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Full text of "The first chapter of Norwegian immigration, (1821-1840) its causes and results. With an introduction on the services rendered by the Scandinavians to the world and to America"

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Hi) 5 

THE 

FIRST CHAPTER 

OF 

NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION, 

(1821-1840) 

ITS CAUSES AND RESULTS. 



WITH 

AN INTRODUCTION 

ON 

THE SERVICES RENDERED BY THE SCANDINAVIANS TO 
THE WORLD AND TO AMERICA. 



BY 

Rasmus Bo° Anderson, ll. d., 

EX-UNITED STATES MINISTER TO DENMARK; AUTHOR OF "NORSE 

MYTHOLOGY," "AMERICA NOT DISCOVERED BY 

COLUMBUS," AND OTHER WORKS. 



SECOND EDITION. 



Madtron, Wisconsin: 
published by the author. 

1896. 



523910 

20 • h- Sf 



Copyright, 1895, BY 
RASMUS B. ANDERSON. 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



MY FATHER AND MOTHER 

WERE AMONG THE IMMIGRANTS WHO 

AME1 

AND 

TO THEIR MEMORY 

I DEDICATE THIS VOLUME. 

Rasmus E. Anukrscw. 



PREFACE, 



The greater part of the contents of this vol- 
ume has never before appeared in any book and 
much of it appears now for the first time in 
print. 

To gather the materials for this work I have 
traveled hundreds of miles to interview old set- 
tlers; I have written hundreds of letters in or- 
der to secure facts, and I have also examined all 
the printed documents within my reach. 

More than fifty years have come and gone 
since the time with which this book ends, and of 
those who assisted in founding the first half 
dozen Norwegian settlements there are but few 
living now. They kept no journals or records 
of the events, and the memories of old men are 
sometimes treacherous; The author himself, 
though a son of one of the early immigrants, 
was not born until after the first chapter of Nor- 
wegian immigration had been completed, and 
hence the difficulty of presenting absolutely re- 
liable information is manifest. 

The critical reader may find some inaccura- 



VI PREFACE. 

- and some conflicting statements, and I shall 
be greatly obliged to him if he will make the 
necessary corrections either publicly or in pri- 
vate communications to me, in order that I may 
make the necessary corrections in future edi- 
tions of this book. The reader will also find a 
number of repetitions. The author would have 
been pi rased to eliminate many of these, but 
as the book is written mainly for plain people 
it was thought better to repeat some of the 
things that had already been told than to be 
continually referring the reader to some other 
part of the volume. The aim has been to give 

full an account as possible of each of the 
sis separate settlements, and as will be seen 
the same persons sometimes appear among the 
pioneers of more than one settlement. It 

nod better to restate some of the facts in 

ard to such persons than to refer the reader 
back to other pages of the book. 

Doubtless there are many names omitted, 
that ought to have been mentioned, and some of 
those introduced may have been given more 
prominence than they are entitled to; but the 

-»n for this is tho authors inability to see 
with sufficient clearness through the veil of 
time that covers the first epoch of emigration 
orway, 



PREFACE. Vil 

The sketches of pioneers are not well bal- 
anced. Some are long, while others are very 
short. This could not be avoided. In some in- 
stances I have been able to secure tolerably full 
accounts of persons, while in other cases my 
materials have been most meager, and some- 
times the facts are exceedingly limited, where 
much information would seem to be desirable. 
All such blemishes I must beg the reader to ex- 
cuse. In spite of every effort it has in some 
cases been almost impossible to get more than 
the bare names of persons. In many instances 
I have been unable to get into communication 
with descendants, and then again the descend- 
ants have not been in possession of the neces- 
sary records. In this connection I would like 
to impress upon my readers the importance 
of keeping good family records for the benefit 
of their descendants and of future historians. 

While I make the first chapter of Norwegian 
immigration end with the year 1840, when we 
find the Norwegians located in six settlements 
that became permanent, I have thought best 
to add to this a short sketch of Norwegian set- 
tlements in Texas, and also a brief account of 
the first religious work done among the Nor- 
wegian immigrants. I describe the Texas set- 
tlements down to 1850, and trace the religion' 



PREFACE. 

work in the settlements down to the dedication 
of the first three Norwegian Lutheran churches 
in 1M1 and 1845. 

There are so many to whom I am under obli- 
gations for assistance in preparing this volume, 
i I shrink from undertaking an enumeration 
of them for fear that I might forget some of 
1 1 lose that ought to be mentioned. My obliga- 
tions to what has been published by Ole Kyn- 
Ding, Johan Eeinert Keierson, J. W. C. Dietrich- 
son, Svein Nilson, Knud Langland and others, 
have been expressed in the body of the work 
and will be clear to every intelligent reader; but 
there are a host of others with whom I have 
been in constant correspondence and while I 
not mention them by name in this preface, 
\ know, I tli ink, how grateful I feel toward 
in for their services. But for their kind as- 
tance the publication of this work would 
have been an impossibility. 

one ran be more conscious than I am of 
the shortcomings of this volume, and for these 
appeal to the generosity of the reader. 
All I can say for myself is that I have done as 
faithful work as the cirennistanees would per- 
mit. Twenty years ago I conld have rescued 
much thai Is now Irretrievably lost to history. 
"•v of the Norwegians in America 



PREFACE. IX 

from 1840 down to the present the materials 
are more abundant, and I am happy to add that 
besides being still remembered by those living, 
they are better preserved in written and printed 
documents. 

By postponing the publication of this volume 
a few years, I have no doubt I could improve it 
in some respects; but delays are dangerous, and 
so I now give it to the public with the hope that 
it will not be found utterly without value. 

BASMUS B. ANDERSON. 

'Asgard, Madison^ Wis., March 2^ 189& 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Page. 
Services Rendered by the Scandinavians to 
the World and to America 1 

I. 
Statistics 37 

II 

Causes of Emigration 45 

III. 
The Sloop Restatjrationen 54 

IV. 
The First Norwegian Settlement in America.. ■ IT 

V. 
The Sloop Party 01 

VI. 
From 1825 to 1836 132 

VII. 
The Exodus of 1836 146 

VIII. 
The Second Norwegian Settlement in America. 170 



xii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

IX. 

Page. 

Ki.eng Peerson 17y 

X. 

Third Norwegian Settlement 194 

XL 
Thk Kxoiurs of 1837 195 

XII. 
Tiik Heaver Creek Settlement 198 

XIII. 
OLE IlYNNING 202 

XIV. 
Other Pioneers of 1837 219 

XV. 
Foubtb Norwegian Settlement 237 

XVI. 
Tiik Fifth Norwegian Settlement 266 

XVII. 
Tiik Aim and Family 284 

XVIII. 

On I TILERS IN MUSKEGO 290 

XIX. 
. C. L. Clausen /296 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. Xlll 

XX. 
John Evenson Moles 300 

XXI. 
The Sixth Norwegian Settlement 326 

XXII. 
Miscellaneous Matters 356 

XXIII. 
Capt. Hans Friis 360 

XXIV. 
Eetrospect 304 

XXV. 

TEXAS. 

Johan Reinert Reierson 370 

XXVI. 
Elise W^erenskjold 379 

XXVII. 
Ole Canuteson 386 

XXVIII. 
Resume 395 

XXIX. 

RELIGIOUS WORK AMONG THE NORWEGIANS 

IN AMERICA DOWN TO THE YEAR 1845. 

Introductory 396 



XIV T-ABLE OF CONTENTS. 

XXX. 
The Mormons 399 

XXXI. 
Ole Olson Hetletvedt and Others 408 

XXXII. 
Elling Eielson 410 

XXXIII. 
John G. Smith, Ole Consulen, G-. Unonius 414 

XXXIV. 
C. L. Clausen 416 

XXXV. 
The First Controversy Among the Norwegian 

Lutherans in America 420 

XXXVI. 
J. W. C. Dietrichson 423 

XXXVII. 
List of Leaders 429 

XXXVIII. 
Pioneer Life 432 

APPENDIX. 

Brief Sketch of the Author 444 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page- 

Adland, Mons K 280 

Amundson, Abel Cathrine 157 

Anderson, Amund, and his wife, Ingeborg Anderson. . . 1G7 

Anderson, Arnold Andrew 163 

Anderson, Einar ( Aasen) 150 

Anderson, R. B Opposite title page. 

Anderson, Mrs Serena, daughter of Thomas Madland . 100 

Atwater, Margaret A 01 

Cannteson, O £96 

Canuteson, Ole, residence of, in Waco, Texas 390 

Clausen, Rev. C. L 41G 

Davidson, Lars (Rekve) 223 

Dietrichson, Rev. J. W. C 423 

Eielson, Elling 410 

Evenson, John (Molee), and his wife, Anne 300 

Fellows, Mrs. Martha 1J7 

Friis, Capt Hans 360 

Gravdahl, Gulleik 258 

Gravdahl, Mrs 259 

Harwick, Henry 68 

Harwick, Martha 104 

Johnson, Gjermund, and wife 292 

Johnson, Nelson 290 

Johnson, Mrs. Nelson 291 

Johnson, Ole 87 

Langland, Knud 226 

Larson, Ingebret (Narvig) 141 

Larson, Lars (Brimsoe) 151 

Larson, Lars (i Jeilane, from a daguerreotype taken 

after his death 45 



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 
Larson, Lars. The oldest house now standing built by 
a Norwegian in America. It was built by Lars Lar- 
son in Rochester, N. Y., in 1827, and still stands on 

the original site ** 

Larson, Martha Georgiana G6 

Mitchell, Mrs. Iuger 109 

My h ra, Bergit 257 

Myhra, Jens Gulbrandson 256 

Xattestad, Ansten 2.9 

Xattestad, Ole 247 

Nelson, John (Luraas) 268- 

Nelson, Malinda 228 

Nelson, Nels (Jr.), the last survivor of the sloopers, and 

his wife, Kathrina 94 

Nelson, Peter (Ovrebo) 230 

Nilson, Nils (Hersdal), and his wife, Bertha 93 

Oak trees on Juve's farm where Rev. J. W. C. Dietrich- 
son preached, September 2, 1844 426- 

Olson, Gunnul (Vindeg 1 , the house built by him in 

Christiana, Dane county, Wis., in 1840 338 

Olson, Hulda, daughter of Daniel Rossadal, widow of 

Rasmus'Olson 99 

Olson, Lieut. Col. Porter C. (36th Illinois) 121 

Patterson, Mrs. Martha J 69 

Peterson, Bishop Canute 403" 

Peterson, Mrs. Bishop Sara A 401 

Reierson, Johan Reinert 370 

Richey, Sara T 98 

Rosdal, Ove 107 

Saue, Kolbein Olson 328 

rson, Nels (Gilderhus) 327 

The first Norwegian church dedicated in Dane county, 

Wis.... 424 

The Norwegian Lutheran church dedicated in the Mus- 

kego settlement in 1844 427 

Thompson, Ole (Eie) 176 

Thompson, Thomas A 227 

Voider, Haiis 219 

Wserenskjoid, Mrs. Elise 379 



INTRODUCTION, 



Services Rendered by the Scandinavians to the 
World and to America. 



Scandinavians is a term used to designate the 
inhabitants of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and 
Iceland. In the early centuries, that is, during 
the so-called Viking age, they are usually 
treated as one people under the common name 
of Northmen or Norsemen, but as we proceed 
into the full daylight of history, it gradually be- 
comes customary to discuss the Scandinavians 
separately, as Norwegians, Swedes, Danes and 
Icelanders. Thus, while Ave designate the old 
asa-faith of the Scandinavians as Norse myth- 
ology, we are expected to know to which of the 
four countries a modern celebrity or institution 
belongs. It is necessary to say the Swedish 
singer, Jenny Lind; the Norwegian violinist, 
Ole Bull; the Danish story-teller, ITans Chris- 
tian Andersen, and the Icelandic lexicographer, 
Gudbrand Vigfusson. 



Z NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

The total number of Scandinavians, including 
those who have emigrated during this century, 
is probably less than 11,000,000; 4,775,000 in 
Sweden, 2,300,000 (including 70,000 Icelanders) 
in Denmark, 1,800,000 in Norway, and, say, 
2,000,000 in America, the British colonies and 
other countries. 

But though they be few in number, they in- 
herit considerable renown. Though confined 
to the more or less inhospitable northwest cor- 
ner of Europe, they have rendered the world 
some services, the memory of which will not 
willingly be allowed to perish. In Iceland they 
have preserved and still speak one of the oldest 
of the Teutonic languages, a monument of the 
Viking age, which still furnishes the means of 
illustrating many of the social and political 
features of those remote times, and is held in 
deserved veneration by all the great philolo- 
gists of our day. In the Icelandic tongue we 
have a group of sagas, a literature which in 
many respects is unique, and wilich sheds a 
flood of light upon the customs and manners 
of the dark centuries of the middle age. The 
Icelandic pagas tell us not only of what hap- 
pened in Scandinavia, but they also describe 
conditions and events in England, France, Rus- 
sia ami elsewhere. We are indebted to the 



SERVICES RENDERED. 



3 



Scandinavians for the eddas, for Saxo Gram- 
maticus, and for various other sources of infor- 
mation in regard to the grand and beautiful 
mythology of our ancestors. Our knowledge of 
the old Teutonic religion would have been 
very scanty indeed, had not the faithful old 
Norsemen given us a record of it on parchment. 
The grand mythological system conceived and 
developed by the poetic and imaginative child- 
hood of the Scandinavians commands the atten- 
tion of the scholars of all lands, and as we enter 
the solemn halls and palaces of the old Norse 
gods and goddesses, where all. is cordiality and 
purity, we find there perfectly reflected the wild 
and tumultuous conflict of the robust northern 
climate and scenery, strong, rustic pictures, full 
of earnest and deep thought, awe-inspiring and 
wonderful. We find in the eddas of Iceland 
that simple and martial religion which inspired 
the early Scandinavians and developed them 
like a tree full of vigor, extending long branches 
over all Europe. We find that simple and mar- 
tial religion, which gave the Scandinavians that 
restless, inconquerable spirit, apt to take fire 
at the very mention of subjection or restraint, 
that religion by which instruments were forged 
to break the fetters manufactured by the Ro- 
man Caesars, to destroy tyrants and slaves, and 



4 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

to teach the world that nature, having made all 
men and women free and equal, no other reason 
but their mutual happiness could be assigned 
for their government. We will find that sim- 
ple and martial religion, which was cherished 
by those vast multitudes, which, as Milton says r 
the populous North 

* * * poured from her frozen loins to pass 
Rhene or the Danaw, when her barbarous sons 
Came like a deluge on the South and spread 
Beneath Gibraltar and the Libyan sands. 

During the Viking age we find the Scandina- 
vians everywhere. They came in large swarms 
to France, England and Spain. During the 
crusades they led the van of the chivalry of 
Europe in rescuing the holy sepulcher; they 
passed through the Pillars of Hercules, devas- 
tated the classic fields of Greece and penetrated 
the walls of Constantinople. Straying far into 
the East, we find them laying the foundations 
of the Kussian empire, and swinging their two- 
edged battle axes in the streets of Constanti- 
nople, wliere they served as captains of the 
Greek emperor's body guard, and the chief sup- 
port of his tottering throne. They ventured out 
upon the surging main and discovered Iceland,. 
Greenland and the American continent, thus 
becoming the discoverers, not only of America,. 



SERVICES RENDERED. 5 

but also of pelagic navigation. The Vikings 
were the first navigators to venture out of sight 
of land. And everywhere they scattered the 
seeds of liberty, independence and culture. 
They brought to France that germ of liberty 
that was planted in the soil of Normandy, 
where the Normans adopted the French tongue 
and were the first to produce and spread abroad 
a vernacular literature; that germ of liberty 
which, when brought to England, budded in the 
Magna Charta and Bill of Rights and which, in 
course of time, was carried in the Mayflower to 
America, where it developed full-blown flowers 
in our Declaration of Independence. 

The Scandinavians in Denmark, Sweden, Nor- 
way and Iceland gave a hearty reception to the 
gospel and preserved its teachings for many 
centuries free from Romish corruption. In the 
Swedish ruler, Gustavus Adolphus, protestant- 
ism found one of its most efficient and valiant 
defenders. The Scandinavians are still faith- 
ful to the banner of protestantism. They are 
distinguished for the earnestness of their re- 
ligious worship, for their ardent advocacy of 
the cause of cjyil and religious liberty, and for 
the well-nigh total absence of great crimes. 
Wherever they settle in the world, we find them 
associated with the most loyal and law-abiding 



6 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

citizens, giving their best energies to culture, 
law and order. Proofs of this statement are 
abundant both in Russia, Normandy and Eng- 
land, and in their more recent settlements in 
the various Western states of America. 

As stated, they have enriched the world with 
a whole class of literature, which is held in de- 
served respect. Is not Beowulf, the most im- 
portant surviving monument of Anglo-Saxon 
poetry, a Swedish and Danish poem? And was 
it not first published from the British Museum 
manuscript by the great Danish scholar, G. J. 
Thorkelin? And is not the world indebted to 
Denmark and her traditions for Hamlet, the 
hero of the greatest drama written by the im- 
mortal Shakspere? In Saxo, Hamlet was found 
as the son of the viceroy, Horvendel, in Jutland, 
and of Gerude, who was the daughter of Rerek, 
king at Leire, in Seland, Denmark. 

The Scandinavians present to all oppressed 
nationalities the gratifying example of a people, 
who, being true to their countries and to the 
Had it ions handed down from the mists of ages 
in the far past, have vindicated for themselves 
against many opposing and oppressing powers, 
and in the midst of many obstacles and vicissi- 
tudes, their distinctive rights and liberties. 
A mere glailce at the history of Scandinavia is 



SERVICES RENDERED. 



sufficient to reveal to the student many events 
and the names of many individuals of far-reach- 
ing importance. 

I have already enumerated a few of the many 
services rendered to the world by the Scandi- 
navians of antiquity, and in this connection I 
may be permitted to mention some of the Scan- 
dinavians who in more recent times have 
achieved world-wide fame. I do this with a 
view of demonstrating the fact that the Scandi- 
navians, though comparatively few in number, 
easily rank with the most prominent nations in 
the domains of science, art and literature. 

There is the great Danish astronomer, Tycho 
Brahe, one of the most marked individuals of 
the sixteenth century. From his Uranienborg 
obseravtory his fame spread throughout Eu- 
rope, and the little island near Elsinore became 
the trysting-place of savants from all lands. 
Even kings and princes did not think it beneath 
their dignity to make pilgrimages to the isle of 
Hveen. Brahe made his name immortal 
through his services to astronomy. For thirty 
years he made regular and careful observations 
in regard to the movements of the planets, and 
it was only on the foundation of his vast pre- 
liminary labors, which in accuracy surpassed 



8 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

all that practical astronomy had previously 
at -hieved, that Keppler was able to produce his 
celebrated theories and laws. With perfect jus- 
tice, it has been said, that Tycho Brahe made 
the observations, that Keppler discovered the 
law, and that Newton conceived the nature of 
the law. 

Geology is at the present time a most highly 
developed science, but its devotees should not 
forget that the world's first geologist was the 
Dane, Niels Stensen, who was born in 1638. 
He was not only the most celebrated anatomist 
of his time, but he also laid the foundation of 
the science* of geognosy and geology by study- 
ing the mountain formations and examining the 
fossils of Italy, and the result of his investi- 
gations were embodied in his "De Solido intra 
solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis pro- 
dromus," a work which may rightly be regarded 
as the corner stone of geological science. 

Archaeology serves as a magnificent tele- 
scope by which we are able to contemplate 
social conditions far beyond the ken of ordinary 
historical knowledge, and this valuable science 
was born and cradled in Denmark and Sweden, 
wli.ro the renowned Dane, Christian Thomsen, 
and the Swede, Sven Nilsson laid the founda- 



SERVICES RENDERED. 9 

tion of the systematic study of all the weapons, 
implements and ornaments gathered from pre- 
historic times. 

Then we have the science called comparative 
philology. Where did it begin? Who unrav- 
elled its first complicated threads? The answer 
comes from every philologist in the world. It 
shed its first rays in Denmark, and there Ras- 
mus Bask discovered those laws and principles 
upon which the comparative study of languages 
is built. Bask found the laws and they were 
used as the corner stone of that beautiful and 
symmetrical pyramid which has since been con- 
structed by the brothers Grimm, by Max Mviller, 
by our own W. D. Whitney and by many other 
famous linguists, to take the place of that tower 
of Babel, which the old linguistic students had 
built with their clumsy hands and poor mate- 
rials. In this connection I may also mention 
the Dane, J. N. Madvig, the greatest Latin 
scholar of this century, a scholar who created a 
new epoch in the study of the old Greek and 
Latin texts. The scholars of all lands accept 
his views as final. 

He who would write the history of electricity, 
must study the life of the great Dane, EL C. Oer- 
sted. His discovery in 1820, of electro-magnet- 
ism — the identity of electricity and magnetism 



10 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

— which he not only discovered, but demon- 
strated incontestable 7 , placed him at once in the 
highest rank of physical philosophers and he 
thus led the way to all the wonders of this 
subtle force. He supplied the knowledge by 
which Morse w T as enabled to build the first tel- 
egraph line, and he is in fact the father of Morse,. 
Edison, Tesla and of that brilliant galaxy of 
men who have astonished the world by all their 
wonderful inventions in the domain of electri- 
city. 

The celebrated Danish atronomer, Ole Homer,, 
born September 25, 1644, was the first man to 
calculate the velocity of light (in 1675), and this 
fact marks a new era in scientific research. The 
numerous instruments w T hich he devised gave 
him the name of "The Danish Archimedes." 

Suppose we cross the sound and enter the 
territory of Sweden. There we at once dis- 
cover the polar star in the science of botany, in 
the name of Carl von Linnet In his 24th year 
he established the celebrated sexual system in 
plants, whereby the chaos of the botanical 
world was reduced to order and a fruitful study 
of botany was made possible. His extensive in- 
vest igaii.ms rightly secured him the title of the 
king of botanists. As Linns' became the father 
Of botany, so another Swede, Carl W. Scheele, 



SERVICES RENDERED. 11 

might be called the founder of the present sys- 
tem of chemistry. He is one of the greatest or- 
naments of science, and the world is indebted 
to him for the discovery of many new elemen- 
tary principles and valuable chemical combi- 
nations now in general use. 

Hardly less conspicuous is J. J. Berzelius, 
the contemporary of Scheele. Like the latter 
Berzelius published a number of works, the 
most of which contained capital discoveries, 
either the explanation of a phenomenon or re- 
action previously misunderstood, or the de- 
scription of some new element or compound. 
The discoveries made by Scheele and Berzelius 
in the domain of chemistry are most important, 
but too numerous to mention in this paper. 
Berzelius also devoted himself to mineralogy 
and published his "Treatise on the Blow Pipe," 
and he set up for himself a regularly graduated 
system of minerals, the value of which was felt 
to be so great that the Royal Society, of London, 
voted him its gold medal for it. Scheele unfor- 
tunately died at only 54 years of age, but his 
works, many of which are regarded as the most 
important in the whole field of chemical litera 
ture, appeared after his death in French, Ger 
man and Latin editions. In Linne", Scheele, 
Berzelius, and in the naturalist and archaeolo- 



12 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

gist, Sven Xilssoii, mentioned above, Sweden 
touched the zenith of scientific fame. 

Before leaving Sweden, we may be permitted 
to mention X. A. E. Nordenskjold, who is fa- 
mous for his various Arctic expeditions, and 
who, with his Vega accomplished the work so 
often attempted by many brave explorers, the 
discovery and navigation of a northeast pas- 
o by sea from the North Cape, the extreme 
northwestern point of Europe, to the extreme 
northeastern point of Asia, that is, a passage 
by sea from the north Atlantic ocean eastward 
to the north Pacific ocean. Nordenskjold has 
the honor of being the first man to double Cape 
Cheljuskin, the northern point of the continent, 
and by his voyage he made many new and val- 
uable additions to our geographical knowledge 
of the Arctic regions. His signal triumph well 
deserves the most distinguished marks of honor 
showered upon him during his homeward jour- 
ney. 

Catering the domain of Norway, we at once 
moot the brilliant name of the immortal math- 
ematician, Henrik Abel. I have observed that 
the meat mathematicians of our time can 
i( elv open their mouths wide enough when 
ihov want to say A— bel. He unfortunately 
dfed too youni;, but his great fame keeps on in- 



SERVICES RENDERED. 13 

creasing. lie is justly designated as one of the 
greatest geniuses ever born in the domain of 
exact science, and the solution of problems 
made by the youthful Norwegian everywhere 
provokes the greatest wonder and admiration. 
In some of his problems there is incorporated 
work for a lifetime Though but 27 years old 
at his death, he k»d gained wide distinction 
by his discoveries in the theory of elliptic func- 
tions, and was highly eulogized by Legendre. 
Norway has also produced the distinguished 
Arctic explorer, Frithiof Nansen, who in 1888, 
with three other brave Norwegians and two 
Lapps, crossed Greenland from the east to the 
west on about the 65th degree north latitude. 
This crossing was done on skees, a kind of long 
snow shoes, and with small sleds, on which 
they carried their provisions. An account of 
this first and only crossing of Greenland was 
published by the explorer, and it is universally 
conceded that he not only performed a feat of 
the greatest courage and bravery, but that he 
also made important contributions to our fund 
of geographical and scientific knowledge. Nan- 
sen has also presented a new plan for reaching 
the great goal of all Arctic explorers, the north 
pole, by following the* current supposed to flow 
from the New Siberian islands across or near 



14 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

the north pole to the sea between Spitsbergen 
and east Greenland. He has now been absent 
two years on this voyage of discovery and time 
alone will demonstrate whether he is destined 
to become the discoverer of one of the two 
points on the earth's surface in which it is cut 
by the axis of rotation. 

Ask the Icelanders whether they have pro- 
duced any name of world-wide reputation, and 
that whole little island will unite in shouting 
Albert Thorwaldsen, and the mountains of Ice- 
land will re-echo "Thorwaldsen." He was a de- 
scendant of Snorre Thorfinson, who was born in 
America (Vinland), in the year 1008, and though 
born of humble parents, he succeeded in devel- 
oping his talents and became the greatest sculp- 
tor of modern times. 

I have enumerated only a few of the many 
services rendered to the world by the Scandina- 
vians. I could easily have added a discussion 
of such brilliant names as Hans Christian An- 
dersen, Grundtvig, Swedenborg, Tegner, Bell- 
man, Rydberg, Holberg, Wergeland, Bjornson, 
Ibsen, Snorre Sturlason, Gudbrand Vigfusson, 
Gade, nartmann, Grieg, Svendsen, Sinding, Ole 
Bull, Jenny Lind and many others; but enough 
lias been said on this point to demonstrate the 
fad that the Scandinavians are the peers of 



SERVICES RENDERED. 



15 



any other race in every field of intellectual ef- 
fort. Considering their numerical strength, they 
have contributed their full share toward the 
enlightenment and progress of the world. 

The brilliant services here cited, and which 
are universally admitted, have been rendered 
to the world generally, but I shall now demon- 
strate by indisputable facts that the Scandina- 
vians have an honorable place in the annals 
of America. America is indebted to them for 
special services. The civilized history of Amer- 
ica begins with the Norsemen. Look at your 
map and you will find that Greenland and a 
part of Iceland belongs to the western hemis- 
phere. Iceland became the hinge upon which 
the door swings which opened America to Eu- 
rope. It was the occupation of Iceland by the 
Norsemen in the year 874, and the frequent 
voyages between this island and Norway that 
led ■ to the discovery and settlement, first of 
Greenland and then of America, and it is due 
to the culture and fine historical taste of the 
old Icelanders that carefully prepared records 
of the Norse voyages were kept, first to teach 
pelagic navigation to Columbus and afterwards 
to solve for us the mysteries concerning the first 
discovery of this continent. In this connection I 
want to repeat that the old republican Vikings 



J 6 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

fully understood the importance of studying 
the art of ship-building and navigation. They 
knew how to measure time by the stars and 
how to calculate the course of the sun and 
moon. They were themselves pioneers in ven- 
turing out upon the high seas, and taught the 
rest of the world to navigate the ocean. Every 
scrap of w r ritten history sustains me when I 
say with all the emphasis I can put into so 
many words, that the other peoples of Europe 
were limited in their nautical knowledge to 
coast navigation. The Norse Vikings, who 
crossed the stormy North sea and found their 
way to Great Britain, to the Orkneys, the Fa- 
rcy s and to Iceland, and all those heroes who 
found their way to Greenland and Vinland 
taught the world pelagic navigation. They 
demonstrated the possibility of venturing out 
of sight of land and in this sense, if in no other, 
we may with perfect propriety assert that the 
Norsemen taught Columbus how to cross the 
Atlantic ocean. Into every history of the world 
I would put this sentence: The navigation of 
the ocean was discovered by the old Norsemen. 
A most admirable introduction of the hon- 
orable place held by the Scandinavians in the 
annaUi of America is the brilliant fact in the- 
wmM's history and fee lustrous page in the an- 



SERVICES RENDERED. 17 

nals of the Scandinavians, that the Norsemen 
anticipated by five centuries, Christopher 
Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci, and that the 
New World was discovered by Leif Erikson in 
the year 1000; for the finding of America is the 
most prominent fact in the history of maritime 
discovery, and has been fraught with the most 
important consequences to the world at large 
from that time to the present. About the year 
860, the Norsemen discovered Iceland, and 
soon afterwards (in 874), they established upon 
this island a republic which flourished for 400 
years. Greenland was seen for the first time 
in 876, by Gunnbjorn Ulfson, from Norway. 
About a century later, in the year 984, Erik the 
Red resolved to go in search of the land in the 
west, which Gunnbjorn, as well as others later, 
had seen. He sailed from Iceland and found 
the land as he had expected, and remained there 
exploring the country for two years. At the 
end of this period he returned to Iceland, giv- 
ing the newly-discovered country the name of 
Greenland, in order, as he said, to attract set- 
tlers, who would be favorably impressed with 
so pleasing a name. Thus, as Greenland be- 
longs, geographically, wholly to America, it 
will be seen that Erik the Red was the first 
white man to boom American real estate. And 



18 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

he did it successfully. Many Norsemen emi- 
grated, and a flourishing colony, with Gardar 
for its capital, and Erik the Red as its first 
ruler, was established, which in the year 1261, 
became subjcet to the crown of Norway. We 
have a list of seventeen bishops who served in 
Greenland. This is the first settlement of Eu- 
ropeans in the New World. Erik the Eed and 
his followers were not Christians when they 
settled in Greenland, but worshipers of Odin 
and Thor, though they relied chiefly on their 
own might and strength. Christianity was in- 
troduced among them about the year 1000, 
though Erik the Red continued to adhere to the 
religion of his fathers to his dying day. 

The first white man whose eyes beheld any 
part of the American continent was the Norse- 
man, Bjarne Herjulfson, in the year 986. The 
first white man who, to our certain knowledge, 
planted his feet on the soil of the American 
continent, was Leif Erikson, the son of Erik 
the Red, in the year 1000. The first white man 
and the first Christian who w r as buried beneath 
American sod was Leif s brother, Thorvald, 
in the year 1002. The first white man who 
founded a settlement within the limits of the 
present United States was Thorfin Karlsefne, 
in the year 1007. The first white woman who 



SERVICES RENDERED. 19 

came to Vinland was Thorfin's talented and 
enterprising wife, Gudrid. In the year 1008, 
she gave birth to a son in Yinland. The boy 
was called Snorre, and he was the first person 
of European descent to see the light of day in 
the new world. From the accounts of these 
voyages and settlements, we get our first knowl- 
edge and descriptions of the aborigines of 
America. In 1112, Helge and Finnboge, with 
the woman Freydis, made a vo}'age to Yinland. 
In 1112, Erik Upse settled as bishop in Green- 
land, and in 1121, this same bishop went on a 
missionary journey from Greenland to Yinland. 
This is the first visit of a Christian minister to 
the American continent. The last of these in- 
teresting voyages before the re-discovery of 
America by. Columbus, was in the year 1317, 
when a Greenland ship with a crew of 18 men 
came from Nova Scotia (Markland) to Straum- 
fjord, in Iceland. Thus it appears that the 
Yinland voyages extended over a period of 
about 450 years and to within 144 years of the 
re-discovery by Columbus in 1492. 

While Leif Erikson was the first white man 
who planted his feet on the eastern shores of 
the American continent, it was left to another 
plucky Scandinavian to become the discoverer 
of the narrow body of water which separates 



20 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

America from Asia. Vitus Bering was a Dane,, 
born in Jutland, in Denmark, in 1680. He en- 
tered the serivee of Russia, and in 1725, he w T as 
made chief commander of one of the greatest 
geographical expeditions ever undertaken. He 
explored the sea of Kamchatka, and during 
this voyage he discovered Bering strait, in 1728, 
and ascertained that Asia was not joined to 
America. Thus, as the Norwegian, Leif Erik- 
son, is the first white man who sets foot on the 
extreme eastern part of this continent, so the 
Dane, Vitus Bering, becomes the discoverer of 
its extreme western boundary line. They 
stand at the rising and setting sun and clasp 
what is now the territory of the United States 
in their strong Scandinavian arms, and we 
might here fittingly add a Swede to complete 
the trio. Did not Sweden give us John Erics- 
son, who, with his little cheese box, the famous 
"Monitor," gave most valuable help to this 
beloved land in the hour of its greatest danger? 

Who will deny that the Scandinavians have 
rendered important services to this country? 
But we must hurry on. 

The first visit of Scandinavians to America 
proper in post Columbian times is in the year 
1619, one year before the landing of the pil- 
grims at Plymouth. In the spring of that year, 



SERVICES RENDERED. 21 

King Christian IV. fitted out two ships, "Een- 
bjorningen" and "Lamprenen," for the purpose 
of finding a northwest passage to Asia. The com- 
mander of this expedition was the Norwegian, 
Jens Munk, born at Barby, in southern Norway, 
in 1579. He sailed from Copenhagen with his 
two ships and 66 men, May 9, 1619. He ex- 
plored Hudson bay and took possession of the 
surrounding country in the name of his sov- 
ereign, and gave it the name of Nova Dania. 
All the members of this expedition perished, 
except Jens Munk and two of his crew, who 
returned to Norway September 25, 1620, the 
undertaking having proved a complete failure. 
The ship chaplain on this expedition was the 
Danish Lutheran minister, Rasmus Jensen 
Aarhus, and my friend, Rev. Adolph Bredesen, 
of Stoughton, Wis., has called attention to the 
fact that he was the first minister of the 
Lutheran church in the New World. Mr. Bre- 
desen speaks thus touchingly of this minister 
and his ministry among all those who perished 
from disease and exposure during that terrible 
winter of 1620, in the Hudson bay country: 
"Rasmus Jensen Aarhus, a Danish Lutheran 
pastor, ministered faithfully to these unlucky 
men, almost to his dying breath. He died Feb- 
ruary 20, 1620, on the southwestern shore of 



22 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Hudson bay, near the mouth of the Churchill 
river. His last sermon was a funeral sermon, 
pica (lied from his own deathbed." It is strange 
that Jens Munk is not mentioned in our Eng- 
lish and American cyclopedias. 

Norwegians and Danes certainly arrived in 
New Amsterdam, now New York, at a very 
early period. The Rev. Rasmus Andersen, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., has given this matter much 
attention, and he claims that he can find traces 
o< Scandinavians in New York as early as 1617. 
He states that several Danes (more probably 
Norwegians) were settled on Manhattan island 
in 1617. In 1704, he says they built a hand- 
some stone church on the corner of Broadway 
and Rector streets. Here regular services 
were held in the Danish language until the 
property was sold to Trinity church, the pres- 
ent churchyard occupying the site of the early 
building. He adds that "an examination of the 
first directory published in New York shows 
many names of unquestionably Danish origin." 
I have taken the liberty of assuming that these 
people were Norwegians rather than Danes, 
an«l my reason for so doing is that the descend* 
ants «»f those people, whom I have met or with 
whom I have corresponded, invariably claim 
to be of Norwegian descent, A very large num- 



SERVICES RENDERED. 23 

ber belong to the Bergen family, and their fam- 
ily history was published some years ago in a 
substantial volume. From this volume I gather 
the salient fact, that Hans Hansen Bergen, the 
common ancestor of the Bergen family of 
Long Island, New Jersey, and their vicinity, 
was a native of Bergen, in Norway, a ship car- 
penter by trade, and had removed thence to 
Holland. From Holland he emigrated in 1633 
to New Amsterdam, now New York. In the 
early colonial records, his name appears in va- 
rious forms, among which may be found that 
of "Hans Hansen van Bergen in Noorwegan," 
"Hans Hansen Noorman," "Hans Noorman," 
"Hans Hansen de Noorman," "Hans Hansz," 
"Hans Hansen," and others. The term "Noor- 
man," meaning Northman, clearly refers to Nor- 
way, like "in Noorwegan," and was applied to 
natives of that country. Another Very clear 
instance of this sort is that of Claes Carstensen, 
who was married in New Amsterdam in 1046. 
In the marriage entry this Claes Carstensen is 
said to be from Norway, and he was subse- 
quently called "the Noorman." 

Finding a baronial family in Europe by the 
name of Bergen, some people of that name in 
this country have flattered themselves that they 
were scions of that stock, and thus link them- 



24 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

selves by imagination with the aristocracy of 
the old world. But, as Teunis Bergen, the au- 
thor of the interesting and exhaustive volume 
on the Bergen family referred to above, sug- 
gests, they may as well descend from this im- 
aginary eminence and make up their minds that 
they belong to the commonality and not to the 
nobility. The Bergens and the Carstensens, like 
the great mass of the original immigrants to 
tli is country, belonged to the humble class of 
society and came to America to better their 
prospects and fortunes. It must be sufficient 
for their descendants to know that their Nor- 
>\ egian ancestors came from a country where 
the feudal system was never known, where the 
land was held under no superior, not even the 
king. They are scions of those Vikings who 
laid the foundations of Eussia, founded a king- 
dom in France, and another in Italy, and w T ho 
conquered and carried their institutions into 
England. They may point with pride to the 
fact that their ancestors discovered America 
five centuries before Columbus, but they need 
not boast of aristocratic blood. 

Wo next come to the Swedish settlement on 
the Delaware, founded in 1638. This is well- 
known to most readers, and I will only add that 
the Swedish language was used in a Philadel- 



SERVICES RENDERED. 



25 



phia church as late as 1823. But I will here 
call attention to a fact probably not so well 
known, that John Morton, one of the signers of 
the Declaration of Independence, and an active 
member of the continental congress, born at 
Ridley, Pa., in 1724, was a descendant of the 
Swedes on the Delaware. Robert Anderson, 
the gallant defender of Fort Sumter, against 
which the first gun of the rebellion was fired, 
was also a scion of the Swedes on the Delaware. 
In the language of W. W. Thomas, Jr., "love of 
freedom and patriotism and state-craft and 
valor came over to America not only in the May- 
flower, but also in that Swedish ship, the Kal- 
mar Nyckel." The first Swedish settlers on the 
Delaware came in the ship Kalmar Nyckel 
and the yacht Vogel Grip in 1038. 

Among the distinguished representatives of 
our Swedish American group we may also men- 
tion the famous rear admiral of the United 
States navy, John A. Dahlgren, who was born 
in Philadelphia in 1809. During the late war 
he silenced Fort Sumter and received a safe 
anchorage for the Monitor inside the bar of 
Charleston, and in this manner effectually put 
a stop to the blockade running, which had been 
before so successfully practiced. His name is 
thus linked with that of the world-renowned 



/ 



26 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

John Ericsson, the inventor of the Monitor, and 
our navy is largely indebted to Dahlgren for the 
great improvements in its ordnance, which has 
taken place since 1840. Thomas F. Bayard, 
late secretary of state, and now ambassador to 
England, is proud of the fact that he is de- 
scended on his mother's side from the Swedes 
on the Delaware. 

Passing now to the War of the [Revolution, 
many Scandinavians are found serving in the 
American navy, and doubtless, too, in the army. 
AYhile investigating this and similar matters 
some years ago my attention was called to the 
somewhat remarkable case of Thomas Johnson. 
In volume 28 (1874) of the New England Histor- 
ical and Genealogical Register, I find this inter- 
est ing account of him: "Johnson was the son of 
a pilot in Mandal, a seaport on the coast of 
Norway, where he was born in 1758. In the 
absence of his father, he towed the first Amer- 
ican vessel, the Ranger, commanded by Paul 
Jones, into the harbor of Mandal. After their 
arrival Jones sent for the young pilot, and pre- 
senting him with a piece of gold, expressed his 
pleasure at his expert seamanship, wiiich he, 
had minutely watched during the towing of the 
ship into harbor. He (Jones) had made the 
port of Mandal for the purpose of recruiting 



SERVICES RENDERED. 27 

the crew of the Ranger, and satisfactory ar- 
rangements having been made with his father, 
Johnson was received on board as a seaman. 
On assuming command of the Bon Homme 
Richard, Jones transferred some thirty volun- 
teers from the Ranger, among whom was 
Thomas Johnson, who, following the fortunes of 
his leader, went with him to the Serapis and Al- 
liance, and finally arrived with him in the Ariel 
in Philadelphia, February 18, 1781, when 23 
years of age — the first time he had seen the land 
of his adoption. At this time congress was sit- 
ting in Philadelphia, and several members were 
removing their families to that city. Application 
having been made to Capt. Jones to furnish a 
man to take charge of a sloop to Boston to con- 
vey the furniture of John Adams to Philadel- 
phia, he appointed Johnson, who performed the 
service. This circumstance often brought John- 
son in contact with Mr. Adams, who knew that 
he was one of the crew of Capt. Jones, and con- 
sequently must have been in the conflict of the 
Serapis and Richard, which having occurred so 
recently, was a subject of general conversation. 
Many of the sailors frequented the hall of con- 
gress, and Johnson became so interested in 
listening to and observing what was new to 
him, that he was a daily visitor. When the 



28 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

members found that the sailors were part of 
the crew of Capt. Jones, they frequently left 
their seats and came over to them to inquire the 
particulars of the recent engagement. Mr. 
Adams particularly engaged the attention of 
Johnson, To use the veteran's (Mr. Johnson's) 
own words, he says 'a nervous sensation seemed 
to pervade the patriot, as he listened to the de- 
scription of the battle given by the sailors; fire 
flashed from his eyes, and his hair seemed per- 
fectly erect; he would clasp his hands and ex- 
claim, What a scene!' During the time they 
remained in Philadelphia, Gen. Washington ar- 
rived and was presented to congress. Johnson 
was present and listened to the introduction by 
President Hancock, and the reply by the gen- 
eral. Some days after, when the sailors were 
in the hall, Mr. Adams brought Gen. Washing- 
ton to them, who kindly shook each by the hand, 
calling them our gallant tars, and asking them 
questions relative to the many successful ad- 
ventures they had recently achieved. Johnson 
soon after left the navy and engaged in the 
merchant service for some years, but eventually 
returned to it again, where he remained till 
near the end of life's voyage." This Thomas 
Johnson assisted Jones in lashing the Bon 
Homme Richard to the Serapis, and was prob- 



SERVICES RENDERED. 



29 



ably the last survivor of this celebrated com- 
bat. He died at the United States Naval Asy- 
lum, Philadelphia, on the 12th of July, 1851, 
93 years old, where he had been for many years 
a pensioner and was known by the soubriquet 
"Paul Jones." Miss Stafford, who was still liv- 
ing in 1873, had been a frequent visitor to 
Thomas Johnson while living, and after his 
death she annually visited his grave, "a trib- 
ute," adds the writer, "the humble sailor does 
not often receive, whatever his services." 

This account of Thomas Johnson led me to in- 
vestigate further into the history of John Paul 
Jones, and in his biography, written by John 
Henry Sherburne, register of the navy of the 
United States, and, published at Washington, in 
1825, I found the roll of officers, seamen, ma- 
rines and volunteers who served on board the 
Bon Homme Richard in her cruise made in 1779. 
In this roll the native country of every man is 
given, and in it I found two seamen, born in 
Norway, viz.: Lewis Brown and George John- 
son; and no less than seven born in Sweden, 
viz.: Peter Nolde, Charles Peterson, Daniel 
Emblon (m), Peter Biorkman, Benjamin Garti- 
neau, Peter Molin and Oliver Gustaff. Thomas 
Johnson is not mentioned, but he is given in- 
correctly as George Johnson and is mentioned 



30 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

as Thomas Johnson in the list of wounded. Suf- 
fice it here to say that there were Scandina- 
vians who fought and bled for this country in 
the war of the revolution, as there were thou- 
sands, whose blood dampened American soil in 
our recent war to put down the Southern rebel- 
lion. 

The brilliant Swede, Colonel (afterwards field 
marshal) Alex. Fersen, who in 1779 went to 
France where he was appointed colonel of the 
royal regiment of Swedes, must not be for- 
gotten. At the head of his regiment he served 
with distinction in the latter campaigns of the 
'American war, distinguished himself on various 
occasions, particularly in 1781, during the siege 
of Yorktown, where he was aide-de-camp to 
Gen. Rochambeau. He also took part in the 
negotiations between Gen. Washington and 
Gen. Rochambeau. He afterwards became 
marshal of the kingdom of Sweden. 

I have myself known Norwegians who served 
under Gen. Scott in the Mexican war. I have 
mentioned John Morton and Capt. John Erics- 
son, and I could have gone on and enumerated 
many others of Scandinavian birth or descent 
who have acquired a lasting reputation in the 
annals of America. To enumerate them all 
Would exceed the limits of this paper, and I 



SERVICES RENDERED. 



31 



might be charged with partiality if I should 
attempt to make a selection. Anyone inter- 
ested may easily find them among our state of- 
ficials, among our members of congress, among 
the officers of our army and navy, among our au- 
journalists, and among our leading merchants 
and manufacturers, and many of them have 
played no unimportant part in the history of 
our country. This much is at least clear, that 
a complete history of America cannot be writ- 
ten without some account of what Scandina- 
vians have contributed in connection with the 
discovery and development of this country. 

In the above rapid sketch of the Scandina- 
vians in European and American history, I have 
made many bold and emphatic assertions, and 
as some of these may be regarded by some of 
my readers who do not have the time or oppor- 
tunity to search the records for themselves and 
find out whether or not these things are so, as 
wild, unfounded and unsustained by the highest 
authority, I take the liberty of closing this pa- 
per with a few quotations from authors, who 
can not be suspected of being biased by national 
or race prejudice. 

In discussing the story of Sigurd, the Vol- 
sung, as portrayed in the old Norse eddas and 
sagas, H. A. Taine, the great Frenchman, who 



32 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

was himself a disciple of Guizot, the historian 
of civilization, says: "This is the conception of 
a hero as engendered by the Teutonic race in 
its infancy. Is it not strange to see them put 
their happiness in battle, their beauty in death? 
Is there any people, Hindoo, Persian, Greek or 
Gallic, which has founded so tragic a concep- 
tion of life? Is there any which has peopled 
its infantine mind with such gloomy dreams? 
Is there any which has so entirely banished 
the sweetness from enjoyment and the softness 
from pleasure? Energy, tenacious and mourn- 
ful energy, such was their chosen condition. In 
the somber obstinacy of an English laborer still 
survives the tacit rage of the Norse warrior. 
Strife for strife's sake. Such is their pleasure. 
With what sadness, madness such a disposition 
breaks its bonds we see in Shakspere and 
Byron. With what completeness, in w T hat du- 
ties it can employ and entrench itself under 
moral ideas, we see in the case of the Puritans." 
In thus tracing American and English great- 
ness back to the hardy Norsemen, no one w T ill 
accuse Taine of being influenced by a desire to 
eulogise his own kith and kin. 

In his history of the United States, our Amer- 
ican historian, Benson John Lossing uses these 
pregnant words: "It is back to the Norwegian 



SERVICES RENDERED. 



33 



Vikings we must look for the hardiest elements 
of progress in the United States." 

The eminent American scholar, B. F. De 
Costa, says: "Let us remember that in vindi- 
cating the Norsemen we honor those who not 
only give us the first knowledge possessed of 
the American continent, but to whom we are 
indebted for much beside that we esteem valu- 
able. For we fable in a great measure when 
we speak of our Saxon inheritance. It is rather 
from the Northmen that we have derived our 
vital energy, our freedom of thought, and in a 
measure that we do not yet suspect our strength 
of speech." 

Let us take a look into the works of the 
French historian, Paul Henri Mallet: "History 
has not recorded," he says, "the annals of a 
people, who have occasioned greater, more sud- 
den, or more numerous revolutions in Europe 
than the Scandinavians, or whose antiquities 
at the same time are so little known. Had, in- 
deed, their emigrations been only like those 
sudden torrents of which all traces and remem- 
brance are soon effaced, the indifference that 
has been shown to them would have been suffi- 
ciently justified by the barbarism they have 
been reproached with. But during those general 
3 



34 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

inundations the face of Europe underwent so to- 
tal a change, and during the confusion they oc- 
casioned, such different establishments took 
place; new societies were formed, animated so 
entirely with a new spirit, that the history of 
our own manners and institutions ought neces- 
sarily to ascend back and even dwell a consid- 
erable time upon a period which discovers to us 
their chief origin and source." 

After giving a brief description of Scandina- 
vian influence in Europe and the downfall of 
the Roman empire, Mr. Mallet adds: "It is 
easy to see from this short sketch how greatly 
the nations of the North have influenced the 
different fates of Europe, and if it be w^orth 
while to trace its revolutions to their causes, 
if the illustration of its institutions, of its po- 
lice, of its customs, of its manners, of its laws, 
be a subject of useful and interesting inquiry, 
it must be allowed that the antiquities of the 
North, that is to say, everything which tends 
to make us acquainted with its ancient inhab- 
itants, merits a share in the attention of think- 
ing men. But to render this obvious by a par- 
ticular example: Is it not well known that the 
most flourishing and celebrated states of Eu- 
rope owe originally to the Northern nations 
Whatever liberty they now enjoy, either in their 



SERVICES RENDERED. 35 

constitution or in the spirit of their govern- 
ment? For although the Gothic form of govern- 
ment has been almost everywhere altered or 
abolished, have we not retained, in most things, 
the opinions, the customs, the manners, which 
that government had a tendency to produce? Is 
not this, in fact, the principal source of that 
courage, of that aversion to slavery of that em- 
pire of honor, which characterized in general . 
the European nations, and of that moderation, 
of that easiness of access, and peculiar atten- 
tion to the rights of humanity, which so happily 
distinguish our sovereigns from the inaccessible 
and superb tyrants of Asia? The immense ex- 
tent of the Roman empire had rendered its 
constitution so despotic and military, many of 
its emperors were such ferocious monsters, its 
senate was become so mean-spirited and vile, 
that all elevation of sentiment, everything that 
was noble and manly, seems to have been for- 
ever vanished from their hearts and minds, in- 
somuch that if all Europe had received the yoke 
of Eome, in this her state of debasement, this 
fine part of the world reduced to the inglorious 
condition of the rest could not have avoided 
falling into that kind of barbarity which is of 
all others the most incurable, as by making as 
many slaves as there are men, it degrades them 



36 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

so low as not to leave them even a thought or 
desire of bettering their condition. But nature 
had long prepared a remedy for such great 
evils in that unsubmittiug, unconquerable spirit 
with which, she had inspired the people of the 
North; and thus she made amends to the hu- 
man race for all the calamities which, in other 
respects, the inroads of these nations and the 
overthrow of the Eoman Empire produced." 

We will close the quotations with the follow- 
ing enthusiastic words of the Scotch author 
and traveler, Samuel Laing: "All that men 
hope for of good government and future im- 
provement in their physical and moral condi- 
tion — all that civilized men enjoy at this day 
of civil, religious and political liberty — the Brit- 
ish constitution, representative legislature, the 
trial by jary, security of property, freedom of 
mind and person, the influence of public opinion 
over the conduct of public affairs, the reforma- 
tion, the liberty of the press, the spirit of the 
age — all that is or has been of value to man in 
modern times as a member of society, either in 
Europe or the New World, may be traced to the 
spark left burning upon our shores by these 
Northern barbarians." Not much barbarism in 
that! 



FIRST CHAPTER 



OP 



NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 



Statistics. 



How many Norwegians landed in America 
between the years 1492 and 1821 it is impossi- 
ble to determine. We have no government 
statistics to guide ns, and we know there was 
no regular and systematic emigration from Nor- 
way or from any of the other Scandinavian 
countries. Certainly no Norwegians came in 
collective bodies and formed settlements, and 
we are able to trace them only either through 
their descendants who have kept family records 
or in the public documents or published works 
where they happen to be mentioned. In this 
way Hans Hansen, from Bergen, Claes Carsten- 
sen, Thomas Johnson, and the others mentioned 



CV NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

in the introductory chapter have been found. 
But it is fair to presume that a considerable 
number of enterprising Norwegians found their 
way to their old Vinland during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, and particu- 
larly during the first quarter of the nineteenth 
century. 

In the early days of the republic diplomatic 
and consular relations were established with 
the Scandinavian countries, and there w^as more 
or less commerce between Norway, Sweden and 
Denmark and. the United States. This official 
and commercial intercourse would naturally 
induce some Scandinavians to visit the United 
States and others to settle within our gates. 
The many Scandinavian names found in the old 
directories of New York, Philadelphia and 
other eastern cities are largely to be accounted 
for in this manner. 

From the year 1820 the United States govern- 
ment supplies us with immigration statistics; 
but unfortunately for our present purpose Swe- 
den and Norway are grouped together in these 
down to the year 1868, and hence it is impos- 
sible to determine how many came from each 
(on n try. From the year 1836 we are helped out 
by Norway, where the government in that year 
began to col loot and preserve statistics of emi- 



STATISTICS. 39 

gration. These early tables are, of course, more 
or less imperfect, aiid we are justified in assum- 
ing that the actual number of emigrants was 
larger than the one given in the official tables. 
In the American statistics the number of pas- 
sengers and immigrants from Sweden and Nor- 
way from 1820 to 1835 inclusive, is given as fol- 
lows: 1820, 3; 1821, 12; 1822, 10; 1823, 1; 1S24, 
9; 1825, 4. In evidence of the incompleteness 
of early statistics I may call attention to 
the fact, that while the number of immigrants 
from Sweden and Norway in 1825 is here given 
as only four, we know that at least fifty-three 
arrived in that year from Norway alone. The 
reader will find this statement fully confirmed 
when he gets to our description of the voyage 
of the sloop "Restaurationen." The American 
statistics are continued as follows: 1826, 16; 
1827, 13; 1828, 10; 1829, 13; 1830, 3; 1831, 13; 
1832, 313; 1833, 16; 1831, 42; 1835, 31. For 
1836 the American tables give us 57 immigrants 
from Sweden and Norway, while we know that 
at least 200 emigrated from Norway in that 
year. We now turn to the tables published by 
the government of Norway and find them given 
as follows: 1836, 200; 1837, 200; 1838, 100; 
1839, 400; 1840, 300; 1841, 400; 1842, 700; 1843, 
1,600. From this time on the Norwegians came 



40 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

to America by the thousands every year and 
the means and conveniences for emigrating in 
Norwegian vessels instead of going by way of 
Gothenborg, Hamburg or Havre, became thor- 
ourghly organized and systematized. The immi- 
gration from Norway culminated in 1882, in 
which year 29,101 Norwegians landed in the 
United States. The total number of immi- 
grants from Norway from 1820 to the present 
time (1894) is in round numbers about 500,000. 
The immigration from Sweden during the same 
period amounts to fully 600,000, and that from 
Denmark and Iceland is about 150,000, making 
an aggregate of 1,250,000 Scandinavian immi- 
grants. Subtracting those who have died or 
who may have returned to Europe, and adding 
the children, grandchildren, and great-grand- 
children of the immigrants, the Scandinavian 
group largely domiciled in the great Northwest, 
but having representatives in every state and 
territory in the Union w T ill be found to consti- 
tute no small part of our present population. I 
think we can safely estimate this grand total 
at 2,500,000, or double the number of actual 
Immigrants. It is a fact well worth noticing 
in passing, that a larger percentage of the Scan- 
dinavians engage in agriculture than of any 
other -roup of our population. One out of four 



STATISTICS. 



41 



of the Scandinavians engages in farming, while 
only one out of six of the native Americans, one 
out of seven of the Germans and one out of 
twelve of the Irish chooses agriculture as his 
occupation. 

According to a carefully prepared article by 
S. Sorensen in Minneapolis Tidende for Decem- 
ber 23, 1894, and based on the United States 
census of 1890, it appears that the number of 
inhabitants in America who were either born 
in Scandinavia or of Scandinavian parents, 
was: Swedes, 720,430; Norwegians, 590,131; 
Danes, 213,030, making a total of 1,535,597, but 
this does not, of course, include grandchildren 
or great-grandchildren. 

While* the Scandinavians are most numerous 
in the northwestern states, representatives of 
these nationalities are found in every state and 
territory as is shown by the following table: 



States and Territories. 



Swedes. 



Maine 2,546 

New Hampshire 1,418 

Vermont 947 

Massachusetts 24,664 

Rhode Island 4,227 

Connecticut 13 ,378 

New York 39,768 

,N ew Jersey | 5 , 739 



Nor- 
wegians 



433 

355 

38 

3,082 

310 

543 

9,444 

1,530 



Danes. 



1,099 

82 

79 

2,057 

142 

2,018 

8,182 

4.339 



42 



NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 



States and Territories. 



Swedes. 



Pennsylvania , 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Oklahoma . 

Arkansas 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

n 

California 



27,840 
388 
496 
215 
299 
187 
88 
143 
337 
833 
4,875 
7,910 
131,966 
37,941 
29,993 
155,089 
52,171 
9,537 
7,974 
12,233 
47,318 
31,492 
477 
591 
423 
526 
698 
4,655 
219 
586 
4,465 
1,940 
12,975 
215 
273 
10,321 
421 
2,332 
12,868 
5,235 
15,248 



Nor- 
wegians. 



1,458 
16 
253 
82 
139 
9 
15 
29 
115 
272 
659 
478 
48,091 
11,451 
130,737 
195,764 
59,822 
948 
47,877 
38,897 
6,997 
3,444 
43 
76 
76 
113 
240 
2,526 
92 
102 
2,662 
519 
1,299 
71 
93 
3,247 
92 
1,313 
11,591 
3,267 
5,421 



Danes. 



2,677 

58 

230 

137 

129- 

50 

45 

71 

111 

179 

1,487 

1,200 

17,090 

10,180 

23,882 

22,182 

25.240 

2,470 

4,032 

7,199 

22,267 

5,581 

162 

159 

143 

184 

536 

1,216 

67 

22& 

1,014 

1,074 

2,515 



411 

19,736 

558 

2,665 

3,949 

1,967 

11,863 



STATISTICS. 43 

The Swedes have their strongholds in Min- 
nesota, Nebraska, Washington, Kansas, Colo- 
rado, Utah and Illinois. The Norwegians are 
comparatively most numerous in North Dakota, 
Minnesota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Washing- 
ton and Iowa. The Danes predominate in Utah 
and Idaho. The Scandinavians are particu- 
larly numerous in the following cities: Chi- 
cago, New York, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Bos- 
ton, St. Louis, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Omaha 
and San Francisco. 

As will be seen from the statistics which I 
have quoted above, Norwegian immigration did 
not amount to much before the year 183G. In 
that year two ships brought immigrants from 
Stavanger, an ancient city on the southwest 
coast of Norway to New York. These were the 
so-called Kohler brigs, the one named "Nor- 
den" (The North), and the other "Den Norske 
Klippe" (The Norwegian Rock), owned by the 
Kielland Company. My father, Bjorn Anderson, 
from the farm Qvelve in Vigedal, north of Stav- 
anger, my mother, born Abel Cathrine von 
Krogh, from Sandeid, the next parish west of 
Vigedal, and my two oldest brothers were pas- 
sengers in the "Norden," which left Stavanger 
on the first Wednesday after Pentecost, Capt. 
Williamson commanding, and arrived in New 



44 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

York July 12, 1836. The other brig, "Den 
Norske Klippe," sailed from Stavanger a few 
days later and arrived about three w r eeks later 
in New York. The following year (1837) a ship 
called "Enigheden" (Unity), Captain Jensen, 
from Egersund, a small seaport town south of 
Stavanger, brought ninety-three passengers, 
and another ship "^Egir" (the name of the god 
of the sea in Scandinavian mythology), com- 
manded by Capt. Behrens, and carrying eighty- 
four emigrants, sailed the same year from Ber- 
gen, the chief city on the west coast of Norw r ay. 
From that time on the stream of Norwegian im- 
migration gradually broadens, though it does 
not become particularly large before the year 
1843, but a discussion of it does not come within 
the scope of this volume. My investigations so 
far as the actual emigration from Norway is 
concerned, ends with the year 1839, while so 
far as the immigrants in the New World are 
concerned I propose to watch their progress 
down to the year 1840, when we shall find them 
located in half a dozen Norwegian settlements 
destined to become more or less prosperous. I 
shall also give some account of the first Norwe- 
gian settlements in Texas and give a brief ac- 
count of the religious work done among the 
Norwegians in America down to the coming of 




Lars Larson (i Jeilane.) 

(From a daguerreotype taken after his death.') 



CAUSES OF EMIGRATION. 



45 



Rev. J. W. C. Dietrichson and the dedication 
of the first three Norwegian Lutheran churches, 
in 1844 and 1845. 



II. 



Causes of Emigration. 

The two Kohler brigs came from Stavanger 
in 1836, but just as the Puritans had their May- 
floicer in 1620 and the Swedes on the Delaware 
their Kalmar Nyckcl in 1638, so the Norwegians 
had their little sloop called Restaur ationen (The 
Restoration) in 1825, and it was loaded with no 
less precious human freight. 

We are therefore now prepared to go back 
to the year 1821, where we shall find the be- 
ginning and the causes of the modern Norwe- 
gian immigration to the United States. Lars 
Larson (in Norwegian, Lars Larson i Jeilane) 
was born in Stavanger in Norway, September 
21, 1787. He became a ship-carpenter and 
served on board a Norwegian merchant vessel. 
During the Napoleonic wars Russia compelled 
Denmark to make war on England, but was 
unable to prevent England from sending a fleet 
to the sound, where a bloody naval engagement 



46 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

was fought on the second of April, 1801. Six 
Mars later in September, 1807, to cross the 
plans of Napoleon, England bombarded Copen- 
hagen and captured the Danish fleet. The al- 
lies of Denmark afforded her no protection. In 
the Danish war with England from 1807 to 
1814, of which the struggle with Sweden in 1808 
and 1809 was a mere episode, the commerce 
and finances of Denmark were ruined, and Den- 
mark as the ally of France was put on a war 
footing with nearly all of Europe. At the peace 
which was secured in Kiel in 1814, Denmark 
lost Norway and other possessions and was left 
in a bankrupt condition. In the first year of 
this war, that is in 1807, the ship in which Lars 
Larson was employed, w^as captured by the Eng- 
lish, and he and the rest of the crew remained 
prisoners of war for seven years. In 1814, that 
is immediately after the treaty at Kiel, he with 
the other prisoners was released, and he there- 
upon spent a year in London in the employ of 
a prominent Quaker lady, the widow, Margaret 
Allen, mother of Joseph and William Allen, 
who at that time held high positions at the Eng- 
lish court. During the period of his imprison- 
ment and during his subsequent sojourn in Lon- 
don, Lars Larson had acquired a pretty thor- 
ough knowledge of the English language and 




£ >> O 

o © 

80* 
P 



•7-f" 






CAUSES OF EMIGRATION. 



47 



he had also become converted to the Quaker 
religion. Some of his Norwegian companions 
in captivity had likewise accepted the Quaker 
faith. In 1816 Lars Larson returned to Nor- 
way and he and his friends at once began to 
make propaganda for Quakerism and to organ- 
ize a society of Friends. Two of them, Enoch 
Jacobson and Halvor HalVorson went to Chris- 
tiania, the capital of Norway, and made an un- 
successful attempt at starting a Quaker con- 
gregation there. Lars Larson remained in his 
native city of Stavanger, and there he and Elias 
Tastad and Thomas and Metta Hille became 
the founders of the society of Friends in Nor- 
way. This society never became large and 
never spread beyond the limits of Stavanger 
county, but it still flourishes and to-day num- 
bers about 200 adult members. The first 
Quaker meeting in Norway was held in Lars 
Larson's house in 1816. He was not a married 
man at the time, but his deaf and dumb sister 
Sara kept house for him. At Christmas in 1821, 
he married Martha Georgiana Peerson, who 
was born October 10, 1803, on Fogn, a small 
island near Stavanger. 

During the time of which we are now speak- 
ing, Norway, and particularly the southwest 
coast districts contained a large number of 



48 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

s<Miii-dissenters from the established church, 
the so-called Haugians or Headers, followers 
of Hans Nielson Hauge, a reformer born 
in Smaalenene, in Norway, April 3, 1771. 
Though he had only a common peasant's edu- 
cation he began to preach in 1795. He pro* 
tested against the rationalism and seculariza- 
tion then prevalent among the clergy of Nor- 
way. He advocated the right of laymen to 
preach, and laid special stress upon the spirit- 
ual priesthood of all believers, while he wa& 
on the other hand charged w T ith an ex- 
travagant undervaluation of an educated min- 
istry, of ordination, and of the ceremonies 
adopted by the state church. As indicated, 
his zeal secured him many followers, particu- 
larly among the peasants, who did not, however,, 
like the Quakers, withdraw from the estab- 
lished church. Still they were looked upon with 
disfavor by the governing class, and their lead- 
er, Hans Nielson Hauge, was imprisoned from 
1804 to 1814. He died March 29, 1824. It 
will be readily seen that the Haugians looked 
upon their leader as a martyr, and this fact 
intensified the strained relations existing be- 
tween the Haugians and the civil and religious 
rulers of the kingdom. I mention these facts 
here as they will be found to have some bear- 



CAUSES OF EMIGRATION. 49 

ing on the story which is to be told in this vol- 
ume. 

It may be said without the least exaggeration 
that many of the government officials, not only 
those who had charge of secular affairs, but 
also the servants of the church, were inclined 
to be arbitrary and overbearing, and all dis- 
senters from the Lutheran church, which was 
the state religion, were more or less persecuted 
b} r those in authority. The treatment accorded 
to Hans Nielson Hauge is evidence of this. Al- 
though he was guilty of no crime known to 
the code of morality, and although he was one 
of the most earnest and sincere Christians in 
ali the land, he, like John Bun3an in England, 
was made to languish for ten long years within 
the walls of a prison, simply because he held 
profound religious views and insisted on prac- 
tising them. All the followers of Hauge were 
made to feel more or less the keen edge of scorn 
from their superiors. But the persecution of 
the Quakers is particularly a dark chapter in 
the modern ecclesiastical history of Norway. 
On a complaint of the state priest, the sheriff 
would come and take the children by force from 
Quaker families and bring them to the priest 

to be baptized. People were fined for not go- 
4 



50 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

ing to the holy communion. Parents were com- 
pelled to have their children confirmed, and 
even the dead were exhumed from their graves 
in order that they might be buried according 
to the Lutheran ritual. These cruel facts are 
perfectly authenticated, and there is not 
a shadow of doubt that this disgraceful in- 
tolerance on the part of the officials in Nor- 
way, as in the case of the Huguenots in 
France and the Puritans in England, was 
one of the main causes of the first large 
exodus from Norway to the United States 
of America. The very fact that Norwegian em- 
igration began in Stavanger county, and that 
the emigrants were dissenters from the estab- 
lished church, is conclusive proof of the correct- 
ness of this view. Here it was that Lars Larson, 
Elias Tastad and Thomas and Metta Hille had 
founded the Quaker society. In the city of 
Stavanger and in the adjoining county many 
had been converted to the Quaker doctrine, and 
there were no Quakers in Norway outside of 
Stavanger county. As in all lands and times, 
the beginning of emigration can often be traced 
to religious intolerance and persecution. Did 
not France lose half a million of her most desir- 
able citizens on account of the persecution of 
the Huguenots? Did not the Huguenots flee to 



CAUSES OF EMIGRATION. 51 

Switzerland, Holland, England and to Amer- 
ica? Wherever they settled they brought with 
them art and manufacture and the refinements 
of civilization, and so they enriched their 
adopted countries. And what of the pilgrim 
fathers who landed at Plymouth in 1G20, and 
founded the first settlement in New England? 
Were they not men of strong minds, good judg- 
ment, and sterling character, and did they not 
rigidly conform their lives to their principles? 
Persecution led them to emigrate and in New 
England they embodied their principles in a 
framework of government, on wmich, as a most 
stable foundation, our own great American 
republic has been built up. History repeats it- 
self in Norway in the early years of this cen- 
tury, and the sloop, Eestaurationen, of which 
we are soon to speak, left Norway in 1825, be- 
cause Quakers were not permitted to worship 
God according to the dictates of their own 
conscience. The story of William Penn is re- 
peated in Norway. 

Of course there were economic reasons also, 
and the emigrants hoped to better their mate- 
rial as well as their religious conditions. It 
should also be remembered that there was a 
wide-spread feeling of suspicion and distrust 
among the common folk of Norway against the 



52 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

officeholding class. There were many unprin- 
cipled officials, who exacted exorbitant and 
even unlawful fees for their services and with 
such officials ordinary politeness to the com- 
mon man was out of the question. Thus pov- 
erty, oppression on the part of the officials, and 
religious persecution cooperated in turning the 
minds of the people in Stavanger city and 
county toward the land of freedom, equality 
and abundance in the far west. 

While we are compelled to present this 
gloomy picture of conditions in Norway in the 
early part of the century, we are happy to be 
able to state that things have changed there 
since then. A broad religious tolerance has 
been introduced, the best kind of educational 
laws have been enacted and the official class 
as a rule, both deserve and get the respect of 
the humblest citizens. Doubtless the large 
emigration had a tendency to make the officials 
less overbearing. It is due to Norway to em- 
phasize the fact that the Norway of to-day is 
in n«» way subject to the criticisms we have 
mad<* upon the Norway of the first half and 
particularly of the first third of this century. 

About 1S40 a more humane and progressive 
spirit began to control the legislators and gov- 
<riiinout of Norway, thanks to Henrik Werge- 



CAUSES OF EMIGRATION. 53 

land, to Ole Gabriel Ueland, to Ole Vig, to 
A. M. Schweigaard and to many other heroes of 
reform, and a number of laws have been passed 
entirely remodeling the old and narrow insti- 
tutions of Norway. Laws promoting religious 
liberty were passed in 1842, in 1845, and in 1851. 
This liberal spirit culminated in the abolition 
of the constitutional provision against the 
right of Jews to reside in Norway. In line with 
this progress, trial by jury was adopted in 1887, 
and introduced in 1890. The tendency since 
1840, has been steadily toward more freedom 
and larger opportunities for all classes of cit- 
izens. 

The emigration from Stavanger afterwards 
inspired people in other parts of Norway to 
leave the fatherland and seek homes in Amer- 
ica. In each succeeding group there was a 
pioneer, a leader, and several of these leaders 
will be more or less fully presented and dis- 
cussed. 

While each exodus down into the forties is 
a link in a chain beginning with the sloop, 
Uestaurationen, and while religious persecution 
was one of the chief causes that led to its de- 
parture, we shall try to point out what circum- 
stances were mainly influential in promoting 
emigration from the various districts, and in 



54 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

this connection we shall call attention to fully 
a dozen persons who are to be remembered by 
posterity as the fathers and promoters of Nor- 
wegian emigration, as the pioneers and found- 
ers of Norwegian settlements in America and as 
the first ministers to the spiritual and intellect- 
ual wants of the Norwegians in the country of 
their adoption. In some cases we shall let the 
emigrants themselves tell how and why they 
came to America. 



III. 

The Sloop Restaurationen. 

All reports agree that Kleng PeersonJ from 
the farm Hesthammer, Tysver parish, Skjold 
district, Stavanger county, was the man who 
gave the first impetus to the emigration of the 
Norwegians to America. In the year 1821, 
he with a comrade, Knud Olson Eie, or more 
properly Eide, from the small island Fogn, near 
Stavanger, left Norway and went by the way 
of Gothenborg, Sweden, to New York to make 
an investigation of conditions and opportuni- 
ties in America. From all the information I 
have been able to gather, and I have inter- 
viewed a large number of the oldest Norwe- 



THE SLOOP RESTAURATIONEN. 55 

gian settlers in America, there, remains no 
doubt in my mind that Kleng and Knud were 
practically sent on this mission by the Quakers 
of Stavanger county. It is nowhere positively 
stated that Peerson and Eide were themselves 
Quakers, but I have complete evidence from 
persons who knew both of them well that they 
were dissenters from the established church. 
Kleng Peerson was strongly attached to the 
Quakers and doubtless sympathized with their 
religious views, so far as he gave religion any 
thought, but neither Peerson nor Eide had at 
this time (1821) any very pronounced religious 
convictions. While they dissented from the 
state church they had not accepted the tenets 
of any other. They appear to have lacked to 
a great extent the religious temperament. Later 
on I shall have occasion to discuss this subject 
more fully, as I intend to present as full an 
account as possible of the character and career 
of Kleng Peerson. 

After a sojourn of three years in America, 
all that time presumably spent in and around 
New York city, where they did such work as 
they could find, Kleng Peerson, being a carpen- 
ter by trade, they returned to Stavanger and 
to Tysver in 1824. Here their reports of social, 
political and religious conditions in America 



56 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

and their description of opportunities in the 
New World awakened the greatest interest and 
culminated in a resolution to emigrate. Lars 
Larson (i Jeilane), the same man at whose house 
the first Quaker meeting had been held in 
Stavanger in 1816, at once undertook to organ- 
ize a party of emigrants. Being successful in 
finding a number of people who were ready and 
willing to join him, six heads of families con- 
verted their scanty worldly possessions into 
money and purchased a sloop which had been 
built in the Hardanger fjord, between Stav- 
anger and Bergen, and which they loaded with 
a cargo of iron. For this sloop and cargo they 
paid the sum of $1,800.00 (Norwegian money). 
While six of the party owned some stock in this 
vessel the largest share w T as held by Lars Lar- 
son, who was in all respects the leader of the 
enterprise. He had acquired a pretty thor- 
ough knowledge of the English language, dur- 
ing his eight years' sojourn in England, and the 
general supervision of the preparations and of 
the voyage naturally fell into his intelligent 
Lands. The captain, Lars Olson and the mate 
Erikson were engaged by him. 

This little Norwegian Mayflower of the nine- 
ty. nth century received the name Bestaura- 
tionen (The Restoration), and on the American 



THE SLOOP RESTAURATIONEN. 57 

day of independence, July 4, 1825, this brave 
little company of emigrants sailed out of the 
harbor of the ancient and grotesque city of 
Stavanger. The, company consisted of fifty- 
two persons including the two officers men- 
tioned, chiefly from Stavanger city and Tysver 
parish north of Stavanger. There were also a 
few from other parts of Stavanger county. 
They were fifty-two when they left Stavanger; 
but when they reached New York, on the sec- 
ond Sunday of October (Oct. 9), they numbered 
fifty-three, Mrs. Martha Georgiana Larson, the 
wife of the leader, having given birth to a beau- 
tiful girl baby on the second of September. 

Their fourteen weeks' journey across the 
Atlantic ocean was a romantic and perilous 
one. The stories of that voyage told to me by 
one of the party were the delight of my child- 
hood. They passed through the British Chan- 
nel, and a few days later they anchored in a 
vsmall harbor named Lisett on the coast of Eng- 
land, where they remained until the next day. 
Here they began to sell liquor to the inhabit- 
ants, which was against the law, and when 
they perceived the danger in which they had 
thus placed themselves, they made haste to 
steer the little craft out upon the boundless 
ocean. They either must have lost their reck- 



58 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

oning, or been looking for the trade-winds, or 
the captain must have been somewhat deficient 
in his knowledge of navigation, or to take a 
more charitable view of the case, the wind must 
have been against them, for when we next hear 
of them we find them drifting into the harbor 
of Funchal in the island of Madeira. Near the 
Madeira islands they had found a pipe of wine 
floating on the sea. It must have been very old 
wine, for the cask in which it was contained 
was entirely covered with huge barnacles. 
Lars Larson got out in the yawl boat to fish it 
up and while he was putting a rope around 
the pipe, a shark came near biting his hand off. 
To celebrate this piece of good fortune both 
the officers and passengers had to taste of the 
delicious contents of the pipe of wine and the 
result was that the most of them got more or 
less under its influence. They consequently 
neglected their duties to the sloop, and came 
drifting into the harbor of Funchal without 
colors and without command. Here it was- 
feared that they had some kind of contagious 
disease on board and one of the officers of a Bre- 
men vessel anchored in the harbor, shouted to 
them that if they did not wish to be greeted 
by the cannon already being aimed at them 
from the fortress, they had better hoist their 



THE SLOOP RESTAURATIONEN. 59 

colors at once. Thornstein Olson Bjaadland, who 
was for many years my neighbor in Wisconsin 
never grew weary of telling me this story and 
he always added that it was he who hunted up 
the Norwegian flag which had been stowed 
away with other baggage, and with the assist- 
ance of others ran it up to the top of the mast, 
thus averting the danger. A couple of custom 
house officers then came on board the sloop and 
made an investigation, finding everything in 
good order. Much attention was shown to the 
party at Funchal. The American consul in- 
creased their store of provisions, giving them 
also an abundance of grapes, and before their 
departure, he invited the whole sloop party to 
a magnificent dinner. They arrived in Funchal 
on Thursday, July 28, and left the following 
Sunday, July 31, and as they sailed out of the 
harbor the fortress fired a salute in their honor. 
Four weeks had passed since they left Sta- 
vanger and for ten weary weeks more the sloop 
had to contend with the angry waves of the 
rough Atlantic. It may be added here that 
only the captain and mate were seamen in the 
strict sense of the word; but Lars Larson was 
by trade a ship-carpenter, and the most of the 
other adult men on board having been reared 



6) NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

on the coast of Norway as fishermen, were nat- 
urally familiar with the sea. 

