think, to some 
place between Milan and Sandusky 
City, and died a few years sin-ce. As 
a man, he is said to be distinguished 
for his retentive memory. 

In July, 1816, John Corey and fam- 
ily settled on Lot No. 7, fourth sec- 
tion, and erected the first log house 
within the present limits of the in- 
corporated village of New London, 
where John Earl now resides. He 
was from Steuben County, N. Y. 

About the same time, Ricliard Bai- 
ley settled on Lot No. L fourth sec- 
tion, where James McClave resides. 
I know nothing of his history, more 
than that "Old Dick" was' consid- 
ered a very great hunter and expert 
trapper for furs. He moved awav. 
^February 22d ,1817, Henry Ander- 
son, from Livingston Co., N. Y., and 
Mrs. Kussell, her sons Alcott and 
Charles, from the same county, came 
to New London. During this year, 
Paul Pixley and Ariel Pixley, his 
son and their families, Irom Brighton, 
N. Y.; Nathan Munson, Stephen Post 
and A. Miner, from New York, came 
and located as follows : Anderson set- 



June, 1SG3. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



55 



tied on Lot No. 18, tliird section, and 
now lives on the same; Mrs. Russell 
settled on Lot No. 7, third section ; 
Ok'ott lived vrith Anderson ; Paul 
Pixley settled on part of Lot No. 7, 
third section; Ariel Pixley, settled 
on Lot No. 10, third section ; Stephen 
Post settled on Lot No. 18, third sec- 
tion. 

In the Si)ring of the same year 
(1S17) Josiah Day and his brother 
John, young men, from Madison Co., 
N. Y., came to !New London; also, 
Ezekial Sampson and family, and 
WiUiam Merrifield and wife. Josiah 
Day settled on Lot No. 25, first sec- 
tion, where he continued to live till 
Ills death, October 14th, 1855. He 
was Justice of the Peace at this time. 
During his life he was singularly pe- 
culiar in his economy, but strictly 
honest in all of his transactions, even 
to the last half cent. His sons still 
reside on the old farm. John Day 
settled on Lot No. 20, second section. 
He lived in the town for several 
years ; moved to the State of Illinois, 
and there died. Ezekial Sampson 
settled in what is now New London 
yiUage, William Merrifield settled 
in the second section of the Town- 
ship. His widow and children now 
live in Lorain County, this State. 

Joseph Merrifield and family, from 
Brighton, N. Y., came on in Julv, 
1817^ and settled on Lot No. 8, fourth 
section, (now in the village,) where 
J. 0. Merrifield (his son) now resides. 

At about this time, the settlement 
of New London became very much 
fetarded, and for several years only, 
a very few would venture to buy lots, 
^ it was considered unsafe — the title 
Jo the land being doubtful, owing to 
"ligations growing out of some ille- 
gality ^ of Richards' purchase while 
administrator of the Douglass estate 
Jii Connecticut, and the death of Nat. 
i/}dyard. 

FIRST BIRTH AND DEATH. 

Ou the 29th day of February, A. D. 



1816, unto John Hendry and wife 
a son was given ; but by the Provi- 
dence of God, or some other un- 
kiiown cause, it lived only a few 
months, and dying it died — being the 
first white birth, and also the first 
death, in the Township, and was bu- 
ried in the public burying ground in 
the 3d section. 

FIRST ADULT DEATH. 

Mr. Francis Keyes came to New 
London late in the Autumn of 1818, 
and early the next May his beloved 
wife died of consumption, and was 
buried a little to the south of John 
King's house, in the north part of the 
village. Deacon Sampson officiated 
in the funeral ceremonies. 

FIRST HYMENIAL TIES — AS FURNISHED 
BY MR. HOSEA TOWNSEND. 

Ira Blaclanan to Lovina Smith, Oc- 
tober 20th 1816, by E. Sprague, of> 
Florence. Justice of the Peace. 

Town Clark to Philotha Case, Dec. 
20th, 1816, by the same. 

Nathan Canada to Hannah Van 
Deusen, March 17th, 1817, bv David 
Abbott, J. P. 

Z. Norton to Cynthia Post, Oct. 14, 
1818, by J. P. Case, J. P. 

Enos Smith to Sally Sampson, Jan. 
5, 1819, by the same. 

Francis Keyes to Mrs. Elizabeth 
Scribner, July — 1819, by the same. 
U. Clark to Sally Day, Dec. 28, 1819, 
by the same. 

Peter Kinsley to Lydia Merrifield, 
March 13, 1820, by the same. 

John Hooker to Laura Anderson, 
March 23, 1820, by the same. 

MILLS AND MANUFACTORIES. • 

Mr. Isaac P. Case manufactured the 
first boots and s}ioes in New London, 
as early as the year 1815. 

The first mill that competed with 
the beech stump and spring-pole 
grinding, was erected between two 
trees by William Blackman, about 



66 



d^fiE ^nXE liA10)S PlONEfiR. 



June, 1863. 






X 



I' 



a 



the year 1826, consisting of two sand 
stones, with an upright shaft fastened 
near the edge of the upper molar, 
and turned by hand power. The 
next was a large " Horse Mill," erect- 
ed by John Bates, about 1S30, on Lot 
No. 4, fourth section. But as Bates 
/ died before it was finished, it Avas 
^, j^-moved to the village and run by J. 
i^j Seymour Merrifield. Farmers would 
'.. rattach their oxen — or horses, if they 
,> had any— and, in the course of the 
\> . ,day, grind four or five bags of grain. 
^J*\v"^" Tlie first grain taken from the 
l}" Townsliip was by H. Townsend to 
Mayson's Mill, near Uniontown, (now 
Ashland). The first flour and meal 
was in small quantities, obtained 
'^ -^^vl^from Florence. 

)i'f ^•- - / ^^^^ ^^'^^ ^^^^ ^^ meal (and part of 
v'^^i.*^ k'^-^* this was corn unground) brought to 
? - • ^ ?^" New London was by S. Munson and 
r [ y >^ Benjamin Hendryx, purchased at Owl 
'"-' '.'\^*^- Creek, near Grandville, about 100 
, J \S^ J^iles through the woods, around hills, 
'">'' \ over streams and through ravines, 
V V" . ^nd, for some of the way, with noth- 
ing but marked trees for a road, 
(Munson, having previously been a 
teamster in the army, made a good 
pilot for the trip.) They were gone 
nfteen days from home. Hendryx, 
^len they started, took one-half of 
all the provisions in the house. The 
settlers kept from starving, it is sup- 
posed, by anticipation — looking for 
the arrival of meal, as, it is said, there 
was not meal sufficient in the neigh- 
borhood to make one " bake kettle " 
loaf of bread ; and when it did arrive, 
had there been a practical chemist in 
the Township he could have made a 
fortune by extracting the m?^5Z! there- 
from — since it was not fit to feed 
horses. But dire necessity compelled 
them to receive it — to eat thereof, or 
starve ! In the year 1816 there was 
a great scarcity of salt, the inhabit- 
ants sufiering greatly, and some se- 
vere sickness, it was supposed, re- 
sulted from the privation. 
The first frame building— ^a barn — 



iCr 



th-' t\ 



V" 



was erected by L P. Case, near where 
John Miller now lives — size 24 by 26 
feet— in 1819. 

Mr. H. Townsend put up the first 
frame house in 1826. It is still in 
existence, and may be seen near his 
present dwelling. 

Mr. Samuel I)ay (father to Jo si ah 
Day and seventeen other children, 
twelve of whom are yet living,) put 
up the factory for making potash, in 
the year 1822. The salts were sold 
in Milan. 

The first lumber was puncheons, of 
which floors and coffins were made. 
The first sawing of lumber was ob- 
tained at Smith Starr's, in Clarksfield. 

FIRST STORE. 

Peter Kinsley was the first mer- 
chant. He kept prints, cotton goods, 
crockery, some tea and coffee, and 
(as it always has been an indispen- 
sible medicine in the town) some 
very good whisky. The goods were 
hauled by teams froni Milan. 

Cotton goods for shirts, 50 cents 
per y^rd ; some worked a week for 
enough for a pair of shirts — some 
paid in furs — some in specie — bits of 
money cut into pieces to make 
change, called cut inoney. An ex- 
pert hand would so cut a dollar as to 
make it pass for ten shillings. Coon 
skins were generally reserved for 
taxes. 

ORGANIZATION OF TOWNSHIP. 

The civil organization of New Lon- 
don was in 1817, and the first election 
was held at the house of William 
Sweet on the first Monday in April. 

William Sweet, 1. P. Case and — 

were Trustees; Sherman Smith was 
Township Clerk; H. Townsend and 

, Appraisers ; Philo T. Porter, 

Constable. Townsend acted as Lister. 

It may be proper for me, at this 
time, to state that the early records 
of New London were — many years 
ago — burned up, and much difliculty 



June^ 1863. 



JPHE J?1RK liA^S PlOKEJp. 



M 



exists in the way of ascertaining 
Bome facts. 

Kuggles, Clarksfield and New Lon- 
t\on acted together at the first elec- 
tions. 

We have no record of any Spring 
election in 1818. It is, however, con- 
ceded that there was no Fall election 
ill 1817— though in the year 1818 
Sherman Smith was Township Clerk; 
Porter, Constable ; Isaac P. Case, 
Justice of the Peace. 

Mr. Case was a native of Simsbury, 
Ct, and was born in the year 1772, 
March 19. He was the first magis- 
trate in the town, and by the old in- 
habitants is, to this day, pronounced 
the best. No man — not even for 
money — could obtain a summons or 
a warrant, unless " old 'Squire Case" 
saw proper to issue one. He con- 
tinued in office, as Justice, for tJiirty- 
tJtree years^ without intermission, and 
until his death, March 27th, 1851, in 
the 80th year of his age. 

The first State election was held in 
October, 1818. A. Miner, A. Pixley, 
and Benjamin Crampton, Judges; I. 
P. Case and S. Smith, Clerks. There 
were twenty votes cast at this elec- 
tion. 

The first Post Office was kept by 
Peter Kinsley, in the village, in 1821 ; 
but was soon moved to Tracy Case's 
house — Case becoming Post Master. 

We are unable to state who was 
the first mail carrier. It was carried 
on horseback from Florence to Un- 
iontown (now Ashland) once a week. 
Townsend informs me that " he be- 
lieves Dr. Baker, of Norwalk, was 
mail contractor." Before that time 
the first settlers procured their mail 
matter of Judge Jabez Wright, at 
Huron ; afterward from Norwalk, and 
still later from Florence. 
^ The first road opened was between 
Fitch ville and New London, by Mr. 
Read — called the ]\Iilitary Eoad, run- 
liiug from the south line of the coun- 
ty to the lake. It was probably 
opened during the war of 1812. The 



first road made by the settlers was 
in 1816, from Clarksfield to New Lon- 
don, near its present location. 

Peter Kinsley, iu tlie village, kept 
the first public house — or inn— for 
the weary, hungry and dry^ in the 
year . 

Dr. Samuel Day, (Thompsonian or 
Botanic) came to New London in 
1818. Dr. Christopher (Allopathic) 
commenced to treat the sick in New 
London in 1824, but with what suc- 
cess history is silent. 

In the year 1823 the dysentery pre- 
vailed quite extensively in New Lon- 
don — some thirteen or fourteen chil- 
dren died of it. 

The first lawsuit in the Township 
was for breach of promise, and was 
held at the house of Mr. Abner Green 
— I. P. Case, Chief Justice, presiding. 
Miss Margaret Van Deusen, (Green's 
. wife's daughter,) plaintiff, versus Mr. 
Henry Bates, aefendent. He made 
no valid defense ; but settled the con- 
troversy by giving to the said Mar- 
garet a horse. Soon after this, Mar- 
garet mysteriously left home — wan- 
dered in the wood till she came near 
the lake ; then back, from place to 
place, along the beautiful banks of 
the Yermilhon River, (some say on 
the Huron River,) her heart nearly 
broken by disappointment and her 
intellectual faculties deeply shroud- 
ed by fear and shame. She was ab- 
sent for several w^eeks. 

About this time, some industrious 
wood-choppers, at work near the riv- 
er, obtaining wood for the "Vermil- 
lion Iron Works," chanced to discov- 
er in the river a dead child! Tiiere 
were no papers in circulation at this 
day to publish the wonderful discov- 
ery ; no mails to carry them if they 
had been published ; yet it became 
at once known to a few — the old la- 
dies heard of the mysterious aifair, 
and from one to another it was com- 
municated with almost telegraphic 
velocity throughout the county 
Madame Iiuinoi\ quickened by an 



8 



«8 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



'^Jmie, 1863. 



' envious jealousy, with as many 
tongues as Argus had eyes, resolved 
not to be outdone by J/mxS^^5p^6'^o?^ 
in giving publicity to the discovery 
and the horrible wickedness perpe- 
trated. Time rolled on — rumors cir- 
culated, and foul suspicion accumu- 
lated; and old Inuendo became so 
audacious that he implicated Miss 
Margaret Yan Deusen in the tragical 
romance, " and doubtless," added he, 
" she is guilty of infanticide and must 
be brought to punishment." Forth- 
with he posted after the authority, 
and had her aiTOsted ! She was tried 
for the crime at the old county seat, 
below Milan, in the County Court. 
As to the particular testimony ad- 
duced, pro et con., during the trial, 
history is silent. But one thing is 
• certain, the jury returned a verdict 
of ^'' Not Guilty ^'^ without even leav- 
ing their seats. She being thus le- 
gally acquitted, it becomes the pleas- 
ant duty of the historian to record 
her innocence. One peculiarity re- 
mains to be noticed. Margaret 
brought the Hmt suit in New Lon- 
don TownsM])^ and the trial above 
referred to was tlte -first criminal 
suit in Huron County, 

In the year 1833, the wife of Thos. 
Hendryx became partially deranged, 
and, during the next July, 1834, she 
committed suicide by hanging her- 
self to a limb of an apple tree by a 
silk handkerchief, being the first 
murder committed in the Township. 
Iklr. Hendrj^x afterward went to Illi- 
nois and died. 

I am not able to learn that there 
have ever been any " extraordinary " 
natural events, by way of pestilence, 
severe heat or cold, drouths, rains 
and storms, unusual to most coun- 
tries. 

Mr. Hosea Town send put out a 
portion of his orchard in 1820 and 
finished in 1822. Mr. William Sweet 
put out his orchard in 1822. 

About the year 1835, Mr. John 
Miller introduced from the southern 



portion of Ohio the first improved 
breed of live stock, (Durhams,) be- 
ing descendants of the importation 
of 1817. 

In the year 1856, "the People" 
held an " Independent Fair," it being 
the first and only agricultural exhi- 
bition given in New London. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

The education of children has al- 
ways been a prominent feature in 
the character of the people of New 
London. A public school-house was 
erected on the east part of Lot No. 
3, in the third section, (near Mr. Geo. 
Bisseli's,) as early as the year 1816. 
Miss Sophia Case, daughter of Isaac 
P. Case, has the honor of being the 
first teacher. In her little log cabin 
college instruction was dispensed to 
fifteen scholars, at wages amounting 
to one dollar per week — the funds 
being raised by subscription. Miss 
Case continued to teach for several 
years, and was regarded as quite suc- 
cessful. She married Mr. Hosea 
Townsend, whom she is still instruct- 
ing. 

RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS, &C. 

In 1816, Mr. James Haney, (E. 
Methodist,) of Savannah, preached 
once in four weeks, in the same house 
where Miss Case taught the day 
school. He had the satisfaction of 
seeing his meetings well attended by 
some twenty-five or thirty listeners. 
A " Class " was formed the same year. 
Perhaps it should be called the' first 
church organized in the Township, 
The regular Baptists organized their 
church in the year 1818. Elder 
French dispensed the gospel to them. 

The first meeting house erected 
and dedicated to worship in the 
Township, was in the year 1829 — 
known as the "Mormon Temple." 
It was situated between Hooker's 
and Townsend's in the third section. 
Mr. John Carr and brethren perfect- 
ed the organization, by the aid of 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



60, 



many sisters. Elder Brackenbury 
was one of the major Prophets. 
They had an immense congregation ; 
Nourished for a few years, and with 
the Star of Empire — the destruction 
of the Temple — they are all gone to 
the setting sun. The next place, or 
meetinghouse, erected was the "Old 
Abbey," (Free Will Baptists.) Elder 
Thos. Carlton was the founder. It 
nourished for some twelve or fifteen 
years ; had about seventy members. 
1-Jut, alas ! this too has ceased to have 
an existence, only in the memory of 
man and the records of the past! 
Elder Carlton is believed to be an 
" Adventist " now, and living at York 
in Sandusky Co., Ohio. 

The Close Communion Baptist 
Church, in the village, was erected 
(though not then finished) in the 
year 1844. It now has about seventy- 
five communicants. 

The M. E. Church, in the village, 
was erected in 1845, and has about 
sixty members, twenty of whom, I 
am informed, "had better be South 
— to subdue the rebellion." 

There has also been (some thirty 
years since) a Disciple Church or- 
ganization, but it suftered the same 
fate that the Free Will Baptist 
Church did, and is now extinct. 
^ In the north east portion of the 
Township there is what is known as 
the Union Meeting House, erected 
in 1855 by Adventists, Protestants, 
Methodists, Disciples, Free Will Bap- 
tists, Christians, and United Brethren 
~;-and used occasionally for worship. 
There being so great a diversity of 
opinions among the inhabitants, 
no one denomination, at the present 



day is capable of great numerical 
strength. 

VILLAGE. 

The village of New London, for- 
merlv called King's Comers, is on 
the C. C. & C. R. R, forty-seven 
miles south-west of the city of Cleve- 
land, and was incorporated in the 
year 1853 ; has a healthy prosperity 
and great business facilities. 

VETERANS. 

Abner Green, Paul Pixley and 
Isaac Sampson w^ere soldiers of the 
American Revolution. Green died 
in the Southern part of Ohio about 
1826; Pixley in Rochester, Lorain 
Co., O., a few years since — some of 
his family are probably in that coun- 
ty; Sampson died in the "Far West." 
One of his daughters, Mrs. Merrifield, 
(widow of Wm. Merrifield,) resides 
in Lorain Co., O. 

The soldiers of 1812 are : P. T. Por- 
ter, Sherman Smithy I. P. Case, H. 
Townsend, Henry King, John Bu- 
chanan, Stephen Pond, and others. 
Smith and Porter served at Maumee 
Rapids, under Gen. Harrison ; King 
at Oswego, N. Y.; Case was Fife Ma- 
jor, under Gen. Vance. Case died in 
New London in 1851; Porter now 
lives in Wisconsin; Smith in Clarks- 
field; Townsend, Pond, Eang and 
others, and some of their families, are 
yet living in New London, O. 

For many of the foregoing facts in 
this history I am greatly indebted to 
John Miller and H. Townsend, to 
whom I am very grateful. 

[to be continued.] 



ThI m^ tA^i PIOKEER.' 



June, 1863. 



MEMOIRS OF TOWNSHIPS— RIPLEY. 



BY J. N. BROWN. 



The Township of Ripley was named 
after a Mr. Ripley, of Connecticut. 
Who he was is not certainly known. 
It is said that Mr. Ripley owned land 
in this vicinity and that the Town- 
ship received his name on that ac- 
count. 

The first settlement in this Town- 
ship was made a little earlier than the 
year 1S26, precisely when I have not 
ascertained. Some of the first set- 
tlers were advised by their friends 
not to look for a home in Ripley, and 
were very generously informed that 
they woxdd not live to see the time 
when Ripley wouldhe settled. For- 
tunately these predictions have not 
been fulfilled ; but many of the pio- 
neers have lived to see what was 
then one wild, unbroken forest — in- 
habited only by a few wandering In- 
dians — become the cultivated land 
of an industrious and prosperous 
community. 

The whole Township was formerly 
covered with a thrifty growth of tim- 
ber, or, in the lowest parts, with 
swamp bushes. Perhaps most of the 
timber was maple and beech, but 
there was also a great abundance of 
oak, ash, walnut, whitewood, &c. 

With respect to the number of su- 
gar majjles that were found in some 
parts of the Township, it is suflicient 
to say that the Indians chose this as 



their place to make sugar. Even af 
ter some white settlements had been 
made in this vicinity, there was one 
old Indian, called Stannatown, — with 
several others of his tribe — who used 
to make sugar on the same land that 
is now owned by J. Cobb, Esq., near 
what was called the Beaver Dam. 
In 1828 and '9 the sap troughs which 
he used were still to be seen. These 
troughs were of bark, and were con- 
structed in the following manner: 
The bark was first stripped from a 
tree, about half way round its trunk, 
in pieces some four feet in length. 
It was then tapered off at each end. 
After which, the ends were brought 
over together and bound to each 
other with bark strings. The trough 
thus constructed was between one 
and two feet long, and served the 
purpose for which it was made toler- 
ably well. 

All, or nearly all, the land in Rip- 
ley was first owned by the following 
individuals — all of whom were resi- 
dents of Connecticut, to wit: David 
Ely, who owned most of the first sec- 
tion ; Lewis B. Sturges, who owned 
most of the second section ; Abigal 
Burr and Joseph Darling, who owned 
land in the third section, and Isaac 
Mills, who owned land in tlie third 
and fourth sections. 

The first white settlement in the 



Jniie^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LAiiTDS PIONEER. 



61 



To\niship was made in the fourth 
^cction by Messrs. Moses Inscho, Jas. 
Dickson/StephenCase, Sam'l Case,D. 
l*r< >oinbeck and Aaron Service, with 
their families. These settled in the 
same vicinity, south of Delphi, near 
where the new State road now runs. 

The next settlement was made 
north of Delphi, in the third section, 
by the families of Abram Stotts, and 
of his sons, John Stotts, Isaac Stotts 
and WilHam Stotts. 

A few years later, as William Stotts 
was engaged in clearing his farm, a 
burning stub fell on him and killed 
hirn. 

Of the earliest settlers, the Stottses 
were from Virginia; the others were 
mostly from New York or Pennsyl- 
vania. 

It is probable that Mr. Inscho or 
Mr, Service i>lanted the first orchard. 

TJie first school in the Town- 
sliip was taught by Mrs. Harriet 
Russ, (formerly Miss Harriet Ed- 
wards,) daughter of Rev. Joseph Ed- 
wards, who was then li\ang in Green- 
field. The school was taught in the 
year 1827, in the fourth section of the 
Township, for the sum of fifty cents 
per week. The payment, however, 
was not made in money — that was 
pretty much out of the question, in 
those^ days ; but in labor, at clearing 
land. 

The first religious meeting was 
held at the house of Abram Stotts. 
Rev. Joseph Edwards was the first 
ordained minister who preached in 
the Township. He preached at the 
house of Mr. Stotts, in the year 1827, 
to a congregation of about twenty 
persons (seven families.) 

Previous to the year 1827, the fol- 
lowing persons had settled within the 
Township, besides those first men- 
tioned, to wit: James Lutts, Conrad 
j:'Utts, Simeon Howard, James Smith, 
Philip Wine Burner, Lazarus Evans 
and Michael Artman-the last of 
^'hom lived on the place which Aus- 
tin Talt now owns, These >^ere all 



the families in the Township at that 

time. 

The first election for Township of- 
ficers was held April 2d, 1827. There 
were 14 votes cast and 14 officers 
elected. All but one of the oflicers 
elected received 14 votes each, and 
he received 13. 

Simeon Howard was the first Jus- 
tice of the Peace elected. He was 
elected August 4th, 1827. He, how- 
ever, did not serve in that office ; but 
another election was held in the same 
year, (November 12th,) which re- 
sulted in the choice of Benjamin B. 
Holiday. He performed the duties 
of that office for some years. 

On the 15th day of the same month 
the first School Meeting in the ToAvn- 
ship was held. It was held in what 
was then School District No. 1, which 
comprised the south half of the Town- 
ship. 

Before the Spring of 1828, Thomas 
Walling, Ephraim Powers and Dud- 
ley Cobb were added to the number 
of settlers. The next settler. Rev. 
Joseph Edwards, had removed to 
Greenfield from the State of New 
York in the Fall of 1826, and came 
into this Township March 14th, 1828. 
His native State w^as Connecticut. 
He graduated with honors from Yale 
College, in 1806 ; then studied The- 
ology, and was ordained a Congrega- 
tional minister, and soon removed to 
Manlius, N. Y., and supplied the 
Presbyterian Church, where he re- 
mained until he came to Ohio. 

At this time (1828) there was but 
one road in the Township — that run- 
ning east and west from the Centre. 
Although this road had been cut, it 
was not yet improved ; so that it was 
impossible to travel far without turn- 
ing off" to avoid mud holes, stumps 
and other obstructions. The road 
north and south from the Centre had 
been cut some time before, for Gen. 
Harrison's army to pass through, but 
it was then grown up to bushes. The 
traveling was mostly done on horset 



THE FERE LANDS PIONEER. 



June^ 1863. 



back. The nearest trading post was 
New Haven. 

Tliere was also a mill, which did all 
tbo sawing and most of the grinding 
for the Township. When the water 
was not high enough to run this mill 
they used to take their grain to a mill 
in Kichland County, which was driv- 
en by horse power. In Winter, in- 
stead of going on horseback, they 
used rudely constructed "jumpers," 
made with the same piece of limber, 
answering for both runner and shaft. 
Instead of taking corn to mill to have 
it ground, people often grated it, and 
thus prepared it for baldng at home. 
At times provisions were very scarce, 
and some times seed could hardly be 
obtained for planting. 

The water privileges in the Town- 
8hii3 are very inconsiderable. Indeed, 
there has never been a water mill in 
it that has been in successful opera- 
tion for any gxeat length of time. 
The first mill that was erected within 
the limits of the Township was built 
over the creek south and west of 
Delphi, in the fourth section of the 
Townshii). 

The lirst Post Office was estab- 
lished about the year 1829. Eev. 
Joseph Edwards was the Post Mas- 
ter. The mail route was from New 
Haven to Ripley, thence to Green- 
Avich, and on tlu'ough Ruggies, Sul- 
livan, tfcc. A Mr. Inscho, from Green- 
field, was tJie mail carrier. 

TJiere were not very many Indians 
in the country then, though they 
were frequently seen wandering 
about in small bands of from three 
to six, or more, in each. They almost 
always rode upon ponies, carrying 
their i)appooses behind them. They 
were quite fond of fast ridinc:. Eveia 
tlie squaws manifested mucli skill in 
horsemanship. 

There was an Indian trail passing 
tlirough the Township which was 
said to lead to the Black Fork. In- 
dians often came through here on 
their way thither to hunt. This trail 



crossed the east Hne of the Town- 
ship, a little south of the road run- 
ning east and west from the Centre. 
Its bearing was somewhat south of 
west until it reached Plymouth. One 
was enabled to follow the trail by 
means of what were called " blazed 



trees,'' ^. e. 



trees which had had 



notches cut in them to mark the way. 
The early settlers used to follow this 
trail when they wished to go to Ply- 
mouth, as it was more direct than 
any road. 

There was once, for a short time, 
an Indian camp on the premises now 
belonging to J. Bare. There were 
formerly relics found, such as indi- 
cated that there had sometime been 
Indian camps at certain other places. 
At some places great numbers of 
flints have been found ; but I know 
of no very valuable curiosities which 
have been preserved. 

The following incident is related 
by a woman, Avho is still a resident 
of this Township. The circumstan- 
ces made such an impression on her 
mind that it is yet fresh in her mem- 
ory, though she was but a little girl 
when it occurred. She says : 

"Soon after we came here, three 
or four Indians came to our house 
and wanted to stay all night. Father 
told them they couldn't do so. They 
said one of their number was sick, 
and they must get under cover for 
the night. They all pointed their ri- 
fles at him. One peeked into the 
house and said, (for they talked some 
English,) ' We can stay as well as not. 
There are only £ve or six Utile fos- 
seps here.'' Father told them there 
was a pile of shingles not far ofl', 
where they could fix up a place to 
stay. He did not manifest any fear 
to them, but led them oiT where the 
shmgles were. As I looked out in 
the clear moonlight and saw father 
going ofl" with those Indians, I felt 
very sad, for I thought they would 
surely kill him. But by and by he 
came back, and as we had no door 



June-i 1863. 



THE FIRE LA]!0)S PIONEER. 



but a blanket, we all got up stairs 
and took our ax with us, and then 
pulled the ladder up. The Indians 
did not come near our house that 
night. They hooted and hallooed 
most all night. I guess they were 
drunk." 

From another woman I have the 
following story: 

" In 1828, my husband went to S. 
to visit a daughter who was living 
there. One little girl was left at 
home with me. She was very much 
afraid the Indians would come while 
fiither was gone. She was, almost 
all the while, watching for the Indi- 
ans over a certain hill where they 
were most apt to come. By and by 
we heard a gun crack, and in a mo- 
ment the Indians appeared on the 
top of the hill. The little girl was 
now in great fear. I told her she 
might go and hide in the wheat field 
if she wanted to. Finally the Indi- 
ans, one after another, turned up to- 
ward the house. They brought the 
turkey which they had just shot, and 
stayed till after the shower was over. 
They were quite friendly. They 
wanted to sell me the turkey. I told 
them I didn't want it. I finally gave 
them some flour for it." 

The same person says, that at that 
time the deer were so plenty that one 
could hardly ever go far out into the 
woods without seeing some of them. 
Benjamin Holiday, at one time, 
started to go from Abram Stotts' to 
Greenfield. He had not gone far 
when he saw a deer. He shot it and 
took it home. He set out again and 
found another deer, which he also 
shot, and even a third before he had 
finished his journey, which was but 
a few miles. 

There were formerly a great many 
ll beavers here, also. They built a 
large dam, which is known as the 
Heaver Dam. It is situated in the 
first section of the Township, and 
*nice caused from fifty to sixty acres 
of land tor be inundated. The first 



settlers supposed this land would 
never be worth anything ; but it has 
since been drained and rendered as 
productive as any. 

Wolves, too, were very plenty — 
too much so for the convenience of 
the inhabitants, to say the least. 
Children would often go out in the 
evening and howl like the wolves, to 
hear the wolves answer them ; and 
they were almost sure to be an- 
SAvered by them. One of the wolves 
would howl with a prolonged, digni- 
fied kind of a noise, and the others 
set up a yelping like a parcel of 
young puppies. The children used 
to imitate this arrangement quite 
well — one of them howling bass and 
the others yelping the other parts. 
The children of some of the families 
once called the wolves quite up to 
the door-yard fence in tliis way. 
They then retreated into the house 
rather hastily. 

But there was another animal 
which was, perhaps, quite as danger- 
ous a foe to encounter as the wolf. 
I speak of the wild hog. Tliis animal 
was at least more bold in the day 
time than the wolf. Mrs. Cynthia 
Paine (formerly Miss Cynthia Ed- 
wards) relates the following adven- 
ture with wild hogs. She says : 

"Once, while father, (Rev. Joseph 
Edwards,) sisters and I were out in 
the woods, we were surrounded, all 
at once, by a drove of hogs. They 
surrounded us and then rushed upon 
u§ from every direction, making a 
squealing terrific as though we were 
butchering them. We managed to 
get up a tree — which was almost bent 
to the ground — high enough so that 
the swine could not reach us. They 
kept up a continuous squeahng un- 
der us for some time, until our dog 
chanced to come to us. They at 
once left us and ran away after the 
dog. We then had a chance to get 
away from them." 

These incidents occurred before 
the year 1830. In the meantime there 



M 



OJHB FIRE LAKDS •PI0OT:ER. 



June,1^6S, 



had been some additions to the num- 
ber of settlers. Among these was 
Hezeldah Ketchum, who was for- 
merly from New York. Things ])ad 
already begun to assume the aspect 
of progress and to exhibit the first 
fruits of that industry and morality 
which has always characterized the 
settlement. 

In 1820, School District No. 1 was 
divided into two districts — one con- 
sisting of six families and the other 
of hut one—that of Rev. J. Edwards. 
For several years the family last 
mentioned furnished most of the 
teachers for the Township, and some 
of them frequently taught in the ad- 
jacent townships. 

A few years later, two churches 
were formed at about the same time, 
viz : The M. E. Church and the Pres- 
byterian Church. 

The fiTst Temperance Society was 
formed a little later than the year 
1830. It consisted of the family of 
Rev. J. Edwards. The following is 
a copy ol the Constitution and List 
of Members : 

FAMILY TEMPERANCE SOCIETY. 

CONSTITUTION. 

"This Society shall be composed of 
the parents and children, and such 
other members of our family as shall 
hereunto subscribe their names. 

*' In forming the Constitution, we 
pledge ourselves to observe the fol- 
lowing rules : 

" 1. We will use no ardent spirits 
ourselves, nor suffer the use of them 
in our families, nor present them to 
our friends, or those in our employ- 
ment, unless in cases of extreme ne- 
cessity for medical purposes. 
. " 2. Those of us who are, or here- 
after shall become heads of families, 
solemnly agree to teach our house- 
holds the principles of entire absti- 
nence, and to use our best endeav- 
ors to obtain their signatures to this 
Constitution. 

"3. A copy of this Constitution 



shall be pasted in our family Bible, 
to which our children (if any) shall 
be often pointed as tlie act of their 
parents, and we solemnh^ enjoin it 
on them, as they revere our memo- 
ries, sacredly to regard these our sen- 
timents." 

(Signatures,) 
JOSEPH EDWARDS, 
CLARISSA EDAVARDS, 
ELIZABETH A. DARLING, 
SARAH W. EDWARDS, 
HxiRRIET EDWARDS, 
. FRANCES H. EDWARDS, 
JOSEPH S. EDWARDS, 
CYNTHIA J. EDWARDS. 

A larger society was formed soon 
after, which was the outgrow^th of 
this one. Almost all the families in 
the Township became members of it. 
The meetings of tliis society were 
held in various parts of the Town- 
ship, at the dwellings of members 
until log school-houses had been 
built, when they were held in them. 
The society continued to grow, until 
it finally numbered more than one 
hundred members. 

It is owing to the efforts made by 
the early settlers to promote Chris- 
tianity, Temi^erance and Education 
that the Township has ever attained 
to the position it now holds in these 
respects. Since the formation of the 
first churches there have been, at va- 
rious times, very extensive revivals 
of religion in the Township. Several 
new churches have also sprung up. 
Profanity and Sab bath-breaking have 
always been looked upon as a dis- 
grace, and have never been practiced 
to any great extent. With reference 
to Temperance, it is only necessary 
to add that intoxicating liquors have, 
most of the time, not been exposed 
for sale anywhere within the Town- 
ship. 

The advancement made in educa- 
tion has exceeded the most sanguine 
hopes of tliose who labored for its 
promotion. As an illustration.of this, 






JuiUy 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



65 



it may be said that in some sections 
there is hardly an individual who has 
obtained sufficient age, but who has 
?;eon engaged, more or less, in teach- 
ing district schools. 

Such were we then, and such are 
we now. 

At the first election, in 1827, but 
14 votes were cast. The poll books 



have since numbered as many as 220 
electors. 

The log cabin has given place to 
the comfortable two-stor}^ house; the 
Indian trail to the imx)roved road; 
the unbroken forest has fallen before 
the white man's ax, and given place 
to many happy homes — both pro- 
ducts and nurseries of industry. 



MEMOIRS OF TOWNSHIPS— HUEON. 



BY E. W. WEST. 



Huron still bears its original name, 
taking it from Huron River, which, 
running through it in a northerly 
course, empties into Lake Erie about 
two and one-fourth miles west of its 
eastern line. Along the borders of 
the river and the creek, which emp- 
ties into it, the surface is considera- 
bly broken ; away from the river and 
coves it is less so, and some portions 
are quite level. 

Hie western and south-western 
portions of the township are prairie. 
Near and east of the river it is tim- 
bered land, the timber consisting of 
oak of different varieties, chestnut, 
walnut, elm, &c. The only change 
known in the timber is in the increase 
of it on the prairie-parts of the town- 
ship. Most of the belts or islands 
(as they are termed) of timber in the 
western part of thetownsliip, are the 
growth of the present century, or 
since the ceasing of the annual fires, 
which formerly overran the country. 
This growth consists of white and 
black oak, chestnut, hickory, white 
poplai*, &c. 



The prairie soil is a black, mucky 
loam ; on the east side of the river is 
a similar soil, inclining a little more 
to clay, aAvay from the shore. Some 
parts of the township are quite sandy 
— 'as on the roads leading south from 
the mouth of the river — and the 
prairie is also intersected by sandy 
ridges or islands. 

Huron River is the only stream of 
any considerable size in the town- 
ship. Fleming Cove and Ponce's 
Creek, on the east side of the river, 
and Mud Brook on the west, are 
small streams emptying into it. Red 
Brook, or Mill Brook, as it was some- 
times called, emptying into the east- 
ern end of Sandusky Bay, either on 
or near the farm of Myron Sexton, 
and Plum Brook, in the western part 
of the township, are small streams 
rising in or very near the south line 
of the township. Upon the borders 
of the river and the coves, are 
marshes, covering x)robably a thou- 
sand or more acres. These are un- 
productive and irreclaimable. For- 
merly much of these marshes were 



9 



fHE FERE LANDS PIOKEER. 



fune, 1861 



tillable lands, and it was only since 
the rise in the waters of the lake that 
the overflow has taken place. 

Cedar Point connects with the 
main land near or upon the farm of 
Myron Sexton. 

WilKam AYinthrop, of New York 
City, probably by fjurchase of the 
sufferers' claims, acquired the title 
to the entire township. Whether he 
was a descendant of the Winthrop, 
who was among those holding title 
by patent from King Charles to a 
strip of teiTitory extending through 
to the Pacific, is not known to the 
wiiter. He never resided in the 
township, though making frequent 
visits to it. The first of these jour- 
neys he made, on horseback; but 
this mode of travel was changed 
when steamboats began running on 
the lake. It is said that the high 
price at which he held the land op- 
erated against its early opening and 
improvement. 

Mr. Wintlirop died about the year 
1826, and the property he owned in 
Huron went, by will, into the hands 
of his nephew, Wm. H. Winthrop, 
who reduced the price of land so as 
to bring it more rapidly into settle- 
ment. 

- Wm. H. Winthrop lived east, eith- 
er in New York or Connecticut, 
where he died in 18G0 or '61. 

There is but little doubt that the 
French traders were the first white 
settlers, occupying the banks of Hu- 
ron River at a time considerably pre- 
vious to the Revolutionary War; but 
they disappeared prior to its present 
settlement, leaving little trace be- 
hind them, if we may except the 
name given to Ponce's Marsh and 
Creek, which may be a corruption of 
La Ponte or La Point. 

Of the present settlers, John B. 
Fleming was probably the pioneer. 
He was an Indian trader — a French- 
man by birth. He lived at the mouth 
of Fleming Cove on tlie place now 
occupied by Wm. Jeffrey. Tlie time 



of his coming is quite uncertain, but 
previous to 1808. In 1811 he married 
a daughter of Mr. Pollock, who lived 
near the south line of the town. He 
was in the army during the war of 
1812, — some say being employed by 
Gen. Harrison as scout, spy or inter- 
preter. His familiarity with the In- 
dian language renders this somewhat 
probable. Fleming died in the Spring 
of 1826 or '27, as is believed, leaving 
a wife and two children. Of their 
subsequent history but little is 
known. 

Jared Ward and family came into 
the township in 1808, living for a year 
on the Fleming place, when they 
moved into Milan. 

Judge Jabez Wright came here in 
the Spring of 1808 or 1809. Almon 
Ruggles and Jabez Wright surveyed 
the township into lots, the field notes 
bearing the date of 1810, which is 
probabl}^ the date of its completion. 
Mr. Ruggles built a house near Flem- 
ing's, which he occupied while sur- 
vejang. Mr. Wright located on the 
west bank of the river, some two and 
a half miles from its mouth, on or 
near the east end of the farm noAs^ 
owned by W. H. Wright. In 1815 he 
moved to the lake shore, about one 
mile from the mouth of the river, 
■jvhere he liveduntilhis death, which 
occun-ed in 1840. His death was 
caused by falling from the bank of 
the lake. Mr. Wright was born in 
1780, near Copenhagen, N. Y. In 
May, 1811, he married Miss Tamar 
Ruggles, in Vermillion. 

Of their five children, three are 
now living, AVinthrop H. and Rug- 
gles residing in the toA\Tiship. The 
voungest daughter, Mrs. Abagail 
Vance, resides in New Lisbon, Co- 
lumbiana Co. Lucy, the former wife 
of Col. J. W. Sprague, and Douglass, 
died in the township. 

Mr. AVright was elected as Justice 
of the Peace at an early period, but 
at what time is uncertain. He was 
one of the Associate Judfces of the 



^-i. 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



67 



Court of Common Pleas of Huron 
Co. From a very early day he was 
(lie agent for Mr. Winthrop, in the 
::ilc and care of his lands, and con- 
tinued the trust for William H. Win- 
tlirop to the time of his death. In 
\>-'l'2 he built the first brick house 
erected in the township, burning the 
brick near by. 

In November, 1809, Mr. Cyrus 
Downing and family, consisting of 
his wife and two children, came in 
and located on the lake shore, on 
land now owiied by ^V. H. AYright, 
where he lived till the Summer of 
1812, when he left in the flight caused 
by Hull's surrender, goin^ to Cleve- 
land, where he died the Winter fol- 
lowing. Mrs. Downing afterwards 
married Mr. Parker and lived in Mi- 
lan. The son, Geo. S., and daughter, 
Pamela, are both living — the former 
in the township, the latter in San- 
dusky Co. 

Mr. Geo. S. Downing, from whom 
many facts in this sketch are derived, 
names, among others, the following 
i^unihes, or individuals, as being here 
when they came, or very soon after; 
bnt the exact date of their coming 
is unknowm : Mr. Daniel Curtis and 
family, Jeremiah Daniels, (single 
man,) Mr. Tillotson and family, Mr. 
Del gam, Mr. Devon e, Azariah Bee- 
be and family. Mr. Curtis lived just 
north of where Judge Wright's brick 
house was afterwards built. He af- 
terwards bought on the ridge in the 
western part of the township, where 
his son, Harvey Curtis, now lives. 
Of their five children, Harvey is the 
ojdy one whose residence is known. 
♦>Ir. Curtis and wife have been dead 
j» long time. Harvey Curtis was, per- 
haps, the first white child born in the 
township, though a daugter of Aza- 
r»ali Beebe is a competitor for that 
distinction. 

^ Jereiniah Daniels had been en- 
P^Jged in carrying the mail from 
^ {eveland to Huron, making weekly 
tnps. At that time there was nei- 



ther bridge nor ferry betw^een the 
two places. He married Pamela 
Downing in the Spring of 1813, and 
settled on what is now known as,the 
Miner farm. 

Mr. Tillotson lived on Huron Riv- 
er, where Jeremiah Benschoter af- 
terwards lived. They left in 1810 or 
'11, moving into Berlin. Mr. Del- 
garn lived just below Tillotson's. 

Major Hiram Russell came in du- 
ring the Winter of 1809-10, and set- 
tled on the place now owned by Jas. 
Paxon. He built the house, still 
standing, (or apart of it, at least,) 
where Jeremiah Benschoter lived, 
occupying it as both tavern and store, 
having goods as early as the Summer 
of 1810. Russell and Sprague built 
a vessel of 30 or 40 tons, near his 
house, in the Winter of 1810-11, com- 
pleting her in the Spring of 1811. 
She was called the Croghan ; but of 
her history, little is known Russell 
built a second vessel, the Fair Amer- 
ican, wdiich he completed in the 
Spring of 1812 or '13. This vessel 
was sold to, or built for, the British 
government, being delivered to the 
agents at Buifalo immediately after 
her completion. Russell cleared a 
field, a part of which at least lay to 
the east of the present road from 
Berlin Centre to Huron, on the form 
formerly owned by William Elson. 
This field was afterwards abandoned, 
and when Elson began there, some 
ten or twelve years ago, was covered 
with a thick growth of chestnut^ 
white and black oak, wliite poplar, 
&c. 

The remark may here be made, 
that in the first settlement of the 
country the light openings land, such 
as this field was, and others hke it, 
in this and adjoining towns, Avas con- 
sidered as nearly or quite worthless. 
Russell left soon after the war, and 
little is known of his subsequent his- 
tory. He is supposed to have gone 
South. He had a wife, but no chil- 
dren. 



68 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



In June, 1810, Asa Smith came in 
\^dth his family. He had examined 
the country the year previous with 
a view to settlement in it. He loca- 
ted about a mile west of the river on 
the bank of the lake, living there 
until his death, Aug. 30, 1815. They 
enclosed a small piece of gTOund the 
first season, wiiich they planted to 
vegetables, and also ])ut in some 
peach stones which they brought 
with them, and from the' trees they 
produced, they had peaches in the 
Fallof 1SJ6. 

They had six children when they 
came to Huron — Elizabeth and Lucy 
Brown, daughters of IMrs. Smith by 
a former husband, (the former was 
married and did not come at the time 
the family did,) Wm. B., Sally, Nan- 
cy, Clara K. and Susan L. Two were 
born in Huron — Frederick F. and 
Hiram K. 

Lucy Brown was married in the 
Spring of 1813 to Lyman Miller, who 
died in the Autumn following. She 
is still living at Clyde, her present 
nauie being Pogue. 

Elizabeth (nowJMrs. Cole) lives at 
Monroeville, Huron Co. 

Wm. B. Hves at Sandusky; Clara 
and Hiram R. at Mansfield ; F. F., 
the first one born in Huron, was for- 
merly Sheriff of Erie Co. He died 
in Sandusky, October, 1859. Mr. 
Asa Smith was born in Massachu- 
setts ; his wife in Rhode Island, her 
maiden name being Hannah Rich- 
mond. They were married in 1795 ; 
lived for a time on Long Island; af- 
terwards in Romulus, Seneca Co.,N. 
Y. He there was one of the Asso- 
ciate Judges of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas. In 1811 he was elected 
Justice of the Peace, and a Mr. New- 
comb was either elected or appoint- 
sA Constable. 

Newcoml) hved near Lyme, and 
this shows the extent of jurisdiction 
of such oliicers at that 'time. The 
hardships and privations which they 
endured were similar to those of 



most of the pioneers. When the 
news of Hull's surrender reached 
them they gathered a few^ articles of 
household necessity together and 
hastily left, going as iar as Euclid, 
where they lived till the ensuing 
Winter, when they ventured back. 
Fears of Indian attacks kept them 
constantly on the watch, and the chil- 
dren frequently went to the woods 
to sleep, for fear of being attacked 
by them. For the first two seasons 
most of their breads tufi" was corn 
meal, prepared by being pounded 
in a mortar, dug from a log or stump, 
with a pestle attached to a spring- 
pole. The first milling that Mr. Smith 
had done was at Newburgh, going 
from Huron to the Cuyahoga in a 
small skiff", then back into the w^oods 
six miles where there was a small 
mill. 

The completion of the mill at Cold 
Creek in the Fall of 1811, was a re- 
lief to the settlements, as the pre- 
paring meal by pounding, must of 
necessity have occupied a considera- 
able time, aside from its inferiority. 
In 1817 Mrs. Smith and Wm. B. kept 
the tavern at the mouth of the river 
and also the Ferry. In 1818 she 
moved to Sandusky, where she built 
the first frame dwelling house put up 
in the place ; the lumber for which 
was sawed at Mr. Ruggles' mill in 
Vermillion. Mrs. Smith died in San- 
dusky, Aug. 30, 1812. Mr. Alfred 
Ruggles was here before the war, at 
first living about half a mile west of 
of the mouth of the river, afterwards 
going farther w^est, and building on 
the farm now owned by Mrs. Dale. 
He was a blacksmith, and worked at 
the business while here but left early, 
going to Portage county. 

Isaac Allen came to Huron in 1810 
or 1811, l)ringing with him a flock of 
sheep belonging to a Mr. Walworth 
of Cleveland, who sent them.iiere 
thinking they would do better than 
in the woods around Cleveland. — 
They were folded at night on the 



r 



June, 1863. 



THE FIKE LANDS PIONEER. 



69 



hii^h bank, (as it then was) of the 
lake, north and north-east of where 
tiic American House now stands. 
Owing to the difficulty of guarding 
them among the rank thick growth 
()t" the prairie, and the havoc made 
by dogs and wolves, they were soon 
returned. Abijah and Asahel Tyler 
and famihes came in and built a house 
near where Widow Dale lives, but 
they left in the llight after Hull's 
surrender, and did not return. Mr. 
Benton built on the shore, near the 
Wright place; Dorastus P. Snow also 
located near the same place. 

Alvin Coe, who afterwards became 
a minister, was here prior to 1810, 
and had a small improvement on the 
east side of the river opposite where 
Jabez Wright then lived. He left 
before Aug. 1812, just when is un- 
certain. Jonathan Sprague came 
into the townshij) with his family in 
1810, locating uj^on the east side of 
the river, about fifty rods below Del- 
garn's, upon or just north of the Ben- 
schoterplace. He was probably one 
of those who did the iron work for 
Russel's vessels; he left with his fam- 
ily in 1817, going south. His native 
place was probably N. York, though 
he came from Canada here. His son, 
Jonathan S. Sprague, was born in 
Upper Canada, in 1796, came to Hu- 
ron with his father's family in 1810, 
hving here until the Summer of 1817, 
when he married Miss Mahala Daily, 
<^>f Berlin, and went South with his 
father. Not being pleased with the 
country there, they returned about 
1S23, living for a time in Berlin and 
Townsend. In 1827, he again moved 
to Huron, locating upon the ftu-m 
now occupied by John Sprague, af- 
terwards buying the Standart farm, 
which he occupied until his death, 
which occured in January, 1801. Be- 
^idos serving the township in various 
''tiices, he was for eighteen vears a 
Justice of the Peace. Without the 
advantages of even a common school 
^'ducation,he yet managed to acquire 



the elements of it so as to enable 
him to transact business both accu- 
rately and speedily. His mind was 
a treasure house of pioneer incidents 
and experiences, and it is unfortun- 
ate for the sketch of Huron Town- 
ship, that it was not gathered before 
his death. His widow still occupies 
the homestead. Seven of their nine 
children are living, five of them in 
the township, and tlie other two have 
but recently removed from it. Abi- 
jah Hewitt came in before the war, 
and built on the ridge in the west 
part of the township, near where 
the lower road to Sandusky leaves 
the ridge. Hewitt and a Mr. Mont- 
gomery built a vessel, a deck boat of 
30 or 40 tons, on the north side of 
the ridge, intending to draw it into 
the channel in the center of the 
marsh, and get it into the lake by 
way of the bay, but in the Spring it 
was too wet to do so, and it lay on the 
stocks until June, Avhen teams were 
gathered from all tlie country aroimd, 
and it was drawn southeasterly about 
a mile ad a quarter, crossing red or 
mill brook, some distance above the 
upper road, then north and north- 
easterly until it reached the lake 
near where W. H. Wright now lives. 
They took this circuit to follow the 
prairie, and to get above the hills 
each side of the creek. About forty 
yoke of cattle were employed in the 
moving, which occupied about two 
days; some of them coming from 
Pipe Creek, some from Blooming- 
ville, and others from Avery. This 
was, as some say, in the Spring of 
1816, others place it later. Her build- 
ers were neither of them men of verv 
large means, and as iron was both 
scarce and high, but little was used 
in her construction, and she was 
known about the lake as the wooden 
vessel. For some violation of the 
revenue laws, she was seized and sold 
by the U. S. Government. Mr. Hew- 
itt lived at a later time upon a farm 
in Portland,* afterwards living in San- 



♦Perkins. — Editok. 



70 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



dusky City, where he died a number 
of years ago. A son, Wm. Hewitt, 
lives in Cleveland. 

Esquire jMomson and John Wheel- 
er came in during the Spring of 1S12, 
and erected a small brewery and dis- 
tillery near Fleming s. During the 
■war tiiey were connected with the 
army, as commissaries or contractors 
for supplying it with i)rovisions. 

About 1819 or '20, Mr. Wm. Win- 
throp had a saw mill built on Mill 
Brook, wdiich being burnt down, af- 
ter a few years, was rebuilt by Swift 
and Baker, and shortly sold to J. S. 
Sprague. The supply of water Avas 
too limited to make it of much ser- 
vice to the settlers. 

The first lumber was probably pro- 
cured from the mill built by Mr. Rug- 
gles, on Chapelle Creek. Subse- 
quently mills were put up on the Old 
Woman Creek in Berlin, from which 
and from Milan the first settlers got 
their supply. 

As before noticed, the earliest 
grinding was done at Newburgh, then 
at Cold Creek, then at the mill on 
Chapelle Creek. 

John B. Fleming opened the first 
trading establishment in the town, 
selling mostly Indian goods and bu}^- 
ing furs. Hiram Russell kept a small 
stock of goods, beginning as early as 

1810. In 1816 Sanford & Graham put 
up a store on the east side of the 
river, near where Isaac Collins now 
lives. Orlo and Artemadorus Tuller 
and Lyman Farwell brought in the 
first salt for sale, in the Fall of 1810. 
The price then, and for several years 
after, was ^20 per barrel. 

The first election held in the town- 
ship was probably in the Spring of 

1811, at the house of J. B. Fleming, 
What officers were elected is uncer- 
tain, though it is probable that Asa 
Smith was elected Justice of the 
Peace. Voters came from Pipe 
Creek, the head of Cold Creek, from 
Vermillion and Eldridge, and possi- 
bly from nrence. Among those 



recollected as being there are Mr. 
Jeremiah Benschoter, Mr. Dunbar 
and Mr. Tillotson. 

When the county of Huron was 
organized, Milan and Huron were at- 
tached, under the name of Huron, 
and for a few years the elections 
were held either at the old county 
seat or at a school-house near Mr. 
Philo Adams. Milan being set oil' as 
a separate township, Huron was or- 
ganized in its present form in 1820, 
and the first township election was 
held at the house of Jeremiah Dan- 
iels. Twelve voters were present at 
that election and thirteen officers 
were to be elected. Philo Adams 
was elected Justice of the Peace in 
1821, being the first one elected af- 
ter tlie present organization. 

Accounts are not very definite as 
to who kept the first Post Office. 
Fleming, xilmon Buggies and Hiram 
Russell are named as holding the of- 
fice. After Sanford & Graham be- 
gan business the office was at their 
store. Jeremiah Daniels had been 
engaged in carrying the mails, from 
Cleveland to Huron, previous to 1809. 

The first road opened was on the 
east side of the river, running south. 

Hiram Russell commenced keep- 
ing the first public house as early as 
1810. 

Dr. Ansolem Guthrie was the first 
physician here, coming in 1813. He 
lived at Mr. Russell's. He remained 
here till about 1817, when he went 
to Canada. 

The first lawsuit, of which any ac- 
count is had, was in the Spring of 
1812, before Esq. Smith, between An- , 
thony Doyle and Thomas James, suit 
being brought by the former for 
slander. 

It is difficult to ascertain the facts 
in relation to the first school. Ac- 
cording to one account, Alvin Coe 
taught school in the Winter of 1810- 
11; but if so, his scholars probably 
were few. The account published 
that Miss Tamar Ruggles taught du- 



Sune\ 1863. 



THE I'IBE LANDS PIONilEiV. 



tl 



ring the Summer of 1810, is pro- 
nounced incorrect by her friends, 
who aver that she never taught, ei- 
ther liere or elsewhere; 

In the AVinter of 1815 a school was 
tought in a cooper shop, on the old 
Chapman farm, by Frederick Chap- 
man, w^hose salary was paid by a rate 
bill. Among the scholars were the 
Winters boys, (two of them,) three 
of Stephen Russell's children, from 
Flum Brook, two from Mi*. Curtis and 
tlie children of Asa Smith. 

It is a matter of uncertainty w^hen 
or where the first religious meeting 
was held or the first sermon preached, 
though they were held as early as 
1811. 

Alvin Coe was accustomed to take 
the lead of religious meetings, and 
was in the habit of making addresses 
to them, and it is supposed that after 
his license as a minister, he was the 
first preacher to address a Huron 
congregation. Meetings were held 
at private houses, and afterwards in 
school-houses where most conven- 
ient. 

A Congregational Church was or- 
ganized at Spears' Corners in 1818, 
called the Congregational Church of 
Huron. This afterwards became the 
present church of Milan. 

In 1820, Rev. Lot B. Sullivan was 
engaged to preach one-half of the 
time, services being held in the 
school-house near Mr. Philo Adams. 

The present Presbyterian Church 
was organized in 1835 by Rev. Messrs. 
Conger X.Betts andEverton Judson. 
Eli HolHday and Richard Morrill 
were its first ruhng Elders and Dea- 
cons. Their first minister was Rev. 
J. W. Beecher; after him, succes- 
sively, Rev. Messrs. Fitch, Smalley, 
Bunton, Cole, Tavlor. Their present 
pastor is Rev. F. Z. Rositer. Their 



first house of worship was built in 
1839, which they occupied till 1853, 
when their present edifice was built. 

During the latter part of 1837, or 
early in 1838, Rev. T. M. Leaven- 
worth, an Episcopal clergyman, be- 
gan his labors in Huron, with a view 
of organizing a church. In May, 
1838, the church was fully organized, 
by the name of Christ Church, Hu- 
ron, and at the first election the fol- 
lowing persons were elected Vestry- 
men : John B. Wilbor, Robt. White, 
John W. Wickham, S. P. McDonald, 
P. B. Bill, John Fleeharty, Tower 
Jackson, G. S. Patterson, Dr. Joseph 
Caldwell and Dr. D. G. Branch. J. 
W. Wickham Senior Warden; S. P. 
McDonald, Junior Warden ; G. P. 
Robinson, Secretary. Their church 
edifice of brick w^as erected in the 
Summer of 1838. Mr. Leavenworth 
left during the Summer of 1838. and 
w^as succeeded by Rev. Mr. Cleve- 
land, who remained but a few months, 
leaving about January 1, 1839. In 
May, 1839, Rev. Samuel Marks took 
charge of the parish, and is still their 
minister. 

In 1833 a Baptist Church was or- 
ganized by Rev. William All good. 
They held their meetings, for a time 
at least, in the school-house at Gran- 
ger's Corners. By reason of deaths 
and removals this church did not 
flourish — becoming dormant. This 
was followed by a Free Will Baptist 
Church ; but of its organization or 
history, no data have been obtained. 

About five years ago the Baptist 
Church was reorganized, and Rev. 
Mr. Morgan was employed as their 
minister. They purchased the meet- 
ing-house formerly owned by the 
Presbyterian Society. I^lr. Morgan 
remained less than a year, and they 
have had no minister since. 



72 



THE FIKE IiANBS HONEEll. 



June,' 1S6S. 



EARLY TIMES AND INCIDENTS IN VERMILLION. 

ADDITIONAL. 



BY THE HON. BENJAMIN SUMMERS. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE TOWNSHIP. 

From the circumstance that in the 
earliest record extant the ear-marks 
which the earliest settlers in Flor- 
ence and Vermillion townships had 
caused to be recorded, are drawn off 
in the hand writing of Harlow Case, 
step son of Almon Ruggles; and 
then follow others, for Vermillion, in 
Ruggles' own hand, as Township 
Clerk, it is probable Judge Ruggles 
had been Township Clerk of the two 
when together, and that the earliest 
records had been made on loose pa- 
per;, and that when the Record Book 
was obtained he did not transcribe 
the doings of the Township Board, 
but only the ear-marks, which were 
deemed too important to be lost. 

Stephen Meeker, Jeremiah Van 
Benschoter, Peter Cuddeback, John 
Beardsley, James Prentiss, William 
Austin, Almon Ruggles, Rufus Jud- 
son, and Francis Keyes, are amongst 
the names most frequently men- 
tioned in the earliest records as hold- 
ing the most important ofhces. 

The first record of a Township 
Meeting is in the hand Avriting of 
Judge Ruggles, and was held at his 
residence on the Cth day of April, 
1818. when Almon Ruggles was elect- 
ed Clerk ; Peter Cuddeback and Jas. 



Prentiss, Judges of Election ; Fran- 
cis Keyes, John Beardsley and Rufus 
Judson, Trustees; Jeremiah Van Ben- 
schoter and Horatio Perry, Overseers 
of the Poor; Peter Cuddeback and 
Francis Keyes, Fence Viewers ; Pe- 
ter Cuddeback, Lister and Appraiser, 
and Stephen Meeker, Appraiser ; Pe- 
ter Cuddeback, Treasurer; George 
Sherarts, Francis Keyes, Wm. Van 
Benschoter, and James Prentiss, Su- 
pervisors. 

Mr. Cuddeback seems to have car- 
ried off the TioiioTs of office on this 
occasion, probably without pledges 
to the dear people, or opposition, as 
the emoluments were nothing and 
the public crib empty, or not yet 
built; or, rather, it evidences the wil- 
lingness with which he bore the huv- 
thens of a poor community; for it 
was resolved, soon after, "that all 
township officers perform their duties 
free of expense to the township." 

To the Yankee settlers the Ger- 
man and Dutch names were a source 
of wonder and amusement. On that 
subject an anecdote was told about 
our enterprising early pioneer, Jere- 
iniah Van Benschoter, which was 
usually pronounced Benschooter. A 
gentleman came from the South to 
Slilan, in search of a man living off 
somewhere towards the lake, and he 



JunSylSGS. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEERr 



73 



had forgotten the name. Several 
persons were naming the settlers liv- 
inir in that direction; but without 
success, till at length one says, "What 
does the name sound like? Can't 
you think of something sounding like 
it ?" After reflecting a moment — 
" Why, yes ; it sounds something like 
Buffalo, C attar ag us and Lake ErieP 
"Jeremiah Van Benschooter, by 
!" exclaims the lucky interroga- 
tor — and it was all right. 

An incident which occurred on the 
receipt of the first copy of the laws 
by the first Justice of the Peace, 
(James Prentiss.) is as follows: The 
settlers, having immigrated from 
various States, on hearing the Laws 
had arrived, were anxious to hear 
what they were in the new State of 
their adoption ; so several of them 
went up in the evening to hear the 
law. Esq. Prentiss, beginning at the 
first page, read on till it was time to 
adjourn for home, and an interesting 
time it must have been. Closing the 
book, a death-like silence reigned a 
short time, when one of them shook 
his head ominously, with the excla- 
mation, "Yell den, it ish tam crook- 
ed," and again shaking his head, "tam 
straight too" — which being unani- 
mously earned, they adjourned, well 
satisfied with their evening's pro- 
gress in the knowledge of the law. 

The following copy from the rec- 
ords will be interesting, as indicating 
the relative wealth in cattle, horses 
and houses, of the citizens in 1818, 
taken from the township records : 

TAX LAID ON THE INHABITANTS OF VER- 
MILLION, ACCORDING TO THE LIST OF 

1818. 

Job C.Smith, $0,30 

John Miller, 50 

CurtissHard, __ 30 

Isaac Ransom, 28 

John Eeardsley, 60 

John Bartow, 30 

Jonah Bartow, _ 10 

Mark Summers, ..- 20 



Eli Winton, .-.....-_.^. 10 

Enoch Smith, . ^ 20 

Philo AVe]ls,__-_ . 70 

Robert Wells, 90 

Levi Piatt, 30 

Almon Keeler, 50 

George Sherarts, 90 

Joseph Brooks, 20 

Jonathan Brooks, 80 

Horatio Perry, 70 

William Austin, 70 

James Cuddeback, 40 

Eunice Sturges, 60 

Josiah Pelton, 60 

James Prentiss, 40 

Rufus Judson, 80 

Solomon Parsons, ^ 20- 

Jesse Ball, 60 

Almon Ruggles, 1,50 

Benjamin Root, ' 30 

Abraham Traxel, 30 

Samuel Hall, 40 

Samuel W^ashburn, 70 

Stephen Meeker, 1,70 

Henry Scribner, 10 

Alexander Duker, 90 

Francis Keyes, 60 

Isaac Tillotson, 40 

Isaac Tillotson, Jr., 30 

Jeremiah Y. Benschoter, 70 

Henry Chevov, 70 

Wm. v. Benschoter, 40 

Daniel V. Benschoter, 50 

Reuben Brooks, 10 

Martin Judson, 40 

Yerney Judson, 30 

Peter Cuddeback, 1,10 

. Amount,-. $23,20 

This also indicates the number of 
people subject to taxation and tlieir 
personal property — as 5 cents here 
represent one head of cattle, and 20 
cents a horse. Meagre as it appears, 
it was as difficult for them to pay it, 
and much more so, tlian for us to pay 
what we do at this day. 

FIRST LITERARY SOCIETY OF VERMILLION. 

Some time in the winter of 1820- 
21, (if I remember correctly,) having 



10 



u 



'tttE FTRE LAiO)S PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



heard of debating societies, several 
of the b'hoys agreed to hold a debate. 
We met, by agreement, in the old 
deserted log cabin of Rufus Jiidson, 
on the shore. We had- a comfortable 
fire — some hickory bark for lights— 
a bench and one or two dilapidated 
old chairs for seats. The crowd con- 
sisted of Capt. Josiah S. Pelton, Pres- 
ident; Charles P. Judson and Jonah 
Bartow, Jr„ on the affirmative ; Bur- 
ton Parsons and Benjamin Summers, 
opposition. It being thelirst trial of 
our oratorial powers, and as we were 
not very confident of our skill in 
such matters, we had not invited the 
neiglibors as spectators. 

The question for discussion was 
one very many times adopted for 
such occasions in early times and 
suited to our supposed capacities. 
"Which are the most useful to man- 
kind -Horses or Cattle ? " Cattle led 
off. It is unnecessary to give the 
reasoning, j^ro and con. Suffice it to 
say, the Ml of man — eating the for- 
bidden fruit — the materials — work- 
man, or workwomanship of our first 
mother's efforts at needle-work, with 
the expulsion from the garden — the 
deluge — Babel, &c., all came in from 
one or tlie other side, as pertinent to 
the issue ; and after an hour or two 
of amusement, tremendous thrusts 
and skillful parries, the- President 
gravel}^ told us w^e had spent most of 
our ammunition wide of the mark, 
and wound np with an argument 
against horses and giving the cattle 
the victory. 

