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I 13 



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FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



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GEOLOGY OF pNSAS.i^-. 



BT 



B. F. MUBGE, A. M., 



PROFESSOR OF OSOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY IN THB 
KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, AND , 
STATE GEOLOGIST FOR 1864. 



LAWRENCE: 

JOHN SPEEB, PRINTER TO THE STATE. 

1866.^ 



To His ExoeHeruyy^ S. J. Ceawfoed, Oovemor of Ka/nms: 

Sir: I have the honor herewith to transmit to you the 
First Annual Eeport of the progress of the Geological Sur- 
vey of the State of £ansas, for the year 1864. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

B. F. MtJDGE, 

State Oeologist. 



(?•»-» 



GEOLOGY OF KANSAS. 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 

The area of the State of Kansas is 78,418 square miles, 
or ten times that of Massachusetts, one-sixth larger than 
Missouri, and about one-third larger than England. The 
settled portions of the State, embraced within the organizeil 
counties, cover 25,000 square miles. 

The labors of the first year of a geological survey, under 
a small appropriation, and over one-third of so large a terri- 
tory, could be but little more than a general reconnoissance. 
This allowed so short time to each coimty that no detailed 
report of sny could be given. On the other hand, the re- 
markable uniformity of the geological formations, extending 
even to. single stratification, enables us to give the develop- 
ment of each county with sufficient precision to delineate its 
general geology. Ko marked disarrangement of the strata 
has been seen, and from the Coal Measures to the Creta- 
ceous, there is apparently no unconformability. This absence 
of any geological disturbance accounts, mainly, for the rolling 
features of the prairies and the almost entu:e absence of 
either lakes, ponds or swamps. The few lakes are really but 
the old beds which the rivers have deserted in forming new 
channels. Sibley and Silver lakes are examples of this feat- 
ure. It gives such excellent drainage that we have never 
seen a swamp which compared with those of the East- 
em States, deserved the name. Even the low river bottom* 



GEOJiOGT OF KANSAS 5 

are tmcomfortabl j wet only during the rainy periods. There 
are no mountains in the State, .and no hiHs that rise very 
high above the valleys. 

The general slope of the country is east, with a slight iti-' 
clination toward the south. This is seen by the course of 
the rivers. ' The mouth of the Kansas river is about 850 feet 
above the ocean. The rise of the land due west to Manhat- 
tan, 107 miles, is very uniform and gradual, and is a little 
over two feet to the mile ;* thence westerly, the rise is similar 
and but little more rapid. This is shown by the currwit of 
the Smoky Hill river, which rises in the western part of the 
State and flows quietly nearly due east, without any import- 
azit rapids and but one fall, and that only a few feet. 

COAL MEASURES. 

The lowest geological formation known in Kansas is repre- 
sented by the upper portion of the Coal Measures. It is a 
continuation of the coal field which covers the northeastern 
part of Missouri, and the southern part of Iowa, and abo 
extends into the Indian Territory south of this State. lake 
tlie deposits of those States, the dip of the strata here is to 
the northwest, pafising at a low angle of inclination under 
the Permian, Triassic and other later stratifications. ISie 
Coal Measures cover a larger area of the State than any 
other formation, beiog nearly one-third of the whole, l^e 
fossils of this epoch are formed over all of the eastern part 
of Kansas, and exist aa &r west as Fort Biley. 

The line which separates the Coal Measures from the Fer- 
n^an runs rather ixregolarly in a northeasterly and south- 
westerly direction. Considering Fort Biley as on the line of 
average extent westerly, we shall have, (in. the width of the 
State,) the territory of the coal lands 208 miles in length by 
107 in average breadth, which gives an area of 22,256 square 
^miles. The extent of the coal regions, in the settled part of 
the United States, is estimated to embrace about 140,000 
square miles. In our calculations we include only the Coal 
Measurea proper, and not the Permian, although the latter 
belongs to the Carboniferous Age. 

I * See Appendix* 



6 QSOLOOIOAL SUBYBT. 

It will thoft appefur thi^ Kapfui/i, ooolaios on^seventh pan 
of all the ooal lands of the ITnited States* We. do not, howT 
eT6i^. intend to. be understood that the State contains ^oue- 
s^vwAl part of the coal^ for Pennsylvania haa more max^erom 
aofi ibicker working beds. But we shall show, under th^ 
hOAi^oC ooal» in JSoonomicid Geology, that we have o^ seaip, 
wdwh^ fos all practical purposes, is inezhaustable. : Th? qu esr 
tian of the arei^of distribution beisa^es mor» i];nportanti than 
t^e^ quantity to eacl;i square mile, when the latter, ^^pfi^qent 
foil all our wants* 

The Coal Measures here have-undergone little cIlfUDige, aojd 
lie nearly in their natural position. They dip on the aver- 
age, as before stated, slightly to the northwest. In some 
parts of the State this mclination cannot be seen, and in some 
instamies there is an anticlinal ridge or dip in the opposite 
direction. Thus, in Wyandotte county, the strata are nearly 
level, or have a slight inclination to the southeast. Uiis^may 
be seen by tracing any bed of limestone ten or fifteen nnle&l 
The peculiar shale, which is numbered 22 in our section/is 
seen at the water's edge at Parkvifle, on the HfisBoari river; 
bt|t twelve miles westerly, near the State Penitentiaiy, at 
Leavenworth and Atchison it is kighev. Most of Jefibrsoil', 
Leavenworth, Atchison, and the southern part^of Boniphsn 
coj^nties, show little variation firom a level, and that Htd^ is 
an inclination to the southeast. 

Among the greatest angles of d^ "which we have notfcedj 
is one extending fh)m Lawrence to Lecompton^ where, in d 
difetimce of ten miles, it is over one hundred feet 

It will bo seen i^at this smaU disforbane^ of tite strata«is 
very favorable to the opening of coal 'shafts. IJk) **fei*8?' 
will be found in* the beds, and Qi& probability of-reaeMag 
tile coal at/reliable depths at any given point, ^11 be neariy 
certain. Itralso ^es us a layger area of the eoal field,^ as a 
higher angle of inclination wotild soon cany ihe heads too 
de$p for mining. j ^ . 

This portion of the State also shows a great uniformity & 
the thickness of the strata. About one-fourth ofl i&B ^hoTe 
quantity of the deposit is limestone. South of the EAnssto 
river, the strata show im increase of thickness, partawlarly in 



QlEK}W<3iJ 0? KAK8AS. T 

the sl^es, a^c^Km^po^ ?^^h P^^^^ 9^ ^ ^I^- ' 

ia^^i^l^. o£ rthickneea 19 y^rjfc fi^]^!^ iu Mji^ oonnty, as de- 

It ia^w^ tii^48i^V?qA thfiit^ the,exbme,upj|B^ portion of the 
C^fB^^j^^l^ft dociiiqt contra co)^ of ih^fire^ or 

e^^ps^oi much thicl^n^. Tho^e peculiar favorable con- 
ditipDit^ of climate, &c.^ whichr w<9^e^ [bo^ in^prtf^t few tl^9 
accamulation of vast am^iiiftof veg^te^le nmtter had b^on 
to cl^f^ge^ 80 that the cqal waa smallj in qnantitjr and poor i^ 
qnality. A fine illustration, of this passing ai^aj of the pecn- 
liai:ltLeB of the yeg<^tation of the coal period is to be seen in 
the banks of the Keosho, about three miles ^bqlow . CouncU 
G|ove. It consists of a stratum of shale, two feet in thick- 
nesSy full of the remains of the yegetaljipii of the period, but 
accompanied by a singular commingling oi' the nuterial with 
other substances ; and the vegetation shows le^ss. of the trans- 
formation from its original. state than that of the true coal 
beifc, ^ 

A marked peculiarity of our coal seams is that while the 
remains of plants are abundantly visible in most every coal 
stratjom,, few passably perfect specimeps can be obtained. 
Nq;i; dp t|ie shales, above and below the coal, furnish us with 
a^y bette^^. Enough can be. seen to give the general charac- 
t^tics. of the plants, but scarcely, ey^. can any be found 
which will designate the species, an4, . cons^uently, suffici- 
ently perfect to deserve & p^aoe in a pftbi^et., 

SSC!EION« 

The foUowiog^ section of the Coal Hpasiires in Leaven- 
wi^eounty, incliiduig 100 £^t in tbe.co^ s^ft a^d about 
9f]^4n,tbe Innri]^ oqnAe<^ y^ the sai^ will repx^^ ^ 
ve;3r,4Q99Ly, tl^ .thi;^^^ of t^ stcatfi ii]^ the northefuttefn 
p^;;Of thci 6tatey and approxiinfiitisly a la^^. extent south of 

l^,88.r-W;fe©t^f .#EP,. pr<^)|y C9jef»l«;^e. 

]!iIo.3L-— 16 ftet ligb:^ g^^.to b^wfof^olifo^ 

Bometfanes cherty. This is the highest Iim;^^|)^ in 
tbia TidiH^, b^Bg>tb6 uj^er bed, near 'Fp/rt, Ii^^- 
worA, and fifom which much of the mat^al^ of the 



^ 



GEOLOGICAL BTJETST. 



Government buildings have been obtained. This is 
^ No. 13 of the Missouri River Section of Erof. Swial- 
low, and is by him, on page 7S of his Geological Bur- 
vey of Missouri, erroneously put down as No. 1. The 
first members of his section are not found in the blufis 
of the Missouri river in Kansas, or at Parkville, Mo. 
No. 30. — 16 feet variegated shale, at some places bituniinou&, 

varying somewhat in thickness. 
No. 29. — 3 feet brown, ferruginous, fossiliferous limestone. 
No. 28. — 18 feet blue and variegated shale. 
No. 27. — 10 feet blue and gray, coarse grained, fragmentary 

limestone. 
No. 26. — 25 feet blue and variegated, calciferous shale. Thi& 

bed varies in thickness at different points. 
No. 26. — ^10 feet shaly limestone. 
No. 24. — 8 feet shale and sandstone. 

No. 23. — 20 feet buff and gray limestone, seen well developed 
near the landing at Fort Leavenworth, also at Quindaro 
and various places in Leavenworth, Atchison and 
"Wyandotte counties, just above high-water mark. 
No. 22. — 4 to 6 feet of bituminous shale. This, with ,the 
limestones above and beneath it, forms a well defined 
geological horizon, easily traced in numerous places 
in the eastern part of the State, from Kansas river as 
far north as Doniphan county. 
No. 21.— 2 feet hard, dark limestone, fumishmg larger blocks 
than any other bed in the northeastern portion of the 
State, and is much used in heavy work. This Ues at 
the water's edge at Leavenworth and Quindaro. 
The above strata can be seen in the bluffs near Leaven- 
worth and other places in the eastern part of the State north 
of the Kansas river, comprising the highest hills and descend- 
ing to the water's edge. By the coal shaft at Leavenworth 
and its borings, sunk under the direction and calculations of 
Pro£ G. 0. Swallow and Major F. Hawn, we have a contin- 
uation of the stratifications as low ais the six feet coal seam; 
as follows: 

No. 20. — 77 feet of shale, inclining^ neair the nnddle, to sand- 
stone. 



OBOLOGT OF' KANSAS. 9 

No. 19. — 4 feet hardi ^y «odi blue limeBtooe. 

No. 18.— 48 feet blue shale. 

No. IT. — 13 feet limestone. 

No. 16. — 4 feet bitmninoos shale. 

No. 15. — 5 teet limestone. 

No. 14. — ^13 feet bitmninons shale and coal. This is the po- 

siticm of the coal bed which crops ont on the Osage 

river, near where it crosses the State line, and is there 

about S feet thi<^ and of good quaUtjr. 
No. 13. — 6 feet blue limestone. 
No. 12.— 15 feet shale. 

No. 11. — 7 feet hard, gray shale. ^ 

No. 10. — 20 feet blue and bituminous shale, with a thin seam 

of coal. 
No. 9. — 2 feet hard shale. 
No. 8. — 4 feet hard limestone. 
No. 7. — 6 feet bituminous shale, and a little coaL 
No. 6. — 2 feet hard, compact limestone. 
No. 6. — 7 feet common shale. 
No. 4.-^2 feet hard shale. 
No. 3.-6 feet hard limestone. 
No. 2. — ^15 feet shale. 
No. 1. — 9^ feet bituminous shale and coal. 

Hiis, according to all observations made in the southeastern 
part of Kansas, as well as in Missouri, as contamed in Prof. 
Swallow's Beport of that State, is the position of the thickest 
and best seapa of coal in the State. It varies in fliickness 
from five feet to six feet nine inches. The coal shaft at Leav- 
enworth was commenced in 1868 or '64 to readi this coal 
bed. To test the situation of the underlying rocks at Leaven- 
worth, boring was first instituted, which verified the geolo^cal 
calculations so closely that an open shaft, eight feet in diame- 
ter, was iramediately commenced, and by August, 1864, was 
sunk 100 feet. The labor was then discontinued till Septem- 
ber, ld66, and is now renewed. 

This Section is agoide to all the northern and eaatem part 
of the State, wherever it may be desirous to sink a shaft fer 
eoal. Nos. 21, 22 and 23 can easily betraced, near the water- 
Une of the MiisNsouri river, and in the low ravines twenty ttules 



10 cmiS^¥^ff •WPRT. 

west of it ; an^ fcoo^ tbeiOr^be p9P^jf^^ of -tbiB hiij^,eto9li^ 
of limestone can be obtained withii^il^^ M 7^^ 

pass south of Johnson and DonglaA:fCmi!3ffkA^ ^tz^ ai|fr 
fonnd to thicken, so that, at tt^^ant^tgfi^JAgjx^ tl(» 

depth of the coalseam No. 1 will begfpfi^^ th^,fiM;(lie]^:fioii% 
ftn¥#hftft maT be smk; 

Ew5 tb0 yig»Bm% Yml» Pf :% 09^ J>«t»oa of oiur popu- 
lai^M^ cmH fitota ny^AfilmmiJ^mmm^ «?4jLaiiwwice, by 
the aid of onr varioparaSvoadSi v^ ji^ $^][i^j,9M cheap 
eapplj of fuel But as popn)9l9(W^ ap4 4iiai qcmyiiinpttoit of 
coei increases, coal mines will probabjijr. bo im]ik:in.aS pfn^ 
of the 22,000 square miles of the (>i)fd MfiMlu^ of th^ St90.* 

PERMIAN. 

