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Full text of "First -[eleventh, eighteenth-forty-sixth] annual report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts"

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PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 34. 



THIRTIETH ANNUAL EEPORT 



State Board of Health 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1899. 



MEMBERS OF THE BOARD 

1898-1899. 



HENRY P. WALCOTT, M D., Ghairman, 

GERARD C. TOBEY, Esq., 

JAMES W. HULL, . 

CHARLES H. PORTER,. 

JULIAN A. MEAD, M D., 

HIRAM F. MILLS, C.E., 

FRANK W. DRAPER, M.D., 



OF Cambridge. 
OF Wareham. 

OF PiTTSFIELD. 
OF QUINCY. 

OF Watertown, 
OF Lawrence, 
of Boston. 



Secretary. 
SAMUEL W. ABBOTT, M.D. 

Engineer. 
X. H. GOODNOUGH, C.E. 

Pathologist. 
THEOBALD SMITH, M.D. 

Chemist. 
H. W. CLARK. 

Consulting Chemist. 
THOMAS M. DROWN, M.D. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

1. General Report vii 

2. Water Supply and Sewerage, 1 

Report to the Legislature (under the provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888) : 

Advice to Cities and Towns, 3 

Water Supply 4 

Sewerage and Sewage Disposal, 65 

Pollution of Ponds and Streams, Ill 

Examination of Water Supplies 131 

Examination of Rivers, . 383 

Summary of Water Supply Statistics 415 

Experiments on the Purification of Sewage and Water at the Lawrence Experiment 
Station in 1895 : 

Sewage Purification, 433 

Filtration of Water, 485 

Action of Water upon Lead, Tin and Zinc, with Special Reference to the Use of 

Lead Pipes, 541 

Sewage Purification of Cities and Towns in Massachusetts 589 

3. Report upon Food and Drug Inspection ^ . . . 677 

Report of Dr. C. P. Worcester, Analyst, 697 

Report of Prof. C. A. Goessmann, Analyst, 720 

4. Report on the Production and Use of Antitoxin, 725 

5. Report on Diphtheria Cultures, . 738 

6. Report on Examinations for Tuberculosis, 742 

7. Report on Examinations for Malaria, 746 

8. Statistical Summaries of Disease and Mortality, 751 

9. Vital Statistics of Massachusetts for 1897, with a Life Table, 799 

10. Health of Towns, 831 

11. Index, 859 



GENERAL REPORT. 



The following report of the State Board of Health comprises the 
general work of the Board during the year ending Sept. 30, 1898, 
and of the special work relating to food and drug inspection during 
the same period, also of that w^hich relates to water supply and 
sewerage for the calendar year 1898. 

The first portion of the volume, paged in Eoman numerals, con- 
tains a condensed account of the work done under the provisions of 
the laws defining the duties of the Board. 

The regular work of the Board is performed mainly under the 
provisions of three separate acts and the necessary appropriations 
for their execution, — an organic act of 1869, establishing the Board ; 
an act for the inspection of food and drugs, of 1882 ; and an act for 
the protection of the purity of inland waters, of 1886, with the amend- 
ments to these acts. 

The second part of the report, paged in Arabic figures, contains 
the fuller details of the work of the Board, under the acts relating 
to water supply and sewerage, food and drug inspection and the 
general acts relating to the work of the Board. 

The following members comprised the Board in 1898 : — 



Henry P. Walcott, Chairman, 



Frank W. Draper. 
Hiram F. Mills. 
Jambs W. Hull. 



Gerard C. Tobey. 
Charles H. Porter. 
Julian A. Mead. 



No changes have taken place in the membership of the Board dur- 
ing the year. 

Dr. Charles P. Worcester died Oct. 9, 1898, after ten years of 
service as assistant analyst and as chief analyst of the Board in its 
department of food and drug inspection. 



viii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

The character of Dr. Worcester as a chemist was recognized 
throughout the Commonwealth as of the highest order. He was 
careful, thorough and painstaking in every line of his official duty, 
and won the respect and esteem of all with whom he came in contact. 
In the laboratory, in court, in his daily relations with men, he im- 
pressed every one with the absolute sincerity, honesty and trust- 
worthiness of his character. In his death the service of the 
Commonwealth has sustained an irreparable loss. 



Infectious Diseases. 

The year 1898, as indicated by definite information in the posses- 
sion of the Board, was notable for its greater freedom from epidem- 
ics than any other year, with one or two exceptions, in the past 
half-century. So far as can be learned at the date of writing this 
report, the death-rate of the State, which has usually varied but 
little from 19.5 per 1,000 during the past twenty-five years, fell 
to less than 18 in 1898. The most notable factor in this im- 
provement appears to have been the decrease in the mortality from 
certain infectious and preventable diseases, and especially from diph- 
theria, scarlet-fever and consumption. 

The tendency of legislation in regard to the management and con- 
trol of those infectious diseases to which human beings are liable is 
usually toward a better protection of the public health. The laws 
of to-day are much more specific and definite than those which were 
enacted in the early half of the century. 

Even as late as the publication of the volume of the Public 
Statutes, in 1882, no specific legal mention was made of the 
diseases now known as diphtheria, scarlet fever, typhoid fever or 
measles. The principal terms employed in the statutes before that 
date to denote infectious diseases were the words small-pox (P. S., 
chap. 80, §§ 2, 82, 83, and chap. 86, § 25), plague (P. S., chap. 
80, §§ 40, 44), hydrophobia (P. S., chap. 102, § 83). The more 
indefinite terms having relation to the same subject, '' other diseases 
dangerous to the public health" (P. S., chap. 80, §§ 2, 75, 78, 79, 
etc.), "an infectious distemper" (P. S., chap. 80, § 68), "severe 
epidemic" (P. S., chap. 80, § 14), "articles capable of conveying 
infection" (P. S., chap. 80, § 18), placed in the power of local 
health authorities considerable latitude of interpretation. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34.' ix 

During the past sixteen years additional and more specific laws 
have been enacted for the restriction of the spread of diphtheria and 
scarlet fever (1884, chap. 98, § 1 ; 1885, chap. 198, § 1 ; 1890, chap. 
102 ; 1891, chap. 188), typhoid fever (1883, chap. 124, § 2), syphi- 
lis (1891, chap. 420, §§ 1, 2), measles (1898, chap. 496, §11). 
By the laws authorizing the appointment of a Cattle Commission the 
diseases known as tuberculosis, glanders and rabies, common to man 
and to animals, are also recognized ; and b}-- the statute authorizing 
the establishment of a State Hospital for Consumptives provision is 
also made for the isolation and treatment of persons sufferino- with 
consumption, now properly classed among the infectious diseases. 

It has been the custom, in each of the reports of the past twelve 
years, to present a condensed statement relative to the prevalence 
of the principal infectious diseases, having special reference to those 
which are mentioned in the statutes. 

Small-pox. 

Although small-pox prevailed quite generally in many of the 
eastern and central States of the Union during 1898, Massachusetts 
fortunately escaped with a very small number of outbreaks, and 
among those attacked there were fortunately no deaths in 1898. 

The entire number of cases reported to the Board during the 
year under the provisions of chapter 138 of the Acts of 1883 was 
twelve. These occurred in two outbreaks, nearly a year apart, the 
latter in a paper-mill village. 

Early in January a young man employed in Greenfield took a 
pleasure trip of several hundred miles, returning to Greenfield soon 
afterward. He was then boarding in a hotel near the railroad sta- 
tion, where he was taken ill with what proved to be small-pox in a 
modified form. Two other young men had access to his room dur- 
ing his illness, and before the character of the disease had been 
made known with certainty. These two young men were also taken 
ill, and all three were sent to a temporary hospital. The hotel was 
closed to the public and its inmates were quarantined. General 
vaccination was ordered. The persons attacked were seen by the 
secretary of the State Board, and the cases were pronounced to be 
small-pox. One other case occurred in another part of the town in 
March and also one in Westfield in February, the cause of the latter 
being unknown. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Durins; the month of March three cases occurred in the Eeform- 
atory for Women at Sherborn, all of them being colored women 
employed in the laundry, where the clothing of persons living out- 
side of the prison was washed and ironed. It was also known that 
the young man referred to as No. 1 in the accompanying table, and 
who lived at Greenfield, was acquainted with one of the officers of 
the prison, and had visited there during the winter months. 

The second attack, at Eussell, occurred in a paper-mill town, the 
first person attacked being, as is often the case, an operative who 
was employed in the rag-sorting room of the mill. The next per- 
sons attacked were her child and her nephew. 



Cases of Small-pox reported to the Stale Board of Health in 1898 tmder the Pro. 
visions of Chapter 138 of the Acts of 1893. 





o 
a. 


u 

a 

a 


o 


1 


Feb. 8, 


2 


Feb. 20, 


3t 


Feb. 23, 


4t 


Feb. 28, 


5 


Mar. 2, 


6 


Mar. 14. 


7 


Mar. 14, 


8 


Mar. 30, 


9 


Dec. 22, 


10 


Dec. 22, 


H 


Dec. 22, 


12 


Dec. 22, 



O d 

lo 





•d 








►.a 




















c o 


ti 


'Z a 






oo 


•H 



Greenfield, 
Westfleld, 
Greenfield, 
Greenfield, 
Sherborn, § 
Sherborn, § 
Greenfield, 
Sherborn, § 
Russell, . 
Russell, . 
Russell, . 
Russell, . 



United States, 

Irish, 

United States, 

United States, 

United States 

negro. 
Negro, 

United States, 

United States, 

United States, 

United States, 

United States, 

French Cana- 
dian. 



Salesman (father a 
street cleaner) . 



Jeweller's clerk, . 

Car inspector. 

Laundry operative. 

Laundry operative. 

Housewife (husband a 

baker). 
Laundry operative, 

Paper mill (rag room), tt 

Child of No. 9, . 

Nephew of No. 9, 

Father in paper mill, . 



22 years. 

6 years. 

20 years. 

21 years. 

22 years. 
22 years. 
32 years. 
18 years. 
21 years. 

1| years. 

6 years. 

11 years. 



M. 


_* 


M. 


_* 


M. 


_* 


M. 


-t 


F. 


-II 


F. 


-IT 


F. 


_** 


F. 


-tt 


F. 


-§§ 


F. 


Hill 


M. 


-vv 


M. 


Yes. 



* In infancy. f Boarded in same hotel with No. 1. Was in his room while No. 1 was ill. 

J Un vaccinated. § Convict at reformatory. || In childhood. 

IT One and one-half years since. ** Fifteen years ago. ft Two years ago. 

tt Domestic rags. §§ Nine years ago. |||| Not till mother's illness. 

HIT Six months ago. 

In paper-mill towns the appearance of small-pox does not ordi- 
narily produce as much disturbance in the community as it does in 
other towns, since it is a matter of more common occurrence in such 
towns. Its source is usually the rags, which have come from some 
infected place, or family in which small-pox existed. A law such 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. xi 

as exists in England, providing that the wilful sale of rags, clothino- 
or other material worn by or used in connection with persons who 
have suffered with small-pox shall be regarded as a criminal offence, 
and liable to a penalty, would probably afford additional protection 
against small-pox. 

In most cities and towns the occurrence of one or more cases of 
small-pox creates much alarm and consternation in the community, 
— a fact which is due mostly to the rarity of its occurrence, since 
there are many other diseases of common occurrence which are 
more fatal and more dangerous, and less amenable to the ordinary 
means employed for the prevention of disease. Fortunately, vacci- 
nation has in the past century shorn this disease of its terrors, and, 
as a consequence, the thoroughly vaccinated nation or people enjovs 
an immunity £i-om this disease that is not known in unvaccinated 
communities. As an illustration of this fact, the German nation 
presents an example of a thoroughly vaccinated people. The Ger- 
man law enacted in 1874 requires that every child shall be vacci- 
nated before the September of the year following its birth. All 
scholars in public and private schools must be vaccinated in their 
twelfth year. 

The following figures, from the most recent report received from 
the Imperial Board of Health of Germany, are significant of the 
protection afforded by this law. Almost the only deaths which 
now occur in Germany are those of persons who have brought the 
disease with them from neighboring countries across the border, or, 
in a few instances, infants who were attacked before beinff vacci- 
nated. 

Deaths from Small-ioox x)er Million Inhabitants in Certain Countries in 1896. 

. 117.6 
2.3 

. 14.7 



From recent information received as to the condition of cer- 
tain towns in Massachusetts, it appears that vaccination is greatly 
neglected, and all the conditions prevail for spreading a serious epi- 
demic of small-pox whenever the infection of this disease becomes 
implanted in such a community. It is therefore far preferable to 
provide the only adequate protection for such communities at once 



The Gex-ruan . 


^^mpire. 


.2 


France, 


Austria, 


. 


. 17.7 


England 


Switzerland, 


. 


1.7 


Holland, 


Belgium, . 


. 


5.7 





xii STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

b}'' thorough vaccination than to await the coming of an epidemic 
before taking such measures. 

During the year there were reported to the Board, under the 
provisions of the Toronto Interstate Resolutions of 1886, 470 cases 
of small-pox scattered throughout the country in the following 
States and provinces : New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
West Virginia and the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. This 
did not comprise the whole number, since in several instances the 
number attacked was indefinitely expressed ("many" or "sev- 
eral"). Cases w^ere reported in every month of the year except 
August. 

Small-pox was also reported by the United States Commissioner 
of Immigration at New York as having occurred on .board the fol- 
lowing steamers, bringing immigrants destined for Massachusetts : 
" Carlsruhe," "Moravia," " Augusta Victoria," "Gallia," " Spaan- 
dam," "La Normandie " and "Pretoria." Upon these steamers 
there were 206 immigrants destined for cities and towns in Massa- 
chusetts. Upon receipt of definite information from the Commis- 
sioner in regard to these immigrants, their names and destination 
were immediately forwarded by the Board to the health officers of 
those towns and cities, in order that they might be kept under sur- 
veillance. 

Typhoid Fever. 

In the reports of the last four years a table has been introduced 
in which were presented the number of deaths and the death-rates 
from typhoid fever in each of the cities of the State. Another table, 
published in the report of 1896, page 779, showed quite conclusively 
that the death-rate from this disease has diminished with consider- 
able uniformity, as public water supplies have been introduced. 
Another table (twenty-ninth annual report, 1897, page 495) shows 
what has been accomplished in reducing the death-rate from this 
disease by improving the water supply of a single city. 

In the following tables the deaths and death-rates from this dis- 
ease are presented in groups of five years, except those for 1896, 
1897 and 1898, which are presented singl}^ : — 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



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XIV 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Deaths from Typhoid Fever in Massachusetts Cities (1896, 1897 and 1898). 







1896. 1 


1897. j 


1898. 




1896. 


1897. 1 


1898. 










S3> 


'Z> 




a > 




u > 




s> 






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m 


trd 


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en 


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5g . 


•^ 


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« C50 c 












































O 


a 


a 


a 


a a 




a 


s 


a 


a 


a 




North Adams, . 


12 


6.08 


9 4.42 


10 


4.77 


Holyoke, . 


7 


1.69 


6 


1.42 


9 


2.07 


Pittsfield, 




1 


3.31 


4 1.83 


8 


3.53 


Fitchburg, 


4 


1.46 


3 


1.06 


6 


2.04 


Boston, 




169 


3.33 


160 3.09 


185 


3.50 


Everett, . 


6 


2.91 


5 


2.19 


5 


1.97 


Quincy, 




8 


3.70 


5 2.22 


8 


3.40 


Medford, . 


3 


1.98 


1 


0.63 


3 


1.82 


Beverly, 




7 


5.83 


4 


3.28 


4 


3.23 


Somerville, 


28 


5.09 


10 


1.72 


n 


1.80 


Waltham, 




5 


2.34 


2 


0.92 


7 


3.14 


Northampton, . 


1 


0.58 


3 


1.72 


3 


1.69 


Taunton, 




7 


2.55 


8 


2.88 


8 


2.84 


Lawrence, 


14 


2.60 


14 


2.52 


t9 


1.57 


Lowell, 




38 


4.43 


17 


1.95 


24 


2.71 


Cambridge, 


32 


3.80 


13 


1.50 


14 


1.56 


Balem, 




5 


1.42 


6 


1.66 


10 


2.71 


Maiden, . 


8 


2.56 


4 


1.22 


5 


1.44 


Springfield, 


10 


1.88 


19 


3.47 


15 


2.65 


Woburn, . 


2 


1.40 


2 


1.38 


2 


1.37 


New Bedford, . 


19 


3.24 


24 


3.84 


17 


2.56 


Newburyport, . 


8 


5.45 


7 


4.73 


2 


1.34 


Newton, . 


7 


2.47 


4 


1.38 


7 


2.36 


Worcester, 


16 


1.57 


15 


1.43 


13 


1.20 


Lynn, 


29 


4.55 


18 


2.76 


15 


2.25 


Brockton, . 


8 


2.32 


10 


2.79 


3 


0.80 


Chicopee, . 


6 


3.55 


7 


4.03 


4 


2.24 


Gloucester, 


9 


3.10 


2 


0.67 


2 


0.65 


Haverhill,* 


17 

27 


5.52 
2.92 


16 


4.38 


8 
21 


2.15 
2.11 


Marlborough, . 
Totals, 


2 


1.31 


1 


0.65 





0.00 


Pall River, 


40 4.17 


526 


- 


445 


- 


445 


- 


Chelsea, . 


5 


1.56 


6 1.83 


7 


2.09 


Means, 


- 


3.13 


- 


2.56 


- 


2.50 



* Bradford annexed to Haverhill, Jan. 1, 1897. 

t Careful inquiry shows that the number of deaths from typhoid fever in Lawrence in 1898, stated 
on a later page as 8, should be 9. 

NoTi;.— For the years 1896 and 1897, the figures are taken from the registration reports for those 
years. For the year 1898, the figures are furnished by the local boards of health. 

The figures presented in the foregoing table show that the typhoid 
fever mortality in the cities of the State has fallen from a rate of 8.2 
per 10,000 living in the five-year period 1871-75 to 3.4 in the five- 
year period 1891-95, and still further to 2.5 in the year 1898, or 
less than one-third of its former proportions. With the exception 
of a very slight increase in the period 1881-85, the diminution has 
been quite uniform. 

The death-rate from typhoid fever in the cities was slightly less 
than that of the previous year, 2.50 per 10,000 in 1898, as com- 
pared with 2.56 in 1897. 

Among the ten cities having the highest death-rates from this 
cause during the three years. North Adams has maintained the highest 
average. Beverly and Haverhill held the second and third positions 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 34. 



XV 



for the three-year period, but each of these had improved since 1896. 
Pittsfield, Boston, Quincy, Walthara, Lowell and Salem had higher 
rates in 1898 than those of 1897. 

Fear having been manifested during the summer of 1898 lest the 
returning of a considerable number of troops from the West Indian 
campaign and from the various camps in other States should tend 
to spread this disease at a time when its prevalence is most severe, 
the Board reissued its circular upon typhoid fever, with such mod- 
ifications as were deemed necessary-, as follows : — 

Suggestions for the Prevention of Typhoid Fever. 
[A Circular from the State Board of Health. — Revised October, 1898.] 

Typhoid fever is an infectious disease, and a specific bacillus is con- 
stantly present in the lesions and in the fecal discbarges. 

Typhoid fever prevails throughout the year in New England, and is 
usually more prevalent in the autumn months than at other seasons of the 
year. Of 36,012 deaths from this disease, occurring in Massachusetts 
during the thirty-six years ending with 1896, 19,037, or more than half, 
occurred in the months of August, September, October and November. 

It is common to all ages, cases occurring in infancy and in old age. It 
occurs more commonly in persons from lo to 30 years of age than in the 
younger ages and those of middle life. The following figures represent 
the death-rates in Massachusetts per 10,000 living at each age period dur- 
ing the twenty years ending with 1895 : — 



0-5 years, 


2.29 


40-50 years. 


2.92 


5-10 years, 


2.38 


50-60 years, . 


2.83 


10-15 years, 


3.34 


60-70 years, . 


3.77 


15-20 years, 


6.82 


70-80 years, . 


5.97 


20-30 years. 


6.40 


Over 80 years, . 


6.04 


-30-40 years, . 


3.96 







Mode of Propagation. 
Typhoid fever is undoubtedly communicable, even from person to per- 
son, though not positively contagious, in the restricted sense of personal 
contact. The infection of typhoid fever is conveyed from the sick to the 
well through the medium of the fecal discharges, and such is the most 
common method of its transmission. The vehicle of communication may 
be the air or the drinking-water, more commonly the latter. Its convey- 
ance by food has also been demonstrated, especially by milk and by several 
species of shell-fish. The difficulty of discriminating between water and 
milk as media of transmission in certain cases is recognized, especially in 
large cities. 



xvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 



Prevention. 

The purification and protection of i)uhlic and private water supplies from 
pollution is one of the best measures for the prevention of this disease. 
The Caterham epidemic, which occurred in England in 1878, in which 352 
cases and 21 deaths followed the pollution of a public water supply by the 
typhoid excrement of a single person, and more recently, the epidemic at 
Plymouth, Pa., which was still more destructive, and where a similar origin 
was distinctly traced, were noted examples of the pollution of public water 
supplies. The continued prevalence of this disease in the cities of this 
State which used the water of the Merrimack River for domestic purposes 
furnished abundant proof of the mode of transmission of the disease ; and 
the results of filtration of the public water supply at Lawrence also have 
given proof of the efficiency of this method of purification as a means of 
its prevention. 

Single cases and detached groups of cases are more commonly traced to 
private wells as their source, in consequence of proximity of the wells to 
cesspools, vaults, barn-yards, pig-styes and other contaminating sources. 
Hence, isolated farm-houses, thinly settled districts, as well as small but 
compact villages, without a public water supply, are more liable to the 
occurrence of the disease than cities having a public supply. In Massa- 
chusetts, for the five years 1871-75, the number of deaths per 10,000 of 
the population from typhoid fever was 8.2. During the five years 1886-9(> 
the death-rate from this cause had fallen to 4.2 per 10,000. During this 
time the number of cities and towns having public water supplies had in- 
creased from 20 (1870) to 137 (1890). 

The source of many cases has been explained by the large and increasing 
numbers of people who are in the habit of visiting seashore and summer 
resorts, picnic and camp grounds, where the sanitary conditions are of a 
doubtful character. 

The great value of pure water supplies and eflScient drainage systems of 
municipalities in the reduction of this disease is shown by the experience 
of English cities and towns, in nearly all of which a very decided reduction 
in mortality from typhoid fever followed the introduction of such works.* 

Duties of Local Authorities loith Reference to Typlioid Fever. 
1. To investigate the source or origin of the disease, and to take 
measures to prevent the further use of well waters (if such be shown to 
be its mode or medium of communication), until the source of infection is 
remedied. 

* Ninth Report of the Privy Council, England, 1866. Sixth Annual Report of the State 
Board of Health of Massachusetts, 1875. Senate Document No. 4, January, 1896. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xvii 

2. Isolation of the sick. While the separation of the sick from the 
well is desirable, it is not essential that the same restriction as to inter- 
course should be required as is necessary in the case of small-pox or scarlet 
fever, since there is no evidence that this disease is conveyed from the sick 
to the well through the medium of a third person. 

3. Dismfection of the discharges of persons sick ivith the disease shoidd he 
required, as well as of vaults and other appliances used by them, and also of 
bedding, clothing and apartments used by the sick, especially when soiled. 

4. Notices of all cases shoidd be required from attending physicians in 
compliance with the provisions of the Public Statutes. Such notice should 
contain the name, age and residence of the patient, the name of the disease, 
the date of the first visit and the name of the reporting physician. Postal- 
cards or blank forms may conveniently be used for this purpose. 

Attention is called to the following statutes, which provide definite and 
specific requirements in relation to disease dangerous to the public health : — 

[P. S., Chap. 80, § 78; Acts of 1884, Chap. 98, ^ 1; Acts of 1890, Chap. 102.] 
When a householder knows that a person within his family or house is sick of 
small pox, diphtheria, scarlet fever or any other infectious or contagious disease 
dangerous to the public health, he shall immediately give notice thereof to the 
board of health of the city or town in which he dwells, and upon the death, re- 
covery or removal of such person, such of the rooms of said house and such of 
the articles therein as, in the opinion of the board of health, have been subjected 
to infection or contagion shall be disinfected by such householder to the satisfac- 
tion of said board of health. Any person neglecting or refusing to comply with 
either of the above provisions shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one hun- 
dred dollars. 

[P. S., Chap. 80, $ 79; Acts of 1884, Chap. 98, ^S 2; Acts of 1891, Chap. 188.] 
When a physician knows that a person whom he is called to visit is infected 
with small pox, diphtheria, scarlet fever or aiiy other disease dangerous to public 
health, he shall immediately give notice thereof in writing over his own signature, 
to the selectmen or board of health of the town ; and if he refuses or neglects to 
give such notice he shall forfeit for each offence not less than fifty nor more than 
two hundred dollars. 

[Acts of 1884, Chap. 98, ^ 3.] 
The boards of health in the several cities and towns shall cause a record to be 
kept of all reports received in pursuance of the preceding sections ; and such 
record shall contain the names of all persons who are sick, the localities in which 
they live, the diseases with which they are affected, together with the date and the 
names of the persons reporting any such cases. The boards of health shall give 
the school committee immediate information of all cases of contagious diseases 
reported to them according to the provisions of this act. 

[Acts of 1884, Chap. 98, ^ 4.] 
The secretary of the Commonwealth shall furnish the boards of health with 
blank books for the record of cases of contagious diseases as above provided. 



xviii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

As an additional measure in the same direction, the Legislature of 1893 
enacted the following law, requiring that the contagious diseases reported 
to the local boards of health shall, in turn, be reported by them to the State 
Board of Health : — 

[Acts of 1893, Chap. 302.] 

(1) When the board of health of any city or town has had uotice of the occur- 
rence of a case of small pox or any other disease dangerous to the public health 
in such city or town, such board of health shall, within twenty-four hours after 
the receipt of such notice, notify the State board of health of the same. 

(2) If the board of health of the city or town, in which a case of small pox or 
any other disease dangerous to the public health has occurred, refuses or neglects 
to send a notice as required in section one, such city or town shall forfeit its claim 
upon the Commonwealth for the payment of any expenses which may be incurred 
as provided in section eighty-three of chapter eighty of the Public Statutes. 

Disinfection. 

The following are recommended as the most efficient disinfectants for 
use in connection with this disease : — 

For the Disinfection of Excreta. — A solution of chloride of lime, in the 
proportion of 4 parts of the chloride to 100 of water (from ^ to ^ a pound 
of the chloride to a gallon of water). Quick-lime slaked with water in the 
form of common whitewash or milk of lime, liberally used. The mixture 
of the disinfectant with the excreta should be thoroughly stirred, to ensure 
contact with all parts of the mass. 

For the Disinfection and Deodorization of Masses of Organic Material in 
Privy Vaidts, etc. — Chloride of lime in powder.* Quick-lime slaked with 
water in the form of common whitewash, or milk of lime, freely used. 

For Clothing, Bedding, Linen, etc. — Burning, if the articles are of little 
value. Boiling, for at least half an hour. Immersion in a solution of 
bichloride of mercury, of a strength of at least 1 part to 2,000 of water, 
for at least four hours (one-half drachm of the bichloride of mercury to a 
gallon of water) . Immersion in a 2 per cent, solution of carbolic acid for 
four hours (2^ ounces of carbolic acid to a gallon of water). 

For the Person, Hands or Other Portion of the Body liable to he soiled. — 
Solution of chlorinated soda, 1 part to 10 of water (1 gill of the solution 
to 2^ pints of water). Solution of carbolic acid, 3 parts to 100 of water 
(4 ounces of carbolic acid to a gallon of water). 

For the Bodies of the Dead. — Wrap in a sheet saturated with a solution 
of chloride of lime, 4 parts to 100 of water (from ^ to i a pound of the 
chloride to a gallon of water) , or of bichloride of mercury, 1 part to 500 of 
water (2 drachms of bichloride of mercury to a gallon of water) , or of car- 

* The chloride of lime for this purpose may be diluted with nine parts of plaster of Paris, 
or the same proportion of clean, dry sand. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xix 

bolic acid, 5 parts to 100 of water (6 ounces of carbolic acid to a gallon of 
water) . 

For the Sick Room, after the Death or Recovery of the Patient. — The 
washing of surfaces with a solution of bichloride of mercury, 1 part to 
1,000, or of carbolic acid, 3 parts to 100 of water, and the use of formal- 
dehyde as a gaseous disinfectant. 

As it has been conclusively demonstrated that the fecal discharges of the 
sick are the chief vehicle of communication in this disease, their disinfec- 
tion should be carefully and thoroughly performed, and especially should 
care be taken as to their disposal, so that no portion of them can gain 
access, either directly or indirectly, by surface drainage, percolation, fil- 
tration or otherwise, to any water supply. 

If the number of reported cases of typhoid fever is taken as an 
index of its prevalence, there is shown to have been a slight in- 
crease over those of the previous year. 

The following table indicates the nuuaber of cases reported to the 
State Board of Health in each w^ eek from the whole State during the 
different weelvs from Sept. 1, 1897, to Dec. 31, 1897, and for a cor- 
responding period of 1898. This period is selected as the period 
of the highest prevalence of the disease, as well as the period which 
was most liable to have been influenced by the return of troops from 
the south. 

The number of cities and towns which reported cases of typhoid 
fever in these months of 1897 was 85, and those in the correspond- 
ing months of 1898 were 95. There were, however, 22 cities and 
towns which appear in the list for 1897 but not in 1898, and 32 in 
1898 which do not appear in the list of 1897. This fact is partly 
due to a marked improvement in the matter of reporting in 1898, 
and partly due, undoubtedly, to the absence of the disease in some 
of the smaller towns. 

The cities and towns reporting in 1898, w4iich reported in that year 
but not in 1897, contained about 210,000 inhabitants, and those 
w^hich reported in 1897 but not in 1898 contained about 75,000, so 
that the reporting population of the later year had about 135,000 
more inhabitants than that which reported in 1897. For the pur- 
pose of comparison, therefore, only those places are selected which 
reported in both years, the total population being about one and 
three-fourths millions. 

The reported cases in these months in 1897 were 1,076, and for 



XX 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



the corresponding months in 1898, 1,134. The difference (58) is 
but little greater than may be accounted for by the usual increase of 
population in one year. 

Reported Cases of Typhoid Fever in Massachusetts in September, October, Novem- 
ber a7id December, 1897 and 1898, for the nearly Corresponding Weeks in 
those Months. 



For the week ending - 

Sept. 4, 1897, 

11, 1897, 

18, 1897, 

25, 1897, 



Oct. 



2, 1897, 
9, 1897, 
16, 1897, 
23, 1897, 
30, 1897, 



Nov. 6, 1897, 
13, 1897, 
20, 1897, 
27, 1897, 



Dec. 



Jan. 



4, 1897, 
11, 1897, 
18, 1897, 
25, 1897, 

1, 1898, 



Total for 18 weeks, 



78 
96 
60 

77 

72 
97 
89 
83 
62 

57 
54 
48 
43 


311 

403 

202 

1 

160 
1,076 


34 
40 
32 
26 
28 



For the week endine 

Sept. 3, 1898, 

10, 1898, 

17, 1898, 

24, 1898, 



Oct. 



Nov. 



1, 1898, 
8, 1898, 
15, 1898, 
22, 1898, 
29, 1898, 



5, 1898, 
12, 1898, 
19, 1898, 
26, 1898, 



Dec. 



3, 1898, 
10, 1898, 
17, 1898, 
24, 1898, 
31, 1898, 



Total for 18 weeks. 



109 
75 
72 



316 



438 



168 



1,134 



Diphtheria and Oi'oujp. 

Diphtheria and membranous croup are here considered as identi- 
cal. From this cause nearly 60,000 children have been swept away 
within the past forty years ; but present indications appear to show 
that the introduction of better methods of treatment are beffinning; 
to limit the fatality of diphtheria in a manner which may justly be 
compared with the effect of vaccination upon the fatality of sniall-pox 
at a period nearly a century earlier, and parents having families of 
young children now feel a security against these two diseases which 
was unknown to former generations. 

The following condensed statement, from a later page in this 
report (see Section H., of the Statistical Summaries), illustrates the 
changes which have taken place since the general introduction of 
the use of antitoxin, and of more systematic methods of diagnosis 
and disease notification : — 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xxi 

Pre-antitoxin Period. — 1891-94 {Four Years). 

Reported cases, 13 332 

Deaths in the same town, 3 753 

Fatality (per cent.), 28.3 

Antitoxin Period. — 1893-98 {Four Tears). 

Reported cases, 28 740 

Deaths, ............ 4 445 

Fatality, 15,6 

Consumption. 

The classification of diseases which was conventionally adopted 
by the medical profession of Massachusetts nearly a half-century 
ago was that which was drawn up by Dr. William Farr, and pre- 
sented at a statistical congress which met in Paris in 1855. But, 
while the classification as employed in England, where it originated, 
has undergone careful revision every ten years, and appears in the 
report of the Royal College of Physicians, that of Massachusetts 
has never been carefully revised, and is now entirely out of date, 
and not in accord with the progress of medicine. The almost 
meaningless term ' ' zymotic " is still retained ; and under the term 
** constitutional," which also has little significance, the diseases 
known as "tubercular" are still retained. 

Tuberculosis or consumption is a disease regarding which so much 
has been learned, both by observation and by experiment, durino- 
the past quarter of a century or more,* as to make it a necessity to 
transfer it to the group of diseases known as " infectious." 

One of the most noticeable points in regard to this disease, not 
only in Massachusetts but almost everywhere, where records are 
kept, is its steady and uniform decrease from year to year. 

In the annual report of the Board for 1896, page 787, a table was 
presented showing steady diminution in the relative incidence of this 
disease upon the population, from a death-rate of 4,272 per million 
in 1853 to 2,194 in 1895, Avhile the records of 1896 and 1897 and 
the partial returns which have already been received for 1898 indi- 



* Dr. H. I. Bowditch, the first chairman of the State Board of Health, expressed his belief in 
the infectious character of consumption as early as 1864, and still more decidedly in 1869. 



xxii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

cate a still further decrease. The causes of this remarkable change 
are undoubtedly of a similar character with those which have affected 
nearly the entire class of infectious or preventable diseases ; namely, 
a better knowledge on the part of the people of the art of prolong- 
ing life, a growing appreciation of the value of sanitary measures, 
as shown in the better organization and equipment of local health 
authorities, and the more vigorous enforcement of those measures 
which are essential to success in the campaign against infectious 
diseases. 

Another means which has recently been adopted is the establish- 
ment of a special State hospital for the isolation and treatment of 
persons afflicted with tuberculosis, — a plan which has already been 
followed in other States, and one which has the advantage of isolat- 
ing the consumptive from the crowded populations in which he has 
been living, and placing him under conditions where he will have 
better treatment than he could have at home, and, in addition, will 
not constitute a danger to the community. 

These conditions are such as will undoubtedly favor the contin- 
uous lessening of the mortality from tuberculosis in the future. 

Dysentery. 

Mention was made in the report of last year (page xvii) of the 
reappearance of dysentery during 1896 and 1897. In neither of 
these years, however, did the disease assume such destructive pro- 
portions as were experienced in the early periods of registration, 
from 1845 to 1875. In the matter of locality, also, its recent preva- 
lence has been extremely limited, the greater number of cities and 
towns having experienced no increase of the disease. 

The only instance in which the Board was called upon to investi- 
gate its prevalence was at Leominster, during the winter of 1897 
and 1898. The seasonal prevalence was here unusual, the epidemic, 
if it could properly be called an epidemic, having occurred in winter, 
and not in summer, its usual season of prevalence. The cases 
occurred chiefly in January and February, 1898. 

The early symptoms in most of the cases resembled those of in- 
fluenza, but none of the characteristic bacilli of influenza were found 
on examination. No common source of the disease could be found. 
Examinations of the water and milk were made, without avail. The 
water supply of the town is one of more than ordinary purity. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. xxiii 

The followioo- conclusions are from the report of Dr. O. Richard- 
son, who made bacteriological examinations of the excreta in several 
of the cases of persons who were ill : — 

It is evident that the bacillus Coli Communis must have been a predomi- 
nant organism in the intestines of the individuals attacked with this 
" epidemic dysentery," as the cultures, with the exception of a very few 
colonies of Cocci, were pure cultures of this organism. The organism is 
characterized by its very rapid growth in bouillon, with the formation of a 
scum over the surface of the medium within tweutj^-four hours, and by its 
motility, which is greater than this organism usually possesses. The inter- 
esting fact in regard to the organism, however, is its virulency. Three 
guinea pigs were killed from two doses of 20 minims each and one from a 
dose of 10 minims of pure bouillon culture of the organism. They all died 
within twenty-four hours after inoculation, from septicaemia. 

There were no deaths in this epidemic, so that the direct connection 
of this organism, as cause for it, could not be made, owing to lack of 
autopsies. 

Notification of Infectious Diseases. 

The law requiring physicians to report cases of infectious diseases 
to the local authorities was enacted in 1827, but it was practically 
inoperative until within the past twenty years ; partly on account of 
its indefinite phraseology and partly in consequence of a general 
indifference to the importance of public-health measures. 

This law was amended in 1884 by introducing the words " diph- 
theria and scarlet fever," and later by another amendment requiring 
a written notice signed by the attending physician. 

Still later it was required that the local board of health should 
notify the State Board of the occurrence of cases of disease danger- 
ous to the public health. The summary of the results of the opera- 
tion of this law will be found in the Statistical Summaries, Sec- 
tion III. 

The operation of this law has proved of much value, since it has 
given early notice of the prevalence of epidemics to the State Board 
and has thus enabled the Board to trace the origin and cause of such 
epidemics while they were still in progress, and in some instances to 
take measures which have prevented their further spread. 

It is difficult to estimate the exact degree of compliance with the 
provisions of the law requiring notification to be made. Local boards 
of health throughout the State began to appreciate the usefulness of 
notification as early as 1890 or 1891, and subsequent legislation has 



xxiv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

still further lent its assistance in improving this important measure 
for preventing the spread of disease. 

Another condition, which has already been alluded to in these 
reports, is the organization of an Association of Boards of Health, 
which meets at stated intervals and gives excellent opportunity to 
local health authorities to meet each other to consider the value of 
sanitary measures, and to strengthen each other in the adoption 
of new and more efficient modes of combating the different forms 
of infectious disease which are constantly occurring not only in 
densely settled communities, but also in a more limited manner 
in the rural districts. 

The number of notices of cases of infectious diseases received at 
the office of the State Board of Health, in compliance with the law 
of 1893, had increased from 15,595 in 1894 to 27,925 in 1897. We 
are not, however, to understand that this means a nearly twofold 
increase in the prevalence of these diseases in the State, since the 
yearly prevalence of certain diseases is extremely variable. The 
number of cases of measles reported in 1897, for example, was more 
than twice as great as those reported in 1896. 

It is also difficult to select any single disease as an index of the 
extent to which notification is made, by a comparison of the number 
of notified cases with the actual deaths which occurred as known 
from the registration of the cities and towns. 

The recognized modification which has taken place in the mor- 
tality from diphtheria vitiates the calculation so far as that disease is 
concerned, and the irregularity in the annual death-rate from scarlet 
fever and especially from measles also similarly affects any estimate 
in regard to those diseases. 

Typhoid fever, however, is a disease which has presented a much 
more uniform though steadily diminishing death-rate. In order to 
eliminate the effect of epidemic years, we have selected the two 
years 1891 and 1892, and the two years 1896 and 1897 for com- 
parison. 

The number of reported cases of typhoid fever in the cities and 
towns in which notification was enforced in 1891 and 1892 was 4,306. 
The number in such towns in 1896 and 1897 was 5,167 (see page 
629, twenty-ninth annual report, 1897). 

The number of actual registered deaths from this cause in the 
State in 1891 and 1892 was 1,648 ; but in 1896 and 1897 it was only 
1,330. The reported cases in 1891 and 1892 were, therefore, only 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xxv 

2.6 times as many as the actual deaths, while in 1896 and 1897 they 
were 3.9 times as many (the ratio of 4,306 to 1,648, and of 5,167 
to 1,330). But the actual ratio of cases to deaths from the average 
statement of many observers is about 6 to 1, the fatality being about 
15 to 18 per cent. 

The ratio of 3.9 to 2.6 (or about 50 per cent, greater) may be 
taken therefor approximately as the improvement in notification in 
comparing the two periods in question. But not until this ratio 
approaches nearly to a ratio of five or six fold in the case of typhoid 
fever can the work of notification be regarded as complete. 

Bacteriological Department. 

The bacteriological department of the Board was organized in 
1894 for the purpose of facilitating the study of infectious diseases 
and for aiding; local boards of health in cities and towns where the 
maintenance of a laboratory is impracticable. 

The work of the department has comprised several different lines 
or branches : — 

1. The production of antitoxin, which has included the. prepara- 
tion of 12,491 packages in the year ended March 31, 1899. 

2. The examination of 1,591 cultures of matter suspected of 
containing germs of diphtheria. 

3. The examination of 414 specimens of material suspected of 
containing the bacilli of tuberculosis. 

4. The examination of slides of blood of patients living in mala- 
rial districts. 

5. Examination of blood of typhoid patients. 

6. Preparation of a considerable quantity of tetanus antitoxin 
for use in several cases scattered throughout the State. 

7. A comparative study of the bacillus of tuberculosis in man 
and animals. 

8. Studies upon the toxin of diphtheria. 

By means of the organization of this department the Board has 
initiated and carried into effect a plan by which every part of the 
State, from Berkshire to Cape Cod, has been directly benefited. 

The production of antitoxin has been continued throughout the 
year, and it has been distributed to every city and town from which 
calls for this valuable therapeutic agent have been received. The 
lessening of the fatality from diphtheria can be satisfactorily ex- 
plained in no other way than by the extensive and thorough use of 



xxvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

antitoxin, which has been encouraged and promoted by its free dis- 
tribution. Fuller details upon this subject may be found on later 
pages of the report. 

The examinations which have been made to determine the char- 
acter of material sent to the Board from patients suffering with 
symptoms of diphtheria, tuberculosis, malarial fever and other dis- 
eases have rendered substantial service to local boards of health and 
physicians throughout the State by making the diagnosis of disease 
more certain, and thus dispelling the doubts which often hinder the 
efficient work of sanitary authorities. 

The Board has established places of deposit in the cities and large 
towns for supplies of antitoxin, culture tubes and sputum jars so 
that they may be obtained for immediate use. 

On account of the rarity of cases of tetanus and the consequent 
small demand for tetanus antitoxin, no special mention was made in 
the report of last year of the fact that the Board had kept constantly 
on hand a supply of serum for immediate use, and it is doubtful 
whether the limited demand for this serum would warrant the con- 
tinuance of its production. 

In consequence of this limited and irregular demand the distribu- 
tion was made direct from the laboratory. This serum should be 
furnished only on condition that full detailed reports of its use are re- 
turned to the Board as soon as possible. In consequence of the great 
variety of lesions which lead to the occurrence of tetanus, the varia- 
tions in the period of incubation and in the severity of the symptoms, 
it has not been deemed best to issue a formulated series of questions 
but to allow each observer to state the case in his own language. 

Supplies of tetanus serum have been furnished to the Massachu- 
setts General Hospital as follows : — 

In April, 1898, 1,000 cubic centimeters. 

In June, 1898, 2,720 " 

In July, 1898 800 " 

In Sept., 1898, 900 " 

In Nov, 1898, 1,000 " 

To the Boston City Hosjntal. 

In July, 1897, 360 cubic centimeters. 

In Aug., 1897, 360 " 

In Sept., 1897, 600 " 

In May, 1898, 200 " 

In June, 1898 UO " 

In Sept , 1898, 500 " 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xxvii 



To Waltham Hospital. 
In Aug., 1898, 700 cubic centimetera. 

To Salem Hosjntal. 

In April, 1898, 200 cubic centimeters. 

In Jan., 1899, 620 " 

To Lowell Hospital. 
In Feb., 1899, 500 cubic centimeters. 

To the Board of Health of Marblehead. 
In Aug., 1898, 500 cubic centimeters. 

To the Hospital Ship " Bay Slate.''' 
In July, 1898, 1,380 cubic centimeters. 

To Private Physicians in Brookline and Boston, 
In July and Dec, 1898 2,200 cubic centimeters. 

Applications having been made from parties living outside of the 
State for the products of this laboratory, it should be stated that the 
Board has no authority to supply such products to citizens of other 
States. 

Offensive Trades. 

Under the provisions of chapter 80 of the Public Statutes certain 
noxious and offensive trades (slaughter-houses, rendering estab- 
lishments or other trades attended by " noisome and offensive 
odors ") are made amenable to the action of the court and of the 
State Board of Health. The local board of health has the power 
to assign places for carrying on such business, or may prohibit the 
exercise of such trades. 

It is also necessary for persons carrying on such trades to obtain 
a license from the mayor and aldermen or from the selectmen, and 
under a recent law this license must be renewed annually. 

The State Board has also jurisdiction in such cases upon a petition 
for a hearing, and may " order any person to cease and desist from 
carrying on such trades " if in its judgment the public health or 
comfort or convenience so require. 

No petitions have been received by the State Board for its action 
or interference under this statute since 1894, such cases having 
usually been settled by the local boards of health. 



xxviii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

Food and Drug Inspection. 

This important department of the work of the Board has now been 
conducted without interruption for a period of sixteen years, and 
when the results of the first and last years' work are compared, a 
decided improvement is apparent in the quality of the food supply 
of the State. 

A great loss was sustained during the past year in the death of 
the chief analyst in this department, Dr. Charles P. Worcester. 

The work of the Board during the past year comprises the exami- 
nation of 10,797 samples of food and drugs, of which number (3,247 
were samples of milk obtained by the inspectors in different parts of 
the State. 

The total number of samples collected and examined since the 
beginning of the work under the food and drug acts is 97,950, of 
which number 51,198 were samples of milk. 

The number of prosecutions conducted during the year ended 
Sept. 30, 1898, was 64, of which number 62 resulted in conviction. 

The details of the work of this department may be found at page 
677. 

Health of Towns. 

With the exception of Rhode Island, Massachusetts is the most 
densely settled State in the Union, its population, according to the 
census of 1895, having an average density of a little more than 300 
per square mile. It had, by the same census, 39 cities and towns 
each having a population of more than 10,000, and more than 80 per 
cent, of its population were living in towns of more than 5,000 in 
each. 

Such a degree of density and the consequent aggregation of the 
people in close proximity are usually accompanied with an increase 
in the existence of unsanitary conditions, nuisances and in the preva- 
lence of infectious diseases, unless great pains are taken by the local 
authorities to counteract these depressing conditions by the vigorous 
application of sanitary measures. It is a matter of congratulation 
that the death-rate of Massachusetts has not increased, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that its density of population has doubled in the past 
twenty-five years. It remains to be seen whether another quarter of a 
century of sanitation and another doubling of the population will 
find the death-rate the same as at present. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xxix 

Constant improvements in sanitary methods are being made, but 
tliere is abundant room for more. It is desirable that local boards 
of health and the State Board should work together as far as possible 
for the common good. In those cities and towns where facilities for 
careful investigation are not accessible, the State Board can supply 
the means for sanitary investigation, which its well-equipped labora- 
tories and experts furnish. For the purpose, therefore, of facilitat- 
ing the investigation of sanitary questions in cities and towns, and 
of aiding the work of local health authorities, the State Board has 
organized a new department of health of towns and of correspond- 
ence with local boards of health, and has appointed Dr. F. L. ]\Iorse 
as its medical and sanitary inspector, who will have his office at the 
State House, and under the direction of the Board will be ready to 
assist the local health officers of cities and towns in making such in- 
vestigations as may be necessary, especially in regard to the preven- 
tion of the spread of infectious diseases. 



Manual of Health Laws. 

Beginning with 1882, the Board has issued at intervals a compila- 
tion of statutes relating to public health which had been enacted up 
to the date of publication. 

At first this compilation was issued about once in four years, but 
the demand for it has considerably increased in consequence of the 
wider range of topics included in its pages. Its chief use is as a 
manual for reference for local boards of health and other sanitary 
officials, but the increasing importance attached to the legislation 
relative to water supplies, systems of sewerage, pollution of streams, 
food and drug inspection, the registration of vital statistics and other 
special sanitary topics has created a much greater demand for the 
manual than had heretofore existed. 

In addition to the laws contained in it, the manual also presents a 
digest of all the decisions of the supreme court upon sanitary ques- 
tions up to the date of its publication. It also contains the regu- 
lations of the State Board of Health in regard to food and drug 
inspection, and a digest of the powers and duties of the State Board 
under the general laws relating to health. 

The edition of 1897 was very soon exhausted, and another has 
been issued containing the additional health statutes of 1897 and 
1898. The last editions have been stereotyped. 



XXX STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

Water Supply and Sewerage. 

The operations of the Board under the provisions of chapter 375 
of the Acts of the year 1888, entitled "An Act to protect the purity 
of inhmd waters and to require consultation with the State Board of 
Health regarding the establishment of systems of water supply, 
drainage and sewerage," have increased considerably over those of 
previous years, and have formed a very large share of the official 
work of the Board. 

The portion of the work which comprises the advice of the Board 
to cities and towns, under the provisions of section 3 of this act and 
under the provisions of acts of the Legislature requiring special 
action of the Board relative to the approval of plans of water supply 
and sewerage, together with the action of the Board upon various 
petitions for the taking of land for the purification and disposal of 
sewage under the provisions of the general law of 1890, chapter 124, 
has already been reported to the Legislature in Senate Document 
No. 4, and the abstracts of replies of the Board are also given in 
this report, pages 4-128. 

During the year 1898, 75 applications were officially made to the 
Board for its advice under the provisions of the act referred to, or 
for the approval of plans of water supply and sewerage, or the taking 
of land, making in all 583 such applications since the beginning of 
this work in 1886. In connection with many of these matters the 
Board has given public hearings in cases where hearings were required. 

The examinations of public water supplies and rivers have been 
continued as in former years, and many samples of water from the 
sources of public water supply in the State and from many of the 
rivers have been analyzed at the laboratory of the Board in the State 
House. The year 1898 was one of extraordinary rainfall in Mas- 
sachusetts, and the effect of the pollution of streams has not been as 
noticeable as in drier seasons. The chemical analyses of the public 
water supplies and rivers are presented in the usual form, excepting 
that in some cases, especially of ground waters which changed but 
little in character during the year, only an average of the results of 
analyses is presented. A limited number of biological examinations 
have also been given in cases where these analyses are of special 
importance in judging of the character of a water. 

The usual tables of water supply statistics are given, showing the 
number of towns supplied and the quantity of water used in cities 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xxxi 

and towns where the quantity is measured, together with a summary 
of the records of rainfall and flow of streams which are necessary in 
considering the results that are presented of analyses of water sup- 
plies and rivers. One of the tables presented shows the population 
of cities and towns having yjublic water supplies and cities and towns 
which are not provided with such supplies. From an examination 
of this table it will be seen that the cities and towns which are pro- 
vided with public water supplies contain over 90 per cent, of the total 
population of the State ; and while in many cases the public water 
supply is not available to all of the inhabitants of a city or town, 
the table, nevertheless, gives a fair indication of how large a pro- 
portion of the people of the State depend for their supply of water 
upon public water works. 

The results of the investigations carried on at the Lawrence Ex- 
periment Station upon the purification of sewage and various kinds 
of manufacturing wastes, as well as the filtration of water, are pre- 
sented as usual. The continuance of these experiments has furnished 
much new and useful information upon the practicability of purify- 
ing sew'age at rapid rates and with various materials, which is of 
value in many sewage-disposal problems, where land suitable for the 
purification of sewage cannot be obtained. A considerable portion 
of the work at the station during the year has consisted of the in- 
vestigation, by means of experiments, of proposed plans for the 
purification of sewage and manufacturing wastes concerning which 
reliable information is not available. 

Investigations as to lead poisoning by the use of water drawn 
through lead service pipes and the action of water on pipes of lead and 
other metals have been carried on through the year, and in the present 
report, Mr. H. W. Clark, chemist of the Board, presents the results 
of these investigations and the methods used in analyzing the water. 

In several of the cities and towns of the State, some of them con- 
taining a large population, works for the purification of sewage by 
intermittent filtration through beds of sand and gravel have now been 
in successful operation for several years, and the results of analyses 
of sewage and effluent from these systems have been presented in the 
annual reports of the Board from time to time. During the year 
1898 a much more thorough examination of the various systems has 
been made than before, to obtain information as to the practical 
working of these systems. The results of these investigations are 
presented by the engineer of the Board. 



xxxii STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Jan. 



Lead Poisoning. 

Investigations as to the action of water of various public water 
supplies upon pipes of lead and other metals used in the conveyance 
and distribution of water have been continued, and, as already indi- 
cated, a description of the results of the investigations and the 
methods of analysis used are presented in a paper by the chemist of 
the Board. It has been found that many waters, when brought into 
contact with lead services, as in lead distribution pipe, dissolve lead 
from the pipes, and the water thus becomes dangerous to those who 
drink it. While the quantity of lead dissolved may be small, and a 
single dose might not seriously harm the user of the w^ater, the con- 
tinued use of water containing lead is harmful, because lead is a 
cumulative poison. The exact amount of lead which may be taken 
into the system without producing harm is not definitely known 
and may vary with different people, but it is known that the contin- 
uous use of water containing quantities of lead as small as .05 of a 
part per 100,000, or about -^^ of a grain per gallon, has caused seri- 
ous injury to health. 

Attention has already been called in previous reports to the 
occurrence of lead poisoning in the towns of Kingston, Milford 
and Fairhaven. 

In addition to these places, many cases of a serious character have 
been reported from the city of Lowell among persons using the city 
water, and several communications have been addressed to the 
authorities of this city with reference to abandoning the use of lead 
pipes. 

The Board is continuing its investigations upon this subject, and 
hopes that any appearance of similar trouble in other places may be 
reported to it without delay. 

Private wells, even more than public water supplies, are subject 
to the same danger when lead pipe is used for the conveyance of the 
drinking water. Several instances of this character have come to 
the notice of the Board in the past year. 

The history of the harmful effects of lead pipes upon well waters 
has, in this country, been closely connected with the city of Lowell. 

In the year 1842 a special committee of this city, appointed at the 
instance of its leading physicians, made a report upon the subject, 
and the committee noted with especial emphasis the readiness with 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xxxiii 

which the Lowell ground waters dissolve lead in dangerous quan- 
tities, and warned the inhabitants of the city against the use of lead 
pipes for the conveyance of drinking waters. 

So for as we know, this public document of the city of Lowell is 
the earliest, as it is one of the best, statements of the peculiar danger 
from the unnecessary use of lead pipe. 

The symptoms of chronic lead poisoning, such, for example, as 
are liable to ensue after the continuous use of water containing small 
quantities of lead, are as follows : — 

The symptoms are usually slow in their progress. There is 
usually a rapidly developing anaemia, with a consequent anaemic 
pallor of the skin. There is often constipation and indigestion, with 
a feeling of depression at the outset. Then there may be a loss 
of appetite, an unquenchable thirst, a constant unpleasant metallic 
taste, and a foul odor in the breath. The countenance becomes dull 
and appears anxious. There is rarely any fever and the pulse is 
usually natural. The respiration is often rapid. There is frequently 
abdominal hardness and pain, the pain increasing as the case pro- 
gresses, colic being the most common symptom. But little urine is 
usually passed, and there is dysuria. 

Far more commonly, lead paralysis is manifested. It may occur 
after a single attack of chronic lead poisoning, but is more often the 
result of a series of attacks, and occasionally occurs without being 
preceded by any attack. The upper extremities, and especially the 
extensor muscles, are most commonly attacked, those of the hand 
and forearm first sufFerino;. 

The chief diagnostic sign is the blue line upon the gums at the mar- 
gin of the teeth. This is due to the formation, in the capillaries of the 
gums, of sulphide of lead. It is not invariably present. The presence 
of lead in the urine constitutes a valuable diagnostic symptom. 

In mild cases the prognosis is usually favorable when the exciting 
cause has been removed. But in severe cases, and especially where 
paralysis exists as a consequence of lead poisoning, the injury may 
be permanent, and occasionally proves fatal. 



xxxiv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 



Routine Woek of the Board. 

During the year ending Sept. 30, 1898, the Board held meetings 
at least once in each month. Meetings of such of the standing com- 
mittees as were necessary for the transaction of business were also 
held from time to time, as well as joint sessions with such other 
boards or commissions as were prescribed by the Legislature. 

The office of the Board has been open throughout the year, as 
prescribed by the Public Statutes, chapter 21, section 10,* for the 
transaction of its authorized business. 

Advice has been very frequently given at the office and by mail 
to local boards and to individuals in regard to sanitary matters, and 
many visits have been made by the secretary, the engineers and 
other experts to cities and towns for the purpose of making investi- 
gations and giving advice. 

The bacteriological work undertaken by the Board for the benefit 
of such communities in the State as possessed no facilities for such 
methods of investigation and diagnosis, together with the produc- 
tion and distribution of antitoxin for the treatment and prevention 
of diphtheria, has very materially increased the work of the office, 
which acts as a general and central station for the distribution of 
antitoxin and of the various culture tubes, receptacles and other 
means employed for the diagnosis of disease. 

The work of antitoxin production especially had more than doubled 
since the previous year, as will be seen by reference to the report upon 
antitoxin production. 

The statistics of mortality compiled from the weekly postal-card 
returns from the registering; authorities of cities and towns have been 
published weekly during the year in the form of a bulletin, which 
also contains, once in each month, a report of the work done in the 
line of food and drug inspection, together with the prosecutions made 
under the food and drug acts, and other important information rela- 
tive to the work of this department. In addition to these items there 
is also published in the same bulletin a weekly report of the number 
of cases of infectious diseases reported by the local boards to the 
State Board of Health, under the provisions of chapter 302 of the 
Acts of 1893. 

* Office hours, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. ; Saturdays, 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xxxv 

The laboratories for water analysis and for food and drug inspec- 
tion are located on the fifth floor of the State House, the former at 
Room 502 and the latter at Eoom 501, each of which is open during 
the usual working hours. 

The following table presents certain statistical data relative to the 
routine work of the Board : — 

Statistical Table for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1898. 
Whole number of samples of foods and drugs examined during the j'ear, 10,797 
Samjjles of milk examined (included in the foregoing), .... 6,247 
Whole number of samples of food and drugs examined since beginning 

of work in 1883 97,590 

Whole number of samples of milk examined since beginning of woi*k 

in 1883, 51,198 

Number of prosecutions against offenders during the year, ... 64 

Number of convictions during the year, 62 

Amount of fines imposed during the year, $2,060 98 

Number of packages of antitoxin issued to cities and towns,* . . 12,491 

Number of bacterial cultures made for the diagnosis of diphtheria in 
cities and towns,* ........... 1,591 

Number of examinations made for diagnosis of tuberculosis,* . . 414 
Number of examinations of blood made for diagnosis of malarial infec- 
tion,* 132 

Number of notices of cases of infectious diseases received and recorded 

under the provisions of chapter 302, Acts of 1893,t .... 14,331 
Number of postal card I'eturns of mortality for cities and towns received 

and recorded,! 1,953 

Number of annual reports of cities and towns received under the pro- 
visions X of Acts of 1894, chapter 218,t 88 

Force employed in general work of Board at central oflS.ce, State House : — 

Secretary, 1 

Clerks, 2 

Messenger, 1 

Total, 4 

Force employed at central oflSce, State House, Boston, for food and drug 

inspection, chemists and assistants, 2 

At Amherst, 1 

Inspectors, 4 

Total, 7 

* For the year ending March 31, 1899. f For the calendar year 1898. 

% Towns having a population of over 5,000 inhabitants in each. 



xxxvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

Force employed at laboratory (Bussey Institute) : — 

Pathologist, 1 

Assistants, 3 



Under the Provisions of Chapter 375, Acts of 1888. 
Api^lications for advice from cities, towns and others : — 

Relating to water supply, 38 

Relating to ice supply, 6 

Relating to sewerage and drainage, 22 

Relating to pollution of streams, 9 

Total, 75 

Number of samples of water examined chemically and microscopically 

at the laboratory. Room 502, State House, 3,458 

Number of samples of sewage and effluent from sewage purification 

works examined chemically at the laboratory. Room 502, State House, 626 

Number of samples of sewage and water examined chemically and 

bacterially at the Lawrence Exijeriment Station, 2,171 

Number of samples of sand examined chemically and bacterially at the 

Lawrence Experiment Station, 610 

Number of samples of sand examined mechanically at the Lawrence 

Expei'iment Station, 610 

Additional samples examined bacterially at the Lawrence Experiment 

Station, 6,770 

Total number of samples examined, 14,245 

Force employed at central office : — 

Chief engineei", ........... 1 

Assistant engineers, .......... 4 

Stenographers and clerks, 2 

Messenger, 1 

— 8 

At laboratory. Room 502, State House : — 

Chemists, ............ 1 

Assistant chemists, 4 

Biologist, 1 



6 



At Lawrence Experiment Station : — 

Chemists, 2 

Bacteriologists, 2 

Other assistants and laborers, 4 

— 8 

Total ordinary force employed under chapter 375, Acts of 1888, . 22 

Total ox'dinary force in all departments, 37 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



XXXVll 



The number of applications for advice under the provisions of the 
acts relating to water supply and sewerage, received since July, 



ioob, wnen 


tnes 


B ac! 


s nr 


St Avent IK 


to operat 


ion, IS a lollows : — 


1886, 8 


1894, 


53 


1887, 








. 22 


1895, 


52 


1888, 








. 28 


1896, 


65 


1889, 








. 38 


1897, 


59 


1890, 








. 23 


1898, 


75 


1891, 
1892, 








. 53 
. 66 


Total 


583 


1893, 








. 51 







Recommendations . 
The following recommendation was made to the Legislature at 
the beginning of the session of 1899 : — 

The Board recommends the continuance of its investigations now being car- 
ried on, as authorized by the provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888. 

For this purpose, and to make the necessary investigations in order to 
advise cities, towns, corporations and individuals in regard to the best 
methods of assuring the purity of intended or existing water supplies and 
the best method of disposing of sewage, and to carry out the other provi- 
sions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888, the Board estimates that the sum 
of $30,000 will be required. 

Expenditures. 
The expenditures in 1898 under the foregoing appropriations 
were as follows : — 



General Expenditures Sept. 30, 1S97, to Sept 
Salaries, ..... 
Travelling expenses. 

Stationer}', 

Printing, 

Books, subscription and binding. 
Advertising, .... 
Express charges, 
Exti'a services, .... 
Messenger services, . 
Postage and postal orders. 
Telephone and telegraph messages, 
Typewriting supplies, 
Special investigations, 

Amount carried forward, $9,982 83 



ot. 30, 1898 


$5,599 


75 


628 


95 


335 


48 


1,185 


73 


424 


64 


24 


15 


192 


14 


272 


77 


30 


00 


421 


98 


79 00 


7 


85 


780 


39 



XXXVlll 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Amount brought forward, .... 

Printing reiwrt upon cerebro-spinal meningitis, 
Expense of collecting samples of water, . 
Sundry office supplies and incidental expenses. 



$9,982 83 

1,530 29 

19 69 

220 65 



$11,753 36 



Expenditures at Bacteriological Laboratory . 

Salaries, $2,473 84 

Travelling expenses, 25 52 

Purchase of animals, 28 12 

Board of horses, 1,255 62 

Food for animals, 72 94 

Apparatus, chemicals and laboratory supplies, . . 1,424 52 

Express charges, 13 35 

Ice, 9 80 

Postage, 1 96 

Stationery 3 95 

Rental of telephone, 168 00 

Telegrams, 1 00 

5,478 62 

Total, $17,231 98 



E 



Expenses U7ider Chapter 375 of Acts of 1888 {Protection 

Waters) for Calendar Year 1898 
Salaries, including wages of laborers at Lawrence 

Station, ..... 
Apparatus and materials, 
Rent of Lawrence Experiment Station 
Travelling expenses. 
Express charges, .... 
Use of tools and office, Lawrence Experiment Station, 
Books, stationery and drawing materials, . 

Maps and blue prints, 

Postage stamps, 

Printing, 

Messengers, telegrams and telephone messages. 



Total $29,999 66 



of Purity of Inland 
xperiment 



$24,052 02 

2,305 83 

150 00 

1,617 31 

877 41 

216 97 

411 64 

125 48 

41 00 

184 44 

17 56 



For Food and Drug Inspecti07i for Year ending SejJt. 30, 1898. 

Salaries of analysts $4,595 00 

Salaries of inspectors, 4,000 00 

Travelling expenses and purchase of samples, 1,838 83 

Apparatus and chemicals, 299 48 



Amount carried forward, $10,733 31 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 34. xxxix 

Amount brought forward, ........ $10,733 31 

Printing, 20 34 

Index cards, 27 50 

Special investigation, 14 94 

Special services (milk case), 10 00 

Extra services for inspection, 154 00 

Services (cleaning laboratory), 82 00 

Bottles and stoppers, 10 21 

Sundry small supplies, 10 38 

Total, $11,062 68 

HENRY P. WALCOTT, 
GERARD C. TOBEY, 
.TAMES W. HULL, 
CHARLES H. PORTER, 
JULIAN A. MEAD, 
HIRAM F. MILLS, 
FRANK W. DRAPER, 

State Board of Health. 



Water Supply and Sewerage. 



ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 



ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 



Under the provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888, entitled 
" An Act to protect the purity of inhind waters, and to require con- 
sultation with the State Board of Health re^ardina: the establishment 
of systems of water supply, drainage and sewerage," the Board is 
required 

' ' from time to time to consult with and advise the authorities of cities and 
towns, or with corporations, firms or individuals either already having or 
intending to introduce systems of water supply, drainage or sewerage, as 
to the most appropriate source of supply, the best practical method of 
assuring the purity thereof or of disposing of their drainage or sewage, 
having regard to the present and prospective needs and interests of other 
cities, towns, corporations, firms or individuals which may be affected 
thereby. It shall also from time to time consult with and advise persons 
or corporations engaged or intending to engage in any manufacturing or 
other business, drainage or sewage from which may tend to cause the pol- 
lution of any inland water, as to the best practicable method of preventing 
such pollution by the interception, disposal or purification of such drainage 
or sewage : provided, that no person shall be compelled to bear the ex- 
pense of such consultation or advice, or of experiments made for the pur- 
poses of this act. All such authorities, corporations, firms and individuals 
are hereby required to give notice to said Board of their intentions in the 
premises, and to submit for its advice outlines of their proposed plans or 
schemes in relation to water supply and disposal of drainage and sewage ; 
and all petitions to the Legislature for authority to introduce a system of 
water supply, drainage or sewerage shall be accompanied by a copy of the 
recommendation and advice of the said Board thereon." 

During the year 1898 the Board has given its advice to the follow- 
ing cities, towns, corporations and individuals who have applied for 
such advice under the provisions of the general act of 1888, or under 
special acts relating to water supply and sewerage. 

Replies were made during the year to applications made from the 
following sources for advice relative to water supply : Agawam (Mt- 
tineague), Arlington (the Eobbins' Spring Water Company), Bil- 
lerica (two replies) , Cheshire, Cohasset, Enfield, Fairhaven, Groton, 
Harvard, Haverhill, the Gale Shoe Manufacturing Company of Haver- 



6 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

for drinking and other domestic purposes to be analyzed. The results of 
these analyses sl\ow that the water of four of the springs was of good qual- 
ity at the time that the examination was made, though there was evidence 
that some of the water had at some time been polluted and subsequently 
thoroughly purified in its passage through the ground. The water of the 
remaining spring, numbered 4 on the plan, contained a small quantity of 
free ammonia, contained a larger quantity of chlorine and nitrates than was 
found in the water of any of the other springs, and the hardness also was 
somewhat greater. The poorer quality of the water from this spring may 
possibly have been partially due to the manner of collecting the sample, 
since there seems to be no good reason why the water should not be of as 
good quality as that of spring No. 5, which is located close by. 

A portion of the area from which the water of the springs appears to be 
derived is controlled by your company, but other portions are not so con- 
trolled ; and there are already a few dwelling-houses within the apparent 
watei'-shed of the springs, and these lands are liable to be used for build- 
ing purposes before many years. The region appears to be building up 
rapidly ; and, if the number of dwelling-houses in the region above the 
springs and from which their supply is derived increases, and sewage is 
disposed of by discharging it into or upon the ground, it is probable that 
the sewage would unfavorably affect the quality of the water of the springs, 
and possibly render it unsafe for drinking. 

The town is provided with a sewerage system, however ; and, if all sew- 
age is removed from houses in the territory in question by discharging it 
into the sewers, the danger of pollution of the springs would be greatly 
reduced, especially if the sewers are made tight, or are laid below the level 
of the ground water. 

The best method of protecting the purity of the spring water would be 
for the company to acquire control of the land above the springs within the 
area from which the water of the springs is apparently derived, and prevent 
its occupation for building ; and, if it is feasible to do so, the Board would 
advise that the control of the land be secured by the company, and that it 
be kept free from buildings. 

It is important that the springs be kept covered, so as to exclude the 
light and to keep out such contamination as might be thrown into them, 
and surface water should also be carefully excluded. 

BiLLERiGA. The water commissioners of Billerica applied to the 
Board, Dec. 10, 1897, for its advice under the general act of 1888, 
chapter 375, and the special act of 1897, relating to a water supply 
for the town. The Board replied as follow^s : — 

Jan. 27, 1898. 
The State Board of Health received from you, on Dec. 17, 1897, an 
application for the advice of the Board, under the authority of chapter 375 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 7 

of the Acts of 1888 and chapter 471 of the Acts of 1897, with reference to 
a proposed water supply for the town of Billerica, in which j'ou state that 
it is proposed to obtain a supply of ground wafer from land on the west 
side of the Concord River, known as the Hutchins Meadow, by means of a 
large well, supplemented when necessary by tubular wells, or by the use 
of tubular wells alone. You also submitted the results of your investiga- 
tions of this territory by means of tubular test wells, and the results of 
pumping tests made by connecting several wells with a steam pump, and 
pumping from them for a period of several days. During these tests sam- 
ples of the water drawn from the wells collected by you and by agents -of 
the Board have been analyzed. 

The first pumping test was begun on November 15 and continued until 
November 24, seven wells, numbered 11, 12, 13, 42, 49, 48 and 26, being 
connected with the pumps. During the whole of thi& test the water drawn 
appears to have had a strong odor of sulphuretted or carburetted hydrogen, 
which, however, disappeared very quickly when the water was exposed to 
the air; and the analyses showed the presence of iron in considerable 
quantity, a small amount of which precipitated out of the water on stand- 
ing. In view of this condition, and the probability that the quantity of 
iron would increase with continued pumping of such a quantity of water as 
would be necessary to supply the town of Billerica, the suggestion was 
made that you continue your investigations, to determine whether it was 
feasible to obtain in this neighborhood water that was free from iron. 

Subsequently, on December 3, a second test was begun by pumping 
from a group of seven wells, numbered 12 (o), 22, 24, 25, 53, 34 and 52, 
situated at the southerly side of the meadow, a short distance south-west of 
those first connected with the pump. This test was continued from 
December 3 to December 11, water being pumped during this period at 
the rate of about 430,000 gallons in twenty-four hours. Analyses of 
samples of water collected at frequent intervals through this test showed 
that it was soft, free from odor, nearly colorless, and contained only an 
insignificant amount of iron, and that it was in other respects of excellent 
quality for the purposes of a public water supply. 

The wells from which the last test was made were located as stated 
above, at the southerly side of the meadow ; and, while some of them are 
not far distant from the wells used in the previous test, which were nearly 
all located in the meadow, the quantity of iron present showed no tendency 
to increase during the test. It is very desirable, however, in selecting the 
final location of the collecting works, to place them at as great a distance 
as is feasible from the places where the ground water is found to contain 
an excess of iron. 

The daily quantity of water pumped during each of these tests was much 
in excess of the quantity that is likely to be needed for the supply of 
Billerica; but, while the tests have shown that water could be pumped 



8 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

freely from the ground in large quantities at this season of the year, when 
the ground is full of water, the yield is likely to be much smaller in the 
summer season, when the water in the river and in the ground in its 
vicinity is lower, and when water is being pumped constantly for the sup- 
ply of the town. Nevertheless, it is probable that a sufficient supply of 
good water for Billerica can be obtained from the ground in this locality, 
if the works are extended so as to draw water from a large area. 

The tests, on the whole, indicate that a system of collecting works in 
this locality can be so located and arranged that a suitable water supply 
for the town of Billerica can be obtained at this place ; and there does not 
appear, from your investigations, to be any other available source where 
the conditions for obtaining a suitable supply are as favorable, unless at a 
considerably greater expense for the works. Moreover, if works are con- 
structed here, and the quantity of water shall be found too small at some 
future time, it will be practicable, without great cost, to increase the sup- 
ply by filtering the water of the Concord River through a filter prepared 
for the purpose, or, perhaps, by discharging it upon the ground, where the 
material is favorable for filtration, in the vicinity of the collecting works. 

The Board, therefore, advises and recommends that ground water, taken 
from the ground at the southerly side of the Hutchins Meadow, proposed 
in your application, is a suitable source of supply for the town of Billerica. 

Billerica. A request was received, May 22, 1898, from the 
water commissioners of Billerica, for the opinion of the Board rela- 
tive to the use of lead service pipes in connection with the public 
water supply of the town. The Board replied to this request as 
follows : — 

June 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health has considered your request, contained in a 
letter of your engineer to the chief engineer of this Board, for opinion rela- 
tive to the use of lead service mains for the distribution of the water from 
tubular wells which it is proposed to use for the supply of Billerica. 

It is not possible for the Board to determine, without suitable tests, the 
probable effect that this water would have upon lead pipes. Investigations 
in regard to this matter are now being made ; and while, in some cases, 
certain waters do not appear to dissolve lead from the pipes, in most cases 
it is found that lead is taken up by the water from such pipes, and it has 
been found in some late investigations by the Board that severe cases of 
lead poisoning have been caused by the use of water from public water 
supplies drawn through lead pipes. 

Under the circumstances, the Board would advise that you avoid the use 
of lead pipe, either for mains or services, in connection with the proposed 
system of water su^^ply of the town of Billerica. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 9 

Cheshire. An application was received, Feb. 7, 1898, from the 
Cheshire Water Company, for the advice of the Board relative to a 
proposed additional water supply to be taken from Kitchen Brook in 
that town. The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

April 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Feb. 7, 1898, an ap- 
plication for advice with reference to a proposed additional water supply 
for the town of Cheshire, which you propose to take from Kitchen Brook, 
also called West Brook, in that town. 

The Board has caused an analysis of a sample of water from this source 
to be made, and finds that at the present time it is of good quality, its 
quality being about the same as that of your present source of supply, 
which is drawn from a tributary of Kitchen Brook known as Thunder 
Brook. Whether its quality is materially different at other seasons of the 
year from what it was found to be at the present time, cannot be predicted 
with certainty, but it seems probable that it will be considerably harder in 
the summer season. Its water-shed, however, lies between the water-sheds 
of Bassett Brook on the north and of Thunder Brook on the south ; and the 
results of analyses of samples of water from these sources, taken at regular 
intervals through two years, show that, while the water becomes consider- 
ably harder in the summer season than it is in the early spring, the hard- 
ness has not been excessive, and it is reasonable to expect that the quality 
of the water of Kitchen Brook will not differ materially in this respect from 
that of the other sources mentioned. 

The water-shed of Kitchen Brook, at the point at which water would 
naturally be taken for the supply of the town, is much larger than that 
of Thunder Brook ; and, so far as can be learned, its flow is well main- 
tained in the summer season, so that it is probable that it will furnish an 
ample additional supply for the town ; and, owing to its situation with 
respect to your present source, it is the most economical source from which 
an additional water supply can be obtained. 

It has not been feasible for the Board to have a thorough examination 
made at this season of the year of the water-shed of the brook, with ref- 
erence to danger of pollution of the water from dwelling-houses thereon ; 
but a further examination will be made at a later date, and the Board will 
advise you with reference to precautions that may be necessary to avoid 
danger of pollution of this source. 

CoHASSET. An application was received, March 21, 1898, from 
the Cohasset Water Company, for the advice of the Board with ref- 
erence to a proposed additional source of water supply for that town, 
to be taken from wells in the Ellms Meadow in that town. The 
Board repKed to this application as follows : — 



10 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

July 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from j^ou, on March 21, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to a proposed source of water supply 
for the town of Cohasset, to be taken from tubular wells in the Ellms 
Meadow, so called, in that town, and has caused the locality to be exam- 
ined by its engineer and samples of the water of the wells to be analyzed. 

Since the application was received, a pumping plant has been installed 
and water has been pumped from a group of seven tubular wells in this 
meadow for periods of a few days at a time, at a rate nearly sufficient for 
the supply of the town. 

The results of analyses of samples of the water from the wells show that 
at the present time it is clear, nearly colorless, and otherwise of good qual- 
ity for the purposes of a public water supply, and is of better quality than 
the water of your present sources, in that it is much softer and is free from 
an excessive amount of iron. 

With regard to the quantity of water which the proposed source will fur- 
nish, it may be said that, while the yield for the short periods during which 
the pump has thus far been operated has been nearly sufficient for the supply 
of the town, it is probable that with continued pumping in a very dry year 
the yield will be considerably smaller than it is at present. Nevertheless, 
this source will probably form a material addition to the supply of the town. 

The proposed new source is located much nearer the thickly settled por- 
tion of the town than is desii-able, and the water may deteriorate when a 
large quantity is pumped continuously from the ground ; but, in view of 
the need of an additional source of supply and the difficulty of obtaining 
a suitable additional supply in the vicinity of the town, the Board believes 
that it is advisable, under the circumstances, to use all of the water that 
the proposed source will yield, while its quality remains satisfactory, and 
advises you to cause the water to be analyzed from time to time, in order 
to detect any deterioration in its quality which would render it unsuitable 
for domestic use. 

Enfield. An application was received, March 4, 1898, from the 
committee on water supply of the town of Enfield, for the advice 
of the Board with reference to the taking of certain springs in that 
town as sources of water supply. The Board replied to this appli- 
cation as follows : — 

April 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health has considered your application relative to a 
proposed water supply for the town of Enfield, to be taken from springs 
on the Randall and Shearer farms, and has caused an examination of the 
locality to be made by its engineer and samples of water to be analyzed. 
It appears that the town at present owns a spring upon the Randall farm, 
from which water is drawn for the supply of a drinking fountain, hotel and 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 11 

two houses in the village, and that it is proposed to use this spring as the 
source of supply, and increase its capacity by diverting into it the water 
of a small spring in the southwest corner of the Shearer pasture. 

Samples of the water of both these springs have been analyzed, and the 
results show that the water is nearly colorless, very soft, and otherwise of 
excellent quality for the purposes of a public water supply ; and there is 
no reason to expect that, if the water is kept from exposure to light, its 
quality will differ materially at other seasons of the year from what it is 
found to be at the present time. The water-shed of these springs, how- 
ever, is so small that it is not probable that enough water could be obtained 
from them for the supply of the town of Enfield, should water be generally 
introduced in both villages, or even in the main village only. The Board, 
therefore, does not advise the construction of works for taking a supply 
of water for the town from these springs, but would advise that the matter 
be given further consideration, and a source of supply secured that will not 
only furnish a water of good quality, but also of ample quantity to provide 
for the needs of the town. 

In this connection the Board has caused analyses to be made of samples 
of water from several other sources that appear to have been under con- 
sideration in the past, and finds that water , of good quality can probably 
be obtained from Wood's Springs, so called, Thurston's Brook, or the 
brook flowing from Quabin Hill. There are indications that either of the 
first two sources mentioned might be developed so as to furnish a suflScient 
supply of good water for the town ; but there is much doubt as to whether 
the last-mentioned source — the brook flowing from Quabin Hill — could 
be made to yield a sufficient supply. 

The Board will be pleased to furnish you with information collected by 
its engineer with reference to possible sources of water supply for the town, 
and will give you further advice in this matter when you have any further 
plans to present. 

Fairhaven. In the last report of the State Board of Health 
(29th annual report, 1897, p. 10) reference is made to the action 
of the Board in relation to the action of the water of the Fairhaven 
water supply upon lead pipes. Further examinations in the same 
direction were made by the Board during the past year, and the 
results of the investigation were communicated to the board of 
health of Fairhaven, as follows : — 

June 20, 1898. 

The State Board of Health has made further examinations of water drawn 
from faucets in several houses in the town of Fairhaven which had not pre- 
viously been examined, and found an excessive quantity of lead in nearly 
all cases. One of the houses from which samples were collected was that 



12 • STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of J. G. Murray, located on Green Street extension, one of the occupants 
of which is said to have recently been ill from lead poisoning. The sample 
of water from this house contained an excessive quantity of lead. The 
Board would suggest that you bring this matter to the attention of the 
persons who occupy the house referred to. 

The best means of preventing danger to health from this cause is to re- 
move the lead pipe, at least that portion of it through which water is drawn 
for drinking and cooking, and to replace it with pipe made of material which 
does not contain lead. 

The recent examinations by the Board, like those made previously, show- 
that the Fairhaven water continues to dissolve large quantities of lead from 
lead service pipes, and the use of service pipes of this material is causing 
injury to the health of the people who use the water. 

Groton. An application was received, Dec. 30, 1897, from the 
Groton Water Company, for the approval by the Board under 
chapter 388 of the Acts of 1897 of the taking of sources of water 
supply and lands in that town. The Board replied to this applica- 
tion as follows : — 

Mat 5, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Dec. 30, 1897, an 
application requesting the approval by this Board of the taking of sources 
of water supply and lands in the town of Groton. Subsequently, upon 
request of the Board for copies of plans and descriptions of the sources 
of water supply and lands taken by your corporation under the authority 
of chapter 388 of the Acts of 1897, you submitted a plan entitled, "■ Plan 
of Land in Groton Mass., Taken by the Groton Water Company, Scale 80 
feet to the inch. Charles A. Allen, Chief Engineer, H. C. Hovey, Sur- 
veyor and Assistant Engineer. Sun'eyed, April, 1897." Attached to 
this map was the following communication, signed by H. C. Hovey, 
assistant engineer and addressed to the president of the water com- 
pany : — 

In accordance with your request of Jan. 18, 1898, for " plans and a description 
of the sources of the water supply and lands taken by the Groton Water Com- 
pany," I send you herewith a plan of the land taken by the Groton Water Com- 
pany at Baddacook Pond, which comprises all the land taken by the company 
(about 4.7 acres), that I am aware of. The land has no brook or springs upon 
its surface. 

The source of supply is from a well 30 feet in diameter (inside) and about 16 
feet deep below the surface of the surrounding ground and 19^ feet below 
the finished top of masonry wall. The bottom of the well is 10 feet below the 
surface of the pond, at medium heights of water in the pond. The centre of the 
well is about 50 feet from the high-water line on the shore of the pond, and has 
no connection by a pipe or other way with the pond ; and I have never supposed 
that direct connection was contemplated, as the capacity of the well, as indicated 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 13 

by continuous pumping during construction, and measured by me at that time 
(by request of Mr. Allen, chief engineer), was 41,000 gallons per hour. 

The Board has caused an examination of the source of supply to be 
made by its engineer and has caused samples of the water of the well to 
be analyzed. The water is found, upon analysis, to be soft, practically 
colorless, and in other respects of excellent quality for the purposes of a 
public water supply. With regard to the quantity of water which the well 
will yield, a definite estimate cannot be given ; but, in view of the infor- 
mation as to the yield of the well up to the present time, it seems probable 
that it will furnish a sufficient quantity of water for the supply of the 
town of Groton. 

The Board advises and recommends that this well is a suitable source of 
water supply for domestic purposes, and approves the taking by the 
Groton Water Company of the land, including this source, shown upon 
the plan submitted to this Board, Feb. 7, 1898, entitled " Plan of Land in 
Groton, Mass., taken by the Groton Water Company. Scale, 80 feet to 
the inch. Charles A. Allen, Chief Engineer, H. C. Hovey, Surveyor and 
Assistant Engineer. Surveyed April, 1897." 

Harvard. An application was received from the board of health 
of Harvard, Sept. 27, 1898, for advice relative to the quality of 
the water of a public well in that town used for drinking purposes, 
especially by the pupils in one of the public schools. The Board 
caused the water to be examined arid replied as follows : — 

Dec 2, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on September 27, an ap- 
plication requesting that an examination be made of the town well, so called, 
in Harvard, which you state is used for public purposes, and especially by 
the children of your public schools. 

The Board has caused the well and its surroundings to be examined by 
one of its engineers, and samples of the water collected on October 18 and 
November 7 to be analyzed. The results of these analyses show that the 
water has a disagreeable odor, and contains an excessive amount of organic 
matter and iron. The quality of the water appears to vary considerably 
from time to time ; and, since the indications are that it is in some way pol- 
luted by sewage, it cannot be regarded as a safe source of drinking water. 

Under the circumstances, the Board advises that the use of the water 
of this well be prevented. 

Haverhill. Early in the fall of 1897 the attention of the Board 
was called by the board of health of Haverhill to the unusual preva- 
lence of typhoid fever in that city, and the State Board caused an 



14 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pul). Doc. 

investigation to be made, the results of which were embodied in the 
following communication to the Haverhill board of health : — 

Jan. 21, 1898. 

Early last fall you called the attention of this Board to the presence of 
an unusually large number of cases of typhoid fever in the city of Haver- 
hill, and the Board has since caused a thorough investigation to be made, 
with a view to discovering the probable cause of the epidemic. Investiga- 
tions already made by your board, through Mr. Bryant, your agent, were 
of great assistance in locating the cases, and furnished a large amount of 
necessary information relative to the sources of water, milk and ice sup- 
plies, the occupation and movements previous to illness of persons attacked 
with the disease, and much other information. 

An examination of the records of cases of typhoid fever in Haverhill 
for several years past shows that the disease has prevailed in an excessive 
degree since about the beginning of November, 1895. In the months of 
November and December, 1895, 21 cases of the disease were reported, 
which is three times as many as is usual in these two months. Of these 
21 cases, it is reasonably certain that 16 used Crystal Lake water more or 
less regularly. These cases resulted in 6 deaths in December, which is a 
larger number of deaths than occurred from this disease in any one month 
in the past ten years, and six times the average number of deaths from 
this disease in December. 

The number of cases during the first five months of 1896, while not 
numerically large, was about twice the number of cases that might have 
been expected to occur if the prevalence of this disease had been no greater 
than usual, and the mortality during this period was exceedingly high, 
being 50 per cent, of the total number of cases. In June, 1896, there was 
a sudden increase, the total number of cases reported being 32 for that 
month ; and for the months from July to November, inclusive, the number 
ranged from 11 to 19 per month. The total number of cases in six months 
was 100, showing an excessive prevalence of the disease ; while the total 
number of deaths was 9, the same as the number of deaths in the first five 
months of the year, when the whole number of cases was 18. From Decem- 
ber, 1896, up to and including July, 1897, a period of eight months, the 
number of cases ranged from 3 to 5 per month, and averaged 3.5, which 
was about twice the number which might have been expected to occur in 
Haverhill during this period under usual conditions. In August, 1897, the 
number of cases reported rose to 16, and in September to 41, the greatest 
number that had occurred in the city in any one month for at least ten 
years. Since that time the number of cases in each mouth has gradually 
decreased, but has remained much above the number which it is reasonable 
to expect will occur in a city of this size when the inhabitants are exposed 
to no extraordinary source of infection. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 15 

For the purpose of this investigation, August 5 was assumed as the date 
of the beginning of the epidemic of 1897, because at that time the number 
of cases of typhoid fever in the city increased with much greater rapidity 
than was usual at that season of the year. From that time until Novem- 
ber 12, 85 persons became ill with typhoid fever in Haverhill. Of this 
number 2 cases were undoubtedly imported, the persons returning to Haver- 
hill ill with typhoid fever after an extended absence. Four of the cases 
were those of persons engaged in attendance upon others who were ill with 
the disease, and it is probable that they were infected from the persons upon 
whom they were in attendance. Of the 79 remaining cases, it was found 
that 71, or 90 per cent, of the whole number, used Crystal Lake water for 
drinking purposes more or less constanth' ; while the number of cases in 
which the patient had not used Crystal Lake water is not greater than usual 
for districts containing a population equal to that in Haverhill outside of 
the Crystal Lake district. 

An investigation was also made to determine whether it was probable 
that the presence of the many cases of typhoid fever was due to the milk 
supplies or ice supplies of the city ; but many of the patients used no ice 
at all, and the milk supply of the various patients came from so many 
different sources, which appeared to be entirely independent of each other, 
that there was no evidence that the epidemic was due either to infected ice 
or milk. 

An examination was also made of a spring water which is sold to a large 
extent in the city ; but there is no evidence that this Supply could have 
been contaminated by sewage, and, moreover, a great many of the cases 
of typhoid fever were those of persons who had used no spring water. 

Examinations were also made of various semi-public water supplies in 
the city, taken for the most part from tubular or other wells, but in some 
cases drawn from the Merrimack River. Nearly all of the well waters 
were found to be highly polluted by sewage, and there is no question of 
the danger of drinking water directly from the Merrimack River, but it 
could not be determined that any cases were due to the use of these 
waters. 

The circumstances indicate very strongly the infection of the part of the 
water supply of the city that is drawn from Crj^stal Lake. This lake, 
which is one of the main supplies of the city of Haverhill, has an area of 
about 145 acres and a drainage area of 2.95 square miles, exclusive of the 
area of the lake, as measured from the State maps. The lake is divided 
into two basins by a natural bar, at a narrow place about 2,000 feet from 
its lower end, and the small basin below this bar is very shallow. From 
this basin about 800 feet from the outlet of the lake the intake pipe of the 
Haverhill water works begins. In very dry seasons the water falls so low 
in the small basin that it is necessary to pump water from the main portion 
of the lake over the low bar into this basin, in order to obtain a sufficient 



16 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

supply for the city. A careful examination of the water-shed of the lake, 
however, shows at present no actuall}^ existing case of sewage pollution, 
nor any definite evidence of the cause which produced the increase of 
typhoid fever in 1895. It is found that the water in the shallow basin at 
the lower end of Crystal Lake was very low during the latter part of 1895, 
and it was necessary to pump water from the main portion of the lake into 
the portion from which the pipe line begins ; and it appears that, while an 
engineer and a fireman were employed here for a period of more than two 
mouths, no provision was made for the disposal of excrement and other 
wastes from this place, or from camps along the shore used at various 
times, especially in the summer season. During 1896 and 1897 it does 
not appear that any pumping has been done at the lake, but it is probable 
that the lake was infected from the several camps and places about the 
shores to which people resort for fishing, boating, etc. ; and it does not 
appear that any supervision is exercised by the city authorities over the 
use of the pond or its shores by visitors, to protect it from danger of pol- 
lution. 

A careful investigation was also made of the other sources of water 
supply of the city, including Kenoza Lake, Lake Pentucket, Lake Salton- 
stall and Johnson's Pond, the source of supply of the Bradford district. 
The result of this investigation shows the existence of possible sources of 
pollution on Kenoza Lake and Johnson's Pond, but the most serious danger 
of contamination by sewage is found in the vicinity of Lake Saltonstall. 
It is understood, however, that this lake has been used to supply drinking 
water on only one or two occasions now for nearly two years. 

In view of all the circumstances, the Board would advise that it is their 
judgment that the recent excessive sickness and mortality from typhoid 
fever have been due to the pollution of the water supply, principally of 
that from Crystal Lake ; and it becomes necessary that all possible sources 
of pollution within the water-shed of Crystal Lake, and of all other sources 
of public water supply of the city, be cut off, and that hereafter all access 
to the shores of the lakes and ponds from which the supply of any portion 
of the city is drawn be under the supervision and control of a board having 
authority if necessary to exclude all persons, and that such measures be 
taken that the city authorities can feel sure that all danger of contamina- 
tion from visitors or others has been provided against. 

The Board would also call attention to the poor quality of the water of 
several wells in the city which are accessible, in some of the large manu- 
facturing establishments, for drinking. Nearly all of the wells in the 
thickly settled portion of the city that have been examined by the Board 
have shown evidences of a high degree of pollution by sewage ; and while, 
in most cases, the water has been subsequently purified to a considerable 
degree in its passage through the ground, it is, nevertheless, an unsafe 
water for drinking purposes. "While it may be said that no case of typhoid 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 17 

fever in the city in 1897 was traced directly to the use of water from wells 
in the densely populated part of the city, it is not improbable that injury 
has been done to the health of those using it, because these waters are very 
hard, while the water supply of the city is very soft. It is known that the 
use of hard water by those whose usual supply is soft, or vice versa, may 
be productive of stomach and bowel disturbances which may render the 
patient susceptible to other and more serious forms of illness. 

In the course of the investigation it was found, as already stated, that 
Merrimack River water, drawn from the shore of the river a short distance 
below sewer outlets, was accessible in some of the factories for drinking. 
The Merrimack River water from any point in the vicinity of Haverhill is 
a dangerous water for drinking ; and the Board would advise that you make 
every effort to prevent its being made accessible for this purpose, or if it 
is not feasible to do this, that you warn the people to whom it may be 
accessible of the danger involved in its use. 

Should you desire to examine the details obtained in this investigation, 
they will be shown to you at this office. 

Haverhill (the Gale Shoe Manufacturing Company) . A request 

was received, Jan. 27, 1898, from the Gale Shoe Manufacturing 

Company of Haverhill, for the opinion of the Board relative to the 

quality of the water of a well on the premises of the company. 

The Board replied to this request as follows : — 

March 4, 1898. 

The State Board of Health has caused an examination to be made of the 
surroundings of the well referred to in your communication of January 27, 
which is used as a source of water supply for your factory, and has caused 
a sample of the water to be analyzed. The results of this analysis, and 
of an analysis of a sample collected last fall, show that the water has been 
greatly polluted by sewage which has not been thoroughly purified in the 
passage of the water through the ground, and that its hardness is so exces- 
sive that it would generally be regarded as unfit for use in boilers. 

The well is located in a densely populated part of the city, and, consid- 
ering its location and the character of the water, as shown by the analyses, 
the Board is of the opinion that it is a dangerous water for drinking. 

The Board is informed that you have warned your employees not to drink 
the water, but that it is still accessible for drinking; and, in view of the 
circumstances, the Board would advise that you remove all opportunity 
for obtaining this water for drinking, or, if this is not practicable, that 
you post notices warning those to whom it is accessible of the danger in- 
volved in its use. 

Haverhill. An application was received from the board of 
health of Haverhill, May 10, 1898, requesting the State Board of 



18 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Health to examine the water of certain wells used as sources 
of water supply at the birthplace of Whittier in Haverhill, those 
wells being largely used by visitors to that place. The Board made 
the examination and replied as follows : — 

Aug. 8, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on May 10, a communica- 
tion requesting an examination of certain wells on the premises known as 
" Whittier's Birthplace," on the Amesbury Road, Haverhill; and in re- 
sponse to this request the Board has caused the locality to be examined 
by one of its engineers, and samples of water from the wells on the premises 
to be analyzed. 

It appears that in the course of the year the place is visited by large 
numbers of people, and there are two wells on the place from which water 
is used by visitors for drinking, one of the wells being located near the 
house and the other on the side of the highway near the barn. 

The water of the well nearest the house, when first analyzed in May last, 
was found to be nearly clear, only slightly colored and free from odor. 
The quantity of organic matter was, however, considerably larger than is 
found in a good ground water. A sample analyzed in June showed that 
the water had deteriorated somewhat, as compared with its condition at the 
previous time. The results of an analysis of a sample of the water collected 
in July, when apparently the quantity of water being drawn from the well 
was much greater than in the former months, shows a very great increase 
in the quantity of organic matter present in the water, which had also 
become decidedly turbid and had an offensive odor. There is a privy and 
sink drain located in close proximit}' to this well ; and, in view of all the 
circumstances, the Board is of the opinion that the well is a very danger- 
ous source from which to take water for drinking, and advises that further 
use of this water be prevented. 

Analyses of samples of water from the well at the side of the highway 
near the barn show that the water has been considerably polluted, prob- 
ably by drainage from the barn, and subsequently well purified in its 
passage through the ground. While the water of this well, so far as these 
analyses show, may not be unsafe for drinking, a change in the conditions 
affecting the well, such as the use of a larger quantity of water from it 
than was being used at about the time these samples were collected, might 
cause a deterioration in its quality such as was observed in the well near 
the house. 

Under the circumstances, the Board is of the opinion that it is very de- 
sirable that a new and safe source of drinking water supply be provided 
for the use of visitors at this place, so that the use of the well near the 
barn may also be discontinued. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 19 

HiNGHAM. An application was received, Jan. 11, 1898, from 
the water board of Hingham, relative to the question of improving 
the water of Accord Pond, which is subject at times to a disagree- 
able taste and odor. A request was also made for an examination 
of the pond and its surroundings, to determine whether anything 
could be done to prevent a recurrence of the same trouble in the 
future. The Board replied as follows : — 

March 4, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Jan. 11, 1898, an ap- 
plication for advice as to whether there is any means of improving the 
quaUty of the water in Accord Pond, which you state is causing serious 
annoyance to the users of the water, owing to the disagreeable taste and 
odor due to the organism Uroglena. You also request that a thorough ex- 
amination be made of the pond and surroundings, to determine what, if 
anything, can be done to prevent a recurrence of the same trouble in the 
future. 

The Board has carefully considered your application, and has caused an 
examination of the pond and its surroundings to be made by its engineer 
and samples of the water to be analyzed. 

So far as our observations of this organism have shown, it is usually pres- 
ent only in the colder months of the year, between October or November 
and April or May, though it is sometimes found in June and late in Septem- 
ber, but only in very small numbers. In some ponds and reservoirs in 
which its presence has been observed it has returned in each winter season 
for several years consecutively, though it appears to be present in smaller 
numbers and to affect the character of the water less seriously in some 
years than in others, while in other ponds it is present only at intervals of 
several years. 

The water of Accord Pond has now been used for the supply of Hing- 
ham for nearly eighteen years, and the quality of the water appears to 
have been objectionable on account of a bad taste and odor in several 
years since it was first used, the most serious complaints, hitherto, oc- 
curring in the latter part of the spring or early in the summer. The cause 
of complaint as to the quality of the water in June, 1894, was the subject of 
investigation by this Board, at your request ; and the results of the inves- 
tigation made at that time showed that the taste and odor of the water 
were due principally to the presence of the organism Anabcena, which was 
found in great abundance, either distributed through the water of the pond 
or floating upon the surface as green scum. It is probable that the oc- 
currence of similar trouble in other years was due to the presence of some 
variety of microscopical organism in large numbers. 

The cause of the presence and gi'owth of organisms in the water of 
Accord Pond is not known ; but it seems probable that the presence of 



20 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pul>. Doc. 

mud and organic matter on the bottom and sides of the pond, especially 
the portions which were flowed by raising the dam, and from which the 
soil and vegetable matter were not removed, may cause or help to cause 
the growth of these organisms. 

With reference to a possible method of improving the quality of the 
water of this pond, with the information at present available the Board 
can advise you only in a general way. It is possible that the removal of 
the soil and organic matter from the bottom of the pond to the extent to 
which it may be removed when the pond is drawn low would lessen the 
amount and frequency of the growths of organisms in this pond ; but it 
may not be practicable or desirable to reduce the level of the water of this 
source for several years to such an extent or for such a time as to enable 
you to do this work. It is possible that the water of Accord Pond could 
be effectually purified by filtration near the pond ; but such information as 
is available as to the purification by filtration of a water of this sort, con- 
taining large numbers of organisms, has not been suflBcient to enable the 
Board to advise you as to the size of filters that might be required. More- 
over, owing to the small amount of head at present available for supplying 
the town by gravity, pumping would probably be necessary; and there 
might be much difficulty and expense in the operation of filters in the 
winter season, when the trouble from the presence of Uroglena usually 
occurs. 

From a general examination of the land along the shores of Accord Pond, 
near the outlet, it appears probable that the soil is in many places largely 
composed of coarse sand or gravel, and the large amount of leakage from 
the pond in the vicinity of the outlet is a further indication that the soil, 
in this vicinity at least, is porous. If this is the case, it is probable that, 
if wells or filter-galleries should be constructed along the shores of the 
pond, and water could be drawn from them in large quantities, water from 
the pond would filter through the soil in these works, and a large portion, 
if not all, of the yield of the pond might be obtained in this way, as is 
done at several other places in the State. In this way a water free from 
color, taste or odor would be obtained, if the collecting works were placed 
at such a distance from the shore of the pond that the water would become 
thoroughly purified in its passage through the ground. Experience with 
other works of this sort has shown that, in order to obtain satisfactory 
results, it is desirable to place such works as much as 100 feet from the 
shore of the pond. 

Under the circumstances, the Board would advise that you cause an in- 
vestigation to be made, to determine the character of the soil in the vicinity 
of Accord Pond ; and, if from these tests the conditions are found to be favor- 
able to obtaining a large quantity of water from the ground near the pond, 
the Board would recommend that you make a further test by setting up 
a temporary pumping plant, and pumping from wells or other works for 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 21 

such a time as may be necessary to determine tlie probable quantity of 
water to be obtained in this way, and that you cause analyses to be made 
of samples of the water, to obtain information as to its quality. 

These investigations should be made under the direction of an engineer 
of experience in such matters, and the Board will assist you by making the 
necessary analyses of water, and will give you further advice in the matter 
when you have the results of investigations to present. 

HiNGHAM. A further application was received from the Hingham 
Water Company, May 20, 1898, for the advice of the Board relative 
to the improvement of the water supply of that town by means of 
a system of wells in the neighborhood of Accord Pond. The Board 
replied to this application as follows : — 

July 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health has considered your application for further 
advice in regard to the improvement of the water supply of the town of 
Hingham, and has examined the information received with reference to 
investigations in the vicinity of Accord Pond by means of tubular wells. 
Several samples of water sent in by you from these wells have been analyzed. 
The results show, in general, that the material on the north-westerly side 
of the outlet of the pond is too fine to furnish any considerable yield of 
water. The conditions for a large yield of water are much better in the 
immediate vicinity of the dam, but the test wells in this vicinity show that 
the water contains an excessive amount of iron which would make it ob- 
jectionable for many domestic uses. At the south-easterly end of the dam, 
and between tlie gravel ridge which borders the shore of the pond at this 
place and the cut-oflf dam, so called, constructed on the north-westerly side 
of this ridge to intercept the leakage from the pond, water which was free 
from an excess of iron was obtained from several test wells, but the indi- 
cations are that the yield of the wells would amount to but a small propor- 
tion of the yield of the pond. The results, as a whole, indicate that the 
conditions are not favorable for obtaining a large proportion of the yield 
of Accord Pond from the ground in this region, except by the use of water 
which will contain such an excessive amount of iron as to make it objec- 
tionable for many purposes. 

An estimate of the probable yield of your present sources of supply, 
when compared with the records of water used in Hull and an estimate of 
the probable quantity used in Hingham, indicates that the consumption 
of water is probably already in excess of the capacity of your sources of 
supply in a dry period, and an additional supply will soon be needed. More- 
over, it is understood that greater pressure is desirable in the mains in the 
central portion of Hingham. 

In response to a previous application for advice with reference to a pro- 



22 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

posed additional water supply for Hingham, which it was proposed to take 
from Accord Brook, the lioard advised that, owing to the swampy char- 
acter of this water, it was of the opinion that the water would not be of 
suitable quality for domestic use unless it should be efficiently purified. 
The plan for purifying the water which seemed likely to give the most sat- 
isfactory result was by filtering it slowly through gravelly land in the vicinity 
of Accord Pond or Fulling Mill Pond ; and the Board advised that investi- 
gations be made to determine whether there was high porous land near 
Fulling Mill Pond, or the brook which feeds it, where filter beds might be 
constructed to which the water of Accord Brook might be conveyed by 
gravity, but it is understood that no such investigations have been made. 
You have found, however, that by consti-ucting a filter basin near the shore 
of Fulling Mill Pond a large amount of filtered water can be obtained. 

In view of all the circumstances, the Board would advise that you take 
into consideration the question of increasing your sources of water supply 
and of improving the quality of the present supply, by conveying the 
water of Accord Brook to the vicinity of Fulling Mill Pond and filtering it 
there through the natural gravel beds, and that you also consider the 
feasibility of filtering the water of Accord Pond in this vicinity when the 
water is of unsatisfactory quality, owing to the presence of organisms. It 
will be very desirable to collect the filtered water in covered conduits or 
galleries, where it will be kept from exposure to light and consequent 
danger of deterioration. It will also be necessary to provide pumping 
capacity sufficient to supply all the needs of both Hingham and Hull from 
these sources whenever required, though water ma}' be taken directly from 
Accord Pond, as at present, when its qualit}' is satisfactory. It is desir- 
able, however, to use the full capacity of Accord Brook and Fulling Mill 
Pond, so as to keep the water of Accord Pond for use in the drier portion 
of the year. 

An examination of the present conditions in the vicinity of Fulling Mill 
Pond indicates that a considerable quantity of ground water flows from 
the meadow on the easterly side of the pond ; and, if an examination 
shows that this water is of good quality, it would probably be of advan- 
tage to include the collection of this water with any system of filtration 
which may be constructed in the vicinity of this pond. 

The Board will assist you in these investigations by making such 
analyses of samples of water as may be necessary, and will again advise 
you with reference to the purification of your water supply when you have 
the results of further investigations to present. 

Hudson. An application was received, Feb. 7, 1898, from the 
water commissioners of Hudson, for the advice of the Board relative 
to a proposed additional water supply for Hudson. The Board re- 
plied to this application as follows : — 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 23 

March 3, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Feb. 7, 1898, an ap- 
plication for advice with reference to a proposed additional water supply 
for the town of Hudson, to be obtained by diverting into Gates Pond, 
your present ource of supply, the water of Fosgate Brook, so called, the 
water-shed of which lies contiguous to that of Gates Pond on the north. 

The application was accompanied by a report and plans by your engi- 
neer, Mr. Burton R. Felton, showing the location and a profile of the pro- 
posed pipe line, about 1,650 feet in length, from the brook to a point 
within the water-shed of the pond, where it is proposed to discharge the 
water into an open channel, through which it will flow into the northerly 
end of the pond. A topographical plan of the water-shed of Fosgate 
Brook was also submitted, showing the location and area of swamps within 
the water-shed of Fosgate Brook. From this plan it appears that there is 
an area of about 15 acres of swamp land on the southerly branch of the 
brook, in which the mud is in several places more than 13 feet in depth; 
and there is also a small swamp on the northerly branch of the brook, 
having an area of about three-quarters of an acre. A proposed method of 
draining the swamps was shown in this plan, but the plan was subse- 
quently modified, and a new plan submitted on Feb. 23, 1898. By this 
plan it is proposed to construct drainage channels around the larger 
swamp, to intercept water flowing toward the swamp and the water of the 
brook near the upper end of the swamp, and convey it to the channel of 
the brook below the swamp, in order to prevent the water from acquiring a 
high color and an excessive amount of organic matter from contact with 
mud and vegetable matter in the swamp, which, under present conditions, 
makes the quality of water of this source very unsatisfactory. 

It is proposed to place the drainage channels about the swamp at such 
an elevation that swamp water will not flow into them unless the swamp is 
flooded to a considerable depth ; and, in order to remove the water which 
will collect on the swamp and prevent it from entering the proposed drain- 
age channels or finding its way into Gates Pond, it is proposed to lay a 
six-inch pipe from the lower end of the swamp to convey this water to a 
point of discharge in the water-shed of the brook below the point at which 
it is proposed to divert the water into Gates Pond. By this plan, the area 
of the water-shed of the brook above the proposed point of diversion will 
be reduced from 125 to about 108 acres. In order to drain the small area 
of swamp on the north branch of the brook, it is proposed to lower the 
surface of the water by deepening the channel of the brook through the 
swamp and below it. 

The Board has carefully considered the proposed plan, and concludes 
that it is an appropriate one for increasing the water supply of the town 
of Hudson ; and, if carried out as proposed, and the entrance of water 
which has been standing in the large swamp on the south branch of the 



24 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

brook into Gates Poad is prevented, the water of Fosgate Brook will not 
be likely to have an unfavorable influence upon the qualit}' of the water of 
Gates Pond. The diversion of the water of this brook into Gates Pond 
will increase materially the quantity of water which this pond will furnish 
to the town of Hudson, and there appears to be no other source from which 
a material addition to the supply can be obtained without pumping. 

It is proposed to discharge the water of the brook into the northerly end 
of the pond, near the outlet gate-house ; but it may be found desirable to 
discharge the water into a portion of the pond more remote from the gate- 
house, in order that it may derive benefit from longer storage in the pond. 

Huntington. The water commissioners of the Huntington fire 
district applied to the State Board of Health, Aug. 22, 1898, for 
its approval, under chapter 344 of the Acts of 1898, of plans for 
a proposed system of water supply for the district. The Board 
replied to this application as follows : — 

Sept. 17, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Aug. 25, 1898, a com- 
munication submitting your proposed plans for a system of water supply 
for the Huntington fire district, which you describe in your application as 
follows : — 

We propose to take the waters of Cold Brook, so called, substantially in con- 
formity with a plan of Louis E. Hawes, a civil engineer, accompanying a report 
by him, made April 7, 1898. The plan contemplates an intake reservoir of a 
capacity of 1,250,000 gallons, situated at a distance of about one and one-half 
miles from the center of Huntington Village, the dam to be of rubble masonry 
and earth work, and of suitable dimensions to secure the above capacity. The 
surface of the ground flowed and for a distance of 25 feet beyond the flowage 
line is to be cleaned of all trees, brush, stumps, roots, muck and vegetable matter. 
The main conduit is to be of ten-inch pijje and the branches of eight, six and four 
inch pipe, according to the needs of the locality to be supplied. 

We also ask your approval of plans showing proposed sources of supply and 
methods of utilizing them, submitted by E. E. Davis, Aug. 2, 1898. These pro- 
vide for the possibility of increasing the capacity of the present proposed source 
by uniting the waters of Gold-mine Brook, so called, with those of Cold Brook, 
and the building of a large storage reservoir on Cold Brook. Not being a part 
of our plan at the present time, we have not caused detailed specifications for 
their development to be prepared. 

You have also submitted a plan by Louis E. Hawes, C.E., showing the 
location of the proposed intake reservoir on Cold Brook and the system of 
piping in the village ; and plans by E. E. Davis, C.E., showing details of 
construction of the proposed intake reservoir and possible methods of in- 
creasing the supply, — one by diverting the water from Gold-mine Brook 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 25 

into Cold Brook, and the other by the construction of a storage reservoir 
on a tributary of Cold Brook. 

The Board has carefully considered the proposed plans, and has caused 
the proposed source of supply and the sources and methods by which it is 
proposed to increase the supply when necessary to be examined by its en- 
gineers, and samples of the water of these and other sources to be analyzed. 

The results of analyses of samples of the water of Cold Brook, collected 
at the point at which it is proposed to locate the intake reservoir, indicate 
that the water is soft, has but little color, and is otherwise of good quality 
for the purposes of a public water supply. 

With regard to the quantity of water which this source will furnish in 
the drier portion of a dry season, it is very difficult to make an estimate, 
since no records are obtainable of the flow of the streams in such a season. 
So far as can be judged with present information, it seems probable that, 
with an intake reservoir having a capacity of 1,250,000 gallons, as pro- 
posed, the supply from this stream will be adequate for the needs of the 
town in an ordinary summer, but that the capacity of this source will be 
inadequate in a very dry season, after the water comes into general use. 

Your plans show that it is feasible to enlarge the supply by diverting the 
water of Gold-mine Brook, at a point where this stream flows close to the 
water-shed of Cold Brook and at a higher level, into the latter water-shed, 
at a comparatively small expense, and thus increase considerably your sup- 
ply of water. Analyses of the water of Gold-mine Brook show that at the 
proposed point of diversion it has a much higher color and contains a much 
greater amount of organic matter than the water of Cold Brook, or even 
of Gold-mine Brook at a point lower down stream. The color and organic 
matter are doubtless due to contact of the water with vegetable matter in 
swamps, and the quality of the water might possibly be improved by drain- 
ing the swamps. The water of this brook would be objectionable for many 
domestic uses, and the Boai'd does not advise the use of water from this 
brook in its present state for the supply of Huntington. 

Another proposed plan of increasing the supply is by constructing a 
storage resen^oir upon the head waters of Cold Brook. By the construc- 
tion of this reservoir a large increase to your supply could be made, though 
the water-shed of the reservoir will be comparatively small. No investi- 
gations appear to have been made at the site of this reservoir to determine 
the probable cost of constructing and preparing it in a suitable manner for 
the storage of water, but the indications are that the expense would be 
large. 

Examinations made under the direction of the Board of other possible 
sources in the vicinity indicate that it is feasible to divert the waters of 
Black Brook into the water-shed of Cold Brook at no very large expense, 
and thus furnish an additional supply nearly as great as would be obtained 
if the waters of Gold-mine Brook were used. Analyses of samples of water 



26 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

collected from Black Brook at the point at which it might be diverted show 
that the water is of about the same quality as that of Cold Brook, having 
but little color and containing only a small amount of organic matter. 

The indications are, that, if the works are constructed for supplying the 
fire district from Cold Brook, and the supply should be found to be in- 
adequate, it can be increased without special difficulty by one of several 
methods ; and, in view of all the circumstances, the Board hereby ap- 
pi'oves the taking of the waters from Cold Brook at the point shown upon 
the plan entitled " Huntington Water Works. Proposed Plan Showing 
Sources of Supply, Reservoir, Distribution Pipes, Gates and Fire Hydrants, 
1898," by Louis E. Hawes, civil and hydraulic engineer, Boston, Mass., 
and the water sources and water rights connected therewith and pertaining 
thereto ; but the Board does not at present approve the proposed plan of 
increasing the supply by taking water from Gold-mine Brook and diverting 
it into the water-shed of Cold Brook, nor can it advise at present that the 
construction of the proposed storage reservoir on Cold Brook will be the 
best method of increasing the supply when necessary; but advises that a 
survey be made to determine the feasibility of diverting the water of Black 
Brook into the water-shed of Cold Brook, and the probable cost of the 
work. 

It is very essential that the intake reservoir be thoroughly prepared for 
the reception and storage of water by removing all muck and vegetable 
matter from its bottom as proposed. 

With regard to the sizes of pipe to be used in the construction of the 
works, the Board is unable to advise 3'ou with the limited information 
presented. 

There are located at pi'esent upon the water-shed of Cold Brook, near 
its extreme upper limits, a very few farm-houses. It will be essential that 
you enforce such methods of disposing of sewage and other refuse matters 
from these houses as may be necessary to prevent danger of pollution of 
your sources of water supply. 

Lawrence. An application was received from the water board 
of Lawrence, March 5, 1898, for advice with reference to increasing 
the capacity of the Lawrence city filter. The Board replied to this 
application as follows : — 

Sept. 19, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on March 5, 1898, the fol- 
lowing request for advice with reference to improving the capacity of the 
Lawrence city filter : — 

The Lawrence water board respectfully represents that the municipal filter does 
not furnish sufficient water for the demands upon our system. 

We are led to believe, from limited experiments showing the loss of head, 
that portions of the filter are clogged. We desire your Board to advise us in 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 27 

regard to the proper method to be adopted to restore the filter to its proper capac- 
ity, also to co-operate with us and advise what further experiments maybe neces- 
sary to determine what portion needs to be renewed. 

The Board has examined the available data as to the operation and man- 
agement of the filter and the consumption of water as furnished from the 
records kept by your Board, and has made investigations to determine the 
quality and condition of the sand in the filter, and the condition of the under- 
■drains as compared with their condition when first placed in the filter five 
years ago. The Board has also made many experiments to determine the 
•cause of the reduced capacity of the filter and the best method of relief. 

Analyses of many samples of sand collected from all parts of the filter 
show that, while the effective size of the sand is probably slightly finer than 
when first placed in the filter, on account of silt carried by the river water, 
the increase in the fineness of the sand is not sufficient to cause a very 
material reduction in the quantit}' of water that would pass through the 
filter. 

A careful examination of the height of water in the sand of the filter 
"while it was being drained showed that, while the portion nearest the pump- 
ing station, amounting to approximately half the area, for the most part 
drained down rapidly, the water in the easterly half of the filter did not 
drain down readily, and in some portions of it remained, after several hours 
of draining, but little below the surface of the sand. 

Excavations were made through the whole depth of the sand and into 
the gravel forming and surrounding the underdrains. The sand was found 
to be clean and unobstructed throughout its full depth, and in the portion 
of the filter near the pumping station the gravel under the sand was found 
where examined to be in good condition, and the water appeared to drain 
freely through it. More attention was given to the easterly portion of the 
filter, where, as has been stated, the water did not drain readily from it. 
Here, as elsewhere, the sand was found in nearly all parts of it to be clean 
and unobstructed down to the gravel ; but within the gravel and between 
the stones surrounding the drain pipes and in the joints of the drain pipes 
was found a deposit of gelatiuous iron rust, together with some Crenothrix, 
a plant which grows in water containing iron, which deposit allowed very 
little water to enter the drain pipes. This deposit was more dense in the 
middle and upper portion of the layer of gravel, where air has entered this 
layer from the underdrains when the water in the pump well has been drawn 
below the top of the underdrains. 

It is evident from the character of this deposit that air is essential to its 
formation ; and the only way to prevent its formation in the future is to 
run the filter, as it was intended to be run from the time of construction, 
with the water in the pump well always above the top of the underdrains, 
or not below the level of 31 feet on the scale of hei2;hts. 



•28 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pul). Doc. 

This portion of the filter can be rendered efficient by excavating trenches 
10 feet wide across the filter, in line of and over the underdraius, removing 
the gravel for this width, washing and relaying the pipes, and at the same 
time extending the lines of four-inch pipes a distance of about 50 feet 
from their present termination and placing clean gravel about them, as it 
was originally placed, adjacent to such pipes ; then filling the trench above 
the gravel to a depth of 2 feet with the washed sand which you have upon 
the bank, and filling above this and over the present top of the filter be- 
tween the nearest carriers with the remaining sand from the excavation. 
This process should be continued over so much of the filter as does not 
allow the water to drain from the sand freely, which includes a large part 
of the easterly half of the filter and a small portion of the remainder. 

When the filter was constructed, you were advised that the whole sur- 
face should be cleaned once a month, and that certain portions should be 
cleaned oftener in times of freshets. Your records show that the easterly 
portion of the filter has been allowed to remain uncleaned in the cold sea- 
son a much longer time, even reaching a period of four or five months, 
while the portion nearer the pumping station has been cleaned more 
frequently. To this fact is probably due the larger deposit of iron in the 
gravel of the easterly portion, and the Board regards it important that the 
original instruction in regard to cleaning the filter should be carried out in 
order to maintain its efficiency. To accomplish this, it is, in the opinion 
of the Board, necessary that the filter be covered, to effectually prevent the 
formation of ice upon its surface. 

Upon completing the relaying of the underdrains and upon i-estoring the 
filter bed to its original depth, it should hereafter be maintained at that 
depth ; and, to keep it in the most efficient condition for purifying the 
water, it should be run intermittently, as originally designed. 

You have found the filter delivering an abundant supply of water during 
the past four months, but from this you cannot conclude that it will con- 
tinue to do so, for during the season of the formation of ice the sand will 
allow only about two-thirds as much water to pass through it as in summer. 
Your experience of last winter shows that it is necessary to act promptly. 

By entering upon the work of covering the filter with a roof to prevent 
freezing and of removing the gravel clogged with iron without delay, it is 
probable that enough work can be done before the beginning of winter to 
insure a sufficient supply of filtered water for the city. 

Lenox. A communication was received from the Lenox Water 
Company, May 6, 1898, requesting that its reservoir be examined, 
" and such suggestions made as may lead to an improvement of the 
water and the curing of any defects in the system of water supply 
adopted by the company." The Board replied to this application as 
follows : — 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 29 

June 3, 1898. 

The State Board of Health has considered your application for advice 
with reference to the improvement of the quality of the water supplied 
to the town of Lenox, and has caused an examination of the sources of 
supply to be made by its engineer and has analyzed several samples of 
water collected at various times since the early portion of last November. 

The results of the analysis of a sample collected from the storage reser- 
voir on Nov. 9, 1897, show that the water, while it had only a slight color, 
contained a large amount of organic matter, the quantity of albuminoid 
ammonia being several times as great as has been found in the samples 
analyzed since that date. The microscopical examination of the sample 
collected in November showed the presence of a very large number of 
the organism Dinobryon, which has been known to cause disagreeable 
tastes and odors in the water of other reservoirs when present in large 
numbers. The microscopical examinations of the other samples showed the 
presence of very few organisms, and in some cases none were found. The 
presence of microscopic organisms in the water of a pond or reservoir 
affects the appearance, taste and odor of the water, rather than its health- 
fulness, so far as can be judged from our present information. 

An examination of the bottom of the reservoir at the time it was drawn 
down recently showed the presence of considerable mud covered with a 
plant growth, which upon analysis was found to be a variety of Algae 
known as Chara. This organism is quite common in the water of ponds 
and reservoirs, and when present in very large quantities may impart a 
taste and odor to the water. It may also produce a condition of the water 
which is favorable to the development of microscopic organisms, but it is 
not known to have an unfavorable effect on the health of those who may 
drink the water. 

The cause of the growth of the organisms found in the reservoir is not 
definitely known, but it is probably largely due to the presence of mud 
and vegetable matter on its bottom ; and it seems probable that, by 
thoroughly cleaning the bottom and sides of the reservoir so as to remove 
all soil, mud and vegetable matter, leaving a clay or gravel bottom practi- 
cally free from organic matter in contact with the water, the growths of 
organisms could be greatly reduced and perhaps prevented ; and the Board 
would advise that the bottom of the reservoir be thoroughly cleaned, and 
precautions taken to prevent mud and organic matter being washed into 
the reservoir from the sides or through the smaller streams which enter it. 

There are two houses with barns and out-buildings in such close proxim- 
ity to the stream upon which the reservoir is situated that there is some 
danger of the pollution of the reservoir by these places. It appears that a 
careful supervision of the disposal of the drainage and other refuse from 
these places is exercised by the water company ; and it is important, in 
order to prevent pollution of the water supply, that, if these houses and 



30 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

buildings are to continue in use, this supervision be not relaxed, and that 
the chance of polluting matters entering the water supply be prevented at 
all times. 

The Lyman School for Boys. The superintendent of the 
Lyman School at Westborough applied to the Board, March 11, 
1898, for the opinion of the Board with reference to the quality of 
the water supply of the institution. The Board replied to this ap- 
plication as follows : — 

Mat 5, 1898. 

In response to your communication of March 11, 1898, stating that you 
had reason to be suspicious of the quality of the water of Sandra Pond, 
and requesting an investigation of this source, the Board has caused an 
examination of the ponds used as sources of water supply of the town of 
Westborough to be made by its engineers, and has carefully examined the 
results of numerous analyses of samples of water sent in by the water 
works authorities from time to time for several years. 

It appears that the supply is drawn partly from the upper basin of Sandra 
Pond, so called, which is an artificial storage reservoir of small depth, a 
portion of the bottom of which is covered with mud and organic matter, 
and partly from the lower basin, so called, which receives water from the 
upper basin both by direct flow over the dam and by filtration through the 
dam and the gravelly land which surrounds it. 

A comparison of the results of analyses of samples of water collected 
from the lower basin with those collected from the upper basin shows that 
the quality of the water of the lower basin is much better than that of the 
upper basin, which at times contains enormous numbers of organisms of 
a kind which cause disagreeable tastes and odors when present in large 
numbers in the water. If the supply could be drawn wholly from the 
lower basin, and water from the upper basin kept from running directly 
into it, a water of much better quality than that supplied at present could 
be furnished to consumers ; but the yield of the lower basin is not, under 
present conditions, sufficient for the supply of consumers at all times. 