Unpromising as was this first sly 
effort at debate, it grew to be an in- 
stitution, and at its meetings in after 
years many young men found tongue 
who would otherwise have been 
greatly surprised at their own voices 



in meetmg. 



DRESS. 



Tlie dress of the pioneers, up to 
1820 and later, was usually, for the 
males, dressed deer sldns for pants 



and home-made flannels and linens 
for shirts and coats, with a wool hat 
or coon skin cap. Fulled cloth lor a 
dress coat v/as common, and as con- 
veniences multiplied, the deer skin 
pants w^ere superseded by w^oolens, 
with large patches of deer skin cov- 
ering each knee, and seated with the 
same — that is, the woolen would be 
worn for special occasions till holes 
came in the knees and seat, and then 
they were rigged with the skins for 
every-day wear, and would do long 
service. The deer skin pants were 
an excellent dress, and warm and 
pleasant in dry w^eather ; but in the 
water they became elongated to 
twice their dry length. 

An amusing incident took place at 
the hanging of the Indians at Nor- 
walk for the murder of Gibbs, &c., 
near Sandusky.* A young man wa- 
ded through the long wet prairie 
grass, between Huron and Norwalk, 
to see the hanging, and his si^eed be- 
ing much impeded by his pants drag- 
ging under his feet, he cut off and 
cut off at the lower end, till arriving 
atNorwalk, ahotJunesun soon dried 
his pants and they shrunk up to some 
distance above the knees, and he be- 
came almost as much an object of 
curiosity as the Indians themselves. 

At that time, common satinelt for 
a pair of pants cost SI,50 ; for a coat, 
^6,00; vest, ^1,25; trimmings and 
making, say $(3,00. Two shirts of 
common cotton, §54,00 ; shoes and hat, 
S3,00 — equal to §20,25 for a very plain 
suit; and a young man might possi- 
bly pay for them with three months' 
labor. This was not to be thought of 
by the great majority of settlers who 
had families to support, farms to clear, 
buildings to erect and lands to pay 
for. 

1 The dress of the ladies (for they 
were as truly ladies then as now) 

♦NoTK. — The ludiiin Omeok, one of the two who mur- 
dered Gibbs and Buell near Sandusky, was executed at 
Cleveland in 1812, before Huron Co. was organized. 
Those hung at Norwalk connuittod the murder on the 
Peninsula. — Editor. 



June^ 1863* 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



75 



v^-as, for every day, common tow and 
linen, and home-made plaid ilannels, 
with a caHco dress of very moderate 
(linieiisions for special occasions. 

The small folks, in many families, 
rolled about in almost primitive nu- 
dity, and enjoy eji it hugely. 

The ladies, however, would contrive 
various little ornaments, and would 
generally appear rather prettily 
dressed. 

♦ THE WOMEN. 

The women of those times bore 
their full share of all the hardships 
incident to pioneer life, and although 
their names do not come down to us 
on the public records, either as states- 
men or officers, their noble acts of 
hospitality — their Avatchings by the 
cot of the dead and dying- — their al- 
most universal encouragement of 
virtue, and condemnation of vice — 
their patience under privation and 
suffering, and their never-tiring in- 
dustry and self-denying economy, en- 
title them to everlasting respect and 
reverence. 

GASTRONOMY. 

Tiie most primitive method was 
l>ounded corn wet to a batter, placed 
on a chip and baked before the great 
fire of the pioneer, with venison, 
hear, raccoon, turkey and hog to 
match, and no better johnny cake 
was ever eaten, or better suppers 
provided, hungry hunters and wood- 
choppers and half lumished children 
being judges. Next came the bake 
kettle, with its great iron cover, set 
<^n coals and coals heaped on top — 
nialdng a new era in housewifery. 
Tlien followed a tin reflector, which 
^vould bake, roast and broil ; and as 
frame and brick buildings supersed- 
<*d the log hut, good brick ovens, and 
lastly, the stove, with all its various 
^'ulinary conveniences. 

BEAR STORY. 

It would scarcely be just to Ver- 



million not to record one hunting ex- 
ploit, or bear story. Therefore, as a 
sample of frontier life, take the fol- 
lowing, which occurred in my im- 
mediate neighborhood: 

In the early Spring of 1819 or '20, 
Deacon John Beardsley's boys were 
cutting the small brush, which were 
very thick in the ^Adndfall on the 
south side of the marsh in the south- 
east part of the township. 

As the boys (Philo, Smith and 
Clement) were going to their work, 
they heard a strange noise in the 
brush, and Philo and Smith declined 
going on ; but Clement, the younger, 
insisted on searching out the cause 
of the noise, and against the remon- 
strances and orders of the elder ones, 
persevered till he found an old bear 
and three cubs bedded under a large 
log, or tree, which had fallen across 
another tree. Some one was dis- 
patched after help, now the game was 
discovered. 

There were but two or three hun- 
ters residing in the neighborhood, 
and they were all gone from home. 
Whereupon Mr. Amason Washburn, 
recently from Connecticut and who 
hadnever hunted, with his sonWheel- 
er, a lad of 14, and a large dog of 
his, together with some fifteen or 
twenty women and children, gath- 
ered for the conflict. The children, 
as they arrived, having amused them- 
selves with irritating Bruin with 
sharp sticks, which would bring lier 
out, with a growl, a few feet, when 
the care of the little blind cubs 
would call her back. Arrived on the 
ground, Mr. Washburn, sensible of 
his own nervousness and inexperi- 
ence with firearms, assigned to the 
lad the duty of firing at the bear, 
while he, armed with an ax, would 
"pitch in" as circumstances might 
require. The boy, at eight or ten 
paces distant, aimed for the sticking 
point, and probably made a good hit. 
The Qog pitched in and was soon 
TioTS dii GOtnbai in Bruin's stout em- 



76 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June^ 1863. 



brace, Washburn advanced to the 
rescue ; but thinkin^^ it a pity to in- 
jure the skin by a blow with the bit 
of the axon the back,letdriveather 
head, which she dexterously dodging 
aside, the blow fell on the ground, 
when she let up the dog and made 
off— bleeding profusely. The dog 
being disabled, matters rested for 
several hours, till Mr. Enoch Smith, 
an old hunter, came with another 
dog, wdych, being set on the track, 
soon came on the game; but he got 
so warm a hug that he also came off 
disabled. The old bear Avas never 
found. The young ones were tamed 
and made us quite familliar with the 
habits of bears. And thus ends this 
very singular bear story, which is, 
however, literally true. 

WOLVES. 

The new settlements were much 
infested by the large grey wolves, 
which frequently made night hideous 
wdth their homd bowlings. 1 have 
racked my brain in contriving how 
to give the present generation an 
idea of the horrid discords made by 
a pack of them. Convene a modern 
brass band, let them strike at once 
or as quickly as convenient the most 
discordant notes of an eight octave 
instrument, and that is one wolf, 
multiply that by five, ten or twenty, 
and you have a pack in concert as 
nearly as can be any way not wolf, 
may be a little exaggerated. 

WOLVES AND COURTING. 

Notwithstanding the dangers of 
the way, the boys would go '' spark- 
ing" in those early times, and verified 
the old Roman poets assertion, which 
Englished means, young folks will 
manage to enjoy each other's society, 
though Uvsually rendered "love con- 
quers all." As in those days of one- 
roomed houses,such interviews could 
not well be had in the day time, the 
night w^as appropriated to devotions 
at Cupid's altar, and a blanket thrown 



across a few chairs between the beds 
of the family and the big fire place, 
improvised a snug and warm private 
room, where Bill and Kate could 
whisper their loves, and lay plans ibr 
future happiness. One of them^ re- 
turning during the small hours of the 
night irom such a visit, afoot, (for 
horses were scarce and such recon- 
noissances were performed without 
cavalry,) had a mile or more of woods 
to pass through, and finding by the 
howling that a wolf was on track — 
being unarmed — and not considering 
a roost on a tree for three or four 
hours on a cold winter night as ver}^ 
desirable for a featherless biped, 
made haste to get through. The 
wolf gained fast, though often stop- 
ping to howl for help; and just as 
our hero bounded ofi" one end of a 
log bridge of 30 or forty feet span, 
the wolf set up a terrific howl at or 
near the other end of it, which " set 
each particular hair on end," 

" Like quills upon the fretted porcupine;" 

and if ever he did any tall running 
it was then; being just through the 
woods, the wolf left and he realized 
that 

" He that runs, and runs away, 
May live to run another day." 

ANOTHER WOLF STORY. 

About 1818, Stephen Smith, a small 
but active batchelor, wishing to go 
from the residence of Judge Meeker, 
on the lake shore, to Esq. Barnum's, 
in Florence, a distance of five or six 
miles, and return early enough in the 
morning so as to make no inroad on 
his daily wages, procured a horse and 
set off in the earlv part of the even- 
ing. There was a bridle path through 
the woods, but, in the gathering dark- 
ness, he lost it, and finally became 
entangled in the brush and grape 
vines, then growing in a thinly-tim- 
bered tract back of Judge Eugirles', 
known as Ruggles' Vineyard. Much 
to his annoyance, he was soon sur- 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



77 



rt:>unded by a noisy pack of wolves. 
His horse became so restive and his 
unwelcome visitors so clamorous, he 
judged it Lest to tree fur the night. 
So, tying his horse, he made the best 
jipeed he could up a middling sized 
hickory, and after attaining a safe al- 
titude, as he supposed, found a pro- 
jection, on which he seated himself, 
and clinging with arms and legs 
around the trunk, held on for dear 
life, cojigratulating himself that 
though not a very agreeable roost 
on a cool September night, still it 
was better than a berth Avithin the 
hungry maws of a pack of wolves. 
The wolves would approach the horse 
and the foot of the tree, snapping and 
growling, and then go alittle way off 
nnd raise their demoniac howl for 
more help, at intervals, throughout 
the night. At the first streak of light 
in the East they decamped, leaving 
Stephen safe and sound, and as it be- 
came li^ht enough to begin to dis- 
cern objects, and he gained assurance 
that the wolves had indeed left, he 
prepared to descend again to earth ; 
when lo! on attempting to extend 
his limbs downward, he found, to his 
inexpressible surprise and chagrin, 
that he had been sitting all night on 
a small projection at the foot of the 
treCj not having ascended at all ! 

BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Capt. William Austin was one of 
the earliest settlers, and located 
about half a mile west of the mouth 
of the river. He boasted that he 
dandled Commodore O. H. Perry, 
the hero of Lake Erie, on his knees 
while a babe. He made nineteen 
consecutive yearly voyages to the 
hanks of Newfoundland, thence to 
•"^pain and home again to New Lon- 
don, Ct., before he came to Oliio, and 
mostly as captain. He was a man of 
much energy, and built one of the 
hrst boats ever launched from these 
chores, and sailed her before and 
during the war of 1812. He built 



the first stone house in Vermillion, 
in the year 1821. His social qualities 
w^ere of the most genial kind — but 
his long absolute control of his de- 
pendents made it very unsafe 
to cross his path. His rule aboard 
ship was to have every thing in its 
xdace, and the least deviation from 
rule by an inferior, was visited with 
certain punishment. 

Of the strictest veracity, he would 
never admit of flatteries, and was as 
outsi)oken and abrupt as honest. On 
an occasion wdien his man attempted 
to get a favor by appealing to his 
pride, and saying to him how oblig- 
ing and clever a man he was consid- 
ered to be. " Clever," said he ; " clev- 
er! CLEVER!" "so is the devil so 
long as you please him," and the mat- 
ter was settled. He was a full be- 
liever in premonitions and warnings 
from some unseen agents, and said 
he had never to meet any unusual 
danger without being timely warned 
of its approach. I will relate two 
incidents. His warning always came 
in the shape of a raving white horse, 
and generally in a dream. Once as 
he was returning to this continent, 
the ship maldng good way with a 
favorable wind, he retired after din- 
ner and fell asleep — when the old 
w^hite horse came, mouth wide open 
and in great fury at him — he bound- 
ed from his bunk, hastened on deck, 
and sang out: "about ship in an in- 
stant!" mth all the energy he was 
master of. The order was instantly 
obeyed and as the good ship wore 
round the fog lifted, the breakers 
were less than eighty rods ahead, and 
the iron bound coast of Labrador in 
plain sight just beyond. "Ten min- 
utes more on our course and we 
would never have been heard of 
again," was his comment. 

Again about 1811, or perhaps ear- 
lier, late in the FfJU he was on his 
way from Huron or Sandusky to De- 
troit, and had several merchants as 
passengers. It was one of those de- 



%^ 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



lightful Indian Summer days which 
we have all seen, but which are easi- 
er seen than described. On the way 
to tlie Islands, the old white horse 
paid him another furious visit, and 
about noon he tied up in Put-In-Bay. 
Tlie passengers were indignant, line 
day, fair wind, and nothing to hinder 
but the old man's obstinacy or lazi- 
ness. But he was immovable, not a 
foot would he stir out of harbor that 
day, and they had to submit. Just 
after nig,ht fall, came on one of those 
furious snow storms and gales which 
so distinguish Lake Erie navigation 
in the beginning of winter, and which 
have so frequently destroyed im- 
mense quantities of shipping and nu- 
merous lives, and in the morning the 
deck was burtliened by a foot of 
snow, and the wind blowing a hurri- 
cane outside the harbor. Plis pass- 
engers were very thankful now for 
their escape, and the next day with 
a fair sky, they landed safely in De- 
troit. I make no comment, let each 
one believe as much or as little as 
he pleases; I have only to say Capt. 
Austin believed what he said, and 
his boast was that in a long experi- 
ence on water, he had never met 
with a serious disaster, and had es- 
caped very many in the same man- 
ner as above. 

Ke had several sons and daughters, 
none of whom remain, and he died 
some years since in the West. Their 
names were: John, George, William, 
Jedediah, Sally, Betsey, Nancy and 
Polly. John was married and built 
one of the first shanties on the ridge, 
on the farm now occupied by B. 
Summers. They had several children 
and left for the Islands about 1819. 
George married Charlotte the relict 
of Fred'k Sturges, and had issue, 
Charles, Elizabeth and Cliarlotte. — 
Sally married John Allen. Betsey 
married Jo)) C. Smith, Nancy, Dick- 
son, and Polly, J. Conldin. 

SECOND SIGHT. 

There have been and still are per- 



sons who give credit to stories of 
marvelous visions and gifts of second 
sight. A case in point I will now 
put on record, as it very nearly con- 
cerns myself, and for the facts as 
herein stated, myself and some neigh- 
bors yet living can vouch. 

There was amongst the early set- 
tlers a batchelor of some thirty years, 
bearing the time honored name of 
John Brown — a good, whole souled 
fellow — but like many others of that 
class, fond of the intoxicating cup. 
He was an excellent nurse and was 
frequently employed in those sickly 
times in that capacity, and withal 
claimed to have been born with the 
gift of second sight. In the summer 
of 1819 he boarded in tlie family of 
Enoch Smith, about fifty rods west 
of Mark Summer's residence, S. E. 
quarter of "Vermillion. Summers and 
Brown were on excellent terms and 
both fond of joking and scarce ever 
met without a passage of that sort. 
One evening Brown retired before 
the family, and while the family was 
yet up arose from liis bed three times 
and went out without saying any 
thing to them. 

In the morning he was in great dis- 
tress of mind, and, in explanation, 
said, "Uncle Mark was going to die, 
or be very sick; that on the three 
occasions that he went out in the 
evening he had been compelled to 
go, and that at the bars to the road 
he had seen him come along with a 
coffin on his shoulder; that lie set it 
down and passed a joke with him as 
usual and then took it up and went 
on towards home." 

Smith's people were of this class 
of believers, and advised to keep it 
secret. 

Brown also related it to Dr. Belts, 
(Kev. A. H. Betts,) and others, and 
exhibited the utmost grief at the 
thought of losing his good friend. 
Uncle Mark. Amason Washburn 
was about to raise his log house, and 
Brown, although very fond of a log 



June^ 1^^- 



th:e vmt iiANbs pioneer. 



n 



rtii^ing and the usual accompaniment 
~1 whisky, told some of the neighbors 
hv would not ^o, for lie feared Sum- 
uiers would get killed there, and he, 
if he went, might get intoxicated and 
W the meansof his death. None of 
the tamily of Summers were j^et let 
into the secret. I remember well of 
meeting Brown as I returned from 
liie raising, and with what eagerness 
he inquired if any one had been hurt, 
und liow iejoiced he appeared when 
he learned there had been no acci- 
dent, and then he went on to get his 
-liare of the good cheer. 

Just one w^eek after this, Mr. Sum- 
mers was taken with the common 
billious fever of the country, and 
came as near to death as seems pos- 
sible and live. The neighbors met 
and made his grave clothes, and all 
l>ut Brown gave him over for dead ; 
hut he continued to w^et his lips, in- 
^i^ting that while there w^as life there 
wa>^ hope. Even after he had recov- 
ered so he could set up, many ex- 
pected he w^ould relapse and die, so 
lirrn was the conviction of Brown's 
g^itt and sincerity. We of the family 
were not informed upon the subject 
till this time, when myfather said he 
^h^)uld get w^ell, for he had an assur- 
ance, while lying so sick, that he 
should recover and live fifteen years 
-iJi'l drink v:ateT from the spring out 
<»f his^ tin cup, as Hezeldah, the king, 
*hd wine out of i\\Qgolden cup. And 
^le did. I make no comment further 
jiian this. The vision w^as made pub- 
lic before the events took place, and 
Brown's conduct and extreme an- 
^^^\^\\ attest his own sincerity 
^^iroiighout. 

George Sherarts, with his wife 
•^Jiiriraret and several children, came 
'f'^fii Pennsylvania in the vear 1809. 
^}'' paid out the last shilling he had 
'""lorriage across the river, and lo- 
'^Ued half a mile west of Captain 
;|«i>tin's. Himself and wife were of 
^"^' f^ood old Pennsylvania German 
* ^^K'k, Kg one acquainted with Geo. 



Sherarts doubted his worth or hon- 
esty. He soon opened a fine farm, 
paid for it out of his savings and 
raised a numerous family — fourteen 
children. He built the second stone 
house in the township, occupied till 
recently by his son Jacob. He was 
esteemed as industrious, honest and 
pious, and an excellent citizen. The 
children were : Christina, who mar- 
ried Jacob Comptcn — he died 1818; 
Betsey, who married Jonathan 
Brooks, left one daughter, Betsey; 
Katharine, who married Budd Mar- 
tin ; George, Jr., who married ]\Iary 
Cuddeback; Polly, who married Syl- 
vester Cuddeback; Kebecca, who 
married George Butterfield; Jacob, 
who married Katherine Sherarts — 2d, 
Elizabeth Bomhart; John, v;ho mar- 
ried Susan Sherarts ; Hannah, who 
married David Shafer; Rachel, who 
married Nathan Cuddeback; Barba- 
ra, who married Simon Sherarts ; So- 
phia, who married William B. An- 
drews. 

Katherine's children w^ere Bosan- 
na, Almon, William, Lafayette, Clar- 
issa. 

Polly, wife of S. Cuddeback. 

George, Jr., married Mary Cudde- 
back. Children — James, Calista, 
Jane, Sidney, Franklin, Sarah, Box- 
ana. 

Peter Cuddeback and his wife Jane 
were of the Dutch stock of the Mo- 
hawk, New York, and came also with 
several children in 1811^ and settled 
two miles west of the river. Uncle 
Peter and Aunt Janey were noted far 
and wide for thrift and unbounded 
hospitality. Although their children, 
to the number of near a dozen, were 
usually at the family board, scarcely 
ever did the}^ fail, for a meal, to also 
supply the w\ants of ^isitors — trav- 
elers, immigrants, or any others, who 
would partake of their good cheer. 
They had enough for each and ibr all ; 
and it seemed to be the peculiar de- 
light of Aunt Janey (as she was fa- 
milliarly called) to cook tor and wait 



80 



fmi FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



on her friends, and she counted all 
strangers and new comers as such, 
as well as those of longer standing. 

He was also somewhat of a public 
man, being one of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the township for many years, 
Treasurer, &c., and his house the 
place of holding elections. They 
were patterns of industry. He was, 
by trade, a carpenter and joiner, to 
whii'h he added farmer and shoema- 
ker. (I speak from ijersonal observa- 
tion of his habits.) He arose early 
and labored on the farm or in the 
shop till evening. After supper, in 
the Winter, he mounted his cobbler's 
bench and made and mended shoes 
for his family's use (never for others) 
till 10 or 11 o'clock ; then, the chil- 
di-en having become quiet, he read 
some book for half an hour or more, 
and just before 12, would visit his 
barn and stables and see that all was 
right amongst his brute dependents, 
and then go in and retire for the 
night. Everything must be in apple- 
pie order about him. The porker 
must not trespass on biddy, nor bid- 
dy on porker. His industry and 
economy enabled him to add land to 
land, till in 1833, when he died, he 
was possessor of a considerable tract 
of land, and one of the thriftiest of 
the pioneers. 

His second son, James J., occu- 
pies the front part of the farm. They 
liad issue. Polly married Geo. Sher- 
arts, Jr.; Sallie, (Mrs. Russel Mason); 
James J. married Miss Davis; Hiram, 
deceased; Fanny, (Mrs. Allen Pel- 
ton); Nathan married Rachel Sher- 
arts; Norman; Amos married Miss 
Hammond; Jane, (Mrs. Curtis,) and 
Perm ill a, deceased. 

Peter Cuddeback died in 1833. His 
widow still lives at an advanced age, 
with her son James J. 

Rufus Judson settled, adjoining 
Peter Cuddeback's farm east, in 1811 
or '12. He had previously resided in 
Jesup a year or two. He was a black- 
smith and farmer ; married, in Con- 



necticut, Miss Bamum, and had 

sons. Charles P., who manied Miss 
Allen, was many years a Justice of 
the Peace, and removed to Washing- 
ton Territory about 1850. AVakeman 
and Eli S. who removed west, and 
George, now a successful lake cap- 
tain, hailing from Cleveland. 

Mr. Judson had the reputation of 
having had a quarrel with hard work, 
and although a prudent man, made 
no great advancement. His wife, an 
excellent woman, was lost on the 
lake whilst returning from Buffalo. 



He married' 



for his sec- 



ond, and died in 18 — . 

He related to me, that when the 
babe pined away, while in Jesup, and 
was likely to die, he went to Huron 
and paid a dollar for four pounds of 
pork, and they fed it to the babe, who 
was very eager for it ; that it began 
immediately to recover ; grew very 
fleshy, and he had no doubt but the 
pork saved his life. Does this fact 
conflict with the theories of the veg- 
etarians and those who so loudly con- 
demn pork eating? 

James Cuddeback came in in 1810, 
and settled half a mile west of the 
river. His wife Hannah is sister to 
Mrs. Peter Cuddeback, and still lives 
with her daugiiter, Mrs. Capt. Geo. 
Stone. He was industrious, prudent 
and a good honest citizen; became 
insane for many years and died in 
18 — . Children — Rhoda, who mar- 
ried Daniel Stannard ; Hannah, who 
married Wright Meeker, and James, 
a deaf mute, who was run over on 
the railroad at Vermillion, in the 
Spring of 18G2, and killed instantly; 
and Emily, wife of Capt. Geo. Stone, 
Sarah and Paulina. 

Almon Keeler and ^Wfe, Maheta- 
bel, were from Newtown, Ct., and 
settled next east of Rufus Judson, 
about 181G-1T. He was a good citi- 
zen, and left a wife and four small 
children. He was killed by the fall 
of a tree, about 1821 or '22, bygoini: 
to hold a torch bevond where a rao- 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LAin)S PIONEER. 



81 



coon tree was expected to reach, 
while Mr. Judson felled it. The tree 
broke down a dry hickory, which fell 
oji and crushed him to death instant- 
ly. His widow married Shephard, 

£,sq., of Brownhelm, Lorain Co., where 
fhe and three of the children died 
with the sick stomach, which so de- 
vastated that township in early times. 

Barlow Stm'ges and his wife Eunice 
and Frederick, his son, and his wife 
Charlotte, came in 1810 and settled 
at the mouth of the river ; kept tav- 
ern and ferry. Capt. Barlow Sturges 
died in an early day, and his son died 
in 1818. Frederick left Barlow, a son; 
Eunice, wife of Sylvester A. Pel ton, 
and Sarah, wife of Austin Pelton — 
daughters, then small children. Fred- 
erick's widow (Charlotte) married 
George Austin, son of Wm. Austin, 
and still lives in Vermillion, a widow 
of nearly four score years. 

The Sturges es, father and son, were 
seafaring men of good abilities and 
irenerous impulses — both captains. 
Frederick commanded the Minerva 
in 1815, on which Samuel Reed, of 
Berlin Township, was wrecked at 
Coneaut. Both indulged too far in 
the practices of the times, which 
were too common amongst all class- 
es, and especially sailors, and proved 
the ruin of many valuable men. 

Tliey bought and occupied a large 
farm at the mouth of the Yermilhon, 
on which the viDage now stands, but 
(lied before paying up for it, and the 
fimiily saved only a part. 

John Shcrarts and his wife, Eliza- 
^'Oth, came in 1809. and settled one- 
lialf mile west of tne river onshore; 
^'^>ld out and removed in 1818. Their 
diildren were — Mary, who married 
lierrick Parker, Esq.; Betsev, who 
murried John T. Ashenhurst i Ivath- 
C'rine, Avho married Christopher Sha- 
f*'r; David, who married Betsey 
Jompton; Caroline, who married 
Charles Crandall; John, who married 
Abagail Gordon; Jane, who married 
Asa Fisk, and Angeline, who mar- 
»"ied David Hammond. 



Capt. Josiah S. Pelton, with sev- 
eral children, came in 1818, from Eu- 
clid, where he had lost his wife a year 
or two before. He was originally 
from Connecticut^ near Hartford, and 
had been in the West India trade as 
Captain of a trading vessel; had 
failed, and being advanced in life, 
was illy qualified to begin in a new 
country as a farmer. He was a man 
of more than ordinary talents and 
reading; but had fallen into habits 
which prevented success. His old- 
est son, Josiah S., Jr., became the 
manager and main supj^ort of the 
family, and being uncommonly in- 
dustrious and a shrewd manager, has 
become comparatively wealthy. He 
married a Mrs. Sophia Leonard, of 
Buffalo, and has children — Josiah S., 
Levi A., George, Lucy and Mary Ann. 
Allen married Fanny Cuddeback; 
Sylvester A. (still younger) married 
Eunice Sturges; Austin married Sa- 
rah Sturges; and Franklin ' married 
Eliza Da\is lor his first wife, and for 

his second, . There 

were three daughters— Phoebe mar- 
ried Anson Cooper; and Charlotte, 
Levi Parsons, Esq.; and Lucy, wife 
of John Miller. All these sons and 
daughters have issue, and they and 
their descendants are mostly amongst 
the most j-espectable class of citizens. 

Solomon Parsons came with his 
wife and children from Delaware Co., 
N. Y., in 1809 ; had issue — Levi, Bur- 
ton and Ira, (sons), and Sarah (Mrs. 
Dickerman) and Phoebe, (daugh- 
ters.) He was advanced in life, and 
Mrs. P. died early in 1812. All the' 
sons remained with us till "within a 
few years. Levi married Charlotte 
Pelton and had a son Nelson and 

daughter Sarah. She died in 

and he mamed a Miss Maria Michael, 
from Maryland, and they liad issue. 
Burton married La\ana Clark and had 
issue — John and James. His second 
wife, Mary Burgess; their issue — Sa- 
rah, Ellen, Dennis, Corrington, Al- 
vah, Alinon R. and Burton. ^ Ira mar- 
ried Miss Maria Davis and has issue 



11 



Jl^.;;, 



82 



THE FIBE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



-—Henry, William, Edward and Sarah. 

All these sons are respectable, in- 
dustrious and thrifty citizens, and 
Levi and Burton have frequently 
held tlie office of Justice of the Peace 
and other township and county offi- 
ces. Levi now resides at Springfield, 
Ohio. . These sons were young men, 
as were many others mentioned 
herein, when they immigrated to 
Vermillion, and have been treated 
in the*e notes as pioneers — as truly 
they were. 

Horatio Perry came from Cleve- 
huid, and was a brother of the Per- 
rys of that place. He settled on the 
place next west of Capt. Austin in 
1S( )!), and married JMiss Prentiss. He 
was a very energetic and ambitious 
pioneer, and soon outstripped all 
competitors in money-maldng. He 
broke down with hard work before 
he was 30 years of age, and his wife 
died young, leaving one daughter, 

Sophiii, who married Hamlin, 

of Klyria. 

As an instance of his untiring in- 
dustry, he used, when having hired 
help lo log, to have his table and ox- 
en so situated that he could eatmth 
one liand and feed his cattle Aviththe 
other— so as to be ready to start to 
work Avben the meal was over. So 
says tradition. He married Miss 
Smith for iiis second wife and has 
issue. 

Finding it burthensome carrying 
on a large farm profitably, and him- 
iioli" an invalid, he sold out many 
years ago and has since resided near 
Elyria. He became devotedly reli- 
gi(»us soon after his health failed, and 
was, while he remained, one of the 
main pillars of the Congregational 
Church, with the reputation of an 
holiest, man and a liberal supporter 
of the benevolent enterprises of the 
church. 

John Miller settled on Chapelle 
Creek, about a mile from the lake, in 
IS—, lie was from Connecticut, and 
had been a sailor. He had two sons, 



who are still living on the shore, — 
John and Isaac — both hunters. Isaac 
was considered the Mmrod of Ver- 
million ; made hunting his main bu- 
siness while game lasted, and for 
many years killed as many as 100 to 
200 deer, besides other game, annu- 
ally. He is a small, thin man with 
iron nerves and a lynx's eye, and liis 
trusty rifle was a sure hit — 4, 5 or 6 
deer in a day was no uncommon feat, 
and whatever might be the success 
of others, Ike was always in luck. 
Contrary to the usual experience of 
hunters, Isaac, as the game grew 
scarce, turned his attention to the 
farm and has now a good one on the 
lake shore. 

One daughter, Ann, married Jos. 
Brooks. . 

A man by the name of Burroughs 
made an opening and raised a house 
on Lot No. 1, second section, in 1815 
or '16, in the south-east quarter, now 
owned by B. S. Washburn. I believe 
he had a family somcAvhere in Flor- 
ence. He left the county m 1818. 

Benjamin Brooks and wife and 
three children, came in 1809. He 
was a captive amongst the Indians 
for many years in his younger days, 
and well acquainted with their man- 
ners, languages and traditions. He 
settled on the shore next east of Geo. 
Sherarts, on the farm now occupied 
by his eldest son, Jonathan. He 
died within a few years afterwards; 
his widow surviA^ed him many years. 
Children, Jonathan, Joseph, Betsey. 
Jonathan married Betsey Sherarts, 
and has issue : Asenath, wife of Zeb- 
ulon Carey; Laura, wife of Bichard 
S. Harris ; ]\lary E., wife of Philander 
Crozier; Margaret, wife of Leonard 
Loomis; James P., married to Eliza 
Allport; William IT., married Cath- 
arine Bomhart; Sarah E., wife of 
Jonathan Jones. Himself and wife 
are now old, and counted amongst 
the noblest works of God — honest 
people. 

The other son, Joseph, married 



June^ 1863. 



THE PIRE LAKDS PIONEER. 



Ann Miller, and has issue : Eunice ; 
Caroline, wife of 



Sherwood: 
Lucy, wife of Albert Sherwood; and 
Benjamin. His second wife, Maria 
Kitchen; issue : Mary Ann and Eliz- 
abeth. He was an ingenious me- 
chanic and fiirmer, and good man; 
removed to Micliigan some years 
>ince. He settled a little east of 
Judge Euggles. 

Betsey, the daughter, married Jas. 
Prentiss, the Srst Justice of tlie Tp., 
and has issue : Cyrus, Sally, AVarren, 
Calvin, Clarissa and Luther. 

James Prentiss, Esq., settled near 
the mouth of Sugar Creek, was an 
industrious and worthy citizen, and 
died about 1836. 

Hon. Almon Euggles, Surveyor of 
the Fire Lands, deserves honorable 
mention in a history of their early 
settlement. Yfould it had fallen to 
the lot of an abler i)en to perform 
that duty for him. lie was born in 
the year 1770, in Brookfield, Fairfield 
County, Conriecticut, and was the 
son of Ashbcl Euggles of tiiat place 
and a twin brother of Alfred Euggles. 
lx)sing his parents when quite young, 
he lived with a maternal uncle until 
nearlv or quite of age; after which 
he enjoyed nearly all his educational 
•advantages, whicli consisted of about 
one year's attention to study at a 
♦school. After becoming competent 
he taught school in his native town 
«'uid elsewhere in the county for some 
reasons; after which he went to the 
^tate of Virginia on a surveying ex- 
pe(htion, and traveled somewhat in 
^(lo Southern States. Eetiirning to 
Connecticut, he was employed as 
<'ierk in a store in Danbury, and sub- 
■'♦'Muently as book keeper for Jessup 
^ Wakeman at Westport (then Saii- 
j-'^ituc,) Ct. He was very much be- 
^"ved and respected by all his ac- 
'l|ianitances there. Leaving the em- 
l'^".vinent of tlie latter gentlemen, he 
•'j»nie to New Connecticut to survey 
'*y ire Lands in 1805. He returned 
^^* Cl., two or three times before be- 



coming a permanent- resident, and 
Avas married there in 1808, to Annis 
Dibble, daughter of P]z. Dibble, of 
his native place. He soon returned 
to Ohio lea^-ing his newly married 
wife at herfothers, while he combat- 
ted the hardships of a Surveyor's 
life in the then wild and far off A\'^est. 
On one of his return trips to Con- 
necticut in company with three or 
four others, he traveled the whole 
distance on foot, and as an incident 
of the performance it is said, reached 
home with just fifty cents in his 
pocket. In 1808 the Fire Lands were 
mostly surveyed into townshii^s, 
during which time he had his head 
quarters at Huron. 

In 1810 he moved his family to the 
Fire Lands, consisting of his Avife and 
one daughter, . Eebecca, then one 
year old, and settled on the lake 
shore midway between Vermillion 
and Huron rivers, where his industry 
soon opened w^ a fine farm. For 
many years he acted as land agent 
for difierent Connecticut proprietors 
Aiz : the Eichard's of New London, 
Jessup & Wakeman, his former em- 
ployers, Eldridge and others. 

After the organization of Huron 
county, he was its first Eecorder in 
1809. He was appointed by the 
Legislature, Associate Judge oi' Hu- 
ron County, in 1815, as near as can 
be ascertained, but did not long hold 
his seat on the bench, if indeed he 
ever took it. He was elected State 
Senator in 1816, and w^as re-elected 
in 1818, as he served two terms. He 
was elected State Eepresentative in 
1821. Judge Euggles was not famous 
as an orator, but possessed good prac- 
tical common sense abilities, all de- 
voted to the service of his constitu- 
ents and his country. None ever 
doubted his integrity though they 
might disapprove his acts; and in all 
positions of honor, trust and profit, 
filled by him, he gave general satis- 
faction. 
" The memory of the just shall not 



<m^^ 



u 



THE JIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



perish;" and the memory of Almon 
Ruggles is enshrined in many hearts 
of the old pioneers and their cliil- 
dren. He was literally one of the 
solid men — square, thick set frame, 
of immense muscular power and ro- 
bust constitution ; he was well fitted 
for the arduous duties of a surveyor 
and pioneer. Being land agent also 
for several eastern owners, especially 
the Messrs. Richards, — who owned 
most of the township — he was well 
known to the early settlers, and his 
active benevolence, sincerity, hospi- 
tality and manly, yet simple deport- 
ment gave him great influence. His 
house was the abode of generous, yet 
unostentatious hospitality. There 
the weary wanderer after a home 
in the Tsdldemess — rich or poor, 
learned or unlearned — found a wel- 
come to the frugal board and homely 
shelter of the pioneer ; and his wife 
and children were worthy co-work- 
ers witMtlie honored and affection- 
ate master of the mansion. He was 
emphatically 2^ good man. Although 
the financial agent of land specula- 
tors for many years, not one of the 
settlers ever breathed the idea that 
he had been wronged or oppressed 
by Almon Ruggles. He was a i)eace 
maker at home and abroad — much 
preferring to suffer wrong than to 
WTangle and quarrel for his rights. 
Very many difficulties were quietly 
settled by his friendly intercession, 
and he had none of his own to settle. 
Judge Ruggles possessed fine con- 
versational powers. He had an al- 
most inexhaustible fund of anecdote, 
and generally entertained both the 
learned and unlearned by his happy 
use of it. He knew just where a 
laugh should come in in conversa- 
tion and would often set the exami)le 
by laughing himself, and his laugh 
was very apt to be contagious. It 
was something more than a smile or 
the laughing of the face — it was a 
hearty laugli, and shook him aU over. 
He laughed "from head to heel." 



As an instance of his accommoda- 
tion of himself to his company and 
his ability to entertain it, it has been 
related that once at his supi)er table, 
one of his numerous laborers in har- 
vest time was rather garrulous and 
boasting of his physical prowess, and 
said he could handle or throw any 
man he ever saw. The Judge, after 
listening for some time to his talk, 
said, with a mirthful smile : " Sam, 1 
can throw vou." Sam defied him to 
try it. "Wait," said he, "till I eat 
my bowl of bread and milk, and I 
will go out and throw you down." 
Supper ended, all hands adjourned 
to the door-yard, and a ring was 
formed to see the sport, when Sam 
went to the ground with the heavy 
weight of the Judge uppermost to 
the no small amusement of the cir- 
cle. The Judge laughed so heartily 
that he could not do his best; but 
threw his competitor three times 
before he would give it up, when he 
declared he didn't know what was 
the matter with him, and was told 
that he must be careful for the fu- 
ture about boasting of himself 

Judge Ruggles was an ardent lov- 
er of books; spent much time in 
reading ; was of a philosophical turn 
of mind, and constitutionally disin- 
clined to believe in the miraculous. 
Without being superstitious, he be- 
lieved in the principles of the Gos- 
pel and aimed to carry them into 
practice in his intercourse with his 
fellow men. His piety was of the 
reserved and quiet kind. He had 
great reverence for God, and in his 
death manifested decidedly the chris- 
tian trust, and spoke of the support 
and resignation which it gave him in 
his last hours. 

He was extremely plain and unos- 
tentatious in his deportment every 
where, and continued so till his death, 
notwithstanding the growth of style 
and fashion around him. 

Although not a professor of reli- 
gion, his morals were unexceptiona- 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



85 



ble; and his house and barns were 
ever open to the early itinerants and 
missionaries. He was also a fast 
friend to the temperance reforma- 
tion. Though he held many public 
stations and performed the duties in- 
cumbent upon them with ability and 
fidelity, yet it was in the social cir- 
cles of hfe — amongst his family, his 
neighbors and fellow citizens — that 
his happy and cheerful turn of mind, 
in making all around him happy, was 
most fully Appreciated. Far above 
all the wily arts of the demagogue, 
he had the highest appreciation of 
the franchises and duties of an Amer- 
can citizen. Believing that the per- 
petuation of our liberties depended 
on the free and independent action 
of every voter, he would never use 
a printed ballot — always writing his 
own, and would not write one for an- 
other only at his request and by his 
naming each person he desired placed 
on it. Had all been as careful to 
maintain their own independence, 
and avoid intruding on that of others, 
he would not have lived to see a few 
wily wire-workers dictating to the 
masses what ticket to vote ; nor free 
citizens charged with treason to par- 
ty for exercising their own choice ; 
nor \vould we have seen fealty to 
party exalted above fealty to the 
country, its constitution and laws; 
nor the partizan exalted above the 
patriot. 

He built a mill on Vermillion Riv- 
^'r, near the south line of Florence, 
for the proprietors of the land in 
iS09, which was carried away bv a 
freshet. In 1811-12 he built a mill 
near the north-east corner of Flor- 
ence townshij), long known as Rug- 
t'los' ]\[ill — since as Mason's — on the 
Hiapelle Creek, which was a great 
f^enefit to the settlers for many miles 
*in>nnd. His companion, who came 
^^ithhim here, died 1815, leaving two 
^;*^ighters — Eebecca, wife of Lyman 
' f'^e, and Betsey, wife of Xenophon 
i'hillips, M. D. of Berlin. 



In 1816 he married widow Rhoda 
Buck, by whom he had issue— Charles 
and Richard. His second wife had 
been the wife of Alexander Case, by 
whom she had children— Harlow, Ly- 
man and Eliza — and was also the 
mother of one daughter by her sec- 
ond husband, viz : Hester Buck. Her 
second husband was Capt. Aaron 0. 
Buck. 

Here were four sorts of children 
brought up in one family — all treated 
so nearly alike that neighbors could 
see no difFerence-— all well educated 
— all brothers and sisters indeed. 
All came to maturity — honored, hon- 
est and industrious, and amongst the 
most resiDOctable of our citizens. 
What is still more remarkable, Ly- 
man Case and Rebecca Ruggles in- 
termarried and lived happily togeth- 
er till de^th separated them. 

Judge Ruggles died July 17, 1840, 
in the 70th year of his age, leaving a 
handsome property; yet far richer 
in the affections of his neighbors — 
regretted and respected by all. 

His second wife died in 1851. 

Harlow Case married Almira 
Walker, of Berlin. Issue — Andrew, 
Henry, Almon and William, of whom 
only Andrew and Almon are now 
li^dng. They are both at present in 
China. 

Lyman Case married Rebecca Rug- 

§les, and have issue — Caroline iS. and 
idney. He had two sons — Byron 
and Carlton — by his first wife, Caro- 
line Weatherlow. 

Eliza Case married Wm. H. Root. 
Issue — Maria, Harriet and Sarah — 
dead. 

Betsey Ruggles married Xenophon 
Phillips, and^ has issue — Erailie A., 
Mary E., Lin a E., and Cora R. 

Hester Buck married Capt. Aaron 
Root; has issue — Henrv, Edward, 
Charles and William ; lEmma and. 
Julia, daughters. 

Charles Ruggles married JuliaMal- 
lory, and has issue — Mary, Alice and 
Robert (dead). He lost one wife — 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



Mary Douglass, and one child of hers 
—Elsie. 

Richard Riiggles married Eleanor 
Post, and has issue — Almon R., Fran- 
ces, Charles, Ashbel and Lillian. 

These two sons still reside on the 
farms occupied by their honored sire, 
and are respected and thrifty citi- 
zens ; and the daughters were worthy 
so noble a parentage. 

ENCROACHMENT ON THE LAND BY THE 
LAKE. 

At the first settlement of Yermil- 
lion; and for many years afterwards, 
there was a wide sand beach extend- 
ing from the mouth of the river west, 
the whole length of the township — 
in some places timbered with bass- 
wood and other trees — and from four 
to ten and fifteen rods in width. Af- 
ter the building of the Black Rock 
dam lor a feeder to the N. Y. and Erie 
Canal, (1826,) the lake gradually 
arose some two feet or more, and 
the beach began to disappear till now 
the wear upon the farms has become 
a serious matter, and many acres of 
the best of land are yearly sAvallowed 
by the surging billows of Lake Erie. 
\Vlien Horatio Perry built his brick 
house in 1821, he placed it " aivay 
out hack in the lot^^ (as we expressed 
it,) some twenty rods from the road. 
That house was washed into the lake 
a year or two since. Capt. Austin's 
stone house shared the same fiite 
years ago; and notwithstanding ef- 
forts have been made to barricade 
against the action of the waves — 
those efibrtshave been detached and 
feeble and of little avail. AVliere the 
first school house stood, near Jacob 
Sherarts, a point of land on which 
the school house stood lake-ward of 
the road is gone — that and another 
house built still further from the lake 
have been carried away; the road 
and two or three rows of the orchard 
which were south of the road have 
all gone into the lake. This waste 
extends west to nearly the western 



limits of the Tp., or to where the sand 
formation of Berlin and Huron reach- 
es the lake. Several of the lake lots 
of the village are nearly worn away, 
and the houses have to be removed 
or perish in the waves. 

HOW FAR WILL THIS WASTE PROCEED? 

A little east of the river at the N. 
E. corner of the Fire Lands, the shale 
or clay slate rises above the water 
level, and forms an "iron bound" 
shore which efiectually guards the 
land, and from Cranberry Creek west 
the shore is sandy and prevents waste. 
Between those points, some six miles 
or more, the soil is clay loam or marl, 
and i)robably as natural to wheat as 
any on earth, and as productive. The 
banks are from 15 to 25 feet high, and 
the awful surges produced by north 
east storms undermine them and 
they slip off and are carried into the 
lake. Unless some systematic efibrt 
is made to guard the banks, and all 
work together, I see no probable 
end to this wear, until the lake ar- 
rives back far enough to find the slate 
rock above its level; which is gen- 
erallj^ beyond the south boundaries 
of the front farms. This is a sad loss 
to contemplate, as they are some of 
the very best lands in Ohio. 

Query, — Would not a law which 
should compel each owner to fortify 
his front against the action of the 
lake, be highly beneficial? As it is, 
it is of little use for one to do so while 
the negligence of his neighbor ad- 
mits the enemy on his flanks and he 
is soon surrounded and his fortifica- 
tions demolished. 

BLOODY MURRAIN^ 

Next in arrogance to that annually 
' set' 
the bloodv 



recurnng pest of the new settlement 



throughout 
This 



— ague and fever — was 
murrain, which raged 
the Fire Lands for many years, 
disease and its ravages may have 
been described by others. - I don't 
recollect of noticing any such, how- 



June, 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



87 



ever, and therefore notice it here. It 
was accompanied with high fever, 
excruciating pain and a discharge of 
Mood at both organs of evacuation. 
More properly perhaps, it was an in- 
ward bleeding, jDroducing the other 
v ymptoms. What caused it was never 
fully settled. Doctors disagreed as 
usual. It affected neat stock only, 
and was not a prevailing disease till 
.«oine years after the Urst settlement. 
A prevaihng opinion amongst farm- 
ers was, that it was owing to the 
presence of blood suckers in the liv- 
er, and that when they happened to 
open or perforate a large blood ves- 
i^el an inward hemon-hage ensued, 
and in nine cases out of ten proved 
fatal, despite the use of the thousand 
and one "infallible" remedies to be 
found. Sometimes an animal would 
recover; but probably just as often 
without remedies as with. 

A prevailing opinion also was, that 
the animal drew up the blood-suck- 
ers from the brooks, &c., with the 
water; but strong objections to that 
were the two facts that blood-suck- 
ers (leeches) were much more nu- 
merous in New England, where they 
had no murrain, and the leeches 
found in the diseased livers were of 
a different form from the water leech, 
l)eing almost round and of all sizes, 
from that of a fippenny bit to that of 
a copper cent, and about the same 
thickness when in a state of rest. 

Query, — Yfhether it were not a 
l)arasite, produced by the peculiar 
cHmate, water and food of the times ? 

To give the reader of the present 
uav an idea of what we suffered from 
it, 1 will relate some of my own ex- 
I'erience; not because mine was 
more severe than others, but because 
' know and remember that experi- 
ence. 

My father kept one yoke of oxen 
|.or a team and bought two cows for 
' imily use on our arrival, and before 
tiie year had expired the cows and 
^ne ox had died with murrain. So 



severe were his losses that at one 
time he was obliged to sell land to 
keep up his team. After I came of 
age, I concluded — in view of the 
ease with which cattle lived in the 
woods — to enter into the stock-rais- 
ing busDiess, and converted my avail- 
able crops into fifteen head of young 
cattle. Before a year had expired, 
six of them (and the most valuable) 
were dead of murrain. The cow 1 
commenced with had nine heifer 
calves in succession, and all died of 
murrain before three years of age. 
Truly not encouraging. Sheep were 
equally unhealthy, and between the 
climate, dogs and wolves, were de- 
cidedly uncertain property. 

CONCLUSION. 

Of all who came to Vermillion 
Tp. previous to 1820, as the head of 
families, there are only Mrs. Jane, 
widow of Peter Cuddeback, her sis- 
ter Hannah, widow of James Cudde- 
back, and widow Charlotte Austin, 
who came here the wife of Captain 
Frederick Sturges, residing on the 
Lake Shore; and Philo Wells, Amasa 
Washburn and Susannah, Avidow of 
eTesse Ball, residing upon the ridge ; 
the others have passed away from 
the scenes of their earthly toils. As 
I have passed around gathering up 
the facts recorded in these papers, 
every thing seems to say, passing, 
"passing away." As I have rambled 
over the grounds where in youth I 
chased the nimble deer, and sought 
the bear and wolf and other deni- 
zens of the forests, the absence of 
game and forest, and presence of 
houses, fields, lowing cattle and bleat- 
ing sheep, say "passed away," the 
scenes of early youth and manhood. 
As I have entered their dwellings 
and met the children of the pioneers 
now aged, gray old men and women 
(surrounded by children and grand 
children,) who were my associates 
and scholars forty-five years ago, I 
have been reminded that we are all 



1^ 



THE FIBE LAOT)S PIONEEB. 



JuhCy 1863. 



"passing away." The old pioneers 
have done making history ; we are 
writing part of their histories ; soon 
we shall finish the last page of onr 
own, and perhaps some kind friend 
may record the same. 

I find many of their children and 
grand cliildren are in the armies of 
the Union — perihng their lives in de- 
fense of the liberty, the equal rights 
and laws guaranteed to us by the 
blood and treasure and sufierings of 
our fathers — periling all to save their 
country and subdue a most wicked, 
causeless and cruel rebellion, insti- 
tuted in behalf of slavery — whilst, 
(sad indeed is the thought,) others 
appear to be equally zealous for the 
success of the rebels and the tri- 
umph of the direst tj^ranny on earth. 
They are all '' making Jdstory^'^ their 
deeds will be recorded and the choice 
is theirs and ours whether our names 
shall descend the stream of time as 
the friends of our country, its con- 
stitution and laws, of freedom, hu- 
manity and justice; or as the enemies 
of aU these and the friends and sup- 
porters of the foulest despotism on 



earth; whose, great central idea is 
"capital shall own labor," and that 
foul absurdity, democracy, civiliza- 
tion and lilerty founded on human 
slavery. In a word, the question 
rests with us to decide individually 
whether we die Patriots and are 
embalmed in the memories of future 
generations, or Traitors execrated by 
mankind and disowned by our own 
posterity. 

All these momentous questions 
will soon be decided irrevocably, the 
moments liy apace. The fathers are 
gone; their sons are fast going — 
yes, these evil and perilous times of 
rebellion, of strife, blood, carnage 
and death, are also passing away. — 
Shall the Model Republic, American 
liberty, equal and just laws, pass 
away too ? May the All Wise shield 
us from such a disgrace, such an ii*- 
retrievable calamity — bless us, and 
save this fairest, broadest, richest 
heritage of earth, for future genera- 
tions of Free Men — an asylum in- 
deed for the down trodden and op- 
pressed of all nations. 



MEMOIRS OF TOWNSHIPS— OXFORD. 

{Concluded from YoLZd.) 



BY F. D. DRAKE. 



EMIGRATING WEST IN 1818— HOW IT 
WAS DONE. 

On the IGth of April, 1815, my fa- 
ther and his family — consisting of 
my mother and four boys, between 
the ages of six and fifteen, myself 
among the number, then about 12 



years old — left Erie, Pennsylvania, 
for our future home in Oxford To^^l- 
ship, and amved at the latter place 
on the Itli of May following, having 
performed the journey of one hun- 
dred and sixty miles in nineteen days 
— a fraction over eigh t miles per day. 
In view of moving, ixiy father had 



June, 1863. 



THE FIRE LAin)S PIONEER. 



89 



I 



provided himself with a span of fine 
horses, a light two-horse wagon cov- 
ered with Unen cloth stretched over 
iiuops in the usual style of emigrant 
wagons. Our load was light, con- 
sisting of my father, mother, young- 
est brother, (the older boys walking) 
and some few articles of clothing 
and bedding. We left all heavy ar- 
ticles to be forwarded by water to 
the mouth of Huron River. The load 
all told would not have exceeded 
twelve hundred pounds. 

To say the road was impassable 
would certainly not be correct; but 
it was so bad that with the addition 
of a yoke of oxen, my father pur- 
chased east of Cleveland to hitch 
ahead of the horses in unusual bad 
places, we were unable to travel 
more than from six to ten miles per 
day. A person who has never trav- 
eled over a recently opened new 
country road can hardly imagine the 
slow and toilsome progress made by 
a loaded wagon in passing over it. 
The first process in opening a road 
through a forest is to cut the brush 
and small trees near the surface, 
girdling and leaving the large trees 
standing. This is all that can be 
done to advantage for a few years, 
until the roots become rotted, except 
the s wails and low miry places, over 
which pole or corduroy bridges are 
usually made. This is done by lay- 
ing logs, twelve or fifteen inches in 
diameter and from fifteen to tw^enty 
feet long, close together cross^dse of 
the road. Although calculated to be 
of uniform size when laid down, the 
surface will always be uneven and 
rough, in many instances the end of 
a log will rest on a small stump, ma- 
^^ing a firm foundation, and the other 
<'nd have no foundation but soft mud. 
1 he pressure of the wheels of loaded 
^vai^ons, in passing over such x^laces, 
^vill depress one end below and ele- 
yate the other above the level, mak- 
^^^'■i a bad hole on one side and arise 
<^>u the other. Such i)laces are always 



numerous and pretty equally distrib- 
uted on each side of such roads. 
Some times a whole log will settle 
below the level. A carriage, in pas- 
sing over such places, will have an 
up and down motion — first to one 
side then the other — that causes a 
quick jerking side motion to the end 
of the tongue, that will almost throw 
a horse olF his feet ; and the roots 
and stumps are little better — the 
roots of the large trees frequently 
cropping out a number of inches 
above the surface, and the rolling of 
wheels over them forming deep, ugly 
ruts in the soft ground on each side. 

The maldng of a good road through 
a forest is a matter of time. After 
the trees are removed and the ground 
is exposed to the sun, quite a num- 
ber of years will elapse before the 
roots and stumps can be disposed of 
sulficiently to ditch and throw up in- 
to anything like a civilized thorough- 
fare. 

The last night before we arrived at 
our journey's end, we stayed at Jabez 
Wright's, who lived at that time on 
the west side of Huron River, about 
one mile above its mouth. He was 
a surveyor and an agent for a num- 
ber of the eastern land owners. He 
was afterwards an Associate Judge 
of Huron County. His house was 
crow^ded that night mth settlers on 
business connected T\dth the sale of 
land. Among the number was Maj. 
Joseph Strong, afterwards an Asso- 
ciate Judge of Huron County, and, 
I believe, the first permanent settler 
of Lyme Township. He removed 
from Manhus Square, Madison Coun- 
ty, N. Y. The Major and my father 
had been neighbors and friends in 
York State ; had viewed tliis coun- 
try and fled together with the inhab- 
itants to Mansiield after Hull's sur- 
render in 1812. As every vestige of 
a continuous road had disappeared, 
the Major volunteered to guide us 
through to his house, some four miles 
beyond where my father had pur- 

12 



so 



t6E FIRE LANDS PlONEfife. 



chased. As we had a long day's 
journey before us, we started early 
next morning — the Major ahead on 
horseback, as advanced picket, the 
team follo^ving, and the three oldest 
boys driving the oxen, bringing up 
the rear. 

THE FIRST VIEW OF THE PRAIRIES. 

To US, who had for nineteen days 
slowly wended our way through mud, 
over pole bridges and among roots 
and stumps, the scene was novel and 
I)leasant. We had, after much hard- 
ship, arrived at the eastern boundary 
of that^ succession of vast prairies, 
extending west to the shores of the 
Pacific and south-west to the Gulf of 
Mexico. Vegetation must have been 
unusually large for that early season 
of the year. The whole surface of 
the prairie was covered with grass 
from twelve to eighteen inches high, 
of the brightest of green, waving in 
the wind, i)roducing an aspect re- 
sembling that of water under influ- 
ence of a gentle breeze. The view 
extended for miles, until interrupted 
by islands or long, narrow ridges of 
trees, through the openings of which 
faint glimpses were had of other 
prairies beyond. The cultivated ap- 
pearance and the perfect solitude 
produced an impression on the mind 
as of some extensive country from 
whicli the i^eople and every vestige 
of human habitation had disappeared 
and Nature had again assumed her 
supremacy. But wliatever of ro- 
mance the scene might have inspired, 
was soon dissipated when we entered 
upon its soft and spongy soil. 

AVe were near our journey's end; 
a few more hours would bring us to 
our future home, and we toiled on 
with brave hearts until near sunset, 
when we arrived at the Major's cabin, 
where, after x)artaking of liis hospi- 
tality, we unloaded our wagon and 
took possession of a cabin near his 
own, that he Idndly gave us the use 
of until we could erect one of our 



Jtcne, 1863. 



own. We had now fully entered up- 
on the hardships, privations and 
pleasures of pioneer fife. 

BLOOMINGVILLE 

Is situated in the north-west corner 
of the township and about one-fourth 
of a mile east of Pipe Creek and on 
the line of an old Indian trail, and 
seems to have been a favorite camp- 
ing ground, long previous to the set- 
tlement of the country, for Indians 
and traders, in their journeyings be- 
tween the mouth of Huron Eiver and 
Lower Sandusky, the ground being 
high and dry and an abundance of 
wood, water and fine feed for their 
horses in the immediate vicinity. 
The banks of the creek at the cross- 
ing of the trail is about ten feet high, 
and the action of the horses' feet in 
passing up and down the banks had 
formed a ditch on each side, a num- 
ber of feet deep. Although there 
had been quite a village there since 
1811, it had not been laid out in lots 
nor had the honor of a name until 
1817. These were done by Abiather 
Shirley and Abner Youngs. 

The first store kept there was by 
Nathan Wood, in 1811, and afterwards 
successively by Peter Vanness, Faley 
& Johnson, and in 1818 Samuel B. 
Caldwell, and a young man by the 
name of Owens brought on a large 
stock of goods. Owens soon became 
dissatisfied wdth the country and re- 
tired from the firm and returned to 
the East, and Charles F. Drake be- 
came associated with Caldwell, and 
the business was afterwards C4:iiTied 
on in the name of Caldwell & Drake. 
The present residence of the widow, 
Mrs. Simeon B. Carpender,they built 
and occupied as a store. 

The tirst school-house in the town- 
ship was erected in 1810, about half 
way between Pipe Creek and Joseph 
Brownell's tavern, in Bloomingville, 
in which a school was kept in the 
Wintcrof ISll by Joseph Alby. The 
building was still standing in 1815, 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



91 



and for a literary institution, I must 
sav, it looked decidedly hard, 

^rhe first Justice of the Peace was 
Israel Harrington, lie was elecled 
in 1811, and lived west of Pipe Creek, 
in what is now within the limits of 
Groton Township. 

A BANK — ALMOST. 

A person residing on the Fire Lands 
at this day, when all kinds of pro- 
duce has a cash value and can be 
converted into money at a fair price, 
can form no idea of the vexations 
and inconveniences that were suf- 
fered by the early settlers of this 
country for the want of some kind of 
a circulating medium. Previous to 
the opening of the Erie Canal, and 
the establishment of commercial re- 
lations through that channel with the 
eastern cities, there was no cash mar- 
ket for any kind of produce. A 
bushel of corn would not buy a yard 
of muslin, coarse enough to sift corn 
meal through. A man might own a 
hundred head of cattle, and an un- 
limited number of hogs and territory 
large enough for a German Princi- 
pality, and not be able to raise money 
enough to i)ay his taxes without great 
effort. I recollect the circumstance 
of a number of gentlemen stopping 
at my father's on their way to ISTor- 
walk to attend Court, and among the 
number was a large land owner who 
was reported rich, and was so. I 
heard the individual referred to ask 
one of his companions for the loan 
of fifty cents, stating he was not able 
to raise that amount before leaving 
home. The person he applied to, 
liappening to be Hush and liberal, 
told him he should have the fifty 
cents or even a dollar if he needed 
^0 much. 

I think it must have been in 1817 
that Charles Lindsay removed from 
J^^ayton to near the head of Cold 
Creek. He had been an official in 
i^ wild-cat institution, that was issu- 
^^^g "promises to pay," that were 



never redeemed, under the name of 
the "Dayton 3iamifacturing Com- 
pany." The word " manufacturing " 
w^as undoubtedly used for the same 
reason that Capt. Cuttle always read 
a large book because it looked re- 
spectable. 

Lindsay suggested to some of the 
most influential inhabitants the great 
benefits that would result to the 
country by establishing a bank at 
Bloomingville — at that time a flour- 
ishing village. The move was deci- 
dedly a popular one ; it was the very 
thing the people wanted. The idea 
that any capital was needed, I don't 
believe w^as ever thought of. A pub- 
be meeting was immediately called, 
w^hich met at the mouth of the Hu- 
ron, and was attended by Wright^ 
Shirley, Young, Faley, Lindsay, and 
in fact by most of the inhabitants — 
my father among the numl^er. It 
was unanimously resolved by the 
meeting that a bank should be es- 
tablished at Bloomingville and put 
in running order in the shortest X)0s- 
sible time, with the understanding 
that Abner Young should be Presi- 
dent and Charles Lindsay, who was 
supposed to have large experience 
and skill in financial matters, was to 
ofiiciate as Cashier. The necessaiy 
amount was subscribed on the spot 
to meet the incidental expenses of 
establishing the institution. Lindsay 
was employed to proceed forthwith 
to Cincinnati to get the engraving 
done and the bills struck off, and 
likewise to attend the next session 
of the Legislature to procure a char- 
ter. It was said Lindsay had former- 
ly been a member of the Legislature, 
and no one doubted his inthience 
over that body would be sufficient to 
get a charter. While Lindsay was 
engineering matters. South, Shirley, 
Youngs and others erected a banldng 
house in a remarkable short time. 
It is still standing — a small, square 
brick building situated a short dis- 
tance east and on the opposite ^idQ 



THE FIRE liAKDS PIONEER. 



June^ 1863. 



of the street from Mr. Brownell's 
tavern in Bloomingville. Lindsay 
promised everything necessary to do 
the most extensive kind of bogus 
banking, except a charter. The Leg- 
islature were not doing so much of 
that kind of business as they " was." 
The thing was no go, and those en- 
gaged in it being practical men, did 
the only thing that could be done 
under the circumstances — that is, to 
" save the pieces." A sale was there- 
fore made, and Maj. Faley purchased 
the banking house and Shirley and 
Youngs bought the balance of the 
assets, consisting of notes, plates, 
&c. nHiat ultimately became of the 
notes, the public never knew. There 
were rumors that they were resold, 
signed and sent off to Indiana, Ken- 
tucky and East for circulation. I 
would not vouch for their truth. 
Years afterwards, when the country 
became thickly populated, Lindsay 
turned up as a political leader and 
represented this District in the Leg- 
islature — certainly one, and I believe 
two terms. 

MILK SICKI^SS. 

This distressing and fatal malady, 
which is extensively known through 
the South and West, made its first 
appearance in Oxford in the Fall of 
1817. Although it is not improbable, 
cases of it might have occurred pre- 
vious to that time and been imputed 
to other complaints. There are few 
diseases about the cause of which 
there has been so great a diversity 
of opinion. Its efiects on animals 
(known as trembles) are extraordi- 
nary. At that early day it was cus- 
tomary to suffer the calves to run 
with the cows, and it was not unu- 
sual in the Fall (the complaint sel- 
dom, if ever, appearing at any other 
season of the year) to see a large fat 
calf lying on the ground beside its 
dam with its head raised, sucking, 
and in a short time get up, walk a 
short distance and be suddenly taken 



trembling like a person with ague, 
and in a short time fall down and die. 
Tliose inclined to be superstitious — 
and there were many sucli — believed 
it was the effect of witchcraft. Some 
(as it occurs when water is scarce) 
believed it was caused by animals 
drinldng from springs impregnated 
with mineral poison. If I have been 
correctly informed this theory can 
not be correct. It has been said that 
on tlie north side of Sandusky Bay- 
animals that drank at the lake had 
been aii^cted with it; and Mr. Thos. 
James, of Bloomingville, told me 
that a number of years since he pas- 
tured a large flock of sheep in a field 
in which there was no water, and 
that a number of the flock were af- 
fected with it. Although it is not 
positively known what plant it is ; 
but that it is some kind of a plant, 
there is no reasonable grounds for 
doubting. My opinion is, that it is 
some kind of vegetation of which 
animals are not fond and of which 
they never partake, except when im- 
pelled by hunger. It is a fact, with 
which every pioneer is acquainted, 
that the native kinds of vegetation, 
of which animals are most fond, rap- 
idly disappear. Oxford Township 
had been settled some years before 
milk sickness was a common com- 
plaint, and tlien it appeared in the 
Fall of the year when, owing to ex- 
treme drouth and the large number 
of cattle kept, caused a great scarcity 
of green feed, when animals would 
be impelled by hunger to partake of 
food they would not touch under 
more favorable circumstances. For 
a number of years it baffled tlie skill 
of the pliysicians, and I believe that 
the late Dr. Samuel B. Carpender was 
the first who successfully treated it. 
But happily the complaint has long 
since entirely disappeared from the 
township ; but the remains of a large 
number of its victims molder in the 
grave-yard at the forks of the roads, 
a short distance east of Blooming- 



June^ 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



93 



-^ 



ville, "v\dth no monument to mark 
their last resting place, save brush 
and briar — fit emblems of the coun- 
1 ty they came to i)opulate and im- 
prove. 

MILLING. 