This formation, so little represented in JNT^rth America, i^ 
found well and clearly identified in Kansas^ The chaiiactec- 
istic fossils have been, described by Meak, andHayden, and 
Prof. G. C. Swallow. The extent of the area of this epopb^ 
however, has not yet been clearly maiJbed out, but is qm^ 
extensive ; and future labors are neqesspxy to obtam a i^ 
knowledge of its character, or the territor|r covered by it T^ 
thickness of the Fermiaa waa placed^ by Prof, Swallow^ from 
ohs^ations made, darings our, survf^.in.tho valley: of ^ue 
river, ^at 567 feet^ ^^^^r T^^ Migpr P. Haw;n,fofin4 it to 
be^g^eaf^) p^9upig It, a9!oor0^^ 
6jp0^ BHJl valley^ 830 fci^t, S^e Bpjcsks of Kajwifts^p, 6.^ 

Itconaislbs mp^tlyiof ci^l^«^T)i^.apd arenaceous shales .aod 
be^P f>l li^xeston^ The. l^tf^. ar|B jfeeqi^enl^ quite impprei 
b^^^s99iptinieii^ i^^MS^^ ;Qf^ig|ieai^ lun^tpne is fowd, wl^ieh 
:^Q]34i^e0.an e^cdil^t .bjiil^mg mM^ri^L 

TRIASSIC. 

* 4 ' 

\ 

Tim epoch) andpeobably the. Jim«si<^ $te repMswtedrbj 
a belt of territory crossing titto. ]RflpRl^caii M(i%^flok]r SS& 
va^aya^tbe extent of > which. i&jnob Mj^knawn^ Theioe^ 
witk&n ity^asBJvscy MttDBBi and^^^^ 
d)ri»itudiffimlt to^tnksalh^^ o£ ibe. fc^tiaatiaBS. 1S» 

njoit juByofftant indintatifwifl e£ anki^ lif(k wUcb have beot 






OSOtOOT OT KANSAS. ll 

foxxtA ajre Ornithicbhites, or foofrprittts of Unds in sandflteMt 
"W^efoTm^ but one slab, and that ebntained only ^nr imjo^ 
^^. The locality from which it was obteiMd was iibcmt 
fifty ;miIesnortihwest of Fort Biley,in T. 6^ R 1, east of tiitt 
9}^ principal meridiiui, on the top of a.sandrtone blii^ 
about one hundred and twenty-fire feet above liie BepuUiom 
riyer. The slab was much weathered, wfaidi' injures the di9- 
tinctness of the minor marking. 13iere are two species, boA 
three-toed and liptodactylous, and new. They belong to tihe 
long-legged waders, the foot-prin|B of which have been so fre- 
quently found by Hitchcock, in the Connecticut sandstones. 
tCh^ length^ the 'trac^ im: the laiger, fiire and a balf 
in^es, and the i»naller, three andthree-foariJi^ Thi^^iapiAfirt- 
eelle4 in a detailed scientific description, will find it in an. all- 
ele pabtisbed in the American Journal of Science and Ai^^i, 
TJ^y M^L, No. 122. We could find no o&er tracks in ike 
vi^Sa^t^y y^t it is most probable thatthey will be found in otb^r 
^kil^es, aa the deposit hat a long extent in a north^ea^erly apd 
8iisutfaw6i^^ly direction. 
' 'tin^cannot 9peak with confidence in relation' to the g^lf^- 

r 

lOiA age of &estsat^ which eont^ed the foofepdnifei, ag^ j^ 
ftUBfd nOi otheiriosBils ncsar theloeaUty, e:»)eptj^llMpu8 Wf)Q4» 
M^3^>wlib^ distant we diseovered jsooiie impnanriAd^ q£ ^iUPig^ 
iMMU^Ieaires, whiok w« suapected were in. the satae.g§pJtogjcal 
Iprifldin as die tranks, but were .unaUsi, at>tll# ti^A>.tQ vm^ 
it We are inoiUnedr to plaosi.tim deiK(git)a%]|tgh .up.a^.tUlp 
Iia&- ' • ' . ^ 

w^hc^sbads of 8aadfttoiieiwtM/miB;h.<)h)ang|»d'£^^ 
maip conditiony pri&oipaliy oauaod hyjibi^'fmiim9»M,o^i^ 
oft^ir^Miv iaesttatiificafcffHiA&3i0l» nsgpiiff, miich,€f:lt^1l»pg 
9iM>biifue^ deposit, mth aibto indi«at»3ws of i sb^iltf at«^ # 
Ats tjuatheitracks were mada.. . WkeftrQtli^> fl)q^]9i]i|i^ f aiP 
ftttndy itri^, beoGyaoaintefeslB^ 
tween the age d£ tin Oamiacticutljra^ 
wihidb these 9m^&m^ ItjmH tb^nDriighkop hdHk, 

ISie Oretaeeotti Bdnmitton i8i«|nMeittod^^ 



It GSOLOOXOAL SnXTBT. 

no definite examination has been made to show its extent, aa 
it lies moBtly beyond the settlements. Chalk is said to have 
be^i fomid within it In &ct| one specimen was sliown us, 
obtained on the upper waters of the Solomon, which had all 
the fine, loosdjrgrained texture of true chalk, and we haye 
good reason to believe that an abundance of the article wiU 
be found* So far as our knowledge extends, there appears to 
be a closer resemblance between our Cretaceous and the 
English than any other in the United States. 

DRIFT. 

The matmals of the Drift epoch, in this State, consist of 
stoneS) gravel i|pd sand, usual in other parts of the United 
States, but in less abundance. The larger stones attain die 
size of true boulders, being sometimes ten feet in length, and 
weighing ten or twelve tons. The most fi:equent are a meta- 
morphic, stratified, quartzite rocL The metamorphic acticm 
has been v^ thorough, giving the boulders a hardness equal 
to common quartz, and on that account they are fSrequently 
known under the name of ^^ hard-heads.'' They cannot fiiul to 
attract the notice of most persons, as they are so unlike anjr 
othwrock that may be found in ledges, or in the stratified de- 
pofiits of Kansas. The original stratification of these meta- 
morphic boulders, is shown in the various shades of pink and 
pmj^e bands, which give many of them a neat, ribboned' ap- 
pearance. Hie diaracteristics of the stratification are 00 
much destroyed that no clevage exists in the course of the 
layers. Sometimes they are dotted with white quartzy peb- 
bles, which were rounded and water-worn before the ori^Ltial 
Btratification. Hie large boulders are usually angular, imd ^ 
not much worn by water. In this respect there is a stooog 
contrast between them and the small pebbles, indicating dif- 
ferent startang points at die time the Drift ag^icy commenced. 
The pebbles, usually, are also of different materials. 

Next to the quartz rock, boulders of ^en-stone . are d»e 
most frequently found. A few of granite and sienite are also 
seen, but sddom as large as those of metamorphic quartz or 
green-stone. They are also more Water-worn and less angular. 

Afisodaled ininmils are rather rare in the Drift, thoogfa . 



GSOtOOT OF KANSAS. 1^ 

comeUan, hornblende, feldspar, and, sometimes, agate are 
fennd. The deposit is not deep, seldom being seen over two 
feet, and more frequently onlj a few inches. The large 
booIderBare found as far south as 38 deg. and SOmin., or ten 
miles south of the Kansas river, while the small pebbles may 
be seen twenty-five miles fiurther, as low as 38 deg. and 80 
xnin. of latitude. The large boulders are found quite numer- 
ous in the Potawatomie reserve, on both sides of the Kansas, 
flj^quently numbering fifty to the acre. They lie on the tops 
iA the blufis and high prairies, more frequently than in the 
lower lands. We noticed one near Mill creek, in Wabaunsee 
county, on a high bluff about two hundred feet above the 
valley, which weighed fully eight tons. Some still larger, itii- 
eluding one of greenndtone^ are to be found near Oskaloosa. 
They are found, more or less abundantly, in all parts of the 
State above the latitude named. 

Hie original deposit from which these metamorphic bould- 
ers were brought, in the great Northern Drift period, is un- 
known ; but their marked appeaitooe is so peculiar, that when 
the country to the north shall be examined by any geologist 
who has seen them here, they can be easily identified. Owen, 
m his Geological Beport of Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota, 
has identified the nearest metamorphic rock, on St Peter's 
river, Wisconsin, four hundred miles from the most southern 
boulders in our State. Also, on the western sh<»e of Lake 
Superior, and Lake of the Woods, fh>m seven to nine hun- 
dred miles distant. In Europe, larger bduldaiB tlum these 
have been transported, by drift agencies, over more distant 
points than a journey fi'om Lake of the Woods to Kansas 
river. 

No marks of grooving, stria, or other glacial aeti<Hi has been 
seen by us on any ledge in the State. The limestones, whiah 
crop out in every county, show no disturbance such as a gla- 
cier would make. The firagments of the strata in the bluffi 
or hillside always lay so uniform as to show that nothing but 
the present quiet agents has aided to drop them even i^ few 
feet from their orighud position. Only in one instance have 
we noticed a boulder with themaricsdf stria upon itssarftce, 
and that was under such eurcmustances as showed that they 



14 OSOLOOIOAL SUBYXT. 

xasst jwre been made before it left ks northern home. The 
wliol0 circqmgtanceg show that however strong may have been 
IhAACtioQ of gladerg in drifiaxig th^ eratics across the conn- 
tgj in other jdaoee, thej eoold have owed their present, posi- 
tion in Kansas only to icebergs. 

LOESS, OB BLUFF. 

This is well represented in the easftem part xA the State, 
paiticiilarly on Ae banks of the Mlssoori. A^t Wyandel^, 
'0toth of tiie city, it is nearly one hundred feet in tinokneBs. 
'BxtendiDg westward, it grows thinn^, and at fifty iniies the 
^deepest (deposits are not over thirty ftiet Still farther west, 
At idmost entirely disappears. It is the same fomiation bo ex- 
teUfiivdy Been m the IMissoori and Mississippi valleys. Sir 
'dharles Lyell, in his visit to the United States, decided that 
it was the same as the Loess of the SUne, but the fossils do 
not show a peaffeet identity between the twot fdrmadons. 

It cOnsurts of (bide beds of fine, brdwn mibrl, often heavily 

'flifti»*nmigled'with day, so nmch so as to be nsed in theHuum- 

^fiMafe of briek. ' Its color is 6wing to the presence of per- 

ogtyde 6f iita. li&Kgled -with (he mdre recent vegetaMe 

«bwM, it 'fimns' a-rifelr'SoB. 

'T6^hirfarmatioD'beldngS'apart,'atl^ of the bones of 

t1lidifoted(m, wMehhaveb^en&eqnentlyfenndi^^ State. 

^Aftw7««agOfa'partof arlaigdjaw bone, c(mt»lniijg three 

-teiftth, was fished iitmi a stream flear Osa^RlSifewaie. It was 

'^iiiitt(yOhio,aiid'idl trace of iiislofet; bnt from the v^bal 

^i^totetiptkuoftiioBewfaofNBWit, the bones most have belonged 

-^10*1110 MasfaMion. A large tootii was «hown ns, i;i4uch was 

fonnd near Emporia. It was the sixth molar tooth from the 

! to^er jaw of ihe MnMaSjm gvgmiev^ and bebngied to aiarge 

'iahd'old itfdividoal. 'Rie ihree antelior ridges were worn 

-»t!bmfghihe enameV and the last down to its base. The os 

f^^ir^rls of aii6ad^,fbnhd nearManhattan, is in the ealnnet of 

the State Agricriftncai (Mege. The smaUest dronmference 

of file shafts measmtss fb^rteen inches. Both extrenuties of 

^ the bone are gone, but it^till nieasnres thixi^thifee indies in 

len^. Origlnaliy, it cdnld not have be^n less than Ihix^- 

^ht ot nine inches, wWdi wonid indicate that theenthef^el- 



/ 

GBOLOGY OF KANSAS. 15 

eton measured about eighteen feet in length and twelve feet 
in height. 

We hear of several other instances of portions of the skel- 
etons being found, espedaUy in the western part of the State. 
This animal, with the elephant, must formerly have been a 
common tenant of our valleys. 

ALLUVIAL. 

The Alluvial deposits in Eansafi are so similar to those of 
the other Western States, that no particular description be- 
comes necessary. 

The river bottoms are usually broad and level, but well 
drained. The thickness varies from five to fifty feet. In 
various places in the valley of the Neosho, unaltered wood 
has been found at the latter depth, in the sinking of wells. 
The material of this alluvium, on the surface, is very rich in 
vegetable matter, and, in many places, furnishes a nourishing 
soil throughout its whole thickness. In some cases it is, in 
part, composed of modified drift. At the salt well in Brown 
county, a metamorphic boulder was found fifty-two feet below 
the surface. 

The humus or vegetable mould of the high prairies is from 
one to three feet in depth. It is the usual development of the 
prairie features, so common in the other Western States. It 
is the same fine, black, rich loam, which has become noted as 
the most fertile soil in the world. Ko better exposition of its 
richness, in Kansas, can be given than to refer to the Agricul- 
tural Beport of the Patent Office, since Kansas became a 
State. According to that high authority, in 1865 it was the 
fourth of the Western States in the production of wheat to the 
acre. In 1863 it stood with Missouri at the head of the list, 
and in 1862 and 1864 it ranked entirely at the top of the list. 
This shows the character of this Alluvial better than any de- 
scription. 



. < . / 



■; «f 



r . • 



i'\ i. > .' ' 



']^aM^ ' i^te<!J<t>«Pc>. 



• « 

f I 



. I; 



ECONOMICAL GEOLOGY. 