The water-shed of the basins contains only a small number of inhabi- 
tants, and the water does not appear to be exposed to serious danger of 
pollution by sewage. The presence of a large amount of organic matter 
found in the water of the basins affects its appearance, taste and odor, 
rather than its healthfulness, so far as can be judged from our present 
information. 

The Board cannot advise you as to any practicable method by which you 
can improve the quality of the water supplied to you, unless the town will 
take steps to provide sufficient filtered water to avoid drawing water directly 
from the upper basin, which seems to be practicable, or unless you can 
obtain an independent supply from some suitable source. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 



31 



Lynn. The State Board of Health having observed that the 
number of eases of typhoid fever in Lynn had increased in a 
marked manner in recent years, and that there was a further in- 
crease in the early portion of the present year, caused a thorough 
investigation to be made, with a view to discover the probable cause 
of the excessive prevalence of this disease in the city. The Board 
after completing the investigation addressed the following commu- 
nication to the board of health of Lynn : — 

JuNB 3, 1898. 

It having been observed by the State Board of Health that the number 
of cases of typhoid fever in the city of Lynn had increased in a marked 
manner in recent years, and that there was a further increase in the early 
portion of the present year, the Board has caused a thorough investigation 
to be made, with a view to discover the probable cause of the excessive 
prevalence of this disease in the city. 

In this connection an examination has been made of the statistics of 
typhoid fever in Lynn, and records have been obtained of the annual num- 
ber of cases of the disease and the number of deaths therefrom since the 
year 1881. It is found that the returns of cases of this disease were prob- 
ably not, for several years after 1881, as complete as they have been in 
recent years. No information which appeared to be of great value relative 
to the number of cases of typhoid fever for the years previous to 1881 has 
been found. 

It appears that the death rate from all causes in Lynn has been materially 
reduced during the past eighteen years. Beginning with 1880, the death 
rate per 10,000 of the population by three-year periods has been as fol- 
lows : — 



PERIOD. 


Death Rate from 

All Causes 
per 10,000 Living. 


PERIOD. 


Death Rate from 

All Causes 
per 10,000 Living. 


1880-82, .... 
1883-85, .... 

1886-88, .... 


201.2 
179.6 
177.0 


1889-91, .... 
1892-94, .... 
1895-97, .... 


168.7 

170.6 
167.7 



A study of the death rate from infectious diseases during the past nine 
years, from 1889 to 1897, considered in a similar manner, shows a notice- 
able increase in the number of deaths due to infectious diseases as com- 
pared with the deaths from all causes. These facts appear in the following 
table : — 



32 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



PERIOD. 


Average Annual 

Number of Deaths from 

Infectious Diseases 

per 10,000 Living. 


Percentage (of Deaths 

from All Causes) 

due to 

Infectious Diseases. 


1889- 


-91, . 




28.6 


17 





1892- 


-94, . 




30.2 


17 


7 


1895- 


-97, . 




31.9 


19 






A study by three-year periods of the death rate from typhoid fever per 
10,000 living shows an increase similar to that which was found to exist 
in the death rate from all infectious diseases during the same years from 
1889 to 1897. The average annual death rate from typhoid fever and the 
relation of the deaths from this disease to the total number of deaths from 
all causes during each of the three-year periods are as follows : — 



Average Annual 

Number of Deaths from 

Typhoid Fever 

per 10,000 Living. 



Percentage (of Deaths 

from All Causes) 
due to Typhoid Fever. 



1889-91, 
1892-94, 
1895-97, 




1.0 
1.1 
1.9 



It appears from the foregoing table that the death rate from typhoid 
fever during the past three years has been 55 per cent, higher than that 
of the years from 1892 to 1894, and over 82 per cent, higher than during 
the period from 1889 to 1891. Moreover, it will be seen that the relation 
of the number of deaths from this disease to the total number of deaths 
from all causes during the three years from 1895 to 1897 was 73 per cent, 
higher than the average of the three-year period next preceding, and 90 
per cent, greater than that of the years from 1889 to 1891. 

The death rate from typhoid fever per 10,000 living during each of the 
past three years, 1895-97, has been, respectively, 2.1, 4.4, 2.9. It will 
be seen that the mortality from the disease in 1806 was about 2.1 times 
that of the previous year, and during 1897 .was about 1.4 times that of 
1895. The death rate from typhoid fever during 1896 was higher than 
that of any year since 1884, and during 1897 was greater than during any 
Other year, except 1896, since the year 1887. 

The records of the number of reported cases of typhoid fever and deaths 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 



33 



therefrom during the past seventeen years show that this series of years 
may be divided into three periods. The first extended from 1881 to 1887, 
covering a period of seven j'ears ; the second, from 1888 to 1893, embrac- 
ing six years ; and the third, from 1894 to March 24, 1898, covering about 
four and a quarter years. 

It is evident that typhoid fever was prevalent in Lynn in an excessive 
degree during the period of years first mentioned, from 1881 to 1887. The 
probable number of cases occurring during each of the years in question, 
estimated from the number of deaths actually reported upon the basis of 
20 per cent, mortality and of the present population, has been found to 
be as follows : — 



YEAK. 


Cases. 


YEAR. 


Cases. 


1881, 


196 


1885, 


99 


1882, 


212 


1886, 


121 


1883, 


159 


1887, 


115 


1884, 


147 







During the period from 1888 to 1893 the number of cases of typhoid 
fever reported each year was fairly uniform, and was lower than in any 
period since records have been kept ; so that this period may reasonably 
be taken to represent what, for purposes of comparison, may be considered 
as the normal prevalence of typhoid fever in Lynn when there are no unusual 
causes of infection. The annual number of cases of the disease, estimated 
upon the basis of present population, from the number of cases actually 
reported, for each of the six years fi-om 1888 to 1893, is as follows : — 



YEAK. 


Cases. 


YEAR. 


Cases. 


1888, 


74 


1891, 


69 


1889, 


70 


1892, 


58 


1890, 


69 


1893, 


69 



The average number of cases of the disease per 10,000 inhabitants was 
10.5 and the average number of deaths 1.9. 

Very early in the year 1894 the number of reported cases per month 
began to be considerably greater than the average monthly number during 



34 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the period from 1888 to 1803. The conditions of the year 1894 were 
peculiar, in that the number of cases was not as great as usual during the 
late summer and the autumn months, but was very much greater than 
usual during the winter and spring months. The average annual num- 
ber of cases during the past three years, 1895 to 1897, upon the basis of 
present population, was 100.2 ; which is 47 per cent, larger than the aver- 
age number for the period of six years from 1888 to 1893. The current 
year, 1898, has been marked by an excessive prevalence of the disease 
during the months of February and March. 

During the entire period from Jan. 1, 1894, to March 24, 1898, there 
was reported to your board a total number of 390 cases of typhoid fever, 
77 of which have resulted in death. Assuming that the cases of typhoid 
fever and deaths therefrom during the period from 1888 to 1893 represent 
usual conditions, there has been an excess, in the interval between Jan. 
1, 1894, and March 24, 1898, of about 156 cases, resulting in about 35 
deaths. 

From Jan. 1, 1895, to March 24, 1898, there was reported a total num- 
ber of 336 cases of typhoid fever ; and in 269 of these a careful investi- 
gation has been made of each individual case, and information has been 
obtained relative to the occupation and movements for about two months 
prior to the date of illness of persons having the disease, together with as 
complete information as possible relative to the water, milk, ice and food 
supplies used in each case during that period. In the study of these cases 
a large portion of the information was collected through your sanitary in- 
spectors, who were detailed by you to do this work. The remaining 67 
(or about 20 per cent.) were not investigated, because no satisfactory 
information concerning them could be obtained, the large majority of those 
persons sick with the disease during the years 1895 and 1896 having re- 
moved from the city. 

Of the 2G9 cases investigated, 12 were undoubtedly imported, 7 others 
may reasonably be attributed to infection derived elsewhere than in Lynn, 
and 13 cases followed somewhat closely upon others occurring in the same 
families, and it is possible that the infection may have been derived from 
direct personal contact and association with those first coming down with 
the sickness. Excluding the cases which were imported, and 2 others, all 
are known to have been provided with the public water supply at the house 
from which they were reported. Only 17 individuals of the 257 cases in- 
vestigated, excluding as before the imported cases, are believed to have 
used at their homes any other water than that from the public water works. 
One hundred and fifty-four persons (or 60 per cent.) of all the cases in- 
vestigated, excluding the 12 cases known definitely to have been imported, 
are believed to have used no water for drinking purposes other than the 
public water supply of Lynn, during a period of two mouths previous to 
coming down with the disease. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 35 

A study of the relation of the use of spring waters to the cases of typhoid 
fever occurring in Lynn during the period from Jan. 1, 1895, to March 24, 
1898, has given no evidence that the infection in any instance was derived 
from the use of a spring water. There is evidence, however, that the water 
of several of these springs has been at some time greatly polluted by sew- 
age and subsequently well purified in its passage through the ground ; and, 
while no case of typhoid fever was traced to the use of water from these 
springs, some of the waters are excessively hard, and it is not improbable 
that the hardness has an injurious effect upon the health of those using 
these waters. Moreover, there is danger that the purification of the water 
in its passage through the ground may at some time be less thorough, and 
thus endanger the health of those who use it. 

An examination of the relation of the cases occurring during the period 
above noted to the milk supply indicates that several cases coming down 
in September, 1896, may have been due to infection received from the use 
of milk supplied by one of the largest dealers in Lynn. A careful investi- 
gation of other cases of typhoid fever, relative to the use of milk and a 
general study of the milk supply of Lynn, has failed to give any further 
evidence of infection derived from the use of this article of food. 

In the course of the investigation it was learned that about 70 per cent, 
of the people of the city used ice in connection with food or drinking 
water ; while, of the total number of cases of typhoid fever investigated, it 
was found that a somewhat smaller pei'centage of those who contracted the 
disease had used ice in this way for a period of several weeks prior to the 
date of illness. Considering the fact that the most excessive prevalence 
of the disease occurred in the months from December to April, inclusive, 
when the use of ice in contact with food and water is far less common than 
at other seasons, it is unreasonable to attribute the excessive prevalence of 
the disease during these years to the use of ice. 

An examination into the system of public water supply of the city of 
Lynn has revealed a most serious pollution by sewage of that portion 
which has been taken from the Saugus River above Howlett's dam. The 
use of this source appears to have been begun in the latter part of 
the year 1893, or early in the year 1894. Throughout the past four years 
typhoid fever has been more or less prevalent upon the water-shed of this 
stream, under conditions which at times must have caused the infection 
of the river water with the germs of the disease, since there are many cess- 
pools which overflow into the stream, and there are privies situated either 
directly over the water or in its immediate vicinity. It has been found 
that practically coincident with the first use of this river water for the pur- 
poses of a public supply in Lynn typhoid fever began to be prevalent 
to a degree greatly in excess of its prevalence during the preceding six 
years, when the water supply is believed to have been in no part drawn 
from this source. 



36 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

In addition to the statistical evidence which has been presented, many 
facts have been bi'ought out by personal studies of the individual cases of 
typhoid fever which make it impossible to arrive at any other conclusion 
than that nearly all of the excess in the prevalence of typhoid fever in Lynn 
during the years from 1894 to 1897 has been due to the use of the polluted 
waters of the Saugus River and of Birch Pond, and perhaps Breed's Pond, 
which have been contaminated therefrom. It appears probable that some 
of the cases of typhoid fever occurring during the present year have been 
due to temporary infection of the water of Hawkes reservoir. 

In addition to the examination which was made of the water-shed of the 
Saugus River, a careful investigation was made of the water-sheds and the 
condition of the various other sources of public supply of the city. It ap- 
pears that the water-sheds of Breed's, Birch, Walden and Glen Lewis ponds 
are largely embraced in a tract of land known as the Lynn woods, which 
is public property used for the purposes of a public park. There is no evi- 
dence that injury to the quality of the water of the ponds has been caused 
by the use of these lands by the public up to the present time. 

In view of all the circumstances, the Board is of the opinion that a large 
portion of the sickness and mortality from typhoid fever in the city of Lynn 
in the past four years has been due to the pollution of the portion of the 
water supply drawn from Saugus River and from Birch and Breed's ponds, 
to which this water is supplied. The sickness and mortality caused by the 
pollution of the public water supply of the city are, in the opinion of the 
Board, unnecessary and preventable ; and the Board would, therefore, ad- 
vise the city of Lynn that, on account of the large population situated upon 
the water-shed of the Saugus River, the water from this stream should not 
be taken into the city until it has been thoroughly purified by filtration. 
While it does not appear that the public use of the Lynn woods, so called, 
has caused pollution of the ponds about which these lands are situated, it 
is, nevertheless, important that the use of these lands in the vicinity of the 
ponds and streams be continually under careful supervision, in order that 
all danger of the pollution of these sources of water supply of the city may 
be prevented. 

The Board would also advise that measures be taken to prevent the use, 
for domestic purposes, of ice from polluted sources. A careful supervision 
should also be exercised over the spring waters sold in the city, in order 
that the sale of such waters as are dangerous or injurious to health may 
be prevented. 

With these conditions established, we see no reason why the city of Lynn 
may not return to the enviable condition existing from 1888 to 1893, when 
deaths from typhoid fever were less than in nearly all the cities of the 
State. 

Should you desire to examine the details obtained in this investigation, 
they Avill be shown you at this office. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 37 

Maeblehead. a communication was received from the water 
oonnnissioners of Marblehead, Dec. 20, 1897, asking the opinion 
of the Board as to the cause of a reddish color in the public water 
supply of the town, sometimes accompanied by a bad taste and 
odor. They also requested advice as to the best remedy for the 
same. The Board replied as follows : — 

July 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Dec. 20, 1897, a com- 
munication relative to the quality of the water supply of the town of Mar- 
blehead, which you state is objectionable on account of a reddish color, 
which stains materials with which it comes in contact, and also on account 
of a somewhat disagreeable taste and odor ; and you request information 
as to the cause of the trouble and advice as to a remedy therefor. 

The Board has caused an examination of the present sources of supply 
to be made by its engineer, and finds that the supply of the town is at 
present drawn chiefly from two large wells, one known as Well No. 1, 
located near the pumping station and not far from Loring Avenue in 
Salem, and the other known as Well No. 2, located about 800 feet south- 
east of the pumping station. The water in the latter well stands at a con- 
siderably higher level than the water in Well No. 1, and is drawn into Well 
No. 1 by gravity. A system of thirty-nine tubular wells, situated mostly 
in a marsh near the salt water north-east of the pumping station, has been 
used occasionally in connection with the other sources. Numerous samples 
of the water supplied to the town from these sources have been analyzed 
since the works were first constructed, the results of which show that the 
water is affected by the presence of an excessive amount of iron, causing 
the reddish appearance and pi'obably also the taste and odor of the water 
to which you refer in your application. 

Examinations of the separate sources of supply show that the water of 
Well No. 2, which furnishes the greater portion of the water supplied to 
the town, contains a very large amount of iron. It has not been practicable 
to obtain samples from Well No. 1 except at times when it was affected by 
the presence of water from Well No. 2 ; but the mingled water of the two 
wells, as drawn from Well No. 1, contains a considerably smaller quantity 
of iron than the water of Well No. 2, and it seems probable that the water 
which drains naturally into Well No. 1 is not at present affected by an 
excess of iron. 

Examinations of the water of the tubular wells show that this water also 
is affected by an excess of iron, and, moreover, the quality of the water 
appears to deteriorate rapidly when any considerable amount is drawn from 
these wells, on account of a marked increase at such times in the hardness 
and in the quantity of salt present in the water. 

With regard to the best means of improving the quality of the water of 



38 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

"Well No. 2, the Board has caused experiments to be made with water taken 
from this well, the results of which have shown that by first aerating the 
water and subsequently filtering it through a sand filter at a rate of about 
10,000,000 gallons per acre per day, the iron can all be removed, and a 
elear and colorless water can be obtained which is free from taste and odor. 

In constructing a filter to filter all of the water of Well No. 2, it would 
be desirable to provide for a smaller rate of filtration than that at which 
the experimental filter was operated, and the depth of sand should not be 
less than 24 inches. The filter should be so designed and constructed that 
it can be operated without difficulty at the rate proposed, and provision 
should be made for cleaning. The filter should be covered, to prevent 
difficulty of operation in cold weather. 

Should you desire to construct a filter for the improvement of your water 
supply, the plans should be prepared by a competent hydraulic engineer, 
and the Board will, upon application, give you advice with reference to 
any plans which you may wish to present. 

The consumption of water in the town is increasing, and in connection 
with plans for the filtration of water from your present sources the Board 
would suggest that you consider the question of the possible necessity for 
an additional supply. 



Medford. An application was received, Oct. 18, 1898, from 
the water commissioners of Medford, for the advice of the Board 
relative to the proposed use of the water of Wright's Pond as a 
source of water supply during the cold weather. The Board re- 
plied to this application as follows : — 

Dec. 2, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on October 18, an appli- 
cation requesting the advice of the Board with reference to the use of water 
from Wright's Pond for the supply of the city of Medford during cold 
weather. 

The Board has caused the pond and its water-shed to be examined by 
one of its engineers, and a sample of the water collected on November 4 
to be analj'zed. This analysis shows that the water at that time had con- 
siderable color and a somewhat unpleasant odor when heated ; and the 
quantity of organic matter present, as shown by the free and albuminoid 
ammonia, was large. The water of the pond does not appear to be ex- 
posed to danger of pollution by sewage, but it will be liable to be objec- 
tionable for drinking and other uses on account of its appearance and 
disagreeable taste and odor; and on this account the Board would advise 
that you avoid the use of water from this pond, if a better source is 
available. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 39 

Natick. The water commissioners of Natick applied to the 
Board, Feb. 15, 1898, for its advice relative to a proposed water 
supply for the town, to be taken from gravel beds lying between 
the Worcester road, the Saxonville branch of the Boston & Albany 
Railroad and Lake Cochituate, and distant about one and one-half 
miles from the railroad station in Natick. The Board replied to 
tills application as follows : — 

March 17, 1898. 

An application was received from you, on Feb. 15, 1898, requesting the 
advice of the State Board of Health with reference to a proposed water 
supply for the town of Natick, containing the following outline of your 
proposed plans : — 

It is proposed to obtain a supply of ground water from the gravel beds under- 
lying land owned by the town of Natick and lying between the Worcester Road 
(old turnpike), the Saxonville branch of the Boston & Albany Railroad and Lake 
Cochituate, said land being located in the town of Natick and distant about one 
and one-half miles from the railroad station in Natick, and is the territory re- 
ferred to in the communication of your Board to the water commissioners of 
Natick, dated Nov. 4, 1897. 

It is proposed to obtain this water by driven wells of large diameter arranged 
in clusters and connected with each other and a main suction pipe by pipes of 
appropriate diameter, such wells to be located at such points and driven to 
such depths as convenience in construction and quantity of water available may 
indicate. 

Or, by an excavated well of large diameter, to be retained with heavy stone 
work, laid dry, and lined inside with water-tight brick work laid in American 
Portland cement, this well to be covered with appropriate roof to exclude sun- 
light. 

Or, the above methods may be used in combination ; in such case the large 
well to serve as a storage reservoir to meet the demand for rapid pumping. 

The water obtained by either or both of the above plans is to be pumped into 
a stand-pipe, to be constructed on an appropriate elevation within the town limits, 
such stand-pipe to be of most modem constiniction, and to have a tight roof to 
exclude sunlight and air and reduce the danger of freezing in cold weather. In 
such stand-pipe the ground water is to be delivered at or near the high-water 
mark at the top of the structure. 

Or, the water may be pumped through the present system of piping in the 
town into the present reservoir on Broad Hill ; in such case the reservoir is to 
be covered over by an appropriate and durable design in construction in order 
to preserve the quality of the w^ater. 

The opinion and advice of the Board is desired as to the sufficiency and quality 
of the proposed supply and its desirability in comparison with the water now 
drawn by the town from Dug Pond. 

You also submitted the results of your investigations as to the character 
of the soil in the territory referred to in the application by means of tubular 



40 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

test wells, and the results of a pumping test made by connecting several 
of these wells and pumping from them nearly continuously with a steam 
pump for a period of thirteen days, from January 19 to Feb. 1, 1898. 
During this test samples of water drawn from the wells, collected by you 
and by the Board, have been analyzed. 

The source from which it is proposed to obtain the supply is the same 
as that referred to in your application of last year, concerning which the 
Board advised that the conditions appeared to be favorable, and suggested 
that further investigation be made in its communication of November 4. 
The character of the soil, as shown by the material taken from the wells, 
appears to be coarse and porous, but the soil taken from one of the wells 
driven in the bottom of the small shallow pond known as Snake Pond was 
quite fine. 

The wells from which water was drawn were located in the immediate vicin- 
ity of Snake Pond, and several other test wells were driven near the shore 
of the southerly basin of Lake Cochituate and one near the southerly shore 
of the middle basin of the lake. The average daily quantity of water 
pumped during the test was considerably in excess of the quantity now 
used for the supply of Natick ; but, nevertheless, the water in the ground 
in the vicinity of the wells, as shown by your observations, rose consider- 
ably during the test, following closely a rise in the level of the water of 
Lake Cochituate. The tests as a whole indicate that a quantity of water 
much in excess of the present needs of the town of Natick can be obtained 
from the ground at this place, under conditions similar to those which ex- 
isted when the pumping test was made. The lake may, however, be drawn 
down much lower at times than its level at the time this test was made, 
and the amount of water which the ground would yield would be smaller 
when the level of the water in the lake is lower, and it is not feasible to 
tell definitely the probable quantity of water that could be obtained from 
the ground when the lake is drawn down near low- water level ; but it 
appears to be practicable to increase the yield of the wells, if it should 
become necessary, by pumping water from the lake upon the sui-face of the 
ground in their vicinity. 

Analyses of several samples of the water of the test wells collected at 
intervals throughout the test show that this water was clear, colorless and 
otherwise of good quality for the purposes of a public water supply ; and, 
if the location of the wells in soil containing organic matter beneath the 
small pond is avoided, and the wells for permanent use are located at a 
sufficient distance from the lake to avoid danger of imperfectly filtered 
water from that source finding its way into them, there appears to be no 
reason to expect a deterioration in the quality of water, if a quantity suffi- 
cient for the supply of Natick should be drawn continually from the ground 
at this place, provided the water is kept from exposure to light, as is pro- 
posed in your present plan. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 41 

In view of the results of the investigation, the Board is of the opinion 
that the source proposed by you is an appropriate one for the supply of 
the town of Natick, and is much more desirable than Dug Pond, your 
present source, the capacity of which is little in excess of the present 
needs of the town in dry years. Moreover, as stated in the previous 
communication of the Board with reference to this subject, Dug Pond is 
not a safe source from which to take water directly for domestic uses, on 
account of the large population located along its main feeder, which dis- 
charges into the arm of the pond from which its supply for the town is 
drawn. 

The Board would, therefore, advise that the new works be constructed 
with a view to supplying the town wholly from the new source, in order 
that the use of water from Dug Pond may be abandoned as soon as 
practicable. 

Needham. An application was received, Sept. 23, 1898, from 
the Needham water board, giving notice of their intention to in- 
crease the water supply of that town, and requesting the advice 
of the State Board of Health relative to the same. The Board 
replied to this application as follows : — 

Nov. 17, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Sept. 23, 1898, an 
application under the authority of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888, giving 
notice of your intention to increase the system of water supply for the town 
of Needham, and giving an outline of your proposed plan for adding to the 
supply by providing further means for securing ground water from the 
water-shed of your present supply, as follows : — 

To accomplish this it is proposed to sink another well or provide filter-galleries 
or conduits, or both, in the sand and gravel basin between the present well and 
the pumping station. 

To aid in keeping the ground saturated about the supply well, it is proposed 
to construct a storage basin either above the location of the wells in the valley 
of the brook or below the wells near the pumping station in the sandy basin 
before mentioned. 

The latter location seems preferable, inasmuch as considerable spring water 
now wasted would be intercepted ; the water table in the near vicinity of the 
wells would be maintained higher ; more water would pass through the reser- 
voir, creating a better circulation ; and there would be a large body of water 
near the pumping station, which, although not to be used direct, its presence 
would give an added senfse of security in considering the possibilit}^ of a con- 
flagration coincident with an empty stand-pipe and low water in the wells. The 
reservoir would be excavated to uniform depths and protected against impure 
surface water by a sand filter dam where the brook enters. 



42 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Subsequently a plan was submitted by your engineer, showing the pro- 
posed location of a well in the valley of the brook about 440 feet south- 
west of your present well, between the present well and the pumping 
station, together with the location of the proposed dam across the brook 
a short distance above your pumping station, but below the location of 
the present and proposed wells, and the approximate outlines of the res- 
ervoir which would be created thereby. 

From this plan it appears that the shores of the pond will be at the 
nearest place within about 225 feet of your present well, and that, to avoid 
flooding the ground in the immediate vicinity of your proposed new well, 
it is proposed to raise the level of the ground so that the line of flowage 
in the pond will be at least 90 feet from the well. 

The consumption of water in Needham has increased very rapidly in the 
last few years, and there are indications that the supply from the present 
source would prove inadequate for the supply of the town in a dry season, 
and a suitable additional supply should be provided without delay. 

The Board has carefully considered the proposed plans, and has caused 
the locality to be examined by its engineer and a sample of the water from 
the test well at the location of your proposed new well to be analyzed. It 
appears that a test well at the site of your proposed new well yields water 
freely at a rate of about 60 gallons per minute when pumping with a hand 
pump ; and the results of the analysis of a sample of the water sent in by 
you from this well indicate that its quality at the present time is good, 
being about the same as that of your present source of supply. Observa- 
tions upon the height of water in the test well and in your present well 
show that, when pumping from the present source, the level of the water 
in the test well is affected to a considerable extent, showing that the ground 
water in the vicinity of your proposed well is already influenced by pump- 
ing from your present source. No test has been made to determine the 
probable quantity of water that can be obtained from the ground in the 
vicinity of this test well, in addition to the quantity now obtained from 
your present well. 

The proposed well would be located close to the edge of the water-shed 
of the brook, on its southerly and westerly sides, while on the north-westerly 
and northerly sides tests of the ground have shown that ledge comes to 
within 9 feet of the surface in places. It also appears that ledge was en- 
countered in the test well at a depth of 16 feet beneath the surface, and 
the indications are that the stratum of porous material from which water 
can be obtained is not of considerable depth or extent. 

It is a part of your plan, however, to create a small pond near the wells, 
by means of which it is expected to saturate the ground and thus increase 
the yield of these sources. It is impossible to determine beforehand to 
what extent the water of your proposed pond would filter through the 
ground to these wells; but, even if a large portion of the flow of the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 43 

brook should enter the wells through the ground, it is doubtful whether 
the yield of the wells would be- sufficient to supply the requirements of the 
town of Needhain if a dry year should occur in the immediate future. It 
may also happen that imperfectly filtered water from the pond may enter 
the wells and have an uafavorable influence upon the quality of the water, 
causing it to contain an excess of iron or organic matter, and making it 
objectionable for many uses. 

In view of all the circumstances, the Board does not at present advise 
the adoption of the method now proposed for increasing the water supply 
of the town of Needham, but would advise a further investigation, with a 
view to obtaining a larger quantity of water than would probably be made 
available by the proposed new well. 

It is desirable to increase your supply, if possible, by further works in 
the vicinity of your present well. A single test well in a small valley east 
of your present well indicates that porous soil may be found in that vicinity 
at a considerable depth beneath the surface ; and, under the circumstances, 
it seems desirable to make further tests in this valley, to determine whether 
any considerable additional supply of ground water may be obtained there. 

It is also desirable to make a careful examination along the Charles 
River, near your present pumping station, to see whether a suitable addi- 
tional supply may not be obtained near that stream. 

The Board will co-operate with you in such further investigations as you 
may decide to make, by making such analyses of samples of water as may 
be necessary, and will, upon application, give you further advice in this 
matter when you have the results of further investigations to present. 

North Andover. An application was received from the water 
commissioners of North Andover, April 20, 1898, for the advice 
of the Board relative to taking the water of Great Pond in that 
town as a source of public water supply. The Board replied to 
this application as follows : — 

May 6, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on April 20, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to a proposed source of water supply 
for the town of North Andover, to be taken from Great Pond in that town, 
at a point near its southerly end, and has caused an examination of the 
proposed source to be made and a sample of the water of the pond to be 
analyzed. 

The results of this analysis, and of analyses of two samples made in 
previous years, indicate that the water is soft, generally only slightly 
colored, and is in other respects of good quality for the purposes of a 
public water supply. The limited number of examinations thus far made 
are not sufficient to make it possible to determine whether its quality would 



44 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

be satisfactory at all times ; but the indications are that the water will: 
generally be satisfactory, but that it may at intervals be affected by the 
presence of large numbers of microscopic organisms, which may impart 
to the water a noticeable taste and odor. 

The quantity of water which the pond will furnish is many times in ex- 
cess of the quantity which would be required for the supply of the town 
of North Andover. 

The water-shed of the pond contains a considerable number of dwelling- 
houses, in connection with most of which there are barns and out-houses ; 
and it will be necessary to prevent danger of the pollution of the pond 
from these places. The pond is also used to a considerable extent as a 
summer resort, and it is likely that the number of summer visitors will 
increase from year to year. There are, moreover, several buildings around 
the shores which are said to be used as places of resort in the summer 
season, one of which is not far from the proposed intake. 

Recent investigations in the cases of other ponds used as sources of 
public water supply indicate that there might be much danger to the health 
of the inhabitants of the town should water be drawn directly from the 
pond, unless the use of the pond is under such control and supervision as 
to prevent its pollution ; and the Board would advise that such control and 
supervision is necessary to protect the health of those who may use the 
water. 



At a later date, Sept. 23, 1898, the same board applied to the 
State Board of Health, requesting an opinion as to the probable 
effect of the water of Great Pond upon lead or lead-lined pipes, 
as affecting the water for domestic use. The Board replied to this 
letter as follows : — 

Oct. 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health has considered your communication of Sept. 
23, 1898, in which you inquire whether anything was found in the analyses 
of Great Pond water that would make the use of lead or lead-lined pipe 
undesirable for street sers-ices to dwellings. 

It is not possible for the Board to determine, from the analyses of Great 
Pond water that have been made by the Board, whether the water would 
take up lead if supplied through pipes of that metal, or, if so, to what 
extent. Investigations thus far made with regard to this subject have 
shown that, while in some cases certain waters do not appear to dissolve 
lead from the pipes, in most cases it is found that lead is taken up by the 
water from such pipes. The quantity taken up is in many cases quite 
minute ; but in some cases investigated by the Board it has been found 
that water dissolves lead from lead pipes in large quantities, and severe 



No. 34,] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 45 

cases of lead poisoning have been caused by the use of water from public 
water supplies drawn through lead pipes. 

Even if tests should show that Great Pond water would not take up lead 
in passing through lead pipes at the present time, it is possible that in the 
future some change might occur in the character of the water which would 
cause it to attack the pipe, or a supply of water of a different character 
might, at some time, be introduced from another source, which might be 
unfavorably affected by passing through lead pipes. 

Under the circumstances, the Board would advise that you avoid the use 
of lead either for mains or services in connection with the proposed system 
of water supply of the town of North Andover. 



NoRTHFiELD. An application was received, March 4, 1898, from 
the Northfield Water Company, for the advice of the Board relative 
to a proposed water supply from jNIinot Brook and W^arwick Brook, 
' ' for domestic use and for the better protection of the town from 
fire." The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

April 8, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on March 4, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to a proposed water supply for the 
town of Northfield, in which you state that the supply is to be obtained 
from a brook running between Hemlock and Round mountains, known as 
the Minot Brook. You also state that, should it be necessary at a later 
date to increase this supply, you propose to use so much of the water of 
"Warwick Brook, so called, as may be necessary. 

The Board has caused an examination of the proposed sources of supply 
to be made by one of its engineers, and has had samples of the water of 
each of these sources analyzed. The water of Minot Brook is found from 
this analysis to be nearly colorless, soft, and of excellent quality for the pur- 
poses of a public water supply ; and, while its quality may be found to be 
somewhat different at other seasons of the year, it is not probable that the 
difference will be material. The water-shed of the brook is free from 
dwelling-houses, and its waters do not appear to be exposed to any danger 
of sewage pollution. 

"With regard to the quantity of water that can be obtained from this 
source, it is difficult to form an estimate from an examination made at this 
season of the year, since the flow in the drier portion of a dry season would 
be very much smaller than at the present time ; but, so far as can be learned, 
the flow of this brook appears to be well maintained in the summer season, 
and it is probable that by the construction of a small reservoir, capable of 
holding a few weeks' supply for the town, a sufficient quantity of water 



46 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pul). Doc. 

can be obtained from this source for the supply of the town for several 
years, at least, if the growth is no greater than it has been in the past. 

Warwick Brook would probably furnish an ample supply of water at all 
times without storage, but its water has considerable color and would be 
of less satisfactory quality than that of Minot Brook ; moreover, there are 
several houses located near this stream above the place at which it would 
naturally be taken for the supply of Northfield, and there would be great 
danger that, if this source should be used for the supply of the town, the 
health of the people would be endangered by sewage entering the stream 
from these houses. It does not appear to be practicable, except at a large 
expense, to prevent the danger of pollution of this stream by sewage, and 
the Board therefore does not advise its use as a source of water supply for 
Northfield. 

There appear to be other sources in this region which, like Minot Brook, 
are not exposed to pollution from population upon their water-sheds, and 
from which it may be practicable to obtain by gi-avity a further supply of 
water of good quality in connection with Minot Brook. Possibly the brook 
draining the westerly slope of Hemlock Mountain and north of the Minot 
Brook drainage area would furnish a suitable and satisfactory additional 
supply for the town. The Boax'd would recommend that a further examina- 
tion be made, with a view to selecting a source of suitable quality in case 
the yield of Minot Brook should prove insufficient for the supply of the 
town. 

The Board will, if you so request, assist you in any further investigations 
you may wish to make by making analyses of samples of water, and will 
give you further advice in the matter when you have the results of further 
investigations to present. 

Pepperell. An application was received from the selectmen 
of Pepperell, Oct. 26, 1897, for the advice of the Board relative 
to a proposed water supply for the town to be taken from wells in 
the valley of Sucker Brook. The Board replied to this application 
as follows : — 

March 17, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Oct. 26, 1897, an 
application for advice with reference to a proposed water supply for the 
town of Pepperell, with which you submitted a repoi't relative to tests of 
the ground in the valley of Sucker Brook in the Sartelle Meadow and 
above, by means of tubular wells, and i-equested the advice of the Board 
with reference to taking a supply of water for Pepperell from the ground 
in this vicinity. 

The Board has caused an examination of the locality to be made by its 
engineer, and has caused a sample of the water collected from one of the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 47 

wells to be analyzed. The results of this analysis do not differ materially 
from the analysis of a sample of water collected from another well in this 
region three years ago ; they show, as stated in a previous reply, that 
the water is of good quality except for its hardness, which would render it 
unsatisfactory for some of the purposes of a public water supply. 

The source now under consideration is one of those proposed by you in 
your application of three years ago, the plan proposed at that time being 
to construct a Avell near the right bank of the Nissitissit River, just below 
the mouth of Sucker Brook, and to lay a pipe with open joints from that 
point to the vicinity of Sartelle Meadow, where it was proposed to con- 
struct a second well to supplement the supply. It was suggested at that 
time, in case a sufficient supply should not be obtained from the valle}^ of 
the brook, that the source might be further supplemented by drawing water 
from the valley of Gulf Brook, the water-shed of which lies north-west of 
that of Sucker Brook. The results of tests of the ground in the valley of 
Sucker Brook made at that time and at a subsequent time showed that ledge 
was found so near the surface near the mouth of Sucker Brook that it was 
impracticable to obtain water from the ground at this place, except possi- 
bly in very small quantity ; and the tests further up the valley showed that 
the conditions for obtaining water freely from the ground were not favor- 
able at any place below the Sartelle Meadow. 

The recent tests were made by driving seven wells in the valley of the 
brook, one being located in the Sartelle Meadow and the others between 
the meadow and a road which crosses Sucker Brook about a quarter of a 
mile above the meadow. The tests show that water could be obtained freely 
from the well in Sartelle Meadow, and with considerable freedom from three 
of the other wells nearest the meadow ; but from the upper three wells no 
water could be obtained, on account of the fineness of the material, and in 
nearly all of the wells ledge was found at no very great depth beneath the 
surface of the ground. 

The results of these tests tend to confirm the opinion of the Board, ex- 
pressed in a previous reply, that the quantity of water which could be 
obtained from the ground in the valley of Sucker Brook would not be suffi- 
cient for the supply of the town in the drier portion of a dry year after the 
water supply sj'stem comes into general use ; and it does not appear to be 
practicable to supplement the supply from any other source without main- 
taining and operating two pumping plants. 

In the previous reply of the Board with reference to this subject it was 
suggested that you make further tests in the valley of Unquetenasset Brook, 
by driving wells along the valley of the brook to determine whether porous 
soil is found beneath the surface in the valley at any place from which 
water of good quality could be di-awn with freedom from the ground ; and 
it appears, from information submitted by you, that tests were made in this 
valley in the spring of 1897, between the railroad crossing near the mouth 



48 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of the brook and the Dunstable Road ; but the conditions appear from the 
report submitted by you to be unfavorable to obtaining water from the 
ground in this region, though, judging from the location of the test wells, 
the area covered does not include all of the valley of the brook in which 
the conditions may be favorable to obtaining water in large quantity from 
the ground. On account of the snow, it has not been possible to make a 
satisfactory examination of this territory recently, to determine whether 
further investigation in this valley is desirable. 

In view of the circumstances, the Board does not at present advise that 
you attempt to secure a water supply from the valley of Sucker Brook, but 
advises that you continue your investigations, and that you secure the aid 
in this matter of an engineer of experience in matters relating to water 
supply. It is desirable that these investigations include a consideration 
of the feasibility of obtaining a ground-water supply in the vicinity of 
Baddacook Pond ; and it may be found advisable to make further tests 
in the valley of Unquetenasset Brook, for a distance of at least a mile 
above the place where the previous tests were made. 

The Board will give you further assistance in this investigation by mak- 
ing such analyses of the water as is necessary, and will, upon application, 
give you further advice when you have the results of further investigations 
to present. 

Pepperell, The Board received another application from the 
selectmen of Pepperell, Aug. 11, 1898, for advice relative to the 
introduction of a public water supply for that town. The Board re- 
plied to this application as follows : — 

Sept. 1, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Aug. 11, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to a proposed water supply for Pep- 
perell, accompanied by a report giving a description of certain tests made 
by means of tubular wells in the valley of Unquetenasset Brook. From 
this report it appears that ten test wells were driven in the valley of the 
brook, at various places between the point where it is crossed by the Dun- 
stable Road and the road which crosses near Cummings' Mill, about one 
and one-half miles further up stream, but that none of these wells reached 
a stratum which would furnish water in any considerable quantity. Further 
tests by means of wells located in the vicinity of a road which crosses the 
brook about three-fourths of a mile above Cummings' Mill and two and 
one-half miles south-east of the village of P^ast Pepperell were more favor- 
able. At this place five wells were driven, three of which penetrated a 
gravel stratum of a considerable depth, from which water could be pumped 
freely with a hand pump. 

The Board has caused the latter locality to be examined by its engineer, 
and samples of the water from three of these test wells to be analyzed. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 49 

The results show that the water is quite soft, but the samples contained an 
excessive amount of iron, which would render this water objectionable for 
many domestic uses. A general examination has been made of the land in 
this valley for a long distance up the brook, and the surface indications 
appear to be favorable to the absorption by the ground of a large portion 
of the water which falls upon its surface, and there are several large springs 
in the low land in the valley. An analysis of a sample of water collected 
from one of these springs showed that the water was clear and nearly color- 
less and was also quite soft, the hardness of this water, as well as that of 
the test wells already referred to, being much less than that of the water 
obtained from wells in the valley of Sucker Brook, where your previous 
investigations were made. "While the water of the test wells contained an 
excessive amount of iron, the quantity of iron found in the spring water 
was insignificant, and it is therefore evident that ground water free from 
an excess of iron can be obtained in this valley. 

So far as the Board can judge from the information which has thus far 
been submitted, the conditions for obtaining a suitable suppl}' of good 
ground water are more favorable in this valley than at any other place 
within an equal distance of Pepperell ; and the Board would advise that 
thorough tests be made here, to determine definitely the feasibility of obtain- 
ing a suitable supply of water for the town. Such tests should be made 
under the direction of an engineer of experience in the design and con- 
struction of works for the collection of ground water. 

If by further examinations a gravel stratum of large depth and extent is 
found, it will be very desirable to connect together several wells, and test 
them by pumping continuously for a period of several days, at a rate at 
least as great as would be likely to be required for the supply of Pepperell 
after water comes into general use, and to note the effect of such pumping 
upon the elevation of the water in the ground, in order to obtain infor- 
mation as to the probable quantity of water that the source will yield. 
Samples of water should, also be collected to determine its quality before 
pumping, and what changes, if any, take place in the course of the test. 

The Board will, if you so request, assist you in further investigations by 
making such analyses of samples of water as may be necessary, and will, 
upon application, give you further advice when you have the results of 
further investigations to present. 

EowLEY. The board of health of Rowley applied to the State 
Board of Health, April 16, 1898, for its advice in regard to the 
quality of the water of certain wells used by the operatives in shoe 
factories in that town. The Board replied to this application as 
follows : — 



50 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

June 3, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on April 16, a communi- 
cation relative to three wells in the town of Rowley, the water of which you 
state is used extensively by the public for drinking, and you desire the 
advice of the Board as to the quality of the water. 

The Board has caused the location and surroundings of these wells to be 
examined by one of its engineers, and has analyzed two samples of the 
water from each well, one on the 1st of March and the second on April 
30, 1898. 

The water of the first sample, collected from the Burke well, so called, 
was found to be clear, colorless and free from odor, and the quantity of 
organic matter present was not large. The chlorine, however, appears to 
be above the normal for the region, and a considerable quantity of nitrates 
was present in the sample. These results indicate that the water has at 
some time been polluted by sewage and subsequently well purified in its 
passage through the ground. The sample collected on Api'il 30 was slightly 
turbid and colored, but fi-ee from odor, and the quantity of organic matter, 
as represented by the free and albuminoid ammonia, was the same as in the 
first sample. The chlorine and nitrates, however, were considerably higher 
and the water was much harder. So far as chemical analyses show, there 
is no indication that the water of this well is, in its present state, injurious 
to the health of those who use it for drinking or cooking purposes ; but, 
considering the comparatively small depth of the well and the nearness of 
several of the sources of pollution, there is danger that at some time pol- 
luting matter may enter the well without complete purification, and this 
well cannot, therefore, be considered a safe source of drinking water. 

A sample of water from the Pickard well, so called, collected on March 1, 
was found to be slightly turbid and colored, but free from odor. The 
water was hard, and contained several times as much mineral matter as the 
Burke well and a much lai-ger quantity of organic matter. The quantity 
of chlorine and nitrates was also excessive. The second sample, collected 
on April 30, was found to be decidedly turbid and more colored than the 
first sample. It also contained a considerably larger quantity of organic 
matter, though the chlorine and nitrates were slightly smaller than in the 
previous sample. An examination of the surroundings of the well shows 
the presence of several privies and sink drains in its immediate vicinity, 
and the analyses show that the water has been highly polluted and has not 
been fully purified in its passage through the ground to the well. In the 
opinion of the Board, this well is a dangerous source from which to take 
water for drinking or other domestic purposes, and its further use should 
be prevented. 

The third well is known as the Armitage well, which is said to have been 
in use for many years. Its surroundings are similar to those of the other 
wells, but the analyses show that the water is very hard and is even more 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 51 

highly polluted than that of the other wells ; and, in the opinion of the 
Board, this well also is a dangerous source from which to take water for 
domestic uses, and its use should be prevented. 

Sheffield. A communication was received, Nov. 13, 1897, 
from the Sheffield Abater Company, calling attention to an unusual 
outbreak of illness in one of the schools of that town, and stating 
that the illness had been attributed by some persons to the new 
public water supply, and at the same time requesting an examina- 
tion of the water by the State Board of Health. The Board caused 
an examination to be made, and replied as follows : — 

March 4, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on November 13, a com- 
munication calling attention to cases of illness in one of the schools of 
Sheffield, which appears to have been attributed by some persons to the 
water supplied from the new system of works installed last fall. 

The Board, upon receipt of your letter, caused an examination to be 
made of the sources of water supply of the town and of the locality in 
which the schools were situated, and from this examination it appeared 
that the school children in the two school buildings located in the centre 
of the village were all supplied with water from the public works by the 
same pipe ; but the cases of illness were practically all confined to the 
children in the room occupied by the primary school, while there was only 
one case in the other room in this building, and none at all among those 
in the other building near by, which, as already stated, was supplied with 
water through the same pipe. These conditions point to infection of the 
children of the primary school from some cause which affected the condi- 
tion of the children of the other room in this building but slightly, and had 
no effect at all on those of the grammar and high schools. 

Since there appeared to be some doubt as to the exact nature of the 
disease, which was thought to be malarial, the Board has sought further 
evidence on this point, but none has been obtained. 

The sources of water supply were examined, and no evidence was found 
of the possible infection of the source from which the supply was then 
being drawn. It does not appear to the Board that there is any evidence 
that the disease was due to infection of the water supply. 

South Hadley. The water commissioners of the fire district 
of South Hadley Falls applied to the Board, July 25, 1898, for 
advice relative to a bad taste and odor in their water supply, and 
the best method of improving the quality of the water. They also 



52 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

asked whether the condition of the water would make it injurious 
to the health of persons using it. The Board replied as follows : — 

Sept. 2, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on August 4, a communi- 
cation stating that the water of Leaping Well resers'oir has a strong odor 
and bad taste, and requesting the Board to make an examination of the 
water and to advise you as to means by which the quality of the water may 
be improved. You also request information as to whether there is any 
thing in this water that would affect or be injurious to the health of the 
community. 

The Board has caused the reservoir and its surroundings to be examined 
by one of its engineers, and has caused samples of the water of the reser- 
voir and of the water of the brook which feeds it to be analyzed, both 
chemically and microscopically. The results of these analyses, taken in 
connection with the results of similar examinations of water from this 
source made in previous years, show that the quality of the water is un- 
favorably affected, especially in the summer season, by the presence of 
large numbers of microscopical organisms, of kinds which are known to 
impart to water a disagreeable taste and odor. The cause of the recent 
bad taste and odor of the water has evidently been the presence of large 
numbers of the organism Anahoena. While the presence of such organisms 
in large numbers often renders a water disagreeable for drinking and other 
domestic uses, it is not known that waters affected in this way are injurious 
to health. 

An examination of the water-shed of the reservoir shows that the soil 
is sandy, and the indications are that a large proportion of the water fall- 
ing upon the surface sinks into the ground, and, after percolation through 
the soil, enters the reservoir, or the brook which feeds it, in the form of 
springs. An analysis of a sample of the water of the brook which appears 
to form the main feeder of the reservoir shows that the water is practically 
clear and colorless, and contains only a very small amount of organic 
matter, as compared with the water which has been standing in the reser- 
voir. It is well known that ground water, such as that which enters the 
reservoir, very quickly deteriorates when exposed to the action of the sun- 
light by storage in an open reservoir ; and, judging from experience with 
such sources, the water of the Leaping Well reservoir is likely to continue 
to give trouble at times from disagreeable tastes and odors for an indefinite 
period. 

The appearance of the surface of the ground in the vicmity of the reser- 
voir indicates that the soil may be coarse and porous to a considerable 
depth; and, if this is the case, it may be practicable, by constructing 
filter-galleries or similar works in the vicinity of the shores of the reser- 
voir, to obtain a large proportion, if not all, of the yield of this source by 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 53 

filtration through the ground, and at the same time to secure a water free 
from color, taste or odor, which will not deteriorate if kept from exposure 
to light, and which can probably be conveyed to the town through the 
present system. 

In view of all the circumstances, the Board would advise that you cause 
tests to be made in the vicinity of the reservoir, by means of tubular wells, 
to determine the character of the soil and the probable quantity of water 
to be obtained from the ground. If the material is very coarse and porous, 
it is desirable that works for collecting ground water be located as much 
as 100 feet fi'om the shore of the reservoir, to reduce as much as possible 
the danger of imperfectly filtered water from the reservoir finding its way 
to the collecting works. It is very desirable that investigations and plans 
for improving the quality of the water be made under the direction of an 
engineer of experience in such matters. 

The Board will assist you in these investigations, if you desire, by mak- 
ing analyses of samples of water, and will, upon application, give you 
further advice in the matter when you have the results of further investi- 
gations to present. 

Wareham. An application was received, Jan. 17, 1898, from 
Mr. Joseph K. Nye, for the advice of the Board relative to a pro- 
posed extension of the water supply of Onset to that part of the 
town of Wareham known as the Narrows, using for the purpose the 
water of Sandy Pond, also known as Jonathan's Pond, in that town, 
the present source of supply of Onset. The Board replied as 
follows : — 

Feb. 3, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Jan. 17, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to a proposed water supply for a por- 
tion of the town of Wareham, in which you state that it is proposed to 
extend the present works of the village of Onset in that town into the 
portion of the town known as Wareham Narrows, using, as the source of 
supply, Sandy Pond, also known as Jonathan's Pond, the pi-eseut source 
of supply of the village of Onset. 

Several chemical analyses of the water of Jonathan's Pond have been 
made since the works for supplying the village of Onset were constructed, 
in 1894, and the results have shown that the water has been very soft, and 
otherwise of good quality for the pm-poses of a public water supply. 

The works for supplying the village of Onset have been in use for a 
period of four years, and the quantity of water used during the j^ear just 
ended, according to information furnished by you, averaged only 13,000 
gallons per day. While, as already stated in a previous communication of 



54 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the Board with reference to this subject, the limits of the territory which 
contributes to the supply of Jonathan's Pond, either by direct flow over the 
surface or by filtration under ground through the sandy territory in which 
the pond is situated, are not well defined, the indications are, that, con- 
sidering the small quantity of water used by Onset at present, the yield of 
the pond will be sufficient to supply both Onset Village and the territory 
to which you now propose to extend the works for several years in the 
future. There appear to be other sources in this region which might furnish 
a larger supply of good water ; but it will probably be best, on the whole, 
to use the present works as long as the supply proves sufficient for the pur- 
pose, rather than to take water from a new source. 

In view of all the circumstances, the Board is of the opinion that Jonathan's 
Pond is a suitable source from which to take, for the present, a supply of 
water for both Onset and the village of Wareham Narrows, to which you 
now propose to extend the Avorks. 

Weston. An application was received, Feb. 14, 1898, from Mr. 
C. W. Hubbard of Weston, for the advice of the Board relative to 
a proposed water supply for a small part of Weston, at the same 
time suggesting that the supply be taken from the existing water 
works of Wellesley. The Board replied to this application as 
follows : — 

March 4, 1898. 

The State Board of Health has considered your communication of 
February 14, relative to a water supply for a small district in the south- 
easterly portion of Weston, in which you suggest taking a supply from the 
works of the town of Wellesley, one of the main pipes of which works, you 
state, extends to within less than 1,000 feet of the boundary line between 
Wellesley and Weston, in the vicinity of the district which you propose to 
supply. You state, also, that your water tower holds 100,000 gallons, and 
was built at an even level with the Wellesley reservoir. 

Under these conditions it is possible that a sufficient supply for your 
works would flow to the stand-pipe from the works of the town of Wellesley, 
if the consumption from the Wellesley main is not such that there is a large 
loss of head in the passage of the water through the Wellesley mains and 
the main leading to your stand-pipe. The water furnished by the filter- 
gallery and the well of the Wellesley water works at Williams Spring, so 
called, is of good quality for drinking and other domestic uses, but the 
quantity of water which these sources have furnished in the past has been 
insufficient for the supply of the town at all times. It is understood, liow- 
ever, tliat the town of Wellesley has recently completed additional works 
for obtaining water from the ground, and that a new covered reservoir has 
also been built. Under the circumstances, it may be practicable for the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 55 

town to furnish you an adequate supply of good water in addition to the 
amount that is needed for the supply of its present system ; and, if this is 
the case, the Board can see at present no objection, if mutually satisfactory 
arrangements can be made, to the plan of supplying the portion of Weston 
referred to from the works of the town of Wellesley, and is of the opinion 
that the proposed source would be an appropriate one for the portion of 
Weston which it is proposed to supply from it. 

West Springfield. An application was received from the water 
commissioners of West Springfield, Nov. 12, 1897, for the advice 
of the Board relative to increasing their supply. The Board replied 
to this application as follows : — 

Feb. 4, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Nov. 12, 1897, an 
application for advice as to increasing the water supply of West Spring- 
field, in which you state that, application having been made by the Boston 
«&; Albany Railroad Company for a supply of water for its use, an increase 
of the capacity of the town's water plant will be necessary in order to fur- 
nish a permanent supply, and that you are considering the plan of taking 
either Hyde Brook or the Massasoit (also known as Bear Hole) Spring, 
and connecting the new source with the present reservoir. You also state 
that, if the water is satisfactory, probably Hyde Brook would be the most 
practical source, under existing conditions. It is understood that the 
quantity of water that will be required to supply the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road may be in the vicinity of 200,000 gallons per day. 

No records of the consumption of water in the town are kept, and it is 
not practicable to determine definitely the capacity of the present sources 
of supply, but, owing to the small size of the water-sheds, it is not probable 
that they will furnish enough water to supply the town in the drier portion 
of a dry year. 

The Board has caused the proposed sources of supply and other possible 
sources in the neighborhood to be examined by one of its engineers, and 
samples of the water of these sources have been analyzed. The water of 
Hyde Brook is somewhat colored ; and it is not feasible to tell from these 
examinations, which were made at times when the flow of the brook was 
high, what the quality of tlie water may be in the drier portion of the year, 
though, so far as can be judged, they indicate that the quality of the water 
is likely to be fairly good, and the source does not appear to be exposed 
to pollution by sewage at the present time. This source has the advantage 
that its water could be used in connection with the present source by 
gravity ; but the flow of the stream is not known, though, judging from 
the small size of its water-shed, as measured from the State map, it is not 
probable that it would furnish a sufficient additional supply for the town, 



56 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

if water is also supplied to the railroad, as proposed, without storage. 
From a general examination of the water-shed, there does not appear to be 
a favorable site for a large storage reservoir. 

The water of Massasoit Spring is of excellent quality, and, while it is 
somewhat hard, its hardness might not be very objectionable if the water 
be mixed with that of the present source. The water of Bear Hole, or 
Black Brook, which flows near this spring, and forms also the outlet of 
Ashley Pond, one of the sources of supply of the city of Holyoke, may be 
of suitable quality for water supply purposes, though it is not practicable 
to make a definite statement with regard to the quality of this source, from 
the limited investigations thus far made. No measurements of the flow 
of the spring or brook in the drier portion of the year have been made, but 
it is possible that careful investigation would show that a suflScient addi- 
tional supply for West Springfield could be obtained from these sources, 
though it might be found less expensive to pump the water than to supply 
it by gravity. 

Examinations have also been made of Pepper Brook, the water-shed of 
which is contiguous to that of Hyde Brook on the south, and of Block 
Brook, the water-shed of which lies between the water-shed of Darby 
Brook, your present source, and Bear Hole or Black Brook, already re- 
ferred to. Pepper Brook would probably furnish a water of similar quality 
to that of Hyde Brook, though somewhat harder, and its water could prob- 
ably be used in connection with that of Hyde Brook by gravity ; but, in 
the absence of any knowledge as to the quantity of water flowing in this 
brook in the drier portion of the year, it is not feasible to tell whether it 
would furnish, in connection with Hyde Brook, a sufficient additional sup- 
ply for the town and railroad at all times, though, judging from the small 
size of the water-sheds of these brooks, it is not probable that they would 
furnish all the water required, unless additional storage can be provided. 

Block Brook appears to be at such an elevation that its w\ater could be 
turned into the water-shed of Darby Brook, your present source, by grav- 
ity, and the area of its water-shed at the place where it might be diverted 
is twice as large as those of Hyde and Pepper brooks combined. But there 
appear to be considerable areas of swampy land within the water-shed of 
this brook, and analyses of samples of its water show that it is highly colored 
and contains a large amount of organic matter, so that its water would prob- 
ably be objectionable for domestic uses. 

In order to determine which will be the most economical and otherwise 
satisfactory source or sources of additional supply for the town, it is neces- 
sary that you make further investigations, in order to determine the prob- 
able quantity and quality of water that the various sources may be depended 
upon to yield in connection with the present works, and the probable cost 
of works for obtaining a sufficient additional supply of water for the town 
from the sources which are found to be available. In order to obtain such 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOAVNS. 57 

information as is necessary to determine the best practicable method of 
increasing your water supply, the Board would advise that you employ an 
engineer of experience in matters relating to water supply to make the 
necessary investigations. 

The Board will, upon application, assist you in such further investi- 
gations as you may decide to make, by making analj^ses of samples of 
water, and will give you further advice in the matter when you have the 
results of further investigations to present. 

West Springfield. The Board of Health of West Springfield 
applied to the State Board of Health, March 17, 1898, requesting 
the opinion of the Board with reference to a proposed plan of using 
the water of the Agawam or Westfield Kiver in that town, in case 
of necessity, for extinguishing fires, the water to be pumped into 
the pipes of the public water supply. The Board replied to this 
application as follows : — 

April 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on March 19, 1898, a 
communication requesting the opinion of the Board as to the advisability 
of making a connection between a pump in a paper mill in the .village of 
Mittineague and the water supply pipes in that village, in order that at 
times of fire an extra supply of water maj^ be obtained and greater pressure 
secured than is furnished by the present system, by pumping water from 
a canal leading from the Agawam or Westfield River into the water pipes 
in the village. 

The Westfield River now receives the sewage of all of the thickly settled 
portions of the town of Westfield, which, at the last census, had a popula- 
tion of 10,663. The sewage is discharged, directly into the river, without 
treatment, chiefly at a point about 7 miles above the village of Mittineague, 
and the water of the river at the place at which it is proposed to take it 
would be very dangerous for drinking. If the proposed connection should 
be made, it might be found necessary or desirable to use the water at times 
for periods of several hours, and in consequence of this use the river water 
might flow through a considerable portion of the pipe system, and be used 
for drinking by many of the people of the village at such times. More- 
over, contamination from this source might remain in the pipes for a con- 
siderable time, even if they should be thoroughly flushed after the necessity 
for pumping water from the canal had passed. 

The Board, therefore, advises that the introduction of water from the 
Westfield River into the water supply pipes of the town should be avoided, 
by all means. 

West Springfield. An application was received from the water 
commissioners of West Springfield, May 8, 1898, for the advice 



58 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

of the Board in relation to the quality of the public water supply 
of that town. The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

June 3, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received fi'om you, on May 8, a communica- 
tion requesting an investigation and advice as to the quality of the water 
supplied to the town of West Springfield from tiie present works. 

In response to this request the Board has caused an examination of the 
sources of supply to be made by one of its engineers, and has examined 
the results of several analyses of samples of water. 

The results of analj^ses of samples of water from the reservoir show that 
the water is slightly colored and that it often has a vegetable and some- 
times a disagreeable odor, and that it contains at some seasons of the year 
a considerable amount of organic matter. This organic matter is largely 
in suspension in the form of microscopical organisms, and an examination 
of the reservoir shows that many of the larger Algse also grow in this 
water. 

A large quantity of ground water is diverted into the reservoir from a 
spring in another water-shed, and it is probable that a considerable quantity 
of ground water enters it from its own water-shed. It is known that 
organisms of various sorts thrive in ground water when exposed to light 
in an open reservoir, and it is probable that to this cause is due a large 
portion of the organic growths in this reservoir. 

The presence of such organisms as liave been found in this water makes 
it very objectionable in appearance, taste and odor, but it is not known 
that these organisms have an injurious effect upon the health of those who 
may use the water for drinking or cooking purposes. The reservoir does 
not appear to be exposed to pollution by sewage. 

If the soil about the shores of the reservoir is of gravel or coarse sand, 
it might be possible to construct filter-galleries or wells near tlie shores of 
the reservoir, and secure in this way practically all of the water which this 
source is capable of yielding ; but the capacity of the present works is 
insufficient to meet all requirements, and it is understood that investigations 
are at present being made with reference to an additional water supply for 
the town. Under the circumstances, it Avill probably be best, in selecting 
a source of supply, to secure one which will furnish a sufficient quantity of 
water to make it possible to avoid the use of the present reservoir, except- 
ing at times when the quality of the water is satisfactory. 

Analyses of samples of water collected from the well used to supply the 
village of Mittineague show that this water has at some time been polluted 
by sewage and subsequently well purified in its passage through the ground, 
so that the water, as shown by these analyses, is of good quality for the 
purposes of a public water supply. The pollution is probably due to houses 
and barns located at a considerable distance from the well, the drainage 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIP:S AND TOWNS. 59 

from which probably finds its way into the well. If proper care is exer- 
cised in the disposal of sewage from these buildings, and there is no con- 
siderable increase in population in this region, it is not probable that the 
buildings will cause any material injury to the water of the well. 

West Springfield. Another application was received from the 
water commissioners of West Springfield, Aug. 23, 1898, for the 
advice of the State Board of Health with reference to the protection 
and enlargement of the sources of water supply of the town. The 
Board replied to this application as follows : — 

Sept. 22, 1898. 
The State Board of Health received from you, on Aug. 23, 1898, a com- 
munication requesting its advice with reference to the protection and 
enlargement of the sources of water supply of the town of West Spring- 
field, in which your proposed plans are outlined as follows : — 

1 

The town by vote at a recent meeting referred the matter of " protection of 
sources of present water supply " to the commissioners. The board has decided 
on a plan to recommend to the town for adoption. A line has been run out around 
the land we propose taking, also the outline for another reservoir above the 
present one. A plan and description of same is nearly completed by the engi- 
neers. We ask that your Honorable Board will send an agent to view the premises 
as soon as convenient, that your Board may take as early action on the matter as 
possible. We desire a report trom your Board before calling a special meeting 
of the town to act on our report, if your recommendations are satisfactory all 
around, it is desirable to begin the work at the earliest possible time, that the town 
may receive the benefits in the spring. 

You have also submitted a plan showing the outline of your present 
reservoir, the outline of a new reservoir which you propose to construct 
upon Darby Brook by building a dam at the roadway which crosses the 
brook at the head of your present reservoir, and the outline of lands which 
you propose to take about the new reservoir. You also propose to enlarge 
your present reservoir by increasing the height of the dam so as to raise 
the surface at high water 4 feet above its present level. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer, and 
has carefully considered the proposed plans. 

It is evident that your present sources are inadequate to supply the large 
amount of water used for mechanical purposes, in addition to the quantity 
required for ordinary domestic and public uses and that an additional 
supply is necessary. 

The quality of the water of your present reservoir is at times objection- 
able for drinking and other uses, on account of disagreeable tastes and 
odors : and, in response to a request made by you, in May of the present 



60 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

year, for an investigatiou and advice as to the quality of your water supply, 
the Board replied as follows : — 

The results of analyses of samples of water from the reservoir show that the 
water is slightly colored and that it often has a vegetable and sometimes a dis- 
agreeable odor, and that it contains at some seasons of the year a considerable 
amount of organic matter. This organic matter is largely in suspension in the 
form of microscopical organisms, and an examination of the reservoir shows that 
many ot the larger Algae also grow in this water. 

A large quantity of ground water is diverted into the reserv^oir from a spring in 
another water-shed, and it is probable that a considerable quantity of ground water 
enters it from its own water-shed. It is known that organisms of various sorts 
thrive in ground water when exposed to light in an open reservoir, and it is prob- 
able that to this cause is due a large portion of the organic growths in this 
reservoir. 

The presence of such organisms as have been found in this water makes it very 
objectionable in appearance, taste and odor, but it is not known that these organisms 
have an injurious effect upon the health of those who may use the water for drink- 
ing or cooking purposes. The reservoir does not appear to be exposed to pollution 
by sewage. 

If the soil about the shores of the reservoir is of gravel or coarse sand, it might 
be possible to construct filter-galleries or wells near the shores of the reservoir, 
and secure in this way practically all of the water which this source is capable of 
yielding ; but the capacity of the present works is insufficient to meet all require- 
ments, and it is understood that investigations are at present being made with 
reference to an additional water supply for the town. Under the circumstances, 
it will probably be best, in selecting a source of supply, to secure one which will 
furnish a sufficient quantity of water to make it possible to avoid the use of the 
present reservoir, excepting at times when the quality of the water is satisfactory. 

By the plan you now propose, a larger quantity of water would be stored 
in reservoirs exposed to the light than is the case at present, and the water 
would be exposed to the light for a longer time. There would be, by this 
plan, no material change in the character of the water entering the reser- 
voirs, and, under the circumstances, it is probable that the water of these 
sources would be affected by the presence of large numbers of organisms, 
and would be objectionable at times on account of disagreeable tastes and 
odors. Moreover, while the construction of the proposed new reservoir 
and the raising of the height of your present reservoir would increase con- 
siderably the available supply from Darby Brook, it is not probable that, 
even with this increase, the quantity of water which these sources would 
furnish in a dry year would be sufficient to supply all of the water that the 
town will require if you continue to supply water for other than ordinary 
domestic and public uses. 

Under the circumstances, the Board does not at present advise the en- 
largement of your supply by the construction of a new reservoir and the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 61 

increase in the storage capacity of your present reservoir, as you now 
propose. 

In reply to an application with reference to increasing your water sup- 
ply, under date of Feb. 4, 1898, the Board advised that, in order to obtain 
such information as is necessary to determine the best practicable method 
of increasing your water supply, you employ an engineer of experience in 
matters relating to water supply to make the necessary investigations. 
There appear to be several sources in the vicinity of West Springfield 
from which a large supply of good water may be obtained, and, in the 
opinion of the Board, it will be for the interests of the town, before mak- 
ing a large outlay for increasing and protecting its sources of water sup- 
ply, to determine beforehand, as definitely as possible, the most appropriate 
source from which a further supply of water can be obtained, having in 
view the present needs and probable future requirements of the town ; and 
the Board would again urge, before any steps are taken for enlarging the 
supply, that a thorough investigation be made, under the direction of an 
engineer of experience in matters relating to water supply. 

The Board would again state that it will assist you in such an investiga- 
tion by making any further analyses of the various possible sources of 
supply that may be necessary, and will, upon application, give you further 
advice when you have the results of further investigations to present. 

Whitman. An application was received from the water commis- 
sioners of Whitman, Nov. 18, 1898, for the advice of the Board 
relative to the propriety of taking the water of JSIaquam Pond as a 
source of supply for the town, instead of the present source. The 
Board replied to this application as follows : — 

Jan. 5, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Nov. 18, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to a proposed source of water sup- 
plj' for the town of Whitman, in which you state that you propose to take 
water from Maquam Pond, located in the town of Hanson, about 5 miles 
from Whitman. You also state that, while Maquam Pond is not large, 
you believe that it will furnish a supply of water for Whitman for many 
years in the future, and that it can be supplemented, when necessary, by 
other sources at a greater distance from the town. It appears that the 
average daily consumption of water in Whitman during 1898 has been 
less than 150,000 gallons, and that the population of the town may be 
about 6,500. The proposed new supply will take the place of the sources 
now used, which furnish water which is not only of very poor quality, but 
is unsafe for drinking, on account of pollution by sewage. 

The question as to whether Maquam Pond is a suitable source of water 
supply for Whitman was considered by this Board in response to an ap- 



62 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

plication from your board in 1893 ; and on May 4, 1893, after an examina- 
tion of this pond and other sources in the viciuit}', the Board advised as 
follows with reference to the capacity of Maquam Pond : — 

It is not feasible to tell, from the information at present available, whether or 
not Maquam Pond will furnish suflBcient water to meet the requirements of the 
town of Whitman even in the near future, and this source should not, therefore, 
be adopted in any case without making provision for supplementing the supply 
from some other source when necessary. In order to form an opinion as to 
whether this pond will furnish enough water to warrant taking a supply from 
it in the beginning, it would be necessary for you to ascertain by surveys the 
size of the water-shed from which its supply is derived, and to make investiga- 
tions to determine how much, if any, water is liable to be lost by filtration through 
the ground into other ponds. 

The quantity of water used by Whitman increased considerably for three 
years after the last reply was made ; but during the last two 3^ears the use 
of water from the public supply has fallen off greatly, due, probably, in a 
considerable degree, to the poor quality of the water supplied from the 
public works. 

The Board has caused a further examination of Maquam Pond and its 
surroundings to be made by its engineer, and has caused several samples 
of the water to be analyzed. The results of these analyses give practically 
the same indications as to the probable quality of the water as the results 
of the analysis made by this Board in response to your former application. 
They show that the water of Maquam Pond is very soft, practically color- 
less, and in most respects a very satisfactory pond water. The sample 
analyzed in 1893, and one of the samples collected recently, wei'e found, 
however, to contain a considerable number of organisms, of kinds which 
impart to water a disagreeable taste and odor. It is not practicable 
to tell, from the limited number of examinations thus far made, whether 
troubles from this cause are likely to be of frequent or regular occurrence, 
though it seems hardly probable that in a pond of this character such 
troubles will be serious or long continued. 

With regard to the quantity of water that this source will yield, it does 
not appear that any further information has been obtained since the matter 
Avas last considered by the Board ; and such further investigations as it 
has been practicable for the Board to make are insufficient to show at all 
definitely the probable quantity of water which this source will yield. The 
pond is situated at a considerably higher elevation than other ponds in the 
vicinity, and it is surrounded by gravelly soil ; so that the conditions ap- 
pear to be favorable for the filtration of water from the pond through the 
ground toward other ponds at lower levels, and there is some evidence 
that a large amount of water is lost from the pond in this way. ll is 
reasonable to expect that, with the introduction of an ample supply of 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 63 

soft, clear and nearly colorless water, a marked increase would occur in 
the use of water from the public works in Whitman ; and, judging from 
the information at present available as to the capacity of Maquam Pond 
and the size of its water-shed, it is doubtful, in the opinion of the Board, 
whether the yield of the source would be sufficient for the supply of the 
town, even if no considerable quantity of water is lost by filtration, should 
a series of dry years occur in the near future. The only way in which the 
capacity of this pond can be determined is by making a survey to learn 
the extent of the water-shed, and by making investigations to determine 
how much, if any, water is lost by filtration through the ground to ponds 
at lower levels, as advised in the previous reply of the Board. 

With regard to supplementing the supply from other sources, as sug- 
gested in your application, the investigations by the Board indicate that 
it is practicable to obtain an ample additional supply from Oldham Pond, 
which is distant at the nearest place about 1,900 feet from Maquam Pond. 
Monthly analyses of the water of Oldham Pond, made during the year 
1898, indicate that it is at times highly colored and contains a large quan- 
tity of organic matter ; but in the latter part of the winter and in the spring 
the water had onl}^ a moderate color, and was in other respects of good 
quality. By pumping water from Oldham Pond into Maquam Pond during 
the winter and spring seasons, when the quality of the water of Oldham 
Pond is at its best, and by discharging this water into Maquam Pond at 
some place remote from the place from which the water is drawn out, 
thereby allowing the water to mingle thoroughl}' with that of Maquam 
Pond and receive all the benefit practicable from storage in Maquam Pond, 
an ample supply of water for Whitman could undoubtedly be obtained, 
and it is .not likely that the quality of the water of Maquam Pond would 
be affected in any noticeably unfavorable degree by the introduction into 
it of water from Oldham Pond. 

In selecting a new source of water supply, it appears to the Board desir- 
able for you to consider the feasibility of obtaining a supply from, or in 
connection with, the towns of Abington and Rockland, which at present 
take their supply of water from Big Sandy Pond. 

The water of Big Sandy Pond has always been of good quality, and that 
pond is capable of supplying considerably more water than is now used by 
the three towns of Rockland, Abington and Whitman. The main pipe 
which supplies Abington and Rockland passes near the town of Whitman ; 
and, if these works are capable of furnishing a suitable supply of water to 
Whitmau, in addition to the other towns at all times, the town of Whitman 
might obtain a satisfactory water supply from these works at less expense 
than in any other way. 

While the need for a new water supply in Whitmau is urgent, owing to 
the great danger to the health of the inhabitants of the town from the use 
of the present sewage-polluted sources, and while considerable time may 



64 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

be consumed in making further investigations, the Board is, nevertheless, 
of the opinion that it will be for the best interests of the town to make 
such investigations as are necessary to determine the best source of supply 
available for the town, before deciding upon its future source of water 
supply. 

The Board would, therefore, advise the town of Whitman to investigate 
the feasibility of obtaining a supply from, or in connection with, the towns 
of Abington and Rockland ; and that at the same time you cause an investi- 
gation to be made, with the assistance of an engineer of experience in mat- 
ters relating to water supply, to determine the area of the water-shed of 
Maquam Pond, the probable quantity of water, if any, that may be lost by 
filtration therefrom, and the probable cost of obtaining a supply of water 
from Maquam Pond, supplemented, when necessary in the future, by water 
pumped from Oldham Pond into Maquam Pond. It is important, also, 
that frequent analyses be made of the water of Maquam Pond. 

A good ground-water supply, owing to its freedom from color, taste and 
odor, would be more satisfactory than a surface-water supply; and the 
conditions appear to be very favorable for obtaining a ground-water supply 
from the vicinity of Maquam Pond, and there are indications that it may 
be possible to obtain such a supply from the ground near Oldham Pond. 
In view of these conditions, the Board would advise that you include in 
your investigations an examination of the ground in the vicinity of Maquam 
and Oldham ponds, and, if the conditions are found to be favorable for 
obtaining a satisfactory supply in this way, that you cause an estimate to 
be made of the probable cost of obtaining a supply of water for Whitman 
from the ground in the vicinity of one of these ponds. 

The Board will assist you in these investigations by making such analyses 
of samples of water as may be necessary, if you will collect the samples, 
and will, upon application, give you further advice in this matter when you 
have the results of further investigations to present. 

Whitman (the Commonwealth Shoe and Leather Company) . An 
application was received, Nov. 29, 1898, from the Commonwealth 
Shoe and Leather Company of Whitman, for the advice of the Board 
relative to the use of the water of certain wells which had been 
driven upon the premises of the corporation. The Board replied to 
this application as follows : — 

Jan. 5, 1899. 

The State Board of Health has carefully considered your application for 
advice as to whether the water drawn from seveu driven wells located at 
the northerly side of your factory in tlie village of Whitman is suitable for 
drinking. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer, and 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 65 

several samples of water have been collected from the wells for analysis. 
The results of the analyses show that, at the time these samples were col- 
lected, the water was nearly clear and colorless and free from odor, but 
that it was hard, and contained an excessive amount of nitrates and chlorine, 
showing that much of the water entering the wells has at some time been 
highly polluted by sewage, and it is evident that the water has not been 
wholly purified in its passage through the ground to the wells. 

The town of Whitman has no sewerage system, and the sewage from 
buildings in the region about the wells is collected in cess-pools and similar 
receptacles, or discharged upon the ground, thus greatly polluting the 
ground water. Experience with wells in similar situations indicates that 
the quality of the water is likely to deteriorate with continuous use. 

Under the circumstances, these wells cannot be regarded as a safe source 
from which to take water for drinking, and the Board would advise that 
the use of the water for this purpose be avoided, and that water of known 
purity be supplied to the employees of your factory for drinking. 

Wilmington. An application was received from the board of 
health of Wilmington, Nov. 17, 1898, requesting that an examination 
should be made of the water of a well intended for use as drinking 
water in a new school-house being erected in that town. The Board 
replied to this request as follows : — 

Jan. 5, 1899. 

The State Board of Health has considered your application for advice 
with reference to the quality of the water of a well newly dug and intended 
to supply drinking water for a new school-house in the north district of 
Wilmington. 

The Board has caused an examination of the well and its surroundings 
to be made and a sample of the water to be analyzed. The water of the 
well had a very strong and offensive odor at the time the sample was col- 
lected, and the analysis indicates that the water entering the well has been 
considerably polluted by sewage, and has not yet been purified in its pas- 
sage through the ground. 

The indications .are that the pollution comes from a drain which passes 
under the road near the well, since the waters of this drain appear to re- 
ceive pollution from buildings situated not far from the well. 

In view of the cii'cumstances, this source must be regarded as a dan- 
gerous one from which to take water for drinking, and the Board would 
advise that the use of water from this source for drinking be prevented. 

Sewerage and Sewage Disposal. 
The following is the substance of the action of the Board during 
the past year in reply to applications relative to sewerage and sewage 
disposal : — 



6Q STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Andover. The sewer commissioners of Andover applied to the 
Board, March 19, 1898, for its approval, under chapter 386 of the 
Acts of 1895, of a system of sewerage and sewage disposal for that 
town. The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

Mat 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on March 21, 1898, an 
application requesting the approval of a proposed plan of sewerage and 
sewage disposal for the town of Andover, under the authority of chapter 
375 of the Acts of 1888, and chapter 386 of the Acts of 1895. The plan 
proposed by you is described in your application as follows : — 

The system proposed is the separate system, i. e., for sewage only. The entire 
system includes about 23.9 miles. The proposed outlet is into the Merrimack 
River, at or near the mouth of the Shawsheen River. 

A general description of the system is as follows : starting at the Merrimack 
River, at or near the mouth of the Shawsheen River, thence through private land, 
in a general south-westerly direction, along the southerly side of the Shawsheen 
River to Haverhill or Lowell Street in Andover. Said line passes through a part 
of North Andover and Lawrence, thence in a westerly direction on Haverhill or 
Lowell Street to Main Street, thence in a southerly direction on Main Street to 
the top of the hill at the Andover Seminary. A branch sewer enters the main 
sewer at Marland Street. This branch sewer is described as follows : starting 
at the junction of Main and Marland streets, thence in a general southerly direc- 
tion through Marland and Mineral streets and private land to Ballardvale. 

Into this main and branch sewer lead the lateral sewers, in sizes from 6 to 12 
inches. 

The main sewer from the Merrimack River to a point on Main Street near the 
Shawsheen River is a 24 inch pipe. The remainder is 20, 15, 12, 10 and 8 inch. 
The Ballardvale sewer is a 15 and 12 inch pipe. The plans submitted show the 
sizes of pipes and direction of flow of the sewage. The 24 inch has a grade of 
1 foot in 1,000 feet. The lateral sewers have good grades. 

A plan is submitted, showing the size of pipes and direction of flow. 

The town of Andover, through its sewer commissioners, hereby ask your ap- 
proval of the proposed plan for a system of sewerage, as required under chapter 
386 of the Acts of 1895. 

The blue lines on the said plan show the part of the system the town proposes 
to build in 1898, about 7 miles. 

The town proposes to con.struct a settling tank and filter beds at a point on the 
Shawsheen River near where the Boston & Maine Railroad crosses said river, 
and to discharge the purified sewage or water into the Shawsheen River at said 
point ; this outlet and method to be temporary. Plans showing in detail the pro- 
posed settling tank, filter beds and outlet, will be submitted to the State Board 
of Health. The town of Andover, through its sewer commissioners, hereby peti- 
tion the State Board of Health for permission or license to drain temporarily into 
said Shawsheen River, said permit to contain such restrictions as said Board of 
Health may see fit to impose. . . . 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 67 

The application was accompanied by a plan, showing the proposed sys- 
tem and the portion of it which it is proposed to construct in the begin- 
ning. Plans were also submitted, on a subsequent date, showing the 
proposed temporary settling tank and filter beds on the southerly bank 
of the Shawsheen River, just east of the Boston & Maine Railroad. 

The system as designed provides for collecting the sewage of all of the 
thickly settled portion of the town, for which sewerage facilities are likely 
to be necessary, into a main sewer in the valley of the Shawsheen River 
in the vicinity of Frye Village, from which it is proposed to continue the 
main sewer along the easterly side of the Shawsheen River to a place of 
discharge into the Merrimack River, just below the mouth of the Shaw- 
sheen River. It is proposed in the beginning to construct this main sewer 
down to a proposed temporary filtration area near the place where the Bos- 
ton & Maine Railroad crosses the Shawsheen River, and to purify it there 
by means of a settling tank and filter beds, and discharge the eflSuent into 
the Shawsheen River. 

The Board has carefully considered the plans submitted, and has caused 
the examination of the locality to be made by its engineers. 

In the course of examinations in this region, it appeared that good soil 
for the filtration of sewage could be found on higher land on both sides 
of the river in the vicinity of the proposed temporary disposal works ; and 
it was suggested that a further investigation be made, to determine whether 
there was a sufl3cient area of suitable land in this vicinity for the disposal 
of all of the sewage of the town. Subsequently, a plan was submitted 
showing the contour of the land that appeared to be available for sewage- 
disposal purposes, and your engineers also submitted samples of the soil 
from many test pits upon this area, together with estimates of the cost 
of disposing of the sewage of the town by pumping it to filter beds upon 
this area, as compared with the estimated cost of conveying the sewage 
to a point of discharge into the Merrimack River. 

According to the estimates of cost submitted, it appears that the cost 
to the town of disposing of the sewage by pumping it to filter beds upon 
the area of higher laud near the Shawsheen River would probably be less 
for many years than the cost of conveying the sewage to the Merrimack 
River ; but these estimates indicate that, if a longer period is taken into 
consideration, it might be cheaper to adopt in the beginning the plan of 
conveying the sewage to the Merrimack River. 

It appears to the Board that, with the growth of population in the valley 
of the Merrimack River and the consequent pollution of the stream from 
the many cities, towns and factories upon it which discharge sewage into 
the stream, the time is likely to come when some method of purification 
of the sewage will have to be adopted ; and, in estimating upon the prob- 
able future cost of the Merrimack River outlet, the possibility that Andover 
may still in time find it necessary to purify its sewage, even if conveyed 



68 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pul). Doc. 

to the Merrimack River, should be taken into consideration, especially as 
there is a section in its sewerage act providing for the prevention of a 
nuisance from the discharge of its sewage into the river in the vicinity of 
North Andover. Under the circumstances, it is probable that, even in the 
long run, it will be more economical for the town to purify its sewage in 
the beginning. 

The estimates of cost of disposing of the sewage by filtration are based 
upon a plan which provides for conveying all of the sewage by gravity 
through a sewer in the valley of the Shawsheen River to a point near the 
filtration area, and there pumping it to the height necessary for disposing 
of it upon the area. It appears to be possible, from a general examina- 
tion of the territory, to collect the sewage from nearly all of the town that 
is said to i-equire sewerage facilities at present, and to convey it to the 
possible filtration area near the Shawsheen River by gravity at such an 
elevation that nearly all of the best portions of the area would be available 
for the disposal of sewage without pumping. If this plan is feasible, its 
adoption might effect a considerable saving of cost to the town in disposing 
of its sewage. It would still be necessary, however, to provide some means 
of disposing of the sewage from the lower levels in the town. Two methods 
appear to be practicable ; one by constructing a sewer in the valley of the 
Shawsheen River, to discharge upon artificial filter beds constructed on the 
lower portions of the filtration area, and the other by providing a pumping 
plant for pumping the sewage from the lower levels in the town into the 
hish-level main sewer. It is understood that sewerage facilities are not 
required at present by the village of Ballardvale or by Frye Village ; and, 
if this is the case, the quantity of sewage which would have to be disposed 
of from the low levels would be likely to be very small, in the beginning 
at least. 

In view of all the circumstances, the Board does not at present approve 
the plans submitted, but advises that you give the matter further consid- 
eration, to determine whether it will not be more satisfactory and econom- 
ical for the town to dispose of its sewage by filtration within its own limits 
than it would be to construct a sewer to convey the sewage to the Merri- 
mack River. The Board will give the matter prompt consideration when 
you have the results of further investigations to present. 



On May 18, 1898, the sewer commissioners again applied to the 
Board for approval of a system of sewerage and sewage disposal, in- 
volving filtration of the sewage upon a tract of land near the Shaw- 
sheen River, and east of the Boston & Maine Railroad in that town. 
After a public hearing, duly advertised, had been held, on June 2, 
1898, as required by chapter 124 of the Acts of 1890, the Board 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 69 

replied to the application of the Andover sewer commissioners as 
follows : — 

June 8, 1898. 

The State Board of Health i-eceived from you, on May 20, 1898, an 
apphcation giving notice of your intention to introduce a system of sew- 
erage in the town of Andover, and submitting your proposed plans for the 
advice and approval of this Board, under the authority of chapter 375 of 
the Acts of 1888 and chapter 386 of the Acts of 1895. You also request 
the approval of the Board, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 50, 
section 1, of the Public Statutes, as amended by chapter 124 of the Acts 
of 1890, of the taking of certain lands within the limits of the town of 
Andover for sewage-disposal purposes. 

The plans provide for a system of sewers, designed to take sewage only, 
connecting with a main sewer which will convey the sewage by gravity to 
a proposed filtration area located on the easterly side of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad, and on both sides of the Shawsheen River, just south of 
the boundary line between the town of Andover and the city of Lawrence. 
A portion of the main village and the villages of Ballardvale and Frye 
Village are situated at so low a level that the sewage from these districts 
cannot be discharged into the main sewer by gravity. It is proposed to 
collect the sewage of these districts at a pumping station to be located on 
Main Street on the easterly side of the Shawsheen River, and to pump the 
sewage from this place into the main sewer. In connection with this pump- 
ing station it is proposed to provide an overflow or waste pipe leading to 
the Shawsheen River in the vicinity of Main Street, in order to discharge 
sewage into the Shawsheen River in case of emergency. It is understood 
that this overflow or discharge pipe is to be used only in cases of emergency, 
such as an accident to pumps, pumping station or force main, and it is not 
for frequent or regular use. 

The route of the proposed main sewer from the town to the filtration 
area lies across a valley. From the corner of High Street and Fray's Road 
to the filtration area, a distance of about 5,467 feet, the sewer is to be laid 
in the form of an inverted siphon, and is to be constracted of iron pipe. 
At the lowest point in this siphon it is proposed to construct a blow-oflf, 
for the purpose of emptying the pipe if necessary ; and it is proposed to 
take a small area of land and to construct a filter bed at this place, to re- 
ceive the sewage that may be discharged from this blow-off. At the filtra- 
tion area the main sewer is to discharge into a settling tank, in connection 
with which it is proposed to provide a flush tank to discharge the sewage 
intermittently upon the filter beds. 

It is proposed to prepare twenty filter beds in the beginning, covering an 
area of 4 acres, and to provide underdrains beneath those beds to collect 
the effluent and convey it to pipes leading to a small brook which flows 



70 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

through the proposed filtration area and discharges into the Shawsheeu 
River. It is also proposed to prepare about 2 acres along the side of a 
steep hill, with ditches from 10 to 20 feet apart, along the sides of the hill, 
into which sewage can be discharged when necessary. It is proposed to 
provide a system of underdrainage for this bed similar to that of the beds 
referred to above, and to discharge the effluent into the brook. Two 
sludge beds are also to be prepared, to receive sludge from the settling 
tank. It is understood that, aside from the proposed overflow or discharge 
pipe at the pumping station already referred to, which may be used in case 
of emergency, no crude or unpurified sewage is to be discharged into the 
Shawsheen River, or any stream or water course tributary thereto. 

The Board has considered the proposed plans, and concludes that they 
are, in general, adapted to the disposal in a satisfactory manner of the 
sewage from the districts in the town of Andover for which it is proposed 
to provide sewerage facilities. It appears that only a limited portion of 
the lower districts in the town are likely to require sewerage for several 
years ; and the proposed method of disposing of the sewage from these 
areas by collecting it at a pumping station on Main Street, near the Shaw- 
sheen River, and pumping it into the main sewer leading from the town to 
the filtration area, is probably, under the circumstances, the best that it is 
practicable to adopt. If it becomes necessary in the future to materially 
extend the sewers in these districts, it may be found desirable to change 
somewhat the proposed plans ; but the consideration of other possible 
methods of disposing of the sewage from these districts may properly be 
omitted until there is need of much more extensive sewerage facilities than 
it is pi'oposed to provide in this region in the beginning. 

The Board hereby approves the proposed plan of sewerage and sewage 
disposal for the town of Andover, as herein described, under the provisions 
of chapter 386 of the Acts of 1895. 

It is very important that all storm water be kept out of the sewers ; and, 
by providing underdrains beneath the sewers to carry off ground water, as 
proposed, the quantity of sewage to be disposed of can be made smaller 
than would otherwise be the case, and a smaller area of filter beds will be 
required. 

The velocity of flow through the inverted siphon may not be sufficient, 
in the beginning at least, to prevent deposits ; but the proposed blow-off 
at the lowest point in this siphon will make it practicable to flush out the 
siphon from time to time, if it becomes necessary. There would be more 
certainty of the satisfactory operation of the siphon at all times, if means 
were taken to prevent the entrance of large substances which might tend 
to clog it. 

In response to the request contained in your application for the approval 
of the Board of the purchase or taking of certain lands for sewage-disposal 
purposes, described in your application and shown upon a plan submitted, 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 71 

the State Board of Health gave notice that a public hearing upon this 
matter would be given at its office on June 2, 1898, as required by chapter 
50, section 1, of the Public Statutes, as amended by chapter 124 of the 
Acts of 1890. At this hearing no person appeared to oppose the taking 
of the lands referred to for sewage-disposal purposes ; and the Board 
hereby approves the purchase or taking by the town of Andover, for the 
purification and disposal of the sewage of the said town, of laud bordering 
the easterly side of the Boston & Maine Railroad, just south of the boundary 
line between the town of Andover and the city of Lawrence, and of another 
lot of laud located in the vicinity of the proposed blow-off from the main 
sewer and adjoining laud now owned by the town of Andover, as shown 
upon a plan submitted. May 20, 1898, entitled, " Plan of Proposed Siphon 
and Filter Area of Andover, Mass., May 12, 1898. McClintock & Wood- 
fall, Civil Engineers," said land being described in your application as 
follows : — 

The main area for filtration is described as follows : beginning at a point in the 
easterly line of the location of the Boston & Maine Railroad, thence running 
parallel to the Lawrence city line and 5 feet southerly therefrom S. 68° 16' E — 
2,118.0 feet ; thence S. 25° 19' W — 601.2 feet : thence S. 59^ 13' W — 789.9 feet to 
the aforesaid easterly line of the Boston & Maine Railroad ; thence following said 
easterly line of the Boston & Maine Railroad northerly 2,015.9 feet to the point 
of beginning. 

The area for filtration at the blow-off of the siphon line is described as follows : 
beginning at the south-easterly comer of said area, at a point where the line of 
the proposed sewer crosses the boundary wall between land of George Mander 
and land of the town of Andover, thence running in a westerly direction along the 
line of said wall 175 feet to the boundary wall between the aforesaid land of George 
Mander and land of David Middleton, thence running in a northerly direction 
along said wall 161 feet, thence running in an easterly direction 174 feet to the 
aforesaid line of proposed sewer, thence in a southerly direction 195 feet to the 
point of beginning. 

Attleborough. The selectmen of Attleborough applied to the 
Board, June 24, 1897, for its advice relative to a proposed system 
of sewerage and sewage disposal for that town, to which the Board 
replied as follows : — 

Jan. 27, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, June 25, 1897, an appli- 
cation for advice with reference to a proposed system of sewerage and 
sewage disposal for the town of Attleborough, in which you refer to a 
report and plans made by engineers employed by the town, which you 
submitted with the application. 

The plan first proposed provided for disposing of the sewage from the 
present sewers in Union and County streets, by pumping the dry-weather 



72 STATP: board of health. [Pub. Doc. 

flow of the County Street sewer into the Union Street sewer, and extend- 
ing the latter sewer to a tract of low land having an area of about 10 acres 
in the vicinity of the Ten-mile River near Tiffany Street, upon which area it 
was proposed to dispose of this sewage by filtration. Upon an examina- 
tion of this land, however, it was found that the soil consisted of a deep 
layer of loam and subsoil, beneath which the material was a very fine sand, 
so that the disposal of any considerable quantity of sewage upon this area 
would be impracticable ; and a further plan was then prepared and sub- 
mitted to the Board on Jan. 1, 1898. By this plan it is proposed to col- 
lect the sewage from the Union Street and County Street sewers, together 
with other sewage from the district, at a location between the railroad and 
the river about opposite the end of Manchester Street, and to pump the 
dry-weather flow to a proposed filtration area in the vicinity of Tiffany 
Street, adjoining the area already referred to, but situated at a higher 
elevation. 

The works now proposed are intended to form a part of a general sys- 
tem of sewerage for the town of Attleborough. One of the essential 
features of this system is the collection of the sewage from several pro- 
posed sewer districts in the town, by means of sewers converging at the 
lowest point in each district, from which it is to be pumped into a force 
main leading to the proposed filtration area near Tiffany Street. It is 
proposed in the beginning to pump only the dry-weather flow of the sewers 
now built, which drain an area which will form a part of District No. 1 of 
the proposed plan, to the proposed filtration area, allowing the excess of 
flow of mingled sewage and water at times of rains or thaws to discharge 
into the river. 

It is also proposed at first to provide only a limited pumping capacity, 
but to construct a force main having a diameter of 12 inches, which is 
large enough to provide for removing a much larger quantity of sewage 
than the dry-weather flow of the present sewers, which is thought to be 
about 150,000 gallons per day, though it is understood that the dry-weather 
flow has not been definitely determined. 

The Board has examined the proposed plans, and has caused an exami- 
nation of the land which it is proposed to use for filtration purposes to be 
made by one of its engineers, and finds that it is well adapted to the pur- 
pose, both in its location and in the character of the soil, which is excel- 
lent for the disposal of sewage by intermittent filtration, and that the area 
is of such size as to be capable of providing for the disposal of the sewage 
of Attleborough for many years in the future. 

The rate at which you propose to pump sewage through the force main 
appears to be so small that deposits are likely to occur in the i)ipe and 
cause serious trouble, nor does it appear to be feasible to secure a greater 
velocity through the pipe at any time for flushing purposes. It is very 
desirable that such change be made in the plan as will avoid this diflSculty. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 73 

With regard to the other features of the proposed plan, no details have 
been submitted showing the proposed method of construction and opera- 
tion of the force main, storage reservoii's, ejector or pumping stations or 
other essential features, nor have plans been submitted showing the pro- 
posed systems of street sewers. 

The present sewers, as already stated, receive both sewage and storm 
water from a large district, and it is proposed to pump only the dry-weather 
flow of these sewers, allowing the excess at times of storms and thaws to 
discharge into the stream. This is a very objectionable feature of the pro- 
posed plan, since, if this plan is used, a considerable quantity of sewage 
will still be discharged into the stream at times of storms or thaws ; and, 
in order to be sure of pumping the maximum dry-weather flow of the sew- 
age at all times, and avoiding the discharge of sewage under ordinary 
conditions into the stream, it will be necessary at other times to pump 
considerable quantities of storm water, thus increasing the cost of pump- 
ing. Moreover, the disposal of the mingled sewage and storm water will 
require a larger area of filter beds than will be required if sewage only is 
discharged upon them, and there would be more difficulty in disposing of 
the sewage upon the beds, especially in cold weather, when its temperature 
is reduced by the admission of storm water. 

The information furnished as to the method of construction and opera- 
tion of the proposed system of sewerage for the town of Attleborough is 
not sufficient to enable the Board to advise as to whether this plan is the 
most economical and otherwise appropriate for the town of Attleborough 
to adopt. In the opinion of the Board, however, it is very desirable that, 
whatever plan be adopted, the storm water be kept separate from the sew- 
age in making future extensions, and that sewers for conveying sewage 
only be constructed to receive the sewage which is now discharged into the 
existing storm water sewers. 

The Board would advise that, before constructing partial works, as pro- 
posed, the whole matter be given further consideration, in order that the 
most feasible and economical plan may be selected, having in view both 
the present needs and probable future requirements of the town in the 
matter of sewerage, drainage and sewage disposal. 

The Brockton Hospital Company. An application was re- 
ceived from the Brockton Hospital Company, Aug. 19, 1898, for 
the advice of the Board relative to a proposed plan of sewage dis- 
posal for that institution. The Board replied to this application as 
follows : — 

Sept. 1, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Aug. 19, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to a proposed system of sewage dis- 
posal for the Brockton hospital, accompanied by a plan and general descrip- 



74 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

tion of the proposed works. The present method of disposing of the sewage 
is by means of cess-pools, and it is not satisfactory, on account of the 
character of the soil, which is fine and compact. Owing to the distance of 
the hospital from the thickly settled portion of the city, it is not practi- 
cable, under present conditions, to dispose of the sewage in connection 
with the general system of the city. 

Your proposed plan provides for collecting the sewage in a storage and 
flush tank having a capacity of about 2,000 gallons, which will discharge 
its contents automatically upon four filter beds, having an aggregate area 
of about 2,000 square feet, which are to be constructed upon the hospital 
grounds, of sand to be hauled from a sand bank about one mile away. 

The proposed filter beds are to have a depth of 4|^ feet, and the eflauent 
is to be collected in underdrains, which will discharge through a single pipe 
into a small pond near the filter bed. The quantity of sewage at present 
produced by the hospital is not definitely known, but is probably somewhat 
less than 2,000 gallons per day. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engineers 
and has carefully considered the proposed plans. 

Examinations of the sand in the sand bank from which it is proposed to 
take the material for the construction of the filter beds indicate that mate- 
rial of excellent quality for this purpose can be obtained from this sand 
bank, and, if the most suitable material is used, the proposed filter beds 
will be of sufficient size for the disposal of the sewage of the hospital, even 
though the quantity of sewage becomes somewhat greater than it appears 
to be at present. 

The proposed method of disposing of the effluent from the underdrains 
beneath the filters, by discharging it directly into a small pond near the 
filter beds, might foster large growths of Algae and similar organisms in 
this pond, which would make it unsightly and perhaps objectionable under 
the circumstances. It appears to be practicable to lay a pipe to convey 
the effluent to a small stream below the ponds on the hospital grounds, or 
possibly to drain these ponds by constructing a suitable drainage channel 
leading to a stream a short distance away, and the Board would recommend 
that the effluent be discharged into the stream in the valley below the lower 
pond unless the ponds are suitably drained. 

The Board is of the opinion that the plan in general, with the modifi- 
cations suggested as to the disposal of the effluent, is a suitable one for 
the disposal of the sewage of the Brockton hospital, under the present 
circumstances. 

Concord. A communication was received, June 30, 1898, from 
the sewer commissioners of the town of Concord, giving notice of 
their intention to construct and maintain a system of sewerage in that 
town, under the authority of chapter 151 of the Acts of 1895 ; at the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 75 

same time submitting plans and a general description of the proposed 
system and the location of land to be taken for sewage disposal, for 
the consideration and approval of the State Board of Health. The 
Board replied to this communication as follows : — 

Aug. 10, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on June 30, 1898, a com- 
munication giving notice of your intention to construct and maintain a 
system of sewerage in the town of Concord, and you have submitted plans 
and a general description of the proposed system, and the location of lands 
to be taken for the purpose of sewage disposal, for the consideration and 
approval of the State Board of Health, under the authority of chapter 151 
of the Acts of 1895. The description of the proposed system submitted 
by you is as follows : — 

Outline of Concord Seiverage System accompanyiyig Plans submitted to the State 
Board of Health by the Concord Sewer Commissioners. 

The general arrangement of pipe sewers for the town of Concord is clearly set 
forth on the plan entitled "Preliminary Plan of Sewerage System for the Town 
of Concord, Mass." Briefly outlined, the system can be described as follows : — 

The pipe sewers cover three general districts, the first, the north-easterly por- 
tion of the town, comprising all of that portion of the town Ij'ing to the north and 
east of the junction of Main Street and Sudbury Road, and of Stow Street and 
Hubbard Street. The sewers of this district are all tributary to the main 10-inch 
sewer running through Lowell Road from Main Street to the pumping station lot 
near the Boston & Maine Railroad track, and discharge into the main storage well 
and screen chamber opposite the pumping station. 

The second district comprises the central portion of the town, lying south of the 
Sudbury River, west of the junction of Main Street and Sudbury Road and of Stow 
Street and Hubbard Street, and east of the junction of Main Street and Elm Street. 
This entire district is tributary to the 10-inch sewer running through Xashawtuc 
Road from Main Street to a collecting chamber on the southerly side of the Sud- 
bury River, just east of Nashawtuc bridge. 

The third district comprises the territory west of the junction of Main and Elm 
streets, and is tributary to the 8-inch sewer running from the junction of River and 
Elm streets westerly along Elm Street to the collecting chamber on the east side 
of the Sudbury River and north of the Elm Street bridge. 

It may be said, in general, in regard to the pipe-sewer system, that it is a separate 
system, with minimum grades of 1 per cent, on 6-inch lines and \ per cent, on 
8-inch lines, flush tanks being placed at the heads of lines with grades flatter than 
2 per cent. 

The collecting chamber and river crossing at Elm Street is clearly set forth in 
the detailed plan therefor, the collecting chamber having a capacity of approxi- 
matelj' 1,700 gallons. ■ By means of a flush tank it will be automatically discharged 
intermittently. 

The collecting chamber and river crossing east of Nashawtuc bridge is also 
clearly set forth in the detailed plan therefor, which provides for a chamber of 



76 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

approximately 7,400 gallons capacity, discharging intermittently. The river 
crossing near the Boston & Maine Railroad bridge is also shown in detail. 

A detailed plan shows the general arrangement of the screen chamber and 
storage well to be built opposite the pumping station. Briefly stated, the storage 
well is a circular well, 60 feet internal diameter, with 24-iuch brick walls laid in 
Portland cement mortar, covered by a concrete groined elliptical arch roof with 
a Portland cement concrete segmental groined arch bottom, draining toward the 
screen well, from the bottom of which runs the suction pipe leading to the pumps 
in the pumping station. The two pumps of 1,000,000 gallons capacity per twenty- 
four hours each, placed in said pumping station, will discharge the sewage through 
a 10-inch cast-iron force main laid along the line of the Boston & Maine Railroad 
location upon sand filtration beds, to be constructed upon the land at the easterly 
end of the Lang estate, a plan of which is submitted herewith. 

Of the filtration lands shown upon the accompanying plans, it is proposed to 
acquire not less than 10 acres that shall be suitable for filtration purposes, upon 
which shall be prepared and constructed for present use such filter beds of about 
one acre net area each as the proper treatment of the sewage shall require. 

The plans submitted for the consideration and approval of the Board 
show a system of pipe sewers designed to collect the sewage of the thickly 
built up portion of the main village of Concord upon the separate plan, and 
convey it to a proposed collecting well or reservoir to be located between 
the Lowell Road and the Sudbury River, and close to the southerly side 
of the Boston & Maine Railroad, from which the sewage is to be forced 
by means of a pump, to be located in a building near the reservoir, through 
an iron pipe 10 inches in diameter to land situated on both sides of the 
Boston & Maine Railroad, about one mile north-east of the main village 
of Concord, which it is proposed to use for the purpose of sewage disposal. 
It is understood to be a part of the plan submitted that all the sewage 
is to be conveyed to the proposed filtration area and there purified, and 
that no unpurified sewage is to be discharged into the Sudbury or Con- 
cord rivers, or any other stream, pond or water course, from any sewer or 
other part of the proposed works. 

The Board has carefully considered the proposed plans, and has caused 
the territory to be examined by its engineer and samples of the soil from 
test pits on the land which it is proposed to take for the purposes of sewage 
disposal to be analyzed. 

The location selected for the pumping station is such that it will be at a 
considerable distance from dwelling-houses, for the present at least ; but 
its proximity to the highway and a railroad station will make it necessary, 
in order that there may be no odor from it in the neighborhood, to make 
provision for thorough ventilation, into the chimney connected with the 
boiler house, of the sewers, screen chambers, reservoir and any other places 
from which an odor of sewage might escape. The station and its appurte- 
nances can be so constructed and operated that no odor of sewage will 
ever be noticed from it in the neighborhood. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 77 

The lands which it is proposed to take for the disposal of the sewage 
are well situated for the purpose, and are located in a thinly populated 
region, there being no dwelling-houses in their immediate vicinity. Ex- 
aminations of the soil of these lauds by means of a limited number of test 
pits indicate that the material beneath the surface soil is generally a very 
fine sand ; and, while there is coarser material underneath this sand, the 
depth of the fine sand is such that it will not be practicable to remove it, 
from a large portion of the area at least, except at great cost. The fine 
sand is, however, suitable for the disposal of sewage if the beds are prop- 
erly prepared for the purpose, though more care will be necessary in the 
proper operation of filters consisting of this material than would be the 
case with the coarser sand, and the quantity that can be purified will be 
smaller. 

The system as a whole is adapted to the collection and disposal of all 
of the sewage of the portion of the town of Concord which it is proposed 
to make tributary to it, according to the plans submitted, provided that 
surface water is excluded from the sewers as proposed, and care is taken 
to prevent the entrance of ground water so far as practicable. 

The State Board of Health, acting under the authority of chapter 151, 
section 2, of the Acts of 1895, approves the proposed system and the loca- 
tion of the lands to be taken for the purpose of sewage disposal, as out- 
lined in your description previously quoted and shown upon the plans 
submitted with your application ; the lands being in the town of Concord, 
and bounded, measured and described as follows : — 

Bescriptioji for Taking of Land now or lately of Estate of Catherine (alias Kate) 
Lang, on North Side of Boston & Maine Railroad. 
Beginning at a point on the north line of the Boston & Maine Railroad (formerly 
Middlesex Central Railroad) location at its intersection with the division line be- 
tween land supposed now or lately to belong to the estate of Catherine {alias 
Kate) Lang and land containing gravel pit and supposed to belong to the said 
Boston & Maine Railroad, thence running along the north line of said railroad 
location south seventy-two degrees and twenty-five minutes west (S 72° 25' W) 
magnetic, about one thousand and thirty-nine (1,039) feet to a point; thence de- 
flecting to the right and running approximately north one degree and forty-five 
minutes west (N l^" 45' W) about seven hundred and ninety-three (793) feet to 
a point in the division stone wall between lands supposed to belong to the said 
Lang estate and to John S. Keyes, respectively ; thence deflecting to the right 
and running in a generally easterly direction along said division wall about seven 
hundred and ninety-three (793) feet to an angle in said wall ; thence deflecting 
to the right and running approximately south eleven degrees and nine minutes 
west (S 11° 9' W) about seventy-nine (79) feet along said wall to its intersec- 
tion with the fence and wall between said lands supposed to belong to the said 
Lang estate and to John S. Keyes respectively ; thence deflecting to the left and 
running approximately south eighty-one degrees and sixteen minutes east (S 81° 
16' E) about two hundred and thirty-five (235) feet along said fence and wall to 



78 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pulx Doc. 

a point in tlie division fence between the said lands supposed to belong to the 
Lang estate and the said land containing gravel pit and supposed to belong to 
the Boston & Maine Railroad ; thence deflecting to the right and running approxi- 
mately south one degree and forty-five minutes east (S 1° 45' E) about three hun- 
dred and fifty-three (353) feet along said division fence to the point of beginning, 
comprising an area of fourteen and thirteen hundredths (14.13) acres, more or 
less. 

Description for Taking of Land of John S. Keyes. 

Beginning at an angle or corner where land supposed now or lately to belong 
to the estate of Catherine {alias Kate) Lang, and land containing gravel pit and 
supposed to belong to the Boston & Maine Railroad (formerly Middlesex Central 
Railroad), and lands supposed to belong to John S. Keyes, respectively, meet, and 
distant about three hundred and fifty-three (353) feet northerly from the north 
line of the location of the said Boston & Maine Railroad measured along the 
easterly line of said Lang estate ; thence approximately north one degree and 
forty-five minutes west (N 1° 45' W) magnetic, in prolongation of said easterly 
line one hundred and twenty (120) feet to a point; thence deflecting to the left 
through an angle of ninety (90) degrees and running approximately south eighty- 
eight degrees and fifteen minutes west (S 88° 15' W) about two hundred and 
fourteen (214) feet to an angle in the division stone wall between lands supposed 
to belong to said Lang estate and to John S. Keyes, respectively ; thence deflect- 
ing to the left through an angle of approximately seventy-seven degrees and six 
minutes (77° 6') and running approximately south eleven degrees and nine 
minutes west (S 11" 9' W) about seventy-nine (79) feet along said wall to its 
intersection with the division fence and wall between said lands supposed to 
belong to the said Lang estate and to John S. Keyes, respectively ; thence de- 
flecting to the left through an angle of approximately ninety-two degrees and 
twenty-five minutes (92^ 25') and running approximately south eightj^-one de- 
grees and sixteen minutes east (S 81° 16' E) about two hundred and thirty-five 
(235) feet along said division fence and wall to the point of beginning, compris- 
ing an area of forty-nine hundredths (0.49) of an acre, more or less. 

Description for Taking of Land noiv or lately of Estate of Catherine {alias Kate) 
Lang, on South Side of Boston & Maine Railroad. 
Beginning at a point on the south line of the Boston & Maine Railroad (formerly 
Middlesex Central Railroad) location at its intersection with the division line be- 
tween land supposed now or lately to belong to the estate of Catherine {alias 
Kate) Lang and land supposed to belong to Patrick W. White, said point being 
about forty-one (41) feet from the south rail of the track of said railroad ; thence 
running approximately south one degree and forty-five minutes east (S 1° 45' E) 
magnetic, along said division line about one thousand and eighty (1,080) feet to 
land supposed to belong to Enoch Garfield ; thence deflecting to the right and 
running approximately south eighty-eight degrees and fifteen minutes west (S 88° 
15' W) along the division line between the lands supposed to belong to said Lang 
estate and to said Garfield, respectively, five hundred (500) feet to a point; thence 
deflecting to the right and running north one degree and forty-five minutes west 
(N 1° 45' W) two hundred and ninety-five (295) feet to a point ; thence deflecting 
ninety (90) degrees to the right and running approximately north eighty-eight 
degrees and fifteen minutes east (N 88- 15' E) one hundred (100) feet to a point ; 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 79 

thence deflecting ninety (90) degrees to the left and running approximately north 
one degree and forty-five minutes west (N 1° 45' W) about six hundred and sixty- 
nine (669) feet to a point on said south line of the Boston & Maine Railroad loca- 
tion ; thence deflecting to the right and running approximate!}* north seventy-two 
degrees and forty-one minutes east (N 72° 41' E) about four hundred and fifteen 
(415) feet along said railroad location to the point of beginning, comprising an 
area of ten and nine hundredths (10.09) acres, more or less. 

Danvers. The trustees of the Danvers Lunatic Hospital applied 
to the Board, Aug. 1, 1898, for its advice with reference to a plan 
of sewage disposal for that institution upon land belonging to that 
institution. The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

Aug. 4, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Aug. 1, 1898, an ap- 
plication for advice with reference to certain proposed modifications in 
the details of the plan of sewage disposal for the Danvers Lunatic Hospital 
which was considered by the Board last year. 

With regard to the plan presented at that time, the Board advised that, 
if properly carried out, the plan was the best that it appeared to be feasible 
to adopt ; but it was suggested that the filtration area might with advantage 
be divided into a larger number of beds, and that the size of the flush tank 
might be reduced. 

You now state that you have secured a more direct route for the main 
sewer from the hospital to the filtration area, by which the construction 
of a portion of the main sewer in the form of an inverted siphon at a place 
where the line crossed a valley between the hospital and the filtration area 
is avoided ; and, in connection with the proposed change in the location 
of the main sewer, it is proposed to change the position of the flush tank 
and to locate it upon the proposed filtration area. 

In accordance with suggestions of the Board in its last reply, it is pro- 
posed to reduce the size of the flush tank and to divide the filtration area 
into a larger number of beds. 

The present plan provides for ten beds, eight of which, having an area 
of about a quarter of an acre each, are to be constructed of the coarsest 
material available, and the remaining two, having au area of about half 
an acre each, are to be constructed of the finer material. It is proposed 
to use a portion of the sewage for the irrigation of crops on land through 
which the main sewer is to pass. 

The Board has carefully considered your application and the proposed 
modifications in your plans, and concludes that the changes proposed are 
desirable in the interest of economy and facility of operation of the plant ; 
and, if the plans are carried out as proposed, they will provide satisfactorily 
for the disposal of the sewage of the Danvers Lunatic Hospital, provided 
the size of the institution is not materially increased. 



80 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It will be necessary, in using the sewage for irrigating purposes in the 
growing of crops, to avoid danger of any portion of the unpurified sewage 
finding its way into a water course. 

Gloucester. An application was received Aug. 19, 1898, from 
the committee on sewerage of Gloucester, for the advice of the Board 
relative to a proposed system of sewerage for that city. The Board 
replied to this application as follows : — 

Sept. 23, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Aug. 19, 1898, an 
application giving notice of your intention to introduce a system of sewer- 
age in the city of Gloucester ; and the Board is informed that you propose 
to make use of the drain which at present discharges into the outer harbor 
opposite Mansfield Street as a main sewer, and change the point of dis- 
charge of this drain from its present location to a point in the Gloucester 
canal. 

The application was accompanied by a plan entitled " Sketch showing 
Proposed Extension of Main Drain through Western Avenue to Gloucester 
Canal," which shows the line of the proposed extension from the present 
drain at the place where it crosses Western Avenue through Western 
Avenue to the Gloucester canal. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer and 
has carefully considered the proposed plan. The plan appears to resemble 
closely a plan submitted to this Board in 1888, which provided for the 
collection of the sewage of a large district in Gloucester which would 
naturally be tributary to the present drain, and the discharge of this sew- 
age into the canal in the vicinity of Cut bridge. The opinion of the Board, 
as expressed at that time, was as follows : — 

It would not be advisable to admit sewage to the drain now receiving brook 
and storm water, and discharging upon the beach near Western Avenue. A sat- 
isfactory outlet for the sewage of a large part of the city will not be provided by 
building the proposed sewer in Western Avenue to carry the contents of the ex- 
isting drain to the waterway known as the " Cut." 

The city has grown considerably in the past ten years, and the proposed 
sewer outlet would be in the immediate vicinity of a thickly populated por- 
tion of the city, and upon a shore which appears to be used as a place of 
resort by many people in the summer season. Under the circumstances, 
the Board can see no reason for changing the opinion expressed at the pre- 
vious time with reference to the use of the existing drain as a sewer and 
the disposal of the sewage by discharging it into Gloucester canal, or the 
" Cut," and is of the opinion that all sewage should be kept out of the 
" Cut" and away from the shores in the neighborhood of its outlet. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 81 

It appears that the drainage discharged from the drain has at times an 
offensive odor, and that the present place of disposal of the drainage is 
objectionable, especially when discolored water from the streets is dis- 
charged after a heavy rain. It is possible that much of the objection to 
the discharge of drainage at the present outlet would be removed by ex- 
tending a pipe from the bottom of the present drain to a place of discharge 
at some distance beyond low water, so that, except in very heavy rains, 
little or no drainage would be discharged close to the shore ; but the Board 
is of the opinion that in any case it is important to keep sewage from enter- 
ing the present drain or any of its tributaries. 

The Board would advise that the whole question of sewerage for the 
city be again considered, with a view to beginning the construction of a 
system on some satisfactory plan. 

Hatfield. An application was received, Oct. 20, 1898, from 
the Board of Health of Hatfield, for the advice of the Board rela- 
tive to the proposed construction of certain sewers in that town in- 
tended to convey the sewage of certain houses to the Mill River. 
The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

Dec. 1, 1898. 

The State Board of Health has considered your application for advice 
with reference to the construction of two sewers in Hatfield, to discharge 
sewage from certain houses into the Mill River at two points in the village, 
and has caused the localities to be examined by its engineer. 

One sewer is to be laid in School Street, and will provide for the collec- 
tion of the sewage of four houses on that street. It is proposed to dis- 
charge this sewer into a drain which crosses the highway near land of Jacob 
Carl, and runs through private land in a southerly direction to Mill River. 
At the place where this drain will discharge the stream has a sluggish 
current, owing to a dam below, and solid matters from the sewage will 
naturally tend to deposit upon the sides and bottom of the stream. While 
there are no houses in the immediate vicinity of the stream near the out- 
let of the drain, the main portions of the village are not far distant, and, 
in the opinion of the Board, it is not desirable to discharge sewage at 
this place continually, even in small quantity. 

The other sewer mentioned in the application is to be constructed in 
Elm Street, and it is proposed to discharge the sewage into the Mill River 
just below the last dam. This outlet is less objectionable from a sanitary 
point of view than the one farther up stream ; but if any considerable num- 
ber of houses should be connected with this sewer, the discharge of sewage 
at this place might become objectionable at times when the river is low. 

It is very desirable, in the opinion of the Board, not only to keep sewage 
from entering Mill River and polluting it in the vicinity of the village, but 



82 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pulx Doc. 

also to avoid the creation of numerous sewer outlets into the streams near 
the village, on account of danger that local nuisances will thereby be created. 
In the opinion of the Board, it would be best for the interests of the town 
that, before any sewers are constructed, a general plan of sewerage should 
be prepared, by which a satisfactory disposal of the sewage may be effected. 
All sewers hereafter constructed might then be made to conform to this 
plan, so that they might all ultimately form a part of the completed 
system. 

The Board would therefore advise that you cause a plan to be prepared 
for the collection and disposal of the sewage of the main village of Hat- 
field. The Board will render you such assistance as it may in any investi- 
gation as to the disposal of sewage that you may desire to make, and will 
upon application advise you as to any plan for the sewerage of the village 
which you may wish to present. 

HiNGHAM. An application was received, Oct. 14, 1898, from the 
board of health of Hingham, for the advice of the State Board of 
Health relative to a proposed sewer for a small district in that town 
known as Crow Point. The Board replied to this application as 
follows : — 

Dec. 1, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Oct. 14, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to the disposal of sewage from a small 
summer settlement in the town of Hingham, known as Crow Point, accom- 
panied by a plan showing the lines of the proposed sewers and the proposed 
location of the sewer outlet. It is understood to be a part of your plan 
that each house is to be provided with a cess-pool, and that the sewers are 
to receive the overflow from these cess-pools, but are not to receive storm 
water. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer, and 
has carefully considered the proposed plan. The proposed system of 
sewers, with such extensions as can be made, will provide for collecting 
sewage from nearly all of the houses on« Crow Point, and for houses which 
may be built on high land to the west of the point. 

The quantity of sewage that is likely to be discharged from the proposed 
system of sewers will probably be very small for several years, and it is 
not likely that any serious trouble will be caused by the discharge of sewage 
at the place proposed at all times. If the population in this region should 
increase considerably, and a much larger number of houses should be con- 
nected with the sewers, it might be desirable to provide an outlet into the 
main channel ; and for this reason it would be desirable to so construct the 
sewers that the sewage can, at some future time, be carried further to 
the east, along the northerly side of Crow Point, and discharged into the 
main channel well out from the entrance of Hingham harbor. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 83 

With the modification suggested, the Board is of the opinion that the 
plan is a suitable one for the disposal of the sewage of this small portion 
of the town of Hingham. 

HoLYOKE. An application was received, June 18, 1898, from the 
board of public works of Holyoke, for the advice of the State Board 
of Health relative to a proposed system of sewerage and sewage dis- 
posal for a district of Holyoke lying in the northerly part of the city 
above the dam. The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

Oct. 6, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on June 18, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to a proposed system of sewerage and 
sewage disposal for a district in the north-westerly part of the city of 
Holyoke. Subsequently, on August 24 and September 22, plans were re- 
ceived showing outlines of a proposed sewerage and drainage district, its 
relation to the present sewerage system of the portion of the city in that 
vicinity, and the location, sizes and grades of a proposed system of 
domestic sewers and a system of storm-water drains to serve the new 
district. 

The district shown upon the plans is bounded by the city limits on the 
north and approximately by Pleasant Street on the east, Lincoln Street on 
the south, and aline about 1,500 feet west of Northampton Street on the 
west. A separate system of pipes to receive storm water includes the por- 
tion of the district lying between Lincoln Street on the south, Morrill 
Avenue on the north. Pearl Street on the east, and a line about 1,500 feet 
west of Northampton Street on the west. It is proposed to discharge the 
storm water from this system of pipes into the upper end of the Dingle, so 
called, through which it will flow to the Connecticut River. 

The plan for the sewerage of the district provides for a system of pipe 
sewers discharging into a trunk sewer in Jefferson Street near the upper 
end of the Dingle, from which the course of the sewer is northerly through 
Jefferson Street and private land and down through a deep ravine to the 
Connecticut River, into which it is proposed to discharge the sewage directly 
without treatment. You propose to include in the new sewer district a 
small portion of the district which at present discharges into the Walnut 
Street sewer system, which drains a district Ij'ing south-west of the new 
district. The sewers in the Walnut Street district are constructed upon 
the so called combined plan, and in the pwtion of the Walnut Street dis- 
trict which it is proposed to divert into the new district, one of the sewers 
will, by the proposed plan, continue to receive storm water, in addition to 
the sewage. You also propose to receive into the main trunk sewer the 
storm water from the area bounded by Dartmouth Street on the south, 



84 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Princeton Street on the north, Pleasant Street on the east and the trunk 
sewer on the west. In addition to the storm water from these areas, you 
propose to receive into the sewer system the roof water from the whole 
district. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer, and 
has carefully considered the plans submitted. 

The storm-water sewers as designed appear to be of sufficient size for 
the reception and removal of all of the storm water which would naturally 
be tributary to them from the district which they are designed to serve ; 
and the Board is of the opinion that the discharge of this water into the 
Dingle, so called, is a satisfactory method of disposal of this water, from 
a sanitary point of view. 

The system of sewers designed for the reception of sewage and roof 
water, together with storm water from a portion of the district, is of smaller 
capacity than desirable ; and, if all of the roof water is to be admitted to 
them, there is much danger that they will prove inadequate to carry off 
all of the water at all times, if the number of houses in the district becomes 
as large as it seems reasonable to anticipate. While there might be some 
advantage in discharging roof water into the sewers designed for the recep- 
tion of house sewage, it appears to be entirely practicable to discharge this 
water into the storm-water sewers, and the latter system, as designed, is 
probably of sufficient capacity to receive this water, in addition to the re- 
maining storm water from the district which it is designed to serve. By 
discharging the roof water into the storm-water sewers, it will be practi- 
cable to considerably reduce the size of the proposed sewers for the recep- 
tion of sewage. Moreover, it is very desirable to keep all storm water 
and ground water separate from the sewage, since the cost of the final 
disposal of the sewage may be considerably reduced thereby. The Board 
would therefore advise that all roof water and all storm water be kept out 
of the sewers designed for the reception of domestic sewage, and that the 
sizes of these sewers be made no greater than is necessary for the removal 
of the house sewage and the probable leakage into them, estimated upon 
a liberal basis. 

The disposal of the sewage by discharging it directly into the Connecti- 
cut River, about 1^ miles above the Holyoke dam, might not cause any 
serious harm for the present at least, if the sewage is discharged as much 
as 100 feet from the shore of the river at low water. The Board is of the 
opinion, however, that no large amount of sewage can safely be disposed 
of in this way, owing to the conditions that prevail in this vicinity and 
below, where there is a large . population near the river and the canals 
leading therefrom. There is evidence that considerable numbers of people 
use the river and its banks in the region of the proposed sewer outlet and 
between this place and the Holyoke dam as a place of resort in the summer 
season, and it is probable that the use of the river in this way will increase 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 85 

in the future. Under the circumstances, it is desirable to keep crude sew- 
age out of the river in this vicinity. 

In this connection, it may be said that the attention of the Board has 
been called to the discharge of sewage into the river near Walnut Street, 
about a quarter of a mile above the entrance to the canals of the Holyoke 
Water Power Company, where the conditions are such that much of the 
time all of the sewage discharged from the sewer probably passes into the 
canals. There is evidence, also, that much sewage from the mills is dis- 
charged directly into the canals in their course through the city. These 
conditions are ver}' objectionable from a sanitary point of view ; and the 
public interest requires that the sewage from the Walnut Street sewer be 
diverted to a more suitable place of disposal, and that sewage be prevented 
from entering the canals. 