Among the most prominent evils 
and hardships incident to the set- 
tlement of the Fire Lands, was 
that of procuring bread, even of the 
coarsest kind. Even as late as 1S20, 
there were not mills sufficient to sup- 
ply the wants of a raj^idly increasing 
population. Ebenezer Merry had 
erected a mill at Milan, Major Fred'k 
Faley had one on Cold Creek, near 
the present village of Venice, and I 
believe there was one near the head 
of the Creek, and a man of the name 
of Powers, had built one on Huron 
River, in the Township of Greenfield. 
}3ut mills then were not what mills 
are now; one pair of small stones is 
all I recollect to have seen in any of 
the mills of that day ; and then the 
machinery and dams were rude and 
ill-constructed, and were, as a natural 
consequence out of order more than 
half the time. The roads, (if they 
could be called roads,) were almost 
impassable for wagons. The want 
of bridges over the streams made it 
necessary to pass up and down steep, 
slippery banks that were difficult and 
dangerous even for a -single horse 
with a bag of grain and a rider on 
his back. I happened to be of that 
age when I was not large enough to 
do a man's work on the farm, but 
still large enough to go to mill, and 
it was a duty I was generally detailed 
to perform. 1 recollect taldng a grist 
to Powers' mill soon after it started, 
that would probably be a fair sample 
of how the thing was then done. 
1'he mill had been erected in the 
woods, little more being cleared than 
was sufficient as a precaution from 
the falling of trees. The building 
resembled an old fashioned tan house 
the basement occupied by the ma- 



chinery was uninclosed; the second 
story was partially inclosed by pla- 
cing the edges of the boards togeth- 
er, up and down, barn fashion. The 
floor of this story was five or six feet 
above the surface. About half way 
from the front door and occupying 
the back part of the room was a plat- 
form about six feet high, on which 
the stones were placed. The mode 
of ingress and egress from the out- 
side was over two thick plank placed 
close together, one end resting on 
the ground and the other on the door 
sill, across which strips of boards 
were fastened crosswise. Leading to 
the platform inside was a rudely con- 
structed stairs. The iDresiding genius 
of this establishment was an oldish, 
lame, (one leg was shorter than the 
other,) and very cross man. Millers 
were then as alDsolute as the Auto- 
crat of all the Kussias. There was 
no ax:>peal from any of their decisions, 
and one of them was, that every per- 
son who brought a grist should bring 
it in and cany it out. It made no 
difference to them whether a person 
was large or small, weak or strong. 
It was a matter of bread if not butter, 
and people were willing to submit 
to a great deal to secure so desirable 
a consummation. The state of the 
roads and the distance most i)ersons 
^came, made it necessary to spend 
one night at the mill. One night I 
stayed at Powers' mill, I presume 
there were ten or twelve others who 
stayed, and we all camped down wher- 
ever we could find a vacancy amoug 
the bags. The regular clicking of 
hopper, the surging, gushing sound 
of the water as it escaped from the 
mill wheel, the noise of people talk- 
ing and travehng around hunting for 
bags, and the singing of mosquitoes, 
produced a concert of discordant 
sounds that precluded the possibility 
of sleep. Still there Avas no com- 
Ijlainiug, it was taken as a necessary 
part of the programme. The next 
night when I laid down at home in 



94 



THE EIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June^ 1863. 



a good, comfortable bed, I could have 
said with honest Sancho Panza: 
"blessed is the man that invented 
sleei)." 

AN ANECDOTE. 

Major Faley employed as miller at 
his mill near Venice, a family of the 
name of Parish, (no relation I pre- 
sume of F. D.,) who were not like 
the old lady's children that were prin- 
cipally boys and girls, for they were 
pnncipally girls. The family con- 
sisting of tlie old man and live or six 
stout, healthy, young women, all of 
whom occasionally officiated as mil- 
lers, and it was more than suspected 
that among so many, grists were toll- 
ed heavier than the law allows. — 
Whether the fact of the Major being 
a bachelor of the mature age of lifty 
hixd an}^ thing to do with his selection 
of millers, I am not prepared to say; 
a good many said it had, but people 
will tidk. Frequent complaints were 
made to the Major, but without any 
particular result. The family obvi- 
ously had a friend at court. About 
this time Capt. Harrington, of Pipe 
Creek, had occasion to send to mill, 
and employed for that purpose a 



pleasant, waggish young fellow by 
the name of Peter Holbrook, that 
was staying with him. The Captain 
charged Pete, as he was commonly 
called, to be very particular to see 
that the grist was not more than once 
tolled. Pete faithfully promised to 
attend to it, and assured him that all 
would be right. In due time Pete 
arrived at the mill and his turn came 
for having his grist ground. It was 
customary at tliis mill to toll the grist 
and then leave it in charge of tlie 
person bringing it. This was done 
with Pete's grist, and he was left in 
charge with instructions just before 
it was ground out, to step over to i\iQ 
cabin, a few rods from the mill, and 
notify some of them. As soon as the 
coast was clear, Pete very quietly 
took out of the mill grain the exact 
quantity that had been taken out of 
the grist, and then took as much 
more and put it all in the hopper. — 
After Pete had arrived at home, and 
the Captain had examined the grist 
and pronounced the yield the largest 
he ever had, Pete told the story and 
added that if he tended mill he was 
bound to take toll. 



June, 18^. 






^5 



OF THE 

RECORD HISTORY OF THE FIRE FIRE LANDS GRANT. 



From ilie Records of tlie Stpte of Connecticut^ Oct Wi^ 1862. 



Between 1779 and 1787 numerous 
memorials had been brought to the 
General Assembly of Connecticut, 
by the inhabitants of towns which 
had suffered by incursions of the en- 
emy, — praying for relief. This had 
been, from time to time, granted, to 
a limited extent, by abatements of 
State Taxes. But a large aggregate 
of losses remained uncompensated, 
and the financial condition of the 
State was not such as to admit of 
making provision for the relief of the 
sufferers by a general tax or other 
niode of direct payment from the 
Treasury. 

In May, 1787, the inhabitants of 
the several towns interested, pre- 
ferred a Memorial, praying "for such 
relief as the nature of the case and 
justice require," and to which they 
*"* conceived they had a righteous and 
<^onstitutional claim." They had al- 
ready presented two similar memo- 
rials, " but had never been able to 
<^>bt.ahi an answer to either." The 
J)ne now presented was signed, in 
'Jeha.lf of the sufferers in their re- 
spective towns, bv Cliarles Ohaun- 
\^y, of New Haven; Pliilip Burr 
i^radley, of Ridgefield; Daniel Tay- 



lor, of Danbury; Thomas Fitch, of 
Norwalk ; Jona. Sturges, of Fairfield; 
John Mead, of Greenwich; John 
Deshon, of New London; and An- 
drew Ward, of Guilford. [Original, 
in Docs, relating to the "Re vol. War," 
Vol. XXXVL, No. 851.] 

The Assembly refen-ed this Me- 
morial to a special committee, con- 
sisting of Hon. Andi'ew Adams, in 
the Upper House, and Col. Jeremiah 
Wadsworth, Major Charles Phelps, 
Major Wm. Hart, Col. Charles Bur- 
rail, and Capt. Moses Cleaveland,— 
with instructions "to methodically 
state the facts, and what has heen^ 
what in their opinion still further 
ought to he^ as well as what can he 
done" for the relief of the memori- 
alists, [lb. Doc. 116.] 

In October of the same year, this 
committee reported, — that for want 
of exhibits, certificates and voucliers, 
they were unable to i)resent either 
a correct statement of the amount of 
losses or of the relief already granted 
by the State : that the houses, l)uild- 
ings and furniture destroyed by the 
enemy, '''' omjlit to hc^ by this State, 
paid ibr, at their just value;" and 
" that the only means in the power 



96 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



of this State, at present, to pay the 
same, is in the Western LandsP [lb. 
Doc. 117.] 

After considerable discussion, and 
the ai)pointment of committees of 
conference on the differing; votes of 
the two Houses, this report was ac- 
cei)ted and approved. But there the 
matter rested. The memorial was 
continued to the next session, May, 
1788, — continued again, to the Octo- 
ber session, — and thereafter disap- 
pears. 

December session, 1790^Thaddeus 
Burr, Esq., and others ol Norwalk, 
brought a new petition to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, "showing that in the 
month of July, 1779, the buildings 
and other property of the memorial- 
ists were burnt and destroyed by the 
subjects of the King of Great Brit- 
ain," &c.. and prajdng for relief The 
Assembly appointed Hon. John 
TVeadwell, Asher Miller, Esq., and 
Capt. John Chenward, a committee, 
to ascertain " the amount of the loss- 
es of the memorialists, and others 
under similar circumstances," — " be- 
ing such losses as have during the 
late war been occasioned by the in- 
cursions and inroads of the enemy ; 
distinguishing the losses of buildings 
and necessary furniture from those 
o^ other articles ; and also to ascer- 
tain the advancements which have 
been made to tlie sufferers respect- 
ively, by abatement of taxes, or oth- 
erwise; and to report the same, with 
their opinion relative to the ways 
and means of affording relief," (&c. 
[State Records; p. 23. J 

1791, May session, — the committee, 
"through some iiitervening and un- 
avoidable circumstances," not being 
prepared to report, w ere re-api)ointed 
"to take up, comjjtlete and finish said 
business." [Id. May, 1791; p. 27.] 

1792, I\Iay session, — ux)on the re- 
port of the comniHtec above named, 
the General Assembly 

ReHolved^ That there be released 
and quit-claimed to the sufferers, (in 



said resolve named,) or their legal 
representatives when they are dead, 
and to their heirs and assigns forever, 
" Five Hundred Thousand Acres of 
the lands belo'nging to this State, ly- 
ing west of the State of Pennsylva- 
nia, and bounding northerly on the 
shore of Lake Erie ; beginning at the 
west line of said lands and extending 
eastward to a line running northerly 
and southerly parallel to the east line 
of said tract of land belonging to this 
State, and extending the whole width 
of said lands, and easterly so far as 
to make said quantity of five hun- 
dred thousand acres of land, exclu- 
sive of any lands within said bounds, 
if any be, which may have been 
heretofore granted; to be divided to 
and among the said sufferers, and 
their legal representatives when they 
are dead, in proportion to the several 
sums annexed to their names, as fol- 
lows in the annexed list." 

This list comprises^ the names of 
1875 persons, with an aggregate of 
losses remaining uncompensated, of 
£151,606:13:8, distributed as follows: 

In the town of 
Greenwich; 291 persons : amount of 

losses, £12,361.8.7. ' ' 
Norwalk, 289 persons; amount of 

losses, £26,066.9.8. 
Fairfield, 270 persons; amount of 

losses, £23,793.11.11. 
Danbury, 186 persons; amount of 

losses'; £8,303.17.10. 
New Haven and East Haven, 406 per- 
sons; amount of losses, £16,912.1 6.6.^ 
New London, 275 persons ; amount of 

losses, £51,718.16.5. 
Groton, 93 persons ; amount of losses, 

£7,719.10.2. 
Kidgefield, 65 persons; amount of 

losses, £1,730.2.7. 

Note. — It must be remembered that these amounts by 
no means rrprcsent the total aKprepato of losses by the 
enemy, for which compensation was made by the State. 
Committees hui! been, from time to time, appointed to 
inquire into the circunij^tances of individual sufferor.s, 
and to estimate the value of propertj- destroyed, in tlio 
several towns: and on their reports, the Assembly had 
granted partial relief, by abatement of State taxes, as 
has been already mentioned. The reports of cemmittces, 



JunCt 1863. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



97 



By the terms of tlie grant, a sur- 
vey of the lands was required to be 
made at the expense of the grantees, 
and a plan thereof to be laid before 
the General Assembly, in order to an 
accurate establishment of the east 
line or boundary of the tract. But 
by a subsequent Resolve (May ses- 
sion, 1795,) the grantees were re- 
leased from this obligation. 

At the last mentioned session, the 
Assembly, by "An Act for recording 
conveyances of certain lands lying 
on Lake Erie," provided "that all 
deeds conveying any of said lands 
(of the half million of acres) shall 
be recordedivi the town clerk's office, 
271 the town or towns where the loss 
or damage of the original grantee or 
grantees mentioned in said grant 
icas sustained^ [State Records, May, 
1795 ; p. 15.]- 

In October, 179G, on the petition 
of the proprietors, the Assembly 
passed "An Act for incorporating 
The 1'roprietors of the Half Mill- 
ion Acres of Land lying South of 
Lake Erie." 

This act directs the proprietors, in 
their respective towns, to hold annu- 
al meetings for the election of a 
clerk, collector, and agents or repre- 
sentatives in the General Meeting of 
Proprietors. They were entitled to 
send one agent for every £10,000 of 
allowed losses in the towns to which 
they belonged, —or might send one 
agent who should be entitled to one 
vote in the General Meeting for ev- 



■pproved by the Assembly, show the total loss in the 
towns of 

Fairfield, £45,226.1'7.6 

Norwalk, 34,867.09.0. (exclusive of property of 

lories, f 2,07t.) 

Kew Haven, . . . 24,893. 07. 6. 

Datiburv, 16,181.01.4. 

Grt-enwich, 12,430.18.7. 

Stamford, 2,957.05.7. 

KidgeGeld, .... 2,625.01.8. 
Estimated according to the value of money in 1774. 

m 



ery £10,000 of losses as aforesaid. In 
the election of these agents, individ- 
ual proprietors were entitled to one 
vote for every £100 of loss sustained 
by them, not to exceed ten votes in 
all. 

The first General Meeting was to 
be held in the State House in New 
Haven, in March, 1797,— for the or- 
ganization of the corporation by 
choice of officers, &c.; for taking 
measures for extinguishing the In- 
dian title, and for surveying and lo- 
cating the grant and making parti- 
tion of it into townships, or other- 
wise. They were authorized to lay 
taxes on the proprietors, to defray all 
necessary and proper expenses, and 
to collect them by warrant, and by 
the sale of lands if necessary. 

It was provided that this act of in- 
corporation should not be binding on 
any of the grantees or assigns, who 
did not choose to accept its provis- 
ions, by entering their names with 
the proprietors' clerks in their re- 
spective towns; but all grantees 
were to be held liable to pay their 
proportionate share of necessary ex- 
penses incurred by the Proprietors 
in their corporate capacity, for the 
common benefit. By a subsequent 
amendment (May, 1797,) this proviso 
was repealed, — and all the proprie- 
tors were thereby brought within 
the incorporation ; and an additional 
amendment made provision for pro- 
tecting the interest of minors, mar- 
ried women, &c., in lands sold for 
non-payment of taxes. 

[From this period, the history of 
the Fire Lands Grant is to be sought 
in the Kecords of the Corporate I'ro- 
prietors, — and ceases to have a place 
in the Kecords of the State. 

J. H. TRUMBULL, 

8e(^y of State, 



# 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



June, 1863. 



EDITORIAL NOTICE. 



Several articles of value — among 
which are the additional reports from 
Townsend, Bronson, &c., — are neces- 
sarily deferred to the next volume. 
Several of the contributors have de- 
sired to read the proof sheets, but it 
was found that this could not be done, 
for want of time to get out the vol- 
ume by the day agreed upon (6th of 
June). The sheets have been ex- 
amined with considerable care by the 
Editor, as well as by the Publishers. 



It is hoped that but very few typo- 
graphical errors will be found in this 
volume. The follow^ing have, how- 
ever, been discovered: 

Page 1, 2d column, 11th line, read 
"E. J."for"J. E."Waldron. 

Page 2, 1st column, 5th line from 
bottom, read'" Historiographer.'^ 

Page 4, 1st column, read "1811" 
for "1311," to right of W.D. Gurley's 
name. 



ERRATA. 



TO ADDRESS OF HON. E. LANE, VOL. m. 



Page 56, line 13 from bottom, for "provided" read "pro- 
Tiding." 
Page 57, line 5 from bottom, for "calculated" read "ad- 
dressed." 
Page 58, line 21 from top, for "alone" read "aloud." 
Page 61, line 22 from top, for "Roach" read "Rauch." 
Page 62, line 15 from bottom, for "would" read "could." 
Page 63, line 12 from top, for "large" read "larger." 
Page 64, line Vl from bottom, " Heckewelder." 
Pajjie 67, line 6 from the bottom, "Zeisbcrger." 
Page 68, line 16 from bottom, for "friendship" read 

"friends." 
Page 69, line 8 from top, for "Lcdetereance" and "Lieb- 

tereance" read "Lichtenau." 
Page 09, line 12 from top, for "Salina" read "Salem." 
Page G9, line 15 from t«p, for "Keelevveldee" read "Heck- 

ewelder." 
Page 69, line 24 from top, for "carnage" read "check." 
Page 69, on the other column, for "Secretary McCamish" 
rea<l "Simon Girty." 



Page YO, line 21 from top, 2d column, erase "minor." 
Page 75, line 4 from bottom, for "passerby" read "pass- 
ing." 



TO VOLUME NO. U. 



Page 39, 2 lines from bottom, for " Wm. B." read "Ben- 
jamin Summers." 

Page 40, top line, for "Warren" read "Henry, 0." 

Page 42, 2d col., 17 lines from top, for "Dr." read "Q." 

Page 42, 2d col., 2 lines from bottom, for " " read 

"Susan Gilbert." 

Page 43, 1st col., 17 lines from top, for " Mann" read 
"3Iunn." 

Page 43, 1st col., 7 lines from bottom, for "Dinah" read 
'* Dimah." 

Page 43, 2d col., 15 lines from top, for "Stewart" read 
"Stevens." 

Page 44, 2d col., 7 lines from top, for "law" read "land." 



INDEX TO VOL. IV. 

I ■ • 

^' '' Page, 
ANNUAL MEETING, 1862, 1 

ADDRESS, AT ANNUAL MEETING, 9 

ADDRESS, AT QUARTERLY ^MEETING AT WAKEMAN, .21 

ABSTRACT OF THE RECORD HISTORY OF THE FIRE LANDS GRANT, 95 

BROWN, J. N., MExMOIRS OF RIPLEY, 60 

DP.AKE, F. D., EMIGRATING, &c., 88 

EARLY TIMES AND INCIDENTS IN VERMILLION, 72 

EMIGRATING WEST— HOW IT W^\S DONE,. 88 

ERRATA, 98 

FIFTY YEARS AGO AND NOW—BY GURLEY, 9 

GRAPE, CULTURE OF, 45 

GURLEY, REV. L. B., ADDRESS BY, 9 

ELIRTLAND, MEMOIRS OF, 49 

HUNTINGTON'S SKETCH OF KELLEY'S ISLAND,. 30 

HURON 65 

KELLEY'S ISLAND, HISTORICAL SKETCH OF, 30 

JMEiMOIRS OF HARTLAND, 49 

♦^ OF NEW LONDON, 52 

« OF R IPLE Y, GO 

OF HURON, 65 

« OF VERMILLION, 72 

« OF OXFORD, 88 

KEW L OND ON, 52 

OXFORD, REPORT FROM, BY DRAKE, 88 

QU.IRTERLY MEETING, SEPT. 10, 1862, 4 

MARCH 11, 1862, 7 

lUPLEY, MEMOIRS OF,. 60 

BOOT, HON. J. M., ADDRESS, 21 

SKELLINGER, A. D., REPORT, 52 

SUMMERS, HON. BENJAMIN, EARLY TIMES, &€., 72 

YEILMILLION, EARLY TIMES IN, &c., .72 

WaLDRON, E. J., REPORT FROM,. ." . .49 

WKST, E. W., REPORT FROM, 65 



V\^^(:^AC.^ 







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Fire J^ands Historical * 


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WHITTLESEY BUILDING, NORWALE, OHIO. \ 

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THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER, 



VOLUME VII.— JUNE, 1866. 



FIRE LANDS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

m 

ANNUAL MEETING. cure a more complete history of 

churches and &*chools, and called 

MORNiNCx SESSION. special attention to tlie necessity of 

The annual meeting was held in immediate steps being taken to col- 

Wiiittlesey Hall, Norwalk, on Wed- lect and publish the material for the 

nesday, June llth, at half past ten Fire Lands Soldiers' Record. 

o'clock, A. M. C. A. Preston, Esq., Treasurer, then 

The venerable President, Piatt presented his Annual Report, which 

Benedict, Esq., though bending nn- was approved. In summary it is as 

<ler the weight and infirmities of follows : 

ninety years, was in his accustomed on hand at last report, $-10 '^o 

place, and expressed his gratification Received for membersliip, 51 00 

that time was dealing so gently Vv^th Sales of Pioneer per D. H. Pease,. GO 90 

the Pioneers of the Fire Lands, and ^-^^^^ ^^ 

that so manv of them were able to ,3 ., ^.^ i> rr -d,,. ,.n'" ' ■ 

be present upon this occasion. Paid to D. H. Pease per acc't 

The Rev. A, Newton, of Norwalk, of Sundries, $10 60 11 20 

opened the meeting with prayer. 

The proceedings of the last meeting ^^^^^"^^ "^ Treasury, $110 9G 

at Monroeville were read by P. N. The following officers were then 

Schuyler, Esq., and approved. elected for the ensuing year: 

The annual report of the Secretary President — Piatt Benedict, Nor- 

yas then read and approved. It re- walk. 

ierred to the ilattering financial con- Vice Presidents — G. H. Woodruil, 

*iUion of the Society — the successful Peru; Z. Phillips, Berlin ; E. Bemiss, 

publication of the Sixth volume of Groton; J. H.Niles, Norwich; Ilosea 

die Pioneer, and the success which To wnsend. New London, 

'las crowned the labors of the Society Recording Secretary — Charles P. 

yi collecting and publishing the Wickham, Norwalk. 

'bstorical Records of thirty-one of Corresponding Secretaries — F. I). 

:'ie thirty-two townships embraced Parish, Sandusky; P. N. Schuyler, 

^'1 their organization. It recom- Norwalk. 

'-landed that efibrts be made to se- Directors— C. A. Preston, F. J). 



THE FIHE JjAKDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



Parish, Z. Phillips, P. N. Schuyler, 

D. H. Pease. 

Biographer — S. C. Parker, Green- 
field. 

Keeper of Cabinet — R T. Kust, 
Norwalk. 

The roll of ToAvnship Historical 
Committees was called, and Messrs. 
C. E. Newman, Martin Kellogg and 
J. H. Niles were appointed a special 
Committee to report at the afternoon 
session the names of suitable per- 
sons to fill vacancies. 

Kouse Ely, Esq., of New Haven, 
I)resented a genealogical sketch of 
Hiram Kogers, of Plymouth, written 
by himself — a lineal descendant ot 
the ninth generation from John 
Kogers, the martyr. 

The Constitution was then read 
and twenty-eight persons became 
members of the Society, when a 
recess was taken until half-past one, 
P. M., during which the members 
enjoyed the hospitality of the citi- 
zens of Norwalk. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Session was opened by singing 
to the tune of Lenox, '' Bloio Ye the 
Trumpet^ Bloio^^ after which the 
special Committee appointed for that 
purpose at the morning session, rec- 
ommended the following persons for 
the Historical Committees in their 
respective Townships, which was 
adopted, viz: 

Ruggles, S. C. Sturtevant^ ; Green- 
wich, M.E. Mead; Town send, Martin 
Denman; Huron, R. R. AYebber; 
Milan, Seth Jennings; Fairfield, L. 
1). Allen; New Haven, George A. 
Knight; Ridgefield, G. W. Smith; 
Perkins, T. B. Taylor; Sherman, J. 

E. LaBarr; Richmond, D. Sweet- 
land ; Kelley's Island, George C. 
Huntington. 

The following articles were exhib- 
ited: By Henry and Timothy Gar- 
ner, Hartland, two stone fifes — one 
very perfect — found on the form of 
J. H. Chandler. 



By Judge Charles Standart, of 
Auburn, N. Y., the New England 
weekly e7(9wrna7, dated April Sth, 
1728. 

By Dean Clapp, Pei-u, a Confeder- 
ate States Treasury Note, obtained 
by his son. Lieutenant H. S. Clapp, 
19th Regiment U. S. C. T., at Rich- 
mond. 

By Elon Gibbs, New Haven, The 
Christian Ohserver^ Vol. 2, a period- 
ical published in England in 1803 ; 
two letters to General Hull on his 
conduct as a soldier, &c., 1821; an ex- 
position of Church Catechism, print- 
ed in London about 1717 ; the Psalms 
of David, printed in 1716, with tunes 
and "rules for learniiag to sing." 

By John F Green, Perkins, a 
Methodist Almanac for 1836, being 
the third of its publication. ■ 

By E. B. Harrison, Norwalk, late 
of the 123d Regiment O. V. L, a ^100 
eight per cent. Confederate Bond, 
with coupons. 

By E. J. Waldron, Hartford, a 
pew'^ter spoon made by himself in 
1821, in Canterbery (now Hartland,) 
from an old pewter platter, formerly 
owned by his grandmother, and cast 
in moulds used by his grandfather 
about one hundred vears ago. 

By C. V. Fay, Norwalk, the Nor- 
walk Reporter, August 1st 1829, and 
the 1811 census of pensioners for 
services in the Revolution and the 
War of 1812. 

By the heirs of the late Captain E. 
L. Colt, Greenfield, a cane of black 
and yellow ebony, with top of tooth 
of a sperm whale, made on board the 
ship Palladium from the chips of the 
hearse and cofiin at the exhumation 
of the Emperor Napoleon at St. 
Helena. 

By. D. W. Tenant, Berlin, the 
bottle in which his medicine was 
earned when conveying the mail in 
early times through the Firelands 
and North-western Ohio. 

A Rebel fiag was presented by 
Lieutenant Colonel Horace Kellogg. 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



3 



This flag was captured by the gallant 
123d at Hatcher's Run, Va., on the 
morning of April 2d, 1865, at which 
, time the regiment captured a fort 
with two peices of artillery (brass 
twenty-four pounders,) 500 stand of 
small arms, 200 prisoners and two 
battle flags. 

After a few very appropriate re- 
marks by P. N. Schuyler, Esq., the 
Society unanimously voted thanks 
for the gift. 

Piatt Benedict, of Norwalk, pre- 
sented a copy of the first eight 
volumes of the SpeGtator^ ITIO. 

The following is the report made 
by Judge S. C. Parker, of the Pio- 
neers and members deceased since 
the last report : Samuel Reed, 
Ridgefield ; Henry Ohapin, iSTorwalk; 
Jeremiah M. Crosby, Norwalk ; Giles 
Baker, Fairfield ; ^ Clarrisa Pierce, 
Greenfield ; Mrs. Juliette Taylor, 
Norwalk ; Mr. Henry Lockwood, 
Milan. 

REMARKS OF REV. JOHN KEEP, OF OBER- 
LIN. 

Mr. Keep said it was necessary he 
should say a word about himself. 
He was eighty-four years old, and 
owing to a failure of his voice was 
fearful he could not make himself 
(hstinctly heard by the large audi- 
% ence i)resent. He felt honored and 
gratified to share in the present 
anniversary of the Firelands Histori- 
<^'al Society. Such associations show- 
ed a high state of society, and were 
the means of manufacturing the 
niaterial for a strong civil govern- 
^iCnt. It commenced at the family 
circle, and schooled alike youth and 
**^e in the sacrifices made by the 
pioneers, and was the means of form- 
^^Jg a sale and enduring society of 
^"0 yeomanry of the country. 

It was well that the children 
^ponld be well informed of the sac- 
fj^ices made by their parents, and 
!he spirit. they manifested in gather- 
^'"^g and preserving the historical 



relics of the sacrifices and hair- 
breadth escapes made by their 
ancestors was commendable in the 
highest degree. It was a work 
which inaugurated a healthy, high- 
toned state of society whicli would 
tell upon the people that shall live 
upon the Fire Lands in after years. 
The young i)eople present would be 
regarded as pioneers in the years to 
come, and the relics now^ being 
gathered beckoned them on in the 
work so nobly commenced by the 
gray headed sires. He feared his 
address w^ould be thought tame, and 
a tame address on an occasion like 
the present, when the wild state of 
the country and the sturdy people 
who inhabited it in its early days 
was being celebrated, would be tame 
indeed. How, then, could a non- 
resident of these historic lands edify 
the people. He would seek shelter 
in the patriotism, not only of the 
Fire Lands, but of our common 
country. 

He then proceeded to give his 
views on the duties and dangers of 
the nation at the present crisis, and 
urged their adoption as the only 
method by which, judging from the 
history of tiie past, the national life 
can be saved. 

REMARKS OF REV. ENOCH CONGER, OF 
LEXINGTON. 

Rev. Mr. Conger, a venerable 
pioneer clerg^'man of the Fire 
Lands, sx^oke of the ministerial la- 
bors of early times — the formation 
of society — the amalgamation of 
feeling — thinking, workinir, and the 
mode of transacting business, etc., 
and contrasted them with the pres- 
ent. They had been handed down 
from sire to son and been the means 
of making a harmonious people. 
The relics exhibited showed the 
simple manners of the pioneers, and 
their exhibition and the consequent 
discussion which they occasion, have 
a marked efiect upon the rising 



THE FIEE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



generation. When he came to the 
country everything was new, society 
was just forming— there were no 
churches — so to speak, and but few 
preachers. He came here in 1824, 
as a Presbyterian minister — his col- 
leagues, two Methodist and two 
Baptist ministers, were all then 
known in this i)art of the State. He 
landed at Sandusky and counted but 
twenty -four dwellings, all told. He 
went to Lyme and Norwalk, both 
villages, just commencing. He 
found one thing there very encour- 
aging, that he blushed to say does 
not exist at the present day ; all tJie 
])eople attended church. All he had 
to do was to tell one or two of the 
prominent men that he would preach 
at his house, or in the grove, on a 
certain day, and they notified the 
whole people by sending out cour- 
iers, and when the day arrived they 
were all present. They needed no 
persuasion to come to hear the 
gospel, and they all listened atten- 
tively. He enjoyed the pioneer 
meeting — it was interesting to hear 
men tell of their privations during 
the early settlement of the country. 
It was what made the pioneer meet- 
ings interesting — he hoped they 
would be continued, as he believed 
they exerted a wholesome influence 
upon all, both old and young. 

REMARKS OF MRS. POLLY PIERCE, OP 
PERU. 

Mrs. Polly Pierce, of Pern, exhib- 
ited a variety of indispensable articles 
used by some of the first settlers of 
that township, and interspersed the 
presention with sparkling and pithy 
explanations. Her remarks com- 
paring the stars and stripes in which 
the Hall was draped, and around 
which her earliest recollections were 
ent^^dned, with the torn, soiled and 
disgraced rebel banner just present- 
ed to the Society by the gallant 123d, 
were charged with pathos and pa- 
triotism. 



Mr. F. D. Keed, of Norwalk, gave 
an interesting account of hunting 
experiences in early days, and ex- 
plained the manner of trapping 
wolves as parcticed by the settlers. 

Vermillion was selected as the 
place for the next meeting, the sec- 
ond Wednesday of September next, 
and Messrs. 0. L. Burton, Lewis 
Wells, B. Parsons, Benjamin Sum- 
mers, Philo Wells, J. J. Cuddeback 
and W. H. Crane, the Committee of 
Arrangements. 

On motion of Judge Phillips, the 
thanks of the Society were tendered 
Mrs. Gibbs Miss Page, Messrs. Gil- 
bert and Ivingsley for the excellent 
music, the Committee of Arrange- 
ments for their care in making 
I^rovision for all, and to the citizens 
of Nor walk for their hospitality. 
The Choir then sung " Exhortation," 
and closing with "Old Hundred" 
the Society adjourned. 

D. H. Pease, Sec'y. 



QUARTERLY MEETliSTG. 

MORNING SESSION. 

The first quarterly meeting of the 
Society for the year 1865, was held 
in the Methodist Church at Vermil- 
lion, on Wednesdav, September 13th, 
at 10 o'clock A. M. 

The venerable President, Piatt 
Benedict, Esq., of Norwalk, was 
present and in the chair, notwith- 
standing his great age and the 
distance of the meeting from his 
home. 

The exercises were opened with 
prayer by the Rev. L. B. Gurley, of 
Delaware, Ohio. The minutes of 
the annual meeting were then read 
by the Secretary, and approved. 

On motion, the report of the Di- 
rectors, which showed a balance in 
the Treasury on account of the pub- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



li cation of the Pioneer, of $15 23, 
was received and approved. 

The roll of Township Commiiiees 
was called, and none having any ad- 
ditional reports to those already 
made, to make, on motion, they 
were re .guested to make reports at 
some future meeting of the Society. 

F. D. Parish, Esq., of Sandusky, 
then offered a resolution that the 
Constitution be so amended that 
any person by signing his or her 
name, or causing the same to be af- 
fixed to the Constitution, and pay- 
ing the sum of twenty-five cents, 
ma}" become a member of the Soci- 
ety; and that any person upon a 
vote of the Society, may become an 
honorary member — which was laid 
upon the table for consideration, at 
the next annual meeting. 

The Constitution was then read by 
the Secretary, and the names of 
twenty-one new members were 
added. 

On motion, adjourned to meet in 
Linwood Grove at 1 o'clock P. M. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Society met at the Grove at 
1 o'clock, in accordance with ad- 
journment 

The following relics and curiosi- 
ties, presented by the following 
named persons, were then exhibit- 
ed : 

By S. A. Pelton, of Vermillion— 
a portrait of Captain Barlow Stur- 
giss, born in Fairfield, Connecticut, 
A. D. 1766, and who came to Ohio, 
A D. 1809; also a satchel which 
^vas in possession of Eunice Stur- 
;riss, grandmotlier of Mrs. S. A. Pel- 
ton, in 1790. 

By^ Mrs. Wylde, of Vermillion— 
the English breeches which Benja- 
miu AYylde wore to America in 
^ ^31, and for ten years previously, 
they being over forty years old. 

By Charlotte Austin — a basket 
J^nt to her mother, Eunice Osborn, 
from the East Indies, full of oranires» 



A. D. 1792; also, a book of Psalms 
and Spiritual Songs, being a present 
to her mother Eunice Osborn, in the 
year 1789, and published in England 
A. D. 1785. 

A comb worn by Mrs. Shad- 
drick's mother, and purchased in the 
city of New York, in the year 1825. 

By Miss Albini Liscomb — an 
acrostic composed ' by her grand- 
mother, Mrs. Lydia Benjamin, in 
the year 1797. Mrs. Benjamin was 
born on Long Island, in the year 
1782, and emigrated to Ohio in 1812, 
and died in Amherst, Ohio, at the 
age of seventy-five. By the same 
— a pair of ancient spectacles 
bought b.y her great grandfather, 
Caleb Franklin, in the year 1785. 
He was born in Westfield, Connec- 
ticut, A. D. 1735, and served his 
country in the Eevolutionary AYar. 
He emigrated to the State of New 
York in 1800, and died at the age 
of ninety. 

By Eunice Pelton — a bottle 
which has been in the possession of 
relatives- one hundred and fifty 
years. It contained the first tea 
brought to America. 

By Emily Whitman — who was 
born in South Bristol, Connecticut, 
Septen-ber 24th, 1822, weigliing two 
and a half pounds, — two pairs of ba- 
by's socks and one baby's cap, which 
were presented to her on the 28th 
of December, 1822, by Miss Betty 
Munn, and Miss Betty Botchford, as 
a Christmas X)resent. 

By George Whitmore— a canister 
shot, which he extracted from the 
head of a dead rebel at the battle of 
Antietam,at which he hinself fought 
for eight days. 

By Mrs. Atkinson— a platter 
which has been in her possession 
forty years. 

By Jonathan Brooks, of Vermil- 
lion— a fork presented to him by his 
grandfather, Jonathan Brooks. Its 
history has been traced back to the 
year 1725. How much older it is, is 



6 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



not known ; also, a bottle presented 
to him by Benjamin Brooks, who 
was a captive in the hands of the 
Indians thirt}^ years. The bottle 
was bought in 1786 ; also, a round 
shot extracted from the side of the 
brig Detroit, at the time of Perry's 
victory, by Jonathan Brooks. At 
the time this ball was obtained, he 
carried a boat load of green corn 
and other vegetables to the sol- 
diers. 

By Mr. Hosea Hunt — two origin- 
al writs, issued in Hampshire coun- 
ty, Virginia, and being in the nature 
of a capias ad respondendum by the 
authority of " George the Third, by 
the grace of God, of Great Britain, 
France, and Ireland, King, Defend- 
er of the Faith, &c., and dated one 
in the "sixth" and the other in the 
"ninth year of our reign," or just 
one hundred years a^o. 

By Miss Julia A. Ball, of Vermil- 
lion — two numbers of the Connec- 
ticut Evangelical Magazine, publish- 
ed in 1802, and 1804. 

Prof. Harts epee, of Elyria was 
then presented to ^the Society 
and delivered a most able, learn- 
ed, and interesting address, on 
"The Dawn and Development of 
Religious Interests on the Ejeserve, 
and especially on the Firelands." 

The Rev. J\Ir. Marks, of Huron, 
then delivered a short and appro- 
priate address. 

Rev. L. B. Gurley of Delaware, 
then made an exceedingly pleasant 
and interesting address, and then at 
the request of the meeting, recited 
a finely conceived and well written 
poem composed by himself many 
years ago, and founded upon a ro- 
mantic Indian legend. 

_ On motion, the thanks of the So- 
ciety were tendered to the speak- 
ers for their eloquent, able and in- 
teresting addresses, and copies of 
the same, together with Mr. Gur- 
ley's poem, were requested for pub- 
lication. 



Isaac Fowler, of Berlin Hights, 
moved that the photographs of eve- 
ry member of the Society be left 
with the Secretary, for deposit 
among the collection of relics of 
the Society. Seconded and adopt- 
ed. 

Mr. Philo Wells, of Vermillion, 
then addressed the audience, giv- 
ing an account of some of his ear- 
ly experiences when the country 
was new. 

On motion, a committee, consist- 
ing of Messrs. Z. Phillips, F. D Par- 
ish and D. H. Pease, was appointed 
to fix upon and give notice of the 
place of the next Quarterly Meet- 
ing. 

On motion the thanks of the So- 
ciety were returned to the citizens 
of Vermillion and the Committee of 
Arrangements for their hospitality, 
and the excellent arrangements 
which they had made for the meet- 
ing. 

On motion, after the singing of 
"Old Hundred" by the entire au- 
dience, one of the most interesting 
and profitable, as well as one of the 
best attended Quarterly Meetings 
of the Society, adjourned. 

Charles P. Wickham, Secy. 



QUARTERLY MEETING. 

MORNING SESSION. 

The second quarterly meeting of 
the Society for the current year, was 
held in the . Methodist Church at 
Bellevue, on AVednesdav, December 
13th, at 11 o'clock A. M"! 

The venerable president, Piatt 
Benedict, Esq., of Norwalk, was in 
the chair, assisted by Vice Presi- 
dents John H. Niles, "^Esq., of Nor- 
wich, Judge Z. Phillips, of Berlin, 
George H. Woodrulf, Esq., of Nor- 
wich, and E. Bemis, 
ton. 



Esq., of Gro- 



Jrnie, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



The exercises were opened with 
prayer by the Kev. E. Y. Warner, of 
Monroeville. The minutes of the 
last quarterly meeting were read by 
the Secretary and approved. 

On motion of P. N. Schuyler, 
Esq., the calling of the roll of Town- 
ship Committees was postponed un- 
til the afternoon session. 

Moved by D. H. Pease, Esq., that 
the Board of Directors be authoriz- 
ed and directed to make the proper 
• aiTaugements for the publication of 
the next volume of the ^^ Pioneer.^'' 
Adopted. 

The Secretary then read the Con- 
stitution of the Society, after which 
twenty-two names of new members 
were added. 

On motion of Dr. L. G. Hark- 
ness, the Society adjourned till 
1 o'clock P. M. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Society met pursuant to ad- 
journment at 1 o'clock P. M., Vice 
President Judge Z. Phillips in the 
chair. 

The exercises commenced by sing- 
ing '707th Hymn of the Methodist 
Collection. 

The following relics presented to 
the Society by the following nam- 
ed persons resiDoctivelj'', were then 
exhibited : 

By Seth Jennings, Esq., of Milan 
—several copies of " TJie War," a 
weekly paper issued in New York 
City during the years 1812 and 1813, 
and containing a current history of 
the last war with Great Britain. ^ 

By B. P. Smith, of Oxford town- 
ship — Volume five, (bound) of 
"The Balance and Columbian Ee- 
pository," a weekly Federal news- 
paper published at Hudson, New 
York, in 180G. 

The Rev. John SafTord of Belle- 
vue, then delivered an interesting 
and eloquent address upon " The 
jocial and Moral Condition of the 
rirelands." 



The meeting then engaged in 
singing the 705th hymn of the 
Methodist Collection. 

The roll of Township Com- 
mittees was then called by the Sec- 
retary. 

D. 'D. Pease, Esq., committee for 
Norwalk township, made an inter- 
esting report of the first shipment 
of wheat from the Firelands, and 
the first manufacture of threshing 
machines, which were made at. 
Monro e^alle, by C. W. Manahan, 
Esq., present Treasurer of Huron 
county. 

John Seymour, committee for 
Lyme township, made a higjily en- 
tertaining report of his early expe- 
riences in Lyme township and vicin- 
ity. 

Remarks were made by Vice 
President, E. Bemiss, embodying 
early reminiscences. 

Mr.Ruggles, of Margaretta, son of 
Alfred Ruggles, was then introduc- 
ed by Vice President Bemiss, and 
related the early histoiy of the fam- 
ily of his father, who settled near 
the mouth of the Huron. 

Vice President, Z. Phillips ad- 
dressed the meeting upon the i)leas- 
ure derived by the Pioneers Irom 
meeting together. 

Vice President George H. Wood- 
ruff, made a lew remarks upon the 
subject of early life in Norwich 
township, stating during the course 
of his remarks that in a few months 
he will have been a resident of the 
Firelands fifty years. 

D. H. Pease, Esq., announced the 
cleath of Mrs. Polly Pierce, and mov- 
ed that G. H. AVoodrufi; be^ a 
committee to prepare for publica- 
tion in the Piojicer, a suitable no- 
tice of her death. Adopted. 

The death of Mrs. Eliza Barker, 
on the third day of September, last 
was then announced. She was 
born January 27th, 1800, at Athol, 
Worcester county, Massachusetts, 
and was the tliird of twelve chil- 



THE FIBE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866, 



dren, and second daughter, of Mar- 
shall and Elizabeth Barker, both 
born in Worcester county, Massa- 
chusetts. She was married to D. G. 
Barker, September 13th, 1829 ; came 
to Ohio in the same fall, and settled 
in Eipley, Huron county, where she 
resided on the same farm upon 
which her death occured, until that 
event. 

On motion of J. H. Niles, Ply- 
mouth was chosen as the point at 
which to hold the next quarterly 
meeting, and the following named 
persons were appointed Committee 
of Arrangements : Judge E. Stew- 
art, H. C. Breckenridge, S. M, Rob- 
inson, R. McDonough, B. B. Taylor, 
Abraham York, and D. H. Young. 

On motion of Judge G. Q. Adams, 
a vote of thanks was tendered to 
Rev. Mr. SafFord for his excellent 
address, and a copy of the same was 
requested for publication in the 
Pioneer. 

On motion the thanks of the So- 
ciety were returned to the citizens 
of Bellevue, and the Committee of 
Arrangements, for tlieir hospitality 
and the excellent arrangements they 
had made for the meeting. 

On motion, after tJie singing of 
"Old Hundred," by the entire audi- 
ence, which filled the Chuch, the 
meeting adjourned, to meet in Ply- 
mouth, on the second Wednesday 
in March next. 

Charles P. AVickiiam, Sec'y. 



QUARTERLY MEETING. 

MORNING SESSION. 

The third quarterly meeting of 
the Society for the current year, 
was held in the Congregational 
Church, at Plymouth, on AVednos- 
day, March 14th, at 10 o'clock, A. 
M. . ' 

Tlie meeting was called to order 
by Vice President Z. Phillips, of 



Berlin, who announced that the 
President was unable, on account of 
the increasing infirmities of age, to 
be present, but had sent word that 
although he could not be present in 
body he would in spirit. 

The exercises were opened with 
prayer by the Rev. Mr. Dubois, of 
Plymouth. 

The minutes of the last quarterly 
meeting were read by the Secretary 
and approved. 

On motion, the reading of tlie roll , 
of Township Committees was dis- 
pensed with. 

The Constitution of the Society 
was then read by the Secretary, af- 
ter which sixtecjii names of new 
members were added. 

A communication from the Sec- 
retary of the Smithsonian Institute, 
stating that it was in possession of 
No. 1, Vol 1, of the Pioneer^ and 
calling for the numbers and volumes 
necessary to complete a set of the 
Society's publications, was read by 
the Secretary, who announced that 
he had received by express, from 
the Historical Society of Pennsylva- 
nia, and the Moravian Historical So- 
ciety of Nazareth, Pennsylvania, a 
large contribution of valuable 
books, connected chiefly with the 
history of that State, and read a let- 
ter accompanying the books, written 
by R. Eddy., Esq., Librarian of the 
former Society. The Secretary also 
stated that he had written to Mr. 
Eddy, thanking the Society repre- 
sented by him, and stating that a 
complete volume of the Pioneer 
had been ordered bound, and that 
when it should be completed, it 
would be forwarded to him. 

On motion of Judge Parish, the 
Secretary was instructed to write 
and forward a suitable reply to 
the communication irom the Secre- 
tary of the Smitiisonian Institute. 

Mr. Ezekiah Rooks tlien made 
some very interesting remarks in 
regard to the early history of the 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIKE LANDS PIONEER. 



9 



country in the yicinity of Plymouth, 
after which the meeting, on motion, 
took a recess, until 1 o'clock P. M. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Society met pursuant to ad- 
journment, in the same place, at 1 
o'clock P. M. Judge Z. Phillips still 
presiding. 

The following relics and curiosi- 
ties were then exhibited by and on 
behalf of the following named per 
sons respectively : • 

By D. E. Bacon, Esq., of Wake- 
man — a copy of " The Connecticut 
Courant," a weekly^aper, printed at 
Uartford, October |8th, 1764. 

By Hiram Kodgers, Esq., of Ply- 
mouth, the following specimens and 
curiosities brought from the muse- 
um of Jefferson College, Virginia, 
by Mr. George Hoffman, a soldier 
ill the war of the rebellion. A spec- 
imen of Sea Fan; a tooth of a 
Mastodon, being seven and three- 
fourth inches across its surface; a 
petrified vertebra of some large an- 
imal ; a specimen of petrified wood, 
and a fine specimen of Pacific cor- 
al. 

By C. E. Bodine, a set of shaving 
tools that were owned and used by 
Peter Irwin, a soldier of '76, who 
served his country in the brigade 
known as the "Jersey Blues," and 
who died in 1816, aged eighty-four 
years. He used the tools sixty-four 
years; and at the time of his death 
ihey were presented to the present 
owner, who has used them twenty 
years; so that they have been in 
<'onstant use for eighty-fouryears. 

By Mrs. Angeline Bodine, a pair 
"1 ear-rings, made of old Spanish 
t'oaten gold. They were the bridal 
I-Tcsents of Mrs. Mehitable Elliott, 
Wife of Laban Elliott, of Kingsbury, 
^Y^shington county, N. Y., who serv- 
''1 his country in some capacity du- 
J^jng the seven years of the Kevolu- 
I'onaiy War. In the year 1783, they 



were purchased in the city of Alba- 
ny, when that city was occupied by 
the Colonial force. Mrs. Elliott, liv- 
ing so near the seat of war, was sub- 
jected to a great many changes. 
At one time she came near being 
taken prisoner by the British, she 
and her family escaping in a wagon 
the latter part of the night. The 
next morning her house was burned, 
and everything available was appro- 
priated to the use of the British sol- 
diers. This lady was sister-in-law to 
Colonel Elliott, and Captain Daniel 
Elliott, of Revolutionary memory ; 
mother of Asa and Charles Elliott, 
who were musicians in the war of 
1812-13; and great grandmother to 
Captain James Elliott and Lieuten- 
ant Peter Elliott, of the Army of 
the Potomac. She was also the 
great grandmother of George Bo- 
dine, who was murdered June Slh, 
1805, by Cheyennes and Aiiaches, 
at Sage Creek Station, Idaho. Mrs. 
Elliott dying in 1823, the earrings 
and her wedding ring were given to 
her daughter, Mrs. Mariah Carpen- 
ter, w^ho died in 1840, when they 
were given to the present OAvner. 
They have thus had eighty-four 
years of wear. 

By F. Swalley— an old brass but- 
ton, found in an old dwelling in 
Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, 
and bearing the inscription: "Long 
live the President, G. W," and the 
initials of the original States of the 
Union. 

By Mr. Hart Seymour— a " Book 
of Sermons," of Rev. Jonathan Ed- 
wards, printed in 1780. 

By E. Case — an old fiishioued 
breech-loading musket, of Harper's 
Perry manufacture, captured from 
the rebels at Drainesville, Virginia, 
by S. B. Conger 

By Mrs. Conkling — a small Silver 
Spoon, presented to a young lady as 
part of her "setting out," one hun- 
dred and ten years ago. 
A series of very interesting papers, 



10 



THE FIRE LAKDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



prepared by J. H. Niles, Esq., of 
Norwich, entitled "Geology of the 
Firelauds," "Bear Hunt on the 
Marsh,' "Last Charivari of Green- 
field," and "Anecdote of General 
Wayne." 

Judge Parish then addressed the 
meeting, stating the object of the or- 
ganization of the Society, its bene- 
fits to community and its plan of op- 
erations. 



The names of the new member^ 
were then read by the Secretary. 

On motion, the thanks of the So- 
ciety were returned to the citizens 
of Plymouth and the Committee of 
Arrangements, for their hospitality 
and the excellent arrangements 
they had made for the meeting. 

On motion, adjourned. 



Charles P. 



WiCKHAM, Sec'y. 



FIRST THRESHING MACHINES IN OHIO. 



The first Threshing Machines used 
on the Firelands, and probably in 
the State, w^ere made in Monroe- 
ville, in 1834, by 0. W. Manahan, 
Esq., the present Treasurer of Hu- 
ron county, and his brother, George 
W. Manahan. Thev used for a shop 
the Old Fulling Mill. They made 
their own machinery, and with the 
assistance of Mr. Jacobs, the pat- 
terns. 

The cylinders were made of 
wrought iron and the holes for teeth 
drilled by liand. This was a very 
■tedious operation, requiring from a 
week to ten days to drill one cylin- 
der, and it w^as hard to find hands 
with sufficient patience to work. 

After working hard six or eight 
months, they completed about that 
number of machines, and put them 
in market. All were sold and used 
until worn out. It is recollected that 



Mr. Samuel Clock and Mr. Cone, 
each bought one. Mr. Clock states 
that his machine threshed an inch 
auger the first thing, and stood it 
well. The manufacturers were of- 
fered for one of them fifty acres 
of land on w^hich the business part 
of Fremont now stands. 

A machine with four horses and 
four or five men would thresh from 
eighty to ninety bushels per day. 

The machines of the present da}", 
in the main, are constructed on the 
same principle as these. Those first 
made liad some imperfections which 
interfered with full success. The 
hub and standard were made square 
because there was no chance to get 
turning done, and would easily get 
out of order. This difficulty was so 
serious that the manufacture was 
finally abandoned. 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



11 



ABSTRACT OF A VERBAL DISCOURSE UPON THE MOUNDS 
AND THE MOUND BUILDERS OF OHIO. 



Delivered before the Fire Lands Historical Society, at Monroeville, Huron Couuty, Ohio, 

March 15, 1865. 



BY COL. CHARLES WHITTLESEY. 



The discourse was based upon and 
illustrated by a number of diagrams. 
A skeleton map of Ohio showed the 
principal ancient earth works of the 
estate. It showed the situation of 
about thirty extensive ruins on the 
rivers that run southerly into the 
Ohio. The sites of these works are 
the sam^. with those of many of the 
principal cities of our day. On ac- 
count of the destructive firopensity 
of our owm race, a large number of 
them are already obliterated. 

These remains consist of embank- 
ments of earth in a variety of forms, 
^vith and v/ithout ditches. Some are 
circular and others elliptical, though 
tjiey are not i)recise mathematical 
^i?ures. Some are in the form of 
'"ires or portions of curves not en- 
tirely regular. The horse shoe form 
1^ common. 

. I he height of the walls va- 
nes from a mere trace of a few 
'i-ches elevation, not perceptible 
''•Uhout close observation, to a height 
'^^^ ton, and in one instance of fifteen 
^^'t't. At the great circle at Newark, 



Ohio, the top of the bank is now 
twenty-six feet above the bottom of 
the ditch. Here the ditch is inside 
of the parapet, which is not an un- 
common case. 

Many of the works consist princi- 
pally of long lines of parallel em- 
bankments, like a narrow double 
turnpike well raised above the sur- 
face. They generally connect other 
lines of more complicated forms, 
such as circles, half moons, squares, 
rectangles, and portions of geomet- 
rical figures. 

These parallel roads rising two, 
three, and even five feet above the 
general level, follow the undulations 
of the ground, and attain a length of 
one, tvro, three and four miles. At 
Portsmouth, Ohio, they extend irom 
the second bottom on both sides 
of the river, down to the first bot- 
tom, where they are obliterated by 
the alluvium of the stream, deposit- 
ed at high water. The entire length 
of the works at this place, on both 
sides of the Ohio river, is nearly five 
miles. 



12 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



J[Here a plan of the eastern ter- 
minus on the Kentucky side, was 
exhibited; it showed four concen- 
tric circles of earth without ditches, 
the inner one four hundred and 
eighty-five feet in diameter, and the 
outer one one thousand and ten feet. 
They are divided into four parts 
forming quadrants by two open 
streets running at right angles 
through them : leading to a mound 
in the center. The mound is conic- 
al, twenty-two feet high, with a 
flat space on the top sixty feet 
in diameter. A spiral road leads 
from the base around the sides to the 
level erea on the summit. A line 
of parallels extends more than a 
mile from the river to the quadrants 
around this mound. Around the 
base of the mound is a raised plat- 
form also circular, its surface on a 
level with the embankments com- 
posing the quadrants.] 

Similar works once existed and 
in part exist now witliin or near the 
limits of Cincinnati, Chillicothe, 
Marietta, Circleville, Newark and 
Hamilton. They occupied in all 
cases imjjortant iDositions on streams 
which in a state of nature were nav- 
igable for light craft, such as rude 
people would use. 

The large works are also in prox- 
imity to extensive tracts of ex- 
cellent land in the valleys of the 
Muskingum, Scioto, and Great Mi- 
ami rivers, showing that the mound 
builders cultivated the soil and se- 
lected the richest portions* 

It is shown by the map that they 
did not occupy the entire surface of 
the State ; their principal works oc- 
cupy a belt from thirty to fifty miles 
wide along the Ohio river, extend- 
ing northward along its tributaries as 
far as Zanesville, Newark, Columbus, 
Springfield and Troy. North of this 
there is a space or belt where no 
extensive ruins have been found un- 
til after passing the summit land to- 
wards Lake Erie. Throughout the 



Ohio river tract in addition to the 
large works and forts near Dayton, 
Hamilton, and North Bend, Fort An- 
cient, Warren county, on the Little 
Miami ; in Adams, Pike and Perry 
counties, there are probably an hun- 
dred small detached works and 
many hundreds earthen and stone 
mounds of various sizes. One of 
these near Miamisburg is sixty-nine 
feet high with a circular base of 
eight hundred feet in circuit. That 
at Grave creek, on the Virginia side 
of the river, is seventy feet high. 

[The lecturer referred to his out- 
line sketches of both these mounds, 
showing their general form to the 
audience. Li the one at Grave 
creek there were two wooden vaults 
in the central part of the mound, 
one near the natural surface of the 
ground, the other about half way 
from the bottom to the top. In both 
of them were human skeletons, sur- 
rounded by timbers very much de- 
cayed, and with the skeletons were 
trinkets and other relics. Sketches 
were presented in full size of sever- 
al copper tools taken from the an- 
cient mounds. One is in the form 
of a broad chisel, ten and a half 
inches long, three and a half to four 
inches wide, four tenths of an inch 
thick, and weighing three pounds 
thirteen ounces. It was taken from 
a mound in Butler county, Ohio, fif- 
teen feet in hight, by the late Hon. 
John Woods. There were trees 
standing over it two hundred years 
of age. Another tool exhibited is 
like a thin double-bitted axe, six 
inches long and three and a half 
wide, with a hole in the centre. 
With the large chisel there was 
found the remains of coarse hempen 
cloth, of which the speaker has a 
specimen. Among the sketches was 
one of a copper gouge six inches 
long, which weighs two pounds. It 
is three and a half inches across the 
bit and one and a half jicross the 
head. All these tools were fashion- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIKE LANDS PIONEER. 



13 



ed cold from lumps of native cop- 
per that has never been melted.] 

There is no region known from 
which native copper couldhavebeen 
obtained by the mound builders, ex- 
cept that of Lake Superior. In that 
region there are extensive ancient 
mines wrought not less than one 
thousand years since by a people 
having about the same development 
as the race of the mounds. In the 
copper mmes ot Point Kewenaw, 
native silver is lound m lamps, spots 
and blotches in native copper, and 
the same is found in the copper 
tools of the mounds. There can be 
little doubt but the mound builders 
wrought the mines of Lake Superi- 
or to obtain these rude tools ; cop- 
per and silver being the only metals 
found in these mounds. There is no 
evidence that coiDper can be harden- 
ed except b}^ means of alloys and 
by beating in a cold state. All the 
ancient copper tools of Egypt which 
were once supposed to have been 
tempered like steel, are found upon 
analysis, to have been alloyed v/ith 
tin. 

[Profiles of two mounds, situated 
in Ross county, Ohio, near Chilli- 
cothe, were among the illustrations. 
On them was represented the layers 
of stones and ashes that accomijany 
the human remains, and the w^ood- 
cn crib work constituting the burial 
vaults of the ancients. From one of 
these mounds a well preserved scull 
was obtained, of which an outline 
sketch was presented, size of life. 
Also fac svniles of the characters 
npon two stones with hyeroglyphics; 
*^ne from the Grave Creek Mound, 
'ind another from a mound which 
<-nce stood at the corner of Fifth 
•md Mound streets, Cincinnati, Ohio.] 

The Grave Creek Stone has the 
^•haracters of the old British Stick- 
"ook engraven upon it, but its gen- 
'jineness as a relic is verv much 
•Joubted. The figures upon the Cin- 
<;-inuati stone are apparently orna- 



mental and not designed as hyero- 
glyphical, or written characters. 
Thus Im- no well authenticated writ- 
ten inscriptions had been found to 
help unravel the mysterious history 
of the mound builders. 

[The speaker was by no means 
certain as to the eilect which must 
be given to certain recent discover- 
ies which had been made, and 
w^hich were described as follows:] 

On the first day of July, 1860, I 
was at Newark, Licking county, and 
toward evening my friend Israel 
Dillie, Esq., informed me that Mr. 
David Wyrick of that place had just 
made a remarkable discovery. We 
went together to Mr. Wyrick's house 
in the suburbs of the town. He 
showed us a stone about seven 
inches in length, in the form of a 
truncated pyramid with a base of 
about one and a half inches and an 
upper surface of about an inch 
square. There w^as at the base a 
projection made round, with a knob- 
like a button, as though it was in- 
tended for a string to be fastened to 
the stone. It v/as moderately well 
polished, with some scratches re- 
maining, and of a dirty brown or 
yellow color resembling some lime- 
stones. The edges of the stone were 
all rounded off. On the four faces of 
the pyramid were inscribed Hebrew 
characters. Mr. Wyrick and his 
little boy said he had taken it from 
a smalk circular embankment con- 
stituting a portion of the old works 
about a mile from the town. He 
had rubbed and worked out of the 
depressions made by the engraver, a 
large portion of the dirt which 
adhered to the stone, but some of it 
remained. I fo^lnd Mr. -Wyrick to 
be a great enthusiast on the subject 
of the mounds, who spent much of 
his time in making excavations 
among them. He was i)hysically 
mucii disabled by rheumatism by 
which he sullered intensely; his 
fingers were swollen and distorted, 



14 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



and his feet so much enlarged as to 
render them almost useless. He is 
wholly a self-taught man, in many 
respects possessed of genius. When 
able to get about, he surveyed lands, 
ha\ang been, I believe, the County 
Surveyor. In his humble home were 
many relics he had disentombed from 
the earth works of Licking county, 
to which 1 shall make future refer- 
ence. Mr. Dille, who has known 
him from a child, has full confidence 
in Mr. Wyrick's statements. He 
stated that the idea of deception was 
out of the question. Mr. Wyrick, he 
said, w^as a man who might easily be 
imposed upon, but who would not 
play the part of a deceiver himself 

The remains of that ancient race 
are very extensive in the vicinity of 
Newark. They are seen in the form 
of mounds, ditches, embankments, 
excavations, roads, and covered 
ways, extending many miles in 
length. I made a survey of these 
works in Februar}^ 1838, and found 
them to cover several hunc^red 
acres, at that time in a state of high 
preservation. At one point the 
height of the parapet above bottom 
of the ditch was twenty-six feet. 

It was in a circular depression, 
about twenty feet in diameter, with 
a low, circular bank around it, that 
Mr. Wyrick and his little son had 
been digging that afternoon. Mr. 
Dille and myself saw the stone, 
probably an hour after it was found. 
He said he was searching for human 
bones in the cavity, and at the depth 
of twelve or fourteen inches threw 
out the stone which he showed us, 
and on which were legible characters. 
I have a fac-simile of^thd four faces 
of the stone audits inscriptions, the 
characters of which are bold and 
large, being sunk into the faces. 

There were on each of the 
four faces an Hebrew sentence, 
which being shown to the Rev. 
Mr. McCarty, of Newark', Mr. Peix- 
otto, of Cleveland and Dr. Lillien- 



thal, of Cincinnati, were translated 
substantially alike, viz : 1st. Torah 
Adonai — ^The law of God ; 2d. Dcf.h- 
hali Adonai — ^The w^ord of God; 3d. 
Kadosh Kadoslieem — ^The Holy of 
HoKes; 4th. Malach Aratz~The 
King of the Earth. By a free trans, 
lation the whole may be rendered iii 
one sentence, as follows : " The law 
of God, the word of God, King of the 
Earth, is most holy." We took Mr. 
Wyrick and his son in a buggy, and 
drove at once to the Ancient Works, 
one mile w^est of the town, and to 
the spot where he said it was found. 
Here was a fresh pit about tw^o feet 
deep frojn which they said it was 
taken. The earth adhering to the 
stone was the same as that of the 
pit, a yellowish loam. 

No one of Mr. Wyrick's neighbors 
doubted his statement as to the 
genuineness of the relic, nor did I 
discover anything to warrant sus- 
picion in him or his little boy. 
During the evening it was shov\'n.to 
some Free Masons of the place, who 
recognized it as a Masonic emblem' 
representing the key-stone of the 
arch, and one on which the owner 
might put such an inscription as he 
sav>' fit, or none at all. In the days 
of the craft when Master Masons 
wrought w^ith their own hands, in 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, 
they wore this as an insignia of 
their rank. The Hebrew characters 
are said by scholars to be imperfect, 
but legible, and of the style of 
writing in vogue in the third cen- 
tury. 

As this is the first stone ever 
found in the works of the mound 
builders having written characters, 
it excited great interest among 
antiquarians. Some denied its au- 
thenticity as a relic. I had myself 
no such doubt, but its position so 
near the surface did not give it a 
character of much antiquity. Every 
one who knew Mr. Wyrick said he 
was an enthusiast, but wholly inca- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



15 



pable of getting up an imposition. 

In the south-western part of 
Lickin.2: county, near Jacktown and 
south of the National Eoad, is a huge 
artificial pile of rough stone which 
was about forty-iiye feet high. 
When I first saw it a portion of the 
top had been thrown down by an 
adventurer who expected to find a 
part of Kidd's money in the center. 
There are many of these conical 
piles of stone in the yicinity, but 
this is the highest. On the first of 
November, 1860, Mr. Wyrick attack- 
ed this pile in pursuit of relics, but 
took the precaution to have reliable 
witnesses present. A large part of 
the stone had been removed by the 
inhabitants and used in cellar walls 
or in the repair of roads. Under the 
stone w^as found some low^ ^circular 
mounds of earth. Mr. W. and his 
five friends from Newark opened 
these mounds and found in one of 
them a grave and the rude cofiin of 
the race of the mounds. There were 
human bones, copper rings or brace- 
lets, polished stones, a copper plate 
and pottery. 

Under these relics was a stone 
box in which was a stone with the 
figure of a man and more Hebrew 
characters. These were the same in 
style as those on the Wyrick stone. 
They were easily read and upon 
being translated proved to be almost 
a copy of the Ten Commandments, 
but somewhat abridged and trans- 
formed. Mr. Lederer, an educated 
•Tew of New York, states that the 
style of the writing indicates that it 
^^*as not made by a Hebrew, bat a 
Koselyte, and it resembles that of 
the age of the Macabees. In regard 
^^ the antiquity of this stone, it 
^ust be as great as the mound in 
^vhich it was found, and not less than 
C'ne thousand years. 

[A fac-simile of the Newark stone 



was exhibited with the Hebrew 
characters upon it in full size.] 

The Eev. Mr. Newton, of Norwalk, 
who was present^ recognized the 
letters to be genuine Hebrew, a 
portion of them easily translated. 

Without indulging in speculations 
upon these singular inscriptions, the 
remainder of the discourse was 
devoted to the ancient FOrts on the 
shores of Lake Erie, and the streams 
which discharge into it from the 
south. The outline map of Ohio, 
before referred to shows them to be 
numerous on and near the southern 
shore of this lake. They difi"er in 
their character very much from 
those on the Ohio and its tributa- 
ries. The northern works are 
smaller and in general occupy po- 
sitions of natural strength for milita- 
ry purposes- They are clearly works 
of defense; there is but one in- 
stance, and that not beyond discus- 
sion, where there are earth-works 
intended for the purposes of attack. 
Neither is there any evidence that 
any of the ancient military w^orks of 
the Mound Builders were attacked. 
They none of them show counter- 
works such as must have been made 
by any party who should have 
attempted their capture. A single 
capture b}^ assault might have oc- 
curred in a few instances, but a 
wdiale nation could not have been 
driven from so many fortified po- 
sitions without w^orks of circumval- 
lation. A plan of the earth- works 
and ditches near Norwalk, Ohio, 
now nearly obliterated, was exhibi- 
ted. This" group occupies the blulis 
at the fords of the Huron river, one 
and a half miles west of the village. 

