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Full text of "First -[eleventh, eighteenth-forty-sixth] annual report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts"




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BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARIES 



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I 'ublic Document 



No. 34 



FORTY-FOUETH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



State Board of Health 



OF 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



«^ 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

32 DERNE STREET. 

1913. 



Approved hy 
The State Board of Publication. 






MEMBERS OF THE BOARD. 



1912. 



HENRY P. WALCOTT, M.D., Chairman, 
JOSEPH A. PLOUFF, . 
JULIAN A. MEAD, M.D., 
HIRAM F. MILLS, A.M., C.E., 
ROBERT W. LOVETT, M.D., . 
C. E. McGILLICUDDY, LL.B., . 
CLEMENT F. COOGAN, . 



OF Cambridge. 
OP Ware. 
OF Watertown. 
OP Lowell. 
OP Boston. 
OP Worcester. 

OP PiTTSPIELD. 



Secretary. 
MARK W. RICHARDSON, M.D. 

Assistant to the Secretary. 
WILLIAM C. HANSON, M.D. 

Engineer. 
X. H. GOODNOUGH, C.E. 

Pathologist, 
THEOBALD SMITH, M.D. 

Analyst of Food and Drugs. 
HERMANN C. LYTHGOE, S.B. 

Chemist. 
H. W. CLARK. 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



CONTENTS. 



of 



Streams, 



Cemetery 



Nuisances, 
. 180- 



W. Clark and George O. 



General Report, ..... 
Supplement, ...... 

1. Water Supply and Sewerage, . 

Advice to Cities, Towns and Persons, 

Water Supply, 

Ice Supplies, .... 

Sewerage and Sewage Disposal, . 

Manufacturing Wastes, Pollution 
Bath Houses, etc.. 
Examination of Public Water Supplies, 
Examination of Rivers, 
Water Supply Statistics, 
Lawrence Experiment Station Report for 1912, 

Experiments upon the Purification of Sewage, 

Experiments upon the Purification of Water, 
Studies of Fish Life and Water Pollution, by H 

Adams, .......•••• 

A Study of the Efficiency of Certain Methods for the Sanitary Control of 

Swimming Pools, by H. W. Clark and Stephen DeM. Gage, 
Effect of Sewage Disposal, 1912, 

2. Food and Drug Inspection, ......••• 

Prosecutions, .....•••••• 

Report of the Analyst, .....•••• 

Report upon An Act relative to the Cold Storage of Certain Food Products, 

Report of the Board relative to the Business of Slaughtering, 

Inspection of Dairies, .....••••• 

Examination of Plumbers, . . . . • • • _• 

Report upon the Production and Distribution of Diphtheria Antitoxin and 
Vaccine Virus, ....•••••• 

Report upon the Work of the Bacteriological Laboratory, 

Diphtheria Cultures, ......•••• 

Examinations for Tuberculosis, ....•••• 

Examinations for Typhoid Fever, .....••; 

Examinations for Malaria, .....•••• 

Fecal Contamination of Roller Towels, .....•• 

Report upon the Work of the State Board of Health relative to the Control 
of Infectious Disease, . . • • • 

The Occurrence of Infantile Paralysis in Massachusetts, 1907-12, by Mark 

W. Richardson, M.D., 

Some Experhnental Observations upon Monkeys concerning the Trans- 
mission of PoliomyeUtis through the Agency of Stomoxys Calcitrans, 
by Prof. M. J. Rosenau and Charles T. Brues, . . . • 

Transmission of Poliomyelitis by Means of the Stable Fly (Stomoxijs Cal- 
citrans), by John F. Anderson and Wade H. Frost, . . . • 
Transmission Experiments with the Virus of Poliomyelitis: Finding the 
Virus in the Nasal Secretion of a Human Carrier Four Months after 
the Acute Stage of a Second Attack of Poliomyelitis, by William P. 
Lucas, M.D., and Robert B. Osgood, M.D., . . . • • 
Antityphoid Inoculation : Three Years' Experience with Its Use in Training 
Schools for Nurses in Massachusetts, by Lesley H. Spooner, M.D., . 
The Control of Ophthalmia Neonatorum in Massachusetts, by Mark W. 
Richardson, M.D., .....•••• 



PAGE 

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140 



3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

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9. 
10. 



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519 
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531 
537 
541 
547 
549 

553 

555 



561 



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VI 



CONTENTS. 



Supplement — Concluded. 

11. Report on the Work of the State Inspectors of Health, 

Diseases Dangerous to the Public Health, 
Nuisances, ........ 

Sanitation of Factories and Workshops, 

Sanitation of Station Houses, .... 

12. A Study of the Hygienic Condition of the Air in Textile Mills with Reference 

to the Influence of Artificial Humidification, by H. W. Clark and 
Stephen DeM. Gage, ...... 

13. Statistical Summaries, ....... 

A General Review of the Vital Statistics of the State, 1912 
Returns of Disease and Mortality, . . . . 

Weekly Mortality Returns, ..... 

Fatality of Certain Infective Diseases, 

Official Returns of Notified Diseases Dangerous to the Public Health, 

Official Returns of Deaths in Cities and Large Towns, 

14. Index, . . . . . . . 



PAGE 

587 
592 
611 
614 
642 



659 
693 
695 
701 
702 
707 
709 
729 
751 



GENERAL REPORT. 



In accordance with the provisions of chapter 211 of the Acts of 1905, 
the following report of the work of the several departments of the 
State Board of Health is presented for the fiscal year ended Nov. 30, 
1912, on which date the Board was constituted as follows: — 

Henry P. Walcott, M.D., Cambridge, Chairman. 



Joseph A. Plouff, Ware. 

JtJLiAN A. Mead, M.D., Watertown. 

HiKAM F. Mills, A.M., C.E., Lowell. 



Egbert W. Lovett, M.D., Boston. 

C. E. McGiLLicuDDY, LL.B., Worcester. 

Clement F. Coogan, Pittsfield. 



Antityphoid Inoculation. 
On Feb. 16, 1912, the Legislature passed the following amendment to 
section 4 of chapter 75 of the Eevised Laws, as amended by chapter 
480 of the Acts of 1903 : — 

Acts of 1912, Chapter 104. 
An Act relative to Specific Material for Anti-typhoid Inoculation 

TO BE furnished BY THE StATE BOARD OP HeALTH. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section four of chapter seventy-five of the Revised Laws, as amended by 
chapter four hundred and eighty of the acts of the year nineteen hundred 
and three, is hereby further amended by inserting after the word " lymph ", 
in the sixteenth line, the words : — and such specific material for protective 
inoculation against typhoid fever and other diseases as said board may, 
from time to time, deem it advisable to produce and distribute, — so as to 
read as follows : — Section 4. Said board shall take cognizance of the in- 
terests of health and life among the citizens of the commonwealth, make 
sanitary investigations and inquiries relative to the causes of disease, and 
especially of epidemics, the sources of mortality and the effects of localities, 
employments, conditions and circumstances on the public health, and rela- 
tive to the sale of drugs and food and the adulterations thereof; and shall 
gather such information relative thereto as it considers proper for diffusion 
among the people. It shall advise the government relative to the location 
and other sanitary conditions of any public institution; and shall have over- 
sight of inland waters, sources of water supply and vaccine institutions, and 
may, for the use of the people of the commonwealth, produce and distribute 



2 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

antitoxin and vaccine lymph and such specific material for protective inocula- 
tion against typhoid fever and other diseases as said board may, from time 
to time, deem it advisable to produce and distribute. It shall annually ex- 
amine all main outlets of sewers and drainage of cities and towns of the 
commonwealth, and the effect of sewage disposal, and shall annually report 
thereon to the general court, with such recommendations for the protection 
of the interests of persons and property and for the prevention of offensive 
odors and objectionable conditions as it considers expedient. [Approved 
February 16, 1912. 

As empowered by this new legislation, the Board began to distribute 
to physicians of the Commonwealth material for antityphoid inoculation 
on Nov. 4, 1912. 

The outfit in which this material is furnished consists of three small 
glass ampoules containing approximately 1 cubic centimeter of salt 
solution in which is suspended 1,000,000,000 dead typhoid bacilli. These 
bacilli have been killed by heating to 53° centigrade for one hour. The 
material is still further protected from contamination by the addition of 
one-fourth of one per cent, of trykresol. The preparation of this pro- 
phylactic was begun under the supervision of Dr. Lesley H. Spooner, 
who, at the suggestion of the secretary of this Board, took up the ques- 
tion of specific inoculation for typhoid fever in 1910, especially in 
relation to training schools for nurses. In fact, up to September, 1912, 
1,403 persons in 23 training schools had been subjected to this method 
of Immunization. Although the inconvenience suffered by individuals 
treated has been small, the protection produced has been very distinct, 
as shown by the fact that out of 1,403 cases inoculated but 2 later con- 
tracted the disease, whereas of 673 uninoculated, 8 cases came down 
later with typhoid fever. 

This experience, unique as it has been in relation to professional 
nurses, has been duplicated, and on a very much larger scale, in the 
United States army, where, since the introduction of compulsory in- 
oculation, typhoid fever has been practically stamped oiit. It is hoped 
and expected that the use of this prophylactic in Massachusetts will be- 
come so common that an appreciable effect upon the death-rate from 
typhoid fever will become apparent in the not too distant future. A 
special article dealing with antityphoid inoculation will be found in the 
Supplement. 

Anterior Poliomyelitis. 

On Feb. 20, 1912, the Legislature passed a resolve by which the sum 
of $5,000 was appropriated to the use of the State Board of Health for 
further investigation of the disease known as anterior poliomyelitis. The 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 3 

investigation of this disease during 1912 has been remarkable through 
the apparent discovery that the virus of infantile paralysis may be 
transfei-red, in experiments on monkeys, at least, through the agency 
of the common stable fly {Stomoxys calcitrans). 

In 1911 an investigation made by Brues and Sheppard had shown 
that this fly was the only biting insect found very commonly in and 
about the premises where cases of anterior poliomyelitis occurred, and 
following this suggestion experiments were made with this fly by Prof. 
Milton J. Eosenau of the Harvard Medical School. The first experi- 
ments, however, were negative in their results. With the advent of 
warm weather, however, in 1912, Professor Eosenau took up the work 
once more, and with an improved technique was able to demonstrate that 
flies which had sucked blood from infected monkeys could transfer this 
infection to normal monkeys in a considerable proportion of the animals 
experimented upon. Furthermore, this very important observation was 
confirmed later by Anderson and Frost of the Public Health Service in 
Washington. 

These results do not, of course, prove that this disease is transmitted 
only through the agency of biting flies, especially as very constant 
positive results have been obtained by the Swedish observers, Kling, 
Wernstedt and Petterson, in demonstrating the virus very commonly 
in the naso-pharyngeal secretions and in the intestinal tract, not only 
of patients sick with infantile paralysis and of persons who have had 
infantile paralysis in the more or less distant past, but also of individuals 
who have never had the disease, but who have been in close association 
with infected human beings. 

The fact that the stable fly represents at least one method of trans- 
mission of the disease indicates the direction which investigation must 
take during the next year or two. The life history and habits of this 
fly must be studied closely in order that its growth may be retarded in 
the first instance, and in order that, in the second instance, its access 
to human beings and animals may be restricted to the greatest possible 
extent. Furthermore, inasmuch as there is strong reason to believe that 
certain varieties of paralyses in animals may be similar in character to 
that observed in human infantile paralysis, the study of paralyses in 
animals must be prosecuted with great vigor. Detailed communications 
on these important discoveries will be found in the Supplement. 

The Board strongly recommends that further financial support be 
voted by the Legislature for the purpose of carrying out these very im- 
portant lines of study. 



4 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum. 
The campaign against blindness resulting from ophthalmia in the 
new-born has been continued during 1912 with increased vigor. The 
best possible evidence of the success of the agitation brought about by 
the various agencies interested in this subject, such as the Massachusetts 
Commission for the Blind, the State Board of Health, local boards of 
health. Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, etc., lies in 
the fact that the number of cases reported has increased very remarkably 
in the last three or four years, as shown by the following table : — 



Year ended Novembeb 30 — 



Cases of 
Ophthalmia 
Neonatorum 

reported. 



1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 



16 
101 
361 

1,372 
1,750 



It is manifest that no active measures can be taken against any in- 
fectious or contagious disease unless health authorities are informed as 
to the location of such cases. The increased reporting, therefore, of 
these cases of ophthalmia neonatorum has made it possible for health 
authorities to follow them up quickly and effectively. In this work 
the Board has made much use of its State Inspectors of Health, who 
receive from the local boards of health notification of cases of reportable 
disease, and who also are notified especially by telegram from the office 
of the State Board in Boston of the presence in their districts of cases 
of ophthalmia. On the receipt of such notification it is the duty of the 
inspector to investigate immediately the conditions surrounding these 
cases, and to bring every influence to bear to the end that the case may 
be brought under early and proper treatment. 

During 1912, 557 cases have been investigated by the State Inspectors 
of Health. Although many of these cases were in very serious condition 
when first seen, the percentage of total blindness resulting from this 
disease has been small. It is the opinion of all who have come in contact 
with this campaign that very much good has been accomplished already, 
and there is no reason why, with further efforts toward education, not 
only of the laity but also of the medical profession, still better results 
may not be secured. The subject will be considered more in detail in 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 5 

the section dealing with the State Inspectors of Health. Furthermore, 
a special article dealing with this subject will be found in the Supple- 
ment. 

The distribution of a prophylactic for ophthalmia neonatorum (nitrate 
of silver, 1 per cent, solution) has continued during the year, 1,939 out- 
fits having been distributed to physicians and midwives through the 
agency of local boards of health. 

The Maintenance of Isolation Hospitals by Cities and Towns, 
Chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, section 35, as amended by chapter 
613 of the Acts of 1911, and still further amended by chapter 151 of 
the Acts of the year 191?, requires that each city shall, and each town 
may, establish and maintain an isolation hospital. 

Section 35 of Chapter 75, Revised Laws (amended by Chapter 151, Acts of 

1912). 

An Act relative to the Maintenance of Hospitals by Cities and Towns, 
Section 35. Each city shall, and each town may, and upon the request of 
ihe state board of health, shall, establish and maintain constantly within its 
limits one or more hospitals for the reception of persons having smallpox, 
diphtheria, scarlet fever, tuberculosis or other diseases dangerous to the 
public health as defined by the state board of health, unless there already 
exists in the city or town a hospital for the reception of persons ill with 
such diseases, which is satisfactory to the state board of health, or unless 
some arrangement which is satisfactory to the state board of health is made 
between neighboring cities or neighboring towns, or neighboring cities and 
towns, for the care of persons having such diseases. All such hospitals estab- 
lished and maintained by cities or towns shall be subject to the orders and 
regidations of the boards of health of the cities or towns in which they are 
respectively situated. Plans for the construction of the said hospitals shall 
be approved by the state board of health, before the hospitals are constructed, 
and the state insjiectors of health shall annually make such examination of 
said hospitals as in the opinion of the state board of health may be neces- 
sary. A city or town which upon the request of the state board of health 
refuses or neglects to establish and maintain such a hospital shall forfeit 
not more than five hundred dollars for each refusal or neglect : provided, 
however, that if, in the ojoinion of the boards of health of two or more ad- 
joining cities or towns or a city and an adjoining town or towns, such hos- 
pitals can advantageously be established and maintained in common, the 
authorities of the said cities or towns may, subject to the approval of the 
state board of health, enter into such agreements as shall be deemed necessary 
for the establishment and maintenance of the same. 



6 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

In response to the requirements of this law, the State Board of Health 
investigated through its State Inspectors of Health the local situation 
in all parts of the State, and has written communications to a con- 
siderable number of cities and towns requesting that they establish and 
maintain isolation hospitals including tuberculosis wards. As a result 
of the agitation brought about by these communications, a number of 
communities have taken up the question of providing local isolation and 
tuberculosis hospitals, so that provision for these infectious and con- 
tagious diseases will be very much improved upon in the near future. 
Nevertheless, the situation in Massachusetts, especially as regards tuber- 
culosis, leaves a good deal to be desired, and the Legislature of 1912, 
by the passage of resolve 112, made it obligatory upon a joint commis- 
sion, composed of the State Board of Health and the Board of Trustees 
of Hospitals for Consumptives, to investigate and report concerning a 
definite policy as regards the control of tuberculosis within the Com- 
monwealth. This Joint Board considered information and advice from 
a large variety of authorities and agencies, and as a result presented 
to the Legislature of 1913 a comprehensive report published as House 
Document No. 1950. The detailed statement of this investigation must 
be sought in the original report. 

Acts of 1912, Chapter 112. 
Resolve to provide for a Report relative to a Definite Policy for the 

Treatment of Tuberculosis. 

Resolved, That the state board of health and the trustees of hospitals for 
consumptives, acting as a joint board, shall consider and report in print to 
the general court, not later than January first, nineteen hundred and thirteen, 
a definite policy for the treatment of tuberculosis in the commonwealth, with 
special reference to the unification of all health work under one central 
authority and the division of responsibility as between the commonwealth and 
the community, giving due consideration to the relative needs of incipient 
and advanced cases of consumption and to the means now in use or authorized 
to meet the same, with any additional recommendations which may seem ad- 
visable. The members of the said joint commission shall receive no extra 
compensation for their services. [Approved May 21, 1912. 

The general recommendations made by the Joint Board are as fol- 
lows : — 

Kecommendations. 

1. The need of a central State authority to supervise the control of 
tuberculosis in Massachusetts is very apparent. The Joint Board recom- 
mends that such authority be vested in the State Board of Health under 
the following conditions : — 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 7 

(a) The Trustees of Hospitals for Consumptives shall be placed under 
the general supervision and control of the State Board of Health; shall 
' make a report of its actions to said Board ; shall confer and consult with 
the State Board of Health on all matters relating to tuberculosis. 

(h) The Trustees of Hospitals for Consumptives shall supervise and 
control the four State sanatoria at Rutland, Westfield, Lakeville and 
North Reading; shall inspect and supervise those hospitals for con- 
sumptives which apply for the State subsidy under chapter 597 of the 
Acts of 1911, as amended by chapter 637 of the Acts of 1912; and 
shall approve the sites and plans for hospitals for tuberculosis. 

2. The State Board of Health shall be empowered to investigate and 
to direct the tuberculosis work of : — 

(a) Local boards of health. 

(&) Voluntary associations, dispensaries, hospitals, etc. 
(c) Public and private schools, factories, workshops and mercantile 
establishments. 

3. The State Board of Health shall require local boards of health to 
report at stated intervals to said Board concerning the local tuberculosis 
situation. 

4. The State Board of Health shall have general supervision over 
voluntary associations, dispensaries, hospitals and other voluntary private 
organizations dealing with tuberculosis, and shall require such voluntary 
associations, dispensaries, hospitals and other private organizations' deal- 
ing with tuberculosis to send annually a report concerning their activities 
to the said Board. 

5. Legislation should be enacted to make possible the commitment to 
the proper institutions, and for the proper length of time, of the vicious 
and unteachable consumptive. 

6. The Board believes that the question of tuberculosis in children 
is one of primary importance. This fact has been recognized already by 
the Trustees of Hospitals for Consumptives through the adoption of 
the policy of caring for consumptive children at one institution, the 
Westfield State Sanatorium, where 60 such children are receiving not 
only sanatorium treatment but also proper schooling. The Board be- 
lieves such outdoor schooling and treatment for that large class of 
children (school) who are ansemic, under weight and othei*wise pre- 
disposed to tuberculosis to be a most important factor in any scheme of 
prevention. The Board, therefore, recommends the further establish- 
ment throughout the State of fresh-air rooms and open-air schools for 
children. Such a plan would of necessity require a much more adequate 
and rigid system of medical school, inspection than now exists. 



8 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Eegulation of the Business op Cold Storage. 

Through legislation passed in 1911 a commission was appointed to 
investigate and report upon the business of cold storage. This report 
(House Bill Ko. 1733 of the year 1912) was a very comprehensive one, 
and based upon it was passed chapter 652 of the Acts of 1912, entitled 
" An Act to regulate the Cold Storage of Certain Food Products." 

As required by this law the State Board of Health took up, on Sept. 1, 
1912, the supervision of this very important business, and in accordance 
with statute provisions made certain rules and regulations which are 
as follows. Further details concerning the inspection service established 
under this law by the Board will be found in the Supplement. 

Acts of 1912, Chapter 652. 

An" Act to regulate the Cold Storage of Certain Food Products. 

Section 1. The term " cold storage ", as used in this act, shall be con- 
strued to mean the storage of articles of food at or below a temperature of 
forty degrees Fahrenheit in cold-storage or refrigerating warehouses. 

The term " cold-storage or refrigerating warehouse ", as used in this act, 
shall be construed to mean an establishment emiDloying refrigerating ma- 
chinery or ice for the purpose of refrigeration, or a place otherwise artificially 
cooled, in which articles of food are stored for thirty days or more at a tem- 
perature of forty degrees Fahrenheit or below. 

The term " article of food ", as used in this act, shall be interpreted to in- 
clude fresh meat, fresh meat products, except in process of manufacture, 
fresh food fish, poultry, eggs and butter. 

Section 2. No person, firm or corporation shall operate a cold-storage 
or refrigerating warehouse without a license issued by the state board of 
health. Any person, firiu or corporation desiring such a license may make 
written appheation to the board, stating the location of its plant or plants. 
On receipt of the application the board shall cause an examination to be 
made of the sanitary condition of any such plant, and if it is found to be 
in a sanitary condition and otherwise properly equipped for the business 
of cold storage, the board shall cause a license to be issued authorizing the 
applicant to operate a cold-storage or refrigerating warehouse for the period 
of one year. The license shall be issued upon payment by the applicant of 
a license fee of ten dollars to the treasurer of the commonwealth. In case 
any warehouse licensed under the provisions of this section or any part 
thereof, shall be deemed by the state board of health to be conducted in an 
unsanitaiy manner, it shall be the duty of the board to close such warehouse, 
or part thereof, until it shall be put in sanitary condition, and the board 
shall have power also to susj^end the license in case the required changes 
are not made within a reasonable time. Every such licensee shall furthei'more 
submit a quarterly report to the state board of health on a printed form to 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 9 

be provided by the board. The report shall be filed on or before the twenty- 
fifth day of January, April, July and October of each year, and it shall state 
the quantities of articles of food placed in cold storage during the three 
months preceding the first day of the said months, respectively, and also the 
quantities of butter and eggs held on the first day of the month in which 
the report is filed. 

Section 3. No article of food intended for human consumption shall be 
placed in cold storage if deemed by the state board of health to be diseased, 
tainted or otherwise unwholesome. 

It shall be the duty of the state board of health to inspect and supervise 
all cold-storage or refrigerating warehouses in this commonwealth, and to 
make such inspection of the entry of articles of food therein as the board may 
deem necessary to secure proper enforcement of this act. The members of 
the board, or its duly authorized agents, inspectors or employees, shall be 
permitted access to such establishments and all parts thereof at all reasonable 
times for purposes of inspection and enforcement of the provisions of this 
act, or of any other provision of law relating to food products. The board 
may also appoint and designate such person or persons as it deems qualified 
to make the inspections herein required. 

Section 4. All articles of food when deposited in cold storage shall be 
marked plainly with the date of receipt on the containei-s in which they are 
packed, or, if not packed in containers, on or in connection with the articles, 
except fish. 

Section 5. No article of food shall be held in cold storage within this 
commonwealth for a longer period than twelve calendar months, except with 
the consent of the state board of health as hereinafter provided. The state 
board of health may, upon application, gTant jjermission to extend the period 
of storage beyond twelve months for a particular consignment of goods, if 
the goods in question are found, upon examination, to be in proper condition 
for further storage at the end of twelve months. The length of time for 
which further storage is allowed shall be specified in the order granting the 
permission. A report on each case in which such extension of storage may 
be permitted, including information relating to the reason for the action 
of the board, the kind and the amount of goods for which the storage period 
was extended, and the length of time for which the continuance was gi'anted, 
shall be included in the annual report of the board. 

Section 6. It shall be unlawful to sell, or to offer or expose for sale arti- 
cles of food which have been held in cold storage without notifjdng persons 
purchasing, or intending to purchase, the same that they have been so kept 
by the display of a sign marked, " Cold Storage Goods Sold Here," and it 
shall be vmlawful to represent or advertise as fresh goods articles of food 
which have been held in cold storage. 

Section 7. It shall be unlawful to return to cold storage any article of 
food that has once been released from such storage for the purpose of placing 
it on the market for sale to consumers, but nothing in this section shall be 



10 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

construed to prevent the transfer of goods from one cold-storage or refrig- 
erating warehouse to another, provided that such transfer is not made for 
the purpose of evading any provision of this act. 

Section 8. Broken eggs packed in cans, if not intended for use as food, 
when deposited in cold storage shall be marked by the owners in accordance 
with forms prescribed by the state board of health, vander the authority here- 
inafter conferred, in such a way as plainly to indicate the fact that they are 
not to be sold for food. 

Section 9. The state board of health may make rules and regulations to 
secure a proper enforcement of the provisions of this act, including rules and 
regulations with respect to the use of marks, tags or labels and the display 
of signs, and may fix penalties for the breach thereof. 

Section 10. Any person, firm or corporation violating any provision of 
this act shall upon conviction be punished for the first offence by a fine not 
exceeding one hundred dollars, and for the second offence by a fine not ex- 
ceeding five hundred dollars, or, if the offence is committed by a person acting 
either in his individual capacity or in behalf of a firm or corporation, by 
imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or by both such fine and im- 
prisonment. 

Section 11. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith are hereby 
repealed. 

Section 12. This act shall take effect on the first day of September, nine- 
teen hundred and twelve. [Approved May 27, 1912. 

On Oct. 3, 1912, the following rules and regulations were made by 
the State Board of Health : — 

Rules and Regulations. 
These niles are to be regarded as temporary only, and as occasion requires 
the State Board of Health will amend, alter and supplement them. Due 
notice of such alteration will be given to all persons interested. 

1. Articles of food intended for cold storage shall, when they are offered 
for or placed in cold storage, be enclosed in boxes, barrels, crates or other 
packages sufficiently strong to protect them from injury, unless the articles 
are of such a character that it is impracticable to pack them in containers. 

2. When articles of food contained in packages are placed in cold storage, 
each package shall be legibly marked in black, purple or red ink as follows: 
" Received " followed by the day, month and year when such articles were 
received in storage. 

"When articles of food not contained in packages are placed in cold stor- 
age, and it is found to be impracticable to mark each individual article, they 
may be stored in stacks or piles, and an appropriate tag applied to them 
indicating the date on which they were received in cold storage. 

All letters or figures must be in plain type not less than three-eighths of 
an inch in height. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 11 

The word " Received " may be written " Ree'd," and figures separated by 
hyphens may be used to indicate dates and will be regarded as sufficient date 
if following the word " Ree'd." The last two figures of the number indicating 
the year when such foods were placed in storage may be used, e.g. : " Received 
September 1, 1912," may be written : " Rec'd 9-1-12." 

2A. Articles of food already held in cold storage on Sept. 1, 1912, shall be 
legibly marked as follows : " In storage September 1, 1912," or " In storage 
9_1_12." In other respects the marking of such articles shall be governed 
by the provisions of Rule 2.^ 

3. When articles of food have been kept in cold storage for twelve calendar 
months, report of such fact shall be made to the State Board of Health by the 
persons having custody of such articles, and such articles shall not be removed 
from cold storage by the owners until they have been inspected by the agents 
of the State Board of Health, and released by order of the Board. 

4. For the purpose of facilitating the removal of articles of food from 
cold storage before the expiration of the statutory period of twelve calendar 
months, persons operating cold-storage warehouses shall notify the owners 
of all articles of food stored by them of the date when such articles will have 
been in storage twelve months, at least fifteen days before such twelve months 
have elapsed. 

5. Requests for permission to store food for a longer period than twelve 
calendar months must be made by the owners thereof to the State Board of 
Health, upon blanks which will be furnished by the Board upon application. 
No such request will be considered by the Board unless a satisfactory reason, 
stating why such extension of storage is desired, is given. 

Before such requests are granted the articles of food to which they refer 
must be inspected by agents of the Board. Requests should therefore be made 
at least tAvo weeks before the statutory time limit for storage has expired. 

6. Articles of food which are held at low temperatures for temporary pro- 
tection only, for periods less than thirty days, will not, for the purposes of 
this act, be regarded as being held in cold storage, and such articles need 
not be dated, but such articles shall as far as practicable be kept separate 
from articles intended for cold storage. 

7. The sign " Cold Storage Goods Sold Here," required by section 6, 
(chapter 652, Acts of 1912) shall be printed in type not less than two inches 
in height, printed in black on a white background, and said sign shall be 
posted in a conspicuous place in all places where uncooked cold-storage goods 
are kept or offered for sale, no other lettering to appear on or to be attached 
to this sign. 

8. Broken eggs packed in cans, if not intended for use as food, shall be 
marked by the owner when deposited in cold storage with a stamp or label 
reading as follows : — " NOT FOR FOOD" — on the side of the body of 
each individual can. The words " Not for food " shall be indicated in letters 
not less than three-eighths of an inch in height, and a similar stamp or label 

> This regulation was adopted at a meeting of the State Board of Health held on Nov. 7, 1912. 



12 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

shall be placed upon the side of any crate or other package containing more 
than a single can. 

9. The floors, halls, walls, ceilings, furniture, receptacles, implements and 
maehinerj'' of every cold-storage or refrigerating warehouse shall be kept 
in a clean, healthful and sanitary condition; and, for the purpose of this 
rule, unclean, unhealthful or unsanitary conditions shall be deemed to exist if 
the food stored is not securely protected from flies, dust, dirt, insects and 
from all foreign or injurious contamination. 

10. Toilet rooms shall be separate and apart from the rooms in which food 
is stored; cuspidors for the use of employees must be washed daily with 
disinfectant solution. 

11. No employer shall knowingly require, permit or suffer any person to 
work, nor shall any person work, in a cold-storage or refrigerating ware- 
house who is affected with any infectious or contagious disease. 

12. No material in a state of decomposition or putrefaction, or in any 
other condition which renders it unfit for use as food, shall be placed in cold 
storage in the same room or enclosure with articles for use as food. 

13. Until further notice, the following classification of foods wiU be used 
by persons operating cold-storage warehouses and refrigerating plants in 
making quarterly reports of articles of food held in cold storage : — 



Eggs, case 
Eggs, broken 
Butter 
Poultry 



Game 

Meat, fresh 

Meat products, fresh 

Fish, fresh food. 



14. Shell eggs are to be reported in terms of cases and dozens, all other 
articles to be reported as by package or weight, and in so far as the same 
is practicable, by both package and weight. 

15. Any person, firm or corporation violating any of the provisions of the 
above rules and regulations governing the use of marks, tags or labels and 
the display of signs, shall be subject to a fine not exceeding one hundred 
dollars for each offence. 

Business of Slaughtering. 

The system of slaughtering inspection throughout the Commonwealth 
is far from being satisfactory, due to the fact that most of the inspection 
is in the hands of laymen, the law requiring the employment of veteri- 
narians in the cities only. The cities and towns in the State, with but 
few exceptions, have one or more inspectors of slaughtering; in the 
absence of such an inspector a member of the local hoard of health can 
act in the capacity of inspector should occasion require. Even with this 
imperfect system of inspection some good is being accomplished. 

As will be seen in the Supplement, even with the present inadequate 
inspection, a considerable amount of meat has been condemned and con- 
sequently withdrawn from the market, and has been consigned to ren- 



N0..34.J GENERAL REPORT. 13 

derers or otherwise so treated that it could not be used for food purposes. 
Where inspection is carried on by competent inspectors, meat from 
immature calves, emaciated or diseased animals, is rejected and disposed 
of in such manner that it cannot be used for food purposes. The im- 
portance of thorough inspection of all meats intended for human food 
cannot be overestimated. When we consider how extensively the flesh 
of animals enters into our daily fare, it is only reasonable that some 
guarantee should be given that such meats are wholesome, nutritious 
and free from diseased conditions, and are therefore harmless. 

By Acts of 1911 inspection of the slaughtering business in Massachu- 
setts was placed partially under the jurisdiction of the State Board of 
Health. Local inspectors of slaughtering, except in the city of Boston, 
may not be appointed until their nominations have been approved by 
the State Board of Health, and as a result of this legislation a consider- 
able number of the less desirable local inspectors have been eliminated 
through the disapproval of the State Board of Health. A special 
pamphlet dealing with the laws relating to the business of slaughtering 
has been distributed by the Board, and a special circular entitled, 
" Rules, Regulations and Recommendations pertaining to the Business 
of Slaughtering and Meat Inspection " has been sent to all persons inter- 
ested, and will be found in the Supplement. 

Beginning with 1913, furthermore, the Board will have in its service 
two veterinary inspectors whose duty it will be to travel throughout the 
State to inspect local slaughtering conditions and to correct, as far as 
may be, evils which they will doubtless discover in considerable numbers. 

Branding of Extrastate Carcasses, 
Because of the fact that the United States law allows under certain 
exemptions the shipment in interstate commerce without inspection and 
stamping the carcasses of neat cattle, sheep and swine, the Legislature of 
1912 passed, upon the recommendation of the Board, chapter 248, en- 
titled, "An Act relative to the Stamping or Branding of Carcasses of 
Neat Cattle, Sheep or Swine sold or ofl:ered for Sale." 

The object of this statute was, of course, to bring it about that all 
carcasses of neat cattle, sheep and swine offered for sale in Massachusetts 
should necessarily bear the stamp of some official inspection. The law 
has met, however, with a good deal of opposition, not only from extrastate 
slaughterers, but also from local provision dealers, and a test case has 
been carried to the Supreme Court in order to deteraiine the constitu- 
tionality of this legislation. This case was decided by the Supreme 
Court favorably to the contention of the Commonwealth. (See Com- 
monwealth V. George W. Moore; Suffolk, Feb. 26, 1913.) 



14 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. • [Pub. Doc. 



Appointment of a Joint Commission to Consider an Alleged 
Nuisance upon the Shores of Dorchester Bay. 

Chapter 133 of the Eesolves of 1912 require the State Board of Health, 
together with the Port Directors of the city of Boston, as a joint com- 
mission, to consider an alleged nuisance existing on the shores of Dor- 
chester Bay. 

The Joint Board has met on several occasions and has discussed this 
situation in considerable detail. The report of this Joint Board, printed 
as House Bill N^o. 1840, appears below : — 

Report of the Joint Board on an Investigation as to the Advisability 
AND Cost op improving the Shores of Dorchester Bat. 

Boston, Jan. 9, 1913. 
To the General Court. 

The resolve of the General Court of 1912, providing for an investig-ation 
of the advisability and cost of improving the shores of Dorchester Bay, is 
as follows : — 

Resolves of 1912, Chapteb 133. 

Resolve to provide for an Investigation of the Advisability and Cost of 
Improving the Shores of Dorchester Bay. 

Eesolved, That the state board of health and the directors of the port of Bos- 
ton, acting as a joint board, shall investigate the practicability and advisability, 
and estimate the cost, of improving the shores of Dorchester bay so as to prevent 
the nuisance now existing in the dump and flats lying within the bend of the 
Strandway bordering upon the said bay between South Boston and the Cow 
pasture, said improvement to consist of the construction of a dam or wall, or 
otherwise, as the said joint board may determine. 

The board shall report to the next general court not later than the eighth 
day of January and may expend for the purposes of this resolve a sum not 
exceeding one thousand dollars, which shall be paid from the treasury of the 
commonwealth on presentation of proper vouchers therefor. 



Acting under the authority of the above resolve, the State Board of Health 
and the Directors of the Port of Boston met on Aug. 1, 1912, for the purpose 
of organization as a joint board. Henry P. Walcott was elected chairman, 
Mark W. Richardson was appointed secretary, and Frank W. Hodgdon and 
X. H. Goodnough were appointed engineers of the Board to make the neces- 
sary investigations. 

The results of the investigations are contained in the appended report of 
the engineers, and the facts therein are made a part of this report. 

The members of the Board have examined the location of the nuisance and 
find that it has been caused by the dumping of large quantities of miscellane- 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 15 

ous waste and refuse at the inner shore of the bay, foul matter from which 
has spread along the shore and outward upon the flats, which are now cov- 
ered for a considerable distance with a deposit of mud and from which a 
foul odor arises at times of low water, especially in warm weather. 

This bay and its northerly and westerly shores are the resort of large num- 
bers of people for boating and bathing, and it is advisable, in the opinion of 
the Board, that the existing nuisance be prevented. The report of the en- 
gineers presents two plans with estimates of the cost, by either of which the 
nuisance can be prevented and the objectionable conditions in the bay re- 
moved. By the first plan further nuisance will be prevented, the present 
objectionable conditions removed, and about 25 acres added to the area for 
playgrounds in this section of the city. By the second plan, at a much larger 
expense, about 75 acres would be added to the grounds available for the use 
of the city, and a corresponding increase in the extent of deep water available 
in this bay would be secured. 

On account of the great and growing use of this bay and its shores for 
boating and bathing and the other purposes of a public playground, it is 
important that its shores and waters shall be kept in as clean a condition 
as practicable. In order that the present pollution may be materially re- 
lieved, it is advisable, in the opinion of the Board, that the sewage should 
be separated from the storm Avater in the areas in South Boston and later 
in the areas tributary to the Dorchester intercepting sewer, now served by 
combined systems, so that all sewage shall be removed to the intercepting 
sewer system and only storm water unpolluted with sewage discharged into 
the bay. The offensive condition existing upon the made land between Colum- 
bia Road and the western end of the bay can be easily removed by a municipal 
prohibition of dumping refuse material in this locality. 

Conditions along the south side of the bay are not objectionable at the 
present time, and this area remains for development in the future according 
to such plans as may seem then most desirable. 
The reiDort of the engineers is appended. 

Respectfully submitted, 

He>s"ry p. Walcott, Chairman, 
Clement F. Coogan", 
Julian A. Mead, 
Hiram F. Mills, 
Robert W. Lovett, 

C. E. McGlLLlCUDDY, 

State Board of Health. 

Hugh Bancroft, 
Joseph A. Conry, 
W. F, Fitzgerald, 
Wm. S. McNary, 
Francis T. Bowles, 

Directors of the Port of Boston. 



16 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Engineers' Report. 

Office of the State Board op Health, 
State House, Boston, January, 1913. 

To Henry P. Walcott, M.D., Chairman, Joint Board on improving the 

Shores of Dorchester Bay. 

Sir; — lu aceorclanee with the vote of the Joint Board, we have examined 
the nuisance existing at the dump and on the flats lying within the bend of 
the Strandway bordering upon Dorchester Bay between South Boston and 
the Cow Pasture, so called, known as the Old Harbor, for the purpose of 
determining the cause of the present objectionable conditions there and recom- 
mending a plan by which the nuisance can be permanently removed. 

Examinations of this locality show that the nuisance has been caused mainly 
by the dumping of large quantities of refuse of various kinds in the bend 
of the Strandway, and in part by the discharge of sewage at times of storms 
from sewer overflows along the shore in this neighborhood. The conditions 
when examined were very foul along the front from the material recently 
deposited, and these objectionable conditions extend for a considerable dis- 
tance on either side. Farther along the shore, toward City Point and towai'd 
the Cow Pasture, the flats and exposed shores become much cleaner, and 
traces of the objectionable conditions gradually disappear. The conditions 
are most objectionable at the time of low tide, especially in low courses of 
tides, when large areas of the foul flats and shores are exposed to the air. 

One of the principal overflows from the South Boston intercepting sewer 
now discharges near the Strandway at the former shore of the bay, and in 
filling beyond this outlet a channel was left through which the sewage dis- 
charged at times of storm could find an outlet into the bay. This channel is 
obstructed and partly filled with rubbish, through Avhich the sewage-polluted 
water passes slowly at times of overflow, and in dry weather collects in pools 
which become very foul. Plans have been made and work is now in progress 
on the extension of this overflow to a point of discharge at the present shore 
of the bay. 

The best practicable plan for improving the sanitary conditions in this 
neighborhood and preventing further nuisance is to fill across the head of 
the bay in front of the foul deposits to a level of 16 feet above mean low 
water with material excavated from the bottom of the bay. If the filling 
should be begun on the northerly side about 600 feet east of Old Harbor 
Street, and should be continued on a curve of about 1,750 feet radius in 
front of the present fill, and from 100 to 650 feet therefrom to a point on 
the shore of the Cow Pasture about 300 feet northeast of the present outlet 
of the overflow from the Dorchester intercepting sewer, the total quantity 
of filling required would be about 800,000 cubic yards. This material could 
be obtained by dredging about 150 acres in front of the proposed fill to a 
level about 4 feet below mean low water, thereby removing a large part of 
the mud-covered flats at present exposed at low water, portions of which are 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 17 

offensive. At the same time witli the filling it would be necessary to extend 
the Dorchester intercepting sewer overflow and the overflows at Carson, 
Kemp, Vale, H and I streets through the fill to points of discharge at the new 
shore of the bay. 

There would still be very serious objection to the discharge of mingled 
sewage aiid storm water from these sewer overflows at the edge of the shore, 
since there would be no satisfactory opportunity for these discharges to 
mingle freely and quickly with the water of the bay, and the shore and the 
Avater adjacent to, it would be badly fouled at such times. If the discharge 
of sewage is to be continued at these outlets they should be extended a dis- 
tance of 300 to 400 feet from the shore at low water, so that their waters 
may be diluted with the waters of the bay before they can return. 

It is not desirable, however, that the discharge of sewage at these outlets 
should be continued indefinitely in the future, even though the discharge 
takes place only at times of storm. This bay, especially its westerly and 
northerly portions, is now the resort of great and increasing numbers of 
people for boating and bathing, and its waters should be protected from 
sewage pollution. The separation of the sewage from the storm water so 
as to prevent the discharge of crude sewage at any time along these shores 
must be regarded as a necessary sanitary improvement. 

The total length of sewers in South Boston is about 45 miles, and the total 
cost of separation will doubtless exceed $1,000,000. Separation of sewage 
from the storm water is also desirable in the district served by the Dorchester 
intercepting sewer, one of the principal overflows from which discharges 
into the southwesterly corner of the Old Harbor. The district served by this 
sewer is a large one and while, so far as the Old Harbor is concerned, sep- 
aration would be required only in a part of the district sensed by this sewer, 
the cost will be considerable in addition to the cost of separation in South 
Boston. Nevertheless, the advantages of separation in all districts tributary 
to the Old Harbor are so important that it is advisable to plan for it at the 
present time. 

If separation should be effected, the present outlets would probably con- 
tinue to be used as outlets for surface water, and their extension to any con- 
siderable distance beyond low water would be unnecessary. The work of 
separation is likely to cover a period of several years, however, and it is 
advisable under the circumstances that the present overflow outlets be located 
a short distance off shore, and the plans and estimates provide for locating 
these outlets about 50 feet beyond the edge of the shore at low water. It 
is not advisable to construct large outlets in this region, and we have planned 
that the extensions shall be made with iron pipes not exceeding 60 inches in 
diameter, and that the outlets shall be so located as to be very nearly covered 
with water at low tide. 

The estimated cost of carrying out the scheme outlined on the accompany- 
ing plan, in which it is assumed that the separation of the sewage from the 
storm water will be carried out in Soath Boston and in a part of the area 
served by the Dorchester intercepting sewer, is as follows : — 



18 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Excavating and depositing material in the fill : — 

80,000 cubic yards at $0.40, $320,000 

Surfacing the beach with gravel : — 

75,000 cubic yards at $1, 75,000 

Extending sewer overflows : — 

Dorchester interceptor, 550 feet, 2 lines, 60-inch C. I. pipe at $45, . 24,750 

Carson Street, 900 feet, 2 lines, 60-inch C. I. pipe at $45, . . . 40,500 

Kemp Street, 350 feet, 3 lines, 60-inch C. I. pipe at $60, . . . 21,000 

Vale Street, 320 feet, 2 lines, 60-inch C. I. pipe at $45, . . . 14,460 

H Street, 200 feet, 60-inch C. I. pipe, at $30, 6,000 

I Street, 200 feet, IS-inch C. I. pipe, at $8, 1,600 



Total, $503,310 

Add 15 per cent, for engineering and contingencies, .... 75,496 



Total, $578,806 

The lower portion of the Carson Street and Dorchester intercepting sewer 
overflows are now constructed of wood, and it would probably be advisable 
to replace these wooden structures with iron or concrete. If replaced with 
concrete the additional cost would probably be about $45,000. 

The plan here presented provides for removing the nuisance now existing 
at the upper end of the Old Harbor, and if carried out would add about 
25 acres to the area already filled at the upper end of this bay. The scheme 
can be modified to suit the requirements of the region for playground pur- 
poses and further modified for commercial development, if desired, on the 
southerly side of the bay without changing materially the general plan. 

By direction of the Joint Board we present also a plan and estimate of 
the cost of filling the bay as nearly as pra^cticable to the harbor line, as 
established by the State and United States governments. 

Beginning at a point about 250 feet off the present shore line at Street, 
the harbor line as established runs southwesterly to a j^oint opposite M Street, 
which point is about 600 feet from the present shore line. At this point the 
harbor line turns toward the west and runs parallel with Ninth Street to a 
point opposite Old Harbor Street, where it turns a right angle and runs 
south 1,400 feet, then turns to the southwest and runs toward Dorchester 
Bay approximately parallel with Mt. Vernon Street. 

In this plan the low water line would extend from the present low water 
line just east of K Street parallel Avith tlie harbor line and about 100 feet 
northerly thereof to the upper end of the bay, where it would curve on a 
radius of about 1,000 feet to the angle in the harbor line in the southwesterly 
part of the bay. The high Avater line would be parallel to this line and about 
200 feet nearer the present shore line. 

By this plan the northerly side of the bay west of L Street and all of the 
upper end of the bay to the angle in the harbor line in the southwesterly 
part thereof would be filled. The lines indicated are shown on the accom- 
panying plan. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 19 

The total cost of this work is estimated as follows : — 

Excavating and depositing material in the fill: — 

2,000,000 cubic yards at $0.40, $800,000 

Surfacing the beach with gravel : — 

80,000 cubic yards at $1, 80,000 

Extending sewer overflows: — 

K Street, 310 feet of 36-inch C. I. pipe at $15, 4,650 

I Street, 620 feet of 18-inch C. I. pipe at $8, 4,960 

H Street, 720 feet of 60-inch C. I. pipe at $30, 21,600 

Vale Street, 800 feet, 2 lines, 60-inch G, I. pipe at $45, . . . 36,000 

Kemp Street, 700 feet, 3 lines, 60-ineh C. I. pipe at $60, . . . 42,000 

Carson Street, 1,230 feet, 2 lines, 60-inch C. I, pipe at $45, . . 55,350 
Dorchester intercepting sewer, 950 feet, 2 lines, 60-inch C. I. pipe 

at $45, 42,750 



Total, $1,087,310 

Add 15 per cent, for engineering and contingencies, .... 163,096 

Total, $1,250,406 

If those portions of the Carson Street and Dorchester intercepting sewer 
overflows, which are now constructed of wood, should be replaced with 
structures of concrete, the additional cost would probably be about $45,000. 

In the foregoing plan it is assumed that the separation of the sewage from 
the storm water will be effected in South Boston, and later in a part of the 
area served by the Dorchester intercepting sewer, and the sewer outlets are 
designed to extend only 50 feet beyond the line of low water. 

This plan, if carried out, would add an area of 75 acres to the area already 
filled in this part of Dorchester Bay. 

The above estimates provide for the dredging of the bay outside the harbor 
lines, and for filling and improving the shore of the South Boston side and 
at the inner end. The south or Cow Pasture side of the bay is at present 
in fairly clean condition, and with the'*portion outside the harbor lines dredged 
to well below mean low water will probably not be ofi'ensive. 

This shore is in a convenient location for development for commercial pur- 
poses, and railroad tracks can easily be built connecting it with the existing 
railroad systems without interfering materially with the natural team ap- 
proach. Material for this development can be easily secured by deepening 
the bay outside of the harbor lines to such depth as may be required for navi- 
gation. B}'^ so doing the volume of water for diluting such sewage and 
surface water from the streets as may be discharged there will be inci'eased. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frank W. Hodgdon", 
x. h. goodnough, 
Engineers of Joint Board. 



20 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Water Supply and Sewerage. 

The State Board of Health presents herewith a report of its doings for 
the twelve months ended Nov. 30, 1912, under the provisions of laws relat- 
ing to the protection of the purity of inland waters, as required by chapter 
75, section 115, of the Revised Laws. 

The Board has received during the year 149 applications for advice with 
reference to water supply, sewerage, sewage disposal and matters relating 
thereto. Of these applications, 95 were in relation to water supply, 10 to 
sources of ice supply, 27 to sewerage, drainage and sewage disposal, 6 to 
the pollution of streams and 11 to miscellaneous matters. 

Water Supplies. 

Pubhc water supplies were introduced during the year in the towns of 
Acton (West and South Water Supply District), Barnstable, Foxborough 
(East Foxborough Water Supply District), Groton (West Groton Water 
Supply District), Littleton, Norton and Shelburne (Shelburne Falls Fire 
District). The main villages of Foxborough and Groton had pre\dously 
been suppHed with water. 

Of the 353 cities and towns in the State, 202, containing by the census 
of 1910 a population of 3,196,929, are pro\dded with pubUc water suppUes. 
The remaining towns, 151 in number, contained by the census of 1910 a 
population of 169,487. All of the towns in the State having a population 
in excess of 5,000 are now supphed with water, and there are only 7 towns 
having a population in excess of 2,500 which are not provided with public 
water supplies, viz., Dartmouth, Somerset, Sutton, Templeton, Tewksbury, 
Warren and Westport. 

Of the 202 cities and towns having pubhc water supplies, 159 are sup- 
plied wholly or in part from municipal or district works, while 43 are 
supphed by water companies. 

Rainfall and Stream Flow in 1912. 
The rainfall in Massachusetts for the year 1912 was less than the aver- 
age, the average deficiency throughout the State being about 5 inches. 
There was considerable variation in the geographical distribution of the 
rainfall, the deficiency being greatest in the western part of the State and 
least in the southeastern districts, where the amount was nearly normal. 
The seasonal distribution of the rainfall was notable on account of the fact 
that there was a marked excess in the months of March, April and May, 
and a decided deficiency in all of the other months except December. 
Nearly all of the rainfall for the month of February occurred in the last 
twelve days and, taken in connection with the high rainfall of the month 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 21 

of March and the continued excess in April and May, produced a higher 
flow in the streams than has occurred for many years. 

On the other hand, the average rainfall for the month of June was less 
than a third of an inch, and in most parts of the State there were also de- 
cided deficiencies in the months of July, August, September and October. 

The effect of this distribution of the rainfall was to produce very high 
flows in the streams during the spring, by which nearly all of the reservoirs 
and ponds were filled to overflowing, while the deficiency of rainfall in the 
summer and fall caused a shortage of water in many of the supplies de- 
pendent upon small reservoirs. With the heavy rains of the late fall and 
early winter these reservoirs were restored to their normal condition. 

Sanitary Protection of Public Water Supplies. 

Under authority of chapter 75, section 113, of the Revised Laws, rules 
and regulations have been made during the year by the Board for the sani- 
tary protection of the water supplies of Great Barrington (Housatonic), 
Hingham and Hull, and North Andover. Late in the year the construc- 
tion of a railroad through the watershed from which the water supply of 
the city of Springfield is taken led to the adoption of special rules and regu- 
lations for the protection of that water supply. 

Supervision of Water Companies. 

Under the provisions of chapter 319 of the Acts of the year 1909, en- 
titled "An Act to provide for the supervision of water companies by the 
State Board of Health," the Board is authorized to investigate complaints 
in writing relative to the service furnished in any city or town, or the 
charges therefor made by any company engaged in the business of supply- 
ing water to such city or town or the inhabitants thereof, and to give a 
public hearing to the complainant or complainants and to the company; 
and after the hearing the Board is authorized to make "such recommenda- 
tions concerning the reduction, modification or continuation of such charges 
for service, or concerning improvements in the quality of the service or 
extensions of the same or concerning other matters in the premises as the 
board shall deem just and proper." The act further provides that "any 
such recommendations shall be transmitted in writing by the board to the 
company complained of, and a report of the proceedings and result thereof 
shall be included in the annual report of the board, together with a state- 
ment of the action, if any, taken by the company upon the recommenda- 
tion." 

Under the above law the Board has acted upon petitions relative to the 
service furnished or the rates charged by the following water companies: 
Milford Water Company, supplying the towns of Milford and Hopedale; 



22 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Stockbridge Water Company, supplying the town of Stockbridge; Fair- 
haven Water Company, supplying the town of Fairhaven; Onset Water 
Company, supplying the village of Onset in the town of Wareham; and the 
Hingham Water Company, supplying the towns of Hingham and Hull. 

In the case of the Milford Water Company the petition was filed by the 
board of selectmen and was as follows : — 

Respectfully petition, Matthew J. Carbary, Edwin F. Lilley and John A. 
McKenzie, that they are the duly elected selectmen of the town of Milford, and 
that there exists within the borders of the town of Milford a corporation known 
as the Milford Water Company, said company having been incorporated by a 
special act of the Legislature, in 1881, for the purpose of distributing water 
through the streets of Milford for domestic and other uses. 

Your petitioners further allege that there is a part of the said town of Milford 
known as North Purchase, through whose streets said water company has not 
extended its mains, and yoiu Board is informed and beheves that they have been 
requested to do so and have refused. 

Your petitioners allege, and upon information believe, that there is absolutely 
a dire want existing in this section of the town of Milford in regard to water; 
that it is an absolute necessity that the residents of this part of the town receive 
the same consideration as other residents in other parts of the town from the 
Milford "Water Company. 

Your petitioners further allege, and upon information and belief say, that the 
Milford Water Company is a very good paying corporation, that it receives, in 
their opinion, a higher rating for its services than equity and good conscience 
should allow; that it has piled up a tremendously large sinking fund which is 
unnecessary for its maintenance or preservation; that they could well afford 
to extend the mains through the North Purchase district of said town of MiKord 
without in any way cripphng their financial standing. 

Therefore, your petitioners request that your Honorable Board may give 
them a hearing concerning the advisability of recommending the extension of 
the services of the Milford Water Company to the North Purchase district in 
said town of Milford, so called, and for further investigation of the excessive 
rates charged by said company for water in said town of Milford. 

A public hearing was given by the Board upon this petition, after notice 
to the complainants and to the company, as required by the act, and the 
Board, after investigation, made the following recommendations : — 

Feb. 1, 1912. 
To the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Milford. 

Gentlemen : — A complaint having been filed with this Board by the board 
of selectmen of the town of Milford, requesting a hearing as to the advisability 
of the extension of the service of the Milford Water Company to the North Pur- 
chase district, so called, in the town of Milford, and alleging that the rates 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 23 

charged by said company for water in the town of Milford are excessive, the 
Board has given a hearing to the complainants and to the company, and has 
been furnished with such information from the records of the company as ap- 
pears to be necessary for the proper consideration of the matters mentioned in 
the complaint. 

It appears from the information presented to the Board that, following an 
increase in the assessment of taxes of the works by the town, the water rates 
were increased at the beginning of the year 1910. It further appears that esti- 
mates by the engineer of the water company of the cost of an extension of the 
water company's service to the North Purchase district indicate that the probable 
income to the company from this extension would not equal the cost of capital 
charges, maintenance of the works, etc., and that, under the circumstances, 
it is not deemed equitable to make the extension, since the extra cost would be 
borne by consumers in other parts of the town. 

The Board has obtained from the books of the water company the necessary 
information relative to the questions submitted in the petition, has caused the 
locahty to be examined, and has considered the information presented. 

It appears that the appraisal for the purposes of taxation of the property 
of the water company exceeds considerably an expert estimate of the probable 
reproduction cost of the works. 

During the first four years after the completion of the works, with a capital 
stock of $100,000, no dividends were paid, but in the three following years they 
averaged 4^ per cent. For the next thirteen years, on a capital stock of $150,000, 
the dividends averaged about 6 per cent. Since 1898 the dividend in each year 
has been 8 per cent, on a capital stock of $200,000. Since 1902 the interest paid 
on the bonds of the face value of $200,000 has been 4 per cent. 

It is evident from a careful estimate of the cost of the extension to the North 
Purchase district, that the expense to the company would probably exceed the 
income derivable from that district by a sum amounting to several hundred 
dollars a year, and that it would make little difference in the amount of this 
annual deficiency whether the extension were made with works sufficient only 
for domestic service or large enough for a fire service, provided in the latter case 
the town should pay the same yearly sum per hydrant for about 10 or 12 hy- 
drants in the North Purchase district that it now pays for hydrants in other parts 
of the town. If the extension should be made and the town should vote to pay 
the extra hydrant service in the North Purchase district, the remainder of the 
deficiency could be made up by the water takers m the other parts of the town, 
who in that case would pay somewhat higher water rates than would otherwise 
be required. 

In the opinion of the Board the extension is a desirable one for the health and 
comfort of the inhabitants of this district, and if the town sees fit to vote the 
extra cost of hydrant service, the Board recommends that the extension be made. 

From an examination of the income from the works and the cost of mainte- 
nance and operation, and making allowance for depreciation, for the payment of 
interest on bonds and notes, and for dividends, it appears to the Board that under 
present conditions the water rates could be reduced to the schedule of rates in 



24 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

force in 1909 without danger of impairing the efficiency of the works. It is 
probable, furthermore, that even if the extension to the North Purchase dis- 
trict should be made under the conditions referred to above, the rates in force 
in 1909 might still be restored without danger of reducing too greatly the neces- 
sary allowance for depreciation, or reducing umeasonably the dividends; but 
this cannot be determined definitely until the probable income from the North 
Purchase district has been more definitely ascertained. 

The Board recommends that the extension to the North Purchase district 
be made as soon as practicable, provided the town votes the extra amount for 
hydrant rental. 

The Board further recommends that, in case the extension is made during the 
season of 1912, the water rates be reduced, beginning not later than Jan. 1, 1913, 
by an amount equivalent to three-fourths of the increase made in the rates at 
the beginning of 1910. 

If the town votes against the payment of extra hydrant rental in the North 
Purchase district, the Board recommends that the water rates be reduced, at 
the beginning of the month following action by the town, to the rates in force in 

1909. 

In case a revision of the appraisal of the works for the purposes of taxation 
should result in a considerable reduction in the tax assessment, a reduction in 
rates should be made coincident with the change in assessment, regardless of the 
time of completion of the North Purchase extension. The amount of reduction 
in rates would depend upon the amount of reduction in the tax. 

In the case of the Stockbridge Water Company, the petition was filed by 
fifty or more customers of the water company and was as follows: — 

We, the undersigned, fifty or more customers of the Stockbridge Water Com- 
pany, which company supphes water to the inhabitants of the town of Stock- 
bridge, hereby make complaint to your Honorable Board under chapter 319 of 
the Acts of 1909, relative to the service furnished and to the charges therefor 
made by said company. 

We specify that the quahty of water is not satisfactory in that the frequent 
presence of Uroglena or algae renders the water extremely disagreeable. 

We specify that the watershed of Lake Averic is not sufficiently protected to 
guarantee at all times its freedom from contamination. 

We specify that the rates charged are higher than proper return on the present 
appraised value of the plant warrants. 

We respectfully request a hearing under the above quoted chapter. 

After a hearing and investigation of the circumstances the Board made 
the following recommendations relative to the service furnished and the 
rates charged by the Stockbridge Water Company: — 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 25 

June 6, 1912. 
To the Stockhridge Water Company, Stockbridge, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — A complaint having been filed with this Board by fifty or 
more customers of the Stockbridge Water Company, making complaint relative 
to the service furnished by said company in the to^vn of Stockbridge and the 
charges made therefor, and alleging that the quality of the water is not satis- 
factory in that the frequent presence of Uroglena or algae renders the water 
extremely disagreeable, that the watershed is not sufficiently protected to guar- 
antee at all times its freedom from contamination, and, finally, that the rates 
charged are higher than proper return on the present appraised value of the plant 
warrants, the Board has given a hearing to the complainants and to the company, 
after notice imder the provisions of chapter 319 of the Acts of the year 1909. 
The Board has also been fm'nished with such information from the records of 
the company as appears to be necessary for the proper consideration of the 
matters mentioned in the complaint, and has considered the character of the 
water, as shown by analyses, and the conditions affecting the purity of the supply. 

The source of water supply used by the Stockbridge Water Company is Lake 
Averic, and an examination of the watershed shows that there are few possible 
dangers of contamination of the water, and that, by the enforcement of proper 
sanitary rules and regulations, danger of contamination of the supply can be 
prevented. Suitable rules for the sanitary protection of this water supply were 
adopted by the Board on Sept. 1, 1910, and have been transmitted to the water 
company. 

The water of Lake Averic is in most respects naturally of good quaUty for 
domestic purposes, especially on account of its freedom from the excessive hard- 
ness which characterizes many of the waters of this region, but it is frequently 
rendered objectionable for drinldng and other domestic purposes by the presence 
of Uroglena and other organisms which impart to water a very disagreeable taste 
and odor. Extensive and apparently very thorough investigations have been 
made by the water company with a view to obtaining a better supply from some 
other source, especially from the ground, but the ground waters, wherever it 
appears to be practicable to obtain an adequate supply under conditions favorable 
to obtaining a pure water, have been found to be so excessively hard as to render 
them objectionable for many domestic uses. 

Judging from the results of the investigations which have been made by the 
company with a view to improving its water supply, it appears to the Board 
probable that the best practicable plan of securing good water for the supply 
of the town is to filter the water of Lake Averic through a suitable sand filter 
provided with such auxiliary aeration as may be necessary, and it is probable, 
judging from experience with other similar waters, that a water of good quality, 
free from taste and odor, can be obtained by suitable filtration. 

From an examination of the extent and capacity of the works in use, their 
condition and probable cost of replacement, and from an examination of the 
income of the works and the cost of maintenance and operation, it appears to 
the Board that the works at present will not pay more than a fair dividend to 
the stockholders upon a fair estimate of their cost of replacement. 



26 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It further appears that the works are managed economically, though the 
quantity of water used is apparently quite unreasonable and not accounted for 
except upon the ground of unnecessary waste. It is probable that a careful 
investigation and the application of meters would result in a decided reduction 
in the use of water and some reduction in the cost of maintaining the works. 
It is unlikely, however, in the opinion of the Board, that the necessary works 
for purifying the water could be constructed without the issuance of new bonds 
or stock, which would require an increase in the rates. 

A large part of the cost of construction of these works and of their mainte- 
nance and operation is due to the provision made for fire protection, and the 
hydrant rental paid by the town is less than is charged by other water com- 
panies for hydrant service. It is probable, if the hydrant rental paid by the 
town were raised to the amount paid for hydrant service in other places, i.e., 
to about $50 per hydrant, that the company could raise the money required to 
construct the necessary works and provide for their proper operation and main- 
tenance, including interest on bonds and the payment of a reasonable dividend 
on the stock, with no material increase in the water rates and possibly without 
increasing them. If the town does not choose to increase the payment for 
hydrant rental or other public use of water, the cost of works required for the 
improvement of the supply would have to be met by a considerable increase in 
the charges for water. 

The Board recommends that the rules and regulations adopted for the sanitary 
protection of Lake Averic be strictly enforced by the water company, and that 
a sand filter, with such devices and other appurtenances as may be necessary, 
be constructed and used for the purification of the water taken from Lake Averic; 
and it also recommends the installation of meters on all services if necessary, 
including flush tanks at the head of sewers, so as to prevent or greatly restrict 
unnecessary waste of water. 

The Board further recommends that the water company and town consider 
the question of hydrant rental, with a view to raising the amount paid for hy- 
drant services and other public use of water. If the payment for the use of water 
by the town shall not be increased, or, if increased, the amount is insufficient to 
provide for the construction of works necessary for the improvement of the qual- 
ity of the water, the Board recommends that the rates charged for water to 
consumers be increased by such an amount as may be necessary to provide for 
such improvement, as well as for the cost of maintenance and operation of the 
works, including payment of interest on bonds and a reasonable allowance for 
depreciation and for the payment of dividends on the stock. 

The following petition was received from fifty or more customers of the 
Fairhaven Water Company relative to the service furnished and rates 
charged by that company : — 

"We, the undersigned customers of the Fairhaven Water Company operating 
in Fairhaven, Mass., do hereby petition you to make an investigation in the 
alleged excessive rates, poor service and discriminating charges for laying mains; 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 27 

and we cite one case — that of Samuel Longworth and others of Oak Street in 
said town — where $100 was demanded, and paid, before said company would 
begin work. 

After investigation the Board made the following recommendations: — 

Nov. 22, 1912. 

To Messrs. William H. Marsh, Albert P. Allen, James Lilley and others, 

Fairhaven, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health received from you on April 2, 
1912, a petition requesting, in behalf of certain customers of the Fairhaven 
Water Company, an investigation by the Board as to the alleged excessive rates, 
poor service and discriminating charges by the said company operating in the 
town of Fairhaven, and in response to this petition has obtained such informa- 
tion from the records of the company and from an examination of the locahty as 
appears to be necessary for the proper consideration of the matters mentioned 
in the complaint. 

The results of these investigations show that the water rates are not unrea- 
sonable under the circumstances, that the capitalized cost of the works is prob- 
ably low and the cost of operation reasonable, while the dividends paid have 
been small compared with those of other works. Under the circumstances, 
extensions of the service cannot reasonably be made unless under conditions 
which insure a reasonable income therefrom. 

While the Board recognizes the desirabihty of extending the water service 
as rapidly as practicable in the growing sections of the town, it does not appear 
equitable to require the company to make such extensions under the present 
circumstances, unless satisfactory assurance is furnished that the income there- 
from shall net the company a reasonable amount. It is probable that an increase 
in the hydrant rental, which is low, would enable the company to make extensions 
in some of the sparsely settled districts, on which returns would at first be com- 
paratively small, without the necessity of increasing its water rates. 

The following petition was received from fifty or more customers of the 
Onset Water Company relative to the service furnished and rates charged 
by that company: — 

Respectfully represent the undersigned, that they are customers of the Onset 
Water Company, a corporation organized under the laws of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, and engaged in the business of supplying water for domestic 
and other purposes to the inhabitants of that part of the town of Wareham in 
the county of Plymouth and Commonwealth aforesaid, known as Onset, and 
its vicinity; and they hereby complain: — 

1. That the quaUty of water the said company is supplying and has hereto- 
fore supplied is much of the time impure, being often discolored, of offensive 
taste and odor, and unfit for ordinary domestic uses. 



28 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

2. That the charges made by the said company for supplying water to users are 
unreasonable, unfair and inequitable. 

Wherefore your petitioners pray that the said Board of Health will investigate 
the conditions set forth in the foregoing complaint and make such recommen- 
dations concerning the same as the said Board of Health may deem just and 
proper. 

After investigation the Board made the following recommendations : — 

Dec. 3, 1912. 

To Messrs. Gregory W. Grover, Frank Gushing, Arthur W. Thayer and 

others. Onset, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health has considered your petition 
relative to the poor quality of the water furnished by the Onset Water Company 
and the charges made therefor, and has caused the books of the company to be 
examined and numerous samples of the water from various parts of the system 
to be analyzed. 

The cause of the objectionable condition of the water is the large quantity 
of iron present, which is evidently taken up by the water in its passage through 
the pipes, since the water of the pond is of good quality and one of the most 
satisfactory of the pond and reservoir waters used as sources of water supply 
in the State. Investigations show that the quantity of iron present in the water 
is less when large quantities are being drawn through the pipes toward the end 
of the summer season than at other times, and, as the company has already 
been advised, the objectionable conditions caused by the iron can be reheved 
by thorough flushing of the water pipes. 

An examination of the rates charged for water does not show that the income 
collected is excessive as compared with the probable cost of the works and the 
necessary amounts required for interest, maintenance, dividends and deprecia- 
tion. The amount paid for management and superintendence is large, but if 
the superintendent should devote his time to seeing that the water drawn by the 
water takers is kept free from iron it may be permissible. 

The income of the company is ample to allow them to pump water enough 
to keep the pipes free from iron rust, to provide blow-offs wherever necessary, 
and to attend constantly to the flushing out of the mains near the ends of the 
pipes and to the flushing of the service pipes. 

Under the circumstances the Board does not recommend at present a reduc- 
tion in the water rates, but recommends that the water company provide such 
additional blow-offs as are necessary or desirable for a thorough flushing of the 
mains, that the mains and service pipes be flushed with such frequency as may be 
necessary to prevent accumulations of iron in sufficient quantities to make the 
water objectionable, and that, finally, the company pump the amount of extra 
water needed to provide adequate flushing. If these recommendations are 
carried out it is probable that the inhabitants of the viUage wiU be provided 
at all times with an adequate supply of water of good quality for all purposes, 
and the income of the company, in the opinion of the Board, is sufficient for the 
purpose. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 29 

The following petition was received from fifty or more customers of the 
Hingham Water Company relative to the service furnished and the rates 
charged by that company : — 

Respectfully represent the undersigned, that they are customers of the Hing- 
ham Water Company, a corporation organized under the laws of said Common- 
wealth, and engaged in the business of supplying water to the town of Hingham 
and its inhabitants; and they hereby complain that the service furnished is 
inadequate and unsatisfactory, and that the charges made by said company for 
water are unreasonable, unfair and inequitable. 

Wherefore, they pray that this Board will investigate the charges against 
said company, and make such recommendations concerning the same as the 
Board may deem just and proper. 

After investigation the Board made the following recommendations: — 

Dec. 5, 1912. 
To the Hingham Water Company, Hingham, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to a petition received July 11, 1912, alleging 
that the service furnished by the Hingham Water Company is inadequate and 
unsatisfactory, and that the charges made by the said company are unreason- 
able, unfair and inequitable, and requesting the State Board of Health to investi- 
gate the said charges and make such recommendations concerning the same as 
the Board may deem just and proper, the Board, after notice, gave a hearing 
to the petitioners and to the company at its office on Aug. 1, 1912. At this hear- 
ing it appeared that the complaint related chiefly to the lack of pressure on the 
high lands at Crow Point, though complaint was made of poor service from 
similar causes on high lands in parts of the district served by the company in 
the town of Hull. 

The Board has considered the information presented at the hearing, has 
caused the general system of water supply of the Hingham Water Company to 
be examined, and has caused observations to be made of the pressure at hydrants 
at Crow Point and in other parts of the system. 

It appears that the district served by the Hingham Water Company is supphed 
in part by gravity from Accord Pond and in part by pumping from a well and 
filter galleries near Fulling Mill Pond. The Fulling Mill Pond system is known 
as the high .service, and suppUes Hull and a small part of Cohasset, but the high 
service system from Fulhng Mill Pond is connected with the Accord Pond system 
at a point on North Main Street near Pleasant Street, where a pressure regulator 
is located, designed to allow water from the high service system to enter the 
gravity, or low service, system when the pressure in the latter falls below 35 
pounds. 

It appeared at the hearing that there are two pumps at Fulling Mill Pond 
operated by gas engines, and that one of these was incapacitated by a break- 
down for nearly two days in the early part of July. The remaining pump, being 
of smaller capacity, was inadequate to maintain the pressure in the high service 



30 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

system, or to aid in keeping up the pressure in the low service district, in a 
period of extremely hot and dry weather, when the consumption of water was 
doubtless much greater than at any other season of the year. 

It did not appear at the hearing that serious inconvenience was experienced 
in the district supphed by gravity, excepting on the higher parts of Crow Point. 

The results of tests in various parts of the system show that at Crow Point 
near the golf club, on a day in August when the conditions appeared to be about 
as usual in summer, except in periods of extreme heat and drought, the pressure 
amounted, between the hours from 4 to 7 o'clock, p.m., to about 20 pounds per 
square inch, ranging from 19 to 21 pounds during these three hours, excepting 
for fluctuations of a few seconds' duration, when the pressure was at one time 
considerably higher and in another instance considerably lower than these figures. 
This pressure, while inadequate to furnish good fire streams at the hydrants, is 
sufficient to give a suitable domestic supply at all of the houses in Crow Point, 
even in the higher districts, under ordinary conditions. It appears, however, 
that many of the service pipes in Crow Point have been in use for long periods, 
and the Board is informed that several of these service pipes recently removed 
have been found to be nearly filled with tuberculation and rust, which greatly 
interfere with the flow of water. 

It is probable that the trouble experienced at some of the houses is due to 
inadequate or partially filled service pipes, and that with adequate service pipes 
in good condition a sufficient quantity of water for all domestic purposes can be 
obtained under all usual conditions at these houses. 

While it is probable that imder present conditions, with ample service pipes, 
an adequate domestic supply can be obtained at Crow Point, the pressure is, 
nevertheless, a low one in the higher districts, and care will be necessary, with the 
increased use of water in various parts of the district supplied by the company, 
in order to furnish a pressure of 20 pounds in that section at all times in the 
future. The large mains entering the town in the vicinity of the junction of 
North and South streets near the railroad station will probably require extension 
in the immediate future toward the north and northwest, and the extension of 
larger mains in this region would aid in maintaining the pressure at Crow Point. 
The pressures in the Crow Point section should be carefully observed, however, 
and if they fall below the average amount noted by the Board at the time of the 
recent examination, it would be advisable for the company to provide for furnish- 
ing a higher pressure in this district. 

The causes which operated to produce an unsatisfactory service at Crow Point 
were also operative at the same time — and probably in a greater degree in reduc- 
ing the pressure — in the high service district supplying the town of Hull, but 
it does not appear that, since the repairs at the pumping station, the service in 
Hull and Cohasset has been inadequate. 

The Board is informed that additional machinery and power are to be pro- 
vided at the pumping station, so that the danger of further interference with the 
service is likely to be very materially reduced. If, at the coming of another 
summer, conditions are again found to be unsatisfactory, the Board will, upon 
request, make a further examination to determine what further improvement 
in the service may be required. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 31 

In the case of the towns of Milford and Hopedale, the Milford Water 
Company has compKed with the recommendations of the Board. At 
Stockbridge the ownership of the works has changed hands, and the Board 
is not informed as to what action has been taken. In the case of the other 
three petitions, the recommendations were made at a very late date, and 
the Board is not yet informed as to the action taken by the respective 
water companies. 

Examination or Sewer Outlets. 

Under the law requiring the annual examination of all main outlets of 
sewers and drains in the cities and towns in the Commonwealth, and the 
effect of sewage disposal, the sewer outlets of the various cities and towns 
have been examined, and numerous analyses have been made of the sewage 
and effluents of the various sewage-disposal systems and of the waters into 
which sewage is discharged. 

The principal sewer outlet for the sewage of the city of Boston is located 
at Moon Island, where the sewage after storage in reservoirs is discharged 
in the early hours of each outgoing tide. On account of its slow passage 
through the deposit sewers at the pumping station, and storage in the reser- 
voirs at Moon Island, the sewage becomes considerably decomposed and 
has a much more objectionable odor than fresh sewage. Since the diver- 
sion of a large quantity of sewage from the outlet by the construction of 
the high level sewer, no material changes have been made in the circum- 
stances affecting this outlet, and the conditions about it during 1912 have 
been much the same as in previous years. During 1912 the average quan- 
tity of sewage discharged at this outlet has amounted to a little over 
90,000,000 gallons per day, the total amount discharged at each tide being 
approximately 46,000,000 gallons, and the average rate of discharge about 
23,000,000 gallons per hour. The outlet at Moon Island is located at the 
sm-face of the sea, and the sewage at each discharge spreads over a wide 
area, though very little of it is noticeable, except in calm weather, for a 
distance of more than one and one-half miles from the outlet. 

The main outlet of the North Metropolitan Sewerage District is located at 
the easterly end of Deer Island, where the sewage is discharged at all stages 
of the tide at an outlet located at about the level of low water. The quan- 
tity discharged in 1912 averaged about 63,000,000 gallons per day, or a 
little over 2,000,000 gallons per hour. The sewage is rarely traceable 
beyond a limited area, except for an oily film noticeable on the surface of 
the water at times in calm weather for a distance of a mile. 

It is probable that if the Deer Island outlet were extended to deep water, 
which could be reached by a very short extension of the sewer, the effect 
of the sewage would be less noticeable in the neighborhood of the outlet* 
than at the present time. 



32 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The main sewer outlet of the South Metropohtan District is located near 
Peddock's Island in the southerly part of the harbor, where, as at Deer 
Island, the sewage is discharged continuously at all stages of the tide. The 
total quantity of sewage discharged at this outlet in 1912 averaged about 
42,000,000 gallons per day, or about 1,750,000 gallons per hour. This out- 
let, in contrast with the others, is located at the bottom of the sea at a point 
where the water is 30 feet in depth at low tide. The sewage discharged at 
this outlet is very rapidly diluted by the sea water, and is rarely traceable 
beyond a very limited area in the immediate neighborhood of the outlet. 

No material change has occurred during the year in the conditions affect- 
ing the sewer outlets at New Bedford and Fall River. At the former city 
works are under construction for intercepting the sewage which now flows 
into the harbor and Clark's Cove tlu-ough many outlets and discharging it 
into deep water in the bay south of the city. At Fall River the sewage 
continues to discharge into the Taunton River and Mount Hope Bay from 
twelve independent outlets. These outlets are located near the shore, and 
the conditions about most of them are objectionable. 

Plans for removing the objectionable conditions caused by the sewer out- 
lets of the city of Lynn have been imder consideration during the year. 

The sewage of the city of Salem and the town of Peabody is discharged 
into the sea near Great Haste Island in Salem harbor. This outlet is 
located near the surface of the water, and the sewage — mingled with a 
great quantity of foul manufacturing waste, chiefly from tanneries — spreads 
over a wide area, and an offensive odor is often noticeable at considerable 
distances from the outlet. The objectionable conditions at this outlet could 
be prevented by extending it for about half a mile to deep water east of 
Great Haste Island. 

No change has been made in the sewer outlet at Beverly, where the sew- 
age of the city continues to discharge into Beverly harbor off Andrews 
Court. This outlet causes the fouling of the waters and shores in the neigh- 
borhood and is becoming very objectionable. The question of a new method 
of disposing of the sewage of Beverly is still under consideration. 

The sewage of the town of Swampscott is discharged into the sea off 
Dread Ledge at a point where the water is 60 feet in depth. It is very 
difficult to find any trace of the sewage over or about this outlet. 

Sewer Outlets discharging into Rivers. 
During the past year a careful study has been made of all of the sewer 
outlets discharging into the Merrimack River in the various cities and 
towns situated along that stream, and recommendations have been made 
to the cities of Lowell, Lawrence and Haverhill as to improving the condi- 
tions at each of the outlets at which the conditions have been found to be 
objectionable. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 33 

Recommendations have also been made from time to time relative to 
improving the conditions of certain sewer outlets into the Connecticut 
River, and in several cases extensions have been made, removing the objec- 
tionable conditions. There still remain a number of cases in which sewage 
is discharged from main outlets located at the edge of the river, where the 
shores are considerablv fouled at low water. 



Sewage-disposal Systems. 

There are 32 cities and towns in the State which have provided wbrks 

for purifying their sewage or subjecting it to some form of treatment for 
the removal of organic matters before final disposal. These cities and towns 
are the following: — 

Amherst. Marion. 

Andover. Marlborough. 

Attleborough. Maynard. 

Billerica. Medfield. 

Brockton. Milford. 

Clinton. Natick. 

Concord. North Attleborough. 

Easthampton. Northbridge. 

Framingham. North Brookfield. 

Franklin. Norwood. 

Gardner. Pittsfield. 

Hopedale. Southbridge. 

Hudson. Spencer. 

Leicester. Stockbridge. 

Lenox. Westborough. 

Longmeadow. Worcester. 



The sewage-disposal works of all the cities and towns have been examined 
during the year, and recommendations have been made in many cases 
where the conditions have been found to be objectionable. Great improve- 
ment has been made in the operation of the works for purifying the sew- 
age at Marlborough, Natick, Westborough, Hudson and Clinton, and the 
purification works at these places are now among the most efficient in the 
State. 

At Brockton the construction of a trickling filter having an area of one- 
half an acre was begun during the year, and plans have been approved for 
similar filters in connection with the works for purifying the sewage of the 
city of Fitchburg. 

While improvement has been made in many of the filtration works, there 
are a few cases in which deterioration has occurred, usually due to neglect 



34 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



of proper maintenance of the works. This is especially noticeable at Fram- 
ingham, where the efficiency of the purification of the sewage was for many 
years the highest in the State. 

Improvement of the Neponset River. 
The very objectionable and unsanitary conditions existing in the valley 
of the Neponset River arise from two quite different causes, which affect 
the public health in quite different ways; and a clear idea of the conditions 
existing in this valley is necessary to a thorough understanding of the 
nature and objects of the improvements now being carried out there by 
the Commonwealth, by the municipaUties, and by the corporations and 
individuals concerned. These causes are: — 

1. The pollution of the river by sewage and manufacturing wastes which 
render its waters offensive during the warmer part of the year throughout 
its course from Norwood to tide water. 

2. The condition of the Fowl Meadows, large areas of which, through 
lack of proper drainage, are constantly wet at all seasons of the year and 
are the breeding grounds of mosquitoes, including the carriers of malaria, 
which are found generally throughout these meadows. 

As a remedy for the first of these causes the Legislature passed an act 
in 1902, which was amended in 1906, prohibiting the discharge of sewage 
or manufacturing waste — unless the best practicable and reasonably avail- 
able means are taken to render them harmless — into any part of the Ne- 
ponset River or its tributaries. 

For remedying the objectionable conditions arising from the second 
cause, the Legislatiu-e passed an act in 1911 dh-ecting the dredging of the 
river in substantial accordance with certain plans prepared in 1896. 

The carrying out of the first of these laws — providing for the prevention 
of the pollution of the river — will not improve or materially affect the ob- 
jectionable conditions arising from the lack of drainage of the Fowl Meadows. 
The carrying out of the second law, relating to the drainage of the Fowl 
Meadows, will incidentally remove considerable deposits of foul material 
from the bed of the river, especially in the upper parts of its course, but 
it will not remove the nuisance caused by pollution or improve materially 
the sanitary condition of the river in the lower part of its course, unless the 
continued pollution of the water by manufacturing wastes is at the same 
time prevented permanently. 

A brief history of the progress made in relieving the objectionable con- 
ditions in this valley is here presented. 

The general sanitary condition of the Neponset River was the subject of 
examination bv the State Board of Health in 1875, the results of which 
were pubUshed in the report of the Board for 1876. In 1885 the conditions 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 35 

in this valley were examined by the Massachusetts Drainage Commission, 
and plans for the prevention of the pollution of the Neponset River and 
its tributaries were submitted by that commission to the Legislature of 
1886. The condition of the Neponset River was again the subject of ex- 
amination by the State Board of Health in the years 1887-91, the results 
of which were reported to the Legislature in 1890 and in 1891. 

The first important step toward the improvement of the condition of the 
Neponset River was taken in 1895, when the Legislature directed an inves- 
tigation of the sanitary conditions in this valley and made an appropria- 
tion for the work. The resolve under which that investigation was made 
(chapter 83, Resolves of 1895) directed the State Board of Health "to 
investigate the sanitary condition of the meadows on the Neponset River 
and the bed, shores and waters of said river . . . and report whether 
their condition is dangerous or injurious to the public health by reason of 
stagnant water or refuse from manufactories or other causes." The resolve 
provided further that, "If said board shall find that the condition of the 
meadows or of the bed, shores or waters is dangerous or injurious to the 
public health they shall recommend some plan for improving their sanitary 
condition and for the removal of any nuisance therefrom and report the 
same to the next general court." 

After an investigation carried on through the years 1895 and 1896, the 
Board reported the results of the investigation in detail, together with its 
findings and recommendations, to the Legislature of 1897. 

The Board found that the condition of the meadows and of the beds, 
shores and waters of the Neponset River was dangerous to the public 
health, and made the following specific recommendations: — 

First. — Such additional legislation as will prevent the entrance into this 
stream of sewage and manufacturing wastes which have not been satisfactorily 
purified. 

Second. — The permanent removal of the flashboards of the dam of the Matta- 
pan Mills, the enlargement of the cross-section of the river at points indicated 
on Plan No. 3, together with a deepening and reconstruction of the channel at 
such places as may be found necessary for making a channel of such width and 
grade as will prevent the flooding of the meadows during the times of high flows 
in late spring and summer. 

The Board also submitted plans and descriptions of practicable methods 
for carrying out its recommendations. The matter was considered by 
successive Legislatures until, in the year 1902, an act was passed (chapter 
541, Acts of 1902) directed toward the carrjdng out of the first of the recom- 
mendations quoted above, that is, the prevention of the pollution of the 
river; but certain limitations of this act made little progress possible, and 
in 1906 it was amended with a view to securing more efficient progress in 
preventing the pollution of the river. 



36 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Acting under the provisions of these statutes, work was begun at once 
upon the investigation of the character of the manufacturing waste dis- 
charged from each mill, the determination of the effect of the waste upon 
the condition of the river, and of reliable methods for pm-ifying the wastes. 
This work involved numerous, and in some cases long-continued, experi- 
ments and investigations in order to enable the Board to advise the manu- 
facturers, either at their request or of its own motion, as to the best 
practicable and reasonably available means of purifying these wastes, in 
compliance with the requirements of the act. 

As soon as practicable after the passage of the act efforts were begun to 
secure at first the removal of all sewage from the river, and the first case 
under the act was brought against the town of Norwood to prevent the 
continued discharge of sewage and manufacturing waste into the river 
from a sewer in that town. The town then took the matter up and pro- 
ceeded to construct a very complete system of sewerage and sewage dis- 
posal which made practicable the removal from the streams in this town 
of all the sewage and manufacturing waste within the Umits of the thickly 
settled area. There were treated at the sewage-disposal works of this town, 
during the past year, about 400,000 gallons of sewage per day, including 
considerable quantities of manufacturing waste, with an average removal 
of more than 92 per cent, of the organic matter as represented by the albu- 
minoid ammonia in the sewage and effluent. 

The only other case in which considerable quantities of town sewage, 
including manufacturing wastes, are discharged into the Neponset River 
or its tributaries in a manner similar to that found at Norwood is at Stough- 
ton, and the question of preventing the pollution of the streams in this 
town was long ago taken up with the town authorities. In the year 1909 
the town voted to make an investigation as to the best method of collect- 
ing and disposing of the sewage, and early in the following year plans were 
submitted to the Board and approved. Early in the year 1910 the town 
voted to request an act from the Legislature to authorize the construction 
of sewerage works, and the request was presented to the Legislature in the 
year 1911. An act was passed by that body authorizing the town to con- 
struct a system of sewerage, but further investigation has been made from 
time to time by various committees, and thus far the town has refused to 
accept the act. Since it appeared that little progress was likely to be 
secured, the matter was referred by the Board to the Attorney-General on 
May 2, 1912, and action against the town is now pending in the court. 

In the cases of the factories and mills discharging polluting waste into 
the stream, the Board — after satisfying itself by an investigation and 
experiment as to the best practicable and reasonably available means of 
purifying these wastes — made recommendations relative thereto to the 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 37 

respective manufacturers, as required by the act; but very few of them 
proceeded to comply with the requirements of the act with what appeared 
to be reasonable promptness, and in most cases information was filed by 
the Board with the Attorney-General requesting that steps be taken to 
secure compliance with the provisions of the act. At practically all of the 
factories which discharge polluting matter into the streams, work has now 
been begun on the construction of works for purifying the manufacturing 
wastes; but the work has progressed slowly and intermittently, and in 
very few cases had adequate works for the treatment of all of the wastes 
been actually completed and placed in operation at the factories and mills 
at the end of the year (Nov. 30, 1912). 

The second of the two recommendations made by the State Board of 
Health to the Legislature of 1897, relative to protecting the public health 
in the Neponset River valley, related to the permanent removal of the 
flashboards of the dam at the Mattapan Paper Mills in Hyde Park, and the 
enlargement of the channel of the river to such width and grade as would 
prevent the flooding of the great meadows along the stream during the 
times of high flows in the late spring and summer. Plans for accomplish- 
ing this improvement accompanied the recommendations of the Board. 
It was found in the course of the investigation of 1895-97 that malarial 
diseases were uniformly present in the Neponset basin, especially in the 
neighborhood of these meadows, and that — notwithstanding the fact that 
the central parts of this region are within thirteen miles of the center of 
the city of Boston — an area of more than eleven square miles was found 
to be uninhabited at the time this report was made, and this area remains 
in practically the same condition at the present day. There has for many 
years existed a popular belief that the meadows are a source of sickness, 
a belief which seems to be justified when the severity with which the limited 
population in their immediate \dcinity has suffered from malaria is taken 
into account. In more recent years the condition of the meadows, though 
probably always subject to flooding, has evidently grown much worse from 
various causes. 

The question of the height at which the dam could be maintained at the 
Mattapan Mills was long ago the subject of litigation, and attempts were 
made to reduce the height at which flashboards are maintained at this dam, 
but without success. In more recent years many of the larger meadow 
owners have abandoned the attempts to secure some degree of drainage 
for their lands by the maintenance of open ditches, until the condition has 
become such that large portions of these meadows are constantly wet at 
all seasons of the year and are the breeding grounds of great numbers of 
mosquitoes, including the type which is the agent in the spread of malarial 
disease and which has been found commonly in all parts of the meadows. 



38 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The question of carrying out this portion of the Board's recommendation 
was considered by successive Legislatures for many years, until in 1911 an 
act was passed (chapter 655 of the Acts of 1911) directing the carrying out 
of this work in accordance with the plans recommended in the report of 
1897, and providing for this work a sum of money about 20 per cent, in 
excess of the estimates of cost presented in that report. 

Under that act a contract was made on Oct. 16, 1912, for deepening and 
impro\dng the river between Neponset Street and the dam of the Matta- 
pan Paper Mills at Hyde Park, and the Board has recommended that an 
additional appropriation be made to provide for completing the improve- 
ment in the upper reaches of the river, where there is a large accumulation 
of foul organic matter in the channel of the stream. 

The drainage of these meadows is essential for the protection of the public 
health in this valley from one of the most serious of diseases, and the drain- 
age of these wet lands will not only protect the public health in the region 
about these meadows, but will doubtless restore these lands to a condition 
of usefulness which should materially enhance their value. The plans for 
improving the river now being carried out will provide an adequate channel 
to prevent the jflooding of the meadows in the late spring and summer. 
Tributary channels and ditches necessary for the thorough drainage of the 
meadows are not provided for in the act under which this work is being 
done. 

During the drier part of the year 1912 the Neponset River has been very 
offensive throughout its course from Norwood to tide water, its condition 
in this respect differing little if any from that of previous years. The chief 
causes of the offensive condition of the river at present are the sewage and 
manufacturing waste discharged into the stream at Stoughton, East Wal- 
pole and Norwood, and at a few scattered mills in other places. At Stough- 
ton, to which reference has already been made, it will be impracticable to 
relieve the pollution of the river satisfactorily without a system of sewers 
and sewage disposal for the central part of the town. This portion includes 
three or four factories discharging polluting wastes into the drains and 
streams of the town, and the purification of these factory wastes without 
sewerage is impracticable except at a great expense. An attempt to purify 
the factory wastes on grounds in the immediate neighborhood of the fac- 
tories would be Ukely to create local nuisances. 

The chief sources of pollution at East Walpole are two paper mills, and 
in both cases the proprietors are constructing well-designed and extensive 
works for the purification of their wastes under the direction and super- 
vision of engineers experienced in the methods necessary for the successful 
purification of such wastes; and it is probable that with the completion of 
these works, which should be effected during the coming year, the further 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 39 

serious pollution of the river by the wastes from these mills can be pre- 
vented. Should the mills be enlarged or the amount of waste increased, 
additions to the purification works would doubtless be required. 

B}' far the most offensive of all the wastes which contribute to the nui- 
sance in this river are the sewage and manufacturing waste discharged into 
the river through the channel of Hawes Brook from the tannery of the Wins- 
low Brothers and Smith Company in Norwood. The sewage and offensive 
manufacturing wastes from this tannery, amounting ordinarily to more 
than 1,500,000 gallons each day, contain a quantit}^ of putrescible matter 
several times as great as is found in an equal ^^olume of domestic sewage. 
Large quantities of wool are scoured at this tannery, and much of the wool- 
scouring waste has been discharged into the river untreated, except that 
works for the removal of fats from the wool-scouring waste were installed 
in the latter part of the year. These works, as at present constructed and 
operated, provide treatment preUminary to the purification of the wastes, 
but do not reduce to any great extent the amount of organic matter dis- 
charged into Hawes Brook, and not all of the wool-scouring waste is as 
yet treated at the plant as now operated. 

Several years ago settling tanks and four acres of filter beds were con- 
structed for treating the waste from this tannery, and adjacent areas were 
enclosed by dikes for the drying of the sludge discharged from the settling 
tanks. The beds have since been reconstructed, and provision has been 
made for treating the waste with chemicals both before it enters the set- 
tling tanks and after it leaves the filters, and during the latter part of 1912 
the construction of small additional areas of filter beds was begun. 

The filtration area at present in use is inadequate for the satisfactory 
purification of the wastes from this tannery, and only a part of the waste 
has been passed through the filters during the past year. The eflfluent 
discharged into Hawes Brook from the filters has contained large quanti- 
ties of organic matter, as shown by repeated inspection and analysis, and 
would of itself create a nuisance in Hawes Brook and the Neponset River. 
A large part of the wastes from the tannery, however, has been discharged 
from the settling tanks directly into the river without any further treat- 
ment, and a considerable portion of these wastes has not even been passed 
through the settling tanks but has been discharged directly into the river 
without treatment. In fact, for a period of several weeks in the latter part 
of 1912 all of the tannery waste was discharged untreated into Hawes 
Brook. 

For several months previous to September, 1912, the greater portion of 
the wastes was passed through large basins formed by dams or dikes in the 
neighborhood of Hawes Brook, and in this way a large part of the wastes 
from the works was given a period of sedimentation of nearly a week; but 



40 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the wastes putrefied in these reservoirs, and early in September the entire 
contents of one of them — holding more than 6,000,000 gallons — was 
emptied into Hawes Brook and thence into the river, rendering the condi- 
tion of the river throughout its length more offensive than at any other 
time during the year. 

While considerable sums of money have no doubt been expended by this 
corporation, the work has not been carried out under competent and ex- 
perienced engineering supervision, and the works thus far constructed have 
afforded no material relief from the pollution of Hawes Brook and the 
Neponset River by the sewage and manufacturing waste from this factory. 

If the operation of this tannery shall continue about as in the last 
few years, and the installation of efficient works for the purification of 
the sewage and manufacturing waste is carried out no more rapidly or 
efficiently than has thus far been the case, this factory, in the opinion of 
the Board, will continue to discharge a sufficient quantity of foul matter 
into Hawes Brook and the Neponset River to create a nuisance in those 
strearns. While the law officers of the Commonwealth were long ago (Janu- 
ary, 1910) requested to secure compliance with the directions of the Board, 
the matter has not yet been brought to a decision. In the meantime the 
river continues to be a nuisance, its condition in 1912 being worse in several 
important respects than ever before, and the Board sees no prospect of 
immediate relief for the inhabitants of the Neponset valley from the present 
offensive condition of the stream in the lower part of its course unless 
additional legislation can be had which will secure a more prompt com- 
pliance by the manufacturers and others with such requirements in the 
matter of the purification of their wastes as are necessary for maintain- 
ing decent sanitary conditions in this river. If such additional legis- 
lation were enacted as would give the Board powers in the matter of 
nuisances in this river and its tributaries equivalent to those now possessed 
by local boards of health under the provisions of chapter 75 of the Revised 
Laws, the abatement of the nuisance in this river might be more promptly 
carried out. 

The work of deepening and enlarging the channel of the Neponset River 
for the purpose of draining the great meadows will incidentally remove 
from the channel of the stream large quantities of foul sludge which have 
been deposited, especially in the upper parts of the stream, from the sew- 
age and manufacturing waste discharged into the river; but the work of 
dredging will not prevent the nuisance now caused by the pollution of the 
river water, which -is still sufficient to render it foul and offensive through- 
out the greater part of the course of the stream. Unless the pollution of 
the stream can be prevented before this work is completed, additional 
deposits will doubtless again accumulate in the river, since its current will 
be slow at best, even after the improvement is completed. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 41 

It appears to the Board essential, under the circumstances, to provide 
additional legislation which will be adequate to prevent promptly the fur- 
ther discharge into the river of any matter which may tend to create a 
nuisance, to obstruct the flow of water or to cause deposits in the river 
channel. 

Pollution of Streams. 

Assabet River. 

The condition of the Assabet River below Westborough has remained 
unobjectionable during the year, and throughout its course down to Hud- 
son its condition has been satisfactory. The sewage filter beds of the town 
of Hudson have been enlarged and have operated efficiently during the 
year, but a considerable quantity of manufacturing waste is now dis- 
charged into the stream at Hudson, and the effect is shown in the increas- 
ing pollution during the past two years. The condition of the stream below 
Hudson has not been seriously objectionable, however, and it has improved 
greatly in its flow to Maynard, but for several miles below Maynard the 
stream has been very foul during the drier part of the year. The pollution 
is caused in part by sewage, but chiefly by the great quantity of manufac- 
turing waste discharged into the river from the woolen mills in Maynard. 
In response to repeated urgings by the Board, works have at last been 
begun for the purification of a portion of the wastes discharged from these 
mills. Until adequate purification works are provided for the efficient 
treatment of these wastes, this river will continue to be one of the most 
seriously polluted in the State. 

Blackstone River. 

The condition of the Blackstone River throughout its course in Massa- 
chusetts, shows little change from previous years. The river is very badly 
polluted by manufacturing wastes from a number of mills in the Cherry 
Valley district in Leicester and Worcester, and late in the year 1911 the 
manufacturers of that region were advised to provide means for purifying 
the sewage and wastes discharged from their mills. No works for the 
treatment of their wastes have yet been constructed by any of these mills. 
In the meantime the condition of the river in this part of its course has 
become very foul. 

Below the purification works of the city of Worcester the condition of 
the river has shown no material change in the past few years. 

Charles River. 

The Charles River receives at present comparatively little pollution. 
The completion of a sewerage system in Milford has made it practicable to 
reduce greatly the pollution of the river in that town, and much of the 



42 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

sewage of Franklin is treated at filter beds. Plans are being prepared for 
the construction of works at Franklin for the collection and disposal of the 
sewage and manufacturing waste from the main portion of the town, which, 
when completed, will remove from the river the only remaining important 
source of pollution in the upper part of its watershed. 

The condition of the estuary of the river in the metropolitan district was 
the subject of examination in the latter part of the year, with special ref- 
erence to its use for bathing, the results of which were communicated to 
the Metropolitan Park Commission. 

The river receives considerable pollution from manufacturing wastes in 
Newton and Waltham, and the most serious complaint of the stream at 
any point in the lower part of its course is caused by the exposure of muddy 
flats in Waltham when the water is drawn down in summer. 

Connecticut River. 

The water of this river shows some variation in quality from year to 
year, due very largely to differences in the quantity of water flowing in the 
stream. It receives considerable pollution before it enters the State, and 
the sewage of Turners Falls, Millers Falls and Greenfield is discharged 
either directly into the river or into a tributary close to the main stream; 
but above Holyoke, so far as the analyses show, its quality in 1912 has been 
about as in other years, though the quantity of organic matter, as shown 
by the albuminoid ammonia, has been slightly greater than at any time 
in the past eight years. Below Springfield there has been some increase in 
the quantity of free ammonia, but its condition shows, on the whole, no 
important change from other years. 

The river as a whole shows as yet no marked effect of sewage pollution 
within the hmits of Massachusetts, but the banks of the river are badly 
fouled in some places by sewer outlets, especially in the city of Springfield, 
where some of the sewers discharge at or near the high-water level, deposit- 
ing foul matters from the sewage for a considerable distance along the shore 
when the water is low. Several of the sewer outlets of the city have been 
extended so that the dry-weather flow is discharged several hundred feet 
from shore, and, by extending the remaining outlets, existing nuisances 
can be avoided. 

Similar objectionable outlets are found in West Springfield and elsewhere, 
but one of the most objectionable — that at Chicopee — has been improved 
by extending the outlet to deep water. 

The condition of the minor tributaries of the Connecticut River shows 
no material change, excepting at Amherst, where the construction of a 
sewage disposal area has relieved the Fort River of a considerable amount 
of direct sewage pollution. The conditions in the MiU River at Northamp- 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 43 

ton have remained about as in the pre\'ious year. The Manhan River at 
Easthampton is still considerably polluted by sewage from the town of 
Easthampton, the purification works not yet being large enough for the 
treatment of all of the sewage of the town. 

French River. 

The French River is badly polluted at several points along its course, 
but its condition is most objectionable below Webster, near the southern 
boundary of the State. At this point the river is polluted by the sewage 
of the town and the manufactm-ing wastes from one of the largest woolen 
mills in the State. The condition of the river has grown worse, and in the 
past year at the point where it crosses the Connecticut boundary its con- 
dition has been very objectionable. 

Hoosick River. 

The waters of the Hoosick River are very foul throughout the lower part 
of its course between North Adams and the Vermont boundary, owing to 
pollution by the sewage of Adams, North Adams and Williamstown. No 
definite steps have yet been taken by the city of North Adams — which 
causes the bulk of this pollution — to treat its sewage in any way which 
will tend to relieve the pollution of the river. 

Housatonic River. 

The Housatonic River is badly polluted at several points by sewage and 
manufacturing wastes. Several years ago the city of Pittsfield constructed 
a purification works for the treatment of its sewage, and the sewage applied 
to these works is very efiiciently purified. The sewerage system of the city 
does not, however, collect all of the objectionable matter, and large quan- 
tities of foul wastes, including waste from factories, are discharged into the 
streams within the limits of the city. 

The east branch of the river above the city is also polluted by the sewage 
and manufacturing waste from Dalton, and small quantities of sewage, 
together with considerable manufacturing waste, are discharged into this 
stream at Hinsdale. Below Pittsfield the east branch of the Housatonic 
River shows increasing evidences of pollution as compared with previous 
years, and the west branch is also seriously polluted. 

Farther downstream the sewage disposal works at Lenox treats part of 
the sewage of that town, but much of it is discharged untreated into the 
river. Below Lenox the town of Lee discharges all of its sewage directly 
into the river at various outlets without any attempt at treatment. Far- 
ther downstream the town of Stockbridge has provided itself with works 



44 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

for the purification of its sewage which have operated satisfactorily for 
man}^ years. Below Stockbridge, again, the river is polluted by the sew- 
age of Great Barrington, which is discharged untreated into the river at 
several points in the town. 

The results of the analyses of samples of water collected from the river 
at Great Barrington show that the quantity of organic matter in the stream 
has been greater at the time these examinations were made than in previous 
years; but the amount present was not excessive, and the river as a whole 
shows as yet no very marked effect of sewage pollution in the lower part 
of its course. The banks of the river are, however, fouled in places by 
sewer outlets, especially in the town of Lee. 

Millers River. 
Little change has occurred for many years in the condition of the Millers 
River at the point where it enters the Connecticut River at Millers Falls. 
This river receives the effluent from the sewage disposal works at Gardner 
and is polluted by the direct discharge of untreated sewage at Athol and 
Orange. Its condition, however, has not been objectionable during the 
past year. 

Nashua River. 

Np improvement has taken place in the condition of the north branch 
of the Nashua River, which is very foul for many miles below Fitchburg. 
The construction of sewers for the removal of the sewage of the city of 
Fitchburg from the river has been carried on during the past year, and 
plans have been prepared for the construction of a purification works 
which, the Board is informed, is to be begun in the early part of 1913. 

At Leominster all of the sewage of the town is still discharged untreated 
into Monoosnock Brook close to the river, and contributes greatly to the 
pollution of the stream. 

Early in 1912 the Board notified the town of Leominster of the prepara- 
tion being made for the construction of a sewage-disposal system in Fitch- 
burg, and the necessity of the construction of similar works by the town 
of Leominster as soon as practicable. 

The Nashua River also receives considerable pollution at various points 
along its course below Leominster, chiefly by manufacturing wastes. 

Sudbury River. 
No change has yet been made in the condition of the Sudbury River, 
which is badly polluted, chiefly by wastes from the woolen mills at Saxon- 
ville. During the past year investigations have been carried on with a 
view to the collection and disposal of these wastes in connection with the 
sewage-disposal works of the town of Framingham. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 45 



Taunton River. 

The sewage of the city of Taunton is discharged untreated into the 
Taunton River in the lower part of the city through a temporary outlet, 
authorized during the construction of the works in 1897. Permission to 
continue the use of this outlet has been extended from time to time, but 
the removal of all of the sewage from the river is required on or before 
Dec. 1, 1913. 

Serious complaint has been made of the pollution of the Three Mile 
River, a tributary of the Taunton, which flows through the towns of Fox- 
borough, Mansfield, Norton, Dighton and a portion of the city of Taunton, 
into the Taunton River below that city. This stream is polluted consider- 
ably by sewage and manufacturing wastes at various points, but the most 
serious pollution is caused by a woolen mill in Norton, from which the 
waste resulting from the scouring of large quantities of wool is discharged 
untreated directly into the stream. Below this point the river in the drier 
part of the year is very foul for many miles, and, while the sources of pollu- 
tion have been investigated and those responsible therefor notified, very 
little has been done toward relieving the pollution of the stream. 

The Nemasket River, another important tributary of the Taunton, is 
badly polluted by the discharge of sewage and manufacturing wastes into 
the river in the town of Middleborough. 

The Taunton River and its tributaries also receive considerable pollu- 
tion at several other points, notably at Bridgewater, where considerable 
sewage is discharged directly into the stream, and at East Bridgewater, 
where the condition of the Salisbury Plain River has been found to be 
objectionable at times from various causes, including the discharge of 
wastes from manufacturing. 

Ten Mile River. 
The Ten Mile River below Attleborough was very badly polluted during 
the past year. The sewage-disposal works of the town of Attleborough 
are now practically completed, and when these works have been put into 
operation it will be practicable to prevent further serious pollution of this 
stream. 

JVare River. 

The condition of the Ware River below Ware has been worse during the 
past year than at any previous time. 

At Barre, works installed for the treatment of wool-scouring waste at 
the woolen mill in that town have reUeved the pollution of the river con- 
siderably, but farther downstream the pollution has increased, and its 



46 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

condition below Ware is objectionable. Unless some pro\'ision shall be 
made for relieving the pollution of this stream at Ware, a serious nuisance 
is likely to result in the future. 

Westfield River. 

The Westfield River is polluted chiefly by the discharge of sewage at 
Westfield and at West Springfield and Agawam, near its mouth. Analyses 
of the water below Westfield show greater evidence of pollution during the 
past year than at any previous time, but the condition of the river is not 
as yet objectionable at any point. 

Other Rivers. 

The Deerfield River receives comparatively little pollution at any point 
in its course, and analyses of its waters show no material change in its 
condition as compared with the previous year. 

The Quaboag River is polluted by the sewage of Palmer and receives, in 
addition, considerable manufacturing waste; but the river below Palmer 
is not badly polluted. 

The Swift River below Bondsville shows rather more noticeable evi- 
dence of pollution in the past year, judging from the analyses, than at any 
previous time, but its condition has not as yet become objectionable. 

The Chicopee River at Indian Orchard also shows more evidence of 
pollution than in former years, judging from the results of chemical analyses, 
but in general its condition is satisfactory. 

The Quinebaug River below Southbridge shows some evidence of in- 
creasing pollution, notwithstanding the fact that the sewage of the town 
is purified before it is discharged into the stream. Its condition, however, 
is not objectionable at the present time. 

The results of examinations of the Merrimack River covering a period 
of several years are presented in a special report. 

Lawrence Experiment Station. 

During 1912 investigations upon the purification of sewage and manufac- 
turing wastes at Lawrence have included the daily operation of 5 different 
systems of preliminary treatment of sewage for the removal of its suspended 
matters, of 11 intermittent sand filters, 5 trickling filters, 9 contact filters, 
4 filters recei\dng the effluents from other filters and 13 filters used in special 
studies. The principal special studies in sewage purification have been in 
regard to the influence of bodies of different kinds upon purification, and 
the effect of aerating sewage upon the rapidity vnth. which it can be sub- 
sequently purified by filtration. Together with these, an extensive study 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 47 

has been made of the capacity of water to dispose of or oxidize various kinds 
of sewage and filter effluents of different degrees of purification, and also 
studies upon the effect which sewage and manufacturing wastes may have 
upon fish life in lakes and streams. In these latter studies the effect in 
varying proportions of different grades of raw and purified sewage and 
manufacturing wastes upon the life of a number of varieties of fish has 
been determined, and also the oxygen requirements of such fish. Methods 
for the treatment of sewage, especially manufactural sewage, by flue gases 
or other waste gases from manufacturing establishments have also been 
investigated. One problem which has been investigated for many years, 
and which is a serious factor in sewage disposal, is the disposal of the sludge 
resulting from the clarification of the sewage by sedimentation, chemical 
precipitation, etc. In this line of work studies have been in progress to 
determine the chemical and biological changes which take place in such 
organic matter when held for long periods of time in deep tanks, and also 
studies to show the different behavior of sludge from varying kinds of 
sewage when held in such tanks. 

Studies in regard to the purification of water included the operation of 9 
different water filters, 6 of the type known as slow sand filters, 1 mechanical 
filter, 1 secondary filter and 1 upward flow roughing filter. The bacterial 
and chemical results obtained by the operation of the municipal water 
filters of Lawrence have been determined as during each previous year 
since the construction of these filters. A question of some sanitary im- 
portance is the hygienic control of indoor swimming pools. In some in- 
stances the water in such pools is replaced only at considerable intervals, 
and while some provision is usually made for purifying this water by filtra- 
tion or disinfection, or both, the care of such pools and their purification 
apparatus is usually in the hands of inexperienced persons. The problem 
presents a number of features which are not found in the purification of 
drinking water, and two large swimming pools have been studied during 
the year, both as to the quality of the water in these pools and the results 
of control and purification. 

As in previous years, practically all of the bacterial work and consider- 
able of the special chemical work of the engineering department have been 
carried on at the experiment station. In connection with this work many 
samples of shellfish have been examined bacterially and further studies 
made in regard to the danger to health that may result from eating shell- 
fish gathered from polluted sources, but which are cooked before being 
eaten. 



48 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Fifteenth Inteknational Congress of Hygiene and Demography. 
On Sept. 23-28, 1912, in the city of Washington, was held the 
fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene and Demography. In order 
that the interest of the State of Massachusetts might be properly con- 
served at this Congress the Governor appointed the following State 
committee to take charge of the Massachusetts representation : — 

Dr. Arthur T. Cabot, Chairman of Board of Trustees of Hospitals for Con- 
sumptives, Boston, Mass., Chairman. 

Dr. Mark W. Richardson, Secretary of State Board of Health, Boston, Mass., 
Secretary. 

Dr. Lj^man A. Jones, State Inspector of Health, North Adams, Mass. 

Dr. Milton J. Eosenau, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 

Prof. WiUiam T. Sedgwick, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 
Mass. 

Dr. Samuel H. Durgin, Chairman of Board of Health, Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Charles F. Gettemy, Director, Bureau of Statistics, Boston, Mass. 

The Legislature, furthermore, appropriated the sum of $2,000 to be 
used for the purposes of health exhibition. 

As a result of these activities it may be said without fear of con- 
tradiction that the State of Massachusetts made a most creditable showing 
at this Congress: In the first place, the State was justly honored in 
furnishing as president for this Congress, Dr. Henry P. "VValcott, chair- 
man of this Board; in the second place, the exhibit made by the State 
was unusually creditable, — in fact, three diplomas for superior merit 
were awarded to Massachusetts: two to the State Board of Health, (a) 
for its work in State and municipal hygiene and (&) the hygiene of occu- 
pations, and one to the State Board of Insanity. Especially redounding 
to the reputation of the Board, furthermore, was the announcement at 
this Congress of the discovery that infantile paralysis could be trans- 
ferred from monkey to monkey through the bite of the common stable 
fly (Stomoxys calcitrans). 

The State exhibit above mentioned has been retained practically in its 
original shape, and has begun a sort of tour of the State, having been 
shown in the cities of Boston and New Bedford, with the probability 
that it will later be shown in most of the other cities of the Common- 
wealth. Its educational value will, therefore, be perpetuated and utilized 
to an extent not realized when it was first assembled. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 49 

The Employment of Women in Core Rooms. 

Acts of 1912, Chapter 653. 
An Act to provide for regulating the Employment ov Women in Core 

Rooms. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The state board of health shall investigate core rooms where 
woiDen are emiDloyed and shall make rules regTilatiug the employment of 
women therein. The rules shall relate to the structure and location of the 
rooms, the emission of gases and fumes from ovens, and the size and weight 
which the women shall be allowed to lift or work on. A copy of the rules 
shall be posted in every core room where women are employed. 

Section 2. The state inspectors of health shall, under the direction of 
the state board of health, enforce any rules made in accordance with the 
provisions of this act. 

Section 3. Whoever violates any rule established under the provisions 
of this act shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five dollars or 
more than five hundred dollars. [Approved May 27, 1912. 

Chapter 653 of the Acts of 1912 made it obligatory upon the State 
Board of Health to investigate the condition under which women work 
in the core rooms of foundries and to draft a series of regulations after 
such investigation. This problem, thoroughly investigated by the State 
Inspectors of Health, was considered in some detail by the committee of 
the Board on Legal Affairs, which finally drafted the following regula- 
tions for the better conduct of this business : — 

Bule 1. — Core rooms where women are employed should be so seiDarated 
from the foundry that the women workers should not be exposed to the fumes 
and gases from the foundry. 

Bule 2. — Core rooms where women are employed should have a separate 
entrance so that women going and coming from work should not have to pass 
through the foundry. 

Bule 3. — The ovens located in tlie core rooms should be so constructed, 
and mechanical devices used when necessary, as to carry off all the fumes gen- 
erated in the process of baking the cores. 

Bule 4. — No woman should be permitted to carry cores from benches to 
ovens. 

Bule 5. — Forty pounds should be the maximum weight that a woman 
should be permitted to lift. 

Bide 6. — The State Inspector of Health of the health district wherein the 
foundry is located shall be empowered to change the maximum limit which 
a woman shall be allowed to lift if, on personal examination of that woman 
working in a core room, it shall seem to him safe and proper to do so. 

It does not seem necessary to prescribe any limit for the size and the 
weight which the women shall work on, as such work does not seem injurious 
to a Avoman's health. 



50 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The Extermination" of Mosquitoes. 

Resolves of 1912, Chapter 117. 
Resolve to promote the Extermination of Mosquitoes. 

Besolved, That the state board of health is hereby authorized and directed 
to advise local boards of health throughout the commonwealth as to the best 
methods of exterminating mosquitoes and to give practical demonstrations 
of such methods wherever the said board deems it advisable; and for this 
purpose there shall be allowed and paid from the treasury of the common- 
wealth to the state board of health a sum not exceeding one thousand dol- 
lars. [Approved May 24, 1912. 