The indications are that it is feasible to convey the sewage from the 
proposed new district to the Walnut Street outlet, and dispose of it in 
connection with the sewage from the Walnut Street sewer, and this method 
of disposal might ultimately be the most satisfactory to adopt ; but it does 
not appear that any plan for the diversion of the sewage from the Walnut 
Street outlet to a more suitable place of disposal has yet been prepared, 
and considerable time would probably be required to prepare a suitable 
plan. It is understood that sewerage facilities are somewhat urgently 
needed in the district for which the plans under consideration are intended 
to provide ; and, under the circumstances, it is probably best not to com- 
plicate the problem of disposing of the Walnut Street sewage by convey- 
ing the sewage from the new district to the Walnut Street outlet, for the 
present at least. 

An examination of the land in the region in which it is proposed to con- 
struct the new sewer system indicates that a suitable area for the disposal 
of the sewage of this system for a considerable number of years in the 
future may be found in the vicinity of Jones' Pond, so called, near the 
bank of the river south of the proposed sewer outlet. The area of filter 
beds required to purify the sewage from the present population would 
probably not exceed three acres, provided all storm water, and, so far as 
practicable, ground water, should be kept out of the sewers. 

If suitable filter beds can be constructed at this place for the purification 
of the sewage at a reasonable cost, this would probably be the most satis- 
factory method of sewage disposal to adopt ; and, in view of all the cir- 
cumstances, the Board would advise that, before constructing the proposed 
system of sewerage, you investigate the feasibility and probable cost of 
conveying the sewage to the land referred to near the Connecticut River 
south of Jones' Pond, and purifying it there by filtration. 

The Board will, if you so request, assist you in this investigation by 
making all necessary analyses of soil, and will give you further advice in 
the matter when you have the results of the investigations to present. 



86 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Lee. The State Board of Health was informed that it was pro- 
posed to build certain sewers in the town of Lee, having their out- 
let into the Housatonic River. The State Board, therefore, sent a 
communication to the selectmen of Lee, as follows : — 

Nov. 17, 1898. 

The State Board of Health is informed that it is proposed to construct 
sewers iu the village of Lee in accordance with a plan which has been sub- 
mitted to your board, and it is understood that the sewage is to be disposed 
of by discharging it into the Housatonic River. The evidence before this 
Board would indicate that the plan of sewerage iu question is one which 
should be submitted to this Board for advice, iu accordance with the pro- 
visions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888. If it is intended to construct 
a sewer or sewers discharging into the Housatonic River or any other 
stream, you will, of course, wish to comply with the provisions of the act 
referred to, and a blank form of application is accordingly enclosed. Upon 
receipt of an application, the Board will give the matter prompt attention. 

Leicester. The attention of the Board was called, July 26, 1898, 
by the water commissioners of Worcester, to the imperfect purifi- 
cation of the sewage at the disposal beds at the Leicester Poor Farm, 
and the. possibility of the pollution of the water supply of Worcester 
as a consequence. The State Board of Health made an investigation 
of the matter, and sent the following communication to the selectmen 
and overseers of the poor of Leicester : — 

Sept. 1, 1898. 

The results of chemical analyses made by this Board of the effluent from 
the sewage filter beds at the Leicester Poor Farm show that it contains at 
times a large proportion of unoxidized organic matter, indicating that the 
action of the filters is at times inefficient in the purification of the sewage ; 
and an examination of the filters by one of the engineers of the Board indi- 
cates that they are not operated in the manner necessary to produce the 
best results. It appears that the sewage has been allowed to flow upon 
one of the beds continuously for a period of several days, thereby pre- 
venting the necessary air from entering the filter aud effecting the purifi- 
cation of the sewage. If all of the beds were used, and the sewage changed 
frequently from bed to bed, satisfactory purification could be effected, pro- 
vided the filters were given the necessary attention, and were kept in proper 
condition by scraping or raking from time to time. 

The effluent from the filter beds finds its way into one of the feeders of 
the water supply of the city of Worcester, and the discharge of unpurified 
or partially purified sewage from these beds will cause a pollution of this 
water supply, and is contrary to existing statutes. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 87 

The Board would therefore urge that the necessary steps be taken with- 
out dela}- to provide that sewage be applied at proper intervals and in such 
a manner as to insure a purified effluent from the filter beds at the Leicester 
Poor Farm. It may be found that, even with proper application of the 
sewage, satisfactory purification may not result in winter, on account of 
freezing. If this should be found to be the case, the difficulty can be 
avoided by protecting the filtering area by a cover which will prevent 
freezing. 

Lexixgtox. An application was received from the sewer com- 
missioners of Lexington, March 24, 1898, under the general act of 
1888, chapter 375, and chapters 504 and 520 of the Acts of 1897, 
for the advice of the Board with reference to a proposed system of 
sewerage and sewage disposal for the town of Lexington. After a 
hearing, as required by the provisions of chapter 504, section 17, 
Acts of 1897, at which the sewer commissioners of Lexington and 
the water commissioners of Arlington were present, the Board replied 
to the application as follows : — 

April 16, 1898. 
The State Board of Health received from you, on March 24, 1898, an 
appUcation, under the authority of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888 and 
chapters 504 and 520 of the Acts of 1897, dated March 22, 1898, giving 
notice of your intention to introduce a system of sewerage in the town of 
Lexington, Mass., and submitting a plan of your proposed system for the 
approval of this Board. In this application your proposed plans are set 
forth as follows : — 

A general description of the system of sewerage proposed is given in the report 
of McClintoek and Woodfall, civil engineers, dated Jan. 18, 1897, contained in the 
printed pamj^hlet submitted herewith, the discharge of the sewage to be into the 
metropolitan sewer as extended to the dividing line between Arlington and Lex- 
ington, under chapter 520 of the Acts of 1897. (Disregard cancelled portions of 
pages 8, 9, 10, and 11 of said report.) 

The sizes, directions of flow and approximate locations of the several sewers 
proposed to be built for house drainage are shown on the map accompanying said 
report, and entitled " Plan Showing Proposed System of Sewers for the Town of 
Lexington, Mass. Designed by McClintoek and AVoodfall, Civil Engineers, 15 
Court Square, Boston, Mass., 1897." 

The grade of the main and intercepting sewer is to be at no place less than 
1 foot in 1,000 feet. Following is a general description of said sewer: A sewer 
20 inches in diameter, starting at the dividing line between the towns of Arlington 
and Lexington, and extending throagh Massachusetts Avenue to the junction 
thereof with Flint or Curve Street ; thence running easterly and northerly through 
portions of Flint or Curve Street ; thence north-easterly across private lauds to 
and across the Arlington Branch Railroad ; thence northerly or north-westerly in 



88 STATE B(3ARD OF HEALTH. [Pul). Doc. 

and along the location of said railroad, about 2,000 feet ; thence running nearly 
parallel with the north-easterly line of the location of said railroad about 1,500 
feet to a point near Munroe's station ; thence continuing as an 18-inch pipe in a 
line approximately parallel with the north-easterly side of said railroad location, 
about 1,100 or 1,200 feet; thence an 18-inch pipe in a northerly direction across 
the head of Munroe's Meadows and private lands to and across Woburn and Vine 
streets to a point about 165 feet northerly from Vine Street ; thence a 15-inch pipe 
across private lands to the lane at the base of Granny Hill leading to the Hayes 

house. 

Into this main and intercepting sewer will be connected at sundry places the 
several sewers leading from the Centre and East villages. 

Such portions of the main and intercepting sewer between the junction of 
Pleasant Street and Massachusetts Avenue and Vine Street as the State Board 
of Health shall require, and so much of each lateral sewer within the water-shed 
of the Arlington water supply as shall lie between a level even with the top of the 
main or intercepting sewer at the place where such lateral sewer connects there- 
with and the place of connection will be constructed of iron pipe with carefully 
made lead joints. Similarly, where any sewer crosses a stream or brook which 
is tributary to the Arlington water supply, iron pipe with leaded joints will be 
used at such crossing, and for a distance of about 12 feet on either side thereof. 

Surface water is not to be conducted into the sewers ; but sub-drains have been 
planned to take care of such water, and drain low-lying and wet parts of the town, 
the discharge to be into natural water courses, as may be approved by said Board 
of Health. 

At the hearing upon the foregoing application, plans prepared by said McClin- 
tock and Woodfall will be submitted, showing in detail the work to be done in 
constructing said system. 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 504 of the Acts of 1897, 
the State Board of Health, upon receipt of your application, gave notice 
to the board of water commissioners of the town of Arlington of a hearing 
upon your application, as required by section 17 of said chapter 504, to 
be held at the rooms of the Board, at the State House, on April 7, 1898, 
at eleven o'clock. At this hearing there were present the board of water 
commissioners of the town of Arlington with their engineer and your board 
with your engineers ; and plans were presented by you, showing in detail 
the work to be done in constructing a system of sewerage for the town of 
Lexington, which is designed to discharge into the metropolitan sewer as 
extended to the dividing line between Arlington and Lexington, under 
chapter 520 of the Acts of 1897. 

It appearing that some modifications with a view to further protection 
of the water supply of the town of Arlington were deemed desirable by 
the water commissioners of that town, it was suggested that your board 
confer with tlie water commissioners of the town of Arlington, and sub- 
sequently submit such amendments to your plan as might, after the con- 
sultation suggested, seem desirable ; and subsequently, on the same day 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 89 

before said hearing was closed, you presented the following modifications 
of your proposed plan : — 

In the matter of the application filed by the sewer commissioners of Lexington, 
March 22, 1898, for an approval of a system of sewerage for that town, which 
application, after due notice to the board of water commissioners of the town of 
Arlington, is now being heard by your Board, the undersigned ask leave to modify 
the application and plans as below set forth : — 

In the next to the last paragraph, the words, "take care of such water and" 
are stricken out, so that the paragraph as amended reads : " Surface water is not 
to be conducted into the sewers ; but sub-drains have been planned to drain low- 
lying and wet parts of the town, the discharge to be into natural water courses, 
as may be approved by said Board of Health." 

If required by the water board of Arlington, cut- oft' dams of concrete 1 foot 
thick will be constructed at the three several places shown on the accompanying 
plan, marked : " Plan of Proposed System of Sewers for the Town of Lexington, 
Mass., designed by McClintock and Woodfall, 1897." These dams are to be 2 
feet wider than the sewer trench (i. e., overlapping 1 foot on either side), and are 
to extend from a point 2 feet below the ground's surface to a point 6 inches below 
the bottom of the sewer, or the underdrain, as the case may be. 

If a permanent sub-drain is constructed in the East Village, it shall empty into 
Brown Brook, just below the present outlet of the Brown Brook conduit, so called. 

Any sub-drain in the East Village made for use only during or in connection 
with the construction of the sewer, may enter into Brown Brook at any point, but 
in case of any such temporary sub-drain, so emptying, its outlet shall be filled 
up immediately after the sewer shall have been constructed. 

The town of Lexington, in contracting for the construction of its sewers, will 
cause to be inserted in the contract siabstantially the following provisions : — 

The contractor at his expense shall provide proper sanitaries. 

No sanitary to be located within 100 feet of any brook tributary to the Arling- 
ton water supply. 

The engineer may designate the position of the sanitaries. 

Sanitaries shall be left in one location as short a time as possible, and on 
removal all foul matter shall be removed to such location as the engineer desig- 
nates, and there buried. 

The contractor must see that the men employed on the work use the proper 
sanitaries provided for them. 

No sanitary to be put over the sewer trench within the territory tributary to 
Arlington's water supply. 

Accompanying this communication was a statement signed b}' the water 
commissioners of Arlington and the sewer commissioners of Lexington, 
as follows : — 

The several matters discussed before your Board this morning are disposed of 
to our mutual satisfaction, except that we difter as to the necessity of any require- 
ment to be made by your Board with reference to the policing of the sewer dis- 
trict, and also as to the necessity of any requirement with respect to disposing of 
water pumped out of the sewer trenches during the period of construction. 



90 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

These two matters are left to be determined by your Board. You are to in- 
corporate in your order of approval such provisions on these matters, if any, as 
you shall think necessary and proper. 

It is understood that no provision is to be made therein with regard to divert- 
ing or disposing of the waters of " Village Brook." 

The Board has carefully considered your proposed system of sewerage, 
with the modifications referred to, and the plans submitted, and concludes 
that, in general, they are appropriate for the sewerage of the town of Lex- 
ington, and that the disposal of the sewage in connection with the metro- 
politan sewerage system is the best method of disposal for the town to 
adopt. 

The disposal of water collected by the proposed underdrains beneath the 
sewers, by discharging it into Vine Brook and into Brown Brook below the 
lower end of the Brown Brook conduit, as indicated upon the plans sub- 
mitted, does not appear to be objectionable. 

With reference to policing the district in which sewers are to be con- 
structed during the period of construction, the Board is of the opinion 
that, under the circumstances, extra precautious should be taken by the 
town of Lexington to prevent danger of polluting the sources of the Arling- 
ton water supply, in consequence of the operations carried on by the town 
of Lexington, by providing sanitaries, so called, in suitable places not over 
the sewer trenches, by requiring the use of the sanitaries by the persons 
engaged upon the work, by making provision for the removal and proper 
disposal of all matters deposited therein, by preventing the encampment 
of laborers within the water-shed of the Arlington water supply in the town 
of Lexington, and by policing the district in case other safeguards shall 
not prove effectual in preventing contamination of the sources of w^ater 
supply of the town of Arlington within the limits of the town of Lexington. 

With regard to the disposal of water pumped out of the sewer trenches 
during the period of construction, it may be said that if, by providing 
proper sanitaries and by other precautious before mentioned, all pollutions 
are kept out of the trenches, it seems to the Board that there should be 
no danger in the disposal of this water by discharge upon the ground in 
the vicinity of the trenches. 

In this matter and in that of policing the district and in such other mat- 
ters not speciall}^ mentioned, where conditions might arise that could en- 
danger the healthfuluess of the water supply of the town of Arlington, the 
State Board of Health assumes and expects that the sewer commissioners 
of the town of Lexington will take every precaution to protect that water 
supply that they would take if it were the water supply of their own town. 

The Board hereby approves the proposed system and plans, as outlined 
in your communications of March 22, 1898, and April 7, 1898, and shown 
upon plans submitted and filed upon the latter date, and requires that all 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 91 

portions of the maiu and intercepting sewer whicli lie between the junction 
of Pleasant Sti-eet and Massachusetts Avenue and Vine Street shall be 
constructed of iron pipe with carefully made lead joints. 

LoNGMEADOw. The selectmen of Longmeadow applied to the 
Board, April 22, 1898, for its advice with reference to the sewage 
disposal of that town. The Board replied to this application as 
follows : — 

May 5, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on April 25, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to disposing of the sewage of the 
town of Longmeadow, and subsequently a plan was received showing a 
proposed system of sewerage for the extreme northerly portion of the town. 
It is proposed to collect the sewage into a sewer in Lewis Street, in the 
valley of Cooley Brook, and to convey it to a point of temporary discharge 
in the vicinity of the westerly end of Lewis Street, and you desire advice 
as to the best method of disposing of this sewage. 

To discharge the sewage untreated into Cooley Bi'ook would undoubtedly 
create a serious nuisance, and there appear to be only two methods by 
which the sewage from this sewer can be satisfactorily disposed of ; one 
by constructing a sewer to discharge the sewage into the Connecticut River, 
and the other by constructing filter beds near the outlet of the sewer and 
purifying the sewage thereon. 

The Board has not at present sufficient information with regard to the 
probable cost of either of these plans to be able to advise you definitely as 
to which plan is the most appropriate one for the town to adopt. The 
Board would, therefore, advise that you cause a careful investigation of 
both of these plans to be made by j-our engineers, and careful estimates 
of the cost to be made ; at the same time, the whole question of the sew- 
erage of your town should be carefully considered, in order that the por- 
tion of the system which you now propose to construct may bear a proper 
relation to the sewerage of the remainder of the town when it may become 
necessary, thus possibly effecting a considerable saving in the ultimate 
cost of the works. 

The Board will, upon application, give you further advice in this matter 
when you have the results of further investigations to present. 

A subsequent application was made by the same authorities for 
the approval by the Board of a certain tract of land in Longmeadow 
for the purpose of sewage disposal ; and after a public hearing, as 
required by chapter 124 of the Acts of 1890, the Board transmitted 
the following reply to the selectmen of Longmeadow : — 



92 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Puli. Doc 

July 28, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, ou June 22, 1898, an 
application for the approval by the Board of the taking of certain lands in 
the town of Longmeadow, as shown upon the plan submitted with your 
application, for the purification and disposal of sewage. 

In response to this application, the State Board of Health gave notice 
that, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 50, section 1 of the 
Public Statutes, as amended by chapter 124 of the Acts of 1890, a public 
hearing relative to the taking of the land in question for the purification 
and disposal of sewage would be given at its office on July 7, 1898. At 
this hearing no person appeared to oppose the proposed taking of the land 
referred to, and the Board voted to approve the purchase or taking by the 
town of Longmeadow, for the purification and disposal of sewage, of land 
now or formerly of the estate of "NY. O. Emerson, situated north-westerly 
of Riverview Street, nearly opposite its junction with Lewis Street in said 
town, and shown upon a plan submitted by you, entitled, " Proposed filter 
bed for the town of Longmeadow, Mass. ; Durkee, "White and Towue, 
Engineers. June, 1898. Scale thirty feet per inch," the land being 
bounded, measured and described as follows : — 

Beginning at a monument at the south-west corner of land now or formerly of 
James H. Lewis, and running thence along the westerly line of land of said Lewis» 
N. 8° 57' E. 203.39 feet to a monument. Thence along the westerly line of said 
Lewis N. 0" 21' W. 141.25 feet to a monument. Thence along the land of W. G. 
Emerson Est. N. 1° 46' W. 27.22 feet to a monument. Thence along land of 
Wm. F. Emerson N. 59^ 9' W. 209.24 feet to a monument. Thence along the 
land of Wm. G. Emerson Est. S. 19° 21' W. 392.00 feet to a monument. Thence 
along land of Wm. G. Emerson Est. S. 69" 49' E. 300.38 feet to a monument at the 
place of beginning. Containing 2.25 acres of land. 

Upon the plan submitted are shown a settling basin and two distributing 
basins, but no fuilher details of the proposed method of purifying the 
sewage are presented. It is understood, however, that suitable filter beds 
are to be prepared upon the land as needed. 

W^hen you have prepared further plans for the disposal of the sewage 
upon the land, the Board will give you further advice in the matter, if you 
so request. 

Ludlow. An application was received, June 13, 1898, from the 
Ludlow Manufacturing Company, for the advice of the Board relative 
to a plan of sewerage and sewage disposal for the village of Ludlow, 
the system being designed to receive both sewage and storm water. 
The Board replied to this application as follows : — 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 



93 



July 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on June 13, au application 
for advice with reference to a proposed system of sewerage for the village 
of Ludlow, which is located principally in the town of Ludlow and partly 
in the town of AVilbraham and in the city of Springfield. The application 
was accompanied by a map, showing the location of the proposed sewers 
and their outlets. It is understood that the sewers are to be designed to 
receive both sewage and storm water. 

For the portion of the village on the northerly side of the river it is pro- 
posed to provide two main sewers, one to receive the sewage from the 
portion of the village between the Athol branch of the Boston & Albany 
Railroad and the Chicopee River, and the other to receive sewage from 
the thickly settled portion of the village north of the railroad. It is pro- 
posed to discharge the sewage from both of these main sewers into the 
tail-race, or waste-way, below the last mill. As indicated upon the plan, 
the sewage from the district nearest the river would be discharged into the 
waste-way about 600 feet from the point where the waste-way joins the 
main river, while the sewage from the district north of the railroad would 
be discharged into the waste-way about 200 feet from the point where it 
joins the main river. It is proposed to discharge the sewage from the por- 
tion of the village south of the Chicopee River into a cove a short distance 
below the lower dam. 

The Board has carefully considered the proposed plans, and has caused 
the locality to be examined by its engineer. The proposed method of dis- 
posing of the sewage, by discharging it in a crude state into the Chicopee 
River, appears to the Board to be permissible, under present conditions. 

The proposed plan of discharging the sewers into the tail-race, or waste- 
way, below the mill on the northerly side of the river, might not be seri- 
ously objectionable if there were a flow through this waste-way at all times ; 
but when the mills are shut down it appears that there is no flow in this 
channel, and, under the circumstances, a local nuisance is liable to be 
created if the sewers are discharged into it. It appears to be feasible to 
convey the sewers to a point of discharge into the river below the outlet 
of the waste-way, and the Board would recommend that this be done. 

The proposed sewer outlet on the south side of the river is so located 
that it will not be likely to cause offense for several years at least ; but 
the water in this cove is quite still, and matter from the sewage may col- 
lect along the shore and cause an odor at times of low water in the river. 
A more thorough dilution of the sewage could be obtained by placing the 
outlet in the river near the lower end of the rapids below the lower dam, 
and the Board would suggest that you consider the feasibility of making 
the outlet at this place when the sewers are constructed. 

While, in the opinion of the Board, it is permissible to discharge the 
sewage from the village in a crude state into the Chicopee River for the 



94 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

present, the time may come when it may be found desirable to divert 
the sewage from the river. Moreover, it appears to be practicable, with- 
out great cost, to dispose of the sewage upon land in the neighborhood of 
the village, where it can be used to great advantage as a fertilizer and for 
the irrigation of crops. If the time shall come when it is found necessary 
to remove the sewage from the river, or should it be decided to use it upon 
land in the beginning, it will be very desirable to keep the sewage separate 
from the storm water, so as to avoid unnecessary expense in pumping and 
disposing of the sewage ; and, under the circumstances, it would probably 
be best to construct the sewers in the beginning upon the so-called sep- 
arate plan, that is, to admit sewage only to the sewers, and remove the 
storm water and roof water by separate channels. 

The sizes and grades of the proposed sewers have not been submitted, 
so that the Board is unable to advise as to their capacity for serving the 
proposed territory. 

The Board will give you further advice in regard to this portion of your 
proposed plans, if you desire, and will, upon request, give you further 
information or advice, should you conclude to dispose of the sewage upon 
land. 

Marlborough. An application was received, July 25, 1898, 
from the mayor of Marlborough, for the approval of the Board, 
under chapter 364 of the Acts of 1898, of plans for a proposed 
extension of the system of sewerage of Marlborough to the district 
bordering upon Lake Williams, for the purpose of protecting the 
purity of the water of that lake. The Board replied to this appli- 
cation as follows : — 

Aug. 4, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on July 25, 1898, an ap- 
plication giving notice of your intention to extend the sewerage system of 
the city of Marlborough by constructing sewers in the district about Lake 
Williams, and submitting plans of the proposed sewers and other works 
for the advice and approval of the Board, as required by chapter 375 of 
the Acts of 1888 and chapter 364 of the Acts of 1898. 

In the application you state that the object of the plan is to preserve the 
purity of the water of Lake Williams, which is the principal source of water 
supply of the city, and you present the following outline of your proposed 
plans : — 

At the present time there are about eighty-one houses on this shed. The most 
feasible way to handle the sewage from these houses at the present time seems to 
be to collect the sewage at a central point, and pump over the divide into our 
present system. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 95 

As outlined on the accompanying plans, we propose to sewer West Main Street, 
Lakeside Avenue, Williams Street, Lincoln Street, Winter Street, Elm Street and 
Bond Street. The sewage is to be collected at a well by the water works pump- 
ing station. The capacity of the well is to be -40,000 gallons, and will be below 
the surface of the water in the lake at nearly the entire time. We propose to 
have two pumps, of about 500,000 gallons capacity, to be operated every day, in 
lifting the sewage from the well and forcing it through an eight-inch iron pipe, 
to the junction of Broad and West Main streets, at which place it will flow by 
gravity through our present system, and be discharged at the filter beds now in 
use. 

We propose to lase iron pipe with calked lead joints throughout this proposed 
system. This will prevent ground water entering the pipe, and prevent possible 
leaks, that would cause pollution to the lake water. 

The plans submitted show the location, size and grade of the proposed 
sewers, which are designed to convey the sewage of all of the thickly set- 
tled territory about Lake Williams to the proposed storage well, or reser- 
voir, which is to be located at the westerly end of your present water 
works pumping station on the northerly shore of the lake. A general out- 
line of the proposed storage well, or reservoir, and pumping station is 
shown on the plans submitted. From this it appears that the bottom and 
sides of the reservoir are to be constructed of concrete, with an inside 
lining of brick masonry and a layer of asphalt between the concrete and 
masonry. The roof is to consist of concrete arches, supported upon iron 
I-beams and brick piers. The proposed level of high water in this reser- 
voir is to be three feet below the level of high water in Lake Williams, 
and its capacity is to be sufficient to hold the entire flow of sewage to be 
expected from the territory in which the sewers are to be built for a period 
of many hours under present conditions. It is proposed to dispose of the 
sewage by pumping it into one of the main sewers of the city, through 
which it will flow with the other sewage from the city to the present sew- 
age-disposal area. 

The Board has caused the territory to be examined by its engineer, and 
has carefully considered the proposed plans. There is no doubt that the 
population upon the water-shed of Lake Williams is a very serious menace 
to the purity of your drinking-water supply, and that provision should be 
made for removing all sewage from this district. The proposed plans are 
well adapted for the collection of this sewage in such a manner as to cause 
the least danger of an escape of any of the sewage by leaks in the pipes. 
The location of the proposed reservoir close to the water works pumping 
station should not be a menace to the quality of the water, if, in construct- 
ing the reservoir, care is taken to prevent any danger of overflow from it 
or leakage at a time when the lake is drawn down below the level of high 
water in the reservoir. It is very important that all pumps, machinery 
and connections with the reservoir and force main should be in duplicate, 



96 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

so that, iu case of injury to any part of the machinery or a suction pipe, 
duplicate works will be available without material delay. 

Provision should be made for stirring up any sediment that may collect 
in the tank, and removing it with the sewage so as to avoid the necessity 
of removing it by means of carts or other receptacles, from which some 
of the polluting matters might escape and find their way into the lake ; 
and it will be necessary to avoid any danger of polluting the water supply 
in the operation of cleaning the screens and disposing of matters removed 
from the sewage. 

The plans as a whole are suitable for the disposal of the sewage of the 
territory which they are designed to serve, and, in accordance with the 
provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888 and chapter 364 of the Acts 
of 1898, are hereby approved. 

Measurements of the quantity of sewage flowing upon the filter beds 
used to purify the sewage of the city of Marlborough show that the quan- 
tity of sewage is larger than the present area of beds is capable of receiv- 
ing and purifying at all times, and the Board is informed that unpurified 
sewage is at times allowed to escape into the stream iu the vicinity of the 
filter beds. While the increase in the quantity of sewage that will be due 
to the construction of sewers in the Lake Williams district will be com- 
paratively small, it is nevertheless very desirable that a larger area of 
filter beds be prepared as soon as practicable. 

Metropolitan Sewerage Commission. The Board received an 
application from the Metropolitan Sewerage Commission, July 13, 
1897, requesting the advice and approval of the Board concerning 
plans for automatic overflows and regulators at certain connections 
with the metropolitan sewer in the Neponset valley ; and on Aug. 
13, 1897, another application was received from the same board for 
advice and approval of a proposed overflow from a fifteen-inch branch 
on the northerly side of the metropolitan sewer in Business Street, 
at the junction of Barry Place in Hyde Park. To these applications 
the Board replied as follows : — 

March 4, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on July 13, 1897, an 
application requesting the advice and approval of the Board concerning 
automatic overflows and regulators at certain connections with the metro- 
politan sewer in the Neponset valley, as follows : — 

The board of sewer commissioners of the town of Hyde Park have made appli- 
cation to the Metropolitan Sewerage Commissioners for permission to make con- 
nections with the Neponset valley intercepting sewer at five points, as follows : — 

By 12-inch branch on the westerly side of the metropolitan sewer in Fairmount 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 97 

Avenue, between the New England Railroad and Neponset River, Hyde Park. 
(Section No. 1.) 

By 12-inch branch on the northerly side of the metropolitan sewer in Hyde Park 
Avenue, near Factory Street, Hyde Park. (Section No. 2.) 

By 15-inch branch on the westerly side of the metropolitan sewer in extension 
of Arlington Street and Metropolitan Avenue, Hyde Park. (Section No. 3.) 

By 18-inch branch on the easterly side of the metropolitan sewer between 
Neponset River and New England Railroad, Hyde Park, opposite extension of 
Milton Avenue. (Section No. 4.) 

By 20-inch branch on the southerly side of the metropolitan sewer in Hyde Park 
Avenue, being the outlet for sewerage section No. 8, Hyde Park. 

It is the desire of the Metropolitan Sewerage Commissioners to require at these 
connections automatic overflows and regulators, so designed as to act only when 
the intercepting sewer is filled to its maximum flow line. Maps, showing the 
details of the proposed connections, as they are desired to be approved, are sub- 
mitted herewith. 

Your advice and approval is asked for these Hyde Park connections, as above 
outlined. 

Subsequently, on Aug. 13, 1897, a similar application was received for 
the advice and approval of the Board concerning a proposed overflow from 
a 1 0-inch branch on the northerly side of the metropolitan sewer in Business 
Street, at the junction of Barry Place, Hyde Park. 

Accompanying the applications were plans showing in detail the pro- 
posed connections with the proposed regulators and ovei'flows. On each 
of these plans there is a note stating that the valve (by which the lateral 
sewer is shut off from the metropolitan) is designed to close when the 
metropolitan sewer is full. 

It is understood that all the applications for connections with the metro- 
politan sewer in the Neponset valley thus far approved by your board have 
been approved with the distinct understanding that no surface, roof or 
ground waters from underdrains should be admitted to the sewers, and 
that this provision applies to the connections mentioned in the applications 
submitted to this Board. 

The sewage discharged from all of the overflows proposed in your appli- 
cations would enter the fresh-water portion of the Neponset River, or 
Mother Brook, in the midst of a large and rapidly growing population, 
where the streams have a sluggish current, on account of a dam below the 
outlets of the proposed overflows. 

As stated in the previous reply relating to this matter, the Board believes 
it to be important to keep sewage from entering the fresh-water portion 
of the Neponset River, which, in the region in which it is proposed to 
make these overflows, is practically a mill pond, and that no opportunity 
should be afforded for the disposal of any sewage in this way, unless it 
may be absolutely necessary in order to prevent the danger of a greater 
nuisance elsewhere. 



98 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The size of the metropolitan sewer above a point in the vicinity of the 
boundary line between Hyde Park and Boston was designed to be sufficient 
to remove all of the sewage of the district which it is intended to serve 
until about the year 1930, at which time it is expected that the population 
will be several times as great as that now living in this district. Below 
this point the size of the sewer is much smaller down to the place where it 
joins the Dorchester intercepting sewer, but was considered when planned 
to be sufficient to remove the sewage which the larger sewer will briog to 
it until about the year 1905, or possibly longer, depending upon the growth 
of the population and the increase in quantity of sewage in the district. 
The Dorchester intercepting sewer, into which the metropolitan sewer 
discharges, is provided with overflows through which the sewage may dis- 
charge into tide water automatically, when the sewage in the Boston main 
drainage sewer rises above a certain height. It seems to the Board that 
the only condition which will make the overflows proposed in your present 
application necessary would be a flow of sewage in the metropolitan sewer, 
above the place where its size is reduced, much in excess of the capacity 
of the smaller sewer below the Hyde Park and Dorchester line, before the 
time that the high-level sewer is constructed. 

No evidence has been submitted to show that the flow in the metropolitan 
sewer is likely to soon exceed the capacity of the sewer at any place, and 
it does not appear to the Board that it is necessary to provide at present 
automatic overflows for the proposed connections with the metropolitan 
sewer in Hyde Park ; and the Board, therefore, does not approve the con- 
struction of overflows, as proposed in your applications. 

If observations made at times of maximum flow of the height and flow 
of sewage in the metropolitan sewer, especially in the vicinity of the place 
where its size is contracted at the line between Hyde Park and Dorchester, 
shall show that the flow in the sewer is so great that thei'e is danger that 
the capacity of the sewer, or any portion of it, is likely to be reached before 
any additional means of removing the sewage shall have been provided, 
and that the flooding of lateral sewers above the place where the sewer is 
contracted is thi'eatened, or if from any other cause it would seem to you 
necessary to provide an overflow or overflows from the main sewer or its 
tributaries at any place, this Board will consider any information you may 
present showing the necessity or desirability of overflows, or any plans that 
you may submit with regard to measures for disposing of the excess of 
sewage ; but, as already stated in a previous reply, the Board is desirous 
of avoiding the discharge of sewage into the Neponset River above any 
of the mill dams when not absolutely necessary. 

The Metropolitan Water Board (sewerage system of Clinton). 
An application was received, Aug. 2, 1898, from the Metropolitan 
Water Board for the approval of the State Board of Health of a 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 99 

proposed system of sewerage for the town of Clinton, under the 
provisions of chapter 557 of the Acts of 1898. The Board replied 
to this application as follows : — 

Sept. 1, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Aug. 2, 1898, an ap- 
plication giving notice of your intention to introduce a system of sewerage 
in the town of Clinton, and submitting your proposed plans for approval 
by the Board, under the authority of chapter 557 of the Acts of 1898. 
The application was accompanied by plans of the proposed main sewers 
and other portions of the proposed system, and by the following state- 
ment relating to the plans for the disposal of the sewage of the town of 
Clinton : — 

The preliminary examinations relative to the disposal of the sewage of Clinton 
were made for the Metropolitan Water Board by Messrs. Snow & Barbour, and 
they reported, as a result of gaugings and observations, that the quantity of sew- 
age to be disposed of at the present time, including the wool wastes from the 
Bigelow Carpet Mills and the more objectionable wastes from the Lancaster 
Mills, equalled 780,000 gallons per day. We have not thought it necessary or 
desirable to attempt to pump and purify wastes which are merely discolored, and 
not offensive in odor or injurious to health. Should it be necessary to purify these 
comparatively unobjectionable wastes, the additional quantity to be purified will 
be about 1,000,000 gallons daily. 

The sewage of the town is now discharged into the Nashua River through two 
main outlets, one which takes the sewage from the main valley of the Nashua 
River and is known as the Williams Street outlet, and the other which takes the 
sewage from the valley of Coachlace Brook and is known as the Allen Street 
outlet. It is proposed to build an intercepting sewer 20 inches in diameter, with 
a grade of .17 per 100, to convey the sewage from the Williams Street outlet to 
the Allen Street outlet, and thence to make the sewer 30 inches in diameter to 
the reservoir. The 20-inch sewer will receive less than half the sewage of the 
town, and will have a capacity, when full, of about 3,500,000 gallons daily. It 
is not expected that this capacity will be exceeded at any time. From the inter- 
cepting sewer the sewage will discharge into a small chamber between the res- 
ervoir and the pumping station. The sewage will first pass through a screen, 
and then can be turned, by means of gates, either directly into the pump wells 
or into the further end of the reservoir, so as to produce as much sedimentation 
in the reservoir as possible. 

The reservoir is to be 100 feet in diameter, and up to its high-water mark, 
which is at elevation 247 above Boston city base, will hold 600,000 gallons. The 
high-water mark is placed sufficiently low to provide for the sewerage of the 
lowest parts of Clinton. An overflow from the reservoir is provided at the high- 
water level, to be used only in cases of emergency. Arrangements will be made 
for agitating the sediment in the tank and pumping it to the filter beds. 

The pumping plant proposed is to consist of two pumping engines, one of 
which will have a capacity of 3,000,000 gallons daily, and two boilers, each hav- 
ing a sufficient capacity to supply steam to either engine. 



100 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

From the pumping station the sewage will be forced through an 18-inch cast- 
iron pipe to the westerly corner of the area to be taken for sewage-disposal pur- 
poses, thence will be carried by a 24:-inch vitrified pipe carrier to the filter beds. 

It is proposed to construct at present twenty-five beds, having a total area of 
23^ acres. From nineteen of these beds, which have a total area of 17| acres, 
all of the dark soil at the surface and of the subsoil will be removed, and the 
underlying sand and gravel will be properly graded to receive the sewage. From 
one bed, having an area of 1 acre, the dark soil only is to be removed before grad- 
ing ; and from five beds, having a total area of 4| acres, no soil is to be removed 
before grading. 

The carriers for distributing the sewage to each bed will be vitrified pipes. 

Two tiers of beds will be underdrained by running a vitrified pipe beneath 
them ; but it is not proposed to drain the other beds unless it should be found 
necessary after trial. 

Mr. Bigelow, of the Bigelow Carpet Company, has signified his willingness to 
construct duplicate settling tanks, in which to remove by sedimentation the solids 
in the wool-washing wastes. 

The plans provide for a main intercepting sewer in the valley of the 
Nashua River, which is designed to collect the sewage from sewers which 
at present discharge into that stream, and convey it to a reservoir to be 
located on the westerly side of the river and on the easterly side of the 
road leading from Clinton to Lancaster Commons, from which the sewage 
is to be forced by pumps, through a cast-iron pipe 18 inches in diameter, 
to a proposed filtration area to be located on the easterly side of the road 
leading from Clinton to the village of Lancaster Commons, and about half 
a mile south-west of the latter village, and there purified by intermittent 
filtration. 

The Board has caused the proposed system and the lands which it is 
proposed to use for sewage disposal to be examined by its engineers, and 
has carefully considered the proposed plans. 

It is understood that in the construction of the present sewers in Clinton 
all storm water, and, so far as practicable, ground water, has been ex- 
cluded, and it is also understood that in making extensions to the system 
in the future it is proposed to adhere to the so called separate system. 

It appears that in certain manufacturing establishments in Clinton large 
quantities of water are used in the processes of scouring wool and dyeing 
wool and cotton. Information furnished by you shows that a small por- 
tion of this water, especially that which is used in the scouring of wool, 
becomes very highly polluted ; and you propose to receive this sewage into 
the intercepting sewers, after removing a portion of the heavier matters 
by passing the sewage through settling tanks. The remaining water is 
used chiefly in the processes of dyeing and rinsing, and you propose to 
discharge this water into the river or its tributaries without treatment. 

It is very important, in the opinion of the Board, that the proposed set- 
tling tanks be so operated as to remove as much of the solid matters from 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 101 

the sewage as it is practicable to remove by sedimentation, in order to 
avoid difficulty in operating the works, which would be caused by admit- 
ting such matters to the sewers. 

Examinations of the effluent from the dyeing and rinsing processes show 
that, while it may be discharged into the river at the present time and pos- 
sibly even after the construction of the reservoir above Clinton without 
causing a serious pollution of the stream, this effluent contains at present 
considerable quantities of organic matter ; and it may be found desirable 
in the future, on account of an increase in the quantity of this organic 
matter or from some other cause, to remove it from the stream. It is 
possible that a portion of the water containing the greater portion of the 
organic matter can be separated, and thus the treatment of the whole of 
these waste waters be avoided. It is desirable, in designing the sewerage 
works, however, that they should be so arranged that they can be readily 
enlarged so as to admit of the purification of this manufacturing sewage ; 
and it appears that such provision has been made, since the proposed 
sewers are of sufficient capacity to remove all of the manufacturing sew- 
age, in addition to the domestic sewage, that seems likely to be produced 
for many years in the future. 

The place at which it is proposed to locate the pumping station is a 
suitable one; and, by thorough ventilation, into the chimney at the pump- 
ing station, of the sewers, reservoir, pump wells and other places from 
which an odor of sewage might escape, there need be no danger of any 
objectionable odors in the neighborhood. In connection with the reser- 
voir, the plans show an overflow or waste pipe through which sewage may 
be discharged into the north branch of the Nashua River, which at this 
place has a very sluggish current, owing to a dam a short distance below. 
By providing duplicate machinery at the pumping station, as is proposed, 
the necessity for such an overflow will be very slight, and this Board under- 
stands that the overflow or discharge pipe is to be used only in cases of 
emergency, such as an accident to the pumping station, machinery or force 
main, and that it is not for frequent or regular use. 

The lands which it is proposed to use for sewage disposal, according to 
the plans, are located within the area prescribed by chapter 557 of the 
Acts of 1898. Examinations of the soil show that it is excellent for the 
purification of sewage, and the lands selected appear to be the most 
appropriate for the purpose that are to be found within that area. 

The area of filter beds which it is proposed to prepare will be sufficient 
for the disposal of all of the sewage which is likely to be produced by the 
town of Clinton for the present and for a considerable time in the future ; 
and it appears to be feasible to increase considerably the area of filter beds 
by using other lands in the prescribed area, if it should become necessary. 
It will be practicable to dispose of a greater quantity of sewage per acre 
on the beds from which all of the soil and subsoil has been removed than 



102 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

on the beds upon which the soil is allowed to remain, and less care in the 
operation of the beds will be required. The efficiency of the beds on which 
the soil is to be allowed to remain can be increased, however, when it be- 
comes necessary, by removing the soil and subsoil. Should the limited 
amount of underdrainage that it is proposed to provide in the beginning be 
found inadequate for the proper removal of the effluent, further underdrain- 
age can be provided without special difficulty. 

The Board, having carefully considered the proposed plans, hereby ap- 
proves them, under the authority of chapter 557 of the Acts of 1898. 

Northampton. An application vras received from the board of 
health of Northampton, Nov. 11, 1898, for the advice of the Board 
relative to the best method of disposing of the sewage of a mill in 
course of construction in that city. The Board replied to this 
application as follows : — 

Dec. 2, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Nov. 11, 1898, a com- 
munication requesting advice as to the best way of disposing of the sew- 
age of a new hosiery mill, the construction of which has recently been 
begun near the Mill River in Northampton. You state that the plan under 
consideration is to build a sewer to discharge the sewage of the factory 
into Mill River, at a point near the railroad bridge just below West Street. 
You also state that the only sewer in the vicinity of the proposed mill is 
a trunk line, indicated upon the plan submitted, which is so much higher 
than the land on which the mill is being built that you are informed that 
it is impossible to connect the building with it. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by one of its engi- 
neers, and has carefully considered the proposed plan. It appears that 
the current in the river at the proposed sewer outlet is very sluggish during 
much of the time, owing to a dam across the river a short distance below, 
and that there is a large population in the vicinity of the river below the 
proposed point of discharge. Under the circumstances, the Board is of 
the opinion that no sewage should be discharged into the river in this 
vicinity. 

It would probably be practicable, without great expense, to collect all 
the sewage in a small reservoir or tank, properly ventilated, and force it 
into the intercepting sewer. It is possible also, that, by preventing the 
construction of sinks, water-closets or other fixtures in the lower portion 
of the factory, a sewer can be laid in the vicinity of the railroad embank- 
ment to convey the sewage to the main sewer by gravity. 

The Board advises that the matter be given further careful considera- 
tion, in order that the most feasible plan of disposing of the sewage into 
the present sewerage system may be selected. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 103 

SouTHBRiDGE. A request was received from the town of South- 
bridge, Aug. 5, 1898, for the approval of the State Board of Health 
of certain lands in that town for the purpose of sewage disposal. 
A hearing was granted under the provisions of chapter 124 of the 
Acts of 1890, on Sept. 1, 1898, after which the Board replied to 
the application as follows : — 

Sept. 29, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Aug. 5, 1898, an ap- 
plication requesting approval by the State Board of Health of the taking 
by the town of Southbridge of certain lands in that town, now or formerly 
of the estate of G. W. Wells, situated for the most part on the northerly 
side of the Quinebaug River, in the vicinity of the Lensdale Dam, so called, 
for the purification and disposal of sewage. 

In response to this application, the State Board of Health, in accordance 
with the requirements of chapter 50, section 1 of the Public Statutes, as 
amended by chapter 124 of the Acts of 1890, gave notice that a public 
hearing relative to the taking of the lands in question for the purification 
and disposal of sewage would be given at its office on Sept. 1, 1898. At 
this hearing no person appeared to oppose the proposed taking of the lands 
referred to, and the Board voted to approve the purchase or taking by the 
town of Southbridge of said lauds for the purification and disposal of sew- 
age. The said lands are shown upon a plan submitted by you on Aug. 5, 
1898, signed by A. C. Moore, and are bounded, measured and described 
as follows : — 

Beginning at a stone bound set on the east shore of Lensdale Pond, on the 
Quinebaug River, at line of land of Ellen J. Bartholomew ; thence southerly and 
easterly on said river and pond about 2,000 feet to a pin near where the new chan- 
nel of said river empties into the pond of the Southbridge Printing Company ; 
thence southerly, crossing said river to a pin on the northerly line of Main Street ; 
thence easterly on said Main Street about 280 feet to a pin at land of George W. 
Wells, known as the " Grant lot ; " thence northerly by said Grant lot to the centre 
of said river ; thence easterly on the centre of said river to land of said printing 
company ; thence N.4- 45' E. by land of said printing company, E. T. Torrey and 
land formerly belonging to L. Travis, to a pin at a comer ; thence S. 86" AV. 
364 feet to a pin at land of said Bartholomew; thence S. 4° 45' W. 1,155 feet; 
thence S 50= W. 247.5 feet; thence X. 68° W. 1,518 feet, all by land of said Bar- 
tholomew to the first-mentioned bound, containing 52 acres of land, more or less, 
a plan of which land is filed herewith and made a part of this petition. 

Springfield. An apj^hcation was received, Nov. 3, 1897, from 
the mayor of Springfield, for the advice of the Board relative to the 
sewerage and sewage disposal of the Mill River valley in that city, 
and the propriety of discharging storm water into "Watershop Pond 
and Mill River. The Board replied to this application as follows : — 



104 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

June 3, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Nov. 3, 1897, an ap- 
plication for advice with reference to proposed plans for the disposal of 
sewage and storm water from the Mill River valley in Springfield. 

Subsequently, new and detailed plans were submitted by the city engi- 
neer, one showing the areas from which the proposed Mill River intercept- 
ing sewer is designed to receive sewage and storm water, and the other 
showing the location and profile of the proposed intercepting sewer in the 
valley of Mill River. The proposed sewer is to begin at a point in Wal- 
nut Street near Hickory Street, north of the outlet of Watershop Pond, 
and, passing along the northerly side of Mill River, is to discharge into 
that stream a short distance below Fort Pleasant Avenue and above the 
third dam from the mouth of the river. This sewer is designed to provide 
for the disposal of the sewage from two districts. One of these districts 
includes chiefly the valley of Carlisle Brook, on the northerly side of 
Watershop Pond. In this district it is proposed to construct the sewer- 
age system upon the so called separate plan, excluding from the sewers 
all storm water, and, so far as practicable, ground water, and to discharge 
the sewage into the intercepting sewer, while the storm water and ground 
water is to be disposed of by separate channels discharging into the brook 
or its tributaries, or into Watershop Pond. In the other district, a small 
portion of which lies north of Watershop Pond and Mill River and the 
remainder south of the pond and river, it is proposed to collect both sew- 
age and storm water in one system of sewers, and to discharge them into 
the proposed intercepting sewer at several points, providing overflows at 
the points where sewers connect with the intercepting sewer, through 
wliich the mingled sewage and storm water may overflow into Mill River 
below Watershop Pond whenever the main sewer is flowing full. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer, and 
has carefully considered the plans and other information submitted. 

It is important to keep all sewage out of Watershop Pond, and for this 
reason no overflow or sewer from which sewage is discharged should be 
connected with this pond. 

The proposed method of disposing of the sewage and storm water from 
the valley of Carlisle Brook seems to be the best that it is practicable to 
adopt. 

In the other district, which it is proposed to connect with the intercept- 
ing sewer, sewers have already been constructed upon the combined plan, 
and it is probably best, in making future extensions in this district, to ad- 
here to this system. ■ 

There are other areas in the valley of Mill River, at present very sparsely 
populated, from which the sewage can be taken into the intercepting sewer, 
if necessary, in the future ; but it will be necessary to exclude storm water 
from the sewers in those districts, and it will also be essential, in order to 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 105 

avoid causing more frequent overflows of the Mill River sewer than are 
desirable or are contemplated in the present plan, to divert from this sewer 
some of the storm water which it is now proposed to discharge into it. K 
the necessity for reducing the quantity of storm water discharged into the 
main sewer arises, it can probably be accomplished by building a separate 
channel for the storm water in some portion of the district which it is now 
proposed to provide with sewers upon the combined plan ; such, for in- 
stance, as the territory in the vicinity of Allen and White streets, and to 
dispose of the storm water by discharging it into ]\Iill River. 

The proposed intercepting sewer in the valley of Mill River, as designed, 
is of sufficient capacity to remove all of the, sewage and storm water from 
the districts which it is designed to serve, excepting occasionally, at times 
of very heavy rain, when a small amount of mingled sewage and storm 
water may be discharged through overflows from tributary sewers at several 
points along the stream below Watershop Pond. It is not likely, however, 
that the sewage discharged at such times will have any very unfavorable 
effect upon the sanitary conditions of the stream, but it is very important 
that the quantity of sewage disposed of in this way be kept as small as 
possible. 

It is understood that you propose to divert from the intercepting sewer 
at Locust Street so much of the sewage and storm water as the Locust 
Street sewer is capable of removing, and to discharge only the surplus 
through the Mill River intercepting sewer into Mill River. 

From the information submitted, it seems probable that the Locust Street 
sewer will be capable of removing the dry-weather flow of the sewage from 
the Mill River intercepting sewer, as well as the dry-weather flow of sew- 
age from sewers in Fort Pleasant Avenue and Belmont Avenue, which are 
connected with the Locust Street sewer. It seems likely that, in addition 
to the dry-weather flow of sewage from the sewers referred to, the Locust 
Street sewer will be capable of carrying off a small amount of storm water, 
so that in small storms thei'e may be no flow in the Mill River intercepting 
sewer below Locust Street ; but with larger storms and at times of thaws 
a portion of the mingled sewage and storm water will be discharged through 
the intercepting sewer into Mill River. 

It is proposed to terminate the Mill River intercepting sewer in Mill 
River, just above the third dam from the mouth of the stream. If any 
considerable quantity of sewage should be discharged into the Mill River 
in this region, there is danger that a nuisance may be created ; and the 
Board is of the opinion that it is very desirable to avoid the discharge of 
any considerable quantity of sewage into Mill River above any of the dams 
on the stream. There are, moreover, indications that the lower portion 
of the Mill River valley, in the immediate vicinity of the stream, is likely 
to be densely populated before many years, so that it will probably be 
necessary to extend the sewer to the Connecticut River, and it appears. 



106 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

to be practicable to extend the sewer to that stream. It seems probable, 
however, that the quantity of sewage that will be discharged from the Mill 
River intercepting sewer will be small in the beginning, and the sewage 
coming from this sewer will probably be quite dilute. 

Under the circumstances, the Board is of the opinion that it is desirable 
to extend the sewer in the beginning as far at least as some place below 
the lowest dam, though a temporary outlet at the point proposed may not 
cause any serious trouble for a time. 

The plan as a whole, with the modifications suggested, is, in the opinion 
of the Board, a suitable one for the disposal of the sewage of the Mill 
River valley. 

Springfield. Another application was received from the mayor 
of Springfield, July 7, 1898, for the approval of certain sev^^ers for 
a small district of Springfield having their outfall into the Connecti- 
cut River. The Board replied as follows : — 

Aug. 8, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on July 7, 1898, an ap- 
plication for advice with reference to the discharge into the Connecticut 
River of sewage and storm water from a proposed sewer to be built iu 
Clinton, Fulton and Sargent streets, in Springfield. The plan shows a 
storm-water overflow at the Harbor Commissioners' line at the easterly 
bank of the Connecticut River, and a sewer leading downward from the 
bottom of the main sewer just above the outlet along the bottom of the 
river to a point of discharge 200 feet from the Harbor Commissioners' 
line. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined bj' one of its engi- 
neers, and, having given the matter careful consideration, concludes that 
the proposed method and plan of disposing of the sewage of the district 
under consideration are suitable for the purpose. 

Wakefield. A communication was received from the committee 
on sewerage of the town of Wakefield, requesting the approval of 
the Board, under chapter 124 of the Acts of 1890, of the purchase 
or taking of land for the purification and disposal of sewage, at the 
same time indicating certain tracts of land lying in the valley of the 
Saugus River as suited to the purpose. The Board replied to this 
application as follows : — 

Oct. 6, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Aug. 31, 1898, a com- 
munication requesting approval by the Board of the taking of certain lands 
iu the town of Wakefield for the purification and disposal of sewage, under 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 107 

the authority of chapter 124 of the Acts of 1890 and chapter 50 of the 
Public Statutes. 

You state that it is proposed to utilize the property described in your 
application by filling upon the bottom and swamp land to the required 
depth with suitable material, some of which can be procured upon the 
laud you propose to take, and the balance within 2,000 feet at the town 
farm, toward which place it is proposed to extend the filter area as neces- 
sity requires. Subsequently a plan was received, showing an outline of 
lauds which you propose to take ; and later a topographical plan of the 
area was submitted, showing the location of test pits. 

The lands which you propose to use are located in the easterly portion 
of the town of Wakefield, adjoining the town of Saugus, and are bounded 
on the northerly and easterly sides by the Wakefield branch of the Saugus 
River and by the Saugus River. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer, and 
has carefully considered the proposed plans and other information sub- 
mitted. 

In some parts of the proposed filtration area the soil appears to be 
suitable for the purification of sewage by intermittent filtration, but the 
aggregate area of these portions is much less than would be necessary for 
the purification of the sewage of the town of Wakefield. If the gravelly 
soil found on a part of the area extends to a sufficient depth, filter beds 
might be constructed with this material upon other portions of the area ; 
but, even if filter beds should be constructed upon all portions of the area 
that appear to be suitable for that purpose, by using such suitable soil as 
is found upon the area, or by hauling sand or gravel from the town farm, 
if necessary, as suggested in your application, the Board is unable to con- 
clude that a sufficient area could be prepared here for the disposal of all 
of the sewage of the town of Wakefield after a sewerage system shall have 
come into general use. Moreover, the cost of preparing filter beds, even 
upon the portions of this area best suited for the purpose, would be very 
large, as compared with the cost of constructing filter beds upon land 
better adapted to the purpose. 

Under the circumstances, the Board is unable to approve the purchase 
or taking of the land referred to in your application for the purpose of the 
purification and disposal of the sewage of Wakefield. 

In response to an application from the authorities of the town of Wake 
field, made in 1892, for advice with reference to a proposed plan of sew- 
erage and sewage disposal for the town, by which it was proposed to use 
land in the vicinity of the town farm for the purification and disposal of 
the sewage, the Board made the following statement : — 

With regard to the best place for filtering the sewage, your engineer has shown 
in his report that the proposed disposal area has a decided advantage, in regard 



108 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

both to the cost of reaching it with the sewage and to the cost of maintenance, 
over any other available area. The character of the land at this place is also of 
excellent quality for filtration, so that, on the whole, these advantages may be 
said to outweigh the disadvantage that the tract contains two small houses and a 
school-house, and is not very far from settled portions of the town. 

It does not appear that there has been any material increase in the popu- 
lation in the vicinity of the town farm in the last six years, so that the 
disadvantage referred to has not become materially greater; and it is 
probable that the necessary cost of purifying the sewage in the vicinity 
of the town farm would be less than by any other method of disposal that 
it is practicable to adopt. It is possible that there may be other suitable 
areas of land within the limits of the town, not known to this Board, which 
are suitable for the disposal of the sewage of Wakefield ; and the Board is 
prepared to assist you in any further investigations you may conclude to 
make with reference to sewage disposal, by making such analyses of samples 
of soil as may be necessary, and to advise you as to any plan of sewerage 
or sewage disposal for the town which you may wish to present. 

Wakefield. Another application for advice was received from 
Wakefield, Nov. 8, 1898, with reference to the propriety of taking 
certain lands in Wakefield, under the authority of chapter 124 of 
the Acts of 1890. The Board replied to this application as fol- 
lows : — 

Jan. 5, 1899. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Nov. 8, 1898, a further 
application for advice with reference to the disposal of sewage of the town 
of Wakefield, in which you request the approval by this Board, in accord- 
ance with the requirements of chapter 124 of the Acts of 1890 and chapter 
50 of the Public Statutes, of the taking of certain lands in the Woodville 
district in the town of Wakefield, comprising the Tyzzer, Edmunds and 
Buckman properties, and a portion of the town farm east of a brook which 
runs parallel with Farm Street about 500 feet easterly therefrom, for the 
purification and disposal of the sewage of the town, these lands being in 
addition to the Lynde and Hone lots described in a previous application. 
You also furnish a description of the lands you propose to take and a plan 
showing their location ; but no plan has been presented showing definitely 
how the sewage is to be conveyed to these lands, or how they are to be 
prepared for the disposal of the sewage upon them. 

The Board has given the matter of the disposal of the sewage of Wake- 
field further consideration, and has caused the lands described in your 
application to be examined by its engineer, and samples of soil from a 
limited number of test pits on these lands to be analyzed. 

It is difficult, from the limited amount of information available with ref- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 109 

erence to the character of the soil of these lands, for the Board to deter- 
mine at all definitely the area of the laud within the lots mentioned in your 
application that is suitable for the construction of filter beds for the purifi- 
cation and disposal of sewage ; but, so far as can be judged from the 
information available, there may be about 8 acres of land upon which it 
would be practicable to construct filter beds at a reasonable cost, which 
w^ould be suitable for the disposal of the sewage of Wakefield. Judging 
from experience in other cities and towns, the area of land which is here 
suitable for filtration might be no more than sufficient to provide for the 
disposal of the sewage of Wakefield after the sewers had been generally 
extended through the town and become generally used. 

The area of filters could probably be enlarged by taking some of the 
material from the higher portions of the gravelly areas, if the coarse mate- 
rial extends to a suflficient depth, and constructing filter beds artificially upon 
other portions of the land ; but the cost of constructing filter beds in this 
way would be very large, as compared with the cost of constructing filters 
upon gravelly land naturally adapted to the purpose, where the material 
does not need to be moved. 

It is understood that you propose, if it shall become necessary in the 
future, to use other portions of the town farm, located on both sides of 
Farm Street, for the extension of the filter beds ; and, judging from the 
present indications, it would probably be necessary to extend the works 
for purifying the sewage within a few years after their construction ; and, 
if the town farm lands are to be used at all, it would probably be less expen- 
sive for the town to use these lands in the beginning, because the indications 
are that the cost of conveying sewage to these lauds and constructing filter 
beds upon them would, as indicated in the previous reply of the Board, be 
less than at the places proposed in your present application. 

The attention of the Board has also been called, in this connection, to 
the lands north of Water Street and east of Montrose Avenue, where the 
character of the surface of the ground indicates that the soil over a con- 
siderable area may consist of porous sand or gravel. It is possible that 
further investigations might show that a sufficient area of suitable land for 
the disposal of the sewage of Wakefield exists here ; and it is possible that 
these lands may be found, upon careful examination, to possess advantages 
as a place of sewage disposal which would make it desirable to select them 
for this purpose in preference to the other areas that have thus far been 
considered. 

The information thus far presented with reference to the comparative 
advantages of the areas which appear to be available for the disposal of 
the sewage of Wakefield is not sufficient to enable the Board to arrive at 
definite conclusions as to which area or areas it would be for the best 
interests of the town to use for the disposal of its sewage. Under the cir- 
cumstances, the Board does not at present advise that the land proposed 



no STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

in your application be selected as a place, of disposal for the sewage of 
Wakefield, but would again advise that a further and more thorough in- 
vestigation of the whole subject be made by the town, in order to collect 
all the available information with reference to the comparative advantages 
and suitability of the various areas for the disposal of sewage, and thus 
make it possible to determine which area it will be for the best interests 
of the town to use. These investigations should include such further sur- 
veys of the lands which appear to be available for sewage disposal as may 
be necessary to determine their elevation ; the digging of a sufficient num- 
ber of test pits in these lands to determine the character of the soil, the 
extent of areas containing soil suitable for Sewage disposal, and the depth 
to gi'ound water where necessary ; and, finally, careful comparative esti- 
mates of the cost of constructing filter beds sufficient for the disposal of 
the sewage of the town for the present and for a reasonable time in the 
future, including a careful estimate of the probable expense for land dam- 
age in each case. 

The Board will assist you in the investigations, if you desire, by making 
such analyses as may be necessary of samples of soil from test pits that 
you may excavate upon these areas, and will, upon application, give you 
further advice with reference to any plan of sewage disposal when you 
have the results of further investigations to present. 

Wales. An application was received May 25, 1898, from the 
board of health of Wales, for the advice of the Board relative to 
the disposal of the drainage of certain houses in the village of Wales. 
The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

July 7, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on May 25, an applica- 
tion for advice with reference to the disposal of sink drainage from houses 
in the village of Wales. You suggest the possibility of preventing these 
nuisances by the construction of cess-pools. 

The Board has caused an examination of the village to be made by its 
engineer, and finds that, owing to the contour of the land, many of the 
houses drain naturally toward the main street. Complaint is made of 
several sink drains which discharge upon this street, and particular atten- 
tion was called to four of these drains. The construction of a sewer to 
remove sink drainage or other sewage seems impracticable, under the ex- 
isting conditions ; and, after careful consideration of the whole matter, the 
Board is of the opinion that, in general, the best method of disposing of 
the sink drainage which causes trouble in the village at present is by the 
construction of cess-pools. Care will have to be taken to locate cess-pools 
in such a manner that their contents may not find their way into any well 
or into the cellar or basement of any building. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. Ill 

Examination of each of the localities of which complaint is made at the 
present time indicates that it is practicable to construct cess-pools in the 
vicinity of the houses, to receive the drainage. One of the cases to which 
attention was called was that of a house located on the easterly side of the 
main street, south of the saw mill, the drain from which causes a serious 
nuisance in the street. It appears to be entirely practicable to divert the 
drainage to the rear of the house, where it may be disposed of either into 
a cess-pool or upon the surface of the ground, where it can probably be 
advantageously used as a fertilizer. 

Pollution of Ponds, Streams and Other Bodies of Water. 

The following is the substance of the action of the Board during 
the past year in reply to applications for advice relative to the pol- 
lution of ponds, streams and other bodies of water : — 

Arlington. The attention of the State Board of Health was 
called by a communication from the Arlington water board to the 
existence of a slaughter house upon the water-shed of their source 
of supply, at the same time requesting the State Board "to take 
such action as the law allows to prevent further impairment or pol- 
lution of the water supply of the town of Arlington." The Board 
replied to this communication as follows : — 

May 6, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on April 12, 1898, a com- 
munication calling attention to a building used for slaughtering purposes 
and for the keeping of swine, which is drained into a small pond which is 
tributary to one of the sources of the Arlington water supply, and request- 
ing this Board to take such action as the law allows, to prevent the pollu- 
tion of the water supply of Arlington. 

The Board has caused an examination of the building and of the locality 
to be made by its engineer, and finds that the building is used, as stated, 
as a slaughter house and for the keeping of swine, and there are evidences 
that drainage from it has recently flowed into one of the sources of the 
Arlington water supply. The drainage from this establishment is of a 
very foul character, and its discharge into the Arlington water supply 
should be discontinued as soon as possible. 

By the provisions of chapter 491 of the Acts of 1894 and chapter 496 
of the Acts of 1895, the proprietors of every slaughter house engaged in 
the slaughter of neat cattle, sheep or swine, any pi-oduct of which is to be 
sold or used for food, shall annually, in the month of April, make applica- 
tion to the mayor and aldermen of the city or selectmen of the town where 
such establishment is located for a license to carry on such business. The 



112 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Board is informed that this establishment has not been licensed by the 
selectmen of Lexington, as required by the acts referred to. 

Under the circumstances, it would seem that the selectmen of Lexing- 
ton, upon presentation of the facts by the authorities of the town of 
Arlington, might refuse to grant a license, and thus prevent the continu- 
ance of the business at the present location or at any place where there 
would be any danger of causing a pollution of the water supply of the 
town of Arlington. 

If a license is granted, it may be practicable for the person or persons 
who control the operations of the establishment in question to prevent 
polluting matters from escaping from it into the Arlington water supply. 
If this is not done, however, it seems possible for the town to prevent the 
pollution of its water supply from the operations carried on in and around 
this building, by acting under the authority of chapter 80, section 96 of 
the Public Statutes, which appears to cover such cases as the one under 
consideration ; and the Board would advise that the necessary legal steps 
be taken, unless the pollution of your water supply from this source is 
discontinued. 

Falmouth. An application was received, May 26, 1897, from 
the board of health of Fahnouth, asking advice as to the best method 
" of abating a nuisance existing in State waters at the head of Little 
Harbor, so called, in Wood's Holl, and consisting of mud, seaweed 
and decomposed matter brought in by action of the wind and tide." 
The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

March 4, 1898. 

The State Board of Health has considered your application for advice 
with refei'ence to the best method of abating a nuisance at the head of 
Little Harbor in the town of Falmouth, has caused an examination of the 
locality to be made by its engineer, and has carefully examined the plans 
proposed by you. These plans provide for the construction of a bulkhead 
across the north-easterly corner of the cove where the nuisance exists, and 
the filling in of the portion of the harbor thus cut off. 

It is probable that, by constructing the bulkhead and making it tight 
enough to prevent the water passing out, and thus keeping the area cov- 
ered with water at all times, much relief would be experienced from the 
odor now complained of, and the filling in of the area behind the bulkhead, 
as proposed in the application, would prevent all odor from this area ; but 
whether, by this plan, permanent relief would be secured, seems doubtful, 
since it is possible that the seaweed would deposit outside of the bulk- 
head, and, gradually rising above the level of low water, again produce a 
nuisance such as is now complained of. It is also an objection to this plan 
that it would lessen the area of the harbor and reduce the quantity of tide- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 113 

water coming in and going out of the harbor, thus changing somewhat the 
existing conditions which might possibly have an unfavorable effect upon 
the condition of some other portion of the harbor. 

The indications seem to be that seaweed is carried to the north-easterly 
corner of the harbor, where the nuisance is now complained of, both float- 
ing upon the surface of the water and in suspension in the water below 
the surface, and perhaps also by movement along the bottom. If these 
masses could be arrested before entering the portion of the harbor where 
they are now deposited, and at the same time the tide water be allowed 
to pass into this place, the water, going out from behind a barrier arrest- 
ing these masses, would tend to prevent them from being deposited, and 
the larger the area behind the barrier compared with the length of the 
barrier the more efficient would be its action. 

In view of the circumstances, the Board would suggest, as a probable 
method of obtaining relief, the construction of a bulkhead perhaps 100 
feet farther into the harbor than shown upon your sketch, if this distance 
would not interfere with the uses of the harbor ; this bulkhead to be closed 
from high water down to near low water, below which to be composed of 
vertical strips of plank, two or three inches apart, covering half the area. 
The deposit in the rear of the bulkhead should be removed at least down 
to low water and deeper near the bulkhead, where the open work should 
present a water way as much as 4 or 5 feet in depth. 

It is not known whether the Teredo operates to injure structures in this 
harbor, but the possibility of trouble from this organism should be taken 
iuto account in the construction of the work. 

MiDDLEBOROUGH. A petition was received by the State Board 
of Health, Oct. 6, 1898, from inhabitants of Middleborough, rela- 
tive to the prevalence of malarial fever in a portion of that town, 
and alleging the pollution of the Nemasket River and the existence 
of certain nuisances caused by the sewage disposal of the town. 

Accompanying this petition was a copy of another petition, ad- 
dressed to the local board of health of Middleborough, dated Oct. 
1, 1898, requesting that board to examine into the pollution of the 
Nemasket River and the cause of malarial fever, and to destroy, 
remove or prevent the same. 

A supplementary petition was received, Oct. 20, 1898, by the 
State Board of Health, requesting a hearing, under the provisions 
of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888 ; and representing that the dis- 
posal of sewage through the ditch into the Nemasket River, as alleged 
in the first petition, was begun in 1892, and that, contrary to the 
provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888, notice had never 



lU STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

been given to the present State Board of Health or its predecessors 
by the present or any authorities of the town of Middleborough, at 
any time, of the intention of any of the said authorities as to dis- 
posing of their drainage and sewage in the manner alleged. The 
petitioners further stated that application had never been made 
for the advice and approval of the State Board of Health or its 
predecessors of the plans or schemes in relation to water supply 
and disposal of drainage and sewage proposed and practised, as 
alleged in the first petition ; that is, by discharging it through a 
ditch into the Nemasket River opposite Mayflower Avenue ; and 
that such omissions were and are contrary to the said act, and that 
such disposal and the pollution of the Nemasket River thereby have 
been and are contrary to the laws of the Commonwealth existing at 
any time during such disposal and pollution, and the Board was 
requested to bring such omission and pollution to the notice of the 
Attorney-General. In compliance with these petitions, the Board 
gave hearings to the petitioners, Nov. 3 and Nov. 17, 1898, and 
on Dec. 1, 1898, sent copies of the following communication to the 
petitioners and to the boards of health and selectmen of Middle- 
borough : — 

Dec. 1, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received, on Oct. 6, 1898, a petition from 
inhabitants of the town of Middleborough, relative to the prevalence of 
malarial fever in a portion of the town, and alleging the pollution of the 
Nemasket River and the existence of certain nuisances in the disposal of 
the sewage of the town. 

Accompanying this petition was a copy of a petition addressed to the 
local board of health of the town of Middleborough, dated Oct. 1, 1898, 
requesting the said board to examine into the pollution of the Nemasket 
River and the cause of malarial sickness, and destroy, remove or prevent 
the same. 

On Oct. 20, 1898, a supplementary petition was received by the State 
Board of Health, requesting a hearing, under chapter 375 of the Acts of 
1888, and representing that the disposal of drainage through the ditch into 
the Nemasket River, as alleged in the first above-mentioned petition, was 
begun in the year 1892 ; and that, contrary to chapter 375 of the Acts of 
1888, notice has never been given to the pi-esent State Board of Health or 
its predecessors by the present or any authorities of the town of Middle- 
borough at any time of the intention of any of the said authorities as to 
disposing of their drainage and sewage in the manner alleged ; and that 
submission has never been made for the advice and approval of the present 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 115 

State Board of Health, or its predecessors, of the plans or schemes in rela- 
tion to water supply and disposal of drainage and sewage proposed and 
practised as alleged in the first petition, that is, by discharging it through 
a ditch into the Nemasket River opposite Mayflower Avenue ; and that 
such omissions were and are contrary to the said act, and that such dis- 
posal, and the pollution of the Nemasket River thereby, have been and 
are contrary to the laws of the Commonwealth, existing at any time during 
such disposal and pollution ; and the Board is requested to bring such omis- 
sion and pollution to the notice of the Attorney-General of the said Com- 
monwealth, as required by the said act. 

The Board has carefully considered these petitions, and has given a 
hearing to the petitioners and the town authorities, and evidence relative 
to the matters referred to in the petitions has been presented to the Board. 
The Board has also caused the localities referred to to be examined by its 
engineer, and the prevalence of malaria to be investigated by one of its 
experts. 

The Board does not at present express an opinion in regard to the 
claimed violation of the provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888, 
preferring to proceed immediately to the development of a practical way 
of removing such conditions as endanger the public health. 

It is evident that malai'ial sickness has been increasing in the town of 
Middleborough in recent years, and that there has been a great increase 
during the present year, in which it appears that up to the first of Novem- 
ber there have been as many as thirty cases of malaria in the town. Half 
of these cases have occurred in the village of Muttock, and, considering 
the small population of this village, the epidemic at that place has been 
a most serious one. 

The Board finds that at the present time sewage from a large portion 
of the main village of Middleborough is discharged into the Nemasket 
River through two main sewers, one laid in Mayflower Avenue, so called, 
and the other in Water Street. The sewer in Mayflower Avenue ends at 
a point about 500 feet from the Nemasket River, where the sewage flows 
from the sewer into an open ditch and through this ditch to the river. The 
flow in the ditch is sluggish, and solid matters from the sewage are de- 
posited upon the sides and bottom of the ditch, especially in the vicinity 
of the place where it joins the river. Moreover, the current of the river 
is also very sluggish in this vicinity, owing to a dam a short distance below, 
so that solids brought down in the sewer tend to deposit upon the sides 
and bottom of the stream and mill pond, portions of which, on account of 
the rise and fall of the river, are apparently alternately exposed to the air 
and covered with water. 

The sewer in Water Street discharges into the raceway leading from the 
electric light works to the river. In the day-time, when the works are shut 
down, there is very little water running in the raceway to dilute the sevf- 



116 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

age, which spreads out over the stony bottom of the raceway in pools and 
small streams, and finds its way slowly toward the river, creating an ob- 
jectionable local nuisance. In this case also there is a dam across the river 
a short distance below the sewer outlet, and solid matters from the sewage 
tend to collect on the sides and bottom of the mill pond, and make them 
offensive when exposed. 

The dam at Muttock is an old one, and is in a ruined condition. The 
banks of the river in this vicinity are quite flat, and a considerable area 
appears to be alternately covered with water and exposed to the air by 
slight fluctuations in the level of the water in the river. It also appears 
that there has been complaint of an odor from the banks of the stream 
when exposed at times when the water is low, and an attempt has been 
made to keep them covered with water, but it does not appear that this 
has been done. 

The present manner of disposing of the sewage of Middleborough is 
unsanitary, and may be among the causes of the large amount of sickness 
in the portion of the town which is nearest the river ; and the conditions 
are certain to grow worse, because the quantity of sewage is likely to in- 
crease, while the flow of the river will grow smaller in the futui*e, owing 
to the quantity of water withdrawn from the Middleborough ponds by the 
cities of Taunton and New Bedford for water-supply purposes. 

The present method of disposing of the sewage of Middleborough is ob- 
jectionable also, because the sewage pollutes the water supply of the State 
Farm, which is drawn from the Taunton River a short distance below the 
mouth of the Nemasket River. 

It appears, from the evidence before the Board, that the discharge of 
the sewage in a crude state into the stream was not contemplated by the 
town as a permanent method of sewage disposal, but was a temporary ex- 
pedient, which has, however, been continued in operation in the case of 
one sewer outlet for a period of at least thirteen years, and in the other 
for as many as six years. The sewerage plans of the town provide for 
an intercepting sewer in the valley of the Nemasket River, to collect the 
sewage from existing sewers and areas which may require sewerage in the 
future, and convey it to land in the valley of the river below the Star Mills, 
where it can be purified ; but these portions of the works have not been 
constructed, and it does not appear that any thorough surveys or plans 
for works for collecting and purifying the sewage have been prepared, 
though a preliminary estimate, indicating the ultimate cost of the works, 
has been submitted. 

In view of all the circumstances, the Board is of the opinion that the 
interests of the town of Middleborough and of the public require that the 
sewerage plans be carried out by constructing the works for collecting and 
purifying the sewage, and that the existing sewer outlets into the Nemasket 
River be closed, and the discharge of sewage through them be discontinued. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 117 

The Board would therefore advise that you cause an investigation to be 
made without delay, to determine the best available place for disposal and 
purification of the sewage, and the most feasible route for an intercepting 
sewer to convey the sewage from the present sewers and any other areas 
which are likely to require sewerage in the future to the proposed disposal 
area, together with careful estimates of the entire cost, and showing, among 
other things, the expenditure necessary for preparing sufficient land and 
for building presently so much of the intercepting sewer as will convey to 
that land the sewage now entering or soon to enter the Water Street sewer 
and the sewers down river therefrom. 

Upon receiving such plans and estimates, the Board will advise further 
in regard to the portion of the work necessary to be first constructed. The 
Board will assist you in these investigations, if you desire, by making such 
examinations of the soil of available lands for filtration areas as may be 
necessary, and will, upon application, advise you as to any sewage dis- 
posal plan you may wish to present. It is also advised that in making 
investigations for the disposal of sewage you secure the assistance of an 
engineer of experience in such matters. 

Ehode Island. A communication was received from the State 
Board of Health of Rhode Island, July 28, 1898, with reference to 
the pollution of Ten-mile River by the sewage of Attleborough, that 
river being the source of water supply of the town of East Providence 
in Rhode Island. The assistance of the State Board of Health of 
Massachusetts was also requested in the removal of the sources 
of contamination. The Board replied to this communication as 
follows : — 

Nov. 4, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from your Board, on July 28, 1898, 
a communication stating that, as a result of a recent inspection of the Ten- 
mile River made by your Board in the towns of Attleborough and North 
Attleborough, it was found that a number of factories and mills and the 
town of Attleborough were delivering their wastes, both from vaults and 
from the processes of manufacture, into the river, which is the source of 
water supply of the town of East Providence in Rhode Island. You request 
the assistance of this Board in the removal of these sources of contam- 
ination, and ask if any action can be taken by this Board in the matter, 
legally or otherwise. Accompanying your communication were memoranda 
of the inspection referred to. 

The Board has caused an examination of the valley of the Ten-mile 
River to be made by its engineer, and has carefully considei'ed the results 
of previous examinations of the stream and its water-shed. From the 



118 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

information recently collected, it appears that at the present time the 
sewage from as many as 4,500 people in the villages of Lebanon Mills, 
Kents Mills, Hebronville, Dodgeville, Attleborough, Robinsonville, Attle- 
borough Falls, North Attleborough, Plainville and South Attleborough is 
discharged directly into the stream or its tributaries, and that large amounts 
of sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, spent dyes and 
other substances used in the various manufactories are discharged into the 
river. Gas wastes, wastes from a rendering establishment at which dead 
animals are disposed of, and wastes from a tannery, also enter the stream. 
Numerous chemical analyses of samples of water collected from this river 
at two points, one above North Attleborough and the other above Attle- 
borough, were made several years ago, and the results were published in a 
special report of this Board, entitled "Examination of Water Supplies," 
published in 1890. 

In this report it is stated that the pollution of the river at Attleborough 
was sufficient to render the water taken directly from the river unfit for 
drinking. No analyses of the water of the river below Attleborough were 
made at that time, but analyses made in more recent years have shown that 
the river is polluted to a much greater degree below the town than it is 
above. 

The sewage discharged from the Attleborough sewers is the most serious 
pollution of the stream that exists at the present time ; and the Board has 
already called the attention of the town of Attleborough to the objection to 
disposing of sewage by discharging it directly into the stream, and some 
action has been taken by the town, looking to the removal of the sewage 
from the river and its purification upon land. If, however, the sewage of 
the town of Attleborough should be purified before it is discharged into the 
river, while a great improvement in the sanitary condition of the stream 
will be effected, the stream would, nevertheless, continue to be, in the 
opinion of this Board, a very dangerous source from which to take water 
for drinking or other domestic uses. Moreover, on account of the large 
population within the water-shed of the stream and the numerous villages 
and mills widely scattered throughout this water-shed, it is impracticable, 
in the opinion of this Board, to prevent the pollution of the stream by 
sewage and manufacturing wastes to such an extent as to render the water 
safe for drinking. 

The Board considers that the pollution of the river to the present degree 
is very objectionable, from a sanitary stand-point, and that, in the interests 
of the people of this valley, further pollution of the stream should be pre- 
vented ; and the sewage of Attleborough, which is now discharged into the 
stream, should be removed therefrom and purified. The Board will urge 
the purification of the stream as rapidly as practicable ; but, as already 
stated, it is not practicable, in its opinion, to render the water of the river 
below Attleborough suitable for drinking. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 119 

Westborough. a communication was received from the select- 
men of Northborough, stating that the sewage of Westborough was 
allowed to pass into the swamps near the filter beds without filtration, 
and that such disposal was a menace to the health of Northborough, 
at the same time requesting the State Board of Health to investigate 
the matter. The Board complied with this request, and sent the 
following communications to the selectmen of Northborough and to 
the sewer commissioners of Westborough. To the selectmen of 
Northborough, as follows : — 

Jan. 5, 1899. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on March 21, 1898, a com- 
munication relative to the Westborough sewer beds, stating that sewage 
was being turned directly into the swamps in the rear of the beds, and that 
the beds seemed to care for only a small portion of the sewage. You re- 
gard this as a menace to the health of the town, and request the Board to 
investigate, and take such action as shall seem for the best interests of all 
concerned. 

The Board has caused examinations to be made from time to time since 
your application was received, to determine the quantity of sewage flowing 
from the town sewer, the character and condition of the filter beds and the 
quality of the water of the Assabet River, both above the filter beds and 
below them in the vicinity of Northborough and elsewhere. 

The Board has found that much crude and partially purified sewage is 
being discharged into the Assabet River or small tributaries of that stream 
in the vicinity of the filter beds, — a method of disposal which was not 
contemplated iu the plans for sewage disposal of Westborough, presented 
by the town to this Board under the authority of chapter 375 of the Acts 
of 1888, and which is inadmissible. 

In 1893 the Board advised the town of Westborough relative to the 
purification of its sewage, and a considerable increase in the area of the 
filter beds has been made since that time ; but the beds are nevertheless 
at present inadequate for the purification of the sewage. The Board has, 
accordingly, called the attention of the authorities of the town of West- 
borough to the need of constructing suitable works for purifying all of its 
sewage, and a copy of the communication is enclosed herewith. 

The Board finds, as stated therein, that the Assabet River is being badly 
polluted by the sewage of the town of Westborough, and that the discharge 
of unpurified sewage into the stream is likely to prove a serious nuisauce 
in the summer season, and the Board believes that the disposal of sewage 
in this way should be prevented. 

It will not be practicable for the town of Westborough to make investi- 
gations or to construct works before next spring ; and the Board would 



120 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

suggest that further action be deferred until an opportunity has been given 
for the town of Westborough to construct proper works. 

The following communication was sent to the sewer commis- 
sioners of Westborough : — 

Jan. 5, 1899. 

The State Board of Health received a communication from the board of 
selectmen of the town of Northborough, in the early part of 1898, alleging 
that unpurified sewage was being discharged into the Assabet River, in 
the vicinity of the sewage filtration area of the town of Westborough. 

The Board has caused examinations to be made, to determine the quan- 
tity of sewage flowing from the town sewer and the character and condi- 
tion of the filter beds, and has also caused samples of the water of the 
Assabet River, both above the filter beds and at various points below the 
beds, to be analyzed. 

As a result of these examinations, the Board finds that the quantity of 
sewage flowing from the town is often greatly in excess of the capacity 
of the filter beds for purifying the sewage, and that much crude and par- 
tially purified sewage is discharged into the Assabet River, or into small 
tributaries of that stream in the vicinity of the filter beds, and that the 
quantity so discharged is at times the greater portion of the flow of sew- 
age. It also appears that a considerable quantity of sludge is separated 
from the sewage at certain periods of the year, and that part of it is dis- 
charged through a pipe directly into a meadow or swamp through which 
water flows to the Assabet River. 

The plans for a system of sewage disposal presented to this Board by 
the authorities of the town of Westborough, under the provisions of chapter 
375 of the Acts of 1888, provided for the purification of the sewage of the 
town of Westborough by intermittent filtration ; and the discharge of un- 
purified sewage into the Assabet River or any of its tributaries has never 
been contemplated in any plan presented to this Board, and is inadmissible. 

In the latter part of the year 1893 your Board requested the State Board 
of Health to examine your sewage-disposal works, and advise the town in 
the matter of sewage disposal. The Board advised you then, as on a pre- 
vious occasion, very definitely as to how you should proceed to provide a 
proper system of sewage disposal, and offered to assist you in determining 
the suitability of materials obtained from test pits for filtering sewage, and 
to advise you as to any new plans you might present. It appears that 
since that advice was received you have constructed underdrains beneath 
the two filter beds then in use, and graded their surfaces, and that you 
have provided two additional filter beds. Recent examinations of the 
filter beds show that the two which were originally constructed consist 
now of a layer of coarse gravel at the surface, beneatli which the soil is 
very fine, and that the fine material will not filter any considerable quantity 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 121 

of sewage, while the coarse material is found to be very badly clogged with 
organic matter ; the other two beds are composed of such fine material that 
they are capable of purifying very little sewage, and are nearly worthless 
for the purpose for which they were constructed. In making the changes 
and enlargements of the works it does not appear that the advice of any 
person of experience in matters relating to sewage disposal was followed, 
nor was any further advice or assistance sought for from this Board. 

Chemical analyses of the water of the Assabet River, made during the 
summer of 1898, when, however, the quantity of water flowing was much 
greater than is ordinarily the case in the summer season, have showu that 
the river is being badly polluted by the sewage of the town of Westborough, 
and the discharge of unpurified sewage into the stream is likely to prove 
a serious nuisance in the summer season. 

Suitable filter beds of a sufficient area will have to be constructed in 
order to purify the sewage of Westborough, and the Board would advise 
you to proceed with the necessary work without delay. 

A copy of the reply of the Board to the selectmen of Northborough is 
sent you herewith. 

Winchester. An application was received, Dec. 14, 1897, from 
the water board of Winchester, for the advice of the Board relative 
to the protection of the water supply of the town from pollution. 
The Board repUed to this application as follows : — 

Feb. 3, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Dec. 14, 1897, an ap- 
plication for advice with reference to protecting the purity of the water 
supply of the town of Winchester, which is at present furnished by three 
resei'voirs, known as the north reservoir, middle reservoir and south reser- 
voir. It is stated, in the annual report of the Winchester water board for 
1894, that the water-shed of the middle and south reservoirs contains no 
dwelling-houses, and all of the land within the water-shed of these reser- 
voirs, with the exception of about three acres of the water-shed of the 
middle reservoir, are within the Middlesex Fells park reservation. There 
appear to be no sources of pollution upon the water-sheds, and, if the use 
of these reservoirs and their water-sheds by visitors is restricted and 
properly supervised, there need be no danger of pollution from this cause. 

The water-shed of the north reservoir is only partial!}' within the park 
reservation, and at its upper end it includes a considerable portion of the 
vOlage of Stoneham. The portion of the village that is within the water- 
shed is said to be partially provided with sewers ; but the population ap- 
pears to be increasing rapidly, and many of the houses are in the immediate 
vicinity of Dyke's Brook, the main feeder of the reservoir and its tribu- 
taries. Moreover, a considerable portion of the land within the water-shed 



122 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

but outside the reservation is said to be highly cultivated, and there is 
much danger of the pollution of the stream by manure used on these lauds. 

An examination of the results of chemical aualyses of samples of the 
water of this reservoir collected during the past ten years show a very 
decided increase in the quantity of chlorine present, which is undoubtedly 
due to the increasing pollution by sewage of the main feeder of the reser- 
voir, and the existence of these conditions endangers the health of those 
using the water; for, while under ordinary conditions the water of the 
brook, which enters the reservoir near its upper end, might be purified 
by long storage in the reservoir before reaching the supply main of the 
town, it is possible that, should a high flow in the stream occur when the 
water in the reservoir is low, the brook water would flow quickly to 
the lower end of the reservoir and enter the pipe, with but little improve- 
ment by storage. 

The pollution of the brook can probably be prevented, to a considerable 
extent, by careful inspection of the water-shed ; but it is not feasible, under 
the circumstances, to prevent wholly the pollution of the brook by this 
method, and the cost of inspection would be considerable. It is possible 
to filter the water of the brook before it enters the reservoir, and make it 
in this way a safe water for drinking ; but the cost of suitable works for 
the filtration of the water at all times would be large. 

Examinations made by your board in previous years indicate that it is 
feasible at small expense to divert all of the water of the water-shed of 
Dyke's Brook that is not within the park reservation into the stream below 
the north reservoir ; and, while this would reduce considerably the yield 
of this source, this plan seems at present to be the most practicable and 
satisfactory method of preventing the pollution of this reservoir. 

The Board would advise that measures be taken without delay to prevent 
the further pollution of the reservoir from the population at present living 
upon its water-shed. 

WoBURN. An application was received from the board of public 
works of Woburn for the opinion of the State Board of Health as to 
whether the water of Horn Pond is being polluted by the water flowing 
into it from Fowle Brook, one of the tributaries of the pond. The 
Board replied to this application as follows : — 

June 3, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on May 1, 1898, an appli- 
cation for advice as to whether the water of Horn Pond is being polluted 
by the water flowing into it from Put Fowle Brook, so called, one of the 
tributaries of the pond. 

The Board has caused the water-shed of the brook and the water-sheds 
of its two principal branches, known as Cummingsville Brook and Gard- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 123 

ner's Brook, to be examined by one of its engineers, and has caused samples 
of the water of the two last-mentioned streams to be analyzed. The re- 
sults of these analyses indicate that the water of Gardner's Brook receives 
but little pollution, but that Cummingsville Brook is seriously polluted. 

The water-shed of Gardner's Brook is sparsely populated, and there 
appears to be no serious source of pollution upon this water-shed. The 
water-shed of Cummingsville Brook includes a considerable population in 
the village of Cummingsville, and the stream is probably polluted to some 
extent by sewage from houses located close to the stream and its tributaries. 
A short distance south of the village there is a very large piggery located 
close to the brook, and it is evident that the stream receives a large amount 
of pollution from this establishment. 

The water-shed of Put Fowle Brook below the junction of Gardner's and 
Cummingsville brooks appears to contain no sources of serious pollution. 

The examinations made by the Board indicate that some of the other 
feeders of Horn Pond are seriously polluted. 

The water supply of the city of Woburn is drawn from a filter-gallery 
located near the shoi'e of Horn Pond. Analj'ses of samples of water from 
Horn Pond and from the filter-gallery indicate that about 90 per cent, of 
the water drawn from the filter-gallery comes from Horn Pond by filtration 
through the ground. Under these circumstances, it is very desirable to 
prevent the pollution of the waters of the pond or any of its feeders. 

Should other means fail, the city authorities can probably prevent the 
pollution of Horn Pond or any of its feeders by taking action under the 
authority of chapter 80, section 96 of the Public Statutes. 

Ice Supplies. 
The following is the substance of the action of the Board during 
the past year in reply to applications for advice relative to sources 
of ice supply : — 

Acton. An application was received, Nov. 26, 1898, from Mr. 
Freeman W. Robbins of Acton, for the advice of the Board relative 
to the use of ice from a pond in East Acton. The Board repKed to 
this application as follows : — 

Jan. 5, 1899. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on November 26, an 
application for advice with reference to the use of ice from a small artificial 
pond in the village of East Acton, and has caused the pond and its sur- 
roundings to be examined by one of its engineers and a sample of the water 
to be analyzed. 

The water does not at present contain any evidence of sewage pollution, 
and there appear to be no sources of sewage pollution upon the water-shed. 



124 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

In the opinion of the Board, the source is a suitable one from which to take 
ice for domestic purposes. Owing to the nature of the pond, which is 
formed by flooding a meadow to a slight depth, it is desirable to avoid 
flooding it until the beginning of winter, as otherwise much organic matter 
of vegetable origin may be taken up by the water from the bottom of the 
pond. 

HoLYOKE. An application was received from the water commis- 
sioners of Holyoke, Nov. 16, 1898, for the advice of the Board 
relative to the propriety of allowing ice to be cut from Ashley Pond, 
one of the sources of the city water supply. The Board replied to 
this application as follows : — 

Dec. 2, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Nov. 16, 1898, a com- 
munication requesting advice as to the advisability of allowing ice to be 
cut from Ashley Pond, one of the sources of water supply of the city of 
Holyoke. Accompanying the application was a plan showing the water- 
shed of the pond, the place where the ice houses are to be located and the 
place where it is proposed to cut the ice. 

The Board has caused the locality to be examined by its engineer, and 
has carefully considered the proposed plan. It appears that much improve- 
ment has been made in and about the shores of Ashley Pond ; and it is 
understood that the water-shed of the pond is now controlled by the city 
of Holyoke, and that all sources of pollution have been removed therefrom. 
It is very desirable, in the opinion of the Board, that ice used for domestic 
purposes should be taken from sources free from sewage contamination ; 
and it is probably safe to allow the cutting of ice upon Ashley Pond or one 
of its arms, provided that inspectors be employed to look after the interests 
of the city, and that other suitable precautious be taken to prevent pol- 
lution of the water. 

The ice houses proposed in your application would be located within the 
water-shed of one of the tributaries of Ashley Pond, and drainage from 
the vicinity of these houses would flow naturally into the pond. It appears 
to be feasible to divert from Ashley Pond the portion of the water-shed 
upon which the proposed ice. houses will be located, and thereby prevent 
any drainage from this region from entering the pond ; but, in order to do 
this, it would be necessary for the city to deprive itself of the yield of 
about 100 acres of water-shed, which of course represents a considerable 
value. 

In view of all the circumstances, the Board is of the opinion that, having 
secured control of the water-shed of this pond, — your principal source 
of water supply, — with the view of protecting it from pollution, it would 
not be wise to grant away any rights to its occupation, or to allow the con- 
struction or use of buildings within this water-shed. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 125 

Lexington. An application was received from the water com- 
missioners of Lexington, Nov. 14, 1898, for the advice of the Board 
relative to the propriety of allowing ice to be cut from the reservoir 
used by the town as a source of water supply. The Board replied 
to this application as follows : — 

Jan. 5, 1899. 

The State Board of Health has carefully considered your application for 
advice with reference to cutting and taking ice for domestic purposes from 
the reservoir of the Lexington water works, situated at the head waters 
of Vine Brook, and has caused the reservoir and its water-shed to be ex- 
amined by one of its engineers. 

It appears that the reservoir in question is not at present used for the 
supply of the town, and is not likely to be used except in the drier por- 
tion of the year, when the other sources of water supply may not yield a 
sufficient quantit}' of water for the town. It also appears that provision 
has been made whereby drainage from the only source of sewage pollution 
upon the water-shed can be diverted thei'efrom ; and if this is done, this 
reservoir would be, in the opinion of the Board, a suitable source of ice 
supply. 

The Board can see no objection to granting the privilege of cutting ice 
from this reservoir, under present conditions ; but, in view of the possi- 
bility that this source may be drawn upon for water-supply purposes at 
any time, the Board would advise that the right to enter upon the reser- 
voir and cut or remove ice therefrom be kept under the control and super- 
vision of the water board, that any new buildings which may be necessary 
be kept off of the water-shed, and that inspectors be employed to prevent 
danger of pollution of the water by those engaged in any work connected 
with cutting or removing the ice. 

North Adams. An application was received from the board of 
health of North Adams, April 11, 1898, for the advice of the Board 
relative to certain ponds in that city used as sources of ice supply. 
The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

Mat 5, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on April 11, 1898, an 
application for advice with reference to the sources of ice supply in the 
vicinity of the city of North Adams, from which ice is harvested for 
domestic purposes, and has caused an examination of these sources to 
be made by one of its engineers and samples of the water and ice to be 
analyzed. The sources examined were as follows : Orr's Pond, or the 
Lower Pond in Flaggs Meadow, Zylonite Pond, Reservoir Pond, Blackin- 
ton Pond, Kemp's Pond, Hudson Brook Pond and Stamford reservoir. 



126 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Orr's Pond is so situated with reference to the south branch of the 
Hoosac River that at times the river water flows into the pond, even when 
the river is not at an extraordinarily high level. This stream receives 
domestic and manufacturing sewage from the town of Adams, situated 
on the stream above the pond. There are, moreover, several houses and 
stables on the water-shed of the pond, drainage from which enters one 
of the feeders of the pond. Under the present circumstances, this pond 
must be considered a dangerous source from which to take ice for house- 
hold use, where it is to come in contact with food or drinking water. 

Zylonite Pond is situated in the northerly portion of the town of Adams, 
near the works of the Zylonite Manufacturing Company, and ice from it 
is said to be sold in Adams and in North Adams. The pond receives its 
water chiefly from a small drainage area, upon which are located several 
dwelling-houses, three of which are quite close to the principal feeder of 
the pond, which is polluted by drainage from these sources. In its present 
state the source is not a suitable one from which to take ice for domestic 
use ; but, if the pollution of the water of this pond from houses on the 
water-shed is prevented, the ice from this source could be used with 
safety. 

The water of Reservoir Pond does not appear to be exposed to pollution 
by sewage, and there is no reason to think that ice cut from this source 
will be injurious to health. 

Blackinton Pond is situated in Williamstown, just below the village of 
Blackinton, and is practically an arm of the Hoosac River, with which it 
is connected by a culvert beneath the Fitchburg Railroad, although the 
pond has a very small water-shed of its own. The water from the river 
flows through this culvert into the pond when the river rises, and in the 
opposite direction when the river falls. The Hoosac River above this 
pond receives all domestic and manufacturing sewage from Adams and 
North Adams and from the factories along its banks, and in its present 
state it is a highly polluted stream. Moreover, the small water-shed of 
the pond also contains several houses. Blackinton Pond is, in the opinion 
of the Board, a very dangerous source from which to take ice for domestic 
use. 

Kemp's Pond is a very small artificial pond, situated in the easterly por- 
tion of North Adams, and the quantity of ice cut from it is said to be very 
small. The pond is exposed to pollution by one dwelling-house, situated 
about 60 feet from the shore of the pond ; and, if the use of this pond as 
a source of ice supply for domestic purposes is to be continued, the drain- 
age from this house should be prevented from entering the pond. 

Hudson Brook Pond is a very small artificial reservoir, formed by a dam 
across Hudson Brook, one of the principal tributaries of the north branch 
of the Hoosac River. There are no immediate sources of pollution in the 
vicinity of the pond, but there are a few houses situated near the banks 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 127 

of the brook, and in connection with some of these houses there are stables 
situated very close to the brook. The pond would appear, however, to 
be a suitable source of ice supply, if care is taken to prevent its pollution 
from the few buildings situated in the immediate vicinity of the stream or 
its tributaries, above the pond. 

Stamford reservoir is located at the head waters of the north branch of 
the Hoosac River, in the town of Clarksbui'g, and is the most important 
source of ice supply of North Adams. There is a considerable number 
of houses on the water-shed, a few of which are situated very close to the 
streams which feed the reservoir. If precautions are taken to prevent 
pollution of the reservoir from these houses, the source is a satisfactory 
one from which to obtain ice for domestic uses. 

North Adams. An application was received, Nov. 10, 1898, 
from the board of health of North Adams, for advice relative to the 
propriety of using the Deertield River, near the Hoosac Tunnel, as a 
source of ice supply. The Board replied to this application as 
follows : — 

Dec. 2, 1898. 

The State Board of Health received from you, on Nov. 10, 1898, a re- 
quest for advice as to the use of the Deerfield River, near Hoosac Tunnel, 
as a source of ice supply, the ice to be cut from the pond created by a dam 
across the river near the entrance to the tunnel, and has caused a general 
examination of this source to be made by one of its engineers and samples 
of the water to be analyzed. The results of these analyses indicate that 
the water is of good quality for the purposes of an ice supply. 

The river above Hoosac Tunnel has a water-shed of about 254 square 
miles, as measured from the available maps of the region ; and the popu- 
lation upon this water-shed is very small, the oul}- notable sources of pol- 
lution being three mills, one located at Monroe Bridge, 7 miles above 
Hoosac Tunnel, and the others at Readsboro, 4 miles further up stream, 
and possibly the farm-house and stable a short distance above the dam. 

If such precautions as may be found necessary are taken to prevent 
injury to the ice from the sources referred to, the Board is of the opinion 
that the Deerfield River at Hoosac Tunnel will be an excellent source from 
which to take ice for domestic purposes. , 

Worcester. An application was received, on Dec. 10, 1898, 
from the Curtis Manufacturing Company of Worcester, for advice as 
to the use of Curtis Pond in that city as a source of ice supply 
for domestic purposes. The Board replied to this application as 
follows : — 



128 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 

Jan. 10, 1899. 

In accordance with your request for advice as to the suitability of Curtis 
Pond, in the city of Worcester, as a source of ice supply, the Board has 
caused an examination of the pond to be made by one of its engineers and 
a sample of the water to be analyzed. 

The results of the examination show that there are several factories and 
dwelling-houses located near the stream, for the most part at considerable 
distances above the pond, from some of which polluting matters enter the 
stream. These would render this pond an unsatisfactory source from 
which to obtain ice for use in drinking waters, and the Board knows of but 
one way to obtain ice from such a pond that can be so used with safety. 
This is, to remove from the ice, after cutting, the first inch of ice that 
formed upon the pond and all of the ice which formed above this first inch, 
from snow or rain or flooding, and retain for use only the clear ice which 
formed under the first inch. 

If such a course be followed with the ice of Curtis Pond, the ice thus 
retained can be safely used for domestic purposes. 

Public Institutions (Chapter 101, Acts of 1886, Section 4). 

The Massachusetts School for the Feeble-minded. An 
application was received, in November, 1898, from the trustees of 
the Massachusetts School for the Feeble-minded, for the advice of the 
Board, under the provisions of chapter 101 of the Acts of 1886, 
relative to the propriety of taking certain land in the town of Tem- 
pleton, comprising about 2,000 acres, for the location of a colony 
of the School for the Feeble-minded. The Board caused the proposed 
locality to be examined, and replied as follows : — 

Dec. 2, 1898. 

In compliance with your request for the approval of this Board, under 
the provisions of chapter 101 of the Acts of 1886, section 4, of a certain 
tract of land in Templeton as a location for a colony of the Massachusetts 
School for the Feeble-minded, the Board has caused an examination of the 
land to be made. 

The proposed tract comprises about 2,000 acres, more or less, lying in 
the north-west part of the town of Templeton, between Beaver Brook and 
Crow Hill Brook, so called, and the road running from Baldwinville to 
South Royalston. 

The Board has voted to approve the aforesaid tract as suitable for the 
purpose named in your application. 



Examination of Water Supplies. 



[129] 



EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



EXPLANATORY NOTE. 

The systematic examination of the water supplies of Massachusetts was begun by 
the State Board of Health June 1, 1887, and has been continued up to the present 
time. The results of the investigations which were made during the first two years 
were published in the special report of the Board upon the Examination of Water 
Supplies (1890), and the results of examinations made in succeeding years have 
been published in the annual reports of the Board beginning with the Twenty-sec- 
ond Annual Report (1890). 

The special report upon the Examination of Water Supplies contains descriptions 
of each of the water supplies in the State existing at the date of that report, and the 
results of chemical and microscopical examinations of samples of water collected 
from the principal sources of supply. The annual reports, beginning with the re- 
port for the year 1890, contain descriptions of all new works and the important 
changes in existing works, together with the results of the chemical and microscopi- 
cal examinations which have been made of the various sources of supply. In the 
more recent reports, yearly averages of the chemical analyses of those sources 
which have been examined regularly for a number of years have also been given. 

In the present report it has been thought advisable, in certain cases, where a num- 
ber of samples from one source have been analyzed during the year, and the results 
of the various analyses show no marked changes from time to time, to omit the re- 
sults of the analysis of each individual sample, and to give only the average of the 
results of all the analyses of the water of this source made during the year. 

The average analyses of former years are generally omitted, except those of 
sources in which there has been some marked change in the character of the water 
during the period covered by the examinations. 

Microscopical examinations have been made of nearly all of the samples of water 
which have been examined chemically, and the methods employed have remained un- 
changed. The results of these examinations have been generally omitted in this 
report, except in cases where certain organisms which are known to have given 
trouble in water supplies by causing disagreeable tastes and odors have been found 
In considerable numbers. 

In cases where a knowledge of the condition and the surroundings of the source 
would assist materially in understanding and interpreting the analyses, a brief de- 
scription of the source is presented, and in some cases a statement as to the char- 
acter of the water, as indicated by previous analyses, is given. The descriptions of 
sources have in many cases been obtained from reports of engineers, and in others 
from personal investigation by members of the engineering force of the Board. 
The information as to sizes of ponds and of their drainage areas has generally been 
obtained from the most recent maps, and the areas of water-sheds include in all cases 
the areas of water surfaces. The population on water-sheds has been estimated from 
the census of 1895. 



132 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

In this report, as iii former reports, an alphabetical arrangement by towns has 
been followed, the source of supply being tabulated under the name of the town 
supplied, except that the description and analyses of the sources used for the supply 
of the Metropolitan Water District are placed at the beginning. Waters not used as 
sources of supply are tabulated under the name of the towns in which they are sit- 
uated. The analyses of samples collected from rivers not used directly as sources 
of water supply are given in a subsequent chapter on the " Examination of Rivers," 
and the results are tabulated alphabetically by the name of the river. 

The method of making the chemical examinations has not been changed during 
the past year. All surface waters and such samples of ground water as contain sus- 
pended matter are filtered through filter-paper before determining the color, the resi- 
due on evaporation, the albuminoid ammonia in solution and the oxygen consumed. 
Some ground waters which are perfectly clear and colorless when drawn from the 
ground become turbid and colored on standing, in consequence of the oxidation of 
the iron which they contain. In these waters the residue on evaporation is deter- 
mined without filtration, since this iron is an essential and not an accidental ingre- 
dient in the water. In the changes which accompany the oxidation of the iron 
in waters of this character, they become first cloudy (well described by the word 
milky) , and finally deposit a precipitate of oxide of iron. In the cloudy condition 
they have a distinct color, which, while it does not have the same significance as 
in the case of surface waters, and is only a passing phenomenon, is, nevertheless, 
of interest, as showing a color which the water may assume while the oxidation of 
the iron is in progress. When the iron is all oxidized and precipitated the water 
may become colorless again. In some cases, however, the iron occurs in combina- 
tion with organic matter, forming a much more stable body. In such cases the water 
is of a brown color when first drawn from the ground, and, while the iron begins 
to oxidize soon after the water is exposed to the air, the process goes on slowly, 
and the water may remain colored and iron continue to precipitate for a long time. 

The color of the water is expressed by numbers, which increase with the amount 
of color. The standards used are natural waters, the color of which has been accu- 
rately determined by comparing them with the nesslerized ammonia standards which 
were described on page 531 of the Special Report upon the Examination of Water 
Supplies (1890), and on page 329 of the Annual Report for 1892. By using natural 
waters as standards for comparison, the apparent rather than the actual color is 
obtained, as a natural water nearly always has a greater or less turbidity, which 
gives the water the appearance of having a greater color than the water would have 
if there were no turbidity. 

The rainfall during the year 1898 was exceptionally heavy, especially during some of 
the summer months, in consequence of which the fiow of the streams was very large 
during that portion of the year when the flow is usually smallest, and the water in 
the storage reservoirs and ponds was consequently kept at a high level in the summer. 
The ground-water level was also much higher than is usual during an ordinary year. 
The cflect of these conditions upon the sources of water supply has been to prevent 
troubles which often occur from the lowering of water in ponds and storage res- 
ervoirs, and the troubles which frequently occur in ground waters from imperfect 
filtration at times when the level of the water in the ground has been lowered consid- 
erably. Tables showing the daily rainfall at various places in the State, the average 
rainfall for a large number of years and the flow of some of the streams in the 
State, are given in a subsequent chapter, entitled " Water Supply Statistics and Flow 
of Streams." 



Xo. 34.] EXAinXATIOX OF WATER SUPPLIES. 133 



EXAMINATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 



Water Supply of the ^Metropolitan Water District. 

By the provisions of chapter 488 of the Acts of 1895, entitled 
" An Act to provide for a Metropolitan Water Supply," a Metro- 
politan Water District was created, to include the cities of Boston, 
Chelsea, Everett, Maiden, Medford, Newton and Somerville, and 
the towns of Belmont, Hyde Park, Melrose, Revere, Watertown 
and Winthrop. In accordance with a provision made in the act for 
the admission of other cities and towns, the city of Quincy and 
town of Nahant have been admitted to the district, and, by an 
agreement entered into Dec. 2, 1898, a supply of water is to be 
furnished by the district to the town of Swampscott for a term of 
years. 

The Metropolitan Water Board, instituted under the Metropolitan 
Water Act, began in 1895 the construction of works to supply 
the Metropolitan Water District with water from the South Branch 
of the Nashua River, in connection with some of the former sources 
of supply of the city of Boston. On Jan. 1, 1898, the Board, in 
accordance with the provisions of the act, took possession of Mj^stic 
Lake, the aqueduct, pumping station and distributing reservoir, the 
Chestnut Hill Reservoir and pumping station, and all the lands, 
reservoirs, pumps, dams, aqueducts, pipes and other property west 
of Chestnut Hill Reservoir held by the city of Boston, for the pur- 
pose of storing and supplying water and protecting its purity, in- 
cluding all of the Sudbury and Cochituate works. 

The Sudbury and Cochituate sources formerly owned by the city 
of Boston are retained by the Metropolitan Water Board for use 
in supplying the district ; but Mystic Lake, from which the water 
supply of the cities of Somerville, Chelsea and Everett and a por- 
tion of Boston was formerly derived, has been abandoned as a 
source of water supply. Spot Pond, which was formerly the chief 



134 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

source of supply of Maiden, Medford and Melrose, is to be used in 
the future as a distributing reservoir for the Metropolitan District, 
and material changes are being made in the pond and its surroundings. * 
The water of the South Branch of the Nashua River, the new 
source of supply of the Metropolitan Water District, is taken at a 
point above Clinton where the river has a water-shed of 118.2 
square miles. This water-shed contains no large towns and is very 
sparsely settled, the entire area having a population of about 69 per- 
sons per square mile, and the population is decreasing. Much of 
the water-shed is hilly and even mountainous, Mt. A^^achusett at the 
northerly side of the water-shed being the highest elevation. The 
valleys are generally quite steep, and the areas of swampy land are 
small as compared with the Sudbury River water-shed. The nature 
of the land is, moreover, such that it is not highly cultivated. 

Water from Nashua River is conveyed to the Sudbury Reservoir 
(formerly known as Reservoir No. 5 of the city of Boston), through 
the Wachusett Aqueduct, and an open channel in the bed of Stony 
Brook, a total distance of 12 miles. The Sudbury Reservoir was 
taken by the Metropolitan Water Board in January, 1896, when 
partially constructed, and was completed and first used in the early 
part of 1898. This reservoir is the largest of the various reservoirs 
available for the supply of the Metropolitan District. From the 
Sudbury Reservoir water flows through the open channel of Stony 
Brook to Framingham Reservoir No. 3 (formerly known as Reser- 
voir No. 3 of the city of Boston), and from this reservoir two 48- 
inch pipes convey the water to the head of the Sudbury Aqueduct, 
which extends from Framingham Reservoir No. 1 to Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir, a distance of 17.4 miles. 

Framingham Reservoir No. 1 (formerly Reservoir No. 1 of the 
Boston Water Works) is located at the confluence of Stony Brook 
with the Sudbury River, and Framingham Reservoir No. 2 (for- 
merly Reservoir No. 2 of the Boston Water Works) is located on 
the Sudbury River just above Reservoir No. 1. There are three 
other large reservoirs, located on tributaries of the Sudbury River, 
now under the control of the Metropolitan Water Board; viz., 
Ashland Reservoir (formerly known as Reservoir No. 4), located 
on Cold Spring Brook; Hopkinton Reservoir (formerly known as 
Reservoir No. 6), located on Indian Brook; and Whitehall Reser- 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



135 



METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

voir (formerly known as Whitehall Pond, or Reservoir No. 8), lo- 
cated near the headwaters of the Sudbury River. Water from the 
last three reservoirs is drawn through the channels of the brooks 
upon which the reservoirs are built to the Sudbury River, through 
which it flows to Framingham Reservoir No. 2, and may thence 
be drawn into the aqueduct leading to Chestnut Hill Reservoir. 
Farm Pond in Framingham, formerly used as a source of supply for 
the city of Boston, is now controlled by the Metropolitan Water 
Board, and is connected with the Sudbury Aqueduct. Lake Cochit- 
uate, which has also been acquired as one of the sources of supply 
of the district, is connected by a separate aqueduct with Chestnut 
Hill Reservoir. Dudley Pond is a tributary of Lake Cochituate, 
and its waters can be drawn into the lake. The following table 
ogives statistics relatino- to the various reservoirs and lakes above 
referred to : — 





Areas of Water-sheds, 

INCLUDING WaTEK SURFACES. 


Area of 


Available 
Storage 


Maximum 
Depth 


NAME. 


Exclusive of 

Keservoirs 

above 

(Square Miles). 


Total 

Contributing 

Waterrshed 

(Square Miles). 


Water 
Surface 
(Acres). 


Capacity of 

Reservoir 

(U. S. Gallons). 


of 

Reservoir 

(Feet). 


Sudbury Reservoir, . 


22.28 


22.28* 


1,292 


7,253,500,000 


67 


Framingham Reservoir No. 3, . 


5.40 


27.68* 


253 


1,183,500,000 


25 


Framingham Reservoir No. 1, . 


1.84 


74.66* 


143 


287,500,000 


15 


Framingham Reservoir No. 2, . 


28.50 


45.14 


134 


529,900,000 


18 


Ashland Reservoir, . 


6.43 


6.43 


167 


1,416,400,000 


49 


Hopkinton Reservoir, 


5.86 


5.86 


185 


1,520,900,000 


55 


Whitehall Reservoir, 


4.35 


4.35 


601 


1,256,900,000 


18 


Farm Pond, .... 


0.54 


0.54 


159 


167,500,000 


12 


Lake Cochituate, 


18.87 


19.75 


776 


2,011,200,000 


72 


Dudley Pond, .... 


0.88 


0.88 


93 


231,200,000 


29 


Spot Pond 


2.06 


2.06 


301 


758,300,000 


38 



* The water-shed of the Nashua River, above Clinton, water from which is diverted into Sudbury 
Reservoir, has an area of 118.2 square miles. 



Whitehall Reservoir, Farm Pond, Lake Cochituate, Dudley Pond 
and Spot Pond are natural ponds, in which the level of the water 
has been raised somewhat by damming the outlets. Framingham 
reservoirs Nos. 1, 2 and 3 are artificial reservoirs, containing on 



136 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

the bottom much of the soil and organic matter which was on the 
surface of the ground before the reservoirs were constructed. Sud- 
bury Reservoir, Ashland Reservoir and Hopkinton Reservoir are 
artificial reservoirs, from the bottoms of which all of the soil and 
organic matter have been removed. 

The Metropolitan "Water Board began to supply water to the 
Metropolitan Water District Jan. 1, 1898, and during the year the 
following cities and towns were supplied, either wholly or in part, 
with water from these works : — 



CITY OR TOWN. 



Population in 
189S. 



Boston, 

Somerville, 

Chelsea, 

Maiden, 

Quincy, 

Everett, 

Medford, 

Melrose, 

Watertown, 

Revere, 

Winthrop, 

Belmont, 

Total population of cities and towns supplied, 



496,920 

52,200 

31,264 

29,708 

20,712 

18,673 

14,474 

11,965 

7,788 

7,423 

4,192 

2,843 



698,062 



During the year 1898, the water for Boston and the greater part 
of the cities and towns in the above table Avas taken mainly from 
Framingham reservoirs Nos. 1 and 2, up to April 20, and for the 
remainder of the year from Framingham Reservoir No. 3. The 
water of the Nashua River has been discharged through the Wachu- 
sett Aqueduct into the Sudbury Reservoir, from which it has been 
drawn into Framingham Reservoir No. 3. A small part of the 
supply was furnished from Lake Cochituate early in the year, and 
again in September and October. The water of Spot Pond has 
been supplied to Melrose and occasionally to other cities and towns 
in the northerly part of the district. The cities of Maiden, Med- 
ford and Quincy, and tlue towns of Revere, Winthrop, Watertown 
and Belmont, supplied themselves, either wholly or in part, during 
a portion of the year with water from local sources. 



No. 34.] EXA^ONATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



137 



METROPOLITAN "WATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from, the Quinepoxet River in Eolden. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Residue on 















= 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 








■z. i 








tion. 








s 






o 
o 




1 


o 


i 


a 
°5, 


6 


Albuminoid. | 


i 
1 


« 


1 


c 
o 

1 




i 

s 




> 


•6 


a 
















u o 




S 04 


J3 






X 




^ 


a 


EH 


oc 


W 


H 


J 


fct H 


P 


CO 


o 


(2; 


^ 


o 


S 




189S. 




























21745 


Jan. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.63 


3.70 


1.60 


.0032 .0258 


.02361.0022 


.29 


.0100 


.0000 


.62 


1.4 


22075 


Feb. 4 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.48 


3.50 


1.30 


.0024 .0268 


.0228 '.0040 


.25 


.0060 


.0000 


.45 


1.0 


22404 


Mar. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.50 


3.00 


1.25 


.0014. 0210 


.01821.0028 


:.20 


.0150 


.0000 


.41 


1.0 


22758 


Apr. 7 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.50 


2.40 


1.10 


.0006 .0192 


.0172 .0020 


;.2i 


.0000 


.0001 


.49 


0.8 


23040 


May 2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.68 


3.20 


1.30 


.0002 


.0162 


.0140 


.0022 


.20 


.0040 


.0001 


.50 


0.8 


23376 


June 1 


Slight. 


Cons. 


1.00 


3.25 


1.65 


.0012 


.0272 


.0230 


.0042 


.19 


.0000 


.0000 


.79 


0.8 


23801 


July 5 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.52 


3.45 


1.50 


.0094 


.0288 


.0254 


.0034 


.19 


.0040 


.0002 


.53 


0.6 


24126 


Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.55 


4.00 


1.80 


.0108 


.0292 


.0246 


.0046 


.18 


.0020 


.0002 


.54 


0.6 


24510; Aug.31 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.82 


4.10 


1.95 


.0024 


.0296 


.0276 


.0020 


.18 


.0020 


.0002 


.66 


0.6 


24906; Oct. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.52 


4.05 


1.75 


.0020 


.02521.0222 


.0030 


.21 


.0000 


.0001 


.69 


0.6 


25243 


Nov. 1 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight.; 


0.72 


3.90 


2.00 


.0010 


.0268 .0238 


.0030 


.22 


.0020 


.0000 


.91 


0.8 


25533 


Dec. 5 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.48 


3.15 


1.40 


.0010 


.0214 .0152 
.0248 -(W.I.I 


.0062 


.20 
.21 


.0010 


.0000 


.57 


0.5 


Av.. 








0.62 


3.47 


1.55 


.0030 


.0033 


.0037 


.0001 


.60 


0.8 






1 











Odor, generally faintly vegetable, occaBionally musty, eometimes becoming stronger on heating. 

The samples were collected from the river, at Smith's Woolen Mill in ITolden, and 1,000 feet above the 
boundary line between Holden and West Boylston. This river is one of the principal tributaries of the 
South Branch of the Nashua River above Clinton. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Stillwater River in Sterling. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 

^ 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


s 














c 


Albuminoid. 








1 

3 
1 


O 

o 
o 


3 
Eh 


1 
to 


u 
"o 


"3 
o 
H 


= 5. 






■3 

a 
o 

3 


■a 

1 c 
§ a, 


i 
1 

o 




1 


§1 
o 


CD 

1 




1898. 




























21746 


Jan. 3 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.46 


3.30 


1.40 


.0006 .01081.0104 


.0004 


.20 


.0090 


.0000 


.42 


1.1 


22076 Feb. 4 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.46 


3.00 


1.10 


.0010 .0094'.0078 


.0016 


.20 


1.0020 


.0000 


.41 


1.7 


22405, Mar. 1 


V. Blight 


V. slight. 


.45 


2.50 


0.75 


.0004 .0086 .0084 


.0002 


.14 


'."0050 


.0000 


.36 


o.» 


22759 Apr. 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.37 


2.35 


1.00 


.0012 .01381.0128 


.0010 


.17 


.0030 


.0000 


.38 


o.s 


23041 1 May 2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.55 


2.40 


1.05 


.00021.0136 .0116 


.0020 


.13 


.0020 


.0001 


.46 


0.8 


23377 June 1 


Sliiht. 


V. slight. 


.90 


2.85 


1.60 


.0012 


.02021.0180 


.0022 


.14 


'.0000 


.0000 


.70 


1.0 


23802 July 6 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.50 


3.20 


1.50 


.0010 


.0258!. 0232 


.0026 


.14 


.0010 


.0000 


.54 


0.8 


241271 Aug. 1 


V.sliaht. 


Slight. 


.44 


3.55 


1.50 


.0016 


.023S .0210 


.0028 


.14 


.0020 


.0000 


.47 


0.8 


24511 Aug 31 


V. slight 


V. slight. 


.70 


3.95 


1.80 


.0010 


.0218 .0204 


.0014 


.13 


.0010 


.0005 


.50 


0.6 


24907 Oct. 4 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.41 


3.45 


1.40 


.0008 


.01701.0146 


.0024 


.17 


.0000 


.0001 


.54 


0.5 


25244! Nov. 1 


None. 


V. slight. 


.50 


3.25 


1.50 


.0006 


.0132 


.0116 


.0016 


.17 


.0040 


.0000 


.70 


0.8 


25534 


Dec. 5 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.35 


2.40 


1.25 


.0006 


.0116 


.0102 


.0014 
.0016 


.14 
.16 


.0020 


.0000 
.0001 


.46 


U.3 


Av.. 








.51 


3.02 


1.31 


.0008 


.0158 


.0142 


.0026 


.50 


0,8 













Odor, generally faintly vegetable, occasionally musty, sometimes becoming stronger on heating. 

The samples were collected from the river, at a highway bridge about 1 mile above the boundary line 
between Sterling and West Boylston. This river is one of the principal tributaries of the South Branch 
of the Nashua River above Clinton. 



138 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the South Branch of the Nashua River 

above Clhiton. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



— 








Kksidue on 















s 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 









o 






tion. 








s 

c 
c 







>t 


»: 






.2 




Albuminoid. | 












•a 


■c 


i 


s 


o 


3 


a 


o 


3 




6 


•3 


> 


•a 







~ 


& 


u 














o 










J3 










is. 


a 


B 


CO 


O 


B 


M 


f^ 


H 


O 


CO 


u 


'A 


^ 





" 




1898. 


























21743 


Jan. 3 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


.40 


3.65 


1.25 


.0002 


.0144 


.0138 .0006 


.25 


.0130 


.0001 


.41 


1.4 


22041 


Jan. 31 


Sliglit. 


Slight. 


.41 


3.25 


1.25 


.0016 


.0152 


.0126 .0026 


.24 


.0130 


.0000 


.42 


1.3 


22381 


Feb. 28 


Blight. 


V. slight. 


.45 


3.35 


1.10 


.0010 


.0176 


.01 54;. 0022 


.21 


.0080 


.0000 


.36 


0.8 


22710 


Apr. 4 


V, slight. 


V. slight. 


.35 


2.75 


1.45 


.00021.0116 


.01041.0012 


.16 


.0020 


.0000 


.40 


0.6 


23038 


May 2 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.51 


2.70 


1.05 


.0002 


.0164 


.01621.0012 


.19 


.0000 


.0001 


.42 


1.0 


23334 


May 31 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.76 


3.55 


2.00 


.0022 


.0188 


.0162^.0026 


.16 


.0040 


.0001 


.61 


0.8 


23785 


July 1 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.48 


3.95 


1.80 


.0040 


.0234 


.02001.0034 


.20 


'.0050 


.0001 


.44 


1.0 


24125 


Aug. 1 


Slight. 


V slight. 


.30 


3.95 


1.50 


.0014 


. 02421. 0188|. 0054 


.21 


.0020 


.0000 


.33 


1.0 


24508 


Aug 31 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.70 


4.45 


2.15 


.0030 


.0236 


.0208 '.0028 


.18 


.0060 


.0001 


.89 


1.1 


24896 


Oct. 3 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.45 


4.00 


1.75 


.0018 


.0202 


.01901.0012 


.20 


.0010 


.0000 


.58 


1.1 


25215 


Oct 31 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.65 


3.75 


1.75 


.0000 


.0154 


.0148 


.0006 


.20 


.0020 


.0000 


.78 


1.0 


25526 


Dec. 1 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.40 


3.00 


1.40 


.0006 


.0128 


.0108 


.0020 


.18 
.20 


.0070 


.0001 


.62 


1.0 


Av.. 








.49 


3.53 


1.54 


.0013 


.0178 


.0156 


.0022 


.0052 


.0000 


.51 


1.0 













Odor, generally faintly vegetable; in August, a distinctly fishy odor was developed on heating. 

The samples were collected froai the river, at the dam of the Lancaster Manufacturing Company, at the 
place where water is diverted for use in supplying the Metropolitan Water District. 



Chemical Examination of Water froin Walker''s Brook, Marlborough. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Kk.sidue on 
















Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


a 














tion. 