I* New York quite a sensation was awakened 
by the fact that these Norwegians had ventured 
across the ocean in so small a craft. Such a 
thing had not been heard of before. Here they 
nl so got into trouble with the authorities on 
account of having a larger cargo and a larger 
number of passengers than the American laws 
permitted a ship of the size of the sloop to carry 
and in consequence of this violation of Uncle 
Sam's laws Capt. Lars Olson was arrested and 
the ship with its cargo was seized by the cus- 
tom house authorities in New York. 

But what has become of Kleng Peerson and 
Knud Olson Eide? They were not passengers 
in the sloop. Knud Olson is said by some 
with whom I have talked and corresponded 
to have remained in Norway until 1837, 
when he again emigrated to America in the 
ship "Enigheden" (Unity) from Egersund 
via Stavanger, a small seaport south of 
Stavanger. In the summer of 1894, I met and 
conversed with Ole Thompson (Thorbjornson) 
Hide now residing at Sheridan, Illinois. Te 
came from the same place in Norway, that is 
from the farm Eide on the island Fogn north of 



THE SLOOP RESTAURATIO^EN. 61 

Stavanger, and was also a passenger in the 
san*e ship with Knud Olson Eide from Sta- 
vaBger in 1837. Ole Thompson Eide was unable 
to give me any account of Knud after they 
reached Rochester, New York. I afterwards 
met Mr. Hans Valder (Vselde) from Vats parish, 
Skjold district in Norway. He also went on 
board "Enigbeden" in Stavanger in 1837 and 
consequently was a fellow passenger with Knud 
Olson Eide. He informs me that when they 
arrived in New York, Knud Eide could get no 
further from lack of funds. Hans Valder did all 
he could for him and talked to the other pas- 
sengers in his behalf. Knud Eide cried like 
a child and a collection was taken up for him, 
"and" adds Hans Valder, "he came with us as 
far as Kochester, N. Y. There he was left with 
a wife and three or four children. I learned 
since that his daughters got married, but I do 
not know where they reside." Mr. C. Daniel son 
Valle from Aurland in Norway also came in 
the same ship in 1837. By him I am told that 
"Knud Eide went from Rochester to Michigan. 
1 1 is wife died there. He married again and had 
a number of children. He became a farmer." 
As lie does not appear to have had any further 
influence upon Norwegian settlements in Amer- 
ica, we might safely drop him here; but from 



62 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

documents received fjrom New York and which 
I shall present to my readers later on, I have 
a strong suspicion that the Knud Olson Eide, 
who came in "Enigheden" in 1837, may after 
all not have been the same Knud Eide who ac- 
companied Kleng Peerson on his first visit to 
America in 1821. According to New York pa- 
pers published in 1825, Kleng Peerson's com- 
rade died in America before Kleng returned 
to Norway in 1824, and accordingly Kleng may 
have gone back to Norway alone. 

That a man by name Knud Olson Eide came 
to America in "Enigheden" in 1837 is certain. 
On this point we have the concurring testimony 
of Ole Thompson, Hans Valder and Chr. Dan- 
ielson. The only question is whether he was 
the same Knud Olson Eide that accompanied 
Kleng Peerson to America in 1821. I am sorry 
that I am unable to give a definite answer. I 
do not see how the New York papers could 
fabricate an account of the death of Kleng 
Peerson's comrade, while I do see how there 
might easily be two persons by the name Knud 
Olson Eide from the island Fogn. I shall con- 
tinue my investigations into this matter. 

But Kleng Peerson was in America when 
the sloop Restaurationen arrived there. In- 
stead of risking his life in the sloop he had 



THE SLOOP RESTAURATIONEN 



63 



again gone by the way of Gothenborg, Sweden, 
and was already in New York ready to receive 
his friends and to give them such assistance as 
he was able. He had found Quakers in New 
York, who were prepared to give our Norwegian 
pilgrims a welcome and such help as they most 
needed. I suppose the authorities in New York 
partly in consideration of the ignorance and 
childish conduct of the sloop immigrants, and 
partly pursuaded by the intercession of influen- 
tial Quaker friends, decided to be merciful. 
The fact, at all events, is that the captain was 
released from his captivity; and the sloop and 
its cargo were restored to their owners. 

I have it from the lips of passengers who 
came in the sloop, that the Quakers in New 
York took a deep interest in these Norwegian 
newcomers, who were well-nigh destitute of 
food, clothing and money. These Friends gave 
many of them shelter under their own roofs, and 
supplied them with money to relieve their most 
pressing needs. The Quakers showed them- 
selves in this case as everywhere in history to 
be friends indeed. Mrs. Atwater, the lady who 
was born on the sloop, has told me, on the pos- 
itive authority of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. 
Lars Larson, how kind the Quakers in New 
Y r ork were to her parents and to all the sloop 



64 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

people. Enough money was raised by the 
Quakers to pay the expenses of the immigrants, 
six dollars for each from New York city to the 
town of Kendall in Orleans county, New York, 
where farms could be secured for them. 

From the History of Orleans County, by Arad 
Thomas, I learn that a man by name Joseph 
Fellows, had been appointed agent to sell a 
tract of land in Kendall. Mr. Fellows was a 
Quaker, and he seems to have been in New York 
city about the time the Restaurationen arrived 
there, and I presume it was he who suggested 
the idea of locating these Norwegian immi- 
grants on this land, and in this manner the first 
"Norwegian settlement in America in this century 
was founded. 

The captain, Lars Olson, and the mate, Mr. 
Erikson, who by the way was the only one in 
the sloop party from Bergen, Norway, remained 
in New York, and at this point my knowledge 
of these two persons ends. The leader of the 
party, Lars Larson, sent his wife and daughter 
on with the rest of the sloop party to Kendall, 
1ml he himself remained for several weeks in 
New York city, to dispose of the sloop and its 
cargo. He finally succeeded in selling both 
for flie paltry sum of four hundred dollars. 
By this time winter had set in and in the early 



THE SLOOP RESTAURATIONEN. C5 

days of December he set out to join his family. 
The canal was frozen and he had to skate from 
Albany to Holley in Orleans county, 23 miles 
west of Rochester. He did not remain with 
the colony in Kendall, but went with his family 
back to Rochester, where he soon obtained em- 
ployment from a canal-boat builder. He pros- 
pered and in a short time he was able to go into 
business for himself as a canal-boat builder. 
It will be remembered that he had been a ship- 
carpenter in Norway and both by his knowledge 
of English and by his trade he was equipped 
for his new occupation. 

Lars Larson is described as a rather small 
man, with a smooth, intelligent face, with dark 
hair which turned gray very early. He was 
a kind husband and good father, in short, a man 
of good habits and large-hearted. His home 
in Rochester was hospitality itself. In the 
years from 1836 to 1845 he received visits from 
thousands of Norwegians, who were on their 
way from Norway to Illinois and Wisconsin. 
They brought him fresh news from Norway and 
from him they received valuable information 
and advice concerning America. His canal- 
boat business prospered, and already in 1827 he 
was able to build for himself and family a very 
5 



C6 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

substantial home in Rochester, a house which 
still stands on the original site and which, with- 
out doubt, is the oldest house now in existence, 
built in America by a Norwegian Argonaut of 
the nineteenth century. I am most happy to 
be able to give a picture of this house from a 
photograph recently taken. 

Lars Larson lost his life by an accident No- 
vember 13, 1845, while on his way to New York 
with a canal-boat, which he intended to sell. 
There is also a suspicion that he was foully 
dealt with. He died from a fall from the boat 
into the canal, and his family believe that some 
one must have struck him and pushed him over- 
board. There never was a thorough investiga- 
tion into this matter, and I simply report the 
views of the children now living. He had given 
his children a good education, and on his death 
he left them not a fortune, but a handsome com- 
petency for maintaining the old home. His 
widow, Martha Georgiana, a woman of great 
intelligence and force of character, lived to a 
ripe old age. I met her in 1875, and was struck 
with her stateliness and commanding dignity. 
She had become entirely Americanized, but still 
spoke her old Stavanger dialect with ease and 
fluency. Her death occurred in Rochester, Oc- 
tober 17, 1887. 




Martha Georgiana Larson. 



THE SLOOP RESTAURATIONEN. 67 

Mr. and Mrs. Larson left eight children, six 
girls and two boys, all of whom are living and 
all married but one. Their oldest child was 
born on the sloop Restaurationen in the middle 
of the Atlantic ocean, September 2, 1825. This 
was a girl whom they named Margaret Allen, 
after the Quaker widow with whom Lars Lar- 
son had lived for a year or more in London, and 
through whose influence he had embraced the 
Quaker faith. Margaret Allen married in 1857 
John Atwater, of Rochester, who afterwards 
became a prominent publisher in Chicago. Mr. 
Atwater died a few years ago, but the famous 
sloop girl, now in her seventieth year, is still 
alive and well. She resides at Western Springs, 
in Cook county, Illinois, where she has a com- 
fortable home and is surrounded by a family 
of bright and happy children. Her son John 
has a large business in Chicago, and also serves 
as pastor of one of the churches in Western 
Springs 

Lars Larson's other children are: Inger 
Marie, born February 18, 1827, married 
to William F. McFadden, a Canadian, and now 
residing at Kansas City, Mo.; Lydia Glazier, 
born November 18, 1828, married to F. C. Whit- 
telsey and residing in Rochester, N. Y.; Elias 
Tastad, born July 9, 1830, married to an Ameri- 



NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

can woman and residing in Kochester, N. Y.; 
Martha Jane, born July 30, 1832, married to 
Elias C. Patterson, an inventor of New York, 
who died in Kochester, N. Y., in 1879. She now 
resides at Western Springs, 111. Clara Elisabeth, 
born July 30, 1834, married to Alfred Willets, 
and residing in Union Kei, Mich.; George Mar- 
ion, born July 8, 1841, married a Swedish 
woman and residing in Lakeside, Mich.; he is a 
physician. Georgiana Henrietta, born June 19, 
1845, unmarried, and keeping the old Kochester 
home which belongs to the family. 

Martha Jane Patterson who, as mentioned 
above, was born in Kochester, N. Y., in 1832, 
has the honor of being one of the first persons 
of the Norwegian group of our population 
known to have taught in our public schools. 
She began teaching in Kochester during vaca- 
tion in 1844, when she was only twelve years 
old and had about twenty scholars who paid 
her ten cents a week each. She then attended 
a ladies' seminary and became assistant 
teacher in it in 1848. In the spring of 1850 
she taught a public country school in Ken- 
dall, Orleans county, N. Y., in what many 
called New Norway. In the spring of 1851 
she taught at Lockport, N. Y., and in the 
autumn of the same year she was given a 




Henry Harwick. 




Mrs. Martha J. Patterson. 






THE SLOOP KESTAURATIONEN. 69 

position in one of the public schools of Roches- 
ter, N. Y. She came west in 1857 and entered 
the public schools of Chicago as a teacher. Her 
name deserves to be remembered on that ac- 
count. Many a Miss Larson or Miss 
Olson has given instruction in our American 
common school, but Martha Jane Larson was 
among the first. 

Although New York was a large city in 1825 
and although its port was visited by strangers 
from every part of the known world, it occurred 
to me that this first coming of emigrants from 
Norway and that, too, under such peculiar cir- 
cumstances would scarcely be left wholly un- 
noticed by the New York press. I had a curios- 
ity to know what impression these first Norwe- 
gian immigrants to the United States in this 
century made upon the newspaper reporters, 
and accordingly induced my friend, Mr. Robert 
Lilley, the managing editor of Johnson's Uni- 
versal Cyclopaedia, to institute a search for me. 
The search was not in vain. The sloop Restau- 
rationen did attract the notice of the press, and 
I offer no apology for reproducing here every 
word that I have been able to find in New York 
papers in regard to this first company of Nor- 
wegian immigrants. 
i The Commercial Advertiser for Monday, Octo- 



70 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

ber 10, reports in its Marine List: "Arr. Danish 
Sloop Restoration, Holland, 78 days from Nor- 
way, via Long Island Sound, with Iron to Boor- 
uian and Johnston. 52 passengers." The curi- 
ous mistakes will be easily detected by the 
reader. The ship was not Danish, it did not 
come from Holland and the number of passen- 
gers should be fifty-three. The same notice ap- 
pears verbatim in the marine list of the New 
York Gazette Monday, October 10, 1825, and also 
in the marine list of the New York National Ad- 
vocate of the same date, and in the marine list 
of the New York Daily Advertiser of the same 
date, the last paper having the addition "spoke 
nothing." 

In the New York Daily Advertiser of Wednes- 
day, October 12, 1825, we find the following 
most interesting notice, headed "A Novel Sight. 
A vessel has arrived at this port with emigrants 
from Norway. The vessel is very small, meas- 
uring as we understand only about 360 Norwe- 
gian lasts or forty-five American tons, and 
brought forty-six passengers, male and female, 
all bound to Ontario county, where an agent, 
who came ore* some time since, purchased a 
trad of Land. The appearance of such a party 
of strangers, coming from so distant a country 
and in a \ rss.i of a size apparently ill calculated 



THE SLOOP RESTAURATIONEN. /I 

for a voyage across the Atlantic, could not but 
excite an unusual degree of interest. They 
have had a voyage of fourteen weeks and are 
all in good health and spirits. An enterprise 
like this argues a good deal of boldness in the 
master of the vessel as well as an adventurous 
spirit in the passengers, most of whom belong 
to families from the vicinity of a little town at 
the southwestern extremity of Norwa}-, near 
Cape Stavanger. Those who came from the 
farms are dressed in coarse cloths of domestic 
manufacture, of a fashion different from the 
American, but those who inhabited the town 
wear calicos, ginghams and gay shawls, im- 
ported, we presume, from England. The vessel 
is built on the model common to fishing boats 
on that coast, with a single mast and topsail, 
sloop-rigged. She passed through the English 
channel and as far south as Madeira, where she 
stopped three or four days and then steered di- 
rectly for New York, where she arrived with 
the addition of one passenger born on the way. 
"It is the captain's intention to remain in this 
country, to sell his vessel and prepare himself 
to navigate our waters by entering the Amer- 
ican Merchant Service and to learn the Ian- 

guage." 

This is doubtless a very faithful description 



72 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

of the facts. The reporter is mistaken in re- 
gard to the number of the passengers and the 
destination of these immigrants. They were 
not bound for Ontario but for Orleans county. 

In the same paper, New York Daily Advertiser, 
for Saturday, October 15, 1825, we find this ad- 
additional notice of the sloop party: "The cap- 
tain and passengers of the sloop Kestoration 
from Norway, desire in this public manner, to 
express their grateful thanks to John H. March, 
Esq., American Consul at the island of Madeira, 
for his humane and generous relief, when com- 
pelled to touch at that place for refreshment 
after a long and perilous voyage, and to the in- 
habitants of that island for the kind and hos- 
pitable manner in which they entertained desti- 
tute strangers [New York National Advertiser]." 

The New York American, Monday evening, Oc- 
tober 10, 1825, contains the following notice: 
"Marine Journal, Port of New York. Arr. Dan- 
ish sloop Restoration, Holland. 78 days from 
Norway via Long Island Sound, w T ith iron to 
Boorman & Johnston, forty-two passengers." 

It appears that the American has the number 
of passengers reduced to forty-two. 

The notice, entitled A Novel Sight, I find was 
extensively reprinted by the newspapers of the 
country. I have found it reproduced in w T hole 



THE SLOOP RESTAURATIONEN. 73 

or in part in Boston, Cooperstown (N. Y.), in 
Philadelhpia, Rochester and Cincinnati papers 
for the year 1825. 

On Saturday evening, October 22, 1825, The 
New York American contained the following 
clipping from the Baltimore American: 

"The public have already been interested in 
the account which we republished from a New- 
York paper on Saturday last (October 15) rela- 
tive to the arrival of a vessel from Norway. 
This vessel of only forty-five American tons 
burden contained forty-six passengers, male 
and female, bound to Ontario county, in the 
state of New York, where an agent had already 
been sent who had contracted for the purchase 
of the land. They set sail from Cape Stavanger 
and after a voyage of fourteen weeks, arrived 
in safety. We have learned some particulars 
w T ith regard to the agent who was sent over 
here on this business, calculated to set his char- 
acter in a very interesting light. Two agents 
ivere originally sent over by the company and 
funds appropriated to defray the expense. 
These funds, w T e understand, were placed in the 
hands of a man, who was afterwards unfortu- 
nate in business. They then found themselves 
in a strange land, among a people of different 
laws, customs, and language, with all of which 



74 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

they were unacquainted. Determined notwith- 
standing to fulfil the object of their mission, 
they resolutely set out on their enquiries, la- 
boring with their own hands to defray their 
expenses. They proceeded in this manner until 
one was seized with a malady which brought 
him to his grave. During all the time of his 
sickness his confederate, independent of watch- 
ing by his bedside and performing those kind 
offices so necessary to the comfort of a dying 
man, procured the best medical attendance, still 
laboring w r ith his own hands for his support 
and debarring himself of the comforts of life, to 
administer to the necessities of his friend. After 
the decease of his friend, the survivor left as he 
was solitary and alone, proceeded on foot to 
examine the country, the character of the dif- 
ferent soils, our mode of agriculture, engaging 
without any hesitation at any kind of employ- 
ment to meet the current expenses of the day, 
by which means he obtained a knowledge of our 
customs, laws, language and agriculture. In 
tli is manner he scoured the vast regions of the 
west and left a journal from day to day, which 
in due time he transmitted to the company, by 
whom he was sent to make the examination. 
This report was so favorable that the little col- 
ony have at length arrived here, to settle 



THE SLOOP RESTAURATIONEN. 



75 



amongst us, and to assume the character of 
American citizens. They belong to a religion 
called the Saints, corresponding in many points 
to the principles of the Friends. We under- 
stand furthermore, that they have sought an 
asylum in this favored land from religious per- 
secution and that they will shortly be succeeded 
by a much larger body of emigrants." 

The agent here referred to is, of course, Kleng 
Peerson. The reader will find some romance 
in the story, but what it corroborates are the 
facts, that Kle^ig Peerson was an advance agent 
of the sloop party, that these people were Qua- 
kers and complained of religious persecutions, 
and that they expected more to follow them 
from Norway. 

When I received these documents from New 
York I got what seemed to me to be a possible 
clue to the fate of Knud Olson Eide, Kleng>s 
companion to America in 1821. The reader 
will agree with me that there is a possibility 
if not a strong probability that the person re- 
ferred to by the Baltimore American as having 
died is the Knud Olson Eide, who came with 
Kleng Peerson, and that the Knud Olson Eide 
who came in "Enigheden" in 1837 is another 
person altogether. Patience and perseverance 
may yet unravel this mystery. 



76 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

The New York Evening Post, for Tuesday, 
October 25, 1825, contains the following, copied 
from the Albany Patriot of October 24: 

"On Saturday, as we are informed, the Nor- 
wegian emigrants, that lately arrived in a small 
vessel at New York, passed through this city, 
on their way to their place of destination. 
They appear to be quite pleased with what they 
see in this country, if we may judge from their 
good-humored countenances. Success attend 
their efforts in this asylum of the oppressed!" 

This shows that our immigrants were already 
on their way to Orleans county, N. Y. The 
reader will probably agree with me that these 
first glimpses of Norwegian immigrants in clip- 
pings from the American press of the day are 
most interesting and precious and well worthy 
of being reproduced and preserved. Imagine 
m$ happiness when I received these newspaper 
clippings in a letter from Mr. Eobert Lilley! 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 77 



IV. 



The First Norwegian Settlement in America, 

We may now go back and pick up the thread 
of our story again in Kendall, Orleans county, 
New York, where we left the majority of the 
sloop party in the fall of 1825. Kendall is in 
the northeast corner of Orleans county on the 
shores of Lake Ontario. Here land was sold to 
the Norwegians by Joseph Fellows at five dol- 
lars an acre; but as they had no money to pay 
for it, Mr. Fellows agreed to let them redeem 
it in ten annual installments. The land was 
heavily wooded and each head of a family and 
adult person purchased forty acres. During the 
first year they suffered great privations. The 
clearing of the forests required hard work. 
They longed to get back to old Norway, but like 
Xerxes of old they had burnt the bridges be- 
hind them, and a return would be not only hu- 
miliating but almost impossible. Joseph Fel- 
lows and other benevolent neighbors helped 
them, and in course of time their industry 
brought them its reward. As they did not 
reach New York before the ninth of October, 



78 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

it was November before they got settled in Ken- 
dall, and the cold weather soon set in. The 
country thereabouts was but sparsely settled in 
that region in 1825, and there was not much op- 
portunity for getting employment or shelter. 
Twenty-four of them, including their children, 
combined and put up a log house twelve by 
twelve feet, with a garret, giving them just a 
square foot apiece on each floor. Crowded to- 
gether in this little hut their patience must 
have been taxed to the utmost, and only the 
hope of a brighter future could sustain them 
under such circumstances. In those days 
threshing machines were not known, and these 
first Norwegian settlers made their first little 
earnings by threshing out grain for the older 
American settlers with a flail. For this kind of 
work they got every eleventh bushel. The next 
year, 1826, they cleared on an average two acres 
on each of their farms. On this patch of ground 
they raised wheat which gave them bread for 
their next winter's support. 

I call the place Kendall, but the name of it 
in 1825 was Murray. The northeast township 
of Orleans county, N. Y., was originally called 
Murray, but in 1837 it was cut in two and the 
north half in which our sloop people were set- 
tled received the name Kendall, and throughout 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 79 

this volume I have used this designation to the 
exclusion of the original. 

We get a glimpse of this first Norwegian set- 
tlement in America in this century from a let- 
ter written in 1S71 by H. Hervig, one of the 
passengers in the sloop Restaurationen. 

H. Hervig's letter is published in "Fain- 
landet og Emigranten" in La Crosse, Wis., Feb- 
ruary 9, 1871, and is as follows: 

"To the Editor of Faedrelandet og Emi- 
granten. Mr. Editor: Having read in your 
honored paper several reports from various 
places in the West, but never having seen any- 
thing from here, I think it may be interesting 
for you and your readers to learn that there 
also are Norwegians here in the township of 
Kendall, Orleans county, New York, near by 
Lake Ontario. 

"Although this settlement is small, it should 
not be forgotten, for it is the first settlement in- 
habited hy Noihvegians here in America. I and 
fifty -two other Norwegians went in the year 
1825 with a little sloop out from Stavanger. 

"After a long voyage we finally arrived safe 
in New York and went thence to this place in 
the forest. We were all poor, and none of us 
could speak English. When we arrived in Ken- 
dall the most of us became sick and discour- 



80 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

aged. The timber was heavy and it took a long 
time before we could raise enough to support 
us. After the land was cleared we found the 
soil to be very good, and a crop grows here as 
good as in few places in the vicinity. 

"There do not come any more any people 
from Norway, nor is there any land to be had 
here at a low price, land costing here from $50 
to $100 per acre. 

"So far as religion is concerned we have 
many churches and many ministers and various 
denominations, and some go to church, while 
others stay at home. We have no controversy 
over religion, but each one is permitted to be- 
lieve and think what seems best to him. It 
does not seem to be that way among the Nor- 
wegians in the West, if I may judge from your 
papers, where there is constantly controversy 
over religious matters, while there ought to be 
friendship and love. I must confess that when 
we first arrived here we thought everything 
was wrong, when it was not like what there 
was in Norway. But we soon found that there 
were good things even among people who wor- 
shiped God in another manner than we did, and 
we found that the difference was not so great 
after all, when they only built on the right foun- 
ds t ion, Jesus Christ, and being reminded that 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 



81 



the constitution of the land permitted every one 
to worship God in the manner his conscience 
dictated, we worshiped God in the manner of 
our fathers and let others have peace to wor- 
ship God according to the dictates of their con- 
sciences. 

"Respectfully, 
"Your brother and countryman, 

"H. Harwich:." 

This letter is dated at Kendall, N. Y., Janu- 
ary 20, 1871. The writer died thirteen years 
later at Holley in Orleans county. 

We get a very encouraging view of condi- 
tions and prospects in the New World from a 
letter written to Norway by Gjert Gregoriuson 
Hovland in 1835, after he had lived in the Ken- 
dall settlement for four years. Gjert Gregoriu- 
son Hovland left Norway June 24, 1831, and 
went by way of Gothenborg to New York, 
where he arrived September 8, having been de- 
tained in Gothenborg several weeks. He 
bought fifty acres of timber land in the Kendall 
settlement and improved it for four years, when 
he sold it at a profit of f 500. He is loud in his 
praises of American laws, equality and liberty, 
as compared with the extortions of the official 
aristocracy in Norway. He advised all who 
6 



82 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

were able to emigrate to America, arguing that 
the creator had not prohibited man from locat- 
ing in what part of the world he pleased. This 
and other letters by Gjert G. Hovland to Nor- 
way were transcribed in hundreds of copies and 
passed from house to house, and from parish to 
parish, and many were in this way induced to 
think of America and emigration. Gjert G. 
Hovland removed the same year, that is, 1835, 
to La Salle county, Illinois, where he died at a 
very advanced age in 1870. On account of his 
early arrival and particularly on account of his 
letters about America to Norway, he is to be 
counted among the chief promoters of Norwe- 
gian emigration to this country. 

In the "Pioneer History of Orleans County, 
New York," written by Arad Thomas and pub- 
lished in 1871, I find the following interesting 
notice of this first Norwegian settlement in 
America: 

"About the year 1825 a company of Norwe- 
gians, about fifty-two in number, settled on the 
lake shore in the northeast part of the town 
(Kendall). They came from Norway together 
and took up land in a body. They were an 
industrious, prudent, and worthy people, held 
in good repute by people in that vicinity. 
After a few years they began to move away 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. £3 

to join their countrymen, who had settled in 
Illinois, and but a few of that colony are still 
in Kendall. They thought it very important 
that every family should have land and a home 
of their own. A neighbor once asked a little 
Norwegian boy, whose father happened to be 
too poor to own land, where his father lived, 
and was answered: <0, we don't live nowhere; 
we hain't got no land.' " 

This is touchingly prophetic of the fact that 
so large a percentage of the Norwegian immi- 
grants have settled on farms and become 
owners of land. 

It will be seen that Mr. Thomas errs when 
he puts the number at fifty-two. He must have 
heard of the sloop with its fifty-two passengers 
leaving Norway. We know that the captain 
and the mate did not go to Kendall; but of 
course Kleng Peerson went there, so that there 
probably were about fifty persons in the Ken- 
dall settlement in the fall of 1§25. Lars Larson 
and his family probably remained there until 
the spring of 1826. 

I have made all the investigation possible 
in regard to this first Norwegian settlement 
in America since the days of Leif Erikson in 
Vinland, and I find that a considerable number 
of the descendants of the original settlers are 



84 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

still living- there. They are thoroughly Amer- 
icanized, but there are still among them later 
comers from Norway, who are able to speak 
the Norwegian tongue. Many of them are rel- 
atives of Lars Larson, the leader of the sloop 
party. 

In January, 1895, I received a letter from 
Canute Orsland, whose father originally set- 
tled in Indiana, and he gives the following list 
of Norwegians now residing in Kendall with 
the year (approximately) when they immi- 
grated. 

Canute Orsland, a son of Ole Aasland, who- 
came from Norway in 1838. 

Harry B. Orsland, a son of Ole Aasland. 

John Johnson, who came from Norway in 
1857. 

Rasmus Danielson, who came from Norway 
in 1858. 

Chas. Lind, wiio came from Norway in 1871. 

M. Anderson, who came from Norway in 1882. 

Ellen Lind, who came from Norway in 1883. 

Claudine Lind, who came from Norway in 
1S83. " 

Andrew Halvorson, born in Kendall, his par- 
ents having come from Norway in 1810. 

Anna Anderson, who came from Norway in 
1887. 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 85 

Martin Larson, who came from Norway in 
1891. 

Borre Nses, who came from Norway in 1854. 

Christopher Anderson, who came from Nor- 
way in 1852. 

Caroline Shulstead, who came from Norway 
in 1853. 

Eliza Parker, who came from Norway in 1870. 

Lars Anderson, who came from Norway in 
1891. 

Andrew J. Stangeland, born in the settle- 
ment, but his father came in the sloop. 

Mr. Orsland writes me that these people are 
largely related to each other by blood or mar- 
riage. 

Martha Jane Larson (now Mrs. Patterson) 
taught public school in this settlement in 1850, 
and at that time it contained about a dozen 
Norwegian families, but they seemed entirely 
cut off from any report either with Norway 
or with their countrymen in America. 

Before leaving Kendall, I will here present to 
my readers the last communication that I have 
thus far received from this interesting old set- 
tlement. Miss Anna Danielson gives a most 
vivid picture of the Kendall colony of today. 
Here it is: 



86 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

"Kendall, N. Y., Feb. 28, 1895. 
"Prof. Kasmus B. Anderson — 

"Dear Sir: — In replying to your letter written 
to my father, asking for information of this first 
Norwegian settlement in America, I will do the 
best I can. Mr. Henry Harwick (Henrik Her- 
vig), Mr. Nels Nelson, Mr. Andrew Stangeland 
and Mr. Ole Johnson were among the first set- 
tlers here as they all came in the sloop in 1825. 
The first three came directly to Kendall, and 
Kleng Peerson was their leader. He had been 
to America before and had gone back to Nor- 
way to proclaim the news about this wonderful 
free land. The sloop party was organized and 
as you know, many came at that time to Amer- 
ica. Only a few remained in Kendall. The 
country was then new, and rich only in beau- 
tiful forest trees. What is now fine farming 
land was then only a vast wilderness. Those 
Norwegians who came to Kendall built a log 
house, and all lived together for a short time. 
As soon as they were able, they began clearing 
up the land and making homes for themselves. 
Mr. Nels Nelson (Hersdal) was not content here, 
and so he moved west after a few years. He 
settled in Illinois, where he died a few years 




Ole Johnson. 



I 






THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 87 

ago, a rich man. Mr. Harwick lived on his 
farm for many years, one mile east and one mile 
north of the village of Kendall. There his five 
children were born and there four of them and 
also his wife died. In 1876, he and his daugh- 
ter Christiana moved to the village of Holley, 
where they died a few years ago. Mr. Harwick 
lived to bury all his family. He had braved 
many of life's storms, had climbed the ladder 
of fortune, and died a well-to-do man. Mr. An- 
drew Stangeland has been dead many years. 
He, like many others, wandered westward and 
died in Indiana. One of his sons, Andrew J., 
still lives in Kendall on what is still called 
the Norwegian road. It was on that road the 
Norwegians first settled. Andrew J. Stange- 
land has a family of six girls and two boys. 
Mr. Ole Johnson came over in the sloop, 
but did not come directly to Kendall. He re- 
mained in Rochester a few years. He crossed 
the water again in 1826, and when he returned 
in 1827, he brought a wife with him. She did 
not live long. He was married three times. 
With his last wife he came to Kendall and 
settled on a farm on the shore of the lake. 
Two of his five daughters are living, viz., Inger, 
who never married and who resides in Roches- 
ter, where her father died, and Phoebe, now liv- 



83 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION 

ing in Birch Run, Michigan, and married to 
Marshall Colon. After a time, Mr. Johnson got 
tired of the country and moved back to Roch- 
ester, where he could attend his church, he be- 
ing a Quaker. 

"Mr. Olaus Shulstead w^as also one of the old 
settlers of Kendall. He first spent some years 
in Rochester. His farm was on the shore of 
the lake. Mr. Shulstead served in the late war 
and he died last fall (1894), and his widow 
Caroline still lives on the farm. Mr. and Mrs. 
Shulstead were real Nowegians and always 
spoke to each other in their own language. 
Ole Orsland (Aasland) came to this country in 
1838. He first came to Kendall and helped 
clear the trees away. He, too, settled on the 
Norwegian road. He has been dead about thirty 
years, but he has two sons still living here, 
Harry and Canute. Harry was about 10 years 
old when his parents came to this country. 
He served in the late war and now lives on a 
farm in Kendall. Canute Orsland lives on his 
father's old homestead. 

"Mr. John Johnson (my grandfather) and his 
two daughters Inger and Elisabeth (my mother) 
and son John came to America in 1857. They 
were nine weeks crossing the water. They 
came to Kendall and Mr. Johnson, Sr., did not 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 



by 



live many years. His birthplace was two Nor- 
wegian miles northeast of Stavanger in Nor- 
way. Mr. John Johnson, Jr., was married when 
he came here and then had throe children. 
Three of his six children were born here. < >nly 
two are now living: Mrs. Inger Orsland (wife 
of Canute Orsland) and Canute Johnson, who 
lives in Mikado, Michigan. 

"My father, Rasmus Danielson, came to 
America in 1858. His home in Norway was 
six Norwegian miles northeast of Stavanger. 
He was married to Elisabeth Johnson in 1858. 
My parents lived in Kendall until 1800. Then 
they went west to Michigan, Wisconsin and 
Minnesota. They did not remain in the west, 
but returned satisfied that the Empire state 
was the best after all, and they have lived here 
contentedly ever since. Their home is one 
mile north of Kendall village. They have two 
children, Daniel and Anna (my name). 

"There are a few young men who have come 
here the last few years, they work for the differ- 
ent farmers. Very few of those who come now 
stay very long. They go to the west. The few 
families remaining here have made up their 
minds to be Americans. They do not wisli to 
forget their old homes across the sea, but they 
try to do as the Americans do, and the most of 



UO NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

theni now attend the Methodist church at Ken- 
dall. At present there are only tw r o of the 
descendants of those who came in the sloop, 
now living in Kendall. They are Mr. Andrew J* 
Stangeland and my mother, and of course their 
children. 

"Now Mr. Anderson, I think I have given you 
all the information I can think of. If there is 
anything else you would like to know, you may 
write and I will be pleased to answer. 

"I hope that what I have written may be of 
some benefit to you. 

"Sincerely yours, 

"Anna Danielson." 

In this manner, then, began the great Scan- 
dinavian exodus of the nineteenth century, 
which has brought 1,250,000 immigrants, and 
thus was founded the first settlement, which 
has been followed by so many large and thrifty- 
ones throughout the northwest. 







Margaret A. Atwater. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 



91 



V. 



The Sloop Party. 

As this sloop party will always be of the 
greatest interest to all Scandinavians and 
their descendants in this country, I have taken 
all possible pains to ascertain definitely who the 
fifty-three persons were who came in it. By 
the aid of the survivors and various others 
who knew them, I believe I am able to present 
a well-nigh perfect list of the adult members, 
with the number of children in each family. 
As there may possibly be some confusion, par- 
ticularly of adults and children, I hold the list 
subject to revision and correction in future edi- 
tions of this work, and I shall be very grate- 
ful for any corrections that anybody will have 
the kindness to send me, but I do not think the 
list as here given will be found to contain many 
errors. Here it is : 

1-3. Lars Larson i Jeilane, wife and daugh- 
ter, now Mrs. At water. 

4-9. Cornelius Nelson Hersdal, wife and 
four children. 



92 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

10-13. Johannes Stene, wife and two chil- 
dren. 

14-18. Oyen Thompson (Thorson), wife and 
three children. 

19-25. Daniel Stenson Bossadal, wife and 
five children. 

20-30. Thomas Madland, wife and three 
children. The above named six families were 
the owners of the sloop, of which Lars Larson 
owned the largest share. 

31-35. Simon Lima, wife and three children. 
36-37. Nels Nelson Hersdal and wife Bertha. 

38. Jacob Anderson (Slogvig). 

39. Knnd Anderson (Slogvig). 

40. Sara Larson, deaf and dumb sister of 
Lars Larson. 

41-2. Henrik Christopherson Hervig and 
wife. 

43. Ole Johnson. 

44. Gudmund Haugaas. 

45. Thorstein Olson Bjaadland. 
40. George Johnson. 

47. Andrew (Endre) Dahl, the cook. 

48. Halvor Iverson. 

49. Nels Thompson, a brother of Oyen 
Thompson. 

50. Ole Olson Hetletvedt. 

51. Andrew Stangeland. 







p 
E 

M 
W 

o 



THE SLOOP PARTY 93- 

52. Lars Olson, the captain. 

53. Mr. Erikson, the mate. 

I have myself seen and talked with eight 
of the sloop passengers, viz.: Thorstein Olson 
IVjaadland, Mrs. Lars Larson and her daughter, 
Mrs. Atwater, Nels Nelson Hersdal and his 
wife, Mrs. Hulda Olson, a daughter of Daniel 
Stenson Rosdal (Rossadal), Mrs Martha Fel- 
lows and Mrs. Inger Mitchell, the last two,, 
(laughters of Cornelius Nelson Hersdal; and I 
have had considerable correspondence with a 
ninth and tenth, Mrs. Sara T. Richey, a daugh- 
ter of Oven Thompson, and Mrs. Jacob Ander- 
son (Slogvig), the daughter of Thomas Mad- 
land. 

Of Lars Larson and his family I have already 
given a sufficiently full account. 

Cornelius Nelson Hersdal, born in the year 
1789, and his wife Caroline (Kari), born Peerson, 
a sister of Kleng Peerson, both from Tysver 
Parish, Skjold District, Stavanger Amt 
(county), settled in Kendall, N. Y., where he 
died in December, 1833. He was an older 
brother of Nels Nelson Hersdal, of whom more 
later on. He had been a soldier in the last war 
in Norway. Cornelius and his wife had in all 
seven children: Ann, Nels, Inger and Martha, 
born in Norway, and passengers on the sloop; 



91 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

and Sarah, Peter C. and Amelia, born in Ken- 
dall. The widow, Kari, came with her family 
to Mission, La Salle county, 111., in May, 1836, 
and for some months in 1837 my parents lived 
at her house. Kari Nelson died at Mission, 
July 24, 1848. The oldest daughter, Ann, was 
born in Norway in 1814, and died in Illinois in 
1858. The oldest son, Nels, was born in Nor- 
way, June 29, 1816. He became a farmer and 
stock raiser in La Salle county, 111. He mar- 
ried Catharine, a daughter of Knud Iverson, 
and had twelve children, of which seven reached 
maturity. He died in Sheridan, 111., August 29, 
1893, and w r as the last male survivor of the fa- 
mous sloop party. His widow and four chil- 
dren are still living. 

Nelson's daughter, Inger, was born in Tysver, 
December 11, 1819, and in 1836 she married 
John S. Mitchell, of Ottawa, 111. She is now a 
widow and still resides in Ottawa. 

Martha, her sister, was born in Tysver, Sep- 
tember 27, 1823. She married Beach Fellows, 
who had settled in Mission, May 1, 1835. In 
1855 he was elected county treasurer and moved 
to Ottawa and lived there until his death. The 
widow is still a resident of that city. 

Sarah was born in Kendall, N. Y., February 
16, 1827. On July 2, 1849, she married Canute 




Nels Nelson, Jr., the last male 
survivor of the sloopers, 

AND HIS WIPE KATHRINA. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 



95 



Peterson Marsett, who came from Norway in 
1837, and who afterwards became a Mormon 
bishop at Ephraim, Utah. She and her hus- 
band are still living. They have seven children 
and thirty-two grandchildren. Her oldest son, 
Peter Cornelius, born at Salt Lake City, June 
2, 1850, was the first child born of Norwegian 
parents in Utah. 

Sarah has, so far as I have been able to make 
out, the honor of having been the first one of 
the Norwegian immigrants and their descend- 
ants to teach public schools in America. In a 
letter to me dated at Ephraim, March 9, 1895, 
she informs me that she taught district school 
in the Fox River settlement in 1845 and 1S46, 
and I have not found any one else who has as 
old a claim as hers to that honor. 

Peter C. Nelson, the youngest son, was born 
in Kendall, N. Y., January 20, 1833. He is a 
farmer in Larned, Kansas, and has nine chil- 
dren and twenty-three grandchildren living. I 
am indebted to him for many valuable facts in 
regard to the famiiy history. 

The youngest daughter, Amelia, was born in 
Kendall in 1833, the same year that her father 
died, and she was only twenty-one years old 
when she died in Mission in 1851. 

A daughter of P. C. Nelson, of Larned, Kan- 



9(3 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

sas, is the wife of Henry W. Johnson, who is 
at present judge of the county court of La Salle 
county, 111., and resides at Ottawa. 

J. A. Quam, a prosperous merchant in Sheri- 
dan, 111., is married to another daughter of 
Peter C. Nelson. Both to Mrs. Bishop Peter- 
son, and to Judge H. W. Johnson and to Mr. 
J. A. Quam I am greatly indebted for assistance 
in gathering facts about the sloop party. 

Of Johannes Stene, wife and two children, I 
have obtained no trace beyond the fact that 
they went to Kendall. 

Oyen Thompson (Thorson) was born on a 
farm named Brastad, about twenty miles south 
of Stavanger, in Norway, in the year 1795, and 
died in Rochester, N. Y., August 26, 1826. The 
widow of this slooper married her husband's 
brother, Nels Thompson (who also came in the 
sloop) in 1827, and in 1828 they moved to Ken- 
dall. Mrs. Thompson's name was Bertha Caro- 
line, and she was born about ten miles south 
of Stavanger, in 1790. In 1834 Nels Thompson 
and his wife removed to La Salle county, 111., 
and there Bertha Caroline died in the town of 
Norway, July 11, 1844. 

Oyen Thompson had three daughters with 
him in the sloop. One by name Caroline was 
born in March, 1825, and died in Rochester,. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 



97 



N. Y., July 2G, 1S2G. Another daughter, Anna 
Maria, was born in Norway, August 30, 1819. 
She was the first wife of Wm. W. Richey, and 
died in La Salle county, June 9, 1842, leaving 
a son. The third daughter to be mentioned is 
the oldest. Her name is Sara, and she was 
born March 6, 1818. She came with her mother, 
stepfather and one sister and one half-brother 
and two half-sisters to La Salle county, where 
her parents settled as farmers. There she be- 
came the wife of George Olmstead, March 20, 
1S37. Mr. Olmstead died July 31, 1819, from 
cholera, and Sara remained in Ottawa until 
1855, when she married her sister's widower, 
William W. Richey, and moved to Marseilles, 
111., where she resided eighteen years, and then 
removed to a farm in the* town of Brookfiold, 
south of Marseilles, and after living there nine 
years, she settled in Guthrie Center, Iowa, 
where she still resides. About nine years ago 
she secured a divorce from Mr. Richey, and is 
now living alone, a hale and hearty woman, 
whom to know is to love. 

Nels Thompson and Bertha Caroline had 

three children: a daughter, Serena, born March 

18, 1828, in Kendall, N. Y.; died in Norway, 111., 

July 6, 1850; a son, Abraham, born in Kendall, 

7 



98 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

N. Y., December 23, 1830; died in Marseilles, 
111., February 16, 1866; and a daughter, Caro- 
line, born in Kendall, N. Y., July 15, 1833, and 
died at Marseilles, 111., August 30, 1858. The 
father, Nels Thompson, died in La Salle county 
in July, 1863. 

Mrs. Sara T. Richey is the mother of eight 
children, four girls and four boys, five by her 
first husband and three by her second. Only 
three are living and these are: Benson C. Olm- 
stead and Chas. B. Olmstead, both farmers in 
Guthrie county, Iowa; Cora A. Eiche}, now Mrs. 
Morris, residing in Nebraska, and Will F. 
Richey, a farmer in Guthrie county, Iowa. The 
portrait of Sara T. Richey is from a photograph 
taken when she was 76 years old. 

Daniel Rosdal and family came from Tysver 
and settled in Kendall. They left Kendall in 
1835 and moved to La Salle county, 111. Daniel 
died there in 1854, and his wife Bertha died the 
same year, March 10, 1854. The following five 
children were born in Norway and came in the 
sloop: Ellen, born September 26, 1807; Ove, 
born December 4, 1809 ; Lars, born February 20, 
1812; John, born June 2, 1821; Hulda, born 
February 20, 1825; one child, Caroline, was 
born to them in Kendall, April 1, 1829. 

Lars Rosdal went into the first grave made 




Sara T. Richey. 







Hulda Olson, daughter of 

Daniel Rossadal, widow 

of Rasmus Olson. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 99 

by Norwegians in La Salle county, 111. Tie died 
in 1837. Ellen married Cornelius Cothrien. 
Ove died in Iowa in 1890, but was buried in La 
Salle county, 111. John died in La Salle county, 
111., in May, 1893. Ellen and Caroline are also 
dead, but Hulda is still living in Sheridan, 111. 
She married Rasmus Olson, who died at Sheri- 
dan in 1893. The portrait given of Hulda Olson 
is from a photograph taken nine years ago. 

The youngest daughter, Caroline, married 
Jens Jacobs in 1847. They farmed it for a 
while in La Salle county, and in 1-865 Jens 
bought 240 acres of land in Livingston county, 
111. There Jens Jacobs died October 28, 1805, 
and his widow, Caroline, June 22, 1894. They 
left six children, five boys and one girl, all of 
whom are living. These six children are: 
Mary, born in 1848, married to F. M. Brown, and 
living in Jerauld county, S. D.; Jacob, born 
1850, married to Ellen Brown, a sister of F. M. 
Brown, and living in Livingston county, 111.; 
Daniel, born 1852, not married, and living at 
Emington, 111.; James B., born in 1850, married 
to Dollie Lewis, and is a real estate agent in 
Emington, 111.; John, born in 1858, married to 
Ida Erikson and residing in Humboldt county, 
Iowa; and finally Joseph, born in 1862, married 
to Mary Erikson, and living in La Salle county, 



100 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

111. The Rosdals were zealous Quakers and re- 
mained faithful to the creed of their adoption 
to the end. 

Thomas Madland was born in Stavanger in 
177S, and died in June, 182G, the year after he 
settled in Kendall. His wife was born in 1768, 
and died in Kendall in 1829. Thomas Madland 
was a blacksmith in Norway and when he emi- 
grated he left three of his children in Norway, 
Jens, Martha and Christina. To Jens, who was 
then twenty-one years old, he left his black- 
smith shop in full running order, and his home. 
Jens with his wife and a large family of chil- 
dren finally emigrated to America in 1859, and 
died about ten years ago in Sauk Center, Minn. 
A son of his, by name J. O. D. Madland, is now 
a merchant in Ashby, Grant county, Minnesota. 
Thomas Madland and wife brought three 
daughters with them in the sloop, Rachel, Julia 
and Serena. Rachel married the captain of 
the sloop, Lars Olson, and died in New York 
city. She was born in 1807, but I do not know 
the year she died. 

Julia married (Judniund Haugaas in Kendall 
in 1827, and died in the Fox River settlement 
in the spring of 184(5. She was born 1810. 

Serena was born January 1, 1814. On March 
1, 1881, she married Jacob Anderson (Slogvig), 




Mrs. Serena Anderson, daughter of 
Thomas Madland. 



THE SL.OOP PARTY. 101 

at Kendall, in the woods near Lake Ontario, in 
the same place where her sister Julia had been 
married. She moved first to the Fox Biver set- 
tlement and afterwards to California, where 
she is still living, being now over eighty-ow* 
years old. Her home is in San Diego with her 
son, Andrew J. Anderson. My last letter from 
this dear old lady was written at Fruito, Glenn 
county, California, March 11, 1895, and it shows 
her to be in the full vigor of her mental and 
physical powers. She sent me her photograph 
taken about ten years ago. Her husband, who 
was born June 8, 1807, died in California, May 
5, 1864. 

In regard to Simon Lima, wife and three chil- 
dren, Mrs. Sara T. Kichey writes to me that they 
probably lived and died in Rochester, N. Y. 
Besides the letter from Mrs. Richey I have no 
knowledge of them beyond their being born 
-about twenty Norwegian miles south of Sta- 
vanger and locating in Kendall in 182o. 

Nels Nelson Hersdal was a younger brother of 
Cornelius Nelson, and his wife Bertha was a 
sister of Henrik Christopherson Hervig (Ilar- 
wick). Nels Nelson Hersdal was born in Tys- 
ver, July 4, 1800, and his parents were Nelc ( Jer- 
neliuson Hersdal and Susanne, a daughter of 
Erik Hervig. His wife Bertha was born May 2, 



102 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

1S04, and was the daughter of Christopher 
Christopherson Hervig and Cecelia, a daughter 
of Ilenrik Dueland. They were married in the 
spring of 1825, and came from Tysver Parish, 
north of Stavanger. Nels Nelson settled in 
Kendall in 1825, and in 1835 he went out to La 
Salle county, 111., where he got 640 acres of 
land from Joseph Fellows in exchange for 100 
acres that he owned in Kendall, but he did not 
take his family out to Illinois before 1846. Of 
his first visit to Illinois his son, Ira Nelson, of 
Ottawa, has told me that he footed it from Ken- 
dall to Buffalo, N. Y., then worked his way to 
Chicago on a steamboat, getting three dollars 
per day. On his return to New York state he 
worked his .way to Detroit and then footed it 
to Buffalo, beating the stage. In Buffalo he 
was much admired and entertained for having 
made better time than the stage. He was 
known by the name, Big Nels, and was a power- 
ful man. Nels Nelson HersdaPs wife died De- 
cember 29, 1882, and he lived until September 
21, 1886. They had eleven children, of which 
two, Peter and Ira, are now living in La Salle 
county, 111. 

Jacob Anderson Slogvig and Knud Anderson 
EQogvig were brothers. Jacob moved from 
Kendall to La Salle county in 1834. He mar- 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 103 

ried, as stated, a daughter of Thomas Madland, 
and as near as I can make out he went to Cali- 
fornia soon after 1850. He accumulated con- 
siderable wealth and died in California in 18G4. 
He was born in 1807. His widow and at least 
one son are living in San Diego, Cal. Knud 
Slogvig came from Kendall to La Salle county, 
111., in 1834, and in 1835 he went back to Nor- 
way where he married a sister of Ole Olson 
Hetletvedt, and was successful in promoting 
emigration. He was the main cause of the 
great exodus in the two Kohler brigs from Sta- 
vanger in 1836, in one of which ships he re- 
turned to America. In 1837 we find him with 
Kleng Peerson on a journey to Shelby county, 
Mo., where Kleng and others went to found a 
new settlement, but Knud Slogvig returned to 
La Salle county at once. He and his wife after- 
wards removed to Lee county, 111., where they 
both died. 

Sara Larson, deaf and dumb sister of Lars 
Larson (i Jeilane), lived and died at her 
brother's house in Rochester, N. Y. 

Henrik Christopherson Hervig (Harwick) 
never came west. He and his wife were born 
in Tysver, in Norway, and both settled in Ken- 
dall. They both came in the sloop, but were 
not married until after they arrived in Kendall. 



104 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

I have already reproduced a newspaper article 
1)\ Ilenrik Hervig, written by him from Ken- 
dall in 1871. Miss Anna Danielson writes me 
under date of February 28, 1895, in regard to 
him, that he died at Holley, Orleans county, in 
the summer of 1884. His wife and all his chil- 
dren were dead before that. Martha, his wife, 
died in August, 18G8. Mr. Hervig was a farmer 
when he lived in Kendall, and at Holley he did 
nothing as he fyad saved up enough for his 
comfort. But it is doubtful whether his last 
days were as happy as w r hen he was working 
hard on his farm, for then he was surrounded by 
his wife and children, while during the last 
days of his life he had to depend on strangers. 
It is related that Mrs. Martha Hervig walked 
from Kendall to Rochester, a distance of thirty- 
two miles, in one day. This is the kind of stuff 
the sloop people were made of! 

Ole Johnson went back to Norway in 1826, 
and in 1827, he returned with a wife and after 
•pending a few years in Kochester settled in 
Kendall, hut in his old age he moved to Itoch- 
etter. He was a Quaker and wanted to live 
where he could attend the church of the 
Friends. He died in Kochester in March, 1877. 
II" was married three times. I lis first wife was 
named Ifalinda, and both the second and third 




Martha Harwick. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 



10! 



bore the name Ingeborg. By his first wife be 
had three children all of whom arc dead. He 
had no children by his second wile, but by his 
third wife he had three children, two of whom, 
Phoebe and Inger, are living. In Kendall, Ole 
Johnson lived on the shore of Lake Ontario. 
In a terrible storm a ship was washed ashore, 
or rather into shallow water, and the ves- 
sel had to remain there several days and wait 
for help. The sailors went up to Ole Johnson's 
house, and there the mate of the ship, Marshall 
Colon, became acquainted with Phoebe John- 
son and afterwards married her. Mr. and Mrs. 
Colon now reside at Birch Run, Michigan. 

Gudmund Ilaugaas settled in Kendall, in 
1825. He was married in Kendall, New York, 
to Julia, a daughter of Thomas Madland. lie 
was one of the first Norwegian settlers in Il- 
linois, coming to La Salle county in 1834. Gud- 
mund and Julia had ten children. Julia died 
in La Salle county, Illinois, December 24, 2846, 
and Gudmund Ilaugaas afterwards married 
Miss Caroline Hervig, a sister of Ilenrik ller- 
vig and of Bertha Nelson Ilersdal. lie was 
a well educated man. In his early life he was 
a wheelwright, but he was fond of books and 
a great reader. In Illinois he became an elder 
in the church of the Latter Day Saints (Mor- 



106 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

mons), an office, which the members of that 
church say he held with honor both to himself 
and to the cause until his death. He also prac- 
ticed medicine among the first Norwegian set- 
tlers in America, and it is said with good suc- 
cess. I have myself talked with people who 
were helped by Dr. Haugaas in cases of severe 
illness. We may safely say that Gudmund 
Haugaas was one of the first preachers and 
first physicians among the Norwegian immi- 
grants in this century. He died on his farm 
between Ottawa and Norway, of cholera, July 
28, 1849. His widow Caroline died in April, 
1852. Thomas, one of his sons by his first wife, 
is now the preacher of a church of the Latter 
Day Saints in La Salle county, Illinois, and a 
daughter by his second wife is Caroline C, wife 
of Dr. R. W. Bower, in Sheridan, Illinois. A 
s«m of this last couple is Dr. G. S. Bower, a 
physician in Ransom, Illinois. A son of Gud- 
mund Haugaas is Daniel Haugaas, now living 
in Henderson, Iowa, and Mrs. Isabel Lewis of 
Bmington, Illinois, is a daughter of Gudmund 
Haugaas. 

Thorstein Olson Bjaadland was born in Haa 
parish about 28 Norwegian miles south of Sta- 
vanger. He did not know his birthday, but he 
frequently told me that he was thirty years. 




OVE ROSDAL. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 107 

old when he emigrated in the sloop in 1825; 
hence he must have been born about the year 
1795. In Norway he spent five years in the 
employ of the government as a mail-carrier. 
Thorstein Olson lived a few years in Kendall 
and then went to Michigan (to what part I do 
not know) and there served an apprenticeship at 
the shoemaker's trade. From Michigan he re- 
turned to Kendall, and in 1834 he joined those 
who went with Kleng Peerson, to La Salle 
county, Illinois, where he bought a small farm 
and built a little log house on it, and for some 
time prosperity seemed to favor and reward 
him for his industry; but the Indians, he said, 
set fire to the prairie grass, and the fire spread 
over his farm and burned his log house with 
all its contents to the ground. He then built an- 
other log house like it and remained on his Il- 
linois farm until 1840, when in company with 
my father and others he removed to Albion, 
Dane county, Wisconsin, where he bought a 
farm of 80 acres, but he was not thrifty and he 
died a poor man in a small log house on my 
father's farm, May 7, 1874. In 1S44, he married 
Guro Olson, from Thelemarken, in Norway, 
and at this writing his widow and six children, 
three sons and three daughters, are living. His 
oldest son, Ole Thorsteinson, served as a brave 



108 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

soldier through the war in the 15th regiment, 
AYisconsin vol., and has during the last few 
years been postmaster in London, Wisconsin. 

George Johnson came from Kendall to La 
Salle county, Illinois, in 1835, where he died 
from cholera in the same week as Gudmund 
Uaugaas, in July, 1849, leaving four children. 
He was married to a daughter of Jahan Nord- 
boe. 

Andrew (Endre) Dahl settled in Kendall, 
N. Y. Came thence to La Salle county, Illinois, 
in 1834. There he married the widow of Sven 
Aasen. Endre Dahl is remembered as the cook 
on board the sloop. His sons w^ent to Texas 
iu an early day and became experts in captur- 
ing wild horses. In the fifties, Andrew Dahl 
himself went to Salt Lake City in Utah, w^here 
he died. I have recently learned that one of his 
sons is still living in Utah, and his grandson, 
A. S. Anderson, born in Utah, was recently a 
in oin her of the Utah constitutional convention. 

( >f Xols Thompson, I have already given some 

account. Ho was a brother of Oyen Thompson 

and married the widow of the latter in Roches- 

in 1827. Ho removed to La Salle county, 

Illinois, in 1834, and died there in July, 18G3. 

Andrew Slangeland bought land in Kendall 
in 1825, and immediately married an American 







Mrs. Inger Mitchell. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. It » ( .) 

girl, by name Miss Susan Cary. It is said that 
he married her before he had learned to speak 
English. He afterwards Bold his land to Ole 
1J. Aasland and got in exchange for it a tract 
of land that Ole Aasland owned in Noble coun- 
ty, Ind. I am informed that Andrew Stange- 
land died in Indiana, but his son, Andrew J. 
Stangeland, is now living in Kendall, N. Y. 

Lars Olson, the captain of the sloop, married 
Rachel, the daughter of Thomas Madland, and 
settled in New York probably as a sailor. I 
am informed that both he and his wife died in 
New York many years ago. 

The mate, Mr. Erikson, some say went back 
to Bergen in Norway, while others claim that 
he, too, remained in New York. 

I have saved the slooper, Ole Olson Hetle- 
tvedt, for the last because I have a long story to 
tell about one of bis sons. He was born in the 
northern part of Sta winger Amt in Norway, 
where he had been a school teacher. He went 
first to Kendall and thence to Niagara Falls, 
where he found employment in a paper mill, 
and while living there he married an American 
lady by name Miss Chamberlain. Mrs. Inger 
Mitchell has informed me that she as a young 
girl lived about a year with Hetletvedt's family 
at Niagara Falls. After coming to this country 



110 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. / 

lie dropped the name Hetletvedt and signed 
hi in self Ole Olson. Ole Olson Hetletvedt came 
west, and settled first in La Salle county and 
afterwards near Newark, in Kendall county, 
Illinois, where he died about the year 
1849. He became widely known in the 
early days of our Norwegian settlements 
as a bible agent and as a most efficient 
lay preacher of the Haugian school. Of his 
gospel meetings I shall have occasion to speak 
in the latter part of this volume. Ole Olson's 
first wife died early and he married another 
American woman, a widow, but I have not been 
able to secure any further facts in regard to her. 
Two of Ole Olson's brothers came to America 
in 1836. One was Knud Olson Hetletvedt, who 
was born on the farm Hetletvedt in Stavanger 
Amt, April 21, 1793. He settled as a farmer 
in Mission, La Salle county, and lived there un- 
til he died in the cholera epidemic on August 
12, 1849. He left five children Ole,* Soren, 

* Si nee the above was written, I have had a 
letter from Ole Olson Hetletvedt, the nephew 
of the slooper. He informs me that he was 
born at Hetletvedt, Ombo, Stavanger Amt, 
April 23, 1824. As a twelve year old boy he 
emigrated to America with his parents and set- 
tled with them in Mission, La Salle county, 
Illinois, and lived there until 1865, when he 



THE SLOOP PARTY. Ill 

John, Sophia and Bertha. Ole and his two 
sisters live ii: Norway, Benton county, Iowa, 
the other two in Illinois. John is married to 
a daughter of Beach Fellows. The other 

moved to Norway, Benton county, Iowa where 
he now resides. His brother Soren was born 
December 30, 1835. He now resides in Living- 
ston county Illinois. John was born March 
12, 1839, in Mission and now resides in Ford 
county, Illinois. His sister Sophia was born 
in Norway, July 18, 1821, and his sister Bertha, 
December 30, 1832. There was an older brother 
John who was born April 8, 1830, and died Sep- 
tember 5, 1836, at Rochester, N. Y., and 
then there was a sister Malinda, who 
was born May 12, 1827, and died on 
Lake Michigan, September 10, 1836. Ole 
Olson's wife, Bertha Olson, was born Sep- 
tember 9, 1830, on the farm Valem, Aardal 
parish, Stavanger Amt. They were married 
December 25, 1857. Their children are Sarah 
Ann, born September 14, 1852 (married); Peter 
C. Olson, born April 21, 1854 (married); Sophia, 
born September 9, 1856; Edward, born May 14, 
1859 (deceased); Charles P., born February 4, 
1864 (deceased). 

Ole Olson also informs me that his mother's 
name was Siri (Sigrid), and that she was born 
January 13, 1793, and died from cholera August 
3, 1849. Mr. Olson also mentions Osmund Tat- 
tle from Hjelmeland in Stavanger Amt as com- 
ing to America in 1836. This Osmund was 
born in 1797, and died in 1880. The slooper, 



lili NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

brother was Jacob Olson Hetletvedt. He went 
to the Sugar Creek settlement in Lee county, 
Iowa, where he died August 24, 1S57. His 
widow married Sven Kjylaa, and with him she 

moved to the Fox River settlement. Her second 
husband died there recently, but she is said 
to be still living at a very advanced age. 

Ole Olson the slooper had four children, three 
sons and one daughter. The three boys were 
Porter C, Soren L. and James Webster. All 
three enlisted in Co. F, 36th regiment, Illinois 
volunteers. Porter C. was the captain, but ad- 
vanced to the colonelcy of the regiment, and 
was acting brigadier general when he w T as 
killed in the bloody battle of Franklin, Tenn. 
Soren L. was sergeant, and had his head 
blown off by a shell at the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, while James Webster came home again 
without a scar. He went to Minnesota where 
his sister Bertha was living. Porter was bur- 
led at Newark, Illinois, and a fine monument 
was erected on his grave. 

Ole Olson Hetletvedt, had a third brother by 
name Lars. Lars Olson Hetletvedt started 
for America in 1830, but did not get further 
i ban 1 [amburg, not having money enough to get 
to N«w York. Twenty years later, in 1850, he 
emigrated and located in the Fox River settle- 
ment, where he died about a year ago. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 113 

I think it is not generally known that Ole 
Olson Hetletvedt's son, Porter C. Olson, dis- 
tinguished himself in our late civil war, and I 
shall therefore now give some account of him. 

Everybody knows of Col. Hans C. Heg, the 
gallant colonel of the 15th Wisconsin regiment 
of volunteers, but we never see Colonel Porter 
C. Olson mentioned in the Scandinavian press 
of this country. He was born in Manchester, 
near Niagara Falls, in 1831. As shown above, 
his father was a Norwegian by birth and his 
mother an American lady. The family removed 
to Newark, Kendall county, Illinois, when Por- 
ter was a lad. He improved the usual advan- 
tages to be derived from country schools until 
he was fitted for college, and he subsequently 
attended Beloit college in Wisconsin, from 
June, 1856, to June, 1858, but he did not grad- 
uate there. 

At the breaking out of the Eebellion, he was 
teaching the public school at Lisbon, Illinois, 
but just as Col. Hans C. Heg left a lucrative 
state office in Wisconsin to serve his country in 
the war, so patriotism, duty and ambi- 
tion called Porter C. Olson from the school-room 
to the camp. Through his efforts a company 
was recruited at Newark, made up largely of 
8 



Ill NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

the sons of Norwegians from that locality and 
from the town of Mission in La Salle county. 
Porter C. Olson was elected its captain, and 
his company, with full ranks, was among the 
first at camp Hammond, where the 36th regi- 
ment of Illinois volunteers was organized. 
This camp was on the west side of Fox river, 
1 in If a mile above the village of Montgomery, 
and two miles from Aurora. The 36th regi- 
ment, known as the Fox river regiment, de- 
parted from camp Hammond for the seat of war 
September 24, 1861, and Porter C. Olson fol- 
lowed the fortunes of the regiment in its tedi- 
ous marches and participated in all its fierce 
encounters down to the fatal field at Franklin, 
Tennessee. He was a modest and unassuming 
man and a thorough personal acquaintance 
was necessary to fully understand and appre- 
ciate the many excellencies of his character. 
The historian of the regiment, Major L. G. Ben- 
nett, testifies that "next after the lamented 
Miller none stood higher or had a warmer place 
in the affections of the men than Lieut. Col. Por- 
ter C. < Hsoii." I find in the records of this rejri- 
nient that Mr. Olson commanded the regiment 
with great Inn very in the battle of Stone River 
in December, 1S62, and January, 1863. When 
Gen. Sill was killed in this battle on December 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 11j 

31, 1SG2, Col. Greusel of the 3Gth Illinois, took 
command of the brigade, and as Major Miller 
of the 3Gth Illinois, was wounded, the command 
of the regiment devolved on Porter C. Olson. 
Of the movements of the regiment during 11 
eventful days, Captain Olson made a full offi- 
cial report, and as this is the only document 
I have hitherto been able to find from the pen 
of this gallant soldier, I offer no apology for 
reproducing it here as a monument to his mem- 
ory. It gives us a most charming glimpse of 
him as a soldier, man and writer, and eminently 
deserves to be preserved among the records 
of our early Norwegian settlers. Hitherto his 
memory has been neglected by his country- 
men in America, but it shall henceforth live for- 
ever, and linked with that of the lamented CoL 
Hans C. Heg, it shall be handed down from 
generation to generation as long as descend- 
ants of the Norwegians shall be found among 
the citizens of the United States. I give Cap* 
tain Olson's report here as one of the most pre- 
cious historical documents that I have found 
for my readers of this volume: 

"Headquarters 3Gth 111. Vols., 

"Jan. 0, 1863; 
"The 36th Illinois regiment, Col. N. Grengel 
commanding, was called into line at four o'clock 
on Tuesday morning, December 30th, l$C2, and 



116 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

stood under arms until daylight, to the left of 
the Wilkinson pike, our right resting upon it, 
five miles from Murfreesboro. At nine o'clock 
a. m. we moved forward to Murfreesboro. Two 
companies were deployed as skirmishers to the 
right of the road and were soon engaged with 
the enemy's skirmishers. When two miles 
from Murfreesboro, the regiment was deployed 
in a corn-field to the right of the pike and two 
companies were sent forward as skirmishers, 
as ordered by Gen. Sill. The regiment lay in 
line in this field until 2 o'clock p. m. at which 
time the whole line was ordered to advance. 
The skirmishers kept up a sharp fire — the en- 
emy's line retreating and ours advancing. We 
drove the enemy through the timber and across 
the cotton field, a low, narrow strip stretching 
to the right into the timber. A rebel battery, 
directly in front of the 36th, opened a heavy 
fire upon us. Our skirmishers advanced to the 
foot of the hill near the cotton-field and here 
kept up a well directed fire. We were ordered 
to support Capt. Bush's batttery, w T hich was 
brought into position in the point of timber 
w 7 here our right rested, and opened fire with 
terrible effect upon the enemy. We remained 
as a support until nearly dark, when Capt. Bush 
went to the rear, the enemy's battery, or rather 
its disabled fragments, having been dragged 
from the field. In this day's engagement, the 
regiment lost three killed and fifteen wounded; 
total eighteen. We occupied the hill during the 
night, and our skirmishers were in line at the 
edge of the cotton-field. 
"On the morning of December 31st, soon after 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 117 

daylight, the enemy advanced in strong force 
from the timber beyond the cotton-field oppo- 
site our right. They came diagonally across 
the field and upon reaching the foot of the hill 
made a left half wheel, coining up directly in 
front of us. When the enemy had advanced 
up the hill sufficiently to be in sight, Col. (N) 
Oreusel ordered the regiment to fire, which was 
promptly obeyed. We engaged the enemy at 
short range, the lines being not over ten rods 
apart. After a few rounds, the regiment sup- 
porting us on the right gave wa} r . In this man- 
ner we fought for nearly half an hour, when 
Col. Greusel ordered the regiment to charge. 
The enemy fled in great confusion across the 
cotton-field into the woods opposite our left, 
leaving many of their dead and wounded upon 
the field. We poured a destructive fire upon 
them as they retreated until they were beyond 
range. 

"The 36th again took position upon the hill 
and the support for our right came forward. 
At this time Gen. Sill was killed and Col Greu- 
sel took command of the brigade. A fresh bri- 
gade of the enemy advanced from the direction 
that the first had come and in splendid order. 
We opened fire on them with terrific effect. 
Again the regiment on our right gave way and 
we were again left without support. In this 
-condition we fought until our ammunition was 
exhausted and the enemy had entirely flanked 
us on our right. At this juncture Major (Silas) 
Miller ordered the regiment to fall back. 
While retreating, Major Miller was wounded 
and the command devolved on me. We moved 



118 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

back of the corn-field to the edge of the timber 
a hundred rods to the right of the Wilkinson 
pike and two miles from Murfreesboro, at eight 
o'clock a. m. Here I met Gen. Sheridan and re- 
ported to him that the regiment was out of am- 
munition and that I would be ready for action 
as soon as I could obtain it. We had suffered 
severely in resisting the attack of superior num- 
bers. I had now only one hundred and forty 
men. The regiment fought with great obsti- 
nacy and much is due to Col. N. Greusel for his 
bravery in conducting the regiment before be- 
ing called away. Adjutant Biddulph went to 
find the ammunition, but did not succeed. I 
then informed Quartermaster Bouton, that I 
needed cartridges, but he failed to find any ex- 
cept size fifty-eight, the calibre of most of the 
arms being sixty-nine. I was ordered by Major 
General McCook to fall back to the rear of Gen. 
Crittenden's corps. I arrived there about ten 
o'clock a. m. I here obtained ammunition, 
and dispatched the adjutant to report to CoL 
Greusel the condition and whereabouts of the 
regiment. He returned without seeing the 
Colonel. Lieut. Watkins soon rode up and vol- 
unteered to take a message to Col. Greusel, or 
Gen. Sheridan. He also returned without find- 
ing either officer. I now went in search of Gen. 
Sheridan myself; found him at 12 o'clock, and 
reported to him the regiment (what there was 
left of it) ready to move to the front. He or- 
dered that 1 should hold the regiment in read- 
iness and await his commands. 

-At 2 oYlock p. m. I received orders from 
Gen. Sheridan to advance to the front to the 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 119 

left of the railroad and connect my command 
temporarily with Col. Leibold's brigade. We 
were here subject to a very severe artillery lire. 
A twelve-pound shell struck in the right of the 
regiment and killed Lieut. Soren L. Olson* (a 
brave and faithful officer, commanding com- 
pany F), Corporal Biggs, and wounding three 
others. At dark we were moved by Lieut. Den- 
ning one quarter of a mile to the rear, where we 
remained for the night. At three o'clock in the 
morning of the first of January, 1863, by order 
of Gen. Sheridan, we marched to his head quar- 
ters on the Nashville pike, a distance of half a 
mile, where at daylight I reported to Col. Greu- 
sel. As ordered by him we took position to the 
right of Capt. Bush's battery, fronting west. 
We built a barricade of logs and stone and re- 
mained through the day ready to receive the 
enemy, but no attack was made. On the morn- 
ing of the second, the regiment w r as in line at 
four o'clock; stood under arms until daylight. 
We remained ready for action through the day 
until four o'clock p. m., when, by order of Col. 
Greusel, w T e moved to the right on the line for- 
merly occupied by Gen. Davis. During the 
night considerable skirmishing occurred on our 
front. On the morning of the 3rd instant the 
regiment stood under arms from four o'clock 
until daylight. At eight o'clock a. m., by order 
of Col. Greusel, we changed position to the right 
and somewhat to the rear, letting our right rest 
upon the Nashville pike. On the morning of 
the fourth we were under arms at four o'clock. 

* Col. Porter C. Olson's brother. 



120 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

No fighting occurred on our part of the line dur- 
ing the day. In the action throughout, the 
regiment behaved in the most gallant manner. 
The officers, with only a single exception, dis- 
tinguished themselves for bravery and coolness. 
The men with unflinching courage were al- 
ways ready, and met the enemy with a deter- 
mination to conquer. I tender my thanks to 
Adjutant (George G.) Biddulph for the gallant 
and efficient manner in which he assisted me, 
and also to the other officers for their gallant 
action throughout the strong conflict, w^hich 
resulted in victory. I append to this report a 
list of casualties. 
" (Signed) Porter C. Olson, 

"Captain, Commanding 36M Illinois Vols!' 
Of the engagement thus described by Porter 
C. Olson, Gen. Rosecrans says: "The firing 
was terrific, and the havoc terrible. The enemy 
retreated more rapidly than they had advanced. 
In forty minutes they lost two thousand men." 
In his report of this bloody battle, Gen. P. H. 
Sheridan says : "I refer with pride to the splen- 
did conduct, bravery and efficiency of the fol- 
lowing regimental commanders, and the officers 
and men of their respective commands: Major 
Silas Miller, 36th 111., wounded and a prisoner; 
(apt. P. C. Olson, 36th 111." The 36th Illinois 
suffered more than any other regiment in this 
battle, the list of the dead and wounded filling 
two closely-printed pages in Bennett's History. 




Lieut. Col. Porter C. Olson, 
36th Illinois. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 



121 



Although Col. Hog and Col. Olson probably 
were strangers to each other, it is interesting 
to note the fact, that Colonel Hans C. Heg also 
was present and took an important part in the 
battle of Stone River, attracting the attention 
and admiration of his superiors for his great 
bravery and efficiency. Col. Heg and Col. Olson, 
both sons of pioneer immigrants from Norway, 
fought together in the battle of Stone River and 
on several other bloody battle-fields. They 
were both destined to meet death in later en- 
gagements for the life of our dear republic, but 
their fame shall henceforth go linked together 
down to the latest generations of the descend- 
ants of Norwegians in America. 

On the 9th of February, 1SG3, Col. N. Greusel 
felt constrained from the state of his health 
to tender his resignation, which was accepted. 
Captain Jenks, of Company A, Cavalry, was pro- 
moted to take his place. "He was a man of 
excellent abilities, of fine taste and culture, a 
man whom to know was to esteem," says Mr. 
Bennett, "but unfortunately he found himself 
in a position equally unpleasant for himself and 
the regiment. It was felt that the two com- 
panies of cavalry attached to the 36th Illinois, 
being so distinct in organization and service, 
ought not to be reckoned in the line of promo- 



122 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

tioiij but that the regimental officers should be 
taken from the regiment itself. This feeling 
was so intense that neither kindness nor disci- 
pline could oyercome it. At one time it seemed 
bo high that it almost threatened mutiny, when 
Col. Jenks wisely resigned and returned to his 
profession, in which he proved himself so suc- 
cessful." The result was that Capt. Porter 
C. Olson again took command of the regiment. 

On the 11th of May, 1863, Olson was regularly 
appointed lieutenant colonel, and took com- 
mand of the regiment for Silas Miller, who had 
received a commission as colonel, but was still 
a prisoner at Libby and did not return till May 
22. The promotion of Olson to the lieutenant 
colonelcy "was," says Mr. Bennett, "highly hon- 
orable to that worthy officer, whose fidelity and 
courage, tested both in camp and field, had w T on 
the confidence of the regiment. The appoint- 
ment, too, w T ill never cease to be equally hon- 
orable to Major George D. Sherman, who,, 
though himself the ranking officer and entitled 
to the position, recommended Capt. Olson." 
This was an instance of self-abnegation as hon- 
orable as it is rare, and speaks volumes both for 
.Mr. Olson and Mr. Sherman. 

It does not concern Col. Olson, but it inter- 
ested me immensely to find that in 1863 the 36th 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 



123 



Illinois resolved to carry a library of books with 
them for the social happiness and mental and 
moral improvement of the soldiers, and that 
my publishers, Messrs. S. C. Griggs & Co., of 
Chicago, sold them the books and presented 
the regiment with a copy of Webster's Una- 
bridged. 

The 3Gth Illinois suffered terribly in the bat- 
tle of Chickamauga, where our gallant Col. 
Hans E. Heg was shot on the 19th of September 
and died the following day, September 20. Here 
is a glimpse of Col. Olson on the day that Col. 
Heg died. I take it from Bennett's History: 
"In the meantime the fiery conflict grew more 
desperate and deadly. Col. Miller, on whom 
the command of the brigade devolved, gallant 
as ever; Lieut. Col. Olson, brave to a fault, and 
Major Sherman, true and unflinching, were 
everywhere conspicuous, encouraging the men 
by their example to wring from unwilling hands 
of fate the victory which was denied." 

At the battle of Mission Ridge Col. Olson 
again commanded the regiment and led it into 
the thickest of the fight. 

On February 2, 1864, the regiment returned 
to Chicago and a few days later to Aurora, 
w T here it was reorganized and started for the 
south again on the 19th of March, with Miller 



124 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

as colonel and Porter C. Olson as lieutenant 
colonel. 