Chapter 117, Resolves of 1912, required the State Board of Health to 
instruct local communities as to the best methods to be pursued for the 
extermination of mosquitoes, and for this purpose an appropriation of 
$1,000 was made. 

The activities of the Board under these provisions of law have been 
restricted to the distribution to local communities of comprehensive 
literature upon this subject. Coincident with this distribution has been 
pointed out the fact that practical demonstrations of methods for elimi- 
nating mosquitoes have been available in certain localities, such as Re- 
vere and Ipswich, where drainage operations of considerable extent have 
been carried out. 

Food Regulations made by Cities and Towns. 
Chapter 448 of the Acts of 1913 (amending section 70 of chapter 56, 
Revised Laws) makes it obligatory upon cities and towns to submit to 
the State Board of Health for its approval any regulations they ma}' 
make as to the control of the sale of food products. As a result of this 
requirement a considerable number of cities and towns have submitted 
drafts of food regulations, and these have, in the great majority of 
instances, been approved.^ Such food regulations have been submitted 
by the following cities and towns : — 

Beverly: approved Aug. 1, 1912. 
Brockton: approved Aug. 1, 1912. 
Chelsea: approved Aug. 1, 1912. 
Chicopee: approved Aug. 1, 1912. 
Haverhill: approved Dee. 5, 1912. 
Marblehead: approved Nov. 7, 1912. 
North Adams: approved June 6, 1912. 
Southbridge: approved Oct. 3, 1912. 
Walpole: approved Oct. 3, 1912. 

1 Boston and Revere regulations, although submitted in 1912, were not approved until 1913. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 51 



Drinking Water upox Passenger Trains. 
Chapter 581 of the Acts of 1912 amends the law concerning the 
furnishing of drinking water upon passenger trains and reads as fol- 
lows : — 

Acts of 1911, Chaptee 491 (as amended by Acts of 1912, Chapter 581). 
SECTioisr 1. Every railroad ear, excepting i:)rivate cars, sleeping cars, din- 
ing ears, parlor ears, and the smoking, bui¥et and observation cars used in 
connection with the same, while in use for the transportation of passengers, 
upon a train running thirty miles or more, shall be provided with a sufficient 
quantity' of pure drinking Avater in such place or places in the car as will 
be convenient for the passengers, and with individual drinking cups which 
shall be accessible to the passengers. Said cui^s shall be in a proper recep- 
tacle near the water tank, and said receptacle shall be so jDlaced as to be 
easily seen and shall be i^lainly marked as follows : — 

DRINKING CUPS 

FOR USE 

ONLY IN THIS CAR 

FREE 

such words to occupy a space not less than two inches wide by three inches 
long, and to be in clear black letters on a white backgTound. No charge shall 
be made for the water or for the drinkuig cups. The water and cups sup- 
plied shall be subject to the supervision and approval of the state board of 
health; and the said board shall enforce the provisions of this act. 

As a result of this legislation the problem of drinking cups upon 
trains has been largely solved. It has been the experience of representa- 
tives of this Board, who in the course of their travels have observed 
the enforcement of this law, that in the great majority of instances the 
railroads have been able to comply with the provisions of this new 
legislation. 

As to the condition of the water supplied upon the trains, an investi- 
gation made by the Board showed that the water provided has been in 
many instances of very questionable character. A full description of this 
investigation will be found in the Supplement. 

Restriction of the Use of Common Towels. 
Chapter 59 of the Acts of 1912 requires that the common towel be 
eliminated from public use, and the State Board of Health was given 
power to make regulations under this law. 



52 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Acts of 1912, Chapter 59. 
An Act to restrict the Use of Common Towels. 

Section 1. In order to prevent the spread of communicable diseases, the 
state board of health is hereby authorized to prohibit in hotels and in such 
pubhc places, vehicles or buildings as it may designate the providing of a 
common towel, and the board may establish rules and regulations for this 
purpose. 

Section 2. Wlioever violates the provisions* of this act, or any rule or 
regulation of the state board of health made under authority hereof, shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and be liable to a fine not exceeding twenty- 
five dollars for each offence. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect on the first day of June, nineteen 
hundred and twelve. [Approved February 9, 1912. 

The regulations are as follows : — 

Regulations concerning the Providing of a Common Towel. 
In accordance with the provisions of the above chapter, the State 
Board of Health, at a regular meeting held April 4, 1912, voted to make 
the following regulations in relation to providing the common towel : — 

On and after June 1, 1912, it shall be unlawful to provide a common 
towel : — 

(a) In a lavatory used in connection with any public institution, school- 
house, hotel, restaurant, theatre or public hall. 

(&) In a lavatory used in connection with any railroad station, railroad 
ear, steam or ferry boat. 

The term " common towel," as used in these regulations, shall be considered 
to mean a roller towel or a towel available for use by more than one person 
without being washed after such use. 

There can be but little doubt that this legislation was urgently 
needed. Entirely apart from evidence submitted from other sources, a 
small investigation carried out by Mr. Henry F. Jones, bacteriologist 
to the Board, showed that the common towels used in the State House 
had been, in certain instances at least, subject to fecal contamination 
(see Supplement). Fecal contamination, furthermore, must mean, with 
the large number of typhoid carriers in our midst the occasional transfer 
on the common towel, as well as on other common objects, of typhoid- 
infectious material. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 53 

Eepoets and Records of Births. 

Chapter 280 of the Acts of 1913 requires that birth returns be made 
in the following manner : — 

Acts of 1912, Chapter 280. 
An Act relative to Reports and Records of Births. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Physicians and midwives shall, within forty-eight hours after 
the birth of every child in cases of which they were in charge, mail or de- 
liver to the clerk or registrar of the city or town in which the birth occurred 
a notice stating the date and place of the birth, giving the street number, if 
any, the number of the ward in a city and the family name. Failure to mail 
or deliver the said notice shall be jDunished by a fine not exceeding twenty- 
five dollars for each offence. The notice required by this section need not 
be given if the notice required by the following section is given within forty- 
eight hours after the birth occurs. 

Section 2. Physicians and midwives shall make and keep a record of the 
birth of every child in cases of which they were in charge and shall, within 
fifteen days after the birth, mail or deliver to the clerk or registrar of the 
city or town in which the birth occurred a report of the birth, stating the 
date and place, the name, if any, of the child, its sex and color, and the 
names, ages, places of birth, occupations and residence of the parents, giving 
the street number, if there be any, and the number of the ward in a city, the 
maiden name of the mother, and whether or not the physician or midwife 
signing the birth return personally attended the birth. If the child is illegit- 
imate, the name and other facts relating to the father shall not be stated 
except at the request in writing of both the father and mother filed with the 
return. The record to be kept by the physician or midwife, as above pro- 
\ided, shall also contain the facts hereby required to be reported to the city 
or town clerk. The fee of the physician or midwife shall be twenty-five cents 
for every birth so reported, which shall be paid by the city or town where 
the report is made, upon presentation to the city or town treasurer of a cer- 
tificate from the city or town clerk stating that the said birth has been prop- 
erly reported to him. The report required to be made by this section is in 
addition to the report required to be made by the preceding section, and as 
above provided, if made within forty-eight hours of the birth, the report 
required by the preceding section shall not be required. A physician or mid- 
wife who neglects to make and keep the record hereby required, or who 
neglects to report in the manner specified above, each birth within fifteen 
days thereafter, shall for each offence forfeit a sum not exceeding twenty-five 
dollars. The city or town clerk or registrar shall file daily with the local 
board of health a list of all births reported to him, giving the following 
facts: date of birth, sex, color, family name, residence, ward, physician or 
midwife. 



54 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

SECTio>r 3. Section three of chapter twenty-nine of the Revised Laws, as 
amended by chapter ninety-three of the acts of the j^ear nineteen hundred 
and ten, is hereby repealed. [Approved March 21, 1912. 

The importance of this laM' lies in a number of different directions. 
In the first place, it will give those boards of health which so desire, an 
opportunity to start at an early moment suitable campaigns of health 
education with the mothers of these new-bom infants. In the second 
place, the fight against ophthalmia neonatorum should also be aided, for 
chapter 470 of the Acts of 1912 (amending section 17 of chapter 29 
of the Eevised Laws) makes it possible for the Secretary of State to 
place upon the returns of birth information as to the necessity for re- 
porting immediately cases of ophthalmia neonatorum. The importance 
of this subject will be thus constantly before the medical profession. 

Eeports of Deaths from Diseases Dangerous to the Public 

Health. 
Although the reporting by physicians of diseases dangerous to the 
public health is improving slowly in Massachusetts, the Board is still 
far from having at its command sufficient knowledge as to the incidence 
and localization of communicable diseases in the Commonwealth. The 
Board believes that much improvem^ent along this line could be brought 
about if local boards of health were required to report weekly to the 
State Board of Health the number of deaths from diseases declared by 
said Board to be dangerous to the public health. (See chapter 210, 
Acts of 1913.) 

Insecticides containing Fluorine. 

Chapter 263 of the Acts of 1912 (amending section 2 of chapter 213 
of the Eevised Laws) required that insecticides containing fluorine 
should come under the provisions of the general poison law, and neces- 
sitated that all packages containing such compounds of fluorine should 
bear a poison label in accordance with chapter 213 of the Eevised Laws. 

According to manufacturers, this law has worked a great deal of 
hardship in that the sale of such products has been practically stopped, 
due to the fear of the public caused by the poison label. Inasmuch as 
the sale of such insecticides would become practically harmless with a 
slight modification of the law, it would seem to be not unreasonable to 
modify this legislation by excepting from its provisions sealed packages 
of such insecticides weighing not more than one-quarter of a pound. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 55 

Index Catalogue for the Use of the Food and Drug Department. 

The records of the food and drug department of the State Board of 
Health are at the present time in an unsatisfactory condition, due to 
tlie lack of provision for a systematic index of the work performed in its 
various capacities. It is, therefore, highly desirable that the work done 
by this department should be properly classified and arranged, and that 
the system of records once brought up to date should be continued in 
the future. 

The Board recommends, therefore, strongly that the sum of $1,000 be 
appropriated annually to the use of this department for the adequate 
keeping of its records. 

Factory Inspection to be transferred from State Board of 

Health to New Bureau. 
Chapter 726 of the Acts of 1912, entitled, "An Act to establish a 
State Board of Labor and Industry," removed from the State Board of 
Health to this new bureau practically all of the functions previously 
enjoyed by the Board in relation to factory inspection and industrial 
hygiene. 

Pamphlet Distribution. 

For the past year the Board has been distributing, in the first instance, 
to local boards of health and to physicians of the Commonwealth, and 
in the second instance, to patients reported with the appropriate disease, 
pamphlets on typhoid fever (prepared by the secretary), on cerebro- 
spinal meningitis (prepared by Dr. W. H. Frost of the United States 
Public Health Service), on tuberculosis (prepared by the secretary and 
others), and "Directions for living and sleeping in the Open Air" (pre- 
pared by Thomas Specs Carrington, M.D., of the National Association 
for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis). Furthermore, special 
reprints of food and drug laws, slaughtering laws, rules, regulations and 
recommendations concerning slaughtering, and also rules and regula- 
tions concerning the business of cold storage, have been widely dis- 
tributed. 

As regards pamphlets on reportable diseases, it is expected that one 
upon diphtheria will soon appear, and that others dealing with the re- 
mainder of these communicable diseases will be prepared in due course. 



56 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Proprietary Medicines. 
During the year three proprietary preparations containing alcohol, 
and with no statement or an incorrect statement as to the percentage of 
alcohol, were advertised as unsalable at retail, under the provisions of 
chapter 386 of the Acts of 1906, namely : — 

Burden's Cholera Cordial. Burden & Co., wholesale and retail druggists, 
308 Hanover St., Boston, Mass. (No statement as to the presence of alco- 
hol.) 

Dr. James One-Minute Cure. Home office, 526 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. 
(No statement as to the presence of alcohol.) 

Aratum. Lekarstwo Na Ostry Kaszel. Dr. Jan Chmielnicki, Ch., Somei*- 
ville, Mass. (Incorrect statement as to the percentage of alcohol.) 

Krople Mietowe. Dr. J, Chmielnicki, Ch., Somerville, Mass. (No state- 
ment as to the presence of alcohol.) 

The following preparation was also advertised as unsalable at retail 
under the provisions of chapter 386 of the Acts of 1906 : — 

Dewey's Lung Medicine (a Cure for Bronchitis and the First Stage of Con- 
sumption). (No statement as to the presence of chloroform.) 

State Board of Examiners of Plumbers. 

At a meeting of the State Board of Health, held on July 11, 1913, 
Mr. Edward C. Kelly of Boston was reappointed to the State Board of 
Examiners of Plumbers. 

A brief report of the work carried on by this Board in 1912 appears 
in the Supplement. 

Food and Drug Inspection. 

The number of samples of foods and drugs collected and examined 
during the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, was 7,617, and the total number 
since the work was begun in 1883 has now reached 213,325. 

During the year 131 prosecutions were made in the various courts of 
the Commonwealth, bringing the total number to 4,111. The details are 
presented in the Supplement. 

Inspection of Liquors. 
The work of the Board in connection with the duties of the office of 
inspector and assayer of liquors, transferred to the Board in 1902, is 
reported upon in the Supplement. 



No. 34.] GENERAL REPORT. 57 



Inspection" of Dairies. 

During the year ended N"ov. 30, 1913, 1,451 dairies were examined 
by the Board's veterinarian, and the attention of 347 proprietors and of 
boards of health of cities and towns, wherein the dairies were situated 
or the product thereof sold, was called to a total of 1,353 objectionable 
conditions. 

Of the total number of dairies examined, 1,309 were situated in Massa- 
chusetts and 142 in neighboring States. The details will be found in the 
Supplement. 

Reports upon Fatality of Certain Diseases, Official Returns of Deaths 
in Cities and Large Towns, the Vital Statistics of the State, the Pro- 
duction, Distribution and Use of Diphtheria Antitoxin and Vaccine, and 
upon Bacteriological Diagnosis are presented in the Supplement. 

Routine Work of the Board. 
Statistical Table for the Year ended Nov. 30, 1912. 

Whole number of samples of food and drugs examined, . . . 7,617 

Samples of milk examined (included in the foregoing), . . . 4,900 

Number of prosecutions against offenders during the year, . . 121 

Number of convictions during the year, Ill 

Amount of fines imposed, $2,805.00 

Number of dairies examined, ........ 1,451 

Number of packages of antitoxin of 1,500 units each issued to 

cities and towns, .......... 82,085 

Number of tubes of vaccine issued to cities and towns, . . . 109,668 
Number of bacterial cultures made for diagnosis and release of 

diphtheria in cities and towns, ....... 3,258 

Number of examinations made for diagnosis of tuberculosis, . 2,521 
Number of examinations of blood made for diagnosis of malarial 

infection, ........... 65 

Number of examinations of blood made for diagnosis of typhoid 

fever, 947 

Number of cultural tests of typhoid fever, 113 

Number of nitrate of silver solution outfits for use in cases of 

ophthalmia neonatorum, issued to cities and towns, . . . 1,939 
Number of notices of eases of infectious diseases received and re- 
corded under the provisions of chapter 75, section 52, Revised 

Laws, 51,136 

Force emjjloyed in the General Work of the Board. 

Secretary, 1 

Assistant to tbe secretary, 1 

Clerks, 5 



58 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Messengers, 

Sanitary inspector of dairies, .... 
Health District Act : — 

State Inspectors of Health, 
Assistants to the State Inspectors of Health, 
• Clerks, 



Total, 



Force employed for food and drug inspection : 
Chemists and assistants, .... 
Inspectors, 



2 

1 

12 
3 
2 



Total, 



27 



4 

4 



8 



Force employed at laboratory (Bussey Institution) : — 

Pathologist, 1 

Expert assistants, 2 

Laboratory assistants, " • 5 

Stable helpers, 2 



Total, 



10 



Under the Provisions of Sections 112 to 118 of Chapter 75, Revised Laws. 
Applications for advice from cities, towns and others : — 
Relating to water supply. 
Relating to ice supi3ly, . 
Relating to sewerage and drainage, 
Relating to pollution of streams, 
Miscellaneous, ..... 



Total, 



95 
10 
27 
6 
11 



149 



Number of samples of water, ice and sewage examined chemically 
at the laboratory. Room 502, State House, 

Number of samples of water, ice and sewage examined micro- 
scopically at the laboratory, Room 502, State House, . 

Number of samples of water, sewage, etc., examined bacterially 
only, 

Number of samples of water, sewage and manufaetural wastes 
examined chemically only, ........ 

Number of samples of sand examined chemically and mechani- 
cally, 



7,718 
2,603 
4,697 
3,490 
13 



No. 34.] 



GENERAL REPORT. 



59 



Number of samples of sand examined chemically only, 
Number of samples of sand examined mechauieally only, . 
Number of samples of oysters, clams and quahaugs examined, 

Total number of samples examined, 



93 
79 
96 



18,789 



Force employed at Central office : — 

Chief engineer, 1 

Assistant engineers, 11 

Stenographers and clerks, 4 

Messenger, 1 

17 

Force employed at laboratory. Room 502, State House : — 

Chief chemist, 1 

Assistant chemists, . . .7 

Biologist, 1 ' 

Stenographer and clerks, ........ 2 

11 

Force employed at Lawrence Experiment Station : — 

Assistant chemists, 2 

Bacteriologists, 2 

Other assistants and laborers, 3 

7 

Total ordinary force, 35 



The number of applications for advice under the provisions of the acts 
relating to vrater supply and sewerage, received since July, 1886, when 
these acts first went into operation, is as follows: — 



1886, 








8 


1901, 










105 


1887, 








22 


1902, 










93 


1888, 








28 


1903, 










129 


1889, 








38 


1904, 










125 


1890. 








23 


1905, 










105 


1891, 








53 


1906, 










130 


1892, 








56 


1907, 










125 


1893. 








51 


1908, 










134 


1894. 








53 


1909, 










128 


1895. 








52 


1910, 










139 


1896, 








65 


1911, 










176 


1897, 








59 


1912, 










149 


1898, 








75 








1899, 








79 


Total, .... 2,304 


1900, 








. 104 















60 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Approp ri ations. 
The appropriations for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, as recommended 
by the Board in the annual estimates made under the provisions of chap- 
ter 6, section 26, of the Revised Laws, were as follows : — 



For the general expenses of the Board, 

For the investigation of anterior poliomyelitis, . 

For the inspection of food and drugs. 

For the production and distribution of antitoxin and vaccine, 

For the purity of inland Avaters, 

For the examination of sewer outlets and Neponset River. 

For the supervision of water companies, . 

For the sanitary condition of the Merrimack River, 

For the Aberjona River, 

For printing the annual report, .... 

State Inspectors of Health, 

For the prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum, . 
For slaughtering and meat inspection. 

For cold storage of food, 

For extermination of mosquitoes, 

Total, 



$31,500 00 

5,000 00 

17,500 00 

20,000 00 

36,000 00 

14,000 00 

1,000 00 

1,000 00 

1,000 00 

5.000 00 

38.800 00 

1,000 00 

5,000 00 

1,500 00 

1,000 00 

$179,300 00 



Expenditures. 
The expenditures under the different appropriations for the year ended 
Nov. 30, 1912, were as follows: — 

General Expenditures. 
Appropriation (including appropriation for typhoid fever), for 

the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, $26,500 00 

Credit by paid to State Treasurv from sales of serum and other 

sources, . . . . * 106 98 



Salaries, 

Traveling expenses, 

Express charges, .... 

Stationery, maps and blue prints. 

Printing, 

Books, subscriptions and binding, 

Advertising, 

Extra services, . . . • 
Messenger, 



$26,606 


98 


$13,106 


03 


2.604 48 


143 


78 


1.195 


19 


2.432 


87 


605 


70 


49 


77 


1,224 


25 


196 


55 



No. 34.J 



GENERAL REPORT. 



61 



Postage and postal orders, . 
Telephone and telegraph messages, 
Typewriting supplies, repairs and rental. 
Special investigations, . 
Sundry office supplies. 
Laboratory supplies. 
Labor and materials, . 

Rent, 

Miscellaneous, 



$1,506 16 


265 


30 


111 


65 


9 


50 


258 56 


670 


91 


94 86 


25 


00 


60 


91 



Total, $24,561 47 



For carrying out the Provisions of the Resolve relative to the Investigation 

of the Disease known as Anterior Poliomyelitis or Infantile Paralysis 

{Chapter 49, Resolves of 1911). 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, . . . $5,000 00 

Balance from 1911, 5,317 27 

$10,317 27 

Salaries, $1,882 58 

Traveling expenses, 690 65 

Printing, 1,138 97 

Books and pamphlets, ......... 27 20 

Stationery and maps, 92 44 

Postage, 379 60 

Telephone and telegraph messages, 335 23 

Typewriting supplies, 16 30 

Laboratory supplies, 156 82 

Special investigations, 2,708 28 

Extra services, 1,214 62 

Messenger, 8 40 

Labor and materials, ......... 103 69 

Miscellaneous, 48 41 

Total, $8,803 19 

Expenditures under the Provisions of the Food and Drug Acts for the Year 

ended Nov. 30, 1912. 

Appropriation, $17,500 00 

Salaries of analysts, $6,733 33 

Salaries of inspectors, 6,249 98 

Salary of laboratory assistant, 63 64 

Traveling expenses and purchase of samples, .... 2,998 87 



62 



STATE BOARD OF. HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Apparatus and chemicals, . 












$S05 34 


Printing, .... 












31 20 


Services, cleaning laboratory. 












86 00 


Express charges, . 












17 43 


Telephone messages and postage. 












54 94 


Sundi-y laboratory supplies, 












45 98 


Books, binding and stationery. 












90 59 


Extra services. 












112 85 


Advertising, .... 












6 40 


Miscellaneous, 












2 20 


Total, . 


$17,298 75 



Expenditures for the Production and Distribution of Antitoxin and Vaccine 

for the Year ended Nov. 30, 1912. 
Appropriation, $20,000 00 



Salaries, 

Traveling expenses, .... 

Express charges, 

Apparatus, chemicals and laboratory suppl 
Books and stationery, .... 

Printing, 

Purchase of animals, .... 
Services of veterinarian and horseshoeing. 
Food for animals, .... 
Rental of telephone, messages and postage. 

Extra services, 

Water, gas, electric lighting and heating, 
Labor and materials, .... 

Ice, 

Rent, 

Miscellaneous, ..... 



les, 



$8,733 01 


8 37 


44 64 


2,358 45 


58 51 


217 65 


1,426 76 


8 00 


3,431 67 


48 88 


185 43 


502 57 


701 78 


49 47 


2.008 32 


185 17 



Total, $19,968 68 

For carrying out the Provisions of the Act to protect the Purity of Inland 
Waters, and to require Consultation with the State Board of Health re- 
garding the Establishment of Systems of Water Supply, Drainage and 
Sewerage. 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, . . . $36,000 00 
Credit by amount returned to the State Treasurer, ... 1 50 



$36,001 50 



No. 34.] 



GENERAL REPORT. 



63 



Station, 



Salaries, including wages of laborers at Lawrence Experiment 

Station, 

Apparatus and materials, .... 
Rent of Lawrence Experiment Station, 
Repairs and maintenance, Lawrence Experiment 
Traveling expenses, ..... 
Express charges, ...... 

Books and binding, 

Maps and blue prints, 

Stationery, drawing materials and typewriter supplies. 
Telephone, telegTaph messages and postage. 

Extra services, 

Services, collecting samples and reading gauges. 
Miscellaneous, 



$26,231 68 


2,986 39 


150 00 


147 50 


2,519 51 


1,850 14 


187 78 


595 92 


713 86 


117 53 


113 12 


172 50 


215 54 


$36,001 47 



Total, 



For the Examination of Sewer Outlets, under the Provisions of Section 4, 

Chapter 75 of the Revised Laws. 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, . . . $14,000 00 

Salaries, including wages of laborers at Lawrence Experiment 

Station, $11,199 88 

Apparatus and materials, 685 88 

Labor, . 5 50 

Traveling expenses, . 1,290 20 

Express charges, 86 66 

Telephone and telegraph messages and postage, .... 51 08 

Extra services, 230 34 

Services, collecting samples and reading gauges, . . . . 133 45 

Books, maps, blue prints and binding, 122 73 

Stationery, di'awing materials and typewriting supplies, . . 153 84 

Miscellaneous, 39 25 



Total, $13,998 81 

For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Supervision of 

Water Companies (Chapter 319, Acts of 1909). 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, . . . $1,000 00 



Salaries, 

Traveling expenses. 
Telephone messages. 
Extra services, 



Total, 




$551 66 


90 80 


1 25 


282 95 



$926 66 



64 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Sanitary Condition 

of the Merrimack Biver {Chapter 505, Acts of 1909). 
Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, . . . $1,000 00 



Salaries, 

Traveling expenses, .... 
Collecting samples and reading gauges, 

Extra services, 

Miscellaneous, 

Total, 



$700 82 


227 45 


23 70 


47 50 


40 



$999 87 



For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Aberjona River 

(Chapter 291, Acts of 1911). 
Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, . . . $1,000 00 

Salaries, $983 32 

Traveling expenses, 13 00 

Total, $996 32 

Expenses under the Provisions of the Act to provide for the Estahlishment 
of Health Districts and the Appointment of State Inspectors of Health 
{Chapter 537, Acts of 1907; Chapters 405 and 543, Acts of 1910; Chap- 
ters 603 and 709, Acts of 191.1) for the Year ended Nov. 30, 1912. 

Appropriation, $38,800 00 



Salaries of State Inspectors of Health, 
Assistants to the State Inspectors of Health, . 
Clerical assistants, office of State Board of Health, . 

Clerical expenses of State Inspectors of Health, including type- 
writing, .......... 

Extra services, office employees, ...... 

Extra services, public stenograj^hers, ..... 

Traveling expenses. State Inspectors of Health, . 

Traveling expenses, assistants to the State Inspectors of Health 

Typewriting supplies. State Inspectors of 'Health, 

Typewriting supplies, office, State Board of Health, . 

Printing, administrative purposes, 

Prmting, public information, 

Books, ....... 

Laboratory and experimental work. 

Office supplies, State Inspectors of Health, 

Office supplies, office. State Board of Health, 



$26,133 


33 


2,265 


00 


2,190 


00 


334 04 


8 


65 


12 


82 


3,990 


58 


334 38 


86 15 


45 


80 


385 


06 


576 96 


35 


32 


498 84 


78 


57 


236 


67 



No. 34.] 



GENERAL REPORT. 



65 



Postage, 

Express, 

Telephone and telegTaph, 

Miseellaneoi;s, 



$331 71 


19 83 


340 60 


7 45 



Total, $37,911 76 

For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Prevention of Oph- 
thalmia Neonatorum {Chapter 458, Acts of 1910). 
Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, . . . $1,000 00 

Salaries, 

Ophthalmia outfits. 
Printing, 

Telegraph messages, 
Mailing outfits, 



$60 00 


201 


90 


21 


50 


40 


68 


15 


58 



Total, 



$339 66 



For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to Slaughtering and Meat 
Inspection {Chapter 297, Acts of 1911). 

Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, . , . $5,000 00 
Credit by paid to State Treasury for the sale of branding outfits, 188 15 



Salaries, ... 

Traveling expenses, .... 

Express, telephone messages and postage, 

Printing, 

Branding outfits, ..... 

Stationery, ...... 

Extra services, . . . . 



$5,188 15 


$606 19 


165 


39 


2 


10 


10 


53 


219 


70 


9 


65 


15 


19 



Total, $1,028 75 

For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Cold Storage of 

Food Products {Chapter 652, Acts of 1912). 
Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, . . . $1,500 00 



Salaries, ..... 

Traveling expenses, 

Printing, 

Telephone, telegraph and postage. 

Total 



$585 56 


122 


60 


65 


19 


2 


14 



$775 49 



66 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 



For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Extermination of 

Mosquitoes {Chapter 117, Resolves of 191.2). 
Appropriation for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912, . . . $1,000 00 

Purchase of pamphlets, $118 00 

Postage, 25 00 

Extra services, 1 60 

Total, $144 60 

HENRY P. WALCOTT. 
JOSEPH A. PLOUFF. 
JULIAN A. MEAD. 
: : HIRAM F. MILLS. 

ROBERT W. LOVETT. 
C. E. McGILLICUDDY. 
CLEMENT F. COOGAN. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



[67] 



Water Supply and Sewerage. 



Adyice to Cities, Towns and Persons. 



[691 



ADVICE TO CITIES, TOWNS AND PERSONS, 



Under the provisions of the Eevised Laws (chapter 75, section 117), 
the State Board of Health is required to 

consult with and advise the authorities of cities and towns and persons hav- 
ing, or about to have, systems of water supply, drainage or sewerage, as to 
the most appropriate source of water supply, and the best method of assur- 
ing its purity or as to the best method of disposing of their drainage or 
sewage with reference to the existing and future needs of other cities, towns 
or persons which may be affected thereby. It shall also consult with and 
advise persons engaged or intending to engage in any manufacturing or other 
business whose drainage or sewage may tend to pollute any inland water as 
to the best method of preventing such pollution, and it may conduct experi- 
ments to determine the best methods of the purification or disposal of drain- 
age or sewage. No person shall be required to bear the expense of such 
consultation, advice or experiments. Cities, towns and persons shall submit 
to said board for its advice their proposed system of water supply or of the 
disposal of drainage or sewage, and all petitions to the general court for 
authority to introduce a system of water supply, drainage or sewerage shall 
be accompanied by a copy of the recommendation and advice of said board 
thereon. 



During the year 1912 the Board has given its advice to the following 
cities, towns and persons who have applied for such advice under the 
provisions of this act or under special acts relating to water supply and 



sewerage. 



Official communications were made during the year under the provi- 
sions of acts relating to water supply and to sources of ice supply, as 
follows : — 

Water Supply. 



Acton rWest and South Water Sup- 
ply District). 

Adams (L. L. Brown Paper Com- 
pany). 

Amherst. 

Ashburnham. 

Athol. 



Attleborough (Attleborough Sani- 
tarium). 
Auburn (wells at schools). 
Barre. 

Barre (well at Powder Mill Village). 
Blackstone (Millville). 
Boxborough (well). 



70 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Boxford. 

Bridgewater and East Bridgewater. 

Brookline (well). 

Chelmsford (wells). 

Chelmsford (well in North Chelms- 
ford). 

Chelmsford (William P. Proctor 
Company) (two). 

Chester. 

Chieopee (Fisk Rubber Company). 

Dana (well at school). 

Danvers. 

Douglas (well at Poor Farm). 

East Bridgewater. 

Egremont (North Egremont Water 
Company). 

Egremont (South Egremont Water 
Company) (two). 

Fall River. 

Foxborough (Avell at Children's 
Farm). 

Freetown (Assonet and Crystal 
Spring). 

Granville. 

Great Barrington (Housatonic). 

Hadley (well in North Hadley). 

Hanover (well in West Hanover). 

Hardwiek ( Gilber tville ) . 

Hard wick (well at school). 

Harvard (town well). 

Harvard (HUdreth Brothers). 

Harwich (wells). 

Haverhill (two). 

Havei'hill (spring). . 

Hingham. 

Holyoke (well). 

Hudson. 

Ipswich (well). 

Lee (well in South Lee). 

Leicester (Cherry Valley and Roch- 
dale Water District) (two). 

Lexington (Jefferson Union Com- 
pany). 

Longmeadow. 

Ljnm (wells). 

Mansfield. 



Mattapoisett (two). 

Montague. 

Nantucket. 

Nantucket (Siasconset). 

Newburyport. 

Newburyport (Dodge Brothers). 

North Adams. 

North Adams (Berkshire Cotton 

Manufacturing Company). 
Northampton (spring). 
North Andover (two). 
Palmer (Knox Hill Springs). 
Peabody (three). 
Peabody (King Philip Spring). 
Petersham (well at Agi-icultural High 

School). 
Pittsfleld (spring). 
Rehoboth (well on Eastman Farm) 

(two). 
Royalston (well at school). 
Salem (New England Live Stock 

Company). 
Sharon. 
Shirley (well at Industrial School for 

Boys). 
Shrewsburj'. 
Southborough (well at Peters High 

School). 
Southborough (Cordaville Woolen 

Company). 
Southbridge (spring). 
Spencer. 
Springfield. 
Swampscott (well). 
Swampscott (spring on playground). 
Taunton (Cobb, Bates & Yerxa). 
Templeton (well at Otter River). 
Tewksbury (State Infirmary). 
Topsfield. 

Tyngsborough (Pine Grove Spring). 
Wakefield (two). 
Walpole (F. W. Bird & Son). 
Waltham (American Watch Tool 

Company). 
Warren (West Warren). 
Webster (A. J. Bates Company). 



No. 34.] 



ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 



73 



West Newbury (School for Instruc- 
tion of Militia Officers). 
Westport (•well). 
West Springfield (two). 



Wilbraham (Wesleyan Academy). 
Wilmington (well). 
Winchester. 



Agawam. 

Canton. 

Danvers. 

Gardner. 

Hanover. 



Ice Supply. 

Lexington. 

Milton. 

Pittsfield. 

Williamstown. 

Winchester. 



Official communications were made during the year under general and 
special acts relating to sewerage and sewage disposal, as follows : — 



Agawam. 

Amherst. 

Beverly. 

Brockton. 

Canton (Springdale Finishing Com- 
pany). 

Chicopee. 

Chicopee (Quigiey Furnace Com- 
pany). 

East Bridgewater (Carver Cotton 
Gin Company). 

East Bridgewater (High School). 

Fitehburg. 

Framingham. 

Framingham (Saxonville Mills). 

Framingham (American Waterproof 
Leatherboard Company). 

FrankHn (two). 

Haverhill. 



Leominster. 

Longmeadow (three). 

Maiden (Boston Rubber Shoe Com- 
pany). 

Milford. 

Milton (New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad Company). 

Montague (two). 

NewburyiDort (Newbury^jort Build- 
ing Association). 

Palmer (Bondsville). 

Stoughton. 

Wakefield. 

Ware. 

Winchester (Beggs & Cobb Tanning 
Company). 

Woburn (H. W. Clark Leather Com- 
pany). 



Miscellaneous. 



Agawam (Agawam Companj-). 

Boston (Metropolitan Park Commis- 
sion) (two). 

Brockton. 

Chicopee (Springfield Provision Com- 
pany and Consolidated Rendering 
Company). 



Rendering 



Chicopee (Consolidated 
Company). 

Dighton (North) (Mount Hope Fin- 
ishing Company). 

Dighton (North) (Harodite Finish- 
ing ComiDany). 

Dighton (North) (L. Lincoln & Co.). 



74 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Foxborough (Caton Brothers). 

Foxborough (Foxborough Steam 
Laundry). 

Foxborough (Foxborough Foundry 
Company). 

Haverhill. 

Lawrence. 

Lee (Lee Marble Works). 

Lowell. 

Maiden (Metropolitan Park Commis- 
sion), 

Mansfield (S. W. Card & Co.). 

Mansfield (F. M. & J. L. Cobb). 

Norton (Barrowsville Bleachery). 

Norton (Freeman & Daughady Com- 
pany). 

Norton (Lane Brothers' Wet Wash 
Laundry). 

Norton (W. A. Sturdy Manufactur- 
ing Company). 



Norton (Sturdy Brothers). 

Somerville (Hinckley Rendering 
Company). 

Stoneham (Vera Chemical Com- 
pany). 

Stoneham (Stoneham Tanning Com- 
pany). 

Taunton (Dighton Foundry Com- 
pany). 

Taunton (Westville Spinning Com- 
pany). 

Taunton (Oakland Mills). 

Watertown. 

Winchester (Winchester Manufac- 
turing Company). 

Winchester (Beggs & Cobb Tanning 
Company). 



Water Supply. 
The following is the substance of the action of the Board during the 
year in reply to applications for advice relative to water supply : — 



Acton (West and South Water Supply District). 

July 23, 1912. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners of West and South Water Supply 

District of Acton, Acton, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your ap- 
plication of July 10 for its advice and approval of the use of water 
from tubular wells located in Eeed's Meadow, so called, about one-half 
mile west of West Acton village and a few hundred feet north of 
Massachusetts Avenue, as a source of water supply for the West and 
South Water Supply District of Acton, and has caused the locality to 
be examined by its engineer and samples of water from test wells in this 
locality to be analyzed. 

The results of analyses of samples of water collected daily during a 
pumping test from June 24 to July 1, 1912, show that the quantity of 
iron present diminished during the test and at the end became insignifi- 
cant, and that the hardness of the water is about the same as that of 
other ground waters in this section of the State. The quality of the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 75 

water as shown b}' this test is, in the opinion of the Board, satisfactory 
for domestic purposes. 

The quantity of water pumped during the test was much in excess of 
the quantity that will be required for the supply of Acton under present 
conditions. The recovery of the Avells was somewhat slow, but, con- 
sidering the extremely dry weather that prevailed before, during and 
after the test, the indications are favorable for obtaining from wells in 
this region an adequate quantity of water for all reasonable requirements 
of the district, unless the use of water shall become much greater than 
is required for all purposes at the present time. 

The Board, acting under the provisions of chapter 326 of the Acts of 
the year 1913, advises the taking of water for the supply of Acton from 
the region in which the recent test was made, and approves the location 
of wells as sources of water supply for the town in the neighborhood of 
the wells used during the test. It is advisable that in putting in addi- 
tional wells they be located at the edge of the upland, and the location 
of wells in considerable deposits of peaty material should be avoided. 



Amhekst. 

Oct, 18, 1912. 

To the Amherst Water Company, Amherst, Mass.,Mx. L. D. 'HiiAjB, President. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your communication of Oct. 8, 1912, 
relative to the use of Amethyst or Orient Brook as an auxiliary source 
of water supply for temporary use, the State Board of Health has 
caused the brook and its surroundings to be examined by one of its 
engineers and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the conditions affecting this 
brook are much the same as they were found to be when this stream was 
first proposed as a temporary source of water supply in October, 1910. 
There is a considerable number of dwelling houses with outbuildings 
within the watershed, and a picnic ground is located just above the pro- 
posed intake. Most of the buildings on the watershed are located at 
considerable distances from the streams, and there is little danger that 
drainage from them will pollute the water supply, but each group of 
buildings should be carefully inspected and such measures taken as 
will prevent the possibility of the pollution of the streams therefrom, 
especially at times of heavy rain when the ground is frozen. Special 
care should be taken to prevent pollution from a group of farm build- 
ings located on the stream which enters the brook from the north about 
three-quarters of a mile above the proposed intake, and it is advisable 



76 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

that the use of the picnic ground should be discontinued while the brook 
water is being supplied to the town. 

With the precautions herein suggested the Board approves Amethyst 
or Orient Brook as a temporary source of water supply for the Amherst 
Water Company ; but the water should not be used after about December 
1, when the ground becomes frozen, unless it is certain that danger of 
pollution under those conditions has been prevented. 

ASHBURNHAM. 

Nov. 7, 1912. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Ashhurnham, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Oct. 2, 1912, a request to set a date for the inspection of a well to be 
used as a source of water supply and, subsequently, a request for an 
examination of the water to determine its fitness for domestic use. 

In response to this request the Board has caused the well and its 
surroundings to be examined by one of its engineers and samples of the 
water to be analyzed. 

It appears that the water supply is taken from a well located about 30 
feet from the shore of Upper Naukeag Pond at high water, the bottom 
of which is about 13 feet below high water and 6 feet below low water in 
the pond. It also appears that four lines of tile pipe 4 inches in 
diameter laid side by side have been constructed from outside of the 
wall of the well- to a point in the pond about 160 feet from high-water 
mark, the pipes terminating at a depth of 11 feet below high-water 
mark. 

The Board is informed that these pipes are laid with open joints, are 
covered with gravel at least 4 feet in depth, and that the masonry wall 
of the well at the outer edge of which the pipes terminate is laid Avith- 
out mortar so that the water from the pipes may freely enter the well. 

The results of the analyses show that the v/ater taken from the well 
and from a hydrant between the pumping station and the reservoir con- 
tains a much larger quantity of organic matter than is found in ground 
waters and has many of the characteristics of water taken directly from 
Upper Naukeag Pond. The results of examinations made on October 21 
showed that the number of bacteria in the pipe system was very high 
and the water at that time unsafe for drinking. 

At the suggestion of the Board the pipes were subsequently flushed, 
and samples collected on November 1 show that the number of bacteria 
in the pipe system is much smaller than at the previous time, though 
very much greater than found in Upper Naukeag Pond. It is probable 
that further flushing will remove the objectionable water from the pipes, 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 77 

and the Board recommends that the pipes and reservoir be again 
thoroughly flushed and thereafter the water can be supplied to the town ; 
but the inhabitants should be warned to boil this water before drinking 
for a period of at least two weeks after the flushing is completed. 

It is probable that the greater part of the water drawn from the well 
is derived from the pond by partial filtration or straining through the 
gravel covering into the tile pipes which lead to the wall of the well. 
Filters or strainers of this kind are not now used, experience with such 
works in earlier years having shown that under such conditions the 
quality of the water generally deteriorates after a longer or shorter 
period of use and becomes afl'ected by growths of Crenothrix and the 
presence of an excessive quantity of iron in the water. 

The purity of this supply will depend largely upon the conditions 
affecting the purity of the water of JSTaukeag Pond, and it appears to 
the Board probable that, by the enforcement of suitable sanitary regu- 
lations, the pollution of the water may be prevented so that it will not 
be unsafe for drinking; but, on account of the character of the works 
through which the water is taken, an.d the fact that the organism 
Crenothrix has already been found in a sample taken from the pipes, 
there is much danger that the quality of the water will deteriorate in 
future and become objectionable for many domestic uses. 

The Board recommends that the pipes and reservoir be thoroughly 
flushed before the water is used and that suitable regulations be estab- 
lished, if necessary, to prevent the pollution of the water of Upper 
ISTaukeag Pond, from which the supply is largely derived. If the quality 
of the water deteriorates, investigations should be made with a view to 
obtaining a ground water supply from wells or other suitable sources 
near the pond. 

Athol. 

June 20, 1912. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Athol, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you through 
your engineer on June 3 the following application relative to a modifica- 
tion in that portion of the plan recently approved by this Board for 
taking water from Thoiisand Acre Meadow Brook, which relates to the 
filters : — 

We wish to file with your Board for your approval a siipplementary plan 
of Thousand Acre Meadow Brook additional water sup23ly for Athol. 

This supplementary plan shows a modification of the original plans by 
changing the location of the filter beds. In the original plans it was pro- 
posed to construct the filter beds at a point a short distance above the new 
intake reservoir now constructed on Thousand Acre Meadow Brook. 



78 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

As the supplementary plan shows, it is now proposed to construct the filter 
beds at a point adjacent to the Summer Street Keservoir. By doing this, we 
shall not only be able to filter the Thousand Acre Meadow Brook supply but 
also the Newton supply, since both supplies discharge into the Summer Street 
Reservoir through the same pipe line. 

The change in the location of the filter beds should be an improvement, 
as in the original plans the filtered water of Thousand Acre Meadow Brook 
had to mix with the raw water from the Newton Reservoir before it reached 
the Summer Street Reservoir. Besides, the change will give better control 
over the two different sources especially relative to the elimination of odors 
and tastes. 

The filters can also be constructed cheaper at the new location and can be 
maintained and better looked after on account of being so near the village 
than if constnicted at the original location. 

The filter beds constructed on the new location shall be the regnilar standard 
type of uncovered slow sand water filters, as shown by the detailed plans 
enclosed. 

The Board has caused the proposed new location of the filters to be 
examined by one of its engineers and has considered the plans and 
information presented. 

The plan now proposed has the advantage over that formerly sub- 
mitted in that it will make practicable the filtration of the water from the 
Newton Eeservoir in addition to that from Thousand Acre Meadow 
Brook, so that the entire supply to the low-service district will be filtered 
in the neighborhood of the Summer Street Eeservoir. 

The proposed filters, as shown upon the plans presented, appear to be 
well designed for the purpose, and, at the present rate of consumption 
of water in the low-service district, the rate of filtration, when both 
beds are in use, will probably not exceed 1,000,000 gallons per acre per 
day. The waters to he filtered are practically unpolluted, but the water 
of the Thousand Acre Meadow supply is affected by a high color, and 
that of the Newton Eeservoir at times by an objectionable taste and 
odor. The filtration of the water as proposed will doubtless greatly im- 
prove the quality of the water and make it satisfactory for domestic use. 
If at some future time it should be desirable to increase the area of 
filters or pro\ide double filtration, it will be practicable to do so at this 
location. 

In the opinion of the Board the change in the location of the filters, 
as now proposed, is a desirable one, and the Board recommends its 
adoption. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 79 



Barre. 

Aug. 26, 1912. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Barre, Mass. 

Gentlemen" : — The State Board of Health has considered your ap- 
plication for advice relative to the use of Allen's Pond as a temporary 
source of water supply, and has caused the pond and its surroundings to 
be examined by one of its engineers and samples of the water to be 
analyzed. The results of the examination show no material change in the 
conditions affecting the water of this pond since it was approved as a 
source of temporary supply to meet an emergency in 1909. Your present 
supply having become affected by organic matter to such an extent as to 
make it unfit for many domestic uses, the use of Allen's Pond as a tem- 
porary water supply is, in the opinion of the Board, the best practical 
method of relieving the present emergency. 

The cause of the objectionable condition of your present supply is 
the presence of great numbers of the organism Anabwna, which has fre- 
quently caused objectionable conditions in the water supplies of othei" 
places. The organism flourishes most abundantly in the latter part of 
the summer and early autumn, and, in waters in which it is found in 
large numbers, it usually returns from year to year, though the effect of 
its presence is usually much more marked in some years than in others. 
Its appearance in this reservoir is doubtless due in part to the fact that 
much of the water entering it, especially in the drier part of the year, 
comes from the ground, and such organisms usually flourish most abun- 
dantly in ground waters which are exposed to light. The use of water 
containing these organisms for domestic purposes does not appear to 
have an injurious effect upon health. 

It is probable that by drawing off the reservoir and cleaning it thor- 
oughly, as you propose, relief from the presence of organic growths may 
be experienced for a time, but under the conditions affecting this reser- 
voir the organisms are likely to appear again in the future. 

It is probable that the water of this reservoir will continue to be of 
good quality during a large part of the year, but a suitable auxiliary 
supply for use when the reservoir water is objectionable or the supply 
therefrom inadequate is greatly needed. The water of Allen's Pond is 
highly colored and not a desirable water for continued use, and the 
Board recommends that an investigation be made with a view to securing 
an auxiliary supply of water of good quality for domestic purposes from 
some suitable source in the region about your present works. If you 
decide to make investigations with a view to obtaining an auxiliary supply, 



80 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the Board will, if yon so request, make the necessary analyses of the 
water, and will give you further advice when you have the results of in- 
vestigations to present. 

Blackstone (Millville). 

June 6, 1912. 

To the Committee on Water Supply, Millville, Mass., Rev. J. F. Leonard, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation for advice as to a water supply for the village of Millville, to 
be taken from Angelica Brook southeast of the village, and has caused 
the locality to be examined by one of its engineers and samples of the 
water from the brook and from a spring near its headwaters to be 
a«nalyzed. 

The results of the examination show that there are no dwelling houses 
in the immediate neighborhood of the brook and its tributaries and very 
few within its watershed, and the analyses indicate that the ground 
water of this locality would be of good quality for domestic purposes. The 
character of the soil within the watershed appears to be coarse and 
porous, judging from surface indications, and conditions are favorable 
for obtaining water freely from the ground in the valley of this brook; 
but the area of the watershed is very limited, amounting, according to 
the information available to the Board, to but little over 100 acres, and 
it is doubtful, in the opinion of the Board, whether a sufficient quantity 
of water could be obtained from this valley, even with extensive col- 
lecting works, to supply the requirements of the village for a considerable 
time in the future, unless supplemented at times from some other source. 

Under the circumstances, the cost of obtaining a supply from the 
valley of this brook might be greater than the cost of works for obtaining 
a supply at a somewhat greater distance from the village if a suitable 
supply can be found within a reasonable distance. Investigations made 
several years ago indicated that ground water of good quality could be 
obtained in the lower part of the valley of the brook flowing from Iron- 
stone Eeservoir, and the character of the soil in that valley also ap- 
peared to be favorable for obtaining water freely from the ground. On 
account of the larger size of the watershed the conditions in that locality 
appear to be more favorable for obtaining an adequate supply of water 
for the village than in the valley of Angelica Brook, and, so far as can 
be judged from the information available, there would be little difference 
in the quality of the ground water of these localities. 

It is impracticable to determine definitely the feasibility and probable 
cost of obtaining a supply from either source until further tests have been 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 81 

made; but, since the conditions appear, on the whole, to be more favor- 
able for obtaining an adequate supply of good Avater for the village 
in the valley of the brook flowing from Ironstone Eeservoir, the Board 
recommends that tests be made first in that valley. If the results there 
are not found to be satisfactory the tests might then be made in the 
valley of Angelica Brook. 

The Board recommends that you also have estimates of the cost of 
works from the two localities prepared, and the Board will, upon appli- 
cation, give you further advice in the matter when you have the results 
of further investigations to present. 

BOXFOED. 

Jan. 4, 1912. 

To the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Boxford, Mr. Edward E. Peael, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation for advice as to a proposed water supply for the town of Boxford, 
in which Stiles Pond or Fish Brook are suggested as possible sources of 
supply, and has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer. 

Stiles Pond would furnish an ample quantity of water for all the 
requirements of Boxford, and the water is no doubt suitable for domestic 
purposes, but the pond is located at such a distance from the thickly 
populated parts of the town that the cost of a supply from that source 
under the existing circumstances would be excessive. 

The water of Pish Brook is highly colored and the source is an 
imdesirable one from which to take water directly for the supply of 
Boxford. There is no doubt that a good ground water supply, on 
accoimt of its freedom from color, taste and odor, and its low tempera- 
ture in the summer season, would be far more satisfactory than either of 
the sources mentioned, and a general examination of the town shows that 
there are a number of places where the conditions appear to be favorable 
for obtaining water freely from the ground by means of tubular wells 
or other suitable works. 

The Board recommends that, before deciding upon a source of water 
supply, tests be made by means of tubular wells, Avith a view to obtaining 
a supply of water from the ground, and the most favorable place in which 
to begin these tests will probably be in the valley of Fish Brook, south or 
southwest of the main village. 

For the supply of West Boxford, when a water supply becomes neces- 
sary in that part of the town, several sources are available, including 
Hoveys Pond, Johnson's Pond and the valley of the Parker Eiver. 

In the opinion of the Board, any rights that may be granted for the 



82 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

taking of water for the water supply of any city or town from the 
Ipswich Eiver, Parker Eiver or other watersheds within the limits of 
Boxforcl should be subject to a prior right of the town of Boxford and 
its inhabitants to the use of water from any of these sources for all the 
purposes of a public water supply, including the use of water for domes- 
tic, mechanical and manufacturing purposes, the extinguishment of fires 
and the irrigation of lawns and crops. 

Bridgewater and East Bridgewater. 

July 29, 1912. 
To the Bridgewaters Water Company, Bridgewater, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation for advice as to an additional water supply for the towns of 
Bridgewater and East Bridgewater, and has caused the proposed sources 
of supply to be examined and samples of their waters to be analyzed. 

The first investigations, those at the southerly end of Xippenickett 
Pond, disclosed a small area from which ground water could be obtained 
very freely at a few places. The area from which water was obtained 
from the ground in this locality, however, was very limited, and analyses 
of samples of water from the most favorable wells showed that it con- 
tained a larger quantity of organic matter than is found in good groimd 
waters and an excessive quantity of iron, which would make it objec- 
tionable for domestic purposes. 

Subsequently, after further investigations, test wells were sunk along 
the western bank of the Matfield Eiver in the northeasterly part of the 
town of Bridgewater. These tests indicated the existence of a stratum 
of porous soil beneath the surface through which water could be drawn 
in a considerable quantity, and later on a number. of test wells in this 
locality were connected to a steam pump and a pumping test made by 
pumping continuously from these wells for a period of eight days, from 
July 3 to July 11. Samples of water collected at frequent intervals 
during this test indicated that the ground water in this region would 
be of good quality for domestic purposes. 

The quantity of water ])iunped from the wells during the te?t ranged 
from 24-5,000 gallons to 307.000 gallons per day, and averaged about 
275,000 gallons per dav. The soil penetrated by the more southerly of 
the test wells was somewhat fine, but was coarser in other places tested. 

While the quantity of water obtained from tlie test wells during the 
recent pumping test v.-a? somewhat limited, the conditions about these 
wells appear to the Board favorable for obtaining a considerably larger 
supply of water by extending the collecting works, and in view of the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 83 

good quality of the water obtained from these wells during the pumping 
test, and of the u.rgent need of an additional supply to meet the imme- 
diate requirements of the towns, the Board recommends the taking of 
water from the ground in this region as an additional water supply for 
the Bridgewaters Water Company. 

The water of your present sources of supply is of unsatisfactory 
quality on account of an excessive quantity of iron, but it is likely that, 
after an additional supply becomes available, by discontinuing such of 
your present wells as furnish water of inferior quality, the remaining 
wells may be used without objection. 

Chelmsford (Wells). 

June 6, 1912. 
To the Board of Health of the Tou-n of Chelmsford. 

Gentlemen : — In response to complaints as to the character of the 
water of certain wells used as sources of domestic water supply in that 
part of the town of Chelmsford known as Westlands, the Board has 
caused a number of the wells in that village to be examined and samples 
of their waters to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the water of the well on the 
premises of George H. Holt has an objectionable odor and contains a 
larger quantity of organic matter and bacteria than is found in good 
well waters. There are sources of pollution on these premises at no 
great distance from the well, and a sewer drain from a neighboring 
house apparently passes very close to the well. Considering the circum- 
stances, the well cannot be regarded as a safe source from which to take 
water for drinking. 

The water from the well on the premises of Lynwood Norton, though 
showing evidence of previous pollution, was probably at the time of 
examination safe for drinking. 

The wells on the premises of G. W. Bell, John Fox, Grant S. Fletcher 
and J. L. Jones showed no evidence of serious pollution at the time the 
examination was made. 

The water entering the wells of W. B. Johnson, James E. Grant, 
Thomas F. Sheehan and Andrew J. Boise has at some time been badly 
polluted, and, in the opinion of the Board, the water of these wells is 
unsafe for drinking. 

The water of the well at the house of Herbert S. Sargent, located in 
the cellar of the dwelling house, though showing some evidence of 
previous pollution, was probably at the time of the examination safe for 
drinking. Tlie water of this well contains a considerable quantity of 



84 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

iron, however, and is not a desirable drinking water, and there are 
sources of pollution at no great distance which may at any time affect 
unfavorably the quality of the water of the well. 

The results of the examination as a whole show that there is a great 
need of a general water supply in this village, and the Board recom- 
mends that the town take measures without delay to introduce a general 
water supply from some suitable source. 

Chester. 

Sept. 5, 1912. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners of the Town of Chester, Mr. J. J. 

Harrington, Chairman. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
August 12 the following application for advice as to an additional water 
supply for the town of Chester : — 

Our source of supply has beeonie inadequate to meet the demands upon it, 
and unless rain comes within a very few days we shall have a water famine 
all over the town, since already the supply has failed to give service on the 
higher grounds. 

We therefore solicit your advice as to what is best to be done in the emer- 
gency, and also as to the advisability of increasing the supply by the construc- 
tion of a storage reservoir on Austin Brook above the present reservoir, if 
such can be done economically, or by the addition of any one of the proposed 
sources suggested in 1893, . . . 

The sources suggested in 1893 in connection with an examination and 
investigation for a water supply for Chester were Austin Brook, the 
source now used for the supply of the town, Blandford Brook, Walker 
Brook and Horn Pond, and the Board has caused these sources to be 
examined and samples of their waters to be analyzed. 

The water of Austin Brook is of excellent quality, and its watershed 
appears to be free from sources of pollution. The quantity of water 
supplied by this source is adequate for all the requirements of the town 
during the greater part of the year, and it is only during a few months 
in the summer season that an additional supply is required. An exami- 
nation of the watershed shows that the valley is steep and narrow, and 
the construction of a suitable reservoir of sufficient size to increase 
materially the yield of this watershed would probably be difficult and 
expensive. 

Of the sources mentioned in 1893, Blandford Brook might furnish an 
adequate additional supply for present needs, but the water of this 
source is exposed to danger of pollution from dwelling houses within its 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 85 

watershed, and the water would probably be unfavorably affected by the 
wash of highways located in the neighborhood of the stream. 

Walker Brook has a large watershed and would furnish an ample 
supply of water at all times, but the watershed contains buildings and 
farms, and the water is also exposed to pollution from the wash of 
the highways. 

The watershed of Horn Pond is apparently uninhabited, and the re- 
sults of analyses show that the water is of good quality for domestic pur- 
poses. There is a growth of water plants in places about the shores of 
the pond, and it is probable that at times the water is affected by 
growths of microscopical organisms in common with the waters of other 
ponds and reservoirs. There is no indication, however, that the water 
of this source is seriously affected by such growths. The quantity of 
water which Horn Pond would yield would be ample for all the re- 
quirements of Chester if used in connection with Austin Brook, and 
the cost of a supply from that source would not be excessive. 

In view of the circumstances the Board is of the opinion that Horn 
Pond is the most appropriate source available as an additional water 
supply for the town of Chester, and, if used in connection with Austin 
Brook, will supply all of the water required for the town until its popu- 
lation becomes much gi-eater than at the present time. 

Daistvers. 

Dec. 5, 1912. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Danvers, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Nov. 20, 1913, the following application for advice relative to a pro- 
posed additional water supply for the town of Danvers, to be obtained 
by pumping water from Boston Brook into Middleton Pond and at some 
future time into Swan Pond : — 

The water commissioners of the town of Danvers submit for your approval 
plans, together with report and estimated cost of installing- an additional 
water supply, which supply it is proposed to obtain from Boston Brook. 

In developing the supply, a low dam will be constructed across the brook 
at a point about one-half mile from its junction with the Ipswich River. A 
pumping station will be built at this location and the water pumped through 
a twenty-four inch force main into the upper end of Middleton Lake. At some 
future time it is also proposed to pump water from Boston Brook into Swan 
Pond. In order to provide storage the water surface of Middleton Lake will 
be raised five feet. The water surface of Swan Pond will also be raised when 
it becomes necessaiy to use it for storage. It is not proposed to filter the 
water at present. Detailed plans have not been made. 



86 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The aceompanyiug plans show the location of clam on Boston Brook and 
approximate location of pumping station and force main. It is j^roposed 
to pump water from Boston Brook during the six wet months only. 

As the town desires to obtain jDermission from the Legislature to install 
the supply, we would respectfully request the consent of your Board to the 
proposed plan as submitted. 

The application is accompanied by plans of the proposed works and a 
report by your engineer describing these works. From this report it 
appears that the plan in general is to increase the available storage 
capacity in Middleton Pond by raising the dam at its outlet and secur- 
ing an additional supply by pumping water from Boston Brook during 
the six wet months only; that is, during the months from December 
to May, inclusive. The plans also indicate that it will be practicable 
to increase the storage in Swan Pond by raising its level, and that the 
capacity of the works for supplying water to Danvers can be further 
increased in this way when necessary. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer and 
has considered the plans and information presented therewith. It is 
evident, from experience in the past few years, that the quantity of 
water which the present sources of water supply of Danvers are capable 
of furnishing in a very dry period is no greater than required for the 
present uses of that town and the toAvn of ]\Iiddleton, and an additional 
supply is necessary. 

The results of the investigations by your engineer show that it is prac- 
ticable, without serious difficulty, to raise the level of Middleton Pond 
about 5 feet and in that way increase the storage capacity by about 
200,000,000 gallons. The raising of the dam will flood comparatively 
little extra land excepting a large swamp on the nortlierly side of the 
pond. It is proposed to divert the water of this swamp through a pipe 
line to be laid along the northerly side of the pond to a point of dis- 
charge into the brook below the pond, and this appears to l)e a satisfac- 
tory plan of preventing injury to the quality of the water from the 
flooding of this swamp. Elsewhere around the pond the plans provide for 
removing the soil and organic matter from the area flooded and de- 
positing it in shallow places where it can be faced suitably with gravel 
and thus prevent its coming in contact with the water. 

The watershed of Boston Brook is sparsely populated, and it Avill 
not be difficult to prevent danger of the pollution of its waters. The 
water of the brook is considerably colored, but its quality is best in the 
winter and spring seasons and at that time difl'ers but little in character 
from the water of Middleton Pond, which lias Ions; been used for the 
supply of the town. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWxXS. 87 

In the opinion of the Board the plan is an appropriate one for in- 
creasing the water supply of the town of Danvers, and. can be developed 
so as to provide an adequate supply of water for the town for a long time 
in the future. 

If provision shall be made requiring a certain quantity of water to 
run in the brook for the use of other cities, towns and proprietors along 
the stream below, as in the case of the grant of a water supply from the 
Ipswich Elver to the city of Lynn, and if the amount required to be 
allowed to run in the brook should be the same in proportion to the 
area of the watershed as in the case of the city of Lynn, or even 50 per 
cent, greater than in that case, there would still be a sufficient quantity 
of water flowing in Boston Brook for the supply of the town of Danvers 
for many years in the future. If, however, the town of Peabody should 
be authorized, under the provisions of chapter 640 of the Acts of the year 
1911, to take Avater as provided in that act, the town of Danvers would 
not be able to obtain an adequate supply from Boston Brook. As Boston 
Brook appears to be the most appropriate source of additional water 
supply for the town of Danvers, the Board is of the opinion that that 
town should be given the first right to use the waters of Boston Brook 
up to a maximum quantity of at least 5,000,000 gallons per day over 
the amount which the Legislature may require to be allowed to flow 
in the brook past the point of taking. 

It is important, in the opinion of the Board, that unnecessary use 
and waste of water should be restricted, and the Board recommends 
that the introduction of meters be begim by the town and continued as 
rapidly as practicable until all services are supplied through meters. 

East Bridgew^ater. 

April 8, 1912. 

To Messrs. E. S. Whitmarsh, Fred P. Whitmarsh and Arthur C. 
Churchill, Selectmen of the Town of East Bridgeicater. 

Gextlemex : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
March 2, 1912, the following petition relative to a proposed water supply 
in the town of East Bridgewater, to be taken from the water works of 
the city of Brockton : — 

To the end that the city of Brocklon may supply the town of East Bridge- 
water with water from Silver Lake for the extinguishment of fires and for 
domestic and other purposes, we, as selectmen of said town, on behalf thereof, 
hereby apply for the opinion in writing in accordance with section 9 of 
chapter 356 of the Acts of 1899, to the effect that Silver Lake is a natural 
and proper source of supply for said town. 



88 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It appears that the village of Northville in the town of East Bridge- 
water, including 40 to 50 houses, is already supplied with water from 
the Silver Lake supply of the city of Brockton, the main pipe of which 
passes very close to the village, and it is desired to continue the use 
of this supply. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its 
engineers and has considered the plan presented and is of the opinion 
that Silver Lake is a natural and proper source of supply for the dis- 
trict in question in the town of East Bridgewater. 

Egeemont (Nortpi Egremont Water Company). 

Aug. 1, 1912. 

To the North Egremont Water Company, North Egremont, Mass., Mr. Elmer 

L. CORTHELL, President. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
July 22 the following application for its approval of Hollenbeck Spring, 
so called, as a source of water supply for the village of North Egremont, 
under the provisions of chapter 612 of the Acts of the year 1912 : — 

The undersigned respectfully represent that the North Egremont Water 
Company was incorporated by chapter 612 of the Acts of 1912. 

The incorporators named in said act have duly accej^ted the same by unani- 
mous vote at a meeting called and held for the purpose, and have organized 
by adopting by-laws and electing officers, and have selected as the water 
source " Hollenbeck Spring," named in said act, and they hereby petition 
your Honorable Board to view the said water source and give your approval 
of it as a proper supply for the uses authorized and contemplated in said 
act of incorporation. . . . 

In response to this application the Board has caused the spring to be 
examined by one of its engineers and samples of the water to be analyzed. 
The results of the analyses show that the water, in common with many of 
the waters of this section, is quite hard, but in other respects of good 
quality for domestic purposes. 

In regard to the quantity of water which the spring will yield, the 
information supplied by your observations indicates that the yield prob- 
ably amounts in the drier part of the year to a quantity greater than 
would be required for the present needs of the village of North Egremont. 

The detailed plans of the development of the proposed source of water 
supply have not been presented, but it is understood that they will in- 
clude the construction of a reservoir holding about 30,000 gallons at the 
site of the present location of the spring. It will be important, in the 
opinion of the Board, in order to protect the purity of the water and 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 89 

prevent deterioration, that this reservoir be covered so as to prevent the 
entrance of surface vrater and exclude the light. The group of farm 
buildings located in the immediate neighborhood of the spring do not 
apparently affect the quality of the water at present. It would be de- 
sirable, however, for the water company to control these Iraildings, and 
in any case it is important that drainage from them be so disposed 
of at all times that it may not reach the spring or any reservoir con- 
structed in its neighborhood in connection with your sources of water 
supply. 

The Board, acting under the provisions of chapter 612 of the Acts of 
the year 1912, approves the proposed taking of water from the Hollen- 
beek Spring for the supply of the village of North Egremont. 

■ Egremont (South Egeemoxt Water Company). 

June 25, 1912. 

lo the South Egremont Water Company^ Egremont^ Mass., Mr. George H. 

Read, President. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation for its advice and approval, under the provisions of chapter 436 
of the Acts of the year 1912, of the taking of the water of Goodale 
Brook for the water supply of the village of South Egremont, and has 
caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers and samples of 
the water of the brook to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the water of Goodale Brook is 
of good quality for domestic purposes, and from an examination of the 
watershed it appears that there are only two dwelling houses within its 
limits and very litle, if any, land under active cultivation. 

Under existing conditions there is little danger of the pollution of the 
brook from any source within its watershed, and the purity of the water 
can be preserved by inspection without serious difficulty. Should it be 
found necessary for the protection of the water supply, these places could 
doubtless be purchased without adding greatly to the cost of the water 
supply. 

The quantity of water flowing in the brook is probably ample at all 
times for the requirements of the village. If a reservoir shall be con- 
structed on the stream above the Curtis farm, as proposed, it is im- 
portant that it be thoroughly prepared for the storage of water by re- 
moving all stumps, mud and other organic matter. 

The Board hereby approves the taking of the water of Goodale Brook 
for the purpose of a public water supply for the village of South Egre- 
mont. as provided in chapter 436 of the Acts of the year 1912. 



90 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Aug. 26, 1912. 

To the South Egrem.ont Water Company, Egremont, Mass., Mr. George H. 

Kead, President. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your com- 
munication of Aug. 10, 1912, in which you request approval by the Board 
of the taking of water for the water supply of South Egremont from 
Goodale Brook at a point about 2,000 feet down stream from the point 
of taking approved by the Board in its communication of June 25, 1912, 
and in response to this application the Board has caused a further ex- 
amination of the locality to be made by one of its engineers, and has 
considered the plan presented. 

It appears that by taking water farther dovATi stream at the new lo- 
cation now proposed, it will be practicable to construct a suitable reser- 
voir at small cost and, on the whole, make a considerable saving in the 
total cost of the works. The examinations made by the Board, however, 
show that there is a group of farm buildings below the point of taking 
approved last June, but above that now proposed, which is a serious 
menace to the purity of the water. Under the circumstances, the Board 
does not approve taking water at the new location, but, if the group of 
farm buildings referred to should be acquired by the water company 
and removed, there would be no objection, in the opinion of the Board, 
to taking water from Goodale Brook about 2,000 feet down stream from 
the location approved by this Board on June 25, 1912. 

Fall Eiver. 

Oct. 29, 1912. 

To the Reservoir Commission, Fall Biver, Mass., Mr. Philip D. Bordeiv^, 

Clerk. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your request 
for advice as to whether, in the opinion of the Board, it is essential that 
all ice-cutting on North Watuppa Pond shall be gradually terminated, 
and as to the advisability of taking advantage of a present opportunity 
to acquire the land and property of the ice company situated near the 
junction of County and Pleasant streets, and has examined the present 
conditions affecting the purity of the water of the pond. 

The city of Fall Eiver has already acquired a large part of the water- 
shed of North Watuppa Pond, and the Board has approved plans for 
diverting the polluted waters from the densely populated portions of 
the watershed which it has not been practicable for the city to acquire 
by purchase. 

The cutting of large quantities of ice upon the pond for filling the 
ice houses in question is, in the opinion of the Board, a menace to the 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 91 

purity of the water, and will be one of the chief remaining dangers of 
pollution of this pond after your other plans are carried out. In the 
opinion of the Board it is very desirable to discontinue the cutting of 
ice upon this pond, and the Board recommends that the property in 
question be acquired and the cutting of ice discontinued. 

Freetown (Assonet axd Crystal Sprixg). 

Feb. 1, 1912. 
To the Board of Selectmen, Freetotcn, 3Iass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to complaints as to the character of cer- 
tain wells used as sources of domestic water supply in the villages of 
Assonet and Crystal Spring, the Board has caused an examination to be 
made of wells located at the Crystal Spring Bleachery, at the X. E. Davis 
gun shop, at the bleachery of Dailey & Laycock, at the store, of J. H. 
AYinslow, and at the houses occupied by W. A. Davis, Miss C. Hathaway, 
J. W. Grinnell, C. A. Thompson, Miss M. Watts, Charles Babbitt, George 
Clark and W. L. Goff, and has caused samples of the waters of these 
wells to be analyzed. 

The results of the examinations show that the water of the deep 
tubular well at the Crystal Spring Bleachery is of good quality and, in 
its present condition, suitable for domestic use; but the waters entering 
all of the other wells have evidently been badly polluted by sewage 
and not thoroughh' purified in their passage through the ground before 
entering the wells. The number of bacteria present in most of the wells 
was high, and in some of them bacteria characteristic of sewage were 
found to be present. 

In the opinion of the Board the further use of the water of any of 
these wells — with the possible exception of the well at the house of 
J. "\V. Grinnell — should be prevented. The water of the well of J. W. 
Grinnell, though it had evidently at some time been considerably pol- 
luted, had been quite well purified in its passage through the ground 
before entering the well and in its present condition may not be unsafe 
for drinking; but changes in the circumstances affecting its pollution 
may at any time render it unsafe, and the Board cannot recommend its 
continued use. 

The results of the examination show that there is great need of a 
general water supply in this village, and the Board recommends that 
the town take measures without delay to introduce a general water 
supply from some suitable source. 



92 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Feb. 1, 1912. 
To N. R. Davis & Sons, Assonet^ Mass. 

Gentleinien : — An examination of the water of a well between the 
houses of W. A. Davis and D. L. Johnson which, the Board is informed, 
is used as a source of drinking water supply for the employees in your 
factory, shows that the water of this well is very badly polluted and, 
in the opinion of the Board, that water of good quality for drinking 
sources of pollution in the neighborhood of this well, and it is unlikely, 
in the opinion of the Board, that water of good quality for drinking 
can be obtained from the ground in this vicinity. 

The water of a well near the gun shop, from which water is taken for 
washing, fire protection and other purposes in the factory, was also found 
to be very badly polluted, and, while it does not appear that this water 
is used for drinking by the employees, it is supplied in the factory in 
such a way that it might be used for this purpose, and the Board 
recommends that signs be placed at points where this water might be 
used for drinking, warning employees that it is unsafe for such use. 

The Board advises that a supply of good drinking water be provided 
for the supply of the employees in your factory. 

Feb. 1, 1912. 
To Messrs. Dailet & Laycock, Assonet, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — An examination of the water of a well near your 
mill in Assonet which, the Board is informed, is used at times as a 
source of drinking water supply for your employees, shows that the 
water of this well is very badly polluted and unsafe for drinking, and 
the Board advises that its use for that purpose be discontinued. 

The Board recommends that a water of good quality be provided for 
the use of employees in this factory. 

Feb. 1, 1912. 

To the Puritan Mills, Mr. Herman G. Myers, President, 34 North Main 

Street, Fall River, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — An examination of the water of a well situated near 
the house of W. L. Goff from Avhich, the Board is informed, water is 
taken for drinking in your mills at Assonet, shows that this water is 
badly polluted and, in the opinion of the Board, unsafe for drinking. 
The Board recommends that its further use for that purpose be dis- 
continued. 

The water of the river, which is su]-»plied for washing and other pur- 
poses in the mill, is not safe for drinking, and notices should be posted 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 93 

at all places where this water can be drawn that it is unsafe to use 
for drinking. 

The Board recommends that a supply of good drinking Avater be pro- 
vided for the use of the employees in these mills. 

Geanville. 

Dec. 3, 1912. 

To Mr. JoHK M. Stevenson, President, Granville Center Water Company, 

Granville Center, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health received from you on Oct. 
18, 1912, the following application for advice as to a proposed water 
supply for the village of Granville : — 

The residents of the lower or Granville village are urging this company 
to extend its main so as to give them a supply of water. 

We would be willing to do this provided we were sure the supply available 
would be sufficient. We feel that the village of Granville Center will need 
all that is available at this elevation. I have been making investigations as 
to an entirely new supply and pipe line with the idea that this company 
could in that way supply this new demand. So far I can find but two brooks 
that could be used. Both of these are referred to in the State Board of Health 
report for 1899 (pages 15, 16, 191). I have my doubts if the Tinker Brook 
would furnish a sufficient supply, but the Seymour Brook is now running a 
very good quantity and evidently would furaish the desired amount with a 
proper storage reservoir. The danger from contamination of this brook does 
not seem to me to be serious. There are only two houses and protection from 
these could be easily made. There is an urgent demand from Granville 
Village and we would like to supply it if we can do so without too much 
expense. , . . 

If this company should decide to make the extension it would be necessary 
to go to the Legislature for the authority to do so. For that reason we would 
like the advice of the Board as soon as possible. 

In response to this application the Board has caused the proposed 
sources of supply to be examined by one of its engineers and samples 
of their waters to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses indicate that the waters of both sources 
are naturally of good quality for the purposes of a domestic water 
supply. 

Seymour Brook is located at a greater distance from the village than 
Tinker Brook, and at the point at which the waters of Seymour Brook 
would naturally be taken for the supply of Granville the available 
drainage area as shown on the State map amoimts to al)out 1.3 square 
miles. The stream is formed of two main tributaries which unite just 



94 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

above the natural point of taking, and either tributary could probably 
be developed by the construction of a reservoir so as to provide an 
adequate water supply for the village if desired. The watershed con- 
tains a number of dwelling liouses and outbuildings, nearly all of which 
are located at such distances from the streams that the pollution of the 
water could probably be prevented without serious difficulty, but it would 
very likely be necessary to acquire some of the buildings in order to 
guard properly the purity of a water supply from this brook or either 
of its tributaries. 

Tinker Brook is nearer the village of Granville Center than Seymour 
Brook, and the greater part of the Tinker Brook watershed al)ove the 
point at Avhich it would naturally be taken for the supply of Granville 
is uninhabited, but the southerly tributary drains a portion of the village 
of Granville Center. It is probable that by constructing a reservoir of 
suitable size on Tinker Brook, and diverting the water of the southerly 
branch so that it would discharge into the stream below the reservoir, 
a sufficient quantity of good water could be obtained for the supply of 
Granville Village from the uninhabited portions of the watershed. In 
order to obtain an adequate supply at all times it would be necessary to 
construct on the stream a reservoir having a capacity of as much as 
1,000,000 gallons, and a further investigation will be necessary to de- 
termine the practicability and the probable cost of the construction of 
a suitable reservoir and the cost of diverting the water of the southerly 
tributary to a point of discharge below the reservoir. 

The Board recommends that you investigate carefully the probable 
cost of works for the supply of Granville from each source, including 
in the case of Seymour Brook the probable cost of acquiring any build- 
ings within tlie watershed that may threaten the purity of the supply, 
and when the results of these investigations are available it will be 
practicable to determine which source will be the more desirable to 
select. When you have the results of further investigations to present, 
the Board will, if you so request, give you further advice as to the 
most appropriate source of water supply for Gran-\nlle Village. 

Great Barrixgtox (Housatoxic). 

Under the authority of section 113 of chapter 75 of the Eevised Laws, 
rules and regulations were made by the Board on Oct. 3, 1912, for pre- 
venting the pollution and securing -the sanitary protection of the waters 
of Long Pond and its tributaries. u=ed by the Housatonic Water Works 
Company as a source of water supplv for the village of Housatonic in 
the town of Great Barrington. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 95 

Hardwick (Gilbertville). 

Oct. 18, 1912. 
To the Board of Health of the Toicn of Hardwick, Mass. 

Gextlemen : — • In response to a request for an examination of the 
springs from which water is taken for the supply of certain houses 
of Mr. Charles Dexter, located in the village of Gilbertville near the 
junction of the roads from Hardwick and Barre, the State Board of 
Health has caused the spring and its surroundings to be examined and 
samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the water contains more organic 
matter than is found in good ground waters, but the springs do not appear 
to be exposed to pollution and the water as taken directly from them is 
probably safe for drinking. 

The water is delivered to the consumers through lead pipes, and an 
examination of a sample of water collected by a member of your Board, 
made to determine the quantity of lead present in the water as delivered 
to the houses, showed the presence of an amount of lead very much 
greater than the minimum amount that has been known to cause lead 
poisoning, and, in view of this result, the Board recommends that all 
lead pipes used in the distribution of this water be removed at once 
and that pipes of iron lined with cement or tin be substituted therefor. 
By changing the pipes and using material which will not be attacked 
or injured by the water it is probable that the water obtained from these 
springs v\'ill be satisfactory in all respects for domestic purposes. 

Haverhill. 

March 7, 1912. 

To the Department of Parks, Haverhill, Mass., Mr. Henry Frost, Superin- 
tendent. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your re- 
quest of February 9 for advice as to the danger which might result to 
the users of water in Haverhill from the use of arsenate of lead for 
poisoning gypsy and brown-tail moths upon the watershed of Kenoza 
Lake, and has made investigations as to the probable elEfect of this 
substance upon fish life in the lake. 

In order to answer the question in regard to the effect of arsenate 
of lead upon fish life in the water, the water in an aquarium at the 
Lawrence Experiment Station was treated with arsenate of lead to an 
amount many times greater than the water of the lake would contain if 
all of the substance u?ed upon its watershed should enter the lake, and 
a fish was placed in the aquarium on February 19. 



96 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The results show that even the large quantity used in the aquarium 
has had no effect upon the fish. 

Arsenate of lead is soluble in water onty to a very slight extent, and, 
moreover, when sprayed upon trees a very large proportion of that used 
attaches itself to the leaves and bark and is only slowly washed to the 
ground by the rainfall. After reaching the ground it mingles with the 
soil, and experiments show that it is likely to remaui there, being moved 
only as is the soil, by being washed by heavy rains. 

Under the circumstances there appears to the Board no danger of 
injury to the quality of the water of Kenoza Lake from the use of 
arsenate of lead on the trees within its watershed as proposed. It may 
be well not to spray trees directly overhanging the water. 

Under the authority of section 113 of chapter 75 of the Eevised Laws, 
rules and regulations were made by the Board on Feb. 1, 1912, for pre- 
venting the pollution and securing the sanitary protection of the waters 
of Crystal Lake, Pentucket Lake, Lake Saltonstall and Johnson's Pond 
and their tributaries, used by the city of Haverhill as sources of water 
supply. 

HiNGHAM. 

Under the authority of section 113 of chapter 75 of the Eevised Laws, 
rules and regulations were made by the Board on April 4, 1912, for 
preventing the pollution and securing the sanitary protection of the 
waters of Accord Pond and its tributaries, used by the Hingham Water 
Company as a source of water supply for the towns of Hingham and 
Hull. 

HuDSON^. 

June 6, 1912. 
To the Commissioners of Public Works of the Town of Hudson, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of FCealth received from you on 
April 26, 1912, a petition for its consent to, and approval of, the pur- 
chase or taking of a certain parcel of land within the watershed of 
Gates Pond, so called, in the town of Berlin, for the purpose of protect- 
ing and preserving the purity of the water of said pond which is used 
as a source of water supply for the town of Hudson. 

In response to this petition the Board gave a hearing, as required by 
chapter 499 of the Acts of the year 1908, at its office, Eoom 143, State 
House, on Thursday, June 6, 1912, due notice of said hearing having 
been given by publication in newspapers in the town of Hudson. After 
the hearing, at which no one appeared to oppose the taking of the land 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 97 

in question by said town, and after causing an examination of the land 
to be made by one of its engineers, the Board upon consideration voted 
to consent to, and approve of, the purchase or taking by the town of 
Hudson of a certain parcel of land in the town of Berlin, now or 
formerly of Lydia L. Day, said parcel of land having an area of 3.5 
acres, more or less, and being bounded, measured and described as 
follows : — 

A tract of land, situated in the Easterly part of Berlin in the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, bounding on the northerly side of Gates Pond, con- 
taining Three and %o acres, more or less, bounded and described as follows: 
— Beginning at the Northeasterly corner of the same, at the corner of the 
wall at land of said Day and land of said Town and running thence by land 
of said Day South 77° West Nine Hundred and fifty five feet to a corner 
at land of said Town; thence by land of said Town South 83° 40' East Four 
hundred and three feet to an angle; thence by land of said Town South 
21° 15' West Sixty seven feet to an angle; thence by the same land North 
85° 20' East One Hundred and twenty feet to a corner; thence by the same 
land South 16° 45' West Two Hundred and five feet to a stone bound; thence 
by the same land North 30° 15' East Eighty feet to a stone bound; thence 
by land of said town North 16° East Seventy seven and %o feet to a stone 
bound; thence by the same land South 86° 30' East Two Hundred and thirty 
four feet to a stone bound; (the last three courses being by said Gates Pond) ; 
thence by land of said Town North 0° 30' West One Hundred and fifty five 
and %o feet to a pipe bound; thence by the same land North 89° 30' East 
One Hundred and eighty nine feet to a pipe bound; thence by land of said 
town North Two Hundred and seven and %o feet to the corner first mentioned. 

Leicester (Cheery Valley and Rochdale Water District). 

Feb. 10, 1912. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners of the Cherry Valley and Rochdale 

Water District. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request of February 7 for the ap- 
proval by this Board of the use of water from Henshaw Pond for an 
emergency supply under the provisions of chapter 25, section 35, of the 
Revised Laws, the Board has caused the pond and its surroundings to 
be examined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the water of the pond, 
while somewhat colored, may be used for domestic purposes at the present 
time. 

The only dwelling house in the neighborhood of the pond is a cottage 
on the northern shore which is said to be occupied only in the summer 
season. There are several dwelling houses with outbuildings in the valley 
of the main feeder of the pond near the upper end of the watershed, and 



98 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

some of these buildings are so situated that polluting matters may reach 
the brook in case of a thaw. It is no doubt practicable to remove pol- 
luting matters from the neighborhood of the brook and its tributaries 
and make other changes in this region which will prevent danger of 
serious pollution of the brook, but it will probably be difficult to make 
the necessary improvements in this region at the present season or until 
the frost has left the gi-ound. 

Unless danger of the pollution of the pond or its tributaries can be 
prevented the water takers should be advised to boil the water before 
using it for drinking during the time that water is being taken from 
the pond and for several days after the use of the water is discontinued. 

With the above suggestions the Board approves the use of water from 
Henshaw Pond in quantities sufficient to meet the present emergency. 

It is probable that with the return of warmer weather an ample 
supply will be obtained from the wells, but works for supplying an addi- 
tional quantity of well water sufficient to meet the requirements of the 
district at all times should be provided as soon as practicable. 

July 19, 1912. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners, Cherry Valley and Rochdale Water 

District, Leicester, Mass. 

Gextlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on May 
27, 1912, the following application relative to the use of water from 
Henshaw Pond for increasing the water supply of the district : — 

Acting under authority of section 2, chapter 381, Acts of 1910, we hereby 
jjetition your Honorable Board that j'ou will api^rove the taking by us of 
the water from Henshaw Pond, in said Leicester, as is provided in said sec- 
tion 2, in accordance with and in manner as shown on plan herewith sub- 
mitted. 

We find that the soil surrounding our collecting wells is not sufficiently 
pervious to allow of water entering the wells in adequate quantity to provide 
for our consumption. 

At present there are not over 1,700 consumers in the district, and the 
amount of Avater pumped varies between 80,000 and 130,000 gallons per day. 

Our collecting wells, if full, will store about 116,000 gallons, but owing to 
the condition of the soil do not fill more than two-thirds full, with ordinary 
pumping. 

As our consumjition will be largely increased when contemplated extensions 
to our distribution system are completed, we deem it necessary to j^rovide 
for freer access of water to the wells from the said pond. 

The application is accompanied by a plan showing the proposed intake 
from Henshaw Pond, a filter, and connections with the present well by 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 99 

which the water of the pond can be filtered and delivered into the pres- 
ent supply. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its 
engineers and has considered the plan presented. 

Experience with the works thus far constructed indicates that they are 
inadequate at times to supply all of the water required by the district, 
and, while the quantity of water used appears to be large for a district 
of this population, it is advisable to provide a larger supply than is now 
available. 

The water of Henshaw Pond is naturally of good quality for domestic 
purposes, and, by the enforcement of proper sanitary rules, the pond can 
be protected from pollution. 

The plan of increasing the water supply by taking water from Hen- 
shaw Pond and discharging it, after filtration, into one of your wells 
appears to the Board the best that it is practicable to adopt, under the 
circumstances. 

In the opinion of the Board it is advisable that the size of the pro- 
posed filter be increased, and the Board recommends that the area be 
enlarged by extending the filter southeasterly an additional distance of 
25 feet with a width of 8 feet, as proposed. 

It will be best to arrange the filter so that the water from the pond 
can be discharged by gravity upon its surface and allowed to filter down 
through a depth of about 41/2 feet of suitable sand. Underdrains should 
be provided to collect the water and discharge it into the collecting well, 
and it is advisable that the gravel trench connection with the collecting 
well be omitted. With underdrains a single pipe will be sufficient to 
convey the water to the collecting well. 

It will be advisable to construct the filter so that it may be covered 
with a planking in the winter season, and it is probable that a filter ar- 
ranged in this way could be operated satisfactorily in the cold weather, 
since there is very little organic matter in the pond waier, and with 
a cover such as suggested it is unlikely that the water will freeze to such 
depth as to interfere materially with the operation of the filter if the 
water is not allowed to flow to a depth of less than 2 feet, except when 
drawn off for scraping the surface of the sand if scraping in the winter 
season should be found necessarv. 

The Board recommends that sanitary rules be established and en- 
forced within the watershed of Henshaw Pond as soon as the use of water 
is begim, and the Board will, upon application, provide such rules as 
appear to be required under the circumstances. 



100 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

LONGMEADOW. 

Dec. 5, 1912. 

To Messrs. George N. Merrill, William J. Hyland and W. B. Medlicott, 
Special Committee on Water Supply, Longmeadow, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request of Oct, 5, 1912, for advice 
as to the quality of the water of the present source of supply of the 
town of Longmeadow and the quantity of water obtainable therefrom, 
the State Board of Health has caused the source of supply to be examined 
by its engineers and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

The analyses show that the water has usually been of good quality 
and satisfactory for domestic purposes, but during the past year the 
quantity of organic matter in the water has been much greater than in 
previous years. The presence of this organic matter is probably due 
to the construction of a new reservoir near the pumping station by which 
a considerable area of adjacent land, from which the soil and organic 
matter had not been removed, was flooded. 

The watershed contains at the present time few dwelling houses, and, 
with adequate supervision, danger of the pollution of the water by 
sewage can probably be prevented, but, on account of the nearness of the 
watershed to a populous and rapidly growing residential district, con- 
stant and thorough inspection will be essential to preserve the purity of 
the supply in the future. 

It appears that during the past year the quantity of water supplied by 
Cooley Brook has been inadequate for the requirements of the town, 
and a large additional supply is evidently required. It is not probable 
that the supply from Cooley Brook can be increased materially either by 
the construction of reservoirs or the development of ground water sources, 
and a new source of supply will have to be provided. Whether such a 
supply can be obtained at any point within the limits of the town the 
Board is unable to advise you without further information. 

The Board recommends that you have an investigation made by an 
engineer of experience in such questions to determine the practicability 
and probable cost of obtaining an adequate supply of good water from 
some source within the limits of the town, including an estimate of the 
cost of improving your present reservoirs so as to prevent further de- 
terioration in the quality of the water, and of the cost of acquiring addi- 
tional lands for the protection of the purity of the supply. A supply of 
water of good quality could probably be secured from the city of Spring- 
field without difficulty, and information should also be obtained as to 
the cost of obtaining a supply from that city and the probable annual 
charge therefor. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 101 

When this information is available it will be practicable for the town 
to determine whether it will be for its best interests to continue the use 
of the present sources, supplemented with water from a new supply, or 
to discontinue its present supplies and take water from the city of Spring- 
field. 

The Board will, if you so request, give you further advice in this 
matter when you have the results of further investigations to present. 

Mansfield. 

Jan. 16, 1912. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners of the Mansfield Water Supply Dis- 
trict, Mansfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In reply to your request for advice as to the desira- 
bility of leasing, for agricultural purposes, certain lands recently acquired 
in the region of your water supply for the purpose of the sanitary pro- 
tection thereof, with a view to securing better terms in the settlement 
for the taking of those lands or an income therefrom, the Board has 
caused the locality to be examined and has considered the probable 
effect of the continued cultivation of the lands in question upon the 
quality of the water of the well. 

An examination of the records of analyses of the water of the well 
from which the district has been supplied for many years shows that 
the quality of the water, which was excellent in the beginning, changed 
but little until about six or seven years ago. Since that time there has 
been a marked increase in the ammonias, chlorine, nitrates and hardness 
of the water, — an increase which is apparently coincident with the 
active cultivation and beavy fertilization of certain areas within the 
probable watershed of the well, the lease of which for agricultural pur- 
poses you are now considering. 

Since it is probable that the cultivation of these areas is largely re- 
sponsible for such deterioration as has thus far taken place in the 
quality of the water, it is reasonable to expect that if cultivation is 
discontinued further deterioration will be arrested and the water return 
in time to its normal condition. In view of the circumstances, the 
Board recommends that the further use of the lands acquired by the dis- 
trict for the protection of the water supply for any purpose requiring 
the use of fertilizers be prevented. 

The best plan of treating these lands would be to devote them to 
forestry, and considerable returns can probably be obtained by the dis- 
trict from such use. 



102 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Mattapoisett. 

Aug. 16, 1912. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Mattapoisett, Mass. 

Gentlemex : — The State Board of Health received from yon on 
Aug. 6 the following application for advice as to further investigations 
for a water supply for the town of Mattapoisett : — 

. . . The town of Mattapoisett, Mass., has the necessary legislative author- 
ity granted by legislative act, chapter 220, of the Acts of 1912, for the instal- 
lation of a town water suj^ply system. 

The preliminary investigations have been made and some data collected. 

The town requests the assistance and advice of your Board in accordance 
with above-mentioned act, and desires the advice of your Board at the present 
time relative to the data submitted, and your approval of extending investi- 
gation of a probable source of supply from tubular wells on Converse farm 
in the vicinity of the Mattapoisett River. . . . 

The results of the preliminary investigations in the valley of the Mat- 
tapoisett Eiver have been submitted by your engineer, from which it 
appears that several test wells have already been sunk in that locality 
along the easterly side of the river above the old dam, located about a 
quarter of a mile north of the highway leading from Mattapoisett to 
Fairhaven. The conditions were not found to be favorable for obtain- 
ing water from test wells on the easterly side of the river near the old 
dam, and further upstream hardpan was encountered in sinking the test 
wells, but still further north in the valley of the river the conditions 
"were found to be more favorable for obtaining water by means of tubular 
wells, and several test wells were sunk in this region, approximately 
a quarter of a mile upstream from the nearest wells of the Fairhaven 
Water Company, which yielded a large quantity of water by pumping 
with a hand pump. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its en- 
gineers and a sample of the water from one of the test wells to be 
analyzed. The results of the analysis indicate that the ground water 
in this region is likely to be of good quality for domestic purposes, and 
there appear to be no sources of pollution in the region about the test 
wells which are likely to affect the quality of the water. 

The Board recommends that a further test be made by sinking addi- 
tional wells in the neighborhood of wells N"os. 10, 13, 14 and 16, and 
that a pumping test be made by pumping from a group of wells in this 
locality continuously for a period of at least seven days at a rate of 
not less than 250,000 gallons per day. Observation wells should be 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 103 

provided so that the height of the ground water can be measured at 
several points and at various distances from the test wells, and it is 
especially desirable that observation wells be installed in the neighborhood 
of former test wells ISTos. 5, 11 and 13 in order to determine what effect, 
if any, pumping from the test wells may have upon the ground water 
in the direction of the wells used by the Fairhaven Water Company. 
The Board will assist you in further investigations by making the nec- 
essary analyses of water, and will, upon request, give you further advice 
when the results of the further tests are available. 

Dec. 5, 1912. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Mattapoisett, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
ISTov. 7, 1912, the following application for its approval of the use for 
the supply of the town of Mattapoisett of water taken from the ground 
in the valley of the Mattapoisett Eiver, about a mile northwest of the 
main village of Mattapoisett : — 

The Board of Water Commissioners of the town of Mattjipoisett, Mass., 
respectfully petition your Honorable Board for approval of a system of 
driven wells located in Converse farm, near Mattapoisett Eiver, and approxi- 
mately two thousand feet (2,000) above stone bridge, for a public water 
supply for the town of Mattapoisett, Mass. 

Said approval is requested in compliance with legislative Act 220, of 1912. 

In accordance with the advice of the Board as given under date of 
Aug. 16, 1912, you have caused a pumping test to be made by pumping 
from 8 tubular wells in the locality indicated in your petition, and have 
submitted the results of observation? of the height of water in the 
wells and the quantity of water pumped during the test. 

The Board has caused the test wells and their surroundings to be 
examined by its engineers and has considered the results of analyses of 
samples of water collected and sent to the laboratory of the Board daily 
during the test. The results of the analyses show that the water is of 
very good quality for domestic purposes. 

The quantity of water pumped during the test was much greater than 
will be required for the supply of ]\Iattapoisett and, considered in con- 
nection with the rise of the ground water in the wells after pumping 
ceased, it appears to the Board probable that an ample supply for all the 
requirements of the town can be obtained from the ground at this lo- 
cation. 

The Board, acting under the provisions of chapter 220 of the Acts of 
the year 1912, approves the taking of water from wells at the location 
indicated for the water supply of the town of Mattapoisett. 



104 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Montague. 

June 6, 1912. 
To Mr. E. L. Bartlett, Montague, Mass. 

Deae Sir: — In response to your request of April 26, 1912, for an 
examination of the water of a spring in Montague used as a source of 
M^ater supply for a number of houses in the village, and advice as to 
its quality, the Board has caused the spring to be examined by one 
of its engineers and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that the water in its present condi- 
tion is of good quality for domestic purposes. There are no dwelling 
houses or other buildings in the neighborhood of the spring from which 
there appears to be any danger that the water may be polluted, but the 
spring is located quite close to the highway, and it is advisable that a 
considerable area about it be enclosed and suitably fenced to prevent 
access to the spring. It is also important that the use of fertilizers on 
lands about it or on the slopes above shall be avoided. 

If the precautions indicated are carefully observed it is probable, 
in the opinion of the Board, that the water of this spring can continue 
to be used with safety. In case a larger supply than the spring will 
furnish should become necessary or desirable at some future time, it is 
probable that an adequate quantity of water for the village can be ob- 
tained in this region by the construction of a suitable well. 



Nantucket. 

Aug. 1, 1912. 

To the Wannacomet Water Company, Nantucket, Mass., Mr. William F. 

CODD, Treasurer. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation for advice as to the use of Maxcy's Pond or Head of the Hum- 
mock Pond as an additional source of water supply for Nantucket, and 
has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers. 

The results of the analyses of samples of water collected from Maxcy's 
Pond at various times, but especially within the past three years, show 
that the water of this pond, while it does not differ greatly in most re- 
spects from that of Wannacomet Pond, contains a considerably larger 
quantity of organic matter than the water of the latter source, and is 
frequently affected by a fishy or otherwise unpleasant odor. It is prob- 
able that the water would be more objectionable for domestic purposes 
at times than the water of Wannacomet Pond. The water of Head of 
the Hummock Pond is of much poorer quality than that of Maxc/s Pond 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 105 

in that it contains usually a much greater quantity of organic matter and 
is atTected more frequently by an unpleasant or disagreeable odor. 

In the opinion of the Board, neither of these sources would be a de- 
sirable one from which to take water for domestic purposes, unless the 
water were thoroughly filtered, but the ponds are situated in an unin- 
habited region and their waters are not exposed to danger of pollution, 
so that, if properly filtered, a water of satisfactory quality for domestic 
purposes could doubtless be obtained from either source. The water of 
Maxcy's Pond is affected by organic matter to a less degree than Head 
of the Hummock Pond, and could probably be purified with less dif- 
ficulty. 

While it is possible, by using the water of these ponds after filtration, 
to secure an adequate quantity of water for the present requirements of 
the town, the cost of the supply, including the cost of installing and 
maintaining filters suitable for this purpose, will be a considerable one, 
and if a good ground water supply could be found within reasonable dis- 
tance of the village, it is probable that such a supply would be preferable 
to water from either of the ponds or the present source, and that its cost 
would be less than the cost of water from Maxcy's or Head of the Hum- 
mock Pond, used in connection with the present sources, including filtra- 
tion. 

A general examination of the territory about the town indicates that 
there are extensive valleys southwest, south and southeast of the village 
in which there are no ponds or streams, so that the water falling upon 
the ground undoubtedly fiows toward the sea through porous underground 
strata. If a porous stratum of sufficient depth and extent, and which 
yields water freely, can be found in this region, it is very probable that 
an adequate quantity of water for all the requirements of the town 
could be secured at no great diflSculty and at no greater cost than a 
supply developed in the neighborhood of your present works. 

The Board recommends that, before undertaking to develop a supply 
from Maxcy's or Head of the Hummock Pond, you make further investi- 
gations by means of wells in the region southwest, south and southeast of 
the village, extending at least to a distance of a mile and one-half there- 
from, including tests in the neighborhood of the hilly country east of 
Nantucket harbor. The Board will furnish the usual assistance in mak- 
ing analyses of samples of water, and will give you further advice when 
the results of further tests are obtained. It is advisable that, if these 
further tests are undertaken, they be made as promptly as possible, so 
that the localities may be examined before the close of the summer 
season. 



106 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ISTantucket ( Siasconset) . 

Aug. 14, 1912. 

To ]\Ii'. James H. S. Fair, 'Sconset Cottage Club, Siasconset, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In response to your request for advice as to the quality 
of the water of the town drinking fountains and of the water supplied 
to the Beach House in Siasconset, the State Board of Health has caused 
these sources to be examined and samples of their waters to be analyzed, 
and has also examined the water of your wells in front of the 'Sconset 
Cottage Club. 

The results of the analyses show that the water of the town drinking 
fountains, which is obtained from wells about one-half a mile west of the 
center of the village, is probably of good quality for domestic purposes. 
The water of the Beach House supply is taken from three tubular wells 
in the rear of the hotel, and an examination shows that there are numer- 
ous sources of pollution in their neighborhood. The results of the analy- 
ses of the water indicate that it has at some time been badly polluted, 
though quite well purified in its subsequent passage through the ground 
before entering the wells. In the condition in which the water was 
found at the time of the recent examination it was probably safe for 
drinking, but a change in the conditions affecting the pollution of the 
wells may at any time render this water unsafe, and the Board cannot 
recommend the use of these wells as a source of water supply for domes- 
tic purposes. 

The wells in front of the 'Sconset Club are located at no great distance 
from numerous sewer outlets, and the results of the analyses show that 
the water has been very badly polluted and not well purified before enter- 
ing the wells. In the opinion of the Board these wells are unsafe sources 
from which to take water for drinking. 

To the Board of Health, Nantucket, Mass. ' ' 

Gentlemen: — In response to a request for advice as to the quality 
of the water supplied from the town drinking fountains and from certain 
other sources in the village of Siasconset, the State Board of Health has 
caused these sources to be examined and samples of their waters to be 
analyzed, and has also caused an examination to be made of other wells 
used for the supply of groups of dwelling houses in the village. 

The results of the analyses show that the water of the town drinking 
fountains, which is obtained from wells about one-half a mile west of the 
center of the village, is probably of good quality for domestic purposes. 

The water of the Beach House supply is taken from three tubular 
wells in the rear of the hotel, and an examination shows that there are 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 107 

numerous sources of pollution in their neighborhood, there being at 
least 10 privies of a crude type and a large number of cesspools within 
a very short distance, probably not more than 125 feet, of the wells. An 
analysis shows that the water has at some time been badly polluted 
though quite well purified in its subsequent passage through the ground 
before entering the wells. In the condition in which the water was 
found at the time of the recent examination it was probably safe for 
drinking, but a change in the conditions affecting the pollution of the 
wells may at any time render this water unsafe, and the Board cannot 
recommend the continued use of these wells as sources of water supply 
for domestic use. 

The wells from which the water supply of the 'Sconset Cottage Club is 
obtained are located at no great distance from numerous sewer outlets, 
and the results of the analyses show that the water has been very badly 
polluted and only partially purified in its subsequent passage through 
the ground before entering the wells. In the opinion of the Board 
these wells are not safe sources from which to take water for drinking. 

The water of a well at the Ocean View House was found to be similar 
in quality to 'that of the Beach House and affected by about the same 
conditions. There are numerous sources of pollution in the neighborhood 
of this well, and the quality of the water may deteriorate at any time. 

The water of the wells of Messrs. George E. Morse and E. E. Burgess, 
each of which supplies water to several houses, is of much the same 
quality and subject to much the same conditions as the well at the Ocean 
View House. 

The well of the Siasconset Golf Club appears to receive somewhat 
less pollution than the other wells, but it contained at the time of the 
recent examination more organic matter than is found in good well 
waters, though evidences of previous pollution were less than in the 
case of the water of the other wells. 

The results of the examination of the conditions affecting the water 
supply of this village show that for the most part the water supply for 
each hotel and dwelling house is obtained from a well in its immediate 
neighborhood, and that the sewage of the hotels and dwelling houses 
is disposed of into or upon the ground in the immediate neighborhood 
of the buildings and at no great distance from the wells. In consequence, 
the ground water beneath the village is very badly polluted, and the 
wells, being among the outlets of this ground water, and perhaps in 
many cases the chief outlets, have a tendency to draw the pollution in 
their direction. The water of the town supply shows less indications 
of pollution than the other sources, and it is probably a safe source from 
which to take water for drinking. 



108 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Tlie Board recommends that an adequate public water supply, which 
will furnish water of good quality from some unpolluted source, be in- 
troduced as soon as practicable into the village of Siasconset, and that 
further use of the polluted wells in that village be prevented. It is also 
recommended that a modern sewerage system be provided for the col- 
lection and proper disposal of the sewage and foul drainage from the 
thickly populated portions of the village. 

Newburtport. 

Nov. 7, 1912. 

To the Board of Health of the City of Newhuryport, Mass., Mr. William 

Thurston, Clerk. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on July 
20, 1912, a request for a report as to the quality of the city water, and 
in response to this request has caused a careful examination of the works 
to be made by one of its engineers and samples of the water collected 
from the different sources at various times since the receipt of the appli- 
cation to be analyzed. 

It appears that the water supplied to the city is pumped in part from 
the reservoir near the pumping station and in part from the small col- 
lecting reservoir in Jackman Eavine, known as the Jackman Basin. The 
water of the Jackman Basin is derived in part from the natural ground 
water of the region, but the major part of the supply comes from the 
Artichoke River, the water of which is pumped upon two natural filters 
located at the head of the ravine above the basin, whence it filters through 
the ground to the basin. The water of the Jackman Basin is low in 
bacteria and under present conditions is safe for drinking. This water 
contains, however, a larger quantity of organic matter than is found 
ordinarily in such waters, — a condition which is probably due to the 
presence of miscroscopic organisms and their growth in the water of the 
basin, which is exposed freely to the light. The presence of such organ- 
isms imparts to the water at times an objectionable taste and odor which 
could be prevented by covering the basin so as to exclude the light. 

The water of the main reservoir near the pumping station is derived 
largely from various springs and wells within its watershed, but a part 
of the yield is supplied by the water of the Artichoke River, which is 
supplied to filters in the natural soil within the watershed, whence it 
finds its way. into the reservoir. The water of several of the wells con- 
tains an excessive quantity of iron, much of which precipitates, however, 
owing to the exposure of the water to air in the reservoir. The water of 
this reservoir contains few bacteria, but microscopic organisms grow in 
the water in considerable numbers, giving it, like that of Jackman Basin, 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 109 

a noticeable taste and odor. Examinations of the various tributary wells 
and springs show that the number of bacteria present in all of them is 
low, the highest numbers being found in the collecting ditch which 
enters at the northwest end of the reservoir, which evidently receives 
surface water at times from neighboring lands used for pasturage. 

The results of the examination as a whole show that the water sup- 
plied to Newburyport at the present time is safe for drinking, but its 
quality is affected at times by the presence of microscopic organisms in 
the open basins which impart to the water an objectionable taste and 
odor. Objection from this cause can be prevented by covering the Jack- 
man Basin and by providing a suitable covered basin and making changes 
in the connections at the pumping station so that the water of the wells 
and springs, excepting those which are affected by an excess of iron, and 
the filtered water may be supplied to the city without mingling with the 
water in the open basin, keeping the latter source for use only in cases of 
emergency. With these changes, water of good quality can be supplied 
to the city at all times from your present sources. 

The Board has also considered the capacity of your present sources 
of supply and finds that the yield at the present time is but little more 
than sufficient for the present requirements of the city. As there appears 
to be no available source from which a considerable additional supply 
for the city could be readily obtained in case of need, it is important, 
in the opinion of the Board, that measures be taken without delay to 
secure an additional source of supply to prevent danger of a serious 
shortage of water should another very dry season occur. 

It appears from the records of the quantity of water pumped for the 
supply of the city that the quantity used has increased very rapidly in 
recent years, the consumption per person having increased nearly 40 
per cent, in the five years from 1907 to 1911, an increase of more than 
350,000 gallons per day in five years. It does not appear that the popu- 
lation has increased materially in this period or that any large quantity 
of water is used for manufacturing or other extraordinary purposes, and 
it is evident that the consumption of water in the city is excessive and 
unnecessary. It also appears that very few of the services are metered, 
and under these conditions it is probable that much water is wasted. 

It is possible that much loss of water is caused by leakage from the 
water pipes, but, in view of the fact that very few of the services in the 
city are metered, it is likely that much water is wasted through leaky 
fixtures and in other ways which could be saved if all services were 
metered. Experience in many other cities and towns in this State has 
shown that by metering the services it has been practicable to reduce 
greatly the consumption of water, and it is probable that if meters were 



no STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

applied to all of the services in the city of Newburyport the consumption 
of water could be materially reduced. 

The Board recommends that meters be installed upon all services at the 
earliest practicable time. It is further recommended that an examina- 
tion be made of the water-pipe system in the city for the discovery of 
leaks, and if serious leakage is found that measures be taken to prevent 
large losses of water in this way. Unless it is found practicable to 
reduce the consumption of water very considerably by the measures 
suggested, investigations should be begun at once to determine the best 
practicable plan of increasing materially the water supply of the city 
and providing an adequate quantity of water for all purposes in the 
driest years. 

NoKTH Adams. 

Sept. 5, 1912. 

To the Commissioner of Public Works, North Adams, Mass. 

Deae Sir: — In response to your request of Aug. 15, 1912, for advice 
as to the cause of a fishy taste and odor in the water of the North Adams 
water supply, the Board has caused the reservoirs to be examined and 
samples of their waters to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the objectionable taste and odor 
is undoubtedly due to the presence of the organism Uroglena in the 
waters of the Notch Brook system, the organism being present in con- 
siderable numbers in the Middle Eeservoir, so called. This organism 
contains a minute quantity of oil which at certain stages of growth or 
decay is released in the water and produces the fishy and oily odor which 
usually accompanies its presence in water. The cause of the appearance 
and growth of Uroglena in the water of ponds and reservoirs is not 
known, nor has any satisfactory method been discovered for removing 
this organism or the objectionable taste and odor it produces, except by 
efficient filtration. 

The use of water containing this organism for drinking or domestic 
purposes is not Imown to be injurious to health. It is probable that the 
organism will disappear within a short time, and if it is possible in the 
meantime to discontinue the use of the Middle Eeservoir, it is likely that 
the trouble can be avoided. 

North Andover. 
Under the authority of section 113 of chapter 75 of the Eevised 
Laws, rules and regulations were made by the Board on July 11, 1912, 
for preventing the pollution and securing the sanitary protection of the 
waters of Great Pond and its tributaries, used by the town of North 
Andover as a source of water supply. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. Ill 

Oct. 3, 1912. 
To the Board of Public Works, North Andover, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — Your petition, received Sept. 9, 1012, for a modifica- 
tion of Eule 14 of the rules and regulations recently adopted by this 
Board for the sanitary protection of the waters of Great Pond has been 
considered by the State Board of Health, but the Board is unable to find 
from the information now available that the local conditions differ ma- 
terially from those affecting other water supplies protected by similar 
rules, and can see no present necessity for modifying the rules as already 
adopted. 

The Board is prepared to consider any specific cases of pollution or 
danger of pollution to which you may call attention and advise you as 
to methods of prevention. If such cases appear to make necessary a 
modification of the rules already adopted, such modifications as the 
circumstances seem to make necessary can then be made in the rules 
already adopted. 

Palmer (Knox Hill Speings). 

Feb. 1, 1912. 
To the Board of Health, Palmer, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
water of the Knox Hill Spi'ings, so called, which is used for domestic 
purposes by several families in Palmer, the Board has caused the springs 
and their surroundings to be examined and samples of the water to be 
analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the water is naturally of good 
quality for drinking, and the chief possible danger of pollution at the 
present time is a vault located about 75 feet southeast of the springs. If 
this vault is removed, and at the same time the springs are walled up 
and covered so as to prevent the entrance of surface water, it is probable 
that the springs will continue to yield water of good quality for drinking 
and domestic purposes. 

An examination of this water has also been made to determine the 
quantity of lead taken up from the lead pipe through which it is sup- 
plied to consumers. The results indicate that in ordinary use the 
quantity of lead in the water is somewhat less than the minimum 
quantity that has been known to cause lead poisoning; but a sample 
taken after the water had been standing shows the presence of a quantity 
of lead which may be sufficiently large to cause lead poisoning with con- 
tinued nse. It is important, under the circumstances, that the water 
should be allowed to run freely before being drawn for drinking, and 
it would be advisable to replace the lead pipes with pipes of some other 



112 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

material which would not be likely, if acted on by the water, to cause 
injury to health. Pipes of tin, or of lead or iron lined with tin, when 
properly made, or of iron lined with cement can be used with safety. 

Peabody. 

July 11, 1912. 

To the Commission of Public WorTcs, Peabody, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health received from you on 

June 6, 1912, the following application relative to taking certain parcels 

of land containing sources of water supply which it is proposed to use 

for the town of Peabody, under the provisions of chapter 501 of the 

Acts of the year 1912: — 

The Conunission of Public Works of the town of Peabody, under authority 
granted it by a recent act of the Legislature, proposes to take certain parcels 
of land in the town of Peabody for the purpose of developing a ground 
water supply, and would respectfully ask the approval of your Honorable 
Board to said taking. The land to be so taken consists of three parcels as 
shown on accompanying plan, bounded and described as follows : — 

Parcel " A." — Beginning at a point on the northerly side of the right of 
way of the South Beading Branch of the Boston & Maine E.E. 1,377 feet west- 
erly from the west side of Town Farm Eoad; thence running north 80° 49' 
west, 1,278.3 along said right of way to a point; thence turning and running 
north 28° 03' west, 685.9 feet to the southerly shore of Cedar Pond; thence in 
a northeasterly direction along shore of Cedar Pond 405 feet to the outlet known 
as Goldthwaite Brook; thence along southerly bank of said brook in a south- 
easterly direction 1,686 feet to place of beginning; containing 16.4 acres. 

Parcel " B." — Beginning at a point on the southerly side of right of way 
of South Beading Branch of the Boston & Maine B.B. at junction of north- 
westerly comer of land of E. W. Pulsifer and land of P. J. Murphy; thence 
running south 28° 03' west, 411.5 feet to land of Samuel Bichings; thence by 
land of said Bichings south 61° 57' west, 99 feet to a point; thence south 
28° 03' east, 460 feet to northerly side of Lynnfield Street; thence along Lynn- 
field Street in a southwesterly direction 40'; thence north 28° 03' west, 460 feet; 
thence north 16° 57' east, 110 feet; thence north 28° 03' west, 350 feet to south- 
erly side of right of way of South Beading Branch of the Boston & Maine B.B.; 
thence south 80° 49' west, 50.3 feet to place of beginning; containing 0.90 acres. 

This parcel is to be used for an entrance to parcel " A " from highway. 

Parcel "C." — Beginning at a stone bound on property line of Town of 
Peabody and P. J. Murphy, 455.5 feet northwesterly from junction of said lands 
and northerly side of right of way of South Beading Branch of the Boston 
& Maine B.B.; thence south 53° 00' east, 113 feet to a point; thence south 84° 05' 
west, 790 feet to northerly bank of Goldthwaite Brook; thence northerly along 
northerly bank of said brook 60 feet to a point; thence north 84° 05' east 720 
feet to place of beginning; containing 0.87 acres. 

Eeserving to the grantor all rights to the surface of the land above described 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 113 

in Parcel " C ", excepting that necessary for the construction, care, renewal 
and maintenance of an electric power line through and above said premises by 
the Inhabitants of the Town of Peabody. 

The commission wishes to begin the installation of a pumping station and 
power lines as soon as possible and an early reply would be gi'eatly appre- 
ciated. 

The aiDplication is accompanied by a plan showing the location of the 
lands which it is proposed to take for the purpose of securing sources 
of water supply, entitled " Plan of Proposed Taking of Land by Town 
of Peabody for Ground Water Supply. Scale — 1 in. = 400 ft. June, 
1913. Chas. A. Leary, Engineer."' 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its en- 
gineers and has considered the application and plan presented and the 
results of numerous analyses of the water of the wells located on these 
lands which are now being used as sources of water supply for the town 
of Peabody, the water being pumped either into Suntaug Lake or Spring 
Pond. The results of these analyses show that the water is somewhat 
turbid and colored and contains considerably more organic matter and 
iron than are found in good well waters ; but there appear to be no 
sources of pollution in the neighborhood of the wells, and the intro- 
duction of this water into Suntaug Lake and Spring Pond does not thus 
far appear to have had a seriously unfavorable effect upon the quality 
of the water supplied to the town from those sources. 

