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Full text of "First Brazilian Seminar on Education of the Deaf-Blind"

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in 2012 with funding from 

Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/firstbrazilianseOOunse 



Tjaqao Brasilia de Educc^ao da Doi.c- 

ABEDEV C\ 



198 _ SAO PAUL' 
I BRAZILIAN SEMINAR ON EDUCATION 

OP THE DEAF-BLIND ' : " ; ' : " " 



* I SEDAV * 



PROGRAM 



ao Paulo November 6 through 11, 1977 BRAZIL 

OVE&BER - SUNDAY 

6 12:00/2:00 p.m. REGISTRATION TUCA 

R. Monte Alegre, 1024 

3:00 p.m. INAUGURAL SESSION 

Prof. Dorina de Gouvea Nowill - Brazil 
Prof; Ana M. Rimoli de Faria Doria - Brazil 

/ - MONDAY 

9:00/10:15 a.m. DEFINITIONS, RESPONSIBILITIES AND RIGHTS OP 
THE DEAP-BLIND 

Dr. Richard Kinney - U.S.A. 

President, The Hadley School for the Blind 

10:45/12:00 DEFINITIONS, RESPONSIBILITIES AND RIGHTS OP 
THE DEAF-BLIND (The History of the Education 
of the Deaf -Blind in the World) 

Dr. Edward J. Waterhouse - U.S.A. 

Ex-Director of Perkins School for the Blind 

12:00/2:00 p.m. LUNCH TIME 

2:00/2:30 p.m. ABEDEV ACTIVITIES IN BRAZIL 

Prof. Geraldo Sandoval de Andrade - Brazil 
President, Brazilian Association for the 
Education of the Visually Handicapped - ABEDEV 
Head of SENAI Industrial Training for the 
u Visually Handicapped - Sao Paulo 

^ Member of the Brazilian Delegation of the 

^ World Council for the Welfare of the Blind- WCWB 

\ 2:30/3:30 p.m. TESTIMONIAL OP LIFE EXPERIENCES 

' Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Dowdy - U.S.A. 

Kansas City - Kansas 

4:00/5:00 p.m. THE HANDICAPPED: INTEGRATION OR SEGREGATION? 
Prof. Jose Geraldo Silveira Bueno - Brazil 
Director-General, Division of Education for the 
Disorders of Communication, Pontifical 
Catholic University of Sao Paulo - DERDIC/PUC 



PBOGHA 









I SEBAV 



NOVEMBER - TUESDAY - 

8 9:00/10:15 a.m. 



10:45/12:00 



12:00/2:00 p.m, 
2:00/3:30 p.m. 



4:00/5:00 p.m. 



NOVEMBER - WEDNESDAY 

9 9:00/10:15 a, 



10:45/12:00 



DIAGNOSIS, EVALUATION AND EDUCATIONAL 

PLANNING OP DEAF-BLIND SHILDHEH 
Miss Ideke de Lew - Nederland 
Coordinator, Technical Department of 
Instituut voor Doven 

REHABILITATION AND HABILITATION OP THE 

DEAF-BLIND IN GERMANY 

Dr. Karl-Heinz Baaske - Fed. Hep. of Germany 
Director of the School for the Deaf -Blind 
and the German Deaf -Blind Center - Hannover 

HJNCH 

ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OP CENTERS 
AND SERVICES FOR DEAP-BLIND CHILDREN IN THE 
UNITED STATES OP AJSERICA 
Mr. Robert Dantona - U.S.A. 
Coordinator, Centers and Services for Deaf- 
Blind Children, 

Special Services Branch of the 
Bureau of Education for the Handicapped, 
Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare - Washington D.C. 

TESTIMONIAL OP LIFE EXPERIENCES 

Prof* Eneida Athayde Pinheiro Werner - Brazil 
Prof, Laura Maria Batista Goncalves - BRAZIL 
Technical Team&r Multi-Handicapped, 
Instituto Helena Antipoff - Rio de Janeiro 



TEACHER TRAINING COURSE 

Prof. Cristina S. Castro - U.S.A. 
Supervisor, Department for Deaf -Blind Childre 
Perkins School for the Blind 

PEVEIOPMENTS IN PRE-VOCATIONAL TRAINING OP BLI28 

THE DEAP-BLIND SCHOOL LEAVERS 
Prof. Peter J. Binns - Australia 
Supervisor of Residences, The Royal New South 
Wales Institute for Deaf and Blind Children 



12:00/2:00 p.m. LUNCH 



PROGRAM 



I SEDAV 



NOVEMBER - WEDNESDAY 

9 2:00/3:30 p.m. 



4:00/5:00 p.m. 



PARENTS COUNSELING 

Prof. Elizabeth Banta - U.S.A. 
Perkins School for the Blind 

TESTIMONIAL OP LIFE EXPERIENCES 
Miss Chan Poh Lin - Singapore 



NOVEMBER - THURSDAY 

10 9:00/10:15 a.m. 



THE PROGRAMME FOR THE MULTI-HANDICAPPED BLIND 
AND DEAF-BLIND CHILDREN AT CONDOVER 
Mr. Anthony Jarvis -U. Kingdom 
Headmaster, Condover Hall, Royal National 
Institute for the Blind - London 



10 10:45/12:00 



12:00/2:00 p.m. 
2:00/3:00 p.m. 



3:00/4:00 p.m, 



SOCIAL PROFESSIONAL INTEGRATION 
Dr. Robert J. Smithdas - U.S.A. 
Director, Community Education, 
Helen Keller National Center for Deaf -Blind 
Youths and Adults 

LUNCH 

ATTEMPTS TO IMPLANT DEAF-BLIND EDUCATION IN 

BRAZIL 

Prof. Nice Tonhozi de Saraiva - Brasil 
Pedagogic Counselor for the Sectors of 
Education of the Deaf and Blind, Service 
for Special Education, Municipality of 
Sao Bernardo do Campo - SP. 

EXPERIENCES IN THE EDUCATION OF THE DEAF-BLIND 

IN BRAZIL 

Teacher for Deaf and Deaf -Blind 
"Vila Santa Maria" Primary and Secondary 
State School, Nucleo for the Education of 
the Handicapped in Audio communication 



11 - FRIDAY . 

9:00/12:00 

12:00/2:90 p.m. 

2:00/5:00 p.m. 



MEETING OF GROUPS 
LUNCH 

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 

CLOSING SESSION with speech by 
Dr. Sarah Couto Cesar - Brazil 
Director-General, National Center for 
Special Education, Ministry of Education and 
Culture - CENESP/ifflEC. 












. : 
■ 



I BRAZILIAN SEE5INAE ON EDUCATION 
OF THE DEAF-BLIND 

* I SFDAV * 

by Dorina de G-ouvea No will 

"Nothing is permanent, except change" — Heraclitus. 

From Homer to Helen Keller, mankind has gone through enormous 
transformations in all areas of knowledge. Changes have affected 
man's attitudes in relation to thor men, thus modifying the 
situation of the "blind in society. 

The attitudes of the many societies in relation to the "blind have, 
through time, become embodied in prejudice and stereotypes, which, 
in some cases, remain with us till today. 

Berthold Lowenfeld, in his book "The Visually Handicapped Child in 
School," studies this problem and establishes four phases in the 
evolution of the image of the blind held by societies in general. 
They ares 

Separation — through annihilation or veneration 

Institutionalization 

Emancipation 

Integration 
this last being what we are working toward but do not have totally 
within grasp. 

In spite of their being related to the evolution of the history 
and culture of peoples, Lowenfeld affirms that many characteristics 
of these phases are still deeply rooted in the behaviour of 
contemporary societies. 

Homer, the legendary poet, personifies the phase of separation by 
veneration. II is poetic inspiration was attributed to supernatural 
powers . 

As was Homer, the blind singers of China and the so-called "walking 
libraries" of India were respected and venerated for their uncommon 
gifts, but were considered as being apart from the societies in 
which they lived. 



Helen Keller, just as Nicholas Saunderson and Maria Theresia von 

Paradis in the eighteenth century, symbolize the phase of emancipat- 
ion. 

They are the self-taught, who through their creative accomplish- 
ments, persistence, and dynamism, inspired the first teachers of 
the blind, the visually handicapped, and the deaf -blind* 

Concrete movements for the education of the blind are relatively 
recent. It was only at the end of the eighteenth century that a 
French idealist, Valentin Hauy, decided to teach a young boy, 
Francois lesueur, to whom he gave an aim every Sunday as he left 
mass at one of the churches in Paris. 

Becoming enthusiastic over Lesueur' s perception, Hauy began to 
teach him. His success with the lad led him to experiment in the 
education of other blind children. 

This simple, humble event, made bright by the spirit of a great 
teacher, from there on opened the doors of learning and culture 
to thousands of blind people. 

Among the many things to his credit is Hatty systematization of 
the education of the blind, trying to keep it as proximate as 
possible with that of the sighted. 

The eighteenth century, also known as "the century of the beggars" ? 
in its later decades, brought together, in Prance, philosophers 
and writers interested in the characteristics of human thought 
and intelligence — such as teachers of the caliber of Valentin 
Hauy and the Abbe de l'Epee, who devoted himself to the education 
of the deaf. 

Without a doubt, the example of self-educated blind, such as 
Weissemburg and Maria Theresia von Paradis, encouraged Hauy to 
work on his educational experiments, for, -until 1784, nothing 
had been documented on this type of teaching other than Diderot's 
"Lettre sur les Aveugles" , published in 1749. 

Diderot was the first person to analyze the thought processes of 
the blind and to suggest some principles for their complete educat- 
ion. / 



Diderot's interest was theoretical and inspired on works such as 
Locke's "Essay Concerning Human Understanding". This essay is on 
Molyneux', experiment with the possibility of a person blind frcn 
"birth, upon acquiring eight through the removal of a cataract, 
being able to visually recognize forms such as cubes and spheres, 
which he had known by touch. Molyneux proves, through facts, 
that transform! of the sense of touch to that of sight does not 
exist. 

Still analyzing theories of Locke and Berkeley, Diderot in his 
"Letter on the Blind" establishes three basic principles for the 
teaching of the blind; 

1. That the sense of touch of the blind does not become sharper 
through loss of vision, but that the loss of one sense- 
exacts an increase in attention which feeds on impressions 
of the other senses. 

2. That we should base a blind person's education on what he 
has, not on what he has lost, principally on his contact 
with the world. 

3. That the deaf -blind can be educated, through the patient and 
insistent relating of tactile signs with the object touched. 

The third of these principles was, therefore, pronounced almost a 
century before the training of Laura Bridgman, deaf -blind, 
predecessor of Helen Keller, and contemporary of Ann Sullivan at 
the Perkins Institute in the United States. 

Laura Birdgman's accomplishments, though elementary, must have 
struck deep in that extremely creative soul who was Ann Sullivan. 

Summoned by the Keller family, this simple teacher from the Perkins 
Institute began to live with Helen and study a means oc communicat- 
ion between the deaf -blind girl and the world about her. 

Ann is an example of creativity, of love, and perseverance. She 
never allowed herself to be discouraged by the daily frustrations 
of the inglorious task of establishing a link between the 

/. 



- 4 - 

immensity of an objective and the tiny mind confined "by the dark 
obscurity of the double sensorial insensibility. 

A fountain of crystalline water and the energetic strenth struck a 
spark in a fine aind and brought about that teaching phenomenon, 
which, today, the world knows as the Miracle of Ann Suulivan. 

A whole educational process was built by these exceptionally 
gifted women in spite of Helen's double handicap. Prom their 
constant work benefits today fall ur upon hundreds of deaf-blind 
all over the world. 

Ann, like Hauy, began a system, created methods, developed 
procedures that have been consolidated into the methodology now 
adopted for the education of the deaf -blind. 

I still remember with admiration and enthusiasm my own stay of a 
few days at Perkins Institute's Fisher's Cottage in Boston, with 
a group of deaf -blind girls. Observation of their agility in the 
.activities of daily life, 01 the advantage they took of their 
school disciplines, of the tremendous potential of their remaining 
senses strengthened my belief in the unknown and unexplored 
capabilities of the human being. They were unforgettable days. 

The week, which begins today, in the midst of participants 
handicapped in audio-communication, will also be for all of us an 
experience rich in information, inspiration, and achievement which 
will be a high point in the education of the blind in Brazil. 

In several countries of the world, innumerable schools and 
rehabilitation centers, scientifically equipped, habilitate 
hundreds of human beings multi-handicapped, preparing them for a 
normal life of useful, profitable work. 

A number of dedicated teachers throughout tho world devote them- 
selves to the difficult task of constructing an invisible network 
of communication among the souls and hearts blocked by deficiency 
and the colorful and sonorous world. 

To worthy, and, at times, anonymous teachers, we owe the opportunity 
of haying with us today people such as Richard Kinney and Mr. and 

/. 



- 5 - 
Leonard Dowdy. They are living examples of the inexhaustable 
human potential and incontestable evidence of the validity of the 
methods and procedures that can he used by specialists. 

In the area of special education, presently, the great preoccupation 
of educators and other professionals is, undoubtedly, the atady of 
the multi -handicapped. 

"The average of incidence of blind children in the population in 
general con decrease as nedical science advances, but we can affirm 
that in absolute numbers blind children with multi-handicaps will 
not decrease". The work that illustrates this is a study done in 
1966 by a group of researchers of the American Foundation for the 
Blind, titled "Blind Children with Multiple Handicaps". 

As campigns for prevention of blindness force down the nurber of 
blind, other progress, principally the survival of the prematurely 
born, are and will be propionate to the existence of double or 
ziulti -handicapped people. Certain epidemic diseases, such as 
rubella, for which there is no mass vaccination, are factors 
for the increase in the number of shildren with congenital double 
or multiple handicaps. 

Certainly, medical science, in its continual process of evolution, 
will find the ways and means to control and diminish the high 
number of multiple handicapped foreseen by recent research in this 
specialized area. 

The precision of tiie equipment in baby wards, vaccinations, and 
programs for early stimulation may contribute to a decrease in the 
number of multi-handicapped. In the reality of today, however, the 
deaf-blind do exist, and his education and his adjustment to life 
is a serious community responsibility. This responsibility is 
magnificently expressed in the Declaration of the Eights of 
Disabled Persons, approved by the XXX General Assembly of the United 
Nations and which says in Article 8^3 

/. 



- 6 - 
"The handicapped have the right to have their special necessities 
taken into consideration on all levels of economic and social plan- 
ning," . 

What is, then, the situation of the education and prof essionaliza- ■ 
Hon of the deaf -blind in Brazil? 

A whole analysis of this intricate problen nust he made, from the 
locating of these people 'by age level to the preparation of human 
resources and the creation of material resources adequate to the 
. specif icneeds of this group of human beings. In fact, those people 
are even today still practically unknown of by government and 
private, authorities in this country, in the area of special 
education. 

Two dedicated and untiring pioneers, Nice Saraiva and Ncusa 
Bassetto, have been fighting to awaken educators and the govern- 
ment to education of the deaf -blind. Their great effort has 
today reached a climax with the opening of the I "Brazilian Seminar 
on Education of the Deaf -Blind, 

The Brazilian Association for the Education of the Visually 
Handicapped (ABEDEV), thanks to the farsightedness of its President, 
Professor G-eraldo Sandoval de Andrade, concentrated its best efforts 
to bringing together representatives of several countries and 
Brazilian professionals in an movement v/orthy of our admiration 
and applause. 

Prom the emancipation of Helen Keller to the integration of Richard 
Kinney, the historical, social, and scientific transformations 
have come about with dizzying speed, characteristic of the spacial 
era of which all of us are a part. 

These transformation have led men of today, in spite of the 
skepticism of many, to try to better the conditions of life of 
their fellow men. This is the sublime mission of the educators 
and other professionals involved in special education. 

We chose, freely, our field of work. Our part in the worldwide 
task of building a world where social justice prevails depends 
greatly on how we use our strength and resources to change unjust 

/. 



preconcepts into valid concepts and to inform the community as 
to the hidden and unexplored abilities of the human "being. 

History is full of examples of those who knew how to win, dirt does 
not always tell of the failures they had to overcome. We cannot 
he triumplhant at the start, hut laborers on a long and arduous 
job, the integration of the deaf -blind in education, at work, and 
in ~jfcn 

In moments of frustration and uncertainty, what serves us as an 
example is the constructive thought of the inspirer of this 
integration, Helen Keller, when she saidj 

-" When one door of happiness closes, another opens; many times, 
however, we look for such a long time at the closed door that we 
do not see the one that has opened for us." 



CURRICULUM VITAE - Resume 
Jose G-eraldo Silveira Bueno 



Rua Cotoxo, 749 
05021 Sao Paulo - SP 



PERSONAL 



Bonis 

Marital Status 

Wife s 



July 9, 1944 in Sao Paulo, SP. 

Married 

Marcia Maria Sinonetti Silveira Bueno 



E D U CA T I N 

School of Education 
University of Sao Paulo 

Pontifical University of 
Sao Paulo 
Specialization Course 

OTHER COURSES 



Degree 



Year 



Licensed, as a 1971 
Teacher 



Audiology "began in 1974. 



Area 



School 
Supervisor 



Audiovisual Methods for Teaching 
Brazilian Institute for Social Studies 



UNESCO - SP - 1968 



- The Development of Language and Communication Disorders 
given by Dr. Gertrude L* Wyatt 

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro 

- The Hearinf Impaired Child - Hearing Education and Language 
Development 

"by Dr. C-uy Pordoncini - DERDl/PUCSP , August 1971 

PRESENT PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES 



Pi r e c to r-G - en o ral - Division of Education and Rehabilitation of 

" " " Communication Disorders - DERDIC - PONTIFICAL 

University of Sao Paulo - PUC/Sao Paulo. 

U ni ve r s i t y Pro lessor - Education as Applied to Communication 

Disorders, Courses Phono audio logy, Pontifical 
University of Sao Paulo 

U ni vo rsit y Pr o f esso r - Theories of Education as Applied to 

Communication Disorders, Courses Phono audio logy, 
Pontifical University of Campinas 

U niver si ty Prof o sso r - The Structure and Function of Teaching in 
Elementary and Secondary Schools, Didactics, 
Courses Physical Education, The Educational 
Society of Guarulhos - SP. 



Jose G-eraldo Silveira Bueno pg. 2. 

TEACHING- ACTIVITIES 

In elementary and secondary schools s 

- Instructor at "I L, Peretz" Recreation Center 

Brazilian Israeli ti School "Scholem Aleichem" - Sao Paulo, 1964 

- Teacher of Brazilian History 

Sao Paulo Educational Institute - BERDIC/PUCSP - 1969-1970 

In Universities s 

- Chaired j "Social Problems of the Audio -Communication Handicapped": 

Courses Education, PUC Sao Paulo, 1974. 

- Training Course Supervisor; Courses Education, PUC Sao Paulo 1974 , 

- Chaired i Theories of Education as Applied to Communication 
Disorders, Course? Phono audio logy, X . T C Sao Paulo, from 1973 to 
present* 

- Chaired; Theories of Educacao as Applied to Communication 
Disorders, PUC Campinas, Course s Phono audio logy, 1972 to present. 

COURSES, COHERENCES and LECTURES GIVEN ; 

- Updating course for Teachers of Special Education for the 
Hearing Impaired; S.Paulo State Department of Education 
DEPJJIC/PUCSP - S.Paulo 1970 

- Conference? Pedagogical Evaluation of Dysacustics 
Brazilian Association of Infantile Neuropsychiatry 
Sao Paulo, February 27, 1973^ 

- Courses Technology as Applied to Special Education 
federal Univers_cy of Eio de Janeiro 

January 1976 « 

- Updating Coarse for Teachers of the Hearing Impaired 
Eederal University of Para and The Para State Department of 
Education,, Discipline; Special Methodology for the Hearing 
Impaired, Belem, February 1976. 

- Training Coarse - Implantation of Pilot Project 
Implementation of Proposed Curriculum for the Hearing Impaired 
The National Center of Special Education/MEC and DEEDIC/PUC 

Sao Paulo, July 1976, 

- The Handicapped Child and the Specialist 
Extension, Updating and Specialization Service 
IUC Sao Paulo, June 1976 . 

ELABORATION AND CO ORDINATION O E COU RSES AN D PROJECTS 

- Coordinator of the Updating Course for the Education of the 
Hearing Impaired - CENESP/KEC - DEEDIC/lUCSP - Sao Paulo, 
August to November 1974, 

- Coordinator of the Course for Updating in the Education of the 
Hearing Impaired - "EEESP/lvlEC - BEEDIC/PUCSP - Sao Paulo, 
July 1975c 



Jo so G-eraldo Silveira Bueno pg.3. 



of the Hearing Impaired. CEWESP/ta!C - DEEDIC/PUCSP, Sao Paulo, 
July/Sept ember 1975. 
. Coordinator for the Working Tean of DERDIO/FUCSP 
Elaboration of the Proposed Curriculum for the Hearing Impaired 
(lrst. through 8th grades of elementary school) 
National Center for Special Edueation/MEC - 1975/76. 

■ Elaborator, together with Prof. Nadyr da Gloria Haguiara 
Cervellini, for he Training of Teachers of the Handicapped in 
Audio communication. Courses Pedagogy PUCSP, Sao Paulo, 
September 1372. 

ICIENTIEIC ACTIVITIES 



Research 

- Methods for Teaching the Hearing Impaired 
Pontifical Catholic University of Sao Paulo 
(a Theses still to be completed). 

PUBLICATIONS 

-"Vocational Orientation for the Hearing Impaired," coll. Alvair 
Pentoado Cervellini, Maria Amalia Azevedo Goldberg and Maria 
Todescan Bias Batistas " Educati o n Today " n2 14, March/April 74. 

li-An Experience in Dramatization in a Specialized School for the 
Hearing Impaired," coll. Maria- Cristina da Cunha Pereira and 
Marthc Eloiza Carrara M denesc. Atualizacao em Audiologia e 
Foni atria , n^ 3. 

- "An Experience in the Area of Physical Education in Specialized 
School for the Hearing Impaired," Educ ac^ao Pisica " , MEC, n^ 23. 



•** *-x-*- **- 




ICE OF THE PRESIDENT 
hard Kinney. B A. LH D 



THE HADLEY SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND 



STREET, WINNETKA, ILLINOIS 60093, U.S. A 
Phone: 312/446-8111 



THE DEFINITION, RESPONSIBILITIES AND RIGHTS OF DEAF-BLIND PERSONS 

By Dr. Richard Kinney, President 
Hadley School for the Blind, U.S.A. 

Delivered at the First Brazilian Seminar on the Education of the Deaf-Blind 
Sao Paulo, Brazil 
November 7, 1977 



Colleagues and Friends: 

Brazil is a great nation. Geographically, it is the largest country in 
the Western Hemisphere. Socially, it is thinking large thoughts about 
the welfare of ALL its citizens, as this significant seminar proves. I 
am honored and happy to be with you. 

You have asked me to speak to you about the definition of deaf-blindness 
and about the rights and responsibilities of people who are deaf-blind. 
I do so both as an educator who is Chairman of the Committee on Services 
to the Deaf-Blind of the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind and 
as a deaf-blind person myself. If this twofold viewpoint gives my remarks 
added perspective, I am all the happier. 

As an educator, I recommend to your consideration the definition adopted 
last September in New York City by the First Helen Keller World Conference 
on Services to Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults. The definition reads that 
deaf-blind individuals are "persons who have substantial visual and hearing 
losses such that the combination of the two causes extreme difficulty in 
the pursuit of educational, vocational, avocational or social skills." 
The key word in the definition is COMBINATION. The person with substantial 
visual loss can still hear and listen. The person with substantial hearing 
loss can still see and observe. But the person with substantial losses of 
both sight and hearing experiences a combination of sensory deprivation 
that may cause extreme difficulty in achieving life's most vital goals. 
Such a person is by definition deaf -blind. 

The foregoing definition has the merit of being functional rather than 
technical. Few things could be more heartbreaking than to tell a person 
experiencing severe sight-hearing loss that he or she is not quite blind 
enough or not quite deaf enough to meet some technical requirement for 
help. Life is more important than any technicality! 







SPONSORS 






'ttsvbufg Pennsylvania 








Charlton Heston 
Beverly Hills. California 

Mrs Waller A Krafll 
Chicago. Illinois 


Arthur N Magill 
National Consultant 
Canadian National Instilutt 

tor the Blind 
Toronto. Canada 


agents Professor o( Ecor 
nversity ol Minnesota 


om, 


=' 






Andrew McNally III 

Rand McNally & Company 



Deaf-blindness in its extreme form means simply that one cannot see, 
one cannot hear, one must rely wholly and utterly on the sense of 
touch to communicate with one's fellow human beings. This is precisely 
what deaf-blindness means to me as an individual. I cannot see the 
brightest light, and if the atomic bomb went off under my chair this 
morning, I doubt that I could hear it. But deaf-blindness need not be 
total to present severe and special problems requiring wise and special 
solutions. If an individual has substantial visual loss and substantial 
hearing loss and the combination of the two is causing extreme difficulty 
in achieving an education or in securing employment or in enjoying 
recreation or in gaining social participation, then that individual 
is deaf-blind. That individual needs our help! 

As to the rights of deaf-blind persons, the Helen Keller World Conference 
on Services to Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults unanimously adopted a 
declaration on this very subject. Let me read it to you now and comment 
on each article. 

Preamble - "Delegates from 30 countries around the world assembled for 
this first international conference on services to deaf-blind youths 
and adults, welcoming the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights 
and the Declaration of the Rights of Disabled persons, have agreed 
upon and have adopted the following Declaration specifically concerning 
the needs and rights of deaf-blind persons and recommend it to the 
attention of the world community:" 

Article 1 - "Every deaf-blind person is entitled to enjoy the universal 
rights that are guaranteed to all people by the United Nations Declaration 
of Human Rights and the rights provided for all disabled persons by 
the Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons." 

This article simply states that deaf-blind people are human beings with 
the same basic rights as all other people, including all other disabled 
people. Who would deny it? According to Dr. Peter Salmon, a noted 
U.S. rehabilitation expert once described deaf-blind people as "vegetables, 
I don't know the expert's name, but I trust that by now the "vegetables" 
have planted him six feet deep. 

Article 2 - "Deaf-blind persons have the right to expect that their 
capabilities and their aspirations to lead a normal life within the 
community and their ability to do so shall be recognized and respected 
by all governments, administrators, educational and rehabilitation 
personnel and the general public." 

This article states that deaf -blind persons are not only human beings, 
but also NORMAL human beings who wish to live normal lives within the 
community. They expect the community to recognize both their desire and 
their capacity to do so. The things that make you happy or sad, make 
deaf -blind people happy or sad. It is as simple as that. 



Article 3 - "Deaf-blind persons have the right to receive the best 
possible medical treatment and care for the restoration of sight and 
hearing and the services required to utilize remaining sight and 
hearing, including the provision of the most effective optical and 
hearing aids, speech training, when appropriate, and other forms of 
rehabilitation intended. to secure maximum independence." 

This article refers to our earlier point that deaf-blindness need not 

be total. In fact, every bit of residual sight and hearing should 

be utilized and enhanced, both through remedial medicine and modern 

technology. Since communication is a two-way exchange, any training 

that can advance a deaf-blind person's ability to speak will be tremendously 

helpful. Please note that the goal sought is to increase the deaf-blind 

person's INDEPENDENCE. 

Article 4 - "Deaf-blind persons have the right to economic security 
to ensure a satisfactory standard of living and the right to secure 
work commensurate with their capabilities and abilities or to engage 
in other meaningful tasks, for which the requisite education and 
training shall be provided." 

This article could be summarized as the right to be useful - the right 
to work, to contribute, to feel one is giving to others as well as 
receiving from others. I have noted that every time a deaf -blind man 
or woman gains a paying job, he or she gains new respect. Money is 
a great equalizer! The surest passport to independence is an adequately 
filled pocketbook. 

Article 5 - "Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to lead an independent 
life as an integrated member of the family and community, including the 
right to live on their own or to marry and raise a family. Where a 
deaf-blind person lives within a family, greatest possible support shall 
be provided to the whole family unit by the appropriate authorities. 
If institutional care is advisable, it shall be provided in surrounding 
and under such conditions that it resembles normal life as closely as 
possible." 

Note that this article not only asserts the deaf-blind person's right to 

be part of a family or of a family environment, but also the right to 

live alone or to be head of a family. Individual desires and circumstances 

will vary, but the right is inherent. I have known deaf-blind persons 

who live happily with their parents, deaf-blind persons who are themselves 

successful, parents, deaf-blind persons who live independently in their own 

apartment and others who prefer the security and comfort of a well-run 

institutional home. I myself lived alone in my own bachelor apartment for 

5 years as a young man, later marrying a blind woman with normal hearing 

and being now the proud father of an athletic 14-year-old son Who specializes 

in golf, baseball, and all forms of pictorial art. The right to a family 

life is as old as Adam and Eve. 



Article 6 - "Deaf-blind persons shall have the right, and at no cost, 
to the services of an interpreter -with whom they can communicate 
effectively to maintain contact with others and with the environment." 

This article emphasizes the vital importance to a deaf-blind person of 
interpreter services as a communication link with the community. The 
words "cost-free" have caused some controversy, but it was the thought 
of the conference that many deaf -blind persons, especially children or 
the elderly, simply will not have personal funds with which to employ 
interpreters. Whether the answer lies in volunteer interpreters, 
interpreters supplied by private social agencies, government-employed 
interpreters or a combination of all three will probably depend on the 
philosophy and culture of each individual nation. But the right to 
communicate is perhaps the greatest single right for which a deaf-blind 
person longs. The human mind will break through any barrier to reach 
other human minds. 

Article 7 - "Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to current news, 
information, reading matter and educational material in a medium and 
form which they can assimilate. Technical devices that could serve to 
this end shall be provided and research in this area shall be encouraged." 

This article extends and reemphasizes the right of the deaf-blind person 
to information and knowledge about the world in which he lives. After 
all, the physical senses are merely channels through which the mind 
observes and communicates with the community and the environment. What 
really matters is the mind behind the senses. To KNOW is more important 
than to see; to UNDERSTAND is more important than to hear. 

Article 8 - "Deaf -blind persons shall have the right to engag,e in leisure 
time recreational activities, which shall be provided for their benefit, 
and the right and opportunity to organize their own clubs or associations 
for self-improvement and social betterment." 