4 I II 



r 
,1 . ■ * 

In a State where, to a^^r^t extent,, Pf^^^ covers the snr- 
iac^ of the conntrj, the qpeiMion of fa4 ^becomes of tha first 
jxaportance. l!f ot oolj is a cheap, and abundant supply mate- 
rial &r domestic purposes, but it ia e^uallj necessary to drive 
the stoam engine for the manu£BkCture pi the hundreds of arti- 
cleain daily use. lu this respept^Ki^sf^i is amply supplied. 
In almost every setttied county, coal, of varied quality, is found 
ne^r the surface; and^ as we have already shown, the Coal 
i|!k(eafiures, ^th good workable scams, underlie about 22,000 
square miles of the eastern portion of the State. As much of 
oxur Qoel field is the. cro|iping of the upper measures, it follows 
that most of tix^surfcu^cosl^m all but tha southeastern part 
of the St^te, will Ue ijatlw^se^ms and be of an inferior 
^lu^y^ 

A notioe of the ^ur&ee c^oal, a^ 3t ia found in various places, 
ypjl i^nskrate •tibja subject In Bepublic oonnty, the hijghest, 
gji^i^Qony, beiii;i^,ftboye thei troe Q09l'Mea8^res^ we find the 
Iknite vfrietv*^, The, tibgicfcest seAm which came under our 
obsei^VAtion mea8UfQd;tweof^if|{ht, inohefii^Jbpt ihe middle 
portion was ^jmch n^qglcid wifl^ ^ cl»y :shalp^ igid, t^e upper 



18 GBOLOOIOAL 80BVBT. 

parts, though burning relBily, proved an inferior article, yield- 
ing a bad, stdphnrons oder, and much ashes. This locality 
was in T. 4, south, B. 3, west of the sixth principal meridian. 
We saw the same vein at several points in that county, but it 
showed less thicfeoesei ^th- w> incre%90 of quality. Similar 
coal crops out easterly of this, in Marshall and Nemaha coan- 
ties, but usually of less tMckness. Goal has been mined at 
various points in Brown and Doniphan counties, but seldom 
over twelve inches in thickness where seen by us. It was a 
little better in quality than that in Bepablic coanty, but still 
usually an inferior article. It was pf, light body, and contain- 
ed too much sulphur to be suitable for smith work.' At Jor- 
don's farm, twelve miles west of Atchison, it is mined in a 
seam of only ten inches in thickness. The then high price 
of fiiel alone could have jastiiied the waste of labor on so thin 
a seam. At other places in that county the same vein cropa 
out somewhat thicker than at Jordon's mine. In Jefierson 
county, near Grasshopper Fiedls, and at several other places^ 
coal has been obtained, but in no place seen by us was the 
seani over fifteen inches iritiickness. In Leavenworth count v 
the "Stranger coaP^n^s been mined to a corisiderable extent, 
and, owing to the gr^jft demand for iftiel, h£t6 found a ready 
market. 'The fiefam, when first opened on the BigiStranger, 
twelve miles from Leavenworth, was about three feet in thick-- 
ness. The middle of tfc6 vein was much mingled witK shale, 
the top and bottom beiiig a passible quality of coal, somewhat 
sulphurous. In drifting into the WH a few hundred feet, it 
diipinished in quality and quantity, aid thy ^inine is now 
abandoned. Three niiles distant, on tli'e Littte*Stranger, sev- 
eral openings have b^ madfe, but the coal is not usually over 
sisteen inches in thibknese. The same Seam appeared at Ae 
surface in several places In Wyandotte county. Many other 
places where it is found might be mentioned, lying nbrth of 
the Kansas riiver: btit tlie»^ are stifficletit to show the ^fieral 
'charftcter and thicbiess'bf th6 snrfiiCe coal. We have seen 
none in that partof'.the skte Which "*'e teld coft^^S'fiWt- 
^ arti(i^^ 6l'\!^ci w^'AdtighV'^tatji^for wtorting fion. 
'^ ii Wudlr 'buhis 'k^t mH'^Q' i^k'tbrhUU ji'te^y inat- 




Sonth of 'ttie EinBa^riv^ir, in the midctte and .western por* 
lions now settled, the coal is mnch of the sameohtMcteix > in 
Wabaunsee conn^, zio si^ni was seen by ns over tenindkies, 
aiidonly worked oooasionally b]^ some blao^mith'Wbo-eoiild 
obtaiiL no better fndl. : In Shdwnee coizntyj nem- Topeka, 
coal is obtained in nntneronS' places by* stripping off tihe o?m> 
laying soil from cpe to three feet in thidbiess, ^heretheeoal 
is from twelve to stxteeci inches. In the vicinity of Law- 
rence, a similar seam has been worked. In Franklin county^) 
on the Sac ahd Fox Beservation, fifteen miles southwest of 
Ottawa City^ a seamii found fifteen to eighteen inches, and 
has beeif worked. A portion of it is of a very good qoallty 
The seam appears in various, jdaces toward Scott creek, and 
near the latter place, in the M of 1863, caught fire and 
burned fot ^vend weeks. At numerous places in Osage 
eoitiity coal has been mined of a better character than is 
usually foni^ in tiie surface beds. ^ ' 

The variable character of the seam in the vicinity of Oi^ur* 
lingame shows the peouDarities of the coal in the upper 
portion of the Coal Measure^,- tjiough the quality averages 
better than we usuaSy find in odier parts of the Sti^ at the 
same geological altitude. At Dragon creek the vein is eight- 
een inches thick. Two miles north, where it is worked-^ 
Mr. Marple's farm, in a horizontal drift three hundred feet 
long, it varies from twenty to twenty-eight indies. On die * 
&rm of Mrs. MorriH, one mile farther, it is but eighteen 
inches, and at Judge l^o<d:'s mine, on the adjoiaing &rm, it is 
also but eighteen. This coal is of v^ry fair quality, and tlte 
selected portions free from sulphur. 

Coal has been seen by us in numerous other places^ in 
various counties, but enough has been narrated to show the 
characteristics of the thin seams in the upper verge of^ the 
Coal Measures. *1^ qmJI^ is seldom eittra, and^ the vary- 
ing thickness of th^ v^os .alwuys renders the prospect for 
mining uncertam.> Siicli 'variations^ scnoietimes amounting isb 
one-half, are not seeii* in the thick beds found nea^ tii^Mseaitor 
<)f the coalfemiatiMi The variable quality is eteft moie re- 
tttfufkable than itK^Mpy teg j)|i«ilti^. A seain of <ioal, to 



sitb a 4shMp attkb, atrftw ptfoifeB^iflMwU: bent iMife ftpr 
wtmwoiuiBiiw 

^^Ehare are two aeams of ^oAmimx St^irUdh^ eomllim 
fthmiformiiy in (fialdlsy aadlUc^MV^Oinor lA .tibo^ nUtatiiHir 
^ Tbe first 18 Bora CDoppbig <^ut to dMirbwlOhof the JSi^ 
Oiage, in Linn wd BoorlaKm oeiHiti«% noftr tlte^ fimii^ag li»4 
Miflfioiiri State line ; sod tibenee in ▼arioo^flMee in a aoitth- 
imoBteiij di3reetk» a^oei the Stirte int^fte Z»dw Teiaitoiry. 
ftibo <m>a9e8 Uiasoari in a ^n<Hrt}leaet€lriJ 4iim^n> and ie 
mimd M Lexington, on thb Mmami: m^. lib i« a goe4 
Micle of bitominoni ooaJ, blf^Mi on libe amn^ tbuPP ibe 
ettHHT. seame deambed. Aboye the uteata o( oqalieiibont tiire 
jfiMk of d^Qy whicb ia overlaid by^ bef^of berd.}in^e8tonetbiit 
ttfibrdaan etKoellent roafisg fi>r the mftie^ -The oA^, and in 
all nsBpects the niofit impo^tint etfejl bedi ero^^ ant in 4be 
center of Cherokee ooonty, carosaing'OoiF eifd^ n^ar its pnA- 
dpal forks, and thence running $k t£toaiur&ee inariK^iitbli^e(3fr- 
^y direction across tlie Statelnto^lJiQ Iniiilm Territory. It 
mtfm^^y in several i^ea whefe it baerbei(^ ^htiiy worked* 
fivefeet six inches to six &et niaie iidMh^ in tblekneigis,.and 
anteinges about six feet Th» coal, I a^inSsraied^ has been 
t$ism txQWL Cberokee county to <3rran^9 4ild other jiaaom » 
Misfsonri. The bed extends in a northeasterly direction 
aoripsi^ Missouri, to the iu>irthem t>art; <>^ that State. , Tbe 
* fleam is the same that is wrongbt at BoemviUe and near Hnd^ 
flen, on the Ghariton, and at bojfc plac^ is about six feet in 
thickness * In this State,,aa/in most flaees in Missouri, it ia 
<d excellent quality. In Qh^fokea cOtmty . il> ^ appears in ibe 
open prairie, where there, is but -little overlayi&g soil. Thie 
ia first r^noved, and the miniagiis In: H^e op<^ air. Where 
it;3s.«o.deep beneath the Bur&(c0 ,«a to re<^e dri£l»ng, it is 
OTei^aid by shale suffi^eient^y hw^ i^iS^orA a fair rooting. 

The laist two. seams are Ihe bestf 4n>qiiHlity. and meet per- 
tinent in tijdcknese and vmSafo^^ft /^niacter of a<iy in the 
at^ These, with 9iX the JltaAta ol.^e Oeftl Formation in 
]$iiiisae^ dip m an average ol(^Kiaib;t)i^^ feet to tbe nuHe 
twprd Ae northwei^and are.9eett^ Ux^mmltM i l tfayih#t a » 
miFoxk Sijey, where th^ 4mm^mmA»^ more raewtf 

•See MiMoqri Bcp<nt, by SwftUow. 



Gtno^xar OF iblawuo. 99L 

fgakntvon^. Ci6iii»<^pBD%, these «dal sea^ tui<favtt» tlMi 
Viiiole of dke easMm tpart of tbe fikte to titiat eictonti i& 

nbfy^ faird»ritvesV in a : poeilion nearer to the smsfiuse ^bkA, 
tnany 4>f ihe-eoal^bedsm Bn^akid^; which are tib«re wrought 
to supply that conntrj with fuel. These two seatus, we h€M^ 
itife not to eny, win hspsafiier fiufq^y the State wMx cdf to 
Jiie iie^det of afl f^efcs; aad rpefh^ps the vOsage deioa wi4 
fie ioltiaiitiately ditoegaided, aad only the tbiek Gberoicee bed 
wtirked. They acefbirt a little ovar oi^e hundred feet apart^ 
in a vertieltl'posili<2p^ and whea anee:a s&aft Ifrom the 4«r* 
fiiee has^pdnetraited the strata to the finder, the eeonontfcal 
indncexnents will beMtovgio go j&sk adi^Edbnal hnndred feit 
Ao:ijie.latter, and woA)iniabedbf coal six feetiii thickaoi^ 
JBatoad of ohethalf «b madk. The ftdvanl^ge^ of woiMi% til 
a thkjk Beaim, insti^ad cif one that ie thfai) is rery ap^areji^; 
On a Tein that' is tw^ity incheathick, in driftiug, a man dblfs 
^eilto obtain twasity bnsh^ a day. On one thistyMtfit 
inches, he ean proenre sixty to seiirenty bn&hels, and if if li 
BIX feet he can obtain tifvo 'hnndred bttshds. Where the boil 
is less than four feet, be muBt spend a portion of his time^in 
iemoviDg the shaleabcrre or below, in order to make e,fs^ 
faffieientsto min&:tte ooal, and tite removal of tMs shalb 
is more tfaltn ' bk labor on the bed. In addition, die 
»Mhin€a7i*e&0iltlyiiiventedfor |q[)M cannot be used 

lo ai^antage mdesa the coal is over fonr ^tin tfaidbxiidis. 
- The oljecrti^bs to deep mining after the shaft is, onee open- 
4Af is more fl^pd^eatr^thaa realv A mancan ^work as (simr 
(R»teUy tiiree 'hiaidied feet bdow the snrlhceae at thiK^^ 
^Ete cost cfrsitmg ttej coal ^three or five htrndifed feet is tiery 
tme^ <m each ton. The greatM; appa3*ent objection ji^ t^ 
trouble which may ocbnr fi«tn t^ iniftax of water. TtiB^ 
kowerer, is not so^greirif aflrmnaiuQiy^er States. Abotit bne- 
ttaoA of file t(H»lthiekneiB0ds{ limestone;, and thedbherthbni- 
fiiiaihs arb sh^sk -Hie^ gitet prufyortion i(^f the ktti^ te 
wnnposed of o&y/ miAA ^boy not ^Smr water to pen^^^ 
inely. ISidtervitohjaTe befenx^gidt^ 

I ■ '^ ' • ■ ' .1 ' t , • . . <i 

' * 1^696 clay fihal^ are freqvenajr imymperl^ c^ed soapstone. The letter 0<;l))- 
v^dCe Hi ubv rouiM m'tlie StMte. 



22 OBOLOGIOiLL BURYKT. 

BfiB know how slowly the water peroolatos theee Une ahaleei 
atid how moderate is the supply m artosiaa borings. Thb 
feature, which is objectionable in wells is &Vorable in mixdng. 
Should any seam of sandy shale allow a firee flow of water, 
it can be closed aronnd die shaft by cement masonry without 
much expense. 

The first cost of the shaft is the only serious item. The 
price at Leavenworth, by the first contract, was $10 per foot^ 
or $1,000 for one hundred feet of vertical depth. He hi^ 
price of labor in 1864, made this a loosing business for the 
contractor. The latter contract is about $17 per foot 

To supply a population of only 5,000 with fud, it will be 
cheaper to expend $10,000, or even $15,000 in shafting and 
machiniery to mine a six foot seam of coal, than to work m 
thin one at the surface. Few. are aware of the immense 
quantity of coal in a bed of this thickness A few figures 
will explain it A seam of coal six feet thick and one niile 
square, contains 6,000,000 tons of coal, of twenty-eight buslb- 
els to the ton. In other words, eveiry fiarm of a quarter-sec- 
tion, in the eastern part of the State, hias under it, in this 
coal seam," 1,500,000 tons. If we compare the relative value 
of coal and wood, the result is quite interesting. One ton of 
<5bal had been variously estimated as equaling from one and 
a half to two cords of good dry, hard wood for heating pur- 
poses. Take the former figure ; then 6,000,000 tons of coal 
are equal to 9,000,000 cords of \9^ood, or an acre of this coal 
seam is equal to 14,062 cords of wood. We thus find, if all 
Kansas, (78,000 square miles,) were covered by a forest afford- 
ing one hundred cords of wood to the acre, tiiat 557 square 
miles, or less than sixteen townships of the six foot coal 
seam, would equal the whole forests of the State. Who can 
jsay that our State is deficient in fuel f 

It has been found, from statistics, ftat the consumption of 
fuel, (aside from that used in manufactories and by steam 
Engines,) is equal to one ton to each inhabitant On Ais 
baaiB, Leavenworth would requii^ hdsi than 25,000 tons per 
annum. Allow tiie city to cover fimr square miles of teni 
toiy, and this coal seam at six feet in thickness will supply 
24,000,000 tons of coal from under its streets md lots, b» 



OSOLO&T OF KANSAS. . SS 

Hiat the supply, for aU pr^ip^k^ jpnrposee, is inaxhaostable. 
We must recollect, too, that rivers do not affect the strata be- 
low; tdai that> the eoal may be xoined imdftr the Missouri 
rtrer as ea^y aiid nMy as anywhere else. 

CoiiMdering tike ^uidtty and abundaut quantity oo&tahied 
in this heavy seam of coal, tre eaimot too stron^y uarge all 
capitalists not to wastci their money inendeavarij^gtoptocare 
eoal Horn the thin surface sespus. Kone of them cati supply 
a cheap fdel. Let ccHnpanies be formie4 hsr all-tihe lai^ cities 
to open a shaft at each important poiiit It will not only 8up> 
ply as cheap fuel Ibr domestic purposes, but steam* eiaigjisifB 
caa be supplied at so low a ratethat manu&ctures would 
soon spring up among us. Goal' oaght not, when ca{^tal aii4 
competition engage in this entei^irise, to sell In our towns for 
more than a dune per bushd. ' ' 

We are informed by several^ gentlemen of reliability^'thai 
tiiere is an extensitre bed of lignitci^bal in the west^n part 
of tiie State, about 12& miles from Fort Biley. It is of the 
Idnd found near Bichmond, Virginia, and was there mined, 
during tibe rebellion, to over .a thonsand feet It <»!ops out 
in a northeasterly and southwesterly coarse, across the Be- 
publican, Solomon, Saline and Smoky 'Hill rivers, aiid is r^ 
resented as being formed in a heavier bed4;han those iii the 
eastern part of the State. Future geol<^cal investigattoiig 
are necessaiy'to determine the exleiit and value of Una de- 
posit of coal. But enjQugh iiEi known to settle the question 
that that p^Hon' of the State> is not deficient in foel. 