The quantity of organic matter and iron present in the well water has 
shown no tendency to increase very materially, though the free ammonia 
is somewhat higher in the recent than in the earlier samples. It is 
probable that the organic matter and iron found in the well water come 
largely from a few of the wells, and by cutting off the wells which 
furnish the water of poorer quality it is probable that a large quantity 
of water can be obtained from the ground in this locality which will 
not be unsatisfactory for the water supply of Peabody after being 
mingled with the waters of Suntaug Lake or Spring Pond. 

It is possible that the introduction of large quantities of ground water 
into Suntaug Lake and Spring Pond will have a tendency to increase 
organic growths in those sources, and that in consequence the water will 
be affected more notably than heretofore by objectionable tastes and 
odors. If serious objection should arise from this cause, the water of 
the wells could be mingled with fhe waters of the other sources by dis- 
charging it into the reservoir near the pumping station, and if the wells 
containing objectionably high quantities of organic matter and iron are 
eliminated, the water could be supplied directly to the town. 



114 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The Board approves the taking of a water supply for the town of 
Peabody from the lands described in the application quoted above and 
shown upon the plan submitted therewith, with the recommendation 
that changes be made in the wells now used so as to eliminate those 
which supply water of poor quality. 

Sept. 5, 1912, 

To Mr. George A. Clifford, Chairman, Committee' on Question of Water 

Pollution, Peabody, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health received from you on July 
2, 1912, the following application for advice as to the desirability of 
extending the sewerage system and water works of the town in the 
neighborhood of the present sources of water supply, and as to the best 
plan of protecting these sources from pollution : — 

The committee appointed to consider the question of water pohution respect- 
fully (request) your advice in regard to pollution from that section known 
as Overlea and your advice in relation to extension of water service and 
sewer service in that district, taking into consideration the large cost on ac- 
count of ledge and very small fall of sewer on Lynn Street; also your recom- 
mendation as to purchase of land on Overlea Hill and Newhall Hill on the 
northerly side of Spring Pond Road; also in regard to stable at ice house on 
Lynn Street at Brown's Pond. 

Subsequently, at the request of the Board, further information was 
presented including estimates of the probable cost of the proposed works 
and the valuation of the land involved. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined and has considered 
your application and the information submitted. It appears that the 
Overlea district, so called, is located between Spring and Brown's ponds, 
south of Spring Pond Eoad, and that about one-half of this district is 
within the watershed of Spring Pond and the remainder in that of 
Brown's Pond. Most of the dwelling houses thus far constructed in 
this region are situated on a high, rocky knoll, part of which drains 
directly toward Brown's Pond and the remainder toward Spring Pond 
and toward a small tributary which enters that pond near its southerly 
end. 

It is understood that estimates of the cost of water pipes and sewers 
for the portion of this district within the limits of Peabody indicate that 
the cost of these necessary sanitary conveniences would nearly, if not 
quite, equal the probable value of the lands and houses within the 
portion of the town of Peabody comprised in this district. The town 
of Peabody now owns practically all of the watershed along the easterly 
and southerly sides of the pond and a narrow strip of land along a 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 115 

portion of the westerlj'- shore, and controls considerably more than one- 
half of the total length of the shores of the pond. The portion of the 
area of Overlea lying within the watershed of Spring Pond contains 
already some thirty houses, drainage and sewage from which under 
present conditions doubtless find their way more or less directly into 
one of the tributaries and thence into the pond. If a water supply 
and sewerage system should be provided i^ this region very probably 
the population would increase decidedly, and the circumstances are such 
that this territory would continue to be a menace to the purity of the 
water of Spring Pond. 

In view of the large area of land already acquired by the town within 
the watershed of Spring Pond, and the menace to the purity of the water 
involved in the rapid growth of population that is likely to take place 
in Overlea and the region about it, should water supply and sewerage 
facilities be provided in that section, the Board is of the opinion that 
it is very important for the town to acquire as soon as practicable all 
of the lands and houses in Overlea from which drainage flows toward 
the pond or any of its tributaries. It is also advisable, in the opinion 
of the Board, for the town to acquire the remaining area of watershed 
tributary to the pond in the valley of the brook near Spring Pond 
Eoad, together with areas within the watershed farther north, since these 
lands can doubtless be acquired at less expense at the present time than 
if they are allowed to become occupied by dwellings. While the cost 
of acquiring the lands and buildings as herein recommended will be 
large, it is essential that they be secured if the town is to continue to 
protect adequately the purity of the water of Spring Pond. 

An examination of the ice houses on the westerly shore of Spring Pond 
shows that there are no sanitary conveniences connected therewith, and 
that polluting matters are deposited upon the ground in such close 
proximity to the shore line of the pond that at times of heavy rain they 
are evidently washed into the water. 

While there appears to the Board no doubt as to the advisability of 
securing control of the watershed of Spring Pond and removing the 
buildings therefrom and preventing its further occupation if the town 
is to continue to use that pond as a source of domestic water supply, the 
circumstances appear to be somewhat different in the case of Brown's 
Pond. The watershed of the latter source contains already a large and 
rapidly growing population, and the cost of acquiring a sufficient area 
of land within this watershed for the adequate protection of the purity 
of the water seems likely to be much greater than in the case of Spring 
Pond. Brown's Pond is of much less importance as a storage reservoir 
than Spring Pond, and the town has in addition a large available 



116 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

storage in Suntaug Lake. In view of the circumstances, it does not 
appear to the Board advisable to attempt to protect further the water- 
shed of Brown's Pond, and if it shall be found necessary to use it in the 
future for a public water supply reliance must be placed upon adequate 
filtration. 

In view of the fact that a large portion of the water supplied from 
public works in the town of Peabody is used for manufacturing purposes, 
it is very probable that the water of Brown's Pond can be piped sepa- 
rately from that of the other sources and sold by the town for manu- 
facturing purposes only. Water can be delivered for this purpose under 
much lower pressure than is necessary when supplied from the town 
mains, and its use for this purpose, while diminishing the amount avail- 
able in the town's sources of supply, will also diminish to practically 
the same extent the amount drawn from the town's mains for manu- 
facturing purposes. 

Under the authority of section 113 of chapter 75 of the Eevised Laws, 
rules and regulations were made by the Board on July 11, 1912, for 
preventing the pollution and securing the sanitary protection of the 
waters of Suntaug Lake and its tributaries, used by the town of Peabody 
as a source of water supply. 

Salem (Nev7 Englatstd Live Stock Company). 

Dec. 5, 1912. 

To the Board of Health, Salem, Mass., Mr. W. 0. Safford, Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Nov. 15, 1912, for 
an examination of the water of a well located on the property of the 
New England Live Stock Company near Highland Avenue, and advice as 
to its quality, the State Board of Health has caused the well and its 
surroundings to be examined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the analysis show that the water of the well contains an 
excessive quantity of iron and a much larger amount of organic matter 
than is found in good well waters. The number of bacteria present was 
also high. 

The well is located within about 30 feet of a small pond, and it is 
probable that the excess of iron and organic matter in the water is 
due largely to the imperfect filtration of water passing from the pond 
through the ground to the well. The pond is exposed to pollution by 
foul drainage from neighboring buildings, and it is probable also that 
some of the foul drainage from these buildings finds its way to the well 
after being more or less completely purified in its passage through the 
ground. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 117 

The condition of the water of the well at the present time is objec- 
tionable for many domestic uses on account of the excessive amount of 
iron it contains, and the well is liable to more serious pollution at any 
time from the buildings in its neighborhood. 

Under the circumstances, the water of this well should not be used 
for drinking by men or animals or for any purpose where it may come 
in contact w^ith food or utensils used in connection therewith. 



Shaeon. 

Oct. 3, 1912. 
To the Board of Water Commissioners, Sharon, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health has considered your ap- 
plication for advice as to the water supply of the town of Sharon, as 
outlined in your petition which is as follows : — 

Pursuant to the provisions of section 117 of chapter 75 of the Revised 
Laws of Massachusetts, the Board of Water Commissioners of the town of 
Sharon, respectfully ask your advice, in addition to that heretofore given, 
as to the most appropriate sources of additional water supply, and the best 
method of assuring its purity, with reference to existing and future needs of 
the town of Sharon. 

In your letter to the committee on water supply under date of Feb. 11, 
1907, permission was given to the town to take water from driven wells in 
the locality in which tests had been made. 

The land upon which these wells were driven was part of a taking by the 
town of Sharon, through its Board of Water Commissioners, of 213 acres of 
land on June 26, 1905. 

The legality of this taking was questioned and was taken to the Supreme 
Court for detennination, and it was decided that the taking was illegal upon 
the gi-ound that the consent of the State Board of Health had not been first 
obtained as required by section 2 of chapter 91 of the Acts of the year 1905. 
The court further stated in addition that whether such consent had been 
obtained or not, the taking was illegal, the town never having acquired by 
purchase or otherwise the waters of Beaver Hole Meadow Brook, as author- 
ized by Statutes of 1883, chapter 177. (Dorr v. Inhabitants of Sharon, 198 
Mass. 240.) 

In consequence of this decision no further steps have been taken by the 
town toward increasing or protecting its water supply. It has also been 
ascertained that by Statutes of 1885, chapter 95, the town of Canton has the 
right to take the waters of Beaver Hole Meadow Brook for the purposes of a 
water supply. 

The Board of Water Commissioners of the town now desire to make a 
formal taking of the waters of Beaver Hole Meadow Brook and springs 
adjacent and tributary thereto, in compliance with the provisions of chapter 



118 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

177 of the Acts of 1883 mentioned above, and also lands, rights of way and 
easements necessary for holding and preserving such water; and further, to 
take such area of land upon which the wells referred to in the letter of Feb. 
11, 1907, are located as may be necessary to protect said wells and to provide 
access to and from the same, and for the laying of pipes for the purpose of 
connecting them with the present water system. 

We believe that both these purposes can be accomplished under chapter 91 
of the Acts of the year 1905, and that the provisions of chapter 499 of the 
year 1908, requiring a formal hearing by your Board after notice given, do 
not apply. 

Your plans, in brief, are to take the waters of Beaver Hole Meadow 
Brook and springs adjacent and tributary thereto, and to take certain 
lands in which wells referred to in a communication of this Board on 
Feb. 11, 1907, are located, so far as it may be necessary to protect the 
purity of the water of these wells, provide access to and from the same, 
and allow for the laying of pipes to connect them with the present water 
supply system. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined and has considered 
your petition and the inform^ation available as to the present condition 
of the water supply of the town. 

Regarding the taking of Beaver Hole Meadow Brook for the water 
supply of the town of Sharon, the Board finds that the brook is exposed 
to such serious danger of pollution by sewage that it is an unsafe source 
from which to take water directly for domestic purposes. The Board 
is unable to advise the town to take water from this stream for that 
purpose. 

The best practicable plan of increasing the water supply of Sharon, 
in the opinion of the Board, will be to take water from the ground in 
the valley of Beaver Hole Meadow Brook above the present wells, as 
recommended in the communication of Feb. 11, 1907, the recent exami- 
nation having shown that no material change in the conditions has taken 
place since that advice was given. If, as appears to be the case, the 
town of Sharon has no authority to take or acquire by purchase or other- 
wise these wells and sufficient land about them to protect their purity, it 
will be advisable for the town to appeal to the Legislature for such addi- 
tional authority as may be necessary to enable the town to secure for 
its inhabitants an adequate supply of good water for all purposes. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 119 



Shkewsbury. 

Oct. 7, 1912. 

To the Committee on Water Supply of the Town of Shrewsbury, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of Aug. 28, 1912, for 
an examination of certain localities in which test wells have been driven 
with a view to obtaining a water supply for the town of Shrewsbury, the 
State Board of Health has caused the localities to be examined by one 
of its engineers and samples of water from the test wells to be analyzed. 

At the location near Golden Hill, at the head of Hopp Brook and 
close to the village, it appears that two test wells have been driven to a 
depth of about 20 feet. In both cases these wells penetrated coarse 
gravel from which water could be pumped quite freely. The watershed 
draining toward these wells is quite limited and includes a section of the 
village, and the results of an analysis show that the water has at some 
time been considerably polluted and not subsequently thoroughly purified 
in its passage through the ground before entering the well. In the 
opinion of the Board it is unlikely that water of good quality for domes- 
tic purposes in sufficient quantity for the supply of the village could be 
obtained from wells in this location. 

Tests have also been made near School Street, about a mile and a 
quarter east of the village, and in Slocum's Meadows, so called, about a 
mile and a half west of the village. At the School Street location it 
appears that three tests were made and that gravel was encountered in 
one of the wells which yielded water in fair quantity. The results of 
an analysis of the water show that while slightly affected by pollution, 
doubtless from a portion of the village which lies within this watershed, 
the water would probably be of good quality for domestic purposes. The 
wells, however, are quite shallow, and it is very doubtful whether an 
adequate supply of water could be obtained in this locality. 

A sample of water from the well in Slocum's Meadows west of the 
village indicates that the water in this locality is of very good quality 
for domestic purposes. The test well from which this sample was col- 
lected penetrated gravel from which water could be pumped quite freely, 
and the indications are more favorable for obtaining an adequate sup- 
ply of water for the town at this locality than from any of the others 
mentioned. The Board recommends that further tests be made in this 
valley to determine the practicability of obtaining there an adequate 
supply of good water for all the requirements of the village. When the 
results of further investigations are available the Board will give you 
further advice in the matter if you so request. 



120 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Spencer, 

Mat 2, 1912. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners of the Town of Spencer, Messrs. 
Alfred C. Beaulac, Dexter Bullaed and Erastus J. Starr. 
Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
April 20, 1912, the following petition relative to the use of Whittemore, 
or Moose, Pond in the town of Spencer as a source of water supply for 
the town in case of emergency : — 

Acting under authority of chapter 361 of the Acts of 1902, we hereby 
petition your Honorable Board that you approve the taking of the water 
from the pond known as Whittemore or Moose Pond, situated in said town 
of Spencer, as a proper source of water supply, in case of an emergency 
arising from a leak in the main pipe leading from Shaw Pond, which is the 
source of supply for the town of Spencer. 

The town has a pumping station near the upper end of the said pond, and 
it has only had to use it once since it was installed and then only about thirty- 
six hours, while a break was repaired in main pipe. 

From a recent examination of the pond and its surroundings made 
by direction of the Board it appears that the conditions remain prac- 
tically the same as in 1910, when, in response to a similar petition rela- 
tive to the use of AVhittemore Pond as a temporary source of water 
supply, the Board replied as follows : — 

The conditions affecting the quality of the water from Whittemore Pond 
do not appear to have changed materially since your previous petition for the 
use of this pond as a temporary source of water supply in 1905. Most of 
the buildings on the watershed of the pond are located at considerable dis- 
tances from its shores and its tributaries, and the outbuildings formerly situ- 
ated near the shore of the pond have been removed; but a barn near the 
highway at the northwesterly end of the pond is so situated that drainage 
from it pollutes the water. It will not be difficult to prevent pollution of the 
pond from most of the buildings now on the watershed, but it is desirable 
for the town to construct a sewer in Park Street and secure the connection 
with the sewers of all buildings on the streets near the upper end of the pond, 
so far as practicable. Before using the water all of the buildings within the 
watershed should be inspected and pollution of the pond from any of these 
places prevented. 

With the suggestions herein contained for preventing the pollution of its 
waters, the Board approves the use of Whittemore Pond as a temporary 
source of water supply for the town of Spencer under the provisions of law 
relating to temporary water supplies. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 121 

It appears that the town has already constructed a pumping station 
and pumping machinery and made connection with the town mains, and 
has used water from the pond for a short time in a previous emergency. 
It appears to the Board essential that, while this connection is main- 
tained and likely to be used at any time, the danger of the pollution of 
the pond sliould be prevented, and the Board advises that the recom- 
mendations relative to protecting the purity of the water of this pond 
contained in the reply of the Board quoted above be carried out without 
delay. 

With these recommendations carried out the Board approves the use 
of Whittemore, or Moose, Pond as a temporary source of water supply 
for the town of Spencer. 

Springfield. 

Sept. 5, 1912. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners of the City of Springfield. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Sept. 5, 1012, a draft of rules and regulations for the sanitary protection 
of the watershed of the water supply of the city of Springfield during 
the construction of the Berkshire Street Eailway, these rules and regu- 
lations being submitted under agreemient entered into before the rail- 
road commissioners and referred to in a decree of said commission, as 
follows : — . 

And it further appearing that said company has agreed that such provisions 
for sanitary regulations as niay be made by the water department of the city 
of Springfield, and approved by the State Board of Health, shall be observed 
and conformed to by said company during the construction of said railway 
for the protection of the Little River watershed belonging to the water system 
of the city of Springfield, under the provisions of chapter 317 of the Acts of 
1906. 

The Board is informed that the work of constructing the railway 
into the watershed of the Springfield water supply has already been 
begun. 

The Board has considered the draft of regulations presented as well 
as practicable within the time available and approves them, subject to 
amendment after further examination. They should be amended by in- 
serting after the word " camps " at the end of the first paragraph of 
section 3 the words, " but camps placed outside the watershed shall 
not be located on the watershed of any other water supply." A draft of 
the rules and regulations, as lamended and approved, is appended 
hereto : — • 



122 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Sanitary Regulations for the Protection of the Watershed of the 
City of Springfield during the Construction of the Berkshire 
Street Railway, as approved by the State Board of Health on Sept, 
5, 1912, under the Provisions of Chapter 317 of the Acts of the 
Year 1906. 
Section 1. The Berkshire Street Railway Company, its contractors and 
employees, shall prevent nuisances in and about aU camps and works; shall 
protect water courses, reservoirs, and all sources of water supply from pollu- 
tion, contamination or interference, and safegnard the public health as may 
be directed from time to time by the constituted authorities of the State and 
city. Said company shall summarily dismiss, or cause to be dismissed, and 
not again engage except with the written consent of the engineer, any em- 
ployee who violates this section. 

Section 2. The Board of Water Commissioners of the city of Springfield 
shall have the right, in order to determine whether the requirements as to 
sanitary matters are being complied with, to enter and inspect any camp or 
building or any part of the works, and to cause any employees to be examined 
physically or medically or treated; also to inspect the drinking water and 
food supplied to the employees. The sanitary precautions, the care of the 
employees, the camps and all territory occupied by the company or its con- 
tractors, shall at all times be satisf aetoi-y to the engineer or other authorized 
representative of the water department. Said company shall promptly and 
fully, and in every particular, comply with all orders and regulations in re- 
gard to these matters, including all sanitary and medical rules and regulations 
which may have been or may be promulgated from time to time. And to this 
end and to properly preserve the peace, the Board of Water Commissioners 
shall have the right of access to the camps and quarters of the company or 
its contractors. 

Section 3. No camps shall be located on the watershed of the city of 
Springfield, if suitable sites are existent off the watershed which could be 
made available for such camps, but camps placed outside the watershed shall 
not be located on the watershed of any other water supply. Any camp 
located on the watershed can only be so located after its approval by the 
engineer of the Board of Water Commissioners of the city of Springfield, 
and camps shall, if ordered, be enclosed by barbed wire or other approved 
fences not less than 10 feet high, with not more than two entrances. Each 
camp and the grounds surrounding it in all directions shall be thoroughly 
illuminated by high power acceptable lights. This illumination shall be main- 
tained from sundown to sunrise every night during the occupation of the 
camp, unless otherwise ordered. Employees shall, so far as practicable, be 
required to remain within camp when not at work. 

Section 4. Building-s for the sanitary necessities of all persons employed 
on the work, beginning with the first men employed to build camps or for 
other preliminary operations, shall be constructed and maintained by the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 123 

company, or its representatives, in the number, manner and places ordered. 
All persons connected with the works shall be obliged to use these conveniences 
under penalty of discharge. Unless otherwise directed, the sanitaries shall 
be provided with water-tight removable receptacles of suitable capacity. 
These receptacles, if used, shall not be allowed to overflow, but shall be re- 
moved, without spilling, at required intervals, their contents at once treated 
as directed, and then promptly taken to a designated place outside the water- 
shed, and there disposed of as ordered. In case camps are located on the 
watershed, incinerators of satisfactory design shall be provided, which shall 
satisfactorily consume all night soil and other camp refuse. Said company 
shall provide a sufficient nimiber of acceptable attendants to keep all sani- 
taries in satisfactory condition and compel employees to use them. 

Section 5. Said company shall retain the services of acceptable qualified 
medical practitioners, to the number ordered, who shall have the care of the 
employees of the company or its contractors, shall inspect their dwellings, the 
stables and the sanitaries as often as required, and shall supply medical at- 
tendance and medicines to the employees whenever needed. Whenever prac- 
ticable, an employee having a communicable disease shall be removed, when 
and as directed, to a hospital outside the watershed. The medical supervision 
of the company over its employees shall extend to the physical and medical 
examination of all applicants for employment, in order to prevent persons 
having communicable diseases from becoming connected with the work, and 
the company or its contractors shall employ only persons shown by such 
examination to be free from communicable diseases. "Whenever, in the opinion 
of the engineer, it is necessary for the protection of the public health or the 
health of the employees, the company shall remove or cause to be removed 
any employee from the work to a hospital, or shall remove permanently from 
the work or any camp any employee whose presence is believed to endanger 
the health of other persons. 

Section 6. Once each week, or more frequently if required, the company 
shall give the engineer, in such detail as may be prescribed from time to time, 
a written report signed by the physician in regular attendance, setting forth 
clearly the health conditions of the camp or camps and of the employees. 

Section 7. The water furnished by the company shall include a sufficient 
supply of drinking water of acceptable quality for all its employees, to be 
obtamed from approved sources. If any water supply for domestic uses 
should become contaminated, the company shall promptly provide a new 
supply from an approved source and abandon the contaminated supply, or 
shall provide works for purifying the contaminated water when and as 
ordered. 

Section 8. All wash water from kitchens, laundries and other places, and 
all drainage from stables, shall be conveyed by satisfactory means to places 
directed, where such drainage shall be treated by the means ordered so as to 
yield an acceptably innocuous effluent. 

Section 9. Drainage from camps and shelters and from other places yield- 



124 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ing water unfit for direct discharge into a reservoir or tributary thereof shall 
be conducted in tight drains or other approved conveyors to filters, septic 
tanks or other disposal plants of approved construction, at places designated, 
and treated as directed to produce an acceptable effluent. Such effluent shall 
be discharged only in the manner and at the place or places directed. All 
arrangements for drainage shall be sufficient to provide for all rain water 
falling within the camp, so that there wUl be no overflow from camps which 
shall at any time reach the water course of the watershed without purification. 

Section 10. Garbage, both liquid and solid, shall be promptly and satis- 
factorily removed from the buildings and immediately placed in approved 
tight receptacles of sufficient capacity for about one day's ordinary produc- 
tion. At least once in every twenty-four hours all such garbage shall be in- 
cinerated or otherwise thoroughly and satisfactorily disposed of in an ap- 
.proved manner. 

Section 11. Shelters and other conveniences for the worlanen within the 
watershed shall be provided with sanitaries for the use of all workmen, and 
other sanitaries shall also be provided near all points of work. The use of 
these must be insisted upon under penalty of discharge, and sufficient inspec- 
tors must be provided to see that sufficient sanitaries are provided and that 
all workmen use them at all times on the watershed. All night soil thus col- 
lected shall be in tight receptacles, and shall be disposed of at times and in 
manners heretofore provided or specified by the engineer of the water depart- 
ment. 

Section 12. The company shall build such disposal plants, sewers, drains 
and other structures, and shall do such other work, not herein particularly 
specified, as may be ordered for carrying out the intent of these regulations. 



Tewksbury (State Infirmaey). 

Aug. 14, 1912. 

To Dr. John H. Nichols, Superintendent, State Infirmary, Tewksbury, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health received from you on July 
25 a request for an analysis of a sample of water from a brook near the 
pumping station from which tlie water supply of the infirmary is taken 
and advice as to its use for drinking in connection with the supply now 
obtained from the tubular wells, and in response to this application has 
caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers and samples 
of the present and proposed sources of supply to be analyzed. 

It appears from the information furnished to the Board that the 
quantity of water used at the institution amounts, apparently, to some- 
what more than 400,000 gallons per day, and that the average quantity 
of water used in the year ending Nov. 30, 1911, amounted to 162 gal- 
lons per person per day. 

The driven wells from which the water supply was formerly obtained 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 125 

furnished for several years a soft water of excellent quality for domestic 
purposes, and the quantity supplied appears to have been ample for 
several years. Subsequently, the quantity supplied from the wells de- 
creased, and deep wells were sunk from which the main supply is now 
obtained. These wells furnish a water containing an excessive amount 
of iron, which is objectionable for some domestic purposes. The quantity 
of water which these sources are capable of supplying appears to be in- 
adequate for the supply of the institution under present conditions. 

Strongwater Brook, the source from which it is proposed to take a 
supplementary supply, passes near the pumping station, and above this 
point drains an area of about three and one-half square miles. An 
analysis of the water shows that it is very highly colored and contains a 
large quantity of organic matter, due probably to contact with vegetable 
matter in swamps. The watershed of this stream contains a considerable 
number of dwelling houses, barns and other buildings, and the water is 
exposed to danger of pollution by sewage. Under existing conditions 
the source is, in the opinion of the Board, an objectionable one from 
which to take water for domestic purposes, and if water from this brook 
is introduced for the supply of the institution in connection with the 
water of the wells as proposed, all Avater used for drinking should be 
boiled. 

The Board recommends that you make an investigation of the con- 
dition of the tubular wells from which the water supply of the insti- 
tution was formerly obtained, to determine whether or not it is prac- 
ticable, by putting them into proper condition, to secure an adequate 
supply of water for the institution which will be equal in quantity to 
the water formerly obtained from these sources. If it is found that the 
yield of the wells is insufficient after they are put into proper condition, 
an investigation should be made to determine whether it is practicable 
to extend the driven well system and secure a sufficient additional supply 
in that M^ay for all requirements. It may be found, as a result of 
further investigations, that the best practicable plan of securing an 
adequate ground-water supply for the institution will involve the employ- 
ment of some other form of collecting works than the system of tubular 
wells hitherto in use. The Board recommends that these investigations 
be made under the direction of an engineer of experience in such mat- 
ters, and that the work upon the tubular wells be done under a compe- 
tent well-driver. 

The use of water in the institution appears to be excessive, and the 
Board further recommends that an examination be made to ascertain 
whether or not large quantities of water are wasted or lost by leakage 
in the water supply system, and whether large quantities of water are 



126 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

used for wasliing and irrigation which might be supplied without ob- 
jection directly from Strongwater Brook. 

The Board will assist you in further investigations by making the 
necessary analyses of water, and will advise you as to the best plan of 
securing an adequate water supply for the institution when you have the 
results of further investigations to present. 

TOPSFIELD. 

Jan. 4, 1912. 

To the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Topsfield, Mr. A. T. Merrill, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health has considered your ap- 
plication for advice as to a proposed water supply for the town of Tops- 
field, to be taken from the Ipswich Eiver, Boston Brook and Fish Brook 
or any or either of them, the proposed sources being described as fol- 
lows : — 

It is deemed advisable to take water from the Ipswich River at a point 
near the residence of Mrs. Mary F. Webster and about one-half mile up the 
river from the Turnpike bridge in Topsfield, or, if this water is not suitable, 
to take a supply from Fish Brook at a point near the boundary line between 
Boxford and Topsfield on said brook; and as a part of the plan it is pro- 
posed to take an additional supply when necessary from Boston Brook in 
the town of Middleton at a point about two miles from its mouth. 

It is proposed to obtain a supply that can be used without filtering, and it 
is also proposed to make a small basin at the sources of supply in these 
brooks. 

The Board has caused the sources described to be examined by its 
engineer and samples of their waters to be analyzed. The Ipswich 
Eiver and Fish Brook would furnish an ample supply of water for 
Topsfield at all times, but it is doubtful whether enough water flows 
in Boston Brook in very dry periods to provide a sufficient supply for 
the requirements of Topsfield at such times. The waters of all of the 
sources mentioned are highly colored, and neither source is a desirable 
one from which to take water directly for the water supply of the town 
of Topsfield. 

There is no doubt that the most satisfactory plan of providing a 
public water supply for Topsfield will be to take water from the ground, 
if a supply of good ground water can be obtained at some place within 
reasonable distance of the main center of population. A general ex- 
amination of the territory in the neighborhood of the village shows that 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 127 

the conditions are very favorable for obtaining water from the ground in 
the valley of Pye Brook, a short distance above its junction with Howlett 
and Mile brooks, about a mile north of the center of the village. The 
conditions also appear to be favorable for obtaining water freely from 
the ground in the valley of Fish Brook, though the conditions in this 
valley are less favorable, judging from surface indications, than in 
the valley of Pye Brook. 

The Board recommends that before deciding upon a source of water 
supply you cause tests to be made with the view of obtaining a supply 
of good ground water sufficient for the requirements of the town at 
some place within a reasonable distance of the village, and the valley 
of Pye Brook, north of the village, appears to the Board the most 
favorable place in which to begin these tests. 

In the opinion of the Board it is important that, if rights are granted 
to any city or town to take water from the Ipswich Elver in or above the 
town of Topsfield or any of the tributaries of that river, such rights 
should be subject to a prior right of the town of Topsfield to take 
for the supply of that town and its inhabitants all the water necessary 
for domestic, mechanical and manufacturing purposes, the extinguish- 
ment of fires and the irrigation of lawns and crops. 

Wakefield. 

Jan. 19, 1912. 

To the Board of Water and Sewerage Commissioners, Wakefield, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — Eecent examinations of the water of Crystal Lake 
show that the numbers of organisms by which the water has been 
affected for many weeks have materially diminished, and the disagreeable 
taste and odor of the water have largely disappeared. It is probable 
that if the water were now turned on again gradually for the supply of 
the town, it would not be seriously objectionable on account of taste or 
odor while its condition remains as at present. As this pond is subject 
at intervals to considerable growths of organisms, which impart objec- 
tionable tastes and odors to the water, it is to be expected that troubles 
of this sort will occur again in the future. 

May 2, 1912. 
To Mr. Robert Philpot, Melrose, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of Jan. 29, 1912, for an 
investigation of the withholding by the Wakefield Water and Sewerage 
Board of a permit to cut ice on Crystal Lake in the town of Wakefield, 
the State Board of Health has examined the circumstances affecting 
the withholding of this permit and the conditions under which ice has 



128 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

been taken from this lake in former j'-ears and those which are likely 
to obtain in the near future. 

The use of Crystal Lake as a source of water supply for the town 
of Wakefield has caused large fluctuations in the level of its surface, 
especially in recent years, the lowest levels being reached ordinarily in 
the late fall or in the winter, and under these conditions it is frequently 
necessar_v. when ice is taken from the lake, that the cutting shall be 
done at points nearer the intake than in former years. Moreover, in 
order to utilize a larger part of the storage in the lake than former!}^, 
the intake pipe of the Wakefield Water Works has recently been extended 
farther toward the middle of the lake and nearer the field from which ice 
is taken. 

Under the circumstances there is considerable danger, in the opinion 
of tlie Board, that polluting matters which might enter the lake in the 
process of ice-cutting would find their way within a short time to the 
intake of the water works of the town, and it appears to the Board unsafe 
to continue the cutting of large quantities of ice from this source of 
water supply as lias been done in the past. 

The Board does not believe it will be in the interest of the public 
health to grant furtlier permits for the cutting of ice on this lake while 
the conditions under which it is used as a source of water supply con- 
tinue as at jaresent, and having investigated the circumstances of the 
withholding of the permit makes no order at present relative thereto. 



Waeeen (West WaeeeiN"). 

June 18, 1912. 
To the Warren Cotton Mills, Warren, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for advice as to a pro- 
posed water supply for the Warren Cotton Mills and tenements in West 
Warren, to be taken from a large well in the valley of Cheese Factory 
Brook about three and one-half miles from the village, the Board has 
caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers and samples 
of water from three test wells in the valley of the brook to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the water of the two upper of 
the three wells appears to be of good quality for domestic purposes. The 
water of the well located farthest down stream shows evidence of pollu- 
tion and contains an excessive quantity of iron and would probably be 
unsatisfaetorj' for domestic purposes. 

It is imderstood that the proposed large well is to be located near 
test well No. 1, the middle well of the group. This well is located about 
100 feet above the highway which crosses the brook in this neighborhood 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 129 

and about 80 feet from the southerly bank of the stream. The in- 
formation submitted to the Board shows that it was driven to a depth 
of 28 feet through 10.3 feet of mud at the surface and then through 
coarse sand, and that its yield, when pumped with a hand pump, was 
13 gallons per minute. 

It is not practicable, with the information available, to advise whether 
a sufficient quantity of water can be obtained from the ground in this 
locality for the supply of the mills and tenements, but, while water of 
poor quality was found in one of the test wells, the conditions appear 
to be generally quite favorable for obtaining water from the ground in 
considerable quantity in the neighborhood of the wells at the points far- 
ther up the stream, and it is likely, in the opinion of the Board, that if 
enough water cannot be obtained in the locality by the proposed large 
well, the supply can be increased by additional collecting works farther 
up the valley. 

It is desirable that, in planning to take water from the ground in the 
valley of this brook, the collecting well and any additional works that 
may be constructed there shall be located at a considerable distance from 
the brook, and that a location in or near deep deposits of mud or peat 
be avoided. The location of test well No. 1 is not a desirable one in 
which to construct the final works, both on account of the depth of peat 
and on account of the nearness of buildings on the opposite side of the 
brook, but a location a little farther up the stream would probably avoid 
objections from these causes. 

Should you decide to make further tests in order to determine more 
definitely the probable quantity and quality of ground water to be ob- 
tained in this valley, the Board will, upon application, make the neces- 
sary analyses of water and will give you further advice, if you so request. 

West Newbury (School foe Ixstruction of Militia Officers). 

May 25, 1912. 

To Mr, Charles C. Foster, Surgeon-General of Massachusetts, State House, 

Boston. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of May 20, 1912, for an 
examination of the water of a spring at the site of a proposed school 
for instruction of militia officers in West Newbury, the State Board of 
Health has caused the spring and its surroundings to be examined and 
a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The spring is located near a small brook near the southerly bank of 
the Merrimack Eiver and a short distance from the village of West 
Newbury. 



130 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The results of the analysis show that the water has at some time been 
considerably polluted but subsequently quite well purified in its passage 
through the ground before entering the spring, and though very hard, 
this water, in the condition in which it was found at the time this ex- 
amination was made, was probably safe for drinking. The cause of the 
pollution of the water is very probably the sewage discharged into the 
ground by dwelling houses in the village of West Newbury on ground 
sloping toward the spring. It is possible that water of better quality 
might be obtained from the ground half a mile or thereabouts southwest 
of the spring, where the ground water does not appear to be exposed to 
danger of pollution from the village. 

The Board recommends that if it shall be decided to use the water 
of this spring for drinking it be carefully walled up and covered so as 
to prevent danger of receiving pollution from the surface of the adjacent 
ground. 

West Springfield. 

Jan. 16, 1912. 

To the Special Water Committee, ^¥est Spring-field, Mass., Mr. Frank L. 

Worthy, Chairman. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation for advice as to further investigations relative to obtaining a water 
supply for the town of West Springfield, and has examined the results 
of the tests already made, especially the results of investigations as to 
the practicability of obtaining a water supply for the town from the 
valley of Pond Brook in the sand plains west of the Bear Hole Brook 
watershed from which your present supply is now drawn. 

It appears that the results of tests of the ground in the valley of Pond 
Brook, made by sinking wells beginning at a point about one mile north 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Eailroad and continuing 
southerly through the valley to a point south of the railroad and a short 
distance south of the Holyoke-Westfield highway, indicate that water can 
probably be obtained at various points along this stream, the most favor- 
able conditions being found at the lower end of the valley near the 
Holyoke and Westfield highway. 

Three test wells in this locality penetrated a deep stratum of porous 
soil from which water could be pumped very freely in large quantities 
with a hand pump, and analyses show that the water is of very good 
quality for all the purposes of a domestic water supply. 

In view of the rapid growth of the town and the increasing use of 
water, it is desirable in the selection of an additional water supply to 
secure, if practicable, a source which Avill yield enough water to meet the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 131 

needs of the town for a considerable time in the future. While the in- 
dications are very favorable for obtaining such a supply from the ground 
near Pond Brook, it is advisable, in the opinion of the Board, before 
deciding upon the use of water from that source, to make further tests 
by sinking a group of wells in the Pond Brook valley and pumping 
from them continuously for a period of two or three weeks at a rate of 
as much as 1,500,000 gallons per day. In connection with this test 
observations should be made of the height of the ground water in the 
region about the wells before the test is begun, and fluctuations in level 
should be carefully noted during and for some time after the completion 
of the test. With this information it will be practicable to determine 
whether a sufficient quantity of water can be obtained from the ground 
in the valley of Pond Brook for the water supply of West Springfield. 
It is probable that, if the results of this test should be satisfactory and 
the town should decide to take water from the valley of Pond Brook, the 
wells used in the test would serve as the permanent sources of supply. 

"WTien the results of this test are available an estimate of the cost of 
the necessary works for the water supply of West Springfield should 
be prepared for comparison with a revised estimate of the probable cost 
of works for developing a further supply from Bear Hole Brook to which 
you refer in your application. It is advisable, furthermore, in the 
opinion of the Board, that the practicability of obtaining a water supply 
from the Little Eiver works of the city of Springfield should also be 
considered, and if it is found practicable to obtain a water supply for 
the town from that source an estimate of the cost should be prepared for 
comparison with the probable cost of the development of Bear Hole 
Brook and of taking a supply from the valley of Pond Brook. 

The Board will assist you in further investigations in the valley of 
Pond Brook, if you so request, by making the necessary analyses of water, 
and will, upon application, give you further advice as to a water supply 
for the town when the results of further tests and investigations are 
available. 

Aug. 26, 1912. 

To the Board of Water Commissioners, West Spring'jield, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request of July 18 for an exam- 
ination of a piggery near Darby Brook Eeservoir, one of the sources of 
water supply of the town of West Springfield, and advice as to danger 
of contamination of the water supply therefrom, the Board has caused 
the locality to be examined by one of its engineers and has considered 
the information presented. 

It appears that the piggery is likely to be a large one and is to be 



132 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

used as a place for disposal of the garbage of the town. An examination 
of the locality shows that the piggery is very close to the watershed, 
and perhaps outside of its limits, but carts carrying offal to this location 
cross territory which drains toward the reservoir. If the carts are not 
tight, foul drainage from this roadway would find its way into the 
reservoir at times of heavy rain. 

It may be possible by changing the roadway, or by raising its level 
and providing dikes or drains, to prevent the danger of pollution of 
the reservoir in this way. If this were done and the piggery efficiently 
fenced so that animals could not escape to the neighborhood of the 
reservoir, it is probable that danger of direct pollution of the water could 
be prevented. 

The character and usual condition of places of this sort used for the 
disposal of town offal are such that its location so near the watershed of 
the reservoir is objectionable, there being some uncertainty whether the 
underground seepage from this piggery may not flow toward the reser- 
voir, and the Board recommends that a location be secured more remote 
from any of the sources of the town's water supply. 

Winchester. 

Oct. 3, 1912. 

To the Water and Sewer Board of the Town of Winchester, Mass. 

Gentlemen" : — At the meeting of the State Board of Health on 
Oct. 3, 1912, it was voted to amend Rules 13 and 14 of the rules and 
regulations adopted by this Board on April 1, 1909, for the sanitary 
protection of the water supply of the town of Winchester, so as to read 
as follows : — 

Rule 13. No person shall bathe in, and no person shall, unless pennitted 
by a written permit of the Metropolitan Park Commission, fish in, or send, 
drive ijr put any animal into, North Reservoir, so called, in the towns of 
Stoneham and Winchester, Middle Resei-voir, so called, in the towns of Stone- 
ham and Winchester and the city of Medford, or South Reservoir, so called, 
in the city of Medford, said reservoirs being used by the town of Winchester 
as sources of water supply. No person other than a member, oflficer, agent 
or employee of the Water and Sewer Board of the town of Winchester or of 
the Metropolitan Park Commission, or public officer whose duties may so 
require, shall, i;nless so pennitted by a written peraiit of the MetropoHtan 
Park Commission, enter or go, in any boat, skiff, raft or other contrivance, 
on or upon the water of either of said reservoirs, nor shall enter or go upon, 
or drive any animal upon, the ice of either of said reservoirs. 

Rule 14. No person shall enter upon North Resers^oir, so called, in the 
towns of Stoneham and Winchester, Middle Reservoir, so called, in the towns 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 133 

of Stoneham and "Winchester and the city of Medford, or South Resen'oir, 
so called, in the city of Medford, said reservoirs being used by the town of 
"Winchester as sources of water supply, for the purpose of cutting or taking 
ice, or cut or take ice from either of said reservoirs, without a written per- 
mit, signed by the Metropolitan Park Commission, stating the time and place 
for which such permission is given. 

The granting and withholding of permits required by Rules 13 and 14 is 
hereby delegated by the State Board of Health to the Metropolitan Park 
Commission. 



In addition to the foregoing, the Board has advised the following 
cities, towns and jDersons relative to spring waters, waters used for the 
supply of factories, j^ublic wells or wells used by a number of families; 
but as these matters are for the most part of minor importance, the com- 
munications of the Board in these cases have not been j^rinted. Copies 
of them are on file in the oflEice of the Board : — 

Adams, well of L. L. Brown Paper Company. 

Attleborough, springs at Attleborough Sanitarium. 

Auburn, wells at schools. 

Barre, well at Powder Mill Village. 

Boxborough, well of Simon B. Hagar. 

Brooldine, well of Mrs. Quimby. 

Chelmsford, well of "William P. Proctor Company (two). 

Chelmsford, well in North Chelmsford. 

Chicopee, well of Fisk Rubber Company. 

Dana, well at school. 

Douglas, well at Poor Farm. 

Foxborough, well at Children's Farm. 

Hadley, well of school in North Hadley. 

Hanover, well at school in "West Hanover. 

Hardwick, well at school. 

Harvard, town well. 

Han-ard, well of Hildreth Brothers. 

Hai-wich, town well and well at high school, 

Haverhill, spring of Joseph Lovely. 

Holyoke, well of Casper Ranger. 

Ipswich, well. 

Lee, well at school in South Lee. 

Lexington, spring of Jefferson L'nion Company. 

Ljnm, wells. 

Newburyport, well of Dodge Brothers, 

North Adams, wells of Berkshire Cotton Manufacturing Company, 

Northampton, spring. 

Peabody, King Philip Spring. 



134 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Petersham, well at Agricultural High School. 

Pittsfield, spring. 

Rehoboth, well on Eastman Farm. 

Royalston, well at school. 

Shirley, well at Industrial School for Boys. 

Southborough, well at Peters High School. 

Southborough, well of Cordaville Woolen Company. 

Southbridge, spring. 

Swampscott, spring on playground.' 

Swampseott, well. 

Taunton, well of Cobb, Bates & Yerxa. 

Templeton, well at Otter River. 

Tyngsborough, Pine Grove Spring. 

Walpole, well of F. W. Bird & Son. 

Waltham, well of American Watch Tool Company. 

Webster, well of A. J. Bates Company. 

Westport, well. 

Wilbraham, water supply of Wesleyan Academy. 

Wilmington, well of E. S. Lewis. 

Ice Supplies. 
The following is the substance of the action of the Board during the 
year in reply to applications for advice relative to ice supplies : — 

Agawam. 

Aug. 14, 1912. 

To the Board of Health, West Springfield, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of 
Middle Meadow Pond, so called, in the town of Agawam, and advice as 
to its use as a source of ice supply, the Board has caused the pond to be 
examined and a sample of ice from an ice house on the shore of the pond 
to be analyzed. 

The pond is formed by a small depression in the meadow and is 
apparently part of a former channel of the Westfield Eiver. The water 
which ordinarily enters it comes largely from springs in the surrounding 
soil, and it does not appear that the pond is exposed to danger of serious 
pollution from buildings in its neighborhood. It is evident, however, that 
at times of high flow, water from the Westfield River, which receives con- 
siderable sewage pollution, finds its way into this pond, and the character 
of the water is very probably quite different in the winter season from its 
condition at the time of the recent examination. 

An examination of a sample of ice from an ice house on the shore of 
the pond indicates that probably this ice can safely be used for domestic 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 135 

purposes provided all snow ice, including the first inch of clear ice that 
formed upon the pond, is removed before using, and all ice containing 
particles of foreign matter is rejected. 



Canton. 

Oct. 3, 1912. 

To the Board of Health, Canton, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of 
the waters supplying two ice ponds in Canton, and advice as to the use 
of these ponds as sources of ice supply for domestic purposes, the Board 
has caused the sources indicated to be examined and samples of water 
and of ice which appear to have been collected from these sources during 
the past winter to be analyzed. 

One of the sources in question is known as Dean's Pond, located off 
Sherman Street near Canton Junction. At the time this examination 
was made, the pond and the stream which feeds it were dry. The results 
of the analysis of a sample of ice apparently harvested from this pond 
during the past winter show that this ice is of good quality for domestic 
purposes. The brook which feeds this pond flows through a rather 
thickly settled region, but it is probable that ice of good quality for 
domestic purposes can be obtained from this pond by removing from the 
ice, before it is used, the first inch that forms upon the pond, including 
all snow ice which may have formed, and by rejecting all ice which may 
contain particles of foreign matter. 

Byam's Ice Pond, located in the northwesterly part of the town of 
Stoughton near the Canton boundary, appears to be fed in part by 
springs and in part by a small stream which receives little or no pollu- 
tion. A sample of ice apparently harvested from this pond during the 
past winter was found to consist in part of snow ice and in part of clear 
ice, which appears to be of good quality for domestic purposes. It is 
probable in any case that ice of satisfactory quality can be obtained from 
this pond by observing the same precautions as to the removal of snow 
ice and the upper inch of clear ice as recommended in the case of ice 
taken from Dean's Pond. It is also important that ice containing 
particles of foreign matter shall be rejected. 

If these recommendations are followed, ice from these sources may, in 
the opinion of the Board, be used with safety for domestic purposes. 



136 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Danvees. 

Nov. 22, 1912. 

To George K Kline, M.D., Superintendent, Danvers State Rospital, 

Hathorne, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of Oct. 31, 1912, for an 
examination of the ice pond used as a source of ice supply for the in- 
stitution, and advice as to danger of pollution by sink drainage from a 
neighboring estate, the State Board of Health has caused the locality to 
be examined and a sample of the water of the pond to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that a drain pipe apparently 
coming from a building near Nichols Street north of the pond discharges 
sink drainage upon ground sloping toward the pond in such a way that 
at times of rain this drainage would be carried directly into one of the 
feeders of the pond. 

An analysis of the water of the pond shows evidence of pollution, prob- 
ably caused largely by the drain in question. 

In the opinion of the Board the pond is not a safe source from which 
to take ice for domestic purposes while this pollution continues. 

It seems probable that, if by mutual agreement some arrangement 
can be made for extending the drain pipe, its outlet can be so located 
that any drainage therefrom which may find its way into the brook would 
enter below the pond, and danger of pollution of the pond could thus 
be prevented. 

Gardner. 

Sept. 28, 1912. 
To Mr. Charles E. Hilchey, Gardner, Mass. 

Dear Str : — In response to your request for an examination of Bailey 
Brook, and advice as to the proposed plan for taking ice from an 
artificial pond to be constructed on this brook above the highway leading 
from Gardner to Otter Eiver, the Board has caused the brook to be ex- 
amined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

From the results of the examination the Board is of the opinion 
that it would be practicable to obtain ice of good quality from a reser- 
voir on this brook at the point proposed, having a maximum depth of 
8 or 9 feet. 

It will be important to remove from the ice, before using, all snow ice, 
including the first inch of clear ice that forms upon the pond, and it 
will also be important to reject all ice containing particles of foreign 
matter. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 137 

If these suggestions are observed, it is probable, in the opinion of the 
Board, that ice of good quality for domestic purposes can be obtained 
from the proposed source. 

Hanover. 

Apeil 13, 1912. 
To the Board of Health, Hanover, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In accordance with your request of March 7, 1912, 
the State Board of Health has caused the pond near Mann's Corner, 
jSTorth Hanover, used as a source of ice supply, to be examined and 
samples of the water and ice to be analyzed. 

The results show that, while some improvement has been made in the 
conditions affecting the pollution of the pond from dwellings, barns and 
outbuildings on its watershed, the water still shows evidence of consid- 
erable pollution. 

The results of an analysis of a sample of the ice show that it contains 
a greater quantity of organic jnatter than is found in good ice, but the 
number of bacteria present in the clear ice was low, and it is probable 
that this ice might be used with safety for domestic purposes by the 
removal, before using, of all snow ice, including the first inch of clear 
ice which formed beneath the snow ice, and the rejection of all ice con- 
taining particles of foreign matter. 

Lexington. 

March 7, 1912. 
To the Board of Health, Lexington, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — In response to yoar request for an examination of the 
ice of Butterfield's Pond in the town of Lexington and advice as to its 
quality for domestic purposes, the Board has caused the pond to be 
examined and samples of the water and ice to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that tlie ice being harvested from 
this pond was about 13 inches in thickness, consisting of about 4 inches 
of snow ice and 9 inches of clear ice. 

The results of the analyses show that the clear ice contains more 
organic matter than is ordinarily found in good ice, but the number of 
bacteria present was small. The snow ice contains considerably more 
organic matter and a much larger number of bacteria. The only way, 
in the opinion of the Board, by which it is probable that ice can be 
obtained from this source which may be used with safety for domestic 
purposes will be by removing from the ice, before using, all snow ice, 
including the first inch of clear ice that formed upon the pond, and by 
rejecting all ice containing particles of foreign matter. 



138 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Milton. 

March 7, 1912. 

To the Board of Health of the Town of Milton. 

Gentleimen : — In accordance with your request for an examination of 
the water and ice of the ponds of Pope and Turner, situated near Central 
Avenue and Blue Hills Parkway, respectively, in Milton, and advice as to 
the quality of the ice for domestic purposes, the Board has caused the 
sources of supply to be examined and samples of the water and ice to 
be analyzed. 

The results of this examination are much the same as those of former 
examinations of these sources. They show that the clear ice, both of 
Turner's and Pope's ponds, while containing slightly more organic matter 
than is usually found in good ice, is nearly free from bacteria, while 
the snow ice, where present, contained a much greater number of bacteria 
than the clear ice. 

In the opinion of the Board ice from these sources may safely be used 
for domestic purposes provided the snow ice, including the first inch of 
clear ice that forms upon the pond, is removed before using, and that 
all pieces of ice containing particles of foreign matter are rejected. The 
results of the analyses of the water and ice are appended hereto. 

PiTTSFIELD. 

May 2, 1912. 
To Mr. C. E. Jenks, Pittsfield, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request of Feb. 23, 1912, an analysis 
has been made of the water of Goodrich Pond in the easterly part of the 
city of Pittsfield and of the ice recently harvested therefrom. 

The pond is evidently exposed to considerable danger of pollution, 
chiefly from the possible backing up of the Housatonic Eiver into the 
easterly end of the pond, and partly to a few possible sources of pollu- 
tion on the watershed. The pond is quite deep, however, and it is 
probable that the ice harvested from the northerly end during the past 
winter was not exposed to serious danger of pollution. 

The results of the analysis of a sample of ice from an ice house near the 
,pond show that the ice contains a larger quantity of organic matter 
than is usually found in good ice; but this ice would probably be safe 
for domestic purposes provided that all snow ice, including the first 
inch of clear ice that forms upon the pond, be removed before using, 
and that all ice containing particles of foreign matter be rejected. 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 139 



WlLTJAMSTOW^^ j,^^_ ^^ ^912. 

To j\Ii'. W. L. Danaher^ Chairman, Board of Health, Williamstown, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In response to your request for an examination of the 
water of a pond on the farm of Mr. Samuel P. Blagden, from which 
it is proposed to take ice for domestic use, the Board has caused the pond 
and its surroundings to be examined and a sample of the water to be 
analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that the pond is not exposed to 
serious danger of pollution, and, in the opinion of the Board, is a 
suitable source from which to take ice for domestic purposes. The 
Board recommends that all snow ice, including the first inch of clear 
ice that forms upon the pond, be removed before the ice is used where 
it will come in contact with food or drinking water. 

Winchester. j^^.^ ^^ ^9^2_ 

To the Board of Health of the Town of Winchester, C. J. AiiLEN, M.D., 

Secretary. 

Gentlemen: — In response to your request of May 20, 1912, for an 
examination of ice from certain ice houses near the easterly bank of the 
Aberjona Eiver about 300 feet east of the point where the river is 
crossed by- Washington Street in Winchester, and advice as to its quality 
for domestic purposes, the Board has caused the locality to be examined 
by one of its engineers and a sample of ice from one of the ice houses 
to be analyzed. The Board has also caused an analysis to be made of a 
sample of water draining out of the cranberry bog adjacent to the 
ice house from which the ice is said to have been harvested. 

The results of the analysis show that the sample of ice examined, 
while containing more organic matter than is found in good ice, con- 
tained very few bacteria and was probably safe for domestic use. The 
water draining out of the cranberry bog at this time showed no evi- 
dence of very serious pollution and differed little in quality from that 
of the North Reservoir of the Winchester water supply. It is probable 
that, while the conditions remain as at present, ice which may safely be 
used for domestic purposes can be harvested from the area indicated 
when that area is supplied witli water from the stream flowing from the 
Xorth Eeservoir and the water of the Aberjona River is wholly excluded, 
but it is advisable, under the circumstances, that the first inch of ice 
that forms upon the pond, including any snow ice that may form above 
it, be removed before using, and that all ice containing particles of 
foreign matter be rejected. 



140 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Sewekage and Sewage Disposal. 
. The following is the substance of the action of the Board during 
the year in reply to applications for advice relative to sewerage and 
sewage disposal : — 

Agawam. 

Sept. 5, 1912. 

To the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Agawam. 

Gentlemen : — A complaint has been made of the objectionable odor 
from a sewer outlet on the bank of the Westfield Eiver at Gosselin 
Grove, so called, in Agawam, and an examination of the locality by one 
of the engineers of the Board has shown that the sewage is now dis- 
charged close to the bank of the river, where deposits of sewage have 
occurred which give off a very offensive odor in warm vv^eather. 

When plans for this sewer outlet were presented to this Board for con- 
sideration, the Board recommended that the sewer outlet be carried well 
out into the river so that floating matters might not lodge on the shore 
in the vicinity of the outlet, and if this plan were carried out the objec- 
tionable conditions complained of would be removed. 

The Board recommends that the outlet be extended into the river 
to such a distance that further fouling of the banks in its neighborhood 
shall be prevented. 

Amherst. 

Oct. 21, 1912. 

To the Board of Selectmen and Board of Sewer Commissioners, Messi-s. Johj: 
Mullen, George F. Hobart, W. H. Atkins, Amherst, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on Aug. 
12, 1912, the following petition relative to plans for a system of sewerage 
and sewage disposal for the town of Amherst: — 

The petition of the town of Amherst, acting herein by its selectmen and 
Board of Sewer Commissioners, respectfully represents that said town of 
Amherst, acting herein by its selectmen and Board of Sewer Commissioners, 
has laid out a system of main drains and common sewers, for the northern 
and western parts of said town, extending from the village of North Amherst, 
southerly and westerly, through a part of said town of Amherst, and a part 
of the town of Hadley in said county of Hampshire, and in, through, under 
and over certain private lands, water courses, highways and other ways, rail- 
roads, railways, bridges, aqueducts and conduits, to the Connecticut River, into 
which it is to discharge, as is particularly shown by the maps and plans on 
file in the office of said State Board of Health. 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 141 

Wherefore said town of Amherst hereby prays that said plans for said 
system of sewei-age may be aj^proved by said State Board of Health, 

It appears that the proposed system of sewerage and sewage disposal 
is to be constructed under the authority of chapter 484 of the Acts 
of the year 1912, and, in accordance with the provisions of that act, 
the State Board of Healtli on receipt of the application gave notice to 
the public of a hearing upon the proposed plans. At this hearing plans 
showing the work to be done in the construction of the said system were 
submitted for the consideration of the Board. The plans provide for 
the collection of the sewage of a large part of the town of Amherst, in- 
cluding the neighborhood of the agricultural college and the village of 
North Amherst, at a point near the boundary line between Hadley and 
Amherst, and for conveying it thence in a main sewer to be constructed 
across the town of Hadley, through the North Hadley road, a portion 
of the Sunderland road and private land, to an outlet into the Connect- 
icut Eiver about one and one-half miles south of the point where the 
boundar}^ line between Franklin and Hampshire counties crosses the 
river. 

At this hearing no one appeared to object to the proposed plans, and 
the Board, having caused the locality to be examined by one of its 
engineers and having considered the plans of the proposed system and 
outlet, hereby approves the plans under the provisions of chapter 484 
of the Acts of the year 1912, subject to the condition that all of the 
sewage shall be discharged at all times below extreme low water in the 
river and at least 250 feet from the easterly shore line, and to the 
further condition that the direct discharge of untreated sewage into 
the river shall be discontinued and the sewage purified whenever, in the 
opinion of the State Board of Health, the conditions affecting the stream 
make this change necessary. 

Beverly. 

May 2, 1912. 

To the Committee on Streets, Sidewalks and Seicers of the City of Beverly, 
Mr. William A. Lee, Clerk of Committees. 
Gentlemex : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
March 6, 1912, the following communication relative to the disposal of 
sewage from certain streets in the district of Beverly known as Eial 
Side : — 

At a meeting of the committee on streets, sidewalks and sewers, held this 
evening, a quorum of said committee being present, it was unanimously voted 
10 ask permission from your Board to discharge the sewage from the follow- 



i42 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ing streets and ways located in that section of the city of Beverly known as 
" Rial Side " into the present trunk sewer line which discharges into Beverly 
harbor at the foot of " Andrew's Court." Numerous complaints have been 
received from overflowing cesspools, and the committee have selected the 
streets and ways which are built upon the most, and which total approximately 
one hundred dwelling's. 

The balance of " Rial Side " and the major portion, we do not ask for at 
this time. . . . Following are the streets and ways hereinbefore referred to: 
Elliott Street from McKay Street to the Danvers line; Echo Avenue; Green 
Street; Woodland Avenue; Rowell Avenue; Giles Avenue; Stewart Avenue; 
County Road, between Bridge and Elliott streets; Longfellow Avenue; Whit- 
tier Avenue. 

The plan provides for a main sewer in or near Elliott Street beginning 
at the boundary line between Beverly and Danvers, passing through 
Elliott Street or adjacent lands to a connection with an existing sewer 
at the corner of McKay and Elliott streets, whence it will flow in the 
present main sewer through Cabot, Central and Lothrop streets and 
Andrews Court to an outlet into the harbor about 700 feet from the 
shore line at high water. The sewers in the other streets mentioned in 
the application will discharge into the sewer in Elliott Street. 

It is understood that the sewers are to be constructed strictly upon 
the separate plan, excluding all storm water and ground drainage, so far 
as practicable, and that the system will provide only for the portions of 
the district of Eial Side where sewers are most needed at the present 
time. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its 
engineers and has considered the plan presented, and is of the opinion 
that the method of disposing of the sewage from the streets in question 
by discharging it into the harbor through the present outlet is the best 
that it is practicable to adopt under the existing circumstances. 

The present sewer outlet at Andrews Court is an objectionable one, and 
plans were submitted to this Board several years ago for disposing 
of the sewage by discharging it into the sea at an outlet north of Great 
Haste Island. Hearings were given by the Board with reference to this 
plan, but action was postponed to await the results of further investi- 
gations by the city as to a general system of sewage disposal. 

The Board is of the opinion that the present outlet, located near a 
populous shore and used largely for bathing in the summer season, is 
an objectionable one, and recommends that the investigations for a bet- 
ter plan of disposing of the sewage be completed as soon as practicable, 
in order that the further discharge of crude sewage at such a point that 
it is likely to return upon the shores of the harbor may be avoided. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 143 



Brockton'. 

Mat 2, 1912. 
To the Board of Sewerage Commissioners, BrocTcton, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
March 25. 1912, an application for advice relative to the further develop- 
ment of the sewage disposal system of the city of Brockton, describing 
the present system and the necessity for further extensions to provide for 
the proper disposal of the increasing quantity of sewage discharged from 
the city. The plan accompanying the application shows extensive areas 
which may be used for the further enlargement of the filtration system 
and areas which might be used for sprinkling filters and sedimentation 
basins. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined and has considered 
the plan and the information presented with your application. 

The area indicated for the location of sprinkling filters is located 
adjacent to the line of the forcemain, through which the sewage is 
conveyed to the filtration area, remote from any dwelling houses not 
under the control of the city, and is situated at such an elevation that 
the sewage could be treated upon sprinkling filters in this locality and the 
effluent delivered upon the sand filters now used for the disposal of the 
sewage of the city. 

The area, indicated upon the plan which might be used for additional 
areas of sand filters lies north of the forcemain in the valley of the 
Coweeset Kiver adjacent to other filters constructed within the past few 
years, but somewhat nearer than any existing filters to a group of 
dwelling houses lying farther to the north which are not under the control 
of the city. 

The quantity of sewage applied to the filters at the present time 
amounts to about 45,000 gallons per acre per day. The purification of 
the sewage, which was excellent for many years, became less complete 
in 1904, but by the addition of new filters in 1905 and in 1908 an im- 
provement followed for a few years ; but in the last few years there has 
been some deterioration in the quality of the effluent, and it is evident 
that some further provision must soon be made to secure the efficient 
purification of the sewage of the city. 

By the construction of additional sand filters on the area indicated 
on the plan presented it would be practicable to increase considerably 
the area available for the purification of the sewage, and if after this 
extension were made the existing filters were carefully examined and 
such changes and improvements made as were found necessary in the 
structure of the filters or the method of dosing, provision could be made 



144 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

for the efficient purification of the sewage of the city for a number of 
years in the future. The new filters will necessarily be constructed nearer 
a populated district than those now in existence, but their use would 
probably not be seriously objectionable provided trees were planted on 
the northerly side of the area. 

The location suggested for sprinkling filters is excellent in all respects 
for this purpose. It is remote from any dwelling houses not under the 
control of the city, and the site is largely covered with pine trees which 
can be preserved and will form an effective screen about the works, — a 
valuable consideration for several reasons. Moreover, the area is at such 
an elevation that the sewage, after sedimentation, can be delivered upon 
any of the existing filters for further treatment. 

It is probable, in the opinion of the Board, that an efficient and satis- 
factory effluent can be produced by the use of sprinkling filters and the 
subsequent filtration of the effluent after sedimentation upon the present 
filter beds. It is understood that the plan, so far as developed at pres- 
ent, is to screen all of the sewage at the pumping station through the 
fine screen recently installed there and subsequently pass it through a 
small settling tank to be constructed in connection with the sprinkling 
filters. From the settling tank the sewage will be discharged upon the 
sprinkling filters, the effluent from which will be collected in settling 
tanks for the removal of the suspended matter, and can then be dis- 
charged upon the existing filter beds. It appears that it is proposed 
to construct about half an acre of sprinkling filters in the beginning and 
to operate these for a time in order to obtain information which will 
aid in the proper design of future extensions. 

In the opinion of the Board the proposed plan is likely to be the best 
that it is practicable to adopt for the treatment and purification of the 
sewage of the city of Brockton under existing conditions. The con- 
struction of a half acre of sprinkling filters in the beginning is a reason- 
able one, and it will be practicable from experience in the operation of 
this filter to obtain valuable information as to the design of future 
works. 

The Board recommends that provision be made in the beginning for 
discharging the effluent from the sprinkling filters upon the nearest group 
of sand filter beds, so that it may be kept separate from the sewage and 
definite information thus obtained as to the rate at which this effluent 
can be applied to sand filters and the degree of further purification that 
can be obtained by their use, especially in the winter and spring months. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 145 



Canton (Springdale Finishing Company). 

July 19, 1912. 
To the Springdale Finishing Company, Canton, 3Iass. 

Gentlemen : — The Board has given further consideration to the ques- 
tion of the disposal of the manufacturing wastes from your mill at 
Springdale, and has made further examinations into the character and 
quantity of these wastes and the methods necessary for their purification. 
The quantity of waste discharged from this mill has been found to vary 
greatly, and part of the water used, as you have already been advised, 
can probably be allowed to be discharged into the stream without treat- 
ment. By far the greater part of these wastes, however, are of such a 
character as to pollute greatly the stream into which they flow. The total 
quantity of wastes needing treatment at the present time, as far as the few 
measurements made by the Board show, is about 125,000 gallons per day. 

Tliese wastes are now passed through a settling tank to allow for the 
deposition of heavier matters, but the quantity of sludge deposited is 
comparatively small. The Board now recommends that for further 
treatment of these wastes you provide without delay filter beds composed 
of sand or gravel suitable for the purification of sewage, having an area 
of at least 2-/2 acres and a depth of at least 3^/2 feet of filtering ma- 
terial thoroughly underdrained. It is very desirable that these filter 
beds be so- arranged that the effluent from the underdrains can if neces- 
sary be collected and distributed upon secondary filter beds in case it 
should be found desirable, either from the growth of the industry or 
from other causes, to provide a more complete purification of the 
waste. 

The Board advises that the construction of Avorks for the purification 
of this waste be begun without delay and the further fouling of the 
streani below your mill be prevented as soon as possible. The Board 
further advises that the recommendations of Jan. 5, 1911, be also 
carried out at once and the wastes which may safely be discharged into 
the stream separated from those requiring treatment. 

Chicopee. ^^^ ^^ j9J2^ 

To Hon. Frank A. Eivers, Mayor of Chicopee, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — Complaint has recently been made of a nuisance in 
Chicopee Falls caused by the discharge of sewage near the covered bridge 
at the foot of Montgomery Street on the north side of the Chicopee Eiver. 
An examination shows that at the present time a large quantity of sewage 
is discharged at a sewer outlet at this location upon the dry bed of the 



146 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Chicopee River, where it decomposes and creates very objectionable con- 
ditions. 

Several years ago, upon receipt of a similar complaint of a nuisance 
in this location, the State Board of Health advised the mayor of Chicopee 
as follows : — 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers 
and has carefully considered your application and the plan submitted there- 
with. There is no doubt that the present method of disposing of the sewage 
from the Montgomery Street sewer creates a very serious nuisance in the 
summer season, and it is desirable to remove all of the sewage from that 
sewer to some suitable place of disposal. The removal of the outlet of the 
sewage from its present location to the miU pond above the dam of the Chico- 
pee Manufacturing Company will, in the opinion of the Board, materially 
relieve the objectionable conditions now complained of, and the change will 
not be an expensive one to make ; but the water in the Chicopee Manufacturing 
Company's mill pond at the proposed point of discharge has but little current 
during a considerable portion of the year, and the discharge of sewage into 
this mill pond is liable to give trouble by causing deposits in the pond and 
offensive odors at times of low water after the outlet has been in use for a 
time. 

It is desirable that the sewage be removed from the river above the dams 
in this city and disposed of in some suitable manner. The proposed plan 
should, therefore, be considered a temporary one, to be abandoned when a 
suitable means of disposing of the sewage has been provided. 

It appears that an effort was made to remedy the nuisance by con- 
structing a branch sewer to the mill pond above the dam about 300 
feet east of Montgomery Street, a plan which was suggested as a tem- 
porary expedient in the communication of the Board referred to above. 
Apparently on account of a defect in the sewer, the sewage does not 
reach the upper outlet even in dry weather, but is all, or practically all, 
discharged near the covered bridge. 

For the present season the best plan of temporarily relieving this 
nuisance would probably be to examine the branch sewer leading to 
the upper mill pond, find the cause of the trouble, and put it in proper 
and efficient condition so that all of the dry-weather flow of sewage will 
discharge there if it is practicable to divert the sewage to that outlet, 
as appears to be the case. 

The Board recommends that steps be also taken to remove the sewage 
from this outlet and convey it to some place of disposal where it will not 
again cause a nuisance in the river. The Board will, if you so request, 
advise you as to any plans which you may present for relieving this 
nuisance. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 147 

Chicopee (Quigley Furnace Company). 

Nov. 7, 1912. 
To the Board of Health of the City of Chicopee. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health has considered your re- 
quest of Oct. 24, 1912, for advice as to the disposal of the sewage of a 
new foundry of the Quigley Furnace Company, located in the extreme 
southerly part of Chicopee, by discharging it into the Connecticut Eiver 
approximately opposite the proposed works, and in response to this ap- 
plication has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers. 

The Board is informed that the works employ about 200 persons and 
that there will be no manufacturing waste; consequently, sewage only 
will be discharged into the river. 

It appears that no system of sewerage has yet been found necessary in 
this part of the city of Chicopee and that it is necessary to discharge the 
sewage into the river by an independent outlet. 

The Board recommends that the outlet be located in the river at a 
sufficient distance from shore to avoid danger of the fouling of the river 
bank by matters from the sewer. With the quantity of sewage which is 
likely to be discharged at this outlet under the conditions proposed it is 
probable that, if the outlet is located at least 50 feet from shore at low 
water, objectionable conditions will be avoided. It should be understood 
that when a general system of sewerage is established to serve this portion 
of the city this sewer shall be connected with such system and the use 
of the proposed outlet discontinued. 

East Bridgewater (Carver Cotton Gin Company). 

June 6, 1912. 

To the Carver Cotton Gin Company, East Bridgewater, Mass., Mr. Robert 
Spurr Weston, Consulting Engineer. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health has considered your appli- 
cation, received through your engineer, for advice as to the disposal of 
the sewage of your works at East Bridgewater and the rej^ort and plans 
submitted therewith. 

The plan, as outlined, provides for collecting the sewage, which is now 
discharged into the Satucket Eiver at various points about the works, 
into a main sewer through which it will be conveyed across the river 
to disposal works consisting of a settling tank, filter beds and sludge beds, 
to be located near the southerly bank of the stream just below your works. 
The settling tank into which the sewage is to be discharged is what is 
known as an Imhoff tank 8 feet square and 12 feet deep, arranged with 



148 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

baffles so as to allow for the sedimentation of the heavier matters in the 
sewage while passing through the tank. From the settling tank the 
plans provide for the discharge of the sewage through a dosing tank 
upon two filter beds having an aggregate area of 0.1 of an acre, to be con- 
structed of 12 inches of coarse cinders in the bottom overlaid with 3 
inches of fine cinders and 1 foot of sand, with underdrains 12 feet apart 
discharging into the river. Two sludge beds are provided, each to be 15 
feet by 20 feet in size, upon which the contents of the settling tanks are 
to be pumped at intervals. The details of the sludge beds are not indi- 
cated. 

It is understood that the operation of the works, after construction, 
is to be supervised by your engineer. 

The best practicable plan of disposing of the sewage of these works, 
under the circumstances, appears to be to purify it by intermittent 
filtration, as advised by your engineer. The area of filters proposed 
is probably sufficient for the disposal of the sewage of the operatives at 
present employed in your works, but the depth of the filtering material 
is not such as would be likely to secure a very efficient purification of the 
sewage. Considering the probability that important public water sup- 
plies may in the near future be established on the banks of the river 
within twenty miles below the works, it will be necessary to purify the 
sewage as efficiently as practicable, and, in order to secure satisfactor}' re- 
sults, under the circumstances, a greater depth of filtering material will 
be necessary, and it is advisable that the depth be increased to at least 
31/2 feet. Moreover, while the area of filters proposed is sufficient for 
the present number of operatives, it is understood that the number may 
at any time be increased to 400 and possibly more, and the satisfactory 
operation of the filters at a rate such as might then be required would, 
even under the conditions proposed, be difficult; and if there is prospect 
of an early increase in the number of operatives the area of the filters 
should be increased. It will be desirable to avoid the use of a settling 
tank or sludge beds if practicable, but if a growth of pine trees is 
maintained about the disposal area, as proposed, the danger of odors 
from it will be reduced materially. Much care may be necessary, how- 
ever, in the removal and disposal of the sludge to avoid a nuisance. 

East Bridgewater (High School). 

March 28, 1912. 
To the Board of Health of the Town of East Bridgewater. 

Gentlemen : — In response to .your request, addressed to the State 
Inspector of Health, as to the possibility of proper drainage and disposal 
of sewage from one of the lots which is being considered for use as the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TO^YNS. 149 

location of a new high school building, the Board has caused the locality 
to be examined by one of its engineers and has considered the information 
presented. 

It appears that the lot in question is in the southerly part of the village 
and that the ground slopes slightly toward a small pool which apparently 
forms the head waters of a brook. 

The Board is informed that the soil consists of 18 inches of loam cov- 
ering clay. From the information presented as to the character of the 
soil it is unlikely that the sewage could be disposed of satisfactorily in 
cesspools on this area. 

It appears that in case the location is used for a school building it is 
proposed to fill the lot with gravel to a depth ranging from 18 inches to 
24 inches, bringing the tract to the level of the adjacent street. While 
the surface of the tract is not greatly above the level of the water in the 
adjacent ditch, it is probable that, if some of the soil is removed before 
the lot is filled and replaced with gravel, so that there shall be a depth 
of at least 3 feet of porous gravel over a considerable area, the sewage 
can be disposed of by discharging it into a cesspool and thence into 
covered drains laid about a foot beneath the surface of the filled land, 
and the whole area underdrained to the brook. It is probable that the 
distributing pipes will require relaying from time to time and, with such 
reconstruction as may be found necessary, it is probable that the sewage 
can be disposed of without special difficulty until such time as a general 
sewerage system shall be provided, which cannot long be delayed. 

The area required for the disposal of the sewage will depend upon the 
quantity of sewage discharged from the school. If the quantity amounts 
to from 6,000 to 8,000 gallons per day, an area of at least a quarter 
of an acre would be required for the satisfactory disposal of the sewage. 



FiTCHBUKG. 

May 2, 1912. 

To the Sewage Disposal Commission^ Fitclihurg, Mass., Messrs. Arthur H. 
Lowe, David M. Dillon and Daxiel A. Boyle. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
April 23, 1912, the following application for tbe approval of a plan for 
the purification of the sewage of the city of Fitchburg : — 

In conformity -with the requirements of the act of chapter 440 of the Stat- 
utes of 1912, authorizing the city of Fitchburg to construct a sewage puri- 
fication works, we present the accompanying report and drawing prepared 
by our chief engineer and explaining the genei'al scheme which we wish 
to adopt for the purification of sewage of Fitchburg. Should you desire any 



150 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

further information our chief engineer will be glad to confer with you or 
your representatives at any time which may be convenient. 

We respectfully petition that after due consideration your board approve 
of the plan for the purification of the sewage as herein outlined and sub- 
mitted. 

The plan and report accompanying the application describe a system 
of sewage disposal for the city of Fitchburg designed to replace a large 
part of the system of sand filtration proposed for the disposal of the 
sewage of the city in the plan presented to the Board in the year 1903 
and approved on Dec. 17, 1903. 

The plan now submitted makes no material change in the method of 
disposing of the sewage of the low district in the southeastern part of 
the city. The sewage from this area, naturally tributary to the sewer 
now or formerly known as the South Fitchburg main sewer, is to be 
purified upon sand filters to be located along the easterly side of the 
north branch of the Nashua Eiver. An area of 8 acres of filter beds is 
proposed for the disposal of this sewage. 

For the disposal of the sewage of the main portion of the city it is 
proposed to install a system of settling tanks and sprinkling filters, with 
subsequent treatment on sand filters, outlined in the report as follows : — 

Plant recommended. 

We recommend that you build a purification plant consisting of — 

Six Imhoff tanks, which will have a sedimentation capacity equivalent to 
the average flow of sewage for a period of three hours, 

Either fine screens or roughing filters, for the removal of the suspended 
matter from the effluent from these tanks, 

Three acres of trickling filtei-s, composed of broken stone from 1 to 2 
inches in diameter and at least 7.5 feet in depth, 

Secondary sedimentation basins having a capacity equivalent to the aveiiage 
flow of sewage for at least one and one-half hours, and 

Possibly, if it seems necessary to carry the process of purification further 
than is done in the trickling filters and secondary tanks, sand filters about 
4i/'2 feet in depth, composed of uniform relatively coarse sand, to be dosed 
at a rate of not moi-e than 1,000,000 gallons per acre per day. 

Low level sand filters, probably about 8 acres. 

While the above plans outline a system for the disposal of all of the 
sewage of the city until the quantity to be purified reaches about 5,500,- 
000 gallons per day, it is proposed in the beginning to construct only a 
portion of these works and to operate them for a year and to use the ex- 
perience thus acquired in the design of the complete system. The works 
to be built in the beginning are outlined in the report as follows : — 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 151 

Two of the Imhoff tanks, with suitable fine screens or roughing filters, 

One acre of trickling filter, 

About one-third of the proposed installation of secondary sedimentation 
basins, capacity approximately 150,000 gallons, 

The sludge bed, and several acres of slow sand filters. 

These latter fillers will be built of the material removed from the excava- 
tion required for the high level plant, and it is proposed to build at least 
1 acre of these filters of selected, screened, and possibly washed, material, 
with a view to filtering for a time the effluent from the trickling filters, to 
demonstrate the extent to which further purification can be had by this means. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined and has considered 
your application and the plans and report presented. Judging from the 
results of experiments that have been conducted by the Board at Law- 
rence for many years upon the purification of sewage by trickling filters, 
it is probable that the proposed trickling filters with settling tanks and 
other appurtenances, constructed in the manner proposed, would, if 
operated under careful supervision, produce during much of the time a 
non-putrescible effluent, and there is no doubt that, with the further 
treatment of the effluent in secondary sedimentation basins and by sub- 
sequent filtration through sand at a rate of 500,000 to 600,000 gallons 
per acre daily, an effluent can be obtained which may be discharged into 
the north branch of the Nashua Eiver without objection. 

The Board approves the plan presented, which provides for the puri- 
fication of the sewage of the low-level district upon 8 acres of sand filters 
near the north branch of the Nashua Eiver, as shown upon the plan. 
The Board also approves the plan of purifying the sewage from the main 
trunk sewer by means of settling tanks, screens or roughing filters, trick- 
ling filters, secondary sedimentation basins and sand filters for the treat- 
ment of the effluent, as outlined in the report presented, and approves 
the construction of the portion of these works proposed during the pres- 
ent year and the remaining works during the following year. 

The Board has also carefully considered the proposed location of the 
tanks and filters, as shown upon the plan presented, and the alternative 
location which can be secured farther to the west but which will require 
the removal of a large amount of sand and gravel at a considerable extra 
cost. The alternative location nearer the Nashua Eiver appears to the 
Board to be a more desirable one and the best that it is practicable to 
adopt under the circumstances. 

There is considerable danger of objectionable odor from these works, 
and the planting of trees thickly about the grounds will aid materially 
in preventing objectionable odors being carried beyond the limits of the 
disposal area. The chief danger of objectionable odors from the works 



152 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

will be those arising from the sludge beds, and it will be necessary in 
case of serious odor from the sludge to provide for its prompt treatment 
after discharge to prevent offence in the neighborhood. 

Framingham. 

Aug. 8, 1912. 

To Messrs. F. W. Meserve^ Fred E, Barrett and J. R. Entwistle, Sewer 
Committee of the Town of Framingham, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
July 10, 1912, the following application for advice relative to the oper- 
ation of the sewage filter beds in the town of Framingham : — 

We note that the filter beds at the farm are not filtering as freely as they 
have in the past. Whether this is due to something in the sewage or not we 
do not know. 

Any suggestions from you in this matter will be appreciated. 

In response to your application the Board has caused the sewage dis- 
posal area to be examined and has considered the records of operation 
of the filter beds and the results of numerous analyses of the sewage and 
effluent. The results of chemical analyses show that the quantity of 
organic matter in the sewage has increased greatly in the past few years, 
and that this sewage is now one of the strongest discharged upon any of 
the filtration areas in the State, the amount of nitrogenous organic mat- 
ter present being three times as gi'eat as is foimd in the sewage dis- 
charged upon the adjacent filter beds of the town of Natick. 

An examination has also been made of the various manufacturing es- 
tablishments in the town from which wastes are discharged into the 
sewers. The waste from the Waterproof Leatherboard Company has 
apparently increased since the examinations made at your request in 
the early part of the year, and, furthermore, these wastes are not given 
the period of sedimentation advised. If the suspended matters are not 
removed from these wastes as recommended, they will be likely to in- 
terfere with the operation of the filters. The manufacturing wastes 
v,^hich are being discharged into the sewers from other works in the 
town do not appear at present to be of such a character as to interfere 
materially with the operation of the sewers or filter beds. A large 
quantity of dye waste is discharged into the sewers from one of the 
works by which the sewage is discolored, but the wastes are passed through 
settling tanks and probably do not, under present conditions and in the 
quantity now discharged, affect materially the operation of the filter beds. 

The effluent discharged from the filter beds was for many years of ex- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 153 

cellent quality, but for several years there has been a continual deteriora- 
tion in the eflEicieney of the purification, and the effluent at present dis- 
charged from the works is of poor quality compared with that of former 
times. 

The quantity of sewage pumped to the filter beds, according to your 
records, has averaged between 500,000 and 600,000 gallons per day dur- 
ing the past four years, and during the month of highest flow in the 
spring of the present year the average quantity discharged upon the 
filters amounted to about 890,000 gallons per day. The system of 
sewers in the town is well underdrained, the leakage comparatively small, 
and, in consequence, the maximum flow of sewage is not excessive as 
compared with the average. 

The total area of the filter beds amounts to 20.75 acres, so that in 
the month of maximum flow the filters need not be operated at a 
greater rate than about 50,000 gallons per acre per day. The filters were 
not thoroughly underdrained at the time of their construction, there 
being evidently no necessity for providing extensive underdrainage at 
that time. Many of the beds were also constructed by removing simply 
the loam, allowing the subsoil, consisting largely of a very fine material, 
to remain in place, but these conditions did not interfere materially with 
the satisfactory operation of the filters for many years after their con- 
struction. 

In the distribution of the sewage upon the filters it appears from the 
information submitted to the Board that, in order to favor the growing 
of corn, sewage has been distributed very unevenly, some of the beds re- 
ceiving an excessive quantity of sewage, while others receive little or 
none. During the summer season it appears that it is the custom to dis- 
charge the entire flow of sewage upon two beds each day, while in the 
winter and spring, when the flow is somewhat greater, three or four beds 
receive the entire day's flow and possibly, sometimes, the entire flow for 
two days or more at a time. It also appears that comparatively little 
sludge is removed from the surfaces of the beds, and it is probable that 
there has been an increase in organic matter in the sand near the surfaces 
of the filters. 

In order to restore this filtration area to a condition in which it will 
purify satisfactorily the sewage of the town of Framingham, it is neces- 
sary, in the opinion of the Board, to discontinue at once the present very 
faulty plan of distributing the sewage and provide for its distribution 
equally each day to all parts of the area. The distribution pipes should 
be enlarged, so that the entire quantity of sewage may be discharged 
onto one bed at a time, and shifts should be made at such intervals as 



154 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

are necessary to apply to each filter each day the portion of the sewage 
which it should receive. 

The use of the filters for the growing of corn should be discontinued, 
since it is impracticable to use sewage filters for this purpose, as the 
experience of this area has already clearly shown. If it is desired to 
use the sewage for fertilizing corn, other areas should be prepared for 
the purpose or new filter beds provided. It is probable, in the opinion 
of the Board, that, if the raising of corn on the filters is discontinued and 
the sewage applied regularly each day to each filter, excepting one or two 
beds which may be out of use for cleaning or repairs, the efficiency of 
the filters will be improved and the character of the effluent restored to 
the condition of former times. It is very probable that it will be neces- 
sary to remove from the surfaces of some of the filters the soil that has 
become greatly impregnated with organic matter, but the Board recom- 
mends that the effect of proper distribution of the sewage and mainte- 
nance of the filters be tested for a time, after which the Board will, 
upon request, make a further investigation as to the best plan for im- 
proving the efficiency of the filters. In connection with any plan of im- 
provement, however, proper distribution of the sewage is essential and 
should be begun without delay. The Board also recommends that the 
surfaces of the beds be kept in proper condition to provide for even 
distribution of the sewage, and that the sludge accumulating on the 
filters be raked up and removed from time to time, as may be necessary. 
The practice of burning sludge on the filter beds causes serious offence for 
long distances from the area and is a source of complaint. The sludge 
can be removed to a place of deposit in a part of the area remote from 
the highway, or can be disposed of to farmers if opportunity occurs. 

It will probably be of some assistance in the proper maintenance of 
the filters if the heavy sewage from the bottom of the reservoirj part 
of Avhich reaches the filters near the close of pumping and the remainder 
in the morning after storage in the forcemain over night, were dis- 
charged regularly upon some of the coarser filters. It is especially de- 
sirable that this heavier sewage be discharged upon filters as remote as 
practicable from tlie highway. 

Pramingham (Saxonville Mills). 

March 7, 1912. 

To Mr. William H. Walsh, Chairman of Selectmen and Sewer Committee, 

Framingham, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health received from you on Jan. 
31, 1912, an application requesting its advice as to the disposal of the 
sewage of the village of Saxonville and the treatment necessary for that 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 155 

sewage in view of the character of the wastes from the Saxonville Mills. 
Concerniug the wastes from these mills and the possible methods of 
treatment thereof your application contains the following statement : — 

During the latter part of the year 1903 our engineer, Mr. VanValkenburgh, 
found by careful measurements and calculations that the wastes from these 
mills amounted to 755,000 gallons per day of nine hours. 

A change in business methods and new machinery have considerably re- 
duced the above amount. This was ascertained during last March and April 
when the engineers of your Board in connection with our engineer made a 
thorough investigation of the conditions existing at the mills. It was then 
found that the amount of wastes per ten-hour day from each of the different 
departments was as follows : — 

Gallons. 

Wool scouring, 22,300 

Yarn scouring, 50,770 

Cloth washing, 228,540 

Neutralizing and dyeing, .......... 91,440 

Yarn dyeing, 19,710 

Total, 412,760 

From the analyses made of these wastes we are led to understand that more 
than half of this total amount is of a character sufficiently good to allow it 
to be discharged directly into the river. 

We would like your advice as to the treatment to be accorded the remainder 
of the effluent before it should be permitted to discharge onto a filter. 

If the wastes were first to pass through a series of settling tanks to inter- 
cept the sand from the scouring machines, then flow into the pumping station 
reservoirs to mix with about 100,000 gallons of domestic sewage, then pumped 
to the Framingham filtration field into large tanks similar to those at the 
Clinton field, where after being retained for several days it were allowed to 
mingle with the 600,000 to 800,000 gallons per day of South Framingham 
sewage as it is being pumped to the field and before being discharged upon 
the filters, would the amount of fats thus received by the filters be detrimental 
to their successful operation? 

We are informed that the Bigelow Mills scour 6,000,000 pounds of wool 
per year. This is four times the amount scoured by the Saxonville Mills. 
At the Clinton Mills but two small tanks intercept the sand and the overflow 
discharges directly into the town sewers and is then pumped as sewage into 
the large tanks at the filtration field. In 1910 the Clinton pumpage amoimted 
to 829,000 gallons per day. 

... we would like to know what the probable average number of parts of fat 
in the wastes from the Saxonville Mills would be per 100,000 parts of domestic 
sewage from the villages of Saxonrille and South Framingham, and what is 
the extreme limit of the number of parts of fat per 100,000 your Board recom- 



156 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

mends should not be exceeded when the sewage in which it is contained is to 
be applied to sand filters such as we have in Framingham ? 

We would also like to know if the wastes from the Saxonville Mills must 
receive preliminary treatment before being allowed to enter the Framingham 
sewerage system in the way outlined above? 

In view of these conditions you request information as to the probable 
amount of fats that would be present in the Framingham sewage if 
sewage from Saxonville and the Saxonville Mills should be mingled there- 
with, and you request advice as to the necessity of a preliminary treat- 
ment of the wastes from the Saxonville Mills before the sewage from 
the village, including these wastes, is allowed to enter the Framingham 
sewerage system. 

It appears from analyses of the sewage of Framingham and other 
places, including Clinton, that the quantity of fats present in these 
sewages ranges from 11.0 to 17.0 parts per 100,000, the quantity present 
in the sewage of Clinton, including the carpet mill wastes, amounting 
to between 12.0 and 13.0 parts per 100,000, as shown by the most recent 
analyses. 

If the wastes of the Saxonville Mills should be mingled with the 
Framingham sewage, including the domestic sewage to be expected 
from the village of Saxonville, the average quantity of fat in the sewage 
would probably considerably exceed 50.0 parts per 100,000. Experiments 
made by the Board and experience at other filtration areas have shown 
that these high amounts of fats interfere with the operation of filters, 
and filters have been badly clogged by quantities of fats not much, if 
any, greater than would be present in the Framingham sewage under 
the conditions proposed. 

Under these conditions it appears to the Board essential that those 
wastes from the Saxonville Mills which contain an excessive quantity of 
fat should be treated for the removal of the fat before they are dis- 
charged into the sewers. There would be no objection to treating the 
entire sewage from Saxonville, including these wastes, for the removal 
of fats if it should be deemed practicable, but the best plan will probably 
be to treat the wastes before they are admitted to the sewers. 

It is probable that a large portion of the water used in rinsing cloth 
can be discharged into the river without treatment and without danger 
of causing serious injury to the river. Further investigations will be 
required before it will be practicable to determine very definitely the 
quantity of cloth-washing waste that will require treatment, but, so far 
as the information thus far available shows, the water after the first 
fifteen minutes is probably sufficiently clean to be allowed to flow into 
the river. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 157 



Framingham (American Waterproof Leathereoard Company). 

Feb. 1, 1912. 

To the Framingham Sewer Committee, Mi'. F, W. IVIeserve, Chairman. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request of January 26 for an ex- 
amination of the quality of the waste from the works of the American 
Waterproof Leatherboard Company, located off Herbert Street, South 
Framingham, and advice as to its probable effect on the filter beds, the 
State Board of Health has caused the locality to be examined and 
samples of the discharge from the works to be analyzed. 

The results of the analyses show that the waste contains a large 
amount of organic matter, chiefly of a carbonaceous nature, which would 
have a tendency to cause deposits in the sewers and especially to clog the 
filter beds to a much greater degree than if the waste contained more 
nitrogen and less carbon. Judging from the examination of the waste, 
it is practicable to remove a considerable portion of the suspended matter 
in this waste by sedimentation and thus remove much of the material 
which might have a tendency to cause a deposit in the sewers or to clog 
the filter beds. 

Under the circumstances, the Board recommends that these wastes, be- 
fore being discharged into the sewer, be passed through settling tanks 
having a capacity equal to the total quantity of wastes discharged from 
the mill for twenty-four hours. These tanks should be so designed as to 
secure the most efficient sedimentation, and should be so arranged that 
the sediment can be discharged upon suitable sludge beds, with under- 
drains discharging into the sewer. The sludge, after draining, should 
be removed to some suitable place of disposal. The area of sludge beds 
required should be sufficient to allow for the frequent discharge and 
cleaning of the tanks in order that they may be kept in the most efficient 
operation. 

Franklin. 

Nov. 4, 1912. 

To the Board of Water and Sewer Commissioners, Franklin, 3Iass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on Oct. 
18, 1912, an application for the approval of certain extensions to the 
Timnah Brook sewerage system, so called, which serves a part of the 
town of Franklin, and in response to this request has caused the locality 
to be examined by its engineer. 

It appears that the proposed extensions are to consist of about 3,000 
feet of 8-inch and 6-inch sewer on Alpine Street, in the easterly por- 



158 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

tion of the town, which will serve about thirty houses, and about 750 
feet of 6-inch sewer on Euggles Street, in the southeasterly portion of 
the town, which will serve about fourteen dwelling houses. There are 
no factory wastes to be discharged into the sewers on these streets. 

The quantity of sewage discharged from the Timnah Brook system at 
the present time amounts apparently to about 65,000 gallons per day, 
including manufacturing wastes, and the additional quantity of sewage 
from the streets mentioned will probably amount to about 10,000 gallons 
per day, bringing the total quantity discharged from this system up to 
about 75,000 gallons per day. The sewage from the Timnah Brook 
system is disposed of upon filter beds which have an aggregate area of 
about 0.8 of an acre, and the rate of filtration, which is now a little over 
80,000 gallons per acre per day, will be increased by the addition of the 
proposed sewage to somewhat more than 90,000 gallons per acre per day. 

The Timnah Brook disposal works are located at a considerable distance 
from any dwelling houses, and the soil in the region about the works 
is well suited to the purification of sewage, but under present conditions 
the sewage is not well purified, and it is essential that changes be made 
in these works to secure more satisfactory results. The changes required 
are a more efficient settling tank, larger sludge beds, an increase in the 
depth of the filtering material in the present filters, and very probably an 
enlargement of the filtration area. It will also be necessary to provide 
a better system for the distribution of the sewage upon the filters by in- 
creasing the number of points of discharge or reducing the size of the 
filter beds. Finally, it is essential that in the operation of the works 
the sewage be changed from filter to filter more frequently, so that each 
filter bed will be used each day, except in cases where filters are out of 
use for cleaning, instead of allowing the sewage to flow upon one bed 
for several days, as has been the practice in the past. 

Since it appears that sewerage facilities are greatly needed in Alpine 
and Euggles streets, the Board recommends that sewers be constructed at 
once in these streets and connected with the Timnah Brook system, 
and that the improvements in the filtration area be undertaken as soon 
as practicable. The changes in the works should be designed and carried 
out under the direction of your engineer. 

The Board has also caused an examination to be made of the wastes 
discharged from the works of the American Felt Company into the town 
sewers and as to the efficiency of the settling tanks through which these 
wastes are discharged. The results of the examination show that the 
tanks are of small capacity compared to the amount of waste discharged 
through them, and apparently only one-half of the capacity of the tanks 
is ordinarily used. At times when washing machines or dye tubs are dis- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 159 

charged, large quantities of wastes flow rapidly through the tanks, and in 
consequence much fihrous and organic matter is carried over into the 
sewers which collects upon the filter beds and interferes with their oper- 
ation. 

The settling tanks at these works are entirely inefficient and they 
should be enlarged and improved or replaced with tanks of suitable 
design to provide for removing as much as practicable of the solid mat- 
ters — especially the suspended matters — from these wastes. The tanks 
should be designed and constructed under the inspection of your en- 
gineer, and when completed they should be properly maintained and 
cleaned at the necessary intervals. 

Nov. 22, 1912. 
To the Board of Sewer Commissioners of the Town of Franklin. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your verbal request for an examination 
of the manufacturing wastes in the town of Franklin and suggestions 
as to the disposal of these wastes in connection with the proposed sewer- 
age system of the town, the State Board of Health has caused the fac- 
tories to be examined, estimates of the various amounts of wastes to be 
prepared, and samples of the wastes to be analyzed. 

The mills examined arc : Singleton Worsted Company ; H. T. Hay- 
wood Company; American Woolen Company; F. H. Appleton & Son; 
American Felt Company; and Eay Fabric Company. 

The total quantity of wastes from the Singleton Worsted Company 
at the time this examination was made was approximately 116,000 gal- 
lons per day, consisting of (1) spent dye and rinse water, (2) washer 
waste before fulling, and (3) rinse after fulling. The first two — espe- 
cially the waste before fulling — contained very large quantities of sus- 
pended matter and should be passed through settling tanks before being 
discharged into the sewers. It is essential that the settling tanks be prop- 
erly designed, constructed and maintained, else these wastes may interfere 
materially with the operation of the sewers and filter beds. The rinse 
water after fulling contains a very great quantity of organic matter, 
especially at the beginning of the wash, and this waste should also be 
passed through properly designed settling tanks. With suitable tanks 
the objectionable matters can be largely removed from these wastes, and 
they can probably be discharged into the stream at the factory without 
further treatment. 

The wastes from the works of the H. T. Haywood Company consist 
of about 7,500 gallons per day of spent dyes and about 60,000 gallons per 
day of wash water. 

The spent dyes contain a very large quantity of organic matter and 



160 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

can probably be discharged into the sewers, after sedimentation, without 
objection. Much of the wash Avater — amounting at the time of the ex- 
amination to about 60,000 gallons per day — contained a very great 
quantity of organic matter, nearly 80 per cent, of which was in sus- 
pension. This waste also contains a quantity of fats so great that it 
would interfere with the operation of the sewers and disposal works unless 
the fats are removed before these wastes are admitted to the sewers. 
These wastes should first be treated in settling tanks of suitable design, 
properly operated, and subsequently passed through strainer beds of 
sand, cinders or coke before admission to the sewers. It is possible that 
the settling tanks and strainer beds would remove enough of the fats so 
that further treatment would be unnecessary, but if this is not found to 
be the case, the first part of the washing, containing the excessive amount 
of fats, must be separated from the other and treated for the removal of 
fats before being admitted to the sewers. 

The wastes from the American Woolen Company at the time of this 
examination amounted to about 90,000 gallons per day, consisting of 
about 70,000 gallons of water used in washing before and after fulling 
and in rinsing, and 15,000 gallons of spent dyes and water used in 
rinsing after dyeing. All of these wastes, with the possible exception of 
the rinse after dyeing, contain so much organic matter that they would 
be likely to cause objectionable conditions in the stream and should be 
disposed of into the sewer; but the wash before and after fulling con- 
tains great quantities of fats, and this portion of the wastes must be 
treated for the removal of fats before admission to the sewers. All of 
the wastes contain great quantities of organic matter in suspension, and 
they should all be treated by sedimentation in properly designed tanks 
before discharge into the sewers. 

The wastes from the works of F. H. Appleton & Son amounted at this 
time to about 240,000 gallons per day, of which about 187,000 gallons, 
being the waste from the washing of rubber, contained so large a quantity 
of organic matter as to be likely to create objectionable conditions if 
discharged untreated into the brook. This waste is of such a character 
that it is probable that by proper sedimentation, followed by straining 
through suitable strainers of sand, cinders or coke, it can be discharged 
into the brook without further treatment. There appears to be ample 
area near the factory for the construction of such works, and these wastes 
would best be kept out of the sewers. 

The waste discharged from the works of the American Felt Company 
consists of about 75,000 gallons per day of hot rinse water, about 85,000 
gallons of cold rinse water and 30,000 gallons of dye waste. The water 
used in the cold rinse contained at this time so small a quantity of 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 161 

organic matter that it could be discharged untreated directly into the 
stream without objection. The waste discharged at the beginning of the 
hot rinse, and for the first third of this process, contains a very large 
quantity of organic matter and would probably have to be disposed of by 
discharge into the sewers. Much of the objectionable matter in these 
wastes is in suspension, and they should be treated in proper settling 
tanks before being admitted to the sewers. The remainder of the hot 
rinse contains a large quantit}^ of suspended matter, but by proper sedi- 
mentation the objectionable matters could be removed and this portion of 
the waste could then be discharged into the brook untreated without 
objection. 

The dye wastes contain so large a quantity of organic matter that 
they will probably require disposal into the sewers. These wastes should 
also be passed through settling tanks before being admitted to the sewer 
system. 

The wastes from the Eay Fabric Company amounted to about 137,000 
gallons per day. Of this amount, 7,000 gallons per day consist of water 
used in dyeing, which contains so large a quantity of organic matter 
that it should be discharged into the sewers, after sedimentation, for 
the removal of suspended matters. The wastes from cloth washing after 
fulling amounted at this time to about 30,000 gallons per day, which 
contained a large quantity of organic matter, the greater portion of 
which is in suspension. It is probable that a part of this waste will 
require disposal into the sewers, but much of the organic matter is in 
suspension, and it is possible that all of this waste could be discharged 
into the stream after treatment in properly designed settling tanks sup- 
plemented by strainer beds. The waste from the washing of rags, 
amounting to 100,000 gallons per day, contained at this time a rather 
small quantity of organic matter, and it is possible that this waste, also, 
except the first five minutes of the wash, could be discharged into, the 
brook after proper sedimentation and straining. 

It is of the greatest importance that the settling tanks at these mills 
be of ample size and so designed that they can be operated efficiently a.t 
all times. In connection with the settling tanks ample sludge-drying 
beds should be provided, so that the tanks can be emptied at frequent 
intervals and the waste dried and removed before it becomes offensive. 

The settling tanks and strainer beds should be constructed in accord- 
ance with the design and under the direction of engineers of experience in 
such work, and the operation of these tanks should receive all the at- 
tention required to keep them in proper working order. 

It is especially important that no wastes containing an excessive quan- 
tity of suspended matter or of fats, acids or other matters likely to in- 



162 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

terfere with the operation of the sewers or filter beds shall he admitted to 
the town sewers. It is also important that the washing machines in the 
mills should he so arranged that, if necessary, the first part of the 
washer waste — generally about one-third of the total amount — can 
be discharged to the sewers and the remainder diverted for final dis- 
charge into the adjacent stream, and that care be taken to reduce as much 
as practicable the amount of waste to be received into the sewers and 
disposed of at the filter beds by disposing of all of the wastes, so far 
as practicable, by direct discharge into the streams after treatment at 
the mills. 

Haverhill. 

May 16, 1912. 

To Hon. RoswELL L. Wood, Head of Street Department, Haverhill, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — The State Board of Health received from you on April 
27, 1912, an application for advice as to a proposed sewer in River Street 
and in adjacent streets in the extreme southwesterly part of the cit)^, 
with an outlet into the Merrimack River at the foot of Niagara Street, 
together with a plan of the proposed sewer and outlet. 

The proposed sewer is to be built upon the combined plan and is to 
receive, in addition to the sewage, the storm water from an area of about 
23 acres which the sewer is designed ultimately to serve. 

The plan as revised provides for discharging the sewage through an 
18-inch pipe laid from a manhole near the foot of Niagara Street to 
an outlet in the river about 45 feet from the shore at mean low water 
and several feet below the low water level of the river. 

The Board has caused tlie locality to be examined by one of its en- 
gineers and has considered the plan presented. 

The plan of collecting both sewage and storm water in the same con- 
duits appears to be a reasonable one to adopt in this district under the 
circumstances, aud the capacity of the main sewer as proposed in the 
plan presented appears to be sufficient for the requirements at the present 
time; but the connections with the sewers for sewage and those for sur- 
face, or roof, water should he made through separate pipes so that the 
sewage and storm water can be separated at some future time if neces- 
sary. The plan provides for discharging the sewage through an outlet 
several feet below the surface of the river at low water and at such a 
distance from the shore as to avoid danger of fouling the banks in the 
neighborhood. 

The plan as a whole, in the opinion of the Board, is well adapted to 
the disposal of the sewage and drainage of the district which it is de- 
signed to serve, and the Board recommends its adoption. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 163 



Leominster. 

Feb. 1, 1912. 

To the Board of Selectmen, Leominster, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The Board is informed that the construction of works 
for the removal of the sewage of the city of Eitchburg from the north 
branch of the Nashua Eiver and its purification is progressing at such a 
rate that it is expected that purification works will be in operation in 
a little more than a year, that is, in the spring of 1913. 

Under the circumstances, the Board recommends that the town of 
Leominster begin as soon as practicable the construction of the necessary 
works for the removal of its sewage from the north branch of the 
ISTashua Eiver and its tributaries and for its proper purification. 

Long meadow. 

Feb. 1, 1912. 
To the Board of Health of the Town of Longmeadow, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your ap- 
plication, received through Frank J. Demond, Attorney, for advice as 
to abating a nuisance caused by the discharge of sewage on certain land in 
Longmeadow, and has caused the locality to be examined by one of its 
engineers. 

The results of the examination show that the cause of complaint is the 
discharge of sewage from a sewer in Lawnwood Avenue extending west- 
erly from the neighborhood of Longmeadow Street to a point of dis- 
charge upon the ground near the westerly side of Fairview Street in 
front of a dwelling house on the latter street. The sewer discharges 
near the head of a ravine, through which it flows toward the low land 
bordering the river, and the condition of the ravine is very offensive for a 
considerable distance below the outlet. It does not appear that any 
provision has been made to purify the sewage or treat it in any way 
for the purpose of preventing a nuisance. 

This nuisance can be prevented either by taking land and construct- 
ing a filter bed at some suitable place in the neighborhood and purifying 
the sewage, under the provisions of chapter 49, section 1, of the Revised 
Laws, or by disposing of the sewage in connection with the system of 
sewers in the section of the town farther north. 

Feb. 1, 1912. 
To the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Longmeadow, 3Iass. 

Gentlemen : — A recent examination of the sewage disposal areas 
used by the town of Longmeadow shows that the conditions at the north- 
erly area, located about one-quarter of a mile northeast of the Long- 



164 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

meadow railroad station on the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad, are very objectionable and that a very serious nuisance existed 
there during the latter part of 1911. At that time the entire flow of 
sewage was being discharged upon one of the small filters and was over- 
flowing thence into the adjacent swamp which is a breeding ground 
for great numbers of insects, especially mosquitoes. It is evident that 
this filtration area is inadequate for the proper disposal of the quantity 
of sewage now discharged upon it, the combined area of the filter beds 
amounting only to about 0.1 of an acre, while, for the proper purification 
of the quantity of sewage flowing from this section of the town, an area 
of at least 1 acre of properly constructed filters is required for present 
needs. Moreover, as this portion of the town is apparently increasing 
rapidly in population, it is likely that a still larger area will soon be 
required. 

There appears to be an abundant supply of sand suitable for the 
purification of sewage in the bluffs in the neighborhood of the filtration 
area, and it is probable that an adequate area of filter beds for the treat- 
ment of all of the sewage of this section of the town can be constructed 
in this region without serious difficulty. v 

The Board recommends that the town take up without delay the ques- 
tion of the proper disposal of the sewage now discharged at this filtra- 
tion area and either construct adequate filter beds or provide for the 
proper disposal of the sewage in some other way. 

The conditions at the southerly filtration area, where it appears that 
new works for the disposal of the sewage were constructed in 1910, were 
not objectionable when examined in the latter part of 1911, but it is 
evident that the quantity of sewage discharged upon these filters already 
equals the amount which they can receive and purify properly; and, in 
order to provide for the growth of this section of the town, this filtra- 
tion area should be considerably enlarged. 

July 11, 1912. 
To the Board of Selectmen, Longmeadow, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — On Feb. 1, 1912, the State Board of Health sent you 
a communication stating that the conditions at the northerly sewage dis- 
posal area, located about a quarter of a mile northeast of the Long- 
meadow railroad station of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad, were very objectionable, that a very serious nuisance existed 
there during the latter part of 1911, and recommending that the town 
provide for the proper disposal of the sewage at that filtration area, 
either by the construction of additional filter beds or by the disposal of 
the sewage in some other way. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 165 

Recent examinations of the filtration area by one of the engineers of 
the Board show tJiat the largest of the three filter beds has been washed 
out apparently by the discharge of sewage to a depth of from 1 to 2 
feet in many places, and that the sewage has an unobstructed passage 
from the distributing trough through which it is discharged on the 
filter across the bed to the adjacent swamp. One of the two smaller 
filter beds was flooded with sewage and not in a condition for satisfactory 
operation, while the other was covered with sludge. 

The State Board of Health finds that the water of the adjacent 
swamp is polluted by these disposal works and that they are a source of 
nuisance by reason of inadequate capacity and negligence and inefficiency 
in their maintenance and operation, and notice is hereby given that, act- 
ing in accordance with the provisions of chapter 433 of the Acts of the 
year 1909, the Board requires such enlargement or improvement of the 
works and changes in the method of operation thereof as are necessary for 
the proper maintenance and operation of the works and the efficient puri- 
fication and disposal of the sewage. 

Malden (Boston Eubbee Shoe Company). 

Nov. 7, 1912. 

To the Boston Rubber Shoe Company, Maiden, Mass., Mr. W. E. Piper, 

Superintendent. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Oct. 7, 1912, the following application for advice as to the disposal of the 
wastes from your factory in Maiden : — 

Some years ago there was some question raised in regard to the pollution 
of the Maiden River. We are at present making- plans to connect our factory 
with the sewer which the city has just constructed. We should be pleased to 
have the opinion of your Board in regard to the disposition of the industrial 
wastes from our factoiy. This is the waste water from washing the rubber 
and the waste water from our dye house. 

In response to this request the Board has caused a further examina- 
tion to be made of the wastes from your factory and has caused samples 
of certain wastes to be analyzed. 

The results are much the same as those of a previous examination 
made in the year 1908. The wastes from the washing of cotton cloth 
contain a large amount of organic matter, and the wastes from the proc- 
esses of dyeing contain not only much organic matter but much color- 
ing matter, and these wastes have a very objectionable effect upon the 
river into which they are discharged. The wastes from the boiling of 



166 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

crude rubber are also extremely objectionable, containing a great quan- 
tity of organic matter, and all of these wastes should be diverted from 
the river and disposed of into the sewers. The wastes from the wash- 
ing of crude rubber also contain much dirt and organic matter which 
should be kept out of the river. There is also a small amount of waste 
from the carbonizing of old rubber which is objectionable and should be 
disposed of into the sewers. Some of the wastes from the factory are 
discharged ordinarily at a high temperature and would be objectionable if 
admitted to the sewers without cooling. 

The Board recommends that all of the wastes mentioned be collected 
in a settling tank of suitable size to provide sedimentation for a period 
of not less than six hours before ihey are discharged into the sewers. 
With suitable settling tanks and proper provisions for cooling, these 
wastes can, in the opinion of the Board, be discharged into the sewers 
without objection. 

There remains a considerable amount of waste water from the process 
of washing the cloth after dyeing, and, as this waste is not highly colored 
and contains comparatively little organic matter, it is probable that 
after sedimentation it can be discliarged into the river without creating 
objectionable conditions. 

There appears to be a sufficient area available in the neighborhood of 
the factory for the construction of the necessary settling tanks and beds 
for draining the sludge matter withdrawn from the tanks, and it is un- 
likely that serious objection will be caused by such works if they are 
properly cared for. 

The Board recommends that the necessary sedimentation tanks, sludge 
beds and cooling works be constructed in accordance with the plans and 
imder the supervision of an engineer of experience in the design and 
consti;uction of such works. 

MtLFOUD. Mabch 7. 1912. 

To the Board of Seiver Commissioners, Milford, Mass., Mr. Feed E. Wood, 

Chairman. 

Gentlemen : — In response to vour request for information as to the 
condition of the Milford sewage disposal beds and the character of the 
attention they receive, the Board has examined such records as to the 
operation of the beds as are available and has examined the results of 
analyses of sewage and efBuent from the works. 

The results of the examination show that the purification of the 
sewage has been at most times satisfactory since the operation of the 
works was begun early in 1909. In 1911 the effluent contained a con- 
siderably less quantity of nitrates during most of the year than in the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 167 

previous year, and the organic matter, as shown by the albuminoid 
ammonia, was higher, on the whole, than in the previous year. 

The information submitted to the Board as to the care of the works 
shows that complaint has at times been made of objectionable odors, 
probably due to the method of disposal of the sludge, which is drawn 
from the tanks, partially dried upon a sludge bed, and subsequently 
deposited upon land in the neighborhood of the works. Some of these de- 
posits have been so located that the odor from them has been carried to 
neighboring dwelling houses, but since attention was called to these ob- 
jectionable conditions no further complaint has been made. 

During much of last year the beds received less care than is necessary 
to keep their surfaces in proper condition, and the analyses of the 
effluent indicate that there was a slight deterioration in the efficiency of 
the purification of the sewage daring 1911 as com.pared with 1910. 

The plan carried on last year of allowing the sewage to be discharged 
automatically for considerable periods onto a particular set of beds, and 
emptying the tank only at infrequent intervals, evidently gives less satis- 
factory results than if all of the beds, except those out of use for re- 
pairs or cleaning, were used each day and the sewage distributed as evenly 
as practicable upon them in proportion to the quantity they are capable 
of receiving. 

A^Hiile the results of the operation of the works, so far as the purifica- 
tion of the. sewage is concerned, have thus far been reasonably satisfactory 
it is necessary, in the opinion of the Board, that the filters be given more 
care in future, especially by securing a more even distribution of the 
sewage to all of the filters and by such attention to the surfaces of the 
beds as will keep them at all times in proper working condition. 

Milton (New York, New Haven & Hartford Eailroad Station). 

May 2, 1912. 

To the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company, Boston, Mass 

Mr. F. A. Farnham, Attorney. 

GentlemJ':n : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
April 5, 1912, the following application for advice as to the disposal of 
the sewage from the new passenger station at Milton: — 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Raih'oad Company has completed 
a new passentrer station in Milton and desires to put it in operation as soon 
as aiTangements can be made for the disposal of the sewaffe from that station. 
We have designed a private sewage dis]:>osa] plant, and have submitted plans 
of the same to the Milton board of health. We are informed that that board 
is not satisfied that our scheme is adequate. 

In pursuance of the provisions of Revised Laws, chapter 75, section 117, 



168 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

we submit to your Board our proposed sj'stem for sewage disposal, together 
with plan, for your advice. We respectfully request your advice as to the 
adequacy and propriety of the proposed system, and as to such changes, if 
any, as you may wish to have made; and, further, that you communicate your 
views in the premises to the board of health of the town of Milton. 

The system briefly described is as follows : the sewage will discharge fii-st 
into a water-tight septic tank from which the liquid contents will be syphoned 
into the disposal tank, which would be located in soil which we have satisfied 
ourselves is sufficiently porous for the purpose. The septic tank would be 
cleaned out as often as necessary. The dimensions of the disposal tank are 
to be such that the absorption surface will be much in excess of what is cal- 
culated to be necessary to take care of the liquid that will enter the tank. No 
water from the disposal tank could possibly reach the Neponset River which 
is more than 400 feet distant at its nearest point. 

There is no sewer in Milton into which the station sewage could be dis- 
charged by gravity, and, furthei'more, we believe it to be a correct statement 
that the station is not situated upon ground abutting upon any street in which 
there is a sewer. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its 
engineers and has considered the plans and the information presented 
therewith. 

Test pits at the site of the proposed cesspool show that the elevation 
of the ground water at the present time, when it is probably the highest 
of the year, is about 5 feet below the surface of the ground. The soil 
in which the test pits were sunk consists of various materials used in fill- 
ing the site, some of which are very porous. The quantity of sewage to 
be disposed of from the station, judging from the quantity of water used, 
is small, amounting probably to about 100 gallons per day, and it is 
probable, in the opinion of the Board, tliat the sewage could be disposed 
of without causing the pollution of the Neponset Eiver or any of its 
tributaries for a considerable time in the future by the proposed plan. 

The Board is informed that the ground on which the station is situated 
is at such a low level that it is impracticable to discharge the sewage 
of the station by gravity into any of the sewers of the town of Milton, 
and the Board is further informed that there are two other cesspools 
at dwelling houses in this neighborhood which are too low to be admitted 
to existing sewers. While the sewage of these places can be disposed of in 
such a way as to avoid polluting the ISTeponset Eiver or its tributaries, the 
Board recognizes the desirability of discontinuing the use of cesspools in 
the neighborhood of a thickly settled community, and believes that it is 
desirable that some more suitable arrangement should be made whereby 
the sewage from the station and the dwelling houses in question can 
all be pumped to the neighboring sewers. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 169 



Montague. 

May 2, 1912. 
To the Committee on Sewerage of the Town of Montague, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
April 1, 1912, an application for advice relative to the sewerage and 
sewage disposal of the village of Montague, accompanied by plans show- 
ing four schemes for the collection and disposal of the sewage. 