This article draws attention to the fact that life is not all work and 
earnest endeavor, but should also contain a vital element of recreation 
and enjoyment. Having much in common, many deaf -blind people take pleasure 
in sharing activities with other deaf -blind persons. Mutual life enhancement 
is one of the great foundation stones of civilization. 

Article 9 - "Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to be consulted on all 
matters of direct concern to them and to legal advice and protection against 
improper abridgement of their rights due to their disabilities." 

Again and again deaf-blind people have cried out for a larger part in shaping 
their own destinies. The right to make one's own decisions is the basis 
of freedom. Like all other people, deaf -blind persons need options 
from which to choose, choices from which to select. Only by exercising 
his or her judgement can a deaf -blind person function as a fully equal 
citizen in the community. 



The enumerated rights of deaf-blind persons will not be achieved 
in a day or a year or any specific time. Some may call the foregoing 
articles idealistic dreams. Yet the world is built on dreams - 
dreams that have come true or are in the process of coming true. 
Most beautiful of all, dreams imply responsibility. 

The deaf -blind person who demands knowledge and training as a right 
also accepts the responsibility to develop his own potential for the 
benefit of the community. 

The deaf-blind person who insists on respect and independence as a 
right also affirms responsibility for his own actions and respect for 
the rights of others. 

Handicapped or unhandicapped, we are all human beings living on one 
planet and sharing one destiny. What does life require of us but to 
do our best for ourselves and for each other? 



I seminArio brasileiro de educaqao de deficiente audiovisual 



A DECLARATION of rights of 

DEAF-BLIND PERSONS 




I SEDAV - ABEDEV 




HELEN KELLER 

WORLD CONFERENCE ON SERVICES TO DEAF-BLIND YOUTHS AND ADUL 

Conference Tin me: "The Deaf-Blind Person in the Community" 

11-16 SEPTEMBER 1977 

DR. RICHARD KINNEY, Conference Chairman and Chairman 
of WCWB's Committee on Services to the Deaf-Blind 

700 Elm Street, Winnetka, Illinois 60093 United States 
Tel: (312)446-8111 



A DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF DEAF-BLIND PERSONS 

adopted by the 

Helen Keller World Conference on Services to Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults, 
sponsored by the Committee on Services to the Deaf-Blind of the World Council 
for the Welfare of the Blind; September 16, 1977, New York City, U.S.A. 



PREAMBLE 

Delegates from 30 countries around the world assembled for this first international 
conference on services to deaf-blind youths and adults, welcoming the United Nations 
Declaration of Human Rights and the Declaration of the Rights of Disabled Persons, 
have agreed upon and have adopted the following Declaration specifically concerning 
the needs and rights of deaf-blind persons and commend it to the attention of the 
world community: 

ARTICLE 1 

Every deaf-blind person is entitled to enjoy the universal rights that are 
guaranteed to all people by the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights and 
the rights provided for all disabled persons by the Declaration on the Rights 
of Disabled Persons. 



ARTICLE 2 

Deaf-blind persons have the right to expect that their capabilities and. their 



uear-Diina persons nave tne rignt to expect tnat tneir capabilities and.tneir 
aspirations to lead a normal life within the community and their ability to do 
so shall be recognized and respected by all governments, administrators, educat 
and rehabilitation personnel and the general public. 



ional 



ARTICLE 3 

Deaf-blind persons have the right to receive the best possible medical treatment 
and care for the restoration of sight and hearing and the services required to 
utilize remaining sight and hearing, including the provision of the most effective 
optical and hearing aids, speech training, when appropriate, and other forms of 
rehabilitation intended to secure maximum independence. 



ARTICLE 4 

Deaf-blind persons have the right to economic security to ensure a satisfactory- 
standard of living and the right to secure work commensurate with their capabilities 
and abilities or to engage in other meaningful tasks, for which the requisite 
education and training shall be provided. 

ARTICLE 5 

Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to lead an independent life as an 
integrated member of the family and community, including the right to live on 
their own or to marry and raise a family. Where a deaf-blind person lives within 
a family, greatest possible support shall be provided to the whole "family unit by 
the appropriate authorities. If institutional care is advisable, it shall be 
provided in surrounding and under such conditions that it resembles normal life 
as closely as possible. 

ARTICLE 6 

Deaf-blind persons shall have the right, and at no cost, to the services of an 
interpreter with whom they can communicate effectively to maintain contact with 
others and with the environment. 



ARTICLE 7 

Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to current news, information, reading 
matter and educational material in a medium and form which they can assimilate. 
Technical devices that could serve to this end shall be provided and research 
in this area shall be encouraged. 



ARTICLE 






Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to engage in leisure time recreational 
activities, which shall be provided for their benefit, and the right and' opportunity 
to organize their own clubs or associations for self- improvement and social betterment. 

ARTICLE 9 

Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to be consulted on all matters of direct 
concern to them and to legal advice and protection against improper abridgement 
of their rights due to their disabilities. 



For purposes of implementation of the DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF DEAF-BLIND 
PERSONS, the definition of deaf-blind persons adopted by the Helen Keller 
World Conference on Services to Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults is as follows 

"Persons who have substantial visual and hearing losses 
such that the combination of the two causes extreme 
difficulty in pursuit of educational, vocational, avo- 
cational, or social skills". 




BIO-DATA 



RICHARD KINNEY, PRESIDENT 



THE HADLEY SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND 



700 ELM STREET, WINNETKA, ILLINOIS 60093, U. 
Phone: 312/446-8111 
Dr. Richard Kinney — Educator, Lecturer, Poet 

Blind since age 7, deaf since age 20 

Born: June 21, 1923 East Sparta, Ohio U.S.A. 



Degrees: B.A., Summa cum laude, Mount Union College, Alliance, Ohio - 1954 
L.H.D., Mount Union College, Alliance, Ohio - 1966 
L.H.D., Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois - 1977 
Author of: INDEPENDENT LIVING WITHOUT SIGHT AND HEARING (textbook) 

FLIGHT OF ARROWS (poetry) FLUTES BEYOUNG THE DAY (poetry) 

ENCORE (poetry) HARP OF SILENCE (poetry) 

Articles, essays, short stories, poems and humor in various periodicals, 

including the New Outlook for the»Blind, The Rehabilitation teacher, 

The Reader's Digest, Epos, etc., Blindness: 1968 

Relevant Braille (course text) 



Speaking Experience : 

Radio, TV, and platform in 35 countries; guest lecturer at Harvard, 
University of Chile, National University of Paraguay, University of Riyadh 
luncheon or dinner talks — estimated at 1,500. 

Awards: Citation of "Meritorious Service to Literature" 
Midland Author's Society 

Helen Keller GOLD MEDAL for Literary Excellence 
Anne Sullivan GOLD MEDAL 
Dialogue: Public Service Award, 1969 
Illinois Handicapped Citizen of the Year, 1970 
Lions Ambassador of Goodwill, 1971 

Member: Pi Gamma Mu, Social Science Honor Society 
Sigma Alpha Episilon Fraternity 
Advisory Committee for the/\Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults 

Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D. C. 
American Association of Workers for the Blind, Member, Board of Directors 
Winnetka Lions Club 
Chairman of the Advisory Committee on Services for the Deaf-Blind of the 

World Council for the Welfare of the Blind 
North Shore Chess Club 
International Platform Association 



Family 



Widower with a 14 -year-old son, Clark 



Listed in: Who's Who in America Directory 
Who ' s Who in the World 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon Directory 
Dictionary of International Biography 

Recent Activities: 

Chairman, World Conference for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults, September, 1977 



>na«j Bernstein 


George Bush 




Mam-o Doud Eisenhower 








Get tsy burg Pennsylvania 
















Hor Serene H.ghness 




Edwin B Duophy. M D 






*d Bntta.n HI 


Ophthalmology CNnic 








Harvard Unrven.ly 






nkeri Trull Company 






Regents Professor of Economics 



Arthur N Magill 


George Shearing 


National Consultant 


North Hollywood. Calilorn 


Canadian National Institute 




lot the Blind 










American Ma. re 


Andrew McNally III 






Rand McNally A Company 



I seminArio brasileiro de educaqao de deficiente audiovisual 



DEFINITIONS, RESPONSABILITIES AND 

RIGHTS OF THE DEAF-BLIND (THE 

HISTORY OF THE EDUCATIONS OF 

DEAF - BLIND OF ALL THE WORLD) 



EDWARD J WATERHOUSE 




SEDAV - ABEDEV 



Definitions, Responsibilities and Rights of the Deaf-Blind 
( The History of the Education of Deaf-Blind of all the World) 

Paper presented at First Brazilian Seminar for the Education of the Deaf-Blind 
Sao Paulo, November 1977. 

Edward J. Waterhouse, Director (Retired), Perkins School for the Blind 

Watertown, Massachusetts 
USA 



Definitions. Who are the deaf-blind? In a world which has no universally- 
accepted definition of blindness or of deafness, it is not surprising that there 
are more than one definitions of deaf -bl indness in use in various countries, 
and even within the same country . 

These definitions fall into two groups. In the first the prevailing 
definitions of blindness and deafness are combined. In the second group the 
fact is recognized that even slight losses of hearing or of vision, which when 
alone, would not have been a serious problem, can, when combined, lead to 
problems of communication so severe that special programs for education and 
rehabilitation are needed to enable the handicapped person to develop his 
capabilities and take a self-respecting place in society. 

At the Helen Keller World Conference on Services to Deaf-Blind Youths and 
Adults, sponsored by the Committee on Services to the Deaf-Blind of the World 
Council for the Welfare of the Blind, held in New York City in September 1977, 
and attended by delegates from about 30 countries, many of whom were themselves 
deaf-blind, the following definition was unanimously adopted. "Deaf-Blind 
individuals should be defined as persons having such substantial visual and 
hearing losses that the combined impairments cause extreme difficulty in the 
pursuit of educational, vocational and avocationn] goals." 



Clearly this definition covers many people who are not generally considered 
to be deaf-blind. In countries where presently those persons who have only light 
perception or less are considered blind, and where definitions of deafness are 
equally stringent, this all-embracing definition may have to wait a long time 
before acceptance. In the United States, however, a definition based on this 
concept was adopted by the U. S. Department of Education almost 10 years ago. 
In the United Kingdom and parts of Western Europe as well as in Australia and 
Japan similar definitions are in use. These cover the majority of deaf-blind 
people in the world who are being served in some way or another. 

As research is carried out in both America and Europe into the problems of 
deaf-blind children and adults, the severe effects of the accumulation of visual 
and auditory defects become clearer, and the wisdom of this type of definition 
becomes more evident. 

Under this broad definition, the variety of persons covered is great. There 
are relatively few who suffer total blindness and total deafness, and of these 
only a small fraction have been without sight and hearing since birth. A larger 
number, like Helen Keller, were normal at least until late infancy, and frequently 
for years longer. 

The victims of maternal rubella, who in the United States and the United 
Kingdom at present make up the majority of deaf-blind children, generally have 
some degree of both residual sight and hearing, though both losses, existed at 
birth . 



The other major cause of deaf-blindness, Usher's Syndrome, while congenital, 
causes early deafness but the loss of vision is usually delayed until early 
adulthood . 

Since this conference deals with education rather than rehabilitation, a 
large group of deaf-blind persons, who in some countries constitute the majority, 
need not be discussed, but should not be overlooked. These are the elderly blind 
who go deaf and the aging deaf who lose their sight and also the older men and 
women who lost both sight and hearing. And, of course, all deaf-blind people 
eventually grow old. 

So we find victims who lost their hearing before acquiring language and 
speech require very different treatment than those whose hearing loss came 
later in life. And, of course, the degree of loss makes a tremendous 
difference in how a person can function and the services he will require. 

Responsibilities and Rights 

It is indeed most fortunate for me that shortly before preparing this pape 
I was able to attend the Helen Keller World Conference referred to above. Hert 
I listened to a number of intelligent and well-educated deaf-blind men and women 
speak about what they need from society, and what they in turn should be expected 
to give. I make no apology for reading to you today, in full, "A Declaration of 
Rights of Deaf -Blind Persons" which the Conference adopted unanimously. The 
committee responsible for this ringing challenge to society, and the delegates 
who gave it their approval, both included deaf-blind persons. For the first time 
in history, I believe, the deaf-blind spoke for themselves. 



Article 1 

Every deaf-blind person is entitled to enjoy the universal rights that are 
guaranteed to all people by the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of 
Disabled Persons. 

Article 2 

Deaf-Blind persons have the right to expect that their capabilities and 
their aspirations to lead a normal life within the community and their ability 
to do so shall be recognized and respected by all governments, administrators, 
rehabilitation personnel and the general public. 

Article 3 

Deaf-Blind persons have the right to receive the best possible medical 
treatment and care for the restoration of sight and hearing and the services 
required to utilize remaining sight and hearing, including the provision of 
the most effective optical and hearing aids, speech training, when appropriate, 
and other forms of rehabilitation intended to secure maximum independence. 

) 

Article 4 

Deaf-blind persons have the right to economic security to ensure a satisfactory 
standard of living and the right to secure work commensurate with their 
capabilities and abilities or to engage in other meaningful tasks, for which 
the requisite education and training shall be provided. 



Article 5 

Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to lead an independent life as an 
integrated member of the family and community, including t;he right to live on 
their own or to marry and raise a family. Where a deaf -blind person lives 
within a family, greatest possible support shall be provided to the whole 
family unit by appropriate authorities. If institutional care is advisable, 
it shall be provided in a surrounding and under such conditions that it 
resembles normal life as closely as possible. 

Article 6 

Deaf-blind persons shall have the right, and at no cost, to the services 
of interpreters with whom they can communicate effectively to maintain 
contact with others and with the community. 

Article 7 

Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to current news, information, 
reading matter and educational material in a medium and form which they can 
assimilate. Technical devices that could serve to this end shall be provided 
and research in this area shall be encouraged. 

Article 8 



Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to engage in leisure time 
recreational activities, which shall be provided for their benefit, and the 
right and opportunity to organize their own clubs or associations for self- 
improvement and social betterment. 



Article 9 

Deaf-blind persons shall have the right to be consulted on all matters 
of direct concern to them and to legal advice and protection against improper 
abridgement of their rights due to their disabilities. 

In this Declaration of Rights, are not the deaf-blind saying to us in effect 

"We too possess certain 'inalienable Rights, that among these are the 

Pursuit of Happiness'," as declared in the historic American Declaration of 
Independence . 

To summarize, the deaf-bl,ind said "Give us the training, the tools, and 
human companionship, and we will be normal members of society." May I stress 
"human companionship". Time and again in the conference the deaf-blind called 
"loneliness" their greatest burden. This follows Helen Keller's own statement 
that "The deaf-blind are the loneliest people on earth". I would like to stress 
this point, for it is so easily overlooked, and yet it requires no professional 
training or expensive equipment to befriend a deaf-blind child or adult. 
Fortunately, the manual alphabet is being learned today by countless hearing 
people as its significance is brought to public attention. Some of our 
national television newscasts and many other programs in the United States 
include an interpreter for the deaf. While this cannot help the deaf-blind 
directly it serves to educate the public to the value of this special means 
of communication. 



The deaf-blind people in New York were deeply conscious of the fact that 
they cannot succeed in life on their own. They recognized that they would be 
dependent on others all their lives. They realized what a challenge this is 
to their self-respect. They were aware that their debt to society could not 
be repaid in full and they acknowledged their responsibility to respond to 
the fullest degree possible by performing their jobs with efficiency, and 
responding to help given with courtesy and good will. Unless society accepts 
the principle that handicapped persons have certain inalienable rights which 
the more fortunate people of the world are x^illing to guarantee, the 
deaf-blind will forever be second class citizens. 

H j story 

Time permits only a brief account of the history of the Education of the 
Deaf-Blind of all the World. 

As is well-known, the first deaf-blind child to be successfully educated 
was Laura Bridgman who entered Perkins in 1837. Even more famous is the 
remarkable teacher-pupil experience of Anne Sullivan, a Perkins graduate, 
and Helen Keller who studied at the school for several years. 

It seems that there are today more deaf-blind children being educated in 
the United States than in the rest of the world combined. This, of course, 
is partly the result of the massive rubella epidemics of 1964 - 65. There 
are over 2,000 receiving educational services of one kind or another in the 
United States . 



Europe 

According to Dr. Jeanne R. Kenmore (Reference I) programs for educating 
deaf-blind children were begun in France (1860), Sweden (1882), Germany (1887) 
and Finland (1889). In each case the number of pupils was small. In 1977 only 
350 children were reported as being educated in 13 countries as follows: 



Great Britain 


101 


German Federal Republic 


53 


U.S.S.R. 


51 


Italy 


26 


Netherlands 


25 


France 


25 


Switzerland 


18 


Sweden 


14 


Denmark 


11 


German Democratic Republic 


9 


Norway 


7 


Spain 


6 


Finland 


A 



Inte^ra^ao-Socio Professional 



Outside Europe there are no published figures, but Australia and Japan both 
have extensive programs. Programs also exist in Canada, New Zealand, Taiwan, 
Jamaica, Iceland, Israel and the Republic of South Africa. A small group is 
being taught in Bombay. A start has been made in Ibadan, Nigeria and plans 
are afoot in Kenya. You are well aware yourselves of the work in Argentina 
and Brazil. There are probably other programs unknown to me. 

Generally speaking, outside of a few countries, the education of the 
deaf -blind is anywhere from fifty to a hundred years behind services for 
blind children. 

In many countries of Africa, Asia and South America, the existence of 
deaf-blind children is denied by authorities though statistically this 
seems unbelievable. However, some small progress is being made. When next 
you meet, which I hope will be in a few short years, someone may be able to 
report great advances. 



I thank you for your kind attention 



REFERENCES 



Jeanne R. Kenmore and others, in STATE OF THE ART: 
Perspectives on Serving Deaf-Blind Children - 1977. 
338 pp. 

Southwestern Regional Deaf-Blind Center, 

Office of Special Education, 

< aliforn*ia State Department of Education, 

771 Capitol Mall 

Sacramento, California 95814 

DEAF-BLIND BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1977 edition. 186 pp. 

Perkins School for the Blind, 
175 North Beacon Street, 
Watertown, Massachusetts 02172 

Proceedings of Helen Keller World Conference on Services 
to Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults. September 1977. 

To be published early in 1978 by the Hadley School for 
the Blind, 300 Elm Street, Winnetka, Illinois 60093. 



BI OGRAPH ICAL D ATA - EDWARD J. WATERHOUSE ( DIRF CTOR, RETIRED ) , 
PERKINS SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND 



Born in England, 1902. Graduated from Queens College. Cambridge University 
in 1930. Emigrated to America in that year. Joined the staff of Perkins School 
for the Blind in 1933 and, except for a leave of absence during the war years, 
remained on the staff until 1977. Appointed Manager of the Howe Press 1946 
and fifth Director of Perkins 1951. Resigned the Directorship in August 1971. 
Consultant to the sixth Director September 1971 - June 1977. Was awarded 
Honorary Litt . D. Degree by Gallaudet College, Washington, D.C. in 1957. 

Internat i onal (" o unci I for the Edu cation of the Visually Handicapped - 
Secretary, 1952-62, Chairman, 1962-67. Secretary of Conferences in the 
Netherlands 1952. Norway 1957, West Germany 1962 and Chairman of Conference 
at Perkins in 1967. Chairman of subcommittee on the deaf-blind 1964 to 1974, 
member 1962 to present. 

World ; ounci l for the W elfare of the Blind - Participated in conferences 
at Paris 1954, Rome 1959, New York City 1964, New Delhi 1969, and Sao Paulo, 
Brazil 1974. Member of WCWB Deaf-Blind Committee 1969 to the present. 

Awarded the Migel Medal for Outstanding Service to the Blind by the American 
Foundation for the Blind 1966. 

Publications - Editor of the Perkins "Lantern" since 1952-1971. Contributor 
of numerous articles to professional journals on the education of the blind and 
deaf-blind both in the United States and in other countries. 

Married the former Sina Fladeland in 1934, has one daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth 
McCurdy of Bath, Maine, and two grandsons. 



< 



ACTIVITIES OF THE BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION FOR TtiE EDUCATION OF THE 
VISUALLY HANDICAPPED IN BRAZIL 



GERA1.DO SANDOVAL DE ANDRADE 
PRESIDENT OF ABEDEV 



1. HISTORY 

1.1. important precedents 

1.2. Creation of the entity 
l.j. First Board of Directors 

1.4. Activity plans of uhe present Board. 

2 . PROGRAMMING 

2.1. Creation of Delegations 

2.2. Creation of the Louis Braille Museum 

2.3. Organization and up-dating of members ' personal history 

2.4. 1st Brazilian Encounter of Tecnnicians on Orientation 
and Mobility - IV ENBRATOM 

2.5. Sociological Research (AtsEDEV/Rondon Project) 

2.6. Course-Seminar 

2.7. 19 SEDAV (ist Brazilian Seminar on the Education of 
Audio-Visual Handicapped 

2.«. Other plans. 



CURRICULUM VITAE - Resume 
Geraldo Sandoval de Andrade 



R. Prof. Carlo c Rath, 

n° 198 
05462 Sao Paulo - SP 
Rone; 211-1986. 



Present Occupations Head of the SEMI Service of Industrial 
Training for the Visually Handicapped. 



DUC A.TI0NAL BACKGRAOUKD 



i, Primary School - Ginasio Chanpagnat (Marianist Order) , 

Franca, State of Sao Paulo 

Observations Total loss of vision due to a hunting accident 
during school vacation. January 1938. 
1938/1940 The search for recuperation of sight at 
phthalmo lo gi c al c linic s . 

2. Secondary School - Official Institute for the Blind "Sao Rafael", 
Bolo Horizonte, Minas G-erais. 1941-1947 

3. Teacher College , Institute of Education "Fernao Bias" , Sao Paulo, 
SP. 1956-1958. 

4. Course in Psychology, School of PJri^osophy, Sciences and Letters, 
University of Sao Paulo. 1965. 

5. Various Training and Specialization Courses % 
~ Psychological Counseling, SHNAI a 

- Clinical Psychology, Foundation for the Book of the Blind in 
) Brasil. 

- Work Psychology, Federation of the Industries of the State of 
Sao Paulo. 

G Training at the Patronato de Cegos, Buenos Aires, Argentina 

January 1952 
7. On September, October and November 1969 observer at; 

- American Foundation for Overseas Blind - N.Y. 

- The Industrial Hone for the Blind Rehabilitation Center - N.Y. 

- The Hew York Association for the Blind, The Light House - N.Y. 



- Blind Industries of California Inc. 



jos Angeles, Cal, 



India Blind Relief Association, New Delhi, India. 
Virganand National for Blind Girls, New Delhi, India, 
Unione Italians dei Ciechi - Roma, Italy. 



G-eraldo Sandoval de Andrade - 2 - 

- Insti turbo Statale di Instruzione per gli Educatori dei Ciechi, 

Rona, Italy 

- L' Union dcs Aveugles de G-uerre, Paris, "France, 

- If 1 Ami tie des Aveugles de Prance, Pari a , Prance. 

- Association Valentin Hauy - Paris, Prance, 

Professional Occupations and Activities g 

I began at the Foundation for the Book of ~che Blind in Brazil as a 
teacher in the hone of the handicapped and from there "began to guide 
the initiation of researchs for a market for work for the visually 
handicapped in the State of Sao Paulo, 1952-1955. 

As a result of this work I was invited to join the SENAI, and was 
put in charge of the Service of Industrial Training for the Visually 
Handicapped, here in Sao Paulo. Later I was promoted to Supervisor 
of the Selection and Guidance of the Trained , and now am Head of 
the Service of Industrial Training for the Visually Handicapped of 
SENAI 

- Member of several technical committees for the professional 
rehabilitation of the visually handicapped. 

- Member of the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind - WCWB. 

- Brazilian Delegate , as designated by the President of the Republic, 
to the IV World General Assembly of the World Council for the 
Welfare of the Blind. New Delhi, October 1969 . 

- Pounding Member of the Brazilian Association of Educators of 
the Visually Handicapped. 

- Permanent Member of the Pauiista Society of Psychology. 

- Member of the Study Center "Roberto Mange". 

PUBLICATIONS 

- "Professional Utilization of Blind Workers", SENAI, 1955. 

- "Experience with PMC Test on the. Blind, - Latin-American 
Psycho-technic Seminar, 

- "Blind Workers in Pauiista Industries", SENAI, 1968. 

- Three Documentary Films, SENAI, 1956, 1968 and 1975. 

- Several Articles and interviews published in journals in cities 
visited to promote the employment of the visually handicapped. 



Geraldo Sandoval de Andrade 



further Professional Activities 



Implantation of the Service of Industrial Training for the 

Visually Handicapped for the SENAI of i 

Bahia, 1963-1964-1965? Minas Gerais, 1970; Espirito Santo, 1971? 

Guanabara, 1973; Ceara, 1973; Rio Grande do Norte, 1973; 

M araiihao, 1973; Paraiba; Para; and Parana. 

Consultants Educandario Sao Jose Operario and Federal Technical 

School, Compos, Rio de Janeiro, to promote the employment of 

visually handicapped and the admission of students with the same 

deficiency in the second school. 



- Participated as speaker and/or observer at several Seminar and 
Congresses on applied psychology and professional rehabilitation; 
among then; 

- Pan-American Conference for the Prevention of Blindness and 
Services to the Visually Handicapped - Sao Paulo, 1954. 

- Latin- American Seminar on Psychology - Sao Paulo, 1955. 

- International Congress on Social Work, Rehabilitation Sector, 

Petropolis, R.J. , 1961. 

- Second Brazilian Congress on the Education of the Visually 
Handicapped, Brasilia, D o P. 1968. 

Studies and Researches 

Began the first researches done among 450 paulista industrial firms 
to identify and classify the work market for the visually handicapped a 
2000 anaiises wore made on jobs considered compatible with a 
condition of a visually handicapped. The same studies were carried 
our in Bauru, Ribeirao Pre to, Franca, Campinas, Limeira. Piracicaba, 
Sorocaba, Vinhcdo, Mogi das Cruses, Santos, in the State of S.Paulo; 
Belo Horizonte (MS); Salvador (BA); Vitoria (ES); Campos (RJ) - 
1952-1971. 



Elected President of the Brazilian Association for the Education of 
the Visually Handicapped - ABEDEV, in Cur itib a (Parana), 'luring the 
IV Brazilian Congress for the Visually Handicapped- July 27/31,1975. 

1977 - Counselor of the Anne Sullivan Foundation. 



A Speech About i-iv Life :£cperiences 
Leonard C, Dowdy 



When I was ly years ola, I lost my sight and hearing clue to 
sleeping siciaiess and high fever which lasted nine weeks. At age four 
there was much activity with many people coming to see me. One such 
visitor was a teacher from Perkins. She showed my parents how she could 
teach me communication by placing my hai.-ds on her face. My grandfather 
took me on a long and frightening b*aln iddtf to -Perkins. After getting 
used to the tram, my irxgnt leic me Dut l scull reiusea to eo ud tne 
oauiroora. it shook so terribly and there was a strong, peculiar smell that 
bothered me. 

I started school at age five. Miss Hall taught me the Tadoma method, 
which ner^ s placing the fingers on the neclc, hand on the cheek, and thumb 
on the mouth to feel the movement of facial expression and lip movement as 
words are formed, I learned 65 words the first year and doubled that the next 
year. During the next fifteen years I learned how to read, type, spell; do waih, 
history, geography, and all sorts of handcraft, like woodwork, metal and 
other things. Of course, speechworK and rhythm with the piano, and learning 
how to sing were vital parts of the program, t lease don't ask me to sing 
any now; it's been so long I'm rusty at it, 

After leaving Perkins, I lived in new York City for 5 months, 
working and living at a special home for the blind and deaf -blind, I learned 
how to run many different machines "and do many different kinds of jobs, 
but was never satisfied. I did not care to, live there either with all the 
tall buildings and no grass for so many blocks. Being homesick,! left for 
home in Missouri. 

I lived with my mother and brothers for two years, trying ay luck 
on a chicken farm one year , and then in town I did very little: chair 
caning or fixing pop wooden cases, but found too much time on my hands and 
being close to a nervous breakdown, moved to Kansas City. I have been there 
25 years, and have had experience on jobs at several places. At age 26, I 
met my first wife , and did some part time vocational teaching at the 
school for the deaf in Iowa, but we broke up in one year. Ever since age 29 
when I met Betty, my second wife, she introduced me to the deaf world and 
we did much travelling around America, and visited five European countries, 
Canada, and now Brazil. 

After living in the apartment for five years, after getting married, 
we bought our own home. Being home owners can be a rough experience, but 
we like it better than apartment life, where nothing exciting happens. A 
few years ago my carpenter friend taught me how to build my workshop on the 
outside, but I did 90 percent of the work inside, even putting in the 
electrical wires and wall sockets. You see, I also had another friend who 
was a "jack of all trades." You may wonder what "'made in the workshop. I 
made a bookcase, a desk out of a sewing machine cabinet (which was never 
finished), and ray first collection cabinet, but that was torn down. Now I 
am making my second attempt at a larger china cabinet. You see, a long 
time ago Perkins, my school, did not teach me all the tricks in woodwork of 
how to run power tools, so I have had to teach myself the hard and long way, 
with many failures and worlds of patience, but not with perfection, because 



I destroy them, when things go wrong. I have made many other things, 
such as tables out of closet doors, a small storage shed for the lawn 
mower, a machine that cuts grass, and made a large box for storing lumber. 
I had to destroy it though, because the wall and the wood box became warped 
and I had to put in a new wall, I mean the outside wall, and cover up the 
whole outside with roofing shingles to protect the wood from the weather, 

I hope most of you will be interested in hearing a little about 
the religious part of my life. To make things brief and to the point, first 
of all, I had a fine christian teacher as a little boy, who had the Love of 
God and taught me about Jesus and the Cross. As a young man, I studied many 
different churches, but found nothing I was looking for. Then in the last 
few years after my Sister in the Holy Spirit showed me through her Testimony 
what the Lord did for her, the Lord came into my life, and I received 
the joy of the Holy Spirit. Jesus our Living Son g€ God IS the Living Son, 
who was given to us, that by dying on the Cross, iie set us free from sin, I 
rejoice in the Lord, because the Catholics nowadays have more freedom to 
read the Bible, but the most important gift I believe is Jesus Christ as our 
personal saviour. I am not here to preach, but to sharfe the Lord with you. 
I wish you to feel free to Praise the Lord and not to bu ashamed to confess 
the Lord with the mouth, believing in the heart that God raised Christ from 
the dead. 