LIME. 

Good lime is furnished from beds in various parts of the 
Stat0> and is so common that no particular notice is necesswy. 
We believe every coifinly in tbe State is furnished with an 
abund^ce ,of this meet useful artade. The numerous stone 
hQusesbui]^ £rom limestone, which . may be seen in eveiy 
town BSBid :dty, show the quantity and quality of, &^ material 
The sections > taken in ths y^ouS' portions of KansaSi show 
tiutt nearly one^foprth port of the strata of the Ooal Jlemijni 
i9.x9ade i^ by tbai^s^ne^ 



3s CTQLOGHDOiX flUltVJtI. 

« - , 

' i ■ • • • - f » 

. Jiirftt0i9:b«ija«dce.Tam 

softy nniform graiiv iad;kmae6ptftfoic)f a bif^^ polkbttll^ 
tttt eommoii rarkly. The btet iMvbJte ii) f<»tsid ^^<sig jit' the 
older f^snurt^QoSiOr ia thai portiem of tb& mwd leeent ^Mcb 
Im-bMD snbjtet to igueow aotioo. Qor HasuB Btnita iikidsi 
fiotaiali tbe^ bert : marUe^ do not yield laxge : blocks* Bi^ Ja 
mtHj^ease^ riabs.nut^ be> dbftaoaed: fi»r all foirposea oidismrit 
I7 ];eqnired f<xr intenud usee or osnam^nta,: Tbej tnjce w 
bjgjb: a poUab as mo^t of ibe Ammem iiftairbles, wbidb^ afe 
Itead ia tba iDadGfits of our lamge cHi^* We bare seen spac- 
Imexia iraoi Fort Siwtt, MBplafaHi, QMiiet^Biudtvi^it^ Imt- 
zeoM^ Donipban coontji and oth^ pkcesy irbiidi ckHzqaiia 
jbyorablj witb the same article from' Jiirew Eiiglaiid aild Hanr 
Xostk.. Tbey are of Yuioiisjdaik^diades; taUiom ei&er MPliite 
orUacicw The best "tilud^ k;^ S^aTo aeon pplishe^ wad fireib 
the bydtaatic lime Bttatnimne^I^^ Tbi^isofiwioto 

^iiadaa of ImB^ sometiioes inelfmd. to bro^m^ jc^ltoa takiag; a 
fintd mellow tinge wbidi is ftidj beaatifnl. IJ^o.attetoift Im 
j^ been made to work thoee ranbos beds, but tbeife is.g$Mid 
mmoA to leondade that^^potadlcaUy, th6 inarble vmf l^inffsJM 
toai^pgifpofleiaiwldcbiltba aiiicleiis used.; nndoa|;^bei%» 
tiwi!e are aaumjs.otiber ptaoeaixif the State where a3 g^ vsmr 
Vt can be £mu»I as tit t]Ki&e>named. M the wealth o& Q«ur 
population ;]notasfle%>ibe9e^wi^ aigscoi'rfiig demand, wW^ 
onr home <]narnssjdaii /eaaay aopply^ wiiihonfciiending b^yMd: 
the bonnds of the State. 

HYDRAULIC LIBjIESTOUE. 

'. ■ ■ ■ ■ • < 

&fdfanlic cement, ^^emertfc'' or "%at56r liine,'^ is mneh 
need in onr Siite/ * Rbmair cemiarit^* fe a nice vitfiety of tibfe 
ciimeartid^. Hj^nlie li^estdlie;^^^ 
wHdi cont^ns 1^ ntaal ^Kimendei neces&^iy to ^i^e gd6A 
eenient^ iift'foimd h. vbiiovA parfasof fli^ StMe.* "Ito liipib 
Sbjauut'cemebt i^dmddih^hodnl^c^inag^ 
«dKi' Se{«&ria^ wU(ffi ai^ found 'dirisemihk^^ 
London days. These Septaria, like iSit magnesiibttateiitJMi^ 
are composed mainly of lime, magnesia, silica and alnmina. 



came nnder our o1:k)erv«tf6n w^e^al BHi^gdme, and a^GfaH^ 
lK)pper'^%lb^ abont-flAfee tt^ tifey 

fl*in' Biufergame and Dooglto w«ferat<i' tflie-Biilpfeiipet * ofl6a3^ 
aaad zinc.' ' They are viSoStf emifij^ w6ighiiig#om tW6 to^tfett 
}kmn€i^^ b%t those hi Liim ^lit^^Aeaawed flii^ incl^^ W 
d&£b^r. M sffi IhiB toetilitied they originated M i^aie <^ 
flferite^. Stotta 6f hydititife Kme are, howev^fti*, Ibittid i^ ftfe- 
qnently in our State, and more easily obtaitied and "wotk^y 
mk-it id B6t |H^balte1^diliJie8^S^«i^ tin- 

1^ thi^ <jnaK#f ehotild be fote&fd BHp€feSot» tO'^e ofter-hy- 
(fenraKc UmeiS. 

A'bed of l^wn hyftraitific lata^te^ was woAed, abbttt 
eight or ten years ago, by Iftie litte ©p. 1^. festfker, a^hi^leitm 
fotir Eail^ northwest of lia^iMW. 5fot beiag- facaiUap mih 
fte mffaitf aictnve of the afiidie, %fe |yrdbbbly did not sueeeM 
ad Weill' aid « f^eisoii df e^^^nidd. Still tie made a gb^^d ce- 
i&0aijVliS4it was ^ased by Yaii^s biiiM*» -Itt; Lawrence, fb* 
^t6mW feoA o^er ektAhr pwj^ses. !IE^y of&e <^stem8 
i^bfflliA tise, with'tibe edtfieM in gcidd condition. Tliey 
^imt^ ia<d^mbffity "rHbak^ e^mpares fav^i^ly witii the breti% 
Hfentn^ii^r "^^^^atiients now^sirtd In our ^ ^ Dr. Barkisr wa» 
itri^eifiiig to iHirsiie tiib'%iimness more syEitematieaily and eic^ 
tMsively^ wben Ma d^sfl&'dbseld'tlie^oj^ations.. ^o mehBA 
woiiEM ^e bed since im d^eeaj^e. Blei' experixtimt, so^ fstr^ 
it was tried, wasp^<6tHly eafisftkory, Aiid^ has dB 

the qualities of a good hydraulic cement. Should capitalists 
develop this branch of our resources, it would undoubtedly 
bfe a -BOureeof -ptotii to th^, as well as a btenefit to IheiSCate. 
We are now usii^ cfeixieMtbit>ii^St^ K'eHtebfcy, 

a^^*KftMcte; by -^ter, df -¥$0 riiiles, when as good *an arttcJe 
bm^Tcmvlfyu^^ *oost dE'ltaiMr- 

^SWiSon, alargb^ittei,^ta* be savied. An Wdifiohifl ^ad- 
i^tii^*%d«»tfl9a*agttlnedih-^to ffiecettfent^eady-ffir 
y« M 8oon'a8i<^i8iiya'ie^,'aS'it4s knowii iliiA; »^]b^^''^i^ 

t n tt > *^ ^ .K ) , i,i.iM., M u n i nl ii 1 1 ii i^ j, .>, , i | M i l l 1 11 ill I I I piii ^ i.t f i «. , > 1 | l i |i> > i 

•SulphideB. 



boftqoaliti^B rajHdly after leaving the Join. < Yictit^ the beat 
aoAoiity pn hydraulic Uniej.aigicBtliat.ii» liuj^ #tQck AhajaUl 
neireiir be made than is wanted f<»: immed^pte (xmBiimptioii ; 
otherwise it soon becomes an inferior article. 

This stratum is quarried n^ar the top of the bla& west of 
lAwrence, for building stopie. It yields slowly to the crum- 
bling influence of the atmosphere,: and we think wiU net be 
found a first dass stone for external purposes. It takes • 
good polish, and makes a {^etty marble for mantle-pieces and 
other ornamented articles. Its cok>r varies ^m buff to 
brown, and in many cases gives a iQjie, mellow shading, equal 
to the buff Italian. 

This bed of hydraulic Hmestone extends across the countiy 
over Leavenworth and Atchison counties, and also southwest- , 
erly, nearly, if not quite, to the southerly bounds of the State^ 
and probably it will be found to retain good cement proper- 
ties in the whole of tha.t extensive area. 

The analysis of various limes used in the manufacture of 
cements, shows quite a difference.in the relative proportions 
of the elements^ though producing an equally good article. 
As the art now exisis, a practical test in the kiln and cistern 
is of £eu: more importance than the analysis, and it is to .be 
hoped that the subject will be thoroughly tested on this bed 
in various places, so that all our large cities may be supplied 
from their immediate deposits, without loss or cost from trane- 
portation. A very fair, but not critical, test may be made by 
placing the hydraulic limestone in the upper part of a couGb 
mon lime kiln, and ^tying it a, uniform but lower degree of 
heat than in the burning of the common limes. 

GYPSUil. 

« • ' * * 

■ ■ » ' * ' 

Gypsum, or sulphate of lime, comm(mly called plaster 0£ 
Paris,, or ^ plaster," is found in numerous places in the Statff* 
A bed from four to ten feet in.thickne^ cross^ the valleys.of 
the Big Blue and Littie l^lue river% from four to sSven miles 
above their junction. It is seen in.the banks of both streamSi 
and. has }>een strudc, by sinking wells, at varioas poiiits rbe- 
l^een tiie two rivers. , It i^ of unifoiim grain and purity, ai&d 
much resembles the best of the Nova Scotia gypsum that is 



• 

i]iip(»rt6d into the parts of ISew En^and, and liaed bj tit» 
fiuiners of those Stetefi. It has been used in tbeinfenial 
jSnish of eeveral houses in Marysville, and was found to oper- 
ate as well as the Eastern plaster, making a nice, white ^^hard 
finish " to the walls. When carefully prepared, this coating 
is very smooth, and may be washed as easily as marble, which 
it much resembles. » 

Another bed was traced from near the mouth of the Saline 
river, on the southerly side.of tlie Smoky Hill, in an easterly 
direction, more than ten miles. At the point first named> it 
consists pf several strata, from a few inches to two feet in 
thickness, interstratified with clay shales. Some of these 
seams consist of beautiful fibrous gypsum, varying from white 
to pink, and quite pure. At Gypsnm creek the bed is mass- 
ive, amounting to sixteen feet in thickj^ess. Some of it as- 
sumes the selenite variety, and other portions contain imper- 
fect imbedded crystals. This deposit is a portion of Nos. 6 
and 7 of Meak and Hayden's section of this part of the State. 

We are informed that the same deposit is found at other 
points within twenty miles, even thicker than at the localities 
named. Gypsum is also found in the vicinity of the salt de- 
posits, on the Solomon, Saline and Smoky Hill rivers. 

In the arts, gypsum is applied to a hundred purposes, par- 
ticularly in taking casts, in stucco work and other ornamental 
designs for furnishing nice buildings. But more practically 
it is used by the farmer as a fertilizer, and in this respect it 
will t>e invaluable. While it is excellent for crops in various 
ways, its great worth, to the Kansas soil, consists in its hy- 
grometic quality, or virtue as an absorbant and &k^ of cer- 
tain volatile matters which are useful in plants ; and particu- 
larly in retaining moisture in a condition that raiders it avail- 
aUe to the roots of plants ; and thus coiintentdi&gtiiedtyisg 
aod evaporating ^eetof the sun and winds. This is an im- 
pCHftant qudity, whicih ovr &rmei*s will readily appredatoy es- 
pecially in those portions of the State which are^ liable to 
dfouth. It retains the moisture to such a Jdegree that a cn^ 
pttirtieolariy of roots, manm*ed with it, will sometimes be saived 
when an adjoining field will be dried upJ Vsrm a sii^^ 
bushel of the powder, on a quarter of an acre of land, 



It osoLOGioAL $m«vme. 

diow a dedd^' iiapiov^xkeitst in the et(&p^ Ite ^Msei'^tauva*^ 
\ttlf%^'9mh forBeveriijeam After it bicmd'. 

< _ ^ 

We haye noticed the presence of alum in quite a number 
of places in the State. At Zeandale it is found in sihall cryB- 
tals ; also, at. several points on Mill creek, in ^WabadQsee 
couiiity. In the eastern part of T. 4, R» 10, west, it is fi>imd 
jin .connection with a rSeain of lignite coal.. It is a8SOCiate4 
ynih native sulphur. A similar deposit is seen on Ohapman 
creet, in T. 11, R. 2, ^east, about twenty miles west of Foiri 
Biley, with the additional associate of salt-patre or nitrate of 
pptash.. It is • also found ih vf^rious places on the soufjieni 
side, of the Smoky Hi]l,.&om Salina eastward, over a tradt ot 
fifteen or twenty miles in .ei^tent. It exists in a sufficient 
quantity to make a commercial commodity, whenever c^pitOil 
and labor shall become more abundant in our State, 

In England, alum is manufactured from alum slate and .im- 
alqgous minerals, in which it becomes necessary to caloine 
wd pulveriise the material before the alum can b^ extracted. 
But in our dep<>sits the article is so free that the iminufacture 
wjOil be much more 6asy and ^economical. 

PRBESTONE, OR. SANbsiONB. 

This i9 fi)und;i|L.¥iu:ioiis befCb €C9l^ 
i^. Th^ bluings in Iieav^nwortb,. Lawrenee mA oUtfr 
f liC6$ atteirf^ to its neatnosa' wd »ni|(im% of, grate. ^ 
f^f^agpg^s&i^^ l(Mr«ier plaee, showa its geod qualikies ler 
mjliaaeiitdl: (wviogp. 

JkM^ fiioiftit9 uiseft m a buildmg fli«tmiil> itci adapti^i^itQ 
<o&^ dirtnestib^ «c(i(des m^kes it impottant W/e hdve mmk. 
nnniarans gHhdstaimr Inade of it^ whtohga^e arigc^ 9il9gf 
frit TbBjftp ifl. BQdi a igveatdiiteMljr it it9/cJi9t6«lM9l»a9rp 
tli]0iire8|)eety tfedit greafc^eiBffe dhL<^d bAlvdeeoiJAtoetoet*^ 
jbfnk ; but, vAmo ' this! k dene, ae g«9d^ wbeMtopM ^nd ipM- 
iitonB dan ibemade heutt lis nto lMK)«gbft l^ wr lodi^dMilB 

li^oiiSt. Im&. . 

i" • • •• . ' • .. 