Two of these schemes provide for collecting the sewage of the greater 
part of the village, excluding, however, all of Union Street and most of 
North and Central streets, and for disposing of the sewage by discharg- 
ing it into the Saw Mill Eiver, either on the westerly side of the river, 
about 250 feet below the lower of the two dams near the village, or 
through an outlet on the easterly side of the river at the Ferry Street 
bridge farther down stream. 

A third scheme provides for the collection of the sewage of all of the 
village, except a few houses on North Street and Northfield Road, and 
for conveying it easterly through Central Street to the junction of 
Union Street, whence the main sewer would be laid across private land 
northerly to the Saw Mill Eiver east of North Street. 

The fourth scheme provides a more limited sewerage than any of the 
others, with an outlet through North Street and thence easterly to the 
same poinfe of discharge into the Saw Mill Eiver as proposed in the 
third scheme. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its en- 
gineers and has considered the plans presented. 

Of these plans the third scheme, which provides for collecting the 
sewage from all of the village except North Street and Northfield Eoad, 
appears likely to serve all portions of the village more completely than 
either of the others ; and a sewer could be laid in North Street whenever 
needed to connect with this scheme. This plan would also have the 
advantage that, by laying a short branch in the easterly part of Central 
Street and connecting with the main sewer at the junction of Central 
and Union streets, all the sewage could be diverted from a drain which 
now passes through Central Street and discharges into the canal, and 
the drain could then be used exclusively for the removal of surface 
water. 

Under all of the schemes it is proposed to discharge the sewage di- 
rectly into the Saw Mill Eiver. either at a point east of the northerly 
end of North Street or at one of two points below the dams near the 
lower end of the village. The quantity of water flowing in the Saw 
Mill Eiver during much of the year is no doubt ample for the thorough 



170 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

dilution of all of the sewage that would be discharged from the village, 
but in the drier portion of the year, and especially in dry years, the 
dilution would be very much less, and there is danger that the direct 
discharge of sewage into tliis stream without treatment might create 
objectionable conditions after the sewerage system shall have come 
into general use. Under these (nrcumstances it is essential, in the opinion 
of the Board, that in the design for the construction of the works pro- 
vision be made for the purification of the sewage. The conditions for 
purifying sewage by intermittent filtration appear to be very favorable 
in the area north of the Saw Mill Eiver between Goddard and Pond 
brooks, and it is probable that filter beds for the purification of sewage 
could be constructed in that locality at such a level that all of the 
sewage of the village, if the sewers were constructed under the third 
scheme mentioned, could be delivered upon them by gravity. 

It is probable, also, that the sewage could be purified at some point 
below the dams northeast of the village, but a longer sewer would be 
required to reach any suitable filtration area in this region, and the 
cost would probably be considerably greater than the cost of disposing 
of the sewage in the region between Goddard and Pond brooks. 

Considering the circumstances, the Board recommends that the sewers 
be constructed in accordance with the third scheme mentioned, discharg- 
ing into a main sewer leading from the junction of Central and Union 
streets northerly toward the Saw Mill Eiver, with a tributary sewer in 
Central Street east of Union Street to divert the sewage from the 
present sewer in that street. Since the sewage will doubtless have to be 
purified, if the serious pollution of the river is to be prevented, it is 
very important that the sewers be constructed strictly upon the separate 
plan and that all surface and roof water and ground drainage be ex- 
cluded from them so far as practicable. The existing sewer in Central 
Street can be used for the reinoval of surface water, and other drains 
can be built for the disposal of surface water discharging into the river 
or canals at any convenient point. 

On account of tlie small size of the proposed sewers, it is essential that 
the grades shall be such that they will be self-cleansing so far as prac- 
ticable, and the Board recommends that the sewers in this system be laid 
at such grades that the velocity will be at least 2 feet per second. 

The Board further recommends that investigations be made for a 
sewage disposal area in the region between Goddard and Pond brooks 
north of the Saw Mill Piver, and that plans be prepared for the future 
disposal of the sewage at some suitable place in that locality. During 
the construction of the works a temporary outlet into the Saw Mill 
Eiver is permissible, but such outlet should not be continued for a period 
of more than five years. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 171 

Dec. 5, 1912. 

To the Committee on Sewerage of the Town of Montague, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has received from your 
engineers a plan showing the proposed change in the location of the main 
outfall sewer for the proposed system of sewerage in the village of 
Montague from that shown upon plans submitted by you earlier in the 
year and referred to in a comnmui cation of the Board to jou under date 
of May 2, 1912. 

According to the plan it is now proposed to construct the main outfall 
sewer from the corner of Central and Union streets northerly through 
private land at a somewhat higher elevation than originally proposed, the 
sewage to be discharged temporarily into Saw Mill Eiver near the point 
originally selected. There appears to be no objection to the construction 
of the sewer in the location shown upon this plan, but the Board advises 
that the temporary outlet be located at a point about 50 feet north of 
that shown upon the plan, in order that the sewage may be discharged 
into the current of the stream. 

Newburyport (jSTewburyport Building Association). 

Nov. 22, 1912. 
To the Newburyport Building Association, Newhuryport, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Nov. 1, 1912, an application for its advice as to the discharge of the 
sewage and surface water from a new shoe factory of the Newburyport 
Building Association into the Merrimack Eiver at the end of Pearson's 
wharf, and in response to this application has caused the locality to be 
examined by one of its engineers and has examined the plan presented 
with the application. 

It appears that the proposed shoe factory is to be located about 180 
feet northeast of Merrimack Street and that it will extend from this 
point about 200 feet toward the river. The plan presented shows that 
the proposed elevation of the floor level of the factory is about 6.5 feet 
above high tide at Newburyport, and information submitted to the Board 
indicates that this floor level is about 7 inches above the top of the main 
sewer of the city in Merrimack Street. 

Judging from this information there appears to the Board no doubt 
that it is practicable, by means of a suitable pipe properly laid, to dis- 
charge by gravity all of the sewage and manufacturing waste from this 
factory into the main sewer of the city. It is not advisable, in the 
opinion of the Board, that the number of sewer outlets discharging into 
the Merrimack River in the city of Newburyport should be increased, 
and the Board recommends that the sewage and manufacturing waste 



172 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

from this building be discharged into the city sewer and the construc- 
tion of a sewer outlet into the Merrimack Eiver avoided. 

There is no objection, in the opinion of the Board, to the discharge 
of roof water or other ground or surface drainage, if unpolluted by sew- 
age, directly into the Merrimack Eiver or any tributary watercourse at 
the nearest convenient point, and such drainage should not be discharged 
into the sewerage system of the city. 

It is advisable that in the further development of the company's land 
the buildings should be constructed at a higher level. 

Palmer (Bondsville). 

May 2, 1912. 

To the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Palmer, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — The State Board of Health received from you on 

March 28, 1912, the following application for advice as to a proposed 

plan for the construction of a sewer in the village of Bondsville : — 

At the annual town meeting, held March 25, the town voted to construct 
a sewer in the village of Bondsville, which would empty into the Swift River. 
We are sending you a copy of the vote of the town, also, under separate 
cover, a blue print showing the proposed location, upon which we desire your 
approval. 

The application is accompanied by a plan showing the location of a 
system of sewers in State, Pleasant, Crawford, High and Main streets, 
with an outlet through private land into the Swift River at a point about 
1,750 feet below the State Street bridge and just below the point where 
the raceway from the lower dam joins the river. The portion of the 
sewer to be laid in private land between Main Street and the outlet as 
shown upon the plan is 15 inches in diameter, with a minimum grade of 
1.3 in 100, and the sewer in lower Main Street as shown is 12 inches 
in diameter, with a minimum grade of 0.52 in 100. It appears that it 
is proposed to construct several catch basins along Main Street and con- 
nect them with the proposed sewer, and that it is probable that, as the 
system is extended, other catch basins will be connected with the sewers. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engi- 
neers and has considered the plan presented. 

It appears that at the present tim.e there are two sewer outlets dis- 
charging into the Swift River from the village, — one for a system of 
sewers designed to serve the buildings of the Boston Duck Company 
in the northerly part of the village, and the other for a sewer built by the 
town to serve a portion of State Street between the river and Pleasant 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 173 

Street in the central part of the village. The northerly outlet discharges 
into the lower mill pond on the easterly side of the river, in the village, 
and is apparently partly or completely submerged at all times. The 
town sewer in State Street is carried over the canal and discharges into 
the river just below the State Street bridge at an elevation about 15 feet 
above the ordinary level of the water in the river. When examined the 
outlet of this sewer was clogged and the sewage was flowing out through 
an opening in the pipe and finding its way into the canal. 

The quantity of water flowing in the Swift Eiver in dry weather is 
sufficient for the thorough dilution of the sewage discharged from the 
village at the present time. 

The outlet selected for the system of sewerage which it is now pro- 
posed to construct is located several hundred feet from any dwelling 
house, and if carried well out into the river, so that the sewage will 
at all times be discharged below .extreme low water, it is unlikely to 
cause objectionable conditions in the neighborhood. 

The topography of the village is such that it appears to be practicable 
to extend the proposed sewer through ]\Iain Street to intercept the sew- 
age now discharged at the existing outlet of the Boston Duck Company 
and convey it to the proposed new outlet, and in the opinion of the 
Board it is very desirable that the plan of sewerage now proposed be 
extended so as to intercept the sewage now being discharged into the 
river at that point and to discontinue the use of that outlet as well 
as the outlet at State Street. 

It is probable that with the continued growth of population in the 
valley of the Chicopee Eiver and its tributaries it will be necessary be- 
fore many years to purify the sewage of the village of Bondsville before 
it is discharged into the river, and under the circumstances it is very 
important that all surface water and, so far as practicable, ground drain- 
age be excluded from the sewers so that the quantity of sewage to be 
treated when purification becomes necessar\' may be kept as small as 
possible. The Board recommends that no catch basins, roof leaders or 
other drains receiving surface or groimd water be connected with the 
proposed sewers. For the removal of surface water, roof water and 
gi'ound drainage separate drains should be provided, and this drainage 
— if unpolluted by sewage — can be discharged into the river or the 
canals without objection at the most convenient points. 

With the modification herein suggested the Board is of the opinion 
that the proposed plan is an appropriate one for the disposal of the sew- 
age of the village at the present time. 



174 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Stoughton. 

Feb. 19, 1912. 

To Messrs. Frank I. Capen^ Harry C. Southworth and Edgar F. Leonard, 
Sub-committee of the Committee on Sewerage, Stoughton, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Feb. Q, 1912, a report and plan recently prepared by your engineer 
describing two methods of sewerage and sewage disposal for the town 
of Stoughton, — both being modifications of plans already proposed, — 
and you request the advice of the Board as to whether either of these 
modified plans would be acceptable for the collection and disposal of the 
sewage of the town. 

Of the plans submitted, one is a modification of the plan of 1909, 
which provided for the disposal of the sewage upon filter beds in West 
Stoughton, while the other is in some respects similar to a plan first 
proposed by the Massachusetts Drainage Commission and provides for 
the disposal of the sewage upon land near Britton's Pond, a short dis- 
tance southwest of the main village. Both plans provide for the construc- 
tion of sewers in a limited number of streets in the village, chiefly those 
in the densely populated area in the center of the town and those upon 
which factories are located. The population served would apparently 
be aboiit the same in each case, but in each case certain streets would 
be served by one plan which would not be reached by the other. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engi- 
neers and has considered the plans presented. 

The area of filter beds which it is proposed to prepare in connection 
with the plan of disposing of the sewage near Britton's Pond — amount- 
ing to 2 acres — is so small that it is doubtful, in the opinion of the 
Board, even if the sewers were built with great care and the leakage 
reduced to a minimum, whether this area would be sufficient to provide 
for the efficient purification of the sewage and manufacturing wastes 
that would be discharged into the sewers in the beginning. In any case 
it is probable that in a few years the works would have to be enlarged. 

The soil at the proposed location of these filters is not suitable for 
the purification of sewage, and, as all of, the materials used in the con- 
struction of the filters would have to be hauled a considerable distance, 
the cost of construction of the works would be large in proportion to the 
area. 

Under this plan the sewage disposal works would be located very near 
the thickly populated part of the town, where, so far as can be judged 
from the information available to the Board, there would be a large 
number of dwelling houses — probably fifty or more — within about a 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 175 

quarter of a mile of the disposal works. The prevailing winds in sum- 
mer would tend to carry odors from the disposal works toward the thickly 
settled part of the town, and, in view of all the circumstances, the Board 
does not advise the construction of works for disposing of the sewage of 
the town at the location proposed near Britton's Pond. 

The plan for disposing of the sewage near West Stoughton is much 
the same as that presented to the Board in 1910, but since a smaller 
population is to be served than was proposed in that plan the revised 
plan provides for reducing the size of the main sewer, in that portion 
of its length where it would operate as an inverted siphon, from 18 inches 
to 12 inches in diameter, and for a reduction in the area of the filter 
beds. 

The plan provides for constructing at West Stoughton a dosing tank 
and filter beds having an aggregate area of 3 acres, the filter beds to be 
constructed in the most favorable portions of the West Stoughton area 
where, on account of the porosity of the soil, the construction of under- 
drainage is deemed unnecessary. 

The filter beds at West Stoughton would be located in a very sparsely 
populated region, and under the existing conditions it is improbable 
that odors from the filter beds would be noticeable at any dwelling houses 
in the region. 

The soil of much of the area is very coarse and porous, and it is likely 
that a limited area of filter beds can be constructed there which will 
operate satisfactorily without underdrainage. 

It appears that the cost of works for disposing of the sewage at West 
Stoughton will be considerably less than the cost of the proposed system 
with disposal works near Britton's Pond, and when an enlargement of 
the works becomes necessary it is evident that, while the cost of the 
sewers under either plan would be much the same, the cost of additional 
filter beds near West Stoughton would be much less than in the neigh- 
borhood of Britton's Pond. 

A^liile it may be necessary, in order to comply with the law relative 
to the prevention of the pollution of the Neponset Eiver, to enlarge the 
system within the village, the results of the examination show that of 
the two plans presented the plan which provides for disposing of the 
sewage at West Stoughton is, in the opinion of the Board, in all respects 
preferable to the plan of disposal upon land near Britton's Pond, and the 
Board recommends the adoption of the plan presented with the disposal 
works at West Stoughton. 



176 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Wakefield. 

Jan. 16, 1912. 

To the Wakefield Water and Sewerage Board, Wakefield, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Nov. 29, 1911, an application, under the authority of chapter 377 of the 
Acts of the year 1900, requesting the approval hy the Board of a plan 
submitted on Nov. 20, 1911, providing for the construction of sewers 
in certain portions of the town of Wakefield. 

"While the greater portion of the proposed sewers shown upon this 
plan is to be constructed in that portion of the town east and south of 
Crystal Lake, between the lake and the Wakefield-Melrose line, it is 
also proposed to construct sewers in certain streets north and northwest 
of Crystal Lake, these latter sewers being extensions of existing sewers. 

According to the plan submitted, the territory east and south of Crys- 
tal Lake has been divided for sewerage purposes into ten districts, the 
sewage from nine of which is to be discharged into the main trunk 
sewer of the town, which sewer connects with the North Metropolitan 
sewerage system on the westerly side of the Boston and Maine Eailroad 
and the Wakefield-Melrose line; and the sewage from the remaining 
district is to be discharged into a metropolitan sewer in Greenwood 
Street at the AVakefield-Melrose line. 

The plan also provides for the construction of a system of underdrains 
beneath the sewers in Greenwood Avenue and streets adjacent thereto, 
the outlet for this system to be into Crystal Brook, a tributary of the 
Saugus River, at a point about 1,000 feet north of the Wakefield-Mel- 
rose line. 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 377 of the Acts of 1900, 
the State Board of Health gave a hearing at its office, Room 143, State 
House, Boston, on Jan. 4, 1912, at 11 o'clock, due notice of said hearing 
having been given by publication in newspapers in the town of Wake- 
field, and as required by section 17 of said chapter 377 notice was also 
sent to the city of Lynn and to its Avater board. 

After the hearing, at which no one appeared to oppose the plan, the 
Board, upon consideration, voted to approve the plan of sewerage sub- 
mitted by you on Nov. 20, 1911, entitled, " IMap of the Sewerage System 
Proposed for Southerly Parts of Wakefield, Mass. Charles A. Dean, 
James H. Kimball, M.D., Thomas G. O'Connell, Wakefield Water and 
Sewerage Board. H. H. Hawkesworth, Engineer. Scale: 1 inch = 400 
feet. October, 1911," and also the system of underdrainage shown upon 
a plan submitted by your engineer on Dec. 27, 1911, entitled, "Plan 
showing Proposed Underdrains, to accompany petition for Proposed 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 177 

Sewers in Southerly Portions of Wakefield, Mass., by the Wakefield 
Water and Sewerage Board, Nov. 1911. Scale: 1 inch = 400 feet. 
H. H. Hawkesworth, Engineer." 

The Board recommends that the grade of the proposed 12-inch sewer 
in Hanson Street be increased from 0.30 to 0.40 per cent, in order to 
provide it with the same gTade, and consequently capacity, as that of the 
sewer in Main Street which will discharge into the proposed sewer in 
Hanson Street. 

Waee. Oct. 3, 1912. 

To the Board of Health, Ware, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for advice as to measures 
necessary to remove permanently the unsanitary conditions of a tract 
of land in Ware, lying between West and Main streets, and known as the 
Cheever Swamp, the State Board of Health has caused the locality to 
be examined by one of its engineers and has considered the information 
available as to the present conditions affecting the swamp. 

It appears from the information presented to the Board that the 
swamp is a small one, having an area of perhaps 3 or 4 acres, and that 
drainage from it discharges through a pipe into the Ware Eiver south 
of West Street. There are numerous dwelling houses bordering the 
north side of the swamp along West Main Street and others along West 
Street, and sewage from a number of the tenements in these houses is 
discharged upon the ground and finds its way into the swamp. There 
is no question in the opinion of the Board that the conditions at 
present existing at this place constitute a very objectionable nuisance 
which should be abated with as little delay as possible. 

The first step necessary in order to secure relief from this nuisance 
will be the collection and removal of all sewage from the dwelling houses 
in the neighborhood which now finds its way into the swamp, and the 
strict enforcement of a rule prohibiting the deposit of garbage or any 
other objectionable matter upon the swamp or in its neighborhood. For 
the further relief of the objectionable conditions existing in this teiTi- 
tory, it is advisable to provide a more efficient drainage by laying a 
drain of suitable size at a sufficiently low level to prevent water from 
collecting on the swamp. Judging from the State map, the bottom of the 
swamp is at a considerable elevation above the Ware Eiver south of West 
Street, and it will not be a difficult matter to provide a channel which 
will keep the swamp well drained at all times. It will probably also be 
advisable to cover the surface of the swamp with a layer of earth at least 
1 foot in thick-ness, removing first all deposits of foul organic matter 
that may be found upon or about the swamp. 



178 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The Board recommends that, before deciding definitely upon plans for 
relieving the nuisance, you have an investigation made by an engineer of 
experience in matters relating -to drainage and sewerage, including the 
necessary surveys, to determine the best practicable plan of providing 
drainage and sevi^erage for this territory, including any adjacent lands 
which may require consideration in connection with the relief of this 
area. As soon as this information is available, the Board will, if you 
so request, examine the plans and advise you promptly as to the best 
practicable method of securing permanent relief from the existing nui- 
sance. 

Winchester (Beggs & Cobb Tanning Company). 

July 19, 1912. 

To the Beggs & Cobb Tanning Company, Winchester, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The Board has examined the conditions affecting the 
disposal of sludge from the southerly settling tank in use at your tan- 
nery, and has made experiments upon draining this sludge so that the 
volume to be handled may be reduced as much as practicable. Under 
present conditions the semi-liquid sludge, which is discharged from the 
tank about once in three or four weeks, apparently amounts to about 125 
cubic yards on each discharge, and at the present time this material is 
deposited upon filled land not underdrained, so that it dries very slowly. 
In consequence, a large area of partially dried sludge is constantly 
exposed to the air in the neighborhood of the tannery, and the condi- 
tions existing there are very objectionable. 

The experiments of the Board indicate that by depositing the sludge 
upon sludge beds composed of sand, cinders or sawdust, at least 12 inches 
in depth and well underdrained, the volume of sludge decreases rapidly, 
and within a few hours may be reduced to one-half the volume discharged 
from the tank; and the experiments further show that the material be- 
comes sufficiently dry for ready handling after three or four days' dry- 
ing. The area of sludge bed required, judging from the number of times 
the settling tank was emptied last year, would be from one-third to one- 
half an acre. It is desirable that the sludge area be arranged so that the 
beds will not exceed 12 to 15 feet in width, if practicable, and in case 
objectionable odors are given off while drying in summer, the sludge 
after deposition should be covered with earth or other suitable material 
to prevent odors arising therefrom. It is probable, however, that seri- 
ously objectionable conditions will not occur if the sludge is removed 
promptly as soon as it is dried to such consistency that it can be con- 
veniently handled. Sufficient underdrainage should be provided and the 
water collected by these drains discharged into the sewer. The sludge 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 179 

beds should be designed and constructed under the supervision of an 
engineer of experience in such work. The Board recommends that suit- 
able sludge beds be provided at this tannery as soon as possible. 

"VYoBUEN (H. W. Clark Leather Company). 

April 17, 1912. 
To the H. W. Clark Leather Company, North Woburn, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you, 
through your engineer, Mr. Eobert Spurr Weston of Boston, the follow- 
ing application for advice as to the disposal of the wastes from your 
tannery at North Woburn : — 

Enclosed herewith please find a copy of the report which I have just made 
to the H. W. Clark Leather Company, North Woburn, regarding the disposal 
of the waste from their tannery, in which I have recommended the disposal 
of their waste by means of thorough subsidence and filtration through trick- 
ling filters, with the disposal of the sludge from the tanks on beds of cinders 
and Sand. 

I have desig-ned the works as elastic as possible, and have provided for a 
25 per cent, increase in the present volume of waste. I have also provided 
for the construction of sand filters and for pumping the effluent from the 
sludge beds to the settling tank for retreatment should future conditions 
demand a very much higher degree of purification. 

The application was accompanied by a plan showing the general lay- 
out of the proposed works and by the results of analyses of the tannery 
waste. 

The total quantity of waste from the tannery is estimated to be about 
80,000 gallons per day. The plan provides for collecting the waste in 
a pump well from which it is to be raised to two tanks 16 feet square, 
with walls 8 feet deep resting upon inverted pyramidal bottoms 8 feet 
in depth at the apex, the aggregate capacity of the tanks to be 40,000 
gallons. From these tanks the effluent is to be discharged by gravity 
upon a trickling filter having an area of one-tenth of an acre, from which 
the waste, after passing through sand filters, will flow into the head 
waters of the Aberjona River. 

Sludge beds, having an area of one-eighth of an acre and constructed 
of 12 inches in cinders, covered with 6 inches of sand and underdrained 
by 4-inch tile pipes, are to be provided for the disposal of the sludge. 

The trickling filter is to be constructed of coke or gravel 6 feet in 
depth, and for the sand filters to be used in the final treatment of the 
effluent suitable soil is available in the neighborhood. 



180 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The Board has caused the localit}^ to be examined and has considered 
the plans presented and concludes that the proposed works, if properly 
constructed and operated, will provide satisfactorily for the purification 
of the waste from this tannery, provided the quantity is no greater 
than estimated and the quality is about as sho^vn by the analyses sub- 
mitted. 

The filter beds for the final treatment of the effluent by filtration 
through sand are not shown in detail, but an area of an acre Avould prob- 
ably be ample for the purpose. The works are located in an isolated 
district, and it is not likely that objectionable odors from them will be 
noticeable at any dwelling house. 

The Board recommends that works for the treatment of these wastes 
be installed as soon as practicable so that further pollution of the Aber- 
jona Eiver therefrom may cease. 

Miscellaneous. 

The following is the substance of the action of the Board during the 
year in reply to applications for advice relative to the pollution of 
streams and miscellaneous matters : — 

Agawam (Agawam Company). 

Oct. 3, 1912. 
To the Agawam Company, Agawam, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Aug. 26, 1913, an application for advice regarding the pollution of the 
brook below your mill which now receives the waste from the dye house, 
wool washers and cloth washers, and in response to this application 
has caused the locality to be examined and has considered the informa- 
tion presented, including the suggestions of your engineers as to treat- 
ing these wastes in a storage tank, and subsequently applying them to a 
filter bed having an area of about 200 square feet. 

It appears from the information presented to the Board that the quan- 
tity of waste discharged from the various processes now amounts to 
between 30,000 and 40,000 gallons per day. Judging from the informa- 
tion presented as to the amount of these wastes and from the usual 
character of such wastes, it is probable that they could be purified by 
sedimentation and filtration as proposed, provided a sufficient area of 
land suitable for the purpose could be secured. It would be advisable 
to provide as much as three-quarters of an acre of sand filters, and it is 
probable that the wastes could be sufficiently purified on such an area, 
unless the quantity of wool-scouring wastes shall be much greater than 
appears to be the case at the present time. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 181 

The land about the factory does not appear to be composed of soil 
well suited for the purification of these wastes by filtration, and it would 
probably be necessary, in order to effect their sanitary purification, either 
to pump them to suitable land at a considerable distance from the works 
or to construct artificial filters near the factoiy. It is possible that, for 
the present, sufficient relief from the pollution of the stream could be 
secured by thorough sedimentation and by equalizing the discharge of 
the effluent into the stream so that an approximately constant quantity 
could be discharged throughout the day while the mill is in operation 
and water is flowing in the brook. In case it should then be found nec- 
essary to provide further purification, the necessary filters of suitable 
design could then be added. In the design of the settling tanks it is im- 
portant to make provision for the frequent discharge of the sludge there- 
from, and underdrained sludge beds should be constructed to receive 
the discharge from the tank. The sludge should be removed after dry- 
ing to some suitable place for final disposal. 

The Board recommends that plans for the collection and treatment 
of the wastes be prepared as soon as practicable, and when this informa- 
tion is available the Board will, if you so request, give you further advice 
as to the disposal of these wastes. 



Boston (Metropolitan Park Commission). 

July 11, 1912. 
To the Metropolitan Park Commission, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to 3'our request for advice as to the 
establishment of bathhouses at certain locations in the Metropolitan 
District, the Board has caused the locations to be examined and samples 
of the waters to be analyzed. The locations suggested are as follows : — 

1. Mystic Eiver, nearly opposite the armory building, Medford. 

3. Upper Mystic Lake, near present bathhouses. 

3. Lower Mystic Lake. 

4. Quincy shore, at any convenient point. 

5. Charles Eiver Basin, north side, near the town line between Cam- 
bridge and Watertown. 

6. Charles Eiver Basin, above the dam on the Cambridge side. 
6a. Charles Eiver Basin, below the dam on the Cambridge side. 

7. Charles Eiver Basin, south side, near Faneuil playground. 

8. Charles Eiver, Waltham, between Waltham Watch Factory and 
Moody Street bridge. 

9. Houghton's or Hoosicwhisick pond. Blue Hill Eeservation. 

10. Neponset Eiver, Milton Lower Mills. 



182 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

An examination of the water of Upper Mystic Lake, at the location of 
the proposed bathhouse, does not show any condition which would appear 
to make it objectionable for bathing. It is probable that the quality of 
the water of Lower Mystic Lake would also be satisfactory for that pur- 
pose. 

The location of a bathhouse in the Mystic Eiver near the armory 
bridge would seem to be somewhat questionable. The separation of 
sewage from storm water in certain districts from which sewage was 
formerly discharged into Alewife Brook is not yet complete and sewage 
is likely to be discharged into this stream at times in summer for some 
time in the future. On account of lack of rainfall thus far in the 
present summer doubtless no overflow has occurred, but after heavy rains 
it is possible that the water at the armory bridge is considerably pol- 
luted. Ordinarily the water at this location would probably not be 
objectionable for bathing. 

The water of the Charles Eiver Basin below the dam on the Cam- 
bridge side is often badly polluted by discharges from the marginal 
conduits and would not be suitable for bathing, and the water of the 
basin just above the dam on the Cambridge side probably still receives 
considerable sewage overflow and would be objectionable at times for 
bathing. At the stations indicated in the upper portion of the basin 
and at Waltham it is probable that the water would be suitable for 
bathing. The river in the neighborhood of and above these points re- 
ceives comparatively little sewage pollution for many miles. 

The water of the Neponset Eiver at the proposed location of a bath- 
house near Milton Lower Mills would be highly objectionable for 
bathing. 

The condition of the water along the Quincy shore does not appear 
to be anywhere objectionable for bathing except in the neighborhood 
of the mouth of Sachem Brook, a stream which receives considerable 
pollution in the city of Quincy. 

The water of Hoosicwhisick or Houghton's Pond is unpolluted and 
appears to be excellent for bathing. 

Nov. 22, 1912. 
To the Metropolitan Park Comwission, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Oct. 7, 1912, the following request for advice as to the fitness for bath- 
ing of the water of Charles Eiver Basin between the new "West Boston 
bridge and the bridge at Cottage Farms : — 

The city council of the city of Boston has passed an order requesting: this 
commission to inform the council whether there is not some way of keeping 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 183 

the water in the Back Bay fit for bathing. By " the water in the Back Bay " 
it is understood that the council means water in the Charles River Basin in 
the vicinity of what is commonly known as the Back Bay, the limits of which, 
in a general way, might perhaps be assumed to be Cottage Farms, and the 
new Cambridge bridge on the Boston side. The request of the council, 
therefore, would seem to involve the question as to the fitness of the water 
in the Basin between Cottage Farms and, perhaps, Cambridge bridge for 
bathing. This commission instructs me to respectfully ask if you will give 
your opinion as to whether the water in this section of the basin is fit for 
bathing, or is of such a character that its use for bathing purposes would 
be a menace to the health of the bathers. The commission would be very 
much obliged for any information you might give on this subject. 

In this connection I would note that by letter of July 11, 1912, you ex- 
pressed an opinion on the character and fitness of the water in the basin 
at certain points therein mentioned. There was only one point in the basin 
covered by that letter, however, namely, above the dam, on the Cambridge 
side, which falls within the scope of this inquiry. 

In response to this application the Board has caused the basin to be 
examined and samples of water collected at various points on both 
sides of the basin to be analyzed. 

The results of these and other examinations of the water of the basin 
show that it is affected at times in late summer and early fall, in com- 
mon with many other fresh ponds and reservoirs, — some of them used 
as sources of water supply, — by growths of microscopic organisms which 
when present in large numbers give the water a turbid appearance and a 
noticeable odor, especially when agitated in a closed vessel. These organ- 
isms have a tendency to collect on the surfaces of objects exposed to the 
water, especially in the late summer and early fall when the growth is 
most abundant, but there is no evidence that such growths even in 
drinking water are injurious to health. 

The numbers of bacteria present in the waters of the basin as shown 
by recent examinations are not excessive, but after a heavy storm, which 
causes the storm overflows to operate and dilute sewage to be discharged 
into the basin at various points, the numbers of bacteria are higher than 
under ordinary conditions, but the numbers of bacteria present in the 
water at various points in the basin after a recent storm were not mate- 
rially greater than have been found off the shores of Eevere Beach when 
large numbers of persons are bathing there or in well-cared-for swim- 
ming tanks. 

The Charles Eiver Basin still receives considerable sewage from the 
overflow of combined sewers on its tributary watershed in Boston and 
Cambridge at times of storm, and, notwithstanding that good progress 



184 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

is being made in the separation of sewage from storm water in the 
district tributary to the basin in Boston, it is probable that the basin 
will continue to receive pollution from storm overflows in diminishing 
quantity for several years in the future. 

Under the circumstances, bathing places should not be located within 
500 feet of sewage overflows, and it would be advisable for some time 
in the future to prevent bathing for a day or two after a storm which has 
caused a large overflow from the sewers. 



Brockton. 

Aug. 14, 1912. 

To the Sewer Commissioners, Brockton, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — There has been much complaint of a nuisance in the 
Salisbury Plain and Matfield rivers below Brockton, caused undoubt- 
edly by the discharge into the stream of polluting matter from vari- 
ous places in the city of Brockton. 

The objectionable conditions complained of are probably due in part 
to deposits of organic matter discharged into the stream in earlier times. 
With the completion of your new trickling filters now under construc- 
tion it should be unnecessary to discharge any sewage from Brockton 
sewers into the Salisbury Plain Eiver or its tributaries at any time. It 
does not appear that sewage has been allowed to overflow from the res- 
ervoir or any of the sewers of the city for a long time, but under pres- 
ent conditions it is possible that sewage may overflow in small quantities 
for short periods, unless care is taken to start the pumps at proper 
times. 

It is very important, in the opinion of the Board, that special care 
shall be taken in the future to avoid any danger of the overflow of sew- 
age from the Brockton sewers or reservoir into any part of the river or 
its tributaries until the enlarged works for the treatment of the sewage 
have been completed. As soon as the new works are available, it will be 
advisable to make changes at the pumping station or reservoir so that 
the danger of overflow of sewage at any time will be avoided. 

Chicopee (Springfield Provision Company and Consolidated 

Eendering Company). 

June 6, 1912. 

To the Bosch Magneto Company, Chicopee, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Aug. 16, 1911, the following petition relative to the Springfield Pro- 
vision Company in the city of Chicopee : — 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 185 

To the State Board of Health. 

Kespectfully represents to your Honorable Board the Bosch Magneto Com- 
paiiy, a corporation duly established by law, having a usual place of busi- 
ness in Chicopee, Hampden County, Mass., that the Springfield Provision 
Company, a corporation duly established by law, is occupying and using 
buildings and premises on Plaiufield Street, in said Chicopee, for the pur- 
poses of a melting and rendering establishment, and is occupying and using 
said premises as a rendering plant, and is carrying on a business of slaughter- 
ing neat cattle (including calves), sheep and swine; 

That public health, comfort and convenience require that said corjioration, 
the Springfield Provision Company, desist from further carrying on any and 
all of said trades or occupations in said buildings or premises; 

That your petitioner is a party in interest; 

Wherefore your petitioner prays that your Honorable Board shall, after 
due hearing, order that said corporation, the said Spring-field Provision Com- 
pany, desist from further carrying on any and all of said trades or occupa- 
tions in said buildings or jDremises. 

Dated at Chicopee, Mass., Aug. 10, 1911. 

Bosch Magneto Company, 
By its Attorney, 

(Signed) Charles W. Bosworth. 

On the same date a similar petition was filed by you relative to the 
Consolidated Rendering Company, and the Board at its next meeting 
appointed a hearing on these petitions on Oct. 5, 1911; but subsequently, 
at your request, the hearing was postponed and appointed for Dec. 7, 
and finally came on to be heard on Jan. 15, 1912. In addition to these 
petitions other petitions were received from representatives of the At- 
water Estate, from the city of Springfield, from the Citizens' Committee 
of One Hundred of Springfield, and from the Springfield Board of 
Trade, and these petitioners were made parties to the hearing. The 
above petitions are made in each case in duplicate, one referring to the 
Springfield Provision Company and the other to the Consolidated Ren- 
dering Company. 

It appears that the Consolidated Eendering Company has been carry- 
ing on business at its present location for about thirteen years, that the 
Springfield Provision Company has been located there about twenty- 
three years, and that the Bosch Magneto Company was established in the 
latter part of 1910. Both the works of the Springfield Provision Com- 
pany and the Consolidated Eendering Company are wholly within the 
limits of the city of Chicopee, and nine-tenths of the property of the 
Bosch Magneto Company are also within the limits of that city. 

The Board finds abundant evidence to show that in earlier years 



186 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

these works have been a source of very serious nuisances. In recent 
years the board of health of Chicopee has found it necessary and has 
regulated the management and manner of carrying on the business in 
order to diminish the objectionable odors therefrom. 

A very large number of witnesses appeared at the hearings before the 
Board, — which occupied several days, — but the testimony of appar- 
ently disinterested witnesses was of a very discordant character. It 
was, furthermore, impossible, from the evidence of those who testified 
that they smelled odors, to distinguish between odors believed to be due 
to the provision company and those thought to arise from the rendering 
works. In consequence of this the Board has found it necessary to con- 
duct an examination, both by itself and its agents, who have made such 
examinations during several weeks as are possible under the circum- 
stances; and since the beginning of warm weather the Board has itself 
examined in person the two establishments complained of and has made 
observations in the territory in the immediate vicinity of the works and 
at some more remote points at which it was stated in the course of the 
hearings that odors had been noticed apparently emanating from these 
works. 

The result of all these examinations has been a failure to discover the 
existence of noxious and objectionable odors beyond the limits of the 
property lines of the two establishments and possibly on that portion 
of Plainfield Street intermediate between the two establishments. 

It did appear, however, in the course of the hearings, that in recent 
years, and down to about the end of the summer of 1911, there had been 
justified complaints in the immediate vicinity of these works, and at 
distances as far remote as portions of the Atwater Estate, of the exist- 
ence of odors sufficiently disagreeable to interfere with the comfort of 
the residents of that portion of Springfield. 

It also appeared in evidence that there has been a considerable growth 
in recent years, throughout the portion of Springfield adjacent to these 
works, of a number of manufacturing establishments, some of which have 
produced and still produce odors more or less uncomfortable to the resi- 
dents of this portion of Springfield. 

It is found that extensive changes have been and are being made in 
both works under the requirements of the Chicopee board of health. 

It further appears that the Springfield Provision Company has made 
extensive additions to its plant and has improved its facilities for carry- 
ing on its business in such manner that it now appears to the Board 
possible that its works can continue to be carried on without causing a 
nuisance to its neighbors. 

The rendering company — necessarily a source of more disagreeable 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 187 

odors by reason of the character of its business — has not succeeded as 
yet in bringing its establishment up to the requirements which this 
business should meet in order to escape from being sometimes objection- 
able in the neighborhood. Changes are under way, however, which, in 
the opinion of the Board, will materially diminish the probability of the 
existence in the future of odors beyond the unmediate vicinity of the 
building. 

The Board does not find that the evidence before it shows that the 
public health, comfort or convenience requires that the carrying on of the 
business of these works at their present locations should be prevented; 
but, unless the carrying out of the plans for improving the conditions 
of these works shall prevent objectionable odors therefrom in the warmer 
part of the year, — which is the season, so far as appears, when odors 
are noticed from these works in the neighborhood, — the protection of the 
public health and comfort may make it necessary to discontinue the 
use of these premises for the pui-poses for which they are now used. 

While the Board recognizes the fact that business such as this has no 
proper place in the vicinity of residential districts or the recreation 
grounds provided for the people, it also understands that the business 
is essential to the needs of the community and should not be destroyed 
if it can be made unobjectionable, having due regard to the surroundings. 

Chicopee (Consolidated Eendering Company). 

Nov. 7, 1912. 
To the Board of Health of the City of Chicopee. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on Oct. 
22, 1912, an application for its advice as to a proposed new rendering 
works to be constructed by the Consolidated Eendering Company, ac- 
companied by plans showing the location and general outline of the pro- 
posed new works. Subsequently the rendering company, at the request 
of the Board, submitted the following description of the proposed new 
works : — 

The new plant will be located as shown on location plan on the south of 
boiler room and back toward the river. The first 40 feet of the building 
facing toward the street will be the edible oil house under government in- 
spection. All the product for the rendering jDlant will be received at the rear 
and toward the river bank. This product will immediately go up the elevator 
to the fourth floor where it will be immediately placed in the digesters. 

The building will be reinforced concrete throughout. There will be no 
wood whatever used in its construction. To make it more impervious to 
moisture and more sanitary, the floors will be vitrified paving brick, and the 



188 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

walls will be lined Avith a glazed vitrified brick to the height of 6 feet. 
Floors will have best possible drainage. 

Ventilation. — Two systems are proposed for the ventilation, to Avork in 
conjunction with each other; first, the burning of the hot, dry gases under 
the boilers, and second, washing and condensing in a water-scrubbing cham- 
ber the wet, steamy vapors. 

The hot, dry gases arise from the discharging of the dry, cooked scrap and 
from the tankage driers. The rooms for these processes will be thoroughly 
enclosed from the rest of the plant, and an air duct will lead from them to 
the boilers under forced draft, conveying all of the gases arising in these 
rooms and all of the air jiiassing through the rooms to the boiler furnaces. 

The boilers will be arranged in such a manner that all of the air they 
can consume in the combustion of coal will come from the rendering plant. 

The wet, steamy vapors, which arise from the tankage discharge from the 
digesters and the tankage presses, will be conveyed by a large central air 
shaft up through the building and through a large fan into a water-scrubbing 
chamber exiending CO feet horizontally along the roof. These vapors, being 
both wet and in the form of steam, are easily condensed and soluble in water. 

The scrubber will consist of banks of spray nozzles from which the water 
will discharge at about 50 pounds pressure, and discharge directly against 
a fine copper-wire screen, the process being to heat the air by the water 
spray in the direction of the air flowing directly into the screens. The spray 
banks will be about 6 feet apart, and, in the length of the scrubbing 
chamber, will give a most thorough scrubbing of the air passing through. 

About 1,000 gallons of water per minute will be required. A new pump 
will be installed for the purpose, and pains will be taken to see that this 
water comes as clean as possible from the Connecticut River. Towai'd the 
outlet tower of this scrubbing chamber Avill be placed cojjper baffle plates 
for separating the moisture from the air as it passes out. 

A gTeat many improvements will be made on the apparatus for the 
new plant. 

Tankage from the digesters has heretofore been dropped directly into the 
rendering boxes, exposing it to the atmosphere in a large room. It will 
now be connected by a pipe system to one central receiving tank and blown 
by steam pressure from each digester to this tank. This receiving tank will 
be located in a small, tight room which has its only outlet to the ventilating 
system. 

All cooking tanks, rendering tanks and driei-s are connected to vapor con- 
densers while in operation, the condensed vapor passing through a deodorizer 
tank where any gases are allowed to rise to top and vented to boiler furnaces, 
before condensed water passes to sewer. 

These improvements, with many devices for conveying the product rapidly 
from one piece of apparatus to another, and reducing very largely its ex- 
posure to the air of the room, will, undoubtedly, result in the practical 
elimination of odor that might be present in the building. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 189 

It is understood that the constraction of these works is to be begun 
without delay in order that they may be in use before next summer, and 
that as soon as the new works are completed the use of the present build- 
ings for rendering will be permanently discontinued. 

The Board has examined the plans of the proposed new works and 
concludes that in general they provide for the treatment of all of the 
odors likely to arise from this building. 

It is impracticable to consider all of the details of the proposed works 
with the information now available, but if the means proposed for col- 
lecting and disposing of the odors shall be found, in practice, not wholly 
adequate for the purpose, it is evidently practicable with such a works to 
provide further means for the disposal of the odors, if experience shall 
show that further provision for their disposal is necessary in order to 
prevent a nuisance in the neighborhood. 

The Board recommends that the construction of the works be begun 
without delay and carried out as rapidly as practicable, in order that 
the use of the present rendering works may be discontinued before next 
summer if possible. 

DiGHTON (Mount Hope Finishing Company, North Dighton). 

March 22, 1912. 

To the Mount Hope Finishing Company, North Dighton, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — A recent examination made to determine the cause of 
the serious pollution of the Three Mile Eiver and its tributaries shows 
that one of the sources of pollution is the sewage and manufacturing 
wastes discharged from your factory in North Dighton into the Three 
Mile River. 

The Board recommends that a'ou provide adequate means for the 
efficient purification of the sewage and wastes from your works before 
they are discharged into the Three Mile Eiver or any of its tributaries. 

Similar communications were sent to the following: — 

Hai-odite Finishing Company, North Dighton, 
L. Lincoln & Co., North Dighton, 
Caton Brothers, Foxborough, 
Foxborongh Steam Laundiy, Foxborough, 
Foxborough "Foundry Company, Foxborough, 
S. W. Card & Co., Mansfield, 
F. M. & .J. L. Cobb, Mansfield, 
Barrowsville Bleachery, Norton, 
Freeman & Daughady Company, Norton, 



190 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Lane Brothers' Wet Wash Laundry, Norton, 
W. A. Sturdy Manufacturing ComiDany, Norton, 
Sturdy Brothers, Norton, 
Dighton Foundry Company, Taunton, 
Westville Spinning Company, Taunton, 
Oakland Mills, Taunton. 

Haverhill. 

Dec. 26, 1912. 
To the Municipal Council, Haverhill, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In connection with investigations of the sanitary 
condition of the Merrimack River, the State Board of Health has caused 
examinations to be made of the outlets of sewers in the cities and towns 
along the stream, and, objectionable conditions having been found to 
exist at several of the sewer outlets in Haverhill, the Board makes the 
following recommendations as to relieving the objectionable conditions 
at these outlets : — 

The total number of sewer outlets examined is 33, 26 being located on 
the northerly side of the river and 7 on the southerly side. Most of the 
outlets are located at or near high-water mark, and all but five discharge 
above low water, these latter being submerged at practically all stages of 
the tide. 

Beginning at the upper end of the city on the northerly side of the 
river, the first sewer outlet is found at the foot of Florence Street. This 
sewer discharges through an 18-inch Akron pipe at a point about 60 feet 
back from and 12 feet above low water in the river, and the sewage 
flowing toward the river has cut a deep channel in the bank in which 
considerable sewage refuse accumulates. The objectionable conditions 
at this outlet can be removed by extending the sewer to the edge of the 
river, where a suitable abutment wall should be constructed to prevent 
injury by freshets and an overflow provided for storm water to discharge 
through the wall. The dry-weather flow of sewage should be carried in 
a pipe about 12 inches in diameter to an outlet in the river about 110 
feet from the shore, where there is a sufficient depth of water to keep 
the outlet covered at all times and where the current will prevent mat- 
ters in the sewage from returning to pollute the river bank. The dis- 
charge of the mingled sewage and storm water at the edge of the river 
will not create seriously objectionable conditions. 

At Lamont Street a 20-inch pipe discharges through a concrete abut- 
ment at the foot of a steep bank bordering the river about 35 feet back 
from low water and 8 feet above it. The present outlet can in this case 
be retained as an overflow, and the objectionable conditions caused by 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 191 

the discharge of sewage on the bank of the river can be removed by ex- 
tending a 12-inch cast-iron pipe from a manhole back of the present 
outlet to a point in the river about 80 feet from the wall in which the 
sewer now terminates. The outlet would then be covered at all times 
and the fouling of the bank of the river with sewage avoided. 

At Beach Street a 12-inch Akron pipe discharges at the foot of a 
steep river bank 50 to 60 feet back from low-water mark in the river. 
The objectionable conditions at this outlet can be relieved by lowering 
the last few lengths of the present sewer and extending a cast-iron pipe 
of the same diameter as the present sewer about 132 feet from the pres- 
ent outlet, which will carry the outlet to a point about 70 feet beyond 
the low-water limit of the channel. 

At Ayer Street there is a 24-inch Akron pipe discharging through 
a wooden wall at the edge of the river but at a point where the bank 
for a distance of about 15 feet is exposed at low water. The pollution 
of the river bank by this outlet can be prevented by extending a 12-inch 
pipe from a manhole back of the wall a distance of about 77 feet into 
the river where it would terminate at a point where there is about 8 feet 
of water at low tide. As in the other cases, the present outlet may be 
retained to serve at times of storm as an outlet for the mingled sewage 
and storm water. It will probably be necessary, in order to protect the 
sewer in this region, to construct a higher wall, but the new wall can be 
of a temporary nature, as a wall of a permanent character will very 
likely be found necessary along this section of the river at no great 
distant time. 

At Preeman Street there is a sewer outlet discharging through a wall 
directly into the river beneath a factory building. There were no ob- 
jectionable conditions at this outlet at the time of the examinations, 
and a change does not appear to be required at the present time. 

At Washington Avenue, a 24-inch sewer discharges through a con- 
crete abutment just above the north abutment of the Boston & Maine 
Eailroad bridge. A considerable strip of river bank is exposed in front 
of this outlet at times of low water in the immediate neighborhood of 
a mooring ground for boats. The objectionable conditions at this outlet 
could be removed by constructing a manhole a few feet back from the 
concrete abutment, from the bottom of which a 12-inch cast-iron pipe 
would be laid out into the river a distance of 100 feet from the present 
outlet, and the dry-weather flow of sewage discharged at a point where 
the water is 8 feet or more deep at low tide. A storm-water overflow 
should be constructed from the manhole with its bottom at about grade 
10.0 to discharge either through the present outlet or a new opening 
in the wall at a higher level. 

The Essex Street sewer apparently receives the flow from about one- 



192 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

third the entire sewered portion of the city of Haverhill north of the 
Merrimack River, including a portion of the watershed of Little Eiver. 
A brick, egg-shaped sewer, 4 feet 6 inches high, by 3 feet 6 inches wide, 
discharges through a rectangular opening 5 by 41/2 feet in a masonry 
wall beneath Washington Square Park, just above the mouth of the 
Little Eiver conduit. At extreme low water a strip of sandy river bot- 
tom is exposed in front of the sewer, and at high water the outlet is 
practically subm.erged. Tbe sewage from this outlet passing along 
close to the shore tends to foul the bank of the river, and it is very 
desirable that the dry-Aveather flow of sewage be conveyed to some point 
in the channel where it will not foul the neighboring shore. The out- 
let can be extended by constructing a manhole back of the wall, from 
which a 24-inch pipe laid to a point about 100 feet from the river bank 
will dispose of the sewage where it will not cause objectionable condi- 
tions. An overflow should be provided in this manhole as high as ele- 
vation 10.0, through which sewage and storm water can discharge 
through the present opening in the wall. 

The Emerson Street sewer outlet, which is located about 100 feet 
below Little River, is 84 inches in diameter and discharges through an 
outlet in the masonry wall of the river under Washington Square Park 
at a point where a small strip of river bottom is bare at low water. The 
sewage from this outlet should be carried farther into the river where 
it will not pollute the river bank, and this can be done in a manner 
similar to that described for the extension of the Essex Street outlet. 
A 13-inch pipe will probably be sufficient to carry the dry-weather flow, 
and the outlet had probably better be extended from the bottom of a man- 
hole back of the river wall to a point about 122 feet outside the river 
wall, where the water in the river is about 7 feet in depth at low tide. 
The manhole should be provided with a storm overflow at a point about 
grade 10.0, discharging through the present outlet. 

At Elliot Place an 18-inch Akron pipe sewer discharges through the 
masonry river wall at a point about 100 feet down stream from the 
Emerson Street outlet. The quantity of sewage discharging here is very 
small, and when examined appeared to consist largely of clear water. 
The outlet does not appear to be seriously objectionable and no change 
is necessary at the present time. 

Near the foot of West Street, private sewer outlets, including a sewer 
in West Street which apparently receives the dry-weather flow of sewage 
from Howe and Pecker streets, discharge through a wooden wall di- 
rectly into the river. These outlets did not appear to be objectionable 
at the time of the examination, but if a new wall should be built along 
the river at this point it would be advisable to collect the sewage of all 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 193 

of the various drains discharging in this neighborhood and convey it 
to a suitable outlet in the river well away from the shore. 

A 24-inch circular sewer from Fleet Street discharges at present 
through the foundation wall of a store occupying the river front in this 
immediate vicinity into a small cove at the edge of the river. The bot- 
tom of the river is exposed for 20 or 30 feet in front of the sewer outlet 
and the conditions about it are foul. The improvement of this outlet 
will be difficult, and probably the most practicable plan will be to divert 
the sewage from this sewer easterly in Merrimack Street to a connection 
with the sewer in Main Street near the Haverhill-Bradford bridge. The 
present outlet may continue to be used as an overflow for storm water 
if necessary, together with whatever sewage may be discharged into the 
present sewer between Merrimack Street and the present outlet. 

At Main Street a 36-inch circular brick sewer discharges into the river 
through an opening in a wooden river wall just below the Haverhill- 
Bradford bridge. The sewer is a large one, being in a densely populated 
part of the city, and the outlet is objectionable. A practicable plan of 
improving conditions at this outlet will be to lay a 16-inch cast-iron 
pipe from a manhole a few feet back of the present outlet to a point 
of discharge in the river 122 feet from the river wall, where the depth 
of the water is about 10 feet at low tide. The bottom of the manhole 
should be at about grade — 4.0, and an overflow should be provided 
from the manhole with its bottom at about grade 8.0 which may dis- 
charge through the present outlet. 

At Green Street a 20-inch Akron pipe, which ends in a rectangular 
wooden sewer 2.3 feet square and about 12 feet in length, discharges 
through the wooden river wall about 300 feet below the Main Street 
outlet and just above an angle in the river line. Two boat-club land- 
ings are located just below this outlet, and at ebb tide the sewage can 
be plainly seen passing the floats. An effectual plan of relieving the 
objectionable conditions at this outlet will be to construct a manhole 
back of the river wall and lay a 12-inch cast-iron pipe to a distance 
of about 42 feet from the present outlet. The bottom of the manhole, 
if placed about 20 feet back of the wall, should be at about grade 0,7, 
and a 20-inch storm overflow should be provided from this manhole 
with the elevation of its bottom at about grade 10.0. This overflow 
can discharge through the present outlet. 

An 18-inch Akron pipe sewer from Moore Street discharges at the 
present time at the edge of the river at low water just below the boat- 
house of the Haverhill Yacht Club. This sewer should be extended 
at its full size to a point a greater distance from shore, and this could 
easily be done by lowering 7 or 8 lengths of pipe at the lower end of 



194 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the present sewer and continuing it with cast-iron pipe to a point about 
100 feet from shore, where the sewage will discharge into deep water 
at all times. 

At Kent Street a 30-inch circular brick sewer discharges at the present 
time just below the end of a river wall at the foot of this street. The 
end of the sewer is breaking away and at the present time is about 20 
feet back from low water, and the outlet is very objectionable at times. 
Conditions can be made satisfactory by laying a 12-inch cast-iron pipe 
from a manhole near the outlet to a point of discharge in the river about 
110 feet from the present outlet, with a suitable overflow at grade 10.0 
through which storm water may be discharged. 

At Lindel Street the dry- weather flow of sewage from sewers in 
Lindel Street and Carleton's Court is conveyed through a submerged 
outlet to a point of discharge in the river about 160 feet from the shore. 
This outlet apparently operates satisfactorily, and no sewage was found 
discharging at this point in dry weather at any time during the exam- 
inations. 

At Mill Street, also, there is a submerged outlet carried out into the 
river — according to the plans — a distance of about 120 feet, and this 
outlet also appears to operate satisfactorily. 

At Buttonwoods Avenue the present outlet is very objectionable and 
should be carried out to a point of discharge into the river as has been 
done with the outlets above. In this case a 12-inch cast-iron pipe ex- 
tending from a manhole back of the outlet to a point in the river about 
122 feet from the present outlet would dispose of the dry-weather flow 
of sewage unobjectionably at all times. The present outlet should be 
retaiued as a storin overflow. 

A large sewer 39 by 50 inches, discliarging at the foot of Island Street 
about 50 to GO feet back from the edge of the stream at low water, is 
at the present time very objectionable. A practicable plan of removing 
the dry-weather flow of sewage from this outlet will be to lay a 14-inch 
cast-iron pipe from the present sewer a few feet back of the outlet to 
a point in the river about 110 feet from the present terminus of the 
sewer. A low, concrete dam built up to a height of about 1.5 feet above 
the bottom of the present sewer should be constructed in the sewer to 
divert the sewage into the pipe. 

A small sewer 8 inches in diameter discharges at the present time on 
the river bank near Meclianic Street, where flats are exposed in front 
of the outlet at low water. The sewer should be extended with cast-iron 
pipe of the same size to an outlet into the river about 120 feet from the 
present point of discharge. 

A small 10-inch sewer discharging at the foot of Greenville Street 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 195 

should also be extended, full size, to a point of discharge about 156 feet 
from the present outlet, where the depth of water at low tide is about 
6 feet. 

Similarly, the 12-ineh sewer at Haverhill Street should be extended 
at its full size into the river a distance of about 144 feet from its present 
terminus, in order to prevent the fouling of the fiats in front of the 
outlet at low water. In this and the two foregoing cases it would be 
necessary to lower the last few lengths of pipe above the present outlets 
before constructing the extensions. 

The outlet of the sewer at Keeley Street has recently been extended 
into tlie river, and no further change appears to be necessary at the 
present time. 

A small private sewer outlet at Adams Street is very objectionable 
and should be extended to a suitable point of discharge in the river. 

At Munroe Street a 20-inch pipe sewer now discharges through a 
stone abutment considerably out of repair at a point about 70 feet back 
from low water in the river. The fouling of the Hats in front of this 
outlet can be prevented by diverting the dry-weather flow of sewage 
through a pipe about 13 inches in diameter, extending from a manhole 
back of the present outlet to a point of discharge in the river about 134 
feet from the end of the present sewer. The present outlet should be 
retained as a storm overflow. 

At Polk Street a 15-inch sewer discharges at the present time about 
50 feet back from low water. This sewer should be extended by means 
of a cast-iron pipe of the same diameter to a point of discharge in the 
river about 150 feet from the present outlet. 

On the south side of the river there are seven sewer outlets and 
among them some of the most objectionable in the city. 

At Front Street, opposite Ayer Street, the dry-weather flow of sewage 
is conveyed to a submerged outlet in the river 75 feet from shore with 
a 24-inch storm-water overflow, and the conditions about the outlet are 
satisfactory. 

At Bradford Avenue a 48-inch circular brick sewer draining a very 
large area in the residential part of the district discharges at the foot 
of a steep bank about 200 feet down stream from the Boston & Maine 
Railroad bridge. This sewer at present discharges in very shallow water 
at the edge of the river where a very wide area of flats is exposed at low 
tide. The sewer at its lower end is in a dilapidated condition and 
should be rebuilt. The best plan of relieving the nuisance at this outlet 
will probably be to lay a 16-inch cast-iron pipe from a manhole to be 
constructed a short distance back from the present point of discharge 
to an outlet in the river 300 feet from the end of the present sewer, 



196 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

where the depth of water is about 5 feet. The bottom of the manhole 
will probably be placed at grade 0, and an overflow should be provided 
with its bottom at about grade 10.0. A suitable abutment wall will be 
needed to protect this outlet. 

At Prospect Street a 15-inch pipe discharges at present at the foot 
of a steep bank about 60 feet back from low water, and the conditions 
about it are objectionable. This outlet can best be improved by extend- 
ing it by means of a 16-inch cast-iron pipe to a point of discharge in 
the river about 144 feet from the end of the present sewer. The last 
few lengths of pipe at the lower end of the present sewer will require 
lowering in making this extension. 

At Summer Street a sewer serving a large area discharges at a point 
about 70 feet back from the edge of the river at low water, and the 
conditions about it at present are objectionable. The dry-weather flow 
from this outlet can be conveyed to a suitable point of discharge in the 
river by means of a 12-inch pipe about 164 feet in length, laid from a 
manhole which can be constructed near the end of the present sewer. 
It will be best in this case to extend the pipe for the dry -weather flow 
somewhat down stream instead of at right angles to the river bank, and 
a storm-water overflow into its bottom at grade 10.0 should be provided. 

At Main Street a circular brick sewer 30 inches in diameter discharges 
through a stone wall just below the Haverhill-Bradford bridge. The 
outlet is 150 feet back from the stream at low water and the conditions 
about it are very objectionable at the present time. A practicable plan 
of relief will be to lay a 16-inch cast-iron pipe from a manhole a few 
feet back of the present outlet to a point of discharge in the river, where 
the outlet is likely to be covered at low water. The discharge pipe re- 
quired in this case will be nearly 200 feet in length. The present sewer 
outlet can be retained for use as a storm overflow. 

At Ferry Street a 24-inch circular brick sewer discharges at a point 
about 130 feet back from low water, whence sewage finds its way to the 
river through a foul trench containing deposits of sewage. The sewer, 
apparently, when constructed extended out a considerable distance be- 
yond the present point of discharge, but the outlet has been broken 
away and is at present in a dilapidated condition. This sewer should 
be extended a distance of about 95 feet to the river line, where a manhole 
and a suitable abutment to protect it should be constructed. The dry- 
weather flow of sewage should be diverted from this manhole through 
a 12-inch cast- iron pipe to a point of discharge in the river about 100 
feet from shore where the depth of water would be about 3 feet at low 
tide. The bottom of this manhole should be at about grade 8.0. 

A sewer outlet, located about 2,500 feet down stream from Ferry 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 197 

Street, has been carried out into the river to a point of discharge below 
low water and appears to be unobjectionable at the present time. 

The Board recommends that the work of improving the sewer outlets 
be carried out as soon as practicable and the nuisance now existing about 
them prevented. The Board is prepared to supply your engineer with 
such information as has been collected as to these outlets and to advise 
you as to any plan for improvements about them that you may wish to 
present. 

Lawrence. 

Dec. 26, 1912. 

To the Municipal Council, Lawrence, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In connection with investigations of the sanitary con- 
dition of the Merrimack Elver, the State Board of Health has caused 
the methods of sewage disposal and the numerous sewer outlets in the 
cities and towns along the river to be examined, and finds that very 
serious nuisances exist at present at many of these outlets. 

Examinations of the sewers of the city of Lawrence show that ob- 
jectionable conditions exist about several of the outlets in that city, and 
the Board makes the following recommendations relative to the improve- 
ment of these sewer outlets: — 

One of the most important sewer outlets in the city discharges through 
an opening 7 feet 3 inches in diameter in the north abutment of the 
Broadway bridge. This sewer, which drains a large and populous dis- 
trict, discharges through an open channel excavated in the bottom of 
the river from the abutment of the bridge to a point where it finally 
reaches the water about 300 feet distant. In its passage through this 
channel, matters from the sewage collect on its sides and bottom, caus- 
ing a very offensive odor in the neighborhood. The conditions about 
this outlet can be very greatly improved and the nuisance prevented by 
constructing a pipe to carry the dry-weather flow of sewage a distance 
of about 300 feet to a point where it will discharge into the water at 
times when there is no flow over the dam. A pipe 24 inches in diameter 
would probably be required, and it would be necessary to excavate a 
considerable trench and to cover the pipe thoroughly with concrete, else 
the current of the river when water is running over the dam would 
quickly wear away any structure that might be placed there. 
. On the southerly side of the river the South Broadway, or Shanty 
Pond, sewer discharges through a 24-inch outlet of cast-iron pipe ex- 
tending about 200 feet mto the river from the south abutment of the 
Broadway bridge. The outlet formerly discharged at the abutment but 
has been extended and an overflow provided at the former outlet. While 



198 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

this outlet is not very objectionable at the present time, the conditions 
could be improved by extending it about 50 feet to a point where there 
is a considerable quantity of water in the river bed, even when there is 
no flow over the dam. 

A short distance below the Shanty Pond outlet is an outlet of an 18- 
inch sewer from Carver Street discharging into the river beneath the 
mill of the Munroe Felt and Paper Company. A considerable deposit 
accumulates in front of this outlet at times, due in part to sewage and 
in part to refuse from the paper mill. The objectionable conditions at 
this outlet can be greatly relieved by diverting the point of discharge 
over into the raceway a short distance down stream. The outlet can 
probably be extended, full size, from its present termination into the 
raceway without serious difficulty, and this would probably be the best 
plan of relieving the nuisance at this outlet. 

At the Parker Street outlet, on the south bank of the river just below 
the railroad bridge, sewage collects in a large pool, whence it flows in 
a winding course to the river, a distance of 150 feet when the water is 
low. The conditions about this outlet are very objectionable and could 
be greatly improved by conveying the dry-weather flow of sewage in a 
suitable pipe to the river channel. A practicable plan of improving this 
outlet will be to construct a manhole outside of the foundation wall 
of the mill in front of the outlet, with an overflow to allow for the dis- 
charge of sewage at times of storm. The pipe for the discharge of the 
dr3'-weather flow should be extended from the bottom of the manhole, 
at about grade 7, a distance of about 200 feet to a point in the river where 
the outlet will be submerged at all times. 

At the Lawrence Street outlet the great quantity of water ordinarily 
discharged from the raceway above quickly removes the sewage from 
the neighborhood. At night and on Sundays, however, sewage tends to 
collect in the neighborhood of this outlet, but, as it is probable that the 
river will be deepened in this immediate neighborhood, an extension does 
not seem necessary at the present time. 

The sewer outlet at Newbury Street discharges at the present time 
about 170 feet back from the river and flows through an open channel to 
the water. The conditions are not seriously objectionable at the present 
time, and, in view of the probability that changes along the river front 
in this section will make necessary a change in the location of the outlet, 
no change appears to be desirable at the present time. 

The sewer outlet at Osgood Street, 48 inches in diameter, discharges at 
present through the masonry river wall beneath the Wood Worsted Mill 
on the southerly side of the river. It is said that a 12-inch pipe was 
formerly laid from the invert of this sewer to carry the dry-weather flow 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 199 

to the channel, but that subsequently the sewer was extended and the 
pipe either covered up or filled, so that it is no longer in use. The present 
outlet discharges about 130 feet back from the river at low water and 
about 10 feet above it. The conditions about it are objectionable and 
could be relieved by laying a 20-inch cast-iron pipe from a point about 
12 feet back from the mouth of the sewer to an outlet in the river about 
180 feet from the river wall. At the point where the pipe leaves the 
main sewer a suitable dam should be constructed with its elevation at 
about grade 11.4. 

At Garden Street the Spicket Eiver intercepting sewer, 5 feet 9 
inches in diameter, discharges the sewage of a large part of the city of 
Lawrence and of the town of Methuen into the Spicket Eiver, and, as 
the flow of this stream in the drier part of the year is very small, — 
amounting to little or nothing on Saturday afternoons and Sundays, — 
the flow below this outlet consists largely of sewage. 

A small outlet from the hospital discharges under the bridge opposite 
the Spicket Eiver outlet, and farther down stream, at Pleasant Street, 
the Spicket Eiver receives the sewage from a 24-inch sewer draining a 
considerable area east of the river. 

The conditions in the Spicket Eiver are very offensive at the present 
time and should be relieved. It is probable that the best plan of im- 
proving these conditions will be to convey the dry-weather flow of sewage 
from the Garden Street and hospital outlets down the valley of the 
Spicket . Eiver to Canal Street, intercepting the additional sewage dis- 
charged at this point, and thence down the Spicket Eiver to the Mer- 
rimack. The sewer will probably have to be laid during much of its 
course toward the lower end in the bottom of the Spicket Eiver, and 
should be made large enough to carry the diy-weather flow of all of the 
tributary sewers in the Spicket Eiver valley. 

At High Street a 1 2-inch pipe sewer discharges between 80 and 90 
feet back from the river near the foot of a steep bank, and considerable 
deposits of mud and sludge have collected between the outlet and the 
river. The best plan of improving this outlet will probably be to extend 
it with a cast-iron pipe of the same size as the present sewer a distance 
of about 132 feet, which will carry the outlet to a point about 45 feet 
beyond the present low-water mark in the river, where the sewage will 
quickly mingle with the current of the river. 

The sewage from the Marston Street sewer is discharged at present at 
a point about 250 feet back from the edge of low water in the river, and 
deposits occur in the neighborhood. The sewer should be extended a dis- 
tance of about 150 feet to the river bank, and from this point it will 
probably be best to lay an iron pipe 12 inches in diameter to remove the 



200 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

dry-weather flow of sewage to a point in the river where the sewage will 
be discharged below low water at all times and from which it will not 
return to pollute the banks of the stream. 

A 12-inch sewer from Ferry Street discharges at present about half- 
way down a steep bank which borders the river on the north side and 
250 feet back from the chamiel when the water is low in summer. The 
conditions about this outlet are objectionable and could be relieved with- 
out difficulty by lowering the last 7 or 8 lengths of the present sewer and 
laying an iron pipe of the same size to a point about 107 feet from its 
present terminus, where the outlet will be covered with water at all times. 

The Board recommends that the work of improving the sewer outlets 
be carried out as soon as practicable and the nuisances now existing about 
them prevented. The Board is prepared to supply your engineer with 
such information as has been collected as to these outlets and to advise 
you as to any plan for improvements about them that you may wish to 
present. 

Lee (Lee Marble Works). 

To the Lee Marble Works, Lee, Mass. ^ ' 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health has considered your re- 
quest for advice as to the discharge of the waste from the marble works 
into the Housatonic River, and has caused the locality to be examined. 

The Board is informed that the waste consists only of water, including 
sea sand and marble dust from the saws and the rubbing beds, and that 
a part of this is recovered so that the water discharged into the river is 
affected chiefly by marble dust. The chief objection that this waste can 
cause in the river, so long as it is free from sewage and organic matter, 
is the formation of deposits in the bed of the stream where the velocity 
is small. It is recommended that the wastes be passed through a settling 
basin in which the flow will be checked, so as to allow for a deposit of 
the particles that will not be carried along in the portions of the river 
where the velocity is lowest. It is probable that a settling basin capable 
of holding about a day's flow of the waste would be sufficient for the 
purpose. The sediment from the settling basin should be removed when 
necessary, before its capacity becomes seriously reduced. 

Lov^a^LL. 

To the Municipal Council of the City of Lowell. ' ' 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Aug. 26, 1912, the following resolve requesting this Board to cause an 
investigation to be made of tlie condition of the Merrimack and Concord 
rivers : — 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 201 

Resolved, by the municipal council of the city of Lowell, as follows : — 
That the State Board of Health be requested to cause an investigation to 
be made of the condition of the Men-imack and Concord rivers within the 
city limits, in respect to the health of the community, and particularly in 
connection with the outlet of sewers. 



In response to this request the Board has caused an examination to be 
made of the sewer outlets discharging into the Merrimack Elver and into 
the Concord Eiver within the limits of the city of Lowell, and has also 
examined especially the sanitary condition of the Concord Elver In the 
neighborhood of Andover Street and Eogers Street, to determine the 
probable sources of objectionable odors said to arise from the stream in 
these localities. 

The Board has also caused samples of water to be collected for analysis 
at various points along both rivers within the limits of the city, and 
analyses have also been made of some of the mill wastes polluting the 
Concord Elver. 

The Concord Elver, while receiving considerable pollution above the 
point at which it enters the city of Lowell, is not at that point objection- 
able, and there are no evidences of sewage pollution in the appearance of 
the bed, banks and waters of the stream, except as shown by chemical 
analyses which Indicate the presence In the water of a somewhat greater 
quantity of organic matter than is found at points farther up the stream. 

Within the limits of the city of Lowell, the Concord Elver is polluted 
by large quantities of sewage and by manufacturing wastes discharged 
into the stream from mills located along the river and its main tributary, 
Hales Brook. Just below the point where the river enters the city at 
Wlgginville it receives the flow of two small sewers and considerable 
foul drainage from the population in this section. Below the Lawrence 
Street bridge, and between this point and Warren Street, practically all 
of the sewage from the population in the valley of the river is collected 
by the Lawrence Street sewer and discharged through the main outlet at 
Warren Street, which is the place of disposal for the sewage of a large 
part of the city. The sewage discharged at this outlet pollutes the Con- 
cord Eiver greatly throughout the remainder of its course, and at night 
and on Sundays, during the period of low flow in the drier part of the 
year, the flow in the river between the Warren Street sewer outlet and 
the Merrimack Eiver consists lai'gely of sewage, most of which is dis- 
charged at that outlet. The Warren Street outlet was extended not long 
ago, and It does not seem practicable to Improve the conditions affecting 
the discharge of sewage into the river at this point, unless by constructing 
a sewer to convey the sewage to the Merrimack Eiver, the cost of which 



202 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

would be very large. Such an extension is likely to become necessary in 
the future and should be taken up for consideration after some of the 
more objectionable conditions elsewhere have been eliminated. 

In addition to the main sewer outlet near Warren Street there are 
several other sewer outlets into the Concord Elver, most of which are not 
objectionable. An old drain discharging at the foot of Chestnut Street 
evidently receives little sewage and under present conditions is not 
objectionable. A sewer serving a densely populated section of the city 
discharges through an outlet at Wall Street near the level of the river bed 
on the east side of the Concord Eiver at about low-water mark. At 
times of high flow in the river the pipe is submerged, but on Saturday 
afternoons and Sundays in the dry season of the year the conditions about 
this outlet are very filthy. It is probable that by paving the bottom of 
the river about the outlet and a small channel leading to low water the 
conditions about this outlet could be greatly improved. 

At Prescott Street an overflow from the main sewerage system dis- 
charges under the Prescott Mills into the Pawtucket raceway below the 
canal dam, and when examined has not been objectionable. 

Farther down stream there are two sewer outlets — one from the east 
and one from the west — discharging under the bridge at East Merrimack 
Street, and two others discharging from the east side of the river between 
East Merrimack Street and the point where the Concord Eiver joins the 
Merrimack. The conditions about these outlets have been improved in 
recent years and none of them appears to be seriously objectionable at 
the present time. If the Warren Street outlet should be extended to the 
Merrimack Eiver the sewage from all of the other important outlets now 
discharging into the Concord Eiver could be intercepted and the further 
pollution of the Concord Eiver by sewage, except from storm overflows, 
largely prevented. It is assumed, of course, that the plans already pre- 
pared for the collection and disposal of the sewage of the Wigginville 
district and the areas near South Lowell will be carried out at no dis- 
tant time in the future. 

In addition to the pollution which the Concord Eiver receives by 
sewage from the sewer outlets described above, the river is also polluted 
by sewage from the mills along the river and its tributary. Hales Brook, 
nearly all of which discharge their sewage directly into the stream. The 
river also receives considerable pollution from manufacturing wastes, the 
most serious of which is that from the processes of wool scouring and 
tanning, although considerable pollution is no doubt also caused by wastes 
from cloth washing, dyeing, etc. The more important of these pollutions 
from the mills are the following : — 

At the Waterhead Mills, located a short distance below the Lawrence 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 203 

Street bridge, the sewage from about 800 operatives is discharged directly 
into the river, together with a considerable quantity of manufacturing 
wastes, amounting, when examined, to about 140,000 gallons per day, 
consisting, of spent dye liquors and waste water from the washing of 
cloth. 

At the Bay State Mills, farther down stream, a great accumulation of 
offensive matters was found in the raceway at the time of the examina- 
tion. The river also receives from this mill the sewage of about 400 
operatives and manufacturing wastes amounting to about 270,000 gal- 
ions per da}', consisting chiefly of spent dyes and waste water from the 
washing of cloth. 

At the Sterling Mills on Hales Brook the stream is polluted by the 
sewage of about 175 operatives and foul waste from the scouring of about 
50,000 pounds of wool per year. The river also receives at this mill about 
400,000 gallons per day of waste water from dyeing and cloth washing. 

At the Belvidere Woolen Company, also located on Hales Brook, the 
stream is polluted by the sewage of about 100 operatives and also re- 
ceives about 300,000 gallons per day of waste liquors from dyeing and 
washing cloth. 

At the works of the U. S. Bunting Company, also on Hales Brook, the 
stream is polluted by the sewage from about 500 operatives and the foul 
waste resulting from the scouring of 1,500,000 pounds of wool per year. 
The river also receives spent dye liquors and wash water to the amount of 
about 220,000 gallons per day. 

The Lowell Bleachery, located on Hales Brook, discharges into the 
stream each day the sewage from about 450 operatives and also about 
2,160,000 gallons of water used in bleaching and washing cloth. 

Small quantities of sewage are also discharged into Hales Brook and 
the Concord Eiver from the Allerton Worsted Company and the Heinze 
Electric Company, and possibly from other places in this section. 

On the easterly side of the Concord River, opposite Hales Brook, is 
located tlie Fort Hill plant of the American Hide and Leather Company, 
from which a large quantity of foul waste from the process of tanning 
is discharged directly into the river. Farther down stream the chief 
pollution from manufacturing waste is caused by the Howe Street Tan- 
nery of the American Hide and Leather Company, which it is understood 
is soon to be closed and removed to the new works near Fort Hill. 

The examinations of the river show that above the main sewer outlet 
at Warren Street it is considerably polluted, being badly discolored at 
Rogers Street and Andover Street chiefly by wastes from the industrial 
establishments along its banks. Objectionable odors were noticeable at 
Andover Street which, on investigation, were found to come from the 



204 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

tannery on Howe Street. At Eogers Street no objectionable odors were 
detected at any time during the examination. Very likely the objection- 
able odors wliich appear to have been complained of at this street may be 
caused by the discharge, at times of storm, of large quantities of sewage 
from the Eogers Street overflow, located just below the bridge at this 
point. The only practicable relief from the discharge of sewage at this 
outlet at times of storm is bhe separation of the sewage from the storm 
water in the district served by this sewer. If that were done, the storm 
water could be allowed to discharge without objection at the present out- 
let, while all of the sewage would be diverted at all times to the Lawrence 
Street sewer. 

For the further improvement of the condition of the Concord Eiver 
above the Warren Street sewer outlet, the measures most necessary at the 
present time are the diversion of the remaining sewage now discharged 
into the Concord Eiver and its tributary. Hales Brook, from the factories 
in their neighborhood and the diversion from the stream of the foul 
organic wastes from the processes of tanning and of wool scouring. In 
the tannery a considerable quantity of loose dirt and dust collected from 
the skins is now discharged into the liquid wastes which flow into the 
river. This matter could easily be separated from the other wastes and 
kept out of the river. The liquid tannery wastes can all be discharged 
into the Lawrence Street sewer, which is of ample capacity to receive 
them, after passing through settling tanks for the removal of heavier 
matters and other substances which might be objectionable in the sewers. 
The settling tanks should be designed and constructed under the di- 
rection of an engineer of experience in such matters, and they should be 
maintained in such a way as to secure the most efficient results. The 
wastes should not be admitted to the sewers of the city except under 
conditions which will insure the keeping out of the sewers of all matters 
which might interfere with their operation. 

The wool-scouring waste, so long as the quantity is no greater than 
it appears to be at the present time, can also probably be disposed of by 
discharging it into the sewers without objection after passing through 
properly designed settling tanks. In this case, as in the case of the 
tannery wastes, it is essential that the tanks be of proper design, and it 
is especially necessary that they be maintained in such a way as will 
secure the most efficient results. 

Such tanks would require proper cleaning at frequent intervals, and 
it would be necessary to dispose of the sludge at some place where it 
would not be objectionable. In case the quantity of these wastes should 
increase materially, or if the present amount should cause objectionable 
conditions in the sewers, it would probably be necessary to remove the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 205 

fats before these wastes are admitted to the sewers, as is now done at 
several other woolen mills in the State. The remaining wastes from the 
mills now discharged into the Concord River would have the effect of 
coloring the water of the stream at times ; but, if the more objectionable 
of the manufacturing wastes and the sewage from the mills are removed 
as recommended, the remaining manufacturing wastes are not likely 
to create objectionable conditions in the stream unless the quantity be- 
comes greater than at the present time. 

The results of the investigation of the condition of the Merrimack 
River show that at the point at which it enters the State above Lowell 
it is already considerably polluted by sewage and manufacturing wastes 
discharged into the river beyond the limits of Massachusetts, but above 
the city of Lowell the sanitary condition of the stream is satisfactory. 
In its passage through the city of Lowell the river receives much pollu- 
tion from sewage and manufacturing wastes, and the conditions around 
several of the sewer outlets are at the present time very offensive. 

Beginning at the up-stream limits of the cit}^ there are three small 
sewer outlets discharging into the river above the Pawtucket dam all of 
which are submerged, and the conditions about them are unobjectionable 
at the present time. 

At White Street an extension of the outlet has produced a considerable 
improvement and the conditions about it are not now seriously objec- 
tionable. 

At the Sparks Street outlet, located on the northerly side of the river 
just above the mouth of Beaver Brook, the conditions are not satis- 
factory at times, but there are few inhabitants in the neighborhood and 
a change in this outlet does not appear to be required at present. 

The sewer from Hall Street discharges a large quantity of sewage 
through a 30-inch pipe at the edge of the water on the southerly bank 
of the river below the City Landing, seriously fouling the banks and bot- 
tom of the stream and creating a nuisance in the neighborhood. The 
objectionable conditions at this outlet could be removed by lowering the 
last 2 or 3 lengths of the cast-iron pipe and adding 4 or mors lengths, 
which would carry the outlet to a point at least 48 feet from the bank 
of the river where the water is about 6 feet in depth, and the outlet 
would be submerged at all times. 

The Aiken Street outlet, discharging under the southerly end of the 
Aiken Street bridge, creates a very serious nuisance in a densely popu- 
lated section of the city. The sewage is discharged at the edge of the 
stream, and the shallow water and exposed shores in the neighborhood 
of the outlet and below it are very badly polluted at times when the 
flow of the river is low in the drier portions of the year. The objection- 



206 STATE BOARD OF^ HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

able conditions at this outlet can be removed by laying a smaller pipe 
from the present sewer to carry the dry-weather flow for a distance of 
about 215 feet into the river. The pipe for the new outlet should be 
16 inches in diameter and should be carried back into the present sewer 
about 20 feet from the face of the abutment, where a concrete dam should 
be constructed with its top at about elevation 51 to divert the dry- 
weather flow of sewage into the pipe. If the pipe is carried out to a 
point of discharge about 215 feet from the present outlet, the objection- 
able conditions about this outlet will be removed. 

The sewer outlet at Tilden Street is not seriously objectionable at the 
present time. There are few people in the neighborhood of this outlet 
except when the mills are running, and at such times the large quantities 
of water discharged immediately above and below the outlet tend to 
carry the sewage quickly away from the shore and dilute it thoroughly 
without causing objectionable conditions. 

The objectionable conditions which have hitherto existed at the West 
Street outlet have recently been removed by laying an iron pipe which 
conveys the dry-weather flow of sewage to an outlet in the river sub- 
merged at all times. 

At Fulton Street, on the north side of the river below West Street, 
there is an outlet which discharges through a 16-inch cast-iron pipe 
about 90 feet back from the water and creates serious nuisance. The 
objectionable conditions at this outlet can be removed by extending the 
16-inch sewer to a point about 145 feet from the present outlet, which 
would be about 50 feet from the present low-water mark in the river. 

At Colburn Street, a short distance below Fulton Street, there is a 
large brick sewer outlet, 26 by 39 inches in diameter, located at a point 
about 40 feet back from the edge of the river at low water, which creates 
a serious nuisance. The objectionable conditions at this outlet can be 
relieved by laying a pipe at least 12 inches in diameter from the present 
outlet to a point in the river 90 feet therefrom, where the depth of the 
water in dry weather is ordinarily about 4 feet. The pipe should be 
extended into the sewer for a distance of about 6 feet and a dam built 
at that point to divert the sewage into the pipe. 

At Front Street, below Fulton Street, a 16-inch sewer now discharges 
sewage into the river about 20 feet back from the edge of low water, 
fouling the shores considerably during the drier part of the year. The 
objectionable conditions at this outlet can be removed by lowering the 
last few lengths of the present pipe and extending the sewer, at the same 
size as at present, a distance of about 60 feet from the present outlet, 
where the water is 7 or 8 feet deep. 

The sewer outlet located just below Bridge Street, on the north side 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 207 

of the river, is not objectionable at the present time, and the same may- 
be said of the outlet at Eead Street, farther down on the north side of 
the river. The sewer outlet at Myrtle Street discharges into a channel 
in the river which is practically always filled with water so that the out- 
let is submerged, and no change appears to be required at the present 

time. 

At Alder Street, on the south side of the river below the mouth of 
the Concord Eiver, a brick sewer, 22 by 33 inches in diameter, discharges 
at the present time about 50 feet back from the water in the river in 
dry weather, and there is some accumulation of objectionable matter 
about it. The objectionable conditions at this outlet could be removed 
by laying an iron pipe from a point in the sewer about 9 feet back of 
the outlet to a point in the river about 160 feet from the present ter- 
mination of the sewer, where it would be submerged at all times. A 
pipe 16 inches in diameter would probably be sufficient for the removal 
of the dry-weather flow at all times. 

At Stackpole Street, below Alder Street on the northerly side of the 
river, there is a sewer outlet which at the present time discharges at 
the edge of the river a considerable distance from the main current. 
Changes now being made in the river channel when completed will cause 
a part of the flow of the river to pass the outlet, and an extension will 
probably not be necessary, as there are no buildings in the immediate 
neighborhood of this outlet. No change appears to be required at the 
present time. 

An outlet at Guild Street, below Stackpole Street on the southerly 
side of the river, discharges at a point remote from buildings and no 
change appears to be required at this outlet for the present. 

There are a number of other sewer outlets in the city, including a few 
small outlets discharging into Beaver Brook, at which conditions do 
not at present appear to be objectionable. 

In carrying out the improvements herein suggested, the Board is pre- 
pared to assist the city by advising as to any plans for the relief of the 
nuisances that your commission may present. 

Malden (Metropolitan Park Commission). 

Sept. 5, 1912. 
To the Melropoliian Park Commission, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your request for an examination of 
the waters of Fellsmere Pond, Fellsway East, in Maiden, and advice as 
to the fitness of the water for bathing purposes, also as to its general 
sanitary condition, the Board has caused the pond and its surroundings 
to be examined and a sample of the water to be analyzed. 



208 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It. appears that the waters of the pond are used at times as a source 
of water supply for manufacturing purposes, and at the time of the 
recent examination the water had been drawn down 4 feet or more below 
the overflow. The exposed shores of the pond appear to consist to a 
very considerable extent of mud and peaty matter, though some sections 
were covered with crushed stone and rock. The Board is informed that 
the bottom of the pond is covered with mud in places from 4 to 6 feet 
in depth. 

It does not appear that any great quantity of foul organic matter 
reaches the pond. There is a surface-water drain extending through a 
portion of the watershed which is said to overflow at times into the pond, 
and, in addition, there are one or two other surface-water drains which 
discharge into the pond. The pond also receives water from a small 
watershed, including a very small stream which enters its northern ex- 
tremity. It appears, also, that a connection exists whereby water from 
the city mains may be discharged into the pond. Large numbers of 
ducks are kept at the pond, and the water is no doubt considerably 
polluted by them. 

The results of an anlysis of a sample of the water collected on August 
22 shows that at that time the pond was affected by an enormous growth 
of the organism AnabcEna, by which the water was greatly discolored. 
At certain stages of growth or decay this organism, which is often pres- 
ent in the waters of ponds and reservoirs in the summer season, imparts 
to water a very objectionable taste and odor; and, while the odor of the 
water of the pond was not very marked at the time of the recent exam- 
ination, it is probable that at times an objectionable odor is noticeable 
in its neighborhood. 

The pond in its present condition, while not a nuisance, does not ap- 
pear to be a desirable place for bathing. The condition of the pond 
might probably be greatly improved by removing or covering the mud 
in its bottom and around the shores and by maintaining the water at a 
higher level. By these changes it is probable that the growths of or- 
ganisms can be materially reduced and that the pond may be brought 
into a condition where it may be used to a limited extent for bathing. 
It is desirable, in any case, if it is to be used for the latter purpose, that 
provision be made for flushing out the pond from time to time with 
clean water. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 209 

SOMERVILLE (HiNCKLEY EeNDERING CoMPANY). 

Oct. 3, 1912. 
To the Board of Health of the City of Somerville. 

Gentlemen : — Complaints have been made to the State Board of 
Health by citizens of the eastern section of Somerville of an offensive 
odor alleged to come from the works of the Hinckley Eendering Com- 
pany, and it is further alleged that the bathing beach in the Mystic 
River below these works is affected by objectionable substances alleged 
to come from this plant. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its en- 
gineers and a sample of the water discharged from the water tower of 
the rendering works to be analyzed. It appears from this examination 
that there are several sources of objectionable odors in the locality cov- 
ered by the complaints, and that the Mystic Eiver receives considerable 
pollution, both above and below the bathing beach, which may be carried 
to the bathing beach by the tides. 

Among the most serious sources of objectionable odor in this locality 
is a dump located northeast of Mystic Avenue, between Melrose Street 
and the Fellsway. The greater portion of the refuse dumped in this 
locality is composed of noncombustible material, but much material that 
might be burned is deposited here and a considerable quantity of the 
material dumped consists of organic matter, some of which is in a state 
of decay. On a majority of the numerous occasions when this locality 
was examined by agents of the Board, fires were found burning on this 
dump which gave off, usually, a very offensive smoke, and the dump is 
a very objectionable nuisance at the present time. 

The results of an investigation of the conditions about the works of 
the Hinckley Rendering Company show that these works are at present 
kept in a cleanly condition and that a new system of ventilation, in- 
stalled subsequent to a previous examination by this Board, causes a 
general inward draft through the various windows and doors and dis- 
charges the air through a water tower, so called, extending well above 
the roof of the factory. If this ventilating system is kept in operation, 
such odors as escape from the works would probably come from the water 
towei-. The waste water from the water tower is discharged into the 
Mystic River above the level of low water and not, as advised, below low 
tide, where it would be quickly diluted with the river water and danger 
of the escape of odors reduced to a minimum. 

In the course of the investigations made by the Board, the objection- 
able odors noted at the dwelling house of one of the complainants ap- 



210 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

peared to be derived from other sources than the rendering works, 
especially from the dump lying between the rendering works and this 
house, and under the circumstances it has been impracticable to deter- 
mine whether or not any of the foul odors noticeable at the dwelling 
house in question or elsewhere in this neighborhood are due to foul gases 
escaping from the rendering works. 

There is no doubt that by far the greatest nuisance existing in this 
region at the present time is caused by the dump northeast of Mystic 
Avenue, especially by offensive smoke arising from materials burning 
thereon. The satisfactory disposal of city refuse without creating a 
nuisance is not a difficult problem if proper methods are employed, and 
the Board recommends that means be provided whereby the combustible 
material discharged upon this dump shall be burned in such a way as 
to avoid causing offence, and that other objectionable materials deposited 
here be covered promptly either with clean ashes or with earth. It is 
probable that, for the present at least, by carrying out this recommenda- 
tion the use of this dump can be continued without causing offence, but 
if it is found impracticable to dispose of refuse in the manner suggested 
in this locality without creating a nuisance, the refuse should either 
be diverted to some other place of disposal or a suitable incinerator or 
crematory should be provided in which this refuse can be burned without 
objection. 

When the objectionable conditions caused by the dump near Mystic 
Avenue have been removed, it will be practicable to determine whether 
further measures are necessary to prevent danger of the escape of objec- 
tionable odors from the rendering works. The water from the water 
tower of the rendering works should be discharged into the river below 
low water and at a distance of at least 25 feet from the bank at low tide. 

The complaints regarding the condition of the Mystic Eiver appear to 
refer to greasy substances floating on the water which are thought to 
come from the rendering works. In the course of the investigations it 
has not been found that such matters were, at that time at least, being 
discharged from these works. The Mystic River and its tributaries still 
receive considerable pollution from sewage discharged at times of storm 
from combined sewers both above and below the works, and the river and 
its branches also receive much objectionable material from factories and 
other sources below the works, which may be carried up into this part 
of the river by the tide. The condition of the river, however, did not 
appear to be objectionable at this point during the time of the recent 
examinations. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 211 

Stoneham (Vera Chemical Company). 

May 2, 1912. 
To the Vera Chemical Company, Stoneham, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — An examination made to determine the character of 
the wastes discharged from your works at Stoneham shows that certain 
of these wastes which are being discharged into a tributary of the Aber- 
jona Eiver are of such a character as to cause a pollution of the river, 
in violation of chapter 291 of the Acts of the year 1911. The quantity 
of these wastes is small, and it is probable that, by passing them through 
settling tanks and then through beds of cinders or gravel, their condition 
could be improved so that the effluent might be discharged into the river, 
so long as the quantity is no greater than about 200 gallons per day, 
which appears to be the amount discharged at the present time. The 
Board also recommends that the waste water from cooling be carried di- 
rectly to the river through a suitable pipe and the further use of the 
present drain discontinued. 

Stoneham (Stoneham Tanning Company). 

May 2, 1912. 
To the Stoneham Tanning Company, Stoneham, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — Examination of the methods employed for the dis- 
posal of the wastes at your tannery shows that, while the sewage and 
bulk of the wastes are disposed of into the sewers, foul liquid from the 
sludge deposits in the rear of the tannery evidently finds its way at 
times into an adjacent brook, which is a tributary of the Aberjona River, 
in violation of chapter 291 of the Acts of the year 1911. 

The Board recommends that you make provision for the disposal of 
the sludge from the settling tanks in such a way that it will not cause 
further pollution of the adjacent streams. If the sludge should be dis- 
charged upon a properly constructed sludge bed, underdrained to the 
sewer and removed, after draining, to some suitable place of deposit, the 
further danger of pollution of the river or its tributaries could be pre- 
vented. 

In order to prevent danger of serious nuisance it is important that 
the sludge, after draining on the sludge beds, shall be removed promptly 
to the place of disposal and covered with earth or other suitable material. 



212 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Wateetown. 

March 7, 1912. 

To the Proprietors of the Cemetery of Mount Auburn, Mr. Prentiss Cum- 
min gs, President. 

Gentlemen : — The State Board of Health received from you on 
Feb. 16, 1912, the following petition requesting the consent of the 
Board, under the provisions of chapter 139 of the Acts of the year 1911, 
to the inclusion witliin the Cemetery of Mount Auburn of certain lands 
adjacent thereto : — ■ 

The proprietors of the Cemetery of Mount Auburn respectfully petition 
that the leave and consent of your said Board be granted to add to said 
Cemetery of Mount Auburn two parcels of land adjoining each other and 
adjoining said cemetery bounded northeasterly by the present Cemetery of 
Mount Auburn, southerly by Coolidge Avenue, southwesterly by Grove 
Street, and northwesterly by land of Albert M. Davenport and the Catholic 
cemetery, more particularly described in the plan accompanying this petition 
and part thereof. The parcels of land named are commonly known, and 
are described in said plan, as the Coolidge Lot, which already belongs to 
said corporation though not a part of said cemetery; and the other lot, 
which is still to be acquired, is described on said plan as the Stone Estate, 

The Board has also received a copy of the vote of the board of health 
of the town of Watertown assenting to the inclusion of the lands in 
question within the Cemetery of Mount Auburn, under the provisions 
of said chapter 139. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined and has considered 
the petition and plan presented, and hereby consents to the inclusion 
within the Cemetery of Mount Auburn of certain lands known as the 
Stone Estate and the Coolidge Lot, as described in your petition and 
shown upon the plan submitted therewith. 

"Winchester (Winchester Manufacturing Company). 

May 2, 1912. 
To the Winchester Manufacturinr/ Company, Winchester, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — A recent examination of the methods of disposal of 
the wastes at your works shows that while the sewage and a large part of 
the manufacturing wastes are disposed of into the sewers, some of the 
sludge is now deposited near the bank of the Aberjona River in such 
a manner that portions of it evidently find their way at times into a 
small pool adjacent to the stream, in violation of chapter 291 of the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 213 

Acts of the year 1911. An analysis of the water used in cooling the 
gelatine at the point where it overflows into the river shows that it 
contains a considerable quantity of organic matter. 

It is possible that, by changing the method of sludge disposal and 
making provision whereby none of the sludge could find its way into the 
pool, the conditions will be materially improved; but it may be neces- 
sary to provide for treating a portion of the cooling water for the re- 
moval of the organic matter, or to provide for the discharge into the 
sewers of such portions of this waste as may properly be admitted to 
the sewers. 

Winchester (Beggs & Cobb Tanning Company). 

• May 2, 1912. 
To Messrs. Beggs & Cobb, Winchester, Mass. 

Gentlemen : — A recent examination of the conditions about your 
tannery shows that the tributaries of the Aberjona Eiver are being pol- 
luted considerably by foul drainage from the sludge and refuse deposited 
near the river, in violation of chapter 291 of the Acts of the year 1911. 
It is also probable that considerable organic matter is carried into the 
river by the water used for cooling and by leakage from tanning vats, 
which flows over deposits of tannery waste and evidently takes up con- 
siderable quantities of* organic matter. 

The Board recommends that the waste water from cooling be carried 
directly to the river through a suitable pipe, and that suitable dikes or 
other works be constructed to prevent any of the sludge or other foul 
deposits from being washed or carried into the river. Any leakage from 
the tanning processes suitable to be conveyed by sewers should be col- 
lected and removed to the sewers. 



Examination of Public Water Supplies. 



[215J 



Examination of Public Water Supplies. 



The usual chemical analyses of the principal sources of public water 
supply in the State have been made during the year and are presented in 
the two following tables, the first of which contains averages of analyses 
of the surface-water supplies and the second the averages of analyses of 
the ground-water supplies. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources for the Year 1912. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



- 


Source. 


(J 

O 


§. 

> 

K 

c 
o 

2 c 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 

'u 

3. 
O 

.28 
.28 
.34 


Nitrogen 

AS 


o 

B 

s 

n 

a 
o 

o 

a 

>\ 

o 






6 


ALBUMINOID. 




cr, 
O 




CiTT OR Town. 




. s 


i 

a 

a 


Metropolitan Water 
District. 


Wachusett Reservoir, up- 
per end. 

Wachusett Reservoir, 
lower end. 

Sudbury Reservoir, 


.28 
.10 
.14 


3.48 
3.03 
3.55 


.0022 
.0023 
.0025 


.0143 
.0129 
.0151 


.0028 
.0020 
.0030 


.0030 
.0012 
.0040 


.0000 
0000 
.0000 


.40 
.26 
.28 


1.1 
1.2 
1.5 




Framingham Reservoir, 

No. 3. 
Hopkinton Reservoir, . 


.16 
.72 


4.03 
5.09 


.0040 
.0048 


.0156 
.0231 


.0030 
.0034 


.33 

.44 


.0050 
.0026 


,0000 
,0001 


.29 
.83 


1.6 
1.5 




Ashland Reservoir, 


.69 


4.78 


.0046 


.0261 


.0048 


.37 


.0027 


,0000 


.83 


1.5 




Framingham Reservoir, 

No. 2. 
Lake Cochituate, . 


.89 

.18 


5.50 
6.35 


.0064 
.0014 


.0275 
.0278 


.0024 
.0104 


.44 
.69 


.0055 
.0003 


,0001 
.0000 


.96 
.40 


1.6 
2.6 




Chestnut Hill Reservoir, 


.19 


3.99 


.0034 


.0159 


.0028 


.34 


.0065 


,0000 


.32 


1.6 




Weston Reservoir, . 


.12 


3.71 


.0023 


.0148 


.0028 


.33 


.0044 


.0000 


,29 


1.5 




Spot Pond, 


.09 


3.87 


.0017 


.0167 


.0032 


.40 


.0009 


0000 


,26 


1.7 




Tap in State House, 


.17 


4.02 


.0018 


.0157 


.0036 


.37 


.0066 


,0000 


.30 


1.8 




Tap in Revere, 


.12 


3.70 


.0016 


.0138 


.0020 


.39 


.0012 


.0000 


.26 


1.8 




Tap in Quincy, 


.16 


3.94 


.0016 


.0131 


.0017 


.38 


,0080 


.0000 


,26 


1.7 


Abington, 


Big Sandy Pond, . 


.11 


3.52 


.0022 


.0182 


.0039 


.69 


.0005 


,0000 


20 


0.7 




Little Sandy Pond, 


.01 


4.25 


.0043 


.0157 


.0030 


1.42 


.0015 


0000 


.17 


0.5 


Adams, 


Dry Brook, . 


.17 


7.07 


.0025 


.0075 


.0007 


.13 


.0090 


.0000 


,27 


5.9 




Bassett Brook, 


.00 


4.67 


.0016 


.0055 


.0013 


.10 


.0087 


,0000 


,14 


3.4 


Amherst, 


Amethyst Brook large 


.35 


3.25 


.0022 


.0117 


.0023 


.18 


.0010 


,0000 


.48 


0.9 




reservoir. 
Amethyst Brook small 


.25 


3.72 


.0038 


.0184 


.0068 


.f9 


.0010 


,0001 


.42 


0.9 




reservoir. 
Lower Reservoir, . 


.33 


3.77 


.0024 


.0132 


.0037 


.20 


,0030 


,0000 


.40 


1.0 


Andover, 


Haggett's Pond, 


.15 


4.03 


.0018 


.0168 


.0018 


.39 


.0008 


,0000 


,33 


1.7 



218 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, etc. — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









i 

a 

> 

W 

a 
o 

3 ° 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

A8 


•6 

o 

s 

m 

a 

6 

1 

>> 

c 






Source. 


"o 
O 


1 


ALBUMINOID. 


6 

a 

1 
O 

.11 


CtJ 


•4-9 




City or Town. 


"3 
o 


a 


a 

■H 

s: 
W 


Ashfield, 


Bear Swamp Brook, 


.26 


4.35 


.0014 


.0125 


.0012 


.0003 


,0000 


,42 


2,5 


Athol, . 


Phillipston Reservoir, . 


.47 


3.84 


.0034 


.0461 


.0233 


.20 


.0018 


,0000 


,67 


1.0 




Buckman Brook Reser- 


.23 


3.28 


.0034 


.0185 


.0041 


.17 


.0038 


.0000 


43 


1.2 


Barre, . 


voir. 
Reservoir, 


.19 


3.86 


.0032 


.0680 


.0395 


.17 


.0007 


.0000 


.31 


1.1 


Blandford, . 


Freeland Brook, 


.03 


3.41 


.0027 


.0042 


.0004 


.17 


.0186 


.0000 


.12 


1.8 


Brockton, 


Silver Lake, . 


.09 


3.51 


.0029 


.0153 


.0022 


.63 


.0003 


.0000 


.20 


0.7 


Cambridge, . 


Upper Hobbs Brook Res- 


.62 


6.63 


.0057 


.0379 


.0077 


.53 


.0087 


.0001 


.81 


2.6 




ervoir. 
Lower Hobbs Brook Res- 


.17 


6.53 


.0044 


.0315 


.0076 


.52 


,0037 


,0001 


.41 


2.7 




ervoir. 
Stony Brook Reservoir, . 


.49 


6.64 


.0044 


.0266 


.0041 


.61 


,0127 


,0001 


.64 


2.7 




Fresh Pond, . 


.32 


7.03 


.0084 


.0276 


.0076 


.70 


,0190 


,0005 


.51 


3.2 


Cheshire, 


Kitchen Brook, 


.00 


8.50 


.0004 


.0030 


.0002 


.09 


,0060 


.0000 


.03 


6.7 


Chester, 


Austin Brook, 


.05 


3.80 


.0006 


.0046 


.0004 


.14 


.0080 


,0000 


,10 


2,0 


Chicopee, 


Morton Brook, 


.03 


4.00 


.0006 


.0048 


.0006 


.15 


,0000 


.0000 


,05 


1.6 




Cooley Brook, 


.25 


4.00 


.0012 


.0086 


.0010 


.15 


.0000 


,0000 


,20 


1.6 


Concord, 


Nagog Pond, . 


.02 


3.85 


.0014 


.0129 


.0029 


.32 


,0012 


.0000 


,15 


1.7 


Dalton, 


Egypt Brook Reservoir, 


.29 


3.60 


.0017 


.0111 


.0014 


.11 


,0057 


,0000 


,47 


1.8 


Danvers, 


Middleton Pond, . 


.54 


5.17 


.0025 


.0214 


.0023 


.47 


.0005 


,0000 


,79 


2.1 


Fall River, . 


North Watuppa Lake, . 


.18 


4.13 


.0030 


.0195 


.0024 


.67 


.0021 


.0001 


,36 


1.3 


Falmouth, 


Long Pond, . 


.00 


3.11 


.0013 


.0138 


.0021 


.99 


.0002 


.0000 


,11 


0.5 


Fitchburg, 


Meetinghouse Pond, 


.13 


3.09 


.0028 


.0164 


.0032 


.19 


.0015 


.0000 


,30 


0.8 




Scott Reservoir, 


.19 


3.26 


.0036 


.0238 


.0071 


.23 


.0008 


.0000 


,37 


0.6 




Wachusett Lake, 


.12 


2.86 


.0034 


.0152 


.0024 


.19 


.0007 


.0000 


,25 


1.1 


Gardner, 


Crystal Lake, 


.07 


5.22 


.0031 


.0147 


.0013 


.30 


.0050 


,0000 


,20 


2.2 


Gloucester, . 


Dike's Brook Reservoir, 


.27 


4.35 


.0021 


.0158 


.0028 


,99 


.0008 


.0000 


,37 


0.5 




Wallace Reservoir, 


.37 


4.19 


.0026 


.0217 


.0051 


1.10 


.0002 


,0000 


,43 


0.6 




Haskell Brook Reservoir, 


.44 


4.41 


.0027 


.0155 


.0029 


1,00 


.0010 


,0000 


.33 


0.6 


Great Barrington, . 


East Mountain Reservoir, 


.11 


5.24 


.0042 


.0126 


.0023 


,12 


.0005 


,0000 


.22 


3.5 




Green River, . 


.01 


9.79 


.0028 


0057 


.0011 


,15 


.0248 


.0000 


.13 


8.5 


Great Barrington 

(Housatonic). 
Greenfield, . 


Long Pond, . 

Glen Brook Upper Reser- 


.06 
.03 


8.19 
6.08 


.0040 
.0038 


.0199 
.0086 


.0025 
.0023 


,15 
.16 


.0007 
,0052 


.0000 
,0000 


.23 
.12 


7.0 
3.5 




voir. 
Glen Brook Lower Reser- 


.02 


5.40 


.0048 


.0067 


.0013 


.16 


.0055 


,0000 


.11 


3,3 


Hadley, 


voir. 
Hart's Brook Reservoir, 


.08 


4.59 


.0024 


.0083 


.0018 


.21 


,0008 


,0000 


.15 


2,1 


Hatfield. 


Running Gutter Brook 
Reservoir. 


.09 


4.41 


.0014 


.0056 


,0006 


.18 


,0187 


,0000 


,19 


2.0 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



219 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, etc. — Continued. 





[Parts in 


100,000.) 






















1 
o 

C8 


Ammon 


lA. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

£ 

3 

m 

c 

a 

H 

>. 
x 

c 






Source. 


o 
"o 
O 


> 

a 
o 

1" 




ALBUMINOID. 


O 


g 
9. 


2 




City or Town. 


"3 
1 


•V 
< g 


DC 

a 


Haverhill, 


Johnson's Pond, 


.19 


5.12 


.0024 


.0189 


.0017 


.47 


.0012 


.0000 


.35 


2.2 




Crystal Lake, 


.19 


3.91 


.0023 


,0190 


.0031 


.37 


.0005 


,0001 


.37 


1.6 




Kenoza Lake, 


.22 


4.75 


.0042 


.0209 


.0030 


.43 


.0007 


,0001 


.42 


2.1 




Lake Saltonstall, . 


.11 


6.17 


.0016 


.0169 


.0017 


.55 


.0005 


,0000 


.28 


2.5 




Lake Pentucket, . 


.16 


4.61 


.0024 


.0202 


.0029 


.44 


.0005 


.0001 


.36 


2.0 




Millvale Reservoir, 


.73 


5.38 


.0043 


.0275 


.0046 


.39 


.0028 


.0001 


.93 


2.0 


Hingham, 


Accord Pond, 


.22 


3,57 


.0028 


.0159 


.0029 


.71 


.0003 


.0000 


.38 


0.9 


Holden, 


Muschopauge Lake, 


.03 


2.83 


.0021 


.0127 


.0014 


.33 


.0007 


.0000 


.16 


1.2 


Holyoko, 


Whiting Street Reservoir, 


.11 


5.16 


.0032 


.0172 


.0030 


.21 


.0011 


.0000 


.23 


2.8 




Fomer Reservoir, . 


.26 


3.97 


.0016 


.0105 


.0019 


.18 


.0016 


.0000 


.36 


1.6 




Wright and Ashley Pond, 


.14 


5.06 


.0034 


.0213 


.0034 


.21 


.0005 


.0000 


.29 


2.6 




High Service Reservoir, 


.14 


4.26 


.0030 


.0217 


.0034 


.19 


.0008 


.0000 


.33 


2.0 


Hudson, 


Gates Pond, . 


.10 


3.23 


.0027 


.0179 


.0032 


.26 


.0022 


.0000 


.22 


1.5 




Fosgate Brook, 


.45 


6.10 


.0033 


.0171 


.0031 


.25 


.0392 


.0001 


.56 


2.6 


Huntington, . 


Cold Brook Reservoir, . 


.15 


3.36 


.0010 


.0061 


.0004 


.13 


.0008 


.0000 


.28 


1.4 


Ipswich, 


Dow's Brook Reservoir, 


.21 


5.05 


.0036 


.0181 


.0036 


.76 


.0035 


.0001 


38 


2.1 


Lawrence, 

Lee, . . . 


Merrimack River, fil- 
tered. 
Codding Brook Upper 


.24 

.18 


6.19 
3.78 


.0053 
.0015 


.0122 
.0092 


.0009 


.44 
.12 


.0367 
.0042 


.0001 
.0000 


.40 
.26 


1.4 
2.0 




Reservoir. 
Codding Brook Lower 

Reservoir. 
Basin Pond Brook, 


.17 
.54 


3.97 
3.92 


.0026 
.0037 


.0120 
.0170 


.0014 
.0019 


.14 
.10 


.0030 
.0060 


.0000 
.0000 


.30 

.71 


2.3 
1,6 


Lenox, 


Reservoir, 


.05 


7.68 


.0022 


.0070 


.0007 


.10 


.0047 


.0000 


.17 


5.6 


Leominster, 


Morse Reservoir, . 


.19 


2.89 


.0034 


.0198 


.0029 


.23 


.0015 


.0000 


.32 


0.5 




Haynes Reservoir, 


.24 


2.79 


.0133 


.0321 


.0105 


.21 


.0013 


.0001 


.38 


0.6 




Fall Brook Reservoir, . 


.11 


2.49 


.0020 


.0162 


.0037 


.22 


.0011 


.0000 


.28 


0.6 


Lincoln, 


Sandy Pond, . 


.03 


5.50 


.0033 


.0154 


.0025 


.35 


.0012 


.0000 


.16 


2.3 


Longmeadow, 


Cooley Brook, 


.18 


4.73 


.0060 


.0105 


.0031 


.24 


.0053 


.0003 


.21 


2.8 


Lynn, . 


Birch Reservoir, 


.48 


5.86 


.0069 


.0312 


.0047 


.79 


.0036 


.0001 


.64 


2.3 




Walden Reservoir, . 


.62 


6.32 


.0071 


,0276 


.0043 


.80 


.0029 


.0001 


74 


2.6 




Hawkcs Reservoir, 


.77 


7.27 


.0078 


.0363 


.0056 


.91 


.0022 


.0001 


.96 


3.1 




Saugus River, 


.90 


8.76 


.0084 


.0366 


.0046 


.97 


.0021 


,0002 


1.05 


4.4 


Manchester, . 


Round Pond, 


1.00 


6.05 


.0066 


.0271 


.0037 


.94 


.0018 


,0001 


.96 


1.6 




Gravel Pond, . 


.13 


4.60 


.0026 


.0136 


.0028 


.90 


.0005 


.0000 


.22 


1.3 


Marlborough, 


Lake Williams, 


.19 


5.15 


.0049 


.0218 


.0043 


.53 


0072 


.OCOl 


.31 


2.0 



220 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, 

(Parts in 100,000.] 



etc. — Continued. 





Source. 


o 

a 


o 

P. 

a 
o 

2 c 
-c-2 


Am.monia. 


o 

c 

_o 
"a 

O 

.47 


Nitrogen 

AS 


"6 
E 

3 
m 

a 
o 
Q 

>> 
x 

c 






6 


ALBUMINOID. 


1 


03 

2 




City or Town. 


'a 


-a 

it 


a 
■a 


Marlborough —Con. 


Millham Brook Reser- 


.45 


5.05 


.0055 


.0251 


.0050 


,0069* 


.0001 


,56 


1.9 


Maynard, 


voir. 
White Pond, . 


.17 


3.18 


.0017 


0111 


.0007 


.30 


.0020 


.0000 


.29 


1.2 


Milford, . 


Charles River, filtered, . 


.19 


3.81 


.0017 


.0072 


- 


.36 


.0125 


.0000 


.29 


1.3 


Montague, 


Lake Plea.<?ant, 


.05 


2.91 


.0029 


,0076 


.0005 


.17 


,0032 


.0000 


.14 


1.0 


Nantucket, . 


Wannacomei Pond, 


.09 


6.47 


.0031 


.0203 


.0080 


2.11 


,0003 


.0000 


.17 


1.6 


New Bedford, 


Little Quittaoas Pond, . 


.31 


3,84 


.0032 


.0257 


.0023 


.58 


,0000 


.0000 


.48 


0.9 




Great Quittacas Pond, . 


.46 


3.96 


,0030 


.0208 


.0022 


,56 


,0002 


.0000 


.66 


0.8 


North Adams, 


Notch Brook Reservoir, 


,07 


6.69 


.0019 


.0088 


.0019 


.10 


.0011 


.0000 


,15 


6.2 




Broad Brook, 


.11 


3.75 


.0020 


.0077 


.0013 


.11 


.0102 


.0000 


.25 


2.2 


Northampton, 


Middle Reservoir, . 


.28 


4.30 


.0029 


,0160 


.0044 


.17 


.0024 


.0000 


.44 


1.9 




Mountain Street Reser- 


.08 


3.82 


.0014 


.0099 


.0027 


.14 


.0015 


.0000 


.17 


2.0 




voir. 
West Brook, . 


.08 


4.73 


.0011 


,0062 


.0009 


.14 


.0018 


.0000 


.16 


2.2 


North Andover, . 


Great Pond, . 


.14 


4.60 


.0029 


.0187 


.0029 


.46 


.0013 


.0000 


.29 


1.9 


Northborough, 


Lower Reservoir, . 


.54 


4.23 


.0034 


.0223 


.0049 


.33 


.0027 


.0000 


.60 


1.3 


Northbridge, 


Cook Allen Reservoir, . 


.21 


3.50 


,0072 


,0289 


.0140 


.27 


.0007 


.0000 


.35 


0.6 


North Brookfield. 


Doane Pond, . 


.55 


3.70 


.0092 


.0285 


.0070 


.18 


,0017 


.0001 


,56 


1.1 




North Pond, . 


.52 


3.38 


,0087 


,0427 


.0153 


.17 


,0017 


.0000 


.57 


1.1 


Norwood, 


Buckmaster Pond, 


.0.3 


6.08 


,0128 


.0205 


.0077 


.66 


.0074 


.0000 


.17 


2.2 


Orange, 


Reservoir, 


.08 


3.13 


.0006 


.0053 


.0012 


.15 


.0010 


,0000 


.24 


1.3 


Palmer, 


Lower Reservoir, . 


.28 


3.76 


.0060 


.0150 


.0029 


.18 


,0007 


.0000 


.31 


1.2 


Peabody, 


Brown's Pond, 


.15 


4.37 


.0049 


.0209 


.0042 


.92 


,0110 


.0001 


,31 


1.5 




Spring Pond. . 


.18 


7.09 


,0058 


.0184 


.0048 


.76 


,0073 


.0001 


.32 


2.9 




Suntaug Lake, 


.03 


4.78 


.0033 


,0181 


.0033 


.85 


.0008 


.0000 


.21 


2.7 


Pittsfield, 


Ashley Lake, . 