As evidence of Olson's popularity it may be 
mentioned that the ground on which they 
camped near Cowan, Tenn., was called Camp 
Olson. From June until the 24th of August 
Olson was absent from the regiment on account 
of sickness, but upon the death of Col. Silas Mil- 
ler, he returned and resumed command. On 
the 23d of September, 18G4, the anniversary of 
the mustering in of the regiment, one hundred 
and twenty-seven men and one officer, whose 
three years had expired, were mustered out and 
took leave of their comrades. Being drawn 
up in line, they were addressed in a speech by 
Col. Olson, who "reviewed their connection with 
the regiment, honored their fidelity, and ex- 
horted them to be true to the country, as citi- 
zens at home, while their comrades continued 
to bear the hardships of camp and field." 

On the 30th of November occurred the bloody 
fight and slaughter at Franklin, Tenn. For his 
successful resistance and victory in this battle, 
Gen. Scofield was in a large measure indebted 
to the cool courage of Col. Olson and the gal- 
lant 3Gth in checking and delaying the march 
of Hood's army until the works at Franklin 
were strengthened. It w r as a delicate and dan- 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 



125 



gerous duty to clear the pike and hold it open 
to enable the troops from Columbia to pass 
without interruption, and Col. Olson with his 
regiment was selected to do this. 

In the battle of Franklin, Col. Olson was 
everywhere among his men with words of cheer 
and encouragement, and utterly regardless of 
his own life and safety. Shortly after reach- 
ing the works he was struck by a musket ball, 
which entered his breast and passed through 
his body in the region of the heart. He fell in- 
stantly, but in falling he requested Lieut. Hall 
of Company E to take him to the rear. As- 
sisted by Sergeant Yarnell of Company G, they 
carried him to the shelter of a brick-house 
standing near the works, when, perceiving that 
he was failing fast, the lieutenant called to 
Capt. Biddulph to attend to the regiment as the 
colonel's wound was mortal. Yarnell wrenched 
a window shutter from the house, on which the 
bleeding body of their commander was placed 
and hurriedly borne to the rear, while musket 
balls and cannon shot were striking around 
them in fearful quantities. 

Beaching the river, they were none too soon 
to secure the last vacant place in an ambulance 
in which he was tenderly placed by the side of 
the wounded color-bearer, Mr. Zimmer. Then 



126 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

taking a last look at their dying chief, they hur- 
ried back to the trenches, resumed their posi- 
tion in the line and fought bravely to the end. 
The colonel's life ebbed rapidly away and in a 
half unconscious state the pious, god-fearing 
soldier feebly whispered, "Oh, help me, Lord!" 
These were his last words and his heart was 
still. His noble spirit had taken its flight to 
that country where wars and battles are un- 
known. L. G. Bennett, in whose work this ac- 
count of Col. Porter C. Olson is found, closes 
the chapter on Col. Olson's death with these 
eloquent and striking words: "When brave 
Olson fell, a cold tremor thrilled along the line. 
At any other time than in the face of the enemy 
and under a murderous fire, the men would 
have sat down and cried like children over his 
untimely fate. Brave, generous, earnest and 
faithful, none had stood more honestly by the 
men or been more true to the country than he. 
Always present in the perils and hardships of 
the 36th, he had shared them all and won his 
way into the hearts and affections of the men, 
making a record of glory that will never be 
closed up or forgotten, though his mangled re- 
mains may moulder and lay hidden from sight 
in an unknown and unmarked grave. The 
name of Porter C. Olson will live forever, and 




Mrs. Martha Fellows. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 



127 



be handed down along the imperishable ;i 
indissoluble linked with the lame of the im- 
mortal Thirty-tiL'th." 

I am happy to be able to embellish this \<>] 
ume with a portrait of Col. Olson. It shows a 
peculiarly mild, intelligent and thoughtful face. 
This grand life and Col. Olson's splendid serv- 
ices resulted from the immigration of his 
father, Ole Olson, in 1825, and many a descend- 
ant of Norwegian immigrants appreciates the 
force and significance of this remark. 

Six of this memorable Restauration party 
are still (spring, 1895) living, viz.: 

1. Mrs. Sara T. Richey, a daughter of Oyen 
Thompson. She was born March 1), ISIS, four- 
teen miles south of Stavanger, Norway, and 
now resides at Guthrie Center, Iowa. 

2. Mrs. Inger Mitchell. She was born in 
Tysver Parish, Norway, December 11, 1S19, and 
now resides at Ottawa, 111. 

3. Mrs. Martha Fellows. She was born in 
Tysver Parish, Norway, September 27, 1S23, 
and now r resides at Ottawa, 111. Mrs. Mitchell 
and Mrs. Fellows are sisters, and daughters of 
Cornelius Nelson Ilersdal. They are nieces 
of Kleng Peerson, who ^as a brother of their 
mother. 

4. Mrs. Margaret Allen Atwater, a da ugh- 



128 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

terof Lars Larson. She was born on board the 
sloop September 2/1825, and now resides at 
Western Springs, Cook county, 111. 

These four became the wives of American 
husbands, and as a consequence now bear old 
English names. 

5. Mrs. Hulda Olson, born in Tysver Parish, 
February 20, 1825, a daughter of Daniel Sten- 
son Rossadal. She married a Norwegian by 
name Rasmus Olson, who, as seen above, died 
in Sheridan, Illinois, in 1893. Mrs. Olson still 
resides in Sheridan. 

6. Mrs. Jacob Anderson (Slogvig), Serena, 
born in 1814, a daughter of Thomas Madland. 
She with her husband removed to California 
and became wealthy. Mr. Anderson died in 
1SG1, but Serena is still living in San Diego, 
California. I received a letter from her, dated 
February 17, 1895. Mrs. Olson and Mrs. Ander- 
son still bear Norwegian names. 

My readers will be pleased to find portraits 
of all these survivors. It will be seen that they 
are all women and it is hardly necessary to add 
that they very reluctantly gave me their por- 
traits for publication in this volume. 

The last couple to survive of those who em- 
barked in the sloop on July 4, 1825, were Nels 
Nelson 1 Iorsdal and his wife Bertha. Mrs. Nel- 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 12i> 

son died in 1882 and Mr. Nelson in 1886, a little 
over S6 years old. The last male survivor was 
Nels Nelson, Jr., a son of Cornelius Nelson and 
nephew of Kleng Peerson. He was born in 
Tysver Parish, Norway, June 29, 1816, and died 
at Sheridan, 111., August 29, 1893. His wife, 
Catherine Evenson, is still living in Sheridan, 
111. Her father, Knut Evenson, came to Amer- 
ica in 1831 in the same vessel with Gjert Hov- 
land, who was mentioned above (see p. 81). He 
settled in Kendall, N. Y., and both he and his 
wife died there. Catherine came with friends 
to La Salle county, 111., in 1839. Nels Nelson 
w r as usually styled Jr., to distinguish him from 
Nels Nelson Hersdal, who was called Nels Nel- 
son, Sr. Nels Nelson, Jr., and his wife Cather- 
ine had ten children, four of whom are now liv- 
ing, three daughters and a son. The son, whose 
name is Cornelius, lives on the farm in Mission 
township, La Salle county, 111., purchased for his 
grandmother, Carrie (Kari) Nelson, the widow 
of Cornelius Nelson, by Kleng Peerson, be- 
fore she moved to Illinois in 1836. On this farm, 
which is the west half of the southwest quar- 
ter of section thirty-three, township thirty-five, 
range 5 E., 3 P. M., she built a log house shortly 
after her arrival and made her home there until 



130 NORWEGIAN IMMIO RATION. 

she died, July 24, 1848. As heretofore stated, 
my parents lived in this house with Mrs. Nelson 
for several months after their arrival in Illinois 
in 1837. This farm became the property of her 
son, Nels Nelson, Jr., the last male survivor of 
the sloop party, and now his son, Cornelius, 
has it. The original log house still stands, but 
has been sided over and a larger frame build- 
ing has been added to it; but it still serves as 
a home for a grandchild of a slooper. I speak 
thus fully of this farm, because it is beyond all 
doubt the first farm selected by a Norwegian 
in America west of the Great Lakes, and it 
would not be out of place to commemorate the 
event by a small monument in honor of Mrs. 
Carrie Nelson's brother, Kleng Peerson, of Hest- 
hammer, Tysver Parish, Skjold District, Stavan- 
ger county, Norway. Perhaps it was on this 
land he lay down and rested and had his mem- 
orable dream of which I shall give an account 
later on. At all events this is the first piece of 
land selected by a Norwegian in the great 
Northwest. 

It gives me pleasure to be able to give por- 
traits of Lars Larson and his wife, Martha 
Georgiana; of Nels Nelson Hersdal and his 
wife Bertha, and of Nels Nelson, Jr., and his 
wife Catherine, whom he married May 8, 1S42. 



THE SLOOP PARTY. 131 

The portrait of Lars Larson is from a daguer- 
reotype taken after death and now in the pos- 
session of the daughter, Mrs. Atwater. It is the 
only portrait in existence of this leader of the 
sloop party. 

I have dwelt long on the sloop party and feel 
that I may have exhausted the patience of my 
readers, but I find the sloop so important from 
every point of view, that I have left no stone 
unturned in gathering the facts in regard to 
its passengers, and I could not refrain from in- 
corporating in this work a condensed statement 
of all the information in my possession. In 
regard to the fifty-three passengers I have given 
all the important facts that I have been able 
to glean, but in regard to their descendauts I 
am in possession of much that I could not use 
without swelling this volume into undue pro* 
portions. Meanwhile we may now consider 
the sloop party disposed of and go back again 
and take up the thread of our narrative, where 
we dropped it with the foundation of the first 
Norwegian settlement in America in this cen- 
tury in the town of Kendall, Orleans county, 
New Yorkj in 1825-1836. 



132 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 



VI. 
From 1825 to 1836. 

From 1825 to 1836 there was but little immi- 
gration from Norway. Before 1836 there were 
no vessels carrying emigrants from Norway to 
America. Those Norwegians who did emigrate 
came either by way of Gothenborg, Sweden, or 
Hamburg or Havre, in all of which cities pas- 
sengers to America could be accommodated. 

The Gothenborg vessels carried Swedish iron 
to America, but emigrants frequently had to 
wait for weeks before they found a ship bound 
for New York. From Hamburg regular packet 
s'hips carried German immigrants, but these 
were so numerous that there was frequently 
a delay of from two to three weeks, before they 
could be accommodated. In Havre the emi- 
grant packets were also regular, but there were 
not so many emigrants and the Norwegians 
could count on getting a passage on the first 
ship leaving the port. This made Havre the 
most popular point of departure from Europe 
for the Norwegians. 

The most of these Norwegian immigrants 



from 1825 to 1836. 



133 



joined the colony at Kendall, N. Y. In my 
travels and correspondence I have been able 
to trace a considerable number of these and 
their descendants, and I shall now proceed to 
mention a few more or less conspicuous ex- 
amples. 

Christian Olson came from Norway in 
1829 and settled in Kendall, N. Y. After liv- 
ing there eight years he moved to La Salle 
county, 111., in 1837, and died there in 1858. He 
was married three times and left one son by 
his second wife, Rasmus Olson, who married 
Hulda, the daughter of Daniel Stenson Rossa- 
dal, and died in 1893 at the age of seventy-tAvo, 
having been eight years old when he came to 
America. His widow, Hulda Olson, who came 
in the sloop, is still living, as shown above. 

Gudman Sandsberg, whose name until he 
emigrated was Gudmund Osmundson Fister, 
was born in the Parish of Hjelmeland, Stavan- 
ger Amt, Norway, in the year 1787. He emi- 
grated with his family to America in 1829 and 
first settled in Kendall, N. Y. I have seen the 
testimonial from his pastor in Norway, and the 
following is a translation of it: 

"Gudmund Osmundson Fister, 42 years <>1<1, 
and his wife, Mari Pedersdatter, 33 years old, 
took communion the last time in Fist or church 



134 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

the 17th Sunday after Trinity, 1827. They have 
three children, Bertha, baptized December 26, 
1820, Anna, baptized January 5, 1826, and Tor- 
bor, baptized November 18, 1827. This couple, 
whose conduct here so far as known to me has 
been christianlike, now intend to emigrate with 
their children to America in the hope of there 
getting better conditions than in the fatherland. 
God the Almighty conduct them on their jour- 
ney through time and eternity! 

"Hjelmeland Parsonage, June 9, 1829. 

"(Signed) Hjorthoi." 

Mr. Sandsberg was a loyal Lutheran and as 
is clear from this testimonial he did not leave 
Norway to escape from religious intolerance 
or persecution, but solely to better his condi- 
tion. I have also examined Sandsberg's pass- 
port, which states that he was born in the Par- 
ish of Hjelmeland, that he was "sixty-one inches 
tall, had brown eyes, a ruddy face, brown hair 
and broad shoulders." This passport is written 
at Sandsgaard in Ryfylke, June 10, 1829. It 
was shown in Stavanger July 8, 1829, again at 
Ny Elfsborg in Sweden July 12, 1829, again at 
Gothenborg July 14, 1829, and finally at Ny 
Elfsborg July 18, 1829. This is evidence that 
he came by way of Gothenborg. In 1836 Sands- 
berg came to Illinois and made his home in Mis- 



from 1825 to 1836. 



135 



sion, La Salle county, where he died March 14, 
1840. His occupation both in Norway and in 
America was that of a farmer. He was well 
educated in Norwegian and could also read and 
write English. The signature on his passport 
shows the handwriting of a man well trained 
in the art of writing. 

Gudmund Sandsberg lived at Fister before 
he came to America, and until that time he 
signed himself Gudmund Osmundson Fister. 
His father lived at Sandsberg and when Gud- 
mund came to America he assumed that name. 

When Knud Slogvig went to Norway in 1835, 
he carried with him a letter from Gudmund 
Sandsberg to his friend Andreas Sandsberg at 
Hellen, in Norway. Andreas answered on the 
14th of May, 1836, and this letter from Andreas 
to Gudmund is with other documents still pre- 
served by the family. The family letters were 
loaned to me, and from the above epistle I made 
the following interesting extract: "A consid- 
erable number of people are now getting ready 
to go to America from this Amt (that is, Sta- 
vanger Amt). Two brigs are to depart from 
Stavanger in about eight days from now, and 
will carry these people to America, and if good 
reports come from them, the number of emi- 
grants will doubtless be still larger next year. 



136 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

A pressing and general lack of money entering 
into every branch of industry, stops or at least 
hampers business and makes it difficult for 
many people to earn the necessaries of life. 
While this is the case on this side of the At- 
lantic there is hope of abundance on the other, 
and this, I take it, is the chief cause of this 
growing disposition to emigrate. I am very 
anxious to get a letter from you, in which I beg 
you to inform me about your own circumstances 
and about the condition of the country in gen- 
eral." 

This letter is valuable in as much as it throws 
light on Knud Slogvig's return to Norway. It 
fixes the year of that visit as 1835. It also 
helps us in regard to the date of the departure 
of the Kohler brigs from Stavanger in the sum- 
mer of 1836. We are also glad to get so full a 
statement from a person who was in the 
midst of it, in regard to the cause of the emi- 
gration. While religious persecution drove 
the sloop people to America, and while dissat- 
isfaction with the social and political condi- 
tions in Norway caused many to renounce the 
land of their fathers, still we must not forget 
that a hope of securing better opportunities 
than the parent soil could offer, was a most 
potent cause of emigration. 



from 1825 to 183G. 



137 



I have seen a letter written by Andreas 
Sandsberg to Gudniund Sandsberg, dated at 
Bellen, September 12, 1831, in which the writer 

also describes the hard times in Norway, and 
mentions the enormous prices of rye and barley. 
He tells about the war between Russia and Po- 
land and about the terrible cholera epidemic, 
Then raging throughout Europe, and he ascribes 
the hard times to these causes. Under date of 
May 14, 1830, Osmund Anderson Sandsberg 
writes to Gudmund to inquire about Anders 
Enochson Qiuedland, who left Norway about 
the year 1806 as a sailor, and presumably went 
to America. A letter had been received from 
him, written in America in 1825. There was 
money for Enochson in Norway, and Osmund 
requests Gudmund to look him up and so find 
out what was to be done with the money. 

Gudmund Sandsberg's daughter married a 
Mr. Mitchell. She still lives in Ottawa, 111., and 
her son, M. B. Mitchell, is a wholesale dealer 
in cigars in that city. The letters, testimonial 
and passport to which I have referred belong 
to Mrs. Mitchell, and were kindly loaned me by 
her son, M. B. Mitchell. On examining these 
documents I could not help thinking what a 
help it would be to the historian if people 
would take better care of their old letters and 



138 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

other written and printed documents. Those 
who have no place to take care of them should 
present them to some historical society, where 
they might be preserved for reference. 

According to the best information I have 
been able to obtain, Johan Nordboe came to 
Kendall, N. Y., in 1832. He was from the east- 
ern part of Norway, and took his name from 
Nordboe in Ringebo in Gudbrandsdal. His wife 
was from CEsterdalen. Nordboe spent three 
years in Kendall, but did not seem to get on 
well with his countrymen there, who were all 
from the western part of Norway, and the Sta- 
vangerings, including Kleng Peerson, did not 
seem willing to give the man from Gudbrands- 
dal a fair chance. To Ole Canuteson, now of 
Waco, Texas, he made the statement that he 
could not get in Kendall the nice farm that 
he wanted, and that Kleng Peerson insisted on 
his taking an inferior one, which he did not ac- 
cept. Johan Nordboe and Kleng Peerson were 
not therefore the best of friends for a time, but 
in their later years they seem to have become 
nearly, if not entirely, reconciled and their re- 
lations in Texas were friendly. In Norway 
Johan Nordboe had been an itinerant physician 
and he also practiced the healing art after he 
came to this country. I learn of his vaccinat- 



FROM 1^25 TO 1836. 



139 



ing children both in Kendall and in the Fox- 
River settlement. Mrs. Norboe was a midwife. 

In 1836 he moved to Illinois, but did not seem 
to like it there any better than in Kendall, and 
so we find him removing first to Missouri in 
1837 (Shelby county), and then to Texas in 1838. 
So far as I have been able to learn he was the 
first Norwegian who ever went to Texas. He 
had no desire to found a Norwegian settlement. 
On the contrary, his aim seemed to be to get 
away from his countrymen. He settled in Dal- 
las county, Texas, where for himself and family 
he got a bonus of 1,920 acres of land. 

He was living in Dallas county when the Rei- 
ersons and Wserenskjolds came to Texas in 
1815 In the early fifties he visited the 
Waerenskjolds at Four Mile Prairie. In a 
letter to me the late Mrs. Elise Wserenskjold 
describes him as a student of history and 
science. She say he was skillful in draw- 
ing and had talents for sculpture. When 
she saw him, he was a small, feeble man 
about eighty years old. Although he did not 
like to live in a Norwegian settlement, he felt 
a deep interest in his countrymen, and when 
he learned that the Reiersons and Waeren- 
skjolds were living at Four Mile Prairie, old 
and feeble as he was, he could not help making 



140 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

them a visit. He was unable to ride horseback, 
and Ins sods who did not share their father's 
desire to meet countrymen," being unwilling to 
take him with team and wagon, the old man 
trudged on foot the long way from Dallas to 
Four Mile Prairie and arrived there a little be- 
fore Christmas, 1851. He spent the Yule holi- 
days there, and after Chirstmas Kleng Peerson 
came to accompany him to his home. This 
proves that he and Kleng had become good 
friends again. Nordboe was not entirely 
pleased with this part of the program, as it was 
difficult for the man from Gudbrandsdal to 
keep pace with the old Stavangering. Mrs. 
y\ T arenskjold adds to this incident that Johan 
Nordboe seemed to her a "very kind man." 
AVhen Nordboe came to Texas in 1838, he had 
three sons, and he left a married daughter in 
the Fox River settlement, the wife of the 
Blooper, George Johnson. From Dallas county 
lie afterwards moved to Tarrant county, where 
he died some time in the sixties, but I have no 
dates. His widow and sons w T ent to California, 
but I have not been able to trace them and find 
out their address. The two oldest sons, Peter 
and Jeli n, were married to American women. 
Through p. C. Nelson, now of Larned, Kansas, I 
leur.ied that John Nordboe vaccinated some of 
the children of Cornelius Nelson Hersdal in 




Inoebret Larson Narviu. 



from 1825 to 1836. 



141 



Kendali, and the rest of them in the Fox River 
sett lenient, and thus I was able to get at the 
years of his coming to America, of his coming 
to Illinois and of his departure for Texas. 

Knut Evenson and family came from Norway 
in 1831 and settled in Kendall, N. Y., where he 
and his wife died. Their daughter Catherine 
went with friends to La Salle county, 111., in 
1839, where she afterwards married Nels Nel- 
son, Jr., the last male survivor of the sloop, and 
she still lives in Sheridan, 111. 

Gjert Hovland, who has been mentioned al- 
ready and who will be mentioned again, came 
to New York in the same ship with Knut Even- 
son in 1831, lived four years in Kendall, N. Y., 
then removed to La Salle county, 111., where he 
died in 1870. 

There is a remarkable record of a man by 
name Ingebret Larson Narvig, who came from 
Tysver, Stavanger Amt, in the year 1831. He 
was a Quaker and clung to his Quaker faith 
to his dying day. He arrived alone in Boston 
and then footed it from there to the Norwegian 
settlement in Kendall, N. Y. He remained 
there two years and then joined Kleng Peerson 
on his journey to Illinois in 1833. It is said 
that there was a third Norwegian in this com- 
pany, but I have not been able to get any fur- 



142 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

tker trace of this third party. On the way In- 
gebret Larson Narvig left Kleng at Erie, Mon- 
roe county, Mich., and went to work for a 
farmer six miles north of that place. Here he 
married an American woman and remained 
there about twenty-three years. His wife died 
and he married her sister, and moved to Wis- 
consin, settling in Green Lake county, where 
he resided until 1885, when he moved to Tyler, 
Minnesota, where he died January 21, 1892. 
Mr. Jer. F. Fries, banker in Toronto, South Da- 
kota, met him shortly before his death, and in- 
forms me that old Ingebret had forgotten his 
mother tongue, but spoke English with a Nor- 
wegian accent. He was still a Quaker, and had 
his old Norwegian Bible, which he was still 
able to read. He was a born adventurer, but 
his religious views caused him to lead a quiet, 
unpretentious life. A daughter of his, Mrs. Car- 
rena Vine, living at Porter, Minnesota, and Gil- 
bert J. Larson, of Tyler, Minnesota, is a son of 
our Ingebret. While a farmer by occupation, 
he devoted much time to the study of medicine. 
He had twelve children, five of whom are liv- 
ing. A friend of this interesting immigrant 
writes to me of him : "A most modest, pleasant 
and gentle old man was he. It is a pleasure 
to me to have known him." Ingebret Larson 



from 1825 to 1836. 143 

Narvig is to be remembered as the first Norwe- 
gian to settle in the state of Michigan. 

Early in the year 1S95, I received a letter 
from Mrs. Carrena Vine, a daughter of Ingebret 
Larson Narvig, and from it I take the liberty 
of making the following extract: 

"I will try to give you a short sketch of 
father's life as told by him to *ue at different 
times. 

"He was born near Stavanger, Norway, Jan- 
uary 8, 1808. His father owned the farm he 
lived on and was by occupation a farmer on a 
small scale, keeping at the same time a number 
of cattle, sheep and goats. My father's youth 
was spent taking care of the sheep and goats 
on the rocky hills of grandfather's farm, and 
at the same time he studied the religious books, 
catechism, etc., of the Lutheran churchi In 
that church he was confirmed as a small boy. 

"But his heart was not with the faith of his 
fathers, and he became a member of the Quaker 
society in 182G, when he was only eighteen 
years old. He loved and revered the faith and 
teachings of the Friends throughout his long 
life. He served as a sailor for a short time, but 
his companions were so rough and profane that 
he left the sea after one voyage. In 1831 he 



141 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

came to America and settled in Michigan in 
1833. 

"In 1840, while living in Michigan on his 
farm, three miles from Adrian in Lewaunee 
county, he married Miss Lydia E. Smith, the 
daughter of William Smith, of Farmington, 
N. Y. Two children were born to them: Even 
D. and Gilbert B. These two children, he often 
said to me, were as dear to him as the apple of 
his eye. 

"Lydia died in 1844. Her death came to him 
like a cloud in a clear sky and was the first 
great sorrow of his life. In 1847 he married 
Chloe A., the sister of Lydia and my mother. 

"In 1856 he moved to Wisconsin, and bought 
a farm in Green Lake county, three miles from 
the village of Marquette. There he lived and 
did quite well as a farmer. His son Even died 
at the age of twenty-one, and once more his 
heart was filled with deepest grief. 

"In 1876 my mother passed away and then 
his home was broken up. 

"After many discouraging experiences with 
ic:it crs, he sold the farm and came to Minne- 
sota in 1885 and made his home with Gilbert 
and myself, living with us alternately. He 
passed to the great beyond January 21, 1892, at 



from 1825 to 1836. 145 

the age of eighty-four, at the home of his son 
Gilbert, and was buried January 23, in the cem- 
etery near the village of Tyler, Minn., far from 
the land of his birth, and far away from the 
graves of his mother, wives and child." 

From later correspondence with Ingebret 
Larson Narvig's family I learn that two of his 
daughters started for California on horseback. 
Their names were Emma and Ida, aged re- 
spectively twenty-four and fifteen. Ida was 
forbidden to go, but she left clandestinely. This 
occurred in 1883. Ida eventually gave up the 
ride and went through by rail. Emma rode a 
bay mare with a yearling colt running at her 
side. She was very fond of horses and this 
mare, named- Kit, was given to frer by her 
father. The horse was greatly attached to her 
fair rider. Emma carried a blanket and rested 
at night on the ground with the horse tethered 
at her side. She crossed the plains and of 
course suffered somewhat for lack of water, but 
reached San Francisco in saftey, though very 
much browned and weather-beaten. Ida met 
her there and they went together to the house 
of Ingebret Larson's brother, Elisha, who lived 
near Oakland. There they remained a year. 
They then rode their horses most of the way 
10 



14b NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

back to Minnesota. These two girls later made 
a journey to New Mexico in a wagon. Such 
expeditions certainly show that these girls had 
inherited some of the old Viking spirit and en- 
ergy. 

When Ingebret Larson left Michigan in a 
wagon he had six children, but the three young- 
est died in Kenosha, Wis. In Marquette, Green 
Lake count}', Wis., he went to the home of his 
bachelor brother, Elias, and lived there more 
than a year before moving onto a farm that 
he had bought near his brother's. Elias died 
at Ingebret's home many years ago. Elisha 
was in Oregon when last heard from. 



VII. 
The Exodus of 1836. 

Of course a lot of letters were written by the 
Norwegians in America to relatives and friends 
in Norway, and these were read by hundreds 
who were anxious to better their fortunes. I 
have already mentioned Gjert Hovland and 
Gudmund Sandsberg as letter- writers, and we 
have had a glimpse of the character of their 
correspondence. Of Gjert Hovland we know 



THE EXODUS OF 1836. 147 

that his letters to Norway were transcribed in 
hundreds of copies and sent from house to house 
and from parish to parish throughout southern 
Norway. Many of the early immigrants have 
stated to me and to others that they were in- 
duced to emigrate by reading copies of Gjert 
Hovland's letters, and we can conceive that sim- 
ilar results would follow from reading letters 
written by the intelligent Gudmund Sands- 
berg, by Lars Larson and by many others of 
the sloop people. 

Finally one of the sloop passengers, Knud 
Anderson Slogvig, returned to Norway in 1835, 
iind the news that he had arrived at his old 
home in the Skjold District spread far and wide 
and created the greatest excitement. It made 
him the hero of the day. People traveled hun- 
dreds of miles to see and talk with him. The 
letters from Gjert Gregoriuson Hovland and 
others had been read with the deepest interest, 
but here was a man who had spent ten years 
in the New World. Through Knud Slogvig the 
America fever spread beyond the limits of 
Stavanger Amt and Christiansand Stift. We 
find people in the south part of Bergen Stift 
discussing emigration to America. In the win- 
ter of 1835 and 1836, we find that three men, 
1-elatives of the well-known Knud Langland, 



148 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

went from Sainnanger in Bergens Stift to 
Skjold, to visit and interview Knud Slogvig. 
This led to the great exodus of 1836, when the 
two Kohler brigs, "Norden," and "Den Norske 
Klippe" were fitted out for emigrants in Sta- 
vanger and left that summer, loaded with about 
two hundred passengers for New York. The 
America fever continued, calling for two ships, 
in 1837, "^gir" from Bergen, and "Enigheden" 
from Egersund. "Enigheden" came from Eger- 
sund, but actually sailed from Stavanger. 
Then there was a partial lull until after 1840, 
w T hen the America fever set in for good and 
it has continued to rage ever since, culminating 
as already stated in 1882. 

The immediate cause and actual leader of the 
exodus in 1836 was Knud Slogvig. His return 
to Norway was an important event in the his- 
tory of Norwegian emigration, and as he was 
going back the next year, he naturally became 
the promotor and leader. I believe his chief 
purpose in returning to Norway was to get a 
wife, for he married a sister of Ole Olson Hetle- 
tvedt and the great interest he awakened in 
America was doubtless accidental. After his 
return t<> America he made a visit to Missouri 
with Kleng Peerson in 1837, but aside from that 
he lived a quiet and unassuming life as 



THE EXODUS OF 1836. 149 

farmer, first in La Salle county and afterwards 
in Lee county, where he and his wife died. 

I have myself known personally many of 
those who came in "Xorden" and "Den Norske 
Klippe" in 1836, and have learned of others, 
through their friends and acquaintances. It 
would require too much space to give an ac- 
count of all of them, even if this were possible, 
but I will mention some of them. 

Amund Anderson Hornefjeld was born on 
the farm Hornefjeld on the island of Moster, 
near Stavanger, February 1G, 180G. He emi- 
grated with the party led by Knud Slogvig, in 
1830, and went directly to La Salle county, 
Illinois. In 1840 he came to Wisconsin, and 
alter purchasing his land in Albion, 
Dane county, Wisconsin, he went back to La 
Salle county, Illinois, and there he married Mrs. 
Ingeborg Johnson, the widow of Erik Johnson 
Ssevig, who came to America in 1836, and died 
in the Fox river settlement in 1840. Mr. John- 
son was from Kvinhered Parish, in Norway, 
and was born in 1803. He left two children, 
John, now in Wyoming, and Anna Bertha 
(Betsy Ann), who is the wife of John J. Naset, 
in Christiana, Dane county, Wisconsin. In 
1841, Amund Anderson moved with his wife 
and two step-children to Albion, where he be- 




150 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

came a prosperous farmer and died ripe in 
years, March 18, 1886. His wife was born 
November 22, 1809, and died November 7, 1884. 
They left several children, one of whom, Soren 
Anderson, owns the original homestead, where 
Rev. Dietrichson preached his first sermon on 
Koshkonong in the fall of 1844. Anmnd and 
Ingeborg's portraits are given. 

Andrew Anderson Aasen, from Tysver Parish, 
Skjold district, Stavanger Amt, came in 1836, 
and remained two years in Kendall, N. Y., with 
his brother-in-law, Nels Nelson Hersdal, and 
came to La Salle county, Illinois, in 1838, where 
he died from cholera in 1849. His widow, 
Olena, a sister of Nels Nelson Hersdal, died in 
the Fox river settlement in 1875. One son of 
his, Einar (Ener) Anderson came w T ith his par- 
ents, two sisters and two brothers, to Kendall, 
N. Y., and thence to La Salle county, Illinois, 
and is still living on his farm in the town of 
Miller. I visited him in 1893, and found that 
he came in the same ship with my parents. 
Although now 77 years old he is still hale and 
hearty. His portrait will be found in this vol- 
ume. 

Osmund Thomason came in 1836, settled in 
La Salle county, and died there in 1876, 92 years 
old. His daughter Ann, who was born July 4, 




Einar Anderson (Aasen). 




Lars Larson Brimsoe. 



THE EXODUS OF 1636. 151 

1834, married Christopher Danielson, one of my 
best correspondents in La Salle county, and 
now resides in Sheridan, Illinois. 

Ole T. Olson settled in La Salle county, Illi- 
nois. His widow lived until 1877, when she died, 
over 90 years old. Their son, Nels Olson, lives 
on the old homestead in the town of Adams. 

Knud Olson Hetletvedt came from Norway, 
with his wife Serina, in 1836. He was a brother 
of Ole Olson Hetletvedt, who came to America, 
in the sloop, and of whom I have already given 
some account. Both Knud and his wife died 
from cholera in La Salle county, in 1849. Their 
son, Ole Olson Hetletvedt, the namesake of his 
uncle, was born in Skjold Parish in Norway, 
April 24, 1824, and now resides at Norway, Ben- 
ton county, Iowa. He has been helpful to me in 
giving me facts about his family. 

The first couple to emigrate from Voss, in 
Bergen Stift in Norway, were Nels Rothe and 
his wife Thorbjor. They emigrated in 1836 and 
must have come in one of the Kohler brigs, 
from Stavanger. They spent a year or two in 
Eochester, N. Y., and then moved to Chicago, 
where they died. In 1839 we find them living 
in an old log house in that city. 

Among the Norwegians who emigrated in 
1836, I may still mention Lars Larson Brimsoe, ' 



152 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

who was born October 14, 1812. On January 
1, 1849, he married Anna Hendrikson Sebbe, 
from Hjelmeland. The widow came to Amer- 
ica in 1848, and now resides in Strand, Adams 
county, Iowa. Her father, Henrik Erikson 
Sebbe, came to America in 1836 with his two 
sons. They first settled in the Fox Biver settle- 
ment, but in 1848, they went to Salt Lake Oity, 
and there joined the Mormons. I take it that 
they were the first Norwegians to enter the ter- 
ritory of Utah. Since the death of Henrik, in 
Utah, several years ago, nothing has been heard 
of the family. Lars Larson Brimsoe came from 
Stavanger, w r here he was born. After spending 
some time in New York and in Chicago, as a 
carpenter and sailor, he moved to the Fox River 
settlement. There he soon became known 
for his ability, and he w r as repeatedly elected 
to the office of justice of the peace. He read 
law extensively and made contracts, deeds and 
wills for his neighbors. He also argued cases 
in justice courts. In 1858, he moved to Ben- 
ton county, Iowa, in 1872, to Adams county of 
that state, and in 1873, to Montgomery county. 
In the last named county, a sad accident short- 
en ed liis life. One dark night, September 26, 
1873, as he was coming home from Villisca, on 
entering his yard, near his home, his horses 



THE EXODUS OF 1836. 155 

backed his wagon over a steep embankment and 
both he and the horses were killed. 

During the cholera epidemic in the Fox River 
sett lenient, Lars Brimsoe, being a carpenter, 
was employed in making* coffins for the dead. 
In order that Lars himself should not be ex- 
posed to the terrible disease, the neighbors 
would run the boards through a window into 
his shop, where he made the coffins, which were 
returned through the same opening in the wall. 
Por a time orders came in faster than he could 
fill them. 

I could mention many more of those who 
came in 1836, but the trouble is, I have gath- 
ered too few facts in regard to their lives and 
a mere list of their names would not be very 
interesting. I would simply have to say that 
Lars B. Olson settled in La Salle county, Il- 
linois, then moved to Iowa, where he died; that 
Lars B. Mikkelson settled in La Salle county, 
Illinois, and died there; that Knud Olson lo- 
cated in La Salle count}', Illinois, and died there 
in 1840, but the reader would soon get tired 
of this sort of narration. 

Among the Norwegians who arrived in 1830, 
though not in either of the Kohler brigs, I 
must mention Lars Tallakson, now residing in 
La Salle county, Illinois. I visited him at his 



t5l NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

heme in August, 1S94. He was born in Bergen, 
Norway, August 13, 1805, was a shoemaker by 
trade, and six years after his marriage, he emi- 
grated by way of Gothenborg, and landed in 
X.-w York, August l'S, 1836. He remained in 
Ww York two years, working at his trade. In 
V838, he went to Clark county, the northeast 
corner of Missouri, and remained there three 
rears. No Norwegian settlement w T as formed 
there, and Lars Tallakson left Missouri and set- 
tled in Lee county, Iowa, near Keokuk, in 1841, 
and remained there about six years. He joined 
the settlement which Kleng Peerson founded 
there in 1840. From there he went to the 
Bishop Hill colony and joined Eric Janson's 
societj 7 , and it was while he was there that he 
saw Kleng Peerson married to a Swedish Jan- 
sonite, and he lent Peerson his hat for the occa- 
sion. He soon got tired of Jansonism and 
abandoning the colony, he removed to his pres- 
ent home in La Salle county, where he owns a 
fine farm and is still very vigorous for his age. 
He deserves to be remembered as one of the 
first Norwegians to cross the Mississippi, and 
to reside in Missouri and Iowa. 

I have stated that Knud Slogvig was the pro- 
moter and leader of the exodus in 1836; but 
among those who contributed to swell the mini- 



THE EXODUS OF 1836. 155 

ber of emigrants, I may be permitted to men- 
tion my father, Bjorn Anderson, from the farm 
Kvelve, in Vigedal, north of Stavanger. It 
was on account of his active agitation that the 
emigrants required two vessels, instead of only 
one. He was a born agitator and debater, and 
I have it from persons who knew him well in 
Norway, that Bjorn Anderson always gathered 
a crowd around him outside of the church be- 
fore service or at other public gatherings to 
listen to his sarcastic criticisms of Norwegian 
laws and of the office-holding class. In Sta- 
vanger, he had become acquainted with Elias 
Tastad, Lars Larson and other Quakers, and 
while he did not formally join the Quaker so- 
ciety, he was in close, sympathy with the 
Friends, and he always said that if he ever 
joined any church, it would be that of the Quak- 
ers. His life and conduct were controlled by 
Quaker principles. He lived on a farm near 
the sea, and when he became of age, he bought 
a yacht, and became a trader, exchanging mer- 
chandise for produce in Stavanger and at other 
ports in the vicinity. When he learned of 
America, and of Knud Slogvig's plans to load 
a ship with emigrants, to sail from Stavanger 
in the spring of 1836, he at once decided to leave 
Norway and so began to talk to his friends 



156 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

about the land in the far west, and about the 
advantages offered there to settlers. He was 
well Informed, very persuasive, and the result 
was, thai he induced many to join him. He 
was practically a Quaker, and so felt more or 
l< bs the effect of the persecution of all dissent- 
ers from the established church of Norway. 
Hut this was not all. Besides being a dissenter 
from the established church, he had married 
< »ut side of his class or station, his wife being the 
daughter of an officer in the Norwegian army, 
and this was an additional reason for his wish- 
ing to get away from his native country. He 
wanted for his wife's sake to get to a land where 
"a man is a man for a' that," and so he and 
his wife and two boys, Andrew T and Bruun, born 
in 1832 and 1834, became passengers in the 
K&hler brig "Norden" which left Stavanger the 
Aral Sunday after Pentecost ami arrived in 
\« w York, July 12, 1836. Einar Anderson 
Aasrn, who came in the same ship, and still 
lives near Danville, La Salle county, Illinois, 
lias Informed me that all the passengers looked 
Dp to Bjtoo Anderson as their leader, and came 
to him for advice in all their troubles. 

In regard to his life in America, I take the 
Liberty of reproducing here a sketch of him and 
of niv mother, written for a Madison, Wis., pa- 




Abel Cathrine Amundson. 



THE EXODUS OF 1836. 157 

per, immediately upon the death of my mother, 
which occurred October 31, 1885. I have taken 
the liberty of making a few necessary additions 
and changes and inserting some dates, and 
naming a few places in order to make it con- 
form as nearly as possible to the facts as I know 
them. 

"On Thursday last (Nov. 5, 1885) Abel Cath- 
erine Amundson, was laid in her final resting- 
place in the family burying ground on the old 
homestead, in the town of Albion, Dane county. 
She died Saturday evening, October 31, at the 
home of one of her daughters, Dina, the wife 
of Rev. T. A. Torgerson, near Bristol, Worth 
county, Iowa, where she had lived during the 
last eighteen years. The funeral services were 
conducted at the East church on Koshkonong 
prairie by the former pastor of the family, Rev. 
J. A. Ottesen, in the presence of a large num- 
ber of friends and relatives. 

"The deceased was a woman of remarkably 
beautiful character, equipped with those vir- 
tues which are the adornment of her sex. As 
she was the first white woman that settled in 
the town of Albion, Dane county, Wisconsin, 
some facts of her life will undoubtedly be of 
interest. 

"She was born in Sandeid Parish, Vigedal 



NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

District, St a \ anger Amt, in Norway, October 8, 
1809. Her father, Bernhardus Arnoldus von 
Krogh, had been a lieutenant in the Norwegian 
army, but on account of bodily injuries received 
in the service, he had been obliged to resign 
and had settled on a small farm called Westbo, 
in Sandeid, as a pensioner. Her mother, too, 
was of the well-known von Krogh stock, the 
ancestry of which presents one unbroken line 
of military officers, back to a certain Major 
Bernhardus von Krogh, who was a native of 
the free city of Lubeck, and who in 1644, came 
with troops from the city of Bremen to render 
aid to Denmark against Sweden. The major 
was married to a certain Alida von Bolten, 
daughter of Dietrich von Bolten, at one time 
Burgomaster of Bremen. Major von Krogh 
remained in the Danish service, and his only son 
George Frederik von Krogh became Colonel of 
a Norwegian regiment in 1710. His descend- 
ants in Norway are numerous, and the great 
majority of them became military officers. 
Two of them, father and son, each of whom bore 
the same name, George Frederik, were at differ- 
ent periods, commanders in chief of the Norwe- 

ii armies. The younger of these (born 1732 
— died 1818),who served his country sixty-eight 

i rs was the right hand man of King Frederik 



THE EXODUS OF 183G. 159 

the Sixth, of Denmark, during the trying days 
of the Napoleonic wars, when the Swedes and 
Russians were intriguing for the cession of Nor- 
way to Sweden. 

"In the month of July, 1831, Abel Cartherine 
von Krogh was married to Bjorn Anderson, 
from the farm Kvelve in the Vigedal parish 
joining Sandeid on the east. He was born 
June 3, 1801, and was the son of a peasant. 
The marriage of the refined daughter of a mili- 
tary officer to a peasant's son, naturally caused 
some bitterness of feeling. The fact, too, that 
Bjorn Anderson was a dissenter from the state 
church, and sympathized with the Quakers who 
had been making propaganda in Stavanger city 
and Amt during the past fifteen years, while the 
von Krogh family were pious and loyal Luther- 
ans, served to increase the displeasure with 
which this marriage was regarded. 

"There was the right stuff in both, however, 
and they determined to seek their fortune in 
that land across the sea, whose star was begin- 
ning to appear above the horizon, beckoning to 
the oppressed of Europe. Accordingly they 
left Norway in the spring of 1836, Bjorn Ander- 
son being with Knud Slogvig, the promoter 
and leader of the first large party of emi- 
grants that came to America." 



160 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Baying arrived at New York city, July 12, 
1S3G, Bjorn Anderson and his wife, with their 
two children, Andrew and Bruun, proceeded to 
Rochester, N. Y., where they found the Quaker, 
Lam Larson (i Jeilane), who was very kind and 
helpful, and where they remained one year, the 
husband working at the trade of a cooper. It 
was on this account he received the soubriquet 
"T<>udebjorn," that is Barrel-Bjorn. This nick- 
name clung to him to his dying day. In the 
spring of 1837, he removed to the town of Mis- 
sion, La Salle county, Illinois, where he kept his 
family for four years, that is until the spring 
of 1841. The first six months they lived at the 
house of Carrie Nelson (Kari Hauge) on the 
farm selected for her by her brother, Kleng 
Peerson. Then Bjorn Anderson lived a short 
time at the house of Endre Aarakerbo, also 
called Endre Glasman, whereupon he built him- 
self a small log house! in what is now the town 
of Rutland, near the "slooper," Endre DahL 
The place is located about a mile south from 
where Mr. Claes Claeson now lives.* This 
Chios Claeson is a native of Norway, born Jan- 
uary 13, 1832, whose parents came from Nor- 
way to ! Jut laml in 1813. Bjorn Anderson did 
not like La Salle county, and bought no land 
* I visited the spot in the summer of 1894.— R. B. A. 



THE EXODUS OF 1836. 161 

there. Tie supported himself and his family by 
working for the neighbors, being handy at all 
kinds of work. In 1837, he was in Chicago and 
there met a company of Norwegians, among 
whom w r as Ole Rynning (of whom more later), 
but Bjorn Anderson spoke so disparagingly of 
the Fox River settlement, saying that the peo- 
ple there starved and froze to death, that he 
indirectly became instrumental in inducing 
Ole Rynning and his friends to found the fatal 
Beaver Creek settlement. Bjorn Anderson had 
never been at Beaver Creek, but his severe 
criticisms on La Salle county naturally influ- 
enced the immigrants of 1837 to seek another 
locality. Blame has been cast on Bjorn Ander- 
son's name in connection with the Beaver 
Creek fatalities, but this is utterly unjust. 
While he disparaged La Salle county, he did 
not recommend Iroquois county, w T hich he had 
never seen. 

"In 1840," to again adopt the language of 
the Madison paper, "Bjorn Anderson, w T ith sev- 
eral companions, set out on foot on an explor- 
ing expedition to Wisconsin, in search of a suit- 
able place for a new home. They determined 
on a tract near Lake Koshkonong, in 
what is now the town of Albion, Dane county, 
11 



1G2 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

AYisconsin. Two of his companions remained 
until autumn, being unmarried, while Bjorn 
Anderson returned to Illinois at once, and 
all of them spent the following winter in 
the Fox River settlement. The succeeding 
spring, 1841, he went with his wife and now 
four children, to their newly chosen home in 
Wisconsin. They were the first couple that set- 
tled in the present towm of Albion, and the tale 
of hardships that that fact carries with it 
seems but a sad romance to a younger genera- 
tion. But during all the trials of this pioneer 
life, neither flinched for a moment. The chief 
characteristics of each was energy and will. 
He was bold, restless, pushing. She was gen- 
tle, quiet, persevering. During the first few 
years, money was an article seldom seen. They 
subsisted mainly on the products of the little 
farm, and with what little produce they could 
spare the husband went with oxen to Milwau- 
kee, a distance of seventy miles, through a wil- 
derness, to barter for a few necessaries of life. 
During liis absence, the wife remained at home 
with the children and with the red men as an 
occasional, but fortunately, not unfriendly vis- 
itor. Courage and perseverance were indeed 
cardinal requisites for success in life under such 
circumstances. These characteristics both 




Arnold Andrew Anderson. 



THE EXODUS OF 1836. 163 

possessed in a high degree, and through inces- 
sant toil, in the course of time, they became 
comfortably situated. Their original one hun- 
dred and twenty acres of wild land, had, at the 
end of a decade, increased into an improved 
farm of two hundred and thirty acres. But 
the battles of pioneer life having been success- 
fully fought, a new and more terrible enemy 
approached. 

"In the summer of 1850, the cholera swept 
through' the settlement, and among scores of 
others, Bjorn Anderson and his sixteen year 
old son were carried off. The son, Augustinus 
Meldahl Bruun, who was born in Norway, died 
August 6, and Bjorn Anderson himself four 
days later, August 10, 1850. 

"Thus Bjorn did not live to enjoy the fruits of 
their joint labors. Just as fortune began to 
smile upon them, grim death snatched him 
from her side. Nor was it his lot to see any 
of his children pass the bounds of youth; but 
his oft expressed wish that a brighter future 
might be in store for them, his wife lived to 
see realized. The children of this marriage 
were ten in number, eight of whom are 
now (1895) living. One daughter was born, 
and died in Rochester, N. Y., and as stated, 
one son died in 1850. The oldest son, Arnold 



1G4 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Andrew, born in Norway in 1832, is a well- 
to-do farmer in Goodhue county, Minnesota. 
Elisabeth, born in La Salle county, Illinois, 
in is:*7, married Hans Danielson, who served 
through the war and now resides on a farm in 
Goodhue county, Minn. Cecelia, born in La 
Balle county, 111., in 1840, married Rev. S. S. 
tteque, and resides at Spring Grove, Minnesota. 
Martha, born in Albion in 1841, and, so far as I 
know, the first white child born there, married 
Lewis Johnson, a Dane, and now lives on a farm 
in Goodhue county, Minnesota. Dina, born in 
Albion in 1843, married Rev. T. A. Torgerson, 
and resides in Worth county, Iow r a. Rasmus B. 
was born in Albion in 1846, and now resides at 
Madison, Wis. Abel B., born in Albion, in 1847, 
is a minister of the gospel and college professor 
at Montevideo, Minn. Bernt Augustinus 
Bruun, born in Albion in 1851, is a merchant 
in Spring Grove, Minn. 

"On March 18, 1854, the widow Anderson 
married Bright Amundson from Stavanger, 
Norway. He died July 21, 1861, leaving one 
son, Albert Christian, who is now a practicing 
physician in Cambridge, Wis. At the time of 
her death, Mrs. Amundson had fifty-three 
grandchildren and one great-grandchild." 

After the death of Bjorn Andorson, the- 



I 



THE EXODUS OP 1836. 165 

widow had all the children, except the oldest, 
baptized by a Danish Methodist minister by 
name Willerup, the oldest son Andrew having 
been christened in Norway. This Willerup sub- 
sequently removed to Denmark, where I visited 
him in 1885 shortly before he died. My mother 
later joined the Lutheran church in Dane 
county, and was a most loyal and pious chris- 
tian woman, this being the unanimous testi- 
mony of her pastors, her neighbors and her 
children 

My brother, Arnold Andrew, who was born 
April 9, 1832, tells me that he has no recollec- 
tion of arriving in Rochester. He remembers, 
however, that the family lived upstairs in a 
house with stairway on the outside, and that 
below on the first floor there lived an American 
family, in which there was a blind fiddler. He 
and his brother Bruun went to the door occa- 
sionally to listen to the music. Father worked 
in a cooper-shop, and mother took his dinner 
to him. From Rochester they went by canal 
boat to Buffalo and thence by steamer to Chi- 
cago. Andrew describes the little house that 
father erected in Illinois as built of logs, with 
rough boards for the loft, but with no other 
floor than the bare ground. This house had to 
accommodate not only my father's family, but 



106 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

also Lars Scheie and his family and Amund 
Kossaland and his wife, and sons and daughter. 
The sons Elling and Endre Kossaland went 
with their father to Wisconsin, and the 
daughter Anna married Tonnes Tollefson,. 
and settled in Boone county, 111., near 
Beloit, Wis., where I visited her about tw T enty 
years ago. This Tonnes Tollefson came from 
Klep Parish, Stavanger Amt, in one of the 
Kohler brigs in 1836. The farm on which he 
was born was called Oexnavar. He lived four 
years in the Fox Kiver settlement before he 
moved to Boone county. His wife's father, 
Amund Kossaland, with her brothers, Elling 
and Endre, settled in Fairfield, Columbia 
county, Wis. There they all died except Endre, 
who spent the last days of his life at the home 
of his sister on Jefferson prairie. Elling was 
killed by an accident near Kilbourn, Wis. 
Tonnes Tollefson died in the fall of 1893 and 
the widow, Anna, about the year 1888. After 
my father's death Mr. and Mrs. Tollefson took 
my sister Cecelia and kept her a couple of years. 
To quote my brother Andrew: "The log house 
in the Fox River settlement in Illinois 
was Located on Endre DahPs land. This sloop 
family lived only forty rods distant and owned 
ji farm. Endre Pahl, Amund Rossaland and 




Amund Anderson and his wife 
Ingeborg Anderson. 



THE EXODUS OF 1836. 167 

Lars Scheie were all intimate friends of 
father's. The country was, of course, thinly 
settled, but father was a worker and during the 
three years spent in Illinois, he was making 
preparations for a home of his own somewhere. 
In the summer of 1838 a drove of cattle came 
into the neighborhood, and father bought a 
large cow with her calf and paid $40 for them. 
The cow was a wonderful milker. The next 
purchase was a pair of black steers, large size. 
These steers were yoked for the first time by 
an American neighbor, and when they were let 
out of the yard to be driven around, the Amer- 
ican took hold of the borns, but the steers got 
away from him and ran against a tree and broke 
the yoke. During 1840 preparations were made 
to locate in Wisconsin. A party was made up, 
consisting of father, Amund Anderson, Lars 
Dugstad, Thorstein Olson Bjaadland, Amund 
Kossaland and his son-in-law, Tonnes Tollefson. 
It was understood that the territory of Wiscon- 
sin had been surveyed and that land was for 
sale by the United States government. They 
went to Koshkonong (Albion, Dane county, 
W T is.), and father, Amund Anderson, Lars Dug- 
stad and Thorstein Olson Bjaadland bought 
land, while Amund Kossaland and Tonnes Tol- 
lefson were not satisfied with the localitv, but 



168 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

wont further south and located in Boone 
county, 111., near Beloit, Wis., in the so-called 
Jefferson Prairie settlement. 

"In the spring of 1841 we moved to Koshko- 
nong with all our belongings. The family then 
consisted of our parents, myself, Bruun, Elisa- 
beth and Cecelia. Our route was through 
Shabona Grove and Eockford, 111.; thence to 
Beloit, Janesville and Milton, Wis. From Mil- 
ton we went due north to Goodrich's ferry 
a (loss Rock river. After we had crossed the 
river I can remember that father exclaimed: 
'Now we have arrived in the land of Canaan' 
(Xaa sb me komne i Kanaans Land). Thorstein 
Olson Bjaadland was with us with a yoke of 
oxen, and father had the black steers, which 
were not broke. Both Thorstein Olson's team 
and ours were hitched to a wagon wnich father 
owned. Thorstein Olson and Amund Anderson 
had built shanties on their farms before they 
returned to Illinois in 1840, and we lived in 
Thorstein'8 shanty while father built the little 
Log house down by the spring (the house in 
which yon, Rasmus, was born)." 

"A few weeks after we had arrived in Albion, 
Amund Anderson (Hornefjeld) came with his 
f mii lily. Amund had gotten married that same 
year 111 La Salle county, 111., to Ingeborg, the 



THE EXODUS OF 1836. 1C9 

widow of Erik Johnson. He brought his wife 
and two step-children, Betsey Ann (Anne 
Berthe) and John, and I remember the enthu- 
siastic greeting we gave them, when they came 
to Thorstein Olson's shanty. They moved di- 
rectly into the shanty that Amund had built in 

1840. You see that Thorstein Olson Bjaadland 
and Amund Anderson Hornef jeld had remained 
a while during the summer of 1840 and had put 
up these shanties; but they came back to Il- 
linois and spent the winter. Thorstein Olson 
came with us, and Amund Anderson came a 
few weeks later, in 1841. The earliest actual 
settlers in that neighborhood that I remember 
were Gunnul Olson Vindeg and his wife, Knud 
Olson Yindeg, his unmarried brother, and Lars 
Kvendalen, also unmarried. They lived in the 
town of Christiana, north of Albion. They 
were Norwegians who had come there in the 
summer of 1840 from Rock county, Wis. Father 
had engaged Knud Yindeg and Lars Kvendalen 
to split some rails during the Avinter of 1840 and 

1841, so as to have them on hand when he came 
there to locate with his family in 1841. I re- 
member seeing the rails and heard father com- 
plain that they were made too small. They 
were made in the timber, on the hill, a short 
distance from our bridge across the creek. 



170 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Lais Olson Dugstad, a bachelor from Voss in 
Norway, had a dugout on the side of a hill near 
the creek, but I do not know whether it was 
made before we came or not. He continued 
to live in it until about 1855 or 185G, when he 
got married and moved into a large log house* 
At all events, father, Amund Anderson, Thor- 
stein Olson and Lars Dugstad each bought 
eighty acres of land in Albion in 1840 and paid 
for it, and father pre-empted forty acres, where 
the house was built by the spring." 



VIII. 
The Second Norwegian Settlement in America. 

We have now seen how the first Norwegian 
settlement in America in this century was 
founded in Kendall, Orleans county, N. Y. We 
have seen that it was not destined to grow into 
a prominent center for the Norwegians in this 
country. It merely served as a sort of half-way 
home for those who came between the years 
1825 and 1836, and for some of those who came 
in 1836. 

We liave seen what became of the sloop peo- 
ple and of some of those who came after them. 



SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 171 

down to the year 1836, and I have also given 
some account of a few of the two hundred who 
sailed from Stavanger in 1836. In showing 
what became of the sloop people and of those 
who came after them down to 1836, I have re- 
peatedly mentioned other Norwegian settle- 
ments, and I am now prepared to consider in 
detail the formation of the second Norwegian 
settlement in America and the first west of the 
great lakes. 

Only a small number of the immigrants of 
1836 stopped in New York state. We have 
seen that Andrew Anderson Aasen went with 
his family to Kendall and remained there two 
years, and that Bjorn Anderson Kvelve re- 
mained a year in Kochester as a cooper. The 
most of them continued their journey to Chi- 
cago and thence to Mission, La Salle county, 
Illinois, where the second Norwegian settlement 
had already been founded. This location had 
been selected by the restless Kleng Peerson 
Hesthammer, from Tysver, Norway, the man 
who with Knud Olson Eide came to America in 
1821 and returned to Norway in 1824, the man 
who came back to America in 1825, and was 
in New York ready to receive his friends in the 
sloop; the man who, with the aid of Joseph Fel- 



172 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

lows and other Quakers, selected Kendall as 
the location for the first settlement. 

Kleng was without a shadow of doubt the 
first Norwegian who ever came west of the 
great lakes. He seems to have spent several 
years with his countrymen in Kendall, but I 
have complete evidence that he visited La Salle 
county, Illinois, as early as 1833. The first 
Norwegian settlers located there in 1834, and 
it is well known that Kleng had been there 
the year before. Kleng stated that when in 
1833 he was exploring the country afterwards 
occupied by his countrymen in La Salle county, 
becoming weary one day he lay down under a 
tree to rest. He slept and dreamed, and in his 
dream he saw the wild prairie changed into a 
cultivated region, teeming with all kinds of 
grain and fruit most beautiful to behold; that 
splendid houses and barns stood all over the 
laud, occupied by a rich, prosperous and happy 
people. Alongside the fields of waving grain 
large herds of cattle were feeding. Kleng in- 
terpreted this as a vision and as a token from 
Almighty God that his countrymen should 
come there and settle. He forgot his pain and 
hunger and thanked God that he had permitted 
his eves to behold this beautiful region and he 



THE SECOND SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 173 

decided to advise his countrymen to come west 
and settle there. He thought of Moses, who, 
from the mountain, had looked into the land 
of promise. Refreshed and nerved anew by 
his dream, he went back to Kendall and per- 
suaded his friends to emigrate to La Salle 
county, 111. Kleng's dream may have been 
dreamed awake, but it has been fully realized. 
The early days of this Norwegian settlement 
were days of poverty and toil and they repeat- 
edly suffered terribly by Asiatic cholera, say- 
ing nothing of the fever and ague of the early 
days, but they have surmounted their trials, and 
as I saw them in the summer of 1894 they were 
as wealthy, prosperous and happy as when they 
were seen in Kleng's dream, and I shall never 
forget that generous hospitality with which I 
was received at every hand. Those were happy 
days indeed that I spent in this old Norwegian 
settlement! I have the account of Kleng Peer- 
son's dream or vision from Knud Langland, 
from Christopher Daniel son of Sheridan, 111., 
from his niece, Mrs. Fellows, in Ottawa, 111., and 
also from several others to whom he told the 
story, so there is no doubt that Kleng himself 
related it as a fact. 

Kleng Peerson returned to Kendall, N. Y., 
and in the spring of 1834 he wfth several others 



174 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

moved out to Illinois and founded the so-called 
Fo$ River settlement, in the town of Mission, La 
Salle county, 111., not far from Ottawa. 

At that time the land had not been surveyed 
into sections and did not come into the market 
before 1835. Those who came with Kleng 
Peerson in 1834 w T ere as nearly as I can make 
out: Endre Dahl, Jacob Anderson Slogvig, 
Gudmund Haugaas, Nels Thompson, and Thor- 
siein Olson Bjaadland, who had gone back to 
Kendall from Michigan. In the summer of 1894 
I talked with John Armstrong, who was born 
in Somerset county, Pa., May 29, 1810. He came 
to Tazewell county, 111., in 1829, embracing at 
that time all the state north to the state line 
until the winter of 1830-1831. He took up land 
in what is now Marshall county, on wild prairie, 
where he built a blacksmith shop and log cabin 
which he sold in 1831. In 1834 he settled in 
Mission township, where he has since resided 
and is one of the well-to-do farmers of the 
county. He is still vigorous both in mind and 
in body. Mr. John Strawn Armstrong in- 
formed me that a couple of these Norwegians 
worked for him on his claim in the summer of 
1834, and while other writers have stated that 
the first Norwegians did not come to La Salle 
county before 1835, I have sifted all the evi- 



THE SECOND SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 175 

dence thoroughly and am entirely convinced 
that at least those mentioned above came there 
in 1834, selected land, and waited for it to come 
into market the following spring. 

I have myself examined the records at Ot- 
tawa and found that the following named Nor- 
wegians purchased land in the towns of Mis- 
sion, Miller and Rutland in 1835: 

1. In Mission: June 17, Kleng Peerson, 80 
acres; June 17, Carrie Nelson (Kari Hauge, that 
is, the widow of Cornelius Nelson). Kleng Peei- 
son bought the land for her, 80 acres; June 25, 
Kleng Peerson, 80 acres. 

2. In Rutland: June 15, Jacob Anderson 
Slogvig, 80 acres; June 15, Gudmund Haugaas, 
1G0 acres. . 

3. In Miller: June 17, Gjert Hovland, 160 
acres; Thorstein Olson, 80 acres; June 17, Thor- 
stein Olson bought 80 acres, which he sold the 
following September 5 to Nels Nelson Hersdal; 
June 17, Nels Thompson, 160 acres; January 
16, 1836, Thorstein Olson bought 80 acres more. 
Gjert Hovland did not come to La Salle county 
before 1835, and we also know that Nels Nelson 
Hersdal came out there without his family in 
1835 and returned to Kendall, N. Y., the same 
year, but all the others mentioned as buying 



17G NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

land in 1835 undoubtedly came in a body in 
K guided thither by Kleng Peerson. 

This setlement grew rapidly and gradually 
spread into the adjoining counties. The origi- 
nal settlers soon welcomed many old neighbors 
to the land of their adoption. Like the Kendall 

t lenient in New York, the Fox River settle- 
ment must be credited to Kleng Peerson. He 
was a restless, roving spirit, and under favor- 
able circumstances he might have achieved 
great fame as an explorer. He led the way in 
the settlement of the Norwegians on American 
soil, and thousands of the natives of Norway 
and their descendants now occupying happy 
and luxurious homes in the Fox river valley 
owe their prosperity and happiness- in part at 
least to the leadership and efforts of that re- 
markable man, Kleng Peerson. 

When I visited this settlement in the summer 
of 1894, I received a royal welcome by the old 
settlers who had known niy parents in 1837 to 
1841, and I am under special obligations, for 
courtesies extended, to Mr. J. A. Quam and his 
family (his wife is a niece of Nels Nelson, Jr., 
the last male survivor of the sloop people); to 
Andrew Oaard, to J. O. Sebby, to Christopher 
Danielson, to Mrs. Hulda Olson, who came in 
the sloop; to Ole Thompson Eie, who came in 




Ole Thompson Eie. 



THE SECOND SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. 177 

the ship "Enigheden" in 1837; to Einar Ander- 
son Aasen, who crossed the ocean in 1836 in the 
same ship with my parents; to Claes Claesson 
(a prosperous farmer in Rutland), and to many 
others of the citizens there. I met Mrs. Bower, 
a daughter of Gudmund Haugaas, in Sheridan, 
and in Ottawa I met Mrs. Fellows and Mrs. 
Mitchell, the two sisters who came in the sloop, 
and also Mr. M. B. Mitchell, the grandson of 
Gudmund Sandsberg, who came to America in 
1829. To Mr. M. B. Mitchell, Mr. Quain, Mr. 
Gaard, and particularly to Mr. Chr. Danielson, 
I am under obligations for many valuable let- 
ters in regard to the early immigrants. In 
church matters I found that a few were still 
Quakers, while the largest number adhere to 
the Lutheran faith. A considerable number 
are Methodists, and the Mormons or more prop- 
erly, Latter Day Saints, have a church of about 
140 members, Thomas Haugaas, a son of Gud- 
mund Haugaas, being their preacher. 

Among people who came from Norway be- 
fore 1840 and settled in La Salle county, I may 
mention the following. To the descendants of 
many of them I have written for particulars, 
but as a rule I have not succeeded in securing 
the desired information. 
12 



178 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

ITalvor Knutson came to America in 1831. 

Jlans Olson came in 1839. 

Andrew Anderson Aasen came in 1836. He 
is mentioned elsewhere in this volume. 

Knud Halvorson came with his parents from 
Norway in 1838. 

Knud T. Olson from Eiskedal, near Stavan- 
ger, came with his father, Ole Knudson, in 
1837. 

Nels Halvorson came with his parents, Hal- 
vor Knudson and Betsey Torgerson, in 1838. 

Lars Fruland came with his father, Nels Fru- 
land, in 1837. 

Ole T. Olson came in 1836. 

Halvor Nelson came in 1836. 

Thove Tillotson came in 1837. 

Paul Iverson came in 1837. 

Halvor K. Halvorson came in 1838. 

Hans O. Hanson came in 1839. 

Osmon Thomason came from Stavanger in 
1837. He died in 1876, 92 years old. 

Torke] 11. Erikson came in 1837. 

Canute Williamson came in 1838. 

Kmil Olson came in 1836. 

Lara Nelson came in 1838. 

limn- gibley came in 1838. 

Michael Olson came in 1839. 

Lara I J. Olson came in 1837. 



KLENG PEERSON. 170 

I liave gathered these names from Baldwin's 
History of La Salle County, and from other 
sources. 



I 



IX. 

Kleng Peerson. 

Before beginning the description of other 
Norwegian settlements I will now consider once 
more the career of that remarkable man, Kleng 
Peerson Hesthammer. He was born on a farm 
called Hesthammer, in Tysver Parish, Skjold 
District, Stavanger Amt or county, Norway, 
May 17. 1782. We have seen that in his earlier 
years he became a dissenter and that he was 
substantially a Quaker, being on particularly 
friendly terms with the Friends. He inspired 
the organization of the sloop party in 1825, and 
with the aid of Joseph Fellows and other Amer- 
ican Quakers, he selected Kendall, Orleans 
county, as the location of the first Norwegian 
settlement. From 1825 to 1833 I have no 
knowledge of his whereabouts, but I presume 
he spent the most of that time in Kendall and 
in Rochester, N. Y. In 1833 we find him in 
company with a Quaker from Tysver (Ingebret 






lg i NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Larson Narvig, who had come from Norway to 
Boston in 1S31 and footed it from there to Ken- 
dall), and another man on his way to the far 
west. Ingebret Larson Narvig left him and 
went to work for a farmer in Michigan. Kleng 
(and presumably the other man, whom I have 
not been able to identify) continued the jour- 
ney westward, until he reached La Salle county, 
111., and there selected the location of the second 
Norwegian settlement. The Kendall and Fox 
River settlements are his undying glory. But 
as I have repeated so often, he was a restless 
fellow. While the records show that he bought 
a considerable amount of land in La Salle 
county, still he did not settle on it. He simply 
purchased it for his relatives and friends. As 
has been shown in the preceding pages, many 
of the early settlers in La Salle county were 
Kleng Peerson's relatives. He did not care to 
work. He needed but little for his support 
and this little he got largely by visiting among 
his relatives and friends. He was a man of 
strict integrity and any matter entrusted to him 
would be performed with scrupulous honesty. 
Il<* looked upon himself as the pathfinder and 
father of Norwegian immigration. At the 
homes where he visited he would ask the house- 
wife for her knitting-work and request her to 






KLENG PEERSON. 181 

make coffee. lie would then lie down on the 
bed and knit and drink coffee and talk about 
his extensive travels. He was a most excellent 
story-teller and consequently a welcome visitor 
everywhere. In his domestic relations he had 
been unfortunate. A veil is spread over the 
details, and all I have been able to find out is 
that he was married in Norway to a woman by 
name Catherine, before he went to America in 
1S21. She was much older than he, had con- 
siderable property, but for some reason or other 
they did not get on well. At all events, he 
abandoned her and Catherine probably did not 
regret his departure. In 1847 we find him in 
the well-known Bishop Hill colony in Henry 
count}', 111., and while there he married a Swed- 
ish woman belonging to Erik Janson's colony. 
Her name was Charlotte Marie. I know this 
from Lars Tallakson, who. still lives in La Salle 
county and was in the Bishop Hill colony at 
the time. Lars Tallakson informed me that he 
lent Kleng his hat for the wedding. It is due 
to Kleng, however, to add that he stated before 
marrying Charlotte Marie in 1847, that his 
first wife Catherine, whom he had left in Nor- 
way, was then dead. Charlotte Marie died 
from cholera in 1849. 
Ingebret Larson Narvig told a friend of mine 



182 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

that Kleng was proud and essentially an ad- 
venturer, that he had married a woman of 
means, and that he desired very much to get 
Into possession of her property. As he did not 
succeed he left her, declaring he would get on 
without either her or her property. 

And while I do not care to suppress Mr. Nar- 
vig's testimony I take pleasure in presenting in 
this connection the following extract from a 
letter recently received from Kleng Peerson's 
niece, Mrs. Bishop Sarah A. Peterson, of 
Ephraim, Utah. She is the daughter of the 
slooper, Cornelius Nelson, and married Canute 
Peterson Marsett, who came to America in 1837,. 
and who afterwards became bishop of Ephraim, 
Utah. On February 27, 1895, Mrs. Sarah A. 
Peterson writes me: "My uncle Peerson read 
and heard much of the lovely country in the 
west and he resolved to go and see for himself, 
lie came back with such glowing descriptions 
that all got the emigration fever and moved 
\\<st. Joseph Fellows also owned land out 
there. The Norwegians could get land for $1.25 
per acre. There were no forests to cut away 
and burn before plowing and putting in crops. 
Bo wIhmi Kleng came back it was not long be- 
fore all were ready to move west. 

"Un< ■!<• Kleng sold my mother's and his own 



KLENG PEERSON. 183 

land in Kendall. My father being dead, uncle 
Kleng did all the business, bought land for all 
the money and gave us eighty acres each. This 
was not all we should have had, but uncle be- 
lieved in dividing the land among the new- 
comers and the poor. He never reserved an 
acre for himself. He was the most unselfish 
person I ever saw. He was always busy finding 
land for the immigrants, and used all his means 
for the comforts of others. He left his wife 
Catherine in Norway. He went back several 
times, but she would not come with him to 
America. So after about twenty-five years he 
married again a Swedish woman by name Char- 
lotte Marie, and she died from cholera in 1849. 
He was in La Salle county when I left my home 
to go to Utah. He felt very bad to think I 
should go beyond the Rocky mountains with 
such bad people as the Mormons. 

"He spent all his time in trying to do good 
to the strangers that came, and was always 
colonizing and finding homes for orphans. I 
have known him to carry children on his back 
for miles to get good places for them. If he 
got a place for them and they were not treated 
well he took them away again. In this way he 
made both friends and enemies. He was not 
a man that worked. He traveled and kept busy 



184 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

trying to do good to others for but very little 
thanks. He was fond of coffee, but I never saw 
him knit. For my own part, I shall always feel 
thankful to him for being the means of getting 
my parents to come to this splendid country 
and particularly for the fact that I am in Utah. 

"Andrew Dahl has a son in Utah and he has 
a nice family. He has two half-brothers that 
came to America with the second group of im- 
migrants. Their father's name was S. Jacob- 
son Aasen, and he died in Kendall, N. Y. Ey- 
stein Sanderson Bakke was one that settled in 
Beaver Creek in 1837. He and his wife died 
there, but three of his children came to Utah. 
Ellen, the oldest daughter, came with the pio- 
neer company. She was one of the three 
women that crossed the Rocky mountains, and 
came into Salt Lake valley in 1849. The others 
ca in 3 later. My husband, Canute Peterson 
Marsett, came from Norway in the same ship 
with them but settled in Beaver creek. Thou- 
sands of Norwegians are here in Utah and have 
been coming ever since the beginning of the 
settlement of this territory." 

It is said of Kleng that he spoke English 
fluently, could read French, and was able to 
make himself understood among the Germans; 
thus with the Norwegian, he had the command 



KLENG PEERSON. 185 

of four languages. He was a most interesting 
talker. To the Americans, he was able to de- 
scribe the landscapes and life of old Norway; 
to his countrymen, he could give an account 
of soil and climate in various parts of the far 
west. People gathered around him wherever 
he came, to listen to his reports and stories, 
-and when Kleng came to a neighborhood, the 
day was usually turned into a holiday. Under 
such circumstances it is easy to understand that 
he did not need to work and that his few nec- 
essaries were supplied without his being a men- 
dicant, and he was satisfied with very little. 
He was a carpenter by trade, and what he 
earned, when he occasionally did work, he gave 
freely to his countrymen who needed assistance. 
The next glimpse we get of Kleng, after he 
had founded the Fox River settlement, is in 
Shelb3 T county, in the northeast corner of Mis- 
souri, in the year 1837. There he also founded 
a Norwegian settlement, but it not only did not 
receive any important accretions, but many of 
the settlers left it a few years later and founded 
another settlement called Sugar Creek, in Lee 
county, Iowa, about seven or eight miles west 
of Keokuk. Kleng must have been across the 
Mississippi before 1837, because he had already 
selected the location for the settlement, when, 






186 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

in 1887, in company with Jacob Anderson Slog- 
rig, Anders Askeland and twelve others, he 
went from La Salle county, to Missouri, in 
March, 1837. Writers have complained that 
Shelby county was badly chosen, but Andrew 
Simonson, who was one of the party, and who 
in October, 1879, was still living, wrote in a 
Norwegian newspaper, that "no settlement ever 
founded by Norwegians, in America, had a 
better appearance or better location, than this 
very land in Shelby county, of which the Nor- 
wegians took possession at that time, and 
which they in part still own." 

It must be remembered that Missouri was a 
slave state, a fact which was very distasteful 
to the Norwegians, and of course Shelby county 
was far from any market. It being reported 
that there was good land to be had in Lee 
county, Iowa, only seven miles west of Keokuk, 
Deng, at the request of Andrew Simonson and 
Others, went there to inspect it, and the result 
was that Andrew Simonson, born November 10, 
1810, and the majority of the settlers in Shelby 
county, moved to Lee county, for the sake of a 
Hearer market, but Mr. Simonson maintains 
thai they did not get as good land as they left 
in Missouri. At all events, Kleng became the 
founder both of the settlement in Shelby 



KLENG PEERSON. 187 

county, Missouri, and of that in Lee county, 
Iowa, the former in 1837, the latter in 1840. 
Kleng purchased eighty acres of land in Shelby 
county. To recruit his colony there, he went 
to Norway in 1838, and in 1839 we find him 
bringing back with him a lot of immigrants. 
Kleng had done his recruiting in old Stavanger 
county, in Norway, and had secured as emi- 
grants, for his Missouri colony, a carpenter, by 
name Ole Reierson, and his family, three broth- 
ers, Peter, William and Hans Tesman, Nils Ol- 
son and six or seven women. On arriving in 
New York, he proceeded with them to Cleve- 
land, where he decided to take them by way 
of the Ohio river, to Missouri. But the water 
in the Ohio was low, and the party suffered 
many inconveniences before they finally 
reached their destination. Kleng's reason for 
going by way of the Ohio river was that the two 
persons mentioned above, who came with him 
to Missouri in 1837, viz., Anders Askeland and 
our well-known Jacob Slogvig, the slooper, 
had gone back to La Salle county, dissatisfied, 
and Kleng feared that if he went by way of the 
Fox River settlement, his recruits might be pur- 
suaded not to proceed with him to his settle- 
ment in Missouri. The brothers Tesman, and 
possibly others of this company, later went 



188 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

to the Sugar Creek settlement in Lee county, 
and there we also find Hans Barlien dying at 
an advanced age, in 1842. Some have supposed 
that the Sugar Creek settlement was founded 
by Hans Barlien, and he may have been with 
Kleng in Shelby county, Missouri; but the 
statement I have made in regard to the found- 
ing of the Sugar Creek settlement, is substan- 
tially correct. I shall have occasion to speak 
more fully of Hans Barlien later on. 

In 1842, Kleng made a third visit to Norway, 
for what purpose I do not know. Mr. O. Ca- 
nuteson, one of the early Norwegian settlers in 
Texas, and now a prosperous business man in 
Waco, Texas, writes me under date of December 
1G, 1894, as follows: "I am sure he (Kleng) made 
three trips to Norway. He came to my father's 
house (near Kobbervig, north of Stavanger). 
Hi* brought letters from America to my father 
and others. I remember seeing him and I par- 
linilarly remember a peculiarly made cloak 
thai ho wore. He had an atlas of the world, 
and showed us the maps, &c, and he took occa- 
sion to express himself as opposed to the power 
tin* <h niches were exercising over the people. 
What started him was that he found pictures 
of churches printed on the maps indicating that 
the countries were Christian. I remember he 
/ 



KLENG PEERSON. 189 

had it in for the Catholics. My father and I 
transported him a short distance in a boat, to 
a man that had a son in America." This was 
probably in the autumn of 1842, for in May, 
1S43, we find him a passenger on board the bark 
"Juno," which sailed from Bergen for New 
York, with 80 passengers. 