A full description of these and the 
the other works in Northern Ohio, 
may be seen as given in Vol. I of 
the Smithsonian Contributions. 



16 



THE FIRE LAITOS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



THE DAWN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RELIGIOUS INTER- 
ESTS OF THE RESERVE AND THE FIRE LANDS. 



Mr. President: — Your committee 
to whom the Firelands Historical 
Association have confided the duty 
of selecting and procuring speakers 
for this, their Quarterly Festivity, 
have, with the- honors bestowed on 
me, likewise imposed a duty whose 
doing demands qualifications surely 
diiFerent, perhaps higher than my 
own. Though born and bred in a 
more southern section of the State, 
the arbitrations of fortune, in the 
early dawn of manhood, cast my lot 
among you and the people you rep- 
resent. Kind benignant Provi- 
dence ! I do not, cannot, wish a;* re- 
versal of the decree which wrested 
me away even from the loved scenes 
of my chiklhood, and gave me a 
home and kindship likewise, among 
you. To the institutions you have 
established and now foster, to the 
intelligence and social elevation ex- 
emphfied here, to the athletic vigor of 
the intellect, to the purity of the reli- 
gious f^uth and the earnestness of the 
religious love found among you, I owe 
all that has been added to"~the stature 
of the boy I was, when twetve years 
ago, poor, penniless, untutored by the 
ragged discipline of the workf, and 
the world's rough wavs with men, I 



left the "scenes of my birth and 
careless childhood hours?' To these, 
to the unnumbered influences 
which kindle the soul's internal ener- 
gies and by their plastic power 
mould its external form and fashion, 
I owe the honor I have to day. I 
am at home among you ; in the 
home of my childhood I am a stran- 
ger, and my voice makes strange 
echoes amid my natal halls. Strong, 
even imperishable, are the ties 
which bind me to the scenery and 
society of the Firelands. In your 
speaker, therefore, is found one ele- 
ment, at least, requisite to him who 
would to day address you with inter- 
est and profit, viz : a deep and abi- 
ding interest in the object you had 
and still hold in view in the.'organ- 
ization and continued maintenance 
of the Firelands Historical Associa- 
tion. The distinguished gentlemen 
who have previously addressed you, 
and whom it is an honor even to fol- 
low upon the speaker's stand of this 
Association, have spoken of " Now 
and fifty years ago," concerning the 
men and animals whose bones are 
found in the ancient earth-works, 
and in the post-pliocene deposits of 
the State of Ohio, and of the politic- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIKE LANDS PIONEER. 



IT 



al and social history of the Firelands, 
embracing many and most interest- 
ing reminiscences of i)ersonal achiev- 
ineuts and adventure. What, there- 
fore remains to us, but that as well 
as we can, we trace the " Dawn and 
Development of the Keligious In- 
terests of the Reserve, and espe- 
cially of the Firelands," concluding 
as we properly may, by indicating 
our present religious aspects and 
the demand our present and the im- 
mediate future make upon us? Our 
effort shall be. 

First, To review and commemo- 
rate the past. 

Second, To hold under view for a 
moment the present, and 

Third, To set forth and enforce 
our duty as pertains to the future. 
Or, what, in this respect, we have 
been, are, and ought and are to 
be. 

A somewhat extended inquiry in- 
to the nativity of those v/hose names 
nmo stand on the roll of your Asso- 
ciation, reveals that of the nearly 
six hundred comprising it, one hun- 
dred and thirteen were born in Con- 
necticut, although a half century 
has passed since the history of the 
Fhelands began, and the peals of 
the pioneer's axe waked the echoes 
of our woods, and the prime and 
maturity of the second generation 
Jire fast yielding their parts in the 
drama of life, to their uprising sons 
and daughters of the third. 

^ Massachusetts furnished forty-six, 
New York one hundred and forty- 
eight, Vermont thirty-six, Pennsyl- 
vania 20, but those portions of these 
Slates, it is further found, which con- 
tnimted most largely to the origin- 
'd population of the Firelands, were 
liiomselves settled chiefly by emi- 
i^rants from the earlier colony of the 
^'Onnecticut. We shall be able to 
^^'t a genuinely real impression o- 
"Ur own-religious characteras apeof 
W^S in no other way so readily, in- 
^^'ed in no other way possibly,' than 



by the historic, seeking to learn from 
the annals of the past, in what con- 
vulsions of the religious world, 
when and ^v^ere, our religious histo- 
ry had its rise. 

He who would know the mettle of 
the son, must know the temper of the 
sire. The exceptions but prove the 
rule. It does not sufficiently an- 
swer the inquiry we propose, to de- 
lineate the strongly marked and 
prominent religious character of 
our New England ancestry. We 
must know the paternity likeVise of 
this. We find it in England. The 
Lutheran Eeformation was effected 
on the continent of Europe by mor- 
al means. In England it was sought 
to be accomplished by imperial au- 
thority. Henry Ylllth sought to 
effect by royal edict what, across 
the channel, was wrought only by 
the mighty power of God. He dis- 
liked the Papacy chiefly because it 
gave the supremacy of the church 
to Pope Leo Xth, and not to him- 
self The Catholic faith was preva- 
lent in England; he neither sought 
for nor allowed a change. He he- 
lieved in Popery but not in the 
Pope. Hence those who avowed 
the principles of the Eeformation 
and the tenets of Protestantism, 
were burned as heretics, and those 
who owned the authority of the 
Pope were hanged as traitors. But 
the "merry monarch," neither papal 
nor protestant, won the love of none 
and incurred the violent oposition of 
all. During the reign of Edward, 
Archbishop Cranmer drew up the 
tenets and homilies of tlie AngHcan 
church, in substance as they are 
now, a compromise between the 
claims of the Eeformation and the 
demands of the papal hiej-achy, in 
the view of many a scheme for 
serving two masters. These arti- 
cles of faith, essentially the same as 
they now exist in the establislied 
church of England were never sub- 
mitted to any assembly of divines, 



18 



THE FIRE LANDS PIOIfEER. 



June, 1866.] 



or to parliament for confirmation,' 
but were imposed on the clergy and 
the universities by an exercise of 
the King's authority. IMiis compro- 
mise embracing articles of faith and 
modes of worship, iai posed by the 
sole authority of the King, retained 
many of the abuses of the papal hi- 
erarchy. Many of the Protestant 
subjects of the King desired a more 
effectual separation from the church 
of Rome than tlie Establishment af- 
iorded and the liberty of following 
the pure word of God, iu opposition 
to the traditions of men and human 
constitutions. These were the Pu- 
ritans, a term originally applied to 
those who desired to complete the 
Reformation, by reviving a i)urer 
faith and simpler worship, ^'but sub- 
sequently," says Sylvester, "the vi- 
cious multitude of the ungodly call- 
ed all 'puritans' who were strict and 
serious in a holy lile, were they ever 
so conformable. They maintained 
the highest principles of civil liberty 
and rigidly defended the speculative 
principles ot the first reformers. 
The reigning sovereign found it nec- 
essary to employ his civil and milita- 
r5" power to enforce th^ absolute 
supremacy in matters of faith and 
worship which the Tudor Princes 
had labored to establish 

The spirit of civil and religious lib- 
erty, however, could not 'thus be 
quenched by the despotism of 
might. The Puritans united, over- 
tlirew the monarchy and estabhsh- 
ed the Commonwealth under the 
Protectorate of Cromwell. On the 
death of the Protector, the Com- 
monwealth lailed, monarchy v/ith- 
out limitation of power was restor- 
ed, and the persecution of the Puri- 
tans revived. The parliament of 
Charles II, passed its "act of 
conformity," by which two thou- 
sand Presbyterian ministers were 
deprived of their livings, and the 
gaols were filled with the Puritans. 
To the wilds of New England they 



fled from the face of their persecu- 
tors. See now the little May Flow- 
er rounding the southern cape of 
England. One hundred and three 
souls are aboard — "families of right- 
eous men under covenant with 
God and each other," to lay some 
good foundation for religion in the 
New World. Heroic souls they 
were, willing to brave all difficulty, 
all privation, all danger, if on the 
iron-bound coast of their inhospita- 
ble Atlantis and amid the repulsive 
perils of a new and savage society, 
they might find refuge against the 
tyranny of conscience to which they 
had been subjected. The spirit 
which led our fathers thus into vol- 
untary exile, in order that they 
might obey the behests of con- 
science, and worship God according 
to the dictates of reason, was a holy 
inspiration. AVe must not conceive 
that our fathers had any political ob- 
jects in view when they undertook 
the navigation to the New World. 

No visions of empire and imperi- 
al purple, and subject peoples; no 
fabulous Fountain of Youth whose 
waters were to restore the wasted 
energies of life, allured them as 
Ponce de Leon ; no glittering gold 
of a new El Dorado {auri sacra 
fames) fevered their avarice and 
kindled the energy which to gratify 
greed laughs peril to scorn. When 
Hernando Cortes and his Spanish 
adventurers sought to achieve the 
conquest of Mexico, he said to Mon- 
tezuma the native King, "Send me 
gold ; for my companions and I have 
a complaint, a disease ot the heart, 
which is cured by gold." 

It was the free air of the wilder- 
ness, the silence and grandeur of the 
woods, the unfettered praise and 
prayer they offered to God from be- 
neath the arching limbs of the trees, 
his first temple, the unceasing an- 
them of the ocean's roll and roar lar 
away from the dungeons and chains 
of the Tudor Princes of England, 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



19 



tliat healed the discontent of the Pu- 
ritan. When the May Flower had 
touched the Plymouth Eock, before 
they suffered their feet to touch the 
goil, they bowed the knee to the 
rock and consecrated themselves 
and the country to God. They first 
build a house for God and then ior 
themselves. Let us discover, if we 
can, how distinctively religious was 
the enterprise in which they engag- 
ed. Keligion was the " star in the 
East " which guided them hither ; it 
was the inspiration of their hopes, 
the lamp of their pathway in the 
pathless wilds, light of their dwell- 
mgs, nerve of their souls and 
strength of their arms. They were 
carrying forward the Ark of the Al- 
mighty, and why should they fear? 

It is not with us, said Robinson, 
their pastor, at Leyden, when with 
benediction and many a solemn mo- 
nition he committed a portion of his 
flock to the cabin of the May Flower 
and the care of God. "It is not with 
us as with other men whom small 
things discourage and small discon- 
tents cause to wish themselves 
home again." Brave men, and grand- 
er in bravery in that it is not a con- 
fidence in finite'but Infinite Power ! 
Tliey drew up their creed with rig- 
orous precision, and "fenced it round 
about with 'the Lord thus saith,'" 
and ordained it for all the churches. 

Bancroft says : " They were formal 
j^nd precise in their manners, singu- 
!«»r in their forms of legislation, rig- 
id ill the observance of their prin- 
<^iples. Every topic of the day found 
^ place in their extemporaneous 
prayers and in their long and fre- 
qnent sermons. * * * * But 
these were only the outside forms 
^vhich gave to the nevr sect its mark- 
t^d exterior. If from the outside pe- 
cuuarities Vvdiich so easily excite the 
55ieer of the superficial observer, 
^'e look to the genius of the sect it- 
^^If, Puritanism was religion strug- 
gling for the people." The domi- 



nant idea among them was, to pro- 
mote the service of God; according- 
ly when land was granted to settlers 
it was in adjacent tracts, not gener- 
ally more than two hundred acres 
each, and it w^as an indispensable 
condition to the license for settle- 
ment that a learned and faithful min- 
ister should be provided to dispense 
the bread of life. 

To secure constant attendance at 
meeting and to prevent danger from 
Indians by dispersion, the Court or- 
dained that no dwelling should be lo- 
cated more than a mile from the 
meeting-house. Only the sound in 
faith and the blameless in life, as the 
records have it, were eligible as 
deputies, and church membership 
was an indispensable condition to 
becoming a freeman. Their juris- 
prudence was chiefly borrowed from 
the sacred books of Moses. 

When the foundations of the New 
Haven Colony were to be laid, Mr. 
Davenport preached to all the free 
planters assembled, on the words, 
"Wisdom hath builded her house 
&c," and the sovereign sway of his 
influence led them unanimously to 
vote, that '^'The scriptures do hold 
forth a perfect rule for the diiection 
and government of men in all du- 
ties as well in families and common- 
wealths as in matters of the church,"' 
and so " Moses and Aaron rejoiced 
and kissed each other in the mount 
of God." Thus they fashioned the 
Commonwealth to the setting forth 
of God's house as Mr. Cotton styled 
it. 

There is another noticeable fea- 
ture in the history of the times of 
our fathers; the preponderant in- 
fluence of the clergy. They were 
the framers of constitutions, makers, 
expounders and executors of law, 
heads of the people, ecclesiastical, 
civil and social. The Pilgrim 
preachers merited the veneration 
and love of the people. They were 
master spirits, trained by the disci- 



20 



THE FIRE LAKDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



pline of Providence and industry to 
the stature of intellectual and spir- 
itual grandeur. They inscribed on 
their banners that sublime declara- 
tion of faith " Qui traiishdit susti- 
netP Most of the Pilgrim ministers 
had been educated in the Universi- 
ties of Oxford and Cambridge, 
brought their libraries with them 
and were students in the midst of 
their toil. Jhey read the Hebrew 
and Greek original scriptures famil- 
iarly in their household devotions. 
Timothies in their houses, Chrysos- 
toms in tlieir pulpits and Augustines 
in their dispositions. Indeed, early 
and late in history this has ever been 
the characteristic of the New Eng- 
land man, he must have an able 
ministry; vigorous and elastic in in- 
tellect himself, he demands it like- 
wise in him who delivers to him the 
lively oracles of God. 

The greatness itself of the Puritan 
ministers and the union of the civil 
and ecclesiastical authority were the 
parent evils of many unjustifiable 
i procedures, and the disasters which 
! subsequently befell both church and 
y the ministry. Out of these grew those 
) persecutions for opinion's sake 
[ which tarnish the bright pages of 
\ our colonial histor3^ A passing 
"^ word to this. 

The capital error we commit in ma- 
king up our estimate of the Puritan 
character, in reference to religious 
intolerance, is that we unconsciously 
try the institutions and conduct of 
the past, by the ideas of the present. 
The severe enactments found in the 
early codes of the Connecticut Com- 
monwealth seem to have been di- 
rected against a class of fanatics 
who scrupled hot to violate the re- 
ligious convictions of others, bring- 
ing logs of wood to chop on the 
church steps on Sunday and their 
spinning wheels to spin by the door. 
By a large historic induction, we 
might show that intolerance was tlie 
manner of the times throuichout 



f\ 



the world, and it is difficult to see 
why such excess of odium should be 
laid upon our ancestors, whose only 
reproach in the matter was that 
they were not further in advance of 
the civilized world, by another half 
century. The second and many of 
the subsequent generations of min- 
isters in the Colony of Connecticut, 
history compels me to say, were far 
less zealous and learned, and hence 
less exemplary, less influential and 
useful than their fathers had been. 
Hence the pulpit lost its power and 
purity, the people failed *to maintain 
the intelligence of their piety 
and the fervor of their devotion, 
and there came times of mournful 
spiritual degeneracy, and in 1702, 
Dr. Increase Mather was moved to 
publish a work entitled, "The Glo- 
ry departing fron New England." 
Though the simplicity and vigor of 
the Puritanic faith and the glow of 
their zeal had departed, the deep 
impress of their discipline was not 
obliterated. Its rigors had been 
softened, its austerities had been 
mitigated, and many of its specula- 
tive errors and extravagances had 
been corrected and brought within 
terms of reason, and though '• Icha- 
bod " was written on many a New 
England altar once bright with the 
glory of God, the times of refresh- 
ing were again to come from the 
presence of the Lord. Though men 
of shinin^^ talents had risen up to 
preach with " charming accents " a 
more " liberal gospel" and drev\' 
away the multitude after them while 
death was dismantling, one by one, 
the few towers of strengthen which 
the banners of the Pilgrims floated; 
in tliose years God remembered his 
Zion, and amid tlie hills of North- 
ampton awakened the A'oice of Ed- 
wards and elswhere of Davies and 
Prince and Tennent. Earnest 
words were spoken in high places 
defending the ancestral faith and ad- 
monishing all of the " rapid current 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIEE LAKDS PIONEER. 



21 



which, without a breath of air was 
wafting them awayi" The" great awa- 
kening '' came, and a rapid increase 
in the number and efficiency of the 
christian ministry and hundreds of 
thousands of converts and commu- 
nicants in the various evangelical 
denominations. 

We have thus endeavored to 
bring under distinct yet rapid sur- 
vey, the leading historic facts neces- 
sary to a correct impression of the 
religious statutes of the Old Con- 
necticut Colony, when from her 
cities, towns, hamlets and rural 
homes came forth the "Pioneers of 
the Firelands." 

On the 10th of May, 1T92, Con- 
necticut granted, by a resolutiou of 
her Legislature, five hundred thou- 
sand acres of land ; indemnity for 
losses sustained by fire during the 
Kevolution. New London, Fairfield, 
Xorwalk, New Haven, and Groton 
of Old Connecticut are in ashes, but' 
h'ke the Phoenix of classic fable, 
they rise from their dust, but trans- 
planted to the wilds of the New 
Connecticut. I have been furnish- 
ed by a worthy member of this as- 
sociation with all the published his- 
toric records of those who wrought 
this mighty transmigration. With 
absorbed attention, I have read 
those records vested in more than 
the interest of romance, because 
reposing on the solid ground of 
historic verity; records ot ties and 
tissues of love which bound the 
i^irnily together around the hearth- 
stone of^e dear old Connecticut 
home, sundered; of farewells mourn- 
[«lly spoken to the loved ones left 
heliind; of perils by "field and 
rtood," by wild beasts and wilder 
Wages, by disease and accident, all 
hravely endured; of suffering, priva- 
tions and labor, all cheerfullv sus- 
^*^ined; records often of faith in God 
^vhich faltered not in the darkest 
»i.i:ht of trial, but woke the solitudes 
^ilh the echo of trustful sonir. 



" Sliould fate command me to the farthest 

verge 
Of the green earth, to distant barbarous 

climes ; 
Rivers nnknown to song : where first the 

sun 
Gilds Indian mountains, or bis setting 

beam 
Flames on tlie Atlantic isles, 'tis naught to 

me 
Since God is ever present, ever felt — 
In the void waste as in the city full, 
And where he vital breathes, "there must be 

joy;" 

or musing sung: 

" Earth has engrossed my love too long, 

'Tis time I lift my eyes 
Upward dear Father to tKy throne, 

xind to my native skies." 

I am not surprised sir, that you 
are not willing that those records 
should perish, or that the rich lega- 
cy of their memory should be lost. 
Though the pioneer was without 
house, home, or cities, or fields or 
flocks, he was not without an altar, 
since often from tangled copse or 
green retreat, or solitary spot, his 
orison or evening prayer arose 
to heaven, and thenotes of his praise 
filled the air. The hard toil of the 
day is over, the shades of night are 
quietly gathering around the solita- 
ry scene. The solemn hooting of 
the owl^ and the distant howl ot the 
wolf are heard echoing through the 
wood; his children gather timidly 
yet trustfully around him, confident 
in his strong arm and loving heart. 
From the rude shelt in the corner of 
the cabin, the wife brings the Bible, 
cherished remembrancer of the 
hearth and sanctuary of the dear 
fatherland, and he, like Obed Edom, 
has an altar to the Lord in his own 
house, and jjroves that God is a Spir- 
it and seeketh such to worship Him 
as worship Him in spirit and in truth. 
He who hears the raven's cry and 
sees the sparrow fill hears, him, 
since he is of more value than many 
sparrows. 

The swift rolhng hours of the 
night usher in the morning when 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



♦* To the benign and saving power he conse- 
crates his lengthened days, 

While marked with blessings evei-y hour 
should speak his co-extended praise." 

The toil of the week is over ; he and 
his neighbors, if indeed he have any, 

father together in a cabin, or it may 
e beneath the open arch of heaven, 
to speak of the things of God, and 
there, in the woods, with httle of the 
form, there was often much of the 
power of godUness. In default of a 
minister the sermon was read by one 
of their number ; the singing witli- 
out choir or organ, gushing forth 
from the broken fountains of sacred 
song filled the perfumed air with 
melody ; and prayers 

"Were borne 
Like fumes of sacred incense o'er the clouds, 
And wafted thence on angel's wings through 

ways 
Of light, to the bright source of all." 

As the settlements extended and 
neighborhoods began to touch at 
their extremities, by the combined 
eiforts of many extended over a wide 
area of territory, the church was 
erected ; of round logs, or hewn logs 
at best, with puncheon floor, without 
pulpit, or with a box huge and high 
used instead of one, with seats of 
slabs, smooth, or to be smoothed by 
the rather tedious process of friction 
with homespun. Heaven pit}^ the 
luckless boy, who comes too late to 
secure the coveted seat against the 
wall and must sit the long hour away 
with back against the viewless air, 
and with feet, bootless and shoeless^ 
dangling, easily clear of the floor. 
Let imagination dwell for a moment 
amid the scenes of the time gone by, 
but dwelling yet as bright, j^et fa- 
ding, pictures in the memories of 
many here. It is Sabbatli moni- 



" Mute is the voice of rural labor, hushed 
The plough-boy's whistle and the milkmaid's 

song. 
The scythe lies glitttering in the dewy 

wreath 



Of tedded grass mingled with fading flow- 
ers 

That yestermorn bloomed, waving in the 
breeze. 

The faintest sounds attract the ear — the 
hum 

Of early bee, the trickling of the dew, 

The distant bleating midway up the hill ; 

While from the lowly roof whose curling 
smoke 

O'ermounts the mist, is heard at intervals 

The voice of psalms, the simple song of 
praise." 

The api)ointed hour of service has 
arrived, and though no deep-toned, 
solemn bell peals the hour or fills 
the air with invitations to the house 
of God, over plain and woodland, 
up the hill, and througii the valley, 
along foot-fjath and wagon-path, and 
through the pathless woods come the 
worshipers: the farmer who felled 
the trees, and with oxen, axe and 
fire, clears away the Ibrest and 
mates the field ; and his good house- 
wife, sole partner of the joys of 
which she is herself the greater part, 
comes in the wagon with him, and, 
sharing his toil and laborious care 
" for better or for worse," according 
to the vow she took, with him 
trudges along life's journey. There 
comes the son, a sturdy youth, with 
sense strong by nature's gift, carry- 
ing on his arm, since the Aveather is 
warm, the coat of homespun, which 
his mother, like good old Hannah, 
made him; and the daughter, fair 
dame she was, though her dress was 
linsey-woolsey, and her only flowers 
the lily nature penciled on her 
cheek, yet in all womanly vji-tues not 
less adorned than the moi^delicate 
damsels of to-day, w^hose wonder is 
how their grandmothers, the girls of 
whom we speak, brooked bonnets so 
large and dresses so small. There 
came likewise the blacksmith who 
struck for wages. True son of Vul- 
can though he is, he can weld 
links of logic as well as iron; the 
tailor, that once was, but his occupa- 
tion being gone, his customers and 
his cunning being both left behind, 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIEE LANDS PIONEEE. 



he is now the horny-handed son of 
severer toil ; the miller who " took 
honest toll of the rye;" the neighbor- 
hood notable, the country esquire, 
whose judicial utterances were aw- 
ful with authority; and the school- 
master, who "boarded round" and 
taught reading, writing, and cypher- 
ing as far as the " Kule of Three," 
or Loss and Gain. Before long a va- 
ried throng have gathered around 
the church door, to wait the arrival 
of the minister; for there even the 
settled pastor was often a true itin- 
erant, and ministered to the spirit- 
ual wants of distant congregations. 
At length the minister arrives. As 
he approaches the hum of talking 
ceases, and as he takes his station at 
his appropriate x)lace the congrega- 
tion gather in and fill the rustic 
edifice, a promiscuous gathering in 
which the polite fictions and showy 
conventionalities of the world had 
little power, but the severer virtues 
found many most worthy exemplars. 
Though it*^be, that the broadcloth 
gentlemen and the silken ladies of 
the present, who roll along the high- 
ways to the sanctuary in carriages 
and loll on cushions, are able to 
worship God, it ma}^ be, in a more 
cultivated figure, yet not in finer 
sincerity and purer devotion, not 
with a piety deeper and truer, not 
^'ith a more tender and intimate 
fellowship with each other and with 
tho Spirit whose abiding place is the 
lowly, contrite heart, preferred be- 
fore all temples. The world wore 
j^ien an asjDOct less inviting to ease, 
'^53 lulling us to luxurious indul- 
J^cnce, and the perilous pleasures of 
*inlul extravagance, and shall we say 
it more readily relaxed its hold on 
•»^^n, and sufiered them to yield to 
the drawing- of the worlds above the 
^'orld ? And in the grave yard, too, 
J-*'i the rising ground at the edge of 
J^»o wood, there lay beneath its leafy 
^*irf all that was mortal of many a 
Tioneer, patient in suffering toil, and 



brave in the conflict with life's 
many and rigorous trials. No mar- 
ble monuments, with starred and ti- 
tled names of doctors or honorables 
or reverends, were there, but the 
unhistoric dead, the dead whose 
only memorials were their works 
of benevolence and love, the found- 
ers of churchers and schools, the 
friends of the poor and the dead un- 
named, and of whose number God 
has kept better count than men. 
All lie right peacefully together on 
the hill-tops ; symbol, shall we say, 
of the lite they lived, as much above 
the world and nearer to heaven 
than we? There the pastor sleeps, 
and his flock around him ; the teach- 
er and those he taught, the judge 
and those whose wrongs he sought 
to right — now gone to stand togeth- 
er before God's tribunal at the grand 
assize; the fathers, wdio with their 
axes felled the trees, cleared the 
fields we till and made the roads we 
travel ; and the mothers, patterns 
often of matronly virtues, they cloth- 
ed the " the bodies of their children 
with homespun and their memories 
with catechism." These, these^ the 
dead whose names we cannot men- 
tion, perhaps, and if we could we 
were none the wiser nor they the 
more honored; these, over whom 
freshens now the monumental turf, 
fittest symbol, in the green of 
springtime, of the immortality they 
sought and found ; these, the good of 
our fathers and mothers, great in 
their unconsciousness, most memo- 
rable in their deeds of patient toil 
and suffering patience, were the true 
founders of the goodly heritage of 
religion and intelligence we have. 
This Association with its records 
cherished in your households as sa- 
cred memorials of the past, but at- 
tests your devotion to their memor^'^ 
and the appreciation of the name and 
legacy they bequeathed us. 

Let us return to the church and 
linger a moment there. The 



24 



THE FIKE LAKDS PIONEER. 



[June, 18G6. 



preacher has arisen and the ex- 
ercises have begun. He is a plain 
man — plain alike in the cloth- 
ing of his person and his thoughts. 
He is not a worm of the study, or a 
maniac for books, but a bronzed and 
weather-beaten toiler in God's heri- 
tage, nurtured to endurance by trial, 
and to strength, b}' rugged discipline 
of pioneer life. Whether it be a 
Bronson, a Betts, a Phillips, a Smith, 
a Bradstreet, a Conger, a Pattee, a 
Judson, a Coe, a Goddard, a Mc- 
Mahon, a Bigelow, a Ruark, a Chris- 
tie, a Poe, or one of many hon- 
ored names I might mention, you 
may expect a vigorous and often 
most effective oratory, terse and 
conclusive reasoning, fervor of earn- 
estness, faithfulness of application, 
and often the displays of the divine 
power and saving presence vouch- 
safed to the faithful men, wdio, un- 
der God, were the founders of the 
churches among us. 

It may not be inappropriate here, 
briefly to indicate the plan and lead- 
ing features of the sermons of the 
pioneer preachers. The method of 
sermonizing (and if circumstances 
admitted they ^vere more methodical 
than the ministry of the present,) 
was, first to unfold the text historic- 
ally and critically, then raise from 
it a " doctrine," then bring forward 
the proofs, either inferential or di- 
rect, then illustrate and justify it to 
the understanding by the reasons 
drawn from the philosophy of the 
subject or the nature of things; and 
finally, conclude with an improve- 
ment by the way of uses or infer- 
eiices and timcl}^ admonitions and 
exhortations. Tliese applications or 
uses and exhortations often formed 
the greater part of the discourse. 
In some cases they were made under 
different heads, as the preacher pro- 
gressed in his discourse. Occasion- 
ally two or more sermons were 
preached on the same text and dis- 
cussed the subject negatively and 



affirmatively. Nor were the preach- 
ers then particularly cautious about 
long sermons, (and the same was 
true of the hearers,) but spoke on 
till they had exhausted the subject, 
though the last sands of the hour 
glass had already fallen out. 

The camp of the emigrant, the cab- 
in of the pioneer settler, the log 
school house, the meeting house, the 
chapel and the church, successively 
resounded with the voice of men 
who preached the gospel with no 
uncertain sound, and who, in winning 
souls were wise. Men of large be- 
nevolence, consistent piety, of great 
positive personal influence while 
living, they made their mark upon 
every feature of their age, and 
though dead, they yet speak — their 
works folio wing*^ them. The direct, 
fervent, pathetic and often power- 
ful appeals of the early preachers to 
the consciences of their hearers 
sometimes were accompanied by 
the religious phenomenon called in 
common parlance "the powers," and 
the more inexplicable appearances 
denominated ''the jerks." These 
phenomena are peculiar to no coun- 
try or time. They occurred, as histo- 
ry attests, in Scotland, England, Ire- 
land and in almost every country 
of the continent of Europe, in New 
England and the Western States, du- 
ring the middle ages of the church, 
during the Wesleyan Reformation 
in England, and the Gi*eat Awaken- 
ing in New England, as Edwards has 
abundantly recorded ; although it is 
worthy of notice that not a solitary 
example of this kind of religious af- 
fection is recorded in either the Old 
or New Testament. They have not 
been confined to any denomination. 
The most remarkable instances have 
occurred among the Presbyterians, 
Baptists and Methodists. "The pow- 
ers" were accompanied with a par- 
tial or complete suspension of all 
the rational powers, the will, judg- 
ment, reason, and even conscious- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



25 



ness, and the subject lay motionless 
and powerless; and at times the in- 
voluntary susceptibilities were ab- 
normally active, and the subject 
yielded without resistance to the 
prevalent impression or influence. 
"The jerks" were rapid jerking con- 
tortions of the body, which seem al- 
ways more or less directly the result 
of religious causes, aiFecting howev- 
er the most irreligious minds not 
less irresistibly than the religious. 
Violent opposers were sometimes 
seized by them. Men with impreca- 
tions on their lips were suddenly 
smitten with them. Drunkards, at- 
tempting to drown the effect by 
Hquors, could not hold the bottle to 
their lips; their convulsed arms 
would drop it or shiver it against 
the suri'ounding trees. Horsemen, 
charging in upon camp-meetings to 
disperse them, were arrested by the 
strange affection at the very bound- 
aries of the worshiping circles, and 
were the more violently shaken the 
more they endeavored to resist the 
inexplicable i)ower. 

A pioneer preacher who has seen 
more than live hundred jerking at 
one time, in some of his large con- 
gregations, says that if they did not 
strive against it, but prayed in good 
earnest, the jerking would- usually 
abate. 

Dr. Stevens, the historian of Meth- 
odism, draws the following conclu- 
>ions concerning them : 

First, They were seldom or never 
iollowed by any morbid physical 
elTects. In the revival meetings of 
the earlier times, persons apparent- 
ly in sound and even vigorous health 
»ave been known to lie motionless 
.'ind insensible during a week with- 
<->ut food or drink, and yet on re- 
Uirning to consciousness, showed no 
^^iJportant physical injury or de- 
^^tngement. 

Second, They have not yet been 
identified with any known diseased 
elections, and never occur except 

4 



in connection with religious causes. 

Third, Though connected with re- 
ligious causes, they are themselves 
merely physical affections, and have 
not always been followed by moral 
results, and have attended the worst 
as well as the best forms of religion; 
the teachings of fanatics and here- 
tics as well as those of sounder 
faith. 

" To be thrown into the catalep- 
tic state, in conversion," says anoth- 
er authority, "is no criterion of the 
genuineness of the change. The 
proof of this must be sought and will 
be found elsewhere. The having 
of ' the powers ' is not a safe indi- 
cation by wdiich to judge of the re- 
ligious state during any stage of re- 
ligious ^ experience; because the 
same divine influence, exerted upon 
a person under diflerent circum- 
stances, would not probably produce 
the same result, nor would it pro- 
duce the same effect on another per- 
son under the same circumstances." 
Sometimes persons so affected were 
convicted of sin and converted, 
sometimes they were not. These 
things therefore are not and ought 
not to be regarded as conclusive in- 
dications that the Spirit of God is 
present, and I must be permitted to 
emphasize the remark that they 
should by no means be regarded as 
proof that the power of God is not 
present and that therefore the woric 
accomplished is not genuine. We 
do not then sit in judgment much 
less condemn any one for being- 
subject to these affections. They 
may be and often have been, deeply 
pious. 

The branch of our subject we pro- 
posed to discuss in the second division 
of our discourse, we may more ra])id]y 
pass, as the i)resent condition of re- 
ligion among us is but the natural 
and necessary sequel of the past, 
and in the marked religious history 
of the past Ave discover propho(5ies 
of things to come. The blessed 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER* 



[June, 1866. 



fruits of the seed our fathers sowed 
are seen all over our lovely land — 
our goodly heritage. The churches 
all over our land ^^dth foundations 
of stone, symbol of God's enduring 
truth, and with spires pointin^^ up- 
ward to lead our thoughts from 
earth to heaven, the mau}^ and in- 
telligent congregations assembled 
every Sabbath for worship, the Sab- 
bath Schools everywhere organized 
and sustained, the immense circula- 
tion of religious literature through 
the Sunday School Library and the 
religious press, the prevalent moral- 
ity and respect for the word and 
worship of God, in short the statis- 
tics of this Association, best attest 
the condition of religion among us. 
But if the farmer wishes you to 
know how fertile are his iields, he 
takes you not to see the stubble 
from which the harvest has been 
gathered, but to the barn filled with 

frain : so likewise, would you know 
ow bountiful has been the harvest 
borne by the seeds sown by the wa- 
ters, long ago, look not alone to the 
fields below, but to the garner above. 
Though in the condition of religious 
interests among us there is much to 
encourage us, there is somewhat to 
deplore. The sermon has lost much 
of its ancient power, our minds be- 
ing overwhelmed and our time mo- 
nopoHzed by the rush of secular lit- 
erature upon us. The religious in- 
struction of our children at home is 
much neglected, and the Sunday 
School, unsustained by the more 
necessary ^and efiective"^ instruction 
of parents'at home, v>^ages doubtful 
contest with the ever increasing ac- 
tivity of corrupting and seductive in- 
fluences, and vicious men; and al- 
together there is a want of deep and 
fervent spirituality among us. 

There remains a moment or two to 
indicate our duty, to whom are com- 
mitted the legacy of the religious 
institutions of the past and the in- 
spiring hopes of the present. To us 



belongs the solution of the ques- 
tion, "What shall the future be of the 
land we inhabit ?" I but repeat the 
. consenting testimony of the wise, 
the good, and the great, the founders 
and legislators of commonwealths, 
philanthropists, patriots, statesmen, 
when I declare that the liberty, 
the public and private weal of no 
people can be preserved except by 
public morality and private virtue 
fostered and sustained by the preva- 
lence of a pure religious faith. 
Without the conserving influence of 
religion in the state, our elections 
must become a mockery, our legisla- 
tors venal, our courts corrupt and 
tainted with party spirit, and our 
law become cobwebs through which 
the rich and the poor break alike ; 
there can be no security for person or 
property where there exists a gener- 
al disregard for public morality and 
religion. If we fail to comprehend 
the responsibilities resting upon us 
and meet them in the spirit of devo- 
tion and sacrifice, then we have in- 
deed reached, " we have passed the 
meredian, and have now to look 
forward to an evening of degenera- 
cy and the -closing in of a rajdess 
and hopeless night of political de- 
cline." But if, true to our trust, we 
see that the Bible is in every house- 
hold among us, that the church and 
school are sustained in their present, 
or raised to a higher eflicienc}^, af- 
fording to every youth among us 
facilities of liberal Christian culture 
— if with uncompromising firmness 
and undying zeal, we seek to rescue 
our youth from all seductive and de- 
praving influences, we stand at the 
portals of a future, which in social 
security and happiness,in public tran- 
quillity, in spiritual and intellectual 
eidightenment, will in its realiza- 
tions transcend even the dreams of 
enthusiasm. I but echo your own 
maturest and most proiound convic- 
tions when I assert, that among the 
varied oblig-ations resting upon us, 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIKE LANDS PIONEEK. 



27 



there is not one so imperative and 
sacred as that of sustaining among 
ourselves and transmitting to the 
future, the Christian morality which 



has made us what we are, and alone 
can make our children what we hope 
them to be. 



FIRST SHIPMENT OF WHEAT AND WOOL. 



The first shipment of wheat ^V^ 
hulk^ from the Firelands, or on Lake 
Erie, was made by Judge Charles * 
Standart of Auburn, New York, 
then a resident of Huron. He did 
the first permanent shipping at Hu- 
ron, and built a frame warehouse in 
1824; log warehouses having been 
used before, and the trade merely 
local to Sandusky. The w^heat re- 
ferred to was shipped in 1828, in 
quantity, from eight to nine thousand 
bushels, and the vessel was caulked 
for the purpose. It was sent to 
Buffalo and reshipped thence to 



Rochester by Erie canal. Previ- 
ous shipments had been made in 
bags. It was Avorth in Huron, sixty- 
two and a half cents per bushel. 

Judge Standart, also made in 
1836, the first shipment of wool, 
from the Firelands. He put in bales 
between three and four hundred 
pounds — of his own raising; and sent 
it to Auburn, New York, where it 
was made into cloth and returned. 
He had so good luck that many of 
his neighbors did the same the next 
vear. 



A REMARKABLE FAMILY GATHERING. 



A remarkable Thanksgiving gath- 
ering took place in York, Maine, at 
^Jie residence of Daniel Mclntyre, 
Lsq. Four generations were pres- 
<?|it. The venerable grandfatliei: is 
eighty-two years of age, and what is 
remarkable, weighs but seventy -tioo 
poinids^ with not even a gray hair 
'"termixed with his black locks or 
^vhiskers. He carries on his form in 
Ij^^rson; last summer worked with 
*''e hands mowing in the field, and 
now performs all the duties connect- 
*^'i with the care of two yoke of ox- 
""» live cows, one hundred sheep, 



(fcc, (fee, assisted only by a young 
lad. He reads his newspaper regu- 
larly without spectacles. His big- 
ge/ and better half is hale and 
hearty, weighing two hundred and 
twenty-five pounds. They have had 
twelve children, eleven of them be- 
ing alive; ten of whom were present 
at the Thanksgiving feast; one, not 
having quite reached his growth, 
measuring six feet three inches 
while standing in stockings, with 
lots of grandchildren to make grand- 
mother's goodies disappear some 
Avhat rapidly. — Providence Press, 



28 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



ADDRESS OF REV. JOHN SAFFORD, AT THE QUARTERLY 
MEETING AT BELLEVUE. 



Mr. SafFord welcomed the Pio- 
neers to Bellevue and its hospitali- 
ties, and remarked that he expected 
to occupy but a small part of the 
time of the Society with what he 
might say, but expected to be a 
listener to the remarks of other 
members of the Society. He then 
proceeded to address the meeting as 
follows : 

The Chairman of your Committee 
suggested to me as the subject of 
some remarks to be made on this 
occcsion, "The present Social and 
Moral Condition of the Fire Lands." 
It is a topic, doubtless, in which you 
are all interested, for it is a liome 
subject, a subject that pertains to 
yourselves; it refers to your own 
circumstances and prospects, and to 
the prospects and future weltare of 
your children, and not only this. 
To some of yon, to you who were 
Pioneers to tlie lands, or who are 
the children of the Pioneers, the 
subject refers to the results ac- 
complished by the labors, tlie priva- 
tions and sacrifices incidental to the 
settlement of these Lands by your- 
selves or by your parents and 
friends. I am fortunate, tlien, in my 
subject, l)ut I will frankly confess to 
you in the beginning of my remarks, 
what vou would surelv discover for 



yourselves at the close, that I am 
not prepared to present the subject 
in a complete or satisfactory man- 



ner. 



The subject contemplates, as you 
see, a statement of the present state 
of society in Huron and Erie coun- 
ties. I cannot and do not assume in 
what follows to give anything like a 
full presentation of the subject;! 
have not been a resident here long 
enough, or at least, have not had op- 
portunities for forming that exten- 
sive and familiar acquaintance with 
the two counties, that is necessary 
to do that ; still I may say that I am 
not a stranger to the social and mor- 
al influences which have been at 
work in these two counties from 
their early settlement, and which 
have produced the present order of 
things, and given us the type of civ- 
ilization and society that now ex- 
ists among us. Born on another 
part of the Western Reserve, the 
child of Vermont Yankees, reared 
and educated here, I ought to know 
something of this subject, and be 
able to speak in sympathy with tlie 
feelings and views of the settlers of 
the Firelands and their decendantj^ 
so Air as I am able to judge, there is 
but Httle diilerence socially and mor- 
ally, between the eastern and wes- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



29 



tt?rn parts of the Reserve. True, I 
remember that the epithet "be- 
nj;:^hted" has been applied to Old 
Ashtabula, but it was applied sim- 
ply because she has ever been true 
m'heart to Right, and at the polls 
has always uttered her voice in 
loudest tones for Liberty. And if 
this made a community benighted, 
then my own county, gallant little 
Lake, was and is worse benighted 
than Old Ashtabula. But one of her 
townships ever faltered, and that 
was Klrtland, where the Mormon 
upas once struck root and flourished 
for a time, and which, when it was 
removed, left a soil prepared for a 
succession of follies and vices as 
bad and false in nature as Mormon- 
isra, but lacking its energy and 
power. But Kirtland is now re- 
deemed, and affords another pleas- 
ing instance in which correct prin- 
ciples of virtue and morality will 
survive and triumph over the false 
and wicked. You see, tlien, that I 
am familiar with a condition of soci- 
ety essentially the same as that of 
which I am desired to speak. I sup- 
pose that the leading and primary 
object of your Society is to collect 
and preserve reminiscences,Tacts and 
memorials of the past. It is to pre- 
serve a record of the names and do- 
ings of the early settlers; have a re- 
<"ord of their trials and privations, of 
their labors and sacrifices, of their 
'■haracter and principles. The ob- 
ject of the Society is, I presume, to 
>eok out and declare the impulse 
«Uid direction given to society; to 
^iote the institutions planted, the 
ineans they tried and instrumental- 
ities they used, to found and build 
'U> the social and moral state of 
MiHigsnow existing, and this work, I 
^I'^lge, the Society has well done. 
1 nave seen a few copies of your 
'"agazine, and find collected there 
:* ^rreat amount of interesting and 
5'">tructive matter. I find there the 
^i'iines dM history of many of the 



pioneers. I read there what they 
thought and felt and did. I read of 
their trials and privations, of their 
fortitude and courage, of their indus- 
try and intelligence, of their losses 
and sacrifices, and of their fidelity 
andlaith. I see what stylo of men 
and women many of them were. I 
see that they were not mere reck- 
less adventurers, but men and wo- 
men that were intelligent and educa- 
ted; men of principle, of good char- 
acter, that believed in virtue, in 
morality and religion. I do not say, 
lor I do not find, that all the pioneers 
were people of this class ; but in the 
sketches of the different townships, 
I find in many, perhaps in nearly all, 
that early and promx)t attention was 
given to the school and the church; 
that is, provision was made for the 
institutions of education and reli- 
gion. As I have read over these 
sketches, or rathe^- as I have glanced 
hurriedly through them, I have be- 
lieved and still believe, that if there 
were full and accurate accounts of 
che schools and churches of these 
townships, I would have reliable 
data from which to speak of their * 
present social and moral condition. 
In the brief and hurried examination 
which I have been able to give this * 
point, I have observed some curious 
and instructive facts in regard to 
certain townships, but which, per- 
haps, would be unbecoming in me 
to mention on this occasion. But, 
as I was saying, the object of your 
Society is and has been to gather 
these materials for history, and to 
show to us what our fathers and 
mothers were, what they did, what 
they endured, what they ])elicved 
and what they labored" for. And 
this we know; a goodly record ot their 
deeds and labors and principles and 
purposes has been made. And with 
this record in mind, will it not be 
interesting and profitable to look 
around us now, and note what the 
actual results of their lives and la- 



30 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



bors have been? We know what 
they endured, we know what their 
labors were; and now let us know 
what were the results of their labor ; 
what did they bring to pass ; what 
did it avail that they endured all ? 
The answer is, they brought to pass 
Huron and Erie counties. These 
counties of ours, with wliatever 
there is in them of material wealth 
and comfort, of social culture, of intel- 
lectual and moral powers, of religion, 
faith and truth, all these are the re- 
sults of their lives and their labors. 
They came, weak and feeble handed, 
and found a rugged wilderness of 
wooded i)lains and broad prairies, 
and bound themselves to a life of 
toil and conquest, and the result is 
what you see as you ride along the 
public roads. The wilderness is 
subdued and blooms like a garden. 
In its place you find beautiful and 
pleasant homes, well cultivated 
farms, busy towns and thriving vil- 
* lages. Surely tlie labor of their 
stout brown arms was not in vain ; 
not in vain that they brouglit their 
industry and intelligence with them ; 
not in vain they built their humble 
school houses, or rude chapel of 
p^ logs, and sought to preserve and 
perpetuate the interest, of education 
and religion. The results of their 
efforts in these repects may also be 
seen. In saying this, I have, as you 
observe, indicated the points that 
must be noticed in speaking of the 
present condition of these counties, 
for the social condition of a people 
is indicated in part, not fully, by the 
homes they live in. You can judge 
pretty accurately what a man is by 
seeing his home. I mean you can 
tell wliether ho is a man of taste 
and culture, of refined feelings and 
educated mind, by looking at his 
home. I do not mean that mere 
wealth is a true index of social po- 
sition; it is not. Successful villiany 
in shoddy speculation or other infa- 
mous business, or a fortunate invest- 



ment in petroleum stock, will give 
men wealth but not refinement and 
culture. I could take you to very 
humble homes, where the occupants 
are infinitely richer in social quali- 
ties, in all that constitutes a true 
manhood or womanhood, than some 
who dwell in costly houses. I know 
of conrse, that wealth and taste are 
often found together, and it is sure- 
ly a very pleasing and desirable 
combination. 

What then is the social condition 
of these "Fire Lands" as indicated 
by the homes of the people ? I 
do not mean to dwell long on this 
point, but could not pass by without 
a word. I seldom go by a house, 
or ride along a road, without receiv- 
ing certain impressions of the peo- 
ple in this way, and I think it an in- 
dication worthy of notice. The pop- 
ulation as given by the census of 
1860 was about fifty-five thousand, 
and I do not know that anywhere in 
the land you ^ill find fifty-five 
thousand people of whom so large 
a proportion have so pleasant and 
comfortable homes. It may be a 
mistaken view of mine arising from 
want of information, but I beheve 
the fact is as I have said. I have 
no statistics in regard to the wealth 
of the people, but 1 have in several 
of the townships remarked an air 
of taste, and refinement, an air of 
enjoyment and comfort about many 
of the homes, and this always at- 
tracts me more than a showy and 
gaudy display of mere wealth. Of 
course there are exceptions ; there 
are neighborhoods, and perliaps 
whole townships of which these re- 
marks are not true, but still as a 
whole I think that the homes of the 
people in these two counties indi- 
cate a social condition that compares 
most favorably with that of any por- 
tion of the State of similar extent. 
But, not to dwell longer upon this 
point— how, then, shall we dexiile 
what the present condition is ? Shall 



Jnne, 1866.] 



THE riBE LAimS PIOJI^EK. 



31 



we compare ourselves with other 
counties, or other States, and see 
how we stand? Or shall we com- 
pare om-selves with an ideal stand- 
ard of a perfect state of society ? 
li we do the former, we may judge 
jtartially, and if the latter, perhaps 
• no two of us would have the same 
standard in mind. But we can try 
and look at the facts of our condi- 
tion as they are. I have already ex- 
pressed my conviction that the 
homes of the people indicate that 
they are industrious, intelligent and 
refined. There are proofs of indus- 
tr}^ ill the pleasant homes and well 
kept farms to be seen all over the 
counties; there are proofs of intel- 
ligence in the methods and imple- 
ments of industr>^ and labor which 
are in use. Thei)eople keep pace with 
the improvements constantly made; 
for example, in agricultural imple- 
ments and methods. At least I have 
observed this where I have been in 
some of the townships. The people, 
1 think, are enterprising, disposed to 
make all improvements necessary 
f|jr their own and the public welfare. 
^0 far as I know, a commendable 
public spirit prevails, or at least pre- 
dominates in this region. The inter- 
ests of education are properly cared 
Jor. Indeed I have reason to be- 
lieve that the schools of Huron and 
trie counties are in many cases su- 
perior. I heard the excellence of 
|he public schools of Sandusky spo- 
ken of and held up as a worthy 
niodel, when I lived at the eastern 
^'nd of the Keserve, and I do not 
Miow as the citizens of Sandusky 
^fe any in advance of their fellow 
^ftizens throughout these two coun- 
ties in this respect. There seems to 
hii a cordial, generous support to 
^^ii^ interest. The vital necessity of 
Jutelligence and education to true 
I'fO'^perity and welfare of the peo- 
^'y> seems to be recognized. I 
te •»? enlarge upon this point, but 
'^id only say that the condition in 



this respect is commendable and en- 
couraging. 

As regards the sentiment of the 
people in respect to political mat- 
ters, I think it is overwhelmingly 
patriotic and loyal. I think the 
counties have made a good record in 
the mighty conflict mth slavery, 
treason and rebelhon, that has been 
tried and fought out on the battle 
field. I have now no data at hand, 
but my impression is that during the 
last 25 years, while the struggle 
between freedom and slavery was 
going on, the counties were true in 
the main, to the cause of freedom, 
and I am sure that during the four 
years i^ast they have been true to 
the Constitution and the Govern- 
ment, and have given freely of their 
money and their men to support 
them. Doubtless there have been 
exceptions, but I am speaking of the 
predominant feeling. I think our 
position in this respect is one we 
may contemplate vdth satisfaction 
and pride. 

As regards public morahty and 
the religious condition of the people, 
very much might be said, but I feel 
restricted by time, as I do not wish 
to occupy but a little of your session. 
As a whol 3, 1 feel entirely warranted 
in saying that the poi:>ulation is a 
law abiding and moral one. The 
great moral causes are as well sus- 
tained among us, to say the least, as 
b}'' the average oi communities. 

Perhaps the cause of Temperance 
has as many friends and supporters 
in our counties as in any two of the 
same population. And perhaps 
there is as much seriousness and 
attention to the subject of rehgion. 

Probably" the Gospel exerts as 
wide and powerful influence in these 
counties as in any of the State. 
Comparing ourselves with others, 
we may say, perhaps with entire 
truth, that our condition is as pros- 
perous, as high and good as theirs, 
and indeed even li-om this very 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866, 



hurried and imperfect glance, we see 
that in many respects our condition 
i§ one of encouragement and prom- 
ise. We may well congratulate 
ourselves that our condition is as 
good as it is. As lovers of our com- 
mon country, and as descendants and 
as successors of our Pioneer fathers, 
we have reason to rejoice and take 
courage in view of our attainments 
and our prospects. We should with 
gi-atitude and praise recognize and 
acknowledge the blessings bestowed 
upon us, for the hapi)y and benefi- 
cent results which have thus far 
been achieved by the settlement of 
the Fire Lands. We should be glad 
for the industrious, intelligent, loyal 
and moral i)opulation ; we should be 
grateful for the regard that is paid to 
educational and religious interests. 
There is much in these things to 
inspire us with hope and confidence. 
But Avhile I speak thus favorably 
of our condition, and gratefully 
acknowledge the causes for grat- 
ulation and courage, I should be 
soriy to have you feel that the con- 
dition is such that w^e should be 
satisfied with it. I should be sorry 
to leave the impression upon your 
minds, that I think it is as good as it 
ought to be; as good as it may be I do 
not think so at all. Asa citizen, as a 
patriot^ as a Christian, I am not con- 
tent with the social and moral condi- 
tion of these Fire Lands. I am not 
satisfied with the state of our Societ}^ 
nor with the degree of civilization 
to which we liave attained. There 
is a much higher and better state to 
wliich we may, and to wdiich we 
ought to attain. There are evils ex- 
isting here which I, as a citizen, as a 
lover of my race, am not satisfied to 
have remain. There is a great 
amount of ignorance which I would 
liave removed ; an amount of indo- 
lence and thriftless poverty and 
degradation, which I am not content 
should remain; and there is a senti- 
ment of disloyalty to the Goverment, 



the lurking spirit of oppression and 
injustice, that I am not content with. 
I would have all this removed and 
replaced by the sentiment of intelli- 
gent patriotism, and the generous 
spirit of universal liberty and justice. 
And there are numerous other evils 
"with which I am not satisfied. I am 
not satisfied, for example, with the 
indifference and apathy existing in 
view of the frightful evils of Intem- 
perence ; I am not satisfied that in 
all our towns and villages should be 
found saloons and drinking houses in 
which our young men are ruined, 
body and soul ; not satisfied with 
that public opinion which tolerates 
and encourages these haunts of 
ruin and murder. Why, there are 
single dens of this land which inflict 
deeper wounds and more deadly 
wounds* upon our counties eveiy 
year, than any rebel regiment caused 
us in a year. We mourn our brave 
boys who fell upon the red field of 
battle, but we mourn them not as 
lost. For them we have consola- 
tion: they were not wasted. But 
for tliose who fall by the rum mur- 
derers at home, wdio die to manliness 
and to usefulness, to truth and to 
honor — Ah! for these where is our 
consolation? Oh, no, sir! We may 
not, must not, be satisfied ^^'it}l our 
condition, till our towns and villages 
are purged from these plague spots, 
and our people rescued from the 
curse of rum. So, too, there is an 
amount of frivolity and trifling, of 
irreligion and ungodliness, which no 
truly earnest and thoughtful soul 
sliould be satisfied to have continue. 
There are moral wastes : places of 
spiritual desolation, which should be 
cultivated and made to bring forth 
better and more abundant fruit ; and 
we should not be satisfied with our 
social and moral condition till this is 
done ; and I should deprecate it as a 
feariul evil, if I thought there was a 
feeling of entire satisfaction in re- 
gard to these things. The facts 



Jane, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



alluded to ought to stimulate and 
rouse us to action. An object wor- 
thy of our hopes and labors and our 
prayers, is set before ns. Our 
pioneer fathers have done their 
work, and done it well. It is fitting 
that those of them who remain 
should rest from their labors. They 
grappled with the material wilder- 



ness, and converted it into fruitful 
fields and pleasant Iiomes — they liave 
done their part, let us do ours"! Let 
us carry forward their work ; let us 
seek out the waste moral places and 
cultivate, till they shall be reclaimed 
and bear the fruits of righteousness 
and peace. 



From the Sunday-School World. 

THE OLD AND THE NEW. 



Two Connecticut churches cele- 
brated their 150th anniversary, .in 
the month of October. One of these 
was at Newton, in Fairfield county, 
the other at Pomfret, in Windham 
county — the former home of Gen- 
eral Israel Putnam, of Kevolutionary 
fame. Both occasions were of rare 
interest, and are likely to be long 
remembered by 1:hose who took part 
in their exercises. 

The children who were present 
learned much of the quaint ways of 
their Puritan fathers, as the record 
was un"folded of the earlier years of 
the ancient churches, and had fresh 
reason to be grateful for the pro- 
f,'ress made during the last century 
in American Society. Distinctions 
were recognised even in taking 
veals in the sanctuary, one hundred 
•'^tnd fifty years ago, which were long 
>mce swept avv^ay in our land. In 
^«14, it was voted in town meeting, 
»!iohl Pomfret, that Jonathan Eelch- 
♦T, Ksq., (afterwards colonial Gov- 
♦^'rj«*r of Massachusetts,) sliould 
** liave liberty to build a pew in the 
nieoting house next to the pulpit, at 
Jj^e west end of it." A year later a 
"I'ew-spot," was assigned to a milita- 
0' nllicial, and then similar privileges 
Were granted to other notabilities. 
Aiterwards a committee . was ap- 



pointed to seat the remainder of 
the congregation according to their 
income, "having respect also to age 
and dignity." To prevent dispute it- 
was declared by vote of the Town 
that the " second seat in the body of 
the meeting house, and the fore-seat 
in the front gallery, shall be judged 
and esteemed equal in dignity," and 
so on through doubtful portions of 
the house. 

Yet in olden time the children of 
all conditions were remembered by 
Pomfret christians. It was voted 
"that the space in the meeting- 
house between the stairs and the 
door, be a place for boys to sit in," 
including doubtless those not of the 
families of pew-holders, and in the 
assigning of each "pew-spot," there 
was a proviso, that the householders 
should take in, and cause all their 
families to sit there, if it may be 
with convenience. In the recent 
anniversary celebration the children 
had a prominent part, and were ad- 
dressed by their special Iriends, invi- 
ted from a distance, cared for as they 
ever have been in that quiet and 
pleasant township; it is to be desir- 
ed that the children of Pomfret, 
shall imitate all tlic virtues of their 
fathers, avoid all their follies, and be 
possessed of all their grace. 



34 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



SUBSTANCE OF THE REMARKS MADE BY JOHN SEY- 
MOUR, AT THE MEETING OF THE FIRE LANDS 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY, AT BELLEYUE, 
DECEMBER 13, 1865, 



■ Ladies and Gentle'inen^ Memhers 
of tTie Ilistorioal Society^ Friends 
and Felloio- citizens: It is with some 
embarrassment tliat I present 
niyselt before you at this time, 
from the fact that I have dehiyed it 
so long. 

• When this Society was formed, I 
thought it to be a good thing, and 
would gladly have taken a part with 
you, but I sui)posed that it was 
formed of first settlers only, or at 
least of those who came into the 
country several years before me. It 
was a considerable time before I dis- 
covered my error. I then prepared 
a short sketch of my experiences 
and observations during the first 
years of my residence in Ohio ; uni- 
ted with the Society, and held the 
manuscript in readiness to be pre- 
sented v/hen a suitable opportunity 
should offer. But when the oportu- 
nity came, and it was too late to 
make the needed preparation, to my 
surprise I could not find the man- 
uscript. Of course I am thrown 
upon memory. 

My voice is weak and very liable 
to fail, and besides what I have to 
say is mostly of a x>rivate character, 



which although it will interest me, 
may interest few if any others. I 
will, however, invite your patient 
attention for a few moments. 

I came, into this country for the 
first time, in October, 1824. A part- 
ner, Joab Tyler, Esq., and a younger 
brother, R. George Sej^mouV, were 
with me. We intended to have 
landed at Sandusky, but Avere driven 
past and went to Detroit. We 
spent a little time in Michigan, 
looked around and .made some in- 
quiry, and then returned to Sandus- 
ky, and hired a team to take us to 
Lyme, Strong's Ridge. The Rev. 
Enoch Conger and the Rev. John 
Beach, particular friends of ours, had 
preceded us a few months. Mr. 
Conger was located at New Haven, 
and Mr. Beach, at Lyme. 

When we first came to the prairie, 
the view was very diilerent from 
what we see now. There was ^jiit 
little ai)pearance of roads; it was 
not fenced off into broad fields, and 
dotted over with orcliards and 
gardens, and buildings like an old 
settled country, but was a broad ex- 
panse of level ground. 

It appeared to me like water cov- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



35 



cred over with a thin layer of earth 
and vegetation, or like a broad 
deep marsh which could not be 
crossed with safety. The appear- 
ance of the shores along the ridges 
and islands clearly showed that 
they were formed by the action of 
water, and that the lake, if not the 
ocean, once overflowed these 
prairies. When the team at first 
proceeded boldly from the shore in- 
to the wide expanse, I felt an invol- 
untary shudder and unavoidably 
looked for an undulation or trem- 
bling of the surface, if not for a 
breaking through of the crust. And 
\theu 1 first walked out upon the 
surface, I stepped carefully, and' 
when I went through a cornfield and 
found the earth bored full of holes 
as with an augur, and the holes fill- 
ed with cool, clean water, but little 
below the surface, and the ground 
covered with the shells and bones 
of craw-fish, (prairie lobsters,) I 
«'0uld hardly avoid a sense of dan- 
ger. I have, however, since found 
that the prairie lies on as firm a 
foundation as any other part of the 
countr}^ The soil was very loose 
and black, and in a wet time the 
wagoning was very heav}', but there 
was no danger of miring. 

We found Mr. Beach in a house 
belonging to Stephen Russell, the 
lather of Rufus B. and Joseph L. 
Hussell, near where Rufus B. 
now lives. The four Strongs, who 
b'lve name to the place, were living 
along the ridge. Maj. Joseph 
''^trong was living on the farm now 
belonging to Samuel Nims and 

Nims. Capt. Zadoc 
where the burying 

. Dr. Francis Strong 

James Smith now 

^ives, and Abner Strong on theplace 
now owned by Owen Dole. 

Doctor Sanauel Stephens, Joseph 
Kenney and Isaac Slocum are all 
tii.a Ii'emember as living between 
•Vbuer Strong's and Belle vue. At 



\Vorthington 

'"^Irong near 

^'lound now i= 

^lere Col. 



Bellevue, I think there were but 
three or four houses. Chapman and 
Amsden had brought on a small 
stock of goods and just opened a 
store in a log building near the 
county line. 

The Indian title to lands west of 
Huron county was extinguished and 
settlements v/ere beginning to be 
made. We spent one day in traveling 
over the oak openings. There was 
no need of roads ; we could go 
where we pleased. There was usu- 
ally a good supply of large oak trees, 
but very little under-brush and but 
few old logs. We went as far as 
Butternut Ridge, to theplace where 
the Ballards, Horace, Winthrop and 
Luke had made a beginning, and 
road in differeiit directions during 
the day. 

Much of this land was then in 
market at government prices. It 
was very easy to clear and would 
produce good crops of wheat, at 
least for a while, but was not thought 
to be good for corn or grass. And 
as it v/as underlaid with cavernous 
limestone, it was supposed that it 
would be very difiicult to find good 
permanent w*^ater. I do not remem- 
ber to have seen more than three 
or four houses during the day. The 
Maumeo turnpike was located, and 
Isaac Slocum had commenced the 
construction of the first mile. 

East of the Strongs and along the 
ridge, were Samuel Beniiss and his 
sons, Elijah and Rodney, Charles and 
Livy Rash, George and Jonathan 
Furgerson, Samuel Cox and Reuben 
Root. 

At Cook's Corners, Esquire Asaph 
Cook and his sons xVsaph, jr., 
Erastus and Israel, Martin Vrooman, " 
Benjamin Fish; and a little north, 
Lewis Stone, Hiram Parker and 
Capt. Drake ; south of the corners 
and between there and Monrocville, 
were Smith D. Baldwin, Wm. Par- 
rish, the Clock family, Daniel Sher- 
man, Benjamin Read, and his son 



36 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



Joseph. These were all that I re- 
member. 

At Monro eviUe, were a few 
houses, one tavern, one store, two 
blacksmith's shops and a grist and 
sawmill. Schuyler 7anRennsselaer 
was about closing his store, and 
George Hollister about coming in. 

From Monroeville, we proceeded 
south, through Peru, Greenfield and 
New Haven to rlymouth. The 
buildings were of the roughest kind 
and the fields usually full of dead 
trees and old logs, but appeared to 
be very productive. 

We called upon Mr. Conger, 
spent some time with him, rode 
around and examined several farms, 
were well pleased with the country 
but made no purchase. We returned 
by way of Maxville and Norwalk. 
Nor walk was a small, but thriving 
village. It had become the county 
seat and the people seemed anxious 
to increase its business and popula- 
tion, and to improve the state of so- 
ciety. They were about putting the 
roof upon the first academy build- 
ins:. 

\Ve looked at several farms on the 
way and finally made a conditional 
bargain for a place called the Yroo- 
miiu farm, at Cook's Corners. This 
farm contained 217 acres. It lay south 
of the Milan road and was divided 
near the middle by the Sandusky 
road. We were to pay twelve dol- 
lars and fifty cents per acre. This 
was a high price. Wild lands ad- 
joining could have been purchased 
for two and a half to three and a 
lialf dollars. But this farm Avas con- 
sidered superior in soil — had about 
one hundred acres fenced in; sixty 
under good improvement, and a 
I)retty comfortable house and barn. 
Several roads centered there, and it 
was thought that it would be a good 
])lace for a store and tavern, and 
that it would be central for society. 
A large hemp machine and a school 
house were on parts of the farm. 



sold off for those purposes. The 
meeting house and most of the little 
village, now there, are on the same 
ground. I had been for many years 
in trade, and intended still to con- 
tinue that business in connection 
with farming, and particularly in 
raising hemp, which we expected to 
have broken and prepared for mar- 
ket at the machine, for one-third. 
This we thought w^ould be a good 
article for remittance, and that the 
prospect of doing w^ell was very 
lair. 

After returning home and consid- 
ering the subject, w^e closed the con- 
tract. I agreed to go on and take* 
the whole charge of the business 
for one or two years, and then if 
prospects were good. Esquire Tyler 
would come and assist, and if not, I 
should probably return. 