.24 


3,27 


.0026 


,0161 


.0027 


.10 


.0010 


.0000 


.40 


1.7 




Ashley Brook, 


.17 


7.82 


.0032 


.0104 


.0021 


.12 


,0037 


,0000 


.35 


6.4 




Hathaway Brook, . 


.05 


8.73 


,0005 


,0051 


.0005 


.13 


,0153 


,0000 


.18 


7.8 




Mill Brook, . 


.20 


6.58 


.0029 


.0091 


.0023 


.14 


,0113 


.0000 


,23 


4.2 




Sacket Brook, 


.13 


7.00 


.0010 


.0063 


.0013 


.12 


.0060 


.0000 


,32 


4.9 


Plymouth, . 


Little South Pond, 


.00 


3.27 


.0049 


.0185 


.0034 


.68 


.0007 


,0000 


,14 


0.2 




Great South Pond, 


.00 


2.66 


,0039 


.0133 


.0020 


.71 


.0007 


,0000 


,12 


0.3 


Randolph, 


Great Pond, . 


.47 


4.73 


,0037 


.0210 


.0019 


.71 


.0040 


.0000 


.60 


1.4 


Rockport, 


Cape Pond, . 


.30 


10.96 


.0052 


,0279 


.0074 


4.12 


.0005 


.0000 


.34 


2.3 


Russell, 


Black Brook, . 


.20 


3.65 


.OOU 


.0073 


.0007 


.14 


.ooie 


.0001 


.24 


1.6 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



221 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, etc. — Concluded. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 




o 

a 

> 

c 
o 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


E 

a 

a 
o 

o 








ALBUMI.NOID. 








City or Town. 




13 


zi 






u 

O 


Si c 


i 




it 
■V 

' g 

K ? 
3 ^ 


a 

!| 
! 2 

.97 


S 


'•z 


>> 

c 


o 

a 
K 


Salem, . 


Wen ham Lake, 


.30 


7.27 


.0089 


,0238 


.0071 


.0069 


,0003 


.50 


2.8 




Longham Reservoir, 


.96 


8.37 


.0203 


.0337 


.0095 


1.07 


.0184 


.0004 


.78 


2.7 


Southbridge, 
South Hadley, 


Hatchet Brook Reser- 
voir No. 3. 

Hatchet Brook Reser- 
voir No. 4. 

Leaping Well Reservoir, 


.23 
.30 
.06 


2.81 
2.92 
3.22 


.0041 
.0043 
.0068 


.0201 
.0209 
.0190 


.0036 
,0034 
,0093 


.20 
.19 
.20 


.0007 
.0014 
.0027 


.0000 
.0000 
.0001 


.34 
.40 
.14 


0.9 

0.8 
1.0 




Buttery Brook Reser- 


.09 


3.98 


.0053 


.0120 


.0039 


.31 


.0255 


.0003 


.14 


1.1 


Spencer, 


voir. 
Shaw Pond, . 


.05 


2.86 


.0013 


,0148 


.0022 


.20 


.0037 


,0000 


.19 


1.0 


Springfield, . 
Stockbridge, . 


Westfield Little River, 

filtered. 
Lake Averic, . 


.17 
.12 


3.30 
7.21 


.0012 
.0023 


.0076 
.0223 


.0061 


.13 

1 

.11 


.0057 
.0032 


,0000 
.0001 


.30 


1.3 

4.8 


Taunton, 


Assawompsctt Pond, 


.31 


3.81 


.0028 


.0189 


.0025 


.55 


.0007 


.0001 


.50 


1.1 




Elder's Pond, 


.09 


3.36 


.0019 


.0163 


.0024 


.57 


.0005 


.0000 


.28 


0.8 


Wakefield, . 


Crystal Lake, 


,22 


5.82 


.0060 


.0259 


.0055 


.81 


.0055 

1 


.0001 


.36 


2.2 


Wareham (Onset), 


Jonathan Pond, 


.01 


2.60 


.0011 


.0088 


.0017 


.65 


.0003 


.0000 


.13 


0.3 


Wayland, 


Snake Brook Reservoir, . 


.83 


5.30 


.0044 


.0325 


.0054 


.38 


.0015 


.0000 


.83 


1.9 


Westfield, •. 


Montgomery Reservoir, . 


.42 


2.76 


.0050 


,0189 


.0040 


.14 


.0005 


.0000 


.55 


0.6 




Tekoa Reservoir, . 


.37 


3,18 


,0052 


,0164 


.0030 


.15 


.0007 


.0000 


.45 


0.6 




Tillotson Brook Reser- 


.10 


3.38 


,0022 


.0077 


.0017 


.18 


.0010 


.0000 


.23 


0.8 


West Springfield, . 


voir. 
Darby Brook Reservoir, 


.13 


5.98 


.0091 


,0162 


.0070 


.28 


.0123 


.0000 


29 


3.3 




Bear Hole Brook, filtered. 


.08 


6.83 


.0008 


.0050 


- 


.20 


.0060 


.0001 




4.3 


Weymouth, . 


Great Pond, . 


.75 


4.63 


.0048 


.0023 


.0026 


.58 


,0012 


,0000 


.87 


1.0 


Williamsburg, 


Reservoir, 


.15 


4.25 


.0025 


.0080 


.0010 


.15 


.0005 


.0000 


.23 


1.9 


Winchester, . 


North Reservoir, . 


.13 


4.31 


.0058 


.0204 


.0037 


.52 


,0019 


.0000 


,22 


1.8 




South Reservoir, . 


.12 


3.92 


.0039 


.0178 


.0038 


.46 


.0011 


.0000 


,19 


1.5 




Middle Reservoir, . 


.17 


3.96 


.0037 


.0266 


.0048 


.50 


.0020 


.0001 


.27 


1.5 


Worcester, 


Bottomly Reservoir, 


.29 


4.76 


.0041 


.0187 


.0025 


.27 


.0200 


.0001 


.49 


1.9 




Kent Reservoir, 


.21 


3.97 


.0032 


.0163 


.0032 


.26 


.0058 


.0000 


.34 


1.5 




Leicester Reservoir, 


.19 


3.73 


.0054 


,0155 


,0020 


.26 


,0043 


.0000 


.36 


1.4 




Mann Reservoir, . 


.18 


4.20 


.0025 


,0150 


,0022 


.24 


.0115 


.0001 


.38 


1.6 




Upper Holden Reservoir, 


.20 


3,29 


.0035 


.0159 


,0046 


.23 


.0027 


.0000 


.29 


0.9 




Lower Holden Reservoir, 


.15 


3.01 


.0029 


.0150 


,0043 


.22 


,0028 


.0000 


,28 


1.0 



222 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-water Sources for the Year 1912. 



[Parts in 100,000.) 



City or Town. 



Source. 



Adams, 
Amesbury, 
Ashland, . 
Attleborough, . 
Avon, 
Ayer, 

Barnstable, 
Bedford, . 
Billerica, . 
Braintree, 
Bridgewater, . 
Brookfield (East), 
Brookline, 
Canton, . 

Chelmsford (North), 
Chicopee (Fairview), 
Cohasset, 



Dedham, 

Douglas, . 

Dracut Water Sup- 
ply District). 
Dracut (Collinsville), 

Dudley, . 

Easthampton, 

Easton, . 

Edgartown, 

Fairhaven, 

Foxborough, . 

Framingham, . 

Franklin, 

Grafton, 



Tubular wells. 

Tubular wells. 

Tubular wells. 

Large well. 

Wells, 

Large well, 

Tubular wells. 

Tubular wells. 

Large well. 

Tubular wells, 

Filter-gallery, 

Wells, 

Tubular wells. 

Tubular wells and filter 

gallery. 
Springdalewell, 

Well near Henry's Spring, 

Tubular wells, 

Tubular wells. 

Tubular wells No. 2, 

Filter-gallery, 

Large well. 

Large well and tubular 

wells. 
Tubular wells, 

Tubular wells, 

Tubular wells. 

Tubular wells, 

Tubular wells, 

Well, . 

Large well, 

Tubular wells. 

Tubular wells, 

Filter-gallery, 

Tubular wells. 

Filter-gallery, 



_o 
"3 

u 


a 
.2 

a s 

-0 > 


.00 


12.90 


.13 


15.77 


.01 


6.41 


.04 


4.66 


.00 


5.47 


.00 


6.75 


.01 


5.66 


.00 


3.90 


.04 


3.87 


.17 


7.17 


.06 


6.72 


.10 


11.12 


.00 


3.30 


.20 


8.69 


.04 


5.00 


.04 


5.22 


.08 


4.76 


.04 


3.79 


.0613.56 


.49 


12.27 


.60 


6.49 


.05 


9.38 


.01 


4.87 


.01 


9.45 


.08 


11.33 


.00 


3.56 


.00 


7.11 


.00 


4.93 


.00 


3.33 


.36 


7.15 


.00 


3.97 


.00 


10.31 


.00 


4.64 


.05'l3.03 



Ammonia. 


i 


>.S 

< 


0001 


.0007 


0013 


.0028 


0004 


.0015 


0008 


.0050 


0001 


.0023 


0005 


.0023 


0006 


.0018 


0003 


.0015 


0011 


.0029 


0021 


.0049 


0016 


.0078 


0009 


.0037 


0003 


.0015 


0052 


.0070 


0009 


.0024 


0006 


.0027 


0071 


.0078 


0005 


.0015 


0007 


.0054 


2360 


.0145 


0112 


.0190 


0015 


.0048 


0006 


.0019 


0008 


.0019 


0004 


.0067 


0004 


.0021 


0003 


.0011 


0003 


.0023 


0006 


.0014 


0011 


.0094 


0010 


.0019 


0076 


.0066 


0004 


.0015 


0017 


.0045 



a 

S 
o 



.12 
.58 
.34 
.46 
.55 
.86 
.23 

1.19 
.37 
.41 

1.16 
.53 
.21 
.75 
.46 
.49 
.48 
.11 

2.01 

1.26 
.99 
.97 
.35 
.48i 
.41 
.25 
.14 
.61 
.91 

1.00 
.41 

1.13 
•48 

1.56 



Nitrogen 


AS 


1 

2 


o 

*(_ 
•*J 


0440 


.0000 


0005 


.0000 


0010 


.0000 


0140 


.0000 


0900 


.0000 


0483 


.0000 


0034 


.0000 


0002 


.0000 


0023 


.0000 


0021 


.0000 


0658 


.0000 


0045 


.0000 


.0054 


.0000 


0194 


.0001 


0163 


.0000 


0297 


.0000 


0412 


.0001 


0009 


.0000 


.1325 


.0000 


0030 


.0005 


0014 


.0001 


.1277 


.0000 


03 CO 


.0000 


0574 


.0001 


0320 


.0001 


0030 


.0000 


.0214 


.0000 


.0567 


,0000 


0028 


.0000 


.0552 


.0000 


.0340 


.0000 


.0197 


.0000 


.0325 


.0000 


.2533 


.0001 



13.0 
8.2 
1.4 
2.1 
2.4 
2.6 
2.7 
0.8 
1.5 
3.0 
2.4 
4.8 
0.6 
4.5 
1.7 
1.7 
2.0 
1.2 
6.0 
5.8 
1.8 
4.2 
1.7 
4.3 
6.0 
1.4 
4.0 
1.9 
0.6 
2.7 
1.6 
5.1 
1.8 
4.7 



0035 
,0725 
0172 
,0056 
0043 
,0088 
,0206 
,0055 
,0164 
,0483 
0090 
,0340 
,0068 
.0385 
.0245 
.0058 
.0163 
.0284 
.0087 
.1012 
.1414 
.0073 
.0157 
0113 
0287 
,0070 
,0068 
,0040 
,0070 
,0120 
,0043 
,0052 
.0117 
.0100 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



223 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-water Sources, etc. — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 


U 


a 


Ammonia. 


O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


a 




City or Town. 




•6 
'o 

il 

< 


g 




a 
2 


Granville, 


Well, 


.01 


4.20 


.0011 


.0021 


.12 


.0102 


.0000 


2.1 


.0095 


Groton, . 


Large well. 


.00 


5.10 


.0006 


.0020 


.23 


.0027 


.0000 


3.2 


.0063 


Groton (West Groton 

W. S. Di3t.). 
Hingham, 


Tubular wells, . 

Wells 


.00 
.09 


4.78 
6.56 


.0002 
.0118 


.0012 
.0073 


.21 
.77 


.0195 
.0137 


.0000 
.0005 


2.9 
2.1 


.0060 
.0125 


Hopkinton, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


11.30 


.0003 


.0020 


1.10 


.3067 


.0000 


5.4 


.0057 


Kingston, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.64 


.0005 


.0013 


.78 


.0046 


.0000 


1.3 


.0080 


Leicester, 


Wells 


.14 


7.37 


.0005 


.0062 


.35 


.0820 


.0000 


3,3 


.0120 


Leicester (Cherry 
Valley and Roch- 
dale W. S. Dist.). 

Littleton, 


Wells 

Tubular wells, . 


.04 
.00 


5.17 
4.18 


.0055 
.0003 


.0054 
.0018 


.30 
.25 


.0054 
.0227 


.0000 
.0000 


2.5 
2.0 


.0042 
.0031 


Lowell, . 


Boulevard wells (tubular). 


.26 


5.98 


.0300 


.0058 


.36 


.0221 


.0001 


2.9 


.0816 


Manchester, 


Wells 


.00 


11.72 


.0007 


.0021 


1.94 


.1583 


.0000 


4.3 


.0120 


Mansfield, 


Large well. 


.00 


5.58 


.0007 


.0024 


.48 


.1222 


.0000 


1.6 


.0045 


Marblehead, 


Wells Nos. 1 and 2, . 


.05 


65.62 


.0005 


.0026 


20.92 


.0162 


.0000 


24.7 


.0282 




Well No. 2, filtered, . 


.00 


25.72 


.0007 


.0032 


2.17 


.0094 


.0000 


13.6 


.0039 


Marion, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.82 


.0004 


.0015 


.72 


.0196 


.0000 


1.2 


.0040 


Marshfield, 


Well, 


.09 


14.00 


.0016 


.0018 


4.20 


.1650 


.0000 


3.3 


.0030 


Medway, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


6.95 


.0004 


.0013 


.54 


.0473 


.0000 


3.2 


.0039 


Merrim.ac, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


6.28 


.0005 


.0015 


.50 


.0230 


.0000 


2.4 


.0233 


Methuen, 


Tubular wells, . 


.31 


7.30 


.0020 


.0096 


.45 


.0112 


.0000 


3.2 


.0893 


Middleborough, 


Well 


.28 


6.58 


.0055 


.0062 


.68 


.0437 


.0000 


2.8 


.1509 


Millbury, 


Well 


.01 


5.22 


.0007 


.0038 


.46 


.0180 


.0000 


2.5 


.0104 


Millis, . 


Spring 


.00 


7.10 


.0000 


.0008 


.73 


.1600 


.0000 


4.2 


.0020 


Monson, . 


Large well, 


.00 


3.37 


.0005 


.0022 


.16 


.0157 


.0000 


1.5 


.0040 


Natick, . 


Large well. 


.00 


8.94 


.0003 


.0024 


.73 


.0296 


.0000 


4.9 


.0066 


Needham, 


Well No. 1, 


.00 


7.62 


.0003 


.0026 


.84 


.1517 


.0000 


3.0 


.0033 




Well No. 2, . . . 


.00 


7.22 


.0006 


.0025 


.79 


.1342 


.0000 


3.0 


.0035 




Hicks Spring, . 


.00 


5.68 


.0005 


.0039 


.59 


.0983 


.0000 


2.1 


.0037 


Newbury port, 


Wells and springs, 


.05 


8.52 


.0023 


.0071 


1.14 


.0164 


.0000 


3.5 


.0191 


Newton, . 

No. Attleborough, . 


Tubular wells and filter- 
gallery. 
Wells, .... 


.00 
.00 


5.60 
6.95 


.0007 
.0002 


.0030 
.0029 


.47 
.69 


.0344 
.0583 


.0000 
.0000 


2.4 
3.2 


.0057 
.0060 


Norton, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.82 


.0004 


.0010 


.41 


.0000 


.0000 


1.5 


.0072 


Oak Bluffs, . 


Springs, .... 


.00 


4.68 


.0008 


.0035 


.91 


.0095 


.0000 


0.7 


.0058 


Oxford, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.00 


.0004 


.0015 


.33 


.0643 


.0000 


1.9 


.0033 



224 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. No. 34. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-water Sources, etc. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 



— Concluded. 





Source. 


O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


AM.MONIA. 


1 



Nitrogen 

AS 






City or Town. 


6 
1 


■6 
"o 

> S 

< 






• 

a 

i- 


Palmer (Bondsville), 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.18 


.0009 


.0029 


.16 


.0099 


,0000 


1.9 


.0186 


Peabody, 


Tubular wells, . 


.40 


7.54 


.0124 


.0047 


.68 


.0021 


,0001 


3.0 


.1656 


Pepperell, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.40 

1 


.0005 


.0015 


.19 


.0007 


.0000 


1.6 


.0037 


Plainville, 


Tubular wells, . 


.07 


5.22 


.0004 


.0016 


.35 


.0002 


.0000 


2.3 


.0846 


Provincetown, 


Tubular wells in Truro, . 


.00 


8.55' 


.0004 


.0015 


3.11 


.0042 


.0000 


1.8 


.0063 


Reading, . 


Filter-gallery, . 


1.09 


11.82 


.0243 


.0218 


2.81 


.0022 


.0002 


3.0 


.2225 




Filtered water, . 


.36 


21.70' 


.0024 


.0125 


2.81 


.0051 


.0075 


12.1 


.0187 


Scituate, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


16.02 


.0002 


.0015 


3.48 


.2550 


.0000 


6.6 


.0071 


Sharon, . 


Well, 


.00 


10.73 


.0003 


.0019 


1.36 


.2650 


,0000 


4.8 


.0057 


Sheffield, 


Spring, .... 


.00 


3.60 


.0003 


.0015 


.09 


.0020 


,0000 


1.7 


,0030 


Shirley, . 


Well 


.00 


3.20 

[ 


.0003 


.0008 


.25 


.0292 


,0000 


1.0 


,0044 


South Hadley (Fire 

District No. 2). 
Tisbury, . 


Large well, 

Well, 


.00 
.00 


3.84 

4.28 


.0005 
.0005 


.0016 
.0015 


.14 
.97 


.0305 
.0034 


,0000 
.0000 


1.4 
0.8 


.0052 
.0105 


Uxbridge, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.38 


.0002 


.0012 


.57 


.0775 


.0000 


2.0 


.0147 


Walpole, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.67 


.0005 


.0017 


.41 


.0368 


,0000 


1.9 


,0053 


Waltham, 


Old well 


.08 


8.52 


.0029 


.0038 


.85 


.0282 


.0000 


3.9 


,0375 




New well, .... 


.01 


7.58 

1 


.0019 


.0041 


.70 


.0306 


.0000 


3.6 


,0081 


Ware, 


Wells 


.00 


5.33 


.0006 


.0017 


.34 


.0927 


.0000 


2.1 


,0038 


Wareham (Fire Dis- 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.67 


.0007 


.0018 


.63 


.0016 


.0000 


1.1 


,0050 


trict). 
Webster, . 


Wells, . . . . 


.01 


5.00 


.0012 


.0037 


.34 


.0168 


.0000 


2.2 


,0117 


Wellesley, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


10.32 


.0006 


,0019 


1.00 


.0988 


.0000 


4.8 


.0047 




Well at Williams Spring, . 


.00 


13,17 


.0058 


.0020 


1.24 


,4983 


,0000 


5.1 


.0137 


Westborough, . 


Filter basin, 


.00 


3.07 


.0011 


.0108 


.29 


,0000 


.0000 


1.0 


.0113 


Westford, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.91 


.0003 


.0011 


.18 


,0035 


.0000 


1.6 


.0053 


Weston, . 


Well 


.04 


7.63 


.0007 


.0032 


.68 


.0747 


.0000 


2.9 


.0067 


Winchendon, . 


Wells 


.05 


4.08 


.0009 


.0037 


.16 


.0055 


.0000 


1.4 


,0143 


Woburn, . 


Wells 


.00 


10.31 


.0012 


.0040 


1.50 


.0263 


.0000 


4.9 


.0046 


Worthington, . 


Springs, . . . . 


.06 


2.39 


.0020 


.0036 


.11 


.0024 


.0000 


1.1 


.0375 


Wrentham, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


3.48 


.0002 


.0012 


.33 


.0080 


.0000 


1.2 


.0044 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



[225] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



All of the important rivers of the State have been examined during 
the year, and the condition of each is described on pages 41 to 46. 

The rainfall in the spring of 1912 was higher than the average and 
was distributed in such a way as to produce a high flow in the streams 
in the months of March, April and May. There was almost no rainfall 
in the month of June, and a continued deficiency until December. The 
total rainfall, especially in the period from June to November, was much 
less than the average and the flow of streams below the normal for that 
period, though somewhat higher on the whole than in the same period of 
the two preceding years. 

Under these conditions there has been a somewhat greater flow in the 
streams and a greater amount of water available for the dilution of the 
sewage and other polluting matters which are discharged into the streams 
than in the years 1910 and 1911. 

On nearly all of the important streams of the State stations were estab- 
lished many years ago at which samples of the water have been collected 
for chemical examination to determine the changes taking place from 
time to time in the condition of the water. The samples are for the most 
part collected during the six drier months of the year, from June to 
November inclusive, since in that part of the year the dilution of sewage 
in polluted streams is least and the effect of pollution most noticeable. 
In a few cases samples are collected monthly throughout the year. 
During the year 1912 chemical analyses were made of samples of water 
collected from the following streams at monthly intervals, in some cases 
during the entire year : — 



Assabet. 

Blackstone. 

Charles. 

Chicopee. 

Concord. 

Connecticut. 

Deerfield. 

French. 

Green. 

Hoosick. 

Housatonic. 

Merrimack. 

Mill (Northampton). 



MiUer's. 

Nashua. 

Nemasket. 

Neponset. 

Quaboag. 

Quinebaug. 

Salisbury Plain. 

Shawsheen. 

Sudbury. 

Taunton. 

Ten Mile. 

Ware. 

Westfield. 



228 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



BlACKSTONE ElVER. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 
will be found on page 41. 

blackstone river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Blackstone River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Blackstone River, below Cherry Valley. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





O 


Residue on 




Ammonia. 


6 

o 

3 
O 


Nitrogen 


i 

3 

3 

8 
a 

>. 

o 






Evaporation. 


£ 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year, 


o 


C3 

3" 


i 


-0 
o 
> 

1 

CO 

5 


•6 

-§ 

a 

a 

QQ 


1 


tn 

2 

*t-i 

2 


i 

u 

si 


1908, . 


_ 


20.57 


3.83 


.1531 


.0624 


.0508 


.0116 


5.76 


.0020 


.0007 


_ 


... 


1909, . 


.35 


13.93 


3.34 


.0681 


.0470 


.0334 


.0136 


3.70 


.0125 


.0003 


.80 


- 


1910, . 


.32 


16.42 


3.92 


.0633 


.0489 


.0387 


.0102 


4.02 


.0146 


.0002 


.85 


- 


1911, . 


_ 


21.02 


4.40 


.1277 


.0726 


.0559 


.0167 


5.70 


.0080 


.0005 


1.15 


- 


1912,1 . 


- 


44.10 


11.04 


.2514 


.2884 


.1023 


.1861 


10.70 


.0002 


.0004 


3.08 


- 



> August omitted. 

Blackstone River, between Mill Brook Channel and the Sewage Precipitation Works 

of the City of Worcester. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 








albuminoid. 


AS 




Year. 




d 




■d 


tj 






tn 






"a 


§1 




"a 


01 

> 

1 


13 

a 

n 




1 


s 


a 

t3 




a 




a- 


£ 


^ 




tn 


2 


2 


iS 




1887 


0.91 


_ 


_ 


.2686 


.1741 


_ 


„ 


1.35 


.0160 


_ 


_ 


1888, 








0.76 


- 


- 


.2658 


.1112 


.0557 


,0555 


1.50 


.0382 


.0041 


- 


1889. 








0.86 


^ 


_ 


.3980 


.1430 


.0772 


,0658 


1.32 


.0177 


.0026 


- 


1890, 








1.14 


9.92 


3.03 


.2107 


.1246 


,0673 


.0573 


1.07 


.0250 


.0015 


2.9 


1891, 








1.10 


17.42 


5.59 


.4913 


.1950 


.1127 


.0823 


2,29 


.0192 


.0037 


5.0 


1892, 








0.52 


20.75 


6.. 30 


.3547 


.1433 


,0708 


.0725 


2.43 


.0227 


.0108 


6.1 


1893, 








0.40 


16.98 


4.55 


.1480 


.0588 


.0240 


.0348 


1.01 


.0115 


.0015 


6.3 


1894, 








0.66 


16.93 


4.76 


.0548 


.0380 


.0236 


.0144 


0.74 


.0115 


,0005 


4.4 


1895, 








0.49 


14.17 


4.50 


.0613 


.0414 


,0243 


.0171 


0.92 


.0163 


.0006 


3.4 


1896, 








0.51 


12.90 


2.93 


.0780 


.0415 


.0282 


,0133 


0.97 


.0147 


,0015 


3,4 


1897, 








0.85 


26.45 


7.68 


.1130 


.0674 


,0362 


.0312 


0,89 


.0090 


.0024 , 


4.2 


1898, 








0.33 


17.42 


5,62 


.0857 


.0619 


,0260 


.0359 


0.96 


,0053 


,0010 


4.6 


1899, 








0.14 


34.38 


10.60 


.2583 


.0788 


,0390 


,0398 


- 


- 


.0004 


14.3 


1900, 








0.05 


16.48 


3.38 


.1068 


.0518 


.0210 


.0308 


1.03 


.0107 


.0012 


3.6 


190], 








0.23 


31.03 


11.68 


.1410 


.0548 


,0309 


,0239 


. 


- 


.0023 


13.8 


1902, 








0.10 


46.15 


12.47 


.2453 


.0728 


.0274 


,0454 


- 


- 


.0010 


16.5 


1903, 








0.18 


24.00 


6.80 


.2836 


.0750 


.0472 


.0278 


- 


- 


.0027 


8.4 


1904, 








0.12 


44.68 


17.08 


.1228 


,0434 


.0225 


.0209 


- 


- 


.0008 


14.7 


1905, 








0.21 


50.36 


19.49 


.0952 


.0492 


.0203 


.0289 


- 


- 


.0003 


29.3 


1906, 








0.11 


40.07 


15.25 


.0688 


.0421 


.0189 


.0232 


_ 


.0032 


.0002 


20.3 


1907, 








0.04 


44.07 


17.67 


.0613 


.0343 


.0180 


,0163 


- 


- 


,0003 


- 


1908, 








0.16 


23.67 


5.55 


.0990 


.0291 


,0153 


,01.38 


3.23 


.0134 


.0014 


- 


1909, 










52.97 


18.55 


.1865 


.0381 


.0239 


.0142 


4.80 


.0033 


,0010 


- 


1910, 








0.15 


50.92 


18.97 


.1933 


.0545 


.0309 


.0236 


4.07 


.0023 


.0009 


- 


1911, 








0.11 


44.64 


15.70 


.1920 


.0449 


.0212 


.0237 


4,03 


.0170 


.0009 


- 


1912, 








0.10 


40.05 


10.91 


.2047 


.0352 


.0225 


.0127 


3.58 


.0027 


.0011 


— 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



229 



bl,ackstone river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Blackstone River, etc. — 

Continued. 

Blackstone River, below Sewage Precipitation Works. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











C 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 





Nitrogen 

AS 








albuminoid. 




Year. 


"S 


g:l 


1 


i 

> 


■T3 
O 

e 


s 


.1 


i 






















•4^ 






o 
O 


^ 


a- 


f^ 


^ 


p 


m 


O 


Z 


2; 


w 


1890 


0.97 


11.36 


3.10 


.2907 


.1492 


.0722 


.0770 


1.46 


.0270 


.0018 


3.9 


1891, 








1.05 


22.25 


6.60 


.6367 


.1508 


.0883 


.0625 


2.61 


.0233 


.0040 


6.2 


1892, 








0.63 


26.80 


7.75 


.5240 


.1810 


.0958 


.0852 


3.13 


.0137 


.0050 


10.3 


1893, 








0.51 


30.00 


7.13 


.5680 


.1453 


.0900 


.0553 


2.76 


.0285 


.0126 


10.9 


1894, 








0.40 


29.30 


5.86 


.6189 


.1390 


.1113 


.0277 


2.63 


.0212 


.0071 


10.6 


1895, 








0.71 


22.15 


5.18 


.3246 


.0898 


.0597 


.0301 


1.86 


.0267 


.0063 


7.3 


1896, 








0.30 


26.03 


6.53 


.2831 


.0898 


.0600 


.0298 


2.10 


.0217 


.0118 


9.7 


1897, 








0.73 


25.98 


4.97 


.3650 


.1122 


.0782 


.0340 


1.61 


.0207 


.0063 


6.9 


1898, 








0.23 


25.63 


6.73 


.3064 


.0868 


.0560 


.0308 


1.55 


.0132 


.0119 


9.2 


1899, 








0.14 


44.02 


9.67 


.5251 


.1707 


.0912 


.0795 


3.26 


.0108 


.0068 


16.1 


1900, 








0.22 


24.57 


4.48 


.4430 


.1249 


.0621 


.0628 


2.13 


.0110 


.0145 


7.3 


1901. 








0.09 


31.12 


6.90 


.4580 


.1293 


.0772 


.0521 


3.42 


.0090 


.0058 


10.8 


1902, 








0.15 


49.62 


13.38 


.7296 


.1284 


.0736 


.0548 


2.97 


_ 


.0033 


12.5 


1903, 








0.39 


31.08 


9.48 


.3880 


.1080 


.0545 


.0535 


- 


- 


.0062 


10.4 


1904, 








_ 


50.25 


13.73 


.6381 


.1523 


.0601 


.0922 


- 


- 


.0027 


16.9 


1905, 








0.19 


59.84 


17.97 


.4936 


.0985 


.0597 


.0388 


- 


- 


.0008 


29.3 


1906, 








0.19 


49.69 


11.42 


.6330 


.1818 


.0580 


. 1238 


- 


.0055 


.0130 


15.0 


1908, 








0.30 


38.80 


7.63 


.9407 


.1490 


.0781 


.0709 


5.34 


.0040 


.0033 


_ 


1909, 








_ 


53.79 


12.12 


1.0567 


.1282 


.0792 


.0490 


6.92 


.0067 


.0075 


6.3 


1910, 








_ 


52.15 


12.52 


1.0090 


.1654 


.0817 


.0837 


5.68 


.0015 


.0034 


- 


1911. 








0.21 


53.25 


13.15 


.9967 


.1608 


.0651 


.0957 


6.54 


.0152 


.0072 


_ 


1912, 








0.23 


48.90 


10.08 


! 1.1700 

1 


.1673 


.0904 


.0769 


6.11 


.0164 


.0096 


~ 



Blackstone River, at Vxbridge. 



1887, 


.39 






.1129 


.0271 


_ 


_ 


0.79 


.0360 


_ 




1888, 








.38 


6.42 


1.52 


.1155 


.0288 


.0222 


.0066 


0.68 


.0310 


.0007 


- 


1889, 








.32 


., 


_ 


.1133 


.0296 


.0192 


.0104 


0.66 


.0333 


.0009 


_ 


1890, 








.26 


8.86 


2.12 


.1629 


.0231 


.0174 


.0057 


0.79 


.0259 


.0005 


2.9 


1891, 








.20 


10.16 


2.61 


.2280 


.0175 


.0117 


.0058 


1.04 


.0425 


.0007 


3.6 


1892, 








.13 


9.36 


1.88 


.2840 


.0227 


.0162 


.0065 


0.99 


.0313 


.0007 


3.1 


1893, 








.24 


11.74 


2.37 


.1985 


.0207 


.0140 


.0067 


1.20 


.0623 


.0050 


4.2 


1894, 








.35 


13.07 


2.03 


.1456 


.0243 


.0183 


.0060 


1.57 


.0673 


.0050 


4.9 


1895, 








.56 


12.95 


2.69 


.0906 


.02,58 


.0182 


.0076 


1.34 


.0631 


.0065 


4.7 


1896, 








.33 


12.68 


2.67 


.1129 


.0257 


.0221 


.00.36 


1.38 


.0477 


.0091 


5.0 


1897, 








.48 


11.60 


2.47 


.1029 


.0280 


.0215 


.0065 


1.32 


.0652 


.0051 


4.3 


1898, 








.49 


10.59 


2.78 


.0801 


.0264 


.0219 


.0045 


1.00 


.0470 


.0076 


3.8 


1899, 








.18 


18. .34 


3.11 


.2490 


.0359 


.0310 


.0049 


2.17 


.0510 


.0141 


7.4 


1900, 








.19 


13.42 


2.04 


.2260 


.0347 


.0257 


.0090 


1.76 


.0558 


.0060 


5.0 


1901, 








.22 


13.91 


2.67 


.3159 


.0285 


.0240 


.0045 


1.50 


.0195 


.0035 


5.0 


1902, 








.15 


14.17 


2.56 


.3462 


.0270 


.0218 


.0052 


1.95 


.0210 


.0018 


4.9 


1903, 








.30 


13.16 


2.52 


.3030 


.0262 


.0215 


.0047 


1.74 


.0210 


.0024 


4.4 


1904. 








.20 


13.78 


2.74 


2399 


.0282 


.0214 


.0068 


2.12 


.0408 


.0022 


4.6 


1905, 








.21 


16.34 


2.55 


.3928 


.0246 


.0203 


.0043 


2.65 


.0175 


.0025 


6.0 


1906, 








.19 


14.73 


3.10 


.2218 


.0242 


.0200 


.0042 


2.10 


.0252 


.0009 


4.2 


1907, 








.37 


14.23 


2.58 


.2331 


.0238 


.0182 


.0056 


2.36 


.0330 


.0040 


4.5 


1908, 








.31 


16.33 


4.07 


.2387 


.0253 


.0196 


.0057 


3.05 


.0408 


,0071 


- 


1909, 








.22 


18.31 


4.35 


.3473 


.0273 


.0216 


.0057 


3.64 


.0325 


.0066 


_ 


1910. 








.26 


22.53 


4.69 


.4963 


.0356 


.0302 


.0054 


4.62 


.0498 


.0043 


- 


1911, 








.26 


23.10 


3.85 


.3717 


.0293 


.0225 


.0068 


4.15 


.0558 


.0173 


_ 


1912, 








.21 


21.91 


3.06 


.4897 


.0345 


.0288 


.0057 


4.06 


.0497 


.0137 


6.5 



230 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



blackstone river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Blackstone River, etc. 

Concluded. 

Blackstone River, at Millville. 

[Parts in 100,000.1 













Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


1 



o 


Nitrogen 








albuminoid. 


AS 




Year. 


e2 


►— ' 


3 

^ 


> 

1 

Q 


-a 
a 

m 




.1 


03 


1887 


.31 


- 


- 


.0468 


.0220 


- 


- 


0.51 


.0210 


- 


- 


1888, 








.41 


5.22 


1.40 


.0467 


.0296 


.0233 


,0063 


0,50 


.0278 


.0004 


- 


1889, 








.38 


- 


- 


.0499 


.0273 


.0213 


.0060 


0.45 


.0167 


.0003 


- 


1890, 








.26 


6.71 


2.24 


.0736 


.0196 


,0152 


.0044 


0.53 


.0229 


,0003 


2.3 


1891, 








.24 


7.48 


2.35 


.1105 


.0384 


,0234 


,0150 


0,72 


,0308 


,0006 


2.2 


1892, 








.37 


6.70 


1.62 


.1143 


.0294 


,0210 


.0084 


0.63 


,0217 


.0002 


2.0 


1893, 








.23 


7.43 


1.73 


.0677 


.0119 


,0087 


.0032 


0.77 


,0385 


,0011 


2.6 


1894, 








.47 


8.42 


2.16 


.0510 


.0172 


,0139 


,0033 


0.89 


,0273 


.0012 


2.8 


1895, 








.51 


8.67 


2.55 


.0356 


.0233 


.0180 


.0053 


0,90 


,0383 


,0024 


3.2 


1896, 








.35 


8.53 


1.69 


.0484 


.0237 


.0180 


.0057 


0.97 


,0413 


.0027 


3,3 


1897, 








.45 


7,66 


1.98 


.0509 


.0258 


.0210 


,0048 


0.92 


.0445 


,0019 


3.1 


1898, 








.51 


7.12 


2.17 


.0325 


.0240 


.0193 


,0047 


0.63 


.0240 


,0023 


2.5 


1899, 








.20 


12.50 


2.44 


.1310 


,0301 


,0247 


.0054 


1.31 


,0310 


,0049 


4.6 


1900. 








.29 


9.33 


1.82 


.1168 


,0254 


.0219 


.0035 


1.15 


.0417 


.0039 


3.4 


1901, 








.31 


8.62 


2.13 


.1420 


,0288 


.0227 


.0061 


0.87 


.0155 


.0006 


3.1 


1902, 








.28 


9.43 


2.24 


.1623 


.0284 


.0238 


,0046 


1.20 


.0195 


.0010 


2.8 


1903, 








.33 


8.46 


1.85 


.1397 


.0233 


.0189 


.0044 


1.10 


.0192 


.0010 


2.9 


1904, 








.29 


8.71 


2.06 


.1079 


.0235 


.0201 


.0034 


1.26 


.0337 


.0009 


2,9 


1905. 








.28 


10.76 


2.03 


.1956 


.0311 


,0222 


,0089 


1.67 


.0207 


,0008 


2.9 


1908, 








.37 


9.02 


2.15 


.1526 


.0306 


,0251 


.0055 


1.27 


.0188 


,0006 


2,4 


1907, 








.37 


10.43 


2.21 


.1521 


.0240 


,0181 


,0059 


1.61 


,0247 


,0014 


3.1 


1908, 








.33 


9.85 


2.53 


.1295 


,0232 


.0185 


.0047 


1.78 


,0258 


.0024 


3.4 


1909, 








.24 


11.87 


3.17 


.1595 


.0267 


.0220 


.0047 


2.27 


.0225 


.0019 


- 


1910, 








.30 


13.94 


3.32 


.2350 


.0277 


,0234 


,0043 


3,01 


,0290 


.0013 


- 


1911, 








.33 


14.35 


2.79 


.1787 


,0268 


,0222 


.0046 


2.94 


.0355 


.0051 


- 


1912, 








.29 


15.20 


2.18 


.2433 


,0283 


.0249 


.0034 


2.91 


.0421 


.0064 


- 



Note. — The sewage purification works of the city of Worcester were put in operation in 1890, since 
which time a portion of the sewage of the city has been treated. The works were enlarged in 1893 and 
since that time •practically all of the dry-weather flow of sewage has been treated. 



No. 34.] 



EXAISIIXATIOX OF RIVERS. 



231 



Chaeles River. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 will 
be found on page -il. 



CHARLES RIVER. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Charles River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Charles River, above Milford. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











■3 



Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


i 

A 



Nitrogen 


T3 
a 

B 
a 

m 

a 

s 

a 
>, 

M 








£ 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


■i 



s" 


■i 


1 

5 


d 


3 

m 


2 


.1 

2 


rr. 

c 
■0 


1899, . . . 1 .28 


3.98 


1.70 


.0017 


.0248 


.0223 


.0025 


.27 


.0027 


.0003 


.48 


0.6 


1900, 






49 


3.93 


1.67 


.0017 


.0251 


.0231 


.0020 


.25 


.0030 


.0000 


.64 


0.5 


1901, 






1 .46 


4.30 


2.48 


.0066 


.0286 


.0247 


.0039 


.25 


.0060 


.0002 


.65 


0.6 


1902. 






I .58 


4.42 


1.90 


.0025 


.0248 


.0210 


.0038 


.29 


.0057 


.0001 


.70 


1.1 


1903,1 






1 .55 


4.17 


1.86 


.0015 


.0203 


.0171 


.0032 


.28 


.0080 


.0001 


.68 


0.8 


1904,2 






.49 


3.95 


1.83 


.0117 


.0267 


.0209 


.0058 


.33 


.0035 


.0001 


.62 


1.1 


1905,5 






.55 


3.77 


1.62 


.0020 


.0229 


.0201 


.0028 ' 


.31 


.0033 


.0001 


.56 


0.8 


1906,3 






.62 


4.05 


1.90 


1.0032 


.0257 


.0230 


.0027 


.30 


.0073 


.0001 


.68 


0.6 


1907, 






.43 


3.79 


1.59 


.0020 


.0198 


.0173 


.0025 


.32 


.0047 


.0001 


.48 


0.8 


1908, 






.36 


3.11 


1.43 


.0023 


.0198 


.0171 


.0027 


.33 


.0025 


.0001 


.42 


0.5 


1909, 






.31 


3.52 


1.62 


.0030 


.0207 


.0176 


.0031 


.32 


.0012 


.0000 


.39 


0.7 


1910, 






.37 


3.47 


1.34 


.0042 


.0231 


.0204 


.0027 


.37 


.0011 


.0001 


.46 


0.8 


1911, 






.40 


3.94 


1.4S 


.0036 


.0210 


.0183 


.0027 


.42 


.0007 


.0000 


.56 


1.1 


1912, 






.38 


3.62 


1.29 


.0037 


.0226 


.0182 


.0044 


.37 


.0018 


.0001 


.45 


1.0 



1 October omitted. 



2 Two months. 



' Three months. 



Charles River, below Milford. 



1898, 


I .63 


10.47 


3.08 


.1195 


.0597 


.0422 


.0175 


2.47 


.0473 


.0064 


.69 


2.4 


1899, 






.50 


12.52 


3.12 


.3487 


.1345 


.0803 


.0542 


3.00 


.0053 


.0008 


1.12 


2.6 


1900, 






! .56 


12.85 


2.65 


.7123 


.0764 


.0563 


.0201 


2.74 


.0140 


.0055 


.93 


3.1 


1901, 






i .63 


9.52 


3.37 


.1419 


.0451 


.0317 


.0134 


1.40 


.0422 


.0048 


.86 


2.6 


1902, 






.52 


10.74 


3.38 


.2118 


.0658 


.0406 


.0252 


2.21 


.0236 


.0049 


1.02 


2.7 


1903,1 






.49 


9.03 


2.85 


.2237 


0479 


.0277 


.0202 


1.36 


.0396 


.0050 


.66 


2.5 


1904,' 






.50 


9.20 


2.94 


.2105 


.0508 


.0350 


.0158 


1.44 


.0513 


.0055 


.63 


2.6 


1906, 3 






.68 


8.76 


2.90 


.1536 


.0568 


.0427 


.0141 


1.64 


.0160 


.0012 


.92 


2.0 


1907. 






.54 


12.95 


2.83 


.4607 


.0864 


.0525 


.0339 


2.94 


.0352 


.0021 


.86 


3.2 


1908, 






.48 


10.81 


3.48 


.3925 


.0598 


.0347 


.0251 


1.79 


.0218 


.0049 


.64 


- 


1909, 






.50 


12.66 


4.07 


.5658 


.0479 


.0399 


.0080 


1.89 


.0273 


.0064 


.72 


_ 


1910, 






.57 


15.21 


3.83 


.8038 


.0640 


.0499 


.0141 


3.01 


.0248 


.0082 


.88 


4.2 


1911, 






.58 


14.12 


3.64 


.2881 


.0447 


.0323 


.0124 : 


2.51 


.0785 


.0114 


.75 


4.4 


1912, 






.47 


15.99 


3.24 


.5413 


.0480 


.0370 


.0110 1 


2.67 


.0880 


.0101 


.64 


5.5 



' November omitted. 



* Four months. 



' June omitted. 



232 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



CHARLES RIVER. 

Chemical Examination of Water feom Charles River, etc. — Concluded. 
Charles River, opposite Pumping Station of Brookline Water Works. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




NiTR 


OGEN 


13 

g 














AS 














albuminoid. 






3 
tn 

a 
o 




Yeab. 




la 




-c 


T3 






. 




s 


1 


§1 


i 


i 


<a 


a 




2 
2 


.1 








o 


o 


OM 


h 


o 




CO 


^ 








c; 




o 


H 


hJ 


f=^ 


H 


P 


O 


2; 


z 


O 


tc 


1887, 


.83 


5.37 


1.62 


.0013 


.0282 


. 


_ 


.44 


.0087 








1888, 






.98 


4.87 


1.92 


.0014 


.0264 


.0240 


.0024 


.37 


.0062 


.0002 


. 


_ 


1895, 






.74 


4.91 


2.08 


.0004 


.0237 


.0207 


.0030 


.48 


.0055 


.0001 


.75 


1.5 


1897, 






1.02 


5.36 


2.45 


.0012 


.0288 


.0262 


.0026 


.43 


.0067 


.0001 


.86 


1.5 


1898, 






.87 


5.22 


2.40 


.0012 


.0303 


.0281 


.0022 


.39 


.0035 


,0001 


.92 


1.4 


1899, 






.46 


5.03 


1.92 


.0011 


.0262 


.0230 


,0032 


.45 


.0025 


,0001 


.62 


1.5 


1900, 






.56 


4.96 


1.60 


.0018 


.0252 


.0229 


.0023 


.46 


,0020 


,'0000 


.70 


1.4 


1901. 






.92 


5.45 


2.60 


.0020 


.0314 


,0275 


.0039 


.41 


.0047 


.0001 


.95 


1 4 


1902, 






.52 


5.46 


2.03 


.0031 


.0234 


.0211 


.0023 


.57 


.0045 


,0001 


.64 


1.6 


1903, 






.71 


6.22 


2.30 


0031 


.0240 


.0223 


.0017 


,53 


,0065 


.0001 


.80 


1.5 


1904, 






.51 


5.24 


2.17 


.0021 


.0224 


.0208 


.0016 


.55 


.0060 


,0001 


.67 


1,6 


1905, 1 






.84 


5.93 


2.60 


.0029 


.0318 


.0277 


.0041 


.54 


.0056 


,0002 


.92 


1,5 


1906.1 






1.05 


6.00 


2.77 


.0039 


.0294 


,0267 


,0027 


.53 


.0032 


,0001 


1.17 


1,4 


1907, » 






.63 


6.15 


2.40 


.0022 


.0246 


,0228 


.0018 


,64 


,0026 


.0001 


.73 


1 7 


1908,1 






.55 


5.93 


2.29 


.0035 


.0248 


.0222 


,0026 


.65 


.0036 


.0002 


.61 


1.7 


1909,5 






.65 


5,75 


2.00 


.0023 


.0254 


,0236 


,0018 


.69 


.0015 


.0001 


.76 


1.5 


1910, 






.60 


6.71 


2.79 


.0028 


.0289 


.0260 


,0029 


.83 


,0013 


.0001 


.72 


1.8 


1911, 






.85 


7.42 


3.02 


.0040 


.0302 


,0258 


.0044 


.80 


,0032 


.0001 


1.10 


2.0 


1912, 






.56 


6.30 


2.07 


.0043 


.0298 


.0237 


,0061 


.85 


,0012 


.0001 


.69 


2.1 



' Five months. 



* Two months. 



Charles River, opposite Pumping Station of Waltham Water Works. 



1887, . 


.67 


6.02 


1.62 


.0029 


,0274 






.48 


.0043 








1888, 






.82 


5.47 


1,88 


.0035 


.0310 


.0265 


.0045 


..41 


,0087 


.0002 


_ 


_ 


1897, 






.95 


6,06 


2.45 


.0056 


,0322 


,0299 


,0023 


.53 


,0073 


.0002 


,83 


1.9 


1898, 






.81 


5.74 


2,46 


.0050 


.0329 


,0296 


.0033 


.44 


,0043 


,0001 ! 


,85 


1,6 


1899, 






.41 


5.50 


1.81 


,0047 


.0264 


,0248 


.0016 


.51 


.0051 


.0002 1 


.52 


1.9 


1900, 






.52 


5,93 


1.68 


.0064 


.0282 


,0259 


,0023 


.53 


.0070 


,0002 ; 


.58 


1.7 


1901, 






.82 


5.93 


2.72 


.0065 


.0322 


.0289 


.0033 


.44 


,0067 


,0002 


.85 


1,8 


1902, 






.45 


6.21 


1,97 


.0084 


.0258 


,0228 


.0030 


.62 


.0077 


,0003 1 


.59 


2,0 


1903, 






.64 


6.06 


2.21 


,0078 


.0267 


,0239 


,0028 


.58 


.0084 


.0003 I 


.71 


2,0 


1904, 






.55 


6.08 


2.22 


.0062 


,0317 


,0266 


.0051 


.62 


.0095 


,0002 


.62 


2,0 


1905, 






.79 


6,29 


2,54 


,0077 


,0363 


,0308 


.0055 


.58 


.0075 


.0002 


.80 


1.7 


1906, 






1.00 


6.70 


2,58 


,0063 


.0335 


,0297 


.0038 


.59 


.0038 


.0002 


,98 


1.8 


1907,1 






,58 


6.22 


2,24 


.0067 


.0278 


.0247 


.0031 


.63 


,0058 


,0002 


.65 


2.0 


1908, 






.62 


6.50 


2.49 


,0048 


.0344 


.0284 


.0060 


.69 


.0027 


.0001 


.64 


1.9 


1909, 






.54 


6.79 


2.36 


.0063 


,0349 


,0298 


,0051 


.76 


.0026 


,0002 , 


.53 


2.0 


1910, 






.59 


7.37 


2.87 


.0078 


,0336 


.0299 


.0037 


.81 


.0037 


,0003 i 


.56 


2,4 


1911, 






.75 


7,47 


2.95 


,0086 


,0343 


.0308 


,0035 


.85 


,0030 


,0003 . 


.87 


2.3 


1912, 






.57 


7.59 


2.32 


,0095 


,0320 


,0280 


.0040 


.92 


,0038 


,0002 ' 


.63 


2.6 



' July omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



233 



Chicopee River. 
A general statement of the condition of this river during the year 1912 

will be found on page 46. 

chicopeb river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Chicopee River and its Tribu- 
taries. — Averages for Six Months, from June to November, in- 



clusive. 



Ware River, below Ware. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 









— 


C 



a 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


i 

O 

O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


-6 
o 

E 

3 
m 

a 
o 

a 

a 
>> 

X 

O 






>^ 


ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


1 


a 

3" 


O 

H 


T3 
O 
> 

1 

5 


02 


1 


.1 


i 
-s 

C3 


1898, 


.64 


4.42 


1.94 


.0028 


.0332 


.0250 


.0082 


.19 


.0025 


.0003 


.77 


1.0 


1899, 








.46 


4.82 


1.77 


.0052 


.0371 


.0268 


.0103 


.25 


.0015 


.0004 


.66 


0.9 


1900, 








.51 


4.93 


1.64 


.0066 


.0321 


.0243 


.0078 


.25 


.0030 


.0003 


.73 


1.1 


1901, 








.73 


4.79 


2.15 


.0082 


.0300 


.0242 


.0058 


.18 


.0044 


.0002 


.84 


1.3 


1902, 








.76 


4.86 


2.17 


.0071 


.0348 


.0252 


.0096 


.23 


.0040 


.0003 


.93 


1.0 


1903, I 








.68 


4.83 


2.18 


.0072 


.0345 


.0240 


.0105 


.25 


.0034 


.0003 


.78 


0.8 


1904.1 








.60 


5.60 


2.36 


.0043 


.0411 


.0285 


.0126 


.29 


.0046 


.0004 


.72 


1.1 


1908, 








.56 


7.38 


2.86 


1.0265 


.0418 


.0264 


.0154 


.37 


.0033 


.0005 


.80 


- 


1909. > 








.61 


8 63 


3.05 


.0354 


.0569 


0357 


.0212 


.44 


.0015 


.0006 


.98 


- 


1910, 








.57 


9.82 


4.39 


.0655 


.0622 


.0426 


.0196 


.60 


.0040 


.0011 


.84 


- 


1911, 








.70 


9.15 


3.37 


.0396 


.0554 


.0375 


.0179 


.48 


.0015 


.0003 


.98 


- 


1912, 








.62 


10.93 


3.23 


;.0592 


.0717 


.0491 


.0226 


.61 


.0015 


.0014 


.95 


- 



' September omitted. 

Quahoag River, belotv Palmer. 



1899, 


.35 


4.54 


1.68 


.0048 


.0252 


.0208 


.0044 


.26 


.0060 


.0002 


.44 


1.1 


1900, 


40 


4.56 


1.58 


.0038 


.0218 


.0176 


.0042 


.26 


.0062 


.0001 


.48 


1.2 


1901, 


.42 


4.32 


1.74 


.0043 


.0255 


.0202 


.0053 


.23 


.0052 


.0002 


.53 


1.1 


1902, 


.41 


4.55 


1.64 


.0077 


.0242 


.0196 


.0046 


.33 


.0085 


.0002 


.53 


1.2 


1903, 


.44 


4.36 


1.67 


.0090 


.0242 


.0186 


.0050 


.27 


.0092 


.0033 


.51 


1.0 


1904, 


.40 


4.68 


1.70 


.0191 


.0253 


.0195 


0058 


.31 


.0082 


.0002 


.50 


1.1 


1908, 


.36 


5.31 


1.98 


.0061 


.0207 


.0149 


.0058 


.40 


.0070 


.0003 


.42 




1909, 


.31 


5.43 


1.95 


.0068 


.0211 


.0165 


.0046 


.41 


.0058 


.0003 


.47 




1910, 


.44 


6.05 


2.28 


.0043 


.0238 


.0168 


.0070 


.52 


0057 


.0003 


.73 


- 


1911,1 


.39 


5.94 


2.08 


.0060 


.0191 


.0145 


.0046 


.44 


.0032 


.0002 


.53 


- 


1912, 


.40 


7.63 


2.08 


.0087 


.0209 


.0144 


.0065 


.46 


.0068 


.0001 


.58 


- 






1 Four months. 
















Swift River, below Bondsville 












1908,1 


.34 


5.45 


2.42 


.0047 


.0217 


.0132 


.0085 


.21 


.0013 


.0002 


.44 


- 


1909,2 


.40 


4.60 


1.70 


.0016 


.0196 


.0139 


.0057 


.22 


.0000 


.0001 


.60 


- 


1910. 


.33 


5.28 


2.05 


.0031 


.0261 


.0196 


.0065 


.25 


.0010 


.0001 


.60 


- 


1911, 


.48 


5.05 


2.12 


.0021 


.0278 


.0193 


.0085 


.21 


.0007 


.0000 


.74 


- 


1912, 


.32 


6.43 


1.96 


.0158 


.0298 


.0220 


.0078 


.26 


.0010 


.0003 


.55 


- 




1 1 


"■hree months. ' Two 

Chicopee River, at Indian Orel 


month 

lard. 


s. 








1908,1 . 


.42 


5.21 


1.98 


.0100 


.0240 


.0177 


.0063 


.33 


.0056 


.0003 


.62 


- 


1909,1 . 


.38 


5.82 


2.08 


.0094 


.0220 


0162 


.0058 


.36 


.0046 


.0004 


.46 


- 


1910, 


.45 


6.14 


2.06 


.0099 


.0239 


.0191 


.0048 


.44 


.0052 


.0003 


.50 


- 


1911. 


.48 


6.12 


2.10 


.0081 


.0275 


.0184 


.0091 


.42 


.0067 


.0004 


.57 


- 


1912, 


.41 


6.83 2.03 


.0159 


.0287 


.0221 


.0066 


.50 


.0108 


0005 


.47 


•- 










1 Five 


mont! 


IS. 















234 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Concord Eiver. 
A general statement of the condition during the year 1912 of the 
Assabet and Sudbury rivers, tributaries of the Concord Eiver, will be 
found on pages 41 and 44. 



concord river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Concord River and its Tribu- 
taries. — Averages for Six Months, from June to November, in- 
clusive. 

Sudbury River, below Saxonville. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













Residue on 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■a 


B 






Evaporation. 




















albuminoid. 








3 





Yeak. 




c 




-d 


■d 






. 




o 


"es 




© 


■3 





-d 
d 






s 






■ 1 








en b£ 

























o 


Oi-i 


t; 









ja 








C3 




O 


H 


J 


h 


H 


Q 


m 





z 


2 





w 


1901, 


.84 


7.22 


3.37 


.0073 


.0624 


.0431 


.0193 


.38 


.0050 


.0005 


1.05 


1 9 


1902, 








.38 


6.39 


2.57 


.0150 


.0424 


.0272 


.0152 


.60 


.0103 


.0005 


.55 


2.2 


1903, 








.52 


7.77 


2.78 


.0028 


.0549 


.0296 


.0253 


.65 


.0080 


.0002 


.83 


2.1 


1904, 








.48 


9.58 


3.57 


.0569 


.0587 


.0385 


.0202 


.87 


.0193 


.0032 


.88 


?. 5 


1906,1 








.67 


6.88 


2.90 


.0258 


.0525 


.0381 


.0144 


.56 


.0058 


.0004 


.92 


1.9 


1907,!! 








.65 


9.07 


3.28 


.1357 


.0653 


.0347 


.0306 


.84 


.0063 


.0004 


.84 


?. 1 


1908,' 








.44 


9.67 


3.72 


.0039 


.0634 


.0374 


.0260 


1.06 


.0128 


.0009 


.69 




1909, 








.43 


6.81 


2.59 


.0174 


.0330 


.02.56 


.0074 


.64 


.0043 


.0005 


.64 


_ 


1910, 








.49 


9.78 


3.45 


.0454 


.0606 


.0345 


.0261 


.83 


.0040 


.0010 


.65 


_ 


1911, 








.37 


9.03 


3.08 


.0287 


.0410 


.0281 


.0129 


.92 


.0120 


.0009 


.54 


_ 


1912, 








.49 


8.83 


2.75 


.0238 


.0363 


.0253 


0113 


1 19 


.0137 


.0031 


.72 


" 



' June omitted. 



2 Three months. 



' August omitted. 







Ass 


abet River, above Westborough. 










1909, 


.56 


6.01 


2.20 


.0048 


.0217 


.0194 


.0023 


.36 


.0015 


.0001 


.69 




1910, 


.90 


7.37 


3.12 


.0029 


.0251 


.0229 


.0022 


.38 


.0035 


.0001 


.86 


_ 


1911, 


.97 


8.02 


3.39 


.0061 


.0441 


.0354 


.0087 


.45 


.0023 


.0002 


1.20 


_ 


1912, 


.72 


7.00 


2.36 


.0073 

1 


.0255 


.0228 


.0027 


.44 


.0061 


.0002 


.87 


- 



Assabet River, below Westborough. 



1909. 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 



1.70 


19.24 


8.91 


.4140 


.2281 


.1616 


.0665 


1.94 


.0005 


.0005 


2.90 


2.23 


17.07 


7.00 


.2898 


. 13.34 


.1018 


.0316 


2.16 


.0078 


.0018 


2.20 


.83 


12.09 


4.01 


.0556 


.0460 


.0373 


.0087 


1.87 


.0967 


.0121 


1.24 


.66 


12.71 


4.01 


.0975 


.0419 


.0357 


.0062 


2.20 


.1998 


.0132 


.95 







Assabet River 


, above Hudson 












1908, t . 


.49 


5.97 


2.16 


.0044 


.0241 


.0200 


.0041 


.54 


.0072 


.0003 


.59 




1909, 


.39 


6.37 


2.33 


.0070 


.0306 


.0261 


.0045 


.52 


.0037 


.0002 


.50 


_ 


1910, 


.57 


6.90 


3.08 


.0058 


.0346 


.0296 


.0050 


.61 


.0055 


.0002 


.67 


_ 


1911, . 


.57 


6.82 


2.51 


.00.59 


.0295 


.0248 


.0047 


.57 


.0077 


.0002 


.81 


_ 


1912, . 


.45 


6.51 


2.13 


.0075 


.0297 


.0234 


.0063 


.62 


.0108 


.0002 


.59 


— 



' September omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



235 



concord river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Concord River and its Tribu- 
taries, ETC. — Concluded. 

Assabet River, below Hudson. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













Residue on 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


a 






Evaporation. 








AS 












ALBUMINOID. 






3 

g 




Year. 




a 




^ 


i 






^ 








S-= 






> 


-a 


n 


1 


OT 

3 


a 


a 







C3 


ff, SO 


i 


S 


1 




o 




'C 




"? 










OM 




O 






.c 






X 






O 


Eh 


,J 


fe 


H 


o 


CO 


O 


2 


2 


O 


W 


1898, 


.79 


5.61 


2.38 


.0062 


.0335 


.0291 


.0044 


.39 


.0063 


.0003 


.87 


16 


1899, 








.50 


8.30 


3.01 


.0205 


.0457 


.0383 


.0074 


.80 


.0020 


.0004 


.73 


2.1 


1900, 








.48 


8.05 


2.05 


.0382 


.0501 


.0362 


.0139 


1.27 


.0028 


.0007 


.72 


2.0 


1901, 








.66 


5.47 


2.38 


.0193 


.0375 


.0295 


.0080 


.79 


.0107 


.0005 


.91 


1.8 


1902, 








.64 


7.06 


2.69 


.0189 


.0464 i.0330 


.0134 


.84 


.0077 


.0005 


.74 


1.9 


1903,' 








.51 


5.71 


2.17 , 


.0092 


.0287 .0222 


.0065 


.56 


.0073 


.0006 


.60 


1.7 


1904,2 


- 






.44 


7.67 


2.60 


.0329 


.0375 


.0312 


.0063 


1,43 


.0073 


.0005 


.64 


1.9 


1908, 








.51 


9.17 


3.50 i 


.0198 


.0396 


.0294 


.0102 


1.32 


.0072 


.0005 


.82 


_ 


1909, 








.51 


8.81 


3.26 


.0161 


.0403 


.0296 


.0107 


.98 


.0022 


.0002 


.64 


- 


1910, 








.69 


13.83 


3.83 


.0413 


.0428 


.0337 


.0091 


1.27 


.0048 


.0002 


1.24 


_ 


1911, 








.64 


12.83 


4.30 


.0817 


.0532 


.0400 


0132 


.90 


.0043 


.0003 


1.06 


_ 


1912, 








.78 


18.08 


3.99 


.0213 


.0752 


.0494 


.0238 


1.02 


.0053 


.0002 


1.28 


- 



1 June omitted. 



' Three months. 











Assabet River, 


above Maijnara 












1904. 


.53 


5.65 


2.30 


.0046 


.0275 


.0231 


.0044 


.64 


.0035 


.0001 


.63 


1 6 


1906, 






.75 


5.53 


2.26 


.0065 


.0290 


.0254 


.0036 


.48 


.0035 


.0002 


.97 


1.5 


1907,1 






.68 


5.35 


1.80 


.0047 


.0255 


.0211 


.0044 


.50 


.0043 


.0002 


.73 


1.6 


1908, 






.52 


6.91 


2.-32 


.0093 


.0288 


.0248 


.0040 


1.03 


.0030 


.0002 


.62 




1909, 


. 




.43 


6.18 


2.13 


.0068 


.0343 


.0277 


.0066 


.72 


.0023 


.0001 1 


.62 


— 


1910, 






.54 


7.70 


2.82 


.0098 


.0337 


.0291 


.0046 


.98 


.0017 


.0003 


.64 


_ 


1911, 






.57 


7.67 


2.33 


.0087 


.0.327 


.0277 


.0050 


.85 


.0065 


.0004 


.73 


_ 


1912, 




.57 


7.92 


2.15 


.0058 


.0316 


.0242 


.0074 


1.06 


.0032 


.0002 


.65 


- 



' Four months. 













Assabet River, 


below Maynard. 










1898, 


.77 


5.93 


2.59 


.0020 


.0387 


.0301 


.0086 


.43 


.0030 


0003 


.89 


15 


1899, 








.51 


6.70 


2.21 


.0185 


.0414 


.0327 


.0087 


.73 


.0043 


.0003 


.62 


1 7 


1900, 








.50 


5.72 


1.73 


.0217 


.0386 


.0304 


.0082 


.70 


.0031 


.0002 


.59 


1 4 


1901, 








.73 


6.57 


2.67 


.0211 


.0428 


.0351 


.0077 


.45 


.0052 


.0002 


.90 


1 6 


1902, 








.69 


7.27 


2.87 


.0099 


.0592 


.0381 


.0211 


.57 


.0033 


0002 


.83 


1.6 


1903, 








.61 


6.40 


2.58 


.0170 


.0457 


.0322 


.0135 


.48 


.0037 


.0003 


.83 


1 6 


1904, 








- 


8.48 


3.21 


.0143 


.0678 


.0412 


.0266 


.74 


.0043 


.0002 


1.05 


1.7 


1006, 








.88 


6.68 


2.64 


.0290 


.0448 


.0312 


.0136 


.58 


.0047 


.0003 


.91 


1 6 


1907,1 








.79 


7.64 


2.76 


.0299 


.0391 


.0274 


.0117 


.69 


.0060 


.0003 


.86 


1 6 


1908, 








.45 


11.46 


3.98 


.0675 


.0684 


.0381 


.0303 


1.37 


.0028 


.0012 


.89 




1909, 








- 


13.97 


4.21 


.1208 


.0991 


.0529 


.0462 


1.22 


.0007 


.0006 


1.34 


_ 


1910, 








.59 


13.15 


4.68 


.0708 


.0685 


.0446 


.0239 


1.82 


.0038 


.0006 


.85 


_ 


1911, 








.58 


12.73 


4.17 


.0738 


.0650 


.0408 


.0242 


1.41 


0060 


.0006 


1.08 


_ 


1912, 








- 


12.94 


3.92 


.1205 


.0771 


.0494 


.0277 


1.46 


.0026 


.0010 


1.04 


- 



1 Four months. 













Concord River, at Billerica. 












1902, 


.68 


5.98 


2.18 


.0091 


.0347 


.0272 


.0075 


.53 


.0052 


.0004 


.78 


1.7 


1903, 








.64 


5.71 


2.26 


.0097 


.0317 


.0258 


.0059 


.49 


.00,58 


.0005 


.72 


1 8 


1904, 








.64 


6 05 


2.31 


.0077 


.0341 


.0255 


.0086 


..55 


.0072 


.0002 


,75 


I 7 


1908, 








.37 


8.04 


2.65 


.0107 


.0251 


.0216 


.0035 


.96 


.0104 


,0005 


.54 




1909, 








.49 


7.71 


2.78 


.0128 


.0298 


.0267 


.0031 


.75 


.0058 


.0013 


.65 


^ 


1910, 








.49 


7.31 


3.00 


.0142 


.0325 


.0292 


.0033 


1.01 


.0055 


.0004 


.58 


_ 


1911, 








.45 


11.14 


4.05 


.0181 


.0525 


.0287 


.0238 


1.16 


.0132 


.0008 


1.14 


_ 


1912,1 








.53 


10.90 


3.08 


.0187 


.0433 


.0274 


.0159 


.97 


.0140 


.0008 


.82 


- 



1 September omitted. 



236 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Connecticut River. 
A general statement of the condition of this river during the year 1912 
will be found on page 42. 

connecticut river. 

Chemical Examination of Water fbom Connecticut River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Connecticut River, at Northfield Farms. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









- 


o 

6 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


o 

a 

o 

o 


NiTKOGEN 


E 

a 
8 

a 
o 
be 
>. 

X 

O 






Evaporation. 


(S 


albuminoid. 


AS 




Yeah. 


i 


a 


o 
H 


i 
> 

"o 

5 


T3 

a 
a> 
o. 

3 




is 


a 
ca 


1899, 
1900, 
1901, 
1902, 
1903, 
1904, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 








.30 
.47 
.31 
.30 
.23 
.27 
.34 
.36 
.28 
.29 
.31 
.32 
.36 


7.32 
6.24 
6.12 
5.57 
6.83 
6.44 
6.50 
5.91 
S.33 
7.32 
7.52 
7.28 
7.43 


2.17 
2.11 
2.39 
2.02 
2.18 
2.44 
2.17 
2.06 
2.78 
2.89 
3.10 
2.44 
1.63 


.0016 
.0023 
.0016 
.0014 
.0037 
.0023 
.0040 
.0020 
.0058 
.0031 
.0004 
.0066 
.0066 


.0189 
.0190 
.0146 
.0124 
.0169 
.0158 
.0201 
.0141 
.0200 
.0142 
.0174 
.0172 
.0185 


.0158 
.0154 
.0122 
0110 
.0143 
.0130 
.0181 
.0122 
.0177 
.0124 
.0152 
.0143 
.0148 


.0031 
.0036 
.0024 
.0014 
.0026 
.0028 
.0020 
.0019 
.0023 
.0018 
.0022 
.0029 
.0037 


.11 

.09 
.10 
.08 
.14 
.12 
.14 
.16 
.22 
.16 
.17 
.16 
.16 


.0023 
.0030 
.0037 
.0057 
.0028 
.0038 
.0023 
.0048 
.0018 
.0017 
.0018 
.0022 
.0012 


.0001 
.0001 
.0002 
.0001 
.0002 
.0001 
.0002 
.0002 
.0001 
.0002 
.0001 
.0001 
.0001 


.85 
.95 
.72 
,.60 
.68 
.73 
.76 
.66 
.70 
.82 
.77 
.70 
.70 


3.6 

2.9 
3.2 
2.9 
3.4 
3.4 
3.2 
3.0 











Connecticut River, below Springfield. 










1888, 


..35 


5.34 


1.24 


.0032 


.0182 


.0143 


.0039 


.15 


.0082 


.0002 


_ 


_ 


1899, 






.33 


6.61 


1.99 


.0093 


.0238 


.0195 


.0043 


.23 


.0042 


.0003 


.67 


3.1 


1900, 






.44 


6.64 


1.90 


.0098 


.0250 


.0176 


.0074 


.20 


.0034 


.0002 


.89 


3.1 


1901, 






.32 


6.03 


2.34 


0061 


.0190 


.0153 


.0037 


.18 


.0048 


.0003 


.65 


3.0 


1902, 






.31 


5.83 


2.13 


.0062 


.0180 


.0140 


.0040 


.16 


.0055 


.0005 


.61 


3.0 


1903, 






.30 


6.12 


2.04 


,0098 


.0202 


.0147 


.0055 


.24 


.0058 


.0004 


.61 


2.7 


1904, > 






.22 


5.22 


1.87 


.0098 


.0187 


.0125 


.0062 


.21 


.0047 


.0002 


.48 


2.4 


1906,2 






.35 


7.14 


2.61 


.0082 


0204 


OlSl 


.0043 


.24 


.0026 


.0004 


.71 


2.8 


1907,' 






.38 


6.27 


2.46 


.0069 


.0163 


.0131 


.0032 


.24 


.0050 


.0003 


.67 


2.9 


1908, 






.32 


8,58 


2.61 


.0214 


.0223 


.0165 


.0058 


..38 


.0040 


.0004 


.81 


- 


1909, 






.29 


6.02 


2.25 


.0079 


.0156 


.0118 


.0038 


.22 


.0018 


.0003 


.65 


- 


1910, 






.33 


8.67 


3.60 


.0155 


.0241 


.0188 


.0053 


.37 


.0028 


.0003 


.89 


- 


1911, 






.38 


7.66 


2.56 


.0140 


.0181 


.0147 


.0034 


.28 


.0018 


.0005 


.70 


- 


1912, 






.31 


8.22 


3.02 


.0136 


.0228 


.0167 


.0061 


.16 


.0022 


.0004 


.74 





> Three months. 



' June omitted. 



' Four months. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



237 



Deerfield River. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1912 

will be found on page 46. 

deerfield river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Deerfield River and Tributary. 
— Averages for Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Deerfield River, at Shelbume Falls. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









O 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


i 
1 

o 


Nitrogen 


1 

o 
o 

d 

H 
O 






Evaporation. 


6 

£ 


albuminoid. 


A3 




Year. 


i 




1 
o 
H 


■0 

> 

1 

en 

5 


T3 

a 




i 

'C 
2 


T3 

u 


1901, 


.34 


4.02 


1.82 


.0057 


.0200 


.0171 


.0029 


.09 


.0078 


.0001 


.63 


1.7 


1902, 






.29 


3.62 


1.46 


.0051 


.0151 


.0126 


.0025 


.08 


.0055 


.0002 


.51 


1.7 


1903,1 






.26 


3.74 


1.35 


.0023 


.0131 


,0113 


.0018 


.09 


.0038 


.0002 


.44 


1.5 


1904, 






24 


4.15 


1.52 


.0040 


.0115 


,0097 


.0018 


.11 


.0110 


.0001 


.39 


2.1 


1908, 






.33 


4.93 


1.93 


.0017 


.0128 


.0108 


.0020 


.14 


.0030 


.0001 


.44 


- 


19P9, 






.26 


4.56 


1.62 


,0009 


.0150 


.0129 


.0021 


.12 


.0005 


.0001 


.47 


- 


1910, 






.26 


4.62 


1.69 


.0025 


,0141 


.0108 


.0033 


.13 


.0010 


.0001 


.45 


- 


1911, 






.35 


4.80 


1.88 


.0035 


.0156 


.0119 


.0037 


.13 


.0027 


.0000 


.59 


- 


1912,2 






.29 


4.48 


1.65 


.0024 


.0149 


.0122 


.0027 


.11 


.0008 

1 


.0001 


.42 


- 



I Four months. ^ October omitted. 

Green River, below Greenfield. 



1903, 


.05 


7.75 


2.23 


,0152 


.0143 


.0086 


,0057 


.21 


.0078 


,0005 


.15 


3.9 


1904, . 


.07 


6.93 


2.01 


.0151 


.0382 


.0138 


.0244 


.28 


.0100 


,0006 


.22 


3.8 


1908, . 


.17 


11.06 


2.97 


.0665 


.0337 


.0131 


.0206 


.45 


.0043 


.0011 


.33 


- 


1909, . 


.14 


7.82 


2.54 


.0459 


.0333 


.0151 


.0182 


.37 


.0038 


.0011 


.23 


- 


1910, . 


.17 


8.33 


3.16 


.0775 


.0284 


.0169 


.0115 


.37 


.0025 


.0012 


.23 


- 


1911, . 


.21 


9.23 


2.44 


.0684 


.0228 


.0115 


.0113 


.48 


.0033 


.0014 


.37 


- 


1912, . 


.17 


18.02 


2.71 


.0099 


.0352 


.0092 


.0260 


.23 


.0017 


.0003 


.44 


- 







Deerfield River, 


below Green River. 










1908, . 


.26 


7.35 


2.28 


.0075 


.0154 


.0098 


.0056 


.20 


.0025 


.0002 


.37 


- 


1909, 


.28 


5.55 


1.83 


,0043 


.0121 


.0104 


.0017 


.14 


.0012 


.0001 


.41 


- 


1910, 


.24 


5.82 


2.37 


,0093 


.0128 


.0112 


.0016 


.16 


.0008 


.0003 


.31 




1911, 


.34 


5.82 


2.06 


.0078 


.0143 


.0106 


.0037 


.16 


.0025 


.0005 


.52 




1912, 


.25 


5.23 


1.63 


,0070 


.0140 


.0107 


.0033 


.17 


.0030 


.0001 


.37 


- 



238 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



French Eiver. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1912 
will be found on page 43. 



french river. 

Chemical Examinatiotn of Watek from French River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

French Eiver, heloxv Webster. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 









O 

6 


Residue on 
ev.vpokation. 


Ammonia. 


.1 

O 

O 


Nitrogen 


o 
B 

3 
n 

i 

a 

o 






£ 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 




(3 


i 


■6 
P 

1 

S 


-a 
-v 

en 
3 

m 


i 

2 


2 


tn 

1 

-s 


1899, 


.44 


5.67 


2.07 


.0238 


.0612 


.0384 


.0228 


.42 


.0024 


.0007 


.66 


1.6 


1900, 






.52 


5.79 


2.10 


.0202 


.0475 


.0357 


.0118 


.46 


.0062 


.0007 


.78 


1.5 


1901, 






.50 


5.29 


2.25 


.0090 


.0390 


.0265 


.0125 


.33 


.0044 


.0002 


.75 


1.2 


1902, 






.42 


4.92 


1.99 


.0057 


.0391 


.0264 


.0127 


.39 


.0038 


.0002 


.65 


1.2 


1903, 






.48 


4.67 


1.88 


.0049 


.0352 


.0241 


.0111 


.40 


.0058 


.0002 


.72 


0.9 


1904, 






.44 


6.02 


2.18 


.0267 


.0434 


.0281 


.0153 


.58 


.0042 


.0004 


.70 


1.3 


1906, 






.61 


5.08 


2.19 


.0063 


.0353 


.0246 


.0107 


.40 


.0038 


.0003 


.81 


0.9 


1907,1 






.54 


6.28 


2.62 


.0117 


.0544 


.0304 


.0240 


.49 


.0035 


.0004 


.69 


1.2 


1908, 






.44 


7.17 


2.82 


.0086 


.0507 


.0310 


.0197 


.61 


.0037 


.0010 


.81 


- 


1909, 






.50 


7.42 


2.61 


.0267 


.0638 


.0385 


.0253 


.77 


.0055 


.0012 


.72 


- 


1910. 






.44 


8.27 


3.55 


.0512 


.0527 


.0321 


.0206 


.78 


.0016 


.0021 


.79 


- 


1911, 






.57 


10.23 


3.17 


.0219 


.0652 


.0405 


.0247 


.89 


.0015 


.0004 


.94 


- 


1912, 






.49 


9.78 


3.77 


.0420 


.0745 


.0399 


.0346 


.82 


.0060 


.0021 


.87 


- 



' Four months. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



239 



HoosiCK River, 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1912 
will be found on page 43. 

hoostck river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Hoosick River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Hoosick River, at William stown. 

[Parts in 100,000.1 











C 

o 

O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


a 




Nitrogen 

AS 


a> 

6 

3 
m 

a 
o 

a 
a 
tc 

>. 

K 

o 






i 


.VLBDMINOID. 




Year. 


"5 
o 


d 

3^ 


3 

o 

H 


1 

(5 


i 

'V 

a 
o 

& 

m 


1 

1 


1 


a 


1887, 


. 


.22 


12.05 


1,22 


.0065 


.0190 


- 


- 


.23 


.0232 


- 


- 


- 


1888, 








.12 


10.82 


1.90 


.0026 


.0210 


,0142 


.0068 


.27 


.0247 


.0015 


- 


- 


1894, 








.37 


13.56 


2.74 


.0166 


.0361 


.0224 


.0137 


.50 


.0102 


,0014 


.42 


9.0 


1895, 








.34 


14.20 


3.26 


.0190 


.0124 


.0241 


.0183 


.63 


.0090 


,0020 


.53 


9.0 


1896, 








.21 


11.71 


2.39 


.0295 


.0267 


.0172 


.0095 


.39 


.0133 


,0018 


.33 


8.6 


1897. 








.26 


11.32 


2.39 


.0174 


.0312 


.0173 


.0139 


.30 


.0265 


,0011 


.31 


7,9 


1898, 








.27 


10.46 


2.38 


.0223 


.0311 


.0210 


.0101 


.31 


.0170 


,0007 


.34 


6.6 


1899, 








.30 


15.21 


3.31 


.0252 


.0622 


.0379 


.0243 


.64 


.0070 


,0029 


.62 


8.3 


1900, 








.28 


14.20 


2.79 


.0433 


.0547 


.0301 


.0246 


.60 


.0087 


.0043 


.58 


7,8 


1901, 








.27 


13.02 


3.70 


.0400 


,0520 


.0250 


.0270 


.43 


.0152 


.0024 


.53 


7.3 


1902, 








.22 


10.62 


2.87 


0069 


,0307 


.0172 


.0135 


.34 


.0123 


,0014 


.40 


6.4 


1903, 








.17 


10.50 


2.37 


.0272 


.0264 


,0151 


,0113 


.29 


.0183 


.0019 


.33 


7.5 


1904, 








.13 


12.30 


3.23 


.0677 


.0310 


.0191 


.0119 


.45 


.0203 


.0024 


.29 


8.3 


1905, 








.20 


11.09 


2.81 


.0295 


.0265 


,0156 


.0109 


.32 


.0123 


.0015 


.31 


5.6 


1906, 








.31 


13.28 


3.63 


.0415 


.0489 


.0252 


.0237 


.47 


.0147 


.0030 


.43 


6.0 


1907, 








.25 


11.80 


2.93 


.0431 


.0390 


.0231 


.0159 


.47 


.0135 


.0021 


.39 


7.9 


1908, 








.23 


14.00 


3.86 


.0559 


.0323 


.0195 


.0128 


.54 


.0085 


.0023 


.37 


- 


1909, 








.23 


15.46 


4.09 


.0496 


.0382 


.0243 


.0139 


.62 


.0060 


.0035 


.41 


- 


1910, 








.30 


13.06 


4.43 


.0320 


,0336 


.0219 


.0117 


.62 


.0102 


.0018 


.41 


- 


1911, 








.26 


12.38 


3.77 


.1153 


,0492 


,0232 


,0260 


.58 


.0065 


.0022 


.43 


- 


1912, 








.24 


15.05 


3.35 


.0365 


.0464 


.0280 


,0184 


.73 


.0058 


.0025 


.45 


- 



240 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



HousATONic River. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1912 
will be found on page 43. 

housatonic river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Housatonic River and its 
Branches. — Averages for Six Months, from June to November, 
inclusive. 

East Branch, below Pittsfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













Residue on 


Ammonia. 


d 
a 

O 

3 
o 


Nitrogen 


i 

8 

a 
O 






"o 
O 


Evaporation. 


i 

fa 


albuminoid. 


AS 

1 




Year. 


3 




1 


T3 
> 
1 

m 

Q 


-a 

■V 

a 

s. 

3 

m 




.1 


cn 
1 

•H 


1903. 


.32 


9.75 


2.92 


.0118 


.0226 


.0153 


.0073 


.25 


.0142 .0006 


.56 


6.8 


1904,1 








28 


9.02 


3.15 1 


.0117 


.0248 


.0175 


.0073 


.26 


.0113 .0005 


.47 


6.2 


1907,2 








42 


9 40 


3.00 ! 


.0286 


.0284 


.0186 


.0098 


.28 


.0060 


.0010 


.50 


6.4 


1908. s 








29 


12.76 


3 57 


.0327 


.0250 


.0177 


.0073 


.40 


.0140 


.0011 


.47 


- 


1909, 








2fi 


12.60 


4.37 


.0431 


.0305 


.0215 


.0090 


.33 


.0087 


.0007 


.44 


- 


1910, 








30 


12.98 


5.26 


.0437 


.0233 


.0182 


.0051 


.40 


.0080 .0012 


.48 


- 


1911,1 








29 


12.03 


4.26 


.0231 


.0253 


.0169 


.0084 


.37 


.0060 


.0011 


.54 


- 


1912,1 








28 


13.08 


3.18 


.0358 


.0337 


.0236 


.0101 


.43 


.0123 


.0010 


.62 


- 



I Three months. 



* Two months. 



' November omitted. 











West Branch, 


below Pittsfield 












1903, 


.29 


10.43 


2.83 


.0100 


.0210 


.0143 


.0067 


.23 


.0143 


.0006 


.46 


7.4 


1904,1 






.15 


12.27 


3.50 


.0137 


.0423 


.0217 


.0206 


.35 


.0050 


.0004 


.35 


7.8 


1908,* 






.20 


13.28 


3.68 


.0210 


0301 


0194 


.0107 


.26 


.0026 


.0009 


.36 


- 


1909, 






_ 


11.00 


2.87 


.0070 


.0283 


.0175 


.0108 


.24 


.0010 


.0003 


.25 


- 


1910, 






.22 


13.85 


4.98 


.0218 


.0446 


.0218 


.0228 


.40 


.0012 


.0011 


.40 


- 


1911,1 






.19 


12.73 


4.70 


.0090 


.0317 


.0184 


.0133 


.26 


.0030 


.0005 


.37 


- 


1912,1 






.17 


12.60 


2.70 


.0081 


.0360 


.0197 


.0163 


.29 


.0037 


.0005 


.41 


— 



1 Three months. 



' November omitted. 













Southwest Branch, at Pittsfield. 










1899, 


.17 


14.92 


2.58 


.0040 


.0353 


.0211 


.0142 


.16 


.0108 .0004 


.37 


9.2 


1900, 








.14 


14.87 


2.15 


.0192 


.0335 


.0229 


.0106 


.21 


.0107 .0008 


.35 


10.2 


1901, 








.14 


13.20 


3. 87 


.0051 


.0302 


.0197 


.0105 


.16 


.0096 


.0004 


.41 


9.4 


1902, 








.11 


12.30 


3.09 


.0057 


.0224 


.0136 


.0088 


.12 


.0108 


.0005 


.37 


8.7 


1903. 








.10 


11.63 


2.37 


.0045 


.0162 


.0109 


.0053 


.11 


.0115 


.0003 


.25 


8.8 


1904,1 








.15 


12.45 


3.63 


.0116 


.0455 


.0223 


.0232 


.34 


.0040 


.0018 


.35 


7.8 


1907.2 








.31 


10.78 


2.30 


.0040 


.0258 


.0168 


.0090 


.20 


.0025 


.0003 


.39 


8.2 


1908,3 








.18 


15.17 


4.89 


.0216 


.0269 


.0159 


.0110 


.23 


.0036 


.0007 


.38 


- 


1909, 








.17 


14.82 


4.41 


.0041 


.0265 


.0153 


.0112 


.23 


.0082 


.0005 


.37 


- 


1910, 








.17 


14.45 


5.25 


.0049 


.0196 


.0135 


.0061 


.17 


.0045 


.0006 


.30 


- 


1911,1 , 






.14 


12.62 


3.35 


.0013 


.0224 


.0131 


.0093 


.19 


.0110 


.0005 


.34 


- 


1912.1 . 






.12 


15.02 


3.08 


.0017 


.0172 


0111 


.0061 


.21 


.0170 


.0007 


.31 


- 



1 Three months. 



2 Two months. 



' November omitted. 





Housatonic River, below Great Barringtor 


.. 








1908, 


.18 


14.97 


3.69 


.0106 


.0269 


.0172 


.0097 


.43 


.0107 


.0011 


.36 


_ 


1909, 


.16 


14.91 


4.41 


.0067 


.0247 


.0173 


.0074 


.47 


.0078 


.0012 


.35 


- 


1910, 


.22 


14.97 


5.32 


.0128 


.0233 


.0181 


.0052 


.51 


.0090 


.0021 


.34 


- 


1911. 


,19 


14.42 


5.29 


.0178 


.0217 


.0157 


.0060 


.45 


.0087 


.0045 


.40 


- 


1912,1 


.22 


14.56 


3.79 


.0123 


.0272 


.0189 


.0083 


.47 


.0120 1.0028 


.42 


"• 



1 August omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



241 



Mereimack Eiver. 

merrimack river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Merrimack River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Merrimack River, above Lowell. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











C 

o 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


o 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


-3 

a 

3 

a 
8 

d 

M 
>i 
X 

O 








ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


3 
o 


d 


1 


T3 
O 
> 

1 

(5 


■6 


1 


i 


i 


1887. . 


.45 


4.08 


1.10 


.0024 


.0156 


- 


- 


.17 


,0078 


- 


" 


- 


1888, 


- 






.32 


3.47 


1.01 


.0014 


.0161 


,0137 


.0024 


.16 


,0082 


.0002 


- 


- 


1889, 








.37 


- 


- 


.0028 


.0166 


.0143 


.0023 


.17 


,0067 


.0001 


- 


- 


1890, 








.34 


3.85 


1.58 


.0025 


.0148 


.0123 


.0025 


.14 


.0106 


.0002 


- 


1.4 


1891, 








.27 


3.73 


1.47 


.0029 


.0147 


.0111 


.0036 


.17 


.0080 


.0002 


- 


1.4 


1892, 








.39 


3.75 


1.37 


.0028 


.0139 


,0106 


.0033 


.15 


,0097 


.0002 


- 


1.6 


1893, 








.25 


3.47 


1.13 


.0028 


.0141 


.0110 


.0031 


.17 


,0072 


,0001 


.38 


1,1 


1894, 








.29 


3.86 


1.32 


.0037 


.0140 


,0111 


.0026 


.19 


,0042 


.0001 


.36 


1,2 


1895, 








.43 


3.97 


1.61 


.0019 


,0197 


.0151 


.0046 


.24 


,0054 


,0001 


.55 


1,2 


1896, 








.44 


3.85 


1.41 


.0049 


.0181 


.0149 


.0032 


.18 


,0053 


,0002 


.66 


1.0 


1897, 








.54 


3.62 


1.68 


.0030 


.0181 


.0148 


.0033 


.16 


,0077 


,0001 


.52 


0.9 


1898, 








.39 


3.93 


1.74 


.0032 


.0197 


.0171 


.0026 


.19 


,0047 


.0001 


.51 


1.0 


1899, 








.20 


3.88 


1.45 


.0050 


.0205 


.0106 


.0039 


.22 


.0055 


.0002 


.38 


1.2 


1900, 








.23 


3.72 


1.21 


.0068 


.0215 


.0158 


.0057 


.23 


.0038 


.0002 


.44 


1.3 


1901, 








.38 


4.32 


1.98 


.0060 


.0208 


.0172 


.0036 


.20 


.0042 


.0002 


.69 


1.2 


1902, 








.38 


3.81 


1.59 


.0056 


,0163 


.0142 


.0021 


.17 


.0043 


.0001 


.64 


0,9 


1903, 








.30 


4.00 


1.55 


.0058 


,0171 


.0129 


.0042 


.23 


.0040 


.0002 


.59 


1,1 


1904, 








.33 


4.61 


1.92 


.0077 


.0194 


.0153 


.0041 


.23 


.0047 


.0002 


.69 


1,3 


1905, 








.40 


4.30 


1.95 


.0112 


.0202 


.0160 


.0042 


.25 


.0038 


.0002 


.71 


1.1 


1906, 








.37 


4.64 


1.84 


.0100 


.0201 


.0174 


.0027 


,26 


.0032 


.0002 


.71 


1.2 


1907, 








.38 


4.60 


1.88 


.0079 


.0194 


.0135 


.0059 


.28 


.0043 


.0002 


.62 


1.2 


1908, 








.29 


4.67 


1.80 


.0125 


.0195 


.0141 


.0054 


.36 


.0048 


.0003 


.64 


1.3 


1909, 








.31 


5.16 


2.38 


,0185 


.0213 


.0161 


.0052 


,36 


.0018 


.0002 


.68 


1.5 


1910, 








.37 


5.11 


1.78 


.0242 


.0221 


.0180 


.0041 


,35 


.0035 


.0007 


.68 


1.4 


1911, 








.39 


5.32 


2.09 


.0166 


,0219 


,0165 


.0054 


.36 


.0033 


.0006 


.65 


1.5 


1912, 








.40 


5.16 


1.94 


.0165 


.0223 


,0175 


.0048 


.32 


.0013 


.0003 


.88 


2.0 



242 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



merrimack river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Merrimack River, etc. — 

Concluded. 

Merrimack River, above Lawrence. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









o 
o 
O 


Residue on 
evapoeation. 


Ammonia. 


a 
o 


Nitrogen 


•73 

s 

s 

xn 


8 

CI 

& 

O 






£ 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


"3 
o 


§:! 

en d 

a" 


"3 
o 


> 

"o 

5 


1 

cs 

p. 

3 


s 


'B 


a 
1 


1887. . 


.47 


4.82 


1.24 


.0027 


0211 


- 


- 


.22 


.0097 


- 


- 


- 


1888, 






.32 


3.64 


1.13 


.0029 


0197 


0153 


0044 


.18 


.0074 


0003 


- 


- 


1889. . 






.35 


- 


- 


.0047 


.0212 


0176 


.0036 


.20 


.0053 


.0002 


- 


- 


1890, 






.37 


4.27 


1.56 


.0061 


.0187 


.0148 


,0039 


.19 


.0068 


.0002 


- 


1.6 


1891, . 






.21 


4.06 


1.37 


.0066 


.0179 


.0138 


.0041 


.21 


.0090 


,0002 


- 


1.4 


1892, . 






.46 


4.25 


1..50 


.0054 


.0186 


.0155 


.0031 


.19 


.0087 


.0002 


- 


1.5 


1893, . 






.40 


4.25 


1.62 


.0084 


.0172 


.0138 


.0034 


.23 


.0057 


.0003 


.52 


1.3 


1894. . 






.32 


3.82 


1.35 


.0086 


.0174 


.0142 


.0032 


.25 


.0043 


.0001 


.40 


1.3 


1895, . 






.52 


4.45 


1.97 


.0068 


.0251 


.0194 


.0057 


.30 


.0067 


.0003 


.60 


1.5 


1896, 






.46 


4.24 


1.70 


.0100 


.0224 


.0181 


.0043 


.25 


.0067 


.0005 


.57 


1.3 


1897, 






.58 


4.06 


1.67 


.0061 


.0222 


.0190 


.0032 


.21 


.0053 


.0002 


.53 


1.0 


1898, 






.44 


4.46 


1.87 


.0076 


.0262 


.0208 


.0054 


.25 


.0050 


.0005 


.59 


1.3 


1899. 






.24 


4.42 


1.57 


.0138 


.0277 


.0207 


.0070 


.32 


.0052 


.0004 


.43 


1.3 


1900, 






.27 


4.22 


1.35 


.0126 


.0249 


.0190 


.0059 


.32 


.0050 


.0003 


.46 


1.3 


1901, 






.44 


4.73 


1.90 


.0100 


.0280 


.0205 


.0075 


.28 


.0070 


.0006 


.65 


1.5 


1902, 






.42 


4.40 


1.85 


.0110 


.0231 


.0180 


.0051 


.26 


.0038 


.0003 


.65 


1.1 


1903, 






.37 


4.66 


1.73 


.0111 


.0226 


.0166 


.0060 


.31 


.0052 


.0005 


.64 


1.4 


1904, 






.31 


4.67 


1.80 


.0211 


.0247 


.0170 


.0077 


.33 


.0053 


.0004 


.62 


1.4 


1905, 






.44 


4.92 


2.01 


.0177 


.0242 


.0183 


.0059 


.38 


.0040 


.0005 


.74 


1.2 


1906, 






.39 


5.30 


2.12 


.0170 


.0263 


.0215 


.0048 


.40 


.0027 


.0005 


.72 


1,4 


1907, 






.40 


4.92 


1.80 


.0293 


.0253 


.0175 


.0078 


.41 


.0047 


.0005 


.59 


1.3 


1908, 






.33 


5.61 


2.19 


.0354 


.0303 


.0196 


.0107 


.57 


.0052 


.0006 


.74 


1.5 


1909, 






.33 


8.28 


2.04 


.0336 


.0262 


.0196 


.0066 


.53 


.0025 


.0007 


.67 


1.7 


1910, 






.39 


- 


- 


.0266 


.0242 


.0183 


.0059 


.53 


.0125 


.0008 


.57 


1.6 


1911, 






.23 


8.22 


3.10 


.0240 


.0286 


.0227 


.0059 


.53 


.0118 


.0007 


.65 


1.6 


1912. 






.21 


6.49 


2.62 


.0241 

1 


.0225 


.0187 


.0038 


.52 


.0151 


.0006 


.59 


1.3 



No. 



31.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



243 



Miller's Eivee. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1912 

will be found on page 44. 

miller's river. 

Chemical Examination op Water from Miller's River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Miller's River, below Miller's Falls. 

[Parts in 100,000.1 





c 

o 

d 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


6 
*^ 

Q 


Nitrogen 


T3 
V 

s 

3 
o 
o 

a 

hC 
>> 

» 

O 






EVAPOEATION. 


fe 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Year. 


•i 


d 

g:l 

r a 


O 


> 
1 

CO 

a 


T3 

a 

a 

CO 

3 




s 
'B 


§ 

0! 


1908, . . 

1909, 

1910, 

1911, . 

1912, . 


.54 
.54 
.55 
.66 
.51 


4.59 
4.38 
5.48 
5.98 
5.30 


2.06 
1.84 
2.28 
2.58 
2.17 


.0054 
.0035 
.0068 
.0056 
.0047 


.0233 
.0207 
.0231 
.0258 
.0242 


.0181 
.0181 
.0202 
.0220 
.0202 


.0052 
.0026 
.0029 
.0038 
.0040 


.34 
.34 
.44 
.35 
.42 


.0060 
0030 
.0075 
.0052 
.0060 


.0002 
.0002 
.0002 
.0002 
.0002 


.64 
.60 
.68 
.90 
.61 


- 



Nashua River. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 

will be found on page 44. 

nashua river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Nashua River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

North Branch of Nashua River, below Fitchburg. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

N AS 


■6 

























albuminoid. I 








S 

R 




Year. 




a 




-d 


•6 






s 




o 


"3 
o 


Ol-H 


. 


1 

o 


1 

CO 


■v 
a 
a 


a 
3 


1 
2 


1 


a 

Ml 
>> 


03 




U 


H 


^ 


^ 


^ 


« 


o 


iS 


S 


o 


W 


1893. . 


.70 


8.32 


2.38 


.0562 


.0405 


.0289 


.0116 


.73 


.0097 


.0030 


.73 


2.2 


1894, 






.66 


9.18 


2.22 


.0987 


.0425 


.0308 


.0117 


.99 


.0123 


.0034 


.64 


2.4 


1895, 






.71 


9.42 


2.72 


.1387 


.0493 


.0381 


.0112 


1.08 


.0088 


.0014 


.82 


2.6 


1896, 






.57 


9.27 


2.62 


.0898 


.0537 


.0384 


.0153 


.95 


.0127 


.0030 


.71 


2.4 


1897, 






.67 


7.62 


2.50 


.0512 


.0518 


.0389 


.0129 


.71 


.0112 


.0009 


.79 


2.1 


1898, 






.56 


7.02 


2.37 


.0688 


.0629 


.0399 


.0230 


.56 


.0097 


.0016 


.72 


1.8 


1899, 






.53 


10.12 


2.95 


.1507 


.0848 


.0537 


.0311 


1.03 


.0055 


.0013 


.83 


2.4 


1900, 






.42 


9.55 


2.42 


.1575 


.0825 


.0479 


.0346 


1.03 


.0080 


.0015 


.73 


2.6 


1901, 






.42 


8.45 


2.58 


.0964 


.0508 


.0347 


.0161 


.67 


.0080 


.0013 


.69 


2.2 


1902. 






.39 


7.83 


2.42 


.1070 


.0557 


.0407 


.0150 


.68 


.0072 


.0012 


.71 


1.9 


1903, 






.38 


7.. 21 


2.10 


.1200 


.0471 


.0281 


.0190 


.73 


.0095 


.0014 


.62 


1.7 


1904. 






.33 


9.05 


2.70 


.18.58 


.0596 


.0341 


.0255 


.88 


.0077 


.0015 


.70 


2.1 


1905, 






.48 


7.66 


2.33 


.1284 


.0568 


.0354 


.0214 


.73 


.0053 


.0008 


.89 


2.1 


1906, 






.47 


7.68 


2.16 


.1037 


.0558 


.0356 


.0202 


.75 


.0083 


.0020 


.68 


2.0 


1907, 






.50 


10.77 


2.72 


.2180 


.0654 


.0350 


.0304 


1.24 


.0065 


.0012 


.72 


2.8 


1908, 






.52 


15.05 


3.60 


.2605 


.0861 


.0494 


.0367 


1.58 


.0033 


.0016 


1.04 




1909, 






.52 


15.85 


3.42 


.3220 


.0958 


.0563 


.0395 


1.87 


.0027 


.0014 


1.02 


_ 


1910, 






.60 


20.11 


4.90 


.4047 


. 1235 


.0789 


.0446 


2.29 


.0017 


.0009 


1.03 


_ 


1911, 






.51 


19.38 


5.57 


.2848 


. 1035 


.0506 


.0469 


2.37 


.0027 


.0015 


1.15 


_ 


1912, 






.57 


19.52 


4.99 


.2.380 


. 1007 


.0560 


.0447 


2.20 


.0032 


.0019 


1.22 


- 



244 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



NASHUA RIVER. 

Chemical Examination op Water from Nashua River, etc. — Concluded. 
North Branch of Nashua River, at Lancaster. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 









6 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


o 

o 


Nitrogen 


1 

CO 

i 

1 

o 






6 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




Yeab. 


3 
^ 


• 

g:l 


3 

o 


1 

5 


i 

-a 
a 
o 
c 

m 

m 


2 


.1 


i 
1 


1892, . 


.48 


9.75 


2.10 


.0422 


.0274 


.0237 


.0037 


1.11 


.0450 


.0010 


- 


3.0 


1894, 






.49 


8.07 


1.97 


.0215 


.0226 


.0182 


.0044 


.97 


.0295 


.0011 


.49 


2.2 


1895, 






.51 


8.28 


2.39 


.0318 


.0272 


.0214 


.0058 


1.01 


.0284 


.0034 


.56 


2.3 


1896, 






.57 


6.97 


2.17 


.0253 


.0322 


.0253 


.0069 


.66 


.0167 


.0034 


.60 


2.0 


1897, 






.65 


5.45 


2.03 


.0225 


.0290 


.0221 


.0069 


.40 


.0153 


.0015 


.68 


1.5 


1898, 






.48 


6.33 


2.10 


.0409 


.0345 


.0263 


.0082 


.56 


.0227 


.0033 


.51 


1.7 


1899, 






.39 


7.60 


2.33 


.0739 


.0365 


.0305 


.0060 


.75 


.0153 


.0028 


.60 


2.0 


1900, 






.29 


7.17 


1.55 


.0545 


.0326 


.0264 


.0062 


.81 


.0202 


.0039 


.52 


2.1 


1901, 






.37 


6.72 


2.14 


.0432 


.0329 


.0240 


.0089 


.54 


.0087 


.0021 


.58 


1.9 


1902, 






.40 


7.96 


2.66 


.0757 


.0324 


.0267 


.0057 


.70 


.0188 


.0043 


.58 


1.8 


1903, 


V- 




.36 


6.95 


2.35 


.0473 


.0260 


.0201 


.0059 


.58 


.0258 


.0034 


.52 


1.6 


1904, 






.32 


8.01 


2.18 


.0803 


.0318 


.0267 


.0051 


.80 


.0267 


.0040 


.53 


2.0 


1905, 






.34 


7.20 


2.13 


.0616 


.0296 


.0227 


.0069 


.70 


.0207 


.0044 


.50 


1.9 


1906, 






.44 


7.34 


2.12 


.0519 


.0311 


.0240 


.0071 


.72 


.0238 


.0027 


.56 


2.0 


1907, 






.44 


8.34 


2.33 


.0600 


.0294 


.0232 


.0062 


.89 


.0333 


.0084 


.53 


2.1 


1908, 






.40 


10.69 


2.73 


.1075 


.0309 


.0259 


.0050 


1.28 


.0405 


.0090 


.58 


- 


1909, 






.44 


12.26 


3.41 


.1556 


.0330 


.0284 


.0046 


1.46 


.0360 


.0066 


.60 


- 


1910, 






.45 


13.44 


3.82 


.1655 


.0462 


.0366 


.0096 


1.63 


.0388 


.0108 


.70 


- 


1911, 






.51 


15.64 


4.10 


.3067 


.0828 


.0408 


.0420 


1.95 


.0208 


.0083 


.92 


- 


1912, 






.45 


12.65 


3.10 


.1252 


.0438 


.0275 


.0163 


1.68 


.0343 


.0083 


.72 


- 













Nashua River, at 


Pepperell. 












1899, 


.28 


6.91 


2.19 


.0167 


.0248 


.0221 


.0027 


.78 


.0137 


.0008 


.40 


2.1 


1901, 








.37 


6.00 


2.06 


.0154 


.0266 


.0230 


.0036 


.45 


.0092 


.0005 


.55 


1.9 


1902, 








.37 


5.81 


2.07 


.0118 


.0184 


.0167 


.0017 


.49 


.0162 


.0006 


.51 


1.7 


1903, 








.35 


5.15 


1.57 


.0097 


.0180 


.0152 


.0028 


.44 


.0128 


.0008 


.55 


1.6 


1904,1 








.30 


6.23 


1.93 


.0111 


.0206 


.0171 


.0035 


.58 


.0243 


.0008 


.44 


1.9 


1908, 








.32 


10.85 


3.40 


.0317 


.0295 


.0202 


.0093 


1.45 


.0194 


.0008 


.63 


- 


1909, 








.38 


14.29 


4.62 


.0354 


.0376 


.0291 


.0085 


1.95 


.0211 


.0017 


.92 


- 


1910, 








.37 


14.77 


4.14 


.0128 


.0329 


.0252 


.0077 


1.93 


.0207 


.0008 


.81 


- 


1911, 








..40 


12.10 


3.77 


.0423 


.0393 


.0293 


.0100 


1.31 


.0213 


.0048 


.62 


- 


1912,2 








.48 


12.52 


3.28 


.0223 


.0409 


.0254 


.0155 


1.46 


.0204 


.0017 


.75 





* Three months. 



* November omitted. 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINATION OF RIVERS. 



245 



Neponset River. 

neponset river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Neponset River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Neponset River, at Hyde Park. 

[Parts in 100,000.1 









O 

a 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


a 


Nitrogen 


a 

3 

a 
o 

o 

d 

>. 
!«! 

o 






£ 


albuminoid. 


as 




Year. 


o 


o.ti 

Ol-H 


i 


-d 

5 


fl 
ft 


tri 

2 


s 


1 

in 


1887, 






1.18 


8.20 


2.22 


.0053 


.0402 


- 


- 


.98 


.0077 


- 


- 


- 


1888. 






1.12 


7.77 


2.37 


,0040 


,0392 


.0358 


.0034 


1.08 


.0074 


.0003 


- 


- 


1893, 






1.27 


8.60 


2.68 


.0233 


.0370 


.0282 


,0088 


1.47 


.0045 


,0009 


1.00 


2.6 


1894, 






1.19 


12.87 


3.03 


.0196 


,0466 


.0333 


.0133 


2.31 


.0033 


.0002 


1.03 


4.1 


1895, 






.97 


10.01 


3.07 


,0341 


,0440 


,0373 


,0067 


1.51 


.0042 


,0001 


1.05 


3.7 


1896, 






1.26 


10.41 


3.12 


.0162 


,0431 


.0395 


.0036 


1.68 


.0033 


.0001 


1.26 


3.3 


1897, 






1.30 


11.64 


3.34 


.0336 


.0494 


,0417 


.0077 


1.81 


.0037 


.0001 


1.31 


4.0 


1898, 






1.28 


8.82 


3.52 


,0161 


.0505 


.0398 


.0107 


1.02 


.0023 


.0002 


1,30 


2.7 


1899, 






1.14 


16.24 


4,51 


.0264 


.0936 


.0693 


.0243 


2.20 


.0032 


.0002 


1.76 


5.7 


1900, 






1.10 


10.59 


2.99 


,0400 


.0576 


.0381 


.0195 


1.45 


.0048 


,0005 


1.07 


3.2 


1901, 






1.43 


13.26 


5,09 


.0224 


.0802 


.0591 


.0211 


1.69 


.0036 


.0006 


1.82 


4.2 


1902, 






1.02 


12,57 


4,19 


.0360 


.0640 


.0547 


.0093 


1.72 


,0035 


.0004 


1.29 


4.0 


1903, 






1.29 


14.21 


4.95 


,0278 


.0811 


,0638 


.0173 


1.86 


.0034 


.0010 


1.71 


4,5 


1904, 






1.08 


16.22 


5,68 


.0631 


.1007 


,0777 


.02.30 


2.07 


.0037 


.0005 


1.67 


5.6 


1905, 






1.22 


21.88 


6,68 


.0813 


.1043 


.0861 


.0182 


3.44 


.0028 


.0006 


2.22 


6.6 


1906, 






1.35 


13.47 


4,42 


,0549 


.0875 


.0674 


.0201 


2.21 


.0025 


.0008 


1.85 


3,9 


1907, 






.90 


22.58 


6,31 


.1201 


.1412 


.0961 


.0451 


3.81 


.0042 


.0004 


1.94 


6.9 


1908, 






- 


25.40 


7,19 


.1132 


.1209 


,0844 


.0365 


5.08 


.0027 


.0006 


2.01 


8.8 


1909. 






- 


28.69 


9,08 


.1723 


.1218 


.0898 


.0320 


5.35 


.0027 


.0009 


2.02 


10.0 


1910, 






- 


31.37 


10,16 


,1740 


. 1333 


.1000 


.0333 


5.84 


,0010 


.0002 


2.96 


10.4 


1911, 






1.24 


18.82 


5.49 


,0786 


.0727 


.0539 


.0188 


3.36 


,0025 


.0007 


1.86 


7.1 


1912, 






.82 


26.02 


6.45 


.1241 


.1020 


.0707 


.0313 


4.18 


.0017 


.0012 


2.31 


9.2 



246 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



QUINEBAUG ElVER. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the 3'ear 1912 
will be found on page 46. 



quinebaug river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Quinebaug River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Quinebaug River, below Southbridge. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









— 


C 



O 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


§ 

-a 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


2 

S 

8 
a 

o 






Evaporation. 


iS 


albuminoid. 




Year. 


1 


a 


i 


1 

■q 


T3 

a 

01 

Q. 

CO 


en 
O 

2 


i 
2 


03 


1898, 


.64 


4.18 


2.00 


.0064 


.0372 


.0309 


.0063 


.18 


.0050 


.0003 ; 


.66 


0.8 


1899, 








.44 


4.32 


1.72 


.0071 


.0298 


.0229 


.0069 


.23 


.0048 


.0002 


.54 


1.2 


1900, 








.40 


4.31 


1.56 


.0168 


.0324 


.0211 


.0113 


.25 


.0024 


.0003 


.52 


1.0 


1901, 








.42 


4.52 


1.67 


.0147 


.0232 


.0158 


.0074 


.19 


.0050 


.0005 


.45 


1.7 


1902, 








.36 


4.12 


1.45 


.0068 


.0224 


.0179 


.0045 


.24 


.0054 


.0002 


.43 


1.2 


1903,1 








.39 


3.84 


1.37 


.0076 


.0225 


.0181 


.0044 


.24 


.0043 


.0002 


.52 


1.0 


1904, 








.40 


4.17 


1.57 


.0086 


.0247 


.0189 


.0058 


.26 


.0068 


.0002 


.53 


1.2 


1908, 








.46 


6.82 


2.31 


.0075 


.0277 


.0174 


.0103 


.33 


.0038 


.0003 


.57 


- 


1909, 








.40 


5.48 


1.99 


.0087 


.0275 


.0219 


.0056 


.37 


.0077 


.0003 


.56 


- 


1910, 








.40 


6.20 


2.27 


.0104 


.0334 


.0246 


.0088 


.42 


.0032 


.0004 


.53 


- 


1911,1 








.50 


5.92 


2.09 


.0180 


.0308 


.0240 


.0068 


.41 


.0067 


.0002 


.66 


- 


1912,» 








.41 


7.35 


2.40 


.0152 


.0397 


.0272 


.0125 


.52 


.0025 


.0004 


.59 


- 



1 Four months. 



2 Two months. 



No. 34.] 



EXAJVIINATION OF RIVERS. 



247 



Taunton Rivee. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1912 
will be found on page 45. 

tauntox river. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Taunton River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Taunton River, below Taunton. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Year. 



1898, 

1899, 

1900, 

1901, 

1902,1 

1903, 

1904, 

1906,2 

1907,3 

1908, 

1909, 

1910, 

1911, 

1912, 



O 



1.56 

.93 

.71 

1.01 

.94 

.96 

.95 

1.41 

.94 

.73 

.90 

1.04 

1.04 

1.17 



Residue on 
Evaporation. 



o 



6.64 

6.31 

6.89 

6.15 

6.92 

7.06 

6.49 

7.37 

7.16 

7.66 

12.97 

19.62 

9.65 

10.35 



a 
ti 

tn bC 
Oi-c 

1^ 



3.30 
2.48 
1.91 
2.45 
2.36 
2.60 
2.60 
3,11 
2.62 
2.52 
3.87 
5.69 
2.80 
2.95 



Ammonia. 



ALBUMINOID. 



o 
H 



> 



0109 
0176 
,0205 
,0293 
,1902 
,0542 
,0855 
,0401 
,1031 
,0469 
,0416 
,0658 
,0385 
,0461 



T3 

a 
p. 



,0345 


,0314 


,0317 


,0279 


,0286 


.0258 


,0275 


,0255 


,0363 


.0308 


,0270 


.0234 


,0319 


,0264 


,0385 


,0331 


,0343 


,0282 


,0278 


.0226 


,0303 


,0263 


.0376 


,0305 


,0330 


,0270 


,0366 


.0295 



0031 
0038 
0028 
0020 
0055 
0036 
0055 
0054 
,0061 
,0052 
,0040 
,0071 
,0060 
.0071 



o 
O 



.61 

.72 

1.06 

.76 

1.29 

1.10 

.94 

.95 

1.05 

1.31 

3.49 

6,82 

1,73 

1.76 



Nitrogen 

AS 



.2 

03 



0082 
0060 
0112 
0134 
,0116 
,0177 
,0137 
,0162 
,0115 
,0108 
,0105 
.0110 
.0205 
.0173 



0003 
0004 
0006 
0005 
,0012 
.0013 
.0008 
,0008 
,0009 
,0011 
.0014 
.0027 
.0015 
.0015 



•a 

a 



bl 
>> 
X 

O 



1.51 

1.04 

.76 

.92 

.90 

1.02 

1.06 

1.36 

1.05 

.74 

.88 

.93 

1.04 

1.03 



d 

13 
u 
03 



1.3 
1.2 
1.5 
1.6 
1.4 
1.7 
1.3 
1.4 
1.7 



' September omitted. 



2 June omitted. 



' Four months. 



248 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 



Ten Mile Eiver. 

A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1912 
will be found on page 45. 

ten mile kiver. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Ten Mile River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Ten Mile River, below Attleborough. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











o 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

e 

a 
8 

a 
o 






a 


ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


i 


M S, 


"3 

4^ 


T3 


■a 
o 

a 


i 
g 




a 
1 




6 


^ 


h4 


2 


o 
H 


Q 


3 


O 


^ 


^^ 


O 


a 


1899, 


.71 


6.39 


2.15 


.0072 


.0379 


.0288 


.0091 


.62 


.0133 


.0004 


.74 


1.7 


1900, 








.47 


6.19 


1.60 


.0125 


.0363 


.0241 


.0122 


.84 


.0155 


.0004 


.49 


1.8 


1901, 








.46 


6.09 


2.12 


.0084 


.0290 


.0202 


.0088 


.71 


.0222 


.0004 


.51 


1.8 


1902, 








.41 


6.49 


1.83 


.0073 


.0394 


.0237 


.0157 


.88 


.0212 


.0004 


.52 


1.9 


1903, 








.36 


7.48 


2.39 


.0282 


.0346 


.0200 


.0146 


.84 


.0315 


.0020 


.53 


1.8 


1904, 








.44 


8.89 


2.97 


.0931 


.0527 


.0332 


.0195 


1,03 


.0532 


.0033 


.58 


3.5 


1906,1 








.48 


17.57 


6.45 


.1586 


.0914 


.0490 


.0424 


1.07 


.0638 


.0121 


.92 


7.9 


1907, 1 








.42 


19.07 


6.14 


.6036 


.1471 


.0830 


.0641 


1.73 


.2014 


.0100 


1.18 


7.5 


1908, 








.40 


10.89 


3.27 


.1108 


.0483 


.0294 


.0189 


1.37 


.0364 


.0035 


.61 


- 


1909, 








.47 


11.23 


2.88 


.4322 


.0626 


.0380 


.0246 


1.51 


.0263 


.0086 


.78 


- 


1910, 








.29 


12.05 


3.32 


.2422 


.0545 


.0330 


.0215 


1.98 


.0.357 


.0051 


.48 


- 


1911, 








.76 


11. -94 


3.58 


.0604 


.0506 


.0302 


.0204 


1.55 


.0382 


.0036 


.94 


- 


1912, 








.39 


28.98 


11.42 


.1056 


.0750 


.0287 


.0463 


1.92 


.0.368 


.0075 


.75 


3.6 



1 June omitted. 

Westfield Eiver. 
A general statement of the condition of this river in the year 1913 
will be found on page 46. 

westfield kiver. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Westfield River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Westfield River, below Westfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 









— 


o 
O 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


1 

8 

£3 

o 






Evaporation. 