In 1847, we find Kleng selling his eighty acres 
of land in Shelby county, in Missouri, and join- 
ing the Swedish Bishop Hill colony, in Henry 
county, Illinois. The money he got for his 
Missouri farm, he contributed to Erik Janson's 
communistic society. Here he married a Swed- 
ish woman, belonging to Erik Janson's sect, 
but he soon got disgusted with the peculiar life 
in the Bishop Hill colony, and abandoning both 
his wife and the colony, and as he said, "robbed 
of all he possessed, and sick in body and mind," 
he went from Henry county, back to his old 
Fox Eiver settlement and remained there until 
his health was restored. 

At this point, I am in the dark in regard to 
the chronology, but either in 1848 or 1840, he 
must have made his first visit to Texas. He 
went down there evidently at the suggestion 
of John Nordboe, who had then lived several 
years five miles south of Dallas. Kleng visited 
John Nordboe, made some explorations in vari- 






190 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

ous parts of Texas, having been as far west as 
within a few miles of the present Fort Worth, 
and returned to La Salle county, Illlinois, in 
J >50, full of the Texas fever. The rest of his 
life is easily told in O. Canuteson's letter to me, 
dated December 16, 1894: "In 1850, my father, 
with his family, came to my uncle, Halvor 
Knudscn, in Illinois. My mother had died from 
cholera between Chicago and Ottawa. In Ot- 
tawa, we found Kleng Peerson, just back from 
Texas, and on his advice, and on his promise to 
be our guide, we concluded to go to Texas. He 
stayed with us the three years we lived in Dal- 
las count}', and when we moved to Bosque 
county in 1854, he came with us, not as the 
leader then, but as a follower, being too old to 
undertake leadership any more. The last years 
of his life he had his home with O. Col wick 
(Kjolvig), but would of course, go around among 
his neighbors, where he was always welcome 
and felt at home.* He died December 16, 1865. 
One of his neighbors and I were with him the 
last hours of his life. I closed his eyes in the 
long sleep of death. He was buried in the 

* In Texas, Kleng Peerson owned half a section of land, 
and a few cows, and all this property he gave to O. Colwick, 
the latter agreeing to take care of him the balance of his 
life. 



KLENG PEERSON. 19 J 

Lutheran cemetery opposite the Norwegian 
church near Norse P. O. in Bosque count y, and 
the Norwegians in Texas afterwards put a 
small stone monument on Lis grave with the 
following inscription written both in Norwe- 
gian and in English: 

'Cleng Peerson, 

The first Norwegian immigrant 

to * 

America. 

Came to America in 1821. 

Born in Norway, Europe, May IT, 1782, 

Died in Texas, December 16, 1865. 

Grateful countrymen in Texas erected this 

monument to his memory.' " 
Mr. O. Canuteson contributed $15 to this 
monument, and superintended the matter of 
collecting funds and having it made. So far 
as I know, it is the only monument put up in 
honor of a Norwegian, in America, by public 
subscription. 

I have -stated that Kleng Peerson was a dis- 
senter from the church of Norway, and that al- 
though he did not personally join the society, 
he was in sympathy with the Quakers, that he 
got help from the Friends in Stavanger for his 
first journey to America in 1821, and that he, 
by the help of Quakers in New York, not only 



192 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

selected Kendall as the place of the first settle- 
ment, but also secured financial aid to transport 
the sloop people from New York to Kendall. 
He also had the help of Quakers in securing 
land in the second settlement in La Salle county,, 
111. While he admired the Quakers, he gradu- 
ally drifted more and more away from all 
churches, and the fact is that before he died he 
had lost all faith in the Christian religion. On 
this point I am able to quote my friend, O. 
Canuteson, who lived in the same house with 
him for many years in Texas, who was with him 
in his dying hours, and who closed his eyes in 
death. He says: "I was intimately ac- 
quainted with Kleng Peerson from 1850 until 
his death in 1865. He w^as the most pronounced 
free-thinker I have ever known. I remember 
his having an old Danish free-thinking book 
translated from the German. He believed lit- 
tle or nothing of the Bible, especially of the 
supernatural part thereof. Whether he at any 
time had belonged to the Quakers, I can not say 
positively, but time and again I heard him talk 
about them as models in religious and temporal 
matters, and I heard him talk about getting 
assistance, aid and comfort from Elias Tastad 
of Stnvanger, Norway, he being their leader in 
that city." 



KLENG PEERSON. 193 

Kleng Peerson was thoroughly unselfish in 
his character, and he devoted his life largely 
to the service of his countrymen. While he 
never had what might properly be called a home 
after he left Norway, he spent his time and his 
scanty means in getting homes for others. In 
Kendall and in Illinois he secured land for his 
relatives and friends. By his trade as a car- 
penter he occasionally earned a few dollars, but 
these he freely gave to others who needed them. 
When he had nothing of his own to give away 
he would beg from the rich and give to the poor. 
So far as I can make out, he made the most 
of his extensive journeys in this country on foot. 
On these expeditions he became the founder of 
the settlements in Kendall, N. Y., in La Salle 
county, 111., in Shelby county, Mo., in Lee county, 
Iowa, and he finally guided one family to Dal- 
las county, Texas, although John Nordboe, 
Johan Eeinert Keierson and others had been in 
Texas several years before Kleng came there. 

This is as full and accurate account as I am 
able to give of old Kleng. His great services 
to Norwegian immigration deserve to be re- 
membered and appreciated, and with all his ec- 
centricities and shortcomings his countrymen 
will look upon him as a benefactor to his race 
and as an honest and benevolent man. 
13 






194 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 



X. 

The Third Norwegian Settlement. 

The third permanent Norwegian settlement 
in America was founded in Chicago in 1836. 
Of course Norwegians had passed through 
there in 1834 and 1835 on their way to La 
Salle county, and Kleng Peerson doubtless was 
there in 1833. Halstein Torrison and Johan 
Larson have the honor of being the first two 
to locate in this city. Halstein Torrison came 
from Fjeldberg in Norway and settled in Chi- 
cago with his wife and children, October 16, 
1836. His first house was on Wells street on 
the ground now occupied by the Chicago and 
Northwestern railroad depot. He certainly 
was the first one to get his own home in this 
city, where the Norwegians and their children 
are now numbered by the tens of thousands, 
and where so many Norwegians have become 
prominent as bankers, merchants, importers, 
physicians, ministers, lawyers, and publishers. 

Johan Larson from Kobbervig in Norway 
was a Bailor, and as such visited Chicago at 
an earlier period from Buffalo, but he located 



THE EXODUS OF 1837. 195 

there in 1836, about the same time as llalstein 
Torrison. When and how Torrison and Lar- 
son came from Norway, I do not know. Torri- 
son left the city in 1848 and settled in Cal- 
umet, south of Chicago, where he died many 
years ago. In 1887, Mr. Johan Larson was 
still living. 



XI. 

The Exodus of 1837. 

We have now considered the fate of the im- 
migrants of 183G. We have seen how the sec- 
ond Norwegian settlement was founded in the 
towns of Mission, Miller and Rutland, La Salle 
county, in 1834, and how the third Norwegian 
settlement was founded in Chicago in 
1836, and we have described the career 
of Kleng Peerson from his cradle to his 
grave. We have seen that letters from the 
first settlers, and particularly those from Gjert 
Gregoriuson Hovland, were widely read in Sta- 
vanger Amt and in Bergen Stift in Norway, 
and that Knud Anderson Slogvig, a slooper, re- 
turned to Norway in 1835. We have seen what 
a great influence these letters had, and how 



196 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Knud Slogvig became the leader of the exodus 
of 1836. 

We may, therefore, now return to the year 
1837, when two more ships brought Norwegian 
immigrants direct to America. These were 
"Enigheden" from Stavanger, and "iEgir" (the 
god of the sea in Norse mythology) from Ber- 
gen. We may look upon the exodus in 1837 as 
a continuation of that of 1836, and as produced 
by the same causes. It is fair to assume that all 
who decided to emigrate either did not get 
ready or did not secure passage in 1836. The 
ship "Enigheden," commanded by Capt. Jensen, 
started from Egersund, south of Stavanger, 
with a few emigrants on board, and then came 
to Stavanger, whence it sailed with ninety-three 
passengers. The cost of the passage to New 
York, not including board, was $31 for each 
grown person. The passengers on board this 
ship were partly from the city of Stavanger and 
partly from the surrounding country, from 
Hjelmeland, Aardal, Tysver and other parts 
of Stavanger county. They had fair weather, 
and were twelve weeks on the sea. Among the 
passengers on board "Enigheden" were Knud 
Olson Eide, supposed by some to have been 
Kleng Peerson's companion to America in 1821, 
and his family, Ole Thompson Eide from the- 



; 



the exodus of 1837. 197 

:samo farm in Norway as Knud, Christopher 
Danielson and Hans Valder (Vaelde). 

In the autumn of 1836 Capt. Behrens, who 
owned the ship "JEgir" which he commanded, 
returned to Bergen from America, where he 
had been with a cargo of freight. Learning 
that a considerable number of his countrymen 
in the vicinity of the city, particularly from 
Samnanger, had sold their farms and desired 
to emigrate to America, Capt. Behrens decided 
to change his vessel into an emigrant packet, 
and made a contract to carry these people over 
in 1837. Capt. Behrens had seen many Ger- 
man and English emigrant ships in New York, 
and hence he was well informed as to what to 
do to make his passengers comfortable in every 
respect. Moreover, he had carried back to 
Europe two German ministers who were bound 
for the fatherland to solicit subscriptions for 
churches they were about to build, and from 
these ministers he had learned much about the 
German immigration by way of Baltimore to 
Pennsylvania. On board "^Egir" there were 
eighty-four emigrants. Among these we daay 
mention N. P. Langeland, who had been a 
school teacher in Norway, Mons Aadland, Nils 
Frtfland, Anders Nordvig, Anders Rosseland, 
Thomas Bauge, Ingebrigt Brudvig, Thorbjorn 



198 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

5te, and others, all of whom had families. 
Among unmarried men Knud Langeland men- 
is by their surnames, only, Dovig, Eosseland, 
Bauge, Finland, Xordvig, Hisdal and Tosseland. 
On this ship also came Ole Rynning, a man of 
whom I shall give a more full account later on. 
"-aSgir" was eight weeks in crossing the At- 
lantic. In mid-ocean it collided with an Amer- 
ican packet, but no damage was done. 

The immigrants of 1837 also intended to go 
to the Vox River settlement, and many of those 
who came in "Enigheden" actually proceeded 
thither at once. But w T hen the passengers in 
"JSgir" got as far as Chicago, they heard un- 
favorable reports from La Salle county, and so 
they revised their plans and took into consider- 
ation reports about good land to be had in Iro- 
quois county, about seventy miles south of Chi- 
cago. This led to the unfortunate Beaver 
Creek settlement 



XII. 

The Beaver Creek Settlement. 

Tt was in Chicago these immigrants met my 
father, BjOrn Anderson, who had come to that 
city from the Fox River settlement. lie gave 



THE BEAVER CREEK SETTLEMENT. 

an unfavorable description of the colony in La 
Salle county, and would not recommend his 
countrymen to go there. He was entirely 
honest in his statements. He did not like the 
Fox river country, and neither bought land 
there nor intended to make his home there, and 
we know from what has been said of him that 
he took the first opportunity to look for a new 
place of settlement. But it is a great injustice 
to him to blame him for the misfortunes of 
those who went to Iroquois county. Bjorn An- 
derson had never been there, and consequently 
he neither could nor did recommend it to any 
one else. 

A couple of Americans with whom Ole Ryn- 
ning talked persuaded him to go with his 
friends to Beaver Creek, which was the name of 
the particular place in question. Others ad- 
vised against the selection of this place, and in 
order to proceed as cautiously as possible, the 
new-comers decided to send four of their party 
to Beaver Creek to look at the land and the 
country. The persons chosen for this expedition 
were Ole Bynning, Niels Veste from Etne in 
Norway, Ingebrigt Brttdvig and Ole Nattestad. 
Mr. Nattestad, with his brother Ansten, had 
just arrived by way of Gothenborg and Fall 
Biver, Mass., and had joined the newcomers in 



200 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Detroit, and had accompanied them to Chicago. 
The rest <>f the company remained in Chicago 
to await the result. Ole Nattestad says that 
he did not like the land, it being sandy and 
swampy, but as the others were pleased with it, 
it was agreed that Mr. Nattestad and Mr. Yeste 
should remain and put up a log house for the 
reception of the immigrants, while Rynning and 
Brudvig returned to Chicago to fetch their 
friends. Some of those who were left in Chi- 
cago had, in the meantime, gone with my father 
to the Fox River settlement, but the most of 
them went with Rynning and Brudvig to 
Beaver Creek. There were no settlers in the im- 
mediate vicinity, and it was difficult to procure 
the common necessaries of life, although the 
most of these people were well supplied with 
money. Many of the new settlers grumbled and. 
were inclined to find fault with Ole Rynning 
and the others who were responsible for the se- 
lection of this settlement. All chose land for 
farms, and before winter set in a sufficient num- 
ber of log huts had been built. The number of 
settlers here was about fifty. These people were 
well, and in a measure happy, during the first 
winter, but the next spring the whole settle- 
ment was flooded and the swamp was turned 
into a veritable lake. In the summer the set- 



THE BEAVER CREEK SETTLEMENT. 201 

tiers were attacked by malarial fever. In a 
short time no less than fourteen or fifteen 
deaths occurred, and among those who here 
found his last resting place was Ole Rynning, 
and, adds Mons Aadland, "his death was a great 
loss to the colony." The survivors fled, leaving 
farms and houses as there was nobody to buy 
land where a malarial atmosphere threatened 
the inhabitant with almost certain destruction. 
The most of those who fled found their way to 
the Fox River settlement, reaching there late in 
the summer of 1838. Only a few remained two 
or three years, defying the dangers to life and 
health. The last one to leave the colony was 
Mons Aadland, a brother of the well-known 
journalist and author, Knud Langland. He 
finally exchanged his farm for a small number 
of cows and oxen, and with these he went to 
Racine county, in Wisconsin, where we shall 
find him later on. 

Such was the sad fate of the Beaver Creek 
enterprise, and as this settlement was wholly 
abandoned in 1840 we do not count it as one 
of the six settlements, the founding of which 
we are to describe in this volume. It is grati- 
fying to know that no other Norwegian colony 
in America has had the misfortune of suffer- 
ing a similar calamity. 



NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

XIII. 
Ole Rynning. 

Before discussing the formation of the next 
settlement, I will now describe the careers of 
some of the immigrants who came in the year 
1837. The most important ones are unques- 
tionably Ole Kynning and the two brothers, 
Ole Knudson Nattestad and Ansten Knudson 
Nattestad. Ole Kynning became particularly 
conspicuous and influential on account of a 
book w^hich he published in Christiania, Nor- 
way, in 1838, the title of which is "Sandfaerdig 
Beretning om Amerika til Oplysning og Nytte, 
for Bonde og Menigmand forfattet af en norsk, 
som komderoveri Juni Maaned 1837;" that is 
"A truthful account of America for the instruc- 
tion and help of the peasant and commoner, 
written by a Norwegian, w T ho came there in the 
month of June, 1837." The author's name is 
giyen at the end of the preface, where w T e read: 
"Illinois, February 13, 1838. Ole Kynning." 

Tli is little book of only thirty-nine pages is 
now exceedingly scarce, and for the copy now 
in my hands I am indebted to Rev. B. J. Muus- 
of Norway, Goodhue county, Minnesota. Kyn- 






OLE RYNNING. 203 

ning's book was widely read everywhere in Nor- 
way, and was regarded as a reliable document 
It made its lamented author one of the chid' 
fathers of Norwegian immigration, second in 
importance, I should say, only to Kleng Peer- 
son. On account of his valuable service through 
his little book I have taken pains to gather the 
facts of his career as carefully as possible. The 
Keverend Bernt J. Muus, mentioned above, is 
his nephew, Ole Rynning being the brother of 
Rev. Muus' mother, and he has kindly sent me 
the following brief sketch, which may be re- 
garded as entirely authentic: 

"Ole Rynning was born on the farm Dusgaard 
in Ringsaker, where his father was at that 
time resident curate, that is, clergyman em- 
ployed under the incumbent, on the 4th of April, 
1809. His parents were Jens Rynning and 
wife, Severine Cathrine Steen. In 1825 lie 
moved with his parents to Snaasen (in Trond- 
hjem Stift), where his father had been appointed 
minister of the parish. Ole passed the matric- 
ulation examination at the university in 1829, 
and returned to Snaasen, Christmas eve, 1833. 
Here he kept a private school for advanced 
scholars until he emigrated to America on the 
2d of March, 1837, and settled at Beaver Creek, 
about ten miles south of Lake Michigan in Illi- 






204 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

nois, North America. The climate was very 
unhealthy and he died here from malarial fever, 
one year and a half after his landing in Amer- 
ica. He was not married. A woman, Mrs. 
Davidson, at whose house he made his home 
the most of the time, related that when Ole died 
xill the people in the settlement were sick but 
one. This one went out on the prairie and 
-chopped down an oak and made a sort of coffin 
of it. His brother helped him to get the dead 
body into the coffin and then they hauled it ont 
on the prairie and buried it. Ole is said to 
have made a journey to Fox Eiver and to have 
worked on the canal there. Thither, too, all* 
the survivors at Beaver Creek w^ent after Ole 
Rynning's death." 

In regard to the cause of Ole Rynning's emi- 
gration, Rev. B. J. Muus expresses himself as 
follows: 

"I do not know it (the cause) positively, but 
what I have been able to learn from the family 
is, that his parents, and particularly his mother, 
desired that Ole should study theology. He 
had no taste for it. On the other hand he had 
made a contract with my father, w r ho lived on 
the farm joining the parsonage, to buy from 
him a large marsh, which he was going to culti- 

* Nearly all, but not all as has been shown above.— R. B. A. 



OLE RYNNING. 205 

vate. He was to Lave this marsh and two small 
farms belonging to cottagers for 400 dollars 
(Norwegian money). As he was unable to raise 
this money he went to America, 

"He was fond of making himself hardy. ITo 
did not, for instance, wear socks in the winter,, 
and he would cut a hole in the ice and take a 
bath. He trained his scholars in racing, bath- 
ing, swimming and other exercises. 

"I do not know the date of his death and do 
not know how to get it." 

Mr. Muus rejects the idea that Ole Rynning 
emigrated on account of any dissatisfaction 
with the condition of things in Norway, and his 
opinion must be accepted. We may therefore 
say that he came to America to ameliorate his 
own position. He left a marsh farm, which he 
found himself unable to pay for, and being a 
well informed man it is easy to see that he 
looked for better prospects in the western hem- 
isphere. All agree in describing Ole Rynning 
as a noble-minded, philanthropic man, and 
Mons Aadland said that it was a great loss to 
the Beaver Creek colony when Ole Rynning 
died. 

It is entirely certain that Rynning had no 
share in promoting the exodus of 1837. That 
must be credited to the sloopers, to the left 



206 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

written by Gjert Hovland and to the visit of 
Knud Anderson Slogvig. Rynning had seen 
an advertisement of the proposed departure 
of "iEgir" and had corresponded with the 
owner of the vessel and so secured a pas- 
sage. He loved Norway and made no secret of 
his intention to visit his native land again. Of 
his devotion to Norway there is ample evidence 
in a poem which he wrote on board the "iEgir," 
and which was sung at a little celebration on 
the 4th of July. I give this poem in the origi- 
nal as the oldest piece of poetry extant, so far 
as I know, written by a Norwegian immigrant 
to America in this century. 

"Nu ligger Norges Klippeland 
Saa dybt i Skjul bag sal ten Vove, 
Men Lsengslen higer til den Strand 
Med gamle, dunkle Egeskove, 
llvor Graners Sus og Joklers Dron 
Er Harmoni for Norges Son. 
Men om end Skja?bnen bod ham der, 
Bom forduni Bjom af Leif, at tjelde, 
Hans vil dog stedse have kjaer 
Sit gode gamle Norges Fjelde, 
Og lsenges 6mt med sonlig Hu 
At se sit elskte Hjem endnu." 

This poem shows that Rynning loved Norway 
will, a genuine loyalty. That he gained the 
confidence of his fellow travelers is shown by 
the fact that he was one of the four chosen to 



OLE RYNNING. 207 

go to Beaver Creek to inspect the land there 
That he also became thoroughly devoted to 

America is fully demonstrated by the bonk 
which he wrote while at Beaver ('reck and 
which was sold in thousands of copies in Nor- 
way, Ansten Nattestad, of whom we shall 
have more to say presently, speaks of hi in in 
the following complimentary terms: 

"When sickness and trouble visited the col- 
onists (at Beaver Creek) he was always ready 
to comfort the sorrowing and to aid those in 
distress so far as it lay in his power to do so. 
Nothing could shake his faith in the idea that 
America would become a place of refuge for 
the masses of Europe who toiled under the bur- 
dens of poverty. He himself was contented with 
little, and bore his suffering with patience. I 
well remember one time when he returned from 
a long exploring expedition. A heavy frost 
had set in during his absence, and the ice on 
the swamps cut holes in his boots. He finally 
reached the colony, but his feet were frozen and 
lacerated. His feet presented a terrible sight 
and we all thought he would be a cripple for 
life. He had to take to his bed, and while thus 
confined he wrote his book about America, the 
manuscript of which I took with me to Norway 
and had it printed in Christiania. As soon as 



208 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

he had written a chapter he read it to me and 
to others and got our opinions and criticisms. 
His feet got well again, and he once more took 
up his benevolent work among the colonists. 
But in the fall of 1838 he was taken sick and 
died soon after, and his death caused the 
greatest sorrow to all of us." 

Long after the Beaver Creek settlement had 
been abandoned by the Norwegians, French- 
men, Germans and Americans made a settle- 
ment there. They drained the marshes and 
plowed the fields where the Norwegians w T ere 
buried. I understand Beaver Creek is now a 
prosperous settlement, but there is not a man 
or woman who can point out the grave of our 
lamented Ole Rynning. 

In Eynning's book I find this preface: "Dear 
countrymen, peasants and artisans! I have 
now been in America eight months and in that 
time I have had an opportunity of finding out 
much in regard to which I in vain sought infor- 
mation before I left Norway. I then felt how 
disagreeable it is for those who wish to emi- 
grate to America, to be in want of a reliable 
and tolerably complete account of the country. 
I also learned how great is the ignorance of the 
people, and what false and ridiculous reports 
were accepted as full truth. In this little book 



OLE RYNNING. 209 

it has, therefore, been my aim to answer every 
question which I asked myself, and to clear up 
every point in regard to which I observed that 
people were ignorant, and to disprove false re- 
ports which have come to my ears partly before 
I left Norway and partly after my arrival here. 

"I hope, dear reader, that you may not find 
any point in regard to which you may desire 
information, neglected or imperfectly treated. 

"Illinois, Feb. 13, 1838." 

The book is divided into thirteen chapters, 
answering the following questions: 

1. In what direction is America situated 
and how far is it thither? 

2. How did this land become known? 

3. What is the nature of this country and 
what is the reason why so many people go there 
and expect to make a living there? 

4. Is it not to be feared that the land will 
soon be over populated? Is it true that the 
government there is going to prohibit immigra- 
tion? 

5. In what part of the land have the Norwe- 
gians settled? Which is the most convenient 
and cheapest route to them? 

6. What is the nature of the country where 
the Norwegians have settled? What is the 

14 



21 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

price of land? What is the price of cattle and 
of the necessaries of life? How high are the 
wages? 

7. What kind of religion is there in Amer- 
ica? Is there any sort of order and govern- 
ment in the land or is everybody permitted to 
do as he pleases? 

8. What provision is there for the education 
of children and for the care of the poor? 

9. What language is spoken in America and 
is it difficult to learn? 

10. Is there danger of disease in America? 
Is there reason to fear wild animals or the 
Indians? 

11. What kind of people should be advised 
to emigrate to America? Advice against un- 
reasonable expectations. 

12. What dangers may be expected on the 
ocean? Is it true that those who are taken to 
America are sold as slaves? 

13. Advice to those who wish to go to 
America. How they are to get a vessel; how 
they are to exchange their money; what season 
and route is the most convenient; what things 
should be taken along on the journey. 

These questions will be seen to be to the 
point and they are all answered in a most in- 
iHligent manner. Some of the questions may 



OLE RYNNING. 211 

seem silly, but it is a fact that in those days 
many plain people in Norway believed thai the 
emigrants ran the risk of being sold into slav- 
ery to the Turks, of being killed by the In- 
dians or of being devoured by horrible mon- 
sters of sea and land. 

In the second chapter Rynning devotes a 
paragraph to the Norse discovery of America 
in the tenth century by Leif Erikson, and he 
appears to be well up in the literature of that 
subject. What a pity that his Beaver Creek 
settlement should have a fate so much like that 
of the ancient Vinland the Good! In chapter 
five of his book, where he speaks of Norwegian 
settlements, he describes the Beaver Creek set- 
tlement as containing eleven or twelve fam- 
ilies. 

I would like to translate Rynning's whole 
little book of forty pages, but it would injure 
the proportions of this volume. I will, how- 
ever, reproduce chapter seven, in which the 
author discusses the religion and government 
of America. Here it is: 

"It was a common opinion among the lay 
people in Norway, that there is in America 
nothing but pure heathendom or something 
still worse, that there is no religion. This is 
not the case. Here everyone is allowed to have 



212 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

his own faith and worship God in the manner 
that seems to h«m right, but he must not per- 
secute anybody, because he has another faith. 
The government here assumes that a compul- 
sory belief is no belief at all, and that it will 
be most evident who has religion or not, if there 
is perfect religious liberty. 

"The Christian religion is the prevailing one 
in America; but on account of the self-conceit 
and obstinacy in opinion of the teachers of re- 
ligion in little things, there are a multitude 
of sects, which, however, agree in the essen- 
tials. Thus we are here told about Catholics, 
Protestants, Lutherans, Calvinists, Presbyteri- 
ans, Baptists, Quakers, Methodists, and many 
others. Among the Norwegians, too, there 
are various sects, but they have no ministers 
or churches as yet. Every man who is some- 
what in earnest in his profession has devotional 
exercises at home in his own house, or worships 
together with his neighbors. 

"I have already stated that the United States 
has no king. Nevertheless it has a person who 
exercises about as much authority as a king. * 
This person is chosen for four years only and 
is called president The legislative power in 
matters pertaining to the United States as a 
unity rests with congress^ which is composed 



OLE RYNN1NG. 213' 

of men chosen by the various states. The 
various states have each its own government 
like Norway and Sweden, but the common con- 
gress, the common language, and the common 
financial system unite them more closely. The 
number of the United States is now twenty- 
seven. 

"As a comfort to the timid, I can truthfully 
assert, that here, as in Norway, there are laws, 
governments and authority. But everything 
is here calculated to maintain the natural 
equality and liberty of man. In regard to lib- 
erty everybody is free to engage in any kind 
of honest occupation and to go wmerever he 
chooses without a passport and without being 
examined by custom house officers. Only the 
real criminal is threatened with the law and 
punishment. 

"In w^orks written only for the purpose of 
finding something for which the authors can 
find fault with America, I have read that the 
American is faithless, deceitful, hard-hearted, 
etc. I will not undertake to deny that such 
people are to be found in America as well as 
elsewhere, and that the stranger never can be 
too prudent; but it has been my experience 
that the American as a rule is a better man 
to get on with than the Norwegian, more yield- 



214 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

more accommodating and more reliable 
in all things. The oldest Norwegians here 
have given me the same assurance. It being 
so easy to get a living here in an honest way, 
Stealing and burglary are almost unheard of.* 
"In ugly contrast with the above liberty and 
equality which justly constitute the pride of 
the Americans, is the disgraceful slave-traffic, 
which is still tolerated and carried on in the 
southern states. Y/e find here a race of black 
people, with woolly hair on their heads, that 
are called negroes, and that have been brought 
here from Africa, which is their original 
country. In the southern states these poor 
people are bought and sold like other property 
and are driven to work with a whip like horses 
or oxen. If a master whips his slave to death, 
or in his rage shoots him dead, he is not looked 
upon as a murderer. The children born by a 
Degress are by birth slaves even if a white man 
is the father. In Missouri the slave-trade is 
still permitted, but in Indiana, Illinois and 
Wisconsin territory it is strictly forbidden and 
the institution is despised. The northern 
states endeavor at every congress to get the 
slave-trade abolished in the southern states; 
but as the latter always make resistance, and 

* Who would dare to make this statement in 1895? RB.A. 






OLE RYNNING. 215 

claim the right to settle the matters pertain- 
ing to their states themselves, there will prob- 
ably soon come either a separation between 
the northern and southern states or bloody 
civil conflicts." 

As this was written twenty-two years before 
the breaking out of the rebellion, Rynning's 
words are most remarkable and give evidence 
of his intelligence and sagacity. 

Enough has been quoted to show that Mr. 
Eynning was in full sympathy with American 
institutions as he found them, and he did not 
hesitate to advise those of his countrymen who 
desired to better their circumstances to emi- 
grate to America. As stated above, Ansten 
Nattestad took the manuscript with him to 
Norway and had it printed there, but the 
author probably never saw a copy of the book 
which was destined to have so great influence 
upon emigration from Norway during the fol- 
lowing years. 

Ansten Nattestad also took with him to Nor- 
way the manuscript of a journal kept by his 
brother, Ole Nattestad. This was printed in 
Drammen the same year, 1838, but it has not 
been my fortune to ever see a copy of Natte- 
stad's book. In an interview published on 
page 94 in Billed Magamn (Madison, Wis., 



216 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

1869), Mr. Nattestad makes the following some- 
what startling statement: 

"In the spring of 1838 I went from Illinois 
(Beaver Creek) by way of New Orleans to Liv- 
erpool in England, and thence to Norway, to 
visit friends and acquaintances in my native 
land. I brought with me letters from nearly 
all the earlier Norwegian emigrants whom I 
had met, and in this way information about 
America was scattered far and wide in Nor- 
way. My brother's journal was published in 
Drammen, and Ole Rynning's work on matters 
in the new w^orld appeared at the same time 
in Christiania. Of this book (that is, Ryn- 
ning's) I brought the manuscript w T ith me from 
America. The Rev. Mr. Kragh in Eidsvold 
read the proofs, and left out the chapter about 
the Norwegian clergymen who therein were 
accused of intolerance in religious matters and 
of inactivity in questions concerning the bet- 
terment of the condition of the people in tem- 
poral affairs and in questions concerning the 
advancement of education." 

I fully accept the statement of Rev. B. J. 
Muus as final that such considerations were 
not among the causes which led Ole Rynning 
to emigrate, but from what I have quoted from 
Rynning's book it is clear that he preferred 



OLE KYNNING. 217 

.American Institutions to the Norwegian (al- 
ways excepting the slavery institution in the 
south), and I have no reason to doubt the 
above statement of Ansten Nattestad, with 
whom I was personally acquainted and whom 
I knew to be a man of truth and veracity. 

I have heretofore shown that as in the case of 
the Huguenots, the Puritans and the followers 
of William Penn, the early Norwegians left 
Norway to get away from religious intoler- 
ance and persecution. This is certainly true 
of the Quakers, the Haugians and of the dis- 
senters generally. It is impossible to point 
out the motives and causes in each individual 
case, but it is our duty to find, if possible, the 
motives that governed the movement as a 
whole. When we consider that the sloop peo- 
ple and the emigrants of 1836 came from Sta- 
vanger county, where the soil is poor and the 
struggle for existence is a severe one, it is easy 
to jump to the conclusion that the main object 
of the emigrants was to ameliorate their con- 
dition and prospects in the Dew world, but on 
a closer inspection we find that a very large 
number of those emigrants were dissenters 
in some form or other, and when we came to 
talk with them and also with later emigrants 
we found that religion and oppression on tin* 



218 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

part of the office-holding class did have much 
influence in leading them to depart from their 
native country. As has been well said by a 
writer in Scandinavia in 1884, "peculiar re- 
ligious opinions were often one of the motives, 
especially for the leaders; for even if there 
were no direct persecutions, there was not full 
liberty at home. For a number of individuals, 
special personal motives played a part." 

Rynning's book cleared away much of the 
ignorance in Norway in regard to America, 
and it helped the emigrants to fight their bat- 
tles with the higher classes, especially the offi- 
cials of church and state, who were very much 
opposed to emigration. I have mentioned the 
expunging of the chapter on the clergy from 
[fynning's book by the Rev. Mr. Kragh to em- 
phasize the fact that Ole Rynning looked upon 
tiic early Norwegian emigration to America in 
the same light as that in which I am con- 
st autly presenting it. 




Hans Valder. 









OTHER PIONEERS OF 1837. 219 

XIV. 
Other Pioneers of 1837. 

A prominent man of those who came to 
America in the ship "Enigheden" in 1837 is 
Hans Valder (Vselde) now residing at New- 
burg, Minnesota. He was born on the farm 
Yrelde in Vats Parish, Stavanger Amt, Nor- 
way, the 18th of October, 1813. His father 
was at that time sergeant in the third Ryfylke 
company, and stationed in Christiansand. nans 
was educated as a farmer and itinerant school- 
master, and for several years he taught school 
in his native country. He told me that he 
taught school in Tysver, the parish whence 
came Kleng Peerson and several of the sloop 
people. He also met my father in Norway. 
He had a splendid opportunity of getting in- 
formed in regard to America through letters 
received from this country. At the age of 24 he 
emigrated with his wife and one child to 
America. He left the other immigrants at De- 
troit, and from there went with Osten Espe- 
land, from Hjelmeland in Norway, by mil t«> 
Adrian, Mich. From Adrian they went three 
miles into the country in Lenawee county t 1 



220 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Ingcbret Larson Narvig, the same man who 
had settled in Monroe county in 1833 and who 
was now there. The Espelands lived with 
Mr. Narvig for a time, but later moved to the 
Fox River settlement. Osten Espeland is 
dead years ago, but his widow married again 
and is still living. Ingebret Larson Narvig 
also had two brothers living in this settlement 
in Lenawee county, and in addition to those 
mentioned there was only one other, viz., 
Jochum Hervig. They lived in a Quaker settle- 
ment, and this corroborates my former state- 
ment that Narvig was a Quaker from Norway. 
Jochum Hervig afterwards lived with a doctor 
in Indiana, and Mr. Valder informs me that he 
died there. As Engebret Larson Narvig was 
occupying his second home in Michigan, when 
Mr. Valder came there in 1837, it is Mr. Val- 
der's opinion that he had lived in Michigan 
three or four years and hence must have im- 
migrated in 1833 or 1834. The fact is, as I 
have already shown, that I. L. Narvig came to 
America in 1831, then went west with Kleng 
Peerson in 1833, and settled in Monroe county, 
and a couple of years later moved to Lenawee 
county. 

The slooper, Thorstein Olson Bjaadland, and 
these three brothers Narvig were, so far as I 



OTHER PIONEERS OF 1837. 221 

have been able to find, the first Norwegians to 
stop in Michigan where their countrymen now 
number about 12,000, not counting grandchil- 
dren. The little Lenawee settlement became 
entirely Americanized, and has been well-nigh 
forgotten, since it received no Norwegian ac- 
cretions. 

The following May, i83S, Valder continued 
his migration to Mission, La Salle county, 
where he says he found about fifteen Norwe- 
gian families settled. He resided in Illinois 
until 1853, when he moved to Newburg, Min- 
nesota, and became one of the very first Nor- 
wegian settlers of that state. He writes me 
that four families came from Indian Creek and 
four from the Fox River settlement and lo- 
cated in Newburg at the same time. I asked 
Mr. Valder whether he could inform me who 
was the first Norwegian settler in Minnesota, 
but his only answer was, that on his way to 
Newburg he found three young men in a log 
cabin in Spring Grove, viz., Hakon Narveson, 
Knud Kjeline and Fingar Fingarson, and at 
Blackhammer near by he found Torkel 
Kosaaen and some people from Sogn, who had 
log shanties there. How long they had lived 
there he does not know. Meanwhile it ap- 
pears that Mr. Tosten Johnson, who still lives 



222 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

at Blackhammer, Houston county, and who 
has frequently represented his neighbors in 
both branches of the legislature of Minnesota, 
came to the state with his brother from Dane 
count}', Wis., in 1852. This volume does not 
concern Minnesota, but I mention this matter 
in connection with the life of Mr. Yalder, and 
1852 is probably a safe year to accept for the 
first actual settlement of Norwegians in Min- 
nesota, where they and tlie children of the first 
generation now number about 200,000. 

Since Valder came to Newburg his occupa- 
tion has been farming and hotel keeping. In 
1871 he was a member of the lower house of 
the state legislature. He has been married 
three times and has sixteen children, and in 
1892 he had more than one hundred and fifty 
descendants living in six different states. His 
son has a flourishing normal and commercial 
school in Decorah, Iowa. When I visited Hans 
Yalder in the autumn of 1894 I found the octo- 
genarian well and active, a fine specimen of a 
pioneer. 

In the ship "Enigheden" came also Christo- 
pher Danielson from Aarland in Stavanger 
county, Norway. He was born in 1780, and 
came to America with his family. He went at 
once to Mission township, La Salle county, 



OTHER PIONEERS OK 1837. 

whore lie bought a farm. 1 1 is iirst wife died 
in Norway and his second wife died two or 
three years after their arrival in La Salle 
county. Christopher Danielson died of chol- 
era in 1849. The only child living is Christo- 
pher, who now resides at Sheridan, 111., and 
is in prosperous circumstances. He wr.s a 
small boy when he came in "Enigheden," and 
is still in the bloom of manhood. I am under 
great obligations to him for many valuable 
letters concerning the early immigrants. 

Nils Froland^came in "^Egir." He was from 
Bergen Stiff, and he with his wife and chil- 
dren lived for two years in Beaver Creek, and 
then came on to La Salle county, where they 
lived one year in Mission and then located in 
Miller in 1840, where he died in the spring of 
1873. His son is a substantial farmer. On my 
visit to La Salle county in August, 1894, 1 called 
on Mr. Johnson, a prosperous farmer near Nor 
way, who is married to a daughter of Nils Fra 
land. At their house I found Nils Froland'a 
widow, Anna, still living. She was then 9*) 
years old, being born March 24, 1798, but she 
could still remember my father whom she met 
in Chicago in 1837. The old lady was inclined 
to blame him to some extent for the misfor- 
tunes of the Beaver Creek colony. 



224 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

One of the passengers in "Enigheden" was 
Ole Thompson (Torbjornson) Eide, who came 
from the same farm as Knud Olson Eide, that 
is, from the island Fogn, near Stavanger. lie 
was horn May 27, 1820. He had only ten cents 
left when he reached La Salle county. He 
was industrious and frugal, and has acquired 
a competency for his old age. His first wife 
died and he is now living with his second wife, 
whose name is Caroline. In the early days of 
the Fox River settlement he and my father 
husked corn together for the Pitzers in the 
town of Rutland. His portrait appears in this 
volume. 

In connection with the "^Egir," N. P. Lange- 
land, a school teacher from Samnanger, Nor- 
way, was mentioned. When the party got as 
far as Detroit his money had given out, and 
there were no less than eight in the family^ 
Some of his friends had promised to help him 
through to Chicago, but I suppose they did not 
have any funds to spare. Langeland conse- 
quently was obliged to stop in Detroit. He 
was a competent carpenter and blacksmith, 
and he soon found a turner to employ him. 
In this way he supported his family and saved 
some money which he invested in a farm in 

Lapeer county, Michigan. He died? in Michi- 




K«UD Langland. 



OTHER PIONEERS OF 1837. 225 

gan many years ago, but in 1887 a son of his 
was living in San Francisco, California. 

Mons Aadland frpm Samnanger came in the 
w -33gir. w He was a man of some means, but he 
lost nearly all he had in Beaver Creek. He 
was the last one to abandon that marshy and 
malarial settlement. He went to Racine 
county, Wis., in 1840. He died there many 
years ago, but three of his children are still 
living, two sons, Knud and Thomas, who own 
large farms in Racine county, and a daughter 
Martha, who married the Lutheran minister, 
Rev. A. C. Preus, who succeeded Rev. Dietrich- 
son on Koshkonong in Wisconsin, and later re- 
turned to Norway, where he died. The widow, 
Mrs. Preus, is still living at Horten in Norway. 
I shall discuss the Aadland family more fully 
when I come to Muskego. 

A brother of Mons Aadland was the well- 
known and very competent journalist, Knud 
Langland, who came to America in 1843 and 
settled in Racine county. He was born in 
Samnanger, Norway, October 27, 1813, and 
died in Milwaukee, Wis., February 8, 1888. 
He edited for some time "Nordlyset," which 
was published in the Muskego settlement (Nor- 
way, Racine county), and which was started 
15 



226 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

in 1847, and was the first newspaper pub- 
lished in the Norwegian language in this 
country. The first publishers were Messrs. 
Even Heg and James D. Reyrnert, the lat- 
ter being the editor. In 1849 Knud Lang- 
land and O. J. Hatlestad, the brother of Mrs. 
Langland, bought the paper, moved it to Ra- 
cine, Wis., and Langeland became the editor. 
Soon after they changed the name to "Demo- 
kraten," but even under its new name it did 
not flourish more than about half a year, when 
it was suspended. Mr. Langeland served a 
term in the Wisconsin assembly in 1860, and 
was a presidential elector in 1880. His great 
reputation was won as the first editor of 
"Skandinaven," which was established in Chi- 
cago in 1866. For many years he conducted 
that paper with signal ability. When he be- 
came too old for editorial work he retired to 
his farm in Racine county, and there produced 
a volume in the Norwegian language on "The 
Norwegians in America." It is a valuable 
work and has proved very serviceable to me 
in connection with the volume I now have in 
hand. By his death I lost one of my most in- 
timate friends, one to whom I am greatly in- 
debted for many valuable favors. He sent his 
book to me in Copenhagen, but when my letter 




Thomas A. Thompson. 



OTHER PIONEERS OF 1837. 227 

of acknowledgment reached his old home he 
was laid away in the churchyard. After com- 
ing to America Knud Langland (in Norwegian, 
Langeland) married Miss Anna, daughter of 
Jens Olson Hattlestad. She was born in the 
Skjold Parish in Norway, January 12, 1830, and 
she is still living with her son, Peter Langland, 
who is a successful physician in Milwaukee. 
When I last visited Mrs. Langland in Decem- 
ber, 1894, she was as well and bright and cheer- 
ful as ever. Knud Langland's children now 
living are Peter, the physician mentioned 
above, Frank, living in Milwaukee, James, liv- 
ing in Chicago, and Mrs. Malinda Brimble, also 
in Chicago. 

Knud Langland's sister was Mrs. Magda- 
lena Nordvig, her husband's name being the 
Anders Nordvig mentioned above. Two of her 
children survive her — Mrs. Iver Lawson, the 
mother of Victor Fremont Lawson, and Mrs. 
Sarah Darnell, of Sandwich, 111. 

Among the emigrants of this year (1837) 1 
find Thomas A Thompson. He was born 
February 3, 1812, at Aareg, Skjold Par- 
ish, Norway, and died in Adams county, 
Iowa, October 15, 1870. On April 1, 
1848, he married Carrie J. Melland, from 
Etne, and she is still living at Strand, 



228 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Adams county, Iowa. Mr. Thompson first set- 
tled at Norway, 111., where he bought a farm. 
In those early days the settlers broke up only 
small patches on their land and raised a little 
wheat and garden truck. When the time for 
marketing came, ten neighbors would some- 
times club together, load one or two w T agons, 
hitch two or three yoke of oxen to each wagon,. 
and then start for Chicago to sell their produce 
and purchase as economically as possible the 
necessaries of life. On coming near Chicago, 
they would sometimes have to hitch five or 
six yokes of oxen to a single wagon in order 
to pull it through the mud, for which Chicago 
was noted. In the Fox Kiver settlement that 
city was then know^n as "the Chicago mire." 
In course of time home markets were estab- 
lished and the overland trips to Chicago w r ere 
abandoned. In 1877, Thomas A. Thompson 
moved to Adams county, Iowa, where he died 
as stated above. He was a Lutheran when 
he emigrated, but joined the Methodist church 
in this country. Mrs. Malinda Nelson, now 
living in Strand, Adams county, Iow r a, came in 
the same ship ("Enigheden") with Thomas A. 
Thompson; The story of her life throws a 
Hood of light on the early days of Norwegian 
immigration; and while it contains some rep- 




Malinda Nelson. 




Lars Davidson Rekve. 



OTHER PIONEERS OF 1837. 229« 

etitions of what I have stated elsewhere, I can- 
not help giving the substance of her state* 
ments here. Her maiden name was Malinda 
Danielson. She was born in Aurdal, Norway, 
September 29, 1827. She emigrated with 
her parents. Her father's name was 
Knud Danielson, and her mother's maiden 
name was Sara Olson. Mrs. Malinda Nel- 
son says the vessel "Enigheden" was eleven 
weeks and three days on the way from 
Stavanger to New York. We have already 
made the acquaintance of many of the pas- 
sengers in "Enigheden." Among them are 
Hans Valder, Ole Thompson Eide, Knud 
Olson Eide, Christopher Danielson and 
others, and we have seen how they made 
their way up the Hudson to Albany, thence 
by canal to Kochester, N. Y., where they 
stopped several days, thence to Buffalo, 
and then on by the lakes to Chicago. As soon 
as they arrived in Chicago, Malinda Nelson 
says they sent one man to the Fox Eiver set- 
tlement to engage some people to take the im- 
migrants to Norway, 111. Two men engaged 
for that purpose were Helge Vatname and 
Samuel Peerson, who yoked their oxen to their 
"Hoosier wagon" and started for Chicago, and 
in about ten days' time these newcomers were 






230 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

thus brought to their destination. It will be 
observed that in Helge Vatname and Samuel 
Peerson, w r e have secured the names of two 
immigrants who came to America before 1837. 
Malinda's parents settled in the town of Mis- 
sion near what is now Norway, 111. They had 
a little money and invested it in a small farm 
at $1.25 per acre. They had not been there 
very long before they received a visit from 
Kleng Peerson, and through his influence Ma- 
linda secured a place to w^ork in Ottawa, I1L 
Kleng Peerson, who had secured the position 
beforehand, accompanied Malinda to Ottawa 
and they walked all the way, it being about 
fifteen miles. I mention this fact here as evi- 
dence of Kleng Peerson's helpfulness to his 
countrymen. It is also interesting to note 
that Malinda w T as only about eleven years old, 
when she had to leave her parents and go out 
to earn her own living. She continued to be 
a servant girl until she was seventeen years 
old, that is until 1844, when she married Peter 
Nelson Ovrabo, who had emigrated from Fis- 
ter, in Hjelmeland in 1839. Hans Valder 
was at that time, it seems, a Baptist preacher 
in Illinois, and he performed the marriage cere- 
mony. After they were married they set- 
tled in the town of Freedom, La Salle county, 




Peter Nelson OvrebO. 



OTHER PIONEERS OF 1837. 231 

111., where they purchased a little farm. In 
the early days of their married life their finan- 
cial circumstances were not enviable. They 
had no stove, and Malinda did her cooking and 
baking over a hole in the ground. This hole 
had a stone wall around it and over it she 
hung her kettles and prepared food for the 
family, during the first six months of her 
housekeeping. In the fall of 1844, Peter yoked 
up his ox team and he and his yotfhg wife 
drove in to Chicago and bought a stove. 

In 1849, we again get the sad story of the 
cholera. Malinda's father, Knud, had died 
in 1838, and her mother had married Chris- 
topher Danielson. The cholera in 1849 car- 
ried off her step-father, her mother, two 
brothers and a working man, all of whom died 
within a few clays in one house. In 1878, 
Peter Nelson and his w T ife moved to Adams 
county, Iowa, where he died in January, 1892. 
Malinda and six of her eleven children are 
still living. 

In 1837, three families from Tin in Upper 
Thelemarken, joined the Fox Kiver settlement. 
They did not come either in "^Egir" or in 
"Enigheden," but went by way of Skien, 
and probably Gothenborg to New York. 
How they got information about America is 



232 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

nowhere stated, but the fact that they went 
directly to the Fox River settlement is evi- 
dence that they had been in communication 
with the earlier emigrants from Stavanger. 

One of the leaders of this little company, 
who led the van of the emigrants from Thel- 
emarken, was Erik Gauteson Midboen. He 
had a large family and settled in La Salle 
county, but fortune does not appear to have 
smiled on him. He became a Mormon, and in 
the capacity of a Mormon preacher, he made 
a visit to Norway and died soon after his re- 
turn to America. 

A second one of the party, Thor Kittelson 
Svimbil, who was also the head of a family 
when he left Norway, died as a farmer in Blue 
Mounds, Wis. 

The third married man in this company, 
was John Nelson Rue, who in 1869 was living 
on a farm in Winneshiek county, Iowa, and 
probably died there. An unmarried man 
who joined these three families of emigrants, 
was Torsten Ingebrigtson Gulliksrud, w T ho 
died years ago in Illinois. 

An unmarried brother of Erik Midboen, 
so far as I can make out, and one of these emi- 
grants from Thelemarken in 1837, was Gunder 
Gauteson Midboen. He had been a school 



OTHER PIONEERS OF 1837. 233 

teacher in the Tin Parish in Thelemarken, and 
being a moderately well educated man, it is 
fair to assume that he was one of the leaders. 
He lived in the Fox River settlement from 1837 
until 1842, and then moved to the Muskego 
settlement in Wisconsin, where we find him 
living as a prosperous farmer and owning 
about 200 acres of land in i869. 

An anonymous Thelemarkian sums up the 
causes of emigration from that part of Norway 
in the following words addressed to Prof. 
Svein Nilsson: "You ask me for the causes 
of the considerable emigration from Thele- 
marken which began in 1837, and was contin- 
ued the succeeding years. In order to answer 
this question in a satisfactory manner it is, 
in my opinion, necessary to go far back to the 
beginning of the century, when two wealthy 
men, Bernt Blair of Brevig, and Didrik Oap- 
pelen of Skien, became the owners of vast 
tracts of land in Upper Thelemarken. 
Even a large number of those who were pre- 
sumed to own their farms had sold their tim- 
ber and made such contracts that they practi- 
cally were mere tenants. Stock raising, the 
most natural industry of this part of the coun- 
try, was neglected. The same is true of agricul- 
ture, and the majority of the peasants had no 



234 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

other income than the scant pay they could get 
for cutting timber and bringing it to the mar- 
ket. Thus many people were dependent on a 
couple of wealthy men, and when for some 
reason or other, logging was suspended there 
was much want and suffering. This was the 
condition down to the time of the beginning 
of emigration, and doubtless for some time 
afterwards. Frequent lack of employment, 
impoverishment, debt and dissatisfaction were 
the visible manifestations of this condition. 
But it was a golden epoch for money-lenders, 
attorneys and sheriffs. Then the America 
fever began to rage, and many crossed the sea 
hoping to find a spot of ground where they 
could live in peace and enjoy the fruits of their 
labors without being annoyed by the thoughts 
of pay-day, rents and foreclosures. 

"In Lower Thelemarken it was the hard 
w T ork or corvie on the estates of Mr. Loven- 
skjold, which drove people from the father- 
land, while in the upper districts, it was a 
process of impoverishment developed through 
a long period of years and the uncertainty of 
a living, which induced people to emigrate. 
"When the way was opened many followed 
without any other motive than that of joining 
friends and relatives in America." 



OTHER PIONEERS OF 1837. 

Hans Barlien emigrated from Norway in 
1837. He was born in Overhalden, lived for a 
time in Trondhjem, then in Christiania and 
then at Ovengaarden, Namsdaleidet, in the 
Beitstaden parish. He was a representative 
of the ideas of the French revolution and had 
many friends who were called Barlians. He 
had some literary talent and was also a skill- 
ful mechanic, and had many admirers, while 
the official class naturally opposed a man ad- 
vocating the doctrines of the French revolu- 
tion. At Overgaarden, Barlien had his own 
press, and his published utterances frequently 
involved him in litigation, but he usually 
came out acquitted, owing to his brilliant de- 
fense. Tired of being persecuted in Norway, 
he resolved to emigrate to America in 1837, 
and from here he carried on an extensive cor- 
respondence : with his friends in Norway. 
American institutions appear to have suited 
him. In one letter he wrote: "Now at last I 
am able to breathe freely. Here no one is per- 
secuted on account of his religious belief. 
Every one is permitted to worship God in the 
manner that agrees with his conscience. 
Pickpockets or lawyers, unscrupulous credit- 
ors, corrupt officials and vagabonds have here 
lost all power to injure the people. Every 



236 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

occupation is free, and every one reaps the 
fruits of his industry and by a wise legislation 
the American citizen is secure against oppres- 
sion. The so-called free constitution of Nor- 
way has hitherto served only to oppress the 
people with higher taxes, to increase the 
emoluments of officials, and to promote luxury 
and idleness. The results of all this w r ill soon 
appear, and such a condition must necessarily 
lead to general ruin." 

His letters were full of hatred to Norway. 
They were copied and read by a large number 
of people, but there w T ere not many w T ho had 
implicit faith in the reports of the old agitator, 
and the America fever did not make its ap- 
pearance in that part of Trondhjem Stift, 
before some time after Ole Eynning's book had 
been published. 

Where Hans Barlien spent his first years 
in America, I am unable to say. I take it that 
he went directly to the Fox River settlement. 
Whether he went to Shelby county, in Missouri, 
I do not know, but I think it very probable. 
II<- became one of the first settlers in the Sugar 
Creek settlement near Keokuk, Iowa, and died 
there at an advanced age in the year 1842. 

Among those who came to America in 1837, 
we must not forget Ole Heier and his wife, 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 237 

from Tin in Thelemarken. They located in 
La Salle county, 111., but moved to Iowa in 
1868, where Ole Heier, who was born July 4, 
1812, died November 1G, 1893. Ole Heier had 
been a Haugian in Norway, but in this country 
he first became a Mormon and afterwards a 
Baptist. His name in Norway w r as Ole Olson 
Omdal. Six of his children are living, four 
sons and two daughters. One of his sons is 
A. Hayer, of the firm Hayer & Thompson, 
general merchandise in Leland, 111. Christian 
Hayer also lives in Illinois, while Ole and Ben- 
jamine reside in Iowa. 



XV. 
The Fourth Norwegian Settlement. 

The fourth Norwegian settlement in Amer- 
ica and the first in Wisconsin, was founded 
by Ole Knudson Nattestad (changed in Amer- 
ica to Natesta), who was accordingly the first 
Norwegian to set foot on Wisconsin soil. He 
came to Clinton, Eock county, Wisconsin, 
July 1, 1838, and this was the beginning of the 
so-called Jefferson Prairie settlement, which 
occupies the southeast corner of Rock county, 






238 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

and extends into Boone county, 111. I have al- 
ready had occasion to mention Ole Knudson 
Nattestad and his brother Ansten Knudson 
Nattestad among the promotors of Norwegian 
emigration. They came from Vsegli, Eolloug 
Parish in Numedal in 1837, but were not pas- 
sengers either in "Enigheden" or in "^Egir." 
They came by way of Gothenborg, and Fall 
River, Mass. 

In 1869, interviews with Knud and Ansten 
Nattestad were written down by Prof. Svein 
Nilsson and published in "Billed-Magazin," and 
as their interviews shed a flood of light upon 
the beginnings and causes of emigration 
from Numedal and Thelemarken in 1837, 
and the following years, I take the lib- 
erty of reproducing the major part of 
them here. I will first introduce Ole Knud- 
son Nattestad, who was born in Vsegli, Rolloug 
Parish, Numedal, December 24, 1807, and died 
in Clinton, Rock county, Wisconsin, May 28, 
1886. In 1869, he said: 

"As the next oldest of three brothers, I did 
not have the right of primogeniture to my 
father's farm, which according to law and cus- 
tom would go to the oldest son. My ambition 
was to become a farmer, and I hoped some day 
to be able to buy a farm in my own neighbor- 




Ansten Nattestad. 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 230 

hood. Then niy brother entered the military 
school in Christiania and I was to manage the 
farm in his absence. I entered upon my task 
cheerfully, worked with all my might, and kept 
a careful account of income and disbursements. 
To my great surprise I soon found out, that in 
spite of all my toil and prudence, I did not 
make much headway. When the year was 
ended I had little or nothing left as a reward 
for my labor, and it was clear to me that it 
would not do to buy an expensive farm and 
run in debt for it. Farming did not pay in the 
locality where I was born. I then tried the 
occupation of an itinerant merchant. I could 
earn a little in this way, but the laws were 
against me and I did not like to carry on a 
business of such a nature, that it was neces- 
sary to keep my affairs secret from the lends- 
mand (under-sheriff). Then I worked a while 
as a blacksmith. This furnished me enough 
to do, but it was difficult to collect the money 
I earned. The law did not permit me to work 
at my trade in a city. Then (1836) my younger 
brother, Ansten, and I went across the moun- 
tains to the western part of Norway to buy 
sheep, which we intended to sell again. 
While we were stopping in the vicinity of 
Stavanger, we heard much talk about a coun- 



240 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

rrv which was called America. This was the 
first time we heard this word. We saw letters 
written by Norwegians who w T ere living in 
America, and we were told that Knud Slog- 
vig, who many years before that had em- 
igrated in a sloop (Restaurationen) from Sta~ 
vanger had lately visited his native land, and 
had given so favorable reports about America 
that about 150 emigrants from Stavanger Amt 
and from llardanger had gone back with him 
and had sailed that very summer (1836) in two 
brigs from Stavanger across the ocean. 
They had gone in spite of all sorts of threats 
and warnings about slavery, death and dis- 
ease. This was the first large exodus after 
the emigration of the sloop party in 1825. All 
that we here saw and heard was so new, and 
came to us so unexpectedly, that we were not 
at once able to arrange all the reports into a 
systematic whole and thus get a correct idea 
of conditions in the new world. But w T hen I 
spent the following Christmas with Even Nub- 
bru, w T ho was a member of the Storthing from 
Sigdal, we discussed the hard times in my na- 
tive valley, and I suggested that I might have 
better luck in some other part of the country. 
In replying, Even Nubbru remarked that wher- 
ever I went in the world, 1 would nowhere 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 241 

find a people who had as good laws as the 
Americans. He had accidentally just had the 
opportunity of reading something about Amer- 
ica in a German newspaper, and he admired 
the free institutions of America. This infor- 
mation had a magic effect on me, as I looked 
upon it as an injustice that the laws of Nor- 
way should forbid me to trade, and not allow 
me to get my liying by honest work as a me- 
chanic, wherever I desired to locate. I had 
confidence in the judgment of the member 
of the Storthing and I compared his remarks 
with what I had heard about America in the 
vicinity of Stavanger. Gradually I got to 
thinking of emigration, and w T hile consider- 
ing the matter on my way home, the idea ma- 
tured into a resolution. My brother Ansten 
did not need to be asked a second time. He 
was willing at once; he approved of my plans, 
and in April, 1837, we were ready for our jour- 
ney. When we left home we had together 
about S00 dollars, Norwegian money, but this 
sum gradually grew less on account of our ex- 
penses on the way, and besides we lost consid- 
erable in changing our money into American 
coin. Ansten also paid the passage for II a 1- 
sten Halvorson Brsekke-Eiet, who now (1SG9) 
1G 



242 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

resides in Dodgeville, and is looked upon as an 
■llent blacksmith. 
"Our equipment consisted in the clothes we 
wore, a pair of skees and a knapsack. People 
looked at us with w r onder and intimated that 
we must have lost our senses. They sug- 
gested that we had better hang ourselves in 
the first tree in order to avoid a worse fate. 
We went on skees across the mountains from 
Rolloug to Tin, and thence in a direct line 
over hills and through forests to Stavanger, 
where we expected to get passage across the 
sea. We did not worry about the roads, for 
all three of us were experts on skees and our 
baggage caused us no inconvenience. In 
Stavanger we told everybody that we were 
going to America and wanted to secure a pas- 
sage across the sea. This open-heartedness 
came near spoiling our plans. The report of 
the three mountaineers soon spread over the 
whole city, and high government officials came 
to see our passports. We were now told that 
the bailiff's passport only permitted us to go 
to Stavanger, while the certificate from the 
pastor correctly stated that we intended to 
leave the country and emigrate to America. 
We were not posted in such things and thought 
our papers were in order, especially as the 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 213 

documents we carried gave testimony that 
we were men of good habits and Christian con- 
duct. No suspicious remarks were made, but 
in the evening there came a man who was an- 
gry on account of the wrong the officials were 
going to do us, and related that it had been 
resolved that we were to be arrested the fol- 
lowing day and then be sent from lendsman 
to lendsman to our native valley, as we in- 
tended to leave the country without permis- 
sion being given in the passport from the bail- 
iff. The government here, he said, was in a 
bitter rage against all emigration, and we 
could not count on any mercy. On this man's 
advice we departed secretly from Stavanger 
under cover of night in order to avoid the dan- 
ger that threatened us, and without attracting 
any attention, we got to Tananger. Here we 
met a skipper, who with his yacht, loaded with 
herring, was ready to sail to Gothenborg. 
He promised to take us on board, but when 
we told him what had happened to us in Sta- 
vanger, he became doubtful. He praised our 
honesty, and on our assurance that we would 
assume all responsibility, if he got into 
trouble, he decided to accept us as passengers 
We acted discreetly while we were ashore, and 
we felt greatly relieved when we finally got 



t 



244 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

to sea. In Gothenborg we had no mishaps, 
and we secured passage in a vessel loaded with 
Swedish iron and bound for Fall River, Mass. 
The journey lasted 32 days, and we paid $50 
each for transportation and board. From 
Fall River, we went to New York, where we 
met a few Norwegians, who helped us to get 
to Rochester. Here we talked w T ith some of 
our countrymen, who twelve years before had 
come in the Sloop from Stavanger, and that 
brought the first Norwegian immigrants to 
America. Rochester and vicinity did not meet 
our expectations in regard to the new world. 
Many of the first immigrants had left the first 
settlement in Kendall and had gone west to 
find new homes, particularly to La Salle 
county, 111., near Ottawa on the Fox river. 
The Fox River colony received a very consid- 
erable increment by the great exodus from 
Stavanger in 1836, that is, the year before I 
came to America. The most of these immi- 
grants had located in that settlement. This 
we learned in Rochester, and there we heard 
for the first time the name Chicago. We de- 
termined to go west and see what we could 
find. When we had reached Detroit, I was 
walking in the streets to look at the town. 
There I accidentally met a man, by whoso 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 245 

clothes I could see that he was from the western 
coast of Norway. I greeted the man and he re- 
turned my greeting, and the meeting was like 
that of two brothers who had not seen each 
other for years. He informed-me that he had 
left Bergen some months before, together with 
about TO (should be 84) passengers, and that 
the whole company of which the university 
graduate, Ole Rynning, was the leader, had 
been waiting a week for transportation to Chi- 
cago. We were glad to meet our countrymen 
and we joined the party in which there was at 
least one (Rynning) who could speak English. 
On landing in Chicago we met Bjorn Anderson 
Kvelve from the Stavanger country. He had 
come to America the year before (1836) ; and 
had traveled through various parts of Illinois, 
but all that he had heard and seen had only 
served to make him dissatisfied with this side 
of the ocean. Broken down in soul and body, 
he stood before us as a victim of misery and 
produced a scene so terrible that it never will 
be blotted from my memory. 'God bless and 
comfort you/ said he, 'there is neither work 
nor land nor food to be had, and by all means 
do not go to Fox River; there you will all die 
from malarial fever.' These words had a ter- 
rible effect on our little flock, many of whom 






246 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

had already lost all courage. Like demons 
from the lower world all the evil warnings 
about the terrors that awaited the emigrants 
to America were now called to mind, and even 
the bravest w T ere as by magic stricken by a 
panic w T hich bordered on insanity. The 
women wrung their hands in despair and ut- 
tered terrible shrieks of w T oe. Some of the men 
sat immovable like statues, with all the marks 
of profound despair in their faces, while others 
made threats against those whom they re- 
garded as the promoters of emigration and 
the leaders of the party. But in this critical 
situation, Ole Bynning's greatness appeared. 
He stood in the midst of the people who were 
ready for mutiny; he comforted those in de- 
spair, and gave advice to those who doubted 
and hesitated, and reproved those who were 
obstinate. He was not in doubt for a moment, 
and his equanimity, courage and noble self- 
sacrifice for the weal of others, had a quieting 
influence on the minds of all. The storm 
abated, and the dissatisfaction gave place to 
an unanimous confidence. A couple of Amer- 
icans, with whom Rynning talked, advised him 
to take the immigrants to Beaver Creek di- 
rectly south of Chicago in Iroquois county ." 
It seems to me that in the story told above 




OLE NATfESTAD. 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 247 

about my father and the succeeding scene, 
either Mr. Ole Nattestad, or the scribe Prof. 
Svein Nilsson, must have been drawing some- 
what upon his imagination. The facte as I 
have them from my mother, from Mons Aad- 
land and even from Ole Nattestad himself, do 
not warrant the painting of so weird a picture. 
All the prose there is in the romance is that 
my father met these people in Chicago and 
was unwilling to recommend the Fox River 
settlement, with which he was not pleased, 
and as is easily seen, he had no hand in rec- 
ommending the immigrants to go to Beaver 
Creek. 

On page 234 in Billed Magazin, where Prof. 
Svein Nilsson gives an extended account of my 
father and mother, he again alludes to the 
Beaver Creek affair in these words: 

"Ole Rynning's company met Bjorn Ander- 
son in Chicago. The unfavorable description 
he gave of the land both west and north fright- 
ened the immigrants from locating near any 
of the existing Norwegian colonies, and this 
resulted in the founding of the Beaver Creek 
settlement, whose sad story is well known to 
the Scandinavian population in the North- 
west. In this connection, bitter reproaches 
have been directed against Bjorn Anderson, 



248 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

he being in a great measure blamed for the 
fatalities of Beaver Creek. But it is usually 
the case that people like to seek in others the 
cause of their misfortunes. This is true of the 
individual as well as of corporations and soci- 
eties, and perhaps still more so in the case of 
the immigrants visited by adversity. At all 
events it is our conviction, and we ow^e to jus- 
tice the remark, that the criticism on Bjorn 
Anderson has been too severe, if not utterly 
unfounded." 

I omit the part of Ole Nattestad's interview 
which relates to the unfortunate Beaver Creek 
episode, as I have already given a full account 
of the settlement, and resume his narrative 
with the spring of 1838. 

"In the spring of 1838, my brother Ansten 
went to Norway, and I worked by the day in 
the northern part of Illinois. 

"The first of July, 1838, 1 came to my present 
home in about the middle of the tow T n of Clin- 
ton, Rock county, Wisconsin, w T here I bought 
land, and I am consequently the first Norwe- 
gian to settle in this state. So far as I know 
no other Norwegian had planted his feet on 
Wisconsin soil before me. For a whole year 
I saw no countryman, but lived alone, with- 
out friend, family or companion. Eight Amer- 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 

•leans had settled in the town before me, but 
they lived about as isolated as I did. 1 found 
the soil very fertile and the monotony of the 
prairie was relieved by the small tranches of 
trees. Deer and other game were abundant. 
The horrid howl of the prairie-wolf disturbed 
my sleep, until habit armed my ears against 
annoyances of this sort. The following sum- 
mer (1839) I built a little log hut, and in this 
residence I received in September a number 
of people from my own parish in Norway. 
They had come as immigrants with my brother 
Ansten. The most of these settled on Jef- 
ferson Prairie, and in this w^ay the settlement 
got a large population in a comparatively 
short time." 

In 1S40, Ole Nattestad married Lena Hiser, 
who died September 15, 18S8. She left seven 
children all in good circumstances and well 
educated. Henry, the youngest son, now occu- 
pies the old homestead. 

We now pass to Ansten Knudson Nattestad, 
the brother of Ole, and will also let him ell 
the story in his own words translated from me 
same source (Svein Nilsson in Billed Maga- 
tin). 

"In the spring of 1838 I went by way of New 
Orleans to Liverpool and thence to Norway, 



250 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

to visit friends and acquaintances in my na- 
tive land." 

The part concerning the manuscripts of his 
brother's journal and Ole Bynning's book has 
already been fold (pp. 207-216). 

"I spent the winter in Numedal. The re- 
port of my return spread like wildfire through 
the land, and an incredible number of people 
came to see me and to get news from America. 
Many came as far as 20 Norwegian (140 Eng- 
lish) miles to have a talk with me. It w T as 
impossible to answer all the letters I received 
asking questions about the condition of things 
on the other side of the ocean. In the spring 
of 1839, about 100 persons from Numedal 
stood ready to go with me across the sea. 
Among these were many farmers and heads 
of families, all excepting the children, able- 
bodied persons in their best years. Besides 
these there were a number from Thelemarken 
and from Numedal, who were unable to join me, 
as our ship was full. We went from Dram- 
men direct to New York. It was the first 
time the inhabitants of Drammen saw an 
em i Grant ship.* Each person paid f 33.50 for 
his passage. We were nine weeks on the sea t 

* The name of the ship was " Emelia " and the captain's 
name was Ankerson. 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 251 

the passage was a successful one, and there 
was no death on board. From New York 
we took the common route up the country. 
In Milwaukee we met those from Tin in Thele- 
marken, and the others, who were unable to 
come in our ship across the sea.* They came 
on board to us and wanted us to go with them 
to Muskego. Men had been out there to in- 
spect the country and they reported that the 
grass was so high that it reached up to their 
shoulders, and told of many other glorious 
things. The Americans, too, used every argu- 
ment to pursuade us to stop in Milwaukee. I 
objected, and we continued our journey. In 
Chicago, I learned that my brother Ole had 
settled in Wisconsin during my absence in 
Norway. Some of the party went to the Fox 
River settlement, where they had acquaint- 
ances** while some unmarried persons found 
employment in Chicago and vicinity. The rest 
of them, that is to say, the majority accompan- 
ied me to Jefferson Prairie. Among these 
there were a few who settled in the town of 
Rock Run, Stephenson county, in the northern 

* They had gone to Skien, thence to Gothenborg, thence 
to Boston, and had already reached Milwaukee. 

** Three families had emigrated from Thelemarken to La 
Salle county, in 1837— see p. 232. 






252 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

part of Illinois, about fifty miles west from 
Jefferson Prairie, and there they formed the 
nucleus of a Norwegian settlement. Others 
of my company went to Rock Prairie (Luther 
Valley), a few miles west of Jefferson Prairie. 
I and the rest came at once to Jefferson Prairie 
where we bought land and began to culti- 
vate it. Among those who came here with 
me at that time I will name Thore Helgeson 
Kirkejord, his brother Thorstein, Erik Skav- 
lem, and the. brothers Kittel and Christopher 
Nyhuus, all from Numedal. These are all 
still in the settlement and have become thrifty 
farmers." 

Here follows a severe criticism of conditions 
in Norway, but as it is of the same character 
as that already quoted from Ole Nattestad it 
is not necessary to repeat it. 

'In 1840 a few came here from Numedal, 
and from that time the number of the settlers 
steadily increased chiefly by new arrivals from 
Norway. The most of those from Numedal 
settled in the northern part of the colony, for 
we who came after my brother, who was here 
before any of us, bought land near the place 
where he had built his cabin, and those from 
the same part of Norway who came later as 
immigrants and who sought us out in the far 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 253 

west, settled as our neighbors. I and the 
first Numedalians chose this tract as our 
home, and our choice was made immediately 
after our arrival. The same autumn (1839) 
a company from Voss came to the settlement. 
These Vossings went further south, and as birds 
of a feather usually flock together, so their 
friends from Voss gradually settled near them. 
Hence the Jefferson Prairie settlement may as 
to population be divided into two districts, of 
which the northern consists chiefly of Nu- 
medalians, while the Vossings predominate in 
the southern $art." 

Thus was begun and gradually developed 
the Jefferson Prairie settlement in Wisconsin. 
Its founder was Ole Knudson Nattestad on 
July 1, 1838. I count it as the fourth Norwe- 
gian settlement in America and the first in 
the state of Wisconsin. The settlement em- 
braces the south half of the town of Clinton, 
which is the southeast corner of Rock county 
and extends across the state line into the town 
of Manchester in Boone county, 111. It was 
stated that a part of Ansten Nattestad's com- 
pany went to Rock Prairie the same year, 1839. 
The Rock Prairie settlement consists properly 
of the towns of Plymouth, Newark, Avon and 
Spring Valley in the southwestern corner of 



254 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Rock county, and is usually mentioned as a dis- 
tinct Norwegian settlement, particularly on ac- 
count of its having had from an early period a 
separate congregation and church. Besides the 
Jefferson and Rock Prairie settlements are actu- 
ally separated from one another by settlers of 
other nationalities, but it will be noticed that 
the Jefferson Prairie settlement quickly and 
easily ramified into all directions, and inas- 
much as Jefferson Prairie and Rock Prairie 
are in the same county I have taken the lib- 
erty of considering them as one. In this first 
settlement I also include those families that 
went to Rock Run in Stephenson county. In 
those days people might be separated by many 
miles and still be considered neighbors. The 
Fox River settlement in La Salle county very 
quickly extended branches into Kendall, Lee 
and other neighboring counties, where the 
Norwegian settlements became known under 
separate names, but of this fact I take no note 
in this volume. I trust my friends and readers 
at Rock Run and on Rock Prairie will not feel 
slighted because I have included them with 
the Jefferson Prairie settlement. It raises 
their rank. For, as I have considered them, 
they now rank with the fourth settlement in 
America and the first in Wisconsin, while, were 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 

I to treat them separately, they would botli 
rank after the Muskego settlement in Racine 
county, Wis. 

Ole K. Nattestad (Xa testa) was born Decem- 
ber 21, 1807; died May 28, 18S6. His wife died 
September 15, 1S8S. 

Ansten K. Nattestad (Xatesta) was born 
'August 2G, 1813; died April 8, 1889. 

It was a wealthy man by name Klemet Sta- 
bek, who in company with others, liirt settled 
in Bock Run, 111. From here and Jefferson 
and Rock Prairies the Norwegians spread fl 
to the Pecatonica river and to Mineral Point. 
The majority of the first settlers in all these 
places came from Numedal, and in 1843, 
while they were visited by Johan Reinert Rei« 
erson, about 200 of them united in addressing 
a letter to Bishop Sorensen in Norway and ask- 
ing him to send them a capable and pious 
young preacher. In this letter they offered a 
salary of §300 a year, a parsonage with 80 
acres of land attached and extra pay for all 
special services, baptism, marriage, etc. More 
than two hundred persons of both sexes >igned 
their names to this agreement. 

I cannot leave the Jefferson Prairie settle- 
ment without mentioning some other parties 
who came there in 1839. • 






256 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Jens Guldbrandson Mykre was born in 
V»gli, Numedal, in 1812. In April, 1839, he and 
his brother Gudbrand emigrated by way of 
Gothenborg and came in a German vessel to 
Newport, llhode Island, where they arrived 
after a voyage of six weeks and five days.. 
From Newport they proceeded to New York 
and thence to Chicago, which took two weeks. 
In Chicago they heard of a man from Thele- 
marken, by name Halstein Halvorson, who w T as 
living twenty-two miles west of there. They 
set out on foot and found Halstein working 
for a man by name Downing. Halstein had 
been in America two years, having arrived in 
1837. He was of course one of those who had 
left Thelemarken in company w T ith Gunder 
and Erik Gauteson Midboen, Thor Kittelson 
Svimbil and John Nelson Eue. After stop- 
ping at Downing's a few days Jens and Gul- 
brand Myhre continued their journey to Jef- 
ferson Prairie, where they soon found employ- 
ment at seventy-five cents a day. Later on 
11 icy went into well-digging, for which they 
received fifty cents a foot. 

At Christmas, 1839, Jens Myhre married 
Bergit Nelson Kalrud, also from Vsegli in Nu- 
medaL She had come from Norway the same 

tr in the ship "Emelia," which came direct 









m m^ 






m 


'felm 




' 




9m 


" 4*tik \k- 




HH 


1 mm* ^j*M 
m m 

TO H « 
SB 

v llifm 







Jens Gulbrandson Myhra. 




Bergit Myhra. 



Till: FOURTH SETTLEMENT 2C7 

from Drammen to New York, and which 
was commanded by Capt Ankerson. This 

the vessel in which Austen Xattestad and Ins 

company came to America In 1839. Mrs. 