B 
3 






X 








S 




Albuminoid. 












■a 


•d 


« 


































J2 

s 




2 


1 





S 


°5, 





« 





"2 


S 


2 





to 


c 


































'A 


« 


H 


cc 





H 


1-1 


^ 


Eh 


S |M 





K 


'A 





hH 




1898. 






























21T24 


Jan. 3 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.41 


14.05 


4.50 


.0700 .0194 


.0144 


.0050 


1.78 


.2720 .0018 


.40 


5.4 


22022 Jan. 31 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.38 


13.55 


4.50 


.0848 .0172 


.0144 


.0028 


1.79 


.3760 .0017 


.34 


5.3 


22360 


Feb. 28 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.69 


11. .35 


3.45 


.0528 .0176 


.01.56 


.0020 


1.14 


.23001.0018 


.50 


3.8 


22704 


Apr. 4 


V.sligBt. 


V. slight. 


0.67 


12.50 


4.10 


.0760 .02081. 0196!. 0012 


1.56 


.2.3201.0012 


.61 


4.3 


23020 


May 2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.62 


12.40 


3.80 


.0652 .0216:. 0198!. 0018 


1.49 


.1860 .0012 


.48 


4.3 


23320 


May 31 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.12 


14.60 


4.15 


.0746;. 0.300!. 02781. 0024 


1.69 


.2250 


.0030 


.72 


5.0 


23758 


JuneSO 


Decided. 


Slight. 


0.40 


17.80 


6.10 


.0568'. 0220 


.0210 


.0010 


2.22 


.2400 


.0190 


.44 


6.6 


24102 


Aug. 1 


Decided, 


V. slight. 


0.61 


18.75 


5.35 


.0256 .0302 


.0296 


.0006 2.10 


.1060 


.0112 


.62 


6.6 






milky. 




























24491 


Aug.31 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.60 


15.30 


4.55 


.0468 


.0254 


.0244 


.0010 


1.77 


.1300 


.0044 


.69 


5.1 


24878 


Oct. 3 


Decided. 


Slight. 


0.42 


16.80 


4.80 


.0584 


.0216 


.0208 


.0008 


2.01 


.1780 


.0060 


.54 


6.0 


25203 


Oct. 31 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.81 


14.00 


4.25 


.0332 


.0300 


.0240 


.0060 


1..50 


.1720 


.0024 


.91 


4.4 


25507 


Dec. 1 


Decided. 


Cone. 


0.40 


13.25 


4.60 


.0488 


.0202 
.0230 


.0158 
.0206 


.0044 
.0024 


1.45 

1.71 

1 


.1360 


.0018 


.45 


4.2 


Av.. 








0.58 


14.53 


4.43 


.0569 


.2068 


.0046 


.56 


5.1 

















Odor, generally faintly vegetable and musty, occasionally unpleasant, becoming stronger on heat- 
ing. The samples were collected from the brook, at the first road bridge below Maple Street, about 1 

mile south of the centre of the city of Marlborough. This brook is one of the tributaries of Stony Brook 
above the Sudbury Reservoir. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



139 



METROPOLITAN "WATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Sudbury Beservoir, collected near the 

Surface. 

[Pans per 100,000.] 



11 






Residue on 















3 
o 

O 

Vh 

o 

s 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


s 

3 

5 

3 

1 






is 

3 


s 
1 


^ 

^ 


3 


§ 




Atbuminoid. | 


1 


1 




u 

1 


03 


1 1 
o , g 


» 


3 


cj 


s 




o 


o 


o 




o 


.3 § 0. 


IS 






]< 


^ 


a 


H 


CO 


o 


H 


1^ 


fe 


H 


« 00 


U 


^ 


!? 


o 


n 




1898. 




























21731 


Jan 3 


Decided. 


Slight. 


58 


7.30 


2.25 


.0054 


.0232 


0212 .0020 


..53 


.0220 


.0002 


.59 


3.4 


22028 


Jan. 31 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


4.20 


1.45 


.0044 


.0130 


0116 


.0014 


.30 


.0180 


.0002 


.32 


1.8 


22363 


Feb. 28 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.56 


4.60 


1.70 


.0116 


.0206 


.0154 


.0052 


.23 


.0280 


.0001 


.42 


- 


22483 


Mar. 8 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.50 


4.25 


1.25 


.0056 


.0306 


.0170 


.0136 


.18 


.0220 


.0003 


.48 


2.0 


22713 


Apr. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.95 


1.50 


.0006 


.0150 


.0098 


.0052 


.26 


.0280 


.0002 


..38 


1.6 


22789 


Apr.U 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


4.05 


1.65 


.0014 


.01.52 


.0098 


.0054 


.25 


.0170 


.0002 


.37 


1.4 


22874' 


Apr. 18 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.60 


1.15 


.0006 


.0106' 


. 00861. 0020| 


.28 


.0120 


.0001 


.37 


1.1 


22963 


Apr. 25 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.70 


1.35 


.0014 


.0130 


.0092 


.0038 


.25 


.0140 


.0001 


.37 


1.3 


23028 


May 2 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.39 


3.45 


1.10 


.0008 


.0124 


.0090 


.0034 


.24 


.0120 


.0002 


.34 


1.1 


23137 


May 12 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.36 


3.75 


1.10 


.0016 


.0142 


.01061.0036 


.28 


.0130 


.0002 


.32 


1.1 


23164 


May 16 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.36 


3.65 


1.45 


.0010 


.0146 


.01281.0018 


.31 


.0120 


.0002 


.33 


1.1 


23267 


May 23 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.40 


3.40 


1.15 


.0006 


.0168 


.0136 .0032 


.30 


.0130 


.0002 


.38 


1.3 


23329 


May 31 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.44 


3.60 


1.35 


.0032 


.0144 


.0112 


.0032 


.25 


.0050 


.0002 


.34 


1.4 


23399 


June 6 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.46 


4.15 


1.45 


.0020 


.0152 


.0130 


.0022 


.26 


.0090 


.0002 


.38 


1.3 


23517 


Junel3 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.44 


3.60 


1.60 


.0010 


.0166 


.0142 


.0024 


.24 


.0100 


.0002 


.38 


1.3 


23610 


June20 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.38 


3.95 


1.20 


.0014 


.0170 


.0128 


.0042 


.26 


.0090 


.0002 


.39 


1.3 


23709 


June27 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.36 


3.70 


1.45 


.0014 


.0166 


.0144 .0022 


.26 


.0080 


.0002 


.37 


1.3 


23774 


June30 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.36 


4.90 


1.90 


.0026 


.0192 


.0158 


.0034 


.19 


.0070 


.0001 


.38 


1.0 


23844 


July 11 


iV. Blight. 


Slight. 


.32 


3.15 


1.25 


.0016 


.0176 


.0162 


.0014 


.27 


.0040 


.0002 


.36 


1.4 


23907 


July 18 


'v. slight. 


Cons. 


.30 


3.80 


1.30 


.0028 


.0186 


.0156 


.0030 


.24 


.0060 


.0002 


.36 


1.3 


24028 


July 25 


jV. slight. 


Slight. 


.30 


3.60 


1.30 


.0014 


.0210 


.0154 


.0056 


.21 


.0020 


.0002 


.37 


1.4 


24122 


Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.22 


3.65 


1.20 


.0010 


.0206 


.0162 


.0044 


.22 


.0030 


.0001 


.34 


1.3 


24183 


Aug. 8 


1 Slight. 


Cons. 


.20 


3.50 


1.30 


.0010 


.0204 


.0156 


.0048 


.18 


.0010 


.0002 


.31 


1.3 


24289 


Aug. 15 


! Slight. 


Cons. 


.24 


3.45 


1.45 


.0006 


.0188 


.0166 


.0022 


.23 


.0030 


.0002 


.30 


1.3 


24381 


Aug.22 


j Slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


3.65 


1.40 


.0008 


.0176 


.0148 


.0028 


.23 


.0010 


.0001 


.30 


1.3 


24504 


Aug.31 


1 Slight. 


Slight. 


.21 


3.70 


1.25 


.0010 


.0180 


.0150 


.0030 


.24 


.0020 


.0001 


.42 


1.3 


24537 


Sept. 6 


jV. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.21 


3.85 


1.35 


.0008 


.0182 


.0160 


.0022 


.26 


.0010 


.0002 


.38 


1.6 


24589 


Sept. 12 


j Slight. 


Cons. 


.27 


4.20 


1.80 


.0018 


.0192 


.0160 


.0032 


.24 


.0020 


.0001 


.43 


1.7 


24675 


8ept.l9 


1 V slight. 


Cons. 


.38 


4.45 


1.75 


.0028 


.0210 


.0188 


.0022 


.26 


.0000 


.0000 


.55 


1.8 


24755 


Sept.26 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.41 


4.95 


1.90 


.0036 


.0216 


.0198 


.0018 


.26 


.0040 


.0000 


.55 


1.7 


24898 


Oct. 3 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


.40 


4.80 


1.65 


.0008 


.0210 


.0192 


.0018 


.24 


.0030 


.0001 


.56 


1.7 


24939 


Oct. 10 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


.37 


4.50 


1.70 


.0018 


.0216 


.0198 


.0018 


.26 


.0000 


.0001 


.53 


1.7 


25037 


Oct. 17 


V. Blight 


V. Blight. 


.36 


4.45 


1.65 


.0014 


.0192 


.0166 


.0026 


.27 


.0030 


.0001 


.54 


1.7 


26129 


Oct. 24 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.36 


4.25 


1.75 


.0014 


.0166 


.0140 


.0026 


.25 


.0020 


.0000 


.62 


1.7 


25206 


Oct. 31 


Slight. 


Blight. 


.30 


4.55 


2.00 


.0014 


.0190 


.0158 


.0032 


.28 


.0030 


.0000 


.50 


1.7 


25262 


Nov. 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.31 


4.95 


1.75 


.ooie 


.0184 


.0158 


.0026 


.28 


.0060 


.0001 


.47 


1.7 


25359 


Nov. 14 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.38 


5.00 


1.90 


.003C 


.0194 


.0182 


.0012 


.28 


.0050 


.0001 


.53 


1.7 


25432 


Nov. 21 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.45 


5.35 


1.90 


.0038 


.019-1 


.0168 


.0026 


.33 


.0120 


.0001 


.54 


1.8 


2551C 


Dec. 1 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.46 


5.65 


2.25 


.0062 


.0198 


.0172 


.0026 


.30 


.one 


.0000 


.55 


1.8 


2558S 


Dec. 12 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.50 


5.45 


1.60 


.004? 


.0172 


.0156 


.0016 


.33 


.022C 


.0000 


.55 


1.8 


. 25669 


Dec. 19 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.56 


5.75 


2.50 


.0054 


i.018t 


.016e 


.0014 


.32 


.023C 


.0003 


.58 


2.1 


2576e 


Dec. 27 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.48 


4.55 


2.15 


.ooie 


.013'! 


.0116 


.0016 


.25 


.013C 


.0002 


.53 


1.4 



Odor, generally none, occasionally faintly vegetable. A vegetable odor was developed in most of 

the samples on heating. The samples were collected from the reservoir, near the gate-house, at a 

depth of 1 foot beneath the surface. For monthly record of height of water in this reservoir, see table 
on page 150. 



140 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAlSr WATER DISTRICT. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected near (he 

Surface. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Month, 1898, . 


Jan. 


Feb. 
2 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Day of examination, . 


4 


1 


9 


5 


12 


18 


26 


3 


13 


17 


23 


1 


7 


Number of sample, 


21731 


22028 


22363 


22483 


22713 


22789 


22874^ 22963 

1 


23028 


23137 


23164 


23267 


23329 


23399 


PLANTS. 




























Diatomacese, 


218 








1 


49 


96 


190 


160 


124 


266 


276 


140 


47 


59 


Asterionella, . 
Cyclotella, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 


208 
3 

6 
















1 



28 

3 

16 


76 


12 
8 


80 


82 
28 


74 


77 
9 


7 

1 

112 

4 


108 

2 

126 

26 


110 



152 

12 


43 

1 

72 

24 


12 
3 

30 
2 


18 
19 
16 
5 


Cyanophycese, . 









































10 


Anabaena, 









































10 


Algee 


60 














5 


12 








8 





2 


8 


18 


Botrycoccus, . 
Protococcus, . 
Raphidium, . 




60 





























6 

























2 



5 







17 


ANIMALS. 




























Bhizopoda, . 












































Infusoria, 








13 


229 


61 


104 


37 


82 


25 


62 


29 


19 


3 





Ciliated infusorian, 
Cryptomonas, 
Dinobryon, . 
Peridinium, . 
Synura, . 
Uroglena, 
Vorticella, 






















5 
2 
4 
2 




60 
51 

6 

100 

11 




4 
22 
27 
4 
3 




10 
8 

83 
1 
1 
1 



10 
3 

24 








5 

71 

3 

1 
1 



10 
10 

2 
1 
1 



3 
3 

52 







3 
12 
14 






3 

15 








3 















Vermes, . 


1 











1 


2 





2 





6 


4 


4 


2 


1 


Crustacea, 
































pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


Bosmina, 
Cyclops, . 
Daphnia, 








3 
3 













































pr. 
pr. 






pr. 




^'6 




pr. 




Miscellaneous, Zoog\(s&, 


5 


7 


10 


8 


5 


7 


5, 


5 


5 


5 


3 





3 


Total, . . 


284 


20 


240 


119 


212 


246 


249 


154 


347 


314 


168 


60 


91 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 141 



METROPOIilTAX WATER DISTRICT. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected near the 

Surface — Continued. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Month, 1898, . 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


Day of examination, . 


14 


21 


29 


1 


12 


19 


26 


2 


9 16 


23 


1 


7 


13 


Number of sample. 


23517 


23610 


23709 


23774 


23844 


23907 


24028 


24122 


24183 24289 


24381 


24504 


24537 


24589 


PLANTS. 






























Diatomacese, 


221 


508 


740 


495 


500 


269 


197 


1,154 


2,406 


2,572 


974 


185 


117 


206 


Asterionella, . 
Cyclotella, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, 


17 

196 

5 

3 


16 

472 

16 

4 


292 

422 

4 

2 


180 
314 


416 

50 



34 


156 

103 



10 


10 

160 

13 

14 


16 

1,072 

8 

58 


20 

2,256 

22 

108 


8 

2,456 

8 

100 


36 

800 

2 

136 


4 

100 

7 

74 


40 

14 

5 

58 


128 
4 
34 
36 


Cyanophycese, . 


20 


22 


4 




48 


2 


1 


20 


10 


4 


4 


1 


1 


8 


Anabfena, 


20 


22 


4 




48 


1 





18 


10 4 


2 











Algae 


31 


10 


8 




8 


10 


6 


4 


22 88 


88 


71 


14 


58 


Botrycoccus, . 
Protococcus, . 
Raphidium, . 




28 
2 




2 




4 



















6 








4 


72 

10 





74 



63 

7 




13 

1 



40 
16 


ANIMALS. 






























Rhizopoda, . 









































2 


Infusoria, 


15 


3 


2 


1 


40 


7 


2 


8 


4 








1 


6 


34 


Ciliated infusorian, 
Cryptomonas, 
Dinobryon, . 
Peridinium, . 
Synura, . 
Uroglena, 
Vorticella, . 








15 














2 

















30 




10 




6 










1 








4 



4 








































5 










28 
2 





Vermes, . 


1 


1 


2 








2 


3 


2 


2 


1 


1 





1 





Crustacea, 


pr. 


pr. 











pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 





pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


Bosmina, 
Cyclops,. 
Daphnia, 




^'6 




^'6 


















pr. 
pr. 




''6 


pr. 

^'6 




pr. 











''6 








^'6 





JUiscellaneous,Zooglceai, 








3 





5 


3 


, 3 


1 

3 


3 


3 


5 


3 


3 


8 


Total, . 


288 


544 


759 


498 


601 


293 


212 


1,191 


2,447 


2,668 


1,072 


261 


142 


316 



142 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN "WATER DISTRICT. 

Microscojncal Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected near the 

Surface — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Month, 1898, . 


September. 


October. 


Xovember. 


December. 


Day of examlnatioD, . 


20 


27 


6 


11 


18 


25 


1 


8 


15 


21 


2 


13 


19 


28 


Number of sample, 


24675 


24755 


24898 


24939 


25037 


25129 


25206 25262 


25359 


25432 


25510 


25589 


25669 


26766 


PLANTS. 




























Dlatomacese, 


572 


411 


1,312 1,172 


382 


186 


156 


213 


302 


141 


110 


97 


33 


30 


Asterionella, . 
Cyclotella, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 


478 



17 

77 


337 
16 
12 
21 


1,246 
10 
4 
52 


1,072 

6 

2 

80 


302 

6 

6 

56 


94 

6 

64 


45 
30 
15 
56 


49 
47 
29 
71 


136 
57 
16 
93 


95 
29 

7 
9 


59 

21 

6 

6 


41 

26 
11 
15 


2 

26 

1 

4 


12 

1 
3 
6 


Cyanophycese, . 


2 


4 


8 





8 





2 





1 

















Anabsena, 








6 





8 





























Algae, .... 


27 


6 


20 


22 


7 


24 


12 


15 


15 


4 


5 


4 


3 


7 


Botrycoccus, . 
Protococcus, . 
Raphidium, . 




15 




4 




14 






16 




2 






24 




12 




9 




9 




4 




5 




3 




3 




3 


ANIMALS. 






























Rhizopoda, . 








2 

















1 

















Infusoria, 


2 


4 


4 


2 





4 





4 


1 











2 


4 


Ciliated iufusorian, 
Cryplomonas, 
Dinobryon, . 
Peridinium, . 
Synura, . 
Uroglena, 
Vorticella, 





1 










1 







2 

















































1 






1 













































3 


1 




Vermes, . 



































2 








Crustacea, . 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 








pr. 





pr. 


pr. 


pr. 





Bosmina, 
Cyclops, . 
Daphnia, 




^^6 







pr. 






pr. 






pr. 




pr. 

pr. 
















pr. 











pr. 






pr. 






pr. 









Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 


5 


8 


5 


, 5 


8 


8 


5 


5 


8 


7 


8 


12 


5 


5 


Total, . 


608 


433 


1,351 


1,201 


405 


202 


175 


237 


328 


152 


123 


115 


43 


46 



No. 34.] EXAI^nNATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



143 



METROPOLITAN T^^ATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected about Midway 
betiveeti the Surface and Bottom. 

fParta per 100,000.] 











Residue on 










— - 




5 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




XlTROGEN 


'P 






"3 
u 








tion. 




i 


AS 


s 



s 

to 






u 


a 

*i3 


u 

o 


"3 


3 




Albuminoid. | 








.a 

s 


cj 

a; 


^ 
5 


> 

"3 


■a 
a 
•3 


1 


s 


« 


3 




o 


o 


o 


u 


o 




s A 


2 






X 


ej 


-A 


a 


H 


Si 


O 


B 


Hi 


^ 


El 


« 


OJ 





S 7\ 





l-H 


1898. 
















1 i 


I 








21732; Jan. 3 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.70 


7.45 


2.40 


.0080 


.0244 .0222. 0022 


.46 


.0320 .0002 


.61 


3.3 


22029 Jan. 31 

1 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.70 


7.65 


2.80 


.0080 


.0228 .0216 


.0012 


.52 


.0390 .0002 

1 


.62 


3.1 


22364 


Feb. 28 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.69 


6.10 


1.60 


.0112 


.0180 .0170 


.0010 


.33 


.0370 


.0002 


.57 


2.2 


22484 


Mar. 8 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.60 


5.55 


1.80 


.0126 


.0142.0126 


.0016 


.39 


- 


.0004 


.46 


- 


22714 


Apr. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.90 


1.50 


.0008 


.0146 .Oiui. 00.32' 


.25 


.0270 


.0002 


.38 


1.7 


22790] Apr. 11 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.90 


1.50 


.0014 


.0136 .0098:. 0038 


.26 


.0170 


.0002 


.36 


1.3 


22875] Apr. 18 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.50 


1.25 


.0006 


.0106 .0084:. 0022 


.28 


.0130 .0001 


.37 


1.1 


22964 Apr. 25 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.85 


1.65 


.0006 


.0122 .0100 .0022 

1 1 


.26 


.0140 


.0001 


.37 


1.4 


23029 May 2 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.36 


3.65 


1.15 


.0014 


.0124 .0102 


.0022' 


.23 


.0120 


.0002 


.34 


1.3 


23138 May 12 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.37 


3.80 


1.30 


.0020 


.0124'. 0102 


.0022 


.29 


.0120. 0002 


.32 


1.3 


23165 May 16 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.37 


3.65 


1.45 


.0012 


.0132 .0110'. 0022 


.29 


.0130 .0001 


.34 


1.3 


23268 1 May 23 


V. slight.' V. slight. 


.40 


3.40 


1.10 


.0014 


.0148 .0114 .0034 


.28 


.0130 .0002 


.37 ] 1.1 


23330 May 31 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.39 


3.60 


1.25 


.0032 


.0122.. 0102 .0020 


.25 


.0100 .0002 


.35 


1.4 


23400 ' June 6 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.41 


3.85 


1.60 


.0032 


.01221.0112 .0010 


.26 


.0140 .0002 


.38 


1.4 


23518> Junel3 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.45 


3.60 


1.55 


.0044]. 0112. 0110]. 0002 


.25 


.00901.0002 


.34 


1.4 


236111 JuDe-20 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.38 


! 4.20 


1.35 


.0046 .0114. 0106. 0008 


.26 


.0080 .0001 


.38 ' 1.4 


23710, June27 


Sliahi. 


Slight. 


.36 


3.60 


1.25 


.0040 .0156 .0124 .0032 


.26 


.0080 .0001 


.36 


1.3 


23775 JuneSO 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.36 


4.15 


1.40 


.0060 .0148;. 0138 .0010 


.19 


.0080:. 0002 


.39 


1.1 


23845; July 11 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.32 


3.95 


1.75 


.0068 .0138Loi38 .0000 


.25 


.0070.0001 


.36 


1.3 


23908; July 18 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.31 


4.15 


1.50 


.0040 .0162]. 0140. 0022 


.24 


. 0080 i. 0001 


.36 


1.3 


24029 


July 25 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.28 


3.65 


1.30 


.0062 .0158]. 0138 .0020 


.21 


.0060.0002 


.37 


1.4 


24123 


Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.23 


4.00 


1.40 


.0068 .0164 .0152 .0012 


.21 


.0030.0001 


.32 


1.3 


24184 


Aug. 8 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.23 


3.70 


1.50 


.0056 .0152'. 0122. 0030 


.19 


.0060 .0001 


.30 


1.3 


24290 


Aug.lo 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.25 


3.65 


1.75 


.0044 .0176'. 01541 .0022 


.24 


.0030 .0001 


.29 


1.4 


24382 


Aug.22 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


3.70 


1.40 


.0032 .0164 .01.34 


.0030 


.24 


.0000 .0001 


.31 


1.4 


24505 


Aug.31 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.21 


3.75 


1.30 


.0028 .0154 .0134 


.0020 


.24 


.0020 .0002 


.35 


1.4 


24538 Sept. 6 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.22 


3.85 


1.50 


.0048 .0158 .0138 


.0020 


.24 


.0000 '.0003 


.37 


1.4 


24590 Sept.l2 1 V.Blitfht. Cons. 


.25 


4.10 


1.40 


.0020 .0190 .0158 .0032 


.25 


.0000 .0001 


.41 


1.6 


24676] Sept.l9 ; V. slight.] Cons. 


.40 


4.45 


1.75 


.0036!. 0222 .0196;. 0026 


.26 


.0020 .0001 


.56 ; 1.7 


24756 


Sept.26 


Slight. 1 Slight. 


.39 


} 4.75 


1.80 


.0038 .02161.0192 .0024 


.25 


.0050 .0000 


.54 


1.7 


24899 


Oct. 3 


V. slight. Slight. 


.40 


4.65 


1.95 


.0030 .0184^.0170 .0014 


.24 


.00401.0001 


.54 


1.6 


24940! Oct. 10 


Slight. Cons. 


.37 


4.50 


1.70 


.0014 .0202 .0172 .0030 


.25 


.0020 '.0002 


.52 


1.7 


25038 Oct. 17 


V. slight.] Slight. 


.35 


4.55 


1.80 


.0016 .0200 .0172 .0028 


.26 


i.0060 .0001 


.52 


1.7 


251301 Oct. 24 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.34 


4.55 


1.85 


.0012;.0174 .0152 .0022 


.25 


.0030. 0001 


.61 


1.7 


25207 


Oct. 31 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.32 


4.65 


2.00 


.0014 .0186J. 0156. 0030 


.27 


.0030 .0000 


.50 


1.7 


25263 


Nov. 7 


V. alight. 


Slight. 


.31 


7.25 


4.15 


.0018 .0184.. 01541. 0030 


.26 


.0040 .0000 


.47 


1.7 


25360 


Nov. 14 


V. slight. Slight. 


.38 


5.15 


2.10 


.0032 .0192 .0180 .0012 


.28 


.0070;. 0002 


.53 


1.8 


25433 


Nov.21 


Slight. Slight. 


.46 


5.35 


2.00 


.0048 .01961.0172 .0024 


.31 


.0150 .0001 

[ 


.54 


1.8 


25511 


Dec. 1 


Decided. \ Cons. 


.47 


5.60 


2.35 


.0060 .0194 .0172 .0022 


.30 


.0110 .0000 


.58 


1.8 


25590 Dec. 12 


Decided. | Slight. 


.53 


5.65 


1.80 


.0050'.0166 .0130 .00.36 


.33 


'.0240:. 0001 


.57 


2.0 


25670] Dec. 19 


Slight. ! Slight. 


.57 


5.60 


2.30 


.0054 .0186 .016S|.001S 


.29 


'.0300 .0003 


.64 


2.2 


25767 


Dec. 27 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.59 


5.50 


2.00 


.0046 


.0166 


.0138 


.0028 


.31 


1.0140 


.0003 


.56 


2.0 



Odor, generally none, occasionally faintly vegetable. A vegetable odor was developed in most of 

the samples on heating. The samples were collected from the reservoir, near the gate-house, at 

depths ranging from 21 to 28 feet beneath the surface. For monthly record of height of water in this 
reservoir, see table on page 150. 



144 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected about 
Midway between the Surface and Bottom. 

• [Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Month, 1S98, . 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Day of examination, . 


4 


2 


1 


g 


5 


12 


18 


26 


3 


13 


17 


23 


1 


7 


Number of sample, 


21732 


22029 


22364 


22484 


22714 


22790 22875 


22964 


23029 


23138|23165 


23268 


23330 23400 

1 


PLANTS. 




























Diatomacese, . 


286 


44 


3 


pr. 


33 


49 


176 


166 


176 


424 


264 


132 


84 


27 


Asterionella, . 
Cyclotella, 
Melosira, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 


286 






43 



1 



2 













13 


4 

14 


36 



13 



88 



82 
4 


74 





78 

13 


92 


68 
16 


178 



180 
56 


76 



144 
44 


21 





88 

21 


3 





59 

18 


18 
3 

4 



Cyanophycese, . 





























• 














Algse, .... 


90 


38 


2 








11 


18 


16 





8 


4 


3 


6 


4 


Raphidium, . 


90 


38 


2 








2 


8 




















3 


ANIMALS. 




























Bhizopoda, . 












































Infusoria, 


1 











27 


36 


50 


60 


59 


63 


56 


46 


12 


1 


Cryptomonas, 
Dinobryon, . 





















14 

8 


7 
19 




44 


6 

47 


5 
44 


4 
50 



52 


1 
44 


1 
10 






Vermes, . 


1 


1 











1 


1 


1 








2 


2 


3 





Crustacea, 


pr. 









































Cyclops, . 






15 

98 






































Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 


10 


5 


10 


5 


8 


3 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


3 


3 


Total, . 


388 


10 


10 


65 


105 


248 


248 


240 


500 


331 


188 


108 


35 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 



145 



METROPOIilTAN TVATER DISTRICT. 

Microscojncal Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected about 
Midway betiveen the Surface and Bottom — Continued. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Month, 1898, . 


June. 


July. 




Aug 


ust. 




September. 


Day of examination, 


14 


21 


29 


1 


12 


19 


26 


2 


9 


16 


23 


1 


7 


13 


Number of sample. 


23518 


23611 


23710 


23775 


23845 


23908 


24029 


24123 


24184 


24290 


24382 


24505 


24538 


24590 


PLANTS. 






























DiatomaceEe, . 


14 


88 


224 


285 


202 


406 


78 


204 


254 


1,110 


436 


250 


102 


143 


Asterionella, . 
Cyclotella, 
Melosira, . 
Synedra, . 
Tabellaria, 


1 

12 


1 



12 

70 



2 

4 


96 
122 

1 

1 

4 


113 

170 





2 


126 
63 


13 


314 

70 



1 

21 


27 

40 





11 



94 


24 
84 


16 

158 



14 

64 


6 

1,016 



2 

86 


22 

300 





112 


50 

70 



6 

124 


30 
6 



66 


90 



13 

40 


CyanophyceEe, 














5 


1 


2 











2 


2 


2 





Algae, .... 


1 


2 


2 


1 


8 


5 


1 


4 





12 


2 


35 


14 


47 


Raphidiura, 








2 














4 





12 


2 


8 





19 


ANIMALS. 






























Rhizopoda, 





























2 











1 


Infusoria, . 


1 


2 


1 


2 


10 


9 


13 








2 


2 


2 





5 


Cryptomonas, . 
Dinobryon, 



















10 



9 



13 











2 



2 











2 


Vermes, . 


2 








1 





1 











1 


1 








1 


Crustacea, 

















pr. 


pr. 











pr. 


pp. 


pr. 


pr. 


Cyclops, . 
































pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


Miscellaneous, Zooglcsa, 








3 


3 


5 


5 


3 


5 


5 


8 


8 


3 


3 


8 


Total, . 


18 


92 


230 


292 


230 


427 


97 


213 


259 


1,135 


451 


292 


121 


205 



146 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected about 
Midway between the Surface and Bottom — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Month, 1898, 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Day of examination, 


20 


27 


5 


11 


18 


25 


1 


8 


15 


21 


2 


13 


19 


28 


Number of sample, 


24676 24756 


24899 


24940 


25038 


25130 


25207 


25263 


25360 


25433 


25511 


25590 


25670 25767 


PLANTS. 






























Diatomaceee, . 


373 


318 


360 


1,340 


348 


100 


149 


126 


183 


98 


76 


64 


24 


18 


Asterionella, . 
Cyclotella, 
Melosira, . 
Synedra, . 
Tabellaria, 


310 



20 

26 

16 


294 

2 



5 

16 


342 

6 
2 
10 


1,252 
4 

16 


54 


246 

4 

6 

12 

80 


46 
2 
6 
8 

38 


65 

11 



15 

58 


36 
30 

15 
44 


104 

45 



12 

20 


35 
28 
5 
13 
15 


33 

22 
6 

10 
5 


31 

17 



8 

4 


10 
8 

2 



2 
6 

2 
8 


Cyanophycese, 





2 








4 





2 























Algee 


9 


20 


8 


40 


18 


18 


13 


13 


26 


6 


11 





2 





Raphidium, 


7 


18 


4 


14 


6 


16 


6 


6 


5 





6 





2 





ANIMALS. 






























Rhizopoda, 












































Infusoria, . 


6 


2 


2 





2 


8 


7 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 








Cryptoraonas, . 
Dinobryon, 




2 






















































Vermes, 




















1 








1 














Crustacea, 


pr. 








pr. 


pr. 


pr. 








pr. 

















Cyclops, . 











pr. 


pr. 


pr. 








pr. 

















Miscellaneous, Zobglcea, 


10 


8 


8 


8 


10 


10 


8 


5 


10 


8 


8 


10 


7 


5 


TOTAI 


398 


350 


376 


1,388 


382 


136 


180 


145 1 221 


115 


99 


72 


33 


23 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 147 



METROPOLITAN TVATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected near the 

Bottoyn. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



ll 


— - 


Residue on 















1 
9 


Al'FEAKANCE. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


i 

3 

c 














,: 




Albuminoid. | 








1^ 

3 

3 


3 
v< 1 

° 1 


3 


s 


o 


"3 


5 
f 1 


2 


o 


>. ■§ 
o , a 

.2 so. 


a 
o 
2 


1 


1 

2 


a 
1 


01 


y, 




H 


M 


O 


U( 


^ 


fc4 


H 


a 02 


o 


'A 


2 


o 


w 




1S9S. 


















1 












21733 


Jan. 3 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.71 


7.35 


2.25 


.0072 


.0240 


.0216 


.00241 


.46 


.0320 


.0001 


.63 


3.1 


2203U 


Jan. 31 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.70 


7.80 


2.50 i 


.0100 


.0222 


.0198 


.0024 


.56 


.0470 


.0000 


.64 


3.1 


22365 


Feb. 28 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.60 


6.80 


1.80 1 


.0118 


.0170 


.0154 


.0016 


.41 


.0480 


.0002 


.50 


2.5 


22485 


Mar. 8 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.61 


6.40 


2.20 1 


.0122 


.0172 


.0140 


.0032 


.42 


.0420 


.0003 


.44 


3.6 


22715 


Apr. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.95 


1.50 1 


.0006 


.0142 


.0104 


.0038 


.26 


.0200 


.0002 


.39 


1.6 


22791 


Apr. Ill 


V. Blight 


Slight. 


.41 


4.00 


1.50 1 


.0016 


.0122 


.0114 


.0008 


.26 


.0180 


.0002 


.37 


1.4 


22876 


Apr.18: 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.41 


3.35 


1.10 ; 


.0010 


.0108 


.0098 


.ooio: 


.26 


.0120 


.0001 


.37 


1.1 


22965 


Apr.25 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.80 


1.66 


.0010 


.0128 


.0100 


.0028 


.26 


.0130 


.0001 


.37 


1.4 


23030 


May 2 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.40 


3.55 


1.20 


.0014 


.0130 


.0104 


.0026: 


.23 


.0120 


.0002 


.34 


1.1 


23139 


May 12 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


.37 


3.55 


1.15 


.0024 


.0124 


.0112 


.0012 


.28 


.0140 


.0002 


.33 


1.1 


23166 


May 16 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.37 


3.50 


1.50 


.0022 


.0128 


.0114 


.0014 


.28 


.0120 


.0001 


.33 


l.S 


23269 


May 23 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.40 


3.40 


1.10 


.0022 


.0130 


.0114 


.0016 


.27 


.0140 


.0001 


.37 


1.3 


23331 


May 31 


V.sHght. 


Slight. 


.38 


3.60 


1.25 


.0052 


.0120 


.0104 


.0016 


.26 


.0150 


.0001 


.34 


1.4 


23401 


June 6 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.38 


3.80 


1.40 


.0040 


.0102 


.0086 


.0016 


.25 


.0170 


.0002 


.35 


1.4 


23519 


JunelS 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.43 


3.80 


1.50 


.0062 


.0118 


.0094 


.0024 


.24 


:.0180 


.0002 


.34 


1.3 


23612 


June20 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.37 


3.75 


1.16 


.0050 


.0098 


.0096 


.0002 


.26 


.0170 


.0001 


.34 


1.4 


23711 


June27 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.32 


3.60 


1.20 


.0046 


.0122 


.0112 


.0010 


.26 


.0120 


.0002 


.23 


1.3 


23776 


June30 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.32 


4.00 


1.70 


.0072 


.0130 


.0112 


.0018 .20 


.0120 


.0001 


.36 


1.1 


23846 


July 11 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


3.60 


1.60 


.0076 


.0146 


.0132 


.0014 


.24 


.0070 


.0001 


.36 


1.4 


23909 


July 18 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.30 


3.95 


1.35 


.0062 


.0128 


.0122 


.0006 


.24 


.0130 


.0004 


.37 


1.3 


24030 


July 25 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.28 


3.80 


1.35 


.0074 


.0148 


.0128 


.0020 


.22 


.0070 


.0006 


.36 


1.3 


24124 


Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.25 


3.80 


1.50 


.0068 


.0154 


.0142 


.0012 


.22 


.0030 


.0002 


.34 


1.3 


24185 


Aug. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.24 


3.60 


1.35 


.0070 


.0128 


.0114 


.0014 


.20 


.0050 


.0002 


.31 


1.3 


24291 


Aug. 16 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.31 


3.95 


1.90 


.0068 


.0166 


.0142 


.0024 1.24 


.0080 


.0004 


.32 


1.3 


24383 


Aug.22 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.21 


3.60 


1.20 


.0050 


.0146 


.0130 


.0016,1.24 


.0020 


.0008 


.30 


1.4 


24506 


Aug.31 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.21 


3.85 


1.50 


.0070 


.0136 


.0128 


.0008 


.23 


.0060 


.0005 


.36 


1.4 


24539 


Sept. 6. 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.22 


4.05 


1.50 


.0066 


.0150 


.0132 


.0018 


.24 


.0050 


.0003 


.43 


1.6 


24591 


Sept.l2 IV. slight. 


Cons. 


.25 


4.10 


1.45 


.0030 


.0188 


.0158 


.0030 


.23 


.0010 


.0001 


.43 


1.6 


24677 


8ept.l9 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.65 


5.00 


2.05 


.0060 


.0276 


.0224 


.0052 


.24 


.0020 


.0000 


.76 


2.0 


24757 


Sept.26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


4.75 


1.86 


.0030 


.0206 


.0188 


.0018 


.24 


.0020 


.0000 


.66 


1.6 


24900 


Oct. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.39 


4.50 


1.90 


.0026 


.0196 


.0166 


.0030 


.23 


.0030 


.0001 


.64 


1.4 


24941 


Oct. 10 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.38 


4.56 


1.80 


.0024 


.0188 


.0172 


.0016 


.25 


'.0030 


.0001 


.62 


1.7 


25039 


Oct. 17 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.34 


4.60 


1.75 


.0016 


.0192 


.0158 


.0034 


.25 


.0050 


.0002 


.54 


1.7 


25131 


Oct. 24 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.33 


4.50 


1.70 


.0010 


.0180 


.0148 


.0032 


.24 


.0060 


.0001 


.61 


1.7 


25208 


Oct. 31 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.31 


4.60 


2.00 


.0012 


.0186 


.0152 


.0034 


.27 


.0020 


.0000 


.50 


1.7 


25264 


Nov, 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.31 


7.60 


4.35 


.0016 


.0184 


.0168 


.0016 


.25 


.0050 


.0000 


.47 


1.7 


25361 


Nov. 14 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.46 


5.36 


1.95 


.0036 


.0210 


.0202 


.0008 


.31 


.0060 


.0001 


.68 


1.8 


25434 


Nov.21 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.46 


5.25 


1.90 


.0048 


.0194 


.0164 


.0030 


.31 


.0130 


.0001 


.56 


1.8 


25512 


Dec. 1 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.47 


5.65 


2.15 


.0066 


.0206 


.0186 


.0020 


.30 


.0140 


.0001 


.58 


2.0 


25591 


Dec. 12 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.52 


5.60 


1.85 


.0046 


.0156 


.0140 


.0016 


.33 


.0240 


.0001 


.56 


2.0 


25671 


Dec. 19 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.56 


5.80 


1.85 


.0064 


..0184 


.0170 


.0014 


.33 


.0300 


.0002 


.61 


2.1 


25768 


Dec. 27 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.59 


6.15 


1.85 


.0058 


j.0164 


.0154 


.0010 


.32 


.0200 


.0003 


.57 


2.1 



Odor, generally none, occasionally faintly vegetable. The samples were collected from the reser- 
voir, near the gate-house. For monthly record of height of water in this reservoir, see table on page 150. 



148 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pu1). Doc. 



METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected near the 

Bottom. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Month. 1898, . 


Jan. 


Feb. 

2 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Day of examination, . 


4 ! 


1 


9 


5 


12 


18 


26 


3 


13 


17 


23 


1 


7 


Number of sample, 


21733 


22030 


22365 


22485 


22715 


22791 22876 

1 


22965 


23030 


23139 


23166 23269 


2.^331 


23401 


PLANTS. 




























Diatomacese, 


358 


25 


2 





65 


33 


244 


128 


156 


342 


218 


122 


85 


13 


Asterionella, . 
Cyclotella, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 


356 

2 



25 

















23 

5 

37 


26 

3 

4 


98 

4 

142 




60 

2 

54 

12 


58 



38 

60 


52 



248 

40 


48 



132 

38 


29 



64 

29 


20 

2 

38 

22 


7 

3 
3 


Cyanophyceee, . 












































Algae, .... 


24 


34 





" 


7 





32 











12 


1 


1 


2 


ANIMALS. 




























Infusoria, 





1 








23 


17 


52 


14 


39 


26 


33 


18 


4 


2 


Cryptomonas, 
Dinobryon, . 



















16 

2 


5 

6 



46 



11 


4 
26 


2 
8 



26 


1 
16 




4 




1 


Vermes, . 


4 


1 











2 


4 


1 








2 


1 


1 


1 


Crustacea, Cyclops, 


pr. 



15 

76 

















pr. 














pr. 


pr. 


Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 


15 


5 


12 


8 


8 


5 


7 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


3 


Total, . 


401 


7 


12 


103 

i 


60 


337 


150 


198 


373 


268 


147 


94 


21 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 149 



METROPOLITAN^ WATER DISTRICT. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected near the 

Bottom — Continued. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Month, 189S, . 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


Day of examination, . 


U 


21 


29 


1 


12 


19 


26 


2 


9 


16 


23 


1 


7 


13 


Number of sample, 


23519 23612 


23711 


23776 


23846 


23909 


24030 


24124:24185 

i 


24291 


24383 


24506 


24539 


24591 


PLANTS. 






























Diatomacese, 


6 


H 


87 


152 


271 


85 


63 


41 


49 


142 


100 


64 


39 


143 


Aeterionella, . 
Cyclotella, . 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, 


1 

1 
4 




10 

2 

1 


12 

68 
2 
5 


34 

118 






121 

148 

2 


39 

34 

1 

10 


42 
6 


15 



3 

8 
26 



23 

1 
24 



110 

8 
24 




80 

2 

18 


8 
10 
12 
32 


7 

3 

2 

27 


86 

9 

47 


Cyanophyceae, . 























1 








1 











Algae, .... 











1 


4 











1 





6 


6 


4 


18 


ANIMALS. 






























Infusoria, 





1 


1 


1 


1 


4 


1 


1 











* 


5 


24 


Cryptomonas, 
Dinobryon, . 
























3 
































22 


Vermes, . 









































2 


Crustacea, Cyclops, 








pr. 


























pr. 





pr. 


Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, 


3 


5 


5 


3 


8 


5 


8 





5 


10 


12 


5 


5 


8 


Total, . 


9 


20 


.3 


158 


284 


94 


72 


43 


55 


152 


119 


79 


53 


196 



150 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN TTATER DISTRICT. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Sudbury Reservoir, collected near the 

Bottom — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Month, 1898, . 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Day of examination, . 


20 


27 


5 


11 


18 


25 


1 


8 


15 


21 


2 


13 


19 


28 


Number of sample, 


24677 


24757 

t 


24900 24941 


25039 


25131 


25208 


25264 


2536125434J 


25512 


25591 


25671 


25768 


PLANTS. 






























Diatoraacese, . 


362 


420 


490 


444 


312 


174 


185 


246 


163 


132 


78 


98 


34 


29 


Asterionella, . 
Cyclotella, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 


310 

2 

24 

26 


382 

4 

8 

23 


456 

16 
18 


392 
6 
8 
16 


250 
2 

16 
32 


78 

2 

14 

78 


68 
12 
22 
48 


98 
38 
20 
90 


46 
38 
27 
46 


56 

32 

6 

24 


40 

20 

2 

16 


64 

14 

1 

12 


14 

10 

4 

6 


14 
9 
2 
4 


CyanophycesB, . 








2 





4 








1 




















Algse 


14 


7 


4 


4 


6 


26 


9 


14 


12 


4 


4 


1 


I 





ANIMALS. 






























Infusoria, 


9 








4 


6 





1 


1 


3 





1 











Cryptomonas, 
Dinobryon, . 



8 












2 




6 








1 






























Vermes, . 


4 

















1 


1 


3 





I 











Crustacea, Cyclops, 


pr. 








pr. 














pr. 

















Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 


20 


12 


15 


10 


15 


5 


8 


8 


10 


8 


7 


10 


7 


5 


Total, . 


409 


439 


511 


462 


343 


207 


203 


270 


188 


148 


90 


109 


42 


34 



Table showing Height of Water in Sudbury Reservoir on the First Day of Each 

Month in 1898. 

[Heights are in feet above Boston city base.] 



Date. 


Sudbury Reser- 
voir. Crest 
of Dam = 259.00. 


Date. 


Sudbury Reser- 
voir. Crest 
of Dam =2-59.00. 


January 1, 

February 1 

March 1, 

April 1 

May 1, 

June 1, 


244.41 
248.22 
244.80 
256.54 
258.70 
259.05 


Julyl 

August 1, 

September 1, 

October 1, 

November 1 

December 1 


257.74 
253.90 
249.32 
248.65 
247.38 
247.57 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



151 



METROPOLITAX ^VATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Stony Brook, at Head of Framingham Res- 
ervoir No. 3, Southborough. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Residue on 
















ArPEARASCE. 




EVAPOKA- 


Ammonia. 




NlTliOGEN 


■6 














TION. 








S 














c 




Albuminoid. \ 








s 


o 


1 


1 


1^ 

o 


s 











1 
t s 


1 




'C 


1 


c 
•0 










o 




o 











.a 






■A 




;?5 


Q 


^ 


m 


U 


£-1 


hi 


P4 


H 





05 





*A 


Zi 





S 




1898. 


















1 










21735] Jan. 3 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.05 


11.85 


1.85 


.00701.0090 


.0086 .0004 


.67 


.1360 


.0012 


.18 


5.0 


22036' Jan. 31 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.68 


7.50 


2.45 


.0086. 02101.0204!. 0006 


.51 


.0380 


.0002 


.58 


3.0 


22374 Feb. 28 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.62 


6.00 


1.50 


1.0116 .0166 .0160:. 0006 


.31 


.03.50 


.0003 


.47 


2.1 


227181 Apr. 4 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.40 


5.75 


2.10 


.0002;. 01181. 0104 .0014 


.42 


.0380 


.0003 


.37 


2.1 


23032 May 2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.37 


3.75 


1.15 


.0002 .0122 .0100]. 0022 


.24 


.01.30 


.0002 


.32 


1.0 


23337 


May 31 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.45 


4.35 


1.85 


.0028 


.0136 .0118'. 0018 


.25 


.0050 


.0002 


.42 


1.3 


23770 


June30 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.28 


3.70 


1.25 


.0048 


.01301.0118 .0012 


.22 


.0110 


.0002 


.38 


1.0 


24109 


Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.27 


4.05 


1.35 


.0056 


.01661.0144 .0022 


.23 


i.0130 


.0002 


.36 


1.3 


24502 


Aug 31 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.20 


3.50 


1.30 


.0032 


.01541.0130 .0024 


.23 


1.0050 


.0002 


.39 


1.4 


24884 


Oct. 3 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.40 


4.70 


1.75 


.0016 


.0202|. 01781 .0024 


.24 


1.0030 


.0001 


.54 


1.6 


25211 


Oct. 31 


V.ehght. 


V. slight. 


.30 


4.85 


1.65 


.0014 


.0174. 0150 .0024 


.27 


1.0050 


.0000 


.51 


1.8 


25521 


Dec. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.51 


5.50 


2.00 


.0068 
.0045 


.0198 


.0188 
.0140 


.0010 


.29 
.32 


.0160 


.0002 


.56 


1.8 


Av.. 








.38 


5.46 


1.68 


.0155 


.0015 


.0265 


.0003 


.42 


1.9 













Odor, generally faintly vegetable, beconaing stronger on heating. The samples were collected 

from the brook, about 50 feet below the first road above Framingham Reservoir No. 3. 



Chemical Examination of Waierfrom Framingham Reservoir No. 3, Framingham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Residue on 















c 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 








1 






tion. 








s 

3 

o 






>^ 


^• 






c 
o 
-.3 




Albuminoid, j 












■3 


■3 




a 


o 


3 

u 

a 


s 
1 


u 

o 
o 


o 


Is 


rec. 
otal. 


> 

3 


i s 


c 
o 


a 


i 


1 


1 
3 


(z; 


a 


H 


03 


o 


&^ 


ij 


fc. 1 H 


a 


GO 


U 


'A 


K 


o 


a 




1898. 




























21736' Jan. 3 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.50 


5.75 


1.85 


.0024 .0222 


.0220 


.0002 


.43 


.0130 


.0001 


.53 


2.5 


22037 


Jan. 31 


V. slight. Slight. 


.50 


4.90 


1.90 


.0022 .02.52. 0212 


.0040 1.44 


.0150 


.0000 


.56 


2.2 


22375 


Feb. 28 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.60 


5.90 


1.35 


.0086 .0166 .0154 


.0012 .35 


.0320 .0003 


.49 


2.2 


22719 


Apr. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.38 


4.70 


1.50 


.0010 .0154 .0120 


.0034.. 34 


.0350; .0002 


.39 


1.7 


23033 


May 2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.65 


1.15 


.0002 .01441.0114 


.0030 


.23 


.01301.0002 


.34 


1.0 


23338 


May 31 


'v. slight. 


Slight. 


.45 


1 4.10 


1.65 


.0006 


.0148; .0118 


.0030 


.24 


1.0090,. 0002 


.37 


1.1 


23771 


June30 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.25 


3.60 


1.20 


.0006 


.0158 .0126 


.0032 


.21 


1.0030 .0004 


.34 


l.I 


24110 


Aug. 1 


,V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.24 


3.70 


1.35 


.0002 


.0176 .0152 


.0024 


.19 


.00301.0002 


.39 


1.3 


24503: Aug.31 


1 Slight. 


Cons. 


.22 


3.85 


1.45 


.0010 


.01761.0142 


.0034 


.23 


.0020'. 0001 


.42 


1.4 


24885 Oct. 3 


: Slight. 


Slight. 


.32 


4.75 


1.80 


.0002 


.0206 


.0182 


.0024 


.25 


.0010 


.0001 


.48 


1.7 


25212! Oct. 31 


iV. slight. 


V. slight. 


.33 


4.75 


1.75 


.0020 


.0186 


.0160 


.0026 


.25 


.0030 


.0000 


.54 


1.8 


25522 


Dec. 1 


j Slight. 


Slight. 


.42 


4.80 


1.80 


.0032 


.0196 


.0182 
.0157 


.0014 


.29 
.29 


.0090 
.0115 


.0002 
.0002 


.54 


1.8 


Ay.. 




! 




.38 


4.54 


1.56 


.0018 


.0182 


.0025 


.45 


1.6 






1 







Odor, generally faintly vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. The samples were collected 

from the reservoir, near the gate-house, at a depth of 8 feet beneath the surface. 



152 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

Microscopical Exami?iation of Water from Framingham Reservoir No. 5, 

Framingham, 

[Number of organiems per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examinatioD, .... 


4 


2 


1 


5 


3 


1 1 


1 


1 


4 


1 


2 


Number of sample, .... 


21736 22037;22375 


22719 


23033 


23338 23771 


24110 


24503 


24885 


25212 


25522 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomacese, .... 


1,280 


512 


8 


438 


262 


398 


1,589 


248 


137 


355 


166 


197 


Asterionella 

Cyclotella 

Melosira 

Synedra 

Tabellaria, 


496 

52 

350 



356 


104 

72 



36 

300 


4 


3 



156 
2 

208 
60 
10 


68 





128 

64 


2 

4 

68 

308 

12 


200 

1,384 



1 
4 




238 



4 
6 


30 

2 



10 

94 


287 

10 



17 

40 


34 
18 

15 
96 


106 

41 



3 

47 


Cyanopliycese, .... 


























2 


16 








Anabsena 





























15 








Algse 


52 


16 


2 


10 


12 


12 


8 


118 


43 


58 


23 





Protococcue, .... 


56 











10 





5 


116 


38 











ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria 


34 


146 


2 


62 


60 


8 


1 


16 


20 


5 


2 


2 


Dinobryon, 

Peridinium 


26 
4 


144 
1 






46 
2 


48 
10 


8 







14 



19 

1 


4 



1 



1 



Vermes 





2 











2 


2 

















Crustacea, Cyclops, . 





pr. 











pr. 








pr. 











Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . • . 





5 


7 


10 


7 


8 





3 


5 


5 


8 


8 


Total 


1,366 


681 


19 


520 


341 


428 


1,600 


385 


207 


439 


199 


207 



Chemical Examination of Water from Indian Brook, at Head of Hopkinton 

Reservoir, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 










Residue on 














S 


Appearance. 


Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 
as 


s 

s 
5 

1 






"u 


£ 


u 

o 


"3 


c 
o 


' Albuminoid. 


rt 


o 






S Z 


o 


■a 
1 c 
to u 


•s 














R 


















"A 1 S 


H 


m 


O 


H 


6^ 6- 


5 1 M 


o 


"A 


'A 


o 


t^ 




1898. 


























21727 


Jan. 3i 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.30 


6.50 


3.25 


.0006 .0248 


.0226 


.0022 


.62 


.0080 


.0001 


1.27 


2.6 


22025 


Jan. 31 


V slight. 


V. slight. 


1.45 


5.15 


2.40 


.0000 .0200 


.0200 


.0000 


.48 


.0060 


.0000 


1.22 


1.6 


22368 


Feb. 23 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.44 


3.70 


1.60 


.00101.0158 


.0152 


.0006 


.28 


.0070 


.0001 


0.82 


1.1 


22768 


Apr. 7 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.10 


4.10 


2.20 


.OniO .01.52 


.0138 


.0014 


.46 


.0000 


.0000 


0.90 


1.0 


23021 


May 2 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.30 


3.95 


1.80 


.0004 .0236 


.0210 


.0026 


.39 


.0000 


.0000 


1.02 


1.0 


23321 


May 31 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


2.. 50 


5.60 


3.40 


.0018 .0370 


.0356 


.0014 


.30 


.0030 


.0001 


1.81 


1.3 


23762 


J line 30 


None. 


V. slight. 


2.00 


7.80 


4.70 


.00201.0602 


.0564 


.0048 


.27 


.0010 


.0002 


2.. 30 


1.6 


24114 


Aug. 1 


V. slight. V. slight. 


2.00 


8.05 


4.65 


.0026.0564 


.0548 


.0016 


.50 


.0020 


.0000 


2.00 


1.4 


24492 


Aug.31 


V. slight. V. slight. 


1.70 


7.00 


4.10 


. 00.34'. 0478 i. 04 60 


.0018 


.43 


.0030 


.0000 


1.94 


1.2 


24891 


Oct. 3 


V. slight. V. slight. 


1.05 


6.65 


3.35 


.00021.0348 .0318 


.003o! 


.56 


.0000 


.0000 


1.31 


1.4 


25393 


Nov. 15 


None. V. slight. 


1.10 


5.60 


2.85 


.0002 .0238 .0232 


.0006 


.48 


.0020 


.0000 


1.44 


1.0 


25513 


Nov. 30 


V. slight. V. slight. 


1.20 


5.65 


3.15 


.0004 .0222^.0210 
.0012 .0318 -Oann 


.0012 
.0018 


.51 
.44 


.0070 


.0000 


1.22 


1.3 


Av.. 






1.51 


5.81 


3.12 


.0032 


.0000 


1.44 


1 4 















Odor, generally faintly vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. The samples were collected 

from the brook, at its entrance to Hopkinton Reservoir. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



153 



METROPOLITAN TTATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examinaiiori of Water from Hopkinton Reservoir, collected near the 

Surface. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Residue on 


1 








"o 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 














J 


j Albuminoid. 












o 


3 


"^ 






c? 
SS. 






1 
o 


•6 


6 

c 


f 


J 





c 








































o 


o 


u 


o 












X « 


« 


a 


H 


w 


o 


H 


ij 


&H 


H 


Q 


to 


o 


sz; 


!2i 


s 




1898. 




























21728 


Jan. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.70 


4.25 


1.75 


.0030 


.0232 


.0190 


.0042 


.41 


.0070 


.0000 


.72 1.6 


22026 


Jan. 31 i 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.76 


4.00 


2.05 


.0024 


.0204;. 0200 


.0004 


.43 


.0040 


.0000 


.75 


1.7 


22366; Feb. 28 '. 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.72 


3.80 


1.50 


.0024'. 0170,. 0164 


.0006 1.33 


.oo7o;.oooi 


.68 


1.0 


2271l! Apr. 4 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.70 


3.40 


1.70 


.0014 .0168.0152 


.0016 [.36 


.00501.0000 


.62 


1.0 


230221 May 2; 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.68 


3.50 


1.60 


.0010,. 0168. 0162 


.0006 


.39 


.0030 .0000 


.57 


l.t> 


23322: May 31 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.70 


3.55 


1.80 


.0026 


.0208:. 0172 


.0036 


.37 


.00201.0001 


.63 


1.1 


23763 


JuneSO 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.59 


3.70 


1.70 


.0006 


.0222 .0194 


.0028 


.28 


.0000 .0001 


.71 


1.0 


24115 


Aug. 1' 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.54 


3.55 


1.75 


.0016 


.02441.0206 


.0038 


.30 


.ooioi.oooo 


.66 


0.8 


24493 


Aug.31 1 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


..55 


3.35 


1.85 


.0018 


.0244 .0214 


.00.30 


.30 


.0010 .0001 


.78 


o.» 


24892 


Oct. 3' 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.49 


3.70 


1.80 


.0004 


.0204;. 0186 


.0018 


.32 


. 0000 j. 0000 


.72 


1.0 


25394 


Nov. 15 1 


None. 


V. slight. 


.50 


3.95 


1.95 


.0008 


.0194.0182 


.0012 


.35 


.0020!. 0000 


.71 


o.s 


25514 


Nov.30 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.53 


3.75 


2.15 


.0016 .0190 
.0016 .0204 


.0178 


.0012 


.32 
.35 


.0040 


.0000 


.74 


1.0 


Av.. 








.62 


3.71 


1.80 


.0183 


.0021 


.0030 


.0000 


.69 


1.1 










1 









Odor, of Nos. 24493 and 24892, none; of No. 23322, distinctly oily; of the others, faintly vegetable 
and sometimes musty. The samples were collected from the reservoir, near the dam. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from Hopkinton Reservoir, collected 

Surface. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



near the 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


liar. 


Apr. 


May. 


May. 


June. 


Aug. 


Aug. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination 


4 


2 


1 


5 


3 


31 


30 


2 


31 


4 


16 


2 


Number of sample, .... 


21728 


22026 


22366 


22711 


23022 


23322 


23763 


24115 


2449324892 


25394 


25514 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomacese 


426 


208 


40 


284 


415 


266 


722 


854 


1,088 


22 


78 


48 


Asterionella 

Cyclotella 

Tabellaria 


400 

9 

17 


187 
9 
11 


36 
3 
1 


268 

1 

13 


344 
10 
51 


34 

18 

180 




672 
49 


406 

352 

96 


1,008 
76 
3 


21 
1 



26 
16 
30 


26 

S 

13 


Cyanopliycese, .... 


1 





C 











4 


14 





18 


3 





Clathrocystis 


1 

















4 


14 





10 


1 





Algse 


6 


9 


2 





1 


48 


3 


2 








4 





ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria, 


2 


2 


1 


1 


17 


110 


13 


6 


5 


1 





1 


Dinobryon 

Uroglena, 


















16 



96 
10 


8 




















a 



Vermes, * . 


1 











1 


2 




















Crustacea 


pr. 








pr. 








pr. 

















Cyclops 

Daphnia, 




pr. 










pr. 













pr. 
























Miscellaneoug, Zooglcea, . 


3 


5 





5 


3 


3 





3 


3 


3 


5 


3 


Total, 


439 


224 


43 


290 


437 


429 


742 


879 


1,096 


44 


90 


52 





154 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Hopkinton Reservoir, collected near the 

Bottom. 

[Parts per 100,000.1 



1 





















5 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




NiTROGKN 

AS 


= 














J 




Albuminoid. | 








u 

a 




3 


3 
3 


o 


rt 


!l 




■3 


"3 


1 


s 

'u 



2 


1 


Ij 
>, 




s 








o 


O 


o 




















!zi 


Q 


&H 


cc 


O 


H 


V-] 


^ i H 


5 


CO 





>?; 


"A 





X 




1898. 






















21729 


Jan. 3 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.70 


4.20 


1.80 


.0032 .0206 .0194 


.0012 


.42 


.0070 


.0000 


.74 


1.6 


22027 


Jan. 31 


V. slight. 


(Jons. 


.90 


I 4.25 


2.05 


.0034'. 0190^.0186 


.0004 


.43 


.0070 


.0000 


.81 


1.4 


22367 


Feb. 28 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.89 


4.15 


1.55 


.0040. 0180 .0174 


.0006 


.35 


.0050 


.0001 


.74 


1.1 


22712 


Apr. 4 


V. slight 


V. slight. 


.70 


3.40 


1.65 


.0018 .0150, .0144 


.0006 1.34 


.0050 


.0000 


.62 


0.8 


23023 


May 2 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.70 


3.45 


1.50 


.0010 .0160 .01.52 


.0008i:.37 


.0050 


.0000 


.60 


0.8 


23323j May 31 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.68 


3.35 


1.10 


.0020 .01681.0154 


.0014! .37 


.0070 


.0001 


.59 


1.0 


23764! JuDeSO 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.50 


3.65 


1.55 


.0020 .0150 .0142 


.0008 .29 


.0070 


.0002 


.54 


0.8 


24116 


Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.51 


, 3.50 


1.85 


.00281. 0152. 0140 


.00121!. 31 


.0080 


.0000 


.54 


0.0 


24494 


Aug.31 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.49 


3.55 


1.80 


.00301.01541. 0128 


.00261!. 30 


.0070 


.0001 


.56 


0.8 


2489a 


Oct. 3 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.42 


3.45 


1.60 


.00181. 01445.0126 


.0018 


.31 


1.0030 


.0001 


.55 


1.0 


25395 


Nov. 15 


None. 


V. slight. 


.."iO 


4.00 


1.95 


.00061.0184 


.0166 


.0018 


.34 


.0010 


.0000 


.72 


0.8 


25515 


Nov. 30 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.51 
.62 


4.00 


2.05 


.0014 .0184 
.0022 .0168 


.0172 


.0012 


.35 
.35 


.0060 


.0000 


.74 


1.0 


Av.. 








3.74 


1.70 


.0156 


.0012 


.0057 


.0000 


.65 


1.0 












1 





Odor of Nob. 21729, 24893 and 25395, none; of the others, faintly vegetable, sometimes becoming 
stronger on heating. The samples were collected from the reservoir, near the dam. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Gold Sj^riiig Brook, at Head of Ashland 

Reservoir. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 


« 



« 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 







Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

3 

J 

a 

to 
>> 








•5 
3 
a 
H 


1 


c 



6 





c 








Albuminoid. | 


g 


5 
g 




1 
a 

s 


s 




•0 



•6 

•S 

, s 

s a 


a 
"2 




1898. 




























21734 


Jan. 3 


1 Slight. 


Slight. 


1.27 


5.30 


2.55 


.0006 


.0256 


.0234 


.0022 


.56 


.0140 


.0000 


1.08 


1.7 


22031 


Jan. 31 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


1.20 


4.55 


2.15 


.0004 


.0220 


.0216 


.0004 


.40 


.0100 


.0000 


0.96 


1.6 


22369 


Feb. 28 


V. Blight. ! Slight. 


0.88 


3.50 


1.35 


.0002 


.0174 


.0162 


.0012 


.24 


.0020 


.0002 


0.69 


1.1 


22721 


Apr. 4 


1 V. alight. V. slight. 


1.2.T 


3.90 


2.10 


!.0006 


.0286 


.0284 


.0002 


.32 


.0020 


.0001 


1.10 


1.0 


23025 


May 2 


IV. Blight. 


V. slight. 


1.30 


3.85 


2.00 


1.0000 


.0276 


.0268 


.0008 


.31 


.0030 


.0000 


1.00 


1.0 


23324 


May 31 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


1.82 


4.75 


2.90 


.0014 


.0370 


.0332 


.0038 


.27 


.0020 


.0000 


1.30 


1.1 


23765 


June30 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


3.60 


1.70 


.0006 


.0260 


.0234 


.0026 


.23 


.0010 


.0000 


0.83 


J.O 


24111 


Aug. 1 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.64 


3.70 


1.75 


.0006 


.0260 


.0220 


.0040 


.23 


.0010 


.0000 


0.79 


0.8 


24495 


Aug.31 


V.slitfht. 


V. slight. 


2.. 30 


7.30 


4.20 


.0038 


.0560 


.0534 


.0026 


.31 


.0040 


.0001 


1.62 


1.4 


24888 


Oct. 3 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0..52 


4.50 


1.85 


.0002 


.0204 


.0190 


.0014 


.28 


.0000 


.0000 


0.67 


1.3 


25226 


Oct. 31 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.80 


6.60 


4.00 


.0014 


.0400 


.0372 


.0028 


.30 


.0010 


.0000 


1.94 


1.3 


25516 


Dec. 1 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


1.06 


4.85 


2.60 


.0006 
.0009 


.0260 


.024t> 
.0274 


.0014 


.28 
.31 


.0020 
.0035 


.0000 


1.22 


1.0 


Av.. 








1.24 


4.70 


2.43 


.0294 


.0020 


.0000 


1.10 


1.2 













Odor, distinctly vegetable and Bometiraes musty. The samples were collected from the brook, at 

its entrance Into Ashland Reservoir. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



155 



METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Ashland Reservoir, collected near^the 

Surface. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
_2 

o 
U 

o 

5 

03 

Q 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 

s 

.40 
.33 
..33 
.30 
.31 
.32 
.25 
.27 
.26 
.25 
.25 
.27 

.29 


Nitrogen 
as 


a 

3 
B 




B 






1 

3 


■5 


1 

02 


o 


5 


c 
o 
3 

C'S 

1 




Albuminoid. 

•i -3 

o .2 3 0- 


1 

2 




1 

a 

■s 

03 

33 


21753 
22032 
22370 
22722 
23026 
23326 
23766 
24112 
24496 
24889 
25227 
25517 


1898. 

Jan. 4 
Jan. 31 
Feb. 28 
Apr. 4 
May 2 
May 31 
June 30 
Aug. 1 
Aug.31 
Oct. 3 
Oct. 31 
Dec. 1 


Slight. 
V. slight. 
V. Blight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V. Blight. 
V slight. 
V. slight. 


Slight. 
Slight. 
V. slight. 
V. Blight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
Slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V. Blight. 
V. Blight. 
V. slight. 


0.85 
1.00 
0.72 
0.72 
0.77 
0.95 
0.66 
0.61 
0.60 
0.52 
0.65 
0.58 


4.15 
4.20 
3.80 
3.40 
3.65 
3.40 
4.10 
3.70 
3.75 
3.70 
3.45 
3.90 


2.00 
2.20 
1.55 
1.75 
1.70 
1.45 
2.20 
1.85 
2.15 
1.75 
1.60 
2.05 


.0010 
.0006 
.0004 
.0008 
.0004 
.0016 
.0004 
.0004 
.0008 
.0004 
.0010 
.0014 

.0008 


.0248 
.0222 
.0198 
.0188 
.0210 
.0232 
.0248 
.0238 
.0264 
.0216 
.0184 
.0210 

.0221 


.0236 
.0212 
.0188 
.0176 
.0196 
.0196 
.0230 
.0210 
.0246 
.0204 
.0168 
.0200 

.0205 


.0012 
.0010 
.0010 
.0012 
.0014 
.0036 
.0018 
.0028 
.0018 
.0012 
.0016 
.0010 


.0050 
.0090 
.0060 
.0050 
.0030 
.0030 
.0010 
.0020 
.0000 
.0010 
.0020 
.0020 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0001 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 

.0600 

.0000 
.0002 

.0000 


.82 
.78 
.66 
: .68 
.74 
.74 
.77 
.66 
.85 
.74 
.78 
.77 


1.3 
1.0 
1.3 
1.0 

1.0 
1.0 
1.0 
1.0 
0.8 
1.3 
1.0 
0.8 


Av.. 








0.72 


3.76 


1.85 


.0016 


.0032 


.75 


1.0 

















Odor, generally faintly vegetable. The samples were collected from the reservoir, near the gate- 
house. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Ashland Reservoir, collected near the 

Surface. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


May. 


June. 


Aug. 


Aug. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 
Number of sample 


5 
21753 


2 
22032 


1 

22370 


6 
22722 


3 
23026 


31 
23325 


30 
23766 


1 
24112 


31 

24496 


4 
24889 


2 
25227 


2 
25517 


PLANTS. 

Diatomacese 

Cyclotella 

CyanophycesB 

Algae 


124 

8 


2 


3 
1 



48 


4 

2 





34 

1 





73 

1 



1 


18 
11 



2 


305 
300 

4 

24 


108 

86 


8 


33 
33 

8 

43 


8 
3 



10 


24 

1 


2 


49 







ANIMALS. 
Rhizopoda 

Infusoria 

Dinobryon, 

Vermes 

Crustacea, Cyclops, . 




2 



2 




1 

22 

22 

1 





8 

8 







18 
17 








74 

74 


pp. 




2 

2 


pr. 
























7 




pr. 


G 

2 



1 






2 

















Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, . . . ' 


3 








3 





3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Total, 


130 


78 


12 


52 


151 


22 


336 


119 


94 


22 


31 


52 



156 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. 

Chemtcal Examination of Water from Ashland Reservoir, collected near the 

Bottom. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 


Appeakance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


AMMONIA. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

B 

s 














c 




Albuminoid. 








a 

s 


6 

o 


1 




3 




1 


u, 


1 


"3 


•d 

•a 

05 


s 
o 

6 


2 


1 


c 

1 
o 


1 

OS 


1898. 




























21754 Jan. 4' 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.84 


4.20 


2.10 


.0012 


.0232 


.0228 


.0004 


.84 


.0070 


.0000 


.82 


1.3 


22033 Jan. 31 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.90 


4.25 


1.85 1 


.0020 


.0228 


.0228 


.0000 


.36 


.0040 


.0000 


.80 


1.3 


22371 Feb. 28 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.85 


4.30 


1.80 ! 


.0026 


.0240 


.02.34 


.0006 


.30 


.0030 


.0000 


.76 


1.3 


22723: Apr. 4 


V. Blight. [V. Blight. 


.72 


3.50 


1.80 ' 


.0008 


.0182 


.0168 


.0014 


.31 


.0070 


.0003 


.73 


1.0 


23027: May 2 


V.Blight.lV. slight. 


.77 


3.90 


1.80 ' 


.0006 


.0194 


.0182 


.0012 


.32 


.0030'. 0000 


.70 


1.0 


2332b May 31' 


V. slight, v. slight. 


.73 


3.60 


1.95 ' 


.0014 


.0186 


.0182'. 0004 


.33 


.0040 .0000 


.67 


1.0 


237671 June 30, 


V.slitfht. 'V. slight. 


.58 


3.75 


1.80 ! 


.0028 


.0194 


.0164 .0030 


.26 


.0030 


.0002 


.68 


1.0 


24113: Aug. 1 


V.slight.:V. slight. 


.60 


3.55 


1.70 1 


.0040 


.0204 


.0182 .0022 


.25 


.0040 


.0002 


.58 


0.8 


24497| Aug.31 | 


V. slight. IV. sliaht. 


.56 


3.55 


1.75 \ 


.0002 


.0170 


.01.58 .0012 


.23 


.0070 


.0000 


.70 


0.6 


24890 


Oct. 3. 


V. Blight, v. slight. 


.51 


3.70 


2.05 


.0004 


.0216 


.0202 .0014 


.24 


.0000 


.0000 


.76 


1.0 


25228 


Oct. 31 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.64 


3.95 


1.85 


.0012 


.0194 


.0176!. 0018 


.27 


.0010 


.0000 


.76 


1.0 


25518 


Dec. 1 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.58 


3.80 


1.95 


.0014 


.0202 


.0192 .0010 
.0191 -0019. 


.26 
.29 


.0020 


.0001 


.78 


0.8 


Av.. 








.69 


3.84 


1.87 


.0015 


.0203 


.0037 


.0001 


.73 


1.0 














• 



Odor, generally faintly vegetable. The samples -were collected from the reservoir, near the gate- 
house. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Sudbury River, at Head of Framingham 

Reservoir No. 2. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 

















. 






= 


Appearance. 


Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•c 






1 




tion. 








s 














c 




Albuminoid. 










o 


'^ 


■^ 












■d 




V 






6 


n 


































1 

s 


S 






a 

'•3 






o 5, 
1 


Eh 


"5 




■a 
1 e 

3 P. 

OS 


o 

i 


2 


g 
g 


1 


a 
1 




1898. 
























21737 


Jan. 3 


V. slight. V. slight. 0.72 


4.25 


1.80 


.0012 


.0180 


.0174 


.0006 


.38 


.0100 


.0000 


0.70 


2.1 


22034 


Jan. 31 


V. slight. V. Blight. 0.85 


4.50 


1.75 


.0006 


.0168 


.0156 


.0012 


.40 


.0130 


.0000 


0.72 


1.7 


22372 


Feb. 28 


V. slight. V. slight. 0.66 


3.30 


1.15 


.0008 


.01.50 


.0142 


.0008 


.24 


.0060 


.0001 


0.56 


0.8 


22716 


Apr. 4 


None. : V. slight. 0.78 


3.75 


1.60 


.0002 


.0184 


.0166 


.0018 


.34 


.0080 


.0000 


0.70 


1.1 


23034 


May 2 


V. slight. iV. slight. iO. 98 


3.65 


1.55 


.0002 


.0214 


.0176 


.0038 


.24 


.0030 


.0001 


0.74 


1.0 


23335 


May 31 


V.sHght. 


V. Blight, jl.29 


4.55 


2.35 


.0016 


.0284 


.02.50 


.0034 


.27 


.0030 


.0001 


0.98 


1.0 


23768 


June30 


Decided. 


Slight. ll.OO 


4.90 


2.55 


.0042 


.0324 


.0298 


.0026 


.26 


.0040 


.0002 


0.9S 


1.1 


24107 


Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 10.65 


4.75 


2.20 


.0014 


.0416 


.0296 


.0120 


.29 


.0030 


.0000 


0.74 


1.1 


24500 


Aug.30 


Slight. 


Slight. 2.00 


6.70 


3.95 


.0108 


.0476 


.0420 


.0056 


.28 


.0060 


.0001 


2.06 


1.3 


24882 


Oct. 3 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 0.90 


5.40 


2.40 


.0040 


.0298 


.0288 


.0010 


.36 


.0030 


.0000 


1.00 


1.4 


25209 


Oct. 31 


V. Blight. 


V.slight.ll.Oo 


4.85 


2.35 


.0010 


.0264 


.0256 


.0008 


.35 


.0020 


.0000 


1.40 


1.0 


25519 


Dec. 1 


V. Blight. V. slight. !0. 60 


4.00 


1.90 


.0008 


.0180 


.0170 


.0010 
.0029 


.27 
.31 


.0070 


.0000 
.0000 


0.77 


0.8 


Av.. 






0.96 


4.55 


2.13 


1 
.0022 -O^fi^! 


.0233 


.0057 


0.95 


1 "> 






1 









Odor, vegetable. The samples were collected from the river, near the old dam at the upper end 

of Framingham Reservoir No. 2, at a depth of 1 foot beneath the surface. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



157 



METROPOLITAN TVATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Framingham Reservoir No. 2. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



21738 
22035 
22373 
22717 
23035 
23336 
23769 
24108 
24501 
24883 
25210 
25520 



1898. 

Jan. 3 
Jan. 31 
Feb. 28 
Apr. 4 
May 2 
May 31 
June30 
Aug. 1 
Aiig.31 
Oct. 3 
Oct. 31 
Dec. 1 



Av. 



Appearance. 



V. slight. 

V. slight. 

V. slight. 

V.slight. 

V. slight. 

V.slight. 

Slight. 

V.slight. 

Slight. 

V.slight. 

V.sHght. 

V.slight. 



V.slight. 

Slight. 

V.slight. 

V.slight. 

V.slight. 

V.slight. 

Slight. 

None. 

Slight. 

V.slight. 

V.slight. 

V.slight. 



0.73 
0.70 
0.67i 
0.70 
0.90' 
1.04 
0.82, 
0.61 
1.70 
1.30 
0.95 
0.61 



Residue on 

EVAPOUA- 
TION. 






5.40 


2.90 


4.00 


1.75 


3.25 


:.o5 


3.35 


1.75 


3.80 


1.55 


4.00 


2.15 


4.20 


2.20 


4.35 


2.00 


6.20 


3.90 


6.25 


3.05 


5.00 


2.15 


3.85 


1.85 


4.47 


2.19 



,0008j 

,0002 
,0002 
,0002' 
,0002 
,0020 
,0030 
.0002 
.0100 
.0078 
.0016, 
.0006 



.0192 .0176 
.01521.0140 
.01421.01.34 
.0162 .0142 
.0184i.0170 
.0234 .0208 
.0266J.0242 
.02901.02.52 
.0424 .0388 



.0414 
,0240 
.0190 



.0388 
.0226 
.0166 



,0220 



1 

.0016 
.0012 
.0008' 
.0020' 
.0014: 
.0026 
.0024 
.00-38 
.0036 
.0026 
.0014 
.0024 



.0021 



,0130 
,01.30 

,0050 
,0070 
,0050| 
,0040 
,0020' 
,00201 
,0030 
,0040 
,0020 
,0050 



,0001 
,0000 
,0001 
,0000 
.0001 
.0001 
.0002 
.0000 
.0001 
.0000 
,0000 
,0001 



.0001 



0.79 
0.71 
0.57 
0.66 
0.71 
0.81 
0.82 
0.72 
1.85 
1.50 
1.18 
0.82 



0.93 



1.6 
1.3 
0.8 
0.8 
0.8 
1.1 
1.1 
1.7 
1.3 
1.4 
1.0 
0.8 



Odor, vegetable. The samples were collected from the reservoir, near the gate-house, at a depth 

of 8 feet beneath the surface. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from Framingham Reservoir No. 2. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 
Number of sample 


4 
21738 


2 
22035 


1 

22373 


5 
22717 


3 
23035 


1 

23336 


1 

23769 


1 

24108 


1 
24501 


4 
24883 


1 
25210 


2 
25520 


PLANTS. 

Diatomacese 

Asterionella 

Cyclotella 

Cyanophycese 

Algse 

Protococcus, .... 


4 










64 

50 
2 








5 

1 
1 








26 
18 
1 







58 

19 




3 




70 

25 
4 



1 



46 
3 
30 

1 

34 

20 


134 


82 

8 

134 

192 


62 
18 
9 



32 

32 


17 



1 
g 




18 

8 
1 








13 

3 









ANIMALS. 

Infusoria 

Vermes 

Crustacea, 







1 










2 




2 
2 






1 

pr. 


3 



pr. 


2 




2 





2 


pr. 


1 










Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, . 





5 


3 


3 


3 


5 


3 


3 


3 


3 


5 


3 


Total, 


4 


70 


8 


31 


68 


77 


87 


341 


99 


32 


24 


16 



158 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN TVATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Lake Cochituate in Wayland. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 
o 
■S 


Appearance. 


Kksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 
is 

.54 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

3 
O 

o 








1 

■a 


o 


o 


c 
o 

o 


p 


Albuminoid. | 




55 




1 

B 
1 


o 


■a 
> 

(5 


, c 

So. 


1 

S3 


21739 


1S98. 

Jan. 3 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.28 


5.30 


1.90 


.0016 


.0198 


.0176 


.0022 


.0060 


.0002 


.40 


2.7 


22038 


Jan. 31 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


.38 


5.10 


1.75 


.0028 


.0196 


.0178 


.0018 


.53 


.0070 


.0001 


.47 


2.3 


22376 


Feb. 28 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.48 


4.85 


1.50 


.0026 


.0192 


.0174 


.0018 


.39 


.0100 


.0002 


.51 


2.1 


22720 


Apr. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.32 


5.05 


1.70 


.0010 


.0202 


.0162 


.0040 


.47 


.0120 


.0000 


.51 


2.1 


23031 


May 2 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.38 


5.05 


1.65 


.0008 


.0190 


.0176 


.0014 


.51 


.0110 


.0003 


.44 


2.0 


23340 


May 31 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.42 


4.90 


1.85 


.0014 


.0216 


.0166 


.0060 


.50 


.0090 


.0002 


.47 


1.8 


23773 


JuueSO 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.29 


4.70 


1.85 


.0016 


.0208 


.0182 


.0026 


.41 


.0060 


.0003 


.50 


2.1 


24118 


Aug. 1 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.22 


4.75 


1.70 


.0010 


.0192 


.0174 


.0018 


.40 


.0020 


.0002 


.39 


1.8 


24512 


Sept. 1 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.19 


4.95 


2.15 


.0026 


.0290 


.0232 


.0058 


.45 


.0020 


.0000 


.40 


1.7 


24886 


Oct. 3 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.19 


4.85 


1.95 


.0006 


.0202 


.0164 


.0038 


.45 


.0000 


.0000 


.44 


2.2 


25213 


Oct. 31 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.20 


4.70 


1.65 


.0000 

! 


.0168 


.0136 


.0032 


.42 


.0060 


.0000 


.43 


2.0 


25623 


Dec. 1 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.30 


4.90 


1.85 


1.0032 


.0184 


.0162 


.0022 


.54 
.47 


.0080 
.0066 


.0002 


.50 


2.1 


Av 








.30 


4.92 


1.79 


1 
.0016 


.0203 


.0173 


.0030 


.0001 


.45 


2.1 













Odor, vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. The samples were collected from the gatehouse. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Lake Cochituate in Wayland. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





189S. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


Juiie. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Date of examination, 


4 


2 


1 


5 


3 


1 


1 


2 


2 


4 


1 


2 


Number of sample 


21739 


22038 


22376 


22720 


23031 


23340 


23773 


24118 


24512 


24886 


25213 


25523 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomaceaa 


4 


1,728 


63 


550 


152 


850 


38 


43 


16 


74 


429 


766 


Asterionella, .... 

Cyclotella 

MeloBira, 

Synedra 

Tabellaria 





4 



536 
36 
700 

156 


8 
8 
43 
2 
2 


238 
34 

272 

4 


58 



86 
8 


8 

604 

16 

12 

174 



24 


14 


8 
4 

10 




5 

9 



16 

3 
3 
5 


303 

51 
14 
61 


662 
4 

64 


36 


CyanophyceEe 


100 


20 














29 


19 


67 


21 


26 


30 


Anabajna 

Aphanizomenon, 
Clathrocystis 




100 





20 


















.0 




22 


5 


14 

3 


55 

12 


20 


1 




25 
1 




30 




Algse, 


4 


2 





8 


2 


4 


55 


8 


13 


2 


3 






No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



159 



METROPOLrlTAX T7ATER DISTRICT. 

Miscroscopical Examination of Water from Lake Cochituaie in Wayland — 

Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





189S. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


ANIMALS. 
Rhizopoda 

Infusoria, 

Dinobryon, 

Synura, 

Vermes, 

Crustacea, Cyclops, . 














2 

52 

6 
40 



pr. 




12 

5 
30 








66 

26 




pr. 




B 

2 









62 

62 









1 






pr. 




2 











1 











3 






pr. 




8 

6 


1 






6 

2 
2 






Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, . 


5 


5 


3 


10 10 


3 


3 ! 3 


3 


5 


5 


Total, 


113 


1,809 


78 


634 


170 


916 


126 


75 100 


103 


472 


807 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Terminal Chamber of the Sudbury 
Aqueduct at Chestnut Hill Reservoir. 

[Parts per 100,000] 





c 

1 

o 

"3 


APPEAKASCE. 


Residue on 

EVAPOKA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


5 
.29 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

a 

X 








S 

3 


n 
3 

CO 


^ i 
o 




c 
o 

o 


iM 


Albuminoid. 



S 




^ 
g 




1 

3 


1 


•3 
> 


■o 

a c 

a: 


a 
1 


' 1898. 
22706 Apr. 4 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.70 


3.65 


1.65 


.0014 .0182 


.0160 


.0022 


.0090 


.0000 


.59 


1.1 


23036 May 2 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


4.25 


1.25 


.0002 .0122 


.0092 


.0030 .24 


.0120 


.0002 


.35 


1.1 


233461 May 31 


Blight. 


Slight. 


.40 


4.10 


1.75 


.0014 .0140 

i 


.0114 


.0026 .25 


.0100 


.0002 


.48 


1.3 


23783 July 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.30 


3.90 


1.65 


.0020 


.0156 


.0122 


.0034 |. 26 


.0110 


.0001 


.36 


1.3 


24104 Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.28 


4.20 


1.65 


.0030 


.0170 


.0126Lo044'i .22 

1 


.0040 


.0002 


.34 


1.3 


24517: Aug.31 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


4.00 


1.40 


.0032 


.0182 


.0150 .0032 .26 


.0040 


.0001 


.33 


1.3 


24933jOct. 6 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.33 


4.60 


1.75 


.0022 


.0204 


.0174 .0030 .29 


.0020 


.0002 


.50 


1.8 


25254 


Nov. 2 


v. slight. 


V. slight. 


.41 


4.25 


2.25 


.0014 


.0172 


.0150 .0022 .26 


.0070 


.0000 


.51 


1.6 


25557 


Dec. 6 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.41 


5.25 


1.75 


.0020 


.0128 
.016? 


.0104 


.00241.28 
.0029' 1.26 


.0140 


.0000 
.0001 


.51 


1.8 


Av.. 








.38 


4.24 


1.68 


.ooiq 


.013.'? 


.0081 


.44 


1.4 

























Odor, generally faintly vegetable. 



160 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METROPOLITAN ^VATER DISTRICT. 

Chemical Examination of Watet- from Spot Pond, Stoneham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


Appearance. 




Residue on 

EVAPO RA- 
TION. 


A5IJIONIA. 




UlTBOGEN 
AS 


■3 

3 






o 


















6 






*^ 


c 










Albuminoid. 












i -a 




XI 


o 


•o 


s 






5!r„ 




^ 


^ ^ 


ui 


a 


.-§ 


be 


s 


a 


"5 


3 


CG 


o 
o 


o 
6- 


o 


£ 


I 


s 


3 P. 


o 
.68 


2 


!z 


o 


C3 


21760 


1898. 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


6.00 


2.10 


.0050 .0284 .0262 


.0022 


.0060 


.0001 


.52 


2.9 


22087 


Feb. 7 


: Slii-ht. 


V. slight. 


.48 


5.45 


1.60 


.0040'. 0198 .0188 


.0010 


.61 


.0070 .0001 


.49 


2.1 


22344 


Feb. 24 1 Slitrht. 


Slight. 


.60 


5.05 


1.75 


.00581. 0163!. 0164 


.0004 


.54 


.0100'. 0000 


.53 


2.0 


22707 


Apr. 4 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.45 


4.65 


1.80 


.0022 .02 14. 0184 


.00.30 


.46 


.00.50' .0001 


.50 


1.8 


23019 


May 2 


1 Slight. 


Slight. 


.."iO 


4.50 


1.50 


.0010 .02-26|.0194 .0032 


.46 


.0060 .0001 


.50 


l.V 


23347 


June 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.57 


4.. 55 


1.75 


.0058 .0224. 01 62!. 0062 


.4b 


.00401.0002 


.53 


1.8 


23761 


JuneSO' Slight. 


Slight. 


.45 


4.90 


1.60 


.01021. 0216. 0194:. 0022 


.00 


.0010 .0002 


.54 


1.7 


24117 


Aug. 1 ' Decided. 


Cons. 


.,58 


5.10 


1.95 


.0142. 0240. 0210 .0030 


.40 


.0020 .0002 


.47 


l.V 


24499 


Aug.31 
Oct. 3 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.40 


4.65 


1.95 


.0006 


. 0280. 0230j. 0050 


.37 


.0000,. 0000 


.58 


l.b 


24881 


Decided. 


Cona. 


..S9 


5.10 


1.90 


.0030 


.02661. 0246!. 0020 


1.36 


.ooool.oooo 


.51 


1.8 


25205 


Oct. 31 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.31 


4.60 


2.00 


.0014 


.0288 .0206 


.0082 


.37 


.0010 


.0000 


.54 


1.8 


25508 


Dec. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


4.85 


2.25 


.0014 


.0264 .0226 
.0239 .0205 


.0038 


.37 
.46 


.0020 


.0000 


.57 


1.8 


Av. . 








.46 


4.95 


1.85 


.0045 


.00.34 


.0028 


.0001 


.52 


1.9 



















Odor, generally faintly vegetable, and occasionally musty and disagreeable, becoming stronger on 

heating. The first two samples were collected from the pond; the others, from a tap in the Melrose 

pumping station. 



Chemical Examination of Water from a Faucet at the State House, Boston. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 
O 

c 


Appearance. 


Uesidhk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


.5 


Nitrogen 

AS 


i 

c 

6 

s 
<u 
to 






•5 


a 






c 

o 

= 3 




Albuminoid. | 


« 


1 




u 




-a 
> 


•a 

•a 

1 s 
3 a. 




s 
1 


0) 

Q 


3 

H 


•5 




O 


iJ 




I 


O 


S 
o 

.44 


2 


S 


o 


a 

93 


21744 


1898. 

Jan. 4 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.61 


4.75 


2.10 


.0010 


.0204 


.0172 .0032 


.0110 


.0001 


.58 


2.1 


22039 


Feb. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.60 


4.50 


1.70 


.0014 


.0164^.0152' .0012 


.43 


.01.50 


.0000 


.61 


1.8 


22377 


Mar. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.60 


3.80 


1.35 


.0024 


.0134'.012S .0006 


.25 


.0130 .0000 


.47 


1.1 


22708 


Apr. 4 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.68 


3.30 


1.75 


.0016 


.0178 .0152!. 0026 


.30 


.0070 


.0000 


.57 


0.8 


23051 


May 4 
June 1 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.70 


1.55 


.0010 


.0102 .0090J.0012 


.24 


.0130 


.0000 


.32 


1.1 


23328 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.40 


3.85 


1.40 


.0006 


.0122 .00941.0028 


.28 


.0190 


.0000 


.36 


1.4 


23760 


JuneSO 


V. slight 


Slight. 


.m 


4.15 


1.05 


.0004 


.0134 .0130 .0004 


.26 


.0130 


.0002 


.34 


1.3 


24103 


Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.25 


4.30 


1.30 


.0002 


.0134 .0124 .0010 




.0080 


.0001 


.31 


1.3 


24490 


Aug.31 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.22 


3.75 


1.45 


.0002 


.0166 .0136 .0030 


.23 


.0040 


.0001 


.38 


1.4 


24879 


Oct. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.24 


4.45 


1.50 


.0002 


.0188 


.0174 


.0014 


.31 


.0040 


.0001 


.41 


1.6 


25204 


Oct. 31 


Slight. 


Slight. 


..SO 


4.90 


1.90 


.0000 


.0152 


.0150 


.0002 


.29 


.0030 


.0000 


.43 


l.V 


25609 


Dec. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.35 


4.85 


2.20 


.0010 
.0008 


.0146 


.0126 


.0020 


.29 
.29 


.0070 


.0001 


.45 


1.8 


Av . 








.41 


4.19 


1.80 


.0152 


.0136 


.0016 


.0097 


.0001 


.44 


1.4 





















Odor of the first six samples, generally vegetable; of the last sis samples, none, becoming faintly 
vegetable on heating. 



No. 34.] EXA^HNATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



161 



abixgtox and rockiiand. 
Water Supply of Abington and Rockland. 

The source of supply is Big Sandy Pond in Pembroke, a natural 
pond having an area of 111 acres. The general depth of the pond 
is about 15 feet, its maximum depth 20 feet, and the bottom is said 
to contain very little organic matter. Its drainage area, including 
the area of the pond and of Little Sandy Pond, which is within 
this water-shed, is 1.15 square mileg, and this area, which is largely 
covered with wood, is estimated to contain a permanent population 
of about 50 per square mile. There are a large number of cottages 
on the shores of the ponds which are occupied during the summer 
months. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Big Sandy Pond, Pembroke. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Kk.sidub on 










^"^^ 




S 


Appearance. 




KVaPO RA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 




NiTKOGEN 
AS 


■3 

s 

3 














c 




Albuminoid. 










o 


>. 














■d 


•d 


«■ 


m 




o 


i 


£1 

s 


o 


S 


a 


c 

o 


"3 


~s.S 


6 


J, 


> 
1 


■a 
, c 


1 


2 


r 


1 


■2 




ts 


3 




o 


o 


o 




a 






JS 










55 




&- 


iZ! 


O 


H 


^ 


fe H 


e 1=0 


O 


^i 


S5 


o 


Hi 




1898. 






























21813 


J:in. 10 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.10 


3.30 


1.40 


.0014 


.0240 


.0184 


.0056 


.72 


.0000 


.0000 


.23 


0.6 


22098 


Feb. 7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.11 


3.35 


1.50 


.0034 


.0210 


.0170 


.0040 


.73 


.0020 


.0000 


.24 


0.8 


23096 


May 9 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.16 


3.00 


1.20 


.0008 


.0150 


.0140 


.0010 


.70 


.0030 


.0000 


.26 


0.6 


24179 


Aug. 7 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.17 


3.20 


1.35 


.0006 


.0170 


.0156 


.0014 


.64 


.0010 


.0000 


.22 


0.3 


25312 


Nov. 8 


V. slight. 


V. slight 


.21 


3.25 


1.35 


.0000 


.0162 


.0154 


.0008 


.64 


.0010 


.0000 


.30 


0.6 


25576 


Dec. 7 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


3.05 


1.20 


.0004 


.0126.0100 
.0176 -Ol.'il 


.0026 


.61 
.67 


.0000 


.0000 


.34 
.26 


0.8 


Av... 








Ifi 


3.19 


1.33 


.0011 


.0025 


.0012 


.0000 


R 



















Odor, faintly vegetable or none. The samples were collected from a faucet in the pumping 

station. 



Acton. 
The advice of the State Board of Health to Freeman W. Robbins 
of Acton, relative to the use of the water of an artificial pond in 
Concord as a source of ice supply, may be found on pages 123 and 
124 of this volume. The results of the analysis of a sample of 
water collected from the pond are given under Concord, on page 188 
of this report. 



162 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ADAMS. 

Water Supply of Adams Fire District, Adams. 
The principal sources of supply are two mountain streams known 
as Bassett and Dry brooks, but water is also sometimes supplied 
from a well owned by a private corporation in the village, and other 
wells located in the valley of the Hoosac River below the village 
have been used at times in previous years. The Bassett Brook 
water-shed, which has an area, of 2.6 square miles, is an unin- 
habited mountain side. The water-shed of Dry Brook has an area 
of 7.8 square miles, and contains a small population. The water- 
shed is mountainous, but there is a small area of nearly level 
swampy land near the head waters of the brook. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Bassett Brook Reservoir, Adams. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





1 


Appearance. 


Kksiduk on 

EVAPOKA- 

TION. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

as 


■d 

s 

s 

c 
o 

o 






>. 


^ 


( 




o 




Albuminoid. 












•6 


■d 


V, 


1 

s 




•5 


1 
■3 

OS 




3 

o 

H 


c 5 


fa 


1 


> 
5 


•a 
, c 

S p. 


c 
o 

s 






1 


a 
•a 

M 

n 


21928 


1898. 

Jan 21 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.07 


2.40 


0.85 


.0002 


.0064 


.0040 


.0024 


.08 


.0150 


.0000 


.17 


1.7 


23316 


May 26 


None. 


V. slight. 


.14 


2.75 


1.10 


.0008 


.0056' 0048 


.0008 


.08 


.0090 .0000 


.22 


1.0 


24069 


July 27 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.05 


5.10 


1.30 


.0014 


.00561.0044 


.0012 


.04 


.0140 .0000 


.14 


3.1 


24387 


Aug. 22 
Sept. 23 


None. 


V. slight. 


.10 


3.75 


1.06 


.0004 


.0050 .0046. 0004 


.07 


.0070 .0002 


1.18 


2.3 


24751 


None. 


V. slight. 


.08 


4.75 


1.05 


.0004 


.0026 .00221.0004 


.06 


.0110, .0000 


.06 


3.1 


25356 


Nov. 12 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.12 


2.55 


1.00 


.0004 


.0046.0040 .0006 |. 07 
.0050.0040 .0010 .07 


.0280 


.0000 


.20 
.16 


1.0 










.09 


3.55 


1.06 


.0006 


1.0140 


.0000 


2.0 














1 


' 











Odor, none. No. 24387 was collected from the reservoir; the others, from a faucet supplied with 

water from the reservoir. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Dry Brook Reservoir in Adams atid Cheshire. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





.2 

o 

o 
O 

o 


Appearance. 


Hksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•s 
s 

O) 

8 

c 






>, 

5 


c 

a 






c 
o 

C §) 




Albuminoid, j 


00 


i 




u 




■d 
> 


•6 

■a 


1 


a 

a 
S5 


a 


E-1 


"5 


o 
o 


o 


o 
1^ 


fa 


I 


R 


03 


6 

.08 


2 


u 

g 


o 




21927 


1808. 

Jan. 21 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.23 


4.05 


1.20 


.0002 


.0142 


.0066 


.0076 


.0120 


.0000 


.27 


2.7 


22474 


Mar. 7 


None. 


None. 


.03 


3.50 


0.75 


.0002 


.0024!. 0022. 0002 


.06 


.0130 


.0000 


.14 


2.5 


23317 


May 26 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.63 


5.80 


1.75 


.0010 


.0114 .01118 0006 


.06 


.0170 


.0000 


.54 


3.0 


24068 


July 27 
Aug. 22 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.30 


8.70 


2.65 


.0002 


.01.%:. 0124 .0012 


.07 


.0060 .0000 


.42 


4.6 


24386 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.40 


8.15 


2.40 


.0004 


.01321.0128 


.0004 


.06 


.0020 .0000 


.54 


5.0 


24750 


Sept. 23 
Nov. 12 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.17 


10.75 


2.35 


.0004 


.01021.0092 


.0010 


.14 


.0010 


.0001 


.24 


v. 9 


25357 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.51 


4.75 


2.00 


.0010 


.0130 
.0111 


.0110 


.0020 


.08 
.08 


.0070 


.0000 


.74 
.41 


2.2 


Av 








.31 


6.53 


1.87 


.0005 


.0093 


.0018 


.0083 


.0000 


4.0 



















Odor, none, becoming faintly vegetable or musty on heating. Nos. 24386 and 24750 were collected 

from the reservoir; the others, from a faucet supplied with water from the reservoir. 



No. 34.] EXAjMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



163 



ADAMS. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Renfrew Manufacturing 

Company, Adams. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


Appearance. 


3 


Ammonia. 




IsITROGEN 
AS 


a 








s 


























c 

^ 
s 


f 


■3 
1 


1 

■3 


o 


SI 




o 
c 


o 


2 


1 




1 




!^ 


« 


H 


CO 


U 


" 


fct 


■=1 


O 


J5 


2 


o 


« 


t-i 




1898. 


























24071 


July 27 


None. 


V. slight. 


.02 


15.80 


.0000 


.0020 


.09 


.0330 


.0001 


.03 


12.0 


.0010 



Odor, none. The Renfrew well is used as a supplementary source of supply at times, when the 

yield of the other sources is ineufRcient for the supply of the fire district, or when the other sources are 
ehut off for any cause. During 1898 this well was used for only a day and a half. 



Agawam. 
The advice of the State Board of Health to George D. Cooley, 
•with reference to the use of a certain spring as a source of water 
supply for a portion of the village of Mittineague in Agawam, 
may be found on pages 4 and 5 of this volume. The results of the 
chemical analysis of a sample of water collected from the spring are 
as follows : — 



Chemical Examination of Water from a Spring in the Village of Mittineague, 

Agawam. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 


APPEAKANCE. 


c 
o 


Ammonia. 




KiTROGEN 

AS 








a 

3 
f5 




s 


c 

o 

S 


u 






•d 
o 


c 
o 


L4 


S 


£5 

to 


7 


c 


[J 


3 


CO 


o 


« 


U 


< 


Si 


>5 


J5 


<§ 




2 




1898. 


























25043 


Oct. 17 


None. 


V. Blight. 


.01 


5.10 


.0004 


.0026 


.19 


.0200 


.0000 


.00 


2.6 


.0030 



Odor, none. The sample was collected from a spring, on land owned by George D. Cooley. The 

spring is situated about 300 feet south of Moore Street. 



164 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



■ Powow Hill Water Company. 



amesbury. 

Water Supply of Amesbury. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Wells of the Powoiv Hill Water Company 

in Amesbury. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
.2 


APPEARANCE. 


a 
o 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

a 






1 

a 


J 


3 


H 


u 


11 




o 


a 

C 

o 


1 


1 




■3 




o3 


H 




o 


M 




^ 


6 


2 


g 


o 


CS 


o 




1898. 


























-24688 


Sept. 17 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.01 


20.70 


.0032 


.0022 


1.14 


.0000 


.0000 


.06 


10.8 


.0090 


24669 


Sept. 19 


Distinct, 
milky. 


None. 


.14 


8.50 


.0004 


.0010 


0.60 


.0580 


.0001 


.04 


3.5 


.0460 



Odor, none. The first sample was collected from the tubular wells near Market Street; the last, 

from the tubular wells supplying the open basins near Main Street. 



Water Supply or Amherst. — Amherst Water Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Amethyst Brook Reservoir of 
Amherst Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



the 





s 

o 

o 

o 
o 


Appbarance. 


KESIDUE ON 
EVAPO RA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


B 
1 

.13 

.10 
.10 
.12 

.11 


Nitrogen 

A3 


•a 

a 

a 
a 

8 

a 
1 

X 

o 






•5 


a 

m 


o 

(J 


o 
Eh 


1 


£ 


Albuminoid. 




1 




B 

a 


"3 

o 


> 

5 


V 

•a 
, c 

3 a. 

03 


a 
■a 


23724 

24048 
24487 
24775 


1898. 

June 27 

July 25 
Aug. 30 
Sept. 26 


V. slight. 
Decided. 

V. slight. 
Slight. 


V. slight. 
Cons. 
V. slight. 
Slight. 


.48 
.21 
.63 
.57 


3.50 
3.85 
4.00 
4.30 


1.40 
1.85 
2.10 

1.80 


.0006 
.0060 
.0006 
.0010 


.0158 
.0232 
.0200 
.0174 

.0191 


.0132 
.0134 
.0194 
.0168 

.0157 


.0026 
.0098 
.0006 
.0006 

.0034 


.0070 
.0020 
.0020 
.0050 


.0000 
.0001 
.0001 
.0002 


.44 
.27 
.85 
.80 

.59 


0.5 
0.6 
0.8 
0.8 


Av.. . 








45 


3.91 


1.79 


.0020 


.0040 


.0000 


0.7 















Odor, faintly vegetable or none. A distinctly fishy odor was developed in the July sample on 
heating. 



Water Supply of Andover. 

The source of supply is Raggett's Pond in Andover, which has 
an area of about 200 acres, and a drainage area, including the area 
of the pond, of about 2.7 square miles. The drainage area contains 



No. 34.] EXA]\nNATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



165 



ANDOVER. 

a population of about 40 per square mile, and the shores of the 
pond are used to some extent as a pleasure resort in the summer 
season. 

Chemical Examination of Water from HaggetVs Pond, Afidover. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 

o 

o 
U 

o 


Appearance. 


kesidce on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 

5 
.40 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

a 

s 

s 
o 

1 

o 






■S 
'2 


1 
■3 
CO 


o 
o 


o 


c 

o 


V 

Cm 


Albuminoid. 


DO 






c 

s 

3 

55 


s 

o 


i 

> 
o 

a 


00 "* 


CO 

■3 


21801 


1898. 

Jan. 10 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.18 


3.30 


1.40 


.0018 


.0174 


.0170 


.0004 


.0030 


.0000 


.34 


1.7 


22800 


Apr. 11 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


3.60 


1.65 


.0002 


.0166 


.0138 


.0028^ 


.30 


.0020 .0001 


.38 


1.3 


23870 


July 12 


Decided. 


V. slight. 


.18 


3.15 


1.25 


.0008 


.0210 


.0176 


.0034 


.33 


.0000 


.0000 


.33 


1.1 


24952 


Oct. 10 


V. slight. 


None. 


.16 


3.20 


1.20 


.0006 


.0180 


.0168 


.0012 


.35 
.34 


.0000 


.0000 


.38 
.36 


1.1 


Av. 








.17 


3.31 


1.37 


.0008 


.0182 


.0163 


.0019 


.0012 


.0000 


1 3 























Odor of the first three samples, vegetable; of the last, none. The samples were collected from 

a faucet at the pumping siatioa. 



Water Supply of Arlington. 

The original source of supply was a storage reservoir on North 
Brook, Lexington, having an area of 31 acres, a capacity of 
77,000,000 gallons and an average depth of about 8 feet. The 
area of the water-shed, including the area of the reservoir, is 2.25 
square miles, and this area contains about 200 persons per square 
mile. The yield of the reservoir can be increased by diverting 
into it w^ater from the Great Meadows, so called, which have a 
drainage area of 0.5 of a square mile. 

Along one side of the reservoir is a filter-gallery, and the water 
from the brook which feeds the reservoir is also turned directly 
into this gallery. The supply of the town has been drawn chiefly 
from the filter-gallery and brook, the reservoir being used only 
when the yield from the other sources is insufiicient. 

The higher portions of the town are supplied with water which is 
drawn from a group of tubular wells located at the edge of the Great 
Meadows in East Lexington. The wells have an average depth of 



166 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ARLINGTON^. 

about 35 feet, and water from them was first used in 1895. When 
water was first drawn from the wells it had considerable color, and 
contained an excessive amount of iron and a larger amount of or- 
ganic matter than is found in good water. Since that time the 
color has increased considerably, and there has also been a decided 
increase in the quantity of organic matter and iron present in the 
water. 

A communication from the State Board of Health to the Arling- 
ton Water Board, relative to the polkition of the water supply of 
that town by refuse from a slaughter house upon the water-shed of 
one of the sources of supply, may be found on pages 111 and 112 
of this volume. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Storage Reservoir of the Arlington 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 

1 

O 
o 

Is 

a 


Appearance. 


Residue on 

KVAPORA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 





Nitkogen 

AS 


•3 
1 



c 








•3 
3 

1 


a 

1 
■3 




1 


a 
o 






Albuminoid. | 


00 


2 




1 

3 

!5 


"a 


H 


> 

1 

5 


■d 

1 

So. 
a: 


ga 

1 

BS 


22202 


1898. 

Feb. 14 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.70 


5.85 


2.35 


.0098 


.0298 


.0252 


.0046 


.52 


.0650 


.0003 


0.73 


2.1 


22S69 


Apr.lS 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.98 


6.35 


2.50 


.0012 


.0356 


.0236 


.0120 


.58 


.0290 


.0003 


0.73 


2.3 


23607 


June20 


Decided. 


Cons. 


1.00 


6.80 


2.95 


.0030 


.0752 


.0368 


.0384 


.63 


.0100 


.0003 


0.87 


2.2 


24385 


Aug.22 


Decided. 


Cons. 


1.20 


8.55 


4.40 


.0036 


.0784 


.0470 


.0314 


.44 


.0030 


.0001 


1.45 


2.3 


25126 


Oct. 24 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.97 


8.15 


3.60 


.0084 


.0622 


.0400 


.0222 


.56 


.0160 


.0003 


0.67 


2.5 


25786 


Dec. 28 


v. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.68 


7.30 


2.80 


.0016 
.0046 


.0260 
.0512 


.0236 


.0024 


.64 
.56 


.0260 


,0004 


0.81 


2.6 


Av.. 








0.92 


7.17 


3.10 


.0327 


.0185 


.0248 


.0003 


0.88 


2.3 













Odor, vegetable and occasionally grassy or disagreeable. 



Microscopical Examination. 

In the sample examined in April, 252 Synedra per cubic centimeter -were found ; in June, 388 Fragi- 
laria, 436 Anabmna and 560 Scenedesmua; in August, 1,660 Fragilaria, 234 Clalhrocystis, 3,000 Proto- 
coccus and 400 Scenedesmus; in October, 268 Melosira and 1,500 Protococcua. An insignificant number 
of organisms was found in the remaining samples. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



167 



ARLINGTON. 

Chemical Examinalion of Water from Tubular Wells at East Lexington, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 


APPEARANCE. 






Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


"d 
























2 








S. 








5 2 




■6 














Q 
s 


o 


2 


c 

1 
■3 




2 s 
2iil 


i 


o 


c 
o 


1 


u 


£5 


o 

c 


p 


'/i 


Q 


H 


cc 


U 


M 


^ 


^ 


O 


?! 


•A 


o 




M 




1898. 


























22197 


Feb. 14 


Slight, 
milky. 


V. slight. 


.55 


9.20 


.0202 


.0116 


.59 


.0030 


.0000 


.22 


4.6 


.0950 


23676 


June 24 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.36 


8.40 


.0150 


.00S6 


.52 


.0020 


.0000 


.22 


3.6 


.0730 


24:«7 


Aug. 22 


Decided. 


Cobs. 


.51 


9.00 


.0200 


.0142 


.49 


.0000 


.0000 


.24 


4.3 


.3030 


2ol27 


Oct. 24 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.45 


9.00 


.0210 


.01.30 


.49 


.0010 


.0000 


.28 


3.8 


.0850 


25790 


Dec. 27 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.50 


8.00 


.0188 


.0116 


.50 


.0010 


.0001 


.24 


3.8 


.1150 



Averages by Years. 



1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 



9.90 

9. 88 
9.05 



.0097 
.0090 
,0167 
.0190 



.0075 
.0102 
.0102 
.0118 



.0045 
.0052 
.0042 
.0014 



.0001 
.0001 
.0000 
.0000 



.18 
.21 
.22 
.24 



5.5 
5.3 
4.7 
4.0 



.0958 
.0742 
.0993 
.1342 



Note to analyses of 1898: Odor of the second sample, faintly vegetable, becoming distinctly 
vegetable on heating; of the other samples, none. A faintly unpleasant odor was developed in the last 
sample on heating. The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the Robbins Spring 
Water Company, with reference to the quality of the water of cer- 
tain springs in Arlington, the water from which is used for the 
supply of several families in that town, and is also sold for drink- 
ing purposes in Boston and its vicinity, may be found on pages 5 
and 6 of this volume. The results of analyses of samples of water 
collected from the springs are given in the following table : — 



Chemical Examination of Water from Bobbins Springs in Arlington. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 


Appearance. 




c 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•d 
























as 


a 








S 


>> 


^ 




_2 
eg. 




•3 








C 






a 

3 




!2 

u 


S 

a 


o 


O 3 

."Ha 


S 


o 

5 a 


't, 

o 


ii 


o 




•s 

C3 


d 

o 


Z 


Q 


H 


cc 


O 


SC 


Ut 


< 


U 


■z, 


g 


O 


a 






1898. 


























25009 


Oct. 13 


None. 


None. 


.01 


6.40 


.0000 


.0014 


.63 


.1400 


.0000 


.04 


2.3 


.0010 


2.5010 


Oct. 13 


None. 


None. 


.00 


6.30 


.0000 


.0032 


..53 


.0730 


.0000 


.03 


2.1 


.0000 


25011 


Oct. 13 


None. 


None. 


.00 


5.70 


.0000 


.0014 


.48 


. 0220 


.0000 


.06 


1.8 


.0010 


25114 


Oct. 21 


None. 


V Blight. 


.02 


7.30 


.0026 


.00.30 


.67 


.1680 


.0000 


.06 


3.0 


.0010 


25012 


Oct. 13 


None. 


None. 


.00 


6.40 


.0000 


.0022 


.58 


.0600 


.0000 


.04 


2.5 


.0010 



Odor, none. The samples were collected from the Robbins Springs, which are located on the 

northerly slope of Arlington Heights. The first three namptes were collected from springs Nos. 1, 2 and 
3, respectively, which are located in the vicinity of the spring house, about 1,600 feet south- west of 
Massachusetts Avenue; the last two samples were collected from springs Nos. 4 and 5, which aro 
located about 1,000 feet south-west of Massachusetts Avenue. 



168 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ATHOIi. 

Water SuprLY of Athol. — Athol Water Company. 
Chemical Examination of Water from the Large Storage Reservoir in Phillipston. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





§ 

o 

« 

Q 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 

5 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

3 

C 
1> 

&0 

>> 

X 
O 






3 


1 
■3 


i 


o 


3 


1. 
1^ 


.\lbuminoid. 


2 


g 




a 

s 
2i 




•a 
o 

(5 


•a 
, c 

05 


c 
•o 


22677 


1898. 

Mar. 29 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.79 


3.05 


1.25 


.0008 


.0160 


.0128 


.0032 


.11 


.0120 


.0000 


.62 


0.5 


23714 


June 27 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.51 


3.40 


1.65 


.0056 


.0796 


.0294 


.0502 


.19 


.0010 


.0011 


.79 


0.5 


24760 


Sept. 26 


Decided. 


Cons . 


.67 


3.45 


2.10 


.0044 


.0624 


.0302 .0322 


.13 


.0000 


.0001 


.86 


0.8 


25687 


Dec. 19 


V. slight. 


green. 
None. 


.65 


3.70 


1.65 


.0010 
.0029 


.0194 


.0158 


.0036 


.13 

.14 


.0060 


.0002 


.73 
.75 


0.6 


Av... 








65 


3.40 


1.66 


.0443 


.0220 


.0223 


.0047 


•0003 


6 















Odor, generally distinctly vegetable. 

Microscopical Examination. 

In the sample collected in June, 2,480 Anabcena per cubic centimeter were found ; in the September 
sample 2,600 Anabmna and 9,184 Melosira per cubic centimeter were observed. An insignificant number 
of organisms was found in the remaining samples. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Buckman Brook Reservoir, Athol. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
.2 

o 

CS 

Q 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 

s 

s 

o 


Nitrogen 
as 


■d 
1 

a 
o 
O 

s 

X 

o 






3 

H 


i 

'•5 


c 

o 

o 
O 


3 
^ 


c 
o 

o 
.J 




Albuminoid. 


1 
2 


''A 




1 

e 

5?! 


1 


•s 

> 

o 

(5 


•a 

•a 
, c 


a 

■s 




1898. 






























22678 


Mar. 29 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.20 


1.75 


0.65 


.0000 


.0098 


.0082 


.0016 


.08 


.0070 


.0000 


0.25 


0.5 


23713 


June27 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.70 


4.35 


2.00 


.0030 


.0362 


.0322 


.0040 


.20 


.0210 .0001 

1 


0.98 


0.5 


24761 


8ept.26 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.90 


5.05 


2.65 


.0052 


.0324 


.0288 


.0036 


.14 


.0050,. 0000 


1.16 


1.0 


25688 


Dec. 19 


V. slight. 


None 


.29 


3.20 


1.10 


.0000 
.0020 


.0068 
.0213 


.0064 
.0189 


.0004 
.0024 


.10 
.13 


.0010 


.0001 


0.39 


0.5 


Av.. 








f>? 


3.59 


1.60 


.0085 


.0000 


0.69 


n 






1 







Odor of the first two samples, faintly vegetable; of the third, faintly musty, becoming also fishy on 
beating; of the last, none. 

Microscopical Examination. 

In the sample collected in September, 678 Dinobrynn per cubic centimeter were found. An insig. 
nificant number of organisms was found in the lumaiuing samples. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 169 

ATTL.EBOROTIGH. 

AYater Supply or Attleboeough. 

The source of supply is a well about 150 feet from Seven Mile 
River, just above Orr's Pond, a mill pond at the confluence of Seven 
INIile River and Four Mile Brook, not far from the village of South 
Attleborouo-h. The well is 30 feet in diameter and 25 feet in depth. 
The water as drawn from the well has always been clear and practi- 
cally free from color or odor, and the quantity of organic matter in 
the water has been very small. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Altleborough Water Works. 

[Parte per 100,000] 





o 
o 

o 

T 


APPEABANCE. 


5 
= > 


Ammonia. 


o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

i 

a 

c 
_ o 

o 


C 




.a 

a 

a 


>> 

3 

s 


1 
■5 


6 


£ 


o 
c 

5 S 

< 




.1 
2 


2 


21794 


1898. 

Jan. 10 


None. 


None. 


.01 


4.00 


.0008 


.0042 


.48 


.0170 


.0000 


.02 


2.3 


.0010 


22250 


Feb. 15 


None. 


None. 


.02 


3.80 


.0006 


.0022 


.44 


.0140 


.0000 


.05 


1.7 


.0010 


22498 


Mar. 8 


None. 


None. 


.01 


3.20 


.0000 


.0014 


.40 


.0180 


.0000 


.06 


2.0 


.0010 


22810 


Apr. 12 


None. 


None. 


.03 


3.50 


.0000 


.0014 


.39 


.0150 


.0000 


.04 


2.0 


.0060 


23133 


May 11 


V. slight. 


None. 


.05 


3.60 


.0006 


.0022 


.38 


.0130 


.0000 


.03 


2.0 


.0030 


23465 


June 8 


None. 


None. 


.00 


4.00 


.0002 


.0016 


.36 


.0070 


.0000 


.06 


1.7 


.0020 


23893 


July 12 


None. 


None. 


.02 


4.50 


.0000 


.0016 


.34 


.0100 


.0000 


.03 


2.0 


.0020 


24225 


Aug. 9 


None. 


None. 


.06 


4.10 


.0000 


.0010 


.35 


.0110 


.0000 


.06 


1.7 


.0060 


24627 


Sept. 14 


None. 


v. Blight. 


.04 


4.40 


.0000 


.0032 


.34 


.0100 


.0000 


.10 


1.7 


.0130 


24959 


Oct. 10 


V.elight. 


None. 


.02 


4.60 


.0000 


.0042 


.36 


.0080 


.0000 


.04 


2.0 


.0080 


25313 


Nov. 8 


None. 


None. 


.06 


4.60 


.0000 


.0022 


.37 


.0060 


.0001 


.05 


2.0 


.0060 


25649 


Dec. 15 


V slight. 


None. 


.02 


4.40 


.0000 


.0016 


.34 


.0130 


.0000 


.04 


2.1 


.0030 


Av... 








.03 


4.06 


.0002 


.0022 


.38 


.0118 


.0000 


.05 


1.9 


.0043 













Odor, none. The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station, while pumping. 



170 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



AVOX. 



Water Supply of Avon. 
Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Avon Water Works. 



[Parts 


per 100,000.] 


















o 
o 
O 


c 
o 

o a 

a > 

1 


Ammonia. 


c 
.40 


Nitrogen 

AS 


13 

1 

3 

go 
>> 

o 


1 






IS 


2 

< 


1 

s 


■2 

2 


i 


Average of six Pamples collected in Febru- 
ary, April, June, August, October and 
December, 1898. 


.01 


3.52 


.0003 


.0009 


.0170 


.0000 


.02 


1.1 


.0047 



Odor, none. 

Water Supply of Ayer. 

The source of supply is a well 25.5 feet in diameter and 25.7 feet 
in depth, situated near a small stream flowing from Sandy Pond, 
close to the south-easterly side of the main village of Ayer. 

Chemical Examinatio7i of Water from the Well of the Ayer Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 
o 
5J 


3 > 


Ammonia. 




Nitbogen 

AS 


■a 

a 

3 

a 

o 

to 
1 


3 

■s 

a 
B5 






1 


z 

o 

c 

< 


i 

1 




c 

2 


Average of six Bamples collected in Febru- 
ary, April, June, August, October and 
December, 1898. 


.02 


5.72 


.0005 


.0016 


.52 


.0465 


.0000 


.41 


2.7 


.0077 



Odor, none. 



Water Supply of Barre. — Barre Water Company. 

The source of supply is a small storage reservoir having an 
area of 4.25 acres and a capacity of 10,000,000 gallons, in which 
water from several springs in the vicinity is collected. The reser- 
voir was made by excavating in a depression and building a dyke 
around the edges, material for the dyke being taken from the 
excavation. The reservoir is about 10 feet deep, and its bottom is 
of hard-pan. 



Xo. 34.] EXAI^nXATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 171 

BARRE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Reservoir of the Barre Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 
o 

'a 

Q 


Appeakancb. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

1 

s 

S 
c 
>> 
o 






B 

s 
H 


1 

05 


o 


i 

o 


a 
1 


2 


Albuminoid. 


1 
2 






s 

3 


1 


a 


■d 

•a 
, s 

= o. 


a 
■a 


21818 


1898. 

Jaa. 11 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.15 


2.50 


1.00 


.0002 


.0096 


.0096 


.0000 


.14 


.0090 


.0000 


.20 


1.0 


22808 


Apr. 12 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.11 


1.90 


0.65 


.0018 


.0272 .0240 


.0032 


.15 


.0010.0002 


.22 


0.8 


23796 


July 5 


Slight. 


V. slight 


.11 


2.50 


1.00 


.0042 


.0330.0278 


.0052 


.13 


.0010 


.0001 


.24 


0.5 


24905 


Oct. 4 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.10 


2.50 


1.25 


.0156 


.0536 .0190 


.0346 


.14 


.0020 


.0000 


.29 


0.8 


Av... 








^'> 1 


2.35 


0.97 i 


.0054 


.0308 .0201 


.0107 


.14 


.0032 


.0001 


.24 


0.8 



















Odor of the first three samples, none; of the last, distinctly musty, becoming also fishy on heating. 

The first sample was collected from a faucet at the dead end of a pipe line; the remaining samples 

were collected from the reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination. 

In the sample collected in April, 824 Dinobryon per cubic centimeter were found. An insignificant 
number of organisms was found in the remaining samples. 



Water Supply of Belmont. 

The town of Belmont, until Xov. 30, 1898, was supplied with 
water from the works of the town of Watertown, and analyses of 
the water may be found under "Watertown." Since Nov. 30, 
1898, water has been supplied from the Metropolitan Works, and 
anal3'ses of the water and descriptions of the sources of supply may 
be found under " Metropolitan Water District," pages 133 to 160 
of this volume. 

Water Supply of Beverly. 
(See Salem.) 



Water Supply of Billerica. 

Population in 1895, 2,577. The works are owned b}' the town, 
and water was introduced in January, 1899. The source of supply 
is a system of tubular wells on the west bank of the Concord River, 
about a mile above the village of North Billerica. The system con- 



172 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BILLERICA. 

sists of 35 four-inch wells, driven to depths ranging from 15 to 31 
feet, the average depth being 26 feet. The wells are arranged in 
five groups of seven wells each, and provision has been made for 
shutting ofl' any of the groups if it should be found desirable to do 
so. Water is pumped from the wells to the town and to a covered 
iron tank. Service pipes used are of wrought iron, lined with 
cement. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the town of Billerica, 
relative to a proposed water supply for that town to be taken from 
the ground on the west side of the Concord River, may be found on 
pages 6 to 8 of this volume. The results of chemical analyses of 
numerous samples of water collected in the course of two pumping 
tests, which were made to obtain information as to the quantity and 
quality of the water that might be obtained from the ground in this 
region, may be found on pages 108 to 111 of the annual report for 
the year 1897. 

The advice of the Board to the water commissioners of Billerica, 
relative to the use of lead service pipes in connection with the public 
water supply of that town, may be found on page 8 of this volume. 



BOXFORD. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Bald Pate Pond, Boxford, 

[PartB per 100,000] 





1 



a 
Q 


Appearance. 


Kksidde on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


6 

'u 



u 

.34 

.48 
.42 

.41 


Nitrogen 
as 


■d 

i 

s 

c 


1 

















§1 

DO 1— ( 

3 




Albuminoid. 


1 

2 






i 



2 
2 

s 




a 

"5 
OS 


1 


•a 

a 


•e 
3 c 


1 

OS 

a 


21967 
22307 
22613 


1898. 

JaD. 24 

Feb. 22 
Mar. 21 


Slight. 
Slight. 

V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 
V Blight. 