£ 


albuminoid. 


AS 




Year. 


3 

o 

H 




3 

^ 


> 
1 

a 


a 

a 


CO 


CO 

s 


§ 

■3 
u 

03 


1902, 

1903, 

1904, 

1906, I 

1907, 

1908, 

1909, 

1910, 

1911, 

1912,2 








.22 
.15 
.21 
.21 
.24 
.17 
.22 
.13 
.25 
.13 


4.21 
3.68 
4.16 
4.65 
4.49 
5.27 
5.56 
6.71 
5.86 
6.40 


1.60 
1.30 
1.59 
1.48 
1.03 
2.19 
1.68 
2.39 
2.03 
2.08 


.0062 
.0037 
.0067 
.0086 
.0053 
.0218 
.0179 
.0214 
.0272 
.0286 


.0144 
.0127 
.0152 
.0161 
.0137 
.0101 
.0187 
.0143 
.0162 
.0189 


.0118 
.0105 
.0119 
.0135 
.0111 
.0116 
.0143 
.0120 
.0133 
.0130 


.0026 
.0022 
,0033 
.0026 
.0026 
.0045 
,0044 
,0023 
,0029 
,0059 


.14 
.16 
.16 
.18 
,21 
,27 
.26 
.30 
.28 
.34 


.0062 
.0088 
.0068 
.0035 
.0075 
.0063 
.0075 
.0304 
.0077 
.0204 


.0002 
.0003 
.0001 
.0003 
.0003 
.0006 
.0005 
.0010 
.0008 
.0014 


.39 
.28 
.38 
.29 
.31 
.28 
.34 
.21 
.38 
.24 


1.9 
1.8 
1.9 
2.1 
2.0 



1 Four months. 



» September omitted. 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS; 



ALSO 



RECORDS OF RAINFALL AND FLOW OF STREAMS. 



[249] 



k 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



During the year 1912 public water supplies were introduced into the 
towns of Acton (population 2,136), Barnstable (population 4,676), 
Littleton (population 1,229), Norton (population 2,544), and Shelburne 
(population 1,498). The works in Littleton are owned by the town, in 
Barnstable and Norton by private companies, in Acton by the West and 
South Water Supply District of Acton and in Shelburne by the Shel- 
burne Falls Fire District. Water supplies were also introduced into the 
West Groton Water Supply District, in the town of Groton, and the East 
Foxborough Water Supply District, in the town of Foxborough. The 
main villages of Groton and Foxborough had previously been supplied 
with water. 

Of the 353 cities and towns in Massachusetts, all of the 33 cities and 
169 of the towns are provided with public water supplies. The following 
table gives a classification by population of the cities and towns having 
and not having public water supplies at the end of the year : — 



Population, 1910. 



Number of 

Places of Given 

Population 

having 

Public NVater 

Supplies. 



Total 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 



Number of 

Places of Given 

Population 

not having 

Public Water 

Supplies. 



Total 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 



Under 500, . 
500-999, 

1,000-1,499, . 

1,500-1,999, . 

2,000-2,499, . 

2,500-2,999, . 

3,000-3,499, . 

3,500-3,999, . 
Above 4,000, 

Totals, . 



6 

19 

12 

21 

12 

8 

5 

119 



202 



4,933 
23,677 
21,245 
46,583 
33,334 
26,167 
18,164 
3,022,826 



3,196,929 



39 

41 

31 

21 

12 

2 

1 

2 





151 



13,020 

29,949 

38,086 

36,846 

26,710 

5,726 

3,078 

7,506 

8,566 



169,487 



From the above table it will be seen that although but 57 per cent, of 
the cities and towns in the State have a public water supply, the total 



252 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



population of the places supplied is 95 per cent, of the total population 
of the State. The populations given in this table were obtained by using 
the total population of the cities and towns supplied, and is somewhat 
greater than the actual number of persons to whom the public water 
supply is available, but the difference is not great. All of the towns in 
the State having a population in excess of 5,000 are now supplied with 
water, and there are only 7 towns having a population in excess of 2,500 
which are not provided with public water supplies. These towns are as 
follows : — 



Town. 


Population, 
1910. 


Town. 


Population, 
1910. 


Dartmouth, 

Warren, 

Templeton 

Tewksbury, 


4,378 
4,188 
3,756 
3,750 


Sutton, 

Westport, 

Somerset, 


3,078 
2,928 
2,798 



At the present time the water works are owned either by the munici- 
pality or by a fire or water supply district in all of the cities and 126 of 
the towns, while in 43 towns the works are owned by private companies. 
The following table gives the classification by population of the cities 
and towns which own their water works and those which are supplied 
with water by private companies : — 



Population, 1910. 



Number 
of Places of 

Given 

Population 

owning Water 

Works. 



Under 1,000, 
1,000-1,999, . 
2,000-2,999, . 
3,000-3,999, . 
4,000-4,990, . 
5,000-5,999, . 
6,000-6,999, . 
7,000-7,999, . 
Above 8,000, 
Totals, . 



3 

22 
22 

6 
12 
16 

8 

5 
65 



Total 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 



159 



2,251 
31,691 
52,273 
20,348 
55,128 
87,513 
52,608 
36,945 
2,696,170 



Number 
of Places of 
Given Popula- 
tion supplied 
with Water by 
Private 
Companies. 



3,034,927 



3 

9 

11 

7 
4 
3 

1 

5 



43 



Total 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 



2,682 
13,231 
27,644 
23,983 
18,487 
15,939 

7,688 
52,348 



162,002 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 253 

From the above table it will be seen that the total population of all 
places supplied by private companies is only 5.1 per cent, of the total 
population of all of the cities and towns supplied with water, and there 
are only 9 towns having a population in excess of 5,000 which are sup- 
plied by private companies, namely, Milford, Southbridge, Dedham, 
Northbridge, Palmer, Bridgewater, Grafton, Fairhaven and Amherst. 

Consumption of Water, 

Records of the consumption of water are kept in nearly all of the cities 
and towns where water is pumped, and in several places supplied by 
gravity Venturi meters are used to measure the quantity supplied. 

The following table gives statistics with regard to the consumption of 
water in the year 1912 in those cities and towns from which records 
could be obtained. The populations for the year 1912 as given in the 
table were obtained by adding two-fifths of the increase in population 
between 1905 and 1910 to the population as determined by the census of 
the latter year. The daily consumption of water per inhabitant has been 
obtained by dividing the average daily consumption by the estimated 
total population of the city or town in 1912. The quantity obtained in 
this manner is somewhat less than the actual consumption per person 
using the water because there are in all cities and towns a greater or less 
number of persons who do not use the public supply. The difference 
between the number of inhabitants and the number of consumers would 
account to a large extent for the low rate per inhabitant in some of the 
towns which contain villages to which the public water supply has not 
been extended and in towns where works have been in operation but a 
short time and where, in consequence, water has not come into general 
use. In some towns the population during the summer months is much 
srreater than that shown bv the census returns, and in such cases the con- 
sumption per inhabitant as given in the table is higher than it would be 
if allowance were made for the increased population in the summer. 
With a few exceptions, however, the difference is not great. 



254 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Statistics relating to the Consumption of Water in Variotis Cities and Towns. 



City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation, 

1912. 


Average 

Daily 
Consump- 
tion 
(Gallons), 
1912. 


DaUy 

Con- 
sumption 
per In- 
habitant 
(Gallons), 

1912. 


CiTT OR Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation, 

1912. 


Average 
Daily 
Consump- 
tion 
(Gallons), 
1912. 


Daily 
Con- 
sumption 
per In- 
habitant, 
(Gallons) 
1912. 


Metropolitan Water 
District:" — 
Arlington, 


1,124,006 
11,795 


118,963,000 
1,076,000 


106 
91 


Canton, . 
Chelmsford, . 


4,835 
5,312 


386,000 
70,000 


80 
13 


Belmont, 


6,015 


435,000 


72 


Clinton, 


13,063 


633,000 


48 


Boston, . 


716,573 


90,038,000 


126 


Concord, 


6,821 


500,000 


73 


Chelsea, . 
Everett, . 


36,740 
35,233 


2,936,000 
2,708,000 


80 
77 


Danvers and Mid- 

dleton. 
Dedham, 


10,698 
9,888 


1,121,000 
1,156,000 


105 
117 


Lexington, 


5,073 


357,000 


70 


Dudley, 


4,447 


124,000 


2S 


Maiden, . 


46,951 


2,226,000 


• 47 


Easton, . 


5,231 


135,000 


26 


Medford, . 


24,536 


1,223,000 


50 


Edgartown, . 


1,197 


61,000 


51 


Melrose, . 


16,283 


1,132,000 


70 


Fairhaven, 


5,477 


400,000 


73 


Milton, . 


8,272 


343,000 


41 


FaU River, . 


124,708 


5,335,000 


43 


Nahant, . 


1,289 


159,000 


123 


Falmouth, 


3,105 


310,000 


100 


Quincy, . 


34,468 


3,003,000 


87 


Foxborough, . 


4,063 


234,000 


58 


Revere, . 


20,443 


1,495,000 


73 


Framingham, 


13,508 


820,000 


61 


Somerville, 


80,422 


6,428,000 


80 


Franklin, 


5,800 


296,000 


51 


Stoneham, 


7,393 


591,000 


80 


Gardner, 


15,774 


748,000 


47 


Swampscott, . 


6,629 


443,000 


67 


Gloucester, . 


23,753 


1,312,000 


55 


Watertown, 


13,522 


922,000 


68 


Grafton, 


5,966 


114,000 


19 


Winthrop, 


11,371 


717,000 


63 


Groton, . 


2,116 


98,000 


46 


Abington and Rock- 
land, 
Amesbury, 


12,789 
10,316 


732,000 
505,000 


57 
49 


Holliston, 
Holyoke, 


2,730 
60,848 


69,000 
6,078,000 


25 
100 


Andover, 


7,569 


560,000 


74 


Hudson, 


6,953 


293,000 


42 


Ashland, 


1,716 


20,000 


12 


Ipswich, 


6,006 


323,000 


54 


Attleborough, 


17,620 


987,000 


56 


Lancaster, . . 


2,487 


116,000 


47 


Avon, 


2,058 


80,000 


39 


Lawrence, 


92,229 


4,104,000 


44 


Ayer, 


2,961 


162,000 


55 


Lincoln, 


1,196 


221,000 


185 


Bedford, 


1,240 


30,000 


24 


Lowell, . 


110,856 


5,273.000 


48 


Beverly, 


20,021 


1,846,000 


92 


Lynn and Saugus, . 


103,018 


6,750,000 


66 


Billerica, 


2,767 


165,000 


60 


Manchester, . 


2,695 


305,000 


113 


Braintree, 


8,541 


587,000 


69 


Mansfield, 


5,558 


569,000 


102 


Bridgewater and 
East Bridgewater. 
Brockton, 


11,505 
60,512 


330,000 
! 2,542,000 


29 
42 


Marblehead, . 
Marion, . 


7,390 
1,632 


604,000 
115,000 


82 
70 


Brookline, 


29,534 


2,633,000 


89 


Marlborough, 


14,781 


573,000 


39 


Cambridge, . 


107,801 


10,793,000 


100 


Maynard, 


6,622 


315,000 


48 








* . 1 • _ .1 _ 1 


_^_*^ i___i i;~j r 


;„ J — 


1 * „«-! 





1 Including Newton, which is within the 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



255 



Statistics relating to the Consumption of Water in Variom Cities and Towns — 

Concluded. 



CiTT OR Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation, 

1912. 


Average 
Daily 
Consump- 
tion 
(Gallons), 
1912. 


Daily 
Con- 
sumption 
per In- 
habitant 
(Gallons), 
1912. 


City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation, 

1912. 


Average 
Daily 
Consump- 
tion 
(Gallons), 
1912. 


Daily 

Con- 
sumption 
per In- 
habitant 
(Gallons), 

1912. 


Merrimac, 


2,329 


88,000 


38 


Rutland, 


1,755 


99,000 


56 


Methuen, 


12,557 


615,000 


49 


Salem, . 


46,125 


3,769,000 


83 


Middleborough, 


8,744 


337,000 


39 


Sharon, . 


2,400 


149,000 


62 


Milford and Hope- 
dale. 
Millbury, 


15,679 
4,784 


817,000 
190,000 


52 
40 


Shirley, . 
Southbridge, . 


2,318 
13,229 


64,000 
898,000 


28 
68 


Montague and Erv- 


7,976 


616,000 


77 


Springfield, . 


95,080 


10,660,000 


112 


ing. 
Nantucket, . 


2,975 


233,000 


78 


Stoughton, 


6,459 


278,000 


43 


Natick, 


9,969 


544,000 


65 


Taunton, 


35,576 


2,366,000 


67 


Needham, 


5,323 


356,000 


67 


Wakefield, 


11,858 


713,000 


60 


New Bedford, 


105,568 


8,281,000 


78 


Walpole, 


5,248 


538,000 


102 


Newbury port. 


15,059 


1,235,000 


82 


Waltham, 


28,455 


2,743,000 


96 


Newton, 


. 40,998 


2.732,000 


67 


Ware, 


8,846 


453,000 


51 


North Andover, 


5,895 


261,000 


44 


Ware ham, 


4,279 


136,000 


32 


North Attleborougl 


1, 10,236 


473,000 


46 


Webster, 


12,105 


471,000 


39 


Norwood, 


. 8,527 


627,000 


74 


Wellesley, 


5,103 


374,000 


73 


Orange, . 


5,164 


161,000 


31 


West Bridgewater, . 


2,321 


64,000 


28 


Peabody, 


. 16,770 


2,697,000 


161 


Westfield, 


17,017 


1,841,000 


103 


Pepperell, 


2,827 


110,000 


39 


Westford, 


3,026 


71,000 


23 


Plainville, 


1,419 


37,000 


26 


Weston, . 


2,112 


106,000 


50 


Plymouth, 


. 12,550 


1,367,000 


109 


Whitman, 


7,600 


234,000 


31 


Provincetown, 


4,372 


212,000 


48 


Winchendon, . 


5,576 


182,000 


33 


Randolph and Hoi 
DrooK. 


7,347 


406,000 


55 


Woburn, 


15,670 


2,014,000 


129 


Reading, 


5,872 


234,000 


40 


Worcester, 


153,126 


11,227,000 


73 


Rockport, 


4,117 


306,000 


74 


Wrentham, 


1,869 


96,000 


51 



Eainfall. 

The normal rainfall in Massachusetts as deduced from long-continued 
observations in various parts of the State is 44.78 inches. The average 
rainfall for the year 1912 in these places was 39.48 inches, an average 
deficiency of 5.30 inches. There was an excess of precipitation in the 
months of March, April, May and December, and a deficiency in the 
other eight months. The greatest excess in any month occurred in 
March, when the rainfall was 5.84 inches, or 1.91 inches greater than the 



256 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



normal, and the greatest deficiency occurred in June, when the rainfall 
was only 0.33 of an inch, or 2.94 inches less than the normal. 

The following table gives the normal rainfall in the State for each 
month as deduced from observations at various places for a long period of 
years, together with the average rainfall at those places for each month 
during the year 1918 and the departure from the normal : — 



Month. 


Normal 
Rainfall 
(Inches). 


Rainfall 
in 1912 

(Inches). 


Excess or 

Defi- 
ciency in 
1912 

(Inches). 


Month. 


Normal 
Rainfall 
(Inches). 


Rainfall 
in 1912 

(Inches). 


Excess or 

Defi- 
ciency in 

1912 
(Inches). 


January, . 
February, 
March, 

April, 
May, 


3.74 
3.61 
3.93 

3.58 
3.72 
3.27 
3.77 


2.93 
2.81 
5.84 
4,02 
4.72 
0.33 
3.31 


—0.81 
—0.80 
-1-1.91 
-fO.44 
+1.00 
-2.94 
—0.46 


August, . 
September, 
October, . 
November, 
December, 
Total, 


4.25 
3.50 

3.82 
3.92 
3.67 


3.06 
2.28 
1.77 

3.58 
4.83 


—1.19 
—1.22 
—2.05 
—0.34 
+1.16 


June, 

July, . . 


44.78 


39.48 


—5.30 



The rainfall in the year 1912, as in each of the eight years immediately 
preceding it, was less than the normal, and the accumulated deficiency at 
the end of that year was 39.29 inches. The greatest deficiency during 
this period occurred in the years 1908 and 1910, and the least in the 
3'ears 1906 and 1907. In 1912 the rainfall in the month of February 
occurred almost entirely in the last twelve days, and, taken in connection 
with the high rainfall in the month of March and the continued excess 
in the months of April and May, produced a higher flow in the streams 
than has occurred for many years. On the other hand, the average rain- 
fall for the month of June was only about one-third of an inch, while the 
total rainfall for the six months, June to November, inclusive, was only 
14.33 inches, or 36 per cent, of the total rainfall for the year. The effect 
of this distribution of the rainfall was to produce very high flows in the 
streams during the spring, by which nearly all of the ponds and storage 
reservoirs were filled to overflowing, while the deficiency of rainfall in 
the summer and fall months caused a shortage of water in many of the 
supplies, particularly those obtained from small storage reservoirs. "With 
the heavy rains of the late fall and early winter, however, the ponds and 
storage reservoirs were restored to their normal condition. 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



257 



Flow of Streams. 
Sudbury River. 

The average flow of the Sudbury Eiver during the year 1913 was 
779,000 gallons per day per square mile, the highest flow recorded in any 
year since 1907. The flow was in excess of the normal in the months 
of March, April and May, but less than the normal in the other nine 
months of the year. The greatest excess occurred in the month of May, 
and the greatest deficiency in the months of February, November and 
December. During the months of July, August, September and October 
the flow was less than the evaporation from the water surfaces of the 
reservoirs, so that the flow in those months is represented by a minus 
quantity. The average flow for the driest six months, June to Novem- 
ber, inclusive, was 26,000 gallons per day per square mile, which is the 
minimum flow ever recorded for a similar period during the past thirty- 
eight 3^ears. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of the' Sudbury Eiver 
during each month of the year 1912 and the normal flow of that stream, 
as deduced from observations during thirty-eight years, from 1875 to 
1912, inclusive, the following table has been prepared. The area of the 
watershed of the Sudbury River above the point of measurement is 75.2 
square miles. 



Table showing the Average Monthly Flow of the Sudbury River for the Year 1912, 
in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of Drainage Area, and in Million 
Gallons per Day per Sqvxire Mile of Drainage Area; also, Departure from 
the Normal Flow. 











Normal Flow. 


Actual Flow in 1912. 


Excess or 


Deficienct. 




Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Month. 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 




Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 




per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 




Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Januarj' 


1.851 


1.196 


1.127 


0.728 


-0.724 


—0.468 


February, . 








2.663 


1.721 


1.852 


1.197 


—0.811 


—0.524 


March, 








4.331 


2.799 


4 783 


3 092 


-1-0.452 


+0 293 


April, . 








3.088 


1.996 


3.459 


2.235 


-f-0.371 


+0.239 


May, . 








1.652 


1.068 


2. 238 


1.447 


+0.586 


+0.379 


June, . 








0.770 


0.498 


0.229 


0.148 


—0.541 


— O.350 


July, . 








0.246 


0.1.59 


-0.119 


—0.077 


—0.365 


—0.236 


August, 








0.362 


0.234 


-0.046 


-O.029 


—0.408 


—0.263 


September, 








0.369 


0.239 


—0.044 


—0.028 


-0.413 


—0.267 


October, 








0.676 


0.437 


—0.021 


—0.014 


—0.697 


-0.451 


November, 








1.218 


0.787 


0.255 


0.165 


—0.963 


—0.622 


December, . 








1.550 


1.002 


0.765 


0.494 


—0.785 


—0 508 


Average for w 


rhole 


year 




1.558 


1.007 


1.206 


0.779 


—0.352 


—0 228 



In the annual report of the State Board of Health for the year 1911 
(pages 254 to 260) a table was presented giving the record of the rain- 



258 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



fall upon the Sudbury Eiver watershed and the yield expressed in inches 
in depth on the watershed (inches of rainfall collected) for thirty-seven 
years, from 1875 to 1911, inclusive. The corresponding record for the 
year 1912, together with the average for the whole period of thirty-eight 
years, is given in the following table : — 



Rainfall, in Inches, received a^id collected on the Sudbury River. Watejshed. 











For 


THE Year 


1912. 


Mean for 


Thirty-eight Years, 
1875-1912. 


Month. 
















■D«:-,f«n 


Rainfall 


Per Cent. 


Rainfall. 


Rainfall 


Per Cent. 




collected. 


collected. 


collected. 


collected. 


January, .... 


2.94 


1.299 


44.1 


4.11 . 


2.133 


52.0 


February, 








2.77 


1.998 


72.2 


4.17 


2.796 


67.1 


March, 








6.46 


5.515 


85.3 


4.42 


4.992 


112.8 


April, . 








4.37 


3.859 


88.3 


3.52 


3.445 


97.9 


May, . 








4.55 


2.580 


56.7 


3.31 


1.905 


57.6 


June, . 








0.46 


0.255 


56.1 


3.06 


0.859 


2S.1 


July, . 








3.24 


-0.137 


-4.2 


3.54 


0.284 


S.O 


August, 








3.05 


—0.0.33 


—1.7 


3.86 


0.417 


10.8 


September, 








1.76 


—0.049 


—2.8 


3.45 


0.412 


11.9 


October, 








2.35 


—0.024 


—1.0 


3.88 


0.780 


20.1 


November, 








3.64 


0.285 


7.8 


3.85 


1.358 


35.3 


December, 








5.13 


0.882 


17.2 


3.84 


1.787 


46.6 


Totals ai 


id av 


erages, 




40.72 


16.410 


40.3 


45.01 


21.168 


47.0 



The following table gives the record of the yield of the Sudbury Eiver 
watershed for each of the past thirty-eight years, the flow being expressed 
in gallons per day p;er square mile of watershed in order to render the 
table more convenient for use in estimating the probable yield of water- 
sheds used as sources of water supply : — 



Yield of the Sudbury River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile. ^ 



Month. 1875. 


1876. 1877. 1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


January 


103,000 


643,000 


658,000 


1,810,000 


700,000 


1,121,000 


February, 












1,496,000 


1,368,000 


949,000 


2,465,000 


1,711,000 


i,7S7,noo 


March, 












1,604,000 


4,435,000 


4,813,000 


3,507,000 


2,330,000 


1,374,000 


April, 












3,049,000 


3,292,000 


2,394,000 


1,626,000 


3,116,000 


1,168,000 


May, 












1,188,000 


1,139,000 


1,391,000 


1,394,000 


1,114,000 


514,000 


June, 












870,000 


222,000 


597,000 


500, 00 


413, 00 


176,000 


July, 












321,000 


183,000 


202,000 


128,000 


1.58,000 


177,000 


August, . 












396,000 


405,000 


121,000 


475,000 


395,000 


119,000 


September, 












207,000 


184,000 


60,000 


160,000 


141,000 


80,000 


October, . 












646,000 


234,000 


632,000 


516,000 


71,000 


101,000 


November, 












1,302,000 


1,088,000 


1,418,000 


1,693,000 


206,000 


205,000 


December, 












584,000 


454,000 


1,289, 00 


3,177,000 


462,000 


175,000 


Average for whole year, . 


972,000 


1,135,000 


1,214,000 


1,452,000 


894,000 


578,000 


Average for driest six months. 




574,000 


384,000 


502,000 


532,000 


230,000 


143,000 



' The area of the Sudbury River watershed used in making up these records included water surfaces 
amounting to about 2 per cent, of the whole area, from 1875 to 1878, inclusive, subsequently increasing 
by the construction of storage reservoirs to about 3 per cent, in 1879, to 3.5 per cent, in 1885, to 4 per cent, 
in 1894 and to 6.5 per cent, in 1898. The watershed also contains extensive areas of swampy land, which, 
though covered with water at times, are not included in the above percentages of water surfaces. 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



259 



Month. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


January, 


415,030 


1,241,000 


335,000 


995,000 


1,235,000 


1,461,030 


February, 












1,546,000 


2,403,000 


1,033,000 


2,842,000 


1,354,000 


4,800,000 


March, 












4,004,000 


2,839,000 


1,611,000 


3,785,000 


1,572,000 


2,059,000 


April, 












1,546,000 


867,000 


1,350,000 


2,853,000 


1,815,000 


1,947,000 


May, 












965,000 


1,292,000 


938,000 


1,030,000 


1,336,000 


720,000 


June, 












1,338,000 


529,000 


300,000 


417,000 


426,000 


203,000 


July, 












276,000 


86,000 


115,000 


224,000 


62,000 


115,000 


August, . 












148,000 


55,000 


78,000 


257,000 


240,000 


94,000 


September, 












197,000 


306,000 


91,000 


44,000 


121,000 


118,000 


October, . 












186,000 


299,000 


186,000 


83,000 


336,000 


146,000 


November, 












395,000 


210,000 


205,000 


175,000 


1,178,000 


673,000 


December, 












775,000 


314,000 


193,000 


925,000 


1,174,000 


1,020,000 


Average for whole year, 


979,000 


862,000 


533,000 


1,129,000 


901,000 


1,087,000 


Average for driest six months. 




330,000 


211,000 


145,000 


200,000 


391,000 


223,000 



Month. 


1887. 


1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


January, 


2,589,000 


1,053,000 


2,782,000 


1,254,000 


3,018,000 


1,870,000 


February, 










2,829,000 


1,951,000 


1,195,000 


1,529,000 


3,486,000 


943,000 


March, 










2,868,000 


3,237,000 


1,339,000 


3,643,000 


4,453,000 


1,955,000 


April, 










2,620,000 


2,645,000 


1,410,000 


1,875,000 


2,397,000 


871,000 


May, 










1,009.000 


1,632,000 


880,000 


1,366,000 


582,000 


1,259,000 


June, 










414,000 


422,000 


653,000 


568,000 


414,000 


428,000 


July, 










114,000 


117,000 


633,000 


108,000 


149,000 


214,000 


August, . 










214,000 


380,000 


1,432,000 


132,000 


163,000 


280,000 


September, 










111,000 


1,155,000 


824,000 


458,000 


203,000 


229,000 


October, . 










190,000 


1,999,000 


1,230,000 


2,272,000 


210,000 


126,000 


November, 










368,000 


2,758,000 


1,941,000 


1,215,000 


305,000 


697,000 


December, 










643,000 


3,043,000 


2,241,000 


997,000 


544,000 


485,000 


Average for whole year, 


1,154,000 


1,097,000 


1,383, 00 


1,285,000 


1,315,000 


781,000 


Average for driest six months. 


234,000 


953,000 


944,000 


747,000 


239,000 


327,000 



260 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Yield of the Sudbury River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile — 

Continued. 



Month. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


January 


1 

433,000 


693,000 


1,034,0C0 


1,084,000 


845,000 


1,638,000 


February, 












1,542,000 


991,000 


541,000 


2,676,000 


1,067,000 


3,022,000 


March, 












3,245,000 


2,238,000 


2,410,000 


3,835,000 


2,565,000 


2,604,000 


April, 












2,125,000 


1,640,000 


2,515,000 


1,494,000 


1,515,000 


1,829,000 


May, 












2,883,000 


840,000 


636,000 


360,000 


915,000 


1,246,000 


June, 












440,000 


419,000 


174,000 


399,000 


962,000 


530,000 


July, 












158,000 


161,000 


231,000 


95,000 


658,000 


231,000 


August, . 












181,000 


209,000 


229,000 


57,000 


591,000 


1,107,000 


September, 












108,000 


150,000 


89,000 


388,000 


182,000 


369,000 


October, . 












221,000 


374,000 


1,379,000 


592,000 


94,000 


1,160,000 


November, 












319,000 


836,000 


2,777,000 


659,000 


909,000 


1,986,000 


December, 












797,000 


716,000 


1,782,000 


657,000 


1,584,000 


1,799,000 


Average for whole year. 


1,037,000 


770,000 


1,152,000 


1,019,000 


991,000 


1,450,000 


Average for driest six months. 


237,000 


356,000 


460,000 


314,000 


564,000 


777,000 



Month. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


January, 


2,288,000 


794,000 


437,000 


1,763,000 


1,736,000 


477,000 


February, 












1,381,000 


3,800,000 


300,000 


1,674,000 


2,279,000 


882,000 


March, 






* 






4,205,000 


3,654,000 


2,755,000 


4,199,000 


3,454.000 


2,999,000 


April, 












2,521,000 


1,350,000 


4,204,000 


1,885,000 


2,261,000 


3,294,000 


May, 












511,000 


1,312,000 


2,954,000 


743,000 


351,000 


1,745,000 


June, 












66,000 


316,000 


753,000 


303,000 


1,987,000 


419,000 


July, 












19,000 


—18,000 


306,000 


66,000 


445,000 


62,000 


August, . 












—35,000 


—34,000 


424,000 


135,000 


307,000 


170,000 


September, 












94,000 


65,000 


305,000 


178,000 


130,000 


397,000 


October, . 












115,000 


186,000 


412,000 


506,000 


492,000 


191,000 


November, 












304,000 


663,000 


474,000 


444,000 


363,000 


289,000 


December, 












220,000 


1,096,000 


2,695,000 


1,779,000 


582,000 


269,000 


Average for whole year, 


973,000 


1,082,000 


1,342,000 


1,140,000 


1,190,000 


931,000 


Average for driest six months. 


93,000 


194,000 


445,000 


271,000 


388,000 


228,000 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



261 



Yield of the Sudbury River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile — • 

Concluded. 



Mo 


VTH. 1905. 


1906. 1907. 


1908. 


1909. 


1910. 


January, . 




1,410,000 


1,128,000 


1,351,000 


1,925,000 


392,000 


1,490,000 


February, 




« 




330,000 


1,011,000 


624,000 


1,536,000 


2,286,000 


1,849,000 


March, 








2,497,000 


2,409,000 


1,658,000 


2,257,000 


1,734,000 


1,954J)00 


April, 










1,643,000 


1,949,000 


1,607,000 


1,117,000 


1,721,000 


667,000 


May, 










297,000 


1,059,000 


888,000 


1,046,000 


1,004,000 


277,000 


June, 










467,000 


707,000 


761,000 


194,000 


239,000 


516,000 


July, 










177,000 


398,000 


9,000 


—14,000 


-121,000 


—102,000 


August, . 










114,000 


180,000 


—104,000 


102,000 


-^5,000 


—73,000 


September, 










1,246,000 


19,000 


541,000 


—82,000 


149,000 


5,000 


October, . 










158,000 


301,000 


741,000 


47,000 


—51,000 


—51,000 


November, 










279,000 


483,000 


1,998,000 


71,000 


82,000 


176,000 


December, 




le year, 






887,000 


659,000 


2,032,000 


136,000 


263,000 


221,000 


Average for who 


795,000 


860,000 


1,010,000 


694,000 


625,000 


570,000 


Average for driest six months, 


403,000 


341,000 


471,000 


44,000 


40,00 


29,000 



Month. 



1911. 



1912. 



Mean for 

Thirty-eight 

Years, 

1875-1912. 



January, 

February, ' 

March 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November, 

December, 

Average for whole year, . 

Average for driest six months, 



519,000 


728,000 


1,196,000 


700,000 


1,197,000 


1,721,000 


1,144,000 


3,092,000 


2,799,000 


1,426,000 


2,235,000 


1,996,000 


318,000 


1,447,000 


1,068,000 


213,000 


148,000 


498,000 


—14,000 


—77,000 


159,000 


20,000 


—29,000 


234,000 


76,000 


—28,000 


239,000 


296,000 


—14,000 


437,000 


593,000 


165,000 


787,000 


908,000 


494,000 


1,002,000 


514,000 


779,000 


1,007,000 


152,000 


26,000 


390,000 



Note. — The recorded j'ields, subsequent to the year 1897, are less accurate than those for previous 
years, due to unavoidable inaccuracies in the measurement of the quantity of water received from the 
Wachusett Reservoir. 

The average yield of the Sudbury Eiver for each of the past thirty- 
eight years, together with the average rainfall on the watershed, the aver- 
age rainfall collected and the average per cent, collected, is shown upon 
the diagrams on the following page. 



2G2 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



ITS 



/.SO 



/.2S 



/.oo = 



oys 



aso 



Sudbury R/VER I^tershed 

SUMM/tfiV OF ST/JT/ST/CS 

1875 /3IZ 

^k'erade Y7e/d /n M/7//on ^a/s.perefayper Sf.M//e. 



/.7S 




c.so 



/^era^e Ra/nfa// and JRaJofa// co//e c/-eef/n /ncfje^ 




60 



so 



40 



30 



/fyera^e per cen/- of/fa/n/'a// co//ec/-ecf 




11 



S 



^ 



1 



I 



^ 
^ 



'170 



m 



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ii 



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SO vj 



I 



30 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



263 



Nashua River. 

The average flow of the South Branch of the Nashua Eiver above Clin- 
ton during the year 1912 was 891,000 gallons per day per square mile, 
or 81 per cent, of the normal flow for the past sixteen years. The flow 
was in excess of the normal in the months of March, April and May, but 
less than the normal in the other nine months of the year. The greatest 
excess occurred in the month of May, and the greatest deficiency in the 
months of February, June and December. The average flow for the 
driest six months, June to November, inclusive, was 210,000 gallons per 
day per square mile, or 39 per cent, of the normal flow for such a period 
during the past sixteen years. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of the Nashua Eiver 
during each month of the year 1912 and the normal flow of that stream 
as deduced from observations during sixteen years, from 1897 to 1912, 
inclusive, the following table has been prepared. The area of the water- 
shed of the Nashua Eiver above the point of measurement was 119 square 
miles from 1897 to 1907, inclusive, and 118.19 square miles since the 
latter year. 

Table showing the Average Monthly Flow of the South Branch of the Nashua River 
for the Year 1912, in Cubic Feet 'per Second per Square Mile of Drainage 
Area, and in Million Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drainage Area; 
also. Departure from the Normal Flow. 









Normal Flow. 


Actual Flow in 1912. 


Excess or Deficiency. 


Month. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 
per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


Januarj', .... 


1.833 


1.185 


1.208 


0.780 


—0.625 


—0.405 


February, . 






2.163 


1.398 


1.434 


0.927 


—0.729 


—04.71 


March, 






4.173 


2.699 


4.380 


2.831 


+0.207 


+0.132 


April, . 






3.341 


2.159 


3.530 


2.281 


+0.189 


+0.122 


May, . 






1.843 


1.191 


2.780 


1.797 


+0.937 


+0.606 


June, . 






1.206 


0.780 


0.512 


0.331 


—0.694 


—0.449 


July, . 






0.616 


0.398 


0.208 


0.135 


—0.408 


—0.263 


August, 






0.621 


0.402 


0.194 


0.125 


—0.427 


—0.277 


September, 






0.569 


0.368 


0.13S 


0.089 


—0.431 


—0.279 


October, 






0.809 


0.523 


0.224 


0.145 


— 0.5S5 


—0.378 


November, 






1.251 


0.809 


0.683 


0.442 


—0.568 


—0.367 


December, . 






1.904 


1.230 


1.227 


0.793 


—0.677 


-0.437 


Average for -n 


•hole 


year. 


1.692 


1.094 


1.378 


0.891 


—0.314 


—0.203 



264 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



In the annual report of the State Board of Health for the j^ear 1911 
(pages 265 to 267) a table was presented giving the record of the rain- 
fall upon the ISTashua Eiver watershed and the yield expressed in inches 
in depth upon the watershed (inches of rainfall collected) for fifteen 
years^ from 1897 to 1911, inclusive. A corresponding record for the year 
1912, together with an average for the entire period of sixteen years, is 
given in the following table : — 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Nashua River Watershed. 













For 


THE Year 1912. 


Mean for Sixteen 
1897-1912. 


Years, 


Month. 
















Rainfall. 


Rainfall 


Per Cent. 


Rainfall. 


Rainfall 


Per Cent. 




collected. 


collected. 


collected. 


collected. 


January, .... 


2.57 


1.392 


54.2 


3.67 


2.113 


57.6 


February, 










2.42 


1.547 


63.8 


3.81 


2.267 


59.6 


March, 










5.69 


5.050 


88.8 


4.31 


4.815 


111.7 


April, . 










4.06 


3.938 


97.0 


3.87 


3.727 


96.2 


May, . 










5.76 


3.206 


55.7 


3.46 


2.125 


61.3 


June, . 










0.48 


0.571 


119.6 


3.82 


1.346 


35,3 


July, . 










2.65 


0.240 


9.1 


4.02 


0.710 


17.7 


August, 










2.89 


0.224 


7.8 


4.22 


0.716 


17.0 


September, 










2.17 


0.154 


7.1 


3,77 


0.635 


16.9 


October, 










2.53 


0.258 


10.2 


3.40 


0.933 


27.4 


November, 










4.02 


0.762 


18.9 


3.48 


1.396 


40.1 


December, 










4.95 


1.414 


28.5 


4.30 


2.195 


51.0 


Totals ai 


id av 


erage 


!3. 




40.19 


18.756 


46.7 


46.13 


22.978 


49.8 



The following table gives a record of the yield of the Nashua Eiver 
watershed for each of the past sixteen years, the flow being expressed in 
gallons per day per square mile of watershed : — 



Yield of the Nashua River Watershed. 


in Gallons per Day per 


Square Mile.^ 


Month. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 1900. 


1901. 1902. 


January, 


796,000 


1,563,000 


2,092,000 


796,000 


519,000 


1,676,000 


February, 












931,000 


1,635,000 


1,090,000 


4,054,000 


356,000 


1,401,000 


March, 












2,760,000 


3,088,000 


2,776,000 


3,722,000 


2,718,000 


3,992,000 


April, 












1,632,000 


2,027,000 


3,376,000 


1,580,000 


4,986,000 


2,159,000 


May, 












1,163,000 


1,390,000 


862,000 


1,382,000 


2,729,000 


1,031,000 


June, 












1,181,000 


828,000 


561,000 


578,000 


985,000 


410,000 


July, 












1,442,000 


333,000 


354,000 


217,000 


477,000 


292,000 


August, . 












896,000 


1,325,000 


236,000 


197,000 


512,000 


297,000 


September, 












380,000 


676,000 


250,000 


127,000 


320,000 


241,000 


October, . 












243,000 


1,509,000 


245,000 


282,000 


647,000 


950,000 


November, 












1,283,000 


2,170,000 


430,000 


875,000 


517,000 


035,000 


December, 












2,275,000 


2,061,000 


359,000 


1,570,000 


3,234,000 


1,848,000 


Average for whole year, . 


1,253,000 


1,551,000 


1,051,000 


1,264,000 


1,507,000 


1,248,000 


Average for driest six months, 


886,000 


1,013,000 


312,000 


377,000 


576,000 


471,000 



1 The area of the watershed used in making up these records included water surfaces amounting to 
2.2 per cent, of the whole area from 1897 to 1902, inclusive, to 2.4 per cent, in 1903, to 3.6 per cent, in 
1904, to 4.1 per cent, in 1905, to 5.1 per cent, in 1906, to 6 per cent, in 1907, and to 7 per cent, in and after 
1908. 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



265 



Yield of the Nashua River Watershed in Gallons per Day per Square Mile — 

Concluded. 



Month. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


1908. 


January, 


1,265,000 


659,000 


1,266,000 


1,132,000 


1,458,000 


1,738,000 


February, 












2,133,000 


927,000 


452,000 


1,027,000 


692,000 


1,736,000 


March, 












3,423,000 


3,008,000 


3,004,000 


1,860,000 


1,697,000 


2,192,000 


April, 


• 










2,238,000 


2,984,000 


1,617,000 


2,109,000 


1,436,000 


1,269,000 


May, 












569,000 


1,498,000 


445,000 


1,533,000 


965,000 


1,415,000 


June, 












2,131,000 


762,000 


542,000 


1,184,000 


773,000 


403,000 


July, 












624,000 


497,000 


365,000 


728,000 


335,000 


220,000 


August, . 












474,000 


355,000 


321,000 


591,000 


87,000 


443,000 


September, 












375,000 


494,000 


1,228,000 


277,000 


810,000 


88,000 


October, . 












689,000 


347,000 


367,000 


530,000 


1,382,000 


1.58,000 


November, 












634,000 


343,000 


442,000 


749,000 


2,540,000 


125,000 


December, 












954,000 


440,000 


1,018,000 


794,000 


1,961,000 


387,000 


Average for whole year, 


1,285,000 


1,025,000 


926,000 


1,043,000 


1,180,000 


847,000 


Average for driest six months. 


626,000 


413,000 


541,000 


613,000 


725,000 


238,000 



Month. 


1909. 


1910. 


1911. 


1912. 


Mean for 

Sixteen 

Years, 

1897-1912. 


Januarj-, . 




592,000 


1,846,000 


773,000 


780,000 


1,185,000 


February, 












2,556,000 


1,845,000 


625,000 


927,000 


1,398,000 


March, 












2,129,000 


2,639,000 


1,339,000 


2,831,000 


2,699,000 


April, 












2,422,000 


1,034,000 


1,393,000 


2,281,000 


2,159,000 


May, 












1,212,000 


608,000 


461,000 


1,797,000 


1,191,000 


June, 












632,000 


824,000 


351,000 


331,000 


780,000 


July, 












233,000 


62,000 


57,000 


135,000 


398,000 


August, 












193,000 


186,000 


188,000 


125,000 


402,000 


September, 












208,000 


145,000 


181,000 


89,000 


368,000 


October, . 












90,000 


68,000 


718,000 


145,000 


523,000 


November, 












303,000 


354,000 


1,035,000 


442,000 


809,000 


December, 












537,000 


391,000 


1,067,000 


793,000 


1,230,000 


Average for whole year. 


918,000 


828,000 


682,000 


891,000 


1,094,000 


Average for driest six months. 




271,000 


201,000 


327,000 


210,000 


545,000 



The average yield of the Nashua Eiver for the past sixteen years, to- 
gether with the average rainfall on the watershed, the average rainfall 
collected and the average per cent, collected, is shown upon the diagrams 
on the following page. 



266 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Nashua Rivi:r Wj^tershed 

Summary^ of Statistics 
lesr—isia 

jjveragm: yield inmillioatgals. 
p£i^ djiyper sq. mile. 




o.so 



AVERAGE /^AINEALL 
AUD RAINFALL COLLECTED 




h eo 

Hi 

8 SO 



AVERAGE PER CENT OF 
RAINFALL COLLECTED 



B^ 



w 40 

?; 3o 






BS 



^Ls 




5 



jm 



■ ^ 




5 



60 
SO 
40 
30 



No. 34.] WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 267 



Merrimack River. 

The flow of the Merrimack Eiver has been measured for many years at 
Lawrence, above which place the river has a total watershed area of 
4,663 square miles, which includes 118 square miles on the South Branch 
of the Nashua Eiver, 75 square miles on the Sudbury Eiver and 18 
square miles tributary to Lake Cochituate, or a combined area of 211 
square miles from which water is drawn at the present time for the sup- 
ply of the Metropolitan Water District. The flow as measured at Law- 
rence includes the water wasted from these three watersheds, which, in 
the wet months of the year is very considerable, but which becomes very 
small in the dry months. Eecords of the quantity of water wasted have 
been kept by the Boston Water Board and by the Metropolitan Water 
Board, and these quantities have been deducted from the flow as meas- 
ured at Lawrence. The area of the three watersheds has also been de- 
ducted from the watershed area at Lawrence, so that the net area was 
4,570 square miles up to 1898, at which time the Nashua Eiver was 
diverted, 4,451 square miles from March 1, 1898, to Jan. 1, 1908, and 
4,452 square miles since the latter date. 

The average flow of the Merrimack Eiver during the year 1912 was 
89 per cent, of the normal flow for the past twenty-five years for which 
records are available, and was greater than in any other year since 1907. 
The flow was in excess of the normal in the months of April and June, 
but less than the normal in the other ten months of the year. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of the Merrimack Eiver 
during each month of the year 1912 and the normal flow of that stream 
as deduced from observations during twenty-five years, from 1888 to 
1912, inclusive, the following table has been prepared : — 



26S 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Table showing the Average Monthly Flow of the Merrimack River for the Year 1912 
in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of Drainage Area; also, the De- 
parture from the Normal. 



Month. 



Normal 

Flow. 

Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 



Actual Flow 
in 1912. 

Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 



Excess or 
Deficiency. 

Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 



January, . 
February, . 
March, 
April, 
May, . 
June, . 
July, . 
August, 
September, 
October, 
November, 
December, 



Average for whole year, 



1.425 



1.393 
2.990 
3.787 
2.310 
1 285 
0.707 
0.645 
0.701 
962 
1.249 
1.352 



0.802 
0.706 
2.773 
4.323 
2.297 
1.304 
0.412 
0.499 
0.485 
0.733 
1.239 
1.069 



1.567 



1.387 



—0.623 
—0.687 
—0.217 
+0.536 
—0.013 
+0.019 
—0.295 
—0.146 
—0.216 
—0.229 
-0.010 
—0.283 



—0.180 



The following table gives the record of the net flow of the Merrimack 
Eiver for each of the past twenty-five years, the flow being expressed in 
cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area : — 



Flow of the Merrimack River at Lawrence in Cubic Feet per Second per Square 

Mile of Drainage Area. 



Month. 


1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


January, 


2.133 


2.905 


1.931 


3.510 


2.492 


0.645 


0.869 


February, . 












2.759 


1.548 


2 233 


3.168 


1.247 


1.081 


1.121 


March, 












3.000 


2.651 


3.697 


5.720 


1.772 


2 371 


3.115 


April, 












6.010 


2.675 


4.122 


5.165 


1.966 


3.841 


2.401 


May, . 












5.137 


1.653 


3.422 


1.734 


2.525 


4.910 


1.541 


June, . 












1.411 


1.336 


1.877 


1.077 


1.435 


1.132 


1.387 


July, . 












0.533 


0.867 


0.727 


0.673 


1.134 


0.546 


0.498 


August, 












0.577 


1.243 


0.770 


0.541 


1.123 


0.564 


0.370 


September, 












1.694 


0.795 


2.017 


0.572 


0.971 


0.599 


0.400 


October, 












2.945 


1.417 


2.973 


0.459 


0.487 


0.898 


0.493 


November, 












3.218 


2. 208 


2.103 


0.551 


1.638 


0.851 


0.772 


December, 












3.562 


3.153 


1.573 


0.959 


1.005 


1.074 


0.661 


Average for whole year. 


2.748 


1.871 


2.287 


2.011 


1.483 


1.543 


1.136 


Average for driest six months, 




1.730 


1.219 


1.745 


0.626 


1.060 


0.755 


0.532 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



269 



Flow of the Merrimack River at Lawrence in Cubic Feet per Second per Sqiiare 

Mile of Drainage Area — Continued. 



Month. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


January 


0.626 


1.406 


0.745 


1.613 


1.657 


0.748 


0.753 


February, 












0.506 


1.941 


1.000 


1.638 


1.032 


3.520 


0.546 


March, 












1.258 


4.509 


2.294 


4.043 


2.479 


3.441 


2.064 


April, 












4.290 


3.967 


3.839 


3.317 


5.758 


4.088 


5.568 


May, . 












1.360 


0.971 


2.209 


2.400 


2.121 


2.185 


3.335 


June, . 












0.664 


0.769 


2.769 


1.417 


0.667 


0.878 


1.657 


July, . 












0.565 


0.446 


2.359 


0.585 


0.556 


0.407 


0.646 


August, 












0.477 


0.441 


1.105 


0.776 


0.468 


0.420 


0.989 


September, 










0.366 


0.683 


0.603 


0.636 


0.447 


0.338 


0.588 


October, 










0.863 


1.134 


0.4S2 


1.371 


0.401 


0.564 


0.913 


November, 










2.046 


1.454 


1.274 


2.095 


0.625 


1.304 


0.670 


December, 










2.025 


0.949 


2.262 


1.871 


0.550 


1.498 


2.053 


Average for whole year. 


1.254 


1.556 


1.745 


1.820 


1.396 


1.616 


1.648 


Average for driest six months, . 


0.716 


0.741 


1.347 


1.146 


0.508 


0.652 


0.911 



Month. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


1908. 


January 


2.268 


1.684 


0.584 


0.855 


1.696 


1.411 


1.946 


February, 












1.195 


1.979 


0.644 


0.503 


1.133 


0.667 


1.648 


March, 






* 






6.012 


6.032 


2.719 


2.350 


1.678 


1.728 


2.499 


April, 












3.801 


3.376 


4.495 


3.616 


3.591 


2.924 


2.652 


May, . 












2.256 


0.979 


3.844 


1.169 


2.269 


2.034 


2.570 


June, . 












1.187 


2.224 


1.032 


0.931 


2.262 


1.190 


0.932 


July, . 












0.971 


1.032 


0.624 


0.600 


1.106 


0.749 


0.522 


August, 












0.844 


0.734 


0.573 


0.606 


0.741 


0.431 


0.668 


September, 










0.774 


0.530 


0.653 


1.706 


0.422 


0.664 


0.379 


October, 










1.600 


0.823 


0.816 


0.727 


0.549 


1.433 


0.330 


November, 










1.285 


0.665 


0.604 


0.760 


0.707 


2.914 


0.354 


December, 










1.756 


0.825 


0.408 


1.274 


0.567 


2.177 


0.420 


Average for whole year. 


1.996 


1.740 


1.416 


1.258 


1.39.3 


1.527 


1.243 


Average for driest six months, . 


1.110 


0.768 


0.613 


0.888 


0.682 


1.083 


0.445 



270 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Flow of the Merrimack River at Lawrence in Cubic Feet per Second per Square 

Mile of Drainage Area — Concluded. 



Month. 


1909. 


1910. 


1911. 


1912. 


Mean for 

Twenty-five 

Years, 

1888-1912. 


Januarj^ 


0.677 


1.043 


0.624 


0.802 


1.425 


February, 












1.563 


0.973 


0.482 


0.706 


1,393 


March, 












1.695 


3.611 


1.248 


2.773 


2.990 


April, 












3.404 


2.445 


3.045 


4.323 


3.787 


May, 












1.951 


1.509 


1.360 


2.297 


2.310 


June, 












0.948 


1.077 


0.551 


1.304 


1.285 


July, 












0.447 


0.398 


0.266 


0.412 


0.707 


August, . 












0.376 


0.458 


0.328 


0.499 


0.645 


September, 












0.369 


0.397 


0.435 


0.485 


0.701 


October, . 












0.422 


0.300 


0.918 


0.733 


0.962 


November, 












0.388 


0.457 


1.049 


1.239 


1.249 


December, 












0.504 


0.335 


1.284 


1.069 


1.352 


Average for whole year. 


1.062 


1.084 


0.966 


1.387 


1.567 


Average for driest six months. 




0.209 


0.195 


0.296 


0.370 


0.462 



The net flow of the Merrimack River at Lawrence for each of the past 
twenty-five years is shown upon the following diagram : — 



FLOW OF Merrimack River AT Lawrenge 
/aes — 19/ z 



Cubic ^/:P<sfT ^eo.PerS(^usreM//e 




SMm 



3.00 



2S0 



2.00 



/.SO 




/.OO 



O.SO 



No. 34.] 



WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS. 



271 



Sudbury, Nashua and Merrimack Rivers. 

The following table shows the weekly fluctuation during 1912 in the 
flow of the three streams just described, — namely, the Sudbury Eiver at 
Framingham, the South Branch of the Nashua Eiver above Clinton and 
the Merrimack Eiver at Lawrence. The flow of these streams, particu- 
larly that of the Sudbury and of the South Branch of the Nashua Eiver, 
serves to indicate the flow of other streams in eastern Massachusetts. 
The area of the Sudbury Eiver watershed is 75.2 square miles and of the 
South Branch of the Nashua Eiver 118.19 square miles. The net water- 
shed area of the Merrimack Eiver is 4,452 square miles. 



Table showing the Average Weekly Flow of the Sudbury, South Branch of the 
Nashua and Merrimack Rivers for the Year 1912 in Cubic Feet per Second 
per Square Mile of Drainage Area. 





Flow in Cubic Feet per 




Flow in Cubic Feet per 




Second 


PER SqUA 


re Mile. 


Week ending 


Second 


PER Square Mile. 


Week ending 




South 
Branch 






South 
Branch 




Sunday. 


Sudbury 


Merri- 
mack 
River. 


Sunday. 


Sudbury 


Merri- 
mack 
River. 




River. 


Nashua 
River. 




River. 


Nashua 
River. 


Jan. 7, 


1.647 


0,992 


0.930 


July 7, 


—0.237 


0.020 


0.392 


14. 


1.137 


1.110 


0.701 


14. 


—0.225 


0.147 


0.359 


21. 


1.589 


1.548 


0.716 


21. 


—0.100 


0.611 


0.390 


28. 


1.009 


1.195 


0.858 


28. 


—0.073 


—0.044 


0.469 


Feb. 4. 


0.539 


0.925 


0.662 


Aug. 4. 


—0.196 


0.326 


415 


11, 


0.628 


0.564 


0.613 


11. 


—0 080 


0.171 


0.476 


18. 


0.449 


0.622 


0.573 


18, 


0.062 


0.471 


0.647 


25. 


3.720 


2.692 


0.790 


25. 


0.208 


0.185 


0.473 


Mar. 3, 


3.868 


2.047 


0.943 


Sept. 1. 


—0.571 


—0.055 


0.423 


10. 


1 421 


1.372 


0.734 


8, 


0.165 


0.169 


0.438 


17. 


10 351 


8.712 


2.816 


15. 


—0.273 


0.208 


0.453 


24. 


5.028 


3.665 


4.975 


22. 


0.014 


0.088 


0.510 


31. 


5.631 


5.247 


3.450 


29. 


—0.194 


0.090 


0.591 


Apr. 7. 


5.479 


5.284 


4.882 


Oct. 6, 


—0.811 


0.002 


471 


14. 


3.665 


2.936 


4.955 


13, 


0.002 


083 


0.422 


21. 


3.388 


3.892 


4.393 


20, 


—0. 174 


0.011 


0.470 


28, . . 


2.860 


2.340 


3.538 


27. 


0.145 


0.739 


1.170 


May 5, 


2.171 


1.816 


2.125 


Nov. 3, 


0.718 


0.510 


1.129 


12. 


2.476 


3.681 


2 154 


10, 


0.358 


1.013 


1.448 


19. 


3.840 


3.075 


2.564 


17, 


0.336 


0.690 


1.543 


26, 


2.345 


2.569 


2.644 


24. . . 


1.264 


0.455 


1.076 


June 2, 


1.628 


2 392 


2.404 


Dec. 1. 


-0.870 


0.473 


1.000 


9, 


1.113 


0.889 


2.286 


8, 


3.073 


1.232 


1.272 


16, 


-0. 107 


0.408 


1.043 


15, 


—2.525 


0.448 


1.076 


23, 


—0.142 


0.258 


0.741 


22, 


0.633 


0.920 


1 016 


30, 


0.281 


0.094 


0.558 


29, 


1.134 


1.334 


0.872 



REPOKT 



OF THE 



LAWRENCE EXPERIMENT STATION 



1912. 



[273] 



Experiments upon the Purification of Sewage and 
Water at the Lawrence Experiment Station.' 



By H. W. Clark and Stephen DeM. Gage. 



The following report summarizes the results of the work of the Law- 
rence Experiment Station during the year ending Nov. 30, 1912. 

Studies upon the purification of sewage and manufactural wastes have 
included the daily operation of five different systems of preliminary treat- 
ments for the removal of matters in suspension, of eleven intermittent 
sand filters, of five trickling filters, of nine contact filters, of four sec- 
ondary filters and of thirteen filters used for special studies. Studies as to 
the relative efficiency and permanency of the various types of sewage fil- 
ters when operated by different methods and with different sewages were 
continued. These studies as to permanency included the continuous 
observation of intermittent sand filters which have been in continuous 
operation for about twenty-five years; of trickling and contact filters in 
continuous operation for thirteen and eleven years, respectively; also of 
other filters operated for periods of shorter duration. Special investiga- 
tions are now in progress to determine the effect in contact filtration 
work of differing methods of applying the sewage ; of the effect produced 
by increasing the rate of such filters by filling them with sewage a num- 
ber of times each day; and of the amount of purification accomplished 
when the sewage is held within the filter for varying periods. A system 
of double contact filtration followed by sedimentation and sand filtration 
has also been started during the year. Furthermore, investigations have 
been made to determine what increase in the rate of operation of trickling 
filters is possible when the suspended matters of the sewage have been 
very thoroughly removed by chemical precipitation. Moreover, further 
studies as to the final treatment of effluents from trickling filters by vari- 
ous forms of sedimentation tanks and sand filtration are now in progress. 

1 The work has been carried on under the general supervision of Hiram F. Mills, A.M.. C.E.. member 
of the State Board of Health, with Mr. H. W. Clark, chemist to the Board, in direct charge. Mr. Stephen 
DeM Gage, biologist, and Mr. George O. Adams, chemist, are the principal assistants at the station. 
A full account of the work done at the Lawrence Experiment Station during the years 1888 and 1889 is 
contained in a special report of the State Board of Health upon the purification of sewage and water 
(18901 A similar account for the years 1890 and 1891 is contained in the twenty-third annual report of the 
Board for 1891. Since 1891 the results have been published yearly in the annual reports, and a review 
of all work at Lawrence upon sewage purification up to and including the year 1908 was published in 
the report of the Board for that year. 



276 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Practically all sewage and manufactural waste, either in a raw state 
or after having been subjected to some form of clarification or purification, 
ultimately finds its way into some body of water, and during the year an 
extended study was made in order to determine the capacity of water 
to dispose of sewage and sewage effluents of different degrees of purifi- 
cation; also to ascertain to what extent such methods of disposal may 
affect fish life. In these studies the effect in varying proportions of dif- 
ferent kinds of raw and purified sewages and manufactural wastes upon 
the life of several kinds of fish has been determined; also the oxygen 
requirements of these fish. Studies upon aeration of sewage as an aid 
to its subsequent filtration have been made, and notable increases of 
filter rates have been obtained by this preliminary aeration. 

The use of deep tanks for sludge disposal has been investigated further, 
and much information has been obtained as regards the efficiency of such 
tanks in decomposing, solidifying and rendering more or less odorless 
sludge from sewages of differing character. 

The investigations upon the purification of water have included the 
operation and study of nine different water filters, six of the type gen- 
erally known as slow sand filters, one rapid filter with the use of ferric 
sulphate as a coagulant, one secondary filter and one upward-flow rough- 
ing filter. 

Special attention has been given to the effect of operating sand filters 
at widely different rates, not only as affecting their bacterial efficiency 
but also the amount of surface treatment necessary in order to maintain 
these rates. The studies started last year, upon the clarification of water 
by upward filtration through coarse material followed by filtration at a 
high rate through a secondary sand filter have been continued, and much 
has been learned regarding the efficiency and availability of such a proc- 
ess of purification. The work of the water filters of the city of Law- 
rence has been followed as in former years. Moreover, an investigation 
concerning the hygiene of indoor swimming pools has been made, and a 
paper presenting the results of this study will be found further on in 
this report. 

As in recent years, all of the bacterial work and much special chemical 
work of the department of water supply and sewerage of the Board has 
been carried on at the experiment station, a large number of chemical 
and bacterial analyses having been made of samples of sewage, manu- 
factural wastes, water and ice. In addition, many samples of shellfish 
have been examined bacteriologically, and much study has been given 
to the extent of pollution obtaining at certain shellfish gathering gi-ounds, 
especial attention being paid to the dangers incident to the eating of 
shellfish gathered from polluted sources but cooked before consumption. 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



277 



Character of the Sewage used in the Experiments. 

The sewage used at the experiment station is pumped through a 2%- 
inch pipe about 4,400 feet long, from the Lawrence Street sewer which 
drains the streets, houses and stores of the most densely populated sec- 
tion of the city of Lawrence. The inlet to this pipe is located above the 
entrance of sewage from any of the large mills, and is provided with a 
strainer with perforations about % of an inch in diameter, by which 
paper, rags, etc., are largely strained out. As received at the station the 
sewage is a strong domestic sewage in which the suspended matters have 
been quite thoroughly disintegrated during their passage through the 
pipe. The sewage used in the experiments at Andover is the sewage of a 
residential town containing little or no manufactural wastes. It is col- 
lected by a system of sewers from which street washings and surface water 
are partially excluded, and into which only a relatively small proportion 
of ground water enters. After passing through a coarse bar screen it is 
brought to the filtration area through a long, inverted siphon. The sew- 
age as it reaches the filtration area is a strong domestic sewage in which 
at times more or less putrefactive action has occurred. 

" Lawrence Street sewage " is the average of samples collected weekly 
from the sewer near the point where the sewage enters the pipe through 
which it is drawn to the experiment station ; " regular station sewage " 
is the average of samples collected four times each day of the sewage as 
it reaches the experiment station ; " sewage applied to Filters Nos. 1, 6 
and 9A " is the average of daily samples of all the sewage applied to the 
large intermittent filters situated out of doors ; " Andover regular sew- 
age " is the average of weekly samples of the town sewage before it enters 
the settling tank at the Andover filtration area. 

The average analyses of the various representative samples of sewage 
collected during the year are shown in the following table : — 



Lawrence Street Sewage. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 





-f 


Ammonia. 


KjELDAHL 

Nitrogen. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


o 
E 


3 


s 




ALBUMINOID. 


3 

o 


6 £ 

SI? 






d 




d 








C 


p 


IB 






3 




3 


6 

a 


r?3 




8 

a 


'u. -^ 


a 

g 


6 


3 

o 
H 


O 

a 


"3 
..J 


O 
C 




t 

is 




o 




63 


1.99 


.66 


.43 


2.26 


1.65 


20.12 


.06 


0.0056 


6.49 


2,109,600 



278 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Regular Station Sewage. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



^ 


Ammonia. 


KjELDAHL 


o 


Nitrogen 


Oxygen consumed. 


bic 




1 


ALBUMINOID. 


Nitrogen. 


AS 


o 


a 


n 
^ 


d 
.o 

3 

"3 

CO 

d 

h-t 




1 

& 

a 


1 

-t-> 


1 




- 


4.00 


.57 


.30 


1.08 


0.58 


13.82 


- 


- 


4.01 


2,665,400 



Sewage applied to Filters Nos. 1, 6 and 9 A. 



60 



4.12 



.50 



0.98 



13.41 



Andover Sewage. 



5.91 1.13 



.49 



2.46 



1.08 



8.01 



3.74 



5.72 



4,901,200 



1 April to November, inclusive. 

Preliminary Treatments for the Clarification of Sewage. 

The studies upon the clarification of sewage by sedimentation in tanks 
and in a tank filled with layers of slate, by straining through a layer of 
anthracite coal, and by chemical precipitation with sulphate of alumina, 
have been continued during 1912, and studies have been made upon the 
clarification of sewage by precipitation with copperas. 



Sedimentation in Open TanTcs. 

The setthng tank installed in 1906 for the clarification of sewage is a 
cylindrical tank with a bottom sloping at an angle of 60°, into which the 
sewage enters near the bottom and rises slowly to an outlet near the top, 
the period of sedimentation of the sewage being about two hours and its 
vertical velocity about 1 inch per minute. About 1,000 gallons of sewage 
have been treated daily in this tank throughout the year. The average 
removal of suspended matter by this tank during the year has been about 
34 per cent., as shown by KJeldahl nitrogen in suspension, and about 71 
and 73 per cent., as shown by the total and organic solids in suspension, 
respectively. The total removal of organic matter has been about 25 per 
cent., as shown by the total KJeldahl nitrogen, and about 31 per cent., 
as shown by the total organic solids. 

The settling tank at the Andover filtration area has a capacity of about 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 279 

13,500 gallons, and the average time required for the sewage to pass 
through is approximately two hours. During the period from April to 
November, 1912, inclusive, during which samples were collected regularly, 
the total removal of nitrogenous matter averaged about 43 per cent., and 
the removal of nitrogenous matter in suspension averaged about 59 per 
cent. 

Sedimentation in Tanks filled with Layers of Slate. 
Tank No. 376, having a superficial area of %200 o^ an acre, was first 
put into operation on July 9, 1909, and contains 27 horizontal layers 
of roofing slate spaced % of an inch apart, separated by small concrete 
blocks, the exposed surface available for the deposition and destruction 
of sludge being about 314 square inches for each gallon of sewage held 
within the tank. This tank has been operated as a contact filter, being 
completely filled with sewage once each day, the sewage being allowed to 
stand quiescent in the tank one hour before being drawn off. The sludge, 
which is deposited in thin films on the slate layers, is allowed to remain 
in the tank for digestion. When the outlet of the tank is opened, usually 
a small amount of sludge comes away with the first portions of the efflu- 
ent. As regards construction and operation this tank is modeled after 
certain filters constructed of roofing slate, which filters were first oper- 
ated at the experiment station in 1901, and is similar to the slate beds 
which have since been constructed at a number of places in England. 
The average removal of suspended matter by this tank during the year 
was about 36 per cent., as shown by total solids in suspension, and about 
41 per cent., as shown by organic solids in suspension. The total re- 
moval of organic matter was about 30 per cent., as shown by total 
organic solids, and about 9 per cent., as shown by determinations of 
KJeldahl nitrogen. It has been explained in previous reports that 
although this tank is operated like a contact filter, the effect on the sew- 
age passing through the tank is in no way different from that taking place 
in open settling tanks. The process should, therefore, be considered as 
a clarification process only, so far as its effect on the sewage is con- 
cerned. The use of the slate layers, however, permits the deposition of 
the sludge in thin layers, in contact with the air, so that aerobic disinte- 
gration of the sludge is facilitated. At the end of the year the slate 
layers were removed and the amount of the deposit in the tank deter- 
mined. The deposit was dark gray to black in color, and varied in thick- 
ness from about % of an inch on the top slates to about 1 inch on the 
bottom slates. Large numbers of small, red worms were present in the 
sludge, especially in the lower layers. When the tank was dismantled no 
signs of fermentation were to be observed in the sludge deposited in thin 
layers upon the slates, but upon holding this sludge in bulk an active 



280 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

but odorless fermentation commenced within forty-eight hours. The 
average composition of the wet sludge after removal from the tank was 
as follows : — 

Per Cent. 

Water, 84.90 

Total nitrogen, 0.16 

Fats, 0.50 

Total organic matter (loss on ignition), 6.46 

Sulphur as sulphides, 0.09 

The amount of sludge in the tank was equivalent to about 354,000 
pounds per acre, or to about 594 pounds for each million gallons of sew- 
age passed through the tank. As previously stated, a certain amount of 
sludge comes away from this tank when the outlet is opened, and it has 
not been possible to obtain absolutely fair samples of the effluent at all 
times. For this reason any computation of the destruction of the de- 
posited sludge is open to grave errors. Assuming that the sampling was 
fair, the total amount of sludge found in the tank was only about 15 per 
cent, of the total amount of solids which had been removed from the 
sewage in its passage through the tank during its three and one-half years 
of operation, and the total amount of organic matter in the deposit was 
less than 5 per cent, of the total organic matter which had been removed 
from the sewage. 

Precipitation with Sulphate of Alumina. 
Throughout the year sewage was treated daily with sulphate of alu- 
mina in the proportion of 714 pounds per million gallons (5 grains per 
gallon), and allowed to stand for four hours before the clarified super- 
natant sewage was drawn off from the precipitated sludge. The average 
removal of suspended organic matters from the sewage by this process was 
about 67 per cent., as shown by determinations of loss on ignition, and 
about 52 per cent., as shown by Kjeldahl nitrogen determinations. The 
total removal of organic matters averaged about 39 per cent., as shown 
by loss on ignition, and 31 per cent., as shown by Kjeldahl nitrogen de- 
terminations. 

Precipitation with Ferrous Sulphate. 
From January 5 to the end of the year sewage was treated daily with 
ferrous sulphate and sufficient caustic soda to furnish the necessary alka- 
linity. The experiment was primarily designed to furnish for a special 
test a sludge containing a large proportion of iron, and somewhat larger 
amounts of ferrous sulphate were used than would have been considered 
necessary if clarification of the sewage had been the only object in view. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



281 



The amounts of ferrous sulphate used at different times varied from 
1,200 to 2,860 pounds per million gallons of sewage (8.4 to 20 grains 
per gallon), and the amounts of caustic soda varied from 710 to 1,700 
pounds per million gallons (5 to 12 grains per gallon), the average 
amounts being 1,820 pounds of ferrous sulphate and 1,085 pounds of 
caustic soda per million gallons (12.7 and 7.6 grains per gallon). The 
ferrous sulphate used was the form commercially known as sugar sul- 
phate of iron, containing about 65 per cent, available reS04. The action 
of soda is identical with that of lime in this reaction, soda being used 
in the experiments because of the greater ease of obtaining solutiras of 
uniform strength. In practice, Hme would serve the same purpose and 
would probably be used on account of its somewhat lower cost. 

As the chemicals were always added in excess of the amounts needed 
for clarification, the removal of suspended matters was very complete at 
all times. The average removal of organic matters in suspension was 
about 91 per cent., as shown by loss on ignition determinations, and about 
82 per cent., as shown by Kjeldahl nitrogen determinations. The total 
removal of suspended matters was about 90 per cent. 

Straining through Anthracite Coal. 

Strainer E, containing 12 inches in depth of buckwheat coal, was first 
put into operation on Feb. 1, 1901, and has been operated at a rate of 
1,000,000 gallons per acre daily throughout the year. On January 2, 
about 1 inch of material was removed from the surface of this strainer' 
and the surface was then raked to a depth of 1 inch. No other treatment 
of the surface was given during the year, and the removal of material 
on this one occasion was for the purpose of another experiment, as de- 
scribed later, and not because treatment of the surface of this strainer was 
needed at this time. The average removal of suspended matters by this 
strainer during the year was about 76 per cent., as shown by total solids, 
and the removal of organic matters in suspension was about 80 per cent., 
as shown by loss on ignition, and about 60 per cent., as shown by 
Kjeldahl nitrogen determinations. 

Strainers Nos. J^39 and UO. — Attention has been called in previous 
reports to the remarkable operating efficiency of Strainer E, which for 
over ten years effectively clarified sewage at rates of from 800,000 to 
1,000,000 gallons per acre daily, with practically no surface treatment. 
On January 10 two new strainers, each containing 12 inches in depth of 
buckwheat coal, were put into operation. One of these. No. 439, was 
constructed of coal taken from the surface of Strainer E, and the other 
of new coal of the same size. Both of these strainers were operated with 
regular sewage at a rate of 1,000,000 gallons per acre daily. Judging from 



k 



282 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



the analyses there was comparatively little difference in the efSuents 
from these two strainers, and neither produced the clarification accom- 
plished by Strainer E. In removal of Fuspended matters, the strainer 
constructed of new coal was slightly better than that constructed of old 
coal. The average removal of suspended matters as shown by total 
solids was 24 per cent, for Strainer No. 439 and 33 per cent, for Strainer 
No. 440. The removal of organic matter in suspension as shown by 
loss on ignition was 21 and 29 per cent., respectively, and the removal 
of nitrogenous matters in suspension was about 19 and 9 per cent., 
respectively. The amount of suspended matters removed from the sewage 
during the year by these two strainers, the amount of suspended matter 
(sludge) in the material at the beginning and at the end of the year, and 
the destruction of sludge are shown in the following table : — 





Grams per Cubic Foot of 
Material in — 




Strainer No. 
439. 


Strainer No. 
440. 


Suspended matter in material on Jan. 12, 1912 

Suspended matter removed from sewage, 

Suspended matter in material on Nov. 30, 1912, 

Suspended matter destroyed in strainer, 


9S0 
1,020 
1.470 

530 


1,180 
770 
410 



Comparative Efftciency of Various Clarification Processes. 

A great difference in the clarified sewage resulted from the different 

clarification processes, the most complete removal of suspended matters 

being obtained by the use of an excess of ferrous sulphate with caustic 

soda, and the least complete removal being obtained by sedimentation 

the tank filled with slate. The effluent from precipitation with 



m 



ferrous sulphate contained almost invariably less than 2.0 parts per 100,- 
000 of suspended organic matter, and at times contained as little as 0.2 
part per 100,000 of organic matters in suspension. As will be shown 
elsewhere in this report, with this very complete removal of suspended 
matters it was possible to increase materially the rates of filters oper- 
ated with such sewage without impairing their efficiency. Of the two 
different chemical precipitation processes used, the sulphate of alumina 
treatment was less effective than, that with iron, this result being due 
undoubtedly to the fact that the amounts of iron used were at all times 
much larger than those of alum. The coal strainer continued to produce 
a well-clarified effluent as in previous years, the average amount of sus- 
pended organic matters in the effluent being only 2.5 parts per 100,000, 



No. 3-i.j 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



283 



and at times less than 0.5 part per 100,000 being found. The removal 
of suspended matters from the Andover sewage by the large settling tank 
of the Andover sewage purification system was somewhat more complete 
than the removal of suspended matters from the Lawrence sewage by the 
settling tank at the experiment station. The sewages treated in these 
two tanks were quite different in character, however, the sewage entering 
the Andover tank being much stronger, and containing a much larger 
proportion of heavy suspended matter than that entering the tanlc at the 
experiment station, and these two facts should be taken. into considera- 
tion in comparing the work of the two tanks. As a means of clarifying 
sewage preparatory to its application to filters, the tank filled with slate 
was far from being a success. The smallest amount of suspended organic 
matters in the effluents from this tank at any time during the year was 
about 5.0 parts per 100,000, and at times the effluent contained over 
19.0 parts per 100,000 of organic matters in suspension. While a tank 
of this kind may have a certain value as a destroyer of the sludge which 
is deposited within it, it does not appear that as a part of the average 
sewage disposal system this value would compensate for the less effective 
clarification of the sewage, even if the higher first cost of construction 
and somewhat higher operating cost were not taken into consideration. 

The average analyses of the sewage before and after the various treat- 
ments and the effluents from the various strainers, follow : — 



Regular Station Sewage. 

(Parts per 100,000.) 



Ammonia. 


KjELDAHL 




Nitrogen 


T3 


o 






Nitrogen. 


AS 


3 




ALBUMINOID. 








s 


o 


i 


■i 


a 
2 
'^ 

3 

"5 
c 

H- 1 


"3 


d 
.3 

5 


a 

6 


1 


.1 


m 
C 

8 

a 
a 

6 


II 

ID a 

CQ 


4.00 


.57 


.30 


1.08 


0,58 


13 82 


- 


- 


4 01 


2.665,400 



3.81 



.43 



.25 



Settled Station Sewage. 



0.81 



.84 



13.99 



2.93 1,667,400 



Aiidover Settled Sewage. 



4.32 



.63 



.37 



1.40 



.84 



7.95 



3.10 



2,520,300 



284 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



4.29 



2.96 



2. 86 



3.41 



3.52 



Effluent from Slate Tank No. 376. 

(Parts per 100,000.) 















o 




Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl 
Nitrogen. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


-a 

a 

3 


3 

o 








ALBUMINOID. 












d 


• 


a 








a 




i 


3 
^ 


In Solutio 


"a 


O 

3 


.i 

O 


Nitrates. 


i 

't-> 


o 

a 
O 


eg 

II 

n 


3.98 


.57 


.31 


1,06 


- 


14.23 


.09 


.0015 


3.67 


1,544,600 



.40 



.16 



.41 



.45 



.45 



Sewage precipitated with Sulphate of Alumina. 



.26 



.75 



.51 



13.30 



Sewage precipitated with Ferrous Sidphate. 



.12 



.30 



.21 



13.15 



Effluent from Strainer E. 



.31 



.80 



.60 



13.35 



Effluent from Strainer No. 4-39. 



.25 



.84 



.49 



14.22 



Effluent from Strainer No. 440. 



.24 



.83 



.44 



14.34 



2.50 



1.05 



2.66 



2.82 



2.69 



1,818,100 



1,245,600 



Average Solids. 
Regular Sewage. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Unfiltered. 


FlLTEREP. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


65.8 


27.3 


38.5 


49.4 


14.6 


34.8 


16.4 


12.7 


3.7 



55.6 



Settled Station Sewage. 



18.9 



36.7 



50.9 



15.5 



35.4 



4.7 



3.4 



Effluent from Slate Tank No. 376. 



1.3 



62.1 



22.6 



39.5 



43. 9 



13.7 



35.2 



13.2 



8.9 



4.3 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



285 



Average Solids — Concluded. 

Sewage precipitated with Sulphate of Alumina. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


FLxed. Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


54.1 


• 16.8 


37.3 


48. 2 


12.6 


1 

35.6 


5.9 


4.2 


1.7 



Sewage precipitated with Ferrous Sulphate. 



67.0 



10.9 



56.1 



65.3 



9.7 



55.6 



1.7 



Effluent frotn Strainer E. 



1.2 



0.5 



53.8 



58.9 



18.2 



20.0 



35.6 



49.9 



15.7 



34.2 



3.9 



Effluent from Strainer No. 439. 



38.9 



50.8 



14.3 



36.5 



8.1 



2.5 



5.7 



1.4 



2.4 



57.7 



19.4 



Effluent from Strainer No. 44O. 



38.3 



50.4 



14.3 



36.1 



7.3 



5.1 



2.2 



Studies upon the Disposal of Sludge in Deep Tanks. — Tanks I, 
J, K, L^ M, N^ and P receiving Sludge of Varying Char- 
acter. 

The first suggestion in regard to the retention of sludge in compart- 
ments separated from the main settling or septic tank was made at tlie 
experiment station in 1899, and tanks constructed in line with this idea 
were operated there in that and the following years. From this early 
Lawrence work the Hampton tank of Travis and the so-called Imhoff 
tank have been developed. From the published data as regards the results 
of the Imhoff tank, it would appear that the sludge from tanks of this 
construction is, because of its physical composition, more easily disposed 
of than sludge from ordinary settling and septic tanlvs, and that it is in- 
variably odorless. 'WHiile it is true that sludge from any sewage may, 
under some conditions, become odorless by long-continued bacterial de- 
composition, whereby the organic and mineral matters are rendered 
humus-like in consistency, it has seemed possible that the lack of odor 
noted in the sludge from many Imhoff tanks is due rather to the char- 
acter of the sewage entering these tanks than to the methods of construe- 



k 



286 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

tion and operation of such tanks. Attention was called some years ago ^ 
to the fact that the sludge from the septic tanks at Birmingham, Eng., 
was odorless, and the theory was advanced that this characteristic was 
due chiefly to the large quantities of copper and iron salts entering this 
sewage, owing to the character of the main industries of the city of 
Birmingham. Eecently attention has been called again to this fact by 
the engineer of the sewage disposal works of Birmingham. Essen, Ger., 
where the Imhoff tank was first used, and the surrounding district are 
devoted to iron industries, and much iron must be present in the sewage. 

Studies upon this subject were begun at the experiment station early 
in 1912, five tanks 17 feet in depth being put into operation, each receiv- 
ing sludge from a different sewage or sludge to which iron had been 
applied. Into each of these tanks the sludge was introduced through a 
pipe reaching some distance below the surface. 

Sludge Tank I received the sludge from regular Lawrence sewage, be- 
ginning January 17 certain volumes of sludge being passed into the tank 
each week until the tank was practically full on April 5. After this 
date, sludge was applied in certain volumes each week, and samples for 
examination and analysis were taken from the bottom of the tank each 
month. In this way it is probable that every sample of sludge taken 
from the bottom of the tank had been held within it for from three to 
six months. For seven months the sludge drawn was always of a lighter 
color than that applied, somewhat granular in structure but with a very 
offensive odor. There was comparatively little gas present, and this 
appeared to be insoluble. It had not apparently come out of solution be- 
cause of decreased pressure, as described by Dr. Imhoff and others. Sub- 
sequently, a slight current of water was run into the bottom of the tank 
from time to time, and a corresponding amount siphoned from near the 
surface. In this way the sludge was stirred slightly, and soon after this 
treatment began all sludge drawn from the tank was odorless. It also 
was of a different texture and was easily drained. 

Sludge Tank J was operated in the same manner with sludge from 
regular Lawrence sewage, this sludge being precipitated, however, with 
copperas and sodium carbonate. The average amount of iron in the 
sludge passed into Tank J equaled 279.0 parts per 100,000, and this 
calculated to Fe02H2 is equal to 20.3 per cent, of the total solids pres- 
ent. The tank was filled slowly as described in the case of Tank I, the 
first samples of sludge being taken from the tank on April 5 ; after that 
date samples were taken each month for examination. The sludge enter- 
ing the tank was black and frequently had the odor of hydro-carbons, so 
noticeable when cast iron is dissolved in acid. On ignition a considerable 



1 H. W. Clark. Some Observations of Methods, Cost and Results of Sewage Purification Abroxd. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 287 

amount of SO2 was given off. One sample contained 60.5 parts per 
100,000 H2S, while the sludge from Tank I contained only 16.0 parts per 
100,000 HoS. The sludge drawn from the tank was always viscous and 
inoffensive, and after drying had a slight odor similar to that of stagnant 
pools. 

Sludge Tank K was put into operation on Feb. 14, 1912, and received 
sludge from a tannery. This sludge contained a large amount of chemi- 
cals used in the processes carried on at this tannery, but on entering the 
tank it was black and very offensive. The tank was operated in the same 
manner as those described above, and the sludge, taken once each month 
from the bottom of the tank, was entirely inoffensive, without odor and 
so compact that when placed upon sand in an irregular pile it would 
retain that form. N"o gas was noted coming from this sludge. 

Sludge Tank L was put into operation on March 22, 1912, and received 
a mixed sludge, about three-fourths of the mixture being regular sewage 
sludge as applied to Tank I and the remaining fourth being the sludge 
precipitated with iron applied to Tank J. The amount of iron in the 
sludge was 112.0 parts per 100,000, and this calculated to Fe02H2 
equaled 8 per cent, of the total solids in the sludge. This tank was oper- 
ated in the same way as those described previously, and the sludge drawn 
from the bottom of the tank from time to time was slightly offensive, but 
much less so than that from Tank I, which contained no iron. The 
color of the sludge was darker than that from Tank I, but not so black 
as that from Tank J. 

Sludge Tank M was started on May 3, 1912, with sludge from the set- 
tling tank at the Andover filtration area. It was operated in the same 
manner as the tanks previously described, and the first sludge was 
drawn from it on August 9. Both the sludge entering the tank and that 
taken from it were light colored, with exceedingly foul odors. After 
seven months' operation slaked lime was added to the accumulated sludge 
within the tank and a certain amount applied with the sludge entering the 
tank. This treatment modified the odor but did not render the sludge 
inoffensive. 

Sludge Tank N was started early in January with regular sewage 
sludge to which milk of alumina was added to make its alkalinity equiva- 
lent to that of the sludge in Tank J precipitated with copperas. Thus in 
Tank N", AIO3H3 was present in amounts equivalent to the Fe02H2 in 
Tank J. AIO3H3 does not combine with sulphur, however, as does 
Fe02H2. Sludge drawn from this tank was offensive until after active 
fermentation began, when the odor of the sludge was much modified. 

Sludge Tanks and P were operated with Andover sludge. A small 
amount of air was pumped into the bottom of Tank daily, and water 



288 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

was run into the bottom of Tank P occasionally. Sludge drawn from 
these tanks was offensive; in other words, slightly stirring the sludge in 
these tanks in the way that rendered the Lawrence sludge in Tank I 
odorless did not render this Andover sludge odorless. Experiments upon 
the treatment of this Andover sludge with iron are now being made. 

Conclusions. — The experiments made with sludge in these tanks, 17 
feet deep, seem to show that sludge from certain domestic sewages may 
be offensive under all conditions of deep tank treatment except when con- 
taining iron or other metallic salts or an equivalent alkalinity ; they also 
show that modification of the odor of some of the sludges was obtained by 
stirring this sludge with slight air or water currents. 

The action of the iron, however, in the prevention of odors in the sludge 
applied to Tanks J and L is not easily explained. Its deodorizing effect 
might be due to the fixation of sulphides by the iron. Other reasons 
appear to be equally applicable and are now being studied. The hydro- 
gen sulphide was determined in all the samples of sludge drawn from 
the tanks, this determination being made by the addition of acid to the 
sludge, evolution of H2S and its absorption in standard iodine solution. 
Omitting three high but apparently correct determinations during Au- 
gust, the average parts of hydrogen sulphide found in the sludge of each 
tank are shown in the following table : — 

Table showing Average Parts of Hijdrogen Sulphide found in the Sludge of Each 

Tank. 



Tank. 



I. 
J. 

K. 
L. 

M, 



Parts per 100,000 
(H2S) 



34.8 
50 9 
27.2 
120.0 
15.5 



Effect of draining upon Sludge from the Various Tanks. 

These experiments were made to show the facility with which the 
sludge from all the tanks would drain on sand when protected from the 
weather, the layers of the sludge being about 21/2 inches in depth. 

The sludge from Tank I at first lost only 4.6 per cent, of moisture in 
ten days ; the sample taken when the tank had been operated longer lost 
19 per cent, in ten days. In all cases at the end of ten days this sludge 
was offensive and of a greasy consistency. The first sludge taken from 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



289 



Tank J lost 16.7 per cent, of moisture in ten days, and the percentage of 
loss increased so that at the end of the year it was about 33 per cent, in 
ten days, the sludge after draining being comparatively dry, granular 
and humus-like. The sludge from Tank K, as previously described, was 
compact and hard, and when drawn from the tank could be easily handled 
without draining. The sludge from Tank L lost a greater per cent, of 
moisture in ten days than any of the others, but was in no better condi- 
tion to handle than that from Tanks I and J, and the same may be said 
of the sludge from Tank M. The following table shows the percentage of 
moisture in each sludge at the time of its withdrawal from the tanks and 
after ten days' draining, the results being shown in the first and second 
columns, respectively : — 

Table showing Per Cent. Moisture in Monthly Samples of Sludge at Time of 
drawing and after draining Ten Days. 



1912. 


Tank I. 


Tank J. 


Tank K. 


Tank L. 


Tank M. 


1» 


22 


11 


22 


1 '' 


22 


11 


22 


1' 


22 


April, 
May, . 
June, . 
July, . 
August, 
September, 
October, 
November, 


90.6 
90.9 
93.2 
91.9 
92.0 
91.3 
91.9 
92 


84.0 
76.9 
71.0 
74.5 
77.7 
79.9 
74.6 


95.5 
95.7 
96.5 
95.4 
95.7 
95.0 
91.3 
87.7 


84.0 
74.0 
83.6 
78.8 
83.7 
80.2 
78.0 
54.9 


87.9 
88.0 

88.5 
88.0 
84.4 
85.3 
86.2 


67.0 
75.0 

63.8 
71.3 
71.0 
73.4 
55.2 


93.7 
90.9 
90.6 
89.1 
89.2 


55.7 
70.5 
68.7 
67.3 
65.2 


93.2 
92.2 
92.4 
91.1 


81.7 
81.1 
79.9- 

77.8 



1 Time of drawing. 



2 After draining ten days. 



Organic Matter in Sludge from the Various Tanlcs. 

Determinations were made of the organic matter in solution in the 
sludge applied to each tank, in the overflow at the top of each tank, and 
in the sludge as drawn from the bottom each month. The following table 
gives the results of these determinations : — 

Organic Matter in Solution. 

[Parts per 100,000.1 



Tank. 


Applied. 


Overflow. 


Outlet. 


I 


24.1 


37.0 


177.0 


J 


24.0 


28.5 


72.1 


K 


55.9 


60.0 


204.8 


L, 


25.7 


31.7 


78.1 


M, 


37.4 


63.7 


437.5 



290 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



This table shows that the offensive sludge drawn from Tanks I and M, 
and the liquid overflowing from the top of these tanks, contained more 
organic matter in solution than was present in the sludge from, or in 
the overflow of, any of the other tanks in operation. The very inoffensive 
sludge from Tank J contained less organic matter in solution than the 
sludge from any other tank. The sludge from Tank L, slightly more 
offensive than that from Tank J, contained slightly more organic matter 
in solution than did the sludge from Tank J. The results taken as a 
whole show that the organic matter liquefied, and, passing into solution 
in the mass of sludge at the bottom of each tank, diffused very slowly 
through the sewage above the sludge. In the last experiments, as previ- 
ously noted, however, air and sewage currents changed the character of 
this slow diffusion. 

The following table gives the approximate number of months that the 
samples of sludge taken from each tank remained in the tank before 
being withdrawn : — 



Table showing Time {in Months) Sludge remained in Tanks before Samples were 

taken for Examination. 



Sample taken 


Tank I. 


Tank J. 


Tank K. 


Tank L. 


Tank M. 


April, 


2.5 


2.5 


2 


- 




May, 








3.5 


3.5 


3 


- 


- 


June, 








4.5 


4.5 


- 


- 


- 


July, 








5.5 


5.5 


5 


4 


- 


August, . 








6.5 


6.5 


6 


5 


2 


September, 








7.5 


7.5 


7 


6 


3 


October, . 








8.5 


8.5 


8 


7 


4 


November, 








9.5 


9.5 


9 


8 


5 



Aeration of Sewage as an Aid to Filtration. 

Collection of Suspended and Colloidal 2Iatters. 

In the course of certain investigations as regards the life of fish in 
polluted waters a noticeable clarification of sewage by aeration was 
observed. It was also noticed that when green growths (Scene- 
desmus and Protococcus) occurred in the aerated sewage it became sat- 
urated with oxygen. Following these observations, experiments were 
begun in April, 1912, to test the efficiency of aeration combined with these 
green growths as a treatment of sewage preliminary to filtration. 

In order to study this point three small sand filters containing 31/4 feet 
in depth of sand were put into operation. The first, Ko. 445, received 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



291 



unaerated sewage; the second, No. 446, sewage aerated for twenty-four 
hours, either by drawing or blowing a current of air through it; and the 
third, No. 447, aerated sewage also seeded with green growths. The 
rates of operation at the start were equal, — namely, 50,000 gallons 
per acre daily, — but the rate of each filter has been increased from 
time to time, the average rate during the entire period of operation to 
date being as follows: Filter No. 445, 75,000 gallons per acre daily; Fil- 
ter No. 446, 225,000 gallons per acre daily, and Filter No. 447, 225,000 
gallons per acre daily. At the end of ten months' operation it was neces- 
sary to reduce the rate of the filter receiving unaerated sewage to 50,000 
gallons, while the other two filters were continued in operation at the 
rate of 275,000 gallons per acre daily. Aerating the sewage for the pe- 
riod of time noted reduced the free and albuminoid ammonia to some 
extent, and the sewage which was both aerated and seeded with green 
growths had its albuminoid ammonia even more noticeably reduced. 

The average analysis of the sewage applied to each filter during the 
first nine months of operation was as follows : — 



[Parts per 100,000. 



Filter 
Number. 



445 
446 

447 



Sewage. 



Unaerated, 

Aerated, 

Aerated and green growths, 



Ammonia. 



Free. 



Albuminoid. 



2.85 
2.40 

2.78 



.41 
.32 
.15 



Oxygen 
consumed. 



2.96 
1.97 
1.26 



It was found, after the experiments had been under way for several 
months, that nitrification was occurring in the aerated sewage contain- 
ing green growths, and that this sewage when applied to Filter No. 447 
contained over 1.5 parts nitrates per 100,000. At the present time the 
three filters operating at the rates mentioned, — 50,000, 275,000 and 
275,000 gallons per acre daily, — give effluents with the following analy- 
sis: — 

[Parts per 100,000.) 



Filter 


Receiving Sewage. 


Ammonia. 


Nitrates. 


Oxvgen 


Number. 


Free. 


Albumi- 
noid. 


consumed. 


445 
446 

447 


Unaerated, 

Aerated, 

Aerated and green growths, . 


.498 
.101 
.040 


.0364 
.0367 
.0308 


3.25 
3.38 
2.44 


.19 
.23 
.24 



292 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Following the work with these filters a trickling filter, No. 449, con- 
taining 10 feet in depth of broken stone was put into operation, receiving 
at first sewage aerated for ten hours. Started at a rate of 1,000,000 gal- 
lons per acre daily, the rate was, in the course of three months, increased 
to 6,500,000 gallons per acre daily, and the analyses of the sewage before 
aeration, after aeration as applied to the filter, and of the effluent from 
the filter at the present time are as follows : — 







[Parts per 


100,000.] 










Ammonia.. 


Nitrogen as 






Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 


Oxygen 
consumed. 




Total. 


In 
Solution. 


Nitrates. 


Nitrites. 


Sewage before aeration, 
Sewage after aeration, 
Effluent 


4.50 
4.04 
3.45 


.70 
.38 
.18 


.41 
.30 
.11 


0.03 
1.25 


.0001 
.0219 


4.90 
2.09 
1.24 





The sewage applied to this filter is aerated in a tank containing slabs 
of slate about 1 inch apart. Soon after this tank was put into operation 
the slates and sides of the tank became covered with a compact brown 
growth. A very important feature in the aeration of sewage in a tank 
constructed as here described is that this growth collects mechanically 
not only the suspended matters of the sewage but a large portion of the 
colloidal matters also, and after a few hours' treatment in the tank the 
sewage is quite free from both suspended and colloidal matters. In 
experiments upon aeration of sewage tried during the past twenty-five 
years by various investigators, as described by Drown, Dupre and Dibdin, 
Mason and Hine, Black and Phelps, etc., the chief object of each study 
has been to learn the oxidation changes induced by such treatment. The 
collection of suspended and colloidal matters, as here described, is an en- 
tirely new feature of aeration work. 

These investigations while not on a large scale seem to indicate that a 
very material increase in the rates of sewage filters may be obtained by 
preliminary aeration of the sewage. 

Intermittent Sand Filters operated with Untreated Sewage. 
Filters Nos. 1, 2, Jf, 5C, 6, 9 A and JO. 
These seven sand filters are each ^/ooo of an acre in area, and are sit- 
uated out of doors. At the end of 1912 Filters Nos. 1, 2, 4 and 6 had 
been operated continuously for nearly twenty-five years, and Filters Nos. 
9 A and 10 had been operated twenty-two and eighteen years, respectively. 
Regular station sewage without preliminary clarification has always been 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



293 



applied to these filters, and for some years it has been the practice to 
apply only as much sewage to each filter as can be purified without in- 
creasing the amount of organic matter stored within the filter. Since 
1893, a period of about nineteen A^ears, all of these filters have been oper- 
ated without the removal of any sand from the surface. The depth and 
size of sand of which each of these filters is constructed, the date when 
first put into operation, the total volume of sewage treated upon each 
filter since it was started, and the volume of sewage applied daily dur- 
ing 1912 are shown in the following table: — 



Filter Number. 



Depth 
(Feet). 



Effective 

Size of 

Sand 

(Millimeter). 



1. 
2, 
4. 
5C, 
6, 

9A. 
10, 



5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 



0.48 
0.08 
0.04 
0.22 
0.35 
0.17 
0.35 



Date first 
operated. 



Actual Volume 
of Sewage 

applied 
since Start 
(Gallons). 



Jan. 10, 1888 

Dec. 19, 1887 

Dec. 19, 1887 

July 20, 1905 

Jan. 12, 1888 

Nov. 18, 1890 

July 18, 1894 



2,542,812 

1,418,071 

869,356 

558,010 

2,075,084 

2,086,539 

755,600 



Volume of 

Sewage 

applied Daily 

during 1912 

(Gallona per 

Acre). 



48,800 

39,100 

19,8001 

48,800 

46,700 

47,300 

28,5002 



1 Three times each week. 

J There were 120,000 gallons per acre applied daily on portion of surface flooded. 

During recent years the surfaces of Filters Nos. 1, 5C, 6 and 9A have 
been leveled during the summer, but have been trenched and ridged dur- 
ing the winter. The surfaces of Filters Nos. 2 and 4 are arranged in 
circular trenches, which are filled with coarser sand than that of which 
the filters are constructed. The trenches in Filter No. 2 are 1 foot wide 
and 2 feet deep, and are filled with sand of an effective size of 0.19 milli- 
meter, while those in Filter No. 4 are about 14 inches wide and 1 foot 
deep, and are filled with sand of an effective size of 0.48 millimeter, the 
surface of the sand in the trenches of each filter being below that of 
the remainder of the filter. The sewage is applied to these trenches of 
coarser sand throughout the year, grass being permitted to grow on the 
ridges. Filter No. 10 differs from the other filters in that no under- 
drains are laid beneath the sand except immediately around the outlet 
pipe. A partition extending 3 feet below the surface of the filter sepa- 
rates the quarter of the surface which. is farthest from the underdrains 
from the remainder of the surface, and to this quarter of the surface the 
sewage is applied, the other three-quarters of the surface being covered 
with a layer of loam 8 inches in depth, except for a strip about 2 feet 



294 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

wide extending across the filter which is left open to provide ventilation. 
During the winter the surfaces of all these filters, except ISTo. 10, have 
been protected to some extent by loose board covers placed over the 
trenches. 

The principal features in the operation of these filters during 1912 are 
as follows: from December 1 to March 14 the trenches of all the filters 
except No. 10 were covered with boards. On April 10 the surface of 
that portion of Filter No. 10 to which sewage was applied, and the sand 
in the trenches of each of the other filters, was dug over to a depth of 6 
inches, and Filters Nos. 1, 5C, 6 and 9A were leveled and the entire sur- 
face dug over 1 foot deep. From August 12 to August 18, inclusive, all 
of the filters were allowed to rest. On August 30 the surfaces of Filters 
Nos. 1, 50, 6 and 9A were again trenched, and on September 3 the coarse 
sand was removed from the trenches in Filters Nos. 2 and 4, the bottom 
of these trenches was raked to a depth of about 2 inches and the coarse 
sand was replaced. On October 3 the trenches of Filters Nos. 1, 50, 6 
and 9A were dug over to a depth of 6 inches, and the surface was leveled 
and dug over to a depth of 1 foot, and on November 18 the surfaces of 
these filters were again trenched for the winter. That portion of the 
surface of each filter to which sewage was applied was raked 1 inch deep 
four times during the period from December 1 to March 14, and once 
each week during the remainder of the year. A total depth of 32 inches 
of snow and about 41^2 inches of ice was removed from the surface of 
Filter No. 10, which was unprotected by board covers during the winter. 
Owing to high water in the Merrimack Eiver it was necessary to close 
the outlets of these filters and to omit the application of sewage a num- 
ber of times during March and April, the total number of days the filters 
were out of operation for this reason being twenty-one, and the longest 
period at any one time being eleven days. 

Examinations of the filters show that there has been no accumulation 
of organic matters within them during the year, and nitrification has 
been active in all of them throughout the year. It has been noted fre- 
quently in previous reports that the amounts of nitrates in the effluents 
from these filters are very large in the spring, especially just after warm 
weather begins, and this has been ascribed to the oxidation of nitroge- 
nous matters stored in the sand during the winter. Some special studies 
were made during the spring of 1912 to determine what form of stored 
nitrogen was responsible for these high rates. The results of these studies 
and the conclusions drawn from them will be found elsewhere in this 
report. The average analyses of the sewage applied to these filters, Nos. 
1, 6 and 9A, are given on page 278, and the average analyses of the efflu- 
ents for the year are shown in the following table : — 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 




295 



Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Filter No. 1. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily 

for Six 

Da%-s in a 

Week. 



48,800 



46,700 



Tempera- 
ture (De- 
grees F.). 



^ 
& 



60 



3 



53 



length of 

Time 

Sewage 

remained 

on 

Surface 

(Minute.s). 



32 



Appe.\r- 

ANCE. 



3 
Eh 



0.3 



o 
O 



.15 



Ammonia. 



3 

^ o 
— a 

C3-- 

Eh 



.5501 



.0508 



a 
o 

O 



13.23 



Nitrogen 

AS 



3.89 



.0006 



01 

a 
-a 



.50 



1.2 



60 



54 



48 



0.1 


.12 


.4345 


.0426 


12.22 



3.98 .0006 



.41 



O 



10,500 



Effluent from Filter No. 2. 


39,100 


60 


52 


60 


0.0 


.10 


.1990 


.0286 


12.15 


3.37 .0009 


.36 


1.0 


230 


Effluent from Filter No. 4. 


19,800 


60 


52 


26 


0.0 


.05 


.0275 .0150 


11.20 


3.58 


.0035 


.17 0.6 


360 


Effluent from Filter No. 5C. 


48,800 


60 


60 


24 


0.2 


.14 


.3645 


.0478 


12.35 


3.86 


.0005 


.47 


1.1 


13,100 


Effluent from Filter No. 6. 



1.4 11,400 











Effluent from 1 


Filter No. 9 A. 












47,300 


59 


54 


99 


0.0 


.15 


.4272 


.0300 


11.73 


3.25 


.0003 


.48 


1.0 


2,430 


Effluent from Filter No. 10. 


28,500 


59 


55 


57 


0.3 


.20 


.5381 


.0618 


10.77 


2.04 


.0057 


.65 


2.4 


4,030 



Intermittent Sand Filters operated with Clarified Sewage. 
Filters Nos. JfS9, USO, 431 and Jf32. 

These four filters were first put into operation on Feb. 1, 1911. to study 
the results obtained from a series of filters receiving sewages of different 
strength, but at such rates that the amount of organic matter applied to 
each filter was practically the same. Each of these filters is /4oooo of an 
acre in area and is constructed of 5 feet in depth of sand of an effective 
size of 0.25 millimeter over the usual underdrains. Eegular station sew- 



296 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

age has been applied to Filter ISTo. 429 at a rate of 80,000 gallons per 
acre daily throughout the year. Each of the other filters has received 
the same sewage after a portion of the organic matters has been removed, 
Filter No. 430 receiving settled sewage. Filter No. 431 receiving the 
effluent from coal Strainer E, and Filter No. 432 receiving sewage which 
has been clarified by precipitation with sulphate of alumina, the volume 
of clarified sewage applied to each of these filters being so adjusted that 
the amount of organic matter applied to each should be approximately 
the same as that applied to Filter No. 429, which received the unclarified 
sewage. As a convenient and quickly determined basis of comparison, 
the Kjeldahl nitrogen of the sewages has been used to compute the 
rates of the filters receiving clarified sewage, and those rates have been 
fluctuated from time to time as the nitrogen of the different sewages va- 
ried. The average rate of Filter No. 429 was 79,500 gallons per acre 
daily; of Filter No. 430, 110,200 gallons; of Filter No. 431, 124,200 
gallons; and of Filter No. 432, 126,600 gallons. The product of the rate 
of the filter in thousand gallons, and the parts per 100,000 of any sub- 
stance in the applied sewage, is assumed to be the number of units of 
that substance applied to the filter. On this basis, about 96 units of 
nitrogen were applied daily to Filter No. 429 ; about 85 units to Filter 
No. 430 ; about 93 units to Filter No. 431, and about 100 units to Filter 
No. 432. 

While the effluents from all of these filters were at all times highly 
nitrified, the effluent from the filter receiving the unclarified sewage con- 
tained much higher nitrates (4.98 parts per 100,000) than did the efflu- 
ents from the filters receiving clarified sewage, while the effluent from 
the filter receiving sewage clarified by precipitation was much more 
highly nitrified than the effluents from the filters receiving settled and 
strained sewage, respectively. On the basis of the total amount of ni- 
trates produced, however, figured as units of nitrogen appearing as ni- 
trates, the results were somewhat different. Filter No. 432, which re- 
ceived the chemically treated sewage produced an average of 535 units 
nitrates daily; Filter No. 431, which received strained sewage, produced 
about 450 units nitrates daily; while Filters Nos. 429 and 430 produced 
398 and 390 units nitrates daily respectively. At the end of 1911 the 
sand of each of these filters contained practically the same amount of 
nitrogenous matter; at the end of 1912 the difference in the amount of 
nitrogenous matter stored in the different filters was still relatively 
small ; but somewhat larger amounts were found in Filters Nos. 429 and 
432 than in the other two filters. The average amounts of albuminoid 
ammonia obtained from these sands were 17.3 parts per 100,000 for 
Filter No. 429; 14.3 for Filter No. 430; 15.8 for Filter No. 431 and 16.5 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



297 



for Filter No. 433, these corresponding to increases of 9.5, 6.1, 7.1 and 
9.2 parts per 100,000, respectively, during the year. 

The average analyses of the sewage applied and of the effluents from 
these filters are shown in the following tables : — 

Average Analyses. 

Untreated Sewage applied to Filter No. Jf.29. 
[Parts per 100,000.) 



Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl Nitro- 




a 

i 

8 


!3 




ALBUMINOID. 


gen. 


O 










d 
.2 


o 








3 




d 


c 


d 




1 


5 
^ 




1 

Eh 


o 
m 

a 
1— 1 




O 


Is 


4.51 


.63 


.34 


1.21 


.70 


13.41 


3. 78' 


2,865,400 



Settled Sewage applied to Filter No. 430. 



ZAo 



.40 



.30 



0.77 



.59 



13.80 



2.87 



1,687,400 







Strained Sewage applied to Filter No. 4S1 






2.86 


.41 


.31 


0.80 


.60 


13.35 1 2.66 

1 


1.245,600 


Chemically Precipitated Sewage applied to Filter No. 432. 


4.29 


.40 


.26 


• 0.75 


.51 


13.30 


2.50 


1,818,100 





Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Filter No. 429. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





fe 


Appeak- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•d 




IS 


Quantity 


s 


ANCE. 






AS 


1 




O 


applied. 


2^ 










3 

3 
8 
















' 


t- !r 


Gallons 


5 to 

3 0) 


>. 






i:2 

-^ 2 








m 


S-2 

ft o 


per Acre 


s 


•3 






"3 


a 


S 




13 


s 

a 
•a 


Daily. 


o. 


'2 


u 




ft 


2 




bO 


o a 

*5 0) 




<s 


3 


"o 


•£ 


O 


ja 


■4^ 




»< 


ce 


go 




H 


H 


O 


£ 


H 


U 


^ 


g 


o 


w 


CQ 


79,500 


61 


0.0 


.03 


.2530 


.0229 


13.76 


1 

4.98 


.0024 


.17 


0.3 


400 



Effluent from Filter No. 430. 



110,200 



61 



0.0 .04 .1082 .0251 13.80 3.56 .0004 



.18 



0.4 



2,450 



298 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Analyses — Concluded. 

Effluent from Filter No. 431. 
[Parts per 100,000.) 



Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


ft 

a 


ApPE.iR- 

ANCE. 


Ammonia. 


Chlorine. 


Nitrogen 

AS 


2 
5 
§ 
S 



0) 

>5 
X 

O 


IK 

d 


3 
o 


13 

3 


t4 

o 
U 


£ 


3 .-2 

J2 o 

o 


en 

c3 






124,200 


61 


0.0 


.04 


.1179 


.0222 


13.09 


3.65 


.0005 


.17 


0.3 


1,300 



Effluent from Filter No. 432. 



126,600 



63 



0.0 .04 



.5366 



.0336 



13.39 



4.25 



.0014 



.21 



0.8 



1,090 



Average Solids. 

Untreated Sewage applied to Filter No. 4^9. 
[Parts per 100,000.) 



Untiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on i?;.,.„j 
Ignition. ^''^^'^• 


65.8 


27.3 38.5 


49.4 


14.6 


34.8 


16.4 


12.7 


3.7 



Settled Sewage applied to Filter No. 430. 



55.6 



18.9 



36.7 



50.9 


15.5 


35.4 


4.7 


3,4 



1.3 



Strained Sewage applied to Filter No. 431. 



53.8 



18.2 


35.6 


49.9 15.7 


34.2 


3.9 


2.5 



1.4 



Chemically Precipitated Sewage applied to Filter No. 432. 



54.1 



16.8 



37.3 



48.2 



12.6 



35.6 



5.9 



4.2 



1.7 



Operation of Tricklitsg Filters. 

Filters Nos. 185, 136, 222, 248 and 360. 
Four different trickling filters have been operated at the experiment 
station and one at Andover during 1912. Two of these filters, Nos. 135 
and 136, have been in continuous operation over thirteen 3^ears, Filter 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 299 

No. 248 has been operated continuously for over eight years, and Filter 
'No. 360 has been operated continuously for about four years. Filter 
No. 222, located at Andover, which was first put into operation about 
nine years ago, has been operated in recent years during the summer only. 
Filters Nos. 135, 136 and 248 are each constructed of broken stone of 
such size that all the pieces will pass through a screen with a 1-inch mesh, 
40 per cent, through a screen with a i/2"ii^ch mesh, and only 4 per cent, 
through a screen with a 14-incli mesh. Each of these filters is -^20000 of 
an acre in area, and all are contained in tanks with openings for ventila- 
tion in the sides. Filters Nos. 135 and 136 are each 10.5 feet in depth, 
and were first put into operation in November, 1899. Filter No. 248 
was first put into operation in May, 1904, and was originally 8 feet in 
deiath, but since Jan. 6, 1911, has been only 6 feet in depth. Filter No. 
360 is square in section, has a superficial area of /4oooo o^ ^.n acre, and is 
constructed of 8 feet 9 inches in depth of pieces of broken stone having a 
mean diameter between 1 and 2 inches, held in place by open cobwork 
sides. This filter was first put into operation in November, 1908. The 
sewage applied is uniformly distributed over the surface of each of these 
filters by automatic tipping basins discharging into perforated pans. 
Filters Nos. 135 and 136 have been operated seven days each week with a 
rest of one hour each morning and afternoon, while Filters Nos. 248 and 
360 have been operated continuously six days each week and allowed to 
rest on Sunday. Filters Nos. 135, 248 and 360 have each received settled 
sewage at rates of 2,000,000 gallons per acre daily. Filter No. 136 has 
been operated at a gradually increasing rate with sewage which has been 
clarified by precipitation with ferrous sulphate. 

Filter No. 222, located at the Andover filtration area, is %oo of an 
acre in area, and was first put into operation in April, 1903. In April, 
1906, the filter was rebuilt, and at present consists of 6 inches of cob- 
blestone above Akron pipe underdrains, overlaid with 7 feet of broken 
stone, all of which will pass through a screen with a 1%-inch mesh and 
none of which will pass through a screen with a %-inch mesh. The 
depth of the filtering material is greater than the depth of the tank, the 
upper 2 feet of material being held in place by a cobblestone wall. 
Andover settled sewage has been applied to this filter seven days each 
week, from April 1 to the end of the year, at a rate of 1,500,000 gallons 
per acre daily by means of a self-propelled traveling distributor of the 
Fiddian type, a description of which was given on page 293 of the re^ 
port for 1909. 

Comparing the work accomplished by the three filters at the experiment 
station, which were operated at the same rate with settled Lawrence 
sewage, it is to be noted that the effluent from Filter No. 135 contained 



300 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

about twice as much nitrates and about one-half as much free ammonia 
as the effluent from Filter No. 248, which was constructed of the same 
material but was of much less depth, and about three times as much 
nitrates and only about one-third as much free ammonia as the effluent 
from Filter No. 360, which was of slightly less depth and was constructed 
of larger material. This is in accord with the results which have been 
obtained in previous years, both with these and with other filters. The 
stability tests on the effluents from these filters follow the same rule as 
the amount of nitrates present, the effluent from the deep filter of fine 
material being stable at all times throughout the year, while about 18 per 
cent, of the samples of the effluent from the 6-foot filter of fine material, 
and over 60 per cent, of the samples from the filter of coarse material, 
were putrescible. As explained in previous reports, the underdrain sys- 
tem of Filter No. 360 is divided into three distinct collecting areas of 
equal size, and separate samples are collected from each of these nnder- 
drains to study as far as possible in this small filter the fluctuations and 
variations in the character of the effluent from different portions of the 
same filter. Average analyses of the separate portions collected from 
these different underdrains, as well as averages of the entire effluent, are 
shown in the accompanying tables, the different samples being designated 
360A, 360B, 360C and 360 average. Prior to 1911 the different sections 
of this filter received sewage at different rates, although during the past 
two years the sewage has been uniformly distributed over the entire 
surface of the filter. During 1911 little difference was noted in the 
quality of the effluents obtained from these different sections, but during 
1912 it has been noted that the effluent from Section A, which in former 
years was operated at a rate slightly higher than that at which the en- 
tire filter was operated during the present year, was much better from 
all viewpoints than the effluents from either of the other two sections, 
while the effluent from Section C, which was formerly operated at an 
extremely low rate, was much the poorest of the three effluents during 
the present year. This statement of facts is made without comment at 
the present time further than to say that at the end of 1912 the filter 
was entirely walled in. It will be interesting to observe the work of 
these three sections during the following years. Nitrification commenced 
in Filter No. 222 almost immediately after the filter was started in 
April, and continued throughout the year, the smallest amount of 
nitrates found in the effluent at any time being about 0.75 part per 
100,000, and with very few exceptions the effluent has been stable at all 
times. These are very satisfactory results when compared with the 
poor work of this filter in the earlier years of its history, when a different 
method of distributing the sewage upon the surface was used. As has 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 301 

been emphasized in previous reports, uniformity of distribution of the 
sewage over the surface is one of the essential requirements in the opera- 
tion of trickling filters, and the failure of an otherwise well-designed 
filter of this type may frequently be traced to faulty distribution methods. 
No troubles of any kind were experienced with this filter during the 
season it was in operation. Unfortunately, the type of distributing appa- 
ratus in use on this filter cannot be operated under the conditions which 
prevail during the average New England winter, and for this reason data 
on winter operation of this filter during the past few years could not be 
obtained. 