Now let me take you back 25 or so years ago and tell you the most 
exciting thing that ever happened to me. When I moved to Kansas City, a 
big city 90 miles from my hometown Sedalia, Missouri, I knew nothing about 
the city and felt lost among strangers in a strange place, I was introduced 
to some church friends and thstitook me into their family. The fi^st day they 
took me home to dinner. After the meal, we sat around the table, and talked 
for three hours about the city, names of streets, buses, and her oldest son 
made up some instruction cards and took me to the bus. He got in the car, 
and followed me as I learned how to hand the card to the driver. When 
he tapped me on the knee, I got off. Max met me, showed me how to transfer 
to another bus line. Whew I was excited and nervous, but that was the 
greatest experience and joy to be able to travel alone. After one year, I 
even took my first long-distance train ride alone. I have flown in the 
airplane several times alone, but someone drives me to the airport, and 
someone meets me when I get off. 

For the first few years as homeowners, we tried our hands at 
gardening and planted many kinds of flowers and plants. When the season 
was finished for the year, and the plants went to sleep, they looked just 
like weeds. I dug them up by mistake so we gave up gardening, but occasionally 
we do plant tomatoes. When Betty and I both experienced poison ivy from 
working in the flower bed or pulling up weeds, we gave up most of the outdoor 
work, because poison ivy is so unpleasnt. 

In the early years in our home, I attempted grass cutting two 
ways. One way, with a drum in the center of the yard, and a cable from the 
center to the edge of the yard. As I pusbfthe lawn mower around and around, 
the circle got: smaller and smaller, but the four corners of the yard did 
not get cut, so I had to walk around looking for the corners and cut the 
grass by feeling with the foot or hand. Another way, putting up pipes, 
and stringing up thin ropes two feet apart, stretched between two pipes. 
Then after finishing, take everything down and put them away. That 
consumed a lot of time. Now we hire other boys to cut it for us. 



For the first many years at the Peterson Mfg. Company where I work 
now, I used to assemble lights for trailer trucks but got so worn out, and 
so very sleepy from doing the same thing year after year. Then I worked on 
the pump jline making tire pumps, but +hen I got oil into the skin of my legs 
and arms % caused me some skin discomfort, so I gave it up and went back to 
light making. About 3 years ago the light assembly line was discontinued, 
and they put us in another department where we do many different kinds of 
jobs. I like it so much better than the light making job, which was so hard 
on the hands and left me completely exhausted at the end of every day. 

For one year, while Betty was at Perkins, I worked at the Braille 
writer factory, which was right on the Perkins ground, I did many kinds 
of jobs, some of them were very tedious and delicate, I even worked wityi 
some parts so tiny that I had to powder my handsfbo Hep the parts from 
sticking to the skin. We did nolajLike living in Boston very well, and were 
so happy to return to our own cozy house, 

Because of my dependence on the Tadoma method, I sometimes run 
into strangers who are cold and refuse to put my hand to their face even after 
I give them my special instruction card, which tells them how to talk to me. 
So that means I had to walk away from them and find another more friendly 
person, more willing to try to talk to me. 

Jobs I have done, but they were very brief, for a few weeks t making 
mattresses and box springs, which is very good; \n a battery company for 
trucks, cars and tractors, a very bad job for the blind, unless they work 
in a shipping department which is easier on the hands; and making ropes 
for horses, very good work but not enough business. 



Testimonial Of My Life Experiences 
Betty K. Dowdy 

I was born deaf and I went to a school for oral deaf at the age of 
four. At the school, the teachers did an excellent job teaching me how to 
read lips and speak fluently. When I was 8 years old, the teacher took me 
to an eye doctor because I had some problems with my vision, such as near- 
sightedness, tunnel vision, and night blindness. The doctor confirmed that 
I was suffering from the disease of Retinitis Pigmentosa. I had to sit 
close to the teacher to read her lips. I could not read some papers that 
wore written with a fine pencil, so I asked everybody to write with a 
heavier pen. When I graduated, I was able to read lips fairly well and to 
speak clearly enough to enter a public high school. During the four years 
in high school, I was one of the very few deaf at the school, but I was able 
to adjust quite well. 

When I was in Gallaudate College, the only college for the deaf, 
my vision began to worsen so I had to go through college with some difficulty. 
Reading books caused me a lot of eye strain and when ever I went outdoors, 
I had to wear two pairs of sunglasses. I had to wear glasses with sunglasses 
clipped to them. When communicating with other students who used the 
deaf sign language, reading signs was difficult for me. Because the signs 
got out of the range of my limited vision, I prefered to use the Manual 
Alphabet. 

Shortly after my graduation in 1950, my mother died of cancer. 
I did the housekeeping and cooking for my father. After a year I got a 
job in a mattress factory, a workshop for the blind. During my employment 
at the workshop, I was taught how to read Braille . In 195^, the vocational 
rehabilitation for the blind decided I was capable enough to be transf ered 
to be able to work at the hospital. I am still working at the same place and 
its been twenty- three years. Now I am blind with very little light 
perception. For recreation and fellowship, I used to go to the club for 
the deaf every Saturday, One Saturday, in 1956, the preacher brought 
Leonard Dowdy to the club and there I met him and because it was leap year, 
I asked him to go out with me. We dated for 5 months before we got married. 
It was a tough decision to marry a deaf -blind man, but we seemed to be very 
compatible, so I thought it was alright. I was very impressed in Leonard 
for being so independent and being capable of doing so many things, such as, 
travelling on buses to and from work, communicating with the hearing 
people, cooking, and woodworking. W# lived in a three room apartment for 
5 years. After that, we bought our own home. During our early marriage, as 
we sat side by side, Leonard would be reading Braille, I would be watching 
television, which very close beside me. Reading the newspaper became harder. 
When I noticed Leonard laughing while reading Braille, I was very jealous 
because I was missing reading the good things, so I had to learn how to 
read Braille, Now, reading is my favorite entertainment. 

When we lived in the apartment our doorbell was connected to a 
light which I could see from each of the three rooms, but Leonard could 
not see the light. So, if a visitor knew Leonard was home, he would 
stamp his feet at the door to get Leonards attention. When we bought a 
home of our very own, the light system was discontinued. We hooked a fan 
on wheels to the rtoorbell system and we rolled it from room to room with 



a long trailing cord. Later we got tired of moving the fan around because 
I was too active. We then decided to buy six fans, one for each room, 
including the bathrorm. They were hoisted up in the corner of each room 
near the ceiling, out of the way. Later we had our own telephone which was 
also hooked up to the same doorbell unit. So whera the fans start blowing 
we have to check the phone first and then go to the door. , 

When I could no longer read lips by sight, I took 1 year of 
training at Perkins in 1966, to learn the new method through vibration, 
called Tadoma. I was able to understand my teacher a little, but could not 
understand other people, I was discouraged and felt I was too old to 
learn the Tadoma method. MX means of communication with other people 
is, the sign language, the Manual Alphabet, or printing on the palm of the 
hand, Leonard is still ahead of me since he is an expert at the Tadoma method 

At home we hired a secretary to help us with our banking, paying 
the bills, reading mail, getting groceries, and making phone calls. She 
visits us about twice a week. Whenever I need her for extra help, I call 
her on the phone and ask her questions. She responds with saying yes three 
times or no once and I am able to feel the vibrations in a speaker next to 
the phone. Recently we became the proud owners of a Braille Telephone 
Teletype (TTY). this machine is our biggest blessing because it lets me 
communicate with other deaf people who own the TTT. I feel all deaf -blind 
people should own this machine, but unfortunately it is still very expensive.. 

We are active in the church and go there 3 times a week. There are 
many deaf people in the church and some of them act as our interpreters. 
We like to travel to anywhere in the USA, 2 times ajyear, to one of the 
conventions for the deaf or deaf -blind. This way we are assured of mAny 
volunteers to assist us. 

We have held jobs for many years and make a comfortable Having. 
Although there are not many services for the deaf -blind in our city, we 
are thankful because we can keep many friends to help us when we need it. 
Inspite of our double handicaps we seem to do as well as others around us. 
Recently we celebrated our 21st wedding anniversary and I have not regreted 
marrying Leonard. I have never been depressed over my handicap because 
I am reminded of my husband who has the same handicaps. We keep ourselves 
busy so we do not get bored. Leonard is a "jack of all trades" and is 
able to r^^^air some things around the home. We try to keep our shelves 
stocked with food. We have special compartmantsi in our cupboard for keeping 
canned goods. We have extra supplies of household goods and clothes, so 
we never run out of neccessities , Occas ionally we make mistakes, such 
as opening the wrong oan, burning food, or ioismatching socks. We do know 
that other people around us do make mistakes, too. 

We like to help other deaf blind people and share our ideas and 
experiences with them. Leonard and I have some problems, such as trying 
to find each other in the house or outside. When inside, if we cannot find 
each other, one of us would ring the door fan and if outside, we have a 
buzzer hooked to the doorbell system which has a long trailing cord 
about 50 feet long. 



THE HANDICAfPEU: INTEGRATION Ok SEGREGATION? 
Jose Geraldo Silveira Bueno 

RESUME" 

The author analyzes rhe problem of the social integration of 
the handicapped, from rhe following premise: are there real 
possibilities of integration for the handicapped? 
In the first place, he analyzes the aims of the education of 
the handicapped and reaches the conclusion that they must be 
of integration in the general social environment, even thougn 
the concrete results obtained are far from desiradle. So 
far, very little has been aone for the effective insertion of 
the handicapped in his community: the majority of results are 
still not heart-warming and a great number of professionals 
seem content with analyzing one specific aspect, such as pro- 
fessionalization, and few analyze the problem in a general sense 
Although the problems are still immense and the results not 
yet satisfactory, the author aoes not. feel that the solution 
lies in incentivating and helping to create isolated sub- 
communities ot handicapped. The real sense of a democratic so- 
ciety is to provide a productive, conscious and Individually 
satisfying participation both of those who can be considered 
the "majority as well as the "minorities, be they racial, reli- 
gious, political or of handicapped. The creation of sub-commu- 
nities may facilitate the joo of the authorities, out it is 
not, in any way, the best solution for the minorities. 

In second place, the author analyzes the various aspects that 
comprise the social integration of the handicapped, the factors 
relating to his future family life, his professional activities, 
and, finally, his role as an efiective member of a community. 



.02. 



Then, the author analyzes the pr$:iples and processes ot rehabili- 
tation and their relation to social integration. He indicates a 
falacy, which to his mind is probably the most important: the fact 
that educators try, at any price, to fit an entire population of 
handicapped into their theoretical scheme of references. These 
references should serve as a guide-line for the work of the tech- 
nician, but each individual should be evaluated separately, as 
well as his environment, so that the procedures used in his reha- 
bilitation be the most suited to his needs and of feasible appli- 
cation in tne milieu it is done, what we cannot permit is that 
professionals keep warring and trying to prove that their proce- 
dures are the most correct and efficient because tney are based 

in a more correct body of theoretical principles. This dispute is 
highly wholesome when studies are being made to further the under- 
standing of the problems of the handicapped, but not when it in- 
volves human beings in a dispute which may bring us recognition 
but that will inevitably be harmful to the very individuals we 
claim are the very essence of our work. As an example he points 
out the ever present debate between residential schools, day 
schools and the various systems of medical attendance. The 
partisans of eacn of these systems tend to foster this steril 
and fruitless competition, whose results are highly negative 
tor the handicapped individual, who should be the center and aim 
of our activities , and not of an irrational dispute. 

Another point that requires attention is the area of action neces- 

ef fective 
sary to permit the/integration of the handicapped. Therefore he 

analyzes the four areas he considers fundamental: a) the prepa- 
ration of the handicapped; b) the preparation of his parents; 
c) the preparation 01 the professionals; d) the preparation of 
the community. ■ 



.Oj. 



Finally, the author presents a few suggestion on now to benetit 
trom the lessons learned from specialized text-books, ana those 
that practical experience has taught us, so that we may accom- 
plish, better and better, the work of socially integrating the 
nandicapped. 



_X>MFT. 



Diagnosis, evaluation and educationale programming 
of deaf-blind children. 

Speech to be given at the First Brazilian Seminar for the 
Education of th Deaf-Blind in Sao Paulo November 6-12, 1977 
by Miss Lieke de Leuvu 

I am very honored to be able to ■ participate in the First 
Brazilian Seminar for the Education of the Deaf-Blind here 
in Sao Paulo. 

This First Brazilian Seminar for the Education of the Deaf- 
Blind is a historical highlight of paramount interest in the 
history of special education in Brazil, even in Latin America. 
I congratulate the organizing committee especially the 
president Mr. Geraldo Sandoval de Andrade. Also congratulations 
to the programming committees with their successes in their 
extensive work. 

Our deaf-blind department of the Institute for the Deaf in 

Sint Michielsgestel , the Netherlands maintains relations, 

already for many years with Miss Neusa Bassetto from Sao Caetano 

do Sul and Mrs. Beatriz Ana Rosini de Laurino from. Cordoba in Argentin, 

Both ladies had participated in the teacher-training course for 

teachers of the deaf-blind in our Institute for the Deaf in 1969 

and 1973* Frequent correspondence takes place between Sao 

Caetano do Sul and the Netherlands on all kinds of subjects 

concerning deaf-blind children. Miss Neusa Bassetto has impressed 

us as a very idealistic, hard working, and knowledgeable woman. 

Last July seven members of our staff of the Institute for the 
Deaf in St .Michielsgestel had come to Rio de Janeiro to conduct 
a two week training course for teachers of the deaf. Sixty-two 
participants from all over Brazil had come tc Rio de Janeiro. 
The need for this course was felt by a Dutch mother of a deaf 
girl who lives in Brazil for over thirty years* Mrs May Bijleveld 
do Couto initiated ' the idea for this training course fox- teachers 
of the deaf. 

The realization had taken place by her inspiration and through 
national and federal cooperation of persons and agencies such as: 

- Diretora Professora Sarah Couto Cesar of Centro Nacional de 
Educa-'ao Especial 

- Professora Myrthes de Luca Wenzel of Secretaria de Educacao e 
Cultura do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. - 

- Professora Esther Ozon Montfort of Assessoria de Desenvolvimento 
de Recuraos Humanos. 

and many others. 

During the three weeks in Ric de Janeiro I gained soms information 

on the tremendous problems the nation of Brazil has to face in 

education: 

- the enormous number of normal school age children which have 
to be served. 

- the shortage of trained and qualified teachers. 

- the shortage of schooibuildings and schooloquipment . 

- the long distances the children have to travel in thia vast 
country. 

- the illiteracy of so many parents. 



-2- 



And most striking in special education: 

- the late ages of referral to special programs for the deaf 

- un3uf f icient diagnosis and differentiation within the 
category of handicaps. 

- the little number of hours per day or per week the child 
was able to receive training and education. 

However, the visits to several school for the deaf in Rio and 
the lectures to the teachers impressed me greatly. The idealism 
of the Brazilian teachei's, the love and onderstanding they 
showed for their children, was very impressive. 
Idealism, love for children, intuition are very importent 
characteristics for all teachers especially fcr teachers of the 
deaf-blind. But these qualities are not enough. The education 
of deaf-blind children is very difficult indeed. 

The training and education of deaf-blind children must be based 
on sound theoretical foundations in the teachers in order to 
free deaf-blind children out of their tremendous isolation. 
Each deaf-blind child has to reach his or hers utmost capacity. 
That is the child's human right and the adults obligation. 



•3- 



5. 



The deaf-blind department . i n Sint Michielsgestel, the Netherlands 

Just as a scheme of reference I would like to give some 
information about the education of deaf-blind children in the 
Netherlands. The deaf-blind department San Rafael is located 
on the campus of the Institute for the Deaf in St .Michielsgestel . 
It is the only department for deaf-blind children 
in the Netherlands which offers an educational program. 
Because of the fact that no facilities are available in Belgium, 
we do accept children from Belgium from Flemish speaking parents. 

The Netherlands is a very small country in comparison to 'Brazil* 
only 350 kilometers from north to south and 250 kilometers from 
east to west. The country counts 13i? million inhabitants. 
The Institute for the Deaf is the only catholic school for the deaf 
in the Netherlands. Thi3 institute was founded in 1840 and is a 
partially private organization. Priests, brothers and sisters had 
always played a very important role in the care and the education 
in our institute. Al this moment about 500 pre-lingually deaf 
pupils are enrolled. Practically all of them are residential 
students. I emphasize the term dea f. In many countries the 
definition deaf is used very loosely. According to our philosophy 
the term deaf and hard-of-hearing has to be defined as follows: 

- a child will be called deaf when is hearing loss is so severe 
that - even with the best amplification and with the best possible 
auditory training-he never will reach a level of understanding 
speech mainly by hearing v. Uden 1951, 19&8). 

Usually the child's hearing loss is over 90 dB Fletcher-index, 
I.S.O. The deaf child has to acquire language mainly by his 
visual sense, namely by lipreading. His residual hearing has to 
be trained to support his lipreading. 

"Nevertheless all these children can wear hearing aids, even 
the deafest among them, as a help for lipreading, especially 
with respect to the rhythm of language". (v.Uden 1952. 1968) 

- a child will be called hard-of-hearing when he can acquire 
language by its main channel of hearing. Lipreading has to 
be trained to supplement the auditory input. 

The term "pre-lingual" is used when the hearing loss is congenital 
or acquired before the age of three and the child has not yet 
acquired a symbolic system (v.Uden 1968). 

The educational program for deaf children and children who are 

hard-of hearing is different,. This requires school solely for 

the deaf and solely for the hard-of-hearing. 

Ve have in our country 5 schools for the deaf and approximately 

20 schools for the hard-of-hearing. 

In our Institute for the Deaf all deaf children, also the 

multihandicapped, are educated orally as much as possible. 



The normal deaf children are educated purely orally according 
to the maternal reflective method developed by Dr. A. van Uden 
(v.Uden 1952, 1968). 

In comparison to other deaf-blind departments in the world our 
deaf-blind department is relatively young in existence. In 1961 
the first deaf-blind ruoella girl was admitted in the Institute. 
In January 1 962 we started the deaf-blind department with 5 
rubella children in a small house, hue to the increase of enroll- 
ments a new building had to be designed in 1967* As far as I know 
it is the first new building in the world especially designed 
for deaf-blind children. <- 

According to our phylosophy school and residential setting must 
be fully integrated in one continuum program during the children's 
waking hours. No separate school building and no separate residential 
building have been built. School and residence ax-e fully integrated 
in one building. 

The way a mother educates her little child in hex- home, the way 
she engages the child in all the domestic activities such as setting 
the table, cleaning up, doing the dishes etc. was kept in mind 
for educational programming. 

At this moment 20 children are enrolled and all are residents. 
Their ages range from 3 to 20 years of age. Nine classroom teachers 
and 27 houseparents or child-care workers are serving these 
children daily. Also other teachers and specialists are working 
for special classes and subjects such as speech, gymnastics, 
swimming, physio-therapiy , music, mobility-training, arts and 
crafts, coocking and home economics, prevocational training etc. 
The 28 children are divided over 5 units, 5 groups. Arranging 
these children in groups is very, very difficult but has to be 
done carefully especially from educational point of view. The 
children should be combined in a group according to their level 
of functioning and the communication method they use. A child 
who can acquire oral language should not be in the same group 
where f ingerspelling or signing is used by other children. 
The criteria for placing the child in the right group - the level 
of functioning and the method of communication - can only be 
found by good diagnosis and evaluation of the child. Medical and 
psycho-educational assessment should be done by very experienced 
and knowledgeable specialists. 

However, the right medical indentif ication of deaf-blindne3S is 
a pre-requisite in order to refer the child for psycho-educational- 
assessment. Medically spoken deaf-blind children are very complex. 
They require services and treatments of many specialists such as 
ophthalmologist, otologist and audiologist, pediatrician, cardio- 
logist, pediatric neurologist etc. So many deaf-blind children 
are not properly indentified because they are the first ones 
each specialist meets in his practice. 
It still happens in our country too! 

Especially ophthalmologists and audiologists are looking for 
specific defined definitions of blindness and deafness in these 
children. Many children are not able to cooperate during the 
traditional assessment procedures and are sent hone. An other 
examination will be advised to the parents and child some months 
later. Very important time for early stimulation and intervention 
are lost from developmental and educational point of view. 

-5- 



If no coordination tak-e«— place betveen the medical specialists 
correct diagnosis of a deaf-blind child does not take place due to 

unfamiliarity with the definition of deaf-blindness and due to 
lack .of knowledge of deaf-blind children especially rubella children. 
Deaf-blind children are easily misdiagnosed as severly mentally 
retarded. They will be referred to institutions for the mentally 
retarded without proper psycho-educational assessment. Early 
identification and diagnosis of deaf-blindness in children and 
early referral is urgently requested from all the medical 
disciplines in order to start early intervention for child and 
parents . 

In some countries identification and diagnosis takes place in 
special diagnostic centers by a multidisciplinary team of medical 
and educational specialists (Curtis and Donlon, 1 9^9 ) or by an 
interdisciplinairy approach "using a number of specialists but 
arranging for actual inperson exchange between the specialists 
and even mutual, simultaneous observation of a child" (Robbins 
1975, 1977). 

In our country no law exists which doctors oblige to register 
a handicapped child. Referrals of children to our deaf-blind 
department come from hospitals, audiological centers, parents, 
schools for the deaf or hard~of-hearing etc. Usually the children 
have been seen by many medical specialists. The medical coordinator 
of our Institute, an otologist, collects all the possible information 
on medical history of the child and the family. Also the social 
worker of our home-training program visits parents and child at 
home. She prepares the family for the psycho-educational assessment 
at. the deaf-blind department. In some cases the social worker 
and I go to the family together to assess the child first in his 
familiar environment. I usually videotape the child at home for 
eome minutes, The following areas are taped: 

1 ) an unstructured situation: 

the child is free to accupy himself the way be prefers the most. 
During these unstimulated minutes we observe all kinds of 
stereotyped or autislike behavior patterns. 

2) a parent-child interaction: 

the parents are asked to show activities the child likes the 
most for interaction. 

3) a task orientation: 

the parents are asked to introduce new tasks the child which, 
he or she had not done before. 

4) a self-help skill: 
usually drinking or eating. 

For more detailed information on a video-tape protocol for 
examination of multi handicapped deaf-blind see the publication 
of Curtis and Donlon 1972. 



Diagnosis and evaluation 

One of the most difficult jobs we can encouter in the field of 

education is the diagnosis and the evaluation of deaf-blind 

children. 

Why are diagnosis and evaluation of deaf-blind children so 

extremely difficult? 

First of all the deaf-blind population itself is so immensely 

varied and complicated. 

The composition of the group of children who belong to the 

education of the deaf-blind is very small and heterogeneous 

in comparison to children who belong to the education of the deaf 

or the education of the blind. 

According to the world wide accepted defintion of deaf-blindness we 

consider children deaf-blind as: 

".... children who have auditory and visual handicaps , the combination 

of which causes such severe communication and other developmental 

and educational problems that they can not properly be accommodated 

in special education programs solely for the hearing handicapped 

child or for the visually handicapped" (Centers and services for 

Deaf-Blind children, 1973). 

The deaf-blind children have auditory and visual impairments in 

great varieties of combinations, namely profoundly deaf- and 

totally blind to hard-of-hearing and partially sighted. 

Besides the variety of sensori inpairments we meet in our 11 boys 

and 17 girls 

1) a diversity of etiologies causing the handicaps 

2) a diversity of age 3 of onset of the sensori impairments 

3) a diversity of additional physical handicaps 

4) a diversity of ages of referral to and enrollment into a program 

5) a diversity of developmental level of functioning 

6) a diversity of intelligence 

7) a diversity of behavioral and emotional disturbances 
8; a diversity of learning disorders 

ad 1. diversity of etiologies: 

in our department we find the following etiologies as causes 
of deaf-blindness: 

- Maternal rubella (7 boys and 8 girls) 

- Usher's syndrome (2 boys and 1 girl) 

- Rhesusfactor with eevere myopia gravis and amblyopia (2, girls) 

- Toxoplasmosis? (1 girl) 

- Prematurity and hydrocephaly (1 girl) 

- Prematurity with multiple birth-defects (1 girl) 

- Braintumor (1 girl) 

- Unknown ( 1 boy and 2 girls) 

ad 2. diversity of ages of onset: 

The age of onset of the dual sensori impaiment in above 
mentioned etiologies varies greatly. In maternal rubella, 
toxoplasmosis, but also in cytomegalovirus or syphilis, we 
are dealing with congenital infections and impairments of 
both senses at the same time. 

In meningitis and brain tumor the dual sensori impairment 
is acquired postnatally and either pre-or post tin gnally. 
However, in children suffering from Usher's Syndrome deafness 
can be diagnosed quite early in comparison to their progressive 
visual impairment. 



Only by vory sophisticated screening procedures such as 

E.R.G. or E.O.C. one may be sure at the age of 5 - 6 that children < 

have tapo to-retinal degeneration. 

ad 5« diversity of additional physical handicaps: 

besides t. ho hearing and visual impairments many additional 

pshysica] handicaps can be registered especially in rubella 

children. 

The most common additional handicaps are: heartdef ects , 

neurological impairments such as seizures, cleft palate, severe 

motor problems due to cerebral palsy , metabolic disorders etc. 

ad 4. diversity of ages of referral: 

out of the 28 children only A children could be enrolled 
before their fourth birthday. Nine children had a been enrolled 
between their fourth and fifth birthday. Nine children had been 
enrolled between their fifth and seventh birthday. 
This groan had either no program at all or they had been in 
daycaro centers for the multihandicapped in their local community. 
Six children had been enrolled after their seventh birthday 
with no adequate education to their specific needs. Almost 50 
percent of the population in our department had been referred 
before the age of five. 

However, many children had not been provided with a hearing aid 
and/or glasses or had not learned to wear the&m before entrance. 

ad 5. diversity of developmental level of functioning: 

due to the sensory deprivation either through late medical 
and auditory remediation or through lack of developmental 
stimulation we can encounter low functioning children. Some- 
times those children function even under half below their 
chronological age - on scales for developmental assessment. 
Some children score only one or two years below their age level. 

ad 6. diversity of intelligence: 

as in the normal population we find the scala of spreading 
of the intelligence. However, due to the dual sensori 
impairments the intellectuel capacity of many children is 
difficult to test especially when they show severe behavioral 
and emotional problems. 

ad 7» diversity in behavioral and emotional problems: 

the group of rubella children may show severe behavioral and 
emotional problems. 

Especially the severely handicapped rubella children may . 
show bizarre stereotyped behavior patterns which show resem- 
blance of children with autisme. This autistic like behavior or 
stereotype behavior may be the result of early infantile 
depri vat ion or may manifest itself on the base of brain 
damage . 

Besides autistic like behavior we may see severe eating and 
chewing problems, sleeping problems, suddenly change in mood 
without apparent reason etc. 

Besides she above described rubella children, we have children 
who function much more socially and show much more interest 
in the world of persons and the world of objects. 
The children with Usher's Syndrome may develop as normal deaf 
children, but who after very careful observation show problems 
in mobility inside and outside especially at night. 



-8- 



a. 



Tunnelvision and nightblindness make them insecure behavioral 
and emotional wise. 

ad 8* diversity of learning disorders: 

through intensive research by Dr. A. van Uden (1968, 1970) 

and Drs.J. van Dijk (1971 ) better insight had been gained 

in the learning and communication disorders in deaf and 

deaf-blind children. This will be discusses later in more 
detail. 



It is a fact that the deaf-blind population is so varied and 
complex that standardized tests for psycho-educati onal assessment 
are not available as such. 

Only by very refined and tenuous clinical observation we cah get 
an idea where to start for assessment and where to look for 
educational planning. 

A) the most difficult group of children to assess are those who 
are not motorically involved in their environment, who are not 
ambulatory either due to physical conditions and/ or immaturity 
or to lack of appeal of the outer world. These children exhibit 
severe stereotyped or autisticliko behavior patterns. They do 
not imitate. 

They are not interested in the world of persons, objects, pictures 
etc. This group functions at the level of sensation. Their residual 
vision and hearing are not yet developed as distance senses as such. 
They only use their residual vision and hearing for bodily 
sensation and not to get information from the outer world. As a 
matter of fact the outer world does not exist for them. 
"A personal, f eely-chosen, reflective and conscious connection 
of these children with their outer world fails to develop. They 
live an auto-erotic life, an unconscious, pathic and bodily life. 
On this undifferentiate] pathic level of existence the child's 
body experiences things subjectively; it functions in its totality 
as a source of pleasure" (Prick 1971 )• 

It is very hard to find an element of intentionality in the 
behavior of these children - intentionality towards the world of 
people and/or the world of objects, Usually ly observing these 
children in an unstimulated environment we see a very broad variety 
•of stereotyped or autisticlike behavior patterns e.g. stimulation 
of the proprioceptive and kinesthetic sense by rolling, rocking, 
spinning around, waving their hands, hyperventilation etc. 
Other childeren enjoy sensation of all kinds of visual stimulation 
such as lightgazing, moving all kinds of shiny objects in front 
of their eyes, fingergazing. Other children may enjoy, tactile 
stimulation by rubbing their body especialev their genitals, 
rubbing objects with their mouth and/or fingers , tactile-auditory 

■ stimulation by ear pumping etc. 

By close observation and by applying the technique of operant 
conditioning we look for the most enjoyable avenue for the 
child e.g. vision, vibration, movements. One of these modalities 
can be used as reinforcer for further conditioning techniques 
either according to the classical or the operant way. 
The examiner should by very sensitive to the most tenuous sign of 
behavior in the child e.g. sucking movements, vocalization or 
any other motor expression. 