• ■• * 

• * • f p • 

^^. Th^.g9i(4c«p^ e^^ of itefp^fiftti oi lgifla^Qt&yoiv 
$^^&r m^^c prodnot?, But^saU Qpr <)bfi€ii:]ratipiis Ijay^ 

tkiiui.:. bat .in T^ iynfl M w , so fiir afr fm A TiwpTi> ftt jop < ^ -^^^^a exr 

%l|h|^#9.€p^^ i« liunitedt M^/f^^^ pm^' »oiqe ove 
1;^ t}f«;(ilim&£U Aboojli four m^efi ao^tbiifi^t ftom G^ra^tt^ 
ii^ 4^4WP^^^P^9 ^ iai4k^« fijiogolm* |d/dpo«^ of i^psi are, 

i)j;||d%.iipd of ^fB^^i^f!^ of pmri^. Ko a^jxqpl?«ba0 bei^ 
qpifid^(t(> -dwelop ita^xtent 

The range of sand roQ^bliiff, tspr mpfis, ^est of ((UifioOi 

%kll9f^>^ifi¥l^ ^^ ^^ ^r^* S^9Qe.{k9]1Jpn8,0f i;b0 ledg^ 
q^9^^4)4<l^ia8inaU pe$rcentii09, ^i^UtoratrOtb^.pQ^ laige 
^ygllJP^Ii^caDtaiiiad fi^pm twenfy- to tb^ percent^^;^ of ijXHCV 
I^ f^-m^ of aoQesa and mining, mascm jof ift^layiog loosely on 
t^|j^i}¥£Bce. Bnti^gpreat obstacle in ito^ppa^tbaln^ 
§ff^tg. of fnel in that yidnity. Timber ia. no^^ abwdanl^ and 
l^.em&ce ^qofil is of isnn inferior, qiiality. Tb^e iron ore^ con- 
ei^gpffo&js cannot be considered as of n^^. practical valijie^ 
We have been shown a spj^ew^a, ^f ^j^|9wn heniatite 
ittw or^ from tibi^ western jg^ f>t t^ 8^*fk^r^^ Bnperior 
<39^1it79ADd containing ne^jr six^ Should 

t^ deposit prove extensiis^e «nd eaay^ pf i^opes^r from our pi^- 
Hiyif^ n^ibroad, it would bo valuab^^ even yf^xf^ it i^ec^f9sar}r,to 
t^HR^port fuel to the kfoi^litjr. 

. Jg^ — ^The usual oi^of lead, jrom wlu^h mostof the li^ 
^^sOG^fnaseiPce ia obtained,. ia the sv^pburft or sulphide, j^t 
9gf9vi»mci0tabiiBdaat^intbeSilu]a^^ ^^j^ryp^ 

l%»^4epcBits of the United St^itea aud^Qi^tBriiain are iow^ 
in it In Missouri, lead exists in the lower part of the Qf^ 



•Vi 



by any geologist shows no ro^ isb old, the prospect for say 
paying quantity of this metal in the State is small. 

The ludicationO of lead in the vicinity of Potosi, in Linn 
ootmty, howevei^, deseirve a passing notice. Lead has l^een 
known, for mor6;'t}ian twenty years, to exist there. At Ifine 
creek may be seen excavations which are said to Have been 
made in mining for this ore. Judging from- the trees that 
have grown over the debris thrown out from these excara- 
tions, it is probable that the operations were carried on about 
twenty-five years ago. "TiflF" (calc spar) oxide of manganese, 
zmc blende and smkU'bnbes of sulphm^et of lead, are fbond 
in the vicinity. We examined the location earefrdly in the 
spring of 1804:, aiid were compelled to arrive at the conchi- 
aon that the appeakiance of the deposit was' against the prob- 
ability of lead being found in paying quantities. I^ce ftat 
time some small shafts have been sunk, with no profitable re^ 
suit, although some lead was obtained. 

6Md^ Sfiher^ dfe.— iBie origin of gold and silv^ lies in tibe 
Igneous ro<^k8, and are only found in the stratified deposits 
when they have undei^gone changes oonisequent upon subter- 
ranean heats. As we have yet found no changes of this kittd 
in Kansas, it is useless to expect to find the precious metals in 
our State. What the w^tem portions will tievelop we can- 
not say ; but we are sure ^that the eastern, or settled parts, 
contain no gold or silver bearing; rocks. This is a sufficient 
answei* to all inqtdries from those who think they have found 
traces of these metals in Kansas. 

Tin. — Frequent reports have been in drculatiten that this, 
usually rare mineral, is found here. Several fine specimens 
of rich ppDxide of tin have been, on several occasions, pi^- 
dneed by the Liidians. As their statements concerning tbem 
were, in some cases, not true, it still remtuns an unsiittled 
questxoh whether they originated in the State. A specimen 
Was t^resented to Gen. Hugh McGee, of Leavenworth, wUob^ 
on anfAysis^ proVi^ to be a pro^dde, ^containing *n per cent 
It was said to nave been found on the banks of the Sindky 

I , f), I »• . • • • f ■ ' • r • 

iHrtver. " ( • ' ' -* 

Tbk geolbgidil locality of tan is similao' to tliat of the-pre- 
doQS metals, but more restricted in its range. It has been 



timsiA ' lai6^ M it^DB traverfting granite, giie&^,- mic^i^filalie 
aiid bth^i^ lii^taihorpMc toekfl/ ^ Fii^ we fitid^tWede, brscmie 
emptive rock? ^breaidng ' liirbngb: tUe recent strata, 'we 'must 

conclade 'Aiat'it m riot natives to Kansas. "The Westeni porticui 

• ••»« *• ,•• < >• .. 

of fhe State, iowever, is lK>'fl»ajgeological terra^flwjgmfa 
that it is possible that some local igneoois actibil may have 
blmight tin io the fiurftlce. The qiiestion fe the more import- 
ant, as none IS now'fdtkiyd in tibie United Statcfs in sufficient 
qaajltities to pay forwdrkfiig:' ' ^^ ^ '/^ 



.■ • / 



Petrolenm, or mineM oil, id ^een ill rimne^ons' places in the 
State. The Indians have long been in the habit of collecting 
it from the surface of springs, and using it for medicinal pur- 
poses. It is found most abundantly in Wyandotte county, 
and the border (Aunties southward as ficras the Iiidlan Terri- 
iorj. At Baxter BJirings^ in the flouth part of Ghelt)kee 
dounty, 'it b said to be fothid iii ebhcisiderabte quantiti^. 'At 
xLo point in the counties named (id it seen ih more bhan' a ttifii 
film on the surface, but it is foun(^ iit so many differeiit ^Ik^, 
that it is reasODsible to suppose that a large body may ^xist 
below. The natute of' the clay shai A' which Compose a liarge 
•portion of flie deposits for seven: or eight hundred feet below 
the surface, w6uM not readily allbw it to come up, if it Were 
ihere. . Shouhf it b^ fetihd in paying quioitities it is probable 
that it will be below the Coal Measures. 

T^e oil that is found <m the imrfkoeof tiie springs is no cri- 
terion of its chfuractis^ 4tt the fovtotHins far below; for the 
lighter and best prbductk evapo^a^ r^^ly as it comes to Hie 
influence of sun and aii^. -^'Bi a short time, only the heavier 
dehients and insfpv^ehiiss ^eiftidiL- This Will account for ^e 
bititniinL (« j^tc*") fotmd In niany places, piartictdarly iii Miami 
oomnty.-- - \-'r.-'' ''■'^:^-' - -''-•'" • ■'>^-'' ':■'{- ' - ' -■^^- 

Ilriil'ieehin^nKmy plM£eri'iii:tti'& Stat^|%k n(^ so of^^ 
A^bMieridOimttei^ i»£litfed;-^ We'hiilreC^d^ed''«^'<in Bro^H, 



i88 qswiofoj^ «w:iQnr* 

9lirasa. of titouwertw^ of a»i;»8#BJBf|H>rii|gj^ 
li^ c^e w^ m ten^^v^^iiir Pemif^^i^ipWi iMS^piov^d^ft jwip- 
ewi. Yet the rich i!0^viia'af;.U^for^a^i^i^^ fiiPj^ c;|i^- 
pi^i^ for tb^ lasB-on the,o^|^)i9f%/«n4 tbe l^ala^^cif; ^i^:^(n- 
:|epr|?^ is #?ofa^ to tb^ sni#^9 althoygl^.fif me iii4iv^i#mls 
l^w by the <qp€ffatioq. 

Tbe resiiltof oiur (Am^vBiimB m ^mism sjb, ibak H^in/ji- 
etiK^ffi^ are Buffideiitly siroiig 4o jxgui^ the eiq^eadi^ore- of 
capital to test the quality of the oBy-^blcbceKtaixily does*en^ 
to some extent No one should invest in the business moore 
than he could afford to lose ifBAont embarrassment The 
question cannot be considered as settled witbont nmnerons 
borings to a depih of ^bt bm^dredor <me thousand £9^ 



3AI*X. 



Wlule Kansas is^y^yvog %itsj3iqpidy of salt (m New York, 
JM^obigan' i^d S^^giaa;^^ tbare js a^^^bimdaofie of that actide 
within ib^ States sofi^eiitji i^- weU developed, tor supply ti|e 
wbole valley of the Miss^i{q;4f ^^^^ werevits population ten 
l^d greater tiuux at present 

The ^'bufialo lieks" oar ^^t^^]9jps" so common in mosteveiy 
CQurijby of the State, inmost cases owe their oi%in to the 
pi^eseBi^ of the salt. bri^e,.eve3i when it does not aj^ear in 
the shape of sprii]^ pk tbe^ smifiuce. Numerous wells in va- 
rious counties, sunk forJ^r^fsb water, have produced only satjt 
These cases have ooetu^ed nt Mound City, Hannaton and 
£mpori% as well as ^!iiQi^g}f!)Qfly az^ on,^tbeprai- 

ries^ At Osawatooiie. ^<4WI^ •of thje kind baa beenrtumed to 
.j^raetical benefit, pifod>iWW ^^ excdle9tiuiaQl& of salt Tbe 
brine, in this instapoei was ^f^l; at a* little oyer 100 feet from 
. ^e^ surfaGe« So syitiii&ptoi^ Ifm beiHz *tha xmpjlt of the wdl, 
thai a new company has boeur^natie^ wblc^ 10 stn^g a laisg^ 
artesian bore, hoping to obtain a largeif supply of bri^e^ 

The yalleys cf ithe Ye^jgria, afid* Fall rivers ^b^foj salt 
q^riilgs wbicb s^i^y. eM^># the Jfiffe^ d^naad, /tb^ngb ^o 
es^artioQf bftve been xa^ totdW^oy 4h^^aiiBply. ^.vryli^ 
from open springs or wells only being used, wbich--^ WjBfb 
dilnlb^d bgr ibe siirftce 9timmt V^ ^Hms^ h«s.b«eo.qMde 



OBOLOGT OF KANSAS. SS 

to tost the fall strength or supply found at any considerable 
depth. So nnmeroQB are the indications of brine at various 
placi9S, that fiitare efforts will undoubtedly furnish a large 
.qaua&ty of salt from that part of the State. 

At Walnut creek, in Brown county, is a large and good 
spring, which is now occupied by the Leavenworth Salt and 
Coal Oil Company, and promises to be the most productive 
in the eastern part of the State. From a series of pumpings 
made in our presence, we found the supply of brine sufficient 
to manufacture one hundred bushels of salt every twenty-four 
hours. The spring is an open well about fifty feet deep, and 
evidently much diluted with surface water. The strength of 
water was about double that of the ocean, yielding one bushel 
of salt from one hundred and sevaity-five gallons of brine. 
The company &re now sinking an artesian boring, to go below 
the influ^ice of sur&ce water. 

A very large deposit of crystajized salt exists south of the 
great bend of the Arkansas river, in which it lies in beds 
from six te twenty-eight inches in depth. In one instance, two 
Government wagons were filled in a few minutes, without be. 
ing moved. The salt is so compact as to require a hatehet to 
cut it. These deposits are undoubtedly caused by the drying 
tup of sfdt ponds or salt branches ot the Cimmaron river. 
But this is situated so far from the settled portions of the 
State, or any regular route of transportation, that at present it 
is of no practical value. A railroad toward that region would 
make it of vast commercial importance. 

The great supply of salt whidi is to meet the demand for 
£ansas and the neighboring States, lies at various points in a 
tract of country about thirty-five miles wide and eighty long 
crossing the EepubUcan, Solomon and Saline valleys. The 
signs of the deposit are seen in numerous springs, but more 
frequently in extensive salt marshes. 

A description of one of these marshes will be good for 
, large numbers of them^ as they are very similar in their for- 
mation and appearance. Take that in T. 4, E. 2, west of the 
sixth principal meridian, in the Republican valley, about sev- 
enty-five miles northwest of Fort Riley. It is sometimes 

c^led the Tuthill marsh. The valley here is wide, gradua^y 

5* ' 



34 GEOLOGICAL SUEVBT.' 

riemg to the Mgh prairies, so common in that part of the 
State. The marsh ccfvtkQ nearly one thousand acres, more 
or less impregnated with saline matter. About one-thii*d is 
entirely void of vegetation, which the brine will not allow to 
grow. It is perfectly level, and at the time of our first visit 
was as white as a wintry snow field, with a crust of crystalized 
salt. The marsh is of recent Alluvial formation, composed 
of sand and loam, from twenty to thirty feet in thickness, 
brought down by the wash from the high prairies, which rise 
gradually on three sides. In this alluvium, at various depths, 
are found the bones of buffalo, deer and antelope, who have 
probably made this a resort for salt for lahg ages past, as they 
are 'seen to do at the present time. Underlying this is the 
Triassic rock, which in Europe furnishes so much salt that it 
is termed the Saliferous system. 

The incrustation of salt is frequently three-eighths of an 
inch in thickness. This is scraped up and used, in its natural 
state, for sialting cattle, &c.; but, for domestic purposes, it is 
melted by being mixed with about twenty gallons of water to 
a bushel of salt, when the mechanical impurities, sand, &c., 
readily settle. The salt is again returned to a solid state by 
evaporation. The marsh, after scraping, produces a second 
crop of salt in from five to seven days of dry weather, and 
after repeated scrapings during the past three years, yields as 
full a supply as^ at first. The brine exists in neariy equal 
quantities and strength in all parts of the marsh, and can be 
obtained by boring a few feet, or digging pits. No definite 
salt spring shows itself at the surface, but the supply must 
come from numerous points below, though coming from one 
great central reservoir or salt bed. According to the observa- 
tions of Mr. J. G. Tuthill, who lives near, and has made bor- 
ings in over one hundred different places, to a depth of twenty 
or thirty feet, there is a very uniform supply and strength of 
brine. The water preseved for analysis was obtained by me 
by a boring made at random. It was found at four feet from 
the surface. The density, bythe salometer, was 24 deg., (6.16 
Bauine, or specific gravity of 1.0421,) with the thermometer 
at 60 deg. This should give a bushel of salt for one hundred 
and thirty gallons of the water, (not counting the impurities,) 



GEOLOGY OF KANSAS 3§.. 

which ip three times the strength of the ocean. It was^iaken 
at our second visit, immediately after a heavy rain, which must 
have diluted the brin6. 