Accordingly^ 1 removed with my 
family, in the fall of 1825. Mrs. 
Seymour's father and mother, (Dr. 
Moses Thatcher and wife,) and two 
workmen were with us. We came 
by teams to Syracuse, thence by ca- 
nal to Lockport; thence seven miles 
to Pendleton by teams, and from 
thence to Buffalo by canal. The ca- 
nal was finished through soon after 
we passed. 

We had expected to proceed up 
the lake by the steamboat Superior, 
but \vere too late to get passage and 
were compelled to come by sails or 
wait a week or more for a boat. 
There was but one on the Lake, ex- 
cept a very small one, which sailed 
from Black Rock, and Avas not con- 
sidered very safe. AVe went on 
board a schooner called the Red 
Jacket, commanded by Captain 
AValker, who was well known on the 
Lakes for many years. He was a 
good sailor, and an agreeable and 
accommodating man. The vessel 
was over-stocked and we had a long 
and stormy passage. We lay the 
first night under Point Abino, 
the second and third under Lon;r 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



37 



Point ; then beat to the right and 
loft for about two days and lay over 
for one night at Dunkirk, and after 
about two days more of rough 
weather, arrived at Cleveland. The 
^\^nd had now stopped blowing, the 
water had become smooth and the 
weather hot. Cleveland was not 
then what it now is, a large and 
flourishing city. It was only a 
small village, partly on the bluff and 
partly along the river. We were 
compelled to anchor out some dis- 
tance and land some families and 
their stuff with a flat boat, drawn a 
part of the way by men wading in 
the water, in consequence of a sand 
bar which had closed up the har- 
bor. There was but little appear- 
ance of business and but few if d.nj 
teams to be seen. The families 
who came with us and wished to go 
a few miles into the country, were 
troubled to find conveyance. And 
we found it difficult to get the pro- 
visions needed on the vessel. The 
next day we arrived at Sandusky, 
and were very glad to see the 
place. It then appeared to us very 
pleasant, lying along a bold shore, 
on the south side of the bay. We 
entered without difficulty and came 
along side of a good wharf The 
place was full of men and teams. 
We found no difficulty in getting the 
provisions and other things which 
we needed and engaged teams to 
take us the same day to the Corn- 
ers. We arrived in good sx)irits and 
took possesion the same evening. 
We put our things into the house 
Jmd some of us lodged there, others 
♦it Esquire Cook's. 

We arrived there, I think, on the 
*'>tli of October; T)urcliased one yoke 
f^f oxen for forty dollars, one for lorty- 
^ive, a span of horses for eighty-five, 
«»ii(l a cow for ten. 

Flour was from two and a half to 
three dollars per barrel; good side 
I>ork ten; fresh hogs from two 
to three. We commenced plowing 



very soon, and plowed steadily until 
December. The weather was very 
fine. We had some rain, but not 
enough to stop our teams for a 
whole day at any time. By the first 
of December we had sixty acres all 
in one field, as black as a "hat and as 
beautiful as a garden. 

It was so furrowed out that no 
water could stand upon it, and so 
smooth that I could see a goose 
from my back window on any part 
of the field. 

During the winter we hunted fire 
wood and rails, built fence and 
and broke up thirty acres of new 
prairie. In the spring sowed nearly 
all the old land to hemj), and planted 
the new to corn and set out about 
one hundred and fifty fi'uit and shade 
trees ; all were easily cultivated. I 
was much pleased with the beauty 
and fertility of the soil, and confi- 
dently anticipated a good and profit- 
able business. But 1 was destined 
to meet with serious disappoint- 
ments. The hemp machine which 
was expected to prepare from ten t9 
fifteen hundred pounds per day for 
market, would not do more than one- 
third of that amount, and was out of 
repair. The' proprietors and their 
particular friends had more hemp 
than they could dress. Numerous 
other machines,, upon different con- 
structions, were erected, but did no 
better. During the first year I 
could get no hemp dressed by the 
machines. I then made trial of 
rotting and dressing by hand. The 
rotting we found to be too expen- 
sive, unpleasant and very unhealthy, 
and the breaking and dressing slow 
and laborious. The second year we 
succeeded in getting some dressed by 
the inachine. Purchased some in 
trade and took some to sell on com- 
mission. 

With this, and some of the water 
rotted hemp, I went first to New 
York, but could find no market. 
Then went to Philadelphia, and after 



38 



THE FIRE LAiraS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



much effort and delay succeeded in 
selling it at a ver}^ low price. 

The facts were these: that the 
strength of the raw dressed hemp 
had been tried and proved to be 
fully equal to Russian hemp. Api^li- 
cation had been made to Congress 
to adopt its use in the Navy. A 
Committee had been appointed, of 
which John Quincy Adams was 
Chairman. They made a ver}^ 
favorable report, ^nd of course the 
lots first offered sold well, and hemp 
men confidently expected great 
profits. But upon further trial it 
was found that although the strength 
of the raw hemp was at first good, 
yet it would not bear friction, and 
that when exposed to water, the 
vegetable gum, of which it con- 
tained much, would dissolve and the 
texture of the cordage become 
loose and spongy, and of course 
prove unfit for shix)ping. 

Well dressed water rotted hemj:) 
would always sell well and for a fair 
price, but it required too much 
labor, of a very unhealthy and un- 
pleasant kind. 

This was to me a very serious 
disappointment. I had brought in a 
good assortment of goods, but did 
not expect a large cash business. 
There is a time in the settlement of 
a new country when provisions and 
property of all kinds are high and 
money plenty, but this was past in 
Northern Ohio. The tide of emigra- 
tion was flowing further west, and 
the Detroit market which had been 
good, was now beginning to be 
supplied by Michigan people; and 
the eastern markets were not yet 
fulh^ opened and trade establislied. 
Of course I did not expect a good 
cash business, but supposed "that 
goods could be readily exchanged 
for hemp, and that hemp would 
prove to be a good and profitable 
article for remittance. In this I was 
seriously disappointed, and obliged 
to change my business. The raising 



of hemp was discontinued^ and it is 
believed that it was an injury to all 
who had much to do with it. 

I still kept goods for family supply 
and to hire labor and exchange tor 
such things as we needed, and for a 
small cash trade. . 

I then made trial of raising corn 
and exchanging it lor whisky and 
taking the whisky to New York. 
This proved unprofitable. I then 
tried feeding it to hogs. Built a 
large hog house, with ten apart- 
ments, intended to h^d from '75 to 
100 hogs, with an alley through the 
middle and a room across one end 
for boiling and making swill. The- 
hogs most of them grew and fatted 
well, but some of them made but 
little improvement. The first year I 
sent about half my stock alive to 
Detroit. They sold readily, but not 
at a price that would be profitable. 
The remainder, when well fatted, I 
packed and sent to New York. The 
pork was good and highly compli- 
mented. It was, however, badly 
cut and packed, and the proceeds, 
after deducting all the expense, 
left but a small balance to pay 
for corn. I found from expe- 
rience that I seldom did as well by 
taking property to a distant market 
as by selling it for what I could get 
at home. And this, I believe, 
agrees with the experience of most 
who have tried it. I then gave 
attention to a greater variety of 
crops, and cut more hay, and was 
perhaps doing a little better, but my 
health had become poor. I was 
discouraged, and after a trial of nine 
years sold out, paid oft' our debts and 
returned to tlie partners the amount 
of their capital, without interest or 
profit. This sale was just at the time 
that property began to rise, and the 
country to feel the practical efiect 
of the Erie Canal. I could have 
more than doubled the property in 
the course of a few years, simply by 
the increase of value. 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LAm>B PIONEER. 



39 



We then spent six months in Mi- 
Ian and six months in Massachusetts, 
and then settled in Lyme, where we 
now reside. 

AVe came to Lyme, April, 1835. 
Have since sold some goods, done 
some farming and manufactured 
some brooms — all on a small scale, 
and expecting to make no more 
than a good living. 

There have, of course, been 
many changes in the prairie town- 
ships during the forty years of my 
residence in Huron county. 

The prairies when we came, Avere 
nearly all in a state of nature. The 
people had settled along the ridges 
and islands, and had usually enclosed 
no more land than they wished to 
cultivate. 

They depended on wild grasses 
for the support of stock both sum- 
mer and winter. This did well and 
their cattle often became very 
fleshy, particularly in the early part 
of the summer, but many died in 
dry, hot weather for want of salt and 
good, healthy water. 

Men who had been accustomed to 
the hilly and mountainous countries 
of the east, were poor judges of size 
and distance on the prairies. — Major 
Joseph Strong asked how many 
acres I supposed there were in a 
fine smooth field before us. I said 
perhaps twelve or fifteen. He said 
there were thirty. And when about 
to cross a wide prairie, without a 
bush or tree, the -distance would 
appear small ; but after traveling a 
long time and seeming to gain 
nothing, if we looked back, the 
distance would appear perhaps each 
way about the same as the wliole at 
the beginning. This deception was 
sometimes very discouraging, when 
the weather was unpleasant, the 
road bad, or the team overloaded. 

Vegetation then grew very large, 
much larger than now. It was often 
very difficult to find cattle at even- 
^^g, but we could sometimes see the 



tops of their horns above the grass. 
Deer and wolves and foxes and dogs 
were then very plenty, but shoe]) 
scarce. I have often seen herds 
of deer with the cattle. I at one 
time left about three acres of corn 
standing in the field until Decem- 
ber, and when we went to harvest 
it found it nearly all eaten up by deer. 
I put out an orchard of from 100 to 
150 maple trees. They nearly all 
grew and promised well, but were 
totally destroyed by deer. 

During the dry part of the year we 
were much troubled with prairie 
fires. They would often come upon 
us with great fury. We have 
often been compelled to contend 
against them until a late hour at 
night. Our usual method w^as to 
plow two or three furrows a little 
distance from the fence, and when 
we saw a fire coming, to go 
and set head fires along the furrows 
and whip them out with brush on 
the side towards the fence; but a 
sudden wind would often drive it 
ahead and around us in spite of all 
we could do. At one such time it 
swept by with great fury and ran 
through a thicket where a sow and 
pigs had made their nest, and we 
had a practical illustration of an old 
story which we had often heard in 
the 'east: "That in Ohio roasted 
pigs ran about Avith knives and forks 
in their backs, squealing, 'eat me, 
eat me.'" Ididnotsee the knives 
and forks, but I saw the roasted pigs 
and heard them squeal. 

About this time a Mr. A. brought 
a suit before Esq. C, against a i\Ir. 
D. for stealing his hogs. At the 
trial a lawyer a^sked one of the wit- 
nesses if his neighbors were in the 
habit of stealing hogs. " Well," said 
the witness, "I will tell you. Esquire, 
just how it is: Here is Mr. A. and 
Mr. 13. and .Mr. C, the plaintiiF, defend- 
ant and Justice. They are all 
very clever men and good neigh- 
bors, but they will steal hogs. " 



40 



THE FIRE LAKDS PIONEER, 



[June, 1866 



The facts in the case were these : 
That at that time nuts, roots and 
acorns were very plenty, and liogs 
running out would grow and fatten 
well. Many let their hogs run out 
all the year, and perhaps lost all 
knowledge of them. Persons turn- 
ing their hogs loose, of course 
became joint proprietors of the 
common stock. And when they 
wanted any pork went out and took 
the first good hog that they could 
get, and considered it good luck if 
the hogs did not get them. The 
hogs were usually peaceable and 
would not attack a man if he let 
them alone ; but if he wounded one 
or in any way made one squeal, he 
must take care of himself — the whole 
herd would be after him, and many 
of the boars had become large and 
old and savage. A man working for 
me said he had been treed three 
times in half a day. 

I had heard many great stories of 
Ohio before 1 came. These, of 
course, were much exaggerated, but 
not without some foundation. 

Martin Vrooman told me ihat he had 
stood on the ridge with his watch in 
his hand and saw the lire cross the 
prairie to the bank of Huron Kiver, 
three miles, in three minutes. Of 
course no animal could escape it by 
running. 

The country was subject to heavy 
rains. I was told that an empty 
barrel standing in the yard, before 
the house which I purchased, had 
been lllled full in a single hour. 
And one of my neighbors told me 
that he was plowing in liis field 
when a shower came up; that he 
took off the team and left the plow 
standing in the furrow, and that 
when he came back after the 
sliower he could see nothing of the 
plow but the tops of the iiandles 
above the water. I had been told 
frightful stories in relation to the 
health of the people. One man said 
that if a man wanted to get rid of 



his wife he had better move to Ohio; 
that women would not live there 
more than one or two years, and 
that they could not raise children. 

I found that the country was sub- 
ject to heavy rains, and that large 
portions of the wild prairie remained 
under water during the wet part of 
the year. And when dry hot 
weather came on in July and August, 
fevers became common and in some 
cases severe. There had been some 
seasons when there were more sick 
than well, and many died. Bat with 
the exception of a very few years the 
health of the people had been pretty 
good. Old Esquire Cook told me 
where I came into the country, that 
in the school district at the corners, 
when they had forty children, there 
had been but four deaths in four 
years. Doctor Tilden who was our 
family physician for several years, 
told me that the soil was so produc- 
tive and the surface so level, that it 
would be likely to produce bilious 
complaints, but as the wind during 
the hot season was usually blowing 
alternately to and from the lake, Jie 
thought that the general atmosphere 
would not often become so impure 
as to produce much sickness without 
a local cause, and that he thought he 
could usually discover the exciting 
cause in or about the house. He 
advised me to keep the cellar, drain 
and sinks all clean and sweet, to 
allow no stagnant water near, to 
keep our feet warm, our heads cool 
and bowels open ; to live well and 
avoid all excess and anxiety. 

We have been sick some, prob- 
ably not more than we should have 
been at the east, and are now all 
living. 

I had been told before I came that 
the people in Ohio lived upon corn 
and pork, dressed in.skins, had no 
money and went barefoot. That 
time, "^ if it ever was had, passed 
before I came. 

I found the people many of them 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



41 



living in the roughest kind of build- 
ings and everything around in prim- 
itive style, but I have often been 
surpiised on entering, to find the 
walls white-washed and hung with 



pictures ; a rag carpet on the floor; 
the ladies Tvell dressed and much 
appearance of good taste and com- 
fort. 



From the Atlantic Monthly. 

NO TIME LIKE THE OLD TIME. 



BY 0. W. HOLMES. 



There is no time ' like the old time, when 

you and I were young, 
When the buds of April blossomed, and the 

birds of spring-time sung ! 
The garden's brightest glories by summer 

suns are nursed, 
But, oh, the sweet, sweet violets, the flow^- 

ers that opened first ! 

Tliere is no place like the old place where 

you and I Avere born, 
Where we lifted first our eyelids on the 

splendors of the morn 
From the milk-white breast that warmed us, 

from the clinging arms that bore, 
Where the dear eyes glistened o'er us that 

will look on us no more ! 

'1 here is no friend like the old friend who 
has shared our morning days, 

No greeting like his welcome, ' no" homage 
like his praise ; 



Fame is the scentless sunflower, with gaudy 

crown of gold ; 
But friendship is the breathing rose, with 

sweets in every fold. 

There is no love like the old love that we 

courted in our pride : 
Though our leaves are falling, fi\lling, and 

we're fading side by side. 
There are blossoms all around us with the 

colors of our dawn, 
And we live in borrowed sunshine when the 

light of day is gone. 

There are no times like the old times, — they 

shall never be forgot ! 
There is no place like the old place,— keep 

green the dear old spot ! 
There are no friends like our old friends, — 

may heaven prolong their lives ! 
There are no loves lilvc our old loves, — God 

bless our loving wives ! 



COON-SKIN LIBRARY. 



About twelve miles from Athens, 
Uhio, there is a library, formed very 
**'0n after the settlement had been 
••iade, which was obtained ])y hunt- 
j-'i:. A meeting of the settlers was 
'^'-'Idto discuss the matter of im- 
j-roviiig the roads, and after tliatbus- 
'-^•^^s was dispatched, Alexander 



Injc, 



sugo^ested' that if anvthing 



* '''iM be done to improve the minds 
^ • ^'10 people, it would be very de- 
■•^■'ible. But to improve, there 
*'^"!?t be books and teaching. To 



procure books, money was required. 
There was no money in the settle- 
ment. Accordingly, it was unanim- 
ously resolved to hunt daring the 
winter, and in the spring send all 
their furs to Boston, to buy books. 
Thus was provided the first pubhc 
library ever established w^est of the 
Allegheny mountains, and it is still 
known as the Coonskin Library. 
Hon. Thomas Ewing had the advan- 
tage of this library. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866 



GEOLOGY OP THE FIRE LANDS. 



Bt JOHN H. NILE9, HAVANA. 



There is perhaps no subject nor 
science, so uninviting and repulsive 
to the popular mind, as that of Ge- 
ology. And in approaching the sub- 
ject of the Geology of the Firelands, 
before this Society, let me illustrate 
by an allegory. 

A younglac^v, at the age of fifteen, 
had formed the plan, that at every 
New Years day, instead of cutting 
up the dresses she had worn the pre- 
vious year, she would smooth them 
out, and pack them down in the bot- 
tom of her clothes press. Here they 
lay and accumulated year after year, 
just as she had packed them down. 
At the age of eighty, her grand- 
daughters became interested in 
that pile of old dresses, and obtain- 
ed permission to examine them. 
And as might have been expected, 
wonder succeeded wonder as the 
examination proceeded down in the 
pile. All was new. The constant- 
ly changing material, the different 
style of fabric, the difference in the 
colors and figures and iashions, all 
conspired to give them a keener 
anxiety as the examination progress- 
ed. 

They soon became so well ac- 
quainted with the pile that they 



grouped the materials off into 
classes, and allotted to each class a 
period of time in which it was made. 
At the bottom they found the 
dresses consisted of tow and linen, 
then linen and wool, then cotton 
muslin, then calico, and as they pro- 
ceeded, de laines, silks, and satin. 
Hence, they had the tow-and-Linen 
period, the linsey-woolsey period, 
the muslin period, the calico, silk, 
and satin period. Nor was this all ; 
for th6 girls soon learned by the 
draw and twist of the thread, just 
where hand-spinniiig stopped, and 
machine spinning began, and, by the 
evenness of the web, where the 
power-loom was introduced. And 
when all these peculiarities had been 
studied and reduced to a system, 
any one could pick up a rag in any 
grandmother's garret, and tell by 
the materials and workmanship ex- 
actly in what period it was made. 

Now, what the girls had been do- 
ing to their old grandmother's pile 
of dresses, the geologists have been 
doing to the dresses ot Old Mother 
Earth. For each layer of rock pried 
up in the quarry, *^ no matter how 
thin, was once the outside dress of 
the earth, and was worn until anoth- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



43 



er was deposited by the waters 
above it. And of the countless 
multitudes of shellfish that lived on 
each layer, a part became entomb- 
ed when the next was deposited, 
and the geologist finds them as per- 
fect in appearance as if he had just 
placed them there with his own 
hand. He has examined the rocks 
from the mountain top to the bottom 
of the deepest valley, from the drift 
clay on the surface, down to the gran- 
ite rock at the bottom, and has group- 
ed them into classes, and determined 
by their constituents, structure and 
fossils, the relative periods of time 
in which they were formed. And 
by examining the pebbles in the 
creek, or the fragments in the road, 
he has no trouble in determining 
the formation to which they belong, 
and the period in which they were 
formed. 

But to the common observer the 
Geology ot the Fire Lands presents 
no peculiar features. A rolling, 
monotonous surface, with its streams 
and their valleys, and occasionally a 
ledge of rocks, either of limestone, 
slatestoue, or sandstone, and lying 
apparently just where nature in her 
wildest confusion, had accidently 
dropped them, is all. But to the 
Geologist, these formations, that ap- 
pear so accidental to the common 
observer, are subjects of his great- 
est research. He sees nothing ac- 
cidental in the works of God. All 
is order, all is system, and each part 
is in perfect harmony with all .oth- 
ers. It is so with the rocks of the 
Firelands. They are a part of the 
great system of creation, and must 
oe considered as such, and not as 
distinct nor accidental formations. 

" In the beginning," when " the 
earth was without form and void," 
^he waters holding in solution all 
the constituents of the rocks, began 
the series of deposits under the 
strictest laws of nature. While the 
granite rocks, the lowest known in 



the series, were being deposited, 
nothing but grains of granite, col- 
lected in the waters, and like fall- 
ing snow in the atmosphere, fell to 
the bottom. And when the waters 
had become cleared of the constitu- 
ents of granite, another law came 
into operation, and the lime still 
held in solution was set free, and in 
turn fell to the bottom, forming the 
lowest rock that appears on the sur- 
face of the Firelands. After the 
lime had separated from the water, 
there was a superabundance of mud- 
dy matter still held in solution, and 
another law came in force, and the 
black slate was deposited, forming 
the middle rock of the Firelands. 
The waters thus cleared of their 
dark impuiities, were prepared un- 
der the operation of another law, to 
deposit the clear crystals of sand- 
stone, that forms the upper rock 
formations of the Firelands. 

Hence, our geology has its lime- 
stone formation, its slatestone for- 
mation and its sandstone formation. 
But as the rocks of the Firelands are 
but a small part of the vast sheet* 
that underlies the drift clay of the 
whole country, from the Allegheny 
to the Rocky Mountains, it is 
necessary to look at the whole sys- 
tem in order to understand the po- 
sition of so small a part. 

Were I to draw a line, with long 
undulations, along- the southern ho- 
rison, from the Alleghen^^ to the 
Rocky Mountains, it would repre- 
sent the surface of the great sheet 
of limestone rock that underlies 
the North American belt of coal- 
fields. The rock first dips from the 
Allegheny Mountains westward, un- 
der the coalfields of western Penn- 
sylvania, and eastern Ohio, and like 
a huge ocean wave rises to the sur- 
face again in western Ohio, and 
again dips under the coalfields of 
Illinois, and again rises to the sur- 
face further west, dipping and rising 
under each successive coal- 



44 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



field as it occurs in the belt to- 
wards the Rock}^ Mountains. 

Again, were 1 to draw a broad line 
on the surface across the State of 
Ohio, from the Pelees in Lake Erie, 
southerly across the Bass Islands to 
the main land, and thence to the 
Ohio river, near Cincinnati, it would 
mark the crest of the great lime- 
stone wave that rises to the surface 
and forms the dividing ridge in the 
limestone rock between the coal- 
fields of Ohio and Illinois. From 
this line the rocks dip as froin the 
crest of a roof, or more properly, 
the crown of an arch, both to the 
east and to the west, forming the de- 
pression, or basins of the two coal- 
fields. 

The north-western part of the Fire- 
lands are situated on the limestone 
rock, and but a few miles to the 
east of the dividing ridge, and con- 
sequently are on the eastern slope 
of the rocks, within the great circle 
of the Allegheny coalfield, and on 
its extreme north-western border; 

To illustrate the position of our 
rocks, take a large oval plate, and 
place it with its greatest diameter 
north and south, and it will repre- 
sent the limestone rock of the Alle- 
gheny coal basin. Place another of 
smaller size v/ithin it, and it will 
represent the black slate formation, 
and another still smaller within that, 
will represent the fine-grained 
sandstone, and another still will rep- 
resent the coarse-grained sandstone 
and conglomerate. © 

Fill the upper plate with alternate 
layers of limestone, slatestone, 
sandstone, coal, and iron ore, and 
it will be a ininiature representa- 
tion of the Allegheny coalfield. 
And if the tlie three fingers be 
placed on the north-western rim of 
the three outer plates, they will 
represent tlio posilion of the Fire- 
lands, on the Dorth-westerji rim of 
the coalfield, with the limestone on 
the north-western part, and the slate- 



stone across the north-western cen- 
tral x)art, and the fine-grained sand- 
stone on the south-eastern part, 
leaving the coarse-grained sand- 
stone and conglomerate in the 
counties further to the south-east, 
toAvards the center of the coalfield. 

In examining each rock forma- 
tion in detail, I shall be better un- 
derstood, to begin in the centre 
of the coal basin, and proceed out- 
ward. But there are difficulties to 
be met with. The State of Ohio 
has no geological survey of her 
own rocks, and until one is made, 
no accurate measurements can be 
given. The numbers here given 
are merely estimates, — the best I 
can give ; and may be far from accu- 
rate, but they serve to illustrate the 
general idea, and must be received 
as estimates only. 

No classification of our fossils has 
yet been made public, and no accu- 
rate mention can be made of them. 
And, indeed, so imx^erfect is our ' 
knowledge of all that pertains to ac- 
curacy in our geology, that noth- 
ing more than a mere outlifie of 
our rock formations can be given. 

The coal-bearing rocks consist of 
alternate layers of limestone, slate- 
stone, sandstone and iron ore. The 
coal seams vary in thickness from a 
mere black mark on the face of the 
rock, to eight or ten feet, and are 
separated by layers of the difierent 
rocks, sometimes eighty or one hun- 
dred feet apart. The coal series 
has been estimated at two thousand 
feet in thickness.* 

THE CONGLOMERATE AND COARSE- 
GRAINED SANDSTONE. 

Beginning at the base of the coal 
series, and proceeding downward, 
and outward, we first meet with the 



■* See outline sketch of the Geolo£:v ot 
Ohio; Ohio Ag. Kep. 1857, by Charles Whit- 
tle sej'. 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



45 



conglomerate formation, the coars- 
est rock of the whole sandstone se- 
ries. 

It is several himdred feet in thick- 
ness, and its outcroj) forms the first 
circle around the coal basin. Be- 
low the conglomerate lies the 
coarse-grained sandstone. This is 
several hundred feet in thickness, 
and its outcrop forms the second 
circle around the coal basin, and 
hke all the rocks above the lime- 
stone, runs out to a thin edge over 
the rock below it. Its thin north- 
western edge probably underlies a 
a part of the townships of Green- 
wich, Ruggles, and New London, 
but as there are no large streams 
and deep valleys hi those townships, 
its western boundary is not known. 

The State of Ohio'^ has no classifi- 
cation of her rocks, and geologists 
are obliged to use the classification. 
and nomenclature of the State of 
New York. But the coarse-grained 
sandstone ot Ohio does not reach 
the state of New York, and is want- 
ing in her classification. On the 
other hand, the old red sandstone 
of New York does not reach Ohio, 
but lies immediately under the con- 
glomerate in their series, as the 
coarse-grained sandstone does in 
ours, but they are not considered as 
equivalents, and are held to have 
been formed in diflerent geological 
periods. 

But the most interesting feature 
in the coarse-grained sandstone at 
the present time, is the oil it con- 
tains. The oil was doubtless the 
product of the coal, and was form- 
ed during the process, whatever it 
anight have been, of charring the 
J'ast beds of vegetation into coal, 
it found its way from the bottom of 
fiie coal beds, down into the crev- 
ices of the coarse-grained sandstone, 
^vhere it is now reached by boring 
fo the crevices containing it. And 
n the crevices ascend with the dip 
^>i the rock above the well, the oil 



flows spontaneously, and if the 
chamber from which the oil flows is 
airtight above, and the air at inter- 
vals rushes down the well to fill 
the vaccuum, the flow of oil is inter- 
mittent. But where the crevices lie 
horizontal below the well, force is 
necessary to raise the oil to the sur- 
face. And had not Providence in 
her wisdom interposed the imper- 
vious strata of fine-grained sand- 
stone and black slate bdow it, the 
oil would doubtless have found its - 
way down into the caverns and 
subteranean streams in the lime- 
stone rocks and disappeared forever. 
The grind-stone rock, so largely 
quarried at Berea and * vicinity, is 
the finest formation of the coarse- 
grained series and is supposed to be 
a formation peculiar to northern 
Ohio, and lying along the I^ake 
shore, between the coarse and fine- 
grained sandstone formations, thick- 
ening up towards the lake, and thin- 
ing out and disappearing to the 
south. The close-grained sandstone 
is largely quarried at Mansfield and^ 
Belleville, and used for building pur-' 
poses along the railroads. 

THE FINE-GRAINED SANDSTONE. 

Geologists have considered the 
fine-grained Sandstone the equiva- 
lent of the Portage and Chemung 
group of New York. It lies below 
the coarse-grained Sandstone and 
above the Black Slate, and is over 
300 feet in thickness, and forms the 
third circle around the coc^ series. 
Its line of out-crop across the Fire 
Lands is not straight, but curved to 
the north-east. The line of its thin 
north-western edge, where it laps 
on to the Black Slate, commencing 
on the county line in the south-west 
part of New Haven, runs north-east- 
erly across New Haven, the east 
part of Greenfield, the south-east 
corner of Peru, the north-west part 
of Bronson, the south-east part of 
Norwalk, the north-west corner of 



46 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



Townsend, to the center of Berlin, 
where it curves to the east across 
Florence, to the line of Lorain 
county. In the townships of Flor- 
ence and Wakeman, where the 
Vermillion Eiver ]ias cut its chan- 
nel through the Sandstone and from 
forty to sixty feet into the Slate- 
stone, the thin northern edge of the 
Sandstone may be seen resting on 
the Black Slate high up on the river 
banks. Further south, in Wakeman 
and Clarl^field, the dip of the strata 
has sunk the Black Slate below the 
bed of the river and nothing but 
Sandstone appears. A distinct vari- 
ety of the fine-grained Sandstone is 
quarried in the east part of Green- 
field. The layers are thin and 
ripple -marked, and lie at a dip of 
near forty degrees. 

THE BLACK SLATE. 

The Black Slate, which lies below 
the fine-grained Sandstone and 
above the Limestone and forms the 
fourth circle around the coal field, is 
considered the equivalent of the Ham- 
ilton group of New York. It is near 
three hundred feet in thickness and 
its line of out-crop across the Fire 
Lands about ten miles in width. 
The line of its thin north-western 
edge where it laps on to the Lime- 
stone, commencing in tlie north- 
western part of Sherman, runs 
north-easterly, across the north-west 
corner of Sherman, the south-east 
part of Lyme, the north-west corner 
ofKidgWield, the eastern part of 
Oxford, the south-east corner of 
Perkins, and curves to the east 
across Huron to the Lake shore. If 
a man should travel from the mouth 
of the Huron River easterly along 
the Lake shore, and turn southerly 
into Pennsylvania to the Allegheny 
Mountains, and along the mountain 
range across Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia, and passed "^Kentucky into 
Tennessee; then west, and then 
northerly across Kentucky to the 



Ohio River, west of the Sciota, and 
stiU northward, near Columbus 
and Bucyrus, to the mouth o( the 
Huron, he could travel the whole 
circle of the Allegheny coal field, on 
the out- crop of the Black Slate, 
with the fine-grained Sandstone on 
his right hand and the Limestone on 
his left. 

THE LIMESTONE KOCK. 

The Clifi'or bufi'-colored Limestone 
lies under the Black Slate and rises 
to the surface, and forms the surface 
rock from the out-crop of the Black 
Slate, west to the Maumee Valley 
and south to the Ohio River. It has 
been considered as the upper bed of 
the Upper Silurian System, but fossil 
testimony is now collecting that 
may place it in the system above, 
(the Devonian,) or compel Geolo- 
gists to admit those fossils now 
considered Devonian into the Silu- 
rian system. 

The Clifi' Limestone is divided into ■ 
an upper and lower formation. The 
upper bed, of some two hundred feet 
in thickness, is considered tli^ equiv- 
alent of the Uelderburg Limestone 
of New York, and the lower 
bed the equivalent of the Niagara 
L'mestone. Between the Helder- 
burg and Niagara Limestone in the 
State of New York, lies the flunous 
Onondaga Salt Group. But here, 
between the upper and lower forma- 
tions of the Clifi" Limestone, the Salt 
Group is represented by the thin 
stratum of Gypsum that crops out 
in the highest arch of the Lime 
rock, some miles west of Sandusky 
City, in OttaAva county. The extent 
of the Gypsum rock is unknown, but 
in boring at the Round House in 
Norwalk, the drill struck the Gyp- 
sum sheet about four hundred and 
sixty-eight feet below the surface or 
about three Jmndrod and twenty 
feet below^ Lake water. The sheet 
was less than two feet in thickness. 
With our present knowledge, we 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



47 



may consider the Gypsum rock a 
northern formation, thinning out 
and disappearing to the south, and 
thickening up and receiving new 
members as it goes north, and dips 
nnder the Michigan coal field, and 
rises to surface again with the Salt 
Group, fully developed, in the Sagi- 
naw Valley. 

The Cliff Limestone rests on the 
Blue Limestone that forms the 
surface rock, from Dayton to Cin- 
cinnati, and there forms the bed 
of the Ohio River, one hundred and 
thirty-three feet below Lake iCrie. 
The Cliff Limestone as it ^'ps under 
the Illinois coal field, crosses the 
Ohio River and forms the rapids at 
Louisville, Kentucky. 

THE DIP OP THE ROCKS. 

From any point on the circle of the 
coal-field, the rocks dip towards the 
center, and always at right angles to 
their line of out-crop. The thickness 
of the Black Slate across the Fire 
Lands is not accurately known, but 
\sill not vary far I'rom three hundred 
feet, and its breadth of out-crop is 
about ten miles. 

Divide the thickness by the num- 
ber of miles in the width, and it 
jdves a dip of thirty feet per mile. 
The Gypsum sheet dips between its 
out-crop at the Plaster Bed, and 
Norwalk, only three hundred and 
twenty feet or less than fifteen feet 
per mile. But this difference in the 
dip of the Gypsum and Black Slate 
is consistent with the facts. For it 
should be remembered that the out- 
^I'op of the Gypsum is in the crown 
of the Limestone arch, and the rocks 
ior some miles to the east dip but 
shghtly, from a few inches to a few 
feet per mile, increasing their incli- 
iiation as they leave the arch, and 
finally plunge under the Black Slate 
^i the dip of thirty feet per mile. 

The depth to "which the Black 
^late descends under the center of 
"le Coal Feld, must exceed 2,500 feet. 



before it curves upward towards the 
surface on the other side, for the 
basin is deep enough to hold the 
three Sandstone formations, and the 
Coal series and still leave the sur- 
face of the country comparatively 
level. 

Along the Allegheny Mountains, 
on the east side of the Coal Field, 
the same rocks that here dip thirty 
feet per mile, rise up the side of the 
mountains nearly to a perpendicular 
position. On the north side the dip 
is doubtless not as great as else- 
where, for the Limestone ridge along 
the middle of Lake Erie sepa- 
rating the Ohio and Canada Coal 
Fields, does not rise high enough to 
give so great an inclination to the 
different strata. 

THE DRIFT. 

Whether the Drift agencies were 
mostly ocean currents, or currents 
floating large fields and burghs of 
ice is not known, but the vastness 
of their effects is almost beyond 
conception. Granite boulders and 
pebbles supposed to have been 
brought by the ice from the primi- ' 
five mountains north of the Lakes, 
are common everywhere. Our own 
rocks have been broken up and 
scattered widely over the countr}'-, 
and niLxed with the Drift Clay. The 
furrows and scratches on the surface 
of the Limestone rocks along the 
Lake shore and on the Islands, show 
that these jpowerful currents passed 
over the country from the. north, to 
the south. This accounts for the 
fragments of our indigenous rocks 
being found only to the south and 
east of their original formations. 

On the Limestone formation, aside 
from the Granite, nothing but Lime- 
stone boulders and pebbles can be 
found. To the south and east of the 
limestone, on the out-crop of the 
Black Slate, the Slatestone boulders 
and pebbles are added to the Lime. 
Still further to tlie south-east, on the 



4S 



THE riRE LANDS PIONEER, 



[Jime, 1866. 



out-crop of tlie Sandstone, boulders 
and pebbles of Sandstone are added to 
the Limestone and Slatestone, and 
mixed through the Drift Clay down to 
the surface of the rocks. Each rock 
formation has added its own frag- 
ments to the Drift Clay, for many 
miles to the south-east ; but not a 
mile, nor a rod to the north-west. 
There was no reversed force to 
sweep them northward. 

The drift forces swept southward 
and plowed up the layers of rocks, 
and crushed them into- fragments, 
and forced the broken masses along, 
rolling and grinding one against 
another, and finally left them at the 
end of their journey, smooth, 
rounded and w^ater-worn. The 
Limestone boulders that are so nu- 
merous in the Drift Clay in the 
south-western townships of the Fire 
Lands, were broken up from the 
surface of the rocks, north of Lyme 
and Ridgfield, and driven south '^and 
left literally in piles just above the 
Black Slate. The Limestone, Slate- 
stone and Sandstone all entered into 
the moving masses, and when ground 
to powder became components of 
the Drift Clay, and formed a soil and 
sub-stratum, with all the elements of 
iertlity, far into the interior of the 
State. 

But from whence came all these 
rocks, that were broken up and dis- 
seminated through the Drift Clay? 
"Were the rocks along the Lake shore 
once liigher than they are now? 
Most certainly. The upper bed of 
the CKIT Limestone that lies above 
the Gypsum, has been worn away 
from Lyme and Ridgefield, north to 
the Lake shore, making a gradual 
descent of near two hundred feet, 
and placing JMargaretta, North Per- 
kins and Portland more than a hun- 
dred feet lower down in the great 
Limestone quarry than Lyme and 
Pidgefield, and on rocks "infinitely 
older. In Ottawa county, on th'e 
highest swell of tJie limestone rock, 



the upper bed of the Cliff Limestone 
has all been swept awaj^, leaving the 
Gypsum sheet on the surface. The 
Slatestone and Sandstone Avere 
doubtless once as high along the 
Lake shore to the east as the Lime- 
stone, and have shared the same 
fate. Had the rocks along the Lake 
shore still retained their original 
height and position, the northern 
rim of the Allegheny Coal Field 
would have been some tw^o hundred 
feet higher than it now is, and the 
Black Slate and Sandstone would 
have extended some twenty miles 
north into#^the bed of Lake Erie. 
But this northern rim of the coal 
basin has been crushed inland by the 
Drift forces, and the materials 
ground up and mixed with the Drift 
Clay, as far south as the Drift forces 
extended. 

Kw^e extend our system of rocks 
across Lake Erie, to the Canada 
shore, we find the Black Slate and 
Sandstone plunging from the Lake 
shore northward, under the Coal 
Field of Canada. And if we com- 
plete the formation geologically, we 
should find the Black Slate ' along 
the Lake shore, rising from under 
the north side of the Allegheny Coal 
Field, and curving over the Lime- 
stone wave in the middle of Lake 
Erie, and dipping into the Canada 
shore, filling the bed of Lake Erie 
with a sheet of Black Slate three 
hundred feet in thickness. But 
where is the Black Slate ? Its broad, 
double out-crop, from fifty to eighty 
miles in width, was exposed to the 
Drift currents, both to the south and 
down the Lake valley, and its soft 
structure was easily swept out, form- 
ing the basin of that part of Lake Erie 
east of the Bass Islands. Theout-crox) 
of the Blaclv Slate, w^est of the Bass 
Islands, as it dips west under the 
Michigan Coal Field, was also ex- 
posed to the Drift, and swept out, 
forming that part of Lake Erie along 
the eastern shore of Michigan. The 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



49 



soft, abrasive character of the salt 
group, doubtless had something to 
do ill undermining and brealdng the 
Limestone ridge between the two 
Lakes into channels and Islands, and 
forming of Lake Erie, one Lake 
instead of two, as originally formed, 
with a communication, probably, 
tlu-ough Sandusky Bay. 

THE SURFACE. 

Tlie Drift period was drawing to a 
close, and the Creative fiat had gone 
forth: "Let the waters under the 
heavens be gathered together into 
one place, and let the dry land 
appear." The lino of high -lands be- 
.tweeen the Ohio Eiver and Lake 
Erie, was the first of the Lake slope 
to obey the command, and slowly 
emerged from the waters, and 
formed a barrier on the south, to the 
Lake valley currents, and turned 
them eastward, washing the whole 
Lake slope in a north-easterly direc- 
tion. Ages rolled on, and the 
constantly diminishing waters flowed 
only in broken and detached cur- 



rents along the undulations, giving 
the elevations and depressions a 
north-easterly direction. The waters 
gradually receded down the Lake 
slope, leaving the lowest places to 
be filled with ponds, marshes and 
swamps, and the future waters from 
rain and snow, to pick their way 
down the slope across the undula- 
tions left by the currents, and in 
time cut out their own valleys. 

The gradual recession of the 
waters was doubtless arrested at 
intervals, and the water stood sta- 
tionary for long periods of time. The 
old coast line ridges along the Lake 
slope, were doubtless formed by the 
action of the water, during these 
stationary periods. 

Finally, the waters receded down 
the slope to the present limits of 
Lake Erie, and the whole Lake slope 
had become "dry land." Another 
fiat had gone forth: "Let the earth 
bring forth grass, the herb yielding 
seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit 
after his kind, whose seed is in itself 
upon the earth, audit was so." 



A VETERAN BOOK-BINDER RETIRED. 



John P. McArdle, now in his 80th 
.vear, last week finished up his last 
job of book-binding, and expresses 
hk determination to retire from the 
^>usines3. Lie is certainly entitled 
to an honorable discharge irom furtli- 
^t service on old books, on the 
iTound of old age and physical in- 
■•nnities. Calm and peacful be the 
JC'maining hours of the evening of 
•Jis d^ys.~ Fremont Sentiiiel. 
. Amen, say we. " Calm andpeace- 
*'d bo the remaining hours "of the 
Hnierable retired. Our acquaint- 
*Jice with Mr. McArdle dates back 
''j>me thirty years, at which time he 
j^^ternately w^orked at printing and 
"j;>ok-binding. He was the pioneer 
*^i the press in this township, estab- 



lishing the '''' NoTwalh Reporicr'^^ 
here as early as xipril, 1827. This he 
published for a number of years, and 
was finally succeeded by the ^^ Reflec- 
tor^'' under other management. Mr. 
McArdle was a very industrious man, 
by which sterling quality he was en- 
abled to rear a large family in iiigh 
respectability and standing, all of 
whom have, and still maintain, re- 
spect in the communities in which 
they reside. They are a comfort and 
solace in his now declining sands of 
life, and in his journey hitherward 
to the " better land," we trust his 
pathway may be unobstructed by 
any adverse circumstances. — Nor- 
wallv Reflector. 



60 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 186G. 



FRANCIS GRAHAM'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY.^ 



My parents, James and Isabella 
Graham, emigrated from Ireland to 
Philadelphia, in the year 1791. Soon 
after they arrived, my father took a 
lease of a small farm in Delaware 
county, a few miles below Philadel- 
phia, on which he settled, and there 
I was born, on the 14th of October, 
179-1. 

I had one brother and one sister 
older than myself Father remain- 
ed on said farm until the fall of 1799, 
when having heard much said in fa- 
vor of the back woods, as it was 
then commonly called, and the very 
low price oi" land, he was induced 
to remove west, and settled in Craw- 
ford county, North Western Penn- 
sylvania, about fifteen miles west of 
Meade ville. There he purchased one 
hundred acres of land of Judah Colt, 
the agent of the Population Land 
Company, of Philadelphia. 

This Company had established an 
office there for the sale of their 
land. It was known as Colt's Sta- 
tion. The Company owned land 
from the Ohio river to Lake Erie. 
Judah Colt was principal agent. 
His office was at Erie. There was 
also, one office in Crawford county, 
and one in Beaver county, of which 
Mr. Colt had the supervision. He 
spent a portion of his time at his 
office in Crawford county, to see 
and advise his sub-agents. 

In the course ot two or three 
yearB, a warm attachment existed 



between Mr. Colt and our family, 
when a requisition was made on 
the family to let their son Frank 
go to Erie and live with the said 
Colt, he having no children. Some 
time elapsed for reflection, when 
finally consent was given, and in 
October, 1804, I went home with 
him, where I was wall cared for. 

A¥hen war with England was de- 
clared in 1812, there was a requisi- 
tion from the Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, for volunteers to protect the 
frontier from invasion by the ene- 
my. Under this call, I volunteered, 
and served three months. 

There were strong nightly guards 
posted on the shore of the Bay and 
Lake, for a distance of a mile and a 
half above and below Erie. 

The British at that time, had two 
or three armed vessels on the Lake, 
which w^ere soon out cruising, and 
frequently showed themselves off 
the harbor, and we had reason to ex- 
pect an attempt to burn the town. 
But no attempt was made to molest 
us in that w^ay. Perry's fleet was 
built here, and the great victory of 
September 10th, 1813, over the ene- 
my achieved. On the 30th day of 
December, 1813, an army of Brit- 
tons, about 3000 strong, crossed the 
Niagara, at Black Pock, burnt our 
vessels that were in port, also burn- 
ed the village of Black Pock, made 
prisoners of a small force we had at 



Jane, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



51 



Buffalo, burned the town and re- 
treated to Canada. 

The sad news reached Erie on the 
day following the 30th, and produc- 
ed intense excitement. Many fami- 
lies fled to the interior, some as far 
as Pittsburg. At this time General 
Jannehill, with about three thous- 
and men, was in winter quarters at 
Erie. Every possible exertion was 
made to obtain transportion and 
march against the invaders of our 
territory. 

Volunteers were called for, and 
about one thousand were raised — 
myself one of them. The roads 
were almost impassable. The frost 
was out of the ground, and the mud 
deep, but an army of about four 
thousand moved under General Jan- 
nehill. Our march was a very tedi- 
ous one. There were some days 
when we did not march more than 
six miles. When we reached Chau- 
tauque county, a snow of eighteen 
inches depth, fell on the water-soak- 
ed earth, which made it still worse 
lor transportation of baggage. 

Before w^e reached Buffalo, the 
weather became intensely cold. On 
our arrival, we found that our ser- 
vices were not immediately needed 
at Black Kock, General Brown hav- 
ing arrived there with a force suffi- 
cient to keep the enemy on their 
own soil. 

We pitched our tents on the Com- 
mons, in Buffalo. Finding our posi- 
tion a very bleak one, and fuel not 
being close at hand, we remained 
there but a few days, when our men 
hegan to desert. We then remov- 
ed about three miles up Buffalo 
("reek, near the Indian village of 
ued Jacket, and his little band of 
^^enecas. Here we found more com- 
fortable quarters, but the men de- 
^,orted shamefully. Mostly men 
^fom the lower counties of the 
^tate, also from Allegheny, Somer- 
^^'t, (fcc. They went off in gangs. 
^ut few deserted that were from the 



northern part of the State. The 
army, or brigade, in a short time be- 
came so much reduced, that myself, 
with many others, obtained a dis- 
charge and returned to our homes. 

In May, 1814, I obtained a clerk- 
ship in Reed & Sanford's mercantile 
house, in Erie, where I remained un- 
til December, 1815. This firm did a 
large business, and in the fall of 
1815, had an overstock of goods on 
hand. About the first of December 
they decided to send a stock of 
goods to Detroit, lor disposal, but 
it w^as too late to send by some of 
the small vessels that had navigated 
the Lake. About the 15th of De- 
cember, 1815, eighteen inches of 
snow^ fell, which made fine sleighing, 
and the firm resolved to send a loor- 
tion of their goods to Detroit, by 
land, and four lumber sleds with a 
good span of horses to each, were 
loaded with* the assorted goods. 

Mr. Stephen Woolverton and my- 
self engaged to go with the goods. 
We gave the teams forty -eight hours 
start when we followed in Mr. \Vool- 
verton's one horse sleigh. When 
we reached Grand Eiver, we found 
less snow, and from there the snow 
diminished as we went west. W^e 
overtook the teams at Rocky River, 
on about three inches of snow. 
From Black River to Huron, there 
was much bare ground, and hard 
traveling. When at Huron we had but 
two alternatives, either to send the 
goods back to Erie, or open them 
at Huron, We made choice of the 
latter and sent the teams home 
empty. We rented a room on the 
east side of the river, of W. Smith, 
son-in-law of John S. Reed, of Black 
River notoriety, and fitted it up for a 
store. We procured a small out 
building for storage, put up the 
goods and did a moderate business 
for about ten days, when Mr. Wool- 
verton said to me, "I left unsettled 
business at home, that needs my at- 
tention, I will go and see to it and 



THE FIRE LAKDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



return in ten or twelve days — do the 
best you can in my absence." But 
he never returned, and I was mind- 
ful of his charge — " do the best you 



can. 






"/ 



I obtained the assistance of John 
. B. Flemmond, a Canadian French- 
man, and an honest Roman Cathohc. 
We did not do a large business, for 
the country was new and thinly set- 
tled. Notwithstanding there were 
some banks in Northern Ohio, mon- 
ey was anything but plenty. I said 
^,.banks — but I need say nothing of 
v J)' their solvency. To- wit: The Bloom- 
>,V'' ingville Bank, in Huron county ; the 
- '/^, Farmer's Bank of Mansfield, in Rich- 
F^^^^land county, and the Owl^_ Creek 
Vt^-Bank, of Mount VernoTi^with a 
\\; great owl perched on the bills. 
,-.^'^ /The paper of said banks had but a 
. limited circulation, and the creation 
^^,, -of the United States Bank soon put 
,^^ them out of existence. 
vj.^ A Mr. Hays, on the west side of 
the river, was my competitor. He 
had a small stock of goods. 

W. B. Smith of Sandusky City 
and, his mother, kept public house 
on the west side. 

On the opening of navigation, in 
1816, 1 received by a sail vessel, an 
addition to my' stock. Produce 
being scarce, and money not plenty, 
I took anything of customers that I 
considered better than goods. I 
bought ginseng and colambo root, 
and in the fall, bought hickory nuts 
from forty to fifty cents j^er bushel, 
in all about three hundred bushels, 
and found a market for them in 
Montreal. 

The morals of the inhabitants at 
that time would admit of a large 
margin for improvement. There 
was neither church nor schoolhouse 
at Huron at the time of my arrival, 
and but little attention given to the 
Sabbath day. There was much in- ' 
temperance. The beverage called 
whisky, was considered by a ma- 
jority of the people, an indispensa- 



ble article, and was used to great 
excess. 

The Court of Common Pleas at 
that time, held its sessions at David 
Abbot's place, five miles up the Hu- 
ron river. David Abbot was Clerk 
of said Court. 

In 1817, the seat of justice was re- 
moved to Nor walk. From that time, 
the former place was known as the 
" Old County Seat." In June, 1816, 
Mr. Giles Sanford, one of the mem- 
bers of the firm of Reed & Sanford, 
had a younger brother come to Erie 
from Herkimer, in the State of New 
York, and he was sent to Huron, to 
assist me in prosecuting the busi- 
ness at that place. Our business 
accommodations were not good, and 
we resolved to i^ut up a building for 
a store-room and warehouse. We 
let the job to two men. The house 
was made of round logs, one and a 
half stories high — partition through 
the center— half store-room and half 
warehouse, with storage above. 

We did not obey the admonition 
the good book contains to "build 
your house upon a rock, lest the 
floods come and wash it away," but 
we built on the beach of the Lake — 
on the sand — five rods from the wa- 
ter's edge. Well the rain did beat, 
and the winds did blow, but the 
floods did not come, and we were 
permitted to enjoy the uninterrupt- 
ed possession of our domicil. 

In September, 1816,1 Avas confined 
to the house by an attack of bilious 
fever, and was unable to do business 
for about three months. As soon as 
I began to gain a little, I was taken 
to Judge Wright's, where I received 
the best of care and attention. 
Judge Wright was a warm friend ot 
mine, and Aunt Tamar, as she was 
sometimes called, was one of the 
best of women. 

A man from Salina, Ichabod 
Bracket, left us on conmiission, one 
hundred barrels of salt. Large 
teams came to Huron, loaded with 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



53 



Hour, whisky, bacon and butter to 
exchange for salt or sell for cash, 
and load back ^yith salt. 

Mr. Monlton, a merchant of New 
Lancaster, sent to Huron several 
times for salt, as did also P. M. Wed- 
dell, late of Cleveland, but at that 
time of Newark, Ohio. 

The Mount Yernon merchants 
sent produce to Huron — Moody & 
McCarty, the most prominent in that 
respect. Anything tlie}^ could not 
dispose of at that time to advantage, 
they would leave with us on com- 
mission. 

Mr. Bracket would come in the 
winter to get pay for the salt he liad 
left for sale the summer previous. 
iSalt Avas very high and one winter 
was sold for twelve dollars per bar- 
rel. Mr. B. was a coarse man, stood 
six feet four inches in his boots, had 
a grum voice and but little educa- 
tion, but knew how to make money 
on salt. He called to make his 
annual settlement, and was seated in 
the store with several customers, 
conversing on the usual topics of the 
day, when one of them remarked 
that the salt trade must pay well 
now, and asked j\fr. Bracket what 
per cent he generally made on the 
salt he brought to Ohio. His reply 
was: "I know nothing about your 
d— n cent per cent, but one thing I do 
know, if a barrel of salt cost me three 
•lollars and I get ten for it, I am not 
losing anything." In that, all pres- 
ent coincided with him. 
^ In the fall of 1816 there was a 
Sheriff to be elected, and I was 
iJrged by Judge Wright, Judge 
Meeker, Captain Jones and others to 
•'laye my name announced for the 
office, but I had no desire for it, and 
'^vman Farwell was elected. 

Inuring the first two years I was 
«^t Huron, we purcliased quite an 
^niount of fur and skins. The 
inarshes and creeks abounded with 
^nuskrat and other game, and there 
^vere many Canadian French along 



the Lake shore who followed trap- 
and hunting. We had furs brought 
to us from Maumee and the Kiver 
Raisin, and the Indians hunting on 
the head-waters of the Yermillion 
and Black Rivers sometimes came 
to us in the tail and winter with 
fur and skins. Many of them came 
from the west in the fall and spent 
the winter in the unsettled part of 
Northern Ohio. I had a desire to go 
among them for trade, and for that 
purpose hired John B. Flemmond 
who spoke the Delaware, Ottawa 
and Wyandot tongues. I selected a 
lot of Indian goods, in two packages, 
and put one on each side of a horse. 
My interpreter went on foot and I 
rode occasionally. We went to the 
head of those rivers mentioned 
above, where we found many Indian 
camps, and passed through New 
London where we found Indians 
also. There were three or four 
Avhite families in the townshij), and 
one of them v/as Mr. Sweet, where 
we stayed two or three nights. Mr. 
Sweet many years after removed to 
a farm near Milan. The expedition 
paid well, and the Indians told us if 
we would go to Upper Sandusky 
country, we would find plenty of 
furs. We returned to Huron about 
the loth of Januar}^, 1817, after an 
absence of about twelve days. 
Stimulated by success I resolved 
to go to Upper Sandusky, where tlie 
Wyandot tribe resided, and about 
the 15th of February, 1817, I put off 
with Mr. J. B. Flemmond. AYe 
went to Lower Sandusky and fol- 
lowed the Sandusky River to the 
Tyamochtee and followed tliat 
stream to its head. We found the 
country interspersed with wigwams, 
and a considerable quantity of fur 
and skins. Went zig-zag througli 
the country, and arrived at the 
Indian village and spent two or 
three days there. Called on Jolm 
Walker at Sandusky several times, 
and by him 'we were treated with 



64 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER, 



[June, 1866. 



kindness and attention. He was an 
intelligent gentleman of good infor- 
mation. His wife was a squaw and 
dressed in the Indian costume. We 
deposited our furs with the agent 
until ready to go home. The Wyan- 
dot's made a feast while we were 
there; a large number of Indians 
congregated, met on the common 
one pleasant afternoon, about the 
5th of March — had roasted two deer, 
cut into small pieces, and served to 
the crowd who were seated, forming 
a circle with a lire in the center. 
After the appetite was satisfied 
the old chief made a speech — his 
name Avas Cherckerboy — after which 
dancing commenced, and was kei)t 
up (with intervals of speaking) 
until about twelve o'clock. A large 
bonfire burned until the close of the 
meeting. All seemed to enjoy 
themselves and separated in perfect 
good humor. We soon after packed 
our peltry. I hired four Indians 
with their horses to pack our furs 
and skins to Huron. We returned 
by a more easterly route, an Indian 
trail that brought us by where Mel- 
more now is. Our Indians all got 
drunk at Huron and Avere very 
rude. Mr. Flemmond took their 
knives and tomahawks from them 
lest they might make improper use 
of them. We had been absent about 
twenty days. Oiir stock of goods 
was kept up by supplies from Erie, 
sent by vessels on our order sent to 
Keed & Sanford. 

In March, 1817, Gideon Olmsted, a 
refugee from Canada, who now, the 
war being over, wished himself and 
fiimily in Canada again, sold me his 
farm of one hundred acres. About 
thirty acres were improved, and on 
it were a log cabin and stable. The 
price paid was six hundred dollars, 
one-third store goods and two-thirds 
money. I consulted Judge Wright 
as to buying, He said it was a low 
price, and if I wanted land I would 
do well to take it. Still there was an 



obstacle in the way. I was two hun- 
dred dollars short of funds to pay for 
it. I then borrowed tv/o hundred 
dollars of the Judge for one year, and 
gave my note with interest. I i^ut 
John Mason on the farm as tenant. 
I owned the farm about ten years, 
then sold it to Jonathan Sprague. It 
is situated one and a half miles west 
of Huron. 

Our hotel or boarding-house 
changed landlords about twice a 
year, and we did not always have a 
good one.- In the tail of 1817, a 
family from the Green Mountain 
State purchased the tavern stand. 
We soon found our fare and accom- 
dations not as good as we formerly 
had. We made the best of it lor 
awhile, but finally resolved we 
would try keeping Bachelor's Hall, 
not from choice, but necessity. A 
widow woman near by would bake 
for us, and we agreed to divide the 
housework so that each one would do 
his share of the cooking and v/ashing. 
Graham would cook one day and 
Sanford the next. We slept in the 
store, and for about one year we 
enjoyed life as well as any bach- 
elors could under such circum- 
stances. We then found a new 
boarding j)lace. The summer of 
1817 was a very cold one — had frost 
every month in that year. After- 
ward when spoken of. it was called 
the cold season. Tliere was but 
little grain raised that year of any 
kind, and prices advanced. Wheat 
for family use brought three dollars, 
corn two dollars, oats ten to eleven 
shillings, and fiour fifteen dollars per 
barrel. Whisky was not dispensed 
with; it sold for six shillings per 
quart. 

In 1817 the seat of justice of 
Huron county was removed from 
Abbotts Place to Norwalk. In the 
month of June, 1818, the two Ottawa 
Indians who murdered Wood and 
Bishop, were hung in Norwalk. I 
was present. Sheriff Farwell oilicia- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIOKEER. 



55 



ted. Their names were Negosheek 
and Negonaba. I was well ac- 
quainted with both AYood and 
Bishop. Wood left a wife and two 
children in Venice. Bishop was a 
single man. 

Well, time passed smoothly until 
February, 1819, when we got a pro- 
posal from our employers to sell out 
to us, at a discount from cost and 
terms of payment liberal. Mr. San- 
ford thought we had better purchase, 
but I could not see as much money 
in the goods as he thought he did, 
and I declined the ofl^r. About 
this time the pensioners of Huron 
county (the county was then large,) 
employed me to go to (Jhillicothe, 
to draw their annuities from the 
Branch Bank of the United States, 
in that place. I was accordingly fur- 
nished with the necessary creden- 
tials. I left Huron about the 10th 
of March, on horseback. I found 
the roads good and the peach trees 
in blossom all the way down. I 
spent one day in Chillicothe — pre- 
sented my claim to Mr Claypole, the 
Cashier, and drew from the bank 
about thirteen hundred dollars, for 
fourteen pensioners. I returned by 
way of Columbus, visited the Peni- 
tentiaiy, and lound ninety-three 
convicts there. I was now out of 
business, and had almost made up 
my mind to become a farmer. I 
purchased a good yoke of oxen and 
wagon and went on to the farm, 
boarding with my tenant, Mason. I 
commenced clearing and fencing 
more land, and raised a field of corn, 
and broke up some prairie for wheat 
in the fall. In the montli of October, 
1819, Moody and McCarty, of Mt. 
Vernon, took a stock of goods to 
Portland, now Sandusky City. I 
had done business for them at 
Huron, and they hearing I was out 
of employment, invited me to come 
hito their employ at Portland. I 
accepted their offer, and went to 
them in November. 



During the winter of 1819 and 
1820, William To^msend brought a 
stock of goods to Portland, from 
Nesvv Haven, Connecticut, in a 
sleigh. Moody & McCarty's busi- 
ness not meeting expectations they 
moved their goods to Mt. Vernon, in 
August, 1820. I then went into tlie 
employ of Mr. William Townsend, 
and remained there until Septem- 
ber, 1821, when I began to think I 
ought to do something for myself, 
and consulted Mr. Townsend on the 
subject. I had a desire to locate in 
some country town, and open a store. 
He then offered me the use of his 
horses. I went to Mansfield and 
Union Town, in Richland county, 
now Ashland, in Asliland county, 
where I rented a room for my antici- 
pated goods, of Mr. Joseph Sheets. 
As might be inferred, my purse of 
money was not large, and through 
the kindness of Mr. Townsend, I 
was furnished a letter •of credit to a 
mercantile house in New York, 
which enabled me to get more 
goods than I could pay for, though I 
bought a light stock. I consigned 
my goods to Gill, Thompson & Co., 
Black Bock to be shipped by them 
to Portland. About the 10th of 
November, I received a letter from 
Gill, Thompson & Co., saying my 
goods had been shipped on the 
steamboat Walk-in-the-Water, and 
that she was wrecked off the mouth 
of Buffalo Creek, on the night of 
October 30th, and that the goods 
were now in store, in a slightly 
damaged state. The brig Union 
was about to sail for Black Kock. 
Sidway was Captain of the boat. I 
took passage, and went down in a 
south-west gale of wind. I think 
no one on board had much hope of 
reaching shore. A Mr. Kuykendall 
and Mr. Bouley, both from the vicin- 
ity of Plymouth, prayed fervently to 
Almighty God that we might be 
saved from a wateiy grave. I be- 
lieve their prayers were heard. We 



66 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



arrived in safety. Hooked at my 
--goods, and found a few pieces of 
cotton slightly wet. I opened and 
dried them. The damage yas 
trifling. I put my goods on board 
the schooner Ked Jacket, Captain 
Augustus Wa-lker, and took passage 
with them. The wind was adverse, 
and we kept on the north side of the 
Lake. When near North Point the 
wind increased to a gale. We ran 
back to Point Abino for a lee — rode 
the sea awhile. We soon parted 
cable, and let go the other anchor 
which also parted. The vessel then 
ran to Black Kock, and ground into 
the sand, anchorless. About half 
the cargo had to be discharged to 
get the vessel off, and two new 
anchors rigged, which detained us 
about two days. We then put out 
again, and had a long, tedious pas- 
sage. Weather cold, with snow and 
sleet. We were fourteen days, from 
the time we Jlrst sailed, reaching 
Portland. Wesley Anderson and 
John Bishoi) each had a good team. 
I hired them to carry my goods to 
Union Town, myself going with 
them. We reached our destination 
December 6th, 1821. 

As my stock ran down, I replen- 
ished in part from William Town- 
send, and in part from Pittsburgh, 
and did not go to New York until 
September, 1822. The Yellow Fever 
prevailed at that time, and the part 
of the city where I bought my 
goods the year before, was nearly 
deserted, and the goods removed to 
the village of Greenwich, about 
three miles north of Hanover Square. 
The merchants had erected them 
temporaiy shanties, for the sale of 
their goods, and kept them strongly 
guarded at night. I soon found N. 
& H. Weed, Toverty and Guntly, 
and others of Avhom I had bought 
the year before. 

On the 13th of March, 1823, 1 was 
manied to Amelia Shephard, daugh- 
ter of Phineas Shephard, of Cleve- 



land, with whom I lived very happy. 

In June, 1825, I went to New 
York in company with Eluetheros 
Cooke, Esq., late of Sandusky City, 
deceased, and stopped at the Pearl 
Street House. The morning papers 
announced that General Lafayette 
would leave the city at eight o'- 
clock, A. M., for Newark, New 
Jersey, en route for Philadelphia, 
from the residence of Mrs. Bunker, 
in Broadway. Mr. Cooke and my- 
self vv^ent uj) and saw the General, 
accompanied by his son, George 
Washington, and the Mayor of the 
city. Escorted by the military, they 
marched to the foot of Barclay 
street, when the military opened to 
the right and left, and the officers 
were marched to the center of the 
street. The General left his car- 
riage, and with hat in the left hand, 
walked down the street, taking an 
affectionate leave of each officer. 
When the boat left the wharf for 
Hoboken, a National salute was . 
fired. 

I was in New York in 1832, in 
Cholera time, when many of the 
business places were closed, and 
some excitement prevailed; but I 
found no difficulty in accomplishing 
my business. I went to Fulton 
street, where I had been in the 
habit of buying books and paper. 
The gentleman that waited on me, 
asked me if I was much alarmed 
about cholera. I told him I was not. 
He remarked that many of the citi- 
zens had left the city — that his 
neighbor on the corner had closed 
up and gone. He saw that morning 
a poetical notice to that effect on his 
door, which he presumed had been 
placed there by a wag. It read as 
follows : 

"Not Cholera sick, nor cholera dead, 
But from fear Iroin cholera lied ; 
Will return when cholera is over, 
If from fear I do recover." 

I returned to Buffalo, and went on 
board the steamboat Superior, Cap- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



57 



tain W. T. Pease, about 8 o'clock, A. 
M. I found a man walking the 
cabin who appeared very uneasy, 
and every few minutes would sit 
down and rub the calf of his legs, 
and then walk again, saying his legs 
cramped badly. His trouble in- 
creased — the boat went out — ^it 
proved cholera. About ten o'clock 
Captain Pease had a bed made on 
deck for him, the weather being 
warm and pleasant. Dr. Flagg, of 
New Haven, Connecticut, was on 
board — gave him calomel, and tried 
to sweat him, with sacks of scalded 
oats, but all in vain. He died at 
four that afternoon. He vfas a 
Lieutenant Wells, of the United 
States Army, now on his way from 
Washington, to Mackinac, where he 
had been stationed. His remains 
were set on shore at Erie. 