These slightest and most delicate body expressions should be 
used to condition in order to elucite the orientative reflex. 
By counting the number of trials until the child develops the 
requires response we may get some information on the speed of 
learning to develop anticipatory behavior. 
The modality the child likes the most e.g. the proprio- 
kinesthetic sense or visual sense must become the avenue for 
further training and educational prcgi amming. 



-10- 



.10, 



In case no anticipation develops and the conditioning techniques 
are too difficult to apply we consider these children too 
severely retarded to be enrolled^ in our educational program. 
These children will be referred to an institution for the blind 
mentally retarded. This group of children will need custodial 
care for the rest of their lives. However, they need a very good 
stimulating program which focalize upon training especially in 
dependent living skills. 



>r 



To summarize: 

in this difficult group of children described above we look fo: 

the right reinforcer to be used for operant 01? classical 

conditioning. 

We carefully observe the speed of learning anticipatory behavior 

patterns. Besides these criteria the social maturity should be 

assessed e.g. by the Maxfield-Buchholtz scale for preschool blind 

children. 

If the visual loss is not too severe we use our 

developmental scale for young deaf children (v.Uden 1 97 5 ) • 

Other early developmental scales for cognitieve development 
may be used "as a springboard for crucial observations related 
to the child management" (Robbins, 1977) • 

- the Gesell Developmental Tests 

- the Cattel Infant Scale 

- the Bayley Scales of Infant Development 

- the Denver Developmental Scale 

In order to get better insight in the deviant behavior and the 
emotional development of the child we use the following inven- 
tories as parameters for further study and guidance: 

- an inventory on austistic behavior van Uden 1974> van Dijk, 
de Leuw 1975 

- an inventory on desolation syndrome van Uden 1969 

These inventories will be filled out together with the parents 

to discuss and explain the deviant behavior in their child and 

their own attitude towards the child. Their attitude may be: 

overprotecting or overdemanding their child, as well as spoiling 

or neglecting. 

By filling out the inventories e.g. one time per year we gain 

a better insight in behavioral change of the child over a period 

of time. 

The inventory on autistic behavior is based on the theoretical 

philosophy of autism and infantile autism of authors such as 

Kanner, Prick, Rimland, Rutter and others, but has been 

modified to over deaf-blind children. 

The inventory lists 100 items on all kinds of observable deviant 

behavior such,- as rocking, eyepoking, compulsive behavior such as 

sameness, closing/opening doors, interest in mechanical toys etc. 

The inventory on desolation syndrome had been develop by van Uden 

(1969» 1973) «He prefers the term "desolation-syndrome" instead 

of neglection of affection or maternal deprivation. 

These terms may give the impression that the parents are the 

cause of the child's behavior, which is not true in so many cases 

This inventory deals with the relation and interaction of parents 

and child. If the parents accept their child and if the child 

feels himself accepted. 



•11 



11. 

B) An other group of children iunctions on a higher developmental 
level. They are motorically and socially more matured. They 
are more able to cope v/ith newly introduced 
stimuli. 

They have established some intentionality r towards their outer 
world,, towards the world of persons and objects . .Stereotyped or 
autisticlikejbehavior patterns may be also observed in this 
group, however the patterns are not so severe. They are more 
easily to be interfered. 

By close observation of the behavior and by play with the child 

we find some good reinforcers which can be used for condioning 

techniques either the operart or classical way. 

These children develop the required response after 2-3 trials 

and learn to develop anticipatory behavior much quicker. 

Most of these children like a flash light or another light 

source. In some ca:;es the use of slides can be applied even 

when no pictoral representat ion had been developed. These children 

are able to show the beginning of imitative behavior. 

The ability to anticipate and to imitate are the most important 

critera for the development of the language acquisition 

When anticipation and imitation are present the introduction 

of natural signs can be initiated as a first step towards language 

acquisition (v.Dijk 1965)* 

We should be aware of the fact that learning disabilities may 
manifest itself already in this group of children. 
In imitating body movements we can observe severe problems in 
spatial relationships, esp. in the imitation of a— symmetric 
body positions. Secondly we may observe dificulties when they 
have to imitate a natural sign. They do not remember the 
sequence of movements to produce a sign. Thisi© caused by their 
problems in intransitive movements. 

If intentionality, imitation and attention towards visual 
stimuli is present in the child the examiner may use many 
more tests during his assessment e.g. tests for cognitive 
functioning: - Hiskey - Nebraskatest of learning aptitude 
for the deaf 

- Leiter international performance scale 

- Sni jders-Oomen non-verbal test 

- Wechler preschool and primary scale of 
intelligence (WPPSl) 

- Ontario school ability examination 



-12- 



12. 
C. The last group of children to be discuss 3d is the group of rubella 

children in the deaf-blind department wh) develop themselves reia- 

tivily very well. Language acquisition s barts to develop. They impress 

visitors by their normal intelligence ani good educational potentials 

However assessing this group of children they resemble a broad 

variety of disorders in language acquisition. 

Also congenitally deaf children with progessive visual loss such 

as children with Usher's Syndrome or meningitis cases belong to 

this category. 

Through the intensive research of v# Uden (1968) and v. Dijk ( 1 97 1 ) 

better insight had been developed in the language and learning 

disorders of our deaf-blind children. According to the findings 

of v. Uden 20 to 2^°/o of the deaf population of our Institute 

do show learning problems ^ which hampers language acquisition 

solely orally according to the matenial reflective method (v. Uden 1 968 ) 

They fail to learn to speak fluently despite normal intelligence, 

enormous efforts of the staff and a good educational program. 

Clumsiness of behavior or dyspraxia is the basic f 

disorder in this group of children. 

"Eupraxia can be described as planned behaviour, behaviour 

according to planned movements. It entails being able to 

find and coordinate one's limbs quickly and correctly, being able 

to steer, retain and reproduce movements. This planned behaviour 

does not only concern the major, but also the fine motor functions 

(articulo-motor function)". (v. Dijk, v.Uden 1 97 6 ) . 

We encounter dyspracxialt in practically all our congenitally 
deaf-blind children. 

Dyspraxia is the result of neurologi cal disorders and the 
underdeveloped sensorimotor functions, Due Hthe lack of intentionality 
towards the outer world, eye-hand and eye-foot coordination are 
poorely developed. Planned movements are poorly coordinated. 
Automatization of the sensorimotor functions does not occur- 
due to poor training of the sensorimotor functions as such and 
due to impairment of eupraxia. 

Another aspect wich has an important impact on dyspraxia is 
dysrhythmia. 

"One can indeed state that eupraxia and eurhythmies form a strongly 
integrated function" ( v.Di jk, v.Uden 1976). 

Dyspraxia and dysrhythmia are usually the reason why a deaf child 
or a. deaf-blind child articulates, speaks poorly. 
An additional disorder is its poor memory for successive data 
such as in lipreading. On the other hand the child usually shows 
a strong memory for vinu.il simul tu^neous data such as pictures, 
geometric figures etc. 

The right diagnosis of the dyspraxia, dysrhythmia and poor 
memory for successive data are being important for proper 
educational programming. 

Van Uden had developed a whole test battery to diagnose 
the dyspractic' problems in the young children. He uses the 
following tests. 
(For further information see his book 1968) 

- The intransitive motor ability test to 

test: a) gross motor coordination of arms and legs 

b) gross rhythmic movements of the arms 

c) fine movements of she fingers 

- The Fine Rhythmic movement "est: 

(an adaptation of the Stambak rhythm-test) 

- Hiskey-Nebraska test: 

subtests e.g. visual attention span, bead patterns, picture 
identification and memory for colors.- 

-13- 



Benton-test : 

to reproduce geometric figures 



13- 



-14- 



14. 



Educational programming 

f 
Only by early diagnosis and evaluation of the learing profile 
of the child, we can set our educational goals in order to 
create the best possible educational facilities for each child. 
According to our phylosophy we look for the strong side in the 
child to start his education and to train his weak aide as much 
as possible. 

Education and stimulation should not just take place during the 
hours the teachers are present, but should occur all the waking 
hours of the child. 

Also the mother of a normal child stimulates and educates her child 
the whole day. 

Parents, teachers and houseparent3 have to work very close together 
to realize the unity in educational programming and handling. 
This is the reason why our house-parents also teach under the 
supervision of the child's teacher. Also parents come as much as 
possible to work with their child. 

It will not be possible to describe the educational programming in 
detail but I will elaborate on the most important aspects of the 
described categories of children. 

A) The low functioning child 

For the difficult, the low functioning children it is of 
extreme importance that consistancy in educational handling 
and programming is guarded. 

The number of adults handling the children should be carefully 
watched. Also the activities planned for each day should shew 
consistancy and structure. 

Only by consistancy and structure we can create a safe and 
secure world for this group of children who do not show inten- 
tionality in their behavior. A good "person-to - person-relationship' 
should be the base for sharing all kinds of fainiliair daily 
activities such as bathing, dressing, eating, moving etc. Most 
children never experienced the outer world mo torically. Therefore 
we start moving with the child in close body contact. We use 
very simple rhythmical mouvements the child likes the most such 
as swaying together, rocking together etc. By moving mutually 
"co-actively" (van Dijk, 1965* 1968), we try to develop signal 
behavior in the child. See if we can evoke even the s^mallest 
signal in the child by which he expresses his joy to continue- 
the movements. 
By applying conditioning techniques we try to expend the movement: 
into series in order to train anticipation and the sequential 
motoric memory as much as possible. Children who are usually 
able to remember sequential motoric data will develop signal 
behavior and are succesful in the use of natural signs. 
Co-active movements should be the base towards developing to 
imitative behavior. 

Imitation can be supported by pictorial representations and 
natural signs. 



■15- 



15. 



B) The imj tating child 

Children who are able to imitate have acquired a more reflective 

attitude towards the outer world. The world of "immediacy" has 

altered. 

The element of distance - distance in space and distance in time - 

has developed in these children. They are able to "look at" or 

"listen to" stimuli from the outer world. Residual vision and hearing 

are now developed as distance senses. 

We all know that imitation is a basic process of lear'ing. 

Imitation should he trained in many different ways e.g. 

1 Symmetrical and a-symrnetricai body positions. 

2 Imitation of body positions from persons, from dolls or 
from pictures. 

3 Imitation of seri&i of movements with or without other objects 
such as a hat, a bracelet etc. 

Children at this level will soon be ready for pictographic conver- 
sation. Photo's, pictures and drawings are used to prepare the 
child for coming everts. They will be able to point to pictures 
or to draw pictures themselves to express their needs. 
To develop the right attitude towards language it is very important 
to work according to the seizing method( Brown and Bellugi,1 9&4 » v .Uden , 
The base of language acquisition is the exchange of thoughts, 
intentions people want to express. 

The teacher watches the child very carefully what he wants 
to express. At that moment the- teacher gives the correct language 
to the child e.g. a sign or a spoken or written language form. 
The teacher plays a double role. She says or writes the sentence down 
the child is wanting to say in this situation and the teacher 
gives her own reaction. 



The pictographic conversation will be the base for the spoken 
or graphical conversation. (Bell 1884) 



-lb- 



16. 
C) The dispractive child * 

The lea ruing profile of the dyspractic child is characterized 

by a strong memory for simultaneously presented visual data 

and a weak memory successively presented data (v. Uden 1968, 

v.Dijk-v.Uden 1976). 

This fact is very important for educational programming and the 

choice of the communication method. In case we could consist 

the oral method for language acquisition, we would always focus 

upon the weak side of the childis capacities. 

The dispractic child lias problems in lipreading and speech. 

However, by using the graphical conversation method we use 

the strong side of the dispractic child. 

The dialogue between child and adult has to be written down on 

paper according to the seizing method described earlier. 

The graphical conversation will be the base to develop reading- 
speech, lipreading and auditory training. Especially auditory 
training needs as much attention as possible. 
The degree of auditory loss ad the degree of using residual 
hearing will decide if the child will be able to communicate orally 
or by f ingerspelling. 

Some of the children in this group are able to develop a reading 
level of the 4th grade. 

For mou? detailed educational programming I refer to the following 
publications v. Uden 1968, van Ilijk 1 97 ^ t van LiJK. van Uden 1976. 



-17- 



17 



C onclusion; 

According to our phylosophy earle diagnosis, evaluation and 
educational planning for deaf-blind children are inseparable. 
if the maximum potential of each child is to be realized. 
But early diagnosis, evaluation and educational programming 
can not bring the sole solution. 

In order to be successful in teaching deaf-blind children 
there are many more aspects which also are very important such 
as: 

- good cooperation with the parents and siblings. 

- continuity and expertise of the teachers and houseparents . 

- very intensive training of the staff especially good theoretical 
background of language acquisition and specific learning disorder: 
of deaf children. 

- school and residential setting should be fully integrated in 
order to garantee the unity in the child' 3 treatment. 

- good dif f erentiaj. diagnoses of each child to find the strong 
side in his learning profile and his individualy needs. 

- carefully grouping of children according to their level of the 
functioning and the communication method they use. 

- good working a thmo sphere among the staff and open communication 
with the board of directors which has to support the needs 

of its children and staff members. 

- provision of enough staffmembers by national and federal 
government agencies because deaf-blind children need very 
individualized reaching which means that one adult the child 
should be available for quite some hours per day and ea.cn 
day per week. 

iJeaf-blind children are the most handicapped among us. They 
are the most dependent human beings. They cannot speak for 
themselves. The culture of a country is measured by the care 
for handicapped people. The training course for teachers of 
the deaf last July in Rio de Janeiro and this First Brazilian 
Seminar for the 'Education of the beaf-Blind have impressed me 
deeply. I am touched by the big concern of the Brazilian national 
and federal government agencies for the field of special. 
education. Only by joined efforts of authorities, all available 
professional workers and specialists we can be successful in 
the very difficult but most challenging field of education, the 
education of deaf-blind children. 

In Brazil many deaf-blind children are waiting today for 
adequate training and education to improve their quality of 
life and the lives of their parents. 



Selected bibliography ; 

BELL, A.G.:"Upon a method of teaching language to a very young 
congenitally deaf child". 
Washington D.C. I8O4. 

BROWN, R.and U. BELLUGI: 

"Three processes in the child's acquisition of syntax". 
Harvard educational Review 34 > 1 9^4 p.13 1 ~151. 

CENTERS and Services for Leaf-blind Children. 
Proposed Rules, Part 121c. 37. 
Federal Register, Volume 38, Number 196, October 11,1973. 

CHESS, S., S. KORN, P. FERNANDEZ: 

"Psychiatric disorders of Children with congenital 
Rubella". 
New York 1971 . 

CURTIS, S. and E. DONLON: 

" The development and evaluation of a video-tape 
protocal for the examination of mult ihandicapped 
deaf-blind children". 

Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York Final Report 
1972. 

DANTONA, R.: 

"Demographic data arid status of services for deaf-blind 
children in the United States". 

in "1900 is NOV/", edited by C. SHERRICK, John Tracy 
Clinic, Los Angelos, 1974* 

DIJK, J. van: 

"The first steps of the deaf-blind child towards 
language", in "Teaching deaf-blind children", 
Kalundborg, Denmark 19&5« 

DIJK, J. van: 

"The non-verbal deaf-blind child and his world. His 
ougrowth toward the world of symbols", in Verzamelde 
Studies, Instituut voor Dover, St .Michielsgestel 1968. 

DIJK, J. van: 

"/Learning difficulties and deaf-blind children" in 
Fourth international conference on the education 
of deaf-blind children. 

Perkins Scriool for the Blind, Watertown, Mass. U.S. A. 
1971. 

DIJK, J. van and A. van Uden: 

"Problems of Communication in Deaf Children". 
The Teacher of the Deaf, March 1976. 

EV/ING, I.R. and A.W.G. EV/ING: 

"Teaching deaf children to talk", Manchester, 1964. 



LEUW, L. DE: 

"Theories into Practice. A closer look at the 
application of theories on language disorders in 
teaching three deaf-blind children". 

in Fifth international deaf-blind Seminar, Condover 
Hall, 1974. 

LEUW, L. DE: 

"Tapeto-retinale degeneratie bij prelinguaal dove 
kinderen" . 
Katholieke Leergangen, Tilburg, 1976. 

MYKLEBUST, H.R.: 

"The psychology of deafness". 
New York 1964. 

PRICK, J.: 

"Infantile Autistic behavior and experience: a new 
clinical picture. 
Rotterdam University Press, Holland, 1 971 . 

ROBBINS, N. : 

"A view from diagnostic arid educational evaluation 
services located in a program for deaf-blind students 
in a school for the Blind". 
Gallandet College, Washington D.C. 1975. 

ROBBINS, N.: 

"Educational Assessment of Deaf-blind and auditorily- 
visually impaired children: a survey". 
in "State of the Art" edited by E. LOWELL and C.ROUIN. ^ c \}7 

UDEN, A. van: 

" Le begrippen doofstom, doofstom met gehoorresten, 

en slechthorend" . 

Ned. T.S. voor Doof s tommenonderwi js , 1951. 

UDEN, A. van: 

"Een geluidsmethode voor zwaardove kinderen". 
St. Michielsgestel, 1952. 

UDEN, A. van: 

"A world of language for deaf children". Part I, 
Basic Principles, St .Michielsgestel 19&8. 

UDEN, A. van: 

"Eupraxie en spx^aak" 
Instituut voor Doven, 
Sint Michielsgestel, 1970 

VERNON, McCay: 

"Overview of Usher's Syndromen. Congenital deafness 
and progressive loss of vision". 
The Volta Review, February, 1974- 



SEMINARIO BRASILEIRO DE EDUCAQAO DE DEFICIENTE AUDIOVISUAL 



"REHABILITATION AND HABILITATION 

OF THE DEAF-BLIND PERSONS IN THE 

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY. 



DR. KARL - HEINZ BAASKE 




I SEDAV - ABEDEV 



"Rehabilitation and Habilitation of the , af-Blind 
Persons in the Federal Republic of Germany". 

Deaf-fft-ind persons belong to those people, who are bit the 
hardest. They lack seeing and hearing. The absence of these two 
most important senses leads to an inner isolation and often to a 
deviating development of the personality, experiencing is slowed 
down decisively, mental and psychic growth is hindered, and 
communication is limited. The lack "of seeing and hearing is not 
a sum of both factors, but presents' its own form of disability. 

Often mental and psychic illnesses appear additionally as 
primary or secondary symntoras. 

The conceptual world of the deaf-blind person based on his 
senses is quantitatively as well as qualitatively different to 
the conceptual world of the person's who can se^ and be^r. T'he 
sociological development is considerably reduced through an 
isolation which can hardly be imagined. 

Persons who are born deaf-blind remain mute, unless ve^ 
specific attention is given to them; mute even in regard to sxptl 
language and body language. They lack any form of language 
communication with their seeing and hearing surrounding. They 
lack the ability to use words in order to take pprt in the 
intellectual life of man. 

Those persons who were born deaf and blind oanncbt move 
around and imitate the behaviour of the people around teem, because, 
due to the absence of optical perception thetf do not possess 
the stimuli. 

All this knov/ledge must not discourage us, but encourage us 
to achieve the best that is possible through goal oriented 
rehabilitation. It is our task to bring about health, educational, 
professional, social, sociological, and personal rehabilitation 
and to integrate the deaf-blind persons in 'our country. 

We have to take into account that- the visual and auditive 
damages of our deaf-blind oersons may involve various combinations. 
Besides the kind and the degree of the deprivations of the senses 
also the initial stage of the damage to the e/aes and ears i s of 
utmost importance in order to take the correct measures for 



furthering the deaf-blind. This' results in many different patterns 
so that measures for rehabilitation can only he effective if 
they are geared seperately to each individual. 

Measures are possible via remaining seeing and hearing 
capabilities and via haptic, tactile, vibratory:, and 
kinasthetical modalities. 

The first initiatives to help the deaf-blind children also 
in Europe were taken only after the successful education of 
Laura Bridp'eman »nd helen Keller before the turn of the century. 
In Germany the first deaf-blind child was accepted in 1887 by #>e 
director of the Oberlinhaus. Chaplain Foppe . in Potsdam Babel sbere: 
and was educated by a teacher for deaf-blind children Gustav 
Pi emann. "Around the turn of the century an institution for 
deaf-blind persons was created there. 

In the Federal Republic of Germany the deaf-blind persons 
did not receive any specific attention at first. A few attempts 
to provide housing- for them in Stuttgart and. Heidelberg did. not 
succeed. As of 1950 I have again and again, called attention to 
the fact that the deaf-blind children in our country also have 
to be given the chance for an education. But only fen years ag*o 
I received the mission to create a department for deaf-blind 
students within the School for the Blind in Hannover, however, 
after our first efforts it became clear that we could not do 
justice to the differentiating assignments of rehabilitation and. 
habilifation of the deaf-blind persons in the framework of a 
small, annexed department. The number of children who were 
waiting in line to be registered for school grew from year to 
year, even from month to month. The call of more than S00 deaf- 
blind adults for a central, nation-w^-ide rehabilitation center 
became louder and louder. Therefore I developped the plan for an 
all-inclusive educational home, for a center for deaf-blind 
persons. For this center 1 needed a sponsor. The Chairman of the 
Bi.indenverband Niedersachsen (Organization of the Blind of 
Bower Saxony) accepted this responsibil ity. He founded the 
non-profit organization "Deutsches Taubblindenwerk" and he 
raised from nublic and private sources the funds for the building 
of the Center f or/yDeaf-blind. 

In this Center for the Deaf-blind we initiate all steps 
and carrv out all measures which are necessary and attainable 



-r 3 



for the rehabilitation of deaf-blind children and adults. 

These tasks are:* 

1. Locating the children and adults. 

2. Counselling of parents and families. 

J). Early care for children below school age and able to attend 
school . 

4. Education of students in schools. 

5. Vocational training of teen-agers. 

6. Professional integration. 

7. Rehabilitation and continuing- education of adults. 

8. Representation of deaf-blind persons in all areas. 

From the beginning, these goals were too high for the 
Center £or the Deaf-blind; we could not reach back to workable 
lesson plans for curriculum planning, we did not have a 
sufficiently well trained staff for our educational work, we 
had to reduce considerable retardations in our visually and 
auditively handicapped children. But ,.we succeeded to increase the 
number of students since September 1971 by the factor 5, and 
we succeeded to visit continuously additional 150 deaf-blind 
children in the Federal Republic of Germany and to counsel their 
parents in ten "Mother-Child-Courses" at home. 

Deaf-blind persons are reported to us by parents and doctors, 
schools for the blind and schools for the deaf, offices of 
education, welfare offices, and by organisations for the blind 
and deaf. No obligatory reporting of handicapped children is 
required in the Federal Republic of Germany. 

JX$ September 20, 197? the Deutsche Taubblindenzentrum 
(German Center for the Deaf-blind) was inaugurated as a nation- 
wide and central educational center andfhome for deaf-blind persons. 
The accredited private school for the deaf-blind was founded 
as Special Education School already one year earlier, when the 
first deaf-blind children from the NiedersachsLsche Landesblinden- 
schuleHannover (State School for the Blind of Lower Saxony in 
Hannover) moved into the Center for the Deaf-blind. 

A subject matter specialist is in charge of pre-school 
education. 



We offer counselling as a first aid to parents of deaf-blind 
children in their own home. The earlier we start this, the 
greater is the chance to be able to help the deaf-blind child. 
This counselling takes place in cooperation with medical doctors 
(specialists). In courses for parents they receive further 
suggestions in the Center for earing for their children, dnri^ * 
the pre-sohool stage. 

Our accredited School for the Deaf-blind is the nucleus of 
the Center for the "Deaf-blind. Here we trtf to communicate to the 
school- age children a feeline* for our three-dimensional won" 1 d 
and to at act to this at the same time the language in form of 
sound', writing and feeling. Besides we tra to develop the physical 
mental., and psychological growth of the students according to 
their different talents and we tra to teach them practical skills 
and give them room for experiencing. 

* Tn our instruction the following principles are valid: 

We have to protect t"e deaf-blind child from inner and 
outer suffering. 

We have to activate and develop all remaining senses of 
the deaf-blind child in all aneas. 

We have to reduce all behavioural and developmental 
disturbances of cfeaf-blind children. 

IV e have to familiarize the deaf-blind child with all means 
of communication for the deaf-blind and/the technical aids for 
the blind. 

The education and training of our student-- has to result 
in the possibility to carry out a profession w-i ich aereps with 
them. Work can give to the deaf-blind person a feeling of self- 
assurance and in some cases economic independence. 

After the inauguration' of. the Center f>r the Deaf -blind 
we had first attempted to train youne' industrial workers. This 
attempt failed because of two reasons: 

U The first 5 teen-agers were not able to fulfill the 
demands of an industrial w -orker and 

?. The economic situation had deteriorated to such an extent 
that we could not place our deaf-blind, students in industry. 

This fact does not release us from the obligation- to gi ve 
all deaf-blind persons a vocational or professional training. 
Only, satisfying professional work can give the deaf-blind persons 



- 5 - 

self-assurance and for some of them even economic ind en end ence. 
As occupation for- most of the deaf-blind persons certain crafts 
for the blind are available. (Weaving, macrame, wicker-work, 
brusb making). Since 1975 our deaf-blind are mainly trained in 
these occupations in our training workshops. The deaf-blind 
person can later practice these acouired skills in workshops for 
the blind or at home. When skills and abilities above averse can 
be recognised we are trying, naturally, to make additional 
professional goals possible. 

We agree that we could steroup our students according to 
c-ertain criteria, for instance according to the same kind of 
^a^iiicFp or the same achievement group or a°e group. We deci.ded 
to have family tyre groupings, where each group is guided by 
one teacher and four persons with a background in pedagogical 
and social science. This team has proven to be effective for the 
instruction of deaf-blind students. It presupposes constant 
communication, togetherness and. a high degree of human and 
professional Qualities. In order to improve the content of 
instruction at our school with the differently, talented and 
differently handicapped children, curriculum research is done in 
cooperation with resoective university professors of the 
University Hamburg. 

We have in our Center rehabilitation facilities for those 
blind persons who became deaf as adults, or those deaf persons 
who became blind as adults, or those who lost both senses when 
they were adults. We try to give constantly new information and 
knowlet'e to some deaf-blind adults. But in the Center for the 
Deaf-blind we naturally limit ourself essentially to pre-school, 
school, professional and social rehabilitation. However, it has 
to be nointed out that we cannot do our work without medical 
rehabilitation. It is directed towards functional improvement, 
corrective surgical operations, treatment with medicine, and 
occupational therapy, physical therapy, or the supply of learning 
aids. We carry out this medical rehabilitation in cooperation 
with the neighboring School of Medicine (University). 

The work with our deaf-blind adults in residence is quite 
different than the daily teaching, because we try to create 
a homekt our Center for those deaf -blind adults, who did not find 
a home anywhere alse upto now. They had to give up their friends 
and their familiar surroundings at many places. Therefore we 



- 6 - 

have developped sponsorships for them with our church community. 
Almost half of our deaf-blind persons are employed in the 
neighboring workshop for the blind in crafts for the blind. 
Others are knitting or "tyey produce artistic wicker work at 
home. Letters are folded and put into envelopes, and commissions 
from industries in the city of Hannover are carried out. 
There is an extended program to fill the leisure time of our 
deaf-blind. It includes all areas that are attainable for deaf- 
blind persons. Swimmine- and sports, cooking and crafts, reading 
Hand games, hiking and sightseeing, celebrating and prayers. In 
a cafeteria managed by our Center items for daily needs are for 
sale. 

The building of our Center for the "Deaf-blind has been 
designed such that the whole ground floor is on the same level 
and the individual wings are arranged very functionally with 
each other. 

It is diA/idpd in 5 building parts : 

a) 8 pavilions with classrooms and living quarters for male 
and f ea^l e students. 

b) Entrance Fall, administration, subject matter classrooms 

and counselling rooms. 

0) Training workshops, vocational school, living quarters for 
ex. 

^d.ults in residence, and pre-school nursery. 

D) living quarters with apartments for deaf-blind youth and 
adults . 

E) Gymnasium and swimming- pool, bowling alley, arid rhythm room. 

We have adjusted our Center to the needs of the deaf-blind 
also from a technical point of view. Railings have been installed 
in and around, the Center for better orientati/n. A vibration 
ledge in front of the elevator indicates the opening of the 
elevator door. Several vibration buttons are arranged within the 
elevator and indicate on which floor the elevator stops. Rotatinp- 
fans replace thepell in the rooms. In every apartment are a 
number of electrical outlets to which additional electrical 
equipments can be connected and also the Braillomat, a communication 
machine for the deaf-blind. Every deaf-blind person can control 
from his bed an alarm signal for emergencies. Amplifiers and 
induction bands (wireless amplifiers) for increasing the volume 
of the sound are in the pavilions, in the gymnasium and rhythm 
fcoom. 



- 7 - 

For accreditation and approval or our school v/e had to 
submit/a general draft for our program of instruction. This draft 
could onle be a guideline for the daily work with our so 
differently talented and handicapped children and does not 
suffice on the long run for comprehensive educational work. 
Due to the suggestion of the Niedersachsische Kultusministerium 
(Ministry of Culture of Lower Saxony) v/e therefore enriched tine 
content of instruction at our school through curriculum research 
in cooperation with the respective University professors of the 
University Hamburg. In order to perform the instruction at the 
school more effectively the following committees have to work 
out new projects: 

1. Committee "Snorts" 

2. Committee "Natural Science" 

3. Committee "Pre-school and Early Education" 

4. Committee "Religious Festivities" 

5. Committee "Special Edration Courses" (For children who need 

specific additional help) 

6. Committee "Manual work in Education" 

The School has world-wide contacts with institutions which 
educate deaf-blind children just as we do. Representatives of 
these schools attended the following international conferences 
or seminars: 

•1971 US, 1972 Holland, 1973 Austria, 1974- England, 
1975 Holland, 1976 Australia. 

The Deutsche Taubblindenva?k is in charge of the next 
world conference for the education of the deaf-blind in 1980 
in H^annover. We know with what kind of expectations the parents, 
teachers and educators of deaf-blind children will come to 
Hannover. V/e therefore want to show them how hard we try to 
further the rteaf-blind child in thelbest possible way. 



Karl-Heinz Baaske 

Deutsches Taubblinden-Zentrum 

Albert-Schweitzer-Hof 27 

3000 Hannover 71 



Karl-He inz B a a s k e 
born 1921, 

Studies at the University of Hamburg (pedagogics, pedagogics for 
the deaf and blind, phonetics, science of language, psychology, 
otology, ophtalinology). 