Higher Rates Possible upon Trickling Filters ivith More Complete 
Clarification of the Applied Sewage. 
In previous years Filter No. 136 has been operated in comparison with 
Filter No. 135, both of these filters being of the same depth and ma- 
terial and of the same age. These filters have already been described. 
During 1912 Filter No. 136 was used in a study to determine to what 
extent the rate of a trickling filter might be increased and still produce 
an effluent of satisfactory quality when the sewage applied to it was 
treated in such a manner as to remove practically all suspended matters. 
From December 1 to January 4 settled sewage was applied to this filter 
at a rate of 2,000,000 gallons per acre daily, and the purification effected 
by the filter was not materially different from that during the previous 
year when operated in a similar manner. Beginning January 5, sewage 
which had been very completely clarified by precipitation with an excess 
of ferrous sulphate was applied to this filter, and the rate at which this 
sewage was applied was increased 250,000 gallons per acre daily each 
month beginning February 1, with the exception that no increase in 
rate was made during June, and on July 1, the rate was increased 750,000 
gallons. Even with the increased rates the purification accomplished 
by this filter remained practically the same throughout the year. Com- 
paring the amount of organic matters in the sewage applied to this filter 
with that in the settled sewage applied to its companion. Filter No. 135, 
however, it is observed that during the month of November, when Filter 
No. 136 was being operated at a rate of 4,750,000 gallons per acre daily, 
the total amount of organic matter which was applied with the sewage 
daily was only about 20 per cent, more than the amount applied to Filter 
No. 135, which was operated at a rate of only 2,000,000 gallons per 
acre daily; and, furthermore, the total amount of nitrogenous matters 
applied daily to Filter No. 136 during this month was only about 55 per 
cent, of that applied to Filter No. 135. Taking these facts into consider- 
ation, the results obtained in this experiment add valuable confirmatory 



302 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



evidence to the statement which has frequently been made in previous re- 
ports, that the practical rate at which any biological filter can be operated 
is largely dependent upon the amount of organic matters which are 
applied to it and not upon the amount of water by which those organic 
matters are carried. 

The average analyses of the effluents from these various trickling 
filters are shown in tlie following tables : — 

Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Filter No. 135. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





Appear- 


Ammonia. 


rogen. 




NiTBOGEN 


'6 

o 

E 

3 
en 


15 


Quantity 
applied. 


ance. 




ALBUMINOID. 


AS 


3 
U 












-*^ 










Gallons 


>> 








a 
o 


Z 


i 







O 
O 


a| 


per Acre 


"5 








3 


•S 


?. 




a 


'C -^ 


Daily. 


J3 


o 


6 


3 




3 


J 


s 


'(-1 


^ 






a 


o 


£ 


o 






ja 






X 




Eh 


O 


fK 


H 


W 


u 


z 


I? 


O 


m 


1,984,000 


1.8 


.30 


0.6551 


.2168 


.1423 


0.3932 


13.83 


3.64 


.0040 


1.74 


55,700 



Effluent from Filter No. 136. 



3,048,000 



0.8 



.26 



0.9842 



.1346 



.0885 



0.2581 



12.25 



1.94 



.0086 



0.93 



62,500 



Effluent from Filler No. 222. 



.26 



1.8023 



.2929 



.1283 



0.6155 



8.15 



1.11 



.0194 



1.47 



223,800 



Effluent from Filter No. 248. 



1,969,000 2.3 



.37 



1.8963 



.4013 



.2215 



0.7281 



14.19 



1.69 



.0105 



2.50 



313,400 



Effluent from Filter No. 360 (Section A). 



3.0 



.41 



1.5896 .3575 



.2050 



0.6632 14.14 



1.30 



.0089 



2.29 



565,000 



Effluent from Filter No. 360 (Section B). 



2.9 



.41 



1.8050 



.3817 



.2215 



0.6956 



14.19 



1.13 



.0104 



2.31 



436,700 



Effluent from Filter No. 360 (Section C) . 



2.9 .40 1.9817 .3987 



.2250 



0.7400 



14.15 



1.04 



.0116 



2.30 



469,200 



1,690,000 



Effluent from Filter No. 360 (Entire Filter). 



2.9 



.41 



1.7921 .3793 



.2172 



0.6996 14.16 



1.16 



.0103 



2.30 490,300 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



303 



Effluent from Filter No. 136. 

(Parts per 100,000.) 





Quantity- 
applied. 


Appe.\r- 

ANCE. 


Ammonia. i 


d 

s 




Nitrogen 


1 

s 

2 








ALBUMINOID. 


AS 




















Date. 


Gallons 


>. 








CI 

.2 


■z 


ffl 






i 






per Acre 


T3 








3 


■i 


e 


B 


o 


a 


g 




Daily. 




6 




"3 


o 
m 

a 


2 
"3 


o 


o3 

Eh 




O 


-a 
a 

w 


1911. 

December, 


1,980,000 


4.0 


.45 


0,7400 


.2360 


.1800 


.5560 


10.80 


2,19 


.0030 


1.76 


6.1 


1912. 

January, 


1,953,000 


10 


.34 


1.4500 


.1875 


.1270 


.3398 


9.10 


2,25 


.0028 


1.05 


7.0 


February, 


2,230,000 


1.0 


.27 


1.7200 


.1120 


.0850 


.2335 


8.55 


1,66 


,0035 


0.84 


12.4 


March, . 


2,461,000 


0.5 


.26 


1.3400 


.1820 


.0970 


.2950 


10.15 


1,79 


,0048 


0.89 


11 9 


April, 


2,727,000 


0.5 


.36 


OSOOO 


.1340 


.0940 


.2335 


10.90 


2,03 


,0065 


0.79 


12.7 


Mav, . 


2,961,000 


4 


.23 


1.0600 


.1260 


.0970 


.2250 


14.55 


2,22 


,0060 


0.66 


10.6 


June, 


2,879,000 





.18 


0,4000 


.0920 


.0560 


.1650 


15.20 


1,79 


.0190 


0.76 


7,6 


Julv, . 


3,475,000 


2 


.15 


0,4C00 


.1080 


.0720 


.1900 


17.30 


2,23 


.0150 


0.71 


3,0 


August, 


3,781,000 


5 


.20 


0,7800 


.1020 


.0660 


.2000 


16.80 


1.92 


.0140 


j 0.79 


8,4 


September, . 


3,792,000 


0.5 


.21 


0,4000 


.1240 


.0520 


.2500 


11.60 


2.05 


.0140 


i 1,02 


7 


October, 


4,119,000 


0,3 


.20 


1,1400 


.1040 


.0740 


.1600 


10,40 


1.55 


.0100 


0,83 


9,9 


November, . 


4,207,000 


0.2 


.21 


1,5200 


.1080 


.0620 


.2500 


11,60 


1.59 


.0050 


1.05 


14,3 


Average, . 


3,048,000 


0.8 


.26 


0,9842 


.1346 


.0885 


.2581 


12,25 


1.94 


.0086 


0.93 


9.3 



Average Solids. 

Effluent from Filter No. 136. 



Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


65,4 


11.2 


54.2 


62.4 


9.1 


53.3 


3.0 


2.1 


0.9 



Stability of Effluents from Trickling Filters, 1912.^ 

















Nitrates 

(Parts per 

100,000). 


Per Cent, of Samples. 


Filter Number. 


Putrescible. 


Doubtful. 


• Stable. 


135, 
136, 
222, 

248, 
360A, 
360B, 
360C, 














3.64 
1.94 
l.U 
1.69 
1.30 
1.13 
1.04 



0,0 
5,0 
18,4 
56,8 
62,1 
64.9 


0,0 
0,0 
0,0 
7,9 
5,4 
5,4 
5.4 


100.0 
100,0 
95,0 
73.7 
37.8 
32.5 
29.7 



1 Putrescibility is determined by incubating a sample in a full, tightly stoppered bottle at 80° F. If 
no odor or blackening of sample is noted within five days sample is recorded as stable. If odor is 
produced without blackening, sample is recorded as doubtful. Both odor and blackening indicate 
putrescibility. 



304 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Operation of Contact Filters. 

Contact Filters Nos. 175 and Jf21 to Jf28, inclusive, and Secondary 

Contact Filter No. MS. 

During 1912 ten different contact filters were operated, one of which, 
No. 175, has been in operation for about twelve years in a study of 
permanency; eight were started during 1911 in a comparative study upon 
the effect of different methods of operation, and one filter was started 
during the present year as a secondary contact filter receiving the eiTiuent 
from another contact filter. 

Filter No. 175, first put into operation in June, 1901, is constructed 
of pieces of coke of such size that all will pass through a sieve having 
a 1-inch mesh, 75 per cent, through a sieve having a %-inch mesh and 
practically none through a sieve with a i,4-inch mesh. This filter has 
always received sewage that has passed through a coke or coal strainer, 
being filled once daily in one dose, stands full two hours before draining 
and is allowed to rest every sixth week. At the end of 1911 over 50 per 
cent, of the original open space was occupied by deposited matters, and 
the effluent from the filter was of very poor quality. Experiments with 
other filters at the station have shown that it is practically impossible to 
regenerate a contact filter when it reaches such a condition by any means 
except by removing and washing the material. During December, there- 
fore, the coke was removed from this filter, washed ^ and replaced, and on 
Jan. 1, 1912, the filter was again put into operation. During washing 
about 18 per cent, of the coke was lost. As explained in previous reports, 
the gas coke such as was used in the construction of this filter is very 
porous and also very friable, and not only is it easily broken in handling 
but it also disintegrates to a certain extent within the filter during use. 
As the material was handled very carefully in the process of removing, 
washing and replacing, it is probable that a considerable proportion of 
this loss was due to disintegration during the eleven years it had been in 
use. After rebuilding, the filter contained 49 inches in depth of material, 
having an open space of about 58 per cent., the net rate on starting being 
about 770,000 gallons per acre daily. At the end of the year the open 
space, and the rate governed by it, had been reduced about 19 per cent. 
As stated previously, this filter has always been operated for five weeks 
and then allowed to rest for one week. Capacity tests before and after 
resting show that the average gain in open space during resting was 
about 4 per cent., equal in volume of sewage treated daily to about 25,000 



1 The analyses of the sludge washed from the material were given on page 295 of the report for 1911. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 305 

gallons per acre. Nitrification commenced in the filter within a short 
time after it was again put into operation, and continued to be active 
throughout the year ; the effluent was stable at all times. 

Studies of the Effect of 2Iet}iods of Operation of Contact Filters. 

Filters Nos. 421 to 428, inclusive. — These eight filters were first put 
into operation on Jan. 18, 1911. Each is /^oooo of an acre in area, is 
constructed of 33 inches in depth of pieces of soft coal clinker having a 
diameter between 14 and 1^/4 inches, and is operated with settled sewage. 
In these particulars all of the filters are identical. In method of opera- 
tion, however, either in the manner the sewage is applied, in the number 
of times the filter is filled daily, or in the time the sewage is allowed 
to remain within the filter, each filter differs from each of the others. 
Filters Nos. 421 to 426, inclusive, are filled from the top, the sewage 
being run directly upon the surface of the filters at such rates that the 
filter is completely filled in about two minutes. Filter No. 427 is filled 
at the same rate, the sewage entering at the bottom of the filter. It 
then rises gradually through the material, thus displacing the air. Filter 
No. 428 is filled by means of a tipping basin discharging into a perforated 
pan placed 1 foot above the surface, the sewage entering the filter in 
small well-distributed doses, the rate of application being so regulated 
that the filter is completely filled in about one hour. Filters Nos. 424 to 
428, inclusive, are each allowed to stand full one hour before draining, 
Filter No. 423 is allowed to stand full two hours, and Filters Nos. 
422 and 421 are allowed to stand full four hours and eight hours, re- 
spectively, before draining; Filter No. 425 is filled twice daity, Filter No. 

426 three times daily and each of the other filters once daily. In this 
series of eight filters, therefore, comparative studies are being made of 
the effect of different details of operation. In Filters Nos. 421 to 424, in- 
clusive, the effect of contact periods varying from one to eight hours in 
length are being studied on filters operated for one cycle daily; in 
Filters Nos. 424, 425 and 426 the effect of operating filters one, two and 
three complete cycles daily is being compared, and in Filters Nos. 424, 

427 and 428 we have a comparison of the effect of different methods of 
applying the sewage to filters which are otherwise operated in the same 
manner. The differences in the operating details of these filters are 
shown in the following table : — 



306 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Filter 
Number. 


Method of filling. 


Contact 

Period 

(Hours). 


Number 

of Cycles 

Daily. 


421 


* 
Rapidly from surface, . 
















8 


1 


422 


Rapidly from surface, . 
















4 


1 


423 


Rapidly from surface, . 
















2 


1 


424 


Rapidlj- from surface, . 
















1 


1 


423 


Rapidly from surface, . 
















1 


2 


420 


Rapidly from surface, . 
















1 


3 


427 


Rapidly from bottom, . 
















1 


1 


42S 


Slowly from surface, with distributor 12 inches above surface, . 


1 


1 



The variations in the methods of operating these filters might be 
expected to affect both the degree of purification accomplished and the 
retention of solid matters within the filter materials, but the differences 
in the degree of purification effected were relatively small. Some regu- 
lar differences which can be attributed to methods of operation are ap- 
parent, however, and it is believed that these differences will become more 
marked as the filters are continued in operation. The effect of the time 
interval, which varies from one to eight hours, that the sewage was 
allowed to remain within the filters, shows in the analyses of the effluents. 
In the results it will be noted that there is a regular gradation in the 
amounts of free ammonia, albuminoid ammonia, oxygen consumed and 
nitrates found, the smallest amounts being found in the effluent from 
Eilter No. 421 in which the sewage was allowed to remain for eight 
hours, and the largest in the effluent from Filter l^o. 424 in which the 
sewage remained only one hour. The fact that the nitrates follow the 
same curve as the ammonias would, at first thought, appear to discredit 
the statement that the better effluents chemically were obtained by long 
storage within the filter. It has been pointed out many times in these re- 
ports, however, that the reactions taking place within contact filters are 
somewhat different from those in filters of other types, in the fact that 
nitrates which have been formed during the resting or oxidizing cycle 
of the filter may be again reduced and yield oxygen for the oxidation of 
other organic matters during the time the filter is filled with sewage. 
This is undoubtedly the explanation of the differences in the amount of 
nitrates in these effluents. In fact, in the effluent from Filter K'o. 421 
in which the sewage was held for eight hours, practically all of the oxygen 
has been used in further oxidation, and only a very small amount appears 
as nitrates or nitrites. The tests of these effluents for stability also agree 
with the chemical analyses, the largest proportion of stable samples 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 307 

having been obtained from the filter operated with eight hours' con- 
tact and the least proportion from that operated with two hours' contact. 
The samples from the filter operated with one hour's contact are excep- 
tional as compared with the others of the series, in that a greater pro- 
portion of samples was stable than in the case of those from the filter 
receiving two hours' contact. The reason for this exception cannot be 
satisfactorily explained at this time. In all other particulars the effluents 
from these four filters show a regular gradation in quality. A compari- 
son of the three filters which were operated one, two and three cycles 
daily, respectively, shows that the effluent from the filter which was filled 
once daily was most often stable, while that from the filter which was 
filled three times each day was least often stable. Further than this, 
no regular difference in quality of effluent is apparent from the results. 
Of the three filters to which sewage was applied differently, the filter 
which was filled from the bottom produced the effluent of the poorest 
quality, while the filter to which the sewage was applied slowly, and 
which was well aerated by means of an elevated, perforated distributing 
pan and tipping basin, produced the effluent of the best quality. 

Analyses of the air within these various filters showed that the pro- 
portion of oxygen was sufficient for all the necessary functions of the 
filter. In no case was the proportion of oxygen in the air within any 
of these filters found to be less than 18 per cent., and in some instances 
as much as 21.4 per cent, of oxygen remained in the air after the filters 
had been resting over night. Determinations of dissolved oxygen in 
the effluents from the filters showed that in practically every case all 
oxv^en carried in with the sewage had been absorbed within fifteen min- 
utes after the filter was filled with sewage, and in the majority of in- 
stances no oxygen was found in the sewage after it had been in the 
filter from two to five minutes. 

In general, the different methods of operation appear to have made 
relatively little difference in the amount of suspended matters accumu- 
lating within those filters which were filled only once a day. At the end 
of the year Filter No. 422 had lost 29 per cent, of its original capacity, 
Filter No. 421 had lost 27 per cent., Filters Nos. 423 and 428 had each 
lost 23 per cent, and Filter No. 427 had lost 20 per cent. It is interest- 
ing to note, however, that the filter which was filled from the bottom 
lost the least in capacity, although the difference between this and the 
other filters is not large. In the three filters wjiich were filled once, 
twice and three times daily, however, a decided difference in the accu- 
mulation of clogging material may be noted. Filter No. 424 which was 
filled once daily having lost about 23 per cent, of its original capacity 
at the end of the year. Filter No. 425 which was filled twice each day 



308 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

having lost 29 per cent, and Filter No. 426 which was filled three times 
daily having lost about 43 per cent. As to the distribution of the clog- 
ging matters within the filter material there was no difference noticed 
which can be attributed to the method of operation except that the 
lower strata of the filter which is filled from the bottom appears to 
have become somewhat less clogged than the corresponding strata of the 
other filters to which the sewage was applied on the surface. 

Double Contact Filtration. 

Filter No. J/-Jf3 — %oooo o^ ^^i ^cre in area and constructed of 21 
inches in depth of broken stone pebbles, all of which will pass a screen 
with a i/o-inch mesh, 43 per cent, through a screen with a i/4-inch mesh 
and practically none of which will pass a screen with a %-inch mesh — 
was put into operation on April 21, 1912, to study the purification re- 
sulting from the treatment of settled Lawrence sewage by filtration 
through two successive contact filters. The effluent from Filter No. 
425, which is described above, has been applied to this filter at an aver- 
age rate of 686,000 gallons per acre daily, the filter being filled twice 
each day and allowed to stand one hour before draining. As the two 
filters are arranged, the effluent from Filter No. 425 falls about 2 feet, 
striking upon a dash plate on the surface of Filter No. 443, and flows 
thence into the filter, thereby receiving a certain amount of aeration in 
its passage from the primary to the secondary filter. Nitrification com- 
menced in the filter shortly after it was put into operation, and the 
purification which was begun in the primary filter was continued and 
carried to a much higher stage in the secondary filter. The effluent 
from primary Filter No. 425 contained on an average about 0.33 part 
nitrates per 100,000, and less than half of the samples collected proved to 
be stable. After passing through the secondary filter, however, the 
effluent contained an average of 1.16 parts per 100,000 nitrates, and 
was entirely stable and of satisfactory quality at all times. The loss 
of open space by this secondary filter during the period of less than 
ten months it has been in operation was about 27 per cent. 

The average analyses of the effluents from these various contact filters 
are shown in the following tables : — 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



309 



Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Filter No. 175. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Appear- 
ance. 


Ammonia. 


a 


o 
a 
'E 

O 


Nitrogen 


•6 

o 

5 

m 

a 
8 

a 

o 

te 

6 


.£ 


Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


6 
1 


albuminoid. 


AS 


O 


Turbidity. 


o 
o 
O 


^ 
^ 


In Solution. 


02 

2 


'C 

•4-9 




598,400 


3.1 


.56 


1.2709 


.2138 


.1549 


.4082 


14.25 


1.63 


.0113 


1.54 


638,800 


Effluent from Filter No. 421. 


377,100 


3.2 


.36 


1.5688 


.2504 


.1793 


.4577 


14.26 


0.09 


.0001 


1.58 


756,100 


Effluent from Filter No. 422. 


375,400 


3.4 


.38 


1.7063 


.2658 


.1960 


.5071 


14.17 


0.26 


.0001 


1.70 


923,700 


Effluent from Filter No. 423. 


404,100 


3.6 


.41 


1.8479 


.2917 


.2077 


.5361 


14.25 


0.26 .0018 

1 


1.92 


1,244,600 


Effluent from Filter No. 424. 


401,000 


3.7 


.41 


2.0333 


.3233 


.2467 


.5848 


14.23 


0.29 .0030 


2.13 


1,175,000 


Effluent from Filter No. 425. 


765,000 


3.6 


.40 


2.1073 


.3592 


.2475 


.6401 


14.10 


0.33 


.0004 


2.21 


1,340,800 


Effluent from Filter No. 426. 


1,004,700 


3.6 


.41 


2.0069 


.3224 


.2454 


.5967 


14.17 


0.19 .0001 


2.19 


1,235,800 








Effluent from Filter No. 427. 








426,100 


3.6 


.41 


2.3300 


.3367 


.2630 


.6275 


14.21 


0.13 


.0015 


2.27 


1,088,300 


Effluent from Filter No. 428. 


397,600 


3.3 


.40 


1.8500 


.2688 


.2003 


.5541 


13.64 


0.75 .0308 


1.87 


777,100 








Effluent from Secondary Filter No. 


443. 






686,400 


2.4 


.33 


1.4697 


.2308 


.1754 


.4149 


15.94 


1.16 


,0143 


1.56 


555,900 



310 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Stability of Effluents from Contact Filters, 1912. 



Filter Number. 



Nitrates 

(Parts per 

100,000). 



175 

421, 

422, 

423, 

424 

425 

426, 

427, 

428 

Secondary contact Filter No. 443, 



1.63 
0.09 
0.26 
0.26 
0.29 
0.33 
0.19 
0.13 
0.75 
1.16 



Per Cent, of Samples. 



Putrescible. 



Doubtful. 



Stable. 



0.0 
5.5 
22.2 
61.2 
50.0 
55.5 
55.5 
78.0 
44.5 
0.0 



0.0 
5.5 
11.1 
5.5 
0.0 
0.0 
5.5 
5.5 
0.0 
0.0 



100.0 
89.0 
66.7 
33.3 
50.0 
44.5 
39 
16.5 
55.5 
100.0 



Sedimentation and Eefiltration of Effluents feom Contact and 

TmcKLiNG Filters. 

Filters Nos. H2, H-k- and Jf.J^S. 
In previous years a number of studies were made upon the clari- 
fication of effluents from contact and trickling filters by sedimentation, 
and upon the refiltration of such effluents both before and after sedimen- 
tation. During 1913 three experiments were started upon the refiltra- 
tion of such effluents, in two of which effluents from a trickling filter 
and from a system of double contact filters, respectively, were passed 
through settling tanks to remove the suspended matters and then applied 
to intermittent sand filters. In the third experiment the effluent from 
a trickling filter was passed through a combined settling tank and up- 
ward-flow filter or strainer. 

Sedimentation of Effluents. 
Beginning March 1, the entire effluent from trickling Filter Xo. 360 
was passed through a settling tank preparatory to refiltration on Filter 
No. 442. This is a cylindrical tank with a conical bottom sloping at 
an angle of 60°, inside of which is a smaller tank of similar design. The 
inner or settling chamber is provided with an opening in the bottom 
through which the settled suspended matters pass into the outer or di- 
gestion chamber where they remain for decomposition. In the center of 
the inner tank is a large pipe with a large circular deflector at the bot- 
tom, which is set at the springing line of the conical bottom. The 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 311 

effluent from the trickling filter flows through this central pipe continu- 
ously to the bottom of the settling chamber, is there deflected to the 
outer rim of the deflector, and then rises slowly to the top of the tank 
where it passes off through a central overflow to a storage tank from 
which it is withdrawn as required. The average rate of vertical flow of 
the effluent in passing from the deflector to the overflow is about 0.9 inch 
per minute, the total time the effluent remains in the settling compart- 
ment being about thirty minutes. The upper side of the deflector is cone 
shaped, sloping at an angle of 60° to permit any suspended matters 
which may be deposited upon it to slip down into the lower cone and 
thence into the digestion chamber. The opening in the bottom of the 
settling chamber is trapped in such a manner that any gases or other 
products of decomposition which may be formed in the digestion cham- 
ber cannot pass back into the settling chamber, and although the solids 
deposited are allowed to become decomposed in the outer tank the set- 
tled effluent does not become decomposed in its passage through the 
tank. The outer or digestion chamber of this tank has a capacity of 
slightly more than two and one-half times the capacity of the inner 
or settling chamber. At the end of the year the digestion chamber con- 
tained about 8.4 cubic feet of sludge for each million gallons of effluent 
passed through the tank. No sludge was removed from the digestion 
chamber during the year. The average removal of suspended matters 
from the effluent from Filter No. 360 during its passage through 
the tank was about 67 per cent., as shown by albuminoid ammonia de- 
terminations, and the removal of organic matters was about 26 and 14 
per cent., as shown by albuminoid ammonia and oxygen consumed de- 
terminations, respectively. 

Beginning April 1, 1912, the effluent from secondary contact Filter 
No. 443 was passed into a settling tank and allowed to stand one hour 
for sedimentation, after which the supernatant liquor (about 82 per 
cent, of the total volume) was drawn off for application to an intermit- 
tent sand filter. As the system of double contact filters, from which 
the effluent to be passed through this tank comes, is operated in two 
full cycles daily the settling tank is filled twice daily, but the sludge 
accumulating in the bottom of the tank is withdrawn only after the 
second filling each day. The effluent from the secondary contact filter 
when it reached this tank contained a relatively small amount of sus- 
pended matters, and for this reason the percentage removal of suspended 
matters by this tank was much less than that shown by the tank previ- 
ously described which received an effluent containing a considerable 
amount of suspended matters. The settled effluent from this tank, how- 
ever, was of somewhat better quality chemically than tliat from the 



312 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

other tank. The average removal of suspended matters by this tank was 
about 20 per cent., as shown by determinations of albuminoid ammonia, 
and the total reduction of organic matters was about 17 and 13 per cent., 
respectively, as shown by albuminoid ammonia and oxygen consumed 
determinations. 

Intermittent Filtration of Settled Effluents. 
Filters ISTos. 442 and 444 are each ^oooo of an acre in area, and are 
constructed of 4 feet in depth of sand of an effective size of 0.35 milli- 
meter. Filter No. 442 was first put into operation on March 1, 1912, 
and received the settled eflSuent from trickling Filter jSTo. 360 at a rate 
of 200,000 gallons per acre daily until April 1, and at a rate of 400,000 
gallons per acre daily from April 2 until the end of the year. Filter Xo. 
444 was first put into operation on April 1, 1912, and received the set- 
tled effluent from secondary contact Filter No. 443 at a rate of 200,000 
gallons per acre daily until June 10, and after that date at a rate of 
400,000 gallons per acre daily. The clarified effluents were applied to 
each of these filters in two doses at intervals of four hours. No surface 
treatment was required by either filter up to the end of the year. Nitri- 
fication became active in each almost from the start. The trickling filter 
effluent, however, which was applied to Filter No. 442, was much more 
highly oxidized than was the effluent from the double contact filters ap- 
plied to Filter No. 444, which result is apparent in the analyses of the 
effluents, the average increase in nitrates in Filter No. 442 being about 
1.77 parts per 100,000, while that in Filter No. 444 was only about 0.75 
part per 100,000. In the other chemical factors, also, this difference may 
be noted to a certain extent, the average reduction in free and albuminoid 
ammonia by Filter No. 442 being about 74 and 72 per cent., respectively, 
and by Filter No. 444, 87 and 79 per cent., respectively. 

Oomhined Sedimentation and Upward Filtration. 
Filter No. 448, %oooo of an acre in area, was put into operation on 
May 20, 1912. In construction this filter consists of 2 feet in depth 
of pieces of coke between % and %6 of an inch in diameter, supported 1 
foot above the bottom of the tank by a i/g-inch mesh wire screen. For ex- 
perimental purposes the filter material is carried in a separate inner 
tank, of which the wire screen is the bottom, this tank with its con- 
tents being removable for purposes of inspection and removal of sludge. 
An outer ring on the inner tank rests in a cup-shaped ring on the inside 
of the outer tank, making a tight joint and preventing the flow of liquid 
between the walls of the two tanks. This filter was operated at a rate 
of 4,000,000 gallons per acre daily. The effluent from trickling Filter 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATIOX OF SE\YAGE. 



313 



No. 248 flows directly to the sedimentation chamber below the coke, 
where it receives about two hours' storage; it then rises through the 
coke and overflows at the top. For about six months during which this 
fllter was operated no removal of sludge or cleaning of the material was 
required. Judging from the results obtained during the short time the 
filter was in operation, this method for removing suspended matters 
was less efficient than either of the effluent settling tanks previously 
described, although it was somewhat more effective in reducing the total 
organic matters. The average removal of suspended matters by this 
fllter was about 20 per cent., as shown by albuminoid ammonia de- 
terminations, and the total removal of organic matter was about 33 and 
22 per cent., as shown by albuminoid ammonia and oxygen consumed 
determinations, respectively. There was very little nitrification within 
the filter at any time, and the final effluent was always turbid and highly 
colored from tlie iron in the coke. 

The average analyses of the effluents from these different settling 
tanks and final filters are shown in the following table : — 



Average Chemical Analyses. 
Settled Effluent from Trickling Filter A'o. 360 applied to Filter No. 442. 











[Parts per 


100,000.) 














Appear- 
ance. 


1 

- 


Ammonia. 


a 
2 




Nitrogen 

as 


'6 

a 


.s 


Quantity 
applied. 




ALBUMINOID. 


3 













•*J 










'■ iTs 












a 


2 








a 


SS 


Gallons 
per Acre 


>> 








3 


2 

C3 


a 


S 


03 



a 


=s.S 


Daily. 


.? 


o 


6 


■3 


& 


T3 





2 




a 


51 






o 


S 





a 


r? 


-a 


<U 


-fc3 




^0 




Eh 


O 


fa 


H 


i4 





Z 


g 





m 


- 


1.4 


.40 


2.0900 


.2533 


.1960 


0.5172 


15.37 


0.95 


.0178 


1.84 


2,014,400 



Settled Effluent from Contact Filter No. 443 applied to Filter No. 444. 



2.3 



.38 



1.6400 



1901 . 1540 



0.3830 



16.43 1.50 



.0101 



1.36 680,600 



Effluent from Filter No. 442. 



302,900 



0.5 



.17 



! 0.5503 



.0688 



15.50 



2.72 



.0107 



0.62 174,700 



Effluent from Filter No. 444- 



336,000 



0.3 .13 0.2138 



.0432 



16.09 



2.29 



.0106 



0.59 



16,500 



Effluent from Combined Sedimentation and Upward Filtration Tank No. 448. 



4,322,000 



1.0 



.38 



1.1893 



.1752 



.1179 



0.3087 



16.93 



1.76 



0347 1.41 182,100 



314 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Bacterial Efficiency of Sewage Purification Systems. 

In a following table are shown the average numbers of bacteria as 
determined on agar plates incubated four days at 20° C. and of the total 
and red colonies on litmus lactose agar plates incubated eighteen hours 
at 40° C. The significance of these different counts has been discussed 
frequently in preceding reports. That the bacterial counts, as well as 
the chemical results from sewages and effluents from sewage purification 
processes, fluctuate through considerable limits is well known. Wlien 
such results are presented as averages of a large number of examina- 
tions extending over a considerable period of time, however, they indicate, 
as truly as do other analytical data, what may or may not be accom- 
plished by a certain type of sewage purification, and as such have a 
definite comparative value in records of long-term experiments such 
as those which have been in progress at Lawrence during the past 
twenty-five years. 

There was comparatively little difference in the removal of bacteria 
by any of the different clarification processes studied during the year. 
Chemical precipitation was somewhat less efficient than any of the other 
processes, while the greatest bacterial reduction was accomplished by 
coal Strainer E. Of the three settling tanks, the tank filled with layers 
of slate was more effective than either of the open tanks, and the Andover 
settling tank was more efficient than the tank at the experiment station. 
As has been previously pointed out, the solids in the sewage entering the 
Lawrence tank are in a much more finely divided condition than those 
in that entering the Andover tank, and the greater efficiency of the latter 
can be attributed to that fact. 

As in previous years, all of the intermittent sand filters show an aver- 
age bacterial removal of over 99 per cent. Generally speaking, the 
effluents from the larger filters which are situated out of doors and 
operated with untreated sewage have contained somewhat higher num- 
bers of bacteria than have those from the filters which are located within 
the station. Filters ISTos. 2 and 4, which are constructed of fine sand 
and operated at low rates, however, have always yielded effluents during 
the greater part of each year which were comparable in bacterial content 
with the effluents from many water filters, and the results obtained from 
these two filters during 1912 have been no exception to this rule. Of 
the four intermittent filters situated within the station, Filter No. 
429 which received untreated sewage, but which was operated at the 
lowest rate, shows a bacterial removal of 99.99 per cent., a result which 
compares very favorably with the results obtained with the two out of 
door filters of much finer material. 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 315 

In the average results from the various trickling filters a number of 
interesting comparisons may be noted. The removal of bacteria by 
Filter No. 136 was much greater than that by Filter No. 248 which was 
of the same material but of lesser depth, and the average bacterial 
eiBciency of both of these filters was much greater than that of Filter 
No. 360, which was of a depth intermediate between them but con- 
structed of much coarser material. The work of Filter No. 136, which 
was operated at a high rate with a very completely clarified sewage, was 
slightly inferior to that of its companion. Filter No. 135, which was 
identical in construction but operated at a much lower rate with a 
sewage containing a greater proportion of suspended matters. 

As a result of the cleaning of the material in contact Filter No. 1T5, 
a decided change in its bacterial efficiency during the present year was 
noted. During 1911, with the material badly clogged by organic matter, 
this filter showed a removal of well above 80 per cent, of all types of 
bacteria. During the present year, with a clean material, the efficiency 
of this filter dropped to about 49 per cent, as computed from the room 
temperature counts, and about 64 per cent, as shown by the body tem- 
perature counts. These results agree well with those obtained with this 
filter in earlier years, and show that the low bacterial counts obtained 
during 1911 were due, at least in part, to the clogged condition of the 
filter. The effluents from the other eight contact filters show a wide 
difference in bacterial content. Of the four contact filters in which 
the sewage was allowed to remain one, two, four and eight hours, re- 
spectively, the effluent containing the smallest numbers of bacteria was 
obtained from the filter in which the sewage remained the longest time. 
There is little apparent difference in the bacterial efficiency of the three 
contact filters which were respectively operated one, two and three com- 
plete cycles daily, but the method of filling contact filters produced 
some difference in the bacterial efficiency and, as noted in the report 
of last year, the filter to which the sewage was applied slowly by means 
of a tipping basin effected a much greater removal of bacteria than 
the filter which was filled by the usual method or the one which was 
filled from the bottom. From the point of view of bacterial quality 
the contact filters in which both oxidation and reduction processes 
occur cannot begin to compare with the trickling filters in which the 
oxidation is the chief factor in the purification. The secondary contact 
Filter No. 443 was effective in removing nearly 60 per cent, of the total 
bacteria and about 16 per cent, of the body temperature types of bac- 
teria which had passed through the primary contact filter. 

In both of the effluent settling tanks a small reduction in the num- 
bers of bacteria growing at body temperature was noted, although there 



316 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



was an increase in each case in the room temperature counts. The pas- 
sage of these settled effluents through intermittent sand filters resulted 
in a further decrease in the total numbers of bacteria of well over 90 
per cent., and in a reduction in the body temperature counts of 86 to 
93 per cent. The final effluents from these two compound purification 
systems, consisting of settling tank, trickling filter, effluent settling 
tank and final sand filter, and of settling tank, double contact filters, 
effluent settling tank and final sand filter, were in neither case of as 
good bacterial quality as the effluents from the intermittent filters to 
which raw sewage, or sewage which had been treated by some simple 
clarification process, was applied. This is in agreement with the re- 
sults obtained with other compound systems in previous years, and 
confirms the statements which have been frequently made in these re- 
ports that none of the more modern and more complex purification sys- 
tems can equal the simple intermittent sand filter constructed of fine 
material and operated at low rates in bacterial efficiency. 

The average bacterial results of these various sewage disposal pro- 
cesses are shown in the following table : — 



Average Bacterial Efficiency of Sewage-disposal Systems. 
Untreated Sewage. 





Bacteria per Cubic 

Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteria 

REMOVED. 




20° C. 


40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 




Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


Lawrence street sewage, 
Lawrence regular sewage, 
Andover regular sewage, 


2,109,600 
2,665,400 
4,901,200 


360,200 
401,100 
772,700 


317,500 
351,400 
690,000 


- 


— 


- 



Lawrence settling tank, 
Andover settling tank, 
Slate Tank No. 376, . 
Chemical precipitation, 
Strainer E, . 



Preliminary Clarification Treatments. 



1,667,400 
2,520,300 
1,544,600 
1,818,100 
1,245,600 



269,900 
481,900 
324,300 
283,500 
242,600 



246,600 
405,800 
288,700 
257,600 
217,400 



37.30 
48.50 
42.30 
31.80 
53.20 



32.70 
37.60 
19.40 
29.20 
39.50 



29.70 
41.00 
17.70 
26.50 
38.20 



Intermittent Sand Filters. 



No. 1, 
2, 
4, 

5C, 
6, 

9A. 
10, 
429, 
430, 
431, 
432, 



10 



13 

11 

2 

4 

2 
1 
1 



500 
230 
360 
,100 
,400 
,430 
030 
400 
,450 
,300 
,090 



3,900 

15 

8 

4,3.50 

4,300 

500 

290 

8 

1,090 

1,860 

43 



3,200 

11 

6 

4,100 

4,200 

300 

240 

7 

1,015 

1,720 

37 



99.61 
99.99 
99.99 
99.51 
99.57 
99.91 
99.85 
99.99 
99.85 
99.90 
99.94 



99.03 
99.99 

99.99 
98.92 
98.93 
99.88 
99.93 
99.99 
99.60 
99.23 
99.99 



99.09 
99.99 
99.99 
98.83 
98.80 
99.81 
99.93 
99.99 
99.59 
99.21 
99.99 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE. 



Oi / 



Average Bacterial Efficiency of Sewage-disposal Systems — Concluded. 

Trickling Filters. 













Bacteria per Cubic 

Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteria 

REMOVED. 




20° C. 


40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 




Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


No. 135, 


55,700 


6,400 


5,500 


96.67 


97.64 


97.78 


136. 










62,500 


8,000 


6,800 


- 


- 


- 


222, 










223,800 


37,300 


28,400 


91.10 


92.25 


93.00 


24S, 










313,400 


35,500 


31,800 


81.30 


86.85 


87.10 


360A, . 










565,000 


57,100 


46,200 


66.20 


78.90 


81.30 


360B, . 










436,700 


55,600 


43,300 


73.80 


79.40 


82.50 


360C, . 










469,200 


53,100 


46,200 


72.00 


80.35 


81.30 


360 entire, 










490,300 


55,300 


45,200 


70.70 


79.50 


81.70 



No. 443, 

















Contact 


Filters. 










No. 175 


638,800 


86,100 


77,900 


49.00 


64.60 


64.20 


421. 














756,100 


93,500 


76,500 


56.70 


65.40 


69.00 


422, 














923,700 


138,500 


115,600 


44.80 


48.70 


53.00 


423. 














1,244,600 


120,500 


104,900 


25.70 


55.40 


57.50 


424, 














1,175,000 


122,400 


94,300 


29.60 


54.80 


61.90 


425. 














1,340,800 


135,900 


106,600 


19.70 


49.60 


56.70 


426. 














1,235,800 


123,700 


98,900 


25.70 


54.00 


60.00 


427. 














1,088,300 


125,700 


104,400 


34.70 


53.40 


58.00 


428, 














777,100 


94,300 


80,300 


53.50 


65.20 


67.60 



Secondary Contact Filter. 



555,900 



113,700 



98,000 



58.50 



16.00 



.50 



Effluent Settling Tanks. 



Settled eflSuent trickling Filter No. 360, 

Settled effluent secondary contact 
, Filter No. 443. 



2,014,400 
680,600 



43,100 
98,600 



28,300 
81,800 



322.001 

4.451 



22.00 
13.50 



37.50 
16.50 



Combined Effluent Settling Tank and Upward-flow Filter. 



43.40 



Effluent from Filter No. 448. 



182.100 



19,300 



18,000 



41.90 



45.60 



Secondary Intermittent Sand Filters. 



No. 442, 
444, 



174,700 
16,500 



5,900 
6,500 



5,200 
4,970 



91.28 
97.68 



86.30 
93.42 



81.65 
93.93 



' Increase. 



318 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Purification of Water. 



Lawrence City Filters. 

The source of the water supply of the city of Lawrence is the Merri- 
mack Eiver. Two filters are in use to purify this water. The older filter 
was constructed in 1893, and dividing walls separating it into three sec- 
tions were built in 1902. The average depth of sand in this filter is 
about 4 feet, and the net filtering area, after deducting division walls, 
gate-chambers and lateral carriers, is about 2.2 acres. As originally con- 
structed, this filter contained two different grades of sand, the portions 
of the filter immediately over the underdrains being of finer sand than 
the remainder of the filter. Through the operations of scraping, wash- 
ing and replacing sand, the two grades of sand have become quite thor- 
oughly mixed in the upper layers of the filter, and at the present time 
this upper sand has an effective size of approximately 0.25 millimeter. 
This filter is not covered and has an earth bottom through which some 
ground water finds its way into the underdrains and becomes mixed with 
the filtered water. The average rate of operation during the past few 
years has been about 1,000,000 gallons per acre daily. 

During 1906 and 1907 an additional filter was constructed to supple- 
ment the supply of filtered water from the old filter. This filter, which 
is three-quarters of an acre in area and contains about 4^/2 feet in depth 
of sand of an effective size of 0.25 millimeter, is of concrete construction, 
has a concrete bottom and is covered. It was first put into operation on 
ISTov. 4, 1907, but the filtered water was not used until Jan. 4, 1908. 
The average rate of operation during 1912 has been about 3,000,000 
gallons per acre daily. The effluents from both of these filters flow 
into the same pump-well from which they are pumped into the distribut- 



ing reservoir. 



During the greater part of the year it is estimated that approximately 
half of the entire volume of filtered water which is pumped to the reser- 
voir is supplied by the covered filter. As neither of the two filters is 
equipped with rate-controlling apparatus nor with loss of head gauges, 
it is not possible to determine the actual rate of either filter at any time. 
During the winter months the ice accumulates upon the uncovered filter, 
and it is not alwa,ys possible to scrape the surface of this filter when it 
becomes clogged; there is little doubt that at such times the quantity of 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



319 



water passed by this filter is greatly reduced and that the deficiency is 
supplied by forcing the covered filter. This is shown by the difference 
in the scraping record of the two filters during the winter. Between 
Jan. 1 and March 15, 1912, the surface of the covered filter was scraped 
five times, or at an average interval of about once in two weeks. During 
the same time 14 of the 25 beds into which the uncovered filter is 
divided were scraped twice, 3 other beds were scraped once, and 8 beds, 
or about one-third of the surface, received no surface treatment of any 
kind whatever. 

The average number of bacteria in the effluent from the uncovered 
filter during the entire year was 36 per cubic centimeter, and in the 
effluent from the covered filter was 58 per cubic centimeter, these figures 
corresponding to removals of 99.6 and 99.3 per cent., respectively. An 
inspection of the daily results, however, shows a considerable difference 
in the bacterial quality of the effluents from these two filters during the 
winter months when the covered filter was being forced to make up the 
deficiency in the volume of water which could be passed through the 
older filter. Samples containing more than 100 bacteria per cubic centi- 
meter were occasionally obtained from the uncovered filter throughout 
the year, but the proportion of such samples from this filter was no 
greater during the winter than during the summer, and in none of these 
samples were the numbers of bacteria excessively high. In the case of 
the uncovered filter, however, while samples containing more than 100 
bacteria per cubic centimeter were found only occasionally during the 
summer, during the period from January 1 to March 15 the counts on 
more than one-half of the samples were above this limit, while during 
January only one sample was obtained which contained less than 100 
bacteria per cubic centimeter, and the average for the month was about 
200 per cubic centimeter. 

The average analyses of samples from these two filters, and from other 
points on the water supply system, are shown in the following tables : — 

Average Chemical Analyses. 

Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filters. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



09 


Appear- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•6 

g 








ance. 




ALBUMINOID. 


A.S 


i 


a £ 














o 


■S IB 

s 




C 

o 


6 


"3 
..J 


a 
1 





TO 

a 
1 


1 


a 

8 

c 
o 
be 


d 


i 

o 

a 

s 


a 

1 

a 


o 




o 


£ 


o 


a 


J3 








P 




o 


H 


H 


O 


b 


H 


o 


•z 


s 


O 


»-H 


1— 1 


M 


52 


0.4 


.21 


.0178 


.0235 .0195 


.35 

1 


j .019 


.0004 


.60 


.0563 


1.2 


2.1 



320 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Chemical Analyses — Concluded. 

Effluent from the Lawrence City Filler (Old Filter) . 
(Parts per 100,000.1 



fe 


Appear- 


Ammonia. 




i 
Nitrogen 


H 

3 








ance. 






AS 




s 






ALBUMINOID. 










CO 


o o 






















O 


3 to 


>> 








a 
o 








a 
8 




en 


a 
■2 














o 




• 






M 


t« 




i 


8 


i 


1 


a 


1 


s 


g 


a 


a 
V 




Eh 


3 


o 
O 


I 


^ 


a 
1— ( 


O 


2; 


■^ 


o 




X 





54 


0.0 


.18 


.0143 


.0097 


- 


.46 


.037 


.0003 


.41 


.1192 


1.7 


2.8 



Effluent from the Lawrence City Filter {New Filter). 



53 



0.0 


.16 


.0071 


.0108 




.43 


.029 



.0001 1| .44 



.0308 I 1.2 



2.2 



Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 



53 0.0 .21 .0067 



.0109 



.44 



.035 



.0002 



41 .0704 1.4 2.5 



Water fro7n a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 



53 0.1 .25 I .0053 .0122 



.44 



.040 .0001 



.40 .1107 



1.4 



2.5 



Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 



53 .21 .0039 .0104 



.44 



038 .0001 .37 



.0807 1.2 2.5 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 
Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filters. 



Bacteri.\ per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteri.^ 
re.moved. 


Per Cent, of 

S.iMPLES 




40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


containing B. Coli. 


20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


1 c. c. 


100 c. c. 


8,300 175 


120 


- 


- 


- 


100 


100.0 



36 



Effluent froin the Lawrence City Filter {Old Filter). 



99.6 



96.0 



97.5 



8.8 



Sl.O 



Effluent from the Laurence City Filter {Nciv Filter). 



58 



10 



99.7 



94.3 



95.0 



21.7 



81 2 



Xo. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



321 



Average Bacterial Analyses — Concluded. 

Mixed Effluents as pumped to Distributing Reservoir. 



Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteria, 
removed. 


Per Cent, op 

Samples 




40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


containing B. Coli. 


20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


1 c. c. 


100 c. c. 


43 


10 


5 


- 


- 


- 


16.9 


83.9 



Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 



47 



15.0 



77.5 



Water from a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 



52 



10.0 



77.1 



Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 



40 



9.0 



71.6 



Average Solids. 

Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filters. 
[Parts per 100,000.) 



Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on ^. ^ 
Igmtion. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


6.5 


2.7 


3.8 


5.7 


2.4 


3.3 


0.8 


0.3 


0.5 



Effluent from the Lawrence City Filter (Old Filter) . 



6.2 


2.4 


3.8 


- ! - 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


Effluent from the Lawrence City Filter (New Filter) . 


5.3 


2.1 


3.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 


5.9 


2.3 


3.6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Water from a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 


6.2 


2.5 


3.7 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 


5.9 


2.4 


3.5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



322 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Slow Sand Filters. 
Filters Nos. 8A and 31^3. 

Filter No. 8A, ^^00 of an acre in area and first put into operation on 
Sept. 26, 1893, contained about 26 inches in depth of sand of an effective 
size of 0.28 millimeter at the beginning of the year. The average rate 
of oi^eration during 1912 was 2,915,000 gallons per acre daily. During 
the year this filter was scraped to relieve clogging ten times, the total 
amount of sand removed by scraping being about 4.5 inches, an average 
removal of about 0.45 of an inch of sand at each scraping, or about three- 
fourths of a cubic yard for each million gallons of water filtered during 
the year. The average volume of water filtered between scrapings was 
about 80,000,000 gallons per acre, the average time between scrapings 
being about twenty-nine days. The longest run of the filter was from 
February 28 to June 15, when the filter was operated at the prescribed 
rate for seventy-five days without scraping, about 218,000,000 gallons of 
water per acre being filtered in this period. The shortest run of the 
filter immediately followed the longest run, the interval before scraping 
was again necessary, being fifteen da3^s, during which about 37,000,000 
gallons per acre were filtered. 

Filter No. 343, 34oooo of an acre in area, was first put into operation 
on March 27, 1908, and contained about 33 inches in depth of sand of 
an eft'ective size of 0.35 millimeter at the beginning of the year. The 
average rate of operation during 1912 was 5,204,000 gallons per acre 
daily. The surface of this filter was washed 12 times during the year, 
the average interval between washings being twenty-nine days and the 
average amount of water filtered between washings being about 147,000,- 
000 gallons per acre. The longest period during which the filter could 
be operated at the prescribed rate was from April 27 to July 2, a period 
of sixty-five days, during which about 343,000,000 gallons of water 
per acre were passed by the filter. As was the case with Filter No. 8A 
the shortest run of the filter immediately followed the longest run, when 
during a working period of nine days about 48,000,000 gallons per acre 
were filtered before surface washing was again necessary. 

In point of bacterial efficiency Filter No. 343, constructed of coarser 
sand and operated at a higher rate, was superior to the older filter. 
As has been the practice at the experiment station, the sand removed 
from Filter No. 8A by scraping has not been replaced by clean sand 
according to the usual custom with large filters, and the inferior bac- 
terial efficiency of this filter is undoubtedly due to the fact that the depth 
of the filtering medium has been reduced below the limit of safety. This 



No. 



34.] 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



323 



effect is particularly noticeable as the result of scraping during the 
Avinter season, high bacterial counts being invariably obtained on samples 
collected during the first few days after the scrapings in December, 
January, February and March, although found less frequently following 
scraping during the warmer months. The necessity of maintaining a 
sufficient depth of filtering material — especially during the cold weather 
when the biological activity, upon wliich filters of this type depend for 
.their efficienc}', is at its lowest ebb — has been emphasized in these re- 
ports many times, and a striking example of the failure of an inadequate 
depth of material is furnished by the experience with this filter. 

The average analyses of the canal water applied to all of the various 
experimental water filters, and of the effluents from these two filters, 
are shown in the following tables : — 

Average Chemical Analyses. 

Canal Water (Merrimack River Water). 
[Parts per 100,000.) 



Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 



J; M 

3 CD 



a 



51 



Appear- 
ance. 



IS 

3 



0.2 






.20 



Ammonia. 



ALBUMINOID. 



o 



o 



.0142 ' .0211 .0174 



.a 
O 



.43 



Nitrogen 

AS 



.019 



.0004 



a 
o 
o 

a 
o 
bO 
>> 

X 

O 



O o 



O QJ c3 

a 



.60 



47.7 



c 

•73 
u 



1.2 



Effluent from Filter No. 8 A. 


2,915,000 


52 


0.0 


.15 


.0036 


.0101 




.44 


.035 


.0002 


.44 


34.1 


1.1 


Effluent from Filter No. 343. 


5,204,000 


54 


0.0 


.17 


.0062 


.0107 


- 


.42 


.024 


.0001 


.46 


29.1 


1.1 





Average Bacterial Analyses. 

Canal Water {Merrimack River Water). 



B.VCTERIA PER CUBIC CENTIMETER. 


Per Cent, op Bacteria removed. 


Per Cent, op 
Sample.s 




40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


containing 
B. CoLi. 


20»C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


1 c. c. 


6,300 


200 


150 


- 


- 


- 


100.0 



324 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Bacterial Analyses — Concluded. 
Effluent from Filter No. 8 A. 



Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteria removed. 


Per Cent, of 
Samples 




40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


containing 
B. CoLi. 


20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


1 c. c. 


153 


28 


17 


97.6 


86,0 


88.7 


23.8 



Effluent from Filter No. 343. 



70 



16 



92.0 



94.0 



38.6 



Comparison of Sand Filters operated at Different Eates. 

Filters Nos. J^ll , 418, 419 and 420. 

On Dec. 28, 1910, four filters were put into operation in order to 
study comparatively the effect of the rate of operation upon the hygienic 
eflBcienc}' and operating economy of water filters of the so-called " slow 
sand " type. As originally constructed each of these filters contained 54 
inches in depth of sand of an effective size of 0.25 millimeter. Through 
the operations of surface washing and occasional scraping the depth of 
sand in these filters was somewhat reduced, and at the heginning of the 
present year the depth of sand in Filter No. 417 was 51 inches, in Filter 
No. 418, 49 inches, in Filter No. 419, 46 inches and in Filter No. 420, 
43 inches. From the start, and continuing through 1912, Filter No. 
417 has been operated at a theoretical rate of 2,500,000 gallons per acre 
daily; Filter No. 418 at a rate of 5,000,000 gallons per acre daily; Filter 
No. 419 at a rate of 10,000,000 gallons per acre daily; and Filter No. 
420 at a rate of 20,000,000 gallons per acre daily. 

In the practical operation of water filters the question of the rate of 
filtration in its relation to the time and labor required to maintain the 
filter at the prescribed rate is of the utmost importance. A satisfactory 
purification of the water being the paramount issue, the filter by which 
that purification can be accomplished with the least care and expense 
is the one which is of the most practical value. From this viewpoint the 
records of the operation of these four filters furnish a valuable and in- 
structive lesson. As has been the custom with many of the experimental 
filters operated at the station during recent years, it has been the prac- 
tice to remove clogging matters from the surface of these filters when 
necessary by what is generally known as the " Brooklyn method ; " that 



No. 34.J PURIFICATION OF WATER. 325 

is, by washing the surface of the sand in place, the clogging materials 
being removed by a shallow current of unfiltered water flowing across 
the surface of the filter while the sand is agitated with a rake to a depth 
of about 1 inch. During the year Filter No. 417, operating at a rate 
of 2,500,000 gallons per acre, was Avashed six times; Filter No. 418, 
operating at a rate of 5,000,000 gallons, was washed nine times; Filter 
No. 419, operating at a 10,000,000 gallon rate, was washed fifty-six times; 
and Filter No. 420, which it was attempted to operate at a 20,000,000 
gallon rate, was washed one hundred and eight times. 

The average period during which Filter No. 417 would be operated 
without washing was about sixty-five days, and there were two intervals, 
April 3 to June 29, and August 19 to November 22, during which the 
filter was operated for periods of eighty-four days without surface treat- 
ment being necessary. The average volume of water filtered between 
washings was about 159,000,000 gallons per acre, while during each of 
the two eighty-four day intervals over 200,000,000 gallons of water per 
acre were passed by the filter. The smallest interval between washings 
was thirty-seven days, from December IG to January 23, in which ahout 
93,000,000 gallons per acre were filtered by this filter. The average 
interval between washings on Filter No. 418 was thirty-seven days, 
and the average volume of water fi.ltered between washings was about 
190,000,000 gallons per acre. The shortest run of this filter was seven 
days, from February 24 to March 3, when only about 37,000,000 gallons 
of water per acre were filtered, while the longest run of the filter, lasting 
from March 3 to June 28, one hundred and fourteen working days, in 
which about 585,000,000 gallons of water per acre were filtered, fol- 
lowed immediately after the shortest run. 

On Filter No. 419 the average interval between washings was about 
five days, and the average volume of water filtered per washing was 
about 57,000,000 gallons per acre. The longest run of this filter was 
from August 30 to October 22, a period of forty-three days, during 
which about 397,000,000 gallons of Avater were filtered per acre. There 
were eight runs of this filter, however, which lasted only about twenty- 
four hours, and eight other runs wdien it was necessary to wash the 
filter after an interval of only two days. In fact, during the period from 
May 15 to June 26 it was necessary to wash this filter at an average 
interval of about once in thirty-six hours, and during this period the 
average volume of water filtered per run was only about 12,000,000 gal- 
lons per acre. It was necessary to wash the surface of Filter No. 420 
on an average of about once in two days throughout the year. On five 
different dates it was necessary to wash this filter twice in one day, 
and 37 otlier runs of the filter lasted only about twenty-four hours. 



326 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The longest run of this filter at any time during the year was only 
eleven days, and on only 5 runs during the year was the interval between 
washings five days or more. The average volume of water passed by 
this filter between washings was only about 51,000,000 gallons per acre, 
the maximum amount filtered during any single run being about 204,- 
000,000 gallons per acre. 

Comparing the average volumes of water passed by each of these 
filters between washings, it will be noted that the volume passed by 
Filter No. 418, which was operated at a rate of 5,000,000 gallons per 
acre daily, was about 20 per cent, larger than that from Filter No. 417 
which was operated at a rate only one-half as great, and almost four 
times as great as the average amounts per run filtered by Nos. 419 and 
420 which were operated at rates two and four times as high, respectively. 
Both in the time interval and in volume of water filtered between wash- 
ings a striking difference is to be noted between the two filters operated 
at the 5,000,000 and 10,000,000 gallon rates. It is quite evident, there- 
fore, that somewhere between 5,000,000 and 10,000,000 gallons per 
acre daily lies the rate at which it would be most economical to operate 
filters of the type under discussion. With frequent attention to the 
surface it is possible to operate such a filter, as was shown by Filter No. 
419, at a rate of 10,000,000 gallons per acre daily, although at some- 
what increased expenditure for cleaning. Even with the very frequent 
surface treatment which it received, however, it was impossible to main- 
tain a rate of 20,000,000 gallons per acre daily with Filter No. 420, 
and the average amount of water which could be obtained through this 
filter was less than 17,000,000 gallons per acre dail}'. 

As was explained in the last report, the comparative bacterial re- 
sults on these four filters have been somewhat disappointing, owing to 
the fact that secondary growths of bacteria have occurred from time to 
time within the filters, resulting in high numbers of bacteria in the 
effluents which have entirely obscured the relative removal of the usual 
water bacteria. For this reason the average room temperature counts 
on all of these filters are higher than those usually found in the effluents 
from properly designed and operated water filters, and the highest re- 
sult is to be observed in tlie effluent from the filter which was operated al 
the lowest rate. In the elimination of the types of bacteria growing at 
body temperature, however, the best result was obtained with the filter 
operating at the lowest rate and the poorest result with that operating 
at the highest rate, although the differences are relatively small. While 
the average body temperature counts are not higher than those frequently 
found in many reasonably good water supplies, much higher counts were 
found at times, and in this respect the effluent from Filters Nos. 419 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



327 



and 420 was at times far above the limit wliich is generally considered 
safe. In the removal of B. coli, a regular gradation is to be observed 
in the results, the relative occurrence of that organism in the filtered 
water increasing with tlie rates at which the different filters were oper- 
ated. A similar efl'ect is to be noted in the chemical quality of the 
effluents from these filters, in general the amounts of color, free am- 
monia and albuminoid ammonia being higher as the rate of filtration 
increased. Incidentally, also, the amounts of nitrates in these effluents 
also increase with the rates, although the reverse might have been pre- 
dicted from the other chemical results. 

The average chemical and bacterial analyses of the effluents from these 
four filters are shown in the following tables : — 



Average Bacterial Aiialyscs. 

Effluent from Filter No. 417. 



Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteria removed. 


Per Cent, of 
Samples 




40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


containing 
B. Coli. 


20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


1 0. c. 


560 


7 


3 


91.1 


96.5 


98.0 


17.4 



130 



10 



Effluent from Filter No. 4I8. 



97. 



95.0 



97.3 



21.7 



105 



Effluent from Filter No. 419. 



98.3 



95.5 



97.3 



27.5 



120 



Effluent from Filter No. 420. 



It 



98.1 



94.5 



96.0 



39.1 



Average Chemical Analyses. 

Effluent from Filter No. 417. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


B 

Eh 


Appear- 
ance. 


Ammonia. 


a 
*c 



J3 



Nitrogen 
as 


i 

i 









Dissolved Oxygen 
(Per Cent, of Sat- 
uration). 




..J 
H 





6 


1 

3 
XI . 

P 


i 

•4-3 

1 

2 


i 


a 

1 


2,494,000 


52 


1.0 


.14 


.0052 


.0111 


.43 


.026 


.0005 


.45 


30.7 


1,1 



328 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Chemical Analyses — Concluded. 

Effluent from Filter No. 4I8. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Quantity 


S 


Appear- 
ance. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

3 


^0 




applied. 
Gallons 


2 

s 


>. 






5^3 









a 




Ived 
r Cent, 
tion). 


orj 


per Acre 


tH — ' 

a) 


-a 






<o 


a 


1 





c 



fl 


Daily. 


a 









■3-9 
H 


_2 




1 


i5 





Disso 
(Pe 
lira 


-2 


5,153,000 


52 


0.0 


.15 


.0056 


.0113 


.43 


.029 


.0004 


.46 


34.0 


1.1 



Effluent from Filter No. 419. 



9,558,000 



52 



0.0 



16 .0057 



.0112 



.43 



030 .0003 



.47 



34.9 



1.1 



Effluent from Filter No. 420. 



16,826,000 



52 



0.0 



.15 



.0076 



.0130 



.43 



.033 



.0003 



.46 



38.4 



1.1 



DouuLE Filtration. 

Clarification by Uimard Filtration through Coarse Material followed by 
Sand Filtration. Filters Nos. 389 and 286. 
Filter No. 389, ){>ooo of ^"^ ^^cre in area, was first put into operation 
on April 14, 1910. This filter is constructed of 6 inches in depth of 
wood charcoal supported upon a %-inch mesh galvanized wire screen 
placed 12 inches above the bottom of the tank. Overlying the charcoal 
and separated from it by a Vs-inch mesh copper screen is 24 inches in 
depth of broken stone pebbles of an effective size of 4.4 millimeters. 
The canal water enters at the bottom, passes upward through the filter 
material, and overflows through an orifice placed 3 inches above the 
surface of the stone, the available loss of head with the filter in operation 
being about 10 inches. From April 6 to Dec. 1, 1911, this filter was not 
operated, but on December 2 it was again put into operation at a rate of 
5,000,000 gallons per acre daily. On January 15 the rate was increased 
to 7,500,000 gallons, and on February 1 the rate was again increased to 
10,000,000 gallons per acre daily, at which rate the filter was operated 
during the remainder of the year. Wlien the filter becomes clogged 
to such an extent that the water will not pass through at the prescribed 
rate, it has been the practice to remove the clogging matters by revers- 
ing the flow through the filter for a short time. Upon starting, the filter 
was operated for a period of seventy-nine daj^s before washing by re- 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF WATER. 329 

versed flow became necessary, Since that time, however, it has been 
necessary to reverse the current about once in six days, or thirty-three 
times during the year, the maximum period during which the filter 
could be operated without washing being about eighteen days. The aver- 
age volume of water filtered between wasliings has been about 65,000,000 
gallons per acre, and the maximum quantity filtered during any single 
run was about 159,000,000 gallons per acre. 

Secondary Filter No. 286 was first put into operation on Jan. 20, 
1906. Tliis filter is y20ooo of an acre in area, and in 1912 contained 
about 31 inches in depth of sand of an effective size of about 0.21 milli- 
meter. During the past few years Filter No. 286 has been operated as 
a secondary filter, receiving the effluent from pre-Filter No. 331. Be- 
ginning January 22, and continuing throughout the year, the effluent 
from upward-flow Filter No. 389 has been applied to Filter No. 286 at 
a rate of 5,000,000 gallons per acre daily. As was the custom with the 
earlier water filters at the station, the surface of this filter has always 
been scraped when necessary to relieve clogging, but since the filter has 
usually received water which has already been filtered, surface treat- 
ment has been required only at comparatively infrequent intervals. Dur- 
ing the period from December 1 to July 2 the surface of this filter was 
scraped six times, or on an average of about once in thirty-one days, 
the average volumxe of water passed between scrapings being about 1-13,- 
000,000 gallons per acre. After scraping on July 2 no further surface 
treatment of this filter was needed during the remainder of the year, a 
period of one-hundred and forty-seven working days, in which tlie filter 
passed over 600,000,000 gallons of water per acre. 

The bacterial results obtained with Filter No. 389 after its long rest 
were much the same as would have been obtained with a new filter. 
During December and Janviary, however, this filter gradually came into 
maturity, and during the remainder of the year the results were re- 
markable when the depth and character of the filtering material are 
taken into consideration. During the last ten months of the year the 
average reduction in the room temperature counts was over 92 per cent., 
the reduction in the bocly temperature counts was about 83 per cent., 
and about 45 per cent, of the samples were free from B. coli, as shown 
by tests of 1 cubic centimeter. In March, April and June the room 
temperature counts on samples from this filter were as low as those 
which have been obtained on the effluents from many sand filters operated 
at much lower rates, while during May B. coli were not found in any of 
the samples. The body temperature counts, however, have never been 
sufficiently low to permit the effluent from this filter to be classed with 
those from good sand filters. 



330 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The effluent from Filter No. 389 has been collected and pumped at 
intervals to a supply tank, from which it has been applied to secondary 
Filter No. 286. After storage in these tanks an increase has been fre- 
quently noted in the room temperature counts, and also at times in the 
body temperature counts, and in the relative occurrence of B. coli in the 
water. During the last ten months of the jeax the increase in the room 
temperature counts ranged from 75 to over 4,000 per cent., and averaged 
about 650 per cent. During five of these ten months there was a de- 
crease varying from 7 to over 60 per cent, in the body temperature 
counts on this water after storage, but during the remaining five months 
there was an increase in these counts varying from 8 to about 270 per 
cent. During July and October also, B. coli were found somewhat more 
frequently in the stored water than in the effluent from the filter. The 
multiplication of bacteria capable of growing at body temperature in 
this storage tank is of particular significance. It is quite generally 
recognized that there may be a large increase in the numbers of bacteria 
in water during storage, but is has generally been assumed that such 
bacteria were harmless saphrophytic forms, and that the types of bac- 
teria which grow at body temperature were incapable of multiplication 
in water at the usual temperatures. This assumption has hitherto been 
based upon the results of qualitative tests for organisms of the colon 
tj'pe, and has been unsupported by regular quantitative counts. The 
results obtained in this experiment, however, are conclusive evidence 
that the types of bacteria which are determined on the body tempera- 
ture plates can, and under certain conditions do, multiply in water 
during storage, and, furthermore, this evidence is supported by the re- 
sults of the qualitative B. coli tests. As to whether any of the disease- 
producing types would multiply under the same conditions cannot be 
determined, but it is more reasonable to assume that they might do so 
than to assu]ne that they are incapable of doing so. During the four 
months March to June, inclusive, the effluent from Filter No. 286 con- 
tained low numbers of bacteria and was generally of good qualit3\ Dur- 
ing the remainder of the year, however, the bacterial efficiency of the 
filter has been low, and high counts at both temperatures have been the 
rule. This may be attributed in part to the fact that there was prac- 
tically no suspended matter in the applied water to build up a surface 
film on the filter, and that the applied water contained relatively large 
numbers of bacteria which were able to pass through the filter practi- 
cally unchecked. This period of low bacterial efficiency coincides with 
the long period previously mentioned, when the filter was operated with- 
out surface treatment being necessary. The high numbers of bacteria 
in the effluent from the filter cannot be ascribed to growths within the 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



331 



filter as in the case of Filters Nos. 417 to 420, inclusive, previously noted, 
for although an increase in the bacterial content of the water during its 
passage through this filter was noted in a few instances, the specific 
types of bacteria always present whcm such growths have been noted in 
other filters were absent from the plates made from samples obtained 
from this filter. 

The average analyses of the efllueiits from these two filters are shown 
in the following tables : — 

Average Chemical Analyses. 

Effluent from Roughing Filter No. 389. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 



Quantity 


ft 

e 

o 


APPE.4R- 
ANCE. 


Ammonia. 


o 

.2 

'u 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


Oxygen consumed. 


cn 

s 

a 
1 


Dissolved Oxv(?cn 
(Per Cent, of Sat- 
uration). 


applied. 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


i 

^ 

1 
^ 


u 

o 
O 


£ 


1 

3 
Si 

< 


s 




9,221,000 


55 


0.1 


.19 


.0057 


.0149 


.41 


.032 


.0001 


.53 


1.1 


39.1 



Effluent from Secondary Filter No. 286. 



4,956,000 



56 



0.0 



.15 



.0032 



.0104 



.44 



.032 



.0000 



.44 



1.2 



49.8 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 

Effluent from Roughing Filter No. 389. 



Bacteri.v per Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of Bacteria removed. 


Per Cent, or 
Samples 




40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


containing 
B. CoLi. 


20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


1 c. c. 


370 


34 


22 


92.5 


83.0 


84.8 


54.9 



Effluent from Filter No. 389 after Storage as applied to Filter No. 286. 



2,800 



46 



30 



650.01 



35.01 



36.01 



45.3 



Effluent from Secondary Filter No. 286. 



550 



15 



80.4 



67.4 



76.7 



32.3. 



Note. — These averages are for February to November, inclusive. 
1 Percentage increase during storage. 



332 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Eapid Filtration with Ferric Sulphate as a Coagulant. 

Filter No. 336. 

Filter No. 336, V4')0<)0 of an acre in area and constructed of 24 inches 
in depth of sand of an effective size of 0.35 milHrneter, was iirst put into 
operation on Dec. 11, 1907. In previous years the water applied to this 
filter has been treated with sulphate of alumina and soda ash before filtra- 
tion. In 1909 some studies with another filter indicated that a success- 
ful coagulation of the water could be obtained with ferric sulphate, 
and that with this coagulant the addition of soda ash or other alkali 
to the water was not necessary. Throughout 1912 ferric sulphate has 
been used as a coagulant for the water applied to Filter No. 336, the 
amounts added being varied to determine the effect of varying condi- 
tions in the process. 

From December 13 to January 14, inclusive, the filter was operated 
at a rate of 100,000,000 gallons per acre daily, and ferric sulphate 
was added to the water in amounts varying from 1.5 to 2.25 grains per 
gallon. Operating at this rate there was a i^eriod of about 3% hours 
for coagulation and sedimentation before the treated water entered the 
filter. With the smaller amounts of coagulant the removal of bacteria 
and organic matter by the filter was comparatively slight, while with 
the larger amounts the coagulant was only partly decomposed and the 
filtered water was badly discolored with iron. As it was evident that 
ihe lime allowed for the reaction of the coagulant with the water was 
altogether too short, on January 15 the rate of the filter was reduced to 
50,000,000 gallons per acre daily, and the coagulation period thereby 
increased to about six and one-half hours. From January 15 to March 
3 ferric sulphate was added to the applied water in the proportion of 
4.5 grains per gallon; from March 4 to May 23 in the proportion of 
3.5 grains per gallon ; and from May 24 to July 24 in the proportion of 
2.5 grains per gallon. During each of these periods the filter effluent was 
low in color, bright and of good appearance, and it was evident that the 
reactions between the ferric sulphate and the water were being completed 
in the coagulation basin. In all three periods, also, the removal of the 
types of bacteria determined at body temperature was entirely satis- 
factory, and B. coli were seldom found in the filtered water. The re- 
duction in the room temperature coxmts-, however, was not entirely sat- 
isfactory during the first period, although during the last two periods 
Avhen smaller amounts of chemical were used the total bacterial efficiency 
of the process was over 99 per cent., and the effluent was uniformly 
of good bacterial quality. From July 24 to October 1 the amount of 



No. 34.] PURIFICATION OF WATER. 333 

coagulant added was reduced to 1.5 ^'ains per gallon. With the smaller 
amounts of chemical an increase occurred in the bacteria in both the 
effluent from the coagulation basin and the effluent from the filter, and 
most: of the samples were of poor quality. During this period, also, the 
effluent from the filter was stained with iron, and it was apparent that 
the decomposition and removal of the ferric sulphate was incomplete. 
On October 2 the proportion of ferric sulphate was increased to 2.0 
grains per gallon, and tins was the amount used until the end of the 
year. During this period the removal of bacteria by this process was 
less than 75 per cent., and the majority of the samples of the filter 
effluent were stained with iron. 

These studies show that ferric sulphate may be used as a coagulant 
for waters such as the Merrimaclc Eiver, but that inasmuch as the re- 
actions between the water and the ferric sulphate require much more 
time than is the case with sulphate of alumina, much larger coagula- 
tion basins must be provided or the filters must be operated at cor- 
respondingly lower rates. The use of ferric sulphate as a coagulant 
in water filtration has received little attention, and the different fac- 
tors which influence its reactions with the dissolved matters in waters 
are comparatively unknown. That these reactions may be completed 
in maDy cases without the addition of alkalies to the water is proved 
by the excellent results obtained during the summer, when the alkali 
naturally present in the river water was entirely destroyed and the 
effluent from the coagulation basin was acid. During later periods, 
however, the coagulant was not completely decomposed in the water, 
although apparently there was sufficient alkali present for the purpose. 
Much more study of the process under a variety of conditions and a 
thorough investigation of the chemistry of the process are necessary 
before the conditions under which a uniformly satisfactory coagulation 
of water by this chemical can be determined. 

Owing to its unstable nature, ferric sulphate is not a commercial pro- 
duct, but its production from copperas could be accomplished in the 
chemical tanks common at any rapid filtration plant without serious 
difficulty. The ferric sulphate used in these experiments was prepared 
in the laboratory by the oxidation of commercial copperas with nitric 
acid with the addition of the theoretical amount of commercial sul- 
phuric acid. Prepared in this manner, the cost of ferric sulphate at 
Lawrence would be about $34 per ton, but with proper facilities this 
cost might be reduced to about $27 per ton by the use of commercial 
sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid instead of nitric acid. On the basis 
of $34 per ton during the periods when satisfactory coagulation was 



334 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



obtained, the cost for ferric sulphate would have been about $6 per 
million gallons, or about $1.42 per million gallons more than for the 
amounts of sulphate of alumina and soda ash which previous experience 
has shown it would have been necessary to use. 

The average results obtained during the different periods are shown 
in the following tables: — 

Average Operating Results. 





Rate 

(Million 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily). 


Coagula- 
tion 
Period 
(Hours). 


Coagulant. 


Average per Run. 


1911-12. 


Grains 

per 
Gallon. 


Cost ' per 
Million 
Gallons. 


TIME. 


Million 




Hours. 


Minutes. 


Gallons 
per Acre. 


Dec. 13-Jan. 14, 
Jan. 15-Mar. 3, . 
Mar. 4-May 23, . 
May 24-July 24, 
July 25-Oct. 1, . 
Oct. 2-Nov. 30, 


100 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 


3,25 
6.50 
6.50 
6.50 
6.50 
6.50 


2.0 
4.5 
3.5 
2.5 
1.5 
2.0 


$4 86 

10 93 

8 50 

6 07 

3 64 

4 86 


3 
8 
14 
19 
13 
14 


23 
51 
52 
43 

19 


14.9 
18.6 
32.1 
41.2 
27.2 
29.9 



1 Ferric sulphate at S34 per ton. 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 





Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent, of 




merrimack 
river water. 


effluent 
from coagula- 
tion basin. 


effluent 
prom filter. 

1 


Samples 
containing b. 

COLI IN 1 C. C. 


1911-12. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


Effluent 
Coagu- 
lation 
Basin. 




- 


"a 
o 


■a 


3 

o 


T3 


1 




Effluent 
Filter. 


Dec. 13-Jan. 14, . 
Jan. 15-Mar. 3, . 
Mar. 4-May 23, . 
May 24-July 24, . 
July 2.5-Oct. 1, . 
Oct. 2-Nov. 30, . 


17,900 
6,000 
4,500 
3,600 
4,900 
7,500 


220 
135 
160 
250 
210 
260 


185 
90 
110 
160 
150 
205 


21,500 

1,200 

350 

85 

2,100 

5,000 


63 
13 
17 
13 
55 
69 


50 
8 

11 
8 

37 

54 


12,100 

420 

43 

15 

610 

2,000 


29 

1 
2 

3 
19 
44 


25 
1 
1 
2 

15 
36 


100.0 
45.4 
15.1 
47.5 
78.5 
85.7 


95.3 
3.0 
0.0 
17.5 
62.8 
81.0 



No. 34.] 



PURIFICATION OF WATER. 



335 



Percentage Removal of Bacteria. 





By Coagulation 
Basin. 


By Filter. 


By Entire System. 


1911-12. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


20° C. 


40° C. j 


20° C. 


40° C. 




Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


Dec. 13-Jan. 14, 
Jan. 15-Mar. 3, • . 
Mar. 4-May 23, 
May 24-JuIy 24, 
July 25-Oct. 1, 
Oct. 2-Nov. 30, 


20.0' 

80.0 

92.3 

97.8 

57.2 

33.3 


71.4 
90.5 
89.5 
95.0 
73.8 
73.5 


73.0 
91.0 
90.0 
95.0 
75.4 
73.6 


43.7 
65.0 

87.7 
82.3 
71.0 
60.0 


53.9 
92.2 
88.3 
77.0 
65.5 
36.2 


50.0 
87.5 
91.0 
75.0 
59.5 
33.3 


32.4 
93.0 
99.1 
99.6 
87.6 
73.4 


86.8 
99.9 
98.8 
98.8 
91.9 
83.1 


86.5 
98.9 
99.1 
98.8 
90.0 
82.4 



' Per cent, increase. 



Average Chemical Analyses. 

Effluent from Coagulation Basin. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





Color. 


Ammonia. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Nitrogen as 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Hard- 


1911-12. 


Free. 


Albu- 
minoid. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Ni- 
trites. 


ness. 


Dec. 13-Jan. 14, 
Jan. 15-Mar. 3, 
Mar. 4-May 23, 
May 24-July 24, 
July 24-Oct. 1, 
Oct. 2-Nov. 30, 


.28 
.18 
.11 
.17 
.31 
.42 


.0128 
.0254 
.0172 
.0246 
.0284 
.0115 


.0176 
.0205 
.0102 
.0102 
.0105 
.0208 


.40 
.47 
.37 
.44 
.56 
.50 


.018 
.037 
.040 
.016 
.016 
.024 


.0004 
.0007 
.0012 
.0006 
.0004 
.0002 


.43 
.34 
.17 
.20 
.44 
.82 


1.0 

0.3 

—1.1 

-19 

—0.1 

0.5 



Effluent from Filter No. 336. 



Dec. 13-Jan. 14, 


.10 


.0102 


.0090 


.40 


.017 


.0004 


.20 


0.4 


Jan. 15-Mar. 3, 


.02 


.0228 


.0088 


.47 


.037 


.0005 


.14 


1 


Mar. 4-May 23, 


.04 


.0167 


.0083 


.37 


.039 


.0009 


.13 


-0.6 


May 24-July 24, 


.08 


.0202 


.0088 


.46 


.016 


.0010 


.11 


—0.8 


July 24-Oct. 1, 


.29 


.0239 


.0093 


.56 


.017 


.0007 


.39 


0.0 


Oct. 2-Nov. 30, 


.34 


.0108 


.0147 


.39 


.021 


.0002 


.62 


0.4 



336 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Studies of Fish Life and Watee Pollution. 



By H. W. Clark and George 0. Adams. 



The effect of sewage, trade wastes and the effluents from sewage filters 
upon fish life has received little investigation in this country, although 
it is known, of course, in a general way, that owing to increasing pollu- 
tion fish have disappeared from many streams in which they were for- 
merly abundant. The effect of sewage pollution upon shellfish, and the 
areas from which shellfish are taken, has been investigated during the 
past ten or fifteen years chiefly because shellfish are likely to be the 
bearers of infectious diseases. 

From a practical point of view the question of fish life in streams and 
lakes in a settled community is one of the value of such life in a certain 
stream or lake compared with the cost of maintaining such freedom 
from pollution or such restrictions in the use of streams as will allow 
the continuance of this life. It goes without saying that looked at in this 
way the cost of preserving a stream in a condition that allowed fish life 
might be exceedingly large as compared with the value of the fish saved. 
This would be especially true in manufacturing districts, as in such 
places the streams are chiefly valuable for power and the carrying away 
of the waste products of the district more or less purified. Treating 
these wastes sufficiently to prevent the stream from becoming a nuisance, 
moreover, may not keep it sufficiently pure to encourage the life of fish 
within it, and many streams seem fated to become sources of power and 
the carriers of wastes, and find their chief value when so used. Practi- 
cally all that can be expected in many instances is that the sewage or 
wastes entering such streams shall at all times of the year be so purified 
before entrance or so diluted by the flow of water that the stream will 
not be a nuisance to the community through which it flows, but rather 
a source of enjoyment to such community. 

From a scientific standpoint there are a number of questions to be 
considered in this study of pollution and fish life, the most important 
being as follows: (1) the amount of pollution that a stream may receive 
without decreasing the dissolved oxygen of the water to such a degree 
that fish can no longer live in the water; (2) the effect of the various 
constituents of sewage and trade wastes upon fish, and the effect of these 
various constituents upon fish even when a plentiful supply of dissolved 



No. 34.] FISH LIFE AND WATER POLLUTION. 337 

oxygen remains in the water after receiving these wastes; (3) the amount 
of oxygen consumed by the fish themselves; and (4) the rate of absorp- 
tion of oxygen by polhited waters. 

There are other questions involved regarding which a series of investi- 
gations was carried on during 1913 at the experiment station, a portion 
of them being described here. The experiments were made largely in 
5-gallon glass aquaria, and the commonest fish of the region — shiners, 
suckers, chub and carp — were used. Most of the carp and shiners have 
weighed from 1 to 2 ounces each, while the suckers have weighed from 
Vi to V2 pound. 

Effect of Sewage. 
In the first experiments the fish were immersed in undiluted Lawrence 
sewage, well aerated, and containing at the time of immersion from 50 
to 100 per cent, of saturation of dissolved oxygen. Notwithstanding 
the presence of this dissolved oxygen, all the fish in these experiments 
apparently became crazed when immersed and died almost immediately, 
that is, within a few minutes after immersion. 

Effect of Effluents from Sewage Filters. 
Following this, experiments were made with the effluents from sand, 
contact and trickling filters and with mixtures of sewage and water, 
contact filter effluents and water and trickling filter effluents and water. 
In this series of experiments a supply of dissolved oxygen was main- 
tained when necessary by blowing air through the liquid used. The 
results were as follows : — 

(a) It was found that when water and sewage of the strength used 
were mixed in equal portions, and this mixture kept aerated, fish life 
could exist almost indefinitely, but with a larger proportion of sewage 
the fish died within a few minutes or, at most, in an hour or two after 
their immersion. Even in the equal mixtures of sewage and water, a 
number of fish died quickly, and only the stronger individuals survived, 
but such as did survive were kept in this mixture alive and well for four- 
teen days, and apparently could have continued to live for an indefinite 
period. The sewage used was freed from matters in suspension before 
being mixed with the water. 

(&) It was found that aerated effluents from contact and trickling 
filters in successful operation supported fish life for fourteen days with- 
out any apparent discomfort to the fish immersed in these effluents. 

The following table presents the analyses of the mixture of sewage and 
water, and of the effluents from contact and trickling filters used in these 
experiments : — 



338 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



[Parts per 100,000.] 





Contact Filter 
Effluent. 


Tbickling Filter 
Effluent. 


Equal Mlkture of 
Water and Sewage. 




At Start. 


After 

Fourteen 

Days. 


At Start. 


After 

Fourteen 

Days. 


At Start. 


After 

Fourteen 

Days. 


Free ammonia, .... 


1.5500 


2.8000 


1.8000 


2.8800 


1.9000 


2.8000 


Albuminoid ammonia: — 

Total 

In solution 


0.2700 
0.1540 


0.2880 
0.1840 


0.2800 
0.1800 


0.3480 
0.1220 


0.2100 
0.2100 


0.2280 
0.1480 


Chlorine, 


11.3000 


12.4000 


10.7000 


12.1000 


7.3000 


7.0000 


Nitrogen as — 

Nitrates, .... 
Nitrites, .... 


0.0300 
0.0000 


0.0400 
0.0000 


2.0100 
0.0100 


2.1200 
0.0600 


0.0200 
0.0024 


0.0200 
0.0180 


Oxygen consumed, 


1.7800. 


1.8000 


1.8200 


2.2200 


1.2400 


1.4600 


Solids in suspension: — 

Total 

Volatile 


- 


- 


• 


- 


0.0000 
0.0000 


2.3000 
2.2000 



Effect of Sewage and Effluents when Non-aerated. 

Experiments were next made to determine the volume of water (tap 
water) necessary to mix with sewage and the effluents from trickling 
filters in order that fish life might be sustained under what might be 
called stagnant conditions, that is, sustained without the introduction of 
dissolved oxygen by aeration as in the previous experiments. After 
several trials it was found that but 10 per cent, of sewage could be 
mixed with 90 per cent, of water and the fish survivie in good condition 
for fourteen days. Increasing the sewage above this percentage in- 
variably caused the exhaustion of the oxygen and the death of the fish 
within a few hours. It was found that only 25 per cent, of water was 
needed in 75 per cent, of the best trickling filter effluents in order that 
fish might live under these stagnant conditions for fourteen days, this 
mixture always containing enough oxygen to support life, and the effluent 
present having apparently no harmful effect upon the fish. With the 
contact filter effluents equal mixtures were necessary, that is, 50 per cent. 
of the effluent to 50 per cent, of tap water. 



Limit of Dissolved Oxygen. 
At the beginning of the last experiments described, that is, at the time 
of the immersion of the fish, the dissolved oxygen in the mixtures was 
0.50 part per 100,000. During the experiment it became reduced in the 
water and effluent mixture to as low. a point as 0.11 part per 100,000, 
and in the mixture of sewage and water, to 0.14 part per 100,000, but 
without any apparent discomfort to the fish in these mixtures. 



No. 34.] FISH LIFE AND WATER POLLUTION, 



339 



The greatest consumption of oxygen by the organic matter present 
in such mixtures occurs in the first few hours, and it was found tliat 
if the initial supply of oxygen was great enough to last through this 
early period the oxygen would then be increased by absorption from the 
air. 

In a third experiment of this nature^ where a mixture of equal por- 
tions of tap water and trickling filter effluent was made, the dissolved 
oxygen at the start was 0,80 part per 100,000 and was not reduced below 
0.40 part per 100,000 during the fourteen days of the experiment. 

The table following shows the analyses of these mixtures at the begin- 
ning and at the end of these experiments : — 





[Parts per 100,000.] 










Water and 

10 Per Cent. 

Sewage. 


Water and 

75 Per Cent. 

Trickling Filter 

Effluent. 


Water and 

50 Per Cent. 

Trickling Filter 

Effluent. 




At Start. 


After 

Fourteen 

Days. 


At Start. 


After 

Fourteen 

Days. 


At Start. 


After 

Fourteen 

Days. 


Free ammonia 


0.5500 


0.6600 


1.2000 


1.8800 


1.3000 


1.2600 


Albuminoid ammonia: — 

Total, 

In solution 


0.0440 


0.0620 
0.0300 


0.0960 
0.0960 


0.1720 
0.0820 


0.1260 
0.0840 


0.1000 
0.0720 


Chlorine, 


1.6000 


2.0000 


7.2000 


7.1000 


6.5000 


6.5000 


Nitrogen as — 

Nitrates, .... 
Nitrites, .... 


0.0600 
0.0000 


0.0600 
0.0036 


2.0900 
0.0064 


1.8100 
0.0380 


0.6700 
0.0015 


0.5000 
0.0340 


Oxygen consumed, 


0.6300 


0.6700 


0.9000 


1.0000 


1.0000 


1.0400 


Solids in suspension: — 

Total 

Volatile, .... 


- 


- 


0.0000 
0.0000 


1.9000 
1 . 6000 


- 


- 



In further investigations, in regard to the amount of dissolved oxygen 
that would sustain fish life, the following three experiments were made: 
sewage of the strength shown in the table following was so mixed with 
water that three dilutions containing 5, 10 and 15 per cent., respectively, 
of sewage were obtained. In these dilutions the dissolved oxygen was at 
first 0.88, 1.00 and 0.85 part per 100,000. In each dilution fish were 
immersed and in each of the three dihitions they lived for one week with- 
out discomfort, that is, until the end of the experiment. The minimum 
amount of dissolved oxygen found during this period in each of these 
dilutions was 0.47, 0.28 and 0.15 part per 100,000, respectively. 



340 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Analysis of Sewage used. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 






ALBUMINOID. 


Oxygen 
consumed. 


Free. 


Total. 


In Solution. 


Total. 


In Solution. 


5.80 


0.86 


0.35 


1.38 


0.79 


!2.40 


4.40 





Effect of Sand Filter Effluents. 

In six experiments in which fish were immersed in well-purified, 
highly nitrified effluents from sand filters receiving sewage, the three fish 
immersed in each experiment died in from three hours to three days 
after immersion. All of these effluents but one were clear but slightly 
acid, this acidity being due to insufficient base to combine with the nitric 
acid present. One effluent was alkaline, but contained considerable mat- 
ter in suspension, this matter being largely silica and alumina. When 
this suspended matter was removed the fish lived in this effluent without 
any apparent discomfort for fourteen days or during the length of the 
experiment. Other acid effluents from sand filters when neutralized and 
filtered to remove precipitated CaCOs and MgCOs, etc., supported fish 
life. The alkaline suspended matters at times separating from such 
effluents and from sewage, gathering at the outlet of the fish's gills and 
at the joints in their scales, gave the appearance of a fungous growth 
upon the fish. 

The following table presents the results of analyses of the effluents 
used in these experiments : — 



Effluents from Sand Filters receiving Sewage. 

[Parts per 100,000.) 





Experiment 
Number. 


Ammonia. 


Chlorine. 


Nitrogen as — 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Alka- 
linity. 




Free. 


Total Al- 
buminoid. 


Nitrates. 


Nitrites. 


1. 




0.4800 


.0540 


9.00 


5.21 


.0024 


.23 


—0.9 


2. 




0.9600 


.0960 


7.30 


1.64 


.0032 


.51 


—0.3 


3. 




0.9600 


.0960 


9,40 


2.17 


.0120 


.54 


1.0 


4, 




0.0628 


.0194 


9.00 


4.62 


.0002 


.17 


—0.2 


5. 




1.0400 


.0460 


7.10 


6.13 


.0012 


.45 


—1.5 


6, 




0-2505 


.0290 


7.00 


1.64 


.0380 


.29 


—0.2 



No. 34.] FISH LIFE AND WATER POLLUTION. 341 



Effect of Titrates, Iron, Potassium Carbonate, etc. 

It would seem without doubt that the alkaline suspended matter and 
the acidity of the effluents in the experiments just described were respon- 
sible for the death of the fish immersed within them. 

Fish immersed in water containing 5 parts of nitrogen as potassium 
nitrate lived without any apparent discomfort, and in water in which 
organic matter, etc., had been coagulated by the use of 1.5 grains of alum 
per gallon they lived two weeks without discomfort. 

In water treated with ferric sulphate they became covered with a 
fungous-like growth and died in a few days. The iron in solution may 
have been the cause, as apparently fish are extremely sensitive to iron 
salts, as will be shown later. 

Free nitric acid in tap water in amounts equal to — 0.7 part per 
100,000 CaCOg was without effect. 

Very small amounts of hydrochloric acid not greater than — 0.5 part 
per lOOjOOO CaCOs caused the death of fish in a few hours. 

When the experiments with nitric acid were made it was found that 
the small fish used not only neutralized the acid but made the water 
alkaline. The water was acidified five times, and each time was ren- 
dered alkaline by the fish present. In twelve days the fish experimented 
with had neutralized acid equivalent to 2.7 parts per 100,000 CaC03 in 
about 1,500 cubic centimeters of water, leaving a residual alkalinity of 
— 1.0 part per 100,000. 

" Free ammonia " in sewage is supposed to consist in part of carbon- 
ate, and it was found that from 5.5 to 7.0 parts of ammonia as carbonate 
in well-aerated tap water was fatal to shiners and carp in from a few 
minutes to a few hours. Ammonia in the form of chloride up to 18.0 
parts per 100,000 had no ill effect on the fish. When used in the form 
of ammonium hydrate the ammonia was much more deadly, 2.0 parts per 
100,000 killing shiners, carp and large suckers in fifteen minutes. The 
fatal amount was probably slightly over 1.0 part per 100,000, as the fish 
experimented with were unaffected in water containing 0.94 part per 
100,000, but died in water containing 1.3 parts per 100,000. 

It should be noted in passing that the ammonium hydrate was soon 
changed in water to the less injurious carbonate by the free carbonic acid 
present and by carbonic acid given off by the life of the fish. 

The effect of caustic and carbonate alkali was next tried. Pollution 
of this nature comes from a number of industrial processes, and at times 
may be serious before sufficient dilution by the water in a stream takes 
place to render it harmless. It was found that from 25.0 to 30.0 parts 
per 100,000 NaCOs killed fish within a few hours. Seven parts of 



342 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

NaOH killed several fish in two hours and 9.6 parts per 100,000 killed 
two in ten minutes. In water containing 5.6 parts per 100,000 fish lived 
twenty-four hours. 

It was noticed in this work that fish immersed in sodium carbonate 
solutions rendered these solutions less poisonous to fish subsequently 
immersed in them, this being due, probably, to the change from car- 
bonate to bicarbonate. As a proof of this, it was found that bicarbonate 
of soda was the least injurious form of alkali experimented with, fish 
living easily in water containing 120.0 parts per 100,000. 

The effect of iron salts was next investigated, these salts being dis- 
solved in distilled water to prevent precipitation such as would occur in 
tap water on account of the alkalinity of this tap water. Copperas equiva- 
lent to 0.1280 part per 100,000 of iron killed fish in from four to twenty- 
four hours, one fish living without trouble in water containing 0.100 
part per 100,000. In such dilute solutions, however, the iron gradually 
precipitates even when dissolved in distilled water. 

In solutions of ferric sulphate, fish died in from one-half hour to 
three hours when 0.1080 part iron per 100,000 was present and in from 
twelve to twenty-four hours when as little as 0.0100 part per 100,000 
was present. 

Consumption of Oxygen by Fish Life. 

The large amount of dissolved oxygen breathed by fish is little realized. 
In studying this point, the following experiments were made: thirteen 
small fish weighing altogether 200 grams were placed in a salt-mouth 
gallon bottle filled with water, and the dissolved oxygen determined at 
the beginning and at the end of the experiment. 

In a second experiment four fish weighing 340 grams were used. In 
all, nine experiments of this kind were made. Averaging these experi- 
ments it was found, speaking generally, that all the oxygen held in solu- 
tion in a gallon of water at 60° F. — practically 1 part per 100,000 — 
would be consumed or breathed in one hour by a weight of fish equal to 
1 pound. This would mean that 1,000 pounds of fish life would in 
about fifteen days exhaust the dissolved oxygen in a layer of water 1 foot 
deep and an acre in area, saturated at 60° F., assuming, of course, that 
dissolved oxygen was not added by absorption from the air. The oxygen 
consumed in this way remains in the water as CO2, and hence the amount 
of CO2 in surface waters sustaining fish life must be influenced to a 
considerable extent by the fish present. 



No. 34.] FISH LIFE AND WATER POLLUTION. 



343 



Solution and Diffusion of Oxygen in Water. 

There are few good data in regard to the rate of solution and diffusion 
of ox3^gen in water. E. A. Letts in the Journal of the Royal Sanitary 
Institute, Vol. XXXIIL, No. 1, states that Dr. Adeny found that ten 
days were required to saturate with oxygen a sheet of water with a tem- 
perature of 15° C, 6 feet in depth and deprived of all atmospheric gases. 

The following experiments made by us give some idea of the rate of 
aeration of a quiet, shallow sheet of water. In the first, a small fish, 
weighing 25 grams, was immersed in an aquarium, 12 inches in diame- 
ter, holding 7 inches in depth of tap water. Experiments had shown 
that a fish of this size in this volume of water would reduce the dis- 
solved oxygen primarily present about 0.26 part per 100,000 per day. 

The following table presents the amount of dissolved oxygen found in 
the water in the aquarium on different days during a period of thirty-four 
days, together with a column showing the amount of oxygen consumed 
by the fish during that period. Prom this table it will be seen that 
oxygen was absorbed by the water at about the same rate that it was 
consumed by the fish : — 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Days. 


Dissolved Oxygen. 












In Aquarium. 


Used by Fish. 


1. . . 




.37 


0.26 


2, . . 




.40 


0.52 


3, . . 




.45 


0.78 


5, . . 




.22 


1.04 


14. . . 




.49 


3.18 


22, 




.40 


5.48 


20, . . 




.50 


7.08 


34. . . 




.31 


8.58 



In a second experiment the dissolved oxygen in an aquarium of tap 
water was reduced to 0.11 part per 100,000 by the fish in this aquarium. 
The fish were then removed and the aquarium allowed to stand in the 
laboratory open to the air, and determinations of dissolved oxygen made 
from time to time. The results of these determinations are shown in 
the following table, and it will be noticed that practically seven days 
were required for this water to again become saturated with oxygen : — 



344 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Davs. 



2. 
3. 
4, 
5, 
6, 
7, 
10, 



Temperature 
(Degrees F.). 



68 
65 
64 
66 
67 
70 
65 



Dissolved Oxygen. 



Parts per 
100,000. 



38 
0.72 
0.76 
0.80 
0.88 
0.94 
1.00 



Per Cent, of 
Saturation. 



41.3 
74.7 
79.2 
85.0 
94.5 
104.0 
105.0 



During the last part of this experiment, "green growths" (Scene- 
desmus and Protococcus) made their appearance in this water. 



Liberation of Oxygen by " Green Growths." 
It is well known that organisms containing chlorophyll give o2 free 
oxygen when growing in the light. Water in which organisms are plenti- 
ful is frequently found to be supersaturated with dissolved oxygen, as the 
organisms take the C from the CO2 dissolved in the water and liberate 
part of the oxygen. When the dissolved CO2 is all absorbed the bicar- 
bonates are attacked and CO2 abstracted, leaving carbonates. This hap- 
pened several times in experiments here. On testing for CO2 with 
phenolphtli^lein, a pink color showed the presence of carbonates, while 
in the tap water used in the various experiments the alkalinity was due 
to bicarbonates. In the experiments the " green growths " were largely 
Protococcus, Scenedesmus and smaller numbers of Monas. In one experi- 
ment an aquarium was filled with tap water and seeded with " green 
growth." The dissolved oxygen and CO2 at the start were 0.18 and 1.0 
]3art per 100,000, respectively. At the end of seven days they were 1.14 
and 0.0 parts per 100,000, respectively. 

In another experiment a small fish was put into a tightly stoppered 
gallon bottle full of water containing these " green growths." If oxygen 
had not been liberated by the organisms during this experiment the 
oxygen primarily present would have been consumed by the fish in 
thirty-eight hours. However, it lived eight days, and at its death at the 
end of this period dissolved oxygen was present in the water in greater 
volume than at the beginning of the experiment. The growth of organ- 
isms increased greatly during this period, and either the presence of 
these organisms or some body formed during their growth or decay was 
injurious to the fish. 



No. 34.] FISH LIFE AND WATER POLLUTION. 345 

In a similar experiment, made during cloudy weather when the oxygen- 
liberating power of the organisms was lowered, the fish present consumed 
the dissolved oxygen in four days. 

In further experiments, not yet completed, upon the effect of such 
" green growths " on sewage, bottles of sewage were seeded with organ- 
isms, then aerated for twenty-four hours and afterwards allowed to stand 
twenty-four hours without aeration. The average of sixteen dissolved 
oxygen determinations then made showed 0.62 part per 100,000 of dis- 
solved oxygen present in these sewages at the end of the period of aera- 
tion, and 1.01 parts per 100,000 after the sewage had stood unaerated 
during an additional period of twenty-four hours; in other words, the 
" green growth " supplied not only all the dissolved oxygen consumed by 
the sewage during the period of standing, but, furthermore, increased the 
volume present 0.39 part per 100,000. 

It is probable that the chlorophyll-bearing organisms take a greater 
part in overcoming sewage pollution in surface waters than is at present 
generally realized. 



346 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



A Study of the Efficiency of Ceetain Methods for 

THE SANITAEY CONTKOL OF SWIMMING POOLS. 



By H. W. Clakk and Stephen DeM. Gage. 



During the past year the Board has received five requests for the 
examinations of as many different swimming pools, namely, the pools at 
Phillips Academy, Andover, Worcester Academy, Worcester, and those 
connected with the Young Men's Christian Association buildings at Law- 
rence, Lowell and Cambridge. 

All of these pools were visited, their size and method of operation 
determined and an examination made of the water from each, and it was 
found that they are quite similar in construction and that the method of 
operation is not essentially different. All five of these pools are of con- 
crete construction, lined with white tile, and are provided with gutters 
to prevent water from the sidewalks from draining back into the pool, 
and with some form of filters for purifying the water. Extensive studies 
and investigations were made of two of these, namely, the pool at Phillips 
Academy, Andover, and that at the Young Men's Christian Association, 
Lawrence. 

The pool at Phillips Academy is 75 feet long, 30 feet wide and from 
4 to 8 feet deep, and as usually operated contains about 88,000 gallons of 
water. It is provided with expectoration troughs along each side. 

The Worcester Academy pool is 60 feet long by 25 feet wide, and from 
3% to Sy2 feet deep, with a capacity of about 68,000 gallons. It is 
also equipped with expectoration troughs extending entirely around it. 

The Lawrence pool is 60 feet long, 20 feet wide, has a depth of from 
3 to 7 feet and a capacity of about 46,000 gallons. This pool is pro- 
vided with expectoration troughs along two sides. 

The pool at the Cambridge Young Men's Christian Association is 60 
feet long by 20 feet wide and from 3% feet to 7I/2 feet deep. Its capacity 
when filled is about 55,000 gallons. An expectoration trough extends 
entirely around the pool. 

The pool at the Lowell Young Men's Christian Association is 60 feet 
long by 21 feet wide and from 41/2 to 81/0 feet deep. Its capacity is 
61,000 gallons. Expectoration troughs are provided on two sides. 



No. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWIMMING POOLS. 347 

The Phillips Academy pool was first put into operation on Dec. 1, 
1911, and filled with Andover town water. At this pool water is drawn 
from the deepest part by centrifugal pumps, treated with sulphate of 
alumina, passed through high-rate pressure filters, and returned to the 
pool through a number of openings located just below the normal water 
level at the opposite end of the pool from which it is drawn. The 
filters are operated about ten hours each day, and the average volume of 
water filtered daily is about 68,000 gallons, or 77 per cent, of the 
normal capacity of the pool. About 9,000 gallons of fresh water, or 
about 10 per cent, of the capacity of the pool, are added daily. 

At the "Worcester Academy pool, which has been in operation six 
years, the water used is from the Worcester city supply, and the pool is 
said to be emptied and refilled four times each j'ear. About 4,200 gallons 
of fresh water, or 6 per cent, of the capacity of the pool, are added 
each week to replace the water which is wasted. The water is filtered 
without the use of coagulants or disinfectants. It is drawn from the 
pool through outlets located in the corners at two ends of one side, 
pumped to the top of a filter, and after filtration flows by gravity back 
into the pool through a pipe at one end located about 2 feet above 
the surface of the water. The filter has an area of 135 square feet, 
is constructed of charcoal and sand, and is operated at a rate of about 
45,000,000 gallons per acre daily. The filter is operated about twelve 
hours each day, a volume of water equivalent to the capacity of the pool 
being filtered daily. 

At the Lawrence pool the water is treated with sulphate of alumina, 
passed through high-rate pressure filters, and returned to the pool 
through a number of openings located just below the normal water 
level at the opposite end of the pool from which it is drawn. Soda ash 
has been added regularly to the water as it flows to the filters, and the 
filters have been operated about eight hours each day, the average volume 
of water filtered daily being about 31,000 gallons, or approximately two- 
thirds of the capacity of the pool. About 6,000 gallons of fresh water, or 
about 13 per cent, of the capacity of the pool, are added once each week. 
This pool is filled with Lawrence city water, and was first put into 
operation in January, 1912. 

At the Cambridge pool the water used is from an artesian well, 450 
feet deep, located on the premises. During about eighteen hours each 
day the water is drawn from the deepest part of the pool, treated with 
sulphate of alumina, passed through high-rate pressure filters and re- 
turned to the pool through a pipe discharging at the surface of the shal- 
low end of the pool, the volume of water filtered daily being approxi- 
mately equivalent to the total ordinary volume of water in the pool. 



348 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

About 3,000 gallons of freshly filtered water from the well are added 
each day, this being about 6 per cent, of the total capacity of the pool. 

At the Lowell pool Merrimack Eiver water pumped from the canal, 
which flows directly under the Young Men's Christian Association build- 
ing, is used. During about ten hours each day water is drawn through 
two outlets about 8 feet apart on one side of the deep end of the pool, 
passed through high-rate pressure filters, and returned to the pool 
through two outlets similarly located on the opposite side. Sulphate of 
alumina is added to the water going to the filters for about one hour 
after the filters have been washed, and when river water is being added 
to the pool, but no coagulant is used during the remainder of the time. 
The volume of water filtered daily is about 48,000 gallons, or about 79 
per cent, of the total capacity of the pool. About 2,300 gallons of river 
water are filtered and added to the pool each day, this being equivalent 
to about 4 per cent, of the capacity of the pool. 

At Cambridge no disinfectant was used for a time after the pool was 
installed, but during March the use of hypochlorite of lime was begun, 
about three-fourths of a pound to one pound being applied each night 
at the close of the day's use of the pool. At Andover the water in the 
pool is treated with hypochlorite of lime each morning, and at the 
Lawrence pool hypochlorites are applied in the same manner three times 
each week. At each of these pools the disinfectant is placed in a cloth 
bag and dragged back and forth through the water until dissolved. No 
disinfectants are used at the Worcester and Lowell pools. 

The sides and bottom of the pool at Phillips Academy are cleaned 
each morning with long-handled squeegees, the dirt being pushed for- 
ward to the outlet, where it mixes with the water flowing to the filters. 
This method is followed also at the Worcester Academy pool and at the 
Lawrence pool. At the Cambridge pool, after the water has been allowed 
to stand quiet for a few hours at the end of each day, the bottom of the 
pool is cleaned by a vacuum suction brush. At the Lowell pool the bot- 
tom is flushed out daily with a large hose, the deposited matters being 
washed forward to an outlet discharging directly into the canal. 

It was the idea of those who designed these pools that refilling with 
absolutely fresh water is needed only three or four times a year, the belief 
being that with the use of filters, or with filters and coagulants, or filters, 
coagulants and also hypochlorite of lime, that the water can be kept 
sufficiently clean or so disinfected as to render it satisfactory for use. At 
most of these pools the cost of refilling with city or town water is con- 
siderable, and also the cost during the winter of heating this water to 
the temperature considered necessary for the comfort of the bathers, 



No. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWDIMING POOLS. 349 

that is, from 70° to 74° F. At the Cambridge and Lowell pools no 
pa}Tiient is made for the water used. 

The results of a few examinations made of the water from the Worces- 
ter, Cambridge, and Lowell pools are given at the end of this article. It 
is unnecessary to discuss them, however, as it was inconvenient to study 
these pools as thoroughly as those at Andover and Lawrence, and it was 
evident that results of examinations of water and conditions of operation 
obtaining at these latter pools would be characteristic of those obtaining 
at all of them under the same conditions of operation and use. 

Certain studies have been made and published in regard to the condi- 
tions obtaining in such pools. The first were those of Burrage (a former 
employee of this Board), in 1910, in regard to conditions at the swim- 
ming pool at Purdue University, Indiana. Shortly after this, Kister and 
Fromme published the results of a five years' investigation at the public 
swimming baths of Hamburg, Germany, and Bunker published the re- 
sults of an investigation of the swimming pool at Brown University. In 
1911 and 1912 the results of investigations by Atkins of the swimming 
pool at Chicago University; at Yale University by Eetger and Markley; 
at Northwestern University by Lewis ; at the Brooklyn Polytechnic Insti- 
tute by M. C. Whipple; and at the University of Wisconsin by Tully and 
E a venal were reported and a study of a number of swimming pools in 
and about Xew York City was published by Mannheimer. 

In a swimming pool each bather introduces a certain amount of pollu- 
tion, and not only is there always the possibility that infectious material 
introduced in this way may be transferred from one bather to another, 
but the list of diseases which may be transmitted through the medium of 
the swimming pool includes a number which do not ordinarily have to be 
considered in domestic water supply. 

The impurities introduced by the bathers consist of hair, particles of 
skin, fibers from the bathing costumes, soluble organic matters and salts, 
bacteria and other microscopical organisms. The insoluble matters on 
settling out accumulate in patches on the bottom of the pool and give 
it an unclean appearance, while the salts and other soluble matters, which 
are probably harmless in themselves, make the water a better medium for 
the development of bacteria and other micro-organisms. Undoubtedly 
the bacterial content of the water is the question of most importance, 
since these bacteria may directly affect the health of the persons using the 
pool. It has been demonstrated that not only are many bacteria intro- 
duced into the water by the bathers, but also that there may be a con- 
siderable multiplication of the bacteria in the water when the pool is not 
in use. Roberts has called attention to the fact that a multiplication 



350 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of bacteria is one of the factors in the self-purification of water, and 
states that if disinfectants are added to swimming pools they should be 
added in such a way as to destroy pathogenic organisms without inter- 
fering with the bacteria instrumental in this purification. It is prob- 
able, however, that purification of this sort is of little moment under 
swimming pool conditions. 

In 1908 Cobb reported certain cases of nasal infections which he 
claimed to have traced directly to the use of swimming pools. Burrage 
states that epidemics of colds and sore throat are apparently traceable 
to the use of the swimming pool at Purdue University. Bunker states 
that at Brown University no epidemics of any sort could be attributed 
directly to infection in the pool, but that affections of the nose and ear 
were occasionally found among members of the swimming team. Lewis 
has noted the prevalence of grippe, colds, sore throat and some cases of 
pneumonia at Northwestern University which were rather strikingly 
restricted to users of the swimming pool, and M. C. Whipple notes 
similar infections among the users of the Brooklyn Polytechnic swim- 
ming pool. 

Most swimming pools have troughs along one or both sides in which 
bathers are supposed to expectorate when necessary, but in some of the 
older pools there is no such provision. Mannheimer found only 15 out of 
35 pools with such troughs. Also, generally the sidewalks are so arranged 
that drainage is away from the pools. 

It is unnecessary here to enter into a detailed description of the dis- 
eases that might be transmitted through this promiscuous use by many 
persons of a limited volume of water used to such an extent that dirt 
accumulates in the bottom of the pool and high numbers of bacteria are 
found in it. It is true that at most of the swimming pools nude bathing 
only is permitted, and that persons using the pool are supposed to, and 
probably generally do, take a bath with the use of soap before entering, 
and that certain diseases of the bathers, if occurring, could not escape 
detection. It may be, moreover, that the probability of the con- 
tamination of the water by any of these diseases to such an extent that 
the health of the bathers is endangered may be slight, but that there is 
a chance for infection is evident to any one examining and studying these 
pools. 

A description has already been given of the measures taken at the 
swimming pools mentioned in this report to control the quality of the 
water. If there is an abundant private supply of pure water the pool 
can be emptied, cleaned and refilled each day. Undoubtedly this is the 
most cleanly method of operation. Wlien water is taken from a public 
supply, however, the cost for frequent refilling is considered a serious 



No. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWIMMING POOLS. 351 

item, and even when there is a private water supply the expense in 
winter of warming this water to the desired temperature is apparently- 
taken into account at the different pools. Mannheimer states that of the 
35 swimming pools from which he obtained statistics, only 1 was refilled 
every day; 26 were refilled at intervals of from two to seven days; 6 at 
intervals of from two to three weeks; 1 only once in twelve weeks; while 
in another the water was never changed. 

It is evident from this that methods of purifying the water are neces- 
sary, and at all of the pools mentioned in this report filters are installed. 
These filters, used either with or without the use of coagulants, are more 
or less effective in removing organic matter and color from the water, 
but are only effective at times in producing good bacterial removal. It 
is also becoming the custom at many pools to not only filter but also to 
treat the water with some disinfectant, hypochlorite of lime being com- 
monly employed. Mannheimer found that 19 of the 35 pools he investi- 
gated were equipped with some form of filter; that 6 used chemical 
disinfection, but in only 2 of these 6 was the disinfectant added regu- 
larly at stated intervals. In the purification of the water the filters 
even when most efficiently worked are, owing to the method of operation 
of the pool, working at a disadvantage ; that is to say, if all of the water 
in the pool could be withdrawn and the pool emptied, then this water 
passed through properly designed and operated filters and returned to 
the pool, it would be possible, with proper operation of the filters, to 
keep the bacterial content of the water low. As this purification is 
practiced, however, water is drawn from one portion of the pool, filtered 
and returned to another portion where it becomes mixed with the con- 
taminated water, the pool always being kept full. 

Studies of the Andovek and Lawrence Pools. 
The Andover pool is used every day while school is in session, and 
during the summer vacation of 1912 was open to the public certain hours 
each day except Sunday. The average daily attendance was about 41 
while school was in session and about 80 during the summer. The Law- 
rence pool is used six days each week, the average daily attendance being 
about 125. The Andover pool is under the control of the physical di- 
rector of the school who is a practicing physician, and supervision is 
maintained over the health of the bathers. Each student is required to 
undergo a medical examination at the beginning of the year and to 
report illness of any sort to this director. No medical examination was 
required of the townspeople who used the pool during July and August, 
and the only supervision was that given by the swimming instructor who 
was in charge. No medical examination is required of persons using 



352 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



the Lawrence pool, and there is no supervision over the health of the 
bathers except such as can be given by the swimming instructor during 
such times as he is on duty. 

Preliminary Studies. Effect of adding Disinfectant only to Water 
Filtered and of Disinfection at Long Intervals. 

On January 16, when the studies of the Andover pool were begun, a 
mixed solution of sulphate of alumina in the proportion of 0.4 grain 
per gallon, and of calcium hypochlorite equivalent to 0.3 part per million 
available chlorine, was being added to the water before it entered the 
filters. This procedure, by which only the water which passed through 
the filters received treatment, was continued for about three weeks to 
determine its efficiency. The numbers of bacteria in the water before 
treatment varied from 35,000 to 175,000 per cubic centimeter, and the 
numbers in the water returned to the pool varied from 11,000 to 48,000 
per cubic centimeter, the average removal of bacteria by combined disin- 
fection and filtration being about fi8 per cent. The number of bacteria 
of the types growing at body temperature was less than 5 per cubic 
centimeter in all samples. 

The average results are shown in the following table : — 



Average bacteria per cubic centimeter, 20° C, 

Average bacteria per cubic centimeter, 40° C, total, 

Average bacteria per cubic centimeter, 40° C, red, 

Per cent, of samples containing B. coli, 1 cubic centimeter, 

Per cent, of samples containing B. coli, 10 cubic centimeters, 

Per cent, of samples containing B. coli, 100 cubic centimeters. 




After 
Treatment. 



37,300 

1 

1 



25 

100 



During February an experiment was made with the Andover pool to 
determine the effect of omitting both filtration and disinfection. On 
February 7 the pool was cleaned and treated with calcium hypochlorite 
in the proportion of 0.3 part per million available chlorine, after which 
the pumps were stopped and the water received no treatment whatever 
until February 9. 

The ave]:age results of this experiment were as follows : — 



Xo. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWDi:\IING POOLS. 353 



Changes in Bacterial Content of Sivimming Pool xoithout Filtration or Disinfection. 





1912. 


Bacteria per 
Cubic Centimeter. 




B. C 


OLI. 




Sample. 


20° C. 


40° C. 


.1 

c. c. 


1 
c. c. 


10 
c. c. 






Total. 


Red. 


100 
c. c. 


Average sample before use 


Feb. 7 























Average of 5 samples during bathing hours, ^ 


Feb. 7 


2 




















After standing over night: — 

Average of 3 samples, surface, 
Average of 3 samples, bottom, 


Feb. 8 
Feb. 8 


25 

80 


























Average of 5 samples during bathing hours. 