V. Blight. 


.11 
.11 

.30 


2.65 
2.85 
3.60 


0.65 

o.eo 

1.70 


.0014 
.0010 
.0034 


.0208 
.0156 
.0276 


.0196 
.0148 
.0254 

.0199 


.0012 
.0008 
.0022 


.0090 
.0070 
.0000 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.24 
.24 
.36 

.28 


1.1 
1.0 
1.7 


Av... 








.17 


3.03 


1.08 


.0019 


.0213 


.0014 


.0053 


.0000 


1.3 






1 





Odor of the second sample, none; of the others, faintly vegetable. The examinations of this 

pond were made with reference to its possible use as a source of water supply for the town of 
Georgetown. 



Water Supply of Boston. 

(See Metropolitan Water District.) 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATEK SUPPLIES. 



173 



BRAINTEEE. 



Watee Supply of Brainteee. 



The source of supply is a filter-gallery on the shore of Little Pond 
in South Braintree. Little Pond has an area of 62 acres when full, 
and a water-shed of 0.46 of a square mile, excluding the area of the 
pond. The water-shed of the pond contains a population of about 
1,100 per square mile, the larger portion of which is situated on 
that side of the pond on which the filter-gallery is located. The 
filter-gallery is 112 feet long and 15 feet wide, and is located very 
close to the high-water mark of the pond. At times it has been 
necessary to supplement the supply from the filter-gallery by 
drawing water directly from the pond. 



Chemical Examination of Watei' from the Filter-gallery of the Braintree Water 

Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appeabasce. 


a 
o 

3 > 

a 

a 


Ammonia. 


6 

c 

o 


NiTKOGEN 
AS 


•6 

s 

5 


s 




u 

s 

B 
s 
55 


2 


a 

05 


o 




2 
2 

< 


V 


1 


2 


21768 


1898. 

Jan. 5 1 


None. 


None. 


.04 


6.10 


.0020 


.0048 


0.97 


.0530 


.0000 


.10 


2.5 


.0020 


2'20o" 


Feb. 3 


None. 


None. 


.05 


5.30 


.0006 


.0054 


0.94 


.0380 


.0000 


.11 


2.2 


.0000 


22402 


Mar. 2 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.09 


4.90 


.0022 


.0104 


0.89 


.0380 


.0000 


.20 


1.8 


.0020 


22745 


Apr. 6 


None. 


None. 


.05 


4.80 


.0014 


.0050 i 


0.87 


.0520 


.0000 


.11 


1.8 


.0030 


23065 May 4 


None. 


None. 


.06 


5.30 


.0012 


.0040 


0.89 


.0670 


.0000 


.11 


2.0 


.0020 


23372 


June 1 


None. 


None. 


.09 


5.00 


.0004 


.0052 


0.81 


.0390 


.0000 


.17 


1.8 


.0030 


23817 


July 6 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.08 


4.30 


.0018 


.0058 


0.83 


.0160 


.0000 


.11 


2.5 


.0040 


24152 


Aug. 3 


V. slight. 


None. 


.05 


5.10 


.0022 


,0042 


0.81 


.0080 


.0000 


.10 


1.8 


.0060 


24534 


Sept. 6 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.19 


5.30 


.0010 


.0044 


0.81 


.0230 


.0001 


.14 


1.8 


.0350 


24911 


Oct. 5 


None. 


V. slight. 


.08 


4.50 


.0020 


.0048 


0.83 


.0050 


.0000 


.10 


1.8 


.0070 


25249 


Nov. 2 


None. 


None. 


.03 


5.30 


.0014 


.0040 


0.85 


.0240 


.0000 


.13 


2.0 


.0030 


25555 


Dec. 6 


None. 


None. 


.03 


6.80 


.0000 


.0014 


1.08 


.2160 


.0000 


.06 


2.1 


.0040 


Av... 


1898 






.07 


5.22 


.0013 


.0049 


0.88 


.0482 


.0000 


.12 


2.0 


.0059 








Av... 


1897 






.04 


5.20 


.0010 


.0058 


0.90 


.0287 


.0001 


.10 


2.0 


.0059 


1 







Note to analyses of 1898 : Odor of No. 22402, faintly vegetable; of the others, none. Nos. 22402, 

22745, 23065, 24911 and 25555 were collected from the filter-gallery, and the others from a faucet at the 
pumping station. 



174 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BRAINTREE. 

Chemical Ezammation of Water from Little Pond, Brahitree. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



























c 
o 




Appkarance. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


a 






o 


















3 

O 

c 














d 




Albuminoid. 








s 


8 




■S 
S 


1 


C 

o 


"3 


|s 




- 


i 
> 


■o 

1 c 




2 


X. 


1 


3 
















b 


o 
















'A 


fi 




H 


w 


O 


H 


[.:) 


fa 


e- 


- 


■tl 


o 


Z; 


z; 


O 


a 




1898 






























21767 


Jan. 


ii 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


.84 


4.30 


1.25 


.0026 


.0376 


.0334 


.0042 


1.05 


.0080 


.0000 


.51 


1.6 


22401 


Mar. 


2 


Slight 


Slight. 


.38 


4.15 


1.50 


.0026 


.0296 


.0254 


.0042 


0.69 


.0U70 


.0000 


.40 


1.0 


23064 


May 


4 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.31 


3.75 


1.40 


.0010 


.01S8 


.0174 


.0014 


0.7i) 


.0030 .0000 


.44 


1.0 


2:5816 


July 


fi 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


.29 


4.10 


1.70 


.0026 


.0260 


.0236 


.0024 


0.72 


.0010 .0000 


.47 


0.8 


24.5.33 


t^ept. 


6 


1 Blight. 


Cons. 


.25 


3.80 


1.65 


.0006 


.0250 


.0206 


.0044 


0.75 


.0020 .0001 


.51 


1.1 


25248 


Nov. 


2 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.23 


4.00 


1.50 


.0022 
.0019 


.0278 


.0264 
.0245 


.0014 


0.81 
0.79 


.0010 


.0000 
.0000 


.48 
.47 


1.0 


Ay... 








.80 


4.02 


1.50 


.0275 


.0030 


.0037 


1.1 






1 







Odor of No. 24533, faintly musty; of the others, vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. A fishy 
odor was developed in No. 22401 on heating. 



Water Supply of Bridgewater and East Bridgewater. — 
The Bridgewaters Water Company. 

Chemical Examinaiioti of Water from the Wells of the Bridgewaters Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


Appearance. 


§ 


Ajimonia. 


c 
'C 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 
B 

3 

c 

60 

>^ 

X 

o 


6 

S 




1 

3 
Zi 


it 

3 


a 

a 


u 

o 

O 


1 


o 
< 


'5 


i 

9* 


O 


22063 
22742 
23350 
24141 
24923 
25543 


1898. 

Feb. 3 

April 6 
June 1 
Aug. 8 
Oct. 5 
Dec. 6 


Slight. 
V. slight. 

Decided, 

milky. 
Slight, 

milky. 
Decided, 

milky. 
Slight, 

milky. 


Slight. 

Slight, 
floe. 

Cons., 
floe. 

Slight. 

Slight, 

Cons., 
whitefloc. 


.16 
.18 
.02 
.20 
.12 
.27 


8.20 
7.00 
7.50 
7.50 
7.10 
7.80 


.0008 
.0018 
.0008 
.0016 
.0002 
.0002 


.0010 
.0010 
.0004 
.0008 
.0008 
.0002 


.39 
.50 
.40 
.32 
.44 
.43 


.0000 
.0030 
.0050 
.0020 
.0060 
.0040 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.04 
.04 
.02 
.02 
•02 
.03 


8.3 

2.6 
2.5 
2.5 
2.2 

2.7 


.0400 
.05-50 
.0380 
.0980 
.0820 
.0550 


Av... 








.16 


7.52 


.0009 


.0007 


.41 


.0033 


.0000 


.03 


2.6 


.0613 













Odor, none. The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 175 

brockton. 

Water Supply of Brocktox. 

The source of supply is a storage reservoir on Salisbury Brook 
in the town of Avon. The reservoir has an area of 100 acres, a 
maximum depth of 19 feet and a capacity of about 325,000,000 gal- 
lons. Very little of the soil and organic matter was removed from 
the area flowed when the reservoir was constructed, and there is 
said to be but little shallow flowage except at the upper end of the 
reservoir, where a swampy area is flooded to a slight depth at high 
water. The reservoir has a water-shed of 3.24 square miles, which 
contains about 54 persons per square mile. There are considerable 
areas of swamp or meadow land on the water-shed. 

Much trouble was experienced by the occurrence of bad tastes 
and odors in the water soon after the reservoir was built, in 1880. 
The analyses indicate that the water has been of somewhat less 
objectionable quality since 1891 than in the four years during which 
examinations were made previous to that time. 

Analyses of samples of water from Silver Lake in Pembroke, 
which has been considered a possible source of supply for Brockton, 
may be found under "Pembroke" in this volume. 



Chemical Examination of Waterfront Salishicry Brook at its Entrance to the 

Storage Reservoir. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

_o 

o 
O 


Appearance. 


llKSIDDE ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 
as 


a 

a 
a 

6 






>^ 


^ 






B 
O 




Albuminoid. | 












•6 






^ 


o 


•3 


1 










. 


> 


■a 


.5 


S 








ti 








































































o 


o 




o 




3 c. 












!z; 


A 


H 


CO 


o 


H 


1-1 


^ 


E-( 


a 


m 


o 












1898. 




























21769 


Jan. 5 


V slight. 


V.slight. 


1.00 


5.35 


2.30 


.0012 


.0232 .0216 


.0016 


.68 


.0020 .00001 


0.86 


2.3 


22132 


Feb. 10 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


4.60 


2.00 


.0010 


.0246 


.0230 


.0016 


.47 


.0000 .oooo' 


0.86 


1.4 


22431 


Mar. 2 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


0.70 


3.10 


1.50 


.0004 


.0154 


.0142 


.0012 


.41 


.0000 .0000 


0.59 


0.5 


22753 


Aor. 6 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


0.91 


3.15 


1.70 


.0004 


.0174 


.0162 


.0012 


.40 


.0000 .0000 


0.74 


1.3 


23066' May 4 


V. slight 


V.slight. 


1.25 


3.35 


2.00 


.0004 


.0216 


.0198 .0018 


.34 


.00201.0000 


0.94 


0.5 


23370 June 1 


V. slight. 


V slight. 


2.30 


5.20 


3.25 


.0008 


.0422 


.0388 .0034 


.33 


.ooiol.oooo 


1.46 


0.8 


23812 July 6 


Decided. 


Cons. 


1.70 


6.35 


4.10 


.0052 


.0656 


.0566 .0090 


.46 


.0090 .0000 


1.66 


1.3 


24148 Aug. 2 


'V. slight. 


V.slight. 


2.35 


7.75 


4.85 


.0026 


.0602 


.05661.0036 


.34 


.0020 


.0000 


3.24 


1.3 


24542 Sept. 6 


V. Blight. 


V.slight. 


2.00 


8.50 


4.80 


.0052 


.0572 


.0544'. 0028 


.46 


.0020 


.0000 


2.08 


1.6 


24924 Oct. 5 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


1.12 


6.40 


3.40 


.0004 


.0338 


.0326;. 0012 


.44 


.0000 


.0001 


1.50 


1.1 


25250 Nov. 2 1 None. 


None. 


1.00 


5.25 


2.85 


.00061.0228 .0220'. 0008 


.44 


.0010 


.0000 


1.37 


1.3 


25547 


Dec. 6 


V. slight 


V.slight. 


0.66 


4.05 


1.70 


.0002 
.0015 


.0094 


.0088 


.0006 


.44 
.43 


.0000 


.0000 
.0000 


0.75 


0.6 


Av.. 








1.33 


5.25 


2.87 


.0328 


.0304 


.0024 


.0016 


1.34 


1.2 

















Odor, generally distinctly vegetable; in February and July, musty. 



171) 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BROCKTON. 

Chemical Examination 



of Water from Salisbury Brook Storage Reservoir. 

[Parts per 100,000 ] 





5 
p 


Appearance. 


Kesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


s 
E 

S 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

s 
o 

o 
a 
et 

X 

o 






2 
H 


.1 

OQ 


o 
o 


H 


c 
o 

T 


«3 


Albumhioid. 


5 


a 




u 

s 


1 


> 

5 


■6 

, c 
= p. 


1 


21770 


1898. 

Jau 5 


V. alight. 


Slight. 


.98 


4.45 


2.15 


.0024 


.0264 


.0238 


.0026 


.53 


.0060 


.0001 


0.80 


1.1 


22058 


Feb. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.90 


4.45 


2.20 


.0008 


.0220 


.0202 


.0018 


.50 


.0000 


.0000 


0.77 


1.6 


22432 


Mar. 2 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.50 


2.80 


1.30 


.0004 


.0126 


.0112 


.0014 


.35 


.0010 


.0000 


0.47 


0.5 


22754 


Apr. 6 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.61 


3.05 


1.45 


.0002 


.0190 


.0172 


.0018 


.39 


.0000 


.0000 


0.52 


1.4 


23067 


May 4 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.70 


3.40 


1.30 


.0006 


.0206 


.0172 


.0034 


.31 


.0000 


.0000 


0.57 


0.5 


23371 


June 1 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.88 


3.40 


1.65 


.0006 


.0262 


.0216 


.0046 


.35 


.0000 


.0000 


0.76 


0.5 


23S13 


July 6 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.80 


3.70 


2.20 


.0006 


.0256 


.0240 


.0016 


.33 


.0020 


.0000 


1.12 


0.5 


24149 


Aug. 2 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.62 


3.30 


1.90 


.0006 


.0266 


.0232 


.0034 


.32 


.0010 


.0000 


0.74 


0.8 


24543 


Sept. 6 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.80 


4.25 


2.35 


.0028 


.0330 


.0274 


.0056 


.35 


.0010 


.0000 


1.04 


0.8 


24925 


Oct. 5 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.55 


3.65 


2.10 


.0002 


.0284 


.0236 


.0048 


.32 


.0010 


.0000 


0.78 


0.8 


25251 


Nov. 2 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.70 


4.05 


2.15 


.0010 


.0266 


.0236 


.0030 


.36 


.0010 


.0000 


1.02 


1.1 


25548 


Dec. 6 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.74 


4.15 


2.35 


.0002 


.0170 


.0150 


.0020 


.38 


.0010 


.0000 


0.84 


0.5 



Averages by Yeai's, 



_ 


1888 


_ 


_ 


.76 


3.76 


1.61 


.0031 


.0369 


- 


- 


.31 


.0066 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


.78 


2.79 


1.01 


.0028 


.0306 


.0218 


.0088 


.30 


.0048 


.0002 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


.75 


4.07 


1.98 


.0016 


.0274 


.0219 


.0055 


.32 


.0003 


.0001 


- 


0.9 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


.62 


3.15 


1.45 


.0010 


.0213 


.0169 


.0044 


.28 


.0061 


.0001 


- 


0;6 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


.55 


3.41 


1.37 


.0004 


.0213 


.0168 


.0045 


.36 


.0030 


.0000 


- 


0.7 


- 


1893 


- 


. - ■ 


.67 


3.59 


1.70 


.0007 


.0237 


.0196 


.0041 


.40 


.0019 


.0001 


0.65 


0.7 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


.81 


3.71 


1.63 


.0012 


.0228 


.0188 


.0040 


.44 


.0021 


.0000 


0.66 


0.7 


. 


1895 


- 


- 


.80 


3.75 


1.86 


.0009 


.0263 


.0224 


.0039 


.43 


.0018 


.0000 


0.74 


0.9 


- 


1896 


- 


- 


.64 


3.59 


1.55 


.0007 


.0224 


.0186 


.0038 


.38 


.0022 


.0000 


0.66 


0.6 


- 


1897 


- 


- 


.85 


3.80 


1.72 


.0011 


.0236 


.0195 


.0041 


.44 


.0020 


.0000 


0.75 


0.8 


- 


1898 


- 


- 


.73 


3.72 


1.92 


.0009 


.0237 


.0207 


.0030 


.37 


.0012 


.0000 


0.79 


0.8 



Note to analyses of 1898: Odor, generally vegetable; In February and July, musty. A fishy odor 

was developed in the last sample on heating. The samples were collected from the reservoir, near the 

gutc-bouae, 1 foot beneath the surface. 



1^0. 34.] EXA]^^NATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 177 

BROCKTON. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Salisbury Brook Storage Reservoir. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Apr. 



May. 



July 



Aug, 



Sept. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 



21770 



22432 



7 
22754 



5 

2306'/ 



23371 



7 4 
23813 24149 



7 
24543 



24925 



3 

25251 



7 
25547 



PLANTS. 
Diatomacese, 



Asterionella, 
Melosira, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 



Cy anophycese, Merismopcedia, 
Algse, 



164 



54 



261 

37 

9 

18 

196 



3,556 

1,184 



2,340 


16 



4,084 

3,712 


4 
368 

12 

14 



1,420 4,818 



1,328 

11 
79 



4,288 



332 

198 



1,022 

294 
118 
142 
468 



ANIMALS. 
Rhizopoda, . 



Infusoria, 

Dinobryon, 
Peridinium, 



Verraes, 



Crustacea, 

Cyclops, 
Daphnia, 



pr. 



25 



pr. 



pr 



Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, 



3 7 



Total, 



259 240 



128 164 277 



3,593 



4,161 



1,438 



4,847 



1,087 



AVater Supply of Brookline. 

The original source of supply is a filter-gallery located on the 
right bank of the Charles Eiver at West Roxbury, the bottom of 
the gallery being about 6 feet below the level of low water in the 
river. The total length of the gallery is 1,142 feet, its width being 
from 4 to 6 feet. 

Water is also taken from a system of tubular wells driven on 
both sides of the river in the vicinity of the pumping station. One 
hundred and seventy-eight wells, 2| inches in diameter, have been 



178 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BROOKI.INE. 

driven to depths of from 35 to 95 feet. The wells are driven in 
lines radiating from a main line which crosses the river, the total 
length of the lines being 6,620 feet. 

Until 1893 water was pumped from the wells and the filter- 
gallery to an open distributing reservoir. The water as it came 
from the wells was colorless and odorless, but after being stored in 
the open reservoir large numbers of organisms appeared in the 
water, giving it a disagreeable taste and odor. In 1893 a new 
masonry reservoir was constructed, covered in such a manner as to 
exclude the light, and since that time the water has been entirely 
free from tastes and odors. 

The analyses of samples of water collected from the river 
opposite the wells and filter-gallery may be found in the chapter 
on the "Examination of Rivers," in a subsequent portion of this 
report. 

Chemical Examination of Water from a Faucet at the Low-service Pumping 
Station of the Brookline Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







Appearance. 


s > 


Ammonia. 


c 


NiTKOGEN 

AS 


a 

3 

c 
_ o 

go 


1 




c 

o 

a 

s 


3 

a 


1 

■S 


o 




IS 

'3 
s 


s 


ti 


§ 


izi 


Q 


Eh 


M 


O 


a 


Eh 


<. 


O 


!z 


•A 


o 


03 


" 




1898. 


























21877 


Jan. 17 


None. 


None. 


.05 


9.20 


.0020 


.0036 


.60 


.03.50 


.0000 


.10 


4.6 


.0010 


22211 


Feb. 14 


None. 


None. 


.04 


9.60 


.0010 


.0036 


.60 


.0280 


.0000 


.08 


5.1 


.0010 


22544 


Mar. 14 


V. slight. 


None. 


.07 


8.00 


.0012 


.0044 


.52 


.0280 


.0000 


.14 


3.6 


.0040 


22902 


Apr. 18 


None. 


None. 


.05 


8.70 


,.0010 


.0030 


.55 


.0330 


.0000 


.12 


4.2 


.0020 


23173 


May 16 


v. Blight. 


None. 


.08 


8.60 


.0010 


.0046 


.56 


.0350 


.0000 


.12 


4.0 


.0030 


23524 


June 13 


None. 


None. 


.09 


8.20 


1.0014 


.0052 


.52 


.0260 


.0000 


.16 


4.2 


.0030 


23948 


July 19 


None. 


None. 


.10 


8.80 


.0014 


.0052 


.52 


.0320 


.0002 


.17 


4.4 


.0070 


24303 


Aug. 15 


v. Blight. 


None. 


.10 


8.90 


.0016 


.0058 


.54 


.0260 


.0002 


.15 


4.4 


.0050 


24692 


Sept. 19 


None. 


None. 


.08 


9.40 


.OOOS 


.0028 


.55 


.0370 


.0001 


.12 


4.2 


.0040 


25050 


Oct. 17 


None. 


None. 


.06 


9.30 


,.0012 


.0036 


.61 


.0380 


.0001 


.12 


4.9 


.0030 


25376 


Nov. 14 


None. 


None. 


.04 


9.10 


.0016 


.0034 


.57 


.0360 


.0001 


.11 


4.4 


.0040 


25604 


Dec. 12 


v. slight. 


None. 


.10 


8.40 


.0006 


.0036 


.54 


.0300 


.0001 


.13 


3.9 
4.3 


.0020 


Av... 






.07 


8.85 


.0012 


.0041 


.56 


i.0321 


.0001 


.13 


.0032 











Odor, none. 



Water Supply of Cambridge. 

The sources of supply are Fresh Pond in Cambridge and Stony 

Brook in Waltham and Weston. Fresh Pond, the original source 

of supply, is a natural pond, having an area of 165 acres and a 

maximum depth of 46 feet. The pond is now used principally as 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



179 



CAMBRIDGE. 

a receiving and storage reservoir for the water from Stony Brook, 
which flows to the pond by gravity. 

The water of Stony Brook is taken from a storage reservoir on the 
stream at the boundary line between AYaltham and Weston. The 
storage reservoir has a capacity of 354,000,000 gallons, an area of 
72 acres and an average depth of 15 feet. The area of its water-shed 
is 22.9 square miles, exclusive of the water-shed of Sandy Pond in 
Lincoln, the water of which is practically all taken for the supply 
of the towns of Concord and Lincoln. The water-shed contains a 
population of about 107 persons per square mile. In 1897 two large 
storage reservoirs were constructed on Hobbs Brook in Waltham, 
one of the tributaries of Stony Brook. The upper of these reser- 
voirs has an area of 92 acres, a maximum depth of 15 feet and a 
storage capacity of 240,000,000 gallons. The lower reservoir has 
an area of 467 acres, a maximum depth of 26 feet and a storage 
capacity of 1,450,000,000 gallons. Water from these reservoirs 
flows through the natural bed of the brook to the Stony Brook 
Reservoir, a distance of about 3 miles. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Fresh Pond, Cajnbridge. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 















Kesidce on 














s 




Appeabance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


■0 






1 










tion. 








3 
1 














c 




Albuminoid. 






^ 


o 




K^ 


t: 












•d 




<u 




m 


a 


o 




3 

u 

a 


S 

■a 


o 

o 


■3 









S 


> 


s 0. 


_o 


2 


B 


c 

60 


0) 

c 
■0 

05 








=r* 


w 


O 


H 


1-9 


fa 


H 


Q 


X 





Zi 


i^ 





X 




1898 






























21748 


Jan. 


4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.39 


7.40 


2.15 


.0112 


.0246 


.0232 


.0014 


.68 


.0280 .0009 


.45 


a. a 


22042 


Feb. 


1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.45 


7.15 


2.50 


.0072 


.0238 


.0212 .0026 


.69 


.0320 .0004 


.62 


3.6 


22389 


Mar. 


1 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.44 


8.15 


2.05 


.0006J. 0212,. 0190i. 0022 


.65 


.0450 .0001 


.46 


3.1 


22726 


Apr. 


5 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.36 


6.90 


2.10 


.OOri^.0262 


.0172 .0090 


.61 


.0480 .0003 


.40 


3.4 


23042 


May 


8 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.31 


7.00 


1.95 


.0020 .0246 


.0174 .0072 


.66 


.0450.0002 


.41 


3.3 


23375 


June 


1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.41 


6.70 


1.95 


.0052;. 0230 


.0172,. 0058 


.63 


.0390 .0004 


.47 


2.9 


23787 


July 


1 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.29 


6.95 


2.70 


.0072 


.0212 


.0178;. 0034 


.60 


.0290,. 0006 


.40 


3.3 


24140 


Aug. 


2 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.23 


6.60 


2.00 


.0016 


.0252 


.O178i.O074 


.50 


. 0300 1. 0005 


..39 


2.9 


24547 


Sept. 


6 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


6.55 


2.50 


.0032 


.0208 


.0182!. 0026 


.57 


.0:^70.0015 


..50 


3.0 


24908 


Oct. 


4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.30 


6.80 


2.65 


.0022 


.0240 


.0194!. 0046 


..54 


.0180 .0006 


.50 


2.9 


25234 


Nov. 


1 


V slight. 


Slight. 


.36 


7.10 


2.05 


.02361.0222 


.0188!. 0034 


..V2 


.0190 .0007 


.48 


3.3 


25539 


Dec. 


6 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.38 


7.55 


2.60 


.0182 


.0212 


.0168 


.0044 


.61 
.60 


.0240 .0014 


.48 
.46 


3..0 


Av... 






.35 


7.07 


2.27 


.0069 


.0232 


.0187 


.0045 


3.2 













Odor, generally faintly vegetable, sometimes musty, becoming stronger on heating. The samples 

■were collected from the pump well at the pumping station. 



180 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc, 



CAMBRIDGE. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Fresh Pond, Cambridge. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Apr. 



May 



July 



Aug. 



Sept, 



Oct. 



Dec. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 



4 
21748 



2 

22389 



4 
23042 



2 

23375 



5 

23787 



4 
24140 



7 
24547 



4 
24908 



2 
25234 



25539 



PLANTS. 
Diatomacese, 



Asterionella, 
Cyclotella, . 
Fragilaria, . 
Melosira, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 



Cyanophycese, 



Anabaena, 
AphanizomenoD, . 
Coelosphserium, . 
Microcystis, . 



Algae, 

Staurastrum, 



692 

164 

204 

16 

62 



1,070 1,418 

184 110 

124 94 



744 1,200 



412 





24 

64 

140 



182 
144 



408 

96 

78 
62 
58 
2 
112 



24 



234 



2,840 

1,320 
80 

72 

1,044 

18 

304 



ANIMALS. 



Infusoria, 



Cryptomonas, 

Mallomonas, 

Trachelomonas, 



Vermes, 



Crustacea, 

Cyclops, 
Daphnia, 



14 



43 



pr. 
pr. 



pr. 



Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 



TOTAl, 



886 



654 



1,120 



1,533 



414 



2,864 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



181 



CAIVIBRIDGE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Stony Brook Storage Reservoir, Waltham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Residue on 














c 


Appeabanck. 


EVAPOEA- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


■a 






o 






TION. 








3 














c 




Albuminoid. 










O 


>f 








.9 






•d 


•6 


c3 






o 


oS 


1 

B 

3 


o 


■a 
.a 

3 


a 

■3 


o 


"5 


° 3) 


fc. 


■s 




, c 

3 O. 


S 


1 


U 




C 

•2 


5z! 


C 


Eh 


w 


O 


H 


^ 


1^ 


E-i 


Q 


03 


O 


t2; 


!2i 


o 


a 




1898. 




























21752 


Jan. 4 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.56 


6.45 


2.30 


.0022 


.0172 


.0156 


.0016 


.60 


.0430 


,0001 


0,60 


2.6 


22043 


Feb. 2 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.60 


5.50 


2.45 


.0026 


.0190 


.0176 


.0014 


.52 


,0320 


.0001 


0.58 


2.3 


22395 


Mar. 1 


Slight, 


V. Blight. 


0.59 


4.50 


1.65 


.0022 


.0212 


.0202, 


.0010 


.34 


,0230 


,0000 


0.50 


1.7 


22724 


Apr. 5 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.68 


4.65 


1.95 


.0008 


.0188 


.0172 


.0016 


.46 


.0280 


,0002 


0.36 


2.2 


23039 


May 3 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.84 


4.85 


1.85 


.0004 


.0226 


.0208 


.0018 


.42 


.0130 


,0002 


0.66 


1.8 


23339 


June 1 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.03 


5.65 


2.65 


.0010 


.0292 


.0254 


.0038 


,44 


.0120 


,0002 


0.86 


2.1 


23786 


July 5 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.60 


5.75 


2.75 


.0010 


.0258 


.0234 


.0024 


.50 


.0120 


,0003 


0.66 


2,0 


24145 


Aug. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.50 


5.45 


2.20 


.0018 


.0254 


.0196 


.0058 


.36 


.0080 


.0003 


0.60 


2,2 


24525 


Sept. 6 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.97 


7.15 


3.55 


.0016 


.0396 


.0356 


.0040 


.45 


,0070 


.0003 


1.20 


2,1 


24904 


Oct. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.70 


6.00 


2.60 


.0010 


.0310 


.0278 


.0032 


.44 


,0120 


.0004 


0.43 


2,2 


25222 


Nov. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.70 


6.40 


2.60 


.0014 


.0274 


.0246 


.0028 


.50 


,0050 


.0001 


0.94 


2,2 


25531 


Dec. 5 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.48 


5.65 


2.25 


.0004 
.0014 


.0178 
.0246 


.0156 


.0022 
,0026 


.44 
,46 


.0230 
,0182 


.0000 


0.59 


2,2 


Av.. 








0.69 


5.67 


2.40 


.0220 


,0002 


0.66 


2,1 











Odor, vegetable, and sometimes musty, becoming somewhat stronger on heating.- 
were collected from the reservoir, near the surface, at the dam. 



-The samples 



Chemical Examination of Water from Eobbs Brook, at Winter Street, Waltham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Residde on 














s 


Appeabance. 




Evapoka- 


Ammonia, 




NiTEOGEH 


•o 






"% 






TION. 








y 

3 

C 
O 

O 














a 




Albuminoid. 










o 


>. 


-s 












■6 


•d 








i 


a 


o 


3 
2 


1 

■a 


o 


a 


fes 




t 


> 
o 




c 

"Eh 
O 


2 


S 


1 


a 


































Jz; 


a 


£h 


00 


O 


H 


a 


fc( H 


O 


CO 


o 


!2i 


Jz; 


o 


m 




1898. 




























21780 


Jan. 6 


Decided. 


Slight. 


,51 


9,15 


2.80 


,0034 


.0270 


.0230 


.0040 


.60 


.0280 


.0000 


.58 


4.0 



Odor, faintly vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. 



182 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CANTON. 

Water Supply of Canton. 

The sources of supply are wells situated in the valley of Beaver 
Brook. The first well, which is located near a brook at Spring- 
dale not far from the boundary line between Canton and Stoughton, 
is about 40 feet in diameter. Near this well are several tubular 
wells which are also connected with the pumps. 

The second well is located in the valley of the brook about 9,000 
feet above the well at Springdale, and is connected with it by a 
cast-iron pipe, through which the water flows by gravity. This 
well is 40 feet in diameter and 23 feet deep, sunk through quick- 
sand into a gravel stratum. Provision has been made for collecting 
water from the ground in the vicinity of the brook between the 
two wells whenever it is found necessary. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Wells oj the Canton Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 









Appbarance. 






Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•a 






















a 








o 


























1 


"3 


1 


1 

•3 


o 


s > 




IS 
g 


c 
o 


1 


'C 


a 


IB 

■a 
a 


e 

o 


^ 


a 


H 


a; 


O 


« 


C 


< 


O 


'A 


!zi 


o 


n 


- 




1898. 


























24579 


Sept. 8 


None. 


None. 


.00 


4.50 


.0000 


.0002 


.34 


.0120 


.0000 


.03 


1.0 


.0070 


25447 


Nov. 21 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.10 


5.00 


.0000 


.0036 


.42 


.0170 


.0000 


.10 


1.7 


.0150 



Odor, none. The first sample was collected from the well at Springdale, and the last from the 

well at Henry Spring. 

Water Supply of Chelsea. 
(See Metropolitan Water District, pages 133-160.) 



Water Supply of Cheshire. — Cheshire Water Company. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the Cheshire Water 
Company, relative to a proposed additional water supply to be taken 
from Kitchen Brook in that town, may be found on page 9 of this 
volume. The results of the analyses of samples of water frorn 
Kitchen Brook, the proposed source of supply, and from the pres- 
ent source of supply, which is a small reservoir on Thunder Brook, 
a tributary of Kitchen Brook, are given in the following tables. 
Both sources are mountain streams, and there are very few inhabi- 
tants on their water-sheds. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 183 

CHESHIKE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Beservoir of the Cheshire Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 
o 


Appearance. 


c 
.2 

u si 
3 > 


Ammonia. 




a 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

a 

a 

3 

ttl 
(^ 

X 




c 
a 




s 


Turbidity. 


1 

•5 

or. 


c 

o 
o 


fa 


c 
< 


00 

1 


*!.« 

§ 


£ 


22007 


1898. 
Jan. 26 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.04 


3.00 


.0004 


.0036 


.08 


.0130 


.0000 


.06 


2.3 


.0030 


22623 


Mar. 22 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.07 


2.60 


.0000 


.0026 


.06 


.0070 


.0000 


.14 


2.3 


.0050 


22689 


Mar. 29 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.05 


2.40 


.0000 


.0032 


.04 


.0180 


.0000 


.10 


1.8 


- 


23285 


May 24 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.09 


2.85 


.0006 


.0086 


.05 


.0030 


.0000 


.14 


2.1 


- 


24057 


July 26 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.08 


5.35 


.0006 


.0056 


.07 


.0040 


.0000 


.20 


3.0 


- 


24802 


Sept. 27 


None. 


V. Blight. 


.08 


6.15 


.0000 


.0038 


.07 


.0060 


.0000 


.07 


3.3 


- 


25443 


Nov. 21 


None. 


V. Blight. 


.05 


3.15 


.0000 


,0032 


.06 


.0050 


.0001 


.04 


2.1 


- 


Av.*. 








.07 


3.67 


.0003 


.0046 


.06 


.0072 


.0000 


.10 


2.5 


.0040 













* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that mouth has been 
used in making the average. 

Odor, none. A faintly musty odor was developed in the July sample on heating. Nos. 22007 

and 22623 were collected from a faucet supplied from the reservoir, and the others from the reservoir. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Kitchen Brook in Cheshire. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
_o 




Appearance. 

1 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ajimonia. 


a 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

i 

3 

a 



c 

bo 






■3 


i 


1 




s 

.2 




Albuminoid. 








1 




•a 
> 


■a 


a 


a 


























































K 


































"A 


Q 


H 


cc 


u 


H 


1-9 


fa 


H 


Q 


00 















1898. 




























22688 


Mar. 29 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.05 


2.90 


0.55 


.0000 


.0024 


.0022 


.0002 


.05 


.0130 


.0000 


.10 


2.1 



Odor, none. The sample was collected from Kitchen Brook, just above the old dam and a little 

below the probable place of diversion. 



Water Supply of Chester. 

The source of supply is Austin Brook, a mountain stream on 
which a small reservoir is built. The water-shed, of about 1.25 
square miles, is said to contain but one dwelling-house. 



184 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CHESTER. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Austin Brook Reservoir. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





d 


APPEAEA^"CE. 




Residue on 
Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




NiTKOGEN 


•d 






"3 
o 

o 








tion. 




*n 




9 
C 

o 






•5 


g 






5 

OS) 




Albuminoid. 




1 






. 


•a 

> 


•6 

•o 


s 


a 
1 
































at 

a 


E^ 


■a 


o 


o 


3 


Pi^ 


o 


o 




x 
o 


» 


g 


o 






1898. 


























24583 


Sept. 8 


None. 


None. 


.14 


3.45 1.20 


.0002 


.0062 


.0060 


.0002 


.11 

i 


.0020 


.0001 


.26 


1.4 



Odor, none. 

Water Supply or Chicopee. 

The principal sources of supply are Cooley Brook and Morton 
Brook, the waters of which are taken from small reservoirs near 
their confluence. Cooley Brook is a tributary of the Chicopee 
River from the north, and a large part of its course is through a 
ravine in a great sandy plain. It is fed largely by springs. Morton 
Brook is a small tributary of Cooley Brook, with a similar water- 
shed. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Cooley Brook Reservoir, Chicopee. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 

o 

"3 
o 

o 
1 


Appkakance. 


Kesidue ok 
Evapoba- 

TIOM. 


Ammonia. 


s 
1 
O 

.13 
.13 
.12 
.12 

.12 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■d 

a 

s 

c 
o 
c 

e<g 
>. 

o 






a 
H 


1 


U 

o 

6 


1 


c 
f 




Albuminoid. 


1 


'b 

S 




s. 

a 

1 


o 

Eh 


> 
o 

5 


■d 

1 g 

03 


c 

<3 


21980 
22983 
24040 
25133 


1898. 

Jan. 24 

Apr.26 
July 25 
Oct. 24 


Slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 
V. slight. 


Cons. 
Cons. 
Cons. 
V. slight. 


1.10 
1.30 
0.35 
1.05 

0.95 


4.20 
4.20 

4.05 
4.60 


1.70 
1.95 
1.45 
2.30 


.0004 
.0008 
.0038 
.0002 


.0176 
.0156 
.0172 
.0152 

.0164 


.0132 
.0134 
.0078 
.0136 


.0044 
.0022 
.0094 
.0016 


.0070 
.0030 
.0030 
.0020 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


0.82 
0.90 
0.30 
1.08 


1.0 
0.6 
1.3 

0.8 


Av.. 








4.26 


1.85 


.0013 


.0120 


.0044 


.0037 


0.77 


0.9 













Odor in January and April, vegetable ; in July and October, none, becoming faintly rausty or earthy 
on heating. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



185 



CHICOPEE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Morton Brook Reservoir, Chicopee. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





O 

o 
O 

o 
O 


Appeakance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammoma. 


1 
o 

.15 
.16 
.12 
.14 

.14 


NiTEOGBN 
AS 


1 

a 

1 
1 

o 






2 
3 

EH 


1 

•3 

02 


o 
o 


1 


1 
I 


1 


Albuminoid. 


03 


to 

1 




1 

3 


"3 
o 
H 


•a 
"3 

s 


-a 

a a 

OD 


n 


21981 
22982 
24041 
25134 


1898. 

Jan. 24 

Apr.26 
July 25 
Oct. 24 


V. slight. 
Slight. 
V. Blight. 
None. 


Cons., 

earthy. 
V. Blight. 

V. slight, 

sandy. 

V. Blight. 


0.07 
0.06 
0.07 
0.07 


3.36 
3.55 
3.80 
3.40 

3.52 


0.85 
0.90 
1.10 
0.90 


.0006 
.0006 
.0002 
.0000 


.0062 
.0042 
.0024 
.0026 

.0038 


.0030 
.0040 
.0018 
.0022 


.0032 
.0002 
.0006 
.0004 

.0011 


.0080 
.0180 
.0040 
.0020 


.0000 
.0000 
.0002 
.0002 

.0001 


.14 
.10 
.07 
.08 


0.8 
0.8 
0.6 
0.8 


Av . 








0.07 


0.94 


.0003 


.0027 


.0080 


.10 


0.7 













Odor, none. 



Water Supply of Clinton and Lancaster. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Faucets supplied from the Clinton Water 

Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 

o 


Kesiddk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


9J 

o 
.18 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■d 

a 

3 
C 

5 

1 
o 






"3 


o 

§1 

3 


1 


Albuminoid. 


1 


iS 








> 
o 

5 


•a 

•o 
, c 

3 P. 


•3 

si 


Average of three samples collected in 
January, May and September, 1898. 


.14 


3.50 


0.98 


.0007 


.0089 .0081 


.0008 


.0073 


.0000 


.21 


1.5 



Odor, none. 



186 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



cohasset. 

Water Supply of Cohasset. 



CoHASSET Water Company. 



The advice of the State Board of Health to the Cohasset Water 
Company, relative to a proposed additional supply of water for that 
town, to be taken from tubular wells in the Ellms Meadow, situated 
a short distance south of the main village, may be found on pages 
9 and 10 of this volume. 

The original source of supply is a system of tubular wells in low 
ground west of the main village, which has been in use since 1886. 
Works for obtaining water from wells in the Ellms Meadow were 
constructed in the spring of 1898, and water from this source was 
used, in part, during the drier portion of the year, for the supply 
of the town. The results of analyses of samples of water col- 
lected from this source and from the system of tubular wells 
which is the original source of supply are given in the following 
tables : — 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Tubular Wells of the Cohasset Water 
Company, situated West of the Main Village. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





s 
o 

"o 

Q 


Appearance. 


o 
= 1 

3 > 

1 


Ammonia. 


a 
o 

o 


NITEOGEN 

AS 


•6 

a 

a 
c 

1" 


c 




u 

a 

9 


S 


'c 

1 
•S 

30 


o 
o 




2 
"o 

a 

< 


V 


^ 

S 


a 
2 


22045 
23848 
24197 
24609 
24809 
25283 
25556 


1898. 

Feb. 3 

July 12 
Aug. 8 
Sept. 13 
Sept. 27 
Nov. 7 
Dec. e 


Decided. 

Distinct, 
milky. 

Slight, 
milky. 

Slight. 

Slight, 
milky. 

Slight, 
clayey. 

V. slight. 


V. slight. 

None. 

None. 

V. slight. 

None. 

V. slight, 

clayey. 

V. slight. 


.05 
.08 
.10 
.07 
.07 
.08 
.06 

.07 


15.60 
13.70 
14.40 
13.20 
13.70 
15.20 
13.50 


.0008 
.0008 
.0004 
.0006 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.0026 
.0030 
.0018 
.0026 
.0008 
.0014 
.0010 


1.90 
1.75 
1.70 
1.81 
1.72 
1.71 
1.66 


.0350 
.0180 
.0170 
.0280 
.0110 
.0270 
.0240 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.02 
.03 
.02 
.06 
.06 
.01 
.04 


7.6 
6.0 
6.1 
5.7 
5.9 
6.0 
6.6 


.0080 
.0170 
.0380 
.0300 
.0320 
.0130 
.0100 


Av.*. 








14.31 


.0004 


.0019 


1.75 


.0234 


.0000 


.03 


6.3 


.0195 













* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has been 
used in making the average. 

Odor, none. The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station, and represent 

water from the original source of supply. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



187 



COHASSET. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Tubular Wells of the Cohassei Water 
Company in Ellms Meadow. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

1 

Q 


Appearance. 


5 


Ammonia. 


1 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


a 
o 


ID 

c 

"S 

cS 

SB 




1-^ 

1 


•a 
S 


4J 

■a 

CO 


o 
o 




2 
c 

< 


1 


'(-. 

g 


c 
o 
u 


22746 


1898. 

Apr. 6 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.02 


9.00 


.0002 


.0008 


1.04 


.0150 


.0000 


.02 


3.6 


.0040 


23434 


June 7 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.00 


10.20 


.0002 


.0006 


1.09 


.0130 


.0000 


.05 


3.6 


.0050 


23729 


June 28 


None. 


None. 


.02 


10.80 


.0002 


.0006 


1.34 


.0460 


.0000 


.02 


3.8 


.0010 


23818 


July 6 


None. 


None. 


.00 


10.20 


.0000 


.0010 


1.34 


.0490 


.0000 


.02 


3.6 


.0010 


23849 


July 12 


None. 


None. 


.03 


9.90 


.0000 


.0016 


1.13 


.0190 


.0000 


.02 


3.5 


.0030 


24049 


July 26 


None. 


None. 


.04 


10.10 


.0000 


.0004 


1.33 


.0430 


.0000 


.02 


3.8 


.0010 


24380 


Aug. 22 


None. 


None. 


.01 


9.30 


.0000 


.0004 


1.10 


.0200 


.0000 


.01 


3.4 


.0030 


24554 


Sept. 7 


None. 


None. 


.02 


9.00 


.0000 


.0002 


1.08 


.0220 


.0000 


.02 


3.1 


.0110 


24810 


Sept. 27 


None. 


None. 


.01 


9.10 


.0000 


.0000 


1.07 


.0110 


.0000 


.02 


3.3 


.0030 


24980 


Oct. 11 


None. 


None. 


.01 


11.10 


.0000 


.0012 


1.51 


.0700 


.0000 


.02 


4.2 


.0040 


Av.*. 








.01 


9.84 


.0001 


.0007 


1.20 


.0313 


.0000 


.02 


3.6 


.0038 













* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has heen 
need In making the average. 

Odor of No. 24810, faintly musty, becoming faintly unpleasant on heating; of the others, none. 

The samples were collected from a faucet in the pumping station at Ellms Meadow, and represent the 
new source of supply. 



Water Supply or Concord and Lincoln. 

The source of supply is Sandy Pond, in Lincoln, which has an 
area of 150 acres and a water-shed of 0.58 of a square mile, in- 
cluding the area of the pond. The storage capacity of the pond is 
very large in comparison to the size of the water-shed, and the 
quantity of water drawn from it is so great that there is seldom any 
water flowing away from the pond through its outlet. 



188 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pu)>. Doc. 



CONCORD AND LINCOLN. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Sandy Pond, Lincoln. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

t! 

o 
o 

Q 


Appkakance. 


Residue on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


1 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

1 

s 
o 

o 
c 

X 

o 






3 

H 


1 
■a 


o 
"3 
o 


s 

g 


o 

r 


fa 


Albuminoid. 


1 






a 

s 


o 


> 
1 

5 


"d 

•a 

I c 

= p. 


1 




1898. 












! 
i 














21786 


Jan. 10 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.05 


2.60 


1.00 


.0004 .0124 


.0120 


.0004 


.35 


.0030 


.0000 


.14 


1.1 


22081 


Feb. 7 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.08 


2.65 


0.90 


.0004 .0104 


.0086 


.0018 


.32 


.0030 


.0000 


.19 


1.1 


22466 


Mar. 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.13 


2.60 


1.00 


.0004 


.0108 


.0098 


.0010 


.30 


.0010 


.0000 


.22 


0.8 


22788 


Apr. 10 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.09 


2.25 


1.00 


.0000 


.0064 


.0052 


.0012 


.27 


.0020 


.0000 


.18 


1.0 


23080 


May 9 


V. slight. 


v. slight. 


.08 


2.75 


1.05 


.0004 


.0104 


.0100 


.0004 


.30 


.0020 


.0000 


.18 


0.8 


23826 


July 10 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.10 


3.00 


0.45 


.0004 


.0156 


.0130 


.0026 


.30 


.0020 


.0000 


.16 


0.8 


24588 


Sept. 12 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.09 


2.60 


1.05 


.0006 


.0114 


.0104 


.0010 


.26 


.0010 


.0000 


.29 


1.1 


24958 


Oct. 11 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.10 


2.55 


1.15 


.0000 


.0108 


.0096 


.0012 


.28 


.0010 


.0000 


.18 


0.6 


25271 


Nov. 7 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.11 


2.75 


1.25 


.0000 


.0112 


.0104 


.0008 


.26 


.0010 


.0000 


.18 


0.8 


25532 


Dec. 5 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.15 


2.40 


1.10 


.0002 


.0096 


.0090 
.0098 


.0006 


.27 
.29 


.0010 


.0000 


.19 
.19 


1.0 


Av... 








.10 


2.61 


0.99 


.0003 


.0109 


.0011 


.0017 


.0000 


0.9 











Odor, faintly vegetable or none. A faintly vegetable odor was developed in moBt of the samples on 
heating. The samples were collected from a faucet in the town of Concord. 



Chemical Examination of Water from an Artificial Ice Pond in Concord. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





"S 

o 
O 

o 
« 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


1 


NITROGE^f 

AS 


■d 

a 

3 

i 

o 

c 

o 






•5 
.a 


1 


o 
o 
O 


3 
& 


<= bo 

o 


6 

fa 


Albuminoid. 


1 






1 
a 

a 
•A 




•o 
> 
o 

5 


■d 

•o 
, c 

3 P. 


a 
■a 

03 

n 




1898. 




























25651 


Dec. 16 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.60 


4.40 


1.65 


.0008 .0162 


.0148 


.0014 


.25 


.0000 


.0000 


.75 


1.1 



Odor, none, becoming faintly unpleasant on heating. The sample was collected from an artifl. 

cial pond formed by the construction of a small dam on a brook which crosses the road from Concord 
Junction to East Acton, just east of the line between the towns of Concord and Acton. The advice of 
the State Board of Health to Freeman W. Uobbins of Acton, relative to the use of the water of this pond 
as a source of ice supply, may be found on pages 123 and 124 of this volume. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 189 



COTTAGE CITY. 

Water Supply of Cottage City. — Cottage City Water 

Company. 

Water is obtained by a system of collecting pipes, which collect 
the water flowing from springs near the head of Lagoon Pond and 
convey it to a pump well from which the water is pumped for the 
supply of the town. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Springs oj the Cottage City Water 

Comimny. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 


Appearance. 


03 Residue on 

Jd Evaporation. 

o 


AMMONIA. 


s 

o 
1.02 


Nitrogen 

AS 


i 

3 

o 


s 

a 

as 




»4 

a 

3 


s 
H 


1 
•3 


u 

o 
o 




o 

< 


1 
2 

2 




a 
2 


22324 


1898. 

Feb. 22 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.07 


.0004 


.0010 


.0170 


.0000 


.02 


0.5 


.0110 


22877 


Apr. 18 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.01 


4.20 


.0002 


.0008 


0.98 


.0120 


.0001 


.01 


0.6 


.0030 


23708 


June 27 


None. 


V. slight. 


.00 


4.70 


.0000 


.0012 


1.00 


.0150 


.0000 


.02 


0.5 


.0030 


24436 


Aug. 24 


None. 


None. 


.04 


3.80 


.0004 


.0020 


0.96 


.0090 


.0000 


.02 


0.7 


.0110 


25232 


Nov. 1 


None. 


None. 


.02 


4.00 


.0004 


.0010 


0.93 


.0110 


.0000 


.04 


0.5 


.0030 


25807 


Dec. 29 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.01 


4.40 


.0000 


.0004 


0.99 


.0110 


.0000 


.02 


0.6 


.0080 


Av 








.02 


4.17 


.0002 


.0011 


0.98 


.0125 


.0000 


.02 


0.6 


.0065 













Odor, none. Nos. 22877 and 25232 were collected from the spring, and the others from a faucet at 

the pumping station. 

Water Supply of Dalton Fire District, Dalton. 
The source of supply is Egypt Brook, a mountain stream, on 
which two small reservoirs have been built. 

Chemical Examination of Water Jrom the Reservoirs on Egyjit Brook. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

O 
"o 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 

o 

.05 
.05 


Nitrogen 
as 


a 

3 

s 

u 
o 








1 

Si 


1 

o 


o 


1 
o 


1 


Albuminoid. 




"C 




1 

a 


3 


I 

o 

5 


•a 

, a 
so. 

m 




24580 
24581 


1898. 

Sept. 7 

Sept. 7 


v. slight. 
V. slight. 


V. slight. 
Slight. 


.40 
.41 


3.00 
3.25 


1.50 
1.75 


.0036 
.0010 


.0170 
.0162 


.0110 
.0124 


.0060 
.0038 


0050 
0050 


.0001 
.0001 


.56 
.61 


0.5 
0.8 



Odor of the first sample, distinctly musty and unpleasant, becoming also fishy on heating; of the 
last, none. — ^ The first sample was collected from the upper reservoir, and the last from the lower 
reservoir. 



190 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



dan vers and middleton. 

Water Supply of Danvers and Middleton. 
The sources of supply are Middleton Pond, or Forest Lake, and 
Swan's Pond in Middleton. Middleton Pond has an area of 90 
acres, a maximum depth of 33 feet and a general depth of about 
25 feet. The water-shed of 1.7 square miles is generally hilly and 
well wooded, and contains a population of about 15 per square 
mile. There are about 30 acres of swamp bordering the pond. 
Swan's Pond, which is connected with Middleton Pond by a pipe 
about half a mile in length, has an area of 45 acres and a water-shed 
of 0.17 of a square mile. The water-shed contains no population. 



Chemical Excmiination of Water from Middleton Pond, 

[Parte per 100,000.] 



Middleton. 





S 

o 
o 

s. 

Q 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 

5 

.56 


NITROSEN 
AS 


•a 

i 

£ 
c 


j? 








2 

a 


c 

1 
■5 

00 


c 



a 


"3 
I 




r 


1 


Albuminoid. 




5 

^ 




o 
S 
s 
"A 





■a 
> 

1 

5 


•a 
<u 

, c 

a 0. 

03 


a 

■s 

09 

D3 


21763 


189S 

Jan. 


'5 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.65 


4.00 


1.80 


.0010 .0202 


.0184 


.0018 


.0010 


.0000 


.72 


1.6 


22046 


Feb. 


3 


V. slight. 


None. 


.70 


4.35 


1.90 


.0016 .0176 


.0156 


.0020 


.46 


.0000 


.0000 


.75 


1.6 


22403 


Mar. 


2 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.90 


4.45 


1.85 


.0008 


.0212 


.0200 


.0012 


.36 


.0020 


.0000 


.41 


1.7 


22752 


Apr. 


6 


V. alight. 


V. slight. 


.71 


3.95 


1.70 


.0010 


.0216 


.0194 .0022 


.45 


.0000 


.0000 


.77 


l.l 


23074 


May 


5 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.90 


3.95 


2.00 


.0010 


.0218 


.0208.0010 


.41 


.0000 


.0000 


.80 


1.1 


23416 


June 


1 


None. 


V. slight. 


.90 


4.25 


2.35 


.0006 


.0210 


.0206 .0004 

1 


.38 


.0020 


.0000 


.83 


1.0 


23810 


July 


6 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.70 


3.75 


2.20 


.0004 


.0250 


.0224. 0026 

1 


.32 


.0060 


.0000 


.82 


0.8 


24535 


Sept. 


6 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.69 


4.20 


2.40 


.0014 


.0334 


.0268.0066 


.35 


.0010 


.0000 


.98 


1.1 


24919 


Oct. 


5 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.68 


3.90 


2.40 


.0008 


.0308 


.0234 .0074 


.32 


.0020 


.0000 


.88 


1.1 


25245 


Nov. 


2 


None. 


None. 


.71 


4.60 


2.20 


.0006 


.0206 


.0190 


.0016 


.33 


.0010 


.0000 


.94 


1.3 


25545 


Dec. 


6 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.75 


4.00 


2.20 


.0020 
.0010 


.0186 
.02-M 


.0170 


.0016 
.0026 


.34 
.39 


.0010 


.0000 
.0000 


.99 
.81 


1.0 


Av... 








.75 


4.13 


2.09 


.0203 


.0015 


1.2 

















Odor of Nob. 21763 and 25245, none; of the others, faintly vegetable or musty, becoming generally 

stronger on healing. Nob. 22752, 23074, 23810 and 24535 were collected from the pond; the others, 

from a faucet at the pumping station. 



Water Supply of Dedham. — Dediiam Water Company. 
The source of supply is a covered well about 26 feet in diameter 
and 1<S feet deep, located about 40 feet from the southerly bank of 
Charles Kiver, near the thickly settled portion of the town. 



No. 34.1 EXAMINATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 



191 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



DEDHAM. 

the Dedham Water Com,pany. 





B 


— 


Appeakance. 




i 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

i 






























u 

a 

3 






•3 


1 
'■3 


o 

5 


§1 




"S 

c 

< i 


6 

3 
3 


2 




c 
CO 

1 

o 


s 
■a 

H 


o 




1898 




























21762 


Jan. 


5 


None. 


None. 


.00 


9.40 


.0008 


.0024 


88 


.2400 


.0000 


.03 


4.4 


.0010 


22192 


Feb. 


14 


V. slight. 


None. 


.04 


9.50 


.0000 


.0022 ' 


87 


.2200 


.0000 


.06 


4.2 


.0020 


22400 


Mar. 


2 


None. 


None. 


.01 


8.50 


.0010 


.0022 


80 


.1640 


.0000 


.06 


3.6 


.0010 


22743 


Apr. 


6 


None. 


None. 


.04 


9.30 


.0010 


.0022 


86 


.2100 


.0000 


.05 


3.9 


.0020 


23072 


May 


5 


None. 


V. Blight. 


.05 


9.60 


.0010 


.0068 


91 


.2120 


.0000 


.06 


4.2 


.0020 


23396 


June 


6 


None. 


None. 


.03 


10.50 


.0004 


.0016 


80 


.1940 


.0000 


.06 


3.8 


.0020 


23797 July 


6 


None. 


None. 


.03 


9.70 


.0010 


.0076 


85 


.1540 


.0000 


.05 


3.8 


.0010 


24156 Aug. 


4 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.04 


8.90 


.0006 


.0058 


67 


.1200 


.0000 


.07 


3.3 


.0000 


24532 1 Sept. 


6 


None. 


V. slight. 


.01 


10.60 


.0008 


.0010 


80 


.1640 


.0000 


.06 


3.6 


.0060 


24921 Oct. 


5 


None. 


None. 


.00 


10.10 


.0000 


.0010 


90 


.2400 


.0000 


.03 


4.0 


.0050 


25235 


Nov. 


2 


None. 


None. 


.00 


8.70 


.0000 


.0038 


77 


.1880 


.0000 


.09 


3.8 


.0010 


25541 


Deo. 


6 


None. 


None. 


.03 


9.00 


.0000 


.0036 


.75 


.1680 


.0000 


.04 


3.8 
3.9 


.0010 


Av... 








.02 


9.48 


.0005 


.0033 


.82 


.1895 


.0000 


.05 


.0020 













Odor, none. Nos. 21762, 22192, 22400, 22743 and 23396 were collected from a faucet at the pumping 

station; the others, from the well. 



Water Supply of East Bridge water. 

(See Bridgewater.) 



Water Supply of Easthampton. 
Chemical Examination of Water from Bassett Brook, Easthampton. 













[Parts 


per 100,000.] 




















c 
o 
■a 
" 1 


Appearance. 


Kesidde on. 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




NiTKOGEN 

AS 


3 
c 










1 




,: 




Albuminoid. 




1 






3 

o 


>> 


1 


c 


. 


§1 




« 


•o 

> 


•d 
•a 

1 B 


a 


« 


m 


o 

c: 


s 


































































z 


Q 


H <K 


o 




>^ 


&H 


H 


Q 


OQ 


o 


i^i 


!Zi 


o 


X 




1898. 




























24566 


Sept. 7 


Slight. Slight. 


.23 


4.30 


1.45 


.0028 


.0098 


.0084 


.0014 


.11 


.0030 


.0000 


.29 


1.6 



Odor, none, becoming faintly unpleasant on heating, 
miles, which contains a small population. 



Bassett Brook drains an area of 6.9 square 



192 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



EASTON. 

Water Supply or North Easton Village District, Easton. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the North Easton Village 

District. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





3 
Is 

a 


Appeaeance, 


a 

sg, 

a a 

3 > 


Ammonia. 


5 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■d 

i 

3 

a 

X 

O 


s 

u 
a 




u 
a 

a 

a 


3 

Eh 


1 

•3 


o 
o 
O 


£ 


2 
2 

< 






c 
2 




1898. 


























22207 


Feb. 14 


None. 


None. 


.00 


4.70 


.0000 


.0014 


.61 


.0600 


.0000 


.01 


1.7 


.0010 


22809 


Apr. 11 


None. 


None. 


.03 


3.90 


.0000 


.0012 


.48 


.0430 


.0000 


.02 


1.3 


.0030 


23667 


June 22 


None. 


None. 


.01 


3.90 


.0004 


.0012 


.48 


.0250 


.0000 


.02 


1.7 


.0010 


24424 


Aug. 24 


None. 


None. 


.00 


4.40 


.0000 


.0014 


.45 


.0260 


.0000 


.05 


1.8 


.0030 


25171 


Oct. 25 


None. 


V. slight. 


.00 


5.50 


.0000 


.0016 


.48 


.0220 


.0000 


.06 


2.2 


.0020 


25602 


Dec. 12 


None. 


None. 


.01 


4.00 


.0000 


.0010 
.0013 


.42 


.0360 


.0000 


.01 


1.4 


.0010 


Av.. . 






.01 


4.40 


.0001 


.49 


.0353 


.0000 


.03 


1.7 


.0018 









Odor, none. - 
station. 



• No. 22809 was collected from the well; the others, from a faucet at the pumping 



Enfield. 
The advice of the State Board of Health to the town of Enfield, 
relative to taking certain springs in that town as sources of water 
supply, may be found on pages 10 and 11 of this volume. During 
the investigations which were made by the Board analyses were 
made of samples of water from various sources in the town, the re- 
sults of which are o-iven in the followino: table : — 

Chemical Examination of Water f?-om Various Sources in the Town of Etifleld. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Residue on 














e 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


■a 






o 
o 

o 








tion. 




i 
i 




c 
o 
O 

53 






1 


1 


C 

o 


« 






Albuminoid. 


2 


1 




1 

a 


n 


T3 

> 


■S 

1 c 


"5 






















S P> 








M 




a 


a 


H 


OT 


u 


H 


^ 


bi 


Eh 


Q 


VI 


o 


"A 


!« 


O 


n 




1898. 




























22640 


Mar. 25 


None. 


V. Slight. 


.05 


1.75 


0.25 


.0000 


.0036 


.0024 


.0012 


.06 


.0050.0000 


.09 


0.8 


22641 


Mar. 25 


V. slight. 


Cons., 


.06 


2.35 


0.35 


.0002 


.0040 


.0026 


.0014 


.12 


.0040 .0000 


.09 


0.5 








earthy. 


























22642 


Mar. 25 


None. 


Slight, ■ 
sandy. 


.05 


3.00 


- 


.0002 


.0036 


~ 


- 


.16 


.0070 


.0000 


.07 


0.8 


22643 


Mar. 25 


None. 


Slight, 
sandy. 


.05 


2.70 


- 


.0002 


.0044 


- 


- 


.14 


.004o'.0000 


.08 


0.8 


22644 


Mar. 25 


None. 


V. Blight, 
sandy. 


.01 


2.50 


- 


.0000 


.0010 


~ 


- 


.09 


.0090.0000 


.02 


0.5 


22682 


Mar. 29 


V. slight. 


Slight, 
sandy. 


.02 


3.20 


" 


.0000 


.0014 


" 


" 


.09 


.0060.0000 


.02 


0.8 



Odor, none. The first sample was collected from a brook on the northerly slope of Quabin Hill ; 

the second, from Thurston Brook, about thirty feet above Greenwich Road; the third, from Wood's 
Spring, about three-quarters of a mile north of the village of Enlield; the fourth, from a spring flowing 
from Hunt's pasture, just west of Wood's Spring; the fifth, from a spring in the south-west corner of 
Shearer's pasture, about half a mile north of the village; the last, from a small reservoir fed by springs, 
situated aljout half a mile north of the village and just below Shearer Spring. Water from this reser- 
voir is used for the supply of several houses and a drinking fountain in the village. 



No. 34.] EXA^nXATION OF AVATEE SUPPLIES. 193 

EVERETT. 

Water Supply of Eaerett. 
(See Metropolitan Water District, pages 133-160.) 

"Water Supply of Fairhavex. — Fairhaven Water Coinipany. 

A communication from the State Board of Health to the board of 
health of Fairhaven, with regard to the action of the water supplied 
by the Fairhaven Water Company on lead pipes used as service 
pipes in connection with the public water supply, may be found on 
pages 11 and 12 of this volume. 

The public water supply is drawn from a system of tubular w^ells, 
having an average depth of about 35 feet, located in the valley of 
the Xasketucket River. The wells are located on both sides and in 
the bed of the river, which is a small and shallow stream, and cover 
an area of approximately 300 feet in length in a northerly and 
southerlv direction bv about 130 feet in width. 



Chemical Examijiation of Water from the Tubular Wells of the Fairhaveii Water 

Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appearakce. 


1 

o o. 

Q OS 


Ammonia. 


o 

O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

O 










1 

03 


o 


<B 


•6 
o 

B 

< 


I 


5 


§ 


22226 


1S98. ' 
Feb. 15 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.08 


5.20 


.0000 


.0030 


.96 


'.0380 


.0000 


.08 


1.6 


.0080 


22903 


Apr. 20 


None. 


None. 


.16 


4.60 


.0000 


.0026 


.87 


.0370 


.0001 


.15 


2.0 


.0150 


236" 


June 24 ; 


None. 


None. 


.11 


5.90 


'.0004 


.0040 


.81 


.0370 


.0000 


.18 


1.7 


.0010 


24337 


Aug. 16 


V. slight. 


None. 


.17 


5.20 


.0000 


.0054 


.84 


.0270 


.0001 


.22 


1.6 


.0100 


25030 


Oct. 15 


None. 


None. 


.37 


5.80 


.0008 


.0088 


.83 


.0240 


.0003 


.49 


2.0 


.0140 


25783 


Dec. 27 1 


None. 


None. 


.07 
.16 


5.30 


.0000 

1 


.0014 


.70 


.0540 


.0001 


.08 


1.6 


.0050 


Av... 


ll 




5.33 


.0002 


.0042 


,83 


.0362 


.0001 


.20 


1.7 


.0088 


t 





Odor in October, faintly earthy; at other times, none. The samples were collected from a faucet 

at the pumping station. 



194 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



FALL RI^Ti:R. 

Water Supply of Fall Eiver. 

The source of supply is North Watuppa Lake in Fall River. 
This lake has an area, when full, of about 2.8 square miles, and a 
water-shed of 11.17 square miles, which contains a considerable 
population. The water flowing out of North AVatuppa Lake passes 
into the South Watuppa Lake, which is not used as a source of 
public water supply. 



Chemical Examination of Water from North Watiqypa Lake. 

[Parts per 100,000] 





c 
_o 

o 
O 

o 

a 


Appkarancb. 


Kksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


6 

c 

o 
O 

.73 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

a 

3 

o 

o 

bo 

1 






S 

3 

E-i 


1 


c 

o 
"3 
o 


o 

H 


c 
o 

3 


6 


Albuminoid. 


2 


5 
2 




1 
a 

3 


o 


o 


•6 

3 P. 

a, 


a 
•a 

OS 

B 


21900 


1898. 

Jan. 18 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


3.85 


1.40 


.0006 


.0182 


.0176 


.0006 


.0030 


.0001 


.44 


0.8 


22199 


Feb. 14 


None. 


None. 


.34 


3.65 


1.20 


.0002 


.0196 


.0160 


.0036 


.76 


.0050 


.0000 


.42 


1.1 


22537 


Mar. 14 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.40 


3.65 


1.65 


.0004 


.0200 


.0174 


.0026 


.66 


.0030 


.0000 


.40 


1.3 


22872 


Apr. 18 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.31 


3.20 


1.25 


.0024.0186 


.0152 


.0034 


.60 


.0000 


.0000 


.43 


0.6 


23162 


May 16 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.39 


3.05 


1.65 


.0030 


.0186 


.0162 


.0024 


.61 


.0030 


.0001 


.44 


0.8 


23509 


June 13 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.48 


3.70 


1.50 


.0012 


.0210 


.0192 


.0018 


.60 


.0040 


.0001 


.48 


0.8 


23976 


July 20 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.26 


3.25 


1.20 


.0016 


.0184 


.0160 


.0024 


.49 


.0020 


.0001 


.42 


0.5 


24292 


Aug. 15 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.26 


3.35 


1.45 


.0004 


.0208 


.0192 


.0016 


.52 


.0010.0000 


.40 


0.5 


24673 


Sept. 19 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.22 


3.30 


1.35 


.0008 


.0242 


.0196 


.0046 


.53 


.0010.0000 


.43 


0.8 


25044 


Oct. 17 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.20 


3.65 


1.90 


.0028 


.0196 


.0176 


.0020 


.53 


.0010 .0000 


.43 


0.8 


25364 


Nov. 14 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.28 


3.30 


1.30 


.0002 


.0186 


.0172 


.0014 


.53 


.0020.0000 


.46 


0.6 


25592 


Dec. 12 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.39 


3.70 


1.35 


.0002 


.0152 


.0118 


.0034 


.52 


.00501.0000 


.50 


1.0 


25806 


Dec. 30 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.29 


3.10 


1.45 


.0002 


.0162 
.0194 


.0156 
.0171 


.0006 
.0023 


.54 
.58 


.0020 
.0024 


.0000 


.46 
.44 


0.6 


Av.*. 








.31 


3.45 


1.44 


.0011 


.0000 


0.8 













* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has been 
used in making the average. 

Odor, faintly vegetable or none. A vegetable odor was developed in most of the samples on heating. 
— The Bami>les were collected from the lake. 



Is^o. 34.] EXAIkONATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 195 



FALL, RIVER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from North Watuppa Lake. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 1 


1899. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Xov. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Day of examination, . 


20 


15 


15 


20 


17 


14 


21 


16 


20 


18 


15 


13 


2 


Number of sample, . 


21900 


22199 22537 


22872 


23162 


23509 


23976 


24292 


24673 25044 

1 


25364 


25592 


25806 


PLANT8. 




























Diatomacese, 


142 


25 


230 


222 


132 


35 





7 


5 


1 


17 


23 


104 


Aeterionella, 
Oycloiella, . 
Tubellaiia, . 



92 

22 


2 
8 
3 


2 

164 

57 


56 
96 
22 



124 

1 



34 








2 
















10 

1 




11 

3 


2 

87 

6 


Cyanophyceee, . 




















11 


11 


8 


4 











Anabnena, 
Meiismopoedia, . 


























10 





11 


5 



3 















Algae, .... 


12 


11 


27 


20 


39 


6 


19 


61 


13 








1 





BotrycQccus, 























50 

















ANIMALS. 




























Infusoria, 


2 





754 


40 


1 


1 


4 





1 


1 











Dinobryon, . 








752 


36 


1 











1 














Vermes 








1 
































Crustacea, Cyclops, . 











pr. 























pr. 





Miscellaneous, ZooglcEa, . 


3 


3 


5 


5 


3 


5 





5 


5 


5 


8 


5 


3 


Total, .... 


159 


39 


1,016 


287 


175 


47 


34 


84 


32 


11 


25 


29 


107 



Chemical Examination of Water from South Watupx>a Lake. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Kesidde on 














c 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 
















tion. 








a 

3 

a 














c 




Albuminoid. 








1 


o 

o 


■5 

!3 

3 


a 

■5 


c 

o 

"3 


"3 


o 


b. 


"a 


•a 
> 


1 c 

3 P. 




00 

2 


% 


o 

s 


■3 


I? 


Q 


£-■ 


cc 


u 




hJ 


E^ 


^ 


2 


01 


U 


^5 


2; 


O 






1898. 




























21901 


Jan. IS 


V. slight 


V. slight. 


.42 


6.15 


1.85 


.0004 


.0236 


.0212 


.0024 


.92 


.0020 


.0003 


..■^1 


1.8 


22200 


Feb. 14 


None. 


None. 


.41 


5.50 


1.75 


.0006'. 0244 1.0222 


.0022 


.87 


.0070 


.0002 


,.=i0 


? 


22538 


Mar. 14 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.40 


3.75 


1.65 


.00021.0208 


.0178 


.0030 


.65 


.00.30 


.0000 


.4,S 


1.0 


22873 


Apr. 18 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.38 


3.35 


1.20 


.0016 


.0180 


.0158 


.0022 


.66 


.0030. 0001 


.43 


1,0 


23163 


May 16 


\ Slight. 


Slight. 


.43 


3.75 


1.50 


.0020 


.0184 


.0170 


.0014 


.67 


.0020 .0001 


.45 


1.0 


23510 


June 13 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.48 


3.60 


1.70 


.0010 


.0222 


.0206 


.0016 


.61 


.0040 .0002 


.4.=) 


0.6 


23920 


July 18 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.31 


4.50 


1.45 


.0008 


.0244 


.0206 


.0038 


.71 


.0020 .0001 


.45 


1.1 


24293 


Aug. 15 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


.28 


4.40 


1.70 


.0032 


.0294 


.0222 


.0072 


.73 


.0010 .0001 


.40 


0.8 


24674 


Sept. 19 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.22 


3.30 


1.20 


.0010 


.0220 


.0192 


.0028 


..=)9 


.0000 1.0000 


.42 


0,8 


25045 


Oct. 17 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.22 


3.65 


1.55 


.0006 


.0188 


.0174 


.0014 


.64 


.0010 .0001 


;.43 


0,8 


25365 


Nov. 14 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.31 


3.70 


1,20 


.0006 


.0190 


.0184 


.0006 


1.58 


.00201.0000 


.46 


6 


25593 


Dec. 12 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.33 


1 3.90 


1.75 


.0002 


.0148 


.0118 


.0030 


.53 

.68 


.0070 
.0028 


.0000 


.48 
.45 


0.6 


Av... 








.35 


4.13 


1.54 


.0010 


.0213 


.0187 


.0026 


.0001 


1.0 











Odor, faintly vegetable or none. A vegetable odor was developed in most of the samples on heating. 
The samples were collected from the lake. 



196 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



FAIiL. RIVER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Sotdh Watuppa Lake. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 


20 


15 


15 


20 


17 


14 


19 


16 


20 


18 


15 


13 


Number of sample 


21901 


22200 


22538 


22873 


23163 


23510 


23920 


24293 


24674 


25045 


25365 


25593 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomacese, .... 


174 


158 


185 


222 


132 


24 


12 





8 


3 


14 


29 


Asterionella 

Cyclolella, 

Tabellaria, 


98 
50 
12 


117 

28 

8 


7 
108 
57 


70 

110 

4 


1 

120 





17 
1 


6 
1 




















4 




16 

1 


Cyanophyceie, .... 

















12 


16 


28 


7 








1 


Anabsena 

Merismopcedia, .... 











•0 











12 


14 




26 














1 



Algse, 


2 





31 


10 


1 


8 


28 


30 


3 





6 





ANIMALS. 
























Rhizopoda 








1 





























Infusoria, 


6 


37 


228 


10 





1 








1 











Dinobryon 


6 


38 


228 


10 














1 











Vermes, 








2 





























Crustacea, Cyclops, . 








pr. 


pr. 























pr. 


Miscellaneous, Zobgloea, . 


3 


5 


15 


3 


5 


3 


3 


15 


5 


5 


8 


5 


Total 


185 


200 


462 


245 


138 


48 


59 


73 


24 


8 


28 35 



Water Supply of Fitchburg. 

The sources of supply are storage reservoirs upon Scott and 
Falulah brooks in Fitchburg, and Meetinghouse Pond in Westmin- 
ster. The reservoir on Scott Brook has an area of 35 acres, a 
maximum depth of 40 feet and a capacity of 210,000,000 gallons. 
Its drainage area of 0.77 of a square mile contains a population of 
aljout 55 per square mile. 

Falulah Eeservoir, which is of small capacity, is situated a short 
distance below Scott Reservoir, at the junction of Scott and Falulah 
brooks. It has a water-shed of 3.05 square miles, exclusive of the 
drainage area of Scott Ivcservoir, which is tributary to it, and this 
area contains 30 persons per square mile. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



197 



FITCHBURG. 

Meetinghouse Pond is situated in the town of Westminster, 
about 6.5 miles south-west of the city. The area of the pond is 
152 acres, and its water-shed of 1.47 square miles contains about 
95 persons per square mile. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Scott Reservoir, Fitchburg. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 

O 

o 


Appeakancb. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




NiTBOQEN 
AS 


a 

s 






^ 


^ 






c 
.2 




Albuminoid. 












■s 


■6 


09 


a 

3 


o 


3 


1 




"3 
o 


C'3 


« 


3 

o 


"3 


■a 
So. 


3 


1 


B 


1 


a 
■a 

34 


S5 


a 


H 


w 


u 


H 


u 


E« 


H 


'5 


» 


o 


IZi 


2; 


o 


s 




1898. 




























21922 


Jan. 19 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.21 


2.75 


1.00 


.0018 


.0194 .0140 


.0054 


.22 


.0030 


.0001 


.33 


0.8 


22932 


Apr. 20 


V.sliiiht. 


Slight. 


.12 


2.00 


0.90 


.0024 


.0146'. 0128 


.0018 


.15 


.0000 


.0000 


.23 


0.2 


23964 


July 19 


Slight 


Slight. 


.20 


2.15 


1.00 


.0006 .0192 .0168 


.0024 


.10 


.0010 


.0000 


.36 


0.0 


250^9 


Oct. 18 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.21 


2.15 


0.95 


.0000 


.0194 .0148 
.0181 .0146 


.0046 


.15 
.15 


.0010 


.0000 


.36 
.32 


0.8 


Av... 








.18 


2.26 


0.96 


.0012 


.0035^ 


.0012 


.0000 


n.4 

















Odor of No, 2-3964, distinctly musty and unpleasant; of the others, none, becoming vegetable on 
heating. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Scott Reservoir, Fitchburg. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



January. 



April. 



July. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS. 

DiatomacesB, . 

Asterionella, 

Melosira, .... 
Synedra, .... 
Tabellaria, 

Cyanophycess, 

Algee, 

ANIMALS, 
Infusoria, .... 
Dinobryon, . . . 

Euglena 

Peridinium, . . 

Vermes, .... 

Crustacea, Cyclops, . 

Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 

Total, .... 



20 
21922 



21 
23964 



19 

25059 



276 

20 



192 
64 



16 



156 
23 
41 
92 




3 



347 

153 



177 

15 

1 

10 



1,466 

380 
228 

788 
70 



26 



418 

412 





1,565 



198 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



FITCHBTJRG. 

ChemicMl Examination of Water from Meetinghouse Pond, Westminster. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





_o 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 


Nitkogen 
as 


•d 

a 

3 

5 

c 

Si 






•S 


a 






c 
o 

§1 




Albuminoid. | 




1 




1 




> 


■a 
a 

■a 




a 


"3 


'^ 


1 


o 
O 


5 

o 


3 




"o 


C 


3 c. 


a 


2 


S 


o 






1898. 




























21921 


Jan. 19 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.11 


2.70 


1.50 


.0014 


.0144 


.0122 


.0022 


.24 


.0030 


.0001 


.2(1 


0.8 


22933 


Apr. 20 


V slight. 


Slight. 


.10 


2.35 


1.00 


.0008 


.0108 


.0092 


.0016 


.20 


.0030 


.0000 


.26 


O.b 


23965 


July 19 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.11 


2.20 


1.30 


.0004 


.0164 


.0152 


.0012 


.15 


.0020 


.0000 


.28 


0.3 


25058 


Oct. 18 


Slight. 


V.Blight. 


.12 


2.50 


1.25 


.0000 


.0192 


.0138 


.0054 


.15 

.18 


.0010 


.0000 
.0000 


.3/ 
.29 


0.8 


Av .. 








.11 


2.44 


1.26 


.0006 


.0152 


.0126 


.0026 


.0025 


0.6 













Odor of the first two samples, none ; of the last two, none, becoming vegetable on heating. 
Microscojoical Examination. 

In the sample examined in January, 264 Dinobryon per cubic centimeter were found. An ineignifl. 
cant number of organisms was found in the remaining samples. 



Water Supply of Foxborough Water Supply District, Fox- 
borough. 
The source of supply is a system of 24 two-incli tubular wells, 
in the vicinity of the Neponset Reservoir. The wells are sunk in 
porous gravel to a depth of from 23 to 50 feet. There is no pop- 
ulation in the immediate vicinity of the wells. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Tubular Wells of the Foxborough Water 

Supply District. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appeabancb. 


B 

.2 


Ammonia. 


B 
O 

s 


NiTKOGKN 1 

AS ! 


•6 

a 

B 

o 


1 

X 




H 

3 

S5 


3 


§ 


u 

o 
o 




s 

o 

B 

< 






1 


22047 
22761 
2.3354 
24182 
24887 
25551 


1898. 

Feb. 2 
Apr. 5 
June 1 
Aug. 8 
Oct. 3 
Dec. 6 


None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

V slight. 

None. 


v. Blight. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 


.00 
.00 
.00 
.00 
.02 
.00 

.00 


3.90 
3.20 
3..n0 
3.60 
4.20 
4.70 


.0002 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.0010 
.0010 
.0006 
.0006 
.0004 
.0000 


.41 
.39 

.40 
.40 
.40 
,40 


.0380 
.0460 
.04.'>0 
.0460 
.0460 
.0540 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.02 
.01 
, .01 
.01 
.04 
.01 


1.0 
1.0 

1.0 
1.0 
1.0 
0.8 


.0000 
.0040 
.0010 
.0000 
.0060 
.0050 


Av .. 








3.85 


.0000 


.0006 


.40 


.0458 


.0000 


.02 


1.0 


.0028 













Odor, none. The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



Xo. 34.] EXA^nXATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



199 



Water Supply of Fra^iingham. 

coivipany. 



framingham. 
Framingham Water 



The source of supply is a filter-gallery on the shore of Farm 
Pond in South Framinghain. The tilter-gallery is 450 feet long, 4 
feet high and from 42 to 48 inches wide, the bottom being about 6 
feet below the surface of the water in the pond. A part of the 
gallery extends beneath the edge of the pond, and at some places 
there are liut 2 feet of sand between the top of the arch of the 
filter-gallery and the bottom of the pond above it. The arch, how- 
ever, is water-tight, and water from the pond cannot enter the 
filter-gallery without passing through at least 5 feet of sand. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Filter-gallery of the Framingham Water 

Comjpany. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 







Appearance. 


_3 


Ammonia. 


o 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

i 

BO 

o 


a 




hi 

a 


3 


1 
■3 


o 


6 
!x4 


'3 

< 


1 

2 




s 
o 




1898. 


























21756 


Jan. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.03 


7.80 


.0042 


.0052 


0.97 


.0410 


.0001 


.06 


3.9 


.0060 


22480 


Mar. 7 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.02 


6.90 


.0068 


.0086 


0.81 


.0280 


.0000 


.18 


3.1 


.0070 


23098 


May 9 


None. 


None. 


.04 


7.00 


.0020 


.0024 


0.88 


.0420 


.0002 


.05 


3.3 


.0040 


23847 


July 11 


None. 


V. slight. 


.09 


7.15 


.0008 


.0096 


0.93 


.0160 


.0001 


.07 


3.0 


.0040 


24608 


Sept. 12 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.05 


6.70 


.0018 


.0092 


0.92 


.0140 


.0000 


.14 


3.1 


.0190 


25284 


Nov. 7 


None. 


V. slight. 


.05 


9.20 


.0026 


.0040 


0.90 


.0410 


.0001 


.05 


3.1 


.0140 



Averages by Years. 



ISSS 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 



5.81 
6.18 
7.09 
6.25 
6.07 
6.75 
7.32 
7.37 
7.00 
7.46 



.0027 
.0031 
.0020 
.0023 
.0026 
.0025 
.0020 
.0022 
.0021 
.0030 



.0081 
.0050 
.0039 
.0035 
.0033 
.0043 
.0049 
.0040 
.0076 
.0065 



0.44 
0.56 
0.65 
0.63 
0.62 
0.79 
0.92 
0.91 
1.00 
0.90 



,0308 
.0366 
.0631 
,0707 
,0460 
,0515 
.0230 
,0317 
,0245 
,0303 



.0004 
.0002 
.0001 
.0001 
.0001 
.0001 
.0000 
.0002 
.0001 
.0001 



.11 

.08 
.07 
.04 
.06 
.09 



3.0 
2.8 
2.6 
2.8 
3.0 
3.2 
3.3 
3.2 



.0099 
.0272 
.0130 
.0145 
.0072 
.0090 



Note to analyses of 1898 ; Odor, none. 



200 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



franklin. 

Water Supply of Franklin. 



Franklin Water Company. 



The sources of supply are two large wells and Beaver Pond. 
The wells are about 15 feet apart, and are located about 150 feet 
from Mine Brook, on the northerly side of the village of Franklin. 
When the w^ells do not furnish a sufficient supply, water is drawn 
from Beaver Pond, which has an area of aljout 33 acres and a water- 
shed of about 0.44 of a square mile, including the area of the pond. 
The population on the water-shed is very small. There is much 
swampy land about the pond, and the water is highly colored by 
vegetable matter. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Wells of the Franklin Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000] 





'a 


Appearance. 


S 

OS 


Ammonia. 


c 

o 

s 


NiTKOGEN 
AS 


■s 

£ 

i 

go 

M 

o 


1 




1 


3 


1 
■3 

So 






•d 
o 
c 

< 


g 
g 








1898. 


























22073 


Feb. 5 


V. Slight. 


v.slight. 


.46 


6.50 


.0016 


.0094 


.86 


.1100 


.0000 


.42 


3.1 


- 


22T31 


Apr. 6 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


.05 


8.80 


.0010 


.0024 


.90 


.2800 


.0000 


.09 


3.6 


.0060 


23389 


June 3 


None. 


V.slight. 


.10 


9.50 


.0002 


.0036 


.85 


.2960 


.0000 


.14 


3.5 


.0060 


24130 


Aug. 2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.20 


9.00 


.0014 


.0088 


.69 


.0350 


.0001 


.28 


2.9 


.0200 


24977 


Oct. 11 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


.07 


8.70 


.0000 


.0030 


.86 


.1400 


.0000 


.11 


3.4 


.0180 


25844 


Deo. 6 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


.12 


8.70 


.0000 


.0010 


.86 


.3200 


.0000 


.07 


" 


.0090 


Av... 








.17 


8.53 


.0007 


.0047 


.84 


.1968 


.0000 


.18 


3.4 


.0098 






1 







Odor, none. A faintly unpleasant odor was developed in No. 24130 when heated. The first 

sample was collected from a faucet at the pumpiug station; the other samples, from the well. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 201 

GARDNER. 

Water Supply of Gardner. — Gardner AYater Company. 

The source of supply is Crystal Lake in the town of Gardner. 
The area of the lake is 154 acres, and its maximum depth is about 
40 feet. Its drainage area of 0.94 of a square mile contains a 
population of about 490 persons per square mile. 

Chemical Examinalmi of Water from Crystal Lake, Oardner. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 

o 

o 
O 

o 

C3 


Appearancb. 


Residdb on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


«5 
.5 






Nitrogen 

A3 


s 

3 



c 
S) 

>-. 








□ 


c 

1 
■5 


o 


2 
o 


S 
o 


u 


Albuminoid. 


1 


.; 

s 

g 




c 

g 
1 




■6 


•0 

•a 
, c 

= p. 

03 


1 


22467 


1898. 

Mar. 7 


V. Slight. 


V.slight. 


.07 


3.75 


1.20 


.0030 


.0138 


.0124 


.0014 


.40 


.0110 


.0000 


.25 


1.1 


23413 


June 6 


V. Blight. 


V.slight. 


.08 


3.70 


1.65 


.0020 


.0192 


.0166 


.0026 


.37 


.0150 


.0001 


.24 


1.0 


24695 


Sept. 20 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.09 


3.10 


1.25 


.0004 .0190 


.0160 


.0030 


.37 


.0010 


.0000 


.22 


1.3 


25554 


Deo. 6 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


.10 

,08 


3.30 


1.15 


.0004 


.0090 


.0084 


.0006 


.35 
.37 


.0060 


.0000 
.0000 


.22 
.23 


1.4 


Av... 








3.46 


1.31 


.0014 


.0152 


.0133' .0019 


.0082 


1.2 



















Odor, none. On healing, an odor was developed in three of the samples, the odor in December 

being distinctly fishy. The first sample was collected from a faucet in the town; the others, from 

the lake. 



Water Supply of Gloucester. 

The sources of supply are Dike's Brook Reservoir and Wallace 
Pond in West Gloucester. Dike's Brook Reservoir was formed by 
floodino; meadows, from which the soil was not removed. The area 
of this reservoir is 57.6 acres, its average depth 12.5 feet and its 
storage capacity 235,000,000 gallons. The reservoir has a water- 
shed of 0.68 of a square mile, which is uninhabited. 

Wallace Pond is an artificial storage reservoir, covering an area 
of 24 acres, from which the soil was not removed. The pond has 
an average depth of 8 feet and a capacity of 63,000,000 gallons. 
Its water-shed of 0.29 of a square mile contains a small area of 
swamp, but is uninhabited. 



202 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



GLOUCESTER. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Bike's Brook Storage Reservoir, Oloncester. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 

"o 
o 

s 

a 

Q 


Appeabakce. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
_o 



.87 
.84 
.73 
.91 

.84 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■a 

a 

3 




W) 
>^ 








IS 

s 


1 

•a 


"3 
O 


■3 
'0 


a 


eg) 



1 


Albuminoid. 


iS 


% 




c 

a 

s 





■0 

5 


•d 

■0 

02 


c 


22680 
23721 
24843 
25681 


1898. 

Mar. 29 

June 28 
Sept. 28 
Dec. 19 


V. slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 
j"V. slight. 


V. slight. 
Slight. 
Cons. 
V. slight. 


.40 
.21 
.40 

.42 

.36 


3.05 
4.05 
3.95 
4.00 


1.50 
1.60 
1.55 
1.35 


.0002 
.0006 
.0002 
.0060 


.0168 
.0176 
.0236 
.0150 

.0182 


.0148 
.0128 
.0160 
.0138 


.0020 
.0048 
.0076 
.0012 


.0080 
.0010 
.0020 
.0040 


.0000 
.0000 
.0001 
.0001 


.35 
.33 
.48 
.50 

.41 


0.3 
0.3 
0.6 
0.5 


Av... 




1 




3.76 


1.50 


.0018 


.0143 


.0039 


.0037 


.0000 


0,4 






! 







Odor of the first two samples, faintly musty ; of the last two, faintly vegetable. 

Microscoincal Examinaiion. 

The number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in the sample collected in September was 1,322, 
consisting chiefly of the organism Synedra. An insignificant number of organisms was found in the 
remaining samples. 



Chemical Exariiination of Water from Wallace Pond, Gloucester. 

[Parts per 100,000] 








Appearance. 


IvESlDDE ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■d 
B 






1 

.2 
Q 




1 
•5 









1 
1 


i 


Albuminoid. 



si 


1 


1 
is 


8 

e 
bo 






c 

XI 

B 
si 


3 






•d 
■0 
1 c 

s & 

CO 


m 
C 

S 




189S. 




























22679 


Mar. 29 


Slight. 


Slight, 


.40 


3.90 


1.50 


.0006 


.0224 


.0138 


.0086 


1. 01 


.0070 


.0000 


.42 


0.5 


23722 


June 28 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.39 


4.30 


1.60 


.0004 


.0254 


.0206 


.0048 


1.02 


.0010 


.0000 


.54 


0.6 


24844 


Sept. 28 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.55 


4.55 


1.80 


.0006 


.0276 


.0228 


.0048 


0.93 


.0010 


.0000 


.58 


0,5 


25682 


Dec. 19 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


.45 


4.75 


2.00 


.0000 


.0244 
.0249 


.0180 


.0064 


1.18 
1.03 


.0010 
.0025 


.0000 


.52 


0.8 


Av... 








41 


4.37 


1.72 


.0004 


.0188 


.0061 


.0000 


1 
.51 1 0.6 





















Odor of the first two samples, distinctly musty, becoming also fishy on heating; of the third, faintly 
vegetable, becoming distinctly vegetable on heating; of the last, none, becoming faintly vegetable and 
dit-agreeable on heating. 

Microscopical Examin ation. 

The number of organisms per cubic centirueter found in the June sample was 784, and In the Sep- 
tember sample, 1022, consisting chieQy of the organism Synedra. An insiguificant number of organisms 
was found in the remaining samples. 



Xo. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



203 



GRAFTON, 

Water Supply of Grafton. — Grafton Water Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Filter-gallery of the Qrafton Water 

Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 


Appearakcb. 


S 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■a 






a 


Date of 

Gollec 




1 
•5 

IK 


o 
o 
O 


c o 
■=c, 

1 g? 
1 


2 

fa 


2 

o 

< 


s 

o 

5 


1 

2 


s 


go 

X 

o 


S 

c 

1 


§ 




1898. 
























24471 


Aug. 29 


V. Blight. V. slight. 


.04 


11.30 


.0004 


.0030 


1.40 


.I860 


.0002 


.05 


3.6 


.0140 



Odor, none. The sample was collected from a faucet at the olDce of the water company. 



Water Supply of Greenfield. 

The source of supply is Glen Brook in Ley den, on which a stor- 
age reservoir has been built. The reservoir has an area of 5.26 
acres, a maximum depth of 32 feet and a capacity of 18,000,000 
gallons. The drainage area of the reservoir is 5.36 square miles, 
consisting principally of mountainous country and contains a popu- 
lation of 54 persons per square mile. The supply from Glen Brook 
Reservoir is supplemented at times by pumping directly from Green 
River, the water-shed of which contains a small population. 

During the year 1898 four samples of water were collected from 
faucets in the town which were supplied with water from the Glen 
Brook Reservoir, the average of these analyses being as follows : — 



Chemical Examination of Water from Glen Brook Storage Eeservoir in Leyden. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Average of four samples collected in 
March, June, September and Decem- 
ber, 1898. 























Evapora- 




Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 






tion. 






c 




u 

o 

c 
So 




3 


c 
_o 

s| 


o 


Albuminoid. 


1 
S 


1 




. 


■a 


■a 


a 
■a 






s 




oo 


3 a 








X 


03 


H 


>A 


fa 


H 


Q 


QD 


.10 


!? 


» 


o 


'A 


4.91 


0.97 


.0008 


.0054 


.0047 


.0007 


.0102 


.0000 


.10 


2.8 



Odor, none. 



204 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



GROTON. 

Water Supply of Grotox. — Groton Water Company. 

The Grotoii Water Company applied to the State Board of Health 
Dec. 30, 1897, for the approval by the Board, uuder the provisions 
of chapter 388 of the Acts of 1895, of the taking of certain sources 
of water supply and lands in that town. The reply of the Board to 
this application may be found on pages 12 and 13 of this volume. 

The source of supply is a covered masonry well, located about 
50 feet from the south-westerly shore of Baddacook Pond in Groton. 
The bottom of the well is 10 feet below the ordinary water level in 
Baddacook Pond. The works were constructed in 1897, and be- 
ginning with January, 1898, analyses have been made of samples 
collected from the pond and well each month. 



Chemical E^aammation of Water from the Well of the Groton Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 


Appearance. 


B 
O 

it 

3 > 

1 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 


NlIKOGKN 
AS 


•6 

i 

a 

be 
>) 

o 


a 
•a 




S 
!?5 


"5 

3 


1 

■3 


u 
"o 


fa 


3 

'o 
c 

< 


1 


r 






1898. 


























21783 


Jan. 6 


None. 


V. slight. 


.02 


3.80 


.0010 


.0018 


.20 


.0070 


.0001 


.01 


2.9 


.0050 


22160 


Feb. 10 


V. slight. 


None. 


.02 


2.00 


.0004 


.0028 


.18 


.0080 


.0000 


.02 


2.0 


.0030 


22379 


Feb. 28 


81it:ht, 


v. slight 


.07 


4.40 


.0006 


.0018 


.20 


.0070 


.0001 


.02 


2.3 


.0120 


22783 


Apr. 8 


milky. 
None. 


None. 


.00 


3.80 


.0000 


.0006 


.17 


.0050 


.0000 


.02 


2.2 


.0030 


23195 


May 17 


None. 


None. 


.04 


4.00 


.0004 


.0012 


.23 


.0070 


.0001 


.02 


2.0 


.0020 


23681 


June 23 


None. 


None. 


.04 


4.00 


.0000 


.0012 


.21 


.0070 


.0000 


.01 


2.0 


.0010 


23821 


July 6 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.02 


3.70 


.0004 


.0010 


.22 


.0070 


.0000 


.02 


2.0 


.0050 


24576 


Sept. 7 


None. 


None. 


.01 


4.10 


.0000 


.0002 


.18 


.0090 


.0000 


.02 


2.0 


.0110 


24938 


Oct. 7 


V. slight. 


None. 


.07 


4.00 


.0000 


.0020 


.19 


.0090 


.0001 


.01 


2.0 


.0140 


25291 


Nov. 7 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.08 


5.50 


.0000 


.0008 


.18 


.0040 


.0000 


.05 


2.1 


.0180 


25587 


Dec. 


None. 


None. 


.01 


4.50 


.0006 


.0006 


.17 


.0140 


.0000 


.01 


2.2 


.0010 


Av... 








.03 


3.98 


.0003 


.0013 


.19 


.0076 


.0000 


.02 


2.2 


.0068 













Odor, none. The Bamples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



No. 34.] EXAiSIINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 205 



GROTOlSr. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Baddacook Pond, Groton. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
.2 

o 
O 

o 

G 


Appearance. 


Residue on 

EVAPOKA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 
u 

.26 


Nitrogen 

AS 


-d 

I 

c 

c 

it 

>, 
!<; 
O 






-a 

H 


1 


o 

5 


1 


. 1 
S 

|l 

1 




Albuminoid. 




1 




u 

S 

s 


o 


> 

o 

C 


■a 1 
= o, 

CO 


t.. 

03 

a 


21782 


1898. 
Jan. 6 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.56 


6.45 


2.50 


.0022 


.0312 


.0278 


.0034 


.0070 


.0001 


.69 


2.7 


22159 


Feb. 10 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.60 


5.45 


1.85 


.0044 


.0334 


.0312 


.0022 


.26 


.0080 


.0003 


.66 


2.5 


22378 


Feb. 28 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.50 


4.80 


1.60 


.0006 


.0180 


.0148 .0032 


.17 


.0070 


.0002 


.52 


2.5 


22782 


Apr. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.76 


5.45 


2.15 


.0002 


.0160 


.0132 


.0028 


.19 


.0120 


.0000 


.66 


2.3 


23194 


May 17 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.76 


5.75 


2.10 


.0010 


.0228 


.0208 


.0020 


.22 


.0120 


.0001 


.73 


2.2 


23680 


June 23 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.49 


5.50 


2.05 


.0022 


.0242 


.0204 


.0038 


.20 


.0020 


.0001 


.62 


2.3 


23820 


July 6 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.45 


5.40 


2.20 


.0012 


.0274 


.0246 


.0028 


.22 


.0010 


.0000 


.63 


2.2 


24575 


Sept. 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.41 


5.90 


2.55 


.0006 


.0248 


.0212 


.0036 


.22 


.0020 


.0000 


.67 


2.3 


24937 


Oct. 7 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


.38 


5.60 


2,25 


.0008 


.0228 


.0208 


.0020 


.19 


.0000 


.0000 


.59 


2.3 


25290 


Nov. 7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.45 


6.00 


2.60 


.0010 


.0208 


.0180 


.0028 


.18 


.0030 


.0001 


.66 


2.3 


25586 


Dec. 9 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.53 


5.05 


1.90 


.0006 
.0013 


.0132 


.0116 
.0204 


.0016 
.0027 


.24 
.21 


.0060 
.0055 


.0001 
.0001 


.68 
.65 


2.3 


Av... 








54 


5.58 


2.16 


.0231 


2.4 















Odor, faintly vegetable or none. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from Baddacook Pond, Oroton. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Maj'. June. July. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec 



Day of examination, . 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS 
DiatomacesB, 

Asterionella, . 
Cyclotella, 
Melosira, 
Bynedra, 
Tabellaria, . 

Cyanophyceee, . 

Microcystis, . 

Algse, 



10 

21782 



14 1 

22159 22378 



12 18 
22782 23194 



27 
23680 



157 

19 

132 



6 





10 

24937 



12 

25586 



96 


589 


30 


186 


6 


6 


28 


185 


8 


16 


24 


231 


2 














7 



231 

202 


12 
5 

12 



206 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



GROTON. 

Microscopical Examwaiion of Water from Baddacook Pond, Oroton — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



1898. 



Apr. 



May 



July- 



Sept. 



ANIMALS. 



RWzopoda, 



Infusoria, 



Dinobryon, . 
Peridinium, . . 
Traclielomonas, '. 
Voriicella, 



Vermes, . 
Crustacea, 



126 



pr. 



479 



29 



Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 



TOTAl, 



484 



180 



172 



173 



Hanson. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Maqiiam Pond in Hanson. 













[Parts 


per 100,000.; 










































Appearance. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■a 

i 

OQ 














c 




Albuminoid. 








c 


O 


^ 








e'5 






M 


t 






i 


CJ 


S 


a 


0) 


3 


a 
1 


u 
o 


i 


= 5 


i 


o 


O 


•a 

3 O, 


o 

s 




"n 




•2 

SS 


Jzi 


« 


Eh 


'ji 


O 


E-i 


h.? 


fa 


H 


5 


CC 


o 


2 


*A 


o 


a 




1898. 




























25573 


Dec. 7 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.09 


2.25 


1.00 


.0002 


.0162 


.0146 


.0016 


0.61 


.0000 


.0000 


.16 


0.3 


25675 


Dec. 19 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.10 


2.75 


1.00 


.0000 


.0116 


.0104 


.0012 


0.74 


.0000 


.0001 


.13 


0.0 


25676 


Dec. 19 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.10 


2.95 


1.00 


.0002 


.0122 


.0114 


.0008 


0.77 


.0010 


.0000 


.14 


0.2 


25805 


Dec. 29 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.08 


2.40 


1.15 


.0000 


.0118 


.0106 


.0012 


0.66 


.0010 


.0000 


.28 


0.0 


25574 


Dec. 7 


None. 


V.slight. 


.30 


4.35 


2.20 


.0004 


.0076 


.0062 


.0014 


1.05 


.0000 


.0000 


.42 


0.6 


25677 


Dec. 19 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.20 


3.50 


1.25 


.0006 


.0122 


.0090 


.0032 


0.96 


.0010 


.0001 


.33 


0.6 



Odor of the second sample, none, becoming distinctly fishy and unpleasant on heating; of the others, 

none, becoming very faintly vegetable on heating. The first two samples were collected from the 

northerly end of the pond, near the shore; the third, from the southerly end, about 200 feet from the 
shore; the fourth, from the southerly end, about 30 feet from the outlet of the pond; the last two, from 
the brook flowing from the pond, about 100 feet from the pond. 

These examinations were made in connection with an investigation of possible sources of water 
supply for the town of Whitman. 



Xo. 34.] EXAmNATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



207 



HARVARD. 

Haeyard. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the board of health 
of Harvard, relative to the quality of the water of a well in that 
town which is used by the pulilic for drinking purposes and largely 
used by the pupils in one of the pulilic schools, may be found on 
page 13 of this volume. The results of analyses of two samples of 
water collected from the well are given in the following table : — 

Chemical Examination of Water from a Well in Harvard. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appearasce. 


c 
"1 


Ammonia. 




NiTKOGBN 
AS 


0) 

a 

c 
^ o 

o 


•5 

C3 




c 

1 


•5 
3 
a 


c 
1 

•3 


o 
o 


u 


1 

c 

< 


2 


z 


i 


25073 


1898. 

Oct. 18 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.23 


3.60 


.0116 


.0056 


.43 


.0010 


.0000 


.10 


1.6 


.0760 


25270 


Nov. 7 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.04 


4.60 


.0356 


.0072 


.46 


.0000 


.0000 


.10 


0.8 


.0730 



Odor, distinctly disagreeable. The samples were collected from a public well, located In the 

common iu the village of Uarvard. 



Water Supply of Hatfield. 

The source of supply is a small reservoir on Eunning Gutter 
Brook in Hatfield. 



Chemical Examiiiation of Water from the Reservoir of the Hatfield Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


KBSlUnK ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


2 



.13 


Nitrogen 

A3 


1 









o 


^ 1 
S 

o 


«3 


Albuminoid. 


i 
^ 


1 






3 





•5 
Si " 


1 

'A 


Average of four samples collected in .Jan- 
uary, April, August and October, 1898. 


.24 


4.21 


1.44 


.0009 


.0085 .OO75L0OIO 


.0052.0001 


.36 


1.7 



Odor in January and August, none; in April, none, becoming faintly vegetable on heating; in Octo- 
ber, faintly vegetable, becoming distinctly vegetable on heating. 



208 



HAVERHILL. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Water Supply of Haverhill. 
The sources of supply are Crystal, Kenoza, Saltonstall and Pen- 
tucket lakes in Haverhill, Johnson's Pond in Boxford and Grove- 
land, and Millvale Reservoir on East Meadow River in Haverhill. 
Statistics as to the various sources are given in the following 
table : — 



Source. 


Area of 
Water 
Surface 
(Acres). 


Average 
Depth 
(Feet). 


Maximum 
I>optli 
(I'-eet). 


Storage 

Capacity 

(Mil. Uals.). 


Drainage 

Area (Sq. 

Miles). 


PopHliition 

per Sq. Mile 

of Dniinage 

Area. 


Crystal Lake, 


145 


15 


25 


500 


3.18 


42 


Kenoza Lake, 


225 


- 


- 


490 


1.72 


76 


Saltonstall Lake, .... 


45 


- 


- 


107 


0.30 


930 


Pentucket Lake 


38 


- 


- 


82 


0.32 


47 


Johnson's Pond 


222 


14 


33 


1,014 


4.96 


60 


Millvale Reservoir 


47 


8 


- 


125 


7.75 


59 



The water of Crystal Lake is somewhat colored, and contains at 
times considerable numbers of microscopical organisms. The waters 
of Kenoza Lake, Lake Pentucket and Lake Saltonstall are much 
less colored and contain less organic matter. The latter source 
receives the drainage from a very large population and is not used 
at the present time. Johnson's Pond is the principal source of 
supply for that portion of the city which was formerly comprised in 
the town of Bradford. There is said to be considerable mud in the 
deeper portions of this pond, and the shores are used quite largely 
as picnic grounds and are occupied by summer cottages. There is 
another large pond within the water-shed a short distance above 
Johnson's Pond. Millvale Reservoir w\as constructed l)y building a 
dam across the East Meadow River. All of the soil Mas removed 
from the area flowed. There is considerable swamp upon the 
water-shed of the reservoir, and the reservoir itself is shallow. 
AVater from this source is supplied to the city by pumping it into 
Kenoza Lake, but, up to the present time, only a small amount has 
been used. 

A communication from the State Board of Health to the board 
of health of Haverhill, in regard to an epidemic of typhoid fever 
in that city, may be found on pages 13 to 17 of this volume. 



No. 34.] EXAINIINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



209 



HAVERHILIi. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Inlet of Crystal Lake. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





3 


Appeakance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■d 

a 

3 

5 






>^ 








c 
o 




Albuminoid. 












•a 




S 


3 


o 
4 


•5 
3 

3 


1 
•3 


o 

6 


1 


O 


o3 


s 

o 


> 
5 


•a 
, s 


o 

O 


1 




5; 

o 


•p 




1898. 




























21965 


Jan. 24 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.45 


1.60 


.0004 


.0128 


.0116 


.0012 


.28 


.0140 


.0000 


.42 


1.1 


•2-2H6 


Feb. 24 


None. 


V. slight. 


.35 


3.05 


1.00 


.0010 


.0116 


.0100 


.0016 


.39 


.0130 


.0000 


.86 


0.8 


221321 


Mar. 21 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.44 


3.15 


1.10 


.0024 


.0166 


.0148 


.0018 


.30 


.0000 


.0000 1.38 


1.1 


22v<n7 


Apr. 25 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.40 


2.20 


1.10 


.0004 


.0096 


.0086 


.0010 


.14 


.0020 


.0000 1.43 


0.5 


23276 


May 23 


V. slight. V. Blight. 


.45 


4.70 


1.45 


.0012.02421.0234 


.0008 


.24 


.0000 


.0000 |. 50 


2.8 


23ril8 


June 20 


V.Blight.iV. slight. 


.49 


4.60 


1.70 


.OOIOJ.0198 


.0192 


.0006 


.25 


.0010 


.0000 


.59 


1.6 


24035 


July 25 


V. slight. 


V. sliaht. 


.36 


5.15 


1.55 


.00161.0220 


.0204 


.0016 


.31 


.0010 


.0001 


.52 


2.5 


243«8 


Aug. 22 


None. 


V. Blight. 


.67 


5.25 


2.45 


.0U20|.0272 


.02661.0006 


.28 


.0020 


.0000 


.55 


1.7 


24770 


Sept. 26 


V Blight. 


V. slight 


.35 


5.10 


2.15 


.00081.0160 


.01561.0004 


.37 


. 0040 


.0000 


.46 


1.8 


25145 


Oct. 24 


None. 


V. Blight. 


.48 


4.30 


2.35 


.0000 


.0170 


.0162 


.0008 


.26 


.0040 


.0001 


.66 


1.1 


25439 


Nov. 21 


V. slight. 


V Blight. 


.43 


3.70 


1.75 


.0002 


.0130 


.0106 


.0024 


.25 


.0050 


.0001 


.50 


1.1 


25796 


Dec. 28 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.20 


3.60 


1.35 


.0000 


.0122 


.0110 


.0012 


.30 
.28 


.0020 


.0000 


.28 
.47 


1.3 


Av 








.42 


4.02 


1.63 


.0009 


.0168 


.0157 


.0011 


.0040 


.0000 


1.4 













Odor, frequently none, sometimes vegetable or musty. On heating, the odor of some of the samples 

became stronger, and of the last sample, distinctly fishy and oily. The samples were collected from 

the principal feeder, just above its entrance into the lake. 



Cliemical Examination of Water from Crystal Lake, Haverhill. 

[Parts per 100,000] 





c 
o 


Appeabance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 
as 


•6 

a 

s 






1 






c 




Albuminoid. 










3 


^ 


o 












i, 


•d 


<u 


<» 




o 


S 


s 


o 


3 


a 




_; 


eg, 




J 


> 


•o 


X 




s 




= 


































































































',< 


a 


H 


M 


U 


t- 


_! 




H 


a 


02 


o 


•A 


'A 


o 


- 




1898. 






























21P66 


Jan. 24 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.26 


3.85 


1.90 


.0044 


.0196 .0192 


.0004 


.39 


.0060 .0000 


.41 


1.3 


22347 


Feb. 24 


None. 


V. slight. 


.19 


2.85 


1.00 


.0052 .0178 .01501. 0028!'. 42 


.0090 .0000 


.34 


0.6 


22622 


Mar. 21 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.27 


2.65 


1.15 


.0024 .0264 .0254':. 00101 1.28 


.0040 


.0000 


.33 


0.8 


22958 


Apr. 25 


V.Blisht. 


V. slight. 


.29 


2.65 


1.10 


.0004 .0148^.0128 .0020]!. 29 


.0040 


.0000l|.36 


1.0 


23275 


May 23 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


2.90 


1.20 


. 0006i. 0196;. 016S. 0028!'. 27 


.0030 


.0000 


.40 


1.0 


23617 


June 20 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.26 


3.10 


1.25 


.0010:. 0212 .0170,-0042 


.28 


.0020 


.0000 


.38 


1.0 


24u36 


July 25 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


3.05 


1.45 


.0006 .0194 


.0172;. 0022 


.20 


.OOlU 


.0001 


.44 


1.1 


24.389 


Aug. 22 


IV. slight. 


Cons. 


.19 


8.05 


1.40 


.0006 .0230 


.0174 


.0056 


.23 


.0010 


.0002 


.40 


0.8 


24771 


Sept. 26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.18 


3.25 


1.40 


.0002' 01 84 


.0148 


.0036 


.25 


.0020' 0000 


.42 


0.8 


25146 


(Jet. 24 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.11 


3.90 


1.70 


.0000 .0212 .0182 


.0030 


.37 


.0030J.0001 


.31 


1.6 


25440 


Nov. 21 


V. slight. 


None. 


.08 


3.70 


1.40 


.0000 


.0146 


.0142 


.0004 


.41 


.0040 


.0000 


.22 


1.3 


25797 


Dec. 28 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.21 


3.25 


1.50 


.0020 


.0256 


.0238 
.0176 


.0018 


.29 
.31 


.0010 


.0000 


.46 
.37 


1.0 


Av 








.21 


3.18 


1.37 


.0014 


.0201 


.0025 


.0033 


.0000 


1,0 


1 









Odor, faintly vegetable or none. A vegetable odor was developed in most of the samples on heating. 
- The samples were collected from the lake, near its outlet. 



210 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HAVERHrLIi. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Kenoza Lake, Haverhill. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 

1 
"S 

'S 

o 


Appearakce. 


Kksidce on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


1 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•3 

a 

3 
C 

o 
O 

a 

1 

o 








'c 

1 

•3 

CO 


o 
O 


"3 

o 
El 


c 
o 

o 


1 


Albuminoid. 


OQ 

a) 
1 


g 




u 

a 


"3 

o 


O 

5 


'6 
CO 






1898. 




























21959 


Jan. 24 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.09 


3.65 


1.10 


.0014 


.0154 


.0150 


.0004 


.45 


.0030 


.0000 


.23 


1.8 


22962 


Apr. 25 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.12 


4.00 


1.25 


.0002 


.0130 


.0122 


.0008 


.42 


.0030 


.0000 


.24 


1.8 


24032 


July 25 


V. slight. 


None. 


.10 


3.75 


1.30 


.0004 .0174 


.0152 


.0022 


.33 


.0010 


.0000 


.34 


1.7 


25142 


Oct. 24 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.09 


3.50 


1.25 


.0004 


.0160 


.0154 


.0006 


.41 

.40 


.0020 


.0000 


.27 

.27 


1.8 


Av... 








.10 


3.72 


1.22 


.0006 


.0154 


.0144 


.0010 


.0022 


.0000 


1.8 












■ 





Odor, faintly vegetable or none. The odor of the first sample became faintly fishy on heating. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Lake Saltonstall, Haverhill. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 

33 

"o 
O 

o 

"5 

Q 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


d 

c 

•c 



s 

.64 
.75 

.74 
.73 

.71 


Nitrogen 
as 


■d 

a 

s 

a 


c 
to 

!»> 

X 








b 

is 

'S 
a 
H 


'c 

a 


i 
6 


■3 


1 



i 


Albuminoid. 


1 


Si 




s 
a 

3 


s 




a 
> 


■a 

•S 
, c 

3 0. 


a 

as 
X 


21961 
22955 

24038 
25147 


1898. 

Jan. 24 

Apr. 25 
July 25 
Oct. 24 


Slight. 
Slight. 
V. slight. 
V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 
V. Blight. 
None. 
V. Blight. 


.18 
.05 
.09 
.10 


5.00 
5.55 
6.55 
6.25 


1.35 
1.30 
2.00 
2.10 


.0018 
.0010 
.0014 
.0002 


.0156 
.0154 

.0198 
.0158 


.0142 
.0140 
.0176 
.0152 


.0014 
.0014 
.0022 
.0006 

.0014 


.0080 
.0080 
.0010 
.0020 

.0047 


.0000 
.0002 
.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


.30 
.23 
.23 
.21 


3.0 
2.6 

2.7 
2.7 


Av... 








.10 


5.84 


1.69 


.0011 


.0166 


.0152 


24 '' ' 

















Odor of the first two samples, vegetable, becoming also musty on heating; of the last two, none, 
becoming faintly vegetable on heating. 



No. 34.] EXAlVnXATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



211 



HAVERHILIi, 

Chemical Examination of Water from Lake Pentucket, Haverhill. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 

.2 
1 


Appbabancb. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

a 

c 














c 




Albuminoid. 








u 

s 

a 
1 


o 

O 


•3 

s 
Eh 


a 
1 


U 

o 

8 


S 

o 


1 




5 

o 


"2 

> 

o 

00 

i5 




c 
o 


g 
2 


1 


O 

n 

O 


i 

•a 




1S9S. 


























21960 


Jan. 24 


V. slight. 


None, 


.07 


3.75 


1.00 


.0002 


.0174 


.0146|.0028 


.52 


.0020 .0000 


.22 


1.7 


22959 


Apr. 25 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.08 


3.65 


1.10 


.0014 


.0152 


.0144 


.0008 


.46 


.0020 .0000 


.26 


1.3 


24037 


July 25 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.10 


3.80 


1.65 


.0004 


.0218 


.0194 


.0024 


.38 


.0010 


.0000 


.27 


2.0 


25143 


Oct. 24 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.21 


4.00 


1.45 


.0000 
.0005 


.0232 
.0194 


.0202 
.0172 


.0030 


.46 
.45 


.0030 


.0000 

i 


.38 
.28 


1.7 


Av... 








n 


3.80 


1.30 


,0022 


.0020 


.0000 


1.7 













Odor, faintly vegetable. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Johnson^s Pond in Boxford and Oroveland 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


Appeakancb. 


Residce on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


i 
1 

2 
o 

.39 
,42 

.27 
.38 

,36 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■d 

a 

3 

c 

o 

u 

B 

o 






■3 

■•s 

3 
En 


99 


1 


3 
& 


S 
o 


c5 


Albuminoid. | 








a 

3 

'A 


— • 
a 

I 


> 
o 

1 


■a 

•a 
1 ~ 

3 P. 

CO 


1 
P5 


21964 
22956 
24031 
25140 


189S. 

Jan. 24 

Apr. 25 
July 25 
Oct. 24 


Decided. 
Slight. 
V. slight. 
None. 


Slight. 
V. slight. 
None. 
V. slight. 


.17 
.20 
.15 
.20 


3.80 
3.85 
4.25 
4.20 


1.25 
1.36 
1.40 
1.55 


.0018 
.0016 
.0008 
.0000 

.0010 


.0210 
.0218 
.0194 
.0162 


.0194 
.0194 
.0180 
.0158 


.0016 
.0024 
.0014 
.0004 


,0030 
.0040 
.0020 
.0040 


.0000 
.0001 
,0000 
.0000 


.38 
.38 
,34 
,35 


2,0 
1,7 
1.8 
2,0 


Av.. 








.18 


4.02 


1.39 


.0196 


.0182 


.0014 


.0032 


,0000 


,36 


1,9 













Odor of the first two samples, faintly musty; of the third, none; of the last, faintly vegetable. 

The first two samples were collected from the pond; the last two, from faucets in the city. 



212 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HAVERHILL,. 

Chemical Examination of Water from East Meadow River at its Entrance into 
Millvale Reservoir, Haverhill, 













[Parts per 100,000 


•] 
























Residue on 














c 
.2 


Appeakancb. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


s 

c 















A 




Albuminoid. | 













>, 


«j 












■3 




6 






oS 


.0 





^ 


1 


u 




c Ej, 






> 




a 


S 


s. 


c 


s 


a 


3 


•S 







5 


M "^ 






Ul 


w 






u* 


>> 


u 





































"A 





H 


on 





E-i 


>A 


^ 


ei 





to 





*A 


^ 





Ul 


1 189$. 
























j 






219631 Jan. 24 


V. Blight. 


V.slight. 


0.91 


3.85 


1.55 


.0006 


.0142 


.0128 


.0014 


.28 


.0080 


.0000' 


0.79 


1.3 


223 IS Feb. 23 1 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


0.73 


4.00 


1.75 


.0006 


.0136 


.0128 


.0008 


.39 


.0090 


.0000 


0.62 


1.1 


22611 Mar. 2 1 


V. Blight. 


V.slight. 


0.9U 


3.40 


1.45 


.0006 


.0152 


.0142 


.0010 


.30 


.0000 


.0000 


0.68 


1.4 


22960 Apr. 25 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


1.05 


3.85 


2.00 


.0002 


.0208 


.0186 


.0022 


.23 


.0020 


.0000 


0.91 


1.0 


23277 May 23 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.05 


4.90 


1.85 


.0010 


.0212 


.0196. 0016 


.31 


.0080 


.0000 


0.78 


2.1 


23619 June 20 


V. Blight 


Slight. 


1.10 


6.25 


3.25 


.0016 


.0364 


.0324 .0040 


.29 


.0020 


.0000 


1.30 


2.5 


24033 July 25 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


0..50 


5.50 


1.90 


.0006 


.01o2 


.0136 .0016 


.25 


.0010 


.0001 


0.52 


2.0 


24391 Aug. 22 


None. 


V.slight. 


1.44 


7.30 


4.00 


.0020 


.0428 


.0380 


.0048 


.26 


.0040 


.0001 


1.67 


2.1 


24772 Sept. 26 


Slight. 


V.slight. 


0.65 


6.05 


2.40 


.0006 


.0234 


.0202 


.0032 


.29 


.0040 


.0000 


0.78 


1.8 


25141 Oct. 24 


None. 


V.slight 


1.64 


6.60 


3.75 


.0012 


.0350 


.0316 


.0034 


.27 


.0040 


.0000 


1.37 


2.0 


25437 i Nov. 21 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


0.95 


6.00 


2.35 


.0004 


.0214 


.0198 


.0016 


.29 


.0040 


.0000 


1.13 


1.4 


25794 


Dec. 28 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


0.60 


5.10 


2.15 


.0012 


.0186 


.0176 


.0010 


.32 
.29 


.0020 


.0001 


0.64 


1.7 


Av. . 








0.96 


5.15 


2.37 


.0009 


.0231 


.0209 


.0022 


.0040 


.0000 


0.93 


1.7 













Odor, generally none, occaeionally musty and vegetable, sometimes faintly unpleasant. All of the 

samples had a vegetable or musty odor when heated. The samples were collected from the river, at 

Thompson's bridge, just above its entrance into Millvale storage reservoir. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Millvale Reservoir on East Meadoto River, 

Havei'hill. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





5 

p 



Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


i 


Nitrogen 

AS 


s 

3 

i 






"3 


c 


u 


. 



= 3, 




Albuminoid. | 


« 


S 






-• 


> 


•:5 


c 


a 




































« 




r, 




a 





2 


S P. 


Si 


a 


*^ 


M 


« 


"A 




H 


CO 





H 


tA 


fe 


H 


Q 


cc 





"A 


A 





>-' 




189S. 






















21962 Jan. 24 


V.slight. 


v.slight. 


.70 


4.15 


1.70 


.0008 .0160 


.0160 


.0000 


.31 


.0070 


.0000 


0.69 


1.6 


22319 Feb. 23 


Slight. 


V.slight 


.65 


4.25 


1.65 


.0006 .0108'. 0102 


.0006 


.42 


.0100 


.0000 


! 0.57 


1.1 


22612, Mar. 21 


V.slight. 


V. slight. 


.65 


3.15 


1.60 


.00041.0146. 0132 


.0014 


.26 


.0000 


.0000 


I 0.54 


1.0 


22961 Apr. 25 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.98 


4.40 


1.80 


.0004 .0184 .0158 


.0026 


.30 


.0030 


.0001 


0.77 


1.3 


23278, May 23 


V. Blight. 


V.slight. 


.98 


4.25 


2.10 


.0010 


.02241.0208 


.0016 


.30 


.0030 


.0000 


0.72 


1.8 


23620, June20 


, Slight. 


Slight. 


.88 


5.35 


2.85 


.0014 


.0326;. 0298 


.0028 


.28 


.0000 


.0000 


0.93 


1.8 


24034 July 25 


jV. Blight. 


Slight. 


.55 


5.25 


2.35 


.0004 


.0234 


.0206 


.0028 


.23 


.0(100 


.0002 


0.72 


2.1 


24.3901 Aug.22 


1 Slight. 


Slight. 


.57 


5.20 


2.45 


.0006 


.0230 


.0216 


.0014 


.29 


.0020 


.0001 


0.78 


1.7 


24773 Sept.26 


Slight. 


Cons. 


..53 


5.65 


2.75 


.0010 


.0264 


.0228 


.0036 


.27 


.0010 


.0001 


1 0.78 


1.8 


25144| Oct. 24 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


.82 


5.55 


3.15 


.0004 


.0292 


.0282 


.0010 


.29 


.0020 


.0000 


1.10 


1.8 


2543S Nov. 21 


V.slight. 


Slight. 


.95 


5.20 


2.35 


.0008 


.0204 


.0202 


.0002 


.32 


.0050 


.0001 


1.03 


l.ti 


25795 


Dec. 28 


V.slight. 


None. 


.60 


5.00 


1.90 


.0014 
.0008 


.0284 
.0221 


.0222 


.0062 


.33 
.30 


.0030 


.0001 


0.67 


l.V 


Av. . 








.74 


4.78 


2.22 


.0201 


.0020 


.0030 


.0001 


0.77 


1.6 













Odor, faintly vegetable or none. On heating, the odor of most of the samples became distinctly 
vegetable. The samples were collected from the reservoir, near its outlet. 



No. 34.] EXAIVHNATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 213 

HAVERHILIi. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the board of health of 
Haverhill, relative to the use by the public for drinking purposes 
of water from two wells at the birthplace of Whittier in Haverhill, 
may be found on pages 17 and 18 of this volume. The results of 
analyses of samples of water from each of the wells are given in 
the following table : — 

Chemical Examination of Water from Wells on Whittier place in Haverhill. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 
o 

T 




Appearance. 


e 


0%. 
~ > 


Ammonia. 




e 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■a 

1 
s 

• 

go 


1 




a 

3 


S 
B 


1 

■S 



"3 



v. 