Another case occurred on the 
boat the next day — that of an Eng- 
lish farmer, bound to Chicago, but 
he w^as alive wdien I left the boat. 
1 felt but little alarm on the boat, 



but on my arrival home, was very 
unwell lor three or four days, and 
took medicine. Lest the reader 
should charge me ^nth desertion 
from Gen. jannehill's Brigade, I 
deem it proper to make some show- 
ing to the contrary. Many years af- 
ter the war, the officers and soldiers 
who had served their country, were 
granted land for their services, I 
wrote to my friend Giles Sanford, 
in Epe, to have the goodness to get 
some one to examine the muster 
roll of Erie county, and ascertain 
whether or not I was entitled to a 
a land warrant. In due time a war- 
rant came to me for eighty acres of 
Uncle Sam's domain, for services 
rendered in 1812. I wTote Mr. San- 
ford again, with a request that Gen- 
eral Jannehill's muster roll of 1814, 
be examined, wdiich being done, I 
was furnished ^vith a second warrant 
for eighty acres of land for Avhich I 
feel grateful to that generous uncle. 
Francis Graham. 
Ashland, Ohio, April 19, 1866. 



GENEALOGY OF HIRAM ROGERS. 



Hiram Rogers, of Plymouth, 
Ohio, is the son of Eliphalet Rogers, 
01 Branford, Connecticut. He was 
the son of Thomas, who was the son 
of Josiah, who was the sonof Josiah, 
of Branford, who was the son of Jo- 
•i^di of Huntington, Long Island, 
jvho was the son ol John of Ded- 
f*nn, England, who w^as the son of 
^oah of Exeter, England, wdio was 
'he son of John Rogers, the iirst 
'hristian martyr, burnt at the 
; take in the reign of Queen Mary, 

^H 1(^4. 

Hiram Rogers was born October 
^:> J, 1795, iu Branford, since known as 
->orth Branford, New Haven county, 

8 



Connecticut. He came to Ohio, in 
1816, stopping at Burton, Geauga 
county,- during the season. (This 
was known as the cold season. It 
snowed on the 7th day of June to 
the depth of two or three inches, 
and it lay on the ground until the 
9th.) lie returned to Connecticut 
in the fall, and resided there one 
year; then moved to the State of 
New York, and resided there until 
1831, when he moved to Huntington, 
Lorain county, Ohio. In 1838, he 
removed to Ruggles, then in Huron, 
now Ashland county, and has since 
resided in Huron county. 



58 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



EARLY SETTLERS IN MILAN. 



The following notes are furnished 
by Mr. Mkrtin Kellogg, of Bronson, 
now eighty years of age, whose per- 
severance in gathering historical 
materials of the Firelands, is worthy 
of all praise : 

EBENEZER IMERRY. 

" Ebenezer Merry was born Julv 
21st, 1773, in East Hartford, Connec- 
ticut; his wife, Charlotte Adams, 
born August 17th, 1780, in Tin- 
mouth, Vermont ; were married 
May 5th, 1800, in Avon, State of 
New York ; settled in Mentor, Ge- 
auga county, Ohio, in May 1800; 
moved to Avery township, (now Mi- 
lan,) November, 1814- ; to Milan vil- 
lage in 1819. The following are the 
names of their children : Sarah, Ma- 
ry, Julia, Martin, Samuel, Lucy, 
born ill Mentor; Elizabeth, Ebene- 
zer and Charlotte, who were born in 
Milan. Charlotte, deceased ; all the 
others are now living in Milan." 

The preceding was obtained from 
Mrs. Merry, in the summer of 1865. 
The following is an extract from the 
funeral sermon of Ebenezer Merry, 
preached by Rev. E. Judson. 

Martin Kellogg. 

Text— Proberbs xxii, 1: "A good 
name is rather to bo chosen than 
great riches, and loving favor rattier 
than silver and gold." 

Ebenezer Merry was born in West 
Hartford, Connecticut, July 21st, 



1773. His father removed, while the 
son was a child, to the State ot New 
York. Mr. Merry spent his boy- 
hood in Kinderhook. At the age of 
nineteen, he removed to the " Gen- 
esee Country," while it was a wil- 
derness. 

In 1797, when about twenty-four 
years of age, he penetrated the wil- 
derness to Mentor, in Geauga coun- 
ty, of this State, w^here he resided 
several years. From that place he 
removed to Milan, in the autum of 
1814. It will be seen, that nearly 
his whole life has been spent as a 
pioneer, on the outermost borders 
of the new settlements of the west. 

His early advantages for educa- 
tion, were only ordinary. Possesed, 
however of a remarkably retentive 
memory, of very careful habits of 
observation and comparison, and a 
strong native intellect, he had treas- 
ured up a fund of knowledge, that, 
combined with a cheerful temper, 
made him a most estimable com- 
panion, not for those of his own age 
only, but for all classes who desii*ed 
his society. 

Both in Western New York, and 
in Ohio, he was thrown, in the early 
period of his residence, into frequent 
contact with the Indians, whose 
confidence he alway won, by*Iiis 
kind and ailectionate treatment. As 
an instance of this: Since his remov- 
al to this State, the old Chief Red 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



69 



Jacket, on his way west, to attend 
an Indian Council, turned aside to 
spend a night beneath the hospita- 
ble roof of his ancient friend. 

1 have spoken of Mr. Merry as 
having penetrated the mlderness. 
In 1800, he returned to remove his 
companion to his new home, in Ge- 
auga county. The journey to Ohio, 
was made on horseback, from the 
Genesee river, at a time when there 
was no road, and with the exception 
of two or three families in Buffalo, 
one in Leroy, and a small settlement 
at Erie, Pennsylvania, there was no 
white inhabitant in the entire dis- 
tance. Some hospitable Indian cab- 
in, or the green boughs of the forest 
trees constituted their shelter by 
night 

Mr. Merry, in all the situations of 
hfe, has shared largely the confi- 
dence of his fellow men. He was 
elected by the Legislature, an As- 
sociate Judge of the Common Pleas 
for Geauga county, and subsequent- 
ly to the same post in Huron coun- 
ty, but in both instances declined 
the honor. 

He repeatedly held a seat in the 
House of Representatives of this 
State, and filled most of the respon- 
sible offices of the county and town- 
ship, at different times. No feature 
of his character was more strongly 
marked than his integrity. If he 
erred, no one believed it other than 
an error of his judgment. 

His benevolence was a marked 
feature of his character. He would 
divide the last loaf with the stranger 
and the guest. He knew how to do 
this without grudging. JSTor was he 
less^ distinguished for his public 
spirit. No object of public interest 
Was before the community in which 
ne was not willing to lend a helping 



hand, to the extent of his means, and 
more. 

Were I to judge from the opinioin 
expressed from time to time, >iiioo 
my acquaintance witli him, I should 
say he had a hundred times Ijocn 
censured for being too liberal, whert- 
there had been one expression ot* 
dissatisfaction with the smaUncss 
of his donations. In a higher sen':e 
than is often true of any man, he 
w^as the friend of the poor, the pro- 
tector of the orphan, and the ben- 
factor of the needy. 

Nor did he wait for the call of the 
solicitor—" the cause that he knew 
not, he searched out." 

You will say that I have given our 
deceased friend, in these several re- 
spects, a high character. It is true. 
I have only followed, however, the 
promptings of my own heart, and 
the convictions that are the fruit of 
more than sixteen years of intimate 
and cherished acquaintance. 

PETER LAKE. 

Peter Lake settled in Milan, in 
1815 ; died in June, 1818 ; his wife, 
Lucretia Buck, was born April 1st, 
1787, in the tovv^n of Heath, Massa- 
chusetts: married in Buffalo, ISOS. 
Their children, Sophia, Elisha, Lu- 
cretia, and Frances. Sophia was 
born in Bufialo, Frances in Milan, 
and the others in Pennsylvania. 

Mrs. Lake, for second husband, 
married Israel Waggoner, who died 
in Milan, June 9th, 1S57. Of their 
children, Clark lives in Toledo, edit- 
or of the Toledo Blade ; Ralph lives 
in Green Springs, Sandusky county ; 
Mary lives in '~J^(ilan. Clark's wife, 
was ^Sylvia Roberts; Ralph's ^\ife, 
was Isabel Hunter. M. K. 

October 5, 18G5. 



60 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1S66, 



ANECDOTE OF GENERAL WAYNE. 



The following anecdote of Gener- 
al Wayne, or Mad Anthony, as he 
was afterwards called, happening at 
the battle of the Miami^ or Maumee, 
in lT9i, was witnessed by General 
Eobert R. Beall, who was, if I mis- 
take not, one of General Wayne's 
staff during the campaign, and was 
related to me by General Beall, 
about thirty years ago. 

In order to distinguish the divis- 
ions of his army, General Wayne 
ordered one wing to wear a red sash 
around the hat, and called them the 
" Bloodyheads." The other wing 
Avore a white sash around the hat, 
and he called them the "Palefaces," 
and the centre, he called his " Row- 
dies." 

His plan of attack upon the In- 
dians, whenever he should come up 
with them, was formed early in the 
campaign, and every Sunday during 
the march, the army practiced in a 
sham fight, that his soldiers might 
know^ thoroughly the part each di- 
vision was to play in the expected 
battle. 

The attack was to be made by the 
whole line, but when the final 
charge Vv^as ordered, the "Palefaces" 
and "Bloodyheads"^were to advance 
to the charge, while the "Rowdies," 
in the center, were to fall back and 
feign a retreat, and thus draw the 
Indians between the two wings, and 
cause them to be cut in pieces. 

The battle was fought on the 
banks of the Maumee, August 20th, 
1794. The Indians, numbering two 
thousand warriors, had made a stand 



in the edge of a wind-fall, and 
Wayne formed his line of battle on 
his original plan, but it could not be 
carried out. For when the charge 
was sounded, and the "Palefaces" 
and " Bloody .heads " advanced to the 
charge, the Indians gave away along 
the whole line, and ran pell-mell 
over the fallen timber, exposing 
themselves to the deadly fire of 
Wayne's riflemen. The "Rowdies," 
instead of falling back according to 
orders, caught the excitement, and 
rushed over the logs into the wind- 
fall, shooting at every Indian that 
showed himself in his flight. 

And such was the excitement of 
the battle, that Wayne, as he sat on 
his horse, in the rear of the "Row- 
dies," and saw the Indians running, 
and falling under the hot fire of his 
advancing army, raised himself in his 
stirrups, and with his sword arm 
above his head, and his eyes fixed 
on the combat, put spurs to his 
horse, and was w^ildly rushing into 
the wind-fall after the " Kowdies." 
One of AVayne's stafl', (I tliink Gen- 
eral Beall,) to check so reckless a 
move, put spurs to his horse, caught 
the General's horse by the bit, and 
brought him to a stand still. But, 
without taking his eyes for an in- 
stant from the battle, 'Wayne slowly 
settled back into his saddle, and 
with a hearty "'Ha! Ha!" exclaim- 
ed: "see, the G — d d~d 'Rowdies,' 
sending them to hell faster than the 
devil can receive them!" 

J. H. N. 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LAm>S PIONEER. 



61 



BEAR HUNT ON THE MARSH. 



A small cluster of timber, a little 
east of the Figeoa Roost, on the 
Richmond Marsh, received its name 
from its being the residence of an 
old bear, for many years previous to 
1846, and has since been known as 
"Bear Island." It is said the Rich- 
mond squatters long suspected that 
a large bear harbored about the 
marsh, from the annual appearance 
of a new spot of bark torn from the 
trunk of a tree standing on the bor- 
der, and gravely considered it an ef- 
fort on her part, to preserve a recm-d 
of her age ; always leaving the mams 
of her huge jaws and teeth as she 
grasped and tore the bai-k from the 
tree. 

Her retreat, when discovered, con- 
sisted of a heap of brush and grass, 
with an.ingress low on side, and was 
so massive, that the sides and roof 
^vere completely impervious to 
win^'' and rain — forming a safe re- 
treat in all seasons. 

In the winter of 1846, after sever- 
<il failures, an effort was made to 
surround a large portion of the marsh, 
including "Bear Island," and the 
{'igeon Boost, and if possible to kill 
*^<?r. At the appointed time, a large 
number of hunters assembled, and 
formed their line in the marsh 
•iround the IsLands, and started for- 
J^ard. 'J'he tall cane grass that grew 
from eight to twelve feet high, was 



so thick that each hunter could see 
his neighbor but a few feet at most, 
nor could he tell by. anything within 
his sight, in what direction he was 
going, so that a constant hallooing 
was kept up along the line, as they 
slowly advanced; sometimes turning 
heels forward to crush the unyield- 
ing cane from their path. In this 
way they slowly approached the Is- 
land, but the bear had taken warn- 
ing from the clamor of the hunt, and 
quietly slipped unobserved through 
the line, towards the uplands. 

A number of citizens wdio were 
too cautious to approach the game 
inherden,had stationed themselves, 
rifle in hand, along the border of the 
uplands, to intercept her, should she 
attempt to leave the marsh in any 
direction. 

Jacob Steel, had made his ambush 
some two miles west, on Morehead's 
PoinL and discovering the bear ap- 
proacliing, made the fortunate shot. 
• They tied a strip of bark to her nose, 
and " snaked" her three miles across 
the marsh to the nortli shore, where 
Steel lived. Dr. Hoy, of New Ha- 
ven, preserved the bones of her 
head, as his trophy of the days 
sport. 

The last bear seen in Bichmond, 
was killed by James Bead and 
James Oooley, a year or two after. 

J. H. N, 



62 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



THE LAST CHARIVARI OF GREENFIELD. 



As the practice of " Charivaring " 
still lingers in a modified form in 
some of the ruder sections of the 
Firelands, perhaps a description of 
the custom of over thirty years ago, 
may deserve a place in tlieir history. 

Previous to 1832, there existed in 
Greenfield, a large organized band 
of " charivariers," numbering some 
twenty or thirty persons, under the 
leadership of a tall specimen of a 
New Hampshire Yankee, familiarly 
known as "Juggernaut." They nev- 
er failed to pay a nocturnal visit to 
every new-married couple, no mat- 
ter what tlieir circumstances might 
be, and always were, or expected to 
be, treated to a portion of the wed- 
ding dainties, or to what was more 
acceptable to them — a jug of whis- 
ky. 

One of the most faithful workers 
of the company, in order to avoid the 
usual clamor of a charivari, was 
married privately, and kept the mat- 
ter a secret for a number of days, 
but the secret leaked out on Sunday 
morning. Towards night the com- 
pany began to collect on the village 
green, and soon numbered twenty 
or thirty. A goodly number were 
accompanied by their trusty dogs ; 
not the puny 'dogs of to-day, but 
large, noble dogs, that could kill a 
wild cat, drive away a wolf, or drag 
down and capture a wounded deer ; 
and whose loud echoing notes the 



woodsman could follow far away in- 
to the forest. 

The first point to be decided, on 
assembling was, whether they should 
proceed with the charivari on Sun- 
day night, or wait till I^Ionday. The 
more timorous hesitated to break 
the Sabbath, but the resolute felt the 
responsibility of the moment, and 
argued that the bridegroom had 
been an earnest co-worker in the 
company, and for him to "play ofi'" 
and skulk now, when his turn had 
come, v/as an ofl'ense against the 
dignity of the company, that demand- 
ed* immediate action, and the se- 
verest ijenalty known to the usages 
of the company. 

A vote was taken and a majority 
were for proceeding immediately to 
business. The company separated 
in quest of their favorite instru- 
ments — tin horns and cow bells. 
Tin horns were borrowed from all 
who had them in the surrounc]ing 
neighborhood, and wherever a cow 
bell could be heard to tinkle, the 
strap was quietly unfastened, and 
the bell borne away for the intended 
sport. At length all was in readi- 
ness, and the company formed in 
line, and marched, as was their cus- 
tom, in Indian file to their place of 
destination. 

On arriving at the house, the or- 
der was given : "Around the house 
and music!" and around they march- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIKE LAm)S PIONEER. 



ed. The horns sounded, the bells 
rattled, and the dogs set in their 
prolonged doleful howlings, notice 
to all the surrounding settlements 
that the " charivariers " were in pur- 
pursuit of a victim. But the groom 
did not appear. " Around the house 
and music ! " was repeated with the 
same results till the order to "search 
the house!" was given. But after 
searching the house from top to 
bottom, the groom was not to be 
found. They were fairly foiled, but 
where was he, was the question. 
Suspicion pointed to a certain neigh- 
bor, and with music and quickstep, 
they were soon on the ground, 
marched with their best music 
around the house, and demanded of 
the proprietor a parley, but obtained 
no repl}^ " Around the house and 
music!" was the order, for they 
knew that human endurance had its 
limits, and that such music as they 
could make would surely bring him 
to their terms. After two hours of 
marching and music, the answer 
came, — the groom was not there. 
Foiled again ! They well knew they 
were playing a game with one who 
knew the game they were jDlaying, 
and the shrewdness of those who 
were playing it. They had been out- 
generaled so tar, and it was a rule, 
that what they could not do by cus- 
tomary maneuvering, they must do 
by stratagem. "Let us go home!" 
was the order, and with their best 
music, away they went. But their 
night's work was not yet finished, 
for they resolved, when fairly out of 
hearing not to go home till they had 
^ound the bridegToom. But the 
liight was fast wearing away, and 
they were getting hungry. Such as 



had friends or homes in the neigh- 
borhood, started off for food, and 
brought back cold meat, bread, and 
such dainties as they found at hand. 
They laid their plans while eating, 
and the company broke up into small 
squads. One was to watch this 
path, leading into the woods to one 
settler, and another that, until eve- 
ry road, by-way, and cow path in 
the settlement had their secret sen- 
tinels. 

About day light, they caught the 
wary bridegroom, but before night 
he wished they had not. His crime 
now deserved a penalty, and he 
must pay it. The signal note was 
sounded, and the company came to- 
gether and formed a line with the 
culi)rit in the middle, and marclied 
him away to the village tavern, 
where with breakfast and dinner at 
eighteen pence per meal, and whis- 
ky at two-and-six-i)ence a gallon, 
they enjoyed an all day's "blow- 
out," at the culprit's expense. And 
a merrier and mellower set of row- 
dies, one seldom has the fortune to 
meet. The penalty was dearly paid. 

But this was their last charivari, 
and the company never met again 
in that capacity. 

But whatever of error and folly 
lay upon the surface of society in 
Greenfield thirty or forty years ago, 
it was not so deeply rooted but that 
time has long since obliterated all 
traces of its existence, excepting 
those upon tlie memory of the " old- 
est inhabitants." And it is but justice 
for me to say that many_ members 
of that com^Dany, now living, are 
honored members of both church 
and State. J. H. N. 



64 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER, 



[June, 1866. 



EARLY DAYS ON THE FIRE LANDS, 



BY REV. L. B. GITRLEY. 



The following is the substance of 
the remarks made at the meeting at 
Vermillion, in September last : 

He said he had listened with great 
interest to the proceedings of the 
meeting, but had not x)repared any- 
thing for delivery. Still he was 
among pioneers, and with them in 
old times it was customary to shoot 
off-hand; they would not insult a 
squirrel by taking a rest ; and he had 
a right now to shoot in the same 
manner, and what he should say 
would be off-hand. He spoke of the 
first time that his eyes ever rested 
upon the bosom of Lake Erie, iifty- 
four years ago; of bathing in its 
sparkling element. Every sound 
upon the Fire Lands was sweet 
music to his ear ; the chirping of the 
birds in her forests, and even the 
voice of the katy-did was more 
grateful than the music of the mag- 
nificent choirs of the great cities. 
Long years ago he had, with an 
Lidian tomahawk, helped his father 
build his house in this tlien new 
country ; and his ideal of the hap- 
piest home, is one made of round 
logs, ^vith a blazing fire in one end, 
and a bed in each corner at the oth- 
er end, while the tempest howls 
without. Scores of those present 
would sympathize with him in this 



feeling; those upon whose heads lay 
the snows that will never melt It 
had been his lot to have something 
to do with the development of reli- 
gion in the Firelands and their vi- 
cinity. He was present at the first 
meeting held in Bloomingville, when 
the first religious society in that 
township was organized. And 
among those present at the meeting, 
was the celebrated Indian chief, Te- 
cumseh. 

Forty years since, at a mid-night 
meethig in Florence township, when 
the minister poured poured forth his 
lesi^ons of religion, he a rude and 
wicked boy of twenty years of age, 
gave his heart to God, and religion 
had sweetened his whole life since. 

He had read that Cotton Mather 
was a very grave man and had never 
but once been known to smile in 
church, and that was at seeing a 
wag in the gallery in front of him, 
drop a quid of tobacco into the gap- 
ing mouth of a sleex^er in the seat 
below. Tiie distortions of the coun- 
tenance of the astonished man caus- 
ed the grave and serious counten- 
ance of Cotton Mather to break into 
a broad smile. 

If Mather had lived among the pio- 
neers lie would have had his gravity 
tested upon more than one occasion. 



Juue, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



65 



He recollected preaching once in an 
old vacated out- building that had 
been used for picking geese and 
shearing sheep; he was rather care- 
ful of his personal appearance in 
those days, as he was young and 
unmarried and the ladies were very 
pleasant ; he used for a seat a keg 
containing feathers, and had a rude 
barrel for a pulpit; while engaged 
in prayer, the dogs of the settlement 
got into a war outside, and a 
luckless spaniel seeking to escape 
its pursuers, ran into the building 
and against the keg of feathers, up- 
setting it and scattering its contents 
all over him. It was a grave man 
who would not have laughed then. 
lie confessed that his own gravity 
was nearly upset. 

We have many men of strength 
and ability who were developed in 
those rude days. In Sandusky City, 
thirty years ago, a bright and beau- 
tiful boy used to come to his Sab- 
bath School; he was a quiet and 
pleasant boy. Now that boy was 
the great financial agent of the Gov- 
ernment — Jay Cooke. 

He remembered, too, a little boy 
at Green Springs, who used to wel- 
come him, and assist him in taking 
care of his horse, taldng great pleas- 
ure in waiting upon an humble Meth- 
odist minister. That boy became 
the great, the brave and amiable 
Ck'ueral McPherson, who died for 
^iis country, with her glorious stars 
?aid stripes floating over him. Many 
jnore of our boys may grow up like 

lu those old times of which he had 
['*-on speaking, a club of young men 
*^o which he belonged, used to meet 
•;'i'l study evenings, and on Satur- 
''fi'^', selecting some Justice of the 
J eace as umpire, would spend the 
J-^'iiole day in debating. He remcm- 
^•'<^^red that the first question the club 



debated, was that one which has so 
agitated our people ever since : "Is 
it right to enslave the negro ? " 
For himself it was not easy to obtain 
knowledge ; books were very scarce ; 
the first book on theology that he 
ever owned, he paid three dollars 
for, earning the money by s]plitting 
rails at fifty cents per hundred. 
Men must make themselves ! Learn- 
ing is of great value, but unless a 
man work it will be vain • and if he 
does he must succeed ! It seemed 
to him as if, in those old times, eve- 
ry man and woman helped to carry 
forward the religious work , and mu- 
sic was one of the most powerful 
means. Sacred music, ballads and 
religious songs, were put forth with 
wonderful jjathos and power. He 
remembered one camp meeting, at 
which the services had extended to 
mid-night, when they had become 
dull and most of the audience had 
retired; only a few earnest ones be- 
ing left. At that solemn hour, when 
all was still, a plain young country 
girl rose up, and standing on a bench, 
commenced to sing in a voice sweet, 
full, round, sonorous, "Old Ship 
Zion," commencing, "What ship is 
that is going to sail ? " — the sweet 
tones extending far out into the sur- 
rounding woods. Before two verses 
had been sung, hundreds had arisen 
from their sleep, and surrounding 
her were shouting and singing. 
The meeting continued until morn- 
ing, fifty or sixty making earnest in- 
quiry concerning their salvation. 
But he must close; he had not come 
to the meeting with the intention of 
speaking. Mr. Gurley then, at the 
request of the meeting, recited a 
finely conceived and well written 
poem composed by himself many 
years ago, and founded ujoon a ro- 
mantic Indian legend. . 



ee 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF JOHN OMICK. 



- An account of the kOling of Buel 
and Gibbs in 1812, is given in the his- 
tory of PortlandjfPioneer, "Vol. 1, 
No. 3,) That murder was so marked 
an event in the history of that por- 
tion of the Fire Lands that every- 
thing connected with the transac- 
tion deserves a place in these col- 
umns. 

The execution of Dr. John W. 
Hughes at Cleveland, in February 
last, occasioned the publication of in- 
teresting articles respecting those 
who had suffered the death penalty 
in that place. It would hardly be 
just to the writers to condense the 
following articles; and, therefore, at 
the risk of some repetition, they are 
given entire. The first is from the 
Cleveland Leader of February 5th, 
1866, and the second from the Cleve- 
land Herald of February 10th, 1866. 

THE OLDEN TIME. 



Something in the Antiquarian Line 
— A Search of the Kecords — First 
Execution for Murder in Cui^a- 
HOGA County, in 1812-—" John the 
Son of Omick,'' an Indian, our 
Primitive Cain. 

We liave received authentic official 
information that there has never 
been but one execution in this county 
for the murder of a party within the 
limits of the county, and that this 



case occurred on the 26th of June, 
1812. When an antiquarian fit was 
on the other day, we made, through 
the kind permission of the gentle- 
men of the office of the Clerk of the 
Common Pleas Court, a search of the 
records, and having found a queer 
document, which proves to be the 
first record of a trial for murder in 
this county, we propose to shake it 
out in the light of common day and 
let the air blow from the page, 
whereon it is entered, the dust gath- 
ered during nearly two generations 
of men. 

But for the right understanding of 
the record by some of our readers, 
we must make the preliminary state- 
ment that Cuyahoga county in 1812 
was not the contracted area we now 
see cramped down on the maps ; but 
it lay around in a loose, careless kind 
of fashion, reaching beyond San- 
dusky on the west and stretched far 
enough east to embrace the present 
county of Geauga. It was not, there- 
fore, at the time we write of, tlie 
"pent up Utica," known to the young 
geographers of our city schools of 
to-day. 

In reading the document we dis- 
cover the name of our venerable 
townsman, iMr. Levi Johnson, on the 
list of jurymen, being the last sur- 
vivor of tJiat number. We made 
haste to find him, and ask that 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LA]ST)S PIONEER. 



67 



the grave of his memory give up its 
dead. He accordingly went over the 
affair, and we jot down the facts as 
they fell from his lips. 

In the early spring of 1812 two 
men, named Michael Gibbs and Dan- 
iel Buel, went from this place to 
the townshix3 of Wheatsboro\ and 
built a rude cabin on Pipe creek, a 
small stream about fourteen miles in 
length, which empties into the bay 
near the present city of Sandusky, 
which was then a small affair in the 
way of a settlement. Tlie^- w^ere 
trappers, and owned several of the 
best rifles and traps then manufac- 
tured. It seems that two Indians of 
the Chippewa tribe, named John 
Omick, or John the son of Omick, 
alias Beaver, and Semo, coveted 
these implements, and "not having 
the fear of God before their eyes," 
and " seduced by the instigation of 
the devil," as the document reads, 
determined to possess themselves of 
them. They accordingly went to the 
cabin, and in a friendly manner asked 
to stay over night. The request 
was granted. During the night the 
"devil" began to ''operate,"" as the 
physicians say of pills, and John the 
son of Omick arose and dispatched 
Buel with a tomahawk. How cir- 
cumstantial the document! It tells 
what kind of a helve the tomahawk 
had, the stuff the "tommy" was made 
off, and the cost. Semo shot Gibbs 
with a pistol, and the pale faces per- 
ished unawares. 

A Mr. Nash w\as living in Sandusky 
at the time, and early in the morn- 
ing after the murder, his two sons, 
Abel and Joel, went back into the 
woods wath an ox team to get some 
timber. On th^r return they dis- 
covered smoke a little way oil', and, 
thinking it strange, went to the cabin 
of these trappers, and found it burn- 
i^ig. With difficulty they rescued 
the bodies of the men from the 
flames, and then made haste to the 
settlement and gave the alarm. The 



event created a great stir, of course, 
and the friendly Indians thereabouts 
became greatly alarmed, and finally 
agreed to hunt out the offenders and 
deliver them up. They were readi- 
ly discovered, as they had the guns, 
traps and fur still in (heir possession. 
John, the son of Omick, was arrest- 
ed and delivered up to the authori- 
ties of the people of a little settle- 
ment at Huron, who passed him along 
to this place. Semo, finding the fag- 
ots kindled about him were proving 
hot, and conscious that he would be 
taken, shot himself, and so saved the 
authorities of Cuyahoga county, the 
trouble of trying and hanging him, 

Omick was chained to an iron sta- 
ple driven in the floor of a room in 
what was then^kiiown as Carters 
building, the site of which is imme- 
diately in the rear of Mr. George 
Worthington's hardware store, corn- 
er of Superior and Water streets. 

The trial was primitive. It lasted 
but one da^^ and was held in the 
open air under a large cherry tree 
on the spot now occupied by Mr. 
George Worthington's store. The 
indictment and the general record 
read as follows : 

The State of Ohio, Cuyahoga Co., SS. 
SoriiEME Court, April Term, 1S12. 
The State of Ohio,) 
vs. > 

, John Omick. ) 
Be it remembered that at a^ ses- 
sion of the Supreme Court of the 
State of Ohio, holden at Cleavelr\nd, 
in and for the County of Cuyahoga,- on 
Wednesday, the twenty -ninth of 
April, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and twelve, 
before the Honorable William AV. 
Irvin, and the Honorable Ethan Al- 
ien Brown; Esquires, Judges of said 
Supreme Court, duly appointed and 
commissioned according to the laws 
of the State of Ohio, The Jurors of 
the Grand Jury of the State of Ohio, 
to-wit: Asa Smith, Ilezekiah King, 



THE FIRE LAKBS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



Horatio Periy, Calvin Hoadley, Lem- 
uel HoadleV, Pliinnej- Mowrey, 
James Cndderbach, John Shirtz, 
Benjamin Jones, Jeremiah Everitt, 
Samuel Miles, Jacob Carad, and 
Harvey Murray, Good and lawfull 
men of the County of Cuyahoga 
aforesaid, then and there returned, 
impannelled, sworn, and charged to 
enquire of and present all Treasons, 
Murders, Fellonies, and all other 
crimes and misdemeanours whatso- 
ever which shall have been com- 
mitted or done within the limits of 
said County of Cuyahoga, upon their 
oaths present that John Omick, oth- 
erwise called "John," the son of 
Omick, alias Beaver, an Indian of the 
Chippeway tribe, being a i^erson of 
sound memory and discretion ; and 
Semo, an Indian of the Chippewa}^ 
tribe, of sound memory and discre- 
tion, not having the Fear of God be- 
fore their eyes, but being moved and 
seduced by the instigation of the 
devil, on the third day of April, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and twelve, on the 
night of that day, with force and 
arms at Pipe Creek, in the Town- 
ship of AVheatsborough in said Coun- 
ty of Cuyahoga, in and upon one 
Daniel Buel, a human being, in the 
public peace, the peace of God and 
the State, then and there being, Fel- 
loniously, willfully, unlawfully and 
of their malice aforethought, did 
make an assault and that the said 
John Omick with a certain Toma- 
hawk made- of iron and Steele with a 
wooden handle or helve therein of 
the value of One Dollar, which Tom- 
ahawk the said John Omick in his 
right hand then and there held, the 
said Daniel Buel in and upon the head 
of him the said Daniel Buel, then and 
there feloniously, willfully, unlaw- 
fully and of his malice aforethought, 
did Strike, Thrust and Cut, giving to 
the said Buel then and there with 
the Tomahawk aforesaid in and upon 
the head aforesaid of him the said 



Daniel Buel one mortal wound of 
the breadth of three inches and of 
the depth of three inches, of which 
said mortal wound the said Daniel 
Buel then and there instantly died. 
And so the Jurors aforesaid do say 
that the said John Omick, the said 
Daniel Buel then and there in man- 
ner and form aforesaid, feloniously, 
wilfully, unlawfully and of his malice 
aforethought did kill and murder 
against the form of the statute in 
such case made and provided and 
against the Peace and Dignity of the 
State of Ohio. 

And the Jurors aforesaid upon 
their Oaths further present that the 
said Semo, an Indian of the Chippe- 
way tribe, a person of sound mem- 
ory and discretion — and John the 
son of Omick, otherwise Beaver, oth- 
erwise called John Omich, an Indian 
of the Chippeway tribe, being "a 
person of sound memory and discre- 
tion," not having the fear of God 
before their . eyes, but being moved 
and seduced by the instigation of 
the Devil, on the third day of April 
eighteen hundred and twelve afore- 
said on the night of that day, with 
force and arms at Pike creek afore- 
said in the town of Wheatsboro 
aforesaid in the County of Cuyaho- 
ga aforesaid, in and upon one Mich- 
ael Gibbs, a human being in the pub* 
lie peace, the peace of God and the 
State then and there being, felloni- 
ously, willfully, unlawfully and of 
their malice aforethought did then 
and there make an assault, and the 
said Semo with a certain pistol, of 
the value of one dollar, then and 
there loaded and charged vriih gun- 
powder and one leaden bullet,.which 
X)istol he, the said .Semo, then and 
there, in his right hand had and 
held, to, against and upon the said 
Michael Gibbs then and there, fcl- 
loniously, willfully, mdawfully, and 
of his malice aforethought, did shoot 
and discharge, and that the said 
Semo with the leaden bullet afore- 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



69 



said out of the pistol aforesaid, tlieu 
and there by force of the gunpowder 
shot and sent forth as aforesaid, the 
aforesaid Michael Gibbs in, upon and 
through the body of him, the said 
Michael Gibbs, a little below the 
right shoulder of him, the said Mich- 
ael Gibbs, and through the body of 
him, the said Michael Gibbs, then 
and there with the leaden bullet 
aforesaid by the said Semo so as 
aforesaid shot, discharged and sent 
iorth felloniously, • willfully, unlaw- 
fully, and of his malice aforethought, 
did strike, penetrate and wound: 
giving to the said Michael Gibbs, 
then and there with the leaden bul- 
let aforesaid, so as aforesaid shot; 
discharged and sent forth out of the 
pistol aforesaid by the said Semo, in, 
upon and thro' the body of him, the 
said Michael Gibbs, a*^little below 
the right shoulder of the said Mich- 
ael Gibbs, one mortal wound of the 
depth of eight inches and of the 
breadth of half an inch, of which 
said mortal wound the said Michael 
Gibbs then and there instantly died, 
and that the said John Omick then 
and there felloniously, willfully, un- 
lawfully and of his malice afore- 
thought, was present aiding, helping, 
abetting, comforting, assisting, and 
maintaining the said Semo the felo- 
ny and murder aforesaid in manner 
and form aforesaid to do and com- 
mit. And so the jurors aforesaid 
do say that the said Semo and John 
Omick, the said Michael Gibbs then 
and there in manner and form afore- 
said felloniously, willfully, unlawful- 
Iv and of their own malice afore- 
tliought did kill and murder against 
the form of the statute in sucli case 
niade and provided, and against the 
peace and dignity of the^ State of 
Ohio. 

And afterwards, to wit, at the 
f-^me^ session of the Supreme Court 

iii said county, on the in the 

year eighteen hundred aud twelve 
'iforesaid, before the said Judges of 



the said Supreme Court above nam- 
ed, here cometh the said John Omick 
li-idor the custody of Sanuicl S, 
Baldwin, Esquire, Sheriil* of said 
county, in whose custody in the jail 
of said county for the cause afore- 
said he had been before committed, 
being brought to the bar here in 
his proper person by the said Sher- 
iil', to whom he is here also commit- 
ted, and forthwith being demanded 
concerning the premises in said in- 
dictment above specified and charg- 
ed upon him hov»^ he will acquit him- 
self thereof he saith that he is not 
guilty thereof ; and thereof for good 
and evil puts himself upon the coan- 
try ; and Alfred Kelley Esquire who 
prosecutes for the State in this be- 
half doth the like. Therefore let a 
jury thereupon immediately come 
before the said Judges of the said Su- 
preme Court of free and lawful men 
residing as near as may to the place 
of residence of the said Michael 
Gibbs late of Pike Creek, Wheats- 
boro Townshij), in the county of 
Cuyahoga aforesaid, by whom the 
truth of the matter may be better 
known, and who are not of kin to 
the said John Omick, to recognize 
upon their oath whether the said 
John Omick be guilty of the felony 
and murder in the indictment afore- 
said above specified, or not guilty, 
because as well the said Alfred Kel- 
ley, who prosecutes for the State_ in 
this behalf, as the said John Omick 
have put themselves upon the said 

And the jurors of the said jury, by 
the Sheriff for this purpose returned 
and impanneled, to wit, Hiram Itus- 
sell, Levi Johnson, Philemon Bald- 
win, David Bunnel, Charles Gunn, 
Ciiristopher Gunu, Samuel Dille, Eli- 
jah Gunn, David Barret, Dyer Shear- 
man, AVilham xVustin and Seth 
Doane. being called came, who be- 
ing elected, tried and sworn ^ to 
s])eak the truth of and concern.ing 
tlie premises, upon their oath say, 



70 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



That the said John Omick is guilty 
of the fellony and murder aforesaid 
on him above charged in form afore- 
said, as by the indictment, aforesaid 
is above supposed against him. And 
upon this it is forthwith demanded 
of the said John Omick if he hath 
or knoweth anytliing to say where- 
fore the said Court ought not upon 
the premises and verdict aforesaid 
to proceed to judgment against him, 
according to the form of the statute 
in such case made and provided. 
Who nothing further saith unless as 
before he hath said. Whereupon 
all and singular, the premises being 
seen and by said Court here fully un- 
derstood, it is considered by said 
Court that the said John Omick be 
taken by the said Sheriff of said 
County to tlie jail thereof from 
whence he came, and from thence 
to the place of execution on Friday, 
the twenty-sixth day of June next, 
and then and there, between the 
bourse of twelve and two of the 
clock, in the afternoon of that day, 
be hanged b}^ the neck until he be 
dead. 

Wm. W. Iryin, Presiding Judge. 
It will be seen that John the son 
of Omick was sentenced to be exe- 
cuted on the 26th of June. The 
gallows were set up on what is now 
the Public Square, and stood about 
midway between the monument and 
the terminus of west Superior street. 
Tiie gallows consisted of two upright 
posts joined at the top by a cross 
piece, which was strengthened by a 
brace on either side. The roi)e was 
passed through the center of the 
cross piece, and was tied as support 
to the platform. John the son of 
Omick was placed on this platform 
by Sheriff Baldwin, v/hen he called 
for "fire water." A half pint of 
wdiisky Avas brought, which he gulp- 
ed in a desperate sort of way, when 
he entered upon an oration in the 
pure Indian tongue. He soon called 
for more fire water. 



Another half pint was brought^ 
which, having shared the fate of 
its predecessor, stimulated the ora- 
tor immensely, and he went into 
the merits of the case with lar more 
particularity. He evidently scorned 
the iDale-faces, and said : " Two days 
to-morrow come back here with 
great many Injuns and kill you all 
off." This was all the English he 
deigned to use on the occasion, -save 
the simple exclamation, "Too high! 
Injuns laugh at me." This he said 
when looking at the gallows and re- 
flecting on the disgraceful mode of 
death. 

He soon called for more whisky, 
although quite drunk by that time. 
Before the request was complied 
with. Judge Walworth made a 
speech, denouncing the proceedings 
as barbarous, — a speech wdiich had 
the effect to stop lurther demonstra- 
tions in that line. 

Sheriff Baldwin then strapped 
Omick's hands firmly behind- him, 
drew the cap over his eyes, and ad- 
justed the rope; after which he 
mounted his horse and was about to 
sever the rope with a hatchet, when 
it was discovered that the convict 
had in some way got hold of the 
"lin3" above his head. The ofllcer 
w^as forced to get off his' charger, and 
right matters with John the son of 
Omick. When all was thought to 
be well, he again took to horse, but 
before he could cut the rope, the 
sui^ple Indian bounded and caught 
hold of one of the braces with his 
pinioned hands! The Sherifi" must 
dismount once more and re-adjust 
John. The third trial was a success; 
the Indian was strangled. When 
life v^as pronounced extinct, the 
"boys" drew the head of Omick 
close up to tlie cross piece, and sud- 
denly letting go, the corpse dropped, 
and iell whole length into the grave 
which had been already dug under 
the platform. And to this day the 
remains of John the son of Omick, 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



71 



the man who on one unfortunate oc- 
casion had not the fear of God be- 
fore his eyes, but allowed himself to 
be seduced by the instigation of the 
devit, rest in Monumental Park. 

THE FIRST EXECUTION IN CLEAT<]LAND. 

On the night of the last of March, 
or first of April, 1812, Michael Gibbs 
and Daniel Buel were Idlled by two 
Indians named Semo and Omick, at 
the cabin of Gibbs, near Sandus- 
ky. This cabin w^as still standing in 
1859 ; it was on the Milan road and 
within the late enclosure of the 
State Fair grounds at Sandusky. 
Buel was a trapper and went one 
evening to pass the night with 
Gibbs. On the same evening the 
Indians called as friends, to stay 
overnight. Gibbs was engaged pre- 
paring supper, and Buel being tired 
and wet, had spread his blanket on 
the floor and lay with his feet to the 
open fire. Gibbs went out doors 
to get some wood, and while out Se- 
mo seized an axe and buried its edge 
in the face of Buel. Buel sprang 
to his feet and made for a gun sus- 
pended upon the side of the cabin, 
but a second blow from the axe 
brought him to th(! floor a corpse. 
The pole of the^ axe was buried in 
In's head, and one arm cut ofl", con- 
nected only by a little sldn. Gibbs, 
on opening the door, received a blow 
across the face from the handle of 
tlie axe. With a stick of wood he 
felled Semo to the floor, but Omick 
struck the right arm of Gibbs with 
the blade of his war club, which 
^vliolly disabled it. Gibbs turned 
'ind ran about ten or twelve rods 
h'oin tlie cabin, when a ball from 
tbe pistol of Semo brought him 
^own. The Indians then plundered 
the house of five dollars in money, 
^ome furs and blankets, and attempt- 
^-''' to burn it, but the floor being 
J-'ieeu the fire went out. The bodies 
j'i Gibbs and Buel lay several days 
'•'efore the murder was discovered. 



A party of three or four went from 
the head of Cold Creek, (riow Casta- 
lia, Ohio,) to bury them. In wash- 
ing the body of Gibbs a spear was 
taken out of his head; it was about 
three inches long and two inches 
broad at the butt end, running to a 
point. There was a shank at the 
butt end, with square shoulders ; the 
shank Avas set in a club and fastened. 
The blade entered under the ear, 
and the shank broke ofl' and left the 
blade in. The latter circumstance 
led to the detection of the murder- 
ers. The blade was recognized as 
belonging to Semo by the person 
who had made it for him but a short 
time i)revious. The Indians were 
arrested, but Semo made his escape 
to his tribe and claimed their pro- 
tection. He was arrested the sec- 
ond time and brought 'to a house 
near Fremont. While a messenger 
was sent to notify the whites to 
come and get him, he destroyed 
himself with a rifle ; though pinion- 
ed with his arms behind him, he 
contrived to get the muzzle of the 
piece to his head, and discharged it 
with his toe. 

Omick was brought to Cleveland 
and tried before the Supreme Court 
of Cuyalicga county, in April 1S12, 
convicted and sentenced to be hung 
on the 29th day of June following. 
The gallows was erected on the 
north side of the square, near Onta- 
rio street. An eye witness of the 
first execution in this county, gives 
the following account of it. He 
says : 

i was present at the execution, 
and as distinctly recollect the facts 
I shall narrate, as I did the niglit of 
the day when they occurred. 1 was 
not at the trial, but I understood that 
Beter Hitchcock was assigned as 
counsel for the accused. The custo- 
dy of the prisoner was assigned to 
Lorenzo Carter, (there being no 
jail,) because he was a man of un- 
common energy, and because he had 



72^ 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER, 



[June, 1866. 



more influence over the Indians than 
any other man in the West, or at 
least in Cuyahoga county. Mr Car- 
ter's house was on the high ground 
near the bank, to the right of the 
road that descended the hill to the 
ferry across the river, and to the left 
of the street that leads to where the 
light-house stands. The prisoner 
was confined in a chamber of Mr. 
Carter's house. Strong irons were 
above his ankles, with which 
was connected a staple that was 
driven into a joist that supported the 
floor, so that the prisoner could not 
go to any window. Probably I 
should have said with more accura- 
cy, that a chain was attached to the 
fetters, and a staple was attached to 
the other end, which was driven in- 
to the joists,, etc. After his convic- 
tion, Omick told Mr. Carter and 
Sherift' Baldwin, (who was from Dan- 
bury,) that he would let the pale- 
faces see how an Indian could die ; 
that they need not tie his arms, but 
when the time came he would jump 
off from the gallows. Before Mr. 
Carter's house, in the direction of 
Superior street, was an open space, 
somewhat extensive, and covered 
with grass. The religious exercises 
were held there. Several clergy- 
men were present, and I tliink the 
sermon was delivered by Rev. Mr. 
Darrow, of Vienna, Trumbull coun- 
ty. The military were commanded 
by Major Jones', a fine looking 
ofliicer in full uniform, but he was in 
the condition that Captain McGuffy, 
of Centervile, said he was in, when 
he was commanded to perform an 
evolution b}^ his company, and could 
not do it. 'His explanation was: "I 
know Baron Steuben perfectly well, 
but I cannot commit him to prac- 
tice." Omick sat on his cofiin in a 
wagon painted for the occasion. He 
was a fine looking young Indian, 
and watched everything that occur- 
ed with much, anxiety. Tlie gallows 
was erected on the Public Square, 



in front of where the old Court 
House was erected. After the re- 
hgious exercises were .over, Major 
Jones endeavored to form a hollow 
square, so that the prisoner should 
be guarded on all sides. He rode 
backwards and forwards with drawn 
sword, epauletts and scabbard fiying, 
but he did not know what order tx) 
give. The wagon moved ahead and 
stopped ; but as the Sheriff doubted 
whether he was to be aided by the 
military, he proceeded onward. 
Major Jones finally took the sug- 
gestion from some one who told him 
to ride to the head of the line and 
double it round until the front and 
rear of the line met. Arriving at 
the gallows, Mr. Carter, the Sheriff, 
and Omick, ascended to the platform 
by a ladder. The arms of the prison- 
er were loosely pinioned. A rope 
was round his neck with a loop in 
the end; another was let down 
through a hole in the top piece on 
which was a hook, to attach to the 
rope around the neck. The rope 
with the hook was brought over to 
one of the posts and fastened to it 
near the ground. After a short lit- 
tle time, Mr. Cc'^rter came doAvn, 
leaving Omick and SheritF Baldwin 
on the platform. As the SherilF 
drew down the cap, Omick was the 
most terrified being, rational or irra- 
tional, that I ever saw, and seizing 
the cap with his right hand, whicJi 
he could reach by bending his head 
and inclining his neck in that direc- 
tion, he stepped to one of the posts 
and put his arm around it. The Sher- 
iff approached him to loose his hold 
and for a moment it was doubtful 
whether Omick would not throw 
hiin to the ground. Mr. Carter ascend- 
ed the platform, and a negotiation, in 
a regular diplomatic style was had. 
It was in the native's ton.irue. As 1 
understood at the time, Mr. Carter 
appealed to Omick to display his 
courage, narrating what he liad said 
about showing the pale-faces how 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



73 



an Indian could die, but it had no ef- 
fect. Finally, Omick made a propo- 
sition, that iir Mr. Carter would give 
liim half a pint of whisky he would 
consent to die. The whisky was 
soon on hand in a large glass tum- 
bler, real old Monongahela for which 
an old settler would almost be wil- 
ling to be hung if he could now ob- 
tain the like. The glass was given 
to Omick and he drank the w^hisky 
in as little time as he could have 
turned it out of the glass. Mr. Car- 
ter again came down, and the Sher- 
iiT again drew down the cap, and the 
same scene was again re-enacted, 
Omick expressing the same terror. 
Mr. Carter again ascended to the 
platform, and Omick gave the honor 
of an Indian in pledge, that he 
would not longer resist the sentence 
of the Court if he should have 
another half pint of wiiisky. Mr. 
Carter representing the people of 
Ohio and the dignity of the laws, 
tliought the terms were not unrea- 
sonable, and the whisky was forth- 
coming on short order. The tum- 
bler was not given to Omick, but it 
was held to his mouth, and as he 
sacked the whisky out, Mr. Baldwin 
drew the rope that pinioned his 
arms, more tight, and the rope was 
drawn doAvn to prevent the prisoner 
from going to the post, and to pre- 
vent him from pulling oif his cap. 
The platform was immediately clear- 
ed of all but Omick, who run the 



end of his fingers on the right hand 
between the rope and his neck. 
The rope that held up one end ot'the 
platform was cut, and the body 
swung in a straight line towards the 
lake as far as the rope permitted and 
returned, and after swinging forth 
and backward several times, and the 
weight being about to be suspended 
pei-pendicular under the center of 
the top of the gallows, the body 
turned in a circle and finally rested 
sdll. 

At that time a terrific storm ap- 
peared and came up from the north- 
north-west with great rapidity, to 
avoid which, and it being doubtful 
whether the neck was broken, and 
to accomplish so necessary a part of 
a hanging, the rope was drawn 
down with the design of raising the 
body, so that, by a sudden relaxing 
of the rope, the body would fail 
several feet and thereby dislocate 
the neck beyond any doubt* but 
when the body fell, the rope broke 
as readily as a tow string, and it fell 
upon the ground. The coffin and 
grave were near the gallows, and the 
body was picked up, put into the 
coffin, and the coffin immediately put 
into the grave. The storm was 
heavy, and all scampered but Omick. 
The report w^as at the time, that the 
surgeons at dusk raised the body, 
and that when it lay on the dissect- 
ing table, it was easier to restore 
than to cut it up. 



The Worcester Spy prints a gen- 
uine curiosity in a doctor's bill, da- 
ted no longer ago than 1830, The 
price of a visit in those days was fif- 
teen cents, but when the conscien- 
tious physician took one ride to see 
'several patients, he divided the price 
'^mong them, so that the most fre- 
quent item in the bill is "to part 
^isit, ,08." The charges for medicine 

10 



range from five to twenty cents, 
and the highest amount in the col- 
umn is " to sundry medicine, com- 
pound tincture, and the box, .39." 
The total of the bill, which is for con- 
stant attendance and medicine for a 
period of eight months, the visit av- 
eraging as often as once a. week, is 
less than five dollars. 



74 



THE FIKE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



[From the Sandusky Register.] 

THE SANDUSKY CLARION ; OR EVENINGS WITH THE 

PIONEERS. 



EVENING THE FIFTEENTH--(CONTINUED EKOM VOL. SIX.) 



Mr. Asa Smith, the iather of our 
informant, died on the farm where he 
originally settled, a little west of 
the mouth of the Huron, August 
30th, 1815, and thus never lived in 
Sandusky, as stated to us by some of 
the iDioneers. The family after his 
death removed to Sandusky; but 
Mr. Asa Smith never resided here. 

It has been somewhere stated that 
a Mr. Wright was the first justice of 
the peace "at Huron. Mr. Smith's 
recollection is that his father was 
elected at the first election held 
there, on the first Monday in April, 
1811, and that a Mr. Newcomb was 
elected constable at tlie same time. 
Jabez Wright was afterward elected 
a justice of the peace in Mr. Smith's 
place ; but at the time when Mr. 
Smith was a magistrate, Mr. Wright 
was engaged as a surveyor, and 
could not have been a justice of the 
peace. 

Mr. S. says the first saw-mill in 
that part of the county was built by 
Judge Ruggles, on Cranberry Creek. ' 
He had also a grist mill, the first one 
built in the east part of the county. 
He remembers going to mill there 



in the winter of 1814. Arrived at 
the mill in the woods in the 
night and found nobody there. 
He went into an unoccui)ied cabin 
and spent the night, wet and cold, 
without fire or any other comfort 
In the morning he went two iniles 
to the house of the miller, a Mr. Lee, 
who had been wounded hi the bat- 
tle on the Peninsula. He thinks 
that if this mill had been built ia 1810, 
as stated in Jabez Wright's letter to 
John Walbridge, it could not have 
been in operation, as he remembers 
that he went to Cleveland to get 
milling done in the fall of 1811, and 
others v/ent there and to Monroe, 
and this would not have been, if 
there had been a mill only a few 
miles from home. 

Mr. S. thinks Dr. Ansolem Guth- 
ry was the first physician in Huron ; 
and it is his recollection that he 
came there in 181G. He remembers 
that he exchanged horses with the 
Doctor in the fall of 181t>, and is 
quite certain that he had been there 
but a few months at that time. Dr. 
Dake came in 1817. We have made 
mention of these matters as stated 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



76 



by Mr. S., because they differ some- 
what from previous accounts as giv- 
en in the "Pioneer." 

After the death of Mr. Asa Smith, 
the family resided on the farm until 
the spring of 1817, v\dien the,y mov- 
ed into a tavern at the mouth of the 
Huron, on the west side. It was the 
usual double log structure, built by 
a man named Hayes. Here they 
kept a public house and had charge 
of the ferry for one year. 

In the summer of 1817, Judge Zal- 
mon Wildman ofiered some lots in 
Sandusky City at public sale. The 
sale proved a failure, as there seem- 
ed to be no purchasers. With a 
view to accommodate those who had 
ah-eady commenced business at San- 
dusky, and to invite others to come, 
as well as to bring his land into mar- 
ket, Judge Wildman went to Huron 
and proposed to Mrs. Smith and her 
son that if they would build and 
keep a boarding-house at Sandusky, 
ho would give them a lot of land on 
which to locate the same. Mr. 
Smith came here and selected a lot 
on what was then the corner of 
Wayne and Water streets, west of 
Wayne and south of Water, and 
erected a frame building, 18j<^22 
foot with good chambers above. 
This building was torn down by Mr. 
Porter, a few years since. It stood 
just back of the little brick which 
forms a part of the old Verandah. 
A Mrs. DeZang, a widow lady and a 
hah-sister of Mr. Smith, went into 
tiie house and kept a boarding-house 
^ntil winter, when she returned to 
^luron. Moors Farwell, Silas Dewey 
and Amos Fenn boarded with her 
during the summer. Dewey and 
^^'nn afterwards married sisters of 
*jJr. Smith; the wives are both 
^J^'ud. Amos Fenn is still living at 
f lyde. Dewey went east and is still 
hving. 

in the spring of 1818, about the 



jfirst of April, Mr. Smith, with his 
mother and the whole family, left 
Huron and came to Sandusky on the 
ice, and went into the franie build- 
ing erected the previous year. In 
the spring of 1818, a man named 
Hector Kilbourne, came here and 
was employed to make a new sur- 
vey of the town. In this survey 
one lot was added to the east of the 
one selected by Mr. Smith, and in 
the winter following, Mr. Cyrus W. 
Marsh bought this corner lot and 
built the " Steamboat Hotel," now 
known as the "Old Verandah." 
His family lived meantime in a room 
done off in one corner of the " Old 
White Store," in which Mr. Moors 
Farwell was then doing business. 

It was during this year that Dr. 
Anderson came down from Venice 
and boarded with Mr. W. B. Smith, 
and his mother. The Doctor board- 
ed with them two years or more. 

In the summer of 1818, Mr. Smith 
commenced the building of the two- 
story brick, which stiil remains and 
forms a part of the "old Verandah," 
and is the oldest brick structure in 
Sandusky. It will soon be half a 
century old, and is so far as we know, 
the oldest structure left which con- 
nects the present with the infancy 
of our town. Thus it will be seen, 
Mr. Smith erected the second frame 
building, the first frame dwelling, 
and the first brick building put up 
in Sandusky. The "Old White Store" 
which stood opposite and a little to 
the west of Smith's lot, was erected 
in 1817, by Z. Wildman, and was up 
before Smith's frame house was 
erected. The building of the brick 
structure was quite an undertaking 
for those times. By some turn of 
the wheel, which is immaterial to 
our purpose, Mr. Smith failed to get 
a title to his lot and eventually lost 
both the land and the buildings. 



76 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



THE OPENING OF THE ERIE CANAL. 



Eorty years ago to-day, the formal 
celebration of the opening of the 
Erie Canal was held simultaneously 
and enthusiastically at all the places 
along the canal. The meeting of the 
waters of Lake Erie and of the Hud- 
son River was the occasion of much 
rejoicing. The meeting took place 
at Lockport, and the late Captain 
Daniel Cady, of this city, put the 
first boat through the locks at that 
place, in which he was assisted by 
Major Henry Olds, now residing here. 
— Syracuse Joxtrnal^ Oct. 2oth. 

We do not think the Journal is 
demonstrative enough about the 
great celebration of October 25th, 
1825. Nothing of the kind ^ at that 
day had even equaled it in this coun- 
try. The first boat left Buffalo with 
all the most prominent magnates of 
the State, DeWitt Clinton being at 
the front, to traverse the whole line 
of the Canal, and their progress was 
an ovation exhibiting the wildest 
enthusiasm till they reached the 
battery in the city of New York. 
Cannon were placed within hearing 
of the report of each other, from 
Bufialo to Montauk Point on the 
east end of Long Island, a distance 
of almost seven hundred miles, and 
when the boat started, the first can- 
non was followed as fast as sound 
could travel from -one extreme to the 
other. Even here in the little ham- 
let of Cleveland, tradition has it that 
there was a " high old time " among 
the four or ^iyq hundred residents 
then composing the sum total of its 
population. 

Of the importance of that canal 
enterprise, the present generation 
has no adequate conception. The 
whole West would have been de- 
pendent, in a great measure, upon 



the Mississippi River and its tribu- 
taries, but for that canal, the pio- 
neer of ours and all others at the 
West. The railroads of tlie then fu- 
ture day have been and • always 
would be entirely insufiicient for the 
necessities of the great west. The 
Erie Canal set other minds at work 
in other States, and such men as 
Benjamin Tappan, Alfred Kelley, M. 
T. Williams, Governor Worthington, 
and a score more of such in Ohio 
to whose sagacity, energy and integ- 
rity we owe greatly more than we 
shall ever pay, began the agitation 
of our canal policy as soon as the 
completion of the' Erie Canal was 
assured, and which resulted in the 
construction of our canals. True, 
financially, they have proved failures 
since the introduction of railroads 
in every direction through the State, 
and we have the debt incurred for 
them to pay by taxation, but the in- 
creased wealth of our people by rea- 
son of them would pay this debt a 
dozen times over. 

The first cost of the Erie Canal, 
we think, was not more than eight 
millions of dollars, but with branch 
canals and enlargements the pres- 
ent sum would reach forty millions, 
we suppose, and large as that may 
seem, we do not hesitate to express 
the oi>inion that out of that directly 
and incidentally, the resulting in- 
crease in the value of the property 
in the West has been equal to a 
much greater amount than our pres- 
ent national debt, whether it be 
three thousand millions or four, ami 
the end of the stream of rich fruits 
is not yefy nor will it terminate 
while our Government lasts — Cleve- 
land Heralds 



June, 1866,] 



THE FIBE LANDS PIONEEK. 



77 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 



JOSEPH TAYLOIJ. 

Died October 20tli, 1865, at his 
residence in Perkins township, Mr. 
Josexjh Taylor, aged seventy-six 
years, two months and nine- days. 

Joseph Taylor was born in Con- 
necticut, 1789. He removed to 
Ohio in the fall of 1815. In compa- 
ny with many others he endured all 
the privations and hardships incident 
to pioneer life. How numerous are 
they who, year after year, w^a«]ced in- 
cessant war with the forest, amid the 
hardships of a new country ; and it 
is with commendable pride that as 
they become aged, and as they sit 
in the shadow of years, that they 
look on the broad and well tilled 
acres that their strong hands have 
cleared. Such should have all the 
honor and praise. Stern and rugged 
men as they are, ever enduring mon- 
uments to their herculean labor, the 
true conquerors, whose brows 
should be entwined Avith the oak and 
the laurel. Let their memories be 
perpetuated. Such men need no la- 
hored eulogy to set forth their mer- 
its; but to hold in gratelul remem- 
brance the illustrious dead, is not 
<^nly a debt we owe to them, but a 
^«ty we owe to ourselves and pos- 
terity. To this honored class be- 
longed the late Joseph Tayloi-. As. 
^ husband and father, he w^as kind 
^'^nd indulgent; as a friend and 
^ipighbor, genial and obliging. He 
^^^ a consistent christian, ever striv- 
mg to retain his religious" integrity. 
^le needs no liigher encomium than 



the numbers that gathered to pay 
the last tribute to his memory. He 
leaves a bereaved circle of friends, 
who " knew him only to love him." 
But we shall meet again ; yes, w^e 
shall meet in the " white radiance of 
eternity." t. b. t. 

DAT us KELLEY. 

Died on January 24,tl86G, at the res- 
idence of his son, on Kelley's Island, 
Datus Kelley, aged seventy-seven 
years and nine months. 

Mr. Kelley first visited Cunning- 
ham's Island as what is now known 
as Kelley's Island was then called, 
and became, jointly with his brother 
Irad, interested in the title of the 
same, sometime in the autumn of 
1833, and moved his family there 
from Rockport, Ohio, in the spring 
of 1836. Since his first visit there, 
his hfe has formed no inconsiderable 
part of the history of the Island. 
For two or three years past his 
health had seemed to fail him, and 
for several months it had become ev- 
ident to his friends, that he ^vas 
slowly but surely fading from earth. 
For some two years he had sulTered 
from partial paralysis and general 
dropsy, and other maladies incident 
to old age, came in as instruments to 
cut him down, and at halt past-five 
on \yednesday morning last, com- 
pleted the work. 

.AIRS. FLIXY liROWN. 

Mrs Pliny Brown departed this 
life on the 22d instant, at the resi- 



,78 



THE FIEE LANDS PIONEEE. 



[June, 1866. 



dence of her son, Orlando Brown, 
Esq., in Margaretta. Her remains, 
attended by a goodly number of 
friends and neigliors, were, on the 
24th instant, interred by the side of 
those of her husband, y/hose death 
preceded hers but five years. 

Mrs. Brown was born in Ashley, 
Connecticut, in 1785, and came to 
Ohio with her husband in 1816. 
They settled in Margaretta, where 
they resided, except two brief inter- 
vals, till death removed them, as we 
trust, to a better and brighter world. 

For thirty years Mrs- Brown was 
a faitliful member of the Presbyte- 
rian Church at Castalia. In her later 
years, being infirm in health and a 
great sufferer, she was watched over 
with assiduous care and fdial atten- 
tion by her son and his interesting 
and devoted family. Thus slie has 
made her way through all the priva- 
tions, hardships, trials, and toils of a 
western pioneer, and gained a haven 
of rest. S. A. B. 

NAHUM GILSON. 

Died, in Norwich, Btnron county, 
Ohio, June 14th, 1864, of erysipelas, 
Nahum Gilson, in his seventy-sec- 
ond year. He was born in the State 
of Connecticut, came to the place 
where he died, in 1817, cleared a 
X^atch of ground and erected a cabin. 
In the fall of 1818, he returned east, 
married Miss Sally Ormes, January 
2Sth, 1819, and inimediately with his 
bride set out for his wilderness home. 
He was thus one of the pioneers 
who helped to lAunt civilization and 
religion in this, the then far off West. 
Of those who settled in the town- 
ship, as early as he, but two or three 
now remain. He was a kind neigh- 
bor, devoted husband and lather, 
true patriot and a faithful and exem- 
plary christian. For forty-three 
years he was a consistent member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, was 
one of the first class that ever or- 
ganized in the township, in 1821. 



The first minister that ever visited 
the township lodged with him in his 
cabin. 

Twelve years ago he had a Neu- 
ralgic attack since which he has been 
an intense sufferer and cripple. Al- 
though confined much of the time 
to his house, he was yet often able 
to ride and sometimes walk to 
church, from which place no slight 
illness or trivial circumstance ever 
kept him. Often has the writer of 
this seen him, with a staff in each 
hand slowly and painfully wending 
his was thither. He conversed free- 
ly and feelingly upon the subject of 
religion, and often spoke with bright 
anticipations of his home above. 

For some weeks before his death, 
his wife was seemingly at the gates 
of death, which caused him often to 
express fears that she would be ta- 
ken first. His desire was to go be- 
fore, which desire was granted. His 
aged wife and five of their children 
are yet behind. May they all when 
called to follow, rejoin him on yon- 
der peaceful shore. 

E. Y. WARNER. 
EZRA CHAPPELL. 

The New London (Conn.) Daily 
Star announces the death of Ezra 
Chappell, July 1st, 1865, at the age of 
eighty-nine. 

Mr.*^ Chappell was well known to 
many in Cleveland. He was the un- 
cle of Mrs. Parsons, mother of Hon. 
R C. Parsons. In former years, 
Mr. Chappell made large invest- 
ments in Ohio, especially at Nor- 
walk, in Huron county, where his 
annual visits brought him into inti- 
mate business relations with the 
principal men of that vicinity, and 
where his death will be sincerely 
mourned, as the loss of a personal 
friend. 

He was one of an eminent gener- 
ation which is fast passing away — "a 
gentleman bi the old school," a man 
of the strictest integrity — " right to a 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



79 



shaving." At one period he was al- 
most the sole financial agent of his 
own city, and was then as well 
known and appreciated in Wall 
street as any of its old money kings. 
His life was as j)nre as the qnaint- 
ness of his personal habits and char- 
acter. In every walk of life he was 
himself and " we ne'er shall look up- 
on his like again." In all business 
transactions he was very exact, but 
withal was very generous and open- 
handed, especially to the poor. 