Feb. 8 


203 

















02 


After standing over night: — 

Average of 3 samples, surface. 
Average of 3 samples, bottom, 


Feb. 9 
Feb. 9 


66,700 
61,700 


1 



1 





















^ All samples contained traces of free chlorine. 



^ One sample was +. 



Wlien the investigation of the Lawrence pool was started it was the 
practice to add calcium hypochlorite directly to the pool at intervals of 
seven to ten days. Between March 11 and April 2 calcium hypochlorite 
in the proportion of 3.7 parts per million available chlorine was added 
on three separate occasions, March 11, March 21 and March 29. The 
results of analyses of the water during this period are not comparative 
with those previously given for the Andover pool, since in the case of 
the Lawrence pool the pumps and filters were run as usual each day and 
the pool was cleaned each morning. 

Following the disinfections on March 11 and March 21 free chlorine 
was found in the water for about' three days, and during these periods 
the numbers of bacteria were low and B. coli were not found in 100 cubic 
centimeters. With the complete disappearance of the disinfectant a 
change in the bacterial content of the water was noted, the numbers of 
bacteria increasing rapidly to a maximum and then decreasing irregu- 
larly, while B. coli were found in gradually increasing numbers. The 
increase in the types of bacteria determined at body temperature was 
somewhat delayed, no increase being noted during the first two or three 
days when a rapid multiplication of other bacteria was taking place ; but 
in both of the first two series, shortly after the maximum counts of total 
bacteria were obtained a sudden increase followed by a slower decrease 
was noted in the body temperature counts. 

The results of these preliminary studies of the Lawrence pool are 
shown in the following table : — 



354 



STATE B0x4RD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Changes in Bacterial Content of Lawrence Swimming Pool during Intervals between 

Disinfection. 



Date. 



March 11, ^ 
12, 
12, 
13, 
14. 
14, 
15, 
15, 
16, 
16, 
1", 
IS, 
IS, 
19, 
19, 
20, 
20, 
21, 
21.1 
22, 
22, 
23, 
24, 
25, 
25, 
26, 
2", 
2S, 
29,1 
30, 
April 1, 



1912. 



Time. 



■'Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 



10 A.M. 2 

8 A.M. 2 
10 P.M.* 

S A.M.2 

8 A.M. 
10 P.M. 

8 A.M. 
10 P.M. 

8 A.M. 
10 P.M. 

8 A.M. 

8 A.M. 
10 P.M. 

8 A.M. 
10 P.M. 

7 A.M. 
10 P.M. 

7 .\.M. 
10 P.M. 2 

8 A.M. 2 

10 P.M.S 

11 A.M.2 
11 A.M. 

9 A.M. 

10 P.M. 

11 A.M. 
11 A.M. 
11 A.M. 
11 A.M. 2 
11 A.M. 
11 \M. 



20° C. 



40° C. 



1 


12 

IS 

147,000 

100 

240 

7,300 

109,600 

274,600 

372,200 

59,000 

156,200 

160,000 

131,500 

199,000 

100,000 

77,500 

3 

9 

5 

87 

72,000 

545,000 

277,500 

207,000 

150,000 

50,000 

4 

38,500 

285,000 



Total. 







1 









•1 



19 

4 

1 

3,000 

2,900 

112 

138 

G 

21 





10 

1 

3 

2 

10,300 

14,700 

S 

9 





4 



Red. 





1 







11 

3 
1 



30 

36 

2 

6 




2 
1 


6 
5 


1 



Smallest 

Volume 

in which 

B. Coli 

was found. 



03 

03 

03 
03 
03 
03 

03 

10 

03 

10 

10 
100 

10 
100 

10 

10 

10 
1 

10 

10 

10 

03 
03 

100 
10 
10 
10 

1 

0» 
0» 

1 



1 Pool treated with hypochlorite about 8 a.m. 

2 Samples contained traces of free chlorine. 

3 Not found in 100 cubic centimeters. 



No. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWBBIING POOLS. 



355 



Results of Daily Disinfection of the Andover Pool. 

On Februar}^ 1 the method of disinfecting the Andover pool was 
changed, and after that date hypochlorite of lime was added directly to 
the pool each morning. At first the disinfectant was added in the pro- 
portion of 0.3 part available chlorine per million. On March 11 the 
disinfectant was increased to 0.59 part. From March 26 to April 5 the 
pool was not used. On May 28 the proportion of disinfectant was in- 
creased to 0.70 part per million. From June 15 to July 4 the pool was 
not used. From July 5 to the end of August the pool was open to the 
public. On August 1 the disinfectant was increased to 0.85 part available 
chlorine per million. On September 1 the pool was emptied after being 
in use for nine months. On September 15, after refilling the pool, the 
amount of hypochlorite of lime added daily was reduced to 0.3 part per 
million. On December 18 the pool was again emptied and was refilled 
on Jan. 1, 1913. 

The individual results during the first nine months of the investigation 
show that the amounts of disinfectant were sufficient to control the bac- 
terial content of the water at first, but that after a few weeks high num- 
bers of bacteria and positive tests for B. coli became more and more fre- 
quent until an increase in the disinfectant became necessary. During the 
summer when the average attendance was nearly doubled, and when the 
pool was used on certain days by women who wore bathing costumes, it 
was necessary to add much larger amounts of hypochlorites than at any 
other time. After refilling the pool in September the bacterial results 
were reasonably satisfactory, although the amount of disinfectant added 
to the pool was very much reduced; but after refilling the pool in De- 
cember the same amount of disinfectant was somewhat less efficient in 
controlling the bacterial content of the water. 

The average analyses, together with the relative occurrence of high and 
low numbers of bacteria in the water from the Andover pool during 
different periods, are shown in the following table : — 

Average Bacterial Analyses, Andover Swimming Pool. 

Amount of Disinfectant. 



Mar. 19- 

Mav 27, 

1912. 



Mav 28- 

June 30, 

1912. 



Julv, 
1912. 



Ausiist, 
1912. 



Sept. 10- 

Dec. 18, 

1912. 



Jan. 1- 

Feb. 28, 

1913. 



Parts per million available chlorine. 



0.59 



0.70 



0.70 



0.85 



0.30 



0.30 



356 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Bacterial Analyses, Andover Swimming Pool — Concluded. 
Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 



Mar. 19- 

Mav 27, 

1912. 



May 28- 

June 30, 

1912. 



Julv, 
1912. 



August, 
1912. 



Sept. 10- 

Dec. 18, 

1912. 



Jan. 1- 

Feb. 28, 

1913. 



20° C.: — 
Average, 
Maximum,. 
Minimum, 

40° C, total: — 
Average, . 
Maximum, 
Minimum, 

40° C, red: — 
Average, 
Maximum,. 
Minimum, 



29,700 

108,000 




125 

600 

1 


55,900 

168,000 

5,800 


4,200 

25,000 

20 


4,400 

33,700 




8 

240 




1 
3 



14 

95 




5 

55 



61 
4,000 



4 

105 





2 




1 

6 





2 



51 
1,120 




21,300 

70,000 

40 



35 





6 
25 





Per Cent, of Samples. 



Bacteria per cubic centimeter, 20° C 
Less than 100, . 
100 to 1,000, 
1,000 to 10,000, . 
10,000 to 100,000, 
Over 100,000, . 



Bacteria per cubic centimeter, 40° 
Less than 10, . 
10 to 100, .... 
100 to 1,000, 
Over 1,000, 



C.: — 



B. coli found in: — 

.1 cubic centimeter, 
1 cubic centimeter, 
10 cubic centimeters, 
100 cubic centimeters. 



21 


70 





28 


36 


7 


30 





22 


IS 


23 





25 


39 


27 


47 





63 


11 


19 


2 





12 








84 


100 


63 


89 


82 


14 





37 


11 


13 
































7 














14 














36 





56 


11 


15 


54 





69 


44 


36 



4 
38 
50 





67 

33 










42 
54 



Omitting two samples. 



Results of Tri-weeMij Disinfection of the Lawrence Pool. 
After April 2, 1912, hypochlorite of lime was added directly to the 
Lawrence pool three times each week, the disinfectant being applied in 
the morning after the pool was cleaned. Owing, probably, to the much 
larger number of bathers in porportion to the capacity of the pool, it was 
found necessary to use much larger quantities of disinfectant at Law- 
rence than at Andover. From April 2 to July 11, inclusive, the amount 
of disinfectant applied each time was equivalent to 1.2 parts per million 
available chlorine. On July 12 the proportion of disinfectant was in- 
creased to 1.6 parts per million. On September 20, after nearly ten 
months' use, the pool was emptied, thoroughly cleaned and refilled. On 
Jan. 1, 1913, the proportion of hypochlorite of lime added to the pool 
was increased to about 2.0 parts per million available chlorine, and 



No. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWIMMING POOLS. 



357 



after that date the disinfectant was applied at night immediately after 
bathing hours instead of in the morning. 

As was found to be the case at the Andover pool, while the amounts of 
disinfectant added were sufficient to control the bacterial content of the 
water for a time, after a few weeks high numbers of bacteria and positive 
tests for B. coli became more and more frequent, until a time was reached 
when the prescribed amount of disinfectant was effective only occasion- 
ally. Following the refilling of the pool in September and continuing 
through December a much greater fluctuation was observed in the bac- 
terial content of the water than during any of the preceding periods, 
although the proportion of disinfectant was not reduced. During Jan- 
uary and February, when the pool was disinfected at night and larger 
amounts of hypochlorite were used, the results were more consistently 
satisfactory than at any previous time, although even during this period 
high numbers of bacteria were obtained at times. 

The average analyses, together with the relative occurrence of high 
numbers of bacteria in the water from the Lawrence pool during differ- 
ent periods, are shown in the following table : — 



Average Bacterial Analyses, Lawrence Swimming Pool. 
Amount of Disinfectant. 



Parts per million available chlorine, 



April 2- 
July 11, 1912. 



1.2 



Julv 12- 
Sept. 20, 1912. 



Sept. 22- 
Dec. 31, 1912. 



1.6 



1.6 



Jan. 1- 
Feb. 28, 1913. 



2.01 



Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 



20° C: — 

Average, 

Maximum, 

Minimum, 

40° C, total: - 
Averase, 
Maximum, 
Minimum, 

40° C, red.: — 
Average, 
Maximum, 
Minimum, 




Per Cent, of Samples. 



Bacteria per cubic centimeter, 20° C: — 
Less than 100, .... 

100 to 1,000 

1,000 to 10,000 

10,000 to 100,000, 

Over 100,000 




1 Disinfectant added at night. 



2 Omitting one sample. 



358 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Average Bacterial Analyses, Lawrence Swimming Pool — Concluded. 
Per Cent, of Samples — Concluded. 



April 2- 
July 11, 1912. 



July 12- 
Sept. 20, 1912. 



Sept. 22- 
Dec. 31, 1912. 



Jan. 1- 
Feb. 2S, 1913. 



Bacteria per cubic centimeter, 40° C. 

Less than 10 

10 to 100 

100 to 1,000 

Over 1,000, 

B. coll found in: — 

. 1 cubic centimeter, . 
1 cubic centimeter, 
10 cubic centimeters, . 
100 cubic centimeters, 



69 

25 

6 





1 

7 
24 
22 



70 

30 









9 

43 

77 



60 

37 



3 



3 

S 

30 
53 



85 
9 
6 







8 
23 



Effect of an Excess of Disinfectant. 

In many instances it was found that the hypochlorite added was in 
excess of the amount which would be completely decomposed by the 
water. During July the Andover pool contained free chlorine more than 
one-third of the time, and during the remainder of the investigation from 
17 to 23 per cent, of the time. On the days when an excess of disin- 
fectant was used the numbers of bacteria in the water exceeded 10,000 
per cubic centimeter more than one-third of the time, and although the 
numbers of body temperature bacteria seldom exceeded 10 per cubic 
centimeter and about two-thirds of the plates at this temperature were 
sterile, B. coli were found in 100 cubic centimeters in about one-third, 
and in 10 cubic centimeters in about 15 per cent., of the samples. 
Although much larger amounts of hypochlorites were added to the Law- 
rence pool from July to December, inclusive, free chlorine was found in 
only about 14 per cent, of the samples ; but during the remainder of the 
investigation the water contained unused disinfectant about two-thirds 
of the time. The numbers of bacteria in this pool exceeded 1,000 per 
cubic centimeter on about one-third of those days when unused disin- 
fectant was detected, and about 11 per cent, of the time the bacteria 
counts were higher than 10,000 per cubic centimeter. About one-half 
of the body temperature plates were sterile, but about 15 per cent, of 
these plates showed more than 10 colonies per cubic centimeter, and on 
nearly 5 per cent, a count of over 100 per cubic centimeter was obtained, 
while B. coli were present in 100 cubic centimeters in about 21 per cent., 
and in 10 cubic centimeters in about 17 per cent., of the samples. 

Spore tests have been applied to many of the samples from both of 
these swimming pools at times when the water contained an excess of 
chlorine, and although in many cases the water contained more than 



No. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWIMMING POOLS. 359 

10,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter, the largest number of spores found 
at any time was 6 per cubic centimeter. In over two-thirds of the sam- 
ples spore-bearing bacteria were entirely absent. It is quite evident, 
therefore, that the frequent occurrence of high bacterial counts cannot 
be attributed to the presence of spores in the water. It is well known, 
however, that many different forms of bacteria can gradually become 
inured to conditions under which they would not normally exist, and it is 
only on the assumption that such a state of tolerance exists in the swim- 
ming pool that the many high room temperature counts which were 
obtained at times when the water contained traces of unused disinfect- 
ant can be satisfactorily explained. 

Bacterial Efficiency of Filters. 

Many experiments at the Lawrence Experiment Station and elsewhere 
have shown that while a very good removal of color and of organic matter 
may be obtained in the case of relatively clear waters by treatment with 
comparatively small amounts of coagulant followed by filtration at high 
rates, the bacterial content of the water cannot be successfully controlled 
by this method unless very much larger amounts of coagulant be used. 
In the case of these two swimming pools the primary aim of filtration 
was to control the appearance of the water and to remove any large 
excess of organic matter, and for this purpose only small amounts of 
coagulant were required. Furthermore, it is difficult to obtain a con- 
sistently good bacterial efficiency with any kind of filters when the bac- 
terial content of the raw water is subject to large and frequent fluctua- 
tions. It was not to be expected, therefore, that under these conditions 
filters would show any great degree of bacterial efficiency. 

At the Andover pool the bacterial efficiency of the filters exceeded 
50 per cent, only about one-eighth of the time. In about one-fourth of 
the samples the change in the bacterial content of the water was less than 
10 per cent., while about half the time an increase varying from 10 to 
over 2,300 per cent, in the bacteria was noted after filtration. At Law- 
rence the filters showed a bacterial efficiency of 50 per cent, or more 
about one-fifth of the time. In about one-eighth of the samples collected 
the change in the bacterial content of the water during filtration did not 
exceed 10 per cent., while an increase in bacteria of from 10 to over 4,000) 
per cent, was observed in about half of the samples. 

- • 

Cliemical Changes in Swimming-pool Water. 
Wliile this investigation has been concerned principally with the bac- 
terial content of the water in swimming pools, complete chemical analyses 
have been made of this water at occasional intervals. As has been previ- 



360 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ousl}^ stated, there are many factors which affect the composition of the 
water in a swimming pool, and in the case of these two swimming pools 
many of these factors were quite different. 

At Andover about 41 students used the pool each day during the school 
3^ear, and during the summer the average attendance by the to-RTispeople 
was about 80 per day. Assuming all bathers were in the pool at the same 
time, the average volume of water for each student bather would be about 
2,150 gallons, and the average volume for each citizen bather during the 
summer would be about 1,100 gallons. The Lawrence pool is only about 
half as large as the Andover pool, while the average daily number of 
bathers, 125 per day, was about three times as large. Assuming all these 
bathers in the pool at one time, each would have about 375 gallons, or 
only about one-sixth as much water as each student bather at the Andover 
pool. It is quite evident, therefore, that the contamination of the Law- 
rence pool was much greater, and the conditions imposed upon the puri- 
fication system were much more severe, than in the case of the Andover 
pool. At Andover a volume of water equivalent to over three-quarters of 
the pool capacity has been filtered daily, sulphate of alumina being added 
to the water in the proportion of about 0.1 grain per gallon during the 
greater portion of the year, and soda ash has been added directly to 
the pool each week in the proportion of about 0.4 grain per gallon. At the 
Lawrence pool a volume of water equivalent to about two-thirds of the 
capacity of the pool has been filtered each day, and both sulphate of 
alumina and soda ash have been regularly added to the water going to the 
filters in the proportion of 0.2 grain per gallon. In addition to the 
somewhat larger amount of water passed through the filters the effect 
of dilution has been about five times as large at the Andover pool as at 
the Lawrence pool, fresh water equivalent to about 10 per cent, of the 
capacity of the pool being added daily to the former, and equivalent to 
about 13 per cent, of the capacity of the pool being added once each week 
to the latter. Even had the other factors been the same, the difference in 
dilution would have caused a considerable difference in the composition 
of the water in these two pools. In the case of the Andover pool over half 
of the matters which were in solution at any given time would have been 
eliminated by dilution within a week, and about 95 per cent, would have 
been eliminated by the end of four weeks. At the Lawrence pool; on the 
other hand, at the end of four weeks only about 43 per cent, of the orig- 
inal matters would have been eliminated by dilution, and over twenty-one 
weeks would have elapsed before a dilution of 95 per cent, had been 
accomplished. 

The influence of these various factors can be observed to a greater or 
less extent in the results of chemical analvses of the water at different 



No. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWDIMING POOLS. 361 

times. At Andover the water used for filling and replenishing the pool 
is quite low in color, and this color has been further reduced by con- 
tinuous refiltration. At Lawrence, however, the water from the city 
mains is not only higher in color but is at times stained with iron, and 
while little trouble has ordinarily been experienced in obtaining a water 
of low color after continuous refiltration, after refilling the pool the stain 
in the water was conspicuous for more than a week. A considerable fluc- 
tuation is to be observed in the oxygen consumed values, but in all cases 
the amount of oxygen consumed in the water from both of these pools 
has been considerably less than that of the water with which they were 
first filled. In both pools there was a fairly regular increase in the total 
nitrogen in the water, although there was considerable variation in the 
state in which that nitrogen was present at different times. No marked 
increase was observed in the albuminoid ammonia in the Andover pool 
at any time, nor in the Lawrence pool during the five months after it was 
refilled, although during the first nine months the albuminoid ammonia 
in the Lawrence pool was somewhat higher at times than in the water 
with which the pool was filled. At Andover the free ammonia increa.sed 
during the first five months the pool was in operation, and then grad- 
ually decreased up to the time the pool was emptied, while the nitrates 
and nitrites increased regularly throughout the whole period. Practically 
the same changes were observed in the nitrogen content of the water in 
the Lawrence pool during both the first and second periods, although the 
changes were not quite so regular as in the case of the Andover pool. 
Prom these results it is quite evident that the elimination of albuminous 
matters was not entirely the result of filtration and dilution, and that 
there was a large amount of self-purification taking place in the water 
in each of these pools. 

In both pools a fairly regular increase in the chlorine and in the alka- 
linity of the water was observed. A considerable portion of the increase 
in these constituents may be attributed to the addition of hypochlorite 
of lime and of soda ash to the water, although the contamination of the 
pool by the bathers was undoubtedly also a contributing factor. In the 
Lawrence pool larger amounts of both chemicals were used, the attend- 
ance was much larger and the dilution was less than at the Andover pool, 
and the effect of these factors is to be seen in the higher chlorine and 
alkalinity results obtained from the Lawrence pool. Determinations of 
solids were made on. a few samples from each of these pools. At the 
Andover pool an increase in total solids equivalent to about 0.28 part 
per 100,000 per day was noted between September 15 and October 3, 
and an increase equivalent to about 0.1 part per day was noted between 
Januarv 1 and February 28. At the Lawrence pool an increase in total 



362 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



solids equivalent to about 1.5 parts per 100,000 per day was noted during 
the first ten days after the pool was refilled in September, but during the 
period of one hundred and fifty-nine days from September 23 to Feb- 
ruary 28 the average increase was only about 0.16 part per day. In both 
of these pools the increase in organic solids as shown by loss on ignition 
was so slight as to be negligible. 

The changes in the chemical composition of the water in these two 
swimming pools are illustrated in the following table : — 



Average CJiemical Analyses. 

Andover Pool. 
IParts per 100,000.] 





1 

s 

5 

Q 


O 


'H 
o 

K 

< 
o 

2 


d 

a 
o 

a 

f 

5 . 

< 


_* . 

Nitrogen 

AS — 


a 
1 

g 

is 


-3 
o 

8 

3 
§ 

8 

a 

s> 

>. 

O 


Chlorine. 






03 

2 


z> 

■*^ 

•4.3 

5 


"a 
"a 

< 


_ 


Start 1 


.09 


.0019 


.0167 


.001 


.0000 


.017 


.29 


0.4 


1.3 


Jan. 24, 1912, . 


53 


.01 


.0918 


.0292 


.024 


.0002 


.123 


.14 


1.1 


3.1 


Apr. 26, 1912, . 


148 


.00 


.2090 


.0180 


.045 


.0045 


.237 


.02 


2.1 


3.5 


July 24, 1912, . 


247 


.01 


.0904 


.0168 


.190 


.0320 


.310 


.07 


3.9 


4.8 


Oct. 3, 1912, 


182 


.02 


.0194 


.0200 


.040 


.0002 


.072 


.14 


2.0 


2.4 


Feb. 14, 1913, . 


453 


.02 


.0058 


.0126 


.058 


.0008 


.073 


.09 


1.3 


2.8 



Lawrence Pool. 



_ 


Start 1 


.25 


.0053 


.0122 


.040 


.0001 


.054 


.40 


0.4 


1.4 


Mar. 14, 1912, . 


98 


.03 


.0112 


.0342 


.151 


.0000 


.ISS 


.17 


2.7 


9.2 


Apr. 24, 1912, . 


139 


.03 


.0748 


.0442 


.056 


.0004 


.153 


.17 


3.8 


8.9 


July 1, 1912, 


206 


.02 


.0050 


.0206 


.150 


.3000 


.474 


.23 


5.1 


10.0 


Oct. 2, 1912, 


10< 


.03 


.0092 


.0122 


.037 


.0002 


.054 


.25 


1.8 


8.4 


Jan. 21, 1913, . 


121 


.03 


.0044 


.0126 


.190 


.0002 


.204 


.15 


3.6 


13.0 


Feb. 28, 1913, . 


159 


.03 


.0042 


.0194 


.240 


.0002 


.259 


.09 


5.1 


12.0 



1 Average analysis of water used for filling pool. 

2 Refilled September 15. 



3 Refilled January 1. 
* Refilled September 22. 



x\o. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWIMMING POOLS. 363 



Summary and Conclusions. 

The results of this investigation show that by the methods of filtration 
followed the water in swimming pools can be kept low in color and hence 
satisfactory in this respect. The bacterial quality of the water, however, 
has not been controlled satisfactorily by these filters. 

The results from the Andover pool during the time when disinfectant 
was added only to the water flowing to the filters are so few that they are 
not conclusive. It is evident, however, that as some portions of the pool 
might not become regularly disinfected, this method of applying the 
hypochlorite is not advisable. The results from both pools also show 
quite clearly that occasional disinfection, or regular disinfection at inter- 
vals of several days, cannot be relied upon to maintain a water of low 
bacterial content. The comparative effect of daily disinfection at the 
Andover pool and tri-weekly disinfection at the Lawrence pool is largely 
obscured by the fact that the latter was smaller and used by more bathers, 
and it was necessary to use much larger amounts of disinfectant. It is 
very probable, however, that somewhat more uniform results might have 
been obtained at the Lawrence pool had the water been treated with disin- 
fectant every day instead of every other day. The results obtained from 
this pool during the latter part of the investigation, when the disin- 
fectant was applied at night, were somewhat more uniform than were 
those obtained when the pool was allowed to stand over night before 
disinfection. 

In interpreting the results of this investigation, the question as to just 
how much of a success disinfection was at different times depends some- 
what upon the viewpoint. At times the waters from both swimming 
pools contained low numbers of bacteria and were free from B. coli, and, 
judged by the usual standards, at such times may be said to have been 
of good bacterial quality. At other times, however, large numbers of bac- 
teria were found. There is no reason to doubt that a complete steriliza- 
tion could have been accomplished by the addition of a sufficient quantity 
of hypochlorite of lime. In itself a small excess of this disinfectant in 
the water probably would not be prejudicial to the health of the persons 
bathing in it, but the odor and taste imparted to the water by such an 
excess are objectionable, while at both the Andover and the Lawrence 
pools complaints have been made that the water caused smarting of the 
eyes at times when free chlorine was present. It is evident, then, that in 
the case of the swimming pool as in the case of waters to be used for 
drinking, the amount of hypochlorite of lime which can be used is limited 
to the amount which can be absorbed and decomposed by the water, and 



364 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

this limit was reached at both the Andover and Lawrence pools during 
a considerable portion of the investigation. 

In the disinfection of drinking waters, large growths of bacteria have 
been frequently noted in the water after treatment, but in this case a 
distinction can readily be made between high numbers of bacteria due to 
pollution and high numbers of harmless saprophytic bacteria which 
develop after disinfection. In the swimming pool the conditions are 
particularly favorable for the development of types of bacteria which are 
not affected by the amounts of disinfectant used, but since the pollution 
of the water and the growth of saprophytic forms may occur simulta- 
neously, no distinction can be made between the various types of bacteria. 
In a large proportion of the swimming pool samples in which high room 
temperature counts were obtained, the body temperature counts were 
low, and B. coli were seldom present even in 100 cubic centimeters of the 
water. If we assume that the high counts were caused by growths of 
harmless saprophytic bacteria, and there is much evidence to support this 
assumption, the water in these two swimming pools may be said to have 
been of good bacterial quality the greater portion of the time. As to 
whether the water at other times Avas of such poor quality as to have been 
a menace to the health of the bathers, and as to what limits should be 
placed on the bacterial content of swimming pool waters, cannot be stated 
until more complete data regarding the bacteriology and epidemiolog}" of 
such waters are available. 

It is evident, finally, that under the conditions prevailing in these 
swimming pools water enters the ears, noses and mouths of the bathers, 
— water that has been in contact with some or all portions of the bodies 
of other bathers. It is apparent, moreover, that, notwithstanding filtra- 
tion and disinfection, large numbers of bacteria are present at times in 
the water, and in the case of chronic-disease carriers may be readily 
transferred from one bather to another. There is, indeed, some evidence, 
as already mentioned, tracing certain epidemics to swimming pools. 

The results of analyses of the water from the Andover and Lawrence 
swimming pools have been given previously; those of the water from the 
swimming pool at Worcester Academy and from the pools at the Cam- 
bridge and Lowell Young Men's Christian Association, follow : — 



No. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWIMMING POOLS. 



365 



Chemical Analysis of Average Sample of Water from the Worcester Academy 

Swimming Pool, March 17, 1913. 

[Parts per 100,000.) 



Turbidity, 
Sediment, 
Odor, 
Color, . 
Ammonia: — 

Free, . 

Albuminoid, 
Nitrogen as — 

Nitrates, 

Nitrites, 



None. 
None. 
None. 
0.03 

0.0050 
0.0100 

0.2100 
0.0002 



Oxygen consumed, 
Chlorine, 

Alkalinity, 
Solids: — 

Total, 

Loss on ignition. 

Fixed, 



0.1100 
0.5600 
3.6000 

11.0000 
5.0000 
6.0000 



Worcester Academ,y Swimming Pool. 
Average Bacterial Analyses, March 17, 1913. 





Bacteri.\ per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


B. CoLi. 




20° C. 


40° C. 


1 c. c. 


10 c. c. 






Total. 


Red. 


100 c. c. 


Water on filter (water pumped from 
outlet of pool), .... 

Effluent from filter flowing into pool. 

Average sample from pool, 

Worcester city water, tap in railroad 
station, 


Less than 100 
Less than 100 
600 

50 


20 
16 
18 

11 


16 
12 

18 

8 












+ 




+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 



March 26, 1913, 5 P.M., after Bathing Hours. Pool used by 24 Students. 



W'ater on filter. 
Effluent from filter. 
Sample No. 1, . 
Sample No. 2, . 



2,000 
800 

2,800 
400 



50 
14 
52 
40 



25 
9 

8 
15 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



March 27, 1913, 3 P.M., before Bathing Hours. 



Water on filter, .... 


1,300 


65 


21 





+ 


+ 


Effluent from filter. 


310 


16 


4 





+ 


+ 


Sample No. 1, 


1,980 


420 





4- 


+ 


+ 


Sample No. 2, 


7,800 


1,150 


200 


+ 


+ 


+ 



April 21,^ 1913, 3.15 P.M., before Bathing Hours. 



Water on filter, . 
Effluent from filter, 
Sample No. 1, . 
Sample No. 2, . 




1 Pool refilled on April 13. 



366 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Cambridge Young Men's Christian Association Swimming Pool. 

Bacterial Analyses. 



Sample from — 



Surface of pool, 

Effluent from filter, 

Water from pool going to filter, 

Deep well, pump, supplying pool, 

Effluent from filter. 

Surface of pool. 

Surface of pool, 

Pump, while pumping. 

Effluent from filter, 

Surface of pool,^ 

Pump, drawing water from pool to filter, 

Effluent from filter. 



1913. 



Jan. 


8 


(A.M.) 


Jan. 


8 


(A.M.) 


Jan. 


8 


(A.M.) 


Jan. 


28 


(A.M.) 


Jan. 


28 


(A.M.) 


Jan. 


2S 


(A.M.) 


Feb. 


13 


(A.M.) 


Feb. 


13 


(A.M.) 


Feb. 


13 


(A.M.) 


Mar. 


25 


(A.M.) 


Mar. 


25 


(A.M.) 


Mar. 


25 


(A.M.) 



Bacteria per Cctbic 
Centimeter. 


20° C. 


40° 


C. 


Total. 


Red. 


35,000 


200 


3 


5,000 


180 





26,500 


1,260 


4 


105 








1,200 


4 





9,500 


4 


2 


152,600 


2,900 


2 


144,000 


6,870 


4 


16,000 


10 





7 








5 








2,600 


15 






B. CoLi. 



1 c. c. 



+ 











SI 



SI 









100 c.c. 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 




+ 



1 Fermenting bacteria overgrown by sewage streptococcus. 
* Water entering pool is freshly filtered water from large well. 



Chemical Analysis of Average Sample of Water from the Lowell Young Men's 
Christian Association Swimming Pool, April 3, 1913. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Turbidity, 

Sediment, 

Odor, 

Color, 

Ammonia: — 
Free, 
Albuminoid, 

Nitrogen as — 

Nitrates, . 
Nitrites, . 



^"ery slight. 
Slight, 
^'ery slight. 
0.02 



0.0416 
0.0120 



0.0700 
O.O006 



Oxygen consumed, . 

Chlorine, 

Hardness, 



Solids: — 

Total, ._ _ . 
Loss on ignition. 
Fixed, 



0.0800 
0.4800 
1.9000 



9.6000 
2.6000 
7.0000 



No. 34.] SANITARY CONTROL OF SWIMMING POOLS. 



se"; 



Lowell Young Men's Christian Association Swimming Pool. 
Bacterial Analyses. 





1913. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 




B. CoLi. 




Sample from — 


20° C. 


40° 


C. 


.1 c. c. 


1 c. c. 


10 c. c. 






Total. 


Red. 


100 CO. 


Shallow end of pool, 


April 3, 


10,000 


4 


3 








+ 


+ 


Center of pool, 


April 3, 


2,200 


12 


7 





+ 


+ 


+ 


Deep end, inlet side, 


April 3, 


3,000 


3 


2 





+ 


+ 


+ 


Deep end, outlet side, . 


April 3, 


11,100 


9 


5 








+ 


+ 


Canal water, . 


April 3, 


2,600 


280 


220 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Shallow end, ^ . 


April 10 (a.m.). 


2,000 


1 











+ 


+ 


Deep end, inlet side.^ 


April 10 (a.m.). 


600 


3 


1 











+ 


Deep end, outlet side,i . 


April 10 (a.m.). 


700 


1 


1 





+ 





S2 


Canal water, . 


April 10 (a.m.). 


500 


70 


40 





+ 


+ 


+ 


Shallow end,' . 


April 10 (p.m.). 


2,700 


7 


5 








+ 


+ 


Inlet end, 3 


April 10 (p.m.), 


105 


3 


3 











S'- 


Outlet end,' . 


April 10 (p.m.). 


2,200 


11 


9 











+ 


Shallow end,* . 


April 11 (a.m.), 


110 


1 











S2 


+ 


Inlet end, «... 


April 11 (a.m.). 


1,000 


7 


4 








S' 


s= 


Outlet end,* . 


April 11 (a.m.). 


1,500 


1 


1 











+ 


Canal water, . 


April 11 (a.m.). 


500 


80 


75 





+ 


+ 


+ 



1 Before use. 

! Fermenting bacteria overgrown by sewage streptococcus. 

' After pool was closed for the day. 

* Nest morning before cleaning the pool. 



Beferences. 

Cobb. Boston Med. and Surgical Jour., July 2, 1908. 

Burrage. Proc. Ind. Water Sup. Assn., 1910. 

Kister and Fromme. Ges. Ing., Vol. 33, 1910, p. 51. 

Bunker. Am. Jour. Pub. Hygiene, n. s.. Vol. 6, 1910, p. 810. 

Atkins. Proc. 111. Water Sup. Assn., 1911, p. 72. 

Lewis. Eng. News., Vol. 65, 1911, p. 689. 

Retger and Markley. Eng. News., Vol. 66, 1911, p. 636. 

M. C. Whipple. Municipal Journal and Engr., Vol. 30, 1911, p. 577. 

Tully. Am. Jour. Pub. Hygiene, n. s., Vol. 2, 1912, p. 186. 

Roberts. Engineering News, Vol. 67, 1912, p. 186. 

Ravenal. Am. Phys. Ed. Rev., Vol. 17, 1912, p. 684. 

Mannbeimer. Am. Phys. Ed. Rev., Vol. 17, 1912, p. 669. 



Effect of Sewage Disposal, 1912. 



[369] 



The Effect of Sewage Disposal. 



The cities and towns in this State having works for the purification 
of a part or all of their sewage are 32 in number, and contain an aggre- 
gate population, according to the census of 1910, of about 450,000, — 
about 13 per cent, of the total population of the State. At the sewage- 
disposal works now in operation various methods of preliminary treat- 
ment are employed, but the method of final purification is in nearly all 
cases by intermittent filtration through sand or gravel, and soil of this 
character well suited for the purpose is found commonly in nearly all 
parts of this State. 

All of the sewage-disposal works have been examined frequently dur- 
ing the year, and samples of the sewage and effluent have been collected at 
most of the works as often as once a month for chemical examination, the 
results of which are summarized in the tables which follow. 

The most important of the new works begun during the year are the 
trickling filters at Brockton and Fitchburg. 

At Brockton the sewage of the city, which during the year averaged 
1,752,000 gallons per day, has hitherto been purified by intermittent 
filtration upon filters having an aggregate area of 37 acres. The growth 
of the city having made necessary an extension of the purification works, 
a trickling filter half an acre in area has been constructed near the sum- 
mit of the force-main as it enters the filtration area. This filter is high 
enough to make it practicable to refilter the effluent upon the existing 
filter beds. 

At Fitchburg, where the sewage of the city is discharged unpurified 
into the north branch of the Nashua Eiver, intercepting sewers are under 
construction for the purpose of diverting the dry-weather flow of sewage 
to a disposal works below the city. The plans for the disposal works 
already approved provide for the construction of trickling filters with 
settling tanks, sand filters and other appurtenances necessary for the 
treatment of the entire dry-weather flow of sewage. 

A considerable amount of work has been done during the year in the 
improvement of sewage-disposal works, notably at Amherst, Brockton, 
Framingham, Gardner and Marion. 



372 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



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No. 34.] EFFECT OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



373 



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STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



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No. 34.] 



EFFECT OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



375 



Table No. 4. — Average Results of the Analyses of Samples of Effluent {arranged 
in Order of Amount of Albuminoid Ammonia.) 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













o 

3 a 
r2.2 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•T3 

s> 

5 

en 
















City or Town. 


u 

o 
O 




i 


O 


o5 

■ 2 


1 


8 

s 
>> 
5 


a 
2 


North Attleborough, .... 


.02 


18.27 


.06 


.0116 


2.99 


.4943 


.0018 


.20 


.0056 


Concord, 






.00 


21.78 


.25 


.0123 


3.48 


.5858 


.0020 


.19 


.0103 


Stockbridge, * 


. 






.26 


25.47 


.17 


.0345 


2.79 


.3026 


.0033 


.36 


.1762 


Marlborough, ' 


. 






.07 


41.58 


.50 


.0357 


7.86 


1.8469 


.0045 


.38 


.0169 


Marion, 








.19 


19.69 


.20 


.0366 


3.65 


.4583 


.0022 


.39 


.0832 


Spencer, 








.17 


24.32 


.54 


.0376 


5.50 


.4767 


.0056 


.51 


.2423 


Milford, 


. 






- 


43.36 


.69 


.0393 


9.79 


1.5040 


.0087 


.51 


.0591 


Pittsfield,! . 


. 






.17 


36.07 


.39 


.0440 


4.69 


1.0311 


.0098 


.52 


.0126 


Amherst, 


. 






- 


29.88 


.73 


.0549 


8.60 


.6100 


.0109 


.62 


.1750 


Natick, 


. 






.28 


32.91 


1.16 


.0575 


6.57 


.4757 


.0215 


.59 


.5408 


Clinton, i 


. 






- 


34.78 


.66 


.0665 


5.27 


.8908 


.0066 


.80 


.3766 


Framingham.i 








- 


36.65 


1.74 


.0699 


8.40 


.2477 


.0121 


.91 


1.5029 


Westborough, ' 








.18 


28.61 


.41 


.0723 


4.88 


1.1525 


.0283 


.70 


.0835 


Norwood, . 








- 


71.94 


1.23 


.0755 


29.80 


.1908 


.1557 


1.18 


1,0191 


Southbridge, * 








- 


26.48 


1.01 


.0869 


5.95 


.1959 


.0123 


.96 


1.6600 


Leicester, 


. 






.21 


29.18 


.67 


.0984 


4.06 


.6066 


.0128 


.95 


.1622 


Gardner (Gardne 


r area). 






.13 


41.02 


1.46 


.1013 


6.32 


1.9038 


.0193 


.80 


.1919 


Hudson, 


. 






.27 


113.67 


1.21 


.1016 


45.00 


.8317 


.0197 


.99 


.2830 


Northbridge, 








.10 


23.96 


.65 


.1073 


4.38 


.9233 


.0083 


.75 


.0293 


Andover, * . 








- 


27.19 


1.99 


.1107 


6.85 


.1202 


.0073 


1.04 


.7875 


Brockton, 1 . 








- 


43.82 


3.18 


.1117 


12.03 


.4068 


.0125 


1.53 


1.9700 


Hopedale, . 


.- 






.29 


33.82 


1.31 


.1156 


5.00 


2.1300 


.0063 


.92 


.0386 


Worcester, . 


. 






- 


62.10 


2.17 


.1504 


13.83 


.2206 


.0148 


1.82 


2.6100 


Gardner (Templeton area),i 




.32 


35.81 


2.16 


.1817 


6.76 


.9193 


.0230 


1.32 


.2193 



1 Samples from two or more underdrains combined in one average. 



376 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Table No. 5. — Efficiency of Sand Filters (arranged in Order of Per Cent. 

Removal of Albuminoid Ammonia). 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Free Ammonia. 


Total Albuminoid 
Ammonia. 


Oxygen consumed. 


CiTT OR Town. 


Ap- 
plied 
Sew- 
age. 


Efflu- 
ent. 


Per 

Cent. 

re- 
moved. 


Ap- 
plied 
Sew- 
age. 


Efflu- 
ent. 


Per 
Cent. 

re- 
moved. 

I 


Ap- 
plied 
Sew- 
age. 


Efflu- 
ent. 


Per 
Cent. 

re- 
moved. 


Concord, . . . . 


2.14 


.25 


88 


.56 


.0123 


98 


4.32 


.19 


96 


Spencer, . . . . 


5.68 


.54 


91 


1.26 


.0376 


97 

1 


7.23 


.51 


93 


Framingham, . 


6.11 


1.74 


72 


1.50 


.0699 


95 


11.13 


.91 


92 


North Attleborough, 


1.15 


.06 


95 


.18 


.0116 


94 


1.28 


.20 


84 


Marlborough, . 


5.18 


.50 


90 


.57 


.0357 


94 


4.45 


.38 


91 


Gardner (Gardner area), . 


5.40 


1.46 


73 


1.76 


.1013 


94 


13.61 


.80 


94 


Amherst, 


2.56 


.73 


71 


.88 


.0549 


94 


5.33 


.62 


88 


Natick, .... 


3.67 


1.16 


68 


.85 


.0575 


93 


5.78 


.59 


90 


MUford 


3.92 


.69 


82 


.61 


.0393 


92 


5.18 


.51 


90 


Brockton, 


6.77 


3.18 


53 


1.33 


.1117 


92 


12.89 


1.53 


88 


Westborough, . 


3.14 


.41 


87 


.84 


.0723 


91 


4.97 


.70 


86 


Pittsfield, 


2.04 


.39 


81 


.51 


.0440 


91 1 


3.65 


.52 


86 


Norwood, 


4.07 


1.23 


70 


.84 


.0755 


91 1 


12.17 


1.18 


90 


Clinton, .... 


3.84 


.66 


83 


.69 


.0665 


90 


6.95 


.80 


89 


Marion 


1 22 


.20 


84 


.33 


.0366 


89 


2.18 


.39 


82 


Hudson 


4.52 


1.21 


73 


.91 


.1016 


89 


9.59 


.99 


89 


Stockbridge, 


1.33 


.17 


87 


.29 


.0345 


88 i 


1.89 


.36 


81 


Southbridge, . 


5.22 


1.91 


63 


.74 


.0869 


88 


5.55 


.96 


83 


Worcester, 


3.64 


2.17 


40 


1.29 


.1504 


88 : 


12.68 


1.82 


86 


Andover 


5.50 


1.99 


64 


.84 


.1107 


87 


6.18 


1.04 


83 


Leicester, .... 


3.55 


.67 


81 


.71 


.0984 


86 


5.67 


.95 


83 


Northbridge, . 


3.77 


.65 


83 


.65 


.1073 


84! 


4.31 


.75 


83 


Hopedale, 


4.90 


1.31 


73 


.71 


.1156 


84 


4,40 


.92 


79 


Gardner (Templeton area) 


4.38 


2.16 


51 


.74 


.1817 


76 ! 


4.62 


1.32 


71 



No. 34.] 



EFFECT OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



377 



Table No. 6. — Filter Effluents arranged according to the Amount of Nitrates in 

the Effluent. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











Nitrogen as 


Iron in 
Effluent. 


Total 
Albuminoid 


CiTT OR Town. 


Nitrates in 
Effluent. 


Nitrites in 
Effluent. 


Ammonia 

in Applied 

Sewage. 


Hopedale 




2.1300 


.0063 


.0386 


.71 


Gardner (Gardner area), 








1.9038 


.0193 


.1919 


1.76 


Marlborough, . 








1.8469 


.00,45 


.0169 


.57 


Milford, .... 








1.5040 


.0087 


.0591 


.61 


Westborough, 








1.1525 


.0283 


.0835 


.84 


Pittsfield, 








1.0311 


.0098 


.0126 


.51 


Northbridge, . 








.9233 


.0083 


.0293 


.65 


Gardner (Templeton area), 








.9193 


.0230 


.2193 


.74 


Clinton 








.8908 


.0066 


.3766 


.69 


Hudson, 








.8317 


.0197 


.2830 


.91 


Amherst, 








.6100 


.0109 


.1750 


.58 


Leicester, 








.6066 


.0128 


.1622 


.71 


Concord, 








.5858 


.0020 


.0103 


.56 


North Attleborough , 








.4943 


.0018 


.0056 


.18 


Spencer, .... 








.4767 


.005*6 


.2423 


1.26 


Natick 








.4757 


.0215 


.5408 


.85 


Marion, .... 








.4583 


.0022 


.0832 


.33 


Brockton, 








.4068 


.0125 


1.9700 


1.33 


Stockbridge, . 








.3026 


.0033 


.1762 


.29 


Framingham, 








.2477 


.0121 


1.5029 


1.50 


Worcester, 








.2206 


.0148 


2.6100 


1.29 


Southbridge, 








.1959 


.0123 


1.6600 


.74 


Norwood, 








.1908 


.1557 


1.0191 


.84 


Andover, 








.1202 


.0073 


.7875 


.84 



378 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



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No. 34.] 



EFFECT OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



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FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 



[381] 



FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 



The report of the chief analyst presents in detail the work of this depart- 
ment for the year ended Nov. 30, 1912. The following personnel com- 
prised the laboratory force: — 



Hermann C. Lythgoe, 
Charles H. Hicket, 
Lewis I. Nurenberg, 
Clarence E. Marsh, . 



Chief Analyst. 
First Asst. Analyst. 
Second Asst. Analyst. 
Third Asst. Analyst. 



Horace F. Davis, 
Daniel E. McCarthy, 
Frederick L. Marion, 
Maurice P. Crowe, . 



. Inspector. 

. Inspector. 

. Inspector. 

. Inspector. 



The number of samples examined during this period, together with a 
summary of work done since the passage of the law in 1882, follows: — 

Food and Drug Inspection {1882-1912). 





Years. 


Summary. 


1912. 


Total, 
1882-1912. 


Number of samples of milk examined 

Number of samples above standard, 

Number of samples below standard, 

Number of samples of other kinds of food examined (not milk), . 

Number of samples of good quality, 

Number of samples adulterated, as defined by the statutes, . 

Number of samples of drugs examined 

Number of samples of good quality, 

Number of samples adulterated, as defined by the statutes, . 

Total examination of food and drugs 

Total samples of good quality 

Total samples not conforming to the statutes, 


4,900 
3,603 
1.297 

1,301 

1,034 

267 

1,416 

1,200 
216 

7,617 
5,837 
1,780 


120,594 
79,831 
40,763 

68,961 
56,140 
12,821 

23,770 
16,053 

7,717 

213,325 

152,024 

61,301 



Section 7 of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws provides that the State 
Board of Health "shall annually report to the general court the number 
of prosecutions made under the provisions of sections sixteen to twenty- 
seven, inclusive, and an itemized account of the money expended in carry- 
ing out the provisions thereof;" and in accordance with this provision the 
following report is made. 

The total number of prosecutions entered during the fiscal year ended 
Nov. 30, 1912, was 121. Of these, 111 resulted in conviction, 9 were dis- 
missed by order of the court and 1 defaulted. There are 16 cases pending 
on appeal to the Superior Court. 

The amount paid in fines was $2,805, which brings the sum total to 
$90,959.64. 



384 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Prosecutions. 
The following table presents the statistics relative to the prosecutions 
which have been conducted under the food and drug acts since the begin- 
ning of work in 1883 (Revised Laws, chapter 75, sections 16 to 27) : — 













Number 


of Complaints entered in Court 






Year. 


Food 

and Other 

Articles 

(not 

including 

Milk). 


Drugs. 


Milk. 


Total. 


Convic- 
tions. 


Fines 
imposed. 


1883 


- 


5 


4 


9 


8 


-I 


1884, 










2 


1 


45 


48 


44 


-I 


1885,2 










50 


1 


68 


119 


103 


-I 


1886.' 










10 


- 


10 


20 


19 


-I 


1887. . 










30 


- 


34 


64 


60 


-> 


1888. 










22 


- 


43 


65 


61 


S2,042 00 


1889, 










74 


- 


66 


140 


124 


3,889 00 


1890, 










78 


- 


24 


102 


96 


3,919 00 


1891, 










96 


5 


49 


150 


135 


2,668 00 


1892. 










52 


12 


72 


136 


123 


3,661 70 


1893. 










26 


3 


67 


96 


92 


2,476 00 


1894. 










14 


- 


76 


90 


77 


2,625 00 


1895, 










13 


11 


68 


92 


86 


2,895 30 


1896. 










7 


- 


68 


75 


74 


2,812 20 


1897, 










13 


1 


51 


65 


64 


2,756 60 


1898. 










10 


- 


54 


64 


62 


2,060 98 


1899. 










19 


2 


26 


47 


45 


1.432 66 


1900. 










45 


5 


44 


94 


89 


1,890 70 


1901. 










30 


- 


65 


95 


90 


1,874 70 


1902. 










25 


3 


48 


76 


74 


2,617 98 


1903. 










34 


1 


44 


79 


70 


1,297 66 


1904, 










6 


6 


50 


62 


57 


1,509 00 


1905, 










209 


27 


77 


313 


275 


8,486 00 


1906, « 










177 


60 


171 


409 


383 


7,316 00 


1907. 










123 


63 


147 


333 


290 


6,546 00 


1908. 










76 


138 


219 


433 


386 


8,300 30 


1909, 










72 


44 


180 


296 


267 


5,666 74 


1910, 










112 


26 


119 


257 


244 


5,395 21 


1911. 










49 


30 


82 


161 


147 


4,015 91 


1912, 










20 


36 


65 


121 


111 


2,805 00 



1 No record kept. 
« To May 1. 1886. 



3 Four months only. 

• Fourteen months, from Sept. 30, 1905. 



No. 34.] 



FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 



385 



The nature of the offences brought to the attention of the courts during 
the year, the names of the defendants, the places where the offences were 
committed, the dates of trial or indictment, and the results of the prose- 
cutions, are set forth in the following table : — 



For Sale of Milk not of Good Standard Quality. 



Name. 


Place. 


Percentage 

of Total 

Solids. 


Date. 


Result. 


Smith. Wm. H., . 


Attleborough, . 


12.071 


May 22, 1912 


Conviction. 


Reinhardt, Alex., 






Becket, 




11.581 


Oct. 17, 1912 


Conviction. 


Kennelly, Martin, 






Billerica, . 




11.102 


Aug. 9, 1912 


Conviction. 


Swanson, Anton W., 






Billerica, . 




11.362 


Oct. 11, 1912 


Conviction. 


Lapham, Edward, Jr., 






Carlisle, 




11.122 


Aug. 30, 1912 


Conviction, 


Elliot, Charles L., Jr., 






Danvers, . 




10.102 


Sept. 14, 1912 


Conviction. 


Higgins, John E., 






Danvers, . 




10.141 


Sept. 14, 1912 


Conviction.' 


Bussiere, Frank X., 






Dartmouth, 




10.362 


Jan. 9, 1912 


Conviction. 


Gracie, John S., . 






^Dartmouth, 




9.941 


June 8, 1912 


Dismissed. * 


Paradia, Joseph, . 






Dartmouth, 




8.302 


Jan. 5, 1912 


Conviction. 


Perry, Joseph, 






Dartmouth, 




10.442 


Jan. 5, 1912 


Conviction. 


Spittle, Thomas E., 






Essex, 




9.842 


Sept. 21, 1912 


Conviction.' 


Spittle, Thomas E., 






Essex, 




9.742 


Sept. 21, 1912 


Conviction.' 


Amoral, Jesse D., 






Fall River, 




10.672 


Nov. 5, 1912 


Conviction. 


Levalley, Alexander G. 


t 




Fitchburg, 




10.106 


Nov. 29. 1912 


Conviction. 


Bradford, Robert, 






Framingham, 




11.262 


Jan. 16, 1912 


Conviction. 


Bradley, Thomas, 






Gloucester, 




10.562 


Jan. 13, 1912 


Conviction. 


Carter, John, 






Gloucester, 




11.062 


Sept. 21, 1912 


Conviction. ' 


Spittle, Thomas E., 






Gloucester, 




9.322 


Aug. 24, 1912 


Conviction.' 


Waldron, Geo. E., 






Gloucester, 




7.682 


Aug. 7. 1912 


Conviction. ' 


Waldron, Geo. E., 






Gloucester, 




8.422 


Sept. 21, 1912 


Conviction.' 


Zakszewski, Marian, 






Hadley, . 




10.262 


July 19, 1912 


Conviction.' 


Webster, Isaiah, . 






Haverhill, . 




10.942 


June 29, 1912 


Conviction. 


Bod well, Frank, . 






Ipswich, 




9.002 


July 22, 1912 


Conviction. 


Reidenbach, Jacob, 






Kingston, . 




7.982 


May 28. 1912 


Conviction. 


Reidenbach, Jacob, 






Kingston, . 




9.052 


May 28, 1912 


Conviction. 


Frye, Bert M., . 






Leominster, 




9.765 


Nov. 22. 1912 


Conviction. 


Frye, Bert M., . 






Leominster, 




9.526 


Nov. 22. 1912 


Conviction. 


Fletcher, Daniel C, . 






Littleton, . 




11.802 


May 25, 1912 


Conviction.' 


Fletcher, Daniel C, . 






Littleton, . 




10.262 


May 25, 1912 


Conviction. 


Stowell, Robert W., . 






Lowell, 




11.482 


Aug. 9, 1912 


Conviction. 



1 Removal of creamialleged in complaint. 

2 Addition of water alleged in complaint. 
' Appealed to upper court; case pending. 



* Dismissed by order of the court. 
6 Skimmed milk; cans not marked. 



386 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



For Sale of Milk not of Good Standard Quality — Concluded. 



Name. 


Place. 


Percentage 

of Total 

Solids. 


Date. 


Result. 


Hood, H. P., & Sons, 






Lynn, 


8.90» 


Jan. 


24, 1912 


Dismissed.' 


Stanford, Carl C, 






Lynn, 




10.753 


Mar. 


13, 1912 


Conviction. 


Finegold, Frank, . 






Maiden, 




11.483 


Oct. 


22, 1912 


Conviction. 


Cross, Frank W., . 






Melrose, 




11.401 


Mar. 


14, 1912 


Conviction. 


Varley, Ralph C, 






Melrose, 




11.66» 


Mar. 


22, 1912 


Dismissed. > 


Oracle, John S., . 






New Bedford, 




11.681 


Dec. 


10, 1911 


CoAviction. 


Grade, John S., . 






New Bedford, 




8.18',3 


Dec. 


10, 1911 


Conviction, 


Carey, Marcus L., 






North Andover, 


10.303 


July 


18, 1912 


Conviction. 


Doherty, Patrick, 






North Andover, 


8.343 


June 


12, 1912 


Conviction. 


Doherty, Patrick, 






North Andover, 


2.79',< 


June 


12, 1912 


Dismissed.' 


Doherty, Patrick, 






North Andover, 


8.42 


June 


12, 1912 


Conviction. 


Putnam, Willard 0., 






North Andover, 


3.364 


June 


12, 1912 


Conviction. 


Johnson, Owen N., 






North Attleborough, . 


11.163 


May 


22, 1912 


Conviction. 


Perkins, Arthur L., 






Peabody, . 


10.843 


Jan. 


27, 1912 


Conviction. 


Beckford, Josiah W., 






Plymouth, 




11.303 


May 


14, 1912 


Conviction. 


Bowen, Murry, . 




^ 


Rehoboth, 




11.503 


Feb. 


8, 1912 


Conviction. 6 


Dugan, Patrick J., 






Salem, 




10.783 


Jan. 


27, 1912 


Conviction. 


Cheney, Ira, 






Saugus, 




11.683 


Aug. 


22, 1912 


Conviction. 


Simons, Manuel F., 






Somerset, . 




9.54',3 


Feb. 


6, 1912 


Conviction. 


Dart, Arthur A., . 






Stow, 




4.303 


Dec. 


28, 1911 


Conviction. 


Kolodziey, Onufry, 






Taunton, . 




11.123 


May 


1, 1912 


Conviction. 


Heath, DeWitt C, 






Tyringham , 




5.643 


Aug. 


29, 1912 


Conviction. 


Boston Condensed M 


ilk 


Com- 


Watertown, 




11.74 


Aug. 


6, 1912 


Dismissed,* 


pany. 
Owens, William, . 






Watertown, 




8.883 


Mar. 


21, 1912 


Conviction. 


Viles, Henry L., . 






Weston, 




12.063 


Dec. 


29, 1911 


Conviction. 


Silva, Jack A., 






Westport, . 




8.083 


Jan. 


9, 1912 


Defaulted. 


Godfrey, Chester G., 






Williamstown, . 




10.503 


Oct. 


25, 1912 


Conviction. 


Flynn, Michael J., 






Winchester, 




11.803 


Dec. 


11, 1911 


Conviction. 


Hood, H. P., & Sons, . 






Winchester, 




11.94t 


July 


16, 1912 


Conviction. 


Hood, H. P.. & Sons, . 






Winchester, 




11.871 


July 


16, 1912 


Conviction. 


Hood, H. P., & Sons, . 






Winchester, 




11.881 


July 


16, 1912 


Conviction. 


Dobbins, Patrick P., . 






Woburn, . 




11.453 


Apr. 


6, 1912 


Conviction. 


Marion, Nathan H., 






Woburn, . 




11.723 


Apr. 


6, 1912 


Conviction. 



1 Removal of cream alleged in complaint. 

' Dismissed by order of the court. 

' Addition of water alleged in complaint. 



* Addition of coloring matter alleged in complaint. 
' Appealed to upper court; case pending. 



No. 34.] 



FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 



387 





For Sale of Adulterated Cream. 






Name. 


Place. 


Adulterant. 


Date. 


Result. 


Mitchell, Robert, 


New Bedford, . 


Formaldehyde, . 


Mar. 22, 1912 


Conviction. 



For Sale of Adulterated Foods Other than Milk and Milk Products. 

Hamburg Steak. 



Alpert, Morris, . 
Davis, Guy F., . 
McDonald, Hector D., 
United Fisheries Co., 
Roberta, Belanic L., . 



Ferrari, Annival, 


Boston, 


Sulphurous acid, 


Mar. 12, 1912 


Conviction. 


Mince Meat. 


Skerry, Hilton E., . 


Lynn, 


Benzoic acid, 


Jan. 11, 1912 


Conviction. 


Sausage. 



Boston, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Gloucester, 

Worcester, 



Sulphurous acid, 

Cereal, 

Cereal, 

Decomposed, 

Cereal, 



N. E. Maple Syrup Com- 
pany. 
Linnane, Thomas, 

Rockwell, Chas. A., . 



Cambridge, 

Lowell, 

Lowell, 



Cane sugar. 
Cane sugar, 
Cane sugar, 



Feb. 1, 1912 

Oct. 31, 1912 

Oct. 31, 1912 

Oct. 31, 1912 

Feb. 3, 1912 



Conviction. 
Conviction. > 
Conviction. ' 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Pork Sausage. 


Schlopp, Christian L., 
Weitz, Carl A., . 


Boston, 
Boston, 


Cereal, 
Cereal, 


Mar. 28, 1912 
Feb. 13. 1912 


Conviction. 
Conviction. 


Herring. 


Siegel Company, Henry, . 


Boston, . 


Decomposed, 


Nov. 27, 1912 


Conviction. * 


Maple Syrup. 



Jan. 


23, 


1912 


Dec. 


22. 


1911 


Dec. 


22. 


1911 



Conviction.! 

Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Tomato Catsup. 



Dickinson, F. H., 
Grocers Supply Company, 




Decomposed, 
Benzoic acid, 



May 29, 1912 
Feb. 20, 1912 



Seized and 

destroyed. 
Conviction. 



* Appealed to upper court; case pending. 



388 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



For Sale of Adulterated Foods Other than Milk and Milk Products — Concluded. 

Cider Vinegar. 



Name. 


Place. 


Adulterant. 


Date. 


Result. 


Grocers Supply Company, 


Fall River, 


Acidity below legal 
standard. 


Feb. 20, 1912 


Conviction. 


Olive Oil. 


Noise, Antonino, 


Waltham, 


Cotton-seed oil, . 


Sept. 18, 1912 


Conviction. 


Broken-out Eggs. 


Eisenberg, Joseph, 
Standard Egg Company, . 


Boston, 
Boston, . 


Decomposed, 
Decomposed, 


Apr. 24, 1912 
Oct. 4, 1912 


Conviction. 
Conviction. 


Lime Juice. 


Cox, Arthur E., . 


Boston, . 


Water, not marked, . 


Aug. 29, 1912 


Conviction. 


Makshmallow. 


Woolworth, F. W., & Co., . 


Boston, . 


Sulphur dioxide, 


Feb. 7, 1912 


Conviction. 



Weiner, Paul, 
Smith, Geo. W., , 
Glesman, A. F., , 



For Sale of Adulterated Drugs. 

Alcohol. 



Welsh, John H 


Boston, . 


Deficiency in strength, 


Mar. 2, 1912 


Dismissed.' 


Denatured Alcohol. 


Broderick, Wm. L., . 
Gray, Chas 


Haverhill, 
Somerville, 


Wood alcohol; not cor- 
rectly marked. 
Not labeled. 


Dec. 21. 1911 
Mar. 12, 1912 


Conviction. 
Conviction. 


Spirit of Anise. 



Boston, 
Fall River, 
Holyoke, . 



Deficiency in strength. 
Deficiency in strength. 
Deficiency in strength, 



May 


22, 


1912 


Dec. 


H. 


1911 


Aug. 


5, 


1912 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Camphor Liniment. 



Smith, Geo. W., . 
Wright, Fred H., 



Fall River, 
Taunton, . 



Deficiency in strength. 
Deficiency in strength, 



Dec. 14, 1911 
Jan. 19, 1912 



Conviction. 
Dismissed.' 



1 Dismissed by order of the court. 



No. 34.] 



FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 



389 



For Sale of Adulterated Drugs — Continued. 

Spirit of Camphor. 



Name. 


Place. 


Adulterant. 


Date. 


Result. 


Cassidy, John M., 


Lee, . 


Deficiency in strength, 


Oct. 22, 1912 


Conviction. 



Tincture op Iodine. 



Weiner, Joel, 


Boston, . 


Acetone and wood al- 
cohol. 


June 27, 1912 


Conviction. 


Oxley, Joseph C, 


Reading, . 


Dissolved in denatured 
alcohol. 


Oct. 10, 1912 


Conviction. 


Perkins, Ralph G., . 


Somerville, 


Deficiency in strength, 


May 30. 1912 


Conviction, 



Sweet Spirit of Nitre. 



Harvey, John J., 


Gt. Barrington, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Nov. 8, 1912 


Conviction.* 


Cassidy, John M., 


Lee, . 


Deficiency in strength. 


Oct. 22, 1912 


Conviction. 


Cormick, John, . 


Lee, , . . 


Deficiency in strength, 


Oct. 8, 1912 


Conviction. 


Pease, Frank R. 


Lee, . . . 


Deficiency in strength. 


Oct. 8, 1912 


Conviction. 



Essence op Peppermint. 



Fowler, Frank E., 



New Bedford, . 



Deficiency in strength. 



Mar. 22, 1912 



Conviction. 









Spirit 


OF Peppermint. 










Dinsmore, Austin C, 


Boston, . 


Deficiency in strength. 


Oct. 


15, 


1912 


Conviction. 


Feldman, Aaron, 




Boston, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Aug. 


21. 


1912 


Conviction. 


Gray, Hugh R., 






Boston, . 


Deficiency in strength, 


Sept. 


11. 


1912 


Conviction. 


Hopkins, Geo. P., 






Boston, . 


Deficiency in strength, 


Mar. 


29, 


1912 


Conviction. 


Nevler, Nicholas H., 






Boston, . 


Deficiency in strength. 


Feb. 


13, 


1912 


Conviction. 


Ramponi, Geo. F., 






Boston, . 


Deficiency in strength. 


Feb. 


13. 


1912 


Conviction. ' 


Wheeler, William D., 






Boston, . 


Deficiency in strength. 


Oct. 


15. 


1912 


Conviction. 


Gaudreau, John B., 






Fall River, 


Deficiency in strength, 


Dec. 


14, 


1911 


Conviction. 


LeClaire. Z. N., . 






Fall River, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Dec. 


14. 


1911 


Conviction. 


Riddell, Benj.F., 






Fall River, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Dec. 


14. 


1911 


Conviction, 


Broderick, Wm. L., 






Haverhill, 


Deficiency in strength, 


Dec. 


21. 


1911 


Dismissed.* 


Nelson, Chas. A., 






Haverhill, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Dec. 


21. 


1911 


Conviction. 


Stevens, Walter F., 






Haverhill, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Dec. 


21, 


1911 


Dismissed.* 


Tozier, Ned C, . 






Haverhill, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Dec. 


21. 


1911 


Conviction. 


Greene, Willard E., 






Northampton, . 


Deficiency in strength, 


Juiy 


19. 


1912 


Conviction. 


Volkman, William A., 




Worcester, 


Deficiency in strength. 


Dec. 


15. 


1911 


Conviction. 



1 Appealed to upper court; case pending. 



2 Dismissed by order of the court. 



390 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



For Sale of Adulterated Drugs — Concluded. 

Tincture op Vanilla. 



Name. 


Place. 


Adulterant. 


Date. 


Result. 


Dacey, Wm. R., 


Boston, . 


Vanillin, 


Mar. 29. 1912 


Conviction. 



Riker Jaynes Company, 



Boston, 



Wood Alcohol. 



Sold as Columbian 
spirits. 



Feb. 13, 1912 



Conviction. 



Salagar, Louis P., 



Quincy, 



Miscellaneous. 



Dr. James One Minute 
Corn Cure; alcohol; 
not on package. 



June 27, 1912 



Conviction. 



Of the cases reported as pending in the last preceding report, 1 for the 
sale of adulterated sausage resulted in conviction and fine. 
The amount paid in fines was S2,805, as follows: — 

Milk and milk products, $2,025 00 

Foods other than above, 375 00 

Drugs, 405 00 

$2,805 00 



The total number of samples of food, drugs, hquors, poisons and oils 
examined during the year was as follows : — 



Milk, 
Food, 
Drugs 



4,900 
1,301 
1,416 



Liquors, ^2 

Poisons, 1^" 

Paints, oils and turpentine, 



8 



7,873 



No. 34.] FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTION. 391 



Expenditures under the Provisions of the Food and Drug Acts 

FOR the Year ended Nov. 30, 1912. 

Appropriation, $17,500 00 

Salaries of analysts, $6,733 33 

Salaries of inspectors, 6,249 98 

Salary of laboratory assistant, 63 64 

Traveling expenses and purchase of samples, 2,998 87 

Apparatus and chemicals, 805 34 

Printing, 31 20 

Services, cleaning laboratory, 86 00 

Express charges, 17 43 

Telephone messages and postage, 54 94 

Sundry laboratory supplies, 45 98 

Books, binding and stationery, 90 59 

Extra services, 112 85 

Advertising, 6 40 

Miscellaneous, 2 20 

Total, $17,298 75 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



By Her\l^nn C. Lythgoe. 



[393] 



EEPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



By Hermann C. Lythgoe. 



Dr. Mark W. Richardson, Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of 

Health. 

Deae Sik : — I herewith submit my report on the analysis of food and 
drugs for the year ending Nov. 30, 1912. 

This completes the thirtieth year of continuous inspection of milk, food 
and drugs of the State of Massachusetts. The food and drug inspection 
law of Massachusetts was passed in 1882, and is the second in antiquity 
in the United States, that of New York being enacted one year earlier. 
Previous to the passage of the law the Board had made numerous in- 
vestigations upon the character and extent of adulteration in the State, 
and published the results in the annual reports from 1873 to 1882, 
which no doubt exerted considerable influence towards the passage of the 
law. The report for 1882 contains the following words : — 

New interest had been awakened in the subject by the action of the Na- 
tional Board of Trade, through whose committee of experts a bill was 
prepared " to prevent the adulteration of food and drags." This bill, sub- 
stantially in the form recommended, has been enacted by the States of New 
York, Massachusetts and Michigan. 

The results of the first year's work showed a most deplorable condi- 
tion ; one-third of the food samples, 40 per cent, of the drugs, two-thirds 
of the spices and 80 per cent, of the milk samples were adulterated or 
varied from the legal standard. For example, the average solids of the 
305 samples of milk collected and examined was 11.56 per cent. A com- 
parison of this figure with the average solids (12.60 per cent.) of the 
4,900 examined in 1912 shows the value of the work performed. These 
figures are still more significant when one considers that the standard 
has been lowered several times during the interim. 

The variation in adulteration of the samples of milk, food and drugs 
collected during thirty years is shown in the accompanying chart. This 
chart was published in the 1903 report, and has been brought up to date, 
and the ratio of adulteration of drugs has been added. It should be dis- 



396 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

tinctly understood that this does not represent the adulteration of the 
total food and drug supply of the State, but only of such varieties as are 
liable to adulteration ; for with the exception of milk, the majority of the 
staple articles of food on the market, such as fresh meats, fruits and 
vegetables, are rarely subject to adulteration, and are seldom collected 
and examined. 

A study of the chart shows fluctuations of the most pronounced char- 
acter, but these are easily explained by a study of the conditions at the 
time of collection and examination. The fluctuations in the milk line 
are due first to changes in the standard which would change the ratio of 
adulteration with the same quality of milk (the standard was lowered in 
1896, 1899 and 1908), and secondly, the collection of an unusual number 
of milk samples from suspected producers, as in 1893-95, 1905-06 and 
1912, which would have a tendency to raise the ratio of adulteration. 

The changes in the food and drug lines are due to changes in the 
character of the samples collected. Continuous inspection of any one 
class of food will have a tendency to reduce the ratio of adulteration, 
and as the adulteration becomes less the amount collected is reduced, 
and more time is spent upon other substances more liable to adulteration, 
thereby making an increase in the line instead of a decrease as actual 
market conditions would show. In 1905 the inspectors were ordered to 
bring in no spice samples of certain manufacturers who were known to 
put up only pure spices, and the ratio of adulteration of spices promptly 
increased. In the sam-e year a great deal of energy was spent upon ham- 
burg steak, sausages, oysters, clams and beer which were known to con- 
tain preservatives; this increased the ratio of adulteration for the year, 
but the preserved clam, oyster and malt liquor disappeared from the 
market, and the preserved sausage and hamburg steak became less com- 
mon, and as a rule was properly labeled. During the last three years 
there have been changes in the character of samples collected, resulting 
in an increase of adulteration, but the food line for 1912 shows a ten- 
dency toward a decrease. The character of the spice line shows the value 
of continual inspection of one class of food during a number of years. 
The adulteration of spices gradually decreased until it bec9,me nil, and 
has remained so for four years. 

Milk has been and always will be extensively adulterated, on account 
of the facility with which adulteration can be practiced. There is no 
doubt that the market would be flooded with adulterated milk if inspec- 
tion ceased, because unscrupulous dealers would adulterate their milk, 
selling it at a lower price, and the public would buy the cheaper article. 

The samples reported as adulterated during the year are so called for 
the following reasons : — 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



397 



P.R 



CENT. 



1883 



1889 



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398 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Samples. 

Variation from legal standard : — 

Milk low in solids, 1,064 

Vinegar low in solids or acid, 43 

Cream low in fat, 4 

Containing prohibited foreign substances : — 

Milk, 189 

Food containing added antiseptics, 53 

Valuable ingredient removed : — 

Condensed milk, 1 

Not bearing a label of the character required by law : — 

Skimmed milk, .......... 53 

Baking powder, 1 

Condensed milk, .......... 7 

Containing substances added to reduce or lower the strength, quality 
or purity of the article : — 

Butter, 1 

Cocoa, 6 

Coffee, 21 

Lime juice, 10 

Honey, 1 

Sausages, 40 

Olive oil, 6 

Flavoring extracts, 9 

Made in imitation of other articles : — 

Maple ijroducts, 14 

Vinegar, 9 

Decomposed : — 

Butter, ............ 1 

Eggs, 35 

Canned meats, 2 

Chicken, 1 

Sausages, 1 

None of the adulterated samples were declared so by reason of their 
containing any substance which was injurious to health; in fact, it is 
almost impossible to prove a question of this nature on account of the 
eonflicting reports given by different investigators. This is especially 
true in the case of preservatives, and the State solved this problem in 
1901 by prohibiting the use of certain preservatives in food unless the 
label bears the name and per cent, of the added antiseptic. This leaves it 
to the consumer to decide whether or not he cares to eat food containing 
chemical preservatives. The presence of any violently toxic substance 
added for the purpose of causing death is not considered in the above 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



399 



discussion, and such substances are not added to public food supply. An 
example of such treatment of food will be found in the poison report, 
as a sample of coffee was found to contain strychnine. 

Milk and Milk Products. 

Porty-nine hundred samples of milk were collected, of which 3,603, 
or 73.5 per cent., were above the legal standard. One hundred and 
eighty-nine samples contained added water, 53 were skimmed and sold 
as whole milk or the cans were not labeled, and 8 contained foreign sub- 
stances. Of the samples declared adulterated 10 were above the legal 
standard for solids. 

The usual statistics for milk are as follows : — 











Milk f 


rom Cities and Towns. 








Locality. 


Above 

Stand- 
ard. 


Below 

Stand- 
ard. 


Total. 


Total 

Solids in 

Lowest 

Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Such. 


Watered 
Milk. 


Milk 
con- 
taining 
Foreign 

Sub- 
stances. 


Abington 


13 


8 


21 


9.90 


1 


1 


- 


Adams, . 








15 


- 


15 


12.20 


- • 


- 


- 


Andover, 








16 


4 


20 


11.38 


- 


- 


- 


Arlington, 








43 


16 


59 


10.49 


- 


- 


- 


Athol, . 








13 


2 


15 


9.40 


1 


1 


- 


Attleborough, 








23 


8 


31 


10.80 


- 


1 


- 


Becket, . 








3 


2 


5 


11.58 


- 


- 


- 


Beverly, 








18 


4 


22 


11.72 


- 


- 


- 


Boston, 








12 


1 


13 


11.34 


- 


- 


- 


Braintree, 








6 


- 


6 


12.54 


- 


- 


- 


Bridge-water, 








8 


2 


10 


10.00 


1 


- 


- 


Brockton, 








77 


■10 


87 


11.68 


1 


- 


- 


Brookline, 








42 


8 


50 


11.86 


- 


- 


- 


Cambridge, 








58 


12 


70 


11.60 


- 


- 


- 


Canton, . 








15 


- 


15 


12.24 


- 


- 


- 


Chelmsford, 








10 


18 


28 


10.98 


- 


1 


- 


Chelsea, 








88 


20 


108 


11.06 


- 


- 


- 


Chicopee, 








23 


8 


31 


11.42 


- 


- 


- 


Clinton, . 








9 


1 


10 


12.12 


- 


- 


- 


Concord, 








10 


1 


11 


12.10 


- 


- 


- 


Dalton, . 








8 


- 


8 


12.44 


- 


- 


- 


Dan vers, 








14 


8 


22 


10.10 


- 


1 


- 


Easthampton, 






6 


6 


12 


9.64 


- 


- 


- 


Easton, . 




10 


- 


10 


12.60 


- 


- 


~ 



400 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Milk from Cities and Towns — Continued. 



Locality. 


Above 
Stand- 
ard. 


Below 
Stand- 
ard. 


Total. 


Total 

Solids in 

Lowest 

Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Such. 


Watered 
Milk. 


Milk 
con- 
taining 
Foreign 

Sub- 
stances. 


Everett, .... 


69 


17 


86 


11.64 


- 


- 


- 


Fall Riveb, . 






122 


38 


160 


8.08 


- 


17 


1» 


FiTCHBURG, . 






42 


21 


63 


10.06 


1 


1 


- 


Franklin, 






6 


2 


8 


11.90 


- 


- 


- 


Framingham, 






9 


3 


12 


11.26 


- 


2 


- 


Gardner, 






12 


3 


15 


11.44 


- 


- 


- 


Gloucester, . 






111 


79 


190 


7.68 


- 


16 


- 


Great Harrington, . 






9 


- 


9 


12.87 


- 


- 


- 


Greenfield, 






14 


1 


15 


12.12 


- 


- 


- 


Haverhill, . 






86 


27 


113 


10.66 


- 


3 


- 


Hingham, 






8 


- 


8 


12.16 


- 


- 


- 


HOLYOKE, 






33 


U 


44 


10.98 


- 


1 


- 


Hudson, 






22 


19 


41 


9.40 


1 


1 


- 


Ipswich, . 






8 


- 


8 


12.36 


- 


- 


_ _ 


Lawrence, . 






105 


71 


176 


2.79 


- 


n[ 


22 
53 


Lee, 






6 


2 


8 


9.60 


2 


- 


- 


Leominster, . 






15 


3 


18 


9.56 


- 


- 


- 


Lexington, 






15 


10 


25 


11.54 


- 


- 


- 


Littleton, 






23 


3 


26 


12.10 


- 


- 


- 


Lowell, 






71 


20 


91 


9.48 


2 


2 


- 


Lynn, 






44 


17 


61 


8.90 


1 


2 


- 


Malden, 






82 


17 


99 


10.64 


- 


3 


- 


Mansfield, 






9 


1 


10 


11.70 


- 


- 


- 


Marlborough, 






17 


3 


• 20 


9.56 


1 


- 


- 


Marblehead, . 






23 


6 


29 


11.68 


- 


- 


- 


Maynard, 






15 


7 


22 


11.00 


- 


1 


- 


Medford, 






62 


11 


73 


11.80 


- 


- 


- 


Melrose, 






45 


3 


48 


11.40 


- 


- 


- 


Methuen, 






9 


- 


9 


12.30 


- 


- 


- 


Middleborough, 






9 


3 


12 


11.10 


- 


1 


- 


Middleton, 






14 


3 


17 


10.68 


- 


- 


- 


Millbury, 






7 


3 


10 

* 


11.92 


- 


- 


- 


Milford, . 






37 


3 


40 


11.78 


- 


- 


- 


Milton, . 






17 


3 


20 


9.60 


1 


- 


- 


Montague, 






13 


1 


14 


11.58 


- 


1 


- 


1 


Fori 


nalde 


dyde. 


2 


Colored. 




5 SU( 


sar. 





No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



401 









Milk from Cities and Towns - 


— Continued. 






Locality. 


Above 
Stand- 
ard. 


Below 
Stand- 
ard. 


Total. 


Total 

Solids in 

Lowest 

Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Such. 


Watered 
Milk. 


Milk 
con- 
taining 
Foreign 

Sub- 
stances. 


Natick, 


16 


5 


21 


9.40 


1 


- 


- 


New Bedford, 






118 


36 


147 


8.18 


- 


3 


- 


Newburyport, 






48 


8 


56 


9.68 


1 


- 


- 


Newton, 






30 


6 


36 


11.52 


- 


2 


- 


North Adams, 






28 


3 


31 


11.62 


- 


- 


- 


NORTH.*.MPTON, 






31 


24 


55 


10.00 


- 


6 


- 


North Attleborougl 


'l 




31 


5 


36 


11.16 


- 


1 


- 


Norwood, 






22 


9 


31 


9.60 


1 


- 


- 


Oak Bluffs, 








15 


1 


16 


11.82 


- 


- 


- 


Orange, . 








18 


- 


18 


12.62 


- 


- 


- 


Palmer, . 








7 


3 


10 


11.82 


- 


- 


- 


Peabody , 








5 


5 


10 


10.64 


- 


- 


- 


PiTTSriELD, 








28 


4 


32 


8.80 


2 


- 


- 


Plymouth, 








31 


11 


42 


7.98 


- 


5 


- 


QUINCY, . 








50 


14 


64 


8.80 


- 


1 


- 


Randolph , 








10 


1 


11 


12,06 


- 


- 


- 


Reading, 








19 


1 


20 


11.96 


- 


- 


- 


Revere, . 








36 


2 


38 


12.10 


- 


- 


- 


Rockland, 








14 


- 


14 


12.26 


- 


- 


- 


Rockport, 








5 


2 


7 


10.82 


- 


- 


- 


Salem, . 








22 


13 


35 


10.78 


- 


- 


- 


Saugus, . 








44 


11 


55 


11.90 


- 


- 


- 


Somerville, 








115 


18 


133 


11.64 


- 


- 


- 


Spencer, . 








7 


3 


10 


11.88 


- 


- 


- 


Springfield, 








45 


8 


53 


11.24 


- 


- 


- 


Stoneham, 








19 


1 


20 


12.02 


- 


- 


- 


Stoughton, 








9 


1 


10 


12.00 


- 


- 


- 


Swampscott, 








9 


- 


9 


12.20 


- 


- 


- 


Taunton, 








70 


5 


75 


9.30 


2 


1 


- 


Tyringham, 








3 


5 


8 


5.64 


- 


4 


- 


Wakefield, 








18 


3 


21 


9.08 


1 


- 


- 


Waltham, 








54 


3 


57 


9.76 


1 


- 


- 


Watertown, 








37 


22 


59 


8.88 


- 


1 


- 


Ware, 








46 


17 


63 


9.44 


- 


1 


- 


Wareham, 








17 


3 


20 


9.48 


1 


- 


- 


Webster, 








27 


9 


36 


9.58 


- 


2 


- 



402 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Milk from Cities and Towns — Concluded. 



Locality. 


Above 

Stand- 
ard. 


Below 
Stand- 
ard. 


Total. 


Total 

Solids in 

Lowest 

Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Such. 


Watered 
Milk. 


Milk 
con- 
taining 
Foreign 

Sub- 
stances. 


Westborough, 

Westfield, 

Westport, 

West Springfield, 

Weymouth, . 

Whitman, 

Williamstown, 

Winchester, 

Winthrop, 

WOBURN, 

Worcester, . 






7 
7 
18 
6 
22 
39 
11 
53 
46 
23 
26 


2 
2 
4 
3 
8 
9 
2 
9 
3 
12 
4 


9 
9 

22 
9 
30 
48 
13 
62 
49 
35 
30 


12.06 
10.54 
10,62 
10.95 
11.70 
11.12 
10.50 
11.50 
11.78 
11.30 
9.54 


1 


2 
1 

2 


- 


Totals, . 


3,084 


870 


3,954 


2.79 


24 


103 


8 



Milk from Suspected Producers. 



Locality. 


Above 
Standard. 


Below 
Standard. 


Total. 


Total 

Solids in 

Lowest 

Sample 

(Percent.). 


Watered. 


Ashby 


11 


3 


14 


11.42 


- 


Bedford, . 












27 


37 


64 


9.60 


1 


Billerica, . 












20 


11 


31 


11.10 


8 


Burlington, 












29 


4 


33 


10.90 


- 


Canton, . 












18 


- 


18 


12.60 


- 


Carlisle, . 












6 


6 


12 


11.12 


1 


Concord, 












29 


38 


67 


11.16 


- 


Dan vers, . 












2 


3 


5 


11.70 


- 


Dartmouth, 












15 


14 


29 


10.74 


- 


Dedham, . 












16 


11 


27 


10.76 


- 


Dover, 












25 


15 


40 


11.38 


- 


Fitchburq, 












. 9 


18 


27 


9.46 


- 


Hadley, . 












- 


9 


9 


10.26 


9 


Haverhill, 












- 


6 


6 


10.94 


6 


Ipswich, . 












- 


2 


2 


8.24 


2 


Lincoln, . 












22 


12 


34 


11.00 


- 


Littleton, 












17 


12 


29 


10,26 


2 


Lowell, . 












1 


7 


8 


11.28 


- 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



403 







Milk from 


Suspected Producers - 


— Concluded. 




Locality. 


Above 

Standard. 


Below 
Standard. 


Total. 


Total 

Solids in 

Lowest 

Sample 

(Per Cent.). 


Watered. 


M.\.LDEN 


3 


8 


11 


11.10 


3 


Maynard, 








3 


1 


4 


11.74 


- 


New Braintree, 








1 


11 


12 


10.60 


- 


Newbury, 








5 


19 


24 


10.48 


- 


New Ipswich, N. H 


I 






3 


- 


3 


12,68 


- 


North Andover, 








48 


66 


114 


10.30 


5 


Somerset, 








21 


13 


34 


8.30 


11 


Southbridge, 










10 


14 


24 


10.78 


2 


Sterling, . 










4 


8 


12 


9.68 


6 


Stow, 










24 


22 


46 


4.30 


15 


Sudbury, . 










21 


11 


32 


10.90 


- 


Townsend, 










4 


- 


4 


12.88 


- 


Way land, . 










3 


3 


6 


11.90 


- 


Weston, . 










6 


8 


14 


11.80 


10 


Weymouth, 










6 


15 


21 


11.76 


- 


Totals, 


434 


422 


856 


4.30 


81 



Summary of Milk Statistics. 





Above 
Stand- 
ard. 


Below 
Stand- 
ard. 


Total. 


Total 

Solids in 

Lowest 

Sample 

(Per 
Cent.). 


Skimmed 

Milk 

sold as 

Such. 


Watered 
Milk. 


Milk 
con- 
taining 
Foreign 

Sub- 
stances. 


Milk from cities and towns, . 

Milk from suspected pro- 
ducers. 
Miscellaneous, 


3,084 
434 

85 


870 

422 

5 


3,954 

856 

90 


2.79 

4.30 

11.25 


24 


103 

81 

5 


8 


Totals, .... 


3,603 


1,297 


4,900 


2.79 


24 


189 


8 



404 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Milk containing Added Water. 



Dealer. 


Locality. 


a 
oil 

3 


a 

- <o 


-1-9 

la 

1 


Refraction of Cop- 
per Serum at 20° 
C. 


o o 
< 


a 
O 

I 
2 


Allen Brothers, .... 


Montague, . 


11.58 


4.30 


7.28 


33.6 


- 


- 


Jesse D. Amaral 


Fall River, 


10.67 


2.85 


7.82 


35.3 


0.688 


- 


Manuel Azvedo 


Westport, . 


11.12 
11.62 


3.60 
3.80 


7.52 

7.82 


34.6 
36.0 


0.640 
0.696 


"■ 


C. H. Backus 


Quincy, 


8.80 


2.10 


6.70 


33.7 


0.612 


- 






11.78 


3.90 


7.88 


35.6 


0.740 


- 


J. F. Ban villa, .... 


Somerset, . 


10.70 


3.30 


7.40 


34.5 


0.664 


- 






11.50 


3.70 


7.80 


35.6 


0.712 


' 


George J. Barker, 


Athol, 


11.48 


3.60 


7.88 


35.1 


0.692 


- 


A. Beaupaland, .... 


Fall River, 


11.26 


3.35 


7.91 


35.4 


0.706 


- 


Josiah W. Beckford, 


Plymouth, 


11.30 


3.50 


7.80 


36.0 


0.704 


2.66 


Frank Bod well, .... 


Ipswich, . 


8.24 
9,00 


2.40 
2.90 


5.84 
6.10 


30.6 
32.0 


— 


_ 


Staniek Boullinier, 


Fall River, 


8.80 


3.20 


5.60 


30.6 


- 


- 


Bowen & Bowen 


Attleborough, . 


11.50 


3.80 


7.70 


35.3 


- 


- 


Robert Bradford, 


Framingham, . 


11.64 

11.26 


4.00 
3.40 


7.64 
7.86 


35.4 
35.7 


0.678 
0.690 


" 






11.00 


3.35 


7.65 


35.0 


0.732 


- 






10.84 


3.20 


7.64 


35.1 


0.664 


- 


Brookside Dairy, .... 


Northampton, . 


10.06 
10.00 


3.10 
3.00 


6.96 
7.00 


33.3 
33.3 


0.636 
0.648 


~ 






10.44 


3.40 


7.04 


33.5 


0.628 


- 






10.44 


3.40 


7.04 


33.5 


0.624 


- 


Elizabeth Bualt 


Fall River, 


10.46 


3.20 


7.26 


34.5 


0.655 


- 






10.70 


3.80 


6.90 


33.4 


0.707 


- 


Richard A. Buckley, . 


Fall River, 


9.60 


2.00 


7.60 


34.9 


0.608 


- 






11.10 


3.40 


7.70 


35.3 


- 


- 


Frank X. Bussiere, 


Shawmut, . 


10.36 

10.16 


3.60 
3.30 


6.76 
6.86 


33.3 
33.3 


0.520 
0.580 


_ 






11.06 


3.50 


7.56 


35.4 


0.708 


- 


John Carter, .... 


Gloucester, 


11.10 


3.50 


7.60 


35.4 


0.700 


- 






11.12 


3.35 


7.77 


35.4 


0.702 


- 


Marcus L. Carey, 


North Andover, 


12.16 
10.40 


4.30 
3.50 


7.86 
6.90 


34.9 
33.0 


0.702 
0.621 


- 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



405 



Milk containing Added Water — Continued. 



Dealer. 



Marcus L. Carey — Con., 

Ira Cheney, . 
Tancrede CoUete, 



Arthur A. Dart, 



Dobbina & White, 



Patrick Doherty, . 



Patrick J. Dugan, 
Charles L. Elliot, Jr., 
Arthur C. Fillmore, 

Frank Finegold, . 

Michael J. Flaherty, 
Daniel C. Fletcher, 
Fred N. Foss, 



Locality. 











^ 


^~. 




•""^ 


ao 


c 


't^ 


^^ 


-tJ 


OM 


a 


a 

o 






o s 


^:^ 


"5 I- 
lb 


o 
c2 


QO 

!2 


§2 




1 


^ 


^ aU 


^f2 


H 


fc< 


w 


« 


< 



North Andover, 

Saugus, 
Ware, 



Stow, 



Woburn, 



North Andover, 



Salem, 
Dan vers, . 
Hudson, 

Maiden, 

Elmwood, . 
Littleton, . 
Winchester, 



11.90 

10.40 

10.30 

11.68 

11.16 
7.04 
6.28 
4.40 
4.30 
5.44 
6.10 
8.90 
7.20 
4.44 
4.80 

11.45 
8.34 
2.79 
2.92 
8.42 
11.00 
9.86 
10,24 
11.16 
10.78 
10.10 
10.48 
11.48 
11.95 
11.63 
10.98 
10.26 
11.80 
12.02 



4.00 

3.60 

3.65 

3.70 

3.30 

2.10 

1.90 

1.20 

1.20 

1.50 

1.60 

3.00 

1.90 

1.40 

1.40 

3.40 

2.05 

0.40 

0.60 

2.10 

3.10 

2.80 

3.00 

3.70 

3.35 

3.40 

2.80 

3.80 

4.10 

4.00 

3.40 

2.35 

4.00 

4.00 



7.90 

6.80 

6.65 

7.98 

7.86 

4.94 

4.38 

3.20 

3.10 

3.94 

4.50 

5.90 

5.30 

3.04 

3.40 

8.05 

6.29 

2.39 

2.32 

6.32 

7.90 

7.06 

7.24 

7.46 

7.43 

6.70 

7.68 

7.68 

7.85 

7.63 

7.58 

7.91 

7.80 

8.02 



35.4 

32.8 

32.7 

35.9 

35.6 

29.1 

28.1 

25.7 

25.6 

27.0 

28.4 

31.7 

30.4 

25.4 

26.1 

35.4 

32.7 

25.3 

25.6 

32.8 

35.3 

34.4 

34.5 

33.7 

35.2 

33.3 

35.3 

34.3 

34.3 

34.5 

34.5 

35.3 

36.0 

36.0 



0.691 



0.690 
0.707 
0.484 



0.183 



a 
a 
O 

S 
O 



0.720 
0.620 



0.608 
0.640 
0.700 
0.654 
0.637 
0.692 
0.602 

0.685 
0.688 
0.681 

0.660 

0.672 



406 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Milk containing Added Water — 


Continued. 








Dealer. 


Locality. 


a 
a> 

e2 


a 
o 
O 


-*3 

is 

?3 
"o 

CO 


Refraction of Cop- 
per Scrum at 20° 
C. 


E 

3 

Jo 

o o 
m — 

< 


.4^ 

G 

6 

0) 


Jacob Frankel 


New Bedford, . 


9.90 


2.10 


7.80 


35.7 


0.680 


- 


Chester G. Godfrey, . 


Williamstown, . 


11.18 
10.50 


3.70 
3.50 


7.48 
7.00 


34.9 
33.6 


0.664 
0.720 


- 


John S. Gracie 


Dartmouth, 


8.18 


1.70 


6.48 


32.5 


0.536 


- 


George H. Hambly, 


Dartmouth, 


10.40 


3.00 


7.40 


33.6 


- 


- 






9.68 


2.50 


7.18 


34.0 


- 


- 


De Witt C. Heath, 


Tyringham, 


9.94 
10.65 


2.60 
2.90 


7.34 
7.75 


34.8 
34.5 


- 


- 






5.64 


1.55 


4.09 


27.3 


- 


- 


H. Heroux, 


Fall River, 


11.16 


3.40 


7.76 


35.6 


0.706 


- 


Owen N. Johnson, 


North Attleborough, . 


11.16 


3.70 


7.46 


35.0 


0.708 


- 




■ 


11.10 


3.55 


7.55 


35.0 


0.624 


- 






11.54 


3.60 


7.94 


35.2 


0.672 


- 






11.12 


3.40 


7.72 


35.0 


0.652 


- 






11.10 


3.20 


7.90 


35.8 


- 


- 


Martin L. Kennelly, . 


Billerica, . 


11.32 


3.50 


7.82 


35.2 


- 


- 






11.32 


3.60 


7.72 


35.2 


- 


- 






11.20 


3.60 


7.60 


35.1 


- 


- 






11.54 


3.80 


7.74 


35.5 


- 


- 






11.28 


3.60 


7.68 


35.0 


- 


- 


E. B. Kenney, .... 


Maiden, 


13.08 


5.70 


7.38 


34.1 


0.710 


- 


Kinsman Bros 


Middleborough, 


11.10 


3.50 


7.60 


34.5 


- 


- 


Onufrey Koloclzrey, 


Taunton, . 


11.12 


4.00 


7.12 


33.0 


0.590 


- 


Alexander G. Levalley, 


Fitchburg, 


11.20 


3.40 


7.80 


35.0 


- 


- 


Nathan Marion, .... 


Woburn, . 


11.72 


3.80 


7.92 


35.1 


- 


- 


S. F. Mason 


Webster, . 


9.66 
9.58 


2.70 
2.50 


6.96 
7.08 


34.0 
34.3 


0.684 
0.658 


— 


John J. McGlone, 


Peabody, . 


10.84 

10.80 


3.40 
3.50 


7.44 
7.30 


35.2 
35.2 


0.682 
0.670 


- 


Fred W. Mears & Son, . 


Haverhill, . 


11.46 


3.70 


7.76 


35.9 


0.660 


- 


J. R. Moore & Son, . . . 


Maiden, 


10.64 


3.20 


7.44 


34.0 


0.700 


- 


William Owens 


Watertown, 


8.88 


2.45 


6.43 


31.9 


0.508 


- 


Joseph Paradis, .... 


Dartmouth, 


8.30 
8.40 


2.60 
2.70 


5.70 
5.70 


30.9 
30.9 


0.492 
0.508 


- 





No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



407 



Milk containing Added Water — Continued, 



Dealer. 



Locality. 











'~^ 




'■"^ 


CO 


-^ 


^^ 


■4J 


0=-' 




6 


^S 


<J^ 






2S 

9 3 


o 


-4^ 

C3 


2 


■sad 


H 


^ 


03 


rt 



o » 



a 

<u 
O 

a" 



Joseph Paradis — Con., 



Joseph Perry, 



Willard O. Putnam, 



William E. Ealton, 



Jacob Reidenbach, 



Ellen Roberts, 



Luther W. Rugg, 



George H. Schaffner, 



Jack A. Silva, 



Dartmouth, 



Dartmouth, 



Manuel F. Simmons, 



North Andover, 



Lawrence, . 



Plymouth, 



Fall River, 



Sterling, 



Watertown, 



Westport, . 



Somerset, 



9.82 

9.70 

9.96 

10.44 

10.54 

10.46 

10.54 

10.48 

10.70 

10.52 

10.64 

3.36 

9.84 

9.74 

9.05 

8.80 

7.98 

13.46 

9.68 

11.92 

11.12 

12.04 

11.04 

11.08 

11.52 

11.68 

14.20 

8.08 

9.04 

9.16 

9.44 

11.24 

11.62 

9.54 



3.20 

3.10 

3.15 

3.40 

3.40 

3.45 

3.50 

3.00 

3.30 

3.05 

3.05 

0.60 

2.70 

3.00 

2.90 

2.55 

2.40 

5.50 

3.05 

3.85 

3.60 

3.90 

3.70 

3.70 

3.50 

3.70 

7.00 

2.00 

2.60 

2.30 

2.90 

3.30 

3.60 

1.60 



6.62 

6.60 

6.81 

7.04 

7.14 

7.01 

7.04 

7.48 

7.40 

7.47 

7.59 

2.76 

7.14 

6.74 

6.15 

6.25 

5.58 

7.96 

6.63 

8.07 

7.52 

8.14 

7.34 

7.38 

8.02 

7.98 

7.20 

6.08 

6.44 

6.86 

6.54 

7.94 

8.02 

7.94 



33.0 

33.0 

33.4 

34.0 

34.2 

34.3 

34.0 

34.5 

34.3 

34.5 

34.6 

26.2 

33.4 

33.1 

31.8 

32.0 

30.6 

36.2 

32.2 

35.5 

34.1 

35.7 

34.0 

34.2 

35.8 

35.9 

34.3 

32.0 

32.6 

34.3 

33.3 

35.6 

35.7 

35.5 



0.588 

0.600 

0.600 

0.628 

0.632 

0.628 

0.696 

0.581 

0.688 

0.693 

0.649 

0.332 

0.632 

0.580 

0.528 

0.512 

0.488 

0.709 

0.560 

0.712 

0.676 

0.720 

0.676 

0.688 

0.716 

0.718 

0.620 

0.520 

0.552 

0.580 

0.580 

0.686 

0.670 

0.680 



3.06 
3. OS 



3.23 
3.21 
3.19 



408 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Milk containing Added Water — Continued. 








Dealer. 


Locality. 


4^ 

a 


-4-» 

6 

•4-3 


4J 

[go 

m 


Refraction of Cop- 
per Serum at 20° 
C. 


g 

h 

So 

ai — 

< 


Protein 

(Per Cent.). 






9.32 


2.60 


6.72 


35.0 


0.744 


- 






9.84 


2.80 


7.04 


34.7 


0.732 


- 


Thomas E. Spittle, 


Essex, 


10.20 


2.80 


7.40 


34.7 


0.728 


- 






9.98 


2.75 


7.23 


34.5 


0.756 


- 






9.74 


2.90 


6.84 


- 


0.728 


- 


C. C. Stanford 


Lynn, 


10.75 


3.10 


7.65 


35.3 


0.696 


- 


Robert W. Stowell, 


Lowell, 


11.48 


3.60 


7.88 


35.6 


0.705 


- 


Anton W. Swanson, 


Billerica, . 


11.36 


3.70 


7.66 


35.2 


0.685 


- 


Fred W. Taylor 


Maynard, . 


11.08 


3.35 


7.73 


35.8 


0.680 


- 


Joseph Tetro, .... 


Lowell, 


10.46 


3.10 


7.36 


34.6 


- 


- 






12.06 


3.90 


8.16 


36.2 


- 


- 






11.90 


3.85 


8.05 


36.0 


- 


- 






11.96 


3.90 


8.06 


36.0 


0.708 


- 






11.86 


3.90 


7.96 


36.0 


- 


- 






11.86 


3.90 


7.96 


36.0 


0.703 


_ 


Henry L. Viles 


Weston, 


12.16 


3.90 


8.26 


36.0 


- 


- 






12.04 


4.00 


8.04 


36.0 


- 


- 






12.12 


3.90 


8.22 


36.0 


0.722 


- 






12.15 


3.90 


8.25 


36.0 


0.720 


- 






12.17 


4.10 


8.07 


36.0 


- 


- 




f 


10.78 


3.20 


7.58 


35.4 


0.692 


- 


Wadleigh Bros., .... 


Southbridge, 


11.20 


3.10 


8.10 


35.7 


0.744 


- 






8.04 


2.30 


5.74 


31.7 


0.652 


- 






7.86 


2.25 


5.61 


31.7 


0.636 


- 






7.98 


2.20 


5.78 


32.2 


0.664 


- 






7.68 


2.20 


5.48 


31.7 


0.640 


- 


George E. Waldron, 


Gloucester, 


8.42 


2.30 


6.12 


32.6 


0.728 


- 






8.42 


2.30 


6.12 


32.8 


0.728 


- 






9.20 


2.60 


6.60 


33.7 


0.728 


- 






9.20 


2.60 


6.60 


33.7 


0.732 


- 


Frank E. Warren, 


Abington, . 


11.12 


3.40 


7.72 


34.3 


0.744 


- 






11.76 


3.75 


8.01 


34,6 


0.680 


- 


Isaiah Webster, .... 


Haverhill, . 


10.66 


3.50 


7.16 


33.3 


0.570 


- 






10.82 


3.20 


7.62 


34,0 


0.630 


- 



No '' 



4.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



409 



Milk containing Added Water — Concluded. 



Dealer. 



Locality. 



Isaiah Webster — Con., 



Charles W. Wetherbee, 



Marian Zakszewski, 



Haverhill, 






o 



O 

u 
a 



03 






c 



CO 

o s 

O ki 

S >- 
^ aO 



«2^ 



la 



O 01 



Stow, . 



Hadley, 



11.62 

11.22 

11.08 

11.40 

12.08 

10.94 

12.20 

12.14 

11.70 

11.90 

11.54 

10.30 

10.26 

10.30 

10.30 

10.26 

10.54 

10.60 

10.56 

10.56 



3.75 

3.65 

3.70 

3.90 

4.10 

3.40 

4.20 

4.20 

3.80 

3.90 

3.40 

3.10 

3.10 

3.20 

3.10 

3.20 

3.40 

3.40 

3.50 

3.40 



7.87 

7.57 

7.38 

7.50 

7.98 

7.54 

8.00 

7.94 

7.90 

8.00 

8.14 

7.20 

7.16 

7.10 

7.20 

7.06 

7.14 

7.20 

7.06 

7.16 



34.6 

33.9 

33.8 

33.8 

35.0 

33.7 

35.0 

35.1 

35.0 

35.1 

35.3 

33.6 

33.5 

33.5 

33.5 

33.5 

33.6 

33.7 

33.7 

33.7 



0.640 

0.640 

0.670 

0.710 

0.650 

0.610 

0.708 

0.712 

0.700 

0.708 

0.716 

0.628 

0.628 

0.600 

0.632 

0.608 

0.612 

0.636 

0.600 

0.632 



Milk from which 


a Portion of the Fat had been removed. 










J 




a 
O 


Fat 
Cent.). 


Dealer. . 


Locality. 








1^" 






ccC- 


Ph 


s — 








« 




U 


-a 








.^ 


o 










c3 











H 


fe 


Ph 


M 


Walter F. Adams 


Fitchburg 


11.60 


2.80 


3.25 


8.80 


Frank Almeida 


Tiverton, R. I 


11.42 


2.60 


3.16 


8.82 






11.90 


2.70 


3.43 


9.20 


Manuel Azvedo, .... 


Westport, ... 












. 


10.62 


1.75 


3.22 


8.87 


Charles Bashaw, .... 


Newburyport, 


12.24 


3.00 


3.64 


9.24 


Isaac N. Briggs, .... 


Wareham, .... 


9.48 


0.60 


- 


8.88 



410 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



Milk from which a Portion of the Fat has been removed — Continued. 







^ 




^ 


^ 


Dealer. 


Locality. 


-t3 

3 



d 

6 




rod, 
S 


Solids not Fat 
(Per Cent. 


Daniel M. Brindamour, 


Attleborough, 


11.60 


2.20 


3.58 


9.40 


E. b. Brown 


Gloucester, .... 


10.94 


2.10 


3.95 


8.84 


John F. Casey 


Worcester, .... 


10.70 


2.00 


3.20 


8.70 


G. H. N. D. Cleveland. . 


New Bedford, 


11.80 


2.60 


3.13 


9.20 


Frank W. Cross, .... 


Melrose, .... 


11.40 


2.10 


3.37 


9.30 


Geo. H. Curley 


Chelsea, . . . • 


11.62 
11.90 


2.85 
2.85 


3.12 
3.14 


8.77 
9.05 


Henry P. Denner 


Gloucester, .... 


10.82 


2.10 


3.23 


8.72 


Watson B. Fearing 


Milton 


12.88 
12.88 


3.20 
3.10 


4.22 
4.22 


9.68 
9.78 


Daniel C. Fletcher, .... 


Littleton 


10.26 


2.35 


2.66 


7.91 






10.06 


0.50 


- 


9.56 


Bert M. Frye, . ! . . . 


Leominster, 


10.06 
10.48 


0.40 
0.70 


— 


9.66 
9.78 






9.76 


0.30 


- 


9.46 






9.94 


1.40 


2.96 


8.54 


John S. Gracie, .... 


Dartmouth, . . . ■ 


11.68 


2.40 


3.65 


9.28 




9.28 


0.90 


3.08 


8.38 


John E. Higgins, .... 


Dan vers, .... 


10.14 


1.80 


3.17 


8,34 






11.94 


3,05 


3.23 


8.89 


H. P. Hood & Sons 


Winchester, ... 


11.87 


3.05 


3.21 


8.82 




t 


11.88 


3.05 


3.19 


8.83 


W. K. Hutchinson 


Arlington, .... 


10.94 


2.40 


3.23 


8.54 


H. M. Leen 


Medford, .... 


11.36 


2.40 


3.22 


8.96 






10.27 


2.10 


2.79 


8.17 


Alexander G. Levalley, 


Fitchburg, . , . • 


10.10 ' 


1.85 


3.02 


8.25 






10.20 


2.10 


2.72 


8.10 


Arthur W. Lord 


Maynard 


12.00 


2.80 


3.31 


9.20 


Robert Mitchell 


New Bedford, 


11.88 


2.90 


3.32 


8.98 


F. F. O'Reiley 


Quincy, .... 


10,60 


1.85 


3.12 


8.75 


William Pasterczyh 


Salem, 


11.82 


2.80 


3.49 


9.02 


C.W.Paul 


North Andover, . 


12.08 


2.90 


3.50 


9.18 


Edward A. Reagan, .... 


Lawrence, .... 


11.82 


2.80 


3.13 


9.02 


Alexander Reinhardt, 


Becket 


11.60 
11.58 


2.50 
2.20 


3.36 
3.65 


9.10 
9.38 



No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



411 



Milk from which a Portion of the Fat had been removed - 


— Concluded 




Dealer. 


Locality. 


IS 

5 

o 


o 
O 


a 
2 


"2 
1 




' f 


9.56 


1.30 


2.87 


8.26 


C. N. Sayles 


Leominster, 




t 


10.10 


1.20 


3.40 


8.90 


Arthur F. Shermau 


Weymouth, . 






12.08 


2.85 


3.96 


9.23 


E. E. Skinner 


Peabody, 






10.64 


1.80 


2.96 


8.84 


W. H. Smith 


Attleborough, 






12.07 


2.80 


3.48 


9.27 


C. C. Stafford Company, 


Lawrence, 






11.64 


2.70 


3.19 


8.94 


Scott E. Stevens, .... 


Rockport, 






10.82 


2.35 


2.93 


8.47 


Florence Storey, .... 


Melrose, 






11.66 


2.70 


3.08 


8.96 


W. E. Symmes 


Everett, 






12.14 


2.90 


3.28 


9.24 


Fred W. Taylor, .... 


Maynard; 






12.00 


2.85 


3.46 


9.15 


Ralph Varley, 


Melrose, . 






11.66 


2.70 


3.08 


8.96 


C. W. Webster 


Medford, 






10.90 


2.20 


3.00 


8.70 



412 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



00 

















u 
















h 












C 1 










1 






0} 












+i ' 
















..^ 












..^ 
















.w 












C3 
















a 




6 








e 
















e 




G 

■4^ 








tc 
















tn 










c 
















a 




OS 








_o 
















o 




3 








"o 
















"3 




02 








o 
















o 






.A 

2 






B 
C3 
















a 
a 








c 


b< 








C 




t^ 




^ 






s 


C3 








c; 




e3 




c3 






3 


M 
3 








3 




3 




3 






"a 




n 


02 








CO 




m 




Ol 






H 


1 


s 


13 1 


, 


1 




o 
a 


t 




1 


o 
B 






o 




03 


ej 








a 




C3 




cl 






fe 




u 


CJ 






5 i5 


O 




o 




o 




Ash of 
Sour 

Serum 
(Per 

Cent.). 




o 




00 


o 


o 




^ 


OO 


CO 


o 


cq 






<M 






■^ 


o 




OO 


00 


O: 


■*4* 


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I 


CO 


1 


' ^ 


to 


t^ 


1 r 


o 


o 


to 


«5 


CO 






d 




d 


d 


o 




o 


d 


o 


d 


d 




Refrac- 
tion 
of Copper 
Serum 
at20°C. 




























1 




CO 


«0 00 
« (M 


CO 


•* 


1 1 




CO 


'J' 


CO 








TO 


CO 


CO CO 


CO 


CO 




CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


<M 






























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■^ 








m .—V 






00 


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c 




a 




r^ 




cro 
Per 

;nt. 


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1 


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s 


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3— ^,r 
















t« 




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(Per 
ent. 


t 


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CO 


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ko 


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n 




■ofeg 


;::; 


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1 

1 









No. 34.] 



REPORT OF THE ANALYST. 



413 





H 




Solids 

not Fat 

(Per 

Cent.). 








^-( 


Ci 


:o 


QO 


M< 


o 




■* 


o 






z 

-I 
a. 


a 

a 
a 


CO 
CO 


CO 
GO 


QO 
CO 


00 


00 


o6 


00 


00 


oo 


00 


00 


00 
































< 


5 


u 


^ 


o 


1—1 


I-* 


■^ 


o 


e^ 


Ii5 


o 


to 


•.*< 


o 




D 
Q 

< 




CO 


c^ 

^ 




CO 
CO 




■.«< 




00 

CO 


o 


T}< 


CO 


CO 






■S o 































a 


£o 






























e 


























































< 


■<l 


m ^-^ 


to 


00 


c^ 


00 


CO 


U5 


o 


C5 


CO 


r>- 


00 


CO 




> 

< 


i 


Solid 

(Per 

Cent. 


1-H 

CO 


o 

CO 


CO 




CO 








C<I 




c<i 


c<i 






■a 
2 -0 


M 


C<l 


1 


tN. 


1 


1 


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C) 


■* 


1 


.-1 


o 




































m 






























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CI o5 


1 


.,_, 


I 


X) 


I 


1 


1 


M 


1 


1 


1 


1 






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■B 


o 


Tj< 


I 


c^ 


v-t 


f^ 


lO 


M< 


^ 


t- 


r 


CO 






g 




CO 




lO 
















'^ 






1 


























CO 
































































"Si 

■Si 


Tj< 


w 


1 


« 


1 


1 


.-1 


CO 


(N 


ro 


1 


CO 


C^ 
































s-^ 


























"*0 
































m 






















































t 




Lowest 
Fat 
(Per 

Cent.). 


o 


o 
o 


o 

CO 


o 

CO 

b 


o 

CO 
CO 


o 


o 
o 


o 
o 


C<1 


O 
o 

CO 




o 

CO 

d 


































tn --^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


lO 


o 


o 


o 


o 


"5 


o 


o 


.s~ 




o .o t. .; 








O) 






c^ 




-^ 












High 
Fa 
(Pe 

Cent 


kO 


o 


UD 


t^ 


lo 


>« 


o 


U5 


lO 


to 


•^ 


CO 
































Lowest 

Solids 

(Per 

Cent.). 


o 


o 


M 


o 


00 


■.*< 


•* 


o 


c^ 


o 


o 


CO 


'c^ 




00 
CO 


CO 
CO 


00 




lO 


o 


ci 


CO 


d 


d 




o 


^ 








»— t 




1— < 












'"^ 




^ 
































cn to ^^ 


























JS 




o 


o 


o 


CO 


o 


to 


■* 


00 


o 


c^ 


o 


g 


o^ 






!>. 


lO 


UO 




lO 


m 


o^ 






■^ 






^ 


\fi 


■<** 


o 


■<t< 


•^ 


en 


n 


•.** 


•^ 


■# 


W5 






Kcc o 
































1—1 


CO 


CO 




t^ 


to 


t^ 


CO 


g 


o 


N 


s 






3 


C^ 




f—t 


CO 


■^ 


»o 
















to 




Ci 








•o 














o 






























H 






























>_!. 




o 




o 


w 


« 


o 


f* 


CO 


r~ 


o 


. 




















1--5 




CO 












CT3 








CO 








■<*< 














«l^ 






























"-S-; 


















t>. 


m 


CO 


N 






o 


CO 




CO 


•^ 


c^l 


lo 


o 


(^ 




00 








CT3 


^H 


Tt< 




50 




.—l 






c^ 




ft 








:23S 
















.-t 














<a} 






























»^ 












. 


. 


. 


• 


• 


• 


• 






g 






















. 








p 














V 
















o 


IS 








_ 


a 




X 




^ 




Ut 








O 






X 


c 
a 

eS 

fa 


o 

e. 

s 


"to 

a 

E 


■a 


a 


3 
O 

E 
>> 

s 


1 
3 
02 


1 

o 



414 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Of the milk containing foreign substances, that obtained from Patrick 
Doherty and Willard 0. Putnam deserves special mention. Two sam- 
ples obtained from the former, and one from the latter, were found with 
very low solids, and a complete analysis was made of one of the samples, 
from which it was found that the sugar as determined by the polariscope 
was much too high to correspond with the other figures. The milk sugar 
was then determined by means of Fehling's solution, which result corre- 
sponded with the rest of the analysis, the high polarization being due to 
the presence of cane sugar, which was easily calculated from the figures 
obtained. Qualitative reactions for cane sugar were conducted upon 
these samples, and the results were positive with the resorcine test, the 
molybdate reduction by Baier and Neumann, and the p. diphenylamine 
test of Eothenfusser. 

The Eothenfusser test is as follows : — 

Heat the milk from 85° to 90°, add 2 volumes of lead solution (500 
grams of lead acetate in 1,200 cubic centimeters of water, mix 2 volumes 
of this solution with 1 volume of ammonia, specific gravity 0.944), filter, 
treat a portion of the filtrate with an equal volume of diphenylamine 
solution and heat in a boiling water bath for not over ten minutes. At 
the same time heat another portion of the filtrate with Fehling's solu- 
tion. If any reaction occurs in the Fehling solution the test is to be 
repeated, using a larger amount of the lead solution. If cane sugar is 
present the characteristic color is produced. 

The diphenylamine solution is made as follows : — 

Ten cubic centimeters of 10 per cent, alcoholic diphenylamine, 25 
cubic centimeters glacial acetic acid and 65 cubic centimeters hydro- 
chloric acid, specific gravity, 1.19. 

Four years ago certain prosecutions for the sale of cream containing 
calcium sucrate resulted in acquittal by reason of the testimony given 
for the defense by four chemists that the test then employed for cane 
sugar was not reliable. In the particular cases against Doherty and 
Putnam the methods of analysis were not questioned, the cases resulting 
in conviction. In a case tried in Suffolk Count}^, however, a short time 
before these samples were collected, the reliability of these methods was 
contested by three chemists. These samples in the Suffolk County cases 
were found on quantitative analysi