Myhre says tliis ship was nine weeks on the 

way across the ocean. As there were too 

many passengers on board Capt Ankerson had 
to resort to a stratr-v. .Jnsi before arriving 

in New York he had some of the passengers 
put on Bailors' Clothes, and in this way he 
avoided all trouble with the custom honse otli- 

eers. Capt. Ankerson accompanied the im- 
migrants as far as to Buffalo. 
Qulbrand Myhre married Ambjftr Olson 

from Ya«gli, Xumedal, in 1840, and then both 
Jens and (Julbrand bought farms on Jefferson 
PraMe. They soon sold these farms, however, 
and moved to Rock Prairie, and after some 
years they also sold their Rock Prairie farms 
and moved to Mitchell county in Iowa, settling 

near St. Ansgar, a town founded by Rev. C. L 

Clausen, of whom we shall hear something 
later on. Jens and (Inlbrand Myhre were 
among the first Norwegian settlors in Mitchell 
county, and there they became owners of a con- 
siderable amount of land. Gtalbrand's wife 
died there in 18G3; his only daughter died in 
17 



258 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

1SG7, and he himself died November 15, 1867. 
Their only son, Gilbert G. Gilbertson, now 
lives a little south of St. Ansgar. 

Jens came to St. Ansgar July 5, 1861, and 
both he and his wife are still living on their 
magnificent estate there. Their only daughter 
is married to Mr. T. M. Tollefson, an intelli- 
gent and prosperous farmer near St. Ansgar, 
while their only son, Gilbert J. Gilbertson, is 
married, lives with his parents and takes care 
of the farm. 

The first Norwegian settler on Eock Prairie 
was Gullek O. Gravdahl, and he is said to have 
been the first white man who began to turn 
the sod in the Luther Valley settlement. The 
Indians were then his neighbors, and the 
wolves gave him a free serenade every night. 

Gullek Olson Gravdahl was born on the 
farm Kjimhus in Vsegli, Numedal, September 
26, 1802, and died on Eock Prairie, July 17, 
1873. He was the son of a peasant in Norway, 
and in 1839 he emigrated in company with 
Ansten Nattestad. Coming to Jefferson Prairie, 
he left his family there and with a couple 
of comrades went westward until they found 
the location which became the nucleus of the 
Eock Prairie settlement. At the end of the 
first day's travel they found a place that 




GULLEIK GRAVDAHL. 




Mrs. Gravdahl. 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 259 

suited them. They lay clown to rest for the 
night. Their bed was the cold ground and 
their covering was the star-spangled canopy 
of heaven. A large spreading oak stood sen- 
tinel and w r atched over those men who were to 
be the first to fell the giants of the forest and 
to begin the work of civilizing the wilderness. 
Soon Gravdahl had his log-house built. Into 
it he moved his family from Jefferson Prairie, 
and he was the first Norwegian settler on the 
west side of Rock river, but it did not take 
long before the settlement thus founded by 
him became one of the most flourishing Nor- 
wegian settlements in America. Gullek Grav- 
dahl prospered and became a wealthy farmer. 

A companion of Gullek O. Gravdahl in the 
ship "Emelia" from Drammen was Helleik 
Glaim. He stopped a year in Chicago and then 
w ent to Rock Prairie in 1840. After remaining 
there about a dozen years he removed to Fill- 
more county, Minnesota, and in 1S66 he settled 
at Hanley Falls, Yellow Medicine county, 
Minn. He is still living. The restless viking 
spirit survives in the Norwegian immigrants! 

Helleik Glaim was born on the farm Glaim 
in Vsegli, Numedal, February 15, 1810. He 
informs me that Klemet Stabek, who settled 



200 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

near Davis, HI., came in the same ship with 
him in 1839. 

The first Norwegian to be buried in Rock 
county or in Wisconsin soil, so far as I have 
been able to learn, was Hans Gjermundson 
Haugen, who came from Viegli in Nuniedal in 
1840. His wife's name was Sigrid Peders- 
datter Valle. Hans Gjermundson was born 
in 1785 and died on Jefferson Prairie in the 
latter part of October, 1810. Sigrid w r as born 
January 30, 1803, and died in Beloit, January 
21, 1885. They had two sons, Gunnul and 
Gjermund. Gunnel was born in Va?gli, April 
28, 1827, and died in Canby, Minn., January 1, 
1893. Gjermund w r as born in Vsegli, Septem- 
ber 19, 1836, and is still living in Beloit, Wis. 
Of Gunnul it is to be said that he taught the 
first English school in the town of Primrose^ 
Wis., in the winter of 1849-1850, that he vis- 
ited Pike's Peak in the year 1854, and that he 
served in the war of the rebellion, apparently 
in a Wisconsin regiment. 

Gjermund was also a soldier in the war. He 
recruited a company in Primrose, Dane county, 
and vicinity, under Pres. Lincoln's call of July, 
1864, was assigned to the 43d Wis. Vol., com- 
missioned as captain of company "I," and mus- 



THE FOURTH SBTTLBM] 23! 

Icrcd in the United States service at < am;> 

Washburn in Milwaukee on the Wth of Sep- 
tember, 1864 B$ was Immediately sent to 

Johnsonville, Tenn., where liis company re- 

mained (after having a fight with Gen. Forest), 
until the beginning of November, when he was 
ordered to Nashville, but was cut off by (Jen. 
I [end's forces before reaching the city. lie 
therefore wen* bach to Clarkville on the Cum? 
berland river below Nashville, There he re* 
mained until January l, 1865, when he was 
sent down to guard the railroad from Mnr- 
freesboro t<> Decherd, Tenn. Here he and his 
company remained until the close of the war, 
and he was mustered out of service in Nash- 
ville, Tenn., on the 26th of January, 1865. In a 
letter to me dated March 30, 1895, Gjermund 
Hanson (Capt. Geo. Jackson) informs me that 
his father had been in the military service in 
Norway for seven years, having been mustered 
out after the treaty of peace between Sweden 
and Norway in 1815. From Captain Jackson's 
interesting letter, I make the following ex- 
tract which throws some light upon his com- 
ing to America and on the early settlement 
of I\ock county. 

"I will also mention something about our 
voyage from Norway. We embarked in a sail- 




262 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

ing vessel at Drammen, leaving there on the 
17th of May, 1840, touched at Gothenborg, 
Sweden, where we took a cargo of iron, re- 
maining there two weeks; and from there to 
2s' ew York it took eleven more weeks. From 
New York we came by canal to Buffalo, and 
from there to Milwaukee by steamer. At Mil- 
waukee a part of the passengers went to Mus- 
kego, Racine county, among them the Heg 
family and the Skofstads and a number of 
others. We all came over on the same vessel. 
I have forgotten the ship's name, but I remem- 
ber the captain's name w T as Ankerson, and 
that he had made one voyage the year before, 
this being his second, and that he made sev- 
eral after that to this country. 

"In reply to your inquiry about the Norwe- 
gians who were in Rock county, when we ar- 
rived here, I would say, that I believe there 
were none on Rock Prairie or on Koshkonong 
at that time. Ole and his brother, Ansten 
Knudson Nattestad, Erik Guldbrandson Skav- 
lem, and the two brothers, Jens and Guldbrand 
Guldbranson Myhre, Kittel and his brother 
Kristofer Nyhuus, Thore and his brother Thor- 
stein Helgeson, Halvor Pederson Haugen, an 
uncle of mine, are all I can remember as living 
there at that time. All these were from Nu- 



THE FOURTH SETTLEMENT. 263 

medal, and came there in 1839, with the ex- 
ceptioD of Die Knudson Nattestad, who came 
to Jefferson Prairie in 183S. 

"By way of explanation I will state how we 
came to take the name of Jackson. Among 
the passengers across the sea was a man by 
Dame Ludvig. He had spent some time in 
England and was pretty well versed in the 
English language. He acted as interpreter 
for the emigrants. He told my father that his 
name, Hans, translated into English would 
he Jack, and Hanson, would accordingly be 
Jackson, and as my name was Gjermund Han- 
son, it was turned into George Jackson. The 
whole family adopted the name Jackson. 

"I may also mention that the above named 
Ludvig taught the first English school ever 
taught in Rock county among the Norwegians 
there. "There were no school districts organ- 
ized and there were no school-houses. Lud- 
vig taught in private houses, and both the 
grown people and the children attended school." 

Captain Jackson also informs me that in 
1849, he with his mother and brother, moved 
from Jefferson Prairie, to Primrose, Dane 
county. They were preceded in Primrose by 
only four Norwegian families. Christian 
Hendrikson had come there in 1846, from 



2J4 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

YViota, in LaFayette county, Salve Jordanson, 
Nels Enerson, and Nels Nelson Skogen, came 
from Jefferson Prairie in 1848. In 1849 sev- 
eral families went to Primrose from Rock 
county, and among* them are mentioned Hon. 
Gunnuf Tollefson, Knute Bowerson and Ole 
Tollefson. 

As will appear later on, Norwegians had 
actually settled on Koshkonong at the time 
when Captain Jackson and his parents arrived 
at Jefferson Prairie in 1840. 

Before we pass to the consideration of the 
next regular settlement, we must still men- 
tion one of the pioneers of emigration by name 
Ole H. Aasland. He was a rich farmer in 
Fledsberg Parish, Numedal, and emigrated in 
1838. He took with him twenty poor people, 
for whom he paid the expenses, went to Tons- 
berg, thence to Gothenborg, and then lo New 
York. After arriving in America, going first 
to the Kendall settlement, he was induced 
to buy 600 acres of land in Noble county, Indi- 
ana, not very far from Ft. Wayne. But he had 
fallen into the hands of unscrupulous specu- 
lators, who took advantage of his ignorance of 
American affairs, and he was badly swindled. 
Tlir land he bought was said to be very poor 
and swampy. Many of the colonists died. 



Tin; For inn SETTLEMENT. 
With tin* survivors he moved hark to Orleans 

county, x. v., where tie became a well-to-do 

tanner. Die II. Aasland changed liis name in 
this country to Die II. orslaml, Four of liis 
Children ace still living, viz., Canute ami 
Harry Ii., living in Kendall, X. V., Ilalloek ami 
•lane, residing in Detroit, Mich. In January, 
1895, I received a letter from Canute Orsland, 
who now lives on the old family homestead 
in Kendall, N. Y., ami from it I take the lib- 
erty <»f giving the following extract: "The 
postmaster banded me your letter, and in re- 
ply would say that I am not competent to giVe 
you the desired information, hut I will do the 
best I can. There are not many Norwegians 
left in Kendall now; some have died and some 
have moved away. My father, Ole II. Orsland, 
came to America in 183& Be went to Ft 
Wayne, Indiana, ami purchased 600 acres of 
Land in Noble county. He had paid the pas- 
sage Of some of his countrymen, and they were 
to work for him and reimburse him. It \ 
sickly there and some of them died and the 
rest had the fever and ague. My father, 
therefore, ahandonod the land and came back 
to Kendall and gave his (100 acres of Indiana 
Land to Andrew J. Stan^vland, who was horn 
here, but whose father came in the sloop in 



266 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

1825, for fifty acres of land, which I now oc- 
cupy." In a letter dated at Kendall, N. Y., 
February 27, 1895, Canute Orsland informs me 
that Ole H. Orsland (Aasland) was born in 
1795, and died in 1864, at the age of 69 years. 



XVI. 

The Fifth Norwegian Settlement. 

We now pass to the consideration of the 
fifth Norwegian settlement in America, the 
so-called Muskego settlement in Waukesha 
and Kacine counties, Wisconsin. We have 
seen how three families and a couple of sin- 
gle men left Tin in Upper Thelemarken in 
1837, and how the Nattestad brothers, Ole and 
Ansten, and Halstein Halvorson Brsekke-Eiet 
made up their minds to emigrate from Vsegli 
in Numedal the same year. These two par- 
ties apparently entirely independent of each 
other were the first to leave those parts of 
Norway and settle in the new world. Then 
letters came back to Tin, and in this man- 
ner information was spread throughout Thele- 
marken in regard to conditions in America,. 



THE FIFTH SETTLEMENT. 267 

and many began to talk about emigration. 
The following year (1838) Ansten Nattestad 
returned and spent a year in Norway, and 
while there he published his brother Ole's 
book in Drammen, and Ole Kynning's "Ac- 
count of America" in Christiania. Ansten 
Nattestad clearly went back for the purpose 
of organizing a party of emigrants. His case 
is similar to that of Knud Slogvig, the slooper, 
who returned to the Stavanger country in 
1S35, and caused the great exodus from Sta- 
vanger in 1S3G, and Ansten Nattestad's return 
t«> X u medal in 1838 created no less excite- 
ment and wonderment than Knud Slogvig's 
had caused in the western part of Norway in 
1835. People would not have been more as- 
tonished, if a man had actually returned from 
the moon, and the two books, Ole Nattestad's 
and Tivnning's, particularly the latter, in 
which a scholarly and graphic account of con- 
ditions and prospects in the new world were 
presented, were quickly spread throughout Nor- 
way, and from this time <>n wo may regard reg- 
ular ('migration from various parts of Norway 
as fully established, though emigrant packets 
do not appear to haye begun to ply regularly 
until after 1S40. Down to 1840, we bfl 
only the sloop "Restaurationen" in l^i'."".; the 



268 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

two Kohler brigs, "Norden" and "Den Norske 
Klippe" from Stavanger in 1836; "Enigneden" 
from Egersund and Stavanger, and "JEgir" from 
Bergen in 1837; and the ship "Emelia" from 
Drammen, commanded by Captain Ankerson, 
carrying Ansten Nattestad and his party di- 
rect to New York in 1839. The rest of the 
emigrants down to 1840 seem to have gone 
by the way of Gothenborg, Hamburg and 
Havre, as did many after 1840. 

The people whom we are now to mention 
io tended to come with Ansten Nattestad and 
Captain Ankerson in the "Emelia" but there 
were no accommodations to be had. The ves- 
sel was loaded. The result was that the over- 
flow went to Skien. The party who went to 
Skien consisted of about forty persons from 
Tin and the neighboring parish Hjertdal in 
Upper Thelemarken. These forty people 
were extensively connected by family ties, 
and the Luraas family w r ere represented • by 
four heads of families embracing about half 
of the company. There were eleven families in 
all, eight of them, including the Luraas fam- 
ilies, being from Tin and three from ITjertdal. 
Thiers were also a few unmarried people in 
lie- party. The most conspicuous among these 
people from Thelemarken was John Nelson 




John Nelson Luraas. 



THE FIFTH SETTLEMENT. 269 

Luraas, a man who, until very recently, wee 
still living as a prosperous fanner near 
fsfamghton, \\is. I am happy to be able to 
give the rest of the Btory as he told it to Prof. 
Svein Nilsson. He says: 

"I was my father's oldest son, and conse- 
quently heir to the Luraas farm. It was re- 
garded as one of the best in that neighbor- 
hood, but there was a £1,400 mortgage on it. 
I had worked for my father until I was 
twenty-five years old, and had had no oppor- 
tunity of getting money. It was plain to mo, 
that I would have a hard time of it, if I should 
take the farm with the debt resting on it, pay 
a reasonable amount to my brothers and sis- 
ters and assume the care of my aged father. I 
saw to my horror how one farm after the other 
fell into the hands of the lendsmand and other 
money-lenders, and this increased my dread 
of attempting farming. But I got married 
and had to do something. Then it occurred 
to me that the best thing might be to emigrate 
to America. I was encouraged in this pur- 
pose by letters from Norwegian settlers in Illi- 
nois, written by a Norwegian emigrant who 
had lived two years in America, Such were 
the causes that led me to emigrate, and I pre- 



270 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

sume the rest of our company were actuated 
by similar motives. 

"On May 17, Norway's day of liberty, in the 
year 1839, the ship left Skien and glided be- 
fore a stiff breeze out of the Langesund fjord, 
and soon the great sea was in sight. We soon 
got out of sight of land, and when the last 
mountain tops disappeared from above the 
horizon, some of the passengers doubtless felt 
sad at heart while thinking of their uncertain 
future and of the probability that they would 
never again see that home from which they 
had taken with them so many dear memories. 
But the decisive step had been taken, and 
doubt and hesitation would now be out of 
place. We continued to make progress, and 
after a few days of fine sailing, the Norwegian 
captain landed the passengers in Gothenborg, 
Sweden, which was his destination. Here 
we met a few families from Stavanger, about 
twenty persons in all, who were also bound 
for America. Both parties united, and an 
American captain, whose vessel was lying in 
the harbor and loaded with iron, agreed to 
carry the emigrants across the sea to Boston 
for a fare of forty-two dollars, Norwegian 
money, for each person. There was no acci- 



THE FIFTH SETTLEMENT. 271 

dent on the way, the health of the passenf 
was good, and after nine weeks we saw land 
on the other side of the ocean." 

From Boston these immigrants proceeded 
to New York and thence to Buffalo. In Buf- 
falo they met a captain who agreed to carry 
the immigrants by way of the lakes i<> Mil- 
waukee. They went on board his miserable 
vessel, which twice came near being wrecked 
on the way. A woman was washed overboard, 
and after three w T eeks they reached Milwau- 
kee. Here there was some talk among the 
officials of bringing suit against the captain, 
who was reproached in severe terms for taking 
so many people on board a ship that leaked 
like a sieve and could scarcely hold together. 
When we consider that this ship was loaded 
with poAvder, it must be admitted that the 
passengers had been in no enviable position. 

It was seventeen weeks since they left Skien 
in Norway, and still they were far from their 
journey's end. They intended to go by way of 
Chicago to the Fox River settlement in Illi- 
nois. But this plan was abandoned, and our 
new-comers were persuaded to remain in Wis- 
consin. In regard to this change of purpose a 
strange little story is current. I give it for 
what it is worth, partly to relieve somewhat 



272 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

the dullness of my pages and partly because 
it is believed by many people. While I do not 
care to discredit it, I have not, on the other 
hand, been able to get any conclusive evidence- 
that the episode ever occurred. Here it is: 

The day after our immigrants had arrived 
in Milwaukee, they were getting ready to de- 
part for Chicago. Then some Milwaukee peo- 
ple came on board the vessel. They asked the 
new-comers what they intended to do in Amer- 
ica. The answer came, that they were farmers 
and desired to buy land, and were thinking of 
going to Illinois. "Go where you like," said 
one of the visitors. "This is a free country, 
but if you want to do that which is best for 
yourselves, then take my advice." Then he 
presented two persons, one of whom was a 
large fat man, the picture of health, while the 
other was a mere skeleton, all emaciated from 
disease. "Look here," said the Milwaukeean, 
"this fat man is from Wisconsin, where there 
is a healthy climate and an abundance of food; 
this invalid is from Illinois, where people are 
burnt up by a scorching heat and where they 
die like flies from malarial fever. Now choose 
as you think best." 

It was a hot day in August, and the burn- 
ing rays of the sun added weight to the man's- 



THE FIFTH SETTLEMENT. 273 

words and arguments. Our new-comers were 
perspiring in their thick woolen clothes, and 
they thought with dread of the heat in Illinois, 
where they would soon be changed into skel- 
etons like that emaciated fellow who stood 
by the side of the healthy and vigorous man 
from Wisconsin. 

The result was that these immigrants went 
ashore in Milwaukee, a city which was then in 
its infancy. It is claimed that the fat man 
exhibited to the Norwegians was the well 
known Mr. Walker, after whom the present 
south, side of the city was for a long time called 
Walker's Point. 

Our immigrants having been persuaded to 
shorten their journey and remain in Wis- 
consin, their American friends advised them 
to locate on the shores of Lake Muskego in 
the present Waukesha county. A committee 
of the immigrants were appointed to go with 
an American to look at the land, which could 
be bought for $1.25 per acre. The summer 
weather had dried up the marshes, and the 
Norwegians took the large swamps covered 
with tall grass to be prairies. There was 
plenty of timber, and the waters were filled 
with fish. The emissaries liked the land, and 
18 



274 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

made a favorable report to their comrades in 
Milwaukee. The result was that nearly the 
w T hole company abandoned their purpose of 
going to the Fox River settlement in Illinois, 
and settled around the north end of Muskego 
lake. They at once began to clear their farms, 
but when the fall rains came the most of the 
land was flooded. It was clear that they had 
made a poor choice, but still our settlers con- 
tinued to live on their farms, and they were 
afterwards joined by others both from Tin 
and from Illinois. The settlement grew and 
it became the stopping place for many of the 
later immigrants, who would remain in Mus- 
kego a year or two before going out to other 
settlements in Wisconsin. But in the years 
1849, 1850 and 1852, cholera visited the settle- 
ment and caused such a mortality that the lo- 
cation came into disrepute. The most of those 
who were spared by the cholera epidemic, emi- 
grated to other settlements. 

From a conversation with Mr. Hans J. Ja- 
cobson, assistant sergeant-at-arms of the Wis- 
consin state senate in 1895, I learn that the 
following Norwegians are now living in Mus- 
kego, Waukesha county: 1. Gunnerius P. 
Ducleth; 2. Ole Larson; 3. Rolf Rolf son Fla- 
ten. lie also informs me that the following 



THE FIFTH SETTLEMENT. 275 

reside in the town of Vernon, wesl of Mus- 
kego: 1. Kittel Lohner; 2. Gunnul Knut- 
son Morem; 3. Thomas Throndson; 4. Andreas 
Halvorson; 5. Anna Kjonaas, the widow of Die 
Kjonaas. Both Ole Kjonaas and his wife 
came with the Luraas party in 1839. John 
Jacobson Einong, who came from Tin, Thele- 
marken in 1843, lived and died in Vernon. He 
had four daughters. One of these married 
Col. Hans Heg, another married John Evenson 
Molee, and is the mother of Elias J. Molee, a 
third married the well known publisher and 
journalist, Elias Stangeland, and the fourth 
married Hans Tveito. A son of John Jacob- 
son Einong lives in Fillmore county, Minne- 
sota. 

In the History of Waukesha County, by 
Frank A. Flower, I find the following sad re- 
port of our Muskego settlement: "What was 
called the Norwegian settlement began in the 
south part of the town in 1839, and grew rap- 
idly until some of the newly arriving immi- 
grants brought the cholera in 1849. Terrible 
and indescribable scenes followed the break- 
ing out of this fearful scourge, as the poor and 
ignorant people did not know how to diet or 
abate its ravages in the least. A hospital 
was finally established on the shores of Big 



27b NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Muskego lake, in a large barn, where scores 
of the poor people died. This plague broke 
out here again in 1851, and raged with fright- 
ful violence and fatality. A log house near 
the town line in Noway was then an im- 
provised hospital, and graves were dug and 
kept open for expected corpses. The plague 
resulted in so many deaths, and carried such 
terror into the community, that all but a few 
of the surviving Norwegian families left the 
town." 

The fate of this Muskego settlement most 
forcibly reminds us of the unhappy Beaver 
Creek settlement in 1837. 

John Nelson Luraas, the leader of the party 
from Tin, very soon left Muskego and bought a 
farm in Norway, Racine county. This farm he 
improved considerably, and then sold it to 
Even H. Heg, and Luraas himself removed 
to Dane county, Wisconsin. This John Nel- 
son Luraas, who deserves prominence as one 
of the principal founders of the Muskego set- 
tlement, was born in Tin in Thelemarken, 
December 25, 1813. He landed in New York, 
September 8, 1839, and as stated, remained in 
Muskego until 1813. On June 16th, 1843, he 
arrived in the town of Dunkirk, Dane county, 
and in October, 1868, he removed to a farm 



THE FIFTH SETTLEMENT. 277 

in Webster county, Iowa, about ten miles 
north of Fort Dodge, where he remained until 
the fall of 1873, when he returned to his farm 
in Dane county. In the fall of 188G, he re- 
moved to Stoughton, where he died May 29, 
1890. He was married in Norway, April 8, 
1839, to Miss Anna Olson Berg. John Nelson 
Luraas was an intelligent, enterprising man, 
and he accumulated a considerable amount 
of wealth. I was several times a guest at his 
hospitable home near Stoughton. 

In the spring of 1840, Soren Bache and Jo- 
hannes Johannesen, men of means and intelli- 
gence who had come from Drammen, Norway, 
the preceding year, 1839, and spent the winter 
in the Fox River settlement :n Illinois, arrived 
in the town of Norway in Racine county, 
directly south of Muskego. Norway became 
the nucleus of the new settlement, which ex- 
tended into several towns of Racine county, 
and the whole settlement has since been 
known as Muskego, although the original set- 
tlement in Muskego became practically aban- 
doned. 

Bache and Johannesen came for the purpose 
of selecting a home for themselves and for 
others who intended to emigrate to America 
from the vicinity of Drammen in Norway. 



£78 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

The cluster of beautiful lakes, the clear 
streams of living water, swarming with fish 
and game, which they found in the towm of 
Norway, satisfied their desires. A cabin was 
built in one of the Indian mounds on the banks 
of Wind lake, reports of the country were sent 
to their friends across the sea, and in the fall 
of 1840, a large party of emigrants arrived at 
Milwaukee, destined for the town of Norway. 
This party consisted of Even II. Heg, his wife 
and four children, Syvert Ingebretson, Ole 
Hoganson, Ole Anderson, Helge Thompson, 
Johannes Skofstad and others, all of whom 
settled in the same vicinity. Soren Bache 
having considerable capital, he with his part- 
ners, Even II. Heg and Johannes Johannesen, 
purchased a large tract of land in the town of 
Norway. They afterwards sold a part of their 
lands to immigrants who came later. 

Johannes Johannesen being a man in whom 
the Norwegians reposed great confidence, a 
large number of the immigrants that landed 
at Milwaukee in the forties first- came to what 
was known as Heg's farm, where they would 
remain for weeks consulting about which part 
of the country w r as the best to locate in. 
Many now living in Wisconsin, Iowa and Min- 
nesota well remember the old barn that shel- 



THE FIFTH SETTLEMENT. 279 

tered so many of them for a while in those 
early days when houses were scarce. In this, 
Heg's barn, Bev. C. L. Clausen preached to the 
Norwegians in this settlement in 1843, and in 
this barn he organized a congregation that 
same year. A Norwegian church was begun 
in 1843, but was not finished and dedicated 
before 1845. Rev. C. L. Clausen was a Dane 
by birth, but he had been a lay preacher in 
Norway, and soon after his arrival in America 
he was ordained by a German Lutheran minis- 
ter. The spot selected for the church and 
also for the burying ground was covered with 
a large number of Indian graves, and was 
considered as appropriate a resting place for 
the pale-faced Norwegian as it had been for 
the red savage. The church was built of logs, 
but large and commodious, on the same ground 
where the beautiful new church now stands 
and where lie buried so many of those old 
pioneers, including Johannes Johannesen, 
Even II. Heg, his wife, and his son, Col. Hans 
C. Heg, who was killed in the battle of Chick- 
amauga, during the rebellion. 

In the year 18G0, the state of Wisconsin 
ceded to the town of Norway all the swamp 
lands within the limit of the town, about 2,300 
acres. The act provided that the proceeds 



280 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

should be used for a drainage fund. Only a 
small portion of this fund has been used as yet, 
but the money is let out at interest, on good 
paper, and thus far not a dollar has been lost. 
The credit of securing this grant to the town 
is due to the efforts of the Hon. Knud Lang- 
land, who at the time represented the second 
assembly district of Racine county in the 
state legislature, and who labored zealously 
for the passage of the bill. The lands are 
now all or nearly sold and have proved to be 
of great benefit to the settlers of the town. 

For the above facts in regard to the first 
settlement of Norwegians in Racine county, 
I am indebted in part to an article published 
some years ago in a Racine county paper, the ar- 
ticle being presumably w r ritten by Mr. Ole 
Heg, a brother of Col. Hans Heg. In a sketch 
of the Muskego settlement written for Billed 
Magazin, Prof. Svein Nilsson says that Soren 
Bache and Johannes Johannesen came to Ra- 
cine county in 1839, having spent only a few 
weeks in the Fox River settlement, but I have 
accepted the more probable version that these 
men spent the whole winter in Illinois and 
came to Wisconsin in the spring. 

A sad accident occurred in the early days 
of this old settlement, and that is said to be 



THE FIFTH SETTLEMENT. 281 

the chief reason why Soren Bache returned to 
Norway. He and his friend, Rev. C. L. Clausen, 
were out hunting one day and stopped at the 
house of a Norwegian settler. While 88reo 
Bache was making some examination of the 
trigger his gun accidentally discharged and 
killed the housewife, whose name was Hege. 
It made the husband almost distracted and 
Soren Bache was in danger of losing his rea- 
son. He gave Hege's widower forty acres of 
land and a cow, and did all he could for the 
poor man, who accepted the gifts, but said 
"these things do not bring back to me my 
dear Hege." It is believed that this accident 
was the main reason why Bache returned to 
Norway in 1845. He wanted to get away from 
the scene of his great misfortune. 

Even Heg had a considerable amount of 
money with him, and with that he bought a 
large tract of land. It was not long before the 
town of Norway became occupied, and soon 
the newcomers began to spread into the ad- 
joining towns. Mr. Johannesen died in the col- 
ony in 1845, and the same year Bache re- 
turned to Norway and settled on a farm, Valle, 
in Lier, where he is said to have lived until the 
year 1870, but these two men are to be remem- 
bered as the founders of that part of the Mus- 



282 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

kego settlement, which was located in Racine 
county, and which became permanent. Even 
Heg was a most enterprising man. His barn, 
which is still standing, was generally filled a 
couple of months each summer with Norwe- 
gian emigrants on their way to Koshkonong 
and other Norwegian settlements in Wiscon- 
sin. Even Heg's oldest son was Hans C. Heg, 
one of the most brilliant names in Norwegian 
American history. He was elected state prison 
commissioner in 1859, and in 1861 he organ- 
ized the 15th regiment, Wisconsin volunteers, 
consisting almost exclusively of Scandina- 
vians. Hans Christian Heg became its colonel. 
He was born near Drammen in Norway, De- 
cember 21, 1829, came to America with his 
father in 1840, and was fatally wounded in the 
battle of Chickamauga, on the 19th of Septem- 
ber, 1863, and died the next day, September 20. 
In a former chapter of this book I gave a 
full account of Col. Porter C. Olson, largely 
for the reason that his name had never re- 
ceived any particular attention in the Scandi- 
navian press of this country. Col. Hans C. 
Heg's name, is, on the other hand, well known, 
particularly to all Scandinavians. Col. Porter 
C. Olson's father came to America in the sloop 
in 1825, while neither Col. Heg nor his father 



THE FIFTH SETTLEMENT. . 283 

left Norway before 1840. The latter do not 
therefore properly belong to the epoch treated 
in this volume, and thus the reader will readily 
see why I do not yield to the temptation of 
giving Col. Heg such a biographical notice 
as his distinguished and patriotic services de- 
serve. 

Even Heg's daughter, Andrea, is to be re- 
membered as one of the first Norwegians to 
teach English district school in Wisconsin. 
She taught school in the Muskego settlement 
during the winter of 1855 and 1856. She after- 
wards married Dr. Stephen O. Himoe, who 
taught school in Muskego during the winter 
of 1S51--1852, and who was the surgeon of the 
fifteenth regiment, Wisconsin volunteers; and 
after the war she settled with her husband in 
Kansas and died there. Dr. Himoe is still 
living in Kansas City, Mo. 

Speaking of early Norwegian school teachers 
in Wisconsin, I am informed by a letter from 
Mr. H. J. Ellertsen that as early as 1S45 a 
man by name John Tvedt, taught school in 
Muskego, both Norwegian and English, but 
this was private school. Then Mr. Ellertsen 
tells me of a man by name Carl Torgerson, 
who taught public district school in Muskego 
in the winter of 1S52--1853. He w T as then a 



281 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

young man of about 25 summers, and had 
come from Cliristiania in Norway, having 
learned English before coming to America. He 
was a man of good education. In the summer 
of 1854 he returned to Norway, and it is pre- 
sumed that he did not come back to America. 
Mrs. C. L. Clausen taught Norwegian school in 
the Muskego settlement during the winter of 
1844. 



XVII. 
The Adland Family. 

Among the Norwegians who came to Ra- 
cine county in 1840, was Mons Adland, he be- 
ing the last one to abandon the fatal Beaver 
Creek settlement. Mons Adland. (Aadland) 
was, as has been stated heretofore, an older 
brother of the journalist, Knud Langland, they 
taking their names from different farms in Nor- 
way. They also had a sister by name Magda- 
lena Nordvig, the wife of Anders Nordvig, 
who came with her husband in the same ves- 
sel with Mons Adland and Ole Eynning, and 
who also settled in Beaver Creek. Anders 
Nordvig died in the Beaver Creek settlement, 



THE ADLAND FAMILY. 285 

and his widow moved to the Fox River settle- 
ment, where she died about the year 1892, 
over 90 years old. Her daughter Malinda is the 
widow of Iver Lawson, who was a prominent 
Norwegian real estate owner in Chicago, and 
the mother of Victor F. Lawson, the well 
known owner of the Chicago Record and Ncirs. 

Mons Adland was born April 14, 1793, and 
died April 25, 1869. He left Bergen, Norway, 
April 7, 1837, arriving in New York about 
June 12, and in Chicago about July 12. After 
stopping in Chicago about a week he went to 
Beaver Creek. 

In a history of old settlers in Racine county, 
is found the following interesting sketch of 
Mons Adland and his family: 

"Thomas Adland, who resides on section 30, 
is one of the most prominent citizens of Ray- 
mond township, Racine county. His varied 
business interests have made him widely 
known, and his honorable dealings in all 
things have won him the respect and confi- 
dence of those with whom he has come in con- 
tact. Few men in the community have a 
larger circle of acquaintances, and we feel as- 
sured that this record of his life will be re- 
ceived with interest by many of our readers. 

"Mr. Adland was born near Bergen. Norway, 



286 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

August 12, 1831, and is a son of Mons K. and 
Ellen (Thompson) Adland. His father was 
also born and reared in Bergen, and in the 
public schools of his native country, acquired 
his education. He grew to manhood upon a 
farm, and afterwards became owner of a fish- 
ing vessel. In 1837, accompanied by his fam- 
ily, he crossed the Atlantic, landed in New 
York and by way of the lakes went to Chicago, 
which he found to be a mere hamlet situated 
in what appeared to be then a swamp. 

"Joining a colony, he removed to Iroquois 
county, 111., and in the midst of a wild and un- 
settled region made his home for three years; 
but the settlement was broken up on account 
of prevailing sickness — fever and ague, w T hich 
was very common at that time. By team, Mr. 
Adland removed to Wisconsin and settled up- 
on a farm on section 30, Eaymond township, 
which is now the home of our subject. The 
quarter section of land which he had pur- 
chased from the government was entirely des- 
titute of improvements, not a furrow having 
been turned, a single rod of fence built or the 
work of developing in any way commenced. 
The first home of the family w T as a log cabin, 
and in true pioneer style they spent the first 
years of their residence in Wisconsin. Mons 




Mons K. Adland. 



THE ADLAND FAMILY. 287 

Adland came here with nothing but his i 
tie, yet at his death he had accumulated a fair 
property, his unremitting labor, his persever- 
ance and enterprise winning him a handsome 
competence, and ten years before his death, 
he divided among his children between 6 vi- 
and six hundred acres of land. He was a man 
of generous spirit, as is shown by his liberal 
gifts, and one who took a commendable inter- 
est in public affairs. Both he and his wife 
were members of the Lutheran church, and in 
politics he was a republican, after the birth 
of that party, having previously been a dem- 
ocrat. He resided in the neighborhood of 
his pioneer home until his death, which oc- 
curred in 18G9, at the age of seventy-six years. 
His estimable wife had passed away two years 
previously. Six of their children grew to ma- 
ture years, and three are yet living — Knud, a 
prominent citizen of Raymond township; 
Thomas, the subject of this sketch; and Martha, 
who is married and resides in Norway. 

"The first six years of Thomas Adland's life 
were passed in his native land, and he then 
came with his parents across the briny deep 
to the United States. Upon new farms in Illi- 
nois and Wisconsin he was reared to manhood, 



288 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

and the hard task of improving unbroken land 
is not unknown to him. 

"His education was acquired in the district 
schools, and reading and observation in sub- 
sequent years have made him a well informed 
man. At the age of sixteen he began to run 
a threshing machine, which business he fol- 
lowed for a number of years. He has had 
charge of the home farm since 1859, and is 
now the owner of 300 acres of as fine land as 
can be found in Racine county. 

"The Adland homestead is a model farm, 
supplied with all modern improvements, ex- 
cellent buildings, the latest machinery and good 
grades of stock. 

"On the 19th of May, 1859, Mr. Adland se- 
cured as a companion and helpmate on life's 
journey Miss Julia Nelson, who was born in 
Norway, but since two years old has been a 
resident of Racine county. Nine children 
grace their union, and the family circle yet re- 
mains unbroken. They are as follows: Carrie, 
Ellen, Peter, Martha, Edwin, Bertha, Lavina, 
Thomas and Jessie. All of the children were 
born on the farm, and under the sheltering 
roof of the old home their childhood days were 
passed. Good educational advantages have 
been afforded them, and Carrie and Peter have 



THE ADLAND FAMILY. 289 

both attended school in Racine. The latter 
wns a student in Spencer's Business College 
of Milwaukee, ami now has charge of his 
father's tile factory. 

"Both Mr. and Mrs. Adland are members of 
the Lutheran church, and to its support he 
contributes liberally. He cast his first presi- 
dential vote in 1852 for John P. Hale, four 
years later supported Fremont, twice voted for 
Lincoln and once for Grant. He then cast 
his ballot in support of Horace Greeley, and 
since that time has advocated the principles 
of the democracy, being opposed to high tariff. 
He has often served in the conventions of his 
party, both county and state, and is widely 
known among the prominent democrats of 
Wisconsin. For three years he has served as 
chairman of the town board of supervisors; 
for thirty years he has been connected with the 
North Cape literary society, and is the present 
treasurer of the township insurance company. 
Other business interests have also occupied 
the attention of Mr. Adland, who has been 
connected with many of the leading industries 
of this neighborhood. Five years ago he es- 
tablished a tile factory, which has since been 
successfully operated. Mr. Adland possesses 



290 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

superior business and executive ability; his 
life has been characterized by energy, perse- 
verance and good management, which are es- 
sential to success, and his progressive spirit 
has made him a leader in the community. Over 
half a century has passed since he became a 
resident of the county, during which time he 
has witnessed the greater part of its growth 
and development, and not a little of its ad- 
vancement and upbuilding is due to his enter- 
prising efforts. He is accounted not only one 
of its substantial business men, but is also 
numbered among the honored pioneers of Ra- 
cine county, and is well deserving of repre- 
sentation in this volume." 



XVIII. 

Other Early Settlers in Muskego. 

Among those w T ho emigrated from Upper 
Thelemarken in 1839 and settled in Muskego, 
we must not forget Nelson Johnson Kaasa. He 
dropped the farm name Kaasa in this country, 
and was known as simply Nelson Johnson. 
He came to America by way of Gothenborg, 
and went directly to Milwaukee, where he 




Nelson Johnson. 




Mrs. Nelson Johnson. 



OTHER EARLY SETTLERS IN MUSKEGO. 201 

found work during the first year, and then E 
tied in Muskego. Lie worked out for $G per 
month in the winter, splitting rails, and at 
$12.50 a month in the summer. In this way he 
paid for his passage from Norway, and also in 
part for a farm which he had bought in Mus- 
kego. 

In 1850 he moved to Iowa and pre-empted 
a farm in the town of Decorah, Winneshiek 
county, where he lived until his death in 
April, 1882, excepting from the fall of 1S55 
to the fall of 1857, when he was pastor of the 
Norwegian Methodist Episcopal church at 
Cambridge, Dane county, Wis. Nelson John- 
son preached in all about twenty-five years. 

Nelson Johnson was born in Hitterdal 
Parish, Upper Thelemarken, in the year 1S1G. 
In 1843 he married in Racine county, Wis., 
Miss Anna Nelson Solheim, who came from 
Voss in 1841. They had seven children, all 
of whom are living, viz.: John W. Nelson, who 
lives at Racine, Wis.; Bessie P. (now Mrs. J. E. 
Cook), residing at Independence, Iowa; Martha 
A. (now Mrs. J. E. Anderson), residing at Forest 
City, Iowa; Martin N. (now serving his second 
term as member of congress for North Da- 
kota), residing at Petersburg, N. D.; Lewis C, 
an attorney-at-law, now residing at Fargo, 



292 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

X. D.; Mary H. (now Mrs. P. P. Wilcox), resid- 
ing at Los Angeles, Cal.; and Salinda F. (now 
Mrs. Geo. Spofford), residing at Forest City,. 
Iowa. Nelson Johnson died April 14, 1882,. 
and his wife died March 17, 1883. The same 
year with Nelson Johnson came also his 
brother, Gjermund Johnson, born in Hitterdal 
in 1802. He, too, sailed from Gothenborg, but 
not in the same ship with his brother. He 
lived in Eacine county, Wis., until 1850, when 
he moved to Iowa and bought land in Glen- 
wood, Winneshiek county. He remained on 
his farm until the early seventies, when he 
moved to Decorah and died there in Decem- 
ber, 1893, at the ripe age of ninety-one. His 
wife Eagnhild died there about ten years 
earlier. They were married in Norway, and 
had one or two children before they emigrated. 

Nelson and Gjermund Johnson were among 
the pioneers of Winneshiek county, Iowa. 
The Indians had been removed in 1849, and 
there were only two small log houses in the 
now prosperous and famous city of Decorah.. 

As soon as the number of settlers in Mus- 
kego had increased sufficiently, Mr. Bache and 
Mr. Johannesen started a store there; Their 
home was, as already stated, in an Indian 
mound, which they had dug out and sided in- 




Gjermund Johnson and his wife. 






OTHER EARLY SETTLERS IN MUSKEGO. 293 

side with boards, and this strange abode 
served as bedroom, kitchen, sitting room and 
store. The most necessary articles of mer- 
chandise were bought in Milwaukee and dis- 
tributed from this mound, which was regarded 
as the center of the settlement. 

In the Muskego settlement also appeared 
the first Norwegian newspaper published in 
America. It was called Nordlyset (The 
Northern Light), and made its appearance in 
1847. It was started by Even Heg and James 
D. Keymert, an attorney, who afterwards re- 
moved to New York city. Even Heg, being in 
good financial circumstances, furnished the 
money. Mr. Eeymert became the editor, ami 
Ole Torgerson, a man who came from Sogn in 
Norway in 1844, and who is still living in 
Madison, Wisconsin, set the first type. Thus 
Ole Torgerson may be regarded as the first 
compositor in a Norwegian printing establish- 
ment in America. Eeymert, who was an edu- 
cated young man, who was of Scotch descent 
on his mother's side, and who had been edu- 
cated partly in Norway and partly in Scotland, 
w^as a Free Soiler, and Nordlyset became 
the Norwegian organ of that party. During 
the first year it secured about 200 subscribers, 
but it is said that many of them forgot t<> pay 



294 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

for the paper. Nordlyset appeared with four 
pages and four columns on each page. As it 
was published in the country it could not count 
en getting many advertisements. Nordlyset 
served its editor a good purpose, in as much as 
it brought him into political notice. He was a 
member of the Wisconsin Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1847, of the Wisconsin assembly in 
1849, of the senate in 1854-1855, and again of 
the assembly in 1857. He was, so far as I 
know, the first Norwegian to fill the above 
named offices in America. Mr. Eeymert came 
from Farsund in Norway, and he married Miss 
Hanson in Muskego. He was an energetic 
business man, and in 1852 he completed a 
plank road in Kacine county. At another 
time we find him running a saw-mill in Sauk- 
ville, Ozaukee county. I do not know as he 
was entirely trustworthy. At all events he is 
charged with mismanaging the property of 
Soren Bache, which was left in his care. From 
Muskego Eeymert went to Milwaukee and 
thence to Hudson, where he served as regis- 
ter of the United States land office. From 
Hudson he went to New York city, where we 
lose trace of him altogether. I have been told 
that he left New York for New Mexico or some 
other part of the far west. 



OTHER EARLY SETTLERS IN MUSKEGO. 295 

The newspaper Nordlyset, of which he was 

for a short time the editor, was Bold in the 
autumn of 1849 to Knud Langland and 0. J. 
Hatlestad, and moved to Racine, Wis., where 
its name was changed to Demokraten. Its 
fate in the hands of the new proprietors has 
been told in connection with the account of 
its new editor, Knud Langland. (See page 226.) 

An old settler in Muskego was Herman Nel- 
son Tufte, from Hallingdal. I mention him 
particularly on account of his three daughters, 
who made notable marriages. One of his 
daughters was married to the far-famed lax- 
preacher, Elling Eielson, a second one to the 
wealthy merchant in Perry, Dane county, Wis., 
O. B. Dahle, and the third sister married Mr. 
Thomas Adland, whose sketch has been given 
above. 

One of the oldest settlers in Muskego was 
John J. Dale. He was born in Bergen Stift, 
Xorway, in August, 1795, and came to America 
in the same ship with Ole Rynning in 1837. 
FTc first settled in the Fox River settlement, 
and came to Muskego in 1S42, where he died 
in 1882. Anna, his wife, died in Illinois in 
1S39. 



296 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 



XIX. 
Rev. C. L. Clausen. 

The lay preacher, Elling Eielson, came to 
Muskego in 1840, though he had his headquar- 
ters in the Fox Kiver settlement. It is, how- 
ever, of record that he held a number of gospel 
meetings in Muskego prior to 1843. In that 
year the settlement obtained a teacher from 
Norway in the person of C. L. Clausen, a Dane, 
who had gone to Norway to seek employment 
in the missionary field, but w r as persuaded to 
go to America as a teacher among the Nor- 
wegian immigrants. He came to Muskego, 
but he soon found that his mission would be 
more successful as a minister than as a mere 
schoolmaster, and being found amply qualified 
for the vocation he was regularly ordained 
by a German Lutheran minister, and became 
the pastor of the Muskego congregation. Mr. 
Clausen arrived in Muskego in August, 1843, 
and in the latter part of November of the same 
year a meeting was held, in which it was 
agreed upon and resolved to build a church 
the next year. I am aware that there is some 



REV. C. L. CLAUSEN. 

controversy as to when and where the first 
Norwegian Lutheran congregation was organ- 
ised. I have seen no documents showing thai 
a congregation was formally organized in Ifus- 

kegO in 1S43, but I suppose that the fact that 
a body <>!' people call a pastor and resolve to 
bnild a church implies some kind of organiza- 
tion behind it. 

The building of a church, particularly, in- 
volves buying land and becoming owners of a 
church edifice. It also appears that money 
was invested in a parsonage. I do not care 
to enter upon any controversy, but I may be 
permitted to ask when the Muskego congrega- 
tion was organized, if this was not done in the 
fall of 1843. At the meeting held in Novem- 
ber, 1843, Mr. Hansen stated that lie had invi- 
tations to preaeb in settlements further west. 
These requests ho laid before the meeting and 
sa: 1 he found it to be his duty to visit the set- 
tlements in question, "as he was the only min- 
ister among the Norwegians in America,' 1 ami 
we know that Mr. Clausen soon after did 
preach on Koshkonong and at other plac 
The church register (Minlsterialbogen) begins 
October 21, 1843, and the heading on the first 
page is "Protocol of baptisms (Daabsprotokol) 
for the Norwegian Lutheran congregation in 



i 



298 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Mnsfcego for 1843 to 1846 inclusive." This, to- 
gether with the fact that the people resolved 
to build a church and transact other business, 
seems to me to be evidence of the existence of 
an organized congregation, although the mem- 
bers may not have formulated and signed their 
names to any constitution or expression of re- 
ligious belief. 

Tollef Bache, of Drammen, Norway, con- 
tributed four hundred dollars toward the erec- 
tion of the church, which was built by the late 
Halvor Nelson Lohner. This old building now 
belongs to Hans J. Jacobson. He bought it 
for about $150, and it now does service as a 
barn. The builder, Halvor Nelson Lohner, 
came with the Luraas party from Thelemarken 
in 1839, and died at an advanced age in 1894. 
He is to be remembered as the first church- 
builder of the Norwegian immigrants in this 
century. Lohner also built the parsonage for 
Rev. C. L. Clausen, and this house also belongs 
to Hans J. Jacobson and is a part of his resi- 
dence. After Mr. Clausen had been ordained 
as a minister, his wife, a most intelligent and 
noble woman, taught the children of her hus- 
band's church free of charge. 

Johan Reinert Reiersen, the founder of the 
first Norwegian settlement in Texas, visited 



REV. C. L. CLAUSEN. 299 

the Norwegian settlements in America in 
1843, and in his h<,.»k, "Veiviseren" (The Path- 
finder), published Immediately after his return 
to Norway, I find this statement in regard to 
Mnskego: "The settlement has organized 
itself into a congregation and chosen a Danish 
seminarist, Clausen, who has been ordained 
by a Lutheran clergyman, as their pastor. He 
is a very capable and well educated young 
man, who in a short time has won the respect 
and confidence of the whole settlement." 

Mr. Eeierson then gives this quaint bit about 
Elling Eielson: "Elling Eielson also lives in 
this locality and has married a Norwegian girl 
after having previously talked zealously about 
the sinfulness of marriage. By several doubt- 
ful transactions he has wholly lost the con- 
fidence he once enjoyed, and is nearly at the 
end of his career as an apostle." (!) Then 
Reierson gives this fact: "The teacher in gym- 
nastics (dancing master), Hanson, has also lo- 
cated in. this settlement." 



300 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

XX. 

John Evenson Molee. 

Before leaving the Muskego settlement I 
must present to my readers an autobiographic 
sketch of John Evenson Molee, who came with 
the Luraas party in 1839. In the preparation 
of it the aged writer has had the assistance 
of his son, Elias J. Molee, the well-known 
language reformer, now of Butler, Day county, 
South Dakota. His letter will be found to 
voice the views and sentiments of many of the 
old emigrants: 

Kock Dell, Olmstead Co., Minn., 

Feb. 22, 1895. 
Prof. R. B. Anderson, 

Madison, Wis. 
Dear Sir — 

Your letters received. You ask me for rem- 
iniscences of my early life; of my journey to 
the United States, and events of my later years. 
I fear your readers will be little interested 
in my personal story, unless, indeed, they are 
students of heredity, and are pursuing the new- 
educational line of thought, which aims at 
finding out the ideas of primitive men and chil- 




John Evenson Molee and his 
wife Anne. 



JOHN EVEN SON MOLEE. 301 

dren, for purposes of discovering imp roved 
methods and subjects of Instruction* 

you will at once see my northern, demo- 
cratic, independent viking instincts, when i 
ask you to be so kind as to leave out all nsel 
capital letters from my communication to 
you.* i wish also to go on record as a friend 
of self-explaining, home-grown, saxon-english 
compounds, instead of the foreign-borrowed, 
thought-hiding rags of ronie; as. "equator," for 
"mid-line;" "artic," for "north;" "artic ocean" 
for "north ocean;" "zone" for "belt;" "isthmus" 
for "neck-land;" "capricorn" for "south sun- 
line," "peninsula" for "half-island," etc. this 
would be easy for children and primitive men. 
i also believe in the easy world's metric sys- 
tem of weights and measures, multiplying and 
dividing by ten. 

As you requested me to give you a synopsis 
of my life, "such as I have give I unto thee. ,r 

I first saw light in 1816 in the district of Tin 
/Tins-Prestegjeld), Norway, but I do not know 
on what day in the month, for I lost the record 

* Mr. Molee writes without using any capital letters. I am 
sorry that I am not able to comply with his request, but I 
print one paragraph as a sample. Except as to capitals I 
publish Mr. Molee's letter in the somewhat r uaint English 
in which it is written. R. B. A. 



302 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

when I came to America more than half a cen- 
tury ago. 

My father was a large, powerful man, and 
went by the name of "Strong Even" (Strcrk- 
Even). My paternal grandfather's name was 
Halvor, after whom my brother was baptized. 
He owned a farm and a grist-mill in the valley 
east from the farm he gave to father, and on 
which we lived. My mother's name was Gun- 
hild Nerison, which means blessing. All my 
ancestors, as far as I know, have been land 
owners and tillers of the earth, for land is not 
monopolized in Norway. They were all very 
kind to their domestic animals. They housed 
and fed them, as if they had been their half- 
brothers. There was a belief common among 
the people that it was a great sin to be cruel 
to the dumb brutes, and that they would com- 
plain against those who abused them on the 
day of judgment. Every Christmas day (Jule- 
dag), sheaves of barley and oats were placed 
on the roofs of the barns for the wild birds. 

My father's farm ran down to the edge of 
the river in the valley and back over the 
meadow and up to the top of a high hill. We 
children caught fine fish there whenever we 
wished to do so. This was a great help to our 



JOHN EVENSON MOLEE. . 803 

family, while father was out as a soldier, de- 
fending the country against Che Bwed 

Fortunately, the war was soon ended by a 
compromise, Norway retaining her own legis- 
lature, and a right to act more freely and in- 
dependently than if she had been a state In 
the American union, for she even retained her 
own tariff. Norway also made her own con- 
stitution, and she consented to a union for 
mutual self-defense with Sweden. Paragraph 
112 goes even so far as to take away the king's 
absolute veto. The title of nobility was also 
abolished in Norway. 

Father and Uncle John came home to as, 
full of stories of the "war with the Swed< 

After I had learned, in school and at home, 
to read, sing, and to say from memory my cate- 
chism, explanation-book (forklaring), a short 
Bible history and a few hymns, I was con- 
firmed and admitted as a communicant of the 
Lutheran church. Our minister was appointed 
by the state; that is, by the church department 
of the state, and held the office in the same 
place during good and bad behavior. The 
people had at that time no choice in selecting 
their own pastor. 

I remained at home to help father work his 
land until I was nineteen years old, when I 



301 • NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

began to wonder what I should do in the 
future. I loved the pleasant old homestead, 
the goose that had laid so many golden eggs 
for us through many generations, but alas! I 
was obliged to leave the old nest with no hope 
of getting a nest of my own near home. 

My oldest brother, according to the old law 
of primogeniture (odels-ret), would take the 
farm unincumbered, and there was not enough 
cash or personal property on hand for me and 
my sisters with which to buy another farm, for 
we were seven children. I thought often, "O, 
where shall we younger children go? What 
will become of us?" 

We had no thought of North America then. 
The labor market was so overstocked that 
strong young men could hardly obtain work 
for more than five dollars and clothing a year. 
I had not been used to be a servant, nor had 
my dear sisters. Whey my oldest brother, 
llalvor, marries and gets a family of seven or 
eight children, there will be no room for us. 
I can hardly tell how bad I felt for my sisters 
and myself in the year 1835. 

Some curious thoughts flitted through my 
mind. I began, in a sinful manner, to blame 
God and my parents for giving us so large a 
family. When over-population takes place, 



JOHN EVENSON MOLES. 305 

thought I, neither a just government nor a 
good minister can help the people to obtain 
the comforts of life. Would it not be better 
to have fewer children, and make each child 
more efficient by more training? If God had 
given each family only two or three children, 
then land and houses would have been cheaper 
and easier to buy. If each family had only 
two children, thinks I, in my youthful way, 
then brother Halvor would have married, and 
given some neighbor's daughter a pleasant 
home and taken better care of father and 
mother. I could then have, in like manner, 
gone to some other neighbor. 

Now, however, there is a terrible waste of 
life. I dreaded a servant's fate. The profes- 
sions and trades were also overstocked. A 
laborer was not allowed to eat at the same 
table with a land-owner. Labor commenced 
before sunrise and lasted till after dark — no 
time for the enrichment of the mind by read- 
ing newspapers or good books evenings. Yet 
it w r as worse before the French revolution, 
when my father was a boy. 

At the age of nineteen, I gained my parents' 
consent to go to the western coast of Norway, 
with a view of becoming a sailor, and roam 
20 




306 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

upon the free sea, the spacious home of so 
many brave Northmen. 

I packed up all the clothes I could carry. 
Father gave me pocket money until I could 
find employment. After bidding farewell, 
with father, mother and my sisters amid tears 
and weeping, I started afoot on my journey to 
the old seamen's city of Stavanger, in 1835, 
about 150 kilometers distant. This is a good 
seaport in the southwestern part of Norway. 

After inquiring around a short time, I be- 
came acquainted with a stock and dairy 
farmer, by the name of Gitle Danielson, who 
lived on an island ten kilometers north from 
the city of Stavanger. The name of the island 
is Eenneso. This island supports four churches. 
The main industries consist in fishing, raising 
cattle, and sending butter and milk to Sta- 
vanger. The island is about thirty kilometers 
long and fifteen wide, and is the largest of the 
many coast islands here. I remained four years 
with Gitle Danielson and family, at such 
wages as were then going. He was one of the 
. kindest men I have met among strangers. As 
I had frequent chances to row to Stavanger 
with butter and milk, I enjoyed my work very 
well. 

In 1839, the "America fever" as it was 



JOHN EVENSON MOLEE. 

called, commenced. Gitle Danielson, my d 
ter, and his family, were smitten badly by the 
"America fever;" thai is, an intense desire to 
emigrate to America. Mr. Danielson sold his 
farm and personal property and made himself 
ready for the daring undertaking. 

When I saw my good master and unstress, 
Mr. and Mrs. Danielson, and the children, 
whom I had begun to regard as my own 
brothers and sisters, making ready t<> sail to 
America, I also caught the "America fever" 
in its most intense form. You may be sure 
I wanted to go along. I was aching to go, but 
the passage money was too high for me. I 
had only a few dollars and three suits of 
clothes. You can imagine that I asked Mr. 
Danielson to take me along to America. At 
first he said that he had a large family to pay 
for, and that he would like to have some spare 
money left when he came to the state of Wis- 
consin, so that he could buy some land and 
build a house and buy provisions for a year, 
without being obliged to work out, and thus 
neglect his own home. He also said that he 
had not received much for his land and per- 
sonal property, as prices had been greatly de- 
pressed by the government through the influ- 
ence of the office-holding class and the money- 



308 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

loaners, and their policy to contract the cur- 
rency to increase their incomes; that is, make 
the same incomes relatively more valuable by 
making the dollar dearer by less currency, 
and, hence cheaper labor and more goods for 
the same inoney, while incomes remained un- 
changed. 

When I heard Mr. Daniel son say that he 
could not take me along to America, I felt so 
small that I could have hidden myself away in 
his trunk. I could not sleep the next night, 
and I often cried bitterly. When I met Mr. 
and Mrs. Danielson the next morning, they 
asked me if I was sick for I did not look well. 
I said I felt very bad because I could not go 
with them to America. They smiled at what 
I said, but made no remarks one way or the 
other. 

After an interval of two days, Mr. Gitle 
Danielson told me that he had talked the mat- 
ter over with his family and come to the con- 
clusion that he could take me along and pay 
the passage money if I was willing to agree 
to work for him two years after I arrived in 
America. That was just what I wanted. It 
did not take me longer to make up my mind 
than it requires to say "/«," I agreed to work 
for him two years after I arrived in Wisconsin. 



JOHN EVENSON MOLEE. 809 

Although this was three limes more than the 
amount of the passage money, I would rather 

do that than remain In the over-crowded old 
country. 

In May we spread the sails, and set out from 
the good old city of Stavanger in a little her- 
ring yacht (silde-jakt) to Got henborg, in 
southern Sweden. 

I can yet remember the names of the follow- 
ing persons from Stavanger Amt, namely: — 

Gitle Danielson, with family. 

Halvor Jellarvikon, with family 

Peder Rosoino, with family. 

Erik Svinalie and sister (both single). 

When we came to Gothenborg, in Sweden, 
another ship came there from Drammen, in 
the southern part of Norway, and brought the 
following passengers from Tin, which I can re- 
member, namely: — 

Ole Hellekson Krokan, with family. 

Halvor Lonflok Vinlete, with family. 

Torger Ostenson Luraas, with family. 

Havor Ostenson Luraas, with family. 

John Nilson Luraas, with family. 

Knudt Luraas, with family. 

Helge Matison, with family. 

Osten Mollerflaten, with family. 

Nils Johnson (from Hitterdal), with family. 



310 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Nils Tollefsjord, single. 

Ole Tollefsjord, single. 

John Tollefsjord, single. 

Both the party from Stavanger and that 
from Tin in Upper Tellemarken, went on board 
together into an American sail ship loaded 
with Swedish iron from Gothenborg to Boston. 
I cannot remember the name of the ship or the 
captain. It took us nine w r eeks and three 
days to sail from Gothenborg, Sweden, to Bos- 
ton. We had from Stavanger one Norwegian 
Quaker on board. I forget his name. 

When we entered the commodious harbor of 
Boston, you may be sure we felt very happy 
to behold land, after having tumbled about so 
long on the wide sea. Boston looked familiar 
to me. There were the same cluster of coast 
islands before entering the city as at old Sta- 
vanger in Norway. In the distance we saw 
hills and trees, which looks very natural and 
home-like to a Norwegian or a Swede. 

After four days' stay in Boston, we sailed to 
New York city and up the Hudson river to the 
entrance of the Erie canal. Here we were of- 
fered work if we would stay, but we had all 
made up our minds to go west to find land on 
which to settle. A jovial American told our 
interpreter that we must not go to Buffalo or 



OHM EVENSON MOLEE. 311 

wo would 1)0 sold into slavery. This was the 

great topic <»f the day in the United States. 
Then lie said to our interpreter, "Don't let 
those good people go to Buffalo^ for the; will 
certainly ho taken south and be turned nv.-r to 
slavery to work side by side with black men, 
to raise cotton and tobacco. Don't go to Buf- 
falo, for God's sake!" 

We could not think of any crime we had 
committed to deserve such treatment, yet the 
statement surprised us at first. My master 
and his family, Gitle Danielson, from Sta- 
vanger, had been sick nearly the whole time 
on the journey, but this slavery joke waked 
him up, for he had been a great reader. He 
said, "It can not be true, because Norwegians 
or Scandinavians in general are not the kind 
of people of which to make slaves. I have 
never heard of any Scandinavians ever being 
slaves to a foreign race. Just think of it. 
Never at any time since the dawn of history 
have the Scandinavians been ruled by other 
than Scandinavians. No other European 
people have so long a history of self-govern- 
ment. Our great Scandinavian race has be- 
sides laid the foundations of two of the might- 
iest empires on earth. The Norwegians and 



312 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Danes laid the foundation of the British, and 
the Swedes of the Kussian empire. 

"That we, the sons of the brave and hardy 
Northmen, can be enslaved alive by an open 
and visible enemy, is incredible! The slave 
owners do not want us to go down south, for 
they know we would talk of freedom and jus- 
tice to the slaves and in time produce a change 
of opinion." 

At the entrance of the Erie canal, our bag- 
gage was. transferred onto the canal boat, 
which was tugged by horses walking al»ng 
the side of the canal through the state of New 
York, from the Hudson river to Lake Erie, a 
distance of 585 kilometers. 

Mr. Danielson and his family were very sick 
on the whole journey, but I believe, although 
I was not sick, I had as hard time of it as 
they had, for I had to nurse and care for them 
all the w r ay from Gothenborg, in Sweden, until 
we reached our point of destination in Wis- 
consin. 

At Buffalo our baggage was again trans- 
ferred from the canal boat to a sail ship, which 
carried us across Lake Erie, Lake Huron and 
Lake Michigan to the city of Milwaukee, Wis. 
We arrived at that place in August, but I can- 
not now remember on what day. We were 



JOHN EVENSON MOLEE. 

not in the habit of keeping a memorandum, 

which we ought to have done for our own ami 
others' interest. We had been nearly fonr 
months on the voyage. O, what a Long and 
tedious journey we Had! I should not lik<- to 
endure such traveling again. On Lake Michi- 
gan the wife of Ilalvor Lonflok Vinlete waa 
drowned. At Milwaukee our interpreter, Mr. 
Jensen, a Dane, drowned. While rowing in a 
little boat on the lake the wind turned it over. 

At Milwaukee our band of pioneers spread 
out to different parts of southern Wisconsin. 
-Some went to Muskego, while others went t<> 
Yorkville and Jefferson Prairie. For my part 
I remained between two and three years in 
Milwaukee. 

The first fall and winter I worked in the 
woods, chopping, teaming, or at any other work 
I could find to do to earn money to pay Mr, 
Danielson for the amount he advanced for my 
passage to America, $47. When I came to set 
tie with him he charged me but little, because 
I had nursed his sick family on our long 
journey. 

The next spring, 1840, I hired out to run a 
ferry-boat across the Milwaukee river for 
Henry Dunbar, who was agent for the count v. 
which owned the ferry. There were too few 



314 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

rich men at that time to monopolize the means 
of public conveyance, so the people were com- 
pelled to resort to public co-operation through 
the collective power of the county. 

I boarded with Mr. Dunbar, doing such 
work, mornings and evenings, as was desired 
by his family or himself. Dunbar tended to 
his store himself. The next winter after the 
river froze over, so that I could not run the 
ferry boat, I started again for the woods with 
two good axes. 

At this time I had learned to talk English 
very well, hearing no Norwegian in Mr. Dun- 
bar's family. Mr. and Mrs. Dunbar and the 
children urged me to stay with them through 
the winter and attend the public school, and 
to do a little chores for my board. I was, 
however, so discouraged by the English sys- 
tem of spelling that I was afraid it would take 
more time to master it than I could spare. I 
had seen and heard how Dunbar's children 
worked year after year to learn to spell, a 
thing which caused no trouble in Norway, 
where they spell according to sound. If Dun- 
bar's children, thought I, require so much time 
to learn to spell their own native language, 
how can a poor foreigner expect to master the 
mystery of unphonetic spelling? I preferred 



JOHN EVENSON MOLEE. 315 

chopping to spelling and to reading meaning- 
less stories about cats and dogs. That was 
nearly all they learned in school then. Not 
one word was read about how to take care 
of health, about etiquette, the proper behavior 
in society, civil government, political economy, 
logic, theory of education, or singing. 
Knowledge which was of most value to the 
children, they had to learn outside of the 
school room, the best they could, but many 
never did discover what knowledge they most 
needed to guide themselves through life, or 
how to enjoy sweet moments of cheering song 
in later years. 

The following summer I hired out again to 
run the same ferry boat as in the previous 
summer for advanced wages, but another man 
had taken the contract to manage the ferry 
for the county. His name was William 
Bentley. He had invested too heavily in lots 
and land. After the crisis and bank failures 
of 1837, real estate was so depressed that he 
could not sell land enough to meet the high 
interest, and I lost my year's wages, for he 
went into bankruptcy. Money-loaners took 
the property. 

In 1842 I went to Muskego, where I worked 
out for Americans to earn money for which to 






316 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

buy a piece of land. After procuring a piece 
of land four and a half kilometers west from 
Reymert's lake or about eighteen kilometers 
south from Waukesha, Wis., I married Anne 
Jacobson Einong in 1844, in Even Heg's new 
home-sawed, oak-frame barn. Another couple 
was married before the same altar at the same 
time by Rev. Clausen from Denmark. There 
was no church then, which I can remember. 
This was the way Mr. Heg had of dedicating 
his new barn before he put it to more common 
use. The boards had been sawed at Reymert's 
saw-mill, about two or three kilometers north 
on the east bank of Reyinert's lake (Silver lake 
in Waukesha county). 

The other couple, besides Anne and myself, 
was the muscular giant, Hans Tveito (Twi-to), 
and my wife's sister, Oslaug. 

My wife, Anne, was a good, patient, indus- 
trious woman when she was well, but she was 
not as strong as her sisters, Oslaug Tveito, nor 
as Cornelia Heg, wife of Colonel Heg of the 
15th Wisconsin regiment, nor as strong as 
Gurina Stangeland, w r ife of Elias Stangeland, 
editor of a Norwegian paper in Madison, W T is. 
She had also two brothers, John and Osten 
Jacobson Einong. 

All the Jacobson girls married noted men, 



JOHN EVEKSON MOLEE. 317 

except my dear Anne, who married me. My 
wife came over from Tin by way of Drammen, 

in Norway, in 1843. She had a harder time 
in crossing the Atlantic than I had. The ship 
was thirteen weeks in crossing, and fourteen 
persons died of typhoid fever while sailing 
over the Atlantic. They were buried in that 
great ocean. Her own mother, Anne, and her 
twin sister, Susana, were buried in the sea. 
My wife was often sorry she came to the 
wilderness of Wisconsin, for her father had a 
fine farm and servants in the old country, and 
could have lived better there. Yet the "Amer- 
ica fever" brought them to the west. Her 
father died a few years after he came to this 
country, but he gave all his children a small 
start, which made their life here a little easier 
than it would otherwise have been. He gave 
forty acres of land to each, and also a few dol- 
lars in money, which he had brought with him 
from Norway. 

As soon as I was married, I built a log house 
on my land, 4.7 meters long, 4.1 meters wide 
and 3.5 meters high. This gave us a good 
room below and a room upstairs for beds and 
clothing. We had at first only one window 
toward the east, consisting of twelve window 
panes. The size of the panes was of the old 



318 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

regulation, namely, 20 by 25 centimeters, the 
window being divided into two halves. 

The house was small, but my wife and I got 
along well with it. We would rather have a 
small house and own it free from debt, than 
to be the slaves of a money-loaner, which 
might take awav from us both house and land 
and make us mere renters. That did not 
agree with our northern ideas of true inde- 
pendence. 

The pioneers that came to America before 
1840, I believe were the most democratic and 
self-helping and peaceable that ever came from 
Europe, excepting only the "Pilgrim fathers" 
that came over from England in the "May- 
flower" in 1620, which, by the way, came from a 
district in England largely settled by Norse- 
men. 

Historical events work with a reflex power 
on the feelings of descendants. 

While the Romans in the South were forging 
fetters to enslave mankind, the Scandinavians 
in the North developed institutions and senti- 
ments to break those fetters. In the old North 
the kings had to obey the people instead of 
the people obeying the king. There arose the 
system of trial by jury. Without the influence 
of the Scandinavians, there would have been 



JOHN EVENSON MOLEE. 319 

no Magna Charta in England, and probably no 
"Declaration of Independence" in America. 
In Normandy, in France, the Scandinavians 

were the cause of the Institution of knighthood, 
which soon spread over Europe, to defend 
woman and the oppressed. The great French 
writer, Montesquieu, says: "What ought to 

recommend the Scandinavians to us above all 
other people is r that they are the source of 
nearly all the liberty among men." In the 
"thirty years' war" between Catholics and Prot- 
estants, they determined the success of the 
latter, who were struggling for religious free- 
dom in Germany, and indirectly for religions 
freedom in other countries. The Scandina 
vians were also the first to introduce "courts of 
conciliation" without the assistance of lawyers, 
and Norwegians were the first to abolish the 
corrupting order of nobility. The Scandina- 
vians have been and will be a leaven of pop- 
ular rights wherever they settle. If we couple 
these truths with the fact that they have the 
largest proportion of the tillers of the soil, in- 
stead of crowding into overflowing cities, we 
can safely say that they are the host immi- 
grants the United States has received, not 
even excepting the Scotch and Germans. 
It would have a very wholesome influence 



320 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

upon the intellectual life of the United States r 
if they would study more Anglo Saxon and 
Icelandic instead of the foreign, time-wasting, 
arbitrary and useless Latin. We have as 
grand a mythology in the North, as the Ro- 
mans in the South. Why go over the river 
after water? We shall not understand Eng- 
lish or Norwegian better by mastering Latin 
declensions and conjugations. It would be 
more democratic and useful to master a great 
modern language, and more permanent, life- 
guiding science, instead of memorizing the 
foolish exceptions to Latin nouns and verbs, 
soon forgotten. 

After I had built my log house in 1845, I 
exchanged work with some of the most dex- 
trous neighbors, w T ho made for me bedsteads, 
tables, chairs, floor, shingles, sleigh, truck- 
wagon (from round logs), harrow, bureau, cup- 
board, loom, spinning-wheel, shoes and cloth- 
ing. We exchanged produce for store goods. 
We had Norwegian schools and gave the 
teacher a certificate ourselves. 

W T e conducted our religious meetings in 
our own democratic way. We appointed a 
foreman and he requested some one to read 
from a book of sermons. This book was our 
preacher at first. We prayed, exhorted and 



JOHN EVENSON MOLEE. 321 

sang among ourselves and even baptised our 
babies ourselves, for we had no regular min- 
ister at first, bllt this want was soon supplied* 
In 1S4 ( .) was the year of fcbe "Asiatic cholera" 
in the United States and Europe. It was the 
awfulest summer I have experienced in my 
life. By this time there were a great number 
of our people in Muskego. When the epidemic 
cholera struck our settlement, there were, at 
oue time, only seven families, all well, bo thai 
they could get away to help their neighbors. 
From three to four persons died every day. 
Hans Tveito and myself had all we could do, 
to carry the dead out of the houses and haul 
them to the grave with our oxen, while others 
dng the graves. No ceremony took place, and 
there were no glittering coffins with silver 
knobs and handles. We simply rolled a white 
sheet around the dead, unwashed and tin- 
shaved; and then we placed him or her into a 
rough board box, emplaned and unpainted, and 
hauled them to a spot selected tor a grave- 
yard, called "the Indian hill" (Indiehaugen); 
there we laid them to rest. It was the best 
we could do, God knows. We cared for them 
the best we could, while living, but when dead, 
they did not need more care. 
21 



322 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

I have often thought since, when behold- 
ing a husband, wife, father, mother, child or 
neighbor buried amid great pomp and expense, 
alas ! if some of that good will had been shown 
to the dead while living and the rest given to 
the poor, how many hearts would have been 
made happier, instead of being ruined by vain 
show. 

I shudder when I think of how we had to 
go into the catching cholera houses to carry 
out the dead day after day. We expected to 
be struck down by the fell disease every mo- 
ment, yet we stood by our post of duty like 
true soldiers of peace, Uve or die. 

I have not much, more to relate, that is, of 
interest to your readers. 

I lived in Muskego until 1855, when I moved 
to Blue Mounds, Dane county, Wisconsin, 35 
kilometers west from Madison. In Blue 
Mounds, I lived on a farm of 128 acres until 
1873, when I again moved to Bloomfield, Fill- 
more county, Minnesota, where I bought an- 
other farm. In 1876 I lost the best friend 
I had on earth, my beloved wife, Anne. She 
died of cancer in the right breast at the age 
of 54. We had a comfortable room for her, 
and she received all the assistance which I 
and others could give her, but the diseasq 



JOHN EVENSON MOLEE. 323 

proved incurable, so that the best medical aid 
and nursing proved in vain. After my wife 
died, I sold my place and went to live with my 
daughter Anne, who is named after her 
mother. She is married to Mads Holm, a Dane. 
Both my daughter and son-in-law, .Mrs. and 
Mr. Holm, are very kind to me, for which 1 
am very thankful. Though I will be eighty 
years old next spring,- 1 am yet in good health, 
and enjoy highly to talk with both old and 
young friends, and hear what is going on 
around me, especially with regard to religious 
movements in the Lutheran church. This is, 
of course, the greatest of all Protestant denom- 
inations, and the strongest fort against Cath- 
olicism both in America and Europe. There 
is one thing which recommends this church to 
me above all others, considered purely from an 
educational point alone; namely, the confirma- 
tion. About the age of 14, all boys and girls 
have, for the last three hundred years been re- 
quired, by the Lutheran church, to learn to 
read, by requiring them to learn their cate- 
chism and a number of hymns by heart, and to 
answer questions from bible history, in order 
to be confirmed in the church. This could 
not be done, unless they first learned to read; 
hence, long before general public schools were 



Cf?4 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

organized, this church alone served as a gen- 
eral teacher of reading and singing. For this 
reason the Lutheran countries are the most 
intelligent in the world according to official 
statistics. Ninety-seven per cent, of the peo- 
ple of such Lutheran countries, as Norway, 
Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Holland and 
Switzerland, over twelve years old, can read. 
The Lutheran church has done the most for 
religious freedom, but it was also through 
Lutheran influence that compulsory education 
was introduced into the world. All Lutheran 
countries have compulsory education. I be- 
lieve it will degrade the Scandinavians as a 
rule, rather than elevate them, to leave this' 
great education and freedom-loving church. 
It may be possible to add more educational 
features to it. Every minister might organize 
more singing societies and literary clubs and 
introduce more English speaking and more 
historical lecturing. As soon as possible, 
let us increase " sweet reasonableness." 

I have three children now living; namely, 
my oldest son, and my present secretary, Elias, 
was born January 3rd, 1845. Halvor and Anne 
were born December Tth, 1849. Halvor is only 
three hours older than Anne. 

My dear professor and countryman! In the 



JOHN BVENSON MOLEE. 325 

beginning of my letter to .vm, I started fa 
a northern democratic viking. I .should like 
to give vou another piece of old typical Scan- 
dinavian sentiment to give to your yuimvj-r 
readers; a child-like primitive Scandinavian 
sentiment, such as I have to give. I beliew 
in the "Monroe doctrine" with my whole na- 
ture. It is natural for the great freedom lov- 
ing Scandinavian people to favor self govern- 
ment among all civilized people. Canada, our 
enlightened neighbor on the north, is vet un- 
der foreign bondage 4 . The queen of England 
appoints the governor general, and he ap- 
points all the senators, all the judges of the 
supreme court and all the governors of the 
provinces; now, if the queen in another part 
of the world appoints half of the law-making 
and the whole interpreting power, what is the 
rest worth to the people, except for false show ? 
If Scandinavian writers have a chance to say 
a good word for the independence of Canada, 
I hope they will do so. 

Again, let us speak and write against a per- 
petual bonding of the United States. Let us 
pay our debts, and after that live within our 
yearly incomes. 

My last word to my children and countrymen 
is, that I hope they will continue to honor 



82j6 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

themselves and Scandinavia by being a sober, 
industrious, intelligent and moral people. 

I shall soon go away to meet my dear Annet 
She always appears young to me. 

t Your well-wishing 

"JOHN EVENSON MOLEE. 