The marsh receives the drainage of the valley slope, about 
two miles in width and five miles from the north, and, conse- 
quently, the brine as it comes from the source below, must be 
constantly weakened by so large a body of surface water. 
That from the north, comes down in a stream ten or fifteen 
feet wide, and about a foot in depth, in a sluggish current, 
ajid, when m^ a clump of tree§ at the north end of the marsh, 
suddenly disappears, and is not again seen till it reappears 
below th^ opposite part of the valley, toward the Kepublican . 
river. A pait of this stream, in its subterranean course, may 
pass unmingled with the bbM water ; but a large portion must 
percolate into the loose soil occupied by the brincj^and help 
to dilute, what would otherwise be a very strong solution. 
Every indication tends to tiie conclusion that by an artesian 
bdring brine can be obtained equal to the strongest now used 
in any part of the United States. Scarcely any other spring 
east of the Mississippi gives so stirong a brine at the surface. 
The extent of the marsh also shoT^s that the main source of. 
the ealt cannot lie fer below. It is a fair inference that ike 
strength of the brine is in proportion to the extent of groupd*^ 
affected. 

The soil of this and the adjoining valleys affords excellent 
fanmrig land, atdgood fresh water is obtained a« soon as the . 
borders of the marsh are passed. 

The other salt deposits on the Republican and Solomon 
rivers and their tributaries, are similar to that above de- 
scribed ; extending across the country in a southwesterly di- 
rection. The Indian troubles prevented us from visiting those 
on the Saline river, but from reliable information, from various 
quarters, they must be as good as any we ^ave visited. 

The large quantity of salt, within the tract designated, is . 
evident from the fact that the waters of the Solomon and Sa- 
line are so impregnated as to have a saline taste from points 
eighty miles above their entrance into the Smoky Hill river. 
The waters of the latter, when the stream runs low, also shows 
the presence of the brine. The. supply of salt sufficient to 



36 OSOLOOtOAL cnrsTBT. 

meet this daily and h'onrly amount thus carried down muBtbe 
immense. 

STATE SALT SPRINGS. 

The twelve State springs lie in this territory, and cfdl for a 
brief notice. 

Spring TSTo. 1 is in S. — , T. 10, R 6, west of the sixth 
principal meridian, and covers several springs in the valley 
of Salt creek, a branch of the Solomon. The indications are 
not so good as in other places within four miles. The location 
is so far from any great traveled route that the spring cannot 
b^ of practical benefit for many years. Springs Nos, 2, 3 
and 6 are good, but are located on Salt creek, above No. 1, 
and farther from the settlements ; and for that reason cannot 
at present be made available. They are in T 8 and &, of R 
8. Springs Nos. 4 and 5 are in T. 13, of E. 1 and 3. By 
some singular oversight in the location, neither of the two 
contain any salt spring, or salt deposit of any kind. 

Springs Nos. 7, 8, 9 and 10 are all in one large salt marshy 
in S. 20, 29, 80, 31 and 32, T. 4, R 5, and S. 5, 6, T and 8, 
T^ 5, R. 5. The marsh covers about three thousand acres, 
and is so i^milar to the Tuthill marsh, first described, that no 
further description is necessary. The brine is found in all 
parts of the marsh at a few feet below the surface, with equal 
indications of quantity and strength. They are about seven 
miles from the Republican river, and nine miles from the 
projected route of the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Divi- 
sion. The location is excellent, and springs are valuable. 
About six miles east of these are Springs Nos. 11 and 12, oc- 
cupying a salt marsh in S. 7, 8, 17 and 18, T. 5, R 4, and 
cover an area of three hundred acres, which, like the other 
marshes, is, void of vegetation. It is, in nearly every respect 
like the Tuthill marsh, with every indication of a large sup- 
ply of brine. The nearest point of the Republican is one 
mile, and the line of the proposed railroad is within four 
miles. 

These .springs are aH leased by the State, and the six last 
named will soon be in operation. Could those first named be 



GEOLOGY OF KAN8A3. 37 

re-located it wotdd be an important gain to the State. At the 
.time of their location, the commissioners were not allowed to 
select springs beyond the first guide meridian west of the 
sixth principal merdian, as the public lands were not surveyed 
west of that line ; while one-half of the salt territory lies 
there. The whole of that region is now surveyed, and could 
Congress be induced to allow these springs to be re-located, 
they could be selected in the Saline valley, within ten mfles 
of the proposed railroad and the road of the present orerland 
express. This is the more important, as salt is now caJpried 
over this route to Denver, and the manufacture would be on 
the nearest point to that market. 

The geological position of the salt deposits of the world, in 
this connection, becomes important. It has been found in 
the Tertiary formation in Lower California, on the Colol!ado 
river^Greece and Western Asia. ' In the Permian, in parts of 
England, Ireland and Eussia. In the Coal Measures, in Kan- 
sas, Valley of the Kanawha, Western Virginia, and at some 
places in Ohio, Pennsylvania and Michigan. In the Devonian, 
in Bussia, Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the Upper Silurian, in 
the celebrated Onondaga Salt Group, New York. But the 
greatest deposits are in the Triassic, the most of the beds of 
rock salt being found in this formation. In Germany it oc- 
curs in the Muschelkalk, or middle of the Triassic. In Ire- 
land, England and France in the Upper Triassic. The cele- 
brated salt mines near Cracow, in Poland, are in the Triassic. 
This bed has been penetrated over 1,200 feet, and is twenty 
miles wide and over five hundred miles long.* The bed in 
Cheshire (Triassic) supplies most of England with salt, and a 
large quantity is sent to the United States. The following 
section at this miue is interesting : 

No. 1.— 2 feet of soU. 

No. 2. — 8 feet of hard-pan. 

No. 8. — 36 feet of marl and indurated clay. 

No. 4. — 7 feet of open grayel. 

No. 5. — 90 feet of marly earth, with seams of cryscaiized gypsum. 

No. 6. — 75 feet of rock salt. 
* No. 7. — 80 feet of stone, containing yeins of red rock salt. 
^ No. 8.-- 76 feet of rock salt. 

* l^app's Chemical Tedmology, p. 248, yoI. I. 



58 GEOLOGICAL StTBTBY. 

]7o. 9.^-^16 feet ofroeksslt. Tkis Isyer eonUms less eafihy matMr 
thttft thoift iftoTe or below it, aftd isi the duly one wockiaJ] 
,1^0. iO— 180 f«^ roek salt; A shaft has l^eoa««ikfotUtf4opth with- 
out passing through the strata. 



168 feet qt ifock and edrth. 
346feet of rock salt. 

673 feet total. 

7he immeiSBe beds of Cheshire and Poland become coore 
IntereBting touswheu we consider that our main salt territory 
is ia the same geological formation. 

The {mrity of rock salt is exceedingly various. While the 
crystals are sometimes entir^y pure, the beds are so mingled 
with foreign substances afi to be of no value until the salt is 
dissolved and purified, and then returned to a solid form. In 
tiamj instances fossil infkisoria enter abundantly, into its coo^- 
position. 

We are not aware that rock s4t is found in paying quaztti- 
l»es in any p^ of the United States- except at HotetpB,. Va. 

The number of gallons of brine requisite' to make a bushel 
of salt^ from springs at the surface, can be seen by tibie follow- 
ing table: .. N 

B^awha, Virginia, - ' - - - . 360 

Montezuma, New York, . . - - - . 600 

Conemaugh, PennsylTania,, - - - - 300 

Sciota, Jackson county, Ohio, - - - - 70O 

Shawneetown, lUinoifi, - - - - '280 

- Harris's Springs, Missouri, - - - - 266 

•Blythes's Springs, Missouri, - ^ - . - 340 
Bast Saginaw Salt Company, Michigan, at 70 feet, - 2,600 

Scribner's, Grind Rapids, Michigan, - - - 392 

Sea watter, Nantucket, - - - - - - 350 

Gireit Suit Lake, - - . - * -•' - SO 

Brown county, Kansas, - - < ' about 200 

Taylor's Spring, Verdigris. Kansas, - ... 200 

TathiU Salt Marsh, Kansas, - - . . igo 

Wells after boring from 100 to 1,500 feet: 

Kanawha, average, - - r - - 77 

do best, - - --:-.- 32 

Onondaga, arerage, - . r , - - * . ^^ 

do best, - - - - . - go 

Bast Saginaw Salt Company, • * . ; " - ^0 

Monteiuma, N. Y., - - - - - 50 

ZanesTille, Ohio, - - . » . . - % 



^ 



caoLoax OF Ki^a^s,. a^ 

. Grand B^Tei, Ark^naas - -. - - - 80 

lluBkingum^ Ohio, - - - - - - 50 

Pbmcroy, Ohio, at 1,200 feet, - - . . 5^ 

Prasflian BisndeBy at 2,516 feet, - - - - 165 

:. ftodeaiberg, Getmaay, •> - - ... 130 

Schonebeck, GermaDy, « . . . . . xi2 

C^ie^l^ire^ Eii|^and, - - - - • - 25 to 22 

MANUFACTtTRE OF SALT. 

, ■ 

The moat usual method of , makiBg salt, in this cpuntry, is 
by boi}mg^ie,b^oin.kou kettles, h^^ from eighiy to 
oop^ huudred gallons each. A ^^ block," consisting of about 
m:^j ooBnected so that the brine can flow from those nearest 
^ the- fire-^te to those more dist^t, placed in t^^o rows, is the 
TiBu^l anra^ement. at Onondaga, I^ew York. One fire-grate 
isv siiffi^i^nt for thirtj: kettles, After being settled in large 
cpy9t€i!BS, the water is n^n into the ketUes over the fire, and 
the^ flows Ib^^ 01]^ to another, as it becomes boiled dowDi; 
till satiiration: a^d, cr jstalization take place in those nearest 
the soiok^st^ck, X^ the ea^ly part of the process the impu- 
ritiea settle ^ t^ bot^x9 of the kettles, and form a, ^^pan? 
80 solid that a cold-chise! is required to remove it. Formerly 
it. was the oust^mx to allow the fires to go out once a week, i^ 
cirdeir to rexi^oyia this solid mass, which would beconte an indh 
thick. This is called bittern. To pbyiate this, a false bo^ 
tola pjc looBQ inner lining is pished in the kettle, with a handle 
^fug iiL/th^4)enter. A^theinapurities settle, the false bot- 
tom id tilfe^n' o^t and the "pap" is easily removed without 
atpppiug. thfuJIret.. In the kettles nearest the fire the bittern 
flcitU«& i«ost freely. .; ^ 

As:thebt^e!pas^eB into the. kettles most, distant from the 
fire, ijt oeaa^ to boil, till^ lu the last, the temperature &lls tp 
1^.43»d:ey^ I61O; d^i As it crystalizes, it is taken out and 
altow^ejltot dra«a>(ihoi!oiBg^y, when it is ready for the marke|;. 
A :l]|^kKik.) At QjiQfl^^g^ yields Ibrty-five bushels of salt to a cord 
of gj)od. w&pd,. . But fliifl is wW the brine is very strong, r^- 
j^Ekiejiig iJ^ey^^ii^i^pn of but thirty^^ve ga^ons of water |p 
tii^ii bi^^mlf W^l^^. opal ^ <^&F> ds. hi Kan%wha valley, the 
pxi0(^9il by boiling is yarned 0(q to great advaaitage^ In that 
valley, when borings were made, in some instances so copious 



40 OBOLOOTCAL SCfSTXT. 

a supply of gas *rafihed up that a simple contrirance waa 
made to convey the jet under the boilers, and that Baved, in a 
great degree, the expense of fuel As some accidents oocor- 
red in its use, and fuel is abundant, the use of the gas has been 
neariy discontinued. 

Anothei; method of manufacturing salt is by graduation. 
In this case, high, narrow frames are erected, and the spaces 
between the open walls fOled with thorn bushes or other fag- 
ots. The brine is pumped into cisterns placed on the top of 
the frames, and allowed to trickle slowly down ovot the fiag- 
ots, which thus give a large evaporating surfiice. The brine 
is allowed to fall iive, six or even eight times, according to its 
strength. Aj3 the graduation houses are from thirty to fifty j 

feet high, this operation requires much labor or steam power. 
A loss, too, occurs (about 12 per cent.) fi^m small drops of 
brine being blown away. At Nauheim, a glass plaeed six 
hundred feet distant was found incnisted with salt. As Kan- 
sas is liable to strong winds, this method will not be found ad- 
vantageous. Should any one desire to try it, he will find it 
more frilly described, with plans and diagrams, in the Patent 
Office Eeport for 1867, in Knapp's Chemical Techpology, 
Tol. I., and Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufectures and 
Mines, Vol. II., either of which will give the reader a Ml 
idea of the details of the method. 

But the best method of manufacturing salt, particularly for 
Kansas, is by solar evaporation. In this process, the brine 
is first placed in large and rather deep vats and aftbwed to 
settle. The mechanical impurities are thus readily preci{d- 
tated. The water is then drawn into shallow vats, and as the 
process of evaporation goes on, portions of the chemical im- 
purities are precipitated. This is owing to the &ct that sul- 
phate of lime, and some other substances^ are held in sdution 
more firmly and in larger quantities, in wef^ brine than in 
strong. In this way frequently three-fourths of the impuH- 
iies of weak brinQ3 are thrown down before the salt begins to 
assume a solid form. The brine is next drawn into crysti|l- 
izing vats, where it takes the solid form, but in coarser crys- 
tals than in bdHng, and is, at Onondaga, for that reasoi^,ca]to4 



GBOLdOT 09 KANSAS. 41 

^looai!)36 ealV^ &&<} the bbikd <»dl6d ^^fine." For table and 
dairy purposes, it is first grotind. 