3 
*c 

c 

< 


K 


S 





23146 


1898. 
May 13 


None. 


None. 


.02 


11.20 


.0004 


.0026 


1.02 


.3720 


.0000 


.01 


4.3 


.0010 


23387 


June 3 


None. 


None. 


.02 


12.00 


.0012 


.0022 


0.95 


.3450 


.0000 


.02 


4.9 


.0010 


23855 


July 12 


None. 


v. slight. 


.03 


11.80 


.0000 


.0016 


0.97 


.3480 


.0000 


.03 


5.0 


.0010 


23147 


May 13 


v. slight. 


Slight. 


.08 


6.30 


.0040 


.0080 


0.29 


.0240 


.0000 


.07 


3.1 


.0060 


23388 


June 3 


v. slight. 


Slight. 


.09 


6.00 


.0104 


.0096 


0.29 


.0140 


.0006 


.06 


2.6 


.0180 


23856 


July 12 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


.32 


11.70 


.1210 


.0890 


0.39 


.0010 


.0001 


.60 


4.9 


.3800 



Odor of the first four samples, none; of the fifth, none, becoming faintly musty on heating; of the 

last, decidedly unpleasant, becoming offensive on heating. The first three samples were collected 

from a well on the easterly side of the road, nearly opposite the Whittier homestead ; the last three 
samples were collected from a well in the rear of the Whittier homestead, about 80 feet southwest of 
the road. 



The reply of the State Board of Health to the Gale Shoe Manu- 
facturing Company, relative to the quality of the water of a well 
on the premises of the company and its fitness for drinking, may 
be found on page 17 of this volume. The results of an analysis 
of a sample of water collected from the well are given in the fol- 



lowing table 



214 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HAVERHILL. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Gale Shoe Manufacturing 

Company, Haverhill, 

[Parte per 100,000.] 







Appearance. 


a) s 

3 > 


Amuonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


13 

a 

s 






c 

a 

a 
55 


o 


is 
s 


1 


C 




2 

o 


a3 
c 

o 


■s 


2 


s 

T3 


C3 




H 


^ 


6 


(S 


£ 


< 


J3 

o 


Z 


g 


o 




2 




1898. 


























22163 


Feb. 11 


V. slight. 


Cons., 
floe. 


.04 


40.00 


.0068 


.0044 


4.01 


.2300 


.0360 


.11 


24.5 


.0050 



Odor, tarry and disagreeable, 
room of the factory. 



The sample was collected from a tubular well, beueaih the boiler 



Water Supply of Hingham and Hull. — Hingham Water 

Company. 

The sources of supply are Accord and Fulling Mill ponds in 
Hingham. Accord Pond has an area of 98 acres, an average depth 
of about 15 feet and a maximum depth of 43 feet. The bottom is 
said to be gravelly, with deposits of mud in the deeper portions, 
and there is a small area of the pond which is flooded to only a 
slight depth. The drainage area of 0.72 of a square mile contains 
15 acres of swamp land and a population of about 50 per square 
mile of water-shed. 

The water of Accord Pond has been subject to the frequent 
occurrence of bad tastes and odors from the growth of certain 
microscopical organisms, and especially of the organisms Anabcena 
and Uroglena. During the- winter of 1897-98 the presence of 
Uroglena gave the water a very offensive taste and odor for a 
period of several months. 

Fulling Mill Pond has an area of 14 acres, a maximum depth of 
6 feet and an average depth of 3 feet. The bottom is covered with 
mud. The water-shed of the pond is 0.36 of a square mile, con- 
taining a population of 14 per square mile. Water is not usually 
drawn directly from Fulling Mill Pond, but is drawn from basins 
on the shore of the pond, into which water from the pond enters 
by passing through a gravel dike. These basins are not covered, 
and have frequently contained the organisms Peridinium and Ana- 
bcena, which have been known to impart to water a disagreeable 
taste and odor. 



No. 34.] EXAIkllNATION OF WATEK SUPPLIES. 



215 



HINGHAM AND HULL. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the Hinghain Water 
Company, relative to improving the water of Accord Pond, the 
principal source of supply of that town, and in regard to se- 
curing a supply of water from a system of wells in the vicinity 
of the pond, may be found on pages 19 to 22 of this volume. The 
results of analyses of samples of water collected from test wells 
durino- the investigations are contained in one of the following 
tables : — 



Chemical Examination of Water from Accord Pond, Eingham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 

.9 

o 
O 

o 

o 

3 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 



Nitrogen 

AS 


■3 

s 

3 





c 
a 

so 

>% 








is 
s 

3 


g 

a 

■a 


o 

5 


"5 

o 


5 
1 


6 


Albuminoid. | 


n 






s 


1 


•a 
> 
o 

S 


■0 
, c 

CO 


•5 




1898. 




























21815 


Jan. 


11 


Slight. 


Cons. 


,20 


3,40 


1,50 


,0012 


.0262 


,0158 


.0104 


.79 


,0000 


,0000 


.32 


0.6 


21816 


Jan. 


11 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


,18 


3.25 


1,30 


,0018 


.0178 


,0142 


.0036 


.76 


.0020 


,0000 


.34 


0.6 


21817 


Jan. 


11 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.19 


3.40 


1.35 


,0024 


,0158 


,0140 


.0018 


.76 


,0020 


.0000 


,31 


1.1 


22049 


Feb. 


3 


V Blight. 


Slight. 


.22 


3,30 


1.05 


,0020 


.0174 


.0128 


.0046 


.78 


,0000 


,0000 


,36 


1.0 


22050 


Feb. 


3 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.22 


3,20 


1,15 


,0010 


.0156 


.0116 


,0040 


.72 


.0000 


,0000 


,38 


1.1 


22382 


Feb. 


28 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


,35 


2.60 


1,00 


.0006 


.0198 


,0118 


,0080 


.36 


.0000 


,0002 


,40 


0.2 


22458 


Mar. 


7 


Slight. 


Cons. 


,26 


2,85 


1.35 


,0006 


,0192 


.0138 


,0064 


.46 


.0000 


,0000 


.38 


0,2 


22542 


Mar. 


14 


V. Blight. 


v. Blight, 


.29 


3.00 


1.20 


.0002 


.0148 


.0102'. 0046 


.62 


.0000 


,0000 


.38 


0,5 


22614 


Mar, 


21 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.30 


2.96 


1,20 


.0004 


.0148 


.0116 ,0032 


.65 


.0000 


.0000 


.37 


0,5 


22799 


Apr. 


11 


Slight. 


Cons, 


,30 


3.60 


1.40 


.0004 


,0170 


,0118 ,0052 


.51 


,0000 


,0000 


.39 


0.5 


23514 


June 13 


v. Blight. 


v. Blight. 


,52 


3.25 


1.50 


.0006 


,0182 


.0160 


,0022 


.62 


,0010 


,0001 


.52 


0.3 


24483 


Aug 


30 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


,34 


2,75 


1.60 


.0006 


,0208 


.0198 


.0010 


.65 


.0020 


,0000 


.62 


0.3 


25498 


Nov. 


29 


V. Blight 


Slight, 


,30 


3,25 


1.60 


.0010 
.0009 


.0130 
,0176 


,0110 
.0139 


,0020 


,62 
.63 


.0010 


.0000 


.46 
.42 


0.5 


Av*,. 








.31 


3.19 


1.40 


.0036 


,0008-0000 


5 

















* Where more than one sample waB collected in a month, the mean analysis for that mouth has been 
used in making the average. 

Odor of the last two samples, none; of the others, fishy and oily. The odor of most of the samples 
became stronger on heating. 



216 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HIXGHAM AND HULIi. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Accord Pond, Hingham. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Jan. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Mar. 


Mar. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


June. 


Aug. 


Nov. 


Day of examination, 


11 


11 


11 


4 


4 


1 


8 


15 


22 


12 


14 


31 


30 


Number of sample, . 


21815 


21816 


21817 


22049 


22050 


22382 


22458 


22542 


22614 


22799 


23514 


24483 


25498 


PLANTS. 




























Diatomacese, . 





6 


22 


5 





1 





5 


8 








15 


73 


CyanophyceSB, Anabsena, 
































20 








Algse, Protococcus, 



































10 





ANIMALS. 




























Infusoria 


16 


36 


24 


177 


89 


36 


48 


77 


31 


50 


9 


27 





Dinobryon,. 
Peridinium, 
Uroglena, .... 




16 


32 


4 


23 


1 


164 

1 

12 


84 

4 






36 


14 



32 


56 



21 


17 

14 


36 



14 



5 



22 
5 








Vermes 


1 





1 


1 




















2 








Crustacea, Cyclops, . 








pr. 





pr. 





pr. 

















pr. 


Miscellaneous, ZoogXtea, . 


10 


5 


2 














3 








3 





5 


Total 


27 


47 


49 


183 


89 


37 


46 


85 


39 


50 


34 


62 


78 



Chemical Examination of Water from Accord Potid^ collected at Different Points. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 
o 

u 

o 

a 


Appearance. 


Kksidde on 

KVAPOEA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


5 
12 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■d 

a 

s 

i 

a 

o 






jo 

'S 

s 


c 
1 

•s 


o 
o 
O 




s 
o 




Albuminoid. 


g 

s 






a 

3 
55 


1 


> 
S 


•a 
1 c 

3 O. 


a 




1898. 




























22051 


Feb. 3 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.20 


3.25 


1.10 


.0006 


.0208 


.0116 


.0092 


.75 


.0000 


.0000 


.36 


0.8 


22052 


Feb. 3 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


.21 


3.25 


1.35 


.0014 


.0202 


.0136 


.0066 


.72 


.0000 


.0000 


..S9 


0.8 


22053 


Feb. 3 


V.sliKht. 


Cons. 


.21 


3.50 


1.45 


.0014 


.0212. 0142 


.0070 




.0000 


.0000 


..37 


0.8 


22054 


Feb. 3 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.21 


3.25 


1.25 


.OOOB 


.0144 .01-22 


.0022 


.75 


.0000 


.0000 


.35 


0.8 


22055 


Feb. 3 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.49 


3.50 


1.70 


.0UU4 


.020U .U14U 
1 


.0000, 


.74 


.0000 


.0000 


..52 


0.8 



Odor of the first sample, faintly vegetable, becoming distinctly vegetable and fishy on heating; 

of the others, faintly fishy, becoming distinctly fishy on heating. The first sample was collected 

from the east side of the pond, at the surface; the second, from the south end of the pond, at the sur- 
face; the third, from the centre of the pond, at the surface; the fourth, from the centre of the pond, 10 
feet beueath the surface; the last, from the west side of the pond, at the surface. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



217 



HINGHAM AXD HULL, 

Chemical Examination of Water from Fulling Mill Pond, Bingham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





_o 

o 
o 

Q 


Appearance. 


Kksiucb on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 




c 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■a 

1 

s 

1 

c 








3 


1 


o 
O 


■3 


1 


1 


Albuminoid. 


2 


5 




c 





■6 
> 

2 

.2 



■2 

•a 


OS 

■s 

a 




1898. 




























22056 


Feb. 3 


None. 


V. slight. 


.07 


5.15 


1.15 


.0006 


.0030 


.0030 


.0000 


.84 


.0230 


.0000 


.11 


1.4 


23515 


June 13 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.30 


5.00 


1.25 


.0012 


.0072 


.0060 


.0012 


.68 


.0140 


.0001 


.23 


1.1 


24482 


Aug. 30 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


5.15 


1.45 


.0040 


.0114 


.0104 


.0010 


.76 


.0110 


.0001 


.17 


1.3 


25499 


Nov. 29 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.27 


5.40 


1.75 


.0006 .0074 
. 00161 - of>7^ 


.0046 


.0028 
.0012 


.80 
.77 


.0120 
.0150 


.0000 


.27 
.19 


1.6 


Av... 








.21 


5.17 


1.40 


.0060 


.0000 


1.3 

















Odor of the first sample, faintly vegetable; of the second, none; of the third, none, becoming faintly 

unpleasant on heating; of the last, none, becoming faintly vegetable on heating. The first and third 

samples were collected from the filter basin located on the south-east side of Fulling Mill Pond; the 
second and last samples, from the gate-house, and represent water from the filter basin. 



Chemical Exami7iation of Water from Accord Brook in Hingham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Rbsiduk on 














c 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 








1 






tion. 








fa 
3 

c 














. 1 
c 




Albuminoid. 










s 




3 
3 


1 






3 






<a 


"3 










i 

2 


"C 


^ 
1 


00 

a 
■a 
a 


^ 


Q 


H 


a: 





E- 


>J 


b* 


H 


C 


•rj 





2 


!5 





a 




1898. 






























23516 


June 13 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


4.44 


7.70 


8.76 


.0032 


.0524 


.0456 


.0068 


.71 


.0050 


.0002 


2.91 


1.1 



Odor, none, becoming distinctly vegetable on heating. The sample was collected from the brook, 

at road crossing about 1 mile from Fulling Mill Pond, near point from which water can be diverted into 
FulUng Mill Pond. 



218 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HIXGHAM AND HULL. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Tubular Test Wells near Accord Pond in 

Einghani. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





a 




Appbarance. 


c 
o 


Ammonia. 




NlTROQEN 
AS 


■a 

a 






c 

a 

s 
!Z1 


1 




2 

3 


a 

a 

■3 




3 > 


I 


2 
2 

< 


a 
1 


01 

5 


S5 


5 

o 


m 

C 
•a 


d 
2 


22534 


1898. 

Mar. 11 


V. Blight. 


None. 


0.70 


6.30 


.0396 


.0018 


.54 


.0000 


.0000 


.10 


2.6 


.1940 


22547 


Mar. 


14 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


1.00 


7.00 


.0422 


.0018 


.54 


.0000 


.0000 


.08 


2.6 


.2500 


22548 
23058 


Mar. 
May 


14 
3 


Decided, 

milky. 

Decided. 


Cons. 
Heavy. 


0.40 
0.20 


6.90 
6.30 


.0236 
.0000 


.0020 
.0010 


.56 
.76 


.0000 
.0030 


.0000 
.0000 


.12 
.05 


2.6 
1.0 


.1850 
.0630 


23145 
23149 
22770 


May 
May 
Apr, 


13 

13 

7 


Decided, 
milky. 

Decided, 
milky. 

Slight. 


Cons. 
Cons, 
Slight. 


0.05 
0.12 
0.03 


5.40 
6.40 
3.50 


.0004 
.0008 
.0006 


.0018 
.0024 
.0012 


.73 
.73 

.68 


.0020 
.0020 
.0020 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.01 
.01 
.01 


0.8 
0.8 
0.5 


.0120 
.0250 
.0110 


22771 


Apr. 


7 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


4.10 


.0002 


.0008 


.67 


.0000 


.0000 


.02 


0.6 


.0010 


23057 


May 


3 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.05 


3.50 


.0000 


.0014 


.72 


.0020 


.0001 


.01 


0.5 


.0700 


23144 
23148 
23056 


May 
May 
May 


13 
13 
3 


Decided, 
milky. 

Decided, 
milky. 

Decided. 


Heavy. 

Cons. 

Cona. 


0.06 
0.06 
0.03 


6.50 
5.00 
3.70 


.0004 
.0002 
.0000 


.0022 
.0022 
.0010 


.72 

.72 
.65 


.0040 
.0020 
.0040 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.01 
.01 
.02 


0.6 
0.8 
0.6 


.0230 
.0180 
.0080 


23055 


May 


3 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.03 


6.00 


.0000 


.0012 


.67 


.0000 


.0000 


.02 


0.8 


.0010 


23054 


May 


3 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.03 


6.40 


.0000 


.0016 


.72 


.0020 


.0000 


.03 


0.8 


.0080 


23053 


May 


3 


V. slight. 


None. 


0.02 


4.50 


.0000 


.0008 


.90 


.0070 


.0000 


.02 


1.1 


.0060 



Odor of Nos. 22548 and 23058, faintly earthy ; of the others, none. Samples Nos. 22534 and 22547 

were collected from a well located a short distance north of the dam at the outlet of Accord Pond, on 
the easterly side of the brook flowing from the pond; No. 22548, from a well about 75 feet east of the 
well just described; the remaining samples were collected from a line of eight test wells on the north- 
erly side of the pond, extending from a point about 100 feet south-east of the easterly end of the dam at 
the outlet of the pond to a point about 450 feet from the dam ; Nos. 23058, 23145 and 23149 were collected 
from the well nearest the dam; Nos. 22770, 22771, 23057, 23144 and 23148 were collected from the third 
well from the dam ; Nos. 23056, 26055, 23054 and 23053 were collected from the fourth, fifth, sixth and 
eighth wells respectively. 



Water Supply of Hinsdale Fire District, Hixsdale. 

The source of supply is a storage reservoir on a mountain stream. 
The reservoir has an area of 9 acres, a maximum depth of 21 feet 
and a capacity of 35,000,000 gallons. During the years 1894-96 
the reservoir contained enormous numbers of the organism Palmella. 
Trouble has also been occasioned by the presence in the reservoir 
of large numbers of the organism Peridinium, 



No. 34.] EXAIkONATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 



219 



HINSDAIiE. 

Chemical Exammation of Water from the Storage Reservoir of the Hinsdale Fire 

District. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 

£ 
o 

1 

a 


Appeabancb. 


rb8idue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


6 

c 

•c 



6 


KiTKOGEN 
AS 


■d 

a 

1 

c 

1 

K 








"2 
s 


c 

1 
■5 


o 
o 
O 


1 


o 

!^ 

o 


2 


Albuminoid. 


1 


1 
2 




a 

3 
55 


■3 


•a 

> 

1 

5 


13 

, c 

3 0. 

CO 


as 

a 




1898. 




























21986 


Jan, 25 


None. 


Slight. 


.30 


2.65 


1.25 


.0014 


.0122 


.0106 


.0016 


.07 


.0030 


.0000 


.34 


1.0 


22316 


Feb. 22 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.32 


1.95 


0.75 


.0050 


.0080 


.0066 .0014 


.10 


.0080 


.0060 


.28 


1.0 


22681 


Mar. 29 


V. slight. 


None. 


.20 


1.20 


0.50 


.0014 


.0100 


.0088 .0012 


.06 


.0010 


.0000 


.26 


0.5 


22981 


Apr. 26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.24 


1.90 


0.75 


.0002 


.0110 


.0080 .0030 


.08 


.0020 


.0000 


.30 


0.8 


23286 


May 24 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.22 


1.75 


0.95 


.0004 


.0136 


.0098 


.0038 


.07 


.0030 


.0000 


.26 


0.5 


23643 


June 21 


Decided, 
milky. 


Cons. 


.19 


2.50 


1.25 


.0008 


.0186 


.0094 


.0092 


.06 


.0020 


.0000 


.34 


1.0 


24058 


July 26 


Decided. 


V. Blight. 


.32 


2.85 


1.35 


.0004 


.0228 


.0156 


.0072 


.04 


.0000 


.0000 


.44 


1.3 


24419 


Aug. 24 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.41 


2.65 


1.05 


.0006 


.0184 


.0158 


.0026 


.06 


.0020 


.0001 


.40 


1.0 


24842 


Sept. 28 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.32 


2.55 


1.35 


.0004 


.0202 


.0160 


.0042 


.04 


.0020 


.0000 


.42 


0.8 


25152 


Oct. 25 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


2.20 


1.20 


.0000 


.0152 


.0122 


.0030 


.05 


.0010 


.0000 


.38 


0.5 


25442 


Nov. 21 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.27 


2.25 


0.75 


.0004 


.0158 


.0132 


.0026 


.07 


.0000 


.0000 


.31 


0.8 


25788 


Dec. 28 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


2.30 


0.85 


.0000 


.0104 


.0096 
.0113 


.0008 


.06 
.06 


.0000 
.0020 


.0001 
.0000 


.30 
.34 


0.8 


Av... 








.27 


2.23 


1.00 


.0009 


.0147 


.0034 


n R 















Odor, faintly vegetable or none; in August, faintly musty. On heating, the odor of most of the 
samples became distinctly vegetable ; in January, November and December, faintly fishy, and in October 

and November, also disagreeable. The sample in May was collected from the reservoir; the others, 

from a faucet in the village. 

Microscopical Examinatio7i. 

The number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in the sample collected in May was 703, con. 
sifting chiefly of Dinobii/on; in the sample collected in August, 845, consisting chiefly of the organism 
Protococcus. An insignificant number of organisms was found in each of the other samples. 



"Watee Supply of Holbrook. 

(See Randolph.') 



Water Supply of Holliston. — Holliston Water Company. 
The source of supply is a well in the valley of Jar Brook in 
East Holliston. The well, which is situated about 400 feet below 
a mill pond, is 26 feet in diameter and 30 feet deep, the lower 10 
feet beino; in led^e. A small storaoje reservoir has been constructed 
below the mill pond, and the shore of the reservoir is within 15 
feet of the well ; a connection has been made between the reservoir 



220 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HOLLrlSTOX. 

and the well, so that water can be drawn directly from the reser- 
voir. The reservoir has a maximum depth of 8 feet, and all of the 
soil was removed from the area flooded when the dam was con- 
structed. The water drawn from the well contains a large amount 
of iron and organic matter, and is highly colored. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Holliston Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 

_o 

"o 
oj 

o 


Appearance. 


o 

o P. 
S > 

00 


Ammonia. 


c 


Nitrogen 

AS 


-3 

a 

3 

c 

o 


■3 




i 

a 

s 


S 


a 
o 

a 

■3 


u 

o 
O 


hi 


o 

< 


1 

2 




2 




1898. 


























21868 


Jan. 17 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


3.80 


.0002 


.0090 


.38 


.0130 


.0000 


.27 


1.6 


.0300 


22549 


Mar. 14 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.34 


3.00 


.0002 


.0090 


.26 


.0070 


.0000 


.28 


0.8 


.0070 


23227 


May 19 


V. slight 


v. slight. 


•31 


2.90 


.0022 


.0102 


.23 


.0030 


.0000 


.20 


1.1 


.0200 


23918 


July 18 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.35 


4.30 


.0026 


.0158 


.26 


.0030 


.0001 


.32 


1.3 


.0130 


21732 


Sept. 21 


Slight. 


v. Blight. 


.47 


4.50 


.0006 


.0146 


.27 


.0000 


.0000 


.34 


1.4 


.0560 


25370 


Nov. 14 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.51 


4.40 


.0010 


.0154 


.29 


.0010 


.0001 


.61 


1.0 


.0200 


Av... 








.38 


3.82 


.0011 


.0123 


.28 


.0045 


.0000 


.34 


1.2 


.0243 











Odor of No. 21868, distinctly vegetable; of No. 24732, faintly musty; of the others, none. - 
23918 and 25370 were collected from the well; the others, from a tap la the pumping station. 



•Nos. 



Water Supply of Holyoke. 

The sources of supply are Ashley and Wright ponds and Whiting 
Street storage reservoir in Holyoke, and the Manhan River in 
Southampton. Ashley and Wright ponds, the original sources of 
supply, are connected by a culvert, and water for the supply of the 
city is drawn from Wright Pond. Wright Pond has an area of 
45 acres and Ashley Pond an area of 185 acres. The bottoms are 
muddy, but the swamps which originally bordered the ponds in 
places have been cleared and filled in with gravel and the shallow 
places deepened. The ponds have a drainage area of 2.06 square 
miles, nearly all of which is owned by the city, and is now unin- 
habited. 

Whiting Street storage reservoir has an area of 112 acres, an 
average depth of 15 feet and a maximum depth of 20 feet. The 
bottom was originally swampy, and none of the soil or organic 
matter was removed when the reservoir was constructed. The 
drainage area of Whiting Street Reservoir is 1.34 square miles, 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



221 



HOLYOKE. 

and this area, like that of Wright and Ashley ponds, is practically 
uninhabited. 

During the years 1897-98 works were constructed for obtaining 
an additional water supply from the Manhan River in Southampton. 
A small reservoir having an area of 10.33 acres, was built on the 
river at the junction of the two principal tributaries, Manhan and 
Tucker brooks. Water from this reservoir is conveyed through a 
pipe to the upper end of Ashley Pond, from the lower end of which 
water flows into Wright Pond, and is thence distributed to the city. 
Manhan River, at the point where the storage reservoir is con- 
structed, has a drainage area of 13.2 square miles, which contains a 
population of 18 per square mile. 

The water of Whiting Street Reservoir contains at times very 
laro:e amounts of oroanic matter, much of which is in the form of 
microscopical organisms. The water of Wright and Ashley ponds 
is of somewhat better quality than that of Whiting Street Reser- 
voir, and the quality has been improved by the introduction of 
water from the Manhan River and by improvements made in the 
pond and its water-shed. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the water commis- 
sioners of Holyoke, relative to the advisability of allowing ice to be 
cut from Ashley Pond, may be found on page 124 of this volume. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Whitijig Street Storage Reservoir, Holyoke. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



- 


c 
o 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




XlTBOGKN 

AS 


•0 

1 

s 

a 

6 

c 

8) 

X 
















a 




Albuminoid. 








a 


6 

o 

Q 


3 

3 


§ 

■-5 


o 


"3 

o 


= 3, 
o 


6 
1 


rt 
1 


i 
>■ 

o 

5 


■a 
■a 

1 B 

= a. 


.5 
S 

o 


1 


■| 


■3 




1898. 






























22005 


Jan. 25 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.13 


4.30 


1.50 


.0012 


.0222 


.0172 


.0050 


.15 


.0030 


.0000 


.30 


2.3 


22326 


Feb. 22 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.13 


4.40 


1.30 


.0034 


.0164 


.0142 .0022! 


.14 


.0030|.0000 


.26 


2.5 


22625 


Mar. 22 


v. slight. 


v. slight. 


.06 


1.15 


0.40 


.0010 


.0046 


.0038 .0008! 


.06 


.ooooj.oooo 


.10 


0.6 


23009 


Apr. 27 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.07 


3.65 


1.10 


.0004 


.0178 


.0120 .00581 


.13 


.00201.0001 


.19 


2.1 


23283 


May 24 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.09 


3.65 


1.20 


.0006 


.0196 


.0142 .0054' 


.11 


.00.30|.0001 


.22 


2.2 


2366S 


June 21 


v. slight, i Cons. 


.16 


5.00 


1.35 


.0102 


.0220 


.0132 .0088 


.10 


.0000:. 0000 


.24 


2.3 


24055 


July 26 


V. slight.; Slight. 


.14 


4.55 


1.20 


.0028 


.0258 


.0174 .0084' 


.06 


.0000 '.0000 


.30 


2.5 


24407 


Aug. 23 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.11 


4.55 


1.20 


.0022 


.0354 


.0210 .0144! 


.06 


.0000 .0000 


.30 


2.7 


24803 


Sept. 27 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.20 


5.90 


2.25 


.0128 


.0654 


.0286 .0368! 


.08 


.0050 .0000 


.34 


2.7 


25167 


Oct. 25 


v. slight 


V. slight. 


.18 


6.50 


2.25 


.0162 


.0334 .02881.0046 


.l.S 


.0030 .0005 


.35 


2.9 


25446 


Nov. 21 


v. slight. 


v. slight. 


.18 


! 4.75 


1.50 


.0032 


.01741.01561. 0018 


.11 


.0020!. 0002 


.25 


2.6 


25792 


Dec. 28 


v. slight. 


Slight. 


.10 


4.20 


1.25 


.0000 


.0234 


.0204 


.0030 

1 


.11 i 
.10 


.0040 


.0002 
.0001 


.30 
.26 


2.1 


Av... 








.13 


4.30 


1.37 


.0045 


.0253 


.0172 


.0081 


.0021 


" 3 













Odor, generally vegetable or none; Bometimes musty. On heating, the odor was generally stronger. 



222 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HOLYOKE. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Wliiting Street Storage Reservoir, 

Eolyoke. 

[Number of organismB per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 


27 


24 


23 


29 


25 


24 


27 


24 


28 


26 


22 


29 


Number of sample, .... 


22005 


22326 


22625 


23009 


23283 


23668 


24055 


24407 


24803 


25167 


25445 


25792 


PLANTS. 


























Diatoraacess 


984 


74 


4 


1,258 


1,001 


170 


136 


182 


64 


108 


880 


3 


Aeterlonella, .... 

Cyclotella, 

Fragilarla, 

Melosira 

Synedra, 

Tabellaria, 


128 


132 


724 



2 



68 
4 



1 


3 



42 
2 

82 



1,100 

26 






84 



896 

7 


32 
112 

24 





11 


62 


72 




28 

124 



12 

18 



14 
50 






46 
52 

6 
2 


16 
2 

14 

842 

6 





1 


2 



Cyanophyceee 














4 





61 


62 


136 


44 


12 


3 


Anabsena 

CfBlosphseriura, .... 
MeriBmopcudia 






















4 









60 




62 




120 
6 

8 


44 




10 
2 




3 



Algse 


10 


8 





7 


43 


28 


81 


10 


662 


66 


12 





Raphidium 

ScenedesmuB, .... 
StauraBtrum 

















6 
1 



19 

7 
2 


6 

20 


33 
23 
14 


2 

6 


8 
10 
644 


8 
42 
10 


10 
2 








ANIMALS. 


























Rhizopoda 























2 














Infusoria, 


58 


213 


20 


38 


77 


6 


17 


92 


262 


48 


40 


24 


Ceratium, 

Dinobryon 

MallomoDaa, .... 

Peridinium, 

TrachelomonaB 




62 



e 




204 
2 

7 



19 



1 




28 
2 
2 
2 


1 
66 


2 









6 


2 
10 




4 



24 

62 


10 



10 

16 

220 





12 


36 



28 
4 

4 



19 



1 


Vermes, 











2 


1 





1 


2 


12 








2 


Crustacea, 


pr. 


pr. 








pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 











Bosmina 

Cyclops 

Daphnia, 



^^0 



pr. 















pr. 



pr. 
pr. 


pr. 
pr. 
pr. 



pr. 

pr. 


pr. 
pr. 
pr. 













pr. 
pr. 


Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . 





3 


6 


8 


10 


5 


10 


8 


10 


12 


3 


8 


Total 


1,052 


298 


29 


1,313 


1,136 


209 


306 


358 


1,146 


278 


947 


36 



No. 34.] EXAlSnNATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 



223 



HOLTOKE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Wright and Ashley Ponds, Eolyoke. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 

1 

o 

s. 

Q 


Appearance. 


Kesidue on 

EVAPOKA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


s 

1 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

1 
s 

S 



1 







■3 

3 


1 


1 
o 


5 
^ 


= 5; 

r 


1 


Albuminoid. 


1 




2 




1 


■3 



>• 
■3 

5 


•d 


m 
ta 

•3 
<a 
S3 


22327 
23284 
24408 
25444 


1898. 

Feb. 22 

May 24 
Aug. 23 
Nov. 21 


Slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight 
V. slight. 


V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 


.17 

.08 
.10 
.20 


3.95 
4.50 
4.50 
4.05 


1.25 
1.00 
1.20 
1.55 


.0064 
.0010 
.0006 
.0036 


.0274 
.0184 
.0178 
.0288 


.0180 
.0158 
.0142 
.0226 


.0094 
.0026 
,0036 
.0062 


.16 
.14 
.12 
.10 

.18 


.0120 
.0000 
.0020 

.0030 
.0042 


.0001 
.0000 
.0002 
.0001 


.27 
.20 
.23 
.30 

.25 


2.3 
2.9 
2.6 
2.2 


Av... 








.14 


4.25 


1.25 


.0029 


.0231 


.01771.0054 


.0001 


9..f> 



















Odor of the first sample, faintly vegetable, becoming distinctly vegetable and grassy on heating; of 
the second, faintly oily, becoming strongly oily on beating; of the third, none, becoming faintly grassy 

on heating; of the last, none, becoming faintly vegetable on heating. Water from Manhan River has 

been diverted into these ponds since the beginning of 1898. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Wright and Ashley Ponds, Eolyoke, 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



February. 



May. 



August. KoTember. 



Day of examination, . . 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS. 

DiatomacesB, . 

Asterionella, 
Fragilaria, . . 
Melofira, .... 
Bynedra 

Cyanophyceee, 

Algee, 

ANIMALS 

Infusoria 

Cryptomonas, . . . 
Dinobryon, . . . 
Mallomonas, . . . 

Vermes, .... 

Crustacea, .... 
Cyclops, .... 
Daphnia 

Miscellaneous, Zobglcea, 

Total, .... 



24 

22327 



25 
23284 



24 

24408 



22 
25444 



1,045 

736 

29 

94 

172 



3 



196 
3 

173 

5 



10 



404 

400 







pr. 
pr. 
pr. 



411 



1,093 



236 



224 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



nOIiYOKE. 

Chemical Examination of Water 



from Fomar Reservoir on 
Southampton. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



the Manhan River, 





d 

2 

"3 
O 

o 
s 

a 


Appearancb. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


1c 



Nitrogen 

AS 


5 

a 

3 

c 


e 
ac 
>> 

X 










c 

<u 

a 

a} 


o 


1 


1 
.J 


2 


Albuminoid. 


1 


:« 




a 

3 

55 


■3 


•a 
> 


5 


■c 

= p. 
a: 


a 
•a 




1898. 


























22006 


Jan. 25 


V. Slight. 


V. slight. 


.31 


2.75 


1.15 


.0006 


.0104 


.0096 


.0008 


.12 


.0020 .0000 


.30 


1.0 


22325 


Feb. 22 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.28 


3.10 


1.10 


.0002 


.0066 


.0048 


.0008 


.13 


.0070.0000 


.26 


1.1 


22624 


Mar. 22 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.33 


2.25 


0.90 


.0006 


.0084 


.0068 


.0016 


.08 


.0020'. 0000 


.31 


1.1 


23008 


Apr. 27 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.39 


3.90 


1.00 


.0004 


.0090 


.0086 


.0004 


.11 


.0050 .0001 


.37 


1.3 


23282 


May 21 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.37 


3.00 


1.05 


.0004 


.0106 


.0098 


.0008 


.10 


.0020 .0001 


.33 


1.4 


23669 


June 21 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.47 


4.00 


1.75 


.0010 


.0114 


.0102 


.0012 


.09 


.0000 .0001 


.58 


1.0 


24056 


July 26 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.23 


4.30 


1.40 


.0006 


.0078 


.0066 


.0012 


.06 


.0010 


.0001 


.26 


1.3 


24409 


Aug. 23 


None. 


V. slight. 


.40 


4.25 


1.50 


.0004 .0132 


.0116 


.0016 


.08 


.0020 


.0000 


.55 


1.3 


24804 


Sept. 27 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.49 


4.60 


2.10 


.0006 


.0134 


.0122 


.0012 


.11 


.0050 


.0000 


.65 


1.8 


25166 


Oct. 25 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.73 


4.25 


1.95 


.0004 


.0154 


.0140 


.0014 


.13 


.0030 


.0000 


.84 


1.4 


25446 


Nov. 21 


V. slight. 


None. 


.55 


3.40 


1.80 


.0006 


.0136 


.0120 


.0016 


.08 


.0040 


.0001 


.74 


1.1 


25793 


Dec. 28 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.20 


3.45 


1.15 


.0006 


.0126 


.0092 


.0034 


.12 
.10 


.0010 


.0001 


.30 
.46 


1.1 


Av. .. 








.40 


3.60 


1.40 


.0005 


.0109 


.0096 


.0013 


.0028 


.0000 


1.2 

















Odor, generally faintly vegetable or none, Bometimes musty. No. 23282 was collected from the 

outlet of the pipe which conveys water from Fomar Reservoir to Ashley Pond; the other samples were 
collected from the reservoir. 



Water Supply of Hopedale. 
(See Milforcl.) 



Water Supply of Hudson. 

The source of supply is Gates Pond in Berlin. The pond has an 
area of about 90 acres, a maximum depth of 80 feet and an average 
depth of 30 feet. During the year 1897 a new dam was constructed 
on the 1)rook below the outlet of the pond, by which the water of the 
pond will be raised about 2 feet, and the drainage area considerably 
increased. In 1898 works were constructed for the diversion into 
the pond of the water of Fosgate Brook, which flows near the pond 
and at a higher level but in another water-shed. The water-shed 
of Fosgate Brook contained about 15 acres of swamp land through 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 



225 



HUDSON. 

which the brook passed, and the water from this portion of the 
stream was very highly colored. A ditch was built around the edges 
of this swamp, to intercept the water from the higher land as it 
flows toward the brook and prevent it from passing over the swamp. 
The water which falls upon the swamp is diverted from the brook 
by means of a line of pipe laid to a point outside the water-shed. 
These works were completed about Oct. 1, 1898, and the efiect upon 
the quality of the water can be seen by referring to the table of 
chemical analyses of water from Fosgate Brook which is given on 
a succeeding page. It will be seen that, whereas in September, 
just before the work was completed, the color was 2.00, in October 
it had been reduced to 0.32 and in December to 0.12. A corre- 
sponding reduction will be noticed in the organic matter. 

Gates Pond now has a water-shed of 0.58 of a square mile, which 
contains a small permanent population. There are several houses 
on the shores of the pond which are occupied during the summer. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the water commis- 
sioners of Hudson, relative to a proposed additional water supply 
to be taken from Fosgate Brook in that town, may be found on 
pages 22 to 24 of this volume. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Gates Potid, Berlin. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





c 

1 

o 

o 
o 

'S 

o 


Appearance. 


t Kesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


s 
_o 
Is 
O 


NiTKOGEN 
AS 


. 

•g 
a 

c 

o 

s 
a 
to 

X 

o 






9 
S 


1 

o 




"3 


d 
o 

o 


i 


Albuminoid. 


OS 








i 


■3 

> 

5 


1 
, c 

s a. 


1 




1898. 




























21867 


Jan. 17 


V. slight. IV. Blight. 


.05 


2.35 


1.00 


.0066 


.0176 


.0170 


.0006 


.31 


.0020 


.0000 


.14 


1.0 


22579 


Mar. 16 


None. 


V. slight. 


.05 


1 2.20 


1.00 


.0038 


.0128 


.0110 


.0018 


.24 


.0070 


.0000 


.14 


0.8 


22912 


Apr. 20 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.05 


2.30 


0.95 


.0016 


.0134 


.0108 


.0026 


.24 


.0040 


.0000 


.12 


0.8 


23182 


May 17 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.07 


2.10 


1.00 


.0012 


.0148 


.0134 


.0014 


.25 


.0020 


.0000 


.17 


0.8 


23505 


June 13 


V. Blight. I V. slight. 


.08 


2.90 


1.30 


,0010 


.0184 


.0152 


.0032 


.25 


.0020 


.0000 


.21 


0.3 


23925 


July 19 


V. slight.: Slight. 


.07 


2.50 


0.75 


.0000 


.0174 


.0142 


.0032 


.19 


.0020 


.0000 


.18 


0.5 


24672 


Sept. 19 


V. slight. Slight. 


.07 


2.10 


0.75 


.0004 


.0166 


.0134 


.0032 


.21 


.0000 


.ooool 


.23 


0.6 


25416 


Nov. 17 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.12 


2.50 


1.15 


.0008 
.0019 


.0132 


.0116 


.0016 
.0022 


.20 
.24 


.0020 


.0001 
.0000 


.23 
.18 


0.8 


At... 








.07 


2.37 


0.99 


.0155 


.0133 


.0026 


0.7 











Odor, generally none. On heating, the odor of No. 23505 became distinctly vegetable and grassy; 
of No. 23925, faintly musty ; of No. 25416, faintly fishy. 



226 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HTJUSON. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from Gates Pond, Berlin. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Sept. 


Nov. 


Day of examination, 


18 


17 


21 


18 


14 


20 


20 


18 


Number of sample 


21867 


22579 


22912 


23182 


23503 


23925 


24672 


25416 


PLANTS. 


















Diatomacese, .... 


2 


14 


25 


161 


12 


13 


23 


315 


Asterionella, .... 

Melosira 

Tabellaria 




1 






13 


1 

23 




109 
11 
30 





I 


8 




23 




75 

226 

11 


Oyanopbyceee 














40 





8 


1 


Anabffina, 














40 











Algee, 








2 


31 


26 


19 


17 


13 


Raphidium, .... 








2 


15 


8 


8 


10 


9 


ANIMALS. 


















Infusoria 


4 


216 


20 


32 


16 


22 


30 


173 


Dinobryon 

Vortlcella 






214 



19 




30 




15 


11 



28 



173 



Vermes, 

















1 








Crustacea 

















pr. 


pr. 





Mitcellaneous, Zobglcsa, . 





3 


3 


3 


5 


3 


3 


5 


Total 


6 


233 


50 


227 


99 


58 


81 


507 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 227 



HTJDSOX, 



Chemical Examination of Water from Fosgate Brook, in Berlin. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 

3 

o 

s 

a 

a 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


a 

i 

O 
.22 


Niteogen 

AS 


B 

3 

c 
o 

o 

c 
be 

o 






3 

H 


1 


c 

o 

5 


3 

o 
H 


1 

1 


£ 


Albumhioid. | 


s 


CO 

?4 




B 

3 


■3 


■o 
"o 

5 


•a 
, c 


•3 


21866 


1898. 

Jan. 17 


V. Slight. 


V. slight. 


1.50 


5.20 


2.85 


.0008 


.0268 


.0248 


.0020 


.0030 


.0000 


1.26 


1.3 


22019 


Jan. 28 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.80 


4.25 


2.40 


.0004 


.0250 


.0236 


.0014 


.18 


.0020 


.0000 


1.24 


1.4 


22194 


Feb. 14 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.30 


4.30 


2.10 


.0006 


.0232 


.0220 


.0012 


.21 


.0120 


.0000 


1.03 


1.3 


22578 


Mar. 16 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.80 


2.90 


1.25 


.0004 


.0172 


.0148 


.0024 


.16 


.0000 


.0000 


0.63 


0.6 


22911 


Apr. 20 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.40: 


4.00 


2.45 


.0010 


.0240 


.0222 


.0018 


.14 


.0030 


.0000 


1.24 


0.8 


23183 


May 17 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


2.00 


4.50 


2.75 


.0006 


.0306 


.0302 


.0004 


.16 


.0020 


.0000 


1.44 


1.0 


23504 


June 13 


None. 


Slight. 


2.2o' 


5.00 


2.75 


.0006 


.0322 


.0314 


.0008 


.16 


.0010 


.0001 


1.41 


1.0 


23927 


July 19 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.80 


5.65 


3.05 


.0034 


.0418 


.0386 


.0032 


.14 


.0010 


.0001 


1.66 


0.8 


24287 


Aug. 15 


None. 


V. Blight. 


2.84 


8.95 


5.90 


.0052 


.0638 


.0612 


.0026 


.10 


.0000 


.0000 


3.14 


1.8 


24671 


Sept. 19 


Slight. 


Cons. 


2.00 


6.50 


3.55 


.0040 


.0448 


.0404 


.0044 


.11 


.0000 


.0000 


1.97 


1.8 


25042 


Oct. 17 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.32 3.95 


1.35 


.0018 


.0176 


.0102 


.0074 


.19 


.0020 


.0000 


0.43 


1.3 


25417 


Nov. 17 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.22 3.10 

1 


1.10 


.0000 


.0042 


.0042 


.0000 


.17 


.0010 


.0003 


0.24 


0.8 


25610 


Dec. 13 


None. 


V. Blight. 


0.12i 3.05 

ll 


1.00 


.0002 
.0015 


.0046 
.0275 


.0042 


.0004 
.0022 


.20 
.16 


.0080 
.0027 


.0000 



.0000 


0.15 
1.22 


1.0 


Av.*. 








1.39 


4.72 


2.49 


.0253 


1.1 













'<' Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has been 
used In making the average. 

Odor, generally faintly vegetable, sometimes none. The odor of some of the samples became 
stronger and also musty on heating. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Tributaries of Fosgate Brook. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Residue on 
















c 
o 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 
tion. 




Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


1 






























J 










c 




Albuminoid. 














o 


>. 


*3 






o 






•a 


■a 


^ 






u 


OB 


J3 

B 


o 


•5 
1 


s 


o 


"3 


°3 


e 


S 


> 
1 


■3 
1 o 


c 

■c 

o 


S 


.■S 


§ 


s 
"2 


































Sz 


Q 




cc 


O 


H 


.J 


ta 


H 


a 


Ol 


V 


"X. 


z 


o 


U 




1898. 






0.20 






















22017 


Jan. 28 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


2.15 


0.75 


.0002 


.0062 


.0060 


.0002 


.22 


.0020 


.0000 


.22 


0.8 


22018 


Jan. 28 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.25 


3.75 


1.65 


.0004 


.0202 


.0178 


.0024 


.21 


.0020 


.0000 


.95 


1.0 



Odor, none, becoming vegetable on heating. The first sample was collected from the north 

branch of Fosgate Brook, just above its junction with the south branch; the second, from the south 
branch, just above its junction with the north branch. There is a considerable area of swamp upon the 
water-shed of the south branch. 



228 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

HXJXL,. 

Water Supply of Hull. 

(See Hingham.) 



Huntington. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the water commis- 
sioners of the Huntington fire district, relative to a proposed sys- 
tem of water supply for the district, may be found on pages 24 to 
26 of this volume. The results of analyses of samples of water 
collected from various sources in the town during the investiga- 
tions in connection with the selection of a source of water supply 
are gfiven in the foUowino; table : — 

Chemical Examination of Water from Various Stirface Water Sources in Hunt- 
ington and Vicinity. 

[Parts per 100,000 ] 





S 

o 
o 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


a 

O 

5 
.04 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

a 

s 

c 



B 

ec 

>i 

X 








2 

3 


1 

•a 


u 
o 
o 


3 


1 

!l 

3 




Albuminoid. 




S 




i 

■a 

a 

s 

iz; 


"3 


•d 

1 
o 

Q 


•d 
■a 

1 a 

B P. 



1 


23791 


1898. 
July 3 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.95 


4.15 


2.75 


.0054 


.0292 


.0274 


.0018 


.0040 


.0001 


0.98 


1.1 


24529 


Sept. 5 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.85 


6.35 


2.40 


.0014 


.0238 


.0232 


.0006 


.09 


.0040 .0000 


1.08 


1.4 


24530 


Sept. 5 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.27 


3.00 


1.15 


.0004 


.0072 


.0062 


.0010 


.08 


,0070 .0000 


0.43 


1.0 


23792 


July 4 


None. 


Slight. 


0.14 


3.75 


1.75 


.0002 


.0048 


.0038 


.0010 


.04 


.0120 


.0000 


0.16 


1.1 


24528 


Sept. 5 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.17 


3.50 


1.00 


.0002 .0038 


.0034 


.0004 


.12 


.0030 


.0000 


0.25 


1.4 


24531 


Sept. 5 


Slight. 


Heavy. 


1.30 


7.40 


3.65 


.0084 .0392 


.0296 


.0096 


.09 


.0020 


.0000 


0.79 


2.3 


24067 


July 26 


v. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.19 


3.95 


1.55 


.0002 


.0090 


.0074 


.0016 


.07 


.0120'. 0000 

1 


0.29 


1.0 


24527 


Sept. 5 


None. 


None. 


0.19 


3.65 


1.20 


.0000 


.0046 


.0038 


.0008 


.14 


.0050 


.0000 


0.28 


1.0 


23793 


July 4 


None. 


Slight. 


0.07 


3.80 


1.15 


.0014 


.0042 


.0034 


.0008 


.09 


.0070 


.0002 


0.09 


1.6 


23794 


July 4 


Decided. 


Slight. 


0.53 


6.40 


2.00 


.0044 


.0160 


.0146 


.0014 


.09 


.0060 


.0000 


0.54 


2.9 



Odor of No. 23791, faintly vegetable, becoming also musty on heating; No. 24529, none, becoming 
faintly unpleasant on heating; Nos. 24530, 23792, 24528, 24527 and 23793, none; No. 24531, faintly musty; 

No. 24067, none, becoming faintly vegetable on heating; No. 23794, distinctly vegetable. The first three 

samples were collected from Gold Mine Brook; the first and third being collected from a point near the 
mouth of the brook, the second from the upper end of the brook in Blandford at a point where water 
can be diverted into the water-sht'd of Cold Brook. Nos. 23792, 24528 and 24531 were collected from 
Cold Brook, at a point from which water can be distributed to the village of Huntington by gravity. 
Nob. 24U67 and 24527 were collected from Black Brook in Blandford, near its upper end iu the vicinity of 
a point where water can be diverted into the water-shed of Cold Brook. No. 23793 was collected from 
Cook Brook, near its mouth. The last sample was collected from Woodruff Brook, near its mouth. 



Xo. 34.] EXAINHNATIOX OF AYATER SUPPLIES. 



229 



htde park akd miltox. 
Water Supply of Hyde Park and Milton. — Hyde Park 
Water Coinipany. 

The source of supply is a system of tubular wells on the shore of 
the Xeponset River in Hyde Park. Some of the wells are located 
close to the river, while others are situated at a considerable dis- 
tance from it, and the character of the water drawn from the wells, 
as indicated by analyses of samples collected from different groups, 
varies greatly. The water contains a large amount of organic mat- 
ter in the form of free ammonia, and also, at times, of iron. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Wells of the Hyde Park Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appearance. 


S 
..g 

1 


Ammonia. 


1 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■i 

3 

a 

e 

o 


s 

C5 




3 
a 


Turbidity. 


1 


c 

o 

o 


i 


2 

o 
a 

is 

5 


1 

S 


1 


s 
p 




1S98. 


























21884 


Jan. 18 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.05 


10.50 


.0106 


.0038 


1.46 


.1520 


.0008 


.08 


6.6 


.0100 


22215 


Feb. 15 


None. 


None. 


.05 


11.40 


.0104 


.0048 


1.40 


.1900 


.0006 


.05 


4.6 


.0080 


22553 


Mar. 15 


None. 


V. slight. 


.05 


8.50 


.0070 


.0032 


1.04 


.1400 


.0003 


.10 


3.8 


.0070 


22910 


Apr. 20 


None. 


V. slight. 


.05 


9.90 


.0098 


.0030 


1.18 


.1640 


.0002 


.07 


4.9 


.0040 


23186 


May 17 


None. 


None. 


.06 


9.60 


.0094 


.0046 


1.07 


.1320 


.0002 


.11 


4.0 


.0030 


23542 


June 14 


None. 


None. 


.05 


9.50 


.0100 


.0046 


1.02 


.1420 


.0002 


.13 


3.8 


.0040 


23946 


July 20 


None. 


V. Blight. 


.07 


10.80 


.0136 


.0046 


1.12 


.1140 


.0002 


.13 


4.0 


.0040 


24301 


Aug. 16 


V. slight. 


None. 


.10 


10.50 


.0140 


.0058 


1.12 


.0840 


.0001 


.18 


4.7 


.0120 


24694 


Sept. 20 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.10 


11.00 


.0174 


.0058 


1.15 


.0990 


.0002 


.15 


4.7 


.0150 


25055 


Oct. 18 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.11 


11.00 


.0170 


.0074 


1.25 


.0920 


.0001 


.17 


4.4 


.0260 


25374 
25706 


Nov. 15 
Dec. 20 


V. slight, 

milky. 

V. slight. 


V. slight. 
V. Blight. 


.14 
.09 


10.50 
10.20 


.0146 
.0100 


.0044 
.0034 


1.19 

1.05 


.1180 
.0980 


.0001 
.0008 


.13 

.10 


4.4 
3.9 


.0250 
.0180 


Av... 








.08 


10.28 


.0120 


.0046 


1.17 


.1271 


.0003 ! 


.12 


4.4 


.0113 











Odor, none. On heating, the odor of Nos. 25055 and 25374 became faintly unpleasant or disagreeable. 
The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



230 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



rE»SWICH. 

"Water Supply of Ipswich. 

The source of supply is a storage reservoir on Dow's Brook in 
Ipswich. The reservoir has an area of 17.5 acres, a maximum 
depth of 20 feet, an average depth of 9.6 feet and a storage capacity 
of 55,000,000 gallons. All of the soil and organic matter was re- 
moved from the area flooded. The water-shed of the reservoir has 
an area of 0.94 of a square mile, which contains a population of 48 
per square mile. A large part of this population is located quite 
close to the shores of the reservoir, or near small brooks which 
enter the reservoir directly. 



Chemical Examination of Water from. Dow's Brook above the Storage Reservoir of 
the Ipswich Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 
O 

"S 

o 

o 

1 


Appeakance. 


kssidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


AHHONIA. 






NiTKOGKN 
AS 


■6 

1 

s 

00 

c 



1 
5 






1 


1 

o 
a; 


c 

a 
o 


1 ^ 

I 


c 
o 





Albomlnoid. 









u 
a 
S 

s 


Totnl. 
Dissolved. 


•a 

3B. 


1 

a 




1898. 




























21953 


Jan. 24 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.60 


2.65 


1.50 


.0010 .0434 


.0144]. 0290 


.35 


.0030 


.0000' 


.58 


1.0 


22294 


Feb. 21 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.56 


4.20 


1.70 


.0004 .0100 


.0088 


.0012 


.58 


.0070 


.0000 


.43 


1.3 


22606 


Mar. 21 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


0.60 


3.35 


1.25 


.0000 


.0110 


.0096 


.0014 .51 


.0030 


.0000 


.47 


1.1 


22951 


Apr. 25 


Slight. 


Cons. 


1.10 


3.35 


1.70 


.0012 


.0246 .0176 .0070 .33 


.0030 .0002 


.95 


0.6 


23265 


May 23 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.66 


4.50 


1.55 


.0006 


.0132 


.0112 .0020 


.53 


.0040 .0000 


.50 


1.6 


23609 


June 20 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.37 


4.60 


1.75 


.0012 


.0250 


.0202 .0048 


.59 


.0010; .0000 


.46 


1.6 


24021 


July 25 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.50 


5.30 


2.00 


.0010 


.0148 


.0116 .0032 .39 


.0010 .0001 


.56 


1.6 


24392 


Aug. 22 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.72 


5.05 


2.00 


.0010 


.0184 


,0170. 0014 '.47 1 


.0020.0000 


.46 


1.4 


24758 


Sept. 26 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.35 


5.05 


2.00 


.0020 


.0232 


.0190.0042 .58 1 


.0030 .0000 


.44 


1.7 


25136 


Oct. 24 


None. 


V. Blight. 


0.85 


4.95 


2.60 


.0000 


.0136 


.0126. 0010!. 45 


.0010 .0000 


.96 


1.3 


25435 


Nov. 21 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


0.90 


4.15 


1.90 


.0002 


.0166 .0132 .0034 .41 


.OOlo'.OOOOi 


.91 


1.0 


25776 


Dec. 27 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


0.30 


3.85 


1.45 


.0002 


.0060 
.0183 


.0058.0002 .45 
.0134 nnio! it 


.0060 .0001 


.33 


1.4 


Av... 






0.63 


4.25 


1.78 


.0007 


0029 nonnll kq 


1.3 


1 


1 






I 


i 




1 


■ 





Odor, generally none, occasionally faintly vegetable. On heating, the odor of some of the samplesl 

became distinctly vegetable and sometimes musty. The samples were collected from the brook, at] 

its entrance to the storage reservoir. 



No. 34.] EXAJVIINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



231 



IPSWICH. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Storage Reservoir of the Ipswich Water 

Works. 













[PartB 


per 100,000.] 
















__ 




5 

■© 

o 
o 
« 
ft 


Appeakasce. 


Kbsidoe on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 

r. 

o 

_i_ 

.61 


NlTKOGEN 
AS 


1 

o 

o 

1 

o 






1 

s 


1 


i 

o 


"3 
1 


S 

00 

o 


6 


Albuminoid. | 


2 
£ 


2 

g 




o 

s 


Total. 
Dissolved. 


■a 

■3 
, S 

3 C. 

00 


1 

W 


I 1898. 
21954 iJan. 24! 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.41 


4.15 


1.50 


.0006 


.0170 .0158 


.0012 


.0080 


.0000 


.41 


1.7 


22295 ' Feb. 21 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.40 


4.05 


1.65 


.0020 


.0114 


.0090 


.0024 


.66 


.0070 


.0000 


.32 


1.0 


22607 Mar. 21 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.49 


4.15 


1.50 


.0016 


.0144 


.0126 


.0018 


.62 


.0060 


.0000 


.38 


1.6 


22952 Apr. 25 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.50 


4.60 


1.45 


.0014 


.0168 


.0134 


.0034 


.60 


.0050 


.0001 


.42 


1.3 


23266 ; May 23 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.44 


4.00 


1.25 


.0014 


.0184 .0142 


.0042 


.61 


.0060 


.0001 


.43 


1.4 


2360S 1 June 20 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.38 


4.70 


1.75 


.0014 


.0190 .0174 


.0016 


.58 


.0020 


.0000 


.46 


1.6 


24022 


July 25 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.30 


4.95 


1.85 


.0012 


.0222 .0186 .0036 


.49 


.0000 


.000011.44 


1.6 


24393 


Aug. 22 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.41 


5.20 


2.15 


.0014 .0264 .0248 


.0016 


.46 


.0040 


.0002 


.54 


1.6 


24759 


Sept. 26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.32 


5.05 


2.10 


.0018 .0218 .0184 


.0034 


.51 


.0020 


.0000 


.47 


1.8 


25136 


Oct. 24 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.89 


6.20 


2.65 


.0076 .0316 .0212 


.0104 


.46 


.0050 


.0001 


.99 


1.6 


25436 


Nov. 21 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.63 


5.05 


1.80 


.0026 .0172 .0144 


.0028 


.48 


.0070 


.0000 


!.62 


1.8 


25777 


Dec. 27 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.41 


4.80 


1.80 


.0010 
.0020 


.0126 


.0122 


.0004 


.50 

.55 


.0060 
.0048 


.0003 
.0001 


.43 

.49 


1.6 


Av... 








.46 


4.74 


1.79 


.0191 


.0160 


.0031 


1,5 


1 









Odor, generally none, occaBionally faintly vegetable or musty. On heating, the odor became vege- 
table or musty. 



Miscroscopical Examination of Water from the Storage Reservoir of the Ipswich 

Water Wo7-ks. 

[Number of organiems per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June, 


July. 


Ang. 


Sept. Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 


25 


23 


22 


26 


23 


21 


25 


23 27 


25 


22 


28 


Number of sample 


21954 


22295 


22607 


22952 


23266 


23608 


24022 


24393 24759 


25136 


25436 


25777 


PLANTS. 


























Diatoraacese 





2 


6 


12 


25 


14 


2 


34 


4 


20 


9 


14 


Synedra, 








5 


8 


21 


12 


2 


92 


1 


10 


8 


14 


Algee 











* 


45 


68 


10 








1 









232 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pul). Doc. 



IPSMTrCH. 

Microscopical Examinatioyi oj Water from the Storage Reservoir of the fyswich 
Water Works — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


AOTMALS. 


























Infusoria 


13 





7 


8 


15 


972 


504 


2 


70 


8 


1 





Dinobryon 

Mallomonas 

Peridinium 






13 










7 


6 

1 


15 




964 

6 


480 

14 

8 




2 



70 



6 
2 




1 








Vermes, 


1 











1 





4 





1 











Crustacea, Bosmina, . 





























pr. 








JUiscellaneous, Zoogloea, . 


3 


3 


3 


5 


5 


3 


15 


10 


3 


60 


5 





Total 


17 


5 


16 


29 


91 


1,057 


535 


106 


78 


89 


15 


14 



Water Supply of Kingston. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Faucets siqyplied from the Kingston 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 

o 

Q 


Appearakcb. 


1 

OS 

a c5 
s > 


Ammonia. 


C 

o 

o 


NlTEOGEN 
AS 


a 

c 

o 


2 
1 




1 

a 
'A 


■3 

1 

a 


1 


o 
o 


£ 

Ec 


c 

< 


1 

£ 


-S 


i 




1808. 


























23315 


Feb. 21 


None. 


None. 


.01 


4.70 


.0002 


.0010 


.73 


.0130 


.0000 


.03 


1.0 


.0020 


22463 


Mar. 7 


None. 


None. 


.00 


5.10 


.0000 


.0010 


.72 


.0070 


.0000 


.01 


1.1 


.0040 


24628 


Sept. 12 


None. 


None. 


.01 


6.50 


.0000 


.0000 


.75 


.0100 


.0000 


.06 


1.3 


.0000 


25255 


Nov. 1 


None. 


None. 


.02 


4.30 


.0000 


.0002 


.78 


.0080 


.0000 


.02 


1.1 


.0010 


Av... 








.01 


5.15 


.0000 


.0005 


.74 


.0095 


.0000 


.03 


1.1 


.0017 











Odor, none. 



Water Supply of Lancaster. 

(See Olinton.) 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



233 



LAWRENCE. 



Water Supply or Lawrence. 



The source of supply is the Merrimack River, above the thickly 
populated portion of the city. The river water is filtered through 
a sand filter having an area of 2.5 acres, which has been fully de- 
scribed on page 543 of the annual report for 1893. The filtered 
water is pumped to a large open distributing reservoir. The re- 
sults obtained by the use of the filter are shown in a subsequent 
portion of this report upon the purification of water. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the city of Lawrence, 
relative to increasing the capacity of the Lawrence city filter, may 
be found on pages 26 to 28 of this volume. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Merrimack River above Lawrence, 
opposite the Intake of the Lawrence Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





3 
y 

o 

a 


Appearance. 


Kesidoe on 

EVAPOKA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 
S 

3 

c 

c 

o 

Sc 
>. 

O 






3 

s 


1 


o 
o 


"5 
o 


c 

o 

§1 
1 


1 


Albuminoid. 








3 
55 




•6 
1 

5 


, c 

at V 

S Q. 


c 
■a 


21908 


1898. 

Jan. 19 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.41 


3.65 


1.45 


.0016 


.0170 


.0150 


.0020 


.24 


.0090 


.0002 


.45 


1.6 


22237 


Feb. 16 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.43 


3.75 


1.50 


.0040 


.0156 


.0138 


.0018 


.25 


.0090 


.0002 


.42 


1.1 


22580 


Mar. 16 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.44 


2.65 


1.00 


.0018 


.0176 


.0108 


.0068 


.11 


.0050 


.0000 


.46 


0.6 


22882 


Apr. 19 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.50 


3.05 


1.40 


.0010 


.0150 


.0112 


.0038 


.13 


.0020 


.0000 


1.49 


0.5 


23206 


May 18 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.57 


3.05 


1.45 


.0028 


.0160 


.0128 


.0032 


.17 


.0080 


.0001 


..52 


1.1 


23570 


June 15 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.45 


3.90 


1.40 


.0034 


.0250 


.0192 


.0058 


.20 


.0070 


.0004 


.46 


1.0 


23971 


July 20 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.31 


4.40 


1.95 


.0128 


.0232 


.0182 


.0050 


.25 


.0060 


.0003 


.39 


1.3 


24339 


Aug. 17 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.50 


4.80 


2.05 


.0120 


.0304 


.0242 


.0062 


.27 


.0010 


.0004 

1 


.62 


1.4 


24713 


Sept. 21 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.34 


4.55 


1.70 


.0096 


.0274 


.0192 


.0082 


.28 


.0050 


.0004 


.44 


1.4 


25105 


Oct. 18 


V. slight. 


v. slight. 


.52 


4.95 


2.20 


.0058 


.0234 


.0186 


.0048 


.28 


.0050 


.0018 


.79 


1.6 


25396 


Nov. 16 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.51 


4.15 


1.90 


.0022 


.0276 


.0254 


.0022 


.22 


.0060 


.0000 


.82 


1.0 


25725 


Dec. 21 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.41 


3.95 


1.55 


.0032 


.0166 
.0212 


.0140 


.0026 


.20 

.22 


.0070 


.0002 
.0003 


.47 
.53 


1.0 


Av... 








.45 


3.90 


1.63 


.0050 


.0169 


.0043 


.0058 


1.1 













Odor, faintly vegetable or musty. The samples were collected from the river, opposite the in- 
take of the Lawrence water works, about 1 foot beneath the surface. For a comparison of the analyses 
of the river water at Lowell .ind Lawrence for a series of years, see " Merrimack River," in the chapter 
on " Examination of Rivers." 



234 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LATVRENCE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Merrimack River after passing through 
the Sand Filter of the Lawrence Water Works. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 











RESIOnE ON 






NlTKOGBN 


•s 


— ~ 




s 


Appearance. 




JiVAPOBA- 


Ammonia. 




AS 


s 

s 


X 








2. 

"o 
O 

2 

« 

a 






TION. 













2 
H 


5 
S 
■S 


o 

a 


s 
o 


= ! 

o \ 

c - 1 

o 


2 


Albuminoid. | 








1 

s 


"5 
1 


T3 

> 

■3 

s 


02 


as 

m 

a 


' 1898. 
21909 .Ihu. 19 


V.8llght. 


V. slight. 


.50 


4.50 


1.90 


.0098 


.0082 


.0070 


.0012 


.29 


.0220 


.0001 


'.38 


1.8 


22^39 1 Feb. 16 


Decided. 


Cons., 
floe. 


.60 


5.40 


1.50 


.0208 


.0094 


.0088 


.0006 


.30 

1 


.0360 


.0001 


.31 

1 


2.3 


22581 Mar. 16 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.60 


3.85 


1.45 


.0138 .0066 


.0064 


.0002 


.18 


.0320 


.OUOO 


.32 


2.0 


22883 Apr. 19 
23207 May 18 


V. slight. 


None. 


.40 


3.35 


1.30 


.0054 


.0062 


.0062 


.0000 


.17 


.0180 .0(100 


.34 


1.1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


5.45 


1.70 


.0130 


.0072 


.0068 


.0004 


i.'28 


.08701.0001 


.26 


2.5 


23571 ! June 15 


1 Slight. 


Slight. 


.30 


3.75 


1.25 


.0044 


.0080 


.0074 


.0006 


.23 


. 02401. OOUO 


.31 


1.6 


2.3972 Julv 20 


Slight. 


None. 


.17 


4.05 


1.50 


.0036 


.0058 


.0054 


.0004 


.26 


.0220 .0000 


.2:; 


1.7 


24340 


Aug. 17 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.42 


5.10 


2.25 


.0048 


.0150 


.0140 


.0010 


.36 


.01301.0000 


1.4b 


2.0 


24714 


Sept. 21 
Oct. 18 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


5.15 


1.70 


.0076 


.0098 


.0096 


.0002 


.34 


.0320 


.0001 


1.29 


2.0 


26106 


Slight. 


Cons., 

floe. 
V. Blight. 


.40 


7.05 


2.15 


.0272 


.0088 


.0078 


.0010 


.38 


.0620 


.0001 


.33 


2.9 


25468 


Nov. 23 


Slight. 


.70 


3.90 


1.90 


.0094 


.0134 


.0130 


.0004 


.16 


.0130 


.0000 


i.62 


1.6 


25726 j Dec. 21 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.41 


4.40 


1.70 


.0088 


.0092 


.0086 


.0006 


.22 
.26 


.0280 


.0002 


.40 
j.35 


1.7 


Av 






4a 


4.66 


1.69 


.0107 


.0090 


.0084 


.0006 


.0324 


.0001 


1.9 













Odor of No. 25108, faintly musty and unpleasant, becoming stronger on heating; of the others, none. 
The samples were collected from a faucet in the check valve, just beyond the pump. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Distributing Reservoir of the Lawrence 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 



Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapoba- 

TION. 


Ammonia. 

1 




Nitrogen ' 

AS j 


■d 

S 

3 






1 

"3 


■s 


S 


i 


c 




e 
_o 




Albuminoid. | 


a 



"S 


i 


1 
g 




u 

.a 

a 

a 




■6 




•a 


1 


CS 




"S 








2 




on 


3 0. 


£S 


^ 


a 


X 


s 


S5 a 


i^ 


w 





H 


J 


b 


H 


a 


M 


u 


^ 


'A 





1898. 
























1 






21910 Jan. 19. 


,V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.42 


4.50 


1.70 


.0078 


.0098 


.0098 .0000 


.26 


.0240 


.0001 


.31 


2.1 


22288 Feb. 16. 


Blight. 


V. slight. 


.50 


4.45 


1.45 


.0080 


.0100 


.0090. 0010 


.27 


.0280 


.0000 


.30 


2.0 


22682 Mar. 16. 


Decided. 


None. 


.45 


4.05 


1.55 


.0076 


.00S4 


.0084. 0000 


.23 


.0300 


.0000 1.30 


2.0 


22884 i Apr. 19. 


iV. slight. 


V. slight. 


.31 


3.20 


1.00 


.0034 


.0070 


.0062 .0008 


.20 


.0160 


.0001 


.29 


1.1 


23208 


May 18. 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.38 


3.55 


1.65 


.0012 


.0086 


.0074 .0012 


.19 


.0240 


.0000 


.29 


l.tt 


23572 


June 15. 


None. 


V. slight 


.29 


3.40 


1.15 


.0018 


.0086 


.0078 .0008 


.19 


.0270 


.0000 


.29 


1.4 


23973 


July 20. 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


4.35 


1.70 


.0024 


.0084 


.00761.0008 


.23 


.0210 


.0002 


.2a 


1.7 


24341 Aug. 17. 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.20 


4.40 


1.80 


.0106 


.0308 


.0122!. 0186 


.30 


.0240 


.0004 


.26 


1.7 


24715 Sept.21. 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.25 


4.80 


1.50 


.0034 


.0138 


.01281.0010 


.29 


.0230 


.0002:1.32 


1.7 


25107 Oct. 18. 


V.sUght.' V.slight. 


.31 


4.65 


1.85 


.0012 


.0128 


.0108 .0020 


.30 


.0200 


.000l!l.54 


1.6 


25398 Nov. 16. 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.42 


4.40. 


1.75 


.0032 


.0128 


.01201.0008 


.22 


.0140 


.0000 


.50 


1.7 


25727 Dec. 21. 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.43 


4.70 


1.60 


.0068 


.0124 


.0108 
.0096 


.0016 


.21 

.24 


.0190 
.0225 


.0001 


.44 
.34 


1.6 


Av... 


1 






.35 


4.20 


1.56 


.0048 


.0120 


.0024 


.0001 


1.7 


1 









Odor of No. 26398, faintly musty ; of the others, none, becoming faintly vegetable on heating. The 

samples were collected from a faucet at the gate-house, and represent water flowing out of the reservoir. 
The reservoir is supplied with filtered water. 



No. 34.] EXAIVONATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



235 



LEE. 

Water Supply or Lee. — Berkshire Water Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Upper Reservoir of the Berkshire Water 

Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





"S 

i 

a 


Appeakakce. 


Residde on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


a 

•5 

Is 
O 

.06 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

a 

3 

1 
1 

X 

o 






3 


1 


o 
o 
O 


o 


i 

o 


S 

u^ 


Albnminoid. 


1 

s 


g 




3 

a 


Total. 
Dissolved. 


•6 

•S 

1 s 

s a 


m 

V 

a 
•a 

a 


22998 


1898. 

Apr. 27 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.20 


2.15 


1.00 


.0004 


.0154 


.0112 


.0042 


.0020 


.0000 


.38 


0.6 


23420 


June 7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.38 


2.25 


1.10 


.0004 


.0202 


.0138 


.0064 


.06 


.0000 


.0001 


.44 


0.5 


24569 


Sept. 6 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.48 


2.45 


1.60 


.0038 


.0288 


.0216 


.0072 


.10 


.0000 


.0000 


.69 


0.3 


25161 


Oct. 25 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.41 


2.75 


1.95 


.0000 .0356 


.0258 


.0098 


.08 


.0010 


.0000 


.75 


0.6 


25578 


Dec. 6 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.23 


2.45 


1.05 


.0018 
.0013 


.0076 


.0060 


.0016 


.06 
.07 


.0010 


.0000 

1 


.40 
.53 


0.5 


Av... 








.34 


2.41 


1.34 


.0216 


.0157 


.0058 


1 

.0008 -onon; 


5 














1 





Odor, faintly vegetable, becoming stronger on heating; in September, faintly unpleasant; and in 
October, faintly disagreeable. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Loiver Reservoir of the Berkshire Water 

Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





C 

o 

o 


Kksiddk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


2 
o 

.06 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 -6 

3 

1 § 

be 
>^ 
O 








S 

o| 

c 

I-) 




Albuminoid. 


2 


is 








5 
§ 


o 

(5 


■o 

■o 
, c 

05 


8 

•o 

03 

X 


Average of five samples collected in 
April, June, September, October and 
December, 1898. 


.28 


3.34 


1.43 


.0004 


.0114 


.0096 


.0018 


.0026 


.0000 


.40 


1.4 



Odor in April, faintly vegetable, becoming distinctly vegetable and faintly fishy on heating ; in June, 
none, becoming faintly musty on heating; in September, none; in October, faintly vegetable; in De- 
cember, distinctly disagreeable. 



236 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



i.eicester. 

Water Supply of Leicester Water Supply Dlstrict, 

Leicester. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Wells of the Leicester Water Sujjply 

District. 





[Parts per 100,000.] 
























Ammonia. 




KiTROGEN 


■d 




















a 












ig. 




2 








e 


^ 










3 > 




= 


s 


(U 


o 


gu 


V 








o 


HW 


a 


sa 


s 


g 


~ 


to 


"F 










O 










*J 


M 


93 


g 






V 


- 


&^ 


< 


.28 


Z! 


Zi 


O 


w 




Average of three samples collected 


in Janu- 


.10 


4.97 


.0003 


.0028 


.0747 


.0000 


.12 


2.0 


.0033 


ary, May and September, 1898. 

























Odor, none. The eamples were collected from a faucet in the village. 



Water Supply of Lexox. — Lexox AVater Company. 

The source of supply is a storage reservoir on the head waters of 
Williams River. The reservoir has an area of 7 acres, an average 
depth of about 9 feet, a storage capacity of 20,000,000 gallons and 
a water-shed of 0.61 of a square mile. The water-shed contains a 
population of aljout 17 per square mile. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the Lenox Water 
Company, relative to improving the quality of the water supplied 
to the town, may be found on pages 28 to 30 of this volume. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Inlet to the Reservoir of the Lenox Water 

Coinpany. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Residue on 








^^T 




s 


Appbabance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen ■§ 






I 

o 


( 




tion. 




1 




b 

3 

§ 

e 






•5 
3 

3 


s 

1 

■5 


3 


5 


1 

c - 

o 


£ 


Albuminoid, j 


1 


1 




1 

a 

s 
SB 


s 


1 
o 


"2 

3 O, 


a 
■2 

C3 




H 


m 


o 


H 


^ 


w 


H 


Q 


02 


u 


fq 


izi 


o 


m 




1898. 


























22095 


Feb. 7 


V. Slight. 


Slight. 


.06 


6.30] 0.80 


.0002 


.0024 


.0024 


.0000 


.08 


.0130 


.0003 


.07 


5..S 


22784 


Apr. 7 


V.sliuht. 


Slight. 


.05 


6.35| 0.85 


.0004 


.00.'^4 


.0028 


.0006 


.08 


.0070 


.0000 


.09 


4.3 


23716 


.June 27 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.09 


8.55! 0.75 


.0004 


.0046 


.0040 


.0006 


.07 


.0020 


.0000 


.07 


5.9 


24411 


Aug. 22 


v. slight. 


v. Blight. 


.10 


7.80 


1.35 


.0036 


.0144 


.0128 


.0016 


.06 


.0010 


.0000 


.20 


fi.3 


24875 


Sept. 29 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.09 


10.75 


1.45 


.0002 


.0072 


.0050 


.0022 


.10 


.0020 


.0000 


.11 


7.9 


25181 


Oct. 25 


None. 


v. Blight. 


.09 


8.10 


1.00 


.0004 


.0028 


.0020 


.0008 


.08 


.0010 


.0000 


.15 


5.6 


25764 


Dec. 23 


None. 


V.sMght. 


.06 


3.00 


0.85 


.0004 


.0026 
.0053 


.0024 


.0002 


.05 
.07 


.0010 
.0039 


.0000 


.10 
.11 


2.1 


Av... 








.08 


7.26 


1.01 


.0008 


.0045 


.0008 


.0000 


5.3 











Odor, none. 



No. 34.] EXAlVnNATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



237 



LENOX. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Storage Reservoir of the Lenox Water 

Comjiany. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 
O 

o 

1 

Q 


Appearance. 


ItESIDUE ON 

EVAPOBA- 

TION. 


Ahmonia. 


c 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

a 

o 
a 

O 






1 

a 


c 

1 

CO 


c 

o 
I 




5 

|l 

d 


1 


Albuminoid. 


01 

1 


ii 




1 

1 


3 


> 
o 

5 


•a 

•a 
, s 

a o. 




21988 
22785 
23717 
24412 
24876 
26182 
25620 


1898. 

Jan. 24. 

April 7. 
June 27. 
Aug. 22. 
Sept. 29. 
Oct. 25. 
Dec. 11. 


V. Blight. 

Slight. 

Slight. 

V. Blight. 

V. slight. 

None 

V.sligh^. 


V. slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
None. 


.06 
.06 
.09 
.10 
.06 
.12 
.08 


5.90 
5.55 
8.10 
9.50 
10.05 
8.50 
7.85 


0.85 
0.75 
0.85 
1.25 
1.60 
1.25 
0.85 


.0002 
.0000 
.0022 
.0044 
.0008 
.0002 
.0004 

.0012 


.0030 
.0036 
.0144 
.0232 
.0086 
.0068 
.0086 

.0097 


.0030 
.0026 
.0098 
.0224 
.0060 
.0060 
.0084 

.0083 


.0000 
.0010 
.0046 
.0008 
.0026 
.0008 
.0002 

.0014 


.09 
.08 

.07 
.08 
.08 
.09 
.08 

.08 


.0080 
.0030 
.0010 
.0030 
.0000 
.0020 
.0070 

.0034 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.16 
.08 
.16 
.24 
.15 
.20 
.12 

.16 


4.6 
4.0 
.5.4 
6.7 
7.9 
6.0 
6.0 


Av. . 








OS 


7.92 


1.06 


.0000 


5.» 















Odor, none. The samples were collected from the reservoir on Williams River, near its outlet. 



Water Supply of Leominster. . 

The sources of supply are Morse, Haynes and Fall Brook reser- 
voirs. Haynes Reservoir has an area of 58 acres, a maximum 
depth of 12 feet and a capacity of 140,000,000 gallons. A large 
portion of the area of the reservoir is flooded to a slight depth 
when the reservoir is full. The bottom was originally swampy, 
and none of the soil was removed 'when the reservoir was con- 
structed. The drainage area of the reservoir is 0.49 of a square 
mile, which contains a population of 30 per square mile. 

Morse reservoir has a maximum depth of 23 feet and a capacity 
of 40,000,000 gallons. Its bottom is said to be sandy, but a large 
portion of the reservoir is quite shallow. The water-shed contains 
no population. 

Fall Brook Reservoir was constructed in 1896. It has an area 
of 82.5 acres, an average depth of 14.3 feet, a maximum depth of 
28 feet and a storage capacity of 386,000,000 gallons. The soil 
and organic matter were removed from all of the area flowed with 
the exception of about 20 acres, where the mud was so deep that it 
was not removed, but was covered with gravel to a depth of from 



238 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



L.EOMIXSTER. 

15 to 18 inches. The reservoir has a water-shed of 1.26 square 
miles, which contains a population of 20 per square mile. 

The water of Haynes Reservoir has always given much trouble, 
as it contains at times very large quantities of organic matter, much 
of which is in the form of microscopical organisms. The water of 
Morse Reservoir is of much better quality, although it is affected 
unfavorably by the water of Haynes Reservoir, which is diverted 
into it at times. The water of Fall Brook Reservoir has always 
been of good quality, and its quality has improved each year since 
the reservoir was first filled in 1896. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Haynes Reservoir, Leominster. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





•2 ! 
o i 

o 
o 

Q 


Appbarance. 


Kesidue on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


Ahmosia. 


c 
u 


.20 
.11 

.12 
.15 
.14 
.12 

.14 


NiTBOGEN 
AS 


■6 

a 

3 

p 
e 

>> 

X 








1 


1 

09 


1^ 

o 

6 


O 

H 


c 

is 
3 




Albuminoid. 


« 
§ 






1 

a 

9 


■3 


1 



s 


•a 
, c 

30- 
CO 


c 
■2 

OS 


21975 
22629 
23291 
24054 
24800 
25466 


1898. 

Jan. 25 

Mar. 22 
May 24 
July 26 
Sept. 27 
Nov. 22 


Slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 


Slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 

CODB. 

Cons. 
Cons. 


.31 
.20 
.41 
.33 
.20 
.30 


2.35 
1.75 
2.20 
2.75 
2.35 
2.50 


1.00 
0.95 
1.35 
1.35 
1.50 
1.70 


.0006 
.0074 
.0008 
.0002 
.0004 
.0002 

.0016 


.0242 
.0130 
.0318 
.0338 
.0418 
.0312 

.0293 


.0220 
.0108 
,0208 
.0252 
.0246 
.0206 

.0207 


.0022 
.0022 
.0110 
.0086 
.0172 
.0106 


.0030 
.0000 
.0000 
.0010 
.0050 
.0020 

.0018 


.0001 
.0000 
.0000 
.0001 
.0000 
.0000 


.40 
.31 
.36 
.41 
.40 
.42 

.38 


0.8 
0.8 
0.5 
0.2 
0.3 
0.3 


Av... 








?fl 


2.32 


1.31 


.0086 


.0000 


0.4 















Odor, faintly vegetable or none. On heating, the odor in some of the samples became stronger; in 

January, also faintly fishy; and in November, disagreeable. The samples were collected from the 

reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Haynes Reservoir, Leominster. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




January. 


March. 


May. 


July. 


Sept. 


Nov. 


Date of examination, .... 


26 


23 


25 


27 


28 


23 


Number of sample, 


21975 


22629 


23291 


24054 


24800 


25466 


PLANTS. 














Dlatomacese, 





19 


1,716 


156 


852 


5,866 


AHterlonella, 

Meloslra 

Tabillaria 






pr. 




16 


88 

52 

1,576 


16 
22 
118 


86 
108 
644 


5,200 

16 

614 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



239 



LEOMINSTER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Haynes Reservoir, Leominster — Con- 
cluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



January, 



May. 



July. 



Sept. 



PLANTS — Con 
CyanophycesB, . 

Anabsena, . 
Clathrocyetis, 

Algse, .... 

Coelastrum, . 
Protococcus, 
Btaurastrum, 

ANIMALS. 
Infusoria, 
Dinobryon, . 

Vermes, 

Crustacea, Cyclops, . 

Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, . 

Total, 



606 



600 

2 



524 

418 
62 
26 



224 



62 
162 



156 



108 




134 

80 



18 



750 
740 



234 
228 

2 





7 
1.249 



3,092 



1,266 



Chemical Examination of Water from Morse Reservoir, Leominster. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 

o 

2. 

« 


APPKABANCE. 


RESIDnE ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 





1 
.19 


Nitrogen 

AS 


i 

s 

3 

1 s 






5 


1 

05 


c 

o 
o 
'■J 


2 
2. 


d 

o 


.0034 


Albuminoid. 








1 


■3 


.0202 


•6 
&• 
"3 

5 
.0168 


•a 

■0 
, c 

3 P. 


1 


1 


1 


21974 


1898. 

Jan. 25 


Slight. 


V slight. 


.34 


2.25 


0.80 


.0034 


.0030 


.0001 


.40 


1.4 


22630 


Mar. 22 


Slight. 


Slight. 


..30 


1.80 


0.90 


.0052 


.0128 


.0102 


.0026 


.12 


,0000 


.0000 


.30 


0.8 


23292 


May 24 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.29 


2.00 


1.00 


;.0012 


.0204 


.0160 


.0044 


.11 


.0000 


.0000 


.29 


0.5 


24053 


July 26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.29 


1.75 


0.95 


.0012 


.0252 


.0210 


.0042 


.10 


.0000 


.0000 


.39 


0.0 


24799 


Sept. 27 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.35 


2.40 


1.45 


1.0038 


.0252 


.0210 


.0042 


.13 


.0010 


.0000 


.43 


0.3 


25465 


Nov. 22 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.31 


2.00 


1.25 


.0006 

'.0026 

1 


.0200 
.0206 


.0154 
.0167 


.0046 
.0039 


.12 
.13 


.0020 


.0000 
.0000 


.45 
.38 


0.3 


Av... 








.31 


2.03 


1.06 


.0010 


0.5 













Odor, faintly vegetable, sometimes none. The odor of all of the samples was faintly vegetable when 
heated. The samples were collected from the reservoir. 



240 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LEOMINSTER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Morse Reservoir, Leominster. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





January. 


March. 


May. 


July. 


Sept. 


Nov. 


Day of examination, .... 
Number of sample, 


26 
21974 


23 
22630 


25 
23292 


27 
24053 


28 
24799 


23 
25465 


PLANTS. 

Diatomacese 

Aeterionella 

Tabellaria, 


4 



4 


3 



1 


518 


508 


62 


60 


104 

26 
45 


2,839 

2,753 

85 


Cyanophycese 

Algee 










. 
10 



16 


8 
18 


4 
10 


ANIMALS. 














Rhizopoda 


pr. 

















Infusoria 

Dlnobrycn 

Malloraonas, 


pr. 









2,998 

2,976 

22 


8 

4 



20 

18 

2 


55 
51 



Vermes 


pr. 








2 








Crustacea, Cyclops 











pr. 


pr. 





Miscellaneous, Zobglcea 


2 


3 


3 


5 


8 


5 


TOTAI 


6 


6 


3,529 


93 


158 


2,913 



Chemical Examination of Water from Fall Brook, above the Fall Brook Reservoir. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 


Appeaeance. 


Kesidub on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

a 

a 
















d 




Albuminoid. | 








c 






o 


>. 


^ 






o 






•c 


•d 


» 






U 


OO 


^ 


•s 


5 


1 






§& 






> 


■a 


c 




s. 


« 


° 


s 


■g 


u 


■3 


o 






o 






an o 
3 O. 


"B. 




bi 






z, 


a 


H 


CO 


O 


H 


J 


&4 


H 


a 


'J2 


o 






o 




1898. 




























21971 


Jan 25 


V.slight. 


Cons., 

floe. 
V. slight. 


.48 


2.50 


1.00 


.0002 


.0116 


.0102 


.0014 


.16 


.0050 


.0001 


.45 


1.1 


22304 


Peb. 22 


V. slight. 


.42 


2.35 


1.15 


.0002 


.0070 


.0068 


.0002 


.18 


.0070,. 0000 


.36 


0.5 


2-2fi2G 


Mar. 22 


None. 


V. slight. 


.45 


1.60 


0.75 


.0004 


.Ul)S4 


.0080 .0004 


.12 


.0020'. 0000 


.88 


0.5 


22970 


Apr. 26 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.60 


1.95 


1.15 


.0000 


.U106 


.0094 .0012 


.12 


.0030 .0000 


.53 


0.6 


23288 


May 24 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.65 


2.25 


1.25 


.0010 


.01K4 


.01 60 .0024!. 15 


.00201.0000 


.56 


0.5 


23623 


June 21 


V.slluht.i Slight. 


.52 


3.10 


1.55 


.0004|.0128 


.0110'. 0018 1.13 


.00.50 .0000 


.61 


1.0 


24050 


July 26 


V. slight.' V. Blight. 


.15 


2.25 


1.15 


.00241.0164 


.0140'. 0024' .11 


.00101.0000 


.29 


0.5 


24398 


Aug. 23 


V. slight. V. slight. 


.55 


3.40 


1.80 


.0002 .0178 


.0I64;.0Ul4i'.10 


. 0020;. TOO 1 


.74 


0.8 


24796 


Sept. 27 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.32 


3.05 


1.65 


.0002 .01.50 


.0136 .0014 


.15 


.0050 


.0001 


.46 


0.6 


25154 


Oct. 25 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.63 


2.90 


1.85 


.00001.0126 


.0118 .0008 


.11 


.0030 


.0000 


.70 


0.3 


25462 


Nov. 22 


None. 


V. slight. 


.41 


2.50 


1.35 


.0006. 0106 


.0092 .0014 


.14 


.0020 


.0000 


.56 


0.3 


25672 


Dec 19 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.31 


2.60 


1.10 


.0002 


.0130 
.0129 


.0102 .0028 


.15 
.16 


.0050 


.0001 
.0000 


.40 
.50 
.60 


0.5 


Av... 


1898 






.46 


2.54 


1.30 


.0005 
.0006 


.0114 


.0015 
.0009 


.0035 


0.6 




' 








Av... 


1897 




.61 


3.01 


1.49 


.0135 


.0126 


.0041 


.0000 


0.5 




1 





Note to analyses of 1898 : Odor, faintly vegetable or none. 
Fall Brook, as it enters the reservoir. 



■ The samples were collected from 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 241 



LEOMINSTER. 

Chemical Examincdion of Water from Fall Brook Reservoir, Leominster. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 

_o 

o 

o 
O 

c 

C 


Appkarancb. 


Kesidce ok 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 

o 
Is 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


ri 

a 

1 

c 

o 






3 


c 
1 


c 

6 




c 
c 

o 




Albuminoid. | 




g 




B 

3 


C3 


•a 
o 
C 


•6 
•a 
1 c 


1 
a 


21972 


1898. 

Jan. 25 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.37 


2.65 


1.10 


.0014.0230 


.0188 


.0042 


.23 


.0060 


.0001 


.43 


1.1 


22305 


Feb. 22 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


2.80 


1.10 


.0028^.0144 


.0114 


.0030 


.20 


.0070 


.0000 


.40 


0.5 


22627 


Mar. 22 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.36 


2.00 


1.00 


.0002.0132 


.0108 


.0024 


.17 


.0060 .0000 


.34 


1.0 


22971 


April 26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.26 


2.60 


1.25 


.0006.0156 


.0124 


.0032 


.19 


.0060 .0001 


.34 


0.5 


23289 


May 24 


V slight. 


Cons. 


.29 


2.45 


1.25 


.0026 .0196 


.0138 


.0058 


.17 


.0030.0000 


.31 


0.5 


23624 


June 21 


None. 


V. slight. 


.17 


2.05 


1.00 


.0010 


.0122 


.0104 


.0018 


.16 


.003o'.0001 

j 


.30 


0.5 


24051 


July 26 


V. slight 


V. slight. 


.16 


2.25 


1.35 


.0018 


.0184 


.0160 


.0024 


.12 


.0010 .0000 

j 


.30 


0.3 


24399 


Aug. 23 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.15 


2.20 


0.90 


.0018 


.0162 


.0152 


.0010 


.13 


.0010 .0000 


.33 


0.3 


24797 


Sept. 27 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.19 


2.15 


1.20 


.0002 .0174 


.0154 


.0020 


.14 


,0020.0001 


.30 


0.3 


25155 


Oct. 25 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.23 


2.25 


1.45 


.0002 .0166 


.0142 


.0024 


.12 


.ooso'.oooo 

1 


.38 


0.3 


25463 


Nov. 22 


iV. slight 


Slight. 


.29 


2.25 


1.25 


.0006 .0172 


.0138.0034 


.15 


.0020 


.0001 


.42 


0.3 


25673 


Dec. 19 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.30 


2.50 


1.10 


.0006 
.0011 


.0188 
.0169 


.0150 
.0139 


.0038 
.0030 


.13 

.16 


.0040 
.0037 


.0002 


.36 

.35 


0.3 


Av . 








.26 


2.35 


1.16 


.0001 


0.5 




li 







Odor, frequently faintly vegetable, occasionally none, sometimes musty. The samples were col- 
lected from the reservoir, at the gate-house, 1 foot beneath the surface. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Fall Brook Beservoir, Leominster. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June. 


July. 


Aug 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 


26 


23 


23 


27 


25 


22 


27 


24 


28 26 


23 20 


Number of sample, .... 


21972 


22305 


22627 


22971 


23289 


23624 


24051 


24399 


24797 25155 25463 


25673 


PLANTS. 
























Diatomacese 


82 





12 


146 


504 


2 





11 


3 


2,360 4,020 


649 


Aelerionella 

Sjnedra 



82 








7 




120 



480 



2 







5 


2 
1 


2,360 



4,000 

1 


642 
4 


Cyanophycese 























3 


25 


5 


20 


2 


Anabsena 

Meriemopcedia 






























3 






25 


5 



20 



2 



Algae 











1 


322 


53 


400 


1 


6 


16 








Protococcus, .... 
Kaphldium 



















140 
176 


53 



400 









6 



16 











Fungi 























6 















242 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



L.EOMIXSTER. 

Microscojncal Examination of Water from Fall Brook Reservoir, Leominster — 

Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 















189S. 














Jan, 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


ANIMALS. 


























Rhizopoda, 























1 














Infusoria 








10 


38 


6 








3 


100 


56 


32 


13 


Cryptomonas 

Diuobryon 










10 




38 



4 
















94 


2 
40 


3 

7 



9 


Vermes, 


1 














1 














2 





Crustacea, Cyclops, . 





pr. 








pr. 








pr. 














Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . 


2 





5 


5 


5 


3 


3 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


Total 


85 





27 


190 


837 


69 


403 


30 


139 


2,442 


4,079 


669 



Chemical Examination of Water from Fall Brook Reservoir, Leominster, collected 

near the Bottom. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


Appbabance. 


Kksiduk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


1 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

a 

a 

s 

1 

o 






'a 
o 


S 

a 

to 


1 


"3 
o 
H 


i 
!l 

o 


El, 


Albuminoid. | 


m 






a 

s 


1 


> 
"3 

(5 


■a 
1 c 

= p. 
m 


c 

■s 

C3 




1898. 




























21973 


Jan. 25 


V. Blight. 


v.slight. 


.31 


2.75 


1.26 


.0022 


.0188 


.0166 


.0022 


.23 


.0070 


.0001 


.38 


0.8 


22306 


Feb. 22 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.39 


2.65 


1.06 


.0016 


.0144 


.0114 


.0030 


.19 


.0080 


.0000 


.39 


0.6 


22628 


Mar. 22 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.34 


2.35 


1.05 


.0008 


.0150 


.0120 


.0030 


.18 


.0070 


.0000 


.34 


0.8 


22972 


Apr. 26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.26 


2.35 


1.10 


.0006 


.0136 


.0106 


.0030 


.18 


.0070 


.0001 


.34 


0.8 


23290 


May 24 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.21 


2.00 


1.00 


.0028 


.0178 


.0134 


.0044 


.19 


.0030 


.0000 


.31 


0.5 


23625 


Juno 21 


None. 


V.slight. 


.19 


2.05 


1.00 


.0008 


.0120 


.0114 


.0006 


.16 


.0060 


.0000 


.30 


0.5 


24052 


July 26 


V. Blight. 


V.slight. 


.19 


2.20 


1.40 


.0036 


.0160 


.0144 


.0016 


.13 


.0000 


.0000 


.29 


0.3 


24400 


Aug. 23 


V.slight. 


Cons. 


.18 


2.05 


1.10 


.0024 


.0224 


.0154 


.0070 


.14 


.0010 


.0000 


.34 


0.6 


24798 


Sept. 27 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.19 


2.30 


1.15 


.0016 


.0190 


.0160 


.0030 


.14 


.0050 


.0000 


.33 


0.5 


25166 


Oct. 25 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.27 


2.55 


1.76 


.0000 


.0180 


.0160 


.0030 


.12 


.0020 


.0000 


.34 


0.3 


25464 


Nov. 22 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


.29 


2.25 


1.20 


.0004 


.0172 


.0146 


.0026 


.16 


.0010 


.0001 


.40 


0.5 


25674 


Dec. 19 


V.slight 


Slight. 


.29 


2.70 


1.36 


.0008 
.0015 


.0176 
.0168 


.0156 
.0139 


.0020 


.15 

1,. 


.0010 
.0040 


.0001 


.36 
.34 


0.6 


Av... 








.26 


2.35 


1.20 


.0029 


.0000 


5 













Odor, generally faintly vegetable or none, sometimes musty. The samples were collected from 

the reservoir, near the gatehouse, about 1 foot from the bottom. 



No. 34.] exa:mination of water supplies. 



243 



LEOMINSTER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water Jrom Fall Brook Reservoir Leominster, col' 

lected near the Bottom. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 
Number of sample 


26 
21973 


23 

22306 


23 

22628 


27 
22972 


25 
23290 


22 
23625 


27 
24052 


24 28 
24400 24798 

! 


26 
25156 


23 

25464 


20 
25674 


PLANTS. 
DiatomaceEe 

Astericnella 

Bynedra 

Cyanophyceee, .... 

Anabsena 

Merismopoedia, .... 

Algsa 

Protococcus 

Kaphidium, ..... 

Fungi, Crenothrix, 


34 


34 














1 









12 

12 





6 


5 














115 


100 






1 







74 


64 






142 

70 
68 




4 



4 






47 

47 





1 


1 






120 

120 




















500 


7 

4 
1 

15 


15 

7 



7 




1,526 

1,524 
















4,820 

4,820 


10 

10 










1,116 

1,113 
3 














ANIMALS. 
Infusoria 

Dinobryon 

Syncrypta 

Vermes, 

Crustacea, Cyclops, . 







1 









1 











pr. 


72 

72 


2 

pr. 












29 

29 







1 

1 


s 




1 









98 

88 

1 



68 

50 
12 

2 




19 

3 



1 




10 

3 



1 




Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, . 


2 


3 


5 


5 


8 


3 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


Total, 


37 


17 


11 


195 


224 


83 


127 


506 


133 


1,601 


4,855 


1,132 



Water Supply of Lexington. 

The water supply is taken from large wells and tubular wells in 
a meadow in the valley of Vine Brook and from a storage reservoir 
on Vine Brook about a mile above the wells. The storage reser- 
voir has an area of 5^2 acres, a capacity of 14,000,000 gallons 
and a water-shed of 0.3 of a square mile, which contains a popu- 
lation of about 30 per square mile. The water of the reservoir 
contains so much organic matter and is otherwise of such poor 



244 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LEXIXGTOX. 

quality that it is used only when the yield from the wells is insuffi- 
cient for the supply of the town. The wells, from which the sup- 
ply is ordinarily obtained, furnish water which is very highly colored 
and contains a large amount of organic matter. In 1897 a mechani- 
cal filter was introduced, the water being passed through a bed of 

charcoal. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the water commis- 
sioners of Lexington, relative to the advisability of allowing ice to 
be cut from the "reservoir of the Lexington water works, may be 
found on page 125 of this volume. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Vine Brook, above the Storage Reservoir 
the Lexington Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Of 





o 

— 

"3 
O 

o 

«> 
■3 

Q 


Appearance. 


Kesidce on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
V 


S 



Nitrogen 

AS 


a 
g 

c 




§0 








3 


1 

CO 




5 


2 



c 



Co 
OS) 




Albuminoid. | 






2 




B 

a 


"3 


■6 
> 


Q 


13 

•a 
1 c 

3S. 


1 

n 


22206 


1898. 
Feb. 14 


None. 


V. slight. 


.39 


5.85 


1.95 


.0024 


.0154 


.0124 


.0030 


.52 


.0950 


.0000 


.35 


2.1 


222S5 


Feb. 18 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.23 


4.45 


1.95 


.0002 


.0124 


.0106 


.0018 


.42 


.0600 


.0000 


.28 


1.4 


22986 


Apr. 27 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.41 


4.50 


1.80 


.0002 


.0260 


.0180 


.0080 


.40 


.0140 


.0001 


.42 


1.3 


23306 


May 25 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.52 


4.80 


2.05 


.0016 


.0500 


.0298 


.0202 


.39 


.0030 


.0002 


.61 


1.6 


23665 


June 22 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.37 


5.75 


2.10 


.0114 


.0186 


.0126 


.0060 


.52 


.0330 


.0006 


.37 


1.8 


24060 


July 27 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.40 


7.75 


3.25 


.0116 


.0166 


.0116 


.0050 


.46 


.0320 


.0010 


.45 


2.1 


24465 


Aug. 29 


Slight. 


V.Blight. 


.18 


6.95 


2.10 


.0038 


.0106 


.0078 


.0028 


.54 


.0690 


.0004 


.20 


2.2 


24812 


Sept. 28 


Decided. 


Cons., 


.50 


7.60 


3.70 


.0056 


.0468 


.0296 


.0172 


.40 


.0240 


.0008 


.96 


2.3 


25172 


Oct. 26 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.27 


6.70 


1.85 


.0012 


.0134 


.0114 


.0020 


.48 


.0740 


.0002 


.36 


2.1 


25460 


Nov. 22 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


5.90 


2.30 


.0010 


.0116 


.0102 


.0014 


.49 


.0410 


.0001 


.38 


2.0 


25784 


Dec. 27 


V. Blight. 


V.Blight. 


.33 


4.15 


1.80 


.0000 


.0112 
.0219 


.0106 


.0006 


.33 
.45 


.0040 
.0371 


.0002 


.41 

.45 


1.1 


Av *. 








.36 


5.92 


2.29 


.0038 


.0153 


.0066 


.0004 


1.8 

















* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has been 
UBed In making the average. 

Odor, vegetable and occasionally none ; sometimes musty or mouldy ; in October, faintly unpleasant, 
becoming distinctly unpleasant and fishy on heating. 



No. 34.1 EXAMINATION OF AVATER SUPPLIES. 



245 



Chemical Examiiiation of Water from the Vine Brook Storage 

Lexington Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



L,T?:XIXGTO]V. 

Reservoir of the 





a 
o 

o 
O 

o 
o 

'S 
a 


Appkakakce. 


Residue on 

EVAPOKA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


c5 

c 
*n 


u 
.24 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■a 

a 

3 

a 




s 








•2 

3 . 


1 

03 




■3 





— 




Albuminoid. | 


'a 


I 




i 

B 

s 


1 


■0 

> 

5 


. 1 
3 0. 


1 

"S 

31 


22205 


1898. 

Feb. 14 


None. 


V. Blight. 


.18 


2.90 


1.25 


.0004 


.0144 


.0118 


.0026 


.0150 


.0000 


0.26 


0.8 


22286 


Feb. 18 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.21 


3.40 


1.55 


.0002 


.0168 


.0130 


.0038 


.35 


.0240 


.0000 


0.34 


0.8 


22632 


Mar. 23 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.37 


4.05 


1.35 


.0038 


.0262 


.0164 


.0098 


.37 


.0150 


.0000 


0.36 


1.8 


22987 


Apr. 27 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.42 


5.50 


2.55 


.0004 


.0262 


.0186 


.0076 


.40 


.0180 


.0000 


0.53 


1.3 


23307 


May 25 


Decided, 


Cons., 


.49 


4.85 


2.25 


.0018 


.0488 


.0288 


.0200 


.44 


.0100 


.0001 


0.59 


1.6 


23666 


June 22 


green. 
Decided. 


green. 
Cons., 


.36 


5.50 


2.40 


.0004 


.0506 


.0326 


.0180 


.45 


.0010 


.0002 


,0.71 


1.7 


24061 


July 27 


Decided. 


green. 
Cons., 


.41 


6.35 


3.50 


.0010 


.0320 


.0192 


.0128 


.36 


.0010 


.0000 


!l.03 


1.3 


24466 


Aug. 29 


Decided. 


green. 
Cons., 


.39 


6.35 


3.25 


.0008 


.0608 


.0348 


.0260 


.40 


.0020 


.0000 


1.01 


1.4 


24813 


Sept. 28 


Decided. 


green. 
Cons., 


.40 


6.95 


3.80 


.0044 


.0552 


.0368 


.0184 


.38 


.0010 


.0000 


1.30 1.4 


25173 


Oct. 26 


Decided. 


V. slight. 


.36 


6.70 


3.15 


.0000 


.0680 


.0336 


.0344 


.40 


.0030 


.0000 


'0.75 1.6 


25461 


Nov. 22 


Decided, 


Cons., 


.75 


7.25 


4.00 


.0036 


.0720 


.0528 


.0192 


.42 


.0010 


.0000 


1.08 1.7 


25785 


Dec. 27 


green. 
Slight. 


Slight. 


.28 


4.25 


1.95 


.0102 


.0280 


.0242 


.0038 


.33 
.39 


.0020 


.0002 


0.61 1.3 


Av.*. 








40 


5.54 


2.69 


.0024 


.0439 


.0282 


.0157 


.0067 


,0000 


0.75 


1.4 















* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has 
been used in making the average. 

Odor, generally none, occasionally distinctly vegetable. On heating, the odor became distinctly 
vegetable or disagreeable and sometimes unpleasant. The samples were collected from the reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Vine Brook Storage Reservoir of the 

Lexington Water Works. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Feb. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 


15 


23 


24 


27 


26 


23 


28 


29 


29 


27 


23 


29 


Number of sample, 


22205 


22286 


22632 


22987 


23307 


23666 


24061 


24466 


24813 


25173 


25461 


25785 


PLANTS. 


























DiatomacesB 








2 


11 


116 


294 


48 


16 


9 


6 


8 


2 


Synedra 








1 


11 


112 


292 


48 


16 


8 


4 


5 





Algse 





34 


40 


200 


9,105 


8,418 


13,003 


12,004 


12,402 


9,006 


8,004 


4,400 


Protococcus, .... 
Raphidium 







34 



40 



200 



9,000 

85 


8,400 
14 


13,000 



12,000 



12,400 



9,000 



8,000 



4,400 




246 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pul). Doc. 



LEXIXGTOX. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Vine Brook Storage Reservoir of the 
Lexington Water Works — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Feb 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria 








40 


10 


62 


8 


60 


129 


59 


12 


8 





Euglena, 

Peridinium, .... 










38 

1 




2 




52 








60 



122 




66 




11 



8 






Vermes 








5 


12 


1 


2 


7 


2 








1 





Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, 








10 


5 


12 10 


15 


8 


10 


15 


8 


3 


Total, 





34 


97 


238 


9,296| 8,732 


13,133 


12,152 


12,480 9,039 


8,029, 4,405 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Wells of the Lexington Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





s 

J 

2 

d 

Q 


Appeakance. 


c 
% 

la 


Ammonia. 


o 


NITBOGKN 
A3 


a 

J 

to 

o 


c 

•H 




s 

3 


is 

u 
a 


1 
•3 


c 

o 
o 


i 

in 


2 
2 

< 


1 




s 
o 


23308 


1898. 

May 25 


V. slight. 


None. 


1.05 


7.75 


.0022 


.0172 


.60 


.1120 


.0001 


0.72 


3.0 


.0060 


24158 


Aug. 4 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.90 


8.50 


.0012 


.0174 


.47 


.0280 


.0001 


0.87 


3.1 


.0060 


24468 


Aug. 29 


None. 


None. 


1.14 


9.80 


.0016 


.0270 


.53 


.0720 


.0000 


1.26 


S.l 


.0180 


24814 


Sept. 28 


None. 


V. slight 


0.80 


9.00 


.0014 


.0178 


.56 


.0640 


.0001 


0.91 


3.3 


.0260 


25174 


Oct. 26 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.37 


11,10 


.0002 


.0144 


.74 


.1080 


.0001 


0.66 


4.4 


.0100 


Av.*. 








0.81 


9.25 


.0013 


.0179 


.60 


.0835 


.0001 


0.81 


3.4 


.0135 













* Where more than one sample has been collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has 
been used in making the average. 

Odor, none. On heating, the odor of No. 24158 became faintly musty, and of Nos. 24814 and 25174, 

faintly vegetable. The samples were collected from a faucet in the pumping station, and represent 

water from the wells before it has passed through the mechanical filter. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF AVATER SUPPLIES. 247 



Chemical Examination of Water 
after passing 



L.EXINGTOX. 

from the Wells of the Lexington Water Works 
through a Mechanical Filter. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







Appearakce. 


s 
o 


Ammonia. 




NiTROGKN 
AS 1 


•a 

a 






1 


S 

cS 


3 

E-i 


1 

■3 


6 


r-2 

3 > 
1 


£ 


'o 
c 

la 

< 


c 
la 


2 




s 

o 


c 

■3 

3 


3 


22985 


1898. 

Apr, 27 


V. slight. 


None. 


.52 


11.20 


.0010 


.0118 


.67 


.1440 


.0002 


.50 


4.9 


.0050 


23309 


May 25 


None. 


None. 


.91 


9.25 


.0020 


.0164 


.56 


.1060 


.0003 


.58 


4.3 


.0070 


24157 


Aug. 4 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.25 


9.60 


.0030 


.0110 


.50 


.0440 


.0002 


.29 


4.5 


.0080 


24467 


Aug. 29 


None. 


None. 


.64 


12.90 


.0088 


.0290 


.53 


.0650 


.0032 


.90 


4.9 


.0170 


24815 


Sept. 28 


None. 


None. 


.20 


10.70 


.0036 


.0102 


.54 


.0400 


.0013 


.42 


5.1 


.0040 


25175 


Oct. 26 


None. 


None. 


.28 
.47 


11.20 


.0000 


.0108 


.73 


.1120 


.0002 


.43 


4.7 


.0020 


Av *. 








10.72 


.0025 


.0138 


.60 


.0913 


.0007 


.50 


4.7 


.0061 













* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has been 
used in making the average. 

Odor, none. The samples were collected from a tap at the pumping station, and represent water 

from the wells that has passed through the mechanical filter. 

Water Supply of Lincoln. 

(See Concord ) 

Water Supply of Longmeadow, 
Chemical Examination of Water from Cooky Brook, Longmeadow. 





[Parts per 


100,000.] 




















u 

o 

o 
O 


Rksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 


Nitrogen 

A3 


a 

s 
o 
O 

c 

01 

ic 
>> 

o 






3 

o 

H 


c 

Is 

o 


b 


Albuminoid. 


1 








"3 
o 


> 

o 

5 


,1 


BD 

•5 


Average of two samples collected in 
January and August, 1898. 


.08 


4.32 


1.17 


.0018 


.0053 


.0041 


,0012 


,19 


.0245 


.0000 


.12 


2.3 



Odor in January, faintly earthy; in August, none. The samples were collected from a faucet at 

the pumping station, while pumping. 

Water Supply of Lowell. 
The sources of supply are three systems of tubular wells. There 
is also a direct connection with the Merrimack River. 

The first system of driven wells, known as the "Cook" wells, 



248 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pul). Doc. 



LOWEIil.. 

consists of 51 6-inch tubular wells and 40 wells of smaller sizes, 
located in the valley of River Meadow Brook, a short distance 
above Plain Street. The wells are driven to depths of from 47 to 
67 feet. The land in which these wells are located is so low that 
at times of high water in the brook it is completely flooded. 

The second system of tubular wells, known as the "Hydraulic" 
wells, is located in the valley of River Meadow Brook, near the 
point where the brook is crossed by the old Middlesex canal in 
Chelmsford, and about a mile above the " Cook" wells. This sys- 
tem consists of 120 2-inch tubular wells, which are driven to an 
average depth of about 45 feet. The wells are located in a meadow, 
in some parts of which there is a considerable depth of peaty soil. 

The third group of wells, known as the "Boulevard" wells, is 
located on the north bank of the Merrimack River, about a quarter 
of a mile above the Lowell dam. This group consists of 169 21/^- 
inch wells, driven to depths varying from 27 to 40 feet. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Merrimack River above Lowell. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 























1 

a 

o 
O 

o 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


'iZ 
o 


XlTROGEN 

AS 


a 

s 

c 
o 
O 






•S 
1 


1 
•3 


o 


'5 


c 
= 5 


S 


Albuminoid. 


1 


p 




JO 

a 


i 


•a 
o 


■6 

3 O, 


i 
1 


S4 


Q 


El 


M 


o 


H 


"J 


u^ 


H 


a 


X 


o 


:z; 


^- 


o 


X 




180S. 




























21886 


Jan. 18 


v. Slight, 


V. Blight. 


.40 


3.50 


1.60 


.0020 


.0146 


.01.34 


.0012 


.18 


.0080 


.0001 


.40 


1.3 


22227 


Feb. 15 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.40 


3.55 


1.35 


.00:54 


.0132 


.0104 


.0028 


.20 


.0070 


.OUOl 


.42 


0.8 


22564 


Mar. 15 


Decided. 


Cons., 
floe. 


.41 


2.50 


1.20 


.0012 


.0160 .0122 


.0038 


.12 


.0000 


.0001 


.43 


1.0 


22913 


April 20 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.48 


3.05 


1.50 


.0022 


.0136 .0122 


.0014 


.15 


.0030 


.0000 


.50 


O.H 


23177 


May 17 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.65 


2.95 


1.40 


.0014 


.0184 .0168 


.0016 


.15 


.0050 


.0000 


.58 


1.0 


23551 


June 14 


V Blight. 


Slight. 


.42 


- 


- 


.0038 


.0214 .0188 


.0026 


.23 


.0080 


.0001 


.50 


0.8 


23988 


July 21 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.21 


4.50 


1.70 


.0022 


.01881. 01561. 0032 


.13 


.0050 


.0002 


.34 


0.8 


24306 


Aug. 16 


Slight. 


Cons. 


..34 


4.15 


1.90 


.0034 


.0176 .0156 .0020 


.19 


.0060 


.0002 


.41 


1.0 


24696 


Sept. 20 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.27 


3.60 


1.60 


.0034 


.0216!. 01681. 0048 


.21 


.0040 


.0002 


.38 


1.3 


25075 


Oct. 18 


V. slight. 


V slight. 


.60 


4.15 


1.90 


.U05U 


.02181.0202 


.0016 


.22 


.0020 


.0001 


.76 


1.4 


25378 


Nov. 15 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.50 


3.25 


1.60 


.0014 


.0172 .0158 


.0014 


.14 


.0030 


.0000 


.70 


0.8 


25701 


Dec. 20 


V.sllght. 


V. slight. 


.36 


3.60 


1.45 


.0022 


.0138 .0124 


.0014 


.16 


.0070 


.0004 


.42 


0.8 


Av... 








.42 


3.53 


1.66 


.0026 


.0173 ni-in 


.0023 


.17 


.0048 


.0001 


.49 


1.0 



















Odor, generally vegetable or musty. The samples were collected from the river, opposite the 

Intake of the Lowell water works. 

For a comparison of the analyses of the river at Lowell and Lawrence for a series of years, see " Mer- 
rimack River," in the chapter on " Examination of Rivers," in a subsequent portion of this report. The 
river has not been used directly as a source of water supply during the year. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



249 



ChemicalExaminationof Water from Tubular Wells in the Valley of River Meadow 
Brook, a Short Distance above Plain Street. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 


Appeakanck. 


§ 

ft 

= > 

2 W 


Ammonia. 


a 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

a 

s 

00 

a 


1 




a 

a 

S2i 


2 


a 


u 


« 


2 
"3 

c 

2 9 


ca 

1 


i 


c 


C3 




■a 


o 


y 




< 


5 


g 


z 


o 


a 


^ 




1S9S. 
























21887 


Jan. 18 


None. 


None. 


.03 


9.80 


.0000 


.0036 


.64 


.0500 


.0001 


.07 


4.7 


.0020 


22228 


Feb. 15 


None. 


V slight. 


.04 


9.80 


.0000 


.0044 


.63 


.0470 


.0000 


.08 


4.0 


.0030 


22555 


Mar. 15 


V. slight. 


V.slieht. 


.04 


9.10 


.0002 


.0036 


.62 


.0500 


.0000 


.10 


3.8 


.0060 


22915 


Apr. 20 


None. 


V Blieht. 


.05 


8.80 


.0000 


.0024 


.59 


.0120 


.0000 


.10 


3.9 


.0040 


23178 


May 17 
June 14 


j None. 


V. Blight. 


.08 


8.10 


.0004 


.0036 


.58 


.0430 


.0000 


.09 


3.8 


.0060 


23553 


None. 


None. 


.04 


8.20 


.0004 


.0042 


.53 


.0400 


.0000 


.14 


3.6 


.0050 


23989 


July 20 


None. 


None. 


.09 


9.60 


.0000 


.0036 


.52 


.0420 


.0000 


.12 


3.5 


.0070 


24307 


Aug. 16 


None. 


V. slight. 


.06 


9.00 


.0006 


.0038 


.50 


.0320 


.0000 


.13 


4.2 


.0130 


25380 


Nov. 15 


None. 


None. 


.05 


8.80 


.0000 


.0048 


.48 


.0350 


.0000 


.12 


3.8 


.0060 


25702 


Dec. 20 


None. 


V. slight. 


.10 


9.00 


.0000 


.0036 


.50 


.0400 


.0000 


.10 


3.5 


.0040 



Averages by Tears. 



1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 



.02 
.02 
.02 
.02 
.06 



7.33 
9.22 
8.37 
8.71 
9.02 



.0003 
.0001 
.0002 
.0008 
.0002 



.0014 
.0024 
.0035 
.0035 
.0038 



.55 
.56 
.53 
.55 
.56 



.0549 
.0323 
.0507 
.0378 
.0392 



.0002 
.0002 
.0000 
.0001 
.0000 



.02 
.05 
.09 
.08 
.10 



2.8 
3.8 
3.8 
3.7 
3.9 



.0078 
.0119 
.0068 
.0041 
.0056 



Note to analyses of 1898 : Odor, none. The samples were collected from the wells which are 

locally known as the " Cook " wells. 



Chemical Examinalioti of Water from Tubular Wells in the Valley of River Meadow 
Brook, a Short Distance above the Old Middlesex Canal in Chelmsford. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 

"S 


Appeakance. 


="2 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

i 

3 
























1 

s 


^5 


2 


1 


t^ 


3 > 

3y 




■a 
o 

c 

29 


a 
o 


CO 


i 


go 

bo 


m 

C 


a 


Q 


3 


•o 


o 


« 


I 


< 


O 


iS 


ts 


o 


S2 


a 




1898. 


























21888 


Jan. 18 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.30 


10.30 


.0086 


.0058 


.38 


.0030 


.0001 


.20 


4.7 


.0330 


22229 


Feb. 15 


Decided. 


Cons., 
floo. 


.20 


9.70 


.0096 


.0072 


.36 


.0050 


.0000 


.21 


3.8 


.0300 


23179 


May 17 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.38 


8.10 


.0086 


.0068 


.38 


.0060 


.0000 


.22 


3.5 


.0470 


23552 


June 14 


Slight, 
milky. 
\ Decided. 


Blight. 


.29 


8.30 ' 


.0092 


.0074 


.37 


,0040 


.0000 


.27 


3.4 


.0350 


23991 


July 20 


Cons. 


.26 


8.70 


.0076 


.0066 


.37 


.0060 


.0001 


.27 


2.9 


.0500 


24698 


Sept. 20 


Deci.ied, 


Cons. 


.28 


8.00 


.0096 


.0084 


.35 


.0070 


,0001 


.27 


3.1 


.0570 


25076 


Oct. 18 


milky. 
Slight, 
milky. 


V. slight. 


.28 


8.40 


.0092 


.0086 


.33 


.0030 


.0001 


.30 


3.6 


.0480 



Averages by Years. 



1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 



11.50 

10.35 

8.79 



.0020 
.0064 
.0080 
.0089 



.0017 
.0047 
.0058 
.0073 



.31 
.32 
.35 
.36 



.0073 .0000 

.0071 1.0001 

.0053 ,0000 

.0049 1.0001 



.05 
.13 
.16 

.25 



3.9 
5.0 
4.8 
3.6 



.0673 
.0697 
.0488 
.0429 



Note to analyses of 1898: Odor, none. The samples were collected from the wells which are 

locally known as the " Hydraulic " wells. 



250 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LOWELL,. 

Chemical Examination of Water from. Tubular Wells in the Valley of the Merri- 
mack River near the Pawtucket Boulevard. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 

B 

Q 


Appeahance. 


i 

3 > 
2j 


Ammonia. 


i 

s 




KITROGEN 
AS 


a 

13 

i 

1 




CO 

c 

•s 

m 




a 


2 

3 

a 


e 

a 

03 


O 


1 


2 
c 

< 


1 


2 


a 




21S89 


1898. 

Jan. 18 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.08 


4.50 


.0104 


.0020 


.27 


.0180 


.0001 


.04 


2.3 


.0140 


22230 


Feb. 15 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


.15 


4.20 


.0102 


.0032 


.26 


.0230 


.0000 


.05 


2.3 


.0200 


22556 


Mar. 15 


None. 


V. slight. 


.11 


4.40 


.0116 


.0018 


.28 


.0430 


.0000 


.04 


2.1 


.0400 


22914 


Apr. 20 


Slight. 


Cons., 
iron. 


.06 


4.50 


.0118 


.0018 


.26 


.0200 


.0000 


.06 


1.8 


.0350 


23554 


June 14 


V. slight. 


None. 


.10 


4.70 


.0148 


.0014 


.29 


.0380 


.0000 


.04 


2.0 


.0160 


23990 


July 21 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.16 


4.30 


.0100 


.0032 


.25 


.0270 


.0000 


.10 


1.8 


.0400 


24308 


Aug. 16 


Slight, 
milky. 


Slight. 


.14 


4.60 


.0098 


.0030 


.27 


.0250 


.0001 


.10 


1.4 


.0280 


24697 


Sept. 20 


Slight, 
milky. 


Slight. 


.17 


4.50 


.0102 


.0040 


.25 


.0150 


.0002 


.09 


1.4 


.0460 


25077 


Oct. 18 


V. Blight, 
milky. 


V. slight, 
brown. 


.12 


4.50 


.0084 


.0054 


.29 


.0160 


.0001 


.13 


1.7 


.0360 


25381 


Nov. 15 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.17 


3.80 


.0070 


.0046 


.25 


.0120 


.0000 


.10 


1.8 


.0280 


25703 


Dec. 20 


Slight. 


Cone., 
floe. 


.20 


4.70 


.0112 


.0028 


.27 


.0350 


.0000 


.10 


2.0 


.0380 



Averages by Years. 



1896 
1897 
1898 



- 


.01 


4.36 


.0044 


.0019 


.30 


.0452 


.0001 


.04 


1.8 


- 


.09 


4.55 


.0096 


.0032 


•24 


.0255 


.0001 


•05 


1.8 


- 


.13 


4.43 


.0105 


.0030 


.27 


.0247 


.0000 


.08 


1.9 



.0093 
.0222 
.0310 



Note to analyses of 1898 : Odor, none, 
locally known as the " Boulevard " wells. 



The samples were collected from the wells which are 



Water Supply of Ludlow. 
(See Springfield.) 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



251 



zrsrss and saugits. 
Water Supply of Lynn and Saugus. 

The sources of supply are Breed's, Birch, Glen Lewis, Walden 
and Hawkes ponds and the Saugus River. Statistics of the differ- 
ent sources are given in the followino; table : — 



SOURCE. 



Area of 
Water 
Surface 
(Acres). 



Maximum 
Depth 
(Feet). 



Avcrape 
Depth 
(Feet). 



Storage 
Capacity 
(Gallons). 



Area of 

Watershed 
(Sq. Miles). 



Population 
Per Sq. 
Mile of 

Watershed. 



Breed's Pond, .... 

Birch Pond 

Glen Lewis Pond, . . . 
Walden Pond, .... 
Hawkes Pond, .... 
SangUB River at Montrose, 
Saugus River at Howlett's Dam, 



58 
82 
36 
128 
75 



263,000,000 
381,000,000 
120,000,000 
403,000,000 
300,000,000 



0.93 
0.66 
0.36 
1.31 
1.92 
11.70 
17.00 



44 

590 
760 



Breed's Pond, which was the original source of supply, was for- 
merly a mill pond which was enlarged by raising the dam when it 
was used for a storage reservoir. Birch Pond is an artificial reser- 
voir, in which the soil was left on the bottom. Glen Lewis and 
Walden ponds are both situated on Penny Brook. The site of 
these reservoirs was originally a swamp, from which the soil was 
not removed when the reservoirs were constructed, but a portion 
has been removed from the bottom of Walden Pond during the past 
few years. Hawkes Pond was constructed in 1897, and was pre- 
pared for the storage of water by the removal of all the soil and 
organic matter, with the exception of small areas where the soil 
was covered with a layer of gravel. 