XXI. 

The Sixth Norwegian Settlement. 

The sixth Norwegian settlement in America 
and the third to be founded in Wisconsin was 
the now large and prosperous one in the east 
half of Dane county. It is the so-called Kosh- 
konong settlement, taking its name from Kosh- 
konong lake, and particularly from Koshko- 
nong creek, and it is still the most widely 
known as well as the wealthiest rural Norwe- 
gian settlement in America. 

The first Norwegians located there in the 
spring and summer of 1840. Those w T ho lo- 
cated there that year were Gunnul Olson Vin- 
deg, Bjorn Anderson Kvelve (the author's 
father), Amund Anderson Hornefjeld, Thor- 
stein Olson Bjaadland (one of the sloopers), Lars 




Nels Siverson Gilderhus and wife. 



THE SIXTH SETTLEMENT. 327 

Olson Dugstad, Nels Siverson Gilderkus, Nels 
Larson Bolstad and Anders Finno. 

It has generally been supposed that all the 
Norwegians here mentioned visited Koshko- 
nong for the first time in 1840, but my friend, 
Nels A. Lee, of Deerfield, Wis., has investigated 
the subject pretty thoroughly, and he has con- 
vinced me that Nels Siverson Gilderhus, Nels 
Larson Bolstad and a third person, who did 
not settle there, visited the towns of Christiana 
and Deerfield somewhat late in the fall of 1839. 

Nels A. Lee, himself a Vossing, published in 
June, 1894, a very interesting article on the 
early emigration from Voss, Bergens Stift, in 
Norway. In this article he makes the claim, 
and I think proves it satisfactorily, that men 
from Yoss were the first to plant their feet on 
Koshkonong soil, but before discussing this sub- 
ject any further, I will make a digression and 
take a look at the early emigration from Voss, 
and in the presentation of the matter I shall 
be largely guided by Mr. Lee's article. 

Nels Kothe and his wife Torbjor left Voss 
for America in 1836, and they were the first 
to emigrate from that part of Norway. They 
spent a couple of years in Rochester, N. Y., and 
then moved to Chicago, where, so far as I can 



328 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

make out, they remained the balance of their 
lives. 

In 1837 Odd J. Himle, Baard ITaugen, Kol- 
bein Olson Sane, Stark Olson Saue, Halle 
Va&te, Nils Larson Bolstad, John Haldorson 
Bjorgo and Ole Dyvik, emigrated from Yoss. 
Himle and Haugen, and probably also Bjorgo 
and Dyvik, went at once to the Fox Biver set- 
tlement, while Kolbein and Stark Saue and 
Halle Ya?te went to the unfortunate Beaver 
Creek settlement, settling in that part of it 
that was located in Indiana. Halle Vsete, his 
wife and a grown-up daughter, died there. 
Kolbein and Stark Saue* finally came to Kosh- 
konong in 1843, and I believe died there. Stark 
(Styrk) Saue's youngest son, known as N. O. 
Stark, is an inventor of note, and is at present 
the superintendent of the Fuller & Johnson 
Manufacturing company, in Madison, Wis. 
Odd J. Himle lived in the Fox River settlement 
and in Chicago until 1844, when he made a 
visit to Norway. He spent the winter there, 

*Stark Olson Saue was born at Yoss, Sep- 
tember 25, 1814, and died in Dane county, De- 
cember 5, 1893. His wife, whose name was 
Ellen Olson Bekve, was born in Yoss, Julv 16, 
1816, and died in Dane comity, October 8, 1882. 
They were married in America. 




Kolbein Olson Saue and wife. 



THE SIXTH SETTLEMENT. 32iJ 

and married Miss Marie L. Jermo, and re- 
turned to America in 1845. Upon his return 
to America he settled on Spring Prairie north 
of Madison, Wis., and resided there ota his 

farm until 1800, when lie snld the farm and 
moved to De Forest, Dane county, and died 
there in May, 1893. 

What became of Ole Dyvik I do not know, 
but Nils Larson Bolstad and John Qaldorson 
Bjoro-o appear among the first settlers on K<>sh- 
konong. 

In 1838 Knud Lydvo, Ole Lydvo, Stephen K. 
Gilderhus and Lars Jerstad emigrated from 
Yoss. Knud and Ole Lydvo and Lars Jerstad 
settled in Missouri, no doubt in Kleng 1'eer- 
son's settlement in Shelby county, while S. K. 
Gilderhus remained a year in Cleveland, Ohio, 
then removed to Chicago, and finally settled on 
Koshkonong in 1844. 

In 1839 we find the following emigrants from 
Yoss: Ole K. Gilderhus, Anfin Leidal, Knud 
Ojostein, Nils Lydvo, Lars Ygre, Anders Flage, 
Anders Nelson Brrekke and wife, Knud Braekke 
and wife, Anna Gilderhus, Anders Fenno, Lars 
Dugstad, Anna Bakketun (afterwards Mrs. 
Nichols), Magne Bystol, Lars Davidson llekve 
and Nils S. Gilderhus. Nils Lydvo went to his 
brothers in Shelby county, Mo. Anna Gilder- 



330 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

hus was the sister of Nels A. Lee's moth or. 
Lars Dugs tad was born in Voss in 1807, and 
died in Albion, Wis., in 1863. His wife, whom 
he married in the fifties, is still living in Cam- 
bridge, Wis. From the records it appears that 
this party landed in New York, July 8, 1839. 
L. D. Rekve, N. S. Gilderhus, Anfin Leidal, and 
Anders Finno went first to the Fox River set- 
tlement, and then to Koshkonong. The rest of 
this party remained in Chicago. Of this com- 
pany Lars Davidson Rekve still lives in Deer- 
field, Dane county, Wis. 

Lars Davidson Rekve worked the first year 
on a steamer plying between Chicago and St. 
Joseph, Mich. In the fall of 1840 he, in com- 
pany with Nils and Ole Gilderhus, went first 
to the Fox River settlement, and then to Kosh- 
konong. On reaching Albion, they stopped 
over night at the house of Thorstein Olson 
Bjaadland, who had not yet returned to Illinois 
for the winter. Thorstein Olson, w^ho was a 
shoemaker, mended Lars Davidson's shoes for 
him. When they reached the northern part 
of the town of Christiana, a log house had been 
built there by the three Vossings who settled 
there in the spring or summer of 1840, and a 
small patch of ground had been cultivated. 
Lars Davidson Rekve bousrht a piece of land,. 



THE SIXTH SETTLEMENT. 331 

but did not settle there before a couple of years 
later. He is now the oldegl gian land 

purchaser living on Koshkonong. 

In the winter of 1839 there was a pari 
the house of Mr. Gilderhus in Voss, and one 
man read aloud out of Ole Rynning's book. 
All listened attentively. It is said that wher- 
ever Ole Rynning's book was read anywhere 
in Norway, people listened as attentively as 
if they were in church. Several Vossings re- 
solved to emigrate that year, and in obedience 
to instructions in Rynning's book all took guns 
or rifles with them to be prepared for all the 
wild game they expected to find in America. 

Thus it will be seen that Rynning's book also 
found its way to Yoss, where it had an im- 
portant influence on emigration. In this con- 
nection it may be repeated that a lay preacher 
had brought a copy of one of Gjert Hovland's 
letters to Voss, and it was the reading of this 
letter that induced Nils Rothe, Nils Bolstad 
and John H. Bjorgo to emigrate in 1836 and 
1837. 

For the year 1840 Mr. Lee names the follow- 
ing emigrants from Voss: Knud J. Hylle, Ole 
S. Gilderhus, Knud Rokne, Mads Sonve, Baard 
Nyre, B. Ronve, Torstein Saue and wife and 
their son Gulleik, Lars Saue and wife, Klas 



B82 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Grimestad and wife, Arne Orland and wife, and 
Lars Rothe. All these settled in Chicago. 
The ship in which they came was commanded 
by Captain Ankerson. Mr. Lee also names the 
principal emigrants from Voss for the years 
1841, 1813, 1845, 1846, 1849 and 1850, but they 
do not come within the scope of this volume. 

In the town of Christiana, Magne Bystol 
and Anders Finno are to be counted among 
the pioneer settlers. In Deerfield, Dane 
county, N. Gilderhus was the first to purchase 
land, but Nils Bolstad built the first house 
there in 1841. His wife Anna, the sister of 
Gunnul Vindeg, was at that time the only 
white woman in that town. Nils Gilderhus 
and Magne Bystol lived in a cellar a couple of 
miles west of Cambridge for two years, and 
Nels A. Lee, then a little child, with his par- 
ents, Anders N. Lee and wife, were accommo- 
dated in that same cellar on their arrival in 
1841. 

Among the descendants of Yossings who 
have become more or less prominent in Amer- 
ica, I may here take occasion to mention 
Knute Nelson, now of Minnesota. He has 
served three terms in congress, has twice been 
elected governor of Minnesota, and in January, 
18D5, he was chosen to represent his state in 



THE SIXTH SETTLEMENT. 333 

the United States senate. lie has the honor 
of being the first of the Norwegian Immigrants 
to occupy the above offices in America. While 
born in Norway, he was brought up and edu- 
cated in Dane county, Wis., and old Koshko- 
lioug claims him as one of its most distin- 
guished sons. 

Knut Bergh (Berge), who, until his death, 
was a most competent and highly beloved pro- 
fessor in Luther College at Decorah, Iowa; 
Lars S. Reque, also a professor for many years 
at Luther College, and now United States con- 
sul at Rotterdam; Victor F. Lawson, the far- 
famed publisher of the Record and News of Chi- 
cago; C. K. Matson, who has held the office of 
sheriff and other prominent positions in Chi- 
cago; John Anderson, the energetic founder 
and publisher of SJcandinaven, the widely 
known Norwegian newspaper, and Rev. S. S. 
Reque, the well-known Lutheran minister in 
Spring Grove, Minnesota, are all Vossings by 
birth or descent, and this does not by any 
means exhaust the catalogue of prominent 
Vossings in America. While the Vossings can 
not claim more than one-half of the credit for 
having produced Victor F. Lawson, his mother 
not being from Voss, they square the account 
by claiming one-half of the credit of bringing 



331 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

forth M. N. Johnson, member of congress from 
North Dakota. The father of M. N. Johnson 
came from Thelemarken, but his mother from 
Toss. 

After this digression we may return to the 
founding of the Norwegian settlement on 
Koshkonong. 

In 1839 Odd J. Himle, Nils Larson Bolstad 
and Magne Bottolfson Bystolen were living in 
the Fox River settlement, and Nils Siverson 
Gilderhus had just arrived there from Norway. 
Bolstad, Gilderhus and Bystolen w T ere anxious 
to secure farms for themselves, and so they 
hired Odd J. Himle to go with them to Wis- 
consin, where good land was to be had. Magne 
Bystolen was prevented by sickness from go- 
ing, but it was agreed that the rest of the party 
should select land for him, too. The three 
others started from La Salle county, 111., in 
the fall of 1839, say in September, or more 
probably in October, and went first to Mil- 
waukee, and then proceeded west to Dane 
county. It is needless to add that they went 
all the way on foot. They stopped in the 
northern part of the present town of Christi- 
ana, and after looking the ground over for a 
couple of days, they then selected land a short 
distance northwest from the present Cam- 



THE SIXTH SETTLEMENT. 

bridge, in the northeast part of the town of 
Christiana. Thus these three Vossings apr 
to be the first three Norwegians who visited 
Koshkonong. They selected 120 acres of land, 
viz., forty for Nils S. Gilderhus, forty for Nils 
Larson Bolstad and forty for Magne BystoleH. 
Odd Himle, who had acted as their guide, did 
not select any land for himself, and we have 
seen that he did not settle on Koshkonong. 
The three men left Koshkonong as soon as they 
had selected their land, proceeded to Milwau- 
kee, wiiere Mr. Lee claims they made entry of 
the land at the land office, and then spent the 
winter in the Fox River settlement. 

Early the next spring N. S. Gilderhus, N. L. 
Bolstad, Magne Bystol and Anders Fenno left 
the Fox River settlement and moved up to 
Koshkonong. There they built on Magne Bys- 
toTs land a cellar or dugout in the face of a 
bank, and in this they were all sheltered dur- 
ing the first year. Mr. Lee thinks this was the 
first house built by Norwegians in the town 
of Christiana. For my part I am inclined to 
think that Gunnul Olson Vindeg built the first 
house in that township, and I shall give my 
reasons later on. The first township north of 
Christiana is Deerfield, and there the first Nor- 
wegian to select land and build a house was 



336 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Nils L. Bolstad. In 1841 he married, as stated, 
Anna, a sister of Gunnul O. Vindeg, and the 
same year he bnilt his house in Deerfield, where 
his wife w T as the first white woman. Nils Gil- 
derhus and Magne Bystol lived in the dugout 
two winters, and with them Nels A. Lee and his 
parents found shelter on their arrival on Kosh- 
konong in December, 1841. 

In my opinion Gunnul Olson Vindeg was 
the first Norwegian to build a house and actu- 
ally locate in what is now the town of Chris- 
tiana, and so far as I have been able to make 
out, he was the first Norwegian to settle in 
Dane county. He came to America in 1839 
from Kolloug in Numedal, where he was born 
August 16, 18Q8. He was to have come with 
Ansten Nattestad in the "Emelia," but he was 
detained by the sickness of his child, and so 
came on later by another route. He found his 
way by the usual immigrant route from New 
York to Chicago, and from there he came on to 
Jefferson Prairie, near Beloit, where the ma- 
jority of the Nattestad company had settled. 
There he spent the first winter, but early in 
the spring of 1840 he built or bought or bor- 
rowed a boat, and in it he and a companion 
by name Gjermund Knudson Sunde, who also 
had come from Numedal in 1839, navigated up 



THE SIXTH SETTLEMENT. 337 

Rock river, and, as the story goes, up Koshko- 
nong lake and Koshkonong creek into the town 
of Christiana, and so found the parcel of laud 
where he located and lived until his death, 
which occurred October 22, 1S4G. Lie was 
killed by an accident. Gjerraund K. Sunde also 
selected forty acres of land, which he after- 
wards sold to Ole Lier. Gjermund Sunde lost 
his reason, and in this condition he disap- 
peared, and doubtless soon perished. 

Gunnul Olson had tw r o sisters and a brother 
who came to America a year or two later. One 
of his sisters, Berit, married a Swede, John G. 
Smith, who pretended to be both minister and 
preacher. His wife soon died, and John G. 
Smith left about 1844. He went first to Chi- 
cago, but soon disappeared from that city, and 
has not since been heard from. The other 
sister, Anna, married Nils Larson Bolstad, as 
stated above. The brother's name was Hel- 
leik, w T ho, in company with Lars Kvendalen 
and a man called Nils Hailing, made counter- 
feit Norwegian paper money in the early 
forties, and w T ent to Norway with it, where they 
were arrested, found guilty and put in prison. 
The township in which Gunnul Vindeg settled 
in 1840 contained at the time less than a dozen 
22 



338 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

settlers, and as several Norwegians soon lo- 
cated there it was called Christiana (should 
have been Christiania), after the capital of Nor- 
way, on the suggestion of Gunnul Olson Yin- 
deg. 

Gunnul Olson Vincleg and Gjermund Sunde 
returned with their boat to Beloit, and soon 
after we find Gunnul moving with his wife in a 
covered wagon from Jefferson Prairie to Kosh- 
konong. He stopped at Milton, Wis., on his 
way for repairs. Ezra Goodrich, of Milton, and 
Jones, of Ft. Atkinson, visited him in his home 
early in the summer of 1840. They were 
caught in a heavy rain storm and drove to 
Gunnul Olson's shanty, w r here they stopped. 
Ezra Goodrich says: "We stayed at Gunnul 
Olson's and got dinner. It was the first Norwe- 
gian dinner we had ever eaten, but we were as 
hungry as a wolf and we don't remember to 
have relished a better meal. They had only 
fried pork, warm biscuits and coffee. The 
coffee was made in a little copper kettle that 
was as round as a ball. The shanty had but 
one small room with a bed in the corner, and 
a ladder up to a little low attic under the roof. 
It had a little stall attached to one end for the 
cow. Mr. Gunnul Olson was subsequently 
killed by a loaded wagon tipping over him." 



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55 




THE SIXTH SETTLEMENT. 339 

My good friend, Ezra Goodrich, of Milton, 
makes a mistake when in an Edgerton paper 
he says he made the above visit to Gunnul Vin- 
deg's in 1839, as it is a well-established fad 
that Gunnul did not leave Norway before the 
summer of 1839. 

Much has been written about Gunnul Vin- 
deg's journey by boat from Beloit to Kosh- 
konong, and many objections have been raised. 
It is argued that he could not take his family, 
household effects and cattle with him in a boat, 
and that the journey on foot would have been 
much easier and would have taken much 1< ss 
time. The answer to the first objection is 
that he naturally left his family and cattle on 
Jefferson Prairie until he had found the land 
he proposed to settle on. He actually did first 
select his future home and then went back with 
the boat and took his family and belongings 
in a wagon by way of Milton. In reply to tin* 
second objection it may be said that he prob- 
ably started from Beloit early in the spring, 
when the low lands would be more or loss 
flooded with water. We must bear in mind 
that he did not know the country into which 
he was to penetrate. He naturally wanted to 
select land near some stream, where ho could 
be sure of getting water, timber and meadow, 



340 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

and by going up a river in a boat he would 
naturally feel more certain of finding what he- 
looked for, and under all circumstances he 
w r ould be more sure not to get lost in an un- 
known wilderness. In the boat he could at 
any time easily find his way back to Beloit, the 
place he started from. The more I think of 
it, the more it seems to me that the most pru- 
dent thing was to go up Eock riVer by boat. 
None of the old settlers on Koshkonong ever 
saw this boat, and this has been used as an 
argument against its existence. It goes al- 
most without saying, that when Gunnul and 
Gjermund had come all the way up to the 
present town of Christiana against the cur- 
rent, it would be mere pastime to go back in 
the same boat, in the first place, because it 
would be down stream, and in the second 
place, because they would not have a moment's 
anxiety about finding the way. 

And now as to actual evidence. There is a 
son of Gunnul Olson Vindeg still living on 
Koshkonong. His name is Ole Gunnulson, and 
he is a man of great intelligence and most ex- 
cellent character. He writes me that Gjer- 
mund Sunde talked with Lars Lier about this 
journey by boat and told him that they had 
tied the boat a little below the Anixstad ford r 



THE SIXTH SETTLEMENT. 341 

where the Pankell bridge was afterwards 
built Lars Lier made this Btatefoent to Ole 
(lunnulsou. Balvor ECravig, an <>M settler, 
Bays that Gunnul Vindeg pointed <mt a place 
a little below where Henrik Lien now lives, as 
the spot where he tied the boat. There is no 
objection to this conflict in the evidence. They 
probably first tied the boat where Gjermund 
says they left it, and then moved it to the other 
place at the mouth of a little brook, which 
led them to the land which Gunnul bought. 
Jens P. Vehus, who was Ole Gunnulson's uncle, 
being a brother of Gunnul Vindeg's wife, and 
a neighbor, reports that Gunnul had told him 
how T many difficulties they had had to contend 
with in rowing up the creek. They had found 
obstacles in the form of windfalls across the 
creek, and they had been obliged to use the 
axe to get these windfalls out of the way. My 
brother Andrew is inclined to doubt this boat 
episode, but he has not had the opportunity of 
examining the evidence, which, to my mind, is 
entirely satisfactory. 

We have now T seen that the Yossings visited 
the northeastern part of Christiana in the fall 
of 1839, and that Nils Siverson Gilderhus, An- 
ders Finno, Nils Larson Bolstad and Magne 
Bottolfson Bystol actually settled there in the 



342 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

spring or summer of 1840. We have also seen 
that Gunnul Olson Vindeg, from Numedal, 
visited the southeastern part of Christiana 
early in the spring of 1840, and settled there as 
soon as he could bring his family from 
Jefferson Prairie, and we are thus prepared to 
show how a third group of Norwegians settled 
in the northeastern part of what is now the 
town of Albion. 

That same spring (1840) Bjorn Anderson 
Kvelve, Amund Anderson Hornefjeld, Thor- 
stein Olson Bjaadland, Lars Dugstad, Lars 
Scheie and Amund Anderson Bossaland,. 
formed a party to go in search of land and 
homesteads, and started from the Fox Biver 
settlement, where they had been living several 
years. They set out on foot, and went by the 
way of Shabano Grove, Bockford, Beloit, 
Janesville, Milton, and crossed Bock river at 
Goodrich's Ferry (now Newville), and con- 
tinued until they reached the northeast corner 
of Albion, which is the township immediately 
south of Christiana. The first four of these im- 
mediately selected land in the town of Albion. 
Amund Bossaland chose a piece of land near 
that selected by Bjorn Anderson and Thorstein 
Olson, but a government surveyor stated that 
it had already been taken, and it was soon 



THE sixth SETTLEMENT. 343 

afterwards occupied by William Fulton. The 
result was thai Ainunii Rossaland and La 
Scheie went to Jefferson Prairie and located 

there. 

My oldest brother Andrew, who was born 
in 1832, writes me that he remembers that our 
father started from the Pox River settlement 

for Wisconsin, in company with the men men- 
tioned above, in the spring of 1840, and he adds 
that our mother m£de a bag f<>r provisions 
which father carried on his back. It was made 
with straps fastened above and below on the 
bag for the arms to pass through, and he also 
remembers that father carried a cane. 

In regard to early immigrants and early days 
on Koshkonong I have the following letter 
from my brother Andrew, written from White 
Willow, Minnesota, February 8, 1895: 
"My Dear Brother Rasmus: 

"Your letters dated the 29th and 31st ultimo 
were duly received. 

"I remember some of the Norwegians that 
came to America while I was a little boy, but 
I am not able to give the year they came. Of 
these immigrants I remember particularly 
Amnnd Anderson Ilornefjeld, Thorstein (dson 
Bjaadland (the slooper), Lars Dngstad, Amnnd 
Anderson Eossaland, his wife, tw T o sons, End re 



344 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

and Elling, and daughter Anna; Lars Scheie 
and wife and two daughters, Gyri and Anna; 
Tonnes Tollefson, who married Miss Anna Kos- 
saland; Lars Kvendalen, Nils Bolstad, Mis 
Gilderhus, Magne Bystolen, Helleik Vindeg, 
Ole and Ansten Nattestad. Amund Rossaland 
and Lars Scheie moved from Jefferson Prairie 
onto land that they bought near Baraboo, Wis. 
Helleik Vindeg, Lars and Nils Hailing made 
counterfeit money and went to Norway. Dur- 
ing the winter of 1841 these three unmarried 
men, all from Numedal, spent their time partly 
on Koshkonong and partly in Whitewater, 
making Norwegian money. The next year 
they went to Norway, where they were con- 
victed and sent to prison. The supposition 
is, that this lot of counterfeit money was made 
by these men during their sojourn on Kosh- 
konong. They wore the money as soles in 
their boots in order to make the bills look old 
and worn. Nils Hailing was considered the 
least guilty of the three, and was accordingly 
sentenced to a shorter term in prison. After 
paying the penalty of his crime, he returned to 
America, and became an industrious farmer, 
in the town of Albion, where he died at an ad- 
vanced age. Helleik Vindeg was a brother 
of Gunnul Vindeg. Gunnul Vindec: had a sis- 



Tin; sixth SETTLEMENT. 

ter who married a Swede, by Dame John Smith, 
a man of doubtful character, who officiated 
both as minister and physici&n. Gnnnnl Vin« 
deg had another sister, Anna, who was i 
ried to Nils Bolstad, and lived near Cambridge, 
in the neighborhood of ftfagne Bystolen, Kol« 

boin Sane and Nils < iilderhus. 

"I visited Aniund Rossaland in 1862. He 
was living on a farm about ten miles from 
Kilbourn City, and about the same distance 
from Baraboo. His son Endre used to stop at 
our house in Albion, when he went on his \i 
to Jefferson Prairie. I think they moved in 
1843 or 1844, and their home was near tin* 
bank of the Wisconsin river. 

"And now a word about Gunnul Vindeg go- 
ing by boat from Beloit up Rock river, and 
Koshkonong creek. I am familiar with the re- 
port, but I have had doubts as to whether the 
feat was actually accomplished. Their was 
certainly no necessity for choosing such a way 
of getting to Koshkonong in 1840. 

"In this connection,- 1 will relate a little 
perience I had, in going by boat down Kosh- 
konong creek from where we lived to the lake. 

"The summer that we built our stone house 
on the prairie, that is in 1851, Halvor Murmes- 
ter made me a boat to use in my hunting ex- 
peditions. In the spring of 1852, I heard of 



346 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

good fishing, down at Johnston's saw-mill 
(now Busseyville). Ole Lien, Sr., and I con- 
cluded to take the boat dow T n the creek, 
chiefly for the novelty of it. We started early 
in the morning, with a view of getting through 
before dark; to our surprise, the sun set before 
we were more than about half way to the mill. 
It was moonlight, and we plied the oars with 
all our might, and got to our destination about 
midnight. The only description I can give of 
the creek, is that it was very crooked. Well, 
we caught no fish, and went home afoot. Hav- 
ing the boat at the mill, Mr. Thure Kumlien 
and I made a hunting expedition with the boat,, 
to Koshkonong lake, and returned the same 
day with the boat to the mill. The boat was 
finally brought home on a wagon. I am in- 
clined to think that this little "Viking" boat,, 
is the only one that ever navigated the waters 
of Koshkonong creek, down to 1852. The first 
Norwegians that came to Koshkonong, were 
Gunnul Vindeg, wife and two sisters, Gjer- 
mund Knudson Sunde, Thorstein Olson, Amund 
Anderson, Lars Dugstad, Bjorn Anderson, wife 
and four children, Nils Bolstad, Nils Gilderhus,, 
Magne Bystolen, Helleik Vindeg, Lars Kven- 
dalen and Nils Hailing. 

"Affectionately, your brother, 

'Arnold Andrew Anderson." 



THE sixth SETTLEMENT, 347 

Of Thorstein Olson Bjaadland, Bjftrn Amh-r- 
son Kvelve, Amnnd Anderson Bornefjeld and 
Lars Dugstad, I have already given biograph- 
ical notices, just as Ghranul Vindeg 9 ! lister, 

Mrs. Anna Bolstad, was the first white woman 

in the town of Deerfield, so my mother and m\ 
two sisters were the first white women in tin- 
town of Albion. 

While the Yossings, Odd J. Bimle, Nils Lar- 
son Bolstad, and Nils Biverson Qilderhus, vis- 
ited, and we may say discovered, Koshkonorig, 
in the autumn of 1839, I believe (iunnul Olson 
Vindeg was the first Norwegian to locate in 
Dane county. I take this to be the fa« t, 
largely for the reason that he had so short a 
distance to go to get there, lie had come from 
Norway to Jefferson Prairie, in the fall of 1839, 
and as soon as the weather permitted, the next 
spring he and Gjermund Bunde went in a boat 
up to the township of Christiana, and if In- 
started as early as I think he did, there was 
nothing to hinder his getting located on his 
homestead with his family, in the month of 
April. 

The other Norwegians who came to Kosh- 
konong in 1840, made their departure from the 
Fox River settlement. They had much fur- 
ther to go, and presumably did not start until 



348 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

the weather was settled and the ground dry 
for walking. Of those who started from Fox 
river, there were again two parties; one a 
party of Vossings, and the other party made 
up chiefly of Stavangerings. I have not 
been able to make out w T hich of these two par- 
ties first left the Fox Eiver settlement, or 
which arrived first at their destination. The 
Vossings were bound for the northeast part 
of Christiana, where they had selected land 
the preceding autumn, while the Stavanger- 
ings went in search of land, which they found 
in the northeast part of Albion. I have taken 
pains to examine the records, but all I can 
find is that all the parties mentioned, entered 
their land at the government land office 
in the year 1840. The Vossings re- 
mained on their land in 1840, while all 
the Stavangerings w T ho located in Albion, 
went back to the Fox River settlement, 
spent the winter there and did not 
actually settle in Albion before the spring of 
1841. Thorstein Olson . Bjaadland built a 
shanty on his land in 1840, before returning to 
Illinois, and in the spring of 1841, he and my 
father with his family moved into this, and 
my father had shelter there, while he built his 
own little log house "down by the spring." 



THE SIXTH SETTLEMENT. 349 

Before leaving the discussion of this sub 
I want to quote whal Prof. Syein NUssod pub- 
lished in I>i!h<l-M<i(/(i:iit in 1969, page 387, in 
connection with his sketch of John Haldorson 
Bjorge. He says: "John Bjorgo worked a 
week in Rochester, N. V., and in this way he 
earned money to get to Chicago. Here he 
again worke'd to earn some more money, and 
then he continued his journey westward to 
La Salle county, Illinois, where a part of the 
sloop people had founded a Norwegian colony. 
'Here, I at once got work,' says Bjorgo. 'For 
my money I bought a scythe and whet-stone, 
and during the harvest, I earned a dollar a 
day by mowing, and from that time, I contin- 
ually made progress, so that after living in this 
settlement for five years, I had saved enough 
to be able to establish my own home.' In 
April, 1840, some of the people living in La 
Salle county, went north to look for homes in 
Wisconsin. Among those who set out for 
this purpose, I may mention Nils Bolstad (now 
deceased), Nils Gilderhus (now living in Min- 
nesota), and Magne Bystolen (died in Minne- 
sota). On their journey they came to the re- 
gion now called Christiana. They liked the 
locality, and went at once to Milwaukee, where 
they selected land at the land office. On their 



350 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

return to La Salle county, they told about their 
discoveries, and as there was fertile land to be 
had in abundance, many of their countrymen 
decided to move from Illinois and settle in Wis- 
consin. John Bjorgo came in the spring of 
1841, and a little later, Ole Siverson Gilderhus 
also settled a little further north, in the town 
of Deerfield. He is a brother of the above 
mentioned Nils Gilderhus, who, the preceding 
year, had been here on a journey, of discovery. 
<Xow we wrote,' says John Bjorgo, 'to our 
friends and informed them about the land 
here.' " 

I give this quotation for what it may be 
worth, with the remark that it was written 
in 1868, that is, twenty-seven years ago, as 
taken down from the lips of John Halderson 
Bjorgo, who was an intelligent and honest 
man, who was in a position to know what he 
was talking about. 

The other version, making those Norwegians 
visit Koshkonong in the fall of 1839, is pub- 
lished by Nels A. Lee, a very intelligent, hon- 
est and painstaking investigator, and he has 
his facts from the lips of no less authority than 
Odd J. Himle, himself. Odd J. Himle lived 
until May, 1893, and he was a man of intelli- 
gence and undoubted veracity. It would seem 



THE sixth SETTLEMENT. 

that Odd J. Eimle ought to know what be 
had himself done. 

After the above was written and printed I 
finally received on May 22, L895, the following 

letter from the United States land commis- 

sioner at Washington, D. C. As every reader 
will see it throws valuable light <»n the question 
as to who were the first Norwegians to enter 
land in Dane county. 

The official records thus show that Nils Lar- 
son Bolstad, Magne Bottolfson Bystflen and 
Nils Siverson Gilderhus were the first, and that 
their lands were entered by them on May 6, 1840. 

They were followed by Gunnul Olson Vindeg, 
who entered his land sixteen days later, on May 
22, 1840. 

Bjorn Anderson Kvelve, Amund Anderson 
Hornefjeld, and Thorstein Olson Bjaadland did 
not enter their land until June 22, 1840, that is, 
just one month later than the Vossings. This 
definitely settles the question as to who were 
the first Norwegians to locate in the Koshko- 
nong settlement. 

The letter from the land commissioner at 
Washington does not, of course, answer the 
question as to whether the Vossings, as claimed 
by Mr. Nels A. Lee, had visited Koshkonong in 
the autumn of 1839. They certainly did not 



352 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

enter any land that year; but from the fact that 
they were able to enter their lands as early 
as May 6, 1840, it seems more than probable 
that they had actually visited and selected their 
homesteads the autumn before (1839). I am 
personally fully persuaded that the Vossings,. 
Odd J. Himle, Nils Larson Bolstad and Nils 
Siverson Gilderhus must have visited the town 
of Christiana in the fall of 1839. The follow- 
ing letter speaks for itself and is entirely au- 
thentic: 

Department op the Interior, 

General Land Office, 
Washington, D. C, May 18, 1895. 
Hon. Easmus B. Anderson, 

Madison, Wisconsin. 
Sir: 

I am in receipt of your letter of May 3, 1895^ 
stating that you wish to ascertain who are the 
first Norwegians who actually entered or pur- 
chased ]and in Dane county, Wisconsin; that 
the first settlers located there in 1840; that you 
w T ish to investigate only concerning the towns 
of Albion (town 5 north, range 12 east), Chris- 
tiana (town 6 north, range 12 east), and Deer- 
field (town 7 north, range 12 east); that the per- 
sons in question are: 



Tin: sixth settlement. 353 

Gunnul Olson (Vindeg) in Christiana, 
Nils Siverson in Christiana. 

MagneBottolfson in Christiana. 

Bjorn Anderson in Albion. 

Amund Anderson in Albion. 

Thorstein Olson in Albion. 

Nils Larson (Bolstad) in Deerfield; that you 
have examined the records in the Dane County 
Court House, but they give you no clue; that 
what you desire to know in connection with a 
book you are publishing, in what year, what 
month and what day the above persons entered 
or bought their land; that there is a claim that 
some of them entered their land as early as 
1839, that your impression is that they all en- 
tered their land in 1840. 

In reply you are advised that, as shown by 
the records of this office, no en try men, ap- 
parently Norwegian, entered or purchased land 
in the townships named prior to 1840, and that 
the names of those who entered during that 
year are not exactly the same as those men- 
tioned by you, but appear as follows: 

Omen Anderson made C. E. No. 7330, June 
22, 1840, for the east half of the southeast quar- 
ter of section 1, town 5 north, range 12 east. 

Birn Anderson made C. E. No. 7332, June 22, 
23 



354 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

1840, for west half of southeast quarter of sec- 
tion 1, town 5 north, range 12 east. 

Lars Olson made C. E. 7333, June 22, 1840, for 
the east half of the southwest quarter of sec- 
tion 1, town 5 north, range 12 east. 

Foster Olsen made C. E. No. 7334, June 22, 
1840, for the west half of the northeast quarter 
of section 2, town 5 north, range 12 east. 

Nils Larson made C. E. No. 7035, May 6, 1840, 
for the northeast quarter of the northwest quar- 
ter of section 2, town 6 north, range 12 east. 

Magany Buttelson made C. E. No. 7033, May 
6, 1840, for northwest quarter of northwest quar- 
ter of section 2, town G north, range 12 east. 

Gunul Oleson Wiudeg made C. E. No. 7129, 
May 22, 1840, for the northeast quarter of the 
northwest quarter of section 35, town 6 north, 
range 12 east. 

Lars Davidson made C. E. No. 7944, December 
8, 1840, for the south half of the southwest quar- 
ter of section 28, town 7 north, range 12 east. 

Nils Seaverson made C. E. No. 7034, May 6, 
1840, for south half of the southwest quarter 
of section 35, town 7 north, range 12 east. 
Very respectfully, 

S. W. Lamoreux, 

Commissioner. 



1XTH SETTLEMENT. 

Jens PedersoD Vehua, who died in the an- 
luinii of 1894, came from Nore, in Numedal, in 
L842, Ee was a brother of Gtannnl Vindeg'a 
wife, and in the same ship with him came Hal- 
vor Funkelien from Kongsberg and Thore 
Nore, from NumedaL They all settled on Koah- 
konong, and Halvor Funkelien had a lawsuit 
with Rev. J. W. G Dietrichaon, of which Rev. 
Dietrickscn gives a long account in his volume 
about his first visit to America. 

One of the old settlers on Koshkonong in the 
southeast part of Christiana was Lars Jo- 
hanneson Holo, who emigrated from Kiir 
aker, in Norway, in 1839. He was an intimate 
friend of Johan Nordboe, who emigrated from 
Ringebo in Gudbransdsdalen in 1832. Johan 
Nordboe wrote letters from America to Lara 
Holo, and this induced him to emigrate in com- 
pany with a glass-blower by name Lauman, 
from Faaberg. This Lauman afterwards died 
in the Sugar Creek settlement, near Keokuk, 
Iowa. They went by way of Havre to New 
York, and first located in Rochester, New York. 
Lars Holo remained in Rochester about two 
years. He and his three grown up sons get- 
ting employment on the canal there. In 1841, 
he went to Muskego, and in 1848 he finally lo- 
cated on Koshkonong. He and his wife died 



356 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

there, both very old. Many of his sons are 
living, and one of them, Martin L. Holo, now 
owns the farm bought in Albion by Bjorn An- 
derson Kvelve. 

Seven years later (1846), Lars J. Holo's 
brother, Anders Johanneson Toininerstigen, 
emigrated from Vardal in Norway, and settled 
near his brother on Koshkonong. Anders and 
his wife prospered and died at an advanced 
age. Their youngest son, Peter, now owns the 
old homestead, and is one of the most success- 
ful and intelligent farmers in the town of 
Christiana. 



XXII. 

Miscellaneous Matters. 

In the year 1840, Gudmund Haugaas and 
Johan Nordboe, and possibly Engebret Larson 
Narvig, were the only Norwegians who had 
practiced the art of medicine in America. 
Neither had studied medicine in any medical 
college. So far as I have been able to learn, 
the first regular graduate of the medical de- 
partment of the university of Norway who 
came to America, to practice medicine, was a 



MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS. 857 

man, by name Brandt, from Drammen. lie 

first practiced a while in Chicago, then in the 

Norwegian settlements in Illinois, then bought 
a farm in Iowa, and finally settled as a regular 
practitioner in Indiana. I do not know what 
year he came to America, or what finally be- 
came of him. 

Brandt was followed by Theodore Schj&tte 
and Gerhard C. Paoli. Both came to Kosh- 
konong. Dr. Schotte returned to Norway and 
became a government physician in Finmarken, 
and Dr. Paoli is still practicing in Chicago. 
Dr. Madsen was a medical student from Nor- 
way. He settled in Cambridge, Wisconsin, 
and died there. Dr. J. C. Dundas came to 
America about the year 1850, and settled in 
Cambridge, where he died about a dozen years 
ago. After him came Dr. E. Hanson, who lived 
near Utica, on Koshkonong, but eventually 
returned to Norway, where he died. The num- 
ber of Norwegian physicians now living in 
America is very large, both of those who have 
graduated in Norway, and of those who have 
studied in this country. 

Ole Kynning's book produced a large em- 
igration from Norway in 1839, particularly 
from Numedal and adjoining districts, where 
his statements were corroborated by the pres- 



358 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

ence of Ansten Nattestad. But the report of 
Ole Eynning's untimely death at Beaver Creek, 
partly caused by his unhealthy work on the 
canal between Chicago and the Illinois river, 
while it did not absolutely stop emigration, 
made people hesitate and wait until they could 
get reliable reports from friends and relatives 
in America. The revival came in 1843, when 
two ships sailed from Bergen, in one of which 
we find Kleng Peerson, and in the other Knud 
Langland. That same year an emigrant vessel 
sailed from Drobak, in the eastern part of Nor- 
^ay. This ship from Drobak was commanded 
by Capt. Gasman, and among the emigrants 
were found Hans Gasman and his family. 
Hans Gasman came from near Skien, that is, 
Thelemarken. He had been a member of the 
Norwegian Storthing, and was a man of char- 
acter and considerable prominence. He and 
many of his company went to Pine Lake, in 
Wisconsin, where a young Swedish settlement 
had been founded by a Swedish minister named 
G. Unonius in 1841. The fact that Hans Gas- 
man located there brought a large number of 
Norwegian immigrants to this settlement. 
These people chose Mr. Unonius- as their pas- 
tor, and he was ordained by an Episcopalian 
bishop. In 1843, the people in this settle- 



MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS. 

ment had resolved t<> build a church on the 
west side of Pine Lake. 

About 2,000 Norwegians emigrated In 1843, 
mainly from Thelemarken and Voss, and a ma- 
jority of them came to Wisconsin. The emi- 
gration wonld scarcely have been Less In L844, 
but for the fact that many were waiting to 
letters and reports from their friends concern- 
ing affairs in America, and about the condition 
of Norwegian settlements. Much of this in- 
formation was supplied by Johan Beinert lei- 
erson's book in regard to his visit to America 
in 1843. He had traveled extensively both 
north and south, and had made a more thor- 
ough investigation than had ever been made 
before, by any Norwegian. His book "Veivi- 
seren" (The Pathfinder) was published in Nor- 
way in 1844. The "Pathfinder" w T as a volume 
of 166 pages, and gave a far more elaborate 
account of conditions and opportunities In 
America than Rynning's little pamphlet of 
only 39 pages, though the two books covered 
pretty much the same ground and agreed in 
view£ and conclusions. 



360 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 



XXIII. 
Capt. Hans Friis. 

Among the many gallant tars who assisted 
in piloting thousands of our Norwegian em- 
igrants to their new fatherland, I must not 
neglect to mention Capt. Hans Friis. He was 
a sailor in "Enigheden," the ship that left 
Egersund in 1837, and he made no less 
than nine trips with emigrants from Nor- 
way between the years 1837 and 1847. In 
1847, he concluded he would emigrate himself, 
and from that time until his death, he re- 
mained a United States citizen. He began his 
life in America, as a sailor on our great lakes. 
Then he tried to get into the United States 
navy, but failed. Finally he enlisted in the 
United States army; was wounded, discharged, 
had a pension, and spent his old days on his 
farm in Muskego, where he died in 1886. 

Hans Friis was born near Farsund, in Nor- 
way, December 14, 1809. In his younger days 
he received some instruction in reading, writ- 
ing and arithmetic. Later he studied naviga- 




Capt. Hans Friis. 



CAPT. HANS FRIIS. 361 

tion, and when about 25 years old, he passed 
an examination as navigator. 

His career as a sailor began when he was 
about 16 years old by going as cook in a sum 11 
vessel on the coast of Norway. Be Boon 
shipped on board a larger vessel, and sailed to 
various European ports. He advanced until 
he became ship carpenter, and finally, second 
mate. During these years he visited most of 
the ports of Europe, and acquired some knowl- 
edge of English and German. In the spring 
of 1837, he hired as a common sailor in a ship 
in Egersund, bound for America with emi- 
grants, and that summer made his first visit 
to New York. In 1839, we find him a sailor 
in Captain Ankerson's ship "Einelie," going 
with emigrants from Drammen. He sailed sev- 
eral years, with Captain Ankerson, the last 
years as second mate. After some years, Cap- 
tain Ankerson quit sailing, and Friis hired in 
another ship from Drammen. As far as I can 
find out, the name of this ship was "Tricolo," 
and it was commanded by Captain Overveien 
of Farsund. Friis was first mate. The "Tricolo" 
was also engaged in carrying emigrants to 
New York. In the spring of 1846, Friis be- 
came captain of "Tricolo," and that summer 
made a trip to New York with emigrants. 



3G2 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

After his return to Norway, in the fall, "Tri- 
colo" was sold and a young man, a relative of 
the new owner, became captain, and Friis be- 
came first mate. In the spring of 1847, the 
ship sailed from Drammen, with a party of em- 
igrants, destined for America, and the young 
captain, naving but little experience as a 
sailor, the ship had a long and troublesome 
voyage to New York. Friis decided to leave 
the ship in New York, but the captain would 
not pay him his wages, and so Friis went to 
the Swedish-Norwegian consul, and telling him 
how matters stood, he got his pay. 

Friis was in New York nine times with emi- 
grants; the first time in 1837, and the last in 
1817, and in this time he three times accom- 
panied the immigrants as far as Milwaukee,, 
the ship in the meantime, taking its cargo for 
some European port. During the winters in 
Norway, Friis traveled extensively in the 
eastern part of Norway as emigrant agent, and 
thus he became acquainted with many of the 
pioneers in the Norwegian settlements in 
America. 

In 1847, he settled in America, and for sev- 
eral years, he sailed on the great lakes, first 
before the mast, but later as captain of the 
ship "North Cape." 



CAPT. HANS FRIIS. 363 

July i, L852, tie wai married In Milwaukee 

to Miss Bertha Andrea Abrahamsoii, and lived 
there until L854, when lie and his wit*.- moved 
to Muskego, where some time before he had 
bought a farm in the town <>t' Norway. 
being used to agriculture, h<* continued sail- 
ing while his wife managed the farm. 

In 18G3, he desired to enlist in the United 
States navy, and was sent to Philadelphia, but 
as there was no place for him, he enlisted in 
company A, 61st regiment Pennsylvania vol- 
unteers. He was wounded in the battle of 
Petersburg, a bullet passing through the upper 
part of his right shoulder, and was discharged 
June 8, 1SG5. 

After his return from the war, he lived on 
bis farm, where he died, August 14, 18S6. His 
wife and five children, three boys and two 
girls, survive him, all in comfortable circum- 
stances. His nephew, Jer. F. Fries, a banker 
in Toronto, South Dakota, is a most intelligent 
man, and I am indebted to him for many val- 
uable facts contained in this volume, lie is 
a most excellent correspondent. 

The following is a copy of the discharge of 
Mr. Hans Friis from the army: 

"Hans Friis, a privtae of Capt. D. M. Look- 
hart's Company "A," 61st Regiment of Penn- 



364 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

sylvania Volunteers, enrolled September 1, 
1863, to serve three years, was discharged from 
service the 8th day of June, 1865, at Harewood 
General Hospital by reason of disability. 

"Surgeon. 
"Said Hans Friis, born in Norway, is 53 
years old, 5 ft. 8 in. high, fair complexion, gray 
eyes, and dark hair and beard." 



XXIV. 

Retrospect. 

As we now look back and examine the 
ground we have gone over in the present vol- 
ume, we find that in the year 1840, there were 
six Norwegian settlements in America that 
were destined to continue to receive accretions 
from the old county, and become more or less 
prominent in the annals of Norwegians in this 
country. These six settlements were: 

1. The Kendall settlement founded by 
Kleng Peerson and the sloopers on the shores 
of Lake Ontario, in Orleans county, New York, 
in the autumn of 1825. This settlement still 
exists, though it has not grown much in the 
past fifty years. Land was too dear in Orleans 



RETROSPECT. 865 

county for Norwegian Immigrants. No Norwe- 
gian schools or churches were ever built In I 
Kendall settlement. The Norwegians there 
are pretty thoroughly Americanized, and they 
have but little correspondence or intercom 
with their countrymen, in other parts of Amer- 
ica. The Norwegian language, is, how. 
still spoken there by a few of the inhabitants. 

2. The Fox River settlement, in La Salle 
count} T , Illinois, discovered by Klenu Peerson 
in 1833, and founded by him and others from 
the Kendall settlement in 1S3L It receh 
large accretions in 1835, and particularly in 
1836, 1837 and 1838, and it became the nu- 
cleus of a number of settlements in the adjoin- 
ing counties Lee, Kendall and others. 

3. Chicago, Illinois. Here the first Norwe- 
gians settled in 1S36. Here Hal stein Torrison 
from Fjelberg, in Norway, was the first to set- 
tle, October 1G, 1S36. There are now more 
Norwegians in Chicago than any where else 
in America. 

4. Jefferson Prairie in Rock county, Wiscon- 
sin, and in Boone county, Illinois, also includ- 
ing Rock Prairie, west of the Rock river in 
Rock county, Wisconsin, and Rock Run, in 
Illinois, in 1838. Ole Knudson Nattestad was 
the founder of the Jefferson Prairie settlement 



366 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

in 1838. Gullik O. Gravdahl became the first 
settler on Rock Prairie in 1839, and Kleinet 
Stabek in Rock Run in 1839. 

5. Muskego, in Waukesha and Racine 
counties, Wisconsin. The settlement in Wau- 
kesha county was founded by the Luraas party, 
from Tin, Thelemarken, in 1839, and the set- 
tlement in Norway, Racine county, was started 
in 1840 by Soren Bache and Johannes Johan- 
nesen, from Drammen. These were soon fol- 
lowed by Even Heg, and others. In Muskego, 
was published, in 1847, Nordlyset, the first Nor- 
wegian newspaper in America. 

G. Koshkonong, in the southeastern part of 
Dane county, Wisconsin,. The first Norwegian 
settlers there were Gunnul Olson Yindeg, 
Bjorn Anderson Kvelve, Thorstein Olson Bjaad- 
land, Amund Anderson Hornefjeld, Lars Olson 
Dugstad, Nils Larson Bolstad, Nils Siverson 
Gilderhus, Magne Bottolfson Bystol and An- 
ders Finno. This settlement grew rapidly, and 
soon spread throughout Dane county. It is 
still the largest and most prosperous commun- 
ity of Norwegian farmers in America. 

But in reviewing our work, we find that a 
number of Norwegians had settled outside of 
these six settlements in 1840, some with, and 
others without, the purpose of foundiDg Norwe- 



RETROSPECT. 

gian settlements, it we go back to the y 
L840, we will find Norwegians domiciled In New 
York city, (Lars Tallakson) in Rochester, N. 

(Lars Larson and others) in Detroit, Mi»h., (N. 
P. Langeland with his family) in Philadelpl 
Pa., and also in Now Orleans. I hare not 
been able to trace any of the Norw< liv- 

ing in Philadelphia of Now Orleans, but in Ids 

book on America, Ole Bynning states that 
there were Norwegians residing in those ci 
in 1S37. 

In the foregoing pages we have taken oote 
of Norwegian settlers living alone or in bodies 
in the following places before the end of the 
year IS40: 

1. In Lenanwee county, near Adrian, Mich- 
igan, where Ingebt'et Larson settled in 18! 
and afterwards was joined by a few oth( 

2. At Niagara Falls, where Ole Olson Iletle- 
tvedt worked in a paper mill in the early thir- 
ties. 

3. Thorstein Olson Bjaadland left the Ken- 
dall settlement early, and wandered into Mich- 
igan and other states, before he got to the 1 
Iiiver settlement in 1834. 

4. In Shelby county, Mo., where Kleng Peer- 
son and about a dozen Stavangerings from the 
Fox Eiver settlement, located in the spring of 
1837. 



368 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

5. In White county, Indiana. In his book,, 
page 12, Ole Rynning says that about seventy 
miles south of Lake Michigan, in White county, 
Indiana, on the Tippecanoe river, there lived 
in 1837 two Norwegians from Drammen, who 
together owned 1,100 acres of land, and that 
there was still good land to be had near them. 
I 'have not been able to identify these two Nor- 
wegians from Drammen. I have made many 
attempts to find out who they were, but all 
my efforts thus far have been fruitless. 

0. In Beaver Creek, Iroquois county, Illinois, 
in 1837. Here Ole Rynning w r rote his book, 
and here he died and was buried near Mons 
Adland's farm. The last one to abandon this 
unfortunate settlement was Mons Adland, in 
1840. Among those who settled there Rev. 
O. J. Hatlestad mentions one Knud Tysland r 
who has escaped my notice. The Beaver Creek 
settlement was near the state line of Indiana 
and extended partly into that state, so that 
some people are in the habit of speaking of 
the Beaver Creek settlement as iu Indiana. 

7. In Clark county, Missouri, where Lars Tal- 
lakson settled in 1838, and spent three years, 
moving to Lee county, Iowa, in 1841. 

8. In Noble county, Indiana, where Ole 
Aasland, from Fledsberg, bought GOO acres of 



TKOSPECT. BOO 

land, and located with a colony of twenty of 
bis countrymen in 1S38. Ole Aasland soon 

abandoned the colony, and remoyed to B 

dall, X. Y., where he died in lsi;i. 

9. In Dallas county, Texas, where Julian 
Xurdboe located in 1838 with the avowed pur- 
pose of getting as far away from his country- 
men as possible. He left a. married daughter in 
the Fox River settlement, and upon her death 
Ole Canuteson took her children to their grand- 
father in Dallas county. 

10. In Sugar Creek in Lee county, Iowa, about 
seven miles from Keokuk. This settlement 
was founded by Kleng Feerson, Hans Barlien, 
Andrew Simonson, the three brothers, Peter, 
William and Hans Tesnian, and by a number 
of people from Xserstrand, in Btavanger Amt, 
Norway. It will be noticed that this settlr- 
ment was located near the prosperous Mormon 
city of Xauvoo in Illinois, and the Norwegians 
in the Sugar Creek colony were mostly Mor- 
mons. Johan Reinert Reierson mentions this 
settlement, and says that both Hans Barlien 
and one of the Tesmans had emigrated from 
Xorway on account of litigation in which they 
were involved. He puts its population in 1843 
as thirty to forty families and says they were 
Mormons. 

24 



370 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

XXV. 
TEXAS 



Johan Reinert Reierson. 

In 1840 there was, so far as I have been able 
to learn, only one Norwegian family residing 
in Texas. Johan Nordboe and his wife and 
children had settled in Dallas county on a large 
tract of land in 1838. He founded no settle- 
ment. 

Although this volume was to end with the 
year 1840, I cannot resist the temptation of 
giving a brief sketch of when and how the first 
couple of settlements were formed in that far- 
off state. The honor of founding the first Nor- 
wegian settlement there belongs to Johan Rein- 
ert Reierson. 

Johan Reinert Reierson was born April 17, 
1810, in Vestre Moland, Norway, where his 
father, Ole Reierson, was a deacon. The father 
afterwards moved to Holt. Ole Reierson 
had seven sons and two daughters, Johan Rein- 




». 




£< 




m 




flu fl^F ^ ^flflfeHl 




^■T Mfc^Wf^Pr 





JOHAN REINERT REIER80N. 






JOHAN REIN£RT REIERSON, 71 

ert being the eldest. The boy, being tal- 
ented, was to have an education, but the 
means of the deacon were limited, and Reinerl 
had to earn money as a private teacher in 
Tvedestrand. On account of some youthful 
indiscretions, he was obliged to leave the uni- 
versity at Christiania, and went to Copen- 
hagen, where he supported himself for several 
years by translating German and French 
books, in conjunction with C. F. Gyntelberg. 
In Copenhagen he married his wife, Henrietta 
Walter, and had with her six sons and two 
daughters. The wife died when her last son 
was born in Prairieville, Texas, in the begin- 
ning of 1851. From Copenhagen, Reierson 
went to Hamburg, and after a short stay there, 
he came back to Norway, where in Christian- 
sand, he began the publication of Christian- 
sandsposten, through which he worked for 
education, freedom of conscience, religious tol- 
erance and the development of public senti- 
ment. He did all he could to promote liberty 
and independence, and he worked with all his 
might against the evil of intemperance, and 
for this reason, some gave him the nickname, 
"the apostle of temperance." He succeeded in 
organizing the first temperance society in 
Christiansand, and he gradually stalled other 



372 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

similar societies in the neighboring districts. 
lie often criticised the office-holding class r 
and was always ready to take the part of 
the poor against the abuse of those in 
power. The fact that his paper contained 
information about America, and encouraged 
people to emigrate, gave offense to many 
people, for in that time emigration was 
looked upon as a crime close akin to treason. 
Among Eeierson's most bitter enemies, was 
Adolph Stabell, the editor of Morgcnbhidet, in 
Christiania, the leading paper in Norway; but 
Mrs. Elise Wserenskjold testifies that she has 
heard Stabell say that Eeierson was the most 
competent editor in Norway. One of Keier- 
son's friends, Christian Grogaard, a son of the 
Eidsvoldsman, Rev. Hans Jacob Grogaard, pro- 
posed when it was known that Eeierson had 
decided to emigrate, that he should be induced,, 
first to make a journey alone, and find out 
what localities in America were best suited for 
Norwegian emigrants. For this purpose, Gro- 
gaard, Mr. Wserenskjold, and others, agreed ta 
furnish him the sum of $300. Eeierson ac- 
cepted this offer, although the amount was not 
sufficient to pay his expenses. In the summer 
of 1S43, he left Norway by way of Havre, in 
Prance, for New Orleans, whence he proceeded 
to Illinois and Wisconsin. After visiting the 



JOHAN REINERT REIERSON. 373 

Norwegian settlements, he wrote a book, the 
;ruthfulness of which was attested by Hans 
Gasman and Rev. Unonius and many others, 
and sent it to Norway. On this journey, we 
find him writing a long letter to Hans Gasman 
in Pine Lake, December 16, 1843. Later on, he 
went to Texas, which was at that time an in- 
dependent republic. In a letter written by 
Reierson, and dated Cincinnati, March 19, 
1844, it appears that from Natchitoches, in 
Louisiana, he had gone by stage to San Augus- 
tine, in Texas, and thence to Austin, the capital. 
Congress was in session there at the time, and 
Reierson was presented to the governor, Sam 
Houston, who took a deep interest in getting 
Norwegian emigrants to choose Texas for 
their new home. After a sojourn of six days 
in Austin, he traveled through the towns of 
Bastrop and Reutersville, to the town of Wash- 
ington, on the Brazos river, and then proceeded 
to Houston and Galveston, where he arrived 
March 7, whence he took a steamer to Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, where he wrote the letter above 
referred to. After his return to Norway, he 
published his famous book, the Pathfinder 
(Veiviseren), of which one copy was given to 
each one of those who had contributed to the 
fund of |300. Before departing from Norway, 



374 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

be began in company with bis brother Chris- 
tian, to publish Norway and America, of which 
three volumes appeared. In April, 1845, 
Reierson went with a ship from Lillesand, in 
company with C. Grogaard and S. Nielson, to 
Havre, where they met Reierson's father, his 
oldest sister Gina, and his brother Gerhard, who 
had arrived by a vessel from Arendal. From 
Havre they sailed in two different American 
ships to New Orleans. In New Orleans the 
father, Ole Reierson, bought a land certificate 
on 1,446 acres of land in Texas, and from the 
Texan consul, in New Orleans, they received a 
letter of recommendation to Dr. Starn in Na- 
cogdoches, the oldest town in Texas. From 
New Orleans, they went by steamer to Nat- 
chitoches, whence John Reinert Reierson, his 
father and sister, Gina, proceeded to Nacogdo- 
ches; but G. Reierson, Grogaard, and Nielson 
continued their journey to Shreveport, and 
thence to Marshall. They arrived in Nacog- 
doches, the fourth of July, and as there was a 
celebration in honor of the day, they were in- 
vited, and received much attention. In Nacog- 
doches, Reierson found a German merchant, by 
name Hoya, and a Slesvigian, by name G. Bon- 
dis, also a merchant, and these were very kind 
to him as well as to the Norwegians, who came 



JOHAN REINERT REIERSON. 



375 



in later years. Hoy a went with Eeierson to Dr. 
Starn, who in turn went with him to the land- 
office, to look up the certificate which his father 
had bought, and offered to find a surveyor on 
whom he could depend. 

In the autumn they went out to look for 
land, and they located where we now have the 
settlement called Brownsboro, and this was the 
beginning of the first Norwegian settlement in 
Texas. They gave it the name of Normandy, 
but this was afterwards changed for some rea- 
son or other, to Brownsboro. 

After helping his father to buy the neces- 
sary cattle, and getting an American to build 
a log house for his family, Eeierson went to 
New Orleans to meet his wife and children, 
his mother and his sister Gina, who had come 
by another ship from Christiansand to Havre, 
and thence on to New Orleans. Of this journey, 
Oscar Eeierson, who is a son of J. E. Eeierson, 
and now cashier of a bank in Key West, Flor- 
ida, writes: 

"My mother with myself, John, Carl, Chris- 
tian and infant daughter Henriette, took sail- 
ing vessel from Christiansand late in the sum- 
mer of 1845, proceeding to Havre de Grace, 
France, with grandmother and Gina. At 
Havre we remained ten days, and then 



376 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

boarded the sailing vessel "Magnolia," with a 
number of other Norwegian families bound 
for New Orleans, Louisiana. On the voyage, 
little Henriette died, and was consigned to the 
waves. 

"We took lodging in New Orleans, remaining 
there several months. The Grogaards, too, 
were there. After a time, uncle Larson came 
there from Shreveport, and later, father. We 
proceeded to Shreveport, up Red river on a 
very small steamboat. Water was very low 
and no passage over the falls at Alexandria. 
A week was spent before they succeeded in 
winding our little boat over the falls by haw- 
sers fastened to trees up the river bank, and the 
capstan worked on the boat. Slowly we went 
up the river. Seven miles above Natchitoches, 
a little after dark, the boat ran on a snag. 
We all got in a canebrake. The boat was lost ; 
w T et provisions were fished out of the boat's 
cargo, diving for which to attach a rope or hook 
to barrel or bales, father was nearly drowned, 
being hauled up unconscious after having 
gone down successfully several times. No 
chance to get away, until rain atom? should 
swell the river, so that boats vaiM asreud. 
This lasted two weeks, during which, mudilv 
river water was our only drink, and we were 



JOHAN REINERT REIERSON. 



377 



exposed to rains, etc. All our movable effects 
except some light boxes or trunks, were lost in 
the wreck. At Shreveport, our means being 
slender, we lived in a cabin, we boys all down 
with diarrhoea, and I with measles in addition. 
For weeks I was not able to turn in bed. A 
Dr. Black was in attendance. I was delirious 
much of the time. One evening, Dr. Black, 
with other physicians examined me with father 
and mother at the bedside. They decided 
that I could not live through the night, that I 
was already dying, my extremities growing 
cold. This was in the winter of 184G. Now it 
is 1S94, and I am not dead yet, and I have had 
but little faith in the medical art since that 
time. The doctors left. Father heated bricks 
and rocks which were rolled in carpets and 
blankets. These were piled up around me, and 
in this way my life was doubtless saved. I 
remember this as distinctly as if it had oc- 
eurred but yesterday. Later we moved, for a 
time, to a better house on the Bayou above the 
town, where boarders were taken. Here Carl 
died. It was spring (1846), when Carl and I 
a few days before his death, were out picking 
flowers, and my wrist was dislocated by a rail 
falling on it. Some time after that we were 
hauled in a wagon with our little plunder into 



378 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Texas, some three miles from what became 
later the town of Mount Enterprise, in Kush 
county. Charles Vincent had a little country 
store, and we lived in a Gin House. Father 
had met Vincent in Shreveport and had been 
helped by him. We children w T ere fearfully 
w r eak, but we recuperated at the Gin House, 
where we got an abundance of buttermilk. 
We were there for some time before we were 
hauled up to father's house in the Brownsboro 
settlement in 1846. Grandmother and Gina, 
with Lasson, left us when we got to Shreve- 
port." 

I reproduce the above letter, partly because 
it bears directly on the life of Johan E. Eeier- 
son, and partly because it shows us vividly, 
w T hat troubles and difficulties our early Norwe- 
gian immigrants had to contend with. Beier- 
son's experiences are a fair sample. 

A few Norwegians and a Danish family were 
added to the Brownsboro settlement about 
Christmas, 1846, and settled near the Eeier- 
sons; but the next year, 1847, they all became 
sick and some of them died. 

About New Year's, 1848, Reierson, with his 
family, moved to Four Mile Prairie, and there 
he founded the little town of Prairieville. 
After the death of his first wife, he married 




Mrs. Elise W^renskjold. 



ELISE WAERENSKJOLD. 



379 



the widow of his brother Christian. Her 
maiden name was Ouline Jacobine Orbek, and 
she was a daughter of a merchant in Lillesand, 
in Norway. By his second wife he had no chil- 
dren. Of his children by his first wife, three 
are living, viz.: 1. Oscar, the writer of the above 
letter. 2. John, who owns a large hotel in 
Kaufman, Texas; and 3. Christian, who lives 
in Indian Territory. The first two married 
American wives. Johan Eeinert Reierson 
died at Prairieville, September 6, 1864, and 
there his widow still resides. For these facts 
in regard to the founder of the first Norwegian 
settlement in Texas, I am mainly indebted to 
that intelligent and kind old lady, Elise Wseren- 
skjold. 



XXVI. 
Elise Waerenskjold. 



Those who went with Reierson from Norway 
in 1845, were, besides those already named, 
several peasants from Ssetersdal. In New Or- 
leans, the Sseterdalians were frightened from 
proceeding to Texas, and went to the Norwe- 
gian settlements in the northern states. 



£80 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

When the name, Normandy, was dropped, 
and Brownsboro substituted, I have not 
learned, but it must have been very soon after 
the founding of the settlement. 

The Norwegians who arrived Christmas, 
1840, were from Ombli Parish in Norway. The 
year 1847, when Keierson moved to Four Mile 
Prairie, and founded Prairieville, marks the 
foundation of 'the second Norwegian settle- 
ment in Texas. This second settlement soon 
received accretions both from Brownsboro and 
from Norway. 

There being considerable sickness in the 
early days of both these settlements, many 
of the settlers removed to Bosque county, 
where the third Norwegian settlement in Texas 
was started, and which is at present, the larg- 
est and most flourishing Norwegian settlement 
in the state of Texas. Of the starting of the 
Bosque settlement, I shall give some account, 
further on. Mrs. Elise TYserenskjold spent 
forty-six years of her life at Four Mile Prairie. 

In the winter 1853-1854, the first Norwegian 
Lutheran church was built at Four Mile 
Prairie, and the first Norwegian minister came 
there from Norway in 1854. In 1894, there 
were nineteen Norwegian families in that set- 
tlement. 






ELISE WAERENSKJOLD. 381 

In 1S53, tbe wife of Dean Fredriksen wrote 
to Mrs. Wserenskjold, that her son, Emil Fred- 
eriksen, a young candidate in theology, desired 
to go to Texas as a minister, and the offer was 
accepted by the Norwegians in Brownsboro 
and on Four Mile Prairie. Emil Frederiksen 
came in 1854, and served these congregations 
as their pastor for three years, and he also 
visited Bosque county, where the third Norwe- 
gian settlement in Texas had been started. 

Before this minister came, either Wilhelm 
Wserenskjold, or another man who had been 
a school teacher in Norway, baptized the chil- 
dren that were born, according to the Norwe- 
gian Lutheran ritual (Mrs. Wserenskjold had 
with her her father's ritual), buried the dead 
and conducted a Sunday school. Mr. Wseren- 
skjold also organized a temperance society at 
Four Mile Prairie. Mrs. Wserenskjold writes 
me that they received visits from Elling Eiel- 
sen, and that they were pleased with his zeal 
for the cause of Christianity and morality. 

Both the first settlements founded by Reier- 
son were at that time in Henderson county, the 
county seat of which was Buffalo, a little town 
on Trinity river, but this town is long since 
abandoned. Henderson county is divided; 
but the oldest settlement, Brownsboro, is still 



382 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

in Henderson county, while Four Mile Prairie 
was divided so that half of the settlement is 
in Van Zandt and the other half in Kaufman 
county. Mrs. Waerenskj old's home was in Van 
Zandt county, and Beierson's in Kaufman 
county. 

The majority of the Norwegians in Texas 
are from Hedemarken. The first two who 
came from there at the instigation of Andreas 
Gjaestvang, Postmaster in Loiten, Hedemarken, 
were an old school teacher, Engelhoug, and an 
elderly farmer, Knud Olson. The latter w T as a 
capable workman, and an honest man, and his 
daughter and her children are now living in 
comfortable circumstances in Bosque county. 

The Postmaster Gjaestvang, in Loiten, took 
the paper published by Eeinert and Christian 
Beierson, but when Christian also emigrated 
to America in 1846, nobody cared to be the 
publisher of so dangerous a paper, which in- 
duced people to emigrate. In order that the 
paper should not suspend, Mrs. Waerenskj old 
assumed the responsibilities of publisher. 
One day Mr. Gjaestvang came to Christiania, 
to talk with the publisher, and was not a little 
surprised when he found that C. Tvede was a 
woman, and from that time, Gjaestvang and 
Mrs. Waerenskjold became friends and corres- 



ELISE WAERENSKJOLD. 



383 



pondents. Some time after Mrs. Warenskjold 
bad settled in Texas, Hamar Budstlkke, which 
seized every bad report about America 
with avidity, had made a valuable discovery 
in a French romance, being a description of 
travel in Texas. Gjsestvang took the trouble 
of copying all this nonsense and sent it to Mrs. 
Wserenskjold in Texas, requesting her to make 
a reply to it. Mrs. Wserenskjold, with the aid 
of John Nordboe, and Kleng Peerson made the 
necessary corrections, and Mr. Waerenskjold 
also wrote an article on the same subject. 
All Mrs. Wserenskj old's article, with quotations 
from John Nordboe and Kleng Peerson, and 
Mr. Waerenskj old's article, were first published 
in the Hamar BadstikJce, and afterwards in 
pamphlet form, and had a far-reaching influ- 
ence on the Norwegian emigration to Texas. 

The Waerenskj old's home became a trysting- 
place for all Norwegian immigrants to Texas, 
and many are the stories told about the hos- 
pitality of that family. 

Mrs. Elise Wserenskjold is a notable person 
in Norwegian American history. She was al- 
ways busy with her pen, and many are the val- 
uable articles written from time to time in the 
Scandinavian press on both sides of the Atlan- 
tic 



384 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Her maiden name was Tvede, and she was 
born in Vestre Moland, in Norway, where her 
father was a minister (Provst), February 19, 
1815. Her mother died in 1839, and that same 
year she married the far-famed Svend Foyen, 
who by his success in the whaling industry,, 
became one of the wealthiest and most cele- 
brated men of Norway. As their views on 
many subjects did not harmonize, they agreed 
to separate, and they parted as friends. 
Though not again married, she came to Texas 
in company with the man w T ho w T as to be her 
second husband, in 1847. She first lived a 
short time with Christian Grogaard's widow, 
in Nacogdoches. C. Grogaard and his two 
youngest children had died. In the beginning 
of October, 1817, she came to the Normandy 
settlement, which was afterwards called 
Brownsboro. There were fifteen Norwegian 
families in that settlement when she arrived 
there, but the most of them w T ere living on low 
lands and were sick and despondent. Mrs. 
WiereDslvjold, still Mrs. Foyen, bought land on 
Four Mile Prairie in 1848, and about that time, 
she married Wilhelm Wierenskjold. With him 
she lived a very happy life, but unfortunately* 
he was assassinated during the civil war, on 
account of his sympathy for the North. With 






O. Canuteson. 



ELISE WAERENSKJOLD. 385 

Mr. W»renskjold, she bad two sons, Nils, who 
now occupies the old homestead at Prairie- 
ville, and Otto, who for some time past has 
resided at Hamilton, Hamilton county. Both 
sons are married to American ladies. 

Just as I had finished writing the above 
sketch of this dear old lady, I was startled by 
the information that she had died January 22, 
1S95, only two weeks ago. I recently had a 
letter from her, in which she tells me that she 
had returned from a long journey visiting 
old friends, and that she now had settled down 
in Hamilton, to remain there until her dying 
day. She was eighty years old, but a well 
preserved woman. Mrs. Wierenskjold was an 
eminent personality. No other Norwegian in 
Texas was better known than she. She took 
the deepest interest in all things both in Eu- 
rope and in America. In her last letter to me, 
she discussed the death of Svend Foyen, which 
occurred recently in Norway. She was busy 
writing the history of the Norwegian settle- 
ments in Texas, but a few days before she 
died, she wrote to her good friend, Mr. O. Ca- 
nuteson, of Waco, Texas, and complained that 
she was sick and said she did not think she 
would be able to complete her history. It is 
25 



386 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

to be hoped that some intelligent person will 
secure her manuscript, and make the neces- 
sary additions for publication. Although I 
never had the good fortune of meeting Mrs. 
YVa?renskjold, my correspondence with her 
caused me to esteem most highly, this gifted, 
scholarly, kind, brave and noble woman. 



XXVII. 
Ole Canuteson. 

In 1850, Ole Canuteson and his father Knud 
Knudson, came to his uncle, Halvor Knudson, 
in the Fox Eiver settlement. His mother died 
from cholera on the way from Chicago to Ot- 
tawa. In the Fox Kiver settlement, they 
found Kleng Peerson, just back from a trip to 
Texas, and on his advice and promise to ac- 
company them, they concluded to go to Texas. 
They went to Dallas county and remained 
there three years, near w^here Johan Nordboe 
was then living. No Norwegian settlement 
was founded there. In 1853, they went to 
Bosque county, and Kleng Peerson went with 
them not as a leader this time, but as a fol- 



OLE CANUTESON. 887 

lower, as he was now too old to lead in settle- 
ment enterprises. 

When Canuteson and his party came to 
Texas in the fall of 1850, they stoppeda while 
at Nordboe's. He lived on a high prairie, five 
miles south of Dallas. He had then lived 
there twelve years, and his houses already 
looked old. Nordboe came to Texas at a time 
when the state gave one section of land to each 
married man and half a section to each one of 
his children. As has been heretofore shown, 
Johan Nordboe had availed himself Nof this 
liberality on the part of Texas. He got 640 
acres for himself, and 320 for each one of his 
three sons, who came with him, and also 
320 acres for the married daughter who still 
lived in Illinois. In 1850, this daughter in Il- 
linois had died, and John, one of the sons of 
Johan Nordboe, came to Illinois to fetch the 
children. John and these children then joined 
Kleng Peerson and the Canutesons, and they 
all went together to Texas, where Nordboe's 
grandchildren received the inheritance of 
their deceased mother. 

The Canutesons bought land five miles south 
from Johan Nordboe, that is to say, ten miles 
south of Dallas. There they lived three years 
and then moved to Bosque county. 



388 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

The third Norwegian settlement in Texas 
was in Bosque county. It was founded by Ole 
Canuteson in the fall of 1853, and it soon be- 
came the largest in the state. The postoffice 
was Norman Hill, and Ole Canuteson was the 
postmaster from its beginning until he moved 
to Waco. The confederate government kept 
him in office during the war, ,and when the re- 
bellion had ended the postoffice department 
at Washington did not disturb him. He spent 
three years in Dallas county, fifteen years in 
Bosque county, and since 1868 he has resided 
at Waco, where he owns the Biverside foun- 
dry and machine shop. He is a very intelli- 
gent and well read man, and he has been of 
very great help to me in supplying me with 
information concerning Kleng Peerson and 
Johan Nordboe, both of whom he knew very in- 
timately, and he has given me many valuable 
facts regarding the early settlements in Texas. 
The Norwegian settlement in Bosque county 
now contains about 2,000 people. They have 
a Norwegian Lutheran church, and a Norwe- 
gian Lutheran minister resides among them. 
As the founder of the largest and most pros- 
perous Norwegian settlement in Texas, Ole 
Canuteson deserves more than a passing notice* 
I am not able to do justice to his interesting 






OLE CANUTESON. 389 

and important career in this meager sketch 
of the Norwegians in Texas, but I am happy 
to be able to give a few additional facts in 
regard to him. 

Ole Canuteson was born September 4, 1832, 
on the island of Karmo (Karmt), an island 
which abounds in monuments of antiquity, on 
the farm Nordstokke, near Kobbervig, in the 
parish of the famous Augsvaldsmes in Sta- 
vanger Amt. One of his uncles, Ilalvor Knud- 
son, emigrated to America so early that he 
settled in the Fox River settlement about the 
same time as Gjert Gregoriuson Hovland, and 
became his neighbor. A younger uncle, Jens, 
emigrated somewhat later in company with a 
fiddler, Sjur Dale, who afterwards became a 
Mormon. 

When Kleng Peerson visited Norway in 
1842, he brought with him many letters from 

America to Ole Canuteson's father and to 

t 

others. In 1850 his parents resolved to go 
to America, and he took passage in the Kohler 
brig, commanded by Capt. Wefetergaard. In 
this same ship came Rev. A. C. Preus with his 
wife, whose maiden name was Engel Bruun. 
Captain Westergaard also had his wife with 
him on board. The second mate was a son of 
the Rev. Kauring, of Tarvestad. Six weeks 



390 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

after leaving Stavanger they landed in New 
York. On the propeller, between Buffalo and 
Chicago, cholera attacked the passengers, and 
a Norwegian woman died and was buried on 
an island in the straits of Mackinac. 

As has been seen in earlier pages of this vol- 
ume, cholera had raged fearfully both in the 
Pox River settlement and in Muskego in the 
summer of 1849, and in 1850 the epidemic re- 
turned claiming many victims. Many of those 
who landed in Milwaukee were sick, and a num- 
ber of them died after reaching their respective 
settlements in Wisconsin. Cholera committed 
great depredations on Koshkonong in 1850, and 
claimed my father and brother as its victims. 

When the rest of the immigrants landed in 
Chicago all were apparently well, but on board 
the canal-boat which carried them to Ottawa, 
the dreadful disease made its appearance, and 
among those who died was Ole Canuteson's 
mother. When the people in the Fox River 
settlement heard of the cholera they were 
panic-stricken and did not dare to receive the 
new-comers. Finally the Canutesons received 
shelter in a school-house, and fortunately chol- 
era did not make its appearance again. Land 
was at that time selling in La Salle county for 
ten dollars an acre. Ole Canuteson's father 



w 

w 
x 

5 

be 

rj 
W 

c 

O 
w 
6 

3 







OLE CANUTESON. 3»1 

had only five hundred dollars, and did not dare 
to run in debt for a farm and stock and im- 
plements, and he contemplated going to Iowa, 
where land was to be had for less money. In 
the meantime they had left the school-house 
and were living at the house of Halvor Knud- 
son, and while they were considering what 
was best to do, Kleng Peerson came there one 
day. He had just returned from a journey to 
Texas, and he was chock full of stories of that 
wonderland. He said land could be bought 
in Dallas county, Texas, with as deep and as 
black soil as that of Illinois for fifty cents per 
acre, and he told the truth. The result was 
that they resolved to take Kleng Peerson's ad- 
vice, and he agreed to go with them. In the 
midst of these discussions as to where to lo- 
cate, Ole Canuteson, young as he was, married 
a young lady of his own age, Miss Ellen Maline 
Gunderson, a girl who also had come from the 
famous Karino. 