This metliod of maldfigsalt is exten^l^ly used ia thesouib 
df France; the West Indies, and on the coast of the Unit^ 
States. At the sah woiics of Kew York, about one-sixth part 
is made by solar evaporation. It always makes a he&i&r arti- 
ile^ and a^ Onondaga eommtods from &ye to twenty per cent, 
iiigheirfprice. The objection to it is that it reqtdres more cap- 
ital and more time. JBtit,' notwithstanding these disadVan- 
lages, flie 'cost?of making at New York and at Saginaw, Mich- 
igan, is not over two-thirds as great, for solar as for boiled 
salt. M solar evaporation is the sdost economical method in 
Sew York, whwe fuel is cheap and the climate cool and 
Bioist, our climate must contribute a decided advaiitage over 
Eastern manufisu^tories. At Onondaga, the number of 
days in the year on which nun falls is one hundred and twen- 
^-two, while the records at Fort Riley show only sixty-eight. 
The salt territory is even dryer than at Fort Riley. Again, 
Onondaga and Saginaw are situated about three degrees of 
latitude farther north, giving a long wintw, during which no 
solar salt can be made, and but little except during the sum- 
mer months. While here, owing to our wiell known dry and 
mild climate, evaporation goes on during most of the year* 
JBlodgett, in his Climatology of the United States, says that 
ihe amount of rain in our salt territory is about three-fourths 
tiiat of New York. But a very great advantage in evaporation 
k gained in the peculiar dryness of our winds, which can be 
fally appreciated only by those who have traveled in that 
part of the State. Buffalo meat, when hung in the summer 
air, will readily cure without salt. All these causes combined 
will undoubtedly give an evaporating power three times 
greater than New York ; or, in other words, an ordraary vat 
#r "cover," 16x18 feet, which at Onondaga gives fifty bushels 
of salt a year, will give us one hundred an^ fifty. Solar 
evaporation must then be the most profitable method of man- 
ufacturing salt in Kansas. One objection wMch is raised to 
solar evaporation is that chloride of calcium will penetrate the 
wooden vati9, even when no crack is visible, and carry with it 

a portion of salt. It will even penetrate through many kinds 

6 



42 Qjiouf&ioAs» nuBjw. ' 

(£ earthenwai^. A«:thH bt^w^lW) Iilui Hr tendency to p^ri^ 
the salt, it nearly compensait^BifarlliiQ kw^i B^l^ ik^fMoxii^ 
of calciutoijy: by the Msijm. of tibe flf^ k Dot fonnd ^t, tiie 
TofliiU mairsl^ mii if fi^wd i at otl^r pQii^ exiBt^ . in miy, 
small qitaatitiea ; do the obj^on dofoa^Qilbitve much weight 
yAxeri' app^ed to the maiMedMtnre of e^ik m K^ipfiaa^ 

A laige portion <rf tijeroosl^of ih^ ¥ate in Ifew "X^oprjc aodl 
JMOtehigan mi^ the sliding coveirs wJu^h' are used to : protect 
the t^iae firom rain. At Tank's I^imiy the south of Frimce 
atidniaity other plaees>^hereeo^revi^poriitiimiftthe^QtiKN} 
employed, no covers are: used, a^ the l^fis .iNm an. oo(»i£fioQal 
rain is^not eq#valent to tibe additioncd cost 4^ pi*^ipng <Ih» 
roofs; The amount of rain in our salt territcwry is. only thjr^ 
fourths as much as at Oixondag^ and it xmj be Ibupd to b^ 
economy to u«e ops^ vat* only* • 

The number of "covera" in Ifew York, in 1864fe, w« 
43,200, spreajd over an aredr of seveiral hundred jaei^>, Sb^DScdd 
it be found ujanecessary to employ them here, a iai:ge refec- 
tion of capital' in caxsfying on the: businesi^ will: take pla^^e* 
Thii^ reduction; jv^ould probably ber isufficiietnt to btilig the. c^ 
ital employt^ in .splar ev^oration o» an equality wi& jSiat 
used in tho' maiiijdEscture by boiling- 
All brines and salt contain more of lesaimpuirities,* Btidii 
as corbonate of Bme,. sulph^e.of.lime^ sulphate, of soda, 
chloiMeof magnesium^ chloi^e of caldtin^ iSta. One gssoit 
object in. the manufacture of salt. is to free, it (or, the hrilkc^ 
firom these ingredients.' < 

The following tabfe will show the Iperoentage of impuxUleft 
in the wei^of variofus springs befoirfe boiling, audof the 9ak 
alEber boiling: '. ^ 

Waters I Salt; 

TttU^ill Mareli, Kan^ft?, ... . 17.09 2.55 

. Ea^t Saginaw Salt Company, Micli.^ . . 23,80 

do ■ do do do ' do 2d well, . 18.66 ^ 

• ©reat Salt liake, • . . . . . 9.a6 ' i!li 

: Warm Spring, near 0rea^ Salt Lake^ . 20kI7 . LOf; ' > 
Sea Water, average Hboai; . 28i*;QO 4.0Q. . 

Qnoiidaga, itYciraffe of [fiyo welle^ . . .• 5.51 . > 

■ 

- V , ■^' >: ] ' ,' .' • • *i' ' ," •. ■ :' 

*in all oases w^iere thia word is used, it is intended to inclade all solid sabstanoes 

«tt<i>rtl|^iiator<;li]«Md«^ti<>akunc ' i 



21.66 


3.16 


7.07 


2.19 


16.13 


1.91 



-OEOLOGY OP KANSAS. IB 

J^Bawlm, do three wells, 

' t.BAosiebedk, PtiiBiia» 

Bieajiey' FsMiee, 

By c0iii|)iftri!Qg;t^ rcisults, it will b& seen that wltile all 
briixeis^ dmrmg evapoiratioii^ prod^teto a portiou of their in- 
Lgj^afii^te befbare Aejr do the salt^ aad tliii&aid its purity^ dif- 
fNrettt* 8)»*iog8 Ykcy in Ais most impdrbmt chaxacteristic. 
Otiicft tMagd beiAge^al) weak brmes precipitate a lin^r pi9- 
pdirtto& than strong. 

Differ^t snbstazices hate a different point of solabilit]^, 
aectirding to Hie stareilgth of the blrine, being usually inoiie 
Bolnable in weak. But their proportion is a constaatly varj- 
vlff ratio, dependent on the combinations. Thus^ sulphate of 
lime (gypsum) is most soluble in brine, standing dt 12 deg. 
of the salom^i^, but combined with other substances may be 
eqiNifly soluble when it is stn^nger. It wiU be seen that the 
brine from the salt marsh precepitates 83 per cent, of its im- 
purities by evaporation. 

Various methods have been practiced to remove these im- 
purities. Lime was formerly used, in small quantities, in 
setfling the brine, but as this has a tendency to unite - with 
thi&dblorine of the salt, and form ehloride of Calcipm, (one of 
the ^ot^t and most unherithy impurities,) it has now. neariy 
fallen into diisuse. Alum, in small quantities, is also som^' 
times used, and found to be far better, for while "limed" salt 
and " alumed" salt were placed side by side in the same store 
house, the former would absorb water from the atmosphere, 
and become caked almost as hard as stone, while the latter 
would remain dry and nncaked. This ability to remain dry 
and loose is one of the best practical tests of the purity of 
salt ; for while pure salt does not absorb water from the air, 
but remains dry, impure salt absorbs moisture freely, which, 
in its turn, attracts dust and any light particles of matter. 
This absorbent power is owing to the presence of the chlo- 
rides of magnesium and calcium, which are both remarkably 
deliquescent. There is another method of purifying salt, 
considered as good as by the alum process, and as possessing 
some advantage over it. This is to mix a small amount of 
common clay with the brine in the settling tanks. This car- 



4A G20L0GI0AL BUKTZT. 

ries a portion of the impurities to the bottom without any 
chemical union, and in this respect it is preferable to all other 
purifiers. These three methods have all been thoroughly 
tested at Onondaga, and so fully has ihe experience settled 
file question, that the superintendent, for 1852, says that ^ the 
public interests would be promoted by the entire jwohibition 
of the use of Hme." He adds, also, the foUowing significant 
remarks : " It has long been known that if brin» is allowed 
to stand exposed to the air for some days, it needs no other 
preparation." Large reservoirs, for the latter purpose, com 
be made at small cost, of clay, which is abundant near all oar 
springs and marshes. 

Ko refining process is used at Turk's Island, or most of tK 
West India Islands. 

The cost of making the salt, per bushel, and presenting it 
to the market at various points, is interesting to manufecturers: 

At Vale&oia, Spain, .04 < 

At Berre, France, ^OS 

In the West Indies, 08 to .12 

At Hazatlan, Mexico, . . . ^ . . •!? 
The above are by solar eyaporation. 
Kanawha, Va., 17 

The Saginaw, Michigan, enterprise gives the following 
items as the cost, at that place, per barrel, by artificial heat, 
in 1863: 

Labor, ... . . . .20 

Wood, . / f . M ' 

Barrel, ... . . • .36 

Packing, .04 

Nails, Ac, ...... .02 

National tax, . . . .11 

Total, . . $1.08 

Or, per bushel, • . .22 

Or, per bushel, without barrels, . . . ^ . .i&. 

Cost, by solar method, for 2,000 barrels : 

Labor, ... $2,000 

Barrels, . 6,000 

Packing, &c.. , . . . . . 1,600 

Interest on capital, at 7 per cent., . . 8,080 

Total, . . $14,680 

Per barrel, • -73 

Per bushel, ........ .16 



eXOLOOT OF KANSAS. 46 

Per bushel, without barrel, .08} 

We are infonned that this was more than the cost at Onon- 
daga at that time ; yet salt, at this timq, is selling for $2 per 
bnshel in many parts of Kansas. # 

We are frequently asked, when a weak salt spring is fonnd 
at the surface, how far it will be necessary to penetrate into 
Ae earth to obtain strong, paying brine. There is no d^nite 
mle on this subject, except what is applicable to particular 
localities. Eyen in the same locality, variouB wells meet with 
brine of different density at the same depth. In most cases 
stronger brine can be obtained by boring, provided th^ sup- 
ply is reached at a lower level. But a spring at the surface 
may approach in an oblique direction from a distance, and the 
boring pass through the upper or diluted portion, and then 
obtain only fresh water. At Prussian Minden, a verjr weak 
brine at the smrfiace, famished, at 2,515 feet, a bushel of salt 
to 165 gallons of water. A well in the Muskingum valley, 
Ohio, which yielded a brine containing a bushel of salt to, 600 
gallons at the surface, gave a bushel to 50 gallons at 1,000 
feet In the Eimawha valley, springs at the surface giving a 
bushel of salt to 350 gallons of water, at 750 feet gave a brine 
yielding a bushel to every 32 gallons, while in the same bor- 
ing, at a depth of about 1,500 feet there was no increase of 
strength. A boring at East Saginaw, gave a brine at 70 feet 
which required 2,600 gallons to make a bushel of salt ; but 
at 639 feet gave a bushel for every 30 gallons of water, the 
brine standing at 1 deg. in the former, and 90 deg. in the lat- 
ter case. The Bay City well, at the same • place, gave an 
equally strong brine at 613 feet. The brine at Saginaw is 
usually strongest at from 500 to 650 feet, beyond which it 
grows weaker. At Onondaga, New York, the brine aver- 
aging 72 deg. by the salometer (35 gallons to a bushel of salt) 
is found at 310 feet, and after tliat depth is passed the brine 
grows weaker. At Liverpool, N. T., the well is but 100 feet 
deep. At Pomaroy, Ohio, at 1,200 feet, the brine gives a 
bushel to 56 gallons. 

The most regular increase in boring which has come under 
our notice, was that of tiie East Sagiiifaw Company, at a well 



46, GSPIiO^lCAL aUBVEY. 

aboQt three-fourths of a mile northeast of. the village^ on the 
banks of the river. It was as follows, yiz : 

At 90 feet atkb bnne stood at 1^ saldmetdr . At 533: fU the brinc^tooad at i^saloxneter. 



At 102 '* 






' 2P 




At 559 


( < 


(( 


(( 


60«> 


It 


At2n ♦ " 






' IQO 




At 560 


i(( 


If 


(( 


64° 


IC 


At203 <' 






' u© 




At 006 


( ( 


• ( ( 


( c 


86° 


■«< 


At487 






26° 




At 639 


f ( 


( c 


( t 


90° 


C ( 


A4-Kie << 






lAO 

















fiy these examples from various places it will be seen that 
no rule exists by which the strength of the brine can be esti- 
mated prior to actual test by boring. In the eastern part of 
Kansas, in the Goal Measures, though good and profitaUe 
wells may be found, we cannot expect that any two wells will 
give brine of the same strength at the same depth. The ex- 
tensive deposits of the salt group on the Solomon, Republjcan 
and Saline rivers, however, give the best reasons to b^eve 
that a fixed rule nlay].be found for that geological deposit, sim- 
ilar to that at the Onondaga systetii. Or, full as probably, a 
bed of rook saU may be penetrated, to which a shaft may . be 
sunk, and the dry salt mined like coal. This idea is favored 
by the fact that nearly all the large deposits of rocksalt are 
found in the same geologieal formation, vis: the Triasaic Ibe 
analysis of the salt from the Tuthill marsh shows the eolire 
absence of chloride of calcium, which is one of the peculiari- 
ties of rock salt. 

THEORY OF SAM SPBIN^afS. 

The theory of salt springs is this : Below the surface, at 
variousidepths, are deposits of salt, either in the form of rock 
salt or saliferous shales or sandstone, in which the article is 
more or less disseminated. The surfi^ce and subterranean 
streams of fresh water come in contact with the salt, and are 
changed to brine. This brine either directly or indu'eedy rises 
to the surfjEMDe. In its course upward it mingles with sur&ce 
streams or oiher< fresh water, and becomes diluted. On this 
account the brine, when it issues as a spring, is seldom suffi- 
ciently strong for profitable use in salt manufi^ture. We 
know of none in the United States which, for anythtpg, more 
tiian a small local demand, are used in their natural state, or 
as they are found at the surface. Kwe can, by any means, 



l^g tMs fiftturatbd brine, brfcare ito dilution, to ear tanke^ we 
^aofi mannfa^tare a biii»&el of Bdtfrom less flian 35 gallons. ^ 

^}m is attemji^d^ and ff ei^tt^tfy m& great success, by 
boring dcKvm beliow the "ilcflQenee of sorfaoe water. The fresh 
^ater is kept JTroni, flow&ig in, by tabing, and the brine rises 
almbfit to the top of the well. 

PURITY OF THE SALT. 

An item not to be overlooked in considering the character 
and value of the Kansas salt, is its relative purity. The an- 
alysis of the salt from Osawatomie, made by Dr. C. T. Jack- 
son, of Boston, is as follows, as contained in his letter: 

Boston, June 28, 1862. 
Beak Sxii:~I h&ve made a chemidftl aBaiysis of the sample of salt sent me by 
Mr. Chestnut, of Osawatomie, Kansas, and find it consists of— 

Chloride of Soditun (pure silt) 97.947 

Chloride of Magnesium (Muriate of Magnesia) :...« 0*482 

Chloride of Calcium (Muriate of Lime) .706 

Oxide of Iron 0.800 

ISufphate of Soda .,:...... 0.166 

100.000 
The saline spring is uncommonly strong, and with proper methods of manufac- 
ture will give an abundance of excellent salt. I remain. 

Tour obedient serrant, Ac. , 

CHA8. T. JACKSON, 

State Assayer. 
All of which is respectfully. submitted, 

WM. CRBSXKtrr, President. 
HerrtB. Gilixtt, Vloe-Pres't. 
A. Gove, Secretary. 

S. K. Jordan, ) 
Charles Gale, > Directors. 
HbrrvSTswicam, ) 

This gives about 2 per cent, only of impurities; 

The analysis of the salt and brine from the Tathill marah, 
made by Prof. C. F. Chandler, of the School of Mines, Co- 
Inmbia Ooilege, N. Y., is as follows: 

Goii. Brine, Brine, 1 

■ ^^^' loopts. ty,a,'gai. 