Water from the Saugus River was originally taken at Howlett's 
Dam, a short distance below the mouth of the Wakefield branch. 
During the year 1898 a connection was made with the river in the 
vicinity of Montrose, above the place where the Wakefield branch 
enters the river, so that water from the river may now be drawn 
into Hawkes Pond. 

A communication from the State Board of Health to the board of 
health of Lynn, relative to the cause of an increased number of 
cases of typhoid fever in that city, may be found on pages 31 to 36 
of this volume. 



252 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



L,YXN AXD SAUGUS. 

Chemical Examination of Water from BreecVs Pond, Lynn. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





d 

o 

"o 
O 

o 
a 

a 


Appkabance. 


Residub on 

EVAPOEA- 
TION. 


Ammokia. 


2 

6 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

a 

3 

a 

6 

s 
to 

5" 
o 






s 


e 

i 

CO 


u 
o 
"3 


"3 

I 


c 


6 


Albuminoid. 


2 


1 




s 

s 
(5 


o 


1 
1 

5 


.1 
to 


S 

o 


21820 


1898. 

JaQ. 11 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.40 


3.75 


1.15 


.0080 


.0190 


.0160 


.0030 


.64 


.0050 


.0001 


.48 


1.4 


22105 


Feb. 8 


V. Slight. 


Slight. 


.49 


3.80 


1.45 


.0050 


.0176 .0154 


.0022 


.64 


.0000 


.0000 


.60 


1.0 


22500 


Mar. 8 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.60 


3.25 


1.25 


.0018 


.0132 .0116 


.0016 


.40 


.0020 


.0000 


.53 


0.8 


22811 


Apr. 12 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.46 


3.50 


1.55 


.0050 


.0158 


.0138 


,0020 


.45 


.0030 


.0004 


.45 


0.5 


23102 


May 10 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.50 


3.20 


1.25 


.0016 


.0162 


.0138 


.0024 


.50 


.0000 


.0001 


.46 


0.5 


23422 


June 7 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.59 


3.50 


1.65 


.0010 


.0168 


.0132 


.0036 


.50 


.0000 


.0001 


.53 


0.8 


23861 


July 12 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.39 


3.40 


1.60 


.0006 


.0218 


.0174 


.0044 


.43 


.0000 


.0000 


.48 


0.5 


24212 


Aug. 8 


V. Blight 


V. slight. 


.30 


2.90 


1.50 


.0002!. 0192 


.0174 


.0018 


.42 


.0000 


.0000 


.43 


0.6 


24615 


Sept. 13 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.42 


3.30 


1.50 


.0010 .0360 .0326 


.0034 


.42 


.0010 


.0000 


.58 


0.8 


24966 


Oct. 11 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.40 


3.55 


1.70 


.0000 .0202 .0178 


.0024 


.45 


.0010 


.0000 


.50 


0.6 


25295 


Nov. 8 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.45 


4.00 


2.20 


.0010 .0236 .0204 


.0032 


.50 


.0010 


.0002 


.64 


0.8 


25614 


Dec. 12 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.50 


3.65 


1.66 


.0014.0180.0172 


.0008 


.48 


.0020 


.0000 


.63 


1.1 


Av... 








.46 


3.48 


1.54 


.0022-0108 .0179 


.0026 


.49 


.0012 


.0001 


.53 


8 





















Odor, generally faintly vegetable, eometimes none. On heating, the odor of some of the samples 
became stronger, and in May, faintly oily. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from BreecVs Pond, Lynn. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 
Number of sample 


12 

21820 


9 
22105 


10 

22500 


13 
22811 


11 

23102 


8 
23422 


14 

23861 


10 
24212 


14 

24615 


12 
24966 


9 

25295 


14 
25614 


PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee 

Astcrlonella 

Cyclotella 

CyanophyceEe, .... 
Anabajna 

Algee 

Raphidlum, 


14 

8 
4 








I 


1 








1 











23 

8 
2 




7 
2 


71 

8 
39 




12 




146 


116 

38 
35 

21 

10 


48 

12 
28 

1 

36 

24 


38 


5 

2 

2 

10 
6 


143 

110 





25 

24 


195 

114 

2 

6 
6 

29 

29 


77 

12 
5 

3 
3 

23 
23 


13 












No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



253 



LYXN AND SAUGUS. 

Microsco2ncal Examination of Water from Breed's Po7i(l, Lynn — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



ANIMALS. 
Rhizopoda, . 

Infusoria, 

Dinobryon, . 
Raphidomonas, . 

Vermes, . 
Miscellaneous, Zobgloea, 
Total, . 



Apr. 



21 4 



May. 



93 



July. 



Aug. 



164 61 



Sept. 



5 5 



253 110 



Chemical Examination of Water from Birch Pond, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Lynn. 





o 

o 
O 

o 
Q 


Appeabancb. 


Residub on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

1 

a 
to 

>. 

X 

o 






is 

"Z 

hi 
S 

H 


1 
■a 


o 
o 
O 


t 
O 


3 
1 


i 


Albuminoid. | 


1 






1 

s 
!5 




•a 
'> 
o 

5 


•6 

•a 

= P. 


1 
•3 

OS 

K 


21821 


1898. 

Jan. 11 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.38 


3.55 


1.45 


.0042 


.0172 


.0166 


.0006 


.67 


.0090 


.0001 


.34 


1.3 


22106 


Feb. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.50 


4.25 


1.60 


.0064 


.0210 


.0190 


.0020 


.73 


.0120 


.0000 


.46 


1.8 


22501 


Mar. 8 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


2.95 


1.00 


.0028 


.0090 


.0078 


.0012 


.50 


.0120 


.0001 


.24 


0.8 


22812 


Apr. 12 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


3.15 


1.50 


.0006 


.0204 


.0180 


.0024 


.57 


.0070 


.0000 


.34 


0.8 


23103 


May 10 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.31 


3.35 


1.40 


.0002 


.0166 


.0150 


.0016 


.57 


.0020 


.0001 


.30 


0.8 


23423 


June 7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.28 


3.50 


1.45 


.0006 


.0190 


.0120 


.0070 


.56 


.0010 


.0002 


.30 


0.5 


23862 


July 12 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.24 


3.40 


1.30 


.0022 


.0270 


.0225 


.0044 


.50 


.0000 


.0000 


.34 


1.0 


24213 


Aug. 9 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.28 


3.70 


1.20 


.0016 


.0194 


.0166 


.0028 


.56 


.0010 


.0000 


.32 


1.3 


24616 


Sept. 13 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.23 


3.35 


1.35 


.0006 


.0320 


.0258 


.0062 


.50 


.0020 


.0000 


.40 


1.1 


24967 


Oct. 11 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.20 


3.65 


1.85 


.0000 


.0238 


.0204 


.0034 


.46 


.0000 


.0000 


.35 


0.8 


25296 


Nov. 8 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.20 


3.70 


1.60 


.0006 


.0220 


.0180 


.0040 


.48 


.0020 


.0000 


.34 


0.8 


25615 


Dec. 12 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.21 


3.50 


1.50 


.0004 


.0206 


.0160 
.0173 


.0046 


.51 
.55 


.0000 
.0040 


.0000 
.0000 


.34 
.34 


1.3 


Av... 








■^8 


3.50 


1.42 


.0017 


.0207 


.0034 


1.0 








1 





Odor of the last sample, distinctly fishy and oily; of the others, vegetable or none, becoming some- 
times stronger and occasionally fishy on heating. 



254 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LYNN AND SAUGUS. 

Microscojncal Examination of Water from Birch Po7id, Lynn. 

[Number of organismB per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of ezamination 


12 


9 


10 


13 


11 


8 


14 


10 


14 


12 


9 


14 


Number of sample, .... 


21821 


22106 


22501 


22812 


23103 


23423 


23862 


24213 


24616 


24967 


25296 


25615 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomaceee, .... 


1 


6 





29 


102 


172 


32 


131 


562 


320 


120 


10 


ABterionella 

By tied ra, 

Tabellaria 







1 











20 
4 


46 
28 
20 


82 
20 
50 


5 

9 


58 
1 
67 


324 



226 


268 

6 

18 


16 
100 

1 


9 




Cyanophyceee, .... 

















6 


4 


30 





10 


13 





Anabsena, 

Merismopoedla 






















6 




4 


14 
16 






6 



12 








Algee, 











24 


63 


28 


8 


7 





232 


88 


9 


Ilapbldium, . . . . . 











4 


10 


26 


8 


7 





230 


76 


1 


ANIMALS. 


























Rhlzopoda 




















2 

















Infusoria, 





2 





162 


25 


2 


6 


2 


32 


30 


19 


14 


Ciliated infusorian, 

Dinobryon 

Trachelomonae 

Uroglena 




















12 

140 







25 













1 






2 








20 






12 




4 

8 
4 








10 


Vermes, 











1 





4 











4 








Crustacea 





pr. 


pr. 


pr. 











pr. 





pr. 








Boemina, 

Cyclops 

Dapbula 








pr. 
pr. 




pr. 






pr. 



























''6 

pr. 












Miscellaneous, Zobgloea, . 





3 


3 


3 


5 


3 


5 





8 


10 


5 





Total 


1 


11 


8 


219 


195 


215 


57 


170 


602 


606 


245 


33 



No. 34.] EXAINHNATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



255 



liYNN AND S AUG US. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Walclen Pond, Lynn. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 

1 

o 

I 


Appeakance. 


Kesidok on 

EVArORA- 
TIOK. 


Ammonia. 


1 


Nitrogen 

A3 


•s 

a 

3 

s 
o 

o 








1 

•3 


o 
o 
O 


"3 


S 
1% 
I 


£ 


Albuminoid. 


u* 

2 


g 




1 

a 
'A 




> 
o 


■6 

■a 

1 c 


a 

a 

33 




1898. 






















1 






21822 


JaD. 11 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.05 


4.60 


2.40 


.0016 


.0334 


.0288 


.0046 


.57 


.0150 


.0001 


.86 


1.0 


22107 


Feb. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


4.50 


2.00 


.0044 


.0298 


.0284 


.0014 


.54 


.0060 


.0001 


.86 


1.1 


22502 


Mar. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.61 


3.25 


1.50 


.0004 


.0206 


.0152 


,0054 


.32 


.0030 


.0000 


.65 


0.6 


22813 


Apr. 12 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.48 


2.90 


1.50 


.0018 


.0272 


.0192 


.0080 


.32 


.0020 


.0001 


.49 


0.5 


23104 


May 10 


V.slight. 


Slight. 


0.49 


3.35 


1.55 


.0000 


.0240 


.0184 


.0056 


.40 


.0000 


.0000 


.49 


0.5 


23424 


June 7 


Slight. 


V.slight. 


0.60 


3.45 


1.55 


.0012 


.0250 


.0208 


.0042 


.40 


.0040 


.0001 


.53 


0.3 


23863 


July 12 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.57 


3.00 


1.75 


.0010 


.0346 


.0262 


.0084 


.40 


.0010 


.0000 


.58 


0.5 


24214 


Aug. 9 


V.slight. 


Cons. 


0.42 


3.35 


1.80 


.0002 


.0242 


.0204 


.0038 


.39 


.0000 


.0000 


.50 


0.5 


24617 


Sept. 13 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.67 


3.25 


1.75 


.0004 


.0450 


.0380 


.0070 


.35 


.0020 


.0000 


.74 


0.5 


24968 


Oct. 11 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.46 


3.95 


2.50 


.0000 


.0374 


.0314 


.0060 


.33 


.0000 


.0000 


.67 


0.8 


25297 


Nov. 8 


V.slight. 


Slight. 


0.63 


3.60 


1.40 


.0002 


.0292 


.0262 


.0030 


.34 


.002o|.0000 


.71 


0.3 


25618 


Dec. 12 


Slight. 


V.slight. 


0.60 


3.70 


2.00 


.0008 
.0010 


.0268 
.0298 


.0244 


.0024 
.0050 


.35 
.39 


.0020 


.0000 


.81 

.66 


0.6 


Av... 








0.63 


3.57 


1.81 


.0248 


0031 


0.6 















Odor in April, distinctly fishy, becoming strongly fishy and musty on heating; in May, none, be 
coming distinctly flahy on healing; at other times, generally faintly vegetable, sometimes none, becom- 
ing stronger on heating. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Walclen Pond, Lynn. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.' Dec 



Day of examination, . 
Number of sample, . 



12 

21822 



22107 



10 

22502 



13 11 

2281323104 



23424 



14 

23863 



10 
24214 



14 12 
24617 2496825297 



14 

25618 



PLANTS. 
Diatomaceae, 

Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 



Cyanophycese, 

Anabsena, 



Alg88, 

Arthrodesmus, 



1,340 

1,248 
22 



44 



368 



142 

198 



1,092 

760 
292 



1,808 

1,750 
4 



32 



52 



256 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LTNX AXD SAUGUS. 

Microscopical Exammaiion of Water from Walden Pond, Lynn — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 



ANIMALS 
Rhizopoda, . 

Infusoria, 

DInobryon, . 
Kuglt'Ua, 
Periilinium, . 
Synura, . 

TrachelumonaB, . 
Uroglenu, 

Vermes, . 

Crustacea, . 

Cyclops, 
Daphiiiu, 



2,628 232 



2,536 212 
48 



pr. 
pr. 



pr. 



MiBcellaneous, Zooglcea, 



10 10 



Total, , 



157 



2,730 



1,585 



Chemical Examination of Water fror)i Olen Lewis Po7id, Lynn. 

[Parts per 100.000.] 











Residue on 
















Appeabancb. 




Eva 


r-ORA- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 








O 






TION. 








id 

a 

c 














C 




Albuminoid. 








.a 

a 


d 

o 


2 
3 


1 


o 


a 


fl 




« 


> 

O 


•d 
1 c 


o 


S 
S 


1^ 


6 

c 


«0 

S 


>5 
































-^ 






o 


H 




f^ 


E^ 


a 


tc 


O 


^ 


!zi 


o 


S 




1898. 


1 
























21825 


Jan. 11 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.40 


3.70 


1.90 


.0046 


.O.'^U 


.0274 .0040 


.57 


.0130 


.0001 


.56 


0.8 


22110 


Feb. 8 


V. Slight. 


Blight. 


.30 


3.70 


1.40 


.0040 


.024'.; 


.02001.0042 


..56 


.OOoOi.OOOO 


.41 


0.8 


2J.i03 


Mar. 8 


Klight. 


Cons., 
earthy. 


.22 


2.75 


1.00 


.0006 


.0198 


.0086 


.0112 


.34 


.0050 .0000 


.26 


0.5 


22816 


Apr. 12 


V.Blight. 


Slight. 


.28 


2.75 


1.15 


.0006 


.0202 


.0168 


.00.^4 


.28 


.0010 .0000 


..'^O 


O.,"! 


23107 


Way 10 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.27 


3.00 


1.10 


.0010 


.0244 


.0194 


.0050 


.41 


.0000 .0000: 


.34 


O..^ 


23427 


June 7 


V. slight. 


Cong. 


.49 


3.15 


1.50 


.0060 


.()'>44 


.0166 


.0078 


..SP 


.0030 '.0002 


.44 


0.9. 


23M67 


July 12 


Slight. 


Heavy. 


.60 


3.40 


1.30 


.0128 


.04H0 


.0280!.0210||.38 


.0000 .0000 


.51 


O.ft 


24217 


Aui(. 9 


Hllght. 


Cons. 


..50 


3.95 


2.30 


.0404 


.0658 


.0324 .0324' .36 


.0020 


.0002 


.43 


0.5 


24620 


8ept. 13 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.60 


4.55 


2.60 


.0010 


.0810 


.0472 


.0338i 


.36 


.0010 


.0000 


.67 


0,6 


24971 


Oct. 11 


Blight. 


Cons , 
green. 


.41 


4.70 


2.95 


.0080 


.0692 


.0452 


.0240 


.36 


.0030 


.0000 


.64 


0.5 


25300 


Nov. 8 


V. slight. 


Cons , 
green. 


.41 


4.05 


2.25 


.0002 


.0462 


.0352 


.0110 


.37 


.0020 


.0000 


.59 


0.3 


25678 


Dec. 19 


V.ellght. 


V.Blight. 


.30 


3.85 


1.35 


.0002 
.0066 


.0264 
.0393 


.0206 
.0264 


.0058 
.0129 


.39 
.40 


.0010 


.0001 


.40 
.46 


0.5 


Av... 








.40 


3.63 


1.73 


.0030 


.0000 


0.6 











Odor, vegetable or mouldy and occasionally fishy or oily, becoming stronger and alec sometlraeB 
grassy on heating. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 257 



LY:?*™^ AISTD SAUGUS. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Glen Leivis Pond, Lynn. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 


12 


9 


10 


13 


11 


8 


14 


10 


14 


12 


9 


20 


Number of sample, .... 


21825 


22110 22505 


22816 


23107 


23427 


23867 


24217 


24620 


24971 


25300 


25678 


PLANTS. 


























DiatomacesB 








28 


72 


44 


2 


6 


4 





24 


184 


2 


Asterionella, .... 








22 


12 


32 














8 


121 





Cyanopliycese 

















5 


128 


1,356 


324 


73 


15 


1 


Anabsena, 

Clathrocystis, .... 
Coelospbserium 




























3 



30 

98 



1,336 

14 

6 


96 



228 



64 



2 
2 
3 




1 




Algse 














1 


4 


1 





10 


15 


517 


4 


Protococcus, .... 
































500 





Fungi, Crenothrix, 























1,720 





" 








ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria 


49 


58 


188 


130 


14 


5 


15 


54 


10 


11 


64 


347 


Dinobryon 

Peridinium, 

Trachelomonas, .... 
Uroglena, 


7 

42 






8 

48 

1 






180 






108 

20 



1 


5 


1 
7 



4 






9 











10 







11 





12 
62 




227 

112 

3 

2 


Vermes 











4 





1 











1 


3 


1 


Crustacea, Cyclops, . 





" 











pr. 








pr. 


pr. 








Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . 











6 





3 


5 





10 


15 


3 





Total 


49 


58 


216 


212 


59 


20 


155 


3,134 


354 


139 


766 


355 



258 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LYNN AND SAUGUS. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Haiokes Pond, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Lynn. 





s 
o 

"3 
o 

o 


Appearance. 


Residub on 

EVAPOEA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


o 
.63 


NiTBOGEN 
AS 


•6 

1 

s 

1 






■3 


3 


5 


2 

o 


i 
1 


6 


Albuminoid. 








c 

S 

s 


1 


> 
1 

5 


, c 
So. 


c 


21823 


1S98. 

Jan. 11 


Blight. 


V.Blight. 


.90 


5.80 


2.30 


.0024 


.0266 


.0228 .0038 


.0210 


.0001 


.81 


1.8 


22108 


Feb. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.62 


4.05 


1.60 


.0066 


.0180.0162 


.0018 


.44 


.0060 


.0001 


.62 


1.0 


22503 
22815 


Mar. 8 
Apr. 12 


Slight. 
V. Blight. 


Slight, 

earthy. 
V.Blight. 


.60 
.45 


3.65 
4.00 


1.80 
1.85 


.0014 
.0006 


.0152.0142 
.0198 .0174 


.0010 
.0024 


.34 

.44 


.0060 
.0090 


.0001 
.0001 


.52 
.52 


1.1 
1.3 


23105 


May 10 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.62 


3.50 


1.40 


.0004 


.0198 .0156 


.0042 


.47 


.0040 


.0002 


.55 


1.3 


23425 


June 7 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.70 


4.00 


1.65 


.0012 


.0282.0186 


.0096 


.43 


.0000 


.0003 


.66 


1.1 


23864 


July 12 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.39 


3.85 


1.95 


.0008 


.0262 


.0236 


.0026 


.44 


.0010 


.0000 


.51 


1.0 


24215 


Aug. 9 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.28 


3.60 


1.70 


.0018 


.0218 .0186 


.0032 


.38 


.0000 


.0000 


.45 


1.0 


24618 


Sept. 13 


Slight. 


V.Blight. 


.29 


3.50 


1.60 


.0006 


.0272 .0240 


.0032 


.35 


.0000 


.0000 


.53 


1.0 


24969 


Oct. 11 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.34 


3.75 


2.00 


.0004 


.0268 .0218 


.0050 


.40 


.0000 


.0001 


59 


1.7 


25298 


Nov. 8 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.41 


4.05 


1.65 


.0006 


.0222 .0154 


.0068 


.44 


.0020 


.0000 


.50 


0.8 


25617 


Dec. 12 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.47 


4.55 


2.10 


.0022 
.0016 


.0212 
.0227 


.0192 


.0020 
.0038 


.41 
.43 


.0040 
.0044 


.0000 


.55 
.57 


1.4 


Av... 








.51 


4.02 


1.80 


.0189 


.0001 


1.2 













Odor, generally faintly vegetable, becoming stronger and sometimes also tiehy on heating. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from Hawkes Pond, Lynn. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample. 



PLANTS, 
Diatomaceee, 

Diutomn, 
Synedra, 

Cyanophyceee, . 
Anaboina, 

Algee, 



189S. 



12 
21823 



Apr. 



13 

22815 










May. 



July. 



231051 23425 23864 



161 

1 

136 



Aug. 



10 
24215 



Sept. 



14 
24618 



12 

24969 



9 
25298 



33 


186 





140 


22 


30 





2 















14 
25617 



Ko. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



259 



LYNX AXD SAUGTJS. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Eawkes Pond, Lynn — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 


• 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Ang. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


ANIMALS. 
























Rhizopoda, 








2 








0, 

















Infusoria, 








124 


38 


942 


1,250i 10 


2,282 


94 


512 


1 


10 


Cryptomonas, .... 

Diaobryon 

Peridinium 

Uroglena, 














10 

68 

32 

4 


1 
33 

1 
2 


2 

940 







744 
600 





2 
6 





2,240 

36 






79 

6 






508 

2 













4 
5 


Vermes, 











1 





6 











6 


1 





Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, . 


3 








5 


8 


3 


5 


5 


5 


10 


5 


7 


Total 


10 





126 


89 


1,115 


1,331; 37 


2,377 


132 1 716 


12 


22 



Chemical Examination of Water from 

[Parts per 100 



the Saugus River at Montrose. 

,000.] 





s 
_o 

o 

o 
O 

"S 

a 
"S 

a 


Appbaeance. 


Kesiddk on 1 

KVAPOEA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


s 

c 

5 


Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

a 
m 
= 
o 

a 

to 

>, 

X 

o 








6 


1 


c 
S 




Albuminoid. 


1 


1 




s 

a 


"•5 
€ 

s 
6h 


i 

a 

a: 


5 

C 


■c 

1 

5 


s o. 

30 


OD 

•s 


23108 


1898. 

May 10 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.12 


6.15 


2.35 


.0006.0280 


.0260 


.0020 


.68 


.0020 


.0000 


0.97 


2.5 


23428 


June 7 


None. 


V. slight. 


1.50 


6.90 


3.15 


.0010.0320 


.0314 .0006 


.58 


.0010 


.0002 


1.23 


2.7 


23868 


July 12 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.68 


8.20 


3.35 


.0032 .0336 

j 


.0326 .0010 


.76 


.0010 


.0000 


0.89 


3.6 


24218 


Aug. 9 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


1.40 


9.55 


4.90 


.0034 


.0536 


.0458 .0078 


.52 


.0020 


.0001 


1.70 


3.5 


24621 


Sept. 13 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.66 


8.40 


3.90 


.0140 


.0386 


.0346 .0040 


.70 


.0030 


.0001 


0.62 


3.1 


24973 


Oct. 11 


V. slight. 


Cons., 


0.87 


7.30 


3.25 


.0076 


.0500 


.0322 .0178 


.63 


.0000 


.0000 


1.06 


2.7 


25302 


Nov. 8 


V. slight. 


earthy. 
Cons., 


0.85 


6.60 


3.25 


.0032 


.0392 


.03021.0090 


i 
.55 


.0020 


.0000 


0.99 


2.9 


25679 


Dec. 19 


V. slight. 


earthy. 
Slight. 


0.68 


7.30 

i 


2.70 


' .0018 
.0043 


.0286 
,O.S80 


.0238 


.0048 


■1 

.65 


|.0100 


.0003 
.0001 


! 
0.86 

1.04 


2.7 


Av... 








0.97 


7.55 


3.36 


.0321 


.0059 


.0026 


3.0 

















Odor, vegetable or musty , 



260 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LYNX AXD SAUGUS. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Saugus River at the Line betweeyi Saugus 
and Wakefield^ and just above the Point where it is joined by the Wakefield Branch. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 
O 


Appearakce. 


Residde on 

KVAPORA- 

TION. 


Ammonia. 




NiTBOGEK 
AS 


a 






1 










^ 




Albuminoid. 




a 






o 


sA 


■s 






a 






^ 


V 


« 





oa 






























3 


o 
o 

IS 


"3 


S 
9 


S 


o 


05, 


i 


"3 



ao 


s 0. 





s 


ifrlte 
xyge 




Z 


« 


H 


M 


u 




^ 


bt 


H 


a 


CO 





Zi 


1^ 


\ 


a 




1898. 




























21826 


Jan. 11 


V. Slight. 


Cons., 
sand. 


1.06 


8.75 


3.60 


.0016 .0354 .0334 


.0020 


.96 


.0080 


.0001 


1.04 


3.6 


22111 


Feb. 8 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


7.40 


2.85 


.0020 .0272.0266.0006 


.80 


.0030 


.0000 


0.96 


3.5 


22506 


Mar. 8 


V. slight. 


Cods., 
earthy. 


0.70 


5,75 


2.20 


.0014 .0250 .0232|.0018 


.70 


.0020 


.0001 


,0.72 


2.5 


23063 


May 3 


V. slight. 


Slight. 1.10 


5.75 


2.65 


.0020 .03541.0348 .0006 


.66 


.0020 


.0000 


0.95 2.2 


23429 


June 7 


None. 


Slight. 


1.70 


6.85 


3.30 


.0016 .03601. 0330L0030 


.56 


.0016 


.0002 


1.28 2.7 


23866 


July 12 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.70 - 9.05 


3.35 


.0030 .0322 .0304 .0018 


.77 


.0010 


.000010.79; 3.8 


24219 


Aug. 9 


V. slight 


V. slight. 


1.4511 9.40 


4.65 


.0032 .0508 .0456 .0052 


.53 


.0020 


.000l|:i.68l 3.5 


24622 


Sept. 13 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.70 


8.55 


3.70 1 


.0104!. 0344 .0322. 0022 


.69 


.0060 .0002'!. 05' 3.3 


24972 


Oct. 11 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.90 


7.70 


3.85 , 


.0132 .0416. 03221.0094 


.59 


.0030;.0001l 1.14i 2.5 


25301 


Nov. 8 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


0.95 


7.20 


3.05 


.0038 


.0340 .0312 


.0028 


.63 


.OOlOi.OOOl 


1.041 2.7 


25619 


Dec. 12 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.68 


7.30 


3.10 


.0008 


.0270 


.0254 


.0016 


.70 
.69 


.0080 .0001 
.0034 nnni 


0.84 
1.04 


2.7 


Av... 








0.99 


7.61 


3.30 


.0039 


.0344 


.0316 


.0028 


3.0 





















Odor, generally faintly vegetable, sometimes mouldy or musty, becoming stronger and also disa- 
greeable on heating. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Saugus River at HowletVs Dam, Saiigus. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













KESIDnS ON 






1 








5 


Appeakance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


^ 












tion. 






1 ^' 


a 

c 














c 




Albuminoid. 








.0 

a 

s 



S 


3 


c 
1 





« 


1" 


6 


"5 


•a 

1 



•a 






1 




c 
to 


CO 

oo 

S 


^ 





6- 


OJ 


u 


Eh 


^ 


f^ 


H 


a 


00 





K 


^ 1 





« 




1898. 






















i 






21824 


Jan. 11 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


! 8.90 


3.40 


.0088 


.0346 


.0322 


.0024 


1.11 


.0250 


.0003 


0.94 


3.1 


22109 


Tub. 8 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.93 


' 7.95 


2.80 


.0128 


.0246 


.0220 


.0026 


1.10 


.0330 


.0003 


0.,86 


3.8 


22504 


Mar. 8 


Slight. 


V. slight 


0.70 


' 6.00 


2.50 


.00161.0234 


.0200 


.0034 


0.76 


.0130 .0002 


0.65 


2.3 


22814 


Apr. 12 


V.Blight. 


Slight. 


0.88 


6.50 


2.65 


.0040 


.0302 


.0276 


.0026 


0.74 


.0130 .0004 


0.72 


2.2 


23106 


May 10 


V.slight. 


V. slight. 


1.00 


6.45 


2.35 1 


.0010 


.02541.0244 


.0010, 


0.81! .00501.0004 


0.49 


2.3 


23426 


June 7 


V. slight. 


V. slight 


1.40 


! 6.95 


3.15 


.0022 


.03301.0314 


.0016 


0.67, .02001.0002 


1.19 


2.3 


23865 


July 12 


: Decided. 


Cons. 


0.80 


8.30 


3.45 


.0056 


.0458 .0.366 


.0092 


1.03' .OOlOi.OOOO 


0.79 


3.5 


24216 


Aug. 9 


i V.Blight. 


Slight. 


0.94 


6.95 


3. .30 


.00.54 


.03741.0362 


.0012 


0.60| .0010 .0000 


1.00 


2.5 


24619 


Sept. 13 


V. slight. 


V.Blight. 


0.70 


8.40 


3.85 


.0012 


.0382 .0366 


.0016 


0.881 .OO20I.OOOI 


1.06 


3.3 


24970 


Oct. 11 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.96 


8.20 


4.40 


.0016 


.04.32 .04U2|.0030| 


0.76 .0060! .0001 


1.22 2.7 


25299 


Nov. 8 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.95 


7.70 


3.06 


.0046 


.02901.0276 


.00141 


0.70,1. 0020!. 0002 


0.98 


2.7 


25616 


Dec. 12 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


0.49 


7.60 


2.45 


.0024 


.0204 


.0190 


.0014 


0.95 
0.84 


.0770 


.0004 

.0002 

1 


0.61 
0.88 


3.0 


Av... 








0.90 


7.41 


3.11 


.0043 


.0321 


.0295 


.0026 


.0164 


2.8 











Odor, generally vegetable and occasionally musty, becoming stronger on heating. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



261 



LY^rX AND SATJGUS. 

Chemical Examination of Water from a Faucet in Lynn supplied from the Lynn 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


Appkakaxce. 


RESIDDK OS 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 
O 


UlTROGEN 

AS 


1 

c 
o 

o 

c 

01 

en 

o 






s 

H 


1 


c 

o 
o 
O 


"3 
o 


d 
J 

r 


6 


Albuminoid. 






.a 

a 
1 


"3 
o 


■d 

> 

1 

5 


i 

, c 

3 a. 


00 

1 




a 

•s 




i 

1898. 




























21827 


Jan. 11 


V. Slight. 


Slight. 


.50 


4.25 


1.65 


.0008 


.0176 


.0172 


.0004 


.68 


.0150 


.0000 


.42 


1.6 


22112 


Feb. 8 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.69 


4.90 


1.80 


.0036 


.0198 


.0186 


.0012 


.54 


.0100 


.0002 


.67 


1.4 


22507 


Mar. 8 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.54 


3.75 


1.60 


.0006 


.0154 


.0140 


.0014 


.47 


.0030 


.0000 


.49 


1.0 


22817 


Apr. 12 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.41 


3.40 


1.40 


.0006 


.0150 


.0136 


.0014 


.38 


.0080 


.0000 


.44 


0.8 


23109 


May 10 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.41 


3.45 


1.25 


.0004 


.0138 


.0126 


.0012 


'.50 


.0030 


.0000 


.44 


0.8 


23430 


June 7 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.52 


3.40 


1.60 


.0006 


.0182 


.0132 


.0050 


.44 


.0010 


.0001 


.48 


1.0 


23869 


July 12 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.47 


3.45 


1.40 


.0002 


.0204 


.01921.0012 


.40 


.0030 


.0000 


.47 


0.8 


24220 


Aug. 9 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.32 


3.60 


1.65 


.0008 


.0164 


.0152 


.0012 


.36 


.0050 


.0001 


.37 


1.0 


24623 


Sept. 13 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.37 


3.75 


1.75 


.0004 


.0178 


.0164 


.0014 


.38 


.0030 


.0000 


.46 


1.0 


24974 


Oct. 11 


Slight, 

milky. 
V. slight. 


Cods. 


.39 


3.80 


1.50 


.0002 


.0184 


.0180 


.0004 


.44 


.0020 


.0000 


.36 


1.6 


25303 


Nov. 8 


V. Blight. 


.35 


3.75 


1.50 


.0002 


.0170 


.0162 .0008 


.44 


.0010 


.OOOOj 


.45 


1.1 


25680 


Dec. 19 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.45 


3.50 


1.45 


.0006.0176 

1 
.0007-017.'? 


.0168 .0008 


.44 
.46 


.0020 


.0001 


.53 

.46 


1.1 


Av... 








.45 


3.75 


1.55 


.0159 


.0014 


.0047 


.oooo! 


1.1 

















Odor of the first six samples, vegetable and sometimes musty; of the next two, none; of the others, 
none, becoming faintly vegetable on heating. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from a Faucet in Lynn supplied from the 

Lynn Water Works. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination 


12 


9 


10 


13 


11 


8 


1 
14 10 


14 


12 


9 


20 


Number of sample 


21827 


22112 22507 


22817 


23109 


23430 


23869 


24220 


24623 


24974 


25303 


25680 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomacese 


10 


2 


2 


16 


76 


63 


24 


3 


9 


59 


6 


12 


Syuedra 





1 


1 


16 


54 


5 











9 





3 


Cyanophyceae 

















1 











1 








Algae, 











4 


15 


10 


25 








10 


1 






262 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



I.YNN AND SAUGUS. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from a Faucet in Lynn supplied from the 
Lynn Water Works — Concluded. 

[Number of organiBme per cubic centimeter.] 





189S. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria 


1 


3 


3 


161 


17 


5 


36 


2 





IS 


1 


2 


Dinobryon, 

Trachelomonas 







1 






153 



17 



2 

1 


11 
25 




1 






1 
12 


1 







Vermes 





1 





2 


1 


1 


2 

















Crustacea, Branchipus, 























pr. 














Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . 


3 


3 


3 


3 


5 


10 


5 





3 


35 


3 


3 


Total 


4 


9 


8 


186 


114 


90 


92 


5 


12 


120 


11 


17 



Water Supply or Malden. 
(See also Metropolitan Water District, pages 133-160.) 

The lower portions of Maiden, together with the city of Meclford 
and the town of Melrose, were supplied from Spot Pond in Stone- 
ham until Jan. 21, 1898, and during the remainder of the year from 
the Metropolitan Works. The high-service district was supplied 
with water taken from the system of tubular wells at Webster Park 
in Maiden until the latter part of 1898, since which time both the 
high and low service districts have been supplied with water from 
the Metropolitan Works. 

The system at Webster Park consists of 99 tubular wells driven 
through gravel to rock. The average depth of the wells is about 
60 feet. There is a large population in the territory about the 
wells, but there are no dwelling-houses in their immediate vicinity. 
The following table gives the results of chemical analyses of monthly 
samples of water from the wells and yearly averages of analyses made 
in former years. The hardness of the water has increased greatly 
since the works were first constructed. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATEK SUPPLIES. 263 



MALDEN, 

Chemical Examination of Water from the lubular Wells at Maplewood {Webster 

Park), Maiden. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 
O 

o 
I 


Appearance. 


!l 
3 > 


Ammonia. 





Nitrogen 

AS 


"2 
a 

3 




c 

■s 

a 

B5 




u 

1 

a 
Izi 




1 
■3 




5 


1 


•6 


c 

< 


u 


^ 


i 


21761 


189S 

Jan. 


"4 


None. 


None. 


.00 


29.20 


.0006 


,0024 


2.50 


.5200 


.0000 


.03 


17.5 


.0060 


22088 


Feb. 


7 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.03 


24.00 


.0024 


.0054 


2.46 


.3300 


.0001 


.10 


13.3 


.0020 


22410 


Mar. 


1 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.05 


30.80 


.0140 


.0040 


2.92 


.3900 


.0000 


.04 


15.0 


.0800 


22769 


Apr. 


7 


V.Blight. 


V. slight. 


.02 


27.00 


.0006 


.0018 


2.90 


.3600 


.0000 


.04 


11.2 


.0020 


23062 


May 


3 


None. 


None. 


.02 


29.80 


.0002 


.0020 


3.32 


.3080 


.0000 


.02 


12.3 


.0010 


23501 


June 


8 


None. 


None. 


.03 


29.50 


.0004 


.0030 


2.37 


.2400 


.0000 


.06 


15.0 


.0010 


23822 


July 


7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.01 


28.00 


.0016 


.0028 


2.34 


.1560 


.0000 


.03 


12.5 


.0480 


24578 


Sept. 


8 


None. 


V. slight. 


.02 


28.50 


.0000 


.0012 


2.72 


.3400 


.0000 


.06 


10.6 


.0070 


24965 


Oct. 


10 


None. 


V. slight. 


.01 


27.40 


.0000 


.0030 


2.73 


.4000 


.0000 


.02 


10.8 


.0020 


25233 


Nov. 


1 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.03 


29.00 


.0008 


.0010 


2.58 


.3050 


.0000 


.07 


15.5 


.0060 


25588 


Dec. 


10 


None. 


V. slight. 


.03 


29.30 


.0002 


.0016 


2.71 


.4200 


.0000 


.03 


15.5 


.0020 



Averages by Tears. 



_ 


1888 


_ 


_ 


.00 


17.45 


.0000 


.0003 


2.30 


.5081 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


.00 


18.19 


.0002 


.0014 


2.29 


.4952 


.0001 


- 


8.0 


- 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


.00 


20.83 


.0001 


.0007 


2.23 


.5146 


.0001 


- 


9.6 


- 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


.00 


23.00 


.0000 


.0005 


2.36 


.5129 


.0000 


- 


11.4 


.0335 


_ 


1893 


- 


- 


.00 


23.72 


.0001 


.0011 


2.48 


.4823 


.0000 


.02 


11.1 


.0121 


_ 


1894 


- 


- 


.00 


28.23 


.0000 


.0012 


2.74 


.3946 


.0000 


.02 


13.2 


.0058 


- 


1895 


- 


- 


.00 


32.02 


.0001 


.0015 


2.73 


.4317 


.0000 


.03 


14.9 


.0092 


_ 


1896 


- 


- 


.00 


30.45 


.0002 


.0021 


2.86 


.4458 


.0000 


.04 


13.7 


.0090 


_ 


1897 


- 


- 


.00 


29.73 


.0004 


.0032 


2.87 


.4633 


.0000 


.03 


15.5 


.0010 


- 


1898 


- 


- 


.02 


28.41 


.0019 


.0026 


2.69 


.3426 


.0000 


.05 


13.6 


.0143 



Note to analyses of 1898: Odor, none. The odor of the last two samples became unpleasant on 
beating. 



264 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pul). Doc. 



manchester. 

AVater Supply of Manchester. 

The sources of supply are a well 32 feet in diameter and 29 feet 
deep located in the valley of Saw-mill Brook, with 11 tubular wells 
driven in its bottom and 5 tubular wells driven to depths ranging 
from 27 to 34 feet in the valley of the brook a short distance above 
the large well. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Large Well of the Manchester Water 

Works. 



[Parts 


per 100,000.] 




















Ammonia. 


c 
o 

1.91 


Nitrogen 

AS 


s 

« 

c 

S> 
>. 

o 


c 
•a 






o 
O 


3 > 

1^ 


^ 
fe 


2 
o 

< 


1 


2 


i 


Average of six aampleB collected in Feb- 
ruary, May, July, August, October and 
December, 1898. 


.01 


10.87 


.0002 


.0007 


.1298 


.0000 


.01 


3.6 


.0023 



Odor, none. 



Water Supply of Mansfield AVater Supply District, 

Mansfield. 
The source of supply is a well 25 feet in diameter and 20 feet 
deep in the vicinity of Gate Springs, near the Canoe River. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Mansfield Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





u 

o 

"o 


a 
P 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 

.32 


NiTEOGEN 
AS 


1 

a 

O 










o 


1 


•2 


s 


Average of six samples collected in Febru- 
ary, April, June, August, October and 
December, 1898. 


.00 


2.88 


.0000 


.0008 


.0023 


.0000 


.02 


0.9 


.0013 



Odor, none. The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 

Water Supply of Marblehead. 
The sources of supply are two large wells in the valley of Forest 
River in Salem. AVell No. 1, which is situated near Loring Ave- 
nue, is 30 feet in diameter and 34 feet deep. Well No. 2 is 25 
feet in diameter and 34 feet deep. The latter well is situated in the 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



265 



MARBLEHEAD. 

bed of a pond which has been drained and was sunk through about 
20 feet of mud into a stratum of gravel. The water from well No. 
2 contains an excessive amount of iron, and considerable trouble 
has been caused by its presence in the water supplied to the town. 

The reply of the State Board of Health to an application from 
the water commissioners of Marblehead, with regard to the iron in 
the water supplied to the town and the best remedy therefor, may 
be found on pages 37 and 38 of this volume. 

(Jhemical Examination of Water from Faucets in Marblehead supplied from the 

Marblehead Water Works, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 

p 


Appeakance. 


c 
o 

« 


Ammonia. 


o 

s 


NiTBOGEN 
AS 


•d 

1 

s 

a 
_ o 

M 

O 


1 




.a 

a 

9 
65 


•3 

3 

3 

EH 


s 

3 
•3 

V. 


c 

o 
O 


i 


"3 

< 


1 
^ 


s 


c 
2 


21747 


1898. 

Jan. 3 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.05 


15.30 


.0110 


.0022 


1.78 


.0370 


.0003 


.03 


7.4 


.0880 


22090 


Feb. 7 


Decided. 


V. slight. 


.07 


12.50 


.0010 


.0020 


1.95 


.0830 


.0003 


.06 


6.0 


.0140 


23296 


May 25 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.07 


14.30 


.0020 


.0042 


1.47 


.0380 


.0000 


.04 


7.1 


.0200 


24283 
25421 


Aug. 11 
Nov. 17 


Decided, 

milky. 

Decided, 


Heavy. 
Cons. 


.05 
.08 


16.40 
16.00 


.0218 
.0134 


.0032 
.0026 


1.44 
1.79 


.0140 
.0280 


.0004 
.0002 


.04 
.06 


6.6 
6.6 


.2000 
.2600 


25810 


Dec. 30 


milky. 

Decided, 

milky. 


Slight. 


.34 


14.20 


.0110 


.0024 


1.59 


.0300 


.0004 


.04 


6.1 


.0750 


Av... 








.11 


14.78 


.0100 


.0028 


1.67 


.0383 


.0003 


.04 


6.6 


.1095 













Odor of the first sample, distinctly earthy; of the others, none. These samples represent a 

mixture of water of well No. 1 with water from well No. 2, which flows into well No. 1. 

Water Supply of Marlborough. 

The sources of supply are Lake Williams and Millham Brook. 
Lake Williams has an area of 72 acres, a capacity of 270,000,000 
gallons and a general depth of from 10 to 26 feet. The bottom of 
the lake is said to be muddy. The lake has a water-shed of 0.56 
of a square mile, which contains a population of about 550 per 
square mile. 

Millham Brook Keservoir, which was constructed in 1895, has 
an area of 66 acres, a storage capacity of 315,000,000 gallons and 
a general depth of 25 feet. The area flowed contained about 30 
acres of meadow, in which the mud was 3 to 6 feet deep. All of 
the bottom of the reservoir which was above a plane 10 feet below 



266 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MARLBOROTJGH. 

high Avater was stripped of all soil and vegetable matter, the material 
removed being used to fill shallow portions, so that there is no 
part of the reservoir where the water is less than 6 feet deep at 
high water. The remainder of the bottom was cleared of brush 
and stumps, but none of the soil was removed. The water-shed of 
the reservoir, exclusive of the water-shed of Lake Williams, which 
is in the same water-shed, has an area of 3.56 square miles and 
contains 60 persons per square mile. 

Just above the reservoir Millham Brook is joined by a large 
tributary, known as the North Branch. The North Branch con- 
tains much swamp on its water-shed, and the water is consequently 
very highly colored and contains a large amount of organic matter. 
The South Branch has much less swamp upon its water-shed, and 
the water is of better quality. 

Water from the reservoir can be pumped into Lake Williams, or 
it can be pumped directly into the distributing reservoir. On ac- 
count of the heavy rainfall throughout 1898 no water was used from 
this source for the supply of the city during the year. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the city of iSIarl- 
borough, relative to plans for a proposed extension of the sewerage 
system of the city to the district bordering upon Lake Williams, 
for the purpose of protecting the purity of the water of the lake, 
may be found on pages 94 to 96 of this volume. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Lake Williams, Marlborough. 

[Parts per 100,000,] 





S 

1 

"3 

o 
o 
ej 
Q 


Appbarance. 


Residde on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 

1 
o 

.58 


Nitrogen 
as 


•a 
1 

o 

a 

o 

o 






a 


S 
•3 


u 
o 

o 




i 
1 


1 


Albuminoid. 


1 
2 






a 

a 


5 
^ 


> 
1 

5 


■a 

•a 
, a 

ao. 


a 


21793 


1898. 

Jan. 10 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.09 


4.65 


1.80 


.0016 


.0270 


.0238 


.0032 


.0070 


.0001 


.24 


2.3 


22794 


Apr. 11 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.09 


4.25 


1.50 


.0010 


.0234 


.0182 


.0052 


.61 


.0060 


.0002 


.23 


1.7 


23831 


July 11 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.10 


4.40 


1.60 


.0010 


.0258 


.0232 


.0026 


.51 


.0010 


.0000 


.26 


1.7 


24943 


Oct. 10 


v. Blight. 


v. slight. 


.10 


4.30 


1.75 


.0004 


.0230 
.0248 


.0206 
.0214 


.0024 
.0034 


.46 
.51 


.0000 


.0000 


.29 
.25 


1.8 


Av... 








09 


4.40 


1.66 


.0010 


.0035 


.0000 


1.9 






1 







Odor, faintly vegetable or none. The third sample was collected from a faucet at the pumping 

BtatloD, and the other aamplcs from the lake. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



267 



MARLBOROUGH. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the North Branch of Millham Brook, near 
its Entrance to the Millham Brook Storage Reservoir, Marlborough. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 

o 

o 

O 


Appbabancb. 


REsinnE ON 

EVAPOEA- 
TIOK. 


Ammonia. 


1 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 
1 




a 

CD 
>> 

y, 








3 


s 
1 


c 

o 

a 


o 


5 

OD 

o 




Albuminoid. 


2 


00 

2 




s 

3 


2 


1 


■a 
> 

5 


•3 

•o 

1 3 

3 a. 

m 


m 

1 




1898. 






























21789 


Jan. 10 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.98 


5.20 


2.00 


.0034 .0170 .0156 


.0014 


.48 


.0270 .0002 


0.66 


1.4 


22091 


Feb. 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.70 


4.65 


1.75 


.0022.0152 .0118 


.0034 


.37 


.0190 .0001 


0.68 


1.8 


22459 


Mar. 7 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.90 


4.35 


1.60 


.0006.0160 .0142 


.0018 


.28 


.02601.0000 


U..S8 


1.0 


22795 


Apr. 11 


;V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.22 


4.50 


1.95 


.0032 .0194 .0174 


.0020 '.24 


.0100|.00u2 


0.'.8 


1.3 


23081 


May 9 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.80 


4.50 


2.30 


.0006;. 0238 .0204 


.003411.38 


. 0060 i. 0001 


1.03 


1.0 


23402 


June 6 


Slight. 


Cons. 


2.05 


5.20 


2.65 


.0012 .0350 .0290 


.0060' '.32 


.0070 .0001 


i.iy 


1.1 


23827 


July 11 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.05 


5.65 


2.95 


.00141.0294 .0276 


.001811.34 


. 0030 1. 0000 


0.H3 


1.3 


24187 


Aug. 8 


' Slight. 


Cons. 


2.00 


7.65 


4.25 


.0032 .0578 .0488 


.0090^.34 


.0030 1.0001 


1.94 


1.4 


24593 


Sept. 12 


None. 


V. slight. 


2.00 


6.95 


3.10 


.00561.0394 .0364 


.0030 .36 


.0070^.0000 


1.80 


1.3 


24942 


Oct. 10 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.90 


7.30 


3.60 


.00061.0350 .0342 


.0008 '.34 


.0020 i. 0000 


1.62 


1.8 


25265 


Nov. 7 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.00 


5.55 


2.65 


.0002 .0204 .0190 


.0014; .35 


.0070 .0001 


0.94 


1.1 


25561 


Dec. 7 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.60 


3.85 


1.60 


.0000 .0100 .0090 
.0018-0265 .0236 


.0010, 


.32 
.34 


.0120;. 0000 
.0107 .0001 


0.61 
1.05 


1.0 


Av... 








1.35 


5.44 


2.53 


.0029 


1.3 























Odor, generally vegetable, sometimes musty. 



Chemical Examination oj Water from Millham Brook, near its Entrance to the 
Millham Brook Storage Reservoir, Marlborough. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





3 







Appeabance. 


KESIOnE ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

as 


i 

B 

3 









>> 


^ 






3 




Albnminold. 












•0 




o3 


1 

i 





•3 

3 


a 

1 



U 


1 


1 


in 




> 
"3 

5 


, 3 

02 


3 

3 


1 


S 


1 
X 




es 

a 




1898. 
























21790 


Jan. 10 


Decided. Cons. 


.40 


4.70 


1.95 


.0022 


.0152 .0128 


.0024 


.49 


.0360 


.0001 


.36 


2.0 


22092 


Feb. 7 


V. slight. V. slight. 


.40 


4.65 


1.65 


.0030 


.0102 .0100 


.0002 .47 


.0280 


.0001 


.38 


2.0 


22460 


Mar. 7 


Slight. Cons. 


.40 


4.30 


1.50 


.0014 


.0118 .0094 


.0024,. 36 


.0230 


.0000 


.34 


1.6 


22796 


Apr. 11 


V. slight. Slight. 


.41 


4.40 


1.60 


.0004 


.0134.0116 


.00181 .39 


.0120' 0002 


.40 


1.6 


23082 


May 9 


V. slight. I Slight. 


.63 


4.20 


1.90 


.0004 


.0138 .0128 


.0010, .42 


.0130 .0001 


.44 


i.6 


23403 


June 6 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.87 


5.25 


2.40 


.0012 


.0244 


.0238 


.00061 .30 


.0090;. 0002 


.bo 


1.8 


23830 


July 11 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.33 


4.95 


1.95 


.0018 


.0154 


.0136 


.0018; .43 


.00901.0002 


.28 


2.0 


24186 


Aug. 8 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.71 


' 6.85 


3.00 


.0012 


.0342 


.0.326 


.0016; .29 


.0020 .0001 


Alb 


2.2 


24592 


Sept. 12 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.73 


6.20 


2.65 


.0060 


.0220 


.0180 


.0040 .38 


.0270 .0000 


.76 


2.U 


24944 


Oct. 10 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.85 


6.40 


2.95 


.0008 


.0228 


.0210;.0018iJ.41 


.0100 


.0001 


.93 


2.2 


25266 


Nov. 7 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.50 


5.50 


2.10 


.0004 


.0146 


.0140 .0006 1.37 


.0120 


.0000 


.65 


1.'/ 


25560 


Dec. 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.30 


4.00 


1.60 


.0004 
.0016 


.0086 


.0072 .0014 
.0156 .0016 


.38 
.39 


.0170 
.0165 


.0000 


.33 
.53 


1.4 


Av... 






' 


.54 


5.12 


2.11 


.0172 


.0001 


1.8 

















Odor, generally vegetable or none, occasionally faintly musty. 



268 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MARLBOROUGH. 

Chemical Examination of 



Water from Millham Brook Storage Reservoir, 
Marlborough. 













Parts 


per 100,000.] 
















^^^ 


1 


. 

s 
o 

o 

a 


Appearancb. 


Kesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


1 

Si 

.44 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

3 

o 

c 

bD 
>» 
X 

o 




j 


t 


a 

•5 

Si 


o 


o 
H 


S 
1 


i 


Albuminoid. | 




§ 




S5 


■3 


■3 
> 
O 

5 


■2 

■a 


s 

•s 

B 


21791 


1898. 

Jan. 10 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.60 


4.60 


2.25 


.0024 


.0174 


.0162 


.0012 


,0250 


.0001 


0.50 


2.1 


22093 


Feb. 7 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.49 


4.40 


1.55 


.0028 


.0124 


.0116 


.0008 


.38 


.0170 


.0000 


0.40 

1 


1.6 


22461 


Mar. 7 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.55 


3.95 


1.45 


.0014 


.0124 


.0112 


.0012 


.28 


,0210 


.0001 


10.46 


1.1 


22797 


Apr. 11 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.43 


1 3.75 


1.35 


.0022 


.0182 


.0124 


.0058 


.25 


.0120 


.0002 


0.40 


1.0 


23083 


May 9 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.51 


3.45 


1.50 


.0004 


.0200 


.0134 


,0066 


.35 


.0090 


.0001 


|0.46 


1.1 


23404 


June 6 


Slight. 


Cons., 


0.81 


3.95 


1.85 


.0008 


.0308 


.0208 


.0100 


.33 


.0020 


.0001 


jO.53 


1,0 


23828 


July 11 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.57 


4.45 


2.50 


.0008 


.0304 


.0246 


.0058 


.32 


.0000 


,0000 


iO.57 


1.3 


24188 


Aug. 8 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.40 


4.05 


2.20 


.0024 


.0318 


.0226 


.0092 


.32 


.0020 


,0000 


0.47 


1.1 


24594 


Sept. 12 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.97 


4.75 


2.30 


.0104 


.0396 


.0320 


.0076 


.28 


,0010 


,0000 


|1.03 

j 


1.3 


24945 


Oct, 10 


Slight. 


Cons, 


1.20 


5.10 


2.35 


.0270 


.0350 


.0290 


,0060 


.32 


.0030 


.0001 


0.89 


1.7 


25267 


Nov. 7 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.90 


5.10 


2.40 


.0088 


.0276 


.0250 


,0026 


.28 


.0070 


.0002 


0.78 


1.4 


25562 


Dec. 7 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.56 


4.00 


1.75 


.0010 


.0112 


.0106 


.0006 


.34 


.0150 


.0001 


|0,57 


1.3 



Averages by Years. 



_ 


1896 


_ 


_ 


0.80 


4.44 


1.68 


.0058 


.0306 


.0248 


.0058 


.30 


.0088 


.0003 


0.69 


1,3 


- 


1897 


- 


- 


0.83 


4.24 


1.77 


.0031 


.0293 


.0243 


.0050 


.30 


,0088 


.0001 


0,64 


1.5 


- 


1898 


- 


- 


0.67 


4.30 


1.95 


.0050 


.0239 


.0191 


.0048 


.32 


,0095 


.0001 


0,59 


1.3 



Note to analyses of 1898 : Odor, generally vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. The sam- 
ples were collected from the reservoir, 2 feet beneath the surface. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



269 



MARLBOROUGH. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Millham Brook Storage Reservoir, 

Marlborough. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



1898. 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec 



Day of examination, . 
Number of sample, . 



11 
21791 



22093 



22461 



12 
22797 



10 
23083 



7 
23404 



12 

23828 



9 
24188 



13 

24594 



11 

24945 



25562 



PLANTS. 
Diatomaceae, 

Asterionella, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 

CyanophycesB, . 

Anabaana, . 
Coelosphaerium, . 
Meriemopoedia, . 

Algse, 

Cosmarium, . 
ProtococcuB, 
Raphidium, . 
Staurastrum, 

ANIMALS. 
Bhizopoda, . 

Infusoria, 

Cryptomonas, 
Dinobryon, . 
Euglena, . . 
Mallomonas, 
Peridinium, . 
Tintinnidium, 
TrachelomoDas, . 

Vermes, . 

Crustacea, . 

Cyclops, . 
Daphnia, 

Miscellaneous, Zobglcea, 

Total, . 



356 



352 

4 



432 



426 
4 



1,060 

596 

376 

82 



194 



156 

2 





764 

112 

92 
524 



3,294 



3,200 

74 

4 



372 



10 

4 

356 



50 



268 

104 

78 

8 

50 



256 



2 

234 



88 



1,460 

308 



1,148 



1,640 

1,484 

12 

138 



440 



336 
12 



123 

92 
4 
23 



pr. 
pr. 





1,768 


1,680 

2 
12 

4 
10 
54 




200 158 



pr. 




24 


2 

132 



pr. 



379 



20 



1,388' 4,070 

I 



2,470 



429 



1,812 1,948 



620 



144 



270 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MARLBOROUGH. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Millham Brook Storage Reservoir, Marl- 
borough, collected near the Bottom. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





s 




Appeakancb. 


Kesiduk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




NITKOGKN 

AS 


s 






o 
O 

o 




■3 
3 


1 


u 




c 

o 


i 


Albuminoid. 


6 

c 

i 


f. 




1 

§0 




o 

a 


* 


> 

o 


•a 


•5 












1 o 




t 


o 


.£ 


So, 


s: 




-tS 


X 


s 


SS 


O 




H 


cc 


O 


1 &- 


<j 


bt 


H 


Q <f> 


O 


'A 


25 


O 


S 




1898. 


























21792 


Jan. 


10 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.91 


4.90 


2.00 


.0168 


.0246 


.0202 .0044 


.39 


.0130 


.0002 


0.62 


2.0 


22094 


Feb. 


7 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.00 


4.65 


2.10 


.0212 


.02581.0208 .00521'. 38 


.01.30 


.0003,0. 68! 2.0 


22-182 


Mar. 


7 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.67 


4.20 


1.50 


.0096 


.0166 .0156 .0010 !. 27 


.0160 


.0001]'0.46j 1.1 


22798 


Apr. 


11 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.44 


3.75 


1..50 


.00201. 0156!. 0120 .0036,1.28 


.01.30 


.00020.39 1.0 


23084 


May 


9 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.49 


3.65 


1.65 


.0000 


.0198 .0142 .0056 


.36 


.0090 


.0001i0.46 1.0 


23405 


June 


6 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


0.80 


4.25 


1.95 


.0280 


.0334 .0216'. 0118 


.30 


.0010 


.0006 0.54 1.3 


23829 


July 


11 


Decided. 


Cons 


2.65 


6.55 


3.25 


.0878 


.0408 


.0310J.0098 


.29 


.0010 .OOOOi 0.78[ 1.8 


24189 


Aug. 


"l 


Decided. 


Cons. 


2.80 


6.55 


2.85 


.1372 


.0452 


.0308|.0144 


.30 


.0000. 0000 0.86 1.6 


24595 


Sept 


12 


Decided. 


Cons. 


3.10 


7.20 


2.85 


.2270 


.0440 


.03201.0120 


.26 


.0000,. 0000 1.16 2.0 


24946 


Oct. 


10 


Slight. 


Cons. 


1.10 


5.35 


2.70 


.0244 


.0314 


.0304 .0010 


.32 


.0020 .0002li0.85! 1.6 


25268 


Nov. 


7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.88 


7.15 


4.05 


.0094 .0290 


.0260 .0030 


.30 


.00601.0002 0.82 1.4 


25563 


Dec. 


' 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.61 


4.35 


1.90 


.0028 .0164 


.0148 .0016 


.32 


.0110 .000010.59 1.3 



Averages by Tears. 



1896 
1897 
1898 



_ 


1.04 


5.07 


1.94 


.0185 


- 


1.47 


5.33 


2.24 


.0233 


- 


1.29 


5.21 


2.35 


.0472 



.0331 .0271 .0060 
.0343 .0288 .0055 
.0285 .0224 .0061 



.01101.0002 
.0075. 0003 
.0071 .0002 



0.S2 1.5 
O.79I 1.7 
0.68 1.5 



Note to analyses of 1898 : Odor, generally vegetable, sometimes musty and unpleasant or disagree- 
able, becoming stronger on heating. The samples were collected from the reservoir, 2 feet above the 

bottom. 

Microscopical Examination of Water fr-om Millham Brook Storage Reservoir, 
Marlborough, collected near the Bottom. 



[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Maj'. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct Nov. Dec 



Day of examination, . 
Number of sample, . 



21792 



22094 22462 



12 

22798 



10 
23084 



7 
23406 



12 
23829 



13 11 

24595 24946 



25563 



PLANTS. 
Diatomaceae, 



Asterionella, 
Syuedra, 
Tabellaria, . 



Cyanophyceee, 

Clathrocyslis, 



Algree> 



ProtococcuB, 
Kaphidium, . 



1,158 



1,152 

2 
4 



42 



574 1 724 

568 492 

i 136 

2 ! 84 







168 

142 
2 



224 

66 

60 

100 






160 

122 
26 



522 



2 

620 



50 10 



974 1,920 438 

80 1,680 330 

81 22 8 

886 200 52 



12 108 


86 



149 

106 
3 
38 

2 





No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



271 



MARLBOROUGH. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Millham Brook Storage Beservoir, 
Marlborough, collected near the Bottom — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



1S98. 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 



ANIMALS. 
Infusoria, 

Codonella, . 
Cryptomonas, 
Diiiobryon, . 
Euglena, 
Peridinium, . 
Trachelomonas, . 

Vermes, . 

Crustacea, . 

Cyclops, 
Daphnia, 

Miscellaneous Zobgloea, 

Total, . 



pr. 



pr. 



40 



516 12 



pr. 



pr. 






488 
4 
2 
12 



104 




56 

20 
20 



pr 



pr. 



20 



1,199 



53 



632 



100 



15 100 



600 



980 



494 1,111 178 1,690 



2,108 



Water Supply of Brant Rock, Marshfield. — Brant Rock 

Water Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Brant Bock Water Comjjany, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







Appearance. 






Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


i 


















1 






a 








V 








5 


















Si 
a 




'■5 
3 


S 

a 


o 


5^ 

a as 
3 > 

•OH 


i 


is 


i 


1 

as 


•c 




1 

03 


i 


iz; 


Q 


H 


oc 


^ 


K 


b 


■< 


o 


S5 


g 


O 


H 


M 




189S. 


























24425 


Aug. 23 


None. 


None. 


.00 


10.70 


.0000 


.0012 


3.10 


,0580 


.0000 


.06 


2.0 


.0060 



Odor, none. The sample was collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



Water Supply or Maynard. 

The source of supply is White Pond in Hudson and Stow. The 
pond has an area of 58 acres and a water-shed of 0.29 of a square 
mile, which contains a population of about 17 per square mile. 
Water from the pond is drawn through a long conduit constructed 



272 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MAYNARD. 

of earthen pipe with open joints to an open masonry receiving res- 
ervoir. Much ground water enters the conduit between the pond 
and the receiving reservoir. AVater also enters the reservoir from 
the ground about it when the water in it is drawn down, so that the 
water delivered to the town is a mixture of water from the pond 
with a varying amount of ground water. During the early spring 
of 1898 the water had a fishy and oily odor, which was apparently 
due to a growth of the organism Uroglena in the open reservoir. 

Chemical Examination of Water from White Pond, Maynard. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





3 
"S 

o 
O 

o 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


•c 

o 

s 

.32 
.30 
.3. 
.35 

.32 


NiTEOGEN 

AS 


•a 

a 

a 

c 
o 
O 

a 

u 

o 






•5 
1 


S 
1 


o 
o 


C3 

1 


o 

!l 


i 


Albuminoid. 


2 


z 




e 
•a 


o 


1 

"3 


•d 

•a 
, c 

a a. 


GO 

a 
•H 

B 


i2.2n 

22596 
23924 
24716 


1898. 

Feb. 15 

Mar. 17 
July 19 
Sept. 21 


None. 
Slight. 
Slight. 
V. slight. 


None. 
V. slight. 
None. 
Slight. 


.07 
.09 
.09 
.02 


2.70 
2.70 
2.75 
2.25 


1.00 
0.90 
0.85 
0.90 


.0014 
.0006 
.0002 
.0004 


.0128 
.0136 
.0116 
.0198 


.0108 
.0110 
.0110 
.0168 


.0020 
.0026 
.0006 
.0030 


.0020 
.0020 
.0010 
.0000 

.0012 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


.15 

.25 
.18 
.14 

.18 


0.8 
1.0 
1.0 
0.5 


Av... 








07 


2.60 


0.91 


.00061.0144 


.01'?!4 


.0020 


0.8 





















Odor of the first sample, none, becoming distinctly fishy on heating; of the second, decidedly fishy, 

becoming stronger and also oily on heating; of the others, none. No. 24716 was collected from the 

pond, and the others from a faucet in the village. The samples collected in the village represent pond 
water mixed with a considerable amount of ground water. 



Medfield. 

Chem,ical Examination of Water frovi a Sj)ring in Medfield. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





a 


Appbakance. 






Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•3 






















a 






1 

s 




1 

3 


B 
o 

a 


_o 


2 W 


, 


o 

c 

is 


i 


B 




i 


c 

•e 


i 


sz; 


a 


H 


« 


O 


a 


b 


< 


o 


2 


»5 


o 


B 






1898. 


























24553 


Sept. 7 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.18 


4.70 


.0008 


.0056 


.24 


.0030 


.0000 


.26 


1.8 


.0090 



Odor, none. The sample was collected from a spring near Vine Brook, about one-third of a mile 

above North Street. This spring is used as a source of water supply by a large straw factory and by a 
portion of the village of Medfield. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 273 



MEDFIELrD INSANE ASYLIJM:. 

Water Supply of Medfield Insane Asylum. 
Chemical Examination of Water from Farm Po7id in Sherborn. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





3 
« 

3 

o 

S 
a 
O 


Appearance. 


Residuk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


B 

.29 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

s 

a 

o 

o 

a 

h 

M 
O 






9 


1 


o 


3 


i 

§1 
1 


a 


Albumiaoid. 


S 
2 


2 




u 

a 


S 

o 


1 
1 


1 

, B 

So. 

OS 


c 

a 


21992 


1898. 

Jan. 26 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.02 


2.10 


0.85 


.0004 


.0132 


.0126 


.0006 


.0010 


.0000 


.12 


0.5 


22292 


Feb. 18 


V. slight. 


None. 


.05 


3.00 


1.05 


.0012 


.0102 


.0098 


.0004 


.29 


.0030 


.0000 


.11 


0.3 


22608 


Mar. 21 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


.04 


1.50 


0.70 


.0010 


.0118 


.0104 


.0014 


.27 


.0050 


.0000 


.14 


0.5 


22948 


Apr. 23 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.08 


1.95 


0.85 


.0006 


.0094 


.0088 


.0006 


.28 


.0030 


.0001 


.13 


0.6 


23313 


May 25 


V.slight. 


None. 


.11 


1.75 


0.85 


.0026 


.0130 


.0114 


.0016 


.27 


.0060 


.0000 


.12 


0.5 


23679 


June 22 


V.slight. 


Slight. 


.06 


1.80 


0.50 


.0000 


.0128 


.0112 


.0016 


.26 


.0010 


.0000 


.16 


0.5 


24076 


July 28 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


.02 


2.05 


0.95 


.0008 


.0104 


.0100 


.0004 


.24 


.0000 .0000 


.14 


0.0 


24435 


Aug. 24 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.02 


1.40 


0.55 


.0004 


.0132 


.0120 


.0012 


.22 


.0010 .0000 


.13 


0.0 


24877 


Sept. 30 


Slight. 


V.slight. 


.07 


1.80 


0.65 


.0006 


.0116 


.0100 


.0016 


.25 


.0000 


.0000 


.12 


0.5 


25176 


Oct. 26 


None. 


V.slight. 


.10 


2.00 


1.05 


.0000 


.0066 


.0064 


.0002 


.24 


.0010 


.0001 


.11 


0.5 


25449 


Nov. 22 


V.slight. 


None. 


.09 


1.75 


0.95 


.0008 


.0100 


.0098 


.0002 


.24 


.0000 


.0000 


.10 


0.0 


25803 


Dec. 28 


None. 


V.slight. 


.04 


2.00 


0.85 


.0002 
.0007 


.0102 
.0110 


.0102 


.0000 


.27 
.26 


.0000 
.0017 


.0000 
.0000 


.12 
.12 


0.2 


Av. .. 








,06 


1.92 


0.82 


.0102 


.0008 


0.3 















Odor, none. A faintly vegetable odor was developed in some of the samples on heating. The 

eamples were collected from faucets In the asylum supplied from the pond. 

Water Supply of Medford. 
(See also Metropolitan Water District, pages 133-160.) 
The city of Medford Wcas formerly supplied, together with the 
city of Maiden and the town of Melrose, from Spot Pond, the sup- 
ply being supplemented at times by water from Wright's Pond. 
Since March 12, 1898, the supply of Medford has been taken partly 
from the Metropolitan Water Works and partly from Wright's 
Pond. Wright's Pond has an area of 24 acres and an average 
depth of 10 feet. It is an artificial reservoir, formed by a dam 
across a brook which has its source in the vicinity of Spot Pond. 
The soil was not removed from the area flowed when the reservoir 
was constructed. The pond has a water-shed of 191 acres, which 
contains a very small population, the water-shed being mostly in- 
cluded in the Middlesex Fells Park Reservation. Water is also 



274 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MEDFORD. 

pumped at times from two branch streams which enter the brook 
just below Wright's Pond. 

The water of Wright's Pond is highly colored, and contains at 
times a very large amount of organic matter. 

The reply of the State Board of Health to an application from 
the water commissioners of Medford for advice with reference to 
the use of the water of Wright's Pond during cold weather may be 
found on page 38 of this volume. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Wright's Pond, Medford. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





B 
O 


Appeabancb. 


KE81DCB ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


i 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

§ 

9 






g 










_ 




Albuminoid. 








= 




a 


o 

o 
1> 


•5 
2 


c 
S 


i 


— • 


05, 


e 


— 





i 

1 c 


1 . 
c 
*>- 
•2 


£ 


i 



c 

4) 


•2 


s 


03 






























^ 




H 


tc 


o 


EH 


J 


Ia 


Eh 


Q 


M 


6 













1§9$. 




























24612 


Sept. 13 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.40 


4.40 


1.85 


.0012 


.0354 


.0258 


.0096 


.32 


.0010 


.0000 


.79 


2.1 


25256 


Nov. 4 


Slight. 


CODB. 


.42 


4.55 


1.95 


.0162 


.0324 


.0264 


.0060 


.33 


.0030 

1 


.0001 


.62 


2.0 



Odor of the firet sample, faintly musty, becoming distinctly musty on heating; of the last, faintly 
vegetable, becoming also unpleasant on heating. 

Water Supply of Melrose. 

(See Metropolitan Water District, pages 133-160.) 

Water Supply of Methuen. 

The source of supply is a system of tubular wells in the valley 
of Spicket River, at the place where the river is joined by Harris 
Brook. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Tubular Wells of the Methuen Water 

Works. 



[Parts 


per 100,000.] 




















c 
o 

(V s 
s > 

X 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 
i 

3 
B 

X 

o 


c 

•E 

OS 

X 






i 


o 

e 

is 

< 


a 


5 
a 


i 


Average of six samples collected in Feb- 
ruary, April, .June, August, October and 
December, 1898. 


.07 


6.72 


.0002 


.0028 


.32 


.0158 


.0001 


.11 


2.8 


.0038 



Odor, none, 
town. 



■ The April sample was collected from the wells, and the others, from faucets in the 



No. 34.] EXAmNATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 275 

middleborough. 
Water Supply of Middleborough Fire District, 

MiDDLEBOROUGH . 

The source of supply is a well near the Nemasket River, above 
the village of Middleborough. The well is 26 feet in diameter and 
22 feet deep. There has been a marked deterioration in the quality 
of the water drawn from the well, which is shown in the table of 
yearly averages of chemical analyses. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Middleborough Fire District. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 




Appearance. 


S 


Ammonia. 




NiTBOOEN 
AS 


a 








5 




1 


c 

a 

•3 


i 




t 


•6 
o 


e 
o 


m 


Im 




CO 

C 


£ 


SB Q 




H 


« 


o 


a 


Em 


< 


O 


S5 


S5 


o 


X 






1898 


























21764 


Jan. 


5 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.03 


5.80 


.0016 


.0046 


.78 


.0650 


.0000 


.17 


2.9 


.0070 


22077 


Feb. 


7 


Decided. 


ConB. 


.08 


7.20 


.0014 


.0040 


.82 


.0820 


.0000 


.08 


3.6 


.0500 


22393 


Mar. 


1 


V. Blight. 


Cone. 


.07 


7.10 


.0010 


.0038 


.86 


.0970 


.0000 


.08 


3.0 


.0850 


22757 


Apr. 


6 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


.05 


6.10 


.0014 


.0020 


.79 


.0680 


.0000 


.05 


3.1 


.0130 


23061 


May 


4 


v. Blight. 


Slight. 


.08 


6.30 


.0014 


.0034 


.83 


.1040 


.0000 


.06 


2.5 


.0250 


23348 


June 


1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.08 


7.50 


.0002 


.0024 


.83 


.0760 


.0001 


.11 


3.0 


.0170 


23806 


July 


6 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.15 


6.70 


.0004 


.0050 


.79 


.0500 


.0001 


.18 


2.2 


.0230 


24143 


Aug. 


3 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.20 


6.70 


.0010 


.0072 


.60 


.0440 


.0000 


.17 


2.2 


.0380 


24548 


Sept. 


7 


Decided, 
milky. 


V. Blight. 


.20 


6.70 


,0004 


.0062 


.66 


.0500 


.0003 


.20 


2.3 


.0350 


24922 


Oct. 


5 


Decided, 
milky. 


V. Blight. 


.35 


7.40 


.0000 


.0066 


.66 


.0370 


.0003 


.21 


2.5 


.1100 


25242 


Nov. 


2 


Decided, 
milky. 


V. Blight. 


.40 


6.80 


.0002 


.0060 


.66 


.0520 


.0000 


.20 


2.5 


.0600 


25558 


Dec. 


t 


Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.18 


7.10 


.0006 


.0012 


.74 


.0990 


.0000 


.12 


2.3 


.0270 











Averages 


by Years. 














_ 


1888 


- 


- 


.00 


8.67 


.0001 


.0025 


.96 


.1494 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1895 


- 


- 


.06 


6.74 


.0001 


.0028 


.74 


.0687 


.0000 


.08 


2.6 


.0187 


- 


1896 


- 


- 


.18 


6.54 


.0003 


.0038 


.72 


.0565 


.0000 


.09 


2.4 


,0288 




1897 


- 


- 


.09 


6.28 


.0006 


.0039 


.71 


.0580 


.0000 


.11 


2.5 


.0227 


- 


1898 


- 


- 


.16 


6.78 


.0008 


.0044 


.75 


.0687 


.0001 


.14 


2.7 


.0408 



Note to analyses of 1898 : Odor of the second sample, faintly vegetable; of the others, none. 

The first three eamplcB were collected from a faucet at the pumping station; the others, from the well. 



Water Supply of Middleton. 

(See Danvers.) 



276 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



millbury. 

Water Supply of Millbury. 



■ MiLLBURY Water Company. 



The source of supply is a well 20 feet in diameter and 40 feet 
deep, located on a tributary of Dorothy Brook, near the Millbury 
branch of the Boston & Albany Railroad, about half a mile north- 
east of the village. 

Chemical Examinatirm of Water from the Well of the Millbury Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Average of six samples collected in Febru- 
ary, April, June, August, October and 
December, 1898. 



sa 



4.50 



.0022 



.0137 



Odor, none. The February and August samples were collected from a faucet in the pumping 

station, and the others from the well. 



Water Supply of Millis. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Aqua Rex Spring, Millis. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





§ 
1 


Appearance. 


1 

s > 
2 


Ammonia. 


S. 


NlTBOOBN 

AS 


§ 
em 

o 


£ 
a 




S 

3 




1 


i 

o 


1 


o 
c 

< 




2 


e 
o 


24417 


1898. 

Aug. 24 


None. 


None. 


.00 


7.70 


.0012 


.0016 


.54 


.1740 


.0000 


.04 


2.6 


.0070 



Odor, noQe. 



Water Supply of Milton. 
(See Eyde Park ) 



Water Supply of Monson. 

The source of supply is a well 73 feet in diameter and 23 feet 
deep, located in the valley of Insfalls Brook, near its junction with 
Conant Brook, about 2i^ miles from the village of Monson. 



No. 34.] EXAI^nNATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



277 



MONSOX. 

Chemical Examination of Water from a Faucet in Monson, supplied from the 

Monson Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 









Ahmonia. 




Nitrogen 


■d 


















a 










ill 

s > ; 




■6 
'S 

c 


c 


m 


m 


S<5 


00 






o 


sy ' 


w 


ia 


_o 


a 


u 




■a 


5 




o 


a; 


=»• 


< 


.12 


»5 


z 


o 


K 


"■ 


Average of elx Bamples collected in Feb- 


.01 


3.33 


.0002 1.0011 


.0095 


.0000 


.02 


1.0 


.0037 


ruary, April, June, August, October and 




















December, 1898. 





















Odor, none. 

Water Supply of Turner's Falls Fire District, Montague. 

The source of supply is Lake Pleasant, which is situated in a 
sandy plain in the town of Montague. The lake has an area of 
45 acres and a maximum depth of 40 feet. Its shores are sandy, 
and the bottom is said to be free from organic matter. The lake 
has a water-shed of 1.78 square miles, which contains a population 
of about 14 persons per square mile. 

The water obtained from this source, as indicated by frequent 
analyses, has usually been of good quality, but has been subject 
to occasional tastes and odors caused by the presence of the or- 
ganism Uroglena. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Lake Pleasant, Montague, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Average of four samples collected in 
February, May, August and Novem- 
ber, 1898. 



Kesiddk on 
Evapora- 




Ammonia. 






Nitrogen 


•6 




tion. 


"" 






s 

6 






c 
o 




Albuminoid. 










■6 


•6 


00 


« 


= 5 


<u 


n 


1 


,| 


1 


2 




u 


•a 


o 




b 


o 
















H 


nJ 


b< 


b- 


a 


w 


1 


Zi 


z 


O 


a 


2.35 


0.75 


.0022 


.0071 


.0054 


.0017 


.0020 


.0000 


.14 


0.4 



Odor, none. A distinctly grassy odor was developed in the last sample on heating. 



Water Supply of Nahant. 

(See Swampscoti.) 



278 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



nantucket. 

Water Supply of Nantucket. — Wannacomet Water Company. 

The source of supply is Wannacomet Pond, which is situated 
near the sea, the level of the water in the pond being about 4 feet 
above the level of ordinary high tide. The pond has an area of 8 
acres and a general depth of 14 feet. The shores are sandy, but 
the bottom is said to contain considera])le mud. The drainage 
area of the pond is small and is uninhabited. The pond has been 
subject in some years to enormous growths of the organism Ana- 
bcena in the summer and early fall, which gives the water a very 
disagreeable taste and odor ; and, in order to remedy this, a filter 
was constructed containins^ from 12 to 16 inches of sand, through 
which water has l)een filtered at times before being pumped to the 
distributing stand-pipe. The filter does not remove the taste and 
odor caused by the organism Anahoena. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Wannacomet Pond, Nantucket. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





s 
o 

1 

o 

a 

Q 


Appearakce. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 


NlIBOGEN 
AS 


§ 

5 
>^ 

X 

o 






■5 
3 


c 
1 

03 


o 




3 




Albuminoid. | 




s 




1 

s 


1 


■3 
> 
o 

5 


•6 

,1 

m o 
S O. 


•5 

08 


23811 
24150 
24540 
24794 
24932 


1898. 

July 5 

Aug. 2 
Sept. 6 
Sept. 26 
Oct. 6 


V. slight, 
v. slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 


Slight. 

Slight. 

Cons. 

Slight. 

Cons. 


.08 
,02 
.20 
.20 
.26 


6.55 
7.10 
6.60 
7.35 
6.85 


1.95 
1.95 
1.60 
2.05 
1.80 


.0022 
.0010 
.0040 
.0132 
.0184 

.0075 


.0170 
.0150 
.0588 
.0334 
.0290 


.0150 
.0124 
.0220 
.0194 
.0192 


.0020 
.0026 
.0368 
.0140 
.0098 


2.33 
2.11 
2.19 
2.38 
2.42 

2.28 


.0000 
.0000 
.0030 
.0000 
.0000 


.0001 
.0000 
.0000 
.0001 
.0000 


.10 
.17 
.22 
.14 
.16 

.15 


1.3 
1.1 
1.3 
1.6 
1.8 


Av.*. 








.14 


6.87 


1.88 


.0268 


.0168 


.0100 


.0004 


.0000 


1.4 















'*' Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has heen 
used in making the average. 

Odor, vegetable, becoming stronger and in some samples also unpleasant, on heating. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



279 



NANTUCKET. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Wannacomet Pond, Nantucket. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



July. 



August. 



Sept. 



Sept. 



October. 



Day of examination, . 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS. 
Diatomacese, 

Cyclotella 

CyanophycesB, Anabsena, . 

Algae, 

ANIMALS, 
Infusoria 

Dinobryon, . . . , 

Peridinium 

Tracbelomonag, . 

Vermes, 

Crustacea, . . . . 

Cyclops, . . . . 
Daphnia, . . . . 

Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . 

Total 



7 
23811 



4 
24150 



24540 



28 
24794 



7 
24932 



160 
160 

856 








200 





1 


1 



212 

204 

2 



pr. 



pr. 
pr. 



85 



1,106 



280 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NANTUCKET. 

Chemical Examination oj Water from the Filter of the Wannacomet Water 

Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 


Appearance. 




c 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•o 
























S 






1 


^§ 

S 
'S 
a 


1 

H 


1 
•a 

OS 


o 
o 
O 


= >• 
■ay 




o 
c 

is 

5 


c 
o 

H 


2 


V 


o 


1 


1 




1S98. 


























24541 


Sept. 6 


V.elight. 


None. 


.11 


7.80 


.0014 


.0166 


2.34 


.0020 


.0001 


,18 


1.6 


.0210 


24795 


Stpt. 26 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.09 


7.40 


.0212 


.0100 


2.38 


.0080 


.0004 


.10 


1.7 


.0050 



Odor of the first sample, faintly vegetable; of the last, decidedly disagreeable. The samples 

were collected from a faucet in the pumping station ; the first, after the filter had been In operation two 
days; the last, after the filter had been operated 22 days. 

Microscopical Examination. 

An insignificant number of organisms was found in each of these samples. 



Water Supply of Natick. 

The source of supply is Dug Pond, which is tributary to Lake 
Cochituate, one of the sources of supply of the Metropolitan Dis- 
trict. The pond has an area of 44^ acres and a water-shed of 0.89 
of a square mile, which contains a considerable part of the thickly 
built up portion of the town of Natick, the population on the water- 
shed being 1,500 per square mile. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the water commission- 
ers of Natick, relative to a proposed water supply for that town to 
be taken from the ground in the vicinity of Lake Cochituate, may 
be found on pages 39 to 41 of this volume. 

In a previous communication to the water commissioners of Natick, 
relative to securing a supply of water from this source (pages 32 
and 33 of the annual report for 1897), the water commissioners were 
advised to make a test by pumping from wells in this vicinity, at a 
rate as great as would be necessary for the supply of Natick, and for 
a period of two or three weeks. In accordance with this advice," 
numerous test wells were driven and samples of water from each of 
them were analyzed. On January 19 a pumping test was begun by 
pumping with a steam pump from five of the wells, numbered 1, 2, 
3, 4 and 9. Several samples of water were collected in the course 
of this test, the results of which may be found in the last of the fol- 
lowing tables. The test was continued until January 31. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 
Chemical Examination of Water from Dug Pond, Natick. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



281 



NATICK.. 





d 
o 

o 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 

o 
a 
O 

.83 


Nitrogen 

AS 


t 
a 

s 

1 

1 






■3 
3 

a 


s 
i 


o 

5 




c 
o 

§1 

i 


b 


Albuminoid. 








1 

a 

3 

85 


"5 

5- 


>- 
1 


i 

, c 


1 

•s 

B 


21726 


1898. 

Jan. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.10 


5.70 


1.70 i 


.0136 


.0196 .0176 


.0020 


.0120 


.0000 


.22 


2.5. 


22024 


Jan. 31 


Blight. 


Slight. 


.44 


5.50 


1.00 


.0032 


.0146.0142 


.0004 


.88 


.0200 


.0002 


.19 


2.3 


22361 


Feb. 28 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.15 


5.15 


1.55 


.0112.0136.0118 


.0018 


.79 


.0160 


.0006 


.28 


2.2 


22709 


Apr. 4 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.12 


5.00 


1.70 


.0018 .01541.0132 


.0022 


.70 


.0230 


.0001 


.21 


2.1 


23024 


May 2 


Blight. 


Slight. 


.15 


5.25 


1.60 ; 


.0030 


.01961.0156 

1 


.0040 


.74 


.0220 


.0005 


.26 


2.2 


23327 


May 31 


V.slight. 


V.slight 


.13 


5.10 


1.80 


.0012 


.0150 


.0122 


.0028 


.75 


.0220 


.0001 


.24 


2.2. 


23772 


June 30 


Blight. 


V.slight. 


.16 


5.05 


1.35 


.0054 


.0188 


.0182 


.0006 


.71 


.0140 


.0006 


.31 


1.8 


24138 


Aug. 1 


V.slight. 


V.slight. 


.10 


5.85 


2.05 


.0016 


.0188 


.0174 


.0014 


.57 


.0080 


.0000 


.22 


2.5- 


24498 


Aug. 31 


Slight. 


V.slight. 


.11 


5.00 


1.55 


.0000 


,0186 


.0174 


.0012 


.52 


.0020 


.0000 


.31 


1.8 


24895 


Oct. 3 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.12 


4.80 


1.45 


.0002 


.0180 


.0168 


.0012 


.58 


.0000 


.0000 


.26 


2.0. 


25216 


Oct. 31 


V.slight. 


None. 


.12 


5.16 


1.45 


.0006 .0150 


.0144 


.0006 


.68 


.0010 


.0000 


.27 


2.1 


25524 


Dec. 1 


V.slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


5.00 


1.60 


.0052 .0146 


.0134 


.0012 


.66 


j.0120 


.0002 


.26 


2.1 



Averages by Years. 



.0003 


- 


- 


.0004 


- 


- 


.0002 


- 


2.T 


.0003 


- 


2.4 


.0001 


- 


2.4 


.0003 


.23 


2.1 


.0001 


.21 


2.3. 


.0001 


.24 


2.6 


.0002 


.25 


2. a 


.0002 


.25 


2.4 


.0002 


.25 


2.1 



1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 



5.24 
5.55 
5.85 
5.71 
5.38 
5.28 
5.64 
6.27 
6.19 
5.41 
5.21 



1.09 
1.20 
1.36 
1.45 
1.24 
1.39 
1.65 
1.86 
1.77 
1.47 
1.57 



.0070 
,0046 
,0027 
.0085 
.0068 
.0062 
.0060 
.0044 
.0045 
.0063 
.0039 



,0228 
,0242 
,0199 
,0207 
,0173 
,0192 
.0165 
.0191 
.0176 
.0192 
.0168 



.0197 
.0166 
.0167 
.0135 
.0158 
.0132 
.0164 
.0147 
.0166 
.0152 



.0045 
.0033 
.0040 
.0038 
.0034 
.0023 
.0027 
.0029 
.0026 
.0016 



,0197 
,0292 
,0227 
.0326 
.0323 
.0193 
,0218 
.0312 
.0290 
.0130 
.0127 



Note to analyses of 1898 : Odor from August to November, none; at other limes, faintly vegetable 

and occasionally musty, becoming stronger on heating. No. 23024 vs-as collected from the pond; the- 

others, from a faucet in the pumping station. 



282 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

NATICK. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Dug Pond, Natick. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 















1898. 












Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July 


Aug. 


Aug. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination 


4 


2 


1 


5 


3 


1 


1 


3 


31 


4 


1 


2 


Number of sample, .... 


21726 


22024 2236122709 


23024 


23327 


23772 24138 


24498 


24895 


25216 


25524 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomacese, .... 


1,561 


81 


30 


756 


579 


114 


19 


28 


16 


48 


18 


106 


Aaterionella 

Cyclolella 

Ideloeira 

Meridion 

Tabellaria 


216 

10 





1,288 


2 
5 

10 
1 

61 


4 
4 

2 
8 


428 

64 

248 






224 
129 

92 
116 


4 
35 
16 


50 



12 


6 




6 






6 






41 

2 




17 




5 

2 

88 



4 


•Cyanophycese 




















2 





1 











Algae, 





1 





2 


38 


24 


2 


10 


1 


9 


18 


17 


ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria 


41 





3 


3 


6 


41 


38 


1 


5 


20 





3 


Dinobryon 


30 








2 





38 


31 





5 


20 








Vermes, 


1 


1 


1 





4 























■Crustacea 








pr. 





pr, 





pr. 

















Cyclops, 

Daphoia, 











pr. 







pr. 






pr. 

























Miacellaneoua, Zobgloea, . 





10 








10 





3 


1 ' 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Total 


1,603 


93 


34 


761 


637 


179 


64 


42 


26 


80 


39 


129 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



283 



NATICK. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Various Tubular Test Wells in the Vicinity 
of Lake Cochituate in Natick. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 

T 

Q 


Appearance. 


c 
o 

ll 

s > 


Ammonia. 


c 

3 

S 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


S 

S 

>. 

M 

o 


1 




u 

.o 

a 

a 
S5 


s 

5- 


1 


o 


b 


■6 

o 
c 

i'a 
< 


m 

w 

I 


Si 


d 
2 


21774 


1898. 

Jan. 5 


Slight. 


None. 


.07 


5.30 


.0038 


.0028 


.28 


.0010 


.0000 


.01 


2.5 


.0170 


22048 


Feb. 


3 


Slight. 


Cona. 


.03 


6.20 


.0002 


.0016 


.27 


.0100 


.0002 


.04 


3.3 


.0020 


21775 


Jan. 


5 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.06 


8.60 


.0006 


.0006 


.26 


.0070 .0000 


.00 


4.3 


.0230 


21787 


Jan. 


9 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.02 


6,50 


.0002 


.0008 


.26 


.0040 .0000 


.00 


3.6 


.0020 


21799 


Jan. 


10 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.04 


7.50 


.0004 


.0008 


.28 


.0100 .0000 


.00 


4.2 


.0030 


22065 


Feb. 


4 


V. slight 


Slight. 


.00 


8.70 


.0004 


.0008 


.52 


.0650 .0000 


.01 


5.3 


.0020 


22066 


Feb. 


4 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


.01 


6.40 


.0002 


.0010 


.27 


.0050 1.0000 


.01 


4.0 


.002ff 


21788 


Jan. 


9 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.01 


5.70 


.0006 


.0010 


.30 


.0040 .0000 


.00 


3.0 


.0020 


22067 


Feb. 


4 


None. 


Slight. 


.02 


5.30 


.0002 


.0010 


.25 


.0030 LoOOO 


.00 


2.9 


.0010 


21807 


Jan. 


10 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.02 


7.70 


.0002 


.ooia 


.28 


.0190 .0000 


.00 


4.2 


.0100 


21857 


Jan. 


13 


None. 


None. 


.01 


8.50 


.0004 


.0014 


.43 


.0350 .0000 


.00 


4.9 


.0040 


21808 


Jan. 


10 


V. slight. 


None. 


.01 


9.60 


.0002 


.0006 


.58 


.1100 .0000 


.00 


4.9 


.0100 


21800 


Jan. 


10 


Decided. 


V. Blight. 


.04 


5.00 


.0034 


.0020 


.23 


.0050 |.0000 


.06 


2.6 


.0280 


21856 


Jan. 


13 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.01 


6.90 


.0004 


.0018 


.70 


.1680 .0000 


.00 


4.2 


.0020 


22068 


Feb. 


4 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


.05 


8.00 


.0002 


.0016 


.34 


.0180 1.0000 


.02 


4.6 


.0010 



Odor of Nos. 22067 and 22068, faintly earthy; of the others, none. The samples were collected 

from tubular test wells located near Lake Cochituate, in the area bounded by the Worcester turnpike, 
the Saxonville branch of the Boston & Albany Railroad and the southern division of the lake. Nos. 
21774 and 22048 were collected from test well No. 1, located 350 feet from the lake and 70 feet from the 
turnpike. Nos. 21775, 21787, 21799 and 22065, from test well No. 2, located 225 feet from the lake and 
190 feet from the turnpike; No. 2206C, from test well No. 3, located 260 feet from the lake and 175 feet 
from the turnpike; Nos. 21788 and 22067, from test well No. 4, located 270 feet from the lake and 70 feet 
from the turnpike; No. 21807, from test well No. 5, located 35 feet from the lake and 6 feet from the 
turnpike; No. 21857, from test well No. 6, located 20 feet from the lake and 400 feet from the turnpike; 
No. 21808, from test well No. 7, located 25 feet from the lake, 400 feet from the turnpike and 275 feet 
from the railroad; No. 21800, from test well No. 9, located 300 feet from the lake and 120 feet from the 
turnpike; No. 21856, from test well No. 10, located 20 feet from the lake and 80 feet from the railroad; 
No. 22068, from test well No. 11, located 175 feet north of the railroad and about 20 feet from an arm 
of the lake. This well is 400 feet from the wells from which water was drawn during the pumping 
test, and was driven in order that the height of the ground water in this vicinity might be observed 
while water was being drawn from the test wells. The samples collected in January were collected 
before the pumping test was begun ;^ those collected in February were taken a few days after the close 
of the pumping test. 



284 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NATICK. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Tubular Test Wells in the Vicinity of Lake 
Cochituate in Natick, collected during a Pumping Test. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





5 


Appearance. 


s 

« a 
s > 

a 


Ammonia. 




' NiTBOGEN 
1 AS 


a 

c 
K 




« 




J3 

a 

s 


•5 

3 


1 

•5 






1.1 


2 
'S 

c 

is 


1 
2 


z 


s 




1898. 


























21918 


Jan. 19 


Decided. 


CODB. 


.09 


5.80 


.0018 


.0008 


.32 


.0040 


.0001 


.00 


3.1 


.0280- 


21926 


Jan. 21 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.06 


5.80 


.0024 


.0014 


.28 


.0060 


.0000 


.01 


3.3 


.0250 


21949 


Jan. 22 


V. slight. 


None. 


.03 


6.00 


.0006 


.0014 


.28 


.0070 


.0000 


.02 


3.3 


.0080 


21950 


Jan. 23 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.03 


6.00 


.0002 


.0012 


.29 


.0090 


.0000 


.02 


3.5 


.0070 


219*0 


Jan. 24 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.03 


6.00 


.0008 


.0010 


.29 


.0140 


.0000 


.01 


3.1 


.0050 


21987 


Jan. 25 


V.elight. 


None. 


.03 


6.30 


.0002 


.0024 


.30 


.0100 


.0001 


.01 


3.3 


.0080 


22009 


Jan. 26 


None. 


None. 


.01 


6.80 


.0004 


.0010 


.32 


.0160 


.0000 


.02 


3.8 


.0030 


22015 


Jan. 28 


None. 


None. 


.02 


6.20 


.0006 


.0028 


.32 


.0170 


.0001 


.02 


3.8 


.0010 


22016 


Jan. 29 


None. 


None. 


.02 


6.40 


.0002 


.0008 


.33 


.0170 


.0000 


.01 


3.8 


.0000 


22020 


Jan. 30 


None. 


None. 


.02 


6.60 


.0000 


.0014 


.33 


.0170 


.0000 


.02 


3.6 


.0010 


22021 


Jan. 30 


None. 


Noue. 


.02 1 


5.90 


.0002 


.0012 


.34 


.0160 


.0000 


.01 


3.5 


.0010 


22023 


Jan. 31 


None. 


None. 


.00 [ 


6.60 


.0006 


.0012 ' 


.33 


.0170 


.0000 


.01 


3.6 


.0010 



Odor of No. 21918, faintly earthy; of the others, none. The samples were collected from the pipe 

discharging water from a steam pump while pumping from five tubular wells numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and 9. 
The location of the wells is given in the note at the foot of the preceding table. 



Water Supply of Needham. 

The source of supply is a well 22 feet in diameter and 24 feet deep, 
located in the valley of Colburn's Brook, about 2,000 feet from 
Charles River. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the Needham water 
board, relative to obtaining an additional water supply from the 
ground in the vicinity of the present source of supply, may be found 
on pages 41 to 43 of this volume. The results of chemical analyses 
of samples of water collected during the investigations are given in 
the tables which follow : — 



:No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



285 



NEEDHAM. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Needham Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appearance. 


o 

3 > 


Ammonia. 


c 

i 


Nitrogen 
as 


i, 

s 

5 


s 

s 
■H 

« 

ES 






•5 

1 

s 


§ 


i 




■a 
o 

c 

is 

< 


1 


1 


2 


22074 


1898. 

Feb. 7 


V. slight. 


None. 


.02 


6.70 


.0004 


.0008 


.90 


.1850 


.0000 


.02 


2.6 


.0030 


22747 


Apr. 6 


None. 


None. 


.02 


6.90 


.0006 


.0020 


.96 


.2*00 


.0000 


.02 


2.3 


.0010 


23349 


June 1 


None. 


None. 


.00 


7.70 


.0000 


.0020 


.96 


.2500 


.0000 


.04 


2.5 


.0020 


24142 


Aug. 3 


None. 


None. 


.00 


7.10 


.0006 


.0018 


.81 


.1700 


.0000 


.01 


2.1 


.0000 


24918 


Oct. 5 


None. 


None. 


.00 


6.70 


.0000 


.0006 


.79 


.1700 


.0000 


.03 


2.2 


.0020 


25559 


Dec. 7 


None. 


None. 


.00 


7.40 


.0000 


.0002 


,86 


.2750 


.0000 


.01 


2.3 


.0010 


Av... 








.01 


7.08 


.0003 


.0012 


.88 


.2200 


.0000 


.02 


2.3 


.0015 













Odor, none." 
from the well. 



■ The first sample was collected from a faucet at a drinking fountain, and the others. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Tubular Test Wells in Needham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 


Appearance. 




c 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•6 


























a 






1 

a 


s 1 


•5 


1 
•5 




s > 


<u 


3 

o 
e 

ia 


c 
o 


1 


1 




•s 

a 


i 


!5 


a 


5- 


rr. 


a 


- 


b, 


<. 


C 


y. 


Iz; 


o 


a 






1898. 


















1 








24805 


Sept. 27 


Decided, 
milky. 


Slight, 
clayey. 


.06 


10.00 


.0002 


.0014 


0.88 


0.1200 


.0000 


.01 


3.1 


.0060 


25488 


Nov. 26 


V. slight. 


V. slight, 
clayey. 


.05 


13.80 


.0000 


.0014 


1.35 


0.9400 


.0000 


.01 


4.4 


.0060 


25652 


Dec. 16 


None. 


None. 


.01 


10.20 


.0000 


.0006 


1.20 


0.5350 


.0000 


.02 


3.3 


.0040 


25653 


Dec. 16 


None. 


None. 


.00 


7.10 


.0000 


.0008 


0.88 


0.2650 


.0000 


.02 


2.7 


.0010 


25758 


Dec. 22 


None. 


None. 


.00 


7.50 


.0000 


.0008 


0.88 


0.2735 


.0000 


.02 


2.6 


.0010 


25654 


Dec. 16 


V. slight, 
clayey. 


Slight, 
clayey. 


.02 


1 16.70 


.0004 


.0010 


1.-38 


1.0800 


.0001 


.03 


4.4 


.0180 


25655 


Dec. 16 


None. 


None. 


.00 


13.40 


.OODO 


.0008 


1.38 


1.0000 


.0000 


.02 


4.7 


.0010 


25759 


Dec. 22 


None. 


None. 


.00 


12.00 


.0000 


.0006 


1.35 


0.8050 


.0000 


.02 


4.2 


.0010 


25656 


Dec. 16 


None. 


None. 


.00 


10.00 


.0000 


.0008 


1.14 


0.5150 


.0000 


.03 


3.5 


.0010 


25760 


Dec. 22 


None. 


None. 


.00 


12.20 


.0000 


.0008 


1.27 


0.7350 


.0000 


.02 


3.8 


.0020 


25657 


Dec. 16 


None. 


None. 


.00 


8.00 


.0000 


.0008 


1.07 


0.4050 


.0000 


.02 


2.9 


.0029 


25761 


Dec. 22 


None. 


None. 


.00 


8.10 

1 


.0000 


.0010 


1.10 


0.3200 


.0000 


.02 


3.0 


.0010 



Odor, none. The samples were collected from tubular test wells in the valley of Bird's Hill 

Brook, near the wells of the Needham water works. Sample No. 24805 was collected from test well 
No. 5, located about 430 feet south west of the present well, at the place at which it was proposed to 
construct a new well in 1898. The remaining samples were collected from test wells located easterly 
and south-easterly from the present well Nos. 254SS and 25652 were collected from well No. 20; Nos. 
25653 and 2.5758, from well No. 21; Nos. 25654, 25655 and 25759, from well No. 23; Nos. 25656 and 2.5760, 
from well No. 26; Nos. 25657 and 25761, from well No. 28. 



286 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NEEDHAM. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Bird's Hill Brook, Needham. 

[PartB per 100,000.] 



- — 








RE8IDDK ON 






Nitrogen 


•6 






c 


Apfearancb. 




EVAPORA- 


Ammonia. 




AS 


a 

s 

6 

B 
to 

O 






1 

c 

1 










o 

e 

.74 








•5 

'i. 

s 
E- 


1 


o 

a 


O 


. 1 
5 

fl 

1 


i 


Albuminoid* 




1 




1 

E 
s 
S5 




> 
o 

go 

s 


i 

•a 

1 c 

S C 


i 

s 

1 

s 


24806 


1S98. 

Sept. 27 


V. Blight. 


Cone. 


.15 


6.05 


2.60 


.0022 


.0114 


.0072 .0042 


.0910 


.0006 


.18 


1.8 



Odor, none. A faintly vegetable odor was developed on heating, 
the brooli, near the well of the Needham water works. 



• The eample was collected from 



Water Supply of New Bedford. 

The sources of supply are a storage reservoir on Acushnet River 
in Acushnet and Little Quittacas Pond in Lakeville. The reser- 
voir has an area of 300 acres and an available storage capacity of 
400,000,000 gallons. The bottom of the reservoir is muddy, and 
over much of the area the water is shallow. The water-shed of 7.3 
square miles contains a population of 45 per square mile. 

Little Quittacas Pond was connected with the Acushnet Reservoir 
in 1886. This pond has an area of 318 acres and a water-shed of 
1.89 square miles, which contains a population of 34 per square 
mile. 

The water of the Acushnet Reservoir is highly colored and con- 
tains a large amount of organic matter, much of which is in the form 
of microscopical organisms which give the water disagreeable tastes 
and odors. 

Works are now nearly completed for taking water for the supply 
of the city from Great Quittacas Pond in Lakeville. The results of 
analyses of samples of water from this source, as well as from the 
present sources of supply, are given in the following tal)les : — 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



287 



Chemical Examination of Water from the 

Works 



NEW BEDFORD. 

Conduit of the New Bedford Water 



[Parte per 100,000.] 





i 
1 

o 
o 
« 


APPEABANCE. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 

o 

.68 


Nitrogen 

AS 


i 

3 

c 

5 

c 

SB 

o 






■5 
S 

s 


c 

3 

•a 


c 

5 1 


"5 


B 

O 




Albuminoid. 








s 

a 


g 

b 




o 

5 


1 c 

CO 


□ 
X 


21955 


1S98. 

Jan. 24 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


1.40 


5.60 


2.70 


.0018 


.0248 


1 

.0242 .0006 


.0070 


.0000 


1.07 


1.6. 


22323 


Feb. 23 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.10 

1 


4.50 


2.25 


.0010 


.0172 


.0168 


.0004 


.67 


.0070 


.0000 


0.89 


1.3 


22667 


Mar. 28 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.00 


3.75 


2.10 


.0026 


.0190 


.0174 


.0016 


.54 


.0070 


.0000 


0.83 


0.5^ 


22953 


Apr. 25 


V, Blight. 


Slight. 


0.89 


3.50 


1.70 


.0018 


.0168 


.0154 


.0014 


.55 


.0060 


.0001 


0.75 


0.6> 


23270 


May 23 


'. Slight. 


Cons. 


1.30 


4.30 


2.00 


.0028 


.0234 


.0208 


.0026 


.47 


.0040 


.0001 


1.00 


1.0 


23613 


June 20 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.20 


4.55 


2.50 


.0018 


.0290 


.0258 


.0032 


.53 


.0070 


.0000 


1.22 


l.a 


24025 


July 25 


Slight. 


Blight. 


0.98 


4.60 


2.40 


.0020 


.0244 


.0230 


.0014 


.43 


.0010 


.0002 


0.89 


0.6 


24384 


Aug. 22 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


1.46 


5.75 


3.35 


.0024 


.0300 


.0276 


.0024 


.45 


.0040 


.0000 


1.42 


l.fr 


24765 


Sept. 26 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.00 


4.90 


2.50 


.0014 


.0274 


.0254 


.0020 


.49 


.0060 


.0000 


1.03 


0.6. 


25132 


Oct. 24 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.68 


4.10 


2.10 


.0004 


.0176 


.0160'.0016 


.50 


.0050 


.0000 


0.95 


0.8. 


25441 


Nov. 21 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


1.80 


6.75 


3.40 


.0052 


.0304 


.0252 


.0052 


.54 


.0140 


.0000 


1.65 


1.1 


25800 


Dec. 28 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.03 


5.10 


2.45 


.0014 


.0182 


.0172 


.0010 
.0020 


.62 
.54 


.0040 


.0000 
.0000 


1.15 
1.07 


1.1 


Av... 








1.15 


4.78 


2,45 


.0020 


.O232'.02!2 


.0060 


o.<»- 




1 











Odor, generally vegetable, Bometitnes none, becoming stronger and sometimes muBty on beating. 
The samples were collected from the conduit, at its entrance to the receiving reservoir, and repre- 
sent water from the storage reservoir. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Little Quittacas Pond, Lakeville. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
2 

v 

o 
o 
a 

O 


Appearance. 


Residce <JN 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 

.c 
U 

.52 


Nitrogen 
as 


■d 

B 

s 

B 

5 

e 
o 






1 

s 


'c 

i 


o 


"3 


c 
J 




Albuminoid. 


1 


g 




Of 

1 

3 


3 




•6 

•a 

ii. 


m 
C 


22637 


1898. 

Mar. 24 


Blight. 


Blight. 


.20 


3.05 


1.25 


.0000 


.0170 


.0146 


.0024 


.0000 


.0000 


.34 


0.8- 


23614 


June 20 


V.slight. 


Blight. 


.21 


3.00 


1.25 


.0004 


.0180 


.0142 


.0038 


.54 


.0010 


.0000 


.36 


1,0- 


24767 


Sept. 26 


V. slight. 


V. Blight 


.17 


3.45 


1.55 


.0004 


.0168 


.0150 


.0018 


.56 


.0010 


,0000 


.34 


0.8^ 


25799 


Dec. 28 


Blight. 


Slight. 


.26 


3.75 


1.25 


'.0000.0182 
.0002 -Ol?."! 


.0164 


.0018 


.60 
.55 


.0010 


.0001 


.36 
.35 


1.7- 


Av... 








?1 


3.31 


1.32 


.0150 


.0025 


.0007 


.0000 


l.r 






1 











Odor of the second sample, distinctly vegetable, becoming also musty on heating; of the others^ 



288 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NEW BEDFORD. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Great Quittacas Pond, Lakeville. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 
1 
1 

c 

C 1 


Appkabancb. 


Kesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
■c 

o 

s 

.57 
.54 
.58 
.60 

.57 


UlTROGEN 
AS 


1 

3 

c 

6 

1 

o 






5 

1 

s 


1 

■a 


6 


5 

o 


s 
e 

§1 

r 


i 


Albuminoid. 


1 


1 




.a 

a 

9 




> 
o 


•a 

- 


s 

1 

S 


22636 
-23615 
24766 
^5798 


1S98. 

Mar. 24 

June 20 
Sept. 26 
Dec 28 


V. Blight. 
None. 
V. slight. 
V.Blight. 


Slight. 
V.Blight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 


.70 
.68 
.50 
.71 


3.50 
3.65 
4.00 
4.10 


1.60 
2.00 
2.05 
2.35 


.0002 
.0010 
.0008 
.0000 

.0005 


.0200 
.0194 
.0200 
.0194 


.0176 

.0180 
.0188 
.0176 

.0180 


.0024 
.0014 
.0012 
.0018 

.0017 


.0000 
.0010 
.0010 
.0000 

.0005 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


.71 
.76 
1.70 
.91 

.77 


0.8 
1.0 
0.8 
1.1 










.65 


3.81 


2.00 


.0197 


0.9 























Odor of the first two aamples, distinctly vegetable; of the last two, none. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Long Pond, Lakeville. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





5 

1 

o 

a 

a 


Appbabance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


3 
O 
O 

.48 


Nitrogen 
as 


1 

3 

c 
o 

c 
o 






■5 

B 

3 


c 
S 
1 

CO 


o 

a 


2 
o 


c 

o 

§1 

r 




Albuminoid. 


i 

1 


1 




a 

3 


1 


13 
> 

"3 


•6 

1 3 
3 O. 


•5 


■22635 


1898. 

Mar. 24 


V.Blight. 


V.Blight. 


1.20 


3.55 


2.05 


.0002 


.0180 


.0172 


.0008 


.0000 


.0000 


0.97 0.5 


23616 


June 20 


V.Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.98 


3.80 


2.35 


.0006,. 0214 


.0200 


.0014 


.49 


.0020.0000 


1.06{ 0.3 


24764 


Sept. 26 


V.Blight. 


V.Blight. 


0.90 


4.65 


2.70 


.001o'.0226 


.0222 


.0004 


i.45 
1 


.0020 


.0000 


1.06 


0.8 


25801 


Dec. 28 


Slight. 


V.Blight. 


1.18 


4.85 


2.75 


.0000 


.0250 


.0224 


.0026 


!.54 
.49 


.0010 


.0000 


1.44 
1.13 


0.8 


Av . 








1.06 


4.21 


2.46 


.0004 


.0217 


.0204 


.0013 


.0012 


.0000 


0.6 






1 





Odor of the first two samples, distinctly vegetable; of the third, none, becoming faintly musty on 
heating; of the last, none. 



AVater Supply of Neavburyport. 

The sources of supply are wells and springs near the south bank 
of the Merrimack River, about 2.5 miles above the central portion 
of the city. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



289 



NEWBURYPOKT, 

Chemical Examinatioyi of Water from the Newburyport Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



, 


o 
o 


— 

a ti 
3 > 


Ammonia. 


it 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

S 
s 

c 

g5 

to 
O 


c 
-a 
a 






U4 


■a 
"S 

c 

< 


Nitrates. 
Nitrites. 


d 
2 


•Average of eleven eamples, collected 
monthly, with the exception of July, 
1898. 


.16 


6.84 


.0014 


.0059 


.50 


.0192 


.0000 


.13 


2.8 


.0174 



Odor in January, faintly earthy; in August, faintly unpleasant, becoming stronger on heating; at 
other times, none. 

Chemical Examinatioji of Water from Jackman Springs^ Newburyport. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 




Odor, none, becoming faintly vegetable on heating. 

Water Supply of Newton. 
The source of supply is a covered filter-gallery or conduit, con- 
structed of wood and vitrified clay pipe, with which many tubular 
wells are connected, extending along the valley of Charles River 
above Newton Upper Falls. Water from the filter-gallery, is 
pumped to a covered masonry reservoir. For analyses of sam- 
ples of water from the Charles River opposite the filter-gallery, 
see Charles River in the chapter on "Examination of Rivers," in 
a subsequent portion of this report. 

Chemical Examination of Water frorti a Faucet at the Newton Water Works Picmp- 

ing Station. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 









Ammonia. 




NiTBOQEN 


•6 
















AS 


a 










S o, 




■s 








a 


CO 




























o 


2iS 


o 


i'a 






S 




■3 


§ 




O 


es 


U. 


< 


O 


» 


» 


o 


s 




Average of twelve samples collected monthly 


.04 


6.18 


.0002 


.0024 


.47 


.0364 


.0000 


.07 


2.8 


.0032 


during 1898. 























Odor, none. 



290 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



north adams. 

Water Supply of North Adams. 

The sources of supply are Notch Brook in North Adams, on 
which a storage reservoir has been built, and Broad Brook in 
Pownal, Vt. The Notch Brook storage reservoir has an area of 
121/2 acres and a capacity of 90,000,000 gallons. When the reser- 
voir was constructed, all of the soil and organic matter was removed 
from the bottom. The water-shed of the reservoir has an area of 
2.43 square miles, and is uninhabited. A large portion of the 
water-shed is owned by the city. 

Broad Brook at the point of diversion has a water-shed of 6.02 
square miles and contains a population of 5 per square mile. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Notch Brook Storage Reservoir, 

Adams. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



North 





1 

"3 
u 

o 




Appearance. 


RESIDnS ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 



.10 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

a 

3 

a 

a 

c 

fid 








'2 

s 


1 
■3 


U 

8 


■3 

1 


3 



9J 


Albuminoid. | 


"3 
1 


b 

2 




i 

1 


"3 



CO 

5 


'6 
■a 

a 0. 


c 
X 


21766 


1S98. 

Jan. 4 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.05 


7.00 


1.05 


.0010 


.0046 


.0042 


.0004 


.0080 


.0000 


.12 


5.7 


22012 


Jan. 27 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.21 


6.25 


1.30 


.0060 


.0104 


.0058 


.0046 


.10 


.0050 


.0000 


.46 


4.9 


22288 


Feb. 17 


Slight. 


None. 


.05 


6,40 


1.00 


.0004 


.0070 


.0064 


.0006 


.09 


.0040 


.0000 


.10 


5.3 


23383 


June 1 


None. 


V.slight. 


.06 


6.90 


1.15 


.0010 


.0062 


.0046 


.0016 


.07 


.0010 


.0000 


.12 


5.0 


24099 


July 30 


None. 


V. slight. 


.05 


11.45 


1.75 


.0002 


.0022 


.0020 


.0002 


.04 


.0020 


.0001 


.05 


8.7 


24871 


Sept. 28 


V. Blight. 


V.slight. 


.06 


8.15 


1.45 


.0014 


.0088 


.0068 


.0020 


.06 


.0000 


.0000 


.14 


6.4 


25500 


Nov. 29 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.08 


6.45 


1.40 


.0000 
.0011 


.0046 


.0040 
.0048 


.0006 
.0012 


.08 

.07 


.0050 


.0000 
.0000 


.11 
.13 


5.0 










.07 


7.66 


1.32 


.0060 


.0031 


5.9 















* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has 
been used in making the average. 

Odor, none. A faintly vegetable odor was developed in two of the samples on heating. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



291 



NORTH ADAMS. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Broad Brook in Poional, Vt. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Kesidue on 




1 


1 • 1 




S 


Appbakance. 




EVAPOBA- 


AUHONIA. 




Nitrogen 


■o 










TION. 








u 

s 

i 














c 




Albuminoid. 










u 


>> 


r 












i ■o 


« 






6 




£1 

s 


■o 


is 

5 


a 


i 


a 


= 5) 


6 


■3 


> 


■a 
1 c 


1h 
o 


4< 


*n 


1 


1 


































Iz; 


Q 


H 


CD 


u 


i-i 


>.:) 


fc« 


H 


a 


CC 


o 


»; 


2; 


o 


a 




1898. 




















! 






21765 


Jan. 4 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.03 


6.20 


1.05 


.0002 


.0020 .0018 


.0002 


.08 


.0260 


.0000 


.05 


5.1 


22011 


Jan. 26 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.04 


4.90 


0.95 


.0010 


.0052 .0028 


.0024 


.09 


.0170 


.0000 


.11 


3.6 


22289 


Feb. 17 


None. 


None. 


.12 


3.75 


1.30 


.0002 


.0060 '.0054 


.0006 


.08 


.0120 


.0000 


.23 


1.8 


23382 


May 30 


None. 


V. slight. 


.06 


5.75 


1.35 


.0006 .0048:. 0034 


.0014 


.06 


.0080;. 0000 


.10 


Z.H 


24098 


July 27 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.07 


8.75 


1.75 


.0008 


.0038 .0032 


.0006 


.05 


.0130 .0001 


.08 


7.0 


24870 


Sept. 27 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


.11 


6.80 


1.35 


.0000 


.0038 .0028 


.0010 


.06 


.0060 


.0000 


.18 


4.6 


25501 


Nov. 29 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.07 


5.25 


1.00 


.0000 


.0020 .0020 
.0040 -ins?'. 


.0000 


.08 
.07 


.0120 
.0121 


.0000 


.12 
.13 


3.8 


Av.*. 








08 


5.97 


1.29 


.0004 


.0008 


.0000 


4.2 

















* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has been 
used in making the average. 
Odor, none. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the board of health of 
North Adams, relative to the suitability of certain ponds as sources 
of domestic ice supply, may be found on pages 125 to 127 of this 
volume. 

The results of analyses of samples of water collected from the 
various sources which have been investigated are given in the fol- 
lowing table, and under Deertield River in a subsequent chapter of 
this report, entitled " Examination of Rivers." 

Chemical Examination of Water from Various Sources of Ice Supply in North 

Adams and Vicinity. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Residue on 














c 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


A&CHONIA. 




NiTBOGBN 


•s 






o 








tion. 








CO 














d 




Albuminoid. 










6 


>. 


■^ 






~ 




1 ^ 


■a 








6 




£! 
1 


o 


2 

.a 

3 


a 

■5 




"3 

O 


= 3> 

o 


« 


t 


> 
o 


1 B 


o 




1 


1 


a 


£ 


Q 


H 


c« 


O 


H 


^J 


fe 


t- 


Q 


(M 


o_ 


^ 


^A 


o 


a 




1898. 




























22938 


Apr. 22 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.17 


14.95 


2.30 


.0006 


.0232 


.0144 


.0088 


.18 


.0040 


.0003 


.26 


12.3 


22939 


Apr. 22 


None. 


Slight. 


.02 


8.95 


1.05 


.0002 


.00201.0014 


.0006 


.07 


.0070 


.0000 


.O.i 


7.6 


22940 


Apr. 22 


Slight, 


Cons. 


.26 


6.65 


1.70 


.0004 


.0220'. 0130 


.00901 


.22 


.0070 


.0004 


.26 


4.3 


22941 


Apr. 22 


SHght. 


Cons. 


.28 


2.50 


1.00 


.0008 


.0146,. 0090 


.0056' 


.08 


.0020 


.0000 


.,S8 


0.8 


22942 


Apr. 22 


Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.10 


3.95 


1.45 


.0006 


.0140 .0106 


.0034, 


.16 


.0020 


.0000 


.26 


2.5 


22943 


Apr. 22 


v. slight. 


v. slight. 


.31 


6.95 


1.50 


.0006 


.0170 .0148 .0022 


.06 


.0000 


.0000 


.34 


5.1 



Odor of the first sample, faintly vegetable, becoming distinctly vegetable and fishy on heating ; of the 
second, none; of the third, faintly unpleasant, becoming distinctly unpleasant on heating; of the fourth, 
faintly musty; of the fifth, faintly musty and unpleasant, becoming decidedly musty and disagreeable on 

heating; of the last, none, becoming faintly vegetable on heating. The first sample was collected from 

an artificial ice pond in the village of Zylonite in Adams; the second, from Orr's Pond in North Adams, 
situated just west of the south branch of the Hoosac River; the third, from a pond in the village of Black- 
inton, connected with the Hoosac River by a culvert beneath the railroad; the fourth, from a pond in 
Clarksburg known as the Stamford Reservoir, at the head waters of the north branch of the Hoosac 
River; the fifth, from Kemp Pond, so called, in the easterly portion of the city of North Adams; the 
last, from a small artificial pond near the upper distributing reservoir of the North Adams water works. 



292 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



iTORTHAMPTON. 

Water Supply of Northampton. 

The source of supply is Roberts' Meadow Brook in Northampton, 
and AVesthampton, on which three storage reservoirs have been 
built. The upper and lower reservoirs are quite small. The middle 
reservoir, which is the principal storage reservoir, has an area of 
26 acres, a maximum depth of 30 feet, an average depth of 10 feet 
and a capacity of 84,000,000 gallons. Each of the reservoirs was- 
prepared for the storage of water by the removal of all the soil 
and other organic matter. 

The water-shed of Roberts' Meadow Brook above the lower reser- 
voir has an area of 10.6 square miles and contains a pojDulation of 
15 per square mile. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Roberts'' Meadoiv Brook, just above the 
Middle Reservoir of the Northampton Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





s 
o 

o 


Appeakanck. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




NlIKOGEN 
AS 


■o 

i 

s 

OS 

5 






>. 


^ 










Albuminoid. | 




1 








•a 


•d 


oa 




o 
s 


•3 

3 


S 
■5 


o 


2 


5a 

o 




o 


> 

5 


00 ® 

s e. 

05 


c 

S 
o 

.11 


2 


1 


Si 
>i 
X 

O- 


1 

03 


21976 


1898. 

Jan. 25 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.21 


3.20 


1.25 


.0006 


.0070 


.0068 


.0002 


.0040 


.0000 


.32 


1.4 


22328 


Feb. 23 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.18 


3.50 


1.00 


.0006 


.0054 


.0050 


.0004 


.12 


.0100 


.0000 


.20 


1.3 


22669 


Mar. 28 


V. slight. 


V.sllght. 


.26 


2.30 


1.00 


.0006 


.0086 


.0074 


.0012 


.07 


.0080 


.0000 


.27 


1.0 


22994 


Apr. 26 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.35 


3.20 


1.10 


.0002 


.0072 


.0062 


.0010 


.09 


.0060 


.0000 


.35 


1.0 


23343 


May 30 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.39 


3.55 


1.45 


.0004 


.0078 


.0070 


.0008 


.08 


.0030 


.0000 


.33 


1.1 


23682 


June 23 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.38 


4.05 


1.50 


.0008 


.0188 


.0118 


.0020 


.07 


.0010 


.0000 


.41 


1.7 


24077 


July 27 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.21 


4.80 


1.50 


.0032 


.0088 


.0076 


.0012 


.09 


.0020 


.0003 


.18 


1.5 


24481 


Aug. 29 


v. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.40 


4.85 


1.85 


.0030 


.0196 


.0182 


.0014 


.07 


.0030 


.0002 


.66 


1.8 


24845 


Sept. 27 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


,21 


4.75 


1.55 


.0006 


.0096 


.0092 


.0004 


.09 


.0050 


.0001 


.28 


1.7 


25178 


Oct. 25 


None. 


V. slight. 


.41 


4.25 


1.35 


.0000 


.0072 


.0064 


.0008 


.12 


.0020 


.0000 


.60 


1.7 


25495 


Nov. 29 


V. slight. 


v. slight. 


.27 


3.40 


1.05 


.0004 


.0068 


.0062 


.0006 


.10 


.0050 


.0000 


.28 


1.4 


25712 


Dec. 20 


None. 


V. slight. 


.14 


3.60 


1.10 


.0000 


.0040 


.0032 


.0008 


.11 

.09 


.0070 


.0002 


.18 
.34 


1.4 


Av. .. 








?8 


3.79 


1.31 


.0009 


.0088 


.0079 


.0009 


.0047 


.0001 


1 4 






1 









Odor, generally none, sometimes faintly vegetable. A faintly vegetable odor was developed in 
most of the samples on heating. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 293 



NORTHAMPTON. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Middle Storage Reservoir on Roberts^ 
Meadow Brook, collected near the Surface. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 
O 

o 


Appearance. 1 


Residue on 

EVAPOEA- 1 

HON. 1 


Ammonia. 


6 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 




c 






6J 

•3 


a 






c 
OS) 




Albuminoid. 




•2 




c 




> 






a 

3 

S5 




•e 

3 


1 

m 


o 
o 


C3 

1 


1 


fa 


o 


5 


(K 


.11 


^ 


2 


>> 






31977 


1S98. 