His faith was firm and of the real 
Puritan stamp ; and his religious 
character as quaint and practical as 
his business life, but " rich in good 
works." 

For many years his chief occupa- 
tion haf'been to " clothe the desti- 
tute," and "deal his bread to the 
hungry." He enjoyed an "after- 
noon of leisure and an evening of 
rest," and has "come to. his grave 
in a full age, like as a shock of 
corn Cometh in his season." 

MRS. CATHERINE TENFIELD. 

Died, at the residence of her son, 
R. H. Penfield, in Elyria, on Sunday 
evening, October 29th, 1865, v\^ido\v 
Catherine Penfield, of Penfield, 
aged eighty-eight years, relict of Pe- 
ter Penfield Esq., whom she surviv- 
ed thirteen years. She died in the 
exercise of a strong faith in the 
merits of. the Savior, having been a 
professor of religion near seventy 
vears. Her remains were taken to 
Penfield for sepulture. The family 
emigrated to Penfield in 1821, where 
she lived till within the past year. 
Her husband built the first log house 
in the town, in 1819. This, with sev- 
<-Tal contiguous townships in Loj-ain 
*md Medina counties were then one 
'^olid body of unbroken forest. In 
J^'je migration of the family, the 
''Cattaraugas Woods" was to them, 
^^^ to all emigrants in those days, a 
•■ource of anticipated dread, but to 
Ihem even this was secondary to 



"Eocky river," as from the ferry boat 
the teams on the west side had 
to plunge into a slough, from which 
it was very steep to gain the side 
lying road ascending the bank. 
All the long journey of five hundred 
miles, the " Rocky river" had been 
a hideous spectre ever flitting before 
the imagination. At this time the 
village of Cleveland was first reach- 
ed from the east on emerging from 
the Euclid bush road on the west 
side of the square or park. 

The subject of this notice was no- 
ted for household industry, and econ- 
omy, especially in the war of 1812. 
Having a large family to clothe, the 
" home made " was in good supply. 
Flax, cotton and wool, were taken 
to the carding, machine, the spin- 
ners, the weavers, the clothiers in 
different neighborhoods. For seven- 
ty consecutive years, till the last one 
of her life, she worked with her 
own hands the butter for the family 
use, and a surplus for sale; and at 
the Golden Wedding four or five 
years since, of the late Rev. Dr. 
Betts, of Brownhelm, her plate of 
butter was selected from among 
others as the banner plate. In lat- 
ter years she had taken a lively in- 
terest in the Republican cause, and 
at the late State election of the 10th, 
towards the close of the day, fre- 
quently inquired how the vote was. 
In the evening inquiry was made at 
the newspai)er office, when the 
probable majority was stated at 20,- 
000; this afiorded her much satis- 
faction. She was a native of Bridge- 
port, Connecticut, daughter of J^^lijah 
Hawley, Esq., whose grave, as that 
of the mother, is in the same ceme- 
tery of Penfield. Deceased remem- 
Ijered the case when a stalwart ne- 
gro v/as sold in Connecticut, at the 
current market value of £80 or S200. 
Slavery existed ac that time in tliat 
State. ' She also remembered when 
cotton was universally carded by 
hand-cards, in Connecticut. 



80 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER, 



[June, 1866. 



JUDGE LYMAN. 

Judge Darius Lyman died in Cleve- 
land, on the 13th of December, 18- 
65, at the age of seventy-six. He 
was a native of Goshen, Connecti- 
cut, and was the youngest son of 
Ool. Moses Lyman, of Revolutiona- 
ry fame. He studied law and came 
to Ravenna, in this State, in May, 
1814, where he remained during 
most of his life. He was the first le- 
gal practitioner in the town. He 
served in both Houses of the Legis- 
lature between 1816 and 1833. In 
1832 he was the candidate of the 
Anti-Masonic and National Repub- 
lican parties for Governor, and was 
beaten by his opponent Robert Lu- 
cas, by 8,000 votes. He was tlie 
prominent advocate in the Legisla- 
ture of the building of the Ohio 
Canal. In 1850 he was again chos- 
en to the Senate, and became identi- 
fied with the Free Soil party. Du- 
ring the nine years between 1855 
and 1864, he held the position of 
Probate Judge of Portage county. 
He was also a member of the Board 
of Trustees of the Western Reserve 
College. The Ravenna Democrat, 
from which we condense the above 
facts, describes Judge Lyman as a 
pattern of stern morality and a 
sound and valuable attorney. 

NATHAN PERRY. 

The death of Mr. Perry removes 
from us the person longest resident 
in Cleveland. Mr. Perry came to the 
spot where Cleveland now stands, 
in 1801. He soon went to Black Riv- 
er and engaged in trade. How long 
deceased remained at Black River 
we do not know. An incident of 
his life, given in Howe's Ohio, re- 
lates that in the Spring of 1807, a 
fishing expedition set out from 
Clevehnid for Maumee river. The 
vessel was a Canadian batteaux, on 
board which were goods "sent by 
Major Periy to his son Nathan at 



Black River." The batteaux was" 
wrecked opposite the now township 
of Dover, and all hands lost save a 
Mr. Plumb, who floated ashore at 
the foot of a rocky precipice, which 
he could not scale, and from which 
he was relieved by the arrival from 
Black River of Nathan Perry and 
Quintius F. Atkins. 

On Mr. Perry's return to Cleve- 
land, which was before the war of 
'12, he engaged in trade mth the 
Indians. Mr. Perry's house and 
store, under one roof, stood at the 
corner of what is now Superior and 
Water streets, where the Central 
Buildings now stand. His house 
was the third house built in Cleve- 
land. ^, 

Mr. Perry made the greatJbulk of 
his fortune by purchasing real es- 
tate, of which, as most of our city 
readers know, he died largely pos- 
sessed. He made some money, 
however, in the fur traffic with the 
Indians, their hunting grounds at 
that day being bounded on the east 
by the Cuyahoga river. It is related 
of Mr. Peny that one time taking 
$12,000 worth of furs to New York, 
he followed the wagon containing 
them from Buffalo to New York. 
On arriving in that city he encoun- 
tered John Jacob Astor, who en- 
deavored to get from Mr. Perry the 
asking price of his furs. Mr. A. be- 
coming importunate, Mr. P. toldJiim 
flatly that he could not have the furs 
at any price. Mr. P. had made up 
his mind that he could do better 
with any one else than Mr. Astor, 
hence declined any sale to him, and 
would not even show his furs to Mr. 
Astor, wlio was the great fur mer- 
chant of those days. 

As showing the great advance 
made in real estate here during the 
life time of tlie deceased, we will 
mention the ffict that between 1820 
and '25, Mr. Perry purchased that 
elegant property on which his home- 
stead is located, running east, and 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



81 



amounting to some seventy acres, 
for five dollars an acre. Later than 
that time he purchased a number of 
acres where the Medical College 
stands for ten dollars an acre. We 
have said that Mr. Perry's wealth 
was due to fortunate purchases of 
real estate, and a few years since 
Mr. P. told a friend that he never 
made $20,000 in trade. 

The last illness of Mr. P. was of 
about five weeks duration. Para- 
lysis set in, first attacking the lower 
extremities and gradually working 
up until it reached the heart. Mr. 
Perry leaves a very large estate. 

Cleveland Herald, June 2Tth, 1865. 

HENEY LOCK WOOD. 

Died, at Milan, Ohio, on Friday, 
9th inst., ot dry gangrene, Henry 
Lockj^ood, in the 71st- year of his 
age-^son of Stephen and Sarah 
Lockwood, deceased, the former in 
18§0, at iNorwalk, Connecticut, the 
latter in 1848, at Milan. 

Born at N.orwalk, Conn., May 11, 
1795; became a hatter in his fath- 
er's . hat-shop ; intermarried with 
Miss Amelia Chichester, May 15, 
1813. The deceased in 1815, with his 
father and 'senior sister's husband, 
the late David Gibbs, (a lawyer, then 
recently from the disbanded army 
of 1812-15,) sought in the "Fire- 
lands " in Huron county, Ohio, a new 
home, and began a "clearing" at 
what was afterwards known as 
^ Gibbs' Corners." In the ensuing 
season, he and Mr. Gibbs made a 
''winter removal" of their families 
^y wagons, with full experiences of 
priy settlers. Their "big w^agon" 
breaking through the ice of Catarau- 
tC'is Creek — the drowning and loss 
^f teams— the cheerful aid of kind- 
ly Indians in the recovery and dry- 
^i^g of sunken goods — desperate ill- 
ness—deaths in each family of the 
^i^lest or only child ; all within fifteen 
jmles' travel, in the then "wilds of 
^^itaraugus and Canadaway," (now 

11 



Fredonia, N. Y.,) were only con- 
catenations of their begun pioneer 
life. Stately forests invited and 
wearied sturdy arms ; a strife for liv- 
ing impelled earnest vigor, and vis- 
ions of "good for the next generation" 
encouraged unrepining settlers. 
Then were unplanned the "Erie Ca- 
nal," nor the strong schooner — much 
less the docile steamer. To the 
present active generation these 
things are traditionary history. 

Mr. Lockwood, as farmer, hatter, 
trader. Justice of the Peace, and in 
other duties to promote the im- 
provement of his village and coun- 
ty, had with others the ever active 
experience. His life's companion 
continued with him till Januarv 
1 1863— till of their eleven 
children, only five survived. Truth- 
fulness and rectitude, and their usu- 
al comi3anions, patience, industry, 
kindness and intelligence, were his 
standard as evinced in practical 
life. These were also evinced in his 
last incessant, painful illness of nigh 
five months, when his lower extremi- 
ties, by supposed arterial ossifica- 
tion, lost their vitality and parted, 
and all without a complaint or a 
murmur. To the usual salutation 
of a retrTiiing son, "How do you 
do ? he responded, " Dying as fast as 
I can " as he did, easily, calmly — and 
was buried from the Presbyterian 
Church on the afternoon of the com- 
ing Sunday. 

Thus passed the useful, genial, 
kindly, practical citizen, the last of 
four brothers, (Stephen, Ralph and 
George) —preceded by his eldest 
sister, Sarah, (Mrs. Marvin)— leav- 
ing only three sisters surviving, Eli- 
za (Mrs. Gibbs,) P^sther (Mrs. Saun- 
ders,) and Mary (Mrs. Benedict.) 

COif. 

Mr. Lockwood w411 be remember- 
ed by some of the early settlers, and 
especially by the pioneer traders and 
hotel-keepers, whom he met in his 
trips through this region peddling 



82 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



hats manufactured at his establish- 
ment in Milan. For many years he 
furnished most of these articles 
worn in Northwestern Ohio, and 
they ever held a high reputation 
among the people. 

AUNT POLLY PIERCE. 

Aunt Polly Pierce, died in Peru, 
Huron county, Ohio, September 
26th, 1865--aged sixty-seven years. 

She was a pioneer as a settler and 
a pioneer as a christian. She loved 
her God and her country ardently. 

She came to Huron county in 
January, 1816, after a toilsome jour- 
ney of forty-four daj^s, in mid-winter, 
with an ox'^team from Massachusetts. 
She died oh the same farm on which 
she settled in Peru. 

She joined the Methodist Episco- 
pal church in April, 1820, under the 
ministry of the Rev. Dennis God- 
dard. She was an ardent patriot, a 
devoted christian, and a faithful 
member of the church of her choice. 

She was a member of the Fire 
Lands Historical Society, and con- 
tributed much to its interest. As a 
mere complete notice of her life and 
character is to be prepared, it is 
sufficient now to say, that in every 
respect she was a remarkable wo- 
man. Possessing a retentive mem- 
ory, fearless disposition, and a ready 
wit, together with a remarkable 
gift of expression, few will ever 
forget the interest she excited when 
present at the meetings of the Soci- 
ety. Last June, at the annual meet- 
ing at Nor walk, was her last attend- 
ance and many who read this, will 
long remember the excitement and 
enthusiasm caused by her compari- 
son of ancient with modern fash- 
ions, and her impassioned apostro- 
phe to the flag of our country. 

The last class meeting she attend- 
ed, was one of interest and spiritual 
profit to her. She spoke of her 
acquaintance with the Methodists 
forty-live years ago, and then said : 



"This people shall be my people, 
and their God shall be my God," 
and then as if anticipating her end, 
she spoke with feeling of soon 
meeting in the great class meeting 
in the heavenly world, which shall 
endure forever. 

ROSWELL EDDY AND OTHERS, OF 
PERKINS. 

Again the pen is called into requi- 
sition to chronicle the departure of 
an aged pioneer; another of our 
landmarks is gone, Mr. Roswell 
Eddy died at his residence, in Per- 
kins ,Friday evening, April 13, 1866. 
He was born in Chatham, Middlesex 
county, Connecticut. By his death, 
the Church has lost one, who in the 
noontime of life, was one of its most 
amiable, earnest, and devoted mem- 
bers, and societ}^, in which, by his in- 
tegrity of purpose, correct habits^and 
devotion to duty, he won the esteem 
and respect of all, one of its most 
energetic citizens, adorned with . 
ennobling virtues, robed in the vest- 
ments of holiness, and enriched with 
that wisdom which is more precious 
than rubies, he has left a world which 
he lived to bless, for one where he 
will be blessed forever. His death 
was a triumph of laith. Truly he 
shovved how Christians die, peace- 
fully and triumphantly the Lord's. 
He married Hannah i'aylor, in the 
year 1802. She was born in the year 
1784, on the second day of Noveniber. 
They had, in all, six children; five of 
whom were born in Connecticut, 
viz: Almira, Mary, Emeline, Edwin 
and Joseph. Tliey had one child 
born after moving here — a daugliter 
named Caroline. The oldest child 
died a number of years ago. Mary, 
the second, married a Mr. Cook, who 
is now deceased. She is living at pres- 
ent with her sons in Sandusky, Ohio. 
Emeline is married and lives near 
Mount Vernon, on the Sandusky, 
Mansheld and Newark Railroad. 
Edwin, the elder son, lives in Milan, 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIKE LAKDS PIONEER. 



83 



Ohio, and at one time farmed near 
the old homestead. He has two 
children living— -William and Albert 
Eddy. Joseph, the younger son, 
lives on the old homestead, and with 
him the parents have always lived. 
He is an enterprising and wealthy 
farmer. He married Caroline Akins, 
of Euclid, Ohio. They have had in 
aU three children ; the oldest dying 
at the early age of six years. The 
two younger are living at home, and 
are named Mary and Martha. In 
the Spring of 1817 Mr. Eddy having 
heard of tiie richness of the soil and. 
health fulness of the western cli- 
mate, determined to seek a home in 
what was then known as the the 
"far-west." The party with which 
he traveled consisted of but two 
families. For the transportation of 
their families and goods, they used 
the large and time honored "Yankee 
Wagons" made for the purpose. — 
Their propelling power consisted of 
two yoke of stout oxen, assisted as 
the driver thought necessary, by a 
dexterous application of rawhide. 
Although with many regrets at leav- 
ing the scenes of childhood sports, 
around which clustered all the pleas- 
ant associations of early life; yet, 
feeling that the call of duty must be 
obeyed, they bade adieu to loved 
ones — and with many a "God bless 
you" and silent prayer for their 
tuture welfare, started. They com- 
menced the journey in the heat of 
summer, and suffered many incon- 
veniences resulting therefrom. The 
weather for the greater part of the 
journey was very good. They were 
six weeks on the road, and reached 
their destination in the month of 
August. The roads were badly cut 
^P and large ruts had been formed 
Jjiid were filled with mud and water. 
They encamped nights where they 
could find pasturage for their cattle. 
Having turned out the teams they 
then^ prepared for supper. Their 
provisions consisted mostly of bread, 



butter, bacon, cheese, and rusk. 
Having taken out a capacious trunk 
lliat served the purpose of a table at 
mealtimes, they spread the evening 
repast, and having partaken of the 
eatables in a regular old backwoods 
style, they again resumed their pla- 
ces in the wagons for a night's repose. 
It was next to impossible to sleep 
in the open air, the musquitos and 
flies were so severe in their attacks. 
Many a conflict was there between 
the huge insects and the weary 
travelers, and and many an unwarry 
musquito was brought to grief by a 
vigorous tap from the awakened 
sleeper. 

Mr. Eddy was accompanied by 
another family by the name of Akins, 
consisting of Mr. John Akins. his 
wife and seven children — four toys 
and three girls. They stopped at 
Euclid, near Cleveland, where they 
have ever since resided. They had 
one daughter born while in Euclid, 
called Caroline, who afterwards, as 
before mentioned, became the wife 
of Mr. Eddy's younger son. The 
children walked most of the way, 
and as the teams walked very slowly 
they were often far in the advance. 
They busied themselves in picking 
berries, running and playing, and 
looking with wondering eyes upon 
the new sights that were constantly 
opening to their view. One day a 
man passing with an empty wagon, 
and overtaking the children, who 
were considerably in advance, per- 
suaded them to ride with him, and 
left them at a tavern far in advance 
of the wagons, much to the alarm of 
the parents, who did not know this, 
and were very much alarmed, think- 
ing that perhaps they had strayed 
into the woods and had been lost. 
Mr. Eddy was often compelled to 
wade into the mud and water up to 
his waist to find a ford for the teams 
in crossing the many streams on the 
route. One day, when crossing a 
large and very rapid creek, the old- 



84 



THE FIRE LANDS PIOITEER. 



[June, 1866. 



er son's hat was blown from his 
head, and he being about six years 
of age, and thinking, perhaps, that 
hats were not very plenty in a new 
country, set up a cry and kept it up 
lustily, until the missing property 
was recovered. 

The prairies would often catch fire 
from various causes, and do a great 
amount of injury. Stacks of hay 
were never sale from the devouring 
element. When they saw the grass 
on fire, they would plow several fur- 
rows around the stacks, and thus 
greatly lessen the danger of their 
catching on fire. One Sabbath, while 
going home from church after a 
large fire had taken place, they could 
see deer that hall been so blinded 
by fear that they bad run headlong 
against the fence and killed them- 
selves. One day, while out chop- 
ping, a deer kept browsing near Mr. 
Eddy, and as it v/as there when he 
went home from work, he thought 



he might secure some venison, and 
taking his gun, he retraced his steps 
and was fortunate enough to secure 
his game. At another time, Mrs. 
Eddy was out walking, when a huge 
deer came rushing by, and in at- 
tempting to leap the fence, made a 
misstep, and was caught in the fence. 
Mrs. Eddy immediately ran forward 
and caught hold of it and held it un- 
til a settler came to her relief 

Mrs. Eddy, more familiarly known 
as " Aunt Hannah," is left, but not 
alone. She is surrounded by kind 
friends and devoted children, that 
will make her happiness while she 
remains, the great object of their 
lives. She has the consolation of 
believing that the husband of her 
youth, the partner of her life for 
more than sixty years, whom she 
ably seconded in alfhis undertakings, 
has gone with a christian's trust, to 
reap in a better world, the rewards 
of a life of usefulness in this. 



BLACK HAWK. 



The July number of the *' Annals 
of Iowa," a quarterly publication is- 
sued under the auspices ot the State 
Historical Society, at Iowa City, un- 
der the editorial supervision of Theo- 
dore S. Farvin, is worthy of exten- 
sive jjatronage from the people of 
our State, "its historical sketches 
and details of early legislation in the 
Territory are worthy of X)reservation. 
From an interesting article entitled 
'' Sketches of the Sac and Fox In- 
dians, and the Early Settlement of 
Wapello County," by Uriah Biggs, 
we extract the lollowing account of 
the death of the celebrated warrior. 
Black Hawk : 

Black Hawk died in the fall of 1837, 



near lowaville, the scene of his tri- 
umph under Pash-a-pa-ho over the lo- 
was, in the early part of liis warlike ca- 
reer. He was buried in a sitting pos- 
ture, in a frail tomb made of wooden 
slabs set upon the ground in the 
form of an inverted V. His war club, 
a shaved post lour or five feet high, 
was placed in the front of his rude 
tomb, upon which a great number 
of black stripes were painted, cor- 
responding with the number of scalps 
he had taken during life. Openings 
were left in his tomb, so that his 
friends and curious visitors could 
witness the progress of decay. Some- 
time after the removal of his friends 
higher up the river, and after the 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



85 



flesh had wasted away, a Doctor 
Turner, of Yan Buren county, re- 
moved his skeleton to Quincy, Ilh- 
nois, and had the bones handsomely 
poKshed and varnished preparatory 
to connecting them by wires in the 
skeleton form. When his wife heard 
of the exhumation, she affected great 
and uncontrollable grief, and poured 
out her sorrows to Kobert Lucas, 
Governor of the Territory and ex-of- 
ficio Superintendent of Indian Af- 
fairs, who promptly recovered the 
bones and placed them in a box in 
his office at Burlington, and dispatch- 
ed a message to the bereaved fLuni- 
ly, then staying at the Des Moines, 
some ninety miles distant. A caval- 
cade was soon in motion, bearing the 
disconsolate widow, and a retinue 
of her friends to Burlington. On the 
evening of their arrival the Gover- 
nor was notified by a messenger, of 
their readiness to wait upon him, 
who fixed the audience for ten A. 
M. the next day. Several visitors 
were in attendance. The box con- 
taining the august remains opens by 
a lid, and when the parties w^ere all 
assembled and ready for the awful 
development, the lid was lifted by 
the Governor, fully exposing the sa- 
cred relics of the renowned chief to 
the gaze of his sorrowing friends aud 
the very respectable audience who 
bad assembled to witness the impres- 
sive scene. 

The Governor then addressed the 
widow through John Goodell,the in- 
tei-preter for the Hard Fish band, 
giving all the details of the transfer 
of the bones from the grave to Quin- 
cy and back to Burhngton, and as- 
sured her tha:t they were the verita- 
ble bones of her deceased husband 
pUiat he sympathised deeply with 
ber ill this her great afUiction — aud 
^uat he now hoped she would be con- 



soled and comforted by the return of 
the cherished relics to her care, un- 
der a strong confidence that they 
would not again be disturbed where 
she might choose to entomb them. 
The widow then advanced to the lid 
of the box, and without the least 
seeming emotion picked up in her 
fingers bone after bone, and exam- 
ined each with the seeming curiosity 
of a child, and replaced each bone 
in its proper place, and turned to the 
interpreter and replied through him 
to the Governor that she fully be- 
lieved, they were Black Hawk's bones 
— that she knew he w\as a good old 
man, or he would not have taken 
the greatpains he had manifested to 
oblige her — and in* consideration of 
his great benevolence and disinter- 
ested friendship so kindly manifest- 
ed, she would leave the bones under 
his care and protection. The con- 
ference then closed, and the distin- 
tinguished visitors took leave of the 
Governor and the assembled audi- 
tors. This scene was detailed by the 
Governor to the present writer, 
while standing at the side of the fa- 
mous box, soon after its occurrence. 
On the accession of General Har- 
rison to the Presidency, Governor 
Lucas was removed from the guber- 
natorial office of the Territory, and 
he removed his i)rivate office into the 
same room with Dr. Enos Lowe, now 
of Omaha City, Nebraska. An his- 
torical society was organized in Bur- 
lington about this time, and eflbrts 
w^ere made to get these relics into 
their cabinet and under the control of 
the society. This arrangement was 
never formally accepted, but in the 
course of events they happened to 
be in the same building with the so- 
ciety's collection, and tlie whole were 
consumed in the burning of the 
building in 1S53. 



86 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



From the Cincinnati Gazette of April 7th, 1866. 

PIONEER ANNIVERSARY EXCURSION TO MARIETTA. 



On Friday morning last, through 
the liberality of the Marietta Rail- 
road Company, the Pioneers' Asso- 
ciation ol this city and vicinity, took 
the occupancy of three of the Com- 
pany's new passenger coaches, and 
started for Marrietta. The object of 
the excursion was to unite with the 
Pioneers of Marietta in celebrating 
the 78th anniversary of the first set- 
tlement of Ohio, the Association of 
the latter city naving tendered our 
" Old Folks " an invitation to spend 
the day with them on that occasion. 
The party, including a few who were 
not strictly pioneers, but who went 
as companions of some who were, 
numbered over a hundred, many oi 
them being females, the grandmoth- 
ers and great-grandmothers of the 
present generation. Membership in 
the Association is confined to those 
who emigrated to, or were born in 
the West prior to the year 1812, and 
of such we noted the following on 
the train : 

E. B. Reeder, President of the As- 
sociation, born in Cincinnati, in 1808. 

J. S. Ross, Vice President of the 
Association, aged sixty-five, from 
New Jersey, in 1806. 

Wm. P. Stratton, Chaplain, born 
in Cincinnati, aged fifty nine. 

Mrs. Wm. P. Stratton, born in 
Hamilton county, aged fifty. 



Mrs. Louisa Perry, aged sixty- 
three, from Virguiia, in 1806. 

John S. Perkins, born in Brown 
county in 1808, where his father, 
from Virginia, settled in 1804. 
^^^ Isaac McFarland, from Pennsyl- 
^'vania, in 1806, aged sixty- four. 

Daniel Cameron, born in Hamil- 
ton county in 1796, where his father,. 
from Pennsylvania, settled in that 
year. 

J. W. Mason, from Maryland, in 
1801, aged sixty-seven. 

Joseph Bates, aged fifty-seven, 
born in Cincinnati, his father having 
moved here from Massachusetts in 
1791. 

William Moody, aged seventy-sev- 
en, born in Cincinnati, to which 
place his father moved in 1789, hav- 
ing resided two years in Marietta. 

WilKam Mc'Makin, of Spring 
Grove, aged sixty-four, from Penn- 
sylvania, in 1810. 

Emma Hart, aged fifty-six, from 
Pennsylvania, in 1810. 

Mary B. Dunn, aged sixty-eight, 
born in Cincinnati. 

Emeline Myers, aged fifty-eight, 
from Virginia, in 1807. 

Andrew Myers, aged sixty-seven, 
of Cumminsville, from Virginia, in 
1803. 

J. K. Wctherby, aged seventy. 
from Vermont, in 1806. 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIKB LANDS PIONEER. 



87 



Sarah 0. Wetherby, born in Cin- 
cinnati, aged fifty-six. 

Samuel West, aged seveenty-ight, 
from Virginia, in 1801, to Marietta, 
and thence to Cincinnati, in 1809. 

A. B. Shaw, aged sixty-two, from 
PennsylyaniaL in 1807. 

Mary H. W ellshear, born in Cin- 
cinnati, in 1808. 

Mrs. Diana Koss, aged fifty-six, 
born in Marietta, where her father 
settled in 1807, but moved to Cincin- 
nati in 1810. 

Louisa Stuart, born in Cincinnati 
in 1810, where her father settled in 
3791. 

Margaret Sweeney, aged sixty- 
seven, from Virginia, in 1811. 

Miles Williams, aged sixtj^-five, 
from New Jersey, in 1806. 

J. M. Clark, aged sixty- six, from 
New Jersey, in 1802. 

Francis Harrison, aged sixty, born 
near Chillicothe, where his father 
settled in 1798. 

Lydia Denvers, aged sixty, born in 
Cincinnati. 

Charles H. Simpson, aged fifty, 
from Maryland. 

William L. Cummings, bom in 
Warren county, Ohio, aged fifty- 
three. 

Louisia Daily, aged sixty-five, 
from New Jersey, in 1812. 

Elizabeth Woodruff, aged sixty- 
six, emigrated in 1812. 

Olive L. Keeder, aged sixty-nine, 
born in Cincinnati. 

Joseph A. Keeder, born in an In- 
dian wig-wam, into which his father 
moved from Virginia, in 1792. 
^^ Eliza Williams, born on Duck 
Creek, a^ed fifty-seven. 
^ John Avilliams, of Carthage, aged 
lifty-two, born in Cincinnati. 

C. S. Walker, of New Kichmoud, 
t^arne to Cincinnati in 1801, a^red sev- 
enty-two. 

A. N. Riddle, Esq., born in Cincin- 
fi^Ui, aged sixty-five, his father hav- 
'^i^'^ come irom New Jersey in 1790. 

^'ol. Morris, U. S. A., aged sixty- 



six, having come West in 1806. 

John McMakin, aged sixty-two 
from Virginia, in 1810. 

A. L. Bramble, of Plainville, aged 
sixty-seven, ' from Pennsylvania, 
1806. 

John H. Girard, aged sixty-four, 
born near Mt. Washington. 

C. Cropper, aged sixty-nine, mov- 
ed west 1810. 

Jas. G. Payne, aged seventy-one, 
from New York in 180^ 

John Whetstone, aged seventy- 
eight, from Pennsylvania in 1792. 

Zebulon Strong, of College Hill, 
aged seventy-eight, from Vermont, 
in 1809. 

H D. Stout, aged fifty-eight, mov- 
ed west in 1811. 

Benjamin Ludlow, born in Cincin- 
nati in 1797. 

H. S. Earhart, born in Huron 
county, Ohio, in 1800; has the old 
compass that belonged to Judge 
Symmes, to whom was granted the 
land between the two Miamis. 

Judge David Oliver, aged seventy- 
five, of Oxford, born in Belpre, in 
1791. 

Daniel Ackerman, aged seventy- 
eight, from Kentucky, in 1801. 

William B. Dodson, aged seven- 
ty-nine from Maryland. 

Jacob Sloop, aged sixty-eight, 
first settled in Columbiana county in 
1803. 

Wm. M. Bates, bom in Cincinnati, 
in 1811. 

J. L. Mallot, aged seventy-three, 
from Maryland, in 1797. 

S. J. Brown, from England, aged 
seventy-nine, his father having set- 
tled in this city in 1798. 

Maria Vanmeter, born in Cincinna- 
ti in 1807. 

Mrs. Submit Strong, aged eighty- 
two, in 1798, from Connecticut. 

Hannah Strong, of College Hill, 
aged seventv-four, from New Jersey, 
in 1804. 

Joseph Snodgrass, born in Green 
county, in 1803. 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866 



M. L. Broadwell, aged sixty, born 
in Clermont county, 

Kebecca Leatherby, born in 
Springfield township, where her pa- 
rents settled in 1811. 

Mrs. Dr. Oliver aged sixty-nine, 
daughter of David E. Wade, who 
emigrated in 1790. 

Mrs. Dr. Alexander Duncan, aged 
■sixty -Severn from Pennsylvania, in 
1805. 

Sarah Price, born in Cincinnati, in 
1803. 

N. Goshorn, aged sixty-five, from 
Pennsylvania in 1807. 

Rees E. Price, aged seventy-one, 
from Maryland in 1807. 

John Toms, of Mt. Healthy, aged 
seventy-three, from New Jersey, in 
1798. 

Mary A. Smith, born in Cincinna- 
ti, 1810. 

Henry Rogers, aged sixty, of Mt. 
Healthy, from Pennsylvania in 1806. 

Nathaniel Reeder, of Hamilton, 
born in Cincinnati in 1810. 

C. Mallott, from New Jersey in 
1811. 

Mrs. Deborah Dodson, from Mass- 
achusetts in 1811. 

Johnson Hukil, aged sixty-five, 
from Virginia in 1805. 

Charlotte Carshmer, born in Cin- 
cinnati 1810. 

J. W. Gillespie, born in Cincinna- 
nati, aged sixty-three. 

S. W. Lodley, born in Cincinnati, 
aged seventy-five. 

N. Harrofl, from Virginia in 1806, 
aged sixty-eight. 

John Horrocks, aged sixty-two, 
from England in 1810. 

E. Ross, aged sixty-eight, from 
New Jersey in 1806. 

J. F. Cunningham, born in Ham- 
ilton county in 1810. 

Maria Thompson, born in Butler 
county in 1807. 

E. T. Hubbell, aged sixty-two, 
from Pennsylvania in 1811. 

Margaret M. Lathrop, from Ver- 
mont in 1810, 



Sarah Hukill, aged sixty-nine, from 
New Hampshire in 1807. 

Mrs. Ira Athern, born in. Cincinna- 
ti in 1805. 

Mrs. Mary Cassiday, born in Cler- 
mont county in 1801. 

James Cunning, aged sixty, from 
New Jersey in ISiO. 

Mrs. Sophia B. Williamson, born 
in Cincinnati in 1798. 

The foUow^ing were the Executive 
Committee, having charge of the 
excursion : 

Messrs. N. Goshoni, Lew. Ludlow, 
J. B. Dennis, Dr. D. A. Ross, A. M. 
Ross. 

Among the invited guests present 
were Hon. Judge Storer, members 
of the press and others. 

Although the day was cloudy, the 
faces of all were cheerful, and pleas- 
ure seemed to prevail in all hearts. 
Conversation was spirited, and many 
a scene of pioneer life was lived over 
as they were recounted to each oth- 
er during the day. Most of them 
brought their wholesome lunches 
along with them, and thus cheated 
the eating houses at Chillicothe out 
of several expected greenbacks. 

At half-past seven the train arriv- 
ed at Harmer, where a Committee 
ot Reception met them, placed 
them in carriages and omnibuses, 
and distributed them among the hos- 
pitable citizens residing on both 
sides the Muskingum. 

THE WEATUER ON THE SEVENTH. 

The sky was clear, and the stars 
shining brightly on the evening of 
our arrival, and all predicted a pleas- 
ant day ; but, alas ! the disappoint- 
ment. Eirst it rained and then 
snowed, and then blowed; and there 
was not an hour in the day when 
one could venture out without an 
umbrella. Of course this prevent- 
ed all, except a very few of the 
younger and more rugged ones, 
i'rom visiting the many out-door lo- 
calities of interest. Full attendance, 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



89 



however, was given to the in-door 
gatherings and exercises. 

RECEPTION CEREMONIES. 

At ten o'clock the old bell of the 
Congregational Church, where shttj 
years before, many of the visiting pi- 
oneers had regularly attended ser- 
vice, called them once more to en- 
ter its revered walls. Carriages suf- 
ficiently numerous conveyed them 
to its doors, and many a one saw 
again, for the first time in half a cen- 
tury, the old familiar "meeting 
house." 

Half an hour was spent, as in old- 
en times, in fraternal recognitions 
and friendly gossip, during Vviiich the 
organ solemnized the scene with its 
sacred tones. Then prayer was of- 
fered by Rev. Dr. Wicks, tlie pres-. 
ent pastor, which was followed by 
the choir singing " God of our Fath- 
ers," etc. 

Mr. William R. Putnam, President 
of the Marietta Pioneer Association, 
and grandson of Gen. Rufus Put- 
nam, next addressed the assemblage, 
in substance as follows : 

On the 7th of April, 1788, there 
landed on yonder point of land the 
first pioneer settlers of Ohio, of 
whom Gen. Washington said : 

" No colony was ever settled un- 
der such favorable auspices as that 
which has just commenced at Mus- 
kingum. Information, i^roperty and 
strength will be its characteristics. 
I know many of them personally, 
•Hid there never were men better 
calculated to promote the welfare of 
such a community." 
. In the same year, on the 24th of 
I^ecember, another band of pio- 
neers landed opposite the mouth of 
^-icking river, on the north side of 
the Ohio, where Cincinnati now 
^tands, a city no less celebrated for 
^ts pioneer history than for its litera- 
ry', scientific and benevolent iustitu- 
^Jons, its architecture, its manufac- 
^^ires and commerce — in a word, all 



that entitles it to the appellation of 
the Queen City of the West. 

At an early day tlie agents and 
proprietors of the Ohio Company 
passed a resolution that the Ttli ot 
April be forever considered as a daj'- 
of public festival in the territory of 
the Ohio Company. In compliance 
with this resolution and from the im- 
pulse of our own hearts, we are as- 
sembled to commemorate this 7Sth 
anniversary. At your invitation, 
these venerable men and women, 
representatives of the early pioneers 
of Cincinnati, have come to unite 
mth us in. this celebration. We bid 
them welcome — welcome to our hos- 
pitalities, welcome to the scenes 
where Captain Pike, the celebrated 
chief of the Delawares, accorded a 
hearty welcome to the early pio- 
neers; where the first court of jus- 
tice in the great Northwest was 
held, where the first marriage was 
solemnized; where the first Sabbath 
School was taught ; where the first 
sermon was preached. 

The worthy President briefly re- 
ferred to many incidents connected 
with the early settlement of Ohio, 
and then gave way to the 

RESPONSE OF MR. E. B. REEDER. 

Mr. Reeder, as President of the 
Cincinnati Association, responded 
briefly, being in very poor health. 
His mind was filled with stirring 
emotions, suggested by the interest- 
ing occasion. He and his associates, 
some of them four score j^ears and 
ten, and many of them three score 
had come up from the Queen City 
which they had seen grow up from 
the wilderness, the second settle- 
ment in a State that now contained 
nearly tln-ee millions of people. He 
tlianked the pioneers of Marietta for 
their cordial invitation, and this gen- 
erous liospitality they were receiv- 
ing. Many of them would never 
enjoy another such occasion, for be- 
fore another anniversary they would 

12 



90 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 186G. 



be trying that " undiscovered coun- 
try" which their fathers had tried 
before them. 

The speaker's mind ran back sev- 
enty-eight years, and called up the 
original forty-seven emigrants who 
landed at this point. They knew not 
where they were going or what they 
were to do, except that they were 
trying to better their condition. He 
briefly alluded to the fact that the 
Ohio Company had early battled 
against the establishment of an in- 
stitution in the new territory, which 
had everywhere proved a curse, and 
dwelt somewhat on the blessings 
that had resulted from that wise pro- 
vision. 

Mr. Keeder then introduced Judge 
Storer, as one of the worthy pio- 
neers of Cincinnati, though arriving 
too late (1817) to be admitted to 
membership in the Association. 

REMARKS OF JUDGE STORER. 

The venerable Judge, now seven- 
ty years of age, delivered a hand- 
some address, which we are sorry 
our limited space compels us to 
abridge of its fair proportions. First, 
he drew a picture of the landing of 
the May Flower at Plymouth Kock, 
and the disembarking of the Puritan 
fathers, who, belonging not to the 
world from whence they came, nor 
yet to New England exclusively, 
came to fullil the pm-pose of the Al- 
mighty, Then he compared with 
that scene the landing of the little 
arks, as they were called, seventy- 
eight years ago, on such a misty 
April morning as the present. Who 
were they and what their purpose? 
They were cultivated men, qualified 
for any position in life ; many of them 
had passed through the revolutionary 
war, had come from the land just 
freed frojn the British yoke, where 
the school house and the church ex- 
erted their wholesome and hallowed 
influence. When their boats touch- 
ed the shore, and those men, and 



women, and children, landed in the 
illimitable waste, what their pur- 
poses were they could liardl}^ have 
told ; but one thing was sure ; the 
same course that was pursued when 
tho- Mayflower landed, was pursued 
here. They built — in their hearts, 
at least — an altar to Almighty God, 
and the first object was to worship 
Him and invoke His blessing, and 
depend upon His care. It required 
something more than mere physical 
courage, hardihood, endurance grow- 
ing out of strong limbs and good 
health, to meet the difliculties and 
trials of those days. It required a 
principle within, a fire of faith to be 
kindled in the hearts of those men 
and women, to face those dangers 
and overcome them. 

The speaker then drew a graphic 
picture of the results that had fol- 
lowed fast and thick, and were now 
so wonderful to behold. He spoke 
modestly of the jDart he had taken in 
the great work. Forty-nine years 
ago this ver}^ month, he crossed tlie 
mountains from Philadelphia to Pitts- 
burg, and there, finding no steam- 
boats as now, he, in company with a 
dozen other young men, obtained 
some skiffs and started for Cincin- 
nati. Stopping at Marietta for a few 
days, he made the acquaintance of 
Gen. Kufus Putnam, David Putnam, 
Col. Barber, McFarland, and others, 
and felt quite at home. He had read 
Aaron Burr's romantic description 
of Blannerhassett's Island, and on 
the Avay down he stopped there, 
where he became acquainted with 
William Putnam and his sister. He 
agreed that the island was a lovely 
place, but not a little magnified. He 
found Cincinnati with a "population 
of 5,000 people. In describing its 
wonderful growth, he spoke of its 
High Schools, founded in part upon 
funds furnished l)y Thomas Huglies, 
a New England shoemaker, and Wil- 
liam WoodA\'ard, a tanner — the i'ov-^ 
mer having donated the proceeds of 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LAin)S PIONEER. 



91 



a large farm, now in the bounds of 
the city, to endow a school for poor 
children. 

The speaker was here interrupted 
by an aged pioneer in the audience, 
Mr. Zebulon Strong, Avho asked the 
privilege of saying that he split the 
rails to fence in Mr. Hughes' farm. 

After some suggestive remarks in 
regard to the future. Judge Storer 
closed. A quartette of gentlemen 
then sang, with touching effect, a 
song beginning : 

« Old friends, old friends, 
The dear old friends, 
That time has swept away." 

DR. OLIVER AKD THE OLD CHURCH. 

Dr. David Oliver, rising in tlie au- 
dience, wished to give expression to 
the emotions of his soul. Looking 
up and about the old church, he said 
that he remembered the time when 
he had helped to raise and build this 
sacred house; that he had not seen 
it for fifty-five years, and he was re- 
joiced that the pioneers of Marietta 
had not forsaken the altar they had 
in an early day dedicated to the liv- 
ing God, and he hoped they would 
never do so, nor their descendants 
after them. He hoped they would 
escape the humiliation that mortifies 
the true believer as he looks back to 
the home of the Pilgrim Fathers, 
which is now the seat and hotbed of 
all the isms of the land. 

BIRTH PLACES. 

Dr. Oliver remarked, in closing, 
that he had been trying to find the 
place where he was born, but had 
not succeeded. He was like the 
sailor who, when asked where he 
^vas born, replied, " Well, at Cape 
^'od, Oai)e Ann, and — pretty much 
^U along the shore." Seventy-five 
years ago continued the Doctor there 
^iood, on the point over the Mus- 
»^iugum, a block-house, in tlie^south- 
^•«'^5t corner of which they say I was 
•^'Orn ; but as not only the blockhouse 



is gone, but the point itself is washed 
away, and its sands scattered from 
here to.J3he Gulf, 1 think I may say 
I was born all along the shore. 

The laughter that followed was re- 
newed by the remark of W. P. Put- 
nam, grandson of old Israel Putnam 
. — " You say. Doctor, that you were 
born in the south-east corner of the 
blockhouse in 1791. I was born in 
the south-west corner in 1792." 

"And I," added Col. E. S. Mcln- 
tosh, " was born in the same place in 
1793." 

VAKlbUS OTHER EEMARKS. 

Mr. Walker, of New Richmond, 
narrated some of the incidents of 
his pioneer life that were listened to 
with interest. 

Adam N. Riddle, Esq., of this city, 
followed in a* happy little speech. 
He described the inauguration of the 
first Court in the territory, at Mari- 
etta, in 1788, on which occasion the 
Sherifi, with drawn sword, headed 
the procession that marched up to 
Campus Martins hall, through the 
woods, followed by any number of 
Indian chiefs looking on with won- 
der. That Court was opened the good 
old way — with prayer. 

Col. W. P. Cutler, grandson of one 
of the leading members of the Ohio 
Compan}^, made some very interest- 
ing remarks, chiefly to the point that 
the ordinance of 1787, so generally 
attributed to Thomas Jeife rson, was 
in a great measure the Avork of the 
Ohio Company, and especially of his 
grandsire; that Jefier'son's ordinance 
was framed in 1784, and contained a 
provision permitting the existence 
of slavery in the NorthA\'estern Ter- 
ritory for sixteen years, or until the 
year'lSOO; that Jefi'erson was not in 
this country when the subsequent or- 
dinance was adopted in 1787. He 
closed with a poetical and eloquent 
allusion to the prosperity that had 
attended the State of Ohio and the 



in 



92 



THE FIKE LANDS PIOlsTlER. 



[June, 1866. 



great Northwest, in consequence of 
the prohibition of slavery. 

MARIETTA COLLEGE EXERcISeS. 

At 3 o'clock the visitors <\^ere 
transported through the falling snow 
to the chapel and society rooms of 
Marietta college, which they found 
decorated from basement to roof for 
their entertainment. President I. 
W. Andrews, the pioneer ofBcer of 
the institution, in conjunction with 
the Committee of Arrangements, 
was successful in making all feel at 
home. The valuable library and the 
cabinet of the college were then 
thrown open to the inspection of 
everybody, and the time was w^ell 
improved. 

• PIONEER PICTURES AND CURIOSITIES. 

The rooms of the two college so- 
cieties were the chief' places of at- 
traction, and the most prominent 
among the matters of interest 
were the fine oil i^ortraits of the 
the original pioneers who have gone 
to the better land. The following 
named are only the more x>i*orni- 
nent: 

Rev. Dr. Manassa Cutter, Direc- 
tor of the Ohio Company, died in 
1781, aged 81 years. 

Judge Ephraim Cutter, died at 86 
years. 

Gen. Artemus Ward, born 1727, 
died 1800. 

Major General Eufus Putnam, 
landed at Marietta in 1788. 

Major General Nathaniel Green, 
born 1742. 

Governor Keturn Jonathan Meigs, 
first Governor of Ohio. Also, por- 
traits of Col. Levi Baker and wife. 
Gen. Eward W. Tupper, Nathan 
Ward, Col. Ichabod Nye, W. R Put- 
nam, Major Anslen Tapper, Wm. 
Dana, Dr. S. P. Hildreth, David Put- 
nam, and of twenty other pioneers 
of that section, of both sexes. It 
was a very interesting picture gal- 
lery. 



Next in interest were the i)ioneer 
curiosities, such as the powder hoiii 
of Israel l^itnam, the one he wore 
when he killed the wolf 

Upon it was the following inscrip- 
tion, cut by himself with his pen- 
knife : 

" When bow's weighty spears were iis'cl iu 

fight, 
'Twere nervous limbs declared a man of 

might ; 
But now, Gunpowder scorns such strength 

to own, 
And heroes not by limbs, but souls are 
known. 

"Israel Putnam's Horn. 
"Made at Fort Wm. Henry, Nov. 10, A. D., 
1756. 

" A plan of the stations from Albany to 
Lake George." 

And here followed a kind of map 
of the road and the fortifications re- 
ferred to. 

The following are the more promi- 
nent of the curiosities : 

Shovel and tongs of Commodore 
WhipiDle. 

Gov. Winthrop's chair, brought 
over in the Mayflower. 

Gen. Arteinus Ward's pistols. 

Tlie original order for the arrest of 
Blannerhasset, signed, by Gov. Ke- 
turn Jonathan Meigs, and directed 
to Gen. Josei)h Buell, dated Decem- 
ber 10, 180G. 

A powder horn presented by Aa- 
ron Burr to Blannerhassett. 

Mrs. Blannerhassett's work box. 

REPAST A*ND REUNION. 

During the afternoon a most 
sumptuous repast of all that was 
good 10 eat, was kept upon the 
broad and loug tables in one of the 
college rooms, where all were invi- 
ted to help themselves. 

At the same time a speaking meet- 
ing was organized in the chapel, 
where the loquacious indulged in, 
and delighted tlieir hearers in five 
minute speeches. President Adrews 
presiding. At its close the follow- 
ing resolutions were adopted : 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIBE LAWDS PIONEER. 



^W 



93 



Resolved^ That the pioneer mem- 
bers of the Association of Cincinna- 
ti, who have, by the invitation of the 
people of Marietta, jmrticipated in 
the celebration of the 78th anniver- 
sary of the landing of the first set- 
tlers of Ohio, now tender to their 
hosts their hearty thanks for the 
kind attention and the warm wel- 
come they have bestowed during 
their entire visit ; and they ardently 
hope that both the guests and the 
hosts may enjoy many more such re- 
unions, and when, mth time, they 
shall pass away, those may remain 
behind who will Jionor the memories 
of our Pioneer Fathers. 



Resolved further^ That the thanks 
of the Association are cordially ex- 
tended -to the President and oflicers 
of the Marietta & Cincinnati Kail- 
road for the very handsome manner 
they proffered a free passage from 
Cincinnati to Marietta, for all the 
members, and the care and skill with 
which the whole transit was conduct- 
ed. 

Resolved furthermore^ That the 
papers of Marietta and Cincinnati 
be requested to publish these reso- 
lutions A. N. Kiddle, 

• Wm. p. Stkatton, 
B. Stoker. 



COURTING TWO HUNDKED YEAKS AGO- 

WETHEKSFIELD. 



-A ROMANCE OF 



Among the amusing reminiscences 
of those days is the famous court- 
ship of the Rev. Stephen Mix, of 
Wethersfield. He made a journey 
to Northampton in 169G, in search of 
a wife. He arrived at the Rev. Sol- 
omon Stoddard's informed him of the 
object of his visit, and that the pres- 
sure of home duties required the ut- 
most dispatch. Mr. Stoddard took 
him into the room wdiere his daugh- 
ters were, and introduced him to 
Mary, Esther, Christiana, Sarah, Re- 
bekah, andHannali, and then re tired. 
Mr. Mix, addressing Mary, the eldest 
daughter, said Jie had lately settled 
at Wethersfield, and was desirous of 
obtaining a wife, and concluded by 
offering his heart and hand. She 
blushingly replied that so important 
^proposition required time for con- 
sideration. He replied that he was 
pleased that she asked for a suitable 
time for reflection, and in order to 
''ifford her the needed opportunity to 



think of his proposal, he would step 
into the next room and smoke a pipe 
with her father, and slie could report 
to him. Having smoked a pipe and 
sent a message to Miss Mary that he 
was ready for her answer, she came 
in and asked for further time for con- 
sideration. He replied that she could 
reflect still longer on the subject, 
and send her answer by letter to 
Wethersfield. In a few weeks he re- 
ceived her reply, which is probably 
the most laconic epistle ever penned. 
Here is the model letter which was 
soon followed by a wedding : 

Northampton, 1C96. 

Rev. Stephen Mix : 
Yes. 
Mary Stoddard. 

The matrimonal mixture took 
ifface on the 1st oi' December, 1696, 
and x>roved to be compounded of 
the ]nost congenial elements. Mix 
was pastor of that paradise of onions 
for forty-four years. — N. Y. Evang, 



94 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



MEMBERS OF THE FIRE LANDS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

■ CONTINUED FROM VOLUME 6TH. 



NAMES. 



resid1:nce. 



WHEN AND AVHEEE BORN. 



WHEN AND MTIERE FIRST 
SETTLED ON FIRELANDS. 



Andrews, W. B. 
Adams, H. R. 
Amsdcn, T. G. 
Austin, E. L. 
Armstrong, S. L. 
Bowen, W. T. 
Braiuard, John. 
Barker, Mrs. D. G. 
Bartow, Alvin T. 
Bunce, JNIrs. Olivia J 
Betts, Alfred. 
Bodine, Angeline. 
Bodine, Cornelius. 
Bevicr, Abram. 
Beckwith, A, C. 
Chandler, J. S. 
Cole, ManleyK. 
Cable, Owen A. 
Curtiss, Norman. 
Dole, D. 
Dimick, W. B. 
Drennan, Wm. W. 
Fuller, Levi. 
Gates, S. W. 
Hall, Rev. E. P. 
Iloyt, Mrs. A. B. 
Hartupe, G. H. 
Hartupe, Cordelia. 
Harris, Thos. 
Harrison, Ruth A. 
Hark) less, L. G. 
Holton, Susan S. 
Hilbish, John. 
Haskell, Mrs. J. 
Ingham, S. R. 
Jones, Levi H. 
Jones, M. 0. 
King, Parmelia. 
King, W. H. 



Vermillion, 

York, 

York, 

Plymouth, 

Plymouth, 

Townsend, 

Ripley, 

Milan, 

Wakeman, 

Brownhelm, 

New Haven, 

New Haven, 

Plymouth, 

Groton, 

Monroeville, 

Bronson, 

Brownhelm, 

New Haven, 

Lyme, 

Bellevue, 

Plymouth, 

Vermillion, 

Fairfield, 
Norwalk, 
Elyria, 
Elyria, 

Florenee, 

Bellevue, 

Lyme, 

Bellevue, 

Bellevue, 

Florence, 

Norwalk, 

Norwalk, 

Bellevue, 

Bellevue, 



Montville, Ct., 1802. 
Seneca, Ontario Co.N.Y. 1707. 
Worthington, Mass., 1820. 
Norwalk, O., Oct. 17, 1838. 



Auburn, N. Y., Feb. 27, 1825. 
Sempronius, N. Y., Nov.1817. 
Brown Co., N. Y., May 3, 1818. 
Elstead, Cherhire Co., N. H. 



Ridge ville, 1813. 

New Haven, xMay 12, 1821. 

Franklin Co., Mass.,Scp. 1802 

Canton, Stark Co. 0., 1820. 



1820. 



Fall of 1810. 
Ripley, May, 1832. 



Vermillion, 1812. 



Fairfield, 1833. 

N. Haven, Nov. 1838. 



1834. 



Bronson, 1816. 



Salen), Wash'n Co.,N.Y. 1801, 

Freeburg, Union Co., Pa. 1828. 
Harbor Creek, Pa., 1821. 



Burtsville, R. I., 1809. 



1845. 
New Haven, Aug. 1824. 
New London, 1838. 
Clarksfield, 1828. 



Lyme, Aug. 1 823. 
Sirons's Ridcre, 1815. 
YorkTp., I8.V2. 
Florence, 1838. 



Bellevue, 1834. 



June, I860.] 



THE FIHE LANDS PIONEER. 



95 









WHERE AND WHEN FiliHX 


NAMES. 


RESIDEl^CE. 


WHEN AND WHERE BORN. 


SETTLED ON FIRELANDS. 


Morse, R. 








McMillen, Heury. 


Milan, 




Norwalk, 18*20. 


McMiUen, JMrs. H. 


Milan, 






Merry, Charlotte. 


Milan, 


TinmoTith, Vt, Aug. 17,1780. 


Avery, Nov. 1814. 


Miles, H. B. 


Florence, 






Miles, Mrs. L. B. 


Florence, 






Minkles, Edgar. 


Vermillion, 






Morgan, Fred. W. 


Vermillion, 






Moore, John. 


Fremont, 


Long Island, Sept., 1792. 


Lyme, Spring of 1822. 


McKim, James. 


Lyme, 


Cumberland Co., N. J. 1792. 


1842. 


Moore, David. 




Lehigh Co., Pa., Feb. 1, 1S09. 


May, 1836. 


McCord, J. D. 


Plymouth, 


Bethel, Bond Co. 111., Oct.1832 




Nims, Worthington. 


Lyme, 


Shelbum, Mass., 1801. 


Lyme, 1826. 


Nims, Joel B. 


Lyme, 


Shelburn, Mass., 1815. 


Groton, 1837. 


Omig, John. 




Schuyler, Co., Pa., May, 1806. 


1832. 


Patchen, A. 


Bronson, 






Perry, R. C. 


Brownhelm, 






Peltou, Allen. 


Veimillion, 


<s 




Rowclifl', James. 


Townsend, 






Rogers, Wm. 


New Haven, 






Rooks, Ezekiel. 


New Haven, 


SaratogaCo.,N. J. 1789. 


New Haven, 1816. 


Smith, D. II. 


Berlin, 






Strong, Asahel. 


Cleveland, 






Standart, Chas, 


Auburn, N. Y. 






Sprague, Simeon fl. 


Florence, 






Summers, JnliaB. 


Vermillion, 






Starr, Caroline A. 


Clarksfleld, 






Swift, Jos. 








Sheratt, Jacolj. 


Vennillion. 


• 




Stebbins, Alfred. 


Lyme, 


Franklin Co., Mass., 1810. 


Lyme, 1832. 


Strong, Curtis. 


Lyme, 




Strong's Ridge, 1815. 


Severance, Ralph A. 


Bellevue, 


Greenfield, Mass. Jan. 1803. 


Bellevue, July, 1854. 


Smith, James E. 


York, 


State of N. Y., May 1, 1809. 


1831. 


SaJTord, John. 


Bellevue, 


Perry, Stark Co., 0., 1830. 


Lyme, 1862. 


Savage, Eliza W. 


Berea, 


ColumbianaCo., 0., 1812. 


Bronson, 1827. 


Seymour, Hart. 


Plymouth, 


Otsego, N. Y., Jun3 18, 1798. 


Bellevue, April, 1845. 


Smith, W. A. 


Plymouth, 


N. Fairfield, 0., Mar. ]4, 1839. 




Taylor, D. G. . 


Perkins, 






Taylor, T. B. 


Perkins, 






Taylor, Wm.. 


Plymouth, 


Greenfield, Huron Co. 1832. 




Tucker, J. A. 


Plymouth, 


Windham, Portage 0., 1819. 




Taylor, B. B. 


Pl}Tnouth, 


Bronson, July 5, 1821. 




Vail, David. 








Wilson, Levi. 


Norwalk, 






Wilson, Lucy. 


Norwalk, 






Wickham, Lucy B. 


Norwalk, 


Nashua, N. H.,' 1814. 


Norwalk, 1819. 


Wickham, C. P. 


Nonvalk, 


Norwalk, Sep. 15, 183G. 




Washburn, Amasa. 


Vennillion, 


May 21, 1798. 




Williams, David, 


York, 


Center Co., Pa., 1810. 


York, 1836. 


Willard, C. A. 


Bellevue, 


Albany, N. Y., Oct. 20, 1832. 


1836. 


Warner, E, Y. 


Monro eville. 


WayneCo., 0., 1833. 


Fairfield, 1858. 


y- illiams, Mrs. Eliza. 


Bellevue, 


North-East, Pa., Jan. 1, 1817. 


Bellevue, 1836. 


>\ oodworth, E. C. 


New Haven, 


Truningburg, N. Y., 1830. 


New Haven, 1832. 


J oung, James. 






. 


^ork, Abraham. 


New Haven, 


N. Haven, Huron Co., 0. 1818. 





THE FIRE LAm)B PIONEER, 



[June, 1866. 



THE OLDEST NATIVES OF OHIO. 



In noticing the death of Judge 
Anus Nye, two weeks ago, we stated 
our belief that he was at the time of 
his death, on the 27tli ult., the oldest 
surviving native of Ohio, except 



Judge Oliver 



Rico Loring, of Bel- 



pre. The Times also made an ex- 
ception of one, but named James 
V. Gushing, of Zanesville. Both 
were in error. 

The facts are these: James Yar- 
nuni Gushing, now of Zanesville, 
was born in Marietta, in January, 

1789. He w^as a son of Colonel Na- 
thaniel Gushing, vvdiose family was 
one of the first eight which arrived 
in Marietta in August, 1788, foar 
months after the arrival of the forty- 
eight "Pilgrims" — all men — who 
came the 7th of Api'il previous. 

Alplia Devol, son of Wanton De- 
vol, and grandson of Judge Gilbert 
Devol, is now living in Waterford, 
this county, and was born in Mariet- 
ta, August 12, 1789. 

Judge Oliver Rice Loring, of Bel- 
pre, was born at that place, June 17, 

1790, and is still living, a highly re- 
spectable farmer, near the place of 
his birth. 

Jeremiah Wilson, son ot George 
Wilson, was born in " Fort Frve," at 
Waterford, April 21, 1791. He still 
lives in Waterford. 

Wm. Pitt Putnam, son of Aaron 
Waldo Putnam, was born in "Far- 



mer's Gastle," at Belpre, April 2, 
1792, and still lives just above the 
place of his birth, one of the most 
prominent citizens of the county. 

These five are probably the oldest 
surviving natives of Ohio, although 
Thomas Kain, oi Glermont county, 
is still living — about, which wo are 
not certain — is the senior of some of 
them. And Mary He eke welder, 
daughter of Rev. John Hecke wel- 
der, one of the j\Ioravian missiona- 
ries, was born at Salem, a missiona- 
ry station in the present county of 
Tuscarawas, April IGth, 1781, and is 
still living, as we are advised, at 
Bethlehem, Pennsjdvania, in her 
eighty -fifth year. She was the first 
white child born in Ohio, but before 
the permanent settlement. St. Clair 
Kell}^, who was l^orn in Marietta, in 
December, 1788, was the iirst born 
after the first settlement. He died 
in 1823. 

Col. Enocli 
erly, is not 
born at the 
May 23, 1793. 

Judge Arius Nye, who died on the 
27th ult., was ])orn in "Canr])us ^lar- 
tius," Marietta, December 2>sth, 1702; 
and George Dana, who died at Bel- 
pre, last April, was born at that i^lace 
in 1790, in Maj-ch, we think. — Jla/'i- 
cita Register. 



S. Mcintosh, of Bev- 
far behind. He was 
"Point," in Marietta, 



June, 18C6.1 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



m 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 



INITIAL FACTS IN OUR HIS- 
TORY. 

Our children are taught French, 
moral science and conic sections and 
read histories of Greece and Rome. 
How few of them, and how few men 
and women know anything- of the 
history of their own country, except 
an outhne or a few detaclied facts. 
How few undergi-aduates know that 
Columbus undertook his first voyage 
in the expectation of finding the 
Grand Khan of Tartary : that he set 
sail on Friday, 1492— that unlucky 
and direful day — and on Friday, ten 
weeks after, dfscovered land ; that he 
supposed Cuba to be the Continent ; 
that he first reached the continent on 
the north coast of South America six 
years afterward ; that ui3on his fourth 
and last voyage he founded tJie first 
colony on t'he^mainland on the Isth- 
mus of Panama; that twenty-one 
.years after the first discovery the 
Old World was astonished to find 
they had discovered a new world, 
wlien they reached the Racific across 
the Isthmus; but that Cabot, an 
I^^nglishman, reached the shores of 
New England a full year before Co- 
lumbus touched the continent ; that 
'^an Augustine, Florida, is the oldest 
town in America, heiua: just 300 
.years old ; that Santa Fe^^Ncw Mex- 
^<^o, is the second town in point of 



age; that twenty years later — 1G02 
— California was discovered and ex- 
plored ; that in 1G03 a Frenchman, 
Sieur de Monts, made the first per- 
manent settlement north of San Au- 
gustine, at Annax)olis, and twice at- 
tempted a settlement on CaiDO Cod, 
but was driven oft' by the natives ; 
that Cham plain founded Quebec in 
IGOS ; that our coast, from Pennsyl- 
vania to New Brunswick, was named 
Acadie, afterward New France; that 
Canada lormerly comprehended our 
Vermont and New York; that Vir- 
ginia was so named by Sir Walter 
Raleigh in honor of Queen EHza- 
beth, 15S4, when he made his explo- 
ration of the North Carolina coast ; 
that the first English child born in 
America was Virginia Dare, daugh- 
ter of Ananias; that the projected 
colony failed ; that Jamestown was 
tlie first English town in America, 
began 



a large number 
"of £ 



1G07 and named for King 
Jame I ; that the want of wives in 
Virginia was so great that in 1G21 
of young women 
ood character" were trans- 
ported to the colony on specu- 
lation and sold to the lonely 
settlers for a hundred and twenty to 
a hundred and fifty pounds of tobac- 
cr eacli [Mem: to suggest that a cer- 
tain governor borrow a hint there- 
by] ; " that New England was so 
named by John Sjnitli, 1G14 ; that at 

13 



98 



THE FIEE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



length a settlement was made, with- 
out a grant from the king's council, at 
"New Plymouth," and set its roots 
deep and wide into the scanty soil 
by a band of 102 passengers, Dec. 
li, 1620, who came in a craft whose 
name has name has been spoken 
from from the Occident to the orient, 
to wit : the " Mayflower." 



NEW ENGLA ND FAKM HOUSES. 

It is hard to draw a picture of New 
England country life witliout making 
a portrait which the fancy at least of 
many will gift with a resemblance 
to their early recollections. Is there 
not more than one here who remem- 
bers such a place as this which is 
now set before liim ? It is an ancient 
looking brown house — brown with 
that peculiar tint that belongs to 
weather-stained pine, and is the na- 
tural complexion of unpainted New 
England houses. It fronts with two 
fair stories to the road ; but if you 
take it in flank, you see that tlieroof 
runs backyrith a great slope to with- 
in a few feet of the ground. One 
huge square chimney rises through 
the center of the ridge pole ; a tall 
poplar, its emulous companion, has 
overtopped it, and drops a few leaves 
every autumn into its black throat. 
There is the barn, of course — vast, 
brown, like the house, with a ring of 
swallow's nests, like barnacles, all 
around the eaves ; there ought to be 
a swing inside, and plenty of hen's 
nests, and secret deposits of ripening 
apples in holes of the haymows. We 
should find them all no doubt, if we 
went in and knew where to look. — 
Ever graceful and beautiful, the well- 
sweep, with the clanking, iron-bound 
bucket, and the heavy stone, its coun- 
terpoise, stands a little back and at 
one side. There is the orchard — 
there are trees in it famous for early 
apples,-*and limbs of trees that the 
boys knew well for the fruit they 
bore ; wonderiully sagacious are 



boys in detecting a large graft on a 
slow tree ; there are fifty men that 
remember fifty such boughs while I 
am speaking. Of course Ve do not 
forget the crooked foot path running 
across the lots to our neighbor's fanu 
— that curious little solitary higli- 
way, that turns, and twists and struts 
aside for no concievable reason ; all 
foot-paths in the fields look as if they 
had been trodden out by lovers or 
madmen. Not far oiT was the wood 
where the sweet fern breathed its 
fragrance, and the bayberry rei)eat- 
edit ; where the checkerber'ry spread 
its aromatic leaves and berries, and 
the black birch imitated its flavor 
with its bark — so economical is New 
England's nature in the matter of per- 
fumes andspiceries. If you were born 
and bred among such sights and 
sounds as these, they will never die 
out of your remembrance. — Di\ 
Holmes. 



WASHINGTON'S TEXT BOOK. 