John, one of Johan Nordboe's sons, had also 
returned from Texas to bring to their grand- 
parents three children left by a daughter of 
Johan Nordboe. The mother had died in the 
Fox River settlement or in Lee county near 
Leland. The result was that Kleng Peerson, 
Ole Canuteson and his young wife and his 



392 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

father, and Joim Nordboe and his sister's chil- 
dren, formed a party and set out for Texas. 
They went by canal-boat from Ottawa to La 
Salle, thence by steamer to St. Louis, thence 
by another steamer to New Orleans, and tnen 
by still another steamer to Shreveport. In 
New Orleans they were joined by two other 
Norwegians from Throndhjem. They got a 
wagon to haul the children and the baggage 
to a little town called Greenwood, sixteen miles 
on the way to Dallas. There they rented a 
house, and in it they left Mrs. Canuteson and 
the Nordboe children, and the rest of the party 
footed it to Dallas. Ole Canuteson, John Nord- 
boe and the two men from Throndhjem took 
the shortest route, while Kleng Peerson and 
Ole Canuteson's father took a longer route as 
they desired to visit the Norwegian settlements 
in east Texas. Ole Canuteson and his com- 
rades camped out at night, though it was the 
month of December, and after eight days' 
travel they reached Johan Nordboe's home, 
having gone a distance of 200 miles. Kleng 
Peerson had instructed them not to locate in 
the Norwegian settlements east of Trinity river 
under any circumstances, and they obeyed him. 
Then John Nordboe hitched a yoke of large 
oxen to a light wagon and w T ent after Ole 



OLE CANUTESON. 393 

Canuteson's wife and the three children that 
he was to bring to their grandparents. By 
the time they all got united again it was 
Christmas. The Canutesons bought 320 acres 
of land from a man who had received 040 acres 
from the state for living on it. The price was 
fifty cents per acre, and it was located ten 
miles south of Dallas. In Dallas there were 
then only a few houses along the river. They 
broke twenty acres, and hauled rails six miles 
to fence them in with. They built a tolerably 
good house, sawing the planks for it them- 
selves with a whipsaw. 

In 1852 the Texas legislature again resolved 
to donate land to actual settlers who had not 
already received land in that way. Now it 
was the Canutesons' turn to get land without 
paying for it, and this opportunity must not 
be neglected. In August, 1853, Ole Canuteson 
and one of his American neighbors left Dallas 
to look for land. Vacant land was found by 
them near Bosque river, a tributary of the 
Brazas. The county was afterwards organized 
as Bosque county. This land suited them, and 
Ole Canuteson selected about 300 acres for 
himself and a similar amount for his father. 
Later many families came there from the other 
Norwegian settlements, all getting land for 



391 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

nothing or buying it for a small price from 
those who had homesteads. The Canutesons 
sold their land in Dallas and moved to Bosque, 
and Kleng Peerson went with them as he was 
now, so to speak, one of the family. Ole 
Canuteson's father had married in the mean- 
time a girl from the Brownsboro settlement 
in Henderson county. The next year a ship 
from Arendal in Norway brought a lot of emi- 
grants, and many of them came direct to 
Bosque. 

The following persons have been mentioned 
to me as the first Norwegian settlers in Bosque 
county, Texas: Ole Canuteson, with family; 
Canute Canuteson; Ole Peerson; Kleng Peer- 
son, single; Carl Qvastad, with family; Jens 
Kingnes; Jens Jenson; Mrs. Annie Bronstad; 

Ole Ween, single; Andrew Bretten, single, the 
first Norwegian that died in the settlement; 
Andrew Huse, single. 

Among later-comers to Bosque county are 
mentioned Henrik Dahl, with family; B. E. 
Sw T enson; O. Calwick; O. Olson; O. Johnson; 
P. Poulson. 

Many left the older settlements in Texas and 
came to Bosque, and others came either direct 
from Norway or from Illinois, and before many 
years it became the largest Norwegian settle- 



RESUME. 



395 



ment in Texas, which it still is. It is to be 
said with emphasis in regard to the Norwegian 
settlers in Texas that they made very poor 
rebels during the civil war, but of course they 
had to be discreet, witness the fate of Mr. 
Wserenskjold. Mr. and Mrs. O. Canuteson have 
had six children, of which five are living, four 
daughters and one son. The daughters are 
all married, and the son is still single. 



XXVIII. 
Resume. 

The first Norwegian to settle in Texas was 
Johan Nordboe. 

The father of Norwegian immigration to 
Texas and the founder of the first two settle- 
ments was Johan Reinert Beierson. 

The founder of the third, the largest and 
most prosperous settlement in Texas was O. 
Canuteson. 

The first Norwegian Lutheran church was 
built in Texas in the winter of 1853--1854. 

Emil Frederiksen was the first Norwegian 
Lutheran minister in Texas, and he came there 
in 1854. 



NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 



XXIX. 

religious Work among the Nor- 
wegians IN AMERICA DOWN 
TO THE YEAR 1845. 

Introductory. 

To present a correct statement of the re- 
ligious work done among the Norwegian im- 
migrants from 1825 to 1845 is exceedingly dif- 
ficult. We have scarcely any records to guide 
us, and the most of those living at the time 
are either dead or if living w^ere too young to 
grasp and remember what was going on. This 
much is certain that there was nothing that 
could be called a Norwegian Lutheran congre- 
gation or minister in America before 1843. 

Many of those who came in the sloop and 
some of those who came later were Quakers. 
Instead of organizing themselves separately 
they naturally attached themselves to Amer- 
ican Quaker societies and worshipped with 
them. This I know was the case with Lars 
Larson i Jeilane in Rochester, with Ingebret 
Larson Narvig in Michigan, and with the Ros- 



RELIGIOUS WORK DOWN TO 1845. 397 

xihkils and Olsons in the Fox River settlement. 
Some of the early Norwegian immigrants bad 
no profound religious convictions, and might 
properly be called agnostics. I have myself 
known a considerable number both of the 
sloopers and of those who came in 1830 and 
in 1837, w T ho were not only destitute of reli- 
gious convictions, but who seemed utterly to 
despise and were fond of ridiculing ministers, 
churches, the Bible and religious people. I 
could mention many of these by name, but I 
forbear. It seems that some of these agnostics 
had acquired their hostility to the church and 
to religion before they emigrated from Nor- 
way. They merely became louder and more 
outspoken in their ridicule and denunciations 
after they got their feet on the free soil of 
America. 

But still the great majority of these early 
immigrants were devoted to religion. Many 
were Lutherans, and among these a consid- 
erable number were so-called Readers or Ilau- 
gians. Of the religious aspect of the colony 
in Kendal], New York, I know but little. They 
had no church or school of their own, and no 
minister. I know only from hearsay that 
those among them who were religiously in-* 
clined held devotional exercises in their fam- 



393 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

ilies, and on Sundays several families would 
get together for worship. 

I am credibly informed that Bjorn Hatle- 
stad, who died about fifteen years ago on Odd 
Himle's farm in Dane county, came to Amer- 
ica about the year 1S3G, and that he held re- 
ligious services for a time after his arrival in 
the Kendall settlement. There is but little 
doubt that Ole Olson Hetletvedt, who came in 
the sloop, also held religious services in the 
Kendall settlement, and so it appears that 
these two, Hetletvedt and Hatlestad, were the 
first to preach and conduct religious services 
among the Norwegian immigrants. Both of 
course belonged to the Haugian branch of the 
Lutheran church. 

In 1834 and 1835 a large number of the Ken- 
dall settlers moved west to Illinois, and there 
did not remain enough of the colony to main- 
tain any distinct church organization. 

In the Fox River settlement all was chaos 
and confusion during the early days of the 
colony. Some of the Norwegians there were 
Quakers, others Baptists, others Presbyterians, 
others Methodists, others Lutherans, others 
Mormons, and some were free-thinkers, all in 
inextricable disorder. 



THE MORMONS. 



899 



XXX. 



The Mormons. 



The Mormons, or more properly, the church 
of the Latter Day Saints, secured a consider- 
able following among the Norwegians in La 
Salle county. There Gudmund Haugaas be- 
came a high priest of the order of Melchizedek. 
His son Thomas succeeded him as a minister in 
the church of Latter Day Saints and is still 
preaching to a congregation of about one 
hundred and forty members. A man by the 
name of Jorgen Pederson, who had been a 
school teacher in Norway, was chosen by the 
Haugians to administer the sacraments. At 
one time he administered the Lord's Supper 
in the Indian Creek settlement, which was 
started near Leland in 1S3G. It was doubtless 
the intention that Jorgen Pederson was to be 
ordained and be regularly authorized to ad- 
minister the sacraments, but he soon after- 
wards joined the church of Latter Day Saints. 
The Haugians lost another conspicuous and 
sturdy leader in Ole Ileier. He was from Tin 
in Thelemarken, where his name had been Ole 



400 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Olson Omdal. Id Thelemarken he was re- 
garded as a pious Reader, and had conducted 
Ilaugian meetings, and when he first came to 
the Fox River settlement he w r as active in hold- 
ing gospel meetings in the interest of the Ha/u- 
gians. lie is said to have been of a most win- 
ning personality and to have possessed remark- 
able gifts as a speaker, but he, too, joined the 
church of Latter Day Saints and was made 
first an elder and then a bishop in that organi- 
zation. When the church moved to Utah,. 
Heier remained in Illinois, and finally joined 
the Close Communion Baptists, and preached 
for them some years. In 1S68 he went to 
Iowa, and died there in 1873 as heretofore 
stated. His son writes me: "Soon after com- 
ing to America, my father (Ole Olson Heier) 
was taken in by the Mormon faith, but on a 
visit to Nauvoo, 111., where the Mormons were 
preparing to emigrate to the west, he was one 
of the first to get his eyes open to the terrible 
work of the church he had espoused. He then 
left the Mormon church, joined the Baptist 
church and held meetings as a layman." One 
of his old acquaintances writes me that Ole 
I Icier belonged to seven different churches, but 
of course this is an exaggeration. All I can 







Mrs. Bishop Sara A. Peterson. 



THE MORMONS. 401 

make out is three, or if we count the Readers as 
distinct from the Lutherans, four. 

Knud Peterson was one of the seventy dis- 
ciples of the church of Latter Day Saints, who, 
as an Evangelist, did service as an itinerant 
preacher. Gudmund Haugaas and Knud Pet- 
erson visited Koshkonong while Dietrichson 
was pastor there. They were well treated by 
Dietrichson at his house. This Knud Peter- 
son I have been able to trace, as will be seen, 
in an earlier part of this volume. 

He married Sarah A., a daughter of the 
slooper, Cornelius Nelson Hersdal, and moved 
to Salt Lake City in 1849. Under date of 
January 20, 1895, Mrs. Bishop Peterson writes: 

"In 1849 I left all that was near and dear to 
me and cast my lot with a people commonly 
called Mormons. On July 2 of that year I 
married Canute Peterson, and we at once went 
to Utah. We were five months crossing the 
plains and deserts and the Rocky mountains. 
We located in Salt Lake City, which was only 
a small village at that time." 

Having learned that Sarah, the daughter of 

a slooper, w r as the wife of the bishop of 

Ephraim, and that Bishop Canute Peterson 

Avas the same person as Knud Peterson, who, 

26 



i02 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATIONS. 

in company with Gudniund Haugaas, pro- 
claimed Mormonism on our dear old Koshko- 
nong, and was entertained by Rev. Dietrich- 
son in 1845, I concluded that he, too, must be 
one of our pioneers to be sketched in this vol- 
ume, and accordingly I wrote to his wife for 
more information in regard to his life. In re- 
ply I received the following interesting letter 
dated March 9, 1895. It throws much light 
upon the work done by the Mormons among 
the Scandinavians. 

"Ephraim, March 9, 1895. 
"Rasmus B. Anderson, Esq., 

"Dear Sir: As you requested me to write 
about my husband I will try to give you a few 
facts. He is still living and in good health. 
He was born in Eidsfjord, Hardanger, Norway, 
May 13, 1824, and emigrated with his parents 
in 1837. They settled in La Salle county, 111. 
My husband's father died in 1838, and his 
mother in 1848. He was married in 1849, emi- 
grating to Utah the same year. He resided 
in Salt Lake City for eighteen months, and 
there our first child, Peter Cornelius Peterson, 
was born June 22, 1850, being the first Norwe- 
gian male child born in Utah. In July, 1850, 
my husband, with others, was called to settle 
the place now called Lehi, thirty miles couth 




Bishop Canute Peterson. 



THE MORMONS. 403 

of Salt Lake City, where the great sugar fac- 
tory was built, which last year produced be- 
tween five and six million pounds of first class 
sugar. The Lehi sugar took the first prize at 
the world's fair in Chicago. In 1852 my hus- 
band was called to take a mission in Norway. 
He remained in Norway four years, and re- 
turned in 1856. He visited nearly all the prin- 
cipal cities in Norway, and brought with him 
about GOO Scandinavian immigrants. At that 
lime they were obliged to cross the plains with 
teams. 

"We lived in Lehi until 1867, when my hus- 
band was called to go to Sanpete, and we now 
reside at Ephraim, one hundred miles south 
of Lehi. At this time the Indians had become 
very hostile, and war was raging between them 
and the settlers. Many people were killed, 
and the most of their cattle and horses were 
either stolen or killed. Under these trying 
circumstances Mr. Peterson was called to take 
the lead as bishop of this place. A bishop 
with us takes the lead in temporal as well as 
in spiritual affairs. The first thing he did was 
to send teams and guards to bring the settlers 
from the smaller settlements, where they were 
not able to protect themselves. A fort was 
built of stone, and men were put on guard to 



404 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION 

protect the people. From that time but few 
people were killed, and scarcely any cattle 
were stolen. In one of the raids our son Peter 
with others went up in the mountains to re- 
cover some horses, but the Indians lying in 
ambush shot at the men. Our son had his 
horse shot from under him, and he and his 
men were glad to get back with their scalps. 

"This was continued a little over two years, 
but finally the Indians saw that they w T ere out- 
generaled. Ten of their chiefs came down 
from the mountains and stopped in front of 
our gate. We were very much surprised, not 
knowing their intentions. My husband went 
out to meet them and asked them what they 
wanted. They dismounted, and said they 
wanted to talk. He invited them to come in 
and at once sent for two interpreters. After 
they had eaten a hearty dinner at our table, 
my husband asked them if they felt like fight- 
ing. They said 'No!' they felt good and wanted 
to smoke a pipe of peace. After this matters 
were talked over and an agreement of peace 
was made, which has not been broken since. 
My husband is now known among them as 
their 'White Father.' Their chiefs frequently 
come to visit us. Brigham Young instructed 
my husband to buy out a small settlement and 



THE MORMONS. 405 

give it to the Indians. Brigham Young said 
'it was cheaper to feed them than to fight 
them,' and we have found this statement to be 
true. The town given to the Indians is called 
Indianola, and is thirty-five miles from 
Ephraim. 

"In 1871 my husband was called to go on a 
second mission to Scandinavia. He made his 
headquarters at Copenhagen. He visited 
nearly all the principal cities of Denmark, 
Sweden and Norway, holding conferences and 
meetings. While there he edited a semi- 
monthly periodical called Skandinavicns Stjcrne, 
Organ for de Sidste Dages Hellige. He also pub- 
lished many tracts. He returned to Utah, July 
28, 1873, with a large company of nearly one 
thousand Scandinavian immigrants. 

"In 1877 he was called to preside as presi- 
dent over Sanpete county, which contains seven- 
teen ecclesiastical wards, each one being pre- 
sided over by one bishop with two counsellors 
and other officers. The population of this county 
is nearly 17,000. In 1878 my husband was 
chosen as second superintendent for the erec- 
tion of the Manti Temple, which is located six 
and a half miles from our door. Eight years 
were spent in its construction, and it cost more 
than one million dollars. It is a beautiful 



406 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

stone structure. Being built on the spur of a 
mountain, its position is very commanding and 
imposing. It has been built by voluntary con- 
tributions. My husband has three times been 
a member of the legislature, and he has filled 
many other offices of trust. 

"I send you a copy of the Salt Lake Tribune 
for the 4th inst. In it you will find portraits 
and biographies of all the members of the re- 
cent Constitutional Convention in Utah. 
Among them jovl will find A. S. Anderson, a 
grandson of the slooper, Endre Dahl, and also 
A. C. Lund, who is my grandson. 

"I taught school in the Fox River settlement 
in 1845 and 1846. Elling's meeting house was 
built before that time. I have often attended 
meeting there and remember him well. My- 
self and my husband were acquainted with 
your parents. They lived near by Endre Dahl, 
and at one time near my mother's. We knew 
your father by the name Bjorn Kvelve. Now, 
Mr. Anderson, I have written this to help you 
in preparing your history. It is a great 
pleasure to me if I can be of any service to you. 
Hoping to hear from you again, I remain, 
"Yours respectfully, 
"Sarah A. Peterson." 



THE MORMONS. 407 

While reading proof on the above, I received 
the following letter from Mrs. Peterson. It 
supplies a few additional facts concerning our 
earliest Norwegian settlers, and will be read 
with interest: 

"Ephraim, April 17, 1895. 
"Rasmus B. Anderson, 

"Dear Sir: I hope you will pardon me for 
delaying so long. You wished to know about 
my teaching. Do you remember Middlepoint, 
where my mother lived? Your folks lived 
there, dowm by the old spring from which we 
all drank. Some folks used to come half a 
mile to get water, as good water was very 
scarce in the summer season. In '45-^46 I 
taught one mile and a half south, and in '47 one 
mile and a half north of our home; I never 
thought of that coming into history. It did 
not require much education to teach those 
country schools. I had some scholars who 
w T ere from twenty to forty years old. They 
came to learn the English language. 

"I am the second Norwegian born in Amer- 
ica. My cousin, Susan Nelson, was the first; 
her name is now Danielson, and she is living 
in Illinois. Betsy Haugaas was the third one, 
being three weeks younger than myself. If I 
knew of anything that would help you in your 



408 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

history, I would gladly tell you. Mother said 
that after they found that cask of wine, they 
would make mush and use the wine for water 
and milk to eat with it. My oldest daughter, 
Apostle A. H. Lund's wife, was the first Nor- 
wegian female child born in Lehi, Utah county. 

"My husband sends his kind regards. 

"Yours truly, 
"Sarah A. Peterson." 

This took us far beyond the year 1845, but 
it revealed to us the fate of the descendants 
of sloopers and of early pioneers in far-off 
Utah, and it brought to light a phase of Scan- 
dinavian American history which, I dare say, 
is but little known to the majority of my 
readers. 



XXXI. 



Ole Olson Hetletvedt and Others. 

Hans Valder was also a Baptist preacher, 
and his field was mainly in La Salle county 
and the immediate vicinity. He was ordained 
by a council of five or six ministers, and 
preached occasionally for four or five years, 






OLE OLSON HETLETVEDT AND OTHERS. 409 

but a radical change took place in his mind on 
the subject of religion and he quit preaching 
about 1850, that is, a couple of years before he 
went to Minnesota, and has not preached since. 
The first to conduct Lutheran religious serv- 
ices among the Norwegians in America in 
this century was, I believe, Ole Olson Hctle- 
tvedt. He dropped the name, Hetletvedt, and 
called himself simply Ole Olson. He was a 
farmer's son from the northern part of Sta- 
vanger Amt in Norway, lie came, as we have 
seen, in the sloop, settled in Kendall and then 
went to Niagara Falls, where he worked in a 
paper mill, and married Miss Chamberlain. I 
have no doubt that he conducted religious 
services in the Kendall settlement, but I have 
no information on that point. But in the Fox 
River settlement he was the first to gather the 
people to hear the word of God according to 
Haugian custom. He is described as a mild- 
tempered, earnest Christian, who traveled ex- 
tensively in all the Norwegian settlements, and 
he also acted as agent for the American Bible 
society. He had been a school teacher before 
he left Norway, and hence he was tolerably 
well educated. As Bible agent and lay 
preacher he visited the Norwegian settlements 
in Illinois, Wisconsin and Iowa. His nephew, 



410 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

Ole Olson Hetletvedt, now of Norway, Benton 
county, Iowa, writes me that he heard his 
uncle preach in Middlepoint (Mission, La Salle 
county) in 1845. 

Among other Lutheran laymen who preached 
before the arrival of Clausen or Dietrichson, 
Rev. O. J. Hatlestad, in his book published in 
1S87, mentions Enclre and Herman Osmundson 
Aaragerbo, Kleng Skaar, Even Heg, Bjorn 
Hatlestad, Aslak Aae, Peder Asbjornson Me- 
nus and John Brakestad. Of course there 
were others, but I have not been able to get 
at the details. Enough has been stated to 
show that while many scoffed at religion, 
there still was a considerable number who de- 
sired to preserve the faith of their fathers, and 
did the best they could to maintain religious 
services more or less regularly and more or 
less successfully. 



XXXII. 

Elling Eielsen. 

After this brief notice of the meek and pious 
Ole Olson Hetletvedt, of the bold Jorgen Peder- 
son, of the eloquent Ole Heier, of the sturdy 
Knud Peterson, and the picturesque Gudmund 







Elling Eiklson. 



ELLING EIELSEN. 411 

Haugaas, we may now pass to the considera- 
tion of one who became more far-famed than all 
of them together, and that is Elling Eielsen. 
Elling Eielsen Sunve was born on the farm 
Sunve in Voss, September 17, 1804. As a 
young man he became a Haugian in Norway, 
and began to work as a lay preacher. He 
traveled extensively in Norway, Sweden and 
Denmark before his emigration to America, 
which took place in 1839 in the same ship with 
Soren Bache and Johannes Johannesen. On 
his arrival in Chicago in the autumn of 1839, 
he preached his first sermon in America, and 
then proceeded to Fox River. He seems to 
have had his headquarters during the first 
years of his activity partly in the Fox River 
settlement and partly in Muskego, Wis. In 
Muskego he married, as heretofore stated, Miss 
Sigri Nilson, on the 3d of July, 1843. During 
his long life he visited almost every Norwegian 
community in the Northwest and also made 
journeys to Missouri and Texas. In 1842 we 
find him putting up a meeting house in Nor- 
way, La Salle county, Illinois. This meeting 
house, the first house built by Norwegians in 
America in this century for divine worship, 
was erected on land owned by Elling Eielsen. 
It was one story and an attic. The ground 



412 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

floor consisted of two rooms, occupied as a 
dwelling by Eielsen, while the attic was a sort 
of hall used for devotional meetings. The 
building was paid for mainly, if not wholly, by 
Elling Eielsen himself. It would be improper 
to call this half dwelling and half meeting 
house a church. 

Thomas Orstad, of Strand, Iowa, in writing 
to me about it calls it a ForsamlingsliHS, that is, 
a house for meetings. He says it was built of 
white oak logs, constructed in Norwegian 
fashion. It was 24 feet long, 16 feet wide and 
12 feet high. The lower story was fitted up 
for family use, and the upper story for church 
services. The shingles used for roofing this 
building were split out of blocks of native 
wood. The seats in the assembly hall consisted 
of planks made from the same kind of wood 
and resting on blocks of the same material. 
Mr. Orstad adds that there w r ere also a few 
small windows. "For many years," says Mr. 
Orstad, "this w r as a place where those gathered 
who had any desire to hear the word of God." 
In course of time the congregation built a 
frame church, and what became of Elling Eiel- 
sen's meeting house I do not know. In the 
autumn of 1894 I visited the spot where this 
famous little edifice had stood on a little hill 



ELLING EIELSEN. 413 

near the present Norway, 111. Old residents 
pointed out the site to me, but there was no 
trace of it visible. When I asked the citizens 
what became of the old meeting house, they 
shook their heads and said they did not know. 
Eielsen was an energetic traveler and a zealous 
preacher. His education was sadly defective, 
and he had no talent for organizing. He was 
in his element when he could tramp from place 
to place and gather the people to his gospel 
meetings. In order to be permitted to admin- 
ister the holy sacraments he was requested by 
his friends to secure holy orders, and he was 
accordingly ordained by Eev. F. A. Hoffman, 
D. D., the pastor of a German Lutheran con- 
gregation at Duncan's Grove, twenty miles 
north of Chicago, October 3, 1843. Much has 
been written about the genuineness of Eiel- 
sen's ordination, but this is a subject which I 
do not care to discuss here. 

After a long life of hard work Elling Eielsen 
died in Chicago, 111., January 10, 1883, at 11:40 
o'clock in the evening, and he was buried in 
the Graceland cemetery. I saw Elling Eielsen 
a few times, and once attended one of his re- 
ligious meetings, but I failed to discover the 
secret of his great influence as a religious 



414 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

worker. I remember he used the expression 
several times that he was only puttering in a 
small way ("eg bare putla saa sniaat"). 



XXXIII. 

John G. Smith, Ole Consulen, G. Unonius. 

In 1841 a Swede came to Koshkonong and 
pretended to be both minister and physician. 
His name w r as John Smith. Hatlestad says 
that "he claimed to be a Lutheran clergyman 
and to have been the king's chaplain in Stock- 
holm; that he had an attractive personality 
and a smooth tongue, and thereby secured 
much confidence among the simple-hearted 
and shepherdless Norwegians, but that he 
after a time became known in his true char- 
acter." When he could no longer deceive peo- 
ple as a preacher, he pretended for a time to 
be a doctor, but he did not succeed in this 
either very long. He afterwards tried to 
preach in Chicago, but here, too, he was soon 
found out, and his occupation came to an end. 
Rev. J. TV. C. Dietrichson calls this man "the 
"Swede John G. Smith," and says he was "a 
Baptist," and I suppose the truth of the mat- 



J. G. SMITH, OLE CONSULEN, G. UNONIUS. 415 

ter is that he first pretended to be a Lutheran 
and then joined the Baptist church. lie was 
married to a sister of Gunnul Olson Vindeg, 
but his wife died before John G. Smith left 
Koshkonong. 

Johan Eeinert Reierson says of John Smith: 

"A Swede who calls himself Smith, and pre- 
tends to be a minister, has settled here and 
has preached sermons for the new settlers, 
but his conduct is not such as to inspire re- 
spect." 

Some of my readers will remember Ole "Con- 
sulen." His name was Ole Hanson, but he 
was generally called "Consulen," because he 
pretended to be a lawyer (counsellor), and I 
believe he actually appeared in court a few 
times as an attorney. He was, however, 
chiefly known as an itinerant Methodist lay 
preacher. lie seems to have made his head- 
quarters on Rock Prairie and at Highland, Wis. 
He married a widow from Primrose, Dane 
county, and died, so far as I can learn, many 
years ago at Highland, Wis. 

In an earlier portion of this work I have 
made a brief statement of a settlement at Pine 
Lake, founded in 1841 by some Swedes, among 
whom was a young student by name G. Uno- 
nius. Mr. Unonius entered the Episcopal 



416 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

church as a minister, and organized a congre- 
gation at Pine Lake. As shown heretofore, 
Hans Gasman and his friends from Skien set- 
tled here in 1843, and the Norwegians united 
with the Sw T edes and became members of the 
Episcopal church, choosing G. Unonius as their 
pastor. In this settlement there was a wealthy 
Dane by name Fribert and a Swedish man of 
means by name Saint-Syr. A son of the latter 
is now a physician and druggist in Sheboygan. 
In 1843 this Pine Lake congregation had re- 
solved to build a church on the west shore of 
the lake. 



XXXIV. 
C. L. Clausen. 

I have now described briefly but still as 
comprehensively as I am able the religious 
work done among the Norwegians in America 
down to October 3, 1843, the date when Elling 
Eielsen was ordained by the Kev. Francis Allen 
Hoffman. I have shown how all the religious 
work down to that time was done by laymen, 
with the possible exception of the Swede, G. 
Unonius. Neither was he a theologian from 




Rev. C. L. Clausen. 



C. L. CLAUSEN. 



417 



Sweden. At the Upsala university he had 
studied cameralistics or the science of state 
finance, and he took his course in theology at 
an Episcopal seminary in America. I have 
shown what a chaotic conflict there was on the 
part of both the people and their lay preachers, 
between regular Lutherans, Haugians, Bap- 
tists, Mormons, Methodists and the scoffers, 
and such a chaotic conflict was well calculated 
to produce scoffers. I have shown how a little 
meeting house was built by Elling and some 
of his friends at Norway, 111.; how Elling him- 
self was ordained, and how Mr. Gasman and 
other Norwegians had joined the Episcopal 
church at Pine Lake, Wis. And here I might 
end, as the year 1840 was the limit I first set for 
this volume, but I cannot resist the tempta- 
tion of showing how a better day was dawning 
for the Norwegian Lutherans in America, and 
T shall, therefore, trespass on the patience of 
my readers, and carry my skeleton church his- 
tory down to the summer of 1845. 

Claus Lauritz Clausen was a Dane. He was 
born November 3, 1820, on the island of iEro, 
Fyen Stift, in Denmark, and he died in Paulsbo, 
Washington, in 1892. 

In 1841 he came to Norway to seek work in 
27 



118 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

the missionary field in South Africa, but he 
found that there did not seem to be an opening 
for him in that direction. Tollef O. Bache, the 
merchant in Drammen, whose son Soren, with 
Johannes Johannesen, had settled in Mus- 
kego, was anxious to send a teacher to Amer- 
ica in order that his ow T n grandchildren and 
other children growing up there might be 
properly instructed in the religion and lan- 
guage of their fathers. Tollef Bache's atten- 
tion had been called to this young man, Clau- 
sen. A proposition was made and Clausen ac- 
cepted. He first went to Denmark, and mar- 
ried Martha F. Rasmuson, and then proceeded 
to his new field of work in Muskego, where he 
arrived with his young wife in August, 1843. 
After arriving in Muskego it seemed to him 
and to the people of Muskego that his services 
were more needed as a preacher than as a 
teacher, and accordingly he was called as 
preacher, duly examined by a German Lutheran 
minister by name L. F. E. Krause, and or- 
dained by him on the 18th of October, 1843, 
just fifteen days after Elling Eielsen had been 
ordained. Clausen at once began to preach 
in Even Heg's barn, in the houses of the set- 
tlers and in school houses. On the second 
Sunday after Easter, 1844, he confirmed the 



C. L. CLAUSEN. 419 

first class of children in Even Heg's barn. 
This was the first Norwegian Lutheran con- 
firmation in America. In the fall of 1843 the 
congregation (sit venia verbo) decided to build 
a church. Heg gave the ground on the so- 
called Indian Mound, and here the church was 
built. Tollef Bache in Drammen contributed 
$400 to the church, and the building of it was 
begun early in 1844. 

For a picture of this church edifice I am in- 
debted to Mr. H. J. Ellertsen, of Wind Lake, 
Wis. In a letter to me, accompanying the 
picture, he says, "Enclosed I send you a draw- 
ing of the old Muskego church as it looked 
when it was built. It was built of oak logs 
hewed on both sides, six inches thick, and 
matched after the Norwegian fashion of build- 
ing houses. On the inside the logs were 
dressed perfectly smooth and then fitted so 
close together that no mortar was used between 
them. Double doors in the front were made 
of black walnut. The pulpit was also made 
of walnut and was about seven feet from the 
floor. Galleries were built across the front 
and along both sides to about the middle of 
the church. These galleries were supported 
by six heavy columns turned out of solid wal- 
nut. In fact the church was pretty well fur- 



420 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

nished inside. The erection of the church was 
commenced in the spring of 1844, and the dedi- 
cation took place March 13, 1845. It is un- 
doubtedly the first Norwegian church built in 
America." 

In the meantime Mr. Clausen also visited 
other settlements, and he had been on Kosh- 
konong and preached and administered the 
sacraments a couple of times before Dietrich- 
son arrived there in September, 1844, the first 
time in the last week of May, 1844, when he 
preached near the present Utica. Kev. C. L. 
Clausen was for many years a warm personal 
friend of mine, and I learned to admire his per- 
sonal magnetism, his keen intelligence, his vast 
amount of knowledge and his large heart. 



XXXV. 



The First Controversy Among the Norwegian 
Lutherans in America. 

Before going any further I take the liberty 
of presenting here an account of what was 
undoubtedly the first controversy, and caused 
the first split among the Norwegian Lutherans 
in America. I have the facts from Hon. Gun- 






THE FIRST CONTROVERSY IN AMERICA. 421 

nuf Tollefson, of Mount Horeb, Wis., a Hau- 
gian, who came from Bygland in B&tersdal, 
Norway, in 1843. It is interesting to note that 
he and his parents and brother and sisters were 
the first to emigrate from that part of Nor- 
way. He came directly to Muskego and there 
he and Kev. C. L. Clausen worked together, fell- 
ing trees for the Muskego church. He chopped 
on one side of the tree and Clausen on the other. 
This illustrates the kind of stuff our early 
preachers were made of. 

In the beginning Clausen and Eielsen held 
services together in Even Heg's barn, but it 
was not long before they got into trouble. Al- 
ready in the fall of 1843 Rev. Clausen and 
some others prepared a document of charges 
against Elling, a document which was read 
publicly at a meeting in the barn. 

The foundation of the complaint was as fol- 
lows: A Stavanger family had died on Jeffer- 
son Prairie, in 1843, and had left a little five 
year old daughter. Before their death, they 
had requested Elling to take care of their child. 
Then there was in Yorkville, Racine county, 
an Irish Catholic family, who wanted to adopt 
the girl, and Elling left the child with them. 
Then Elling's friends said to him, "For God's 
sake, Elling, what have you done? How could 



422 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

you give this little girl to Catholics?" Elling 
at once regretted what he had done, and went 
to the Irish family and asked to get the girl 
back. Her adopted parents had dressed the 
child nicely. They had no children of their 
own, and refused to give up the child they had 
secured from Elling. Then Elling asked the 
little girl to meet him outside of the house 
after dark, when he appeared with horse and 
buggy and carried her away surreptitiously. 
He took her back to Jefferson Prairie. Mr. 
Clausen got hold of this matter and formu- 
lated the facts into a complaint against Elling, 
for stealing the child from the Catholic family. 
The result was a split in the church. Elling 
left and a few went with him, among whom 
were Gunnuf Tollefson's parents. From that 
time on, Elling held meetings separately, and 
he never afterwards became united w T ith Clau- 
sen or his friends. Gunnuf Tollefson was 
present when this arraignment of Elling's con- 
duct was read by Rev. Clausen after a regular 
service in the Heg barn. I have no com- 
ments to make. 




Rev. J. W. C. Dietrichson. 

Photographed by W. A. Fermann, Stoughton, Wis. 



J. W. C. DIETRICHSON. 423 



XXXVI. 

J. W. C. Dietrichson. 

Then came Rev. J. W. C. Dietrichson, from 
Norway. He was the first Norwegian Lu- 
theran minister in this country who had been 
regularly educated at the university of Nor- 
way, and regularly ordained by a Norwegian 
bishop. 

Johannes Wilhelm Christian Dietrichson 
was born at Fredrikstad, Norway, April 4, 
1815, and died at Copenhagen, Denmark, from 
a stroke of paralysis, November 14, 1883. He 
was buried at Porsgrund, November 28, 18S3. 

A dyer by name P. Sorenson in Christiania, 
Norway, induced Mr. Dietrichson to go as a 
minister to his countrymen in America. Mr. 
Sorenson encouraged him not only with words, 
but also with a sum of money for the mission. 
After some hesitation, Dietrichson finally con- 
sented, and with a view of going to America, 
he was ordained in the Oslo church by the 
bishop of Christiania Stift, February 2G, 1844. 



424 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

On the lGth of May, 1844, he went on board 
the brig "Washington," in Langesund, Captain 
H. Smith commanding. This ship was loaded 
with iron and emigrants, and bound for New 
York, and on May 21st, the wind permitted the 
captain to weigh anchor. There were in all, 
112 persons on board, including the sailors. 
Mr. Dietrichson acted as chaplain during the 
vovage. He also taught the children, so that 
on this occasion, the emigrants had both 
church and school. They landed in New York, 
July 9. 

In New York, Dietrichson preached twice 
for Norwegians, Swedes and Danes, the 6th 
Sunday after Trinity, and the following Sun- 
day. 

He landed in Milwaukee, August 5, 1844. 
From Milwaukee he went on to Muskego, 
where he stopped a short time with Rev. C. L. 
Clausen, whose ordination he recognized as 
regular, in every respect. 

On one of the last days of August, 1844, 
Dietrichson arrived on Koshkonong, and there 
he at once began to preach and organize the 
people into congregations. 

From the records kept by him of those im- 
portant events in the Norwegian American 



J. W. C. DIETRICHSON. 425 

Lutheran church history, I make the follow- 
ing extract, translated from the first page of 
the Protocol or Register : 

"Friday, the 30th of August, 1844, I, Johan- 
nes Wilhelm Christian Dietrichson, from my 
fatherland, Norway, regularly ordained minis- 
ter in the Lutheran church, held service for tin* 
Norwegian settlers living on Koshkonong 
Prairie. In this first service which I held Iiere, 
said day's afternoon, I preached in a barn at 
Amund Anderson's,* on the words in Rev. 3, 11, 
'Behold I come quickly; hold that fast which 
thou hast, that no man take thy crown!' I 
sought according to the grace God gave me to 
impress solemnly, upon my countrymen's 
hearts, the importance of holding fast to the 
true saving faith and to the edifying ritual 
of the church of our fathers here in this 
land divided by so many erroneous sects. On 
Sunday, September 1, the 13th Sunday after 
Trinity, I held a service in the forenoon, and 
also administered the Lord's supper, in the 
same place, in the presence of a numerous gath- 
ering. This was in the eastern part of the set- 
tlement. 

"On Monday, September 2, I held service and 

* In the northeast part of the town of Albion.— R. B. A. 



426 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

communion in the western part of the settle- 
ment in the open air, under an oak tree on 
Knud Aslakson Juve's land." 

Mr. Dietrichson at once proceeded to organ- 
ize the people into congregations. The so- 
called East church, in the town of Christiana, 
was organized October 10, 1844, and the West 
church, in the town of Pleasant Springs, on 
October 13, 1844. "The erection of tw T o houses 
of worship," to quote the language of my 
friend, Rev. Adolph Bredesen, of Stoughton r 
Wisconsin, "was begun in the fall of 1844, and 
pushed to completion. The Western church 
was completed first, and was dedicated Decem- 
ber 19, 1844, by Pastor Dietrichson, assisted 
by his friend, Pastor Clausen, of Muskego. The 
Eastern church * * * was dedicated Jan- 
uary 31, 1845. * * * These were the first 
two Norwegian Lutheran church edifices on 
American soil. The third was the Muskego 
church, dedicated March 13, 1845. The Kosh- 
konong churches were both built of logs and 
were of the same dimensions, 36 feet long and 
28 feet wide. In both, movable benches served 
as seats, a plain table, adorned with a white 
cloth and a black w r ooden cross was the altar, 
a rude desk was the pulpit, and the baptismal 
font was hewn out of an oak log. After dedi- 




Photographed by W. A. Fermann, Stovghton, Wis 

Oak trees on Juve's farm where Rev. J. W. C. Dietrichson 
preached Sept. 2, 1844. 




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J. W. C. DIETRICHSON. 427 

eating their churches, the two Koshkonong 
parishes sent a written call to Dietrichson, to 
become their settled pastor." 

As has already been shown, the Muskego 
church was begun in the spring of 1844. It 
was used by Rev. C. L. Clausen in the autumn 
of 1844, but was not dedicated before March, 
1845. It would be stating the matter ac- 
curately, to say that the first church begun 
and built by the Norwegian immigrants in this 
century was the Muskego church; but that the 
two churches on Koshkonong, were the first to 
be dedicated. In this statement, I do not take 
into account the meeting house built by Elling 
Eielsen, in the Fox River settlement in 1842. 

Ole Knudson Trovatten became the first 
school teacher on Koshkonong, at a salary of 
$10 per month. 

Dietrichson remained in America until the 
next summer, and on the Tth of June, 1845, he 
sailed from New York in the Swedish ship 
"Thore Petr^," commanded by Capt. Ander- 
son from Gefle, and bound for Stettin. After 
twenty-eight days he reached Elsinore, and 
from there he took a steamer to Norway. The 
next year, 1846, he published in Stavanger a 
little volume containing an interesting account 



428 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

of his travels and labors among the Norwe- 
gians in America. 

During his absence, the Koshkonong con- 
gregations were served by Rev. C. L. Clausen. 

On July 11, 1846, he sailed from Norway to 
America again, and served his congregations 
until 1850, when he returned to Norway for 
good, and was succeeded the same year on 
Koshkonong by Rev. Adolph C. Preus. 

Before returning to Norway in June, 1845, 
Dietrichson had visited a considerable number 
of the Norwegian settlements, and his book 
contains many important facts in regard to 
them. He visited our dear Fox River settle- 
ment in the spring of 1845, and says there 
were at that time about 500 Norwegians in the 
colony. Some of them, he says, were Presby- 
terians, some Methodists, some Baptists, some 
Ellingians, some Quakers and some Mor- 
mons. Elling had but few adherents, but 
about 150 were Mormons. Ole Heier (Omdal) 
"was bishop and could heal the sick," Gud- 
mund Haugaas was "high priest after the or- 
der of Melchezedek in the church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints." He was also 
"counsel of the highest Mormon bishop." 
Dietrichson preached in the Fox River settle- 



LIST OF LEADERS. 429 1 

ment the 4th Sunday after Easter, 1S45. G mi- 
ni und Haugaas was present, and at the close of 
Dietrichson's sermon he said: "I desire to say a 
few words concerning the things the minister 
has uttered, if the audience will stop a mo- 
ment; at least I suppose the minister will 
stop." Dietrichson did not stop. He had 
visited Gudmund Haugaas at his house the 
day before and had had a talk with him. 
There he saw, hanging over his sofa, a fac-sim- 
ile of the golden tablets. The writing, he says, 
was a strange mixture of Greek, Hebrew, 
Syriac and other letters and of strange figures 
like Chinese writing, so that it was impossible 
to make out a single word. 



XXXVII. 
List of Leaders. 



As I am now rapidly approaching the end 
of my story, I will once more call attention 
to the names of the chief leaders and pro- 
motors of Norwegian emigration, of the 
founders of settlements, and of the first 
preachers. Their lives have been discussed 



430 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

more or less fully and I will here simply pre- 
sent their names collectively. They are: 

Kleng Peerson. 

Knud Olson Eide. 

Lars Larson (i Jeilane). 

Gjert Gregoriuson Hovland. 

Knud Anderson Slogvig. 

Bjorn Anderson Kvelre. 

Halstein Torrison. 

Nils Eothe. 

Ole Rynning. 

Ole Nattestad. 

Ansten Nattestad. 

Hans Barlien. 

Ole H. Aasland. 

Johan Nordboe. 

Gullik O. Gravdahl. 

Captain Hans Friis. 

Gudmund Sandsberg. 

Ingebret Larson Narvig. 

Hans Gasman. 

Knud Langland. 

John Luraas. 

Soren Bache. 
Johannes Johannesen. 

Gunnul O. Vindeg. 
Odd J. Himle. 
Nels S. Gilderhus. 



LIST OF LEADERS. 431 

Nels Bolstad. 

Aniund Anderson Hornefjeld. 

Thorstein Olson Bjaadlaud. 

Lars Dugstad. 

Johan Reinert Reierson. 

Elise Warenskjold. 

Ole Canuteson. 
The pioneer preachers are: 

Ole Olson Hetletvedt. 

Bjorn Hatlestad. 

Jorgen Pederson. 

Ole Heier 

Gudmund Haugaas. 

Knud Pederson. 

Hans Yalder. 

Elling Eielsen. 

C. L. Clausen. 

J. W. C. Dietrichson. 

Even Heg. 

Endre Osmtindson Aaragebo. 

Herman Osmundson Aaragebo. 

Kleng Skaar. 

Aslak Aae. 

Peder Asbjornson Mehus. 

John Brakestad. 

Such was the beginning of Norwegian im- 
migration in the United States, in the 19th 



432 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

century. From 1821 to 1840, is the first chap- 
ter of the history of the Norwegians in this 
country. I have described the immigration 
proper, down to the end of the year 1839, and 
the formation of the first six settlements, the 
last of which (Koshkonong) was started in 
1840, while I have given some account of the 
first three settlements in Texas (1850), and 
sketched the beginnings of religious work 
down to the middle of the year 1845. 



XXXVIIL 
Pioneer Life. 

How our fathers toiled and how much they 
suffered, w r e, their descendants, who are now 
enjoying the fruits of their labors, can never 
realize or know r ; and we owe them a debt of 
gratitude which we can never pay. The best 
we can do, is to live worthy lives, and try to 
keep green the memories of those w T ho did so- 
little for themselves and so much for us. 

An interesting volume might be written, de- 
scribing the life in those early Norwegian set- 
tlements. Our libraries abound in biographies 
of great men, kings and potentates; but good 



PIONEER LIFE. 433 

books on the life of the common people are 
scarce; and yet it is far more important and 
interesting to know all the little circumstances 
that sway and control a people, than it is to 
study the life of a prince who has but few feel- 
ings in common with the masses, and who is 
socially far removed from them. In perusing 
the foregoing pages, have my readers thought 
of all the toils, privations, hopes, fears, antic- 
ipations and misgivings of our dear settlers in 
Kendall, in Illinois, and in Wisconsin? Have 
you realized what the parting with dear 
friends in Norway meant? Did you travel 
with them, in your imagination, the long 
weary way across the Atlantic? Did you ac- 
company them in your sympathies on the canal 
boats and through the unfrequented forests 
on the frontier? Have you thought of the im- 
migrant's exposures, and of his patient indus- 
try? All these things must be considered by the 
reader who would fully realize what hardships 
had to be endured by those who braved the 
dangers and privations of a new country, made 
homes and fields and gardens, and prepared the 
way for advancing civilization. To [draw a 
picture of the life of the pioneer Norwegian 
settler would require the hand of a master, 
28 



434 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

nor do I think the tale could be properly un- 
folded by any one who has not had personal 
experience. 

Go, in fancy, with the new comer to Koshko- 
nong in 1840; watch him select the site for his 
future home; trudge with him the long way to 
Milwaukee, where he enters the land at the 
government land office, his little family, in the 
meantime, living in or under his covered 
wagon. Foot it back seventy miles and note 
the happiness of the wife and children when 
they see him return. Watch our pioneer set- 
tler while he builds the first shelter for his 
family, that little log cabin or dugout with 
one room, twelve by fourteen or less, and an 
attic. Notice with what hospitality he shares 
these scanty accommodations with two or three 
other families who come the next year to be- 
come his neighbors. Think of the resignation 
with which they dispensed with such things 
as could not be had or which they were not 
rich enough to buy. And yet some of the old 
settlers will tell you that they were quite com- 
fortable in those rough dwellings, and that 
they had much real enjoyment. From similar 
homes came many of the greatest men that 
America has produced. 

Then comes the turning of the sod to make 



PIONEER LIFE. 435 

fields. On the prairie, this was easy enough; 
but in the timber, what a lot of trees had to be 
removed! Did you ever see one of those huge 
breaking-plows? On its beam, which was 
from eight to twelve feet long, there was framed 
an axle, on each end of which was a wheel, 
sawed from an oak log. This wheel held the 
.plow upright. It was a sight worth seeing, 
when a ten or twelve year old boy drove an 
ox team of six to ten yoke, and the heavy, 
queer-looking plow, with its coulter and broad 
share was turning the virgin soil in black fur- 
rows two to three feet wide. And there is lots 
of work to be done. The husband and wife 
and children are all busy from early in the 
morning until late at night, building fences 
around the farm, hunting the oxen and cows 
on the boundless prairies and meadows, 
through the heavy dews, early in the morning 
and late in the evening. Prairie-fires sweep 
over the country yearly, and have to be fought 
by the whole neighborhood of settlers; and 
what little they have to sell is taken in "Kub- 
berulles," a kind of wagon made with wheels 
sawed from oak logs, to Milwaukee, or to Chi- 
cago, the nearest markets. 

The timber has been cleared, and the prairie 
sod has been turned, and the decaying \< 



4^0 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

tation produces malaria. The season of fever 
and ague has come. We visit a little log cabin, 
and find all its occupants sick. In this home 
and in these surroundings, which required all 
the patience and resignation that could be 
mustered in health, sickness wears a darker 
garb, and the new settlement always gets a 
double amount of sickness. The few distant 
neighbors are afflicted in a similar manner 
and can render no assistance. The poor in- 
valids need stout hearts and steady nerves not 
to quail under their affliction, and repent the 
day when they resolved to emigrate; but the 
bridges are burnt behind them and there is 
nothing for them to do but make the best of 
it. How gloomy the world looks through 
those bilious eyes with throbbing temples and 
aching limbs! Death would be a relief to that 
homesick heart. There w T ere seasons in the 
Fox Eiver settlement and on Koshkonong, 
when nearly all the inhabitants were pros- 
trated by fever and ague. A couple of fortun- 
ate individuals, whose constitutions w T ere proof 
against sickness, would then go from house to 
house, give the patients some medicine, go to 
the spring for a pail of water, carry a pail of 
gruel with them, and lea\e a little for each 
patient and then return to watch over their 



PIONEER LIFE. 437 

<lear ones at home. Note the happiness in the 
faces and the tenderness in every word as these 
messengers come on their daily errands of 
mercy. Surely those good deeds done in ob- 
scurity are written in the great book. 

We need not wonder at the friendships that 
grew up among those early settlers. They 
were thousands of miles away from their kin- 
dred and as they lay with fevered brows listen- 
ing to the howling of the wolves and thought 
of their neglected cattle, wasting crops and 
hapless lot, you can imagine what it meant to 
have a neighbor come in with sympathy for 
their sufferings and with water for their 
parched tongues. When the neighbor told his 
deeper tale of woe, and how he had surmounted 
it all, the countenances of our immigrants 
would brighten and they would forget their 
pains for a time. They learned to appreciate 
the value of human sympathy and kindness, 
and they rallied from their sufferings with 
their natures purified and strengthened for the 
battle of life. 

In his carefully prepared address delivered 
at the dedication of the Pioneer monument at 
East Koshkonong, Wis., October 10, 1S94, my 
friend, Rev. Adolph Bredesen, uttered the fol- 



438 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

lowing eloquent and truthful words about the 
old Norwegian pioneers: 

"In 1890, according to the last national cen- 
sus, more than 322,000 natives of the kingdom 
of Norway w r ere then living in the United 
States. Today the Americans of Norwegian 
birth or parentage number probably not far 
from 650,000, or about one per cent, of the 
total population. Half a century ago, the 
number was probably somewhat more than 
5,000, of whom about four-fifths had domiciled 
in southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois, 
about 3,000 on this side of the state line and 
1,000 on the other. The oldest of these settle- 
ments was that on Fox river, near Ottawa, 
111., dating from 1834. The first Norwegian 
settlement in our own state was, doubtless, 
Jefferson Prairie in Kock county, and Ole Natte- 
stad, who settled there in 1838, seems to have 
been the first Norwegian settler in Wisconsin. 
The Koshkonong, Muskego and Kock Prairie 
settlements all seem to have had their incep- 
tion in 1839. The three strongholds of our 
people, fifty years ago, were Koshkonong, with 
seven or eight hundred souls, Muskego in Ra- 
cine county, with about six hundred, and the 
Fox River settlement with about four hundred 
and fifty. Wisconsin, now so populous and 



PIONEER LIFE. 439 

wealthy, was, in those early days, still a ter- 
ritory and almost an unbroken wilderness, the 
happy hunting ground of the red men. There 
was not a mile of railway within her borders, 
and even passable wagon roads were few and 
far between. Horses were scarce. I am told 
that the seven or eight hundred Norwegians 
on the Koshkonong prairies had one horse be- 
tween them and that a poor one. 'Buck and 
Bright' and a Kubberulle or other primitive 
wagon, were about the only means of trans- 
portation, and Milwaukee, or Chicago, was the 
nearest market. Milwaukee was a city of 
about 7,000 inhabitants, and Madison, our 
beautiful capital city, was an ambitious village 
of 700, while the total population of the state 
was about 35,000. 

"Our Norwegian pioneers were poor, but they 
were not paupers. They had not come here to 
beg and steal, nor to sponge on their neigh- 
bors. It was not their ambition to be organ 
grinders, peanut venders or rag-pickers. They 
had come to make by the sweat of their brows 
an honest living, and they were amply able to 
do so. They possessed stout hearts, willing 
hands, and robust health, and nearly all had 
learned at least the rudiments of some useful 
trade. And the women, our mothers and 



440 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

grandmothers, God bless them! were worthy 
consorts of the men who laid low the giants of 
the forest, and made the wilderness rejoice and 
blossom as the rose. They girded their loins 
with strength. They were able to stand al- 
most any amount of privation and toil. They 
were not afraid of a mouse. They were in 
blissful ignorance of the fact that they had 
nerves. They knew nothing of 'that tired feel- 
ing/ and did not need the services of the dentist 
every other week. They did not have soft 
velvety hands, as some of us, who were bad 
boys, had reason to know; but for all that they 
had tender, motherly hearts. They could not 
paint on china, or pound out 'The Mocking 
Bird' on the piano, but they could spin and 
knit and weave. The dear souls could not drive 
a nail any better than their granddaughters 
can, but they could drive — a yoke of oxen, and 
handle the pitchfork and the rake almost as 
well as the broom and the mop. Our mothers 
and grandmothers did not ruin our digestion 
with mince-pie and chicken-salad, but gave us 
wholesome and toothsome flatbrod and mylsa 
and brim and prim and bresta, the kind of food 
on which a hundred generations of Norway 
seamen and mountaineers have been raised. 
"Our Norwegian pioneers were ignorant of 



PIONEER LIFE. 441 

the language, the laws, and the institutions of 
their adopted country, and in this respect were, 
indeed, heavily handicapped. The German im- 
migrant found compatriots everywhere, and, 
at least, in all the larger cities German news- 
papers, German officials, German lawy< 
doctors, and business-men. The Norwegians 
had not a single newspaper, and, outside of a 
few struggling frontier settlements, there was 
practically not a soul with whom he could com- 
municate. But though our pioneers were ig- 
norant of the English language, they were not 
illiterates. They had books and could read 
them, and by and by astonished natives were 
forced to confess, 'Theni ? ere Norwegians are 
almost as white as we are, and the} 7 kin read, 
too, they kin.' If in those early Norwegian 
settlements books were few, a family Bible 
and some of Luther's writings were rarely 
wanting, even in the humblest homes. If the 
people were not versed in some of the branches 
now taught in almost every common school, 
they were well grounded in the Catechism, the 
Forklaring, and the Bible History, as all their 
bright and good grandchildren are today. 

"The houses of our pioneers of fifty years ago 
were log cabins, shanties and dugouts. Men 
:and women alike were dressed in blue drilling 



442 NORWEGIAN IMMIGRATION. 

or in coarse homespun, brought over from the 
old country in those large, bright-painted 
chests. In 1844, I am told, not a woman on 
Koshkonong prairie was the proud possessor 
of a hat. Some of the good wives and daugh- 
ters of those days sported home-made sun 
bonnets, but the majority contented themselves 
with the old-country kerchief. Carpets, kero- 
sene lamps, coal stoves, or sewing machines, 
reapers, threshing machines, top-buggies and 
Stoughton w^agons, w^ere things not dreamed 
of. 

■ "Among these pioneers of Norwegian immi- 
gration were also the pioneers of our Norwe- 
gian Lutheran church, to whom this monument 
is dedicated." 

He who continues the story of Norwegian 
immigration will find a rapidly increasing pop- 
ulation and many new settlements to deal with. 
The materials continually grow more abun- 
dant and complicated. The Norwegian group 
of our population is today scattered throughout 
the United States. There are hundreds of 
churches and ministers, scores of newspapers, 
and a large number of colleges and academies. 
Scandinavian professorships have also been es- 
tablished in many of the leading American 
universities and colleges. The Writer of this 



PIONEER LIFE. 443 

volume Lad tbe honor of filling the firsl chair 
of Scandinavian languages in an American 

university. 

This large body of Norwegians become 
Americanized fully as rapidly as any other 
class of immigrants from the European conti- 
nent They acquire the English language 
easily, and make most loyal citizens. They are 
by nature industrious and thrifty and pay 
much attention to the proper education of their 
children. It is universally admitted that tin* 
Norwegians are among the most desirable im- 
migrants to this country from Europe. While 
the Norwegians have filled a considerable 
number of offices, national, state, and county 
and as a rule with great credit to themselves, 
they are not an office-seeking class. The Nor- 
wegian press is, as a rule, enlightened and ex- 
ceedingly loyal to the highest interests of 
America and her institutions. 



444 APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX 



Brief Sketch of the Author. 

Assuming that some of the readers may be 
interested in learning something about the 
author of this volume, and in as much as he 
is a descendant of one of those who constituted 
the exodus of 1836, a brief sketch of him is 
here given. It is copied, with some omissions, 
from the Madison, Wisconsin, Democrat: 

"Hon. Easmus B. Anderson, the Norse 
scholar, was born in the township of Albion, 
Dane county, Wis., January 12, 1846. His 
father, Bjorn Anderson, came from Norway in 
1836. 

"Rasmus B. Anderson grew up on the farm 
of his parents in Albion, and as a boy he dili- 
gently attended the public school. He also 
received instruction from Carl Johan Rasch at 
the parsonage of Rev. A. C. Preus on Koshko- 
nong. 

"From 1862--1865 he attended the Norwegian 
Luther College at Decorah, Iowa, and is a 



BRIEF SHETCH OF THE AUTHOR. 445 

member of the first class of alumni of that in- 
stitution. In 18GG he was made professor of 
Greek and modern languages at Albion Acad- 
emy near his home. 

"On account of his success at this school he 
attracted the notice of the authorities of the 
University of Wisconsin at Madison. Having 
severed his connection with Albion Academy, 
he spent the spring term of 1869 as a post- 
graduate student in the University of Wiscon- 
sin, at the end of which time he was made an 
instructor in languages in the institution. He 
served in this capacity until the summer of 
1875, when the professorship of Scandinavian 
languages and literature was created for him. 
Before this time he had lectured on Scandina- 
vian subjects, and had, as an instructor, taught 
the Scandinavian languages. He also founded 
a Scandinavian library in the university. This 
project received the cordial support of the 
famous Norwegian violinist, Ole Bull, who, on 
the 17th of May, 1872, (Norway's natal day), 
gave a concert in Madison in aid of the enter- 
prise. Prof. Anderson and Ole Bull were very 
warm friends. Madison was for some years Ole 
Bull's American home. Together they con- 
ceived many a scheme for the spread of the 
fame of Norway and the Norsemen. Among 



446 APPENDIX. 

other things they formed a plan and started a 
fund for the erection of a monument in honor 
of Leif Erikson. This monument was erected 
in Boston in 1887. In 1872 Prof. Anderson 
visited Norway in company with Ole Bull to 
extend his acquaintance with the literature 
and scholars of northern Europe. On this trip 
he met the Norwegian poet, Bjornson, with 
whom he traveled on foot through some of the 
most delightful parts of Norway. Several years 
later Bjornson visited America, and made a 
lecturing tour among his countrymen through- 
out the northwest, under the auspices of Prof. 
Anderson, at whose home in Madison he was 
a frequent guest. 

"Prof. Anderson has been a prolific writer. 
He began to write for the press at the age of 19, 
and he has ever since been an extensive con- 
tributor to both Norwegian and American 
periodicals. He has contributed also to John- 
son's Universal Cyclopedia, McClintock & 
Strong's Cyclopedia, and Kiddel and Schem's 
Year Book of Education, to the American Sup- 
plement to Encyclopedia Britannica and to the 
last edition of Chamber's Encyclopedia. He is 
also one of the editorial staff of Funk & Wag- 
nail's Standard Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage. I lis interest in the American common 



BRIEF SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR. 1 17 

school system has been great, and some yei 
ago he made himself widely known by con- 
ducting an active controversy in defense of it 
with the Norwegian Lutheran clergy in the 
northwest. 

"Prof. Anderson has lectured extensively 
both in this country and in Scandinavia. In 
1874 he spoke in the house of the poet Long- 
fellow to a select audience of literary celebrities 
on the subject of Norse Mythology, and in 1877 
he delivered a course of four lectures upon 
Norse literature at the Peabody Institute in 
Baltimore. 

"As an author of books he has won an en- 
viable reputation. He began his career in 
1872 with the publication of a collection of 
Norse folk-lore stories, called Julegye, now in 
the 7th edition. In 1874 he published a little 
book in Norwegian, entitled Den Norske Maal- 
sag, and also his first book in English, America 
Not Discovered by Columbus, which gives a 
short account of the discovery of America by 
the Norsemen. Of this work translations have 
appeared in Norwegian, Danish, German and 
Russian. 

"Prof. Anderson's most important contribu- 
tion to literature, Norse Mythology, appeared 
in 1875. It contains an exhaustive and &ys- 



448 APPENDIX. 

tematic presentation of the religion of the old 
Northmen. It is the only adequate treatment 
of the subject in the English language. It has 
been well received both in this country and in 
Europe, and has been translated into French, 
German, Italian and even into Danish. His 
next publication was Viking Tales of the 
North, 1877. This work contains a translation 
of the two old Norse sagas into English, and 
the Swedish author, Bishop TegneVs poem, 
Frithiofs Saga, based upon them. This work 
also contains an introduction on saga litera- 
ture and a biography of Tegner. In 1880 he 
published The Younger Edda, a translation 
from Old Norse. This book is, as it is some- 
times put, tlie New Testament of Norse my- 
thology. During the years of 1881-2 he su- 
perintended the translation and publication of 
Bjornson's novels and stories, in seven volumes. 
In 1884 he published a translation of Dr. F. 
Winkel Horn's History of the Literature of the 
Scandinavian North From the Earliest Periods 
to the Present Time. His introduction to the 
translation of Kristofer Janson's The Sped I 
Bound Fiddler contains an interesting sketch 
of Ole Bull. 

"In 1885 Prof. Anderson was appointed by 
President Cleveland United States minister to 



BRIEF SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR. 449 

Denmark, which position be held until the 
autumn of 1S89. Before receiving this ap- 
pointment (in the fall of 1883) he had severed 
his connection with the university for the pur- 
pose of going into business. 

"Prof. Anderson proved a valuable man at 
the Danish capital. He was thoroughly con- 
versant with the language of the country be- 
fore going there, and hence was in a position 
to profit much from his stay in the Athens of 
the north, where it was his good fortune to 
make the personal acquaintance of nearly all 
the scholars and artists of Scandinavia. On 
the election of President Harrison a petition, 
signed by the most prominent men of the three 
Scandinavian countries, was sent to Washing- 
ton, asking his retention in Copenhagen. 

"While in Copenhagen he became very pop- 
ular, not only in literary but also in diplomatic 
and social circles. This did not, however, pre- 
vent him from being active in a literary way. 
In 1886 he published a translation from the 
Danish of Georg Brandes's Eminent Authors 
of the Nineteenth Century. Dr. Brand ex is 
the most distinguished literary critic in Scan- 
dinavia,— the Taine of the North. In 1887 
Prof. Anderson wrote the chapter on Ancient 
29 



450 APPENDIX. 

Scandinavian Eeligion, which was published 
in a London work, entitled Non-Biblical Sys- 
tems of Religion. In 1889 London firms pub- 
lished his translation from the Swedish of Dr. 
Viktor Rydberg's monumental work, entitled 
Teutonic Mythology, his revision of Samuel 
Laing's translation of The Heimskringla or the 
Sagas of the Norse Kings, and his translation 
of Dr. Carl Lumholtz's work Among Cannibals. 

"Prof. Anderson now resides in Madison, 
Wisconsin, where he has a comfortable home. 

"On July 21, 18G8, he was married to Miss 
Bertha Karina Olson, of Cambridge, Wis. She 
was born February 11, 1848, at Bjornerud near 
Christiania, Norway, and came to this country 
with her parents in 1852. 

"Prof, and Mrs. Anderson have had five chil- 
dren, four of whom are living: Hannah Bu- 
rena, born April 18, 1869, died April IS, 1870; 
Carletta Cathrina, born December 4, 1870; 
George Krogh, born November 7, 1872; Hjal- 
mar Odin, born June 7, 1876, and Rolf Bull, 
born December 17, 1883. 

"The literary work of Prof. Anderson has 
been enormous, and even a partial list of his 
original writings and translations would out- 
run the limits of this article." 



INDEX. 



A. 

PAGE. 

Aae, Aslalc 410,431 

Aaragerbo, Endre Osmundson 

(See Osmundson). 

Aaragerbo, Herman Osmundson 

(See Osmundson ) . 

Aardal (parish) Ill, 196, 223 

Aareg 227 

AarUus 21 

Aasen, Andrew Anderson (see An- 
derson) . 
Aasen, Einar Anderson (see An- 
derson). 
Aasen, S. Jacobson(see Jacobson). 

Aasen, Sven .108 

Aasland. Ole. . .84,88,109,264,265, 368 
369, 4:0 

Abel, Henrik 12 

Abrabamson, Bertha Andrea 363 

Adams 151 

Adams (Co ) . . 152, 227, 228, 23 1 

Adams, John 27, 28 

Adland, Bertha 288 

Adland, Carrie 288 

Adland. Edwin 288 

Adland, Ellen (Jr.) 288 

Adland, Ellen (Thompson) 286 

Adland, Jessie 288 

Adland, Knud 225, i'S7 

Adland, Lavina 288 

Adland , Martha 225, 287 

Adland, Martha ( Jr . ) i!88 

Adland, Mons 197, 201, 205, 225 

247, 284-289, 368 

Adland, Mons K 286 

Adland, Mrs 289 

Adland, Peter 288 

Adland, Thomas 225,285, 287 

288, 295 

Adland, Thomas (Jr .) 288 

Adrian 144,219, 367 

JEgir....44, 148, 196-198, 206, 223-225 
231, 238, 268 

JEro 417 

Africa 214 

Alabama 42 

Albany 65, 76. 229 

Albion 107, 149, 157, 161, 162, 164 

167-170, 330, 342, 344. 315 

347. 348. 352, 353. 356, 444 

* lbion Academy 445 



PAGE. 

Alexandria .....-, 

Allen, Joseph 

Allen, Margaret... -tC, 67 

Alleu, William 46 

Alliance 87 

American Bible Society 

Amunrison. Albert Christian 164 

Amundson, Bright 104 

Amundson. Bright, Mrs 164 

Andersen, Rasmus, Kev v2 

Anderson, Abel B 164 

Anderson, Abel Catherine lj 

Anderson, Amund (Hornef jeld). . . 149 
150, 167-170, 326, 342, 3)3. 346 
347, 351, 353. 366, I 
Anderson, Amund (Kossaland) 166 

Anderson, Andrew (Aasen). 150, 171, 178 

Anderson, Andrew J 101 

Anderson, Anna 84 

Anderson, A. S 108, 406 

Anderson, Anold Andrew. ...156, 160 

163-166. 31 
Anderson,Bernt Augustinus Bruun it 4 

Anderson, Bjorn (Kvelve) 43, 155 

156, 159,-164, 171, 198, I! 

247, 248, 326, 342, 346, 347. 351 

353 356, 366, 406, ! 
Anderson, Bruun. 156, 160, 163, II 

Anderson, (Capt.) 427 

Anderson, Carletta Cathrina 450 

Anderson, Cecelia 164, 166, 108 

Anderson, Christopher 

Anderson, Dina 157, 164 

Anderson, Einar (Aasen) 150, 156, 177 

Anderson, Elizabeth 164, 163 

Anderson, George Krogh 450 

Anderson, Hannah Bureua 450 

Anderson, Hans Christian 1,. 14 

Anderson, Hjalmar Odin 

Anderson, Jacob (Slogvig) 

100, v 186, 1^7 

Anderson, Jacob (Slogvig), 31 1 - 

Anderson, J. E., Mrs 

Anderson, John 

Anderson, Knud (Slogvig) ....] 
1:35, 136, 1 1 

195, 196, 206, 2 !• 

Anderson, Lars 

Anderson, M 

Anderson, Martha 161 



452 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Anderson, Ole 278 

Anderson, Osmund (Sandsberg) . . 137 

Anderson, Easmus B., Prof ... .85, 90 

164, 168, 300, 301, 34-3 

352, 302, 407, 444, 450 

Anderson, Robert 25 

Anderson, Rolf Bull ... , 450 

Anderson, Soren 150 

Anglo-Saxon 6, 320 

Anixstad (ford) 840 

Ankerson, (Capt.) . . . .250, 257, 262, 268 
332, 361 

Archimedes, The Danish 10 

Arctic 12, 13, 300 

Arendal 374, 394 

Ariel 27 

Arizona 42 

Arkansas 42 

Armstrong, John 174 

Asbjornson, Peder (Mehus)...410, 431 

Ashby 100 

Asia 12, 20, 21', 35 

Asiatic 173, 321 

Askeland, Anders 186, 187 

Aslakson, Knud (Juve) 426 

Atlantic 12, 16, 57, 59, 67, 71, 198 

286, 316, 383, 433 

Atwater, John 67 

Atwater, Mrs 63,91,93,127, 181 

Augsvaldsnaes 389 

Aurdal 229 

Aurland 61 

Aurora , 114 

Austin 373 

Avon 253 



B. 

Babel 9 

Baptists.... 212, 230, 237, 398. 400, 408 

414, 415', 417, 428 

Bache, Soren.... 277-281, 292, 294, 366 

411, 418, 430 

Bache, Tollef 298,418, 41 

Bakke, Ellen Sanderson. 

(See Sanderson). 

Bakketun, Anna 33 

Baldwin's History of La Salle 

County 179 

Baldimore 197, 447 

Bald i more American 73,' 75 

Baraboo ... 341 345 

Barby 21 

Barlians 235 

Barlien, Hans. . . . 188, 235, 236, 369J 430 

Bauge, Thomas 197, 198 

Bayard, Thomas F 26 

Beaver Creek ... . 161,184,198-208, 211 

210, 228, 225, 216-248, 276, U84, 285 

328, 358. 868 

Behrens (Capt.) 44, 197 



PAGE.. 

Beitstaden (parish) 823 

Bellman 14 

Beloit. ... 113, 166, 168, 260, 336, 338-340 
342, 345 

Bennett's History 120, 123 

Bennett, L. G. (Major).... 114, 121 
123, 126 

Bentley, William 315 

Benton (Co.) Ill, 151, 152, 410 

Beowulf 6 

Berg, Anna Olson (see Olson) . 
Berge, Knut ( see Bergh ) . 
Bergen.. . 44, 56, 64. 109, 147, 148, 151 
154. 189, 195, 196, 197, 223. 245, 268 
285, 286, 295, 3:7, 358 

Bergen (family) 23, 24 

Bergen, Hans Hanson 23. 37 

Bergen, Teunis 21 

Bergh, Knut (Berge; 333 

Bering, Strait *0 

Bering, Virus 20 

Berzelius, J. J 11 

Biddulph (Adjutant), .. . .118, 120, 1*5 

Billed Magazin 215,238,247, 249 

280, 349 

Bill of Rights 5 

Biorkman, Peter 29 

Birch Run 80, 105 

Bishop Hill (Colony) 154, 181, 189 

Bjaadland, Thornstein Olson 

(See Olson). 
Bjoroson, John Haldorson. . (See 

Haklorson) 

Bjornerud 450 

Bjornson, Bjornstjerne 14,416, 448 

Black (Dr.) 377 

Blackhammer 221, 22£ 

Blair, Bernt 233 

Bloomfleld 322 

Blue Mounds 232, 322 

Bolstad, Anna Larson, Mrs . . . (See 

Larson) 
Bolstad, Nils Larson .. (See Larson) 

Bolten, Alida von 158 

Bolten, D'etrich von 158 

Bondis, G 374 

B.on Homme, Richard 27-V9 

Boone (Co ) 166, 168, 238, 253, 365 

Boorman & Johnson 70, 72 

Bosque 394 

Bosque (Co.) 1C0. 191,380-382 

C.S6-38S, 393 

Bosque (river) 393 

Boston ....27, 43, 73, 141, 180, 251, 270 
871, 31 J 

Bouton (Quartermaster) 118 

Bower, R. W. (Dr.) 106 

Bower. Mrs 177 

Bowerson. Knute 264 

Braekke, Anders Nelson. 

(See Nelson.) 
Braekke-Eiet, Halver Halversun. 
(See Halversun.) 



INDEX. 



453 



PAGE. 

Braekke. Knud 329 

Brahe, Tycho ... 

Brakestad, .John 410, 431 

Brandes, Georg 4 1;» 

Brandt, Mr 

Bradstad 06 

Bra^trop 878 

Brazos (.river) 372 

Bredesen, Adolph, Rev 426, 437 

Bremen 

Bretten, Andrew 30 1 

Brevlg 233 

Brimble, Malinda, Mrs 227 

Brimsoe, Lars Larson (See 

Lai son) 

Bristol 157 

British 2,36, 312 

British Channel 57 

British Museum 6 

Broadway (St.) 8* 

Brodstad, Annie, Mrs 349 

Brookfield 98 

Brooklyn 22, 43 

Brown. Ellen 99 

Brown, F. M W 

Brown. Lewis 20 

Biownsboro 375, 377, 378, 3S0, 3X1 

384, 394 

Brudvig. Ingebright 197, 199 200 

Bruun.Engel 88H 

BudstikKeu 383 

Buffato.. 102,165,194,229,257,262. 271 
310 312, 390 

Buffalo (Texas) 381 

Bull, Ole. 1,14, 445-44H 

Bun van, John 49 

Bush (Capt.) 116, 119 

Bussevville 346 

Butler 300 

Bygland 421 

Byron 32 

Bystolen, Maene 329, 332, 334-336 

341, 344-346, 349, 351, 353, 354, 306 



c. 

Calitornia' '. ". '. '.'. 42,'i6i, 103," 128,' 140,' 145 

225, 292 

Calumet 195 

Calvanists 212 

Calwick, 394 

Cambridge .... 164, 291 , 330, 332, 334 , 335 

345,357, 450 

Canada 325 

Canadian 67 

Canuteson, Canute 394 

Canuteson, Mrs 395 

Canuteson, Ole.... 138, 188, 190-192, 3*9 

385-395, 431 



PAGE. 

Canutesons 3S7,:r.< 

Caopelea, Didrik 

Capricorn 

Carolina, North 42 

Carolina, Boutn 42 

Carstenaen, ciaes 23. 

Gary, Susan 109 

Catholic- 189,212,319,:; 

Chamberlain, Miss 109, 409 

Chamber's Encyclopedia 

Charleston 2". 

ChHjuskin, Cape 12 

Chicago . . . 43, 07. 68,102, 123, 1 ! 

161, 165, 171. 190, 194, 196, 198 

228-231,244 847, 251. 2V;. 859 

272, 

337, 319, :, 

411, 413, 4. 

Chickamauga 

Chiekamauga (Battle*of) Z 

Chinese 4*9 

Christian the IV (King) 

Christiana 149, 168, 887, 330, 332 

334 342, 347-34'.». 

Christiania 47, 87, «02, 207, 216 

23:.. 

371, 372, 3- . 

Christianity 18, 8al 

Christians 18, 19, 43, 188, 192. 212 

Christiansand 147, 219, 374, 375 

Christiansandsposten 171 

Christopuersou, Christopher, 

(Hervig) ... 102 

Churehhill (river) 22 

Cincinnati 73. 373 

Clark (Co.) 

I Clausen. C. L, Rev. . . .257, 879.S 
296-299, 316-410, 416-422. 

Cleason, Cleas II 

Cleveland : 

Cleveland (Pres.) 148 

Clinton 237.238,2 

Close Communion Baptists . . . 

Colon, Marshall E 

Colon, Mrs 105 

Colorado 

Columbia 125 

Columbia (Co.) 

Columbia. District of.. H 

Columbian . . . 

Columbus 15, 17, 19. 21 

Colwick, O. (Kjolvig) 190 

Commercial Advertiser 6 » 

Congress 373 

Connecticut 41 

Constantinople 4 

Consulen. Ole 414, 416 

Cook(Co.) 

Cook, J. E., Mrs 

Cooperstown 73 

Copenhagen 21, 40, 226, 371, 409 

423, 449 



454 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Corneliuson, Nels (Hersdal) 101 

Cothrien, Cornelius 99 

Cowan 124 

Crittenden, Gen 118 

D. 