From 1952 on teacher for the deaf and blind and the deaf -blind, 

Prom 1965-1971 Dorectpr pf the Deaf-Blind Department of the 
School for the Blind of Lower Saxony in Hanover 

Initiator of an educational program for deaf-blind children of 
the De feral Republic of Germany. 

Since 1971 Director of the School for the Deaf-Blind as well as 
of the G-erman Deaf -Blind Center in Hanover. 

Vice-Director of the G-erman Deaf-Blind Association gGmbH 
(Deutsches Taubblindenwerk g.GmbH), 

Vice-chairman of the I.A.D.D.B. , 

Board Member of the G-erman Association for the Rehabilitation 
of the Handicapped (Deutsche Vereinigung fur die Rehabilitation 
Behinderter), 

Adviser to the Serman Parity Welfare Association (Deutscher 
1 aritatischer Wohlf ahrts-Verband ) ♦ 

** ** ** ** 



<y** 



Centers and Services for Deaf-Blind Children in 
the United States? Their Organization and Operation 

fey 

Robert Dantona 
Coordinator, Centers and Services for Dea-Blind Children 
Bureau of Education for the Handicapped, U.S. Office of Education 



The devesting and catastrophic force of maternal rubella is well 
known throughout the world. Rubella epidemics in Australia, the 
United Kingdom and the United States has resulted in countless 
thousands of children horn with handicapping conditions and numer- 
ous infant deaths due to miscarriages and stillbirths. 

In the United States, the savage force of the 1964-65 rubella 
epidemic afflicted an estimated 50,000 women during their early 
months of pregnancy. Some 20,000 of these pregnancies resulted in 
miscarriages or stillbirths, and 30,000 resulted in children born 
with one or more handicaps. These handicaps included visual 
impairments, hearing impairments, mental retardation, and a 
variety of other physical disabilities. 

Many of these children v/ere born with two or more of these 
disabilities. The Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia, 
had predicted that some 2,500 children would be born deaf -blind as 
a result of this epidemic and that the total economic cost for the 
education and institutionalization of these children would be over 
37 million dollars per year. 

Prior to the rubella epidemic there was an estimated 600 deaf -blind 
children of school age in the United States. Of this number, 
approximately 100 children were enrolled in deaf -blind programs in 
seven residential facilities scattered throughout the country. Be- 
cause combined deafness and blindness has occurred so rarely 
before 1963, very few educational services were available at the 
time of the epidemic. The significant increase in the deaf -blind 
population anticipated as a result of the rubella epidemic and the 
awareness that rubella was not the only contributing factor to the 
combined loss of vision and hearing in children, created great 

/. 



- 2 - 
concern to educators, administrators, and government officials in 
the United States, 

Other contributing factors toward the increase of the number of 
children with multiple birth defects evidenced over the past ten 
years, are infectious diseases such as encephalitis and meningitis 
genetic anomalies, congenital debilities and malformations irradia- 
tion, and the improper use of drugs during pregnancy. Ironically, 
the advances of medical science have also contributed to this 
increase of multiple birth defects by reducing the infant mortality 
rate and extending life by greater control of those infections and 
diseases which in the past killed many children. 

The degree of impairment suffered by deaf -blind children ranges 
from profoundly deaf and blind, to hard of hearing and partially 
sighted. To further compound the problems, these children often 
may have a high proportion of other physical and/or mental disabili- 
ties. Because of the severe probleras resulting from these 
multiple disabilities and the overwhelming communication problems 
that resulted, the deaf -blind child required specialized education 
as well as training programs to meet their unique needs. Such 
severely miltiple handicapped children cannot be accommodated in 
special educational classes developed solely for the hearing handi- 
capped or visually handicapped child, 

It was estimated by Federal Government officials that in addition 
to the 2500 deaf -blind children predicted as a result of the rubella 
epidemic, that another 2 500 deaf -blind children would be found 
throughout the Ration resulting from other causes. It was evident 
that these 5000 children could not be served by the limited number 
of deaf -blind programs available in 1963. In fact, it was estimated 
that if existing facilities for the deaf -blind wore expanded to their 
maximum capacity, they would be able to enroll fewer than 450 of 
these children by 1972, 

The increase in the deaf-blind population, especially the antici- 
pated rubella group as they reached school age in 1970-71, would 
place a tremendous burden on prevailing educational programs leaving 

/. 



- 3 - 

thousands of these children without appropriate educational services, 
The impending educational crisis was further aggravated by the lack 
of trained professionals available-teachers, aides, ans support 
personnel to •tuff the special programs needed for these children. 
Because of this lack of specialized facilities and professional 
staff it seemed inevitable that many of these children would be 
inappropriately referred to state institutions for the retarded 
and thus be given inadequate educational services. 

Only a handful of educators and administrators involved with the 
education of deaf -blind children aware of the impending rubella 
epidemic urged and pleaded in early 1964 for prompt action and 
intervention by the Federal Government to prevent the predicted 
educational crisis awaiting these children and their families. 
These deaf -blind children, like all children were entitled to the 
same opportunity to develop to their maximum capabilities. The 
longer such a severely handicapped ~hild goes without meaningful 
educational intervention, the more certain it is the child's 
potential will be reduced and the need for institutionalization 
increased. 

Since existing programs and facilities would not be able to handle 
the educational needs of the vastly increased numbers of deaf- 
blind children and because of their scattered geographic 
distribution throughout the United States, it was essential that 
all resources available be coordinated and work cooperatively at all 
levels - State, local, and Federal to deal with this catastrophic 
problem. A national effort would be essential and support from 
the Federal Government would be necessary to create the new 
resources required to meet the special needs of these children. 

In the mid 1960's educators, parents, professionals, and concerned 
lay people appealed to the United States Congress for assistance 
for these children. Thanks to their endless efforts and to a 
s, mpathetic and responsible Congress Public Law 90-247, Part C, 
amending Title VI of the Elementary P' Secondary Education Act, 
was approved and signed into law by P. ssident Johnson in January 
of 1968. This law provided for the establishment of centers and 

/. 



and services for all deaf -"blind children in the United States, with 
a million dollars "being appropriated for this purpose in 1969. On 
April 13', 1970, this law was amended "by Public Law 91-230, Part C, 
Section 622, Title VI of the Education of the Handicapped Act, 

The intent of Congress was to provide model centers through this 
law " ... designed to develop and "bring to hear upon such children, 
"beginning as early as feasible in life, those specialised profes- 
sional and allied services, methods, and aids that are found to "be 
most effective to enable the children to achieve their fall potent- 
ial for communication with, and adjustment to, the world around 
them for useful and meaningful participation in society and for 
self fulfillment." 

The Bureau of Education for the Handicapped is the Federal Agency 
responsible for managing and implementing the deaf -blind program. 
The Bureau's goal was to establish ten Regional Centers. This 
program would include all 50 states and the Trust Territories. The 
regional centers would be established at, or as near as possible, 
to the existing programs for deaf -blind children around the United 
States in an effort to maximize the use of these limited resources 
as well as their expertise so that increased benefits to new and 
developing programs would result. The regional areas were establish- 
ed on the basis of the State's willingness to become involved and 
to work cooperatively with other States while gradually developing 
their own programs for deaf -blind children. 

In June of 1969, eight regional centers were funded with one million 
dollars by the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped. The eight 
agencies funded to operate these centers included four schools with 
established programs for deaf -blind children, t iree State Education 
Agencies which had established programs for deaf -blind children in 
their State, and a private agency which had in operation a model 
program for deaf children. In June of 1970, two additional regional 
centers were funded by the Bureau. Of these, two, one was a State 
Education Agency which had no established program for deaf -blind 
children and the other was a State Department of Public Welfare 
which had an established program for deaf -blind children. 

/. 



The ten agencies funded to develop and operate regional centers 
for deaf -blind children were selected on the basis of their 
demonstrated interest in and their ability to implement the 
Bureau's program. The amount of funding received by each region 
depended upon the number of deaf -blind children who could be 
provided immediate services in that geographical area. Federal 
appropriations have increased each year from one million dollars 
in 1969 to sixteen million dollars in 1977. 

The regional center concept is based on the administration, organi- 
zation, and coordination of existing resources and the development 
of additional resources as needed t/; specialized center staff, to 
assure that diagnostic and educational services are provided for 
deaf -blind children in their region c Those states uniting 
together into one region designated a sponsoring agency to serve 
as the coordinating unit responsible for implementing the regional 
center programs. To achieve greater effectiveness per dollar 
expended, the emphasis in all centers is on direct services to 
children in the belief that individual services and specific 
programs will increase the deaf -blind child's potential for 
independence and thus reduce the total expenditures over that 
person's lifetime. 

The initial efforts of the regional centers required no construct- 
ion of new facilities with Federal monies but this does not pre- 
clude the possibility that special facilities may someday have to be 
built to meet the exceptional needs of this group - especially as 
they approach young adulthood. Building plans must be considered 
by each State as they plan for the total service needs of the 
deaf -blind individual. However, the initial emphasis of the 
centers focussed on their ability to provide adequate educational 
services for these children as quickly as possible in order to 
reduce the possibilities of these children being institutionalized. 

Each regional center has a coordinating staff responsible for 
administering the center's regional plan e:-& program as approved 
by the Bureau. Under contract agreements with participating 



educational or institutional programs, the centers make certain 
that comprehensive diagnostic and evaluative services are provided; 
"iat there are programs for the adjustment, orientation, and 
education of all deaf -blind children and that in these programs all 
necessary professional and allied services are integrated; and, 
that effective consultative services are provided for parents, 
teachers, and others who have direct roles in deaf-blind children's 
lives * 

In order to identify and meet the full range of special needs of 
the children and their parents, the centers are also involved in 
research, the development or demonstration of new educational 
programs, inservics training for parents and professional and 
allied personnel, and the dissemination of materials and information 
about practices found effective in working with deaf-blind children. 

Since the start of the program ir 1969, the ten regional deaf- 
blind centers have carried out intensive casefinding efforts in 
order to identify and locate all deaf -blind children in each region. 
Each State within a region has established procedures for locating 
these children and for obtaining specific information for planning 
the most appropriate services and for ensuring efficient use of 
available resources. This information is reported to the regional 
center and organized by the center staff for region wide planning 
of services to these children and their families. 

tfhen a child is located, arrangements are made by the center staff 
to provide diagnostic and evaluative services by agencies partici- 
pating in this program. Lata on the child's degree of hearing and 
vision impairment, degree oi functional sensory ability, and degree 
of additional handicaps must be obtained and assessed to provide 
an adequate program for the child's individual needs. The goal 
in all cases is to determine each child's capacity for growth and 
development,, Upon completion of diagnostic and evaluative services, 
children are placed in a variety of educational or training programs, 
including residential schools, training institutions, tutorial 

/. 



- 7 - 
■programs, public school classes, and preschool programs. The 
objective is to provide an individualized educational program 
designed to meet the specific needs of each child. 

The centers also provide techn: jal assistance directly to the 
State Education Agencies through their own staff or through 
consultants in order to develop State plans which will assure the 
provision of meaningful and continuous services through the 
educational lifetime of the deaf-blind child. The centers also 
conduct inservice training for parents, teachers, aides, and 
others working with deaf -blind children on a continuing basis at 
the local service program level, and state or regional levels. 
Inservice training is a critical program activity carried out oy 
the Centers in an effort to supplement the skills of teachers and 
aides so they could more meaningfully and productively work with 
deaf -blind children. Because the number of programs for deaf- 
blind children have expanded faster than professionals could be 
trained, continuous training of professionals is essential. 

Since 1969? the ten regional have located and identified some 
5,600 deaf -blind children. These children are to be found in all 
50 States and the Territories. In 1974, some 4,478 children are 
receiving direct educational services in more than 250 programs 
around the United States. Today, each State has one or more 
programs for deaf -blind children compared to only seven programs 
available for these children in 1968. The goal of the deaf-blind 
program is to provide all deaf -blind children who can benefit 
from them, appropriate educational services by 1978. 

Nearly 13 years have passed since tie rubella epidemic. We are 
now .able to measure some of the consequences and evaluate how the 
regional center concept has worked in response to the severe 
educational crisis created by this epidemic. This crisis was not 
the epidemic, for, as we have learned since that time nearly half 
the deaf-blind children located by the centers were a result of 
other causes. The crisis was the lack of available facilities as 
well as the manpower with essential expertise in the areas of 

/. 



education, medical diagnosis, and educational assessment. These 
skills are critical and "basic for planning appropriate educational 
and training programs for these children. Because the trained 
human resources were not available at the critical tine when they 
were needed, many of our deaf -blind children are in institutions 
today. Because the United States and other Nations delayed in 
developing a rubella vaccine (although the relationsxhip between 
rubella and congenital disabilities was known since 1941) thousands 
of children were needlessly born with disabilities. 

We have learned that when an epidemic strikes, leaving a large 
segment of the population disabled, and the country at large is 
without resources or the trained manpower to oope, a regional type 
program is needed. Through a regional program effort the needs of 
the affected population con be more readily identified, limited 
resources can be used more efficiently, and professionals can be 
trained more rapidly to provide the services essential for this 
population. In the United States, all States worked together in 
a 'joint partnership with the Federal G-overnment and the regional 
centers to achieve the common goal of delivery services to these 
children no re quickly than might have been possible if each State 
worked alone. The regional center concept did not tear children 
away from their families or isolate then. It developed programs 
as close to these children and their hones as possible. 

Through the cooperative effort fostered by the regional centers 
over the past 8 years, each State has been independently 
strengthened and has now developed its own resources to serve their 
deaf-blind children. The resources of each State will continue to 
be developed by the regional centers until every State can provide 
for itself. As the needs of the States and the deaf-blind 
population they serve change the role of the regional centers will 
alsc develop to meet new needs. 

Increased emphasis by the Centers will be placed on the develop- 
ment of prcvocational and vocational programs which will assure a 
meaningful transition for deaf -blind children fron educational 
programs to rehabilitation services. Increased community based 



- 9 - 

programs such as satellite homes, foster hones services, and 

community resicb programs will he developed cooperatively with 

the States in an effort to facilitate the deinstitutionalization 

process e Basic and applied research will he developed in order 
to assist in long rang© e&uoational planning, Demonstration 

models to validate assessment techniques and educational methodolo- 
gies will he established. And, increased technical assistance 
programs by the centers will provide the States with the necessary 
expertise to assit them in planning, staff training, curriculum 
development, child assessment, child find, .and program evaluation. 

To meet these new efforts, a new State-Federal partnership will he 
developed by mid 1978, drawing upon State and Federal resources to 
achieve a common goal which will he realized by 1980s to provide 
a full continuum of services which will assure not only equal 
educational opportunity for all deaf -blind persons 5 but also, their 
right for a full and meaningful life in society, 



A Teacher - Training Program 

for the 

Deaf-Blind 



(Paper for the First Brazilian Seminar 
for the Education of the Deaf-Blind 
November 6-12, 1977) 



Crist:! na S. Castro 
Principal, Deaf -Blind Department 
Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts, USA 



Cristina S. Castro is the principal of the Deaf-Blind Department 
at Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 
She holds a Masters Degree in Speech and Hearing from Central Institute 
for the Deaf which is affiliated with Washington University in St. Louis, 
Missouri. She took the Perkins Teacher-Training Program for the 
Deaf-Blind in 1960-61 and stayed to teach in the Deaf>Blind 
Department until 1969. For two years after that, she was supervising 
teacher of the department until 1971 when she became principal. 



A Teacher Training Program 

for 

Deaf-Blind Children 



Two years ago I was observing a student teacher in one of my classrooms 

and discovered a glaring shortcoming in her professional preparation as a 

teacher of "academic" deaf-blind children. She was working on addition with 

a student and had given a worksheet on adding numbers in the hundredth place. 

Example: 348 Unfortunately, the student she had could only count to 30. 
+269 

When I .isked the student teacher what her teaching objective was for the 

seatwork, she answered that it was just to see if the student could do it. 

She proceeded to show me that she was really only taking each column at a 

time because the student cannot count to a hundred yet. This was a seriously 

misleading procedure, to say the least, since the student was not learning 

appropriate place values and was picking up wrong number concepts from the 

lesson. A teacher does not skip sequences of learning even with a child 

having normal hearing and vision, or test the child on a concept that has 

not been previously taught. This is a very basic and realistic principle 

of teaching. 

What I'm trying to point out is that the student teacher did not have 

the necessary general background for her student- teaching placement. And while 

it is impossible to prepare a teacher- trainee for every problem that might 

arise in the classroom, there is a general body of knowledge about normal 

child development and curriculum planning that should be an integral part of 



teacher training programs. This type ol background information is imperative 

1 
for either the teacher of the low-funct ioning or the educable group. 

I can cite only a few years of direct involvement in planning, organizing, 
and lecturing in a teacher- training program for the deaf-blind. However, I 
have worked with the deaf-blind for 17 years and I have worked with numerous 
teachers and student teachers. I have often wished that their preparation had 
included development of all the competencies that would meet the needs of the 
particular deaf-blind students in our department. Consequently, I have begun 
Lo develop definite ideas of what teacher- training programs should include 
in order for their graduates to be able to work effectively with deaf-blind 
children. They are experience-based ideas, quite general in nature, and I 
would like to share them with you. 

, Not knowing what is available in your area, I can only speak in very 
broad terms. Much of what I have to say are practical ideas thay may have 
already occured to you. In that case, my presentation would help reinforce 
them. 

For those of us who have worked with the deaf-blind, we are aware of the 
unique problems of this special group oi children. Their education and eventual 
realization of their optimum potential jn society depends so much on well-trained 
and effective personnel. This is why wt should direct a great deal of attention 
towards organizing, and implementing a 1 ruly good teacher-training program. 

In starting a teacher-training pro;, ram, it is essential to consider: 

1. Specific needs of the pari icular students you're serving 

2. Availability of appropriai e teaching personnel 

3. Accessibility of support services in local area 

4. Availability of funds 

Elioseff, Jane. "Educable" - any hi Id who promises to be able to learn 
language with 'appropriate 1 instruction and sensory aids, whether or not he 
also is considered capable of eventual, significant academic accomplishment." 



- 3 - 

Specific Needs of Students 

The deaf-blind population has a wide range of needs and disabilities. 
One has to focus on the particular needs of the group in your program. If the 
existing program involves low-functioning children, a background knowledge 
of mental retardation and methodologies in teaching mentally retarded can be 
helpful in developing eating, dressing, and toileting skills. If you have 
children with good language potential, knowledge of appropriate techniques 
for teaching language to the deaf would be imperative. In the deaf-blind 
population, one can also encounter language disorders, autistic characteristics, 
and many other learning disabilities which equally merit special attention 
in a teacher preparation program. 
Availability of Appropriate Teaching Personnel 

A program for the deaf-blind needs good, qualified and experienced 
teachers in order to be effective. One can spend hours on theories, but 
there is no substitute for experience. I find that teacher- training programs 
based in colleges and universities where the courses are taught by professors 
without direct involvement with deaf-blind children are helpful as far as 
theories go, but sadly lacking in practical suggestions for actually dealing 
with the real situation. Experience, no doubt, is beneficial; but, by itself, 
limited within its own realm. Obviously, theory should not be learned in 
isolation of experience or vice versa, but the two should complement each other 
in a teacher-training program. 

You have made initial steps towards f or nal teacher preparation in the 
deaf-blind field, by sending two of your teachers to be trained at Perkins. 
They, in turn, can assume responsibility for in-service training for the 
staff in your deaf-blind program, or start y.mr own professional teacher- 
training program here. However, they cannot Jo the work alone. They will 
need the help and support of personnel in related fields, e.g., audiologists , 
ophthalmologists, psychologists, social workers. 



Another way of training teacher personnel is to invite people who 
already have the expertise in deaf-blind education to come here and teach 
the necessary courses for future teachers of tie deaf-blind in this country. 
I heard that this was done in the field of the deaf and multi-handicapped in 
Rio de Janeiro last July, and perhaps a similar arrangement can be done for 
the deaf-blind in Sao Paulo. 

Exchanging teachers between countries is exciting and professionally 
prof itable--provided the right people are chosen for the exchange. There 
must be a careful selection of exchange teachers so that participating 
countries can contribute to as well as benefit from each other. 

The choice you decide to make to acquire trained personnel will depend 
on available funding and, of course, finding people genuinely interested in 
taking and pursuing the training. 

Accessibility of Support Services in Local Area 

Whether one is starting a program or has one already established, it is 
advantageous to be within easy access of support services such as clinics, 
hospitals, colleges or universities, and rehabilitation centers. It is 
impossible for a training center to provide all the necessary services; and 
it is important to identify and utilize community resources. 

Availability of Funds 

Available monies will dictate, to a large extent, the scope of your 
teacher-training program. Instructors in the program need to be paid, 
materials bought and activities pertinent to the training program financed, 
such as professional visits and practicum placements in other related traininj 
centers. It is only realistic to assume that a teacher- training program 
cannot survive on love and dedication alone. 



After exploring the above considerations, let vis now address ourselves 
to the selection of applicants for the program. 

Screening and Selection of A pplicants for a Teacher - Training Program 

It is important to get the right kind of person into a training program-- 
someone who is sincerely interested and will be committed to educating deaf-blind 
children. A screening procedure and selection of applicants should be devised 
and followed; personal interviews should be required and conducted. While 
personal interviews cannot always be objective, there are certain kinds of 
information that should be consistently obtained from an applicant. 
1. Educational Background 

Although teacher- training programs for the deaf -blind in the 
United States do not usually require a background in elementary education 
from their applicants, I personally prefer those which do. I have 
observed that the teacher-trainees with a background in elementary 
education can, without too much ingenious modification, make use 
of their knowledge of curriculum for normal children; and with minimal 
guidance, adapt certain Instructional materials to the level of the 
deaf-blind group they're teaching. It is an accepted fact that 
deaf-blind children follow a normal sequence of growth and develop- 
ment, but at a much slower rate and with limitations set by their 
handicaps. The general principles of teaching normal children con- 
cerning repetition, reinforcement, lesson planning and individualized 
programming are also applicable to handicapped children. Therefore, 
it is not surprising that someone with an elementary education background 
coming into a teacher-training program for the deaf-blind would be a step 
ahead technically because of that background. 



2 . Personal Experience a nd Interests 

A person who has had experience volunteering services for, or 
working with the handicapped, is naturally preferable over another 
applicant who hasn't. It seems highly unlikely that someone who has 
nevery shown interest with the handicapped before applying for the 
program would remain in the field for long. We need people who will 
be committed to the education of our deaf-blind children and become 
advocates for them. 

I know quite a number of people who are teaching the deaf-blind 
now who came with seemingly unrelated fields of experience such as music 
engineering, philosophy, fine arts and library science. However, 
their interest in the handicapped had been sparked by having a deaf 
or a blind family member or relative; by having volunteered services 
with the handicapped, or by encountering some special event in their 
lives involving a handicapped person. It is rare that a person who has 
had no previous idea or exposure !:o working with the handicapped, would 
make a dedicated and effective teacher for our deaf-blind children. 
It becomes an unfortunate incident, indeed, when some people who are 
not quite sure of what they want to do, use teaching the handicapped 
as a testing ground. I strongly believe that no endeavor succeeds 
unless your heart is in it. 
-*• Special. Talent and Hobbies 

Most everyone has a special interest and talent. It is helpful 
to discover what the applicant's area of strength is in order to 
encourage it and capitalize on it. In the event that a team-teaching 
situation is warranted, an individual's particular expertise can 
be used to advantage in that arrangement. 



- 7 - 

4 . Results of Formally- Administered Test s 

College or university-based teacher training programs usually 
require successful completion of formal tests. You may elect to 
include this in your overall criteria for choosing quality applicants. 
Sometimes, though, it is not always the person getting the highest 
marks on a test that make the best teacher. A student teacher with 
average grades can evolve into a model teacher and come up with a 
great deal of useful, practical ideas for his/her children in the 
classroom. I think it would be interesting to include a period of 
assisting in the classroom as part of a screening and selection 
procedure. It might prevent unjustifiable elimination of a student 
with only average academic achievement but otherwise have very good 
potential for teaching handicapped children. This potential, or what 
can be recognized as a natural affinity for teaching, can be observed 
only with the applicant working directly with the children. 

Teacher Competencies and Teaching S trategies for the Deaf-Blind 

With the appropriate applicants to che program selected, there needs to 
be a well though out curriculum foi their professional preparation. Nowadays, 
there is a definite trend towards a competency-based curriculum for teacher 
training programs. A simple definition of a competency-based program is "one 
that specifies the objectives for training of teachers in an explicit form 
and then proceeds to hold the prospective teachers accountable for meeting 
these objectives." 

What are the competencies required for a trained teacher of the deaf-blind? 
Those of you who have been in the field will probably say that with the diverse 
and complicated problems of the deaf-blind population, a teacher should be a 
" jack-of -all-trades ." While it seems facetious, : t is only another way of 



saying a teacher of the deaf-blind should be vary flexible and ready to 
assume several roles besides teaching. Because of the wide range of develop- 
mental abilities among our deaf-blind children, it is important for the 
teacher-training program to provide courses dealing with general as well 
as specific competencies for the future teacher. What follows is a listing 
of general competencies that should be included in a curriculum for teacher- 
training programs for the deaf-blind. 

1. Demonstrate knowledge of normal child growth and development. 

As has been mentioned before, all children follow the same sequence 
of growth and development. Deaf-blind children, although going through 
the same developmental sequence, will vary in their rate of growth. 
Some: deaf-blind children may remain longer at a particular stage of 
development and it is not yet completely .understood why some stay longer 
at one stage than another. 

A teacher of the deaf-blind should hive a working knowledge of 
the different sequential steps of growth and learning so that unnecessary 
demands are not made before the child is ready for them. It is of the 
utmost importance that the teacher introd ice appropriate activities 
or concepts at the right time--and the opportune time is when the child 
has matured to the point of readiness for them. Tnerefore, the teacher 
should have the ability to observe behavior accurately or use other 
informal procedures in order to determine a child's developmental level. 

2. Demonstrate knowledge of atypical child growth and development. 

In addition to the knowledge and abiLity to determine a child's 
stage of development for instructional purposes, it is necessary to know 
deviations from the normal growth pattern. Anyone working with the 
deaf-blind should understand how the combined sensory deficits plus 



other developmental disabilities affect their manner of learning and 
retention of learning. 

3. Demonstrate knowledge of normal language development and language 
deviat ions . 

Since development of language and communication skills is of paramount 
importance to the deaf-blind, the area of language acquisition occupies 
a place all its own. Again, it draws a parallel to how a child with normal 
vision and hearing learns language. A teacher should^ be familiar with 
the different phases of language acquisition and be alert for the right 
moment to teach appropriate language principles. 

A concurrent knowledge of deviations from normal language learning 
is necessary in order to be able to adapt a specific language teaching 
technique to remediate the problem. Being familiar with these atypical 
language learning patterns would lessen frustrations on the teacher's 
part and enable her to help the student more effectively. 

4. Demonstrate knowledge of vision and hearing. 

This does not mean only the psysiological aspects of vision and 
hearing, but more importantly, the educational implications of the 
combined handicaps. A prospective teacher of the deaf-blind should not 
have separate courses for vision and hearing and then be expected to draw 
their own conclusions. The course should be tailor-made to point out the 
unique and complicated problems of deaf-blindness. 

5. Demonstrate knowledge of psychological and social implications of 
deaf-blindness . 

In addition to a formal course in this area, it is extremely helpful 
to have first-hand information about how deaf-blind adults react to social 
problems and how they managed to cope with the problems. At Perl ins, we 



-10- 
did invite adult deaf-blind to visit and "talk" with our sti 
teachers in the training program. 

6. Demonstrate knowledge of curriculum and methods of teaching 
functional elementary school subjects. 

I added the work ''functional" to the. subjects because that is exactly 
what is needed by deaf-blind children. Even when the program has academically 
inclined deaf-blind students, the subject content should be useful to 
everyday life. It is good to stop and reflect on every lesson presented 
and ask oneself, "Why am I teaching this? How can the child use it in 
his daily activites?" The teacher- training program should stress this 
fact so that the deaf-blind cl ild's valuable time in school is used to 
the best advantage. 

7. Demonstrate knowledge of j arent-teacher interaction. 

The teacher-parent relationship is a vital one during the deaf-blind 
child's education. The manner in which a teacher interacts with a parent 
should be on a positive, supportive, and professional level. Very often 
teachers get so involved with their students that their relationship 
with parents tend to be too emotional. The teacher- training program 
should help prepare a teacher for a professionally acceptable interaction 
with parents. 

8. Demonstrate a knowledge of total programming for a child. 

A teacher of the deaf-bliad should have, the ability to plan for 
the child's total program: academics, (if called for), motor development, 
social behavior and emotional development, and development of independent 
living skills. Most programs for deaf-blind children are in self-contained 
classrooms where the teacher is responsible for planning and teaching 
all aspects of learning. Therefore, the teacher- training program should 
prepare the teacher for this particular function. 



- 11 - 

9. Demonstrate knowledge of pre- vocational and vocational preparation. 

The young deaf-blind we enrolled seven or eight years ago are now 
young adolescents needing a diffetent type of programming. They are 
ready for some pre- vocational training activities and teachers need to 
direct their thoughts towards prepar these teenagers for some type 
of gainful employment in the world outside of school. Taacher-training 
programs should be alert to the changing needs of our deaf-blind popu- 
lation and include necessary courses in their program to meet these 
needs . 

10. Demonstrate knowledge of administration and supervision of 
special programs. 

It is not uncommon that a small program for the deaf-blind in 
some regions may require a teacher to assume responsibilities other than 
teaching because of the fact that it is a special program within another 
school program, or it is a special project of an agency which is not 
knowledgeable about the deai-blind. The teacher, therefore, becomes 
a liaison-person, a supervisor of his/her aides and even an adminis- 
trator of his/her budget for the year. In some instances, because of 
the shortage of trained personnel for the deaf-blind, fresh graduates 
of teacher- training programs have been hired as supervisors or coordinators 
I think it is a good idea to familiarize teachers with administrative 
and supervisory roles and functions even though they will only be in 
the classroom. It will, hopefully, give them more insight and under- 
standing of administrative and supervisory problems. 