The New York Tribune says a gen- 
tleman in that city, recently came 
in possession of a book Avhich was 
doubtless the architect of George 
Washington's character. It was 
found in Virginia during the occupa- 
tion by our trooi')s. The book Avas 
presented to Gen. Grant, who, how- 
ever, refused to accept it, but agreed 
to take it in trust until the owner is 
found. Should he not be discovered, 
it will be placed among the national 
archives. It is a small octavo vol- 
ume of 472 j)ages. The name of 
George Washington is written upon 
it in boyish chirography, but large, 
bold, with every letter distinct, as in 
his maturer days, to which the year 
1712 is added in the same hand wri- 
ting. AVashington was then ten 
years of age. The title of the l)0()k 
is this: "Young Men's Comi^am'on 
or Arithmetek Made Easy, witii Plain 
IJirections for a Young J\Ian to At 
tain to read and \V''rite True English, 



June, 1866.]^ 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



99 



with Copies of Verses for a Writing 
School. Instructing of Letters to 
Friends. Forms for Making Bills, 
Bonds, Keleases, AVills, &c. Like- 
wise Easy Rules for Measuring Board 
and Timber by the Carpenter's Plain 
Rule, &c. Also, Directions for Mea- 
suring, Gauging and Plotting out of 
Land, (fee, and Taking the Distance 
by Quadrant and Triangle, together 
with a Map of the Globe and Water. 
Also a Map of England, together 
with Choice Monthly Observations 
for Gardening, Planting and innocu- 
lating Fruit Trees. Written by W. 
Mather in a Plain and Easy (Style 
that a Young Man may Attain the 
same mthout a Tutor. Thirteenth 
Edition. London. Printed for S. 
Clark." 

The Young Men\s Companion 
opens with instructions in spelling, 
punctuation and composition. Se- 
lections for practice are presented 
from hymns, prayers and prose. 
Easy copies for writing, with instruc- 
tions how to sit, hold the pen, and to 
make ink follow. Rules are laid 
down for writing letters on love, bu- 
siness and friendship, and how to be- 
gin and end a letter, with the differ- 
ent styles to be addressed to people 
ofrank and plebians. Forms for all 
kinds of -mercantile and legal papers 
are presented, with Pow^ers of Attor- 
ney, Deeds and Wills. Arithmetic 
comes next. Surveyings, Mensura- 
tions, Navigation, Building, Gauging, 
Taking Observations, and Architec- 
ture, accompanied by rude drawings, 
have their place. Rules for behavior 
Jn company are then given, how to en- 
ter and leave the presence of nobility 
•*ndrankwith the order of precedence, 
•^0 tliat a young man's manners mtiy 
''© well formed. Banking and Ex- 
<Jiange follow, with rules for larm- 
l^^g and gardening, with innoculat- 
'JVfr, as grafting was then called, the 
misin«i; of llowers and fruits, and in- 
j'^fuctions for each month in a year, 
^^eceipts arc given for the making of 



cider, wine and preserves. The book 
holds a medical department; and 
household games, tricks and pas- 
times are not overlooked. 



FIRST USE OF PAPER MONEY 
IN AMERICA. 

The first American colonists used 
pelting and wampum as substitutes 
for coin. In 1640, the Council in 
New Netherland, petitioned to raise 
the value of money in their colony 
in order to prevent its exportation. 
Afterward,. Gov. Stuyvesant tried to 
introduce a specie currency and to 
establish a mint at Nev/ Amsterdam. 
New England already had her mint. 

Massachusetts was the first of the 
colonies to use paper money. In 
1690 it issued bills to the amount of 
seven thousand pounds to pay the 
soldiers engaged in the expedition 
against the French in Canada. — 
Twelve years after, Carolina issued 
paper money to pay her soldiers. 
Three or four years later, a paper 
money act was passed in the island 
of Bar badoes. A little later, in 1T09, 
Connecticut and New York passed 
enactments creating bills of credit. 

The low state of the currency at 
this time in New York was thought 
to arise from the fact that most of 
the foreign trade of the country 
came through Boston and other New 
England ports, drawing thither mon- 
ey and produce. In 1695 the diflcr- 
ence bctv,^een New York and sterling 
money was about one-fifth; in 1700 
about a quarter. 

The present legal rate of hiterest 
in New York (7 per cent.) was es- 
tablish in 173S. 



OLD-FASmONED FUNERALS 
AND ORDINATIONS. 

The following authentic letter from 
John Hancock will show liow fune- 
rals Avere celebrated in Boston a, 
hundred years ago : 



100 



THE FIRE LAXDS PIONEER. 



fJune, 1866. 



Boston, February 11, 1760. 

Sir : My nncle has sent some wine, 
two pieces of Beef fully corned, & a 
Cag of New England rum ; lie brings 
up with him a clo'z. more of Madeira 
wine, he sux^poses will be enoug, & 
some west India Eum & i doz. loaves 
of bread — Would have the corps put 
in the coffin as soon as may be for 
fear of the Ratts — sends the plates 
for coffin by bearer, with Directions 
on the Box and send back the Box. 
You have also some sugar. 

What else may be wanted that will 
do to be there on AVednesday morn- 
ing, let us know by the bearer.— 
There is no good Beef to roast to be 
had to-day, but can get some to-mor- 
row, and if any one is coming down 
to-morrow would be glad if he'd call 
at Warehouse. 

I am, dear sir, your assured friend, 
John Hancock. 



The following bill, the original of 
which we have, was presented to the 
Beneficent Congregational Society, 
of this city, alter the ordination of 
"Father Wilson " as colleague pas- 
tor : 

Congregation Society to The. Jones Dr. 

1793, Oct. 15 £. s. d. 

To 1 gall. ^V. I. rum for the workmen near 

the Parsonage House 5 6 

FOB THE OEDINATION DINKER. 

To 17 boftles of sherry wine 3X galls, Os. . . . 1 13 8 

To 3 quarts do. Os .* G £)' 

To ISjuggs oldcider, 96 4 6 

To 5 bottles Jamaica spirits, 7s. 6d. gal 8 5>i 

To 8 decanters wine for tho Counsel at my 

house, 2 galls, 9s 18 

To 3 decanters Jamaica sijirits, 7s. 6d. gall. 5 7^ 

To 2 bottles Durham mustard 2 

£i I T" 
Deduct— 

G juggs cider returned , 1 6 

5X bottles wine 11 3— 12 

£3 11 10 

To one dollar paid lawyers 6 

To keeping two men 14 1 00 00 

Cherry rum, brandy, etc., etc 00 00 

£4 11 10 



GOLDEN WEDDING— COL. JAMES SMITH. ^ 



Col. James Smith and wife, invited 
their family and the older class of 
their neighbors and friends, to meet 
at their residence, at Lyme, Ohio, 
September 21st, 1SG5, to celebrate 
the fiftieth anniversary of their mar- 
riage. 

Of their children, five are living, 
a daughter and four sous, and all 
were i)rcsent except Martin, who 
was in California. Grand children 
were also present, representing 
three diilerent brandies of the fami- 
ly. Of tho friends i)rosent, twelve 
were more than sixty years of age. 



and including Colonel Smith and 
wife, the united ages of the fourteen 
were nine hundred and seventy-one 
years. 

Tlie company passed a pleasant af- 
ternoon, socially relating incidents 
of " ye olden time." After a very 
interesting and appropriate prayer 
and address by their pastor, Bev. W. 
T. Hart, and a kind invitation to the 
company by Deacon John Seymour, 
to meet'liim at tlie ]\rarriage 'Supi)er 
of ihe Laml), rcireslimciits were 
served, and the happy company re- 
turned to their homes. Co>r. 



%ikM^'--''' ftt^^ 



I 



June, 1866.] 



Tfll2 FiBE LANDS PIONEER. 



101 



From the Sprii]<^(ield Republican. 

FROM POMFRET, CONNECTICUT 



CELEBRATION OF THE ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE 
FIRST CHURCH ORGANIZATION. 



PoMFRET, Ct., October 27, 1856. 
Everybody knows tliat in this an- 
cient town Israel Putnam killed the 
wolf; but only a few are aware how 
rich is Pomfret Jiis^.ory in incidents 
that have a value to every son of 
New England. Yesterday being ob- 
served here as the 1,50th anni- 
versary of the organization of 
the First Church of Christ in Pom- 
fret, the commemorative discourse 
on the occasion, with the historical 
papers, and reminiscent addresses, 
fcirought much of this interesting 
material to liglit. From these sour- 
ces it is gathered that John Eliot, the 
Indian apostle, on his mission to the 
Nipmucks and Mohegans, visited 
eastern Connecticut wliile it was yet 
a wilderness, and " held up the cross 
in ^^ew of the childre]i of the forest 
Avlien their council fires were liglitcd 
within four miles of the spot u])on 
which now stands the Pomfret 
church." It is more than probable 
that Eliot's report of the fertility and 
desirableness of this immediate re- 
gion induced members of his Poxbu- 
ry church to colonize hither, lirst to 
Woodstock and later to Pomfret. 



Pomfret was settled in 1713, and, 
as was often true of tlie early Puri- 
tan communities, the good people 
took action in town meeting to se- 
sure a settled ministry, even before 
their town organization was fairly 
comi~)leted. Rev. Ebenezer Williams 
of Roxbury, having been invited to 
preach six months on trial, was re- 
quested before the expiration of his 
X)robationary term to settle over the 
new church, " the people by the lit- 
tle experience they have had of Mr. 
Williams being very well satisfied 
with him,fniding him to be a gentle- 
man very agreeable to them, and ev- 
ery way willing to accept of him for 
their minister." When he gave a fa- 
vorable response, and the time for 
his ordination approached, a commit- 
tee was appointed by the town " to 
take care that a good dinner be pre- 
pared and all things be carried on in 
good order," and it was voted that 
the ministers and messengers of the 
church "bo entertained as much as ne- 
necessary before the ordination at the 
townchaVge." Whether the guests 
had anything to eat after they had 
performed their day's work, does not 



102 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866^ 



appear in the record, Mr. Williams 
was nephew of Kev John Williams of 
Deerlield, well known for liis captivi- 
ty among the Indians. One of his sons, 
while pastor of the church at Iladley, 
a member of the council which dis- 
was missed Pres't Edwards from his 
Northampton pastorate. He con- 
tinued nearly forty years over the 
church at Pomfret. The successor 
of Mr. Williams was Rev. Aaron Put- 
nam of Reading, Mass. His pastor- 
ate included the years of the Ameri- 
can revolution. John Hancock, pre- 
sident of the continental Congress, 
passed his summers in Pomfret, sit- 
ting under the preaching of Mr. Put- 
nam and sustaining with him rela- 
tions of warm personal friendship. 
The Pomfret community was emi- 
nently loyal and patriotic. The re- 
cord of Israel Putnam is familiar to 
all. Besides him a considerable com- 
jpany of volunteers hurried to Bos- 
ton after the battle of Lexington, and 
of these two were killed and sixteen 
wounded at Bunker Hill. A lieu- 
tenant of this company became fam- 
ous as Col. Tnomas Grosvenor, lay- 
ing the foundations of the strong 
works at West Point, v/here is now 
the military academj^ having Kosci- 
usko as his engineer in this and other 
enterprises. Rev. Mr. Putnam tauglit 
as well as i^reached, fitting for college 
many young men, including some 
afterwards prominent in their x>ro- 
fessions, such as Ptov. Dr. Sumner, 
of Shrewsbury, the celebrated Sam'J 
Dexter of Boston and Hon Wm. Pres- 
cott, father of the historian. When 
Mr. Putnam's voice failed, he for sev- 
eral years wrote out sermons regular- 
ly for his people, and had them read in 
their hearing on the Sabbath. He 
also wrote frequent messages of af- 
fection to meinbcrs of his Hock and 
and occasionally a tract for them, 
sending the missives around by the 
hand of his little grandson, who came 
to beknownas " JMr. Putnam's Post." 
Rev. James Porter, fourth pastor of 



the Pomfret church, was active in 
good works. He organized the first 
Sabbath school, and instituted tlie 
monthly concert of prayer for mis- 
mions in connection Avith his church 
and took up a collection and paid 
into the treasury of the American 
board of Commissioners for foreign 
missions " the first money that was 
collected at a monthly concert in 
Connecticut." 

Provision for a house of worship 
in Pomfret was made almost as early 
as were arrangements for a pastor, 
and the votes with reference to the 
latter seem even more quaint andi)e- 
culiar than those on the former sub- 
ject. With formality and m order 
"the dignitaries and honored citizens 
of the community Avere assigned 
places in the sanctuary according 
to their social status. At a Pomfret 
town meeting in 1714, when it was 
decided to build a meeting house, it 
was voted that Jonathan Belcher, 
Esquire, (subsequently colonial gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts) should "have 
liberty to build a pew in the meeting 
house next to the puli)it at the west 
end of it." x\ year later it was voted 
"that Lieut. Chandler shall have lib- 
erty to build a pew for himself and 
and family in our meeting house, at 
the south end belAvecn the great 
door and the next window." "Pew- 
spots " were thus assigned to a num- 
ber of in'ominent citizens, it being 
"provided that they all finisli their 
pews by the last of Sept. next, take 
in and cause all their families to sit 
there if it may be with convenience." 
When the notabilities were i)rovided 
for, a committee was appointed to 
seat tlie rest of the congregation, it 
being formally declared, to prevent 
controversy, "that the second scat 
in the body of the meeting house and 
the fore seat in the front gallery shall- 
be JLiflged and esteemed equal jii 
dignity "and tlie third seat of the 
body and the fore seat of the side gal- 
lery shall be equal; and that the 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



103 



governing rule in seating the meet- 
ing house shall be the first three rates 
which were made in the town on the 
last year's list, having respect also to 
age and dignity." Again it was vo- 
ted " that the si^ace in the meeting 
house between the stairs and door 
be a place for boys to sit in ;" that 
"there shall be pews built over the 
men's and women's stairs going up 
the galleries, (called " swing pews," 
being suspended from the ceiling) ; 
that '^ each seat in the front gallery 
shall be lengthened on the men's 
side and shortened on the women's 
side so far as that two men more may 
be accommodated in each seat ;" and 
finally that "the lower half of the hind 
most seat in the galleries shall be fit- 
ted for and devoted to the negroes." 
Connecticut was more generous with 
rehgious privileges for the negro then 
than at present v/ith privileges of cit- 
izenship, not being williug now to ac- 
cordto the blacks even"the lower half 
of the hindmost seat." In the vote 
that Nathaniel Young should liave 
"liberty to build a house in the high- 
way for himself and family to sit on 
Sabba' days" is the first distinct men- 
tion of the "Sabba'-day houses," 
which were one of the peculiar in- 
stitutions of New England. These 
houses were small buildings erected 
near the meeting-houses as resting 
places for families coming from a dis- 
tance, where they could build a fire, 
fill their foot- stoves, and thoroughly 
warm themselves as preliminary to 
the long campaign in the unwarmed 
church, and where they could take 
their lunch during the noon inter- 
mission. 

Besides Gov. Belclier, Gen. Tut- 
nam and Col. Grosvenor, already re- 
ferred to, many other citizens have 
gone out from Pomfret to become 
well and widely known in other com- 
munities. Among these are found the 
names of Hon. Benjamin Kiigglcs, 
United States senator from Ohio; 
David Hall and J. Frescott Hall, of 



New York city 5 Dr. Thomas Hub- 
bard, professor m the Yale medical 
school; Eev. Drs. Alexander 11. and 
Francis Vinton, of New York ; Be v. 
Thomas Williams of Frovidcnce, and 
Henry Dexter, the sculptor; and this 
list might be largely increased. The 
sons and daughters of this ancient 
town are widely scattered through 
the land, doing honor to the memory 
and perpetuating- the virtues of theiV 
Furitan fathers in the old clnu'ch on 
the hill-top. 

The commemorative exercises yes- 
terday were of rarest interest. Tlie 
principal discourse was by Bev. W. 
S. Alexander, the young pastor of 
the church : Bev. Daniel Hunt, an ex- 
pastor, contributed historical papers 
on the pastors and meeting houses 
of the church. Addresses of frater- 
nal sympathy were made by Bev. 
Messrs. George Soule, of Hampton, 
and Andrew Dunning, of Thompson, 
of neighboring parishes, while Bev. 
Messrs. C. F. Grosvenor, of Canter- 
bury, and George N. Webber, of 
Lowell, Mass., gave reminiscences of 
their early days in the good old town. 
Gov. Buckingham was present and 
addressed the assembly, and Bev. 
Dr. Aiigustus C. Thompson, of Box- 
bury, Mass., gave greeting from de- 
scendants of the fathers in the parish 
from whence the Fomfret church 
came forth. At the close of the fore- 
noon service the children of the Sab- 
bath school had their share of the 
celebration, singing their beautiful 
hymns and listening to remarks from 
Messrs. David Ha^wley and H. Clav 
Trumbull, of Hartford. 

Last evening there was a social re- 
union at the house of Col. Charles 
Mathewson, whore the friends from 
abroad met each other and the Fom- 
fret citizens in more familiar inter- 
course than was i)i"<"ic tic able during 
the day. At this gathering letters 
were read from invited guests who 
were unable to attend the celebra- 
tion; also a paper from the pen of 



I 



104 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 186G. 



occasion will 

by any who 

Perhaps as 



Dexter, the sculptor, full of interest- 
ing reminiscences of , his early Pom- 
fret life. There was good old fash- 
ioned singing, led by one who was 
the church chorister fifty years ago. 
The ancient pitch-pipe was brought 
into requisition, and the words of the 
hymns were " lined " or " deaconed " 
on by a gray-haired singer. In this 
exercise the old people joined with 
heartiness, and there was rich nielo- 
d}^ in the trembling notes of their 
aged voices, as they raised the fami- 
liar strains of " Coronation " and 
" When I can read my title clear," 
just as they were accustomed to in 
the long gone years. 

Each service and exercise of the 
day and evening was i)leasant and 
impressive, and the 
never be forgotten 
shared its privileges, 
striking an illustration as any 
the anniversary alForded of the 
changes the passing years produce, 
yysLS found in the simple recital at the 
evening gathering of an old man's 
personal story. He was born in Pom- 
fret, and there passed the years of 
his boyhood and youth. When a 
young man, he went westward. 
At that time, as he said, there 
were to him no strangers in Pomfret ; 
he knew every face in the street and 
the dwellers in every home. Por 
nearly fifty years he did not once 
visit the town; now, for the first 
time, he had come back to it — back 
to his old home — but only to find 
himself among strangers and with 
strange surroundings. He knew no 
face among the i^asscrs, and even the 
houses were nearly all changed. 
The very foundations of the house 
where he was born no longer re- 
mained. When he looked for the 



old church that was gone : and he 
saw a new church in a new place. 
He had thought, he said, to find the 
church new, but he was disappointed 
that it was not upreared on the old 
foundation. And the Avhipping-post 
and stocks which he left near the 
church were now missing; those he 
could not mourn ; but he did regret 
the absence of the great stone horse 
block, w^hich was broken up years 
since, and its fragments worked into 
the underpinning of the new church. 
Change ! change ! Everything was 
changed. Even those who still lived 
of his former associates ho did not 
recognize and they failed to recog- 
nize him ; he must be introduced to 
them as strangers. Sitting in the 
church during the day he had looked 
over the tilled house searching vainly 
for familiar features ; one personjonly 
he there recalled, and that was his 
own nephew — one whom he had left 
a youth, but whose hair and beard he 
now found silvered with age. It was 
in all sincerity and with touching- 
eloquence that the old man repeat- 
ed : " I am a stranger here — a stran- 
ger in my own home." The story of 
the flight of time, ^\dth the mutabili- 
ty of all that is earthly, could not 
have been told more impartially than 
in his simple narrative. 

Pomfret will have a higher place 
hencefortli in the estimation of its 
sons and daughters, and amoiig oth- 
er citizens of Connecticut, for the 
revealings of this anniversary day, 
as the record goes abroad, and it is 
well that the men of this day have 
made these things known, ''that the 
generation to come may know them, 
even the children which shall be 
born, who shall arise and declare 
them to their children." ii. c. t. 



June, 1866.1 



HE FIKE LANDS PIONEER. 






105 


o 












, <^' 


c 
















THE 


OLD 


CANOE. ■ 




'■J- 


..-^."t" 






- 


V 


.JO. 









Where the rocks are gray, and the shore is steep, 
And the waters below look dark and deep, 
Where the ru^jged pine, in its lonely pride, 
Leans gloomily over the mnrky tide; 
AVhere the rccds and rushes are long and rank, 
And the weeds grow thick on the winding bank; 
Where the shadow is heavy the whole day through, 
Lies at its moorings the old canoe. 

The useless paddles are idly dropped, 

Like a sea-bird's wings that' the storm has lopped, 

And crossed on the railing, one o'er one, 

Like the folded hands when the work is done; 

While busily back and forth between, 

The spider stretches his silvery screen, 

And the solemn owl, with his dull " too-hoo," 

Settles down on the side of the old canoe. 

The stern half sunk in the slimy wave. 

Rots slowly away in its living grave. 

And the green moss creeps o'er its dull decay, 

Hiding its mouldering dust away, 

Like the hand that plants o'er the tomb a flower. 

Or the ivy that mantles the falling tower; 

While many a blossom of loveliest hue, 

Springs up o'er the steru of the old canoe. 

The currentless waters are dead and still — 
But the light wind plays with the boat at ^vill, 
And lazily in and out again 
It floats the length of the rusty chain. 
Like tlie weary march of the hands of time, 
That meet and part at the ]ioontide chime, 
And the shore is kissed at each turn anew 
By the dripping bow of the old canoe. 

O, many a time, with a careless hand, 

I have pushed it away from the pebbly strand; 

And paddled it down where tlic stream runs quick — 

Where the wliirls are "v\ild and the eddies are thick — 

And laughed as I leaned o'er the rocking side, 

And looked below in the broken tide. 

To see tliat the faces and boats were two 

That were mirrored back from the old canoe. 

But now, as I lean o'er the crumbling side. 

And look below in the sluggish tide, 

The face that I see tliere is graver grown, 

And the laugh that I hear h:ts a soberer tone, 

And the hands that lent to the light skift' wings 

Have grown familiar Avith sterner thin,i2:s. 

But I love to thiidv of the hours that flew 

As I rocked wiiere the whirls their white spray threw. 

Ere the blossom waved, or the green grass grew, 

O'er the mouldering stern of the old canoe. 



14 



106 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



GENERAL SIMON KENTON. 



The following sketch of the life of 
the noted pioneer, Gen. Kenton, was 
given on the occasion of the re-inter- 
ment of his remains at Urbana, in No- 
vember last, by Hon. W.T. Coggshall. 

He said : 

The ceremonies of to-day carry ns 
back three-quarters of a century, 
when what is now the rich and popu- 
lous State of Ohio — tlie third in all 
the appliances of civilization in the 
great American Rex)ublic — was a 
wilderness inhabited by savages, who 
contended hopelessly, against the en- 
croachments of that small band of 
determined whites, the pioneers ol 
the civilization of to-day. The most 
famous of the latter class was Gen. 
Simon Kenton, who died in poverty, 
but whose bones are to=day re-in- 
terred Avith distinguished honor. 
Let us pause, and carefully re-read 
the chapter in history devoted to tlie 
eventful career of this distinguished 
American. 

Simon Kenton vras born April 3d, 
1755, in Culpepper county, Virginia, 
and in 1771, at the age of sixteen, he 
emigrated to Kentucky. It is relat- 
ed of him that from that time on un- 
til the treaty of Greenville, he was 
almost constantly engaged in con- 
flicts with the Indians, and encoun- 
tered greater peril, and ]iad more 
narrov/ escapes from deatli than any 
man of his time. 

One of these escapes was remark- 



able ^ and certainly providential. It 
was in 1778, when, becoming tired of 
inactivity, he devised one of those 
disgraceful horse-stealing expedi- 
tions, so common among the whites, 
in retaliation for Indian Avrongs. 
Taking with him two companions, 
Alex. Montgomery and Geo. Clark, 
he crossed the river and pushed for 
Chillicothe, (now in Ross county, 
Ohio) an Indian village. They caught 
six horses and started for the river, 
but the river ran so high they could 
not cross, and they concealed them- 
selves until the following day. But 
though the storm had abated, the 
horses would not ''take to the wa- 
ter," and they turned three of them 
loose, determining to push for the 
Falls, where there was stationed a 
garrison. If they had adhered to 
this purpose all would have been 
well, but their cupidity would not let 
them leave the three extra horses 
behind without furtlier effort to car- 
ry them off. They sei)arated, and 
soon the Indians were upon them. 
Kenton attempted the bold game of 
shooting his pursuers, but his gun 
lailed him and he was taken 
prisoner. iMontgomery was killed 
and scalped, while Clark alone es- 
caped. Now commenced for Ken- 
ton a series of suUerings, the contem- 
plation of which almost turns the 
heart sick, and to survive which 
seems almost miraculous. 



i 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



107 



He was first, like Mazeppa, lashed 
with stout thongs to the back of a 
horse. The wild animal was turned 
loose, and he ran furiously through 
the brush, which terribly lacerated 
the face and limbs of the poor vic- 
tim ; but finding he could not shake 
off his burden, he returned and qui- 
etly followed the cavalcade to Chil- 
licothe. During the several days 
that followed the arrival at the In- 
*dian village, the prisoner had to sub- 
mit to the taunts and jeers and jibes 
of Indian women and children, and 
the nights w^ere spent standing firml}^ 
bound to a post. He was now doom- 
ed to run the gauntlet. This savage 
pastime is familiar to every one. Ken- 
ton had not run far betAveen the lines 
before he discovered an Indian witli a 
knife drawn ready to plunge it into 
him, and he suddenly broke through 
the lines and made with all sx:)eed for 
the town. He liad been x)reviously in- 
formed by a negro named Oassar, 
who lived with the Indians and knew 
their customs, that if he could break 
through the Indians' lines, and ar- 
rive at the council house in the town 
before he was overtaken, that they 
would not force him a second time 
to run the gauntlet. But Kenton 
was i itercepted and thrown down 
before he reached the goal, and was 
terribly beaten; tlien he was drag- 
ged to the council house, wdiere, af- 
ter much animated discussion, sen- 
tence of death was passed upon him. 
It was decided also that the i)lace of 
execution should be Wapatomika, 
(now Zanesfield, Logan county.) 

The next morning lie was hurried 
away to the place of execution. 
From Chillicothe to Wapatomika 
they had to pass through PickaAA'ay 
and Macacheek, two other Indian 
towns. At each he was compelled 
to run the gauntlet, and was severe- 
ly punished. Being carelessly guard- 
ed at the latter place he attempted to 
to escape but was overtaken and drag- 
ged back to what he nov/ considered 



his inevitable fate — death. He was 
removed to AVapatomika. As soon 
as he arrived here, the Indians of all 
ages and sexes crovrded around him- 
It was liere wdiere that memorable 
meeting between him and the noto- 
rious Simon Girty took place. Ken- 
ton and Girty had been bosom com- 
panions at Fort Pitt and in the cam- 
X^aign with Lord Dunmore. But so 
black had the. Indians painted their 
Ijrisoner, that it was not until he told 
Girty that he was the Simon Butler 
once his friend, that the renegade 
white recognized him. Girty threw 
himselfinto Kenton's arms,embraced 
and wept over him — calling him his 
dear and esteemed friend, and prom- 
ising to do everything in his loower 
to save his life. 

Girt}^ called a new council of the 
Indians, and after addressing them 
in rough but eloquent language, he 
succeeded in saving the x)risoner's 
life, and having him placed in his 
care. He dressed him in new clothes 
and for some time they roved in the 
wilds, boon companions again. But 
the hand of fate seemed against Ken- 
ton, and he was doomed to suffer 
more than ever before. 

The Indians had been defeated by 
the whites in an engagement near 
Wheeling, and returning home they 
were determined to be revejiged on 
every white man. Girty received 
notice to bring his friend before a 
grand council at Wapatomika, which 
he dared not disobey. AVhen they 
entered the house, the Indians all 
rose up and shook hands Avitli Girty, 
but Kenton was received witli ma- 
lignant scowls. A ohief addressed 
the council in violent language, fre- 
quently turni]]g in a menacing way 
towards Kenton. Girty followed 
in an earnest speech in behalf 
of his friend, appealing to them 
to spare his life in return for the 
faithfulness with which he had serv- 
ed their cause in fighting against his 
own countrymen. If they would in- 



lOS 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



dvilge hiin in granting his request to 
spare the life of this youug man he 
would pledge himself never to ask 
them again to spare the life of a 
hated American. Several chiefs 
spoke in succession ; aud with the 
most apparent deliberation the coun- 
cil decided, by an ovewhelming ma- 
jority, for death. After the decision 
of this grand court w^as announced, 
Girty went to Kenton and embraced 
liim very tenderly , said that he very 
sincerely sympathized with him in his 
forlorn and unfortunate situation ; 
that he had used all the eflorts he 
was master of to save his life, but it 
was now decreed that he must die; 
that he could do no more for him. 
Girty, however, persuaded the In- 
dians to take their prisoner to Upper 
Sandusky, a tradhig post where the 
British paid off their Indian allies 
giving as a reason that the vast num- 
bers there Avould be gratified in wit- 
nessing the death of the prisoner. 
Kenton w^as placed in charge of five 
Indians, who forthwith set off for Up- 
per Sandusky. 

On their way they passed a night 
at the Avigwam of the celebrated 
chief Logan, the friend of the whites, 
and a brave, humane, high-minded, 
noble man. During the evening, 
Logan entered into conversation with 
the prisoner. The next morning he 
told Kenton that he woidd detain the 
party that day ; that he had sent two 
of his young men off the night before 
to Upper Sandusky, to speak a good 
word for him. After the return of 
tlie young men the guard carried 
their prisoner forward, and when 
they arrived at the place of destina- 
tion he was aga'n forced to run the 
gauntlet. But Logan had done good 
work for him. A fourth council was 
held to consider what should be done 
with the i)risoncr, now nearly ex- 
hausted. A Canadian Frencliman, 
by the name of Peter Druycr, here 
appeared as Kenton's champion. lie 
^Y^^ a Captain in the British service, 



an interpreter, and a man of great 
influence among the Indians. It was 
to this man that Logan, v»^ith good 
judgment, had sent his young men 
to plead for Kenton's life. In his 
speech Druyer argued that it was 
the Avish of the British government 
that not an American wliite should 
be left alive, but that strategy should 
be used in conducting the warfare, 
and that the intelligence which 
miglit be extorted from the prisoner 
would be of more advantage in con- 
ducting the future operations of the 
war, than the lives of twenty prison- 
ers. He concluded by demanding 
the prisoner for the British General 
at Detroit, who might in future re- 
turn him to be put to death. As the 
Indians had been to a good deal of 
trouble he would give them one hun- 
dred dollars in rum and tobacco. 
The Indians accepted the ransom, 
and gave Tip the i)risoner to Druyer. 
Kenton was taken to Detroit and 
lodged in the fort as a prisoner of 
war. He soon recovered from the 
severe treatment he had undergone 
with the Indians, and in the following 
June he escaped, and after great pri- 
vations rejoined his friends. 

In 1802 Kenton settled in Urbana, 
where he remained some years and 
Avas elected a Brigadier of militia. 
In the war ot 1812 he joined the ar- 
my of Gen. Harrison, and was at the 
battle of Moraviantown, where he 
displayed great bravery. In 1820 
he moved to the head of Mad river, 
and a few years after, at the solici- 
tation of Judge Burnet and General 
Vance, a pension of .*?20 per month 
was granted him by the Government. 
He Avas very poor, and Irequently 
Avanted the necessities of life. He 
has been seen to Avalk the streets of 
the toAvn barefooted, but dignified 
and erect as if he Avere the richest 
man in the country. He spent a 
good deal of his time in Kentucky, 
A\diere he had many friends. 

Gen. Kenton resided during the 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



109 



last few years of his life in a small 
log house, about five miles northeast 
of Bellefontaine, on Mad river. He 
was buried on a grassy knoll, and 
around the grave was placed a rude 
picket fence. A rough stone slab 
bore the following inscription: 

"In memory of Gen. Simon Ken- 
ton, who was born April 3, 1755, in 
Culpepper county, Va., and died 
April 29, 1836, aged 81 years and 26 
days. His fellow-citizens of the West 
wdll long remember him as a skillful 
pioneer of early times — the brave 
soldier and the honest man." 

It was from this place the remains 
have just been removed, by order of 
the General Assembly and Gov- 
ernor, 

Gen. Kenton is described by his 
friend, Col. McDonald, as " a man of 
of fair complexion, six feet one inch 
in hight. He stood and walked very 
erect ; and in the prime of life weigh- 
ed about one hundred and ninety 
pounds. He never was inclined to 
be corpulent, although of sufficient 
fulness to form a graceful person. 
He had a soft tremulous voice, very 
pleasing to the hearer. He had 
laughing, gray eyes which appeared 
to fascinate the' beholder. He was 
a pleasant, good-humored and oblig- 
ing companion. When excited, or 
provoked to anger, (which was sel- 
dom the case,) the fiery glance of 
his eye would almost curdle the 
blood of those with whom lie came 
in contact. His rage, when aroused, 
was a tornado. In his dealing he 
was perfectly honest ; his confidence 
in man, and his credulity, were such 
that the same man might cheat him 
t\yenty times, and if he professed 
friendship, he might cheat him still." 

The act for which Simon Kenton 
deserves to be longest remembered, 
was the impulse of a noble nature^ 
and was performed near where he 
is now buried by the State. This 
J^as been well described b}^ Judge 
Burnet in his letters. He states that 



when the troops were stationed at 
Urbana, a mutinous plan was formed 
by X)art of them to attack and 
destroy a settlement of friendly In- 
dians who had removed with their 
families within the settlement, under 
assurance of protection. Kenton 
remonstrated against the measure, 
as being not only mutinous, but 
treacherous and cowardly. He con- 
trasted his knowledge of the Indian 
character with their ignorance of it. 
He vindicated them against the 
charge of treachery, which was al- 
leged as a justification of the act they 
were about to perpetrate, and re- 
minded them ot the infamy they 
would incur by destroying a defense- 
less band of men, women and chil- 
dren, who had lAaced themselves in 
their power, relying on a promise of 
protection. He ap]3ealed to their 
humanity, their honor and duty as 
soldiers. Having exhausted all the 
means of persuasion in his poAver, 
and finding them resolved to execute 
their purpose, he took a rille and de- 
clared with great firmness that he 
would accompany them to the Indian 
encampment, and shoot down the 
first man who dared to molest them ; 
that if they entered their camp, they 
would do it by passing over his 
corpse. Knowing that the old vet- 
eran would redeem his pledge, they 
abandoned their purpose, and the 
poor Indians were saved. 

Mr. Coggshall concluded as fol- 
lows : 

Today we may bear in mind with 
significant force'^that to Simon Ken- 
ton and his associates we owe the 
peaceful plains in which agriculture 
thrives ; across which lines ot rail- 
way and of telegraph run ; on which 
our towns, our cities, our churches 
and our school houses stand. This 
thought is worthy of carel'iil am- 
plification. I can only suggest 
it. Take it with you, men aud wo- 
men of Ohio, and especially take it, 
young men ; and from the lesson of 



no 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



Simon Kenton's career, as a brave, 
chivalrous, patriotic and honest man, 
learn that true manhood alone makes 
fit the monumental stone and the re- 
presentative statue. 'J'ake it along 
with the lessons which lie thick along 
the pathway of our nation during the 
memorable years in which rebellion 
distracted and devastated the land, 
and apply it to the duties which are 
required for restoration, for general 
prosperity, for the common good, for 
the unanimous respect of the coun- 
try's flag, for pervading intelligence 
and high public morals. 

The rest of the services v/ere in 
charge of the rniliiary, under com- 
inand of Col. J. B. Armstrong, of the 
4th 'Ohio National Guards. 

The line of march to Oakdale Cem- 
etery was as follows : Music ; Guard 
of Honor and Hearse; 4th Eegiment; 
Speaker and Clergy; Surviving Rela- 



tives ; Pioneer Association and other 
invited guests, oh foot; Commission- 
ers of Kenton Monument, on foot; 
Town Council of Urbana, on foot ; 
Fire Companies, and other organiza- 
tions on foot; Citizens on foot ; Cit- 
izens in carriages. 

The burial service at the grave was 
read by Rev. L. F. Vancleve, and it 
was concluded with the firing of three 
rounds of small arms by the escort. 
This part of the service, like the 
first, was well performed, and the 
whole reflects credit on the citizens 
of Urbana. 

On the return home those in the 
Governor's special train organized a 
meeting, by appointing the Gover- 
nor chairman, and Col. Godman se- 
cretary, and adoptedresolutions com- 
plimenting the managers of the Co- 
lumbus & Indianapolis and Central 
Railways. 



YOUR MISSION. 



If you are too weak to joiiniey 

U^ the mountain steep and high, 
You can stand witiiin tlie valley, 

As the multitude go by; 
You can chant In happy measure, 

As they slowly pass along; 
Tliough they may forget the singer 

They will not forget the song. 

If you have not gold and silver, 

E\'er ready to commantl; 
If you cannot toward the needy 

Reach an ever open hand — 
You can visit the alllicted, 

O'er the erring } on can weep, 
You ean be a true disci[>le 

Sitting at the Savior's feet. 



If you cannot in the conflict 

Prove yourself a soldier true; 
If where fire and smoke are thickest 

There's no work for you to do — 
When the battle-tield is silent 

Yon can go with silent tread, 
You can bear awny the wounded, 

You can cover up the dead. 

Do not then stand idly waiting, 

For some greater work to do; 
Fortune is a lazy goddess. 

She will never come to you. 
Go and toil in any vineyard. 

Do not fear to do or dare, 
If you wantafteld of labor. 

You will llnd it anywhere. 



June, 1866.] 



THE HRE LANDS PIONEER. 



Ill 



From the New York Independent. 

THE GENESEE COUNTRY 



NUMBER ONE. 



THE MYTHICAL PERIOD. 



"The Genesee Country" was, 
with the past generation, a general 
name for all lying west of the Dutch 
settlements on the Mohawk, to Lake 
Erie. The term was not then appli- 
ed to accurately-defined local limits, 
but to an aggregation of forests, 
lakes, rivers, wild beasts, and In- 
dians, of which a mythical account 
had been received by the New Eng- 
land people as early as the Revolu- 
tionary War. It was then a tei^ra 
incognita^ and soon after began to 
be regarded as the place of the Gold- 
en Fleece, to which emigration 
must make its way, if the Yankee 
dream of wealth would realize itself 
in the actual and the experimental. 
Kven Dutch Rip Van AViukles on the 
Hudson began to shake off their 
ages of sleep, to realize the new 
hopes excited by the Genesee. But 



how to reach so remote a region was 
the great question. How to traverse 
intervening forests, pass unbridged 
rivers and lakes, or how to work 
their way through bottoniless 
swamps and quagmires, were ques- 
tions too perplexing for Dutch and 
even for Yankee ingenuity. 

IXCIPIENT MOVEAIENT TO GET POSSES- 
SION. 

At length a Jason and his crew 
were found to undertake the pur- 
suit, in the persons of Thelps and 
Gorham, two shrewd New En gland- 
ers, the one of Connecticut and the 
other of Massachusetts. They be- 
gan their enterprise by securiiig a 
title to the country, first from the 
State of Massachusetts, and second 
from the Indians. j\lassachiisetts 
lield it by a grant from Charles II., 



112 



THE FIBE LANDS PIONEER, 



[Jime, 1SC6. 



and the Indians by immemorial in- 
heritance and occupancy. The Mass- 
achusetts claim they bought on trust 
for a million of dollars, and the In- 
dians' they canceled chiefly by fair 
speeches and ingenious diplomacy. 
Phelps went to the Genesee country 
in 1789, called the sachems together, 
had a grand pow-wow at Canandai- 
gua or at Buffalo, it is not quite cer- 
tain which, the result of which was 
the signing of a deed conveying all 
the land from Seneca to Lake Erie, 
between Pennsylvania on the south 
and Lake Ontario on the north, to the 
said Pholps and Gorham, their heirs 
and assigns forever. This document 
was signed by fifteen or twenty sach- 
ems, and is still on file in the regis- 
ter's office at Canandaigua — a sug- 
gestive document, the first of the 
kind, probably, in the Genesee coun- 
try. Each chief signed with his 
mark — Red Jacket among the rest, 
who lived to deplore the act, and to 
hate the race who had wheedled his 
people out of their country and 
their fathers' sepulchers — 
"Lo, the poor Indian." 

WORK AND OWNERSHIP. 

Still, the decrees of Providence 
are thereby fulfilled, assigning the 
reward to the ten occupied rather 
than to the one unoccui)ied tal- 
ent. As the Indians had made little 
out of a country which was capable 
of so much, their taleut was taken 
from them and consigned to those 
who had the ten, that thus idleness 
and work might eacli liave its ap- 
propriate reward. Those who use 
God's gifts are certainly better enti- 
tled to them than those who cibuse 
them. Tlie fee simple of a country 
belongs to those who cultivate it, in 
preference to thoso who leave it un- 
cultivated. One thing seems to me 
clear, however, tliat the Indians Jiad 
a better title than the one derived 
from King Charles, who gave away 
what was in no i)ossible sense his 



own. They ought to have had the 
million of dollars rather than Massa- 
chusetts. 

Whatever defect may be detected 
in the original conveyance, one 
thing is certain: the actual occu- 
pants of the country have, by 
means of labor, added, during the 
past seventy years, a thousand-fold 
to its value, and have thus made 
good their claim in a way most of 
all deserving of the respect of man- 
kind. Indeed, I hold that the meum.^ 
or right of iDossession in a country, 
or^ in landed property, is based 
chiefly in labor, and no claim ought 
to come in between the emigrant 
and the farm wliich he reduces from 
the wilderness of Nature to a state 
of cultivation . To my certain kn owl- 
edge, many a hard-working iDioneer 
has been driven from the acres 
which he had subdued by his own 
hands, because he could not save 
enough out of the proceeds of his 
labor to pay off the fictitious claims 
which others set up to the soil he 
had cultivated. If there is anything 
righteous in legislation, it is in our late 
Homestead Act of Congress, giving 
to actual settles, not the land, but 
the enjoyment unmolested of their 
actual rights. The land is theirs of 
right, and this act sanctions and sus- 
tains the claim. 

now THE SPECULATION FAILED. 

The original purchasers of the 
Genesee country, great as the bar- 
gain was, did not make money out 
of it, owing to the lack of capital to 
turn it to their own advantage. 
Both of them, we believe, died in- 
solvent. Of the more than 3,000,000 
acres included in it, they set off 
about 90,000 to satisfy certain claim- 
ants on tlie North Kiver, of whicli 
one of the Livingstons was a repre- 
sentative; and 2,000,000 more tliey 
sold to Kobcrt Morris, of Philadel- 
phia, a name of Kevolutionary no- 
toriety, and on this immense sale 



June, 186^1 



THIF FIRE LANDS PIONEEK. 



113 



they got only two cents an acre over 
what the land cost them. They gave 
£LX cents an acre, . and Morris paid 
them eight cents. This left them 
with less than a million of acres iii 
their own right, which they appear 
to have disposed of at snch forced 
sales as to leave them but a small 
margin of profits over their accruing 
expenses in various ways. 

■; . THE EARLY SETTLEMENT. 

Still, Phelps and Gorham are enti- 
tled to great credit for the impulse - 
which they gave to emigration, and 
well deserve the honor of -having 
each an important townshii) called 
after his name. They began this 
emigrant movement in 1789, and 
within eleven, or twelve years they 
had laid the foundation for that im- 
portant limb of our country which 
we call Western New York. Gene- 
va and Canandaigua w^ere the first 
points at which they broke ground, 
the one at the foot of Seneca (or 
Seneka.^ as spelled in the original 
deed oi^ conveyance,) and the oth(^r 
of Canandaigua lake ; two of the 
most beautiful sheets of water to be 
met with in our country. 

A gentleman novf living informs 
me that he emigrated to Canandai- 
gua with his young wife in 1803, and 
found on the way one or two log- 
houses at Utica, about as many at 
Auburn, a considerable cluster of 
buildings at Geneva, and also at 
Canandaigua, where he has resided 
ever since. In a journey to Canada 
that same year, he found*^ a log-house 
nt Bloomfield, one at Leroy, one or 
two in Eatavia, and beyond Batavia, 
he rode eighteen miles through the 
^'oods, Avhen he came to another, a 
tavern, which he abandoned in tlio 
fiight for fear of being robbed, and 
J'odc many miles tlirough the snow, 
^\'hen he came to a log-hut, of which 
^ man and his wife had just taken 
possession, and to save himself from 
freezing he slept in the same and 



only bed of his Idnd host and 
hostess. The next day he reached 
Buifalo, where he also found but one 
house. These are suggestive facts, 
showing that the sites of our most 
opulent cities and richest farming 
sections, over an area of hundreds 
of miles in a country now deemed 
comparatively old, were sixty-two 
years ago, a waste, howling wilder- 
ness. 

THE COUNTRY ATTRAGTIXa SETTLERS. 

Few countries in the world offer- 
ed greater inducements to emigra- 
tion than the Genesee. Its forests 
were many of them beautiful, its 
soil rich and easily tilled, its climate 
salubrious, and its capacity for fruit- 
bearing unlimited. Its peach-trees 
would blossom the second year from 
the stone, and bear the third. Tliis 
was true in particular cases, if not 
as a general thing. So abundant was 
this fruit sixty or seventy years ago, 
that cart-loads might bo had for the 
gathering. Indeed, there was al- 
most no market for it, and the farm- 
ers might as weU give it away as not. 
The applc-treesfe were equally luxu- 
rient, though of slower growtli. 
AVestern New York is to this day the 
great source of fruit-supi)ly in all 
tlie varieties common to the climate. 
The Genesee wheat for 3nany years 
had the highest place in the market. 
We cannot wonder, therefore, that 
these facts, becoming known and 
acknowledged, should have stimula- 
ted immigration. The western 
movement of population in the free 
states first set in tins direction, and 
it was long before it began to look 
for Jiomes in Ohio and at other re- 
moter points. Even to this day ag- 
riculture has found no better resting- 
place. 

THE CfAIN TO THE COITNTRY FROM NEW 
INVENTIONS. 

Tiic causes which have made 
Western New York, however, arc not 

15 



r, L 



114 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEER. 



[June, 1866. 



in itself nor in its local industry, but 
in the new channels of commerce 
and locomotion which have been 
opened through it. The canal, rail- 
road, and telegraph have made it 
what it is. Its products for thirty or 
forty years after its settlement would 
hardly pay the cost of getting them 
to market. Carting a bushel of 
wheat to Albany was about as mucli 
as it was worth, nor could the soft 
roads endure the wear of teams 
enough to carry a tenth part of what 
the country was capable of produc- 
ing, to a distant market. Hence, the 
products of the country had but a 
nominal value, except for the use of 
its inhabitants, merchandise was 
dear, and the best farms could be 
bought for ten or fifteen dollars per 
acre. 

But as soon as the Erie canal was 
opened all values rose tenfold, and 
the country became at once rich and 
opulent. Wild lands were rapidly 
cleared, population poured in from 
all quarters, cities and towns multi- 
phed on all hands, and the Genesee 
country of earlier years became the 
proud empire of Western Nevv York. 

Soon after the great thoroughfares 
through the country were opened 
crme labor-saving machinery in ag- 
riculture, to facilitate and cheapen 
cultivation, and to give a new im- 
petus to production and wealth. We 
of the city, who accept what is 
brought, as Elijah did the offering of 
the ravens, have little idea of the 
source whence it comes, or how 
much invention has to do with sup- 
plying our daily wants. It is scarcely 
a quarter of a century since our reap- 
ers, mowers, drills, rakers, and va- 
rious agricultural machines came in- 
to use, and yet it is safe to calculate 
that our country is a century in ad- 
vance of what it would have been if 
it had been left to the larming-tools 
in use when I was a boy. Then it took 
a whole winter to beat out with the 
flail the grain that may now be 



threshed in a single day. Then tlie 
mowing and reaping which it took a 
dozen men a week or two to do is 
now done up in a day or two by half 
the number of laborers. The effect 
of these farming facilities is to dis- 
tribute laborers over a much wider 
extent of country, and the hands 
which under the old syestem would 
have been required on the farms of 
Western New York are cultivating 
the forests and prairies of the Far 
West, or working the mines, or per- 
forming other tasks equally impor- 
tant to the aggregate of our nation- 
al wealth. No country is situated to 
reap so many advantages from im- 
proved locomotion and labor-saving 
machinery as our own, because our 
demand for labor is greater and our 
spaces to be traversed in reaching 
a market are more extended. Our 
capacity for labor might bo increas- 
ed a hundred fold, and yet our fields 
and opportunities for its profitable 
occupation would be unexhausted. 
Western New York is not the only 
or even the chief section of our 
country to be benefited by inven- 
tion ; the prairie States are no doubt 
in advance of it. Those vast natural 
meadows, which it was thought im- 
possible a i^evi years ago to settle, on 
account of a lack of wood, water, 
and stones, are now in rapid progress 
of conversion into magnificent 
farms, through the influence of rail- 
roads and agricultural implements. 
These inventions give us a power we 
little dreamed of forty years ago, to 
fulfill our appointed task of subdu- 
ing the earth, and no peox)le so 
much needed these auxiharies as we, 
because none had so much to do 
and so few to do it. 

I speak with the more enthusiasm 
on. this subject, from seeing what this 
country now is, under its new modes 
of labor, and comparing it with what 
I remember of it years ago. Then 
everything moved with snail-like 
pace, now with race-horse speed. 



June, 1866.] 



THE FIRE LANDS PIONEEK. 



115 



Then to talk of threshing, and win- 
nowing and putting into bags twen- 
ty acres of wheat in a single day, all 
ready for market, would have been 
deemed insane and fabulous as an 
Arabian Night's tale ; now it is spo- 
ken of as the most ordinary thing 
imaginable. So used have we be- 
come to the new order of things as 
to forget the old, and we need to be 
reminded of it by such scribblers as 
I am, that we may be provoked to 
say, "What hath God wrought?" 
What is more, improvement has by 



no means reached its goal ; but from 
past achievements w^e are led to 

anticipate greater things to come. 
As some one said of New York, he 
could not tell what it would be when 
it was finished, so we cannot tell 
what this world w^ill become when 
Divine influence, working through 
human intelligence and labor, has 
achieved its ultimate results. It 
must become, even without miracle, 
greater, and, we hope, better and 
happier than ever before. 



THE MINUTE MEN OF THE REVOLUTION. 



mOM ANNALS OE WIJ.BKAHAM, MASS. 



"General Gage, commander of the 
British troops in Boston, had deter- 
mined to get possession of the am- 
munition and arms of the Province, 
which he heard were stored at Lex- 
ington and Concord. 

On the night of the 18th of April, 
ihq troops stole out of Boston, ho- 
ping to reach Lexington w^ithout be- 
ing discovered, but the concerted 
signal flashed from tlic spire of the 
New North Church, and Paul Ee- 
vere was instantly on his way from 
Charleston to Lexington, rousing the 
inhabitants on the road, so that when 
Mnjor Pitcairn, who led the advance 
of the troops, reached tlie Common, 



he found the 'minute men' of Lex- 
ington drawn up in arms be- 
fore him. He ordered them to 
disperse. They stood their .ground. 
He ordered his men to fire. That 
volley opened the Kevolutionary 
War. Couriers were despatched on 
the fleetest horses to arouse the peo- 
ple everywhere, and carry the ila- 
ming torch of alarm through the 
country. 

On the 20th, we may suppose just as 
the sun was passing the meridian, a 
rider was seen coming down the 
Bay Eoad at full speed, his horse 
dripping and smoking with sweat, 
who barely checked his pace beforo 



i 



life 



tllE MRE LANDS MONJaSlR. 



f Jiine, 18G6. 



Samuel Glover^s door, and announc- 
ed the figlit, calling upon the ' min- 
ute men ' to hasten to the rescue. 
He was ofi" and out of sight on his 
\vay to Si)ringfield, in a moment. 
Blood had been shed! 
. Glover mounts his horse and rides 
as he never rode before, down by 
'Jones^ and Bliss', calling them to 
come' on as he goes. Brewer and 
Merrick, and Warriner, the Captain 
of the minute men, rush in from 
the field. The long roll is beaten by 
Charles Ferry, so that the mountain 
answers it from Oliver Bliss' to No- 
ah Stebbins.' Merrick mounts his 
horse and flies down the v/est road 
to the Hitclicocks, and the Steb- 
binses, the Chapins, and the Lang- 
dons by the Scantic. Burt tells his 
most vigorous son to cross the moun- 
tains by Battle Snake Beak, as swift 
as the winds ever swei^t over them, 
and rouse the Crockers, the Cones, 
the Russells, the Kings, and to stay 
not his speed till all the men. of the 
South Valley, from the corner to 
Isaac Morris' were summoned to the 
anarch ; tlien to return without de- 
lay along the east road, by the Chaf- 
fees, IlendricIvS and Carx)enters, and 
over the. mountains by Bev. Noah 
Merrick's home. It was done as 
quick and as Avell as said. 'Edward,' 
said Isaac Morris to his son, your 
father, Mr. Bresident, 'bring the 
horse.' And as soon as he had slunc: 



his powder horii over his shoulder, put 
his bullets into his i)ocket, and taken 
down his trusty gun from its hooks, 
the faithful steed was at the door. 
Breathing a prayer for his heroic 
wife, standing by in speechless sub- 
mission, he was off at full speed on 
the track of young Burt, andx)assing 
up the same road. Comfort Chaffee 
and Jesse Caii^euter joined him 
and rode for the mountain, Mdiile 
Enos Stebbins and Asa Chaffee from 
south of the Scantic, rushed over to 
William King's, and together up the 
middle road, taking Ezekiel Eussell 
andKowland Crocker in company, 
and all joined those coming up the 
west road and over the mountain, at 
a barn then standing near the site of 
the i^resent school-house on the 
Main street. 

Before the mountain ceased to 
glov/ with that day's departing sun, 
thirty-four men, with the blessing of 
their wives ana the i^rayers of the 
fathers who were too old to go into 
battle, were on the 'Great Bay Road,' 
hastening on their way to defend, 
and, if need be, to die for their 
rights. But the 'red. coats' had re- 
turned to* Boston in fewer numbers 
and more rapidly than they left it, 
and our 'minute men' returned after 
ten days to the quiet and security of 
their own homes. Such was the 
'Lexington alarm.' " 



V.j,;^\.r 



i 



I 



June, 1866.] 



T&E ^g'lRE tANJDS PIONEER. 



117 



'J 



A STARTLING SCENE IN CHURCH. 



There were many tlirilling scenes 
in the New England chnrches dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War. Th e fol- 
lowing one occurred in Sharon, Oon- 
necticut, under the ministry of Jlev. 
Cotton Mather Smith. It "is found 
in Ileadley's "Chaplains of the Rev- 
olution." 

■^ Mr. Smith one Sunday took for his 
text a part of Isaiah xx, 11—12: — 
'' A\^atch man what of the night ? The 
watchman saith, the morning Com- 
eth." The question in the first part 
of this passage iiad been the daily, 
almost hourly, inquiry for nearly a 
month, of every one ot the congre- 
gation, and hence its appropriateness 
was keenly felt, but the startling an- 
nouncement, "The morning com- 
eth," took them by surprise, and they 
could not at first comiDrehend its 
significance, nor how it could be 
adai)ted to the present gloomy ])ros- 
pect. Had he heard any good news ? 
MTiat had Happened that he could 
say so confidently "The morning 
Cometh." 

No, he had nothing new to tell 
them, only to proclaim over again 
his unshaken confidence in God's 
promises. He did not attempt to 
conceal or lessen the calamities tliat 
had befallen the country, nor deny 
that a fearful crisis was at hand. Ho 
acknowledged that to Imman appear- 
ance "clouds and darkness were 
round about God's throne," but said 
that the eye of faith could i)ierce tlie 
gloom. The throne was there, 
though wrapped in impenetrable 



darkness. In all the disasters that 
had successively overwhelmed them 
he traced the hands of God, and de- 
clared that to his iiiind, they clearly 
indicate some striking interposition 
of Divine Providence about to take 
place in their behalf Man's extrem- 
ity had come, and now was the time 
for him to make bare his arm for the 
delivery of the people. 

Prox)het-like, kindling with the 
vision on wliicli the eye of his faith 
rested, he boldly dropx:>ed the gene- 
ral subject of God's faithfulness, and 
told his astonished hearers that he 
believed they were on the point of 
hearing extraordinary news of victo- 
ry by our arms. He would not wait 
for an indefinite future to prove his 
faith to be Avell founded — he was 
willing to bring it to the test of the 
]3resent. They might judge whether 
he was right or wrong, for, said he, 
"the morning now cometh, I see its 
beams already gilding the mouutain 
tops, and you shall soon behold its 
brightness bursting over the land." 

One cannot ijnagine the eifect of 
such language uttered l)y the minis- 
ter of God in such a time of doubt 
and suspense. He ceaseel,and as lie 
closed the Bible and exclaimed, 
" Amen ! so let it be," a silence, pro- 
found and death-like rested upon the 
audience. Each one seemed to feel 
as if an invisible presence Avas there 
and some- weiglity announcement 
was just at hand. 

Suddenly the deep hush was bro- 
ken by the distant clatter of a Iprse's 



•> 



118 



THE FIRE LANDS HONEER. 



[June, 1866 



hoof along the road. The sharp and 
rapid strokes told of swift riding 
and urgent haste. They knew at 
once what it meant. For days and 
weeks their eyes had strained up 
the streets that led northward to 
catch sight of the messenger of good 
or evil tidings that was hourly ex- 
pected. 

He had come at last, and as near- 
er, clearer rang the sound of that 
gallop on the listening ear, each 
looked in mute and earnest inquiry 
into his neighbor's face. Right on 
through the place, straight for the 
meeting-house, darted the swift ri- 
der, .and drawing rein at the door, 
leaped from the saddle, and leaving 
his foani'Covered steed unattended, 
strode into the main aisle. On the 
deep silence that filled the building 
like a sensible presence, his armed 
heel rang like the blows of a ham- 
mer. As he passed along a sudden 
paleness sfjread over the crowd of 
faces turned with a painful eager- 
ness toward him. But looking nei- 
ther to the right hand nor the left, 
the dread messenger passed on, and 



mounting the pulpit stairs handed 
the pastor a letter. 

Notwithstanding the good maji's 
faith his hand trembled and an ashy 
hue overspread his face as he reach- 
ed out to receive it. " Burgoyne has 
has surrendered ! " were the first 
words that met his eye. He stag- 
gered under them as under a blow. 
The next moment a radience like 
that of the morning broke over his 
countenance, and he burst into tears. 
Rising to read the incredible tidings, 
such a tide of emotion flooded his 
heart that he could scarcely utter 
them aloud. The audience sat for a 
moment overwhelmed and stupefi- 
ed, then as their pastor folded his 
hands and turned his eyes toward 
heaven in thanlvful prayer, impelled 
by a simultaneous movement, they 
fell like one man on their knees and 
wept aloud. Sobs, sighs, and fer- 
vently uttered "Am ens " were heard 
on every side attesting the depth of 
their gratitude and the ecstacy of 
their joy. "The morning had come 
bright and glorious, and its radience 
filled all the Jieavens." 



SOMETHING ABOUT PIONEER OHIO. 



The following facts concerning the 
early history and settlement of Ohio, 
were published by the Journal on 
the occasion of the visit of the Cin- 
cinnati Pioneer Association to the 
Capital of our State : 

The territory now coilipiised with- 
in the limits of this State, was for- 
merly a jjart of the immense central 
tract owned by the French and 
called Louisiana. In the year 1748 
a company of Frenchmen, calling 



themselves the " Ohio Company," 
established a few fur trading posts 
along the Maumee, although the li 
tie to the land ol" the State was yet 
unsettled between them and the 
English. In 1719 the English built 
a trading house on the Great Miami 
at a i)lace since called Lorain's Store 
Christopher Giot, an agent of Ihis 
company, ai)pointed to examine 
Western lands, also made a visit to 
this river in tlie same year, and called 



June, 1866,] 



THE FIRE LAISTDS PIONEER. 



119 



on the Twigtrees tribe. The French 
hearing of the English settlers among 
these Indians^ in 1752 sent a force to 
route them, in which transaction the 
-first white hlood vms shed in Ohio ! 

The tribes of the Shawnees and 
Delawares being hostile, Col. Bo- 
quet,* in 1764, marched from Fort 
Fitt, Pennsylvania, into tlie heart of 
the State, and by prudence and skill 
effected an honorable treaty with the 
savages. 

The next war with the Indians, in 
1774, is commonly called Lord Dun- 
more's war. A severe battle was 
fought at Wapatomico, above Zanes- 
ville on the Muskingum, and one at 
Point Pleasant, on the Ohio, which 
ended the w^ar. 

In 1779 an expedition was planned 
against the native Shawnees, and 
their village, Chillicothe, on the Lit- 
tle Miami, near tlie site of Xenia, 
burned. The "Coshocton Cam- 
paign " v^as an unimportant demon- 
stration on the Muskingum in 17S0. 
There were several other invasions 
of unimportance about this time. 
In 1786, that of Col. Logan Edwards 
in 1787, and Todd in 1788. 

Moravian missionaries were in 
Ohio as early as 17C2. Ninety -four of 
the Moravian Indians were murdered 
in the limits of Tuscarawas county 
in 1782 hy a party of Americans un- 
der Col. Williamson. 

By act of Parliament in 1774, all 
this territory, known as the North 
Western Territory was made a part 
of tlie province of Quebec. In 1788, 
the claim of England to the North 
Western Territory was signed to the 
United States. 

The first purchase of land and set- 
tlement in Ohio of a permanent char- 
acter was in 1788, at Marietta, in 
honor of which the present anniver- 

" The house of Col. Eoqiiet, built just out- 
^^iUe of old Fort Pitt, is still standing in Titts- 
'-•ur^r, on an obscure street on the "Point," 
J»ear the Freight Depot of the Pennsylvania 



sary is held. Previous to this, there 
had been an attempt for settlement 
at the mouth of the Scioto, by four 
families from Pennsylvania, but dif- 
ficulties with the Indians defeated 
their enterprise. 

The same year that Marietta was 
settled. Congress appointed Gen. St. 
Clair Governor of the territory. The 
second settlement in the State w^as at 
the mouth of the Little Miami, five 
miles above Cincinnati. 

A third settlement was made on 
the celebrated " French Grant " at 
Gallipolis, early in 1791. The Con- 
necticut reservation, along the Cuy- 
ahoga, was partially settled in the 
year 1800 by about 1,000 inhabitants. 

General Harmer's unsuccessful ex- 
pedition against the Indians, under- 
taken from Fort Washington, now in 
the limits of Cincinnati, occurred in 
the year 1790. This was lollowed by 
St. Clair's still more disastrous cam- 
paign in 179L Gen. Wayne, in 1794 
wiped out these disgraceful defeats, 
by a successful attack on the Indians 
at the rapids of the Maumee. This 
victory w\as speedily followed by a 
peace honorable to the whites. 

Hamilton, the second county to 
Washington, was erected in 1790. 
The name of the settlement opposite 
the Licking was at that time called 
Cincinnati. In 1796 Wayne county 
was established, and Adams county, 
1797. 

The first meeting of the territorial 
legislature vv^as on the 24th of Sep- 
tember, 1799. Number of acts 
passed — thirty-seven! The conven- 
tion to form a constitution, assem- 
bled at Chillicothe, November 1, 
1802. Under this constitution, the 
first General Assembly met March 
1, 1803, (over CO years ago.) 



Central R. R. It is of brick, square, and 
erected in antique style, with portholes for 
musketry under the eaves. 



INDEX TO VOL. VIL 



> , . - ... , . Page. 

Address, Prof. Ilavtupee, ...'....•.. 16 

" Rev. John Safford, • 28 

Rev. L. B. Gmiey,. . ......... 04 

Bear Hunt on the JMarsh,.. . . .' 61 

Bill, A Doctors, 73 

Black Hawk, : . HI 

Coon Skin Library, 41 

Charivari, of Greenlield, the last, .6:2 

Courting two hundred years ago, ....,., 93 

Erie Canal, opening of, 7G 

Geology of the Tire Lands, 42 

Graham, Trancis, Autobiography of, 50 

Golden Wedding of CoL James Smith,. 100 

Genealogy of Hiram Rogers, ; 57 

Genessee Country, Ill 

Kenton, Gen, Simon, , 106 

Miscellaneous Akticlks. . . 

Initial Facts, .... 97 

New England Farm House, 98 

"Washington's Text Book, '. . . . 98 

First Ifaper Money in America, 99 

Old Fashioned Funerals and Ordin- 

tious, 99 

Members of Fire Lands Hist. Soc.,. . ... 94 
Mounds and jSlound Builders of Ohio,. . il 



Page. 

Meetings — Annual at Norwalk 1 

" Quarterly at Vermilliou, 4 

" u u J3ellevue, 6 

" cc tc Plymouth, 8 

McArdle, John P., 49. 

Minute Men of the Revolution, 115 

Milan, Early Settlers of, . 58 

No Time like the Old Time, 41 

Oldest Natives of Ohio, 96 

Obituary Notices, 77 

Omick John, Trial and Execution of,. . . 66 

Old Canoe, 105 

Personal Reminiscences of John Sey- 
mour, 34 

Pioneer Excursion, to IMarictta, 86 

Pomfrct Celebration at 101 

Pioneer Ohio, 118 

Remarkable Family Gathering, ..... 27 

Sandusky Clarion, — 74 

Startling Scene in Church, ir< 

The Old and the New, 33 

Threshing J»Iachincs, first in Ohio, 10 

Wheat and Wool, first shipment of 27 

AV^ayne, Gen. anecdote of, . , 60 

Your .mission, • H^ 



Page 10, 1st col., 6Lh line, after 
Pago 8Y, 2(1 col., 22d line, read 
Pago 47, 1st col., Tlh line, for " 



''Wayne," read "was read by tlie Secretary. 

'Warren" for "Hurcu." 

to surface," read "to the surface." 



-'■^> 



,/3 



92I