Dahl, Andrew (Endre) ....98, 108, ieo 
166, 174, 184, 406 

Dahl, Henrik 394 

Dah:e. O.B.. 295 

Dahlgren. JohM A 25, 86 

Dakota, .North. ...42, 43, 291, 292, 334 

Dakota, South 42, 43, 99, 148 

300, 363 

Dale, Anna, Mrs 2.)5 

Dale, John J 295 

Dale, Sjur 389 

Dallas 139, 140, 189, 190, 19% 387 

391-294 

Dallas (Co .) 369, 370, 386, 388 

Danaw 4 

Dane. ... 8, 9, 20, 22, 41-43, 164, 879, 896 

318, 31b, 383, 416, 484 

Dane (Co).... 107. 149. 157, 161, 165 

167, 388, 363, 876, 877, 81)1, 295, 38,' 

336, 388, 339, 333-331, 336, 347 

351-353. 366, 398, 415, 417 

Dane County Court House 353 

Daneville 156 

Danielson, Anna 85, 89, 90, 104 

Danielson, C. (Valle) 61,68, 151 

173, 176, 177, 197, 333, 333,389, 231 

Danielson, Da iel 89 

Danielson, Gitle 306-313 

Danielson, Gitle, Mrs 307, 308 

Danielson, Hans 164 

Danielson, Knud 838 

Danielson, Malinda 329-231 

Danielson, Rasmus 84, 89 

Danielson, Susan, Mrs 407 

Danish. . . . 1. 6, 7, 10. 21. 23, 46, 70, 73 
158, 165, 193, 899, 378, 447-449 

Darnell, Sarah, Mrs 337 

Davidson, Lars (Rekve).. 339,330, 354 

Davidson. Mrs 204 

Davis (Co.) 260 

Davis, Gen 11!) 

Day (Co.) 300 

Decherd 261 

Declaration of Independence 5. 25 

319 

Decorah 223,291, 292, 444 

De Costa, B. F 33 

Deeifteld....387, 333, 335,.336, 347, 350 
352, 853 

De Forest 339 

I >.d;iware 24-26, 42, 45 

i> -iih.kraten. 336, 295 

Denmark. . . . 1. 2, 5, 6. 8, 9, 20. 38, 40 

46, 158, 159. 165, 316, 384 

4U5, 411, 417, 418, 433, 419 



PAGE. 

Denning, Lieut 119 

Den Norske Klippe 43, 44, 148, 149 

?/i8 

Department of the Interior 353 

DeSolido 8 

Detroit. 102, 200, 219, 284, 214, 2G5, 3G7 
Dietrichson .J. W. C. Rev .... VIII. 

45, 150, 385, 355, 401, 403 
410, 414. 430, 433-439, 431 

Dodgeville 343 

Dovig, Mr 198 

Downing, Mr 856 

Drammen....315, 316, 250, 257. 259, 362 

267, 368. 377, 883, 398, 309 

317, 357, 361, 368, 366, 368 

418, 419 

Drobak 358 

Dueland, Henrik 103 

Ducleth, Gunnerius P 374 

Dugstad, Lars Olson (see Olson). 

Dunbar, Henry 313, 314 

Dunbar, Henry, Mrs 314 

Duncan's Grove 413- 

Dundas, J. C, Dr 357 

Dunkirk 876 

Dusgaard . . 303 

DyviK, Ole. 338, 339 



E. 

East (Church) 157, 426 

Edserton 339^ 

Edison 10 

Eenhjorningen ... 21 

Egersund 44, 60, 148, 196, 268 

360, 361 
Eide, Knud Olson (see Olson). 

Eidsfjord... 402 

Eidsvold 216 

Eidsvoldsman, son of 372 

Eie, Ole Thompson. 

(See Thompson.) 
Eielson, Elling.. 395, 396, 899, 4KM16- 
418, 481, 433, 437, 438, 431 
Einung, Anne Jacobson. 

(See Jacobson.) 
Einung. John Jacobson. 

(See Jacobson.) 
Einung, Austin Jacobson. 

(See Jacobson.) 
Einung, Susana Jacobson. 

(See Jacobson.) 

Ellertson, H. J 383, 419 

Ellingians 488 

Ellin^'s Meeting House 406 

Emblon (m.), Daniel 39 

Emelia 350, 856, 259, 268, 336, 361 

Emington 99, 106 

Encyclopedia Britannica 446 

Emerson, Nels 264 

Engelhoug 382 



INDEX. 



455 



PAGE. 

England ...2, 4-C, 24, 26, 45, 46, 49-51 

56, 57,71, 21(3, 263, 818, 819, 825 

English. . . .32, 46, 56, 65, 71, 70, 10'.), 188 

135, 142, 184, 101, 197, 245, 200 

260, 26:3, 283, 284, 301, 314, 320 

324, 361, 407, 441, 443, 44<>, 448 

Enighedcn 44, 60-62, 75, 148, 17? 

196, 198, 219, 2*2-221 
229, 231, 238, 268, 360 

Enochson, Anders (Quauland) 137 

Ephraim 95, 182, 40 1-404, 407 

Episcopal 115, 417 

Episcopalian 3o8 

Ericsson, John 20, 26, 30 

Erie 142 

Erie (canal) 31C, 312 

Erie (lake ) . . . . 312 

Erikson, Henrik (Sebbe) 152 

Erikson, Ida y9 

Erikson, Leif 17-20, 82, 211, 446 

Erikson, Mary 99 

Erikson (Mate) 56, 64, 93, 109 

Erikson, Torkel H 178 

Erik, The Red 17. 18 

Erik Upse 19 

Espeland, Osten 219, 220 

Etne 199. 227 

Europe 2-4, 7, 12, 15, 16, 23, 33-30 

46, 137, 159, 191, 197 

207, 318, 319, 321, 823 

361, 385, 443,446, 418 

European. . .18, 19, 31, 35, 311, 367, 443 

Evangelist 401 

Evening Post (New York) 76 

Evensen, Catherine 129, 141 

Evensen, Knut 129, 141 

Evenson, Halvor 302, 304, 305 

Evenson, John 303 

Evenson, John (Moleo).. .275, 300, 326 



R 



Faaberg 355 

Fadrelandet og Emigranten 79. 

Fairfield 166 

Fall River 199,2-38, 244 

Fareys 16 

Fargo 291 

Farmington 144 

Farsund 294,360, 361 

Fellows, Beach 94, 111 

Fellows, Joseph 64,77,102, 171 

179, 182 
Fellows, Martha, Mrs 93, 127 

173, 177 

Ferson, Alex, Col 30 

Fillmore (Co) 259,275, 322 

Fingarson, Fingar 221 

Finmarken 357 

Finnboge 19 

Finno, Anders. 327, 330, 332, 88S 

341, 366 



PAGE. 

Fister (church) 133, : 

Fister, Gudniund Osmundsou. 

(See Osomndson.) 

Fjeldberg : 

Plage, Anders 

Flateu, Rolf Rolfson. (See Rolf- 
son.) 

Fledsberg 264, 308 

Florida.. 42, 375 

Flower, Frank A 279 

Fogn 47,54,60,02, 294 

Ford (Co.) Ill 

Forest City i 

Forest, Gen 

Forsamliugshus 412 

Ft. Atkinson 888 

Ft. Wayne I 

Forth Worth 190 

Fox River (Settlement)... 95,100, 101 
112, 114, 130-141, 149, 150, 153, 168 
101, 102, 171, 170, 180, is:,, lv 
198-200, 201,220,221, '. 
231-233, 236, 244, 245. 247, 251, 254 
271, 274, 277, 280,285,2 
330, 331, 335, 342. 343, 317, 818, 
367, 309, 386, 389-391, 397, 3*8, 400 
400, 409, 411, 427, I 

Four Mile Prairie ... 189, 140, 878 

380-v 

Foven, Svend 381, 3n"> 

Foycn, Mrs 

France.... 2, 4, 5, 24, 30, 46. 

Franklin 121 

Franklin (Battle of) 112, 114, 125 

Fredrick the VI (King) 158 

Fredriksen, Dean 

Fredriksen. Emil 381, 395 

Fredrikstad 

Freedom 230 

Free Soiler 

Fremont, Mr 

French.... 5, 11, 33, 184, 235, 305, 319 
371, : 

Frenchman 31. 208 

Freydis 19 

Fribert, Mr 410 

Friends 47, C3, 75, 104, 1 1 

170, 101 

Fries. Jer. F U 

Friis, Hans (Capt.) 360-: 

Froland, Anna 

Froland, Nils 197, 1. 

Fruito 101 

Fruland, Lars 178 

Fruland, Nels 178 

Fuller & Johnson Manufacturing 

Co 328 

Fulton, William 

Funchal 

Funk & Wagnall's Standard Dic- 
tionary 

I unKeli (bridge) 



456 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

runKelien, Halvor 355 

Fyen (Stift) 417 



G. 



re, v, 



Gaard. Andrew 1? 

Gade 

Gallic ... 32 

Galveston 273 

Gardar lfi 

Gartineau, Benjamin 20 

Gasman (Capt.) 35S 

Gasman, Hans 358, 373, 416, 430 

Gauceson, Erik (Midboen) ... 282, 256 
Gauteson, Gunder (Midboen). 232, 256 

Gene 427 

General Land Office 352 

Georgia 42 

German 11, 41, 132, 184, 192, 197 

208, 241, 256, 279, 319, 301 
371, 374, 441, 447, 448 

German Lutheran 296, 413, 418 

Germany 319, 324 

Gerude 6 

Gibraltar 4 

Gilbertson, Gilbert G ... 258 

Gilderhus, Anna 329 

Gilderhus, Nds Siverson. 

(See Siverson ) 

Gilderhus, Ole K 329, 330 

Gilderhus, Ole S , 8*1, :-50 

Gilderhus, Stephen K 329 

Gin House 378 

Gjaistvang. Andreas 382, 383 



PAGE. 

Greenwood 392 

Gregoriuson, Gjert (Hovland) ... 81 

82, 129, 141, 146, 147, 175 

195, 206, 831, 389, 430 

Greusel (Col.) 115,117-119, 121 

Greig 14 

Griggs, S. a, &Co 123 

Grimestad, Klas 331, 332 

Grimm 9 

Grogaard, Christian 37 2, 374 

376, 384 
Grogaard, Hans Jacob, Rev. .. 372 , 376 

Grundtvig 14 

Gudbransdsdalen 355 

(iuubrausdal 13S, 140 

Gudrid 19 

Guizot 32 

Gulbranson, Erik (Skavlem). .252, 262 
Gulbraudson, Gulbrand (Myhre).. 257 



262 
257 
256 

262 



Gjermundson, Gjermund 260 

Glermundson, Gunnel 200 

Gjermundson, Hans (Haugen)... 200 

Gjustein, Knud 329 

Glaim Cfarm) 259 

Glaim, Helleik 5559 

Glenn (Co.) 101 

Glenwood 292 

Goodhue (Co.) 164, 202 

Goodrich, Ezra 338, 339 

Goodrich's ferry 108, 342 

Gothenborg ....40, 54, 63, 81, 132, 134 

154, 199, 231, 238, 243, 244 

251, 255, 262, 264, 2liS, 270 

„ , 290, 292, 309, 310, 312 

Gothic \ 35 

Graceland (cemetery) 413 

Grant (Co.) 100 

Grant (Pies.) 289 

Qravdahl Gullek 258, 259 

306, 430 

Great Britain 10 

Great Lakes 130 

Greece - 4 

Greek 4,"9V32,'429, 445 

Greeley, Horace 289 

Green Lake (Co.) 142. 144, 146 

Greenland , 4, 13, 19 1 



Guidbrandson, Guldbrand, Mrs.. 

Guidbrandson, Jens (Mynre). .. 

257 

Guidbrandson. Jens, Mrs 257 

Gullixsrud, Torsten L gebrigtson. 
(See Ingebrigtson ) 

Gimderson. Ellen Maline 391 

Gunuison. Ole 340, 341 

Gustaff, Oliver 29 

Gu*tavus, Adolphus 5 

Guthrie Center 97, 127 

Guthrie ( Co.) 98 

Gyntelberg, C. F 371 



II. 



Haa (parish) 106 

Haldorson, John (Bjorgo). .. 323, 329 
331,349, 350 

Hale, John P 289 

Hallingdal 295 

Hailing, Nils 337,344, 346 

Hall (Lieut.) 125 

Hah orson, Andreas 275 

Halvorson, Andrew 84 

Halvorson, Halstein 256. 266 

Halvorson, Halvor 47 

Halvorson, Halvor (Brcekk-Eiet). 241 

Halvorson, Halvor K 178 

Halvorsou, Knud 178 

Halvorson, Nels 178 

Hamar 383 

Hamburg 40,112,132,268, 371 

Hamilton — 88B 

Hamilton (Co.).... 385 

Hamlet 6 

Hancock, Pres 23 

Hauley Falls 259 

Hanson (dancing master) 899 

Hanson, E., Dr 857 

Hanson, Gjermund 2C1 ; 203 



INDEX. 






PAOE. 

'Hanson, Hans 178 

Hanson, Miss 894 

Hanson, Ole (see Consulen). 

Hardanger 240, 402 

Hardanger (fjord) M 

Harewood General Hospital 364 

Harrison, Pres 4-ti* 

Hartman l-l 

Hanvig, Henrick 86 

Hattlestad, Anna 227 

Hattlestad, Bjorn 398, 410, 431 

Hattlestad, O. J., Rev 220, 2.'? 

295, 368, 410, 411 

Haugaas, Caroline C 1(K> 

Haugaas, Caroline, Mrs 106 

Haugaas, Daniel 106 

Haugaas. Gudmund 92,100, 1(J5 

106, 108, 174, 175, 177. 356, 309 
401, 402, 410,411, 488, 439, 4: 1 

Haugaas, Thomas 106,177, 399 

Hauge, Hans Nielsou 48, 49 

Haugea, Baard 328 

Haugen, Ha Ivor Pederson. 

(See Pederson\ 

Haugians ....48, 110, 217, 287, 397-400 

409, 411, 417. 421 

Havre.... 40, 132, 268, 355, 372,374, 375 

Havre de Grace 875 

Hayer, A 237 

Hayer & Thompson. 237 

Hayer, Benjamin 23; 

Hayer, Christian 2i7 

Hayer, Ole 237 

Hebrew 429 

Hedemarken 38.' 

Hrg, Andrea 8SH 

Heg, Cornelia, Mrs 316 

Heg, Even H 226, 267, 878-288, 293 
311, 366, 410, 418-422, 431 

Heg (famijy) 262 

Heg, UaiAC. (Col.) 113, 115, 121 

123, 275,279-283, 316 

Heg, Mrs 881 

Heg, Ole 280 

Heier, Ole Olson (See Olson) 

Helge !9 

Heigeson, Thor. (Kirkejord). 252, 262 
Helgeson, Tuorstein (Kirkejord) 

252, 262 

Hellekson (Krokan) 309 

Hellen 135, 137 

Henderson (Co.) 381, 382, 394 

Hendrickson, Anna (Sebbe) 152 

Hendrickson, Christian 868 

Henry (Co) 181, 189 

Hercules, Pillars of 4 

Herjuifson, Bjarne 18 

Hersdal, Amelia 94 

Hersdal, Ann 98, 94 

Hersdal, Bertha.. 92, 101, 105, 128, 130 

Hersdal, Caroline (Kari) 

93, 94, 102, 129, 130, 160, 175 
Hersdal, Catherine 130 



PAOE. 

Hersdal, Cornelius Nelson . . . < 
Nel- 

Hersdal, fnger 

Hersdal, Martha. ... 
Hersdal, Nele •. 130, 141. 176 

ii, Neis Oorneliuson 

ii. Nels Nelson (fit 

Hersdal, Peter ... 94 

Hersdal, Sara (Sarah). 

Hersdal, Susanne (01 

Hervig, Caroline |0S 

Hervig, Cecelia 102 

Hervig, Christopher Christoph 

son (See Christopli-M s 

Hervig, Erik Jul 

Hervig, H 79, 92, 101, 108-106 

Hervig, Jochum 

Hervig, Martha, Mrs 104 

He^hammer 54, 130, 171, 179 

Hetletvedt (farm) no 

Hetletvedt, Jacob Olson .. ..(See 

Olson- 
Hetletvedt.Knud 0'son(See Olson) 
Hetletvedt, Lars01s->n & 
Hetletvedt, Ole Olson. (See Olson) 

Hitch and 415 

Hille, Metta 47, 50 

Hille, Thomas 47, 50 

Hhnle, Odd J ....328, 334, sa% 347, 850 
352,.; 

Himoe, Stephen 0,Dr 

Hindoo 

Hisdal, Mr 194 

Hiser, Lena 

Hitterdal (oarish) 8 

Hjelmeiaud.... Ill, 133, 134, 152. 196 
K1U, 889 

Hjertdal 

Hjorthoi 

Hoffman, Francis Allen, Rev. 413, 416 

Ho.censon, Ole 

Holberg 14 

Holland 23, 51,70. 

Holley I 

Holm, Mads 

Holm, Mads. Mrs 

Holo, Lars Johanneson 

(See Johannesou.) 

Holo, Martin L 

Holt 

Hood's (army) IS 

Horn. F. WiuJcel, Dr 

Hornefjeld 140 

Hornefjeld, Amund \nderson 

(See Anderson.) 

Horten 

Horveudel.. 

Houston 

Houston (Co.) 

Hovland, Gjert Gregoriuson 

B6 Gregoriuson.) 
Hoya, Mr 



458 



INDEX, 



PAGE. 

Hudson 294 

Hudson Bay 81, 22 

Hudson (river) 229,310, 312 

Huguenots 50, 217 

Humboldt (Co.)... 94 

Huron (lake) 317 

Huse, Andrew 392 

Hveen S 

Hylle, KnudJ 331 



Ibsen 14 

Iceland 1, 5, 15, 17, 19, 20 

Icelanders 2, 14 

Icelandic 1,2, 320 

Idaho 42, 43 

Illinois. . . .42, 43, GO, 65, 67, 68, 82, 83 
86. 94, 96-113, 120, 127-130, 133 
137, 139, 141, 149-151. 153, 15 i, 160 
162, 164-168, 171-174, 180, 18i 
189-193, 203, 204, 209, 214. 215, 221 
223, 227-232, 237, 238, 244, 245, 248 
252. 253. 255, 260, 271-274, 277, 280 
286, 295,334, 350, 357, 365 308, 369 
o72, 387, 394, 398, 400, 409, 411 
413, 417, 433, 438 

Illinois (river) 358 

Illinois (vol.) ...114, 115, 1?0, 121, 123 

Independence 291 

Indiana ...42, 84, 87, 109, 214, 220, 204 
205, 328, 357, 368 

Indian Creek 221 , 399 

Indian Hill 321 

Indian Mound 419 

Indianola 405 

Indians 107, 210, 258, 278, 279, 292 

403-405 

Ingebretson, Syvert 278 

Ingebrigutson, Torsten. 

(Gullixsrud).... 232 

Iowa 42, 43, 97-99, 111, 112, 127 

151-154. 157, 104, 185-187, 193 
222. 227. 228,231, 232. 236, 237 
857, 277, 278, 291, 292, 305, 867 
368, 309, 400, 409, 410, 412, 441 

Irish 41, 422 

Irish Catholic 421 

Iroquois (Co.) 161.198,199, 240 

286, 368 

Italian 448 

Italy 8, 24 

Iversou, Catharine 9i 

[verson, Haivor 92 

[verootr, Knud 94 

Iverson, Paul 178 



Jackson , George (Capt.) . . .261 , 263 , 26 1 
Jacobs, Daniel 99 



PAGE. 

Jacobs, Jacob 99 

Jacobs, James B 90 

Jacobs, John 99 

Jacobs, Joseph 99 

Jacobs, Jens 99 

Jacobs, Mary 99 

Jacobson, Anne (Einong) 316, 317 

322-326 

Jacobson, Enoch 47 

Jacobson, Hans J 274. 298 

Jacobson, John (Einong) 275, 316 

Jacobson, Osten (Einong) 316 

Jacobson, S. (Aasen) 184 

Jacobson, Susana (Ein just) 317 

Janesville 108, 342 

Janson, Charlotte Marie 181 

Janson, Erik 154, 181 , 189 

Janson, Kristofer 44S 

Jansonisra 154 

Jansonite 154 

Jefferson Prairie (settlement) 106 

237, 251-204, 313, 336 
338, 339, 342-345, 347 
305, 421, 422, 438 
Jeilane, Lars Larson i(see Larson). 

Jellarviken, Haivor 309 

Jenks(Capt) 21, 22 

Jensen (Capt.) 44, 190 

Jensen, Jens 394 

Jensen, Mr 313 

Jensen, Rasmus 21 

Jerauld (Co.) 99 

Jermo, Marie L 329 

Jerstad, Lars 329 

Jews 53 

Johannesen, Johannes 277-2H1 . 292 

366, 411, 418, 430- 
Johanneson, Anders (Tommersti- 

gen) 356 

Johanneson, Lars (Holo) . ...355, 358 

Johanneson, Peter 356 

Johnson, Anna Bertha 149, 169 

Johnson, Bessie P 291 

Johnson, and Boorman 70. 72 

Johnson, Canute 89 

Johnson, Elizabeth 88, 89 

Johnson, Erik (Saevig) 149, 169 

-Johnson, George 29, 92, 108, 140 

Johnson, Gjermund 292 

Johnson, Henry W 96 

Jor.n?on, Ingeborg... 105, 149. 150, 168 

Johnson, Inger 87. 88, 105 

Johnson, John.. 84,88,89 

Johnson, John H9, 109 

Johnson, Lew. s .' 164 

Jonnson, Malinda iu4 

Johnson, Martha A 291 

Johnson, Martin N 291, 334 

Johnson, Mary H 292 

Johnson, Mr 223 

Johnson, Nelson (Kaasa) 290-292 

Johnson, Nils 309 

Johnson, O 394 



INDEX. 



450 



PAGE. 

Johnson, Ole 8C-S8, 92, 104, 108 

Johnson, Phoebe.. 87, 105 

Johnson, Raynaud 

Johnson, Salinda 

Johnson, Thomas 26-30, 37 

Johnson, Torsten :.'2 1 

Johnson's Universal Cyclopaedia.. 

69, 448 

Johnsonville 261 

Johnston's Saw Mill 

Jones, Mr 338 

Jones, Paul 26-29 

Jordanson, Salve 848 

Juno 189 

Jutland 6. 5i0 

Juve, Knud Aslakson . . (See Aslakson) 



K. 



Kaasa (farm) 

Kaasa, Nelson Johnson (See 

Johnson) 
Kalrud, Permit Nelson(See Nelson) 

Kalmar Nyekel 25, 

Kamchtna (Sea of) 

Kansas 42,43,95, 140, 

Kansas City 07, 

Karnni (Karmt) 389, 

Karmt (See Karaio) 

Kaufman (Co.) 

Kauring, Rev 

Kendall 04, 68, 77-109, 129, 131, 

139, 141, 150, 170-176, 

180. 183, 184, 192, 193, 

264-266. 304, 365, 307, 

397, 398, 409, 

Kendall (Co.) ... 110, 113, 1*8, 254, 

Kenosha : 

Kentucky 

Keokuk 154, 185, 186, 236, 355, 

Keppler 

Key West 

Kiddle & Schem's Year Book of 

Education 

Kiel 

Kiedand Company 

Kilbourn 

Kilbourn City 

Kirkejord, Thorstein Helgeson. 

(See Helgeson.) 
Kirkejord, Thor Helgeson. 

(See Helgeson.) 
Kittelson . Thor (Savimbil) . . .232, 

Kjeling, Knud 

Kjimlms 

Kjolvig, O (See Kolwick.) 

Kjonaas, Anna 

Kjonaas. Ole 

K j> laa, Sven 

Klep (parish) 



29m 



382 
889 

13s 
179 
214 
369 I 
433 
305 
140 
42 
869 
8 
375 

440 
4" 
^3 

166 

315 



Kuudsou, Ojermund (Sui. ' 
Knudsou, Halvor ... 178, l 

Knudson, Knud 

Kmulsc.n, Ole 

Knudson Ole (Trovattan) .... 
Kimtson. Gunnud (Movem) .. 

Knutson, Halvor 178 

Kohler (brigBJ ...43, 45, 103, 186. II* 
151, 15.3, 150, 161 

Kongsberg 

Kopervig 

Koshkonong ...180, 187, 167, : 

866. 491, 102, I! ;. 418, 

424-42* 

442, 441 

Koshkonong (creek) 84 

Koshkonong (lake) 161, ■;. 

Kragh. Rev 210, 11* 

Krau>.\ L. F. E., Rev 418 

Kravig, Halvor 341 

Krogh, Able Catherine von. .. .43. 159 
Krogh, Bernhai'dus Arnoldus von. 158 

Krogh, George Frederick von 158 

KroKan (see Heliekson). 

Kumlien, Thure 346 

Kvelve 155, 159 

Kvelve, Bjorn Anderson. 

(See Anderson.) 

Kvendalen, Lars 169, 337, 344, 3*6 

Kvinhered (parish) ... 149 

L. 



La Crosse 

La Fayette (Co.) 

Laing, Samuel 

Lakeside 

Lamoreux, S. W 

Lam prenen 

Langesund (fjord) 270, 

Langland, Frauk 

Langland, James 

Langland, Knut VIII. 147, 173, 

201. 

896, 358, 

Langland, Mrs 

Langland, N. P 197, 224, 

Langland, Peter 887, 

Lapeer 

Laps 

Lamed 95, 

Larson, Anna (Bolstad), Bin 

336,345, 

Larson, Chloe A 

Larson, Clara Elisabeth .. 

Larson, EliasTastad 67, 

Larson, Elisha 145, 

Larson, Emma 

Larson, Even D 






354 

21 

421 

198 

307 
231 

13 

140 
332 

111 
68 

146 

111 



460 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

■Larson, George Marion OS 

Larson, Georgiana Henrietta OS 

Larson, Gilbert B 144, 145 

Larson, Gilbert J 142 

Larson, Ida 145 

Larson, Ingebret (Narvig) 141-146 

179-182. 220. 356, 367, 396, 430 

Larson. Inger Marie 67 

Larson, Johan 194, 195 

Larson, Lars (Brimsoe) 151-15 > 

Larson, Lars (i Jeilane ) . . 45-47, 50, 55 

58, 59, 63-67, 83, 84, 91-03 

108, 128, 130, 131, 147 

155, 160, 367, 396, 430 

Larson, Lars, Mrs 93 

Larson, Lydia Glazier 67 

Larson, Martha Georgiana ... 57, 66 

67, 130 

Larson, Martha Jane. ...;... 68, 69 , 85 

Larson, Martin 85 

Larson, Miss 69 

Larson, Mils fBolstad) ...327,337, 341 
344, 47,349,351-354,366, 431 

Larson, Ole 274 

Larson, Sara 47, 92, 103 

La Salle (Co) 82, 94, 96-110, 114 

129, 133, 135, 141, 14,-156 
160, 161, 164, 163, 171-174 
177, 179, 180, 181, 1S3, 18(5 
187, 190, 192-195, 198, 199 
' 22 1 -2 :4, 230, 232, 237, 214 

251, 254, 334, 349, 350, 335 
390. 392, 399, 408, 4 10, 411 

Latter Day Saints 105,103, 177 

.399-401, 428 

Lat'n 9, 11, 320 

Lauman, Mr 355 

Lawson, Iver 285 

Lawson, Iver, Mrs 227 

Lawson, Victor Fremont.. 227, 28 \ 331 

Lee, Adders N 332 

Lee (Co.) 103, 112, 149, 151 

185-188, 193. 254, 365. 368. 369, 391 
Lee, Nels A. . . .327, 330-332, 325, 336, 350 

351 

Lagendre 13 

Lohi 402, 403, 408 

Liebolds, Col... 119 

L^idal, Anfiu 329, 330 

Leire ... 6 

Leland .... 237, 399 

Lenawee 219-221 

Lewauo»e 144, 367 

Lhwu, Dollie 99 

Lewis, Isabel (Mrs.) 106 

Libby (prison) ... 122 

Libyan 4 

Len, Henrik 341 

Lien, Ole (Sr.) 343 

Lier 2si 

Lier, Lars 340, 341 

Lier, ole 337 

Lillesand 374 



PAGE. 

Lilley, Robert.... 69, 76 

Lima, Simon 92, 101 

Lincoln, Pres ... . 260, 289 

Lind, Chas 84 

Lind, Claudine 84 

Lind, Ellen 84 

Lind. Jenny 1, 14 

Linne, Carl von 10, 11 

Lisbon 113 

Lisett 57 

Liverpool ... 216, 249 

Livingston (Co.) 99, 111 

Lockport 6» 

Lohner, Halvor Nelson. 

(See Nelson.) 

Lohner, Kittle 275 

Loiten 882 

London 11 , 46, 67, 450 

London (Wis.) 103 

Lonfl >k, Halvor (Viulete) ....399, 313 

Loi.gfellovv, H. W 447 

Long Island 23 

Lonj; Island Sound 70, 72 

Lockhart, D. M. (Capt.) 363 

Los Angeles 292 

Lossing. Benson John 32 

Lruisiana 42, 373, 3"6 

Lovrsnskjold, Mr 234 

Lubeck 158 

Ludvig. Mr 233 

Lumholtz, Carl 450 

Lind, A. C 406 

Lund , A H (Apostle) 403 

Luraas (family) 268, 275. 198 

300, 366 

Luraas (farm) 269 

Luraas, Halvor Osteuson. 

(See Ostenson.) 
Luraas, John Nelson. 

(See Nelson.) 

Lurq RSt Knudt 30) 

Luthean 190,212,225.228,279, x87 

289, 293. 297. 299 . 303, 323. 324, I 3 3 

380, 381, 388, 395-398, 401 ,409, 410 

414,4 iP, 117,419,420,423,425, 423 

442. 147 

Lutber College 333, 441 

Lutner Valley 252, 253 

Lyd vo, Kuud 329 

Lydvo, Nils 329 

Lydvo, Ole 329 



M. 

McClintock and Strong's Cyclo- 
pedia 446 

McCook (Major General) 118 

McFadden, William F 67 

Mackinac, Str. of 390 

Madeira 58,71, 72 

Malison 156,161,164,215,293, 300 

310, 322, 328, 329. 35~, 439, 445-416 



INDEX. 



401 



., ,. ~ PAG*. 

Madison Democrat 44 4 

Madland, Christina 1QU 

Madiand, Jens kk) 

Madlaud, J. O. D 10o 

Madland, Julia 100,101, 105 

Madlaud, Martba 100 

Madland, Rachel 100, ]0S 

Madland, Serena 100 12tf 

Madland, Thomas. ...92,03, 100, 103, 105 
lou, 128 

Madsen, Dr 317 

Madvig, J. N y 

Manila Charta 5, 811 

Magnolia 876 

Maine 41 

Mai let, Paul Henri 83, 34 

Manchester 113, 2>1 

Mandal . . 20 

Manhattan (isle) 22 

Manti Temple 405 

March, John H 72 

Markland lit 

Marquette 141, 146 

Marseilles 97, 9b 

Marsett, Canute Peterson. 

(See Peterson.) 

Marsett, Peter Cornelius 95 

Marshall 374 

Marshall (.Co ) 174 

Maryland 42 

Massachusetts 41 , 199, 328. 214 

Matison, Helge 30.) 

Matson, C. R 333 

Mayflower 5, 25, 45, 5ti 

Menus, Peter Asbjornson 

( ->ee Asbjornson.) 

Melchizedek (order of) 399, 428 

Meiland, Carrie J 887 

Methodists 177,212,228,398. 415 

417, 428 

Methodist Episcopal 2.U 

Mexican War 80 

Michigan.... 42, 61, 68. 88, 89, 105, 107 

142-144, 140, 174. 180, 219-221 

224, 205, 330, 307, 8x6 

Michigan (Lake).... 111,203,313, 860 

Midboen, Erik Gauteson. 

(See Gauteson.) 
Midboen, Gunder Gauteson. 

(See Gauteson.) 

Middle point . 407, 410 

Mikado 89 

Mikkelson. Lars B 153 

Miller 150, 175, 195, 223 

Miller, Major 114, 115, 117, 120 

122-124 

Milton (poet) 4 

Milton (town) 108, 338. 339, 342 

Milwaukee 102, 225, 227, 251, 2(50 

262, 271-274, 87$, 890, 2 3, 294 

312, 313, 335, 349, 302, 303, 390 

421, 485, 189 

Mineral Point. 255 



Minneapolis 

.Minnesota 12. 18.89, 100,11V, 142 

ill 146, 164, i 

259, 275, *7N, 300, ;. 

Mission 94. 95, 110, 111, 114. 189 

184, 135, 160, 171, 174 

(80, 410 

M issi< >n Ridge (Battle of; 

Mississippi 42, : 

Missouri 42. 07. 103, 189, I 

185-189, 193, 2: 

Mitchell (Co.) 

Mitchell, Inger, Mrs 98, I 

137. 177 

Mitchell. JohuS 

Mitchell. M. B 137, 177 

Molee, Anne :^4 

ftfolee, Elias J 2, 5,-'.' 

Moee, Halvor 

Molee, John Evenson. (See K. 

son.) 

Molin. Peter 89 

Moilerflatou 30.) 

Monitor 20. 

Monroe (Co.) ; 

Monroe Doctrine 

Montana J2 

Moutesqti'eu 319 

Montevideo 104 

Montgomery 114 

Mon gomery (Co.) 152 

Morem. Gunnul Knutson. (S. j e 

Knutson.) 

Morg^ubladet 372 

Mormons 95. 105, 152, 177, 1 - 

237, 309,389, 398-40S, 4K 

Mormonism 

Morris, Mrs '.8 

Morse 10 

Morton, John 25, 30 

Morter 149 

Mount Enterprise 

Mount Hi -reb 421 

Muher, Max 9 

Munk, Jens 

Murfree-boro . 

Murtreesboro (Battle of) 112, 110 

Muremester, Halvor 

Murray 78 

Muskego ....225. 288,251, 

874 877, 280 284, 
313,315,321. 

303, 866,890, 411. 41 \ tl9 
421. 

Muskego (Lake) 

Muuss B J., Rev 

Myhre, Gulbrand Gulbrandson 
(See Gulbrandson). 

Myhrre, Jens Gulbranson (See 

Gulbranson) 



462 



INDEX. 



N. 

PAGE. 

Nacogdoches 374, 884 

NflBrscrand 369 

Naes, Bttrre ... 85 

Namsdkleidt 235 

Nansen, Frithiof 13 

Nap >leon 46 

Napoleonic Wars 45, 159 

Narveson, Hakon 221 

Narvig. Ingebret Larson. . (See 

Larson) 

JSaset. John J 141 

Nashville 26 1 

Nashville pike 119 

Natchitoches 373, 376 

Nattestad, Ansten... 199,202,207, 215 

217,238,239.241,248,249, 253 

257,258,502,267-268,336, 314 

358, 430 

Nattestad, Henry 249 

Nattestad, Ole. . ..199,200,202.215, 216 

237, 238,247-255, 263, 266. 267 

344,365,430,' 438 

Nauvoo 369, 400 

Nebra, ka 42. 43, 98 

Neison, Amelia 95 

Nelson, Anders (Brackke), . . . — 329 

Nelson, Anna (Solkeirn) , 291 

Nelson, Bergit (Kalsudj 256 

Nelson, Cornelius (Hersdal) 91, 93 

101,127,129, 130,140,175,182. 401 

Nelson, Halvor 178 

Nelson, Halvor (Lohner) 298 

Nelson, Herman (Tufte) 295 

Nelson, I ia 102 

Nelson, John (Luraas)... 268,269, 276 
277,309,430 

Nelson, John (Rue) 232, 256 

Nelson, John W 291 

Nelson, Jalia 2S8 

Nelson, Knute 332 

Nelson, Lars 178 

Nelson, Malinda, Mrs 228, 229 

Nelson, Nels 86 

Nelson, Nels (Hersdal) ....92,94, 10. 
■•02, 128-130, 150, 175 

Nelson, Nels (Skogen) 264 

Nelson, Peter 102, 2U 

Nelson, Peter C 95, 96 

Nelson, Peter (Ovrabo) 230 

Nelson, Susan . 40. 

Neuson, Gunhild 30' 

Nevada 42 

New Amsterdam 22, 23 

Newark 110, 1 12, 1 13, 253 

Newburg 219, 221, 222 

New England 51 

New England Historical and Gen- 
ealogical Register 26 

New Hampshire 41 

New Jersey 23, 41 

New Mexico 42, 146, 294 

New Norway 68 



PAGE. 

New Orleans 210. 249, 367, 372 

374-376, 379, 392 

New Port 256 

New Siberian Isles 13 

N e ws, The Chicago 333 

Newton 8 

Newville 342 

New World 17, 18, 36, 44, 56, 147 

New York .... 22 , 23, 38, 41 , 43 ,44, 54 

54, 55, 57, 60-82, 86, 93-103 

108-112, 129-133, 138, 141 

144, 148-156, 160. 163, 170 

• 171, 173, 175, 176, 179, 184 

187, 189, 191-193, 196. 197 

229. 231, 244. 250. 251, 256 

257, 262. 264-268, 271. 276 

285, 286, 293, 294, 310, 312 

327, 330, 336, 349, 355 

361, 362,361, 367. 369 

390, 397, 424. 427 

New York American — 72, 73 

New York Daily Advertiser 70, 72 

New York Gazette 70 

New York National Advertiser.. .70.72 

Niagara Falls 109, 113, 307 409 

Nichols, Mrs 229 

Neilson, S 374 

Nilson, Sigri 411 

Nilson, Svein VIII 

Nilsson, Svein, Prof. 233, 233, 237, 269, 
280, 349. 

Nilsson, Sven 8, 12 

Noble t Co.) 109, 264, 265, 368 

Nolde, Peter 29 

Nordboe 138, 187 

Nordboe, Johan. 108, 138, 140, 355, 356 
369, 370, 386-388, 391, 392, 395 
430, 140, 189, 193, 383, 387, 391 



Nordboe, Mrs 

Nordboe, Peter 

Norden 43, 148, 149, 156, 

Nordenskjold, N. A. E 

Nordlyset 225, 293-295, 

Nordstokke 

Nordvig, Anders 

Nord vig, Magdalena 

Nordvig, Malinda 

Nore 

N ore, Thore 

Norman Hill 

Normandy 5, 6 

Normandy (Texas) 375, 380. 

Normans 

Norse .... 3, 31, 32, 196, 211, 444, 447, 

Norsemen 1, 3, 15-18, 32, 33, 

318, 

Norse (P. O.) 

North Cape 12, 

North Oape Literary Society 

Northmen 1, X!8, 33, 306, 

North Sea 

Norvig, Anders 197, 198, 



139 
140 



284 
248 
285 
355 
355 
388 
319 
384 
5 
448 
312 
448 
191 
362 
289 
445 
16 
227 



INDEX. 



4C3 



PACE. 

Norvig, Magdalena, Mrs 

Norway (111.) 96, 97, 106, 823 

228-230, 413, 417 

Norway (Iowa) ill, 151, 410 

Norway (Minn.) 20i 

Norway ("Wis J 277-278 

Nova Uania gfi 

Nova Scotia is 

Nubbru, Even 240 

Nu medal.. 238, 250. 252, 255-260, 204 
286, 207, 330,342, 344, 351 

Numedalians 258 

Ny Elfsborg u, 

Nylin us, Christopher 252, 200 

Nyluius, Kittel 252, 26s! 

Nyiv, Baard 33] 



o. 



Oakland 145 

Odin 18 

Oersted, H. C 9 

OEsterdalen 13c 

QSxnavar 166 

Ouio 42, 329 

Ohio (river) 187 

Oklahoma 42 

Olmstead, Benson C 98 

Olmstead, Unas. B 98 

Olmstead (Co.) 300 

Olmstead, George 97 

Olsons 397 

Olson, Ambjor 25 

Olson, Anna (Ber^ 277 

Olson. Anna (Vindeg) 837 

Olson. Bent (Vindeg) 887 

Olson, Bertha 112, 111 

Olson, Bertha Karina 450 

Olson, (Camp) 124 

Olson, Charles P Ill 

Olson, Christian 133 

Olson, Edward ill 

Olson, Ellen (Uekve) 828 

Olson, Gunuul (Vindeg). 16 , 326. 332. 
335-355, 366, 415, 430 

Olson, Guro 107 

Olson, Hans 178 

Olson, Hedeik (Vindeg).. 337, 344, 346 
Olson, Hulda, Mrs. 93, 99. 128, 133, 176 

Olson, Jacob (Hetletvedt) 112 

O'son, James Webster 112 

Olson, John Ill 

Olson, Knud 153, 178 

Olson, Knud 882 

Olson, Knud (Eide) . 54, 55, 60, 62, 75 

171. 196, 197. 224, 229, 430 

Olson, Knud (Hetletvedt) . . . . 110,151 

Olson, Knud T 178 

Olson, Knud (Vindeg) 160 

Olson, Kolbein 'Saue) 328, 345 

Olson, Lars B 153, 178 



Olson, Lars (Capt.) . 50, 60, 61, 93, loo' 
109, 342 
Olson, Lars (Dugstad).. 167, 1 
329, 330, 343, 846, 

431 

Olson, Lars (Hetletvedt) 1 12 

Olson, Malitula m 

< Hson, Michael i;* 

Olson, Miss. 09 

Olson, Nels 

Olson, Nils ,,., isf 

Olson, O 

Olson, Ole (Heier) 

410, I 
Olson, Ole (Hetletvedt) . . 

109-113, 148, 151, :; 
408-1 
Olson, Ole (of Knud Het.) ....110, ill 

Olson, Ole (Onidal) 237, 3 

Olson, OleT 151, 178 

Olson, Peter C 111 

Olson, Porter C. 112-115, 120 1 

Olson, Rasmus \)'j, ; . 

Olson, Sara 

Olson, Sarah Anne m 

Olson, Serina 1 5 1 

Olson, Siri (Si^rid) ill 

Olson, Sophia (Jr.) Ill 

Olson, Sophia (of Knud Het.) ill 

Olson, Soren L 112, 119 

Olson, Soren (of Knud Het.).. 110, 111 

Olson, Stark (Saue) 

Olson, Thorstein (Bjaadland).. 
92, 93. 106, 107, :■ 
174, 175, 2 

342. 343, 846-848, 351 
353, 354, 300, 861 

Omaha 43 

Ombli (parish) 380 

Ombo 110 

Omdal, Ole Olson (See Olson) .... 

Ontario ... 7<). 

Ontario (Lake) 77, 79, 101. 105 

Orbek, Ouline Jacobine 379 

Oregon 42, 14»> 

Orkneys 16 

oiland. Arne 332 

Orleans (Co.). ..04.65,68,72.70-82, 104 

181,171,11 
Orsland, Canute... 84, 85, 88, 89, 165, 200 

Orsland, Hallock 

Orsland. Harry B 84,88, 265 

Orsland, Inger, Mrs 

Orsland, Jane . . 

Orsland, de 88, 86i 

Orated, Thomas Ill, 412 

Oslo (church) 

Osmondson, Endre (Aaragerbo . . . 

410, 431 
Osmundson, Gudmund (Fister) . 

133, 135 
Osmundson, Herman (Aaragerbo) 

410, 431 



404 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Ostenson, Halvor (Luraas) '60a 

OstensoD, Torger (Luraa-*) 309 

Ottawa 94.96,97,102,106,127, 137 

173-175, 190 . 230, 244, 386,390, 392, 488 

Otteson, J. A , Rev 157 

Overgaarden 235 

Overhalden 235 

Overveien 361 

Ovrabo, Peter Nelson . . (See 

Nelson). 
Ozaukee (Co.) 290 

P. 

Pacific 12 

Paoli, Gerhard C 357 

Parker, Eliza £5 

Patriol (Abany) 76 

Patterson , Martha Jane 6 s 

Patterson, Elias C 68 

Patterson, Mrs *. . . 8? 

Paulsbo ._ 417 

Peabody institute — . 417 

Pecatonica (river) 2'it 

Pedersdatier, Marie 1-3 

Pedersdatter, Sigrid (Valle) 260 

Pederson, Halvor (Haugen) 262 

Peder son, Jens (Vehus) 314, 355 

Pederson, Jorgen 399, 410, 481 

Peerson, Catherine, Mrs 181, 18-1 

Peerson, Charletta Marie 183 

Peerson, Kleng 54, 55, 60, 62, 75, 83 
86, 93. 103, 107, 127, 129 
138, 140-142. 148, 154 
160, 171-176, 179-196 
203, 219, 222. 2 SO, 829 
358,364,365,367, 369 
383, 386, 387-394, 430 

Peerson, Martha Georgiana 47 

Peerson. Ole 394 

Peerson, Samuel 229, 230 

Penn, William 57, 217 

Pennsylvania 25,42, 174, 197 

363, 367 

Pennsylvania (vol.) 363, 364 

P^rry 235 

Persian 32 

Petersburg (Battle of) 36 1 

Peterso i, Bshop . 40} 

Peterson, Sarah A., Mrs 96, 182 

401, 406, 407 

Peterson, Canute 401 

Peterson, Charles 29 

Peterson, Knud 401, 410, 431 

Peterson, Canute (Marsett) — 94, 95 

182, 184 

Philadelphia.... 24, 29, 38, 43, 363, 367 

Pikes Peak 260 

Pilgrim (fathers) 318 

Pine Lake 358, 359, 373, 415-4lf 

Pioneer History of Orleans 

Coun y, New York 82 



PAGE.. 

Pitzers. 224 

Pleasant Springs 426 

Plymouth (Mass.) 20, 51 

Plymouth (111) 253 

Poland 137 

Porsgrnnd 423 

Porter 142 

Paulson, P 394 

Prairie ville 871, 378-3*0, 385 

Presbyterian 212, 398, 428- 

Preus. A. C Rev.. ..225, 389, 428, 444 

Preus. Mrs 225 

Primrose , . . . .260, 263, 264, 415 

Protestant 2J2, 319, 323 

Protocol 425 

Puritans 32, 45, 50, 217 



Q. 

Quadlind, Anders Enochson (Sea 

Enoch son). 

Quaker. . . 46, 51, 55, 56, 63, 64, 67, 88 

100, 104, 141-143, 155, 156, 159 

160, 172, 177, 179, 191, 192, 212 

217, 220, 310, 396, 398, 428 

Quakerism 47 

Quam; J. A 96,176, 177 

Qvastad, Carl 394 



Racine 289, S9> 

Racine (Co).... 201, 225, 226, 255, 2j2 
266, 276, 277, 280, 282, 284, 28 1 
288, 291, 292, 294, 366, 421, 4;8 

Ranger 26, 27 

Ransom 106 

Rasch, Carl Johan 444 

Rask, Rasmus 9 

Rasmuson, Martha F 418 

Raymond (township) 285-287 

Readers 48, 397, 400, 401 

Record , The Chicago . . 333 

Rector(St.). 22 

Red (river; 375 

Keierson, Carl 375, 377 

Reierson, Christian.. .374, 375, 379,382 

Reierson, Gerhard 374 

Reierson, Gena 374, 375, 378 

Reierson, Henrietta 375, 376 

Reierson, Henrietta Walter, Mrs. 371 

Reierson, Johan Reinert . . VIII, 193 

255, 298, 299, 359, 869-382, 395 

415, 431 

Reiersen, John 375, 379 

Reierson, Ole 187, 374 

Reierson, Oscar 375, 3?9 

Reiersons 139 , 372, 378 

Rekve, Ellen Olson. (See Olson.) 

RennesO ?06 

Reqae, S. S., Rev 164,333- 



INDEX. 



465 



PA OK. 

Rostaurationen 83, 15,51, 53, 56 

64, 04, 07, G'J, 70, 72, 79, 1* 

844, 96i 

Reutersville 

Revolutionary War 

Reymert, James D . . . .226, 293, 89 J, 816 

Reymerta (Lake) :;io 

Reymen's (saw-mill) 816 

Richey, Cora A 96 

Kichey, Sara T., Mrs. ..93, 98, 101, 127 

Richey, Will F 96 

Richey, Win. W 97 

Ridley 86 

Riggs (Corporal) 119 

Ringebo 138, 855 

Ringn^s, Jens 894 

Ringsaker 203, 855 

Rlskedal 176 

Riverside 888 

Rhen i 4 

Rhode Tsland 41,256 

Rochambeau, Gen 80 

Rochester .. .61, 65-69, 73, 87, 88, 96 
101, 103, 104, 108, 111, 151 
160, 103, 104, 171, 17', 229 
244, 327, 349, 355. 

Rock (Co.) 109, 237. 

254, 260-264, 365, 438 

Rock Dell 800 

Rockford 168, 848 

Rock Prairie 252-259, 202, 866 

366, 415, 438 

Rock (river) 168,259,337, 340 

342, 345 

Rock Run 251 , 254, 255, 305, 300 

Rocky (mountains) 133, 184 

Rokne, Knud 331 

Rolf son , Rolf (Flaten) 274 

Rollong (parish) 238, 242, 336 

Roman 3,24-36, 318 

Roman 85 

Romer, Ole 10 

Romish 5 

Ronve, B 331 

Rosaaen, Torkel 221 

Rosadals 390 

Rosdal, Bertha 98 

Rosdal, Caroline 

Rosdal, Ellen 98, 99 

Rosdal. Hulda 98, 99 

Rosdal, John 98, 99 

Rosdal, Lars 98 

Rosdal, Ove 06, 09 

Rosecrans. Gen 120 

Rosoino, Peder SOU 

Rossaland, Mr 198 

Rossaland, Amund Anderson (Sec 
Anderson) 

Rossaland, Anna 166, 344 

Rossaland, Anders 197 

Rossaland, Piling 166, 844 

Rossaland, Endre 166, 34 i, 345 

Rossedal, Daniel Stiuson 

Stenson) 

30 



. r-AGK. 

EtSthe, Lars 

Rttthe, Nelg 151, 327, 8 

Rathe, ThorbjSr i 

Rotterdam 

Rue, John Nelson. .(See Nelson). 

Rush (CoO 

Eturaia 

Russian 

Rutland 160, 175, 177, 1 

Rydberg, Victor, Dr 

Ryfylke : 

Hyiming, Jens 

Rynning, Ole ...VIII, 161, 

245 

295, 331, 31 



s. 



Sa?tersdalians 379 

Sffltersdal : 

Saevig, Erik Johnson . . (See 

Johnson). 

St. Ansgar ....257, 258 

St. Joseph.- 

St. Louis 43, 399 

St. Paul 

Saints 

Saint Syr, Mrs 416 

Salt LakeXjity 95, 10S, 152, 401-W3 

Salt Lake Tribune 406 

Salt Lake (Valley) 

Samnanger 14s 

San Augustine 

Sandeid 43, 15.-159 

Sanderson, Elleu (Bakke) 

Sanderson, Eystein (Bakke) 184 

Sandfaerdig Beretnin* om Ameri- 
ka til Oplysning og Nytte, for 
Bonde og Menigmaad forfattet 
af en norsk, som kom derover i 

Juui Maaned 1837 303 

Sin Diego 101,103,128 

Sandsberg 136 

Samsberg. Andreas 135, 137 

Sandsberg, Anna 134 

Sandsberg, Bertha 184 

Sandsberg, Gudman. 138-135,137, 146, 

147. 177, 480. 
Sandsberg, Osmond Indersoi) 
Anderson). 

Sandsberg, Torbor 

Sandsgaard 

Sandwich 

San Francisco . 

Sin Houston 

Sanpete 

Mine, iiiilleik 331 

San.-. Kolbein Olson (See Olson). 

Saue, Lars 331 

Saue, Stark Olson (See Olson). 



46(5 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Saue, Torstein 331 

Sauk Centre 100 

Saukville 294 

Saxo 6 

Saxo, Grammatocus 3 

Saxon 33 

Saxon English 301 

Scandinavia 2, 218, 326, 404 

447, 449 

Scandinavians 1-7, 14-22. 30-34 

37-44, 91, 282, 311, 318, 319, 324 

325, 383, 402, 403, 405, 408, 442 

443, 445, 449 

Scheele, C. W 10, 11 

Scheie, Anna .. 344 

Scheie, Gayri 344 

Scheie, Lars 166, 167,343-344 

Sc b j < ">tte, Theodore 357 

Schubtead, Caroline 85, 88 

Schweigaard, A. M 53 

Scofleld, Gen 124 

Scotch 36, 293 

Scotland 293 

Scott, Gen 30 

Sebbe, Anna Hendrickson. 

(See Hendrickson.) 
Sebbe, Henrik Erikson. 

(See Erikson.) 

Sebby, J. 176 

Seland 6 

Serapis 27, 28 

Shabona Grove 168, 342 

Shakespere 6, 32 

Sheboygan 416 

Shelby (Co ) ....103, 139, 185-189, 193 
236,339, 367 

Sherborne, John Henry 29 

Sheridan.. 60, 94, 96, 99, 106, 128, 129 
141, 151, 173, 177, 223 

Sheridan, Gen 118-120 

Sherman, George D. (Major) . .122, 123 

Shreveport 374, 376-378, 392 

Shulstead, Claus 88 

Sibley, Henry 178 

Sigdal 240 

Sigard, The Volsung 31 

Sill, Gen 114, 116, 117 

Silver (Lake) 316 

Simonson, Andrew 186, 369 

Binding 14 

Siverson, Nels (Gilderhus) 327 

329-335, 346-354, 266, 430 

Skaar, Kleng 410, 431 

Skandinaven 226, 333 

Skandinaviens Stjerue 405 

Skavlem, Erik Guldbranson. 

(See Guldbranson.) 

Skien 231, 233, 251, 268, 270, 271 

358, 416 

Skjold (District).. .54, 61, 93, 130, 147 

148, 150, 151, 179, 227 

Skofstads 262 

Skofstad, Johannes 278 



PAGE. 

Skogen, Nels Nelson. 

(See Nelson.) 

Slesvigian 374 

Slogvig, Jacob Anderson. 

(See Anderson.) 
Slogvig, Knud Anderson. (See 
Anderson.) 

Smaalenene 48 

Smith, H. (Capt.) 424 

Smith, John G 337, 345, 414-416 

Smith, Lydia E 144 

Smith, William 144 

Snaasen 203 

Snorre Sturlason 14, 19 

Society, Royal 11 

Sogn 221, 293 

Solheim, Anna Nelson. (See Nel- 
son.) 

Somerset (Co.) - 174 

Sonve, Mads 331 

Sorensen, Bishop 255 

Sorensen, S 41 

Sorenson, P 423 

South Africa . . 418 

Southern Rebellion 30 

Spain 4 

Spencers. 

Spencer's Business College 289 

Spitzbergen 14 

Spofford, Geo., Mrs 292 

Spring Grove 164,221, 333 

Spring Prairie 329 

Spring Valley.... 235 

Stacek, Klemet 255,259, 366 

Stabell, Adolph 371 

Stafford, Miss 29 

Stangeland, Andrew J 85-87, 90 

92, 108, 109, 265 

Stangeland, Elias 275, 316 

Stangland, Gurina, Mrs 316 

Stark, N.O 328 

Starn, Dr 374, 375 

Stavanger.... 43-45, 47, 49, 52-61, 66 

79. 89, 93, 96, 100, 102, 103, 106 

109-111, 127, 130, 133-136, 141 

143, 147-152, 155-159, 164, 166 

171, 178, 179, 187, 188, 191, 192 

195, 196, 219, 222, 224, 229, 232 

239-245, 267, 268, 270, 306, £09 

310, 369, 389, 390, 409, 421, 427 

Stavanger (Cape) 71, 73 

Stavanger ings 138, 140, 348 

Steen , Severine Cathrine 203 

Stene, Johannes 92, 96 

Stenson, Daniel (Rossedal) ...92, 93 

98, 100, 128, 133 

Stenson, Niels 8 

Stephenson (Co.) 251, 254 

Stettin 427 

Stockholm . . 414 

Scone River (Battle of) 114, 121 

Storthing 240, 241, 358 

Stoughton 269, 277, 442 



INDEX. 



4G7 



PAGE. 

Strand 152,227, 228, 412 

Mtrauiiifjord jg 

SuflfJU' Creek . . .112, 185, 188, 230, 355, 3(5*) 

Sumter Fort 25 

Suode, Gjermund Knudson (See 

Knudson) 

Sunve (farm) 411 

Svendseu 14 

Svimbil. Thor Kittelsoa See 

Kittelson 

Svinalie, Erik 309 

Swede 8, 10,20, 25, 26, 30. 41-43, 45 

159.303,310,312,337, 345,414-41(1, 124 
Sweden 1,2.5,8,10,12,29,80,88-40 

48,64,68,132,184,158,169,218, 261 
262,303.309,310,312,324,405,411, 417 

Swedenborg 14 

Swedish .... 1, 5, 6, 24, 25,68,132, 154, 181 
183, 189, 244, 310,358, 416,427, 450 

Swedish Norwegian Consul 3(12 

Swenson, B. E 394 

Switzerland 51, 224 

Syriac 429 



Taine, H. A 31, 32 

Tallakson, Lars.. .153,154,181,367, 368 

Tananger 248 

Tarrant (Co.) 140 

Tarvestad 389 

Tastad, Elias 47,50,155, 192 

Tazewell (Co) 1:4 

Tegner, Bishop 14, 4is 

Tennessee 42,112,114,124, 861 

Tesman, Han <: 

Teaman, Peter 187, 309 

Tesman, William 187, 309 

Teutonic 2,3, 32 

Texan Consul 374 

Texas. . . VII, 42. 44, 13.8-141, 188-193, 29s 
369-375, 878-895, 411, 432 

Thelemarken 107, 231-234. 237, 288 

250, 251. 250. 200, 268, 275, 876 

290, 29 1 , 298 , 334 , 35S , 359 , 300 

370,399, KX) 

Thelemarkian 233 

Thomas, Arad 64, 82, 83 

Thomas, WW. (Jr.) 25 

Thomason, Ann 150 

Thomason, Osmund 150, 178 

Thompson, Abraham 97 

Thompson, Anna Maria 97 

Thompson, Bertha Caroline 96, 97 

Thompson, Caroline 96,98, 224 

Thompson, Beige 

Thompson, Nels .92.96-98,108,- 174 

Thompson, O'e (Eie) 176, 190 

Thompson, Ole (Thorbi5mson 
Eide) 60-1 



Thompson, Oyen (Thorson).. . 

Thompson, Sara '.' 

Thompson, Serena 

Thompson, Thomas A. . . 

D, Christian... m 

Thor 

Thorbjornson Eide, OleTh'onip'- 
80n O^ Thonaps. 

Thore Petre ..... 427 

ITiorfln Karlsefue '{3, 19 

Thorflnson, Snorre 11 

Thorkelin, C.J ,*".' q 

Thorson, Oyen (see Thompson). ' 

rhprstetnson, Ole 107 

Thorvald 

Thorwaidsen. Albert ....... 11 

Tbordson, Thomas 

Tidende (Minneapolis). ...'..'..' 41 

Tillotson, Thove 

Tin (parish). 

266, 26t 

310, 317, 3v 

I ippeeanoe (river) 

Tollefsjord. John 

Tollefsjord, Nils JJ0 

Tollefsjord, Ole 

Tollefson, Anna, Mrs 

Tollefson, Gunuuf 864, ;. 

Tollefson, Ole 

Tollefson, Tonnes 166, II 

Tollefson, T. M 

Tdmmerstigen, Anders Johanne- 

son (See Johanueson.) 

Tonsberg 

Torgerson , Betsy 

Torgerson , Carl 

Torgerson, Ole 

Torgerson, T. A., Rev 157, 

Toronto 14 

Torrison, Halstein 194, 195,-. 

Tosseland, Mr 

Treatise on the Blow Pipe 11 

Tricolo 861 

Trinity (church) 

Trinity (river) 381 

Trondhjem 203, 2 

Trovatten, Ole Knudson. 

Knudson.) 
Tufte, Herman Nelson. 

(See Nelson.) 

Turks 

Tuttle, Osmund ill 

Tvede, C 

Miss 

Twdestran'l 371 

Tveito, Hans 275, 3: 

Tveito. Oslaug, Mrs 336 

Tvedt, John 

Tyler 

Tysland. Knud 868 

Tyeoen (Parish.) 54, 55, .->: 
101-10 

198, 219 



468 



INDEX. 



U. 



PAGE. 
. 58 

.. 17 



Uelarci, Ole Gabriel 

Ulfson, Gunubjorn 

Union Rei W 

United States. 18, 20, 32, 33, 38, 41, 45 

50. C'.i. 115. 107, 212, 213, 261 
294. 300, 311, 320, 321, 325 

333. 351, 360, 431, 438, 442, 448 

United States Naval Asylum 29 

United States Navy. .. .25, 2d, 319, 363 

University of Wisconsin 26, 445 

Unonius, G 358, 373, 414-416 

Upsala 417 

Uranienborg 7 

Utah 42, 43, 95, 108, 152, 182-184 

400-402, 405, 406, 408 
Utah Constitutional Convention.. 406 

Utah (Co.) 408 

Utica 357, 420 



Vaegli 238, 256-260,266 

Vaelde (farm) 219 

Vaelde, Hans (See Valder). 

Vaete, Halle 328 

Valder, Hans 61, 62, 197 

219-222, 229, 230, 408, 431 

Valem Ill 

Valle, C. Danielson. 

(See Danielson.) 

Valle (farm) 281 

Valle, Sigrid Pedersdatter. 

(See Pedersdatter . ) 

Van Zandt 382 

Van Zandt (Co) 382 

Vandal ..... 356 

Vatname, Helge 229, 230 

Vats (parish) 61, 219 

Vega 12 

Venus, Andrew 341 

Venus, Jens P (See Pederson.) 

Veiviseren (The Pathfinder) 299 

359, 373 

Vermont 41 

Vernon 275 

Vespucci, Amerigo 17 

Veste, Nils 199,200 

Veste, Thorbjorn 197, 198 

Vestre. Moland 370, 384 

He 53 

Vitfedal 43, 155, 159 

Vi^fusson, Gudbrand 1, 14 

Viking .. 1, 2, 4, 5, 15, 24, 33, 146, 301 

Vikings, Norse 16 

Villisca 152 

Vincent, Charles 378 

Vindeg, Anna Olson. (See Olson.) 
Vindeg, Bernt Olson. (See Olson.) 



Vindeg, Gunnud Olson. (See 

Olson ) 
Vindeg, Helleik Olson. (See 

Olson.) 
Vindeg. Knud Olson. (See Olson.) 

Vine, Carena, Mrs 142, 143 

Vinland 14,16,18,38, 83- 

Vineland, The Good 211 

Vinlete, Halvor Lonflok. (See 

Lonflok.) 

Virginia 42 

Virginia, West 42 

Vo*s... 151, 170, 253,291, 327-334, 359, 411 

Vossings 253 , 327, 330-333, 335, 341 

347,348,351, 352 



w. 



Waco 13S.18S.385. 388 

Waerenskjold, Mr 372; 381, 383, 384 

Waerenskjold, Elise, Mrs 139, 140 

372,379-386, 431 

Waerenskjold. Nils 385 

Waerenskjold, Otto 385 

Waerenskjold, Wilhelm 381, 384 

Waerenskjoids 139 

Walker, Mr 273 

Walker's Point 273 

Washburn (camp) 261 

Washington 29,42,43, 417 

Washington (brig) 423 

Washington (D. (J.).. 251,252,388, 419 

Washington, Gen 2S, 30 

Washington (Texas) 373 

Watkins, Lieut 118 

Waukesha 316 

Waukesha (Co.). . .266. #73, 274, 3 16, 366 

Waukesha (Co.), History of 275- 

Webser (Co.) 277 

Webster's (Unabridged) 125 

Ween, Ole 394 

Wells(St.) 194 

Wergeland 14, 52 

Westbri 158 

West (church) 426 

Westergaara , Capt 889 

Western Springs .. . 07 68, 128 

White(Co.) 368 

White Father 404 

Whitewater 344 

White Willow. . 343 

Whitney, W. D 9 

Whittels-y , F. C 67 

Wilcox, P. P., Mrs 292 

Wilkinson Cpike) 116, 118 

W illerup, Minister. ] 65- 

Willets, Alfred 68 

Williamson, Canute 178 

Williamson (Capt.) 43 

Wind (Lake) # 278, 419 



INDEX. 






PAGE. 

Winneshiek (Co.) 232, 891, 292 

Wiota 

Wisconsin.... 42, 43, 59, 05, 79, 89, 107 
108, 113, 142, 144, 146, 1 1'.t 
15G, 157, 101, 1G2, 164, 100-109 
201, 214, 216, 222. 
220. 2C0, i>06, 209, 271-274, -S,*; 
278-283, 280, 287, 289, 291-293 
300, 307, 308, 312, 313, 816 
317, 322, 320-330, 888 
343, 344, 349, 350, 352, 357-339 
305, 3G0, 372, 390, 409 
411, 415, 417, 419, 421, ]-_>r, 
433, 437, 438, 4 ! 
Wisconsin Constitutional Conven- 
tion 294 

Wisconsin (river) 345 

Wisconsin (vol) 08, 113, 2G0, 282 

283, 316 

Worth (Co) ....157, 164 

Wyoming ........42, 149 



Xerxes 



TAGE. 

... 77 



Y. 



Yarnell (Sergeant) 125 

Yellow Medicine (Co.) 

Ygre, Lars 

Yorktown 

Yorkville 81 

Young, Brigham ; 



Z. 



Zimmer, Mr. 



125 



A PARTIAL ANDERSON BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



REPRINTED FROM BIBLIOGRAPHY OP WISCONSIN AUTHORS 
PUBLISHED BY THE WISCONSIN STATE HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY. 

Natur-Videnskabernes Forhold til Religionen. En 
Forelasning af P. A. Chadbourne, LL. D., tidligere Pro- 
fessor i Naturhistorie ved Williams College og Pro- 
fessor i Naturhistorie og Chemi ved Bowdoin College, 
nu President for Universitetet i Wisconsin. Oversat 
af R. B. Anderson. Madison, Wis.: Trykt i B. W. 
Suckow's Bog-og Accidents Try kkeri, 1869. 16p. O. 

The Scandinavian languages; their historical, linguistic, 
literary, and scientific value. Elucidated by quota- 
tions from eminent American, English, German, and 
French scholars. Notices of these languages by H. W. 
Longfellow, George P. Marsh, Samuel Laing, Robert 
Buchanan, Schlegel, Mallet, and others. Madison, Wis.: 
Democrat Company Printing Office, 1873. 16p. O. 

Den Norske Maalsag. Han Per og ho 'Bergit. Chicago: 
Skandinavens Forlag, 1874. 99p. S. 

Tro og Fornuft. Tale af Dr. John Bascom, holdt i As- 
sembly Chamber i Madison, Wis., til de examinerede 
Kandidater af Wisconsin Universitet SOndag Efter- 
middag den 13de Juni, 1875. Oversat af R. B. Ander- 
son. Chicago, 1875. 15p. O. 

Tale ved Femti-Aarsfesten for den Norske Udvandring 
til Amerika Holdt i Chicago den 5te Juli, 1875. Chi- 
cago: Trykt i Skandinavens Bog og Akcidents tryk- 
keri, 1875. 27p. O. 

Norse mythology, or the religion of our forefathers, con- 
taining all the myths of the Eddas, systematized and 



472 ANDERSON BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

interpreted, wi£h *n introduction, vocabulary, and 
index. 2d edition. Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co.; Lon- 
don: Triibner & Co., 1876. 473p. O. 5th edition, 
1890*. Price §2.50 

From Prof. F. Max Muller, University of Oxford: "I like it de- 
cidedly and shall gladly avail myself of its help and guidance.'' 

Hand-book for charcoal burners, by G. Svedelius. 
Translated from the Swedish by R. B. Anderson, A. M., 
Professor of Scandinavian languages in the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. Edited with notes by W. J. L. 
ISicodemus, Professor of civil engineering in the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. With twenty-three wood en- 
gravings. New York: John Wiley & Son, 1875. xv+ 
217p. D. 

Viking tales of the north. The sagas of Thorstein, Vik- 
ing's son and Fridthjof the Bold, translated from the 
Icelandic by R. B. Anderson. AlsoTegner's Fridth- 
jof 's saga, translated into English bv George Stephens. 
Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co., 1877. xviii+370p. D. 
3d edition, 1889. * Price 82.00 

From The Nation, New York:— Prof. Anderson's book is a very 
valuable and important one. The "Saga of Thorstein, Viking's 
Sou,'" temis with magnificently dramatic situations, uie impres- 
siveness of which are rather increased by the calm directness and 
dignity with which the* are related. And these features are as 
characteristic of the English version as of the Icelandic originals. 

America not discovered by Columbus. An historical 
sketch of the discovery of America by the Norsemen 
in the tenth century, with an appendix on the histor- 
ical, linguistic, literary, and scientific value of the 
Scandinavian languages. Also a bibliography of the 
pre-Columbian discoveries of America, l>y Paul Bar- 
ron Watson. Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co.; London: 
Triibner & Co., 187 7 . 120p D. 4, h edition. 1891.* 
Price SI 00 

Inmemoriam. Prof. Stephen Haskins Car renter, LL.D. 
Address before the State historical society, Decem- 
ber 17, 1878. Wisconsin Historical Collections, v. 8, 
pp. 8G-95. 

Amerika ikke opdaget af Columbus. En historisk skil- 
dring af Nordmaendenes Opdagelseaf Amerika idet 
lOde Aarhundrede. Med et Anhang om de nordiske 
Sprogshistoriske, sproglige, literasre og videnskabelige 
Vaerd. Oversat fra engelsk efter den anden forbe- 
drede og forOgede Udgave af C. Chrest. Portrait. 
Chicago: " Skandinavens " Bogtrykkeri, 1878. 125p. 



ANDERSON BIBLIOGRAPHY. 473 

The influence of reading upon health. Tliir.l Annual 
Report of the State Board of Health, 187b, pp. 71 

Finland and the Kalevala. Wisconsin Journal of 1 . 
cation, v. 8, 1878, pp. 285-290. 

Teutonic mythology. The American Antiquarian, v. 2, 

1879-80, pp. 271-275. 

The Younger Edda; also called Snorre's Edda, or the 
Prose Edda. An English version of the 1 
the fooling of Gylfe, the Afterword; Brage's Talk. 
Afterword to Brage's Talk, and the import 
in the poetical diction (Skalkskaparmal), with an in- 
troduction, notes, vocabulary, and index. Chica 
S. O. Griggs & Co.; London: Triibner & Co., 1 
302p. O. Price 

From The Scotchman, Edinburgh, Scotland:— Students of the 
Scandinavian Mythology will acknowledge that l'rof. And." 
has given them the most complete and literally faithful I 
lish version yet produced of Snorre's Edda. He furnishes B 
scholarly notes and a vocabulary. 

Biographical sketch of Lyman C. Draper, LL. D., secre- 
tary of the State historical society of Wisconsin. 
Portrait. Cincinnati: Peter G. Thompson, 1881. 
31p. Q. 

Synnove Solbakken. By Bjornstjerne BjOrnson. Trans- 
lated from the Norse by Rasmus B. Anderson. 1 
trait. Boston: Houghton. Mifflin ft Co. 18S1. 
197p. D. 

Magnhild. By Bjornstjerne Bjornson. Translated from 
the Norse by Rasmus B. Anderson. Boston: Hough 
ton, Mifflin & Co. 1883. 223p. D. 

The fisher maiden. By Bjornstjerne BjOrnson. Trans- 
lated from the Norse by Rasmus B. Anderson. Bos- 
ton: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1883, 27-ip. D. 

Captain Mansana, and other stories. By rne 

bjornson. Translated from the Non B, 

Anderson, boston: Houghton, Miilliu ct Co., I 



474 ANDERSON BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The bridal march and other stories. By Bjornstjerne 
Bjornson. Translated from the Norse by Rasmus B. 
Anderson. Illustrated. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin 
& Co., 1883. 201p. D. 

Arne. By Bjornstjerne Bjornson. Translated from the 
Norse by Rasmus B. Anderson. Boston: Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., 1883. 200p. D. 

A happy boy. By Bjornstjerne Bjornson. Translated 
from the Norse by Rasmus B. Anderson. Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1884. 165p. D. 

All B jornson's novels bound in three vols. Price 81 50 

In this group of stories we have a distinct addition to the world's 
literature — the exponents of a high and noble genius.— The Atlan- 
tic Monthly. 

Julegave. Et udvalg af Eventyr og Fortsellinger. 
Chicago: John Anderson & Co., 1881. 212p. D. 7th 
edition, 1890. 

History of the literature of the Scandinavian North, 
frem the most ancient times to the present. Trans- 
lated f romjthe Danish of Frederik Winkel Horn, Ph. D., 
with a bibliography of the important books in the 
English language relating to the Scandinavian coun- 
tries, prepared for the translator by Thorvald Solberg. 
Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co., 1881. ix-f 507p. O. 
Price , 83.00 

Boston Advertiser:— Exhaustive and accurate. It is moreover, t 
pervadedjby a wholesome enthusiasm never seriously warping the 
author's judgment, adding much to the charm and freshness of his 
style. There is an endless and unfailing fascination in Norse Liter- 
ature. 

Mythologie Scandinave. Legendes des Eddas. Traduc- 
tion de M. Jules Leclercq. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 
1886. x+293p. D. 

Eminent authors of the nineteenth century. Literary 
portraits by Dr. Georg Brandes, translated from the 
original by R. B. Anderson. Portraits. New York: 
Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1886. vii+!60p. O. Price.. 82.00 

Amerikas forste Opdagelse. Af forfatteren gjennemset 
og autoriseret oversaettelse ved Fr. Winkel Horn. 
Portrait. Kjobenhavn: Gyldendalske Boghandels 
Forlag ( P. Hegel & Son), Graabes Bogtrykkeri, 1886. 
8jp. O.* 



ANDERSON BIBLIOGRAPHY. 475 

Nordisk mythologi af R. B. Anderson. De Forenede 
Staters Minister-resident i Kjobeuhavn. .-lse 

efter originalens 4de oplag ved Dr. Pr. Winkel Horn. 
Kristiania: Albert Cammermeyer, 1887. xvi-H- 
O.* With steel portrait and biographical sketch of 
the author. 

The religion of the ancient Scandinavians. From Horn- 
iletic Magazine, v. 16, 1887, pp. 1-6, 69-76. 

Non-Biblical systems of religion. A symposium, by the 
Ven. Archdeacon Farrar, D. D.; Rev. Canon Rawlin- 
son, M. A.; Rev. W. Wright, D. D.; Rabbi G. J. En. 
uel, B. A.; Sir William Muir; Rev. Edwin Johnson, 
M. A.; T. W. Rhys Davids, LL. D., Ph. D.; The Hon. 
Rasmus B. Anderson; and Rev. Wm. Nicolson, AL A. 
London: James Nisbet & Co., 1887. 243p. O* 

Monumentet til Ole Bull. Madison, 1887. 4p. O. 

The Lofoden cod fisheries. United States Consular Re- 
ports, v. 25, 1888, pp. 70-82. 

Market for American wares in Denmark and Scandi- 
navia. Ibid., v. 25, 1888, pp. 82-85. 

Die erste Entdeckung von Amerika. Eine historische 
skizze der Entdeckung Amerikas durch die Skandi- 
navier. Autorisirte Uebersetzung von Mathilde Mann. 
Hamburg: Verlag von J. F. Richter, 1888. C2p. O.* 

Teutonic mythology. Translated from the Swedish of 
Viktor Rydberg, Ph. D., member of the Swedish 
academy, author of "The Last Athenian," "Roman 
Days," and other works. London: Swan Sonnen- 
schein & Co., 1889. xii-f 706p. O. Price $8.00 

From F. York Powell, Oxford, in Folk Lore, March, 1800: -T 
is the most important addition to our knowledge of early Teutonic 
myths since Grimm. It contains the most Important work done in 
Northern mythology by a Scandinavian book during the last fifty 
years. 

Among cannibals: an account of four years' travels in 
Australia and of camp life with the aborigines of 
Queensland. By Carl Lumholtz. Translated by Ras- 
mus B. Anderson. With portraits, maps, 4 chromo- 
lithographs and woodcuts. New York: Ch;r 
Scribner's Sons, 1880. xx+395p. O. Price $5.00 



47(3 ANDERSON BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The Heimskringla or the sagas of the Norse kings, from 
the Icelandic of fenorre Sturlason, by Samuel JLaing, 
Esq. 2d edition, revised with notes by Rasmus B. An- 
derson. Plates. Maps. London: John C. Nimmo; 
New York: Scribner & Welford, 1889. 4 v. O. Price.. .820.00 

From New York Tribune:— The present edition has been care- 
fully revised by Prof. Anderson, with the aid of the latest scholar- 
ship and criticism, and the editor's notes to the text of the sagas 
apoear to be sufficiently full and accurate to bring the work down 
to a level with recent discoveries. 

Scandinavian mythology, the religion of our forefath- 
ers. Minneapolis, 1890. 15p. O. Same. Madison, 
1892. 

Where was Vineland ? A reply to Prof. Gustav Storm, 
refuting his arguments in favor of locating Vineland 
in Nova Scotia, and maintaining that Columbus was 
acquainted with the Norsemen's discovery of America. 
Minneapolis, 1891. 12p. O. 

Professor Anderson has also contributed to the American supple- 
ment of Encyclopedia Britannioa ; to McQlintock dt Strong's Cyclo- 
pedia; to Johnson's Cyclopedia; to Kiddle cO Schemes Cyclopedia; 
to the last edition of Chamber's Cyclopedia, to Gilmore''s Cyclo- 
pedia, and to the Standard Dictionary. He has been a frequent 
contributor, also, to The Dial (Chicago), to The Nation (N. Y.), 
and to various other periodicals. 

Any of the above books with prices given will be sent 
postage prepaid on receipt of price by 

R. B. Andebson, Asgard, 

Madison, Wis. 




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