- 12 - 

Specific Skills 

In addition to the general background knowledge are skills specific 
to teaching the deaf-blind: 

1. Knowledge and skill in different strategies for language teaching. 

2. Knowledge and skill in braille. 

3. Knowledge and skill in sign language. 

4. Knowledge and skill in developing and remediating speech. 

5. Knowledge and skill in making appropriate instructional materials. 

6. Knowledge and skill in writing individual educational plans. 

7. Knowledge and skill in writing lesson plans and plan evaluations. 

8. Knowledge and skill to utilize local and national agencies and 
services for the deaf and for the blind. 

9. Knowledge and skill in behavior management procedures. 

10. Knowledge and skill in task analysis. 

11. Knowledge and skill in diagnostic teaching and assessing deaf-blind 
children. 

Qualities of a Teacher of the Deaf-Blind 

Besides the skills and competencies that will be developed in the 

training program, a future teacher of the deaf-blind needs to have the 

following qualities: 

Sincere interest in working with children 

Patience 

Flexibility 

Understanding 

Reliability 

Sense of humor 

Willingness to invest time and energy 

Ability to interact effectively with people 

Creativity 

Enthusiasm 

Sense of personal security and emotional maturity 



- 13 - 

Webster defines patience as being able or willing to bear pain or 
trials calmly or without complaint. I don't think we should expect our 
teachers to be martyrs. However, there is a certain degree of patience 
and tolerance required. There should be the abiLity in the teacher to wait 
calmly and be contented with little progress on the child's part over a 
long period of time. There should also be the willingness to tolerate lack 
of response or feedback from many of oar deaf-blind children. 

The rest of the list of qualities sound like any list you would want 
for just about any work position. I would like zo emphasize them to a 
greater degree for any teacher of the nandicappei. 

Teacher-Training Courses 

The courses offered in the teache r- training programs will necessarily 
depend on meeting the required teacher competenc .es c There should then be 
general courses dealing with child growth and development, language and 
communication, vision, hearing, mental retardation, functional academic 
subjects, parent teacher interaction, administra : ion and supervision. 
Additional courses should cover the specific comietencies pertaining to 
educating the deaf-blind and be geared to the teacher trainees' preferred 
professional placement in the deaf-bli id populat on; whether it be with the 
low functioning or the educable group. 



- 14 - 

* The following is an e cample of the courses currently offered at 
teacher-training program for the deaf-blind in the United States: 

MULTIHANDICAPPED (DEAF-BLIND) PROGRAM 
Course Title 
Biological Origins of Multihandicapping Conditions 
Language Acquisition 
Visual Handicaps and Education 
Introduction to Audiology 
Multihandicapped Education Seminar 

Educational Assessment of Children with Learning Problems 
Braille, Deaf-Blind 
Interpersonal Relationships I 
Educational Psychology 
Research Methods in Education 
Interpersonal Relationships II 
Manual Communication 

Problems in the Education of Visually Handicapped Children 
Remedial Strategies 
Introduction to Language Disorders 
Student Teaching: Handicapped 
Infant and Pre~School: Exceptional Child 
Infant and Pre-School Practicum 
Working with Parents 
Behavior Management Strategics 
Teaching the Multihandicapped Child 
Clinical Practicum: Multihandicapped 

* Boston College 



- 1.5 - 

The above courses lean heavily towards programs for low- functioning 
deaf-blind children. If the trainee decides to work with the educable group, 
he/she should have additional courses in different strategies in teaching language, 

I feel very strongly about the tremendous value of student-teaching and 
take the pragmatist view of education in this area. My own experience has taught 
me that a teacher can only acquire confidence and effectiveness through working 
directly with the children. Observation is not enough. One does not learn to 
swim by just watching. There should be as many and varied student teaching 
opportunities as you can provide. 

The length of practicum periods vary from training program to training 
program. Some require eight weeks; others, a full semester. Whatever length of 
time is chosen, there should be a definite plan for the entire period of the 
practicum. One college which sends student teachers to our Deaf-Blind Department 
requires a "contract" for that practicum period. The following is an example 
of an eight-week "contract." 

Contract for: , Student Teacher 

, Cooperating Teacher 

Practicum Period: 

WEEKS ONE 6< TWO : 

The student teacher will observe and work in different academic 
areas to become familiar with the children and their programs. 
Eash task area will first be observed; then implemented by the 
student teacher, with assistance and supervision fiom the 
cooperating teacher. 
During the second week, she will plan a "Center" activity. 

WEEK THREE: 



The student teacher will he responsible for planning; and carrying 
out a unit in a cognitive area of either science or social studies 
and for planning language and writing activities for all 3 children. 



16 



WEEK FOUR: 



The student teacher will be responsible for the above and for 
speech lessons for two of the students. 



WEEK FIVE: 



The student teacher will be responsible fcr planning and carrying 
out unit work in a cognitive area and for planning and carrying out 
math and writing lessons for all three students. The student 
teacher will be responsible for planning and carrying out the 
"Center" activity. 

In addition, she will assist the teacher in completing student 
progess reports. 

WEEK SIX: 

Student teacher will plan all activities except speech lessons. 
She will carry out her ideas by assigning the execution and/or 
planning of some of the lessons to the assistant teacher. 

WEEKS SEVEN AND EIGH T: 

The student teacher will be responsible for planning all areas of 
children's programs, for corresponding witu parents and for arranging 
trips and special activities. She will assign some portion of her 
plan to the assistant teacher to carry out. 

Evaluation of Student Teaching 

There should be a close observation and evaluation of a student- 
teacher's performance throughout the practicum period. This is a learning 
experience that can be made challenging and rewarding for both the student 
teacher and the cooperating teacher. 

* An example of an evaluation sheet that I have had to fill out for 
a college on their student teachers doing practicum Ln our Deaf-Blind Department 
follows : 



* Boston College in Boston, Massachusetts 



3. 

4. 

5. 
6. 
7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14, 



1. 



2. 



PERSONAL SKILLS 
Responds sensitively to 
children and youth 
Shows enthusiasm for 
teaching. 

Punctual in attendance 
Flexible, inventive 
and resourceful 
Aware of strengths 
and weaknesses. 
Analyzes effect of his/ 
her teaching behavior. 
Maintains consistency as 
to what is expected of 
students . 

Demonstrates required com- 
petence for subject areas 
to be taught. 
Demonstrates decision- 
making ability. 
Meets communication stan- 
dards. 

Can apply theoretical 
knowledge in generating 
possible solutions to 
teaching problems. 
Follows through on 
assignments . 

Works cooperatively with ■ 
other teachers. 
Identifies the needs for 
value clarification 
lessons . 



PLANNING 



Develops immediate and 
long-range plans 
for total class, which 
take into account needs 

Selects content appro- 
priate for level of 
students . 



OUTSTANDING 


EXCELLENT GOOD 


FAIR 


POOR 


UNABLE 
TO JUDGE 


1. 


| 








2 












3. 












4. 












5„ 










r 


. 








7. 












8. 












9. 












10. 










11. 










; 


12. 










13. 












1 14 * 






| 




1. 












2. 






! 
i 





3. 



4. 



Incorporates student 
date obtained during 
instruction in plan- 
ning subsequent acti- 
vities . 


OUTSTANDING 


EXCELLENT 


GOOD 


="AIR 


POOR 


UNABLE 
TO JUDGE 














Designs learning 
experiences which develop 
inquiry, decision-making 
problem solving, discovery 
and experimentation. 


4. 












States goals in 
clear behavioral 
objectives . 


5. 












Arranges differen- 
tiated assignments 
to meet needs and 
abilities of 
students. 


6. 




*■ 








Develops instructional 
units and strategies 
in terms of learning 
theory. 


7. 


J 








Organizes for small 
group and individual 
instruction. 


8. 












Groups flexibly for 
special needs. 


9. 












Involves students in 
planning. 


10. 












Plans with cooperating 
teacher and other 
teachers. 


11. 












CONDUCTING & IMPLEMENTING IN 
Demonstrates in at 
least three different 
lessons, factual 
opinion and evalua- 
tion questions. 


STRUCT ION 
1. 




• 








Conducts lessons that 
result in student 
mastery of specified 
objectives . 


2. 












Varies teaching 
strategy in accor- 
dance with changing 
factors as time, ma- 
terials, space, etc. 


3. 












Copes with unexpected 
interruptions . 


4 . 












Supplements lessons 
with relevant assign- 
ments . 


5. 













UNA3LE 
OUTSTANDING EXCELLENT GOOD FAIR POOR TO JUDGE 



6. Avoids punishment for 
incorrect responses. 

7. Provides necessary 
amount of structure 
to prevent confusion. 
Provides continuous 
feedback. 

Establishes atmosphere 
to stimulate interest. 
Leads discussions 
effectively. 
Listens to students 
Gives directions which 
are effective. 
Uses appropriate 
audio-visual mater- 
ials. 

Causes students to 
be more self-directed 
rather than teacher 
directed. 



ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES 

Demonstrates under- 
standing on room 
records, reports, etc. 
Assists with lunch, 
playground activi- 
ties, etc. 
Assists in making 
classroom attractive 
and interesting. 
Participates in 
school meetings and 
functions . 

Deals with behavioral 
problems in such a 
way to minimize 
effect on students 
learning. 



6. 












7. 












8. 










9. 










10. 












11. 












12. 












13. 




*~ 








14. 












1. 












2. 












3. 












. 












5. 













E. ASSESS ING-EV ALU ATING 

1. Uses a variety of evalua- 
tive techniques to assess 
all aspects of learning. 

2. Formulates and implements 
daily as well as long 
range program goals and 
assess progress toward 
their achievement. 

3. Uses standardized tests 
in classroom. 

4. Constructs pre and post 
teaching diagnostic 
instruments. 

5. Identifies learning 
handicap in student. 

6. Discriminates learning 
styles of individuals. 

7. Evaluates student perfor- 
mance according to stated 
objectives. 

8. Prepares and administers 
four objective instruments 
of evaluation. 

S. Provides activities 

whereby students 

evaluate their own 

program. 
10. Recognizes causes of 

unsatisfactory progress. 



OUTSTANDING EXCELLENT GOOD 



UNABLE 
TO 
FAIR POOR . JUDGE 



1. 












2- 












1 3 - 




* 








! 

\ 4. 












i 5. 












6. 












7. 












8. 












1 
i 9 * 












' 10. 













- 17 - 

Evaluation of a practicum is usually done by the cooperating teacher 
and the supervisor of the department. Some colleges also require self- 
evaluation by the student teacher herself. Self-evaluation using a check- 
list provided by the school is not always an easy thing to do. A person either 
underestimates himself because of modesty, or overestimates himself due to 
a super ego. Videotapes, I find, are good tools for evaluating a student 
teacher's classroom experiences. They can see themselves and analyze them- 
selves more critically using this medium. The videotape tan be done twice 
during the practicum period. Once at the beginning; and again at the end 
of the period for comparison. Has there been any improvement in the student 
teaching performance? 

Efforts should be made to make the contents and procedures of a teacher 
training program as relevant as possible to the functions that the future 
teacher will perform in his/her everyday day. Deaf-blind children need 
well-trained and committed teachers to realize their maximum potential. 
A good teacher-training program can do much towards the making of an effective 
teacher. Just as a teacher is accountable for her work with the children, 
so is it the teacher-training program's responsibility to do their best to 
produce the most competent teachers for our deaf-blind children. 



REFERENCES 



Corrigan, Dean. The Study of Teaching , Commission on the Implications 
of Recent Research in Teaching, The Association for Student 
Teaching, 1967 

Elioseff, Jane. Training of Personnel for the Education of Deaf-Blind 
Children , Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on 
Deaf-Blind Children, 1971, Perkins School for the Blind, Watertown, 
Massachusetts ^ 

Franklin, Barbara. Multiple Handicapped ( Deaf - Blind ) Teacher-Training 
Program, San Francisco State College , Proceedings of the Fourth 
International Conference on Deaf-Blind Children, 1971, Perkins 
School for the Blind, Watertown, Massachusetts 

Hart, Verna. Training of Personnel , 1977, State of the Art, Perspectives 
on Serving Deaf-Blind Children 

Sarason, S., Davidson, K. , and Blatt, B. The Preparation of Teachers 
1962, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York 

Stenquist, Gertrude. Social Problems of Deaf-Blind Children . Proceedings 
of the Fourth International Conference on Deaf-Blind Children, 1971, 
Perkins School for the Blind, Watertown, Massachusetts 

Watkins, Keith. Trainin g of Personnel for the Education of Deaf-Blind 
Children , Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference 
on Deaf-Blind Children, Perkins School for the Blind, Watertown, 
Massachusetts. 



CRISTINA S. CASTRO 



EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND 



1950 



1954 



High School Diploma 



B.S.E. (English major; library 
science minor) 



1957-1959 M.S. in Speech and Hearing 



Far Eastern University 
Manila, Philippines 

University of the Philippines 
Quezon City, Philippines 

Central Institute for the Deaf 
Washington University 
St. Louis. Missouri 



1960-1961 Perkins-Boston University Course 
for Training Teachers of the 
Deaf-Blind 



1960-1975 Courses Taken : 

1960-1962 27 credits towards a Doctorate's 
degree in Special Education 

1967 Summer course in use of 

Cuisenaire riethod in Math 



Boston University 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Natick, Massachusetts 



1968 A Positive Approach to the Problems- 
of the Perceptually Handicapped 



1972 Fall Semester 

Ed. 259 - Supervision I 

1973 ' Human Development Seminar 
(Institute for Continuing 
Studies in Psychology 

1972-1973 Basic Course in Sign Language 



1974-1975 Intermediate Course (I) in 
Sign Langua ge 

1975-1976 Intermediate Course (II) in 
Sign Language 



MACLD 

State Headquarters 

Waltham, Massachusetts 

Boston College 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 

Newton College of the Sacred 
Heart, Newton, Massachusetts 



Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 

Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 

Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 



EMPLOYMENT 

1954 (1 semester) - Substitute English 
teacher. Classes of 4-5 deaf 
freshmen and senior students 



School for the Deaf & the Blind 
Pasay City, Philippines 



1955 (1 semester) - Substitute English 
teacher. Regular classroom of 28 
freshman students 

1956 (1 semester - Substitute Librarian 

Responsible for managing the high 
school library 

1956-1957 English Teacher. Classes of 3-4 blind 
or deaf freshmen, juniors and seniors 

1959-1960 Consultant for the Deaf 

Responsible for following up five 
deaf teenagers integrated in five 
different high schools 

1961-1969 Teacher of 2-3 deaf-blind children 

with additional handicaps of develop- 
mental disability and language disorders 

1969-1971 Supervising Teacher 

Supervisor of 59-69 students and 40-44 
staff with major involvement in the 
Teacher-Training Program 

Part-time lecturer 



1971- 
present 



Principal 

Shares in administrative responsi- 
bility for 71 students and 43 staff 
with Head of the Department, and 
supervises 31 students and 18 staff 
members with involvement in super- 
vising student teachers from several 
colleges. 



SUMMER EMPLOYMENT 

1956 Tutor in English and Biology 

1957 Camp Counselor 

1960 Speech Teacher for the deaf 



1967 Tutor for a deaf-blind teenager 
in high school 

19 69 Language Curriculum 

Project for Deaf-Blind Department 






- Lepanto High School, 
Mountain Province, Philippines 

- Lepanto High School, 
Mountain Province, Philippines 

- School for the Deaf and the Blinci 
Pasay City, Philippines 

- Grand Rapids Board of Education 
Grand Rapids, Michigan 



- Deaf-Blind Department 

Perkins School for the Blind, 
Watertown, Massachusetts 

Deaf-Blind Department, 
Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 



Boston College, 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 

Deaf-Blind Department 
Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 






- Lepanto High School, 

. Mountain Province, Philippines 

- St. Louis, Missouri 

- Bay Cliff Health Camp 
Upper Peninsula, Michigan 

- Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 

- Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 



PUBLICATIONS 



1973 



1974 



'Communication" 



"Three Methods of Teaching 
Language: Fitzgerald Key, 
Rhode Island Sentence Pattern 
<5c Monsees Structured Language" 



Workshop Proceedings of Southeast 

Regional Workshops for Teachers of 

Deaf-Blind 

Ellisville, Mississippi 

Part of a Language Module 
South Central Regional Center 
Service to Deaf-Blind Children 



NON- PUBLISHED MATERIAL 

1969 Chapter 19 - Planning Special 

Experiences Appropriate for 
Concept Development and Con- 
versational Opportunities for 
Partially-Seeing, Hearing Im- 
paired 



CONFERENCE PARTICIPATION 



1971 Panel member for discussion period: 

"Program for Verbal Deaf-Blind Children' 
Fourth International Conference on 
Deaf -Blind Children 

1973 Speaker at the Southeast Regional 

Workshop for Teachers of Deaf-Blind 
Topic : "Communication of Deaf-Blind 
Children" 



•Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 



- Ellisville, Mississippi 



LECTURES 



1969-1971 



1970 - 
present 



- Language Course I and II 
Teacher Training Program 

- Internship Courses I and II 



Two lectures annually on language 
teaching and development. Training 
course for Child Care Workers and 
Houseparents . 



■ Boston College 
Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 

• Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 

Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 



CERTIFICATION 
1961 



1968 



Certificate received upon completion of Teacher-Tra hi I »* 
Program to teach deaf-blind 
Perkins School for the Blind 
Watertown, Massachusetts 
( Perm^ner\f Academ'C) 



Working with Parents of Schoo l- Aged 
Deaf-Blind Children and Youth 



Pape : presented by: Elizabeth Banta 
At the: Brazilian Seminar on Education 

of the Deaf-Blind 
Held in: Sao Paulo 
Date: November, 1977 



Working with Parents of School-Aged Deaf-Blind Children and Youth 

Who are these parents ? 

By the time a deaf-blind child is ready for school placement, whether 
the cause of the impairment is congenital or adventitious, the parents have 
had a unique experience, indeed. There is no specific prior training for 
becoming the parent of a disabled child. It could happen'' to anyone. It is 
usually an unexpected role and one which most often is assumed in the midst 
of a life crisis with no prior experience nor models to draw upon in order 
to cope with the situation. Meidcal, diagnostic, child rearing, education 
and training needs of multi-impaired chii Iren are special. The event of a 
child into the family unit has a sagnificant effect on total family dynamics; 
so much more so when the child has many special needs. Since parents are 
people, first, adapting to the situation can vary according to the many 
different variables which make up and effect any of us as individuals. 
Reality factors such as how severe the child's disability is and the quality 
and quantity of resources available to them will also be determiners in how 
well parents adapt to their circumstances over the years. 

What are their needs? 



Parents have needs, especially related to their disabled child. 
Expression of those needs should be encouraged. Conscientious attempts 
should be made to help meet those needs. Rather than focus on them in depth 
at this time, I will refer you to two papers which I wrote which particularly 
relate to parent needs—continuous , immediate and future needs. Those papers art 



- 2 - 

1. "Parents of Deaf-Blind Children: Some Immediate and 
Continuing Needs." Found in the Proceedings of the 1971 
International Conference on the Education of Deaf-Blind 
Children. This paper places more emphasis on the pre-school 
years and the diagnosis and evaluation period. 

2. "Parent Education in Families of Teen-Aged or Young Adult 
Deaf -Blind Persons." Found in the Proceedings of the 1976 

International Deaf-Blind Seminar. This paper places emphasis, 

2 
then, on the older child. 

These papers are only a beginning attempt to document parent needs and 
are meant to bring attention to the importance of recognizing and working 
toward meeting parent needs. 

Although needs differ for different individual parents at different times 
some exa-ples of continuous needs or concerns which can frequently be seen in 
groups of parents over extended periods of time include: 

1. for support in meeting crisis and developing strong but 
healthy coping mechanisms. 

2. to understand the disability, its effects, its combined effects 
and its limitations. 

3. for a feeling of accomplishment in their own parenting of a 
disabled child and his siblings. 

4. to support their child in and relate positively to agencies 
which provide an education or tr< ining program over an extended 
time period and perhaps at some distance from home. 

5. for management of feelings related to the disabled child. 

6. to be an advocate for their child. 



Many concerns related to the future often revolve aiound the question 
of what will become of the child when the parents can no longer care for him. 
Immediate needs often relate to the specific growth and development level the 
child has reached. The parents will usually exhibit a need to become more 
competent in his parenting role. We must become more sensitive to all of these 
needs. There may be openness and great dependency on the professionals. 
Parents can be very vulnerable at such times. Professionals must be aware of 
the responsible position that vulnerability places them in. 

Too frequently, once the child enters a school program and the years 
wear on, family contact becomes less frequent. Needs may not be so obvious. 
Parents may appear to be coping and asking little. It is a mistake to overlook 
the importance of continuous work with the family. Programs which do not take 
into account parent needs, automatically set up barriers, particularly in the 
ongoing school/home relationship and in the future possibilities for that 
child. 

What are the parent' s rights ? 

I have read many lists which differ from author to author. However, 
if we remember that children are first the responsibility of their parents, 
that parents can be the child's greatest resource and perheps his strongest 
and most consistent advocate, that the home environment car 't really be 
duplicated, and that with the disabled child more time may be spent at home 
than any other place during his lifetime, the importance of respecting the 
parent and his rights is obvious. 

Certainly, parents should have the right to such things as information 
relative to their child's disability; information about anc assistance from 
education and training facilities, medical services and other community 



resources; hope, reassurance and human consideration as they try to meet 
the challenge of raising a child v/ith special needs; opportunities for them- 
selves and their child which are equal to those in which there is no disability 
in the child; chances to have dialogue with other parents of children with 
similar needs; and the opportunity to actualize their own personal rights as 
growing, unique individuals, apart from their children. This list could 
easily be expanded. If we ask ourselves what rights would we like if we were 
the parent of a disabled child, we can take a beginning strep in understanding 
this question. Too often parent's rights are lost in the shuffle, even by 
well-meaning persons who have focused full attention on a disabled child to 
the exclusion of all else. 

Clearly, it is time for us, in educational settings, to realize that 
we can provide and are responsible for comprehensive services to families 
of impaired children enrolled in our progams . Why shouldn't problems which 
arise from the presence of a disabled child in the family be as much of an 
appropriate concern of an organization or person serving the child as the 
problems of education and medical treatment for that child? Parent services 
should not be seen as peripheral service but as an equal and integral part of 
education services. They need support at every level, including the adminis- 
trative level. A concerted effort to increase awareness and to offer competent, 
comprehensive services is a present but also a future goal. 

Why Use the Term " Working With "? 

Those words appear in the topic of this paper for serveral reasons. 
Among those reasons are: 

- professionals must remember that they have something to offer 
to the child, to be sure, but that most of us effect that life 
in a temporary way. We do not carry primary responsibility for 
the child. 



- these multi-impaired children are complex. In order to better 
comprehend the child's situation and to assist the child in his 
growth and development, a group or team effort has distinct 
advantages . 

- if we are working along with each other for the common good of 
the child, cooperation is implied. Attitudes such as superiority 
or competition with each other should not interfere. No one need 
pretend to be what he is not. Energies can then be given more 
fully to the task. 

The concept of "working with" parents is a useful one in the effort we 
must all make towards more positive attitudes related to families of the 
disabled. 

What are some of the services which can be offered in ari educational setting ? 

Up to this point, I have only said that parents of disabled children 
have some common but also unique needs, that they have rights, that it is 
important for educational settings to offer services and that the attitude 
of wishing to "work along with parents" is a productive one. 

If we move now to the educators point of view and question what our roles 
should be, it seems that most of the functions would fall under the two major 
categories of an advocacy role and a direct interaction role. Critical periods 
such as the time of referral; diagnosis and evaluation; school entrance; early 
school years; later school years; or other family crisis not related to the 
child all have concerns specific to those periods. The skills of parent 
interviewing, parent counseling and parent education can be appropriately 
used by the educator. Of course, in cases where there are extreme emotional 
disturbances, the role is more appropriately referred to and assumed by a 



therapist associated with an outside agency specifically available for more 
in depth assistance. 

However, a large portion of the educator's role is related to the use of 
parent education in meeting family needs. Parent education, a broad social 
movement in our own culture which has appeared as an outgrowth of the mental 
health, adult education, and family life movements since the 1880's, is seen 
as more than information giving. It aims to increase the understanding of 
parents at many levels of learning and through many kinds of educational 

experiences so that they will achieve individual growth and develop greater 

3 
competence in dealing with their children. Obviously this kind of an approach 

has supportive as well as preventive possibilities. 

4 
Barsch states that one of the greatest obstacles to widespread and 

significant advancement in the field of special education is the failure to 

find a way to incorproate the parent of the child with special needs into a 

reinforcing role of value to the child's learning advancement. 

Barsch and Fellendorf and Harrow conclude that a new discipline, Parent 

Counselor, might offer more knowledgeable, appropriate, available, adaptive 

and entitled services to parents, especially parents of disabled children. A 

function of the counselor would be to effect change in the "affective and 

techincal" aspects of the parent role while at the same time become a liaison 

person and a conductor of required services. Presently, we can find a number 

of persons fulfilling such a role from lay persons to professional persons 

across a breadth of fields of specialty. The role descriptions for a parent 

counselor vary greatly. Semantic differences complicate its understanding. 

So that then, the orientation, the job description, the role perception and 

certainly attitudes, personality types and so forth are additional determinants 

in how a so called "parent counselor" would function. 



If, in addition to the administrators and the teachers in an educational 
setting, it were possible to have someone on staff in the parent counselor/ 
parent consultant role, what objectives Jrr a parent program might be developed? 

Major objectives, which might be included in a comprehensive parent 
program where the children are multi-impaired, the setting is an educational 
one, and a person has been designated to coordinate such a program are: 

1. to provide effective services to parents of the children actually 
enrolled in the program including such strategies as: 

a. assisting in the immediate intake of any child who is a 
candidate for the program and where the parents and financial 
agents have agreed to make application. 

b. working out a plan whereby immediate and ongoing parent needs 
and wishes may be diagnosed and recorded. 

c. actively supporting the educational program by a program for 
parent education and information. 

d. providing for ongoing individual parent counseling, including 
crisis intervention and referral to other community agencies, 
in order to meet both parent and school program needs. 

e. interacting and/or facilitating ccmmunication with various members 
of the school staff in order to provide ongoing consultation 

and follow up on aspects which involve families and where the 
focus may be on administration, ecucational, social, psychological 
vocational, recreational, or cottage living needs and programming; 
travel arrangements; financing; health; appropriate keeping and 
dissemination of records; evaluations or re-evaluations; reports 
of progress; program changes; termination; or referrals. 



- 8 - 

f. providing for members of the school staff and for other interested 
professional or professionals in- training, in-service education 
related to families of deaf-blind children. 

g. providing and receiving consultation services from other agencies 
in order to support or deliver effective services in behalf of 
families . 

2. to participate as a member of the Educational Evaluation Team including 
such activities as: r 

a. being alert to case-finding and referring any child whose parents 
or parent substitutes come to her attention to the appropriate 
persons in order to facilitate scheduling as well as assisting 

in data collection for that purpose. 

b. participating in re-evaluations or screenings as well as initial 
evaluation processes. Parent interviewing, interpretation, support 
and education as well as participation in group decision-making 
are important aspects of this process. 

c. reporting, interpreting and active follow up related to the 
outcome of the evaluation would also be involved. 

3. to assist in the task of public information in behalf of deaf-blind 
children and their families. Strategies include: 

a. giving of information, either during a single contact or in 
more prolonged dialogue, on the availability of education and 
training resources, on the value of disabled children and services 
appropriate to their needs, on procedures which are used in seeking 
out such services, and the like. 



b. participating on committees, writing articles for publication 
or conference presentations, or consulting with other agencies 
in order to increase understanding of the disabled child and 
his family . 

c. supporting the parent, as his advocate, especially in legislative 
considerations or in meetings when they might be absent. 

d. initiating investigations or scientific research which would 
yield information toward better understanding and support 

of deaf-blind children and their families. 

If we don' t have a lot of resources , can we offer service to families ? 

Yes, we can and should because no matter how small our educational program 
is for children, there are still occasions when, for instance, 

1. someone must act in the capacity of parent advocate such as in 
administrative planning, in staff planning, and in numerous informal 
ways . 

2. decreasing psychological distance between the parent and child 
and the parent the the school is critical. 

3. increasing parent competency, especially in the communication 
aspect of child management and parent-child interactions is of prime 
concern. 

4. there is need for support of the total educational service via 
maximizing parent roles. 

5. we wish to encourage a caring, respectful, involved, reality-based 
attitude in staff toward parents. 



- 10 - 

What are some of_ the things which interfere in developing adequate parent services ' 
We have already mentioned some: 

1. lack of awareness of parent feelings, needs and rights. 

2. lack of appreciation for the role the educator can take. 

3. lack of positive attitudes toward a working relationship with parents. 

4. lack of administrative support (including provision of time, staff, 
monies , e tc . ) . 

5. lack of specialized personnel. 
Others might include: 

1. failure to establish rapport with parents. 

2. failure to examine our own feelings and thoughts related to working 
with parents including fear of failure or fear that parents will 

not appreciate nor participate in any activities which might be planned. 

3. lack of confidence and imagination in how to work out services to 
families of disabled children. 

4. lack of planning based upon realistic alternatives and lack of 
flexibility in the service program which will allow for responses 
according to changing individual parent needs. 

5. lack of competence, including preparation and experience, on the 
part of staff. More specifically, perhaps lack of good communication 
skills on the part of both the school personnel and the families. 

Who , from an educational se tting , has much to offer in the role of working 
with families ? 

At this period in time, few programs have parent counselors, as previously 
described. Additionally, not all of the direct work with parents can or should 
be done by a person in such a role. There are other staff persons who also have 



- 11 - 

vital relationships related to families. It is the responsibility of the 
existing staff to try to fulfill the existing needs. Services should be 
based upon actual needs. Some responsibilities naturally fall to those 
heading children's programs. However, the teacher role looms large. It 
particularly does so because the teacher shares some of the parenting functions 
and her expertise in daily direct contact with the child is seen as important 
to the child's growth and development and subsequent level of future functioning 
Surely, the teacher is a key figure in the interaction that occurs during some 
major adjustment periods such as when the child is separated from his home* 
when substitute parenting roles are assumed by some of the school staff* when 
parent/child experience omissions must, in some way, be made up for; when there 
are parent/child communication differences' when there are home re-entry 
si tuations^ when the concern is over the disabled child's progress or future 
possibilities . 