Chloride of Sodium. .96.680 4.706 2;6i6t.20 

Sulphate of Soda 1.060- O.WS 846.^ 

Stdphate of Lime OvSJlO a.167 05.41 

Chloride of Magnesium ;; O.^OO O^.iSl 140.89 

O^de of Iron traoe. trace. 

Sand and aay..... 0.050 O.CttO 0.61 

Water M» 04;231 87;6ir:85 

100.000 90.900 60,778.10 
Dennty of brine, 1.0421— O.liB Baome. 
Total saline matter in brine, 6.779. 
Chloride of Sodium per U. S. gallon of 281 cubic inches 6.!^ os. 



• 



48 eBOLOOICAL flUBTHT. 

This gives one bushel of solid matter to 110 gallons, or one 
bn^hel of pure salt to 130 gallons of brine. The water wa^ 
taken by me from a boring, within four feet of the sor&ce. 
The salt, I took from one of fifly hoUow lagsj in which it was 
being made. The percentage of solid impurities is 2.55, and 
contains no chloride of calcium. No attempt was made to 
purify the salt, as the parties making it had no previous 
knowledge of the business. The ordinary market salts of the 
United States contain from two to six percentage of impuri- 
ties ; a larger portion being nearer the latter than the former 
standard. 

By a recentily patented method, a very superior " medicated 
salt is manufactured at Onondaga, and sold at high prices, 
nnder the name oi factory fUedy^^ for table use and dairy pur- 
poses. We copy from the. report of the Onondaga Salt 
Springs the analysis: \ 

CSiloride of Sodium.... •••. ...............97.600 

Sulphate of lime (combined) — < 1 . 124 

«• '• (free) 0.227 

Sulphate of Magnesia 0.077 

Carbonate of Lime 0.1«2 

Water 0.810 

100.00 

This gives but 1.60 per cent, of solid impurities. The cel- 
ebrated " Stoved Ashton salt," of England, contains about the 
same quantity. They are acknowledged to be the best salts 
in the world, and are prepared with great care. It will be 
seen that our unrefined salts are not far inferior. 

"We give below a statement of the impurities of various 
commercial salts : 

Foreign. Percent. 

Salz , 3.12 

Chateau Salfna, France 2.12 

Sea Bait of St. Malo *00 

'^Gemmon Scottlab" 6.46 

^t. Ubes, best 2.36 

." 2d quality 7.21 

** 3d quality U.04 

Droitwich, Siigland v. . . 3.17 

. Pomestlo. 

Kanawha, best of sl^ analysis 1.85 

** poorest of six analysis 6.07 

' * average of six analysis S.U 

Qreat Salt Lake, (G. H. Cook) l.U 

Onondaga, average ' 2.50 



t > 



OK0L0G7 OF iAlTBASi O 

Salt Marsh, Kanaas*..: /...'...* %M 

Osawatomle, '* ♦ t.Oi 

't^ok wKb ar6 interest inW airiftyE&' of "96^ v^ filid 
in tlib Kcj'w Amerifeah C^blopoedia, andki tocAimtialEw|>oi?t 
of tbe'Snp'erintcfiaont o^ tlifelOAolWaga^Srit' Spring, -fttat®^^ 
ments of llio ingrcrdieri© fotiiid^fiiflie fitilte of the prindpftl 
sources 6f the'strpi^iefs -of th«-^rldi • The read w»wiB' \k 
struck AVlriitiio rmnai^J^Wd pmftjr of laUeriiiBariy^dlofiihe- 
specimciis bxaniined. ' TbiS is so strongly dppaj?e0&itiiat tkiel* 
conclusion Is irrfestible tBat they ^ are chotoe seleetioziB, wd 
not fair samples of th^ oi^iimry conun^^tad sirticle Bent tO" 
market from the various placed named; * Thtts, fcurte^ii flam- 
pies of forei^ '' salt; from Vie,* Fftmicfe,' GhesMre^ Eiiglaiid^ - 
('^tfne coimnbti/l British bay,-fibhei*y, r<)icfcflalt^''*<0(Hnfiio%'?> 
from Hollana,-ATigtdllk; Obracao, St.= BStls and 'St ^lfai?&ii», 
are found to contain less than 1 petctot. of imjHlrijtieis, and 
ten of iheni- having no dhloride of dalcium, and toother 
four only a trace. Cheshire " extria lx)tigh ccwnmoitt''- ha»tmt 
1.48 per cent. pdy. And among- the' most impulse aife the^ 
stoved salte, vizV" A^Irtdn's; liTI ^'^(^% %M\ fend Q^vkm?^ 
l:S9 per cent. If such were the cotiiihon articles ^m 'those 
places, tod at the lowest prioeis, wonW the stoved salfche sent 
out at high prices, totf fiiid ready sale ^ 'a- very snperibr "arti-^ 
cle? lEfiiie analyses tyf^AtoeHcan* salt, frOD^^ 
dag'a, Saltiville,' Pa;, Texas, Holtouj Vki, are abofdand to con- 
tain lesfe than 1 Jier cent. And^eiren'BteiJ)le8ftvMOnowda^ 
ga are marked as less than 1;6S p6f eeht. If theae \^i^e= an 
average, dr fair samples, wouJditpay to refine salt, by a chem- 
ical process, at sever^ tiWiedtlie icoBt of the ordinary bnt hot- 
ter article, as is^- done in mstMiig the "factory 'filkid ?^ Men 
do not pay a h?gh pfee, wlieh they can get abetter'commOd- 
ity foir less moiiey . "We are therefore cornpetted to come to 
the conclusion 'that 'the cases quoted aa^e to be considered » 
clioic6 selections, and iiot average samples of commercial salt. 
We ajre^s^tisfied'that the ordinary ' artfclefound in the E^ifias 
market seidbhi crifatainfi Jess tha!n 3 percentage of imptiritie»v 



I M l .11.1 .»»l»»»»»y| 



«!%& bofiiiMUiy at JSlx>intf oouSLlr* KffitfWi .^Ifip t^i^ll JM? «#|i!lM»Al^Rn^I>«^^ 
of impurities, but we do not think that statement reUabie^ 



: • • . •• •••• 

• • • - • • V • 



8TATI8TI0ei OF SALT. 



The aoqoioimt of BsiXt ^KNosiuiMdr in ^le United BtfttaSy in 1880, 
was about: 80)000,000. bushels, or nearly onebnshel to every 
inhabitant A larger. ^oantity per head was nsed at the 
Korth than at the South, so that our Western States consume 
fully one bushel to each individual. As civilization and the 
arts Increase, this per ciapita is found to increase in a laiger 
ratio. Qne-haU of our national conmunpticm is imported, 
and, ^f the domestic product, "Neiw York furnishes nearly one- 
half. Duijngthe four years firom 1861 to '64, inclusive, she 
made^> QA.an av^rjsg^j 7,803,870 bushels per annum. Kew 
York salt stands first in the market, which arises principally 
from i|& uniform character, and this uniformity comes from 
the ri^d systei]pi,pf Stat^ inspection, which Michigan and other 
States iwould do well to copy. 

Jfiehigap, stimulated by a bonus of ten cents per bushel- 
commenced the salt manufacture by making 20,000 bushels 
in I860, which increased to 2,331,780 bushels ; and in 1864 
replaced If ew York salt in the port of Chicago alone to the I 
extent of 1;700,000 bushels. . Very little salt is made west of 
the States of Ohio and H^gan, and Kansas should not only 
replace the salt from, those States, but also in the St Louis 
mfg*kist We haye ,tbe natural supply, and the raihoad facil 
ities for doing it The Union Pacific Railway will be com- 
pleted to our salt territory as soon as the works can be built, 
and theu the, Eastern. salts should be met half way in trans- 
portation. The present consumption in Kansas is nearly 
200,000 bushels per amiupi, saying nothing about the Denver 
market, which receives its supply from the East Missouri, 
lotwa, l^nsas, wA the adjoining territory, are estimated to 
consume 2,500,000 bushels yearly, and the amount is rapidly 
increasing. We can supply all this and more, and thus add 
millions of wealth to our State. We predict that ere many 
years JE^ansas will become one of the first salt-producing States 
in the Union. Our salt resources appear to be perfectiy in- 
exhaustible. 

The abundant supply, our dry chmate, and the good market, 



GBOLOaT OF XANSA0. 



61 



offer an extra inducemeBt for capitiJists to develop this article 
of daily and hourly coBsnmptiotk 

For an easy and conyenient method of finding the strength 
of brine, instnunents are used called hydrometers and salome- 
ters. The former, by Beaume, is in common use amongscien- 
tific men. By simply putting Sb in. toy. liquid, it shows by a 
tube graduated fiK)m to lOO ieg. the density, compared with 
pure distilled water* By Beaunae, saturated brine stands at 
26 deg.* Thesalometer also takes pure ^terap its standard 
or point, and pure saturated brine 88 XOO deg, Oonsequent- 
ly, the instrument sinks fix)m to 100 deg., according as the 
quantity of salt approaches full strength. Thus, brine at 10 
deg. by the salometer will give a budiel of salt for every 256 
gallons. 

The following table, calculated Ibr Beaume'i hydrometer, 
the salometer, percentage of salt and spedfic gravity, we take 
the liberty of copying from the GeologiciEd Survey of Michi- 
gan, (1861) by WinchelL It is at the same time scientific, 
practical and reliable: 



•ThetpceUlogxmTilyof iMBr«Mititt»t«At>rla« !• 1.9HB, or nbout ciM-flMi part 






» » * * 



0S OBOLOGIpAL BUV.TXT. 

CHiokig a eompariaon of ^JlfetWt0ip^€tl^m»f(»tiievtFeniith 
>.,.,- ^'''df'Briri&,'fratti<im>it}SfUwatim. 



■■From tUi taUa Um propartlw uid cap&biliU«B of ttnj brine may be 
M««ct«iii«d bj knowing ila atrength u ahown by the salometer. Bappose, 
for Inituiee, the aalometec ehaws 63 degrees. The t»ble ekama at a glanoa 
thai thii eorrespondi to 18. T8 degreei of Betume'a hjrilroiaeter, a speoifio 
graTityofl.IDO, and a percentage of 13.62; while a wine pint of the 
hrina wonld fiunitli 1092 graina of solid residue, and 44.7 gallone would 
prodnw » bnihel," 



OBOLOGT OF KANSAS. 53 

This table is calculated for pure solutions^f salt. When 
the strength of the brine is .taken by the salometer, the per- 
centage of impurities must be added. Thus, the instrument 
in the brine at Tuthill's marsh, stood at 23 deg., which gives 
one bushel to 109 gallons ; but, adding 17 per cent.' for im- 
purities, shows one bushel of pure salt to every 128 gallons, 
nearly. 






• • • 



• It 

• • 



APPENDIX. 



The following letter from O. B. Gunn, Esq., who, as Chief 
Engineer, made the iirst survey for the railroad ia the Kan- 
sas Yallej, is valuable in showing the relative heights of 
varions places in the northeastern part of the State : 

Atohibon, Kansas, Feb. 11, 1865. 
Prof, JB, F, Mudge — Dear Sir : Your fayor oame duly to hand. * * * 
The rise from Wyandotte to Fort Biley is as follows, starting from low 
wftter in the Missouri river at Wyandotte : 

Wyandotte to.Lawrenoe, 39 miles, rise 62.022 feet ; ayerage, 1.C6 feet. 

Lawrenee to Topeka, 26 miles, rise 60.04 feet ;. ayerage, 2.03 feet. 

Topeka to Manhattan, 60 miles, rise 120.06 feet ; ayerage 2.04 feet. 

Manhattan to Fort Biley, 17 miles, rise 54.03 feet; ayerage^.02 feet. 

Total distance, 132 miles ; total rise, 297.052 feet ; ayerage per mile 
.2.260 feet. 

The foregoing eleyations are the surface of the water in each case. 
The distances are by railroad suryeys, and are, probably, not more than 
two-thirds of the distance which the water actually trayels. 

Starting from low water in the Missouri riyer at Atchison, the eleya- 
tions are as follows : 

Water in Grasshopper at Muscotah, 164 feet aboye the Missouri riyer. 

Water in Big Blue at Irying, 317 feet aboye the Missouri riyer. 

It is about 60 miles from Atchison to Wyandotte, by water. I Assuming 
that the Missouri riyer falls one foot per mile, which is not far from the 
mark, it brings theeleyation of. Atchison, when reduced to the base of 
the Wyandotte leyels, to an eleyation of 60 feet ; Grasshopper at Musco- 
tah, (same base,) 224 feet; Big Blue at Irying, (same base,) ft77 feet; 
eleyation of Big Blue at Manhattan, (same base), 242.022 ; rise from 
Manhattan to Irying, 134.073. ^ * * * * * 

Yours truly, 0. B. GUNN. 

The following elevations are from explorations and surveys 
for a railroad ronte from the Mississippi river to the Paciiic 
Ocean — Vol. XI. They are barometrical measurements, 






56 



GEOLOGICAL 8UBVET. 



taken at camps, and therefore are not so aceur^kte as those 
given by Mr. Gnnn, but are sufficiently so as to *show the 
total rise in crossing the State westerly, and to show the 
gradual increase of height. The elevation of the camp above 
the surface of water is not given. The mouth of the Kansas 
is about 860 feet above the ocean. 

Near Shawnee Mission, Xohiisoii Go^, long. 'Qi° '86'' aibove sea, 991 feet. 
Cedar Creek, near Olathe, - - - - 

Tecumseh, 

Ten miles west of Fort Riley, 

Mouth of Saline river, long. 97® 40^ 

Mouth of Walnut creek, on Arkansas river, 

Near Arkansas rivec, long. 99<* S5' 

Fort A'tkinsoni?^ long. 100*» 

Santa Fe oroSsing'of ArkaHsas^long. 100*^ 40^ 

Near Arkansas river, long. 101° 20'' 

Near Arkansas river, west line of State, long. 102° 

The result of all the elevation^ shows a rise for the first 

k a « ( 

hundred miles of a Httle over two feet to the mile. . iPor the 
second and third hundred miles, about six feet to th€l mile, 
and for the last hundred miles, about seven feet, or a total 
rise of 2,200 feet in 400 miles. This shows a very easy grade 
for a rai^oad route. Plevation of Fort Scott,f 1^,000 feet ; 
elevati<m of Fort Leavenworth, .896 feet. 



»i 



li 



4( 



t( 



4( 



(i 



— ** 



(( 



1,047 feet. 
1,234 feet. 
1,459 feet. 
1,592 feet. 
1,872 feet. 
2,004 feet. 
2,adOfaet. 
2,401 t)6et. 
2,692 feet.. 
3,047 feet. 



. fFromreeorda of the Fort. 
tFrom tb« Fort records. 




^1 



I 



ERR^T^. 



Page 5, line 17, for " northeastern," read " northwestern.'' 
Page 30, lines 30 and 35, for "proxide," read ''peroxid."