Jan. 25 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.23 


3.05 


1.15 


.0002 


.0062 


.0054 


.0008' 


.0030 


.0000 


0.30 


1.4 


22329 


Feb. 23 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


3.55 


1.05 


.0006 


.0062 


.0044 


.00181 


.14 


.0070 .0000 


0.20 


1.3 


22670 


Mar. 28 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


2.25 


1.00 


.0004 


.0080|.0068 


.001211. 07 


.0100 '.0000 


0.26 


1.0 


22995 


Apr. 26 


Slight. 


Slighl. 


.39 


3.50 


1.40 


.0004 


.0096 


.0088 


.0008'!. 08 


.0030 .0000 


i0.40 


1.0 


23344 


May 30 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


..50 


3.40 


1.60 


.0008 


.0104 


.0092 


.OOI2I1.07 


.0040 .0001 


0.36 


1.1 


23683 


June 23 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


..S8 


4.25 


1.60 


.0022 


.0174 


.0128 


.0046 |. 08 


.0010.0000 


0.44 


l.ti 


24078 


July 27 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.21 


4.70 


1.75 


.0018 


.0180 


.0132 


.0048|I.10 


.0000 


.0000 


0.28 


1.6 


24485 


Aug. 29 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.41 


4.90 


1.95 


.0032 


.0264 


.0218 


.0046 


.08 


.0020 


.0001 


1.40 


1,8 


24846 


Sept. 27 


Blight. 


Slight. 


.28 


4.95 


1.80 


.0048 


.0238 


.0174 


.0064 


.15 


.0020 


.0001 


0.42 


1.8 


25179 


Oct. 25 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.43 


4.60 


1.90 


.0000 .0126 


.0104 


.0022 


.14 


.0010 


.0000 


0.64 


i.V 


25496 


Nov. 29 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.26 


3.50 


1.15 


.0002 


.0062 


.0052 


.0010 


.11 


.0040 


.0000 


0.29 


1.4 


25713 


Dec. 20 


None. 


V. slight. 


.15 


3.45 


1.00 


.0006 


.0068 


.0060 


.0008 
.0025 


.12 
.10 


.0080 


.0002 


0.18 
0.43 


1.4 


Av .. 






• 


.30 


3.84 


1.45 


.0013 


.0126 


.0101 


.0037 


.0000 


1.4 













Odor, faintly vegetable or none. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Middle Storage Reservoir on Roberts'' 
Meadoiv Brook, collected near the Surface. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1S98. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


June. 


•June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 

Number of sample, .... 


26 

21977 


24 
22329 


29 
22670 


28 
22995 


1 
23344 


27 
23683 


29 
24078 


31 

24485 


29 
24846 


27 
25179 


30 
25496 


22 
25713 


PLANTS. 

Diatomaceae, .... 

Asterionella 

Cyclotella 

Synedra, 

Algje 


6 






2 





1 




18 



6 




26 



16 

1 


50 

1 

30 

1 


52 


3 
47 




1,802 



1,776 

36 


88 

16 
65 

21 


80 
4 
40 
23 

7 


76 
8 


68 




93 
68 

11 

1 


4 
2 

1 




ANIMALS. 

Infusoria 

Dinobryon, . . . • 
Peridinium 

Vermes, 

Crustacea, Cyclops, . 












2 


2 

, 




0. 


























7 

7 







126 

82 
40 

4 




44 
16 
17 

3 

pr. 


26 

21 

2 

1 

pr. 


72 

62 

8 





1 
1 







0, 
0. 







Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, . 


10 





3 


10. 


5 


15 


15 


8 8 


8 


3 


5 


Total 


16 


4 


21 


37 


56 


74 


1,983 


164 122 


156 


98 


9 



294 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NORTHA]MPTON. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Middle Storage Reservoir on Roberts' 
Meadow Brook, collected near the Bottom. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


Appkabance. 


Residue on 

EVAPOEA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


m 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 
i 








^ 






c 

o 




Albuminoid. 












•d 






1 

s 


o 
a 


is 


i 

"3 


u 

o 


s 


c - 

= 5, 


6 


« 




■o 
1 Q 
3 o. 


c 
o 

2 


1 


.-§ 


cc 

X 




^ 


O 


H 


cc 


U 


Eh 


i^ 


Eh 


i* 


Q 


05 


u 


'A 


S 


o 


X 




189S. 






























21978 


Jan. 25 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


3.70 


1.25 


.0070 


.0078 


.0060 


.0018 


.14 


.0080 


.0001 


.30 


1.7 


22330 


Feb. 23 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.29 


3.75 


0.95 


.0034 


.0076 


.0064 


.0012 


.14 


.0080 


.0000 


.25 


1.& 


22671 


Mar. 28 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.20 


2.55 


1.30 


.0008 


.0068 


.0058 


.0010 


.07 


.0070 


.0000 


.25 


1.0 


22996 


Apr. 26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.40 


3.05 


1.30 ; 


.0000 .0100 


.0084 


.0016 


.09 


.0030 


.0000 


.40 


1.0 


23346 


May 30 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.49 


3.50 


1.65 1 


.00141.0136 


.0110. 0026 


.07 


.0030 


.0000 


.40 


1.1 


23684 


June 23 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.38 


4.00 


1.45 1 


.00101.0138 


.01101.0028 


.07 


.0020 


.0001 


.45 


1.7 


24079 


July 27 


Slight. 


Cods. 


0.34 


4.50 


1.70 


.0140 .0198 


.0142|.0056 


.08 


.0000 


.0000 


.42 


1.7 


24486 


Aug. 29 


Decided. 


Cons. 


1.70 


6.25 


2.30 


.0418 .0278 


.0224;. 0054 


.08 


.0020 


.0003 


.62 


1.8 


24847 


Sept. 27 


Decided. 


Cons. 


1.44 


5.90 


2.15 


.05961.0256 


.0168 


.0088 


.09 


.0010 


.0001 


.48 


2.2 


25180 


Oct. 25 


None. 


Slight. 


0.47 


4.50 


1.75 


.0000 


.0112 


.0096 


.0016 


.13 


.0010 


.0000 


.66 


1.6 


25497 


Nov. 29 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.27 


3.45 


1.25 


.0006 


.0072 


.0056 


.0016 


.11 


.0020 


.0000 


.31 


1.4 


25714 


Dec. 20 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.25 


3,50 


1.10 


.0006 
.0108 


.0068 
.0132 


.0064 
.0103 


.0004 


.11 
.10 


.0060 


.0004 


.26 
.40 


1.1 


Av... 








0.54 


4.05 


1.51 


.0029 


.0036 


.0001 


1.5- 













Odor, generally faintly vegetable or none, occasionally musty or unpleasant. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from the Middle Storage Reservoir on Roberts'' 
Meadoiv Brook, collected near the Bottom. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


June. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 


26 


24 


29 


28 


1 


27 


29 


31 


29 


27 


30 


22 


Number of sample, .... 


21978 


22330 


22671 


22996 


23345 


23684 


24079 


24486 


24847 


25180 


25497 


25714 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomacese 


1 





11 


21 


40 


90 


1,292 


35 


19 


96 


22 


8 


Cyclotella, 

Synedra, 




1 







3 



12 


2 

24 


2 

44 


1,264 
24 



30 



11 


2 
80 



12 



5 


Cyanophycese 





























2 








Algae 











1 








' 


6 





4 





1 


ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria 





1 











1 


4 


24 


8 


2 








Tracbelomonas, 























16 


8 











Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, . 


5 


6 


5 


10 


12 


20 


40 


60 


60 


8 


5 


5 


Total, 


6 


7 


16 


32 


52 


111 1,340 125 


87 


112 


27 


14 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



295 



NORTH A2«^r)OVER. 

Water Supply of North Andover. 
Population in 1895, 3,569. The works are owned by the town, 
and were completed in the latter part of the year 1898. The source 
of supply is Great Pond in North Andover. The pond has an area 
of 621 acres and a water-shed of 5.4 square miles, which contains a 
population of 50 per square mile. Water is pumped from the pond 
to an open distributing reservoir having a capacity of 1,000,000 
gallons. (See also pages 43 to 45 of this volume.) 

Chemical Examination of Water from Great Pond, North Andover. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







Appearance. 


Rbsidde on I 

EVAPORA- 1 
TION. 1 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

a 
S 






1 


1 


o 


« 


. 1 
a 
o 


« 


Albuminoid. 


1- 



1 
2 


X, 



Q 

1 




1 


3 


1 


■5 


■d 

> 




•a 

■S 

, c 


00 

























■a 










K 


a 


H 


x 


U 


H 


uj 


in 


H 


a 


03 





Iz; 


'A 





W 




189S. 




























22937 


Apr. 21 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.24 


3.75 


1.25 


.0002 


.0166 


.0152 


.0014 


.38 


.0030 .0000 


.34 


1.3 



Odor, none, becoming faintly vegetable on heating. 

Water Supply of North Attleborough. 
The source of supply is a well 30 feet in diameter and '2^0 feet 
deep, located near the outlet of Whiting's Mill Pond, on the Ten 
Mile River, just above the village of North Attleborough. 

Chemical Examination of Water from, the Wells of the North Attleborough Water 

Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 


Appearance. 


o 

3 


Ammonia. ' 

1 




JflTBOGEN 

AS j 


i 






1 

a 


o 


•5 


c 
o 

s 


i 

i 


ri 

O OS 




c 

^2 


B 

i 




I 


15 


2 
■5 


a 






























^; 


C 


^ 


02 


V 




b 


< 


o 


'A 


A 


o 


B 






1S9S. 


























21882 


Jan. 17 


None. 


None. 


.01 


6.60 


.0000 


.0016 


.78 


.0620 


.0000 


.02 


2.9 


.0020 


22317 


Feb. 22 


v. slight. 


Slight. 


.02 


6.30 


.0000 


.0006 


.SO 


.0620 


.0000 


.02 


2.9 


.0020 


23079 


May 5 


' None. 


Slight. 


.04 


7.20 


.0004 


.0030 


.81 


.0630 


.0000 


.03 


3.1 


.0040 


23727 


June 27 


Slight. 


None. 


.01 


8.20 


.0006 


.0010 


.82 


.0410 


.0000 


.03 


3.5 


.0080 


21396 


Aug. 22 


None. 


None. 


.00 


7.00 


.0000 


.0014 


.77 


.0650 1.0000 


.02 


3.0 


.0000 


25223 


Oct. 31 


None. 


None. 


.01 


7.60 


.0000 


.0004 


.82 


.0620 


.0000 


.05 


2.9 


.0010 


25789 


Dec. 27 


1 None. 


None. 


.00 


6.10 


.0000 


.0012 


.75 


.0540 


.0000 


.02 


3.0 


.0010 


Av... 








.01 


7.00 


.0001 


.0013 


.79 


.0584 


.0000 


.03 


3.0 


.0023 













Odor, none. No. 23079 -was collected from the well, and the others from a faucet at the pumping 

station. 



296 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



northborough . 

AVater Supply of Northborough. 
The source of supply is Cold Harbor Brook in Shrewsbury, on 
which two reservoirs have been constructed. The upper reservoir, 
which was formerly a mill pond, has an area of 8 acres and a maxi^ 
mum depth of 9 feet. The shores of this reservoir are sandy, but 
the bottom near the centre is muddy. The lower reservoir has an 
*area of .9 acres, a maximum depth of 15 feet and a storage capacity 
of 30,000,000 gallons. A considerable portion of this reservoir is 
very shallow, and the bottom is said to be muddy. The water-shed 
of the lower reservoir has an area of 2.3 square miles, which con- 
tains a population of about 45 per square mile. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Upper Reservoir of the Northborough 

Water Works, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

1 

<5 

O 


Appearance. 


Eesidde on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 
u 
o 

s 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■o 

1 

s 
c 

a 

Ui 
X 

o 








1 


o 
o 
O 




a 
_o 

o 

1^ 


1 


Albuminoid. 


I 
1 


2 




u 

a 
•a 




■6 
> 

"3 

5 


■S 


a 

IS 

n 




1898. 




























21957 


Jan. 24 


v. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.60 


2.90 


1.15 


.0002 


.01201.0108 


.0012 


.19 


.0070 


.0000 


0.52 


0.8 


22609 


Mar. 21 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.66 


2.50 


1.20 


.0006 


.01581.0150 


.0008 


.23 


.0000 


.0000 


0.55 


0.8 


23263 


May 23 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.80 


4.05 


2.00 


.0016 


.0312 .0304 .0008' 


.22 


.0090 


.0000 


1.12 


1.0 


24045 


July 25 


v. slight. 


Slight. 


0.60 


4.00 


2.25 


.0010 


.0276 .02441.0032 


.19 


.0010 


.0001 


0.71 


0.8 


24762 


Sept. 26 


V. slight. 


None. 


0.85 


4.85 


2.20 


.0006 


.0258 .0242'. 0016 


.28 


.0030 


.0000 


0.93 


0.6 


25527 


Dec. 1 


V. slight. 


None. 


0.56 


3.75 


1.25 


.0004 
.0007 


.0106 .0104 


.0002 
.0013 


.21 

.22 


.0030 
.0038 


.0000 


0.63 
0.74 


0.6 


Av. .. 


■ 






0.84 


3.67 


1.67 


.0205 


.0192 


.0000 


0.8 











Odor, distinctly vegetable, sometimes faintly musty or none, 
was developed in No. 24762. 



On heating, a faintly unpleasant odor 



Chemical Examination of Water Jrom the Lower Reservoir of the Northborough 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Residue on 










~^~ 




c 


Appearakce. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


■o 






1 






tion. 








d 

s 
c 














c 




Albuminoid. 








1 


o 


■3 
s 


1 


o 


a 


05, 


■ « 
2 


3 


■2 

> 



•d 
•0 

iS 

3 P. 


c 
1 




1 





c 


fi 


Q 


Eh 


CO 


U 


E- 


hi 


■fu 


^ 


Q 


CO 





^ 


a 





s 




1898. 




























21958 


Jan. 24 


V. Blight. 


None. 


0.48 


2.45 


0.85 


.0004 


.0120 


.0112 


.0008 


.20 


.0080 


.0000 


.42 


0.8 


22610 


Mar. 21 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


O.-'iO 


2.40 


1.35 


.0002 


.0124 


.0120 


.0004 


.20 


.0020 


.0000 


.45 


0.8 


23264 


May 23 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.10 


3.10 


1..35 


.0012 


.0252 .0220 


.0032 


.20 


.0070 


.0000l'.72 


0.8 


24046 


July 25 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.60, 


3.85 


2.25 


.0012 


.0300 


.0258 


.0042 


.17 


.0000 


.0000 


..59 


0.8 


24763 


Sept. 26 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.62 


4.75 


2.40 


.0006 


.0268 


.0222 


.0046 


.23 


.0030 


.0000 


.72 


1.0 


25528 


Dec. 1 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.481 
0.63 


3.40 


1.30 


.0004 


.0094 


.0088 


.0006 


.20 


.0040 


.0000 


.52 


0.8 


Av... 








3.32 


1.58 


.0007 


.0193 


.0170 


.0023 


.0040 


.0000 


.57 


0.8 











Odor, faintly vegetable or musty, sometimes none. A distinctly unpleasant odor was developed in 
No. 24763 OD heating. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 



297 



NORTH BROOKFIELD. 

ABATER Supply of North Brookfield. 

The sources of supply are Doaue aud North ponds and North 
Brook in North Brookfield. Doane Pond is an old mill pond, the 
level of which has been raised. The pond now has an area of 31 
acres and a storage capacity of 54,000,000 gallons. The pond has 
a water-shed tributary to it, including the water-shed of North Pond 
and North Brook, of 2.51 square miles, which contains a population 
of 45 per square mile. 

North Pond, which is situated just a1)ove Doane Pond, has an 
area of 70 acres and a storage capacity of 350,000,000 gallons. 
The maximum depth of this pond is 30 feet and the average depth 
15 feet. The water of North Pond and of North Brook, which has 
been made tributary to North Pond, is used during much of the 
time to fui-nish power for pumping, water for the supply of the 
town beino; drawn from Doane Pond. 

A filter has been constructed in Doane Pond, through which the 
water is passed before being pumped to the distributing reservoir. 
Two concentric stone walls extending from the bottom of the pond 
to above the high-water mark have been built well out in the pond, 
and the annular space between the walls, 5 feet in width, has been 
filled with o;ravel. A¥ater is drawn from the well inside the inner 
wall. The results of analyses of water collected from the pond and 
from the filter indicate that the filter has but little influence upon 
the quality of the water. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Doane Pond, North Brookfield. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











REsinnE ON 






Nitrogen 


■3 






S 

o 
O 

o 


Appbakance. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 





AS 


s 

s 
e 






'•5 


g 






_3 




Albuminoid. 


■D 


s 








•a 


■d 


■S 


s 






■3 


a 


1 


o 


o 


03 


5 


30. 


3 



g 


i 


B 






1898. 














1 












21907 


Jan. 19 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.68 


3.95 


1.85 


.0126 


.0236 .02021.0034 


.21 


.0120 


.0001 


.4b 


1.6 


22303 


Feb. 21 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.67 


3.85 


1.65 


.0142 .0184 .01401.0044 .21 


.0080 .0001! .48 


0.8 


22585 


Mar. 16 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.,59 


2.80 


1.05 


.0010'. 0204 .0146;. 0058: .14 


.0070j.0000; .49 


1.0 


22906 


Apr. 20 1 Slight. 


Cons. 


..'^9 


2.65 


1.20 


.00001.0218 .0162 


.0056 1.14 


.0050!. 0000, .40 


1.1 


23204 


May 18 


Blight. 


Cons. 


.,iO 


2.75 


1.45 


.00201.0220 .0192 


.0028 1. 18 


.0080 


.0000 .40 


0.8 


23579 


June 15 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.60 


3.30 


1.50 


.0046|.0266 .0230 


.0036 


.17 


.0010 


.0000. 50 




24026 


July 25 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.60 


3.45 


1.55 


.0034 


.0356 .0270 


.0086 


.13 


.0010 


.0002 ;.54 




24344 


Aug. 17 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.50 


4.65 


2.05 


.0026 


.0264 .0246 


.0018 


.13 


.0000 


.0007 .54 


0.6 


24722 


Sept. 21 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.hZ 


3.80 


1.45 


.0018 


.0260. 0244 


.0016 


.14 


.0000 


.0000 


.01 


0.8 


25112 


Oct. 20 


'V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.63 


3.95 


1.65 


.0102 


.0228]. 0204 


.0024 


.16 


.0020 


.0004 


.58 


0.6 


25399 


Nov. 16 : Slieht. 


V. Blight. 


.45 


3.30 


1.50 


.0096 


.0278. 0242 


.0036 


.12 


.0010 


.0001 






25731 


Dec. 21 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.51 


3.50 


1.50 


.0206 


.0178 .0168 
.0241 .0204 


.0010 


.15 
.16 


.0070 


.0002 




.55 


0.8 


Av... 








.55 


3.50 


1.53 


.0069 


.0037 


.0043 


.0001 


.51 


0.9 





























Odor, generally faintly vegetable or musty, becoming stronger, and in September also flshy, on heating. 



298 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NORTH BROOKFIELD. 

Microscopical Examination oj Water from Doane Pond, North Brookfield. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 









1898. 










Jan. 


Feb. 


ajtar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 


20 


23 


17 


21 


19 


16 


26 


18 


22 


21 


17 


22 


Number of sample i 


21907 


22303 22585 

i 


22906 23204 


23579 


24026 


24344 


24722 


26112 


25399 


25731 


PLANTS. 


























DiatomacesB 


68 


10 


20 


720 


284 


7 


17 


6 


34 


42 


432 


22 


Asterionella, .... 

Synedra, 

Tabellaria 


54 
10 
4 


3 

1 
6 




• 8 
8 


20 
428 
272 


20 
116 
120 


1 
3 
1 



2 
14 



6 



10 
6 
16 




16 
24 


27 

10 

394 


18 
2 
2 


Cyanophyceee 

















1 


2 

















Algee 


20 


1 


4 


106 


16 


14 


47 


64 


8 


10 


7 





ProtococcuB, .... 
Kapbidium 


18 




1 



4 


100 
4 




2 


5 
1 



31 



60 



6 



4 



4 






ANIMALS. 
























Bhlzopoda, 

















1 


2 














Infusoria, 


SO 


77 


414 


133 j 60 


81 


78 


52 


188 


136 


52 


1 


Dinobryon, 

Mnllomonas, .... 
Peridinium, .... 
Trachelomonas, .... 


24 


24 



26 


48 



40 



366 




122 

6 

2 


46 
4 
2 
2 


78 





39 

36 



2 


18 
8 
2 

16 


168 
6 
2 

4 


134 





49 


1 
1 





1 




Vermes 


2 








2 


6 


1 





12 


6 


4 


1 





Crustacea, Cyclops, . 











pr. 


pr. 


pr. 


pr. 

















Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . 


10 


10 


20 8 


10 


5 10 

1 


15 


10 


5 


5 


5 


Total 


150 


98 


468 


969 


376 


109 


155 


151 


246 


197 


497 


28 



Chemical Examination of Water from North Pond, North Brookfield. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





c 

"o 
o 

9 


Appearance. 


Kksidub on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


AUUONIA. 


o 

.25 
.17 
.14 
.13 

.17 


Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

c 

o 






6^ 

o 


1 

03 


c 

c 

o 


"5 


c 
o 


c3 

£ 


Albuminoid. 


CO 

» 

OS 

2 


T, 




1 

s 
S5 


a 

H 


•a 

1 

o 

Q 


•6 

•o 
, c 

X 


oo 

CO 

e 
■a 

« 


21906 
22907 
24027 
25111 


1898. 

Jan. 19 

Apr. 20 
July 25 
Oct. 20 


Decided. 
Slight. 
Decided. 
V. slight. 


Cons. 
Cons. 
Cons. 
V. slight. 


.72 
.60 
.41 
.48 


4.55 
S.15 
3.10 
3.20 


2.45 
1.35 
1.80 
1.55 


.0110 
.0000 
.0010 
.0056 


.0326 
.0256 
.0308 
.0256 


.0286 
.0216 
.0230 
.0214 


.0040 
.0040 
.0078 
.0042 


.0140 
.0120 
.0010 
.0010 

.0070 


.0002 
.0000 
.0001 
.0002 


.80 
.50 
.57 
.67 

.63 


1.6 
1.1 

0.6 
0.8 


Av... 








.56 


3.50 


1.79 


.0044 


.0286 


.0236 no.in 


.0001 


1 



















Odor of the first sample, faintly musty, becoming stronger on heating; of the others, dietinctly 
vegetable. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



299 



NORTH BROOKFIELD. 

Microscopical Examination oj Water from North Pond, North Brookfield. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



1898. 



April. 



July. 



October. 



Day of examination, 
I^umber of sample, . 

PLANTS. 

Diatomaceae, . 

Asterionella, 
Tsbellaria, 

Algas, 

Raphidium, 
Zoospores, 

ANIMALS, 

Infusoria 

Dinobryon, . . . 
Euglena, .... 

Vermes 

Crustacea, Cyclops, . 

Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 

Total 



20 
21906 



21 

22907 



26 
24027 



21 
25111 



224 

64 
122 



400 

390 





1,470 

8 

1,436 

34 

14 




182 
174 

2 






34 

28 
2 



100 



321 



1,543 



NORTHFIELD. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the Northfield Water 
Company, relative to a proposed water supply from Minot and 
Warwick brooks in Northfield, may be found on pages 45 and 46 
of this volume. 

The results of analyses of samples of water collected from each 
of these sources are civen in the foUowins: table : — 



Chemical Examination of Water from Warwick and Minot Brooks, Northfield. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 
as 


■d 
§ 

3 






Si 








1 2 




Albuminoid. 








a 




1 


"o 


•3 

3 


c 






°5) 






> 


■d 

T3 


c 
o 


00 


1 


a 


1 

a 

1 


3 


< 




■g 








S 




CO 


3 O. 


J= 




— 


X 


^ 


a 


i- 


X 


o 


H 


iJ 


Ec 


H 


Q 


!C 


O 


» ^ 1 


o 




1898. 




























22693 


Mar. 29 


Blight. 


Cons. 


.36 


2.05 


0.96 


.0008 


.0110 


.0084 


.0026 


.07 


.0050 


.0000 


.42 


0.£> 


22694 


Mar. 29 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.10 


1.80 


0.60 


.0004 


.0042 


.0036 


.0006 


.06 


.0090 


.0000 


.19 


0.5 



Odor, none. The first sample was collected from Warwick Brook, at site of the second dam 

above the village of Northfield, and the last from Minot Brook, just above its confluence with Warwick 
Brook. 



300 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NORWOOD. 

Water Supply of Norwood. 

The source of supply is Buckmaster Pond in Dedliam. The pond 
has an area of 29.5 acres, a maximum depth of 29 feet, an average 
depth of 13 feet and a storage capacity of 123,000,000 gallons. 
The bottom is sandy except at the upper end, where there is a con- 
siderable amount of mud. The pond has a water-shed of 0.45 of a 
square mile, which contains a population of about 145 per square 
mile. 

The water of this pond has frequently ' been affected during. the 
winter months by the presence of enormous qviantities of the organ- 
ism Uroglena, which has imparted to the water an oih' and tishy 
taste and odor. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Buckmaster Pond, Dedham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





3 
o 

o 
« 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 



!s 
u 

.44 
.40 
.33 
.37 
.36 
.36 
.30 
.38 
.30 
.35 
.34 
.30 

.35 


Nitrogen 

AS 


§ 

s 

1 

s 







a 


1 




■3 





6 


Albuminoid. | 


i 
1 
1 


a; 
1 




1 


5 






•d 

, s 

3 0- 
m 


a 

■s 

a 


21755 
•22059 
22399 
22730 
23043 
23378 
23795 
24139 
24546 
24917 
25221 
25537 


1898. 

Jan. 4 

Feb. 3 
Mar. 1 
Apr. 5 
May 3 
June 1 
July 5 
Aug. 2 
Sept. 6 
Oct. 5 
Nov. 1 
Dec. 5 


Distinct. 
Slight. 
Slight. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V. Blight. 
V.Bllght. 
V. slight. 
V. Blight. 
V.Bllght. 
V. Blight. 
V.Bllght. 


Slight. 
Slight. 
V.Bllght. 
V. slight. 
V.Bllght. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 
V.Bllght. 
V.Bllght. 
V. slight. 
Slight. 
V.Bllght. 


.17 
•19 
.15 
.12 
.20 
.28 
.17 
.13 
.14 
.10 
.15 
.19 


3.15 
3.25 
2.40 
3.25 
2.65 
2.70 
iAb 
2.70 
2.70 
2.45 
3.05 
2.90 


1.10 
1.00 
1.00 

1.25 
0.65 
1.15 
3.05 
1.30 
1.10 
1.20 
1.00 
1.45 


.0122 
.0112 
.0022 
.0024 
.0020 
.0014 
.0006 
.0032 
.0010 
.0012 
.0082 
.0096 

.0046 


.0152 
.0134 
.0284 
.0190 
.0150 
.0178 
.0194 
.0306 
.0216 
.0244 
.0164 
.0124 

.0195 


.0136 
.0112 
.0146 
.0180 
.0134 
.0142 
.0180 
.0258 
.0182 
.0232 
.0136 
.0114 

.0163 


.0016 
.0022 
.0138 
.0010 
.0016 
.0036 
.0014 
.0048 
.0034 
.0012 
.0028 
.0010 

.0032 


.0070 
.0050 
.0030 
.0060 
.0000 
.0010 
.0020 
.0020 
.0010 
.0010 
.0020 
.0020 

.0027 


.0000 
.0000 
.0001 
.0000 
.0001 
.0000 
.0001 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


.18 
.22 
.24 
.37 
.26 
.31 
.33 
.34 
.35 
.30 
.29 
.25 

.29 


1.3 

1.4 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.8 
0.6 
0.6 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.6 


Av... 








.17 


2.97 


1.27 


0.7 






. 







Odor, generally vegetable or none, occasionally distinctly musty, becoming stronger on healing. A 
'fishy odor was developed in the March sample on heating. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATIOX OF WATER SUPPLIES. 301 

NORWOOD^ 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Buckmaster Pond, Dedham. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination 


5 


7 


2 


6 


4 


3 


6 


3 


7 


6 


2 


6 


Number of sample 


21755 


22059 


22399 22730 


23043 


23378 


23795 


24139 


24546 


24917 


25221 


2553r 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomacese 


258 


35 





67 


22 


23 


53 


4 


1 


7 


31 


8 


Asterionella 

Synedra, 


96 
160 


26 
5 






52 
14 


8 
3 


8 

1 




1 



3 






4 
3 


4 
15 


2 
6 


CyanophyceaB 


3 


2 








1 





3 


5 


1 


7 


3 


0' 


Algse 











1 





5 


1 


33 


33 





5 





ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria, 


6 


8 


548 


13 


2 





5 


7 


6 


2 


1 





Ciliated infusorian, 

Dinobryon 








7 


40 
500 




12 



































Vermes, 











1 











1 





1 








Crustacea 











pr. 


























Cyclops 

Daphnia, 















pr. 
pr. 


































Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, . 


5 


5 


8 


3 


5 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


5 


Total 


272 


50 


556 


85 


30 


31 


65 


53 


44 


20 


43 


13 



Water Supply of Orange. 

The sources of supply are North Pond, Coolidge Brook and a 
spring near Coolidge Brook. 

The spring, which has furnished most of the supply for several 
years, is collected in an open reservoir having a capacity of 600,000 
gallons. "Water from this reservoir is pumped directly to an open 
distributing reservoir. 

On Coolidse Brook two small storao:e reservoirs have iDcen 
constructed, water for the supply of the town being taken from 
the upper reservoir, and the lower reservoir being used to furnish 
power for pumping. The upper reservoir has a drainage area 



302 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ORANGE. 

of 1.38 square miles, which contains a population of 33 per square 
mile. 

North Pond is a natural pond, the level of which has been raised 
10 feet by the construction of a dam, and a connection has been 
made by means of which the water can be diverted into Coolidge 
Brook at a point between the two reservoirs, so that the water of 
this pond is available for power ; but it is also one of the sources 
of water supply of the town, and has been used for a short time 
during dry weather for this purpose. The pond has an area of 132 
acres and a drainage area of 0.66 of a square mile, which contains a 
population of 23 per square mile. Much of the area which was 
flooded when the level of the pond was raised is swampy, and the 
water of the pond is highly colored and contains at times enor- 
mous numbers of microscopical organisms. 

The organism Uroglena has appeared on several occasions in the 
water of the open distributing reservoir, giving the water a dis- 
ao-reeable taste and odor. 



Chemical Examination of Water from North Pond, Orange. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 

o 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


i 

s 

1 






x 








1 




Albuminoid. 












■d 


"d 


m 


1 

s 

iZi 


o 


•a 
1 


i 


o 

"3 
o 


3 


r 


£ 

b 


1 




■a 
■ c 

02 


c 
o 


1 




1 

o 


C 
a 




1898. 




























21923 


Jan. 18 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.18 


2.45 


1.00 


.0014 


.0118 


.0090 


.0028 


.19 


.0060 


.0001 


.24 


1.1 


22276 


Feb. 17 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


3.05 


1.25 


.0034 


.0076 


.0074 


.0002 


.16 


.0080 


.0000 


.21 


0.5 


22557 


Mar. 15 


Blight. 


V. slight. 


.35 


2.40 


1.10 


.0028 


.0122 


.0096 


.0026 


.10 


.0040 


.0000 


.36 


1.1 


23219 


May 18 


v. Blight. 


Cons. 


.28 


2.35 


1.20 


.0006 


.0170 


.0128 


.0042 


.14 


.0000 


.0000 


.33 


0.8 


23596 


June 15 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.25 


2.40 


1.20 


.0004 


.0240 


.0172 


.0068 


.13 


.0020 


.0000 


.32 


0.8 


23966 


July 19 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.30 


2.85 


1.75 


.0024 


.0234 


.0206 


.0028 


.09 


.0020 


.0000 


.40 


0.3 


24338 


Aug. 16 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.34 


2.70 


1.40 


.0024 


.0310 


.0292 


.0018 


.13 


.0020 


.0001 


.44 


0.5 


24712 


Sept. 20 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.30 


2.45 


1.15 


.0010 


.0248 


.0206 


.0042 


.12 


.0000 


.0000 


.46 


0.5 


25102 


Oct. 18 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.45 


3.55 


1.65 


.0000 


.0256 


.0194 


.0062 


.15 


.0010 


.0001 


.62 


1.3 


25408 


Nov, 16 


V. slight. 


v. Blight. 


.30 


2.35 


1.05 


.0004 


.0176 


.0152 


.0024 


.13 


.0010 


.0000 


.40 


0.6 


25723 


Dec. 20 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.25 


2.65 


1.00 


.0012 
.0015 


.0098 
.0186 


.0090 
.0155 


.0008 
.0031 


.13 
.13 


.0060 
.0029 


.0001 



.0000 


.29 
.37 


0.5 


Av... 








?9 


2.65 


1.25 


0.7 






1 







Odor, faintly vegetable or none. In November, the odor became very faintly fishy on heating. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



303 



ORANGE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Distributing Reservoir of the Orange 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





O 
o 

"S 

Q 


Appeaxancb. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


a 

O 

o 
.14 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

s 

s 
o 

o 

a 








u 
o 
o 


2 


s 
o 
S 

o 


2 


Albuminoid. | 


[ 




i 

Iz; 


■3 
3 

H 


1 

CO 


o 


•6 

> 
o 

5 


. 1 
■a 

•S 
, a 

3 a. 

CO 


1 


2 


oa 

a 

■s 


21024 


1898. 

Jan. 18 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.05 


2.90 1.00 


.0002 


.0044 


.0038 


.0006 


.0010 


.0000 


.08 


1.1 


22276 


Feb. 17 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.05 


2.95 


0.90 


.0010 


.0078 


.0074 


.0004 


.17 


.0030 


.0000 


.18 


0.5 


22568 


Mar. 15 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.11 


3.20 


1.00 


.0000 


.0040 


.0036 


.0004 


.11 


.0020 


.0000 


.17 


1.1 


22881 


Apr. 18 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.19 


2.15 


0.80 


.0002 


.0080 


.0060 


.0020 


.14 


.0030 


.0002 


.20 


0.5 


23220 


May 18 


V. slight. 


None. 


.08 


2.85 


0.75 


.0006 


.0038 


.0038 


.0000 


.14 


.0000 


.0000 


.20 


0.8 


23597 


June 15 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.12 


3.40 


1.10 


.0004 


.0062 


.0050 


.0012 


.13 


.0010 


.0000 


.13 


0.8 


23967 


July 19 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.18 


2.85 


1.05 


.0024 


.0150 


.0118 


.0032 


.07 


.0040 


.0000 


.32 


0.3 


24711 


Sept. 20 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.10 


3.25 


0.70 


.0004 


.0048 


.0038 


.0010 


.12 


.0000 


.0000 


.11 


0.8 


25103 


Oct. 18 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.38 


3.75 


1.60 


.0002 


.0148 


.0140 


.0008 


.13 


.0010 


.0001 


.63 


0.8 


25409 


Nov. 16 


None. 


None. 


.12 


3.00 


0.95 


.0000 


.0048 


.0046 


.0002 


.12 


.0010 


.0000 


.20 


0.8 


25724 


Dec. 20 


V. alight. 


V. slight. 


.08 


3.10 


0.85 


.0000 


.0014 


.0012 


.0002 


.12 
.13 


.0060 


.0000 


.07 
.21 


0.6 


Av 








13 


3.04 


0.97 


.0005 


.0068 


.0059 


.0009 


.0020 


.0000 


0.7 















Odor of No. 22558, faintly vegetable; of No. 23967, distinctly vegetable; of the others, none. 

Microscopical Examination. 

An insignificant number of organisms was found in each of these samples except in the sample 
collected in July, In which there were 2,372 Dinobryon per cubic centimeter. 



Water Supply of Palmer Fire District, Palmer. — Palmer 

Water Company. 

The source of supply is a small brook in Palmer, upon which two 
storage reservoirs have been constructed. The upper storage reser- 
voir has an area of 4 acres, a maximum depth of 15 feet and a capac- 
ity of 6,000,000 gallons. The lower reservoir, which is situated 
a short distance below the upper reservoir, has an area of three- 
quarters of an acre, a general depth of 4 or 5 feet and a storage 
capacity of 2,000,000 gallons. The bottom and sides of the reser- 
voirs are covered with sand. Water for the supply of the town is 
drawn from the lower reservoir. 



304 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



PAI^MER, 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Upper Reservoir of the Palmer 

Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Water 





a 
o 

■3 




a 


Appeabance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


a 
\-* 



.13 


Nitrogen 

AS 


13 

1 





s 








3 

Eh 


1 
•3 

m 


_3 
"3 



1 a 




Albuminoid. 


1 
2 


s 
i 




1 








1 



■a 
> 


5 


•0 
OS 


1 


23341 


1898. 

May 31 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.51 


3.50 


1.65 


.0004 


.0226 


.'0196 


.0030 


.0100 


.0000 


.45 


0.8 


24072 


July 27 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.36 


4.60 


2.10 


.0002 


.0262 


.0178 


.0084 


.10 


.0010 


.0000 


.38 


1.0 


24850 


Sept, 28 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.37 


4.40 


1.60 


.0006 


.0180 


.0138 


.0042 


.16 


.0030 


.0000 


.48 


1.1 


25469 


Nov. 23 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


3.05 


1.15 


.0002 


.0084 


.0076 


.0008 
.0041 


.11 

.12 


.0020 


.0000 
.0000 


.27 
.39 


0.5 


Av... 








.38 


3.89 


1.62 


.0003 


.0188 


.0147 


.0040 


0.8 













Odor of No. 23341, distinctly musty, becomiog also unpleasant on heating; of the others, vegetable. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Lower Reservoir of the Palmer 

Company. 



Water 













[Parts 


per 100,000.] 




















c 




"3 

a 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


S 
5 
.16 


Nitrogen 
as 


a 

9 



e 

M 








■3 
'2 

a 
El 


3 

03 


3 


Q 


3 






fa 


Albuminoid. 


1 


g 




1 


3 

"3 

E-i 


■3 
a 
> 


CO 

Q 




■a 
, a 

3 0. 

05 


■3 


22010 


1898. 

Jan. 27 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.20 


2.60 


1.00 


.0014 


.0060 


.0046 


.0014 


.0040 


.0000 


.22 


1.1 


22633 


Mar. 23 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.25 


2.50 


0.85 


.0016 


.0086 


.0076 


.0010 


.13 


.0000 


.0000 


.22 


0.5 


23342 


May 31 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.50 


3.65 


1.50 


.0004 


.0136 


.0098 


.0038 


.13 


.0020 


.0000 


.36 


1.0 


24073 


July 27 


Decided. 


Slight. 


.30 


4.35 


1.60 


.0006 


.0170 


.0126 


.0044 


.11 


.0010 


.0000 


.29 


0.8 


24851 


Sept. 28 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.36 


4.05 


1.50 


.0004 


.0188 


.0144 


.0044 


.15 


.0020 


.0005 


.40 


1.0 


25470 


Nov. 23 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.35 


3.55 


1.65 


.0010 


.0114 
.0126 


.0090 
.0097 


.0024 


.10 
.13 


.0040 
.0022 


.0000 


.32 
.30 


0.6 


Av.. . 








.33 


3.45 


1.35 


.0009 


.0029 


.0001 


0.8 















Odor of No. 23342 distinctly musty, becoming also unpleasant on heating; of the others, vegetable. 
-Nos. 22010 and 22633 were collected from a faucet in the town, and the others from the reservoir. 



Water Supply of Peabody. 
The sources of supply are Spring and BroAvn ponds in Pea])ody. 
Sprino- Pond has an area of about 70 acres and a water-shed 
of 0.25 of a square mile, which contains a population of 80 per 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



305 



PEABODY, 

square mile. Brown's Pond has an area of about 35 acres and a 
water-shed of 0.63 of a square mile, which contains a population 
of 130 per square mile. Water from these ponds flows to a small 
reservoir known as the lower basin, from which it is pumped to a 
stand-pipe. The water of each of these ponds has been affected 
at times by the presence of large numbers of the organism Uroglena. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Browri's Pond, Peabody. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Residue on 








^~"" 


■""? 




§ 


Appearancb. 




KVAPORA- 


Ammonia. 




KiTROGEN 


■o 








• 






TION. 








£d 






o 
o 














1 




s 
c 






3 


a 
1 


o 


« 


o 




Albuminoid. 


g 


m 




1 


« 


1 
o 


1 


1 














o 


u 






3 O. 












!i5 


O 


H 


02 


O 


El 


>-] 


^ 


H 


Q 


03 


o 


'A 


'A 


O 


B 




1898. 






























21835 


Jan. 11 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.17 


3.35 


1.55 


.0016 


.02041.0180 


.00241.66 


.0110 


.0000 


.28 


1.0 


22493 


Mar. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.19 


3.05 


1.25 


.0010 


.0126 .0112 


.0014 


.,55 


.0070 


.0000 


.26 


1.1 


23086 


May 9 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.20 


2.55 


1.10 


.0004 


.0148 .01041.0044 


.67 


.0060 


.0001 


.28 


0.5 


2383-1 


July 11 


Slight. 


Hlight. 


.20 


2.80 


1.40 


.0006 


.0228 


.0192 


.0036 


.52 


.0010 


.0000 


.33 


0.5 


2-1607 


Sept. 12 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.20 


2.. 55 


1.45 


.0004 


.0214 


.0176 


.00.38 


..52 


.0000 


.0000 


..S9 


0.5 


25367 


Nov. 14 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.24 


2.90 


1.05 


.0008 


.0182 


.0156 


.0026 


.50 
.55 


.0010 


.0000 


.33 
.31 


0.5 


Av... 








.20 


2.87 


1.30 


.0008 


.0183 


.0153 


.0030 


.0043 


.0000 


0.7 











Odor, none. On beating, the odor became faintly vegetable and musty or mouldy. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Spring Pond, Peabody. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Residdb on 










^^^M 




c 
o 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 














tion. 








3 

c 














c 




Albuminoid. 










a 


>} 


c 












■o 


■6 








O 


« 


a 


o 
.2 


■a 
'2 


a 


o 


S 


= M 


» 


"5 


> 

o 


•a 


s 

■c 

o 


a 


s 


1 


a 
■a 


































'A 


Q 


E-i 


tn 


O 


H 


hJ 


&4 


H 


a 


X 


O 


^ 


'A 


o 


a 




1898. 


























218.34 


Jan. 11. 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.03 


4.15 


1.25 


.0010 


.0166 


.0148 


.0018 


.81 


.0020 .0000 


.13 


1.4 


22492 


Mar. 8. 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.05 


3.75 


1.30 


.0000 


.0148 


.0114 


.0034 


.74 


.0070 .0000 


.14 


1.6 


23085 


May 9. 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.05 


3.75 


1.40 


.0000 


.0182 


.0118 


.006411.75 1 


.0020 .0000 


.19 


1.1 


238.35 


July 11. 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.04 


4.00 


1.85 


.0034 


.0164 


.01.52 


.0012 


.73 


.0000 


.0000 


.16 


1..S 


24606 


Sept. 12. 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.07 


3.80 


1.25 


.0014 


.0162 


.013U 


.00.32 


.72 


.0010 


.0000 


.23 


l.fi 


25368 


Nov. 14. 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.08 


4.30 


1.30 


.0084 


.0130 


.0112 


.0018 
.0030 


.70 
.74 


.0020 
.0023 


.0000 


.15 
.17 


1.4 


Av... 








.05 


3.98 


1.39 


.0024 


.0159 


.0129 


.0000 


1.4 











Odor of the first three samples, distinctly mouldy or musty and unpleasant, becoming in May also 
fishy on heating; of the fourth, none; of the last two, none, becoming musty or unpleasant on heating. 



306 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



PEMBROKE. 

Pembroke. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Silver Lake, in Pembroke, collected near the 

Surface. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





5 


Appeakance. 


Kesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




NltROGEN 

AS 


■d 

a 

o 

1 






^ 


^ 










Albuminoid. | 




. 1 








■a 


•d 


S 


u 

3 

s 


o 


■3 

1 


1 

•5 
So 


1 


"3 
o 
t- 


c"5 
Cm 

1 




t 

o 


> 
o 

5 


"a 
1 c 

3 O. 


o 

6 

.70 




5 


to 

O 


•5 


21874 


1898. 

Jan. 17 


V.Bjight. 


Slight. 


.07 


2.55 


0.90 


.0000 .0118 .0112 .0006 


.0010 


.0000 


.19 


0,8 


2''06l 


Feb. 3 


V.Blitfht. 


Slight. 


.08 


2.85 


0.95 


.0004 .0128 .0104 .0024 


.69 


.ilOOO 


.0000 .21 


1.1 


22429 


Mar. 2 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.09 


2.75 


0.90 


.0002 .0114 .00961.0018 


.67 


.0030 


.0000 .22 


0.8 


22755 


Apr. 6 
May 11 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.09 


2.70 


1.00 


.0000 .0112 .00P2 .0020 


.66 


.0000 


.0000 .20 


J. 3 


23120 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.22 


3.25 


1.20 


.0010'. 0106 .0098 


.oi:io8 


.69 


.0000 


.0000 .25 


O.tj 


23368 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.27 


2.95 


0.95 


.OOlOj. 0176 .0146 


.0030 


.64 


.0010 


.0000 .28 


O.b 


23814 


July 6 
Aug. 2 


V. Blight 


Slight. 


.16 


2.80 


2.10 


.00061.0142 .0132 


.0010 


.58 


.0030 


.0000' .30 


0.5 


24146 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.19 


2.90 


1.20 


.0016 .0160 .0112 


.0048 


'.!)2 


.0000 


.0000' .30 


0.0 


24544 


Sept. 6 
Oct. 5 


None. 


V.sliuht. 


.20 


3.10 


1.15 


.0006 .0168 .0128 


.0040 


.60 


.0000 


.0000 .36 


O.ti 


24926 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.17 


3.05 


1.25 


.0000 .0118 .0092 


.0026 


.69 


.0000 


.0000 .29 


O.b 


25246 


Nov. 2 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.20 


3.50 


1.25 


.0000 .0108 .0092 


.0016 


.59 


.0010 


.0000 .32 


O.b 


25549 


Dec. 6 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.20 


3.35 


1.30 


.0004 .0184.0174 
.0005 .0136 .0115 


.0010 


.63 
.64 


.0000 


.0000 


.36 

i.27 


O.b 


Av... 








.16 


2.98 


1.18 


.0021 


.0007 


.0000 


0.7 












1 


1 





Odor, generally none. A faintly vegetable odor was developed in most of the samples on heating. 
The samples were collected from the lake, off Gunners' Point. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Silver Lake, in Pembroke, collected near the 

Bottom,. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





s 
o 

o 

o 




Appearance. 


Residue on 

tVAPOEA- 

TION. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


-3 

a 

1 






>, 


'a 






e 
2 




Albuminoid. 












■c 


■o 




.o 


o 




•3 






§a 




ri 


> 


01 

•a 


•— 


a 

* 




ca 




a 


































53 






■a 


o 


& 


o 
.J 




^ 


5 


So. 


.c 
O 


s 


s 


o 


a 




1898. 




























21875 


Jan. 


17 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.07 


2.60 


0.95 


.0002 


.0122 


.0104 


.0018 


.69 


.0010 


.0000 j. 19 


0.8 


22062 


Feb. 


3 


Slight 


Cons. 


.08 


3.00 


0.90 


.0000 


.0114 


.0094 


.0020 


.68 


.0000 


.0000 .22 


1.1 


22430 


Mar. 


o 


V. Blight 


Slight. 


.10 


2.70 


0.90 


.0002 


.0104 


.0096 


.0008 


.67 


.0030 


.0000 .22 


0.8 


22756 


Apr. 


fi 


V slight. 


Slight. 


.10 


3.00 


1.10 


.0000 


.0114 


.0102 


.0012 


.65 


.0020 


.0000 1.22 


1.3 


23068 


May 


4 


V. Blight. 


V. slight 


.18 


3.00 


1.35 


.0002 


.0130 


.0120 


.0010 


.64 


.0020 


.0000 .26 


0.6 


23369 


June 


1 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.27 


8.10 


1.00 


.0006 


.0168 


.0144 


.0024 


.66 


.0000 .0000 


Ml 


O.b 


23815 


July 


6 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.13 


3.10 


1.35 


.0024 


.0116 


.0096 


.0020 


.66 


.0020 .0000 


.33 


0.3 


24147 


Aug. 


2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.18 


3.45 


1.15 


.0020 


.0112 


.0086 


.0026 


.69 


.0010'. 0001 


.30 


0.6 


24545 


Sept. 


6 


V. slight. 


V. slight 


.17 


3.35 


1.20 


.0000 


.0104 


.0094 


.0010 


.69 


.0020 .0000 


.32 


O.b 


24927 


Oct. 


5 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.18 


3.35 


1.25 


.0000 


.0102 


.0078 


.0024 


.70 


.0000 .0000 


.29 


O.b 


25247 


Nov. 


? 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.19 


3.25 


1.25 


.0000 .0112 


.0100 


.0012 


.58 


.0010 .0000 


.33 


O.b 


25650 


Dec. 


6 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.20 


3.00 


1.35 


.0000 
.0005 


.0080 


.0064 
.0098 


.0016 


.63 
.64 


.0000 .0000 
.0012 .0000 


.34 

.28 


o.t> 


Av... 








.15 


3.08 


1.15 


.0115 


.0017 


0.7 

















Odor, generally none. A faintly vegetable odor was developed In most of the samples on heating. 
-The samples were collected from the lake, off Gunners' Point. 



No. 34.] EXAjSnNATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



307 



PEMBROKE. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Oldham Pond. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Kksidue on 












§ 


Appeakancb. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




NITBOGE^ 








"5 






tion:. 








a 

3 














c 




Albuminoid. 










o 


>. 














•0 


•6 









'J 


M 

































a 


0) 


3 


a 


u 
o 


■3 


= 5) 


u 


"3 


i 







C3 


*u 


>> 


•2 


































^ 


a 


H 


m 


U 


t' 


J 


(m 


H 


a 


Ofj 


U 


2; 


iz; 









1898. 


























22097 


Feb. 7 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.30 


3.60 


1.45 


.0056 .0222 


.0178 .0044 


.72 


.0030 


.0000 


..34 


1.3 


2-2499 


Mar. 8 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.35 


3.90 


1.40 


.0008 .01981.0166.0032 


.63 


.0000 .0001' 


.38 


0.5 


22787 


Apr. 10 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.35 


3.40 


1.35 


.0006 .0126;.0096|.003U 


.65 


.0000 .0000 


.39 


l.rt 


23097 


May 9 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.60 


3.20 


1.45 


.0002 .0192;. 0172 .0020 


.66 


.0020 .000-: 


..iO 


0.5 


2341 4 


J\ine 6 


None. 


V. slight. 


.65 


3.80 


2.00 


.0012 .0204. 0184 .0020 


.63 


.0020 .0001' 


.49, 0.3 


23843 


July 11 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.36 


4.25 


2.35 


.0006 .0244. 0208 .0036 


.61 


.0010 .000^■ 


.46, 0.5 


24180 


Aug. 7 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.38 


4.10 


2.15 


.00101.02221 .0190 


.0032 


.59 


.0010 .000(1 


.46 0.5 


24603 


Sepl.ll 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.38 


3.85 


1.55 


.0010 .0240. 0204 


.00.36 .50 


.0000 .0000 


.541 0.6 


24957 


Oct. 10 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


3.90 


1.70 


.0000 .0198 .0172 


.0026 .52 


.0010. 0000 


.55 0.6 


25311 


Nov. 8 


iV. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.40 


3.85 


1.70 


. 0008,. 0216|. 0202 


.00141:. 55 


.0010 


.0000 


.50 0.5 


25575 


Dec. 7 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.40 


3.75 


1.60 


.0002 


.0194 .0138 
.0205 niTi 


.0056 


.61 
.61 


.0010 


.0000 


.53 0.8 


Av... 




1 




.41 


3.78 


1.70 


.0011 


.0031 


.0011 


.0000 






1 













Odor, vegetable or none. The samples were collected from the pond, at its outlet. 



Water Supply of Pepperell. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the selectmen of Pep- 
perell, relative to a proposed water supply for the town, may be 
found on pages 46 to 49 of this volume. 

The results of chemical analyses of samples of water collected 
during the investigations are given in the following tables : — 



Chemical Examination of Water from Unquetenassett Brook in Pepperell. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Residue on 














s 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


t 






s 








tion. 








•c. 






















• 3 














e 




Albuminoid. 








1m 

a 

a 


5 
"s 

"a 


1 


a 
1 
f 


1 


'S 


P 




« 






1 


1 
2 


A 

a 


o 


i 

3 






t< 


w 


o 


H 


►J 


Ps 


H 


Q 


m 


o 


K 


2 


1 o 






1898. 
























i 




24523 


Sept. 5 


1 Slight. 


v. slight. 


.37 


6.65 


1.85 


.0010 


.0100 


.0082 


.0018 


.20 


.0160 


.0000 


'.42 


2.9 


24524 


Sept. 5 


i Slight. 


Slight. 


.48 


7.40 


2.80 


.0010 


.0160 


.0134 


.0026 


.20 


.0170 


.0000 


.58 


2.7 


25304 


Nov. 7 


v. Blight. 


v. Blight. 


.73 


6.15 


2.45 


.0000 


.0168 


.0166 


.0002 


.19 


.0010 


.0000 


.74 

1 


2.6 



Odor of the first two samples, none; of the last, faintly vegetable. The first sample was col- 

lected at a point about 2 miles above Cummings' Millj the last two samples, at a place about three- 
quarters of a mile above Cummings' Mill. 



308 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



PKPPERELiIi. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Springs in the Valley of Unguetenassett 

Brook, in Pepperell. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

c 
1 


Appearance. 


c 
o 

a >• 


Ammonia. 


s 
§ 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

3 
B 

o 


3 

a 

a 




1 
a 

9 

55 


"S 

3 

H 


1 
■a 

00 


U 

o 

a 


P4 


•a 
o 

c 

ia 






B 

2 


24448 


1898. 

Aug. 26 


None. 


Slight. 


.03 


4.80 


.0004 


.0080 


.14 


.0210 


.0000 


.21 


2.0 


.0100 


24521 


Sept. 5 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.02 


6.30 


.0000 


.0010 


.38 


.0550 


.0000 


.05 


2.9 


.0100 


24522 


Sept. 5 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.18 


6.20 


.0014 


,0030 


.27 


.0260 


.0002 


.20 


2,6 


.0100 



Odor, none. The first sample was collected from a large spring on the easterly side of Unque- 

tenaseett Brook, not far from Baraiock Hill; the second sample was collected from a spring on the 
westerly side of Unquetenassett Brook, near the " willows " and about 1^4 miles above Cummings' Mill ; 
the third sample was collected from a spring on the easterly side of the brook, about half a mile above 
the " willows " spring. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Test Wells in the Valley of Unquetenassett 

Brook, in Pepperell. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





3 
O 

1 


Appearance. 


B 

O 

§1 
41 a 
3 > 
2 W 


Ammonia. 


s 


Nitrogen 

AS 


'6 

e 

3 
3 

bo 

(>. 

O 






a 

3 

S5 


-a 
1 

3 
EH 


1 


o 
o 


i 


O 

s 

< 


1 

S 


£ 
^ 


§ 


24449 


1898. 

Aug, 26 


Decided, 

milky. 

V. slight. 


Slight. 


.04 


4,40 


.0000 


.0010 


,16 


.0320 


.0006 


.00 


1.3 


,0420 


24450 


Aug. 26 


Slight. 


,14 


6.00 


.0026 


,0020 


,18 


.0160 


,0030 


.04 


2,6 


,1460 


25305 


Nov. 7 


V. slight. 


V, slight. 


,19 


6.50 


,0022 


.0012 


,18 


.0020 


.0000 


,04 


2.6 


.0170 


24451 


Aug. 26 


Decided, 
milky. 


Heavy. 


.20 


9.90 


.0028 


,0036 


.15 


.0010 


.0000 


,09 


2,3 


,3850 



Odor, none. The samples were collected from test wells located close to Unquetenassett Brook, 

at the highway crossing about three-quarters of a mile above CuramingB' Mill. No, 24449 was collected 
from well No. 11; Nos. 24450 and 25305 from well No. 13; and No. 24451 from well No. 14. Well No 13 
Was located just below the highway, and the others just above it. 



Water Supply of Pittsfield. 

The sources of supply are four mountain streams, known as 
Sacket, Ashley, Hathaway and Mill brooks, and a pond called Ash- 
ley Pond, situated near the head waters of Ashley Brook. Ashley 
Pond has an area of 90.2 acres and its drainage area is 0.71 of a 
square mile. It was originally a natural pond, the level of which 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 



309 



PITTSFIELD. 

has been considerably raised by a dam at the outlet. An auxiliary 
supply is at times obtained by pumping from Sacket Brook, below 
the reservoir, not far from the mouth of the brook. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Sacket Brook, Pittsjield. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 


liESlDnK ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 

O 

.08 


Nitrogen 

AS 


s 

=s 

c 

o 

1 






"3 
1 


S 




Albuminoid. 


1 










1 


> 
g 

5 


'•d 

•o 
1 c 
s a. 

GO 


■a 


Average of four samples collected in 
March, June, October and December, 

1898. 


.17 


5.79 


1.34 


.0004 


.0081 


.0070 


.0011 


.0087 


.0000 


.22 


4.2 



Odor in March, faintly earthy ; at other times, none. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Sacket Brook in the Vicinity of the Pump- 
ing Station of the Pittsfield Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Average of four samples collected in 
March, June, October and December, 
1898. 



Residue on 

EVAPOBA- 




Ammonia. 






Nitrogen 


•c 




TION. 






V 










B 
O 




Albuminoid. 












■d 


•6 


S 


3 


o5i 


o 


« 


o 




o 


S 


V 


5. 


-3 




3 


E4 


^ 


s 


CO 


.07 


45 


Z 




8.52 


1.80 


.0003 


.0056 


.0045 


.0011 


.0155 


.0000 


.16 


7.0 



Odor in October, none; at other times, none, becoming vegetable or musty on beating. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Ashley Brook, Pittsfield. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 

o 
O 


Kesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


a 
1 

3 

.07 


Nitrogen 

A3 


•d 

1 
s 

5 

c 

u 
>i 

O 






S 
g 


c 
o 

1 


1 


Albuminoid. 


no 

«> 

s 


2 






o 


> 
"3 

a 


•6 
•a 

= a. 


a 
1 


Average of four samples collected in 
March, June, October and Decem- 
ber, 1898. 


.17 


6.72 


1.70 


.0002 


.0068 


.0062 


.0006 


.0122 


.0000 


.235.1 



Odor, none. 



;io 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [PuId. Doc. 



PITTSFIEL.D. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Hathaway Brook, Piltsfeld. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
.08 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

B 
c 

1 

O 






"3 
o 


B 
O 

o 


2 

(4 


Albuminoid. 


s 

2 


S 






3 


> 


■d 

3 C 


■3 


Average of four Eatnples collected in 
Maich, June, October and December, 

ls98. 


.09 


8.04 


1.96 


.0002 


.0046 


.0043 


.0003 


.0160 


.0000 


1 
.15 


6.8 



Odor, none. On beating, a faintly musty odor was developed in the June sample. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Mill Brook, Pittsfeld. 

[Parts per 100,000.1 



Avprnge of four samples collected in 
March, June, October and December, 

isys. 



Kesiddk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 




Ammonia. 






Nitrogen 

AS 


■d 
1 

3 

B 

O 
D 






B 

o 




Albuminoid. 










• 


















































3 


Zs 


i 


a 


"3 


, B 

3 O. 




Id 


*u 


1 
K 


■3 
a 


H 


ij 


^ 


B 


a 


CC 


o 
.06 


g 


S5 


o 


a 


4.45 


1,04 


.0004 


.0043 


.0040 


.0003 


.0090 


.0000 


.13 


3.0 



Odor, none. 



Water Supply of Plymouth. 

The sources of supply are Little South and Great South ponds in 
Plymouth. 

Little South Pond has an area of 64 acres. Great South Pond 
has an area of 325 acres, and is connected with Little South Pond 
b}' an artificial channel. The soil of the lands about these ponds is 
gravelly and porous, and it is probable that water from Boot Pond, 
which is situated near Great South Pond, finds its way into the 
latter at times throu2:h the o-round. A considerable number of 
summer cottages is situated on the shores of each of these ponds, 
but there is no permanent population on the water-shed. Lout 
Pond, located about half way between Little South Pond and the 
village of Plymouth, near the high-service pumping station, has 
been used as a source of supply. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



Ill 



PliYMOUTn. 

The water of these ponds is usually of excellent quality, but the 
water of Little South Pond, from which the supply is drawn directly, 
has been affected on several occasions by large growths of the organ- 
ism Uroglena during the winter months. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Little South Pond, Plymouth. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 
3 

o 
o 


Appearancb. 


Rksidue 0^ 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

o 

a 

c 
o 

o 

c 

o 






•3 


a 
.1 

03 


o 

o 
5J 


o 


c 
6 




Albumin.. id. 


5 






c 

a 
1 




T5 
> 

5 


•6 
•a 

03 


1 


21881 


IS98. 

Jan. 18 


V. Slight. 


Slight. 


.02 


2.50 


1.00 


.0020 


.0164 


.0146 


.0018 


.71 


.0010 


.0000 


.10 


0.6 


22394 


Mar. 1 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.02 


2.30 


0.85 


.0024 


.0150 


.0132 


.0018 


.67 


.0000 


.0000 


.13 


1.1 


22806 


Apr. 12 


Slight. 


V.slight. 


.04 


2.00 


0.80 


.0014 


.0116 


.0102 


.0014 


.64 


.0000 


.0000 


.12 


0.5 


23184 


May 17 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.04 


1.90 


0.60 


.0014 


.0138 


.0128 


.0010 


.67 


.0000 


.0000 


.12 


0.3 


23418 


June 7 


None. 


V.slight. 


.03 


2.35 


0.65 


.0008 


.0108 


.0092 


.0016 


.66 


.0000 


.0000 


.12 


0.2 


23850 


July 12 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.04 


2.70 


1.15 


.0004 


.0186 


.0146 


.0040 


.67 


.0010 


.0000 


.18 


0.2 


24206 


Aug. 9 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.06 


2.55 


1.30 


.0006 


.0176 


.0146 


.0030 


.69 


.0000 


.0000 


.11 


0.0 


24613 


Sept. 13 


V. slight 


Slight, 


.06 


2.20^ 


0.65 


.0002 


.0162 


.0134 


.0028 


.66 


.0020 


.0000 


.13 


0.0 


24960 


Oct. 11 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.02 


2.70 


1.25 


.0002 


.0152 


.0130 


.0022 


.66 


.0000 


.0000 


.13 


0.5 


25287 


Nov. 8 


jV. slight. 


Slight. 


.09 


2.60 


1.35 


.0000 


.0150 


.0126 


.0024 


.59 


.0010 


.0000 


.13 


0.0 


25605 


Dec. 13 


V. Blight. 


V.slight. 


.08 


2.75 


1.00 


.0006 
.0009 


.0132 
.0148 


.0106 
.0126 


.0026 
.0022 


.81 
.68 


.0000 
.0005 


.0000 


.14 
.13 


0.3 


Av... 




1 




0") 


2.41 


0.96 


.0000 


0.3 






1 1 







Odor, occasionally faintly vegetable or musty; at other times, none. On heating, the odor became 
vegetable and musty and sometimes fishy or oily. 

Water Supply of Provincetown. 
At the beginning of the year 1898, the source of supply was a 
system of six five-inch tubular wells, driven in loose, sandy soil to 
an average depth of al)out 28 feet. The water obtained from these 
wells contained a very large quantity of iron. Early in 1898 the 
water board constructed a large open basin to collect the water 
from the ground, and since March the water for the supply of the 
town has been drawn entirely from this source, and the driven 
wells have been abandoned. During the first months that the water 
was drawn from this basin the amount of iron in the water was 
comparatively small, but the quantity of iron present increased 
steadily, and at the end of the year about as much iron was found 



312 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



PROVINCETOWN. 

in the water of the basin as was formerly found in the w^ater drawn 
from the tubular w'ells. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Tubular Wells of the Provincetown 

Water Works, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

s 

o 


Appearance. 


1 
§§.• 

CJ 33 

= > 


Ammonia. 


2 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

S 

a 

B 
O 


as 




c 

8 

3 

S5 


•5 

a 


1 

•5 


U 

o 

8 




S 
o 

c 

< 


m 

1 


v 

» 


a 

2 


21776 
22089 
22450 


1898. 

Jan. 6 

Feb. 7 
Mar. 2 


Decided. 
Decided. 
Decided. 


Cods. 
Cons. 
Slight. 


2.50 
1.75 


10.00 
9.50 
10.00 


.0154 
.0140 
.0114 


.0124 
.0102 
.0124 


2.26 
2.32 
2.66 


.0080 
.0060 
.0020 


.0000 ' 
.0001 ' 

.0001 ; 


.74 
.78 
.66 


5.0 
3.5 
2.9 


.7500 
.5000 
.3900 


Ay... 








2.12 


9.83 


.0136 


.0117 


2.41 


.0053 


.0001 


.73 


3.8 


.5467 













Odor, none. A faintly earthy odor was developed in the first two sannples on heating, 
samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



•The 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Open Basvi of the Provincetown Water 

Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 
Q 


Appearance. 


c 
o 

0) 03 
3 > 


Ammonia. 


o 

c 
E 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

i 
o 


CD 

a 
"2 

d 




c 

a 

a 


is 

3 

3 


I 


o 
o 


i 


o 

c 

< 


1 


Z 


i 




1898. 


























22702 


Apr. 1 


Decided. 


Cons. 


- 


9.40 


.0092 


.0154 


2.75 


.0070 


,0000 


,63 


2,2 


.2850 


23071 


May 4 


Decided, 


Cons. 


0.70 


8.50 


.0016 


.0134 


2.80 


,0040 


.0001 


,51 


2,2 


.1900 


23415 


June 6 


milky. 
Slight. 


Slight. 


0.66 


10.00 


.0008 


.0132 


2.67 


,0080 


.0003 


,48 


1,4 


.0400 


23819 


July 6 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.40 


8.50 


.0010 


.0108 


2.53 


,0050 


.0001 


,59 


1.8 


.0200 


24153 


Aug. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.32 


8,20 


.0032 


.0268 


2.20 


.0040 


.0000 


,54 


1.1 


.0470 


24577 


Sept. 7 


Decided, 


Cons. 


0.70 


8,90 


.0008 


.0104 


2.37 


,0010 


.0000 


,61 


1.6 


.1600 


24928 


Oct. 5 


milky. 
Decided, 


Slight. 


0.90 


9.00 


.0052 


.0166 


2.18 


.0030 


.0003 


.73 


2.6 


.2980 


25282 


Nov. 7 


milky. 
Decided. 


Heavy, 


1.10 


12.10 


.0182 


.0148 


2.54 


.0060 


.0002 


.75 


2.5 


.4800 


25456 


Nov. 21 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


0.90 


10,00 


.0016 


.0138 


2.42 


.0080 


.0000 


.73 


2.7 


.6600 


25582 


Dec. 7 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


0.50 


11.00 


.0122 


.0122 


2.63 


,0010 


.0000 


.72 


3,0 


.4200 


25690 


Dec. 19 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


0.70 


11.50 


.0212 


.0186 


2.50 


,0060 


.0001 


.78 


3.1 


.4800 


Av.*. 








0.66 


9.42 


.0054 


.0151 


2.50 


,0047 


.0001 


,62 


2.1 


.2289 













* Where more than one sample'was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that mouth has been 
vsed in making the average. 

Odor, none. A faintly o.trthy or unpleasant odor was developed in some of the samples ou heating. 
— The samples were collected from the open basin. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



313 



Water Supply of Quixcy. 

The source of supply is a storage reservoir on Town Brook. 
The reservoir has an area of 46 acres, a maximum depth of 30 feet, 
an average depth of 11 feet and a storage capacity of 167,000,000 
gallons. The water-shed of the reservoir has an area of 1.55 square 
miles, which contains a population of about 60 per square mile. 
There is a considerable area of meadow and swampy land on the 
water-shed. 

The city of Quincy has entered the Metropolitan Water District, 
and the reservoir was abandoned, as a source of supply, Jan. 1, 1899. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Town Brook, just above the Storage Reservoir 
of the Quincy Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 
O 

o 

'a 


Appearakce. 


Kksiduk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


2 

o 

J_ 

.61 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

c 

a 

o 






•5 


i 

CO 


o 


2 

o 


c 

ll 

o 


2 


Albuminoid. 


2 

g 

2 


1 




1 


3 

o 

H 


•6 

> 

1 




a 
« 


22002 


1898. 
Jan. 26 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


0.48 


3.80 


1.55 


.0002 


.0118 


.0114 


.0004 


.0100 


.0000 


0.45 


1.0 


22321 


Feb. 23 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.37 


3.05 


0.90 


.0018 


.0114 


.0088 


.0026 


.48 


.0070 


.0000 


0.34 


0.3 


22685 


Mar. 30 


v. Blight. 


v. slight. 


0.70 


3.55 


1.50 


.0012 


.0170 


.0160 


.0010 


.43 


.0030 


.0000 


0.62 


0.8 


22989 


Apr. 27 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.66 


3.25 


1.45 


.0002 


.0130 


.0122 


.0008 


.60 


.0020 


.0000 


0.58 


0.5 


23294 


May 25 


Decided. 


Cons. 


1.85 


5.15 


2.75 


.0024 


.0326 


.0288 


.0038 


.55 


.0030 


.0001 


1.20 


1.0 


23733 


June 29 


Slight. 


Cons. 


1.40 


7.05 


2.95 


.0072 


.0424 


.0358 


.0066 


.65 


.0030 


.0002 


1.98 


1.1 


24064 


July 27 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


5.35 


2.40 


.0012 


.0320 


.0284 


.0036 


.52 


.0060 


.0001 


1.01 


1.0 


24480 


Aug. 30 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.80 


5.05 


1.95 


.0014 


.0252 .0228 


.0024 


.50 


.0070 


.0002 


0.78 


0.8 


24753 


Sept. 26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.73 


5.35 


2.25 


.0010 


.0270 .0260 


.0010 


.72 


.0050 


.0000 


0.86 


0.6 


25184 


Oct. 26 


None. 


V. slight. 


1.06 


5.50 


2.50 


,0006 


.0238 .0192 


.0046 


.68 


.0030 


.0001 


1.25 


0.8 


25489 


Nov. 29 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.33 


4.15 


1.25 


.0000 .00S6'.0074 

i 


.0012 


.67 


.0070 


.0000 


0.42 


1.0 


25769 


Dec. 27 


v. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.35 


3.60 


1.35 


.0000 
,0014 


.0072 


.0068 
.0186 


.0004 
,0024 


.58 
.57 


,0120 
.0057 


.0001 
.0001 


0.38 

0.82 


0.6 


Av... 








0.81 


4.57 


1.90 


.0210 


0.8 













Odor, distinctly vegetable, becoming sometimes also musty on healing. 



314 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



QUINCY. 

Chemical 



Examination of Water from the Storage Beservoir of the Quincy 
Water Works. 













[Parts 


per 100,000.] 




















c 
o 

O 

o 


Appearance. 


Kesidue on 

EVAPORA- 
TIOM. 


Ammonia. 


S 


NiTHOGEN 

AS 


•6 

i 

s 

o 

to 
>> 
y. 

o 






jo 
S 

s 


a 


c 

o 

8 




i 

° to 

3 




Albuminoid. 




g 




s 

n 


« 
I 


■6 
o 

s 


■d 
s o. 


a 
■a 




1898. 




























22003 


Jan. 26 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.50 


4.00 


1.55 


.0034 .0166 


.0146 


.0020 


.74 


.0130 


.0000 


.46 


1.3 


22322 


Feb. 23 


Decided. 


Slight. 


0.39 


3.00 


1.10 


.0036 .0132 


.0116 


.0016 


.80 


.0080 


.0000 


.34 


0.8 


22686 


Mar. 30 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.40 


3.35 


1.10 


.0010 .0220 


.0144 


.0076 


.74 


.0250 


.0001 


.48 


0.8 


22990 


Apr. 27 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.55 


3.25 


1.00 


.0006.0192 


.0142 


.0050 


.65 


.0060 


.0001 


.41 


0.6 


23295 


May 25 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.57 


3.70 


1.70 


.0028 


.0236 


.0184 


.0052 


.60 


.0050 


.0001 


.48 


0.8 


23734 


June 29 


V.Blight. 


Slight. 


0.60 


4.15 


1.50 


.0032 


.0336 


.0236 


.0100 


.65 


.0000 


.0000 


.60 


1.0 


24065 


July 27 


Slight. 


Slight. 


O.60 


4.50 


2.05 


.0022 


.0296 


.0258 


.0038 


.52 


.0000 


.0000 


.64 


0.8 


24481 


Aug. 30 


V.elight. 


Slight. 


0.80 


4.60 


2.00 


.0016 


.0336 


.0282 


.0054 


.54 


.0010 


.0000 


.82 


0.8 


24754 


Sept. 26 


Decided. 


Cons. 


1.00 


4.60 


1.75 


.0112 


.0292 


.0248 


.0044 


.62 


.0010 


.0000 


.59 


0.8 


25185 


Oct. 26 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.76 


4.40 


1.65 


.0116 


.02.34 


.0172 


.0062 


.62 


.0040 


.0000 


.56 


0.6 


25490 


N"ov. 29 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.70 


4.15 


1.60 


.0058'. 0154 


.0136 


.0018 


.62 


.0070 


.0001 


.57 


0.8 


25770 


Dec. 27 


V.Blight. 


V.Blight. 


0.43 


4.05 


1.60 


.0034 .0118 

1 


.0104 


.0014 


.60 


.0120 


.0002 


.46 


0.6 



Averages by Years. 



- 


1889 


- 


- 


0.91 


3.76 


1.19 


.0116 


.0303 


.0238 


.0065 


.53 


.0087 


.0003 


_ 


_ 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.70 


4.56 


1.76 


.0085 


.0249 


.0178 


.0071 


.54 


.0166 


.0002 


- 


1.4 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.70 


3.97 


1.60 


.0027 


.0274 


.0178 


.0096 


.50 


.0100 


.0000 


- 


0.7 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.62 


4.07 


1.41 


.0051 


.0237 


.0175 


.0062 


.61 


.0098 


.0001 


- 


0.9 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.56 


3.81 


1.51 


.0052 


.0218 


.0172 


.0046 


.61 


.0104 


.0001 


.51 


0.8 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.67 


4.26 


1.71 


.0020 


.0229 


.0167 


.0062 


.67 


.0053 


.0000 


.60 


0.8 


- 


1895 


- 


- 


0.66 


4.22 


1.77 


.0008 


.0301 


.0187 


.0114 


.65 


.0040 


.0000 


.56 


0.7 


- 


1896 


- 


- 


0.57 


3.86 


1.47 


•0021 


.0238 


.0108 


.0070 


.63 


.0062 


.0001 


.49 


0.7 


- 


1897 


- 


- 


0.62 


3.92 


1.56 


.0039 


.0246 


.0196 


.0050 


.64 


.0085 


.0000 


.48 


0.7 


- 


1898 


- 


- 


0.61 


3.08 


1.55 


.0042 


.0226 


.0181 


.0045 


.64 


.0068 


.0000 


.53 


0.8 



Note to analyses of 1898 : Odor, generally vegetable, becoming sometimes musty, and in March and 
June fisby, on heating. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 315 



QUINCY. 

Microscoj)ical Examination of Water from the Storage Reservoir of the Quincy 

Water Works. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 


27 


24 


31 


28 


26 


30 


28 


31 


31 


28 


30 


28 


Number of sample, .... 


22003 


22322 


22686 


22990 


23295 


23734 ' 


24065 


24481 


24754 


25185 25490 

1 


25770 


PLANTS. 


























DiatomacesB, .... 


36 


9 


35 


160 


239 


40 


14 


248 


192 


224 


90 


1 


Asterionella, .... 

Cyclotella 

Melosira, 

Tabellaria, 


21 



13 


2 



1 


8 





22 


56 



64 


105 

1 

7 
108 


40 





14 






76 

126 



42 


72 
95 



7 


134 

10 

54 

6 


32 



11 


1 





CyanopbycesB 














1 


1 





6 


3 











Alg88 


36 





1 


2 


4 





1 


82 


20 


12 


1 





ProtococcuB, .... 























54 














ANIMALS. 


























Rhizopoda 























4 














Infusoria 


161 


30 


441 


140 


7 


44 


11 


716 


20 


14 


12 


15 


Dinobryon, 

Peridinium, 




160 



30 


152 

288 


28 
108 


1 
4 


20 
3 




4 


696 
6 


11 
3 



2 


7 
6 


3 
11 


Vermes 


1 





3 


4 


3 











1 











Crustacea 








pr. 








pr. 








pr. 


pr. 








Cyclops, 

Dapbuia 











^^6 










''6 










''6 


pr. 
pr. 










Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . 


8 


5 


5 


7 


5 


3 


5 


5 


10 


15 


5 


3 


Total 


242 


44 


485 


313 


259 


88 


31 


1,061 


246 


265 


108 


19 



Water Supply of Randolph and Holbeook. 

The source of supply is Great Pond in Randolph and Braintree. 
The pond has an area of 130 acres, a maximum depth of 23 feet and 
a general depth of about 11 feet. At one end of the pond there is 
a large area of meadow land which is overflowed at times when the 
pond is full. The bottom is generally gravelly around the shore 
and muddy in the deeper portions. The pond has a drainage area 



316 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



RANDOLPH AND HOLBROOK. 

of 3.44 square miles, which contains a population of about 170 per 
square mile. There is some swamp and meadow land within the 
water-shed. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Great Pond in Eandolph and Braintree. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 




Odor, generally none, sometimes faintly vegetable or musty. On heating, the odor of most of the 
samples was faintly vegetable. 

Water Supply of Reading. 

The source of supply is a filter-gallery near the bank of the Ipswich 
River. The gallery is constructed beneath a meadow which is sub- 
ject to being overflowed to a depth of 5 or 6 feet at times of high 
water in the river. The gallery is located 22 feet beneath the level 
of this meadow, and is constructed in two sections, one 75 feet 
long, parallel with the river, and the other 175 feet long, running 
at a right angle to the first. The gallery is 3^/2 feet wide and 4 
feet high. 

The water obtained from the filter-gallery contains a large amount 
of iron, and a mechanical filter has been constructed to remove some 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 317 

READING. 

of the iron. The water pumped from the filter-gallery is first treated 
with milk of lime and aerated, and then mixed with aluminum sul- 
phate and filtered rapidly through small sand filters. By this process 
a large proportion of the iron is removed, but the hardness of the 
water is very greatly increased. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Filter-gallery of the Beading Water 

Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appearance. 


O 
% 

S > 


Ammonia. 


e 

c 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

a 

B 

s 


a 

ci 




i 

s 

s 


is 
5 


a 

a 


u 

o 


6 
in 


o 

c 

< 


S 
'■A 




a 
2 


21811 


1898. 

Jan. 10 


Decided. 


Cons. 


0.60 


10.30 


.0100 


.0114 


.58 


.0030 


.0001 


.39 


3.5 


.2200 


22079 
22464 


Feb. 7 
Mar. 7 


Decided. 
Decided, 


Heavy, 

floe. 
Cons. 


0.50 
0.53 


10.30 
9.40 


.0084 
.0076 


.0078 
.0084 


.51 
.43 


.0030 
.0010 


.0000 
.0000 


.37 

.40 


4.0 
3.3 


.1800 
.1850 


22839 


Apr. 12 


milky. 
Decided. 


Cons. 


0.90 


9.40 


.0076 


.0088 


.48 


.0030 


.0000 


.43 


3.0 


.2100 


23087 


May 9 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


- 


8.50 


.0076 


.0130 


.41 


.0060 


.0001 


.59 


2.9 


.1800 


23397 


June 6 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


1.00 


9.00 


.0076 


.0140 


.45 


.0050 


.0000 


.64 


2.9 


.2000 


23832 
24190 


July 11 

Aug. 8 


Decided, 

milky. 

Decided. 


Heavy. 
Cons. 


0.65 
0.90 


10.80 
8.60 


.0082 
.0100 


.0158 
.0156 


.45 
.40 


.0020 
.0010 


.0001 
.0000 


.59 

.68 


2.6 
2.3 


.1400 
.4650 


24604 


Sept. 12 


Decided. 


Cons. 


1.10 


9.40 


.0122 


.0208 


.38 


.0010 


.0000 


.98 


2.7 


.2750 


24953 


Oct. 10 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


1.00 


9.60 


.0110 


.0186 


.43 


.0010 


.0000 


.90 


3.1 


.2100 


25277 


Nov. 7 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


1.00 


10.30 


.0120 


.0174 


.43 


.0040 


.0000 


.84 


2.9 


.2150 


25529 


Dec. 2 


Decided. 


Heavy. 


0.85 


9.70 


.0120 


.0178 


.39 


.0050 


.0000 


.82 


3.0 


.2250 



Averages by Years. 



1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 



0.13 
0.44 
0.64 
0.45 
0.61 
0.52 
0.76 
0.82 



12.96 
9.25 
10.08 
12,76 
13.88 
11.50 
11.12 
9.61 



,0016 
,0042 
,0034 
.0043 
.0088 
.0080 
.0090 
.0095 



.0063 
.0073 
.0087 
.0107 
.0114 
.0089 
.0110 
.0141 



.0094 
.0071 
.0032 
.0029 
.0048 
.0059 
.0058 
.0003 



.0001 
.0001 
.0001 
.0000 
.0000 
.0001 
.0001 
.0000 



5.1 
3.4 
3.9 
5.0 
5.5 
4.1 
4.0 
3.0 



,1251 
.2642 
.2277 
.2696 
.2644 
.2254 



Note to analyses of 1898: Odor in January and July, faintly earthy; at other times, none. On 
heating, the odor of the last two samples became faintly unpleasant. 



318 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



READING. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Reading Filler-gallery after passing through 

the Mecha?iical Filter, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 


Appkabance. 


s > 


AlIMOSIA. 


e 
o 
Is 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

3 

„ 5 
u 

5 


OQ 

a 




1 

1 


Date of 

Collec 


■5 

3 


a 






12 


00 

1 

2 


S 
U 


a 
2 


21812 


1898. 
Jan. 10 


V. slight. 


None. 


.18 


18.20 


.0016 


.0090 


.61 


.0070 


.0008 


.23 


12.5 


.0080 


22080 


Feb. 7 


None. 


None. 


.19 


16.50 


.0024 


.0080 


.48 


.0170 


.0009 


.26 


10.0 


.0040 


22465 


Mar. 7 


None. 


V. Blight. 


.16 


16.20 


.0052 


.0128 


.46 


.0030 


.0013 


.25 


11.0 


.0030 


22840 


Apr. 12 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.24 


16.00 


.0006 


.0084 


.46 


.0070 


.0007 


.28 


9.4 


.0100 


23088 


May 9 


V. slight. 


None. 


.30 


14.50 


.0024 


.0080 


.44 


.0060 


.0007 


.30 


8.4 


.0080 


23398 


June 6 


V. slight. 


None. 


.30 


16.70 


.0028 


.0108 


.41 


.0070 


.0008 


.32 


9.1 


.0060 


23833 


July 11 


None. 


None. 


.19 


16.60 


.0040 


.0142 


.43 


.0040 


.0005 


.29 


9.4 


.0040 


24191 


Aug. 8 


V. slight. 


None. 


.33 


16.70 


.0018 


.0092 


.43 


.0020 


.0006 


.37 


9.1 


.0250 


24605 


Sept. 12 


V. Blight. 


None. 


.30 


18.70 


.0018 


.0124 


.45 


.0060 


.0001 


.49 


11.4 


.0170 


24954 


Oct. 10 


V. slight. 


None. 


.43 


18.10 


.0030 


.0116 


.46 


.0030 


.0005 


.51 


10.3 


.0420 


25278 


Nov. 7 


None. 


None. 


.31 


18.40 


.0040 


.0084 


.47 


.0050 


.0006 


.39 


10.0 


.0110 


25530 


Dec. 2 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.30 


17.30 


.0038 


.0108 


.46 


.0050 


.0005 


.38 


9.7 


.0210 



Averages by Tears. 



_ 


1896 


_ 


_ 


.16 


19.42 


.0035 


.0067 


.56 


.0043 


.0016 


.24 


11.3 


.0091 


- 


1897 


- 


- 


.23 


18.54 


.0034 


.0084 


.52 


.0082 


.0010 


.29 


12.7 


.0037 


- 


1898 


- 


- 


.27 


16.82 


.0028 


.0103 


.46 


.0060 


.0006 


.34 


10.0 


.0132 



Note to analyses of 1898: Odor, none. The Bamples were collected from the weir over which 

the filtered water paufles on its entrance to the storage tank at the pumping station. 



Water Supply of Revere and Winthrop. — Revere Water 

Company. 
(See also Metropolitan Water District, pages 133-160.) 
The sources of supply are wells i-n Revere and Saugus. The 
Revere wells are located in the valley of a small brook about a 
quarter of a mile from salt marshes. The system consists of two 
large wells, in the bottom of which several tubular wells have been 
driven, and three groups of tubular wells which are connected with 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 



319 



REVERE A^D WI>;THR0P. 

the large wells. The Saugus wells are located at Cliftondale, on 
either side of a small brook. This system consists of 67 tubular 
wells, driven to depths of from 30 to 100 feet. 

The water from the Revere wells is affected by the infiltration of 
a small amount of sea water into the wells, the result being a very 
decided increase in the quantity of chlorine, residue on evaporation 
and hardness. 

Since February 9, water for the supply of Revere and Winthrop 
has been obtained in part from the Metropolitan Works, and the 
use of the Revere wells has been discontinued. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Tubular Wells of the Revere Water Company 

at Cliftondale, Saugus. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


APP 


EARANCE. 




c 
1 


Ammonia. 


c 
1- 
_o 

5 


Nitrogen 

AS 


T3 

s 

e 

1 
o 


■5 
a 
S3 




1 

s 


3 

c 


1 

'•3 

oa 


i 

o 


t 


o 

c 

< 


1 
2 

2 


g 


i 


21779 


1§98 

Jan. 


*°l 


None. 


None. 


.00 


14.90 


.0004 


.0022 


1.49 


.2100 


.0000 


.01 


7.4 


.0020 


22308 


Feb. 


18 


None. 


None. 


.01 


14.60 


.0000 


.0014 


1.50 


.2600 


.0000 


.05 


7.4 


.0010 


22744 


Apr. 


4 


None. 


None. 


.02 


15.30 


.0018 


.0034 


1.45 


.2750 


.0000 


.02 


7.4 


.0030 


23075 


May 


3 


None. 


None. 


.01 


14.70 


.0000 


.0020 


1.51 


.3200 


.0007 


,02 


7.1 


.0020 


23605 


June 


7 


None. 


None. 


.01 


15.20 


.0002 


.0020 


1.34 


.2850 


.0000 


,02 


6.9 


.0010 


23932 


July 


16 


None. 


None. 


.01 


16.00 


.0002 


.0014 


1.34 


.1950 


.0012 


,03 


6.7 


.0020 


24173 


July 


30 


None. 


None. 


.02 


16.10 


.0000 


.0014 


1.35 


.2700 


.0002 


.02 


6.7 


.0040 


24584 


Sept. 


5 


None. 


None. 


.00 


14.30 


.0000 


.0012 


1.30 


.2320 


.0007 


.05 


6.6 


.0020 


24897 


Oct. 


3 


None. 


None. 


.00 


14.90 


.0000 


.0008 


1.33 


.2200 


.0008 


.04 


7.0 


.0020 


25279 


Nov. 


5 


None. 


None. 


.00 


15.00 


.0000 


.0012 


1.31 


.2060 


.0009 


,02 


7.0 


.0030 


25567 


Dec. 


6 


None. 


None. 


.01 


14.70 


.0002 


.0004 


1,26 


.3400 


.0004 


,02 


7.1 


.0010 


Av... 








.01 


15.06 


.0003 


.0016 


1.38 


.2556 


.0004 


,03 


7.0 


.0021 













Odor, none. The samples were collected from a tap in the pumping station. 



Water Supply of Rockland. 

(See Abington.') 



320 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ROCKPORT. 

Water Supply of Eockport. 

The source of supply is Cape Pond in Rockport. The pond has 
an area of 40 acres, a maximum depth of 26 feet and a water-shed 
of 0.33 of a square mile, which contains a population of 50 per 
square mile. The water-shed also contains a glue factory, wastes 
from which find their way into the pond. The water of the pond 
contains a laro-e amount of organic matter, and has been subject to 
bad tastes and odors. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Cape Pond, Rockport. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


Appearance. 


Kesidde ok 

EVAFOBA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 
as 


•d 

s 

s 






o 
O 

o 

a 


2 

H 


1 

■o 


c 

o 
"3 

.30 


"3 


i 
!l 

OD 

o 


1 


Albuminoid. 


a 

u 

_= 
4.96 


1 


2 


c 

5 

c 
O 




a 

i5 




> 

1 

2 


<u 

3 P. 
05 


i 

1 

a 
53 


21871 


1898. 

Jan. 17 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


10.60 


1,85 


.0016 


.0218 


.0176 


,0042 


.0000 


,0000 


.30 


1.4 


22201 


Feb. 14 


None. 


V. Blight. 


.20 


10.85 


1.75 


.0034 


.0206 


.0202 


.0004 


5.02 


.0020 


.0000 


,30 


1.1 


22541 


Mar. 14 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.39 


10.20 


2.45 


.0002 


.0278 


.0222 


,0056 


4.53 


.0000 


.0000 


,34 


0.6 


22887 


Apr. 18 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.31 


9.90 


1.75 


,0012 


.0300 


.0198 


,0102 


4.30 


,0000 


.0000 


,36 


1.0 


23176 


May 16 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.40 


9.40 


1.80 


,0006 


.0226 


.0188 


,0038 


4.28 


.0020 


.0000 


,32 


1.3 


23627 


June 21 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.43 


9.70 


1,70 


.0002 


.0338 


.0210 


,0128 


4.22 


.0030 


.0000 


,35 


0.8 


23928 


July 19 


Decided 


V. slight. 


.26 


10.70 


2,70 


.0048 


.0238 


.0198 


,0040 


4.20 


.0030 


.0002 


.28 


1,0 


24309 


Aug. 15 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.21 


10.30 


2.05 


.0004 


.0346 


.0206 


,0140 


4.03 


.0020 


.0000 


,37 


1,3 


24B81 


Sept. 19 


Decided. 


Cons , 


.57 


10.45 


2.50 


.0024 


.0644 


.0380 


.0264 


4.05 


.0010 


.0000 


.52 


0,8 


25046 


Oct. 17 


Slight, 


Slight. 


.85 


10.95 


2.45 


.0016 


.0668 


.0298 


,0370 


4.11 


.0010 


.0005 


.54 


1.1 


25377 


Nov. 14 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.79 


10.90 


2,50 


.0318 


.0340 


.0272 


,0068 


4.18 


,0030 


.0004 


.50 


1.0 


25613 


Dec, 13 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


.53 


11.20 


2,50 


.0106 
.0049 


.0236 


.0224 
,0231 


,0012 


4.23 
4.34 


,0130 


.0002 
.0001 


.42 

.38 


1.1 


Av... 








,44 


10.43 


2.17 


.0336 


.0105 


,0025 


1,0 















Odor, generally fishy or grassy and occasionally vegetable. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATEK SUPPLIES. 321 



ROCKPORT. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Cajje Pond, Rocki)ort. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec 



Day of examination, , 
Number of sample, 



18 15 
21871 22201 



15 20 
22541 22887 



17 22 20 
23176 23627 23928 



17 
24309 



20 
24'681 



18 
25046 



161 
2537 



14 
25613 



PLANTS. 
DiatomacesB, 

Asterionella, 
Melosira, . . 

Cyanoptiyceae, . 
Anabsena, 

Algae, 

ScenedesmuB, 
Slaurastrum, 

ANIMALS. 
Infusoria, 

CryptomoDas, 
Dinobryon, . , 
Mallomonas, 
I'eridinium, . 
Trachelomonas, . 

Vermes, . . 

Crustacea, • . 

Bosmina, . . 
(-yclopa, , . 
Daphnia, 

MUcellaneous, Zoogloea, 

Total, . 



2,228 2,534 



2,344 
184 



2,208 
20 



384 

384 



690 



612 
52 



26 



26 

26 

202 

54 
108 



864 



140 



30 
104 



152 



18 
130 



1,408 14 

1,408 14 

10 6 



14 


14 

















9 














4 








10 


5 





1 











pr. 

















pr. 















63 128 



8 
40 




116 

10 
2 



280 



26 



pr. 



136 






2 
134 



pr, 






pr. 



20 



100 



30 



56 



2,326 



2,701 



1,115 



436 



1,203 



132 



Ro^^^.EY. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the board of health of 
Rowley, relative to the quality of the water of three wells used by 
the operatives in shoe factories in that town, may be found on 
pages 49 to 51 of this volume. The results of analyses of samples 
of water collected from each of the wells are given in the following 
table : — 



322 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ROWL,ET. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Wells in 'Rowley. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





si 
1 

a 


Appearakce. 


c 
o 

A 

."3 a 


Ammonia. 


c 
1 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

B 
a 

c 
^ p 

X 

O 


c 




% 

a 

s 
'A 


•3 
5 


1 


1^ 


i I 


•d 
o 
c 


1 


2 


d 
2 


22406 


IS98. 

Mar. 1 


None. 


V. slight. 


.00 


5.60 


.0002 


.0024 


1 
0.73 


0.1050 


.0000 


.05 


2.2 


.0010 


23016 


Apr. 30 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.02 


7.50 


.0002 


.0024 


0.89 


0.1840 .0000 


.05 


3.5 


.0020 


22407 


Mar. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.05 


35.00 


.0008 


.0038 


10.10 


0.9500 


.0001 


,06 


6.7 


.0040 


23014 


Apr. 30 


Deciried, 


Cons., 


.10 


36.50 


.0014 


.0046 


8.65 


0.9200 


.0003 


.08 


6.0 


.0050 


22408 


Mar. 1 


milky. 
V. slight. 


clayey. 
V. slight. 


.05 


45.50 


.0004 


.0104 


10.40 


2.1400 


.0001 


.10 


9.1 


.0010 


23015 


Apr. 30 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.05 


37.60 


.0004 


.0088 


8.85 


1.6600 


.0003 


.10 


8.1 


.0030 



Odor, none. The samples were collected from wells in Rowloy, the water of which is used for 

drinking or other domestic purposes. The first two samples were collected from what is known as the 
Burke well ; the third and fourth samples, from the Pickard well ; the last two, from the Armltage well. 



Watee Supply of Rutland. 
The source of supply is Lake Muscliopauge in Rutland. The 
lake has an area of 58 acres and a watershed of 0.6 of a square 
mile, which contains 50 persons per square mile. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Muschopauge Lake, Rutland. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 







Appeabancb. 


RKSIDnE ON 

Evapoka- 

TtON. 


Ammonia. 


c 

S 



Nitrogen 
as 


■d 

i 

s 

c 

u 
(-> 

!«i 








2 

3 
3 


1 


% 





3 
■5 








Albuminoid. 


1 
2 


g 




.0 

a 

s 


"3 





5 


•6 
•a 

s 0. 
v. 


•3 
a 




1898. 




























21777 


Jan. 


6 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.11 


2.45 


0.95 


.0006 


.0108 


.0082 


.0026 


.17 


.0040 


.0000 


.12 


1.1 


22193 


Feb. 


14 

1 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


.07 


2.65 


1.00 


.0014 


.0120 


.0102 


.0018 


.18 


.0070 


.0000 


.18 


1.3 


22946 


Apr. 


i 
20 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.06 


2.10 


0.70 


.0010 


.0096 


.0080 


.0016 


.18 


.0030 


.0000 


.17 


0.3 


23452 


June 


8^ 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.07 


2.10 


1.00 


.0002 


.0098 


.0072 


.0026 


.16 


.0070 


.0000 


.22 


0.6 


24096 


July 


29 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.08 


2.10 


0.80 


.0006 


.0156 


.0132 


.0024 


.17 


.0010 


.0000 


.21 


0.3 


24929 


Oct. 


6 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


.08 


2.10 


1.00 


.0008 


.0102 


.0080 


.0022 


.18 


.0000 


.0000 


.21 


0.6 


25259 


Nov. 


3 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.08 


3.05 


1.55 


.0010 


.0134 


.0114 


.0020 


.16 


.0000 


.0000 


.18 


0.6 


25581 


Dec. 


7 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.08 


2.15 


1.00 


.0000 
.0007 


.0062 
.0109 


.0054 
0089 


.0008 
0020 


.16 
.17 


.0010 
.0029 


.0000 
.0000 


.25 
.19 


0.6 


Av... 








.08 


2.34 


1.00 


0.7 















Odor of No. 24929, distinctly musty, becoming stronger and also fishy on heating; of the others, 
none, becoming sometimes faintly vegetable or musty on heating. The first two samples were col- 
lected from a faucet at the pumping station; the remaining samples, from the lake, near the surface. 



No. 34.] EXA^ONATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



o.^-^. 



RIJTLAND. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Muschopauge Lake, collected near the 

Bottom. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





"S 

o 
O 

o 


Appearance. 


Kesidub on 

EVAPOKA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


_c 

s 



.16 
.17 
.17 
.16 

.16 


Nitrogen 
as 


•6 

S 
3 

s 


c 

Si 

? 








3 


c 

.1 

■a 


u 

o 




■3 



S 



•A 




Albuminoid. 


1 






S 

3 
'A 


1 


9 

(5 


•a 
1 c 

30. 


•3 
«. 


23453 
24097 
24930 
25260 


1898. 

June 8 

July 29 
Oct. 5 
Nov. 3 


V. slight. 
V.slight. 
V.slight. 
V.slight. 


Slight. 

Slight, 

floe. 
Cons. 

V.slight. 


.05 
.08 
.07 
.09 

07 


1.95 
2.10 
2.15 
2.15 


0.80 
0.75 
1.15 
1.00 


.0004 
.00:0 
.0036 
.0004 


.0104 
.0126 
.0114 
.0110 


.0080 
.0106 
.0092 
.0090 


.0024 
.0020 
.0022 
.0020 


.0010 
.0030 
.0000 
.0060 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.20 

.20 
.22 
.18 

.20 


0.5 
0.5 
0.6 
0.5 


Av... 








2.09 


0.92 


.0013 


.0113 


.0092 


.0021 


.0025 


.0000 


0.5 













Odor of the first and last samples, faintly vegetable; of the second, none, becoming faintly unpleas- 
ant on heating; of the third, faintly musty. 



Watee Supply of Salem and Beveely. 

The sources of supply are Weuham Lake and Longham Brook 
Reservoir in Beverly and Wenliam. Wenham Lake has an area of 
251 acres and a maximum depth of 49 feet. The bottom is said to 
be gravelly. Its water-shed, of 3.1 square miles, contains a popu- 
lation of 100 per square mile. 

Longham Brook Reservoir, which was constructed in 1895 as an 
auxiliary source of supply, has an area of 43 acres, a maximum 
depth of 8.5 feet and a storage capacity of 55,000,000 gallons. 
The area flowed contained much meadow land, from which no soil 
has been removed. The reservoir has a water-shed of 3.3 square 
miles, which contains a population of 80 per square mile. Water 
from Longham Brook Reservoir is discharged by gravity into Wen- 
ham Lake when necessary, but during the year 1898 only a small 
quantity of water from this source was used. The effect of the in- 
troduction of water from Longham Brook Reservoir on the water of 
Wenham Lake may be seen in the table of yearly averages of 
chemical anlyses of water from the lake. 



324 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



SAIiEM AND BEVERLY. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Wenham 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Lake, in Beverly and Wenham. 





c 

o 

j 

a 


Appearance. 


Kksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


1 



.88 


Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

1 

& 
>> 

•A 







•5 


c 

H 


o 

I 


3 

o 
E-c 


i 

1 




Albuminoid. 


1 

2 






i 

s 


■3 



1 


5 


•d 

. -a 

a a. 


s 
1 


21829 


1898. 
Jan. 11 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.10 


5.75 


1.40 


.0016 


.0158 


.0138 


.0020 


.0050 


.0000 


.26 


2.6 


22101 


Feb. 8 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


.09 


6.00 


2.00 


.0026 


.0146 


.0130 


.0016 


.88 


.0070 


,0000 


.24 


2.6 


22494 


Mar. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.12 


5.75 


1.30 


.0044 


.0142 


.0122 


.0020 


.82 


.0130 


.0000 


.24 


2.3 


22864 


Apr. 16 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


.13 


5.70 


1.60 


.0030 


.0164 


.0122 


.0042 


.79 


.0080 


.0002 


.30 


2.3 


23100 


May 8 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


.20 


5.15 


1.45 


.0018 


.0130 


.0126 


.0004 


.80 


.0020 


.0001 


.26 


2.2 


23431 


June 7 


V. Blight. 


V.Blight. 


.21 


5.30 


1.65 


.0026 


.0130 


.0108 


.0022 


.79 


.0050 


.0002 


.33 


2.2 


23851 


July 12 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.15 


5,70 


1.95 


.0000 


.0236 


.0188 


.0048 


.80 


.0000 


.0000 


.32 


2.1 


24236 


Aug. 10 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.12 


6,65 


2.40 


.0036 


.0314 


.0256 


.0058 


.82 


.0020 


.0000 


.34 


2.1 


24625 


Sept. 13 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


.15 


5.30 


1.80 


.0002 


.0256 


.0204 


.0052 


.79 


.0000 


.0000 


.37 


2.1 


24976 


Oct. 11 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.12 


5.65 


1.90 


.0006 


.0154 


.0136 


.0018 


.76 


.0000 


.0001 


■.31 


2.2 


25309 


Nov, 8 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


,17 


6.20 


1,60 


.0072 


.0184 


,0156 


.0028 


.76 


.0010 


.0002 


.29 


2.5 


25535 


Dec. 5 


V. slight. 


Slight, 


,21 


5.30 


1.85 


.0032 


.0172 


.0132 


.0040 


.75 


.0030 


.0003 


.28 


2.3 


25611 


Dec. 13 


V. Blight. 


V.Blight. 


.20 


5.00 


1.60 


.0016 


.0156 


.0126 


.0030 


•'* 


.0060 


.0002 


.28 


2.2 











Averages by 


Years. 
















- 


1888 


- 


- 


.05 


4,67 


0.97 


.0020 


.0146 


- 


- 


.73 


.0058 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


.06 


4,23 


1.05 


.0014 


.0173 


.0138 


.0035 


.72 


.0052 


.0002 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


.05 


4.57 


0.90 


.0016 


.0154 


.0125 


.0029 


.74 


.0104 


.0001 


- 


2.5 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


.07 


4.70 


1.12 


.0006 


.0147 


.0113 


.0034 


.72 


.0125 


.0000 


- 


1.9 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


.03 


4.85 


1.10 


.0016 


.0137 


.0103 


.0034 


.75 


.0077 


.0000 


- 


2.2 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


.04 


6,49 


1.26 


.0033 


.0130 


.0100 


.0030 


.77 


.0055 


.0001 


.16 


2.6 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


.07 


6,69 


1.53 


.0030 


.0148 


.0114 


.0034 


.82 


.0023 


.0001 


.14 


3.0 


- 


1895 


- 


- 


.21 


6.75 


1.97 


.0026 


.0177 


.0146 


.0031 


.81 


.0059 


.0001 


.30 


3.1 


- 


1896 


- 


- 


.15 


6,30 


1.82 


.0020 


.0213 


.0152 


.0061 


.80 


.0053 


.0001 


.28 


2.7 


- 


1897 


- 


- 


,13 


6,09 


1.60 


.0027 


.0206 


.0170 


.0036 


.82 


.0048 


.0001 


.29 


2.7 


- 


1898* 


- 


- 


,15 


5.61 


1.73 


.0025 


.0181 


.0151 


.0030 


.80 


.0040 


.0001 


.29 


2,3 



* Where more than one sample was collected In a month, the mean analysis for that month has been 
need in making the average. 

Note to analyses of 1898: Odor, faintly vegetable or none. On heating, the odor of most of the 

samples became distinctly vegetable, and In January, also fishy. Nos. 22101, 22494 and 25811 were 

collected from a faucet at the pumping station; the others, from the lake. 



Xo. 34.] EXA^IINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



325 



SAI.EM AND BEVERLY, 

Miscroscopical Examination of Water from Wenham Lake, in Beverly and 

Wenham. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1898. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 


13 


9 


9 


18 


11 


8 


13 


11 


14 


13 


9 


6 


14 


Number of sample, . 


21829 


22101 


22494 


22864 


23100 23431 

1 


23851 


24236 


24625 


24976 


25309 


25535 


25611 


PLANTS. 




























Diatomacese, . 


611 


25 


116 


552 


624 


179 


50 


61 


112 


392 


1,182 2,508| 747 


ABterionella, . . 

Oyclotella 

Melosira 

Btephanodiscus, 
Synedra, .... 
Tabellaria 


68 

212 

164 



2 

144 


2 
19 
3 


1 



2 

64 
40 

4 
6 


62 

88 

312 

8 

60 
14 


536 
29 
39 


11 

4 



129 

16 

2 

30 



2 



48 


48 



1 

11 


30 





51 


48 
4 

20 


4 
296 


378 
10 

354 
10 
2 

416 


1,504 



436 

56 

2 

482 


322 


203 

34 

3 

185 


Cyanophycese, . 


20 


100 


16 








4 


52 


166 


27 


14 


4 








Anabasna 

Aphauizomenon, 
Ciathrocystis, . 
Crelosphaerium, . 




20 








100 







16 




















4 


37 

2 
4 


138 



22 

6 


8 


19 


10 


4 






4 















AlgSB 


3 


2 


2 


4 


28 


32 


136 





27 


14 


2 





3 


Protococcua, 














27 


30 


133 





17 














ANIMALS. 




























Infusoria 


3 


9 


12 


122 


277 


20 


12 


1 


30 


42 


21 


8 


1 


Dinobryon, 
Trachelomonas, 




1 



6 



12 


116 
2 


276 



18 




3 






12 
2 


36 

2 



10 


2 

2 




1 


Vermes 




















1 


2 

















Crustacea 


pr. 














pr. 

















pr. 





Miscellaneous, Zobglcea, 


10 


10 


3 


5 








10 


5 


8 


5 


5 


3 


3 


Total 


647 


146 


149 


683 


929 


235 


261 


235 


204 


467 


1,214 


2,519 


754 



126 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



SALEM AXD BEVERLY. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Longlumi Brook Reservoir, vi Beverly and 

Wenham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Kesiduk on 








•6 







c 


Appeabance. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




AS 


a 






3 



>> 








.1 




Albuminoid. | 


6 






i 









n 


•0 


S 


0; 





■3 


a 






tx 






> 




c 


.2 


iJ 


tfi 


c 


S 


a 


•e 


■3 









a 




b 


H 


5 


3 0. 
CO 


6 

1.16 


?, 


5 





« 


218-J8 


1898. 

Jan 11 


Blight. 


Cons., 


0.90 


6.75 


2.40 


.0210 


.0238 


.0214 


.0024 


.0280 


.0002 


0.71 


2.1 








earthy. 


























22965 


Apr. 16 
May 8 
June 7 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


0.70 


4.10 


1.90 


.0046'. 0234 


.0208 


.0026 


0.83 


.0070 


.0001 


0.68 


1.3 


23101 


Sliglil. 


Cons. 


0.82 


4.25 


1.85 


.0006 .0212 


.0194 


.0018 


,O.Vb 


.0020 


.0000 


0.69 


1.0 


234:12 


SliuiU. 


Slight. 


1.85 


5.75 


3.15 


.0094'. 0516 


.0428 


.0088 ,0.69 


.0040 


.0002 


,1.33 


1.0 


23852 


July 12 
Aug. 10 


Sliiiht. 


Cons. 


2.50 


7.85 


4.10 


.00321.102^ 


.0644 


.0384|0.80 


.0010 


.0000 


l.4i 


1.6 


24235 


Blight. 


Cons. 


1.80 


7.65 


3.70 


.0078 .0528 


.0476 .0052 


O.'iV 


.0020 


.0001 


1.04 


1.7 


24C24 


Sept. 13 


Slight. 


Cons. 


2.60 


8.35 


3.90 


.0350 .1160 


.1050'. 0110 


0.74 


.0150 


.0012 


1.38 


2.2 


24975 


Oct. 11 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


1.05 


7.05 


3.05 


.0060 .0368 


.0320 


.0048 


1.14 


.0020 


.0000 


1.3b 


1.1 


25308 


Nov. 8 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


1.12 


5.90 


2.70 


.0044 .0272 


.0260 


.0012 


0.',2 


.0030 


.0002 


|l.Ob 


1.3 


25612 


Dec. 13 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.53 


5.30 


2.15 


.0024 


.0160 
.0472 


.0146 
.0394 


.0014 


1.04 
0.86 
0.94 


.0210 


.0000 
.0002 
.0002 


0.56 
1.03 
1.17 


1.4 


Av... 


1898 






1.39 


6.29 


2.89 


.0094 
.0127 


.0078 


.0085 


1.5 









Av... 


1897 






1 83 


6.99 


3.05 


.0504 


.0415 


.0089 


.0098 


1.7 



























Note to analyses of 1898 : Odor, faintly vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Longham Brook Reservoir, in Beverly 

and Wenham. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 













1898. 










Jan. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, .... 
Number of sample, .... 


13 
21828 


18 
22865 


11 
23101 


8 
23432 


13 
23852 


11 

24235 


14 

24624 


13 

24975 


9 

25308 


14 

25612 


PLANTS. 






















Diatomacese, 

Synedra, 


3 




16 
11 


105 

50 


64 

58 


4 

4 


4 

3 


3 

1 


43 

39 


13 
11 


8 




Cyanophyceee 























1 


1 





Algse 








1 


6 


4 


2 





1 








Fungi, Crenothrix, .... 

















81 


90 











ANIMALS. 






















Infusoria 

Dinobryon, 

Raphidonionas, .... 
Tracheloraonas, .... 








25 

25 




130 

126 






60 

48 






594 



572 

20 


32 



28 


17 



10 


4 

2 

2 


1 




1 








Vermes 











2 


18 

















Mincellaneous, Zobgloea, . 


10 


5 


7 


5 





5 


8 


3 


5 


3 


Total, 


13 


46 


243 


137 


620 


124 


118 


52 


20 


11 



Water Supply of Saugus. 
(See Lynn.) 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



127 



SHAROX. 

Water Supply of Sharon. 
The source of supply is a well 16 feet in diameter and 16 feet 
deep, situated near Beaver Brook in Sharon. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Sharon Water Works. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





o 

o 

a 


Appearance. 


c 
o 

=4 


Ammonia. 


o 


UlTROGEN 
AS 


1 

c 

£5 

>. 
o 


c 
1 




03 




1 
1 

02 


u 
o 
o 
O 




2 
o 




2 


e 

o 




1898. 


























22072 


Feb. 4 


None. 


None. 


.02 


9.10 


.0006 


.0012 


1.14 


.2280 


.0000 


.02 


3.9 


.0020 


22760 


Apr. 6 


V.Bliaht. 


V.sliaht. 


.05 


9.10 


.0002 


. 0004 


1.13 


.2850 


.0000 


.01 


3.4 


.0420 


23759 


June 29 


V.sliuht. 


V. slight. 


.00 


10.30 


.0012 


.0030 


1.07 


.2360 


.0000 


.01 


3.0 


.0030 


24536 


8ept. 6 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


.05 


10.00 


'.0000 


.0010 


0.97 


.1380 


.0000 


.06 


2.6 


.0170 


24979 


Oct. 10 


None. 


None. 


.00 


9.30 


.0000 


.0004 


1.11 


.2650 


.0000 


.03 


3.3 


.0040 


25583 


Dec. 7 


None. 


None. 


.00 


9.50 


.0000 


.0000 


1.10 


.2700 


.0000 


.01 


3.3 


.0010 


Av... 








.02 


9.55 


.0003 


.0010 


1.09 


.2370 


.0000 


.02 


3.5 


.0115 













Odor, none. Nos. 22072 and 22760 were collected from a faucet at the pumping station; the 

others, from the well. 



Water Supply of Sheffield. — Sheffield Water Cosipany. 

The sources of supply are two small reservoirs about a mile and 
a half north-east of the village of Sheffield, which are fed chiefly by 
springs. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the Sheffield Water 
Company, relative to cases of illness in one of the schools of that 
town which had been attributed by some persons to the public 
water supply, may be found on page 51 of this volume. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Faucets in Sheffield, sujyplied from the 
Works of the Sheffield Water Comjiany. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 
O 


ItKSlDnE ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 
S 
o 

.09 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■c 
1 

o 

O 

u> 
>> 

O 






o 

H 


. 

c 
o 

o 


Ec 


Albuminoid. 


1 


1 
g 1 






"S 


> 


•X! 


a 
■a 

a 


Average of five samples collected in 
March, May, August, September and 
November, 1898. 


.08 


3.40 


1.05 


.0001 


.0026 


.0025 


.0001 


.0046 


.0001 


.09 


1.7 



Odor, none. A faiutly vegetable odor was developed in the last two samples on beating. 



328 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

SOMERVILLE. 

Water Supply or Somerville. 

(See Metropolitan Water District, pages 133-160.) 

Water Supply of Southbridge. — Southbridge Water Supply 

Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Hatchet Brook Reservoir of the South- 
bridge Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 

1 

o 
O 

o 


Appbarance. 


Kksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 


.23 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■s 

a 

a 
m 

6 







1 

9 


1 

a 

•5 


o 
.60 


"3 
o 
H 


c 
o 




Albuminoid. 


m 

s 

2 


5 




B 


o 


o 

5 


•§ 
1 c 

3 O. 
39 


ao 

e 

■s 


21833 


1898. 

Jan. 11 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


3.50 


1.70 


.0068 


.0154 


.0146 


.0008 


.0030 


.0000 


.56 


1.0 


22113 


Feb. 8 


V. slight. 


None. 


.35 


2.80 


0.80 


.0004 


.0114 


.0098 


.0016 


.21 


.0000 


.0000 


.36 


0.5 


22497 


Mar. 8 


V. slight. 


V.slight. 


.30 


2.50 


1,00 


.0004 


.0112 


.0092 


,0020 


.11 


.0030 .0000 


.32 


0.5 


23419 


June -7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


.70 


3.00 


1.35 


.0024 


.0162 


.0126 


,0036 


.16 


.0020.0002 


.56 


0.5 


23857 


July 12 


V. Blight. 


Cods. 


.80 


3.45 


1.90 


.0104 


.0280 


.0230 .0050 


.13 


.0000.0000 


.84 

1 


0.8 


24221 


Aug. 9 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.90 


4.25 


2.15 


.0116 


.0310 


.0232 


.0078 


.15 


.0010 .0001 


.84 


1.0 


24614 


Sept. 13 


Slight. 


Slight. 


.55 


3.35 


1.80 


.0006 


.0286 


.0204 


.0082 


.12 


.ooooLoooo 


,81 


0.6 


24978 


Oct. 11 


Decided. 


Slight, 


.45 


3.80 


1.90 


.0004 


.0340 


.0288 


.0052 


.15 


.0020'. 0000 


,83 


1.0 


25310 


Nov. 8 


Slight. 


green. 
Slight, 


.75 


4.05 


1.75 


.0006 


.0238 


.0184 


.0054 


.19 


.0010 


.0004 


.80 


0.5 


25621 


Dec. 13 


V. slight. 


None. 


.30 


2.80 


1.00 


.0000 
.0034 


.0112 
.0210 


.0104 
,0170 


.0008 


.15 
.16 


.0000 
,0012 


.0000 
.0001 


.39 
.63 


0.5 


Av... 








.57 


3.35 


1.53 


,0040 


0.7 













Odor, generally faintly vegetable, sometimes none. On heating, the odor of some of the samples 
became stronger and also musty. 

Water Supply of South Hadley Falls Fire District, South 

Hadley. 

The sources of supply are Buttery Brook and Leaping Well 
reservoirs in South Hadley. 

Buttery Brook Reservoir has an area of 2 acres, a maximum 
depth of 12 feet and a general depth of 8 feet. The bottom of the 
reservoir has been cleaned and covered with sand. The water-shed 
contains some swampy land near its upper end, and contains a 
small population. 

Leaping Well Reservoir has an area of 9,2 acres, a capacity of 
28,000,000 gallons, a maximum depth of 26 feet and an average 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATEE SUPPLIES. 



329 



SOUTH HADIiEY. 

depth of 9 feet. Much of the soil and organic matter was removed 
from the bottom when the reservoir was constructed. The water- 
shed of the reservoir is a sandy plain, from which much ground 
water enters the reservoir where it is exposed to light. The water 
of the reservoir often contains large numbers of organisms. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the water commission- 
ers of the fire district, relative to the bad taste and odor of the water 
of Leaping Well Reservoir and the best method of improving its 
quality, may be found on pages 51 to 53 of this volume. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Leajnng Well Brook at its Entrance to the 
Storage Reservoir of the South Hadley Falls Fire District. 

[Parts per 100,000] 





c" 
o 


Appearance. 


Kesiuok on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitkogen 
as 


0) 

a 

c 














c 




Albuminoid. 








si 


8 


^ 


■5 






S'S 






•6 
> 
"3 


•d 


V 


^ 


<»' 




a 


S 


J3 

a 


o 


? 


a 

■3 





"a 


Zs 


t 




3 ft 





1 


^ 


J? 


•3 


iz; 


a 


(- 


OD 





H 


hj 


Ph 


B 


•q m 





» 


^ 





ta 




1898. 


























24447 


Aug. 26 


V. slight. 


None. 


.04 


2.85 


0.60 


.0000 


.0022 


.0022 .0000 


.n 


.0010 


.0000 


.02 


0.8 



Odor, none. The sample was collected from the brook, a short distance above its entrance to the 

reservoir. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Leajnng Well Eeservoir, South Hadley. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 


Q 


Appearance. 


Rksidoe on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 


S 


.33 
.06 
.11 
.13 

.16 


Nitrogen 
as 


1 

3 

c 




1 






is 


1 
■3 


c 





d 







Albuminoid. 


1 






1 

a 

S2; 


■3 


•0 


•6 

■0 

3 0. 


c 
■a 
%-. 

a 


23411 

24042 
24445 
24582 


1898. 

June 6 

July 25 
Aug. 26 
Sept. 7 


v. slight, 
v. slight. 
V. slight. 
Blight. 


V. slight. 
Cons. 
V.slight. 
V.slight. 


.10 

.09 
.09 
.09 


2.75 
3.00 
2.40 
2.75 


1.30 
1.80 
0.65 
0.50 


.0010 
.0026 
.0002 
.0002 


.0098 
.0210 
.0126 
.0094 


.0076 
.0136 
.0102 
.0072 


.0022 
.0074 
.0024 
.0022 


.0010 
.0010 
.0010 
.0000 


.0000 
.0001 
.0000 
.0000 


.14 

.18 
.12 
.16 

.15 


0.5 
0.5 
0.3 
0.5 


Av... 








.09 


2.72 


0.94 


.0010 


.0132 


.0096 


.0036 


.0007 


.0000 


0.4 













Odor, none. A distinctly vegetable odor was developed in the second sample on heating. The 

samples were collected from the reservoir. 

Microscopical Exami7iation. 

The sample collected in July contained 356 Anab<xna per cubic centimeter. An insignificant num- 
ber of organisms was found in each of the other samples. 



330 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



SOUTH HADIiEY. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Leajiing Well Reservoir, collected near 

Bottovi. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



the 





c 
« 

U 

o 

a 


Appeakaxck. 


Kesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


e3 

c 

o 

.09 
.11 


XlTKOGEN 
AS 


a 

a 

s 
o 

a 

to 

>;' 

O 






'■3 
1 


1 
•3 


o 
o 
O 


•3 


c 
o 

o 




Albuminoid. 


■2 


g 




a 

3 


o 

H 


■t 
> 

5 


•s 

•o 
, = 

a a 

73 


1 


24043 
24446 


1898. 

July 25 

Aug. 26 


Slight. 
Decided. 


Cons. 
Heavy. 


.10 
.42 


2.85 
2.85 


1.05 
0.80 


.0348 
.0132 


.0164 
.0372 


.0086 
.0268 


.0078 
.0104 


.0010 
.0010 


.0001 
.0000 


.14 
.17 


0.6 
0.8 



Odor of the first sample, distinctly disagreeable; of the last, decidedly musty and disagreeable, 

becoming offensive on heating. The samples were collected from the bottom of the reservoir, at the 

gate house. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Buttery Brook Reservoir, South Haclley, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 

O 
o 
■S 

Q 


Appeabance. 


Rksidde on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


s 

u 

.23 
.17 
.20 

.20 


Nitrogen 

AS 


i. 
a 

3 

C 
o 
O 

o 






H 
a 


1 
=3 
CO 


U 

o 




o 


1.1 


Albuminoid. 








£1 

a 

a 
S5 


o 


> 

"3 

5 


■3 

"2 

a o. 

CO 


a 


23412 
24044 
25269 


1898. 

June 6 

July 25 
Nov. 7 


|V. slight. 
V. slight. 
Slight. 


Cons. 
V. slight. 
V. slight. 


.46 
.21 
.18 


4.25 
4.00 
4.95 


1.95 
1.45 
1.95 


.0022 
.0032 
.0000 

.0018 


,0170 
.0160 
.0068 


.0112 
.0106 
.0042 


.0058 
.0054 
.0026 

.0046 


.0480 
.0280 
.0120 


.0006 
.0002 
.0000 


.26 
.23 
.28 

.26 


0.6 
1.0 
0,3 


Av... 








*>« 


4.40 1-7S 


.0133 


.0087 


.0293 


.0003 


0.8 























Odor of the first sample, faintly musty, becoming distinctly musty and unpleasant on heating; of 

the others, none, becoming vegetable on beating. The first two samples were collected from the 

reservoir, and the last, from a faucet in the town. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 331 

SPEMCER. 

Water Supply of Spencer. 

The source of supply is Shaw Pond in Leicester. The pond 
has an area of 80 acres and a water-shed of 0.60 of a square mile, 
which contains a very small population. A considerable portion 
of the pond is quite shallow. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Shaw Pond, Spencer. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 


Kesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


AM5I0NIA. 


s 

.18 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■a 

1 
s 

c 

8 








3 


S 




Albuminoid. 











2 
o 


5 


•d 

•e 
, c 

30. 


•5 


Average of fotir samples collected in 
February, June, August and Novem- 
ber, 1898. 


.07 


2.32 


0.92 


.0004 


.0134 


.0114 


.0020 


.0047 


.0000 


.15 


0.5 



Odor, none. A faintly grassy or vegetable odor was developed in the last two samples on heating. 
- The June and August samples were collected from the pond, and the others, from a fancet. 



Water Supply of Sprustgeield and Ludlow. 

The sources of suppl}^ are a storage reservoir and basin in Ludlow, 
which are fed by several brooks, and Chapin Pond in Ludlow. 

Ludlow Reservoir has an area of 445 acres, a capacity of 
1,992,000,000 gallons and an average depth of 13.7 feet. A con- 
siderable portion of the bottom is covered with mud. When the 
reservoir was constructed an area of about 6% acres of the most 
objectionable material was covered with sand to a depth of 1.5 feet 
and all of the bushes and trees were removed. The shores of the 
reservoir as a rule are abrupt. The reservoir is fed by a direct 
water-shed of 2.55 square miles, and by Higher, Axe Factory and 
Jabish brooks, which, with the canals which convey the water to 
the reservoir, have a combined wate