Included in some of the teacher's activities related to the parent 
might be: 

1. reporting of the child's experiences, progress and problems. 

According to the nature of the program, reporting might, for example, 
be done via frequent letters to the home, extensive bi-annual progress 
reports, notebooks describing the daily or weekly experiences of those 
children who will go home that frequently, written explanations and 
recommendations for carry-over for those children going home for 
occasional weekends or extended vacation periods, and phone calls 
whenever written communication isn't sufficient or in place of 
written communication when the child lives in the local area and 
parents are easily accessible. 



- 12 - 

2. Making home visits, whtn possible, to establish rapport and 
attempt to bring the experiences of the home and school together 
and/or inviting parents to be totally involved in the child's 
school program on the campus for a few hours, a day or more days 
at a time. 

3. Attending meetings in which parents are involved such as school 
staffings* state-education plan monitoring meetings', conference 
times set up specifically by school administration or supporting 
staff which are designed to involve parents in a team approach 

in sharing information related to the child's progress or problems* 
or conference times related to a specific problem being worked on 
between the parent and others such as the administrator or parent 
consultant. Teachers might also attend parent organization meetings 
and be available for parents when open house days are scheduled. 

4. Referring requests for services made to them by parents or referring 
concerns related to parent problems which have come to their attention 
to other appropriate persons on staff. 

We have given some attentiDn to attitudes such as wishing to better 
understand the parent situation and to try to work with them as well as being 
aware of the need to know ourselves related to such interaction. We have also 
listed some opportunities for taacher-parent interaction. That list can be 
extended according to specific circumstances in each of our settings. 

Now, what about skills? Trie primary skill, of concern here, is skill 

6 

in communication. Goolsby maces some basic suggestions which might help 

to facilitate school/parent com uunica tion such as: 

1. Assume that the other person acts in good faith. In our case, we 
must assume that parents are concerned about and involved with what 



- 13 - 

happens to their child. 

2. Permit the other person individuality and some imperfection. We 
must remember that there will be differences due to such things as 
personality, culture, and life situations. The disabled child's 
needs are only one aspect of a parent's total life situation; he 
has other concerns as well. 

3. Agree upon specific, mutual goals. Remembering to do so will avoid 
the situation which is too often seen in which the parents are 
considered to be negative influence because they are not doing 
things according to the profession's idea of "my way." 

4. Develop and maintain a feedback system. Make a mutual plan for 
when and how you will interact, even if it is only to say things 
are going well . 

5. Work at improving communication skills. This includes practicing 
non-defensive honesty, learning more through reading or course 
work about how to communicate better, and making opportunities 
for communication to take place. 

In the list of practices that commonly take place in parent/teacher 
communication, there were several large areas which might be briefly focused 
upon now, for our purposes, and which can easily lend themselves to in-service 
training sessions in our own settings. For example: 

1. Reporting of experiences, progress and problems. The content of 

direct contact situations as well as written communications can have 
a significant impact. In addition to conscientiously attempting to 
increase our own awareness of our message as we are in each interaction 
occasion and asking parents directly for feedback, it can be helpful 



- 14 - 

to our own learning to do some reviewing in a retrospective way. 
We can call upon our peer group to read samples of written reports 
or recall a dialogue they witnessed. Together it is possible to 
discover language used, misconceptions, need for clarification, 
double meanings or subjective interference, and the like and to 
find ways to improve those communication occasions. 

2. Making home visits. Teachers are often more comfortable in the 
classroom; they are oriented to functioning in the classroom and 
it is also "their territory." Some assistance may be useful in 
such things as in learning how to be a teacher-guest in the home; 
in learning how to deal with family dynamics, especially siblings 
(because, after all, a total family unit is effected by any one of 
its members); in learning to resepct the parenting role and their 
learning/teaching styles rather than imposing our teaching style 
and objectives upon them; or in learning how to assist adaptation 
of materials and opportunities found in the home to teaching 
objectives . 

3. Inviting parents/families to visit at school. By thinking about 
it ahead of time, it is possible to turn classroom visitation time 
into a positive and valuable experience for all concerned. This 
would include preparation of the children, of the parents, of 
ourselves, and the classroom. Evans has some ideas which are 
helpful related to this item. 

4. Attending/leading meetings. The thoughtlessness of omitting parents 
from meetings concerning themselves and their child or of neglecting 
to prepare parents for such meetings should be overcome. Additionally 



- 15 - 

we often need to be better prepared ourselves in such things as 
being ready and willing to share information and concerns; being 
open to asking parents for their ideas; or knowing more about being 
a group leader or member. 
5. Referring parents to others for services. It is important to take our 
responsibility for working with parents but it is also important 
to know when a concern is more appropriately referred to someone else. 
This is especially so when the parents needs are too great and call 
for psychiatric help. However, there remains a supporting role in 
making referrals which should not be overlooked. 

All of these activities require that the teacher be sensitive to family 
members and their needs, especially as they relate to the impact of the multiply 
involved child has made and continues to make upon them all. Beyond that, the 
requirements include an honest intent to communicate and a real effort in 
improving competency in communication skills. 

Conclusion : 

There is no way to deny the fact that advent of a severely disabled child 
has a tremendous impact on the lives of all his family members. The educational 
setting is one which has a great opportunity to reach out to that family's human 
needs. Even if, at this time, personnel do not exist in a particular setting 
with the primary responsibility being directly to families of the disabled 
children they serve, much can be done. The teacher/parent relationship is 
one which very naturally lends itself to a positive, productive partnership. 

At a time in history when time, money and energy has been spent on 
almost every frontier, the frontier of interpersonal relationships remain 



- 16 - 

relatively untouched. We need to pour our resources into increasing 
competency in reaching this valuable objec tive--direc t assistance to 
individuals. In this case, we ur" c".f':rriny, \'> \.\,n '!•-■.-><- m :• .-: ' ■ i \-: o-,.-j 
his family. It is an interesting and exciting challenge. 



ELIZABETH M. BANTA 

Elizabeth Banta's educational background includes licensing as a R.No and a 

B.S. in School Nurse Teaching; a M„S„ in Education; a C„A G.S. in Maternal 

and Child Health; and present enrollment in a Doctoral Program in Special 
Education. Work experience related to the deaf-blind includes: Coordinator 

of Preschool .Services at Perkins; Assistant Coordinator of the New England 

Regional Center for Services to Deaf-Blind Children; Member of the Educational 

Evaluation Team for Deaf-Blind Children; and Parent Consultant at Perkins 

School for the Blind for parents of children in both the Blind and Deaf -Blind 
Departments. 



References : 



1. Banta, Elizabeth. "Parents of Deaf-Blind Children: Seme Immediate 
and Continuing Needs." Paper presented at the International Conference on 
the Education of Deaf-Blind Children, U.S.A., August, 1971. 

2. Banta, Elizabeth. "Parent Education in Families of Teen-Aged or 
Young Adult Deaf-Blind Persons." Paper presented at the Sixth International 
Deaf-Blind Seminar, Australia, September, 1976. 

3. Auerback, Aline. "Trends and Techniques in Parent Education" 
New York: A Child Study Association Publication, 1960. 

4. Barsch, Ray. "The Parent ot the Handicapped Child" Springfield: 
Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, 1968. 

5. Fellendorf and Harrow. "Parent Counselling 1961-1968" Reprint No. 929 
Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., 1970. 

6. Goolsby, Elaine. "Facilitation of Family-Professional Interaction" 
Rehabilitation Literature, Vol. 37, tfo . 11-12, Nov-Dec . , 1976. 

7. Evans, Joyce (ed.) "Working with Parents of Handicapped Children" 
Reston, Vriginia: Council for Exceptional Children, 1976. 



I SEMINARIO BRASILEIRO DE EDUCAQAO DE DEFICIENTE AUDIOVISUAL 



THE PROGRAMME FOR THE 

MULTI-HANDICAPPED BLIND AND 

DEAF/BLIND CHILDREN AT 

CONDOVER. 




SEDAV - ABEDEV 



THE PROGRAMME FOR THE MULTI-HANDICAPPED BLIND AND 
DEAF/BLIND CHILDREN AT CONDOVER. 



Condover Hall School is divided into three units to 
cater for the special needs of the children. 

a. A former Sunshine home that has become the infant 
section for twelve deaf/blind children whose ages 
range from three to eight. 

b. "Pathways" the part of the school where 29 deaf/b 
blind pupils, ages ranging from nine to sixteen or 
seventeen attend. 

c. The main school for some 77 multi-handicapped 
blind children, in the age group 11+ to seventeen. 

The catchment area for the school is the British 
Isles. Children come from Scotland, Northern Ireland 
The Irish Republic, the Channel Islands and from areas 
and counties over the mainland. 

To work with, and look after the children, there is 
a staff of 17 teachers and 58 child care staff, 4 nurses 
and all the maintainance, housekeeping, cleaning and 
sundry people vital to running the establishment. 

Before a child is admitted to the school there is 
always an assessment period of a week, for the main school 
children, and 2 weeks for deaf/blind children. During 
this period we try to see if the child would benefit from, 
and could cope with being a pupil at Condover. 

The younger children are nowadays nearly all brought 
to our attention through firstly being visited by Advisers 
employed by the Royal National Institute for the Blind. 
If an adviser feels that a youngster ought to come to our 
school a recommendation is put into the report odf the visit 

continued. 



and then it is the responsibility of the Local Authority 
to make the initial approach and request the period of 
assessment. 

The Main school programme differs from the Overley and 
Pathways set-up in that because of the more communicative 
children, the numbers in the groups are generally larger. 
The whole school is based around a secure family unit and 
froto here all things follow. The children go to school 
from their "family" and return afterwards. This way we 
try to make a distinct break between the school situation 
and out of school. 

A great deal of work is however done in the family unit 
and, in out of school hours. There is a self-care and 
independence scheme of training that the children follow. 
It is almost a form of programmed learning and enables each 
child to work and succeed at its own level of ability in 
self-care, social skills and skills leading to social 
independence. In addition to succeeding, motivation is 
added by awarding prizes known as "competence prizes" at 
each stage of success. 

ORGANISATION OF MAIN SCHOOL IN THE CLASSROOM . 

In the main school there are nine classroom groups, 
three of which are for 24 physically handicapped children 
and one for a group of eight disturbed children who benefit 
from a more controlled situation. 

Apart from swimming, mobility, handwork and homecraft 
the latter groups remain in their own classrooms for lessons. 
The other children move to specialist areas during the 
morning sessions each in a different classroom. Emphasis 
is placed on numeracy, oracy literacy (braille and sighted) 
and handwork. Each child also has two periods of swimming 
per week and two periods of physical education. In 
addition there is pottery, homecraft, music, creative work 
and handicrafts. 

continuec 1 



page 3 

In the afternoon the work is less "formal" and 
teachers will follow a course of environmental studies, 
outdoor activities and study group work. 

Children are put into a classroom group where it is 
felt they will get the most benefit. Selection is made 
based on age, intelligence and amount of vision and 
degree of mobility. 

The intelligence of our pupils measured on the 
Williams test for defective vision shows the following 
break-down:- 

I.Q Below 50 40% 

50-70 32% 

70-90 21% 

90-100 2% 

100+ 5% 



"D" DEPARTMENT 

The physically handicapped blind children are placed 
in three classes. 

a. The more able intellectually (with a high 
proportion of spina-bifida children). 

b. Children having communication problems. 

c. The E.S.N. (S) children who are in need of much 
care and have a special programme for very slow 
learners. 

NUMERACY 

We have our own number scheme and the children follow 
this. The more able who complete it go on to an advanced 
course tailored to their personal meeds. This is connected 
with mobility and town experience. The less able work on 
pre-number schemes sorting and matching shapes and using 
sand, water, lego etc. We work on new words and concepts 
making each exercise as completely practical as possible. 

continued 



COMMUNICATION 

Communication involves oracy and literacy skills. We 
work with tapes, print, and braille. The recording of 
work, interests and projects is considered highly important 
and is done each day. 

An advanced group is taking a course which consists of 
literature, the natural sciences and social studies. It is 
envisaged that this group, using tapes, cassettes and print 
will take part in C.S.E. Mode 3 or even integrate in certain 
subjects with a nearby comprehensive school to take the exam. 
It must be borne in mind that a considerable "back-up" team 
will be needed. 

Group "B" concentrates and works mainly in oracy in 
every lesson. It is hoped to develop meaningful use of 
words at their level in everyday situations. The Speech 
Therapist is greatly involved with this group as many of 
the children have poor speech and/or speech defects. 

Group "C" concentrates on vocabulary at a lower level 
on words used in every day living, prepositional phrases 
and listening techniques. 

CRAFTWORK AND WORKSHOPS 

All children are involved in a specially devised 
programme of work structured in such a way that children with 
poor hand function can participate. A special "work day" 
is set up where the youngsters can operate as they will be 
expected to when they leave school. They work at making 
link mats, sawing, cutting, drilling and sorting materials 
plus, assembli&g items. 

There is a course in home economics which works closely 
with the child care scheme and using the specialist aids 
available . 

MOBILITY AND SWIMMING , 

Most children receive physiotherapy each day or are 

involved in exercises. They also receive mobility training 

on an ongoing basis. One young man has a sonic aid fitted 

to his wheelchair and, although completely blind has full 

mobility around the hall and extensive grounds. He uses 

the lifts and navigates himself without help* 

continued 



All take part in swimming and many use the pool for hydro- 
therapy. 



OVBRLEY HALL 

Overley Hall is situated about ten miles from Gondover 
Hall and caters for twelve young deaf/blind children 
between the ages of about five to ten. Some then go on to 
Pathways. We also take the assessment children which 
recently have averaged about three a term. 

The children are divided into three school groups. 
The reception class is looked after by two National 
Nursery Examination Board Nursery Nurses: the middle group 
with a teacher and an N.N.E.B. nursery iiurse, and the top 
group with a teacher and a helper. The children are grouped 
by ability rather than age. 

In the first group the children sometimes show marked 
withdrawal symptoms, they may lie for long periods just 
gazing at the light and they may be very unaware of the 
presence of adults or the other children. It may be 
difficult to achieve eye contact with them. The programme 
therefore is devised to stimulate them as mueh as possible. 
They have a great deal of individual attention and human 
contact with rocking on one's lap in time to the singing of 
nursery rhymes; finger and hand games; encouragement in 
copying such as clapping etc. Percussion work is carried out 
usually every morning. Sand and water play are also 
necessary activities. 

Another essential part of the programme for the children 
in this group is what we call"circuits". This is part of the 
physical education programme and involves following through an 
obstacle course varying in length and suited to each child's 
capabilities. Each child is encouraged individually to 
complete the course, which may be crawling under one table, 
stepping on and off a low box, crawling over another table 
and then sitting on a chair ready for the reward. This is 
usually a sip of drink. The circuits may be followed through 
as many as five times a session. Once the child realises 

continned 



what he or she is doing that particular circuit is not 
repeated. We have had excellent results using these 
methods. 

In the intermediate group the children are all aware 
of the difference "between people and objects. They are now 
ready to copy gross "body movements and music and movement 
now takes the place of the "circuits 11 . This activity takes 
place every day and the child is encouraged to follow the 
helpers activities to the music. Also during the day the 
child is encouraged to copy and use some of the basic Paget 
Gorman signs. 

The children have also to be taught to co-operate and to 
sit at a table and make up simple jig saw puzzles, play snap 
with help from an adult, pellmanism, dominoes and other games. 
When they can do all these things happily and enthusistically 
they are ready for the top group. 

In this group all those activities can be carried out 
withojtt individual attention and the games can now be played 
between the children from choice and no longer needing an 
adult's help. 

In both groups great attention is paid to getting the 
child to the "naming stage" by using as many Paget Gorman 
signs as possible. In the middle group the teacher uses 
the picture Ladybird series for shecking that her children 
can recognise a basic vocabulary of common objects. There 
are six books that are particularly suitable. One book is 
cut up and the picture stuck on to cardboard and then 
covered with plastic and the corresponding book is left intact. 
The child then has to find the corresponding picture and at 
a later stage to hand over the correct card when the sign is 
made. Later he will sign it himself. The words he can 
sign are kept in his "tidy box" which he would have made at 
an "art and craft" time. 

continued 



Art and craft and modelling, cooking are all very- 
important activities. 

All the children to whom it would be of use go 
swimming and pony riding. The latter activity has proved 
to be extremely worthwhile. Some of the children can now 
trot unaided and will follow directions without being led. 
We are delighted with the results. 

In the top group the children are all managing simple 
printing, reading and number. 

We have been able to have an "individual" time of the 
day between H.ooarn and mid-day and this has proved of 
enormous benefit. This is going to be tried again this term 
as we again have enough st%ff to cope with it. The most 
spectacular breakthrough in the last individual programme 
was achieved by our laundry lady. She took one of the 
older girls and instructed her in washing by hand, rinsing 
and spinning with the machine, and using the dryer. The 
child was supervised all the time and became very reliable. 
She could sort out the dirty clothes, fold up the clean 
clothes and knew where to take the clothes back to the 
nursery. She started to use words much more clearly than 
before and suddenly really "came alive". We were surprised 
and delighted by the excellent results. 

On the hpuse side we have two family groups each with 
six children and the etame family always has the assessement 
child. Each family has a family mother, assistant mother 
and two juniors. Of course as it is residential not 
everyone would be working at the same time. 

The accent is on self-care as far as is possible and 
every effort is made to encourage the children to do as 
much for themselves as possible. The best in the families 
can set tables, wash up and put away, be taken down to the 
kitchen and put the appropriate plates of food on the trolleys; 

continued 



help with some of the sweeping and putting chairs on tables 
for sweeping under; making their own beds; going round after 
tea and turning down the covers on the beds. The less able 
children can all do something such as going down to the 
kitchen and helping to push the trolleys down to the playrooms 
where the children eat their meals. They also do a little 
towards dressing themselves. 

As far as mealtimes go the children are split into 
abilities for lunch, the top and middle groups eat together 
in one playroom and the little ones and the assessment child 
unless he or she is of a very high standard, go into another 
nursery. For breakfast and tea the children eat in their 
own family groups but still in the two playrooms. 

PATHWAYS 

Pathways is situated within the grounds of Condover Hall, 
and caters for 29 deaf/blind children between the ages of nine 
to sixteen or seventeen. 

Initially the children need to be cared for. They often 
need to be fed by staff to ensure adequate nutrition. They 
need to be washed, dressed and led through the routines of 
the day. 

Secondly, the children are taught self -care leading to 
independence in household duties so that they could live in 
a hostel under supervision, but without help. Some are able 
to cook for themselves and clean their rooms, so that they 
could "keep house" for limited periods if parent were at 
home in the evenings. The programme of training is like 
that of the main school. 

The school programme is designed to help the child 
become more and more aware of his environment through a wide 
variety of experiences. Understanding of the changes which 
take place as, for instance, a seed is sown and grows to a 
plant, is harvested, prepared, cooked and eaten, or clay 

continued 



"becomes part of a house, underlies the language teaching. 

The language teaching scheme is "based on a minimum 
outline of sentence structures and a limited vocabulary of 
the most frequently used functional words - pronouns, 
prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs - rather than verbs and 
adjectives and nounti. 

Natural language is taught as it is needed, but the 
sentence structures are checked to ensure that progress is 
made. The vacabulary taught is not limited, but by ensuring 
that the most used functional words are checked we can tell if 
progress is being made in vocabulary. The method of 
communication does slightly affect the order in which words 
are learned. Signing a fully inflected system, learning to 
finger spell and learning speech are all part of learning 
language . 

It is essential that the children have interesting 
happenings to talk about, new events and new things. At 
the same time repetition of activities ensures revision 
and recall and the extension of ideas. Children recall 
stimulating and exciting events best, so therr life needs 
colour. Annual events help to establish concepts of time, 
so that they can look forward and reflect, and thus learn 
to use tenses with understanding. By moving things and 
by going to places the children acquire concepts of physical 
relationships such as 'over a bridge 1 'along the road' f up 
the hill 1 'far away* 'a little way' 'round the corner' 'through 
the tunnel ♦ . 

Real activities are reflected in the classroom using 
models and making them, acting and pretending. General 
knowledge and specific areas of knowledge are all dependant 
on language and add to the vocabulary and comprehension. 
Reinforcement is necessary, and certain activities provide 
useful drills e.g. 'hide and seek' hunt the slipper' help 
reinforce prepositions. 

Many 'school' subjects are preparatory to real learning. 
Stomes may have to drop into water and the concentric rings 

continued 



page 10 



seen, or ripples sensed in time, before words such as 
concentric are found to relate to reality and not just to 
apparatus provided for a purpose. 

But none of these activities is useful if not related 
to helping a child to be a good companion and a pleasing 
person. This is the real aim of the Unit. 



One of the recent and very worthwhile additions to the 
staff has been that of an "After-care Officer". After a 
preliminary pilot scheme a full time appointment was made 
in 1973. This means that we can offer Local Authorities a 
great deal of help in the placement of our school leavers. 

PUPILS LEAVING 

About 18-24 months before a pupil leaves school a full 
educational and social assessment is undertaken together with 
a brief medical history. There are so few objective tests 
available that this assessment takes the form of written 
reports by teachers, housemothers, physiotherapists, speech 
therapists and nurses which, when collated forms a four page 
report. An informal interview takes place with a Careers 
Advisor, Placement Officers from the Royal National Institute 
for the Blind, the pupil's teacher and housemother being present. 
Recommendations are formulated and added to the assessment 
report which are then forwarded to the pupils Local Authority. 

The recommendations of the interview vary, but the 

majority of pupils are recommended for placement at Adult 

Training Centres, Residential Care and a few for further 

vocational training. An important aspect of the After Care 

work concerns the parents. It is so easy to evaluate a 

pupils' potential, and recommend placement, that after the 

pupil, the most important persons to be involved can be 

overlooked, namely the parents. We must be careful not to 

fall into the trap of being the experts and forget the parents 

who are deeply concerned, and often extremely worried about 

the future of their offspring. In our after care service 

parents are consulted at a very early stage, either when they 

visit school or at home. 

continued 



Placement 

The continued education and/or vocational guidance 
of our pupils is generally undertaken at the Hethersett 
Assessment and vocational Guidance Centre at Reigate, or 
Queen Alexandra College, Birmingham and latterley at some 
other centres e.g. The National Society for the Mentally 
Handicapped, and the Spastics Society etc. 

Placement at Adult Training Centres is proceeded by a 
visit and discussion with staff of the possible difficulties 
to be encountered in the initial introductory period. 
Where necessary the After Care Officer arranges to be present 
for the first couple of days, but inevitably finds that the 
staff soon become intrigued by the different approaches and 
techniques necessary to formulate work and educationally 
stimulating environments. Mobility within the centre presents 
the biggest problem to be overcome but with some little thought 
and "planning, it has been possible to produce a scheme of 
basic training allowing access to the work area, educational 
area, toilets, cloakroom and dining area. 

Follow-up 

A follow-up visit to the home area is attempted during the 
first year, and a review of the placement enables an evaluation 
to be taken. Those pupils who undertake further education at 
vocational guidance centres, and are recommended for placement 
in industry or sheltered workshops are normally placed by the 
Royal National Institute for the Blind Placement Officers, but 
occasionally are referred back for placement, but a follow up 
visit for information is always undertaken. 

Referrals . 

After some 3 years of full time placement, former pupils 
placed at A.T.C. are now being referred back for consultation 
for extended training for sheltered workshops. These are 
generally those pupils who were boarderline cases for rec- 
ommendation for vocational guidance, and have taken full 
advantage of the facilities offered by the A.T.C. 

continued 



Observations 

Of the 1976/77 leavers, the following facts emerge 
which indicate the trend of the future pattern :- 

Number leaving school 29 

Number requiring residential care 11 (3 who are 

in care, 5 with home deficiencies, 3 require 

hospitalization) 

Number recommended for Adult Training Centre.. 17 

Number recommended for further training 3 

Number for full assessment because of physical 

handicap. . . .1 

TOTAL 32. 

These totals do not agree as included in further 
training is a pupil who will finally require residential 
care, and one would benefit from further training but 
included in total of 17 for A.T.C. and one pupil for 
further physical assessment is included in residential 
care. 

CONCLUSION 

The main problem has been what to omit from the paper 
rather than what to put in. A work programme cannot succeed 
without caring, humane staff who create the vital atmosphere 
necessary for learning and happiness. How can one express 
emotion? I can only trust I have conveyed something that 
gives an impression of our work and life at Condover. 



CONDOVER HALL SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND 

{Conducted by the Royal National Institute for the Blind, 224-8 Great Portland Street, London, WIN 6AA) 

Telephone: BAYSTON HILL 2320 (S.T.D. code 0743-72) CONDOVER HALL 

Station: SHREWSBURY 

Principal: ANTHONY JARVIS CONDOVER, 



SHREWSBURY, 

SHROPSHIRE, SY5 7AH 



CURRICULUM VITAE ANTHONY JARVIS. 

Age ,...44 years. 

Educated Oswestry Boys High School. 

Served in the Royal Air Force 2 years. 

Teacher training at Chester College and Loughbrough College, 
Honours diploma in Physical Education. 



Schools ;- 

Ellesmere Modern. 

Faraday School (Head of P.E. Dept) 

Condover Hall 

Passed College Of Teachers of the Blind examination 1966 gaining 
the Arthur Pearson prize. 

Appointed Deputy Headmaster. . .1968 
Appointed Headmaster 1971 



► I serve on the examining panel of the College of Teachers of 
the Blind, and on a working party set up by the Physical 
Education Association of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to 
study physical education for the handicapped. 



Hobbies 



Reading, Squash, Golf, Football, Malt Scotch, 



I SEMINARIO BRASILEIRO DE EDUCAQAO DE DEFICIENTE AUDIOVISUAL 



SOCIAL-PROFESSIONAL 
INTEGRATION 

by ROBERT J. SMITHDAS, LHD, Litt. D. 




I SEDAV - ABEDEV 



SOCIAL- PROFESSIONAL : 'ITEORATION 

By 

Robert J. Smithdas , LHD, Litt.D. 

Director of Community Education 
Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults 



Integration of deaf-blind persons into the social and professional activities 
of modern society is a relatively new aspect of the progress being made in recent 
years in overcoming the severity of the dual handicap of deafness and blindness. 
It lias only been daring the past twenty-five years that a small group of deaf- 
blind individuals in the United States have established themselves as outstanding 
examples of success socially and professionally, thus setting new goals in the 
education and rehaLi litation of the deaf-blind and stimulating an accelerated 
interest in the welfare of the deaf-blind on an international level. 

There is no doubt that the combined disabilities of deafness and blinds ss 
constitute one of the most severe handicaps known to educators and workers in 
rehabilitation. The loss of both sight and hearing poses unique problems of 
communication ,and mobility and other personal skills that are generally con- 
sidered as essential and necessary for intelligent and active participation 
in the normal interchange of evevydt-iy affairs. Sight and hearing are the- two 
primary senses through which an individual gleans knowledge of his environment 
and its activities; and when these two senses are drastically curtailed or 
completely lost, the individual's learning processes are inhibited, and the 
world he lives in literally shrinks. To overcome the limitations thus imposed 
requires maximum use of remaining faculties, and a greater effort on the part 
of both the deaf-blind individual and those who live and work with him. In a 
majority of cases, deaf-blind individuals either lack speech or have very limited 
use of it, and this added limitation makes it difficult for them to express 
their wants and needs spontaneously. 

Human beings are social beings, and despite loss of sight and hearing, 
deaf-blind people have as great a need for social interaction as anyone else. 



(2) 



Skill in mobility and a variety of communication methods are definite assets 
in improving social contacts and in broadening participation in social activities. 
Early and continuous exposure to social situations help to enlarge the deaf- 
blind person's perspectives on what is required of him by society, and also help 
to develop confidence and acceptable behavior patterns. Such expos. ■ should 
include as many facets of social participation as possible, including recreational 
and creative activities, and should be an integral part of the education and 
rehabilitation processes for the deaf-blind. A wide range of social activities 
assists in emotional growth and the development of initiative and motivation. 

Because of the unique nature of this handicap and the problems associated 
with it, deaf-blind people have a greater dependence on the assistance of others 
for acquiring information and- establishing standards for personal initiative. 
independence for a deaf-blind person, however well adjusted, is relative; for 
most effective living, he will often require the assistance of other people 
to overcome the daily problems peculiar to deafness and blindness. Services 
must often be on a one-to-one basis, particularly in communication. Although 
today there is a growing number of aids and devices which deaf-blind people 
can use to attain a measure of independent living, and a greater supply of 
available reading materials to keep them informed, even the most highly trained 
and motivated deaf-blind person frequently needs the services of volunteers, 
interpreters, and guides in order to function at the maximum degree of efficien- 
cy, whether on a domestic, vocational, or professional level. In the United 
States, during the past thirty years, there has been a marked increase in the 
number and quality of services being provided for the deaf-blind, which has been 
reflected in a corresponding 13 umber of deaf-blind persons jwho have developed 
their abilities to a high degree--some of whom have already attained college 
diplomas and entered professional careers, and others who are currently studying 
..at the college level. This should make it apparent that improvements in educa- 
tional, rehabilitation, '..and other services has a direct effect on upgrading the 
deaf-blind population as a whole, and of increasing possible opportunities Cot- 
self-expression and assimilation into society. But, as I have already indicated, 
even the most successful deaf-Mind persons who are presently employed in various 
professional areas, cannot Function at their best without relying on the assistanc 
of others. 



(3) 



Currently the range of professional opportunities for the highly trained 
deaf-blind in the United States is limited, chiei'ly because potential areas for 
employment have not as yet been fully analyzed. We now have dear-blind, persons 
employed as computer programmers, program analysts, educators, and counsel :>r: . 
It' should be noted that all these professional workers have secretaries, assist- 
ants, or coworkers who assist them in their daily work. It is very probable 
that this will always be necessary because of the limitations imposed by the 
loss of sight and hearing. 

There is no doubt that successful deaf-blind persons in professional 
careers are socially more adaptable than most deaf-blind persons, because of 
their greater knowledge and versatility, and the broader perspectives of life 
they acquire in their work. But they are not wholly free from occasional 
feelings of isolation caused 'by their dual disabilities. Feelings of isolation 
and loneliness are common to all deaf-blind persons, but the well-adjusted 
individual experiences this less than others because he is more flexible in 
his attitudes and can adjust to using his mental and intellectual capacities 
to the fullest. 

1 believe that integration of the deaf-blind person on the social and 
professional levels depends for success on a combination of factors: the 
individual's overall personality; flexibility to adjust to changing conditions 
and situations; and whether the individual lives and works in a compatible - 
social climate that has a realistic understanding of his needs and an appreci- 
ation of his abilities. it is important for the deaf-blind individual to 
know his limitations as well as his potentials; and it is equally important 
that people who associate with him have a similar understanding. 

In summary, from .my own experleno , I would like to make the following 
suggestions for the integration of deaf-blind people: 

1. During formative years, every effort should be made to develop the 
deaf-blind person's total personality through education and exposure to a 
variety of social experiences. 



(h) 



2. Deaf-blind persons should learn as many methods of coimmi.iication as 
possible so that they can adapt themselves confidently to situations which may 
arise. 

3. Deaf -blind- persons should be encouraged to exercise their own initiative 
whenever possible. Independence of thought and action should be encouraged. 

In the final analysis, integration will depend largely on individual 
attitudes. The deaf -blind person should be willing to reach out to the public 
and assert his individuality. The individual's personality and adaptability 
is still the primary key to successful integration into any given situation. 



Work with Deaf -Blind Children in Brazil 

Neusa Bassetto 

First of all, I would like to express my happiness and my 
emotion in again meeting many friends, from other countries 
and from Brazil, who honour us with their presence at this 
Seminar. 

I also would like to thank all of those who have encouraged 
me to continue my work with the deaf -blind. 

The education of the deaf-blind person is not only a science 
or an art, but, most of all, it is an act of love, of dedication 
to a human being deprived of certain senses - hearing and sight - 
and who, before the community, before man and before God, deserves 
our care, our constant attention and dedication. This is 
necessary so that the bearer of these deficiencies will not be 
pushed aside not only by society, but also by his own family, as 
being useless, incapable of receiving special care and taking 
advantage of it. - Care that has proven effective in its good 
results. 

Therefore, this necessity is the objective of my presentation, 
and I am convinced that the cases that I will report on, cases 
that I have experienced myself as a teacher and which have been 
experienced by my dear pupils, will be beneficial, not only to 
other teachers, but also to other deaf -blind children. 

I will try to comment on and demonstrate each individual case, 
with both the corresponding records and with photographs, so 
that you may analyse and come to the conclusion that a basic, 
but well planned and specialized system should be established 
for the education of the deaf -blind. 

Experience has already shown that the specialized education of 
the deaf -blind cannot be handled either by a specialist in the 
education of the deaf or by a specialist in the education of 



.pg. 2, 



the blind, since the deaf -blind person has essential and well 
defined characteristics, entirely different from those of the 
deaf or of the blind. 

Not less important is the need, a very urgent need, to begin 
the technical-professional training of people who can dedicate 
themselves to this difficult, but extremely involving activity. 

Prior to speaking about the cases that I would like to report 
on, may I give you a little of our past history in this 
fascinating field which is the education of the deaf -blind. 

Back in 1971, when I started to work at the so called "Escola 
Residencial para Deficientes Audiovisuais" (E.B.D.A.V. ), in Sao 
Caetano do Sul, in the State of Sao Paulo, Mrs, Thereza Adelina 
Barros Tavares was acting as a teacher, along with our dear 
teacher Mrs. ITice Tonhozi de Saraiva. 

Thereza, at that time, was handling the teaching of two students, 
who were Romualdo S. and Jefeson S. My assignment was to 
initiate the work with a deaf -blind child who came from the 
State of Parana and who, unfortunately, had to leave the school. 
In 1972, two additional students came to the E.R.D.A.Y.s Roberto 
E. and Paulo Cesar S. Thereza began to work with both of them, 
and I continued working with both Romualdo and Jefeson. At this 
time, another teacher of the program for hearing-impaired 
children, Mrs. Dalvaniee Farias Duarte, became interested in our 
work, and, later on, she also joined our program. Theresa left 
E.R.D.A.V. in 1973 and both Dalvanise and I began to work with 
the following cases: 

Romualdo S. - He used to attend our school in the morning and, 

during the afternoon, he was sent to a regular 
school. We used to keep very close contact with his teacher at 
this school, so that Romualdo could integrate and follow the 
regular school program. Romualdo has completed the 4th grade 
of elementary school, and, since he was now 18 years old, he 
started to work at an industry on the outskirts of Sao Paulo. 



Pg»3. 



tfrom there on, Romualdo should have received speech maintenance 
classes with a speech training specialist. Nevertheless, we 
believe that this has not occurred for lack of his financial 
possibilities. 

Jefeson S . - This student was able to attain some progress 

during 1973 although he was not using any type 
of language. He lived with his grandparents, who were already 
old and incapable of stimulating him and providing for the 
necessary examinations. So, they sent him back to his parents 1 
home in the city of Presidente Prudent e, deep in the State of 
Sao Paulo • 

Roberto B . - Born May, I960. He came to the school in June, 
1972. 
Diagnosis 

Sight : congenital cataract, strabismus and 
nystagmus. He was submitted to a 
cataract operation in January, 1974 o 
Hearing? deafness due meningitis at the age 

of 3 months with hypoacusis resultant 
from meningoencephalitis. 
Boberto presented great progress when he started school, showing 
great interest in all the activities, reacting very well to all 
the stimulation that he was exposed to. He also showed great 
progress in comprehending his environment, and most of all, an 
interest in expressing his feelings, when he learned Braille. 
The world began to have meaning for Roberto; he could do things 
and, obviously, he wanted to communicate what he felt and noticed, 
When his cataracts were operated on, in 1974, Roberto showed new 
and greater progress. He rejected Braille, since he could now 
perceive enlarged letters and the world surrounding him. His 
hearing gained the most, in spite of the faot that his audio- 
metric test remained unchanged, Presently, Roberto does not 
present greater progress due to evident neurological problems 
and to emotional difficulties that have occurred. He does not 



pg. 4. 

tolerate any physical contact which, in terms of obtaining oral 
language, prevents him from proper articulation, thus making 
compreehensive speech impossible. His vocabulary is limited, 
but he can express and understand through finger spelling, 
enlarged writing and drawings. His gestural language is not 
comprehensive. Roberto accepts and tolerates finger spelling 
since this is the only means that he utilizes to communicate, 
besides enlarged writing and drawings. 

Paulo Cesar S . - Born August, 1969* He came to the school in 
August, 1972. 
Etiology : perinatal suffering; H.H. genetic 

factor. 
Diagnosis 

Sight : The examination conducted under 
general anesthesis reported: 
"...he does not present organic 
lesion, anamnesis being the 
possible central cause" • 
Hearing : 500Hz 1000Hz 2000Hz 4000Hz 
Db loss 40 50 50 60 

Neurologic: "... he does not have either 
hearing or sight disturbance; 
perhaps it is a defect of 
perception related to brain 
damage" • 
yaulo Cesar was sent to us because, according to his parents: 

, . The child could not see or hear". We began the stimulation 
e "ound out that Paulo Cesar really did not respond to visual 
stimulation but he could follow the teacher in her lullabies. 
We asked for medical examinations and found that the child also 
did not ha^ either hearing or sight problems, but neurological 
problems, and his behavior problem was being characterized by 
autism. We worked with this child twice a week, during the 
years of 1973, 1974, and 1975. In 1976, I explained to his 
parents that the continuation of our work would be fruitless if 



£>£>• ->• 



both the child and his parents would not receive treatment in: 
ludotherapy for the child 
parent therapy for the parents 

By the end of 1976, family resistance was tremendous, and they 
stated that the "Child would never learn, so the best thing to 
do would be to give up". That is what they did at the beginning 
of this year, Paulo Cesar is no longer with us. 

Maria Aparecida S . - Born May, 1964. She came to the school 

in the latter part of 1975 upon great 
insistence by a friend of her family who already knew our work. 
But, her parents did not believe that something could be done 
in terms of education. When Maria Aparecida came to the school, 
she was wearing eyeglasses, but not hearing- aid. We only had 
contact with her mother as her father took no part in the problemi 
This girl was 11 years old when she was sent to the school and 
was not toilet trained (she still wore diapers), and she was 
usually fed liquids and soft baby-food. In order to eontrol her 
behavior, the family used to give her tranquilizers. So, her 
daily life was: 

- to wake up at 2:00 HK; 

- to have lunch, and play on the couch or in 
bed until supper time; 

- supper at 7:00 PMj 

- back to bed at 8:00 PM; 

She did not have any other type of activity. Her glasses she 
used only when going to school, since ..."with them, Maria Apa- 
recida sees things and she wants to touch them, giving me a lot 
of work", said her mother. In order for the child to start 
classes in the beginning of 1976, we asked her mother to train 

her in: 

- toilet use 

- eating 

- the reducing of sleeping time, giving her some 
activity at home 

In February, 1976, Maria Aparecida was a more mature child and 



after some training she was "being able to work for, at least, 
two consecutive hours. She began to accept the company of 
other children; she started to show preference for certain 
activities; she has acquired greater independence and sureness 
in walking, in eating, in dressing and in her hygiene. She was 
able to associate hearing stimulation to movements, as well as 
to respond to simple gestures. The "new" Maria Aparecida was 
emerging and asking for attention, and it seemed to us that she 
jsras becoming "heavy" for her family, who began to say that it 
was becoming difficult to take her to school. So, they took her 
away from our school at the end of 1976. 

Cizino S » - Born April, 1967. He came to the school in 
April, 1976. 
Diagnosis: 

Sight s Hypoplasia papilla (probable) 

Secondary converging strabismus (?) 
Amblyopia 
Hearing: "... he did not respond to 4000 Hz; 

little response at 2000Hz and normal 
response at 1000Hz". 
Neurological: mental retardation (?) 
Cizino *s parents lack rudimentary instruction, and they lived in 
very poor conditions in a slum. Therefore, Cizino' s medical 
examinations were conducted in the indigent sector of a hospital. 
The examinations are not concluded thus far, because during the 
second half of 1976 until today, his father has been sick in a 
hospital and his mother is also sick at home, making it impossible 
to give continuity to his examinations. He does not take any 
medicine. He came to the school already trained to go to the 
toilet and able to eat by himself, but he does not chew his food 
yet. He also has some independence in dressing. He responds 
very well to hearing, visual and gestural stimulation. He has 
learned basic gestural communication, such as: 



- come here 

- sit down 

- get up 

- go to the toilet 

- go wash your hands 

- go to eat 

He has great interest in people, and, when somebody gets close 
to him he tries to find out, through touch, whther they are using 
a hearing aid. He likes hearing training and appreciates the 
teacher's voice, trying to imitate simple words of the oral 
communication, but without understanding them. He is showing 
great interest in visual environment and tries to cope with it. 
He presents general motor difficulty and a certain lack of tactile 
perception. He has good ability in transferring classroom 
learning to other situations. 

Paula Andrea A . - Born April, 1975. She came to the school in 
August, 1976, 
Diagnosis 

Sight 2 retrolenthal fibroplasia 
Hearing j 200Hz 500Hz 1000Hz 1500Hz 2006Hz 
Db loss 70 90 100 80 ? 
Her parents try to do everything that may lead to good training 
for Paula. Her mother receives orientation given by a 
Physiotherapist regarding the motor development of the child. 
Paula is very sensitive to certain foods which cause her allergies 
and which require constant medical control. She does not take any 
medicine. 

Feeding :- she is able to drink: liquids by herself, holding the 
glass or cup. She does not use a spoon yet, and she 
needs help in order to eat. She eats well, accepting 
any type of food. 
Toilet s- she is not trained yet. 

Dressing:- she is able to take her shoes off and her socks. 
Social behavior:- she distinguishes between the activities given 
either by her father or her mother and those by other 
persons. In other words, she has become used to eacb 



■P3« 



individua l type of play or contact, and only accepts 

them from those whom she has become used to. 
Body imitation:- she does not imitate, "but does understand when 

mother makes gestures on the child's "body, 
Heaction to speech:- she shows interest when someone speaks close 

to her ear or when she is using the hearing aid, although 

she does not voice when using the aid. 
Gestures 

Receptive: she reacts to signs made on her arms, hands 
and "body:- to eat 

- to drink 

- get up 

- come here 

- let's take a bath 

- let's go to the toilet 

- let's go to sleep 

- push 

- it is finished 

- no 

- yes 

Expressive:- to eat 

- to push 

- no 

- yeas 

Visual, reaction: she shows reaction to very intensive light. 

She does not perceive any other visual stimulation, 

Reaction to sound: she does not imitate. She only voices when 

she is playing and is not using the hearing aid. 

Toys : she is able to manipulate. When she is playing, she 
does not give objects to anybody and, should 
the object fall from her hands, she looks for 
them with her hands, in front of her and on 
both sides. She enjoys intensive physical 
activities. 



Motor development: she holds small objects with one hand 

and uses both hands for bigger objects. 
She climbs up and down chairs and stairs t 
She does not walk alone, but is abllfe to do so 
if supported by a wall* 
This year, Paula Andrea is not attending school because State 
Law does not allow children to attend school prior to being 3 
years old. There are not specialized clinics dedicated to the 
whole care of the child. They propose speech-hearing training, 
assistance in visual problems, etc., but there is no integration 
in these areas. 

Maria Amelia L . - Born February, 1969* She came to the school 
in March, 1977. 
Etiology: maternal rubella. 



Sight: congenital cataract in the right eye 
Hearing: 250Hz 500Hz 1000Hz 3000Hz 
Db loss 35 45 75 75 
Congenital heart disease (she was operated 
in the latter part of 1975). 
Maria Amelia also came to the school without any toilet and feeding 
training. Her parents needed proper orientation so that this 
training could be given. Maria Amelia's present conditions are: 

Sight : good perception and she gets very interested in details. 

She does not make visual contacts, even to the point of 

systematically avoiding them. 
Hearing : she does not respond to any sound stimulation, whether 

using a hearing aid or not. Nevertheless, she likes 

to use the hearing aid. 
Social behavior: Maria Amelia likes the company of other children, 

although she prefers to be among adults. 



pg. 10. 

Communication: 

Gestures - receptive language:- come here 

- stand up 

- sit down 

- close the door 

- go wash you hands 

- let's eat 

- it is finished 
expressive language? 

she does not make any signs or gesture, 
but, when she wants something, she takes 
the hand of the adult and takes him to 
the desired object. 
Motor "behavior i good walking, but with a poor general balance. 

Her overall and specific coordination is deficient, 
Emotional behavior: low frustration level; low resistance to 
fatigue in school work; very dependent. 

These are the most significant cases that I thought would be of 
interest to this audience, I have also attended other cases of 
children from other cities in our country, but they cannot 
attend our school, because this institution is not a residential 
school and the moving of their parents would result in upsetting 
de family dynamics. 

There is no doubt that we urgently need to establish a well 
planned, realistic, scientific and well coordinated program for 
very specialized care and treatment of the deaf -blind. The 
efforts of everyone involved and/or concerned with these problems 
should be duly concentrated in order to establish a logical, 
consistent and humanitary program. 

This is, I am sure, one of the main reasons for our being here 
at this Seminar. And, as one of the participants in the very 
recent I World Conference on Services to Deaf-Blind Youths and 
Adults, held in New York City, last September, I think that it 
would be needless for me to add more comments in addition to what 



I have presented to you today. So, I would ask you to remember 
the Declaration of Rights of Deaf -Blind Persons, adopted "by that 
very important Conference, and which was sent to us "by our dear 
Dr. Hi chard Kinney, 

Before ending my presentation, I would like to inform you that 
the "Escola Residencial para Beficientes Audio vi suai s" , which 
was a State school, in September of this year became a Foundation, 
named "Fundacao Municipal Annie Sullivan", We are very happy 
with this decision, and we all are waiting for the next school 
year (February 1978) to start our work there, with our deaf -blind 
children© 

Thank you very much. 

** *** ** 



I SEMINARIO BRASILEIRO DE EDUCAQAO DE DEFICIENTE AUDIOVISUAL 



ATTEMPTS TO IMPLANT DEAF-BLIND 

EDUCATION IN BRAZIL 



PROF. NICE TONHOZI SARAIVA 




I SEDAV - ABEDEV 



ATTSLIPTS T0 IMpLAI ^p DEAP-BUKD EDUCATION 
III BRAZIL 

Prof. Nice Tonhozi de Saraiva 

It is an arduous task, through at the same time, exciting to face 
the challenge of initiating a new enterprise in the field of 
specialized education. 

Allow me to present to you this new effort in our country. In 1950, 
during my specialized course on teaching the blind, I had the 
opportunity to read about the life of Helen Keller, the famous deaf- 
blind American woman, and her teacher, Annie Sullivan, In 1953, 
Helen Keller visited Brazil and impressed us very much by her ex- 
traordinary personality which, although so limited, conquered all 
obstacles, acquiring vast culture, becoming the syz&bol of the fight 
for the benefit of the blind and deaf -blind. 

In my thirty- two years of teaching, my most emotional moment was 
when I got to know Helen Keller. I realized that she was exactly 
as I &ad read in her books and, without exaggeration, her life story 
was not fiction. I cannot describe my emotion when her hand touched 
my face and she understood what I said. At that moment, I remember- 
ed Annie Sullivan and all I had read about her endeavors to liberate 
Helen Keller from the isolation in which she lived. At that moment, 
I decided that I had to be a teacher for the deaf -blind. 

Once a professor of the blind, I studied a course of specialized 
education of the deaf in Rio de Janeiro, whose directress was Dona 
Ana Maria Eimoli de Faria Doria^fwhose presence in this course 
honored her students. 

With these two special studies, I felt more sure in my realization 
of my ideal. Having entered in contact with the Perkins School 
for the Blind in Watertown, L'lassachusetts, in the United States, 
I was able to obtain a scholarship in Special Education for the 



Attempts to Implant Deaf -Blind. Education in Brazil Pg.2, 



the deaf -blind - through Br, Edward Waterhouse, who is honoring us 
today with his presence. 

With the authorisation of the Governor of Sao Paulo and US$50,00 
monthly from the Itamarati, in I960, seven years after Helen Keller's 
visit to Brazil, I went to the United States. I classified for my 
certificate and thus, in June of 1961, one might say I officially 
"began the education of the deaf -blind in Brazil. 

Soon after my return to Brazil, from the then existing National 
Campaign for the Education of the Blind, 1 succeeded in obtaining 
an appropriation for the creation of a division of the Education 
of Audiovisual Handicapped in the Foundation for the Bookjof the 
Blind in Brazil, whose president, B. Borina de G-ouvea Ncwill, gave 
me free liberty in this function. B. Borina is also participating 
in our seminar « 

THE HJiST SPECIALISED CLASS POE BEAP-BLIHD 

This class lasted for one and a half years with two students: one 
of ten years of age, deaf with 0.1 vision, and the other, completely 
blind and no one knew her level of deafness and intellectuality. 
The first showed great possibilities of education, while the 
second remained a question mark as to intellectual and hearing levels, 
After some time for observation and with a medical diagnosis in 
severe mental deficiency, the girls, was interned in a special 
institution for her case. 

While I worked with these two girls, I could see how many, things . they 
assimilated. It seemed nothing had been given them. However, we 
know, for the deaf-blind, a little is a lot: learning to chew, to 
dress, to move freely, to have independence in physiological needs 
and principally, to have a means of communication. For any human 
being, this is as important as any school routine. 



Attempts to Implant Deaf -Blind Education in Brazil ■ pg.3, 



TEACHERS TRAINING IN BRAZIL 

In this period, during a speech at the Foundation for the Book of 
the Blind, two teachers of blinds, Thereza Adelina Barros Tavares 
and Dinah Soega Badra, became interested in this field of study* 
D. Borina gave them authorization to specialize in the education 
of deaf handicapped, and at the same 'time received training in the 
education of the deaf -blind* 

A regular teacher, D. Nely de Paula, with experience in teaching 

the blind, received training in the classes for the deaf -blind, < 

working with us until the end of the classes* 

THE I'JID 0? THE FIRST CLASS TOR DEAP-BII&D 

In November of 1963, one and a half years after its beginning, by 
requirements of the Institute for the Blind "Padre Chico" , the 
class was closed. At this time only Thereza stayed at lay side, 
dedicated to fight with me, sharing the frustrations and heart- 
breaks* A ja±> which we started so enthusiastically seemed to be 
falling apart. And we could seem to do little or nothing. 

After our discouragement, we resolved to continue our fight because 
the Division remained confident, counting on the support of the 
Foundation for the Book. 

The two girls were' sent to specialized institutions in the 
interior of the State of Sao Paulo. Bona Abgail Calera, founder of 
the Lar Nosso ITinho, in Araraquara, accepted one of the girls, and 
the other, with severe mental problems, lives in an institution in 
Atibaia, which is spe dalized in under--, id children without any 
possibility for education. 

And we are still looking for a place to install a school, or at 
least a class. Leaf -Blind children still have no school - but not 
all our work is' lost; in the end, education is not always classified 
by its losses* It is a fight we continue. One day the planted seed 



Attempts to Implant Deaf -Blind Education in Brazil pg.4o 



will give fruit, even if it is we that cannot make this harvest. 
This is not important. Others will. 

THE SECTOR 0? EDUCATION FOB THE AUDIOVISUAL HANDICAPPED - SE3AY 

The first and most difficult step had already been made: to conquer 
the public interest for a work on Education of the Deaf -Blind. 
The principal aims were; 

- Orientation of the school or special class; 

- Researchs for the proper localization of the cases; 

- Guidance for these localized cases; 

- Heading abilities and communication for adults; 

- Training of teachers; 

- Information and instructive speeches for the community. 

TBANSPEKEHCE OP THE SECTOR TO THE STATE 

After sometime with the 8EDAY, we considered it wiser to transfer 
the new service to the control of the State, in order to consolidate 
the beginning taken which was of a personal character. 

the 
The Sector of Education and Assistance forA Audio visual Handicapped 

was created, Law n2 75, of May 21, 1964, under the existing service 

of Education for the Deaf; at that time, the Director was Mr. Jorge 

G-adig, greatly interested in our work* Dona Dorina agreed with the 

transference of the teachers. One of these, Dona Dinah Zoegra, 

preferred to continue with the blind, and stayed with the Foundation. 

We are continuing with the education of the public, and also assi^bing 
with home care of two adults in 3ao Paulo, a child in Sao Caetano 
do Sul and another in Santo Andre. One child dn Belo Horizonte 
continued to correspond with us in the hope of a "place in the Sun". 



Attempts to Implant Deaf -Blind Education in Brazil pg.5, 



Until today she stays living in a dark world, silent, caused "by 
her double deficiency, without any hope of orientation. Her oral 
language is incomprehensible* She communicates by Braille and 
manual alphabet. She still hopes for some orientation to this day. 

And the porpaganda to the public, to clarify the difficulty of 
these people, continued. Prom those who heard us, we received 
emotional applause. But they could not do anything to help us in 
this beginning of a class or a school* 

< 

A SCHOOL FOE AUDIOVISUAL HA3TOICAPFED 

One day, we received a process coming from the Legislature* It 
contained the Law of Representative Oswaldo Massei, of Sao Caetano 
do Sul* dealing with the creation of a school for the handicapped 
in that city, to join together children with all the mental and 
physical handicaps. In order to justify our point of view to the 
contrary, but recognising the humane feelings of this Representative, 
we clarified that each problem child needs specialised care and 
technical attention* We took advantage of this opportunity to 
divulge our plan to create a special school for audiovisual 
handicapped, since, until that time, we had not been able to open 
a class or a school to attend deaf -blind people* The Representative 
promised to make (-very effort and to approach the Mayor of Sao 
Oaetano do Sul to bring to realisation such a plan. And thus, 
thanks to the comprehension of Mayor Heraogones Salter Braido - 
Municipal Law nfi 170, of August 9, 1968 - of Sao Caetano do Sul - 
was created in Brazil the First Eesi&encial School for the Audio- 
visual Handicapped - EltDAV* 

line school attended four types of deficiencies: 

1. totally deaf and blind 

2. totally deaf - partially blind 
3* totally blind - partially deaf 
4. partially deaf and blind 



Attempts to Implant Deaf -Blind Education in Brazil pg.6, 



and also aimed to prepare technicians for the decentralization 
of teaching in Brazil and the creation of a Center for Studies and 
Scientific Investigation, Me to administrative exigencies, EEDAV 
attended only students with auditive handicaps* EHDAV operated in 
colabo ration with the Municipality and the State through an agreement: 

The lamicipality would be in charge of 

1. Ceding a school building 

2. I£aintenance of the building 

3. Material and equipment 

4. Salary of the caretakers 

5. Salary of the workers 

The State would be in charge of giving 

1. Technical staff 

2. Pedagogical material and special equipment 
3* Technical and bureaucratic orientation 

Since the beginning of 1969, I have ^oeen separated from the Service 
for Special Education of the State and from the Institute for the 
Blind "Padre Chico" and was put to the disposition of the Municipality 
of Sao Oaetano do Sul, in accordance with Clause V of the agreement, 
to install and put to work the EEDAV* The officer in charge of the 
Service for Special Education of the State, D. luisa Banducci Isnardi, 
transferred Professor Theresa Adelina Barros Tavares, obeying the 
same Clause, to serve the PEDAY. 

In 1970, Professor Heusa Bassetto was chosen for specialized studies 
on education for the deaf-blind in the United States At our appeal, 
P. Maria do Canao ae Abreu Sodre, at that time Pirst Lady of the 
•State of Sao Paulo, colaborated in helping with the costs during 
Heusa' a stay in the United States. Dona Maria do Carmo colaborated 
also with the school, guaranteeing food for students and workers 
during a certain period. 



Attempts to Implant Deaf -Blind Education in Brazil pg, 7, 



In August of 1970, it was arranged for a directress of a municipal 
school, Professor Vitalina Manrique, to be responsible for the 
administration of the School. 

In 1971, I retired from EEDAV, tranquil, as I left in my place 
Neusa Basse tto and Thereza Adelina, two highly qualified persons to 
continue the work I had started* But I did not abandon my work. 
As I said before, Education is not only the lessons we give, 
Voluntarily, I continued my contribution, staying close to the 
movement in the field of education of deaf -blind people. 

When I left ERDAV, the technical sector was composed of: doctor, 
phonoaudiologist, psychiatrist, social worker, occupational 
therapist, teachers of deaf handicapped and deaf-blind, and an 
auxiliary in kindergarten. Ten temporary classes were created, 

taught by teachers of deaf -blind, deafs, physical education, 

Ho 

industrial arts, music, social workers and a phdau&iologist* Six 

teachers were commissioned to take care of the administrative 
functions, one being a teacher specialized in the education of 
deaf -blind and another one trained in the field. This teacher, 
Dalvsnise, took her training in 1975-76, 

Due to political-administrative implications, the convention was 
denounced by the State* This "fceing the case, the EEDAV became 
extinct, having created five classes joined to the State School 
of 1st and 2nd degree in Vila Santa Maria in Sao Caetano do Sul, 
Of these five classes, four are, dealing with auditive deficiencies 
and one for deaf -blind children. 

In 1974, Professor Thereza Adelina Barros Tavares moved from Sao 
Paulo, thus leaving the teaching of the deaf -blind to the 
responsibility of Professor Neusa Bassetto. At the same time, 
having finished her term, the Administrative Directress, Vitalina 
Manrique, also left the school. Dr. Ruth Delic took over the direction 
and spared no efforts to reorganize the school. It was necessary 



Attempts to Implant Beaf -Blind Education in Brazil pg.8, 



to continue the school*, A job started with so much profit 
could not die, This is what thinks the President of the Brazilian 
Association for Education of the Visually Handicapped, Professor 
Geraldo Sandoval de Andrade. Shanks to the movement promoted by 
the ABEDBY, the program for the education of deaf -blind people is 
being reactivated* his important seminar is a proof of this. 
Bringing technicians and deaf -blind people from other countries, 
the Brazilian Association for the Education of the Visually 
Handicapped - AB'EBEY, is giving us an opportunity to up-date our 
knowledge, to hear marvelous testimonials of life experiences of 
great leaders who are deaf-blind, and in this way, through facts and 
methods, to demonstrate to* the Brazilian community 1*he possibility 
for social-professional recuperation of the de;;f -blind. 

The Municipality of 3ao Oaetano do Sul is actively colabo rating 
in the resurgence of this program, creating situations and juridical 
structure for the Besidencial School for the Blind - EEBAV, in such 
a way that it can continue its mission without having to run the 
r 5rV r-r "being doubted and questioned and seeing its activities 
being interrupted. 

The 'seed planted in I960 begins to fruit seventeen years later. 
It is BBBAV which is being reborn to care for the deaf -blind and 
where they can look for an opportunity to educate themselves, freeing 
themselves from the barriers of their doube handicap and shewing up 
to what point the human being can react and grow facing the most 
terrible of limits which nature, at times, put in his way. The 
vital energy of a person may throw him into the future and give him 
the possibility of acquiring equipment and mechanisms of personality 
so that he can conquer the hostilities of every day life. 



to Paulo, October, 1977. 



**# -*** **#- 



CUBEICULUM VITAE 

NICE TONHOZI DE SARAIVA 

1945 - Teacher for Elementary School "by the Institute of Education 

"Padre Anehieta" - Sao Paulo - Brasil 
1975 - Supervisor Teacher, School of Education "Sao Marcos" - Sao Paulo 

1950 - Teacher for the Blind, by the Institute of Education "Caetano 
de Campos - Sao Paulo 

- Teacher for the Deaf by the National Institute of Education 
for the Deaf - Rio de Janeiro 
1961 - Teacher for the Deaf -Blind by the Perkins School for the 
Blind, Watertown, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

Ex-Teacher (retired) of the State for the"Padre Chico" Institute 
for the Blind, 1946/1971. 

Presently acting as Supervisor Teacher of the Special Branch for 
the Education of the Blind and the Deaf at the Municipality of 
Sao Bernardo do Campo - SP. 



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